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Full text of "Science"

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INDEX TO VOLITME XIX. 



AM«a, EuKtoe Mumy, on nuMumr.T:, 
AbthU'sTbe Kn]luU0D0((.-krto(U(iUr,»8>. 
AoHdvrar, XaUvi a>. t f 9d«noM. MS; S«« Menban 

of, LtS. 
ArclaiMiii In Germuiri tIT. 
Aotlblan, 14S. 
Adainr, J. <.'., d««u ol, ;«. 
Acricutturo. Mtkiua vf oaprrliDOBUl, Sia 
Altr.Dlru. B„M. 
A]Mkii,iatlv« talrtli-, 'BT. 
Aldrlcr, J. il., on Uivdipien, >M. 
AIkoI, »ni«m of, tn. 

AUov, UairtMB, on waatalMLUMUMori !»■ 
AliikslM I. tirlclu ol tlto, n. |L 
Allabburc OilMlftl Sovwr, ?». 
Aluatli luv, prcNlnciinu or, aM: 90i)<l«rlbK of. T4. 
AnwDbMep, wami t Klti|, Vli. 
AmiileU from tb« Vnc-t. I7i. 
AnMonlcat DometiclMuie, 941. 
Admc mj leMblnc, 83. 
AuNLOKTBub*^ 8M. 
ADVinoiDttliBr ooaiimclwoK, 87 
Annaten dw Pbivlk tud Clivmt*, ITT. 
^nt*rC' Ic «lpoclUnr, t. 
Auibfovolocr. '<(^: aii|ill>''>tlon of psjctiolOftcnJ r*- 

ne*rcL to, it i^ ixiio* od, Ma; ol Eump«', 40. 
AuUirop(niLt>ir.» ».-D«n:i«, ^OK- 

Aol'&CftbMUM. tl7. 

Art^KcciuiKl tibibUtoii tu BriXkljo, vtU: a^h^Ar- 

Mktp Kt l-muu- i|'bi«,tt«. 
ArgMillu«i Hi|>ubli<-, v. 3. HatUl««'d]Ouni«T Ul.SM 
ArsuuMuK Au<l NiMion'a Lktranurr MbuukI of 

CtiMulHtrr, 181. 
AniMilfi iDoumiain utr, 3; putoouliifl from fM)Klc». 

lOt- 
ArvMoilTef . lilraUiT ot prlinUlTtt IMM. 
Artwilaa m»\\» la tfca t-ataw*, B?; In ]owa, 310. 
APP&U«t)iu MduouIo Club VXplOTAtlDtl, 3VT. 
AppIvun'H >>«i rrikl (luldc, W. 
AiuieaJ, Alberts., on innnuDltr Irvio •IImuo, Sl£ 
Acta Minor, nrB-hlr.urki eUiaolvfrol, 8M. 
.Uo, 01 Inn ol, 73. 

AMioC'iutcKl nuidtiook. lift leclurea, iiopalw, lOS. 
AtlroDcmj KOd Aftiriv Plinik-B for Knr. tiS. 
AtUiitlc Uouilil]', I^ 
AUDoepbere. drculMldt of Ui«, Wl. 
Aucblu>.-JoM, W. H , Ml T«ulT iJ<)M, Mt 
Anrorn, gwrlodiclir ft w'. XW. 
AuatnOl*, KotWIn'ii kcl-oqii trip 10,80; eiploratlon 

ln,n. 
Au(MirhiIli> tlpni«r*c DltfUoMwr. 47. 

II 

B«oi«rla In drluklnc «M«r, tW: Mme umi of, SOB. 
Baldwin, J. Hark, un Infuit-a nio*«a«nto. 10; od 

P«]<;bi.l>islcMl lAbAfftioTT kt ToranWt, Its. 
BoJloon pivUvia, 139. 
Bamboo product*, SM. 
BarbOBr. E. H., ou glini.llo roMll«, W; on pocfcM 

(opbar, 204. 
Bftnird. C. K.. no boiany In blgh wboolai M. 
lUirUii luoirir'a (>r>i>lil'' AUaa, M, XW. 
B&ItCTlrn, wcvcdarr, ^i. 
Baur, G , on a*l*pat<w iHlMtdo, 38, tU; on faun* of 

<:aIapago« I«ianO», IT9. 
Da^li-r, cTC.Ofi Hnra-balL,sn. 
ttral, \V J , en n aftluR au b«r»arlu», Id. 
UeklB. A. It .<iD iiinciifldooane, Iv3. 
Beau.-bamp, >N. »■, on Indlao ovctipaitiMi o( Mmt 

Vork, TB. 
Bvcbor, K. A„ 90 buolDcw and ooli«s« MueaUoi, 

VB. 
Hani. J. Tbeodotrf, on ziaiiiabvo, 3*3- 
B»roMan,T. A..oe«li«ulatkiD of tbe alatiMpbcri*, 

■m. 

BlllloOinr-a Kti^ CrotMbDiea, 888. 

ins«iv>, K. r.ib, 

Hlidr, ^illoct. In Nt w KcalaBd, lU. 

BUcfcberry wedlloji, M. 

BUJr> Urcaulc AimiI;^ c 1 Potable WaUn, ITT. 

Umd. ! dDmofloblu in, 13. 

BkiwboUv, SI: ilfflotnloQOf.TlV 

Boaf. K.. vc cuiuif-'k iBTfOB, IW: on trowui of cHU- 

dr^D, /;/.; SI. 
BolUod B Iron Koundar, Iti. 
Bollf^r, II. F,oit»i|M>iltn»Dinla(r1oaHur«,9Tlk 
noioftiH, irtiirtniitr > i. -j. 
Book, tiumau bjwdd, U. 
BooTatix'M Aaroat Titlb«r, hl 
Boot M, fcirtbiximlna adanildc, 109. 
Bmi(w1i.'«, Arrbnr B , on miiniaiea o( dUianon, IIS. 
Botaiiloal laboraWrr, Iffi; iioiavculBiar* ant] con. 

rr«M. Kl. 
Boiaiij- lu hlvu EuboQl*, fil; actHlon of A. A. A. 6., 81. 
Bowrrin1liitMl,»k 
Braal*rt V>'>»> ou color, ITS. 
Uratn, tbe a*lan, IS. 
Braslllan irlt>r«.-.3l. 
nrwid.ralilni. HO. 
Urlouiti. c. n., aulD-upolOgtoal DOtM, \A^ 174, tO», 

AD «k5.S9>,SJ0 3l3:oAIMOLM,l»itt3»;«ofeurD- 

[>mui Oflgta <>4 wttiM raor, 300; oq Homfuu lau- 

maf ^ '-77, 




Brlllob Uusaum 1**rcboloKlc«t Moinolra, ITV; Xeir 

Oulne*. Sir Wtn. MnuBl■^K«^'a]ourIl«}r In, SB6. 
Broctm^'a EtavcUaM ct Kiir>l«s ITT. 
Brooklm ll Mltuir, U; aud pollllcal aclMM. SK. 
Brouk*. W. K-,cnJ«)iiaUotKluainatlDaIabO(atorr, 

ia 
Bromilnc Cjwlopvidta, ii 
Burklpyit HpfbI 1 eacblnva ol SvlMKe, *7. 
Buddbfatn ia ibo uuvldvat lie. 
BulSnch'H h%K uf PitbU-, SSI. 
BuUat, tD04arp, wou.dj> Iroto, Ml. 
BuUer a Ibe Plaoa ol lOBOului In Una KItlorj «r 

UdUSUoiLaBl. 
BjUioeoopldB, locBl, SIS. 

C 

Can, R. !:il»irorUi, en arWBlaa well* In lown, ni^ on 

bummi tajolit bopa. BO. 
Caiii[)briraTba PunUD la Uolland, Bnclud, and 

Amaiii^a. 33a. 
Ouad*, llo) nl Hoclr ly of, Sirr, SST. 
Carl}lB ircluiFB, Ift. 
Caroaliljonillleaoi !>.-laci^, 11, Sf. 
Catfaratt'a LlUntrj Itnader. >7S 
Caia, at ocular, iT'J. 

Colia, lb>- >iuMi)iti r>( itir, 140, 170, IM, !0r, tSa. 
ObaSaLlOD, on v«(ir>ueta, 171. 
CballouTtiprluni. ancpslri uf, 170. 
CbaR'brrinlii. A. r..<»> Nanlboaba, ». 
CliainlMTB'H B:ic;i.'1utiiudlii— IX., CBi. 
IbtnaloT, C. v., CQ ara^ulo 8. 
riiaiitlli r, B., (Ill ralu-makluf, M. 
Cbaron^oy. il. dc, "D a nAtlva Man buionan, fff. 
I hatotlcr. A., uu Ma2iKr«K 3tf. 
l^lldreti, fiowU) of, t», llll. 
Cblouokju'jtvf,!^ 
CburettKre Men.ftllaM. and AnlmaU of Soatb At- 

CkTkr. A. M., Ml Al|>'t, VW. 

ClimaW i>f Brltlnb l>l*r, Sflt; ot Bgjpt, 4. 

Clin atli: change-. 3M) 

Oi<al 111 Argm-UniKoriiilillo, 109; InSlralUor Mag«U 

lati. 74: rof oarcea i>t Uelclom, lOr- 
Cufla«-)Mrr]rraib(ih}draiap, MB. 
C ff«e-i*H, 1T3. 

Culbart** ttn- Atltj Ii lu OiMn, 1$0. 
UMit wavei^ 94; wArnln^ In new York, 74. 
CoDlguOD, K, on luMruaikiual auUiir«poinetT]<: 

cohaiuo, aor. 
Cclur quaaaip, 17% ^Sk 
rolombls uollot* Sobool of Piir« SctIaqim, 111. 
rombuallofl ol kuman Dodr, 100. 
t:om*i. a, IS».'. tTU Oaoninr. -7i. sn. ma; 8win. U\ 

ttO. 940, Sl7; Winue<ik»>, 9, n, |7|, «l^ r,5, 3i:; 

Woil Rw V, 7H. 
Coniiiit>rx.v, «tiLiliitluii (/, SIA; prablatorlf, batwean 

A'rioani d a si*. )?X 
Coaa\*>cli, J. D., uu wirr-worow, is. 
IMnHMock, T. B., on *«tn- formal ioti. 3H 
Concraaa of aroti»ohiin nod aoulog/ m Moaww, IW. 

botaiik-a). Mi.S.iIiof 'Tp«rlni«nin] iNi;i:bolr>cr, 4i: 

Croicra,pblDalaiC)eDoa,s)X;cao|tapuoal,luSpalu. 

i9V:vrlaota4Uts.3». 
CouD, U. w au ua«it of baoMrip, »W. 
Cotiwar, W, M., on the dawn ot art In Oia acdani 

world, St4L 
Oorrau papor, 3(7. 
Corn-plant, otiantoal compoelUoD of, ttl: planilng. 

SSfi. 
Coniili, oaTfti ardtlMoture at, US; tbe cbaogu at, 

CoQitar. J. H . on bow&tca) coBfroaa and noman- 

daiurv, 8 fl. 
Oowe, feejmg grain to, I30i 
Oagtti.F W,.1ie:auaalMir.untbad tifar, n, 
Cratnallun, ISl; lu Japan, it. 
CrlRilnal anibropi Incr, SVi: of woman. 814. 
Ctoatir «Ld Bpii K Kiruirii.- Railoaj.M. 
I'mutpr, f. U i: . on blgbar cduoaUoa of ItM draf, 

IW. 
Calium, rr>tmgrM»ln, la pretiUtoilA (Ina*. 174. 
Cumuta ft Ua PwllU), I0«. 



Daao, J. C, on family Irpaa, fM. 

DHia, J. D.,II)I8,'.TI. 

narMt*. vn arilselal intidDolloB of moDatara, tR. 

0**1*. v>: M . «7l, on Unp Rltara, :07, sra. 

Daai, aniujciailoo for taacblng apaa^ (o iba, ITS; 

hi|b*r IS] ii'-ftilon of IM. IIW, Ul. 
Dobll and cbnmtwrliuV Nurman MoDamaaia In 

FalomMffik 
l>M«ruolKvrtIi America, IM 
IManiond, largr, T& 
I>iatnoi,itv<>''aii«aB if cul, 3S]. 
DlAMcii, Dr. f. v.. daaUi of. V. 

Dlininock, tiroigm on plMlrVTlty In •Krl«ullur«^ ]oa. 
inebihfrta pro|MC»tr<] hyetMin.iKV: los-albtiinlii, 

DIpcara. i<r>>t«aia(lo por llion of tko. M4, SBX 
Ptaeaaea, i^uranf, 00; liuinnnlir from, 91*. 
DMianof, rfltlmaMflor, lUL itl>. 
nouaallva rii>t:'>r tn tha Plaj*, 11- 
Dotser,'. Oiran.nn Saulbocho, IViODfilonhuomoma- 
iopaa, 4: 0*1 l>ti»giha iBoguaga, IBS. 
Domay'H'nie Db»giiut lAticaag^vsaa. 




Drummond, A. T., on laka iiriupacaturM, 47. 
DniDtmond^ Matsral Law la tko Spintnal World, 

n7. 
thut, mlcroiwa In, vm tn as air, MS. 
Dymonal, T. S., ou lattQoa, Mt. 



EanU'iJikM lu Ja| ail, tiT. 

Biwii^i !■ land nallTfi laiJKUa^r'. OS. 

SilDvallcii, rr1alli.li of buslDMi IO«)ll0f«, W7. 

tCJwBrd^. AnioIlK H., dralb of, L7I. 

Bdwamt, C. S.,7\ 

frdWAr<K HtiuTr, (luMmtikigk:^ •xillection of, ISO, 

Bdwanit'H, llMiry, piiDlleaUoup,83. 

Kbrnitrrlt-.ri. }' ,oa BrailRan Irlbra,!!!]. 

Kiiri>( I'l i^-ii'» Volkiiitutda Brasilia nii, SS> 

Klnn. Irrrf: n BaclarJolOfloal Dlagnn«l«, -,91. 

El'it'irk-til piigiuaar, tlia rilavailou of Ui», iAi. 

Kloclrlnlly iQacrlcultLTP.an, lOL 

Elanjniiir, a ii*w, S.(L 

Bmbifnnic eaunaaof Tarlailaii.fas. 

Bndllob'a Btowpipn Analjiala, 833. 

Hogll.tb roactAoka In tIkII rbk-ago (IblbltlOn, tO. 

Kiiidomlca, aimrapbnil'' Ibforj-tf, Hl- 

Epllaptto auloniatliiin. 1^. 

Ibklniotiin wli<e^UDke. ft%t- 

SttOMrtOi, V: loa, b. 

Bibnlu noaologr, HI. 

Bfaporaiton aud eoudeut itilon , lOl. 

K*«ibart, Iir.,nn TDiaii .^cN1Iltror of SolvDcaa, 868. 

Kw»ll, Brwln E., on ooni>*-b*rry ^arbobidraiea, tUk 

RxblMilau building. Now Yoik, 161; rolanablan^ la 
SpAlB, SK; Ub-iorteal Am«rl--&D. in Uadrld, 97; i«> 
ItKlmif. 101: of objocta aard la wonblp. Hi, ttS; 
Stjutb ArncAct, SM. 

Jlrv-naHita. S. 

Bre>, Uie, and taclMl espraaaloa, US. 



PaltliiiC. «ruaat1a«i> during, 'JA4. 

Fanllr iralia, 1 Wi 3)^ trp*e.m. 

FamUietu Ruaaiit, 1.11. 

Parrlugton.E. 11., on oom-ilaot, 91). 

Paalr. famouB. .1. 

Fpm*, Barr,nuaDar«liliecitiriil»cbolaraUp,tO*:on 

Bi»iklyii(u^hliliMurBlcibll>IUou,S4;aabUtor)<^ 

Amoni-au •>xlill>lUi.>n lu lladrid, 37. 
pBrrpiT', t), . (Ill cilmlunl uTitbmpalngr of woatao, SIS. 
FaTiiilfi.'T, ^xiivrlmantfl at Georgia fiUtlon, lOf. 
FIrW, iJo» W.. Ka. 

KlQdlur'e Working of at; EngLUb RaUwar, 1T8L 
Flrobkll,i49. 

FLftii<'>, UlBCrltiQUoo of, 1^: Br. Stor«r'a work on, aw. 
Pl!>ki-'B DlBoofory of Amortca, I^; E*tiluilno In SfiU 

ancv, FtiDoiopbr. and Art, ». Ulstorj'of tb« Unllad 

t^ tat en, a& 
Fltxuor, K.. on lotce caion, J30. 
Flpxiif^-, M., CD tox.«lbuniln dipbthoria, IM. 
Florldllv, 3. 

Flowwr^t T ha llona, 68. 
t\>r, FrtTik'4 i^x pi linn I Ion of. Si; In London, 4. 

Ftiwi pihtoUlou. 74. 

FD^b^^ ii,<i,T7 <>., »n ositnet birda of Now ZaMsirt' 

13^. 

r9»bAr. >'. Mas, on Uia calM, I7A. 

Fur all*. glgantlD, Vt 
FotUordU! Tba Will Fowr. ir*. 
Fi'xaii Iti Aurlralln. US. 

Frutt-treea, U It doiiearoua to ipray, 9TS. 
FuagI on plauia, 174, MS. 



OnlMlentk^BpracBvlaaaQKiaiatr, 16. 

Salapagoa Itriand*, 98. IM; fauna of, I7S. 

QalLatKlei, R. H., on tbo btgaer MaoMlcn of tb> 

deaf, -m, 

QamfA.ciiiidran'h It. 

narman.H., on dlaidbutton of flali««i, 1ST: on fliMrurua 

and CroUtiopboru^ tM); ca Dr. siorara work on 

Btba*. W; od realulaa of Sa*l, 12& 
OalBcb)'!, A. H.. on Klamaib languaga, teC 
OOF-r. dn, Oarard, 171. 
Opikia, A ., on voleanio action, I4&. 
(;«IUB. daiaclluu ot arlifldal. 344, 8TS; of the Tral, 101. 
(Muaalugj, lolantin^, 167, SM. 
Ooaava, aouudtnga In tnka of. 41. 
Oao<raplil«al namor. ortkocrapbT of. Ml sMiAtr la 

LlaanHiol. St. 
Oaologlcal 8urtay ot Alobans, 3B. 
Qaman Stdanoa Ata' cImIoi*, StS. 
Oladnl nan, aiT: period, ProtaMor Oottlo on, lUr; 

pariod, 104: pbaDOmaualnKawTorb, Ml. 
aiM«r. B . oti tfa*< alobabaC SU. 
Olaaa, •olubilltr of. 88. 
Gold In Enrrtourilo, 41, 
(Joldan, Batlierlua^ B., on a bdianlcal laboraiory, 

in. 

Gopber, pwkai, aiiarmlnMtoo of, KH. 

Gorby'a gaolrgtMl cdllacUan, r. 

Oorllla bra no, K4A. 

tlra*H«i> lionioptMra injiirlona tn, IKS. 

Orave'it, Lafayalla, SI. 

Groan, O. tX, OB bablta ol laekdawn, m. 



Qraaniand, rallaf «ap«diii<Hi to, 44. 
' Urownll<s BookM-llar^ f 



I Llbrarx. 11. 



J 



Vo!. XI X.J 



IND-liX. 



[jAS.-JirNE» 1S92 



Oftlnan, TS. 

HiJo, K. H., on tbOTliinki <•>», M. 

□ftlc. aratgt'S,, on nnwnlc pbt^'0. 1<H> 

H*I1. T. Prodor. on •llrvct r«llocuiK iMlulHopM. 
3:19; on fcur-tolil BpAc*. 2% on LbM]aa'a crorvrR. 

0ftIM«4. B;roD n., on b^iatij M-ctloB of A. A. A. !■.. 

81; OD parMlllC nwKl, ITl, Ml: 00 vccdK. 116. 
flatat«<t, U. V , on fourMil »p«iw, Hlfi. 
nwnr. B. T., cru loiM-Mterst WX 
llUKlDt'.4««Ui tij, m. 
Dvdr. A. B . 3 1. 
II«'C«r'8 K»i«rtor if tho Unr»c. M. 
IIiuTlrr, It , ou It flunct* Pfl-lQiBln, lU. 
UlUTltO", Wr* Jtihn. ntnalat ri)lli>clla«i erf, 117. 
n»n'* Eporh «■!■». M. ... „ 

HoTTKnt r"HtIi>fm~Dr» tor idtnlatlMt, fn. 
Bawortb. SrB>inii>>. "n ptl.t matte auMitoas, SI. 
n*r. O. r . 00 Storertn Tkti«, iw. 
H«yi;e», H. W.. 00 tin» Oil*. W. . __^ 
nat*B, U. A., (m n prcMnm In pbyawa, tm; on wotk 

In n»ar>i)a oonpiATnltiD, .ML 

BwlTw.dlvlUP, 43. 

SpallhalDHrM »l CbiCACO. 17: tICIth UIDnSl COD- 
rar«iic« of M*!* bnanlK of, MtS: rMorM, tneteoro- 
lotto) ubMI-IMltrDB M, 21 1; MAUtOct iD »l> Ik. 8L 

Hiir. A II, i^n pilailtlveBri'itMUT«w,SW. 

!■ m. 

. frO i«ln-K«ucaB, MIL 
Ij . , >-moaa>. IJ*- 

tlwwto**. M., on llgbtniDC :*•■ 

B«wU*, J. N. B , an I rLquolKn •irmolog*. ItV 
nicfc*. U K . 10 Lord KIrtn, s>t 117, n: 
ota'orai «»l*rt>, 10. 

inn. B. J., au »r«-bMit«, sa. 

JIlll. ti«9' A ,'ui.r<iDi>nilc«> uot«>,5M, nS. 1i7;oid Sir 
n. B. Mry- 64; oa m <* Mar tn Anrts*, IW. 

Uln<.0. A ,t3tti iD'moTlBi, IIA. 

ititci>c>fk. Uomrn. oa tpfvtniin i>bot»rrftphr. lis; 
OD •UT i>bo>o(T«|ili<r. S9r9. 

Ilc-oklfljr. Tbonv. ilNUb M. IM. 

Do4iw, y. D C, on pcMveUua tram llgiiiiileKi IK. 
2S9. 

UoimuB, Aa(g*t (TUIwIm.SIi. 

Holine*, E. L, oa pr«(iAi*UciB rorstadj of DMdldnr. 

am. 

flooKqitnra li ]nrloM <o f naM^ tm. 
DWflot* Ui sung*; !ST. 



: oa slorat* 



llopklu, T- giri IM- M>MI<1» taUmlory. HZ. 
Sonar, i.. wi A iMkwu f«lns asx, 
lIoKfofJ'ft Tfap Landfall ff L»lf BrUMD, S7. 



Horimi'a allwr Id Bofop". i3V 

Qolcbkl'd, J^l.. onatiorlsluat MA, t8T, Wi on UMS 

iiCWa«tvinlala,'4l. 
Daualoa'^ Dk:tk>ii*T7 of Klaerri ItT. 8S«. 
Bom, J. L., OB eulVdcv l«a«hlD(, 104. 
nova. Minnie, on broad- raklur, *X 
BBbbaid. ranllDer (>.. on tha «*q|uU0B vf aon- 

Ri«rcA.nA. 
Bnciiv*, II- K., ou o4l aa tnaulaur, tOI. 
DuIilDkniier'!! ^r^of (^naatlo Anlmala. im 
Haul, T. F.. 5. 
Hila ej-. W. J.. ;74. 
HiiXinr't Uadarpoe *wtn*. Mi. 
Dri>n(XlHin aiD'Tis aniiaala, Kc trwiinadc. B, SB. 

I 

lu'A, atbvograpbj of, UM. 

fadla rabbar, mc loa of malala od. 143. 

Indian oeenptttoa ^f N«* Vor», 7S. 

ladlaDk Aradainr ot l^i-^tac--^, IS. 

Infaaia' noTameDO, '> 

li reclloo and Ui« iiliii<M|>lMira^ fS. 

Itifluanta. Tt; Dc<rlila>>. 100, ijti, W; tunaa, fO; In 

Viouua. < IT: iwlf tn of. 144 
laa«ell*attKia planta, 3 
traacta bald la 4rii*i),3;r. 

Bvaalon, Amarkan aaaoctattoo r, TT. 
Ka Aradrmr oI*''lri»c a.ti 
lrIib>UurAlt«<, i7r. 
lriv|untao • i;rD> U'gy, IM. 
JrriKailoa ^l lerfnt i lalu*. iKk 
(■aa, J. R., on cMlectlnc Barilla bralna, MO. 



. I>nC>l>>«if,r.i>. 

ou ua adBLWlou of tb« alaetri. 



jackd.-.TT- - 
Jackw.« 

Jalirt>»'-'i 'It < NHiiiii*, 1^ 

JtelDea■lM(•p^, I'., on iilaMI illaaaaav, I IS. 

Jal'Ko<>^ atudF >•'■ ^9) 

Jaaaldv. looal, AT. 

JbliBaMn|.kiii* ki-Miamk' ball, lOD; aluntl aaaoi^^ 

Uon. ir/:C'''»liiatMi, 4:|railii«t«a'aaaocl«tloii.«. 
Jabsaar. Hcf «r B., on ui« wiu. U. 

K 

Rnnao* l'mT*r«l'r fy'Mnea tinb, S I 

Kaiit't Kritlk. &\ 

Krarj'a NoriraT ond Uia Not^n-flaiui, .na. 

Knllsrn'.iin. Vr^ W A, mi allaulbui laaOaU. Mk on 

catnip Jf*rc«. «;fin Ma-Illi>r blat-kbarrr. M; on 

tb'klH'.-lull c, lAI. 

Kollk-xiit. D. f , on tinm owl, I \ 
KtOlors I' "^ ■'" >■■" i"! (>li"ioiiieia,8ll. 
Keait>«, ii., ' D ^Il T'liindiMigaa^iM #X 

RllBni-a, t-rui.tli'i. iif, 1-7. 

KlAitiDiL lai iruni.-'-, VMI; oaitoft, ' 'XI, V. 

Kopr Hwniir ' •-■•^ f. isjl 
Krof. W. ir 1. on itiftr ratcUona, 117. 

BuinrrofuiFi [.ita 

Koi».fl«orgu i ... ..-.,iiltlalg«fD».ir8; oagaowot 
tral Ml iiDlatw, ii>l. 



Laboratorr. ^« Harlc* Blulorleal. WT; blolofkal, 
BnoUn. Oh cbamteal. ai Caa«i«cba"l. M7: /obat 
l^jfthlna Hario". 10: ans-ldc. for Laland SlaittOt^. 
Jnu , Cni*aTalir.ts«.Mt: miBlnf.IM. 

Ijdr^ xroaL origin uf, Sll; !• mparature of, 47. 

Laaguafcc*, abanKlDai, oi Aaairalla, VK antfldal, 91. 

Lntbaoi, B(iI-l«lD. un avaporatloti. 101. 

Laqxr'D Ctuir-b and Atata lo New Bnglaad. SI. 

Laadabi, allaulbua. BO. 

Lcavaa, coihnia i-wulp, fia. 

l<e (.'balc>li#r. ou oiellius potuta of mHal', 801. 

Lanstb, •taaOaiil or. In Iignt-vaiea, IB. 

lonlanar, K., on IMKitaq, '.3> 

Lanaoa la taadiviop, 901. 

Lawla, U. raiTill. on cUdal pbasomaDa, tKO. 

UiMeUik. ta. 1H9: pruiautioa trofa. 107, t'.<L 
Uulnar.J. A , ou imarUao pBraa,S41. 
lit ajou'a onrca*. Hi. 
tlnirvaUc*. "f Id'O ruat, '.Tl. 
LccamoUT^Onl, aO; nrai lu Amertca, V. 
Lmtuala In Bcrpt, SI 

Loab. aDrTU.OB A. W. von B<>rmaDn,311. 
Lout ^Dati'a Now RdiOiJ Atlaa, IM, 
ljys.tr. i. Wart. ttl. 
Lctoa-rairra anil ibeTroitlndylaat W*. 
Lowa. E. J ,00 raiu-irora. SM. 
Uiiat'o'*>"*°'l aglaaiof waiar.TI. 

» 

Mabarr. C. F., mi cbemlcai laboraioir ot C'aaa 

Scbml. '.ff: OB labcratory tralttlnt. SSI, 
HcCanbr. G,, 00 Frnoub wlae*. m. 
aiai-Doiiakl. A.. OD li>niie«a« bacillus 9\ IM. IJN: on 

lx>rw«loffl«iU traluins, It^ on trauBatW brpoA- 

tlam. :•*. 
XMcio^U", U.. 14) ths traob'n of tniwov, 63. 
Mi-Marl/'r'> f'«w|ili' of Iba Uuluiil SUtaa, «". 
Maocurr. Jsriii^? v., >av*8lt(at<«a "t fur aaal, 27. 
Maicnolli: •-u.r, ir.t; riinrin of Pnb. lit tl, 144. 
HaanatH, Uiniu-uce ot aiaam on, 10^ 
Habgrat^ n*lM'hMLuola(* of, U3, 
Man. dad I.SIT. 
tf aasanli a, a iinw allor, SA 
Mi>Tfctam'i> Sir JoQa F>a&klln. HS. 
Mafkhall. H. t*., on dnbloomlny oUa, 90; on pyrita 

ta«rui>tattrb-, isi. 
Haaiai, i>. T., on aDthmpolofr. 16&; on ibrowUK- 

atlcks.8Si. 
Maapara'a Life In AtcloDt Kc;i t ac>l Aaofha, U. 
Haarlum. 3.V. 

Maivoli'a Tbaorir of Heal. ITM. 
Mara oodteor, MA; blaurlaa, a aailTe. 330. 
Maioock^ FlniUi«ok of BlectrUiltv, IT& 
Madloal Aaaodaiioa, Briiis*<, UL 
Hodloliii*. praparadnn tor iba atudy of, SA 
Madlierraaaan, "iploratkna la, •iH; prebla(oH« 

comiiinn a ou, MX. 
Mabair]) Uedlcal Scttool, 181. 
Ifaiinbraf l-la>, loral. XST. 
Maa.brlcbtnl, In Raropa, 3. 
Marannkj, on ain-lant India, 179- 
Uatala ai b)>b i«tnperatai««. il9: aew moibodof 

radunilon, TA. 
Mateorcloctenl oba^rratlone ■! baollb reaona, >1 1. 
lltcbalaou> malrloiiJ atandard In laraia of wa*a- 

laBAibaof lUcbt, iv 
rnddlaion'' noroatiiii of AdcUdi Rr>nia, ITfi 
Mtdsu-ama. l^. 

MlaraiKm*, [irobliiarlc Rnropaao, IT4. 
Hllk. Riaobi<<«for<rnuraloa fraeb, W. 
Hltky - itr, [ibau>grnpbiiol,SL 
milcr. W. 11.. on lanis, m. 
HltlBr H 1.1 uU RroitiafH ot tba Atr, lift. 
Hlitspauih, c. P., onwaede as fertllUini matorlal. 

3M. 
tlllU'fl tK>c In lleaim aod ID Dtoeaaa, 47. 
mine Bi.l niirtoD'* Tbs Oraal bnlKinalta In 

Jai>an. :s!)|, £.>;. 
Ultiarali In Stale of Wa hlaatiai,5!L 
mnourl G<K'loBlcal aamr, M. 
Mlaitotoo. li]fliiDiuTaof, lao. 
MoBTk. W. H. t>., on notiooa of alars, Si& 
HoDkajra, alTeaiiuiia of. IIT: caina«,n. 
Moon, brlfbt aireaks on, ir75. 
Moorabaad'a, W. K.. esploratkioa to Ohio, W. 
Morgan. T.D..&. 

MuMaian, R. C. ou allror Ibaw, ISI. 
MoUan aLd baai, 13C IIT. 
Hound- build «r rrlliM. <S. 

MdiJar. .s., oo prr^lotorlc Karopaaa nlaraiiaDo, 1T4. 
MBllar'a India. Ml. 

Manro*! Uorooo of tba Telagrapb, 178. 
Manroa'a laOaz lo EIp1n-l'rl^a,-JT«. 
Unwum Hand book*, ITtb ol oatnral biitlorr at So. 

Koonlngiou, t*. 
Mnaaums, eup[«rt of.TT, 



Xaniboabu. •&. 

Nai-tf ■ acatloD, Anarlcaa lablo at, 1 30. 

Naanl liidpi. tat. 

^aaraii. K, II . no oollectlnK Kctrllla bralM, mil 

Nailvra »( Soutb Anarlca, 1|6. 

Kaiural Srtecoa, rrs. 

Naval arcbttaeinra al Cornall, I id. 

N«ljrai-kii Acad#n>r of Kolonooa. Kk 

N«'uiiiarHi> rAra>lutaot Doaiaattoaiad Awlwali, Stt. 

^aurarltc^ulIk Dr. ixvlaaoa. 9'. 

Naw Jnfany. plalsiocaDa latiuallina of,ttS. 

N^wnxuK SimoB. lOt*. 

KawBll'a nnaar and Pmlt, 40. 

NletKib, c. r., on <llt1n« beaUBC, ta 

KOa, lourea ca, S. 



Ittaa^n'a SwadWi Sjatam of Rdacalloaat Cimaaa- 

Ilea. IM 
Numlamallcaaaoclalli a, D o klpt-S. 
Hnuall,''. U. F.,ou tuasoaa bastlitt-, l)U. 

o 

Oblo Ai-adamf of Rdaacv, M8. 

OU at inaulaior, »); daUoonlnc laUiarai, Ma, 

OU*ar. J. IL.Dn aailmalaaordlaiaaca, 1(3. 

OaoaatApea, sioiiao. 4. 

Orang-ulu, ifti, 

OrderlotbaPbrsk-ai WorlJ, ITT. 

Oriaoial Club, l-btU.. lO. 

Oaborn. Hanrr F , on t baUootbarloB. mt on arla^- ' 

Hdc alllaac*, iTh. 
Oibm, Uerben, co bonoptara Injurlotui U (nn-, 

0«loan«-« FJaruldtrainpliRad, ITS. 
Oataologira] nocaa, 930. 
Owl. bam. In Obto, 19L 
Oif gan, luasnittc, L 

f 
Palanqofl labiat, 3». 
Paatlrv, Journaf la, tlO. 
Panmai, I. H.,oD«ind«onDaiit4tra«ii,Mb 

Paper maiiufaDiuni In foraa, 117. 

ParaoaitK l-~t«r.i'bM:booia.44& 

Patau loin », n now, :ill: buUdlni, IDK - 

Fatanin, rac«'lgi>, Vl , SU. 

Fawparboi, 171 

PaarMai'aUraiBmarot8el«Boa,ITti. 

Pear^lraa Parlla. 3*a> 

Peat On«B aval) and burtt, IFT. 

Pack. wTa., daaib of. tdt 

Pelrcp, t," i»„ 17. 

Patrla'B (llioorariea In Trl nl-Amania. tM. 

PbUltpa a Abroad and ai lleBia.tti. 

Pbllowipbloal ttavleit, C; Social/. PbOadelpbla, m»- 

QUl-oauianstal. BM. 
Ptooograpb fordfat-iautaa, t- 
Pboocraplir. aBnlvtraaiT of tntrotfaolUn of gi^a. 

tlno^lwoBilda prooraa la, Ntt; atar, SA, 
Pboa|>baio rocka oi norMa 3. 
Pbraa Baiaroalrvpba Ba/.t W*. 
Pbralaal and taaaial oo* flatloo, 117. 
PbT^ea.aqa«al)onlD, IV;proMam lo, I'M 
Planai St3. g. 
Planatp, now, 171. 
Plant dtMBacA work on, br Departnentof Agrkwi- 

lur«. un 
Pl7m|ilou'a How Lo BOoficiio an BiiclDaar, 12. 
Puatimoiita, lilood aorum an car* lor. 8?. 
PelaoD. «aak«. W*. 
PolaODad arrow*, its. 
Polartacoo^*, dlmei rtflnonnc. 3Xi. 
PuUlIcal adaooo at Brinklro iDaaltui'?, BJf 
Poteat. W. L.oa PhraabeiaroelropbaBar.sn. 
Powar*. E.. 00 t«l> -makiiic, SC 
Pr»bl9. Jim., W. P., CO foar-fold opaca^ 911. 
PraMrriiig noM i«a r)ara. n\. 
Prlf, AlTaronca, 48: ol Boaioa Secloir Of Natural 

tliatorr, CI: In pliyatea, 173; lo Acrtealtoral De- 

[arlm^ui. 313. 
r«robbiai Kaaoarcb Socleir, «]. 
Parclx l':'Btcal laboralOTiM, lif: laboracoiT atOoIai». 

bla, iTC: laboratorr at Ton>an<. lU; r«>aafctt ap- 

pllod Id anibropolocr. Vi: iralniuc, 117; bmioi 

noad or pbralutocr and anaiomy la, iflB. 
RifclMi!' Kf. Am<>ri<.-aa Journal ofTnr. 
Pirlla, paar-tr«p, Ma. 
Punia.lb». ia. 
I'rrlla toeruatailoaa, lU. 



ijaairrragva, M. da, daaih ol. Id. 



Ratlway. Afrloas. S4. 

RaUi couT»iiiloa, 9<. 

RalD-dinpa, K^ 

RaiiifaU ot Jaiaatoa, IM; neord-, JIS: Is Biuala. B1. 

Halo Making.ftCbr faiib,U. 

Ramaaas II., atntna or. lax 

Kaod*H Bcooonlo Blalarj, ITS. 

Ran Up, A , oo dust In Iha ainioapbans vM. 

Kactn-. KlUito.«n. 

IUcv<i'lotHcl«itiaoProgr«a«, lU. 

Rn'fgTaiio. (1, R., un flpilhlo luMag, tt*. 

Bigamara Japna Ptaii-iu'. ii. 

Hold! Paep» lubi Clilua. 341. 

B«ll(loD8, anelant, 130: varlf. IVL 

BrllgtouB aitilliltlUK. I> harnbotlam, I.t. 

RaooiidtBO'a Tba ModiieiraneaD Hbofaa ol Amar- 

loa,m 
Bamaan. Ira, lift 
Raoan'a Raoollrai loa*, H. 
Kailoa. Daiir>>-apiitaaiiOBiaor tba, «L 
Ranawot Ke*1ewB, iW. 
Hlcbar'a. Bdgar, 47. 

hialry. II. R., on valua ot aaaal Ifidca. tftt 
SIvar iilrata, 7. 
81ien>. arulullonut Louii.W, 1 '. -IT, lia.qyi, m. 
Kotara, Wit. A.. OBbarJnaaa<^^ < ndt.an. 

Roaiaun'a Darwin ami Altar r> 
Rowal laamcilab Iffl Praiob i ' .TV. 

BuDoar. W. n.onMli-aralaln n ax;i f.C"^'U, SH 
RoMall. B.,oc tba UTilMnabillry n.t Biin'Si)4ii>rlc Mwk 

orr n( «).ld«ait(a. 141. 
Rnat. Iron, >;i. 

Sabj ra, artoalan w« Ita la tba, B/T. 

Sallabarir. R. D., on plaMoeaoc fonnailona at New 

Jenar, ns. 
Salmon lndustrT.71, 
Salipator lo KUtma ^Jaro <llaU(«<,t«V. 



Vol. XIX.] 



INDEX. 



[Jax.-June, 1892 



Stmnkroat fTs Chronolrglcftl ClaeelBckllon of Ami- 

qsltlM, iX. 
BttDdalooe, piiemntlc, S4. 
SAitord, P. C , oil toar-tfjii f p&ce. 83!. 
Sanford'B Lsbrrator; Ccuree la P^frAo'oKr, ]S7. 
SftODden'B DlBcover; of Uie New World, SU. 
Sctwflluus'D, OD ihe CHib, lie 
BcluBtilt, BmlL OQ kiithropolrclcfti matbods, S8S. 
8<«iool ud C ne(e, 98. 
8obWBtiifartb, B., on oonunmca of andent BcTpt, 

178. ^ 

BdaoUfla AlUuce of New Yort. Ul, iTfl. 
BoorpI iw,]8. 

Scott. R. H,, on Atlnutlo weMbor, 930. 
Sertptnre, E. W., i3 ■, SIS; on parobcOoffloftl tnlnlog, 

1S7; ODsklD temp^rMoreB, SOS. 
SAl bftbltBof fur.sri. 
SerroQlture In Aila Htnor, Te. 
Sblp-s roUluc of, £17. 
Sbi^i-I It, ft. w., on zoologr In WMhlnston Bchooli, 

afr. 

Sbufoldt,!). W.,S3. 

81d»r«Bl Meweug'r, 78. 

BlnalilDg at ulsnt, ST. 

SllTsr Id Arfentine Rapubllo, 108; mamolr on, bj 

81M, 8 1 
aint»rUnd, M. V. on wlre-womu', 18. 
8 nraTt'aTbo Rfttlnn&leof ■l«BTn«rtsm,]61; 
S'latnirue and Crotalopbonu, HID. 
Skin, teinpnrature of, iS8. 
Sknll, cToluKunof tuoian, 146. 
Slad», P. D., oatioIOBlcal uotw. S03. 
Smttfa, Jobu B.,on Uemlptoroue mouib, 189. 
8naki> poUro, SM. 

Snrdor, M. B., unUereli; extenBton, 1. 
Souihwtrk, E. B.. od local JaMt<?m, ab7: on loaal 

B} ttauFcipidce and Cercorlda;, 318; on local Mem- 

bracldn aid PulgoMda), 367. 
Sowarlw, Wm,. no ctiflAp-iea, 173. 
Space, four rold, 87^. 304. 319. 331, 3'-!. 
Spoar'a lAaiee and Fl jwors, 331. 
Bp«c1all8i,ib>-, 131. 
Spool Bf, varlatlun In, 316. 
SpOclrum pQotograplir. 118. 
Spencer, J. W., on Oroat I^akoB, 31^ 
Spencer'n Roll TurulQC, 109. 
Spot ccr>8 S< cinl Stallue, 138. 
SpHsbprgeD, I.V). 
Star, ne w, in Auriga, ISO. 339. 
SWtb, proper motions of. 843, 
SUP, deatn o', S: on ellT«r,301. 
SlallBtl al coD|r»as, 74. 
SMamBhlprouteB, 18. 
Stoil, efti^Mof aurfacoHcratebesoD, 387. 
RteveiiH, Q. T., on taclaUxpreafiOD, BM. 
Stcv. iihOK, MiT. C, on aucleut (ormH oC religious 

Bfinboilpin, lid; oD Bgjptlan rellglODp, ISii; 011 

lomb of Kli'K Amtinbotep, 2li; on disocverleB In 

Tet~el- mB'iia,B46. 
StUM,C W., 159. 
Sldne, G n, »□ raln-maklng, 69. 
StOpw. n.. ou r«troKreeBl*e culturo In preblatorlo 

UrB«f , 174. 



Storerla > icta. 199. 

Sug«r beete, 200; rsactlons with aceiono, 117. acbool, 

3«. 
Huloido In European armte*, 9. 
Sullr'BTbe Human Mind, 47. 
Sumatra, Biir*er of, 8.7. 
SUD flower Induatry, 105. 
Sna'a paraUttX, Ik 
Bowbln* raoordera, SU. 



Swagger, daollne of, 115. 
STbere Gar 



erman Empire, II. 



Taber, C. A. V., on cltmaUc changes, 390; on gtadal 

period, 1< 8. 
Tea, aboriginal Amerloan, SI, 187, 166; brick, 3SS; 

deatb from. 101. 
Teaching of HOlence, S'3 
Tel-al-Amarna, dlaooveriea lo. its. 
Temperature, >.-iiea'loiia of. 89; of air, snow, and 

earUt, BB; of melili g atoel. SOI. 
Tazaa Aeadem* of Science, SO, 358. 
Thaw,allv«r, 181. 
Tbibet, ezploratlona In, 984. 
Tbomaa, CrnUt on a ker to th« myBter j of tbe Maya 

oodlcea, 995; oa tbe Palenqne tablet, 3j8. 
Thompaon, K. P , 00 foreign patei ta, S d, 348. 
TbotDBOu. W. J., on laugnage of Eaaier kland, 236. 
Tborae, C. E., ou wboat In Ohto, 48. 
Tbrowlog-atlck-, 339. 
Th und eis Btorni b, 4. 

Tburaton'B Stoam-englDe, Part II,. 197. 
Tldeaat Elaogchiw, 326; rearly, 943, 
Tlerra del Fuego. 17i, .134- 
Tlger, aabre-tootbt^d, 17. 
Tlme-B«r«lce of QarTard observatorr, 87, 
Todd. J, E., on Loup RlverB, 148, 
Toplnard, P., on hnman akull, 146. 
Toplnard B lataai work, 280. 
TonolBe, fool for. KB. 
Townaend, C. B. Tiler, on the Dlptera, ZiO; on In- 

sectB belli la dread, 337. 
Tiscbrs ol iDBCcts, 8^. 

Traaaof West Virginia. 181; wlnd-stonna and, £0S. 
TreTee'D Pbralcal Education, i;15. 
Trimbleo The Tanolns, 181. 
Tror, D. 8., on motion and beat, 139, 147, 
Truo, F. W., ou the puma, 169. 
Tablng, a'ilble,9fl6 
Tuionr, U. H., on tbe avian brain, IS. 
TuBkalnosB formaa^o, 974 
TfLdsH'it New J''ragmeul-<, 69. 

II 
rcu>nBi-i->u8iif Bp, eaplanailona of, usi. 
rolverdKr exten<Inu,i: precet dlngB, 3.33; of Dublin 
Cerceuienarr, 800, 

V 
Vacclrallou In India, ?43. 

Variation In aprc ee, 816; la tjpee, ^7: aiilOcIal 
[I'OJuct^on of, S36; In Tertabratei<, £98. 



Veeder, H. A., on tbe aurora, 950. 
Vein formailon, S14. 
Vrnfcuela and Cnlombis, 171. 
VeBloieaotSaTl.lSa. 
VoBUTlur, eruptions of, 9, 
Victoria Hyaosa. 880. 
Vokanto aotton In England, 145. 

W 

Wabnachaffe'a Examination of Soils. 178. 

Wake, C. BtaoUand, on aodnlatn, 148; on color, Ht; 

on four-told apaor, >8i. 
Wallace-B Uaad Ufa. 836- 
Ward, R. dec , on a river pirate, 7. 
Ward, Staoler H., on first locomotWe, SO. 
Warder, B. B.,on a lumpof aaltandaguusof waMr, 

Water, bactaria lo, 1S8; discoloration ol, 3<. 

Wave*, belgbt of, tB. 

Weatber ol Paris, 89; ol Iba Atlantic and of Oroat 
Britain, 900. 

We«dp,llB; aa fertitlilDg matarial, 836; atCbloaco 
Bspoalilon, 169. " 

Welemann'B Heradltr, 361. 

Welob. Wm. B., 011 tnz-albumin dinbtberla, 198. 

West, O. H., on variation In type, 936. 

WhallDg in the Antaiuttc. 356. 

WbeatlnOblo, 48; ruet,37I 

Whipple, G. M., on auemoziapbs, -326. 

Wblte race, origin of, SBo. 

White's Number L^aaooa, 13. 

WhItBian, C. O , ou variation In type?, 377, 

Wbympsr'B Great Aodei, 176 

Wiley, B. W., on tlorjdlie, 3; on midzu-ame, 45, 

WUI, analysis of, 62 

Wlulains, C. T., on meteorologluai obaervatlona at 
beaJtb rreona, 214. 

Wmiamp, B. IL, Jua,, on family traits, 920 

Wlnd-storma and trees, »)5 

WlnoB of Modoc, 74; sophistl'iated Freucb, 185. 

Wire-worms, 18. 

Woelkof, A., OD Ru^Blao famlup, l.'ll. 

Woman, crlmlnnl authropology of. .^10. 

W rk and lla rt-latloa lo gaaeois comprfsslon, 150. 

Wright, O. P., on H. Carvlll Lewlas work on glacial 
pbenomeuB, 3'>5. 

Wrigbt, J. McN„ on food for torlolsc, 95; on bypno- 
tism among aoimals, <Jj; on itMuinatlc hypno- 
tism, 66. "^ 



Yale Review, 3i0. 

Yi 1 low-fever, cold iroatmentof, l;iJ. 
Youugh us baud's, Caj i. F. B., lournojB lo the Pa- 
mirs, 1:^0. 



Zeltecbrlft fiir auorxaDlKbe CHemle, 179. 

Zimbabwe ruins 144, 343. 

Zoology In Waablngton scboola, ;j07. 



1 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. 



4©5 



such n* it i* alonr> tfao province of the ■tpeclolist of the onU-cnily 
to collcci and promulgalc. 

tlnallf it has b^en aaaunwd that u uolhinf; satb advaittaftfcan 
cAme to tliOK seekiag th« apt^cial knowledge, whelhw for use or 
culture, so nothing save advanUg#> can aocrtiA to thv iinivpnut; 
ezt«iwMMi fl/jttf'ai or to the uniwntit? i(H#lf from th« adoption of 
a Kh4>m0 of fvisninjt in»tructton fairly suited to th« DP«>Jfl of th« 
individual student. M. i). SirrsKB. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

It will interest crematiooi&la to hear that the Japanese, who 
some time ago adopted burial of the dead, io iuiitalion of Europeao 
nations, hare reverted, neoordiug to (hu Indian Medieal Oatette, 
Vi tliPir own euMoiu of buining the dead on account at its eanitary 

r(ftfomin?ndaifoD8. 

— The death of Dr. F. C. Dietrieh, keeper of the Botanical 
MuMiim at Berlin, fa aonouno.-d. lie was eiglity-eix vears of 
age. 

— A (tMpatch to th« New York Tribune, from FnmkHn, Ind.. 
Dec. ^Q.Ktntes that Profmeor tiorby. Slate QeoIogiKt, has j^ren his 
eollectioa to Pninhliu CoUeRe. T^ collection conebUfl of 40,000 
to 90.000 speoimeps. Raiheted from aluiout c-vury Slate in the 
Union, and from many fomign countries. 

— At the Dec. 10 meeting of the Uoyal Society, according to 
yalurf. the preflident read from th« chuir a lctt«r from Professor 
Dewar, which had b«*m put into hia hand an he enlefed the meet- 
ing-room, in which Professor Dewar stated that lie bud at 3 p.m. 
Ibtt afternoon '-placed a quantity of liquid oxy^fcn In the state of 
mjrid ebuljition in air taiid therefore at a tem|>LTsture of — 181** 
C) between the poIe» of the biatoric Faraday magntt in a cup- 
shaped pifc« of rock Milt (which i« not moisteaed by liquid oxygen 
arHl Ihfreforc kcvpe it in the spbervidal states," and to his surprise, 
Profpseor Dewar eow the liquid oxygen, as w>on as the magnet 
vna simulated, " suddenly leap up to the poles and remain Ibere 
permanently attracted until it evaporated." 

— Tbe eJucated classes of Italy are delighted with llie firopoaed 
changes at the ancient University of Bologna. The commiMion 
appointed by (beOovcruuent to consider the advisability of making 
reforms in the tdd ioeiitulioQ has recommendc-d ibe adoption of 
the plai>B of SigiKw Buriani, the well-kuuwu engint«r. The ouat 
of the new buildings, which will be an oruameot to die vtty, ft* 
estitnaled at 5,000,000 lire. The t>biloHophical and legal faculttc« 
will be boused in futm-o in the old '■ Archiginnaaio." while llie 
School of Hinea will occupy tbe present univondty building on the 
Via. Zamboni. Tbe library united wftb the royal and ciiy librariea 
will W placed in a new palace. Orent imijrovemenia will t)e taadc 
hIk) ill I he School of .Medicine, which in recent tears ha» suffered 
aoowwluit in repuialion. The University of Bologna bos as grand 
traditions as any univeniity in the world, and uollege men in all 
countries fei-l an interevt iu il» welfare. It is, in many ways, tbe 
mother of universities, and bad ceiiturit-it ago 12,0(10 sladenta. 

— Dr. linger, aaya Tht UtdictU Heconl. has been inv««tlgating 
tbe BObject of suicide among the soldiers io European armies, bis 
statinica including Ibe yt>ant from 1675 to 1867. Tbe largest Dum- 
ber of euicidea occurred in the Austrian army, averaging 133 a 
year In each 10.000 aoldiers. Next to Auniria is Gerniany. which 
average^l 6:1 suicides to every 10.000 sotdierx. In the Italian nriny 
on the average 40 aoldiera in every 10,000 comniilled suicide every 
year. TIk Frvnch army from 1872 to 1889 loaL in Europe 28 
•otdiert (g every 1U,000 annually, and in Algeria it lo«l jusL twvc« 
a« many by snjcide. Io Belgium there uccurred 21, in Rnglnnd 
33, iu Ru^aia 'iO. and in Spain U to every 10,000. The cause of 
suicide iu tbe army apiivars in mwt ca«es to be tbe fear of punish- 
muul. thutigli not a few aro driven to the act ihrougb averaiou to 
military service and deapair of ev«r being able to return to civil 
life, 

— In a paper, read before tbe Sanitary Convention at VickHburg, 
the proceedings of which are |)Uhli<<bed. Dr. R&kernf the Micbitirnn 
State BcArd of Health gnce nJIicint «lati)itic« and crldrnc.- wbtrb 
he aummarized a» follows: "The record of the great saving nf 



human life and health in Uicfaigan in recent years b one to which, 
it seems to me, t)t« State 'and local boards of health in Michigan 
can justly ' |>otnt with pride.' H i-» a record of the saving of oyer 
»ine hundred lives per year from )imaH-pox, four hundred lives per 
year saved from death by tcarlet fever, and nttarly six hundred 
live* per year saved from death by diphtheria — an aggregate of 
eleven hundred Uvea per year, m three Uvea per day saved from 
these three di^ea»e». Thi« is a record which we a'k to have ei- 
aioioed. and whkh we ore willing to have compared with that of 
the man who 'mado two liladea of grass grow where only i 
gn,"v l-efore.' " 

— A recent prew dispatch etutoa that f^nperintendetil Jobt 

of the Dcitf and Dumb Institute at Indianapolis ban )>een making" 

experimenLt with the phODograph. and beli^vev I hut in ivnnection 

with it he can teach the majority uf tbe dr^f-uiuiee under bis 

charge to talk. He Hnd^ that the in.tcument concentrates the 

sound nt Ibe drum of tlw ear in such a way that many of tbe 

pupibtotlMfrwiw deaf are enabled to hear. He intends to carry 

the experiments funbet. and tbinka tbe ptK>QogrQph miiy become 

a means of teaching ibe use of their voicca to some mutes whose 

inabiliLy to apeak is due to Ibe fact that ihey have never heard 

fpeech. He tried tl>e pboiiograph with 37 boys and 30 girls. Of 

tbeee. only 8 glrb were unable to henr Himething. Twenty bnya 

and girls could bear instrumental mugjr, while II boya and IS 

giriK could dHlingutHb spoki-n words. Of the fiO whose bearing 

waa tested, iH eou\d hear better with the left car end 14 with thfH 

right, while II heard alike in both. ^| 

I 

— It is much to be feared thi^ after all tbe st.r which has been 
made about it, the Antarctic expedition which was to have been 
aent oul next year, at the Joint expense of the Australian colooiea 
mid Baion Oscar Dickaon of Uotheiiburi:. may have to be dropped 
owing to the suplnenesa of Ibe Austmliaiiif. In July last it was 
announced thot the Queent<latid Uovcrnmeut wa^ to pUce £i,000 
in the colonial calimaics 04 a (.-outributiuci to the ex|M>diltQn. 8br 
Henry Parkcs uodertook to get £2.000 fwni New South Walee, 
while from Victfiria a sum was expected commenflurate with tbe 
importance of that colony. Sir Thomas Elder abo promised 
£9.000 on certain conditiom, while Baron Oscar Dickson uiKlei^ 
look to give another £3.000. and. indeed, was quite prepared to 
spend double that amount to insure that the expedition should be 
a succe<«. What with caab and prombtm, the sum of £14 000 
seemed secure in July last, and it waa cooSdently expei-ted that 
i'-a.OOO should be raised, so as to be well over tbe £1S,000 which it 
was calculate<i tbe ex|»eilition would coat. Baron Nordenakjold 
was quite preiiantl to take charge of tbe expMition ; and, as staled 
in the Londrm Tinurt, Bunm Dickson had actually selected the 
two ships which he thoucht suitable for the work. Now we learn 
thai tbe Queen5land Parliament has hefused to posa tbe vote of 
£2.000 which was placed upon the estimatea. Tt la not only the 
dtroet losa of this flubecrifilJon which ia to be deplored, but tt 
affeet« the other promises, which were made c»nditiunally. Baron 
Dlrkson's offer of £5,000 lapsm nt the end of this month, and aa 
he baa had no information from .\asiraltn that the remainder of 
the £ia,O0fl is aemred, he bat protuthly made up hift mind that tbe 
whole rcheme hafl fallpn through, ax did the nimitar propoaal^B 
few yennj ago. Indeed, it would seem a<) if Baron Dickson hai^B 
not been treate<1 with the courtesy which might have been ex- 
peete<). He had not been informed of tbe pnv;rem of matters in 
Aualralia. and has received no certain infortuaiion as to the aclmifl 
slate of tbe movement. The fact ir, the movement seemeit to hanH 
Ijeen (adiy mismanaged. No proper steps have been token to en- 
list the sympstbfea and the active support of tbe public in Aus- 
tralia, where there is plenty of money to spare for purposes of 
this kiniL True, one or two newapapeni appear to have support* 
tbe prnjioMil with some er>ercy, hut much more in wanted tl 
that in AuNlralia. where evidently the public Is not too entbusias' 
tic for the promotion of knowledge. The lendemof the movement 
on Ix'bnif of the proposed Antarctic expedition seem to have been 

a few members of learned fioelctlea, not qaite in touch with tbe 
general public. The result is that the wealthy Australian colnniM 
have l>een placed in the ridiculous position of KavinR appealed t^ 
a small naikm like Swedet) for oswlance, and in the eikd hai 



[AWtJARY fTli 



SCIENCE. 



be«n Dsable lo falftl the cooditiutifl on whivb ibat aaitrtattoe was 
aakH). U is to be hoped that it is not y?t tou late lo lead the 
moTemeot to a aiore worthy result. 

— Tbe Tdtgnn Hrrald of Orand Rapidi aaya that the tallwt 
meo of WflMeiD Eoropc are found in Catalonia. Spain; Normandf, 
Prance; Yurk^hirv, EogUtoil; uud tbe ArUc-nnev distrjcti of Bel> 

jum. PniHKia geto her tallest ivcniitB frooi ScLluswtii-HolstcIn, 

he oriitinal tiome of the ini-prebsible Angto-Saxom; Austria rrotn 

Tyrolese highlands. In Italy the progreFB of physical degen- 

luu eiteaded to the apper Appenninra, but the Albaniau 

Turlcs are still «n athletic mce, am) tlw nalive^i of tbe Caocaftus 

are m sinewy and ^uot as in the dajrs of the AreonAnl<i. In tbe 

United States the thirty-^'lghth parallel, ranging through Indiana 

notlbeni Kentucky, is as decidedly the latitude of big men as 

forty-cecond is that of big cities. The lalle*! men of 8oath 

fjimtvicsL are fnund in the we«tern provincn of the Argentine Ho- 

poblic. of Aitin in Afghaniataii and Kay|>ooana, of Africa in ll>e 

blands of Abyminia. 

— A correspondent of the rime* of India, referrbig to recent 
' fwu in this country, e&ya that in India fasts of thirty to foily 
I an common aamtg the Jaltbi, from among whooi, once in 

ye^, Eume indirldual ootnc« forward and undertakes to fik«t 
lirty-flvp, forty, and eren sixty daya, Tliey do this wiih iioih- 
Bg hnl n-nnn water to drink, and will die rather than take food 
'daring the prefirribed periol. Quite re<^nily tiro Jains of Bom- 
boy fasted, one for Hixiy-one. the other for forty-eight days, at the 
end t»f which time, having been congratulated by twenty-five 
tboosand Joitu who went for tbe patpooe, they recommenced 
lakinic food in the manner prewribed in their own books and 
•baftran. Oa Sept. 8S, in cooimemoration of thJa event, nil tbe 
chief bazaan Id Bombay were clo<i«d. ami about ti^e Ihousand 
Jnin«. male and female, footed nil day, while a large turn won 
■pent in securing the reluuM* of cows and othi-r animals from tbe 
slaughter bouse at Baudura. 

— At a meeting of the Chemical Society of Washington, Dec. 
10, Profp*sor Wiley and W. H. Krug presented papers on the 
^* So-trailed Floridile." Profexaor Wtler de«crihed theloofttloo and 

' oocorreoce in Florida of tbe saoipleM wbicb )>ad been tieni him 
by fVofeasor Cox. Some of the opecimeiM. he raid, were anKM*- 
pboos moiqH-M of a1m<*t pure tri-calrium pbosphale, otlMpra were 
mtxturev, but cotitaining chiefly that compound. He thought it 
coght not to lie de6netin« a mineral 6pecie«. lleaald undue impor- 
tance had prolmhly been ascribed to cfttnmerctal fertilicent a» plant 
foods, ss t'xperience bos demonstrated that mineral phoaphatea 
are not readily aluorbed by ptantg even whou iu a finely dlvUed 
tt>l«, but need to be decompoeed by the action of eulpburic acid. 
Tbe moal refru-lory pho«phate«, howerer, with plenty of time ore 
utilised by tbe plants. Floriila phoephaies seemed eepeciolly 
capable of animilaiion in the tutnral state, and experiments in 
the use of the natural prodart were now going on at the f<ugar 
nation of Itunytnede, FInrida. Mr. Krug spoke of tbe methods 
of analysis, gave details of the process as described at n previous 
meeting, and prMcoted the restilta of tin analyses (Dr. T. H. 
CtMlard, "Notes on tbe Analyses of pbo^ihate rockti"). He 
agreed with Profe»aor Wiley ss to the nua-«xbtence of Soridite 
as a detinite specie*. Hi» jniper referred mainly to the determina- 
tion uf fluorine tn phriHiibatfi mckn, »rul the iiietliud i-oiployed is a 
modificatJon of tb»t Bumeliuit «ilicB fusiiin metlioJ. Instead of 
tning ammonium i-xrlHinate to remove silica and alomioa frooi 
the alkaline solution, the saturation of the eolutioo with carbonic 
acid under pmsure has been found lo give very ftati«factor>' reaulla. 
He bad reason to ibtnk that the method might be still further eim- 
pUBod. Discussion ot tbe two paper* was by Professor CUrk« and 
Dr. Schneider. Profesaor Clarke thought the determination of 
a mlnertl species did not di-pond upon crystal I ixation, as many 
amorpbous mlnenihi. such os torqume, terpentine, and talr -were 
good spcdev Whether it if> a distinct chemical compound, is the 
bflK basis of determination. If among the phoapbate* is fouiKl a 
trl-caleium phosphate by itself, he thought it ooght to be a mineral 
spM-ies. no matter wliat its derivation. Dr. Schneider dcM-nhed a 
series of analyses he had made to determine the tnflu'ncie <>f dif- 
fervnl quantities of fluorine on the Ion n( silica when evsporated 



with varying amounts of liquid. In a [«(>«? on *' Heat PMwria- 
tives." 1 T. Davis gave tlie Inllowing list a( pr rac rvative agents: 
sail, potassium oitrate. siilphuroos acid. be&Milr acid, mccbartne, 
■alycilic acid, hydro-naptboV). The atitbar described their action 
and the raeansof their detection. Vf. ¥. Illllebrand and Wm. U. 
Melville pre»<e&tod a paper " Un the Isomorf^tsm and t^omposltioa 
of Thorium and UraooaaSnlphale»." 

— A meeting was held in the Lecture Boom of the Brooklyn 
Institute, &03 Fulton Stteet, im Saturday eteuing. Dec. 94, at right 
o'clock, for tbe purpose of organizing a Brooklyn Numiiimatleal 
.Society as a flection of tbe Brooklyn Institute. The pnrposesof 
the flodety will be the collection of coin<i, medallions, and kii>drtd 
works of art, the conduct of coutaes of lectures on numi«maticw, 
the fonoalkm of a library of refenooe on the aubject, and lo 
enable studenls and bpecialbfs in numismatology to bwome better 
acquainted with one anotlter. Dr. Charle* G. West, pmideDt of 
tbs Arcbfeologkal Society of the InKtitnte, gave a licief ill»strate\t 
lectute on " Ancient Coinitgv " after the orgaaixation of the sec- 
tion. 

~~ Td tlie intending paper on iiuectlforous ptaats, read bcfcia 
tfai- Royal Horticultural Society on .Sept. 9i, 1$S1, atid rtjpurtcd in 
,Va/urc, Itr. R. Lindisoy refers to tbe experiments by which Mr. 
FrauctB Darwin has shown the amonnl of benefit accruing lo In- 
seciivaroas plants frnm nitrogeiXKia food. Mr. Undaay aays his 
own experience in tbe culture of Diontea is that when two sets of 
plant-i are grown side by side under the same ooodltions in every 
rctpect, except that Insect* ore excluded from the one and admitted 
to the other, the latter, or fed plants, are found to be stronger and 
far superior to the former during the following season. Uepotnis 
out tbe importance of reoiemberiog that tbe natural conditions 
under which these plauls aro found are different from That they 
are undur cultivation. Iu their native halntats Ihey grow in very 
poor &oil and make feeble roots, un<I under these conditions may 
require to capture more mseclB by their leaves to make up far iketr 
root deficiency. Under culliire. however, fairiy gcxid roots for tba 
size of plant sro developed. " Darwin," says Mr. Lindsay, "men- ' 
tlons that the roots of Dlontea are very nnall : thoee of a moderately 
line plant which he examined consisted of two branches, about 
one inch in length, springing from a bulbous enlargement, t have 
frequently found Diuntea roota six inchm in length; but they are 
dnciduous, and 1 con only oonjectuiw that th«> roots mentioned by 
Darwin were not fully grown at the lime they were measured. 
Wttat is here staled of the natarol liabils of DkmsM applies more 
or less lo bD insectivoroas plants." 

— At a n^>ent lueellng of tbe New York Academy of Medicine 
a popuUkr addrvBs waa detivi'retd by Profencor Cbarln F. Cbandkr 
on " Arwnlc in Common Life." In this addreta. as reported la 
Mftiiail NettM, be devoted himself to tbe task of exploding the 
widely prevalent Idea, both in lay and profesalanal drcles. cnn- 
ceming the dangen frota anenlc in wall-paper. He said that he 
had himself believe<l in It without ever making any ipectal in- 
vestigaiioa, up lo the time when his duties in connection w lib 
tboBoard of Health required him to make it a special study. He 
tben fouiKl that the idea bad been started by a bounlst, and that 
it was based on the most flimsy reasoning. He next made soon 
experiments in tbe laboratory by pOMing air over sbBets of paper 
—some moist and others dry— ooat«d with Parts green. Not a 
trace of arsenic was found in this arr. Much of hu addres* waa 
devoteil ti> h narration of camv lluit hiul occurred in Beaton during 
a time when tbe people in thai cily were much excited over tbfl 
sappueed dangers from ai«enical wall-paper. The most important 
case wa» that uf an ex-mayor of Boeton, who bad been supposed 
to be suffering for a long time from this fotrm of poi*oninif, but 
the post-mortem examination showed that he hod died from 
cancer of tbe stomach. The wall>paper that bad been rapposad I 
to bo the soarre of the poisoning In his cane bad not been changed 
from tt<i; to 1891. While it is quite poesible that. In the old- 
fashioned wall-paper, the arsenical dyes were loosely attached 
lo Ihc paper, the arsenic mi/^bl become detacbe^l and diffused 
through the air, tlie amount «ould ordinarily be quite tn^if^it)> 
cant; and in tbe wall-papers made in the laai fifteen year* no 
arsenical pigments have tieen used, and Ibe presence cH *x*«rt&fi.''ak 



SCIENCK 



[Vol. XIX. No. 465 



i 



IbMe popefft, tta drl^raimed bv drticftte chtmicnl Imis, i^ diw 
cntltiHy loaMiil«n(nI impiintlr«^ Snmt of tb4> papers tliat w«r« 
thought to [iiT« csuwH jKnitoninK liK<1 bpra on the wallnfor ihJrtT 
or lortj yvtii*. SuppoatsK, for Ibo Mh« u( nrgumfnl, that IhHv 
w«r« sixty aqaan) y«jil« of pftp«r in n rtyitm, mrh ynnl rrnntftiniitfc 
one ^rmiD of srwnir — (be aoiQunt foand in wv«ra) of th(< caM<i>i 
(^ootMl— an.i tliat during a period of tliirty jears aJI the nrwnic 
hod left t)ie <tbU paper uul I»d entered the liumjia system with- 
out any ix'tutc lo«t, thtt* would be at Iho rat« of one graio hi »ix 
mootlw. or only ,le of a gniiu in vach twvnij-four Iwun. Many 
dUl ioguislied Ecientials hatu iadi-peodcully iuvtvtigateJ this sub- 
j(M-4 <if )>nt&onini; fri>m nrik^niral wall-paper, sod tbey all a^m- in 
HTinj that tlicre ii ■' noihinR in it." 

— The Meteorolooitche Zeitxihrift for Noremhm- oontains a aani- 
Diary. hy Dr, J. Ilanii, of (he mrteorological ofaserraUon^ taken nl 
Cairo from IW^J-i^g. The obA^rvAii'tms hft<r«' bwn puhlifthf^l i>i 
txteuta, logethcr tvith a frood introiiuclion upon th« chnialt-. in 
(he Bulletin ot the Ecyptian Inatilul^, ami althoui;li similar otiser- 
valioiiH have occas'tunaily liecn puhltfihed before, the pr««fvt 6Prte« 
ooQtairiH luuch new and useful mat«rial. Thu lutml «trikinf( feature 
in tlw cliioaU) of thi« pint of KitypL, a« w* learn from .Vufurr, ui 
the Cham»ia, thv hot and dust-beariDg wind wbicb makea tlH ap- 
peamntM; in March or April for about lhre« to four days at a time, 
and robs a large portion of the trees of their leates. In the inter- 
vals duiinjc which thia wind if> not blowing tbe wE^tber is pleaaant 
and clear during apriox time, and the nights fntih and calm. 
During the tumiaer (be iHirth wiad« prevail, witli hfiih leiupera- 
turf^ Tery clear air, and great dryne** TownrdB September hu- 
midity appears with tbe rise of tbe Nile, tbe ground is at times 
corered with heavy dew, and tbe beat becomes oppreswve oo ar- 
cuaal of tbe moJiiturc. In October and Noreinber fog 4y»raaionaliy 
occiu« in tbe morning, and raio begins to rail. After thin scaaon 
the tempefaluro is uniform and pleasant. 8auw in unknown, frwt 
tcryacldom occurs, and rain is not very frequent. The absolute 
oiAximuin temperature of tbe 31 years' iteriod was 117" in August, 
1891. which WAS also c]o9ely approavbi-d in Hay. 1890. vix., Il9.i^. 
Tbe BiMcliite miniruuu) was 2:^.4" in February. iPtM, and tbe mean 
aooaal Irmpfiature was tO.S^. Bainfall is only Ki^en for tbe 
years I8j7-S8. in whif-h 87 and 1.07 indie* fell rvapectively. The 
relat-lve humidity unks at times even ihi a daily a^ertute to \i per 
cenl. and baa been known to fmXi as low bis 8 per (vnt at cntain 
hour*. ThondeiHitorms nnd lull aro Ter>' ram. Tb« original 
work conlaias a long iovesii^nlion on the connection hetwcco the 
height of the Nile and tbe weather, a compariwrn betuceo the 
pnraent climate and that at the begtnniox of thi* century, and 
aev«ral carefully prepared diagrams referring to all uveleorological 
e1«iiients. 

— At tl>e monthly m*^lng 4if the Royal Sleteomliigic-al Sorrely, 
Dec. 10, Hr. W. Marriott gav<« thv rv-tults of the InreMtigation un- 
dert«k-n by tbe bociety inio the thunder- stonnn of 1998 aivl 1B69, 
wh ch he illustrated by a number of lantern slides. Tbe inv-estj- 
gation was originally confined to the snutb-east of England, but 
ai this district waa found to be too cnrcamMrihed, it became nee- 
caaary to include the whole of England and Wales. After de- 
■oribing the anaDg«>ment8 fur coUecliog the obpervatioo« ar>d tbe 
nelboda adopted for thHr discussioo. Sir. Marriott tcave natistlcs 
■bowtng the camber of dayii on which thu rider -fltonra oBonnvd 
at eadi station ; tbe numl^r of dayu of tliunder^tcma in Mch 
moath fur thp whole country; the number of days on which it 
waa rf-g^Hted thai damage or aoddenu from hghcning oLvurred ; 
and nl.'^ tbe number of daya on which hail aocnnipaoied the 
thunder-olofm*. In IWS lher« wen IIS days and in 1689 188 
day* on which thunder-storm* nccarxeil in sonte fmrl of ttw coun* 
try. Tli» number of days with daniagw by M<blniog was 88 in 
ItWS and *6 in l^W; and (her* were 5fi days in each year on 
which hall accompinied tbe thunder^ti^rms The table* of 
hourly fmjuenry shoiv that ihtinder-siamis are mott freijuent 
bvtwfen mKin and 4 r n . und l^j»t fiequent between 1 a.m. and 
7 A.M. Tilt) nder-^lortns appear to travel at an nvi-mge rale of 
Abiiiil \^ mile« V"' hour in ill-dvflneil low Imrometric [innsuft? 
Byfct(<ui(, but at a hitfher raip in hiuaIIt condilion*. Thi' unilior 
ta of opiaiou th-it iudirtiiuni thiutdersturms do nvt travel ni'we 



Ihnn atMut SO milea-. and that lh<^y Uke Iho path of least resist- 
ance, and are consequently mo4t frequent on flat and low ground. 
Detailed iaitbaric charts, with iaobsrs for Iwo-hundrvdtba of an 
inch were prepared for V l.vl and 9 P M- each day for tbo month 
of June, \H9i- An examinatioa of theae cbarta ahowed that in- 
stead of tbe pressure being so very ill-deflaed, oa appeared on tbu 
daily weather charts, there are (retjueotly a number of small, but 
dislinct areas of low pressure, or cycloBM. with regular wind cir- 
culation; and that tbeEH; small cyokma pawntl over tbe dtAricls 
from which Ihunder'ttorua w«rt reported. ttomeCimes it is not 
posalble to make out wcD-fornwd areas of low pfeaeure trom two- 
bundrv-dt)» of an inch iHohani, but there is s deflection of the wit 
which shona lliat there in somp disturbing c-anae ; and thnndep*^ 
etornut have usually oct^nrred in that immediate neighborhood. 
Tbe author brieves tliai tbo tJiunder-storm fontiatlon« are small 
stmuapberic whirls, in all respecta like ordinary cycloitet ; and 
that the whirl mar vary from 1 mib to 10 miles or more fa diam- 
eter. There are (ri\)uently serrnil whirl* rwar together, or fol- 
lowin-f one another along the same track, Tbe ouaterom oaeilla-j 
lions in tbo'hArometric curre are evidemly due t-> the paaaage 
a sticceation of atmospheric wbirU; and It appears that lightning- 
strokes are most frequent when tbe«e oacillatiouH are nuuierouo 
Mr. F. J. Brodie read a pa[»er " On the Preralence of Fog in 
London during the Twenty Years 1871 to 1880." The popular 
notion that Noveroltc r is par exrtOenn a month of fog is not con- 
firmed, by the Hgun.>i gireo by tbe author. Tbe number of foga^ 
in that month is. if anything, slightly lees than in October 
January, and decidedly less than in D<3cvmber, the bwi-taentfonetl'' 
inooih being certainly the wor^l of tbe witole year. The laltor 
part of the winter Is not only Iom foggy than tbe earlier part, bat 
IB clearer than the autumn months. In February the anerage 
number of days with f(»g is only B.8, as agdinsi 8.9 in January. 
10.2 in December, 9 2 in October, and 8.8 in Nrtven»b?r. 

— A paper on "Siouan OnomAtopea." by J. Owen Doraey, waa 
read before the Anthropological Society of Washington, D.C.. 
Dec. 1, 1891. According lo '-TIw Century Dictionary." "aii 
ono<uatope it a word fortued to resemble tlie sound otaijc by then 
thing FigiiiHeil." Mr. Dorary ftoda in tlw Siouan laoguagoa mai^i 
ouwuaropcttc roots, bcDce htr suggests the modiScatioo uf tbe 
dcdniLiuu juHt given, making it read. "An onomatope is a wucd 
or rovf formed to rvsenible the sound made by tbe thing aigni- 
fied " In the paper under cooBideratioa. the autiwir gives examples 
of onomalope^ in se* en lanijuages of th<> Siouan or Dakolan family : 
Dhegiha. Ewapa. Katisa Osage, Tciwere. Winnebago, and Dakota, 
all hut the Dakota having been ootlecti-d t>y hiniseir since 1871. 
In thf«e languages, according to the author, tliere an* sundry per- 
mutations of sound, among which are «A and kh, gh and z, dh and 
It. The words in which theM> penuutatioos occur are not always 
synonyms; but wheii we Hud a word in wltich, for example, ah ia 
u«i*»l, we may safely infer that tbe language cimUiini another 
word dilTering from tbe former only in the t>a1«titutioT) uf kh fur 
sA, or that one languagtt or dialect use* s^ where another emfdoyit 
its correlative, kh. Mo»t of tlie ooomatopes found by tbe author 
are dissyllabic, a few being monosy lUitnc and ^>olysyt tabic. Some 
of the onoroatopea were given with tbe nutations of their reapeo- 
tive souoda aa tbey appear to the Indian ear; thus, tbe ootind of 
ihtt plane and drawing-knife ^a•»^^) becomes tbe root s*!!; whence 
the verba, ba-i'u, to iiM> a plaue; and dhi-M'u, to use a dtawiog- 
knife. The sound at a waterfall, of sawing wood, etc , is ilA ^ 
(a prolongicd sound), tbe unomatope being kku' ■« in Dhegiba, 
kku'-ma-ii^ in Konaa, khu'-we in Kanaa and Oaage, JtAo' kh'e in 
Tciwere, and ski> *■ kh in Winnebago (the o in the lavt being pro- 
kuged). Tlie creaking of new slioea or the sound ijf Qdil In. strings 
Uf'-ffi'gi) evidently suggested the root gC-xf ; whence txt giir. to 
play a tiddle; ami lumyCzf, to make (new nboes) creak Ity walking 
(in them). Many otlier exsmple>i were given; but the reader 
is r«'/en'ed to tbe ^fnerican Antiiropob>giat for January. 18M, for 
thu full article. 

— Among th» rrceni appotntineat» of Johirs Hopkins grwiuales 
are AUreil Bagby. Jon. (Ph.D.. 1891'. adjunct profewfOr of an- 
cient langoagiw, Soulh Candina ColK-ge ; Bdward A. Wechtel 
(A.B. 18ftS». prtvfrtflor o( Latin. Ynnktun Ctolle,;*, South IXt- 



[anoary t, 1892. 



SCIENCE. 



koto: IliraiD H. Bloe tA.B., 1S89>. instructor of lBii^a«<^ Blark< 
bum UDivvr«it7. CarlinrlUe, III.: Richanl N. Brackolt (Pli.D.. 
1887), unocukl^ prof^aMr of chrmMtrj-. CLemson Afn'tcuKural Col- 
Uige, 8.C. ; J. DMiglas Brtuv I'l^rsduati^ itudent, lS-f9-Hli, aiwoclatP 
In AnglA-Skxon and Uiddlr Knglub, Bryn M&wrCoUpf^; Norman 
W. C*rs (gndtmtr •Uidrnt, 1880-01), ittntructor in biolofTT. geol- 
ogy, and BMnmouiy, Wll^to College, Chamtx-nburK, Pa.; Frank 
JL ChrwtK- (Mlow. I885-86>, Wton-i .>ii New Testament litira- 
tnre. Hnrvwd Divinilf Scliool; Henry L, Coar <i;ra<)uat(^ studeoi, 
16d4-8ff). ui3th«i)mtt'.-)il nuwlvT. Smith Aodcniy. Wa^liin^lon 
Uiiiv«nity. M<>. ; Ubarln Edwanl Cnmt»«. Jan.(A.B., 1887. Pli O., 
IBSl). pnlisot of cbemistry, 9t, JoIid'b ColleKe, Md. ; John R. 
Commons fsradgate Btudeat. 188tf-90), associate profeBSor of \>o- 
IHtoal veoaoDiy, Oberlia CoUese ; Starr W. CuiUoR (grsdiiatv 
fliadvat. IMD-tl), prore«or of Frencli and tirraian, EarliMm 
CoU('i$«; L. BnwllcT Dorr {A.B.. L890). adjuoot profeoeor of 
cbt'inLslry. Iviajfan Utuvcnlty. BuOalo, N.T.: Heruiaim I. Ebe- 
liog tA.B.. 1883, fellow, 16W. Ph.D.. In0l), profi-ShOr of Oieek. 
Miami L'ntvprtity; William A. Eckles (gradiuHe cludeiit, 1889- 
fill, pmrpssor n( Greek, Ripon Collewe; George S. Ely (fellow, 
1881-88. Ph.D., 1883). pnnri|>al PXAmtntr, V. S. Patent Office; 
Alf»d EmfT^nn {f*Uotr. I!*3l» 84. in«tnjrtor. ISM-SA), aflsociate 
pnCeMor *it olA»iical arcbaeoloi^y. Coroell UnlreTvity: Andrew 
FMaBiD (Pb.D., 1887), clantcal instnirtor, Drialer •chool. New 
Torii City: William R. Fraaer Igradtiite student, I8»^9I). in- 
stmclor in claancs, Uaivemity of Nebrasica; Tbomaa P. UarriwHi 
(fWlow.lBiH>9I.P1iJ},l»ai> MBOcaate profe»or of English. Clemaoo 
Agncultunil CoUvfte. ij C : Arthur S. Utthawny ifellow, 1882-88). 
firofeMor of uuillwdiaiic*, R««v Polytccboic Iiratitutv; Qeortce A. 
BpDi.-b ifelljw, 1888-89. Ph.D.. IS.'Wj, awislaut ^Tof^«lR>^ of Gcr- 
ntaoic pbtlolugy. University of Michigan; Cliartei) C. Henacben, 
(graduate ■todrnt, 11*90-91). itutrucior in Oinird College. Pbiladel- 
phin; BmJamtB C. ninde ignduate Rtudent. 1888-90). proferaor 
of pfaysicft, TrinUy College. M.C.; CUfton F. Hodge ;follow, 1688- 
96, Pb.D , 1880), Imractor of Uology. Univertiity nf Wiscon.oin : 
Waller J. JoDe*(A.a. 1888, Pb.U,, 189t). profesaor of chemistry, 
Wittenberg College. O.; lleary W. Keating <A.B., ISflt), prioci- 
pal, Centreville Academy. Md.: Andrew C Lawaon (fellow, 18S0- 
87, Pfa.D., 1888), aMtotant pmfemor of geologr a»d mineralogy, 
Cniversity of Califurnbi: Fredwrick S. Lee (fellow, I8S4-8S, Ph.D., 
1685X demoofttratiw of pb>aiology, Collvg* of Phmician* and 
Sarg«oatt. N.Y.; Felix Lengf^td (fellow, 18s7-88, Pb.D., 1888), 
instrortor in rhemutry, Cnivenily of California : A. Stanley 
Uarkwizii- f fellow, 1800-91). lecturer in physics. Bryn Mawr Col- 
lide: Anhur \y. McOougall (A.B., 1801). financial oecietary. As- 
sociated Cborities of CiadaiMti; Jufaa S, T. McPtiet^ou (A.B., 
1888. fellow. 1889-90. Ph.D.. 1890), profewor of hislury, Uoiver- 
rfty of Georgia: W. Howard Miller (A.B., 1888), tnslructiir in 
matbeuuiLiofl, Leland Stanford UnirerBity; Tbomaa B. Morgan 
(fellow, 1880-90. Pb.D . 1800, Bnic« fellow, 1890-91), AKWCiat« 
profenor of biology, Bryn Mawr College; Wilfred P. Mm- 
eard (fellow, 1800 01. Ph.D., 1891), profewor of Latin, Colorado 
College; Cbarlea A. PerUtM (fellow. ISSS-M. Ph.D., 1884). pro- 
ttmae of pbyttca, BaiopdMi Stdnej College; E. D. Preaton (fel- 
low, 1878-78). it engaged at Honolulu, probably for a year, 
working under the joint auspices of the Inteinatktnal Geodetic 
AMOciatiOQ of Europe and tbe U. S. Coast ami Geiilftii: Survey; 
Herbert E. Russell (graduate atndant, 1886-87), assocU(« professor 
of mathenuUics and natutal sciences, UniTersUy of Denver; A. 
Duncjio SasBgw (fallow, 1870-79), ioitruclor in the history of art, 
VVmiDgtoa, OtniD.; Edward M. SchaefTer (graduate utodenl, 
1888-89), prafesBor at pbysiral culture, Waahingtoa and Lee 
UnlrenUy: Henry Sewall (feltow. 1878-70, anodnte. 1879^9, 
Ph.D , 1879), piufeMorof physiology, Uoivetslly of Denror; Sid- 
ney Rherwrvyi (Ph.D.. 1891), Instructor in finance. Uniremily of 
IVnn^ylranfn ; Ernest O. Sihier (.fellow. 187«-79, Ph D,. 1878), 
|>n>fe4Bor "f ancient languages, Coocordi« College, Miltvnukce; 
npf»rr ri- Thompaon (fellow, I886--87i. asMstant pror*^-t.Mr uf 
iiv Prinfieton r.>llefi:e; William L. Wilier (jf^raihiate 

ai'i . ' -QK, f.nift^itiir of Rnglixh, .S>iu1 hnr H»lem Univijrsily, 

Tex««: Ht-iisiniin W. W»>U« (frilow. 18-^1). pnifv".>r of niudem 
Innjfuagns, University of Ihp Souih; Jolin While. Jon |A.B, 
19if. fellow, ItJOO-OI, I'h.D , 1<9I}, ii>sntant in cbemislry. Cor. 



nell Univereity : Henry V. WiIhou (A.B.. 18S8. fdlow, 1897-88, 
Ph.D.. 1888, Bnire felluw, 1898-89), profeceor of btolosy. Unlfwr- 
Blty of North Carohoa : Edmund B. Wilson tfeUow, 18i9-80, 
Ph.D. 1881. BwiRtant. 18H1~t<-J), adjunct profe«K>r of bMogy, 
Columbia College : John K. Wightman (f^tow, 1888-8', Ph.D., 
18>t8). aASflclate professor of romance languages. lIaJv«nltj of 
Nehrraska; Arthur C. Wlgfatman (fellow. 1887-88. Ph.D., 1880, 
demonstrator, 1888-00). assiatanl profemor of Uology. Raodolpb 
M)»n>n College. 

— Profewor RtaM, lb# eoitnent Belgian chemist, haa died at tbe 

age of seventy eight. 

— Ac^'ordingtoinformatii'n sent to Berlin, sayH tbe Timu*, Emio 
Pasiia and Dr. fekublmann, tnvelliog 10 the rrgion between L«ke8 
Victoria, Tanganyika, and Albert Edward, have discovered what 
they take to Ije ibe ullUnate worce of tbe Nile. This h a ri««r 
•.•allpd Kifu, ivbich U mpposed to have its sources in the UUia 
country, lyitig totheea«l of the northern part of Lake Tanganyika. 
about 4° of voutb latitude. It flows into ilie »iiolborn end of Idke 
Albert Erlwnrd. It ts not stated tliAt Eiuin and Dr. StublmaoD 
hare artuallr followed the coorse of the rirer. Tbcy ba»e DO 
doubt encountered it on ihnr jotimey from Ylctona Nyann 
towards the other lake and followed it rtnwn to its month. If the 
coutw which they lay down for It ii correct, it will compel us to 
alter the hydrography on our msps of this region. There Is Do 
mention of the Lake Kifu, between Tanxunyika and Albert Ed< 
ward, to be found in existinf; maps; and it n well known that the 
African nstivM rarely distinguish between a river and a lake. — 
Xyauia, in tbe Ianguag« of Oiotral Africa, standing for both. 
Tbe ftill larger lake, Akanyaru. or Alexsodra Nyuuft. n Mr. 
Stanley named it. may rery probably aUo hate to be rvmoved. 
N'o white tnvelkT, so far a* Is known, haa ever seen it: Mr Stan- 
ley placed it dcwn on bb map from natlrc report. It may nfaaply 
be an expansion of (he Klfu. and not the MKtrnt of the Kagem, 
which fiowit into the west aide of Victoria Kyama. The Kagera 
will thus loae much of lis impnrtAi>ce as a remote feeder of tbe 
Nile, and the Kifu may pos>ih]y bKOine its moat sootberly source. 
But it should be remembered that when Mr. Stanley was march- 
ing northwards to the Vidoria Nvanaa in bis great journey across 
Africa, lie came upon a river in about i" aoutb latitude which iw 
bvlitived Bowed into the «outh shore of tbe lake uitder the name 
of Shimceyu. Mt. Stanley struck this river at only one or two 
poiniH. and these may n>ally have belooged to different rivers. At 
all erenta, on tbe m>jttt n>CfUt naps the Shimeeyo ia abarply 4e* 
tlecied to the east from its mouth in the lake, and there is uo rinr 
rtoing in fi'' south lAtttude, which flows into ibe Victoria Nyanit. 
Probably we bare not heard the last word about tbe ultimu« 
sources of this strange rirer. about the posiiioa of which Ptolemy, 
after all, was not oo fat wrong. Wft hare first tbe Kifa riding in 
about 4** south leUtude, running iDtn Lake Albert Edward, inaing 
thence as the Semliki. and feeding l^ho Albert. There It mingles 
with tbe Victoria Nile from Ijdke Victoria, and together tber 
issue from Lakv Albert as tli« White Nile, which, before it reaehet 
Khartoum, is augmented by a multitude of Irlbutariee from ttie 
west. Whether tbe Shlmeeyu or tbe Kifu be iU ooost r»mote 
southern feeder, tbe river flows thmugb Sft degrees of latitude. 
Tbe full details of this jourikey of Emin will tw await««l with tn- 
tere^ eepecially if be continues to HII in tbe blanks on our maps 
and to complete our koowlege of one of Ibe most rewarkaUe 
rfvete of the world. 

— Profe«or Thomaa F. Uoni of (be Pcnnsj h-anla Sute College 
has accepted the inritation to occupy Ibe chair ot agriculiure in 
tbe Ohio State Unttreraity nfter Jan. 1,1803. 

— Dr. E. von Esniarch. »oo of Prof<faor v. Esntarch of Kiel, 
has been appoinleil pTore<*»or of hycipne in Ihf Pniveriil,i>* of Kfl- 
olgsberg. iu the room of Pnifewor 0. FrSnkel. whu hnw ,(iinr to 
Mnrburg. 

— Mr. RoVrl P. Rigplow (3 B,, TTarvard Univcrsli; 

heen appointeit to Ihv Ailnni T. Bruce fell'jw...bip in ■>• 

plate of Dr Tlioma!- tl. Morspin. who In* r<'signr<l tbi- li-UuH>ilitp 
to accept the pwilton of nswicisle [irofe-'AOT of bitilo^y at Bryn 
Mawo College. 



1 
I 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 465 



SCIENCE: 



wsEKir irswspAPSs op all the asts and saeifCEs. 

PUBUSHED BY 
N. D. C. HODGES. 

874 Broadwat, New York. 



Wtnwcfuraoxa.—r titled Hibim KndCwuMla.. ...i. tSM « r*'*''- 

ticcM Bm«lD Md Rurov« l^ajTMr. 

CamiDBoloathwa irlll ba wtilooiiinl from anj qa>rt«r. Abat(«cU of sclMktiie 
P«p«ra MT* miUcUmI. ui4 oa» lMiD<1n*d capka it Ui* Im«» iviaUUnltiK uiok Will 
li« oi&llml tb* ■utbor no pM)uMt In •dtMif«. B«]MtMl msnaMripU wlU b« 
rfturaed la tb« miUioh onlr wben Lh« raqulitu uoiouat o( piMl«c« mcoid- 
BUtL»l&ftnuiii*anp1. WIUIvT«r la lDt«D4c4 loc ISMnloB nnat l>« aaibaoll- 
OMPd l>r Ibe nara* and wldnw of Iht wTU«r; not iMOMWarilT for i>tibUc«l)i>ii, 
tint MftXUArastr ot food Caltb. W« do aot Itold onrwilvea reapunaUil* for 
' an;: rlnv or aplnlooa riprsMed lu tha oommuoleaUODa of oar n inr attondcata. 
Atteuttoa la c«II«>il U> Ihc "Waau" columa. All are iDTltcd lo UM tt In 
aolii^ltlnii liironnalioA at ae^klnf ii«w poaJfJoos. Tilt oatoe and addnaa of 
ai}ptl(>aDli iboutd b« Kl*m la tolL M that anxaen wtll go dire-^ tfllboin. Tb« 
■■ Sx<!lnuic* " ralunu) U Uk«vla« opes. 



TUE KLAM.\TH NATION. 

I,— THE C0V5TBY AKK THE PEOPtX. 

" The Klamath Indians of £outh-W<steni Oregon " it tlio 
secoud litle of Ibe reccotiy published wort, by Albert Samuel 
Galschet, n)t!ch fortmi. accordiox lo ita leading Lille, Vol. It. 
of "Coiitribulious to North American Ethnology," oue of the 
several teriea of works issued by the " iJnited Stales GJeo- 
gra|iliical and G«otogicaI Survey of the Kocky Mountain 
K^gion, J. W, Powell in Charg<*." The t^rtn " volume,"" bow- 
fver, is in this case to be uoderst(x>d in a special sense. The 
work really appears iti two suhsUntlal toineii in quarto, com* 
prising over seren hundred pages each, and dislinguished as 
Parts I. anil 11, Theto«) brief " table of content!' '' iiiforms us 
tJiat Part I. contains the writer's " letter of Iransmttial," and 
aa " elbnoKrsphic sketch." with "texts," and "grammar;" 
while Part II. is entirelr occupied by the "I>iclionary — 
Kiamath-English, and EngUsh-Klamatb," This curt state- 
TTient gires but a alight ide& of the importance of the work 
as a contribution of Ibe Qrst order to ethnological scicoce. 

The Klamath River riaca In the southern interior of Gre- 
at a distance of about three huodrod miles from the 
tftc. First traversing an exlOQAive morass, known as 
Klaiualli Marsh, it passes Uirough Upper Klamath Lake, a 
cbarmiogly picturesque sheet, some twenty-five miles loug 
by five or six miles in brendtb; then receiving a tributary 
from the Lower Klaniatli Ijalce, it crosses the State boundary 
into California, and, after a winding course of two or three 
btindred miles, fallit into tbe ocean near the north-eastrru 
angle of that Stale. Several tribes uf different lineage aod 
languages dwell, or formerly dwelt, alone this stream, and 
have home indiscriniinalely from tbe river'i* name (the orifpn 
and meaning of which are uncertain) the appellation of 
KEaniMth Indiana But this deVigaation is n>ore usually 
restricted lo the people who possess the upper waters of the 
river and the great Klamath Lake, aod who, as is tbe case 
with many other Indian tribes, hare no special distinguishing 
Dam« for themselves except that of "man," — in their Ian* 
guagv, Xaklaks. Another name which has been given to 
them is Lvtuami. meaning Lake Indians, which is in no 
vay distinctive. The author has tbcre/ore judiciously de- 



cided lo retain the usuul app«IUltoo, "the KJamatb Indians.' 
addinir the description "of South-western Oregon," to dii 
tinguish them from the Californian Ktamaths. As thes«,] 
however, have their proper tribal names of Shasli, Kurok^j 
Hu|Mi, and Yurok or Alikwa, it is likely that the desigoatiqi 
of Klamath will in Lime be wholly rvfllricted to the Oregon" 
nation bearing^ this name. 

The title of "nation " is one which, us the author suggesli 
in his " letter of transmittal " to Major Powell, may properly^ 
be conferred npon this remarkable people. Their claim lo 
IbtB litle does not reside in their numbers, which at pre^nt 
hardly re^ch nine hundred souIa, nor in their territoiy, 
IhoDgh this, even in Ibcir ditninishcd reserviitlon. eovi-rs 
Bfteen hundred Square mtlea. Hut Ibey have the distinction, 
like the Basques of £OUtb-western Europe, of comimsiog 
separate "stock," po«se«sing a language, a mythology, airrf 
a social system peculiar tn Ihcnisetvee. Such a stock, in- 
habiting a compact territory, and havinK (as the Kluuiftths 
had till lately) their own government, may justly claim lo 
h« cousidered a nationality. Tbe claim, however, is in 
America not so notable as it would be deemed in Europe, 
where distinct lineuii>tic stocks are bo few. Mr. Salschet 
give^ a list of tweiily-two of these stocks, radically ili^tmcl 
in grammar and vocabulary, which have been found in 
Oreg&n and California atone. If to these we add tbe slocks 
of Washington State and of Britt)«h Columbia, the numberj 
of such aboriginal nations found along the Pacific coast 
North America will not be leta than twenty-eight, nearljl 
equallins the total number of stocks in Asia and Europe com-' 
bined. There is r«fl«oo u> believe that n carefal atudy of the 
immensely varied ]aii(;uaKes. physical and moral traits, my- 
thologies, and social systems of these twenty-eight primitive 
uatioualities would k n.-atly modify and iu some resptrcts 
transform tbe sciences of eDinology aod linguistics. Th*>re 
have been many partial and fragmentary attempts at such a 
study, some of Iheui poHSPS«ing much value. But Ihui of 
Mr. QatBcheL is undoubtedly the fullest and moat minutely 
accurate that has thus far been made of any single stock 

The Klamath country is a region of mountains, lakes, 
and upland plains, stretching eostwardly into tbe interior 
from the lofty "Cascade Range,"' and elevated from four 
to seven thousand feet above the level of the sea. The 
author was naturally reminded of bis native Switzerland by 
tbe grandeur of the scenery in the western portion of the 
reservation, "where Ibe towering ridge of tbe Cascade Mouu- 
taius and the shining mirrors of the lakes at their feet con- 
front the visitor, siirprtued to see in both a reproduction of 
Alpine landscapes in iheexireme west of America." It might 
be added that in the (teople themaelve« w* recognize the welt- 
known (raits of nwuntaineers, as we trace them from the 
f^cottish Highlands to Mnotenegro. nnd from the Caucasus 
lo the Pamir, — the Intense local attachment, the spirit of 
ind«|iendeuce. the desperate hravrry in the defence of their 
homes, tlie frugality, and the strong conservatism 

Tbe Klantath people are divided into two septs, the Kla- 
math LAke tribe, wlio call themselves Eukshikni ("of lh« 
lake ") and the Modocs. who twenty years ago acquired a 
dismal notoriety by tbe "tragedy of the Lava Beds." — an 
event, or series of events, which aroused horror at the lime, 
but in which, accordinir to the judgmnutof thebest-infomied' 
historians, iochuliog Mr. Gatscbet, they were more sinned 
against than sinuiog. An eminently fair-minded historical 
writer. Mr. J. P. Dunn (author of "Tbe Masaacres of the 
Mountains "), in his account of the Modoc outbreak, eive» a 
pithy and graphic description of this aept, in terms which. 



January i, 189^] 



SCIENCE. 



with iDiDt mod tiles tioD, will apply <o Ibe wbole nation. 
*'Tbe3' were a peculiar people; good-natured as a rule, but 
higli-lempered ; iodtutriotw, and yet m haughty as the 
lariiia< Indi&nii on the rnnllnent. They had more of that 
Bomimndablu pride vrXnch umke^ tueo desire to be indepen- 
deot a4id nelf-ntftpecting than any of Iheir neig'bbors. They 
were inclined to be exclaaive lu Lhetr »ocia1 rclatious. but 
•WD amonK ihemselres there was little merrymaking. They 
look a more Berious view of liTe and its duties. !?lubbum- 
ness and siroag will were tribal characteristics. Tn features 
they were rugged and ntmng. the cheek-bones large and 
promiaent, Ibe liair thick and coarse, the face he^vy and not 
much wrinkled in old age." Of their congeners, the *' Up- 
per Klamatbs,'' the same writer says. "They were- a finely 
formed, energetic, and ct(^anty race.~ Hr. Galscliel conlirms 
in geneml tbe»e descriptions, hut adds: "The Mongolian 
fealum of prognathism and of hiifh check-boneii are not 
very marked m this upland race, though more among the 
Modoo) than in thf; northern branch. If it were not for a 
Bomewlmt darker complezion and a strange exprcsBiou of 
die eye, it would be almost impostible to dialinguixh mau^* 
of the Euksbikoi men from Amcricsnit." Their complexion 
» so nearly white that " blusbiug is easily [>erc«pLible. 
thou{rh the change In color ia not great." The hair Ih straight 
and dark; and he remark*. "I did not Bnd it very coanse, 
though with many Modoc women it is said (o he ao, and to 
grow to an extreme length." 

It ia worthy of note that the complexion and other physi- 
cal charucIeriflticR of the Indian^i of weRtern America vary in 
marked connection with the "environment," that is, with 
the climate, fooJ. and mode of life. The natives of north- 
era Dritisb Columlna. the Thlingitit (or TbliokeeLs) and 
HaMaa. are as light of hue as Europeans. They often have 
ruddy cheeks, brown or blue eyes, and red or brown and 
wavy or curly hair. As we pa.u <)ouihward along the coast, 
successively to the Nootkaus, the Chitiooks, and the other 
triheA of ftoathern British OInmhia. Washington. Oregon, 
and'northern California, we find the hue of the nkin deepen- 
ing, the eyeballs darkening, and the hair Iiecoming coarser, 
until at tengUi, under the tropical heats of central and south- 
ero California we come to tribes with almost negroid traits. 
These trailaare described by the best authority. Mr. H H. 
Bancroft, as "a complezicu much darker than that of the 
tribes further north, often very nearly black;" "matted 
bushy hair;" "a low, retreating forehead, black, deep-set 
eyes, thick, bushy eyebrows, salient check-bones, a nose de- 
pressed at the root and somewhat wide spreading at the nos 
trils, a large mouth, with thick, prominent lips, teeth large 
and white, but not always r^ular, and rather large rmn." 
But when we recede from the low. hot, and moist coast to 
the cool and dry interior uplands, the people, as in the caae 
of the KlamaLhs. return to the European type. Mr. Ost- 
Bcbet describes particularly the small mouth of the Euk- 
shikni, tiie good teeth, and the genuine Qrecian profile, "the 
nasal ridge not B(|uiline but strong, and forming an almost 
continuous line with the forehead." 

The truth is that, as one of the acutest of German anthro- 
poIogiatR, Oscar Peaohel, in his able and comprehensive 
treatise on the " Races of Man," has affirmed, alt Attempts to 
distinguish the various so-called racee by merely physical 
obaraderistics, whether of color, hair, or the oesenus frame- 
work, have proved utterly futile. As regards the shape of the 
head, on which so much Htrem haa l>een laid, the view main- 
tained by the late H. O. Morton, that the natives of this Mtnti- 
nent had a peculiar form nf cranium, different From that of 



any other people, has been shown. Brst by Sir Daniel Witsoaiu 
his "Prehistoric Man," and later by Dr. Virchow, in his recent 
work, " Crania Ethnica Americana," to be wholly iocorrect. 
Dr. Virchow declares (in his summary re-ad before the r'on- 
gress of AmericauisU, at Berlin, in 1BS8) that he Bnds doli- 
rhocephdtic, mesocephalic, and brachy cephalic tribes scattered 
throughout the coDtinont: and he pronounces in iKisitive 
terms his conviction that " the cephalic index, calculated on 
measures of the length and breadth of the cranial vault. 
should not be admitted as a determining proof of the single 
or diverse origin nf popuklions." 

We may conSdenUy anticipate that the series of pfaysical 
measuremenla of all the American lribe«, which, by a haiipy 
thoueht. Professor Putnam has instituted for the Columbus 
World's Fair, and on which many observers are now engaged, 
under the experienced supervision nf Dr. Fracs Boas, will 
result in coufirmiatr the views of Peschel, Wtlsoti, and Vir- 
chow, and establishing the truth that physical characteri^tirs 
alford 00 proper tests of rscial atHnity or diversity. We are 
thus brought back to the older, and. as time has proved, the 
io6otlely stronger evidences of what may be styled the in- 
tellectual cfaaracterblics. language and mythology. Thai 
theiie tests sometines fail, thmujfb mixture of stocky and 
adoption of foreign belief^i. is unquestionable-, and we are 
then left in etbuulogy. as we are often left in other sciences 
— astronomy, geology, and phj-sioloiry, for example — to 
rely on probabilities. But so far as ceruinty Is attainable. 
as it often ii. it can only be attained tbroufih the cridence 
of these Rpeciat tests. 

Thv language and mythology of the Klamath nation are 
of a highly interesting character; but our study of these 
subjects, with the ample niaterwls and pbtlusophic sugges- 
tions furnished hy Mr. Galsehet, most be left for uthur arti- 
cles. HoKATio Haul 

Cllai a, Oatarto, i 



I 



ANOTHER Kl\^R-PIRATE. 

In iSeience, vol. xiii., 1)^89. p. 108, under the title of 
Kiver-Pirnle." Professor W. M. Davis described a recent caae 
of river capture in soutb-easlem Pennsylvania, brought 
about by Ibe backward gnawing of one stream into the 
dminage area of another. In looking over with him the 
Doylestown sheet of the Pennsylvania Topographic Surwy 
there were found numerous cases of similar capture, either 
already acoomplished or about to take place, and at his sug- 
gestion the writer rtvently made a visit to the district in 
quesLitm. in the hope of being able to add Mimethiog more to 
the history of the rivers of Pennnylvania. 

The r^iou of these migrations, Buck County, is situated 
in the north - eastern part of Pennsylvania (see Fig. 1), and 
extends for thirty-three miles (in a straight line) along the 
Delaware River. It is a gently rolliuf, well-cultivated 
country, c«m[iOHed of Meaotnic new red sandstones and shales. 
dipping from 5^ to IS* lu the norlh-wost, the hard and soft 
layers of reddish Band and mud alternating. The evidence 
goes to show that the surface of the country has been re- 
duced by erosion at least 1,000 feet sioce the lime wtien lite 
bedn were laid down, for the upper deposits must have once 
overspread the ([neisa ridge at the northern county line. 
They still rise nearly to its top, and there is no evidence of 
a fault, the absence of any trace of it being capable of ex- 
planation only on the supposition that extensive erosion has 
taken place.* 

• M OmL Bun«r ol ^eaa. USB. 



I 



I 



« 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No 465 



Tht evidence from New Jeney »nd^onns>'lv»nift gotm to 
sliow that Bft«r the tiltiDg of the sandstones there catne an 
cxt«asiTe period of denudation, irhicb resulted in the pro- 
duclioQ of a more or leu perfect plain, the so-called Creta- 
ceous haselerel, which can be iie«n in the level tops of the 
New Jerwy Highlands and of the ridges of PounsylTuuia. 
Following Ihig came an elevation, giving the streatns re- 
newed energy, and resulting in the etching oul of the sofier 
forks down lo another peneplain, the Tertiary l>a«e-level. 
Finnlly another elevation gave the streams another jKriod of 
avliviiy, and it is iu this cycle that ne Bnd Ihem to-day. 
The larger streftniii, lik« the Delaware, have already sunk 



r^- 



MY. 



ft 






Phi. 1. 



tbeir channels well inln tlie Tertiary peneplain. It is with 
•QBie of the smaller ones that w« have now Lq deal. 

Unlew aomelhing had occurred to interfere with their 
work in the previous cycle, which ended in the production 
<tf the Tertiary peneplain, the Btreama of this district should 
now be well adjusted to the stnicturt*. On examining the 
map, however, wc 6nd that many of them show a tendency 
to deflect dowDstream as they run towards the Delaware. 
finch an arrangement is characteristic of the trihutaries of 
flood-plained master streams, as is well shown in the ca»e 
of the MiMikSipiii and tht* Po, and may perhaps be explained 
in thifi case by the flood plaining of the Delaware during the 
Tertiary period of base- level ling. Had such a Hood-plaining 
occurred before, i.e.. during the Cretaceous base-levelling 
«poch, Ibe side slre«ms would have xlresdy bec4>me adjiiitte*) 
to the slructnre, for since Cretaceous time the whole surface 
of the country haa been worn down some hundre<la of fee*. 
Flood- plaiaiog such *a that believed to have taken place 
here, aeema to be obaraoterislio of large riven during the last 
•tages of bate-levelling, when, with a very gentle slope, they 
build their deltas up-stream from their nioutb.**. covering the 
country on both sides with alluvium.' 

The flood- plaining of the Delaware would give the side- 
alreams a aupeHmpcwed course on the Tertiary peneplain, and 
an they cut down thmugh the corer they would find them- 
selves flowingacroas tbe outcropping edgesof the underlying 
atrata of sandstone and shale. An arrangement of strata 
•uch as that here preeented gives an admirable Held for the 
adjnBtmenl of streams. Tt can he readily seen that If a side 
Btreaiii works back along the strike of one of tbflae beda, it 
has, especially if the bed is soft, a much easier conrsA than a 
atrearo which has to crofo the edges of many hard and soft 
strata on its way to join the master Perhaps this may be 
more easily understood from ihe accoinpanying figure (Kig. 
2). reduced from Ihe contoured map of the Peniisylraoia 
Oeological Surrey, representing the district under considera- 
tion. 

' W. V. IHtI* : '• na Qeoloffhwl IM«a ot Otigla ot C«rtalii Tni>ocrSpblc 
Fufma Ml UiB AtlAnilc Slopn at Ui« CuUci) SMbia" <D<i1lMUi Otiet. S-w ot 
AoMrlra, Vot. i, p. Wi;.; •• Th* Rivar* atnl Vnilrjrs of ['pan." (Sal. <;••>«. Mn.. 
*\'al. l,?la.l»: ''Tlia OBofnphiaDeT«laiim<Ki(«F tfurtlivfuNew Jancjr'iriMi;. 
Bev'.oi) «<K !f at Mat , XXIV.. lAm. 



In this ease Tohickon Creek, only the lower part of which 
is shown, has its course directly across the strike of the beds 
down to the Delaware, while Tinicum Cr«ek goes along the 
strike for some distance and thus has au e^isier course. The 
result has been that a branch of theTintcum has gnawed its 
way bock along the strike until it is now within less than half a 
mile of the Tohickon. The Tohickon has a deacenl of some> 
what over twenty feel in the flrst mile from this point, while 
the branch of the Tinicum falls over eighty feet in Ihe same 
disUtuce. The distance from the present divide lo the Dela- 
ware is about eight milen along the Tobickon, and about Ave 
miles along the Tinicum. It is seen, then, what an advan- 
tage the little branch of the Tinicum has over its larger rival. 
The region where the cnnle&t is going on is just soulh of the 
letter A in the flgure, and as the more favored sireau works 
its way further and further hock, the divide will he pushed 
over the intervening space, and before long the Tohickon 
will he captured and led out by a shorter and better course 
thmugh the Tinicum, leaving its lower part, beheaded, to 
continue its way down the Tohickon valley. The region of 
the divide ia pretty level, being all enclosed by the 300 feet 
contour, with a slight slope toward Ihe Tohickon, and a 
greater ouc toward the Tinicum. and if we gat this idea of 
migration clearly in mind, it seems almost as if we could see 
the divide moving toward the Tohickon. There are few trees 
to protect the surface ther«. and the crops of potatoes and 
com which cover the flelds give a good opportunity for the 
rain to carry away the soil. 

What is about to lake place in the case of the Tohickon. 
seems to have already happened further to the east. Here 
again the Tinicum is the pirate. A^lance at the flgure will 
make plaio the stale of the case. If the Tiuicum is followed 



'^3 



'-«. 



fm. ». 



down its oourse to the Delaware it will he seen to make a 
sharp turn to the uortb-east just at the point where its pirate 
Iribuuiry comes in from theaoulh-west. Knowing, as we do, 
that ihe easier course lies along the strike of the beds and not 
across it, wc DaluraMy turn to this point to see what has 
taken place, If on coming down the Tinicum lo Una point 
w« conlitiuu lo Ihe south, we go for some distance up a small 
sln-am flowing north, which comeh down to the Tinicum 
through a deep and rather narrow valley. Continuing our 
walk along this creek, we soon eome to alii tie sheltered nook. 
whcr« a picturesque farm-house stands, pusi which the creek 
flows, coming in from the M»itb'We«l. Wi^ now leave the 
latter, aud i-onliuue up a hollow to the soulh-essi, and aci'ovft 



January i, iS92.] 



SCIENCE. 



some field*, gentlj sloping towards a deprcuion in the mid- 
dle, until we reach another little creek, flowing south into 
the TohicfcoD. The explanation of this seems to be as fol- 
lows: Beaver Creek {mginally flowed out to the sonth-east, 
across the present divide, into theTohickon, having a similar 
course to that of the Tobickon in that it crossed the strike of 
the beds. Tinicum Creek, gnawing along its easier path, 
reached and captured Beaver Creek, at the point where the 
sharp torn is seen. The divide which originally stood close 
. to the Tinicum has now been pushed south until it occupies 
a position close to the letter B in the figure. 

The beheaded portion of Beaver Creek still occupies the 
old valley, while an inverted stream now flows north in a 
directly opposite direction to that of the original Beaver 
Creek. The old valley across the divide to the Tobickon is 
seen as the gentle depression in the fields. 

This explanation shows us why there is the sudden turn 
in the Tinicum just at this point. It has worked back on its 
easy course until it has captured Beaver Creek, and, as 
shown above, is continuing its work by pushing back towards 
(he Tobickon, which it will very soon capture in the same 
way. * R. DeC. Wabd. 

HKTvd Coll«g«, Oct., 1801. 



ASTRONOMICAL NOTES. 



H. Pauoxri. director of the Vesuvian Observatory, is re- 
sponsible for the statement that all the -great eruptions of 
YesnviuB take place at new or full moon, and especially 
eclipses. The eclipie of June 17, 1890, was acoompanied by 
violent earth currents. ' On the other haad« Captain de Hon- 
tessus, who has patiently accumulated observations and data 
concerning earthquakes, has now a catalogue of more than 
60,000 of thnse phenomena, individually disciisaed. He ea- 
teUishes-ihat^aiibquakesare distribnted luifannly through- 
out the day and night, that they have no relation to moon 
culminations and astronomical Meaaons,'and that such coin- 
cidences which have' been Claimed in the past rest on insuffi- 
cient ground. 

M. Janssen, the eminent Frcpch astronomer, has been 
attempting to find solid rock on the tt^of Mount Blanc, upon 
which to build an observatory. His scheme has been to bore 
galleries tbroujdi the ioe. bat so hr he has been unsuccessful, 
and he is considering the feasibility of founding an observa- 
tory on the ioe. 

In the December number of Knowledge will be found re- 
productions of photographs, taken by Dr. Max Wolf of 
Heidelberg, of the region of the Milky Way in the con- 
stellation CygnnSt and also in the constellation 9agitarius. 
Mr. Ranyard, the editor of Knowledge, in an article enti- 
tled " Dark Structures in the Milky Way," calls attention to 
several intnresting facts connected with Uie region of the 
heavens shown in the phfitographs. One of the r^ons cov- 
ered is that surrounding Alpha Cygnus, and directly above 
that star is seen a dark, branching, tree-like structure. It 
evidently corresponds to a branching stream of matter which 
cuts out the light of the nebulous background on which it 
seems projected, and it is evidently intimately associated 
with the lines of stars which border the stream and its 
branches on either side. A somewhat similar dark branching 
stream may also be traced on a photograph of the region 
surrounding Epsilon Cygni, a copy of which appears in 
the October number of the journal ahnve quoted. Altogether 
the article, with it.-) attendant pdotugraphg, is vpy interest- 
ing, and brioE^ to lig'ht some ne.v facts connected with that 



region of the heavens in which the stars seem almost count- 
less. 

The small j^net discovered by Dr. J. Falisa of Viennt, 
on Aug. 30 (now numbered SIS), has been named Chaldea. 

In a very, interesting paper in No. 8,0M of the Aatro- 
nomtaehe Naehriehten, Professor Anwers gives the sun's 
parallax as 8.680", with a probable error of ± 0.028" This 
value is the result of the determination from the Oennan 
Transit of Venus expeditious in 1874 and 1883, during which 
years 7S4 measurements were made. Professor Harknest, in 
bis discussion of the results of the American Transit of Veoos 
Commission, from the photographs alone, obtained the value 
8.842" for the sun's parallax, with a probable enw of 
± 0.011". From a discussion of all the data obtainable, he 
obteined 8.8090S" ± 0;e0567". This latter value corresponds 
to a mean distance of 93,796,950 miles from the earth to the 
sun, while ProfessorAuwers's value corresponds to a distaaoe 
of 91,814,000 miles. 

The following is a continuation of the ephemeris of Win- 
necke's comet The epoch is for Berlin midnight 

1893 B.A. Dee. 

h. m. 8. e ' 

Jan. 12 18 28 13 + 13 88 

IS 89 8 IS 43 

14 30 4 IS 47 

15 30 96 IS 58 

16 31 53 IS 57 

17 33 46 14 8 

18 33 39 14 9 

19 S4 31 14 IS 

20 35 83 14 88 
8t U 86 18 +14 S8 

The following is a continuation of the ephemeris of Woirs 

comet -Tbe epoch is for Berlin midnight 

1898 R.A. Dee. 

h. m. 8. 

Jan. 11 4 16 43 — IS 8 

IS 17 5 18 S4 

IS 17 89 18 45 

14 17 55 U S7 

15 18 38 18 88 

16 18 51 12 19 

17 19 81 18 10 

18 19 58 18 1 

19 80 34 11 58 

80 30 68 11 43 

81 4 81 S3 - 11 S8 

G. A. H. 



THE GRADUATE STUDENTS' AS-SOCIATION OF JOHNS 
HOPKINS. 

The JoJina Hopkins UmvertUy Circular for November gives tbe 
names of graduate stuleats in that university from nearly every 
State in the Union. Nearly all the Canadian provinces and sev- 
eral Toreign countries are represented. These tbree hundred stu- 
dents are hero, primarily for bard work, each in hia specialt;, in 
one of fourteen departments. Not a few of the students enrolled 
last year are non* studylnK in European universities, with the 
expeciatioD of returning to their work here at the beginning of 
the next year. 

There must be departmental isolation in every university, but 
this may become extreme. The best training for a cnpalde and 
cultivated manhoo<l can be uhEaine<l only as one mingles with 
his fellows and share? their v;iriod experience.'. An oc¥jwx«*.v>!otw 



lO 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 4<^ 



whicb could furniflh eoaie lip of Borial soHdsnty betwren 9tud«it« 
whilo iD rwiJeture here, and bria^ (lie men into easjr communiCM- 
tlon witJi anirpnitkB wtu^n abrmd. tuR beeu looking. Thu waot. 
fvit by the gnuluaie« nnd Bome meniberti of thf fHctilty, Im] to tbe 
rarmation. Majr i&, 1891, of the Orailu«t« Rtu<f4>-niti' A-vociaikm. 
KmiUr aMOolationR have been foraivi in tbo unirtnitrn of Edin- 
burgh, Pui«, and hi other Buroppnii uniwreirmk 

Thr epccifie purpoAes of the ii9w.x:ntion may be gatheml ttQta 
tho molotions pasM^ at (h^ linst Dia»-nieelm){, from the coBsti- 
tution adopted Oct. 17, Hn<l from the repDtls of Vk varJODS com- 
mitter. All of thvve are freely used in the pr^paratloD of tlio 
prnent stalement. 

Ally grailuale slodent may become a loember of the aesuciatiun 
on ai^ninK 'he con^litutton nnd paying a small imnual fee 

Tbf honorary member* consijtt of the members of the faculty, 
hII |»ut members of llMaBBOdalion, and of eurh diiitinp^tithed mc'n 
;it home or abroad a» iimy be eleeted to honorary memhership nt 
the yearly mwtin^f of tbe.asBOciation. 

Tbe fuoclioiw of the aasociatioa arc comprised in the diTJtioni: 
interna liottal, aatinnnl, and lix-nt or Mcfftl. Thv committee on 
intentaLiouul rdntianTi furni^b ittudeols going abroitd with letters 
of lotroduciloa to aimilnr nswclatioos in foreign univenitiea, and 
receivb mudenlii with iHt&rs from like aMuciatiomi of foreign 
un{ver»]tJi«. Xntional fum^liont are carried out liy a coiinuit- 
tw who tttriro to promote intercourse with colU>£et and uoi* 
i-emitieet in tbe United States and prfaent tha advantoge* of 
this unirersity to glitdento who m^nilPKiptnle gruduatc work. This 
committee bait cbarg« of univemitr exteni>)<.in in Baltimore. The 
»oci»! i^mroiltee receive new student*, acquaint them with uni- 
v^rmty; met hods and give other desired information. Tbey are 
the meditun for co-uperatiua betwfen tbe fiirulty and ttUidenta. 
Tbey secorv any advanta^efl in trade, nnd adopt such meami b* 
may bs fcastble to promote sociability among tbe students. 

These and other constitutional provl«toni have been carried out 
during tbe prf?sent bolf-year as follon's: — 

A Htudents' oomniittec. consisting of one from CAcb depart- 
ment, elected by the graduatH ftudrtit* of the wvi-raJ deparimeota, 
was chosen. 

Tbe »tndent repre*entalivee of tbe reepectii-e d^tartmeate are: 
■stroaomy, BranU M, Ro>zel; chemi<Mry. J. E. tiilpin; geology, 
Frartcis P. King ; hiolngy. It, (J, Uarri«oD ; pbystca, Oeorgc O. 
Squier; iiiatlioinHti<^, E. P. Manning; English, F. J. Mather; 
bMory, J. A. Jamra; German, Albert B. Faust: (ireek, Ji>hn 11. 
T. Main: Latin, Kidney U. Stacey: Sanskrit, William W. Bad«n; 
romance languages, Julius Blume : Semitic langiuRt^ J> D> 
Priooe: palbology, S. Flexner. This general L-omrailtee. in pur- 
suance t^ powera granted, elected tbe araociutiuo officers and i^i- 
poinled Eub-committecs for thu presunl year. 

Tbe following officets and sutr-committees were elected: hon- 
orary president. Profeasor B. B. Ailamn : president, John H. T. 
Main: vice. president, W. L Hull: serretflry. R. (i. HarrtMa; 
Ireaaurer, T. f4. Baker; rommitlee nn intemnlional relations, J. 
E. Bhime, David Kinley, and P, J. MuLher; committee on na- 
tional relatione, J. A. James. 0. W. Mmith, and W. 11. Kllpat- 
rick: committee on social relations, H. P. Bigektw, A. B. Faust, 
8. Q. Htacey, U. S. Orant. and J. Blume. 

The work accomplMbed by the oo«nmiltee«. although a mere 
Ijeginntng, aerves to show that the atiaocialion ha* a valuable 
place in university life. Communication l)a« l>e<en entered into 
wHb associatiooM of foreign univertities. L«clurui and courses of 
lactores have l>een given Ity graduate otudenls in the interest of 
churches and of city luwucialione. 

Dr. Walter B. Scaife, a furtner Hopkins student, by the Invita- 
tion of Profeesor Adams, is to give for the l*eni-fit of the aiuocia- 
tion an illustrated lecture on " Florence an.1 the Florcntinefi." 
This lecture b to be given in Levering Hall and followed by an 
assembly in the iiarlorA. This meeting will be tbe Hrsl of a serieti 
of social gatherings to take place during the year. 

Through these meaaa it I* believed that departmental isolation 
will be overcome ; tint men may, through this sssociation, enter 
into a broader Mtudent life, and that the university at large will 
he convinced of the need for wider Kvial relations than are found 
in tbe labonitnry or f«minary, 



JOHNS HOPKINS HARINK LABORATORY. 

Thb following report of the IWI ■es'lon of the Marine Zoologi- 
cnl laboratory has just been made to the president of the Join 
Hopkins UoivprRiiy. 

Early in Hay, 1^91, some of the members of our party went 
Jamaica, which bad been selected as our Held of work for 
seawn, while others joined m later on. 

Our party was as follows : W. K. Brooks, director ; E, A. 
drews, ostociate in biolo(ty; R. P. Bigeluw. graduate student li 
biology ; J. P. Campbell, professor of biology, Alben«, Georgia; 
O. W. Field. graduat« student in biology ; J. C. Olfford, »[>wini 
stodeot in fiathology; It G. Uarrison, H. M. Knower, and M. M. 
Meleair, ynidiial^ ttudents in biology : T. H. Jlorgnn, Adam T. 
Bruce ft-llow; G. C. Price, graduate Hudoui in biology: John 
Stuart, teaclier of science, Hope School. Jamaica; Charles Taylor, 
Kingston, Jamaica; B. W. Barton, lecturer iu botany; Basil Sol* 
lers, teacher, Baltimore. Tlietwo laxt named devoted Ih^msetvM 
to botanical cxplorolioQ and study in tbe interior of tbe island, 
and tfaey did ool visit the hiboratury at the aea.>>hor«. 

After a prelimiuory exploration of different fteaporls, we selecteit 
Port Heudereon an our lUation. Thia in n seaside resort in King- 
BtOQ Harbor, oppoiute Port Royal, and about nine mites by H'ali>r 
from Kingston. Here we found two partiatly furnished bounty 
suitable for a laboratory and lodgings, an'j we reuted and occ^H 
pied them for about fourteen weeks, from 3<ay 26 to Sept. 1. ^| 

Ths estahliAhment of a party in a new home at a remote i>oint 
in n flirangc country is a task which, in t)ie mid-nummer climat* 
of tbe tropic-*, is most severe and exhausting. Of this. I was en- 
tirely relieved by Ur. Morgan and Mr. Bigvlow, who ihemaelves 
attended to all the preliminary wort with great efficiency, and I 
take this opportunity to ibauk them for their willing help, wliich 
contributed in no tiuiill degree to the success of our expedition. 

Our summer was devoted, in great pan. lo the collection and 
pmervation of material for enibryological work at home, and, as 
the members of the paity are still employed in preparing and 
studying it. the resalta are not ycc far enough advanced lor re- 
porting. There are a few noteworthy points of interest, however. 
Among them are the following: — 

Soon after we tottled at Port Henderson, Mr. Field found near 
our lalmratory, in an enclosed kgoon of dense mtt water, a very 
remarkable rhtzostomatous medusa btdonging to the genus Oassio- 
pea. No 0]>eciai of Ibis genos, aa limited by Uaeokel, has bcretc 
fofv been found anyn-bere in the Atlantic. It la a South Pad 
form, and the koown species are from this region or from 
Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. A species of a closely relatl 
genus, Polyclonia frondoaa. was found by L. Agassiz oti th«c< 
of Florida, and was referred by him to the genus Casaiopea, al> 
though it iti nut a true Caniopes. Polyclonia frondnoa \a found 
ho Jamaica also, and we obtained aperiii'enH in Port Royal Har- 
bor. It is also found in the Bahamas, and Professor U. V. Wil- 
son ban given to me the aotfi and diawinga which he made froiu 
specimens which he obtained at Ureen Turtle Kay. ^M 

The meduM which we tound at Port Henderson is not a PolfB 
clonia, but a true Caaaiopea, and the only one as yet found iu tb» 
Atlantic. As it is very abundant and conspicitouii, its emruiie fr 
the notice of naturalists for such a long time ><• r<-maiknble, for 
is so well known lo the negro Qsheirmen ot Jamaica that the 
have a name (or it — tbe Guinea com blubber. As it is one of 
tlie iniMtt common and characteristic marine animals of these wa- 
ters, I havu propustfd (o call it, after the Indian name of tbe 
island, CaHiiupea Xamachs. While il is able to swim slowly by 
the [lulsatious of itR l<ell. itie usually found Hxed upon tbe aniooth 
ctialky bottom by the dat suoker-likc surface of its cxumbrella^ 
and in »ome place* the bottom was so completely covered wit^ 
them that Iheir circular dlaca were actually touching each ottx 
while the inter»|Mrr« were filled in t)y smaller H|iecimen«. 

Our knowledge t>f th« life history of tbe rhixostomatous 
dufie is very incomplete, and is baaed entirety upon the study 
the Mediterranean Cotgtorhiga Uibervulaia, a species wbioh 
longs to a morv B|)ecialized division of tbe group than Caasiopeft^ 
although it was formerly called C^assiopea Borbcoka. Uouy fun- 
damenlal points in the developmeul of tbe rhikostomes, ard, 




Jakuarv I, 



II 



f*cc. of th» f>l(«otDFtluf«0 In ectipral, arc ntUt in difpalr. aod at 
tny ujggifttUM Mr. Bie«loff vnderlook to trace the life liiMorr of 
our CaMiAfN>a, a Uoe of ivseari^h for a hit^h the etudka which lie 
has iiur»uerf for nearly three years under roi direciion. on llie 
tiiiiK-liir" uf Di*ciimfo)uadp, rendered bim wp.Ilqaali6^(l. He found 
the larw ot Cai«io(wa on marine plants amonx the aduho, nnd an 
tbew liieil in cAplfvitj and t*t free |teculiar |>laniil».lik<- hudu, 
n liloh nl<M> lived ami grew in small aiunrin in the huutie, he ws» 
ublf I" '>t>taia a fairly complete eerier of younx Btages. The most 
in<ere>tioit rrtullA of bis aturiy of the livioif lar^te are (he disnji-- 
ety c' (bis peculiar method of budding, and the wttlemeQl of itie 
qiienion aa to the origin and houtoloiEy of lb« seiiae or^ana of 
■•lull DiAComrdurB!, which he lias proved 10 be the modified baaal 
[MVlion.* of rarlaJn tentoclea of i)ii> attached Urviv. Thin in Mup- 
plemf-ntarr in, and in nmpliBruiioii of, Mr. Bigrlow'a former 
iroilt an the development of the senile organs in other (^roupe of 
meduMB. While at Pof t Hendt-r^on he watched the lan-n* undergo 
Iheir mMimorpboMfs, and he made dran-ingn from life of the im- 
portant MAgeau He io now rompleting hU work hy Ihe fDudj of 
M-rtiil aet-UcniA of IhA larrw, and of Ihe oraans of lh<- adult. Thi« 
M-itrk whicti ia non kv\] under way, giv^ ptotnise of reaalla of 
Tvry uirat intertwt, and I regard )t a^ a very noteworthy pieMi of 
irurk. na it will be, when COmpleti-d and published with ample 
illnalrntiona, a pemianeal and valuable addition to our knowledge 
(if the niedutw. 

An I lind boped to Htid Chiton with egg«. Mr. Metcalf wer.t U> 
Jamaica prepared to atudy it» developmeDl. We found wrentl 
«|>reie4 of Chiton in great abatHJance on tlie rocks at Pojt Hpnder- 
8i>n, close lo our laboratory. Within a few hours after his arrival 
lie obtaine<l the egga, and aoon had a Hcriefl of larva*, at alt alages 
St dertrlopment, Itring in the hou!«e in »mall aquaria. He <levo(ed 
he season to the study of Ihe llrfng larvtp, and to the preMTvaiion 
>f material for M>c1ions. He is now continuing the work at our 
)l>nraiory in Baltimore, and be has (xmstrurted a terie« of eularRed 
lOtleU fiOQi hi« aectiona, (o exhibit the pnx:e9s of M>gmrulationor 
lie egg of ChJIon. 

We found outwlrea well placed at Port Hendervon foratadying 
Jie Termite*, or ao-called nhlle aots. and Mr. Knower. wbo had 
II my •uggestion prepared bimMlf for Ihis work bcfoie leaTlng 
^Baltimore. »peot hiaautntner in observing tbelr l>iitjit«, niid in col- 
lleoliD^' Ike egffs and larrie. as well aa th« Adults of the dtfTerent 
iMe«. He i-reaerced a tine cottpctlOB 0/ (beae Bpeiiroens. for em- 
t>r5»!0itic»l and anatomMal work, and he it now n^a^pd in iMe 
IToaecotlon of this portion of bk mvarrh 

Sir. Field contiutied at Port Ilender-on the study of the enibry- 
Blo^y of B'_'hiii')dt'rius, upon which be hA« reco engaged for two 
rrart psst. and lie added to hii collection Ihe eggs and larvie of a 
lumlier of forms of whirh he prevkiualy had no reprewulatiou. 

Mr. Uorfran siient a great deal of bis time in Kathering and 
Mndying materiat hearing on Ihe [irobUm of iDetamerizatioD In 
animals, and In this connection he collected the udtiltv and embryos 
Chiton. Opbfurans. etc. Ue also obtained at several places In 
ie iuif tiiir of the island a namber of tgg» froui a species of tree 
jg. which baa no tadpole stage, but hatcbee from the egg a^ a 
pitlle fro*. Some of theiK wt-re kejrt in tlte laboratory in wet 
autM until Ibey halchfd, whiln i.thtr* were preserved at fuoceaatve 
lubrjook Ktngea. He wa» »o tf»rtunate as to obtain B very com- 
plt*te *frie4 of stages, and Inasioncb as Its development has twrer 
pen studied, there is every reason to hope that moM valuable 
esults will Iw obtained by the thorough fludy of this material. 
Some ten jenn ago I found at Beaufort an fniereftting Crusta- 
pan. Lucifer, whoae metatnorpliaala la most remarhoble and in- 
tructive. I obtained a few egtgs. and rfored the newly hatched 
uvse, and traced the motamor|>ho«ls <»ilh exbau^liv). minuU'neM 
rom Uie time of hatching to maturity ; and my rvMilta. with ample 
llustrntUinii^ were presented to Itw Royal Society of Loodoo by 
'Pmff«or Huxley, and were pulili»he«l in the Philosophical Tiao»- 
nctii'HS. Tills work, w hioh whs among tlw firsi fruits of our fua- 
ine IftUfratory, is cmw t>mlH^lie<l in nil llw sl«ndar>l lexl-buoks. 

I viitt not .-il^lr, nl ilenufort, to obtain enough eggs of Lucifer to 
rtudy liir vmbry(4ogy, although tbe few which I did fiud showed 
iat this part of its life hisic'ry is (uMy as im|M)rlani as the meta- 
aorpbiais, [ have been npoo Ihe watrh ever since for a chaiwie 



fo obuin a fupply of egga, in order to topplMlwnt any tint memoir 

00 the metamorphosis by a second on tlw embryology ; hut while 

1 have occasionally found Lucifer with C(ix*i out at «ca, I harv btid 
no opportunity to study it, as tbe preparation of tlie material pr»> 
aent* such difficulties that it caniKit lie carried on at sea. TW 
adult animals are an amall that they tuv almu«t tnrisible, sod the 
egg", which are microscopic, am »o lontely attM-hed and so deli- 
cate, that tbey arw lost in ttie act of capturing the ailullA, [ was 
greatly pleased to Knd L^jnTer in abundance, and hy going ool In 
a boat and collecting thf adults with snat cw«, and taking them 
carefully home, 1 was w forlunaU aa to AikI soow thirty or fonjrl 
with eggs, and these I kept in aqoarta Ioor enough to obtain a 
tolerably complete aerie* of stagm in the emhrronie derekvpinent. 

I Bin now eoftaged in the study uf this material, and I hope to bavA 
an nctxmot of the embryology of Lncifer compWted withio ayear. 
My auucesa in obtaining iheie eggs la an ample retam for tlie ex- 
pedition to Jatnoica. 

These are eoine of the mibJKtH apon which we hope locontribute 
oifgioal scientific knowledge, as the r««uli of our summer in 
Jsmatoa ; hut, be Jdns Ita ralne to science, the ei[x>tlitiun had very 
grMit educational valoc to all of us. We saw for ounwlvea aa 
endl«>ss variety of moat interesting and Instructive natural objecta, 
wbicb we had preriously known only from liooks or preserred 
specinieoB. and every hour wan Blled with most delightful ex|>erl- 
ences of tbe gieatmt value to nxtuniltsb) aitd teacherv of natoml 
8ci»noe. I am aure thai all the members of our party will bnglad 
to join me in ezpreaaing our high appreciation of tbe great advan- 
tage which we have enjoyed in tbe oppottonlly In apend a summer 
in laboratory work at the iwasldp in Jamaica. 

After our return to Baltimore, a aeripa of public lectitm. ilhis- 
trsled by «peciniei» and photograptaa, waa given by luemlieni nf 
tbe party, under tbe auspices of the Nalnralisu' Field dab of the 
University. 

The lecturw were aa follows : Tlie A»p»ctB of Nature in Jamaica, 
by W- K. Brooks; the Zoology of Jamait^m. by E A. Andrews; 
the Natural History of Termitn, by U. M Koower; tbe Butany 
of Jamaica, by B. W. Bartoo ; nud Ibe People of Jamaica, by Basil 
Sollefs. W. K. BttOOKS. 

AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 

Tub ," Browning Cycl<^i«dia,'' which has been in pceparation 
by Dr. Edward Berdoe, author of " Browning's Mesoage lu Bis 
Time," will be published very ^borlly hy Hacmillan A Co. It la 
proiiably Ihe most geoetally inefnl of all the aids to the study of 
Browning a» yet an«ui|»ted. 

— IguHtPUs rhKint)ly'j< new Ixjok will be entitled "The Cipher 
in the Plays and on thu Tumlintone.'' It is to place the truth of 
tbe belief In a dpher beyond cwnlroverey. 

— Mr*. I.,auretKe Oomme is engageil u|h>d a book of t-hihlrea's 
games, and also upon a voloma dealinx with lb* various local 
feasten and ceremonial cake«. Ix>th of m hich subjects were ratber 
prominent at the recent Folk-Ijore Congnws, 

— T. y. Crowell & Co. have just issued the Qfth and concludinf , 
volume of Sybel's work ou "TUe Founding of thvOemian Empire 
by Willism 1." Tbe volucne eoaLaloa, hividue ttie text, thirty 
pages of index and ten pages of chronologicsl data. 

— " Homiliee of Science "* t« tbe title of a volume, by Or. hul 
Cams, from the t^pen Cotin f^aUlshiDR Ctimpany. coosbting of 1 
collection nl fbort editorial articlea discusving religraus, tnoral, 
and >ocial qiiestlona from tbe standpoint of what might brlclly be 
cliarnctericed aa tbe religion of science. 

— The office of The PuW^trrif Weeki^ will publiah at onoe a 
useful band-book for tbe bookseller and librarian, entitled " A 
Boiksollcr'a Li'.rary. and How to Uae It." by A CJrowoll. The 
volume cuotains annotated liatB of the princfpnt Ami'hcnn. l:uglisl^ 
German, and French hook-trade catalogues, trade au't literary 
journals, leading; IJhiary and auctloa cAtalogues, ealaJoguea uf' 
dealers in second-tvnnd boolca with meniion of their apeciaitlea, 
etc. These liats are accom|nnie<l by concise and pmctti^l hinU as 
to how they may best he umnj. and tlie volume thus fontis a de- 
sirable manual, parMoulnrly for the young bookaellet. 



13 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XIX. No. 465 



— The AUaniie MonHiit for January in a very gooJ number. 
Tfae article is it that is moat likely to attract iDlelliKent readers U 
that on' *' Joho Stuart Uill and the Loadon and Westminster Re- 
rienr." Mill was the proprietor of that Review from 1836 to lt)40, 
and had ae his assistant in the editorship a young Sootchman 
named John Robertson ; and this article consists in the tuain of 
letters that Mill addressed to Robertson during those years. The 
letters are very interesting, not only as revealing certain aspects of 
Milt's character, but also as showing the care with which he strove 
to keep the Review up to a high standard, and also with what keen 
intelligence he criticised the articles that were offered for insertion 
in it. Another article that is sure to attract notice is tliat on 
'' Boeton," by Ralph Waldo Emerson, in which the author traces 
the historical connection between the character of the early settlers 
and the moral and intellectual inBuence of B3ston in American 
life. He justly says that Boston owes her inSuence to her re- 
ligious earnestness and her instinct of freMom, and predicts that, 
BO long as she retains these qualities, her influence will continue. 
This article was written in 1961, but has never before been pub- 
lished. Mr. Henry James contributes some reminiscences of 
James Russell Lowell, and expresses the opinion that Lowell's in- 
fluence was mainly due to his style, both in writing and in speech, 
— a remark that is to a certain extent true, though the faults of 
Mr. James's own style are such that he is hardly a competent 
critic. Besides these papers, there ore some excellent book-reviews, 
the beginning of a novel by F. Marion Crawford, and various 



other articles which we have not space to particularize. The 
Atlantic's programtne for 1893 is unusually varied and promiainf;: 
and the ma)(BziDe ia sure to have interested readers thronghoot 
the year, 

"Garden and Forest for Christmas week contained, as its 
leading illustration, one of a grore of hemlocks whitened «ilh 
lately-fallen snow, and in an editorial article the statelinesa and 
grace of this northern evergreen are celebrated. There are pic- 
ture«, too, of a rare orchid in bloom, and cultural direotions for 
growers of fruit and flowers. Mrs. Robbins gives a sketch of 
Deering's Woods, Portland, in her New England Park series; Mr. 
Jack adds some notes on his horticultural tour through Enropi'. 
and M. Demontzey tells how he has tame<l the torreota of the 
French Alps by reclothing their basins with growing forests. 

— From the D. Van Nostrand Company we liave reoeiraj 
-How to Become an Engineer,"' hy George W. Plympton (UP, 
50 cents). It is a brief treatise on the theoretical and practical 
training necessary in tilting for the duties of the civil engineer. 
giving the opinions of eminent authorities on the subject, and io- 
dicbting the courses of utudy in engineering usually followed ia 
the technical schools. From the same company has come "Tbe 
Sextant," by F. R. Braioard (18", 50 cents), being a treatise on 
reflecting mathematical instroments, with practical hint*, sng- 
geations, and " wrinkles " on their errors adjustments, and nse. 
To the sextant, the form of reflecting instrument most commonly 



lEO-DiRWmtSH AHD NBO-LAHUICKISK. 

By LESTER P. WARD. 

SoeJctj of 'Wkihiii^on dellTered Jan. S4, iKH]. A 
lilitorical ^nil eriticai review at mcwlem icl^allflc 
tbbugbt reUtlTC tb LeredlLj, ftnd «ftpecl«U; to tli<- 
problem of tint tr>DHiiil8eioiL of acqulE^ sharact^rK. 
Tbo fdllowlDK ^n tbe a«v(>r&l bcadi IdvoIt^iL Id thi- 
ilUonwIuit Btntui o^ tbe Pioblem. L^cnKrcklitn]. 
Darwinism, Anqulre^ CtaaraicEerB. Theoriea of lie 
nMtf, VleWH of Mr. OAlton, TekcbiDRa at ProtPB'nr 
Wclainantti, A. Critique ot V/fiamtaD/JH^a-Dmrwia- 
)um, N«a-LauiikntklaDi, thu Amert«>o "ScbDol,'' Ap- 
pltoKtloD to tbt.> ilDinkii Rmoe, In ao t*r b.B views 
are expreuF-i tbep are la (be mala Jd IJaa wltb the 
gpnaral eutrpin. of AmCTlciia tbpngbUiUit] oppo^pi) 
to tbe eitmne ductrino of tbe nou-tranimlBBl'bllllf 
of •cqulred cbaracterB. 



PMc«, poalpald, 2S >i'«nii>. 



N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New York, 



HUIDBOOK OF HETEOROLOGICAL mm. 

By Asst. Peop. H. a. Hazen. 
127 pp. 8°. 

ProfeBBor Waldo says; " I heartily recom- 
mend thatn ta all workers in meteDrology, 
and do not see how any of our American 
nifeteorologiHts con afford ta be trithout a 
copy." 

Professor Symone of Landnn sayB: " Tbey 
are anqueationably vsloable belpe, which 
must be kept h&ttdy, and replaced when 
worn out." 



H. D. C. BODGES, S74 Broadvay, Kew ¥ort 



TOE-RULE S^X.i«*Jf^?.".i^^Sg 

^ pruiciplfl mbcira, inui ijniuiE ■■iihouc nuJj or cj.[- 

CT^kUfm, « COTB^Ctfl Cal^dFr for any nnnEh Irom 

tirti-- ' 



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tiK K>ftt llillLlMkiJDirine. innal*. »; ti 



A BUSINESS MAN'S HAND-BOOK, 

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jjreH«iik rear Uirougb ItDprojicr sjldreiuLciji— monr 
IbJiD DD'C'lkall frotii NnM Vork Sintr. Prottably 
doubiA iLle Hum h»« baeo loei iliruai;!! (lelar? and 
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THE 

AMERICAN GEOLOGIST FOR i891 

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TAH DISTRICT, 

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Priep 7S c-enla: poetpald HScentB. 



By iliR-jLP WHJTl^ll. Pli n , (oriporiy inMnictoft 
BferT»rd L'DlTenil.|.v. Xew EilltliiD, Ktu, I,£i6 paireai 
M-W, D. C. HBAtH * CO . PiuHdhyj,!, Boston. 



January i, iltgi.J 



SCIENCE. 



13 



pwd. m>M of lli*> liltip volunie is devoted Tlip voJutrw is mainlt- 
• compilalidiinf nittltfr on theflubjcrt, well»ekct«(l and judicinllr 
workpi] intii Hhi>|ie; lo «rhk4i llir authoc has Added many >deaa 
ind mxgi^tioiis of hi* awn niid »f i>fltc(^r< who have been aaso- 
eiatcd witb him in th*^ nsvRl wrvicp. 

— The Magfttint 0/ AmfTivan Ilistorji oittat jl» iwpnlywTenlli 
rfila[ni< with LtHr Nc-w Yiar. The Kiiillng papvr, hy Hon. Anhur 
Uarv'v, (tie prv^idt-at of tlip CunnJian [u»[)tute, U tlie flr»( (lerl 
nt "A CriLtc-al aod Couiiuuii-iivde^.' View uf ibv EutrfpriM; uf 
ChriMopKfr roliimlius, " illustmtnJ. "The Svcu-l SofifHw of 
Printvton ('iilvfrrity, ' by Tlioinas HolcbkiHB, Juo., illut>tni(fii tbe 
(^A and ncir Whig llnll« at I'riRCt'lon. " A Sbort lived Ameriran 
Stslo," isa €ontrltkUii>ii fro«i tbe l^niniina btsiorian, Bpnrv K. 
Chamberv. The rjaestton. "Was Ain«ric« Dtscorfred b^ the 
( hiDweV" la ditcu^w-il by Kffr. Dr, Glover. Those who look for 
tr*v i^ilor's contributioo will tiiMl it Id an occKiiDt of " IVince- 
H«iry lb" Kavigalnr," the Hrwl lo con**ive the liofd project of 



nptrning a road through the- mu'XploK-d oc«an. who bideMl vna thr 
originalnr of the iaipaise whitrh sent Colnmhus cnbae^iumtlj 10 
ciureliores. "The ^an in .America," hy Hoii. B. H. Rf>l»erT«t>n. 
turns tbe lij^ht ap^o a moat tDtcre^ilin); rare Amoni:; t)ie foundfra 
of America. "A Sketch of John Badolleit, 1:&8-Ir»7," <ine of 
Intiiaiia'a ftrong characKt* in naHy times, id by IV-niili-nt BtTAii 
of Vinreunei* UniTvnity. " Ijclteni on Ooremment Making, tij 
Phlrick Henry and John A«Ian>«. in 177<l;" aftme tltinga aboat 
"Collis P. Huntrnstun," tiy Uabert Uowe Bancroft: "Caoada 
from a &irnpean Point of View in 1781 ; "* and otbvr abrnt oootri- 
bulionti complete the niiml<er. 

- One of the early Issoeg of D. C. ^mth &. Vo, will ttr 
-' White'^ Number Leraona," graded for aemod and thli^ year 
pupiU. It has Iweo selected from the everyday Uaekhoard wrork 
used In the Syracone M'hoots. It (teal* with number* progmalrely 
from ten up Into the ihruvands, living eaxy fraetiona and Arabic 
numeralk thtouj^houi. 



J^m'c 



■ A most excellent and agree- 
able tonic and appetizer. It 
aourishes and invigorates the 
tired brain and body, imparts re- 
newed energy and vitality, and 
enlivens the functions. 

Dr. EFtmAtM Batbiuji, Cedarville, N. J.. 
lays: 

' ' I hava oaod it for aeveral ycara, not only 

my practir«, biit m my own iadivldoal 

p, and cooiider il under all eircamktoncwa 

^one of the best nenra tonie* that we poaaeaa. 

For fneatal exhanitjoo or overwork it ^Tea 

noawed Mrvnvtli and rifcor tn tha amine 

■yatetu." 

DcucriptiTe pampblet free. 

tmKori Ctiinical Wwiit. Pro*rid«nc«> R. I 



Beware of Substitutes and Imitations. 

CAf'TIOH.-Be Bnmltn word •' Hor» 
ford's** 1* Oh lh« labrl. Alt oiliera arc 
■pDrtona. Neveraotd In bath. 



POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSI0L06Y. 

For it«cU CoDcgnnid NaimalScboob. Prfo toeeats 
Scat Irte br fvtl bf 

H. D C. HO»«BS, ST4 Mroadway, N. V. 



PRIZE ESSAYS OF THE AMERICAN PUBUC 
HEALTH ASSOCIATION. 

Practical Sanilatv and Kcanomic Cooklac Adapt- 
ed to Ptraoni of HoMratt aad Small Mtaat. Br 
Has. Xaux Iltnaut Abu. Item, It:! pp. Clnth. 
tOetnta. 

No. 1, Healthy Homea and Poods (or the Work- 
iBi-CU»M«. I)r Protfaaor C. VaiuIub, M.D. 
Aqq Arhor. Htrii. ftrn. ft{ pp. I>ap*r. 10 CMil*. 

Kn. 4. The Saoitary Conditiona aad Necctaitlta a' 
School' H«iii*« and School-Life. Bf D f. Lln- 
C'OlD. X.D., BaaH'tD, JlMtn. I^a, at> pp. b <r«BtB, 

Ki>, 3. DlainTactlon and Individual Prophjrlaxtt 

■talaat tDrcclloiia Dlacatea. B; ti^rge M, 
Slcnitn-nt. M P , Major and HtinPtOD t'.S.A. ira, 
tf pp Paper. S caata. 

Ku, I. The Preventable CauB«aarDt**a»*, Injary. 
and Dcalh tn AmctUan Manu(a<lorlca aed 
Work«hopi. and the Besi Mean* and Appliancet 
for Prcvcntioi and Avoiding Them. By UmxiK 
H. imacid. Spnuglleld. ll«a«. Vro, ao pp. Papar, 
3 cent a. 
Tbe fiMiT eaaaya iKoa. 0, 8. t. 1} In Ciae volaiae of 

neatly l«o biadrad lanta oeUvo pa«M, thaimgUr 

hkdeseil. ClaUi.WceDt<. 

N, D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadmy, N. Y. 



TMi: CHCaPEST AND StliT ' 



6? PARK PLACE. NEW YORK 



Speech KeadiQg and Articulatioo 
TeacbiDg. 

By A. MELVILLE BELL. 

Price, a CenU. 

Praetieal Inttnirtinn* in tbe Art of RMdlme 

Sp»»cb f n>m Lh« Mouth : uid ta the Art of 

Tearbin; Art i en I at ion to tJt« I>e«f . 

(ThU WoHr-vrllteo at Um tmtgnMloa o( Mtaa 

Sarah Pniler. Prtae^ of tbe Borsoa Hann Ekibuot 

tortlui Deaf, Boalaa, MaBK— la. aa tar aakaowa,ai« 

Orat Trpaitae pul)llab»d oa "Spasob flewUti<t."1 

/>•«• frtNrijMf/a*/ rMfllMUona /or lAe />*•/. 

I - Admirsbiv la lu cK)a«laaaMa, oltaneM aDd tfoe- 
dMa from laohnhialUy." 
'- Tbaataaptlelly aad pHTfeeUM at Ukla tlltia baak. 

- FiOl at axaet and bttprol ofaMrratloaa." 
" A *ecy tntacatiiaff u4 T*I««Ma wotk.** 
" n« rvlai ar« alaarijr itlvMt and irtll be at srMrt 
ulitlty." 
- KvwT arUcuUUon icacber alinald Mtidi It " 
"A model at cUan»Ma and dmpllellt, vlUtnul 
havtag naj of tbe pvtxiiM armhola thai irooble ta« 
oonaaMia Blad. . . - TheeierelaBaKtveii laap««eb- 
raidbn Inai the Upa arc a<v««dallr Lninmaliac aad 
of creat liiipainMica far tlw Mudaat of pbotMtlea." 
— M itdfm LaKVWtffe Sottt. 

•,*Tha above work nay be obuined, by 
order, throoffb any bookaeller, nr jHHt'fraa 
on receipt gf price, from 

N. D. C. HODGES, 

874 Broadway, Hev York. 



O/i^ ami Rare Books. 



B 



ACK N UM HERS aad cciBEleicxtsof leadiac Mac- 
uiMt. A-Br» ;*w. AM. UAG. EXCHANGE. 
Sehohan* N v 



AMERICAN HERO-MYTHS. 

A Htadr ta (he Native Helti[innB of lh« 
n>al«rH f'-oHilaenl, 

By 1), r, RnijiTi-..N, HI ll. ^ i\ 77, 

THE CRAOLE OF THE SEMITES. 

By \}, u. BajxTvD. M.D., aad Moaais Jasmo*. i%^ 
rh.D. !••. BD oeata. 

H. D. C. HODGES, 874 Brcadway. New York 



DO YOU INTEND TO BUILD? 



i-r - 



Uyo«lat«atftobalM.UvUlDfraBiiatakaaMioaiwdlar**liK!«KlHl.Kl.»WH-ONT 
noiisnif** aow arraaicad 1b thrs4 volimwa. In Ibaai ymi ■ill flnil (wm- < <.t.. '.]>-»&, 
floor ptaoa, dfaoHpttoaa, aad ettlaiatea I'f cost for IO& laatrral, ttr-n \ar 

haaseB, Tb*y also |lv* prlcaa far romplrle WmkiuK t'lui*. I><Miini>. hm. iu, 

wbkli eoaMe rev to IraUd wiikaat delay a, mieuJiea or qaarreia ^.— , .lUJ- 

•r, aad which anir ona caa nadevMaad. VoL 1. ooatkUa IB oopyrUbtwJ iImi^m of 
iKiiiaas. Boattu baiwcea nooaad »lMa. ToL IL eostataa » aoBTilihtad Oe^cna, WO ta 
9MXn. Vol. ifl. eoatalaa K Mpyrigtit*] daatgaa. |B0O U> ^DM. rries^ by nlul. %l .ftO 
eaek* or 93. OO for the aet. 

'^rOLONIAL HOLTMKii,)* « trohiBM aboaieir PanfHMUtaa and Floor PUoa nt 
boaaes amuc«l lo tb» inlmitabte aiylc ot tbe Catoalal Aiehlteeture, aod ba«la< all niodcra 

atTDOsementa for comror: Prlrr. M.OO, 

•*>ierritEsatKUoiBEsroB pohrst Ano sHamB**i-Tbu aov 

Perapeetirea uul PVxir Plani {<f near deaigiia for Aumai*! Cottac«a, vUrb ant rouaslla 
ooaveBieat. aod abeap. Pne«. tl.OO.by mall. 

N, D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New York. 



u 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 46 j 



THE INTERNATIONAL 

JOURSAL OF MICROSCOPY AND 
NATURAL SCIENCE. 

THE .rOUHNAL OF THE 

Postal Microscopical Society. 

Edited by ALFRED ALLEN. 
$1.75 Per Year, 

To SciVnrr aulMcribers, ♦1.00 lor oae year. 

A Joornal of Eutomology, publithwt moathly 
by the Ci>niliritl(fe Eatomolo^cat Club. 
12.00 p«r year, SS.OO por vvluiu« »( tbre« 
yean. VulumoVi. begBUio Jaaukry. 1891. 
Back volumes fomUat IS.OOeacb. Vol- 
mne I. aold on^ id comploto boM. 



THE WINNIPEG COUNTRY; 



on. 



EODGHBG IT WITH Ml ECUPSE PARTY. 



A. KUCilEHTBK PELt.OW. 

(«. n. KcnDxa.) 

Witii thirty-two lUaslraCions and a Uap. 
12". ^LW. 

"The fltory l« a flquAiil. lood-biimorail, ualertata 
iti|[ d«t«Utc At ft cftDOe TOf***' A o««t9r. pcvtttir 
txtoh 1* Mldon) »f*a."—Uttrarv "'vrltf. 

'Tbto !• ft aprtxhUr safTftUvc of pvnoiuU iBd- 
aeot. Ttie iMwk «l]l IM • plHiau mBliMin to 
' mmoj ol roocti OtpMlasMt oo a troBUer trtUch la 
ntpUIr rMWidlnr"- Boaroa Traftarrfpt, 

" Tbe picture of our deMUt» Xonb««?t«ni tvril- 
(ory t*Biil7-llTt> jMm aco, iu caDUftoc with Iti 
ctrlllKAd aapeel to 4ay. and Ui« plo*aaal ttalima ol 
tU «r1ter*a •*}■«. c<naHtnt« tlw etelaw ot hla mile 
book to i>raa«Dt >tt«nUttD."~ TKr Ihal. 



JUST REAJtr. 

THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A Journal of two Somtncr Cruiaea to tkat 

r«gioin; uritli doIm ou Jta early ilbeor«ry, 

Ken th« E»kiino, o» ita physical geo^ajiliy, 

\g«<Aogj and tiatural history, cogelhor with 

'& bibliograpby of charts, worlu awl artielM 

relating to th« civil and natural history of 

th« Labrador FoiiitiJula. 

By ALPHEUS SPfilHG PACKARD, H.D.. Ph.O. 
Sf«. .5i:j pp.. *a,5(>, 



XEff' BOOKS. 

JUST PUBLISHED 

FOSSIL RESINS. 

Thin book )■ thr nmult of an att«ni[>t to 
collect ihv 5catt«r*d uotic«> of fo«*il roJus, 
exclusire of tfatwc on umber. The work is at 
intereat alao on accuuut ot ile<scri|iti<3ns etvon 
pf th« ittiMTti found enibedde'l in the«e^ong:- 
preaerred exndatioDB from early vp^tation. 

By CLARENCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH. 

12^ SI. 



THE AMERICANRACE: 

By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M D. 

"Tlie book 1« oiMtif unusual tataTiMt add TahiB. "— 
lulrr Orttin. 

-' Di. Daiilol B. BrlDtoD«rltP«uth*ackilo«1«lg><l 
ftUtJbarlty of tbn n>liii-ct-"^ P^ilad*lphia Prrtm 

" Tb* work will bo of iPniiioA Tal<H> to all wbo 
«l*b to kiMiw tb«> aabataric« at what ban boffO tauai 
■Mit about Ika Indlcvaqus AnivrloBD*."— .Vodir*'. 

"A maalnrly dlacotaloa, and an •lamfda of tlia 
■uooowlul pduaatioB of tke powan of obaMTatloD." 

Pricr, puslimid, #'■!. 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

RACES AND PEOPLES. 

"Thvliuiik UrcmmI, tlHimuKliIy k^nmI. aud wilt long 
rMDaIn Ui« Imt avL'vwtlkle choivnlatT elfauoKiapby 
la our latii^aic^."— n* C'krt'lKia I^aioM, 

"Wa atronglf nwuaniaeud Dr. Brlal(.>B*a 'Bacaa 
audPeoptra' to tiolb t>eKliiiMn ant] acholara. Wa 
a.tv aot awarr of any otbar raeoal wort on tba 
■civtwv of wlilch It ttvata In tbo Bngltib laaipHji*''*' 
—AMMtii: i^mrtrrif. 

"Hla i>ook it an «iDeUeat oue. aud we oaa beartllj- 
ncooneDil it at an introduotorr manual of •timol- 
ol."'— lite JfoaM. 

"A naemi and reallr intemtlnic work. wMeb de- 
•cmj to be widely read and atadled twcit in Curopa 
and Aai«ri«a."— Srt0ll(oM (Eok-) J/crald. 

"TbU^olnme U BoM Mfanalatlos. It 1> wntt«a 
Witt) Kinai cli^arovaa, ma that aBTbodr can uitd«r- 
•tand, and wbllr la aoma w«ja. parfarpc, aiiperfldal. 
Kra«T>a f orr well thv eoiaplete Held at tan man It j."— 
IV 5>w York TVbim. 

"Dr. BrloloD laraalalilaaclaDllllc Itliiitrailnnaand 
noMMiaincata with an Indaaoritiable chami nf itar. 
ration, mo that 'Ram* and Paiiplaa.' avowodtj a r«o- 
ord a( dlaooTaivd facta, ia In tvatliy a attntic atlta- 
ulaot to lbs tma^^aUoa."— PhllatlvlpbU PitbU^ 

"Tfav wuik \m LadiBp<>oiable to tbc BtudBbt who tf . 
iguirea an ful<illl|t'm gulda to ■ oouraa of elhoo. 
grapbli.- roadinc-"— nilnd/fpAin Tlm*t 

Price. pcMtpald, •1.73. 



THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL S. TROY. 
This coataitu a tiigcoMioo of the reasooa 
for their action and of tbe pbenomena pri!» 
wBtfd iaCrouke*' tub«». 

Price, poaipaltl, 50 cenla. 



THE MODERN MALAD! ; or, Snf- 
ferers from ' Nerves.' 

An iDlr^action to public conaideraiion. 
from a aAn-ni«dical point of view, of a oun- 
ditiun (rf ilt-hBalth which ta iocreaHingly 
prvvalvDt in all ranJu of socivty. In the 
firxt part of this work the author ilw^lla on 
>tfao errors in our uiod« of trvatin^ >'Guras- 
I tbonia, conHequ«nt on iho wide iKnoronoo ol 
the subject which itill prevaih: in tha aac- 
ood giart. ottantion ia drawn to the principal 
csu>» of tlw malady. Tli« alle^ry (onniBg 
the iDiroductioii to part I. girw a brief hia- 
\ tory of uervou* exhauation and the modes of 
1 treatment wbloli hare at various tituus been 
thought •uitnblc to this moBt painful and try- 
ing diSMM. 

By CYRIL BENNETT. 

in IM pp., »l.30. 



Fact and Theory Papers] 

1. THE SUPPRESSION OF CON- 
suuPTiOH. 8r uoomr w. BAttmroK. H.D.; 

" Tba iDaaUruable Imponanoe of the aableol, tt< 
eiatnane* of tba auttKirtand tbe ooraltyof (its wcrk 
all ravbiae to reodar tlw littia traaUae wotiky ' 
sneelal ranaldarailuu. . . . Wa baanUrconi 
Dr. BamblMoti'a booklet, and wlab tbote we 
aui'b works "— Edilorlal. ffrulon Itallt Jte 

•■ Tbe rooeocrapb l» lat<-r<«tla< lo siyld. i 
aoil well worthy of oareful iMoaldaralltfti. It 
raid ft lechBlcal exprsMloiM, and can bo easily reiodl 
nod dlgeateJ."— f^lbarai4»m>ltRiJ Bra. 

U. THE SOCIETY AND THE " FAD."] 

Hy AFMjrroa Moaaatr. R*i. li>. aocaita 
"Mr. Morgan fouada ■ souslDla aod inter«aaii| 
addra«« iipoti ft leit turalahail by a aaiiianaa f> 
ft rouni la<M<«' nasaatne : naraafy, ■ tttowalnc bob 
It^PD are Itin only rnally driiriiatic aiilbon of itiali 
'•fiiiiirj,'"- A>ic J'urfc Sun. 

III. PROTOPLASU AND LIFE. Byj 
(;. P. i-ox. If. TSoeoia. 
"Tob«r«Binwade<l to tbr«« wbo ara uat apeolak 1 

tolB."-CArfrfiua rniwa. ' 

"Pbyslclau will eu}oy tnalr raadlnr, and Hod tn 
thetn laarh tooil tor iboagbL'—SI, LnwU MriiiffU 
a nd Suraifal Jon rnat. 

" Mr. OoK rarlawa lliv blatory ot bla sublaot WttO. 
knowladge and aklU."— ''jm'x Cturi, ' 

"II toofaitrena Iniareal."— JWnfiraJ 4fft. 

" Wortbyof acar«lalpenuaL"^/iv<fi^fta Jftdira' 
Joiirttai. 

"As lotarwttn J and popular acoeont at ika tan 

daticlea of ttodara blulogkal UMmghf."— /^pwwr 
gptenr* Mtm. 

■■AU Inlaraatad Iu bMoglcal qoaatlooa wt 
ibe book IssaU)ai]njt''-/^nn<u«Hri<i>l Km. 

"Tb(>aalbo«-dl»pUnaTarycaoip(abaiial*i 
of bis eubieijl.'— i^{<Ji<- vplutmt. 

"Deaarraa iba uiaiitloii of Mudents of natnr 

IV. THE CHEROKEES IN PRE-CO- 
LUHBiAN t:mks. By Cv«ct Thomas. W. h! 
Dr. TliuDiBs bu klroady pr*««at«Hi to um pnUli' 

■oiaa reams for balltrui tba Uberokeaa war 
(DiMiad-bMlldara, but addltUwa) •vldanca be 
ontbainMtctbia besuobialnad. a mora 
atudr of In* IMawara tradtiloa rBapoetluaO 
lea rl saitaOaa bito ibai we bare lu i&e BaA I 
(Waiau Ulumltaeir proof tbai iiiay w«na 
kara. U« tblaks ib« mounds raabia us to l 
Ui«ir lliM) ot nilfralti'ii e*ea beyond tfeatri 
lb <»ilo to Ibe waaiant bank ot tba MisHialr H^ 
object Is Iberwlorw ibrasfbid: I. An UloM.aMon i 
tba rvrana msiboa oi daslfnc wlib pcabMorte t 
lecU; 1 IiHildaatal proof tlutsosM of ib« f ~ 
wera raound bulldsrw Z. A atody at a alude L 
tba light of Ihenunnd laatlnMNiy, I'bts work < 
an Imponsat oontrlbatlui to tballleralurei— 
I olumblan dlsoorery wbtcn wtU doubtleaa ftps 
during lb* oonlag two jean. 

*- A ralDablaccLitriba'loii to tba quaatlon 
wsra tb» id ound-buUd an r ' "-AVr*: V<n* Timn' 

''Pioleasor Cyrus Tlioaiaa liuilvrtakaa to irs 
bMk tba ai^dencae of ftslogle ludlati tilbalnu t 
prablatortoonDoand.bulldUwafa."— .V V awn, 

" An iDtflrasUiic paper.*' -CUnif fan Vniott 

V. THE TORNADO. 

iir. 11. 

'* Tbe llltla book la eslremaly loiaresitng.'*_0M- 
row Trantrript. 

"A book wblcb will Had loaiiT readers. Tfea 
cbftpttr ou' Tornado JiuaraDca' U or itiaraM to 
all pKinarty-botdars tn ibe tornado »(at«r.''—jM(oitj 

" 'TbaTomsdo'laapopatftrtraailaeotiaalBipom 
lant provlBcacf meteoMbgy, in wblcb acleriM, Van 
aulbor. FrolesaDr Haimi ui tbe irutixi StaEaABIguiJ 
Serrloe, may be r«garaed a« an eIp.^n.'^ -FtMadH- 

fitiin f.rflfrt . 

VI. TIME-RELATIONS OF MENTAL 
PHKNOMENA. ByJoeipa J*srsow IJ*. »o.. 
" All aiudectaolpaiclioUigy will OikI IbabOMtlD ~ 

ol Intoreatlag laeia. ProtMMr Jastrow'a good qns 
lUeaaaalblDkvr and aaa writer ar« too wan an 
too widely known lo rtqulr« cOEDoieni."— i*MMf7 

Opinio.^. 

'• A. uaetnl work lor peTcbologiato— •« wall ^ uib 

(leoerBl toader— by aeiilng lanb In Miet nod gHlI* 
ctelllslUe Ivrai tbe praeeDi at&ie of knowledgala 
lasard lo the titua tsqutred for i^t parfonuatiM < 
mental ad*. ''—r*r Orilie. 

VU. HOUSEHOLD HYGIENE. 

Manr TaTLOM fiisMLi. if. TScaote. 

*■ A eeoalbla broebara."— ArooUm Saalt. 

" Praetloal and •eulble."-i^Mlc f^imuia. . 

*■ Tba advice and excellsni iDfarmatloa wUch tt 
ooulftlue are Utvaly and lutaUlgently Tiitrnaand." 
Bottcn JfMtfoai oMcf Bitrgifal Jaurnitl 

" Pracitoal and alHiply wrltUB."— SWnMMd 
ptiUiran. 

- The beai muaogfRpb oB bom* byglena "- 

/■> rreiianiltiin. 

Vin. THE FIRST YEAR OF CHILD-' 
MOOD. nyj. Makk Bttnwix. 



■ ■nb>>! 



tna' 



£y li. A. Haiix. 



N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New York. 



SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, JANUARY P. 1892. 



INFANTS' MOVEMENTS. 

In au earlier article,' I had occasion to speak of certaia 
phenomena of the infant's muscular development — the pbe- 
aomeDa which illustrate the principle of sucrgesLinn. A brief 
survey of certain general characters of these early move- 
ments may now be made. 

From the outset, movement is the infant's natural response 
to all influences. And, more than this, Bain and Preyer 
seem to have made out their case, that from the outset there 
are movements which are . spontaneous, due to unsolicited 
discharge of the motor centres. At any rate, no observation 
made after birth can decide the question one way or the 
other. It remains for the embryologista to continue their 
work, and thia is where Preyer's results get their principal 
value. 

In regard to movements more properly reflex and respon- 
sive, I may record a few detached observatious on my child. 
Carefully planned experiments with her, made in the ninth 
month, showed the native, walking reflex — alternative 
movement of the legs — very strongly marked. I held her 
by the body, having m'ade the legs quite Tree, in a position 
which allowed the bare feet to rest ligfatly upon a braooth 
table. The reflex seemed to come somewhat suddenly, for 
up to the middle of the eighth month I could not discover 
more than a single alternation j and this I had determined 
not to take as evidence, since it could well arise by chance. 
But, in the ninth month, I observed as many as three and 
four well regulated alternations in succession. Atflrst most 
of these movements were the reverse of the natural walking 
movements, being oftenest such as would carry the child 
backward. This, however, passed away. I have the follow- 
ing note on June i3, 1890 (tbe child being one day short of 
nine months old): ''Walking movements, 8 to 4 alterna- 
tions, backwards oftenest, bat tendtog rapidly to forward 
movements; later, 2 experiments, each showing 3 to 4 alter- 
nations forwards very plainly;" and on June 19: ''Floe 
activity in walking — good alternations, but more backwards 
than forwards — clearly reflex, from stimulus to the soles." 
It is easy to see that this backward alternation might be due 
to some accident of stimulation or dischai^ when the reflex 
was Bret called out; a tendency which early efl'orts at creep- 
ing would soon correct. Tet in H.'s case, it was so marked 
that for a period she preferred to creep backward. 

A few observations were made also upon bilateral reflexes. 
A gentle touch with finger or feather on the cheek, or beside 
the nose, or upon the ear, when H. was sleeping quietly upon 
her back, called out always the hand on the same side. After 
two or three such irritations, her sleep became troubled and 
she turned upon the bed, or vised both hands to rub the place 
stimulated. Tickling of the sole of the foot also, beftides 
■ SdBDflO, XTlL, 1SS1. p. US. 



causing a reaction in the same foot, tended to bring about a 
movement of the hand on the same side. These observa- 
tion!!, not a large number, were made iu the sixth, seventh, 
and eighth months. 

A reference has already been made to the late rise of real 
phenomeua of imitation. In support of the assertion, that 
imitation is rather late in its rise, the following experiences 
may be reported. As a necessary caution, the rule was 
made that no single performance should be considered real 
imitation unless it could be brought out again under similar 
circumstances. It is probable that cases of imitation recorded 
as happening as early as tbe third month are merely coinci- 
dences. For example, I recorded an apparent imitation by 
H., of closing the hand, on May 22 (beginning of the ninth 
month), but on the following day I wrote, "experiment not 
conflrmed with repeated trials running through four succeed- 
ing days." H.'s flnit clear imitation was (May 24) in knock- 
ing a bunch of keys against a vase, as she saw me do it, ia 
order to produce the bell tike sound. This she repeated again 
and again, and imitated it a second time a week later when, 
from lapse of time, she had forgotten how to use tbe keys 
herself. But on the same day (May 24), other efforts t» 
bring out imitation failed signally, i.e., more or less articu- 
late sounds, movements of the lips (Preyer's experiments), 
and opening and closing of the hands. Ten days later, bow- 
ever, she imitated closing the hand on three different occa- 
sions. And yet a week afterward, she imitated movements 
of the lips and certain sounds, as pa, ma, etc.' From this 
time forward the phenomenon seemed extended to a very 
wide range of activities, and began to assume the immense 
importance which it always comes to have in the life of the 
young child. It may be noted that H.'s first clear imitation 
plainly involved acorn plei voluntary muscular performance; 
and as far as a single instance is of value, it shows that the 
will may get control of certain muscular combinations before 
they are called out to a great extent involuntarily. In this 
respect, also, my observations confirm Soger's.' 

In order to test the growth of voluntary control over the 
muscles of the hand and Angers, I determined to observe the 
phenomena of H.'s attempts at drawing and writing, for 
which she showed great fondness as soon as imitation wits well 
fixed. Selecting a few objects well differentiated in outline 
— animals which she bad already learned to recognize and 
■ame after a fashion — I drew them one by one on paper 
and let her imitate the " copy." The results I have in a se- 
ries of " drawings" of hers, extending from the 7th of last 
April (the last week of her nineteenth month) to the present 
(middle of the twenty-seventh month). The results show 
that, with this child, up to the beginning of the twenty- 
seventh month there was no connection apparent between a 
mental picture in consciousness and the movements made by 

> Bgger noUoM this lue de<r«lopmo&t of rooal ImlMUon, " L'InteUlcvnoe at 
LuigBgs cbec loa BafsDU," p. IS. 

> IMJ. dt., p. 18-90. Tet I numot hold wiUi Enw thu Imitation bIwats liv- 
toItm *' iDtelilconee.'' 



[Vol. XIX. No. 466 



iuK hand and fingers id attempliuKtodraw it. Tbe "dnw- 
iiiif'' wtk» simply the vsguMt and most general imilalion of 
Ihe teacher's movemfiiU, not lh« traciiiK •>' * mental picture. 
And tbf> atiempt vast no better when a **copjr'' was made by 
in.V3Plf on the paper — a rough outline drawiuK of a man, etc. 
There was do «eiub]anc« of coufoi-oiity between tbe child's 
drawing and the oopT. Farther, vfbile she could identify 
the copy and name the auimal. she could not tdeoUry her 
own effort, except so far as she remembered what object Ahe 
set out to make. 

But in Ihe next week (early iu tlie twenty-aevCDth mouth) 
a change came. I drew a rough human figure, naming the 
jiart* in Buccession as they were made: she suddenly seemed 
to catt'li the idea of tracing each part, and she now for the 
firHl lime besaD to make figurps with vertical and boriiontAl 
|)ra|>ortioii ; i.e., she followed the order »be saw me lake: 
liend (circle), body (ellipnte) below, legs (two straigbl lines) 
farther below, handi (two lines) at the aides of the body. 
It is all done in Ihe crudest fn»hion. but that is due to tlie 
lack of niuacular co onlinalion. Wilh the Rimpliflcatioi) of 
the figure by broakiog il up into parts came also (he idea of 
tracery imitation, and iia iaiporrecl execution. 

Ae yet. however, it is limited to two or three copies ^ ob- 
jects which she sees me make. Thai H is oof now simply 
imitation of my movements is evident from tbe fact that she 
does not imitate my movements; sle looks ioieully upon the 
figure which I make, not at my movements, and then ntnves 
to imitate the figure wilh movements of h«r own very differ- 
ent from mine. But she has not genemlixed the idi-H ausy 
trotn parficulnr figures, for .ihe can not (racR at alt an alto- 
jullier new figure in right lines. Further, she traces these 
pai'lic'ilar figures Just as well without written copies before 
lier: Tier*, therefore, is the rise, of the tracery imitalitm of 
her own vifntat picture — a fact of great thvorelical in tercet. 
Thisilluslrates again tbe point so strangely overlooked by 
writers ou the rise of volilioo thai the earltest voluntary acta 
are not voluntary movemcDLs. Tbe thing pictured and 
billed here is not a movemeut, it is a Ngure — man. bird, 
dog. This figure suggesiU (Rtimnlates) its motor associates. 
iiioiily laler that the muscular movement becomes con- 
ious end. 

In the nature nf the movements which tbe child has made 
in this nerin of drawings there is a marked change and de- 
velupment. There is growth from angular straight lines lo 
curves, from aiovenieut" one way exclusively to reverse 
movements, and an increasing tendency to complex inlHc-ate 
IlyarM, which last probably resulbi from greatly increased 
4ftW, Taricly, and rapidity of movement. At first nhe made 
cmly sweeping "arm movenjenls." then began to flex the 
wrist novnewhat. and now, with no learhing, she manipu- 
lates ihp pencil with her fingers cousiderably. Tliis seems 
lo give support to the opinion of professional wriling-leach- 
ert that tbe " Hrui-movemenl " is muat natural and ctfcctive 
for pur|>oses of penmanship. 

Further, all her cirves ore made by movemenla from left 
lo right going upward and from rijfht to left dowoward. 
This is th« method of uur utiual writing as contrasted with 
" backhnnd." She also prefers lateral to vertical move- 
ments on ihc paper. Her inort frequent and easy '"drnw- 
icg" consists of aseriesof rapid right-and-lcrt strokes almoH 
|iarall-l lo one another. J. Mark Baldwin 



A FEW CHARACrERTSTTCS OF THE AVIAN 
JIRAIN.' 

Whrk wn compare the brain of a crow or a titmouse wiih 
the braiD of a snake or a turtle, it is oo longer a marvel that 
birds bear towards their reptilian cousins the relation of in- 
tellectual giauts to intellwlual dwarfs. The cranium of 
reptiles is small, while the bra^o cavity of birds is larg*. and. 
what is more pertinent, the whole of that cavity is filled with 
a compact braiu ma^s. Not only thai, but (be cerebrum, the 
seat of the intellectual faculties, constitute:!) the major porlion 
of that niHSS. 

The cerebrum is composed of two lateral halves or bemis- 
plieres. which are so situated that tbcy form a uomimct heart- 
shaped mass. The apex of this heart is directeil towards tbe 
bill of the bird, wLile the notch is directed towards the tail. 
These beniispberea are unconvoluled, butlbe borders of some 
of the superllcial lobet. approach almost lo the dignity of con- 
volutions. Furthermore, a microscopic study of the brain 
reveals the fact that ncrasionally there occurs a blind convo 
lution; i.e., an iutemsl projection of gray matter with-mt a 
conconiiiant Kurfare convolution 

A inicro»c(ipic*tudy of the bird brain does not reveal a cere- 
bral cortex similar to thatof tbe human cerebrum. Here the 
cerebral cortex is represented by a thin hull containing aev- 
eral loosely aggregated cell-clusters. These cell clusters are 
constant and are homologous to corresponding clusters in the 
lixard brain. 

Next iu size to the cerebrum eoraes the cerebellum. Not 
only is il transversely convoluted, uol only is it a cover for 
the medulla, but il is also partly wedged into the notch 
between the two halvesof Iheeetcbrum. This hii^b develop- 
ment of the cerebellum of birds, coupled wilh tbe correspond- 
ing high development of the cerebellum of fishes, is a strong 
argument in fsvor of the hypothesis that the cerebellum 
functions as a co ordinating oentre for muscular movements. 

Neurological I y considered, birds are pre-emiuently seeing 
animals, and all pirts that appertain to vision are highly 
deveIo)}ed. The optic nerve is the largest cranial nerve, and 
the Optic lobes are completely dilfcrenlinled bodies. ICveo 
the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves, although quite - 
small, are relatively larger than the corrcflpondiog nerves of 
the mammalian brain. 

An extraordinary development of one set of organs is 
never accomplished but at Ihe expense of some otherset. In 
this case ihe organs of tbe sense of smell have been the mar- 
tyrs. Although in the lower avian types the olfactory lobes 
are paired and conspicuous, yet in the highest types of birds 
they have been reduced to a small unpaired body which la 
partly imbedded iu the base of the cerebrum 

These two facts lend support to the view that birds of prey 
Bud their food more by aid of the sense of sight limn by aid 
of Ihe sense nf smelt. The birds of prey are far from the 
lower end of the scale, and ta all cases examined the olfac- 
tory lobes have Iteen rebilively siitaller than the conespood- 
ing lobes of chickens, geeae. turkeya. etc. I have not yet 
examined a buzxard's brain; but, judf^ingby the figures of A. 
Bumm,* tbey have sinsll, inconspicuous olfactory lobes. 

From the above Blatemeols. we see that economy of apace 
is evidenced in all parta of the avian brain. Indeed "pro 
gressivc compactness " bos played so iraportout a part iu tbe 
evolution of birds that there is a vast difference between the 

> Tbto U but % brief nbatrac!! at m [Hmlon at my p^psr opoo Uie " .Uvrjrtiiil- 
<«f oruw AtUu Bntis," JouruftI of Co«nparaU>e NDurobiftr. rvl. I., pp. SB SI. 

io:-]«. MB-SS8. pi v.-vjii., xrv.-Kvi.,xviii. 

• [las Qroaaira dar VecH, Z«li<Klirlli l. Wins ZAotoflr, [M. iisflU., 1S4. 



January 8, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



t7 



lowest avian brains, with their targe projecting olfactory lobes 
and QQCOTered optic lobes, and the higb^t avian braina, with 
their small, inconspicuous olfactory lobes and covered optic 
lobes. The difference between these two extremes is almost 
as great as that between the brain of a lizard and the brain 
of the lowest type of birda Tet there is no impassable gulf 
between these two extremes. Alt the intervening stages are 
supplied by the brains of the rarioua avian groups. In re- 
viewing this remarkable sequence, we are almost forced to 
believe that this tendency towards a progressive compactness 
of the hrain existed long before the first bird was evolved. 
If this be true, then this tendency towards a progressive com- 
pactness of the brain, combined with a tendency to develop 
all parts appertaining to vision and to atrophy all parts ap- 
pertaining to smell, will account for all the major diEFerences 
between the avian and the reptilian brain. 

Furthermore, within this class of animals, this " progres- 
sive compactness" of the brain is a factor of taxonomic im- 
portance. 80 far at least as major groups are concerned, a 
classiflcatioQ based upon it alone is, for the most part, in 
harmony with Ibose ctassiBcations that are based upon other 
structural elements of birds. 

Histologically considered, the bird brain is composed of 
nerve fibres, nerve cells, and neuroglia. Excepting the for- 
nix and hippocampal commissures, all the principal com- 
missures of the mammalian brain, corpus callosum included, 
are found in the avian brain. Poverty of space causes the 
omission, in this abstract, of the various other tracts of the 
bird hrain. 

Although in the bird brain the nerve cells present a great 
diversity of forms, yet they may all be grouped in the fol- 
lowing classes: ganglionic cells, Deiter's corpuscles, fusiform 
or flask cells, pyramidal cells, and multipolar cells. The 
ganglionic cells are large bi-polar cells, which are never found 
outside of the root ganglia. Each extremity of the cell is 
prolonged into a nerve fibre. One fibre passes into the brain, 
the other into a nerve. In addition to the ordinary cell wall, 
each of these ganglionic cells is surroiinded by a special 
nuclei-bearing sheath. Deiter's corpuscles are small cells, 
which are supplied with so small an amount of protoplasm 
that ordinary preparation reveals nothing but their nuclei. 
These minute cells are universally distributed. In the cere- 
bellum, however, they are densely aggregated in a single 
lamina; while in the optic lobes they are densely aggregated 
in several concentric laminae. The remaining three types 
are encountered throughout the hrain; but in any single 
nidulus some type always predominates, often to the exclu- 
sion of the other two. The flask cells resemble a flask in 
shape, and when stained'each cell presents a faintly stained 
nucleus, within which is a densely stained nucleolus. Such 
cells are supposed to function as sensory ceils. The pyra- 
midal cells are sub-pyramidal in outline. These cells stain 
densely, when each one presents a densely stained nucleus, 
within which is a densely stained nucleolus. Such cells are 
probably motor in function. The multipolar cells resemble 
distorted, many-branched, pyramidal cells. Such cells proba- 
bly act as switch stations for nervous energy. 

Dniver9ltToICinolnn*U,D«c. 81. la*?. C. H. TtJRSKB. 



The remaios'of several feline animals have been described 
from the Loup Fork, one of them {Felis maxima, Scott) 
being the largest of all known Felxdce; hut none referred 
to the genus MachtEvodus has been announced. It may, 
however, yet appear that the F. maxima itself, which Pro- 
fessor Scott has but provisionally referred to the genus Felit, 
is a macheerodont. 

The Loup Fork canine includes the entire root and neck 
aud the basal portion of thecrown. As nearly as it is possible 
to judge, it represents an animal about as large as the puma, 
but it must be borne in mind that the size of an animal 
cannot be very positively and closely estimated from a part so 
highly specialized and so subject to variation in the ratio of 
its size to that of the body as is the canine in this genus. In 
any event, the tooth indicates an animal smaller than any 
of the known American Pleistocene species, unless it bo 3f. 
gracilis, Cope, and considerably larger than the European 
Miocene M. palmidens, de Blainville. 

As compared with the larger American species of Siacha- 
rodtts (M. necator, etc.), M. gracilis is characterized by the 
more compressed form of the basal portion of the upper 
canine; and this compression is said to be a marked feature. 
In the Loup Fork species, on the contrary, that tooth has 
greater relative thickness than in M. necator, the thickness 
of the tooth, at base of crown, being related to its breadth as 
1 to 1.65, while the corresponding ratio in M. necator (taken 
from Cope's illustrations) is I to S.3. In M. neogcetia the 
ratio, derived from the measurements given by Burmeister, is 
1 to 3.33. 

The Loup Fork species may be known as Machasrodut 
crassidena. 

The canine of M. crassidens presents a gentle curvature 
and has its posterior cutting edge compressed and denticu- 
lated. Whether the anterior border was of similar cfaaracter 
is uncertain. The form of a point-like downward prolonga- 
tion of the surface of fracture on the anterior border of the 
crown may have been determined, when the tooth was broken, 
by the presence of a compressed border, but, if so, the con- 
tour of the preserved part of the crown does not indicate it. 
It is, at least, certain that a denticulate carina did not extend 
so far from the apex on the anterior as on the posterior bor- 
der. 

DIMHSIONS. 

iDches. 

BrendUi of orowD ofcaulDeaC base I.Il 

Tbloknew of Mme 6» 

BreadUi of crawu 1.9 lacbm above base (about) SS 

Tblckatss of crown at sam« (about) 46 

Lergtb ot root of canine (to origin of denticulated keel] S-U 

LoDBtb of canine, as restored lapprozlraate) G.45 

Should new material prove that only the posterior margin 
of the canine is denticulated, the species would, in this re- 
spect, resemble the Machcerodus nestianua of the upper 
Pliocene of Italy. F. W. Craoin. 

Colorado Spriucv, Co!. 



A NEW SABRE-TOOTHED TIGER FROM THE LOUP 
FORK TERTIARY OF KANSAS. 

In a collection of Loup Fork Tertiary fossils obtained by 
the writer from northern Kansas, is a right upper canine of 
Machcerodus, apparently different from that of any of the 
known species of that genus. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Pennsylvania Slate Board of Health, at the instance ot 
the Guvernof of PennBylvania, iaa issued an invitation to the 
otiier State and the more important city L>oard8of health, and to 
the American Public Health Association, to join in a confetence 
with the officers of the World's Columbian Exposition at the city 
of Chicago, with the view to making an exhibit of the objects, 
methods, and results of the work of sanitary ofScials in this 
country. 

— Mr. Charles S. Peirce has tendered his resignation as A^siKt- 
ant in the United Statfs Coast and Geodetic Survey, to take effect 
Dec. 31. Mr. Peircewas first attaclied to yi\«.%Q:t^'«T*R«<i^"^^'*^'» 



SCIENCE. 



^ou X1X.^W^4< 



I ngo. During t\» grc-Mtr part of tlie tinic be hah hnd charge 
operations rolatint:; lo the dptetminfttion of tbe forrc ct 
gravity. Some of ibe tesulLt of hiK iiivf:<1i};Bliou«1iav« bcra pub- 
lUhed hit ap(*iMlu-i>* to ihv AnDiinl R«>port» MwHiave rml>odieil 
rauUilwitiun^ of tfii'^I ini|>oilatHv't<t >4:iet>Cf. It in tiit<lcr»IO(iil 
thnt Mr Pi'iicv will cuiitinue tu fitniitth the 8iirrpy from timer to 
Umv i^ptrcial t)iscu<Bion(i of Vipics rplated to the mibject lo which 
ie hw Jevoted to maaj yeare. 

— Tli« routes, botb northern ftud foulliciu, uow ffimnllT 
iMJople^ Itv the iiriiicipal Iraauttantic ^U'UiiiBlilp coiiipunieb are 
■honn <>n ihiB iiiontti'a Pilot Chart itwui-J by Lhi- United States 

lydroyruiihiL' 0(Bce, Tlic northern ronleis rf main in force until 

Ibe middle of Janimr^, hut .itennifra thnt tnke their depArturpH 

_from Sand; Hook Li i;ht- vessel, |tf»t)n Out^r I.i];lit. FasCnpt, or 

liiihOf<'4 nock, on or after ih<r 15th. follon- ih« souliiern route*, 

rblch then remain in forcv till the mtildle of July next. A« 

ited laat month, oo tbe chart, ti<>-e alt'amfthip companies [the 

^Ounard. WbitoHlnr, Inuan, Guion, and National) hare adopted 

theae r'Mttes to and from the Fuulnet, kiul the Tolluwiug eoni|m- 

niiti faiive now couie into the nt(r«^'"^'>t <UkinK the ^real circle 

bvtn'et-n Rii>hop't» Itm-k and tl>e BunkH): Norlli German Lloyd, 

|B»uibiir)i;-Au>eticHn, Couiptipiv G^otrale Tmnaalluntique, and 

Star. It will be reioember^ that the Pilot Chart recom- 

tuendcd that the Channel atenmers adopt (be same raut«« (we^l of 

the 20th meiidian') as the Queeotitowa ateaoiera, but these vom- 

panJefr have decided to follow Ibc gmmt circle diroci to the Grand 

Bonk*. The obji-ction tu thtH course is that tbe region within 

which eastward and westward bound Teeaelfl are liable to en- 

counter one another is broader than in ca-oe (be point of junction 

Iji eltified farther ea»t, !*ay to tbe 2Dth meridian, while tbe di»> 

I'lance *iave<l Is r-oiniiarit lively Klighl (only xix mile» for i-he north- 

iitid niiHt raileif for tbe toutheto routes). J'omibly at some 

future time a cooipromis«> will be made by whioh tbe junction 

will be fixed at some point that ntay be mutually a^reel u]ton 

|{uiy atjout tlie ISlh meridian in latitude Hil" north). Until audi 

in firr,in^-u]eut \t tuude b; the compimied interested, tbe couteu 

ruady adopted und uctUKUyio force will be ihown on this Chart. 

— A correspondent of the London Spectator, writes fw follows : 
I have atudied the liahita of i1ie> icorpion for many yeaT.-^. and have 
often D'iticed how very benjutive B(X)r|iinnAaret<.i the mo»t delicate 
sound, muaicnl or otherwiite. Uuder the thorax the Bcorplon haa 

|(w» couih-like np|K'ndflge«t which arc tbe antcniue (pectiiiata>). 
[It in pretty nell i»eltl(.Hl by physiologi«lfl and entomologists Ibac in 
■be untennA- represent the urbane of heiiring. These deli- 
i»truclarea ure easily affected by the vibrations of sound, and 
can be no doubt whatever that they are also alFected by 
auudtf quite inaodtble to the human ear. Tlie slifthleat vibration 
L«f the atiuoS|il>ere, fiotn any caum whatever, at once puta in 
tnotioD the delioite i>tructure« which coni[wnc the nntennft*. to 
which orgam inaocU owe the power of protecting themselves 
agaJnHt danfj^r, a« well w* Ibe meant* of recugnixing l)ie approach 
of one another. Spiden bavi; wonderful eyesiijht. but I am quite 
sure thut the scorpion's vinon. nutwithslHOJiiiK bU «bc eyes, ia 
far from being acute. It is very dilBculi to catch a apller with a 
pair of forceps, but a scorpion can t>o easily capturfd, if no noise 
U Diadf. Spiders see their prt? before they are cuught in the 
web; but Ihe M,'orpioa mukett no muvenient whatever lo eeiw flies 
or cockroaehes until they indicate ibeir whereabonts by more- 
mieDte. This Ixiing the cane, it can readily he underotood how 
[]y Ibe scorpion may bo roused into motion by Ihe vilirHtionsof 
lUdc, as described in the article alhide<l to. If a tuning-fork be 
on tbe lalile on which t ke^p my caged scorpion, he at 
becomes agitated, and strike* out viciously with bis sting. 
On touching bim with the vibrating tuning-fork, he stings it, and 
then coils himself np. as scorpions do when hedged iti. In 
Jamaica, the negroes believe that scorpiouH know thetr name; so 
they never call out, "See, a scorpiou," wbeo ihey lueet with one 
on tbe groand or wait, for fear of bia escaping. They thus 
indirectly recognize the sciirpion's delicate sppreciution of i>ounir; 
but if you wivh to stop u ircorpion in his fliRht. blow air on him 
from tbe mouth, and be at once coils himself up. t have repeatedly 
dooe this; but with a spider it has a roatniry effect. Moalc 



chormN a snake into sflenee, as the experimentfl at the Z(V> and' 
elsewhere prove: hat ibe agiiaied contortions and wrilbingai 
tbe scorpions when rou^d by the sjond of ihe violin only ]iroT«' 
that they are routed by the vibmtions ot sound caiiu>d by moaic.i 
and thi» would hsjipen if llicy vci-i<- di«lurliOd by the dutctKilant^ 
siiundH of a iwnny trumpet or any other uniuu»icHl tiivtrument. 

— At the recent Krenoh tlurgical Ci>ngm« MM. Henocque and 
Daxy reported the rMults nf a seriiit of exaniinntions of the blood 
with the spectroscope made on |>er<M>Ds who were coni|«lled to 
undergo surgical operutions. According to tliese investigattoot 
tbe demonstration of tbe quantity of haemoglobin in Ibe blood, 
affor-ls tlie surgeon some valu-ible infurmation In cnees where H" 
!^ ueccisiairy lo deride whether the patient's henllh ia t<uf)i(-ientlr 
good to permit of Ihe pcrformimce »f an opratiou which may 
not l»e urgently required. In uvuriolumies and lapHrutomie<t un- 
dertaken for the reinoviil of Luniorn it ii of advantage to deter- 
mine Ihe dejtrre of aniemia and the condilion of nutruion hj this 
method, an that the operator may he able to Delect tlie mo^t ftirur- 
nble time for operation Tilt- ntithors a\s-n made, according to lh«, 
Internatioiiai Journal of Surf)fry. wme exceedingly interef-llnf[, 
expf^rimeoU with the view of studying the cff^-ots of chloroforiu 
aneetbesia upon tbe quantity of oxy-hn>moglobin in the blood and , 
upon tissue metamorphosis. These inveatigalions were carried 
oit before, during, and nfler the |>erformance of surgical opera- 
tions. It was demonxinited iu elicbl cases of major opcmtfons 
that chloroform actually tend* to augment the quantity of hotnio- 
globin in the blootl, unless a cuoditioii of oaphyzia is pro<luccdT' 
and tliat this quantity may remain stationaiy despite severe loseed] 
of blood. One of tlie constant eSecU of chloroform aitxeslhesia, 
however, is lo retnrd the reduction of oxy- hiemoglobin ; lb«t is lo 
say, it decreases tissue nietamor|»bosi>i. Thesw plicnoiimin there- 
fore illiisCrate that cblnntform does not exert a toxic influence on 
the blood, although it has a marked eff<<ct in n'tarilirg tt>e vital 
chemical procesws in the body. In cates of sudden death st the 
commencement of chloroform anffistbesin a complexe arrest of 
tissue metomorpfaoais taki-i; place, and lo thiti. ia the authors' 
opinions, should be attributed the e&traurdinary severity of tills 
form of synco|)e. They also heli'^ve that thee>e facts demunatrate 
the advantage of determining before operation whether lui itidi- 
vidu'il tendency to rt>tar<lcd tissue metomorphnitis be present. Iu 
striking contrast lo the re«ulu obtained by MM. Boxy and Hen- 
oc4)ue. however, Dr. Mikulicz found that tbe prolonged adminU- 
tration of chloi-ofurm proiluoed a decrease of htpmo^lobto even 
in operations unattended with loss of blood. This fact simply 
illustrates the wide discrepancy in the results obtained by different 
investigators of tbe tame subject. 

— In H bulletin junt publiithe<l by the Entomological Division of 
the Cornell University Ex^wriment Hlntinu, Profensors J. H, Com* 
stock and M. V, .SingvHaud report upon a seriex of exfieriments, 
continued for three years, tbe object of which was lo diwover a 
practical method of preventing the ravages of wirewonns. Som^ 
of the resulu of th(>M- cxiferimcnld are summarized as follows ; 
Orains of com were coated with a flour paste oontaintDg Paria. 
green and pltintcd. Tbe only apparent result was to retard thfti 
sprouting of the seeds, Ihe wireworuH apparently thriving upon, 
tbe poisoned paste. Tbe rose bug is another insect which it isj 
practically im|iosaible tn kill with Pari>) green. Coaling tbe swd^ 
com with tar or soaking in salt hrine, copperas solution, keroaen 
oil, or turpentine Interfered with germination mnch more than it 
did with tbe appetite of Ihe wireworm. Soaking in strong solo*- 
tion of strychnine failed to render the corn either distasteful 
destructive to the worms. Starvation was found to be a« inef- 
fectual as feeding on poison, as tbe soil was kept entirely bare of' 
vegetalioD for an entire seasoo without reducing tbe number of 
worms. Buckwheat. Chinese mu»tar<l and rape have been rec- 
Ounneoded as crops upon which wireworms will not feed, hut iu 
these ezperimeota the worms lived and thrived us well upon tbe 
roots of these plants as they did upon those of timothy and clover. 
Kerosene oiU crude jjetrxileum and bbulpbide of carbon were ap- 
plied lo tbe soil as insecticides, the keronene and petroleum being 
alxiused in theform of cmulsiona. They killed the wireworms 
when applied in sulHcleot quantity to dei^roy all vegeiaMon aUoul 



January 8; 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



»9 



Their me was found tmpnu-licabic on account of the cost. Many 
farmers believe that salt elthw hills wireworms or driveB them 
deeper into the aoil beyood the roots of crops, and a series of care- 
fully pLanaed ezperitaents were made to teat this theory. The 
results aboH-ed that in urder to destroy wireworons salt must be 
used at the rate of about eight tons to the acre, or over one per 
cent of the soil to a depth of four inches must be salt. Ilalf a 
tOD of salt to the acre was found sufficient to prevent one-half the 
wheat from germinating, and four tone per acre, applied in July, 
killed all the grass in a few days. In Boil salted at the rate of 
1,000 pounds per acre the worms were found, after some months, 
as numerous and as near the surface aa in unsalted soil. Eiiinit, 
a German potash salt now used extensively as a feltilizer, hai 
been supposed to be uspful in ezterminating wireworms, and the 
syndicate which is pushing the rale of Kainit in this country 
make great claims on tiiis score ; but in the Cornell experiments 
four to nine tons of Kainit per acre produced but little if any 
effect upon the wireworms in the soil. Other potash saltsgaveno 
better resuUe. Lhne, applied at the rate of 200 bushels per acre, 
had no effect upon the wireworms. Chloride of lime, used at the 
rate of nearly six tons per acre (costing about one hundred dol- 
lars per ton), was found to be quite effective. Gas lime, applied 
fresh and at the rate of twenty to forty tons per acre, proved par- 
tially effective. Trapping by baits produced the only results that 
gave any encouragement, but these baits caught, not the wire- 
worms, but its parent, the click-beetle. The most satisfactory 
trap was a wad of fresh clover, dipped in Paris green water snd 
placed under a board. These experiments were made in cages in 
such manner that the conditions could be absolutely controlled 
and the results accurately determined. Their negative results 
may be of great value to farmers by preventing the waste of time 
and money in trying useless methods of prevention. The only 
hope of a practicable remedy the investigators hold out to the 
farmers is that by fall plowing the worms may be disturbeil at a 
critical period of their existence, when disturbance means death. 
They recommend plowing as soon as possible after wheat harvest, 
pulverizing in]mediatt>ly and thoroughly with the harrow, and 
seeding with wheat or rye in September, followed by not more 
than one or two crops of grass or clover, this to be plowed under 
in the summer as before. It will take several years of this method 
of short rotations to exterminate the worms, as they live for three 
years in the worm stage, and can only be injured by plowing at 
a certain period, but farmers who practise this method have little 
or no trouble from wireworms. 

— At the rec*>nt annual meeting of tba American Folk-Lore So- 
ciety, in Washington, D. C, Rev. J. Owen Dorsey read a paper, 
entitled, 'Nanibozhu in Siouan Mythology." At the previous 
annual meeting of the Society (in New York), a paper was read 
by Professor A. F. Chamberlain of Clark University, on "Nani- 
bozhu among the Otchipwe. Mississagas, and other Algonkian 
Tribes." (Journal American Folk- Lore, for July-September, 1891, 
pp. 193-318). Mr. Dorsey's paper was designed to show the 
points of agreement and difference (so far as Nanibozhu is con- 
cerned) in the mythologies of the two linguistic stocks of fami- 
lies, ^e Algonkian and the Siouan. In the preparation of Mr. 
Dorsey's paper, the author consulted the myths of the O-oahas, 
Ponkas, TCj^^ntum or Kaws, Osages,' lowas and Otoe, all of which 
were collected by himself for the Bureau of Ethnology, and the 
Dakota myths of the late missionary, S. R. Riggs, and those in 
the Bnshotter collection, these last consisting of two hundred and 
flfty-seyen texts written by an Indian in the Teton dialect of the 
Dakota language. In Algonkian mythology, Nanibozhu, Hana- 
bush, or the Great Hare (sometimes called the Manito of winter), 
is a single character, easily identifiable. But in Siouan mythology 
we Bnd several characters, each one of whom resembles the Algon- 
kian Nanibozhu in one or more respects. The principal characters 
thus known to the Omahas and Ponkas are the following : 1. The 
Babbit, the great friend of the Indian race (answering to the 
Badger in Dakota mythology). 3. I shti-ntke, the enemy of the 
Babbit, the great Deceiver, a malevolent being. His Dakota 
counterpart, I-klo or I kto-mi in Teton, and Un-kto mi in Santee 
Dakota, is often a clown, a "jolly good fellow " deceived by the 
BaoMt, malevolent on some occasions. Tbe Omabas call I-ahti- 



ni-ke the *' Black Man," and they and the Ponkas now apply bis 
name'to any species of ape or monkey. The Dakotas give the 
name of Ikto or Unktnmi to the spider. 8. Hapghi-ge, a ▼erf- 
cunning person, who wounis two water gods in order to avenge 
tbe death of his little brother, meets I-shti-ni-ke, when tbe latter 
is disguised as He-ga, the Buzzard, learns bis secret power, and 
then kills bim; kills the water gods whom he had wounded; is 
chased by tbe other deities, but escnpes by tteconiing a large rock ; 
restores bis brother to life for a season ; and has other adventures. 
The other characters who resemble Nanibozha are as follows: In 
Dakota myths, the Badger figures instead of tbe Rabbit, and the 
Blood-Clots Boy takes the place of tbe Rabbit's son, tbe orphan 
and Wears-a-plume-in-his-bair. In the myths of the Omahas it ia 
the orphan who kills I-shti-ni-ke, but the Ponkas refer that act to 
the Rabbit*B pon. Wears a plume in-bis-bair was the conqueror 
of tbe " Bad Men," magicians, three of whom he killed; besought 
the survivor, but did not recognize him in his disguise as a beau- 
tiful wuman. The woman induced tbe hero to rest bia head in 
ber lap, and while he slept she changed him into a mangy dog, 
and took tbe hero's shape. In the course of time, tbe hero waa 
restored to his own shape. He changed tbe bad man into a dog, 
and then killed bim. The Omaha and Ponka myths referred to in 
this paper are given in full in their respective originals (with free 
and intf rlinear translations) in " Contributions to N. A.Etfanology," 
Vol. 6, which has just been published. The paperon Nanibcnha 
will probably appear in a future number of tbe Journalof Ameri- 
can Folk-Lore, 

— In a recent number of The Illustrated American ia an illus- 
trated article on tbe Moeeum of Natural History at South Ken- 
sington, which was first thrown open to the public on Easter 
Monday, 1881. Some years ago the British Museum bad become 
so overstocked in certain departments that it was deemed neces- 
sary to erect another strucliu-e, to contain all objects connected 
witli natural history, and Parliament voted three hundred and 
ninety- five thousand pounds (nearly two million dollars) for tbe 
purpose. Alfred Waterboufe was the architect chosen to carry 
out the work. Tbe architecture may be termed Decorated Nor- 
man, and in some respects it is unique. The whole edlBce is 
cased with terra cotta, and the doorways and windows are oma- 
mfnled with columns designed from object« of natural history — 
two features that have provoked much criticism. It has been 
charged, says The Illustrated Ameridm, that the tint of the terra 
cotta is not suitable for making the various articles in the museum 
stand out in relief; that it was a mistake to bring in close proxim- 
ity the real objects of natural history and tbe conventional repn- 
penlation of them adopted by architects; and that the crowding 
together on the same column or moulding representations on one 
scale, of microscopic and gigantic organisms, inhabitants of sea 
and land, was unwarrantable in a building designed for educa- 
tional purpoee>>. Complaint has also been made that tbe great 
hall is semi-ecclesiastical in style. The south front of tbe buikling 
is six hundred and seventy-five feet long. There are three 
stories, in addition to the basement. The central ball is one hun- 
dred and fifty feet long, ninety-five feet wide and sixty feet high- 
Along its two sides are twelve arched recesses. The floor is in. 
laid with mosaics of Italian marble. At the north end of tbe ball 
is a wide handsome staircase, which branches off, right and left, 
to tbe open corridors or side aisles on either hand upon tbe first 
floor. Where tbe stairs branch a superb marble statue of Darwin 
has been placed. Tbe lofty ceiling is admirably decorated, and 
is very effective. Along its central line there is a double row of 
panels, in group} of six, following tbe curve of tbe vault. On 
these are representations, in relief, of many species of trees, 
shrubs and flowering plants. Each tree decorating the central 
part of the ceiling occupies Eix panels. The height of the build- 
ing makes this l>otd treatment absolutely nece^ssry. But over 
tbe staircase and landing leading to the second floor the ceiling 
ia less distant from the eye; therefore a tree is represented in each 
panel, and many fine details have been carefully worked out, 
details that were purposely omitted in the central part, as they 
would have been lost ia the distance. One unpleasing effect of 
tbe loftiness of tbe arched roof is that it dwarfs tbe cases placed 
around the room. 



SCIKNCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. ^(>6. 



SCIENCE: 



A WEBSIY NEWSPAPER OF ALL TBS ARTS AND SCIENCES. 

KFBUIHKO »V 

N. D. C. HODGES. 

871 BkOADWAV, New VORK. 



8imKaimem.-Ucilt«d BUl«»kA4Cam>l« .MJ»»r»»'. 

OtvM BrtMlB ftnd Burofio.... ..>•.> IJOafMr. 

COBlBMiliMktloaB win ba »al(KMBe4 bom aay qaart^r. Atatracta of actaiillBr 
)*r*a(iHclla4. aiul OBH buadradi^nploa fli tli« laau* nootalolnx Miok will 
HkltMl tW BdUiar t,o i^o^Mt In adTft&M. BaiMlcd luiMiMnpu wtil b« 
rvlonMl lo tt)o ftuUion onir wtm Uh raqvlalw unociat o( puMaia Moum- 
VUilM tli« namtaenpl. WltM»v«r U Inteadad tvr inaurtion Rival b* aitihvad 
aftl«4 br th« uuna »m) Ml<lr«aM ot Iha «rlt*r: aot i>oo««aArIlT (nr pnblloatlon. 
kilt aa a KOMmoty of fOfxl (alth. Wa do not bold ooTaelraa rnapuoafbla for 
*aj view or ofilDlona eapnnacO la Uia uomtauali'aUoaa Of out vormtiHiDilmla. 
AlMaUOB U oaltMl lo Lbe "Want*" culnmn. All alv lorltvil Ca nie It In 
•OllcltlD( lulonoaiion or sMklBi neir poaltlons. Tbe aamw aad addraai ol 
ftppUeuta tlioqtd bu glroo In lull, ao tliat aaawen cUl co <llr«ct lo tbem. TOv 
" kx«bailc« " eolaniD la Uke«la« ut^a. 

Vor jUaenialag Bat«a apiUi' to Bbkk* F. Tatloh, 4t Latayelta Plana, Nww 



THE KLAMATH NATION.' 

II.— Lusavwrics. 
When, early Id tlm preMoL century, the Americnn Ihh- 

[gtiages, or rattier a cerinin number of llipm, anO (lariicijlbrly 

[tboM of the Alfionkian, Iroquoiaii, Mt-xicuu. Peruvian, Hnd 
raneaoiaa families, became Ibe subjects of scieiitiBc study, 
flrat emotions wLicli Ihia study excited wore tboM of 
lurprw ftiid jileastirc. Tlie <*Iahora*.p forms, the omny in- 
genious nielbods of worO-cuniptKitiou, mid the singular 
Cftpacily for «zpree«ion th(>nrc derivei), filled the lirst in- 
quirers wilb adtniratiou. TIiib adtnirAtiun. cxpn-ssvd witb 
Uie entbasiaittn of discoveront, nuturally awatcened acepliciam 
and advcme rriticUm. Tbe <;riii<-isni. origiuutiu^ tuaiuly in 
1irejndi<.-<> and Ibe pride uf race, and based on tbat partial 
kDOvrtedgo wbich is sometimes mon> misleading llian iflrno- 

|triu!D, ■vas for tbe moat part unfounded and uojuri. Tbe 
ilicB objected that th« AQierifau lanj^uages. bring those of 

^barbarous tnl>es, mnst uocesMirtly be inferior In the idioms 

of liifibly civilJxed rac<^, like the Aryan and Seniitio nations; 

but thny TorKut Lbat (he early Aryaua and SeiuiLes were 

themwlvce burbariiinf, mid yet their languafces, as we know 

froni many furta, wurea» well conatrucled and as expiewive 

in Iheir era of barburiKOj nst in thai of Lbeir highest culture. 

Thpobjf ctors also informed hh that the rvason why the words of 

the American Ianguaj;e& were of such elaborate fomiation and 

ofM*n excessive length, wosaimplr booouw tbesiwakers. licjn^ 

harbarlaus, bad not attained the analyjunK-imwer required lo 

reduce the vocableH lu tboir component parts; hut further in- 

TesliK&linnft have ahown thai many Amertcau lauiiuufies, 

inelndiug the Dakota, tbe Maya, and the Oitiomi loii«ue», 

are in iK>me re(i|>ei'l« even nion- unulylic Ihau tbe Aryan, and 

their wortis generally briefer. We were further told that the 

Atnerieao idiouia hid not ihe aubstantive verb, which, we 

'were assured, was the highest ezpresaion of Aryar and 

Seoiilic analysis and ab^lmcttnn. But later researches hare 

found this verb in the Athatiascun, tbe Sahavlin, the £Ib- 

niatU, and vartou» other Indian tongues, as fully developed 

as in the Sanacril or ibe Gr^ek. Then we were asauretl that 

• Tka am uiMa — dh Uta " KlamaUt C'uuairr aud PMiila"— appMu«d In 
llt»l*alBUiaber((IScl«DC«. Ta« iblrd aniloouoltnllDgartlrla— on'-KUmatli 
H jtaoloffr Aud »t>ii«T»l RuuMlucr " — win art**" '» 'h* «i««« laan*. 



Anierirnii lunjjuai'es had few or no expressions fnr abstract. 
ideas. We now find that aome of tbeai abound in atich ei- 
presMOQs, and have peculiar forms especially deaignad to-' 
indicalt! thcni. The ubjpctora derided certain Indian lan- 
L'uuires. like the lrt>i]uoian and the Al^onkian. In which the 
terms (if kindred mukt always have a posaesnive pronoun at- 
tached lu them. How poor, tliey argued, must be the speech 
of a people who cannot say simply " fBilier " and "»on," buL 
most always eniplriy the coiupoeite forms, "my father." 
"his son," and the like. Wo uotv know tbat languages of 
this type are not universal, and (hal in idiomti spoken by 
tribea lower in culture than the Altfuukians and the Iroquois, 
tbe p onwewni ve prouoiinaare indepeudent words, and are never 
attached to Iho nnnns. Finally, lljeae crilic«, nil of Aryan 
or Ht'iiiitic oriffiu, |)n>udly assure us that the noble races to 
which ihoy belong- are the only peoples whose langnages are 
really inflected. AH other idioniti belotii; to a lower type, 
the "^afrglutinalive." Their soralled inflections are simply 
bilsof siBnihcuiit words, affixed totbemot«, and still retainiut; 
indications of their cri^io. Dui*o(iceau, the fir%t and xr.:ateH'' 
of Aroericati philologists, haa long ago shown, by theevi-' 
deoce of tbe Delaware gratumar, the error of ihisa«umption; 
and we now have lo see how C4)niplet«ly ihis and nio^l of (I16 
other objection!! of the worshipiiers uf the Aryo-i^uiitic fetUli 
are disprovod by tbe results of Mr Oat^chel's careful and.: 
tborougb studies. 

Pure inflection, properly «]»cakinjf. —that ia. inflection of- 
non uir^lulinalive uriuin. — is a change made in tbe substan- 
tial Or radical paK of u word lo indicate adilTerence of meaii> 
ing, as when the Hebrew changes the ground form uf tamart 
to learo (or " be learned "). lo temor, to express ih« impera- 
tive mooil. OF aa when tbe Ojibway, to form the participle. 
chouses »iijii, he dunces, lo nami'd. danciuif. lu the primitive 
Aryan languagna the most iniportant change of tliia descrip- 
tion is the reduplicative form, which in Ibu Sauscril, Greek, 
and Clotbtc, and orra«torially in the l^atin and other tongues, 
ia used to given preterite i^ignitlrjition, Tuis form of inflec- 
tion occurs, with varying purport, in mjiny .\nieric:in and 
Ocennic languages. Most generally it Indicatm plurality, as ia 
the Uextcan and Sabaptin ic'ioms; but freriueully ilexpres«ea' 
{as in the Japinese and the Dakota) iteralttm, diatrlbu- 
tiou. or other allied meanings. In the Kluin»lb it as'^umea 
a wide development, pervnding tbe whole language, and 
modifying almost all the pHrt« of speech, from oonns and 
verbs even to many uf the particles. Its principal fnnctions, 
according to Mr. Gals<>htfl, are iterative aud diiitribulive. 
But the various nuMiiHcations of meaninf; produt-ed by re- 
doubling the lint sylluble or tbe flrst two syllables of a word, 
with ninny euphonic cliangm, give nice distinctions, which 
enrich the language to a n-markublo extent. Thus from 
tama. to be dizxy. we have Umlfina, to r«y>l or stagger; from 
palah or pelaK. fioickly. jtel}nla, Ui work, lo busy oneself, 
al; iroui tuika, lo pierce, laektufixi, Lo stare at. i.e.. It 
pierce with the eyes; froui wita, Lo blow fas tbe wind , 
witwita, lo shake or struggle: from niiiiash, fine feat hers or 
d«wD of birds, mukmulch. downv, wfl- The eerh Intatka, 
to interpret. mnWes ii* frrquenlative moml by an nhndvreil 
reduplicilliOQ, lultaHca. t*i interpret rrtsjuefitly, and hence w* , 
have the noun tultatkuith. n profefuional interpreter. 9o 
from a^iuil-taA, one who flghia. a derivative of Ihe verb 
5/»iuXti. Ill HahL, we have, by a twofold red u plication, skish- 
tjkish, a warrior, and aft i»ft 'oA oi-f's/i , a hero, one who lu 
fought in many batilea; and. in like mttnuer. from tamnuiah; 
one who IB travelling (a derJTutivc from tdmenu, lo travel); 
we have tatamnuutt, om- who travels Itobitually. a slr-dlcr' 



January 8, 1893.J 



SCIENCE. 



31 



or tramp; from latcha, to build, we have, in the frequeota- 
tive or usitative form, lalUhUh, an architect; from tedsha, 
to wast), tetdd»hiah, laundresf. AInaoat endless examples 
might he given, showing the wealth of varied expressions 
which the language derives from this form of inflection. 

Of the more ordinary class of inflections, derivational and 
grammalical, produced, like most of ihose in the Aryan 
tongues, by tlie agirluti native process, the Elamath has a 
vast number. Mr. Qatscbet gives a list of fot-mative afSxes, 
filling more than a hundred quarto pages, and rivalling in 
extent and variety the list comprised in the second volume 
of Brugmana's "Comparative Grammar of the Indo Gler- 
manic Languages." The prefixes exceed fifty, and the suffixes 
two hundred. These affi xes have sometimes internal euphonic 
inflections. The prefix hash, or ht^ah, for example, which 
forms causative, reciprocal, and reflective verbs, varies its 
vowel in a certain correspondence ot- euphonic correlation 
(though not always agreement) with the varying vowel of 
its radical. From pan, to eat, we have kdskpa, to feed or 
cause to eat ; from uAmpelt, to recover, heahudmpeli, to re- 
store to health ; from pilnua. to drink, huahpanua, to give to 
drink. .^ is a common sutfix, which forms verbs from uouns, 
adjectives, and particles; Jta is a "factitive " sufiBx, forming 
causative and transitive verbs; ank is the sufBx which forms 
tbe present participle, like the Latin ana and em, and the 
English ing. An example will show the fine shades of 
meaning in the derivatives formed by these suffixes. Hewa 
or ahewa, to suppose, believe, tliink, coalesces with the re- 
flexive pn&i huah to form a new verb huaha, to remember. 
The factitive affix ka, added to huaha, produces huahka. to 
think about a thing, to study. The active participle of 
hviahka is hushkank, thinking, studying. Addinf; to this 
the verb-forming particle a. we obtain the derivative verb 
huahkafiha, to be reflecting or considering, to be in a certain 
mood or state of mind about anything. These word-forming 
particles yield an enormous addition to tbe Klamath vocab- 
ulary. 

The declensions ot nouns and adjectives resemble those of 
the Aryan languages, but are more extensive and more logi- 
cally exact. There nre fourteen cases, comprising, besides 
those of tbe Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin, 8e7eral locative cases, 
and a temporal case. Tbt> latter ends in emi or am, and 
signifies "during " or " at the time of ; " as from ako, spring, 
we have akocmi, during springtime; from kiah, sunset, 
kiahhni or (contracted) kisa'im, at sunset. The accusative (or 
objective) case of " inanimate " nouns— corresponding to the 
Latin neuter — has (as in Latin) the same form as the nomi- 
native; but that of animate uouns ends in ash, or some- 
times simply in ah or a. Thus laki, chief or head-man, has 
in the accusative lakiash ; muni, great, has muydnaah. The 
adjective agrees with its noun in case and number, though 
with some variations in tbe forms; thus from mu7ti laki, 
great chief, we have in the genitive (or possessive) case 
muyJnam lakiam, of the great chief; in the accusative, 
muyjnaah (or munish) lakiaah ; in the instrumental case, 
muytfntka hikitka, by means of the great chief ; in the direc- 
tive case, muydn'ah (or muniah) lakiaahtala. toward the 
great chief, etc. The distributive form, which answers for 
tbe plural, has, in the nominative, m,iiiiieni laldki, each great 
chief; in the accusative, mumidn'sh (or miimeniah) laldkiaah; 
in the possessive, mumidnam laldkiam,, of each great chief; 
and so on, through the various cases. 

Space fails for describing the conjugations of tbe verb, 

except to mention the two participles, so curiously resem- 

liog tbe Aryan forms, namely, the present (or indefinite), 



ending usually in ank or an, and the preterite, ending in 
tko or tk; as from koka, to bite, kokank or kt^ean, biting, and 
kokatko, bitten. The substantive verb gi or ki (pronounced 
ghee or kee) has for it£ present participle gian or giank. 
being, and for its preterite gitko, been. As an auxiliary 
verb it is used, in its various iofiectiona, with the past parti- 
ciple of other verbs to form the passive voice, as in kokdtko 
gi, to be bitten ; kokdtko giuapk, will be bitten ; kokdtko gft. 
may be bitten; kokdtko giuga, in order to be bitten. This 
substantive verb has a Signification as abstract as the same 
verb in any Aryan or Semitic language, with often a 
wider compass of meaniug. answering to both aer and eatar 
in Spanish. 

The pronouns, personal and possessive, are never com- 
bined with either the noun or the verb. What some gram- 
marians have styled the transitions, and others the composite 
or objective conjugations, are therefore unknown to the 
Elamath, which in this respect is as analytic as the English 
or German, and far more analytic than either Greek or 
Hebrew. 

Mr. GatBchet, after describing the great variety of structure 
in the American languages, varying from the extremely 
synthetic to the markedly analytic, observes that the Kla- 
math " occupies a middle position " between these extremes, 
" hut that, nevertheless, it shows very plainly all the charac- 
teristics of agglutinative tongues." He should have added — 
as his own minute and careful descriptions clearly show — 
"but not more plainly than these characteristics are dis- 
played by the Sanscrit or the Greek." Liberal and philo- 
sophical as he is, he has not yet succeeded in entirely eman- 
cipating his mind from tbe influences of the Aryo-Semitic 
superstition, which is now in comparative philology what tbe 
geocentric superstition, before the time of Copernicus, was in 
astrouomy. But he proceeds, in terms as accurate as tbey 
are elegant and forcible: "These and other characteristics 
impart to the language of the Maklaks a well-defined type, 
and approach it to the tongues of modern Europe, in which 
analysis has not preponderated over synthesis. An attentive 
study of the numerous texts obtained from the Indians [of 
which, it should be added, Mr. Gatscbet's work furnishes an 
ample and most interesting collection] paired with constant 
comparison of Ktamatb structure with tbe structure of many 
foreign and American languages, could alone furnish a solid 
basis for establishing the grammatical rules of this upland 
tongue. The rhythmic, stately, and energetic tenor of its 
periods, especially those of the larger mythologic pieces, will 
please every student who has ever lent his attentive ear to 
the well-poised periods of Roman historians, and will even 
evoke comparison with them, not as to their contents, but as 
to the plan of the well -constructed sentences which appear 
in these narratives." Horatio Hale. 

CliatAn, Oatarlo, Canada. 



IOWA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

As announced, the sixth annual session of tbe Iowa Acad- 
emy of Sciences was held in DesMoines, on the 29th and 
30th of December. Interest and enthusiasm were manifested 
throughout the session. Heretofore the annual meetings 
have been held in September, an unfortunate time for most 
of the scientific workers of tbe State. The following pro- 
gramme was carried out. - 

Professor C. C. Nutting, the president, delivered an ad- 
dress on " Systematic Zoology in Colleges- '' He urged the 
importance of systematic zoology in colleges. He thought 



32 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XIX. No. 466 



il unforluiinte that the G«rmso craxe for morpholugy thnuld 
occupy 80 iuukIi aUenlion iu colleges to the exclusion nf very 
iBiIKXiaiit ttystematio work. He vroulil oot, however, belittle 
1^ work or tbe morpholoffist, since the whole structure of 
the ftjrsleniatio zoologist rests largely on the results of liis 
lubors. One rpasno why e)-&t«mntic work has failed tocom- 
mniid ihe nitciitiou that it Jeserves ou the part of (he college 
StudCDl is a wide miaapprehension as to its real nature and 
•cope. A majority of siudentK are wout to regard gystematic 
I0f>lo^.<r as p^rtiCDlarly to be fthunned on account of what 
they conuiUir its umsi eiuiential character — an uiidlesM huc- 
cetiJiion of fearful names, a veritable iiightniare of polysylla- 
bic horrors, the dead languages resurrected for tlii> epeciid 
discomfort of the uufoiiuoate studonl. Systeoiatic zoology 
iH much more than a cnllectinn of name.i. ClasMlicAtinns 
are but the skt-Ieluus which his studies and iiive«li|iatioDS 
sho^ild olothe with living facts, so thai fluntly the dry bones 
will be almoet forgotteo as be oonteoiplates the beauty and 
symmetry of the well rounded Tilal structure. 

Professor K. M. Wilier read two papers ou " Arrow Points 
from the Loess" and "The Gas Wells near LettA, Iowa." 
Tbe hills on which tbe city of Muscatioo stand? are covered 
with a very ilue depoeit of loess, which iu some plMces must 
be nearly fifty feet thick. Tliia loess abounds in land Hliells, 
the boues of at least two American reindeer, a (Kin^iderable 
part of the auHer of the elk or common deer. The ancient 
loees lake is nearly 150 feet above tbe present higb-waler of 
tbe Mississijtpi. In thix loess deposit has been found au 
arrow point and a spenr point. In it also occur fragments 

the tooth of an elephant. ProfeiiaorCalvio. in discuftsing 
lis paper, remarked that arrow poiuts bad been found iu 
Uie loess at Council Bluffs some yean ago. He also referred 
to a skull fonnd in Iowa that resembled the famous Neander- 
thal skull. That man was uudoublcdiy contemporaneous 
wilh tlje elephant aborlly after the great ice age. 

In speaking of the gas wells of Letts. Iowa, which have 
been flowing since December, 1890. Professor Witter thoughl 
it due to tbe decompoeilion -of organic matter in the lower 
part of the drift muterittl. Professors Call and Calvin both 
remarked that the flow of gas would not be permanent; it 
was wholly unlike tbe gas of Ohio and Indiana. Cheuiical 
examination has shown that this gas is closely related to 
marsh gas. 

Professor Ha worth read impers oo ^' Melanite from Mis- 
souri," and " Prismatic Sandstone fi-om Madison County, 
Missouri" (read withcoottcut of tbestal<rgcologist). He also 
presented a paper on '* Luoonile Pseudo-ntorpbuus after 
Caleite." 

Profcauor J. E. Todd read a pai>er on "SlmUon of Rocks 
by River Ice.'* Specimens were exhibited (showing stna*. 
Those were observed at St. Louis, Cupc Giradeau. Mo., und 
Sioux Falls, So. Dakota, also at several points along the Mis- 
Bouri. Be aUo prenented, hy title, a paper on " Fnrther 
Note« on the (ireut Central Plaius of Llie Mississippi." 

Professor Calvin gave an account, showing specimens, of 
IhediBtinctioDs between Aeermitaria davitifotiii &ad A. pro- 
futlda. "nie speciM are quite distinci, not only tloes this 
difference appear in the external characters, but when they 
are polislied. Uoth species occur in Iowa, sometimes in the 
same geological formation. 

Professor Call spoke of "The Present Status of Artesian 
Well Investigation in Iowa." Thfs work has been done in 
connection with the Iowa Slate Weather and Crop Service. 
The artesian wells arc vary numerous and extensive. Many 
of the so-called artesian wells art not artesiau wells in tbe 



sense (bat Professor Call uses tbo term. .As an inslauce. be 
cited the wells nl Bunlap and Council Bluffs, which are not 
artesian, since water does not flow under hydrostatic pressure. 
Professor Todd took issue «ilh him on this point. The wellH 
at those places are ou high elevated portions of the country. 
If (hey had been bored on lower ground, a short di<ilanne 
away, they would produce flowing water. 

Mr. Charles ^ Keyes presented three geological papers as 
follows: "Geological Structure and Relations of the Coal 
Bearing Strata of Cenlral Iowa," "Brick and Other Clays of 
DesMnines," and " Aluminium in Iowa.'' The clay used at 
Uamplou, Iowa, where a large ntoek company liHs recently 
been organir^, is said (o be the richest in the country, 
yielding eight ounces per bushel, or three ouuces more Ibau 
is produced in any known deposit of the neighboring States. 
Aluminium is soou to lake the place of iron to a large extent 
tn tbe arts, and the value of llie early development of the 
industry cannot be overestimated. In speaking of the brick 
and other clays of DesHoiocs, he said that perhaps no prov- 
ince in the Union is better supplied with raw material of 
unexcelled quality for the manufacture of those objects com- 
monly made from clay than our own Sxate, 

The only chemical papers were those presented hy Pro- 
fessor Q. E. Patrick. One was on "Rn^r Beets in Towa." 
Something over 500 samples from more than half tbe 
counties of the State have been analyzed. The results are 
highly gratifyini;. Though the sugar content on au average 
is less than in Ts'ebmiika, tbe yield is considerMbly more. 
More sugnr can be grown on ao acre in Iowa than in Ne- 
braska. It was aUo shown that bev>t« on the station farns, 
although under the best of culture, contained lett-s sugar than 
those of Muscatine, which ia owing to soil oondilioos. Cer- 
tain portions of this State are apparently well adapted to tbe 
growing of beets for sugar production, and he uieulioned 
the fact thai of the 500 samples of beets recently analyzed at 
the Expurimeol Station, sent iu from alt parts of tbe Slate, 
tbe best have come — and in large numbers — from the 
regions about Davenport and Muscatine. He added, how- 
ever, that " there may be other parts of the Stale just as 
well adapted to the beet sugar induxlry as the tocalilies here 
named." Professor Patrick's other paper was on the sub- 
ject, " CTao Fat be Fed into Milk, i.e.. Can the Compneition 
of Milk be Modified by Variations in the Kind of Food f " 
As opposed to the writings of several other scieulisis who 
deny food influence upon the composition of milk, he cited a 
number of European and American experiments, — one of 
which was recently performed at the experiment station at 
Ames, — which seem to prove eonclu^ively that the kind of 
food fed to cowg does have a material influence upon tbe 
percentage of butter-fat in (he milk. 

Professor S. K. Meek presenled a paper " Ou the Fish 
Fauna of Arkansas and Iowa Compared." The river basins 
of eastern Iowa conlain many more species than the river 
basins of the western part of the State. About IW species 
occur in the State. Arkansas, which his not been thor- 
oughly explored, contains 150; the darters beiug more nomer- 
ous in Arkansas (ban in lowa. 

Profi-ssor R E. Call exhibited a specimen of " An Abnor- 
mal Hyoid Bone in the Human Subject." 

Professor H. L. Bniner, in a paper on "An Aboriginal Rock 
Mortar," referred to relics fonnd on the east ftlo[>e of the 
Franklin Mountains, about eleven miles north of El Paso, 
Texas, and near the moutli of the '■ Houx Oafloo." 

Professor Tillon found near Indianota, Iowa, a three-legged 
snow-bird, wbieh was exhibited. In domestic animals this 



January 8, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



23 



is not au uocommoo occurence, thou;jh it ia rather ntre ia 
wild animals 

Four entomological papers were read. Professor Herbert 
Osborn presented two, on "The Orthopterous Fauna of 
■ Iowa" and "Notes on Certain Iowa Diptera." Sixty-seven 
species were enumerated. The notes were based on speci- 
mens found almost entirely in the central part of the State. 
The Ortboptera are among' the most important of the injuri- 
ous insects of this State, almost all the epecies being de- 
structive, and scarcely one that can be considered as of any 
beneBt. A Texas species, Arphia conapersa, was reported 
from Ames; Periplaneta orientaHa, apparently confined to 
Jai^r cities: and Platamodes petiTtsylvanica, very common 
in doors and out. Professor Osborn and H. A. Qossard pre- 
sented some " Notes on the Life History of Agalliasanguino- 
lenta.*' This leaf-hopper, though a clover pest, also feeds 
on beets, rutabagas, cabbages, and blue grass. It is active 
even in midwinter, on sunshiny days. The first hrood of 
larvae appear between early May and July 1. The earliest 
individuals of the brood are nearly matured by the first of 
July. Larvee cdin be found, in all stages, from this time 
until the advent of winter. Most of the individuals are be- 
lieved to be included in two broods. 

Professor C. P. Gillette, in a paper on "How the Female 
of Cacoecia semiferaoa Protects Her Egg-Clusters," stated 
that one of the most novel methods is that employed by the 
box-elder leaf-roller. The egg patches are covered over with 
a gluey material, and this is nearly always completely cov- 
ered with a dense mass of scales placed like shingles 00 a 
roof. These scales closely resemble those found on the under 
side of the abdomen. 

Professor T. H. McBride gave a talk on "Slime Moulds of 
Iowa." These organisms nre especially interesting not only 
because of the beauty of the structures themselves but also 
on account of their relationships to other living things. Are 
slime moulds plants or animals 1 The slime moulds of Iowa 
need investigation. Our flora (regarding them as plants) is 
comparatively rich in this direction. The proper reference 
of frail (o Plasmodium is as yet little known in many species. 
Slime moulds exhibit periodicity in their appearance. — some- 
times fail in a given locality for years, and then abundantly 
reappear. 

Botanical papers were presented by Professor L. H. 
Pamm>I. One was 0:1 " Bacteria of Milk." - A large num- 
ber of cultures were exhibited. In the " Report of Commit- 
tee on Slate Flora " several interesting species new to the 
State were mentioned. Muscatine seems to be especially 
favored with some southern plants, like Rhexia Virginica, 
Carya olivrnformis, and C. sulcata. Weeds like Solanum 
rostratum, S. carolijienae, Cuicus arvenais, etc., are spread- 
ing. A third paper was presented on the subject of "Phsno- 
logical Notes." One of the interesting questions in connec- 
tion with our flora is the relation that climate has to our 
wild plants, tlie time of leafing, flowering, and fall of leaves, 
as well as the effects of frost on plants. In 1886, the soft 
maple f^Acer saccAartnum) was in flower on Mar. 23; in 
1891, Apr, 11. Ulmua Americana, in 1886, in flower, Apr. 
13; in 1891, Apr. 18. The succession of flowers in herbaceous 
plants in 1886 and 1891 was: Sepatica acutiloba, Apr. 9 
(1886), Apr. 13 (1891); Capaella Burm-paatoria, Apr. 15 
(U86), Apr. 24 (1691); Mertensia Virginica, Apr. 20 (1886), 
Apr. 28 (1891). Frost and its effects on some plants were 
noted: Portulaca oteracea, early in September, tips frost- 
Utteo ; Oct. 7, wore or less destroyed ; Oct. 9, plants black in 
SD open fleld; Panicum sanguinale, injured seriously on 



Oct. 8; Borrago offlcinaXia, Oct. 22, a few leaves affected; 
Oct. 23, many leaves killed; Scabioaa atropurpurea, Oct 7, 
no injury; Oct. 23, no injury; Nov. 11, no injury; Nov. 21, 
some injury to leaves. In a paper on " Experiments in the 
Prevention of Com Smut," made at the Iowa Experiment 
Station, it was shown that by treating seed corn with am- 
moniacal carbonate of copper and copper sulphate no bene- 
ficial results were obtained. In plot No. i., treated, there 
were 6 smutted plants against 8 in check; in plotn., 6 smutted 
plants against 7 in check; in plot ni., 42 smutted plants 
against 38 in check ; in plot rn , 33 smutted plants against 38 
in check. These experiments should not be considered as 
showing conclusively that smut does not enter the delicate 
tissues of corn by way of the seed. Incidentally he referred 
to some experiments now carried on at the college farm, in 
which ammoniacal carbonate of copper, Bordeaux mixture, 
and other substances were mixed with soil, in which, after* 
ward, corn was planted. Ammoniacal carbonate of copper 
in the soil retards the germination of corn. 

The following papers also appeared on the programme: 
Miss Minnie Howe, "Some Experiments for the Purpose of 
Determining the Active Principles of Bread Making:" Dr. 
N. B. Niles, " The Action of Disinfectants on Nutrient 
Media;" Professor J. 3. Tilton, '-Erosion by Middle River 
for November, 1891." 

A committee of five was appointed to ask the legislature 
to print the Proceedings in connection wiib the Annual Re- 
port of the Iowa Weather and Crop Service. Mr. J. R. 
Sage. Professors Nutting, Haworth, Davis, and Pammel con- 
stitute the committee. The officers of the Academy for 1892 
are: C. C. Nutting, president, Iowa City; L. H. Pammel, 
first vice-president, Ames; E. Haworth, second vice-president, 
Oskaloosa; Herbert Osborn, secretary and treasurer, Ames; 
executive council, the officers and J. E. Todd. Tabor; F. M. 
Nitter, Muscatine; and R. E. Call, DesMoines. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

■ *■ CormpoadenUarerequ«iletltobeaabrlrfatpauible. TTm wriUr'tnamtt 
t* in all oaatM required at proof of good faith. 

Onrequeit in odmnce, one hundred oopiet of the nitmber eontainii%g hit 
eominvnioation tnill tefitmUhedfreetoanveorretpondent. 

Th* editor toiU be glad to p»ibtiih any iiaeriet contonant loith the eharactt 
af the journal. 

Traumatic Hypaotism. 

Hypnosis i^ a psychical state in which an indiviilu:il is more 
than usually susceptible to suggestions. As is well known, the 
degrees of suggestibility are many. Making the diatiaclion be- 
tween physiological and pathological hypnotisai, the traumatic 
hypnotism would, of course, fall under the latter head. We have 
been led to employ the term " traumatic," from an investigation 
of the following case. The case is ali the more interesting, since 
the patient is a physician. 

Patient says: " I was in a village cart coming up the street; 
the hor» was spirited; a man tried to stop him from running 
away. The last thing I remenil>er is calling to bim to get out of 
tbe way. The following (of which I was unconscious) has tieeu 
told me by others : the cart struck another wagon and threw me 
into the sir, and I came down In a heap, as if one were going to 
dive into tbe water, strikimc on my tnck and side, having tbe 
lines wound around my bands. I was pulled forward and up by 
tbe h >rs(> starting, and dragged about twenty feet, when tbe lines 
slipped off of my bands. I did not say anything at this moment; 
they picked me up for dead and carried me into a dru; store. I 
then began to talk with them, looking deathly pale. They asked 
me if I was hurt, I answered, ' No, not at all, I am all right.' I 
would moan every now and then during the conversation. Quite 
a number of my friends came in, and I called one by name. Then 
I took off my Irannet and walked back where I could •rw^.Vl -^n^ 



SCIENCE. 



^OL. 



lo. 466 



face and baDds: I moaned all the lime 1 was dorng thle; tlic; ftll 
Ihougbl 1 knfvr utiat I wm iloing. t n-nlked out lon-ard« the 
hack, hut lotd the itt I pr^Tf ned to nail till the crowd fi;ot ont of 
Uifl wfty. On tho way liomi^ my daughlvr got into lh«- hark, and 
I (old hiT not to worry, that I wa« all rittht. I walk(>d from the 
hack into llie hooae. Th« docior asked me to sit down, Imt 1 
snid 1 did nut dam to, for I chould lone cootrol of myself. I 
asked to have a pio takeo out of mv dresn. Tbey Rare D>e wme 
wbt<ikey. Then I eujutested if it would not I* n good idea to 
l^take 8 hot liath. Hy dnusblor a^kt!<d uic wbiru (be arnica was, 
ukJ I ti^d her In tlw oQIce od et-ooud altrlf, whifh ttas convcC. 
Tlieo ihey guv« roe the hot liaili, oud while Lhe servant w«a [Mur- 
ing fome water on my head I ramo to myself for the flrat time 
I since caUing to the man to get nut of the way, but nnly fnr a few 
Laecondn. hearing only voicen and fc«llng nomethiog strike my 
Fhead, giving pAia. I ivas tlkCn taken out of ibe bAlband putioto 
led; 1 lold them how to unfoM the bed : then the doctor put a 
»atur&t«>d clolh on tt»e wouQ<Jed jMiit o( my head; I tolj them to 
ttet towelit and put tbem on Uie pillow to preveut Moilinj; it. Tlw>n 
I began to lie *(^ry dflirkiua [|KiLii>tit now pn>«M>3i from hrpnolii^ 
iiilo a delirious itati*]. ami (ulked incewantly about a railroad ac- 
ridenl; my luiHlKiiid b constantly 00 the road and I have worried 
»oniellitiei< about it. 1 repeated the rame things over, eayjng the 
railrcad switch was wrou};. etc. This deliiiuui lfl<it«d about no 
boar. Tbe surgeoa arrived, and on putting hi» liugor between 
the »calp and ukull I felt a nB»li of lightning and xaw it. [ siid 
* I cannot iiifiml ihiis pain,' ao<l then 1 liecauie conscious fitr the 
flrfft time of the injury on ihc tmck of my bead. I waa in agony, 
1 could feel dl^ttnet]y a grating wl)«n hU finger wa:^ put under (be 
fM^Ip, and o«i preaMirti in one %inA lh^r« was n bul>)iling»-tisali(>n, 
ihatM^niifd |i> )thix>t right oier the brsin, During this lime I 
waa con«cimi9, but did not Fee anything. It i^ three weeko since 
'the a«-iHent occurred, and 1 have luid hea<lacbecootinually, iH'ii'g 
a r»-ecfao of the old pain. When I cry (o read, the right eye see« 
double; my head feeU double ; tt>e wounded Bide feel* thick; I 
h*ve bad v«ry aapleasaut dreamo etnc«." 

Acvurding to the description of the surgeon, Ibe wound kus on 
the right (tarietal prutubeisnoe over the third dpscetkdingcuniolu- 
tion; it wna a cfindifion. 

Inriniriee of thoK- who eaw the arcldonl and auhwqiieni cventA 
GODllrm the Mnti ment or the |uitiont. Whim picke<l up her eyes 
were cloxed; thi^ti wntcr wa& poured on her bead, and abe opened 
her eve»: i^be could not quite remember her bUKbattd'« name; then 
fthe said i>he felt l>etter and w«nt and washed Iker face, ftc., as 
already d<-si'iil>ed. 

It in iiitvreoting <o uote lfa« slates of cons^ioimi^s: Hrvl, un< 
conaclou-'neoc at time of accident; (hen, water Itcing poured 00 
her bead, palieoi passes into the by[>nolio slate; ibis lasts nearly 
an boor, iluriug which she 90 oonducta herself that her frieodii do 
uot suFpect but that site is beivelf. During Lbiti bypmHic etatu 
auRK^stibJIIty may be t>aid lo have been uurmni, ifluce she to- 
•pouded to ever> one ualunilly. Her normal M>lf i^ecmcd to con- 
trol ber bypdoiic «>lf fully: tbiit latter si-lf wm tho only one 
during the hour which waa oonscioua. 

AKTH(;e UACDtHfALD. 
Gsortrtown ModlcMl flitiool, VMfclngton, D.C 



Cold Waves^ 

Is the Dccenil»er numlier of the Atn^ieurt Meleorologicat Jour' 
nal Dr. A. Wcieikof has presented a paper 00 cold wavps, in which 
he attacks with some force views which have ttvn expressed by 
Profcnor Ruaael. Tbe belief Ihat a cold waie i* due to the [kw- 
. «Rgeof a luaM of cold uir, which baa a verl cal dfminuiiou in 
tompeiiiliire uf I' iu l^ feet, at Iwonly or mt'ro mileH per hour, 
over the earth's surfuce heaiej wmi'times 3(^ ur 40" above the iiir 
in contaot with it, for a uistancL'of 3.O00 mile-, without accrrtinn 
or mnforcemont, u rtrcainty unique. It 1- certain Uiat Dr. 
Wocikof will not rcrognise this aa hi^ ri«w. He will ony thnt the 
cold vfl] be added to by radiation from ibe aod or toll, oil the 
mort* intense because of Ihc clear, dry air of Iho cold wave. 
When we think, huwever. Ibal.M the cold wate advance^at Rteal 
rolodly, lite eurih'ii tiurfnce is frequently 40" warmer than the 



air immediately in c<mlact with it, it >k difHrnlt to«eehow tb^H 
earth's iwirfaee can do aught except wnrm up Ihe air. B ►«emai 
an inevitnhle ('onrhii>ion that a nisss of cold air, papsing iu any 
dlre<!tion over the earth, which in ils^lf heat«d maoy degrc 
above the air, must inevitably lose its characteiisties in a «erj 
short time. 

If Dr. Woeikof could study only a very few of our cold wbv« 
be would very quickly clioDge hi>t belief. Qe is at a great dkad-^ 
vantage Id tliut he n>eideH in u muutry wbeie they have no col 
wavM. properly speaking. It is well known that in Europe the 
high arena remain nearly Rtatianary for weckn at a time, and as 
result a very abnormal condition of temperature supervenM. Thi 
sun shining upnn stagnant nir heals it up, and tbi^ i-Hect becou 
rumulative, a little ntoie beat being added each day; be«idea Ibis, 
the eorth'fl surface, io ihta stagnant air. cools down by radiation, 
as acoosequence it frcquenlly bapi^na that the eartli's surface h 
cooler than the air at 10.000 feet; and this hajt given rt'-e tit (he 
meat extraordinary theory and one Ihat directly contradictK all 
known urlhodox hyjiotheaev, narnt^ly, ihat tn our high areaa the 
air is ahniirtnnlly hvated, white iu our slnruis it i* abDOrmally 
cooled. It i* evident that no discustiion of cold wart^ can be in- 
telli^ntly carried on under such conditions. Dr. Woeikof also 
sugRestu that otwervations at Pilie's Peak might he of aasialaace 
in studying tlK>>e pbcnomenn. but (his cannot be done at that 
point for this reason Pike's Peak is ditualed on the edge of A 
plateau about 4,000 feK above Ma-ltrvel and aboormally bcaudti 
al>Oi ou tlie east, there lit a marked falling off of ilii- platcaa. Iiu 
coowquence, Ihe summit nmietiuio? has the tempentlure of Ihfl 
plateau and sometimes that of ihe eastern plain. No cold wavea 
pa^a over the summit, (or the rea-son thai the (iiountaius form 
barrier. MohI of Ihe cnid wavrs paaa down from Manitoba 
As-'inihoia far to the t'a»l or norlli-t*nftL of Ihe nmunlHin. 

Il would npfMar that one or two considerali<mK which have ai 
important leiiring on thin question havs been overlooked. For<j 
example, it is not pro)>er to think of a cold wave as a mats of cold- 
air having a uniform velocity throughout its lieighl. It is well 
known ibut, owing lo fricUon with the eaitli's surface and Other 
ulvt ruction)!, the velocity of Ibe air at the earib is much lees than 
at 0.000 feel. It is probable that on Ml Washington, during thoH 
passage of a cold wave, tlte velocity nf ihe wind h double that »^M 
the l)a»e. We may consider thnt Ihe velotity incrcnses imiformly 
up tn this height, or nl H.iWO fot't il would tx-nlnnit midway hetweett 
tbol (It Ihe i>arih and that at the summit. The cooMquenoe of 
this it readily Men. A pt^nt in a layer of air at the earth, mov- 
ing 20 milee an hour, iu 10 liount would lie 200 milett from it 
starting- p.*ace, but at 0,000 feel a point in the layer modM bA 4( 
mile* from it>i (Inl (loaition. If we nuppow tlie lemp<Tiiture dim- 
inulion in height is 1*' in 180 feet at the lieginning, and tho bori- 
zonial teiMpeniturt differeut^ at tht; >qime lliue is 40" in '.iOO miles, 
then, at the end of 10 houn, tbe vvrlieut diminution iu heigh&j 
would liecome about I" in 90 feet. The lemtK-rature distribut 
in the latter ca^ie would cause a serious di^turlwQce in the equi 
lit>rium, according to orthrdox views, and tht-re would be su up^ 
actling of the luyero, ntid, in con»ct|ueuL-u, the cold of the upp 
layetv would uliimau-ly n-ach ihu earth. Of coufk: In notur 
tlH*!^ ari- no aiicb violtnt diungcf. exeopl i«iely iu KDmmer time 
but such an inlerchnnge must take place by degn?ctt. 

The obeervatinna at Mt, Wa-shingloii ubundHnlly liear out thin 
view. These have been rerenilf publUhed by ilie Weather Bu- 
reau In cur\-e« for January. Kebruary, and March ("Jionthlf 
Weather lleview," July lo Oct., 18UI). On examining Ibe curve 
we Hud that in front of a cold wave the diminulion of tempera-< 
ture with lieii^t is much incTea»«d, frequently to morelbaodout 
tb« normal, while iiftvr the oold wave tiu- icmpciatura is fr 
quently foicrral the bo^ ihuu ut the summit. In ollK-r wordt 
Ihe culd wave tt<aches tba summit i to S huuri: befnre it docs ibe] 
bohe, and the wanning up also lugs behind, at the ba»e, the sbiik 
Ipiiglh or lime. A ne^ltct of thlfl consivJeratioo lie>j nt the hottum^ 
of many I'f Ur. Hann's vagaries regarding teaiperalure distribu- 
tion in cyclone* and antlt^rlonea. Now, if a cold wave h com- 
posed of layers of air moving at different velncitirs as we receila^ 
from tlie earth. It )8 easy lo •>» that tlie velocity of the air at II 
earth need not I«p that of Ihe cold ware, for the up;«pr layeni 



fANUARV S, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



35 



air wtxittl flow oi^r ibe lowpr, hpur'ng aloiig the cold wuve, and 
this cold air would gradiiill; nark iia waj- down fo the partb. 

Until v« can ohuiin obttrrvations in free »ir we niiisl hf> content 
with hjrpotheeee and careful sliuly of mountain otwercatloDB. 
Wbtlx no present hypciCliMla will prorcsailAtaclorv in ait it% de- 
tails, owinjf lo <iiit ignorance of npper air conditions, y«t we can 
rMt amurrd tliat the view at the opening of this dJM'ussion ran hy 
no poBBiWlitj be contct. K N. 



Review oooBiBU of alclrartfl of articliu in rarlons pbilo*opbkml 
tnagUEJne^— a npw feiinrv, we beliovr, in a periodical nf thia 
sort, and one likely to be naefnl. On the wiiole. the Phflom>phifal 
licview promlaM fairly w»U, and wa bopo U will prove wtctby of 
lis mission. 



BOOK-HE VIE WBl 

7i^ PhOotophUal RnUw, Vol. I.. No. 1. Edited l>y J. O. 
lUA^. January. 1R9S. Bi»toa, Oinn & Co. 

;6«4al>liflhmeDt in thb» countfT of n leview devoted (o pure 
>l)ilo«ophy is a noteworthy event, and may prore on cceni of 
»t imftortance. Tbe ItevUtc, we are informed, ia to receive 
•- suifport fruai private endowmentA, eo that its Bnancial bash ia 
:iuod und dunibV;" and thouRb Ibe source of tbia support ia not 
lifotioned it maj- \>f iiift-ried from the fact thut tlue coj)j'rinlil is 
leld by tlie treasurvr of Cornell Uni*en»ity, the eiJitor tieiuK pm- 
of phik«uphy in tbe aauie iiiittitulk>:i. The in<-<:lii(nical ap- 
ace i>f the Kevieic is similar t<> thiit of Ihe I'olUimt J^ci'atee 
erly, ihe present number conUining a hundred und tweoty- 
Sijchc pajeei>. It will be published bi inonthiT hI tseventy Qve 
at9 a number or three dollars s year. The editoi- conlribatw a 
prefatory note, in whieb he annouDcett the cbaraoter and scope of 
ilie Heview and ihc altitude it propoa*-!* 10 take •' II will aim at 
tbi> oiffanuaiion. tbe diffttsion and the Iccrease of philoaophicsl 
tn<»wlt>dji;e and activity in America.'' and " will be an or^an 
[hrouf^h which Inre4lij^t4)r4 may make known to their felluw> 
ilicn-rM the iv^ulta of their ccfearchea and rcf!e<-lion»." The «di- 
kfif- lakea a rorfale view of tbe proapeot-4 of philo«u|>liy ni Amer- 
H'», b*it the ie^i«i>ll« hr nwtijin'i Ibervfor, excppt Ibe fteedom of 
Lmerti'Sii lite »iid tbnuglit, do not eeem very cogent. U is true 
tliat there is uon* a certain movement of pbil'Hopbic tbouKhl in 
Ihe country; but it fwna to u# to be aliallow, und ii>i pfailwopbor 
li«a yet appeared amont; u» capabk* of original tlioURbi. The 
'Jtevkw. we are told, " wiU nut be tbo ontan of any institution, or 
of any eeet, or of any fnteTWt," but will maintaia " imi<arUality 
and catholictt]' of tone and spirit." This is n kooJ rule if well 
followed; but ubeervation haa convinced ni that an editor's predi- 
tiona aeldooi fail to ehow ihemaelveB in bn nrledlon of mate- 
Prt»fe*«or Schunnao'a views of what b ni*eded In philosophy 
~at the present time aeem to u< In one les^nevt niialnken. tie holds 
Ibat p)i)l<>3t>pherB ought lo devote lh«m»t.-l>'eit to liie cultivntion of 
^jiecinl dejMitnients. such an IorIc, j« vcholi>){_v , tin* pbiltMOfihy of 
^ducatiiui, etc.; Mbeif-aa (o our mimi ihecriiiii; are*! of pbilu^o- 
phy juHt now ia t)it^ ie!i(>lnj{ of Ibf fotiuiliiiions, »nd until thr« is 
rcompltHhed we"^ little pruNpet-t "f Fruitful work in any special 
lepertment. 

Tbe teadinit ariicles in this inue of Ibe Revieie are thrve In 

lumber, of M-hieh the mmt important is (hat of Profedaor Laddoo 

' Pbj olioloKy ai So-caUed r^atural Science " U ia really a erltlqiie 

>f Profe«tot James's tbeorv of the nnturo of p^yefaoloKy and ifae 

'iBethi>i of HtU'lying it ; and the writer has little diflloulty In ebow- 

jng LbHt tbe tlii-ury ii UDtoonble, nod furtliermon- (hat PruffMor 

James hiiQiM-lf iii imaule to adhere to it with any eonsistenry. 

Professor Jotin Walnm critinaes K-inl's philosophy fr.ira tbe 

•Hanrlpoini nf n<';:eli=m. and Ihoitf^ his article ronbting nothing 

new, it is inierestinjc m renewed evidence Uist KantV di>ciple«< 

la^Y btK'Ouie diitJattitlii'I with tbe outcome of his leachini;. Mr, 

1. I, Oilman roiitributtw tlie (inst iaxtalment of a paper '*Uo 

>me I'sychol'^ical Aspecta of tbe CbitKse Muvical System," 

rhicb tliowa much curious «ludy but which aeems out of plw 

In a pbil.>iopblcnl niaRszine. Of the book-tevjews, whk-b arc 

lite uum^roun, the ablest i* that of Hcrbffi S^^uc^r's ' - Justice," 

\*y the editor of the Heview. in wliicb he lakts essentially tbe 

nuiit view of Spencer's d'x-liines that wax taken in ibesj columns 

fvhi'u tliL- IxMk was flr''t publisbe<l. Tlie (•iber reviews are of 

vaiyiUK dfiirt-e^ of excwlleucc, some very Kood and nthets ratlw'r 

ifffifir. We oiUBt add, too, ibal some ol Ihe t>o<)k6 revieH'i>dare 

wurthyof any notice at alL The concludlDg portion of (he 



AHONQ THE PUBLltjaKBfi. 

The January numlver of the Review nf Rerimn cootutos. at 
its moel conspicuciua feaiutc, a sketch uf the Cur and Ih^ Kawla 
of (onlay, wriuen parttculatly for the American edition of th« 
Revinr. by Mr, W. T. Stead, the English editor, Tbe article con- 
tamsa namt>er of portraita, and — what will be particularly Inter- 
esl init — a mop showin;; the famiix: di«trirti. and another nhowinK 
Ihe so-called "Jewish Pale," Ibe distrjol within nbich theJew» 
are permitted to live. 

— Hacmillan A Co. bav« in preM a IranHlatioo of Kant'* 
"Krilik der Urtheilitkrhft," bv the Rev, J. H. Ik- muni, fellow 
and leetun»r of Trinity College. Dublin, and jtiint aolhur with 
Prore«wr UahnfTy of '-Kant's Critical Phtltirapby for Eogllfb 
Reader*." 

— Ticknur & Co. , Boetoo, amraunce ' ' Tbe Normso Uodu meulj' 
of Palermo and Enviroa:;," by Aroo Delhi and 0. H. Chiimberitn. 
arcliii4-ct#. iu four purb^. with fifty measured dmwitigs. sevetal 
cuts iu the text, ami many photographic vieirs. Tbe edttioia will 
bo litniled and auld by aubscriptlan. 

— Headers at Carlyli^ hare often imiuired whether it wa« powi- 
ble to oUain wme accurate text of the course of lectures mi liler- 
alure which he delivered in ISdH. They will, tfaerefote, Ihi glad 
to hear thai thee lectures are nou- alwut lo be jiuMlahed hy £llit> 
& Elvey of London. Tl»e text bo<*' to bo issued is derived fioni 
the repi^rt taken at tbe time hy the Ule T.C. Auatey, two separate 
Iraufcripts of which have been in the hands of tbe pnbli^ben, 

— An account of that mynteriouB malady, the grip, by Dr. Cy- 
rus Edaoo, lh« chief insjiector of tbe New York Ilealtli Depart- 
ineat. is publislied iu tbe January number of Babj^tood Dr. 
Edson traces the history of the Rfip from nndent times to the 
present day, dei-rrjl)e^ the symptomn and the mode of Creatment. 
and fuinisheii valuable ai'ls In tbe direction of [>revenLion. "Cr<t- 
ioff and il9 Significance," by Dr. John Domioj;. and -' Fal and 
TWn Children.'* by Dr. W. L. farr, are article that wdl prove 
interesting; fo Ihe rcAdcr« of that monthly nuraery jpiide. AmonK 
Ihe nuiueroua other contnbutiidui may l>e iDentioued: *■ Keeping 
Ifae Babv Warm," " Children's Lie*." ''Ex|irtieflce« in Fredinft," 
and a full *upply of '■ Niirwry Pruhleni*." 

— Tbe January numU-^r of tbo AnnnU 0/ tht American Jead- 
etny of FoUli&il and Sofial ^I'ewee contains two pnpen 00 tun- 
Qici|ial eon-miu'-ui. They are Ibe article o'l "Tli« Study of 
Uunicifnl Oovernmenl," by Prank P, Prii-bard. and the article on 
''The Puliiicil Or}cunization of 11 Mi.>dcni Municipality.** by Wm. 
Draper Lewie, This number also contains a copy of Ihe by>ta«r« 
of the Pbi'adel|ihia Municipal League, an oriEantaalion wbnie 
purpoee ij Ibe divorce uf municipal from national politico Amuug*! 
tbe other leadiiiic arti<-K-s iu this ntirnbcr are '-Tbe Baius ot the 
Demand for the Public Regulation of In^uslritM." by W. D Dab. 
uey. '-Internalioaal Arbiiration." hy Klranir L. Lord, a 
plea for arbitration aa n means n( settling international di'tpDlea.j 
in place of war. " Jorispiudence in AniericDin Unlv^'ivitt'n." by 
Pnifeefwr E. W. Flutfcult. a paper of lOtereM to sU l.tw siudenta; 
and ' Instruction in Krench Uni»-«rsiiies," by Leo 8. Itowe. Mr, 
({owe ha> btwn a student in Paris ft» tbe past <>eaT, and hU paper 
explains ver> full; ibe coorMs and method of instruction In tbe 
collegeaof France. A newdeiwrtmt^nlbasbecDaddedt •tbe^lnnoJ* 
It is entitled " DbcuF^lun," and ci^ntains paprn written in amwerl 
to artklea which have appmrcd iu Ihc .'tanoln. This nutuber 
alao oonlalm llie prooeedinga uf ibe teuib scientific semioo of the 
acudemy, which was held in Pliiladelphiu in Novemt^r. la Ibe 
Department ot Persona) Not«s hi tbe Janiiarv Annnh there are 
brief Idograpbical sketches uf thp fullowing work'-n in tbe Held 
of political and social ^cl' are: W. C. Ford nf i_Muintil>i College; 
A. C. Milbn- ol Cornell; D. G Kpencer of Harvard: George K. 



26 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 466 



Tloward of Lrliiml Slanforxl, Jr., UnEreniilf : U. V. Amr* of lb<> 
Cniverwty of Uir^ltiKflii; W. II. Mm* ot Syrac«r** Umvcrsity ; 
Erneil Miwlilfrof Pm^e; It. H. Inglu Palgnir«(>r LoTitUm; Hie 
late Alfr»?.l JourOnn of Aix; Paul Ueilbom of Berlio-, A- Brilck- 
iwr end Oeoi^e Staehc of Kaaan. 

— A .SpantKh F<lilran of llie Story of Ihe Nation-" Kwii"n U iM-iiif^ 
tBmue'l in Mndri-) under arraQifenients with tlie Putnam-. Gil- 
man's ■' Storr of Hie S-araoens " in ttiia 'enVs i* n^w teinp printed 
In ritiscd lelUrs for the uw of ilie hlim). The next rolunifs to be 
Usaed in ll»e wrfes are Frwioam's "SCorj: of Sicily." Otnan'B *■ Story 
of tbe Bytaatiiifi Eaipirv." and Mia» DofTs "Story of tli« Tu-can 
UupubUcB." 

— With Itio iiainber for Janonry, IS1>3, the Education-it Review 
ofHins itM third volume. ProfMi^r Jenks of Cornell htm a \m»T 
an "E<tiiC8Lk>nal Vului!*," parttculurly veiLb n-forciico lo ihi- col- 
lege curriculam. and controverting the pofltfun takcu by Pro- 
feeftor Patle-n in an earlier nuniher. Superintendent Hurlile of 
WoK^ctiter, Mara., makes some pranical eiit-gfetiooa coDotToiut; 
the tcuohing of thd rffenire a » of E^nglish. Prorensor Riulianla 
of Yale oonlio.-«tft iheoM nnd the new nif-tlnxisof tP^diing eeoioe- 
try; nod I*rinii'I|«ftl Grant of timyii 'a College. Kinsition, Oniario, 
replies lo Bttdiop Spalding'^ earlier arRiinif-nt for religiMi.i inAtrucs 
tion in Stale schools. Important nrlicle^ appejir also on school 
aavinKH l>aukH in England, nml Lli« effect of manunl trnming upon 



henilh. The •lim'ii».-ion oo city ncliool snpefvi-ion it conliotu'd liy 
Supcrinteiideot TarlK-ll of Pr.jvi<U'n':e. and that on practiev u-sich- 
infc by Prei^ident W. J. HiIik* of Albany. Other di8L>ua>tuuB hw 
by tl»e edit*>r in-t-hief and Principnl Owen of 3aco. Me, Book n- 
yiewa an* cootiibuled by Profi-wtors JlcLsuitblin and Cariieroa of 
Yale, Oren Itoot ol Uarutlton, Gill of the Smithsonian Ini-tttulion. 
and other*. 

— The Elettricai Engineer will be;;iu tbe uimt year wiib a peHes 
of arJicles on the electrical aiiU uiiiimlic diworeries of Prof(M«or 
Jtisepb Ueory — the Faraday of Amujica — by hie dnufthter. Mies 
Mary A. H'?Qr7 of WasfaingtOo. with notes hy Mr. Franklin 
Leonard Po^w Adtliiional and jiathetic interest is given Ibi* 
eeriCii by the fact that it id praciirolly n TJndlcatloii by filial band^ 
ot Benry's chims to the diaoorery of magpie to-eleotricity, at a 
time when hU wnrk has been mffered to rail io^o neglect au I 
oWiTion. At the recent ElectncU Congrew at Frankfi^rt, Qur- 
innny, the pmpo<iition of tlic Amrrican delegates to name aftrr 
nenry an important nev nnit appJvitiK to fiicta that be w»n the 
Hnti lo observe and iorc^tigate. fiiled of u»«nc, and was {Hxlponed 
untU the Chicago Ek-«(ric«l Ootinre** of 1893, many of tli« Euro 
pcan delegabfr* uiyioR tbey bad never liiaVd of Hrnry. 

— We may regard It M eertiim that no appaieut runneetion 
l>eliTeen inrectiODs dtsesacssnd ainik«|>lMTic condiiionh had tug 
K^teA ilMl-lf to llie mi-<)ical mind long hetareSidenb^uii nltiibukxl 



CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. 

Philotopbical Society, Wafthiogton. 

Jan. 9. — F. H. Newell. FluctUHituns id 
Discharge of Western Bivem : J. R. En^t- 
ntftD, The Mekican Meteorites, 

Society of Nataral History, Boston, 

Jan. 6. — Percival Lowell. Shinto Occnlt- 
Itm from a Scientilic Standpoint; E. 8. 
Horse, On the Form of tbe Anoieut Bon' in 
VariouM Parte t>f the World, 



HEO-DARWINISI 0b 11 CO-LA MARCKISH. 

By LBSTE-4^ P. WARD. 

Aoanal ftddiMW ol tbe Praildvnt ol Ibo Biological 
goRtotr of WMhlnyluo dabrt^refl Jkn 01. IWI. A 
tiUlotlL-*! Anil critical r«Tt«v of nuxl^ni srifbiiOo 
ttKHiftt r1alMlTl^ to heredltj. and eccccUUj to tbo 
problniB of cIm irmunilMliiti ol mcqulreil cl>u«ct*r». 
'An foimrlnc arc ibc t«Ti-r»l bead* IotoItmI Id Um 
tllMUMloa tit^oN of tba Problem. LaBarottsm. 
IHrwUtUia. Aoqnln-d ClukrB4.'tnn, TiMurin of lis' 
naiXy. VIeira or Mr. OsJtoa, Tewlifiiita ot Vrotta-or 
WvlaiuuiD. A Ct11I<|u» al WvluMtan, NM-Uarwio. 
um, V««>-L*Mi*rcklun. tliB AmerlcKD "Scbool," A{r- 
pllaaUoa to tb« Uubwu Bm«. In ik> far an vtsrs 
ar« asimBMil (bejr *i« la lb» «Mtn *n tin* vitb Um 
gaaarml oatnfit of AuMtlnkii thongbt, aod oppoa^d 
ta Um vxtiWD* doctrine ot tba Dvo-iranaiBtMlbtlltr 
of •ft^ulrcd cbaractAr*. 



Prlre* paair^ld. ti eaaia. 



N. D. C HODGES, 8M Broadway, New York, 



OFWHM USE IS THAT PLANT? 

You con Hnd the answer in 

SMITH'S "DICTIONAKY OF 
ECONOMIC PLANTS." 

Sent pcartaiJ on receipt of |2.90. Pabllsb- 
er'» price, I3.50- 

SCIEKCE BOOK AGENCY, 

•74 Br»«dwari I**W Work. 



Wants 



W 



A^y ^ftpH rffJt:ti£ d ftuitin Jar nKUK i* it ^tia/t' 
Aiittf kiitetiuitfii .iff.immiM'i, rr any ^tTf<m irtking 
trmtrnr l» fiil » fsiitivm nf lAn tiarattfr. it it tAal 
»/ a trarhtrit/ iiimtt.chtmiU.^raittkUman.er toknt 
■uu". wn.r Aatv tkr ' ii'»iil' iiitttlt,i undtr Ikii kr»d 
rKax or ct>»T, t/ ♦/ taiiiAft '*' fuili'kfr t/ ikr iiifr~ 
»il4 ck^Ttuirr t/ kit af/lii9liim Anyffrian jtrkimf 
i^/9rtva^itn «r any ititnli/k qtmlitm. Ik* aJd'ttt ir/ 
amy tclmtlfit w.ia. or xtkfia* it *iy wny HU Ikiitti- 
mmm /tr- .1 ftirpttt ctnivf^tnt tiiitk ikt mat»rt a/ tht 
ttiftr, ii ,arJiiii/r imviltd tfd* ti. 

llfANTKIi.-iiir/cHM-. Xo. ITS. Jal; 2, IfM, >]■» 
V\ iDiIrs and TIU0 paaa to VoL VII. ,^ildce« 
K. D. C. HodiiM, ":« nr<>ad»y, Haw York. 

\ TOUNO HAN («) wnnld li(« a poallion In a 
i\ millvue. laboratDry, or oti«*r*«l<>r]r, U al4:> wllt- 
iiic V> asslat at a alCiaiB Mieli)*. ate. Addn-a« J. V ., 
I'areor jtrfparr. NT4 Btoadnay. Naw Toih. 

A.VTCD.— A noHltlon 40 tbo pblloaopblent ur 
prdBgoficai drpartmeot of a oolitwa or inii- 
Terallr bj a joubk cd*u (SO) wbo baa bad nv* frara' 

firactlc-al experlenov In t«acbinK. *°d who ban doiai> 
out jvaiB' ^at-iiiadaaievarfcliipbllotoiiii]^.d<iT(it 
Id^ hi* attantlon daring tbe laat t«» <rran ra|in- 
(ilally t« aladf aod original iDTpaCUailoii In riMt.. 
tiflu pBjebotac; and It* applioatloua <n cdui^uikin. 
Addieaa K. A., oars Seitwit. «ri Beoadwar, S. V. 
City, 

ANTED - A auMabht noaiiloii In WaaUafft<.n, 
D, C , Qot oMinectM attb Ilia Qo*eramMil, 
and a-itli a aalary aot to «so#«d 9090 a r*ar, by an 
O((ien«oeed blotDcin witli nix vvara' uolv^nlty 
Iraiotox. Applicant baa bt^D a akiUnl tmraooo tor 
(niirie«D yeara ; la a praockal pbotograpber, car- 
EC'ftapliri. and ai-«u-totiH>d (o the UM^ ot tba tyuo' 
wriiMf. He >■ aim i-ariablp of tnakinj; Iho niuat Da. 
Ubrd lirawlnei, i>f aoy deaontitlaD, lor all manner 
01 illuHtraiiTo purpQun* In aelMtoa; tralnrd In [iiii. 
uuni uiotliuda aiid w.-ik: alao flald Opurallona and 
laxidxtuiy 111 Ita TariuuB d*p«rtin«ita. Kod mod«l 
lt>K' produoUoa of ca8t«. rcM-iralii hh ot (inleoato- 
loEl^areotnimaand aimUBrriiiplayniBtiiii AildiaiB 
V. a. B., eve Sctenee. 1; I^afaf erte Vlaca. K. Y. 



w 



llfANTBD.- By a yoaoB nan (in.). B.A. andPb.D., 
VV vltb tbraa yaaia' vxpprtnocA aa aaiiUtant In 
clwadattT, immIUdu aa InalriMtot ID ebanditcy or In 
natuni aekaMia in ooU«|tc or aoadamy, or oumr ad- 
vaniaaaona noaltton aa t^liaraiat. Olre partiiiulaia 
aa to work, aalarr. «tc. r. W. MAK, L. Ifta AWoat 
Haven, Con-i. 



.Vr>ll HEAIiY. 

THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL 8. TROT. 

ThiK odQtatiu a divcuafiion of the rvaaoiia 
for their action and of the pheDOfoeua pro- 
■onlvd in Crookes' tube*. 

Price, poatpuld. SO crnta. 

I. D. C. HODGES, 874 Brudf ay, R. T. H. D, C. HODGES. S74 



Exchangea. 
[Praaorcharc**o^I<. if ofMilafaciory character. 

AitilrMX N. r>. C. MnlKn, 874 hmmC-mxy. New VikV.1 

Wininl 10 buy 01 Ficbanic b copr u( lloibfoak** 
Noiib A»ien«aa Hen>ci^"Kr.^y loha Kdwnrdi, smIv 
FhiUilrlpfcn. ■»(>- (i. UAllH, Cbuk L'atvenhy, 
Wnnrmer. Mao. 

Fit %3lr or «nlun^. I.eC<inl*, '* Geoloftr; " Onau). 
"Analunir,'' ■ volt ; hoiiei. "Phyiii.livy," y.«^. vdition: 
Sh<>iiard, A|ipleu<i<. FIIkII, »ik) Slrin, " <. hmiiilij ;" 
Jmoan. " Maiiwai 'f ^'eilel'f ..<«»:" " InEctiiAib^idl Sucn- 
r..._.ri:__ [ *v ^i». --.._...* 



Jenrnal,'/ Mffk-U'tj; Bal- 
> lolt : Cody, " Kb /ooo^:" 
i:i«iiBd. C T. McCU.NTOCK, 



(IMI' tlir' 
("lit. *' t 

^<itmir, I 
LciiiiKliia. lay, 

Tor ulc.— A fl)it a SU Camera: a vciy line m<n»eal, 
*>iih tank, holdfti and tnpod, au newi it ctt^c 0**4 !««: 
iitkc. ^jj. Bdw. L liiyH, 6 Aih«iM ■trcEi, Ctmbrid^. 
Mau. 

To vKlunvr Wtiflil'v *' Uc Arc m Ncflli Atncrira " 
and ?* Ct^fne » "'Eleim^tt "1 Croloxv" (Cnpyn^i il3>> 
lur "iHmiiittn," l.)r A R.Wallaire. "O'lgin n\ S|>ccic*. 
bv Dafwio. ■'(•cicciii of Man," !>)- E«n.ii«, ' Man'i. 
hUic in Naiiiie," Huilty. "Mcnt»l KtoIhiuhi m Am- 
mall." by ftotPBi.cl, "'I're.Adinniiet.'' by i* ii ttu*!). No 
S-ritkt i4di>i*J riticpl laini oliiidiit. An«t IntdAi id psod 
citdiibit- _C. b. BrtmTi, Jr.. VandviMi Uiu*«n(ty, 
XiHbaillc, TcAn. 

Pot Sale *t EMhanc' fot booki a cooplato pnvatc 
cbanical laboratory outAi. Jncludo lar||< Barker b'l- 
aiice (aooK «• cionw), plalinuk dubu and cni^iblaa, 
t^\v rai.iort, glMt-blowlnB appamut, tic. Fof ule ba 
|iia)l Or wbolt. Abo «uni»l«ta nic of Sillii^**'* Jturmal, 
i<t6l-iM5 ^^-I< bound): Srabhumtui KcfioftK itjfiH]; 
t: S. Co»i Su(*ey. iSu-iUo. rail panlcutark (o «a- 
quitm- F. GAKTiI.SER, JR., PotafiM.Coan. 

fit exchan|t« or ^al• al ■ lacriftea, an aLibotale nUro- 
•cnpc outfii. Rulladi kUndj noaocwiai i>b)(«tiv», oo*- 
lixth botDMg<n««V4 imNcrvon, (ijBt<i«allk*, and (kna 
inch. Baunb ft l>anib, abn oae^niutb lud one icd) 
K^nccr. roureye-p«««. ObjacitvM «<* lh» b»i ai^da. 
Addreu Mn. MuruiQ Saiiti, ^i 1Iriin>:li SexxI, txiaell. 
Mao. 



4USr PUBLISHED 

FOSSIL RESINS. 

Tbia buck fa tte resnlt of an attempt to 
collect the »eattor«d notlcea of (o«6il reaitis. 
ozeluMT« ot those on amber. Tbe work (■ of 
tntarmt alao (m account of dearnptiona given 
of the iiiaeota found embvHlded in these long- 
preacrrril exudations from i>ar1y vefrrtation. 

By CURLNCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH. 



I 
I 



h K. t. 



Fanuakv St 



SCIENCE. 



lo iht ata>oflpb(!te an *' cijidtmic con ^litii Lion.** Tht- Intliirnci^ of 
weather wooM he nHtuttttd b? its effMrt in providing tin cmiron- 
nunt suimbln to germ tlevekopinrnl. Thus inoi>.t u««l1ier, 
wb«lbor h]imk nr warm, would be fouixl conduHre to the spread 
of coDlagia, and u> it in. ThiM fact hwi often Iteen alteated hj (be 
exteoMon or cboltfra, dtatilM**, and tlie exanthemata. A vrarm 
and lifj" dsy. un Hi*? coiilmrr, tends to rbi-cfc rootbid »ctii>n of an 
inTectiuus kind. This (act i» wuscepliW^ of more than i>ne etpla- 
oaiioD. We mar, ot> the one band, vays Lancet, reijcflrtl it bk a. 
confluence of tlie»t»eiice of thai Birot-fi^terinK (.'oodjiiun — 
humMlff : on the otbiT, we (nnu«t fail to tf n-uimded that drj 
warmth and t^uufafne ^i^e (In- M^nal for im ^ xodii^ fruni mnay 
criMrded Lomfs. for their frei-r vi-ntilnlion, and nineequenily for 
diminutiuo in Ihr iniin&ity of (vnlagui. The cxart vnlue of 
veatJitr rhanges in n-garil lo tbi* clahP of ilieeosea. liowertr. rtill 
is and tnual foe aom« time remain mh jtidiee. iis for the ailmente 
more nsually eaaociatpd with (ht'Be rlutiij^s — tho«t>, rrrfsani|de, 



more commonU- buoM-n a* inflammalorj — (heooocM'tiuD i» here 
much ruore evident, and nlito lo all likelihood, more tlit^ct. Tbc 
n'4K>cfaiiion of pneumonia, licvDc. itis, Nflibmo, ami rheumstiitn 
with bleak and wet trestber W too ine«rlllilH lt> tierniil u( one 
doubting ita lealiiy apart from any sujtgeBtioQ n( ttyxk- agetK-r. 

— Mr. Ki'lwar, aeuirdu)}; lo InduMr'u*, hiui iotroduce<] an ex- 
ceetlinRly simple ayatem of BignaJUnK id night. A iHwinl Is pru- 
vidcd (vilb incandescent lam(B nrnin}t<^l <o tliftC difTeteiit acta 
form different letters. If the letter N » wanted, lor inslancv, a 
key is prr-ssetl which HghlM all Ibv laniiw whk'b fv to fofiu this 
leitrr. snd "O on. The nmrhim* can be workwl liki' o ivfiewrller. 
SiKntillitm \}y %K\% mi-una cofrevponda with the U)>« (if the titank- 
board in the da;tiaie, bat is. of cotuee, much more ntpul aud at 
Lbt) aainte Ume more easily followed. It is. vf courM. inotHapenibljr 
more rs|Md than any eystem ot (la»b tignaUiDfri and i^piisy to 
read. 



ATomc 

iorsfori's Aciil Plii)S|ikli'. 

A most excellent and agree- 
able tonic and appetizer. It 
nourishes and invijjorates the 
tired brain and body, imparts re- 
newed energy and vitality, and 
enlivens the functions. 

Dr. EPkraim Batkhak. Cedarrille, N. J., 
Bay»: 

" I ItBve uwd it for seTerNl years, not ooly 
la my practice, hut in my own individual 
eaae, aiul consider it under alt circumstancea 
OB« of the best nerre tonics that we posaesi. 
For mmuiJ exhatwiiou or overwork it gJToa 
renewed strengtli and vigor to the entire 
ayatttm." 

OfMripttTC i»mpblet free. 

Rwnrtrd ChMitlcal Works. Pr*.(ik<K», R. t 



THE AMERICANRACE: ija^dbook op meteorolo€ical tables. 



By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M.D. 

"Tba book Uon^orunnsiiftllotervst and fti\i9"~- 
tnier OrrdM. 

'■Dr. DMiMO,Brintanwrit«>flftiitbrackiiovl*il|ed 
Ultbaritx at tbc aabjact-"- Jltiliu/rlpAiii Pita*. 

"Ttu) vork via bo of tetiultit- TKln« to ktl who 
wlib lo know tbn MibalMioe at vlikt h*s b«rD lound 
(iiit »bi-ut 11k< ludltTAciu Aoiertc*!!*."— .Vrilwr«. 

"A EiuatBrl; 4!mmiiu1mi, kod Mt «x>Mipl> Ol CKe 
*BCO»Miful «ituratIoa at tti* po«*nt o(oli««r»»li'»ii." 
— philailetfrhia Ltdgitr. 

Price, poaipnUi, %'i. 



Beware of Sabstitntea ajid 1 mitatioD*. 

CAUTION.— Be anre ibe ward •*Hor*- 
rord*B" I* on tbe iMbcl. All vllier* are 
•t><>*lon*' never awld In toulli. 



I. D. C. fiODGfiS. 874 Broidway, X. T. 

ESTERBROOK'S 
STEEL PENS. 

Of SVFERtOR ASD STA.tDARD QUALITY 

Leading Nos.: 048. 14. 130. 135. 239, 333 

t^>r• Xtile Uy til Slallanrr: 

tHt uniiuBK iTUL r» u., 

w«rk>: Okna«B. K.J. da JvhNNt., Krw rem. 



By Asn. fBor. B. A. Huax, 
la? pp. 6'. 

Profeaaor Waldo says : * • I bMutily rac 
mend tbcm to all workers in meteoroloKyi 

aud do nQl sea bow Asy of our American 
DietearolagtKU i:mn afford to ba witboBt « 
copy." 

rrofeaaor Symona of London Miys; " Tliey 
are unquestitmably valnalit* helps, which 
mtui be koi>t luuiily, siid replaced when 
worn out." 

Prtett iMitfMtifl, $1. 



I. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New York. 

POPUUR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 

F:r Bie In Collcfct itnd N'ornikl ScboeU. Prit* aouBU 
Sdi Iroe bjr |k»i b>- 

N. D. C. HODOKSf BT4 BrMriway^ S. y. 



THt THinpeST AND BEST '■ 



,6? PARK PLACE. NEW YORK 



MIIIPRILIC V^auiaT SFCcUfus. CnLLacnoy* 
nUllLnALo. Poa BiAiweiri A}Mr.T«ui> 

LknrMc kciTniiMt uMk !■ f. u. inoiip. itiiMtTBt«d 
LftLatocD*. [Mper tMnu»<t, Ito ; ololh tKiuud. mo. 
OBO. U BNULISn h CO, Miti.nl»<Ut>. 

>C«moeMf(0 7«a7»B«MMlw«J,«»wrnr* 



PATENTS 

t'orlNVKNTOHS. «n.»«.- HOOK KBKK. AddMW 
W T.F<[«^-«ir«lil. Atlc.nn'j»l L««.WMbiBtt4n. D.0, 



Did and Rare Books. 



B 



ACK NUM RERS Ksd conplcu mI> of IcmUm Mw- 

mi^ao. gmin l»m. AM. MAO EXCBAHCL 

Skhalun* S v 



DO YOD INTEND TO BUILD? 



IV*-t 



Ujraa tsteod M bttUd, it vlll b«*nt«t«k*90IMS<aid teT**SBN8iai.f{ roiV-rtnT 
HVvaBS*^ BowsmocfldlB tkre* roltiaMw. la tlivm fou wUl Bd,! ' . ■. 

floor pUM. deaoriptloMk sod wH isi— uf ooet tor 105 lastcnsl, ii' .r 

■iwnae*. Tbsy Also fli* prices (or «*mi*I«(# WorUiui ri*ii«. t)«tAU> ■•, 

vblob •n»bl« yoit to bnlld wlUiawi dvlaj's, nilsiRk«« sr qaairei* t. i 

n, *ad vblcb maj •■»« can undrrsiand. Vol. I. ooalktaia S3 oopnutii, r 

hMisas, «<>Mli)ji bet««v(ilBaaMul tifKo Vnl It. oouTBtM Ki coprrMied «*<> > iii 

faOOO. Vol. ifl. cuBUins tS, MpTrlsliteil ilcalcus. IWn) to pmi. Ptlca. bi i»i.ii p 1 ,00 
eavfa, or tS.OO far lb* eet. 

**('OI.ONIAL UOIIHKK,'* s toJoidp sbowinx Petaptotlrw aad FToar riARS ef 
hmiw* ■rraiwMl In ibo Indnltahin ■Ivrr' r-f tbp Coloalal AlVbttvClliK, SBd baTllltf All miUlem. 

At-riuiiiomwiUi ti>c coinTori. Prici-, ^tf.ilO, 

••ri4'TVB^QI'KH01 «<KMf UR FORRarr ANO8noaB"i-'nilBak0V 

Perspective* Mid Roar PIsbs ot &• -v 'itnlKb* for BuainiFT CottBgH, vtilch *«■ mmsoila 
atniTBBleiit, u>il obs>p. PMc», (l.OO, iij nikli 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, Net Yort 



S^JIKNCE. 



V«- XIX. Na 4« 



Ton 

inu 
ate 



urn 
nu 

flsn- 
)fti 



ope 
ou 
leg* 
feae 

Wt 

tbe 

ol 

try 

rei 

tio 

sav 



Di 
m 



It 



Fact and Theory Papers 



THE 



«B»''—*ti^ f -^ •r.r'-i^ -U 



EMBROIDERIES. 



Itfkiii 




z- r^E. 5cc:2T7 Ajr3 the ■ =ad 




COMPANY. 

}i m ST^ BOSTOI, US! 



ly •■■■ tke Lettej 

t* AInmnder Gri 

Ttk. lS7e. 31 

Jsavjwy 30, 1«7 

7*7. 

of Speech I 
>r^ mt BLECTBI 

TELBPuosnes b 

tt* i4iht Mcvred t* tli 

birtte aksTv patc»ta»« 

iaAvMaal v>cr«rt< 

Itaniikcd by It or 1 

Ibr Hieb n 

mn tke cmwB 

Umble ton 



=- r T WiTwa jf PrtttctiMg Propti 



..k^a^. 



jj^jj ■— wr xai -h^r ■»*?* ri*r- 
saw ^ X-'-Ci ^1^ 3* -sziL* 'SAC'ia ^ v -r^^ z^ii 

... .-ID*! J 3* ^^i^z. - • m-t i i^ SiiKaR^E-. "ip 

■rn; :. ^•^■•-^■r^.ijm. ■=-••: ::«i via* ;/ ~^ IzJlaa* 
-tdr* 3i-iu^ :n^ I'T't - i »«3ilr If » -:=«:• ;r;b* ,e 
&» l^SX f — * a.:iz^ -dK:s--cr Ti:« ■■■irk "wJ ;• 

■ -srwaa-iaUJ^W ■ "— .fr" . irv "■■■•'*. 

•McS 'te ?^ IMKV* M » tofia 'jiatwa. rrttM -.arc a* 

• A» :EiLi'ii»nm ?*p«T. •— ■;>i-jr;.i-i riiiJ<t. 
T THE TOHXADO. St H, 

:;- B. 

• Tb* .Inta "Viiik :< •x3»malT ^i^rpaUoff.' — J'h- 
■■■1 r-iti* — 1' 

- A aork -vtUi-li V.ll aail suit t*mit^n. y!i« 

4U pmjii!i"-j. jiilil«*r» :q lie rrroA'lo :>Ulr«. "— J.'*, -i 

:bbI 7rn*'-ii>'<^ ( ae'.e^r it'*y. Ji wucs to;*:!!-*. -a* 
HUbar- Pmi^aanr itoxea it :li« V Li::a>: ^uc-w '•i^-:.-!. 
3 ) 1 n ee. n«? 3m mf>i4e-l m ui •37«>rr. ' -5'i. 

VI. TIME- RE I. AT IONS OF MENTAL 

• aJ 4railen:a it jBy'-aiiii-jy wJl laU ".a* Xt- k ''i:' 
.:t .a:*r^t'c4 f,fc.-j. ?;"(-•««>? 7«»n-» > pvJ ; :*.. 
Ltt«F «« « -Ji]ii>>^ uit le « vrner k« sx- v«:: a.; ■ 
;,v. T-.iii*:? *3i'^Ti :•' T»i--^^ .vBi3i«n:. ■—-'■■ •. 

:«j3M- ; :v. rae "31* r*i i.n?>! for :a* ;-er;.T:t;ii-.-e ,- 

aieo:* lira.'— r^- .".-:-;i'. 

VII HOUSEHOLD HYGIENE. l^y 

■• A *«isilil* ar.xrtijr^." — 5- ■■■•'i-i -'■■',>^, 

■* ?r*-'=.-«. lad w-osi^Je "-r"! ■•-■ . ■!.■■.■. - 

=. "f.- 1 M^s's- : ' ■ '" ■'/•■■■'- -' ■••■"•«'' 

S-l'"l.l" III- ^ 

-Tie T-tft 3i..ccfr»rt -- t-^-i* tJKWm. .« 

Vr:i. THE FIRST YEAR OF CHILD 

HOOZ. 3f ;->!»«* SA■.^■^^- 



"^w Lg-litrn'Mff. 






iu 



James McCreery & Co. 

Broadway and I i th St.. 
New York. 




lie Li^tning Dispellm 



'-'cs. SX !a S3C. — Accardifip to nzc; 

f r Veq: " ! --ii>wfji*-T>t«f*n*i- is ■ comb 

.-wia.: 7 it^suned » irEnpaa* th» com 

!.^ai:xif iidL-itajv*.— CO prvrant 

^ar^i. — slairiatf iuei«cfaiB$ is ita {M 

t:. .--1 -t3 .-wacitT fjr '—— '"g dasH 

-^--.-riwii .-««> 3f ligk^uBg iSrok* 1 

1-t-a ;;7'd«i lAiact Bie principle oC < 

V^r ^1? r&r a* ksnrs. the duaipafc 

.. rxt-ivT '3Kf :aT>riafatT protectad ■» 

-vK:i-n.:t3C« K'ticnad. 



V 






"WASTTED 



n« Ixercu U^koug PntoedH Gmpi 



LIXEXS. 



B(\i nvtt-.. P-.av.'if .-will, .r K vir;*. 
l.'TtcT".^ vi s'lt* >.*v«,' '.*f\'? ,■;::■ >:vi.-*':i 

\K« ,'( she i«iii;v .-f ,<^v"t',« i»x- »iv.\ ■ 



• TTw ;4'« sa'*-nc. « 



CH,, 



A TEMPORARY BINDER 

' T .'\-.'^. 3 ^^-T rexdr. and viU be ■■ 

• > •.r.^KT b UTOOC, ihinbh 

: sei.t:. i^s ^^E iiil< liili , BM 

-> :r.< -fea-ag of tha p«cn 

-->:'- •• 3j:. Axt iiimIwi en 

:i»5= .-i; jr rrpiacBd vnhOBt 

3i :h< rthcn. aid the §t 




^ulucd for M^t 






tsFn' 



Filed M 
>T»«aa«ti 



tii;».o<iu' 



I. D C eODCES. IU tmini ttt fort. 



James McGutcheon «& Co., 

TlIK 1.1XKX STOKK. 

U( \ Kti noxi <;»il St^ Now \ork. 



^5^ j invfi-i . T. bin wilhoiu ndc tU 
.a,T,fc4 ^, ^,, piper ..i- pi ijiwlii ■! «( r 
1 ■ - ■ V »j ev .-\-(«;a^ m nccipt of pail 

•■ ■•• ■ "*■ ^ «"♦ w^ire the naa 

»..-.» ^ ■,- --.; ;^.■:>l.«a.^!:i«•Atr,t•.«« 

' ; • *•> " n- 

rs 1 Mk 

N O. O. HOD3ES. Publish*! 



NEW YORK, JAXUARY 14. lOTJ. 



THE KLAMATH NATION, 
ni. — rmioLOGr Avr> OKKntAL rrawouxtr. 

Tax Elumath Tnytfiology. aa U generally foutid to be (be 
ciuw with any mytbology belonging to « people who speak a 
langiia^ rmdically distioci from all olher totigues, has pecu- 
liar f««(an>« well worlby of aulic« and of comparison with 
frther and more widely known forms of belief. The princi- 
pal deity h K'niAkamtcb. a name which M.r. Gfttechel rencers 
Ibe "Old Mao of the Ancients," or the "Primeval Old 
Han." The expressioQ, " man," howcrer. seems in strictuess 
not to be comprised in it, as we nre further informed that it 
is composed of A~mufcAa, " he is old," and the leraiinatiuu 
amfcA. bavins a similar meaning, "old, aacieul, primeval, 
bygone." "The Most Ancient," or "The Oldest Being." 
would seem to be Ibe nearest interpretalioD. He is otherwiae 
designaled P'tighamich ttalam. "Our Old Father," and 
P'Uxitalini. "The One on High." He created the world and 
all that it coDtainfl. Various storicfl arc told of the mode of 
tbeae creations. According to one accouDt he made planta 
md animals, iucluding men, by /A miring and wishing, " this 
probably implying (a<& Mr. Uutfichet auggpsta) that, after 
forming an idea of •uime creature, he made that idea a reality 
by lb« strong energy of his will,"— a melbod wbtch accords 
' with the Mosaic accoant of creation. Other mytha apeak of 
, his family, coiiiprisiug a father, a wife or wives, a daughter. 
I and Aifihish, "bis sou by adoption,'' "The name nf his 
I daught'.T,'^ we are told, "is not given, but sbo reprvseuta 
^^be clouded or mottled eveuiug sky. When (in the myth) 
^^pe leads him to the nnderworld, they meet there a vafit 
^<rowd of spirits, who for five nights dance in a large circle 
I around a fire, and on each of the intenrening days are 
cbsngnl into dry boae«. K'mOkumlch takes with him wome 
I of thf-ae in a bag, and, when reaching the horixon at day- 
' break, (brows the bones around the world, in pairs, aud 
I creates tribes from Ihem. the Mndocs being the la.it of these, 
I Tbtsu he (ravels in the path of the sun till he reaches the 
tenith. builds his lodge, and liveii there noir with his 
! daughter." 

I Mr OalAchet holds tbb divinity to be a natare god. repre- 

senting usually the sun, but sometimes the sky. He beans 
' a certain likeoMa to the primal Aryan deity, whose my- 
thological and ethnological history, as I>yau9pUar (Heaven- 
father) in India. ZeuM pater in Greece, and Jupiter in Italy, 
I has been 90 happily traced and elucidated by Prafegsor Max 
I MOHer. Like Zeus and Jupiter, also, in the rutgnriztng 
imaginations of later my thol exists, he assumes the form of a 
n or, in bis more comic adventures, of a lower animal. 
'e takes then, in Klamath myths, the typical form of the 
wijc and knowing tktl, the pine-martin, " whicb changes Its 
ick winter fur lo a brown coating in the hot months of the 
'ear, aud thereby becomes a sort of portent to the Indian." 
Aa Skel-amtch, "Old Martin," he becomes the hero of as 
many fanciful legends a& those of Zeus In his various animal 
dis£uii»e«. 




HiK adopted w»n, Aishish, is the seeond and, In some re- 
spects, the most interesting ligurc in the Klamath pantbeoa. 
His name signilies ■' the one secreted," nr "concealed." and 
is given lo him in allusion to the manner of his birth, which 
neemblcd that ascribed in the Greek myth lo Bacchus. In 
bis attributes. Aiahish rather revalls the other sous of Zeus. 
Apollo and Hermes, or the Hindoo Kriabua. Ue is beuili- 
ful in appearance, beloved and admire<) by men. and is the 
husband of many wivca, selected by him am<ing the birds, 
butterflies, and the smaller quadrupeds. He ia a social aud 
friendly deity, and often makes Iiia appearance at festive 
asaemblies for archery and gambling (which is deemed a 
manly and not degrading sport), when he shows himself un- 
rivalled in these accompltshmenls. He is finely aUircd in 
garments of hi* own making, ornamented with beads. He 
is constantly at variance with his reputed father. Mr. Gat- 
schet Bods his prototype in the moon. "'The nioou is tbe 
originator of Ute months, and the progrusa of the mouths 
brings on the seasons, with the new life seen sprouting up 
everywhere during spring and summer. 80 the quadrupeds 
and birds, which are the first to appear after the long winter 
months, are considered as the wivca of Aisbish, and th« 
flowers of summer vegetation are tbe beads of his gar* 
ments," 

Tbe other elementary deities of the Klamaths are mysieri- 
nus shadowy beings, too dimly defined, in our author's 
opinion, lo deserve the name of gods. Among 'ibem ar« 
Kaila, the earth; Leni^ish, tbethander; Yamaahaod Mnasb, 
tbe north and south winds; and Shukash, Ibe whirlwind. 
There are mythic stones relating (o spirits of the dead, 
to gtaots and dwarfs, and to deilied animaJs. But none of 
them seecn to be of much real significance, or to iafluence 
greatly the lives of tbe pe«iple. Their mythology, like tbeir 
traditional history, was crampe^l in ils development by a 
peculiar superstition, which strictly forbade the utterance of 
the name of any deceased penon. This superstition made 
the wurship of ancefllors impossible, limited all thought about 
a future life, and abolished all historical tradition, — for, as 
the author pertinently asks, ''How can history be lold with- 
out names!" Tbe Klamath religion, therefore, ap|ieara 
simply as the reverence for certain nature- powers. It has 
no torturing or mangling rites, like the flesh-piercing and 
finger mutilation of the Dakota and Blackfoot tribes, aud no 
grossly immoral and anti-social trails, like some of the Mexi- 
can and Peruviau obaerYsncvs. 

The belief in a future life, though obscured, is not entirely 
extinguished by the superstition which has been mentioned. 
The disembodied soul, now a nameless phantom, hovers for 
a time about its late abode, aud ibcu, ri&ing in the air, fol- 
lows the sun in its westerly course, till it reaches the spirit- 
laud iu the sky, Eeot. or Ayayaoi, "somewhere new K*m6- 
kamlch.'* "Its arrival there is afterwards revealed by dreams 
to the mourning relatives, who express in songs what they 
have seen in their slumbers. *' Tbvre is a guardian, wears 
told, over the .tpiritfi in their pnsaage through the aky, called 
the Wftsh Kmusb. or tbe grny fox. " This name is evidently 
borrowed from the coloring of (he sky. as it apQcan 4>&.V>.-vvx 
a jKilar night, and must bt CR«ttvia.t^ S.t» *.v».v;Awx \«a»*. -RaOT^, 



30 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 467 



Wao or Wanika, the red fox, which is the symbol of the 
aun-hulo." Not all souls, however, attain the home of the 
spirits. Of Kmlikamtch we are told, "He provides for man- 
kind whom be has created, but does not tolerate any contra- 
veolioQ of bis will; for he punishes bad characters by chaog- 
ing them into rocks or by burniD^ them." Thus we find 
that the Klamath mytholo^, like the Greek, though in many 
parts childish, absurd, and inconsistent, had yet, in a certain 
degree, reached the imporlant point where religion is com- 
bined with morality. 

Mr. Gatscbet promises, in a future volume, some further 
iDformation concerning the social usages of the Klamath na- 
tion. But he adds a few weighty sentences on this subject, 
which deserve special consideration. "The Klamath In- 
dians," he tells tis, "are absolutely ignorant of the gentile 
or clan system as prevalent among the Haida, Tblingit, and 
the Eastern Indians of North America. Matriarchate is also 
unkiiowD amoQg them ; every one is free to marry within or 
without the trilie, and the children inherit from the father." 
According to certain theories which have been proposed of 
late years by writers of much eminence, the Kiamath nation 
would appear from these facts to have reached a very high 
degree of social advancement. It has emerged from the 
primal and bestial condition of promiscuous intercourse, 
euphemistically and absurdly styled " communal marriage ; " 
it has passed through the "gentile" organization, and the 
matriarchal and exogamous stages, and has attained the 
loftiest grade of tlie most highly civilized European nations. 
The recent admirable work of Mr, Edward Westermarck on 
the '■ H'story of Human Marriage" has disclosed the unsub- 
stantial character of the bases on which these fantastic 
theories were reared. But to get to the root of the matter 
something further should be said, or rather has been already 
said, and may here be repeated. In the volume for 1889 of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, I 
have expressed, in some "Remarks on North American 
Ethnolf^y," introductory to the excellent report of Dr. Franz 
Boas on the Indians of British Columbia, the conclusions to 
vhicli — in common, I think, with most American ethnolo- 
^sts — I have been led by a prolonged study of the tribes 
of this continent and a comparison of them with other tribes 
and races. As these conclusions have since been stronsfly 
reinforced hy the results of the careful investigations of Mr, 
Gatschet and Dr. Boas, as well as by the comprehensive 
studies of Dr. Brinton, as set forth in his valuable works on 
"Races and Peoples" and "The American Race," I may 
venture to add a summary of them as a Qt completion of the 
present review. 

I have urged (hat "in our studies of communities in the earli- 
est stage we must look, not for sameness, but for almost end- 
less diversity, alike in languages and in social organizations. 
Instead of one 'primitive human horde' we must think of 
some three or four hundred primitive societies, each beginning 
iu a single pair or group of children bereft of their parents, 
and left, in the early settlement of a country, isolated from 
all kindred and neighbors, each pair or group expanding 
iu their posterity to a people distinct from every other, alike 
in speech, in character, in mythology, iu mode of govern- 
ment, and in social usages. The language may be monosyl- 
labic, like the Khasi and the Paloung; or agglutinative in 
various methods, like the Mantsbu. the Nahuatl, the Eskimo, 
and the Iroquoian; or inflected, like the Semitic and the 
Sahaptin. Its forms may be simple, as in the Malayan, the 
Maya, and the Haida, or complex, as in the Aryan, the 
Basque, the Algonkjan, and the Athapascan. The old theo- 



retical notion, that the more complex and inflected idioms 
have grown, in the process of ages, out of the simpler agglu- 
tinatiTe or monosyllabic fonns, must be given up as incon- 
sistent with the results o/ modern researches. 

In like manner, we find among primitive communities 
every form of government and of social institutions — mon- 
archy among the Mayas and the Natchez, aristocracy among 
the Iroquoians and the Tsbimsians, democracy among the Al- 
gonkians and the Shoshonees, descending almost to pure, 
though perhaps peaceful, anarchy among the Athapascans, 
the Eskimos, and various other families. In some stocks we 
find patriarchal (or ' paternal ') institutions, as among the 
Salish and the Algonkian ; in others, matriarchal (or ' mater- 
nal '), as among the Iroquoian and the Haida. In some thi' 
clan-system exists; in others it is unknown. In some exog- 
amy prevails; in others endogamy. In some, women arc 
houored, and have great influence and privileges; in others 
they are despised and ill-treated. In some, wives are ob- 
tained by capture, iu others by courtship, in others by the 
agreement of (he parents. All these various institutions and 
usages exist amon<; tribes in-thc same stage of culture, and 
all ol them appear to be equally primitive. They are sim- 
ply the forms in which each community, by force of the 
special charjicter of its people, tends to crystallize. 

We frequently, however, find evidence, if not of inters 
nal development, at least nf derivation. Institutions, creeds, 
and customs are in many cases adopted by one stock from 
another. As there are now ' loan words ' in all languages, 
so there are borroweJ beliefs, borrowed laws, and borrowed 
arts and usages. Then, also, there are many mixed commu- 
nities, in which, through the effect of conquest or of intermar- 
riages, the physical traits, languages, or institutions of two or 
more stocks have become variously combined and intermin- 
gled In short, the study of human societies in the Iightof their 
classiQcatiou by linguistic stocks is like the study of material 
substances in the light of their classiflcation by the chemical 
elements. In each case we find an almost infinite variety of 
phenomena, some primitive and others secondary and com- 
posite, hut all referable to a limited number of primary con- 
stituents: in chemistry, the material elements: in ethnology, 
Ihe linguistic stocks. Such is the result of the late-st inves- 
tigations, as pursued on the Western Continent, where for 
the first time a great number of distinct communities, in the 
earliest social stages, have been exposed to scientific obser- 
vation, with all their organizations and workings as clearly 
discernible as those of bees in a glass hive." 

It is to be hoped that the Bureau uf Etlinology and the 
British Association will continue their valuable researches 
and publications on this subject until all the distin(.-t aborigi- 
nal stocks which survive in western North America, from 
Alaska to Lower California, have been as thoroughly studied 
and their physical and mental traits, languages, mythologies, 
and social systems made known as completely as this can 
now be done. P>om a comparison of the results of these in- 
quiries two important gains to science may be confidently 
anticipated. (l.i It will he made evident — as the facts 
already adduced iu this review sufficiently show — 
that the physical differences in the varieties of men 
can be adequately explained by climatic and other 
local influences, and thus all ground for affirming the ex- 
istence of several human species, evolved from different 
sources, will disappear. (2j The " Aryocentric " theory of 
linguistics and ethnology, which, during the past seventy 
years, has perverted and hampered those sciences as seriously 
as the geocentric theory for many centuries perverted and 



[anuary 15. 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



3« 



hainperwl the Boieace of aaCroDoaiy. will. be utterly deinol- 
iftb«d. All llie upecial exc«l>«ncfs whicb hare bef n claimed 
for the speech and mpnlal traita of the Ipdo- European ^oek, 
will be round fixempliRMl in as high drgrM amoag' i«on)« of 
th« American nnlionalitiea. The singular opinina which has 
beeo maintainvd by writeni of no ro«au dislioction. Ibat the 
deaceodaots of a barbarous coaimunity of nomadic henlsmen 
who, four or 6ve thousand yeani ago, wandered over the 
central plaint of Asia and Europe, and, moving southward, 
gradualljr gaioed from Assyrian, Egyptian, and Providian 
sources the elements of culture, are endowed by nature with 
ecrtaiopecnliar gifts of intellectual and niora.1 greatness which 
entitle them to subdue, dominate, regulate, and, if they think 
proper, entirely suppress and exterminate any alien commu- 
nity that comes in their way, will be found to be as directly 
oppoaed to scientific truih as it is to tbe first principles of 
humanity and justice. UORATIO Ualk. 

CUaua, Ontario, caoadL 



THE LAPAYKTTE GRAVELS. 



f^ PRKSIDKWT Chaubcsun, accompanied by Professor R D. 
Salisbury, has spent the holidays in the aouth and south- 
west, examiuing the bedi) of gravel and sand called by Dr. 
Hilgard the " Orange Sand," hut recently renamed by him 

I " Lafayette," The same beds have also been called " Appo- 
mattox " by Hr. McOee. The party went Srst into the 
Dortfa-westf^m part of Alabama and adjacent parts of Miaais- 
sip|M, where this formation, as well as an older ooe com- 
poeed of very similar materials, ia seen in great force. This 
older formation is tbe TuBcalooea of the Alabama survey, 
equivalent to the Potomac of tbe Middle Slates. From Shef- 
iVId they weot across to Columbus, Qa,, where Lhey were 
joined by Mr. W. J. McOee. At Columbus the mme two 
formations are admirably ex[>osed, as well as a third, a di- 
vision of the Columbia fomiation of Hr, McOe«t, the "River 
Terrac*" of the Alabama survey. 

Prom Co1umbH« the party came to Montgomery, where 

I the L«faytlt« grarels and sands are to be seen in contact 
with the MAnds of Ihe Eutaw division of the Cretaceous. 
From Montgomery they went to Tuscaloosa, where they 
were met by Dr. Smith and spent a day in examining tbe 
beautiful exposures of the Tuscaloosa and Lafayette forma- 
tions in the railroad cuts at Cottoudale. at Box Spring, and 
in the gullies of the town of Tuscaloosa. Sir Charles Lyell, 
in describing tbe geological fonoatiotn at Tuscalooea, aays: 
** The lower beds of tbe honzontal Cretacooua series in con- 
tact with tbe inclined coal measures, consist of gravel, some 
of the quarUose pebbles being as large as beoa' eggt, and 
they look like an ancient beach, as if the Cretaoeoui sea had 
terminated here, or shingle had accumulated near a shore." * 
Profrasor Tuomey afterwards showed that theae pebble 
beds belonged to a much more recent formation, for h« traced 
them 6outhward and found ihem overlying the TeKiary rocks 

Kf the lower part of the Stale.' 
As a matter of fact, both the Cretaceous (if the Tuscaloosa 
r Potomac shall prove to be Cretaceous, as i>eems most 
prob«bIe) and the Poet-Eocene deposits are exposed in tbe 
gullies cut in the slt^iea of tbe hill towards tbe river in Tus' 
ralooea. All the large gravel belougs, however, in all 
probability, to the later formation, which we now call La- 
fayette, while tbe underlying nlraLiRed clays and cross- 
_bedded sands are of older date, the clays containing many 

< "TrmveU In tb« UalWd atsHs, SmmmI VUi,- VoL II., p. 08 (Barper & 
0. 
'VVIrat Bt«ntiUI Report on a* Oaologr ot Alsb«nB,''p. tM. 



plant remains which fix the age as probably Cretaoeou& 
It thus arems that Sir Charles Lyell was mistaken in his 
idenliBcalinn of the gravel beds as OreloeetHUt, while Profes- 
sor Tuomvy, though undoubtedly correct in his dassi ticatina 
of the gravel and overlying red loam, did not diacriminato 
between lhe«e and tbe underlying laminated claysand croea- 
bedded sands, which were tirst clearly distinguished in Ala- 
bama by Harper and Winchell, and afterwards described in 
detail by Smith and John«on in 18S3 and followiDg yeara.* 

The age of these later gravels has lately become matter for 
difference of opinion among geologists. Professor Tuomey 1 
thought that they belonged to the Drift, though having but 
few points of reeemblance to that formation at tbe uortb. 
Dr. Hilgard also has always ooosidered tbem as belonging 
to the Quaternary, and. more or lees remotely, of glacial 
origin. Messrs. McQee and Chamherlin, on tbe other hand, 
consider them much older than the Quaternary, and as 
probably Pliocene, because of their occurrence beneath beds 
which these geologists consider the very oldest of tbe Qua- 
ternary .teriea. Tbe vigorous manner in which tbe study of 
tbis formation is being pushed in widely -separated parts of 
the United State«, leads us to hope that theae differences of 
opinion will st>on be i«conciled. 

From Tuscaloosa tbe party went westward to Viclrsbufg, 
Natchez, and other points on the great river, where the aame 
gravel beds are exposed in contact with (lie overlying Port 
Hudson and Loess of unquestioned Quaternary age. From 
New Orleans the party will return to their bocnee. 

E. A, & 

ABTIFICIAL LANGUAQE8. 

TuE enthusiasm for the creation of new international lan- 
guages was at its height a few years ago, but is by 00 meaiw 
over. The too well known Volapfik is probably the best of 
them, and has set the stone rolliogi it tries to combine tbe 
peculiar, especially phonetic, feAturea of moat European lan- 
guages. U is doing good work as a medium of commercial 
correspondence, but probably will never he adopted as a me- 
dium for cunrersatiuu, and through Iho agency of tinM is 
subjected, like other languages, to phonetic and many other 
changes. Some attempts dating from 1891 have adopted tb« 
principle of uniting tbe elements of tbe Romance language* 
only into a new form of speech. " Ud lingua iuterno- 
jiional " was composed by Julius Lolt in Vienna (Springer- 
gasae 32) ; " Un lingue commun pro le cultivat naziunes " 
by Dr. Alberto Liptay and " Bx«d up " for Spanish, French, 
and German speaking people; another, perhaps the most 
consistent in its principle, is " Nov lAtin," by Dr. Eoaa of 
Turin. A passage taken from Lott's "Supleot folie'* reada 
as follows: " Le doktcM inter li poto usare le hialorTk orto-< 
graBe. ma le homo de komercie eae aaep in duhie en use da 
dublkonsonantes. Sin perdito pro le klarit6 noi pole tolonire 
le skripziou : gnunatik pro grammatika, etc. In it question le 
majorit*'' avere le decision." lu reading thn sort of jai;goD 
we cannot help asking ourselves, Would it not be greatly 
preferable to use plain French or lutian to make oneself 
underatoodi 

Another more elaborate " Attempt towards an luteraa- 
tional Language " was written by Dr. Esperanto of Warsaw, 
Bussia, and translated into English by Henry Phillips, Jun. 
(New York, Holt, 18S9. 86 p. S^'). It combineB radioal, 
elements of the Qermantc and tbe Romance laoguagta, %ni 
tends to put Into reality Ihe principle, that " a langnaga] 

• BaUMlB Vo. tt>, C. s. <l«vi. 8nr«,, " Od i1i« TviUary mxI CnucAoni Olraia' 
of IB« TBBcalooaa,TcnBl>l|tb«*, aad AlabaMk Hlnra.'' 



SCIENCE^ 



[Vol. XIX. No. 46? 



of tliiBltind must be citrcniely easy, iw thai it can be learned 
without difficulty." Indeed, Esperanto's Krammatic rules 
nre (pvr in number, for tite; are all ^theml upon four 
panes only. A. part of the Lord'n Prayer sounds as rollovrg-. 
"Panon nian cbiouto^n donn a1 uibodian: kuj pardonu a1 
ni ebuldantuj; nc kondnku uin en teotoi), ited liberijfu nin 
de ift malvera char." An International Knglish and an 
English- 1 nternutioual vocabulary slaodii at the close of the 
amall volume. The real name of (ho nuthor who has hidden 
liiuieeir and his iuKOuious system under the pseudonym ot 
'The Hojwful" is Dr. Samenhof. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

^N has been loaR knonti that glass is attacked nnd dtMtnlved 
In ttuiatl quantities by ordiaiiry wattr. This ditwlving prwew 
IIiTT FrellTtT, aecofdlDg to Mature, has recently souglit to prove 
and measure b; change la the electric conductivity of the ^ater 
{,Ann. der PAysilt). Be meatturcd the Increase of conductivity 
undergone by one cahic oentlmctre of pure water when ilhaa 
been in contact for nne hour with one t-quare ceDtioMln of glam 
sarfaoe, aod rmcluded that the amount of glass dlasolred at 20° 
O. was one to two mtllioollin of a milligram. He found, too, (hat 
with temperature rising arlihmetirally, the growth of eolubility is 
cooajderably more rapid than thnt or a gtMimetrifa) Aerieo: that 
the increase of conductivity of the wat^T for » given kind of glass 
untler like cooditions is a oharacteristic constant; and that lBt«r, 
when a certain quantiiy of alkali ia dissolved, further action in- 
volviM a disaolvEng also of silidc acid, and the salts then formed 
may cause a decrease of conducting power. 

— R. W. Sbufeldl. M.D., delivers, durlug January, four lee- 
lures on btology. at the Catholic Coiversit.v of America, Washing- 
Ion. The titles are: "Its History and Prvseut Douiafu,'* " It« 
Relations to Otology,** "Its Value aa a Study." "Its Growth and 
Future Influence.'* 

— Towards the end of laM Ittnrch the citiaens of Sydney 
were astoot^ed, as we leoco from Nature, by tho sudden discol- 
oration ot the water in Port Jackson. In the harbor the water 
pr(««nti>i] in many plnces the appearance of blood. Tbi^ rcmark- 
ahla phi-nomenon, which was sixm found (o Ite due to the prea- 
eoc« of a miDtilo organlxm, baa been made the subject of a pftT>^r, 
by Hf. ThoDias Wbilflqtgr, in the Rifoirdii uf titf Aiiotralian Uu* 
acatn (Vol. I. N<>. tt;. Oo March i\, Mr. Whitclcg^^e wvnl to 
Dawe'i Point and got a Ijoltle of n aler, in wbicb 1 hen? was a good 
fiUpply of lite orgaDitiui in qu<-»iiou. At Hrst he thought it was a 
species of the tienus PeriJiniidw. but further reteatch oootioced 
him Ihiit it waa a new species of the closely allied genue, Qleno- 
diniuui. Su far as Mr. WhitWegge ta able to judge, fully one half 
ot the shore fauns muet luii-e bcea destroyed by these btnall in- 
TAders. The bivalves were almost exterminated in tbosv localities 
where the organism wax nbunOunt during tho whole of the visita- 
tion. Mr. Whitteggc is of 0|iinion timt the great dc«tructioa of 
life luiiught ahout hy an urganii^iu apiiaruntly so inatgoillcsnc Is 
of the lkighe.it inler^t from a biulogtL-ii] point of view, showing, 
as It doe?, how liutiteil ia our knowledge i»f the causes which in- 
fluence marine food iiupplies. Thli, he puinis out, ts particulariy 
the case in regard to the oyster, wbtch has often mysteriously 
disappeared from localities where it formerly ubuunded. 

— In a report by th« British vice-coRsul at Alexondrhi, it is 
staled that the plague of locusts which has been devastating Mo- 
rocco Itaa lieen extending itself to ^cypt. Some little time ago, 
clouds of locuMit made their appearanco aod settled, for Ibe most 
part, OD the banks of the Nile or on the edge of the desert, form- 
ing large yellow |>atches, easily discernible at a distance. They 
at anc« bc^*" to breed, and, although immediate steps were taken 
to dertroy them. lari.e numliers of the eggs have already been 

'liatobed. An examination of about tiiirty dejwaJts of eggs 

. {b aaid to have sltown that the usual number laid hy each female 

i> from o>t>oty-»even to a bundml. The goverom^ot at once 



iasoed the stiicteol ordprs lo the mudir!> to use e^ery poasit 
means to destroy the locusts, and competent officials were teui' 
round the country to organlxo and diicct the work ot exteroiina- 
lioii Milliuos of locusts and oggs have bwn deslrqyed. but thi're 
are still large uuml)erB in the ouuntry. When eggs arc discovered, 
either the Qcid is ploughed up or flooded, or the eggs ar«> coU 
levted and destroyed. The old locusln are easily destroyed while 
breeding, but the young crickets, in the earlk«t atage, when th<>y 
are hopping about In every direction, give more tniuhle. Tlio 
usual method followed In this case is to endow tho spot in whlct 
the crickets are found by a number of men drawn up in the foi i 
of a orescent. A ditch is then dug from one horn of the creacct 
to the other, and tbc men close in, driving the young locusts, bj 
means of palm branches, into the dildi, where they are destroyed 
acMl buried. When the young locusts are fuKlier developed, tht-y 
cease to bop, and march in densely packed armiea. It is at this 
•tag«> that tliey are said to Iw most de*trtirttve, hut they mtg mote 
eavily exterminated, as they move slowly, and can Iw surrounded 
wilb luel and burned. Fn:>m tliv envrgelic measumt taken by Ihf 
government, it ia hoped that this pest may be stamped out before 
any serious harm has been oco&sioaed, but as many eggs Br« still 
known lo iK> deposited in the oountry, it is impo^ble to foretell 
thf extent of the calamliy. nod U is possible that many «gga are 
being batched in thu dcM'rt. tJp to the prtaent tims H b n>port«d 
that little damage has \H}cn done to the colt<m cropv, but It is dif- 
ficult to obtain any relinl>Ifl infoimatioo on liie subject. The sys- 
tem employed in Cypms for the destruction of lociuits baa l>een 
adopted in Rgypt when TH^ctirahle. Another insect plague, in 
the shape of a repulxix-v-toolcing W'ale inN*K-t, made its appearance 
ia Alexandria some time ago, and last ywar ootiimitt«<i great rav- 
ages in Ibe gardens adjacent to the town, attacking tretes idiroba, 
and the fruit of the dale pahu. Various measures faave been tried, 
but the only eillcacious one appears to lie that of cutting the 
branches and carefully l^ufblsg (be boughs. Uofortunstely, 
however, no g^-nerul rvgulaiioa has yet been pot into force, and 
ronsFquentl? thi^ edTurts uf some individuals are nullified by t1>e 
apathy of olhera. and the plague stilt coniinuee and Ihreatens to 
spreid througliouc the country. The insect has lxM>n rla.<wiBed ns 
Cronsotonto .-KggjAiarum , and was probahl y i m ported from 
America. It is popularly known as cotont^ia from lis resem- 
blance to cotton A decree has now been tasucd, prolnbillng Ibe 
irans|>ort of trees and shrubs from Alexandria lo other parts of 
the country. 

— A large and influential meeting haa been hekl in the Eirer- 
po3l Town Uall, the Mayor in Uu- ohair, for ihr purpoae of estab- 
li»hiug a geugtspbical society for the city. It w:*^ decided, on the 
motion of Mr. Forwoud. M P., to establish such a wxriety. Nr. 
Forwood Mid that statesmen bad a knowledge of continents, but 
they had no knowledtie of the value of the trade in these couli* 
ncnts. Ho fell *ure that If, some years ago, those who were at 
the head of public affain^ In this country had been informed by a 
practical society, such as he had oo doubt would be formed in 
Ijlverpool. that in Africa there were great reMmrcea. that there 
was a great Held for thH expaosJon ot this country's trade, the 
condition of llie map n{ Africa would be very difTerCDt from what 
it aov.- van. He had twfore him a map preparod by the African 
section of the Chamber of Commerce, which showed that Ibe coaat 
lines of different countriM interlaced, but that no arrangement 
seemed to have been made by any one of them as to who was to 
liavt* tlie sphere of influcDce in the interior. Many railways had 
been by British enterprise recently built in Mexico, Central Amer- 
ica, and the Argvutine. but there waa really nothing known in 
this country about tho resourcea of tlieae countries, and there was 
no place wbere this informtion could lie got. Such a centre of 
Information in Liverpool would be of ineaiimablu vatuo. Probably 
their society would take a more practical and less scteutiQv line 
than the Hojal Gfograpbical Society, who were giving Ihem their 
cordial sympathy and support, 

— The Meteorological OSlce of Paris has recently publiabed its 
Annah for the year 1889, in Ihrco roltimee, as in previooa years. 
Vol. I., under Ibe title of Uemoirs. says JVtifiire, oontaina a treatise 
by U. Fron on the oourse of the thunda^elonns during the year. 




January 15; 189a. 



■ooouipftnieil by JaU? chart*. M. Moure»ax ban publisfaed the 
detaib of thu mmcavtii-' obvervatioiiti nuwJe at St. Maiir, with a 
nuaautry of ibv dblurtiuii:^ : ciglit iilaU-« n-prcHluce oxactly Iho 
photOfcnplik curves of tlw oiost n'ttiarkaUe disturliniico«. M. 
Aogol given the reaalia of the first simtiliaaeum obwrvulioott made 
at tfa« Oniral Motcorokigial OSce and on the Eiffel Tower. The 
diurnal TariBtioo ot pnamtv at th« ttummit of tli« towra show-e 
that \h*^ Hrot mioimum <4h.'Ah. AH.) 1^ much -ziore [iroiiDimced 
iu all months at tbp sumo^l tbao at the bue, and ap{wan to occor 
rather hiter The Hm maximum (9b.-tOh.A.ii.)l.-) much leas lai- 
portant at the aammic, especially during tbe summer moDtb^ and 
aUo apiMart to occor laUr. The second toioimum (8h.-8)i. P.v.) 
i» much I«M iniportaBt at (be stunmit, and tbe aecond maximum 
(about lOh. yjl.) U latber more proncMinced at tbe samniit than Bt 
(bs baPf. Hie temperature of the air at the aumiiiit ot the tnwer 
dorjoi^ tbe ni^ht diffen mantantlr from thai of St. Maur hy leiu 
(haa ib» normal value: during the day, on tbe tronlrary, the dlf> 
feretK?e of iemi*prstnr« it much Kreatt-r Ik^wwh the two iXatioos 
than Hie nortuaJ Tslue. Tbe winil, duriug all monihs, has a diurnal 
varialion cjuile different from tbul at the Central Of&iv; the maxi- 
mum occunt at the middle of tbe niithl, white the miDimum oocun 
at about 10b. a.11., mod rather later in whiter. Vols. II. and HI. 
contain rc«pectiv«ly the t^cnenl obacrvalfoiw and tho rainfall 
raluM at the varioaa atsiiona. 

— Two theories bare been propooed to explain tbe formation of 
blowhiiled in uleel castings, ncilher nf which btis so far succeeded 
In satiafrinj; all panie«. When it was di^xtrered at Terreooire 
tfaat an addition of ttilictm to tbe molten metal tended towards the 
production of «ound casiings, the theory was advanced that tb« 
blowbolefi werv due to carbonic oxide, which compound is broken 
up by «licoa at bigb tempereturee. But tbe dtacorery that the 
^[■a coutaiiied in tbete trfowbolea wat principally bydro^u and 
DllrOK^D. with but a aniall proportiou of oarbooic oxide, did much 
to ttO«rltle this theory, though its advocatw by no mraut! ubau- 
dooed the Held, to a recwnt work, M. Le Berrier, Eunctoeer in- 
Chief of mines and prnfeiisor at ilte Conserratnirt- des Ans el 
Metieta. has proposed a iheory. according to E!ngi>uerittg. which 
■cooantA for the effect of >tl)icon In producing sound castings and 
al«o for the presence of hydrogen in these blowholce. Acrordintt 
to bim. a bath of cast iiteel is a «>uper-»atnrated solution of hydm- 
gtn nni uitroncn. If it fcolididea quietly, nothing diDtiirlis the 
mideculare^iuilibrium, but if, \>y Rserood)*ry reaction, bubbiee or 
»ome other gas are produced in the body of tbe molten fluid, this 
disengagement, feeble as it may be, deetroysthe equilibrium, just as 
in a super -^aiuialed solution of a askn in a liquid, the par^ut; iu of 
a few bubbles of aoine other ijas umy cause (he diiw-iiKitvemcnt of 
the RnU This carbonic uxfde, tliough forming only a small p«rt 
of the total gno pet fr^'e, Is quite cnjniblc of liU-rtiting the olhiT 
gaitM with Which tlie blowholea are mainly filled. 

— Tbe Bmoklyo Institute of Arts and Sciences Janujtry Bulletin 
is as follovH: Jan, 4. Department of Hicrowi>pr. lecture hy W. .1, 
Keracetter of New York on " Nature as I{«renled by the Mtcro- 
Msope: " Jan. 5, Department of niilology, first lectnre in tbe ttetivn 
00 "Tbe Modem Novel." hy lV>renor HJnlmar If. UoyiMcn of 
Colomhin L'ollogo. " Victor Hugo," with petsonal rcmtnis< 
ceooe>i Jan. 5. Department of Entomology, lecture by Proressor 
George Maclookieof Princeton (Jolipge on "Some Notes on the 
Phyitology of Insects; " Jan. 6, Department of Oeolo^ty, lec- 
ture by Professor Henry L. Fairchild of RocheKter Cniveraily 
oa ''The Aiie of ReptUds;" Jan. 7, Department of Political and 
Ecooomic Science, lectur* by Ur, EUo S. YoutcbetT, u Bulgarian 
exile, on ■' Tbo Policy of the Czor iu the Expulsion of the Jews 
and tbu War Slovument in Europe; " Jan. 7, Departmunt of Paint- 
ing, meeting at tbe Brooklyn Art A»>ociation Building; Jan 8, 
Regular Monthly Meeting of the Bcanl of Tmsiees; Jan. 8. Oe- 
pariunent of Electricity, illu-^trated bruire by Mr. OsTiorn P. 
Loomis on *• Practical Eiperience.i in Dynamo D<^l^lng;" Jan. 
9. Department of Political itn<l Economic .Science, ffret leoture in 
the course on " Tbe Great Political Leaden of the Empire Sliue.'' 
by Profeasor Charles H. Levermoreof tho Masaacbnaelta tosltlule 
of Technology. Baaton, "William liringaton and the Sons of 
Liberty; " Jan 11, De[iertmeiit of Astronomy, paper by Mr. ftar- 



relt P. 8ervi»#, president ol the Departoieoi. on " Tbe Parioib of 

Rotation of Mercury and Venae ; " Jan. II, Annual Meeting of tba 
Corporation of the Institute for Election of Trueteea; Jan. It. D»- 
partment of Philulogy. lecture in tbe seriea on " The Modem 
Novel," by Profesoor Hjalmar H. Boyesen, "The Frenrh Noiel ; " 
Jan. 12. Department of Enfineering. lecture by Mr. C. J. B. Wood* 
bury, Tice- president of the Boston Manufacturers' Fire InanratMe 
Company of RoAtoo, on "Tbe Proper ConfltmoHoo of Buildings 
to Resist Defetruction by Fire:" Jan. IS.Ocn'Mral Meeting of Ueui- 
hers uf the Instifule, lectare by Sir Edwin Arnold on '* The Light 
of the Orient;" Jan. 14, Depiirtment of Zoology, lecture by Mr. 
Ernest logerKi)] of New York on " Tbe Eiulwyology and Stmctur* 
of the Turtle:" Jan. IS, Department of PmyrJiology, fInU. lwctur« 
in the course on " The Piycfaoiogy of An^hHioi." by Dr. Bwnja- 
niin [res (lilmnii of Ciimbridge. Hasit., "Musical Notea;" Jan. 15. 
D.*partmeni ol Oeogmphy. lectnre by Mr. Robert D. Benedict on 
"Tbe ITerefor-l Map of the Worid," or " Tbe World a* Known Id 
the Thirteenth Century;" Jan. 16, Department of Political and 
Economic Science, second lecture In the course on "Tbe Great 
Political Leader* of tbe Empire State." by ProfesMir Cbarim H. 
Ldvermote. "The Cltnloos and the Siw of the New York Dcr* 
mocracy;" Jan. 18, Department of Archaralogy, Ineturu by Pro- 
fessor Daniel G. Brintmi of the University of Pcnnaylrauia 00 
"The Origin and Early Distribution of tbe White Rar«;" Jan. 
18. Department ot Physics, by inviralir>n of the HCtetaty of th« 
Prau Iiutltute, the Department will visit and inspect the work of 
that instilutloo: Jan. 19, Department of Philology, lecture In tba 
pour^ on tbe Modern Nbrel, by Professor II. II. Boyesen, "Real- 
bm and Romantictsm;" Jan. 19, Department ot Botany, lecture 
by Dr. Smith H Jeltiffe. curator of the Department, ou " Mow«s;" 
Jan, 30, Department of Architecture, lecture by Profeasor A. D. 
F. Hamlin of Columbia College on "Tbe Great MuM.'ums of 
Europe;" Jan. 30, Department of Mineralogy, Ovm-ral ExbiUtion 
of Minerals from the Famous Patterson Quarries; Jan. 91, Oeo- 
eral Meeting of tbe Members of tbe Institute, address by the Rl. 
Rev. John J. Keane, preadent of the Catholic tTnirerslty of 
America, on "Leo XTII. and tbe Social Problenn of ibe Day:" 
Jan. 38, IVpnrtnieDC of Psycbolo^. lecture in the eonrati ou tbe 
" PftTchCilogy of AeatbctiCB," by Dr. Benjflmln Ire^Uilman, " Sim> 
ullnneoufl ^^lmctu^c. Chords; " Jan. S3, Department of Electricity, 
lecture by Dt. A. D. Rockwell of New York on "The Uaea of 
ElectrtcilT in the Treatment of tbe Human Body," Jan, 98, !)«• 
pirtment of UatbematiC9, iioliject for diiwuMion: "The Teaching 
of Geometry;" Jan. 28, Depnrtmi-nt of Politii-al and Economic 
Science, lecturr- in the course on "The Great Political Lmders of 
the Empire State." by Profewor Charles U- Lerennore, " Martin 
Van Buren and the Triumph of the New York Democracy;" Jan. 
23, Department of Music, tbe Second Concert given hy tbe Depart- 
meut>-Ul be conducted by Mr. Max Dpicker, Itrst vice-president 
of the Department, araisled by Mr. Arthur Frledhelm, piano; Mr. 
Richard Arnold, violin; Mr. RuAolpli Nagtl, cello; and Sliss 01iv« 
Fremstadt, alto; Jan. 38, Dvpartmunt of Philology, lecture in the 
series on "The Modem Novel," by Prufeawr H. H. Boyeaen, •■ The 
Ruwian Nof-pliats and Nihilists;" Jan. 2(t, Department of Photog- 
raphy, lecture to he annouooed; Jan. 37, Depart ment ol Plillology, 
Frenofa Section, lecttuv hy Profeduor Charles Spragoe Smith of 
New York on " Victor Ougo's L'Ann&e Terrible;" Jan. 27. De- 
partment of Physics, lecture by Mr. Wall«r U. Weed of Wasbing- 
ton, member of the U. 8. Geological Survey, oa " CleyH<rs and tlw 
PhystCB of Geyaer Action;'' Jan. 28, General Meeliug of the Insti- 
tute, addresa by the Hon. Theodore Roosevelt, CTulteJ States Com* 
mfssiooer of tbe Civil Service, ou "The National Servicv;" Jan. 
39, Department of Psychology, lecturu iu the courw on "Tbe 
E^ycbology of AMtbetkn." by Dr. Bt>njumin Ive« Oilman, on 
" Successive Structure, Measure ; " .Tuu. 39, Deimrtment of Chem- 
islry. lecturi! by Mr. Lucien Pitkin of New York on " Th«i Qtata 
Theory in its Rdation to Sanitary ChemlT<try;" J«n 89. Depart- 
ment of Philology, Qennau Section, lectnre by Professor Prederfok 
W. Grtibeon "The Philology of German Case Enling^;" Jan. 80, 
Department of Political and Economic Science, lecture in tiw 
course on " Tbe Great Political Leaders of the Empire State," by 
Professor Charles II. Levermore. •■Thorlow Weed, William H. 
Seward, and the Rise of tbe Republican Party." 



34 



SCrENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No, 467 



SCIENCE: 



A WSEKL? NEWSPAPER OF ALL TBM ABTS AUB SCISJrCIS. 

rVSLlSHKD VT 

N. D. C. HODGES, 

874 BUOADWAT, Nbw VoRK. 



KcMeBtmaM.— Fulled SUlM Md Cuwdk -..SaU*7B«r. 

Qr««l BHUlQMid Raropn . 4.tiaK7«u. 

ComiDunloatiuB* irUI tM wlo<H)«d from UJ iiQMUr. Abstiaftla of BcleBllflc 
p«|Mn %n iiolliitMd, KBd mi* buid'*d oopte* of tb« l<aw tioml^inTnif such will 
bo owUmI Uu) Mitbor OD reqoMt in *Aj»tte*i. fto]»clod muitiMripta wtU be 
rcturood la tb» aatliora ooJf vbM) tlui T«9ul«K«> uuouiil of po*tac« ueoin* 
pkBIM 1b« fDMiOMtipt. WhKUrar ia tBI»Bd«d tor iD»«man niuU bo kutbmtl- 
4ftt<4 bT UiR OMDB noil tSAtttm at me Trltcr: not aaoB— HIT for pubUeMloa, 
nnt •■ k Ki)»r«iil7 of good faltb. Wo do not bold oimHToa n«Daa*lblc for 
uif Tt«w or opimona cxprHMd to tbe uomatunlMUoo* of onr oorrmipoiMlMit*. 
AUcdUoo ■■ called to tbe "Wuiu" eohmn. All mte IbtIImi to use li ia 
•oUoUIng ialommmiloa ot —nUm bbw poidtloos. Thv uom mad kddi*M of 
>ppUo>aUi ihovld bo fitn in tall, vo Uui uia««n will bo dtn«t to tb»ia. Tbe 
* * Kxebksm " oolaiDB la UkowlMi opoo. 

Tor Ad'BtUiInc BatH appir lo HnKt F. Tavlo*. I? Larayatw Flaw, K«« 
Votb. 



PRISMATIC SANDSTONE FROM MISSOURI.' 

On the rii^liL bank of llie St. FranooiB Biver. Id 3. 31; T. 
33, N. : R. E., about 200 ^^rcb iiouth-iv«st of the SL Louis 
Orsoile Company's quarry, oear Knob Lick, in Madi&oti 
Coanty, Mo., is a little vaodstone ridf;«. Ireotlinii' Dortli-wpBt 
and south-east, nearly 200 yards loog, 10 yards widf. and 
not more than « to 10 fwt high above the nearly level (jpouDd 
on either side. The country rock here i^ the Qimbrian 
■audstoae. nbich overlies the graoite, as is beautifully itluv 
irated at the quarry near by. This little ridfie is interestiafr 
on account of the peculiar rorai of the saudstone <x>tupo«iuK 
iU Id [>!arM wber*' the Aoil ha* l)e<>i) somewhat worn away. 
instead uf n«««Ho{f flat lajers of HUQd<tUiti(>, as can be found 
uear by iu any ditWI w w, the surfac« i» coreretl nilh frajf- 
ments of sandstone of a prismatic form, resembling in shape 
the basaltic columns wi well knowa in different parts of the 
world. In sieft the priams mn^e from about three-fourths of 
an inch to one aad a imlf locbes in diameter, and from 
three to eight inches in length. They are not uni- 
form in Kvometrical outline, some baviniir four sides, 
some Ave, and a few six. Quite often two and occasionally 
Uiree prisoiB adher* together, side by side, but treneially so 
looaely that they can easily be brokcu apart. In such cases 
the boundary between ttiem n usually a single plane, but 
sometimes two new planca ar« exposed by the breaking, 
forming a reentrant angle on one pristu. Fig. 1 fairly rep- 
resents a coaibiDatioQ of two of theae prisms. 

The nature of the rock was studied qnit« carefully, both 
loacroscDpically and microscopically, and it was found to be 
noihtng hut an ordinary, somewhat Irregularly indurated, 
fine-grained saudstone. The grains of quartz are water- 
worn, as ia usual. The tndnration is produced hy the in- 
terstitial spaces being more or less Bllcd with silica, but the 
thin sectioDa examined showed no iutanoe of secondary 
growth of the quartz cryotalii. 

' FiiMIMMd bj coniMnt of Ui* 9UUa flaoiloclat of tb* Qvolof leal Surrvy of 
HIiaonrL RMd bafora tba Iowa. Ackdamr of acl«ac«p, 1>m MoIum, D«c. 80, 
IWl. 



The pxlst^oce of the ridge is probably due to tbe indurm- 
Lion of the sandstone. Why this limited area should bo thus 
indurated, and the surrounding country should not be, there ^ 
seemed to be no obtainable evidence. However, this of it- fl 
self is of lillle iuiportauce But the prismatic form of (h«^ ^ 
Bumlstone is much more inlereatins:. The specimens gath- 
ered were on or near the surface, iind were not seen t'n irtlu; ^ 
but from their great abundance it xi^tM. he argued tliat tbey ^ 
extend downwards for a considerable distance. It was flrst 
tbotiirhl Uiat po«sibly a dike rock h^d once existed here. 
which had assumed the prismatic clianicter, and that in some 
way hy surface decay il had left iiiotildN into which the sand 
had been carried. But a careful (-xaminalion revealed no ^ 
indication whatever of there ever having been a dike here. ■ 
although they are quitn flommon in the surrounding coun- 
try. The uranile close by is older* lliao the saudstone. and 

could not therefore have played any part in the matter by 
metamorphosing the saodstooe iu any way. 



*». I. 

tf any of the readers of Science know of any other oocur- 
renee similar to this, or can suggest any cause likely to have 
produced Ibis peculiar furmaltou, it is hoped they will give 
the information through the columns of Science. 

ERasMUS Ha.woRTB. 

ORTHOGRAPHY OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES. 

I» 1885 the Council of the Royal Geographical Society. 
impressed with Iho necesaity of endeavoring to reduce the 
confusion existing in British nuips with regard lo the spell- 
ing of geographical names, in consequence of the variety of 
systems of orthography used by travellers aud others to rep- 
resent the sound of native place names in different parta of 
tbe world, formally adopted the general principle which bad 
been long used hy many, and tbe rroognition of which had 
been steadily tfaiutng ground, viz., that in writing geograph- 
ical native name-s voweh should have their Italian signifi- 
cance and conaonanu that which they have io the English 
language. This broad principle required elucidation in its 
details, and h system based npon it was consequently drawn 
up with the intention of representing the principal syllabic 
sounds. 

It will be evident to all who consider tbe subject tliat to 
ensure a fairly correct pronunciation of geogmphicat namea 
by an English-speaking person an arbitrary syiiLem of or 
tbography is a necessity. It is hardly too much to say that 
in the English language every possible cumbinaliau of let- 
ten his more than one poasible pronunciation. A strange 
. ■ 8oa BnD. No. \ Ho. OmL Surr., p. H; «l Mq. 



lAHUART 15, 1893. 



SCIENCE. 



35 



won] or name even in our own liinKtisffe is frequently niiB- 
pmoouDced, — how miuth mom with words nf Innguajfes ut- 
terly uokoowQ lo th« reader. Th« saine oeceiaily do«s not 
arias ia nioet continental lang'UK^vB. In Uicm & definite 
ootubiqatiou oT leUen iodiostes r deSoile sound, aud each 
nation conseqoenlly hss ap«lt forei^^n words in accordance 
with Um ortfaograpliio niln of its own laoguatfe. U was 
therefore not anltcipated ttiat foreign natioofi would eff<>cl 
any eban^ in the form of ortl)Oi;rapliy used in their maps, 
and the nefda of the Engliah-xpeitking communities were 
alnnc comidered. 

The obj*»ct aimeil at w»« to pmvidi? « »yXteva wtiicli would 
be simple enoujfb for any eduratpd pHraon to master with the 
minioium of trouble, and whiob ut the same time would 
aiTord au approximation to the aouod of a place name such 
as a DBtivtf mixht racofroise. Ko attempt was made to rep 
resent the number1e49 delicate ioflections of sound and lone 
which belonir to every lauguai^. often to different dialects 
of the BAme lanf^WKe. For it was felt not only that such a 
task woald be iropoasible, but that an attempt lo provide for 
But-h oicetlea would defeat the object 

The adoption by others oT the systoni Lhii« settled has been 
more funeral than ^he council v4>nturM) to ho|>e. The charts 
and maps issued by the Admiralty and War Office have 
been, since 1B85, compiled and exienvively revised in aocord- 
aoce with it. The Foreisfn and Oolfmial OtHceit have ac- 
^pt«d it. and ttiv latter baa comuiunicatod with tht; colonies 
reqoeitiiig them lo carry it out in respect to names of native 
ori^n. Even more important, however, than these adhe- 
sions is the reoant action of theQovemment of the United 
Btatea of Amerioa. which, after an exhaustive inquiry, has 
adopted a syslem in clove conformity with that of the Royal 
Oeofrraphieal Society, and has directed that the spellin&r of 
all names in their vast territories should, in cases where the 
orthography is at present doubtful, be settled authoritatively 
by a committee oppoioted for the purimsc-. The two ^r«at 
Enfflish- speak inir nations are thus working in harmony. 
Contrary lo expecutioo, but hiifhiy satisfactory, is the news 
that France and Germany have l>oth formulated systents of 
ortlioeraphy for foroiKn words, which in many details agree 
with the Knglish system. The Council of the Royal Qi'o- 
graphicul Society, by printing the rules in " Hints to Trav- 
ellers,"' and by other means, have eadeavorvd to ensure that 
all travellere connected with the society should be made 
aware of them; but as it is possible that some bodies and 
peraooB interested in the questiou may still be in ignorance 
of their existence and geDerol acceptance, they feel that the 
time has come aga'n to pubtiih them as wid*<ly an possible, 
and to take every mewns in their power to aid the pro^resaof 
the reform. To thin and, and with a view to still cioMr uni- 
formity in geof^raphical nomenclature in revi<iinnBof editions 
of published maps, a gigantic tuttk rvquiriuK nmoy years to 
carry out, the council have decided to take steps to com- 
metieo tentatively indexes of a few regions, in which the 
place-names will be recorded in the accepted form. 

The rulfs referred Lo are as follows: — 

], No change is made in the orthography of foreign 
names in countries which use Roman letters: thus Spanish, 
Portuguese, Dutch, etc, name* will be spelt as by the re- 
spective nations, 

X, Neither is change made in the spelling of such namea 
in languages which are not written in Boman characters as 
have become by long usage familiar to English readen: thus 
Calcutta. Cutcb, Celebes, Mecca, etc, will be retained in 
Ibeir present form. 



5. The true sound of the word as locally prononnced will 
be taken as the basis of the spelling. 

4. An npproximstioD, however, to the souod is alone 
aimed at A system which would attempt to repre«ent the 
more delicate ioflectioos uf sound and acoeot would be so 
complicated as only to defeat itself. Thuoe who desire a 
more accurate iimnunciatioa of the written name must learn 
il on the *pt>l by a Atudy of lootl acct-ut and pe«ulianti«s. 

9. The brnid features of the system are: (a) That rowels 
are pronounced as in Italian and consonants as in English. 
{&) Every tetter Is pronounced, and no redundant letters are 
introduced. When two vowels oome together each one is 
sounded, though the result, when spoken quickly, is some- 
times scarcely to be distioguished from a single sound, as in 
ai, au, ei. {c) One accent only is used, the acute, todenole 
the syllable on which stress is laid. This is very important. 
as the sounds of many names are entirely altered by the 
misplacemout of this " stresa." 

6. Indian name* are accepted as spelt in Hnnter's " Oaaet- 
teer of India," 1881. 



ELECTRICITY IN AORICULTORB.' 

Frov the time electricity became a science much research ha» 
been made to determine its effect, if any, upon plant growth. 
Tlie varlirc inviwtiKttioos gave. In many cases, oooumdictory re- 
sults. Whether this was due to a lack of knowledge of the sci- 
ence un ibe part of the one performing the experimeula. of some 
deftwt in the technical applicnttons, we arv uirt prvpured to say; 
hat thi'i we do know, ttutiiucb men a^ Julabert Nollet, Uainbray, 
and oih^r eminent physiriiitH aftirmed that electricity favored the 
germination of M>«dH and occeleraled the growth of pisota, while 
on the other hand Intienhouse, Sylveatie. and otlier navants denied 
the existence of this electric inllaeooe. The heat«d contioventea 
^nd auimau>d discusAioos altendinf; Utc oppoeiotf tbeortea AJmu- 
Isted iiion> rAn-ful and thorough in^eAti^lionH, which established 
beyoorl a doubt that electricity had a beneflctal effect on v«geta> 
tioo Sir Humphrey Dary, Humlxildt, Woliaston, and Becqu«r*l 
occupied tbeowelves with the theon>tical xide of itw qDeslioo; but 
it wait nut tilt after IMS that practical etectroHmlture was under- 
taken. WiUisuiiton suggested ttie use of giganllc electro-Matic ma- 
cbiuea. l>ut the ultempts «vrv fruiclew. Tlie rortboda moet geo- 
eralljr ado))U-d in eipi-rimenu consisted of two metallic plates — 
one of copper and one of sine — placed in tbf itoil and connected 
by a wire. Rhfj^wrd employvd the owthod ta Euftlaad in IMA, 
aod Foiter oapd the etam« in Sootland. In the year tSiT Hubecfc 
in Germany Burmiinded a fl^ld with a network of wires. 8bFp- 
pard's ezpcrimrnts nliowfd that electricity lorreaeed the return 
from root crops, white grasd pen&hed near the electrodes, and plants 
developed witl>out the osFOfelectriotty were inferior to thoik* grown 
under its inHueooe. llut>eck came lo the ooooluslon that seeds 
gerndiialvd more rafMdly and buckwheat K*ve larger retains; la 
all other case* the electrio current produced 00 niault. Professor 
Fife in England and Otio van Ende in Germany carrieJ 00 ex- 
periments at tlie Mune lime, but with nt^gative reMulta, and these 
scientists adriHwl the complete aUaudonmenl of a|)plying electric- 
ity to ugricultun'. Attn some jean bad eli^tsed Picbtner began 
a sertPK of eipurimeDta in the same dirvotion. He eupkiyed a 
battery, tlie two wire^ of which were placed in the soil paiallel to 
each other. Between the wires were plantjjd peas, gxaas, and 
barley, and in every ease the crop showed an increaM) of from 
thirteen to twenty-seven per cent when compared with ordinary 
methods ot cultivation. 

Fischer of Waldbeim, believing almospherio electricity lo aid 
much in the growth and dereli^Mnenl of plants, made the follow- 
ing tenia: — 

He place<l metallic uipports tothenomberor about sixty around 
each hectarv (2.47 acn-s) of hwm; these cuppurfs were provided 

• Abelraet of om Jaauarv BsUsUn (< UM Hatoa bpsrlBMat Muton, Am- 
asm, 11 Ma wrtitMi sy OarvMo O. Wamsr. 



I 



I 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 467 



at ifaeir siunoaU with (•lectrioil ftccumnlatnTa in tiinfurm of crowns 
vurnKMintal wilh teeth; ttinw cullectvra w«wanitt^ Uy metallic 
ruiiiwctioo. Tb« nnult or tb» culture applivd to oereals was to 
innvaae the crop by halT. 

Tbf followioe exp«ria>eot wa« also tried : MetalUc plates eixtj- 
fii-e oeoUmetm hj fortj' eeotiiu«tent nete placed in tli« wil. 
Tfatw plateB were alternate]; uf kIul- luid ix>i»pi-r umJ pIuci.'J atoul 
'thirty meircs apaxt. cooDected two and iwu, by a win-. Tbc re- 
sult i*'M lo increase from twufolf) to fourfold tlio production uf 
rvjtain gardra plants. Hr. Fi^herHavs, that it i» evidently proTed 
that electricity aids in tbe more rompleti? breaking up of the eoil 
ooDsriment^. Finally, he mys that plAnt« thus ireated tnature 
moreqnickiy. an- atm(»talivay« perfectly bcBlthy, and not affected 
with fungoid growth. 

Later, N. 8pecDew. iiMpired by tbe reaolls arrired at by bii 
nrodeccaaon, waa led to inTeatigate the influence of electririty on 
plants in every stage of their deT^lopmeot; the retiulls of hiii ex- 
pi'timi'nt* uere nMMt salittfactory and of practical interifKt. He 
bexaii by mibmittln^ diffeiml eeetJit to Iha NCliaa of an eleulric 
current and found tbat their development was rendered mon 
rapid and complete. He experimeuied with tbe seeds of haricot 
beans. Bunflowers. n-Inier and ttpriuK rye. Two lots of twelve 
}troupa, of one hundred and twenty aeeda «aob, weie plunged 
iiKo water until they swelltMl, and while wet tbe aeeda wore intro- 
duced into lon^ glaM cylindeiB. open at both end-t. Copper discs 
wtTU pressed again&L the see-lB, the discs were connected with the 
polea of an induction coil, the current was hept nn for one or two 
niimitep, and immi^'liAtely aft^rwardii th« weds were sown. The 
trinpfratare wax kept from 46" to 50" Fahrenheit, and theex- 



Iwrinienti! repeated four times. 

re*utt«; — 



Xl*ctilfls4 saods d«Ttlo|i«d Id . 



Tbe following table fthows the 



Sanflo'wsra. 
Dara. 

15 



-3laB-tlwtrias«SM<tsd»i>«lop«dlB. 4 t S 

It waft alooobserred that the plantaontnfn>ffnnii electrified seeds 
■were l*ttvr developed, their leam were much larger and their 
color much brighter than in those pInotH growing from non-eled 
trilled iteeds. The current did not affect the yield. 

At tbe Botanical Gardens at Kew, the fotlowlng experiment 
^as tried: — 

LoriEe plitee of ajnc and copper (.445 of a meter and .71S of a 
meter) wvrv placed In tbe «oil and connected by u-irca, »n arrangod 
that the current passed through tbv ground : the arrangement wae 
n-ally a lialtpry of (aine 1 earth i ropiKT). This method wna ap- 
plied to pot l)ert» and flowering plants and also to the Krowing of 

I g&rden produce; In the latter cast' the refliilt was a large crop and 
the vcfpelable* grown were of enonnoiia slap. 

Gxl*^ftivc experiments in electro-cult ur« were al»o made nt 
Pikov, Russia. Plota of earth wore »own to rye, corn, onta. Itar- 
Icy, peas, clover, and flax; around these respective plota were 
placed insulating rods, on the top of wbicb were crown shaped 
voltectofs — the latter ooiinecled by ireaiiH of wires. Atmo<pheric 
e-Fectricity wait thus collected above tbv «eeds and the latter uia* 

. lured in a highly electrified atmospheru; tbe ploUi were submitted 
to identical condttiowi, and tbe experiments were carried on for 
tive jears. Tbe results showed u considerable inoreaM In the 
yield of seed and straw, tbe ripening was more rapid, nod Ibe 
barley ripened nearly two weeltg earlier with electro^rtilture, 

1 FotMoea grown by tl»e latter mothod were sddoot diseased, only 
to fi per cent against 10 to 40 per cent by ordinary culture. 

Umndc^u, at the School of Fooreatry at Nancy, fonnd by experi- 
ment thai tbe electrical tension always existing between the 
u])per air and soil stimulated growth. He found plants protected 
from the influence were lena rigorous than those subject to it. 

Maeagno, alto believing that the paesage of eleolricity from air 
through the vfrw to earth would stimulate growth, selected a cer- 
laii) number of vines, all Of the same variety and all in tlie same 
condition of health and development. Sixteen vines were Mib> 
mitted to experiment and sixteen were left to natural influence*. 
In the ends of tbe vines ui>der trealmenl, pointed platinum wires 
wen insoted, to wblob were attached copper wires, leadiog to 

[the top* of tall pules near tbe vines; at tbe base of these same 



vines other platinum wire? were inserted and connected by copp 
wirw with the soil. At tbe clo«e of the experiment, which began" 
April 15, and lasted till September 14, tbe wood, leaves, and fruit 
of both lets of vines were submitted to careful analysis, with the 
tbe followiug resslts: 

Wltbafit raudaaor. witB ooodimor. 

Hulalurapereeat » r«.ei AM 

Sufv ItLHC ia.41 

TarUrlcacld a.ttO l>.79l 

Btlartr*t« o( poiMli ^^ . (LtH &iae 

Tlius we see that tbe perc«otage of moisture and sugar ta greater 
and the undesirable acid low in those vines eubject to electrical 
induem-v than in iboM left to natural conditlona, There are also 
experiments which prove the benefltriHl effects of electrhHty OD 
vineft attacked by Phylloxera. 

The following experiments were made at this station: Seveml, 
plots were prepared in the greeohoase. all of which bad tbe sac 
kind of soil aiird were subjected to like influences and conditions. ' 
Frantes in the form of a parallelogram, about three feet by two 
feet, were put together; acroas the narrow way were run copper 
wire.4 in aeries of from four to nine sLnuids, each seriea separated 
by a space about four inches wide, and the strands by a Apace of 
one-half an iocli. Tliese frames wi^rv buried in the i«oil of tb^ plot 
at u little depth, so that tlw roots of the garden plants wt would 
come in contact with the wires, the suppoKilioo being that tb« 
currents of tlectricity pasning along the wires would dtji^mpoee 
into itE constituents tbe plant food in tbe vioioity of the roots and 
more readily prepare it for tbe plants. Tbe electric gardene were 
thus prepared and each famished with two common battery cells, 
ao arranged as to allow coattnuous currents to pass through each 
fteriea of wire*. Near each electric garden wa« n plot prepared in 
the same manner, mvc llic electrical apparatus. We will call the 
two gardens A. and U. 

The place chosen for theexperiments wastnaportof tbegreen> 
boiiNe which is given up largely to the rai-'ting of lettuce, and the 
gard>-ns were located wbero much tnnil>l#i from mildew bad bei>n 
exi«erienceJ. Tbe res«on for this cboitie of locaiinn whm to notice, 
if any, tbe effect of electricity U[>on mildew, tbi« dinease being, as 
is well known, a source of moch trouble to those who desire to 
grow early lettuce. The soil was carefully pteparud. the material 
taki'o from a pile of loam couiiuonly u&ed hi the plant bouse. 

Ganleu A was located wbeie mildew had been tbe niobt delti- 
mental ; the experiments t<eg»n tbe flret of January and closed Ibe 
first of April. For Ibe garden, fifteen lettuce plants of tbe head 
variety were selected, all of the name bIxp and of the rame degree 
of vitality, as itearly as oonld be determine<l: the plants were set 
directly over the wires. 00 that Ibe roota were in contact with the 
latter: the plants wore well watered ai>d cared for a* in ordinary 
culture, and the fluil in the tuitlery cells was renrwcd from tiue_ 
to time, that the current of electricity might not Ixcome too fe 
ble. At tbe cloae of the experiments the following results wei 
noted. 

Tivt plants died from mildew, the others were well developed 
and tbe l»ead« large. The hirgeat beads were over the greatewt 
number of win» and neare«t the electrodes. It was further no* 
ticed that the beaUhtett and largest plants, as soon as the current 
became feeble or ceased altogether, beipui to be affected with 
mildew, On examining tbe roots of the t>lanta it was found 
tbut tbey bad grown about the wiree, as if there they found the 
grealesl amount of nourishment; the roots were bealtby and in 
no way appeared tu have Lkvu injured by tbe ciirient, but, rather, 
ranch Iwnefited by the eloctrictal influences. 

Beside garden A was pre[)ared another plot of the atime dimcn* 
sions, having tbe same kind of noil and treated in like manner as 
Ibe first, but tbe electrical ap|>ar«ttM and wires were wanting. 
At the close of the ex|w>riiDent» ooly three plants bad partially 
developed, and two of theee were Dearly deetroyed by mildew — 
one only was free from ttie disease. The results, therefore, 
show tbat the healthiest and largest plants grew in tbe electric 
plot. 

la tbc second experiment, wbicb wo railed B, twenty plants of 
tbe Mine vatfaty t)C lettuce and of t^^jual size were taken. Tbe 
treatment givsD was the same a» the plants in plot A received. 
Five plants only remained unaffected with mllilew; seven died 



Januaky is, 1S93.] 



SCIENCE. 



I 



fram the ditraw wlien they were Uoir grono; t)ii> rwt wtn quilo 
well developed, but nt the lost imrt uf the exftennu'nt bp^u la be 
affecttv). Se^-«nil he»^a were large, the largm being over the 
gmttat number o( wirpaaiid nearcvt the eleotrodn). Exaaiina- 
tUm of the foata diacloaed the nine plteDomraa ma in A. 

N«Ar plot B w«r« abo si-t Iwentj othor pbntt), BUbJnn^ to like 
coiKlitioiis aa th« Hnt. bat without oloctricity: all but one died 
from mildew before ihvy w«e half grown, thf solitary plant tliat 
sarrived b^ing ooly partly derelop<Mi at the cli>«> o( the tjxpcri- 
menL. and evtra this was badly alT«ct«d with the desease. 

K-verythin^ co(»id#r«d, Ibe reuill^ were in favor of e)ectncity. 
Tb4»*> phint:! Hiibjt\!t<^ lo the gnr^tl^Hl i^l^tri('al iiiflutmce were 
luu^livr, h««ilLhiarr, lariter, had a Ik-IIhi' color nitd wertt much lanw 
aSaotad by a>ild«w (ban tb*> oih«iB- Experiim-DU «vtm iDAd« wHh 
rmriom grain , buL do mai-ked mulU wvre obtaiovd. 

Tbv ^ucvtion would aalurally arise whether there may nol be a 
litnie tractK>d wh^rr oJectrieily would complelQly overcome the 
attack of mildew and aticDulate the plant to a healthy and vigor- 
(>u» oiaditioo throagbout 'Ub eoiire Rrowth. Frotu the fact that 
th«» hardi««r. heallhiest. and largesi hoad;^ of lettuce grew over the 
grfuie»4 number of oarrentti and neaiv«t the elr^itrotles. ft would 
aeeui thai electricity ia one of the a^^nta employed by nature lu 
aid in Hupplying Ihe plant with nouriirhment nnd Lo stimulate itH 
growth. To what extent plaola may be rabmilled to elpctrical 
iaflorace, or what strength of carrent U beet suited lo them and 
what fmrrcDtn prove detrimental to tlieir d^velopnienl, have not 
been determined as jet, biit it I* desiiable to conlinoe this re- 
narcb until some dennit« tBformation •hall be gained ao these 
poiota. PtolMhiy di^tttvnt varirties of plants diSer grevtiy in 
tbeir ca[ttrity for unduriitg the acttno of electric curreata without 
Injury — eiperimeot alone must determine thi». 

It hnn bwD pro*«l that the slow discharge of Matic electricity 
(arilitatefi the awimilation of nitrogiea by plant*. Faraday Hhuwud 
that fjlajQia grown in metallic cagut. around wliich circulated etec- 
Iric cDTrenlEi, coutsined fifty prr cvut leea organic matter than 
plants KToun in the open air. It wL^uld ^vvm from the reBearclies 
of the latu-r physicist, Diat those plan(» requiring ■ large percm- 
tag* of aiirojeo for their develoiimont would be raoiirkably ben- 
dlCcd if grown utuler electric iiirtuenoc. 



LETTERS TO THF. EDITOR. 

«*aOarmvK»uIntr«ar«t>fu«H'-((ufrr»*rn-ffi/(i(pM»<H*. 7b wril*f»mamt 

O^rmiii.-'' i<>0», •»>• hunitreit oufiet of (Ac numbtr ttmtMnftig hit 

COMWtnr IF fnrjut^^ /rrr Id {i^i^ currttpomiKlil , 

I*'"'" .'•Hvputti*^ttnii<ff<*ito%muuiticaklh*cKarattir 

«/ th^Jamw^at. 

The First Locomotive Run [a Amarfca. 

It W&5 in Itldil, tl»e ^ame year in which Stepheni'on, willi hi» 
■* Boekvt," deinonatrated the pmrticahihty of rapid stMiin traction 

'on fBllwaya. The engioe wa» uam^ the Stoneliridga Lion, it 
was made in England anl imported by the Delawnre and Hudson 
Canal Company, and deoigued t«) draw coal ftoui their mines in 
Carboiidale to t)it> hecid of their canal in llonesdale, Fenn. On iti 
arrival, it wait place*! m the railway and run from HoDecdale to 
SealeyTiUe, a little over a mile. It wa-t found to be too tall to go 
under a highway bridge over tlie track at that i>lnoe, and W8h re- 
v«rwd and run back to Uoneadale. All paitx of the milwar above 
the surface of the ground were built on troMl«-^, and the heavy 
engine racked tliein no much as to endanger safely. For these 
reasoiu the locom'Jtive wa« set olT by the side of the track. «nd a 
boud sbed boilt over it. The railway was pUnked, and liocaea 
eiDployed to draw the cars. The engine stood there aafe for sav- 

, *ral year*. 

The writer was personally ac<]uainted with the«« fact?. Two 

^men who rode on chat trip are Itring at this time. 

In 1840 aitd IMl, while I wnt a student in the Uoneadale Acad- 

^«<oiy. I found the boards on one side of the sbed torn off and Ibe 
•mgilM exposed to view. I ipent many hours In trying toBluily 

I oat it« mechani<»iD and moi^ement. Nopublii<hedd««criptiuu uf a 

kMtenni engine waa then within my reach. The Stunebridge Lton 

Lliad four wheels, three or three and a halt fee>t in diameter, and 



the boiler reete-l dirccitf na the arle^. The cylinders were vetti> 
cal, aoe on e:i>;lt side vt the boiler near the hind wheels. There 
were two henvy iron walking- beam-i a few feet above the boiler, 
and to one end of each a piston-rod wii< atUched by Wait's pMral- 
ifilogram The other ends of the l>eams wexe joined by swinging, 
rods to cranks at right angles lo each other ou the furwanl wbe«U. 
There was no whistle or bell, I think. The engineer st«>od on a 
small open platform lieliind the boiler. 

Soon after 1841 tlie engine began to be carried off piece by pieoe, 
moftlly by blackionilhs and machinists; and 1 am told that only 
one ftiiiall piece of (he iron la now in existence in ita primitive 
form. If the engine had been kept int«4.'t, it would be worth 
almost its weight in silver for exhibition in Chicago in 1903. 

_- M n. 

The Historical American Exhibition at Madrid.* 

OXK of tlie miMt interesting and instructive celebrations 
posed for the year 1699 i« the Spanieh celt^MatJon, the chief fea^ 
lure of which will be an exfaibitioa at Madrid, termed the Uis> 
lorical American Exhibition, the special object of which is to 
tlluslrate primitive American life and the history of the period of 
dJKovery and conquest. In i^electlng the prehistoric and early 
hi&toric eras for illutflration. the Spaniards will make thetr own' 
exhibition complete fn itmlf, without in tbe least competing with 
the Chicago uxhitiiiiuii. 

The plan of tbe exhibition i«, within il» limits, a very broad one, 
comprising Hve general dirinjotvi, vix., prehistoric America, the 
historic period, Indian industrial art«, cartography, nautical in* 
otTumenls, etc.. nnd the fine art* and kindred subjects. Under 
the head of prehtHtoric America, plans, models, reprodudiona. 
drawings, etc., arv •MlicJted of ancient cavea and cavema. and 
anything that may help to show the nse of theae primitive place* 
a« human dwellinga. Similar models, drawings, or photogtaplts 
are de>ire<l of American menhirs, dolmens, and roonods, as well 
as lacustrine dwellings. All sorts of implements and objects Tv 
laling to this peri'.id are desired, eucb as Htonc weapuus. articles 
of bune and horn, pottery, ornamentii, uteosilii uf bone, wuoi], 
stone, and other malerials. »-iih fu^il or BnimnI bones throwing 
light on the archaeology of this timt. Examples of all Die ages 
and periods of primitive life as they can he traced on the Ameri- 
can continent are wanted. 

In the historic period tbe objects desired inclade tnodeia of an- 
cient AmcriniD building^ archiUH-lural remains, plans, models, 
and drawings of restored monuments. Etamiiles uf sculitturc. 
baS'telieb. architectural paiuLingi^ and other formt of painted 
decoration form another claM. Under iuduatrial art i* included 
clothing atid adornment of the alwrigines and uncivilued Imlians, 
with impteitientH of war, olfenuve and defensive. Jewels of gold, 
silver, bone and ivory, pottt-ry, household utensils, and articles 
used in trangpt^rtaliou by water aod land, constilut>3 anutbcr di- 
vbion of this branch, while written documtruts In native tongues, 
pictures, and plioiographB of Indians and effi^fes showing native 
coatuuii>«, modelii of Indian dwellings, and Indfua cranio, form 
Ik third division. 

Tlie department of cartography Includes maps, plans, charta. 
an-l drawings, and all that concerns ancient carloicniphy, with 
mndelii of vessele anterior to the voyage of Co1nftibu<i. a^ well aa 
thoAe he hini<ielf u^ed. A section la devoted t4) nautical inatru- 
menls, with the idea of illmtrating the inBtramenia, chariH, and 
maps in use at tbe period nf discovery, while Qbjeo(8 in penwmal 
use hy Coltimlms and pictures of tlw same sre also de«trv<l. T'he 
fine art^ de|>artment includes ancient arrhitectural nionnnienta, 
sculpture, painting!*, indu«trial and artistic work following tt 
discovery, American coins, litetsry and (»cientific puhlicatiou*t1 
manuscripts, charts, and plans of all kinds, from th« ditoorsry to 
the middle of the elgbteeulh century. 

Host liberal iuduceooeDts are uflered lo int^-uding cxbibii 
from America. Th« exhibition wlU bs behl hi (he new Uhrary' 
and national museum building In tbe park at Madrid, which will 
be used for the first thne for this purposu, the exhibition sen-iag 
as a sort of inauguration of the structure, whidi has been a num- 

' ThlB Uttar appMrad al*o la Tbe Satloo. 



3» 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No 467 



bPT of jnn fn bulldiDg. It will be upL'neJ on S^\n. 12. I80i.nid 
will ck<M on Dec, 31 or iIioiriiul' ymr, ihua prpcedinti: tbeCfairafro 
axhibtlloD, wIikIi it i's JusiRtK^l, io a meaaare. tn mip|>l(>mi>ni. &]i 
objecU. ir fwurvly and prupi-rl; fnckel. will hr forwnMed j^nUtH 
to Miwlrid, bdJ iviurm*!! to the 4>ih)lillijr (ire of rxpf>Ti*r, the ex- 
hibition not imly bearing the cost of Iransportion. hm. alKo. when 
difiired, alt^ndinfc In the sfTanj^mpiii and displujF of thv objrats 
n-ithout any rhar(i;e. Tho^p wrlto dptiire opecJal rasra of ibpirovn 
may provide Ih^in. and ttpocln] buildtni^ may aLio }» <>rPCtH in 
the park If the design i« apprnt-M hy Ihf Rpnprnl comnullee. All 
objecU for the Dxbthjtioo will be admiltiHl duty frtw into Spain If 
they are withdrawn at th«- ckM^ of tht'vxhilnfion, hut two monthii 
will Im» aliowed afur th* rnd of thoezbibitiou bvfoiv orticW Dtred 
Iw rvliirnnl. 

Ati int^miiiioiiaL jury, proportioonie to the aoinber of the ex- 
hibitora trom dtffotvnt countrieu aail ihe imporlaDoe or tbeir ex- 
hibite, will examio? ibv articlee displayed and award tite prlxea. 
These will cotwist ot a flntt prize ot hotior, a gold niedal. a Hlver 
Tni>dal. a brooee medal, and iKmorablo loeotioD, eacli medal being 
ncconipauied with n diploma. 

The tfxhiliilion covi-ra, of ouiiree, the enlirp American ivintinenl, 
hut to initure its oumplete inicceKs the active nn-nperntion and 18- 
KiAutooe of cittwna of the Uniti^ Slates to rApeclally dMircd. 
There IB erery reaBon why Americanathould Ixrth bo infcieeted in 
tbis exbihiMon and take (nrt in it. Tfae c>ondilionKarp liberal, Ibe 
prise* ample, and tho timo is 4>«pecially contrenient to intending ex* 
hibttore at the Chtrago exhibition, aa ol>j«otfl may )*e exhibited 
both At Bladrid and at t.?hicaij:o. Nor h lh« novelty of tb« exhibi- 
tton Its least merit- Early Auivrk-ao history bas alwnyn been a 
fflvoritc topic of study among Europuun acholwa. but it ia tafe to 
my that if this exhibition is carried out as it ia planneif, it will 
otTer Euro|>euoH thu finit upponunity they have had to otady 
primitive Aiiierit»a life in iUa compli>tene««. American oollK'tionH 
are very rich in the materials moHt deHiiod at Madrid, and it U 
most BiDoerely to be hoped that the ftrociouft invitation of the 
Bpnniah people to participate in their ColnmbJan celettralion will 
meet with a ^neroua and beerly support from Antericaii xrhohirx 
and coltectora. Bars Frbrri;. 

SmrTortL 

At What Time were the Gatapagoa lalaoda Ditcovcred T 

I RtlOCLA be greatly oblif^l to anyon* who could give me tiome 

loformation in reji^anl to tlm diK-overy of the Ualapagoa Ulanda. 

Th«i tinit nnlicd I hav«< beeo ahle to Rnd i« in the Atlas of Abmhsm 

On«ltU!), pnbliehed in I97U, where the Islands are spelled *'OaIo- 

pego*" and "GalepeROd" (Ort<:lius, Abraham. "Typuo Orhis 

Terrarum," 1S70; second edition. 1590; "Thealrutu uder Schaa- 

buch dcs Erdkieys, AutdorfT, Amcticae sive uovi Qthiit novae de- 

scriptio," 1S70). On the aplendld map of DIvk" Ribi-ro, prrpftrvd 

betweea 1SS7 aod l&SO, tbe GalapBiioB lalandn are not rv|irc-cnt«d 

(Ribero, Di^p). J. O. Kuh), " Die beiden aeltestt-n General Karten 

TOO America auagpfQhrt in den Jah^n, IfiST and 1530. auf Befehl 

Enieer CarVa, v.," Weiouir, I860). It »ems tlierefore probable 

.that tbeae islands were diacoverfd in the heinnnint; of ibe sixteenth 

ntory. before 1570, The word galapago ii-vlf eeems to he of 

''Botitb American origin: It meana land>liirtoifte O. BAm. 

CUrk rolTsrdtr. fforowMr, Naas., ita. lU. 



BOOK-EEVIEWS. 

SctunA and College ; devoted toserondary and higher education. 
Edited hy Ray Qreene HuUng. Vol. 1. , No. 1. January, 1898. 
Boston, Oino & Co. 

UAQAZtKEif and new^Mpws derot«d to educational mbjivts 
rviultiply apnou. so that ff our teachers arv not properly informed on 
matteiB relating to their work, it will not he for want of the means 
of int«n»mmunication. This latest comer in Llie field in a maga- 
zine of sixty four pagm, to be issund every month except Jnly and 
August, at twenty centfi a number, or (l.fiO a ycir. The articlcain 
this opening number ^how very plainly the inBuottoe of the educa- 
tional ideas just now prevalent; Indeed, they may l)e oaid to show 
little else. The writem appear Io agn« that the study of Greek is 
desLioed to be abandooad; though the editor speaks <if this as an 



erent that is iiteTitahle rather than as one to be desired. The 
mcst interesting paper in the magazjoe is that by Prcsidrat An- 
drewF of Brown Cnirersity on "Pome of the Next Steps Forward 
in Edncntion," its most important point being tbe suggestion that 
teachers ought to enter into doner moral and social relations with 
tbelr pupila. Mr. B. O. Itart Itns an article advocating tbe begin, 
niog of philosophical study at an earlier age than is now castomary ; 
bat unless the subject can be made more essJIy intelligible than it 
is in his article, we fenr that his wishes will not he reuliT^. Mr. 
John Tetlow glvei« an account of "The Greek MPtho<lof Performiofc 
Arithmetical OpcrationH," which will be of interest to mathemati- 
rnl Ktudrnls; and Mr. James II. Blcol^ett has a brief paper on 
" Secondary Bducatiou In Census Yean"," The rest of tbe maga- 
zine is occupiH wiih educattoaal news, both domestic and foreign, 
a tew book reviews of no great value, and wreral brief '* Letters 
to the Editor." The new inaca'>'>^ ^>> Bom^ Kood points, and its 
Bfld, though narrow, may be made intereatiag by jiroper caltira* 
tton; bat It teems to U4 that an Impro^emeat Io the quality of our 
educational literature is mora Important than an increase in its 
quantity. 

Oeologieal ffurvey of Alahaitm. EcoKKG AtXE» Smith, Ph.D., 
State Geologist. Report on the Coal Measures of tho Plateau 
BegiMi of Alabama, by Henry McCalley, Assistant Stale 
Geologisl. Including a report on the Coal Measorea of Blount 
Coimty. by A. M. GlbMH, mtb a Map of the Coal-Flelds and 
two (Scared Geological Sections across the Plateau Begion 
and Intermediate Valleya Montgomery, Ala,, 18&1. 

In the Report of ProgreH of the Alabama Geological Survey, 
for tlie years 1877-^, the division of the Warrior Coal-Field inio 
'• Phiteau Region " and " Warrior Basin " was tint mvle by Dr. 
Smith, the State geologist. Cbaract«ri«tic of tbe Plateau Region 
is the circnmslnoce that the limestooe beds which underlie the 
capping of Coot Mnasures urv above the general 4liftiDtJE« lerel of 
the muntry. This urrangemeot of the two el«MW of MraGk dtMr- 
mines in great measure the character uf the 9c«wry, for the re- 
moral by erosion of the more perishable limfwtone causes the un- 
dermining of the harder strata above, whieh from time to time 
break olf with nearly vertical faces, forming cliffs which overlook 
all the valleys. The three principal valleys that traverse this 
region, in a north-east and south-west diroction, are anticlinal val- 
leyn, more or leas complicated by faulting "id overlapping: they 
are Wills'i>, Murpbree's, and Brown's Valteys,' tbe iaiier 'heing' an 
extetuion into this State of the great Sequatcbee Valley of Ten- 
nessee. Betw«ien those nnlicliuaU tbe Coal Meoiiures occupy 
shallow syocliiial troughs, which alsn abow Kecondnry undulatioms 
with axes nearly at u right angli:' to the iixe» of the synclinals and 
antiuiinaLi, i.e., approximately oorth west and south-east. IntSe 
anticlinal valleys strata down to the Cambrian are exposed, but to 
the smaller valleys, cut by streams in tbe syni.-llnal troughs, only 
the *ub<'Jub<Hitrerous measures ore reached by tbe erodiou. 

Towantu the MMith we^ tbe Coal Measures and their uttderlyiox 
strata slope Kradually and mote rapidly than tbo lopofcraphy, aod 
the Plateau Region thus gra<le»i insensiMy into thu Basin, where 
none of the bed? underlying the coal ore above drainage. In the 
Plaleaa Region, and particularly in its nurtb-eastem portion, only 
the lowest of the rocks of the Coal Measures are left capping the 
moontains, viz., the twn oonglomerates with their intervening and 
nndsriylng tied.'t; hut fnrtl»er towards the mriith ■ west, other htgl>er 
members of the Coal Measures come in and tho platcnu like char- 
acter is in equHl moaiurc loat. 

The Report for 1977 -8, above referred to, and a subfeqnent Re- 
port for I$7B-80, oonlalne-1 notes chiefly on the Coal Measures of 
the Warrior Basin. In 1980 a large volume from tbe pen of Mr. 
Mt;CaUey. "On the Warrior Field," was puhlishod by the nirrey. 
This report also wa-*) concerned chiefly with tbe Measuraa of the 
Warrior Basin, though oontJUning some notes on part of tbe 
Plateau Region. Tlie present volume deals with tbe Measures of 
the Plateau Region alone, and presents about all tbe information 
at thi-4 limi?i avitllahtc. The two colored sections exhibit well the 
geological aiul topogmhlc fcAtnies of this region, and show the 
gradual sinking of the strata towards the south-west and the paa<, 
Mge into the Basin proper. 



January 15, .1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



39 



The two csDKlomerates named above are identical with the 
Upper and Lower Oonglomeratee of Professor SaCford of Tenaessee. 
Tbe7 are asnailr some tireDl;>five to thirty fe«t apart, though 
Bometimrs aeparated by a buodred and fifty feet of other strata, 
and Bometimps in direct omtact with each other. The lowei con- 
glomernte is usoally the harder of the two, and i'^ often called 
the " Hill-atone Grit." In the north-eastern part uf the reRion the 
moet inipniiant coal-bearing beds are below this lower conglom- 
erate, and have ao average thickness of fifty feet, but there are 
places where the sub-cfHiglooieratp measures Irave a thichntbH of 
seven hundred feet or more, as in parts of Blount County. 

The princtpnl seam of coal in the sub couulomerate measures is 

the Cliff Seam, Immediately under the lower conglomerate or 

cliff rock. Its thickness, like that of all these lower coal seams, 

is extremely Tariable, ranging from n few inches lo five or six 

feet. Fifteen or twenty feet below the Cliff Seam is the Dade or 

Eureka Seam, likewise very variable in fhickness, parsing, with'n 

Jimiled areas, from a few inches to twelve or fourteen feet. This 

great variability in the thickness seems general! ir to be due to 

undulations in the strata forming the floor of the beds, though in 

flo me cases to variations in the roof or co\er. While there are 

two or three other seams below the^, ihc two j lift nameil hare 

famished moat of the coal mined in the plateau region, and of this 

Ibe Cliff 8eam has yielded the greater part. Between the two 

oonglomeratei there is another good workable seam, the Sewaoee 

.Seam, from two to three feet in tliicknes^. 

While the upper conglomerate forms generally the surface rock 
over the Plateau Region, there are iu miiny [ilnce.^, and especially 
as we go south westward, overlying strata with their coal seams, 
none of which, however, have been worked in this section, but 
which become more and more importunl in the direction of the 
Basin above mentioned, and yielding all the coal there mined. In 
that direction also the sub -conglomerate coals lose their impor- 
tanoe, being mined nowhere in Alabama except in the north- 
eastern portion of the Plateau Region in Madison. Jackson, and 
DeKsIb Counties. 

In these lower Coal Measures there are, very generally, hedn of 
chiy iron-stone (carbonate), and of black band, which may some 
day come into use. 

I/omilies of Science. By Dr. Padl Caeus. Chicago, Open Court 
Pub. Co. 18°. $1.50. 

This book consists of articles on vaiious topics in science, re- 
ligion, and morals, contributed at intervals to the Open Court 
newspaper, of which Dr. Cams is editor. He teU» us in hh prefat'C 
that in early life he intended to t>e a preacher in the Christian 
church; bia inclination toward the religious life l)eing partly due 
to bia native disposition, and partly, no doubt, to the example of 
his father, who was a doctor of theology and an officer in the 
church of eastern and western Prussia. But his btudies led him. 
ae they have led many others in our time, to doubt the truth of 
many of the Christian doctrines, and ultimately to complete re- 
ligious and philoeophical scepticism. He therefore abandoned his 
iateDtion of entering the church, and after a time became a 
preacher of the new doctrines that he had adopted, the moet con- 
spicuous of which is a blank materialiam — a materialism which 
is not in the least disguised by calling it " uioaism." But while 
abandoningalldistinctlyreligious views, Dr. Cnrus has held fast to 
the supremacy of the moral law and the need of moral iniprove- 
mant in personal and social life, and the earnestnef^s with which he 
preaches the^e truths constitutes the main interest of inis book. 
His remarks on God and immortality will be far indeed from 
pleasing retigious minds; but what he sajs on ethical subjects, 
though containing nothing |>articular]y new, will find a-i echo in 
the hearts of good men of every creed. He is wholly uninfected 
with the socialistic heresies now bo widely prevalent, and he sternly 
rebukes those free-thinkers who regard morality with indifference, 
and Bcoff at its requirements. 

In all that he says about the need of moral improvement and 
the dignity of man's mitrul nature, it is neeflless to say that we 
cordially agree with him ; but we are by no means prepared to fol- 
low him in his rejection of all religious belief. We do not believe 
that the warld will abandon theism, though it will undoubtedly 



abandon many of the traditional dogmas of Christianity, if tt bsa 
not already abandoned them. Nor can we agree with Dr. Canis 
in thinking that the views set forth in liis book are the last word 
of science and pbiloaophy on religious themes. On the contrary, 
we regard the present as emphatically an age of transition in re- 
ligion and pbiloriophy; and we believe iliat the religion of the 
future will be quite different from the doctrine of Dr. CaruB, 
widely prevalent as his views undoubtedly areattbe present time. 
But as an exatnple of existing leDdencie<, as well aa by its moral 
eanie!itne»s, Ibis book will interest the reader. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 
Ik Sf. yieholas for January Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, favor- 
ably known as a writer on Japanese subjects, tells ff ** Two Queer 
Cousins of the Crab "—the giant crab and the tittle mask-crab 
that carries the impress of a human face u|)on its i^hell. 

— John Wiley & Sons have in preparation a work by Simpson 
Bolland, entitled "The Iron Founder." 

— " It would be a wise and timely move." says Outing for Jan- 
uary, "to prohibit the sale of grouse of all kinds and quail for, 
say, H period of at least three yearx. This would give a fair idea 
of just how much the market-shoott'r^ aie responsible for the de> 
crease of our game, and should so lessen the annual slaughter as 
to give the birds every chance to increase." 

— Charles Scribner"n Sonx have now ready "The Real Japan," 
studies "f contemporary Japumese manners, morals, administra- 
tration, and politics, li> Henry Norman with seventy illustrations 
from photographs taken by the author; also "The Development 
of Navies During the Last Half Century," by Captain Eardley- 
Wilmot, which forms a volume in the Events of Our Own Time 
Series. 

— Macmillan & Co. will publish in the course of January Mr, 
Henry Jephson's account of the " Rise and Progress of the Politi- 
cal Platform." The work is in two volumes, of which the first 
deals with the long struggle for the rjghts of public meeting and 
of free sprech during the reigns of George III. and George IV. 
The second volume foliows the progress of the platform from the 
agitation for the first refomi bill to that which preceded the re- 
form act of 1^44. Mr. Jepb^on linally treats of the position and 
power of the plulfomi in the present day. 

— A unique experiment will l>e tried in the February issue of 
The Ladiex' Home Journal. The entire number has Iwen con- 
tributed in )^r(i»e. fiction, and verse by the daughters of famous 
parenlage, as a proof that genius is often hereditary. The work 
of thirty of these "daughters" will be reiiresenled. These will 
comprise the daughters uf Thackeray, Hawthorne. Dickens, James 
Fenimore Cooper, Horace Greeley, Mr. Gladstone. President Har- 
rison, William Dean llowells. Senator Ingalls. Dean Bradley of 
Westminster. Julia Ward Howe, General Sherman, JeffenOD 
Davis, and nearly a score of others. Each article, poem, or story 
printetl in this number ha^ been especially written for it, and the 
whole promises to be a successful result of an idea never before 
attempted in a magazine. 

— Tlie Qiiarieriy Journal of Economica for January contains an 
importr]nl article by Hon. Carroll D. Wright on the "Evolution 
of Wag's Statt8ti''s," showing the gradual process by which the 
statistics of labor have been perfected in the last twenty years, the 
United States leading the way. S. M. Macvane writes on "Capi- 
tal and Inifreiit." and H. Bilgram of Ptiiladelphia on " Bobm- 
Bawerk's Positive Theory of Capital." J. A. Hill makes a careful 
study of the recent ''Prussian Income Tax," and W, B. Shaw 
presents his annual review of ".Social and Economic Legislation 
by the Stales in 18U1." Various notes and nn-mnranda and the 
usual careful bibliu;>i-aphy for the pm'eding quarter make up a 
number having gre»t variety of contents an<l of interest. 

— The Chautauquan for February presents llii? following table 
of contents: The Baltic ol Monmouth, by John G. Nicolay; Do- 
mestic and Social Life of the Colonists, V., by Edward Everett 
Hale; Trading Companies, II,, by John H. Finley; States made 
from Territories, II., by Professor Jame:« Allwrt Woodtiurn; Sun- 
day Readings, selected by Bishop Vincent; Physical Culture, I., 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 4I 



by J. >!. Bunkley, I>L,D.; Nwionfil Agendea for Scientiflc Re- 

swiiTh. by Major J. W. Powell. Ph.D.. I.L.D.; The Bureau of 

Animal Inrlustry, liy (>«orge W. Ilill; Hlgbbinders, by Fredtrlo J. 

Masters; Our Sblp« no t)i« Lake« and Seas, by Samuel A. Wood; 

The Frc««tt Posliion of Orman Politic*, by George Wheeler 

itoan. Ph.D.; Spain, Cuba, and Ibe LToiled Scales, by Bollo 

How a Bill Presented in Congrees 6eeome«i a Law. by 

'Oeorgp Harold Walker; Tlie Balkan States aod Greece; Btrawberry 

Bill, l>y Eugeiw L. Di'lier; Tbe Womtn'n ConKreM, by Iiabel How- 

Innil; I>.-gal Donieirtic ItelationH, by Miury A. Greene, L1<.B.; 

MakiD(^ Htitl Testing Flour, by Kmma I'. Ewing; Opportunities for 

Women in WagbiDgU'n. D.C, by Mrs. Emily L. Sherwood; 

DautibtiTs of the Fatherland, by Has E. H. Braioe; Uow Lo Ke- 

otv Health, by Ueroiine Welten; What Nexl in Womea'it Soci- 

^etii-x? by Margartit W. Noble; !S«awoineD, by Margort'L B. Wrijtht. 

Tlw edkiorinls treat of The Ethics of Story Ti'lHoj;. Republican 

[Siiutb America, and How to Live with Otbers. Tberu are the 

il deparimeati devoted lo the Chautauqua Literary and Sciea- 

'tlftcCirele. 

— P. UlBkiston, Son, A Co., Philadelpbia, bare nearly ready 
a reprint of Onwer's (W.R.) '• Manual of Nervous DtHeases," sec- 
ond' ollllcn, issued here by special arrangement with the author. 
Tbey have juiit published Qreig 8(nith'8 " Abdominal Surgery," 
fourlh edition; Muskett'B " Preeciildng and Treatment in Diseases 
of Children;" Ulair'it "The Organic AnalytiiB of Potable Waters," 



second edition; and will i«sue very shortly " .\ Manual of Aulop- 
ste«," by Dr. Isaac Blapkbnrn, a revised edition of Xft|ib(fy's 
"Tberapentics," and a voJunie on " Diwawo of the Throsit, Nose. 
and Ear," containing n lai:ge nunibt^r of colored wood engrav> 
ings printed with the leil, by E P. HcBride, F.R.C.P.. Edin- 
burgh. 

— Ginn & Co. snnuiinre "Outline of Levsona in Dotaay, for the! 
Use of Teachem, or Molhera studying with Their Children," by 
Jane IT. New«ll, Part II. : •• Flower and Froit." The coutvc 
begin* early in March with the crocUEes and other early bulboua ; 
plants, and continuea with lessons on aome conunoo liouae planta, 
in order that the pupil may be familial witli tbe ordioary boiaoi- 
cal terms before taking up the apriiiii; wild-Qowera. Spring flow- 
ere are then etudied, in the order of their blooming, together with 
the forevt trees, the blossoming fruil-trei-s and some of our com- 
mon weedi. These studiet are not analytic only, hut deal with 
tbe life-babit« of the planta, tbeir adaptations for fertilisation. 
diii!*c-m illation, and protection. Lessons on the stamens, the pifi- 
ti), inBon^cenec, iho fruit, and other topics are given in connec- 
tion with the flower studies. The booh aims to encourage faabitit. 
of rorrect obeervation, and snggests pointa for the ctas-i to investi- 
gate. The book will be (oand valuable to persons stodylng by 
tbemaelrea. aa it oontaina copious refereooea to (he literature of 
the subject, ni well as original studies. The book conuins a 
clasaiBcatioD chart including sixty families. 



CALENDAR OF SOCTETIKS. 

Women'a Anthropological Society of 

America, Washington. 
Jan. e.— Alice C. Fletcher, A TaJk on 
Folk Lore. 



PaOncatioM re«elved ■! Bdltar's OKce. 



CkKPS, I>a. PACL. IloMlllM of SolenoB. Chic«co. 

UtiMi Conn Full. Co. ir. Si7v. SI SO. 
flf f ■■■'■ Bmctclopakdia. Sev ■■illtlnn Vol, 

vUi. pMMDt to BoumeUs. PttUadelplUft, Up- 

pUicoU. R«y»l«*. «Kp._f3L 
UAMi-VoMor, Cirr. 8. Tbe Dertlopgwial ol 

Kavlea iluriOK tbs lau hmlttitatvrf. Ntiw York, 

BcTibBsr. IV. sup. SI Ti 
Ba»T, AUcaT Bcasntu. Kp>wb Hmpa, lUustntliii 

AuArleaa Blatorj. New York, utngiataa. S*. 

P«Mr. aOeanU. 

UaillmXA**. SoBVselr oftbeOrRtaiimiBeraiHt- 
lBK ol Xh» Am«cle*B AjMOCiattoo to PtoBxAm Urn 

Trwrlilnjt ot SpMeb to tbe D«al. WuitlnirtDa, 

Volla Biin.>*u, 4*. IB p. 
Boriixs. U. imvixa. Msnual of Plane GeoDulrr on 

Ui« U«*n>Uo Plan. Bo*tOD, D. C- BraUi a Co. 

11^ p. li'. n oeata 
Brmutorai, Kitmh Smmr*. Aru of tbn Dommitlo 

AclmaU Plill«delpbl*, P. A, DkTiS, t'. SO p 

lira. 
BciiT. Thomas itasaai. lirM«<a»tle Uiaertloirr. 

M«ir yoTh. Tke »<jleinuio Pub. Co. »*. ««p- 
HASTEanscu o* AitEucui LiraSAtraa. Boetoa, 

Bousbtoo. MUBla a Co. M*. 4T0 p. 
|lA>t.<ocx. W. PEmMSH A PUM Book of KlMlrieflr 

ami llftaetUm. Lo<>*loii, Wbtttukai t Co- IS*. 

MT p. fctwjU. 
naAia: a Bmiaiy aMa>Ml». Vol. 1- No. I. itw 

Toik, Th* Ootiitk«ftlt««. B*. p»p«r. SO p. Si 

par Tea*. 18 c*ou » cflpy. _ 

Smw Xoaa Stiti rtaroaaiToaT. BUteeaSb T«ar- 

Book, eotil«ttilii« ■>■# kHaa»l ivport of th* Baud 

of VMiwera fur tbe ]rB*r aadinf Sfllit. SO, IflSt. 

KlRifn. S. V. 8. RtitoTmtttorj Pnwm. I»*. Pkp«T. 
HtuKK. HkHTne. A B C of tb« Svedlsh SjM^at «t 

Educklloa*! Orv>iMli«a. Phllad*lphla, P. A. 

D«rU. W. llSu. rap^nta. 
Ohm, U. e. Tb« OkIvbbIo Circuit InvaallsBlvd 

ll«UiMaatmllT. Trann. by WlUiMU Prsotils. 

N»w Vorti. Vu MoatrMul Co. 18". tSB p. Sa 

ovnlN- 
PowBUs J. W. Tenth Asausl Bwort ot tb« tJ. S. 

Dvolrurioal 8or««rj, WB-M. Put L. Goolagj. 

Pan a . tiri«BUoo. WashUlgtni, evveraioMt. 

t rol». «". pp n». III. 
Scaooi. AXD Cotkans: derolad to aMoadujr and 

blcfaer •dnvattoB. BdltMbTRayQnmMi Bullnf. 

TulL Ko t. Jwi,. UM. BoMOB. Olaa a 0». s*. 

Psp«r. S4 p. 9IS4**i^*x; fOccmtma Dumber. 
nr, ALazAirDXa. An liiiro<]u<itlon lo Cfaviolcal 

tttotr. BdiGbtiiKb. A. J 0. Diaok. ir. iTtp. 

91 B. 
SnTOx, &UICKL. DMtu*M and Olaebun tron Um 

Bar !i««Tork, J. n. TallaC«. LST Wp. 
Ta% Fuit"»oriin:«i. Rktikw: bt-moolhlj Klllrd 

by J Seburtnan. Vol. I. Ho. L. Jaa . IMWL 

Boatin. QlEii a Co S*. Pa[Hir IS p. S3 a 

t»r: 75 (-'iiiit a numbnr. 
Wild. U. AuoalRU dp«.Ph7alka1i*eh*n Cvnlrai Ob- 

Mmatoriuma, Jah»aii«, IBM. Tb«ll 1- St. 

Ptlvratiori . HalMrlMim Akadnula d«r Wlaaen- 

•duft^o. *'. Paptr. 



Wants. 



Amt prttrn i^r* ■•/'.■ ^ilism far nhUh kt ii ^mt/i'- 
/itii ij kii Ktrmlific aHaintminlt, rr amy ^m*m mhmg 
MUM*** t» fill a faiHiam a/ Ikn ckarasttr, St il li^ 
ffa ttatktr *f ttbau .i>>e^iit . d'aitgAlimam. er n-iial 
mrl. max 4aiv Iki ' H'aal' imnrttJ mmtltT lAii Atad 
mt '11 trui, (/ ht talitfift Iki fmtlitktr tf Iht luil- 
a/iV fka'Aitrr a/ kit affiUali**. Aajiftrtrti ITtki»K 
tn/ffalif »» any ttttMifii ftinlitm. Ike tuldrtu <■/ 
*mji liitnti^ jvdi. aw VHl^caa ia amy mray mtf tkitt^' 
•«« /er a fH'/**t emtrmant trilh Ikt malurf t/ tkf 
/.i/*r. il itr^ialfy imvilrJ tf io n. 



ANTED.- (! I A wblto man *«u«ed la vood ud 
Iron •irirhliiv, attlw lowoik ttoKt ■p»<ilfli'atloiu 
■ fii ■ " 



w 

uid plaaa. anlicd for an loatmoCor of bojs: bij ba»- 
ln«>Ba to bar* cbaric* of *bi>|>* of arhool. outlliio and 
dli«ct tbr wtjtlc for fOTMBcn and •ludeot*: <>*lU7 to 
b> Sl.nin jitir miuuat lalaa Enoiilbm. |'J> A man 
(black pr^ic.rTPd> to t«Mb tbe oo:or<'d. Iron •orklim 
auO foTKlDS. aabordlnata to Ibp praoBdlnit: utarj. 
STUD, (fj L man (vlilta) caaip«i«at to tAku ciMaM 
In Hiifflnvarlsit CaMlalsat'a poalilon), but wlili Iba 
ability to pf'tfom Mty of tbo work rpqulrvd in aar 

of (bo (Titmarf AiiJttBM'rlilfl oi>ut*«ii of nut ualvvnu- 
llei; KoUrr riont 91.000 to fl.MO. A. If. BEAL8. 
UliledKPvuU, Oa. 



W 



r AKTEO.— Two or tbr*o eflkient ooaipaieta wiib 
J t/foA knowladjM of apborloal TriffoooniKtiT and 
rMdr HM ol lc«»rtuiiiu, tor umpotuy eaploy OMtit 
In tbn offlon of tha Cooai and Qoodotlo Stirwy. Ap- 
]ill(.>«itu «>ii^utcl fumlBb evldenea of tbelf lltv«H lor 
IbH vork. Ap|>lT bp lotlvr lo tba Sopcrlataiideiil, 
CoMt AQd UMKletJ^aarrej', WaahUtftoa. D.C. 



AKTSD.-Sdnire. Xo. tT«, JniT % Wa, aJoo 
iV lodai aud Ttlio-paM to Vol. Til. AddrCM 
. 1>, C. HcrdKv*. k;! Broadvar, ]<«« Tork. 



JV 



k 



TOCNU 39AK nn v.mlil llkn a poalltcm In * 
. . COUko. laboraturjf. ut i>bn*rvaCifrj. In »l«i' "lll- 
jna to aadal at a aleaiu »D|[liit-. etc'. Addroaa J. W,, 
oftTO Ot amtmct, t^^ Broadway, Haw fork. 



W^ 



ANTED.-A poaitloD In tke ptiUoaopUeal or 

. . pedagogical (1a|<Kriin4>Bt of a ooUwO or nnl- 
t-eraltr br ■ ruuoB tnao (nuj «bo baa bad fl<re jeua' 
nnictioai aiparlraon In ■•'•obln|t. and wlio bai done 
lOnr jaars' pott-Bradual« work la |iliib>*''fb)'> da*ol- 
Ids bla atteittinn itmiug tL<^ laat twi) fp«ni «ape- 
oially to aludr and onidDal Iniiuttjiati^B la actVD- 
tlBo pajcboloKf aiiil Ita applloaUona In ■ducallon. 
AddrfM K. A., rare Hfititc*, S?( Bruadway, X, X. 
City. 



tirANTEO.-A aoltahl*! poaJtioa In WacfalogtoD. 
VV O. C . Dot noDBMttcd witb tb« QoTcmmvnt, 
and wltb a •alar}' uo( ti> aichhI tOM a ynu. by an 
eip«rifDC«d bloioslat wllb alz veart' untTvraKv 
tntiilDK. Applicant b»* (>•<«■ a akilfnl auqiAon for 
toiutecn TAara : ta o praoUoal pbotoftapber, car* 
(OfTsptior, and acpoatonod to tb« uaa tA ta« tyttO- 
writer He U alto oapablo ot BiaklDK ttiw moat fln- 
lab«d diBwIoKB, ot aay dMorlptlon. for all miiaoer 
of lliurtrativ* parpoaea la •cltnoe; iraiopd iu mu. 
acufo mciboda nod work; alao Drld uporatloika and 
taXHlcrmy In Ita rartowB depart mo n I a, aad modi)' 
IDK, prvdjctioo ol oaaia, rratorath'oa of palooolo- 
- ■ mnnta. AddrMN 



loglcaJnMlnaanaandaittillareiBpioytDflnta. J 
C 8. a . «an lM«a(v. 4T L«rayflte Plaee, N. 



Y. 



buv M uchAnce a coin nf HotbiOnii't 

■n H«rpato}i>tr. o* John Kdwurdi. cvol*. 

iF«». C. ^UR. CUtk Untr«nity4 



Exchanges. 

[Prccof charie to all, itof aattabctory diaracter. 
Addicii H. D. C. Ilodsca, >» Dioadwxy. New York.] 

W«nl«d to bU]r M UchAn^ a eap^ nf HotbiOnii't 
Nii'ih AoMfcan 
PhiU>l<I»aia, 1 . 
W"iv»*ier, Mwt. 

Tor ulo or (ichancc, LeCaaic, "Gcakwy;" Quain, 
"AiittcBy," ( voit ; FMMr, **Pbv«l«i<-BT<" UK. «aitMn: 

Sbtpaid, Ap^ctuB. BIQoitt Md SicfB. " I bcmiitry ', 
Jo<daa, ''Miuual « V«rt4b*j|et;" 'Inlcmaiionai Scmo- 
imi* IMractorj;" T«i. I. Jvmrnalaf .VorfktUgy.- Hit- 
four, " EMbn!ot<HT." • vol*.; Leidr. " Rhiiopodij;' 
Ssituii, (I voU., unbound. C T. U<.-Cr ' ' 
LxxinttMi. Ky. 



li^LlNTOClt, 



K»i ul«.— A Sli ■ U^ C*racr«t a TEtr.tac itulnimcnt. 
Httti lent, holden ■■€) tnpod, all new; 'a c«M o*et mo; 
rn'r. irj. Kdw, t> Kay«», 6 Ath«n»*Cr««i, CattbHoxi. 



Place in NaluN, " Htiiky, "Mcnul Evolulioa in An^ 
■nalL." by Ronanm, 'Tvr-Ailjniilei." by WiochclL No 
bonkt waalad aaccpt tat«M cdiil»at. »x»A book* in («od 
condition. C S. Btwn, Jr.. Vandeihiti tJMnniiy. 
Nubritia, Ton, 

I'ox Sate ar Eicbaof* for booki ■ ooaplete pttvau 
cbvmicai laboniioiy ouifii- Includo lame Sccka ba>> 
trnot (tool. 10 i-ioniK.), plaiinum dnhei and ctHdU^ 
agate noton, kIjw blowim apparaiiu. clc Foi lale la 
put Ot wbek. AIM compltic lile ot Simmnm'i ymrmai, 
iafit>ilt$ (d>-yt Iwiindl; SiniiFitoiuiin Kcpuiti. iSj^-ttaj: 
U. S. Cout Survey. itM-it'X). Full pantcvlan lo ea- 
quitcn. P.CAKntNER.JR.,Pon>fre«.CoBa. 

For eicbaaitii or \t^< at a •acrificc. an claboral* micro- 
Kopt outfit. Hullcdi •tand; moaoeular obteciirei, oao- 
liilb hoRicoErnroi'i loiBietBiDn. fout-lonlha. aad ihiwc 

in(h, BaitKb a l.t'Dkb. alto oiM-fooitb and one Inch 
Spcacci. F«ui cyc-piem. Ob|Ktirc« are ibr beat mads. 
Addittw Ma. Harieo Smith, 41 Bnncb Street, Lowell, 
Kaw. 



DEMPSEY A CARROLL. 

ART STATIONERS AESORiVFUS, 

WeoDINO INVITATIONS, 

fteOEPTION a DINNER INVITATtON8^ 

VISITING CARDS, 

MENUS AND PRfKlRAMPMCS, 

UNION SQUARE, 

36 CAST rOl>RTCCNTH ■TRKCT. 

NEW YORK. 



[ahuarv 15, 1) 



SCIENCE. 



4t 



— Sftxoo A Co., Loodoo. will [luMiKli in Uarch an Rnglisb edi- 
^oa of Tilix m^uaatffa " Japoo Pratique." an ezptaiuUioB of the 
JftpwMM modM of working io wood. metaJ. laoqoer. poreelalo, 
and ataffs, accoraiuLnit^) by mote than a hundred dMlgns. 

— KacffiillAD ft Uo. aoDounc^ f')r «u-ljr pobllcatioo a new toI- 
nme o( tbo Librar; o* Philosophy, entitled "The Philosophy of 
Atjstbet !<:»." by Bernacd Bo«aaqo«(, A. M. , author of " L/ogic ; or, 
the MorplioloRy of EnowledKe," and traoBlator o( Lolxe'a " Syetetn 
o< Philosophy." 

— LfOngmana, Green, & Co. annuuncie a n«w edttion of " A 
Haod-bfwk of Florida,*^ by Chnrlnt Ledyard Norton. 

— Tbe opccioK article of tbe February Popular Science JVonfAiy 
will be on "P(TMiial Liberty." by Edward Atkiuaoa aad Edwaid 
T. Cabot. It boan L-biefly on tbo labor qneBlion, giving tbe r^ 

ioteflf an i?xbauiiitv<! cxsmiimticm of tbe decimous of ibv oourla 
eoDcandng restrictions on hour! and modes of lalxir. re^Uiitton of 



the metljod of paymAot, etc Tbr p<Atery articles In the iodaatrtal 
aerlra will be followed by two on aoothi^r attractire suhjret — tbe 
making of mmlcal Inttraniciits, by Daniel Spillane. The Ant of 
theae, to appear in February, ia devot«d to "Tb» PtaiMvFon*. " 
It dcecribea the precarsora of this iostrument, and reoounta lh« 
aleps of improvement by which thia ootintry has reached ita prevent 
high position in the piano oianufnciure. Th^articlo » lllurtratcd. 
Pl:«»tdent David Rlnrr Jonlan of Stanford Univemity will Imre ao 
account of how ttxf hot-fprings and tarA-cliffii of tlie YellowstODe 
Pnrk were formed, and what advenliiriM havv hefaUen the flooy 
iofaabitanlBof its lahm and etreoaifl. The article is called "The 
Story of a StreoKc Land," and it will be tlluslnted wlih aeTenl 
fuil-psKe and ttBtaller viewv, " Urban Populotioo" ia tba subject 
of tl>e fourth of the Lewoos from tba Caoaus, b; Hoo. Carroll D. 
Wright, n Bbowa jiut how much ground there la for the current 
apprelienision in regard to tbe increaae of tbe dum population of 
cities. Thifl paper kIho will appear in the February namber. 



mc 



Imkh Afii] Phs|iliiitc. 

A most excellent and agree* 
able tonic and appetizer. It 
nourishes and invigorates the 
tired brain and body, imparts re* 
newed energy and vitality, and 
enlivens the functions. 

Dr. EpniAiK Batimaii, CedAnrille, N. J., 
•aya: 

"1 1mt0 used it for aereral yKan, not only 
io my practiirv, bat In my own individual 
eaae, and consider it under all clrctiraataacM 
one of the best nerve tonics that we poeB««s, 
Foruratal exhaiutitin or overwork it |[>vm 
renewed strength and vigor to the entiri^ 
sy«t«m." 

Descriptive pamphlet free. 
~ RMnTwd ChfoltaJ Worki, fmi^aet, R. I. 



Beware of Sabatitntes and Imitatioas. 

CArTlON.-Be sure Ibe word <*llor*- 
rord*»» !• «H me label. All atbera are 
■partoaa. HareraeldtMkalk. 



THE AMERICAN RACE: 

By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M.D. 

" Tbe tM)ok la ea* a( luiiMi*] IntAtMit and vmlne." — 
l»ttr Oefam. 

" Oi. Duii-I Q Oriuton «rit« u tlu >«kna«l«d(*d 
ftatlM>Htj' f-t tbr uabittct."-^ P^ladtlpkia Ptts». 

"Till- *(iik vUl be of geniikiM) ralap Ui *11 who 
<rlab to know tti* mbatuice of vKat twa bcD foaikd 
oat ktmat tbolndlfMuMa aBM<ricw» "— Wstttr*. 

" A maattiTlr illactnaJoa, ■4>d an viaampU rd tie 
■uccBaaTuI i>(1ii(iatlofl of Ibe povvraof obHrrratloo." 
—mUultipkia Ltdf/fr. 



R. D. C. &ODGBS, m Broadwaj, K. T. 



ESTERBROOK'S 
STEEL PENS. 

Of SVPESIOR AND STAHDARD QUALITY. 

Leading Nos.: 048,14,130, 135. 339. 333 

For Smlr fry all Hlaltott^ra. 

THE UTIRIIOH STtll HN II., 

W»rka: OamAca. V.J. -J* John n%.. Krw rarh. 



THC CHCAPEST ANO BEiT 



fHoTo£yGl?AVllVc(p- 

. 67 PARK PLACE. NEW YORK 



ppn 



Panvcaal CalMdar. — Tkila 

imT apfittcMtai of Ite lUdc-nitt 



njE-RULE 

t nniu:|it« sh^vi.inaaiBttaBi ■ntkoai *<Mjy ot <al 



IJ I hi \>ar 1 KUihaaadof fli— ._fa»pjt^i' ci«. 

*^ JBoai-naiui n. «; u>iTiTTi fwa, vn tai. 



UAHDBOOK OF lEmROLOGICAl TABLES. 

Bt Aaer. Poor. H. A. Bazkc. 
137 pp. 8°. 

Profeaaor Waldo *ayat " I beariily racom- 
raead Ifaam to all wurksra in ni«l«orolog]r, 
and do not ave bow any of our Aniericaa 
meteorologina can afford to be wiilioat a 
copy.- 

rrofeeaor Symona of London aaya : ' ' Thvy 
are nociuaaticmably ralnable helpa, whioh 
mnat be kept handy, and replaced when 
worn out.*' 



l^. C. HODGES, m Br oadway, iei Tort. 

POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 

For ux tn CoHtffn aad Nomal Stfewb. PHe« fO ecat* 
Seal f n« by pat by 

N. D C. MOIMiBB, 8T4 Brnadwar, N. T. 

milCDlIC Cuiixrr ttt^c'taajia. Coixccnova 
nintllnLd. KOH Iluivpira AsAi-TBts, 

LarKMt and OOMl stock IB V. 6. lUOpp. lUa«tiat«d 
Catalofua. paperbcMuKl. Uc.; «lotb boiiMd. ttte. 
am. L. 8N0LISH a CO. MlaBnliMlna. 

Hfpne^ to 731 k T8B Bmadi*aT> I've Totft 

PATENTS 

F(irl.NVK.VTO£8. «)-p«((i> UOOE PIIKE. Addreaa 
W.T.FltzgBrald. Aitomejal LaT.Waahlngioo, D.C, 



O/d and Rare Books. 



B 



ACX mm BBftS a»r| tviapUu *«t« ol IcMtiu Us«- 

ai^Mt. smu, i^. AH. UAO. BxtnunioL 

Scbaban* N V 



DO YOD INTEND TO BDILD? 



iTW 



'^rrf^i^ 






Itvea IMaod to build. It win baaaitMakanot luaand (ot*Hie>J!tlRB,K LOW'COAT 
HSOSBSf** now arrao«ed tn IhrM) rotwnea. la tbeoi yau wilt flail perap«cliT« *lsws, 
Ooor plana, ilHaortpilooa, and MtlmaKa oT cost tot lOft laatrfnl. «VW d*alK«» tax 
koaaea. Tbey also flv« pclcM for faaspifie Worttar Plaa*. tNMls. aad HpMilfloatloaa, 
wttioh «nsbl«i jnu t« build M'llliowi drlaya, mlatakea *r ^aarrvla wIlli your balld- 
H. aad wbl«l) any •■!« ran niitloraland. VoL I, ooaiabH S «op7TlKbt«d dMlns aI 
bouae«.eoatlnBl>«iww>n|eaiiiMl tlK» V<>i II, ouolalaa W ouev rtcbwd AmUhs^ tlMO to 
fWDO. Vol. in. conuJni V. c-oi,, rtirhted dealgaa. SaBO to Him. Fttee, t^ awll. tl.OO 
»arb, or 93.00 for Dip b4-(. 

"f'UI.UKI.«l. MIII..SFK,)' a ri>t«ne •bowtac Panfwetlvea aad near Plan* of 
biMiwn Ai-!*t\f.r\\ ta i>if< ItrimlEkliU hitIv pf tbe ColoDial Ai«bltvelarw, and baTlD« all modern 
arranBFOi>>nis ti>r comfort. Tiicp. 99, UO. 

*'PlrTirHS»<t( KltOrsKMPOR PftRRIIT AND SHOBK»i-Thls sbaw 
PerapM^TCa and Floor Plana o( orw di«iin>s (or Buannfr OoltBC«a, whl«b uo romaatio 
•etnwiiiBnt. aod r.baap. Pn«ia, tliOU^ hf ntall.) 

N;d. C, bodges, 874 Broadway, Hei York, 



SCIENCE. 



iPact and Theory Papers 

!l. THE SUPPRESSION OF CON- 
SUH[*TiON. Br UooriiT v. l[Aiini.KrQ9i. M.D. 
If. «o. 
"n« IBMtlr»«l>lA ImporuukCA «( ibesntilAcl, ue 

■ cmllMilOS of Ibe auUtur, auil the uotaIIj ut hia work, 
klloonMiM>tAr«Bil*r \bt lltu* tr»aiMi> wortbr oi 

Dr. BftHkblfllon'" K^ '>>'•" "•'''I wtHt lliAr» «»r« man 
tuoli works"— I; ' run iwilr Adt^rtUrr. 

■• Tbo moaofrf <cliiv li> bivIo. Mtmlkrli 

Buil W«U wantaf - . -. . .. >^oual<l«rBUju. li U d^ 

voUor tMi»10*l*S|tfWMilnci».«)iacikD l>A«MUTr««d 
IIU4 dlgMtvO."— PAiii-mil<7ufiVHJ £>-i>. 

It. THE SOCIETY AND THE " FAD.' 

fi* Arri^ETC^ MonOkX. Rag. li°. 80 co^u 

"llr. Mofftui taoiida a movIMs nuit inienwtlns 

■JdroM uputi H lesl turoUlKMl bf » ia<iil^n<.-a from 

■ lomic iMloit' nacutne : uKmvljr. * Bniwuluc and 

ItMWD Bie Llip oolj' rwatlj ilrAmatlc >uiIi(>tb of lb«lr 

III. PROTOPLASM AND LIFE. By 

C. F. <?<>x. It*. TlcMW. 

"To ti« comm»D4«<l lo tboM wtM Ut uot mieclal' 

ItM.""— Cfcrirfion Union. 

■* PbrsldauB Will •ii]o)r U)«ir rflaillnjt. aiHl Rml h> 
lliaiu much tood for Ukouxbt.''— 5f. LaiiU .\lf4Uvtl 
una SurgS foi JoMmni, 

" Mr- iloa feirl«*rii Iba hUtorjr of bl* *TiIi]acl wtlli 
Loowledce asd abUI."— 'tf>^i« Ciurt. 

" It ■■ o( vKirvmv luiitT^*t."~ilrdirol An*- 

■* WMtHretACantnipenVM!.''— fadirtua .Vetlica 

"AnlnVMWMM WKl popular OiCfOuat or tha ceu- 
tieuclsfl ol modam bl«kqitcal tboagnt."— FwpuUir 
Srirnn XfVt, 
''All liitM«at*d In UolofioaJ iiaanilooavlll OM 
I tktMotik t»»eratXlaf."~nanhaceiiUf:il Knt. 

'■ TtiOBBtb»rdlH)laTa a vvrTenmprabi'nalrof raat> 
I cvT hla ■ubjeci."— /"uNff Oittnion. 

"Dawrvaa iba att«Dilou of studcou ot natural 
Ml«ac t.""— Critic. 

IV. THE CUEROKEES IN PRE-CO 
LUHBIANTlMSa. Br CvarSTHOv^ I'^'. II 
Xtt.Ttotam baa alr«ailv prcBUtod to ibt public 

*tini« r«aMBB for tMllerluc titft (;tt»ruk(MW mre 
iacuu(l'tiuli<l#rs. Ititt addlilunal ev)4«uc<« twarlDB 
on Uie»ulJlr^tbiw b«ennbtaliMd. A mure i^aretul 
etudrc'I ibpDMawM* trai4lil(Mir««p<K!ttnaUi«Tfil- 
lof rl aatl»n«« blm thai we bftr« Ui tbe Bmtk Kuoord 
iwaiam oiuiBUUMif i^ooi mat uu>r w«r« Cbaro- 
koea. tlo ihli'Ka Iba nonnda «nnbl« ua to iraea bach 
tbair llii« ul uilgratlgu avmi bayoDd tb«lr raaldatc* 
Ui Ofalo to ili'j waalani bank of tfae Hlaalaiilptii. Tli* 
ottjeci la U>or«fvra tbreefoid: I. An llltiM aitao of 
Iba r»T«r*e nifUMMl Ot daallac wllb ptvblatndc mib- 
iccu; t. )i]«rJiwial proof thai aome ct trio Indlaiu 
K«re uMMind-lKitldarK S. Aaiudrof aalusl^iTlbala 
tfasUCbtol iba mouaa i«ailmou]r. Thie vaiK will b« 
Ml Inportaut eontrlbntkni lo iha Iltarature of iba 
Cotannaa <llaw*«-r 'Kton vui doubUaba appear 
durltif tb« «vnliic twA jf ai'». 

"ATalaablaoutiiriuu luu lo ui« quaailob, 'Who 
ware Ui« mouoA-bulldnr* T ' "—Ketr York TImri. 

"Vrotfm<it Vjtu* ThoDUM iiDdvnaKn to invje 
back iba oTidODCMa of a fltorlc ladlaa Iriba Iota tb? 
prebtaioncornound-buiidiaff as*,"— J^r. i'. Sua, 

" An Intotealluj i«por."— C>lrt«ffaa VnioH. 

V. THE TORNADO. Bj H. A. Haiek. 
lie. fl. 

"Tballitlabvok U cxuramaij wtareaUaff. "—£<•* 
ion Tminrtipt. 

'■A book «Dl«b wUl Bud manr nadors. Tfcc 
obaptar ua 'Tornado laanraocn' U of tntarnH to 
all pi«P«rty-boMer« lu Uie ioraaduaiatm>.''-iJ.Mfo>. 
irrralS 

•• *Tba Tornado' la a poimlar trvatliw oaafl tmpor- 
■>Dt prurtacp iaI m»tciiro\Ogj. lu Wbtch Kclancv, tlia 
aattior, froleaaor Haseu ot tbo l'uliu4 ttiaiae Hliasl 
SsrvlcQ, mar bo rofardod aa an oiporL" -PhitatUU 

VI. TIME-RELATIONS OF MENTAL 
PHEMOMENA. Br JOKKl-fl Jikthow ir-. 90c. 
" All iiadmiB of payc4u)lo«T will flud tbe book lull 

of Inlaraatloc taola. Prof««ur ilaalraw'a good ijual- 
Itian aa a tbluKar and at a wrtivr ar« too iiati m4 
too wtdalj kooirn to r«(iuLr« cocumanl."— /^tifit 
Opinion. 
"A Dwaful work lor parcbulugUla— a* w«ll aa ib* 

Snarai ro«d«r-by aaninc lorui in brtet and aaaUy 
WUIalbtB form tbm pnwsnl Plata of koowtadK* lo 
racard lA iba time roqatred for iba partormaniM ol 
meutal atia.''— r*' C'n'ir. 

VII. HOUSEHOLD HYGIENE. By 
MaaT T*viJ3K lii*!>xi.u H". Ticentm. 
"Aaaaalble t)rocbur«.~'~Ar«oA'fvit A'n^lr. 

•^PrwUonl aniJ .Bnilbte ■"-/'BHi'r (.ipinion. 

"TbBMtrlceaiMl oacaUaai lotoriiKitiou wbtcb It 
«ontalii* are toraDlgr ami lute1llEt>iiilT rtprraMMl.'*— 
llnittrH JJ^fml and Surgical Ji,\iiriol. 

'■ Trai'UcaJ ttaii tAa>iAj wt^^^oa.^^■^Sj^ritt1tfi'l•l Sr- 

''Tbo l)Mt liiui>ofTa(>li aa boiDO lir|le[i«."— S< 
fjOttli Ofo6r-/Mm«raf. 

In PT<t'<*'^tiai: 
VIIL THE FIRST YEAR OP CHILD- 

HOOD. BjrJ.MAaK BaLUWik. 

t D. C. BODGES, 874 Brondffa;, Rev TorL 



SPRING iOTTONS. 

AndersoD's Zephyrs, i 
Printed Mulls, 

EinlilaiiilPnDleflNaiiirts, 

Figured Crepes, i 
Stripe and Plaiu Batiste. 



[Vol. XIX. 

THE 



Atficaii Bell Ideploiie 

COMPANY. 

9S MILK ST, BOSTOS, MASS. 



NEW ¥OBIfc. 



TIiIa Coinpnii.v owtiK llii> Letters 
ral«>iit Bi-auttMl to .-VlexHUilt^r <ira- 
linin Bell. March 7th, 1H70, No. 
174. 4Uo, niKt .laiiuarr »», lliT7, 
Xii. IMt.7««7. 

Tlio Trfiii»nil8<)lon oT Sp<>ecli hy 
ail knnnu rt>rni!> of KMX'TKIC 
KFKAKINCJ TI^ILKIMIONKS iu- 
Irin^ett Ihf rlf^lit ftt^curetl In tlii9,|j 
( 4iiii|>na,Y l>.vi)ii* alMi%'r ptilfiilH, uiid^ 
rf^iiiUTRencli IniliThliinl iisf^rofUrl- 
ot>h(iti«ti( nut riiriiiKhfd >>>' It or Uh 
lict-U'iueH, re-.>!H>uHil*h' llir ottcli uii- 
liinTiil tLie, II IK I all I he eouKe^ 
qiU'iit'Mi IhRrooI nnil liable to suit 
tliiTcfor. 



Price, $20 to $30- According to size. 

Tb« l>at«nt Li^htalnK Dis|>ell»r h a coDc)ue> 
tor ■f>etTialI,v da^iirue<l la (ItmpnU) thf micr^ 
n( n liKhtnin^ ili^phar^, — to pr«7Pnt ita 
doibi! barm.— placiuff eoni«lltiu(c in its path 
uiHJti w-liicb )t» utt|moiiy Tor oauving ilamaf:« 
iDBV lu* rX)>i>Di)pil. 

No r«conlo<l t«ii« at U%htninn stroke hna 
yttt bniMi riter] nKminid llwi prinri(<le of tha 
DiMpellpr. Ho liLT MS known, tba diuipation 
of a conductor lioa iovaribbly prntvcUNl unilttr 
tho miKlitioni oiiiployml. 

Corra»l>oi»deBcc soiiciUMJ. 

AGENTS WANTED 



ffew Mathod 0/ Protecting Property 
JANUARY from Lightning. 

DRESS GOODS SALE. The Liglilning Dispeller. 

We bogin lo- day our regular afler-holiday 
sale in Ihe Dress Gauds Oeparlment. 

An ImmensB variety of Plaids of Scotch, 
French, am) Enfltish make, in both gay aad 
subdued colorings— prices rciluced ons-balf. 

Many cxcftllent valves in stylish ChevJats 
and Tailor Suitings, Double Rib Diagonals, 
etc. 

Reductions, also, in pricts Of Caahmerea, 
Serges, aad other Plain Goods-Bargains at 
evary counter. 

For early Spring we have openeil several 
new lines of attractive mlxtnres. 52 inches 
wide. $ 1 .00 and $ 1 .25 per yard. 

James McCreery & Co. 

'bKUAUWAV A: I llh hTRIlET. 
XEW lORK. 

LINENS. 

Art Rmbroidvrj Lioena, Linen* for the 
Bid mam. Dining-room, or Kiicben, in 
Urge awortiucpl. 

Linen Goods liavo been our specialty Ivj 
iivarly (orij jeatv, aiid there ia no de«irahl<- 
linen article or fabric wliicb may not he 
tuuod lu our stock. 

We glacily send sanplu of Booh of our 
Kooda as can be aamplod. To get somo 
idea ol the range of goods we keep, write 
for cauioj-uv. 

James McCutcheonS Co,, 

THE LINEN STORE, 

64 & fiC Vest •J3ii St., New York. 



Tbe AmerteaB LigbtDing ProlectiOD CompaDy, 

United Banii Bu>l4}ing, tioux City, Iowa. 



A TEMPORARY BIMDER 

f>» ScitHtt if DOW ready, and will be mailed 
postpaid ofi receipt of 7$ caota. 

1 111* binder iiuronn.ihnblvand 
(ttEaEt. haa (ill tjdt-tllt*. aad at- 
lnv> rKei>^eniiij of thr p^ig*!^ per* 
fcotli flat. Any nanlKt can b« 
uien (Ml or r«plj>c«l wiihooi dia- 
lutbinE ilic Dihrr*. SK'I ili* paprn 
■re nnt BiBiiiated lor iiib>n)ueat 

ComaiKiit binilina. I'ilrd tn lliit 
Liidrr, Sfienctti aTvayiCDBveaMiiE 
Idi irl<Tt<n:i;. 
^^^__ 1 cnporarv banilen rl ihc una 

RuJilQ <lf>i:ri[.iiiin >iui wilW)! »ilc title, la 
tWIVM Ai arij |,ippr or [miodical of ordt- 
■uiy >in , « iM W m»ttO P'dtpaKl 'in tccfiiM of price mt 
iwtD \i<\--<r. Id gni«ui(, be *arv lo s"e lb« ■»>■« «( 
lufKi Ot ixiiudiiul Rod Myk of binder. 

Vto i«lKtKBlOw-cUib.|«.s<»;lu(liet, aa.So. 

«• *" 14 " " 6o " M- 

i« •• ir " ** »J " I oa. 

ij ■• If " " too ■' ■.•]. 

N. D. C. HODGES. Publisher, 

B7f Broidwajr, Kcw York. 



SCIENCE 



NEW YOBK, JA>'UARY 83, 1892. 



"DIVINE nEAUNO."' 

About tirtnty years ago a half educated Irifler fmm Qer- 
many, babbling-, as tbpy all do iion-, a truvcsly or undigested 
''metaphysical philosophy'' dUplayed in a nimbus of re- 
ligioot csal. coDcerniag whom tbo mo6i iujurioua roporta 
were circulated and hitv-e never been coutradicted — lh\» 
man became the apuntlc of a lar|^ rallovriDg. and the worthy 
founder or l)io moHt (lOloriotiH of ibe "schools" spwwniu^ 
ever since in the shullow waters of "Chriidian Brience," and 
there i» of late a pitiful increase of faith, particularly on the 
part of religious people, in the prayers, promises and neglect 
of theee healers, until cancer, diphtheria, and typhoid are 
left without challenge or remorse in the control of " Divine 
Healera," "Christian Scientists." " Palth " and "Mind 
Cvrers," and " inspired " persons in all garbs, who adverluo 
Tariously, while each calls all otfacre " quack." 

Here is a " philosophy " which litcralty insists that ther« 
is neither pain nor disease ;* cancer is an imagination. How 
patient, after all, are our legislators I 

Serioua argument agaiDst the hypocritical nonsens* of 
these parasites in the medical profession would hardly have 
seemed called for, — so silly is the silliness, so crazy the 
craie, — were it not true that their influence is widely nod 
perniciously felt. A» keen an obaerrerasMr. Edward Eggle- 
bIod has thought the sUtus of "Christian Science " so neri- 
oas an evil that his lant work. " The Faith Doct'^r." is a slroug 
iodiclDient of ils murderous counsels. 

Popularity is easily gained, for the dead tell nu talcs. 
Christian Science murmurs its experimental prayer over the 
sick aa material, while Itt) triumphal niamh leathers a noisy 
ovation from tht* itm(t;imitir«>, the neurotic, llu^ conviiltrsciug, 
Bud from certain tturgiral cas««>. sttfT-jntnted, rheumatic, or 
weak, and simply ureding rvaHXuruiice to lukv up hedn and 
walk. From New Kngland to the extreme West, towns and 
communities swarm with the new *' pmctttionerB." "The 
number of these regularly graduated cannot be acoumtely 
etlimated, but tbey are numbered by the thousand. Within 
the limitn of one school there are about thirty organized 
churches, and also one hundred and twenty societies which 
maintain regular services.'' ' 

Numerous periodicals make their appeal lu such priestly 
TestmenlA aa have.neTer been a&sumed hy Ayer't Almatuxc 
or the most plausible of the Qutdea to Health. Twenty- 
ibree iostitutm. scteatiflc and uetaphysical. are advertised 
in one periodical.* 

Here who<^ver listens becomes a titled practiliouer (C.S.) 
and ia "inspired,*' however brief the ooune of instruction. 
"There are about Hfty dispensaries and roadiug-rooma, and 

■ A punlon of IbU p«p«r wm puultabe<l Id BmIob Truitonpt, liec. CI, Wl, 
taa ivpir taft«oatniunk?ai1iiu. Buakiu Trwi^erlpt, Not. T, rsTorlDg Dlvlu* Hoal- 
InX •■ ** Uia more vice Item wAr, " 

' " (Mmw u<1 nMltti," t^ \v*, iiXP, «l. tiw. - You MT ft imU !■ tsflansd 
«ad iMlBfitl. bni tfeu la ImpoMibUt " mi). " UHUmniUbin, Mbvratoa. feSQkor- 
ttwi« Mill dMompMitlaD *r* but ibDusbi*. bellofa " itBB), 

■ ittnetlnu BpccUttor, Die, IMI. 

* ClulaQaB Sal«nc« Jouni«l, Jan., VKi. 



a. rapidly increasing literature for Christian Scietice; one of 
the other schooln. Itfiud Cure, hns also a large nnmber of 
organizations nimilar in churacler," * 

Reputable physicians occasionally yield to the importuni- 
ties of patients, or the specious arguirent from the o^umed 
sla.ndpoint of religion, and endorse the practioo of Faith 
Cure, wholly or in part Given an inch, an ell Is taken, 
and the fanatical stAlement has already been made that there 
exists nu oppnaition to Divine Heuliug on the part of medi- 
cal men." 

Tet every veracioiis medical article and auUientic report 
written during the past decade to Khuw the servive uf air, 
diet, exercise, baths, or medication, is the enlightened pmtea 
of science, i.e., of conflrmcd and rcrihed experience, in o\^ 
poailiou to aeosatiooal, hysterical, superstitious pseiido-sei- 
eiicc. 

Concession on the part of any physician to the childish 
credulity of a hygone age is atmply high treason to bts noble 
profession. A medicul man who is still conducting caae* of 
successful treatmeol should reflect upon his ingratitude to 
Alma Muter, and upon the comment which must gr«etastep 
which seems to stultify his awn professional life and eiv« 
aupport to a dangerous doss in the community. Bi> oot* 
leagues will, iaevitably, question his sincerity and ash for a 
logical defeuss. 

Religious obBervaoces have their time and place, but the 
Almighty evidently always employs means; the preachers are 
accepted agents iu matters spiritual, perhaps the doctors are 
the convenient instruments to cure disease. 

A disorder so serious, visible, establinhed, and contagious 
as diphtheria, is not to be left to faith and prayer alone. 
The writer has never seen a cure wrought by such agency; 
but he has met with several inittances where, in this disease, 
faith without works has hruught adout a most disastrous re- 
sult. Prayer accompanying unskilled attendance in child- 
bed has proved to be infanticide. 

The fact n-niaios (statistics are stubborn) that " The Prayer 
Test " submitted some years ago was unsuccessful in applica- 
tion, both here and in Englsod, and it is not now referred 
to by those who so confldenlly offered it. 

ConsumptioQ is unwisely chosen as a chief exampleof Ibe 
ho|>eless)y incurable, therefore to be abnndoned to prayer,* 
Dr. Cullis has here failed to help;' the bacteria still defy 
bis methods. But medical science accomplishes very much 
in this disease, more and more from year to year. Even the 
removal of patients to antiseptic air and a warmer climate 
completely cures iu many instances. Dr. Burnett recently re- 
ported fifty case* of advanced consumption of the lungs cured 
in England in spite of the climate, and medical authorittea 
are nearly unuuimous in promising aid at early slagM of 
phthisis. Why should we, so equipped with hooks, profes- 
sional training, experience, and a sense of responsibility 
toward our fellows, abandon the care of consumption to the 
psendo sclcntistaf 

* ASL ^wtator. Dm., latl. 

* JoorMl of lbs BTaaisllcal AlUano*. ITor. ll. vm- 

* Boton Trwucrlpt. ttor. 7; Okr. BclsiMe Joontsl. Ju„ ifm BeUme* sad 
DwlUi, p. :M. 

■ la lbs OonsanpUns' fl«m*, « Isrg* tsllb tiutltat*^ located la ', 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 468 



It is most emphatically true. auJ to be recognized by 
every ihouglilful mind abrtast with the currents of tnodorn 
life, tbul, underQeatb all tbe enormous quackery acd folly 
of the healers, there are certain tendencies in iho movement 
which are true aud which have giveu lo it power aud iuflu- 
ence. An ioHaence early seen among: tis, and which, we 
trust, will be porpetuated as a Qnal boon to the sick, was the 
leadiug of jiopular thought, in a hanl und scepUcal lime, 
inlu a wore spiritual conreplinn of ditieane. Rightly applied, 
and by edii('ate<l jier^tnt, such forces id nature as nu'SUK'rism 
(hitherto misapplied), and the still questionable hypnotJBm, 
seem declined to be of iueetiinable serrice iu the Ireatnicnt 
fif all sickness, moat obviously in disturbances of the nervous 
systvtii. 

Happily. 

"1%» qaalitiM bhataootbe and heal and bleu 
j&re 3c«u«red at the feet of mi^n like Aowent." 

There are men and women everywhere who forj^ct fear 
and self aud give out their beautiful life to lliemclf. Noin- 
tel lig*nt pliy»lcian now neglect* the nii»ntal, even the jaychic 
slates of hi» patients. Subtle ififtii and powers are seen iu 
the highest, or iihilantliropic, type of the medical man; for- 
tuiiHle is the patient who8« doctor adds all noble ways and 
work* to his profewftODBl acqtiireiiients. Abercrombie, Big- 
elow, and ('Inrk were, temperamentally, sunshine, faith, 
patience, and hope. 

Sach ministrations are. however, biiC accessory to medical 
treatment, and should not arrogate the powers and functions 
of scienci". 

" For wiio shall chHii^s, by prayers or thnnkngivinga, 
The myntery of the cruelty of things? " 

Wben the son of Mr. Moody, the revivalist, lay sick of 
■carlet iever, Mr. Moody's daily prayer, thousands helping 
hitn in the great tabernacle, nas for the doctor's guidance. 
" May oiy hoy't douLor be directed, aud may he save my 
child ; " That doctor's altitude toward revivals was so ques 
lionablc that the boy's cure by prayer lo this partnership 
was one anKmg numerous modei-n miracles. ButtheM.D.'s 
chosen by D.I>.*h are quite apt to be unbelievers. Even 
missionaries are »bockiugly delinquent in this mailer, and 
waste no lime by employing the mongrel attaches who fol- 
low the father*, if only a iteoifer full of knowledge be at 
hand. How often has the writer seen this wise prudence 
exercised by the uii«sioii leaders of the Sandwich Islauds. 

Perohancc-. lo aid un all, a class of bouDiA he-alers or help' 
ers will at last arise whuse representative!) may not i.'alt 
themselves divine, and may not assume to cure all conta- 
gious and ortranic disease. 

I venture, finally, to apply to the mental healerB(f) words 
cf au eloquent writer directed ai;a<nt»t others accusvil of like 
delinquency: "They trust lo nature, which cannot, like an 
intelligent surgeon, bring together tlie gupiug lips of a 
wound, and by their union effect a cure: which, not know- 
ing how to lie a wounded artery, suffersa man in full health 
aud energy to bleed to death; whiclj, in order to n-move a 
kplinter from the cornea, destroys the whole eye by suppu- 
faltoii. In an affair so important an that of healing, a pro- 
fession reqiiirinu such intelligence, judgment, and skill, how 
could they blindly take the vital power for their beal in- 
structor and gnide, whilst rcftit'tive reason and nnfetlered 
judgment, those magoiBceut gifts of the Deiiy, hare been 
granted lo miin lo enable him in6uitoly to surpass its per- 
formatnces for the beneSt of niankind? " 

C. F. NicHOi-8, M.D. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

THK niuxtmtfd American says: "It has lieen decided that 
it is neresii ity to r»end an eipedilioo to tJreenlftiiH thist year to 
rCBOUo Mr. Peary and his patty, Tlie nece^iiitr being iiftmilU'd no 
one will object to the relief ex|wditioii. But it does fewm proper 
lo recall some of the conditiona under which the original part; 
started. Mr. Peary sought, before hlH de|iartunp, to inspire the 
belief that the difficulties enrYionttre'l bj previous Aiclic explorers 
would be avoided in a large measure. In this position be was 
BUatained to some extent by the wonderful journey across Qreen- 
land performed by Dr. Fridjof Nansea. After passing the bar- 
HerH of snow and ice on the coast, he hoped to travel over Ebe 
snow plains of the interior without diOicalty on the gkier iKiu 
(•ervwl Dr. Nansen so wtll. After the expedltloa siarr..>d it was 
diDcovered that he liad taken too rosy a view of the pruspt^ct. 
His arrangements were pot 90 oomplete a^ ihey should have been ; 
so simple a matter as oblninlng the co-operation of ibe Duni)<h 
Qovemincm, and tlie o^i^tance of the otiSciitlti In Orcenlaud, had 
been overluoked. When the party that Rcootninoied him to 
Greenland relurned, grave apprehension for the safety of himself 
and bib companions was felt. And tbe feeling of apprehension 
bec-omes intensified when it is rememttered thaloneof the persun.4 
thus subjc-cted to unnecessary ri^ks of suffering, starvation, and 
perhaps death among .Arctic snow wildemew Is a woman, Mr. 
Peary's brave wife." 

— We learn from Mind that the second session of the Interna- 
tional fongrefs of Experimental Psycliology will Ik beld in Lon- 
don, 00 Tuesday. Aug. 3. \ti^i, and the three following days, un- 
der tl>e presidency of Piofe«sor Henry SidKuick. Arranfte- 
meois have already been made by which tbe main branches of 
contemporary peycholu«;ica] research will be represented. In ad- 
dition to the chief hui.'« of investigation eotuprii^ing the general 
experimental ^tady of pt^yehical phenumeua in tbe normal human 
mind, it is intended tu bring into pmminence such kindred de- 
partments of research as the neurological consideracion of the 
cerebral conditions of mootal processes: the study of tbe lower 
forms of mind in the infant, in tbe lower races of mankind, nnd 
in animalfi. tocher with the connected laws of heredity : al«o the 
patholO);y of mind ond criminology. Certain aspects of recent 
hypnotic research will also be discuwed, and reporu will l>e given 
in of tike result^ of the csi'nsns of hslbn^iuntions wliieb it was de- 
cided to cairy out at the ftnit setuiun of the i^tngreas (Purls, 1889). 
Among IhcMw who btve already promised (o lake pnri in the pro- 
ceedings of the coDgress may be named the foUon-in^t: Pn>fe»eot 
Bvaunis, Monsieur A. Ltinet, Professor Pierre Janet, Professor Tb, 
Ribot, and Professor llichet (France); l*rcife)»sor LombroHo (Italy): 
Dr. Qolddcbeider, Dr. Uuko M&nsterberK. Professor O. E. MQIIer. 
Pfofeseor W. Preyer. ond Dr. Baron von Schrenk-NotzinB (Qer- 
mony); Professwr Alfred Lebmanu (Denmark t; Professor N. 
Orote and Profe^or K. Lange (Russia); Dr. Donaldson. Proft^ssor 
W. James, and Professor Stanley Hall (United States of ,\meriea); 
and Prnfc««or V. Horaley, Dr. Ch. Ucrcier, and Dr. Q. J. Roiaanes ■ 
(England). It is also hoped that Dr. A. Bain. Professor E. Her- ■ 
ing, and others, may he nble to lake part in the proceedings; and 
thai some, an Professor W. Wundt, who will not be able to attend ■ 
the congreM, may send papers. As » specimen of tbe work that I 
nil) be done it may be said tbnt Professor Bc-aunis will deal with 
PsychologicRl IJuestioiiiug; Monsieur Bioet with st>me aspect of 
The Psychology of Insects; Dr. Doaaldnon with Launt Bridgmao; 
Profeaior Stanley Hall with Recent Researches iu the Psychology 
of the Skiu; Profe'<sor Horsley with The Dii;irw uf I/jvulizution of 
Movements aud Correlative Sentmtiuns: Prufessur Pierre Janet 
with LuBS of Volitionul Power; IVifeeeor N. Lange with Some 
Experiments and Theories cuoceming the As&ueiatiun of Ideas ; 
Frofesaor Lombroeo with The Sensibility of Women. Xurmal, Tn- 
sonc. and Criminal; Dr. MQniiterberg with Complex Feelings of 
Pleasure and Pain ; nnd Profeffior Richet with Tbe Future of Psy ' 
ohology. A committee of reception haf been formed, which in- 
cludes, among others, tbe following nnmes: Dr. A. Bshi, Dr. D. 
Ferrier, Mr. F. Galton, Dr. Shadworth Hodgw>n, Professor V. 
Horslev. Dr. llughling^ Jackwn. Dr. Charles Mercler, Professor 
Croom Robertson, Dr. Q. J. Romanes. Mr. Uerhert Spencer, Mr. 



January 2j, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



45 



O. F. Stout. Dr. J. Ward, and Dr. de Walt«vilk. The fee for 
atUndance at the con((r«» la ten sbilliDg*. ArnmiBiciimils will 
be made for tbe accommudatlou ot forvUia mcoibvrs i>f tbv cpq- 
I (msBt B modente expense. CotomuiiicatiutiE areiovittMl. n-hich 
•tumid be wnl to one of Ibe honorary secr^turies (F. W. H. Myers. 
i I^ckbamptoo HoUM. CamhridKi?: or Jamea Siillf, EnRt Heath 
I Boad, Hain[»t«Ad. London, N.W.)not Inter than tha end of June, 
I and aa murb eflrlicr than that dat« a» poeaible. The rommanlca- 
I tlon ahould be aocompanlcd hy a prfeU of its contents for lbs use 
L of meoiban. 

1° 



— In a reorot aomber of tbe Revue Mhlicale de la Suiaae /£»• 
mande, 1>r. Clmndjean ban related a cnae of very great interest. It 
ii»tbatof Bioanol ihirlV'four, wbo, with tlwexceptiooof an attack 
of soniDamliafism «l lh«i a^e of eight — an attack in which \w liad 
walked into hi# father's bedroom and ooogralalated him on being 
elected king of Italy — had been previoiwlj beallhy. Towards 
Ibe ead of Jaouary, lf)0O, be began to suffer from nightmare and 
depreaeioQ, without apparent cause, but he bad no headache or 
vomiting. This condition persisted for two n-eeks. Then, on 

'eb. 9. after going to bEs offi<re and working as usual, at nine 
o'clock In the morning bo took his hat, set out on foot, and ar- 
rirad at Payeme, a village Bfty kilometres distant. He had no 
rKwIlection of anything that happened froai tbe time be left bia 
office until he awoke, in the middle of the night, in an inn at 
Payerne. His l»ool8, he fonnd, were much worn, but his clothes 
were in good order. He pr(4ienle«) none or the usual effects of 
having passed through an epileptic paroxysm, except that he bad 
a violent headache. After this be remained as usual for seven 
moQtlw. except that be bad occasional •' atxietices." Thu". on 
ooe occasioc, while writing, he was ^^urprised tu Qnd that be had 
Conllatied at his work for au hour without any recullt'ction uf liav- 
tng doM so. The work wh^ doau perfectly, without a single 
istake. At tbe end uT the eeyen months be had another attack 
ilar to the Qrst, but lasting for two days, during which he bad 
e aboDt to different places acting in a manner which did not 
ttrike any observer as strange or peculiar, bat being all tbe time 
nneonscioDS. Five months later he had a similar, even more 
elaborate, attack, which al»o lasted for two days, and wan fol- 
lowed by headache more vinlent tlian usual. Dr. Qraudj^-an comes 
to the conclusion that this is undoulitedly a case of «pil<fptic au- 
toiiiNliMin. H« diM'H so n<>m the nntQn- of tlie attacks, from tbe 
fart that tbe man nlito «tifTvn><l from ''atisences*' of longer or 
shorter duratiou. realty attacks of pftit mat, and becanse tbe latter 
became almost totally suppteesed under ireatmvnt by the bro- 
midee. The case is an important one, and it should serve to im- 
press tbe fact once more that some criminals who profosd complete 
uocoD»cIousoess of the act or acta with which liiey are charged 
may reully bo tbe 8ub}ectj< of epileptic automatism. If tbia pa* 
tient had commilteil some crime during one of those periods of 
unconKiou.inea9. n def^'nce lo the effect that ho was the- subjeclof 
pllepsy would have been received wUh considendiile doubt, espe- 
ially as there was nothing in the nature of a severe 8t to poiut to 
the former history, but only those temporary "ab»enoeH" witb- 
[out any obvious convulsion. 

— .\t the meeting of llie Chemical Society of Washington. Jan. 
14, Profeasor H. W. "Wiley prf«ented a paper on ■■ Midzu-ame." 
The i^ample or nddzu-ame or Japanese glucose anttlynnl by Pro- 
fei^sor Wiley was brought to tbe laboratory of the .Agrl^'tillurul 
Pepar'meot by Dr. W. St, OeorRe Elliot, having been «i?nt to bim 
from Yokohamfi by Mr. J. H. Loomis. A sample of heavy oon- 
fet^tionir's gluco«e was analyzed at the same time and tbe two 
compared. Tliv chaructenstic of the midzu-aine is its high per- 
ceotage of mulio«e. nearly all of the reducing RUgar present being 
maltose. The ash of the mideu-ame contained only a tmce of 
milphatc i, no lime, no chlorium, and was strongly alkaline. The 
Bsh of tbe confectioner's glucose contained large quantities of sul* 
phnles, very tittle Hmn, and was al»o alkaline. Tbe pleasant 
flavor of tbe miiizu-nme seems to render it preferable to glucoae 
for confcclioneni' um. and Professor Wiley thought it may he 
destined to biive an important future in this respect. He referwd 
tr> its use in Japan, whrre tl has been used for mediml [>urpo»^ 
witb dialyzod iron aitd cod liver oil. Its only ailtanu^e over 



maltloe is its easy digestibility. Profesaor Wiley also 
Ibe methods of maoufacturv in Japan as giveu by Dr. J. C. BtriT'l 
and by Mr. Loomis. W. F. Ililleln-uud. In his paper on *'Zino>^ 
bearing Spring WaU-rs from Missouri," described the springs ■■ 
isBuing from a luw bluS a few miles coutb-wesi of Joplin, aod 
their chief constituent as zinc sulphate, amonnting lo tbrea 
hundred parts per million in a total weight of lem Ifaan twlca 
that amount of salts. Cadmium, lend, and copptn* were found la 
small quantity, and tbe other ooiislituents were .solpbstes of (*^-, 
eium, magiMslura. sodium, potofsium, manganese, alomlnlui 
attd iron; also caJdum carbonate, silica, and a small amount of 
•odium chloride. 

— Professor Alb«rt A. Micbelson of Clark University has beea. 
invited by tbe Intematiooal Bureau of Weigiits and Mriuium Uf 
spend tbe coming summer at tbe Bureau's laboratory ut Oreteull^j 
near Paris, for the purpose of establishing a metric etanduid i*,^ 
terms of wave tengtba of light. Of the three methods gf deter- 
mining a standard of length, the measuring a qundnmt of tlia 
earth's circumfun-Dce, the osuillatiun of a pcodulum iwdt-T given 
cooditiorte, and tbe length of light waves at a given line in llw 
spectrum, the la^it is the mo^ accurate and has tbe advantage ol 
being a cosmic rather than terrestrial ataitdard. lu his original 
paper explaining the method, Professor Uicbelson had the co>, 
operation of Professor Morley of Cleveland. Theinvitatton of th«j 
faternalional Committee has been accepted by IVofcssor Micbele 
witb the informal approval of tbe pcesideot and trustees of Clarl 
Uni^ erslty. Their foroul acttoo in granting bim leave of ab(wnc«1 
only awaits the arrival of offidal popara fmm Paris and lJerliik.( 
Tbe order for the additional new upp«ntus h«» baen plaoed wiUi 
the American Watch ami Tovl Company of Waltbam and with Mr. 
Bnmhier of Pittsburg. Tbe working drawings bava been mad^l 
by F. L. C. WardnclL Professor B. A. Gould of Cambridge. Ihaj 
well-known astranomer and American rppreecntallve of the Inte^j 
national Congress of Weighia and Measutes, writes to President 
Halloa follows: "The proposed investigation itamaguiAceotoue, 
audacious, yet already proved by ProfetAor MicheUon to be feasi-^ 
ble. The honor inuring to our country by tlm •»'lecti«m of i 
Americ-an profeiHtir to carry it out and an American ailuit for ' 
structtng sn apparatus requiring such surpatwing delicacy b on^^ 
which, I am contidenl, you will appreciate as highly as I do. It 
is my oonvicUou tliut the assent of Clark University will not only 
redound to its high honor and be gratefully recognized throughout 
tbe civilized world, but will coiHttitute an enduring title to re- 
memhranoe and full appreciation in the history of science. U 
seems to me a just source of pride that our country should ba 
called on to take the chief part, both ficienliflc and technical, ia 
such an undertaking, and I will not deny that I am considerably 
elated by it." TelegnimB from Professor Foerster at BeHm and 
Uirscb of Switzerland, president and secretary, respectively, of, 
tbe [nternational Burpnu.haTe been received, ratifying al) ar-l 
range meitts. 

— The [ndbna Academy of Science held ils annual mvating in 
the Capitol at Indianapolis. Dec. SO and 81, 1801, under the presi- 
dency of Profe^Aor O. P. Hay of Butler University. Irvinglon.Ind. 
Owing to the gr<>at number of papers entered, it was necessary, 
throughout the most of the meeting, to meet in two sections: 
Section A., zoology, botany, and geology; Section B., chemistry, 
physics, and mathematics. On We<lm-Mlny momtng and evenlnf. 
geueial sesMons were held. At the latter the pnsideDt's addtN*j 
aa *' Thi" Pre^mt State of the Tlieory of Organic Evotnlion " wa«1 
deliven?d. There were ninety-eight pajiers entered, and under 
the rulefi none wer» permitted on tbe prot;ramm« except such as 
were expected lo be read. The committee appoiuted at the sum- 
mer meeting of the Academy, at Lake XuzineuckeD, to considacj 
the ({neelion of ncience work in thu high nchuols of the. State i 
port^ that it had brought the subject to the attention of tbe i 
Board of Education, with tbe n«ult that tbe prcaidentd of Purdua'^ 
University and Tndinnn University were appointed a ooinalu 
toe to prepare a circular of instruction, to be dlstribui<.il by tli 
board la high schools and to school officers. The circular Is nearljr] 
iMuly for distribution. Tbe coTninittee appointed to secure ih« 
pawutge by Ihetegislature of an act io^cot£iCJt,vA,\S.s^MA'^-csfvsCwh. 



4« 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol, XIX. No. 468 



I 



that such leKiRlatloD hw) been tecurei]. Tlw followioK iwpen 
were prewolvd: Somu SuggMtions lo Teacb«n of Scicooe or 
JklBibemuttctt lu High Schools, by T. C. Vuq Nujs; Notct on Nu- 
mericnl Badic«, by C. A. Waldo; The KaQkakw> sd^ Pun; Wiiter 
forNorLh-weflleniliulianaaiKlCbicagu. t>y J. L. Campbell: Iliulogl- 
cal Surreys, by Jobo M. Coulter ; The DtMriboiion ot Tropical Ferns 
In PeniMular Ftorlds, by L. M. Codcriruoil; TJnu.'>e<l Forest Re- 
BOuroM, by StAiilpy Coulter; Preliminary Notes on the Geology of 
Dearborn Countyj Ind., hy A. J. Bigney; Jettcnoa County Cya- 
tidians. Hudson Kiver Kaestla of Jelfer^n County. Ind.. and The 
U])p»-r Limit of th& lx>^n Silurian al Madiaon, Ind., by CiMrg« 
C HuMnril; VamliuiiH in tb^ D^naniiCHl Conditiona During lb*- 
D«|io«i( uf III* Rock Bl-hIb At Bicbiiiond. Iml. (by lillf), by Juw^h 
H<x)r«>: TIm< Rrlaliua of Ibe Keokuk Oroiipe of Mod tgomtf ry County 
with the Typical Locality, and Comments on the Description of 
SpecieB, by C. S. Beachlcc; On a Dejtosit ot Verlehral* t'oeile in 
Colorado by Amos W. Butler; Topograpbiral Evidence of a Ureat 
and Sudden Otaiioutioo of the Anclcul Wat«r Supply of tbc 
Wabash River (by litle), and Souroc of Supply to Uedlal Moraines 
Probably from tbe Boltotn of the Olaciitl Chaauel (by title), by 
J. T. Campbell; Notes OQ a Kan«u Speeiia of Buckeye, by W. A. 
Eelleriuaa ; On the Oocurrent'O ot Certain WesUm Plunbi near 
Columbus'. Ohio, hj Aug. D. Selby; Prpliminarv Notes on tbe 
Qenurt II<itTman»e(;gin, hy E. M. Fiiiher; Preliminnry Prtperon the 
Flora of U^-nry County. Ind. <by title), by T. B. Redding and Mn. 
Bom Redding Mikelit; A New Microtome, by Uror^o C. Dubbard; 
Notes OD the Orgauugeny of Ihe Compositie (by litle) by G. W. 
Martin; Nnlee on Ihe Development of tbe Arcliecnnium and Fer- 
tilization in TsuK^ Canadeosifl aud Ifnu* Syl»'e*trl9, by D. M. 
Ilcrttier; StraiiifeDwelopcDeot of Stoumta up'iuCarya AlbACauvcd 
'1^ Phylloiera. by D. A. Owen: Developui>-iit of the SporanKiuni 
aud Apical Growth of Stem of Bolrycbluoi VirgiDidOum, by C. L. 
Hulumau; Tbe Flora of Mount Orizaba, by U. £. St-utou; An 
ApparaUj» for DeCermiuiat: the Periudii-'iiy of Root ProsBure, by 
H. B. Tlvimss; CoTideuFiiiun of Acutupb>>Done with Ketola by 
Means of Dilute Putoiwiuin Cyanide, Condfm-ation of Aci-ione with 
Benzoin by SIcans of Dilute Potoiwium Cyanide, and Pyr<mo and 
P,»ridone I)eriTatlvr« from Benxoyl iVcelooe, hy Alexander Smith; 
Caibonie Acid in ibe nrine, by T. C. V.-in Nuys and It. E. Lyons; 
ReatiltA "t ICfili [nations uf Cblnrine in Mineral Wotera, by Vol- 
bardi'a Method, t>y Shemun Davis; Tht> Sn^ar Ik^l in Indiana, 
and Form- of Nilrngen for Wheat, hy B. A, lluiilon; A Copper 
AninK>niumOxidi<. by P. 3. Baker; Di-twn/ylCiirhiniimine.andTbe 
Character of Well WaterB in a Thickly Populated Area, by W, A. 
Noyes; Laboratory and FieM WorkoDthePboephateof Alumina, by 
B, A. Huttloa ; R>>Geut Arcbceoloeical Discoveries In Southern Ohio. 
by WarrfU K. Moorebeii't; PliutOKrapbing'Certain Natural Ot'jectB 
vrithoui a Camera, by W. A. Eelleroian; Ri.'tH'nl Methods fof the 
DeU'rmiiuiiion of Phosphoric Add, by H A. Huinon; Tliv Dlgeeti- 
hiliiy of (lie PcnioHe Corbuhydraies (by tll]f>). iind The Action of 
Plirnyl-HvdmziD on Furf urol (by title), by W. E. Stone ; A Gniphi- 
ral Silution of Equations of Iliubt-r Degree for Initb Real and 
Imafdnary Roots, and On Some Th'^urema of Integmlions in (^ua- 
ttmionR, t.y A, S Hathaway; The fi(>clton nf the Anchor ttinr, 
hy W. V. Ilroirn ; A Notr on the Early History ot Potential Func- 
tioo«, by A. S. Hnlhavay; Some Oeomelrical PropooitioDs. by C. 
A. Waldo; Home Suj^gealed Changes in Notation, by R L. Gietn ; 
An Adjosimenl for tbe Control Magnet on a Mirror Galvanometer, 
and A Comliined Wheatatone's Uddgtt and Potentiometer, by J P. 
Naylor; Hysteresis Curve* for Milis and Other Cast Iron, by J. R 
Moore and E. M. TJnifley ; Heating of a Dielectric in a C^ondenser 
(preliminat)' note), by AlU-rt P. Carman; Si^iencuauit Ihe Colum- 
bian Exposition, hy J. L CarupUdl; Exploratiouof MouuCOrixalie. 
by J. T. Scovell; EnUimologiiin;? in Slexico, by W. S. Blatcbley; 
Distribution of Ortaln Forest Tree^ (by tille}, sud CleistOtfamy in 
Polygonium (hy title). l>y Stanley Coulter; Tbe Cactus Flora of 
Ihe South-west tby tltlej, by W. H. Evana; Metbodo Ob»er^*pd in 
Arcbieological Rea*enrch (hy title), hy Warren K Hoorehead; Tlie 
Pr*h»*torio Eart-hworks of Henrj- Cuunty. Ind. (by title), by T. B. 
Badding; A Revievr of the HuIoonotirfB. by A B. Ulrey; Same 
lilioTw to the State Flora from Putnam County, and Connect- 
ing Forms Among the Polyporoid Funei, by L. M. Underwood; 
On Let'oatefl Terrapins, Ertiy» concinna, and E. lloridana (by 



title). The Egg» and Young of Certain Snakes, and Obaervatiotn 
on the Turtles of the Genus Malochleuiyefby title), by O. P. Hay; 
The Oryllidie <>f Iniiiauu, by W, S. Blatcliley; The Outlook in the 
Warfare Aeaiost Infection (by title), by Thewlore Potter; Our 
Pri,«enl Knowledge Cunceming the Green Triton, and Tbe Proper _ 
Systematic Name nf thn Prairie Rattleraake, by O. P. Hay; Tbe ■ 
Blind Crayfliihes of Indiana, and Remark? on the Crustaceans of ^ 
Indiana, by W. P. Hay; Notes on Elaps fulvua, by A. J. Bigiiey; 
Some ObsercatioQs on Ueloderma Suspectum, by D, A. Owen; 
8ome Observations on Pbotomicro«raphy, Iiy D. W, Dennis; Dis- 
eases of the Sugar Beet Root, I>r Mitw Kathertoe E. Golden; 
Buffalo Gnata (Simdium) in Imlians and Illinois, by F. M. Web- 
Kler; The Development of the Vtriparouf Fishes of California (by 
title), and Receni Additiomt to the Icthyoloipcal Fauna of Califor- 
nia (by title), by Carl 11. EiKenmanii; Some Obdervatlous on In- 
diana I3ird9, by R. Wes McBride; On Indiana Shrews, and Notes 
on Indiana Birds, by Amos W. Butler; TLc SckK>:j of lA-pidoptera. 
by M. B. Thomas; The .^Egeria of Ceoiral Ohio, by D. S. Kellicott; 
Some ln8ect« of Tavuiauia, aud Early Published References to In- 
jurioHB ImM-cta (hy title), by F. M. Webaler; The Continuity of 
the Gcrni Plasm in Vertebrates (by title), BioloRical StationA (by 
title). The Eyes of Blind Fishes (hy title), and On Ihe Preeienre of 
an Operculum in the Asjiiedinidie (by titte), hy Carl II. Rtgen- 
mann; Notes on Indian? Aridi:ta? (dMrriplion of one new species), 
by W. S. Blatchley; Tlie Relation ol NfUcleaplasm to Cytoplasm 
in tbe Segmeollng Egg (by title), by C. H. Eigenmaan and R, L. 
Qreen ; Plant Zones of Arizona (by title), by D. T. McDou«ai; Ite- 
latioii of Available £nr.ym in tbe Seed to Growth of tbe Plaut, and 
The Potato Tuber bk u Means of Transmitting Eaergv, by J, C. 
Arthur; (iknitiibutions to « Kuowledge of ilii' Grain Toxopiera 
(Toxoptera gramiouai) (by title), by F. M, Webster. A commit- 
tee was apjminted to arran^te fur publif^hing the procee-ilinifH of Ibis 
meotiog Twenty aalve menbers were electeil. 

— The College of Physicians of Philadelpblii annoiinrcs that the 
next award of the Alraren;* prize, being tbe income for <vne year 
of the iMHitiest at the latA Seflor Alvarenga, and amounting to 
alMDut one biindml nnd eit:hty dollArn, will Iv made oik July 14. 
1803. Eismiy* inleode<l for coiiiiwtition may lie u[>on any mthject in 
medicine, anil must Iw received by tbe secretary of Ihe college on 
or l-eTore May 1, ltl9V. It i« a conditim of comfwtilion that the 
euc^essful essay or a copy of it shall remftin in possession of the 
colh'ite. 

— A complete ierirs of soundiniiii hu'« be-n laic en over the wtiole 
bed of tlie Lake of Gene: „ and a report ii< given i>i Ctwuios. ^*ul, 
X. No. 9, by tbe engineer, M. A, t>eleb«c(|uv. The length of tbe 
lake is •13 miles and its greatest breadth 8) miles. Ita area is 326 
Miusre miles, and tbe bei^bt of its surface above sea- level about 
1.S80 r<^-t. The bed of the lake i? divided int-^ twodislinct parts, 
the Gnr.it Iji he tftween Yvwro aud Villeneuve, and the Little 
Lake Ix'lwei-n Yvoire and Geneva. Tlie bottom of the Great 
Like ii) nearly level over an orMt of l7i itquare mtlcM. and lies at a 
depth of 169 fathnmn. The slo|ws are mure sudden ut Ihe eiisteni 
end, where the mountains descend more preciptuiusly to the 
wati-r, the inclination Iving 48 degreci Itelween Saint -Gingolpb 
and Bouverei, and 50 oppvwite the Caatle of Chiilon. The River 
Khoti^ tias made a deep channel, lined with dykrs, Jn tbe bnitom 
of the lake. This channel extends in a tortuous ooiir*e for a dis- 
tance o] S| miles from the mouth of tbe river. Near ita com< 
mmicement it has a depth of 190 feet, and beyond Sainl-Gingolph 
It is Ftill 90 feet deep, where the dc|jtb of the lake is 10S lathoms. 
Ilx formation in due to tbe iar>;v qiiuDtitii'* of alluvium brought 
down hy tbe Rboue, and to tbe lower teiuiK-raluru of it^ wuterf, 
which causes them tu tlufr under tbe waters of the lake. The 
Dran»e, which brings down yravcl aud stoue-. as well as mud, to 
the lake, has formed what is known as a torrential delta at its 
mouth, tn tlie form of a coae, continually advancing further and 
further into tbe like. Tbe Little Like consists uf four depressioos, 
separated hy bant of smnll deration, projecting from the points 
of Nemler. Hewery, Hi^inaacc. and Bellerive, Tbe depths of 
theae basins are 249 33)}, 930. and IM feet, respectively. At the 
liotlom of this portion of tbc lake are to be found traces of the 
[laxMgeof liie ancieitt Rhone glacier which extended to Lyons, 



I 



January 22, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



Tb« bar or SenAn, or At l«iut Hs upper stirfape, bss at one time 
formed pan of a moralDP. A hflthyoieU'i<nl msp acrompatiiea 
Um article from which thk Dole Is taken. 

— Hr. Edgar Richards, who, fnr the past foor ad a half yearv, 
bss bmi in charge of tbe ohemlca) laboratory ronaected with the 
Internal R«rentie Borraa at Woshinfrton . D.C., having ite^n pcr- 
«n)[>torily directed by his phjrelciao. Dr. F. Delafleld of thi? d(y, 
to alifrtain rrcim all work for some monttts in lh« dt^parttnent, ha« 
ht^D forced 10 retigri his position, as tbe C'omoiiMionor of Internal 
Rcrenuv refuMd to grant bim leave of absence in which to rest. 
Thus tb« goreniineol to«i!« »a rfllciriit and faithful olScer. Mr. 
Richards nils on thr 8Sd of January, by lh« " Wnra," fur tMMilh<>rri 
Europe, where he will remain foe wveral nxmlbs before returning 
to thig cwtmcrr. 

— JVom mxnv f orther aarfooe and bottom (empenttonw rvcently 
taken by CommaDder Boullon, R.N.. in Lake Huron, A. T. 
Drammood, in this moath's Hetord of Scitnce. concludes that Ibv 
a«onian Day forms a great cold water basin, somewhat isolated, 
DOC only l^ Uc phjaical iiurroundlug« but in tbe tpmjterBture of its 
water, from the central lutein of tlie lak«; Lttat the teinpetatute 
of its bottom docs not, even in numnin-. rlifo beyond about 
89.3": and that tbe flow of cold water from L'ikc Superior into 
Lake Huron is divided by tbe piMition of the iftlanda in th« St. 
Hary'B River hikI along the north (thore of I^ke Huron, a part 
flowing tn the fleotgian Ray by tbe north channel, between the 
Maoitoulio Islasda and the north shore of the Uiko, thus keeping 
up tbe supply of coU water, whilst another part itasws Ihroujgh 
the [)etour and the neij^hlxmng channels into tbe central basin of 
the lake, but instead of mingliDR there with tbe warmer waters 
from Lake Micbi^n, appears to Sow easterly nnd «<oulb-easterlT, 
forming a borri^ lu tbe easterly extoiitiou of lbe<e wanner Michi- 
iil^Hn wiiters. and cutiiiij; ofl tbe GeurKian Bay from their influvnce. 
In the same journal, Mr. Dniuimand also referu to u teriee of lew- 
peralurea taken by him during last Augunt in the Yamii>ika River, 
Provino! of Queb<.-o. In order to trace tbe extent of the hilluence 
which water lruiperaturc« have upon the ourtoundmg air. and. 
infercalially — in the case of lart;e bodie? of water — upon tbo ogri- 
culcural capobilities of tbe neigbbocing laud. The testa were not 
sufBcienlly varied as to time and place to. aa yet, warrant definite 
conclusions, but it can be said In general Urms that such rivern, 
which io winter, In the l^nailtan climate, are paved with two or 
more feet of ice, hnvi>, in Ibe early daya of Augu»>t, n tem|teratnre 
of 70" 10 77*" F. ; that the air in dirTtcoolact with tbe warm sur- 
face of the water has io that moutti its temperature raised to liom 
I« to 0" abovv Ibttt of the air dii-ectly above, but in more exjw^ed 
pu8itiout!i; and that this iucreaw of temperature, »'bJcb is g'ealtist 
at tbe point uf uuiiiaot. ia at one foot above the ^surface already to 
a ooQsiOerable cilent luet. 

— Harper &: Bruthers nnnounce a now and revi^-d editk« of 

Aalenrinh')^ valuabk* " Bomenc Dictionary," tranil^u-d by Pro 
feasor Riilierl P. Keep. Tbv prestnt revisiuu hua In'cii (H'rfurmed 
by Profeaaw Isaac Flagg of the fnivenrily of t^iforuia, whuBe 
nam« alone is n gimrantee of its excellence. Almost every Amer- 
ican Greek scholar of reputation ha.H aUo aided in the work by 
anggetilmg corrections or helpful additions, and no effort has been 
spared to adapt the Tolume perfectly to the needs of American 
aitd English students. Several Important changes of considemble 
value have also been made. They will puMi^h shortly in tlio 
Queen's Prime Ministers series " The Marquis of SaJikburr," by 
U. I). Traill. 

— A volume entitled **The Dog in lleallb and in Disease,'' by 
Dr. Wesley Mills, and published by D, Appleton Jt Co., discumes 
in detail Ibe history of ail the varieties nt do^s. their hreeiing, 
education, and general mnnngement in beahb, and treatment in 
diaeese. The book is adapted fur both the velerJuarian, Io nhoiu 
the medical care of doga is usually conDded, and the geiwral 
reader whose interest may be limited to that involved in the owner- 
ship of a single animal. The writer is prof«aanr of phy fiidogy in 
xbe faculty of Veterinary Science of SlcOiU tTnivorrfty, Montreal, 
tbe antbor of "Comparative Physiology " and other standard 



works on allied topics; and is further qualiOed for his task by the 
fact that he bos. as he states In bis preface. ** for Itae greater part 
of his life atndloi this noble animal with plearara and proAt to his 
own nature." Tbt; volume contains a large number of itlnatnk- 
ttons related to the text, and U further embellished by portraits of 
various dogs of note of many breeds. 

— Char)e» Scribner's Sons aoDDunoe that the first two volamea 
to be published in Ibe Great Educators Series will be "Aristotle, 
and tlie Ancient Educattonal Ideals," by Thomas Davidscm, and 
■' Luyols, and the Educational System of the Jesuits," by tbe Rev. 
TTiomas Hughes of Detroit College. Tbe next volume, tbe flflh, 
in the Uoiverslty Extension If anuuls tvill be "Preuoh Uteraiure," 
by H. O. EeeiM of Oxford. They have just putdisbed "Ten LVn- 
tnri« of Toilette," tranBlnU«d from- the French ol A. Rubida by 
Mrs. Cafihel Hoey, an4l uniquely illustrated in colors aiwl in black 
and white by the anthnr. The unexf^cted debiy in the publica- 
tion of Kdward Whympcr's ■* Travels Anvongrt the Great Andes 
of tbe Eqaator " has been due to Ibe unusual care and thorough- 
ness with which tbe author is revising tbe proofs before allowing 
tbe book to go to press. It is tltougbt, however, that tbe book 
will be ready for publication in a few weeks. 

— Longmans, Green, i& Co. are about to publish a new work in 
two vohioies on '*The Human Mind," by James Sully, uf which 
the author saysio a communication to Mind: "Tbe present work 
>s an expansion and further elatwration of Ibe doctrine set fortb 
in the outbot'e ■ Outlines of Psychology.' Allhoagb tbe mode of 
arrangement and of treatment will in tbe main be foaod to be 
similar, tbe book may bo described as a new and independent 
publication. It is specially Intended for those who desire a fuller 
presentment of the latest remits of psychological research than 
was poasible in a volame which aimed at being elementary and 
practical. Ilenoe moch more space has been given to (he new 
derelopmenU of ■ pliysjologicnl ' imd experimental psychology, to 
illit*lrfttton4 of psychological jH-inciple:! in the phenomena of racial 
and animal life, of inanity and lir[»iioli>ira. At ttte nam* time, 
au effort has l>een made tu illustrate tite ubM-urity and debatable 
new of many of tbe problems of the «cieni:e, and tu aid tbe reader 
in arriving at a judicial couduston on Ibew poiuts by historical 
refereDoee tu tbe main diversities of doctrine. In this way It it 
hoped that tbe treatise will find its proper place beside tbe ' Out- 
lines." '• 

— D. Appleton ic Co. will puUi»h immediately ttir third volume 
of ProfeMor J. B. McMasU-r's ■•Hiftlory uf Ibe People of tile 
Uniletl Stwteii." The second volume oluocd with the negotiatfons 
lYgnnling tbe Louisiana purcliase. In tbe new volume, which 
contaiiw ten cliii{itrni, ProteMor McSfasler begins wllb the discns- 
sitm regarding the cTMiHtitnlirmaliiy of ilie Louisiaita purchase. 
Tbe first chapter ioclutlm a cnrefnl preMntation of tb» inanoen, 
customs, aod special ebaracteri'tic-s of tlie people of New Orleans, 
and the connecti^w of the New t^milsm) leaders atid of Burr with 
the Lonihiatia question. Tbe second chapU^r treats of tbe results 
of the Louisiana purchase, tbe vonsptracy uf Aaron Lturr. bii ex* 
lietlitiun in the Ohio Valley, and hi> arrest and trial. TIk* third 
chapter h devoted to the conduct of tbe public lands from l"fi to 
the establishment of ihv Territories of IlltDola end Michigan. The 
fourth chapter, entitled "The Spread of Democracy," deacribea 
the estennion of tbe franchise, the relatiunr^ of the people and the 
judiciary, and the pre^ideflCial campaign uf ISM. Tbe fifth chap- 
ter, which baa for it6 heading the old cry of "Pree Trade and 
Sailont' 'Rights," is principally devoted to foreign relations, from 
the Uartmry_ War to tbe |sa sage of the embau>^. 'Ilie sixth chap- 
ter treats of tbe " Lmg EmlurgO," and closes with tbe inaugura- 
tion of Moditon. After a cha|>ter on subsequent events, called 
"Drifting into War," tbe author pansM for a descriptioo of tbe 
p*ogre*9 of the people since t7M, showing the change*. pollllciU, 
t-conomical. and social, the development of iuean< of commn- 
nication. the bulldiog up of manufactures, the arguments fur pro- 
tection, the rulations of ibc people to the slavery (jiieclion, and the 
Seminole War. In tbe closing chapter the author pictures tbe 
preparations for tbe War of ISIS and its disasuous opening, with 
the surrender of Hull at Detrult Tbe volume oonlains two mape. 
an Index, and an elaltoraie table of contents. 



I 



I 



1 
I 



4S 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No 468 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY KEWSPAPSR OF ALL TBS ASTS AXD SCIEKCES. 

PUBUSHBn BY 

N. D. C. HODGES. 

87( Broadway, Nbvt York. 



avBscRipnogiB.— Unttpd Bute* Mid ^-m)*4« iHJO«r«ftF. 

Or«at Rrtlkln anil EnmpB 4JM a jp>r. 

Oomriiiinluatlona will ha wHconiRd from ftnf qanrt«r. Ab«lra«Ui;'f «Gl«a(lBo 



papnni HDi anllnli*!). anil ana hitndrt«I ooplw of the loue contalaiuir auch wi' 



ti* takU«d tht aatbor aa raqawt tn adTftOM. ItaJMied tnwkuicrtpt* will b« 
Mluratd U) Ibfl wiUiora «nlj whpR tba rxitibltn aniouiil id pnalairt' MACim' 
pKBiea Uki DiMiUBorlpl. Whiil*v«r i» IrtiendHd tar tnapRlnii tDiul b« aoihantl- 
OMndbr UienAMi«&D<] uHintaM th«irTlt«r: not BMMauniv for pabLKwaon, 
but KiB KUBrmjilj ot ipiud f>[tfa. Wa do iiM hold ouraalr** nafionalMa for 
MiFTid« vrvplBlimBeiptMMdlB tfa«QORntuslp*tl<ts>of »nr aorrMpaadnuto. 

AtteotlDa U eslted to Uifl "W«tlM" Deluvn. All are LntlMtl lo um It In 
aoUclllug Infcrmklloii or lowklDit a»w ptwjtlcioa. TIi« name and addreaa of 
ftppUcautaalioulit lioKlvf'alorttlt.Miliat aii*if«raa'lllKOdli«et(oib«tn. Th« 
" b«baiw« " eoltiniR la llkavla*) open. 

P^r AdverlUliut tUtM apply to Rbhht F. Tatmi*. «f Lafayttt* PtMf, Hew 
Tart:- 



rORTT YEARS OF WHEAT CULTURE IN OHIO.' 

Ohio lies wilh'm ttte borders of what is known as tlie win- 
ter wbeat belt of ibe United States — a refrioo. the soil and 
climate of wttich are especially adapted to the culture nf this 
cereal. Tbe State p04M«se> two ([rest uatural arteries of 
traffic, one on its nortliem and one ou lis southern boundary, 
and before the advent of tbe milnay it was crossed b.v two 
lines of canalu, each cxteadin2 from Ibo lake on the north 
to the river on the south, and alfording outlets for its pro- 
ductions that ser%-ed a verr important function io iIh early 
history. Lyinjf. as it docs, rijrht in the gateway botwoen 
llio East and the West, it has been crotued by line after liue 
of Iho preat trnnHrontinental railways, while its rich mineral 
K'sourcee have caused the buildiuf; of tuultiludes uf other 
linett, niDoing in all direclionti, until ita territory is now 
Iravtrnted by a network of railways. wgdreKattnir wilbin the 
SUte nearly B.OUO miles of main track, besides more than 
2.000 miles of siding. 

Under such circumstflttces it is not surprisinR that the 
calture of wheat became at an early date, and has ever con- 
tinued to be, a leading branch of Ohio's agriculture, and that 
the State should not only have liberally supplied irnelf with 
bread, but buve had much to »pare. 

Rpcauseof this relative promitienee of whral culture in the 
agriculture of the State, Ute Kx|>erimeiil St«iion has made 
the Rtndy of wheat a leadin? feature of its work, and the 
statistical study now published has been undertaken primarily 
for the f)urpo!fe oT ubtaiiiing such assixtance as it might fiive 
in theoomluctof tbestatinfi'sexjierimental research, ft was 
huped that this study miftht throw auine liuht npou such 
problenis as the relative adaptability (o wheat culture of soils 
of different geologic origin and history, and the etFect of 
diirfrencesof latitude, of drainage, and the use of commercial 
ferLiliserB. and it h believed that some of the conclusions 
which it scenm lo warmol should be carefully considered by 
the fanners of large areas of the State. 

* FiviB ib0BuU«ilBoflheOhk)A(Tkall<iratKsperlKi0UtSiatloa.KoY.,iaBI. 



A glance at the geological map of Ohio shows three broad 
bands running across the Slate from north to south. Thai 
ou the east embraces the coal measures, and extends across 
nearly one third of the State; then follows a narrower strip, 
underlaid with Wavcrly rocks and bor^lennl by a narrow lielt 
of Huron Bhales, while the western half of the State lies over 
limestones. 

As the Waverly rocks areehirfly Handxtooes or calcareous 
HhaleR. thia formation would otfer a sharp contraat between 
soils of such origin and those derived from limestones, were* 
H not for the fact that, in the case of Ohio, both these for- 
matioDs are covered with a thick bed of glacial drift. "Hie 
drift, however, in considerably modified by the underlying 
rocks, and it would seem thai if there were any marked 
differences in the value for wheat culture of soils of the 
widely different character produced from these different for- 
mations it should be indicated in this cA!)e. 

Omitting the four counties in the north-western comer of 
the Btate, which overlie the outcrop of Huron shale in that 
region, 7ie. : Williams, FuUon, DeQance, and Henry; the 
Kve counties which lie on both aides of the belt of Huron 
shale, extending north and south through the State, namely: 
Erie, Crawford, Delaware, Franklin, and Pickaway, and the 
Ave counties lying immediately north of the coal region and 
ohielly over congtomerutee. namely: Lake, Geauga, Ashta- 
bnla. Summit, and Trumbull, the remaining seventy-four 
counties have bcou divided into three parallel bells, accord- 
ing lo lutitiuU, and subdivided according as they lie over 
Ibe timeslones, shales, or coal measures, malciug nine groups 
in all. 

In the northern belt are included twelve limestone coun- 
ties, vix. : Lucas, Ottawa, Wood. Sandnaky, Paulding, Put- 
nam, Hancock, Seneca, Van Wert, Allen. Hardin, and 
Wyandot; seven counties over the Waverly, viit, : I»raii>, 
Cuyahoga, Huron. Medina, Richland. Ashland, and Wayne, 
and six counties over coal, viz.: Portage, Mahoning, Stark, 
C-ohnnbiana. Holmes, and Carroll. 

In the middle belt are eleven lime«>tone couolies, vix. : 
Mercer, .-Vuglaiit*. Marion, Shelby. Logan, Union, Darke, 
Miami. Champaign. Clark, and Madison: four Waverly 
couolies, vi«, : Morrow, Knox, Licking, and Fairtleld. and 
seven coal couniio;, viz. : Coshocton, Tuscarawas, Harrison, 
JefferMjn, Muskingum, Guernsey, and Belmont. 

To the southern belt are twelve limestone counties, viz.: 
Preble, Montgomery, Greene, Payett*, Butler. Warren, 
Clinton. Highland, Hamilton, Clermont, Brown, and Adama; 
three Waverly counties, viz.: Kos«, Pik**, and ^ioto, and 
twelve coal counties, vin.: Perry. Murgan, Noble, Monroe, 
Hocking. Athens. Washington, Vinton, Meigs, Jackson. 
Gallia, and Lawrence. 

It appears that in the northern bell the counties over 
Waverly rocks hart- given a larger average yield over the 
entire forty year period nuder review than those in the same 
latitude, which arc underlaid with limestones or with the 
rocks of the coal measures, and that the rale of increase in 
yield during the post twenty years is also larger in the coun- 
ties over the Waverly. 

In the middle belt the result is just the opposite: the lime- 
stone counties show ths larger yield and the greater rate of 
increase. 

In the southern belt the limeatone counties show Ifao 
larger yield, but tbo Waverly counties show a greater rat* of 
increase. 

The counties overlying the coal measures stand below 
either of the other divisions in yield per acre io each of the 



fANUART 22, 1892,^ 



belte, the dilTerenca iacreasiuK iu tlie more soutlierly UU- 
tudw. In rmte of itK:n>a.v> the; atftiid bHneen the olher two 
divisioas. The toposrHphy of these billy, coal uouulies is a 
sufficieot cstiw for their lower yield, aix) is probfthly the chief 
cause, as the naoks of the coal measures comprise both lime- 
stooes and lUialea, and it i» probable Uiat the soiU (lerived 
from them ore not naturally inferior in fertility to those 
fouod ID the remainder uf Die Slate. 

Am between the soils lying over limestooes and those over 
^shales, these statistics do not yet jiisltfy aoy opiuicm refrard- 
ioR their respective adaptation to the production of wheat. 
It is probable, bowerer, that the middle and soulht^ro belts 
of couQlies afford ft more just basis of comparison between 
the two ireological formations than the northeru bell, because 
in this northern refrion the overlyioj; drift has been derived, 
to a large extent, from the rocks excavated from the lake 
bdsin, and which are both liineatonefl and shales. 

Wiitbio twenty ycar^ the area auauilly sown to wheat iu 
[Ohio has increased from an average of 1,800,000 acres during 
tbe eisrfath, to 2.500.000 acres duriui; the ninth decade. This 
aroM rpjirexenls twelve per cent of the area in fannti within 
the State, but several counties are sowing annually 18 to 20 
and even 25 per cent of their farm lands to wheat. In 1881 
a total area of 2,A0O,DO0 acres was sown, and there is no good 
reason tu doubt that with tbe continued clearing away of tbe 
forest and tbe reclamation of wa^te lands by drainage it will 
Boon be poRsihle to devote as much as 3,000,000 acres to wheal 
without infringing upon any other agricultural interest, and 
this, even though the hill eounties should reduce their acre- 
age by one-half. Such an increase, at the present rate of 
production, would represent an annual product of 40.000,000 
bushels.' 

But It is not to be supposed that Ohio farmers will rest 
content with a yield of only thirteen bushels of wheat per 
acre. The northern third of the Slate ba« increased its aver- 
age yield within forty yvars by nearly three bu!.bcl8, and the 
middle third by from one to two bushels, and it is reasonable 
to expect a siniil^ increane withiu the next forty yeare, nut- 
withstanding the fsct thiit ttie rate of production seems just 
DOW to Im at a standstill. It is to be expected that progress 
in this, as in otiior imitten!, will be more or lew spasmodic, 
and that its octual rate can only >» meaaored at long inter- 
vals; but it is nut inipustiible that tbe time may come when 
the Bveracre from the entire Stale will equal the present 
avenme uf Summit county, which means a total average pro- 
duction of about 60.000,000 bushels, or bread for twelve 
milltoD moutba. Such a yield would be far below what bas 
been attained in Great Drilain, where the average yield is 
now 28 bushels or more per acre and is steadily increasing. 
This hi(rb yield ia not due solely to the superiority of the soil 
and climate of that country, for the time bas been when the 
I average yield of Great Britain waa vary much smaller than 
ll ia at present. 

Ohio's population has increased by a little more than two 
millions since 18fi0. while the total wheat yield has increased 
by an average of mora tbau 11.000,000 bnshels per auuuui, 
compering the average of the first decade with that of the 
decwie lSfiO-0, so that production is keeping far ahead of any 
possible consumption within the l^tste. Production will 
evenliially reach a limit, while iKipuUtiou may expand iu- 
de6nit«ly, but at present rates of increaae, both of popula- 
tion and of wheat pruduction, it will probably bo several 
cenlnries before Ohio shall contain enough people to consume 
oil her wheat. 

' iBJiayjno taabtlt wvr* baneated la OMo In iBsa. 



What is true of Ohio is true to a greater or leu ejctcDt of 
the ent.rc winter wheat belt of North America. Tlie arett 1 
DOW sown Lo wheat in this re^^iun may be expanded largeljrj 
without infringing upon other produclion*, and the rate 
yield may and will be very materially increased by better' 
husbandry, includiog an intelligent use of manures and fer* 
tilLKers. and more thorough drainage. 

Let theru be jfiven a little stimulus in the shape of higher 
prioee for wheat and we shall seen rapid expansion in the 
total production in this country, while there are still unde- 
veloped regions in South America, south Africa, and Aus- 
tralia, which will eventually be made to add largely to tbej 
world's supply of breadaluffa. 

This is not said by way of discouragement. I believe that 
the future outlook for the Ohio wheat grower is eminently 1 
hopefnt one, but I do not expect to see tbe very great inct 
in price of wheat lliat )S being predicted by ocrtaiu statistical 
writers. In my judgiueut, the great opportunity for the 
Ohio wheat grower liea in increasing the yield per acre, in 
red uciitg the cost of production, and in improving the quality 
of the grain. Huvh a course will render biiu indefiendenl of 
the markpt, and then If higher prices do come he will 
doubly benefited. 

It appears from this statistical study of the wheat harvesll 
of Ohio that tbe average yield of wheal is increasing Id the 
northern and central sections of the State, while it is at a 
standstill, and standing at far too low a point for pmQt, in 
the southern and south-eaatern counties. 

It would seem that the profitable cnlture of wheat on tbe 
steep hillsides of southern Ohio is a hopeless undertaking;^ 
that the great problem before the wheat grower of the centr 
belt of counties is winter- killing, a problem which may 
partially solved by underdrainage and the intelligent use of' 
clover and manures; and that in the norllicro oouoltes cli- 
matic influences are mure generally favorable lo wheat cul- 
ture than elsewhere in the State. 

Tbe stalifttics indicate that the wheat crop* of Ohio hav4 
boen slightly Inoreaaed by the use of commercial fertiliiers,' 
but it appears that the average cost of this increase baa 
equaled its market value, and that a general improvemrnl 
in the methods of aericulture has contributed more largely lo 
the increase of Ohio's wheat crops than the uae of purcl 
fertility. 

[t would seem that tbe total area under wheat might bo 
considerably enlarged, mod at the sume time more closely re- 
stricted lo lands adapted to tillage, and that the yield per_ 
acre may be so ittcreased that the total product shall reaotaij 
double the quantity now aTinually produced. 

Cajji. E. Thorns. 



THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF EUROPE. 

'• Tbe Aolhropolosy of Europe" waa the title of a cot 
of Wturts (the Khind Ic^ctures) delivereil in Edinburgh 
October by Dr. Beddoe. ex-prestdent of the Aulhi-opologic 
Institute of Great Britain, of which we tiiid the foltowinj 
brief abstract in the Scottish Gvoyraphical Magazine: Vr.^ 
Beddoe, in his earlier lectures, dwelt chiefly oa some of tbe 
problems of anthropology, briefly on the questiun of priority 
of dolichocephalic or brachycephalic tyj»es, briefly also on 
the great Aryan question, and at greater length on that of 
the influence of environment, towiirds modifying of typea, 
to which he repeatedly referred during subsequent lectures. 
He noted the very frequent occurrence of broad, even very 
broad, xkulls in conjunclioD with very narrow onea in some 
of the earlier, if not the earliest^ " finds," a circumstance not 



so 



^^CIKN 



'OU 



lo. 46! 



yet sufficiently explamed. He sbowed Ihat we knew very 
much more nbotit the sacccssion of races and the dclAiIs of 
«llitn>(rraphy, where these related to western Europe. <«pe- 
EiBlly to France, because thcao \taHa were inhobitj^d, owinfT 

''io tbe geologricfll conditious, earlier lliou tlic uortb-easterii 
portions of Ku rope, wliile in the easit and iioiitb-efliii ^ener- 

^■lly, and in Spain, aiitbropulufflcal science was not suffl- 
Cienlly ftdvanc-ed, or politicivl cii-ciimxtiinceA interrenf^d, and 
turcslieutors were few. With respect tutbe Aryan quecttou, 
be pronoiiuced no very decided opinion, though be spoke of 
certain doctrines on the orig^inftl hahitat an ibe Scandinavian 
and I^ithuanian heresies; au<l h« showed some inclination 
t/ivvardK that view which looks on the Galchas aa rppreiwnl- 
inir ibe aucestors of tbe IraQians and of the people who 
bmughl the Aryan languages into Eurojw, in which case 
the brachycephals of tbe eentrat mountain chaiui», the Car- 

ilMthians with the Balkans, Bohemian Mountains, tbe Alps, 
Fura, V'osges, Cevennes, etc., may be looked 00 us retaining 
much of tbe origiual Aryan blood, seeing that their physical 
chBractoribtica have a general rcsenibtuncc to those of tho 
Qalchas. He discredited the argtimeut that iM^auso the 
Aryan-sjieaking inhabitants of Europe were more numt>rous 
than those of Asia, it was much more ea»y to derive the lat- 
ter from t)ie former, the less from the grecUer, than vice 
versa, remarking that on the came principle we should de- 
rive the Rnglifih from North America and the Portuguese 
from Brazil, and that it was not alall utili!:ely tliHtalHmt the 
dawn of history, whi?a Asia was thickly and Europe com> 
paratively thinly peopliM]. the proimrlions were quite difTer- 
«Dt, e^jiecially as al that lime the Iberians were stilt uoor> 
ganisetl as lo language?, ^'ith regard to the influence of 
environment he quoted Rollmann of Basel's five types: — 

1. Long headed long-faced, the G raw row or Germanic, 
«tc., 

2. Broad-headed long faced, the Di&entis or Sannatic, 

3. Long'bcadod broadTuucd. the OroMaii^nuu. 

4. BroaJ>headed broad faced, the Turanian, 

5. Mesucepbalic bruaU faced. 

but said he thought the types too few and the limits loo ab- 
solute and precise as to figures. 

He showed the extreme divergence of viewson ibis subject 
of environment. — noting how Kollmann denied any change 
of typei), or material prugrvsslon therein, since tbe period 
when we knew anything of man in Europe, saying thai man 

j^fvas flt furanjthing when he Bml appeared liere. and that 
for the ctstablishment of permanent vurleties w« must look 
further hack, perhaps even into the Miocene age. 

On the other hand. Schaaffhauson, Rankc, and, to a less 
decided extent, perhaps Vtrchow himself, assign very great 

^importance to environment. The first indicates a large num- 
sr of [Ktinls of inferiority osoccurriogtogetbi-r or sejiaralely 
in the old dollchocephals, and l>etieves that in Germany, if 
not elsewhere, heads are grnduully growing broader with tn> 
creasing intelligence and civiliziitiou. while Bxnke thinks 
that in Bavftria, in some unexplained way, the inhabitation 

'«f muuiilain regions bats u l^mdoncr tu broaden and shorten 
the bead, and thai, where race concurs with environment, as 
as in Ibe once-slavooic hill-country of Uppir Franoonia, the 
tendency is still mure marked, as from a double influence. 
Dr. Beddoe then went briefly through the history of the suc- 
cessive expansions and '* swarmings " or miKratioDs of the 
Beveral races who hnvcsucoessively l>een active in Europe,-^ 
the Phoenicians, the Greeks, the Qallo-Kclls, Ibe Romans, 
the Germans, the Slavs, the Saracens, and the Turco-Tarlar 
tribes, and their share in modifying ract'-distrtbutioD. 



Proceeding to consider the history and ethnology of Bus- 
sia, ho slated his opinion that the Scythians, if not altogether 
Turanian, were a mixed race into which a Turanian element 
entered, and who ruled over other tribes of ditTerent descent 
from themselves. Tbe aucienl skulls had not been found or 
preserved in great nnmber, but they were almost all long, 
up to the Slavonic period, when tbey became rather broad, 
very much what they are at the present day. The Merians 
around Mtjscow were a Finnish tribe, who about the tenth or 
eleventh century were being subdued or incorporated by tho 
encroaching Muscovites, and who finally disappeared; they 
were tall and stronc. but paciQc in habits, and, though they 
had commerce with the Arab* and Bulgarians, were com- 
paratively poor, Tbe history of Russia was one of gradual 
absorption of Finnish tribes, interrtipled for a long period 
by the great invasion and domination of the Mongols of Iho 
Gtoldcn Horde. The numerous Finnish tribes seemed tohB^e 
something common iu their physiognomy, hut ditTered very 
much in their indices of head-breadth, and also to some ex> 
tent iu complexion, some having dark hair, otbon to a large 
extent fair or hrown, and some a large |ierceiilaK^ of red 
hair, e.g., the Votiaka and Voguls, who are incorrectly said 
to be all red-biiired. 

Dr. Beddoe thought tbe lllyrians pmbahly furnished the 
principal source of the black-haired folk in tbe Balkan Pe- 
ninsula ; they were also broad-headed. He entered into 
aome details as to the changes in the Greek (5|>e and the his- 
tory of the Thracittus. as well as of the colonization of Bui 
garia by the people who now beSr that name. 

With reK»nl to Scandinavia bi* quoted (he discrepant 
views of Monlelius and Aspelin. the former doubting or 
denying the arrival of any new race sine* the neolithic pe- 
riod, the laUcr tracing the true Swedes to the Rhoxalaol 
(Bed-Dieii in Fiunish), whom he supposed to have eutcred 
Sweden about the fourth or .fifth century. 

lo treating of Ocrmauy Le eulered pretty fully into the 
question of the change which appears to have taken place in 
the physique of the Bavarians and Hwabtans since the Mur- 
comanni and .Memanni occupied thene countries, quoting the 
different opinions of Von Holder and Ranko un the subject, 
and especially the inveitti{{atious of the former at Ralisbnn. 

Tn FwiDce and Belgium tbe clearcM and most conclusive 
mass of autbropoloiiical fact was supplied by the iuvestiga- 
tioDsof Vanilerhindere and Houite into the color, head-form, 
stature, etc.. of the Belgians Atinednitrn ejist and west, 
between the Flemings and Ibe Brabanters and the Walloons 
separated two races differing in languajre, color, slature, 
head-form, and length of nose, and that in the sharpest 
manner. In France Dr. Beddoe also mentioned the inqui- 
ries of Rroca and Boudin into stature, of Topinard into color, 
and of Collignon into head-form, and their remarkable re- 
sults; aud in Sp.tiii those of Don Telesforo do Aranzadi j 
Unaninno. into the pliy.<iioaI characturisiica of tlie Guipuecoan 
Busquiv. whom he believed not to be a pure race, hut a mix- 
ture of three diMinct elements In Italy be showed how the 
statureaiid Llie head-bread Lh decreased gradually from uorlhto 
south, and bow tbe IBards were probably the purest breed in 
Europe, and the be.sl representatives of the Mediterranean or 
southern race; alsj bow closely the modern seemed to re- 
semble the ancient Romans. In Brilain he selected for spe- 
cial remark Pembrokeshire and the Isle of Man, and analysed 
the indications of statum, color, and head-form tn the Manx- 
men, who were a cross-breed between the Gael and the 
Norseman in all these respects. In Scotland he selected for 
special remark tbe people of Berwickshire and of Ballaebu- 



J/kKUARY 22, 1S93.] 



SCIENCE. 



51 



]i>b, showing that, thoufiU not very diMimilar iii hoad-rnrm, 
tbey were &lroDi;)y titsliDCuisbrU id culor uf liair. He ex- 
prwud bis belief in tlie presence »f » Fintiiiih or Vgrinn ele- 
ment ill tbe population of Scolland, which was aUo found 
in "Wales, and was marked aruoiig otiier chai*actcristics by ob- 
lique e;es. Tbe tberian elenient, wbicb bad doubtlens been 
■troDg aniont; tba Picis, cont.iniied tu be so iu manv parts of 
ScoUand, for example. Id Wi^towiifthire and tbe upper part 
oF Aberd«en»bire, and in a (treat par) of tbe Higblands. 

The concltidtnft pari of tbe la&t lecture was devoted to an 
apprecialinu of tbe three (or, couiiling tbe Fious, four) 
g^roal race* which now diridc Europe, of which tbe centraJ, 
Alfrine. browu. thiek-Kl. broad-beaded racv kccdu the one 
moftl likeij- to spread at the expense of it» neigbbors. The 
question of race verms euviroiimeut was also Hutntned up, 
la tbe advAiittge, on the whole, of the former. 



THE ABORIGINAL NORTH AMERICAN TEA.' 

TuEKE Vi a elirub ur small tree, a iipeeiea of holly (Ilex 
caMiin^i. ^rowine in (he Southern HtJ'tes aloug the aeacoast, 
not extending inland more than twenty or thirty miles, from 
Virginia to the Hio Grande. lU leave* and lender bmucbes 
were oace used by the aboriginal triben of tbe United States 
ID the some mauuer as the CbinGte use tea and tbe South 
Americans u»e mate. But white tbe unf; of Thea tinenfii and 
' paraguaj/eniiia still survivcH. the use of the shrub nhore 
neultoned bnft been almost abandoned by our native Indians 
and by tbe while people who onoe partially adopted it as a 
beverage. 

Tbe reason for its disuse is hard to discover, for, id corn- 
moo with tea and male, it contains caffeioe, or a similar 
alkaloid. The object of tbia paper is to cxamtoe its history, 
lo suggest its restoration to a plucc amoD^ the elimulant 
beverages, oud to inquire into its poMible economic value. 

1 hav« been able to trace its use as a berera^ hack to the 
legendary mt^i-ation of the Creek* from their st)ppo!«i>tI far 
western home lu the seacoast of the Caroliuas. Whether it 
was used by the prehistoric mound builder* is a questioQ 
[(Hhicb may not at present be solved. But s^MnearohaHtlogist 
tbe future muy Qnd iu the remains of the mound builders 
their predeoesora pitfof of its u^e among them.' 
Tbe leaves and young tender bnincbes were carefully 
picked. Tbe fresh casaioe was gathered at the linio of li»r- 
Ijveal or maturiiy of the fruits, which was their New Year. 
The New Voar began with tiie " busk," which was celebrated 
July or August, "at the beginning of the first new moon 
It which their corn became full ear<-d," wiys Adair. The 
leaves were dried in the euu or shudeund afterwards roasted, 
le priic^sA seems lo have beeu similar lo that adopted for 
Ira and coffee. The roasting wa.1 done in ovens, remains of 
which ure found in the Cherokee region, or io large hIibIIow 
pots or pans i*f earthenware, siicb as the lodian tribes made. 
These roaskni leaves were kept in baskets in a dry place 
until needled for uSe, Loudonniere (lfi6l) writes of belug 
presented with baskets filled with leaves of the cassine. 

Was it au article of commerce ? There seems lo be no 
doubt on this subject Allusions to the drinking of Ibe 
" black driok " are found, indicating its use among tribes re- 
siding at a long distance from tbe habitat of the cassine. 

La«fon (1709) writes of its being ''coIlecUnl by the savages 

of thecoastof Carolina, and from them sent to the westward 

lodiaos and sold at a considerable price." Dr. Purclier, 

> AbairMol of Bulletin Vo. 14, C. S. I>«p»rUii«oi of Afrtooltun, I>ItUIod nt 

IkKWir. R4wtn M. Unto, Jl.t>., Cbk-aitU, HI. 

' Tbia w*- irrliMD ijslwe rrofeiwor Veii«bl»'* re««it I . vMthra'lana. 



author of ibe " Resources of the South," aays: " The Cr«ek 
Indians used a decoction of the caisine at the opening of 
tlieir councils, ifnding to the tieacoaM for a sitppty," and 
adds that tbe coast Indians sent it to the far west tribes. How 
far its use extended northward, I cannot ascertain. Prom 
some allusions of the early French wriler«, T think it was 
used by the Natchez, and that it was sent up the Mississippi 
from ibo coast of Louisiana. Tbe ludiaus of Wisconsio, 
Illinois, and we*tward. used a decoction of willow leaves as 
a beverage, but I cannot 6nd that tbey used it in eeremontali, 
or that it was looked upon with tbe same reverence. 

It appears from the accounts of various early wrilera that 
there were ueveral raethods of preparing the black drink. 

1 1) The deooclioo made ot the fresh leaves and young 
branches. 

(3) A decnctioQ of the dried aud roasted leaves. It is 
probable that tbe leavesduringroaHliiigdevpIojiefl ncwqnali- 
lies, as tbe roasting of coffee briogs out (be aromatic odor 
due to a volatile oil. 

(3) A decoctiou which was allowed to ferment. Io IhU 
condition it became an alcoholic beverage, capable of caiis- 
iiii; considerablo iutoxicatlon, similar to tbat caused by beer 
or ale. 

The early history of the use of /tear cataine as a beverage ■ 
is lo^t in tbe darkness of prehistoric ages. Probably the 
same can be said of tea, coffee, mnt^*, aud cooua. But it is a 
singular fact tbat while all tbe latter beverages still continue 
to he used iu tbe countries where they are indigenouR. as welt 
as all over ihe '.»'orl(J, the use of cassiue is nearly extinct, as 
it is now only used occaslooally in certain important relig- 
ious ceremonies by the remoauts of tbe Creek ludiaus. and 
will disappear with them unless rescued by ebemioal re- 
search and its use revived for hygienic or economical rea- 
sons. 

The very earliest mention of cassine was made in tbo 
" Migration Legend of the Creek Indians." Tliis curious 
legend has been lately published by A. S. Galscbel of tbe 
Bureau of Ethnology, WaBhingtoo. D.C., with text, glossa- 
ries, etc. In bis preface be snyt: ''The migration legend of 
tbo Kosihta tribe is oue of Ibe most fasctnaliDg accounts that 
has reache*: us from remote antiquity and is mythical in iU 
llrsl jMrt." This tribe was a pari of the Creek nation. Its 
chief. Tchikilli, read Ihe legend before Governor Oglflhorpe 
and many British authorities iu 1735. It was wrilleo lu red 
and black charactprs (pictograpbic signs) on a buffalo skin. 
This was sent to Loudoo, and was lost there; but. fortn- 
oately, a text of the narrative was preserved in a German' 
translation. 

It begins by narrating that tlie tril>e started from a regioa 
rarioosly snpposed to be went of the MiHsisaippi, or In south- 
ern Illinois, or soutbero Ohio. Tbey travelled west, then 
south, then soDth east, until they reached mslern Georgia. 
Here tbey wet a tribe, called in the legend the " PulMcbuco- 
las,*' who gave them " black driuk " as a sign of friendship, 
and said to them. " Our hearts are white, and yours must be 
white, aud ymi must lay down Ihe hIoD<ly lomaliawk, and 
show your bodies as a proof that they shall be white." 

This was evidently tbe first knowledge the Eoalbta tribe 
hud of Ibis beverage. 

« The black drink made by the Seminoles is described as 
'' nauseous lo the smell and tasic, and emetic and purgative." 
It is a mixture and not brewed of the cassine alone. All 
o\ir beverage*, such as tea. coffee, mate, and even cbocolalei , 
when drunk very strong, are capable of causing diaresiSfj 
purging, and vomiting. 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XIX. No. 46^ 



One peculiarity of the driokiDg of the black drink in that, 
BO far as I con ascerUin, it was oDt used at their nrnils as 
we use tea and coffee, but wholly as a social beverage or at 
festivals and other public occasions. I do not Ibink the 
womea were allowed to drink it, at least not publicly. Aa- 
tborities differ on this poiot. 

AiuoDg tbe Creeks the wouieu sometimes prepared tlie 
black drink, but Narvaoz writes that the Indians on th<; coast 
of what is uow Texas did not allow a woaian to come near 
it during: its preparation. 

That a bevemgc conlainine: caffeine should Tall into disuse 
and become almost forgotten is a lingular fact. The use of 
mat£- has itut decreased from the limo of the conquest of 
South AmericA by Europeaus. The reason why the latter is 
still in use and the former not lies, perhaps, in the fact that 
tbe Europeans in South America mixed with the nalives, 
married, anil adnpte<] their cufitnms, while the English and 
French who wttled llio Gulf Stale* did not associate with the 
Indians, and adhered to the use of Chinese tea. Now that 
na know that the leaf of tbe cassine coutaius caffeine or the- 
ine. can its use as a beverage he revived I 

It is not as pleasant in odor and taste as Tkea ginensit, 
and this may be against it; on the other hand, it Reems to 
have some salutary properties which the latter does not pos- 
sess, and may, perhaps, be far more cheaply obtained. 

A rough estimfite can be made as to the number of square 
miles upon which it emws. Exlimating the coa«t linu from 
the James River, in Virginia, to the Rio Grande, in Texaa 
— about 2.0TO miles — and multiplying this by 20 mileB, the 
extent of its growth inland, we get a total of about 40,000 
Bquaro miles. On this area could be picked an immense 
quantity of leaves, and if the trees are not destroyed in the 
picking the crops cuuld be harvested every year. Nu esti- 
mate can be approximated even of the amountof the crop of 
leaves which could be gathered, because we can out estimate 
tbe number of trees on this «r(-a. 

It would sepro possible that further inquiries on this point 
and careful experiui^nta in cultivation and munipulatiou 
might result tn furoiahing our market with a product which 
would be found in many cases an acceptable and useful sul^ 
Blitute for the more expensive imported teas. 



mountaia. risinn far above tbe adjaoent country like Pike's Peak, 
would produce rain If ooifwhiTe, I otpecialty ntited the weather. 
Tfemenduus expKieious ixseuried daily for some months. The re- 
ports were urieu heard SO to 40 niilea, and many of thorn wore at 
elevations l.>ctweeD 18,000 and 14,147 feet. Yet all this happened 
In one of the dr>E«t vearBever known in Colnnido, when ofK-n for 
daya ur week^ there wae no precipitation even on the mountains. 

a. H. Stone. 

Colorado ^prliiKs, J«d. 11. 



LETTERS TO THE EDrTOB. 

**• OorrtapowUnU art r*qtt«»t*d tob«a4 brief t%* pottbh. 71m wr<r*r*t «aiN 
tatmtMeiuurtv**(r*d tuprvo/QfaoodfiKth. 

Owraffwwr fit odKiitM. Ml* hut%dred eopie* o/ lli« nnntfcrr oonlain4ttg Mi 
eommunieatton tail >>* furHtth^d frt« luait(r«irr«a)vn'i«^t, 

TK» wlifor vill bt gtii4 to pvfrtM att|r qntritt etniinant irtlh ISt eharavttr 
«/ tKtJcurnat. 

Raic-Makiog by Concuasioa in the Kocky Mountains. 

Ut conDei'tiou with the recent discuMiOTis or the rlfccta of explo- 
siouM iu |irodiiciu^ raiu, it ou^hl to be Doled that for twenty years 
or RH>rt< the RiM^ky Mounlaiu* have afforded txcelleut oppurtunitii^ 
for olwerviiig tW f trt-t;!!* upon rainfall of heavy expluitioiiit nl liinh 
elevations. There are in tbin n-Kion thunwinrtD uf mines, mininic 
claims with u[it>n cuts and adits, and quarries at utevutioivs frum 
6,000 to 18,000 feet. Xitro-glycerine preiiaratiuns are now the 
exploelveei nse<l in blasting. Durint; the summer there is a great 
amount of Masting high on the mnnnlniiiH. Several railways and 
wagoo roads reach 9.000 to 13.000 fet-t, and the grading of thei)o 
aflcrrded much bta«ting. I liavo made considerable inquiry and 
found no one who had observed any conneetion bt-tween the ex- 
plosions aud rAin-fall. Probably few or none wore eapecially on 
the wati^h Tor auch connp<:tiiin, but if there were any very obvious 
coanectiod it would have been otMerved. Hnee there have been so 
mnny y*»n of op[>cirtiinity. 

AtK>ut two yearn a({u the cog-wheel roail was graded to the top 
of Pike's Peak. Thinking that exjiloaiont on a high iitolatiMl 



Rain-Making. 



i 



In Seieitee for Nov. 37, 1901, ai>|>nu«d an article from the pen 
of l^rofeMor Lucien I. Blahe of the State Univf njty of Kan^aii, 
entitled " Can We Make it Rain?" in which itocue 8Uggft«tiona are 
made as to the proper method of conducting experiments Co that 
end, drawn from th« discoveries of Mr. John Aitken of Soutlwid, 
who liHN Khown tliul unlew there be dust iMirliclea in the air the 
iiqueouH rapor therein contained will not, in condensing, form 
itirelf into drops. I'rofesKtr Blake argues from this that, iasteod 
of using guns or apparatus for producing t^rridc noises, the better 
iway would bo to send ap loexpeosivt; Arc balloong carrying im- 
palpable powders, which could be thus tcottercd through the air; 
or eUe carrying sulphur or gunpowder, tbe ttmoke of which, when 
they wcnv ignited, would furnish the dust purticles, which, it la 
aH^mt*d, are iht> ouly rtquisiies fur artificially Getting iu motion 
the pnxwM of nature that brings rain. 

The reasoning of Profeosor Blnke in leading up to this conclu- 
sion and in combatting the idea Uint concnosion Is a necesanry fac- 
tor in Artlflc-inl min produotion, contains much that apfiesrs «i>und 
from ttie slundtxtiut of both scwmce and good sense, anil yet aiilc.h 
that will not tiearexamioation. nis contention that thunder does 
not. to any extent, cause coodensalion of vupor. but is rather ttie 
result of it, is one which 1 have always beld to, fur latent heat Is 
givou out by coudeusiTig vapor, and chl:» heat uiay upp^-ar in tbe 
form of eltdricity, uud i.-uu»e tbe llKhtniu^-Qasb that makes the 
thunder. The idea, iilno, that powder smoke may be a factor in 
rain production when rain is caused by a hatll". is a logical de- 
duction from Mr. Aitken's discovery. Profe«s'nr Blake nlao avokls 
the t)lnnder cummittcd by Professor Simon Newcomh, In his arti- 
cle in the October number of tbe yorih Amerifan RetiifU!, where 
the latter lays biruself open to the imputation of being himself 
guilty of the very thing he charges against the advocates of 
the t^iicuwrnon llieory, via., of "ignoring nr endeavoring tore- 
peal the laws of nature.'* Thi* he dow by iwoertiug that ten 
seoonda after the sound of Genvnd Dyrciifdrtirs fimt Iwcwb had 
died away "evervthing in the air — humidity, temperature, 
pressure, and motion — was exactly the samo ati if no bomb was 
tired," thus sbolishing at one stroke the principle of the conscrva- 
tiun of force*. Profpsaor Blake, with less zeal but KTcater wisdom, 
pructicnlly admits that the forces brought into action hyexploeioos 
are resolvcti into lieitt. and be does not. like Ncwcouib, analhUat* 
this heat, though unwilling to admit tliat it can do work. Pro* 
feasor Blake also has the good seniw to recogriize the fact that the 
question of artificial rain production cannot be settled by Isbora- 
tory experlfloenta — a thing that cannot tie said of alt theawailancs 
of the concussion theory. 

But his cootenitcti chiit If concasiiion cau^e^ rain " the greatest 
effect —the practical effect — muat follow close npon the con- 
cuwion." cannot be tustained. While I reserve for a more ex- 
tended article to be published clfewhere a full consideration of 
this question. I will Iktv My, tiriefly, Lttat the w^'ll demonstrated 
theory of the late Piufeesor M. F. Slauiy that thurv urv two great 
atmospheric currentE, the equatoriql and the polar, flowing above 
us in nearly opposite directi'ina. fumiehes the basis for a fierfect 
explanation of the reason why the centre of the atmospheric dis- 
turbance eniiscd by a battle should remain in the vicinity of the 
battle-Held while the two currents are mixing together and in- 
iliitine tbe proet-K! that leads to rain —a pnieeBS which, It Is 
plain, must require time in reaching a state of efft-ctlvo action. 

But the^ points in the discuMiion are not so much what I desire 
lo consider at this time as the special method recommended by 
Pnjfei«or Blake for cnnductinf rain-making experiments. The 



IaNUARY 32, 18^2/ 



SCIS 



•ilvocates of the coocasmoD liiMjiy welcome any discoveries that 
c*s add to oar ImowlpdRe o( tbe r«>a«oDB wby hstU^ cauie rsiii, 
and ihwa g gCTt Qiflbods for produeiat^ it vrhich tnay bean im- 
pTOTetBeot on theev tuggestMl b7 tbe batUw and tb«ir aequeDOw. 
Id ibte ntegory a(iiMan to be tbediecoverr of Mr. Attken raferrod 
to, bu[ it furniabea nothing odhcIuuvu uii tbu subject, nod, bi toy 
o|U[ik)n,anRXpetiioeiit uu the lino aiarki><l uut by Pruft-itsor Blak^ 
_ would prove a fttllure. If Rome of ua gu to one extri>aip in rdy tni; 
lobinochoncoDcaadcniBHthe meaot^bywhicb tbe process of nature 
that leuda to nUo cftD be wt in motion, eo does Profossor Blake go 
to tbe other extreme In holding iliaC It U sotoke or dust porciolefi 
alone Ibal can artificial).T efft^ that reenlt. We know, as a mat- 
ter of fact, that aiiiiply Ihrowiog amoke into the air does not pro- 
ducH min. Titers «re weanm ol cities in our land wlioae cbimneya 
an* dnlnt: thiM pter/ d-iy, and yet tb«y do nut produce rain. And 
it atnnot It *»'ni iliat LIk- smuki* DtMy Mtnd up in not of tlie rit(lit 
kijjj. ft cootaiiu) a Kieat dval of »ijl[iluir anil of rarlxm, tind 
thtM!, nc-cording to Pronwvor Blak«. axe aoioatc tb« nutntuucvs 
wlilch firm dust particles, around wbJcb molwutea of aqueous 
vapor most readily collect. 

Id tbe liRbt uf Mr. Aitken's discovery, bowe*er. I am wiUiuK to 
admit the poj^^ibiliiy tliat Btnoke may not be without ita ffleci in 
producinc the mIn that follows battk-ti—an kk*a, I may add, 
which. tliouRb not original with me, I plaoed on record over 
twenty yeant ago, a^ may be aeen by reference to tlie letter nf 
Oen, Rol3en A. BIc<?oy. in tht appendix 10 "War and the 
Weather " In any future erperimpntA in the Held the application 
ot ibv principle dincowred by Mr. Aitken mij^ht to I* duly te>it»>d. 
Itut I M-%' no reiOMKi aa yet for doublin)^ that fon'e, exerted by 
UMNUM of exptmionit and expended on tbe earth and air, is a neo- 
•awry factor in artilicial rain production. 

E^OWABD POWSKS. 
B Faso, Tex., Jan. t&. 



Eye-Habiti. 

b Seienet of Dec. 18, 1891, p. S3», is a note taken from .Vtifiirt'. 
and referrinR to tome experinieubt uf Hr. Jamev Shuw to let>t tbe 
aUlity ol whool chlWreo to keep one eye open and the other shut 
tt lb* aame tioiv Having been asstjciated with lichoo] children 
for many year* wbore the micruecope was frequently uripd in the 
claaB*rooin for demonstration, my attention haa nden been called 
lo ibtir prxTedings in tbi» respect, and the inipre)itilon.s may Ix 
wotth recurdiiiR. though they are, no douM, ewenlially like those 
of many other t^-arherA in analogotu pwltlons. A» lb*- u-^ of tbe 
mirraecape vaa only for a abort lime l{t each individual in a par- 
ticolar exerc'iM'. it yrm necowary that an observer k«okin({ into the 
nbe of a moDiM-iilnr should by some means cloae one eye in order 
tlmi other objects uiight not be in tbe field of view of the un<wcK- 
pftd eye and con'use the iniBKe. For it re(|uire« lon^ practice on 
tbe part of one uain^ a monocular Aland to examine an object 
while keeping both eye^opt^n and imt Imt inconvi^nieiKYtl, a traia- 
ing out uf queHlioD witli nchotd i-biklrcn wliL're tbe time f-ai lim- 
ited. In the case nf «uch Ibe eye w«a cliieed either with or with- 
out the iiae uf ll»e bund. Being pupils iu a high fccbool their aKC« 
rangnl from foiiitet^n In twenty or more, the majority from flf- 
tewD lo eii{bt^i-n. .Slsti»tice were not kept, but I do not recall an 
iulaiHie nbere a boy could not cloe<- one eye without the aid of 
the band. II it occurred. It vttn very rare. But it was quite 
common tor girls to maka ub« of the hand for this purpose, a 
fourth or more, ae mentiooed by Mr. Shaw for school children. 

Sometimes, by request of teachers in primary gnid««. I bara 
taken a microscope to their rooms, in which the lowest classes 
were taught, Iheir ages being from tiix lo eight or nine. It waa 
for tbe purpose of showing souiething which the leachera desired 
to tiM> tia an objecl-ltuwon.like theeyeor foot of a fly, or Cheaoalea 
fmiu the wing of « bullerfly, things whoee forms they leadily 
Cou I pre hi- II lied, a* was shown by their description of them. With 
them tbe unaided eliding of one eye wiis cxcvplioaal, some of the 
older boys, perhaps, being able to do »o. I have noticed the same 
difficulty with older people who occosiouaUy look through a ml- 
CTDscofie; the ioabibty to shut oue oye and k-ave the other open 
being among the women. TbU waa Uluslnited but a short time 



53 

aiooe by a lady nearly eijclity yttn old, She had recently lad 
ona eye treated for oataract. aud was told to teat the perteptiw 
power of tt. In order ihit there might bo no interferraoe by lb* 
other eye, thi« was covertMl by the hand. 

This habit of peeplug. or looking with one eye open and the 
other doced, is plainly an acquired one. liecoming easy by prac- 
tice, as b Bvcn by comparing children with ndutiH, and men and 
women witbMcb other. Tbe difference in the latter is mostly doe 
to tbe lack of use. Boya early become nccusiomed to -elghllnft" la 
varioui waya in their play, as in the ase of the crosa-bow or boir 
and arrow, toy gun or real gun, or tbey may with to line aome- 
thtng. Theyeteo work more with tools, and. like a car}«*nler, 
most see if they are making a straight edge, and thus anfuire ihi* 
ability. There being less ocoeaion fur it on the part of girb and 
women, Ibey mxy fail to f^ain it at alL This is not from inheivot 
inability any more than in the case of men, uuleaa heredity Iw- 
comes a factor working tluough sex, and facilitating th*i procew. 

E. J. UXUU- 
Bogtevood, uateafo, Jan. H. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 

Chamber$'g Encyetofxedia. New edition. Vol. VIII. Pesmit 
to Roumelia rhiladelphto, Llppiawtt Royal S". $J. ' 

CoiOiBKT 00 tbb eDcyclojiBMlIa may twm almost supcrQuoua, 
not only bocauae ihu work is well knowu, but also because of tbe 
uniform excellence of its serermi rolumca; yet one does not like 
to pasa it hy wilhi^ut remark. Ttie preiienl volume ia ni>tewarthy 
for tbe number of its ariiclea on philosophical and religious lo|dc«; 
Profeaaor Andrew Seth writing od Phito^iphr, Professor D. O. 
BItchie on Phito, Pnifeimir Horley on P»ycholitgy, Mr. Jamea 
Oliplianlon Positivism, Prof««sor Flint on Religion, Rev. W. L. 
Oildea on Roman Catholtriim), ProfMwor Cheyne on the Book of 
Psnlms, etc. In the very dilferent depArtment of the induKtrial 
arts we Hod articU» on Photography, by T. C. Uepwoflli and W, 
T. Bashford; 00 the Plouicb and the Potato, by James HacDonald; 
on Poilvry, by Jiaiitt Palon; on Printing, by Joha Southward i 
aud a long one on Rallwaya, by E. M'iXTiuott. In science sUictly 
fio called, Pruteeeor Peile Uvats of Philology, Mr. Normau Wyld 
of Plants and of Pbyeiology, Profeswr Knott of yuaip rnions. Dr. 
Alfred Danlell of ReAecttuo and Refrariion Mr. J. A, Thomson 
of Protoplasm and of Reproduction, while tbe mmor arltclc^ are 
(00 numerous to mention. In history and geography tlie intMt 
important papers arc perhaps tho!>e on PhtBoicia, by C'aoon Jiaw- 
linsoo; OD Room, by Canon Taylor and Dr. Steele; and un Persia 
and Pervepolis, by Uen. 11. Murdoch Smith. Id this deparlmeul. 
it s^euu to ua that Ihere ts a deUciency of maps. Political and 
social tbeiixM receive their shaxe of attention, Mr. T, Kirkup treat- 
ing of Political Economy, Hr. J taseL'ollitigi) of Peaxanl Proprietors, 
Mr. W. f . Smith of the Poor LawK, Sir E. F. Uu Cttne of Prbwos. 
aud Mr. W, DmperLuwi* of PrgUHitioo. Literature and lite ideal 
arts are leas cotisptcuoui in this volume than in come of tbe pre- 
vious ones; but Mr. Edmund Gosee writes of Poetry, Mr. Sie.id of 
PerioJicals, Sir Joseph Crowe of Rapltael. Mr. P. 0-. Uamerloa 
of Rembrandt, and Mr, W. Holman Hunt of Pre- R-tpboelitiam. 
The number of minor snides oq all tubjocis U au grenl as 10 pre- 
clude all mention of them todividually; yet it not uufrt*t|ueDtly 
bupp^M that ttiL-so hxv the iuu«t mwlul of oil to the (ender ll is 
expwted Ihot the two remaining volumes of tbe Encyclnjoedla 
will appear during the pri^wot year. 



AMONG TUE PUBLISUER3. 

Tkc tksff volume of Ihe Badminton Library, aonoooced by 
Uttle, Brown, & Co. for Immediate publicotion, will treat of 
skntiiig, curling, tobogganing, and other out-door sports. It ie 
written by J. M. Ueathcote, C. U. Tebbult, T. Maxwell Wilbam, 
and tbe Rev. John Kerr, Ormond Hake and Henry A. Buck, and 
coatains several platee and numerous iliiLitrationN in the text, by 
C, Whymjier and Captain Alexander. 

— John Wiley & Sons announce as in prepuration " Elemeotsr; 
LosaoDs iu Heat," by FtofeswH- 8. E TUlouiu, United States Hdl- 



54 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 4< 



tary Academy, and " Elementary Coijr»} in Theory of K^iunlions," 
by C. H. Cliapman, Johns Hopkiiw Univereity. 

— A. Lovell Jb Co.. New Yock, have b«gUD the publication of a 
aeries ot Atnericaji History LeaAets, to be iomied bt monthly. TIte 
flrst contains Columbua' letlra: to Luie de Sent Aogel, anDouncing 
Us diacoTery. 

— Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. hare jtist published the third rol- 
anae of Sargent's important icork on lli« Silra of Nntih Ammca. 
It will include Anacanliacese-LesumiDoaie. and. like the previous 
▼olaniw, will comaiu flfty plates diawn aod eograved with the 
otmcMi skill. 

— CharW H. BerKel & Co. annouut^e a aeriea of hi»tarie« of th« 
Spanish -American R^jniblioi. Tli«< fint volume, wliirh will Iw 
iasoed in Fvbruary, will be " Phtu." by Clenivnlt) R. Mnrkhaoi. 
It wjll be followed in a short time by "Braxil," by Williaai K. 
Curtis. •' ArReotine," by tb« Author of * An Earnest TriQer." 
and other volumes will be issued at intervals of tiro or three 
monllu. 

— Longmaor*, Green, * Co. have publiiih«d a small atlas pre- 
pared by ProreMKnr A. B. Hart of Harvard University and entitled 
"E^poch Alapa Illuatraling American History." It is primarily 
designed a« a cuMipnnioD tu thv Mruti uii " Epocha of American 
Hialory'' puhlisbed by the same botue, of which Pmfewor Mart 



istheelitor. The aathor uy* that it » "an aiterapt to make 
nutpa frtim the records — frain the lexti of grants, chartert. and 
gOTcmon' inMructlons, and from slatutea. Britisb, colonial. »lat«, 
and QQlionaf." It opens with a map ).howing ihe physical fea^ 
torM of the Uniiecl Stalea followed by several illuvLraiinK the 
early diecoveries and settlemenca, nifti others show ing the srowth 
of the national leiritory. the aettJenient of disputed boundaries, 
the growth and abolition of slavery, the cWil war, and vanouB 
other plia*e« ot oor nattoaal history. There are. bowever, no 
inHp4 of particular regiona of sp«cial biGtorical imporliuice, such 
as \eu- Jersey in Ihe Itevolutiou iiud VlrKiota in tbe civfl war — 
aa ooiise'ion that is (o be regretted. Bui the umiw thit are girpu 
are excelltrot, and as history without maps is almost unintelligible, 
they will be u»efa[ to historical studenla. 

J. B. Lippincoit Company hare just pattllfihpd n Sroond edition 
of OouhnHxanrt Barrier's "The ErteriMr of the Home," translated by 
Dr. Simon J. J. Hnrger of the lTniver*liy of I'ennsylvnuia. Thl» 
edition hiu hi^n in prepjuvtion for three years, involving many 
alteration^, which in mmt caiWB amounted loattnost a transfor- 
mntlon of the old i^xi into entirely oeve matter. A new plate 
upon tbe age, by G. Nioolet, and Ktly-tbree oriRinal figure* bav» 
been added, making the total 840 tignrea and S4 plates. 

— Benjaniiii Sliarp, Ph.D., wilt tell in the Fehrnary -Swibntrr 
some results of his Oreenland exptoratioas lust summer Ho de- 
Kcribn what Sir John Etoas. who dLscovere-l them in ItSlS, called 



( ALENDAR OF SOiJlETIES. 
Philosophical Society, Washington. 
Jan. 16. — W. J. MuGte. The Gulf of 
Uexiiv as a Measure of Iaotitai>y. 

Society of Natural History, Boston. 

Jan. 20. —Charles V. Riley, Life History 
of S|ilieciuH Speciosua, Drury: Notes on L'ap- 
riScalioni 8. H. Scudder, Tbe Tertiary 
Weevils of North America. 

Chemical Society, Washington. 

Jan. 14. — OQlt-ers wen- elvcU'd: Presi- 
dent, Dr. T. M. Cbatord; vicv pn«idfnt«. 
Dr. F. P. Dewey and Mr. W. H. Krug; 
treaauirr: Dr. E. A. ron Schweinitz; aecro- 
tary, Dr. A. C, Peale. The following were 
fleeted additional membf^n of (he executive 
oommltlee: Profenor F. W. Clarke, Pro- 
fessor H. W. Wiley. Mr. Cat>elt Whitehead, 
and Profesaor B. B. Warder. The follow- 
ing papers were read: H. W. Wiley and K, 
P. MiElmr, MidKu-Ame; W. F. Uillebrand, 
Zinc- Bearing Spring Waters from Mis- 
souti. 

Appalachian Mountain Club, Boston. 

Jan. 13. — Herbert Dyer, Camping in tbe 
Highei^t f^ii-rro^. 



THE WINNIPEG COUNTRY; 



OR, 

ROUGHIMG IT WITH AH ECLIPSE PJIRTY. 

BT 
A. BUrHK(«TKK rKLI^OW. 

<s. a. sccDoaa.) 

With thirty-two Illustrations and a Hap. 
W. $l.Sl). 

"Tli« stor; U « piquaul. cnod'hutnoTwd. entertAlD 
lag n«mU*i.< ol n csnoa *o;aK«. A attmur, pcMU^r 
tMol htvililoni iw>fii."'-L4(«rarv n'i>rl>i. 

"Tbiii In a, BprlK>>t1y nsxratl*!^ ot pvraon*! loo!' 
dent. Tliv li'wk wUfbo « )il««aMit remlndor to 
nsD]' vt rvucb e(i>vrtei»e«* un a frootkr wtilcb ts 
rmpialj TVc<raiajt."—S<Mlim Tnnuertpl. 

" Tba pl(Ttun> ot OUT rl«tolBt« Hocth-weatem tMirt- 
tOTT tl>Mll>nt(! J<MI* uo. lu Mtttrsct vllb It* 
fllvItllcO kupvct tu cla; , and UM plc««uit f^Btur** of 
tlwiarltBr'H ■*}!(•. ooualltut«the tUlma of bl*titll* 
book to pcswBi sttBDiluii."— rA« tHal. 

I. D. C. HODCEsTm Broadway. H. Y. 



IVants. 



Affftrtm ittAtKg itfmtHitn far trkhk lu ii qu^i- 
HidtfkuteitmliAt ttlainmtm'l, rr atf frru-m irtkinj; 

wmr^mt I* JUI a fvtHhn j/ r*ii ^karaitrw, tt i! tkiit 
tf» tt^thf »/ ttiin;e.<ktmitt. J-aMtkitmiiH. tr trial 
•trr. may Jniv tkt ' Sfaml ' imtrlid umiirr ikii htait 
tWLaxvnotX.i/ hn^liiJSii tht pukiiiktr e/ tki imiI- 
4^V ekariutrw e^ kit n^fdiiitiaH A my ^rtcn ttfkim^ 
in/t/rmatiem tu any icrtHlifii qmslUit. Ikt aJUrtu »/ 
any uifnlijii titan, tr rvAttum Im any ttvtj »ir ekiteni- 
^mn /tr a fmrftit (tmj^njKl aiitJk ikt nalurt t/ tke 
paftr, ft (trdially imvtttd It Jb tf- 

WA91TED.-(li A wlili« niM rencd la wood acd 
Irao workloK.sbie to work fi^m ■p-aciaratinuB 
sad ptans. saltod ^r aa Inatructor of boys: bin l>i>hr 
iueM to haT« rh»n[i> uf abop* o[ ■eli'ool, DUtllu* cDd 
dln^t tbn work for (orAincrii and iiiMh-ula; Bklitrj to 
b- 8l,iXVl n«T nouam <iitiia month*), (t) A man 
(biMk pr»fArr««]] to boMb tbe co'orcd. [r<.>a wurklov 
aiul ronlDK. MibordlBBta lo tha prautHllui;: ■atair. 
(7»). m Atnaa (wblM)eonipKi>igi to ukc cio^aM 
tu •niriEi«i(>rIiiic (aaaSalBUt'a poaUi'.>u,>. but wiili Iba 
abllltjr to Mrtorm maj at lb* wock roi)Qlrr<1 in kdt 
of tbn oitllDHr/ «inKlnv*r(Oil Cwutwra vt i<iir oulri-nif- 
(!«■: BBlaTT frotn $1,000 to Sl.bO A. H. UEALb, 
MHIMk^tIiIh, Oa. 



W 



/'ANTED— Tvo «r tbrM eOlolent compatcra «itb 
J good knowlmlKB o[ Spbnrtcat TrtHOnciniDtiT' and 
rvMT nan ot locaritboiB. for tecnporarT AtuplormAnt 
Id Itis offloe of tbo Ctuuit and Qoodatlc SDrvvy. Ap. 
plleaota abonld fuRiiab arldcaoo ol llwjt fltiteu tor 
tb« work- Apply bjr lattar to tba :tup*rla tend out. 
CoHt aod Ooodctii? Btirray. WubUctou, C. 



AXTCD. -Scffmcw, No. IT^ tfOst, l«W, «l*o 



Index Bod 'nUA-pan la Vol 
i. O. C. Hodgoa, <! Bniadwaj, K«w Tork 



Addr 



k 



rOUNO MAN (Bl) woalil tUs » poalLiioa Id a 
aoll^M, laborklory , .it oti»i>r*aiory. la alao will* 
inic to aaJat »e a >i«*iu EOiciDR. i^to. addraaa J. W., 
oar* of Setmntr, »4 Bnwdvay, Kew Tork. 



ti;AXTKD.-A poBlUon Id the phltoaophlMJ or 
VV pMlacOKical dopantbtut of a co1i«k» or uni 
Tcnltf by a yoiuig man CSI)> wbn baa had 0*9 yaar«~ 

«TB«tleal «xp0r1on(>e in t«a<rblur. and wbo hu done 
our yrala' pout (railualo vork In phtlosopby.dfiTiit' 
lug hia altT<iJl.|i D iluiiuif tbL> laat two |ic«ra Nipo- 
claHy to atudyand oilnlnal llivoBtl|catl'>ti la mI«d- 
tlflc iHtyoboloEy aud ita applioaliooi In nducaliun. 
AddrvHB K. A., oaro .Srtenc*. 471 Bn>ad«ay, H. T. 
Ctty. 

TirAKTBD.-A aolUble poalMoo In Waabtngton. 
V\ I). C, not ooDDoQtad witli tb« OoTetwaeol, 
and wilk a aalary not tu pioced tSSO > jrtti. by an 
ripf>rl«aa«d blologiat oiib als vvars' uolTtralty 
IraiulDK. Applicaot bsi \tv<fa a •kiirul auntron for 
roun<>no yf«n) : la ■ pra'iliral pbntniraplier, oar- 
lOfrapber, and ancu'loni'il lo tbe ua» uf Lba typ^ 
•ritor. He la alio capable ol makinit tbir moat fln- 
IhImvI drawi&ca. Of aoy daaerlDtiOa, fur all maouar 
of tlluMratlTO purpoava In BOMtnee: trslui>d la tuii- 
apuin mpt^<:ld(l aocl vi^rk: alai) Iteld opera) ion ■ aod 
tBtl'Urmy la Ito various di-i«rtiiiuuU. and iriudpl 
iu^ prciduotluu of CBJila, rpMnnttluba at palpiiiilo- 
luKtcal apvciniDtia and aioillar piupl ay ai«Dt>. Add>«aa 
r. S. K , c«n> ^ci'rnn. 47 lAfByr>lt<i Vlaeo. K. Y. 



Exchaii£eB. 

(FrtcorcbarxB to all, tlerBBtt«[aet«rycbarmetBr. 
AddfWa M. D. C. Uodcaa, «m Btowliray. New York.1 

Wantad ta buy ot CBchann a cnpy of Holbroalc't 
Xo.lb AntMicaa HcrpctolojcT. tiy lohn Kdwanlt. jrob. 
PhilKtclpkia. 1*19. G. HALR, Clark Univanityi 



Woixctler, Mau. 
For tab <>r aBchanxc, LaConie, "Ocok'n;' 



Ouaia» 



"Aiialomy," I vob ; fi»(f r, "rhriiolndy," Eix cililioa; 
Shcpard, App(t1i«. Gllidll, and Ikcrn, '' <. tHiaiitry ;*' 
joidan, ** Uannnt ol Vcnrbr ici;" ** IriicriiaiiLi-^ ScMi^ 

luii' Uinctof)';" Vol. 1. Jfnalef Mtr^H Itty; Bil- 
four. *' Bsbiyolofy.'* i >aU : I'uty. ** Rhiiopoib:" 
Siitntt, Ik v«U., uabound. C. T. UcCLINTOCR, 

LcxiOKlOD. Ky. 

Foc lalr. — A 6^ a tW CaBen; a nry fine inainmcM, 
■rilli lc*», lioldrn and inpMl.ail an; it ctcl ova twK 

Sri' *. !■}. Edit. L. HayM, it Aihant *irwi, C^mbridcCt. 
lau. 

To cnhann Wrifhi's " Ie« A«e in North America** 
•ad L« Coni« * "Kleneni* ol Ctology" (Copyngltt ilW 
fi« "I>arwioHin." liy A R. Wallace, "Otipn ol Sncja." 
iiv Darwio. "I>nc«ii( of Man," by tjlfwia, Maa'i 
rlice in Kalurc." Huilcjr. "Mcutif ErolnticM in Aa^ 
Rtftlt." by RoDa.ct. "Pre-Adirjuic*,* by UucbalL No 
biHiki «aalTd cicrpi lami piliiiotu. an.) bool:* Is good 
ciindiilnn. C. b. firowD. Jt.. V«adaliUt UoivoaUiri 
Nuhrilk. Trnn. 

par Sale or Eacfaange (nr bocJii a c>)nplelc pn«Bte 
chemical labontory outfit. lacludoi iarut B«h«r bkl- 
■iice laOQg to flume 1. |ilaiinu(u diiho asil i:nji:(bl(>, 
■B^ia RK-ton, glata-blowina ■pparaiut. *ic. For mI« ia 
pail orwhulc. Abo CQamlelc filE df SiUitnan'i "Jaurnat. 
iti6t-ilSs (t*.}! bsiHidl; Smiihtonian R«p»rta. iBm-iWi;, 
U. S. Coatt Survey. iSai-iCA^. Fall panicalan to cb- 
quircn. F- GAftniNCR. JR., Ponilrai, Cona. 

FrTCXcbanf-e or •al* ai a T*cri6c«, an cUbomicmictO- 
icnnc OTillii. l^iillnk ilnnit: Dionncuin uJiictdve*, onr 
tixih homcoeer.roM immcnion. luur-mtbt. aiul ihiM 
inch. (Uiitrh t. \j'm\i. mXvK nac-fiiuilh and OB* lodl 
^peaeet. FouieTetiVKu. Objeciivei u« (h« btat nade. 
Aiddrcia Mn. Manon Smith, \\ Branch Slioct, Lowell, 



OF WHAT USE IS THAT PLANT? 

Vou ran Hnd th« an^iwor in 

SMITH'S "DICTIONARY OF 
ECONOMIC PLANTS.*' 

Seat pootald on receipt of 1^.80. Publlah- 
er's price, tS.50. 

SCIENCE BOOK AGENCY, 

814 Broadtvart Naw Vark. 



BOOKS I How I* Ksekanc* (hen to' 
otheea. Send a poalal lo t&« Scnura aidwagii 
coluain (loBertioo tree), alaUajE brially wh*l yon 
■aal lo exobaoga. Bonxos, 8T4 BruailvBy, Mod 
ToclL 




SCIENCE. 



55 



the " Arctir Hixblonders,*' an IfloUted race of two buudred toulu, 
vhirh at the preeenC time has slxHit the flame Duiuben aa wbeo 
ftnt diaROTered. Tlie author njB: "Onv-<>rniDeol thvy seem noi 
to hare, the oldeni man of th« family at moet rulinK that family. 
Of the customs, an mnrrlage and religion, litite nr nothiag b 
knnwn, but wr bnp« that tho Invo^ilgntiwis at Lieut K. E. Pemry, 
who Lt now acn>ing rb«^c p«)pl(\ will throw much tight apoo thw 
Lntrn^tn;; chapter or their storT." llu^ rMlult« of IhMV invMti- 
gati«i8 wil) appear in Seribtur'a. 

— A. tnunlaticNi of the new book by tbe fnmoua EKj-ptoIogbl, 
O. 3laap£ro, eolJlled "Life m Ancient Egypt atid AwjrriM," m to 
be pat^iahed Immediately by 1>. Appletoa & Co Id thin work 
tbe entlior don twt present a dry history ot dynasties, but he ni*m 
a pktuie of actoal life In it« variou^i phases amoiig tbe t^o most 
civitind BatJooa wbicb flourished before tl>e Cireeks. Life in tbe 
eils tin*t», ia the htu» ot the poor and the |HtlBce», marriage 
cemaoatei, funeml and religious rtle«. hunting ><%De#, and bai- 



tlea, &tv ftU reproduL-etl. Tbe numeroua IlluotratinnA by M. 
Fknchur-GudiD are worthy of the importance of itw book. Aa the 
author aays. "It t9 tbe EJfjrpUan and Awyriao himaetf that thcM 
iUoBtratioas show us. and not thmw caricaturM of E^ptians and 
Assyrians which are (oo oftea seen In our booka," Of tbta liook 
the London Aeademjf aays: " It fllta a r»al f^p. It i« fortunat* 
that this new way ot tnatlne the maurialA suppliMi by tb« papyri, 
the punelform tabk^. and the monnoicntal reaaatmi of Rgrpe 
and Aanyrla waa not earh^ attempted by anolhrr band, for who 
could have treated that material with the eaM, llie maslary, and 
the vivacity of M. Uasp^ro?" 

— It baa tieen known for aome time pest thai M. Emeflt Rwni Hi 
was 6D[nifre<l in writing a volume of reminteoencet. The book Is 
DOM' finished, and by airanKement wjtli tbe auLbor will aooo 1m 
published by the Caasell Fublishine Company uoder tbe title 
" R«collecti'>tis, Letters, and Addro»«e«." Tbo tranalatjon hu 
been done by MUs laabel F Unptiood. 



AToidc 

h\Mi Acid Pliosolmte. 



i"^ 



A most excellent and agree- 
able tonic and appetizer. It 
nourishes and invigorates the 
tired brain and body, imparts re- 
newed energy and vitality, and 

livens the functions. 



Dr. SrB&AtM BATaXAN, C«darvill«, N. J., 
■aya: 

"I haT« used it for several years, not only 
in my practice, but in my nwn Indiviilnnl 
^Lae, and cooaider it under all circojiutoncea 
ana of tbe boit nerve Conica that we po moa a. 
Vor DMntal ezhamtion or overwork it give* 
mewed atresgtb and vigoir to the entire 
ayetem.'' 

Deeeriptive pamphlet free. 

Sumrcrd Chemidl Weriii. Proridanca, R. L 



Beware of Subatitatea and InUtatiosa. 

SAL'TION.-Be Bure ihe wrerd *«Hora- 
Ite" I* on the label. All oiliera are 
vpnilww*. Never >old In bnlk. 



THE AMERICANRACE: 

By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M.D. 

" Tba tKWk ia oaa of aaasual tntereii ksd value.'*— 
IwttT OMen. 

"Dr. D«iU>l fj.Brt&toDWTttesaaihtiMknovleiliad 
ailtbMttT o( tli» aubjt-cl."— nihutf 1j>Ahi Preu. 

"Tbe woik will be of Reanlar valee to kJl wbo 
wlah to mow tbe raBataiMe at what bM bt*a found 
oat aboat tbe iDdtfeaeuB AaieHeaBa.'' -.Vorure. 

"A maatcrl; dt>(?«ialoi]. ajxl an eiutaiple of the 
anoccvafnicduoBtloDof ibe powanorabBBrvaUeci." 
^Pktlaiielj-hia t-edf/rr. 

Price, poatpatd, t^. 



I. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, II.T.1 



UAliDBOOK OF VBTEOROLOGICAL TABLES. 

By Aan. Paor, H. A. Bazek. 

127 pp. tr. 

Profeaaor Waldo aays: "I heartily r«c«ni' 

mend them to ail workers ia i»e(«orwlaK7, 

and do not see how any of our Amerima 

' mel«orologiKta nui afford to be witboqt a 

copy," 

rrofeaMr Symoaa of London uys : * ' They 
ara naqiMationably valuable hulpn, which 
maat be kept bandy, and repta^^d when 
worn out." 

Price, potctpaid, $1. 



ESTERBROOK'S 
STEEL PENS. 

Of SUPERIOR AND STANDARB Q0AUT7. 

Leading Nos.: 048, 14. 130, 135. 239. 333 

Fur Salt bp aU Blmlivm^r: 
TKC ESTEMItOfll STEEL PEH CI., 

Wixka OsdiIm:, NJ '26 John Hi.. Vpw Vnrk. 



TMt LHENPtST A«D BtiT ; 



,, 6? PARK PWCENEW YORK 



CNBOKHiHC *am >u iiiusTXarivc 'oo 



Si: 



IE-RULE is^risas.i^'^^ifjiST!:!: 



* princlpto*bi>**,ia wi Misni <imbw( Mudyu ul' 
(iiUil«A. • coaplau CUcndrt hit uy »ae«« frm 



H. P. C. HO DCES, 874 Broadway, Hew York. 

POPUUa MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 

Forn* ta Coll«Kn iihI Normal Sch^clt. Pric« jeceaia. 
Sent free by (wal by 

If. O C. HODSBS. 874 Broadway, ft. W. 

iHCTSPRciNaii*. CuLLapnoaa 
Ouxrptra AKAbrats. 
•took Id I' «. iOOpv- lUoatnta* 
CkUlocue. paper bouad, Itic : clo«b boead. Bo. 
UBO. UBKOUBU a QO Hliu>nJwt«t«, 
Rumoiprdlo TSBA TO HnicdWKf . Kew Yetk 

PATENTS 

P»riyVBXTOR0. «>-pa«« BOOK KKKK. ACUtaH 
W. T. fttayreM. AUomoj at l.a>.Wkah!ugtoa. D.C. 



MINERALS. ;::r; 

LuxeM and IIbmi el 



0/{/ and Hare Books. 



B 



ACK NtJH BERS >d4 complete icuof Im^IiK M«- 
miUM. jr*/M bw. AM. UAG. eXCHAhol. 




DO YOU INTEND TO BUILD? 



Uroe tntaad to twUd, It wUl baatDtalakeno* to Maid for *tgEKSIMLK LOW-TOST 

nOl/US,^' new ertaamd In tluve rotnraci. In tbam you viu Had |wn»eeUTa Ttewa. 
■oor plaa*. dvaertptlou, and ertlmatea of roai tor 105 tBaieftilt aenr deatav* Ate 
honae*. Tbpjr ei»o ■!?« prtoee (or eonpleie Workja« Fiuii, Detail*, tad SMoHcatloa^ 
>h)cb mablp fini to build •rilfaaat d<>la)rB, mtalakp* or ^nftrrel* edik jami kalM- 
cr, kod vhicb euy one can imdrraiand. Vci. I. couoiu K eopTTMItM Ja tltaa (ri 
bMi»s. ouatJnu betw(>ea tOOUftiii Sl'^i.i. Vui. il cooIaiii* lUV rirnirnriitertn— Inie, &Btt te 
t^KUv Vol. in. iraDUtiDi «& oopTiiKtited aealiisa, MCOD wtmn nsoa, br BalLf 1.00 
rMfli, or la.OO fOr Ibe m»t. 

"ioLONlAl. HOl'silS," a reUiae abewUw PeniMetteai ami naor Plana e( 
hcHivi krmiifinl In the InlnllaMe atitle of lbs CoIontBl ArcliU««lutw. and having aU moJitm 
•mtaaeincata tat eomTort. Pno*, as. 00. 

'•VirTCBBiHtCJK UOrSRa roa POMRHT AMB f(naRK*i:-Tbla abow 
Perapvetirve and Fti>or plaai of iifw dailco* tor Bobiibu Pettacea wbtob ai* fonaaoo, 
eoiiventont. aud obeap. Pricv. $ 1 ,00^ hy niall. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 87( Broadway, Ne« York. 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 468' 



Fact and Theory Papers 

I. THE SUPPRESSION OF CON- 

8UUPTIOH. By UODriWTW. UAMRLIIT09I.il. D. 

le*. 40c. 

" Tb« ln(MUii>Mbl« ImporuiuM or tb« tatiiMt, Ute 
•mlnvBD* or um suuior. aud ibe aoveliy of bts work. 
idlMiinblti«t<ir*iiil0r ibo Mlil> troatiM wonbr ol 
MiKbtlooiwIilMiKloo. . . . VrVii<<n>'illr<-ainmMid 
IH-. BUDblMOD's booiklot, «rul «l*b tbern «•» more 

SUCll work.!."— BO Hurl bI, Bn.lini Imil^ Ailvr'titrr. 

"TbotaaaoKm^h tn loti>rt«tlo|! In xtIx. iKhotftrlT 

AlMl WoU wonhr of CkreruluinaMMHtloti. I( la ■!•- 

rvotd or McbDtCAl i>s|Hr««lon«, Aod o*n IM euUr read 

F ,d)il) ijlgoaled."— ^armcirewfiraf Ertt. 

II. THE SOCIETY AND THE "FAD.' 

nr ArrLXTOX Moiia*ii, Rsq, 1^'. eO'v^to- 

"llr. Morcftii IouikU ft »«u«IMe una lBt«r«(iUi>B 

Addraia utfOu n tfiil (aml»Ii«d b/ » •ntiloocv tmtn 
qA jouoc ladUW macwMiM) : D«tu«ir. * BnwuloK mmI 

Ibsen ara ibooTilr ''•mIIv drainaili; aullion of iholt 

ceniiirT.""— .Vc!'- YorkSMn. 

m. PROTOPLASM AND LIFE. Hy 

C. P. cox. li'. rSiwntn. 

"TobocoiuinvD'lea U> inoevw&o «r»uMBP«cUl- 
tSM.'' — Ckrittiati Union. 

•• PbjwIclAiM vUl DVIOT Ui»Ir r»«<]ltu, «ad Ooa Is 
, l&eB) tnucb food (or ibought."^^(. Coui* M^ieat 
onii aurvte^ Joumat. 

■■ Jlr.OiararleiiBUietlBtonrof 1)1> aubjacl witb 
hbowtoOt* UMl •kllL"— C!p«n Ctmrl. 

" II la o< axUvma InUresL."— M«/trul it iM. 

" Wt>nby(ilacttrofuIt>cru**(."— Indfonn Xftttea 

aFtfurnril. 

" An lotcvMtlnc aod popular Koount of ibo ten. 
4eiio1(« of modem btoluclcal tbourlii-"— A^Hiter 

"All tDtoreaUd In bMocIc*! q Ileal toil ■ vUl flod 
ihAbootita»eiiMMot."—l'**irmiae<vli<:al £<m. 

"Tba^uUiof dlapiavs a ver]r •?iiai[irehepitlT« (raep 
«r bU «lbject."-AV|-t (Jpinion. 

*'I)fttorY<M the alioutlc-ii ul nliKleat* of uatura] 
acdanoo."— Oi'i'tf. 

iV. THE CHEROKEES IN PRE CO- 
LUMBIAN times. Brcrm-eTBoviB. l j". SI 
fir. TbOouM liH* utrcadT pres«[ilnd lo tli« [lUbllc 
•on* i«aaoita ri^r bellvviuc tbe CberokOM were 
nouDd'btiDilvn. but adiiuroual «Tlc1ituca bsAilng 
CD t&«iiiit>lec[bubo«Dobtaiti?J. a more oarMu 

«IU<lr ril tliA T)aIairKre irivlltliiii rnngjc^Itiig l)t» Tal- 

]» rl iMiiiatl«« bint iiini nn Unve In tiit- Bark KM>of4 

IttalBfii (lliim liiplf [jToiif ihat 11j«j worn (!3l»r»- 
;ee«. il« iblulu iho niviiU']Bcu&tjIi> ub c<Mrac«b«^ 
liieir Hue o( lulf ralluu evun txirniiij U;«tr rtwIdoMre 
tDObloU>th*w«»t«nib(uik cl Llic UtaaiwlppU Tb» 
«btMl la lb»r«ror* Ihraofotil: t. Au illunC'aitnii of 
Uie T**«T»e meiliod ot deftliiw irltk prehlMorlc aub- 
iMts; t. InolileDial proof Ihataotna oi U\i tndlanc 
were moubd- biiltili>TK 8. A Biodirors einste u-lM lb 
tbe ll^l of tbe mouu J ipaitmonr. Tbl* vork will ba 
mn ttuporuui couirlbutl<-a to Lbe Llioraiure ot Ibe 
Colutntilau OiActrrtTj wblcli will itoubUaiw appear 
duiiiK lb" comtBB two t^an. 

"A TKliiAblpi-oDulbu lou to th« quBatloii. * TTbo 
werelbo moaiid-bull<lef»I ' "— .Vetc Vorft lYmM. 

■*t'roraaaor CrruM Thntnaa andanakaa (« trace 
bach Uio «vMeiM«« of m alute ladtaa uibe into tbe 
prebtelorto or luOund.buIMUia a^a.^— A*. I'. Sun. 

•' An IntorMlluiC pap*T."— CArtrfinn tiniam. 

V. THE TORNADO. Bv H. A. Haskii. 
ir. tt. 

"Tbe lltU* book U esiremalr lnwreaUDf.'''-Bo». 
iuu 7VitH«'ript. 

"A bgok wblob wUI Bnd maur raadeic*. Tbe 
etMi^ur oo'Torubdo InaursDco' la of t&tereet to 
all p(i>pen;-boldeni lu ilie tOniKlo Stalaa." — Binlcia 
HdVid 

" 'Tiw TomaJu'U a popular Iroatlea uuan liiipor* 
touLproTluceof matoorulogr.lti wblob eolauco.tBe 
MlUtor, Proteaaor Elawiu ol lb<i I'ullod Btalee Sl%aai 
BerTleet may ba reiardod aa ua eipert" -f A(/ad«l- 
jAlaladter. 

VI. TIME-RELATIONS OF MENTAL 
PHEMOMENA. ByJoevru Jiniiow. iT'. 500. 

" All alUilKDla ot pajdiciloic):- will fliiil the book fuU 
ot liiiorcvtluK f&?U. WofM^cr -In^lrow'tf good i^uaJ- 
tUee aa a Uilukar aud aa a writer are luo wall aud 
too wMel7 knowb (o reiiulre tottinxtat."^/'uLUt 
Cp4nion. 

"A ue^rnl wevh lor pncbolosiate^M •mil aa Uia 

CDoral reador—br aettuis forth lu brief and MaUy 
Mlllflblo form tbe prMeat BtaM ol koowiadK* la 
regard lo tbe time repaired for Ute performance of 
met) Ml naOL'—Tkr Cride. 

VII. HOUSEHOLD HYGIENE. Bj 

MAXT TAYum BIMXLU li". TBooula. 
■* A Mualbia brnchure."— fi"x>W(n« A'apfir. 
" PraeUoal and •euiuo.''— /^<t-'i<: i^tntam. 
"TlioailTlceatid eicrlleoC Inrortnetlou Wbleh tt 
OODtatBM an teneiy aud tmoiUaBntir nptyMed."— 

Botton i/eiUcat aiul Stir^ical Jvurmil 

•' PradOoal aad alaiply wrXXWar-Spnugfield H«- 
mtUfoon. 
■■Tbe beat monofrapb on bome tLrgteD*."— At. 

Im i'rrparalitni. 

VIIL THE FIRST YEAR OF CHILD- 
HOOD. BfJ. NiHI Bu-nwiN. 



I 

LYONS SILKS. 

MOIRE ANTIQUE, 

EAYiFACONNiGLACi 

Corded Bengaline, 

Plain and Glace Veloutine, 

White Satin, Faille, and Veloutine 

FOR WKUUINV CiOWNK. 

Colored Satins, Evpiitng SliadeH. 
CREPE. GAZE. GRENADINE. 

FOB BALL DHKftS- 
NEW YORK. 



THE 



LINENS. 

AH Embroidery Linens, Ltneos far the 
Bod-room, UtiiiDg-roooi, or Kitoben, id 
liirgf UBdortmcnc. 

Linrn GooiJa have be«n our ipecialty for 
DBBrlj fort; ycure, fiad tberD U no desirable 
linen article or fabric vblch tnaj not be 
found in our stock. 

We glndlj send samples of mich of our 
({oods a4 can U* eamplcd. To ^ni come 
idea of tb« range of goods we keep, write 
for catalogue. 

James McCiitcheoii& Co., 

THE LINEN STORE, 

64 i 66 West 23d St., New York. 



H. D. C. HODGES, S74 Broadvaj, Hew York. 



A TEMPORARY BINDER 

for Sritnct tt now rcMljr. >nd will be muled 
postpaid on receipt of 75 cenU. 

Thia bind*! 11 itrong. dnrnble and 
«l<caiH, ku ^ll kid«>c>ll«. and al- 
lows iha opming of the P>tl<i pei- 
taccly flai. Atiy niuobcf c*a be 
taken oul or replaMrt vichoui ilit. 
lurbing the olhcn. anil the |i«prn 
are DEI muiiinteil lor lubwqueni 
pcTDianciit blading. Filed in thi> 
binder, Seitnet u ■Twayf convenicnl 
for icfttcncc. 

TemponuT bindert ol ttK_ lamc 
docnptian but wiihoul %iAt tillc. lo 
fli wiy paper d> periodical ol ordi- 
aary lUc, will tt maited poMpaid on icceipt of [rticc a) 
fireD btloW; le oidcrlni. be >iitc ID nlve ihe mmc oi 
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iipoo wbicfa iu capacity for cauatng damap: 
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NEW YORK. JANUARY ». iMa. 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF INVENTORS 
AKD MANUFACTUKKR8. 

Fkw occiirreocea of public ink'resL have recently Ulcen 
plHce whtcb bftre beeti of greater nioni«at lo Lhe p«opIi.' uml 
the nation as a whole, and few have aUrACte<1 Irss pnhlic 
llteativn tfaao tliat which waa held iq Waabiagtoo in auswer 
lo iherall of Mr. Watkins, on the I9tb of JaQuary,— the 
meftia^ uf the AtnericaD Afisooiatigo of iDvenlon aod Uanu- 
facturera. Organized a year aj(o. nearly, and composed of 
inventors like Dr. Galling, Mr. Charles F. Brush. E. E. 
Sickles; business men like Mr. Gardiner G. Hubbard and 
OberliD Smith; public iimu like GtiuL-ral Butlomorih and 
O. T. Mason; and crieati6c men like ProfesHora Autbony 
and Thurston, and bnck«d hy the Conimiasioner of Patents, 
tbia auociattoQ should hav<: some luterest for the peoplo at 
larffe and for the journalists who reprcwnt the people. lu 
flnt lueetiu^ was opened by the preaidout and attouded by 
the whole bench of ibe Supreme Court, and its uddresDOS 
dtirin)[ its several days' sesstotis were given by the most dis 
tinguiah«d m«D of sci«oc« and greatest inrentorfl of the 
country. 

The purpowe of this organizatioa are declared to be: To 
promote the progress of science and useful arts (Coostitutinn 
V. S., i., 8). The difl.'usiuD of practical, scieutiQc, and legal 
information respecting inventions. The encouragement of 
favorable and Lbe discouragement uf uufavorablo laws re- 
specting property in paleotfl. To secure the co-operation of 
foreign iuventora for reciprocal regulations under patent 
tjiAemti. The proper, just, and adequate protection of the 
lighta of American inventors authorized by the Constitution 
of (be United Stale*. Any person in sympatby with the 
objects of the association is eligible to rocmbcrsfajp under 
conditions slated to the constitution upon the payment of a 
membership fee of 6vc dollars for the first year. No initia- 
tion fee is charged. To the executive council, compoaed of 
the aeven officer* and the niue directors of the association. 
has been assigned the duty of completing the nrganiialion, 
begun with »o much eartiestQecs at W»«hington. 

Its first meeling wan held on the centennial of the signing 
by Qeorge Wuhiugtoa uf the Qrst patent law of the United 
States, the beginning of national industrial prosperity. As 
is well said in the c&ll lately issued for the second meet- 
ing:— 

"The celebratioD of the beginning of the second centnry 
of oar American patent system was the outgrowth of a spon- 
laneouB desire to recogoixe publicly the benellta which that 
system has conferred upon our nation and upon the world. 

"Eminent inventors, statesmen, and scholars from all 
V-arta of (he Union met together to expresa their appreciation 
i)f the mertta of that system, which has lightened the toil of 
(he farmnr. shortened the working hours of the Tuechanio, 
lidded to the safety of the miner, and lifted the burden from 
llie household drudge. 

"The monument then erected on the boundary line be- 
tiro ceoluhcs, embellished by the beat thoughts of 



such gifted minds, will endure so long as tb« librarm of lh« 
world shall preserve lbe record of their tribulf' lo American 
genius. 

" While existing laws hare encouraged and do now atimu* 
late thp creation of intellectual proparty and do throw safe- 
guards around its ownership, yet the fact remains tj^at neither 
the real inventor nor the author has been adequately pro- 
tected in bis rights. 

"This state of affairs has resulted from the fact Ihnt the 
inventors of the country hhve never thoroughly organixed 
thero8«'Ive!> for mutual protection nor brought concerted 
effort to bear upon their reprfsentativei in Cougresa, to tbe 
cud ihat proper laws should be enacted, nor have thoy 
heartily supported the officials of the Government m their 
attempts to secure adequate facilities forcarrying out present 
rvgulaliuus. Hence the syst«*m, even an it exists, has been 
prwerved with great effort, and even now is handicapped hy 
some conditions tliat are not endmraging. 

" It may be true that tbe patent system, in a few inataocM, 
ha.s bad an unfuvorsble effect upon certain ncotions of the 
cjuntry and ujion soirie occupations, and that some owner* 
of useful pateniR have demanded grealer profit for tbfir in- 
ventions than was consistent with tbe public good. But 
such evils, if they exist, can best be remedied by intelligent 
duntusioD among tbuee who have a vital interest in tbe 
things theraaelvcfl. 

" The people at large and (heir repreeeniattvca need to be 
impre<t.vd with the fact that it is to the epoch-making inven- 
tions of lbe century that our country owee its high poailion 
among the civilized nation* of tbe world." 

The patent system so auspiciously inaugurated by the 
greatest and fimt of our presidents hiu been inlermittootly 
promoted and tmmetimes obstructed in its ojyuratiou by that 
ttlternaUoo in [>ow«r of friends auil en«mie« — or lukewarm 
friends — which 9o generally characteriEee the action, of a 
popular government, and that of thu Uuilcd States no leM 
than thoAc of minor countriM. In its best estate, however, 
it has neverdone tbe best that it might for either tbe inventor 
or the nation. During the last few years, iu operation baa 
been shamefully cmbatTaseed and the interests of the country 
hare been greatly injured, while those of the inventor and 
his rightful claims upon the country have been no lew 
aeriou.<ily affected, in consequence of the utter neglevt of this 
great department by Congren, and tbe refusal of Ibe national 
legislature to provide it with respectable quartern and sntfi- 
cient working force. 

In many cases, applications of immense importance to the 
industrial interests of the nation have been kept in Ibe oSlce 
for mauy muullis. through the utter inability of tbe working 
force to ke«p itaelf up with the business of the ofBce, 

The annual report of the Commissioner of Patents to Con- 
gress dated Jan. J, I89I, calls all^ntiou to the lack of suffl- 
cteot examining force and to tbe need of more office room. 
The commissioner remarks that "the pace kept up in tbe 
patent office now, as in all recent years, Is iricoosiitcnt with 
that high degree of care svhich the patent system calls for,** 
and that "a patent should evidence such painstaking in ex- 
amioatioa that upon its faoe it should warrant a vi^l-i^o^^^^'*') 



58 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No 46* 



iojuDctioa. and th^e c&d be Itttte tloubt that Ibe cODliiiuaace 
of tho ' American " examination system dcppndfl upon so eon- 
dactiag examLualions iato ttiv uovelty of ullegtd iaventious 
Bs to make the seel of the patent oIBcr m power/ul, if not ron- 
cluaive, preeuiuptiou tliut the patent is %'alicl." 

The comniiasiont^r further n-p<>rtA thnt "diirini; th« past 
year the patoiit olBce bas earned a surpluH, over every ex- 
petuc, of t3^1,0T4.9S. and the total balance (o the credit of 
the patent fund now in the treasury of the United Stales is 
tS,872.745.24, und that the iDreators of the country cannot 
understaod why ihe j^oTernment tabefl their money and then 
fails to provide necessary facilities.'* 

Such a state of atfairs is simply a diagracc to the coiiutry 
and to the caoiaiittees of Congress «atru8ted with the care of 
thi« great instrument of national advancemeat. The work 

' of the association should be forwarded by every ciUieu and 
promoted by every journal in the land. The indifference of 
Ibe members of the committees of Congress having: charge 
of the huHiiieM interestn of the country cau only be accounted 

, for by Ihi) ftict that the people, and specially the business 
loeu of the country, who should continually consult with 
and direct th(«e comniitteeH, pay no attention to thii) branch 
of leg-islative work. Were Ihew committees carefully made 
np of men well post^^ in tlie work entrusted to tbem, and 
were they kept up to tbeir duty by the pressure of public 
opinion, the prosperity of the rialiou would be vastly belter 
assured than now. 



BOME RECENT M[NKKAL DISCOVERIES IN THE 
STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

When 1 visited Wasbiagtoo Territory in the autuoiD of 
1887, I found great activity among the prospectors in the 
mounlaiuuus region lying near the Canada line, and botwoou 
the CH»c-nde Range and the Bitter Root division of Uie Rocky 
Mountaios; aim in the Cicurd'Alene regiuii. Mauy Usbure 
veins carrying gold, silver, lead, sine, copper, etc , had been 
discovered, and tested sufficiently to prove their richness. 
' lu some cases the precious metalti were associated n-illi iron 
L«arbonatea. but more commonly with iron niilphidra, galena, 
and lead carbonates. Chlorine, autioiony, and riuc were 
also found in combination. C-opper was found both native 
and combined. The gangue wus usually quartz, with which 
is often awociated what is called " porphyry." Tbecountry 
rocks are granite, quartaite, argilite, and limestone. 

On my return to the cv-untry in 1891 ^now the Slate of 
Washington) I found that there bad been no loss of reputa- 
tion in re»pect to any of the mining localities; but that in 
all except the Cocur d'Alene and Colville regions the devel 
opment of ores had been retarded by the lack of transiiorla- 
tioo. 

In 1887, the Cascade Range proper, Ibongli rich in the 
purest magnetite along \t» crest, and in the Cretaceous lig- 
nites along its llauks, was not regarded as a prumisiuif Qeld 
for the diacovery of the precious and base metals. A few 
small veins of low grade silver, gold, and copper ore had 
been found among the iron l>eanng rooks about the head 
springs of the Snoquutmic River, but nothing tn compare 
with ibe devvlupments on the waters of the Hethow, Okiua- 
ganc, Kootenai, Ccaur d'Alene and upper Columbia, on the 
east of the Cascade Range. But during my visit to the State 
last aulttmu t found an army of prospectors and miners at 
work on a group of veins running along the western tlaak 
of tho Cascade Range. This group or belt so fur as discov- 
ered is about Hfty miles long and Qfteen miles wide (perhaps 



twenty miles wide), and occupies tbe eastern edge of Sno-< 
homish and Skagit t>>nnties. The region is drained by the 
upper waters of tbe Skagit, Stillaguamisfa, and Skykomish 
Rivera. The veins are well.deflned fissure? carrying gold, 
silver, lead, copper, and snipbur with iron, antimony and 
arsenic iit quartz and porphyry: ta other words, the same 
Ktirt of veins tut Llinse found in eaftlem Washington. Usual- 
ly Ihey follow the couree of the country rocks, but with the ^ 
usual branching aud Sexing. H 

The country rocks, which consist also of granite, quartzite, 
and slate (I saw no limestone) usually ^tand nearly vertical, 
though in some places inclining eastward with a dip as low 
OS thirty degrees. The general trend of both country rocks 
and ore veins is a littlo more to the north-east thau that of the 
irregular crest-line of Ihe main mountain. Hence they all 
croiis the mountaiu at a sharp angle immediately north of 
the Cascade Pass, the name given lo the notch at the head 
of tbe Cascade Bivcr, which is one of the chief affluents of 
the Bkagit River. This locality has within two year* be- 
come famous as the " Cascade Mining Dintncl." Here have 
been opened numerous veins of auriferous pyrites and ar- 
gentiferous galena. The veins are broken across by a deep 
gorge, whose steep side* are striped by the disclo)wd vertical 
odges of Ihe veins. Of course, in many places the outcrops 
are concealed by soil and vegetation, but thp mountain^ 
thrve lo four Ihou^iid feet aboee the gorge {six lo 
thousand feet above Puget Sound), and the upper third is 
bare rock, and numerous denuded spacesexteud much IowAtwh 
The physical conditions are favorable for prospecting. niioH 
ing, concentrating, aud moving. Tbe mountain on tht 
north side holds near its summit two small glaciers: iho 
lower one I named the Silver Queen, Lbe upper one the Sky- 
light. Snow slides and running gravel are uncomfortably 
common ou these heights. But safe camping ground caa 
always be found in ihe evergreen forest** on the mountain 
sides. So much for the north end of this mineral belt. 

The other leading mining district is at the south end of 
the belt, and is known as tbe Silver Creek District on oaa 
side of a dividing rtdge. and the Monte Cristo District on 
the other side. Silver Creek is a tributary of the Skykomish 
River, and bas its head in Silver Ldikc, a beautiful little 
sheet of water nestling among the evergreens in a groove of 
one of tbe lufly outliers of the maiu range. Tbe cret^k, af- 
ter running iu Its elevated trough for two or three miles 
suddenly begins to pilch doivn a steep escarpment, and falls 
a vertical distauce of two thousand feet in ibree miles of 
surface measurement, and falls flfteen hundred feet more 
ill tbe next five miles, ut tbe cud of which it joins the north 
brunch of tbe Skykomish River, Its course is southerly. 

The Monte Cristo District is made by a continuation esi 
ward of the veiosof theupper half of lbe Silver Creek District 
which pass Ihrough the water-shed into the valley of the Saul 
River, a tributary of the Skagit. Taking this part of the' 
mineral belt across ita widt-et part it measureent least twelve 
miles, probably more. The ores do nol differ materially 
from those of the Cascade River country, and the veiiut^ 
stand on each side of Ihe gulohea, offering every facility mH 
the miner. Nol loss Lhnn thirty distinct veius (or ledges) 
have Iw'en uncoverc<l. and msny laiineU of several hundred 
feet in length have been driven horizontally. The best 
" rich streaks " are of argeutiferous galena, which in a few 
cases are as much as four feet wide (generally much less), 
and CMrry from thirty lo three hundred ounces of silver 
the Ion. 

This new oiiaerel region is as yet but very partially 



January 29, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



amined. It is, however, a pertnaaeDt addition to the vast 
mining territory of the Rocky and trans-Bocky Mountain 
country, and when considered in connection with previous 
discoveries, it suggests the probability that the minerdl de- 
posits of the State of Washington exceed in quantity and 
value those of any other State. 

W, H. RUFFUKB. 
Lazlnclon, Vb., 3aa. SS. 



THE irVOLUTION OF THE LOUP RIVERS IN 
NEBRASKA. 

The most casual inspection of a map of central Nebraska 
might suggest that the hydrography of the region has proba- 
bly undergone radical changes. It looks as if the three 
Loup rivers, and the smaller creeks running parallel to them, 
had once been separate tributaries of the Platte, all indepen- 
dent of each other, as roughly indicated by the dotted lines 
on the map (Fig. 1). The Platte is the great central truak 
of the drainage, and these streams all seem to be headed for 
it like branches, and would join it directly if they bad not 
been somehow turned eastward and united to form the Loup 
River. 

It is the fate of such impressions to fade out in the light 
of accurate knowledge, but there are some survivals, and this 







Pio. 1. 



bids fair to be one of them. I have, I think, veriSed it by 
field work, and I will.briefly recount some of the topographic 
and geological data which tend to confirm the first impres- 
Btoa. 

The Loup rivers fiaw in channels excavated from fifty to 
two hundred feet in soft tertiary marls. Taking them in 
succession from south-west to north-east each stream is lower 
than the preceding one. A profile on a line at right angles 
to the general south-east course of all the streams of the 
Loup system, would have the general character roughly repre- 
sented in Fig. 2. 

This general north-east slant of the country gives a great 
advantage in rapidity of erosion to all ravines on the south- 
west side of each stream. They become longer, deeper, carry 
more water, and are cut down more rapidly than those on 
the north-east side of the next higher stream, because they 
ran with the slope of the country and have a lower outlet. 
Thus the space between the streams is captured by the more 
vigorous headwater erosion of the north-easterly tributary. 
Presently a branch more vigorous than the rest captures the 
headwaters of its neighbor lying to the south-west. This 
imparts still greater vigor of attack, and the succeeding 
OBptnres in the same direction are hastened. 

The latest robbery in the Loup system is that of the head- 
waters of Wood River. Journeying down from the head- 



watera of the South Lonp one is impressed with the apparent 
continuity of its valley with that of Wood River, rather than 
with that of the South Loup itself below Callaway. It is ob- 
viously an instance of the lower, more easterly stream cntting^ 
through the divide and drawing to itself the headwaters of 
the higher one. 

This scries of captures by lower tributaries is exhibited on 
a grand scale and in a mature form in the Lonp system. 
Another example on a smaller scale, and in its incipient 
stages, is shown in Fig. 3. The streams a and 6 have each 
captured the headwatere of some streams lying westward, 
and a threatens to capture the headwaters of b. 

In this case, on the Republican River, the slant of the 
country is directly east, and is due to the Rocky Mountain 
upheaval, which gave an eastward tilt to the great plains. 



s.-yir 




yfc 



Fid. 8. 

In the Loup region there is also, in addition to the eastward 
slope, a pitch to the north-east, which has a more local 
origin, but is, none the less, an important factor in the evo- 
lution of the Iioup system. The last great tertiary lake 
(Cheyenne) submerged the Ix)up and the Republican com- 
pletely, hut left the upper Platte a vigorous mountain stream, 
bringing down silt at a rapid rate. This silt, quickly sub- 
siding in the still lake waters, formed a succession of bars 
off the mouth of the river, as the shore line shifted east and 
west in the vicissitudes of climate, and of upheaval and But>- 
sidence. There was no permanent point of discharge, and 
consequently no permanent single bar, but a general distri- 
bution of silt in and along the channel of the Platte, which 
accumulated to such an extent as to raise the level of this 
river above that of the Loupon the north and the Republican 




Fio. 3. 

on the south. This is true in the case of the Loup, notwith- 
standing it is a tributary of the Platte, and the anomally is 
explained by the lower gradient of the Loup. The tributary 
is at the same level as the parent stream at the point of con- 
fluence, but the Platte falls 7.1 feet per mile and the Loup 
only 5.6 feet per mile. This brings the Platte rapidly above 
the Loup in following them upwards from the point of con- 
fluence. It is true that this lower gradient of the Loup is 
itself anomalous, so that I have only explained one anomaly 
by another. The full explanation of the second would require 
another article. 

The natural result of excessive deposition along the Platte 
would be to crowd the mouths of its tributaries eastward and 
obliterate their old channels. Xot only would they be turned 
to the east hy the mass of silt in their former ^at-h^^Mi. 



tltej wouM be crowded u|>on «Hch other unci unite in a mail) 
trunk almoet parallel to tlie Finite, like the luwer Loup. The 
lu'o causes, beadwHler tfrutrioti and Pliocene cbHimtfl-rillmK. 
liBVe worked together harmoniously. The former ha.s nwepl 
the upper courses ne»lward by a series of captures; Lhe latter 
has crowded-the mouths of the tributarioa eaatward and made 
tbeu) coalesce iuto u HiriKle tiir^e tributary. Thus a num- 
ber uf separate tribularic& entering tho Platlc nearly at right 
snirlee have beeo whecIcO into an oblique position, and 
evolred into one )freat tributary system, whose volume rivals 
that of the parrnt stream. L. E. Higkb. 



4 



NOTE8 AND NEWS. 

A TB1.E0RAII hBB been rerptt-nl annnuncin^ thp illness ctt the 
Right Iter. Jotin J. Keanf. D.D.. pre«id«-m M the Catholin Uni- 
T«nity of Amcrk-a. nn<) recguetiini; Mist tbt.- iIhIood w))i<^h Ills ad- 
dress, before tile Orooklyn InsUtiitc, on "Leo XI] I. and tlwHoclal 
[*roUemB of the Day " is to he gtv^n be [tcwtpoiiM until Bishop 
Keaue U able to come to Brooklyn to deliver il. 

— Th> Be who interest themsekn in the ahnripnil lan^nai^m of 
Autlrnlin, will hear vritb miirh satkfsclion (hut itie vernsnilnr of 
the nutivesof the HacI>onnell range, South Auotralln, lin» been 
stU(1ie<I and committed to wrtliDe by their missionary, Bev. H. 
K^uifie. who r««ide4 on the Finke River Riu>siofl. Hi» KrsGoroftr and 
vocsl'uiary occupy tbo nret flfly-four pages of the Tran^actlnns 
of the Royal Society of South Auxtralia (VoL XIV.. Pait I.. July, 
1881. 12mo>, a pmcKli(.-«l edited by Professor Ralph Tate, Adelaide, 
W. C. RuHby. publisher. 

— On the ttth of January representative scienlisbs from the 
rerenl part* of the State met in Austin, at (he Uoiversity of 

iXBs, aad orgaulxed a Texas Academy of Sviouce, The odlccfs 
are: pmuderit, I>r. Eveihart, pruTesMt oT ohruiistry. Austui: vice- 
prmident, Mr. Dumhle, iiiate geologist, Austin; trpnstirer. Profes- 
sor Nagle, A^tciiltural snd Merlianical college, Brynn; lionomry 
etary. Dr, Macfarlaiie, profeawr of phyftic«, Aur<|.ln; nieottiers 
council. Dr. IlaUteil, professor of matheuialk'S. Austin; Mr. 
I Btrecmwitz, Btale Ueologicol Survey; and Dr. Simonde, pro- 
of jjeoiogy, Austin. 

— At the Isle nnnuni meeting of iht> luwa .^tndemy of Science 
Mr. R. Ellsworth Call exhibited a remarkable fipecioien of the hu- 
man hyobi bone, taken from a mule fmhject. The ha^i-hyal was 

EomiT^y frrcf^lar on the anterior (surface witb complete oblit- 
I or the median rertical ri'Jge; the anterior aspect was also 
'aotnewliBt concave, TIte riijbt cernto-byal was entirely wanling: 
(be left wus nearly oh long as the Ihyro-hynl on its side, and was 
styliform in sba|)e. It was completely ankylosed lo the basi-byal. 
On the side on wbicli the c«nilo>hyal was wantiiiK then* was no 
«ridfDC« uf any structure correHpoiidiiig to Uie cerato*hyal and nu 
iodicatiiin of a iynovinl tiurxa or ittrijctiir« wbicb would show that 
il liad ever exl»t«d. In uihlition, the inuvoli.* of (hat iiide were 
allscbed to the hsM-bynl, snd this was believed to be the cause of 
the disappearance of the verlicnl median ridge and the cause of 
the rongbeoed cbaract«rs pre'enled by the anterior auiface. 

— The second oimual meetinj; of the Nebraska .\cademy of 
sienccs was held at (he University of Nebrnsko, commencing 
lunidsy, Deo. HI, 1881. The programme wa« as follows: the 

president's addrwa, BpeHtliutiou in ScieiKe (Pr. Kingsley beinf; 
absent, tlie address was read by Dr. U. E. Bessey); The Slime 
Moulds of Crete, l<y A. T. Bell; Tlie Evolution of Oxygen by 
PlanU, hy A. F. Woods; .Additiotts to the Ftom of Nebmska, by 
by Profeasor G. D. Swesey; The Flora of the ntnck Hills, by Dr. 
E. Beeney; Metabolium, by Dr. Q. D. Lowry: A Bacterial Dig- 
of Com, by IL i). Doncarwon ; Note* on the Flora of the 
lian Well at Lincoln, by J. R. Schofleld. Tbe officers for 
are: president. Dr. Charles E. Bessey, Unirentty of Ke- 
hmska, Lincoln; rice-pre^ideiil, Professor 0. D. Swi>zey. Dnane 
OoUege, Crete; sccretAry, W, E«lgar Taj-lor, Suie Normal School, 
Peru; costcKlian, Lawrence Bruner. Untveraity of Nebraska, Liu- 



ria. 
sillT 



coin; trustees, Bs-Superlnlendeot C. T Hartley. Liuculn. ao<l Dr. 
H. B. Lnwrv, Lincoln. 

— In a paper presented to the Iowa Academy of Sdeooea, 
•■entlr, >Ii»4 Minnie Ilowe, essisuint in bMagy in the West 
Mt^me^ High 8c!iool. described a r^cries of experiments made 
her at the Iswa Slate University during the winter and spring of 
1891, together with tlieir results. Tbe problem which Mias Ilowe 
attempted to solve wo.^ the separation of lhe Bacterium, BaetlllU 
tntbttUia, from (he ye»Ht plant Har^haromyce* etrfm*i(K found to* ^ 
gr(biT in ordinary Hoft yeast. She sought. al»o, lo obtain pUT«jH 
cultures of vHcb and to determine tite pari Ihnt each played in i 
btead-mnking- It wan found tbat bread made of sterilized Sour 
and rallied with tbe pure bacillus culture na^ liRbi. but uot as 
spongy as ordinary bread, sweet, close grained, rather dark-col- 
ored, smelling and tasting much like "Fnll'raii>ed " bread. Bread 
raiaod with the pure yenst culture under exactly the maw condl- 
lion'^Bti lhe llrvt wsh somewhat lictit. hwici. not so finu-graioed 
nor OA light ns either ordinsry ^^eBd or tbat msde with bacteria. 
It hdd a i>eculiar ineipid taste, with an m\ar unlike that of eithe 
of the other kindri. The tiwilt of the-e experiments seems 
show that neii her the yeast plant nor the hAcillu<) alone will mat 
as good bread ni l)Otb togetlier ; ibnt either without the other ' 
pro>iucc alcoholic fermtiitation ami cause t>read lo rise; tbat the 
biicillus 14 rather nmrc efhclent alone iban the yeast. Further 
(Expert mentalion is projeclcil along Lhe ounu!' line, since no one 
^X, of experinieolf can be regarded as oonclunre. ^ 

— '• Tbe tuilueuxa b once more in tbe air.*" soya tIte BrtWs* 
Medical jQurnal, "»uflcd hither uud tbitber throughout tbe 
habitable world, a rormldnblu, disat^ling, and fatal paudemic 
Once more we are lu'gently asked on all sides. ' Qave we a t{<eciRc ? 
Can we uffeJ- a cure?' It is the old delusitm and the everlasting 
and unreasoning, hnt excusable, imfuiti^ore for lhe miracu- 
lous nwl the imposMble.. • Disease come.<i by Providence 
and goes by me<licine;' that La a durable and popular fornnila. Of 
s|)ecittcft for nnle there are. of course, a legion. To sell Ibem is 
the buMinew* of lhe r|nacks; tt>e ihlatteis, the lldllowate. the Mor- 
rtBons sIjouih] in specifica. There sre ft doe«>n availalile for chol- 
era, for typhoid, fur auialLpox, (or liyilropltobiB, fnr oarciiH^tna^ 
all equally ptaiisil>le and ecpiHlly use)e»«> excvpt fnr commerce — 
and why not for influenxa? But is there a opeciflc for any dh- 
ease ? II is more than doubtful. The more we linnw of tlie nature 
and causu of disease, of its origin and life-history, the less we are 
inclined even to expect tbe discovery of ^peciftcd. Dlseaas we 
know wit as an entity, an euemy to l<e strut-k dotvu with a club, 
or to he e-Xpelled by h drug, hut as u iirucesi. tbe change of tissues 
and of fluids, the gmwih of a microbe, the proliferation of a cell, 
tbo secretion of a virus. We can tuoOify the proceases. we can 
lesten their virulent productH, we can fortify agnin-it their wont 
eSecU; we can aid tbe crolutioo and perhaps guide it to health; 
wimetiint!* we can arrest it; and often we can anticipate it Tbua 
we know how to ward off many diseases. Cbolcra, typhoid, 
8iuall'|>ox, bydrophoLiii are enemies whom we can meet at the 
gale and forbid their approach. Deaths front either of theae pr»< 
venlable Jiseu'K'S ure. fur Lh«t mu«l pari, violent <ieiitltd, inSicted by 
the ignorance of the people, the iwglect of the sanitary authorities. 
Pt>pulHa vuH inori. In their search fur upecitiw they parley with 
the enemy and lose their lives. Of iutiuensa we know Ivm than 
of most other infectii^ns; It is aextal. eomuiunieable from penoa 
lo jierson. and along the tinc4 of travel. For it, as for scarlet 
feviv, we have only isolation as a pieventive and palliatives as a 
trentment. Perliapa one day wn shall know more; but there doea 
not seem any liktilihocl of tbe discovery of a specific, and judging 
from numertus aualogien it ih far from certain that there is in this 
any ground for reproach. At any rate, it comtw Inully from a 
public and from a generation which is content to leave Oreat 
Bt'itain without even one Instihite of IVerentire Medicine, and 
whk^b is left to an appeal for fnods from a Lister and a Koecaa to 
found Bueh an lo^tltute — in which lies a chief hope for fimbw 
life-eaTiog and the advance of preventive and cuiuLive knowledge 
— while miiliuuH arv Isvisbed on weapons of destruotion. or the 
more obvtous n>eans of charitable relief to physical suffering; and 
ftnally on the purchase of fraudulent 'speciflos.* " 



LNUAKV 39. 1892.] 



SCIENCE, 



6» 



— Hie Rain Coovesnoo ol MlU«n, Suuth Dakota, voa lurgplf 
attvoded, and aa a mull it u beli^vnl tUat twraty coontles will 
tttv^ tite ofTi-r uf a KauMU artificial rnin coai|iaii7 to prodaco 
min (luring the rrr>[i ta>xiu^n at 90OD a county, on Ibe UDd<>rtiland- 
in{f thxc if llii-ix ia no rain there will bf> aa pa;. 

— Profewor S. Ward LiHier, lael yeai IvcLnxcr on bioloKy and 
In Ttlnity Colleuv. Hartford, .-md later (^>nnect^ with ihv 

(State* neolo^kal Surrej- in Colorado, has bren appoit)tv<l 
tarn u> itio Board <it tSAnagBmcat of Dip United StatBti Exhibit 
World's Vtiir. B« will aelet't atul rliLwiry fcisitilR. 

— It la expecwd tbat tbe Spicer Libnirf of the Brooklyn Poljr 
clioic win be catatogued aod opnted tor Budenta by May 1. 

).00O bad bccD »iM?aikd for boc^B and nearly 10,000 aelect«<l 
volum<^ hnw bt'^ii placed apoo it^ shelves, oooiprtsinK tbe lateet 
works in pliilo^hy. kw, bhtory, M-renci:-, nnd getiemi liiorsiure. 
Tto entire c-wt of the new builditi^, iucludlag Imd and Hjuip- 
meut, has bent eatlnuibal at (SJO.OOO. 

— Tbe next nH-vting of tin* N«n- York Section of the American 
BntQcU of tbe Society forpBjcbiral Rt.'w.'arch w'ill tw held hI Rixim 
10, Columbia College, La* ButldinK. Wednesday, l-'eb. 10. at 8 
F.I1. Pfofe»9or William Jam«r will preside. The ptottramme 
will be aa follows : 1. Routine bueinesa. 3. Address by IVof^wor 
Jamei. on tbe CeoeuA of Ualiucinalions. S. Report of rame ex- 
prviincnUi in autotnatic ivritiuK. ^y B. I'. Undei wood (to be read by 
It Hodg«on, sot:rctary of the AmeHcaa brunch). There will be do 
AJniit tanco except by ticket, S|>c(rtal tk'ket« ire »cot for mem- 
bers and amocialea. Other tteket«. each of irhicb tvill admit three 
f>ersf<ti<i. will enable member? and a^sociateii to introduce Lbeir 
fnendv Extra Itckrts may be obtained hy tnembera or aAsorifttea 
on application to the ^.eeretary of the section, J. H. Hy»lop, Co- 
lumbia Collei;r, New York. 

— The Xew York TVibune states (hat iinioog.tbe many proposed 
■ddltlooit to Columbia Collei;e U a new whool. to be known an tite 
Behool of Pure fV^it-nce. The nnnouncement has met with the 
approval of the many friend? of the college, C7p to the present 
time the greater part of tbe scientific work hae been done under 
tbe direction of tbe Cacnity of the School of Mines. ]n the new 

liooi the courAe will be ttiree years, and will lead to the degree 
'. Doctor of Pbilo«ophy. A i4udei)t In the School of Aria will tie 
to spend hi» Mnior year in that ilepatlnient, take tite dtftree 
! A.U. .and at tbe end of theserond and third years, res|>ecti vely, 
tbe nen- ^bool, take tbe de^reee or M. A. aod Ph.D. Tbe fac- 
ulty in the ychool of Pore Steteoce will be made up principnlly of 
the teachen in the School of Mines. The college proper will 
AUDUa diiMirlmeut. in ncoordance with the recomiuendntioos of 
' Cbarlw F. Chandler, dean of the Bebool of Mines, wlwrs 
!n)tUtc research ran l>e carried on. 

I — • The lloating of the p«rti(-l«« of cloud or fog, Uerr von Prank 
of OraK fevkd (o eiplniii (.Vofwre, Jan. 14) by the presence of an 
enirelo|te nf imiiuvjuk vapirr. Asan approxiuiatf av)*nif;e value for 
tbe diameter of droplet with envelope he gives 0. 7 mm. 9oppos- 
iug one cubic metre of doud to hold 3 grammes of water, tber« 
would be an interval of 0.2 mm. between tbe envelopes. When 
clouds |iaM over the sun, the abadows of objects are perceptibly 
iBngllieoed when Die darkening occurs, and tbe author attributes 
thin lo rvfmetion by the vapor eBTelopea. Again, it a difficult to 
cee bow water droplets in the form of cloud or fog could exi^t at 
•Ufb various lemperalures. did not the rapor envelope*, as bad 
cowlurlon* of heat (compare Leidenfroet's dropa), Ruard the drop- 
lets tm>om<i extent from evnponttinK and frM^inK- Tlie minute 
perticlM must soon be dicmipated by the »un'a rav«, if they were 
not in a kind of spheroidal "late. Thi« beatiDg expsmis the en- 
velopes, »o that the cloud tends to rise ; and Tarions |>lietiumenB in 
nature cuay ba thu« e:iplain«d (e.R. the rise of mint in Alpine 
Talk'Va). Onc« more, Utjuid droplet« have been otwerved (by Asa- 
nann) Ooallog in air of — 10° C. On uieelinR a solid body these 
to ice-lniupe without fryiitaUine fiiructurv. Bore, according 
I Herr von Frank, the vapor-enrelopes prevent freeting till Ibey 
rupturetl by the wild ; tbe droplet thus loses the bad euodne- 
of heat wbloh protected U, and solidifies so quickly tbat no 



erystals can form- Tha anihor supposett that with mneh oqunHis 
vapor in llw* air JHrgerdropsforai, tbe clouds HnatinK io-^rvr; with 
leJB aquirotM va|M.<r, the drops an- smaller and the rluud« highor; 
the tbi<-km>s of envelope, however, bein^ tbe same for largo tfltl 
smnll droits under like conditions of temperature and pressure. 

— A deapatcb to tbe New Ywk TVitwne, dut«U San Francisco, 
Jitn, 24, f tatea tbat U. W. Tarn«r. a Keudoitist of WaahhiKton. 
D.C.. who for two years [xtat, tUMlor Ibe au8|»oCH of tbeCallfomia 
Diviiiioa of .Mining Geology, ha-t been exploring the gold rvgioiHi 
of tbe Sierras, arrived there the day before. Mr. Turner obtaioeil 
from a gulch at Care i?ity. l>Unveras Cntmty, a mMcoric aGooa 
that will excite no little Interest In the scienliftc world. It la al- 
mcMt a* lar|^ as one's ti«t, and around a good portion of It la a \ 
solid film of gold. In ooe place llie gold shows (or about an inch 
square. Uitberto, in all discoverins, no meteoric iron has been 
found in cuMnedion with gold. " It tlfnioiulrat'^" Mr. Turner 
■•ay*, " tliat tlivre is godl in Ihf worMs uf «|muv from which uiute- 
oric iron has fallen. Tlu* ^|N■<'i<l)c^ will be l>Oked nml M-ot 10 
WashinKtoo. Other pieces wiU probably be fort»anU''l from Cal- 
averas. 1 have examined it very carefully. It 19 extremely 
tough, and it is aimwil impoesiMe to break it. In my oiunion it 
has fallen from otke of the stars. Thi^ demonslrales that there b 
cold in some of the stars, at least, I shall send tlus piece to llw 
Smtlhioniiin ItwtUulioD." 

— In tli« Reitrrtoriuut fiir Jfrfeorofoy^^lVoL XIV. No. 10). M. 
G. Berg diACu^virtr the fiequency and geographical diwtributioa of 
heavy dally rainfalls in Btiropvnn BuMJa. excepliog Finland and 
the (Tauceaus The obvecvaUoue, says A'ufure, refer to the yeaia 
I986-D0. a ralber sborl period: but in previous years ttier« wn« 
not aufllcieiit stations for such an investigation. The paper deals 
exclusively with falU ut between 1.4 aod 3 tnchrs. diaiributad 
nocording to nionthH, for the viirious ^ivemments of tbe empirft, 
Tbe reeulls fJiow that the frr^juenry of heavy falls is subject lu 
considerable Hiictuntion from year to year. Tbe r^loos of gieal- 
■•sl frequency occar on the nouth cast coa^t of the Crloeft aitd the 
i-xlreme *outh-weat of the empire: on tbe enalern side of Uie 
UniefHT, tlie re^i^o extending to Bmolensk and further north- 
wards is also subject to very heavy folb. The northern limit of 
daily falls of over 8 inches, so far as relates to Central Roaiia. fa 
the Government of Moscow. The yearly range of frequency 
reaches a maximum in summer, and, eiceftt in the south-eoAtem 
districU, tbe fre«juency in autumn is greater than in tipring. In 
July and Aogust tbe greAl falU extend over very large dlslrlrta^ 
and at utiisr Rnuona are generally regulated by the cuurse of the 
barometric dcpressMWi*, Tlie following is the average yearly fre- 
quency of the heavy fulls for llie whole empire, arranged accord- 
ing to seasons : winter, 0.8; spring, 14.8; euninicr, lOO.'l. autumn, 
iO.S. The maximum amount wliirb fell in uny day was over 8 
inches, in Bessarabia. 

— Thomas Wbitiaker hai juitretidy a second edition of St. 
Clair's - Buried Cities and Bible Countnes," tbe work on Pal««tii»« 
exploration ibat was well received lost fall. 

— E. & F. N. Spon * Co. ex|>ect to have ready vpry shortly lbs 
twxmd edition, revised and enlarged, of "The Maintenam.-e of 
MacadamiKied Koads," by T. Codriugloo; also the secuod etlitioo, 
revised and enlarged, of " The Municipal and Saniury Eiiginsei a 
Handbook," by U. P. Boulnois. 

~ Tbe pruapectus is issued of a t'orttlirhtuitururiMenxitafUitht 
ZtiUieitrift, an organ for laboratories of fi)re«t-l»«»liiny, foreat-xool- 
ogy, forest-clieuiinuy, sgricuUure, ai>d meteorology. It is to ap- 
pear monthly in Munich, under the editorshipof Dr. Cari Fmiherr 
Ton T>il>enf; tbe Bnt uiiiober is aonoanoed for th« current 
month. 

— A work on th* great earthquake of Japan, by ProfetHDr Jobn 
Uilne and Profemor W, R Burton, is now in tbo pros at Tokyo. 
It will be illustrated by SA large phtHo-plates. For the soke of 
comiiarison, there will be two ptat«n showing on a small ^ale the 
effects of earthquake in Italy and oth(*r countries. AH the plUas 
are to be on llie finest qnality of Japartese paper. 



SCIENCE: 



A WFSKIY NEWSFAPSH Of ALL TffS ABTS AND SClFlfCES. 

PtnUSHKS BT 

N. D. C. H ODGES, 

874 Bboadwav, Nbw York. 

OrMt IMMU) ud Kotopo 4.10 «rMr. 

OonnHanJcaUfMUiwlll tie««loDiiiMl tram say qua(t«r. Abxtractaof •olcatllk) 
p«p«n mtv aoUelicd. and mm buodnd ootitoit of tho tiw«i» c4iouUttlnit ciuih wll' 
he m«Uei1 Ut« KiiUinr on rwituMi in adTMUw. R«)Mtea m&iHMi»1riu will ti« 
r«titfB«d to Uh> autlKini aaiy when tbo nM|uUile uDount ot poatw(« Booom- 
p«a1«a t&< ■uumaortpt. Wbttt«r«r !■ iBtcndtd for ui*Mtloo ivtM &« MQibrotl' 
n4U<il hr Ibr tikiiMi kBit Mliltva* of tbo vrltrr; tint iiM>c«i«rUT tat (iiitalte«tJoii. 
bat »■ a KUATNitf of food fkllli. W« do Dot bald ounoJrM roapaoalblv for 
Miy TlQw or oplaloQB oproiMd in tbe egmawpi KkUum fit nor eom-vpotidinibi. 
AttfifiUou U cAllod tn Ihn "Waiita" coIurib. All am lorltod to luw It In 
■olfatltlng lufnrBiatloo or »a«Ung unw pcwIUmta. Thn aniam and Bddn«a of 
AppHcuita abould b« gina la fUD. mo tbai antvem wlU ko tllr«ci to ll»ai. The 
Biclianm" ouloma lallkovlapoiw'n. 

ror^Jkd*«tUlnc Bum apiilr to Usmbt P. Tatlos. IT Lalaj^tt* PtM«, Kew 
rorfe. 

A BECENT ANALYSTS OF WILL.' 

Thk promise made by Professor Baldwin in llie preface to 
liiii fimt "TTiiudbook"' Iihs been fulfilled. The expeetalion 
aruttaed hy this pruiuisv Ims i>crl)apf boou more than grniiticd 
aince in the "Psychotogry of Keeling and Will" we have 
the BBmp ri)^>rous BcieuUlIc treuLmeut whkh characlerizcd 
tli)> former volutue, applied to Hubjec-t mailer whicli, for rea- 
KonH now huowu to bt> suicidal, baa been worked over fur 
college (exl-books with far less care a^id antiKfaclion than the 
Ktiiclly inlellectDal nijeralioaa. It must Iw a source of coo- 
(pnalulatiou to teachers of psycholoi;* U> know that we are 
uow buvinp h''^" "" yenr by year psyrhologies wbich deal 
wilh the stubborn complexities of mind from s standpoint 
Uml bid» fair to iti%'e u» soon, if it has not done so already, a 
voritablo "'New Psychology." 

Tvbing the old method at its true worth and retaining the 
sum lulul of vuluablb re«ultfi it has g;iveo, it is still evident 
thai the " natural science point of view " has been ao fruit- 
ful in il8 cun«tniutioti of psycboluf^ical data, bos so modiSed 
Id oonceptiona, has in fact so chauged the whole face of 
pKycliolnnicol procedure, that nothiug abort of " New Psy- 
clioloi^y "' can hrieHy charaj-'lerixe Ihewe coiinequenceo. The 
Tolumea of both JameK and Baldwin will, however, have 
their real value for teachers, not only &s psychology, but us 
affording an ordered IxKly of srientitically determined InivR 
necrtwary forunylhtng liku f^uiLful philoeM>phica1 construc- 
tion. Tb»f ddti* of philofftpby mnat roine from wit^nce h« 
positive, and the scientific data given up by psycholni^y nrp, 
it IK clear, peculiarly valuable a» a contribution to the cou- 
dttiouH neceatiary forwrinuH pbiloeopbizing. Rational inter- 
ipretation. aided by " Lh« judtciun» use of hypothesea." is 
i«oe«»ary to complete the full survey of mind, but pre8U|>- 
if it is to be of genuine worth, previous empirical to- 

iligatlon. Upon such inTef>tignlton is based " Iho possi- 

> -nsDdbQokaf PardMlosy: p««Ui>c aad WUl," byJmmiM Mark B*ld«lD. 
necuT UoK A Co., Hew Tork. 
* ■■MinMandlQiMllwi.*' 



1 



[Vol. XIX. No. 4^ 

bility of a psychology, which U not a metaphysics, nor ereo fl 
a philosophy." ' 

Written under this concepUoa is Profesaor Baldwin's 
"Handbook.^ It in repletj?, however, wtUi latent suggea- 
tiuns which lake one immediately over into the philosophical 
field. Such -suggestJooK when formatly staled are to he found 
in the small print, which immedial«ly followa the strictly 
psycbolocical aualysis aud dit>cns4iou. 

Peculiarly rich in suggestion for etbical consLructioo has 
seemed to me the author's diacussioo of "Will.*' and I de- 
sire, in brief review, lo dissect out of thi* body of the analy- 
sis the facia which have ultimate bearing on the question of 
"Freedom." For whether iolvablc or inaolvablc in any 
ultimate &eoBC on |>6ycbologicnl gmunds every one muet ad- 
mit that the weapons of aualysis whereby the complex prob- 
lem of " Free- Will " may be rcductid to iuLelligible form are 
in the hands of psychology. Kven if we reach no satisfac- 
tory soluliun. it is at least again to know clearly wbal the 
elenienUt of the problem are. It iK natural euouith, (i»re- 
fore. that with every ullempt lo throw new light on the un- 
derlying elementN of volitiou, (be old Kon- of frvedom should 
be reopened. As long as philosophy has life, an acknowl- 
edg«>d fundamental quetlion cauuot remain panvively unset- 
tled; pbilofl^phy (-antiol be held in check by external prohi- 
biliim; it moves with an inner life of its own. 

Bidgwick recogniu>» tbi» in iii» rt-turn to the quealioo or 
fr«c<lom.' claiming, hr be does, that, although "complete 
mutual uuderslaniiing will never be reached until we have 
reached complete confutation of fundamental errors," yet 
"h diminution of the amount of misunderstanding . . .fl 
especially on fundamenlal pointjt." is an end in itself worth ^^ 
slriviug for. What Professor Baldwin's discussion has so- 
compliahed in the interests of thisdeaideratumof ditnini 
misunderstand iu^, let us sec. 

Ohapbera xii. and xiii. dinrutdi, under the general title 
the "Motor Aspects of Beosuous Feeling." tir«t, ''the motor 
consciousness: second, the 'stimuli,' to inroluntarj move- 
ment" Asa fundamental law of the motor conscioujBnoB 
we have stutod what i% calU-d the law of meniA.1 dynamo- 
geneeis, vii., "that every state of consriousneas lends to 
realiie itself in an appropriate muscular movement." Tb« 
general conclusion reached on the reactive coasciousnen H. 
that this " consciousnecs. per ge. is simply conscious^evof h 
uerrous rcactioDs and memories of <tucli reactions or of their ^| 
elements. As far as there is a consciousness of self in reflex 
attention, it i& ua objective felt self rather than a subjec- 
tive feeling active self. Wlialerer ground may be found 
suhnequenLly for such an active executive wlf, we Bnd no 
such fjronud here" (pp. 293—1). "Hiis ennchiflion is corrobo- 
ratetl by a reference to certain well-known hypnotic phe- 
nonii-nu in wbtuli power of dioice is wanting and the oon- 
8ciou*n«*» of the pati«nt beconiw entirely reactive. 

Stimuli lo involuntary movement atv next analyned and 
discussed. " By stimulus is meant the alFective uxperieuce 
of any kind wbioh t«nd« to iiuue iu cnuwioiis motor reaction " 
(p. 895). Such stimuli fall under one or the other of two 
gn»t classes: (i) orjranio. (81 extra ort^ntc. In this con- 
nection (p. 20-1) is found the ditFerenlintion of stimuli an 
impulsive or iostinctire. Sensuous impultM* xw. "the original 
tendency of consciousness lo express itself in motor terms an 
far as this tendency exists apart from particular stimula- 
tions of sense " (p. 307). On the other hand. " iustinc-ta arts 
original tendencies of consciou^uess to express itself in motor 
terms in respooae to deflnile but generally complex stimula- 

■ KId4, OctolMr, DM. 



1 

M ao- 
isbed^ 

Lie of ■ 

notor V 



JANUARY 29, 1893.] 



SCIENCE. 



«$ 



tiona of mdw; i.e., they are inherited motor intuitioDs" (p. 
311). Nor must it he for^tteo that all these claases of 
stimuli have meaniog^ for the reactive coDSciousDeaa because 
they have a " feeling: aspect." " An idea simply as an idea 
— if such could be realized — might not react in movement; 
but the simple prtrseoce of an idea in consciousness is itself 
a feeling, and only in as far as it affects us does it move us " 
(pp. S13-S14). " Affects," therefore, is the expressive term 
to he applied to all stimuli to involuntary movement. 

Id chapter siy., ideal feeling, in its motor aspects, is the 
subject of discnssion. llere the stimuli have a characteristic 
vantiog to those previously considered, viz., the element of 
intention. The "end foreseen '' illuminates and directs con- 
sciousnesa io company with the ever-present stimulus of 
"interest." Professor Baldwin Bads that "interest in an 
object," "emotional excitement," "idea-motor suggestion,"' 
" ideal pleasure and pain," are the general stimuli to volun- 
tary movement. The genetic aspect of mental life — the 
organic conoectioa of highpr with lower in mental develop- 
ment — here finds illustration in the reappearance of " affects" 
as stimuli. In lines worth quoting we are told, that "the 
psychology which separates volition from reaction so sharply 
as to deny any influence upon the will to other stimuli than 
pictured ideas, is false. The conditions back of an act of 
choice are never limited to the alternatives between which 
the choice is made. There is beneath it all a dumb, unex- 
pressed mass of affects — organic partially — felt tendencies 
OQtwards, which give coloring to the whole process" (pp. 
319-3S0). This is interesting as a preliminary warning of 
the complexity to be met when we come to the fundamental 
problem of choice and its conditions; for it is complexity 
mch as this which makes free-will the Gordian knot of moral 
philosophy. Analyze and elaborate what is known, as best 
we may, and there is yet left over a residuum of unreduced 
complexity sufficiently great to introduce a precarious ele- 
ment into our best results. To snatch certainty out of the 
hands of uncertainty, other considerations than those purely 
peychological may be necessary; it may be necessary, as in 
Professor James's case, to adopt a belief in freedom on ethical 
groands. In the graphic language of James, "taking the 
liak of error on our head, we must project upon one of the 
alternative views the attribute of reality for us; we must so 
fill our mind with the idea of it that it becomes our settled 
cpeed>' 

Passing by the analysis of "desire," with its ethical sug- 
gestions all along the line, we come to tbe author's definition 
of "motive," as "any influence whatever which tends to 
bring about voluntary action " (p. 332). Motives may be 
either ends or affects, while ends alone give definite lines of 
guidance where choice is made. 

"From the exploration of the springs of voluntary activity, 
tbe author passes to the nature of such activity, finding 
that it is always characterized by a feeling of consent or 
feeling of effort. All effort feeling is one of two kinds — 
either positive or negative; effort to do or effort not to do. 
Fiat of will is positive effort; ueget, the negative. Three 
factors in the development of voluntary movement are stated : 
*' (1) Voluntary attention to a presentation, which, in turn, 
stimulates a native muscular reaction; (3) voluntary atten- 
tioD to a presentation of movement, which stimulates the 
morement presented; (3) voluntary attention to an end for 
which a muscular reactiou is a necessary means" (pp. 343-4). 
These come to light as a result of the analysis of the fiat and 

■ of. JsmM's " PBrobology," Vol. II., p. tSA. 

■ "PBTdHdogy," V<d. n., p. S78. 



neget into their elements; and this examination gives grouod 
for the important claim that " the entire question as to what 
volition is, is accordingly thrown back upon an investigation 
of the exercise of voluntary attention " ' (p. 34Si. 

Chapter xiii. introduces matter hearing from the very be- 
ginning more directly on the problem of freedom; the whole 
field is canvassed with a minuteness and comprehensiveness 
which makes the discussion a model of what psychological 
investigation should be. Ton feel at once that Professor 
Baldwin's mental constitution has no toleration for vague 
thinking, and that his style has a scientiSc bharpnesa about 
it that never admits of doubtful interpretation. The chapter 
throughout is characterized by a richness of ethical sugges- 
tion such as one rarely meets in text-books on psychology. 
Philosophers of Dr. Johnson's type, with their " we're free 
and there's an end on't," would learn not a little about the 
inner character of that freedom if they were willing to do 
the clear thinking which Baldwin's book makes possible. 

Baldwin emphasizes with James* Iheabsurdit; of a concep- 
tion of "motives" only loo common among philosophical 
philislines. The confiict of motives is not a conflict between 
separate ideas with a distinct activity of their own, each ex- 
ploding its own gun to compel submission from the others. 
Such a conception is worse than imaginary, " A motive is 
nothing in itself. It is only a name for a paKial expression 
of the nature of the agent. Consequently motives can in no 
sense be considered as forces which expend their energies 
upon the will or which fight each other" (p. 353). Again, 
" how can they be conceived as separate entities contending 
in a theatre which is cold stone to all of them t Bather they 
are all vital elements iu the functional synthesis of a living 
consciousness." 

Another essential point is emphasized, namely, that when 
we penetrate to the inner nature of volition we find that it 
carries with it the act of attention (p. 351). This reminds 
one strongly of James's assertion that the real question of 
fact in the controversy 00 freewill relates to the "amount 
of effort of attention or consent" which could be given at 
any one time.' The role played by attention in deliberation 
and choice is of fundamental importance. Deliberation is a 
process of examination and comparison, — it is the search- 
light of the mind illuminating the field of consciousness, 
bringing clearly into view alternative or incompatible de- 
sires,' and comparing their relative degrees of desirability 
prior to the act xyf choice which is the termination of the 
process: with choice the final fiat has gone forth, deliberation 
is at an end, and the deed is potentially done. " A resolve 
involves all the elements of a motor fiat except the word 
'now.'"' Of the two great classes of motives, "affects" 
and "ends" involved in deliberation and choice, superior 
volitional worth is given to "ends." These are the more 
objective data before the eye of deliberation. " It is only 
by strengthening the influence of particular ends that effects 
enter." in fact, " what actual volition is concerned with is 
therefore ends, and ends only." If this be so, it is important 
to learn how an end passes into volition. 

Baldwin's answer to this question is like Hodgson's.' The 
picturing of ends is a thinking process: it is an ordinary 
apperceptive act by which new elements are taken up into 
the old by a larger integration, the process being one of ab- 

• cf. JamM'B •' PsyotolOBr," Vol. II., p. 561. 

• " Paycholoftj," Vol. II.. p. 5«9. 
' " Paycbology," VoL II., p. 671. 

• HlDd, AprU, 1891, p. ITO; ■'Fre«-WlU: Ad Analyats," by Sbadvortli 
HodKBOu. 

1 JuneB, ToL II., p. Ml. 

• AprU numtwr of Mind, 1881, p. 171. 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol, XIX. NoT^S 



sorption and adjastmcni. " The aueittioti moves tbmufthoiut 
Ibe series uf eluuieuU, grusijuig-, relttlioi;, rcUiiimp. Kelectiui;. 
aod wlieti the inlegralioii il efTccU »4vcUft and HlUconsoiiius- 
netB — that in tlie Hal" (p. 355). Tbal is to aay. tlic tlevisivx 
point ift reacliei], the rendio^^ strife is over, when Uic difi- 
tracling cbai-aotRr of Lhe plements has be«n subduttd, tue 
utueltl«d claitDH )uili«ned, and tbe "alt«ntiou |iHt« iU hold 
upon its iuU'gniled C:OuteDt as a grand r?laU>d aitualion." 

It Lt Dccessarj to pin tlie attentive act down still closer. 
What can alttntion do in the inattvr of iuitiation of motivoR I 
I* attention unmotived t Is it independent of the internal 
and external ('onditifins of endownient and environment t 
Prof(!S8or Baldwin replies in llio iicgativo: an analysis oT the 
twu general claasefi of "apparent Inilialion of motive iuteu- 
rity " — cases of involuniar}- attention and cases of dctibem- 
tioa — renders an aOirnistive aoitwer untenable. Btrenttth- 
ened intensit.r in the former cmbpb in easily shown to be 
ittvuluntaryi in (he lult^'r, "u» xixiii m» any muIi preTentnce 
comes in — any physical, uiental. or euiiitional motive for 
wi^hinf; to intensify this parliciilar alteroaUve — then my 
choice iii already made and T am roolinir myself in thinicing: 
that I om rcucliini; an uitbiusml ileviMou." 

Consequent upon these preliminBries comes the aathor'a 
formal statement of the problem of freedom, in which he 
unfolds vrith gr^Al clearness of ihouuKl and transparency of 
expresaion the following four ailernative^s: (1) indeterminifim, 
(2) external delerniinisni, (3) immitnenl deLerminiHUt, (4} 
ffeedoDi n.t self expression, The contingent or indelormiuia- 
tic view, wilh its theory of uncoodiljoned choice, meets with 
a very summnry hut warranted rejet'lion. It is not only 
crudely Dnpsychologncsl, hut defeats the very end in whose 
inlereat it is projected; moral responsibility has the very 
trrouud cut from under its feui on any such theory; the con- 
ception of an a^nt whose voluntary expression involves 
moral Judgment because he is agent, is emptied nf all mean- 
injf. Pr«tfeitfw»r Baldwin gives us here imlhini: new — nor 
waait nei*f%«ary. This controversy has already been "thrashed 
out to the very last fragnieiitx uf chatT," ' 

The external determinlHts are all those who explain voli- 
tion in terms of ualunii causality, and thus cooaider the 
pfoblem of volition a problem in physical dynamics. " Mo- 
tives are forces in reference to one another, effects in refer 
enoe to the brain, iu which they have their causal support; 
volition Is the consciousness of the outcome of a conflict of 
force*" (p. 370). The objection to this theory is tliat it 
floats in the air. To give it weight, an aasuuipUon i» neces- 
sary, which neither science nor philosophy can Hubalatitiate, 
The theory a&sumes the pussibility uf a continuous movement 
under naliiral causality across the pbysicwl into the mental 
world. Whatever may he Iwlieved aa toa "unifnrni psycho- 
physical connection,'' thei* is no warrant for assuming that 
con8ciou8ne«s is an epiphenomenon. So, too, there is no 
les-itiiD&te ground for believintr molaves to he mere natural 
pbennmeoa. Baldwin i^ an pO!;itivc ae Green. Ihoii^h from 
a very ditTereut suudpnint, thata mo Live is vastly more than 
a natural phenninenon. \^ to muml action, therefore, that 
view of it is false which 8Uppo»e8 "(hat the motives which 
determiue it, having natural antecedents, are themselves but 
links io the chain of natural phenomena." ' 

The analysis of motive exhibits three important results: 
1. Choice is never motivene^. 3. The end chosen if. always 
a ayatbesis of all present motives, and is adequately ex- 
prcBsed by no one of them. 3. This synthesis is an activity 

* fousthsn Bdwihrdii, Dar. oiA. 

■ OrooD'i " I'[al»(timeaa ta SUilc*," p. S3. 



aui fffneria : it finds no analogy in the compORition of physi- 
cal forces. Wilh thene results clearly in view, he lluJs that 
■'freedom, therefore, is a fact, if by it wo mean thw expres- 
sion uf one's self as conditioned by ]iuhi choices and present 
environment " " Free choice is a syathevis, the outcunie u^_ 
which is, in every case, conditioned upon its elenienta, bi^H 
in no case caused by Ihem'*' ' (p. 373). 

To read Baldwin's chapters on Uio will (for these were 
welt worth the space o( a sepacate review) is to feel thai a 
mind of admirable scientific temper has been at work through^ 
out. Approaching the phenomena of mind from the nalofl 
relict's point of view, be ban guarded again.<«t the tentlency, 
all too common in thene day?*, nf tryini; to drive the princi- 
ple of phyncal causalit}' through a multitude of facts, natu- 
rally and philosophically recalcitrant to such treatment 
The RTvat leseou of his two volumes is, that iu peyohology 
the Bpiilic^ition of scientiQc methods and canon:! Lo mentAM 
phenomena ailordB no results which a cautious metaphysial 
may interpret as caf tioK discredit on spiritualism iu philoso- 
phy. RcKiSK B. Jdhmsijk. 

Mlsni UnlYorcltr, (jxtord. ublo. 



HIR GEORGE niDDlCLL AIRY. 

The cable has Just flashed across the ocean the auoount 
meut of the dcuth of i:<ir George Biddell Airy, the emiuent 
astronomer of England, fie was born on the S7th day of 
June. 1801, al AInivicU. in NurthumherUud, and hud. there- 
fore, jusipaitsed the hair-mile post that would bring him to 
hia ninety-iirst birthday. ^ 

Sir Georfre Airy's life and work will always be lookiiH 
upon as one of the most prominent pillars in llie sHtronotnt- 
cal edifice erected in the nineteenth century. lie had al- 
most lived to sec what had been done in that hundred of 
years. He had stotKl upon the pileof debris Ihronn up from 
the foundation, and looked down upon thu formation of a 
structure, little dreaming that he would live lo see the tin- 
ishing lo'jchea put upon an ediHce to which he bad added ^^' 
much materii^l. ^M 

Airy was educated first at two private academies, Herefoit^ 
and Colchester. From the latter, at the age of eighteen, he 
entered Trinity follo(fe, Cambridge. Three year* after- 
wards be was elected to a scholarship. In that college ha 
developed his remarkable mathematical ability. Kraduatiog 
as Senior Wrangler. His degree of M.A. was taken in ISSH, 
Olid, with it, he was elected as Luscasian professor at Oam* 
bridtje. Illustrious philusopheta like Barrow and Newton 
had preceded bim as occupants of that historic chair. Just 
previous to his election to that chair he published his matb- 
pmatical tracts on the " Lunar and Planelai-y Theories," 
"The Figure of the Eartli," etc, and "The Uudulatorj 
Theory of Optics." 

Professor Airy, having been installed iu the puaition 
meutioned, followed his appointment with a series of popu- 
lar lectures upon experimental philosophy, which were de- 
livered with remarkable olFecl, nnd which greatly enhanced 
hia scientific reputation The university, recog-nizing in him 
one whose investigations were of a high order, elected liim 
two years afterwuwl to the Phimian professorship. Thig 
election gave him charge of the Cambridge awtronomical ob- 
servatory, and now is inaugurated on epoch in his life that 
is to elevate him to one of the highest poeitioos held by Gog- 
lish scientific men 

Having been placed in the position above cited, ProfMsoir. 

■ et. 4kmm, Vci. IL, pp. tfft -a. 



January 39, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



65 



Airy began those great improvements in the methods of cal- 
culating and publishing (he astronomioal obsorvations made, 
which have led other observatories to take copy arier bim. 
Airy was a methodical man, a professional and a business 
man. He made his work conform to a scheme laid out the 
year before, and that plan was strictly followed. His work 
as an astronomer and a calculator is valuable, because it is 
unbroken and comparable. The astronomical instruments 
that have so long stood within the walls of Cambridge Ob- 
servatory were made after his own plans and under bis own 
directions. 

In 1B3S Professor Airy, then in his thirty-fourth year, was 
appointed Astronomer Boyal. For forty six years he filled 
that position with marked ability. Under his master- 
mind it is needless to say that the astronomicnl observatory 
at Greenwich was completely changed. He placed the man- 
ner of reducing the observations upon a uiore Ratisfaclory 
basis, and equipped the observatory with instruments of a 
higher order of precision. In the year 1850, under bis guid- 
ance, a new meridian circle was erected. It has an object 
glass of eight inches aperture and eleven feet six inches focal 
length. In 1855, at his earnest solicitation, a large equa- 
lorial telescope was placed in the observatory. 

Professor Airy was a roan that not only combined the 
philosopher with the mathematician, but was one ibat had an 
inventive mind as well. This may he seen in the many 
forms of astronomical instruments and their accessories due 
to his very active brain. The value of the observations made 
by him during his occupancy of the position of Astronomer 
Boyal at Greenwich, rests not only upon their accuracy and 
dispiitch in being published, but on their continuity. This 
may be seen in his reduction of lunarobservatioiisfrom 1750 
down to a late date, a most valuable series of observations. 

Airy was a mau in whom his government had the utmost 
conSdence when it came to deciding questions of grave im- 
port. He was the chairman of the royal commission em- 
powered to supervise the delicate process of contriving new 
standards of length and weight, the old standards having 
been destroyed in the burningof the House of Parliament in 
1834. He was called in consultation soon afterwards in re- 
spect to removing the disturbance of the magnetic compass 
in iron-built ships. He thereupon contrived a mechanical 
combination which has been universally adopted. His re- 
searches on the density of the earth, his fixing the breadth 
of railways, bis care in the equipment of the British expedi- 
tion to observe the transit of Venus, and the reduction of the 
observations after having been made. — all voice the great 
confidence placed in him by his countrymen, and his worth 
as a practical astronomer. 

The writings of Sir George Airy cover a great deal in the 
field of philosophical and mathematical thought, and are 
thorough in their discussion of each subject. His pen was 
over busy, and one has but to turn to the volumes of the 
Cambridge Transactions, the Memoirs of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, to the Philosophical Magazine, and the 
A.th£nmum> to find its fruits. But in the volumes issued 
from the Greenwich Observatory %ve find the great life-work 
of Sir George Airy. They are the polished stones, the finely 
carved pillars that have been used in building up the as- 
tronomy of the nineteenth century. His principal works, 
which have become books of reference, are: " Gravitation," 
"Ipswich Lectures on Astronomy,'" "Errors in Observa- 
tiotu," "Figure of the Earth,"' "Tides and Waves." 
"Sonnd,"and "Magnetism." 
One whose reputation as a man of such scientific attain- 



ment as Sir Geoi^e Airy has deservedly received recogni- 
tion, both from his own country and abroad. He has re- 
ceived the Leiande gold medal of the French Institute in 
honor of his important discoveries in astronomy. For his 
successful optica] theories he was awarded the Copley gold 
medal of the Boyal Society. The royal gold medal of the 
same society has been given him in return for his tidal investi- 
gations. Twice. the gold medat of the Royal Astronomical 
Society has been given bim — first, in return for his discov- 
ery of an inequality of long period in the movements of 
Venus and the earth; second, to reward him for his reduc- 
tion of the planetary observations. He has been enrolled 
among the most honored members of the Royal Astronomi- 
cal Society, of the Cambridge Philc»ophical Society, and of 
the Institute of Civil Engineers. For many years he has 
been among the foreign correspondents of the Institute of 
France, and other scientific sccieties on the continent. He 
has secured the honorary degree of D.C.L. and LL D, from 
each of the great universities of Great Britain — Edinburgh, 
Oxford, and Cambridge. In May. 1872, he was gazetted a 
Knight of the Bath. 

When the years shall have passed into centuries, and 
coming astronomers are searching the records for valuable 
data to be used in the discussion of questions in astronomy, 
the observations and results determined by Sir Geoi^ Bid- 
dell Airy will be found of the highest value. 

Geo. a. Hill. 

STRUCTURE OF THE TRACHEAE OF INSECTS.' 

Mr. LiACHLan's article on insects in the " Encyclopeedia 
Britannica" reproduces Blancbard's error of a double chi- 
tinous wall for the tracheee with a spiral thread between. 
Blanchard and Louis Agassiz superadded a peritracheal cir- 
culation of blood. Joly's refutation of this view, in 1850, 
failed to give the real cause of the error: this was 
not, as suggested by him, due to bad injecting: but 
it resulted from observing insects when moulting. At time 
of moulting the trachea contains the old chitinous wall, dark 
and enclosing air, and surrounded with exuding fluid be- 
tween it and the new chitinouB wall: thus the appearance of 
things is much as described by Blanchard. who mistook the 
exuded fluid for circulating blood, and also mistook a tem- 
porary state of matters for the normal state. 

The view published by me in tbe .American Naturalist, 
in 1884, that the spiral thickenings of the trachea are really 
crenulations, channel-like transverse folds open outwards 
(i.e., away from the lumen of the trachea) by a slit or fis- 
sure, was supported by indirect evidence, and needs to be 
enforced so as to leave no doubt. Miall and Denny, in their 
monograph on the cockroach, write as if they had been able 
to unroll the spiral like that of a vegetable trachea, with- 
out tearing the connecting membrane, and copy Chun's 
very inaccurate ligure, which ascribes a free continuous 
spiral thread to the trachea of insecte just as we find it in 
the plants. 

A re-examination of the case brings out the singular result 
that the whole machinery can be distinctly seen by the mi- 
croscope to be such us I have described it. The profile of a 
medium-sized trachea of any insect can be easily seen to be 
grooved like the edge of a screw : all the more clearly if the 
trachea is slightly stretched under' the cover-glass. In tbe 
living insect we may observe that the resiliency of the trans- 
versely chanelled walls responds to the muscular contraction 

■ Abatnut of b pap«r read bj O. Madookte befmra tlia Amerliwo AwoaI»- 
ttoQ of NftturallBtB, D«c:, 1891. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 4«9 




of the thorax*'au(l, abdomen. 90 as to aB?iat Uie tidal move- 
ment of air niitwards and inwards. 

I niaj add Ihat one of Chun's Sgures (copied in the paper 
in Am. i^a(.) correctly represents the spirals of Eri^taitti, 
giviai^ even the external slits. Iiifirhly magnified : but he mis- 
inl*^rp^(;t8 the slits, aod takes thvQi to be longititdiiial ridges 
on what ho supposes are solid threads, I hare also jrleasure 
in learDinsr that my youug- friend. Professor U. T. Feruald 
of Pennsylvania Agricultural f!ollege, after reading my pa- 
per in 1884. fllained and cut line sections of Pamuhtu cumu- 
tus and thu>i show^ Lht* spiraU to be a xet of liolluw j^rooves 
euclosing Boroe of the stained hypndprmts which secretes and 
surrounds the trachea;. 

PrltKMou c«il«KO, Jul. St. 



LETTERS TO TETE EDITOR. 



**« Onmapondrst* art rtqumtlrd ti> bt at hritf at pnuiblt. n« ■mrlhr'i nam 
tt In iMautt rri/ufrnr a* t>roof of stood fnitk. 

On Ttqitrtt in advanet. onm Atinifnif copimt of tha MHMb«r OOnta/nfMp lk^« 
tKMtmwitfratftiri wfTI be furttii)ud/raa la uav eomtpotultiil. 

naaditor tcillbtalnrl la publlth riMfifiuriaM i^nnvonnqt wttk th* tlutmcttr 
itf Itie jatimal. 

A LightniDg Stroke. 

Ok the W)th of May, 188l,a iiany of Indies and gentlemen vrtm 
in no oniDtbuR from Washington lu itiv i-ouutry wat of a friend 
(IT. 0. Metscrott's), distant nine miles, in t'rincv C}eorgc*8 Uonnty, 
Ud. 

During Iho nftpnioon tho party was seated on tbo spacious 
Tcrunda o( Ibe dwcltinK, the liorses and omnibu)) standing on the 
lawn iuiniwIJately tn tbe front. 

Suddi-ulv a ft>w cionds gntlif n.'<l, and, iM-fon.' »ny rain ft-ll, n 
»eren> nnd xuddt-n clap of Lliund>>r xtartlM tbem. Al Ibv Mm« 
in»lsul a flntib or slresk of lightning di*sc«ni]«d and ripped apart 
the 90ulb'We«t ctirner of tiie roof of the frame carriafie hou»e 
Ktantlini; »k>ae at>out twu bimdred tveL distant, d<-»4vn<)ed down 
tbe sb?tilbinfi to uiidnay or the ^'lesl, or end, ivall of the (vrriiiKC 
lK>u8t). (bun at riftbt auKkti iipthttontly to tbe cvutre of the nail 
wb«n> iheolaji Ixxurdtutt ua!< ri[^p>-d and Hbutlurod; tbvn eli-cck u 
hniss-tippeil puir of Kbufiu Htandiog near tbe uorth-nTot ani{lu, 
shatti-fing tho riitht -baud i>liaft about midway, where a 6-trip of 
iroo covered with leatber was plained to nvtve as a ^(ay fur ibe 
breeching strap; then apparently pas<!«d down anil out at the fiiior 
by the closed door of the carnage honse, where it was plainly seen 
by nil the company moving along rapidly in aniaJl coils or olicirs 
op the roatl leading to the roniixJa. ti> Ibe hoofs of the horses, 
playing aroiittd them witit great velocity, and thon ap|tarrnlly 
dbsipatcd, no one could tell whvre. The bor«cs w^m t(ii?Atly 
agitated, fairly Irembleil, lint did not move; and most of the coui- 
pany ou the porch expericnct-d a tinRling, aliugmg sensaliou, but 
none vfen tttunneU. Th« nky aouo rlear^il. J. H. 

WaabtostOD, D.C.. Jan. JZ. 



Traumatic Hjpaoiiam. 
TnE case nfC«ntly Mated »( a lady thrown into a hypnotic con* 
dition by bring thrown from a uau-iisK^. in wliirh t^mdilion sha 
Raid and didct-rtMin lhtnK"o( wliioli Uitt iirxt dsv uhv WA> vutirvly 
unconsciuu*, lirin^D lu mind a 'art ibul occurred near tbis pture. 
Twu Indit oi lourti^i-u and sixteen went out to fevd tbe stork. 
Coming near a yuung, ainiusi uubrokfn coll, they leajied on bis 
bock. TiM* animal ittarted in a wild run fur tlip barn, and dash- 
ing In at a low donr struck the two lads violently against the 
beam that formM the top of tbe door. The door being vory low 
the blow was not on the headfi but the chests of the boys, sweep- 
ing tbcm from the colt's b«ck to the frozen ground. Tbc elder 
lad sat behind hia liroth«r, aad waa thrown heavily to the fjround, 
atrikinjt the back of lia head, his brOth<^r (ailing ii[>on bim. Both 
lada riMe: llie rider rubbrd his h«ad, lot»kt^] about, went into the 
ham and cotoplvted bis evening liu>k« in nn orderly manner, re- 
plying to hi* brother when addressed. They went lo the bouee, 
and tbe lad warmed himaelf by tbe "love, went to the table, ate a 



lighter supper than uninl, and replied intelligently when spokan 
to; bat bb> eyes were dull and bad a daaed, half -eoofdoDS look. 
After su;>per he eat by the tire for some time, laughing aloud 
ODce or twice "at nnthiog" — than went to bed sh uxual. Tha 
next morning it waA fottikd that be knew nothing of any 
evpnl after the instant of jumping on the colt's back, and seeing 
it daHb otf toward the bum. Oc had not felt the blow, nor b««n 
con^icioiM of tho faJt. or of any subsequent words or acts, until he 
arose the next morning, but his conduct and appearance had 
been normal, except the cauwless laughter and the dull look of 
the eye*. In the case of the lady flung from her carriage, sbs 
Went into a druggitt's, nuked fur wnt^r and a dot Ix'h- brush lo 
reuovaii- b*'r dr<^i«, said "he was n*it injured. iieede<i no help, 
Thuc dhn »aid and did ihiug* suitable to the coaditioos uf bvrJ 
cident The lad. vn the other hiuid. continued tbe course ofj 
tioo which be bad be^uD tiefore bis foil, fix^Ung the atock. 
Bis acta during the evening were act>i of liiibit, and such a$ '■ 
repeated every eveiduK- Neither ttic lady nor the lad wore domi- 
nated by any uihcr tuind, r)<.ir directed in ibcir motions hy any 
person consctoUB uf, or respunvibte for, their slate, hut it aevnia 
that hy reoaun <]f a blow giren on the back of ihe bead in eadi 
ease, both the lady and Ihe lad were in n truf" hypnotic Ptate, and 
were mbaequenlly ejitirely ohliviouH of all that, had ricciirred while 
they were In that coiwhtion. Jlxia MacNair Wbioi 



b lo 

i 



Rain-Making by Faith. 

Hovs of tbe readets of Seieii« donhtlms may recall nui 
memorable incidenta of the adninislration of the genial. 
ahiewd, ani eccentric President Pbinney of Oberlin. Aprop 
recent articles on faith-healing and rain-making Is a vivid 
lection of nuch nn incidi^l. 

8om« forty year* »gi\ on a cloudleM Sahliaib morning. 
president walked tiriskly up tlw chap«l,^ there hail be^n a 
diatrewiug drouth, —and began the wrrioe with an extremely 
fervent pi-ayer for rain. The prayer was Iook. and before it 
wa« tintsbed tlie skic* began lo darken, aud almo»t hefoie the 
cuiigregatioQ «3s dUmisMd 3 eupiuutt rain began to fiUl. Tbn 
suggestive fact in tliis relulijii Is ibut Presideut Fhiuney bad bMD 
observed during the morning to give very watchful attention to 
Ihe barometer. H. CnAKDLCB. 

BufToto, Jnu. tr> 



I 



Some Carions Catnip Learea. 

As I passed by an old dnerted hig cabin, where tbe soil 
(MMr and bam?n, I noticed a bunch of catnip In an angle of tbe 
pioneer sigzag fcui-c. So close in the comer waa it. that It 
Beemed as if it had cn>i>t (here for protectioo. But even in its 
apparent retreat it was conspicuoum, for vegetation Kenemlly bad 
succumbed to tbi> fraets of early autumn. A focifly for the pre- 
vention of cruelty to plnnt-i ongbl to t>e organized. [ thought, foe 
here wan Ibis little stunted looking hunch of catnip. strugi;ling 
for exi^tcnce. when It c«:-rtainly seen>ed physically unable to cope 
with the unfavorable coiiditioiiB for gr(»wth surrounditig it. Poor 
little lonely wpfd, I mused, is it just that you should struggle 
here alonn against all ttie hardships which put even Ihe best dow- 
ered plantM to it>e test? and like my humane brothers who, in 
order to end the inii>ery *>f a p(H>r ratRused horte, feel compelled 
to take its life, I terminated its Mtniggles by collecting il. 

The catnip <iV(-;K'fu mtnriai has a hL-auiifu} leaf, with atatbei 
deeply crenaie uiargiu; iu upper surface has a rich, euft, downy, 
rather velvet-like appearance, while the deep green ci>lur is 
a witness of its hardihood, Rut the leaveii nn this i^aut, 
which out of compaf<i{on I msgnnnimnusly coUcctod, were tetj 
different from the normal type; the surface wan nearly smoothi 
and tlM! margin of many leaves was quite entire; others were cre> 
uate only near the l>3se of tlie leaf, though entire toward the aper, 
as shown in thx accompanying illn«tration. Why, and whipre. 
fore, this' difference in tlwi leanw? I queried. Why have they 
varied from tbe shape reeogniixNi ss the typicitl leaf? The littld 
leaves themselves replied: " We are the reault of poor, unf avor- 
aUo condltkias; we bad neither strength nor vitality siifficieat to 



[ANOARV 39. 1893. 



SCIENCE. 



67 



eUborat? the modr'ni auaip Ipftf, though we reoognisi' Ieb sopert- 
iCf orer oni own sbiH>e and spprrdatt th^ fftct that tbcmfHt 
Itenced, proftreasive leaTca are those moit deeply notched. IVc 
rev^niii-inA u> a more ancient, primitive type of Jeiif, like thnae 
b»r[i<-by our«nfie«lor». When oor enrironmentiB BUcb that we are 
■Tv««I, ev^o U tlitt ihrftttihoid nf life, we caooot adorn ouraHTes 
1th the tnixlern imprnii-mniti, now tit commonly worn." " Ton 
will ootW." the le«ri>3t cmittiiu«d, "that we grew on hranch*^ 
of the simitnerN pee<l-»lBllc. The upi^T part of it wa^ alre»i>]> 
dewl. but (be lotver pcirtion'had etill sufficient vitality to oenil out 
feeble l>ranrbeB; ibev were onlv iMv to rdiuw in the old, 
rut. worn by preceilioK^'ReDeratioOB. and therefore we are 
iply what you iui>[ht,wlth projpriety denoroinat^ v«ry old-fasb- 

1 catnip ImvMi." 
I waa nncb^prraHed by this explanotloo, bat, even though tlie 
irea tbensflm bad answen-d my naery, like Tttoaias of oM. I 
^ifl dbobted. 



> 



l«af: hat, aftvr stud/iojic tbn vHrialion of leave«, who ran'duabt 
that th« prceeat crenat« leaf i* lh« rmult of eTulutiun. 

Miw. W. A. Kxujaaus. 

CvlninbiM, O., Jaa. tfl. 



/ 



/ 



^ 



N 



V. 



VaPSTA OITUUX. 

Sootvt and aoorai of plants were ({ueatioDed in regard to tbe 
cmoae of Mb variation from the normal type, and in every case 
the aame story waa told. Tbe kAveo home by the branches of the 
old seed-etalk were often wholly entire, or creoata only towards 
(hebsae. 

All tbe leaves which grow on the radtcnJ shoots ara perfected 
in their crenatw outline to tbe apex; and, while the leaves of the 
railtral shoots are green, even at this season (Janoary), these " oM- 
fnthton-teaved " branches have Iodk been frown and dead. 

AJI tbingfi anfold socordiDK to tbetr eDvlrpDnient, directed by 
heredity. In gc^locic (hues the ancestral hereditary force pushed 
on tbe conditions; plauli^ and unimuls respouded by adaptaUoo; 
or, whi-ru thi-y could not adapt UiemHetves to their ever cbangitig 
vDviruumeut, Ibey ^vtv Wtt btihiud, and became exCincU Tbo 
kw ol «Tolutiou aayi: "Advance with me. or fall from the ranks 1" 
Flanta and aoimals, raoee, oatinnn nnd tribes, are yet falling ont 
of rauk U-cauiH! tliey cannot comply with the ri>quirementi3 ncc- 
l ac ary to endure ur cope with the coiutaatly changing coaditions. 

It took the catnip we know not how long to oveniiep the entire 



A MONO THE PUBUSBEBS. 
Outing rcadots will welcome hack to its pagea tbe now r^ 
Downed wi^d traveller atHi ex|ilomr, TlmmaH H. Stereint, who with 
his cycle girdled the world for Outing, and who has Just nctalored 
a aoeocB t fal expeiliiinii from ih<> Ot^rman Oonui to the Blsok 8(A 
in a ;iteam Urnich, despite tbe dsn^MUH raptda of the Iron Oates. 
C>«iinj7forFel>fuarropcnB with a ehiu-miugdettcriptina of "Cycling 
in MW-PaciBc," by Charle* E. Trevalhan, in wbieh th»t author 
draws a pleai<aot pkture of the ttallv**, foliai;<>, afiw<.'ni, ond tbe 
delights of wheeling over the snow-white coral road» of dreamy 
Tahiti 

— D. AppletoD ft Co. sDDounc« a new book by Arabella B. 
Buckley, author of "Tlte Fairyland of SclcBOP.'' "Life and Her 
Cbttdfpn," etc. Tbe title vf this work will bo " Uoral Teaehinga 
of Science," which th« author ts said to have ioveatsd wltb ^Moial 
JDienvt. 

— Hacmillan ft Co. annnnnce for ptthlication early in Febioary 
a practical work on electric lightJog. The [till title of^i he book 
fs " A Onide to Electric Lighting tor noiu<.-holdcri and Aoui- 
teuts," and the author isS. U. Itottone, well koowu by hit pre- 
vious books on electrical subjects. In order to make the book 
thoroughly serviceable to nader* in this coootry the proofe^havo 
beien n*d by an Atnedcui scientist, for the purpoee of Hupplytng 
any needed explanation of merely local a»age. 

— LoagmaoB, (Ireen, ft Co. have tn prt^« a work by the late 
Ferdinand Praeger. entitled " Wagner as 1 Knew Him." The 
book, which Is the outcome of Or. Pmeger's life-long intimacy 
with Wagner, is a remarkably clear, sympathetic, attd ,unprejii- 
diced bistory of tbe man sad the composer, especially valuable 
for its frank diMnisaton of epuodee in his life usually treated with 
hesitation by Idji Mograplien. Dr. Praeger had the privilege of 
reading Wagner's autohiogn^fhy io manuscript, and thus verlff- 
ing his own otaervations by Wagner's own statement*. 

— Tbe laleiti publlcatlou of Prorcasot Eben N. Uorefucd con- 
cerning tbe aucloot settlements of the Korsemeo in the territorice 
of the Muw Eutiland Statcti was published iu large quarto'sise by 
Dsuirell & Cpham, Boston, and bears the title. " The Landfall of 
Leif Erikoon, A.D. lOOO, and the Bite of biA Houaes in Vinelsod, 
IMS." Leif's hoaaee are placed on the Cbark» River, tielow tlie 
Fort Norambega. and a short distance above Boston, Alasa. The 
book i* very profoaely lUuMrated with photographic vtews and 
with the maps which have come down to us from the earlleat ex- 
plorers of the sixteenth c«'niury. and so on to the aid of the nlno- 
leenth. This coltectioo alone makes of tbe volume A tbeniinu 
of cartographic informatiaD surpaased by 00 other recent pubUca- 
tioo. TlM amount of bi^oric aitd topo»;raphic iofonualion gath- 
ered from all tbe earlier hiAloriaos and utlier authorities on New 
EuKlaui] iiiaUers is Knormuus, and they are cliuwed under ^appro- 
priate faeadioga, of wbicb the principal an- as follows; [The Ijuid- 
fall, BxpedUiunof Bjurni, Thorwald's Etpeditionlo Vioelniid, and 
Sketch of the Thorflnn Expedition to VineJand. Then ci>we a 
r6iume, an appendix, and nolea. This volume of U7 large quarto 
pages is printed with wide margins, bolda SI maps and [llustni- 
tlons, the tvpogmphiL- cxoculion beiu^ of the most splendid. 
Siniultanoously with tbe above was tsMied a pamphlet iDasmallsr 
quarto siee, also provided with maps of the New En.;fauid comC, 
entitJed, "Sketch of the Noise Discovery of America at the Feati- 
val of the Scamlmavian Societies, aisembled May t$, L891,' in 
Boston, on the Occasion of prfttenling a Testimonial to Kb«n Nor- 
ton Horsfurd in Recogoitioti of tlw fif>ding ol the Luidfall of Leif 
Eriksoo, the i^ite of his Viueland rioine and of the Ancient Noise 
City of Norumbegs, in Maieachnsetts, in the Forty-third Degree." 

— Thu litemiun) of South American vtliook>Ky btiu judt been en- 
riched by a Soe pictorial puMicaiioo in folio, being Nos. 1 and % 
of the Ftcond volume of the •■ VerOffentlichungen." issued from 
time to time by the direction of the Royal Museom of BlhuoKr««U*; 



68 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No 469' 



at BerJin (80 p. and 16 plates, Berlin, W. Speinant), 1801). Tbe 
explorer. Dr. P. Ehrenreich, here pffsenta hi« obK-rTatiorifi, atudu>«, 
ftnd rxp^iiencPA fn^in July to Knvf>int>er, 1888, luiiotig tlii: triW^ 
of th« Arnguaxa Rivtr in tliM BrAxilinn prorince of finyiiK Hml 
tbOAe ot the Ptiru Riv^r, a tril>iJtHry of U><? miiJdlf Auinxoniu. 
Tlit«e rei>or(m appear under tbe modest mihtitle. " tteltrilge zur 
Volkerkuode Mraeilierts." auH ihe itlu^lratioDe in the text are ju^t 
aft instructive aa those in the plates. Of the (ioyaE tribes the 
K^raya were the chief object of the explorer's atwlies; ntnoiiK tbe 
Puru Iribet. Uie Yamaniadi, Ipurimt. amlPauiuul. Tbeaccoauti 
given or iluTir ru><iuiu9 aail mmiuere, liiipleuutut», noapons. tlancoa, 
and other tntrrymakiogM are a* iatcrtwtini; (ut thu xpoeitnvoBof 
their folk-lore, of which man; iimtancefi are tovrted. The masks 
uae<1 in the dannea cotrer the irhiile bdiiy, and are figored on poK^B 
tfS and 86, 

— Warren K. Hoorehead wrilea, in th^ IlhiMtrottd American for 
Jan. so, a OMist remarkable and inteieatiiig ator; about "New 
Relics of the Hound Builders in Rum County, Ohio." One of 
ibeK ivIIlii, >M) vnyw, is the tkWnton uf h man with copper helmet 
wWi anlivrv, and tb« olh**r is & Swaolika crtnw, ori(«nt«] in charac- 
ter, and i<i onv of the tlr>t f!ndi« ever uttxnrtheiJ lo dhow the origin 
of the lodtane. ile e»ya io this ooonecliuo : " The discovery of 
four crosKs, which are peculiarly orii^iital in character, marke a 
new epoch in Ameriean archiH)loKf. M. U. de Alortiellet, the 
emioeot Fnmch uulbTopolosi^t. refers to the fame stylo of crom 



fonnd by the survey, and givea numerous illustrations in his worlui 
of its occurrence on iy)|t<>ry, ^epulchne*, and nionunients of Brit 
t«ny, lUily, himI porticularty Imlia. The Swajflika wax u»>m] m 
oud of the emblems uf Uuddha worship before tbe Christian era, 
and may have apread later into Phnptiicia. This aymbo! i* occa- 
sionally found in Bgyi-t and China, but. bo far as the writer is 
aware, not in Yucatiin or Mexico, A cross doe* oocor oo tbe 
Palestine tablet, but it is not the Swastika. No skeleton in the 
mound iiKlicalcd a pvrsuu of mori? inipurtuncv Chan yri. 248. 
Copper antlers. S2 x 33 inches, extended from the forehead upward. 
Tbe breast and hack were covenpd with copper pIaiE«, boar t«ech, 
and other atngular nrnamenla, Strings of heaile lay aljout tbe 
ankles and wrists, while at the feet were traces of decayed aaodala. 
Tbe copper horns had be«n originally fan teoed to a helmet of copp«r, 
ooTerlng the skull from the upper jaw to tlie liase of the occipital. 
A rough cloth skirt extended from the waist to the kneei. Whenc 
the copper platen came in contact with thi> Tttbrir it was well pre- 
served. Beautiful pearl beads and Urge heur and panther tuska 
were interlaced or atruDg upon the front of the garment. The 
other skeletons were coveted with shell beada, and a few cc^iper 
plates and cellA aooompauied them," 

— It is Ibe dettigo of tbe Modern Science Series, pubtiebed by 
D. Appleton & Co., to provide brief UDtechnical treatises for tbe 
wtuoated layman who has netlber time nor Inclinaiion to beooms 
A qteelallHi, but who feels the need oT informinK htwt^lf on the 



business DepartmenL 



"The Ci'unlry Circus" at the Ai^adenty 
cf Uusic offers excellent entertainmeut for 
children of all ages. Th«re is, too. enough 
diflgoise in the name to onahln tuch grown 
persona to go who enjoy a rq«l circus bat 
who ha.V6n'« tbe oooran of tbair canrioticou 
— *■ it were. It has neen said that it re- 
quires three adults to take one child to the 
t^ircns. The first two acta are merely a logi 
cal introduction to the last, In which is 
shown a ftenaine circua'ring with a v«ry 
Kood make- believe second ring beyond. Huru 
disport trained dogs, hoDM and donkoyH, 
bareback ridi^n, acroti«t« and clowns. Tbe 
atraat parade in the ssoumd act Is very good 
also, with its long array vA cages of wild 
onimaU { ft, the gorffcoua trappiuga of men, 
women and horses, toe elephant, the atreani- 
io^ banners and the crvwa of noisy and ad 
turiag street boys. In fact tbe spectator will 
■od all tbe charms of (be genuinn circus w«ll 
displayed bkiI the unplnasant feature's avoid 
ed, sucb as: unxavoi^ odors, uncomfortable 
soatR, iioixMi, etc. Brlanj^r enbertainment 
at the Academy is a ^eat suceeM. 



Uark'v Patent Artificial Limbe with Rubber 
Hands and PeeC, atlvertfsed in another cot- 
nmn, have been awiu-ded b loug neries of 
Jlrst. |>r«iNi'KK* by the Aoieriran Inatilule, 
as well as the CenCcmnial Mvdal, and Gold 
Hedals by the International Cotton Exposi- 
tion and the World' > Indiutnal and Cot- 
ton Centannial Exhibition. Tbey have al- 
ways been the victors in every competiCioB 
and are widorwd by the leading surgeons of 
this city and country. Hosts of ip^teful 
wearers, both at home and abnind, testify to 
tbe saperiority of the firm, and noUrt"!! 
rubber foot made onlv by this well-known 
boose, the largest in the world. 



OFWHAT USE IS THAT PLANT? 

You can ^d ihi- aitKwur iu 

SMITH'S '*D1CTI0NAB¥ OF 
ECONOMIC PLANTS." 

Ssot pOiUjd ou receipt of |St.80. Publish- 
er's pries, IS.SO. 

SCIENCE BOOK AGENCY, 

834 Hr0«4Kar, .'few I'ork. 



Wants, 



A My /ftw* itiiimf a ^ilti'em /tr *rA/ii kt ii <im»li- 
ttJ>fhitisitntifie allainmm'i, tranyp^rttn tftAimg 
laimf rmf f& Jiil a petition t/ tkli ikAr^ilrr^ i*r it th^ 
»/s trStJur e/icitn*t.cktmiit, JraueiUmAI, or wk^l 
■«/. mmf tiicv 1*1 * U'anI ' imnUd tnJfr tk!i litoJ 
rsas DP COST, i/ htia^itfin lltf fuHiihfr */ tkt inii- 
nt/t iiaratUr a^ kit of^iealiBm- Amyftri'^a itiHag 
iit/i>nit«ff>« tm amy itititli/i( ^mititii. tit >t,iiirtit tf 
amy K-itntific mmtt, rr nJtaiam in amy vay nii liiiet/' 
timm /tr a fKrf*if ifnifnamt wilA Ikt rnatart t/ Ih* 
faftr, it CBtdially iavilfJ If da u. 



W'ANTKD,— (n A wblln mnu vvrt*^ Id w<hx] sod 
Irun work I UK. able lusork fnim BpAi-lfiitatlUDa 
Mid plsQs. aultM ^r an Inistructor Of boys: his bus- 



iiitws lu ks«e oliarK'' of Bbo|is of sebtnl. outllaa sad 
dIrMt cbr work ttii forrmMi Mil siadenis; nslary U 
t>9 fl.dW ppT ajiiiuiji iDlse monllis), (t) A msD 
(black prrfitncd ) to li'^i^h tliO noloivd. li^n BririclitK 
sod tontluc. suticnllilBlF lu tli« pn.'UodlUKI (stsrj. 
tnsi. (f) A nsD (sbUe] Qosapeieni to t*]itr -'Iiuuif* 
111 euj(iu«eria|[ (aaslatant's peal tloa), but vKIt tlip 
sbllllf ti> nerfocm snr of lbs wait iM)«tr«i] in nny 
of tli« acdutan saclBserioc eoocsss of our uiUvvrsi 
tloa; ssliMT from fl.OOU & tl.BtlO. A. B. BBALIt. 
MUledcevliie, Os. 



\1 fASTBD,— Two or ibi** alfloiMit oampatem with 
Vi iiood kaewledMor Hpluncsl Trtaonomstrr and 
ivsdy niw of lonclUinis. tor (viupuiarf tiniplojrtiieiit 
la tbp ofllo^ftl tbe (.'DAit snd (ifodntio Hurray. Ap- 
pllcanla ahould tumlsli sriclntiira u( Ibelr Dtuosa bir 
Ibe work. Apply by leiur to tb* ltii|HRiDtODd«Dl, 
Cokjrt Ktid Ovodetii' Survey, WsaUagton, D.C. 



I 



lK^1^}A.-8eUna!, Ho. 178. July 3. ta«. »Uu 
lnd« sm] TfdepaKM to Vol Vll Addr»«s 
. D. C. Uodgvo. 874 Brcisilirsy, N«w Ytitk. 



\YOriIG XA» r)l) WOD14 like a poattioo m a 
oollecB. IkboFstur)'. ur ubarr«sli>Ty. is at*u <rUl' 
lOK to asadst at a M«am ongfat. *t«. Address 3. W.. 
CM of 8rtn*er. W4 Braadvsiy, Nav York. 

WA>'TSD.-A MnUluu In tbe pbUtwoiilileia or 
pod^tfoitlesJ (tnpnrtRicDC of a colletfK «r uui. 
venittT bj a )<niri; msu (W; wbo bas bad lire fvaia' 

Sirs^tl(-«l ni[M<ilriirf In traclilna, SDdwfao basdooa 
oar yt«n' p^.>t ursdusii? vorkiii phllusaphr.deTot' 
lOK hi* kttoiitl'iD duriQK tba Ian two jotra imp»- 
flAllrto stadraad orlidnal UiTestiicstloa lu scIho- 
tillo (iHjctiul 0(17 and lis sppllca(toa> Id mIui'«iI<iq. 
Addr«as K. A., aare Sfientt. Kl Broadway. H. T. 
Clty- 



\\/'ANTKD.'A sultBhls MSIUOB ts WasUaittM. 
*V D. (V. not eosnscted with ibs Ch>**nini«at, 
BUd iTiLb a asiary aot ti> rtcMd K&0 a 7««r, br an 
»iper1«noiHl bMriftist with sis y#«ra' unlvvralty 
traialnc. AppUcanlbas I)e4>n a utlTiU ounceon t<ir 
fijiirtm>D years; !■ a jinuitlt'sl pfaotographnf, «ar> 
togra(Jtt!r. and snastoaMd lothe nse ol bbs \n*- 
wHlvr n>^ !■ nl*>> napabia ot naktoa tfas OMSt Rn- 
Isbad drawlaea. at any deaotlMloa. nr all maaaor 
of lllustrstl'p |iiiri>oa*a tn sniMies: tralnad to am- 
saiun HkMbods and work; also field o^ratlooa and 
tazldsrmjr In iLa vailiMia dapattnMDta, and modal- 
laf. prodn«tUiB of oasta. restorattoas of paleoctty- 
Inftlcal apwlBSOB and slinllar saplOTMala. Addrasa 
U.S. a, aanSr<eaM,'IILatayonarlao*.N. T. 



Exchanges. 

IPreaofcharf eloall, itafsatlsfsetorycharsetar. 
Addtett K. O. C. llMt«i. »Tt Droadvir. .Ve« Vork.1 



Wantn), m «iechuifi« tot lh« [allowing ««ricl. saf 
iiaadard worio on Suiyny and on lli.cuci of Children; 
Willed') "AuierKAn Ornithology,' j volt,:CouM' "Buds 
of (lie Nonhwut " and " Birdt of lh( Cuforailo Valley." 
* vult.; MInot'* '' Land and Gaei* Bitdi cf New Eoc- 
land:"SMniMli' " Our Nonhcm and Eatiern Biidi/' *1l 
tbe Kc^n# Ofi ih« Binlf of the PaciAc K. K. Sumy, 
bouDd m a *oU.. Qaevoco; and a edoipteie m( o( tbe 
Repons ef iha Arbasio* Gsoloncal Surver. Flcaie eivc 
cdliiens and dale* ui uirrcuwodinc. K. KLLSWOKTU 
CALU Hislt School. 0«* Hotnas, iMa. 



Wanled lo buy t<r txctiaore ■ ropy ol Holbr 
Kciih American Hcrpcialo*y.l)y lolia Edwerdi. « 
fhiUdclphta. >e«i. G. BAL'K. Clark l/airo 
Warcenler, Mas. 



of Bolbraok's 

•ols 

renily. 



Fill tile or eithange. l.eConte, " GeoIo_ 
"AfiaWmy," • w>U ; ro»leT, "Plmiolosy." ' 



Utirmtt, il vok., ufii«uad. 

l«iiiDston. Ky. 



Ouala. 



Fnr k^U. — A 4$f X B^ Camera; a very fine uiMruMMi; 
with Icus, hsideis and ini^d, all ner; it cat*, over bo, 

iinie, $1}. £dw. L Huyet. Alhant ■Irni, Cajntiridpv 



To sscbanc* Wijghl'* '' lea Aa« ia Noitk Aaaiiaa " 
•nd T.C ContP* *'Elcmentt of (itviloKy" (Copyriaht iMa) 
for [un-iiii.m." hy A R.Wall«c«. ''O'iipa ot Swedat/* 
t>y Darwtfi. "liatcni iif Man." W Darvin, Blsa'a 
Pure in Naliirv," Huilcy, ''Mtataf Evolutioa ia AaU 
miU." Iiy Komaiica. "Pic-Adaisiln,'' by WtnebcU. N<k 
tiM>ki «iuil(d e)i<«pl lalftt irditiana, and b«alf( la X^od 
•.unditian, C. &. Brown. Jt., VaBdeibilt Unitciai^. 
Kathville, Teas. 



Tor Sale or Eidumge for booki a complete pnvsla 
chamial laboralorr cutfil. laciudM lat^e Ueckct baJ- 
ance (eoog to ■•tains}, plaiiaum diihei lad eniciUai, 

a(ui« wfltan. tliss-Masrtea spnsistui. etc. Kor tak ta 

pan Oi wtkole. Ahoeowsjelenie of Sllliatan'tyrmrmal, 
■Us-iM) (6*<fi boaBdhStDiihwiiiAn KepMW. ■It4-ins; 
U- S. C«au Surrey, 'Sm-i*^ f uU pimkalsre tq aa- 
((uavn. F. GARIlIN'EK.Jft., Potafret. Coan. 



I'l^t cac)ia.n(« ot sale at B racridce. aa elabarsie micvo- 
Kope outfit. BuUo€ll atand; moiwcaUr ob^ctiires, onv 
•isib liQBe<uc*a«o<M trnmennn, lou)^.tcaihi. sad tbrae 
inch, BluwK ft Lamb, alw Ddc-fmith and one inch 
Spsscsr. tour eye jiiecet- Ubieeltraarelbc best nadt. 
Addieu Mri, Marion Kmilb, tt Bunch Si reel. Lowell. 

MSB. 



POPUUR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOUWY. 

For Ui« la CoIUaca aad Normal SchooU. Prict jtf casts 
Sent {roe by poel by 

N. D. C. aoiMiBt. 814 Broa4war» H* >• 



Jaxuahy 39, 1B9J.] 



SCIENCE. 



69 



pfMCQl BUtus of Uie Tarioo* bruichvs ot Ki«uc9. The wooad 
*oJi«ete eotUleJ --Tbe Hoiw: ASIudy iaNaturnl Hbtoty." and 
ia iDtmcfcpd 10 »p«clall]r lUtulrmtv soiai- ioipurtant priDc-i(>le& in 
Lbmlogj. It (Kiilinra ltif> principal rliEirnctertHtics of the mmptira- 
[tire OQBloinjr k>( llie lioiee atul hU near relutioTiei, the tapir au 1 tV 
rbliioerm>. snA #hnn-ii inriilpnully how n "mlMiD^ link." d«- 
acrilied bj* Pntttaot Uuxh'j in 1877. iiat nimx been fotrnd in tbe 
hamtt Eocene d(fposit«. thus idcDitfjirii; ft contwcLion belii-ved to 
tavc ejas(#4 in tlw auci^ut anceslry of Lh« animak. The author 
is William H. Flowrer, C.B., director of tbe British Nntural Wa>- 
Lurj Huwom. 

— "^EvDltirioa in Science, Phiiosoph;, and Art " !< tbe title of a 
book conCHintDK weal i«n lectures by Prof eaKu' John F)>kc, Mr, 
Underwood, Dr. Abboll, Mr. WalicQUU), and oilier altte t-xpouvaU 
ot evoloCkn, wbicli iit to be published imnicdiatciy by D. Appleton 
A 0(K Ttw prioolplo of t-votutiou Iwiug univvisiLl. admits of a 
great dtv«T«ity of nppliralioni and illuulrAtion^, and many which 



appear in this volame an< rtedi and striking-. Th» Mii«ntinv tec- 
lure*. a» In the Oft'!* of ilial hj Dr. Alloman on Opiic*. ar»? o*(i_,^ 
of direct praoitcal ralue. TIu-m- Wt<iim when dvlir^rvd Iwfore th*] 
Brooklyn Ethical Association fttltiut'tl K^n*THl«tlention. Id boon 
form they are accoiujinnii^l l.y h |»>ii*t (imu IK-rbt-rl Sp€Bce(v1 
AOd t>y nutm-roos ilIii>ti'NiirniH. 

— Tht-tiiieuTTyndaU'dfoftbcominKbookiB "Npw Fnn[n«Til«.''j 
Anioni;tln.Bobject» which ace Irmh-'i in tbe Ove bondred 
are Th« Sahbotb, Life in tbe Alps. Tlie Rainbow rikI ilH Con)n>nor», 
Common Wat*r, anil Atoms, Jloleculw. and Eiher-Warp*. ta 
addition to the popular Ireaiaiait of aricntiBc thrmi:^. tlu' author 
devole^ several chapfriB to biographical ctodiM of tho iilnitMl in- 
threat. Atnong tbt- ¥ubj«3t« of thine hIuOIm an* L'-mni Kuuifunl 
and Thoons Toung. and there are also chapiHs on l^iuift Paati-ur, 
hbi Life and Labors, and Penonal R<vollecUoDa of Thoioait Carlflw. 
Tyndall'ri "New Frai^numts" will be poMbhed immwIiBt^ly by 
D. Apploton & Co. 



A^iff'c 



kill Pliospliatc. 



A most excellent and agree- 
able tonic and appetizer. It 
nourishes and invigorates the 
tired brain and body, imparts re- 
oewed energy and vitality, and 
enlivens the functions. 

Dr. EFBKAiii btJtMaUkS, Cedarrille, N. J., 
wmfMt 

" I haTe omd it for seTeral }r«ars, not only 
in my practice, biit in niy own individual 
aaat, and oooaidAr it under all ctrcuniBtaBcoa 
one of tbe bart nerv« wnics Chat w« pcasen. 
For mental exbanition or overwork it givw 
raiMwad otrengtb nad vigor to th« autire 
■TStem." 

DeacriptiTe pamphlet frov. 
RMfflTtrd CI>MiIc4J Wtfh*. PtmUmc*, R. I 

Beware of Substitute* and ImitatioDS. 

CAVTIOn.-Ha >aro the wrurd ** Hora- 
krd'a** la «■■ lbf> labtrl. All nllicra ar« 
Iomk. )feT*raoM In bdlli. 



ARTIFICIAL LIMBS 

WITIIIIIEHrEETAHD HANDS. 

nuralilv la luHnirinniuii, .^iii>irBi In Arllira. 

Ifolavln* Im M«irntrni. 

Aadlte UOTrcailFORTABI.K riirUicinMicr. leU' 

IKit luiiaixaj (u we a tmntmt norkloi t& tlia BalAa Mtlk 

fta utioplBl tod, «r « braKotDMi appfrlnii Us tir*ki> on & 

rMi ruiriiMi iFftla, ijr an ■wUitw wiui )(aad .oa.Uie 



iBl tod, «r « braKotDMi apiarlnii kls tir*ki> M & 

-iiMi iFKla, ijr wi ■■yUwair wiUi haad on ibe 

thrmUe, or b Itrenut, earacnwr, ■aiaa, lakMT, In fiwi, 
mon cf *v('ry vocaUod aflatMrta Ifee taUouacitJtf 
Uiclr eii>iiio)'nicjit.mikrliic dim m tmtanuelu M^wu 
nibim '.fK ivtfijrminc ■■ mnrh n« m«B b pMMMltm 
01 all i> sir naiarsl nicttib«n, camlnt i)m Muaa waaoi. 
la taot. aapatwlBa llttia or 04 loMevaaltac*. 



% 



Orn- tUfOB vUlkdKl llDitenr taalUrk*' patant In dklly 
■M*. ttutUlaMlan-raar**'*- lOdivMd saapon^owa 
hi ib» inltM SMMa aad Maay f BWHa avrvrsaitau. 
Br oar tonaA* aitalloaau eu> Maplr a* with M iim 
dMa apcMwuT t««efBr« a ni « UlB Omv raaialn M Iwme. 
One tell til Uie tiaia awd •rma Caratabad hy Bb a** Bi*4r 
rram mcMii r gipePta and yrofllM wHfeiMl oar MmIih ikr 
w«anv«. ritBlw«}iKUJtrMiiaM. A UcaUMoCWpaaw 
wlihlHliiuMrwuoatsadstkamalBftir ■BMMRnaa.aaat 

A. A. 1CAEX8, 701 Broadway. H. T. 



;HL LHLRPLbT AND HL^T 



67 PARK P1.ACE NEW YORK 



V^TypEWfllTEH 



i watsui 



TTssatS; ,i!!:;ir"^*?'^^^w^-'i---- ^ 



ikniVMj Anaanatrtaa-Mnt 



B.H.1X(iKltMLl.««ra.aCCanUa<IBt.!T.lTcfl|. 



ESTERBROOK'8 
STEEL PENS. 

0/ SOPERIOB ASD STANDARD QDALlTf 
Leading Nos.; 04B, U, t30, 135. 239. 333 

For Hulr by all St-tiHon'rt. 

rtll ESTEIMMR ITEEL HM IQ.. 

I Wwk* CaBd-n. K J. JS JohD Ml.. N»«> Vaab, 

Course of Hloeraloiiy for TooDg Propte. 

fotalakrd. 

CoUMttoa aad boolt. ■' Pint Orad<^," oat ilnUar-, 
poataaVi B ottita- iW*) lor olrc-uUm lu 

□ USTAVE auTTSNBBttO, 

tMiii>. w.' iin '.iITrTliictbcai al atoat uaaJUUt jvwvfara* 
pHotW Kr . II. mm. e. & Thl*l«anr*-vt<paruniairt« 
■pcurra noemiiTFn cnaapi Tirnr 'rtnrrl ratilMMa 

, LV.,lnet»«l>£F' HapplRmKuilc. OiKi. U Cmoualil 4lSa!. 

' MlnenlDKUU. m aad na Bpoadway, Kbit Yark C^. 

PATENTS^ 

FifrUt'VKNToait. 40-pa<e HOOK PSKS. JUtAraaa 
W T. PIU(/iraJ>l. Altunwjr at Laa.Wuhlufrtoix, DX. 



B 



ACKNUMMKHSandtfraipliK MUal luclini Uj 



:frBplll< MUal IcBclini >!«(- 
AM. Mao. KXCHAStS. 



DO YOU INTEND TO BUILD? 



I 



ih^ 



IMroa tnUad tnlmlld. 11 *I11 n- a nOaUka doI toaaod for **HBKRm:iK LOW>C4MT 
■OCmRK,** aoYairaaffaa in Ihrce rolaineii. Id tham 5011 vlll Hail penpeotlTe TiBva, 
Boor plana, d a a cri ptloaw. bdiI putlimii** of cuaC. (ot lOS (■•tvmii mmvr 4iu^m»m tttr 
liaRaea. Thej alio tlra rnc-? rvr rwmplcio Wortinii Plasa, D««illa, aad BMraoatiaaa. 
vhicb anablsjou to build Mlilioui dplaya, tiilatml(«««r^«HaT«la wttb yo*t buUd* 
er, an<l vblcb any amm «au ■■dcroiaiKl- Vol. 1. coaiaUia K aopyitabtt^ dp^gw ut 
hnaaea. i^oatlnft betwMin IBM aod 11930. Vol. IL ooaCatna H taiuaiUitod nwlpiB VaM feo 
VKW. Vol, 111. QooialM » MvrrKlilcd dsatgDa, flOW l« |«m. Frhia, by naU. ll.OO 
raclti or 93.00 far Ifav ■«!. 

"COLONIAI. Harass.** a rotana aaMrlaK Paia|MeU«M aad Phwr Plaaa gf 
bonapa BTraiicad latfaf imniiUblc atrli? o4 tbs CoIobUI ArcUtBoturv. aad bavUicall »o4ani 
anajuaiaaotalOreaBtfort. Frice. tS.UO< 

" rirTrHRMQtiB BorAKI POB PORBmr A!ID moBR'V-TfclB tbam 
PcnpcciiTea and Kloor Flanfl of new ilaalsfiR fur ftonuoar Cotlagva, abUib ar» rcmaaHa 
conTenlmt, and cbcap. Prirv, 91 .00. hj bibII. 

N. D, C HODGES, 874 Broadwaj, New Yorl. 



DRY OOODH, ETC. 



SCIENCE. 



DEY GOODS. KTC. 



Spring, 1892. 

REAL INDIA PONGEES. 

CORAHS, 

Uneicelled for Durability and Wear. 

NOVELTIES. 

Printed Glace Rongeant, 
Slriped Silk Shirtings. 



1892. SILKS. 1892. 



: ON TSB NAIK FLOOR 

Ladies who vUtf our Silk Department this 
weeli will havo an opportunily at examinitig 
aomd very bpautirul Fabrics and Styles that 
have been Bpeclaily tfeslgned for this sea- 
•ftn. 

They will alw find a very rich quality oT 
Bensaline de So4e in the most desirable 
colorings, at SLOQ per yard. 

[N TDK BAdSMKNT 

We shall make a special sale of a large 
importation of Figured India and China Silks, 
broken assortitents of Rich Brocaded SJIka 
,ud Satins, etc. 



3atO(xAvai( c^ i^i& 6L James McCrcerj' & Co. 

BROAOHMV & lltli *«TKEET, 
MEW YORK. 



!SeW TORK. 



FINANCIAL. 



f/ew Meikod of Protecting Properiy 



hii\L,]\^, The Lightning Dispeller. 



Alt Smbroldery Liafln«, LiMos for the 
Bed-room, Dininfc-room. or Kitchen, tn 
larice aiaortmtnt, including a full line of 
"Old Bleach" goods. 

For nearly (uriy years we bare mnde a 
>«uaUy u( Linen Ooodf, and there is no 
fesirable linen article or fabric which may 
not be found in onr itock. 

Catali^^tie on retjumi, 

James McCutcheon & Co., 

THE LIi\EX STOKE, 

M Ik 66 West 23d St., Nev York. 



lASTE 

.Eilroilery SilU. 

gtKtani Eijda M. haU price ; ana uaiK* b m boL AU 
m4 ItlK «kiHl eoM CoKA. amt bf RuUt on noel|K of 

, bMk in Art hfiistovrqrk, <oi> U fiMiu. A twantl- 



Pnce, $20 to $30.— According to sire. 

Tbo PatvQt Li|;(liUUnt( Diipoll«r U a condac- 
tor Mpvcinlly de>i|;u«<l todiMipalethe eoerj^ 
of a li){htniDg diMohiirg*. — to prAT»nt ita 
dointf harm, '—placing aooaetht&g in its path 
upon which its capacity (or causing damask 
may (m expanded. 

Nu rvcvnlvJ caiM* of lightning atroks baa 
ytt, bven cit«d Sigainiit tlie prinoiplfi ul the 
Diiip»llt<r. So far aa knoim, the dissipation 
of a conductor ha* iuTariably protected under 
the conditions Dmp1oy«d. 

Corrc«poadeDc« aolicitod. 

AGENTS WANTED 

Tb« American li^tnlD^ ProtecUoD ConipaQy 

United Bank Building, Sioux City, Iowa. 



TACOMA ST?f?v° INVESTMENTS 



^i 



de in Art hiHistovrark, <oi> U mou. 
rnuntOKottlBHiiaanHUMi ttMwm 



KHOpl. 
1 UvEtt 



no Will anM «• book frao. 



I f GVAMANTBK 12 p«r r«nl prr ■nnutn 

IB Aoy ot tko abDT« ciiioa. 1 baro na(l< (row 10 to 
to pM cent, pel kOQum for doO' nciijMitB. 1 alag 
nakp Ortt nortKae*. uaprorri r«a1 aatata l«aB« on 
iiD()aMAlMi>bla ■•ouritin from 9 to '.0 pet tobI. par 
I aaonn lutt. AJao hare clwic* barnina lu VarM, 
[op, Hmit and eardeD I.MBdw. CorrMimBd' 
ene« Solleltvd mcarcitDc WMt«>ni Wubimt^i. All 
iMjulriea aoavnrad {iiorapllr. Aildrvaa 
A. C. SIC'KBLI, TacoMa. WN»lt>n«t*k 



[Vou OCIX. 



POBLIUATIONa. 



THE WINNIPEG COUNTRY; 

OB. 

ROUGfiDHG IT WITH AM ECLIPSE P;Urr. 



and aMa^ 



A. RUl'llKIi^TKH KKt.LOW. 

fa. ■.viToiiKic) 

Witb Ibirtjr-two Illustrationa 
IS*. 11.50. 

"Tha atety m a piiisMt. Kw>a-hMm«wad. ratsiaU 
■die taarratlTn of a c»ni)* ro]ra««. A n«*l«. pfMtW 
t<»nltliaeliloat ai!<Tii."-Ulerrnir WoHd 

- TIiIb U • BprtittiU]! narraiiro of ptmonal ImI< 
<UM. The book Kill iMt a plHuuiil mnl«' ~~ 
lumii u( niuah KXpHriHUoea •.•o a '(voUar 

'-1lM|itatvn>o(our i1*«o1n!>^ ' Jtcn 

(0T7 tmntT-Avv yeara ui> .1 *: 

clvlUaadaapMHuHtar.andi'' ru«nu«a«< 

tbit wrltar'a al}l<% oovaUlaio l^r . i>Jri>p nf falaUtb 
book to pmantti atlMtUan.*'- Tkr Choi. 



■•Ilasl. 

LI 

villi H* 



i D. g BOMBS, 874 Broad way. 1. T . 

HAHDBOOK OF MBTEOROLOGICAL TABLES. 

Br AsST. Prof. H. A. BazKtv. 
187 pp. 8". 

Profraaor Waldo tays : " I heartily reeaa- 
oii'nd ihvm to all worker* in metcorologr, 
auii do not aae bow any of oar AnienoM 
inot«oro1ogii«s can afford to be withoel a 
copy." 

Profeaaor Symons of London says: "They 
«ra noqtuMtionably Vklaabl« belp«, which 
most b« kept bandy, and rvplacod whva 
worn out. ' ' 

frire, pOMlpaM, ft. 






K. D. C. HODGES, 874 Bro&Ai&T, Kei Tort 



THE AMERICANRbCE: 

By DANIEL C. BRtNTON, M.D. 

"Tbe b4c>kUoarornDUfiulLnier«atRiii] Tatua."~ 
Inttr OCfon. 

" Ur. Danlol O.Brtiiioiiwrit«aa«tbakakiM>vlad|M 
autbvrtljr of ib« mxbir^t."—J%tladttpMa mat. 

■• Tb« work wui be ol iMiDiiie vaJua to all «li 
wlali ii> know tb« aobMancc ol what baa li«*a taal 
out abutit tta« lodlcoBoaa ARMrtoaca."— .VofMra. 

"A muterly lUaeiualaB, and an exuapleal* 
auMwsafnl edueatioB of tlH povsta ot obae 
-naatietplHa Udftr. 

Price, postpaid, sa. 



M. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadvaj. 1. 1. 



A TEMPORARY BINDER 

(or Stirmct It now ready, and will b« ntiM 
postpaid tifi receipt of 75 ccois. 

E^^ Tliit Under iiilroaf. durable a>i 

H| elct»i. hu (Ul lUt-ililt. aa4 ti- 

^^M lorn the oiKaia^ of the pa(«a ]«• 

^^1 fectly n«i. Any nuikbar oaa M 

^^H taken out or tepUoed wiitiOBl <!<»• 

^^^ intMrj the u( lien, and the pap<n 

^^M ■re not murilatcd for uitwqsml 

^^1 iMrmantnl bin<liTw. Filed io Ikii 

^^H binder, .&!'#■■'« ualwajn cunvanivsl 

^^1 tot ref(r«Dcc. 

^^V Temporary binden rl <>" ■•■-• 

Hnll) <l4*CTiplioa but «)lhoul ' 

lUT)' »u, wil' )>* toailed paupaid oaitciipi ■^■. ..^.i..^ .^ 
glren belt™- ,!■> oidertM, be lun l« a)ve |t>e tiava 
{.■pel *i p«i«dtoO a«l i(ft« a UaOn. 

a 10 ■'••■<^»><>«a.«tMh.ao.}o:leMtier,to fc. 

" :t :* "' '■'• :; *" " ts. 

'• '. .. »* ' ■"■ 

17 '9 I 'w ■■ I .»(. 

N. P* c- HODGES, PubHaher. 

•***•-*■"-». Haw Yflrtc. 



I 

i 

I 

I 



NEW YORK. FEBRUARY 5, IBK. 



•noui 



LUMP OF SALT AND A GLASS OF WATER.' 

With ordinary use the powere of eye. ear. smeU and 
touob fail toiIietiuKtiixli Wtw^vn lb« class of pure water, and 
thtlto which salt has been nilded. The ta-ite bIoiih sires 
inui)«diat« evidence of the diffeiencv. Bat let us exaailue 
more closely, nnd, llrst, by chpinical tests. Solution of sil- 
ver Ditmte, added to the brine, (fives a white, curdy preeipi- 
tale coDtaioiDg chlorine, a pUtiuum wire would talc« up 
^vnouf fa to imparL a yellow color to the Bunseo flame, iadi- 

tinx Hodium. Thus two coustituf'nls may be separately 
ignixed io the solution by the appropriate tests, where 
nly commou baIl was added. So, in general, if wc wish to 
detect a salt in solution, we dei>end upon properties belong- 
ing Io the banc radical and those belonging to the acid radi- 
cal: the appropriate tests being soparately applied. Such 
properties are called " additive," since Ibey express the sum 
of the properties of the constituents. The special us« of this 
term may be c-lcorcr tin reviewing some electrical properties. 

Two kinds nf Si<nlutioa-<) arc dislitigulshed by meaii^ of the 
electric current. Absolutely pure water soeas to be a non- 
condnclor, while the addition of a nalt, acid, or bane enables 
the current to flow, the addedbody being HeparaLed into two 
parts called ions, which »pp««r at the two electrodes. Such 
bodies arc called electrolytes; and ihe quantity of electricity 
passing through the Quid is directly proportional to the 
quantity of electrolyte decomposed. Many organic bodies 
are not thus decomposed, their solutions being nonconduc- 
tors. While the molecule of common salt is believed to 
contain but two atoms, and BUgar contains at least forty-flve, 
yet the former may be separated by the electrical intluence 

I in a manner from which the latter is free. The forty-flve 
Itoms of thu Eugur molecule dwell together a« a unit, while 
Ute two atoms of common salt may pari company and enter 
into new relations, thus presenting a scene of activity and 
pomptezity which we should hardly expect from its appurrot 
simplicity. 

Let a current pass through a solution of oopper sulphate, 
entering through a copper plate, and passing out at any 
properly coated form; the copper is carried through the so- 
lution with Ihe current, and is deposited as an electro plate 
coating; while the negative radical slips back to attack the 
kathode. The quantity of basic and acid radicals thus 
transferred, under given conditions, depends upon the con- 
ductivity of the solution; but to compare solutions of difl*er- 
ent kinds w« should make the concentration proportional to 
the chemical equivalents. In this way Ostwald has meas- 
ured the molecular electrical conductivity of many solutions 
of varying degrees of concentration. The following an* a 
few of his results to the nearest unit for extremely dilute solu- 
tions— j^^ normal. The differences arc shown in small, 
bold- face type. 

LI C9. IIU « Nk CI, 119 aa K CI. 



IIU 
£ 
UHO,. US 

I 

ucnoi, sr 10 



9 



119 

S 

KkRO,, 1U 

1 

Na ciO|, m 



as 



MS 

6 

KiTOi. m 
e 

ECH>|, lao 



1^ 

■ ' Atfilnd ol Um aunual oMteta t>eror« Uie Wublnsica Chtmlesl SocMir, 

l~ daU(eT0<l Jan. », W9i, bj R> bL B. Wuvler. 



The numboTEi obtained for lithium salts are about B leas tfal 
for the corresponding sodium salts, and these about tS lesa^ 
than for the potassium salts. Cominring the borixoatal 
lines we 6nd the numbers for chlorides about 5 higher than 
for nitrales. and these about 7 higher than for chlomlee. 

To appreciate the full meaning of these dilTerences in thai 
numbers we may again refer to the tests of qualitailva 
analysis. A sail baa no single property by which it is rec- 
oguieed. but we depend upon the several properties of haBia- 
and acid radicals, which are largely independent of eacb' 
otiier. The molecular electrical conductivity is here ex- 
pressed merely by a number; but do not be repelled by a 
seiiM) of vagueness. This number expreises motion, — .thtt 
greater the number the more activity displayed in Lranafer. 
of electricity. Tb« lithium atom is less active in this wmf' 
than sudiuni; and this is true, whatever be the company in 
which the metal is found. The activity of chlorine isgreater 
than that of the nitric radical, and this greater than the 
chlorine radical; but the activity of the salt muist be 
viewed as the sum of this pro|>erty for tlie iMmponents. 
Each number is clearly the sum of two numbers, one be- 
longing to the basic, the other (o the acid, radical. On no 
other hypothesis can we explain the fact that when we select. 
two basic or two acid radicsN the substitution of one radical 
for the other always results in the same change of the num- 
ber, no matter what third radical may be combined wilb 
these two. In a word, the molecular electrical conductivity 
is an additive properly of salt Mjlulious. 

If we leave water and brine in the cold l»oth will fre««;i 
but the brine muHt be cooled to a lower temperature before > 
freeiiog begins. The <nCFerenoes between freciiog point for 
solutions and Ihe solvent have been made tbe subject of 
many extended researches with special forms of thermoma*] 
ter. Readings are estimated to .Ol". The result has been . 
B.ood of light upon tbe molecular weights of sobstauces in- 
liquid form, together with aonie remarkable differences be* 
twcen salt and sugar, between brine find syrup, or betweea| 
the two classes of solutiims which these represent 

Tabs three similar barometers, introduce a drop of water 
into the Torricellian vacuum of the Qrsl, and the nien-ury 
falls: the water is partly changed to vapor, which exerts a 
certain preMurv ou the mercury, and this vapor pressure may: 
be measured by [he difference in level. Now put a drop 
brine into the second barometer, the mercury falls here also^l 
but to a less extent. Tlie vapor pressure of the brine is 1( 
than that of pure water. Tbe process of evaporation'orcon-' 
densation in n current of air affords another means of deter- 
uiiuing the relative vapor premure of various solutions. If 
we now boil water anil brine io separate vessels the pressure 
of vapor equals that of tbe atmosphere ; hut, when this point 
is reached, the brine is hotter than the water. — the boiling 
point of the former is btgber. Thus we have a third method 
of comparing vapor pressurea. This property of solutions, 
in its quantitative aspect, rivals the freezing point as an avo*j 
Due to the secrets belonging to our subject, which are yet 
only partly disclosed. As solotion proceeds the denser brine 
grtidunlly mixes with the water above, until at la<il the whole 
fluid would be practically uniform. Various salts will dif- 
fuse at different rates. A porous membrane will tTa,wRGi=^ 



7^ 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XIX. No. 470 



(be innleculps of water more rcadity ihan those of a salt. 
For certain lhfur«>liral tDvesli^tionft we may conceive a 
" lialf penn^Hble" wall with opeuiiigfl so nmuW thai tlie 
water alone can i»en«lrate- As a filler separatBs a saluUon 
from tlie icsolublc residue, so the half-itermealjlc wall is to 
IraDsinil Llie.solveot. while preventiog' the pSHsatre of the 
-dittAolvcd sail No nmterial h&a been fouud fully iHrs^v^n'mg 
this ideal property; but theoretical deductions have already 
been confirmed by experimeoU with chiy cells, Ihe pores be- 
ing paKly closed with a fllm of insoluble precipiiate. If 
a solution tilts such a cell, while freab water surrounds it, 
the conteDla aoon show a considerable pressure, which ig 
measured by a manometer. This phenomenon is culled ''os- 
motic prrxHure," and we may have several conceptions of Its 
caiiee. Either there is an attraetiou betw«'n the unlike 
nioltH'uleJi ill the brine and the frt^h watpr, so lluil the taller 
flock in where the ttalt h inipritH>ned (as ducks fly to the de- 
coy) until the iuieniiil preiuure arresU the tlow ; or the os- 
molic pre<<»[ire may be due to the af^gregate force of impact 
of ibe many moving nioleculee; Ibis is the view ([eueratly 
taken 

The scveriil properties that have just been considered re- 
quire numerictl expre-iaiou. but these numbers are wonder- 
fully related ta each ntlier and to the doctrine of the conser- 
vation of energy. F'>r exdmple, con-tider the relation of 
osmotic prt-asure to vn|)or prefigure. Let u cell with half- 
permeable wall, coniieoled with a vertical lube be filled with 
solution, and immersed in a tank of pure water; the whole 
arrau:;cmcut beiug placed uuder a bell j<ir ia vacuum. Un- 
der otinolic pressure the ftolveot will enter the cell until a 
certain pressure is reached, us deteruiuied by the height of 
the liquid ID the vertical lube. Evaporation will lake place 
at the same lime, both from tlir surface of the solution in Ihe 
tube and fi-t^m the solvent in the tank, at their respective 
levels, until the jar is Bllod with vapor, A condition of 
equilibrium will eventually be reached, for otherwise we 
should have perpetual motion. On the half permeable walls 
of Ibe porous cell we have aa inward aud an outward pres 
sure, whose difference is measured by the height and density 
of the solutiou iu the vertical tube. Ou the surface of the 
two tluidn we have a vapor pressure, the dilfereooe being 
measured by. the same height and the density of the vapor iu 
the bell jar. The former value is the osmotic pressure, the 
latter is the diminution of vapor tension naused by adding 
tbe solid to tli« solvent: and these two value« stand exactly 
in the ratio of the deiisitie.i of solution and vapor. By other 
thermo dynamical coosideratioDS a relation is traced between 
osmotic pressure and the change in freezing point, electrical 
conductivity, etc. 

Jmporleut analogies between the physical properties of 
gdastm and those of dissolved bodies are pointed out by vun't 
Hoff; the lawa of Boyle, Qay Lu^sac, and Avogadro all 
have their counterparts in the phenomena of osmotic pres* 
sure. 

Pinil. Boyle's law says that the pressure of a gas is iu- 
Tornely proportional to its volame; that i*. that a* Ihequan- 
(ity of any gns in a given' volume is increased or diminished 
the pressure clmuges io the same ratio; so, Ihe osmotic 
pressure of ninny soluliuna is found to vary directly aa the 
concentration. 

Second, (Jay-LussAc* law may be expressed by stating 
that the gaseous presiure varies directly as the absolute 
teoiperatore; the same is true of oamolio pressure. 

Third, Avogndro's law implies that two gases, at the same 
temperature, will have equal pressures when the maases of 



equal volumes are propnrlitmal to the molecular weights. 
The same is inie for osmotic pressures in equivalent eolu 
tiODs of dilferent comparable substances. To calculate ih« 
osmotic pressure conceive Ihe solvent to be absent, while the 
solid occupies the same space as ea^; the hypothetical gase- 
ous pressure, as detormiood by the three fundamental laws, 
is then equal to Ihe osmotic ptessure required. Conversely, to 
determine the molecular weight of a dissolved body, we may 
find the osmotic pressure and calculate as for a gas; prarti- 
cally, the depression of freezing point is the physical 
crty usually measured. 

In a word, Ihe three fandsmeitljil laws of gaseous nialter 
arc found to be true of dissolved matter simply by nubsti-, 
luting o><iiiotie pressure for gaseous pressure, while even 
anomalies and liiintntinns so long rerngnized in gases and 
vapors tlud their c-ounlerparls in solulious. Can we find 
identity of onuse when therf? is almost identity of reanltt In 
a gas matter is io a far more dilute condition than in ordi- 
nary solids or liquids; the intermolecnlar spaces are evi- 
dently far greater than the space occupied by Ibe molecules 
themselves. The same is true in a dilute solution of salt, 
only here the inter molecular space is largely occupied by the 
water. In both coHes. motion iaindicaled by the phenomena 
of dlfTusiou. Id both cases, each moving mole<.-ule is endowed 
witli kinetic energy, aud the sum of the vis viva of all tbe 
molecules exactly accounts for Ihe laws of pressure. The 
formulas used to unfold tlie kinetic theory of ga^es may be 
applied without change to a kinetic theory of solutions. In 
a jar of hydrogen. Ilio molecule dat-u hither aud thither at 
the rate of a mile a aecond, asking for no support nave other 
molecules, from which it r^bouuds. If hydrogeu mixes 
with the denser vapors of paraffin, it will still exert its o«ro 
pressure upon the walls of the veit<ie1, as though it were 
alotie. Our salt is less ethereal. The molecules are heavier. 
They move more stugeishly. Very slowly do they riste, as 
though climbing with painful eft'ort upon an unsteady ladder 
of water molecules. Tet, with the aid of the lialf-perme«bl« ■ 
wall, their pressure is found to be just what it should be on ^ 
the kinetic theory, if the salt alone occupied the space in 
absence of vfater. 

-AooDislies and limitations have always been mentioned. 
There is no " perfect " gas, none that exactly fulfils the fun 
damental laws, but hydrogen, which most nearly agrees nil 
the '' ideal gas" in its properties, is not compressed to one 
teulh its volntue by teo-fotd pressure, but cocupi>-s a little 
more Ihan one-tenth volume. Here, the molecules them- 
selves may be considered as incompressible bodies occupyiDVl 
too great a fraction of the whole space to be left entirely out 
of account. A modiDcattOu of Bowled law assumes llial the 
total intermolecular space varies inversely as the pressure. 
In most gases and vajiors, however, the devialiou is tn the 
Opposite direction. As the molecules approach each other 
their mutual attraction is manifested, for the volume becomes 
less than required by Boyle'.s law. Tlip piston of a Corlis,i 
engine, which glides su beautifully tn and fro. in obedience 
to valve and governor, is impelled by the bombardmeul from 
an smiy of vapor molecules, each one following its own 
impulse nlniost unlrammelled in the go-as-yoU' please conlsst; 
yet some mutual attraction is manifatt, for the steam exerts 
a little less prvssiir^ U|>ou the piston than wnuld an ideal 
gas utvderlike conditions. So. osmotic pressure, instead of 
increasing directly as Ihe concentration, may increase a little 
less rapidly. There is a well-known body whose vspor den- 
sity has long been recognized as abnormal. 

Ammonium chloride, when converted into vapor, is found 



i 



i 



February 5. 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



73 



to ocGupj* twice (be volume predicted by theory. — in other 
wordR h gi»en Tolume of tbe vapor exerts twice the theoreii- 
e»\ prf^Hurc. The explanatioa is easy when we learn that 
ttit^ Witt t^ Jissnciat^-d into the two gasCA, ammonia aod hy- 
dro^lonne acid. Similar anomalies ia osmotic pressure 
may lead to a titoiilar iiiter[>relKtion, although quite antago- 
nistic to our ordinary conceptions and leachiugs. Sodium 
will bum in chlorine with strtkiii;^ evoluLtoiiA of light and 
hcAt; we recognize the pnxJucl aa a new subetanc*'. Cbrm- 
iral action has talcea place. By a large expenditure of en- 
ergy the elcmcois may again be separated; this also is 
chemical action. But we dissolve the salt jo water, evapo- 
^te, recover it as before, and are prone to count all these 
Dges as purely physical. Little do we suspect that tbe 
dilate solution contains in froc state the two substances which 
we usually know as metal and gas, the two kinds of atoms 
nioviuif i)idet>ei)d«nlly of each other, so long as they are dis- 
tributed in equal numbers iu any portion of the fluid. Yet 
such is the theory of ArrheuiuH, now fast gainiu;{ ground. 
Cald water deoompuacs a moat stable compouuil, the elements 
beiog gradually reunited in evaporation and crystal liiation. 
Accept this hy|iollieaia for electrolytes and their peculiar 
properties are explained, their additive characlernmst follow 
a necessary consequence of their nature, and the stroral 
nda of anomalies fall into harmonioua relatiuos. 
On this hypothesis the speed of cliemical change should no 
longer be proportioned t« the whole quantity of each active 
substaoce present, but rather iu pro)>or(ion la that part 
which has already sutfered loosening of tha bonds. The 
facta of dynamical chemistry afford an independent antl 
^v^luable confirmation of the new views. 



THE OEIOIN OF THE Ada, THE CAT. AND THE 
SHEEP IN CHINA.' 



At a recent meeting of the China Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society in Bhunghai. Dr. Mac£Owao, a well knoffn 
CbineGe scholar, read a paper on the probable foreign origin 
of the ass, the cat, and the sheep in China. He said that the 
Chinpse. in their numerical coordination of concrete and 
ftbslrnct nature, give the " six domestic animals " an the 
hofse. ox, goat, pig, dog, and fowl; which seems to indicate 
(bat when that formula was framed, neither cat, slieep, nor 
ass hsd he>en domesticated there. When familiar beasts 
were selected to denote years of the duodenary cycle, to the 
■*Bix domestic animnU " were added the rat, liger, hare, 
dragon, serpent, and monkey, to complete tbe dozeo, as if 
the uss, sheep, and cat were too little known lo meet the ob- 
ject in view, which was the employment of tbe most familiar 
repreAenlalions of animate>d nature for thft duodendary no- 
menclature. Still more strikirifr is the alnence of the ass, 
sheep, and cat from the twenty-eight zodiacal constellations, 
which are represented by the best known animals. 

With regard to the ass, there is ample reason to regard it 
as being excluded from the list of domestic animals because 
it waa not archaic. Tl*e hybrid mule is of comparatively 
modem origin in China, dating back only about a iwytre of 
oenturiea. A miacelkny of the Sung era states that "tbe 
mule was not soen during the Hsai, Hhang, and Cliou dynas- 
ties: that it was a cross between the ass and horse from Unn- 
golia. It id regularly bred in the north, and in worth in the 
market twice ns much as the horae: it is popularly reported 
tbat i(« bones are marrowlem, which is tbe reason of its in- 
ability lo produce its kind." Again, It Is recorded in a Ming 

■ Flwn NMurv- 



crclopeedia: "Tbe male i« stronger than the honte, and is 
not a natural product of China; in the Han era it waa r»- 
garded as a remarkable domestic animal." Is it likely that, 
if the afs existed during the three ancient dynasties, there 
was no crossing with the horse t 

With regard to the cat. Dr. Mac^owau proceeded to stalei 
that there was a quotation from a Ktandard wnrk which dia- 
closes the fact that Vuang Chuang. the pilgrim monk, who, 
in the seventh century A.D., returned after sixleea yeatm^ 
wanderings iu India. br[>uKht cats with him to protect his 
collection of Sanscrit Buddhist hooka from rats. Thai ac- 
count, however, ia somewhat invalidated by an antwdote of 
Confu^nus, who is relate to tiave one day seen a cat choaiDft 
a rat. These conflicting slateinenis are from auLhoritatiTe 
sources, end it ii impossible to offer a satisfactory explana- 
tion. Possibly the cat of Oonfusian itniea was only a par- 
tially domeNticated wild cat. There mii«t have been som» 
ground for the statement of the am having been broaghi 
from Indi», at* tl is hardly likely that in all the long period 
of Chinese hlstnry it should be named but twice as a dnmaa- 
tic animal. He quotes from Chinese folk-lore on the subject 
of cats. As cruelly to cats and other nnimnl^ is followed by 
retribution, so services rendered to tbem mwt with supernal 
re<*ngnition. At anciently the tiger was s»crific«d to becauoe 
it destroyed wild boars, so the wild cat was wunihipped b»- 
ca)is« it was the natural foe of rats; bosr« And rats being the 
natural enemie-s of husbandry. At the commeucement of 
the Sui dynasty. A.t). 5HI, the cat spirit inspired greater 
terror than the fox did subBequeally. The hallucinations of 
cat spirit mania prevailed, forming a remarkable einsnde in 
Chinese history, only to be likened lo the fanatical detusio-i 
of witchcraft that frenzied Europe a thousand years later. 
It WAS believed that the spirit of a cat pooseascd tbe power of 
conjuring away properly from one person to another, and 
inlltcled through incantations t>odily harm. Tbe popular 
belief was intetisitied and spread like an epidemic, uolil 
every disastroux atfittr tliat tufik place was locnbed to cat 
spirit agency set in motion by some mixchievous enemy. 
Accusations were lodged against suspected persona, and, tbe 
slightest evidence sufllcing for conviction, the inatieious went 
encouraged to trump up charges against the iouocenf, until 
the country became a pandemonium. No one waa safe, 
from the Imperial family down lo the hnmble clodhopper. 
Even a magnate of the reigning bouse, who enjoyed the 
titular distinction of Prince or King of Szechuan. was exe- 
cuted for nefariously employing the agency of eat spirits. 
In this manner several thousands were immolated before the 
delusion was dispelled. Happily the period appears to htve 
been of brief duration: incentives auch as kept up the wttcb 
mania for centuries were wanting iu China. Coming down 
to our own limes we find a oat-craft deluKiun prevailed over 
a great portion uf Cbekiaog. " In the summer and autumn 
of 1847 frightful wrailhs appeared throughout the depart- 
ments of Hangcbow. Shaohsing. Ningpo. and Taichow. Tbey 
were demons and three-legge*) cata. On the approach o( 
night a fivtid odor wa.'^ perceptible in the air. when dwellings 
were entered by something by which people were bewitched, 
causing alarm everywhere. On detecting the elBuvium in 
the air. householders commenced gong- beating, and Iho 
sprite*, frightened by the sonorous noise, quickly retreated. 
Thin lasted for several mootbs, when the weird t^eootueoa 
ceiued.' Well did he remember, said l>r. Maegowan. tho 
commotion that prevailed Iu Ningpo throughout tho«r months 
of terror. Every gong that conld be procured or manufac- 
turctl for the occaaiuu was subject to vigorou.* v.V\'i'woj«t%. 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. Nc. 4/O 



throufrli Die livelntig night, matnUine-d with vocifcratioTis by 
relaya of zealous beatera. This dmifeiiiuK dio was but a re- 
crudesctnce of what had occurred a few geocralioDS before 
— a panic which was only exceeded by IbaL which subse* 
queolly prevailed over ihe ealir« «m[>ire. 

With regard to aheep. Dr. Macgrman said Iha aucieot 
mode of writinft the character for j/ang. goat, was ideo- 
graphic — four strokes od the top to repreeenl boras, two 
horizontal strokes representiDg ]egs, and a perpendicular Mie 
tu repreitent body and tail. The modern form gives an adili- 
UoDiil parallel stroke, like the word for horse; it ie a simple, 
n(A a compound character, and when sbecp came to be 
hnown. instead of making a new character, the sheep was 
called the " Hun-goat," tbua indicating ilsoriifiD andafBDity. 
Yang, goat, is often translated Bhoop, the earliest instances 
being found in one of the Odes, wherein the court bubiit- 
meats of Wen Wang are called " lamb-akius and shoep- 
skina." This was about 1160 B.C.. but it is doubtful if these 
robes nre really the skins of sheep. It is not certain tliat 
icfa was the case, for the skins of goats were u<ie<l t>ieii, as 
>w, for clothes. Hun-goats are not named before the period 
of the Tang dynasty, say the seventh century A.D. The 
goat was one of Ihe aacHlicial aniinalB. as at present, and 
waa at the first selected for sacrifice when sheep were un- 
k Qown . 

Id the discussion which followed, tjie conctusioos of the 
paper were not accepted by all the speakers: and it was 
agreed that the subject waa one worthy of scholarly inres- 
ligatiun . 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

TtaB inlematioDal HIaltstioat Ooogres^, n-tiich met at Vienna 
in OetotM>r last, selected the city of Chicago and the summer of 
1893 a.* the place and dati> of ilieir next oieetinii, and n committee 
wa'« itp|i<>iri<i-d to Jta*v up a n-port on the i|UcMion of eiuiicration, 
which is lo be diwus^ud ut thnt time. 

— Ttiaeakl that two pieuuj of Hlumin!uai can be HitdenKt to- 
Cether with eaw by ustug silvt-r chturide as a fuse. The piecee 
of metal are placed tnj;eLher iti Uieir pru[Kr relative poiilioiia, and 
rloifly powijerud fnsci "lirer chloride spreAd alon; the line of 
Junction, after which thesol'ter is melted on with a blow.pipe. 

_Profea«>r B. A. E^ertes, director Of the New York State 
Weather Butf-nu, Ithaca, ofTers to t>end telegraphic notice of void 
waves u> Hucli p^ntoiM in N«w York Stale as will display the regu- 
lation signals fur the IwnniiL of the public. Thix bun-jnu works Jn 
co-operation with the WaxbinKton ufiioe. A limiteil number of 
flng>) will be famished by the Ithaca office, and those applicant* 
who canuot be thus supplied will be giveu a Ust of dealers frooi 
wbom the Itn^H may be obtained. The QanK. wfatcb are of hunt- 
ing material, may also be made by the iwrsons using Ibcm. 

— A mine of coal of very fair quality for steaming purpoaes 
has been found by accident in the Stralta of Hagetlun, according 
to Engineering. Stgnor Fosseiti, the captain of an Italian steamer, 
was compelled to anchor in Shagnet Day to make some repain, 
and white ther« he discovered coal very near the surfac«. Reach- 
ine ValpsraMo. he mnt a corps of ex|ierl« to the eceoe of the dis- 
covery in a steam launch, who found that the coal waa not only 
ubuuduui but of excellent quality. Tbe iuiportsDce of the die 
cuvoty to the commerce of th^ world can only be appreciatt'd 
when it ui considered that all steamers passing thiough t)R> tJtruits 
of Kagellan are reiguired to coiil thiTv, and that the supply has 
barebofore been brought fri>m Cardiff, Wakii. 

•~ According to ohservatione made st recent meetings of Ihe 
Berlin ML>dical Society, It would seem that the epidemic of influ- 
enza began there during; the flrtit week of November, the earliest 
cases admitted into bo«pltal having come under ttvalment on 
Not. 7. Rubemaon slated that the mon notiorable difference 




botweea this and the other recent epidemics has been the large 
numlwr of women and children, and the small number of outdoor 
workers atlncked. Oultniiuin mentioned an instanoe in which 
llie admiiurinn of a single patient suffering from inflnenaa 
shortly followed by the occurrence of 13 freth eases. 
who took notes of 139 c&ies, found that only 9 (0 S p<>r cent) 
sufferetl from the disease before. The chief compliralions 
Iteen pneumonia and heart failare. The effect on the deal 
in Berlin has not been tm marked aa durinf; the last epideml 
it has been coDAiderablf (27 per miUe aa compared with an a*i 
of It*}, Id othtT parte of Germsny tbs effect has been mi 
marked; thti> oHioial statistics sht>w that the death-rate lias been 
doubled, or nearly doubled, in several towns. It rose, for instance, 
to 44 in Fosen (avtratje 21), to 45.6 in t'laukfort-oo-Oder (average 
38.3). in Bremen to 84.8 (average 17. 1), and m Rostock to IS. 3 
(averane L5.6). 

— Tbe citizens of New York, in 1 892, propose to celebrate the 
dLicorery of America tn their own way, aiolsi^ by representa- 
tives from every State and territory in the Union. A great food 
show is to be held nt Matlison ^uare Garden in October of that 
year. It is propowd at this expoailion to show the progress made 
by thia country in the last four hundred years as regards our food 
supply. Tlie United State* is the Rreatest food-producinj? country 
in the tvurld, mid ila f<Mnl la tlic nn^ thing above all other* that 
fin>t claims the allention of the human fikiuiiy, it is nafe to pre- 
dict that (he coming exposition will provp one of the most inter- 
rslfng events of the century. Only food produces will be allowed 
on exhibition, esblbitom being restricted to manufacturers or pOi- 
dncers. no dealer as such being allowed to participate. Every 
article of food exhibited must boar Ibc bona fide name and addreM 
of manufaclnrera. all fictitious bt'ands being rigidly excluded. 
Uquory. speciQcs, and paleitl meiicincs tvill not be allowed. 
Every manufacturer exhibiting must guanuitee that hi4 goods at 
the ex|NMit(on are the «i.me a» oiTnred for sale lo the public. 
Further informntion may W uMsined of the Food M.'inufactur- 
ors' Association, Uudson aoi Uarrison Street, New Vork City. 

— The United Staler consul at Bordeaux gives, in a recent to- 
port, some interesting information about tite wines of the Hedoc 
district. He notet tliat this diilrict. Itelween the sea on tlie one 
hand and the GanmiK- hivI Gironde Rivers on tbe olhen, i>> called 
Hedoc \gnavi mrttio aqucr). becauw nearly ^urrouii'leil by water. 
It I* the northern lerminalion of the extensive tract of sand hllb 
and miirHh-lnnd ciilled " Les Landee." extending from Uayonne 
north, whii^h clisn jcs to a bank of KTsvel on approaching the left 
bank uf the Garonne, and contains some of the most precious 
vineyards in the world. The soil is of light pebble, and, indeed, 
on the spots where some of the best wiue is produced it appears a 
mere heap of quartz mixed with tbc most sterile quality uf e.arth. 
The bi'flt wine is not produced where the bueh is moat luxuriant, 
but on Ihe thinner soila, where it ia actually stunted, 
and where weeds disdain often to grow. Here tbc vine 
retains the sun's heal about its roots After sunwt, so that its 
juices are matured as much by night as by day. The «c 
cuuiuL-ktion of sand and pebbles of whtcb this soil is composed ts 
apparently the s^mils of the Pyreocan rocks, hrou>;ht down by the 
torrents Iributary to the Oaronoe and other great rtvenf, arxJ de- 
posited in former ages on tlie borders of the sea. At a depth c^ 
two or three feet from tbe surface occurs a bed of indurated 
oonglomerate, which requires to be broken up before the vine will 
grow. 

— jV'ifNre, Jan. St, contains some extracts from a valualile re- 
port by tbe French agent at Victona on the salmon indus- 
try in British Columbia. Among the details noted bj him is tbe 
fact that the Iwst Brth are almost always taken on the outflow of 
the river In llie place where the Hsbermen eadeavur to moot the 
fish on their arrival from the sen. A boat is oflvn fllletl with 
se^-eral hundred fish in a single drift net of from 4(iO to 500 me- 
tree. It is calculated tlml on certain days the total of the Fraser 
fishery amounts to not lesa thim ISO.OOO salmon, which are passed 
through all the different jibasw of preherving. and are ready lobe 
forwanlcd for the market on tbe same day. An Ingenious nppa 
ratus used to take the salmon, chiefly on tlie Columbia Itiver in 



I 



I 

I 
I 



February 5, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



7S 



tbe Cnited States, \» deacribed. A hrge wheel, dxed at a cerlaio 
dUtaaoe from the bank, ta put in motion by the curreDl. Ttie 
MaiVi or thu wheel are provided n-itb a network ot iron wire in 
tended ta niae fnim the wati>r any large object cnining in contact 
with Ui«m. A aort of bar-work titartlng from the wJif^l is so 
plans! a* to (ncraam the strength of lh(^corrent in such a mauner 
as CO forc« the Rnh pn&fhig on thte side of th» river lo go In this 
dfiection. The salmoa. wishing to cross ibt rcry rapid strpam 
whrm the wheel ia i>Uc«l, ia raised out of ibc water by the iron 
wire on the tilade». In the rolar; movement the aaltnon ia carried 
to tbc otoln of the whe«l, whence an inclined plana coiMtocts it 
into vast opwi rrtrrvgini placed iu the ^ream, where it can be 
kept all** loT BOme time. A Mr><teni of pullejH pruiitie* for the 
railing of the«e iwirirMinf, the wul«r Hows out. »nil the Kalmuo i» 
carried in bost-l<*d« ju«t hm It ia rMiuirvd for prefiaralion. 

— A new jnatrnment, called the •■Bchteeophone," lately in- 
vealed by Captain de Place (a Prencfa officer), is describeil in 
Engmeerttig The objei;t of the jastrument ia to reveal the pree- 
eoce and the place of any blow-holes, flaws, cracbs, or other 
defects which may exist In (he Interior of a piece of metal. When 
these defecta are \ery great, the blow of a hammer on the piece of 
atoM aooo betflQ'B their presence, hut for small binw-holee, 
altfaoogh tfaeee may also be very dnngeroud, lhi>re is nut enough 
difference in the sound given by the hammer Btriking tlie piece of 

Kstal for it to he detected by the ear. The scbiseophone, bow- 
er, will enable that difference to be heard. The apparatufi 
ntiili of a pin which run^ thrnTis;h a microphone of n ^ip^rinl 
n«t ruction, which. a« inttial. is put in connectiun with the cnrrertt 
an electric battery. Wilhotil giving more details of the com- 
|licate<l mecbaniflm of the iosttumeni, one can uodenttand that. 
when tlie pin "trikea on a k«x1 part of the metnl tried, a rtound is 
pfoduati, the vibrations of which affect ttte electric current in a 
CwUin way ood then a eertnin »ouud can be beard iu tlie tele- 
pbom attached lo the iiiAtrumeut. When the i»a ttttJkra on a 
part d( the metal where there ia a defect, the sound produced b 
difTerenl; the uiicruphone, tlie ourrent, an<l tlie telephone are then 
affpctrd dIJTercnMy, and the defect existing in the meial is revealed 
by the difference In the sound heard at the telephone. The ear 
most, of courw. be used to the different sounds to be able to dla 
tingnbb tbem; but the necessary skill is not very difficult to 
aojoire. Trials with this instrument have been carried oat at 
Grmont, at the works of the Nortbem Railway Company of 
France, id the presence of many engineerti. to Bod dtfrcts in the 
ratbt. Tlie tf Inph^tne of the upi-^tmlua was placed al a Umn dtii- 
tau'^e froui the rails, froui which it ivu» also separat"<l by a wall. 
The |xilnls where the iustrument inlimated a defect in t)i<< iriirtnl 
were carefully noted; the rails were then broken at tho«e plut^tw 
and the defects wefe actually found. 

— Tbe great Australian ex[>edlt)OD baa succeeded in tra^^erdng, 
from north to south, the Rm or most southerly of the tlirev ^reai 
blanks it whh commii^iioncd to explore. This In the wide interior 
fl|aoe lying between the track of ForreHl in 1874 and that of Gilcti 
in 1875, The party croaped the boundary between South and 
We«t AuHltalia. at a point to the ea^it of Fort MQller. in latitude 
M^ 10' sooth an.1 longitude liS^ eaat, and Sfrttok south arrrn4 the 
desert ftom Mount Squires, making for Queen Victoria Spring, on 
Oilea'a tnck of 167A. Arriving at that expected abundonl water- 
supply, they fouiMl it nearly dry, and all hopes of a thorough ex- 
plofation of the region were destroyed. Under these circum- 
^at)D«K, and sorely straitoued for water, a direct route was taken 
for tb« nearvft cattle stations, near tlie southom si^tboard of West. 
Australia and Espersnce Bay. from which latter port Mr. David 
Liodaai. the leader, deepatcbed reports of the oxpodiilou to Ade- 
laide in OiTtober last. Tbe country traversed appeared to have 
haid oo rain for two years. Owing to admirable managemeul on 
the trying tnarob of fiSO Alles through an almost watetleee coun- 
try, the health of the party had not suffered^ and only two of the 
camels had died. Notwit hntanding the ntter eridity of the re- 
gion, Mr Lindsay remarks that it cannot he called a desert, for 
the country ia mor« or Icn clothed with bushes and trees, and for 
many mile^ there is a gam-tree forest which extends into South 
Au.'>tralia, the trees reaching often three feet in diameter and 



forty to fifty feel in heigbt. He adds that tbe clean while trunks 
and dark-green tops nf the Urea from a short distance preaent a 
charminz aRjtect, hnt that a nearer examination reveals tbe usual 
signs of aridity, the ground being covered with nolhlns but the 
dfflprt' loving spinifex and aielem shrubs. Mr. E. A. Wells, the 
Borveyor of the expedition, reports thai the whole of tbe country 
travelled over from Uount Sqatrea was inhabited by nalires who 
got their water-supply partly by draining the roots of certain 
matlee trees, some of which, dlstinguiahahle only by the keen ob- 
servation of a native, yield (Quantities of pure water. It was Mr. 
Liiid^y'd inlenlioi) to remain near the «outh coskI for some weeks 
to restore the strenKlh of Ibc «)rely-trie<l camels, and then to 
proceetl agxin tuwnrds the iuteriur, txking a more we«terly route, 
so as to cro<s Gdes* mate at Ullnring, aod Forrest's truck at Mount 
Ida, and thence oo to Uope's Station I't'a tbe new gold Beld*. 
From the last- mention^ place he had hopes of maluni{ an excur- 
sion liouth-east as far a» latitude 99", and thus oompleting suffl- 
cieally tbe exatninatioo of the first great area it is thu object of 
tlie ezpediiloD to explore, before proceeding to tbe second, f nrtbar 
north. 

— A magniflwot diamond, a perfect octahedron, wcichingSOS 
karats, has be*>ri purchased from a river digger by a Kimherley 
buyer, says the South African iVtmii^r Joamnl It in tbe ^econil 
largest stone ever found in tbe V'nal diggings, the largest being 
tbe celebrated Spalding diamond of 280 kirats, but which was 
yellow and of had shape. Tlie price paid for the stntM recently 
found i« said to have been Cd.OOU ; since bis return from tbe river 
the buyer lias been offoiM £8.000for It. vthkh offer baa been refwwd. 

— The Enginmring and Mining Journal of Jan. !iO gives an 
atjalract of a paper by N. LebedielT on ii direct pdm-mh tor pro- 
ducing iron and other metals from their onw. According to thii 
method the metallic oxides are brought in oontnct with a Rtrong 
base (poisuh. soda, limK, or dolomite) by either melting the two 
in a finely divided stale or by roaiting such mixture in furnace* 
provided with a powerful air blast, slirring tbe msM frequently. 
To hapten the procea common salt or nitre amy bu added to the 
roast4^] mixture. Some oombinalions of metallic uxides with 
alkaljei4 may be produced by the wet proceaH; farexample,alkaline 
alumloates. Abstmrting the pure metals may then proceed in 
cupolas, open hearth*, or In cruclldes in reverheraiory furaaoes. 
To the mixlurea prepared as above arc attdct rharcMl. coke, etc., 
as well OH a proper amount of silicious materials to prodnoo slof 
»l>on the reduction of the metals. In order that furanee walls 
Iw m«t attacked the inuer liniag is lieat made of oeutnU material. 
In the rHiuclioii of iron and other metala easily separated by coal, 
etc., gas, uiidvr printer preakure. contaiiiiDg a euQicient amount 
of CO,. El. or C(l]« mny be used iMlead of coal, elc. Smelting 
is then carried on in open ht-arth or reverberatory furnaces. Tbe 
reducing gases are brought into I hi.* molten miUM Ity pipe* discharg- 
ing at a pcoper height, or by tuyeres issuing fnxn cliamlwni in the 
fumaoe walls, and ooonected ailh prt-ssiire gvnemttim or gaao- 
meten. After firopeclj beating the furnace the oirefully mi^nJ 
oxides and bases, or the oxideti pre^'iously treated with tjases. arv 
introduced and beated until thoroughly melted, when the reducing 
gases aro allowed to penetrate the mav^. Iu proportion to tbe 
relative reduction of tbe metal and separation of the baset* a fur- 
ther thin layer of oxides Is added. These lattur combitie readily 
with the free base and melt, and tbe gas then again reduces Ibe 
metal, the base in again aeparalod and thtts tbe proceos contiDuea. 
In cane the oxi<le« comblive readily with the bases by simple smelt* 
log tbe operntions cau all he carrle<I on in one furnace. Metals 
melting esaii* are tapiied from time lo time as they iu*e produced. 
Uetals which are refractory, ■uch as iron, chromium, etc. can be 
dooed wllb materials which lower their melting point (high carbon 
pig in the case of IronK or else they are treated, after a tuf&cient 
quantity has been produced and removed from tbe furnace, witli 
water or acids after cooUug. tbereby dissolving (be alkaline salta, 
the insoluble metal remaining uodlaturbed iu tbe shape of small 
plates. 

— Dr. Charles S. Edwards, follow in Clark University, Woroea- 
ter, Maas.. has hern appointed assistant professor of biology In tho 
University of Texaa. 



7« 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. Na 470 



SCIENCE: 



A VftRU ir£WSPAPSS Of All THS ARTS AND SCIEIfCES. 

PUBLISHID BY 

N. D. C. HO DGES. 

874 Bkoadwav, N»W YOIK. 



SoMcniPTiOM*.— I7nl(«4 S(«lw kbA Canftd* ,. ...t>.U»r**'- 

OtimC Britato and Baropn >...,.. '4.90*yeM'. 

OoramunlirAttMiswIlI be w^looned fnin uirquutH. A^MrM1a of acleDtlltc 
pBrj>4>r« ani w>lhHI«d. and one bvi>drad COpIva of tfa«jMue von talnlus audi wll| 
(>« nailed (be Mittwt ca r«<|u«M Is advaac*. B«)Ht«d a»ouaoi1pt« «fll he 
reitini«J to tbe »ut]tard oBtr «b«ii Ui« re qulafu unoimt of poKMce aocoin- 
panlini tb« maniuoript. 'WlialcTDT !■ IntPiiiloc] fur liuorUan muat Iff aathnoli- 
OftMd br the ■»■• and uldn^ of Iho wrlti^r; nut ti«ce«fAritT lur pubUoailon, 
Irat A« A jnaraatf of good Tailb. Wn do nnt hold nunwlTea rdcpnnidhlo (or 
Mkf *)bw or optnUnia oxpraaaad la tbo eoniaualiiaUotui of our oorrripoodMiU, 

An««UoD la callod to U)o "WaoU" eolnisn. Ail aro larlUd to «m II Id 
aolloltiuic iaronriAtloti or MwklOK onv poaltloaa. Ttio naBio and addrcaa of 
appllciuiu mhnuld ba glrpo Id full, hi tbal aonran wUI go dlnct I o thWB. Tba 

Biehaare " colimui la Uk«wlM opoB. 

Vor AdTanladnc RaLM applj to Bnar P. TaTLOa, 47 Lafajptt* Plao«, Xe« 
rcrt. 



INDIAN OCCUPATION OF NEW YORK. 

We 1uiv« DOt loartH^d all lliat will Konie duy be kaown of 
the aboriginal occupatioo of Ncn* York, bul occa^iiooal con- 
tributioDt or syKtemalic statements bave a present value. 
We are thankful for much that bas been written, and only 
wisli Hint more bad beeu douc before so iriaiiy woriis were 
oblitpralftd and i^lics doalroyed. 

It is quite likely tbat erruneuua «9tJinal(» bave been made 
in regard to some reiuaina, for fewer occupied spots have 
been overlooked or Torgoltea than would be supposed. I 
bftva consulted all arcessibk- autborittes, eerLsinly Die nioHt 
important, and find less than one bundred and ninety defen- 
sive earlb works described or even mentioned, while of 
stockades which have left traces there are between twenty 
and thirty. We know tbat more of the Intler were in use, 
from history; but there are special reasons why the traces of 
tbeee were fewer tbiui of earthworks. A liberal allowance 
for UDtlescribed or iodcSnitely mentioned defenaiTe banks 
might bring Ibis class of fortiticationa up to two hundred 
ftnd fifty, which ia probably a fair allowance for Hie Btute 
of New York. (I is lo be i-euierabcwMl, however, that some 
have l>een reported where none existed, and that others bave 
been contused. It is not my purixwe now tn point the-9e out. 
With a considerable outlay of tield and borne work durinjr 
many years. I have colK-ted notes and oollaled accounts, so 
that I have on the uiap before lue a pretty fair view of the 
Held of Indian nrrupation in New York. lu the central part 
of the Slate very few sites have escaped my attention, even 
when small, and this long continued study presents some 
curious reiiuIlH. 

My present intention, however, ts merely to show the 
grouping and nature of the more important known wnrks, 
althouKh by far the 6nest aKioles of stone have come from 
open villages, hamlets, and camps occupied by early trav- 
ellers, Qsberuieu, or buiitent. The fort builders here had Id 
a measure left the stone age behind tbem, and stone gouges, 
gor);ots, amulets, and kindred articles. ar« lo ba looked for 



where camps or uaeoctosw) villages stood. Tbe fort build- 
ers preferi'cd working in clay, bone, and horn, tisiai^ no 
flint scrapers ur drills, and even making stone arrows some- ^ 
what sparingly. fl 

When known sites are placed on the map, especianr \ 
when unimportAnt ones are etitninated, it will be found tbat 
tbvro is a very distinct arrangement in groups, nor does the 
presence of even small camps change this materially. Hun- ^ 
ters, of course, camped on most large streams and lakes, but fl 
the river« had tbe lai^^er number. Defensive works ar» ' 
ofti>ner at .lome distance from navigable waters, though 
having a tendency to tbe sides of broad ralleya. It will be 
found that some counties present atarcely a trace of settled ^ 
occupation, while others have Lbem in abuodaDce. H 

One large group liea in the aoulh-west part of the Stale, ■ 
where Cattaraugus County has eleven defensive earthworks 
mentioned, with others undescribed, and also at least ten 
burial mounds. Chautauqua has even more abundant re- ^ 
mains of this group, having forty-four earthworks and fif- H 
teen burial mounds of various kinds. There have been re- 
ported also seven ossuaries or bone pits, similar to thos^ 
found in the Huron country, in Canada. A very few of 
these defensive works seem to belong to tbe historic |>eriod, ^ 
containing European relics. With all the descriptions we- H 
have of these works, it is a pity that no systematic, and ~ 
hardly general, report has been maile of the articles found, i 
such as has thrown so much light on works further east. In fl 
general, the indications »«em IroqutMan, though presenting ^^ 
some features of a border land. It is doubtful whether all 
the works there are of a northern character. 

Forming another group, slightly connected with this, Erie l 
Conaty has seveoteeu earthworks, seven mounds, and four ■ 
ossuaries. Others have been obliterated before description. ™ 
but probably not mauy have escaped uieuUon. The forts 
are mmtly smaller than in the last group. Niagara lias 
three earthworks, six mounds, and four ossuaries. lo a ^ 
general way, tbe seven earthworks and three mounds offl 
Oencsee County may be placed in the same group, and ^^ 
Orleans lies on the Iwrder witli one earthwork, one ossusry. 
and trncesnf wnrks now obliterated. In this group are found 
many quite recent villages, especially of the Iroquois. Most 
of the remains, however, are prehistoric, the Eries and Neu- 
trals barely coming iu contact with the whites. 

In the territory further east, acquired by theSenecas ia ^l» 
seventeenth century, recent villages predominate, but tbe 
broad valley of the Qcocsec has many prehistoric silc«. 
mainly grouped towards tbe mouth of the river. Monroe 
Coun ly seems to afford t wet ve earth wurka, one recent 
Blockade, and twelve mounds; Livingston County, eight 
earthworks, one stockade, and tweWe mounds, some of these 
being recent. Wyoming County bus one small earthwork 
and one mound. Ontario County ban two earthworks and 
three stnckadeif, part of both Iheee being rerent, as are most 
of the villaee sites and burial places. Yates has two earth- 
works described and some indelinitely re[>nrled. One other, 
planned and deacribed, is evidently erroneous. Tompkins 
baa four earthworks, one in combination with a stockade, 
and all pr<;historic. Allegany has three earthworks and some 
recent Beneca villages. 

Between this and tbe Cayuga grouif there is a less distinct 
line. Seneca County belongs to this, but has but two earth- 
works dcecribcd, though reference is made to others by De- 
Wilt Clinton. Wayne has one very small work, in good 
preservation. Cayuga faas five earthworks, part of them 
recent, and three early stockades. It abounds in recent vil- 



February 5, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



n 



llg«^ wboM BlocludM, if tbere wert luch, have left do 
tncM. Strictly, apart of Ihavaribwurks io the wralero part 
of Onondaga County 1)«lon^ to this. tKougfh fnrmitie; a small 
Itraup by tbemtelves. Fur prasvnt purpuBes it is easier to 
elaai tbem with the next. 

The OooDdaga yraup, which I have long studied in all its 
parts, is of high int«r««t. The E)briilg«eaKbworbi. to which 
I have alluded, are all prehistoric, and are allied to another 
•mall irroup towards the OsweRO River. These are circalar, 
and hetween them dccum a small group of circular stockadM, 
near the Seneea River. All are of Iroquoiao character, yet 
very ditferent from the fort« of the OnondafEas, irhu settled 
in the sooth-east part of the county three hundred years ago. 
This oonnly affords seven earthworks, eight stockades, and 
two bttrtal mounds. The earthworks and stockades are both 
early and recent, the later aiockades being generally angular. 
Part of Ujulison County belongs to this group, and in this is 
found the earliest fort of the true Oiiondagae, occupied nlxiut 
A.D. 1600. Oswego County forms part of the same gHiup, 
bnt has few vilbgefi. Three e«rthwork8 and one niouod 
orcurr«d near the Oswego River. 

The Oneidafi occupied Madison more than Ooeida County, 
and in the fortner have been reported one earthwork and 
fire stockades. Some bi«toric fort* may have left no traces. 
There are many recent villagen, but few early. Oueida 
County a£Fonls few remains, though there are some early 
bamleta north of the .Mohawk and west of Utica. 

Tlio Mohawk group is mainly in Montgomery county, 
with one large village in Fulton, of about A.D. 16W, one of 
the two curliest Mohawk towns. In Montgomery there are 
some early csmps and one earthwork. All the villages ex- 
cept the last mentioned arc recent, bat the traces of Iheir 
stockades are lost. The earthwork seema barely prehis- 
toric. 

The Jefferson County group is strictly prehistoric, and 
lav be compared with the ('hautauqua. It seems to have 
so the early home of the Onundagas, the Mohawks com- 
from lower down the St. l.Awrence. There nre thirty- 
iliree earthworks, two burial mounds, and six ORSuaries, be- 
sides obliterated sites. The mounds r«ported at Perch Lake 
are fouodatious of circular lodges. 

A smaller group is in St, Lawrence County, where there 
eight earthworks, and possibly related to these are a few 
riy opposite ill Caiiuda. Tiiese two small groups, bow- 
rer, are quite a distance apart. 

DetacbeiJ from these groups, Chemang, Chenango, Otsego, 
iffolk. and Tioga, have one earthwork each, and Delaware 
three. Queens has two stockade-s. and there arc historical 
notices of many stockades along the Hudson, of which no 
traces remain. Cbeoango County had one mound, and 
Tranklin two Crjluubia and some other counties had »(i>ne 
taps accumulating nithio biatorlc times. The retnaiuing 
>0Qt}es have sometimes points of archneologiital interest, but 
uoiy io a minor way. 

It muKt not be supposed that groups of works indicate 
rays a number of contemporaneous villages, though this 
isomelimes the case. The Ilutons, in Canada, had many 
kWDS; so had the Eries and ^necas in New York. The 
loodagas, however, bud generally one large and one small 
illa^o at a Lime, and this was the mse with the Oneidas. 
le Mohawks commenced with two. but soon had three or 
ir. These were often removed, and a number of forU will 
fteu show the line of a uulion's march. 
As far as the interior of the Btate is concerned, early travel 
i»llowed the valley of the St. Lawrence in the main, oflen 



at a considerable distance from the great lakes and river. 
The Mohawk valley was little frrquepted by esriy traveller*. 
When they reached the west end of Oneida lake, coming 
eastward, ihey bore to the north, passing down the St. Law- 
rence, and sometimee into Lake Champlaio. Better Sahinc^ 
and hunting may have caosed this. For southern vis- 
iton, the Susquehanna afforded a eonvonieot channel, and' 
evenlually the tide of Troquois migration flowed southward 
through its valley, founding forts in many parts of the- 
Keystone State. A thousand years ago, however, T7ew York 
may hare had few inhabitants, if any, west of the Hudson 
'Ri^r Valley, but was a grand resort for flshermen aod' 
hunters. W. M. Bbavchauf. 



THE SUPPORT OF MU8EU3iS. 

Tm utilitarian tendency of the American mind and habits 
of life undoubtedly often stand in the way of that broader 
culture and advuoccment, tbe absence of which in us calls 
for occasional sneers from our trausatlanlic cousins. "What 
is tbe good of iti " a query which demands an answer settiof 
forth immediate returus that can be expressed in money- ' 
values or equivalent gain, is too often on the lips of tboM ' 
best able to aid inquiry an(! research which, for the ooruM^ 
appears to have no direct bearing on the physical welfare of 
mankind. 

These thoughts are occaaioned by facta that have but re- 
ceolly come to tbe knowledge of the writer regarding tli» , 
compHratively very limited means at the command of most 
of tbe leading museums of natural history in this country. 
A genttenian, inlereste<l io scienttGc research, well versed in 
certain departments, baring looked tbe geographical field 
over, aod coming to tbe conclusion that certain headwaters 
of the Amaxons at present sfford the most unknown and un- 
explored tropical territory now remaining on tbe globe, de- 
cided to gire a year or more of his life to exploration in that 
Held. Willing to cast his lot with th" natives, to undergo 
■11 forms of deprivation familiar to such travellers, that his 
expenses might he reduced to a miniuium, it seemed to him 
that there should be no difBculty in obtaioing the amount of 
the bare cost of bis journey and tbe transportation of the tro- 
phies and valuables he would be able to gather, from some 
museum in exchange far his entire collections. In his own 
case, such credit ss h« might win by scientific and olb«r 
publications announcing the fads of his discaveries, was 
quite all that be cared to ask in return for mouths, perhaps 
years, of trial and hardship such as few can appreciate anA 
still fewer are able to endure. 

Tet. such is the present impecunious conditioo of the lead- 
ing museums in our great cities, that after four months of 
effort in that direction tbe would-be explorer has been forced 
to confess his inability to make arrangements that would 
enable him to go out under these auspices; and the result 
must now be. what it has so frequently been before, that his 
material, with all its wealth of truths for Ibe zoologist, bota* 
nist^ ethnologist, and physicist, wilt go to London, Berlin, 
or Vienna. Uow muob longer are Americans going Io allow 
their self denying sciontiflc eiitbusiasts to be thus weaned, in 
deed if not iu mind, from their natural desire (o cootributo 
to their home museums the results of tlieir discorerieaf 

Tbis evil does not cover only the Held of foreign travel 
and research. When sums that many men now consider 
SMiull to be set uside for an evening's reception or entertain- 
ment are not forthcoming in New York to purchase for her 
museum such treasures as the Qrote colle«UoD of NortU 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 470 



Aiiiericsa Lepidopterm, wliich, with its untold w«a1lb of type- 
specimeoK aod uuiques, weat to the British Museum, or tl>« 
8cott coltoctioa of the birds nt Florida, tbe result of several 
years of pali«Dt toil OQ the part of a skilled ornitholoirist, 
irhich found ils way into the same mighLy sior«houB«, it can 
be iDiB^riiied how quick Kuropeau Bcieuce is to proHt by this 
display ol parsimony in America. 

To reour to Uie case of tie Amazonian explorer, Ibis pres- 
ent apathy can beat be sboirn by quoting from a letter which 
bu just been writtcu to bitu by oue of the gentlemen prom- 
ineotly coDii«'cttMl nith tbe AraericaD Huseum of Natural 
Bistory in Central Park. After oLaling: that tbe authorities 
of the museum appreciate the " adranta^ea to the muHeum " 
of tbe propoailion inadi> Ibem, be adds Lbat Ibey "felt it 
would be impo»«ible to meet its requirenieuls; " yet these re- 
quirements were simply that a sum of but a few bundriKla of 
dollars be r«iaed for this purpcxe. After stating that " tbe 
trustees are already overburdened with the load of extra ex- 
penditures they have to meet from their own pockets to 
«quip the new exhibition balls," the writer continues, " it 
would not be practicable for the present to co-operate wilb 
you in your very laudable enterprise. . . . Tour case, 
however, is only one out of a bcore or mora of a somewhat 
similar character which have ended in a similar way — 
greatly to tbe disadvantage of our muaeum." 

This is a daric picture, comiog as it does from tbe nation's 
centre of wealth and business energy, but it is, im fortunately, 
only a sample of what is of almost monthly uccurreuco in 
ODO or the oiber of our lar^^r cities. Tbe occasional excep- 
tion io this, which h.-isiuade possible the infrequenldisi>atch- 
ing of small expeditions, but emphasix^ tlic general rule. 
Our niuseuois are carried on, made possible, io fact, by the 
seir-denial and enthusiasm of men wbu, after spending years 
ID attaining a degree of special knowledge littiug theiu for 
their scienlinc p«Jsitiou8, are yet willing to accept saiarif-s 
that would be spurned by book-keepers and country parsons, 
(hat they may cootiniie in touch with their chosen walk in 
life, TI1C idea bo prevalent amung successful buftiness men 
that such specialists are as a rule visiooariett who are, by the 
very nature of their long scientific training, nnfitl^rd for any 
other life, is found on the most cursory examination of the 
facts to be erroneous. Tbe rcseai-ches of Henry in eleolric- 
tty, of Lnngley in ariodyuamics. of Ooode in icihyology. or 
Bilfty in entomology, t» take examples from oue museum, 
are none the lesti practical and of incalculable value to the 
public, given free 10 tbe world as they are, than they would 
be if they bad been protected by ample patents and had 
ytelde<1 tbeir dixcoverers great Hnancial returns in place of 
(he plaudilA of their fellows, host able U> appreciate their 
work, witb tbe which they have been willing to rest con- 
lent 

It is time that more of our moneyed men were brought to 
regard this subject in a different lighL The country natu- 
rally, and with right, looks to New York to set the example 
in Uiis direction of larger aid for public museums of natural 
acienoe. Buqekb Ucrray Aabok. 



ASTRONOMICAL NOTES. 

Mr. BerbbbiCH of Berlin has recently called attention, in 
a letter to tbe editor of the A»tronmnical Journal, to some 
interesting facta connected with the periodic comet diaeov- 
ored by Wolf io ISM, He gives an approximate ephemeris 
for tbe r«tarn of tbe comet in l8dS, as it will not be greatly 
2>erlurbed in the interval. From these data it appears that 



HAINAN.' 



I 

I 

I 
I 



the comet will be favorably placed for obeervatioD during its , 
next return. In following returns tbe comet will not be bo fl 
favorably placed for observation, As seven revolutions of ■! 
tbe comet ore nearly equal to three of Jupiter, a second ap- 
proach of tbe two bodies will occur io 192Z~23, wbich will 
probably deprive us of a view of this comet for a long lime, 
and perhaps forever. 

Again the telegraph flashes the announcement of tbe death 
of another eminent English astronomor and mathematician, 
Professor .1. C. Ailama. To Professor Adams is due the 
grandest work ever performed for astronoDiy by the human 
mind — the discovery by mathematical reasoning of our 
outermost planet, Neptune. At another time we hope to be 
able lo give the readers of Science a sketch of bis life. 

The Sidereal Messenger, which has for tlie past ten years 
been published by Professor W, W. Payne^ at Norlhtield. 
Hinu.. has been greatly increased in sixe, and in (he future 
will contain not only subjects in general aBtmnomy, bat will 
lake up the subject of astropbysics. In the January number 
of the maeaxine will bo found the pimtogmphs of promi- 
nences upon the sun, obtained by Mr, Hale of Chicago. 
That gentleman will have charge of tbe aatrophysicAl depart- 
ment of tbe magasiae. 

In No. 253 of tbe A»tronomicalJournal Professor A. Hall 
gives the reiull of his discussion of the obeervntions made of 
lapelHs, the outer salcUite of Saturn, made with the large 
equatorial at the Navsl Observatory. Tbe resulting ele- 
ments for lapetus give for tbe moss of Saturn 

^~848C.7 ± 1.88. 
The following is a continuation of the ephemeris of Win- 
necke'fl comet, wbich is now due. Tbe epoch w for Berlin 
midnight: — 

R.A. Dec. 

h. m. 5. " ' 

Feb. 6 13 47 23 -J- 17 

7 47 65 17 13 

8 48 36 17 30 
4H &A 17 3d 

10 4» S3 17 S3 

11 49 49 IB 6 

15 80 14 18 21 
18 SO B7 IS 36 
14 60 89 18 SI 
II 51 19 19 B 

16 SI 88 10 32 

17 18 51 55 -;- 19 ail 

O. A. H 




The great island of Hainan, otf the soutb-easlem const' i 
China, is but little known to Europeans, ullhough since 1877 
there has been a treaty port there. Mr. Parker, the Consul 
at Kiuogchow, the port in question, lately made a short 
Joaroey in the interior of the island, of which be gives some 
account io a recent report. He travelled aljout sixty miles 
up (be Pob-Chung River, lo within u mile or two of Pab-bi, 
whicb is, at most seasons of the ye<ar, considered the limit of fl 
navigation for all but the smallest craft. He walked round ™ 
the walla of Tlng-an city, one of the disturbed districts during 
the recent rcl)ellion9, on New Year's Day (Fob. 6); they are 
just one mile in circuit, and differ little from those of ott 

• Vrotaif Slurs. 



February 5, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



79 



OtaineM eitiea. Wherever be had an opporLunity at walhing 
diAOietrically across leagiby carves of the rirer be found lh« 
tucloBed area to be «Kln;meIy nelt caltivaln]; tliou^h not !ta 
flat, its yeoeral sppeaniDce recalled maoy featurwi of the 
ToiiquiD df^lta, especinlly in its threat wealth of Bamboos. 
The prtxiuctioiis of the soi) are much the Mine, the papan-, 
areca-palm, sweet potato, turnip, (T^^and-Dut, orange-tree, 
etc.: but a. peculiar HaioAD feature is the cocoa-nut palm. 
Auother (ke^'uliarity of this rofrion is the ubiqtiltoasne&s of 
UiK dwarf Pandanua, probably the same aa the P. odoratia- 
»in\a of Fiji, the Hbre of which is used in the manufacture 
of grass-cloth, and is usually known to forei^ trtule here as 
hemp. Much of the laud was under sweet potato cnltiva- 
lion, aod tvery hoaseliold seemed lo possess a few pi^, of 
the very auperior and stereotyped Hainan variety, black ob 
lo the upper sod while as to the lower {Hirt of the body, wifli 
a diriiliutr line of Rray runoinif aloa^ the side from the 
*>iiouL Ui the tail. Thea« wholesome looking pigs are fattened 
on the swv«l potato, and do uot rely for Bii»LeDance upon 
precariooa acarengering. a» is the case with the repulsivfi and 
Iticleanly anitiials of Kortb China. Land contiguous to the 
w is irri^led by enormous wheels, forty feet in diameter, 
^T very ingenioUH construction, moved by the current, need> 
injr uo attf^utioo, aud dtachari;ing perhapa one hundred gal- 
lons of water in a minute into the trough above, day and 
niffht witboul intermission. He passed several lar^e pottery 
estAblishmeota; but, aa at the New Year all busioess and 
cultivation are suspended fur a few days, the opportunity 
was not a very gofxl one for gathering preci>te infurmHtion, 
The temperature during the week ranged between SO*^ and 
C*** P. Game seemed plentiful every when*, and he mentions 
that a German resident has recently made a very fine collec- 
tion of about 'IQO Uainau birds, embracing 1S4 species, which 
will shortly be on their way In a Berlin museum. One of 
the commonest birds iu the river is a spotted white and black 
kingfisher of large size. Amongst the trees which Kltmcled 
his alttiution was one locally called the " greallraved ban- 
yan," which looks remarkably like the gutta-percha tree: the 
natives seem to use its gum mixed with gambier, in order to 
wake that dye " fast; " but there ia some doubt whether it is 
not the aap of the real banyan tree which is used for the 
purpose. A very atrong silk is made from the grub called 
the " celestial silk worm," or, locally, " paddy iosi^cl." 
TbiB grub is found on a sort of maple. When full-grown 
it is thrown into boiling vinegar, on which the ''head" of 
the gut, or "sJIk," appears; this is sharply torn out with 
br>th hands, drawn apart, and is as long as the space between 
them, say five feet; it is so strong that one single thread of 
it is sufticieut to make a liue with which to oalch the smaller 
kinds of fish. 



SERICULTURE IN ASIA MINOR.' 

In May, ISSfi, the writer was enabled, from personal ob- 
rvatiou on the spot, to report upon the silk harvest of 
juroabat, near Smyrna, Asia Minor, which report was 
printed in the Journal {Vol. XXXIli. p. 8$3). The serioul- 
tiiral industry was then in a state of slow revival from a 
condition of almost utter collapse, caused by the deadly 
clTects of the various silkworm diseases which had long dev- 
astated, and nearly ruiuod, the '' magnaneriea " of Frauee 
and Italy. ' Subsequently, in 18S7. in an extended and illus- 
trated form, the report waa reproduced, with addittimal seri- 
oulturul and olher inforination, in Ihe volume entitled " Pen 

■ Fiom lae Joam*l of tli« SootMj of Aria. 



and Pencil in Asia Minor." published by Sampson Low ft 
CtK On both these occasions tbe writ«r endeavored to In* 
t«rest.the public in the story of an effort, on the part of an 
English gentleman, to benefit the Turkish peasantry and 
revenue of the rountr}', which had mor« of the romantic elo- 
ment in it than is usually to be found in ordinary industrial 
operations. For nearly half a cenlnry Mr. John OrilBU of 
Bouroabat, a village near Smyrna, has devoted must of his 
leisure hours, well arconded by his accomplished Onvk wife, 
to combatting the maladies of silkworms, experimenting with 
the various known race*, and endeavoring to improve the 
quantity and quality of their mlken prodnce. Long before 
M. Pasteur, the ditttinguished French physiologist, took the 
Held, Mr GrilTiH had been working nt the same problem*.- 
tbe solution cf which brought the great Frencbtnan after- 
~ Srards'sn much well-deserved honor; but while the one was 
rewarded ttie other has hitherto been neglected. Tbe Snt 
enjoyed the wealth and iufluenco of bis Government to en- 
courage him in all his efforts; the second has had to strug 
gte 00 unaided throughout his long career of philanthropic 
endeavor against the inertia of sluggish or hostile olHcials, 
the cbildlshne«.H of a prejudiced peasantry, and a horde of 
unscrupulous native aud foreign parasites, ever ready lo ap- 
propriate his melhiKia without acknowledgment, lo claim or 
dispute his discaveri«s, and to defraud him in every possible 
way. From the first, Mr. Griffltt welcomed and applauded 
the remarkfthle results of M. Pasteur's inresligatJons, and 
became his uchuowledged disciple: but, betn^ himself a 
practical silk-farmer, which M. Paalf^nr wax not, waa soon in 
a pusitiou lo shoot ahead of his master, to modify, supple- 
ment, and stamp with his own genius many of the sugge.'tlions 
of the great chemist, for which he never received either 
credit or reward, Probably tn no other country in the 
world except Turkey could a native, or even a foreigner, ac- 
complishing the revival of a staple industry, as Mr. QrifHlt 
has done, have escaped recognition, or being loaded wtlh 
honors. He has reacued sericuUure. upon which so many 
thousands, perhaps railUons, depend in Turkey, from cxlmc- 
tion, and been a means of repteuishing the usually collapsed 
Ottoman exchequer, and enabling tbe Porte to olfer British 
bond holders — if it chooses to do so — substantial dividends 
instead of polite exciuea. 

Still more recently the writer had a paper iu the Journal 
of Aug. 23, 1889 {Vol. XXXVII p. 778). when further iu- 
formation was given regarding Mr. GriffiU's oooLinued suo- 
cessea, particularly in open-air nericulLure. On the present 
occasion he would add the latc&t facts, which are quite aa 
interesting as thow already counntinicated, 

At the beginning of 1891 a report by the " Ohambre des 
Deputes " was pre«eQt«d to tbe French Ooveromeot. iu which 
it was said that BericiiUnre. was not prngrening in France in 
consequence of the reappearance of the dreaded disesite 
known as " fiacherie," along with some minor maladies, and 
thai the nurseries were being decimated. M. Pasteur's dis- 
coveries liad enabled the silk-farmers to ranquisb the other 
distemper, " pebrino," bat "fiacherie*' was working havoc 
everywhere, so a graut of several millions of francs waa 
asked to be expeuded in trying lo crush the disorder. 

Mean while. Mr. John Griffilt, with no Oovemmeot; money 
or help of any kind, had ihoughlfnlly built up a system of 
scientiQc silk farming at Bouruabal. near Smyrna, in which 
he combined the most notable of M. Pasteur's discoreriea 
with the iuvigoratiug method of M. Kolaod of Switzerland, 
and his own experience*, with the result that his worm* ac- 
quired such robustness that be had had nn deaths amoug 



tht-m for jr««re, while all Lhii racM subjected to (lie procexs 
yielded a larger crop of belter »ilk tban Iwfore. So marked 
was Ibis improvemeDt that (t compansou will sliow it at a 
glance. In the first re[Kirt, already alluded U>, made in 
18^15, Mr. Oriffitt'a yield of cocoohb — consider^ a 8pl«ndid 
TCturD at the time — was 78 kilosra mines (171 pounds avoir- 
dup<.>is) per ouoce of «^es wt to hatch, while in 1890 th« 
harvest was 91 kilogrammes (200 pounds) per ounce of egg«. 
Tbese dgures have been vouched for by M. E. Charmand. 
chief of the Smyrna branch of the " Direction Generate de 
I'AdininistratiuD dc la Detlc Publtque OUotnaiie, ii CoDstao- 
tiuople," who reported hiK obMrvati^ins, gathered from time 
to time in Mr. Griffitt's factory at Bournabut, to bis su^riors 
at the Turkiiih capitul. 

Following up these efTorlit, and stimulated by Uie ilt-suc- 
(xtsK of the French sericultun^Ui, Ur. Oriffitt last year 
achieved an additional triumph, his latest crop ahowing an 
advance to 92 kiloi;ramwe« (202 pounds) of cocoons per 
ounce of eggn. This harvest had likewise been watched 
Ihroufrh all its alag^e, and reported upon to th9 Conntantino- 
plo authorities by the same gentleman already named, who 
added that as the yield from forei^fo eggs had been nit at 
Bournabal, their imporlattou into Turkey ongbt to bo 
stopped. 

It will be evident to the readern of the above and former 
commuuicatioDs that Mr. John Griflltt's single-hauded and 
alotoet plienomeaal success in sericulture, in the face of the 
utter failure of the best silk-farmers of France, point to 
BouruaiMkl as the future nencultural school of the world, and 
aa the entrepot (or robust graine. If further figures be re- 
quired, tbey are to be found in the circumetance that during 
the la»t four or Bve yenra the finest French egga hatched at 
Buumahat have only yielded from 10 to 12 kilogrammes (22 
Ui 26 i>'niiid«) of cocoons per ounce, as compared with Mr. 
Griffltt's 98 kilogrammes (202 pounds) per ounce of eggs; 
while last season, according to M. Charmand, the French 
eggs laid out at Bouruahat did not hatch at all. 

WtLUAU Cochran. 

Ovinlsls, Duiiblftae, Partlutalro. 



MR. KOEBELE-S SECOND TRIP TO AUSTRALIA.' 

Wk have not yet mentioned in these pages the fact that 
Mr. Koehele has been sent out to Australia and New Zealaud 
a second time on a search for bcnc6cial insects. The Cali- 
fornia Stale LegiHluturc last winter appropriated fS.OOO for 
sending »orne one lo Australia for this) purpose, and Ibis sum 
wn.s plnceil at the dispoital of the State Board of Horticulture, 
The board soou afterward made application to the Secretary 
of Agriculture to have Mr. Koeliele sent, placiug the entire 
apppopriatioo at the secretary 'Hdisposal. To this proposition 
tbeaecretary assented on condition that Mr. Kneltele should 
go under instructions from the department, his salary as an 
agent of the division of entomology being continued (his ex- 
penses only to be paid by the State Board of HorlicuUuro), 
and that his report should be made to the Deparlment of 
Agricultur*', the desire being to co-opemte as far as piwixible 
with the board. Accordingly, such inslructioua were given 
Beemed beat to promote the object in view, cautioning Mr. 
[Soebele particularly to run uo risk, in bis sendings from 
rAastralia, of importing with the beneficial insf^cts any inju- 
rious species not now existing in the United States which it 
might prove dittaslrous to introduce, and taking advantage 
of tbc occasion also to have bim make every effort lo collect 
■ rrom ln>««;l Utm for Daoember. lawod by lb* D. 8. DItWou a( KDioiDOt* 



in CalifomiM certain beneficial speciev lo take with him tt> 
Auetrala.<tia, indicaiing such species as prey upon cosmopoli- 
Ian insects or species which the colonies mentioned have de- 
rived from America. 

Mr. Koebele sailed on the August sLeamer, stopping at 
Honolulu and Auckland, and arriving at Sydney the latter 
part of October. At Honolulu he left a number of living 
specimens of Chilocorua bivulnerus in the bands of our cor- 
respondent, Mr. A. Jaeger, and secured while there four 
species of lady-birds, of which he sent small numbers to Cal- 
ifornia by steamer. These were sent for use against Ifae 
black scale {Lecanium oteoe). lie alfto found a few parasitic 
Ciialcididm on an undetermined Locaaium, and of these be 
also sent a few specimens. U|x>n his arrival in New Zt-aland 
anme of the lady-birds which be had taken with htm were 
alive and beijau lo feed at once upon woolly aphia^ 
Some syrphns flies and looe-wing fliea were also in good 
conditioD, as were also the larva- of the Rbapbtdia, wbieh 
feeds upon the codling moth. These were left in competent 
charge. Specimens of Sc{fmnus accvptus, S. coiMor, S. 
viilo9us, S. fiacihirtus. aud S. fagus were collected and sent 
to California. These all prey upon various species of S4»le 
insects, but it is hardly to be supposed that they will accom- 
plish any better results in Califoruia than do our native 
species of this genus, all of which have a similar habit. 

The most encouraging ioformatton comes to us under date 
of Nov. 1 from Syduey. He there finds that Orctu chaijfbetu, 
a Rtoel blue lady bird, la a most important enemy of the red 
scale. He has found them by the huodiwls, and has ob- 
served the mature insects eating the scales. All of the Ireea 
were " full of eggs." and the larva; were Bwarraing upon all 
Ibe orange and lemon trees infested with the red scale. Ha 
secured and sent a large lot of the egga and many of the 
adult beetles. He also sent the allied Orcua (lusfrafaaue, 
also found feeding upon the red scale, and a number of 
scymnids, one of which wi« very numerous, feetlitig upon 
the same scale-insect. Another species was found feeding* 
mainly upon the flat scale (iecamnia hesperidumi and tbe 
black ftcale {Jjccanium olea). He also forwarded a number- 
of heia con/ormia, which, as staled in Bulletin No. 21 of Ibia 
division, is the commonest enemy of the woolly root-louse of 
the apple. Unfortunately Mr. Koebote does not state whether 
the three insects mentioned as feeding upon the red scale 
were successful m holding thai dcetniclive insect lo oheek, 
and upon this poiut naturally depends much of their 
value to California. Our agent at I-os Angeles, Mr. D. W. 
Coquillett, has been instructed to spare do pains to properly 
care for and colooiec whatever maybe received from Mr. 
Kocbele, and is fully prepared to do so. This large seuding 
arrived at Los Angeles, wo are sorry to state, in rather had 
condition. Twenty eight beetles, however, were alive, jo- 
cluding nine of O. chalybeus, and no effort will be spareA 
to keep them in good condition and to induce them to prop- 
agate. 



i 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



TS« mrtUr'a iwi 



,•« CiirtftpoiutimU arr rtqntttrd lo lt€ it* britf lU po»*il>U. 
it in all m*f» r»giilrti o« proof of aood faith . 

On frquttt in (Kii^nc*, tH»» kuwtmi topi** of (k« «»»ilwr t^mtaining Ate 
eommunJcation tcSlfn/wui^trdfrn lo anv*>orrrtpo<*il»nl. 

nfBSili/ricilti>«giadtopublitkanw*«ri** eomonantvilK tht cJioroclir 
0/ lk» JcmrMal. 

Tbs First Locomotive. 



J 



I AM 8ur[>rh^ that your correapondent, " M. EL," in his artii 
in your issue of the IMb, " The First Locomotive Itun in Amer- 
ica," should have been m mUtaken in its name. There is a small 



A 



earuarv s» 1893. 



SCIENCE. 



town in Enjclaad vrtiicb «l noe ti'nL> bad a Rreat repulatton for 
locooKtlive buihlloK. It ia StourbridEe. The locwmotivfl wbicb 
M. fi. oomcdjr 6t«lM nas c^rmled at Hune«]flle overn bair-oe«- 
tury ii^. was inBiJ« tberc. Kroni this fact it was called ibe 
Stourbridge- Lion, not '* Stoiwbrtdc,'' (u rour oorreepondi-'nt has It. 
Tbw Dani« and the reason for it are very familiar in ScranUHi, 
whence I write, htil as a clinchef. I may say that [ rt-eently con- 
rvrMsl on th« subject triih a lady who enjoyed the acquaintance 
of Mr. i\lb-t), the engineer of Ibe loooowMive in qucMion, and 
from brr I <men more iMruei l1i« fact* hrre narrated. 

Staiost w. Ward. 
SoiMifiii, P^ Jan. as. 



papers, and airive to har« Wi mitny ft« poxible read and riWuaad 
io Section F. the balance of shorter one» to be conaldered as best 
tli^y may al the clubs. A« n tectjoo of botany is askfd for, Im 
the hotaotois In partieular ahovr, by their works, tbeu fattfa In tW 
rauaonab]poe«s of tl>e demand. 

BYBON D. HALVTID. 
Kuts«n CiUvg*. /so tS. 



A Section o( Botany la tbg American AssociatioD.i 

Trr ihon^l of baring a s«etiun for the botaniab* in the Ameri- 
can Awocittliou •hould be wry inspiring to all who have at lienrt 
the- iborousli Hlndy of pUnl life in Amerlcn. All admit tb»l S«c- 
tian F m now crowded with ntt'inbers and papers, and duuhttess 
many arr delvrrvd from takiuif psrt in the ee^ions from lack of 
oppmtuailjr. At the \asi lueetio;; numerous papers were passed 
without cummeat or discu-^igii that the programme mlxhl. he ear' 
rfed oat. 

Tlie work of the aeclfon has naturally dlvldfrd lUelf inio two 
KTOuptf. namely, lli^i perlalning .lu animal Hfo, and to botany. 
Id order to f^nin toure time and draw together more cloeely those 
wboare interedted in particular branches, clubs have been farmed. 
Thua Ibe entomological and botanical duba have ariivn and grown 
into fraturnt of th« w«vk of a« much importanctf a« the section 
ao'l more perhaps to tlit> younger mcmtwra. These vlubs should, 
»ihI douU le^ iritl, he continued. In Ibe section itself for years 
lliere has hpen an attempt on the part of Ibe programme commit- 
tee to Rr<.iup t>ie flubjeots >u that zoolof^litts and eiitomolcif{i»telia<re 
had a half-diiy assiRtied tbem, alternately wiili the botanbts. 
Tbis has virtually broken up the continuous nltenduucv of mt-m- 
l>er« upon tbeaoctioiutl meetings, and excutsioas or other I'vente are 
indulged in by the parly not u|x>n the proframuie. Perbapii to 
onr Bbame. this ban l>een particularly true of Ihe boTAnist^, who 
have eometimea left the Boologiets with a depicted but more bo- 
mogeoeoua and aliontiro audience. A1k> within the past few 
yenrx the plan of having lime ansigiHHd for a &enes of connected 
papers o|ion one or more of the branchen of scienoe coming under 
the jiresenl scope of the section has still forthrr diSerenliati^ the 
work. As Section F notr «.tand4 il« !«<'?«* ions ar« larg<.*ly an alter- 
Dfttioa ot groups of subject* n itb ao audience that sbifta with the 
programme. 

A notice of an amendment to divide Si>ction F is Iherefiire well 
fooadetl; the divUion is very natural and one that, in fact, has 
already been made, so for a» arranging the pmgramme by group- 
ing Uie sui-jects and by the work of the cluba will permit it. In 
abort, it has gone as far u It can save by a division of the section 
itself. 

The coDtemplateil division will bring many gaioa witliout cor- 
aponding Iohws. Time will then be offered fortliorougb aectional 
work upon the two largi> and growing lields of biological science, 
iiiBtead uf ib^ rapid remlmg of papers, a<4 at present, followed by 
little or no dircu^ion before a balf-intereHted audience. 

With a .*y-ction of Botany, for example. ((ffi«*n. can t.e M-Iected 
^who will be lnt<rMli-d iu all Bubjeela prexeiited, u condilion that 
^^^BM Hot always obtain under thr ptei^ent arrangement, Io say 
^^BKhing about the diffiiulty tliat ma; now ariae as to the proper 
^^bportioDment of Ibe olBcial plums among tiie aapiranta for boo- 

If we I*lieve in the iirioeiple ot division of labor and spedaU- 
satioo, in ithort, in the Ihcory uf evolution In Ita broad and best 
sense, we cannot but feel Ifaat the proposed step is in the direc- 
tion of adiance. and realize that the lajil few meeting* of Section 
F iadicvte clearly thai the time to take the step forward is at 
band. 

Tlte beat way to make tho importance of a diviiloo still more 
emphatic is for every ttudent of the biological acienre* Io come. If 
aible, to Ibe Rnche^tcr meeting wilb a largo number of full 
< Thts l^tuir alto appaarM la ta» UoUAhwl tiaaeUev 



AMONG THE PDBLISHEIW. 

TSB Regent Street Polytechnic Institute of London propoaea 
to brmg over a Ihouaand or more of ita young clerks, mechanica, 
and apprentices to visit the Cblca^ Gxpoaltion ; and iti aeorecary, 
Mr. Robert Mitchell, is about to arrive at New York otk hi* way 
Io Chicago, for the purpose of making ItaosportatLon and other 
advanoe arrangements. SteaiuHbip arrangemoata have already 
been made. Mr. Albert Stiaw, Auiettcun editor of Ihe i?emetr 0/ 
SevietPt, describes in au illustrated article in the February uumbtf 
"The Polyieclmic and its Cliicngo ExcuTBion." 

— In the February number of fiotiyftood Dr. Wijltam H. Flint 
discnases iJie dislikes of children to certain articles uf food and the 
meana of overcoming iiuch antip.ith>ps. Of equal value to motlirrs 
in an article on ** Colic." by Dr. C. L. Dodge, in which the cauwa, 
aymptoma, and treatment of thai common ailment arc rimrly 
described. " Ought Obedience to 1* Enforced}'" " Hie Tyranny 
of Whima." "Talking about Children iu Ibeii Uearing.*' etc., are 
some of the other topic* discuMied. Tbe medical editor fornisheH 
advice concerning such " Nuniery Problems" as tbe voracious ap- 
petite often seen In cbildreu. tbo dceirabkaess of giving fruit to 
infanta, tba treatment uf eczema, etc 

— Claus Spreekels, tbe millionaire eugar mauufaciuier, whose 
plaiitatiuns are in the Sandwich Islands, has wriiien to >Irs. Uelan 
Hat her that be has carefully read her book, "One Summer in 
Hawaii" ((^tsivl] Pubtithlng Companyl. and that be "oonimenda 
it to the earnest alicutiou and istudy of all inicb as are deairou^ of 
obtaining a knowledge of tbe beauties of that comparatively im- 
known ai>d atill le$« appreciated Paradloe of the PaciRe." 

— The Cassell Publishing Company will publish in February 
"Across Thibet," by Oabriel Boovolol, author uf •' Through ilie 
Ueart of Asia," nitb upward of one hundred illustratione. made 
principally from phutogntpliB taken by Prince Henry of Orleans. 
Of tbb book Ihe London Times says: " M. Oabriel Bonvnint hoi 
alioady achieved a high reputation aa a central Asian explorer. 
' Acroai Thibet' ia thua recommended alike by tbe character and 
litemry skill of tbe explorer aud by the interest and novelty of 
tbe regions explored by him. The journey hers de*cribe<l was 
onderlakcn in the company of Prince Henry of Orlean*, i>on of the 
I>uke de Charirea, and of Fattier Dedekm, a Belgian miw^ionsry, 
with a rare taiile and aptitaile for advenlarous travel and a keen 
appetite for upon, arMi it tried to Ibe ulmo»l the endurance and 
tbe ent«>rpriae of all three. The copious illusiralioos due to Prinoe 
HenryV camera are fall of interefit and the trauslaliwn is excel- 
lently done." 

— There ha& j\iM appeared Id the "Johns HopkloH Cniven-iiy 
Studies in Hii<toritfaI and Political Scienoo" a pamphUt by Pnul 
E. I*auer on "Church and State in New England." Beginning 
with tbe Reformation in England, the author traces tbe move- 
ment of IhoDght on tbe relations of church and stale, flnl among 
the Puritans of England and then among their dem.vjidaDia In the 
New World; and shows how tlie new ideas of religious freedom 
expres'^ed themoelTCK in political action, ending with the complele 
eeculanzation of Ibe stale in Ihe present century. Tbe main 
principles involved and tbe mode of their application' are well 
shown, and tbe uanniive, though desii uie of imaginative insight, 
is stniigbt forward and cfoar. Unfortunately fur Ur. Lauer, bow- 
ever, it is all a Ihrcsblog of old straw. Tbe story he rutates baa 
been told h> often and »> well that this pamphlet is more likely Io 
weary than to intereet the reader. Moreover, it is impnsaible to 
treat satisracturily of tbe relations of church and state in any na- 
tion apart from ibe general religious and poUitcnl history of the 
time, «o that Mr. Ijiuer's work la incomplete and fragmentarr. 



B2 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX, No. 470 



KcKs^^ AS a coUfge exercifip it deAervt^ cordial praloe: but m a 
ooQtributioD to historical litereture ic raonoc be nld to hnve much 
TSllU. 

— In tlH? eecODiJ of The Centurj/'s aniclee on " The Jewa fn Veve 
Tork," in the Febroary numljer, sonial cueitfiiuB, weddings, 

ols. He, nre treated, and the illusiraliorin im^lude aevered 
'Views of tli« new Temple Beth-El, tlte interior of the Progress 
Clnb, etc. 

— A reopnt numbpr of " The World's Great Explorers *' eerlfs 
(Dodd) ia Captain Albert HaAingtt Mtirkhnm's " Life of Sir John 
Franklin." The stor; of the life of soch a man, a »kiiriil ^ailor. 
an ardent explorer, an able admiuiatiator, and a daring and sue- 
ceeiifu] Arctic navigator to whom the world ow«a dirMtly and in- 
direcHy, its knowledge of a very lar^e portion of the Arctic 1>a»in, 
iihoutd not remain untold, oipeciall; in view of the meagreueva of 
hilbeito fiiililiiihtH] authentic material. Tlie cloain}; chapteiit, 
treating of the Tfirioiui ex(M^itt<>nM dmimlcliMl in fearcli of Frank- 
lin, contain v^luabl*^ eiiggnttioiiand <.MninH-iil «Hto I be conduct of 
naviicatorstxploriag bi^h latitude. The volutm* is [>rovided with 
the tnaps and chortt requisite to intelh'geot reading, as well ns 
wlih aeverBl illustiationfi. 

— Tbe tale ilt^nry Edwards, ihe actor, wrote more tlian ISO 
books, pamphlets and articUfl, chieflrootopicitof Nalnral Qi-toiy, 
«ad all ibc^ were pub)itib>ed at variouH tiroes and in various 

Iplnoee. Mr. WillUni Bentennifiller, of tbe Aniorican Museum of 



Natural Hlntory, ha.i contributed to The Catt/idian Entomolognt 
(London, December, 1^1, Vol. ZS, No. 12) a complete list of tbeee 
writings. It filli more than eif^ht page?, and it is strikingt^ aug- 
gosiive of the ample learning and devoted labor of the Botbor, 
wboae place among men of sci^noe wna eren more di»tinguHdi«d 
than his nuk upon the stage. 

— In thp PebruBif Atlantic, Professor Kodolfo Lanciani. anlbov 
of " Ancient Rome in tbe Liglit of Recent Discovenea," coo 
tributes a paper on "The Pageant at Rome in the Year 17 8.0..' 
giving tbe details of some inecriptiouit very recently dl'covweil' 
conimenioratinif the celebration of Etcular gauu'S under Au( 
(or which Horace wrote hiafoinuua "Carmen Seculare." 

— A new danger threatens English publishers. In future their" 
will hare to he careful ihat the tillt-s of the works ther publi»h 
correspond with the contcnls. otliiTwiw they will la; tbenise>lrM 
open to a proecrutlon for obtaining money under falae pret»uc4«. 
Such is the lesson taught by a n^vnt dM:iaion of Sir FreiktielcJ 
Daih^f, the Chief- Justice of New Houth Walm. A Sydney tlnni 
iMued a work in two volumea entrllifd '* Autlndian lleduf Mark." 
A •lubacriber refuard lo pay, on the ground tbnt )it<t biography 
waA not includt;d in tin* wurk, as wuh i^rouiived. The puhlisbers 
sued bim; the Chief- Junti^rc went through the book and declared 
that no action could lie. inasmuch as the book was not what it 
profeesed to be. The people whose biogniphiea it contained liadi 
mere local celebrity in the towns where they resided Tbey wm? 



CALENDAR OF SOt.'iETlES. 
PfailoMphical Societj, Washington. 

Jan. 80.— Joeepb LeConte, Tbe Relation 
yof Pbilosopby to Pbyohology and to Fbyci- 
fofogr- 

Society of Kataral History, Boston. 

Feb. 8.-J. Eliot Woltl. tbe Geology of 
(he Crasy Mountainv, Uootaaa; Walter G-. 
Chase. The Scenery, Qlaciers, and Indiuua 

of Alaska. 

Appalachian Moontain Club, Boston. 

Ptb. a.— Arthur L. Goodrich. Tbv Water- 
Tiile Valley; Roawell B. lAwrence, Middle- 
wx Fells; Cliarlea E. Fay, An Excursion 
Over ihe Wbitefstce Tiipyranjid Ridge. 



PUBUCATIONS. 



THE AMERICAN RACE: 

By DANIEL G. BRINTON, H.D. 

"Tliv book la one of (u>u>u*l lot crest Uid Talua."— 
filter Octan. 

" Dr. Danl-l □. Brittlon vriUiMitho aekaawl^dgeA 
kuUmriiy ot tbu Bubjvcit."— /^U/iicfrlj>Aia Fret: 

"Tbti wuili aill b« of (riiuliin iOiIih) lo all who 
vMi to kiioK tbe aubalknco ot wtmX (■•• bin»a roiiad 
out ttbuul Itifl ludiganunit An)«rl««i>i."— JVoCure, 

"A ourtBil; ilIaBuaalaD, anit mi exMDpIo o( th« 
«uooBufiiI iduoatloD of itie piivei« of obaertalioD." 

■^■Philadttpkta Ltdgtr. 

Price, poMlpaidt sa. 



I. D. C. HODG ES. 874 Broadway, H. Y. 
OF WHATUSEISTHAT PLANT? 

Yoo can Sod th« Muwar ia 

SMITH'S "DICTIONAKY OF 
ECONOMIC PLANTS." 

Sant ptutaid on receipt of $t).8l). Publish- 
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SCIENCE BOOK AGENCY, 

B34 BruadOTB^, N*w %'arli. 



IVanls. 



Any ftri^m irtiimca fttitifm /tr mtkUh At il fU*fi- 
dtji f-y Jilt m'tmrijSc Atfnimfifn/t^ fr ittf^fnim itrkinjf 
trmt em* ia ^!i 4 fiptitittn of Ikii ik*ra<ltrs ^ it ikiti 
^ a ttatArr (r/uiVat', lArmiit, Jraagitimam, rr tt'iat 
■#/. «iBj- Aatv tit ' li'MHt ' imttrUd HmJtr tAu AiilJ 
rKK* •>' CCiiT, (/ At titfiijlii Ikf fitihiiihrr e/ tkt iitil- 
d^// ik^r^cttr ff/Ait ttffJicais^n. Amjt^rrtn Hiking 
t^/fmmalitfi rn amy ttirnli/if fimfi*M. Ikt adJ'in i/ 
amy tdtmti^ mmm^ pr t^A^ cam im amy OMty mtrlAiAtri^ 
umn /tr a purfat* cemtomant WM ikt ualurfa/ Ik* 
^aftr. iV terdiaUy invited t» Jtt m. 

'ANTED.— Bookd ou ihe Mkirla L%iit«ni. WUl 
i>i(ituifr«. - lloir tho PftfEu Paya," by Coaler 
&lU Hi>bil«rao£ ; "Culiurt! ut K^na Uropi." by 
Sti'B-Hrt; -Anwrlnan Acrlcoltudat," IWO uid ISBl. 
I. 8LKE ATKINSON. U Wallftdo St.. OraSB*. E'- J- 



w 



>.— n 



A wtilu' uiMi lersed Id wood uid 



llfASTKD.- 

V( itOD Wi'rliliiK. ablfilovork tnuD »p«i)IBc*tlonB 
aed plans, ■■iiTt<il ^>r nu luatruocor of boja; Itts biw- 
tncM Ui h>T« dtarito of sbopa of solinol, natllce ft*d 
dtreot III* wi^rk fur fonnti^ and •lodeou; aalary u> 
b« St.OOO n«r annDm inlee montlia}. (S) A maD 
ibUck [>iW««T«d> U> i«<solt tb« notorvd. Jro* irorklnc 
aod roiKlDC. mlbocdlnate Ui tho pr«o«dli]|(; aalarir. 
trao. <)) 1 Biao («aii*) ooii>p«i«ut 10 uk« olaaae* 
M eBflMoriDjt faaalstant's poalllab), bat aith Uw 
■blUty 10 pmvnn %a.j of ili« work r«>quind In *»v 
uf iii« cirdlaat; nDgtacArins nriunra nf our ual*cnf- 
<le«; aalai-r tri>ni fl.COO Co tl.Sve. *. H. BBaLS, 
Millr<l)[nv>l1«, Ga. 



w 



Uh 



rANTEO.— Twoof lliree vCQalaotooiopuMra wilq 
,1 ^ivi:) kDo«lml|t«of ttnliiM-lralTrtin>iiamati7Mtd 
iMd; unti q( loicarittiius. tor ln-rop'^rary (•fnplojmaat 
In ibf rifflrri nf l.lin Coaat and G(toilet.li^ SunrOJ. Ap- 
pUcwtiU abi'Ul'l funilab »*ld«i]<i-? '>f ilK'irfllaaas for 
ibe «oifc. Apjilj by letirr to th,^ t^uporlat«Dileiit, 
Cfiniit aud Of-ciilMIc KurTef, WiuhlnguiD, DC- 



ulr z. iltv. alaa 
V !□<)» and TllUt pBh-e lu Vol. Til. AddreM 
D. C, lIodKpa, K74 Rnia^wajr. Naw Vorh. 



w 



&NTSO.— A DMlUon la th« pauosopblcal or 
- . padagogleal dxpMTtinMtt of ■ ooliwa or uui- 
Tcraltr Of a jouni mui <ao> «»<> au bad Br* 7«ara' 
pTttctleal »x|Mrl«no« In te«clitai, aod who taaa duna 
toui lew a' poatmaduato worii \a pbllMOpby. de*ot- 
iu< kla KtMntion during tbe last t>o y««n eap»- 
ulallyto Btvdraod orUlDal iDTMUnUoa In aol*!!- 
(IQo psjobolaKy BMl Iti applloatloaa In educalluu 
AddiMB B. A., oare 8c*ei«e<. 871 Broadway. N. V. 
Ctty. 

WAirrBD.-A auttablB noatUon ta WaablairtM, 
D. C, Dut oDDDneted witb th« OcvvnmvDt, 
and vJtb n ■alatr not la tioifed ISOO a j«ar, by an 
eip«rteiic«4 bloloKiM wiib all T<>ara' unlv«r*lty 
iraiuli>K Applicant haa liDrti a Bkilful aiintMn fat 
r&iirt^i-D }'«ars ; U a praott<^a] ptmoupuphpr. car- 
kiKrapbar. aod »ccii«toai«l lu Uiu uw^ •>' Iba lyp*- 
«nt«r. U<v la alio cauablo qf uaKlsit tbn inuxl Cn- 
labod dravtiiHa. of any deaoriutfou. lor all aianorr 
Of illuatratiTa purpoaos lu aoimcv; tralu>-d in wu 
aoani awthfida and wurk: alau flold oparatloB* and 
taxldfrrmr In Ita varloua dvpartmeDta, and mod*] 
luK. pniducllati of caaU. rMf^ratttoa of palooato- 
l<i(leal8pi>clnMKiaaDdaiiii(laten>|)ioyiii»uta. Addrvaa 
I'.S, tt,. eaftt StitfBot, W4 Broad way. New Tork, 



Exchanges. 

tPrceofchargcloall, Hofaaliaraetoryeharactai. 
Addmi N. O. C. VitAtfi*. S}4 Br«w9«By. New Vark.l 

Wanied, in eichui||g let the f'-llonl'irnt Worhi, lay 
4l.indatd (TMla on Surgery it A ua Di fsici of Chudico: 
Wil^n't"AiDeticanUraitho!o^/ 1 r^iL.:Cou«t' "BM* 
rf ihc Nonhwot " and " Biidi ol the C<h>r4do Villcf ." 
t vnli.; Minoi'i " Last] and Gam': Bii'li ?l New Eav- 
lunii'"" Samu«l*' '■ Our NoKhern in'l E^wi^i Htidi;" ill 
the ke^n« on th« BJidi oE the Pacibc k. R SunM, 
bound in 1 vnli.. niMOcco; and a cuai[il(le let of laa 

Ktponi ol ib« Aikaaiai Ceoloncal Survey. Fleaaeeve 
cdiiioni and dito In eamttKuiainc. tt. KLLSWORtH 
CALL. Hlch School. X)«i Jdoinn. Iowa. 

Wwilod lu bxiy CI eiclian(f ■ cnpr <ii Holbftiok'i 
Noiih Amcikio ncriKtolncT, t>T )ohn Kdwarda. svtriSil, 
IliiUdcIpliia. ]f4i. U. SAUK, Cluk L'DirciWy,! 
Wc mater, Ma». 



Puf lale at cuIiuijm. LcCchm*, "Gaolofr;" Quala, 
"Anateny." • ToUt reaicTi "Phynoliiar," EBg. edUioa: 
Sheoard, AppldDB. EUicll, and Stern, " t KcDiiu*^;*' 
Joioao, " Manual m VcnebuM*;" " Iiiiematkinal Saen- 

UUi' Dliectoiy;" Val. t, Jturna! t/ MtrpA'legf,' Ral> 
lour. " Embiyalogy." ■ loli : l^idv, " Rb-aapa^" 
Stimi; >l -oil-, unl*u>id. C T. McCLlNTOClt. 
LcainiclQli. Ky. 



For tal*.— A (44 ■ U^ Camcn; a very An* iniirWMOTtf 
vilK leii (, bulden anu Iniiud, ail new^ il txai awcrSia. 

6 me, t>s- Kdw. L Kayaa, A Attwn* tE>«at, CaabrM|*r 

To Mclidnffe Wfighi's'' Ice Age in Noith Aniuira** 
>nd t.c Coatc t *'£lctiiciii)i ■>! f irolony** (Cirpvrt^i tCb) 
iM ■■DarwiaUni," by A R. W»U»ce, "Origm ol Spacffa,_ 
by Danvin, "fJoccai <if Mkj.'* t>y Dj'win. Ktaa'* 

Place la Nature," Uuiler. "MeniaJ tToluiioa tn Aai- 
maU." by Rasano. "ftc-Adamilc*.'* by Wii:chcll. K« 
beaki wuHcd «>c«pt laieai ediiiom, aaH bonhi in good 
nndilion. C. S. Browli, Jr.. VaadciUlt Uancnl^. 
Naahvaie. Teaa. 



Pot )i)>le or Exehanf e foe book* a compkie pfTvaM 
chemical Uboiaioiy Diit£t. Includo Urc* Bwkir bal- 
ance (aco|[ lu i-ionit ), filuinum dlshei and cracSil**, 
a(Bic okuUin. sla»-Ua*inx aupamua. eac Kor lala fa 
pan otwhela. Abo complete llle of Siltlmait't Tirapwrl/. 
■tde-iSSj ii*-j\ bowndljSraiihBOiiiaa Kepoeta, iSm-iMs; 
V. S. Coaat SiirMr. itu-iBfia. VM ponlcwlara to «*•■ 
qutierk F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfrei, Conn. ^ 

for aschancB or aal* at a lacriaeet an etabttraf ^a 
■cap* oaiti. Ilatlock aiaad; OKinocnIaT objc<ii\i:s, onw-l 

intii, BaiHck ft Looib. abo one-foailh aad 00* isclt) 
Spencer. Faar «y«-pfaMa. ObjtcUfciaKihebeMauda. . 
Addrtat Hra. Marion Sailb, 41 Branch Sit«ci. Lowell, 
UaM. 



POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE: SP£E:CH AND 

VOaL PHySIOLOGY. 

For ttie In Coll«g«» and Naratal Schooli. Frica fo caata 
Sent ft«« by po»i by 

N. D. O. UODSKS, B94 Vr*a4war« !<• *■ 



FEBRtJAR^5^*9V 



SCIENCE. 



Dot nifflcientlir wUlcly known to be called " Auolralian Meo of 
Mark." uiti so the Chtt;f- Justice dccicl«l Hgaiott tl» enterprnJiut 
pabh^bcTH. Purtlivrnxw. the Chief-Justice ruled that all cod- 
tnM^ts ont«iTd into on account of tlte booik, sa<l Dot yet carried 
oot, wer<^ null and void. 

— HanfcanlM la the name of a new Hllny, conBietinR of copper. 
uieke), and mangancac. which has beoo broaghc on the tuarket, 
Mjrn th^ Enffi'urnim aad Mining Joumai, by the Qvifmao Srm, 
Ablvr, H«a4, A Anftersi^JD. as a mat^rbd of great rcnifttlu)^ power. 
Tbeapri-ilir trsistance of mangaoine ts given la fon;-two microhm 
cpnlimptivs; tiAl i», bi)>her than that of atckeline, which ban 
hitherto pa»«d m the b«st r^aiHling metal. Another advanlBg;*? of 
inansmniDe » its hKhjiviur umtvr variations of b«*t, the rtvhtanc^, 
it is claimed, heios alTt^'t*:f<l im]y in a minute dvgrett by bi^i tern- 
(wramres. It is Ibereforv a<)upt*-0 fot tbr ninnuf atrium uf ui«<aDur> 
ioK int'immfnts and electricul up|<iir»tu« in g^tH-ral, whicli are 



re<]uic«(l to vary (heir rvsistaoce as UtiJe as poasIUe under differ«at 
deurrvs of beat. A further iolereBting fact is that while other 
m«tali hkcmue (beir re&istancv by the raisint; of the lempcratura^ 
that of mangsnioe is diminished. 

— M. de Qaatrvfages. the well -bann-n onthropol'igiat. lilrd on 
Tuesday, January IS. Re was born, tmyn .Vatvre. in 1610, and 
Htudied medicine at Straabufig. Afl^rward* he became prafcMor 
ol zoology at Toulouao, where lie bad settJcd as a medical pracU- 
tluner. In 1855 he was made prote^^or of anthropology and eth- 
nology at the Jardin de Flantes. Paris. He had already be«D 
admitted to the Academy of 8cieno« in 1852, and he wa» an boa- 
orary member of many foreign lrarii««l »i>ci«ti<^ Numerous 
friends and pu|>ilit wfre )ir«<t«t)t at the f un^nl, uii>l itddrcvm were 
dtUvered by M. Milne-Rdwarili^. ami ullter men of ncienrc. Tl»e 
moat famous of bia wriiiogs are bis "Crania Etbnica " and 
■' Elude* dM Iluc«*i Humuines. " 



PROPRTETARY. 



mc 

lorsl'ortl's M Pliospliate. 

A most excellent and agree- 
able tonic anii appetizer. It 
nourishes and invigorates the 
tired brain and body, imparts re- 
newed energy and vitality, and 
enlivens the functions. 

Dr. EpHauK Batxhas. CedarrilU, K. J., 
■ays: 

' * I hare uwd it for iieveral years, not only 
ia my ]ira<-tice, but in my own indtvidual 
CAW, and considor it under all cirmmstitnc** 
oDfl of the bert nerve tonica thnt we pu»«iM. 
For mental osbaustion or overwork Jt givM 
rMiewed itiength and rigor to the entire 
■yMMn. 

DuerlpiiTe pamphlet free. 

«wrf«4 0«pi(ilWorkt. fWi<i*nc«, R. I 



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Ard'B" In OB tbe label, ail oibera are 
•purlena. Never aold In bulk. 



BOOKS. ETC. 



JUST POSilSHEO 

FOSSIL RESINS. 

This book is iho result of an attampt to 
co1li<ct the scatt«re<l noticce of fossil rosins, 
excltisive of tfaove on amber. Tke work is of 
interest also on account of descriptiona k twa 
of the insect* found embedded in these long- 
prcserred exudatioDv from rarljr Tefietativa. 

By CLARENCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH 

12". %\. 

H. D, C. HODfiES, 874 Brotdvay, K.T. 



illSCELLANEODS. 



RULE 



njiDE 

% I * pn'i<.-t*.r vpvws, ji4 mn i.i*,*l., w.,iiuvt tiwjjo, Ul' 

II ihi Veer 1 (iHifcs •■Srtrtaie. .Mmplfc new. 



Feweiaal Oalead&r. — TUf 

phncip^« ihtTKs, in An i.i<i»at w^hcu4 tTsd/ot cal' 



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ACK number:^ kn4 conpku ieuo( ludUi Mm- 
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^^^H ral»n n«ii or r*|il>c«il wtiluni db. 
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PATENTS 

ForlNVESTOR.^ 4.i.(,»k" BOOK rRKK Addn-M 

W.T.mncpfolil. ALI.iri:"} *t L»ir,WiuihmKlCQ. D.C. 



MLNERALO(JY. 



Course of lloeralo^ for toug People. 

C»DiIucted b; c<>rT<-ii|>oadelKi«: mUMralaaiMlUjuka 
(nmiabed. 

CellsvtIOD and boeft, -Fim Ondo," eoa donss: 
•<»lsn, tS ooDta. rteod for circuUra to 

GUSTAVE QUTTBNBKRO. 
Oclra i HlBh.'^l.nnl. Pltufcnntb, Pa. 

GEM OPALS. '^:si'^^^^»^tSSS^ 

priccsi .*•;.. tl. SL Wft p. jaa it * rm cvaarumJij lo 

U^rin<')wSi»OanHB9t^'k^^V^ *oa^ 

Ml nCT»lo <laU. Hi MgWlriMiflWsir. »ew Yoriri.'ltr. 

SO (JK.^STONKA PBBE ■• ■ premlnM 
wltb THE (;HBAT niTIPB. 

Tbese tienstoaes are mtai«il|i0li<Aetf resdy for 
Jatreln wnwHag, sad sib gl*«o ffes to ssch asw- *. 
sateenberscMllnc ffl, prieoof resrlysabeorlpttoa. 

kMrmam THR GRRAT »IV1DB, 
I SIB ArapabeeHt-i Denver, C'ele. 



DO YOD INTEND TO BDILD? 



>H^^ 



Ifyoa inUoid to bnUd, tt will bea mlstate not to Mod tor "BBNSI BL K LO W-rONX 
HOFftR!*,*' now arTsaKeil la Ibree Tolsnes. la then jiyn will Bad t)ani>M>tlf* Tl»«a, 
fiuor [Inn.. J<.»i- riftlooa, aiu] aatlmatM of coat fur lOS taslefult nevr dealsBs reK- 
bonap*. TtioT siso Rtee prlees lor ruaiplel* WutMbr Plana, T>eUlM. and Spnjlflcaiwnay 
wUlcb enable vou to beUd wlihoot di-laja, iDlalahesor anarrela with roar bnlld- 
rr, sad wfclcb abir OMS ean tuKKrniand. Vol. I. oentalss Vk cofjriAK»a iiMSaaa a^ 1 
bimaaa, c<oattD|t betweo* UW ui.l ti»X'. Vul. II. cootalBs K eoWTlabtMl deaKns. SIWO tft 
VfOO. \r,\. III. mntslBB fi ceprna&l«4 apsvns. S80B0 to fOOH. Price, bj nail. vl.OO 
evvit, or 9;l.O0rar llieeel. _ . _ _. . 

**« OLUMAL HOV8BS1** S eoletMD Uigwlnit Penjiaetlvea and Plnor Plana at 
bvuw^arraiiBwllii tbnIitltBltabtr atjlenrtbet'olatilat AnhlU<^tur«, asil bsTlBitaU modSfB 
srrsnHOsateforoDinfurt. Prios, ti.QO. _ „ _ 

MVirTrRRSQI'R nOIISRS fob PORKST and HHOBiC**i-TbH shew 
PerwMwtteea and Floor Plans of new dvslKs* for eumnier CuttaKM, •hlcb are nmuunla 
eenTSDlaDt, aind ehoap. I*rlca 1 1 .00^ bj mall, 

H. D. C HODGES, 874 Broadway, New Yori. 



b 



INVESTMENTS FOR NON-REStDENI 

TAYLOR & GUNST) 

Tkhe full chircc oT proptrty Tor the 

EASTERN INVESTOR. 
City. TowB, Bod Suburban LsM. 

Qarijcn, Prult. Hop and Timt-pr ! 




nm STRIPES. CHECKS, AHD PLAIDS, 
MIXED TWEEDS UD flOHCSPOHS, 

PLAIN ENGLISH AND FRENCH SERGES, 
BEDFORD CORDS, CAMEL'S HAIR, 

Cachmere d'Ecosse. 

Printed Laines, 

Linons and Batistes. 

Wool Crepons and Crepes, 

FOR EVENING WEAR. 

EMBKOlDliRliD ROBES. 



COMPANY. 

98 MILK ST., BOSTON, MASS. 



iljtooAvaii c\J i'^ii^ 6i. 



NEW TORK. 



NEW SHIPMENTS. 

(Pens. 8. -Majestic," jak. wih.i 

We h«%c jutt rbc«iv*d, per latl steamer, 
exl«B5ive |in«s of Novelty Dres» Goods and 
our Spring imporUtwn of Ptm Robet. These 
will be ready fur inspection and lah to-dav- 

Paris Bell Robes, with foot-bands encrusted 
in steet. in a variety of new devicps. 

The new Crepons and Crepon Cashmeres, in 
designs taken tfom old wood-carvrngs. in 
shades or Military Red and Mink Brown, for 
the coming season. 

Our collection or Woolens for this season 
surpasses In assorttnenl, quantity, and style 
that of any previous season. 

Esriy buyers mil find many advintages, ai 
■we have marked a number of choice styles si 
spedal prkes for next week. 

James McCrccry & Co. 

BROADWAt & Itlh tiTRRET, 
IVi;W VORK. 



Thin X;oiiipnny uirnn the Lettfrii 
fatv-Dt Krantt'd to Alexander tfJra- 
liHin Bell, MHrch 7tb. 1H70, No. 
174,4U.'>. and .January 30» 1977. 
No. l»t«,7S7. 

The TrauMDiUHion of Speech by 
all kuunn roriiiK of KLKClTRIC 

sPKAKiNo ti:lepuonkh iu- 

fringefl the ri^bt Nticnred to tbia 
Coiiiptiny by the above patents*, auci 
renders each individual HMirortel- 
epbout-H, nut fiirnl.sbed by it or Its 
liccusee^i, rettpuuHlbtc Tor nurb iin- 
lawful U8«, anil all the codsc- 
qiiencen thereof and liable to suit 
tbereftor. 



iO\ GnaraQteed on nil iDYestmeDts. 

HouBcafooalc on Ihclnalalmeatplaa, by wtai 
Ui* puTcha*er can ebtaln as lacvme «DlIictcal 
covet all pnymccta, iQcludluK tam.loauiaiic*,! 

lalormacion racardiTic any particular pMat 
tlic State of Waahlngton gladly fuinUh*4 H| 

application. Pcraoaal aiUDiioa given to ■Ultta 

Cortc.pondence moticiied. Kerer. by parmlaal 
to the Pacific National Bank, Tacoma, Wu 
Oca, H Tiltey. Esq., Sccietary and TrcaaarBI 
the Gouthcro Exprcia Co,, and f rede rick C.CIl 
of Clark, Chapin A Duahaell. New York. 

Address 504 C»Uforiua BI'k,T&coau,W« 
BaitcTo Rcpreaentatlve. 
H. P. TAYL.OR, 47 Larayette Place. New T«l 



TACOMA ^™'" ""° 



film Method of Protecting Property 
from Lightning. 

The Lightning Dispeller, 

Price. S20 to SSa— According to size. 

rh« Patent Lightning Disp«lle<r i» b conduc- 
tor specially <]«ifi)fii(^d tvdiBsipstv the «aergy 
of B lifchtnin^ rliech«r^, — to prercnt iU 
doing bartn, — placinc luitnethiiiir in it* p*lh 
upon »bicb its capacity fur caosiDg diuiuu^o 
may b« expended. 

No rMorded case of li^hlnib{C vtroke hu 
vet Iwpii cite<l a^jitst the principle of tb« 
DispclUr. So far u known, the dissipation 
of n conducSor ttot invarinbly protected under 
th« coutlitioua employcKl. 

Corn!«pondetiic« solicited. 



AOENTS WANTED, 

The American Ll^tning Protection Compimi 

United Bank Building. Sioux City, I«wa, 



\\I 



ffASTE 

EibrDilerj Silh. 

Putnry Kndi ■( hstt piic* : unp ooiir* In a bqi. All 
nod allk Biut t[Mid calora. Aaoi bf mall on rfcolpc at 
m cawW! W or»«7 ailMhaa 1» aarti iwaktia. LMaKakd 
tan book on &nNf«U«w«i«,flKb]OcfM». AtnaO- 

, no.. Ata Brxadiar- »'» York, or SSI Mark** 

iiQit4rli>iiU, PiL 
. _,' tti'naBi*oa*daddi««nvr lOladUa titwr«*t*d Id 
An KeMUework w« wUI trM om beak (Ma. 



VyESLEY HEIGHTS 

^^ WASHINGTON. D. C. 
A RARE OPPORTUNITY 
FOR AN INVESTMENT. 

Ih[| propcrtf (I I pari ot Norlh>«it Watb- 

lAplon, ind It st1u4t*4 «pp«ill« Ike SH* 
rtcintlr purclvu*e In Bishop Hurtt for \ 
Iho trvctlon 0I Iho no* 

Anr)ericar> University 

oawhl«li«ia,AM,«BBwUlbo«s»«Dd«4ln 
cfCMBicamwBlnUdtBn Ui«b«taomUut« 
drtterro»llMWI|h«n«aM.MdlaaliiMloa 

a of Um blxKeit poilatab ttw bblrlet of 

Baui^caat 

iMlaDOt! 



nalumtila. n* BVOrua aU« Mi^Ki 
rrum ■449 1» STM. ona-lirtli OMh, 
10 1. ■•pdfyMA. jVobKWr fT MtM 

_ . .. _. .... tan,nr* 

«naM^ UtuawiUad naps aad rail InrotmanniL 



»Kwr or Mtor iDdncv 
oMrwUnncbMoro tc 



BU ka*o «*«r bOMi 

kB>BraaUiloI«.«Mraa*L 



JOHN 
TOO I4tm ST., 



WAGGAMAN, 

M., WaiMtxaTOn. 



D. C. 



PKQET Cirv 

1 til AUANTKK 13 p«r cent per BBai 
In aiir of Uif atiorc oltloa. I ka«o maM (timd 4| 
SO i^r coDt- per oaiiuB foe aDD-ie«l4oata. i I 
■iialin Hial morr^aKti. ImproTod ro*! eatAte loan 
uDdui^iitloiioblv v«curtflM rroin 6 to :aj>oc coal. 
•anun net. Alati haio nholoe barifalm. 1b Pav 
Hap, Hay aud Uarden LaMda. riiiiinii 
fiDnn Sottpltnl r»Kanllii|t WMtem WaabloglaB. 
ic>q»irlM>iiii«<m>d prompUj. Addreoa 
A. C. SI(:KKI.N, Taeama, Waaliliict4 



PUBLIC ATIONH. 



RACES AND PEOPLES. 



a 



By DANIEL G. ERIN TON, M.I 

"Tbe book U Kood, tUocoucUF food, aittf will li 
rentaln ttio beat aeceaaible MHaaolatr attiiia|pa| 
iucurlaaiiLaiee."— Tti^Oirf«ridn riti./B. 

■■Wr stniouly rKcounnend Dr. flriRt^in'a ' Ea 
and r<.opl(>a to botb bectDDora and leholan. 
•I* Dot awarr ot &□; otlwr rvc«ci: a-ork On 
Bcieoeu of vbicii tt inato in ttie SntUth Uinaa^ 
—AiiaUe OwirliTT/jr. 

"Bla book la an piooUent one. and we o*s heav 
mccNiiniaod It aa an tntrodnctorjr nanoal at aUu 
atj."^Th€ UonM. 

"A uaaful atui roally tataraatlnx work, wblnb 
■cirei to be nldely r«M and atudlod t>oth io Bac 
and Anuiiica,"— itWtfAJaa fBng.) BemU. 

"TbUTDlama U tnOM MltDalaUai. It la wiU 
wltb grnat cleaneaa. ao that majhodj can anc 
■taod. and wblle la aomo wajB, pwroroe. lupefAD 
ara«a verr veil the omapMii flald ot bamaatcjr. 
flu Arte York T(mt». 

'-I>r. BrlDluD InTaataktaaclentino llluatratlonai 
moaanietiMnM wttb aa tadooulbabto cbam of I 
rmtlaa. ao tbat 'Baooa a»d Poeplaa.' atuwedtf a i 
ord of dtacoTorod fketa. It la toainr a strooiM 
nlacit lo tlio ImaclQaUoo."— PlilUilvtpbIa Fm 

"Tha work ta iDdlaoaDaablBtotbe atudent who 
qnlrM as lotolUiimi Knlda to a Rourat of tth 
Itraphlc reading.' —iwltubrJpAjo Time*. ^H 

PHc«, psMlpald, 91. r«, V 

THE MODERNMALADY ; or, Si 
[erers from ' Nerves.' 

kn intiVMliii^ioii i<-> p»hli<r (wntideratfil 
fmai a tiou-medical puiot of view, of a n 
ditlon of ill'b«altb ubtch is iucreaiilnj 
preTalent la all rniuu of society. Io t 
nrat part of Uii* work tbe author dwalla 
tbe errors in our mode of treating Near 
thenia, conmquont on the wide iKnoranoe 
tha Rubjoct wbicb atill prevnila; in the a 
onti part, ntteolion is drawn to the princtj 
causea ot the nialadv. The alleffory formi 
the Introduction to Part I. Kives a brief li 
tory of nervous exhaustioQ and tbe modes 
troAlmeat which hare at various tlmee bf 
thought suitable to this most painful andtl 
ing diaeaae. 

By CYRIL BENNETT.I 

IS^ 1&4 pp.. tl.OO. 



1I.D.C. HODGES, 874 Broadiay, Kef 



I 



NEW YOEK, FEBRUARY 18. 189S. 



ON THE TEACHma OF ANATOMY TO ADVANCED 
MEDICAL STUDENTS.' 

Tax importaue« of auatoniy to llie physician and surgeon 
haa caused lb» owtfaod for teacliinfr tins science lo be largely 
(letenntDecf by pnictilionerK. Tli« fttiideut 18 taught llie 
eldneota of histology, the shapes and numbers of orgnns, 
the uutliow of refiiODS, uud th«tr inulual relaliuoi- Other 
facts than those named belong in ft very remote degr« to 
the needs of practice ; and wbea the gnat number of tnedtcsl 
topics 15 coDsidfn>d, which is of necessity brought to the at- 
tention of the student, it ia no wouder that governing bodies 
are dttpowd lo disregard a]l phases of instruction that do 
not bavG direvt claim uirnn Iho phyaictaD's time and ser- 
vice. 

Bnt science is rarely puraaed for practical good. The ac- 
quiaitioii of knowledge for its owu sake — the detcrtniuaiion 
of geueral principles that reveal the exiatence of taw — 
awokenit and maintains pleasures and interests in the mind 
of the anatumisi compHred with which the practical uses that 
he cnn make of the knowledge appear to be poor and mean. 
With BS much propriety one might nay that navigation is the 
highest use that can be made of the study of astronomy, as 
to assert that lb« chief eud of the study of anatofiiy is to 
apply its teiietA to medicine. These statements are made not 
to lessen the diipitty and iuiportauce of practical work, but 
respectfully to claim thatsuch work does not comprise all the 
value, indeed scarcely more than a small fraction of the ralue, 
that [wrtAiuH U> the whole. 

kTu hifl "Npht Allaotis,*' Lord Bacon says : "We have three 
our fellows that bend themselves, looking intu^the experi- 
wis of others, and cast nbout how to draw ntit of them 
inga of use and practice for man's life, and knowledge, as 
well for works as for plain demonstration of cause.'*, means 
of oalural diviualioos, and the easy and clear discovery of 
the virtUM and parts of the bodies. These we call dowry- 
men or beoefactora. Lajstly, we have three tliat raise the 
former discoveries by experiments into greater obeervotioos, 
axioms, and aphorisuis. These we call the interpreters of 
oat ore." 

I hear a response lo the foregoing statement that the struc- 
ture of aoimale exhibited on a broiul scale is already taught 
to cloasca in the scientific schools, and that, in the scheme of 
a university education, the biological subjects are as well 
advanced as any others in the cttrriculnm. This is an im- 
perfect^ if not misleading, presentation of the facts It is 
that ibe ruilinieots of the structure sod functions of 
iiuals and plaota are taught. But to studente already ad- 
nced by general training and by preliminary wi^rk in 
turel history, little in presented that prepares them to dis- 
tfae more intricate problems. 

my mind the scheme of unlvenrity work Is un&atisfac- 
ry until opportunity is ufTorded to men, who, after com- 
pleting their biological and medical training, may desire to 

> A)B(»pabUab«illuTa«Xeai(»lH«wv, D«c«ail>erTl, mi. 



atill further advance. Conceding that the question of nudn- 
teoance has Iweii settled, either by the possASsion of privato 
means or by endowmcut of fellou'ships, what oouraeaof in- 
struction are a&orded these advanced men ? Asa rule, noth- 
ing, or next to nothing. It is customary for such jiovitiatea 
to reside abroad for several years, whore, amid numeroas 
centres of learning are found oue or more masters, the dis 
ciples of whom they become. The advanlagesof travel being 
considered, it may be Kaid that with the comparatively easy 
means of obtaining the best instruction the present wheme 
is on the whole adequate. With such a oooclusion t cannot 
agree. If it were true, we might in reason have stopped 
long ago in our liae«i of univeisity expansion. Independence 
in intellectual aa well as in political life should be tbeobjeel 
of American citixeoship. 

First, and always, let us remember that medical investi- 
gators are those it is desired to traiu. It is for men that are 
already imbued with the desire to pursue their researches in 
anatomy that I appeal. They stand in this Seld with what 
preparations can be given them for uscfulDesv They are 
medical biologtsta — medical anatomists. They are not re- 
stricted to the problem of the relJuf ot tnilTeritig. and yet they 
are occojiied with those other pr«->bleni» upon which the true 
solatioD of all depends. 

Fnr such inntructioo I would have a specially designed 
museum and a sjieoi ally -equipped laboratory. It may be 
assumed tliat in every great medical schoul, from among the 
large number of matriculates (men already trained and of 
the best quality), two or three of the type described will 
present themselves for an advanced course in anatomy. I 
am prepared for the objection that this is too large a nuoi- 
her. But, so far as I know, no one has attempted to aaeer- 
lain how many men In each claas of graduates would coom 
forward, and my imprewions are based upon the number of 
workers In the general field of biology — some of whom, at 
least, would have pursued these or niniilar studies bad any 
systematiEed course hetu prejteuted to them, t will, there- 
fore, begin with three men a year. To this number may be- 
added as many young teachers, tutors, curators, and pronec- 
tors, who would avail tbcmsolvcs of the instruction. The 
work might be initiated in either of the halls of biology or of 
medicine. If the course were well established, it would be 
well to iu8litut«-a laboratory and museum distinct from auy 
on the university grounds. T am of the opinion that the 
administrative success of such sepanition of collections would 
be assured. All must approive of the ethnological collection 
of Harvard being distluct from the Museum of Comparative 
Z(wlogy, and of lioth to turn being set spirt from the 
museum in the Medical School. In like manner. 1 aMume 
that there ii no reason why series of specimens arranged in 
illustration of principles that arc not taught either in Iho 
preliminary or iu the proper medical courses, should be nec- 
essarily connected with one or the other museum. The col- 
lections should be in the main designed t^^i acoommoilato the 
preparations that are used in the iltuntration of genem) lec- 
tures. Museums that teach by the specimens being removed 
from the castv* to the lecture balls are radically distinct from 
museums that leach by the conservation of series thai are 



86 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 471 



arranfirod and labelled for instruction as they stand, and 
wbioli alioulJ be rurely. if ever, disturbed. 

The following. treai«d in some detail, embrace the topics 
tliat occur to lue at tbiK time as appropriate subjects for iii- 
strtictioii: The study of the hunian brain; especially the 
study of the maoimalian and avian brains, both of the gross 
and the iiiinul« ttnutomy, llie localizaliun of fiiurtions, etc. 
The study of muscular anomalies and their homologies In 
the DDnna] myology of the vertebrateB, The study of animal 
locomotion and its application to the morphology of the 
vertebrate limb, and in general the application of photo- 
graphic mnthodfl in studying animal locomolioa.' Studies 
in craniology. especially the comparative studies of human 
and mammalian crania. The study of oateological varia- 
tions, with a Rimilar application to the normal analomy of 
the lower animals and the beginning of morbid prooemea. 
The aludv of nutritive procfiHses on tissue as correlated to 
age.' 

In addition, courses of experimenlal morphology might be 
eaaayed. Such investigutiou could be encouraged without 
encroaching on the domain of physiology, as the votaries of 
this science somewhat arbitrarily restrict it. Indeed, much 
of the study of animal locomotion would be experimental, as 
would also be the study of protoplasm in viscid media, under 
rotation, compression, etc. The effects of light, temi^ratui-e. 
water in motion and at rest, etc., on organisation, would 
naturally Qod a place. Experiments on mutilatioa of em- 
bryos might also be undertaken. 

Lectures ou correlation of structure, on vegetative ropoti- 
tion. on the relation existing between phytlogenetir and 
teratological processes, could be given, as nel I ax the study of 
the laws of heredity, esiwcially in attempting to answer the 
quostion of the transmittal of acquired characters. 

The teeth are so responsive to the constitutional peculiari- 
ties of the individual that their pe<*utiaritio« can be seen and 
readily detected. The method of procuriog accurate im- 
pressions cAn be applied, and the plans of preserving the 
form of teeth be easily accomplished. 

As is known to the zoologist, the parts involved in the act 
of mastication are important in the classification nf the nmni 
malia, the slightest departure in the form, number, position. 
and rate of development of the teeth being for the most part 
correlated with other variations in the economj', while the 
k^hspes of the lower jaw and of those portions of the skull 
kUiat afford surfaces for attachment of the masticatory mus- 
'cles are of importance. No structures of the body resemble 
the teeth in the character of their response to morbid impres- 
L.8ions; no niher organs are arranged in progre&«ivc aches; and 
'none other than these are evolved after birih. Hence the 
effects of disease and accidents to which the teeth are sub- 
jected are sure Lo be recorded in the sb^pee of lh<> cmwns 
and roots. 

If the student of heredity were tn have placed at his dis- 
posal a collection nf the aatu of the perrnaneut teeth uf three 

J loetoaiuiMits piKKognipho BBve Kt*«u "■ dMlDlta cooovpUoiu it tM b«- 

bSTlor ftt lb* muiUB sa4 p«« in uiT«Mrt«i »nit aarlKl murBraanUL I bad tbv 

■ tettonopoiDioaiasafwaltQlBiitu'ir of ui« a«8ftU*(«iikk#D t>r Mr BUuj. 

Ibrldf* UBdor IB* svitMeM ot Uin UaWanltr ot pfmusri'mita. mat iB« grpnad 

I lomwd bf UW MXtr bonlvr of l&a fvot ukI U 1«(i by tbo tnaw bonier, UKl 

I Ota tiapHi r«i>r«MatM by lAU tranaltloa it •iprewwd br ui abUqno lla« 

t SXtwds tnn Wllboiit Uiirvd (vcto-aoud) bctm* Om m»upodluiD. Pra- 

era. P. Oit>ora», br awdrluc Uie carpus »d<] wr*u« In ostlnot [onaiof 

fmsminillMi IU0, baa fouail ibai thUi <N>[KluBloa la oC tmoii la siudrlng Om 

tvblnMOa of tb> pailL Ifnm tbU wo c&n oonclud* Uiai, m •roatiu el ■ photo 

tcnpkhi »tam la BOBascUoa wltb adraueed aoatoiBlesl mot*., •itouorerlM onU 

I •oaweoaflHsoM bt aaUoli'kiad. 

* This would furm a Daorphotuct'^l ntudr ou UiA DAliire ot ugn, and «onld 

mora ptnlculaily enibrao« a codhI J r ration of lb« Immalum sod Molio rorms 

■a oumpaiftd wlOi Ui« irplcally adoll, ^ »»ll ■« IIib rMfllUlOO Of taTtbtl* Char< 

acura !u tho adult. 



generations — that is to say, of the parent of the subject, tb«' 
subject himself, and the children of the Buhjecl — and if a 
clinical history were secured of the diseases and accidents thai 
these persons had incurred, a tenable argument might be rs- 
lablished as lo the significance of the ccnlrasts or reseni- 
blancea in the forms ot the teeth. 

Thus, if three generations were expressed by the letters A, 

B. C. and if B is the subject of an acquired character (let us 
say from scarlet fever or measles), the uew form o* atruetort 
seen in the second and third molars may be Iransmilted to 

C. But in order lo prove this it is neceasary lo know the 
petTuliaritie-i of these leeth in A. Hence, the teeth of the 
aucei-tors and descendants of the peraon who exhibits the i 
acquired character must be known. A, somewhat aimilar^| 
plan of observattfm c«mld be made on the teeth of the lower 
animals. It is strautfi; that those t««th with eudlcws pulps. 

in wliicli growth is mpid and interference with their rela- 
tions causes permanent records to be made in malformation, 
should not have been used in studies of nutrition. 

In coiinectiou with myological studies a number of minor' 
problems suggest themselves; Bucb, for example, is the na- 
ture of white and red musrlcs. It has been noted that in 
ostriches that have been confined in zoological gardens the 
muscles of the leg underRO fatty degeneration and become 
white in color; it is also known that the pectoraf muscle in 
many of the galliniv is white, presumably from the fact that 
they arf used but for short and infrequent Uights. How 
evident is the concluiuon that a systematic study of nil mus- 
cles of active birds living in enforced conBnement, as com- 
pared wilh the relatively active muscleR in feral forms, 
might lie undtjrlaken with a fair prospect of throwing light 
upon the nature of (he process, and with a hope that tbe 
subject of fatty degeneration (even if by this method not 
elucidated) may have its study placed on a broad basis by 
subjecting its tenets to the tests of syslemalised experiment 
and observation ! 

The morphological study of the reaulls of diseased action 
might also be undertaken. The differences that obtain be- 
tween normal individuals and those the subjects of heredi- 
tary disease must be of importance to the anatomist and 
l>alhologist. 

The variations in the forms of tbe hones, as found in 
medical tnuseunis, are of a character ibat suggest their rela- 
tion to inherited causes. Every clinical ohservBr has noted 
the peculiar shape of the cheat in families in which pulmo- 
nary phthisis is hereditary, even though the special tubercu- 
lous deposits are absent in. some of its members. Tbe dab- 
bling of the Sngernails is a sign of the same disposition. 
Some writers, indeed, claim that in this class of subjects m 
special arrangement of the fibres of the pneumogastric nerve 
exists. Are these and similar morphological characters sus- ^ 
ceptible of being also gathered so as to contribute to the di»^| 
cuBsion of the transmission of acquired charactcntT Are not 
opportoatties hei-e preseuted for the medically trained biolo- 
gist In study the subject of heredity in a line so important 
and. alas! with materml so abundant? Other hereditary 
diseases, such as struma, syphilis, and gout, an^ less strongly 
marked than, is the tuberculous, hut even on this obscure 
horizon landmarks ace delected that are of suffkieutdefinile- 
iiess to guide tho observer to well-defined jdans of study. 
The animals of zoological gardens exhibit examples of ac- 
quired struma, the effects of which more especially distln- 
guittb the skeleton. Can any of tlitpse charscterislics be 
transmttledf How would the skeleton of a tiger, lot us say. 
born io captivity in the third and forth generation differ 



February I3, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



87 



from thiit of a faral Ijrpel After what tnaoDcr may one ex- 
pecl taxDDomic characters toodified io these generations or 
prisooersT 

Th« ualuro of maliyoaut growths, il is aot improheble, 
wotild Hnd a nolution io a line of reaearch hat>e^ upon a 
aimilar prupositiou. Wbutproportiuusof malitfnaiit i^roivLhs, 
•iicli 88 the sarcomntA, are met with in the feral state of 
quadru|ieds asoo(U[»ared nith ibosti in the dooiesticated or 
(he captive statef Can expericnenis be devised by which we 
tnar expect to canse these growths to appear by creating the 
favorio); conditions? Can we study the (fenetfis of the isar- 
comata to better ndvantage than has hitherto been done, by 
oatlinina: the biography, the lineage, and to some extent 
pomibly the destiny, of these tumors, by applying to them 
experimental methods of research' 

Medically train<>d men ure not apt to become pure ftior- 
phologisla. The underlying thought ia o{ function through 
which atnicturp ix modifitHl. in tla beat M>n&«, therefore, 
phyHiolngiral anatomy is the branch of science that would 
be most dt:veloi>ei). Let u« sa|i|KJ8ei that John Hunter had 
lired in 1^1 and hml essayed hi^ wnrk by all the aidei of 
modern science, and bad uaderlaken a plan of investigation 
for the conlinuatioii of his labors: might he not have ac- 
cepted some such scheme as I have feebly attempted to por- 
tray? Wifli the admiration we feel for his genius. If I us not 
only have Hunlertan orations, but in caob medical centre a 
UuDlerian laboratory and a Hunleriiin 'museum. 

"I am so utterly opposed to those cloud-builders nrho 
would divorce phyijiology from anatomy," says Ualler. 
" that I am persuaded that wo know scarcely anything of 
physiology that is not learucd through auatomy " <quoted 
from R. Cre«90o Stiles'* "Life and Doctrines of Hallpr," 
N#w York. 1867). 

Ill Stihtmon's house, in the ** New Atlantis," in which Ba- 
ean essayed a scheme for intellectual advancement, we read 
of " pariu and eactosurcn of all sorts of betu^ts and birds, 
which we use not only for view or rareness, but likewise for 
dissection and trials, that thereby we may take ligfal what 
may be wrought upon the body of roan: wo have also par- 
ticular pools where wu make trials upon flahea, bj^ we have 
katd before of Wasts and birds." 

I bear objectionH that this scheme is visionary and ini- 
practieahle. How is the money to he nbtain^d by which it 
ican he rcnden-d feasible? Where is the teaching force Lo bo 

;ruiiedf My answer ts that if the need of establishing 
a course be acknowledged, the ac<xtmpliBhment of the 
eod in view is no mun- ditUcuU tbau in any other branch of 
pure soietice. A few years ago the e^ttabliabment of seaside 
Rboralories would have been thought chimerical. Now they 
asaured successes. 
I am told the results obtained will appeal to but few, 1 
tpiv that important projects must be supporled in propor- 
as iliey so upiieal, until such time as they shall have 
red their right to exist. riAaRI&DH AllKX. 



If 



TIME-SERVICE OF HARVARD COLLEGE OBSER- 
VATORY. 

Thk lime verrice of this ob!»ervatory has been maintained 
for nearly twenty years upon the systom originated by the 
Iste Professor Joseph Winlock. Couiiuuous signals, that is, 
aignals throughout the entire Iwenty-four hours instead of 
far a short time each day have beou furnished lo the cities 

If Boslon and CamliHdge, and have been used to strike the 
ells of the Brealarm daily al noon. Fur many yean a 



time-ball has been dropped, thus furnishing a precise tim«- 
eignal to many citiceus and to the shipping in the harbor. 
The continuous signals have been sent also to the railroada 
ceulritig in Boston, and to the Rost^m office of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, and have been distributed by 
them over a large part of New England. Biany cities and 
corporations, allhougii not eubHcribiog for th« lime-sif aals, 
have been in ihv habit of lading them from the railway and 
telegraph stations, thus extending their use. The lime-oer- 
vice in New York City (va« thus supplied with our signala 
fur many years. The signals, again, have been furnished 
to the priucipdl jewellers in Boston and vicinity, and used 
by them in the rating of fine watches The lines IraDsmil- 
ting the time-fflgiials in these various directions affected tbft 
telephone lines by induction and otherwise, and thus many 
other (lersons obtained the aifoais by merely listening at tho 
telephone. 

The subitrri ptions of the city of Roslou and of the rail- 
roads, and the receipts frrtm the jewellera were sufficient lo 
defray the cwt of furnishing the rxact time, and for some' 
year? formed a source of revenue to the observatory. No 
charge was made to the city of Cambridge or to the We«lera 
Union Telegraph Company. The expenses were, however, 
large, since it was necessary to duplicate the inatrumcnta 
and clocks employed, although the coat of 'the necesswry 
duplication of the lines connecting the observatory with 
Boston was diminished by the arrangement with the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. For several years, also, the 
city of Cambridge roudered simitar assistance. Although 
the )*est clocks were used and mounted in vanlts s|)ecially 
constructed so as to secure u uniform temperature, great car« 
was necessary to keep not only the errors, but also the ehangea 
in daily rate, aa Rmsll as possible. It was neceaasry lo com- 
pare the clocks frequently, and to determine their errors by 
observations of the stars at short intervals. Especially after 
several days of cloudy weather, the first opportunity was 
taken to secure observations, although ibis often occurred at 
inconvenient hours. Fre*jueut interruptions t'Ktk place on 
the lines, and it was therefore necessary constantly lo have 
men ready to detect and repair breaks, crosses, and other 
injuries. 

The general introdncltnn of standard time was oooaidered 
at thv vbeervatory some months before this step was taken. 
Since the same signals could he used throughout llie eutire 
country, it was recognized as a source of danger pecuniarily 
to the time service. This argument, however, was allowed 
to have no weight, stncv it was believetl that the change 
would he a henetil lo the public. Aa il hap])eni>d, this ob- 
servatory was enabled to lake an active |tart in mnking the 
change, since all of the railroads centring in Bneton assiMitnd 
only on condition that our signats should be sent according 
to the new system. When the change hnd been decided 
upon, various steps were taken by the olficers of the 'ib^rva- 
tory to secure the general and simultaneous adoption of the 
new time by the country. 

A new source of difficulty sad danger in distributing time- 
signals has arisen during the last few yearn. The ^rval ia* 
crease in the number of telephone and other wires has ren- 
dered It much more difficult to matotaia an unubetructed 
circuit. Breaks aud croeses are oootinaally ocourrioe, es- 
pecially in stormy weather; and the privUoge of placing 
wires on housetops is every year lees willingly granted. Re- 
cently a more M<rious danger has arisen. The currenu of 
high tension carried by electric-Ught and electric- rail way 
wires, in case of a cross, may be transmitted indefinitejr. 



88 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 47» 



CHUsiiiK daufier of ilre, IkhUI^ iajury. or even loss of life. 
Pecuniary liabillttps in «ich c,4S«s may be very greal. The 
fliiQuciul olOcors of llie university refrard such riHks as more 
than offRPtlin^ tlie receipts for the time-siKualK. 

One of the greatest advantages of the lime-sernce lo llie 
obsiervatory has been that H kept before the public the prac- 
tical value of astronomical work. Mauy thousands of per- 
sons who lake no interest in work of a purely scientific 
character recog-uise the great BDaQcial value to the public of 
au accurate syftetn nf time. The observatory desires to con- 
fer this bencHl on the public, and it would be ready to do 
BO even nt a ftouncial loss. But rucenlly the tiiiie-siguaU of 
the United Stales Naval Obftervalory have been offered to 
the public at very low rales, ihnmBli the Wealcro Union 
Teleg^raph Company. This can the more readily be done 
since the expense of rurnishin^ the time is borne by the 
p^^ple through a ifovcrunieut appropriutiuu , wbile tbe com- 
pany has the largest facilities for the maintenance of tele- 
grepbic coouections. The Harvard Colle^ Observatory is 
therefore relieved of thiaduty. If the public iatobethcffalner, 
&!i;iijIh of equal accuracy and coDtinuily must be furnished. 
Unfortuuately, sig'uals sent to a ^reat dislance are liable to 
frequent interruptions frum trouble wilh Ihc iclegraph lines, 
«t)d therefore secoudary clocks must be u»«d in each large 
city if continuous aignaU arc to be diatribuled. These 
clocks must bo constantly cotuparcU and corrected if great 
flccnracy is lo be attained, and it w still a question whether 
salidfactory results can be secured uutKtde of an aMnmoniicMil 
observatory. If Ibe results prove unsatisfactory, however, 
the reepOHBibility for trying the experiment will not rext upon 
thiit olMervalory. 

In view of Ihc. facts stated above, it has been decided to 
discontinue the time-signals furnislie<) by tliis Observatory 
after March 3], 1892. An earlier date would have been ne- 
lected. but for the deaire to give our subscribers auEIIeienl 
time to make other arrangements for securing signals. 

The most iuipurtaiU eveuU in the liifitory of the time-ser- 
vice are given below. The Hrat transmiMion of time from 
tho observatory to Rnnlon was over a line hired For the pur- 
pose and used occasionally for the compinsou of clocks in 
Bnfiton with the standard clock at Cambridge. From 1856 
to lij63 thv observatory owned a line for the same purpose. 
Up to the close of 1871, no charge was made for tho lime 
thus furnished, which was nsed for many years for striking 
tho flrc-alarm bells of Boston at nooo, and for other purposes. 
Tbe T^ular transmission of signals and the receipt of cum- 
penaation for them began in 1872, the service being under 
tho direct care uf Profuasor Winlock, who had deviaed the 
system. After his de.itli in IS?.*!, Professor W. A. Rogers 
took charii^e of the servire and introduced the custom of 
teleifrapbiug information as to tbe error of the signals at a 
given hour daily. In 1877 Dr. Leonard Waldo took cbarfre, 
and daring the next year, with the liberal co operation of 
tbe Equitable Life Assurance Company, tlie Bosloo Time- 
Ball was erected on top of the buililtngof that company. In 
187H, also, a correspondence was opened with the railwftja 
of Kew England rotative to a uniform system of lime and 
the practicability of iatroducing it by legislation. A plan 
for establishing' a bureau for the testing of fine watches and 
thermometers was considered, aud abandoned uu the ground 
thataueh work would be commercial rather thaniKientific.and 
therefore not within the scope uf tbe observatory. In IS79, 
Professor Frank Waldo, who had previously asoitited his 
bnither, took charge of the time service. Tbe error of (he 
standard sidereal clock was determined every day at 10 A.M. 



from the latest comparisons with the stars, assuming the rote 
to continue uniform. The mean-time clock was comjiared 
with tliis. and for several years the difference hod been com- 
municated e .ery day by telenraph. This practice was aban- 
dnaed, since it was easy to reduce this difTerence to sero, 
and it did not indicate tbe true error of the clock. Especially 
during continued cloudy weather, large changes might take 
place in the rate of tbe sidereal clock, which could not be 
determined until observations could be made of tho Bta«. 
At this time the signals were sent Lo New York, and were 
used in the lime-service of that cily in combioation with 
similar signals sent from the Naval Observatory and Alle- 
gheny Obwrvatory. It developed the interesting fact that 
the differences, sometimes amounting lo several seoonda,, 
were much greater than were ex|)ected, or than would be 
derived from combining tbe supposed errors of the different 
time- services. Xbis was regarded as a preliminary trial of a 
plan which wa.s developed later, and appwirs to be the only 
way of effecting a great tucrease in Ibe eccuracy uf time 
filial*. It Is easy to keep the errors of a clock small if ihe| 
weather is clear, and frequent oomparisoos can be made with 
the stars. During long periods of cloudy weather, however, 
when no observations of the stars can be made, it is very 
dilljcult. The slight cbaDges of rate to which eveu the best 
clocks are liable may cause wrtous errors at the end of sev- 
eral days. Tbe remedy is co-operation between observalorica ' 
so distant that it would seldom happen that cfouds wouM 
prevent observations at all of them. Tbe time would be 
determined at each obftervatory every evening, when it was 
possible, Hud the result traosmitled telegraphically to a cen- 
tral station; also when called for, as soon as it cleared, 
whatever tbe hour. Tbe central station would report rlaily 
to each observatory either tbe results of each observation re- 
ceived or a corrected error derived from them all. Each 
observatory mtgbt send its own lime or receive signals froiD 
a normal clock at the central station. Mr. J. Kayner Ed- 
maniU, who has had charge of the time-service from June, 
1S81, to the present time, rendered important aid in formii^ 
this plan. He postponed the record of the errors occurring 
during cloudy weather until observations could be made for 
determining them. The apparent errors were thus increased, 
but the actual errors were represented with much greater 
accuracy. The practice of makitig the error at 10 A.K. es- 
pecially small was abandoned, aud attention was given to 
keeping the signals as accurate, and the daily rate as Bmall 
as possible at all hours. Tbe general iutroductiun of stan- 
dard time was effected at noon on Nov. 18, 1883. After tbe 
change was decided upou, a large part of Mr. Edmands's 
time for several weeks was devoted to securing tbe assent of 
tbe public ihnjughuut Xew Eagland to the proposed change. 
In 1885. a new lime-boll waA erected on the Boston post otHoe 
building, with the aid of an appropriation from tbe cily of 
Dustou. Experiments wore made in various matters asso- 
ciated with the iMsti-ibution of accurate lime. Among others, 
a delaying apparatus was devised, by which the signals of a 
clock could be retarded by any desired fraction of a second, 
so that, without disturbing a clock, its apparent error could 
be varied at will. In 1889 some interesting experimentsj 
were made by Mr. W. P. Oerrisb on distributing time accu- 
rately by ilasbes of magnesium powder. ^ignaU were tlius 
sent from a station on Blue Hill, twelve mi le.sdi.stnDt. They 
were readily visible, aud tbe exact time to within a fraction 
of a second could be taken from them. These flashes were 
also seen fniin Princeton and Mount Wachusett, forty-four 
miles distant, and from numerous nearer points. From &a 



''EBRUARY 17, 1891.^ 



scr 



89 



«srljr period io tbe Ufa of Ihe liin« Kerviev, Itie lelegraphic 
imp» bav« bvfn id charge of the ^leclriciiUM, Me5ura~ Atnarns 
ami Qgofiw. and ttieir sacvnsor. Mr. C. L. Ely. 

Edward C. PicKBRtso, 
Director of the Aslronomica] 

Observatory of Harvard College. 

CambrMjt^ MH*. 



NOTES AND XEWS. 

Mr. J. L. KirUMO says ot tlie mnnkeye of ludiu: ■'Tbey 
hav« a ganM like the t^ngiish bo.vA' cock of the flung hill or king 
of th« casU», but inst^'id of pushing ohcIi other Irnin the top of a 
kooll or (liMt-hrsp, the CAsde is a pendant branoli of a tree. Th« 
game 1b to keep a plare on the t>oagh, whicfa awiof^ with their 
we(ght AS vitb a chister at fruit, 'n-bi1« tb« playen Htruggle to dis- 
lodge one atKiCber, each. a» he drops. runnioK round and climb^Dg 
up a^aiD to bejcin ao«w. Tbia *|>ort u kt-pt up for an hour at a 
time Willi k««ti fnjojm^al, and wlu-n one is nimhle a* a monkey 
h uiUiit t<r Miilrrfliil fun." 

— In 1890 wji« puhlifrbed the important discorery hv Uehria^ 
nod Kitaaato that blood Hcruoi laken froai antmats that bad l>etn 
rcadered iaimune to t^^taouaaiid diphtheria wae capable of curiue 
otbn aniinaU «uiTeiing from ihntw diei^atci. Dnt. G. and F. 
Kleiupi'ncr iBrrfi'iKT Idiniactte Woeheaarhri/t. Aug. S4 aiid 81, 
1^1) pohliab a rtsearch carried out in regard to pneumonia, wiih 
Uie object of diwovering how immunUy ngalnM the piipumococ- 
cum runld bo bttrt produced, whether recovery from the (li«v»M> 
rendered ao animal immune, and u-hether it wnt* ponible U> cure 
pneumonia by the blood serum of animals -that have recovered 
from tb« dneaae. Tbeir exitenmenlo, which were confined to 
nbbit«.re*eal«dtliatev*:-ry Duttifiii mviium in which th« pneumo- 
coccm baa btoo cultiiaied h-III. if iuoeutat«d, rentti-r an animnl 
immune ugniuKt pnuumuniu Kepttc&'mia.tfv-eo afttr the cocci hnve 
been ivmoved by titration. The power of pruducioe immunity 
H nion- fappedily acquired, and w incrpnwd if the infertpd ouLripnt 
medium (before or after removal of the cocci) la ezp<Med to a tem- 
perature of between 4 1" and 42** C. for two or three days, or of 60" 
for an hour or two. In every caae. howerer, it was found oeoea- 
iary thai eome interval (raryiu>; from three to roarteen days) 
•bould ehtpfv ti«-twe<'n tbe inoculation and the [inMliH'tton of im- 
munily. Hvnce it was u>o lalo to cure a diitewwl Hniimtl or even 
to prevent the onael ot an attack if the injection wa» given vimul- 
taoeoualy ivjth the outbreak ot the disease. On the other band, 
MTOU laken fri>m anim&b enjojini; imtnuDity was found able, 
«tpeciaUy wbeu introduced directly into llie cliculstioD. to cure 
poeomonfc veptlcaimls. The serum was injected tn-enty-four 
hour* after iDteciiou, while the ouimatfl had a febrile lemperaluro 
ot between tO^" and Ki&.Y F, Eigbl cubic ccstinieinM wen In- 
jeriMl, with the result that the lomperature gmdually Mnk dur- 
ing the next twenty four hours. In twelve fUccenlTe coaes a 
■nocemful reHuU was obtainod. This research therefore confirms, 
in refard In pneumonia in rabfaita, what Behrinp and Kitsfalodid 
for tetanus and diphtlieria Drn. Klemperer next eiudied Ihe 
<ineHtion bow the blood f>erum of an immune animal curea an at< 
lock of prteumonlc .v-ptii'iemta. and diitcoren-d tluil when Ibc 
pneumoeoccua is introlucol into the hotly of un animal it gencr- 
at«-B a poiMoou* Hub^lance n liich ran be isolated, and to wbich the 
name of " pneumotoxin" has been given. This pneumotosiu beta 
up a febrile condition which la^ts several daya, after which an- 
other itutwiaoce l» found to have been prodoeed called " nntlpoeu- 
noloxin." which If abkr to neutraUte tlie paeuuiotoziu. Thu sc- 
rum taken from an imuiuue animal cuntuinis ihisnulipucutHolosin, 
and it ia by niean^ of thja eubtlance that it cures ao attack of 
inenmonic aepticaeiDia in other animalH. The n^lalion of pneu- 
monia aa »een in nbbtta with that mel with In man was next In- 
lesUgated. and the conclusion arrived at thnc the dtoease in both 
ijaaes is produced by the pnenmncocrus. but that the human body 
[uuch IcM susceptible Io Ihe latter than Ihe rAbbit is. rhmi it 
found that serum taken from pneumonic palientA arir.r 

I cri«i* could cuff pneumonia in rabfcitii; moreover, poenmo* 

[in and antipneumolosin were found to lie present in human 
•erum as in that laken from rabbit)'. The cri«i« ot pneumo- 



nia, occordiofc to Dta. Klemperer, takes place aa aooD a aoti- 
pnnuniotozin iM produced in sufllcient quantity to neuttmliia Um 
pneuniotiixin. Vihy immunity axaiait further attacks iMta ao 
short a time io man is «till onoertain. tnit powibly Imi antipueu- 
motoxin is form^-d in man tbaa io rabbits In proportioo lo the 
pueumotoxtn. Som« attempts have already been m«de lo eon 
pDtienU euffvilng from pneumuoia with the help of antipneumo- 
toxio. but (urilier obscrratiooH are necetcury. 

— It is a well known fact that, with the same temiieralure by 
th» thermometer, one may have, at diffrrvnl timM, a very diller- 
ent feeliuK of heat and cold. This varies with the temperature of 
llic ^kiu. which it( chiefly influenced {aceordingto M. Vincent of 
(TccIh Obaervaiory, Belgium), by four things: air-temperature, 
air-moisture, aular rndiattuo, aivd for:« of wind. M. Vlnrf^nt re- 
cently made a large nnmher nt ohaervaiioru of shln-temperatiiie 
in the hall of the left hand, and coMtntcted a formula by meana 
of which the Akin-tcmperaiutt- may be apjmiximalely dMuced 
from (hose foor elemeDti. Ue experimeoled by keeping three of 
the four cooatant, while Ibe fourth nm varied, and a relatkn 
could thus l)e detenuinod between the latter and skm-ttttniierature. 
One fact which aoou appeared waH, tbnt tJie relativ« moi^turit ift 
the air has but little influence un skin-lempera(ure. It was also 
foiinit Ibfit f"ir fVfty 1" C ot the actitiometric difference (ezceea 
ot black bulb thetinonielvr) the ekin-te'uperature rt^esatmut O.S"; 
and with small wind -velocities, every metre per second depr««8M 
tbe Bkin-temfM-rature al>out 1 'i". In t<f<lit>g h'n formuLt M V|n- 
oent found, with cold or very cold »4>tt>4i(ion, con^ertibly greater 
differences between the calculated and obxerced values than in 
other cases. Thb he atirihuteg lo the gr.at cooling of the rela- 
tively small mass of tbe hand. Taking the cbe^k or eyelid th* 
rrsnltii were better, aaya Aoftire. 

— Last winter, in December and January, H. Chalx made A 

number of obaervations of the temperature of tlie air, the vnow, 
and the grourtd at Qemva, of which he lias sivea an aooount to 
tbe Pbynical Sjociely iherv. He ol««.-rve'l the olr at four dilTcnfnl 
hetgbta; granular, pulverulent, aud bedded snow, on the aurfawe 
and at different depths; and the eurface of bate ground aa well as 
of ground covered with annw, Th<-re wan no difference In mean 
tomperature belwepji the air at one and two metres; and very 
liltJe between the former and that on the mow surface. Theitur- 
tace of Ihe ground was 4. 865" O. warmer than the surface of tho 
jinow (0.13 m. above), through arrest of radiation. Bat lb« bare.. 
ground was not cooled ao much ab the ^oow surface, and fl tPH 
ooty S IM" coldttr than the snow-clad ground. This shows tbe 
frittorilic influence ot suuh- on climate. Air pawing over haze 
KTOund would have bven 3*" warmer thsu it it passed over the 
snow. The snow surface wn» sometiuieit warmer, Mimetime« 
colder than (he air one or two metnM above. In the dry wintera 
of Kberia and Sweden, the «now-»urface is generally (acoovdiog 
to Wot'lkof) much colder than the air. M. Chaix exi>lains the 
Tariaiiow obM'rved at Geneva by fluctuatiots in tbe relative hu- 
midity, involving alternate vaporlEatioo and coDden^ation at the 
Rnow-aurface. lo two-thirds uf tliv ca^«a, indeetl, abnormal cool* 
ingot Ihe snow correspunded with a low humtdity, and heating 
with a high humidity, and often formation of boar fro^t at tbe 
surface, according to .Va/urc. 

— An illuMtntion of Ibe height of bre<tkiiig w-aven in afforded hy 
the following paraicraph, which we take from tite San Francisco 
ChroHKie of Jan. 0: " Purtland. Jan. 5 Tl>e lighthouse tender 
•ManKsntta* reaetied Tillamook Rock Sunday for the tint time 
in lix weeka, and brought away ibe keeper, Qeorge Hunt, who 
has been on the nwk for four yeais. and has been transferred to 
the Cape Man Light. He eaya, in the slonu of Dec. 7 the waves 
swej,! clear over the hou?e, washing a-vuy their boat«, and tearing 
loose and carrying away the UndiuK plslturm uud tramway, which 
were bolted to the rock. On the Sfilh the waves were still biifher, 
and streams of water poured into the lantern throu^ Ibe veutfla- 
tors in the balloon lop of the dome, 1fi7 fei-t above the sea-level. 
The lighthouse was shaken to Ita foundation by tbe impact of aeoa 
against it. and the water found its way into tbe hotiae. Men were 
on duty all night to keep tlie lamp burning, and but for the wire 
erreen th« shulter« of lite lantern would htvc been demoliafaod." 



90 



SCIENCE. 



fOL. 



[o. 471 



SCIENCE: 



A HSIKLV SEWSPAPBK OF Alt TffX ARTS AND SCIENCES. 
puujsHXD vr 

N. D. C. H ODGES. 

874 Broapwav, New TORX. 



9oai»CMtTiO>i«.— L'oltml SlatmtuidCuiBila la.aOmyBBT. 

Qre>t Brltalk Mid Ewropi^ I.90«re»r. 

C•>l>)muIlI<^atl(lna■ill he irHis>n»^ tram anrquarlcr. Ahatnotaotw^if^nUfle 
pftp«n BT« aotlcltad. and <nw> bunilrml OQpdMi of tb* lamin ccaitalning auoh vll I 
IM ouU^d tli« author on roqwn id idTaacii. K0]eol«(l munworlMif wlU b« 
raluraad Ui tbe auUiun oulf wlwo Cbs mtulall* amuunt of po«l»it« accnio- 
pftBiM Lhf iBMiiMUTipt. Wbat«T«r U ini«nd«il fpr inaonion moat bn atittiaintJ- 
SMed bv tta« Dftne and kddniM of tho wriUr; not nrnrnnrllT Tor pDtilioalloii, 
' bul an a Knaraiitjt of jtouil (altli. Wa do dM bold muvBlvaa reapouslblv for 
%aj vl«w or oi>ltilan« axp ro w c J fa Uiw •MQiiDitnicaUona of oiir currp«t>oDd»Dia. 

&lt«ntloa I* oollcd lo tli« "WanU" column. All are lorllfol to uae It In 
■oUolllajc lurprinatiiia or aaakloic new positloaa. Tbn luuan and kddreaa of 
•n^llOMiU dioold tw ftren la tvlL ao tlwi an>«cra a-IU ro diruet to tlicm. Tlie 

KMbABnt " eolnma la Ukv'vtoe apitii. 

For AdTORUInfi Italoa apply to 8 wki F. Tatlob. *; lAfar^tt* Ploof. N«w 
V«rk. 



LATEST DETAILS OONOERNTNO THE GERMS OP 
INFLUENZA. 

Dr. R, Pteiffbr, OTerswr of the scienlific division of Ibe 

XastUuLe for iDfectioiis Di^ejiscs at Berlio, bos tlio credit of 

discovering, isolaliue, de^cribius;. nnd inoculftling tbegerou 

'-tbftt arc ibe cAuw of iiiflncDza. The folloniag results are 

' Iwscd upoo hU thorough iuvmtigaliou of ttnrty-oiie cases of 

influenza, in six of which autopsi<^ were made. 

1. In all cosps tlicro was ia the charsctcrisUc, jiurulcut, 
•brom-hiftl serretioii a detinil^ kind of bacillufi. Th««« rods 
weru slio^u in uitcoiuplicaleil cases nf inilucnza, in an abso- 
lutely pitK culture, au<l for Uie must part id UrRe numbers. 
Very frequently Ihey lay in the protoplasma of the ]ms- 
oelts. Where the |>alieiit has h««u subjecttoother brouchial 
troubles, one findu in Ibe ftpulum, in addition to the influenza 
bacilli, ulUi-i- micro- urKHnibtus. The bacilli can enter from 
the bronchi into the peri-bronchial tissue, even lo the surface 
of the pleura, where in purulent coats in two autopsies they 
wer« found in pure culture. 

^. These rods were found only in intiueuza. Numerous 
eoutrol-experitnents showed their absence in common bron- 
cbial catarrh, pneumonia, and pbiliiBis. 

3. The coodiUon of the bacilli raried with equal force in 
the course of ihe disease; flr«t with the i-rbaustion of the 
purulent bronchial »ecrelion the bacilli alao di»appeiirrd. 

4. Two years Af^a, at the (irst apitearunce of Ihe Lnfluenxa, 
I saw and photographed the same bacilli iu large nuuibera 
]n preparations of sputum from influenza patients. 

5. The iuUueuza bncdli appear as aaiall rods, of about the 
thickneNs of iiepttca^tnta bacilli in mice, hut one-half their 
Icugtb; frequently ibroe or four bacilli are found arranged 
one after the other like in a chain: it is ditflcnlt to stain 
them with the basic aniline dyes; one ohlaios better prepa- 
rations with Ziel't solution and with the bol methyline blue 
of Lofller. In this way one sees almost regularly that the 
end-poles of tbe bacilli stain more iolensirvly, no that forms 
arise whinh might be very easily mistaken for diplococci or 



streptococci. Tbe bacilli are uot stained by Gram's oolorincj 
matter: and in hanging dmpa they are immovable-. 

6. Tbeae bacilli can be oblaioed in pure culturea; in one 
and a half percent sugaragar Ibe coloni«« apiMtar the small- 
est. The continued culture in this nutrient medium is diffl-^ 
cult, and I have not been able to go bej-ond the second geo-H 
eratiou. 

7. Many experiments for transinission to apes, rabbits. 
guiDea-pigs, rats, pigeons, and mice were made. Positive 
results could be obtained only in apes and rabbits. Tb«^ 
other species of snimnli were refractory to the influenui. H 

8. These reaulls justify ibe conclusion that Ibe above de- ' 
scribed bacilli are tbe cause of iuHueuita. 

9. InfeclioD conics very probably from tbe germs of ibe 
disease iu the Hputuni; and therefore for preveution of con*^ 
tagion the sputum of influenea patients roust be made in-fl 
nocuouH. ' 

Dr. Kitasalo haa succeeded in eultiraliog tbe bacilli of 
inHueoza to the Bftb generation upon glycerine-agar. 

ARTRtnt HacDohald. 

Oeoirf elowii UedlcAl Scliool, WMblnsttni, D.a 



A SERIES OF ABNORMAL AILANTHCS LEAFLETS.] 

A STTRDT tmropel creeper (7>coma radieattti has en- 
twined itself about an ailanthus tree which stands in our 
yard, near the veronda. Together, they form fjuite a cbarm- 
jng bower during the sammer time, when the bright trum- 
pet flowei-s are so profusely intermingled with tbe dark greenj 
foliage of vine and tree. 

It was bore that I bad taken my chair one afternooo, 
enjoy an hour's undisturbed reading, My anltciputions ol 
quiet, however, were very soon iaterrupted, by a sudden 
gust of wind, which set the leaves of my book a-fluttering 
so. that I was obliged to close it. Rut " it is an ill wind 
that blows nobody trood," I said to myself, as I stoupvd to 
pick up 9orac leaflets which came fluttering down from tbCj 
ai Ian thus tre«. 

Although it was only June, these leafleti* were of 
yellow color, like the tints of early autumn. But what at- 
tracted my allenlion especially wait their variation from thf 
typicul form. Every leaflet had a peculiar notch, lobe, 
to|>-»>ided outline which would cause it to be olassod atnonf 
monstrosities, or abnormal leares. These nbaonnal speci" 
mvuH were more to me, however, than mere " freaks of na- 
ture." They were tbe tablets on which their own history 
was inscribed. 

If wo take one of the largo ailanthus leaves, with iu long 
racbis and numeroua leaflets, we am led to inquire into the 
manner of its numerical increase of leaflets. At a*cursory 
glance ul the leaves we And that although tbe vast majority 
are odd-pinnate, there are many which we are scarcely jus- 
tiO*^! in calling odd. nor yet should we denominate them 
even pinnate. That is, transition stages between odd and 
even pinnate quite commonly uix^ur, and I would call these * 
"abnormal leaves " traositton stages. They are Ihe keys 
which will unlock for ns the inystery of their development. 
Let us see if such is uol the case: let us make use of these 
keys and thereby leant whether such is not tbe verdict ren- 
dered by the leaves Iheinselves. We will put our queries to 
the terminal leaflets, l>ecause they seem to be the centre of 
evolutionary activity in nearly all pinnate leaves. m^ 

We have quite an advanced transition stage in Fig. 1 o^B 
our series; it has quite a oonsptcuous projection beyond the 
typical outline on tbe left side; a promiueut vein ia seen ex- 
tending to the apex of thisabDorma] projection, from whicls] 



'EBRUAKY l«, 1892. 



SCIENCE. 



9« 



on tbe low«r side, lead «nall«r. well ouu-keU vcios. There 
b ftUo a very slight point ou the opposite flide of tho leaflet, 
the venatioo liere beiog similar to that just described 
What, then, doet this abDormsl leatlet mean t Can vre not 
■ee that nature baa dwcreed that there shall be au increase in 
the mituber of leaflets i And that »h« is about to "cut off" 
new leaflets from each side of this termiual leaflet i 

fig. 2 conBrms ua in this suppoeitinn, and furnisheA an 
objeotive demonstrntian of a more advanced transition atage. 
Tbe siauMea hare deepened, aud the two lobes bid fair to be- 
come separate individual leaflets. We feel secure in mafaiof 
thb atatemeat because Fii;. 3 stands ready to make irood our 
word with a oetrly-added leatlet on one side and another on 
jthc other side, well under way. Tbe racbisi, meanwhile, has 
Jonfsted lo cDflke room for tbe new-comer Fig. 4 illns- 

itM a repetition of this process of division, adding empha- 
sis to our cxplaaatioQ of these "abnormal leave«." Nature 
ia croing right on, bent upon working out her couceptionft to 
the fullest extent. 

Noft. 8, 6, and 7 are certainly extremists. Thoy may. 

Brbaps, be vonipated with the imptiUive, ramjiant reformers 

the social world, who are imbuml with a slrougor pro- 

E^reasive trapalse than will iiHrmonize with existing coodi- 

lioDs; whose wishes to sarmonot all obstacles and »our aloft 

lead judgment and reason astray. The time is not ripe for 




LSAFt-m FROM ns An.*NTKVa TKBtl. 

luch prodigious strides, and much effort is therefore expended 
little purpose. A few Kuch leaders will occasiooBlIy be 
found among ptant^. forcruuners. as it were, of future at- 
tainment, and here we have k'sHels which ns yet have out 
even attainted tn an individuality of their owo, taking upon 
themselves tbe work which legitimately belongs to tbe senior 
members of the family; if we may designate a leaf as a tittle 
family, and the leaflets thereof tho indiridual members. No. 
is such a senior member; that is, instead of a terminal 
leaflekit is from the base of the leaf. It is better able to 
take up UiQ burden of secondary division than the mere baby 
leaflets that have not yet learned to take care of themsBlTes. 
No. 8, however, may also be claasod with llie reformers, but 
with that mure rea.-iooahle class who are not entirely l>eyoud 
,thc ken of uormal visioa. 

Would we not, therefore, be led to draw this conclusion 

from what we have said (aud, I trust, demonstrated), that 

;>innate leaves are developed by a division of the terminal 

iflet: the bi-pinnate leaf is uvolved from the pinnate by 

[the divisioo of tbe lealletH. normally beginning in the lower 

for basal leadetsl That this Is the law of division which holds 

lamODg the majority of pinnate leaves is quite comniotily 

fdemonstratod and verified by the leaves of various plants. 

Tbe leaves of the trum|>et cr<;v|>er furuiHh us i^xxi illuRtra 

Uons of these various stages of transition as the ailanthus 

learea. 



There is but a slight point ou the lower or outer portion 
of the typii-al baaal leaflet of the ailanlhns; this point is 
crowned with a small glaud : here aeems Lo be the starting^ 
point of the new departure, which, according to the predto-. 
ttou of No. 8, wilt, in the course of time, result in the evolu>i 
tioD of a hi pinnate ailanthus leaf. This secondary divisioo, . 
as we have chosen lo call the division of the lower leaflAl^ la,'] 
illnstrated abundantly by the common elder {Sambwnu* 
oanodensu). So conspicuous, indeed, are Ibe varialkins tn 
the elder that it deserves a chapter un its owo progresdre 
etfortn; it iseems especially able to reAjtond to favorable con- 
ditions. Hbs. W. a. Kellkbhan. 

Coluabua, Obtft 

SUGGESTIONS AS TO TEACHING BOTANY Hi 
HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The teaching of botany in our colleges and higher schools 
durinii the last ttventy-flve years has had the unfortunatftl 
effect of bringing the science into dtsrcpute, and of engen- 
dering in the minds of many who — as tbi^y would say — 
" took '' it (like a dose of medicine), a thorough distaste for 
it. It is only within ten years that any radical change has 
taken place in the teaching ideals, and even to-day in many 
of tbe best institutions of learning, conserratisoi forMs in- 
strucliou into the old channels. The lower schools haw 
travelled the sam<^ line, partly because they knew no better 
way. and partly because they were meeting tbe demands of 
the higher ^hools to tbe matter of preparation. 

The radical defect of the older teaching lay in the follurej 
to study the plants themAelves; in the failnrf lo treat (hem as 
living organisms: and in the futlun> to take into aocouot tbe 
existence of other plants than the flowerinir ones. The eaat^ 
with which plants could be collected and preserved by dryii 
early led t') I he study of their pxternal characters with a viewi 
to thrtr ctafisiQcution alone. From tbe earliest times, tfaeny 
fore, ■Imosl to the present day, classiRcaliou has been looked 
upon HB tbe most important pnrliiin of thn science of botany. 
Now. however, that ihr? oconomic i mjiurUince of the study of' 
the jihyitioUagy of l>ealthy and di^eAsed plarit^ and of the 
causes of disease is conting lo be moi-e generally appreciated, 
it is liieh time that both in primary and secoudary schools 
thfwe portions of the science be taught which have a vital 
and vitalizintf interest. 

What Text-Book Shall We Use ? 

Tbe Brvt question liiat is usually asked is. " What text- 
bookshalt we oset'* Tt is a ditHcult question to answer, ani, 
probably the best reply is, " Wliatever text-book tbe teadier 
can use best." There is no book known lo me which pre- 
sents tbe sabject in just tbe way that 1 consider most impor- 
tant. Probably the one of moat genemi adaptability is 
" Gray's Lessons in Botany.'' If Ibo teacher is capable oti 
using them, either Bessey's " Essentials of Botany " or Camj^fl 
bell's "QlcucUUvI !ilU? Sjs»te^ n tt tic 'B otany " may be recom- 
mended. Wood's " Lesvona in Botany," revised, is unflt for 
use on account of the numerous and misleailing blunders 
which it contains. There should be in tlie sohixil Itbrnry, 
for reference. Gray's "Structural and Systematic Botany," 
Goodale's ■ Physiological Botany." Beasey's " BoUny," aod 
QoebeTs ■OotlioM.of ClMBiflg atiap." Miss Newell's "Out» 
line Lessons in Botany" will be found sugKe^tive to 
teaclier who knows nothing of the method of study bo{ 
herein. 

The suggestions here made are based on tbe supposition 



92 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou XIX. No H7I 



tfaat the wbeme oF studies proposed by the State superioten- 
dent is accepted, io which two terms are assigned to botany, 
b^iDDJog ia the winter term. It ia also presupposed that 
the School Board will be willing to supply the pupils with a 
proper room and a small amount of apparatus. I consider 
the providing of these quite as indispensable for tbe study of 
botany as furnishing a recitation room for matbemalics with 
a blackboard and its acceesoriee. 

The room should be furnished with a sufficient number of 



cost should not exceed (1.75 If prefeired. they may be pro- 
cured of Hr. L. S. Cheney, Uadison, Wis., at tl.7S for 
single stands, with a discount of ten per cent on orders for 
ten or more. 

A deep individual butter dish is necessarj for examining 
specimens in water. Each student should have a pair of 
needles (No. 6, "sharps^') with the eye-end driven into soft 
pine handles. This can be done by holding the needle with 
a pair of pliers and forcing it in. The pupil should be re- 







_L 



10 mch(.4. 

DIBSKCTUfO inCBOSCOFK. 

Tbe bod; Is > solid block of clear plD«, cut as Bhown la A, front view ; B, end Tiew ; 
C medUn orou aeotlon ; D, top view. U, lens bolder, which elldei. Id brass tube driven 
Into a bole In block (sec. C.>; »t, stage, a movable glass plate ; m, ralrror, fastened with 
■mall screws or tacks. 



common kitchen tables (those with unfinished tops are best), 
at which two students can work comfortably, and even four 
if crowded. The more windows the better. 

The apparatus required is simple. Simple lenses with some 
device for supporting them while the hands are used in dis- 
secting are needed The Bgures annexed show a most effec- 
tive and low-priced dissecting stand which is in use in the 
University of Wisconsin and is to be preferred to more ex- 
pensive ones. The block can be made by a carpenter for a 
few cents; the plain and mirror glass can l>e procured at the 
glauer's; the lenses and leus holders can be procured from 
the Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N.Y. The total 



quired to provide himself with a sharp bladed pen-knife, a 
rarer article than might be supposed. 

How to Get Material. 
I should begin with a study of the flowering plants. There 
will be room for tbe exercise of some ingenuity in getting 
pupils to provide proper material for study by raising .wme 
and collecting some. Lima beans, sunflowers, and corn can 
be grown in pots or boxes; window gardens, greenhouses, 
and provision stores can be levied on until tbe spring opens. 
But it is belter to have material collected in the summer and 
preserved in alcohol. Such material should be studied in 
water to prevent drying and to remove brittleness. 



February 12, 189a.] 



SCIENCE. 



93 



Kow to Begin. 

II matten little frhat part w selectwl for a bcgiQatng*. As 
)e study comnieaces in winter, the ihoots of tre««. two or 
OKirt? feet Iod^, may be used. Select a tree in which ihe 
•can left by tbe fall of the follRge, leaves, aod bud scales of 
iht: preceding seaflon arc quite conspicuous, such as the cot- 
tuuwoixl. poplar, bickor;. or horse cliestaui. Bet the elu- 
iletit« At work to essininf^ th«M l>efore tbcy hurv- Iwen as- 
sifcned any study in the book. Have ihetn exuniine all ihe 
marking they can find; compare the buds; 8ludy tbe rela- 
tirm between the bnda sod the srars; determine the extent of 
tbe precediDE seasoa's gi^wth and of the season before that. 
When as mueb of the e\t4'rna1 anatomy has been secb as 
possible, let them carefully dissect tbe buds, studying tbe 
nature and shape of tlie scales; the character of their sur- 
faces, wfaelher hairy or resinous; the young foliRga leaves 
for the oext season; tbe younjr Kleni, comparing thv Rhoot 
for the coming seaana with last seajion's ifrowth, noting 
differences and resemblances. Tliis dissectiou should be 
made partly by tearing off. the parts, partly by cutting thin 
slices cnnswiise and lenglhwise with tbe knife. 

WTien the students have twPD everyttiJDg that ihey think 
there is to be seen, let them write a description of what ihey 
have observed. They should be asked to make Ibis descrip- 
tion as terse as possible, using their own language and not 
resorting to the book for terms. 

The leacher should llirn examine these ilescriptiooa, Id 
which be will doubtless find much omitted. I should then 
make the study of the same &ho.')t the subject of the next 
class exercise, in which 1 should poiut out each feature that 
I wished examined, giving AufRciont lime for the insjtection 
of each port. I should nl^j eiid^avor to show that for ibe 
circumlocutions in their descriptionii there are often single 
words (technical terriis). The pupils will thus come to know 
somelhiDK of the method of accurate and thorough observa- 
lifMi. aud will discover that technical terms are not bard 
words iDveuted for Ibeir discomliture, but short ways of ex- 
pressing the ideas gained. 

At Lbe cliwG of this exercise I should call upon eacli pupil 
^draw carefully a portion of the «hoot showing as mauy of 
le facts observed as possible. Drawings should also lie made 

t^e diiowoted parts. Here the teacher will be inel by the 
nfajertinn on the part of the pupils that they raunot Hraw; 
but 88 that is only another way of sayine that they cannot see 
accurately, he will have to insist on theirdoing the best Ihey 
can, with tbe assurance that as power of accurate observs' 
tiofi increases tbe accuracy of the drawings will incri-ase in 
the same ratio. He should be able to lead here as at other 
difficult places. Happy he if he be not a blind leader of the 
blind. 

After studying eeveral other shoots in the mime way. 1 
should asfeign the lesson io tbe text on buds and branching. 

The points specially emphasized here are: 1. Study of tbe 
plants themselves. 2. Drawing and describing observations. 
3, Afterwards the uludy of the text book. 4. Bupplenieuury 
reading, particularly as to the function of tbe parts studied. 

Topics for Further Study, 

Followint; tliis method with each organ, the following 
topics are suggested : 

Underground at fm$ : potato (tubsr); onion (bulb); cy- 
clamen nr Indian turnip (cormi, 

Strttcture of sterna: cut thin xlicesof both herhaceuusand 
woody stems and exumine in wiiter. Bean, sunflower, gera- 
nium, hyacinth, and twigs of forest trees may be used. 



Leaves : structure of blade and petiole: forms of stipules; 
character of venation, particularly with reference to function 
of veins. Reference readings on the function of foliage 
leaves are particularly important. Study of the unfolding 
leaves in spring is specially desirable. 

/^/oHVrs: parts: forms; flower clusters, etc, I need eoLer 
on no details as to these parts, since Ibey are trealeil so fully 
and haveatways^'eceived overmuch attention because of their 
importance to clasiiiticatiun. 

Let it be remembered in llie study of all these topics that 
it is not a memorising of the technical terms of deacrip- 
live botany that ts wanted, but a study of structure of the 
pans with reference to function. Insist on tbe pupil con- 
stantly sekiaghimsetr. *' What is this fort" Astolechnical 
terms; if they are not acquired as a convenience thej- would 
better not be sccinired at all. 

Some lime should be taken before the close of the year to 
study tlie lower plants. It is an excellent plan in IhcTtpring 
lo orgnniie "forays,"on which pupilscan t-ollecl every form 
of plant they can lay their hands on, ferns, toadstools, 
lichens, parasitic fuagi, algne. elc. Preserve these' ami have 
them studied. Directions for such slndy can be found in 
Arthur. Barnes, and Coulters '"Phint Dissection" (Henry 
Holt & Co.); Bower's "Practical Botany" (Mueniillhu & 
Cu.): Bcs&ey's " Essentials of Botany " (Holt); Csmpbeirs 
"Stractural and Syslemalic Botany" (Gion & Co.). 

Questions will be freely answered regarding any matters 
not elucidated above, and further nuKjie^'ions will be made 
if demred. I should be glad lobeof asaistdnce to teachers in 
improving tlie work in botany. 

CHjUtLBH BKID BaRNKS, 
Professor of Botany in the University of Wisconsin. 



A NEUROEPITHELIOMA OF TUE RETINA.* 

Tbe pOH-^ibJIitv of the rvpntductl^n of the moM highly organ- 
izeO structure "f tbe human biidy lias lunt; been •loabled and even 
dented, Until ihe puMicaiifin of an in^Liince by ProfcMior KIoIm 
of Zurich, in whii-)i the KaUKlionlc cells ol Ittc central nervous 
syslem were found repeated tn n Inmor formation, this wa* not 
ndmitieil to be poS'^ihle. Rven now not a few comitetent patho- 
logical bislologiitf are not convinced of it« occurrence. An in* 
lereslinf; and iuiportant alditloi) to this aubjecTl is that of Dr. 
Flexuer. In tbts instance llie rod aod cone layer audthevxbamal 
nuHear layer o( tlie rvlinii ivere reprodored in a tumor. 

The vw« n»s that of a chiU] foor montht old. One eye was 
affecled and removvd, and then the remaininn eye became the 
sent ut a disease prejuiiaably of like nature. But nothing waa 
r«rrmilte<l to be done foe ihe second eye. Several years befon 
Ibis child wa* bom another child in the sane family, this one sis 
months old, died In cousequeDoe of ao eye tumor wbli-h relumed. 
Two yeurs after tbe eaM> jui>l related sautlier child of Ibe same 
parents, this one four monlhs old, liad a tDmnr of the eye wbtoh 
spreari tu the hratn, sI.-ot n^ulLini; in death. The ooe which is 
reported makes, therefore, the third in.«taoce of eye tumor in Ibis 
family. There «a^ no history of pye tnmor fn the Inmirdiate 
8nc<»8tois of the chililrrn. 

Th-^ vtlTi^ius rhamher of the eye was (ille<l almmt entirely with 
the ijrowth. Tde laller was attached to Ihe retina IhrouRbMit a 
couiiJiTnlile |Kirt of it* extent, and »*as «een tooriginateat n (x/int 
oC niiero»co|>ical sise Mtuated in tbe exteroal noclrar Inyer. The 
cells which mii<)« up the tumor roa-J<<te<t of two |triu'.-i|Ml kinds. 

■ Rtarj loMrbsr ■boat I Imtc! Mm« ImmIl wUb dU««doii> fur pnsMrvlBg 
plMtfi. Tba foil iwlar M« ••kllnUa: BAUer* 'CoUCCIor'a ll*ti4-l>wk''«l1«tM, 
SslMO, n*m.r, P»uhKUcw*S ■* BOtaulco] i:(SI(Cluf'« Oulda" I ll«uo>i(. SIudUcbIk 
KBOwluiB>B'*Dlr«cUoiwlorPnMr>1iisB«o»iitaod PMaU Plaxib'M-an I). nnU 
)«Ua W, tL S. NaUcnul Mua6<un). 

•"A PacnUar OUoma (!f«nr>«t>li]ieliomk;) ot tn* RMhia.'' br BIbmni 
n^xnsr, M.D., taUovIn twiSoloRr- Vrom Uts PaUialugtoal Laboratnrr of a* 
JbluM llopklDs UBiTMsltjr sod UiMpliaL Tbe Jokua notikin* Sotptut 
Buii«ti<\ No. la, ISSI. 



94 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 4" 



how preMnt ia predommitiDg number are probablr not tb« bd- 
' celK but are dMcribed aa neb (or the wke of brevity. Thej 
preseal the Appearaius of abarply 9laiD«d nuclei, with flconty, 
ort«D indiMinct, even appttreuilj absent, cell bodiee, and in favor- 
able plaoM their ibre-like pro cw »B» can aom^timts be traced a short 
.distance from the cell bodied. These hodiwKofti-ti HpiM-nr ha round 
I cells, and they are spoken of as such in thiB^rtk-K', but lbe,v have 
M more complicated stmclare than this de«ii;n3tion would imply. 
Tbo next uiwt Important cells ar« larger than th? roui>d c«llii. but 
tlii-ir nuclei arviKPt loTKer than tlioiK' of the rcfbod cells, Tbene 
cells uci' usually of a columnar c<r rod shape, but sometiraw they 
appear to be conical. Thw nuclvt iiivariubly owopy tlie tiroader 
ends of the t^elh, and each ncll preseilts opposite tu ibt< nucleus au 
ornto leroainal procmt. Finally, from the extremity of Ihc cella 
can sumetimM l>e i^md a rtalk-lifee prolonf^ation which paaaea down 
btrtween the round c*ll« and probably becomes nnited with them. 
The dUponitioa of the variouM oelli* of the Uimor is Important. 
Thecoluoinar celb arrange tht-mwlvea in the form of cii'clt'iinr 
r^wKUrR, and thin in accoiupliab^d through the juxtaposition of tbP 
side* nf tht> »-ll bo«lirtt, the acute caiib of the ctjla pointing Lowards 
the renlre of the circle, while th** peripl»fry ia formed by the 
bruad eude of the cell* conUiiiinjj; tlit; nucl*-i. Tlie hitter vary in 
eiae, depeudiUR on the number of cells cono<*rne<I iii thfir forma- 
tion, and where the acute eud9 of the cells urti in oppusition, and 
JuBt before (heir i^rmfnatloD, a very tine, althouRh distinct, toniw 
iiraooils ring ia formed, and projecting beyoad this ring tbedelicat« 
ijirOoae OCB of the cells forming their acute ends may beobeetved. 
The round celU above dc^cribMl surround tbo roaettes. Tbsae 
ttimor cells are in many ways idt^nticol in appearance with the 
external noclei and rod and cone layer at tbe retina, aa ths author 

WlKtWS. 

'* If morphologically it i» im|M>isil>!e to distinguish 1>etn-o^n the 
round cM*tU of tb«> tumor and thf cvIIh of tbe t^xternal nuclear layer 
of the retina, bo d" w>' coruidpr that in each of the numentus ro- 
•ettes can be seen the rod and cone layer of the rvtina rvproilured 
in miaiaiure. For it in possible to Ke in the merabntnouH ring 
tbe external liuiiling mcuibrauc of the rellua, l^yond it, project- 
ing into the lumen uf the nwtlvs. tbe delicate prooeescs of proto- 
plasm corresponding tu tbe rmls and eoiiei!, and opposite lu thn-e 
the nudei to wbicb these proceasea ore united And then Hur- 
rnunding these nuclei, which form u park of the external nuclear 
layer, aa it were, art^ the numerous round cellH which are inditt- 
[ lingoivbahie from the cells of thn external nurlmr layer. It ts not 
to ba considered that tn ex*vry rosette Ihc Dialiin.'<L rod nod cone 
layer of tbe retina ia n-produeed' While thi« is the caw in aome 
□r Ibeoi, othcni bhow a •itni'^tuie sugRL-otiDg the c-mbryonic type. 
Reiic^thiH tumor ia regarded aaoneiu which the two moat external 
layL'ra of the retinii b»ve bfeii Tf prnducHl." 

tUv vit-Mtiil part of th*) luLper ih devuted to a dii«-u9ii>ian of appli- 
cabiliiy of the term "gliomn" and Ihu »ugKe9>tion of the name 
" neuro-epitbeliouia." and then with a consideration of the iju«»- 
tioD uf tbe emt>ryonic origin of tumon in general. 



A SEEDLING BLACKBERRY PLANT. 

When poor little " Jo^' of Bteakfaou&e was told to " move 
OD," he did not apprectale the fact that everything in nature 
is impelled by irresiiilable forces to " move on " lo a Uigber 
plane of existence, or siitfer tht only alterniiiive, extinciion. 
Plants and animal!! must be able to respond to changed con- 
ditions. rauM adapt tlieuiaelves lo their ever chaugiug en- 
Tiroument by various moiliUcatiooB. 

Graut Allen has written nnme exceediogly intereatiug 
chapters on the genealogy of certain plants. Nature seems 
to have dropped a uiogio key into his bauds, which adtutls 
bim directly into ber presence, and he relates witli charming 
grace what aUc imparts to him. Altboutrb it requires a 
akilled expert to " [)L<»ect a Daisy," any one who will, may 
read the fa&cioatiui; slury of evululiou nliicli ib writleu oo 
th» leaves of many plants. 



Now, here is a little seedling blackberry plant, which we 
will take fur our text. Tou will notice at tbe merest i^lAun 
tliat the leaves are quite dissimilar. The one nearest tbe | 
base being aimply n plain, ovate leaf, with au irre^larir 
s«rrale<] margin. I wish you to notice particularly a certain 
peculiarity in the venation of this leaf. vix.. that the first 
pair of veins near its base are quite promiuenl; that, leadinf -■ 
from ibeie veins on tbe lower side, are also well marked 
veiiia; while on the upper side tbere are none, or very incon- 
spicuous ones. There does not seem to be anything striking 
or of especial iulore>;t in these facts, but, like the " mape 
pear," which the arti:«t, with a few iitrokeA, converta into a 
face, tliis peculiarity becomes gradually enipliasJzed, until 
later on in the series it may lie called a characteristic. 

The second leaf differs aamewbat from Ibc lirst one, 
outline is more irregular. If, however, we read just a lit 
between the lines, we will see thai it really baa taken quite' 
astride in advance; a little mure c^ireful examination will 
reveal, what perhaps escaped our notice at first, that tbe 
difference between these two leaves does aot constat wboUyj 
in difference of outline. Ajpin, it will be obserteJ, l\\ 



'^rZ 



^ 



.^- 



A HKiLiKa aLAoaaaaiiT itjuiT. 

pair of veins near tbe base of the leaf are pn>minent, tb« , 
smaller veins Icadiug from them being also well-marked, oqH 
tbe lower side only. ^1 

With a little imagination, we can perceive that Nature is 
busy at work with (his '* mn^ic leaf." and has alre^y con- 
ceived the idea of evolving from it the trifoliate leaf. With 
this idea in mind, we can readily iiuderstund the significanc* 
of the prominent veins, to wbiob your atLcDlioQ has alreadj. 
been called. We may consider them tbe frame-work of tb^ 
undeveloped leallcls. A notch is quite pUiuly aoen on eocb^ 
side of this secoud leaf, which nature evideutly wishes 
continue and deepen uoLil a new leaflet is given o(F on eithef 
side. As if to render Ihia i«sull loorf easily accomplished, 
she has omitted the frame-work in the portion of tbe 1( 
where division is tu take place. As proof that our tmaginK*! 
ttnn has not led us astray in our prediction ns to oature'sl 
plan, we have leaf No. S of our seedling. This leuf has 
actually given off a leaflet on one .Vide, and is evidently hu8> 
bonding its forceti fur the elaboration of another on the oppo- 
site side, the outline of which is already suggested by the 
characteristic veouliuii on the lower or outer portion, We 
may almost say that half the leaflet is even now evolved. 



iRUARv fa, 1893.^ 



95 



Nature had these little leaflets in miad \oog before Bbe 
brouKht thpni forth, as Hbown bj the rein* 00 tlie flr«t leaf 
of our little seedling. 

. But let us retura to the perfect leaflet, whicli has been 
irlven off and now eojoys tbe responsibility of indi vidua] ity. 
Obeerrin^ it carefully, we dixcover Ifaal nature bas planned 
ft repetition of tbc process of division. Leaf No. 4 denion- 
etratee the t»rogre»s of this conception. The new leaflet can 
be readily perceived, thoufch ihey yet live willi the mother 
leaflets, if w« may so detiguate the latter, which coolioue to 
ehilMrate uonriHhment for tbeir offspring until tliey no longer 
need direct parental caro. 

lo leaf No, t>. n«tur« has almost reached the highest type 
of blackberry leaf of the present. In it, the flftb Iceflel is 
about lo bill adieu to its ntotber-leaflet; it staodii on the 
ihreahDld of individual exittlence; ttmrn it will reacli maturity 
and have a petiole all lUi own. Tlie truth of Mm assertion 
\% demon i«t rated by lenf No. f>. whicli repreaenta a normal 
blackberry leaf, with Ave fully developed leaflets. 

Nature never does nnything in a hnrry. Whether it look 
•gcs or motti lo evolve the Qve leaflets from the single leaf 
we do not koon-. but he nho runs — through a blackberry 
patch — may read on every plant or busb some chapter of 
the story of evolution she baa written on the leaves. The 
single leaflet 'vill not be met with so commonly, but various 
blages uf tmusition, from three lo Ave leaflets may be found 
on any blackberry plant 

Ag&aeiz ioantcd Ibat the laws of geological successioa aud 
embryonic development are the ftame, that embryology, or 
the development of the individual, is an epitoaie of the de- 
velopment of the entire scries. In the le-aves of the »eedliog 
blackberry we have, as it were, an epitome of the evolution 
of the blackberry leaf from the ancestral form to the present 
type. 

The social world is sometimes disturbed aod startled by 
th« appearance of a reformer, who casts from him supvrsti- 
liouSt dogmas, old beliefs, and mounts to a bigber mental 
plane. So, too, there are reformers among plantn; forinalonce, 
a blackberry leaf of six or seven leaflets is sometimes found ; 
it is true such leaves are conside^ mODStrosities, or Abnor- 
mal specimens. 

It we again permit ourselves to read between tlie lines, 
will we not be able to aee in these abnormal leaves that na- 
ture is at work now as in tbe past i Favorable conditions 
and hereditary influence are now, as formerly, the tools she 
fumislies her favorites for working out the'r evolution. 

Tbe trifoliate leaf existed in embryo, as it were, 10 our 

icestral seedling leaf. Katuro said, "Hove on!" When 
le whole brotlierhfxxl had reached the dignity of the perfect 
trifoliate leaf, she bade them still "move on I" All have 
□ot yet attained tu the degree of progress reprosvnled by tbe 
Ave leaflets. But nature will continue to "move on," and 
the occasional rvverftiuus and rvformeni are the sign-boards 
which indicate to us the road she bas taken. 

Mrs. W. a. Kellkrhan. 

jCoiiuDbua, OUo. 

NOTES ON THE FOOD OF THE BOX TORTOISE. 

Skvcbal years ago. walking one morning in a wood in 
PeuDsylvaaia, I surprised a wood turtle or box tortoii^e eat- 
ing bis breakfast. The season hud been rainy, and many 
varieties of large fungus bad attained a prodigal growth. 
The woods were full of what are popularly called toadstools; 

kuy of tbcm were of the diameter of a lea plate, aod stood 
Ive or six inches high. As I walked through the wood I 



observed that many of these fungi bad been gnawed off 
evenly, as if cut by a knife, leaving only the central pillar 
intact. What had done thist I soon discovered, for moving 
noiselessly over tbe moaay earth, I came to a little opening, 
where grew one of tbe finest of these toadstools, and there 
was a wood turtle taking bis breakfast, 

Tbe animal had already made one or two rounds of his 
plate, and was eating with praiseworthy deliberation. He 
would bile off a mouthful of toadstool, chew it carefully 
until be had estracled all the juice, Lbeu open his mouth and 
drop out tbe cbewetl Hbre. and take a fresh mouthful, biting 
not inward toward the stem, but breaking off the morsel 
next benide that which it« had just ealen. U« paced round 
and round the fungus as he took bis bitra. eating his plate like 
^nea* and the other Tnijans. and as the fungus decreaned in 
regular circlrs the circle of chewed fragments increased. In 
three quarters of an hour he had eaten all the disk of Ibe 
fungus to the stem pari, and then he walked slowly ofl* to 
look for another. 

1 found the crumbs that had fallen from bis vanished 
table quite dry, nolbiug nutritious being left in Ibcni. Why 
he rejected Ibe ceotml part of tbe fungus aod tbe stem [ 
coatd not imagine, but he left it iu every inst&nee. If he 
came upon a decayed or wormy portion of tbe toadstool be 
did not "bite round it," but abandoned it attoc«Ul«r Uid 
went for a fresh one. 

T.^M summer 1 took home with me a box tortoise to ex- 
periment on feeding it. He ate flies and other iusecia from 
my fingers at once, showing no signs of fear; he ale bread 
and milk with evident relish. I put a blsckberry in his 
open moulb and be closed upon it. but at oni^e. <vith every 
appearance of deep disgust, stretched bis mouth wide open, 
and, taking bis right front paiv liand-wiae, wiped all tbe 
berry fn^m his mouth. He repealed this performance many 
limes, both with blackberries and blueberries, always ariag 
bin Hgbt paw to cleanae his niuutb. 

J. UoNais Wriobt. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

(»M all ra»t» rt^^ir^ tu yrvvf of ^ttod faith. 

Onrr^uMf in odmiKM, one fiutKtrea r^yfriM of Iks nNMA#r tonUlntttg hit 
communieotion mllt^/igmUlu^/rt* loanneorrtwotuUnt. 

"f thrJonmaL 

Hypaotism among the Lowet Animals. 

Tll£ power allribut^l tu ihv snake und felinv families, of 
"cbarmins" their rktims, civemsto me psrc dispute. Is it not 
mere); a foros of hypnotism? Ltvinis^ion letls us tbat when at 
one time seised by a tiger, he fell neiiher terror nor p^o. all bis 
MUses seemed to bu benumbed. Bnte^ in hiti " Nnluiallst on the 
Amasow," sutea that onu day in Lbe woods a small pel dof[ flaw 
al a large rattlesnake. The snake fixed Ila eyes on tha dog. ereoted 
its tail, and shook iLi ratths; it seemed in no haste to scite tbe 
dog, but as if wailing to put the dog into a more snitable condi- 
tioii for Ixi-iiig *«iie<l. A* (u tlie dog, JL neither continued Ibe at- 
(•ck nor r^r«il«d, could not ur woiitil not move when c«lled. and 
WBs with ililliculty dragKeil nway by ilo inuiat^r. 

1 bave se^n one caoe nf a «inke rbarntin)^ a bird, but I bad a 
better apportunily to etudy n cat cbarmiog a bint, aod probably 
tbe process I* inuob alike in txKh. 

Thu cat placed ilselt on the outside «in of my window, near to 
a pine tree. A binl presently lit 00 tbe pine tree, no doubt not 
oteetving the cat. The cat fixed its uttention on Lbc bird. Tbe 
cat's eyes were widely opened, and eboue with a peculiar brlgbt- 
nesa: ita head was raised and intent, tbe fur uo fie neck and abuut 
Its face slowly stood op, as If electrified. Except for this rising 
of tbe fur, and a certain intensllv of life in the whole attitude of 



96 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XIX. No. 471 



tbe t>eft8t, it was aa still as ir cat frutn stine. 'Hi? bini quivered, 
Ircujbied, looked Bxedly at Ibe cat. on') tinally. frith a f«clile 
(ttiik« of lliv win^, Telt towards tbe cat, which bounded to teiw 
iL 

A lady u>lls me thai e\w ' dee« not believv that catD can ctiann 
birds, becauae tthu bua eetni « t-si uy to oliurm u pairot, and iIil> 
bird, greatly alarmed, woldiid loudlv." Tbb proves nothiuK, Hie 
parrot in general, or, more probaUly. thai partkular parrot, did 
DOt prove f{ooil ouhjpct for the mfsmeric (mtcfir. I liave seen 
prapte wbo cannot be hypnoliie*); the; rcBPnt the pffotl, and ner- 
voua action becomes Incon^ifled. J. Ml-N.ur Wriuut. 



AMONQ THE PUBLISHERS. 

The W. J. Johnson Co., limited, have ready "Tbe Electric 
Railn-ay iu Tln-ory and Practice." a complete treatise on the con- 
atrudJon and op»niliou uf I'leclric rttllwaj^, by O. T. ( roab; and 
Dr. Louis Bell, fully tllumroivd uud wholly prartii-fil. 

— Henrj- Holt & Co. will sliortty puhlish a IranBlatinii of 
'• CJeschichte flcr Philosophic," by Dr. W. Wlndelnarnl. profeMtor 
ia tbe University of Stnusburg. 

— IliumaA N«Imo'i Soim have ready an ealirely new athis bj 
J. U. Bartholomew, t^titlvil " The GrapluL- Atla'i and C)azftte«r of 
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plans of cities, etc., all revised to present dat«-, and n (ptwtffr of 
nearly 33,000 places and results of new census. Tbroughonl the 



allan the c^untrlee or ibc «' rid Im'f bi>en Ireatwl with fulne-ss ioJ 
proportion to their con)men.-t>jl iui|xirtam*(- and intrrpttt. In fh«i 
United ^tainwciiun u separate mop is given of «di of tbr Statn 
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Ifr a marvel of eompactni^aa and practicability, 

— TIte mo6l iiniHkrtHnl wnrk on the general study of Ungnblic 
science that ban Hp|)e»nKl in 1801 is thai of Profewor Ocorg vtm 
derOnlielvnlx, "OteSprachwiBsenechaft. ihrv Aufgnbeo, Methodes 
uod btKherigen ErRebainw," Leipsig (Wcigtil, publisher), pp. xx. 
and 303. The wide-resoblng and comprvbensive scope of this 
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tlu) aulLtjr fuIfilM what he promises. Through hfs grf'flt practical 
experience the aucbor, well Imown as a oonnoisseur of ea*t«m 
Afltnttc langitages, Li enabM to gi«e more biuto about Ungoirttc 
studies and their srlenllflc bL-arin^ tban nucfa men as have ooDflned 
th^lr energies to inHective lant^uageti alone. T1h< vohime Rives ua 
the Tlew« of a man fatuiliar with all puwiblif typeft of humaa 
speech, the monosyllabic as well »* the tncorpuratint; and aki^Iati- 
Dative, nnd inlnxtuces um iti Ilia* iiio^t fo^cinHting way into all ll 
morpliologic iniricacM-H of the ri-rb, ooun-verb, and seateocc. Inl 
its make up the book cunit-K nearest the celebrated " Principles of ^ 
LaoguaKe History," by Paul, and suppleuienti> It in many dilTerenl 



CALENDAR OF SOCIBT1K3. 

Women's AntbropeloKical Socic^ of 
America, Wuhli«ton. 

FM). 6.-Cblld Life. 



PUULKATIONS. 



THE WINNIPEG COUNTRY; 

OK, 

ROUGHIWC IT WITH AH ECUPSB PARTT. 

BY 
A. aui.'He!«TKH PKLLUW. 

t*. II, nrriiQBK > 

With thirty>tw<) Illu:<lratirmti oud a Map. 

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"Tlie uory Is a piquant, icond-bumO'rvd, snterlAia 
tB| lUuvmtlva of * nwicw rofsga. A n«st«r. prvttlar 
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^ ••XUa la % sprigbtij sarrallTa of purwiiutl Inrt- 
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BUAV of nMUtb ei|M>rIaiic>cii «u ■ tmuUor irhlcli in 
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olvlllMd •«^evL to-(l«y, ■id Clio plaMunt (iTatncvA at 
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book U> preMiil •iwuUon,'"— n» liuii. 

1 D. a HODGES, S74 Broadway, K. T. 

THE a¥eRICANRACE: 

By DANIEL G. BRINTON, H.D. 

**TbsbooklSDn«oraiiuauslluicir«>ist)<l v»lue."— 
In»*r ue*an. 

" Dr, DadI"! U. UrlBtvc wnto>s«tiioaekDUw)Bdjted 
aatbarltjr of the »abitct."^PhUailrlphta Prr*». 

" The work will bt of v»Duln« valiio Lo all who 
Wlali tu know Ibe Hab«tM>M t/t what lias bvra (oniid 
onl atioot tb(i ladlrcnoMa An«rl«M» "— MUHtV. 

"A onaaUirlj dlacuaalon. aimI ao Biamplc of tho 
aueOMafnl pduiration of tli» puvpnof obMrvsliou." 

Price, pofllpnid, %'•*. 



R. D, C. HODGES, 874 Broadfaj, R. T. 



POPUUR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 

r oic ta CoUt^n ■■■) Korwsl S^^huut). Price 50 trcali 
ni In* br re*t by 

.C. HOIKlBat 8T4 UrAttdway* !«• V- 



Wants. 



Xtiiiy kind* mti fit atiaimmtn'tt ^r itmj^trm tfrkimg 
tun/ tHM If fill a /ttiliom »/_tku tkarviltr.Ae il tkat 
t/n Ira.irr t/iitfiKi.ckrwtiit, Jratifktimam,ar srAnf 
mtf. may iatrt Ikt ' IKia/' ttutrttd mm^tr tkit ktiul 
maa or «)«r. if kt tatitjitt fir fuAJiikrr »/ tkt imft- 
»Ut ek»raitier t/ kit afitiieatitn. Anj ^trt^n tttking 
in/vrmttifm *m any ttimtifit f»*ili*<t. Ikt Ai/4**it ejf 
amr uientific ibm. trvtk«fa» ■■ axjr uray tm tkitcmt- 
uwn /tr m furf^if ifmitMiiHl wilk Ikr matmrt*/ tki 
Paptr^ if tiirttiaity imVitrti IniiJ to. 

ADDRBSB WANTKD.-WiU aumv one i>lMtte aootl 
liio MjdrrBB ot Ut« 89crvfarr of tbe Amortcao 
PhflolOKii:'*! Sociely. Alao Ibal of tlfrb^rt StMficer. 
"ADDlHON." RooodM. IIH MaOlvpti St., CUoa||o, 111. 



ADUUlQiSBI^Ar Old Bnok DMlora wantail. -VTiifh- 
lDKlovtitaliiaDumberof oldbonkaout of |>iiul, 
I torjr mucb dMim tb« addKasca of ottAloKU'a of 
mtu vmuiMl-hslid iHRik Onalan. lf,Lb«r« la adlrec- 
loiy or list Of «uob d««lerB I sbould llko to obt*lii 
powoMlDci of OD«. W. A. BLAKKLY. CblMKV. Ul. 



U^ANTSD-Book* on the Mftgla Luit«<m. Will 
exehkOK^. ''liftw tti- Tarm Paja." hyCo«l*r 
and Hendarafiii : "Culturo i.if farm C'mjM." by 

I.SLKltATKIN-^ON, 4.1 WallaooBt., OrMK«.H. J. 



\irANTBD. -411 A wttlbr mui TWMd 1b wood aod 
\ V Iron workliiji, hdiv to work frutn speolflpallooa 
and plana. *u1i«ct ror ad laatructor Of lioya: hia bUB- 
loea* 10 Uav# i.'liAra<> <jf Hhoji* of whool, outMiie luid 
direct the work for fuirniL-ii and a(ad«Dlai »*lHr> la 
ill %\fiV) frt Huuutn inline loonlha). <tl A man 
Cblark prprorrod) to tc«i>h Ibc colorrd. lirm wurkln); 
atid luruluK. aubordlDati- to tlii# pr^oudtuit; sala-ry, 
t^Vil rSl .t man (wbKd] compiiUial )•> l^kr Rloiaoa 
ID «iiitiu*«ncik[ (»««littaij['-i jojBtli'jii;, but vrlili ili«> 
aliilll; til iirtTiirni aor of l.lic wi>rk tri<tiilrcd In auy 
ut Ibe 'jrdioar* vuftlueerlUK v^tunv* of yur uc1»*tiiJ- 
tioa; Mlarr from |1,00U to tl.BuU. A. U. BEALtS, 
HiUedf mlQe, 0*. 



W 



TANTED —Two or tbre* dlfloUiDt oompuCAra with 
. J gaoA kDOWladmcf apberie^l Trii;onota«ti7 And 
ready n» of locarttbiBa, for tviBporur «tapto;iu«ai 
in thiaono*atllw(]osM MidQeodetloSurvBjr, Ap- 

pU04aU •bonld funlah vvtdvnoe ot tbcir atti«sa fur 
tha work. Apply bj lattar to Um t!tipitrlDt«uilB«it, 
Cout atid U«o<lctlD t>urv«r, WaaliliiKtoD, P.C- 



K 



rAST&D.-Setenet. No. ITS, JtOr >. UM. aliH 
liiil*! and Titlp-pofn lo Vol. vH. Addroaa 
N. D. c. UodeiM, W* Broadvay. N*w Torti. 



vv 



rANTBI>— A noaKlon In Ibe phlbuK^blcal dt 
' pedaffodc*! d^piUtniMit ot a ooti«ce or unl- 
■ ■•nity bj a jouds man (90> wbo baa fakd nva yearn' 

(iraetlcal cxpcrleaeo In i«actLlu. and vbo ksa doD« 
i>uf ^vaia* jKial-Kradual* worklD philiuophy, daf at- 
LDf hia ait«iiti'in dvruiit the laat two rvan Hp*- 
clkll; Ii> atiidf and orlgtual tninatltnttliin Id aolao. 
UBc iMjcbalagT aod Ita spplleMlotts Id cdQcatlon. 
AddTMa K. A., o»r«> .VrieHTf, tffi Droftdwar, N. T. 
t^llj. 



Exchanges. j 

[Preeofcb*r|c to all, if ofaallafactorjrsbaractar. 
Addrtu N. D. C. Hi>d<«^ S;* Braadway. New Vofkd 



• FinMbadapccknenaof •llcclcnof Veiaoat MMbklst 
Six: foulb Or ciyiUli Will U Kino uily for vatnablt 
MwciiBefia bccMiM ol the com o( poBshu^ GEO. W. 
PKHRV, Stair Grologi.l, Rulland, VlT^ 



ftt «scb«B|e«.— Tbrtc copiM of "Aanriraa Sme 
Pipcit Bearing on Suoda* Lmdaiion," it^i, 9s.fo,acw 
ard ufiuiad. lot 'Tbe Saliballi," I>t Hunon KiivibiVT. 
iB«d; "The S*t>tii[h," by A. A Phcipc, i>ti; '^MtMV 
«f Ihc Inuilutiuii iif the tuiblMlIt Day, tu tlkct 1^ 
AbuH*," ll* W. I,. Fiihif, itiit: " HilBioTOtt* riillw at 
Ihe LkW. ' by Iiriiiic Uluirne; « other wiNk* tiaiimiiii) 
lo tahir cl bookt EiLhmitnl. oa the ^untloa «( KgT tn i - 
menlal IctuUlion in icIcttBcc to rclifion. pCTiotudUoRv, 
ttc. It fflentd, I will tell "Americao Suu P»cni 
*nd buy allict lK>i>k> on ibe lubiect. WILUAIC AD- 
DISON BLAKELV, Chicago, III. 



Wnnlctl. in excbaajpi let ibe followia^ work*, say 
iiindard vorkt on Surgery ai^d oa DiiOOMi ot Childiwt: 
Wilton'*" ADictitanOniiOio1ogy,''ivoIk:Cau«»'~Wid» 
of the Nonhweti " aud '■ Bifd* of IIm Cofondo Valley." 
I vuk.: Minot't '' L^nd and Gome Blnlt of New Koi- 
land^' SunuelV " Out Northtrn and Easterw Binli;" all 
ihc Rcfona on ihe Blrdi of the PkiKc K. k. Sar*ev, 
bound IB * v»U., aic<«co»; and a CDOifilcIc kI oI the 
Kcpotu oj tbe AHcuwa Geotcvical Surve*. fitrwmrmvw 
editioM Md datM in oonaawwdinc. R. ElJ.SWOftTH 
CALL. Hifh School, Dea Hoiim, Iowa. 

Wantad to buv or cxchanee a copr of Holbrwk'* 
Noitb Aincricaa Herjicliiliin. Iit IdIid Vdwardi. iiwb. 
p}>iu<.l«lpfai>. itta. G. BAtJR, Ctwfc UuwiitT. 
WMtcciler, Maki. 



P:.! ulc or «Kcbaajre, LaConlv, "Ueoloev:" Qa. 
"Aoiiioair," • ToU ; Fouet, ''PInriiolody," Vnj, ejlr 
:>het'ard, Applct«e, Clitctt. aaa Stars, " tlheaiiatn;* 
JorJan, ''Manuiil o( Ve(tobTil« ;" *' IntetnailiHial SoW'l 
loii' l)irci:[n<y)'' Vol. L Jturtta!*/ .l/vi/Aa/acy.- Yu3r-\ 
tour, " Eiubiyolocy,'* • yoU.j uUv, '' Ttbraqpodt^ 

Stifnct, 18 raU.. uabDund. C T. McCUNTOO, 
Leiinjtlon, Ky. 



Foi i«I«.— A f^ m BW Camera: a rcry fil*e ualrnaeal, 
■rith leiu, boldart and in^aA. all aew[ >| co>l Ovcrt^a; 

Brice , $»j. £dw. I^ Hajrca, 6 A ihcai ure«c, Cambrid^. 
Iftw. 



To*Mlun|nWrl|hr*"Ic« Af* in NiKiti Aaimcs*^ 
and Lt Coair* "SAouMti □( Otdocy" (Cupynebi lUAA 
for "DarwiniMn," by A R-Wallai«,"0.«ir™ ol Sp«iafc.'' ' 
bv DMwin. "tieMenl «f Mu." by iJarsi*. ^Um'* 
Plac* in Naliirp," Huiby, "Meiiiaf K*oliilio<i ia Aai- 
nabk," by Ronaiiei. *'Pr«-Ad*»i(ei.'' by Wincholt. No 
hcKiki wanted niepi laieai nlliiuat, avi bookc in fvad 
condittoa. C 8. Browa. Jr., VaadcffaUt UaiTwnity. 
Naihvtlle, Trim. 



Tot Sile or Exchange lot booba B (Mmpiclc pnrate 

chcmiCBl laboratory ouiiu ladvta Ur>« B«ck«r b^ 
atioe (loos to ■■lom;), plBlimm dUho and craclHn, 
aaat* sMtais, tIaM-blowfaic w wawu. vtt. for tala to 
)ui(l Of whole. AW oconplele nla of Siitiimm'i famrmm/, 
iM.>-iMj '^~Ji bound); bBithkoniaa Rcporta. iSM-itti; 
V. S. C.U1I Survey. iG}4-iB&). Pull pardeaWa Id «a- 
•juirerv r. GAKlilNCR, JR., I'ontKt, Ceaa. 



TBRUAiev I a, 1 893. 



SCIENCE. 



97 



waja. SH il (Ion also the works of Krieclricb MOller aud Wbitovy. 
Tbef« i» DO chiipipr in IsoguaRe-study which is not fruilfultj 
hlDU^ It CM- taUj tmtwl by the author: ihe cotnpoBtag of eram- 
mwB thf analytic compaiwl with the »;ntbetic F^'Btem, Uie variuos 
phaoeiic modM of rMordln; languages, the medley IsogDaRes, 
Uworj of roots, ibe le«ts of afltnity. Ihfi ptMsfbility ot composing 
BcJi'Dtiflc dktionaries, the analym n-hich ia iubcmit In dymologlc 
w i ftrch, H^noarmic dtctionariM, ecc. 

— Dr. Andrew D. While will open the Mnrrh Popular Sctewf 
Monthly with a chajHer 00 " A^lrtioomy '' in hix Warf«ro of Sci- 
ence aeiies. The slrenoofas exertions made by both the Oatholic 
and the Protmiant clergy to ■upprps<« the teachioKe of Coppmicus 
ami QalUeo an mm forth in thte article with rddIi Mrong evidence 
as to wimil of no d^ninl or tiliifiintf of roaponalbllity. " Tlic Or- 
gan" will bt- the ral'jpct of t)ie nrticli; in the American lodattrles 
aeries. The aiilhur. Mr. Daniel ttpiliane. dracribea flono of the 



noted inetraiuenu in Ihe Cntle) Slater*, ant thtjv» that Ameriivn 
OFKsn builders have made ftood n*e of the xroj'C for indlrlduaUly 
which their art altnws. The nrtirlo lit fully illii«tr*led. Uodar 
thetiile " S4>cial Statlnlies o'Citirs.'ttie Mttcli number will hAv« 
a |W|MY by Carroll D. Wright, codiparinf; the iiree ami popolatiim, 
am) theo<Mt of each de[iartinent of publir worlo. in Irfiy Htien of 
the United Slates. The c*MaptiriM>ii run iriv Item a-toiv prevailing 
opinions as to what lollies liari- IIm* in'^t rx\fn^i<if Eori-rnmeiit*. 
"The Cotton Industry of BniKil" wilMw dMcriop'l hv Jubn O. 
Brannc^r, formerly aMiMaut gi-ulu^i>t of the IJrazilian (feuloKieml 
Survey. Mr. Branner believps thai llie production and iiianorac- 
ture of cotli»i in Bmxi) is destined to inoieitse, but that the coun- 
try will not become a competitor of the Uniled States in thft indua- 
try. 

— " Darwin aftt-r Darwin," is the title of a boob that G«orBB 

J. Romanes is prvparini;. 



PitOPRiETABY. 



A^mc 



A most excellent and agree* 
ible tonic and appetizer. It 
nourishes and invigorates the 
tired brain and body, imparts re- 
newed energy and vitality, and 
enlivens the functions. 

th-. EpKaAiif Batkhah, Odorrille, N. J., 
••y»: 

' ' I bnv* uMtd it for nnrcrKl y(^a^s, not odIv 
in my practice, but in my own indivldnal 
aaM, and consider It under all circufDBtaneea 
aae ot the best nerve tonict that wu yumam. 
Tor menu] exbanstion or overwork it givea 
I«a«wed iri.r«in>rth nnd vigor to the entire 
ayvtem. 

DewrtptiT* pamphlet free. 

Rwirferd dMoilcitWarfci, Pt*<idtnM. R. I 



Beware of Subatitntea and Imitations. 

FACTION.— Be cure lh« w«r4 '^Hor*- 
fiord'B" la OB lb« label, All olbera are 
• pttrloMB. never •old in kulk. 



BOOKS, ETC. 



JUST PUBLISHED 

FOSSIL fiESINS. 

l^is book ia the rerolt of aii attempt to 
collect the scattered Doticw of fossil reeius. 
ezcltiEiTe of tboM 00 amber. The work is of 
interost also on account of descriptions |;ivf<n 
of the in*«ct« found amlwdded in tbeKe tong- 
preeerred exudations (ram early regiitation. 

By CLARENCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH 

13". 81 

H. D. C. HODGES. 874 Broadway. M. Y. 

\l innntriaabvi^lBaii miaat Hithoiit >liii]} or cal- 

,\Li iiJsllon, ■ coiBBkls CaicB^'r foe ■»¥ neoU (latt 
U !b< Vaari lUltlMfadrfriMe. SangKlSio. 

"^ iiuau-nMul oo, « urinm noa, iniilL 



B 



ACK NUU flIi:R!i and complete Ktiol Icadias Mu- 
>nn». Xatfi frw '^H. MAli. EXCHANcl. 



A TEMPORARY BINDER 

for Sfieittt ii now rc&dy, and trill be msiled 
pontpsid uD receipt oi 75 cent^ 

BThii bindatiiiiroDC. dnrabif tod 
clrx*ni, hM (III ilde-tiilc. and il- 



ionn tkc o|>cniJ>c til ihc P^K*^ P*'' 
(nnly Il;tl. Any aumlxi can b* 
taken DLiI or rrpisicvd afithobl ilii* 
iiirhtaB 'il* otkan. and ih* fapvn 
llic Doi iBuiiIslaJ (or labioqacM 
B^noancnl b>«dlaa. FiWil in Ihu 
liinder, Seitm^t't* tXittft mancnwal 
(or rvfmaca. 
Teeiporary Undci* ii\_ lh« Mae 
«iHr»w dneTipti'in nai wiihoul ud« l(il«, m 
tmlA fii «ir papet Of poiodkal ai «rdi. 
D>ry i'K, vil\ b< nailed powpaid qk f«c*tp< of prio* m 
glren Wow. In utdcnnc, be lun taniTC ibe aune ol 
pa^r Ol p«nc4icjj and Myle vA binder. 



S la i> incha looc. clolk,$o.M:l«alfaer, to, So. 



N. D. C, HODGES, 8r4 Broadway. New York. 



MLSCELLANEOCS. 



ESTERBROOK'S 
STEEL PENS. 

Of SUPESWR AXD STASDAttn QOaLITY. 
Leading Nos.: 04B. U. 130, 135. 239. 333 

for Sair by all Xlallvtifrt. 

THE EtTEMIMI STEEL PER CI.. 

Worki Camden. K J. J6 Jolia nt . Npw t ark. 



([ .ipr.sl ANO BEST • 



6? PARK PLACE. N£W YORK 



PATENTS 

PorlSVKNTOKS Wi.Bi.f HOOK FREE Aildnu 
W. T.rilifpfalil. Atl.iiTOPy Bt Lav. Wa«lUD«li>D. DC. 



MINEHALUGY, 



Course of HiDeralogy for Tonn^ People. 

Conductrrd l);^(turrDB{iauiIrti(M>: mlnKTsIii 'od bOuk« 

tvmlstied. 

Cullection and book. '* Pint Ontd*," dim dollar; 
pestsca. a ctnta. Mod toe drvalsrs to 

QUSTAVB OUTTBNBBRO, 
Osairal Hlgb SckoeU Pltt«bBr Kii. Ps. 

OEM OPALS. .SSJTa'^TS^SbJi:^!^ 

prima: .*<tt..n.llJ0.n.M. This to a ran oopanaaltr to 
aoran a Qoann itj iJirap. IflB pp. MtD«ni) CaUluna 
llct. la cliK* »c._^9v m mirv t *' ■ oku UKkudmiaCo. 
lllftcrslacMa.S>aumiir<iadvn>', .\>w Y^rk rity. 

90 CRnSTO>-(t'« FItEE m% > pr«ntlnni 
wllh THR CHK.tT DIVIDR. 

Ttwav OemsliHirii *rv cut amd potttkea tvart; tm 
jnvtlrT muuaUny, and arn (ctrra ttow (■> a*L'Jb na* 
•abiwhtwr sendlDg •!. pneeot re«rt]r •abiwrtpUoB. 

Adilrraia THE <iKBAT DIVIDK, 
IS 16 ArBpabasNt., Denver, <'ol«. 



DO YOD INTEND TO BUILD? 



I 



■ «t»,^-s^ 



j^>^ 



irrou lUSnd toballd. It will D« s mlstaka not tossod ft>r«*ilBMnBLit LOW'VOST 
HOVTABK,** no« arranit<>d la ikre* TolumM. In Ihew j<m will flml pcr*|N>rU«« Tiaws, 
Ihmt pUus. dMMrlptlniM, aod niUnwua ft coat for 1(15 laalrful, nrw deatana Tcir 
liunaea. Tbpy slso gl* ■• prices for roiBplefv W<>iktac Ptn»i, 1>rtalla. ani! .Sii*<clII<>aiitiiM, 
irklcli "nablti ymi to bnlld wlitiAni delar*! mlslakca or qnarrrla «it)> vnur IidIM 
»r, and vbich aoy oiH> ran iiadrraiaad. Vu(. I o"iiiaiii* .U ri>)>)rri)tlitiK] dmiUns ul 
koiiBes, rostinc iHitafvv WOO anil IIMJJ. Vnl. II. oaotalna % DimyrUlitad d^fMa, tllCO lu 
|3C0n. T..I III r-iilalriA U .:.t;.jrlKti*'^ deatpM. tntUO to tntUiX Prico. br isaU, fl.OU 
pari), or f>3.llO ror thfart. 

*^4 OI.O:«IIAI. ■■OI~!«lt*t," a *oliains sfaowhic Parafiwilvas and Floor Plana of 
booeM arranitNl 1b thri iii.mitatitr atria of tiie Colonial Arsliltactar*. aUI bartof alt laodiini 
BTT*cunm«ntaruf ownitort. TriCF, kS.OO. 

"VlCTtjKIM<|l K IIOISWI P08 POHIMT AND SHOBB»i-Thls ab«« 
PsssfiaatiTCa and Floor Plana «f nrw de*l|pui for SMHtmer CoUaitea, wblrti ara ixibibbUi 
oMlvsaleM. aad ebeap. Prlrr 8 1 .OO, hj mall. 

N. D. C. HODGES, %U Broadway, New York 



SCIENCE. 



IV^tT 



lo. 471 



DRY GOODH. ETC. 



Real India Pongees, 

CORAHS, 

Unsnrpaswd for dttrability and wear. 

INDIA SILK SHIRTINGS 

Stripes and Checks, new coloring! and 
itylea 

RONGEANT, 
The New Summer Silk. 



aSwMuWtu cK^ \*)ib 61, 



NEW YORK. 



DRESS GOODS 

FOR SPRING. 

NEW CREPE WEAVES. 

Wa shall show this week attractive lines of 
M0W Spring Waollcns. which have Just been 
adiea to our Dress Goods stock. 

large importations of the New Crepe 
wMVM— over sixty varieties of this favorite 
ftkrie. 

An extra large assortneil of medium price 
#rws goods, in styles dlfflcult to oblafK 

Spealai attention is called to an extensive 
U»e of Indii Crepes (all silk*— 2,50C yards 
te be offered on Honday at 75 cents per 
yard : worth $ 1 .25. These goods arc woven 
In handsome colored Stripes lad are a lead- 
ing novelty. 

James McCrcery & Co. 

BROADWAY & I lib fiTRKET, 
NEW TURK. 



FINANCIAL. 



ffASTE 

Eiliriiiderf Sllh. 

BdOii Kt mu frtM tone ottMM IBM bOK. All 
Mid load eatonL. H*UI by omII mi r«Mttil <ii 



|eMt«UBcn^j|)IUW*i^<w^kja>»a««. LMwtatifl 



«B An Mwilbrwovh. oafj IOchiu. X Imittl. 
llimillli *mA amuBiM > U aew *tiB(l>H In 
lU DM* or «MBH l<> 

- AtamrMMU hpool 

way, ifftr t<A, OP asi lUrkM 

r diaaiAiHkMi|ddniva(i(IOIadti*liM«rM*edl tn 
Art KMAtwork w« WlU trad ■»• booh (r««. 



'snj 



ftm Uteftiod of Protecting Property 
from Lightning. 

The LigMning Dispeller. 

Price, $20 to S30.— According to size. 

Ttiit Talvnt Lij^litnioK Diapeller it a conduc- 
tor H{M-cially dpaiKueil todinipatethe eaergy 
nf a litfhtnin^ dioftaarj^, — to prereut it« 
ilijiiijf hnnii,— placiD^ sometbinc id Hb jjatb 
upon wfai<:h iu capacity for cauaing daniB^e 
inAf Ik- fxpendcd. 

Nu rnconlw] «»«» of lightniDK strokv ba» 
yet be«ii aiUid aminct the principio of tlis 
Dispeller. So for m knowo. tho diwipatfoii 
of m coflductor has invariably prot«ct*d nndar 
the conditiouK employed. 

Oorr«apoo<leacB Balicit^I. 



AGE N TS WA NTED 

The AoioricaD Ligblaiiig Protection Compon; 

United Bank.Building, Sioux City, Iowa. 



INVESTMENTS FOR NON-RESIDENTS. 

TAYLOR & GUNSTON 

Take TuU charia of proptny for ih« 

EASTERN INVESTOR. 
Citr, Town, and Suburban L-oti, 

Oifilan. Fruit. Hap anci Timber Lands, 

10°:. GnaraotMd od all iDTestnients. 

Houicarotaaleoo the^initalmcntplan, by which 
lb> purcbBkcr can obtain an Income lulfkclcnl to 
coverall pay men ti, inEludlastaxcv.lniuranec.tte. 

Informailon rfcardlr^s any particular paint in 
the State of Waihtniton iladly rurniahed upoa 
applicRtioB. Paraonal ait«ntioDKlr*& to all IcaA*. 
CorrctpBQdtnca aolicitcd. Rifcr. by p«rinii>ion, 
lo th« pRciflc National Baak, Tacoma, Waab.; 
Geo. H. Tlllty. Ek.. Becictary aad TrtaaurcT «( 
Ih* Southam Gxprca* Co., and Fradtrick C. Clark, 
of Clark, Chapin A Buahoell, Naw Vork. 

Address 504 California Bl'lc, Tacoma, Waafa. 

Eaatcra R«pre>«atBtlvc, 
H. F. TAVLOIt. 47 Lafayotle Place. N«w York. 



^~ WASHINGTON. D. C. 

A RARE OPPORTUNITY 
FOR AN INVESTMENT. 

Thti proparlir '■ ■ P'r' oINorlkaaal Wa«h- 
Ington, and la iKuxUd oppctlla th« lit* 
ractnllir purctil»() br BLlKop Hural lor 
(ha aracdon ol Iha na« 

Anr)«rican University 

en wfak-li fli ll,00».0»r) mil bv Fipeudmd lu 
rriwUnit i.iix^il. tiKllLliii,;i. It li liut Samlnao 
itriirfnimdii* Wblip lloaap. ai.i) loltoaMil 
oil oas of Uehliilitic ii-jliLtai In tna DLicnol of 
Cnlamlila. rriv ■(••rityn -li.' Uiu, BaiaLoot 
rrain ff44a to 0739. ooi^ntUi coab, baUace 
■ai, Sanafyaan. NObctivr or aafer Indue* 
DtMila ba'a ever been afrirr#.li>iir>-haacn ^.l 
DiakaapraBMtitoltivmtia.'iiI. vsIuh aim rati* 
MItr InaraMlag. WrSl'-l-'r r.M pirH.:Minn,rrt 
erplioOa lllaHni.(ad ius|i> uni f <iil liitiruiall'in. 

JOHN F. WAGOAMAN. 
TOO I4tm ST.. M.W.. WAaxincTON, O. 



TACOMA S?f!l° 



INVESTMENTS 



I <il AHANTKK IS |»«r tent |)^r annnm 
lu nil J at tli# aboil* <<ttlNL. t hai* niailn tr<"n 40 t» 
&0 I'er o««tt. per aaouin far boo rvaldrnta I alao 
niakp Drat inanaa<«s linpmrvd rf«l *q)MtA loana ou 
unfiiaationablo ac^urliiea fron 8 to :u p«r eaat. p«r 
annum B«l- Al»i> barv i-Ii<iIp« barnlaa Id ParHii 
■e|^llaT**>d iJNrden l.aBJU. CorreaipADii 
aiMO SvUeiM-il n^anlti'K WKuirrn Waablaul'ia All 
Isqtilrtca aoaanrMl priimpIlT', Addrtiiut 
A. C. SII'KBLIS Tacona, Washlnctan 



PUBLICATIONS. 



RACES AND PEOPLES. 

Bj DANIEL C. BRINTOK, M.D. 

"Tbo book lacood, tlkoniiuiUT lood. and wJU loa 
rrmain tbe beat acceadble NonMnfauj ntbu 
IcoorlaninJain."— rAfCHrtaNttii VnCon. 

''Wa atrtiagijr racoamond Dr. Brtnton'a 'Rara*' 
■udFaoplaa' to hitb baatDaen and acboian. Wo 
aiv not awori) of any outer racBOt vork on tii« 
aohiaca o( vbloh It tnms la tbe b«liah tanrmg*" 
— ^UioKc Qmarltrtp. 

"Hia book le an aiooUant one, aad va o*n baattUT 
rM?oinm«i>il it aa an latroduotorjr mannal at vihool- 
o«r."— JH* MonM. 

••A uanful oiul cvally InlvrPrtlns work, yhk-fa 4c- 
aarvMlo be vldc4r raad aod atudfed bota In Baiopr 
and Aaiarloa."— ^'i|A(»n iSd^.) Ueralit. 

"TUamnme la moat niiaulattitK. It la wrtUaa 
wltb aroat okanHiaa, ao ttutt ao^bodr can aMlar 
atauTand »blt« la aun* vara-iierforca. auporftdaL 
arana Tor* v«U Uis ooa^Iata Hald of huaunitj.''- 
J^sft'cw \aTkTimt». 

'•T\i. Brintuc inroBta hIa ndenllflc tlluitratlooM aod 
R]na«un>ni(Dt* vitb an ladaacrlbable cbarm of aar 
ration, mi Uiat 'Haoaa and PoopUa.' xoviidlj a rao- 
ord of dlaoannd faola. ia la raaUtj a alroaaaUB- 
tilaiit lo tlM lnn«lBation."-Pblladrlptila l^bUc 

"l7i« vork ta ladlapwnaaMato tba atadaat vlu)i»- 
qultM an lnt«'lUcatit Bnldi to » «nne of eUiaa- 
icraptiio w«»AiDg. —Pkiladrtphia Ttm^a, , 

l*rli-e. pfMtpnId, •I.T5. I 



THE MODERN MALADY; or, Siif-, 
ferers from * Nenes.' 

An introduction to public couai<leratioB,| 
from a nuo-niadical |wtnt of view, of a ca^ 
dition of ill-hc-alth which is incr««amgl] 
prAvalL-nt in all rankn of aociaty. In th 
Riwi part of tlii« work tliv author dwella e 
thf errors ia our mcKlc al treating NearM 
tihenia, consequput on the vriOe ifrnoranea I 
thci sobjaet which still prevail*; iu ihv aoL 
ond part, attontion ia drawn to the princjd 
rAUam of tb« malady. Tb« all«^ry fonalt 
tho Iniroduction to fart I. givac a uriaf hi 
ivry of DcrvouF czfaaastioQ and tbe modes 
tmatmont which hnva ot various times be 
LbiMielit auttabln to thia moat painful and tr 
iuK liiMaao. 

By CYRIU BENNETT. 

12", 184 pp.. $1.50. 



H. D. C. BODGES , 874B roa dny. HwToi 
UANDBOOK OP METEOROLOGICAL TABU 

Bt Asbt. Pbof. H. a. HazsK. 
137 pp. 8°. 

Profaaaor Waldo saya : " I heartily rweofof _ 
mdUil tbeot to all workera in motworoloi S 
and do not seo how any of oar Aju«H< ^ 
m(<t«orolo^ne can afford to be without a 
copy.'* 

rrofaaaor Symona of London says : * ' Thej 
ar« BBqavvtiouably valuable belpe, wlilt^ 
must be kept luindy, and rnplaood wbes 
worn out. ' ' 



PHer, poetpniflr $t. 



AODRMs N. D. C. HODGES, 

B74 Hroadwar, N»w Kork. 



OFWHATUSEISTHATPLANT?. 

Yoa can find the oniwer in fl 

SMITH'S" IHOTIONARY OF 
BGONOMIC PLANTS.*' 

S«at poauid on receipt of (3.60. Pubtufa- 
er'B price, |3.fi0. 

SCIENCE BOOK AGENCY, 

S14 Braadwar, Haw ir«rk. 



SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, FEHRtJARY 19. 1?»2. 



NOTICE OF NEW GIGANTIC FOSSILS. 

Wltile an n cnllecting trip tbr past summer io the Bad 
Lands of north western Nebraska and soutb wettern Sotitb 
Dakota my attention was called by Hr. Charles E. Holnim 



■\ 



%r- 



- **•, 



■•■r.f^ 



tion, and a \krfiv oblt()tie)y aMvndinif one. The ltill<r, ai 
shown hy all ibal have been dug out, at leant, aeema tu curve 
upward eraduallr. and alliaiabely reach the surfuce. 

The great '* ooderground " stem of tny own itpecimen 
(Tie. S) was Tullowed froni Ibe tvall of a boihII bulte somu 
ten feet straight into in iotcrior, and then thft work of lor- 
tber excaTatioff in rook so very soft and cnimbliug, yel so 
peculiarly difficult to work, had to be abaDdoned. In tho 
two remaiuing forms especially noted, one gigantic, the other 
small, the coil bad the form aiiJ pitch of lb» conimon open 
corkscrew (see Fig. S). 

Tliey covered an area of wvenil fK|iiare miles, where I juw 
large Dumbers of tbem. all standing in the incompletely 
lithilt^ ftandstone as erect as so loauy Utanic hop polf« wilb 
so many titanic vines ooiled upon them. T estiiimlt-d that 
many could not be Ices than thirty or more feet in height; at 
any rale, we frequently saw in the vertical walls of small 
cai\ona or draws Bfteen feet of exposed corkscrews, while an 
unknown amount had hrvn wetitliereil from the lop, and an 
indel^Dite amount was stilt buried in the rocks beluw. Tbeii, 



fi 



TtO- X- —VmHi'* Ccakmetmm In Um eoUMdon of C L Itolnim. nrawo fron 
nalnra. 

Tale, *84) to some gigantic fossils abounding in the extreme 
i)ortlfVrca(«ni corner of Nebraska. At that time 1 eecurvd 

le large Hpccimen, and noted and sketched several olhpr 
IS, intending to return later and complete the work iu 
that highly interesting field. 

These foasUe seem altuifuther so remarkable and of such 
imposing sise and peculiarity of form, that I have felt great 
faeoitiuicy Id offering any nuirgestions as to what they are or 
in deMribing them at alt; and what I now venture to publish 
is proposed tentatively, till 1 can return to this same spot 
and comptel4> the work cut abort last fleaaon. Not Iuh than 
two genera and three species of the family were noted, and, 
becauH of their ximilarity to immense cork«crewii, we dubbed 
tbem ''Devil's Corkscrews," and I offer fur them the |irD- 
visioonl Dam« Daimonelijr. At least two gigantic and ons 
small species wereolMerved. They are almost math<>matKalIy 
exact and regular in form, and suggest a great three inch 
vine coiled with strict uniformity of pitch about a four or 
five-inch pole. However, the vine and pole, as the cut will 
abon, are just as much one as are the thread und screw wbicb 
they BO strikinply resemble. At the bottom of nil Is a trans- 
rerae piece, iudetiEiitely long, and about ^en inches in diame- 
ter, rendering this appearance of the whole like that of the 
veritable corkscrew (See Fig. 1). 

Juflt what this great "rizome" is, remains to be learned. 
Iu the mean time, sulllce it to say, that, as far as observed, 
.oodusIs invariably of a small obliquity deaceui^'n^ iM>r- 



1 ■"! 



*l4 



6 



€ 



>^\ 



Fio 2. — AakMctiof D«itrRCo(karr*w(1>i mj owa oattMUon) ■• U appswMd 
wMo DM&rly du-uulof UiarorUoal bank. Top arodad kw«f . nol|lii 
about fl«« (o six t«M. 

again, I dug out the basal portion of ooe specimen fully 
thiKy feet lielow the surfooe, where the tip-ends of others 
were exposed. These strange forms seem to be oasts, do 
structure being visible to tite eye, or under the gloss. Tba 
gray matrix readily weathers away from tlie specimen, wbiob 
on fracture shows a spongy, friable, white wall, surrounding 
a core or matrix; though of chalky appearance, the wall Is 
strictly silicious. 



100 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX, No. 47* 



While remiodiog one forcibly of some monstrous Tossil 
bryoeoan, it fieems improbable that it is such, ooitber is it a 
pluut, uor a inoUusU. aa I believe. Possibly it is the C4we of 
some ancient (vnroi. I have shown the specimen U> eaal^m 
as well as weslero (reolo^ts and botanisls, besides sending 
drawings and d^criptions of it to others, who pronounce 
it entirely nt^w to tbein. As far as my own experioucc goes, 
I have neiUi^r »t>vn anytliini; of the Wind in any of nnr large 
eB8t«ro museums nor bav« 9e«a anything published relating 



_. Ji- 



Fn. I. — Dlacmm cl anoUiH form ol t>e*trB Corkaar«w, u nketdbed In me 
a«l4. 

to it> and 1 feel reasonable conQdeooe in offenng a notice of 
what [ belitivo to be a new palconlological 8])ecimen, truftt- 
iug that, if QOthtug more, it may elicit information on tb« 
matter from anyone who faas it to offer. 

Ibwin H. Barbour. 



CONFIR-MAXrON OF THE DISCM)VTCRY OF THE IN- 
FLUENZA BACILLUS. 

To Dr. Ffciffer of Berlin is due the discovery of the influ- 
enza bacillus. Dr. KitAAAto ban cutttvaled il to tbc 6fth 
generation, Koch has shown, in an article not yet published, 
how pure culture* of tubercle biicilli can be obtained directly 
from the spntnm. Kitasaln has succeeded in employiug the 
same method with the iufluvoza bacilli. According to him, 
the single colooies are so uncommonly small that they can 
be easily overlooked, so that former iuTeetigators may have 
failed to see them. The coloniM do uoi flow together as in 
other kinds of bacteria, but always remain aeparatvd; this is 
ao characteristic that the influenxa bacilli can he (liHtingiiisbed 
from all other bacteria with certainty. 

The same bacilli have been found in the blood of influenza 
patients by Dr. Canon. Dr. Koch ban compared these vrilb 
tite inicro-organiam:3 discovered by Pfeiffcr, and pronounces 
them identical. 

And now Dr. Canon has gone still further,' and has suc- 
ceeded in cultivating the inOucuza bacillus from the blood 
of pBtienis attacked with the disease. The cultivation is 
especially dttticult since ihe bacilli in the blood-drops an 
very few in number, and the colonies, on accouol of tbelr 
SoeniMi, are concealed through the coagulated blood. The 
blood therefore was not iaoculuted in tubes upon glycerin or 
^tig»r-agar, but in the Petrian " Schalen." A great quantity 
raa employed. By this method there was not only a greater 
probability of preeerving colonien, but also the poasibility of 
eventually seeking oat the colonies with the microflcove. 

Thr Mood is InkeM in the following nisnner- a. lliiger-tip 
iscieunsed with sublimate, alcohol, and elher in the usual 
■ D«uUeiH Hvl. WochOUMiUtiri, Jan. tl, ISM. 



way; then with a red bol noodle the (Infer is pierced; aa 

assistant presses the blood out of the opening in drops, being 

careful that they remain globular in form: fn^m eiebl to 

twelve drops are planed upon the Pelrian "Schale," and 

they are heated in a lemperature of ST° C. The colooiea 

show a slight devetopmeot after twenly>four hours; in forty- 

eight boura they are distinctly seen. They are like tboee 

cultivated by Pfeiffer from sputum of influenza patienla In" 

Uie cultures from the blood the colonics often lie close upon 

one another. The pure cultures from these colonies bare 

the same appearance as those Kitasalo has described. 

Dr. Canon cultivated influeusa bacilli from the blood of sii 

patients, and in all the bacilli in the blood praparation were 

few ill number und separated. And tbiis it appears that in 

thotte cases where the bedllus is wholly separated in tbe 

blooil preparation, a sure diagnosis of influenza is given. 

A. JticDuSAL©. 
GMrgetOwn' llodlcal Scbool. WMklaittoa. IkC. 



i 



NOTES AND SEWS- 




Thb UnirptBily of E<lJnburgh in June, 18IH, conferred 

Profewor SinKm Newcomh the booonuy deitree of doctor of lairt 
(in abtentia). ProfeMor Newcomb was also elected, in June, 
18S1, nn honomry member of tbe Royal Institotion of Ureat Brit- 
ain. 

— At a meeting of the truflt*^^ of Johns Uopklns Unlrenl^, 
Dec. IS. 189], il was detcnnined to proceed to construct an aca- 
demic hall on the prop^.-rty belonging to the untrcfKlty. at the cor- 
ner of Monument and Garden Streets, running har-k to Little Ross 
Street. The tru^ees are enabled to take this important alep by 
tlif gift of ihe Inle John W. McCoy, who made tbe university hi« 
reKiduarr legatee. SiiHicient funds have Ixfen reccivwl from bis 
estate for (he erection of a building whicli will furnish rooms for 
the claseoti In lani;uH)t<.i4. history, and philosophy, with Bpac« for 
tbe pn.iH.>nt rL-quireiiicnt" of the iilirar>'. and an «seembIy>room 
wbieh will huEd uver &ix hundred penous. Tbe trustees voted 
that Ihe building should be hnown. in honor of t)ie muui(iu>nt 
donor, afi McCoy Hall. Tbe piece of Krouud on which tbe new 
lull is to lie conatructed ia lOOx 1S5 feet, und tg now taken op 
with re^idenfes used for purposes of the university. Heasra. 
Baldwin and Pennington hare been seterted to draw up the plans 
for thv building. 

— On 12th of tilay. IHDO, wlillo making a profcsslooal call in the 
outskirts of the town, B. H. Hartwell. M.D.. of A?er, Maas., was 
Miimnioned int'> the adjacent woods by a mCMenger, wbo slated 
tliut her mother \va» " bamed alive." In a paper re«d before (lie 
MowncliuM^iH Mi^tot>-L(tgal Society, and publUhed in the Bosfoa 
Meilioit anil S'lryimt Journal. Dr. HiirlM-ell unym "Hastily 
drivint; to Ihv plncu indicxled (about forty nxlN ittdtanl) a haman 
body was found in tbe actual stale of cnnlbmratiun. Tbe Ijody 
was face donowaid : the face. arm°, upper part of tbe chest, and 
left knee only t^)UL'binK the Ri'ouud; the reet of the body was 
raisi-d and held from the ground by the rigidity of tbe muscle* of 
the putle. It wa-i buniiue at ihe shoulder, tmtb sides of tbe ab- 
domen, and both \vf^. The flames reuctu-d from twelve lo fifteen 
inches above the level of tbc body. The clothing was ncArly all 
consumed. Ab I reached the spot the Iwnes of tbe right leg brofco 
witli an audible snap, allowing the foot to bang by the tendons 
and muscles of one side, those of the oihfr side having burned 
comjiletely off. Standing my drivn- for water and amjslanoe, I 
coold only watch Ihe curious and nbhorrcnt spM^tacle, till a com- 
mon Hpadinf: fork wsn found with which tbe fire was put out b( 
throwing earlh upon it. The flesh wa>i hurneil from tbe right 
shoulder. cxpo»inK the j'>int from the nlidomen, allowing tbe in 
tvttincs to protrude, and more or lese from iKttb legs, Tbc leg 
Iwtiee were piu-lially calcined. Tbi- eloibiiiK uuburned consisted 
of ports of a ciilicti dre&s, cotton tcsI. woollen i^kirt, and thick, 
red, woollen undergarment. Tbe subject of ibe accident waa n 
woman, forty-nine \eara nf Cige, abmit five feet five inches in 






< 



^EBRUAKV 19, 1893.] 



SCIENCE. 



iK-'frhl. anil n rlghjng' not fnr from otu huDdred and forty pouiKls: 
of BctiT4^ hahiU ftnd nerrom t^mp^ramoats A wife and mother, 
•be was atricilj a temperate ppison. acciii>ton]ed ihrougb life to 
ird work, one «bo, in addition to )ier hooaehold duUea, went 
^nh'ttif^ and cleaninK. b'sndea douu; a ^:ood ^ttare nf the work in 
laTK« garden. On the ratal Hft«rnooa tbe had — as tlw plaoa 
showed — bet^ clearing n lot uf wtumpn and niotit, and had set Rre 
to a pile of root!, fnin) wbk-h it had oommunicate*! tohercloihrDg, 
or it bad apread into the woodianJ and had ^iH tire to tbe clothing 
durint; Iter endesTOfn to »top it. Tlie Ixtdy lay about two rods 
from the burniog pile. Ai* |>roo[ that the fle^h burued of itself, 
BDd Dnthinj^ but tbi> dotbitiK »«i It atiro, it may bf iitaled ilmt the 
■octdent orctirrpd aftiT a rnin; that the fir«> merely Hkimiueil over 
the surface o( tl»e ground, out Inirning tbrongb the leaves; that 
tberp was nollilOK but charred leaves uoder the body; tliat her 
fltraw hat wblrli tar aeveral feet distant was aimply ecorched; 
tiialthe wooden handle of the spade was only blackened. The 
abore caw 13 inlJ'feAtine in wverul pnrticuhn. It i^ the flrat re> 
corded cue in which a human hotly ha« bren found burning (that 
la, anpporting combustion) by Ihc medical atteodnut. It diffen 
from nearly all of Ibe recorded cases, in that it occurrad in a per- 
aoo in middle life, not very fat, and not addtrtwl to th») uae of 
Dt It it tiiti.-n'>titi|; in it medico-IeKal eenve. It provm that 
IndercertatD conditions ^conilttions that exist in the body iiself 
— Ibe humaii body will bam. We have abuadant proof in tbe 
tnauy recorded case* of so called sp-jDianeoQs combustion (seventy- 
Ibne are chronicled in medical litemttire) that tbe body baa been 
more or tess coropleiely destroyed by fiip, under circumstancea 
that abow (bat it will support combustion, and this baa given riac 
p> the belief in the spoutaneoutt origin of the tire.'' 

— A gentli-'maQ in Sew York l)a« recently t^^ted th» re«uU of 
prc w rrinj; a turkey in a refrigenitor for ten y««r«, mys I be Boston 
MtiiioU and Surgical Journal. This time having e^apaed, the 
fowl was removed from the refrigprator, and after being properly 
Oooked teat eaten by a party of gentlemeo. While putrefactive 
cbaagea «(«m to Iiave been cutiri-ly absent it was found thai the 
meat was practiciilly taatvleav. 

— Tbe annual gviwtal meeting of tbe Royal Heteorotogical So- 
ciely wa« held on Jan. 27. Owing to the abeenco of the prenident. 
Mr. Baldwin lAtharo, through an attack of infltKnea, h\s addrvss 
on "Evaporation and Condon&ation'* was ivad by the secretary. 
Tbe qnemioo of cvnporntion is of Si< great Importanoe as the study 
of Ifete precipitation of water on the face of the eartb. as the 
availablfi water supplies of tbe country entirely d^p^nd ufton Ibe 
drSenKDoea Itetween these two aelfi of obttervatimiH. The eartb re- 
ceives oMMtiture by meana of rain, dew, hoar*fru«t, and by direct 
_C)>nde»Matiuu. U lows it« moiHlurv very ispidly by evaporation, 
Itbough eva]>anllOQ mainly depende upon the difference between 
tbe tennoaal forc« of vapor due to tbe lemperatuie of tbe evapo> 
rating stirfaL-e and the tenstonal force of tbe vapor already in the 
Btroo>phere, yet it is largely iDflueoced by the movement of tbe air 
and by its dryness, or the difTerenoe between tbe dew-point aud 
tbe noiual air temperature. Evaporation goe« on at night so long 
aa the water surface Id warmer tb»n tbe dew-point. With sra- 
^walLT tbe ef aporaiiou is about 44 per cent leas thnn wiTh min- 
llcr, while with water mtnrated with common salt (he <-vn[>ora- 
tiun is li per n'nt less than with rain-water. In hi» '>xperimenta 
iir. Latham ui^ed on evaporating gatige made of copper, one loot 
in diameter, and <:ontiiinni2 one font in depth of water, which was 
Ooaied by means of a hollow copper ring placed aix.inche« diftaot 
from tbe body nf the eiariorator and attached (o it by four radisi 
^arm*. Tbl* form of evaporalor was found extremely ooQvenieot 
fn carrying 00 all evaporation experinients; ft wae floated In a tank 
Dur feet in diameter, containing thirty Indies depth of water. 
>nrinB the period of thirteen years, from January. 1879. to De- 
vmber, IBftl. this evaporator lios never once bMO out of order or 
interfered with in tlw slightest degree bj fruet. Ei[)eri- 
DVOli weie mode with sumu 3 inch evaporators as h> the effect of 
it on tbe amount of evaporation, one being painted white, an- 
ker black, and Ihe reeuHi gi^eo by these gaoEtea were compared 
{th a copper gauge ezpoeed under similar conditions. This com- 
arlsoti waa the meorm of showing that tbe greauet errors in 



evaporating gauges arise from the capillarity of llie wal*:r riti*ug 
on the Bides of tbe gauge and thus inordinately locreoaing tbe 
amount of evaporation. Conaequently a small gauge having ■ 
larger amount, in proportion, nf aide area tbau a larger gauge, 
gives a very much greater amount of evaporation. The rrsulla 
from the floating evaporator, oni> foot in dian]«>t^r, show that Ibv 1 
average amount of water evaporated annually during 1879-41 watf j 
19.948 inches. It was found, however, that, as a rule, during tbdj 
period from October to March, there were certain occesiona wl 
condensation waa meaaured. Tbe amount of the«p condetwatlooal 
in thirteen years averageil .M8 of an inch per annum ThoS-iitch 
evaporating gauge, freely exposed to atmospheric intliipnree, gave 
during the aame period ()H79-9I) an average annual depth of 
evaporation cquil to 86. ItJS inches. The average annual evBponw>| 
tlon during tbe three years 1S79-81 from Ibe 5-fnch copper gal 
fttending in water was 97.90 iticbM, from one painted black, 2S.VTJ 
inches, and from another painted white, 21.74 inches, wbilat 
gauge of the haute dintensions, freely exposed in the atm(«phere^ 
gav« in tbe same fierJiid 84.90 inch««, and the l-foot fltttiing erap>' 
orator, 1H.40 incites. The S-incb copper gauge gnve n largsr^ 
amount of evaporation than the gauRe painteil b'ack. Mr. 
Latham next describe*! some percolation experiments which wen 
carried out by Mr. C. Ureavee at Old Ford, by Messrs. Dicknuooj 
and Evaus at Uemel Uempelead, and by Sir J, U. Lawes and Dti ' 
GiltKrl at Rothanuited. He then detailed the results of bis own 
ezpL-rimenta, and alao the gaugings of tbe underground waters la 
tbe drainage arena of tbe rivers Wandio and QTavei>ey, He for- 
tlier stated that in the courae of his obttcrvutiMis on tbe flow of 
tinderground water be had ofaaervcd that at certain particular 
woAonit of the year it was posait>le to iiMlicate tbe direction and^ 
vnlumv of the flow of underground streams, even when tbey war«| 
at a i^nsidrrable depth, owing to tbe formation of peculiar Un«a 
of fog. Dr. C. Theodore Williams was elected president tor the 
ensuing year. 

— Tbe BrittMh Mtdieat Joumat. in commeatliig on tbe death of 
a Iwy who died from drinking but tea without milk, eaya thai tbe 
tea had lieen left In the oven for some lime, to that it had becxuM 
a strong decoction of tannin. In being drunk without milk, tha] 
tannin was not brought into a relatively barmleaa albumic 
tannate. It is on account of this method of making tea that It to] 
so injurious to digestion. Neither the Chinew nor the Japoncee, < 
who know how to make tea, u^e milk with it; but with lliem the^ 
hot water i»i poured on and off the leaves at lattle. and it is dnink 
OS soon aa it become* a pale straw color. Ho peofile in tbe world 
drink so much tea as the Japune»e, yet in Japan it is nwir injuri- 
ous to tbe digestion, as by their method of preparation the tannin 
is not extracted from the leavee. 

— Th^re will shortly be opened, proibaUy early In March. In tbe J 
Hui^enm or Archmoloicy of the Univetalty of Pennsylvania, a loaa) 
c<:illectlon of objects used in religious oert<uK>oi«a. including chaiana 
and in|^4<-ments UMd in divination. Tbe tnsia of the exhibilton ii 
the collection of oriental idol.*! of the Board of Foreign Missions of 
ttw Presbyterian Church in the United ^«tAtes, comprising nbjecta 
Mfoi home liy foreign miaaionanca tbroDgh a period of sixty yeara.- 
Tbey include a wriee of Indian brass and marMe idota, and ft 
representative colkctlon of Chinese deities and ancestral tablets. 
There are abo a number of African idols from the well-known 
missionary station on ttte Gaboon River. This collection is sup- 
plemented by numerous loans from private collectiooa and objects 
from different sections of the museum. A cxtalogoe ia in oouraaj 
of preparation wbicb will contain skelcbue uf tbe grvot reljgionf 
of tho world by Mta. Cornelius Stevenson, Dr. Daulel O. Brioton, 
Or. Morris Jastrow, and otbere. Ancient E^ypt, India. Burma, 
China. Thibet, Japan, AlwriginaJ America, Polynesia, and Equa- 
torial Africa will \n} repreeeated by afqsn^riateqiecimens, which 
are now being arranged and catalogaed. 

— At tbe opening sesaion of the aorenty-first meetlog of tba 
American tnatltute of Mining Engineers at the Johns BopUsBj 
University, Baltimore. Ud., on Tuesday evening, Feb. 10, Muf 
George F. Kunx road a paper on the mining of gems and minanlf] 
In the 0ral Mountains, illustrating bis remorkit with lantern slidaKj 
made by himself on bis trip last stnomer. 



I02 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou XIX. No 472 



— Tlie following exponnifnt f* t«port#(l in balletln No. IS at 
the OM>rgtii i'x|iHnni4-nt »iHtiun: Thi' <»bjt¥t of tlii< fX|^«*niii(>nt 
was to ilFU.-miini' tho effrct of np])lyin.c vMrj-iniji;qnantitiini of mch 
of the tbn« eleiDfntK — nitrogFO, pho«phnno aciH, ami pot>i"h. 
The wjctioD (■eledH comprUed one ncre of wry poor, t{niT(>lly 
•0)1. uiMlfrlaid b; a fellon* pebbly claj-, inclining to |>ipe clsy. 
Tbe onKiDsl erowtli wwi ecrubby post oak, red and yellow oak, 
and tlie sod is piobabty the poorest on Itie furm It was in cotd 
in 18M. ft-ttilLu-d ut llu; rate ptrrucrvof 1 6n pounds of supi'r-pho*- 
phat*. 170 pounds uf (.■ottun eeeJ lui^. uod 80 puunUe uf uiuriutv 
of poUi'h. Tbe j ield wae J8 bushels of corn. The land waa wdl 
broken. April ft, with ft one-horse turn-plow, and harrowed amooth. 
April 14 it wan Inid off into Hfly-two towr, rimnlnf; onM ami west, 
and rour f(«t wido, u^ing a longr cooler, follow^ by a «hovel. 
Tbe ftM'tioii waa th«n diridf^d In th« middlo. across the rowa, and 
grouped tnio plots of three rowA each, cxteDdinjt bnlf acrow the 
acre, from the west to tbe middle line, and rrnm the middle line 
to the fttft aide. The plots were numliered from 1 lo 17, com- 
meDCing on the north aide of the went half and fxtenilJng bo thn 
aoulli tiide; then from 18 to 84, conlinuinK from the south tiide uf 
tbe e«4t hair to the north side. Tbe normal or Btandard formula 
wns : V>9 pounds super phoephate, 19,4 pounde of luuriale oT pot- 
ash, and 32.4 pounds of nitrate of soda. This foruiula was ap- 
plied 10 plots I. 10, 18, and 37. On the next tmcvecdinif plots 2, 
11, l&. nnJ 38, the pota»h was doubled, ihe other fri|irt-dii-nln re- 
tnalnin); the «ume. In the nuxt «iTiet>, plot« 3, 13, 30 and 89, ib<^j 
nitrogen was doubled, the others remaining normal. In the 
founh aeries, ploi«4. 1^. 21, and 30, iMith tlte poiaah and the ni- 
trogen were donlded, pliwphoric acid remaitiing m>rmaL In the 
Gftb ti'tien the pbottphoric acid and poliwh were doubled, nilmgen 
remaining nnrmal; und tn on Ihroogh to the eighth series. Plols 
9 and 96, nbutting each other, contained four row* each, and 
were not fertilized. Hy th'n srransement of the ploia iue- 
qualities in the character nod productlveoes* of the diiroreut pur- 
ttom of the acre were approximately adjusted or rurrecLe^t. In 
the taWe following the revuits art' gi^'en, the j ield in the casi; of 
tile unfertilized plol^ l>eif>i; ibe aveiage of two plula, and In ortty 
tAhtr case beini; that of four plots. 





rBrtUiavra Fn- Aerw. 


OoMl^r 
Aatc. 




SfriM. 


pioapfeate. 


MntlA'aoT 
Po-anli. 


MI<rat*ot 

8M14. 


Yl«ld Tor 
Acrr. 




IS* 


IV 4 


JUt 


Ii» 


7« 




IM 


ns 


mt 


ft77 


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a 


tH 


1«^ 


nt-o 


3.M 


H3I 


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IM 


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out 


848 


SH 




31:1 


i*.i 


an 


8.S8 


F.IS 




91V 


w-e 


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4.«a 


B.U 




311 


aM 


•LB 


4T1 


8-H 


. 


- 


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1 


— 


lUO 



— Dudi, like llie [ioor, wv have alwuys with us. nor has Hygeia 
with ber nen-««l linioius yet aaoceeded in l>ani«hing it. Yet there 
'» abuwtiint evidence to show that a dusty btreiL cuntairu) more 
lurkioi^ IMtenlialiliefl of mji^chief than a jungle pe<opli<d with the 
faun^est wild bcasta. To ihe rMearches c.f Mi(|uel and otbem 
can now he added, uya (he Brittah Mcflical Journal, tlie re«ulta 
of an elaborate iareatigalion by Dr. Knigi Maiifredi of the com- 
position of . Ibe dust of the ^IreelN of Naples. The number of 
nilcrobea of all kinds founit in it xnioonted on the average to 
76l,fi21.000 per gramme. R*fm«rkuble difference* in the propor- 
tion of mJi^ro- organ iiimg were, however, oi>^rved in the du»t frt)m 
different qoarten of tbe city. Thoa. in the streels lea<t exposed 
lo (M>aumi nation, that is to ray, where there was the least traffic 
and where the hygienic cimditions were most catisfacti'ry. the 
average number of micr>ibe4 in ttw dtut waaonljr 10,000.000 per 
gramme. On the other hand, in the biuieet thorough fares, the 



average rose to l.OOO.OOO.OOO, and fn aoou of tbe dirtiest lU reels to 
the enormotiA figure of 5,000.000,000 per gramme, to liii'i " i^nd- 
les-4 ocpan " of infinilesimal life, (hen' wkh a large numtwr of 
fwthouenic iWKaaidmH, and tl>e unhenltbiness of tbe mrert or 
ijuurler wiut dirt>cily proportional to the ntimber of miorolies io 
tbe du»t. Dr, Maiifredi carerully tested tbe infective power of tbe 
dust, and obtained positive mults in 78 per cent of bia experl* 
me□t<^ Of forty two cssev in wbicb be com'uunicuted dif««se to 
guioea-piga by inocuhiting tbeiu with Ni-apolilau du>t. he foDnd 
the microbe of put in eight, tbe bacillux uf nialignuut UHlcina in 
four, the tiaciling of tetauua in two. thi- tactlluH of tuU-rvuloaia 
in three, not to menliou ee\-cral otiier microscopic /era natmrxr 
po»9e«>iug the power of indudag fabul sepiicwmia in the nnfarto- 
nate giiiiit'«-piw» o" which they were tried. The moral fioJotfd 
hy these <)H(<auruging facts in that our .cGaliles should take the 
Dutch houEcwife for their example, aiMl wage rvlentle«* war 
against dust and dirt of every kind. 

— Praseenor 'William Ouy Pvck of Columbia College died sud- 
denly in Qreenwfch. Conn., on Feb. 7. aged 73 yeara. He pub- 
linhed, in 1658. " The Elcmenta of Mechanics." in 1000. an edition 
of Onn<it*8 " Physics," and was joint editor with t'liarleit Davin 
of the " Maltiematical Dictionary and Cyciofiedia uf tlie Alalhemall- 
cal Bcienoes." Ue wrote sereral other 1e>t-lx>ok« in inai hetuatica» 

— Tbe Institute of Jamaica tuis begun Ibr ["■-■ue of sjieciBl pub- 
lJ(!ation«. The Sr»t. the ■' Rainfall Atlns of Jamaica," cunlaiu-o thir- 
1«>n colored mapa Khowing tbe average rainfall in each iijontb and 
during tbe year, with explanatory text. The map* arK \n-^ 
Qpvn otwervatious made itt 153 slatioos froui about the year Iti70 
to Ihe end of the year 1889. Tbe available sialiona are irregalarly 
di»(tihulcd, being for the uiOTt part Bugar estate" and catlte- pew. 
and in con«r()ucDce of this irregularity theis<land ha^ been divided 
into four rainfall diviatons. The norlb-enstpm division has Ibe 
largest rainfall, then cunum the west central, next ibe northern, 
and lastly tbeeoutbem. The annual diatrihution of the rainraU 
varies from 30 lo .1R inches in a few places to over 100 iDch#« in 
the norl h-e.i»teni divittion, Thi* fmt<8t fall is tn Octoher, and 
the loA^t in February. The drleat atnticma are on the tmrtb>ea«lern 
and couth -eastern i^borea. Tbe mapa ahow the di-tri'»ution and 
average amount of rainfall very clearly t'V ditTcreiit tints, and 
cannot fail to be of t>oth »ck>nliflc and pra<:lical utility. Tbe work 
has been prepared, according to jVdIitre, by Maxwell Hail, Un 
govern men I mt-twirologi*!. 

— Tlie Equatorial curroDl of the PaciHc Ocean, ttrikiog agahM 
the Philippines and the ittlanda lying to tbe south of titat group, 
dividcB into two branches (The SeoUith Qeoffraphical Magatine. 
February, l80i!t. one of which turns southwards to Ibe coast of 
.Auitratin, white Ihe other, under the name of Kttro Sbiwo, or 
Black Stream. Hown p.-ut the Lia-Kiu Islands and ilie cnta.^ of 
Japan. Ciiming from the warmer equatorial regions, its watna 
have a higher teinperntiire than that of tbe m^ thioufjli u hicb it 
pawca. and hence its limits may be deleioiined by otwercatknw oC 
tem(>eraturp. lis breadth and velocity are gt«atly modiUed both 
by tite monsoons of the Chineae 8ea and hf th<< storms of Ihe Pa- 
cific In fair weather the Kuro Shi wo flows in an aimosl ttralgfat 
line from the Van Diemen Straits to Uock Island, touching 
Oshima on its way. In winter it often lies con^idfrabiy la tbe 
south of this limit, but tbe line froiu 0»hlma to Rock Ulani 
may be taken as itK northern tmuodBry. Ita course 14 marked hy 
eea-weed and drltl-wood. and aiao by the dark color t^i n-hidi it 
owea its name. From Bwk Istand it runs innt Xosima Saki into 
Ihe Northern Pocific. On the Rortl»ern e<lKe of tliJi streaot no 
current is found an a rule, though occasionally a current in tbe 
opposite direction ba>« l>een notioe<l. Between the loiw where no 
marine currents are found and tbe coavt of Japan tidal corrrnti 
occur. Tbe breadth of the zone between the Koro Slilwo and thf 
coast increases during violent northerly wimU, aud diuiinishn 
when southerly and eiuterlv wind* prevail. W hen the latter blow 
8t«adily nud with great strength, the current ?ets mare or lesa di- 
rectly onto the coast, caus-ing high tidet), and it is Ihen n o eem u j 
for ships to keep a sharp lookout. Ie«l they ahould ba drivea 
ashore. The aone of tidal carrrnlK extenda for a dinanee of Ave 
to lix nautical miles from Ihe coast, and tbeir velocity variea In 



February 19. 1892.J 



SCIENCE. 



103 



get}«nl iDveraely m Ibe hmdrh of tlii« xon». At Oahinia th« ii>)al 
Ciirreiil b «cnnetliim imp^rc^fMible, either bpcnit»p it is ovrrixiw- 
ervd hy t)ie Kutq Sfai<vo, or bec»a»e >t that titne it Sow* throogh 
llui strait boiwcvD O^falma aiv) the uibid ittand. 

— 1'he New York Industrial Building, etvcled iluriog ttie pn^t 
Tear, is luwrlr ready for uep. Ttip furnilure dealers nill be the 
flnC to nccQpy ttie buildinR, aud ollifr tradeB havf Iwdpukeii it su 
that thcr* will he a coiKmiiouf* fxhiWlion or (airs <►! varyinK 
kmda. Tho tHilldtng ts in o mrnt T.^rtunate Hitusiioti, (K-rii^yiiiK 
thi> block tMundod on the e»*t by Lf Vinson Avpaiie. *m llie wpsi 
bj Dpiww Place, on the north by Korty.fogrth Sin'cl. nnd mi the 
Miutli hy Far1>-tliirii Street, withia a fibort lilock of Ihi? freight 
depot Of the Grand (Votra) Railroad, aod wilhiti r<>acb of all tlu.- 

Ktnrt carvcuanrcliii^ with the ferries by which New York t^ ap- 

|iruK-b*d frnm Ni-vr Jersey, eie. 

— Tbe inflneiwe of sleaai on iuaf!iie(» h the subj<?ct of an iolvr- 
vMintr DOto {fi itw SrhuviifTisclte Bauz^hing, m which reference 
ii inadff to ihe reitntrches of Btrouhal aad llaro« Tlieee have 
tltown Ihni, n-jih ling e<>ittiiiu>-*| billing io aleam. niairnels loeo 
from 28 to 67 {mt oi'Dt <-t thvir power. If. nfier tliia, the magm'te 
nn reinnenpl ixed, and again PZpOAcd to the action of sleam. only 
a vi>rT Bliftbt Ina of magnetic power ta (ouod to lake plare. The 
ftperimenis whtrh have l<een made would Mem to warrant the 
ronrlueino, aUo. that after fltirh Ireatmrnt a magriel is leas liable 
to delfrloffltloD frnm m^cttaiiicnl vibration as Wf 11 aa heat In 
OD« of the experiments a 4hort ningnet wa.^ Iiolk-d In water for 
foitr houre. It uaa then maimelixed bimI h«.'ld in an atDKMfthvre 
of ateam for two hours more, after which jia mu^netic moment 
wne measured. U was Iben nubjected to fifty Ido»'« (rum a piere 
of wiiod, Inuh iranivcnclv aud I HKiludlnally. A^in uieasuriiiK. 
its tua^Tivtic lui'uifnt show -d u lust of ,|f, and, on repeutinic tliu 
bamuicrinK ^'Itli the wooileu bar. the loss was ^p of (he original 
niumeDt. In view nf Ihici, lepealetl Gleaming and mui^uetiung ia 
Tpcotnwended as a good means of aeruring permattenl inognetiEm 
in pieces of ban) steel. 

— Tbe Orang-DIu are A pKiple living tn the Miutb^in part of 
I Sumtiira, wb<i wrf vl«ited by H, J. C^aine duriog the Hiiuimerof 

1990 {Atialic IJiiarteriB Rrrirv. O-tober, 18SI). In May he ar- 
rived nt Palemhang. rormcrty tbe capital of the etiltan* of Palem- 
hang and now Ihe seat of a l>ulcb reMdent. Thii town, conlain- 
ing a population of 60.000. compo^wd of Halajo, Arabs, Chinew. 
■nd a few Earopean«, i» situated on the Kurmn Sun»ang, a l>rHncli 

^'<irtbt> Uttii. Leaving Palerabnng in Augutt, M. Cloine asoendvd 
Ibe Musi and iU afBnent. the Lt-muttang (Lamalang), lo Hurt- 
Enim (Mnnra Iniin). about 1^4 miles from Ihilpmlmni;. Two daya 
later thu land journey was commenced, and, after a few hottra' 
nsreh. the country of tbe Omnf^-lTm was enl«*red by a bridge 
gturded by a grniip of nativee. At L^hat the riirioim penk nf 
Bukih Seeelln (t;erillt>0 wan photographed, nnd »t Bandar, the 
last fortified poAC of the nutrb tiovemment. a Italt of two daya 
witf made. The country u mounlainoun and wooded, with here 
and there fine idaina. Tbe hea>]-watera of the LeuULttaiig run 
Uirougb profound gorges and a1)ore«cent ferub afford a nelcome 
•hade (lum the burning lays o( thf* nun. Boon nfti-r leaving 
Bandar M. (laine came in atght uf the rich pliiteitti of PusMimiih 

land UiD kU|ierb outlines of ibv Dfinpo. itlri>ngly mnrkxd aKai»*t 

|th« *ky. and vnnw to a halt at Pager Alam. Tbe I'lu are very 
imilor to Ibe Malays in uulward u|>peatanc« and costume, t>ut, 

' sever lia« ing adopted Moh<iiiimo*lani'm. tbey differ in their bab* 
lis. Each tillnge js governed by a Crto. or cbti'f. who weai4. at 
a algn of authority, a pair of goUl-wuven pantalooiui. provided by 
Ibc Dutch G.'ivernmcnt. IIi.4 |)ower Is very limited, all hi* nets 

[faring controlled liy the eldet^. Ttte chief occupatious of Ibe men 

rare smoking and cock dghiing. while tlie women do nil tbe hard 
work. Tbey grow rice and cocoa-nut iren). Tlie hiiwea, like 
those in other pnrlA of RumiLtra and Javn are bitilt on pile«, and 
entered by mean« of a notched bi-am. The buHlwrtd, on hi« mar- 
riag«% i*i l>oond lo enter Ihe serviiw of the wife'i family. .Mar- 
riage is celf bnited with the following curious ceremony : An im- 
uenw balance, adorned with leave*, is placed before Ibe house of 
tbe liriiJe, in one of Jt4 wooden scalea (he parente deposit fruit, 

> rice, fael, cocga-nutfi, and a Muall kid. nod in the i>llier the bride- 



groom i» lv>unil t'-) l<iy Iteforv wtinoel tbo gifl« he lUlM* M his in- 
lended. Aa Riion hh tbe »cat>- dip* in hiti favor, Ihe girt ICftve* tha 
houMe and ii|>i>nMches him, and the ceremmy io concluded by n 
feaat nnd danre. On tlw Illh uf September .M. Claine set out 
with a Dutch officer to neceDd tbe Oempow PnMlng by th? vtUage 
of GuncMig Agun, througb a region nboanding In tigera, tbey 
reached Ibe summit no the second day, and (hen. cnwsing a long 
and narrow plah-HU, aacfndi>d the Xetapt v<riGnno, visited wven 
yean before hy .Mr. U. O. FurUs. T^ barotnettr marked 0,00(1 
fiH't at the summit. Frum Paser Atnm H. Claine made a tediouB 
journey Rcrues (be Pswumab plateau to Padnnti-Bornay and Ta- 
lang-Padang, rmcKing the Hpper Mofl several tiiwa by l«nilH-> 
bridgen. At Tehbing-T>-ggi (Tlngi) h« took paiwi|:# on a rxTTi-e 
prauir. nnd descended lo P»teinbang. Tbe current Is so rapid 
that it tak<^ forty-five days to atci-od tbo rirrr, wberfaa ibtvo 
founlH of thi? descent ia accomplished in three dayo, aud Ihe re- 
mainder in four dajsand four nigbta. 

— It baa hem proposed tbrou^i the pages of the BritMi Jovr- 
nal qf PhotOffraphy that upon the advent of the twenly-tlrst birth- 
day, in 1893, nf tbe geUtino- bromide dry plate proi-ens, in pho- 
Ic^mphy. a fut«lantial and fitting tentimonlal rhuiild )w offered 
to Dr. R. U. Uaddos. the inventor, tww a veterao tnTalii. who 
baa derived no pecuniary advantage from his valuable discovery, 
which has *o largely ndvanced Ibe progrcM of phot'^graphy tn all 
its branches, and in e»cry country. For ibis purpo4e a co4nmU(t<« 
has been formetl in London, in order lo mrry out tbe scheme in 
Ibe United Kingdom ot Oreat Biilain, consiotingof Ibe foll»«ing 
geulk-mcu: Ur. Jamea tilaisbcr, F.R.S.. pmident of the i'biHo- 
graphic Society uf Qtvat Orilnin. i-hairman; Captain W. de W. 
Abney. C.B., F.B.S.. RE.. UpKira A. H. Harman. K. Ynrk. and 
8ir H. Truemau Wood, aaeisled by otheni, aa the execnlive, with 
the aid of Dr, A. Clifford Mercer. F.R,M S,, Syracuse, N.Y. For 
the furlberancpof this project tniertulioually. n fotetgn comiiiiUee 
has l^een formed in Sonlhnai pton. of the following gentlemen; 
James Lemou. Esq.. KUyor of Southampton; Col. Sir Charles W. 
Wihon, KC.B., F.R8..^R,E.. director of tbe Ordnnoce Sunrefj 
H:jiitb.ini)iton-, Major-Geoetal I. lni)i«F-Uibb«,Capla<nK*>berl Kvi 
R. N. Subocriplions can be forwarded lo (he Soutbampton Utanofa 
of tbe National and Provincial Bank of England, by check or bunk 
draft, cTOHMxl " Maddox Fund," or by puat-olBce oriler; hul, if 
preferred, they c»u l>e Bddrwwd direct to the soorvtary, Ctiarte* 
J. Sharp, solicitor, 71 French Street, Soutbampton, and will he 
acknowledged by him. 

— The otitlook for the recently diacovervd coal mines tn Ihe 
Argentine Rep^iblic is so favorable, according to Enffinfrriifi, that 
the railway companies of thai country have declined to renew 
their conirBCta with the Brltl^b mines for ftiel. Uitbertu all the 
coal burued on tbe Argentine railroads boi been imported, but it 
IB believed that the newly- disL-uven-d mines will fumisfa a supply 
Lrntirely suHicient for douiestic consumption. 

— Mail advice* from tlie Argentine Republic bring information 
of tlte discovery <>f a vaHt bed of fiUer in ilie bottom of the bay 
of Ban Bias, Argentine Repuhlic. The silver appears In the block 
nietnlHc sand which oovers ihe bottom of tbe hay. Tlii» Mnd Is 
full of Mlver pellets, and divers have hn^ght upa ^ufficieot qnao- 
lity to ja^^tlfy the belief, as stateil by tlie Buenos Ayrea Standard, 
that " the i>llver deposit in the bottom of the bay la greater than 
in the famous Bonanza mines of Califomia. ' 

— About four years ago there was inaugurated io Berlin a 
series of popukir lectures uu astronumy, illui^trau-d with iiereot^- 
ticon views. This scries has proved so sncceaoful that II hsu con- 
tinued till tbe preicnl tiaif. aud within ten days a simitar course 
bus lieen o|)ened in Ne«r York. The leclorv* are given at the 
Carnegie Miuic Hall three limn a week, and are enlttled "A Trip 
to Ihe Moon," The views shown are excellent snd mm.t certainly 
im|ire"s on tho«e seeing ihem many an iu>|><>rtunt ticl in »j<lri>o- 
omy. Tl>e matter given by the lecturer varies somewlnl as 
oooasioo may require. 

— William Draper Lewis. Ph.D., is tlie snthor of a pamphlet 
recently pnblistt«-d by tbe American Academy nf Politival and 
Soci'il Science. Tl>e life of tbe eway is >* Tbe Political Organiza- 
tion of a Modern Uunici|iality." 



I04 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 473 



lEN' 



A WEEKLY HEWSPAPSa OF AU. THE ASTS AND SPB/KES. 



FUBUSHED BV 



N. D. C. H ODGES. 

B7J Bkoadwav, Kkw Vokx. 



ScsvORiPnoKa.— ITaHvil 8t«l«ii kod Caiwd* i(,a...'...|*'M> * y^nr. 

Gi«at UrHktnttuJ Europe 1.60 k7»u. 

C»nuiiaii]i->tlons«ltlb« w<iloom#d from >ayquaM<<r. AbaitmctaolRalantlllc 
pAp«n uw Mllaltwl. ud ou bundtMl eoplo* of Uu> Imb« 00BtUiUa« iiMb wUl 
the niillMl the •iitbor ma ny(aeat la Mtvanc*. llnJe«Wd iNMiw»crl|itji will be 
retumed tn ibt> suttiorv obis' «ti«ti ib9 requlalM amouDt of poatacn aooom- 
0UlM th» manuB^iipC. Whai^rer is Intended (or inMRlan luiut bo nntlwoil- 
u»t*il l>v tiMf aMimi nod uldnm at tb*» writvr; nut necvMiarilT tot (MibllcaUnu, 
bqi M K KUKranty of (ood (kith. Wu do not bold ouraelrM KafMMtbU for 
M17 view or optnlotia ezpmtuMd in tlM aonUDualCkUoaa of oar otun^oaAeatt. 

ittcotlan la c«]li>d to iha '-WuitB" ooIuiDii. All Bra Inritvd lo lus It In 
•«Llc>lliDit lutonnativa or •coklnc now (kmIUou*. The naaui tad «ddr«*« or 
ftppllcMii* ■luiald l>n(i*<TD lo hilL ao ItiAt uiiwtiN wtUcodlroettothem. The 

KxobMH* " volninii U Uk^wlco open. 

For AdTMtMInc lUtM apply to RnBT P. TatltOK. t! lAtayette PIm>«, New 
Tnrk. 



AB8ENICAL POISONING FROM DOMESTIC FAB- 
RICS. 

PHVsiouns loug at^ assovialcd a ccrUiu class or sycup- 
tonis with the presence »f ar»euic m the wall papers of the 
moms inhabited by their patients. Of course, ao long as the 
quMtiOD wa« in this condition there was abundant room for 
mistake, antl all that had be«u observed might be explained 
by some chance coincidence. It now appears that whenever 
the class of sj'inptonu referred to are well marked lliore is 
arvenic present tn the urine. U further has been shown in a 
Dumber of cases that n-hcn the suspected wall paper n'fta re- 
moved the arsenic disappeared from the urine of the patieul, 
and the aymptom!i disappeared as well. The number of 
caKO) is larg« in which these pointa hare been made: a cer 
tain clasji of symptoms, arsenic in the wall paper, anwrtic in 
the urine of pmient^, wall ptiper remn%-ed, fimenir disappearM 
from the urine, syniptoinR disappear in proportion. 

Of course this ta not absolute proof ihat the arsenic came 
from Ibe wall paper, but, alter a lanfe number of cases of 
the same aort, the nvklence amounts bo moral proof, and it 
is rarv in nKfdiciuc to obtaio evidence that is more codcIu- 
sive. 

How lliu arwnic ifeta from the wall paper to Ibe patient is 
another question: but. although it would he satisfactory to 
estubli<)b this point, the proof of the modug operandi b not 
eneotial so far as the letial nspectx of the caxe are concerned. 
Without this lust proof it is easy lo throw dust in the eyes of 
those not verwd in such inquiries, but protective legistatjou 
has been taken affain and a^in in cases where the risk is 
far less than here. 

" The question bow the injurious effects are produced by 
■Lneniou! colors in our domestic fabrics b a moot point, sumo 
thinking it arises from arsenical dust, olbeni holding to tbe 
gaseous theory.*' ' 

■ [.Aoiurw on our Do«B«atU- rolaon*, by Henry Cmtr, Loadoa, Beallb Kiblbl- 
ika Uieretura of im, Vol. IX., p. 18*. 



A New York chemist te8ti6ed in a hee^ng on the aubject 
in Boston, " I found that a botanist named Selmt, in experi- 
menting on mould, found it produced a little hydrogen, and 
he invented the suggestion that the mould on the back of 
wall paper might produce a little hydrojfeu, which might 
unite with the araenic on the front of the paper, and produce 
arseniuretted hydrogen, which might account for tbe pupa- 
lar idea that antenical wall paper was dangerous." 

This " butanisl named Selini," who may have the advan- 
tatte of a knowlt^liff of that science also, is an Italian chem* 
iat of firstclasa reputation, who hai* lieen publishing his 
work for at least eighteen years since 1671, and has devoted 
himself lately more especially to physiological chemistry. 
He is mentioned in Henry Watls's "Dictionary of Chemis- 
try," Third Supplenieoi. p. 182 (1879), by this reference, "On 
the detection of Arsenic in Tosicological InvesiigtitioHS, see 
Seluii (Gazz. Chim. Ita)., II. 641)." An interesting paper 
has lately been issued hy the Italian Ministry of the Interior 
from the scientific lahoratoriee of the Bureau of Health, un- 
der the direcliou of Pmfossoni A. Monari and A. Di Vestea, 
prepared by uoe of Selmi's couutryweo. Dr. B. Gosio, a«n»> 
(ant in these laboratories, the following translation of which 
I um sure will interest your readers and assist in tiie solntioo 
of this problem. Gboruk 3. Hux. 

Action of Microphytes on Solid Compounds of Arsenic: A 
Recapitulation, by Dr. B. Gosio.i 

U IB well boowu that, under certniu conditions, poisonous 
producu may be developed from wall papers and tapestries 
colored with arsenical colors (Scbeele's green. Scbweiufurth's 
green), and experience has repeatedly demonstrated the seri- 
ous evils that may arise from their use. 

Bui as lo the internal mechanism by which the said col- 
oring-matters become hurtful, many doubts remained, and 
00 certain points perfect obRcurily. Tbe idea advanced by 
Selmi met with favor, vi?... that poisonous gases may in such 
cases be produced by the vital processes of microphytes; but 
in view of the small range of his experiments (some of which 
gave results adverse lo his theory although Iried on a large 
scale) the preference is piven. on the whole, lo the theory of 
William Fontter. He says that wall-hangings and tapestries 
containing arsenical colors are poisonous by reason of tbe 
solid particles that are uiechanically set free from them and 
penetrale the organism when inhaled in tbe form of 600 
dust. The same ctmclusion was reached by Giglioli of Na- 
ples after eight months of ex)>eririteiit on mould-cultures in 
earths (both solid and broken up in water), mixed with ar- 
senious anhydride; and he explained his ill success by say- 
ing that probably arsenic is not compatible with the life of 
those ueraie that would he capable of developint; hydrogen, 
•nd, therefore, the rwluring mechanism was wanting. 

On the other hand, the partisans of the parasite theory, 
while they draw from their observations only general crite- 
ria, have not been able, thus far. to point out what micro- 
organisms are peculiarly AuiLed to brinff about the modiBca- 
tions of suhBtauce to which they refer; nor have they deter- 
mined whether all the componods of arsenic, or, if not all. 
which of them arc most susceptible of these niodlBcations. 
Thus, Bischoff relates that it was noticed that from a mixture 
of Hour and common white arsenic (which had been used la 
poison a horse for purpotMS of revenifo) a gas was developed 
which had the smell of garlic and the characteristics of at* 
seniuretled hydrogen. But he neither stales how it was found 

' Tbl«atudj wMioaBimutilcatod liiBdT«tic« uiUi«laatCoogr«aaor Bjctaoa, 
bald Id [fooiloa, wber* (bo pr«pu-Mloaa were aUo axlilbltad. 



February 19, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



10$ 



posrible 10 verify tbift pbcoomenOD, nor coald Ihis facl serve 
to vatabjisb our propmitiou; for in bis cue tbe subsUitce in 
quMlion was arsenmua AcJd, while tbe colors used in dyeing 
are tuItA of ibit iieid, generally with a cupric base (St>b9«Ie'a 
•nd dcfaweiufurib'* greens), or iiiulpiitda of arMuic (rejilgar, 
orpiuient). And it is obviuua Ibat thi? circumstance is not 
trreI«Tant; for arMinlc or Hnteniuus actd may be compatible 
with tbe life of certain leerin-t while arspnite of copper may be 
incompatible, and, iud<*ed, would at Srst sight appear to be 
so, if ire consider tbe well-known antiseptic action of the 
sails of tbis metal. 

Hence, in order to prove that tapestries which contain ar- 
aeaical colom can become poisonous by reason of the Lrans- 
formation ot the colormo^-niatter itK^If into volatile poisons 
as u rt-Mult of lh» biolo^icitl acltviiy of the microor^nisms 
that vegvlate in contact witli it, it is uecessary to prove tbat 
ibese Hiicro organisms can exist with and d» Iraneform pre- 
cisely Ihow colon which are used in tai>e8tri«s. 

Mr esperimenta hrinjr a ronlribntion to tbia interesting 
question of hygiene and toxicology. Tbu r««ull« ob(aine<1 
allow us to detnmine not merely whether from solid com- 
pounds of arsenic and frooi which of Ihetn (arsenious acid, 
arsenic acid, arsenites, arsentatesj it is possible, through the 
action of microphytes, to develop arseniuretted hydrogen gas 
or volatile arscDO-orgaiiic products, but also to determine 
what spoctea are pre-eminently suited to produce tbis trans- 
formation. In the Bret place I prepered aome potato pulps 
coDtaining from 0.05 to 0.1 of arsenious anhydride to 1.000 
of pulp. These, distributeil in several broad Petri cap«ulc«. 
were kept for some days uncovered in a cellar. Boon the 
growth of moulds and of tbe common bacteria of tbe air was 
very abundant, and at the end of one week a strong smell 
of garlic began to be perceived, showing that gaseous nrseai- 
obI emanations were Inking place. The cultures were then 
placed in a large damp chamber, from which, by means of 
an automatic pump, a continuous current of air was drawn, 
and ibis was made to bubble up during about two weeks 
through a solution of nitrate of silver. A slroog reduction 
nf this salt, together with the formation, in Sfarsh's appara- 
tus, of arsenical rings uud 8|k>18 obtained from the liquid 
after tbe elimination of the silver, were the imiisputable 
proofs that tbe cultures had developed a reducing arsenical 
gas. 

While this viva a positive indication of great value in 

tcbing a conclusion, other arsenical pulps in which also 

erms of many species bad been developed gave no evidence 

having undergone a similar decompoeiliou. This diapor- 

of results, if on the one band it justiHes tbe discordant 

iclustons reached by the various investigators, must, on 
be other hand, necessarily be accounted for b,v Ihe generic 
Iversily of the germs developed in the two cnllurea. since 
all the other couditions of teiiii»eralure. humidity, ntmos* 
phcrr, nutrition, etc.. had remained unrbanged. And here 
began tbe work of separating tbe germs and the series of 
experiments on pure cultures, of which I will treat in detail 
in my larger work. Of tbe germs thus isolated some belong 
to tbe mould«, nther* to tbe schieomyceles; among tbe former 
I note penicilliuni glaueum, aspergillum glaucum, and, 
above all, as greatly preponderating in tbe mother culture, 
mucor mocedo. I would also have endeavored to ascertain 
exactly the species of other moulds and of the other sapro- 
pbylcs. if I bad found them capable of bringing about the 

iportaut transformations to which I refer, whicb was not 
case. 

Ntverlheless. each of tbe gorme obluiued in pure culture 



and others also which are most commonly kept in Ihe labora- 
Ue« (B. radiciforme, B. prodigiosum. B. subtile, yellow sar- 
cina, etc.) were cultivated separately in sterihMd pouto 
pulp rendered arsenical by 0.05 gmius per 1,000 of aneuie 
acid. The cullurei were kept at the tem|wmiure of the sur- 
rounding air (SO^'-tT^ C), and io diffused light. After one 
month of observation 1 was able to ascertain Ibal the pro- 
duction of arsenical gas (indicaleti by the characteristic gar- 
lic smell f had taken place only in tbe cultures of mucor 
mucedo and (in a far less degree) in that of aspergtllum 
glaucum. It was not perceived iu any of tbe other cultures. 

In view of these facia, Bjiecial importance atlftchea to mu- 
cor mucedo, a mould very widely ditfusted in our atmosphere 
and capable of reducing remarkable <|Uiintitieii of arsenic 
acid, as I have been able to make sure by strict chemical r»- 
searcbes on the abuodaul cultures carried on in preaenoe of 
arsenic anhydride and of alkaline arseaiatee. 

In another teries of experiments, inteudiug to follow out 
the practical direction tbat I bad adopted, I inquired whether 
tbis activity of tbe mucor could b« extended to tbo»e prepa- 
rations of arsenic which the art of dyeing utilizes io the col- 
oring of papers and baogiogs in general. To tbis end the 
cultures were carried on in tbe presence of Scbeele'n green, 
Scbwcinfurth's green, realgar and orpiment. 

Without here dilating on tbe course of each separate ex- 
periment and on the method of chemical investigation pur- 
sued (a thiug which 1 will do in my forthcoming publica- 
tion) I wilt sum up my matter in tbe following corolla- 
ries: — 

1. Mucor mocedo tolerates remarkable quantities of arsenic 
not only without iujury. but with advantage to its uutrilioii, 
for it grows more vigorously. 

'I. Many solid compounds of arsenic are, through the bio- 
logical activity of tbe fungus that vegetates in couluct with 
them, transformed into gaseous combinations, of which ar- 
seniurelted hydrogen is certainly one. 

3. This transromialioii is brought about more or less rap- 
idly, but is coniilaut and la&liug in the case of all tbe oxygen 
compounds of arsenic, including arsenite of copper, which is 
tbe basts of tbe green arsenical colors used iu dyeing. U 
does not appear to take place in the case uf the sulphidi of 
arsenic (realgar, orpinienll although tbe presence of these iu 
the cultures is not at all detrimental. 

4. Id given conditions of humidity, temperature and light, 
aracoicai gases may be ffiveo off from hangings colored with 
Ucheeie's and Scbwcinfurth's greens, through Ihe vegetation 
of the mucor (I cauuot say ;et whether of all \h«> mucorioi): 
hence the danger to those who live in such an almoftphere. 

This statement of mine does not, of course, exclude the 
pO(»ibility tbat itoisoning may be caused throogb inhaling 
the fine dust, as William Korster thinks. But it is evident 
that this could only bap^ien as an exception, inasmuch as 
one essential condition of the production of tbe Bue dual is 
a. certain degree of dryness of tbe walls to which the papers 
adhere, whereas we have seen that tbe poisonous character 
of arsenical hangings is geoerally favored by a certain de- 
gree of humidity and can be suspected from a more or less 
intense smell of garlic in atmuspherea which ausweir to the 
above-mentioned conditions. 

I cannot yet say whether the product of the action of mu- 
cor mucedo on the oxygen compounds of arsenic is entirely 
arsenturelted hydrogen. I have reason to think that it is 
not. By the action of alkalies 1 have, io facl, constantly 
succeeded in setting free a volative substance smelling 
strongly of garlic from tbe silver solutious euiployed to oxi- 



106 



dtse lliQ assumed AsH, drvrliipi'd by tli<^ cullurc^. The ens 
B4) obhiinf J. nlieii burned by oxtd<> of copper, ruriitsheo an 
abundauc« nf COg : but il is not poesiblc, thus far, lo raach 
any piwilivi* cx^nclusiunx on ih'n poiiil, nor even lo exclude 
Ihe Riispirion tlifit ihe rorniation of the CO, niuy depend mi 
Ibe admixture of 8onie othfi- bytlrocarbon e»». This poiuL 
will be made clfariT by tbe apei!i!i) studira that T have un- 
dcrUlcen tojrellipr with Dr. Qorioi. fur wbicb I am roakinc 
use of a larg« cultuiv ninlrml. 



A PKORLEJT IN PHYSICS. 

In Science tot Nov. SS, 1S90. thfrc was u short note on the 
txperimeut coiiducled by Joule, iu whirh xir cnmprestted in 
one cylinder was allowed to expand inlo an exliaUHtedcytia- 
der. It wait shown that the only work done by the com- 
^pressed air wnB that of imparting a velocity to its own parli- 
cJea. i.e., il did not expand ajiaiaH a resislaure, and bence 
Che ebillinff produred waft sliifht. This rxperiuieni has not 
reoetred the attention it deserves, and, tnoreorer. il seems to 
ihve been eulirely miAinlerprclcd. Il haa bM^n sugj;e«ted 
I, while at the llrsl iiitttaiit on opening eonimunication be- 
[■Iween ibe two vessel.*, ther<» is an exp^nftion inlo a vacuum 
and uo work done, yi>t ai the very next inalaul tbere is oir 
in Ibe previously cxhaualed cylinder, nnd Ibere is work done 
in coniprt^sinfr that This is a serious fallacy, and lies at 
the hutloui dT the uiisinlerpreULtiou. It is very certain that 
no work against a resistance is done at any moment during 
the ctpauBtou This experiment is so rar-rcQchiue iu iu ap- 
plication, and 19 no extremely important, that I desire lo 
diacass il a little furiber. and I Kinceirly trust lliat some one 
in a suitably-equipped Inboralory may be induced to try a 
few simple experiments in this line. 

Tyndall has Hbown that mere rarefaction is not a source of 
cold, though this is Miinewhat of a popular fallacy. Let as 
take a cylinder with u piston lilted air-tight and moving 
without friction. I<et lis consider that there is no loss of 
beat from the interior nor accession frotu the outside. Sup- 
pose Ihw piston is raised auddenly from bottom to top. A 
perfect raninm will he frtrmetl : hut, as no work has been 
done below the pivloit, Iheri' will Iw ho cooling elTecl; all 
the work and conseqnenl henliog would be at the engine, 
which may communicate with Ibe cylinder, though a huD> 
dred feot away. Now. stipp<vte a Tcry thin film of air .001 
of an inch thick were at the bottom of Ibe cylinder. When 
the vacuum was formed this thin Qlin would impart a veloc- 
ity to its particles in order that they might follow the piston, 
but this air certainly would not expand against a resistance, 
and hence the chilling nould be exceedingly slight. Sup- 
pose the piston should be at a point halfway fron) lop to 
bottom; when il was miscd the air bcticatb would imparl a 
certain velocity to it« particles in following the piston, hut 
here again Ibere would be no expansion against a resistuuce, 
odU hence the chilling would be slight. 

IjCi us change the conditions slightly. Instead of having 

ttie air at atmospheric pressure lienealh Ibe piston, us in tbo 

last cane, let it be at double Llmt pressure. On lifting the 

piston as before we huva taken off the pressure and the air 

beneftth inipnrts a certain velocity to its particle in following 

the piston. At the flriit inntant thai the pi.<it()n starlK there 

I may be a very slight expansion against a resistance, but ihat 

I would be momcutury. The bulk of the cooling would, as 

' before, be due lo the fact that a velocity is imparted to the 

prtrlicles beneath the piston, and. in this case, this velocity 



would be given to a greater number of particles than before. 
The coiding would be slightly greater, alto, but it would nnt 
be due to the loss of beat eonaequcnl upon the work of n- 
pandiiig against a resistance. 

In order Lo compnte the cooling in such coses as them, a 
fonuula has been used which will be found in (he Ameneoni 
Ueteoroloffieal Journal for November, 1890, p. 330, as 
lows: 

2< / « \ -Bl 



To this T and T are the ahso!u;e tcmpemtur«s correspooStng 
to p and p'. U seems to me. however, that this formula is 
not applicable iu Ibis case; for it gives a greater cooling, lb» A 

p n 

less tiie work that is dooo. Suppose — ^ }• the cooling by 

P' M 



the formuU'WouId be 3ft°; if — =: ^ Ihe cooling would be 

P 

P 
IfH" ; and if — = 0, or the expansion waa in a vacuum, the 

/'' 
eo^rling would be 490^. Now, by the principles already 
enunciateil. if the expansion Icnk place in u vacuum there 
would be uo evpansiou against a resistance, nud beace there 
would be no work done except in imparling a certain veloc- 
ity to the particles. If the formula fails in tlie last case, 
must also fail in all Ihe others. It seems to me that the for- 
mula is only iutPuUi-d lo be us.d iu cases where there is an 
expansion against a mistauce, and not in tha case* bete 
given, 

A question has come up recently which may be partly an- 
swered by this discussion. It ia this: What will be the cool- 
ing due to the expansion of gas in a balloon if it should as- 
cend very suddenly to several thousand feet above tbeeanhf 
Suppose the balloon were inslaully put into a perfect vacu- 
um, and the envelope had no resistance; there would he no 
expansion whatever agatust a resistance, tts we have just 
seen, and the only work perforiTied would be that of impart- 
ing a certain velocity to iho particles of gas. As a result 
Ihe gas would be slightly chilled, but vastly leas than if il 
had expended against a resistance. Now, if the balloon had 
beeu Buddeuly placi.-d ul a point where the pressure wss ten 
inches, or one-lhirtl that at the earth, the came prioriplm 
would apply: the only work done would be in iinparliug a 
ccruin velocity lo the particles of gas, and in consequence 
there would be only a slight obitliug. 

I should be very glad if aome physicist would kindly solve 
the following problems. 

1. Given an exhausted cylinder of certain dtoteusjoo! 
how much would the air be healed if allowed to enter witb 
out noise, and until the pressure was tbc same as that oui 
sidet 

2. What would be thecoolingof a perfect gas in a balloon 
one-third full, if the pressure on the outside were suddenly 
reduced from thirty inches to ten inches, the teinperature of 
the outside air remaining constant, the envclQ|io of ibe bal 
looa being without weight aud iuUuilety Itexiblet 

U. A. Hazkln. 



! 



I 



TiiOKAS WuiTTAKBR anouunoea a volume by Frederick Satm- 
ders (of the Aator Ubraryl, enlilled " Tlie Story of the Diecor« 
of Ll»e New World l>y Columbus," the same hetng lui abrldgmri 
from the latest authorities. It will be in illustrated quarto. 




i 



EBRUARY 19. 1892.J 



SCIENCE. 



107 



PROFEftSOB GEIKIE ON THE GLACIi^L PERIOD. 

OS Nov. 12 ib« Ediiibur^li (Vot'^icat Society lidil iis 
aoDtvenarT uieetiriK-, ml nlnrh ProffMor OeikK> ile]iv<>red 
his pmiileotiil oddrpw. the subject beto^. "Buppuerd Causes 
of tlw Glucia) Prritxl.' Tbe letUirer began by rnnarking 
ihit, ultbougb tbe Kubject of hit aildrew had frequently be«o 
canvftwed, tbe last word bad uot vp! b«vn »aid. Tbe quev 
liAn of ibe ctin«« or causes nf the Too Ago was indeed a hard 
Dti«. and be wos not going lo advance any norel Apeculatioo 
or hypothesis on Ibe stibjecL His object was rather to es- 
aminr cprtaiii viows, which, after having been abandoaed as 
uiiVoiiatilr, bnd again iMvn put forvrard to account lor the 
phnnonieDa tif the glacial period. Before alteni]ittng to 
oriUciw tbeae vkitft it was obrioualy nec««aat7 to ascertain, 
in the first place, whal roncliiatnn» )ii]d been arrived ul with 
rvgard lo thi^ climatic i.'ondilioii» of |>l»ciAl or Pleislix-fne 
and pottt-glacifl) timea. We must fint have an adequate 
conception of those cooditiotis before we could exliinate tbe 
value of any theory of ibeir origin. The climatic conditions 
of the PleiKloceae were then considered. It was sIiowd that 
at iheclirodX nf the tio called glaoiiil period the lino of por- 
euuial snow in Kurope was depressed for not less Ihtin 3.5(iO 
feet on an averafte. To bring about ituch a depression the 
mean annual lemperaturc mu^t have beta lowered 10'' or 
thereabout. 

Full consideration of all the glacial phenomena led lo the 
foUowinji cuucluatous: (1) That tbe cold of the glacial pe- 
riod uaaa general pbenomenoti due to some widely acting 
cause — a caust- Huflicient to inllutiiice contemporaueuusly 
Ibv rlioiftte of Europe and NoMli AmericA. (?) That g1a< 
ciu:iun in nur continent increased in intensity from eset to 
mni. and from south to north. (3) That nhere oow we 
have the greatest rainfall, in glacial times the greatest sitow- 
fall took place. 14) That in the extreme south of Europe, 
and in North Africa and South-weMern Aaia, increased rain- 
precipiljition ucconipanted lowering of tomperalure — from 
whkh it might be inferred that precipiiatton in glacial tiniea 
waa greater, generally, than it in now. 

Tbe remarkable cliniatic cbannes of the glacial or Plet«lo 
CWJe period were next cODsidered. It had been proved that 
ttw period was interrupted certainlyuoce — perhaps, as many 
gei^logists maintained, at least twice- — ^ by what were known 
aa inter glacial conditions. The evidence of this waa treated 
in couaidei-abic detail, and the character of the tnter-|;liicial 
climate wus described tia liein}? markedly tem(>erute and gen 
iai. There could t>e 00 doubt whatever that the Pleistocene 
period was ebantcteriied by ereat o^illatious of clioiate — 
extremely i-old and very genial coiiditiona ultemaluiK. The 
evidence of the post glacial lieds showed likcwiite ibnl these 
had l>eeu ui-cuniulated under ttimtlar, but tntieb leai) marked, 
alternations nf cold and temperate rliniateH. Lastly, atlen- 
tioo was directed (o tbe fact that both in Pleistocene and 
poAt-glacial times changea in tbe relative level nf land and 
sea hud taken place. 

Any suggested ezplanslion wbicb did not fully account 
fur tbew various climatic and eeogmpbical oonditions could 
not be satisfactory. Tbe view which bad met with consid' 
ernble acceptance, especially by American geologisla. was 
Uiat which attributed tbe phenomena of glacial times to ^reat 
movements of the earth's crust. Professor Gelkte then pro- 
ce^ed Lo exauiiuo that "earth movement hypothesis" in 
detail. He pointed out that in tbe first place there was not 
Uie least evidence of great continental elevations in tbe 
northero bcmiaphere, such as the hypothesis postulated. 
Kazt, be abowed that even if the desiderated earth- move- 



inenia were adrailled, they would not account for the pha- 
nomenii. Kacb of the several applications of this Mrtti- 
movement hyjiolheKis was criticised in succession, with the 
result (bat they itere all found inodequate. Neither {crest 
elevation of the northern lands alone, nor such elevation 
nocompanied by subooerKeuce of tbe Isthmus uf Panama and 
tbe deflection of the Gulf Btream, would scconnt fur the |»e- 
culiar conditions of tbe Ice Aj;e. Tbpse changes, uu doubt, 
would profoundly affect Ihi^ maritime ref[ion4 of North 
America and Europe, but they would not reproduce thecnn* 
diticns that obtained at tbe climax of tbe Ice Age. Auother 
objection tn tlic earth -movement hypiilhesig was ihia, that it 
did not account for interglacial cunditiona. The advocata 
of that hypothesis imagined that those conditions would su- 
perveue when the highly -elevated oorthern regiouB were de- 
preaied to their present level, and when the Isllimus of 
Panama reappeared. But these were preciaoty the conditions 
ibat obtained at tb^ present time, and yet in spite of them 
the climate was neither bo equable nor bo genial oa that 
which oblsined in inter-glacial timM and during the mild 
stage of tbe succeeding ptKl-glncial period. Tlie eanh- 
wovement by|K>tbesis must be rejecle^i, uol only because it 
was highly improbable timt such wonderfully rhythmic 
elevations and depressions of high uorlbcrn lands and of the 
Isthmus of Panama cnuld hare taken plsce, but chietty be- 
cause it did not explain the oundiliona of the glacial jieriod, 
while it practically t|rnoraI those of interglacial timra 

Profe.'tsnr Geikie neit considered iho projfs of formeraub- 
mergence which are so abundantly met with in temperate 
and northern latitudes, and disruswd tJie various views 
which have been advanced to account for the fuels He 
concluded his address bj ooasideriug an objection which had 
been urged agsinst the physicAl Ittcory uf the glacial (hthmI 
as advocated by tbe late James Croll. This objection was 
based on certuiu estimsies of the mtc uf erosion of river- 
vnlleys, the acrumnlMlion of alluvial deposits, and so forth, 
from which it was sought to show that only some 7,00U or 
10,000 years had elapsed since the close of theglticial |Mrriod. 
The coQsidemtion that, if this contention were true, it would 
briui: tbe close of the Ice Age dowu (o tbe dawn of civilisa- 
tion iu Ee'ypt was rather stortliug, to say tbe least. Tlie 
foci was. however, that all sucbesLimati-s, however carefully 
made, were unreliable. Dr. Crotra theory might some day 
be supplanted by one wore salisfoctory, but it would not be 
overturned by niggling and luconclutivc meaouremcnts of 
that kind. That theory holds iho tletd in giving the sim- 
plesl and most cansislent interpretation of the climatic vide- 
siludes of tbe Pleistocene and post glacial periods, while it 
is the only one that throws any light on the very remarka- 
ble conditions that obtained during inter glacial limes. 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 

••a Oorrt^atUlstUt or* rw^MMfid to b« at iritf at poaMM*. Tkt wHIrr't imms 
U in atl iMttM rt^fna Mpn^fOffodfaiVi. 
Ok r<>vt<m( t% mltaiiM*. ixm Aowifnid enpin if tkm uttmtttr oottrofnfnv kit 

TV oliror ttiU be sfiuf (0 p*MItK ana qmeria* cosJoiMnl »flh tk« ehom«trr 

The Loup Rivers ia Nebraska. 

IltRiar me lo submit throiiKb your oalnmns lo PrafeNK)r Hioka 
tlip f'lllon-ing ifucstinne and commr^tM on hio aroeplable actnani 
ut the l>jup ami I'lslte Kivem in Scintr* foe Jan. '^0 Inttl. 

The topORraphic maps of tbe rpgion in qnasiion arc ton inoun- 
pte4e for one to learn much from thnn cortceminft the piMvtit 
cunditfou of the river vaUejs; but fmni funeral ilpscriptions of 
that part of tbe countrj' sod from ibe >>rief menlioo by |'n»rp«M)r 
Hictta of llie " cltanneli excavated from flfl* to two hundred feet 



lo8 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 



In sort tortiarr mflrl«**it mar be inF^rted that tbp Mrenras ore 
B advanced in iheir pteseoi cycle of develispoaenl. ftofftmr 
UickB pofitalat«6 that at the tiej^nniog of the ciurent cycle of 
river history, the art-eral branclMs or tbe Lou(> Rivn' alt pursued 
inrlppendeot conrses to the Platte. Tbe ortgiti uf IhuM- i«rly 
courMV U not stot^l; whethor Ihey weie conMw|iit»it on the alanl- 
loj; sorfftcc of t\w twtiary tuarW, or •rtieth^^r tlwr W|irewnl«i the 
ttnslly adapted podlioos of old ri«er» ot a previous cycle of 
Rrowth. 

Old riv«r9, revhed by the uplift of the plaioa into a oeiv cycle 
of itrowlh are i.'oii]iiion enouKli '« tlie wertwni country, and per- 
I bapi t))(* Pluttf nut] Loup mfl,v be of that kiixl ; but, if hi, it dor-e 
. not eeniu iK>iiSihlt: to t^iplaiu thp prt^wiit cour-e of llu- uiuin L >up 
Wrer u rcHulling from a reconl capture of its several nonh-wc«t 
branchee. River captures >»ccur dahni* lite early maturity of a 
river syetem. If Ihe Plattn and the Iy)np nre revived frnm the 
old etaf;e of a prevloos cycle, the cnptnrea should have taken 
place In the earlier jiart of that cycle ; and when the river courses 
had thus liecom<^' well adJuMed, they would be inainlained even 
after uplift and enirance Into another cycle, untca* df«ttiictly now 
condition* were tlwtvby introduced. The possibility of tht* will 
b« ootiaidfied in a later larafC'^pl'- 

U tiie river» are not now in a Hecond cycle of ilevelopmetit, but 

are in thi'ir fimt cycle, having firat laken their coun>« when tli<^ir 

.Ivgion row fr<^oi the walets in which it^ Mlrata wrrr ilc(><wited, 

' And hurini; vinery then done nothing more than cut their shallow 

trencheB to the geoeral UDhrokeo surface of Die country, then ive 

muBt ask whelhi-r their initial cour'^ee must hnve lieen in llie 

nrrangeinent postulated by Profeseor llicka, or whether they may 

from Che hegintiinf; have bad courses <H«entially on their 

^rewot lines of How. Tbi» latter alternative appenni to be iodi- 

['Catcd at the end of Professor Uicks's article, if I read it aright. 

lAMUminK that the last great tertiary lake not only submerged the 

f vEren of the Lnup Kiver, hut spread ita Incuatfine HedtmeDta over the 

surface so a» to olililemte any channel:* of earlier date, then on 

the diwppearance of the liikr, tbe river* would Iw n*iwlj deveU 

oped on the faint slopes of its deposit?. The Platte, bringing 

down silt in Inrce amoiiut, njay h.iv^ been at timt lioiu a cooslruo 

tive livrr, busied in buildinK up a broad delio like flood-plain, 

(uither and further out oq the lacustrine deposits an they w*« 

rerealed. If so, it would turn ltd lateral tributaries dowa-«trviim. 

and the exiatiDic orrangvmvat would be produced without the aid 

of headwater crO:<iou and capture. Uence, until the prucxiee of 

flood-plain deflection is excluded, it does not hevm necessary to 

Include ilie process of headwater enwion and c-tpliire. 

But even if tt be supposed tImt the course* of the rivera ut the 
bfglltning of the present cycle were arranged as p04tulated by 
Profeasnr Hicks, and that all of them from the Braver to the 
South ty^'Up entemi directly into the Flatt«, it Heems iuijKMMible to 
eiplaio their |Mvw>nt arranxemeut by the Iiendwat4>r eruaion and 
piracy of the Loup. The oondiiions for *o j^ystetnattc a prL>w«» do 
col 0(;cur ill the regiun uuder cunatd^raliun, as will appear from 
the folluwiDg anslysU. 

In the first place, it ie important to remember that tt U not tbe 
river but the little trickliiit; headwater streaujs on the »lo|ieii of 
theduides that do the capturing in caus of the kind here die- 
ciu"ied. Tiie capture qS one river by another, or lateral ulMrmo- 
tiou, a^ ileacribeil by Gilbert lu bU raoHt orii^inul examiimiion of 
thi» problem in biu rejiort un the Qenr.v M»unt>iin<i is a <-om|uira- 
tively rare occurrence and ia not applicable here. 

In Uie second pla:«, csptnre by liiile hejulwaiera U moA oom- 
I mon in regionH of lilted rnclcs of varieii hardncAH, and on the 
.headwatt^rt of " HuUwiittent " streams; that is, alreams whose 
bead water -growth i» d^pvndent on the opportunity given by the 
weathering of some especially weak ftratum, along whoee strike 
tbe stream extends. Noauch special opportunity has been offered 
to tbe Loup River in this region of horizontal beds. 

In tbe third place, as one hea/lwater stream grows, all other 
adjacent boadwalet* of tbe name kind icrow at about the samo 
pan. Hence, if the Loup Ritor ba» so j^reutly extended itself b^ 
heatTwater ero<ion, all the other hvudwaler streama uhould have 
grown alecand thp cuuntrv ihereabouts would be much more dis- 
sected by channeli than it now is. 



Hbally.'tbe location uf Praiffe Creek seems to contnidict the 
auppoeiiLon that tbe branches of Loup Kivn ever joined the 
Platte directly; for, if they had, then Prairie Creek must be, like 
the auppO'ttd extentiion uf the LAup, an example of headwater 
eroiion ; and this i» not to be thought of in a stream so syatemalj- 
cally located Iwtw^en two parallel and larger river* in a dislricC. 
of hriri3«>nt»l h<^s. 

Taken all together, it doe« not seem necessary to give any e*-\ 
peeial emphosi:! to headwater erosion and capture in this rivei 
eyHtctu. The tuUural result of es^'ewilve depotHioa along the 
Plalle. as described by Profe«sor Iti^ks. is alon* suflteivnt to ac- 
count for the present arrangement of tbe streams. The growth 
of the PI ttie flofHj-plsin may have dammwl back some of its tribu- 
taries. a9 riTLiin brancbefi of the Red Ifiver in Loniiiana are 
dammed hack und converted into shallow lake^; and Ihe preaent 
main Loup River would then lie develttped by lateral overfiow 
along tbe margin of the flood-plnln; bitt thii is quite another pro- 
oess from headtvater eroatoa and captUfr. 

These su^i^^tioas are only tentative; for not having seen tbe 
region »nd liaviuK no full account of il» geological history or of 
tti topography, I can only auhmit tii«m for criticism. 

W. M. DatsbwJ 

Harvard OoIl<>ga, Peb. 10. 



Origin of the Frigid Period in the Northern Hemisphere. 

In my letter, publiT>hed in your issue of Oct. 16. I »tat4-d that 
the iudeiieodent circubitiuu of the suulhern ocean water* wa< the 
main rau^e of ice-aheets forming on the landa i-itunt«d in tbe high 
IflCitudefl of the southern Itemt9phere; and that such currents were 
caui4ed by the strong westerly winds, which blew tlie surface 
waters of Ihe southern ocean constantly around the globe, and 
tbu4 prevented the tropical surface currents from largely ontering 
its wfttem. Conaequentlr, through Ibis cause und the ooastant 
gathering of ice in tbe antarctic regions the temperature of the 
southern latitudes was -liowly lowering; aud that Ihe growing 
coldness would continue until the iKHitbern ic* sbfKts filled lb* 
Cape Horn channel and prevented tbe furtht^r independent moie- 
uent of the southt>rD oceau waters. This being accomplished, the 
westerly winds would blow the mrfsce waters of the sea awny 
from Ihe cuslern side of the icv-fcrtned Isibmu* and tbe soutt 
landii of Suuth America, aud ho cauw a low sea-level, that wuuM 
attract IheiiurfHce wuleni of the tiopicul »easfar iatothosuulberi 
latiiiiiie?. aud thus in time furnish hujt suiHciuot to melt the 
from the southern lands I nlso stated that an ice period oould 
not l>e perfccteil in Ihe northern hemUphrre without ibe assistaitoe 
of cold deritert from a frigti period in the southern healsphere. 
The independent circulation of the arctic waters is not complete, 
owing to land ob<<trt)ctiofM; l>ut it in able to largely pri>vent tlie 
tropical Qulf Strenni waters from entering tbe higher norther 
lalilude*. The prrvHiling westerly winds blow the aurface water 
of the AtUntic mvay from the eavtwrn mbore of North Amerir 
from Georg tit to Lutirndur; consequently the low KM-level tliue 
cuutrcd attracts Ihe high-level tTO|iical waters of tbe Oulf of Max- 
!co thi'0U)4h the f loriJK channel well iDto the aortberu latitudes; 
and during tbe same time tbe westerly winds which blow tbe sur- 
face waters of the Atlantic nway from the American coast are alaa 
cauuiug a hitch ftea level on the aeos abreast oorth-westcro Europe, 
whi4:h creates a return current through the Arctic Ocean, puasiag 
thmugh the «uveral blratls leuding tniii BafKna Buy. and alxo down 
the eastern ciHist of Urpenland. Tbiu the ocean waters of Ibe 
high northern latitu Its inalnfain a partly iode[Kndent circulation, 
which itervcs to crowd the (lulf Stream away f n)m tbe higher lati- 
tudes, and thuM lower the t»mpe-ratnre of the arctic regmna. 
Through this excluoioo of tropical waters, glaciers bare foftr»eil_ 
on (Jreeoland and other arctic sborea ; and these glaciers are proba-fl 
biy slowly increasing, as every iceberg launched from tbe frigid 
lands and tloaCed to the Oulf .StreBm lowers somewhat the tem- 
perature of the north Atlantic, and so causes conditions more 
favorable fur largi-r accumulatJous of ice. Still it is probsble that 
II northern ice periwl could not be |ierfected by this process alone 
i^hduld the tropii^at and scnlhem oceans maintain their ^Mvaent 
temperiture. But with the aRsiAance of a frigid period in the 



February 



SCIENCE. 



109 



■oulimn bMateplMn to cool tbe okiid watvn and still rnnber 
lower tb« lMup(mt«u« of tliu Gulf Stmoi, and ilw tbe tropkkl 
oanvDCi of ibeoreaoe, inclwJioK tbi; urvat Japaome corrpnu tho iot 
pniod of bMh hptnigpheres would b« bnnigbl nbuut durUig tbe 
Minr CTK. Par it Li well kuoivn 10 thwc wbn have stadied tbe 
HjbJTH-t tlwt tbe Oulf .Stream derirea a lar^ portico of itA h«At 
rrtttn tbe noDih Allutiic : wbiob would not be tlie ca^e should the 
frat^rs of lb« soatb^m b»mi4pherc bo chilli bf icv. Fur it itp- 
[H-nro llmt all of tbeaoulh Atlantic UlniidadUfiOK TriKid litneswere 
i>u(ijrn«->j wiib ficlacim. Brt>n tlie islaud of Hi. Ilpl^na. oitualed 
ID tb« tropMsl soo'*, b*» Ihv nppi'MniiirH of liavin^ Imh-ii bi-avilj 
ic«d daring soaie reoiotv pvihul. U» wlrtrp ravine*. nltiHi lii-viMni 
a* they aftprcMh ibe aea, recaJI to llie wutliern voyimtr IIm.> i'.'e- 
wnti blanda of tbe htfHier latitude. TbiM wb^a tbe t«aiiwrat« 
rvx^tuna fit both bemispheres were besTllj iced ibe temperature of 
tW Iroplnl anu must have bei'n cooipnratively low, egpecinlly ou 
tbv wilwii sidM of tba oceans which an? twept by the polar cur> 
T*nt*. Moreorar. Lbe aea wag much Halter than now, on account 
of a large portioo of Us waten bcine atwirbed by Kliu:iur«.' Fur- 
tbprmorp, wheocrpr the arctic clianneb arc tilled with glicietsthe 
indrteodent rirrnlaiion nf ibe arciic waters must cease; eonae* 
qurnlty the Gulf Stream, meeting with leas oppminR polar rur- 
rrtitj^nn its sweep northward, would ibu.-t tw able tn gain a much 
bijclu^ fBtttii'J<- than now. AltbotiKh its watcts at fir«t would be 
col<l*.-r than cbej are to^ay 1 still tboir superior laltneM would add 
to their aMtitjT for dis«>lvinf; ice wherever tbey were able to flow. 
But it Appears tbal tbe Oulf Stream ami other tn^ncal currvots of 
tbe Dorthcm oomni would not be able to subdue the cold scca> 
moUted in aoctbem ice KbeutB wliUuul tbo aseiataiice of a cum- 
{■ndtely warm ocean in tbe suulbern bemispbere. The Buuthi^rn 
•nu beinjt so much, superior and ho widely connected with tbe 
northern, the tropicat currenti nf the Tatter sefui would require 
tiie axHlstanoe of the southern oceana to rabdue the mid of a 
Bortbem lee period, In tlie ume degree that it required their co- 
cprrnllon to bring about the fri^d period. Tbe arctic straits, 
nhirb DOW rRj!ilitnte tbe iit<3t'|>endeTit circulation of cold Arctic 
walem, wniiM. n-ben tilled with glactern, be slow to thaw out, eren 
with the increaKiDg warmth of the aixiir regions, on account of 
lieiuK -itoated to tbe windward of the warm gulf currentK. Tbere- 
Ihe glacier* that filled tbeir deep channels would be the la»t 
IxmIj of toe to luell in the northern regions; sod for this 
is probable that Ibcro nre fniKmenta of tin old ice of the 
Id period still' uumvlled and uow form a portion of tbe 

^er shores of the arotir atrait«. Tbl« cooclusion is in har- 
motiT iTifb reports from Point Barrow whii^ inform ii» that a 
stmLum of pore ice i» found beneath the scanty soil. Tbe low 
l«n)|>frutiiro of the waters of the tropical oceans during the per- 
f.-.iiiin of a frigid iKTic>d roust have been verv destructive to 
iit-fiiitic life; while such as survived probably fouixl refuge in 
neailv landlocked etiuaiuria) w>a.<i, where the watery were largely 
excluded from Ibe colder ocean, and iiUu frevbened by such rivers 
as empdei) Into them, Meanwhile, the low temperature of the 
Ocean must have chilted tbe atmoapbere over the laod to soch a 
dtgree as to have caused tbe deatructiou of many species of ani- 

C. A. M. TuKB. 

[lako coao, norUs, Fsb. s. 




Electridty In Af^cnltnre. 

fTm abalract under the above title in Srimce tar Jan. IK, 1898, 
iiich I have only ju9t fouud lime to read, provea very intere«>t- 
tu me, and 1 do not wixh in any way to have it inferred that 
^disbelieve Lu the influence of electricity, at least indirectly, upon 
growth of plant*; but it do«« not seem out of place to call at- 
t^titiiin to the fact that tbe comparative rarity of mildew on planta 
itruwn above electricily-tjeartng copper wires Id moial soil oisy be 
due to the action of the copper mlts formed in kilUog the mildi.'w 
latber tlnio to electrical actioD. 

Tlie rouu of tba iMtuoe (n the cjtperiment mentkoed at " Gar- 
den A" (Science, p. 3A) are stated In have "grown alH)ut tlie 
•ires. 83 if there they found the grealent amount of iiuuriabitieot," 
etc, TIiIh would also be tlie result fntm tbe roota eerkiog tbe en* 
virnniuent bent suited for growth, if the mildew oouM not thrive 



about tbv wires on accotmt of the trace of eopiier aalta which tbe 
•oil coDtafiieil. 

Tbe tiae of sprays contatniiiK copper ealta, In the form ot Bur- 
deaux mixture or similar componndn, as a pterentive of mildew 
ot grape-Tines and other plants is well known, nod the control 
plot, " (Ini'den B," sboald have been provided with cotip^r wiree, 
exactly as was "Qotden A," to make the lesulU of the experi- 
ment coDclusive. As I have not seen the nriicinal nrtirlp io the 
Bulletin of tbe Hatdi Experiment StnLivm. fnmt nhicb ihe abstract 
in Seifnee was token, it may Iw tbe raci Una this action of the 
cop()«r wits oiiun mildew ba« been discusbed tlieie. 

Obobob DntuocK. 

oaooUe Lake, NO.. Pab. IS. 



AMOKO TUe PUBLLSHERS. 



E. <b F. N SroH A Oo. antioance ■ - Roll Turning for Sectiooa 
in Steel and Iron," by Adam Spencer. TheegbjefU nt ml I -turning 
Is treated from a purely practical poini, and fi^r [>fa<-ttral men. 
Ttie drawings are the reaull of extvertem-rf. and their value consiMa 
in the fact that they are working drawinca. that 11. drawing* of 
rolls which have paased tbruttgh tbe ordcnl of artual wnrk. The 
arrangement of the work ia as follows : First, drawing of modem 
blooming for steel slatk', followed by a pair of billet rolte, then 
varioitB .irctions ehawing Ibe related grooves in cogK'Qg. rofgbing, 
and finishing rolls, with the position aod character of collars rr- 
(]iiired. " A Text-Book of Ibe HcieiKe of Browiug," by Edward 
K.ilph Moritu and Ueorge Harris Morris. Tbe fulluwing extract 
from Ibe iniroduction will abow its character: "Tbe objeotof 
tbia work is to provide In a oooveolcni 8i>d accoseible form such 
kuowlelge of tb* prooceees of brv^tng and of the materiala em* 
pluyi-d in that industry bb is at our difposnl; and —so far aa we 
are able— to connect such knowledKe with the prnetioe of brew- 
ing. We tlierefore intend it aa a text-lmok in which may be fonnd 
tbe results of scteuUflc teworch together with the practical c«n- 
dustons which wc consider justly deducible frorji tht-m. We do 
not pretend tbal a peruaal of oiir work will enable a novice to 
brew beer; neither will ■ study of it convert a purely pimctloal 
man into a chpiiiint. It i* meant, however, to lead tbe bcvwer 10 
a better imderttanding of what we may term tbe pbysiolofur %vi 
pathology of brewing, and, by to doing, put athiadlspoeala mMns 
for more efficient control over bis operatloua." " Hantial of In- 
itructitm in Hnrd ^trldering," by Harvey RowelL "Tke Merhani- 
cel and Other Properties of Iron and 8ieel in Coiuieetion with 
Their Chemical Composition," by A. Voautafr, engineer. Tbe author 
ha.-) gathered together the widely flraUere<l information on this 
imponant subject, and gives in brief outline the actual knowledge 
of the intimate connection that etista tvtweeo tbe pro|>enie« of 
steel and iron and their chemical compMitioa. Tbe elerneule — 
carbon, manganese, t^iliooii, |thtMphoruM, xulphur, copper, chro- 
mium, titanium, tungsten, aluminium, nickel, cobalt, arsenic, anti- 
mony, Kinc. lefid, tin, nilrer, molybdenum, vanadium, potaastum, 
sodiuii), htirtum, strontium, calcium, and tnagnesium — have 
been comtidered separately and in Ihe following mttaner: Firat, as 
to the metallurgical behavior of the elements in qiie«iiun; next, 
to deal with tbeir ioflueoce 00 pig Iron, cost iron, wrought iron, 
and steel; lastly, the special uses made of them, and tbeir ooour* 
rcnce in manofactured objects. The gasee, intermolecolar. nmo- 
lion, and mixed, have been mrefiilly rnnsidered. and analytM 
given of foundry, beesemrr, basic, and forge pig-iron*, vplegel* 
irons, ferromanganeae, rerrofiliooas. ferrochromes ferrotuugsten, 
ferroalumiuium, cast- irons, weld irona. Steel — railway material, 
structural steel, ordnance material, misceUaneons. With a dia- 
gram of silicon In cast iroa, and of dlsappeaimnoe of carbaa. 
Aiso a new edltko of " A Practical TmiJae upon Warming BuUd- 
inga by Hot Water." 

— Morris Phillips of tbe Borne Jottmai goee abroad etatj aom* 
mer (ui recreatioa and bualnns. Be bis kept up that habit to 
nearly twenty years, heaklee IreeeUlog widely over tbls country, 
and as a reault of his experiences he baa Just compiled a note- 
book of practical hints for tourists entitled " i^brood and at 
Qocne," in whkb hflgivee iikcidents ol his Lravela, as well aa a 



I to 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 472 



cii9pl(4« <-tatlt(tlcal and (lciail«d luvount of the coH of tri(M in 
Kuropp and AmtrkA. It prooittee lo bo a valoabl^ guide-book 
for Aitiencans. 

— Henry lloit So Co. will add imai«diately to SnwthV Kevin of 
modfm I'hil.isoplieT*, voIumiM extracted rrom Ueid by Dr. Sneath 
of Yale University; from ijpinoza, by Prolewor Fallerton of the 
[XJoiTeixiiy of P^onfflvania; from Kant by Profewir WaMcm of 
'Queeu's College, Cnoada; and frutu Descartes, bj Piof»«or Torrey 
of the Univunil^ of Vermotit. Ttipy coniemptiite addiag, in tlie 
pear f mure, voluuieH fioui Berkeley, Hunie, sud Hi-i^cl. 

-«-*'Tlic Biiib of tbe Demand for the Public Resulalion of 
1tiBlrl«a" ia the t[ll« of a. moaoifraph by tlie Hon. W. D. Dab- 
which has recently been publishod by tlii- Aineriran Acud- 
eray of Political and Social Science. Thert? have bi«n nutiibi-n* 
of plans EHiggested to remedy thefe evila, the tnoKt nniable of 
which is. prohably. sorialism. Mr. IMbney thinks that thlfl plan 
will not be adopted, t>iit that govomiiiciit rcf^ulaiion of private 
buainesa will be tried a* remedy for the Dxisting cvila of prfvalc 
monopoliex. 

'—Hie Department uf Aslronotuy of the Brooklyn Institute of 

Arte and Sciences has jiwt ifsued a " Hand-book of A»tronuDiy 

for 1892." Tbe |jublicattoa ia in a new field, and is one that will 

.{iommand ^neral lnt"n>«>t and constant use by a very large num- 

f'ber of jHoplc wh.) have cotisidcrable ^oeral knowledfte of as- 



tronomy, and who deaire to coaple with {arorra«tkMi g«ined by 
reading a practical knowledge fro-n eK(»eriHnc» and ofawrvalion. 
The new pubbcation is de«ljcried tu aid in tlie ohservation nf ibe ' 
planeU and the (Mnklrllalions every boor when tliey are vi«blifl 
durinfi the year 1S9J. The hand book will not only prove Ipter^^ 
e«tinf; to the '- ainiileur " astronooier, but also to thoae wbo «re 
working with inHraraents in ohnervatoriev. It contains c'ttloaiian 
of tbe eclipses of the sun and moon, of (he periods of tlie inferior 
planela as ruorninK and evening ^turu, and of the periodB of th< 
Kreatesl brtlliancy nnd elonKni'^") ^f the planets, a selection ot th«] 
meet imporuinl occulutionB of stard, calendar? nt the pnAitiona 
the Hun, moon, and |ilanu',a for each day of each month, brk'f ar 
counts of the opp<nition uf Mara, of ibe endence of Vouub' rot 
tion, tables showing [be motions and po»liiooa of Jupiier's sate! 
liii»). ihf* names and positions of (■olor»d stars and double atan. 
loblei« of the nrlohlo ^tara of long periods and of short iMviodK, , 
aocouniA of the zodiacal light and the principal meteoric hIiowi 
of the year, together with a grest deal of valuable informatloa^ 
concerning the satellites, the rii«lanueit of planet* and starv, the 
lengths of the y^ars of tbe planelK aiitl the u'eigbtMand diwensiotM 
of ttie iiiembem of tbe Mtlar syateni. A calendar for tbe seawns 
and tlie church t^Ipndar «i« oonrenieni additions. Copies of the 
hsnd-lmolc may be purcbaeed by members of the tnstitnte, or by 
others iulereetol in astronomj, at twenty centa per copy, include 
ing postage. 



( ALEN'DAR OF SOCIETIES. 

Philosophical Society, Washiogton- 

Feb. 18.— Oardinpr d Hubbard, The His- 
tory of the Education of the Deaf; A, W, 
Qreely, Some Peculiarilies in the Rnitirall 
cf T«xa9. 

Society of Katural History. Botton. 

Feb. IT.-OeorgcL Oodftlo, llln<trationa 
of Vt-gctatlon in Ccylun. 



Publications rtceived at Editor's Office. 



BuwHs. EuitAKU A. I^Ifiuoiiis of PlMUr knd Solid 

Ucometry. «d ed. Hostoa, D. C. U««tb * Co 

BaocKWAT, ^BBP J KssHillsIa ot MMllcal riiTOc*. 

PblU , W B. .Suiud«r«. It*. !BOp llnoi 
BASTAaDOoLUtax Aaansl Heporta of tb« Pr««i 

dcDt aai! Traiumrar. jaoa-BI. CKmbH<t((i>. Tlia 

UnlverUtf. (f. p*iM)r. CMp 
SaMFBL, WAi.TnR. Mtlboda of G»m AoKlrnla. 

Tnoa. trMD the 0«nnaa by L. M Dcauls. Kew 

Toric. MaciallUn * Co. t3*. Ml p. fl.eo. 
rLsrATEi., CiaaicA. Dfluatleaa Ptisalc*! Cultunv 

N.1W York. Foatnr* W»ll»Co. ll*,Mp»r l(*i p 
StcKiLUiP. DeOALO. HborthftBd kad TTtwwritlDr, 

Slav Ycck, VuwlarA W»l!» lo. if, p«pin ta p 
HrKM>. J. H«to<i »f tbt- TeleicTBpb. IfOtiduD, Rp 

llgloua Trstrt Sofllaly. li*. it»p. 1140. 

Moaini or Pus Abts C*t»l0|tut at tbe Print Dv 

■tartoMOt, Boatou. Tb* Muaniini. If, p*i>c<r. 

Wp. 
BcoTT. ir. Tba Ij«dr ot tb* tkkn. Rd. 1>t WIIItAin 

J. BojI«. Ban«n. UooKbtoti. UlOUn « Co. IB>. 

p«pt>r. mi p. BO iM>aU. 
BrniBNis's NioAEisK. ladNt to Vola. 1-X No 

York. ChariM sarlbMc'a Sons. A*. 86 p. 
Tai'asTo.v, Boaaar U. A Hanoa) ot Xbt Steato Bn 

fiao- Pan II. t>«aitm, ConMroothHi anil Opvnt- 
loD New rort, Joba WllerASoDft- >**■ ObTp, 
Wnrra. CmxnuEa R MaintHr tjuwoiui, Boitt«n,D. 
C. tleatbftOo. IV. 901 p. 15imdU. 



Business Department. 



IntendioR investors and others interested 
[Is real estate matters ia the rapidly devel* 
nng State o( Wiuliin^cni arr iiivit<>d to 
^fiTp a varefu] rvadii^ uf tbe advvrtivament 
□f the Washington rir« Clay Company on 
hnt page uf this number. Mr. C. Coapur 
Clark, Vice-I'rwident, will show pbntoRrapbs 
and blue prints of tbe property advortisod. 
Tbe writer is persaDally an)aainled with all 
tbe officers and maoy of the stockholders of 
this company and can vouch for the entire 
reliability and truthfulness of noy ittate- 
mante they may make. 



Wants. 



Attr /firm mkimf a 0*siiian /tr vekUk k€ U ^maJi- 
kfd hf kti icitmlifii iitr.iiamfm't. rr amy pftrm ttehimf 
%»mt nil* (0 Jill a tfiili^m »/ Hit ik-trittUr, ^^ it IA*/ 
f/» l*mtkrr ff ttntKty<l>t^iiil . tfrau^frm^n, i" ivial 
«•/< ma^ Aaiv M( ' ly^mt' iinfrlt.i titnitr Ikit kead 

rtitm ot COST. (/ kr Milifiti tilt puf-iiiktr #/ ikt ittii- 

a6/i tku'tL'ttr ffkii m^plUatitn. An^frrttm tfftimg 
iit/»rmati9n fn amy icimtifif jmnlitn, tkt addrnl ^ 
amy tciemli/K mam. fr •i.iiiirna ('■ amj ciMj' meliiicti- 

mmm /tr » /n*/*** tvutmtutt \rilh tkr natmrr */ tM* 

/■B/rr. ii trrjialljr imtril/J t» J» tt. 



A' 



PBOraSBOBSniP in CbeanNtTT la wanted by 
ooe *rkc) had had n*» f^ara' A<|iarl*iii>o ir> that 
esp««lt7. Would pr<'t«r to gire iDBtructioii br 
Ifuituna and 4>inorini«iiUi ialli«>r than h« tnitbonk 
methods. Would llk« s poattloD In • aolK-iK cr uol 
^tnii) whan (.bnm Is a uiiml miiiIaiii'd lano'raioTy. 
BpMtalpolDtsaf rtrenirtbi^iiLLKiMare: iDTborouitb 
ccnlml of a olaa* aci'i k>>'"I urilvr OurtaK laoturMi 
and n^ltatloDa, (Vi Ani^utaar lo esperioiraUDc 
■Itb rbemlfaU n^d akin In (he maiilpiitailon of 
(rb»mlcAl apparttuH. Tbe p«vnBlask>n at Mtsral dls- 
un),-ut>ii>>'r] «ilaoau>r« ha« b««n alves tn i*tor to 
thiiin if nsiuirod. Would not oars to amept a po- 
ultlon psf mu less l-ban tl.SOO AddreM H. K , oar* 
otAcienM.tnl Broadway, New Tnrk. 



\ ttURKSK WAMTBD.-VIU some ODD phase send 
t\ tbnaddrraa of tbai Saocwtarj' of UMAoMtloan 
rmiotOKtoal SooiMT. Also that <Ht UertMn Spenesr. 
"ADDIAON." Rcjon M, lOI Madisoa St^ OliJea«D, lit. 



* DDBESSKSoKjid Boole l>««[«r»wsnt»d, -Wish 

r\ \uif tvwblalua Ciumbrrof old buukaout of pHut. 
I Tnrr macb d<>*tr(i lbs sdilrpgn** or r»t»Joiru<'B of 
rare asuoud- hud d book dpalnn. If tbern [■ a il[rec- 

lorr or list ot *uol) dealers I elinutd lllui lo obtain 
[KMat-aaiuu of uQe. W. A. IILAKKI.T, Chicago. III. 



W 



rAKTKD.— BOdki on Ihr tlagi^ Lantern WIU 
.J exehaoBe. "Buw the Farm Psfs." byCotlvr 
and HoDdcraoA r " iTulcurr of Paim Urops." bj 
Stewart ; "Amenctn Acnj-'ulturlsl," 18tO and IWI. 
I. flLBK .VTUINHO.N. U Wallaue St.. Onto««. K J 



w 



AKTKD.— <l) A wblle man *«r«ad In wood sod 
Iroa vorklaa, sbl* to irorh from spMilloattoos 
and pJsDS, aull*(l ^an laalruotorof b^jn: hUbua- 
inMi to bsTe cbarita of ahopa of acbonl. oall1iu> aail 
iltipcl. (h* wiirk (or foremaTi aiid atudeola: ■alary la 
b'> %tMO per aanaiB idibs noathii). (it> A man 
(black ).r«[<>nt^> (o teach tbe ootorvd, Irvu wurkli3|[ 
and torBiBff. rabordlnata to ths preecdtas; salary. 
fftCt. (9) A man (whllo) ooiapMsat lo taks olacaea 
Id mglneortiu (assistant's position), bat with lb» 
aliUIty to Mrtora aay ot tlt« work nqiiirril In a»v 
of tbanrdiDafT flaKlnenrtBy eontsMot our <iiiivrr'>i 
i(e«: Mlarr (mm li.oori to fi.hO. a. H. UEaLS, 
MlU'^itr'TllV. Qa. 



BOOKNt Bow lo Kxebanse diem roe 
oihcra. SubA a postal to tbe tlctBj<cB eiobaagv 
^otURin (inHPttlou troe), Ksltoc briefly what you 
waul Ut cxcbuiKe- i^'tSMCS. Sli Bfosdwsy, Mew 
York. 



Exchanges. 
[Freeof chsrac lo sit, il ofaacufaciorycbaractar, 
AdditM N. D. C. Ho4g«i, 874 Broadwar. Nn Vorl.l 



T* Aiehanga : EK|wrlioMit Station boUrtlna 
repotta tot baUetiaN sad reports not In iny Dip. 1 
wtll ■cad tint of what 1 lia«« tor ssvluuiini f. H, ' 
BOLFS. Lake City. Florida. 

Piniihed »iitvitni!iii (J all colon ol Vtrmoot marble 1 
fioc foMll* ot cryiuli. Will be sitrr oaly [or vataable 
wcdmeat becaute ol iVie o^i o( polUhlBs. CCO. W. 
PERRV. Suit Gculociil. Ruilanit, Vi. 

for cichanffc.— Tbr(« copiM ot "AsHifcaa 
l*aper> Baring on Snndiy Lmiluioa," itgi, ta.s«,i 
and uouKd, Fm 'Tba Sabbufi, " by Hannoo KiaMburyd 
it4c>; "Tbe Sabbaih." by A. A- Pbdu, il4>; "TSun • 
o( lh« Inwlution of tht Sabbath Pay, lu Utt* aol ' 
Akuic<." by W. [_ tiahet, itt^; " llumomui Pbajcs of 
the Ltw, ' by Irring Btownc; or olbo ixkIu amouaCiaa 
to value of boaki exchanged, oa the quailon of apTw a - 
in«auJI<BliUtiiwtnrtf(>«'aCciorcliaiaa,p«r>oaallibatT. 
etc. If piclciTcd. 1 will nil "Aoirriean Stale Papot^ 
and bu* otli« b-olu on ihc lubjcct. WILLIAI 
DTSON BLAKEI.V, Chlcatfa, 111. 



Waatnl, in uchsnae fur (he Ifillnwing wocln, mw^ , 
>.ijiii.:lir:Ll Bnrlu on iiurfan' imeI on Di>«ai«i of Chudrsalj 
Vr'il.on s" ^mericAn fJniiitiolinv,'' i Tutt.; Couci* "Btnl 
III lb* Noribwmi " tnii •• Bifdn '(>l iti« Colorado Vall«y.' 
■ kok.; Miiiol't " Ijiod a»d Cimc Rmla i>l New Euc- 
laHd^'Sa»ueli'"(>ur Notihem ani) F.aitcm Bird*;'' Ml 
the RcfKirta on the llirdi u( llic Phi&t K. R SurT«y, 
bound in » voli . niarKx>>; wd a cawpleae wt of tfU 
ReiHHli el' llie Aikantaadeoloiltal bum-y. I*Ihh arrc 
edUion* and dun in oorrcipoDdinK. R. LLL^WUKTH 
CAI.I« Hich Schoul. Da hlutnn. [owa. 



Waniod to buy or cubann a opy ot 
Ho'th AmcrKan ncinctolcity. oy lohn Fd* 
Philadelphia. ■««>, U. JAIJR. Clark 
Worvcit«r, Uaaa. 



Hnlbmok^J 
dward*. s**>k 
Vantnitj, 



F<)T tala nr anhaan, I.aCon)«, "G«elon:" Onaia, 
"Analomy," ■ vob : Fosin, "PlincnloKy," Eng. ediuoa; 
Sli«liatd,' ApplMoa, Ellinit, nnd Stem, 



Joiilan, 



ChatSMlTV;" 

laMraaiajnal."- - 



mil' Di«c«ii(r;" Vr>l, 1, J^umattf Mirpk»ttfjl Dsl- 
lour, " R9ibiy<ilu|[y." > ruU ; l^Wly, ^ RhtaafM)^'' 
Sdntt, t> vol*., unbound. C T. VcCUFCTOCK, 



l^ttnston, Ky. 



Toeacbanjic Wriichi'<"U« Ats in North ABcrks** 
and 1j* Cnnie ( ''El^riiFaii lA ilcolojO'" {Copyrtiilit tilt) 
(ot "baiWHiUM," by A R.W.Uarc.^On(m ol Smom.'' 
liy Darwin. "DaK«t>( of Mao." by Darwin, Uas's 
Pla«« h Nanire," Huolay, ■'Menial Kioluiwn ia An^ 
aial*,"by ltoaia««a, *'Pre.AdaDiTi«t.'* by Wirehcli. Ns 
liiiuki wanted nicpl Uteit rdtiinm, anH bodki in food 
Frjiiiliiinn C. h. Brown, Jr., yndeiWi Uttivaailr, 
N«'li»illc, Trtm. 



For Sak or EichaB|c foa booka a cnnplnia pn*M« 
chicnucal labcraWry outfil. ]n<ludta laix* Hcckcr b^ , 
ii.cc Imok IO cianut}. plallnum ili^hn and cniriblnv^ 
acaie neUn, jlian btowioa apMiaiu*. etc. Km aak i 
fiS'l ur whule. Alto ruinpl«» iflf • ' ■■■':''■■■--■'; jTaw^a 
itA*-iH5l(>-Ti b«undl:S«nith>'< ' . ttM-iiSj: 

L' S, Caul Smvey iKt^-iliSq ittrt w Wi- 

quiien. F. bAROINLR, |R., i t.vt. ^vua. 



'ebruarv 19, 1893.] 



SCIENCE. 



StI 



— Tbe dhaHteH^iKiN tor Marcli prwmts tlie following hiiiodk 
Ibvr artldn: Growth nud Dulxibuttou of PopaUlton in the 
rnhi^ Suira. by OeiUFral FraoctH A. Wulker; Phy«ic«l Culiurr. 
1.. b^ J. M. Bocklpy; Nntional Agencimi for SciuuliGu Rt!M*iLrc)i, 
r.. hy Major J. W. Ponfll; Owan Prrils, by Felix L. Oswal'I. 
I.D ; The Ownrnhip of IMenry Property, by George UaTra 

i; Lj-ronm Attmclions of To-dny, hy W. H. StenRpr; The 
lal Library ani iU Llbrariaa. by Fannie C. W. Bnrbotir: 
Toftte to ihe Uvaf, by Kflthorinc Armstrong; Wbat Women Owe 
iDrrolKMU. hy 3largarct N. Wifiliard. 

— John Wney ft S<>ns bave in pr«>pttralii>n a work on Umber 
mf-tiillit; Ktructiuesi onliLlfd -' Tli^ory and Practicf* in the De- 
nning of Huilrm Framed Stnicture«." Tht» book ht wriLUm 

tjoiiillT liy Profewor J. B. JoboMm, author of "Tlwiry mimI Prac- 

^lit-eof SurreyinB."* aod professor of civil vDf{in<^'ring in Wanhiim- 

>n ITniversily. St. Ll'UI^. by Mr. C. W. Bryaa, dtwigniug engi- 



neer of tlw Edgo Moor BniJuo Works. Wilroin^on, Del., and by 
F. E. TVirtMaart, instruotor in cSfll entcineerint; m WaablngCiW' 
Uoiranfty. It will dewribp in sreat detail tlir mn^t modem and 
approrud Myltn; of Btnicturm and methodB nf analyM-t. gtvliiK only 
u bntorical ridvteir of ohaoleb! forrais of LrussM an.! abandoned 
analytical methods. It will irral not only of brldi^ and roofa 
but also of trestles, rjaduct^, «tnnd-pipe«, eleratod lank<i. and Meet 
fikfleionfl for high bnlldin.:9. It n-ill be adapted to tervf both aa 
a tPKt-hook In the higher cngiDMrini; Kho^la and aA ■ Immi-bonk 
for the deigning engineer. 

— Boughlon, Mifflin, ft Co. Iiave Just ready "Mark Hopkitu," 
illuKlrious aa prexident of Williamif Collt«^« for Ibirty-Hiz years, 
anil lu prr-iident of Ibe American Board of CoiDtnii^ioners for 
Foreign Miwiwo--* for thirty years, by Profewor Franklin Carter, 
pntipnt prtMdtfnt of V7ttliam« College: alvo a new work, by Dr. 
Jwiiab Royce, entitled " The Spirit of Modem PhiliKophy." 



PROPBIET.\BY, 



/&r 



A most excellent and agree- 
able tonic and appetizer. It 
nourishes and invigorates the 
tired brain and body, imparls re- 
newed energy and vitality, and 
enlivens the functions. 

Dr. EPfnutv Batsxas. Cedarville, N. J., 

aayai 

" I have naed It for UTeral yoats, not only 
in my practic«, bat in my own ioJividual 
cane, and ooosider it luiiler all cirrametancve 
oae of thn bwxt nerve toniea that w« puMen. 
For ueDtal exhaustion or orerwnrk It t^vo* 
rMUtwMl Rrengtb and Ti^r to tbe entire 

Descriptivv pamphlet free. 

Iianford Cli««i[>l Wwlit. nmidtitc*. R. I 

Beware of Sobstitutes and ImitatiDct. 

CAUTION. -B« »nr«i the word '*HorM> 
r»ril*B" t* oa the label. All ••itiera are 
■|ilirli>aa. Never aolri In bulk. 



SCIENCE 

ADVERTISING RATES. 

Batabliahed Jaauary. iSgi. 
INSIDE PAGES. 

Per Hoc, af ale tncaxirc. 14 Unci to an inctl tjc. 

" colama. " iv Hum. - tiff.oo 

page, three colamna, «io liiMB, • 30.00 

LAST OUTSIDE PAGE 

AND PAGES FACING READING 

MATTER. 

Par tin*. a(ata mea*U[«, n Han* W an ioclt, loc. 
" columa. i«o lln«s, CiS-oc 

" page, threa c«luina», fwUna*. 60.00 

FIRST OUTSIDE TITLE-PAGE 

Double-column «p«ce at top next Coatents, 830.00 
Tiipla-coluinn apacv, balow Coniaoia, - jo.oo 



SCALE OF DISCOUNTS. 

10 per cent , on 4 time*, 1 (oonth, 01 onBinouDt(ioo 
IS ■■ B ■■ t MO 

•0 .'.' *■ '2 ■; 3 .'.* !.' !' '^ 

35 " "»e " ( •■ *■ " aoo 

33U ■■ "SI •• 19 fto« 

i« per ceot. advance for prcTerrtd poaltjoa*. 

NolblOf In Betted for Icbb than (t.oo a time. 

RcadlDg Matter Notlcta. under (hal caption, 
30c. a coont line, aet In nonpareil. 

Copy ahould be In oDice not later tban Wedaea- 
day of the week of ia»ue. 

Henry F. Taylor, 

47 l^afayettc Place. Hew Vork. 



BOOKS, KTC, 



POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 

For luc to C<illeg«a lad Nonial Sfhook. Price jfi c«su 
Soni frae by puu by 

N. D C. HODGKSt BT-1 Broadway, N. T. 



B 



ACK numbers Ba<l»mitIcle»t>ol le«dui): Mu. 
Mine.. RaliM Urn. AM. MAC. EXCHaNCI, 

VSnHarij N V 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

ESTERBROOK'S 
STEEL PENS. 

01 SVPSBlOn AND STAflDABO QUALITY. 
iMdlie R«.: 048. f4, 130, 135, 239, 333 

/'nr Snif tiw/ tit Sttitlwrr^. 

Til MTimiOII STCtL MR CD., 

Wnrto: OBnlnn. N. J. 'iS3» m ->i.. ■•'rn Vorb. 



THt CKt:KP£.ST AMD B£&T .' 



.07 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK 



I h H ii ih ii Ff .wnmyiffl i 



PATENTS 

ForniVEyTOKlii. 4a-pa«e BOOK FRLE. Addrvea 
! W.T.FlliKPnlit. Attorney at Law. WmIi initio. DC 

MINKHAl.r>(Jv^ ~ 



Coars« ol Mlneralo^} for Yoiuig People. 

0<iado«tedbreomapoodea«e;inlsnnU«Bail books 
fimridtad. 

CoIlaeUoo uxl book. "Pint OnA*." ooe doUar; 
postuv, SS cwDlB. Seod for dntilani !'.• 

GU5TAVE CUTTiiNBtRa, 
C«utral Utah iivboai. PhlabarKh. Pil 



calit]'. wi? luv onertaaibMn at atooi «a»4 
prlcuR Me. n, n JOi R, n. "ntt Ib a mw • 
wcur* a flbfrjMn ntr »p*p. MWjii MlnnraKTiinlnai 

UlneralovWa. Jb and m Dnadwar. Ne*r folrirciir. 



SO dSaiSTOllBil I'llEK aa a praMlDM 
with THB UHBAT SIVIBK. 

neaa QematoDmi are rat amdpotii^rd rvadf Cor 
>ewa(n nonattnc. and arv glvea tr«a to wwb nnr 
anbaorlbMr aendlBc 1 1 , prien of yearly Mbwir^iMoa. . 

AMrMi TBB GBBAT Dtvn»K, 
ISIS AravaboeRl., DettTor^ Col*. 



DO YOD IMTEND TO BDILD ? 



iw 



p I ■' I 



■>--w 



Ujwa Intrnfl tabolU, U wU twaaUMakaBOt toawd (■■MaRMflBI.K LOW-0*rr 
pO VWBSb** bow ammiad la lkra« TOtanta. tai thap yan wllt fla<l penp«otiT« nevi. 
Boor plana, demriptlona. and MUmatw of Mat tor l#S taateral, new dealaaa Air < 
kaaeea. Tbry alio clTOprtCM for rnmplelr Wnrklait Plu)*. I>etalU. aad SpedUOMlona. 
wbtob i-uabli^T'^ t'l liulld wtlliutii ilrlaya, tulalak** or quarrela wltb rout boJU* i 
er. anil wblrb any nn* t-»n aiitlcritiBnd. Vol. I. caDtalne X aoprrlcbted deriCH eC ' 
IWHiM>»,euBlluabetweeun3Oa4>4<tH00. Vol. II. oodmIim >B «avrTl^i«d 4Mlan«. tlWB lo 
taoOO. Vol. in. eoatalna u eofiTrtiftud dMca^ faooo to CH». niee. br nail, tl.— 
•««h. or dt.OO for ibe ael. 

**f'OI.ONIAl. HOVSBS*^ a Yolaiae abowlns PM-BfMotlru lod now Plana it 
biKiBo arTaiiK<^l lu the latuJlaM* atyle of tbe Coloalal Arohlleoture, and tiavltm al! mndorn 
atraiiii''inetit« for c^KofoTt. Pitee. tS>M, 

"n<-XVBKM|r8H4>VSB»P«KFOBnn> ANV mMtBHt-Tbla >ho> 
Pe»p«y«iTU and Floor Plane ol onw dcatctie tor Samiaer Oo(sa(ca, wbleb at« roouatM 
eooTQiiieot, and ulirap, Pr1i>e tl.OO, by mail. 

N. D. C. HODGES. 874 Broadway, New Yott 



113 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 47 



DBY GOODS. ETC. 



LACES. 

Real Point Aiencon, Gaze & Applique 

MKW A.\u nv.\ I riFt 1. i>«oi«.NM, 

Bridal Veils, Dachesse, Point ut Appllqoe. 

LOOM LACES, 

Point de Gem, Point Gaza. Black, White & Beige 
KNTiKKLV nsir KrFBr-XS. 

REAI.THKt:ALH-ACtV!-lLS. 
SILK NETS, VEILINGS. 



S^WkxAvaii cKy l^lfo rft. 



NEW VORK. 



DRESS GOODS. 

nCHRVARr OPKSING. 

In order to generiHy Introduce the many 
peoMlisrand Intricate weaves of our new Im- 
portations of Dress Goods, we have arranged 
for a >peciai exhiiiit thia week. 

The largest and most varied atock Of High 
Class Woolens we have ever shown. 

Ronbalx Serges. Goffered Crepes. Fluted 
Crepons, TranspBreflt etTeds in the new 
cords, are among the novelties. 

The new shades ahow a marked dlfTtrence 
from those of last season. This change will 
be observed both In the plain and the fancy 
hbrics. 

We desire every one to se« these novel and 
beautiful goods. 

James McCreery & Co. 

BROADWAY A, I lib STREET. 
MEW VORK. 



WASTE 

Eiliioilerr Sill:s. 

a St U hftU pvtev: qti* oaim- In ■ bos. Ail 
: food oownL %m\ by luii on neclpi •>[ 



APOOL 
II luncM 



FINANCTAL. 



Mem Hlgf/iod of Prottcting Property 
from LigMmg. 

The Lightning DIspeller. 

Price, $20 to $30.— According to size. 

Tfao Pftlent Lightainft Dispelkr ia a conduc* 
tor sp«cisIlT desired todissipatetbe envrg? 
of a tif.'btniDg' diHcharge..— to prevent ite 
doin^ harm. — plncing someLbiuK' in ila yaXh 
u|>on which its cspscity for oausiug daiiuig« 
ninv bv fzp«ndod. 

No rccordwd case of ligfatQing strolcc ba« 
TMt bMHi cit«d ■gniiwt tho princip)« of th« 
bispellvr. So for u koown, cb« diaiipatiuii 
of ■ coiuluctor ha« inru'iBbly protected undor 
tb« couditioua ttiuplovnl. 

Corr«ipoDdeDcc solicited. 

AQENT TS WA NTED . 

The AnierlGan Llgbtnln^ Protection Company 

United B^rk Building, Si'uux City. iowa. 



1 nlvUiVlilFORNON-RESIDtNTS. 

TAYLOR & GUNSTON 

Tik« full charct orprop*''^y ro<' ^*^' 

EASTERN INVESTOR. 
Ci(/, Town, and Suburbtio Lot*. 

G«rd«n, Ftull. Hop and Timber Lasda. 

tO'io Gaaroteed on all InvestnieDts. 

HouBcafoT aale on I>i«|iaalalcnent plan, by which 
the putEhaaei can obtain an Income ■ulEcleet to 
eorerall paymcnU. Indudlac laiea.knau ranee. etc. 

Informatioa reciirtf'"! ■">* particular [lolnt In 
the Mate or Waihlnstoi el*dly tarntahed upon 
application. Personal attention slvcc to all Isana. 
Corretpoodence aoliclted. Kefer, by permlaiios, 
to the Pacific National Bank, Tacoma, Waah.; 
Q(0. H. Ttlley. Etq,. Secretary nod Treaiurer o( 
the Southcra Enpreaa Co., and Frederick C. Ctaik, 
of Clark, Cbapln ft Buthocll, New York. 

Address 504 CaUforoia Bl'k,TacoiD«,W«ah. 

Baatcrn Reprcaontativc. 
H. F. TAYI.OR, <7 Lafayette place. Mew York. 



FINANCIAL, 



THE 



COMPANY. 

95 MILK ST,, BOSTON, MASS 



Tltt9 '.Company owns the Lettci 
Patent urunted to Alexander Gi 
ham Boll. March 71h, IH70. N< 
174,4«.'S, and Jauuary 30, 1»77| 

N«». mo.7*i7. 

The T ran amission of 8p«ccli b] 
all known ftorms of ELECTRIC 
SPEAKINO TELEPUONTZS Ui- 
rvinges the rlf^-ht secured to this 
Company bytlu' nhove patents, aud 
renders eocli individual uscroftel- 
cpbODM, not fUmtshed by It or tt 
Ucen8€es, responsible fbr such un-'l 
lawfkil use. nod all tbc ooufie-J 
(|uenreti thereof and liable to aaU 
there fbr. 



TACOMA 



INVESTMENTS 



SOUTH BERO 
PUeET CITV 
I fiil'AKANTKK \% p«r roui p«r MnnuMi 

\Q any i<r Ibn abarc i-itlu*. I ha** BMd* trvoi 40 ll 

50 H'T !'i:>ui. per aonuic lor Don-NahtMil*. 1 bIm 
tnako ntvt iB0K|{«8i\ (tDprored f««l aatet* loana on 
uaqavttlaeable »«carltlMi trum 8 to ;e per o«*t. pn 
atmnm oet. Alao bavo oliatcv barfklna In faraat 
HopiHMr nad ('■rtfva l>aii4». C*>rre«pas4- 
Dnoe Salkltvd rtsanJltig VcMoni Wa«Uoi[t»s. Alt 
lDqulrle« kBRwercd pruntptl]r. AddroM 

\. C. BIC'KELS, Tacoma. WaaklncloB 



PROTECTION FROM MTNING. 

All the capital desired for the parent company 
to handle my patents on a new method of protect- 
ing buildings from lightning has been subscribed. I 
Sub-companies and agencies .to introduce the 
invention are forming, and any desirous of tak- 
ing State-rights should address The American 
Lightning Protection Co., Sioux City, Iowa, ^ 

The English patent is for sale, and offers 
an excellent opportunity for the formation of afl 
company now that the American company is so 
favorably started. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway. New York 



SCIENCE 



NEW YORK. FEBUUARY M, IWi. 



RKCENT WORK ON PLANT MSEASE3 BY THE t»E- 

PARTMKNT OF AGRICULTURE. 

.BtrtI.KTI.V No. B, on "TrvatiiiPnt of SiOUlS of 
I," is in presfl and will shortly be issued by 
the T>partmeot of AjtricuUur*. It has beep written by W. 
T. Swingle, b specUl agent of the DtvisioD of Vpgelabit 
Pstholos^. wbo baa studied the subject (or three or ftnir 
years past. After d(^scribing the loose smut of oal« and the 
stinking smulRof wheat, there is givon a statement of the lo» 
nmltint? from the diwaK«. Tliat frotu the former is e«t)- 
mated at from 5 to 10 per cent of the crop, but from the 
latter as much a* 40 to BO per ceaL The aolhor calculator 
that if the oats had been treated as now rccommeDdecI. Ihi>r6 
.woold have beou saved to the country between 1880 and IH90 

Ker $162.000, 000. 
The treatxuenl, Uuwevur. now used lo preveot amul was 
ly diiieoirered iu I8K7, and it i-t known an the Jensen hot- 
water treatmenU The process (^jvun is to inimiTBa the seed 
to be treated, placed previously in a wire-netted receptacle 
or some other perforated veaael so that the water percolates 
freely, in a kettle of water at a temperature of 110" F., until 
all the grains are thoroughly wetted. Tbon plUQg« them 
ioto a second vessel, with the water heated to 132) '*, for Qf- 
been Tniuulcs, dipping up and down and twirling around so 
that the hai water comes into contact with all the grains. 
They are then taken out and dried thoroughly if not sown 
immediately, but only partiAlIy dried if the grain is not to be 
kfpt. The treatnteut for wheat in Kirailar, but the WHter 
should be heated Ui a iBmperatiire of 143]^, and the seed im- 
mersed only Qv« mioatee. 

PolaAsium sulphide, in the proporitons of l pound to 24 
galloDB of water, in which the oats are soaked for 24 hours, 
s also recommended. If made of double strength, an im- 
menlon of 12 hours will be suflSaent. For wfaeatamlutioo 
of 1 ponnd of copper sulphate lo 84 gallons of water, soaking 
12 hours, and then leaving for 5 or 10 minutes in lime-water 
IDade by slaking I pound of lime in 10 gallons of water, is 
eonsidered boncQcial in preventing stiakiag smut of wheal. 

This bullelio is directly in the line of work now being ac- 
tively pursued by the Department of Agriculture, and es- 
pecially l>y li>*' Division of Vegetable Pathology. It is the 
buslneaa of this division lo investigate the diseases of plants 
due to fungi, and Iha work of the past year has been of Kuch 
a practical character, that in the treatment of one discane 
alune, black-rot of the grape, it is calculated to have saved 
giape- grower* between |f7S,0O0 and #100,000, or about four 
limes the tulal amount of the annual appropriation for the 
whole diviMon. When this is reuienihered, and it is known 
that many other diseases, such as pear leafbrtgbl, appk> 
scab, potato rot and blight, powdery mildew of the grape 
and apple, celery blight, etc.. have bevn studied, and reme- 
dies or preventives suggested, the valuable character of the 
work of the division wilt be reodily seen. 



During It^J experioaeuts were conduuied ou an extensive 
scale in western Net* York in the treatment of nunwry stock, 
several million Lreos having boea treated with surceas in 
provenling the attacks of fungi. The pracliciil character of 
the work of the division is further shown in its action during 
the "grape scare" in New York City. Last fall the Board 
of Health of the city aeized a small coosigument of grapes 
that bad been sprayed with a soluliou oootoining a small 
amount of copper. This solution, known as Bordeaux 
mixture. Iiad been found elTectuiil in preventing black-rot, 
and had been extensively used. When the graves were 
seiEed, exaggerated reports of the bad effects reaulUug from 
the use of sprayed fruit were telegraphed far and wide, und 
the grape market was demoralised. As soon ns Lhu situation 
became known in Washington, the chief of the divisioD 
was sent lo New York, and by explaining to the Board of 
Health the barmlessnees of the small amount uf capper that 
properly itprayed grapes received, he slIajreKl the excitement 
and the market was restored to ilH previous condition. There 
is no doubt but that this prompt action saved tbousaods of 
dollars to the vineyardrstn of New York and other States. 
The amount of copper which the sprayed grapes contain haa 
t>een shown to be lesa than Ibol normally present io many of 
the articles of ordinary dieU 

Besides the bulletin mentioned in the tlrst part of this ftrti- 
cle there is ready for the press a repoK on the virulent vino 
disease of California, which, appeArtng near Anaheim nImiuI 
1884 or 1885, ha8 cauasd widespread dostruciioa of vinrn in 
that vicinity. The causes and cure or prevention of tfaia 
disease are at present unknown, but are being- diligently 
studied with the hope uf finding some remedy. There is 
also in preparation a report upon the work done by the 
division (luring the past year, and this will be issued as soon 
as circumstances permit. Finally, a new number of the 
Joumat of Mycology will be issued soon, which will coolaiu 
valuable and intermting matter One article is upon an 
Almond Ditiease ia California, caused by a fungus attacking 
the leaves and making them drop prematurely. Thi^ article 
is illustrated by four plates, and is followed by a statement 
of how to prevent the attack of the fungus. Anolherarticle 
is on Club-Koot, a disease caused by a fungus which uttacka 
the roots of cabbages, turnips, etc. This iJi also illu.4trated. 
Other articles deal with descriptions of new opeciee. or notea 
upon old ones. An important portion uf the number will tw 
the "Index to Literature." This covers the whole subject 
of diseases of plants, and embraces tbe literature of tlie en- 
tire world. It is the intention to give a brief notice or 
abfitraot of the rontenta of each [laper. The»e notices are 
arranged under subjects, so that it will be possible for one 
interested in any special subject to Hnd the articles treaLing 
of that subject without wading throunh the entire index, 
There will be over three hundred articles indexed in this 
single index, and an earneiit endeavor will be made to bar* 
it as complete as pouible. 

Jowps F. Jahss, M.Sc. 

WwaiORwn, D.C, F«b. 17. 



114 



SCIENCE. 



No. 473 



A NEW COLOR SCHEME. 

Etkby btuilcnl of botany, ovnitholog}', or cntutnology, lius 
found the lack of any well-UeGiied sUndard orcr^il«d no- 
menclature or iTolor a prolific source of trial and perplerity. 
vrhtle tu ihe common ry» Ili4>re is nothing but confusion io 
our pre»eDt methods of dc«ig:natin]B: color. No stronger proof 
of tbis is needed than some of tbe terms uw>d to designate 
lyaBhionablc colore, such as "crushed strawberry." "ashes of 
P9," "elephant's brtatb." etc. What more absurd terms could 
one tasily choose toRXprcsR an intelligible conception. Tbi* ia 
no doubt turgi-ly duu U> Ibe furl that Lhvrc has been no uhau- 
nel ihroujih wbicli to introduce reform. It must be done 
through those who deal largely in material where there is 
fre«|uei»i occflHioii to tle»(i|;nKt« colors. Tbe naluralixt might 
fix hit) s(Hndani» and notnenclalore. as he han already done, 
but the gri*!!! woi'lU would go on Jnst the KOine, jjjnoring 
him and bis little diqne till the end of lime. The phyMcist 
may ftpecululv and Uoiftnatize ou the tbeortea of color and 
reach udniirable rritulls. but find himself unahle to alter the 
oonii'iiclalure of either commerce or every-dav life. Mauu- 
faclurers. nho depend upon the demands of trade, must pro- 
vide what is called fnr in tbe market or have Iheir waresleft 
orb their hnndv. and find themselves the lotiei-s thereby. The 
ever chnnsing fashions seem almost to necessitate the use of 
new and slrikinj; names for things eveu themselves very 
nncienL These facts leare little ground for hope that any 
reform caii be expected through the ordinary chaunvts of 
trade. 

It ih very refreshing, however, to And now and then a 
tnao who. ill tbi> midst of cnuimercial competition, is willing 
to ^ive Home lliougbt to the propagation of scientific truth. 
About twelve or thirteen years since Mr. Milton Rradley of 
Springfield, Mass , who was engafired in the manufacture of 
kindergarten supplier, conceived the idea of reducing the mak- 
ing of colored papers to sonic mctbcM) which would be practical 
aud ut the same time sufltcieutly accurate to be of vuluo as a 
tncao.<i of education. At my auggeslion the solar spectrum 
vtas taken as the hu^is of his scheme. Tbe dilBcuUy of re- 
pro<liK'ing lite lieAutiful colors of the sitectnun in plgmeuts 
seemed at first almost insurmountable, hut after long exper- 
iment, and Ihe ex|ienditure of much time and money, it was 
found that colors could be produced in papers which fairly 
approxiruule the colors of the spectrum. 

Tbe scheme adopted by Mr. Bradley contains six standard 
colors, vis., red. orange, yellow, greeu, blue, violet —colors 
generally recognised and readily distinguished in the solar 
apectrum. It was found that, combining these colors in the 
Maxw(«ll disks, a neutral grey could be produced, while with 
s less number this would be impossible. These, together 
with a while and a black, constitute the basis of the system. 
If a disk of one of these standard colors be placed upon the 
wheel together with a while disk, and the pro|)or<iou of the 
cxpoMsJ surfaces of the two diskn varied, a number of niodi- 
flcationa of the color varying from the standard to pure 
while will be obtained. Theae are called tints. Similar 
conibiiialions of the Ktandards with black pniduce what are 
called shades. Each of the standard colors i^ irenled in the 
sarao manner. If a disk a litile larger than the regular »iK« 
with a bonier graduated into 10(1 drgre««, be placed Iwhind 
Ae disks to bo used in combination, the exact proportion of 
each disk cau be determined. The fir^t letter of each color 
isuMdaailasymboI, exL-ept that for black N. (niger) is used to 
avoid ihe repetition of B. if we combine red and black in 
equul proportions, thus, R.SO N.no, we shall ffet a shade of 
--^. Wo may desiguate this as red shade No. I. lu a sim- 



ilar way each color would be treated. Each may be com- 
biued with other cuhirs and the symbols written in n similar 
manner. Ked and orange, the former predominating, would 
b« called orange red, writlon O.R. A given combination of 
these two colors would be expressed by 0.25 R75. Thl* 
would in turn have its tints and shades. When the propor- 
tions are not needed, R.T., R.8,, O.Y., G.B.8.. would very 
simply indicate red lint, red shade, orange yellow, green 
blue shade, respectively. Thus simply is the eye trained lo 
discern the components of each hue by the aid of tbe sym- 
bols. Tbe simplicity (if the system and surp&s-iing beauty 
and number of hue^ obt»iue<i is striking 

A lurge series of jiapers manufactured according to this 
scheme is already used in kindergartens and many primary 
Bchools. One manufieluring firm proposes to use the wheel 
and disl<s in counvction with the coloring of textile fabrics. 
The dinks are alao used in ordering new colors from the fao- 
lurr, where a duplicate set of the disks is used to translate 
the symbol into the visible effect desired. Arebiteols and 
artisans Qod the scheme convenient in studying Ihe effect of 
adjaceut colors. Imlced. a system of color harmonies has 
already beeo partly elaborated with this scheme as its basis. 

The next most imporlaot step is. for the physicists to es- 
tablish Ihe location of these six colors within certain limits 
of wave-leugths, and then secure some mulerial iu which the 
standard color can be permanently preserved forcomiiari.'ion. 
What a saving of confusion in Ihe use of color usuich is 
thns gaine<l we are hardly able lo realise. The following 
quotation (rom a pompblat iesui>d by the Millon Bradley 
Company, explnintng the acheme, will indicate one of Ihe 
many applications of tbe sobeme: — 

"A careful study of these repreveutattve combiDAtioos of 
disks will suggest numerous possibilities not meotioncd here. 
One of ihew is the giving of exact and definite names in tlio 
terms of our atandards to the common colors. For example, 
it is well ktiown that under the same name different maaa- 
facturers make pigments varying very largely in color. 

" If. having a small tablet of millboard or other suitable 
subAtsnce painted with an even coat of Windsor A: Newton's 
light red tube color, we malrb the cohir with our disVn, we 
Gud Ihe nomenclature to be 0,24, N.76; while a Gennan 
color with the same name gives 0.16, K.83, both beingtbadn 
nf orange, although the Geruiau color is much darker than 
Ihe other 

" The eatna lest with two lubes of cinnabar green gives 
Windsor ft Newton's, Y.14. G.Ut. N.74*; the Qermao, Y.12i, 
Q.t). W.3. N 741, the Orsi being a Mliade of a green yellow, 
and Ihe second a broken green yellow; the shade oonlains 
black with the yellow and green, and the broken color has 
both black »iid while. 

" In Windsor & Newi*m*» chrome yellow %se have 0.29. 
Y.71; the Qennan. 0.S5. Y.45, N.S); tbe iiret a pureomoge 
yellow: and tbe second a shade of a much more orange yel- 
low. 

"The following analysis of some other common colors 
may be interesting, as showing how simple and practical our 
nomenclature is: — 

'Chinese vermillion — R.77. 0.23. 

"Yellow ochre — 0. 2-1. Y.24, N.52. 

"Indian red — R.7I. 0.17*. N.75. 

" EmerHid giN>en~a.S3, B.U^, N.SSf 

•' Deep cadmium yellow — R.3*, 0.67. Y.«>. 

" Cbrome green. No. S — O.lflf, Y.5. N.TBi." 

J. H. PtLLfiBCRV;' 
BmUb CoUcf*. FAb. la 



4 

4 



Febroarv a6, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



t'5 



4 



THE DECLINE OF 8WAOOKR.' 



We shall not. ne hope, be brcumiI of ltDOckiu(f aootber 
riRil into the coffin of RMpectabihty if tre rentur^ In point 
to the decline of Bwagifcr as otic of the i'lgu* of the lime». 
No duuLl the change U aomevrbfil rereiit, and the Iransilinn 
banlly crtutpletM. B'lt we laaj ukc it as esUibl ishotl that, 
for lh« iiiiMiivnl at anv ratt, swaggT i« not Uif- fnahion. No 
doubt thf) consciouMMs of personal in<>rit and poimilile aupu- 
riorit>' U &8 Htrouff in buiu«n nature as ever. Bnt diusI peo- 
ple are conlented to acquiesce in the knowledge ol the fact, and 
Kn wiUinK not ooly tu fore^ the particular form of its ex- 
prcsioQ nliirh ia tcuovn as " Hiragger." but eren lo live 
without expreniDK >t visibly at all. The most ohvtous and 
diou^remblt^ form of »clf a^ertion, nrbich conM&la in luakitig 
a< her people poDscinu^ of their inferiority by inleasely qq- 
pleuanc nod euperciltou:^ behavior, has, of course, been dead 
and doDB with as a social claim for half u generalti}ii. Rigli- 
born and wealthy h«roeaof lh« old novelisU, who were too 
;reat to speak at the brffukfatit-uihle, and *' turned to Hing' a 
morsel to their dogs with iiu uir of biffh-hred aouchslaDce." 
eiiBi 110 I'lnjier in flclion, and very raTPly in lift*, Mr, 
Oran<lcourt was iierhups the last of theui. But Kwajrcer in 
its minor and more amusing maQifostalions is also dying; 
and Ihouirh it is premature to write its epitaph, we may call 
atleulion lo vjoip of Ihe «yniptomx of its decay. One of Die 
later forms of swagger, much affected by men of the bachelor 
leisured class, and e«pe«iatly by the much-abui»ed " lotus- 
eaters" of club-land, was the nil admirari attitude. Tt had 
quite s TOf[ue for a time, and in addition to conveying au 
impreesioD of superiority, saved a (treat deal of irouble. 
Older men wlio had secu life wew spared the effort of hear- 
iD{ almut it Mgaio; and ynung men who had not were able 
lo convey the impression that tliey had. Tliis form of awacr- 
ger bad poailire merits in a nc)ralivo form. It is still in u»e 
as a weapon against a bore, but as a fashionable cult it exists 
DO lonfrer. It is at dead as wigs and powder. 

Soldieni, for inBtaace, are now among the quietest of men, 
not nnarked off by any manaerisms of dreat or demeanor 
frimi other well-bred and ngreeable K^oilemen. No doubt 
" coHipwtitioo," in place of purchase, has somewhat reducnd 
the number of men of private fortune who hold her Majes- 
ty's cvrnmiiwion. But even if that consideration could ac- 
count for the difFerence, the change is only partial, and the 
Qavalry is slill a s«t-vice muinly oflicered by men of means. 
Bat the heavy " plunger" ^wugg^r which once distinguished 
tb?se gentlemen itt their relalinnH to men in lea>»i faflhinnable 
profe««ioD» has almost disappean-d, except among n few of the 
Very old stagers who cannot uideflrn, and the very young 
Doea wlio have not learned heller. Some evidence uf the 
change of manner amoop sohli'-re may be found in their in- 
crvHsed i>opulnrity in general society — among men. that is; for 
it maybe doubted whether the other sex quite shares the sat- 
isfnclion with which men hail the absence of Ibe military 
iwagger. titr Thunias dc Bontt no longer citmm in "s<^^>wl- 
Ing round the room noconlin? to hia fasfaion, and a face 
which ik kind enough to assume an expression which seems 
to ask. ' And who the devil are you. sirt' asvlrarly as if the 
Ovneral had himsielf given utterance to the words," On Ihe 
contrary, he as n ruto makes himself exceedingly pleasant, 
elainiM no more attention than is spootaoeously rendered lo 
bim auil hia known position in the service, and perhaps for- 
gets lo |])1 hisslass while euifaged in e^tplainiog lh« theory 
of the Kriegapiel to some in.iuinng young-itcr. 

• Loudon 9p*eMtor- 



Among minor types we may notice llidt Uhs tcholaatio 
swaggerer whom Thackeray denounce*! am(>n:r his universitj 
snobs bas alojoet, if not quite, disappeared — partly, per- 
haps, because seholara are now larned oat by the hundred 
instead of by half dozens, and their monopoly of a certain 
kind of knowledge is broken; partly hecanse gno<l taste haa 
grown with knowledge, and scholars may also U- men of ibo 
world. No doubt, with wisdom comelh understanding; but 
we wish thai those men of tite age, the "srienttftc g^utla- 
men " — scholars are rather down in the world junt now — 
could discern the signs of thetiniesin Ihe matter of swagger. 
At prewut tbey posMBS. with Jewa, mushroom flnanf^iera, 
and very succenfal tradesmen — the Egerton Bompttses of 
the day — alinDSt a tDOuopoly of the atnount of obvious and 
positive wwagger (risible. Whether in public controveray or 
social intercourse, tbe acicutitlc person aumelimfw swaggecv 
with uiiquenchMble energy. In tlioae public discuations 
which lend «uch piquancy to the colNmtia of the Times in 
Ibe dull season, he slill deltghu tu pounce from hia bygMtnio 
mountain home on some wreiched disputant, and show him 
up OB an as« — and a fraudulent a»s — in that strong native 
Saxnn, undimmed by " pe<lantry " and " silly compUanee," 
which lew gifted minds call education and cuurteay. And, 
if some weak controversialiftl writes in the victim's defeoiM 
to Hay that, afti'r all, what was in the pour man's mind was 
perhaps so-and-so, how promptly some other scienlitic person 
tikes up the cudgels and knocks the aooseose out of himl 
These sterling qualities have so endeared bim lo the social 
eircle that the mere reference lo a " ' pfofeawr " — au boaiH^ 
able title which aeems to be monopolized by the expounders 
of natural science — is usually enough to drive any number 
of plain meu half fraulie. No doubt society has itself lo 
blame in a measure for the tyranny of the professor*. U 
nverestimaled the value of the *' fuels" which they koev, 
Ijefore they could he weighed and compared wilb other fomm 
of information. The modesty uf Faraday, with his mild 
fonnuK ' ' It may b« so." and of Darwin — who was a eoun- 
iry squire aa well ns a faiolt^at — are forgotten in the swag- 
ger of the new men. But swagger, though not confined lo 
parvenus, is. after all. the jMirvenu's heKctling lemplation; 
and the " scientiBc meu" are the pmreeuos of knowledge. 

Swagger, nowadays, h mtioly limited to people living In 
little worlds of their own. Conluct with the big world and 
re«lities rube it away. Petty country squires, buried in re- 
mote neighborhoods, often iiive themselves airs most comi- 
cal lo heboid by those capable of com|taring what they are 
with what they claim to be. The bumptious scieotiHc gen- 
tlemen who have made their class a byword, the bloated 
financier, and the overgrown shop-keeper, even whenaucoess 
is attained, are only on the verge of the world where their 
training should begin. Their lime has been otherwisD. and, 
let us hope, more proQlably. occupied; and if (hey do not 
reform, their children probably will, and will do their bust 
to rLH-'laim their erring parenta. For there is no lesson which 
tbat increasingly wise young person, the young man on bis 
promotion, has laid more to heart than that " swagger," or» 
as he prefers to call il, " side," doea not pay; and whatever 
his private opinion as to bis own merits, he distiuguisbes 
very clearly between the swagger which doc* not [Kiy and 
jndicous self-advertisement which does. MorfK>ver. being 
an educated young person with some claims to good taa(«, 
he is discriminating even in the means he takes to advertiaa 
himself, having recourse only as a Inst and doubtful re- 
source to Helf-as»erlion or eccentricities of drws and 
manner. 



I 



I 



d 



Hi 



SCIENCK 



[Vol. XIX. Na 4?" 



MARINE EKOINEERlNd AND NAVAL ARCHITECTI'RE 
AT CORNEU« 

In October, 1800, tlie Board of Tnuitees ot Cornell Uclversity 
aatboriEed Ibe director ot Sibley College, Dr. R. B. lliurHtoD, to 
organize a |p«duat<> erhool of marine pnKin»eriDf{ unti naval 
Hrrbllcrtnre a"* a dejiartinpnl of Uiat colkgp. Owing to ibo diffi- 
culty (if obtaititng ttiiltable otflcer«, no appoinliiii-nta wt>re nisde 
anlil S«ptomt>er, 1801, when Vmlvmor W. F. Durond, late of the 
Btiein<N^ Cofpe of tbc Onitwl Statw Navy, wan nppointed priDci- 
pal. I liis appaintment «-»« followed Home months later by that 
of Profpfftor G. K. McDermotl. Inif ivltli J, & G. Thompson), 
Cl;df)l»iik, SB awistaut in Daval architecture. 

Tho ohjecc of Ibe school is to provide courses, liuth practical and 
theoretical, where any one po68e>s«d of a Rood general eoKineer- 
iiif; knowledge may Icttrii of the oppltcaliont) oi enKineerioK and 
Hcienc-c to the deMKn. buildlni;, powering, and propuUion of tck- 
Babtof all tyiiex. The ci>urtH.«aii at pn>i<eut offered i^orer tAoyeore, 
and arp di-Hignnl to tfaorousbly ground the student In the fuoda* 
mental principlpfi of the acientre, aud lu give him a lars*: amount 
flf prariiral appltralion by tbe study nnd aiuilyins of exi»ttnit tlc- 
afgnn, nnd the HnlwMjnent preparation of designs of an originul 
rharACter. 

TlH* prc«M?nt year is cooflMered as formaiiT*'. hut n^ilnr cvmrsefi 
MIL- f;i«r«rn in marlni^ fngin«4>rtng. narni nrrlutecttire. ami ship- 
buildiu};, th^ work tifin); taken by frum tvr<-lveiottflo«a fltud>?nts. 
Duiin^ the mmitif; spring and suQimer FrofFf^or Lldiand will 
vi»il ihe >ch<>oU of i^jtullar klml tn Europe, studjine their orgaai- 
OHtion, nu'thndtt, i.i}iiipuivnl, nnd objecla, in order that the school 
may have the advantage, as far AjS i)ra diiTcrinK conditions will 
ad mil, of the results of esperience in these older scliooU. 

Thr work at tlie anirntiiiy may be supplemented by an annual 
cxcufoion or bwpeclion intir n( from Len dajs to two n-eeka, in 
wbk'h till' leading xhip'^Fnrd!) nml iiiiiriiif-enpfine shops of the At- 
lantic cimsl an* visited, in ciimpany with i)ii« of tlif teneher*, By 
means of the«e visitx the student is brought into immediate con- 
tact with Ihe actual fulftliDent of the vaiious ]>roblen)« which he 
bas been muOjiuk from lecture, text b<x>k. and drawlnRboard. 
Tbi' practieni uit{h'j<lH of work are examined, notes and sketches 
are taken, and a written report un the trip is prepared and sub- 
mitted. 

In the arrangement of Lbe sultjecta and in the ditieiao of time 
for ttw profcsetionnl work, it i^ intended to iclveaufHcient time to 
theory and gCDcrAl principle* to furnish a good general grasp of 
lh««ul)jecl, Buch theoreticfll work be<n£ aln-ay-i Ulufltrated and 
impresMd by applicatioott to practice, and supplemented by a large 
amount of work more purely practical in character. 

The objects to be kept in view are considered a* two- fold. Pirsf. 
tbe power to deal itileirii;enllj «ith tbe actual problems of ship 
and power de^Rn and cou^tructloa a8 tbey present Ibeuiselves iu 
praotioe. Se^^ond, tbe foe<iering aiul developaienl of ibat oriRiiutl- 
ity of thought which, under prij(H'r conirol and with other giflti, 
iiiay form the iutggeBtiteDet« of mind cluractcristlcuif thoiwquali- 
flod to aid in Ihe continual ndTxaoenient of engineering and sci- 
fiUliBc work. 

Of Bppcial equipment tbe sobxtl is provided kith llie following: 
Sercral hundred photot!r.-vph!t artd drawings, both ceneral and d«< 
tall, ilhiMratire of marinf' i^nstruction of all forms, A number 
of hnir-brtiudcb mndeN of i^hipH. including somcof the more noted 
Aclkniic liners. A complf'te set of Copeabagett ship curves, with 
battens, sperjdl drawing t'tiris, and all appliancee for ship draw- 
ing. An A'Tfler intejtrator of tbe iHie^t typ« Lar^e adililions 
are being made i-j the iHif>kH and oibiT profewional literoture al- 
ready in the library, und uu paiut will be spared to make the 
library e(|utpinent us vomptete as puaeibW la avery form of lit«ra- 
ture rebiiing to marine engineering and naval arciiltecture. The 
equipment nf the general meehuukwl laboratory, unexcelled in 
extent fay tbnt of any laboratory in the world, in also available (or 
iiM> hv the student, and every related department of tbn univer- 
aiiy will offer its he«.t facillliefl for snoh work as students in the 
Sotioul of BlBrine Engmei-rlng and Naval Arobiieoture may tind 
de!>irnblc. 



NOTES AKD NEW8. 

PttorESBOR Cbaqin, in charge of the Department of Geokinr 
and Palffiontology in Colorado College, Colorado Springs. iH oo«r 
abspTit on leave in the service of the Geological 8urvey of Texu. 
under Stale (leologist Dumhle. Hin work will be largely paleon- 
tologiral. His headquarieis and addreHs arc Austin, Texa^, 

— The committee on tbe memorial lobe erected totlio memory 
of the late O, A. Hirn. the emittent engineer and phyeictet, com- 
posed of ralecied representative men in hlsdepaulmentof researdi 
throughout the world, has Junt is^ned. through (ti pre»ideni. H 
O. Kern, a circular inviiing contributions from all who desire to 
aid in this work, and who appreciate ihe contribulk>n« made to 
science and to the arts b^' that great man. M. llirn die! at Ool- 
rnar, Alsace, January, 1Fi90, and Ihts commiltie was very kkwi 
afterwan) formed for thix i^iMfcial purfioMe. Its plan is to erect 
at Colmar u luonuinpiit, to be de)tigne<l by hi« fHvnd, M, Ilar- 
Iholdi, n stwtuv in bronze, lbe pedwint fi be inw:rit'«l with the 
simple words: 

a. A. HiRV, 

uiS'ittdo. 

Il 18 expected that the monQment will bo erected mainly by coo- 
lribuiiou« from tbe cilizem uT hie naiivo town; liul the votuntarj 
oontribulions of friendu all over tbe world will be itladly received 
ax lolfLTis of tbe respect and otfeclion wbii^h the man nud his 
work have earned for him Sucb fund^ as may be glren for ibis 
object may be sent direc'ily to the treaiturer, M. Oeiirges Baer, 
Colmar, sod to any memtier of tbe committee in tbifc counlrr. 
Prof««wn Axapb IT»II, L. 9. Roldi'ii. W. B Taylor, and Dr. 
T1iur«lon will gladl.v take charge uf them and forward with f>uila- 
ble acknowledgmenis lo tbe donors. 

— At the August meeljng, in Wa;thinglnn, of the Society for 
tbe Promotion of Agriculmral Science, a paper was presented on 
" Eastern and Western Weeds." by Uyron D. Ualsled, New Bruoa* 
wick. N.J. HtH remarkH were touudi.-d U|jou the report* uf a huge 
number of Itutaniats and cn^ growent throughout the Cniied 
States, reneivetl in response to lettera aeut to them or quvttuns 
attked througli ihe piibltn |»reas. Hiving lived for four years in 
Iowa, nnd being now a reaident of New Jersey, the weeds of Chrae 
two Slatea have received penonat con.sideriuion. and therefore 
tbe«c widely neparateJ States will furnish a bai^ls for a cotnparMon 
of tbe weeds of tbe Ea*t and the WMt. not heiog unmindful of 
the fact tliat Iowa represents the central part of our continent, 
while the W«-«t, strirlly H|>eakiiifr. reaches beyon 1 the Sierraa. Tbe 
New Jersey liiit can hi^ made up from tbe one for Iowa by omit- 
ting >«vi>uty-tive of the oniite prairie plants mostly perennials, 
sod adding forty-three, u large perci^ntnge of ivhi<:b are annuals. 
Tbe only tjingle weed of the Brsi rank «trit'krn frooi the lowt h»t 
in adapting it for New Jersey is « speciirs of pig WKini, but even 
this within tbe lasc y^ar bna been found within the latter Slate. 
On tbe other hand there are several Hrst-class weeds tbal are added 
in Iho adoption of the western list lo tbe East. Of micb, for ex- 
ample, ore: a pepper gnus, tbe wild radtih, two kinds of cockle- 
bur, feverfew, wild oDiun, wild leek, nut-gratts. Bermuda gniss, 
and a Mad of cbeas, or a total of ten of the worvt weed*. That 
which is tru« of New Jrr^y aud Iowa likewiie liold« good for the 
wliole Knsi compared with the whole West. Tlio East iaorerruD 
with a lari^cr numtier of tlie most aegrewsive weeib; weeds tliat 
QMH-rt their ability to ro«titt the forces of the cultivator and plant 
iheir l)anneni upon the tilled grourxl. likewiiw unnual weed* thai 
stock tbe soil with a multitude of seeds, ready to spring into life 
whenever an opportunity olfera. Some species of weeds are found 
everywhere, from Maine to California, at Chenopodium album. 
Amamntusreinittvxus, Xuulbium-CaDadeuw, Plautftgulanceolala, 
Capeelia Bursa-pa«loris. and Portulaca olenicca. There arc ulben 
prominent on the Pacific Coast and not clsewherv. as the Bordeuio 
niurinum, Silybura Marinnum. and Halva tiurealt!. Likewise 
there ore weeds peculiar [q the Rocky Mounrain region, as tbe Iva 
axillaris, Fmnscria toiut-nioss. while on Ihe pmiries. e^{>ecinlly in 
Kansa.T( and Nebrt^ka. the following head llie lUt: CencbniH trib- 
uluides, Asclepias Syrlaca, Stdnnum rostratum, nnd HclIanthttB 



Pebruakv 36, 189a.] 



SCIENCE. 



annuua. In th» middle pnurie Stalm it i8 rooBtl^ th« mctnbcrsof 
Lbt sanflow^r fsmUy, as the ranwreda anil cocklebur?. that pre- 
vail. ComiiiK iula lhi> (--entral StntMt the list i« led bj Canada 
ibrtle, iiuai'kKnuM. diK-k«, daJoy, cht^a, plaatAin, and purslane. 
to Uiid) Iifll w^ ndd mi)'! carrot, onion, and paruiip, and the like 
oM foivEgD vnrtDtv*, we have the extensive catalogoe of th««« 
plant ptnta that prej upon the lands or N«w England. Of the 
<reed« of the 8oath as compared with (hone of the North it has 
not beeD the purpnae here to speak, npr of the miRratMn of 

— At a meeting of the Cliemiml SoriPty of WashinKHw, Feb, 
h. \V. U- Kruff rvad a p«iM>r on "Tlip Behavior of Sugar Solti- 
tioni wiih Ar<Mono." Awione and water are ini»cihlf in all pro- 
portiuni «i ordinary tcmp^rahiivs. If a mixture i!> prepared 
cODtaifling more than ten per cent acetone, and «u^r added in 
SDUU qiiantiliM diawlvinf; after each addition, a point will be 
leaetie^l where the further addilion of »UR»reaUAeH a reparation 
cf acTtone. We c-an coallnn^! x<ldiiig iiagar until the water ia 
flAturated. It will then mill (n>iit»in ascaall percenlai^e of Hcetoue. 
At 34^ C. this is u|>i)roxi(ii:it>'I.v U.5 (Jt-r cent. On ai^vimnl nf Ihe 
hiKlil.t viw-oiiH iialuro of u ■ntiiiated euear soluliun it i^ itupu«si1i|e 
to ilrliToiinv this liKure acciimtely. It ia thus Qeceaaary to reeerse 
the pojblem, deternnDing (be wlubiUty of acetone ID EURar eolu- 
tJuOB of var5 ivg strength. Sacrose is al«olutely insoluble io pur« 
avetoue. The acetone UMed boiled at 57.5° C. The follun-mg 
loethod wa« u»ed for d«tcrmiiiin); the uolubility of acetooe in kagar 
solutions. TMeDty-tlTeRraiuHofasugar solution of known Htren^th 
were rapidly weighed into a fla^k, a small tht-rnintneter iosfrted 
and the flB<Jc dosed with a rubber «tnppi-r. The whole npiMnttuK 
wa9 then weighed. It wan brtHigbt to (h*> require! t('iii|ieni(ure 
atwl aci-tone aitdid in Mmiill quaDtiiira from a burelte, the Bask 
beinjc ftloppered and «baken before each addition. Tlif flask and 
cOdtentK were carefully kept at llie same lempe-rature. As soon 
sa tlw salumtioa [mint wati reached the next drop of acetone pro- 
dared a milkioev?, which 011 stuiidioi; le^ilved tfelf into tuinutc 
I of acetone. The flu^k was then weighed aKatu, and the weight 
acttouv add«d detvriuiaed in Ihia maoner. The resulta were 
ntiafactory. The solubility of acetone id eu^r aolutions 
lU we raise the temperature. The curves of aoluMUty 
determined for thrrc tem|K'rftture.<, 80", 25", and 30"^ C. 
)iu 40 to ffO per ornt nu^nr they arc practically parallel, and 
>m 50 per cent they approach each other. It Mems probable 
Uiat they tnoct at 73 ptr cent; 

TaMe 0/ iiolvbUity. 
Oa* kastfiM graan locar aolaUou dlwolf a per «mt aevioaa at— 



Var C«ai ssf ar. 


!0° C. 


tt,n 


wa 


1 - 


MM 


MM 


1 • 


71. B 


em 


an 


1 " 


ft>.ffi 


4L» 


4UI 


l_" 


liTS 


n.n 


UM 


■ " 


Sft.1T 


24. It 


SLU 


r* 


l&M 


i;« 


ttM 


r ~ 


13.11 


12.** 


itsa 



' — Accordingr 10 a report r«e«ntl.T pnbliahed in (jemiany, there 
were, in I8S9, ft,S60 workmen kiMe<l in accidenU, and 3S,9»3 seri- 
oualy injured. These losses do not Tary much trua one year to 
another. AVifwre compares Ibe fluurrs wUb thotH) of tbc killed 
and wouQ'lei^l at Oravi'Ioite — one of thu moal murleroui^ battles 
in ibt* century — which were 4.iW and 30,ft?7. The indiisiriea 
farni*hiut; m<j(^t accideols were as folluwa, in denci-ndine order: 
niitK«. railways, quarrien. subterranean war)n>, hnildinic. brew- 
erien- All induatries an< .-fVranitpd in M oorp<^mUone. and it is 
iinated that more ihan 4 I'kDO.OOO of work-pi-ople nrc ttiAurO'l. 
roondsand fmcliirm are the mDet u»nal form of injury, and the 
irslton of iToatmcnt tends to increase every year, by Tirtne of a 
law which makts on allowance when incapority for work ejoecda 



tbrre weeks ithis wa« bated on the ohservation that fractures weiv 
generally healed in three weeks). Since this law wax iotroilapiil 
Ihe trenlment of fracturea has taken longer. There are always 
more accidents in winter than in summer, and 00 Mondays am) 
Batnrduys than en other days. Abo, there are twice as manyae- 
cidpnt» from 9 A. If. to noon, and from 8 to P.M., than from 6 to 
A.M., and from noon to 8 P.M. Better ligbt in Mimmer, and fa 
tigue towards the end of each half-day of six botirs, are aupfMiaed 
to explain some of tbme rariationa. 

— In the February number of Nafurt IVote*. Mr. Rohpfl Horler 
Touchex for the accuracy of a xtory which seema In indicate Ih'- 
posvibilily of very lender feeliuK ■" ■u'^nkeyji). A friend nf Mr 
HorleyV, a native of India, wa« itittrtiic in hta gard«n, wlien n loud 
chattering announced the arrii^al of a large party of monkeys, wlio 
forthwith proceeded to make a meal off bis fruits. FeariDg the 
loss of bis entire crop, be fetched his fowlint^-pivce. and. to 
frii;bten them away, Hred it off. aa he thought, otrer the beads of 
ihe chattering crow. They all fled away, but be noticed, left be- 
hind upon a boui;h, what looked like one fallen asleep with its 
head resting u;k»i its arme. As it did not move, lie^ent a Hrrvant 
up the tree, who found that it was quite dead, havlntt been sbot 
through the heart. He bad it fetched down and buried tivnenth 
the tree; and on the morrow be saw. >i1ting upon the Utile mound, 
the male of the dovl monkey. It remained there for sercrat daya 
bewailing ita )o««. 

— The people of Vienna hare been crBdtly alarmed by the oal- 
break of a uew efMdemic. which i* believed by some lo !» con- 
uectod with the inlluenxa. It affecU the iiilestioev, its simptoms 
being fever and acute colic, with the ejection of L>l<Hid. It* ap> 
pearanee seems to indicate the alworption nf HtMue poisonous mat- 
ter. At Hr«t it was Rttribat<:<d to the driokinii-wster, but thi* 
view baa been generally nbunduued. A rvpruwutatlTeof a Vieniui 
iiewspa|>er bait taken the opinion of some of the Vienna physi- 
cians on the subject. Professor Kothnigel Imitated m [vooounce 
any Judgment on the illneie. Ihe facts n<n bavinit lH<eu sufflctently 
studied. Pmfeaaor DraMhe thought It might l>e "nothing else 
than a distinct form of intlucnxa," auil was cnntldent that It was 
not due to the drinking-water. FYofesmr (Mer was alao «ure that 
the drinking-water bad nothing to do with the disease, and *' did 
not coDvidwr (bnt there was any indispatabte evidence of its con- 
nection with intliienza" Dr. Betlelbeim seemed to think that 
there was somelbinf; in commoii b«-tween tnfluensa and the new 
malady called " calarrb of tbo inteiaine*." He liaied hta opinion 
on the fact that from the day when the latter made ltd appear- 
ance in an epidemic form caeet of ordinary inOueuta had liegun 
to decrease. He looked opoo them both as being of an infi-ctious 
nature. A clremloal analyst. Dr. Jolle^, caid it would ro'iuire 
throe wt«k8 to make a bacteriologtoal imjuiry into the character 
of the illnesti. A chemical analyais of tlie drinking-water, may% 
Nature, showed it to be of nonuvl purity. 

— Xatnnr prtnt-i some notes by Mr. J. J. Walker. R S., •>i> iinls* 
nMt bi-ellca at OittrattAr and Tangier, with eepeciol refercn'-^j to 
the Uispetidre. The searf^h for ants' nest Hiater is a somewhat 
troublewnu: en)[iIormrnl, aii only about two or three per rent ot 
the ants' nevta contain the lipetl<>. Mr Walker, however, thinks 
*'il b a pretty fight, and one which compensates for 1 grt-al deal 
of frLraiu to the "■ye)>, ns wf II iw lo tlte tmck. to see n Utemoecelu 
or Brrtmattm lying motionlean among Ibe hurrying crowd of ants 
and then, fa Idenly derel.>t>lng an amount nf lee quite mrprifing 
in so small a creature, marching olT daintily on the lips of its toes 
(ur rather tarsi) wttb a ludicrous resemblaoce. in gait and appear* 
ancc, to a tiny Ci-ab." Tbe comparatively weak mandibles nf the 
ants are invflrotive aipilnst ibe bard armtr and tightly -packed 
HmbBof the K-eilei*. wbicb devoiu the lielpleM brood witli impu- 
nity. Mr. Walker has luuru than once takeu 5. acntangtlw with 
a bolf-eaten Inrva in bib Jiw>. and they ore usually to be f'^uad 
clinging to the nupses of larvte where tliew lio thickest. Ou the 
other band he once (hut ouce onlf) saw an ant take up a S. 
arttchnaitien In li-i mnndibles and carry it off into a lower galler* 
of tbe nest; but thl4 may hare been done nnder the inQueniw of 
alarm, the frighteiwd ant ^cixiBs on the fltat object that came In 
its way. 



ns 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 473 



SCIENCE: 



ceotage of this mean to the actual distance. All distances 
are in decimals of an Inch. 



A WEBKLV NEWSPAPER OF AIL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



rUBUSEISD BY 



N. D. C. HODG ES. 

874 Bkoadwav. Nbw Vork. 



lirvat Brtuila aad Kiimii^ 






CoBUnitPtoatloim trill b> wloomod (nam wir qu«rUr. Jlbat(»ot>a(B«laiitiflc 
pi^nn an Mltolhiil. Kod ow batxlrwl eoplM at Ibo laMio eoalAialnic sueb wll I 
be mailed ll>« *iilkor od mqunal lii ■diatuM'. Rr|rctr(l maniuKriittH wtll bn 
r»tuni^ to thp nutlinr« onlj whr-n the nxpiiallo amounl of poalaffo amm- 
paBlMUiemaauaartpt. WhU«T«r U lBt«Dd»d f of iiuertlaa iiBat bn MUbooU- 
aBtt-O bv lJi« iiau« and addnaa or ibe ■rlt«r: not n«eeMarllT for piibUeatloa. 
bill, an a KOamnty of goin\ falih. Wu ill u«l kojd ounielVM rMiMnalble for 
•ar t1*w or <>|>liiioiis exjtrvM^d Id the oommualcaUona Of Odi oarT^ipcNUlcala. 

Altoatliw la oallod lo tbe "Want*" iwliimti. All am loT-Had U* uae It Id 
■sUoitlBK liiloraatlan or MAklnc ntyi votOAtMM, Th* imbm tad ftddi«M of 
■ppUoaat* «tio«ld (miItdii In full, to UmI aaawon nlllKodlnwttotlwm. Tim 
**Kse)ia«iM** eottunn la Ukowbm opva. 

Par Adrertiolng Batoi ouplr to IIbhkt P. Tatlml IT Laiar<ttt* Plaor, NeV 
Tort. 



ESTIMATES OF DISTANCE. 

Herbebt NlcHOLB, in bis experiments un "The Pnychol- 
ogy of liTTip" [Amtrican Journal of Psychologjf, April. 
leOI), has shoivii that ettlimales or time interfaU ore iiiflii- 
onced !»)• immediately preceding- enlitoateK. »o (hat, in ireneral, 
inter rals ure judged to he \nr>gfr after practice on estimating 
an actually loneer iuterva] than when uo such practice pre- 
cedes, and shorter after practice on a shorter interval. The 
experimenlB about to be described were undevinken to eee 
whether the ^ me rule applies to estimates of distance. Tlioy 
show no such effect, (terhaps because ihe intcrveniiii; prac 
tire WR3 not Butficioolly sutttaioed to affect the jndfrment. 
But the results are interesting (or several reasons, and they 
are therefore ttiven below. 

The mode of experimenting: was as follows: On each of 
Lbrce abct-ls of unruled paper (about tiix hy nine inches) wax 
placed a piir of pencil dots: on the llritt these wore 4.02 
inches apart; on the aecoml .92 of an inch; on the Uiird ex- 
actly the same distance as on ihe fir^t. Without bein^- told 
the object of tlie experiments, the penton to be exi^riiiiented 
on was shown the Drat pair of dots, allowMJ lo look bI thrm 
as K'Dff as hu pleast^l, and tlieu, the paper being takcu away, 
told to make fiom memory. on a »lip 9X1 incben, two dot9 at 
the Bamo dialuiice ap>irt, as nearly as he could. This waH 
reiw^aled on a fresh xbovt. without his lookin^^ at tlie itiod<»t 
a^in.andiMj on till he had made Ivn trials. The same thing' 
WOA then repeatml with th« secondhand third sbeels. 

The following table show» tlie results, the first column 
frivioK the ditTerence between the actual distance of the dots 
and the nveru^ of the ten eHtimnle^t In nach series : the second 
column the pjrcentaKe of this dilFerencG to the actual dis- 
tance: the third the m^an deviation of the estimates from the 
average (liken always as positive); and the fourth the |>er- 



a 

8 

1 


Brmr gl X^mrnfm. ^ Prr Oant. 


MMU Dtrlanoa 
from ATorace. 


rorOMiL 


L 


It 


lit. I. ' 11. 


Ul. 


L 


it 


UL 


1. 


a 


Ul. 


S.8.... 


+.m 


- 17 


+,M 16 10 


n 


.11 


M 


.IS 


1 


ijt 




J. 8.... 


-.10 


+-II1 


f .;v IS ei 


IT 


.U 


.ts 


.14 


3 


a 




A. La 


-i.» 


-.80 


-141 ; m* 88 


>U 


M 


J7 


M 


i 


B 




B.S... 


-K3B 


4,81 


-,t1l ft s 


6 


.» 


M 


M 


8 


1* 




C B... 


+ T5 


-t-.W 


r.m If IM 


n 


41 


M 


M 6 

1 


ft 




M.S. . 


-.31 


-.« 


*M 9 |tl 


n 


•JT 


M 


M \ 4 


» 




ur.... 


H.« 


+ » 


,-.01 j 1 1 t.a 


oa 


jn 


M 


M 


* 


4 


13 



The degree to which Ihe absolute value of the errors de- 
pends on previous training is plainly ftbown; for instance. 
L. F,, in whose case they ar* remarkably smalf. is the 
daughter of a wellknowu artist and ber»elf acc3mpli«>hed in 
the ufte of the p<>ncit, while A. L. B. is a boy 6ve years ot 
age. The consistency of the estimates seems, however, lo 
depend much lesson Intining, as shown in tlit^ third coluoin, 
the ratio of A. T.. B's. mean dovialiuns lo those of L. F. 
buing about 1^5, 1.7. and 6.8 for the three series respectively, 
while the ratios of their errors (from the first column) are 
27, 4, and 131. In the cases of B. S.. A. L. B.. and L. B. 
the erron* are nearly proportional to the actual leng^lh of the 
intervals, which would seem Ihe naturHl rule: but in the ulber 
casee there seems a tendency toward makinfc errora of the 
same absolute value in esiimoting both short and long inter- 
vals. A. L. B., whose absolute errors are far the largest, 
keeps them most nearly proportional. The mean deviations 
are much more generally proportional to tbe intervals, the 
most noticeable exception being thai of J. B. — alto Ihe chief 
exception to pniporliunality in the former case. 

Arthur E. BoarwicK. 



THE LATEST ADVANCES IN SPECTRUM PHOTOO-] 
RAPIIY. 

A LETTER ju-st received by the present writer from Mr. 
Victor Schumann of Leipzig, whose work in tbr domain of 
sptclroj^raphy is less widely known and appreciated than it 
deserves to l>e, reveals such surprising advances within tbe 
past year in photofi-rsphin); radiations in the iiltra-riolet 
spectrum, that I am impelled tn present the following sum- 
marv of Mr. Schumann's results. 

More thuu two years ago be demonstrated the remarkable 
absorptive etfecl of air upon very short vibrations, so great, 
indeed, that even the air within the tubes of the spectrograph 
wu» a senous obatacle to the inve«lieation. However, lie 
was able, with the apparatas ihtn at hand, to demoostrote 
the existence of lines up to and beyond wave-length 1,882 by 
photography, using the light of the aluminum sparlr. 

With the tine skill and ingenuity which has ever ollftntc* 
lerited bis work, Mr. Bchtimanu has since <x)i>»*.ruct«d a 
spectrograph exhausted of sir, with lenses and prism of 
white fluoi--spar. The source of li^ht for these researcbea 
was the hydrt^en Geissler lube. With Ihe '* rathauat^ 
spcclroRcope," as it is termed, andplates of proper sensttito* ^ 
ness, Mr. Schumann Qods Ibe pboiographic action of tbe| 
spectrum beyond wave-length 1,8S2 very strong indeed. It 
is composed of fourteen groups of tines, including altogether 
about six hundred lines. The boundary of Ibis hitherto «a- 



EURUARY 26. 189J.] 



SCIENCE. 



ti^ 



tirrly unkooirn portion of the speolruni exteodx «bouL four 
tiaies am f»r froni lUe inont refransibie Im? hiOierlo photo- 
iphpd llhe alaminutu line 1.H53). as Ihnt liuc is Wyood 
» bim hydroffeu IJa* of wavclt^uetb 4.861. The iolerest 
Id t)i»e iTSearchea ir, tberefore. vt-ry ^reat: nod it bcwius ns 
kbuugh the limit of ibp radiations might ouly be reuclied 
rbsD wfl eat) dHfct lh<>m in th(^ iiniremal rther ilscir. iin- 
fealed by a imce of an ahtiorptive medium, and wilb |)hO' 
rmphie p)Rt«8 of special character. 

Tti*- ordirmry plates do not sprve for *ork of thia bind. 
rbu platn used by Mr. Scbutnaun are specially made by 
^imtc'lf. and are peculiar in poase^slnf; f^reat ftenflitirenpn to 
I the ulln violet rays, but relatively very little to the lisbl of 
lie risible ipe<Hrum. Be<-ause of this iDWDsitivfoeas lo the 
riaible spectrum, the plate acts toward the ultra-violet pre- 
tiaeJy like one exiMM^d in [iltfr^l lii^ht. frooi which atl the 
178 have been abHortx-d, nhirli. as diffused light iu llic 
troKrapli, would tend t<.> c-hu<^ fogginesN of the picture. 
}ue^ Is the effect when an attempt ib made to plHitoirn>ph 
|he ultra-violet spectrum with aa ordinary plat«'. for. before 
lie ultra-violet my;^ have ufTectrd Ihe plate, or produced a 
liaLiDct imaifc, tbe plate is foiftfed all over by the diffused 
ight. The method of makiD^ the new plates is not yet pti1> 
ibed. because the investi^^ations are not yet cooipleled nor 
tdy for publication. 

Pbotogr.iphy in n vacuum presents Borae difTlruUies and 

]uire«( far greater care than under ordinary cotuIiliooH, 

tven under the most favorable conditions the photographic 

tffect of these ettremely refrangible radiations is relatively 

very wi^k ihnl on many plates prepared according to ihe 

i«w method it was dtflloutt lo eslablieh even the existence 

of tbe vibraiinns of tbe Ahoricsi n-ave lengths. 

We may look forward with tlie {greatest iniereel to the 
9tirly publioatioN of full dclatU and retultx of this moftt 
■kUfnlly conducted investli^alion, which haR so greatly ex- 
tanded the bnown tiniitB of the invisible Kpectruni. 

KoHTN Hitchcock. 

I Mam. Af«k, Waataodua, D.C, Xttt. td 



METAIjS at high TE-MPEKATUKha 

Ow Feb. a. ProfeB9*>r Roberts-Aualen, C.B., gave a very 

iDterestiniT lecture on melals at hitfb temperatures at the 

Royal Institution. As was to b*> eiprcted, nothing very 

novel was brouBhi forward, but the lecturer certainly sue- 

c«>dcd to demonMratinff to n large audience results T7hicb 

bave hithrrto been only obtained iu the laboratory. Every 

who bad evt^ heacd Proffs»or Roberts-Austen lecture, 

IDW8 hi* fondnesH for cxjierinienling with boIJ, which no 

is niiuily dun to \m po^ilion at the mint, Ihouirh, ajwrt 

tilts, many would lind a certain fascination in handling: 

ind «xperinienlifig with Hucb a metal. Moreover, ifold is a 

fftal reniarltable for olhpr iimperties liesides its monetary 

ilue. Un previous occa.siou5 Professor Rob-rts-Auslen has 

|r<twn iittenlion to the fart thut i(j* pro[x>rtie« are rhnuffed in 

moal reniarbable manner by alluyin)^ it with Kuiall per 

enlages of other metals, and on thtt present occasion be ex- 

bibiird n new aeries of alloys of this nielnl with aluminium 

vbich are of equal interest to those previously known. Que 

these alloys in lurlicular, containing 30 per cent of nlu 

iiinium. is noteworthy, as it forms an exception lo the usual 

iile that the nioltiag point of an alloy is Inwer than that of 

ritber of its const ituentji. This alloy, on the other baud. 

laa a facing )ioinl above ihat of (folJ, the most infusible o( 

coustilueDts. Curiously enough, Ihe alloy with 10 per 



rent of aluminium follows the ordinary rule. These alloys, 
it should be added, have the most brilliant colors.. Tht ZOy 
percent alloy is a brilliant ruby in lint, whiki tncse con- 
tainine Rreaier jwrcenta^es of aluminium are purple to hue. 

With tbe aid of Ihe nxy-faydro^u hlowpi|ie nod M. L« 
Chalalter's pyrometor, tbe lecturer was able in show a loriV^ 
nndiencc the peculiAritieM of the roolintf curve* nf aeveral 
metalt. and aUo fo measure the fusing point£ of some of llie 
most refractory of them. Indeed, he succeeded in faring 
iridium, using for Ihe puqjose the electric arr, I lie thermo- 
couple employed as pyrometer crinsisling of a rod nf iridium. 
and n rod of nn alloy of iht- same meial with IU per cent of 
platinum. The temperature thus reaehcd ia stated to be the 
highest yet measured, viz., i.CKMf CV. and thus it i» now po*- 
sible lo measure temperatures rangiug frotu — 200**' C. lo 
-f-S,UOU^O., the former tem|>eratuie having been attained 
by Prorcrisor Dcwar in his lecture to the Royal Institution 
aome short time back. 

Even before tbe inrcntinn of thia instrument, Profeaaorj 
Hoberte-Ausleu statecl that very considerable progress bad 
"been made in pyrometry. 90 that Mr. Caltrnder. with his im- 
proved Siemens apparatos. in which the change in the ro< 
slstanoe of n platinum coil, as it grows hotier, is used aa a 
measure of the temperature to which it is exposed, has suc- 
ceeded in measuring temperatures of 1.500* C. with an error 
of not more than one tenth of a degree. 

In measuring tower temperalurCK than the fusing poiul of 
iridium, the ihermo-cnuple used consisted of a couple of 
wires, one of platinum and the other of an alloy of this 
metal with 10 percent of rhodium, simply twisted togeiher. 
Thia couple was inaerted iu tlie mass of aclay dish, on which 
gold and palladium, etc.. were melted by the aid of an oxy- 
bydrofreu flame. The ends of the wires were coupled with a 
suitable retlectioggalvunoiueler, which by means of a power- 
ful lanlern threw a bright spot of light oas long scale Bxtd^ 
Lo the wall of the lecture room. By means of this apparalt 
ProfeMor RohertshAusten was able lo exhibit the RcalcMeoee 
of iron and sho^v that at this point tlic metal suddenly be- 
Come« m;ignftio. For this purjK)*« a block of iron heated to 
redness was plained i>n a Rtand Utlod uitb a thermocouple 
and uu ordinary magnetic oeetlle, whicli carried a mirror 
reflecting a second spot of light on the ureen. At a bigli 
temperature iion is uon-magnetic. but aa il cooled down the 
spot of light, "from the pyri:>meti'r travelled dono its scale, 
till at Ihe point of recult!sceu;:e it be<.-ame stationary, and at 
the same moment the second spot of light connected with 
the magnetic needle suddenly &wung over, showing that the 
mi-lal had then become magnetic. Of more immedtale inter- 
est, from a practical point of view. wa» a second experiment 
exhibited. In Ibis a bar of ir<m. Iieated lo bright redness, 
was Ilxcil at one end and loaded ot the other. Instead of 
lieutling over under the iuHuence of the WCigbt, which of 
course was not targe, H remained rigid until it bad ciwled 
down to Its point uf recale»c«uc©, when il suddenly began to 
deflect. 

Pruleraur Roberts Austco maintains that these peculiaritiea 
p->int (o a rr-arrangement of the molecules of the melal, and 
that Ibey occur even with chcmicutly pure iron, being intrinsic 
in the nx-'tal ami not mt-rely llie etTecL of fort'tgu con.stituents, 
though of counte these are of considL-raljIe importance in 
modifying tbe results observed. That surh changes occur 
in praetice.ltiere can be little doubt, thougb tlie cOVcts seem 
often to be peculiarly locul. frltei'I pinh's showing very coo- 
liderable duciility on testl have snajiiied simply from iiilcrnal 
slrrtises without showing Die slightest signs of elongation or 



tao 



SCrKNCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 47? 



coniracUon of area at tho point of fracture, making it iliSl- 
cult to boUevc tlial during fracture tbe molecului* arraoge- 
menl of tho partirtea atfcRted by the fracture has bt-tu tlie 
same as wticu x[Kcimen& of tho isame plate have sliowu per- 
haiMt IS per cent olougalion and .tO per cent contraction nf 
area in the testing machine. Theae facts wuuld almost lead 
t« the coucliijiioi) lliat a iwrt of wave of inolecular change 
uiai/ arise in a steel plate, during which abnormal fracture 
may occur, and after which tliH mutvriiil of the jilale may be 
found in ita ordinary condition. By wurkiugata bluo heat, 
it is knowu that ^^cb a molecular cbanc* is produced, and 
ihe fracture of a mtid steel bar Ihn-) treated ahon-s that the 
metal has become brittle, but such a chantre is peruiuiivnt. 
It ia, morcoTcr. certain thai liability lo this class of fracture 
is increased by the presence of certain impurities in the metal, 
Ihe amount of which ia often astoiitahingly small, and much 
light will probably be thrown ou these points, says En- 
ginefiring. by iavemi^ntions now in projtre«:i 

It is Dot nec««aary that these invesLigations abi>ald, in the 
first place, be concluctc'd on Ueel itself, h« it frequently bap- 
pens in scicntiHc work that a problem is mora ca&ily solved 
by Qrst deHltnK with simpler aniilogouiiuiM's than by adirecl 
attack on it in all its complexity. For a flunk atluclt of ibis 
chBracttT, cold, apart from its value, offeri* many advantages, 
at it is easily obtained in the pure stale, and ih at the aamo 
time profoundly alTecied by alloying it with very smaU 
quantities of oHier melaU, which changr* it is dilBoult to 
explain on any other hypothesis than thai of &u altered 
molecOlar groupinj;. 



JOURNEYS IN THE PAMIRS AND ADJACENT 

COUNTRIES.' 

Tui8 was the subject of the [taper read at the- meeliui: of 
the Roynl Oeogmphical Society, on Feb. 8. by Capl. F. E. 
Touiighuaband. The author described two journeys, one lO 
1889 acro« (ho KAnikorum and into the Pamir, the othf r in 
1B90 lo Yarkand iind Kasbgar. and south to the Pamirs 
again. 

"The country." be said, "which I now wish lo describe 
to you is that mouolaiaous region lying to the north of 
Kubmir, which, from the heighl, the vuslness, anil the 
grandeur of the mountains, seems lo form the culminaliug 
point of western Aria. When that great compre«s)on in na- 
ture look place this seems to have been the point at wliicb 
the great solid crust of the earth was crunched aud crushed 
together lo the grentcst extent, aud what must bavo focnierly 
been level peaceful pUrns such as we see to the present day 
on cither band, in li^dia and in Turkifitan, weie pressed and 
upheaved into Ibeae mighty mountains, the highest |>caks of 
vhich are only a few hundred feel lower tbau Mounl Ever- 
eM, the ]ofli«it point on tbix earlh. It was amongst the 
peaks and |iassrs, ihc glaciers and torrents of ihi^ affc iti- 
spiriog region, aud anon over tbe plain-like yalleys and by 
the stiii. quiet Jakes of Ihe PnmtDi th»i my fate led nie in the 
journeys which I hiive now oouie before you to descrilw." 

Starting fnmt Leii. in Laditk, (luplaio Youughuisbniid's 
first objective jraint waa ghaliidula. This place is situated on 
the trade route to Tarkand, and ia 840 miles distant from 
Leb. This he left on Sept. 3, to explore Ihe couolry up to 
tbe Tagb dum-basb Pamir. 

Tbe route now led up the valley of a river, on which 
were several patches of 6ne grazing, and till last year (his 
bad been well tnbabtted, bul was now deserted ou ncrount 

■ Btiurvk Fto. II. 



of Kaojuli raids. Tbe valley is known by tbe oaaie of 
Khal CbuskAn. Chask&n in Turki means resting-place, and 
Khal is the name of u holy man from Bokhara, who is said 
to have res*ed here many years ago. The moiiotaios bound- 
ing the north of this valley are very bold and rugged, wtib 
Hoe upstanding peaks and glaciers: but tbe range to the 
south, which Hayward calls \hv. Akiagh Range, was some- 
what tame in character, with round mild summils and no 
glaciers. The i^okhbnlalc is an ea»y \>a9», and from its sum- 
mit to the east could be seen the snowy range of tbe western 
Kueoluu Mouotains, while to the west appeared a rocky 
mass of mountains mlminaling in tbren Bne snowy peaks, 
wbicb Uu}'w;ird niietuok as twlouifing to the main Mustagb 
Range, hut which in fact in no way approach to Ihe heighl 
and magoiQcence of those mountains, and really belong to 
tbe Aghil Range, which is separated from the Hnstagb 
Mountains by the valley of Ibe Oprang River. 

Ou Sept. 11, the party cro^^d thi> n-mark&bic depresBioD 
in the range which ia known as Ihe Agbil Pass. 

" From here is obtained one of the grandest views it is 
possible lo conceive; to the south- west you look up tbe valley 
of the Oprsiig River, which ■> bounded on either side by 
ranges of nuignificent snowy mountains, risiog abruptly from 
either bank, and far away irt Ihe diflance could be ^eeu the 
end of an immense glacier floniny down fn>m the main 
range of the Must^rli Mountains This scene was even more 
wild and bold Ihnn ] ha<l remembered it on my ftinner jour- 
ney, the niountaina rising up tier upon tier in ft surcestsioa 
of sharp needle like peaks, bewildering Die eye by tbeir' 
number, and then in the bacbgronnd lie the great ice moun- 
tains — white, cold, aud releutles.*, defying the hardiest trur- 
cller lo enter their frozen clutches. I determined, however, 
to venture ftuiougst theiD to examiue tbe glaciers from which 
ihe Oprang Riv&r took its ris^, and lea-vlng my escort at tbe ^| 
foot of tbe Agbtl Pass, set out on an exploration io tliat 
direction. The firstt manrh was easy enough, leading over 
tbe broad ]x»bbly bed of the Opranit River, Up one of the 
gorges to the south we caught a magnitioent view of tbe great 
peak K 2. 28.378 feet high, and we halted for Ibc night at a 
spot from which a view of both K 2 and of Hie Qosliirbnim 
peaks, four of which are over JJfl.lKKi fret, was visible On 
tbe following day our difSlculties reully began. The Qrst 
was the great glacier which we bad seen from the Agbil 
Pass; it protruded right across tbe valley of the Oprang 
River, nearly touching the cliffs on the right bank; hut for^ 
Innately the river hod kept a way for itself by continually 
washing away the end of the glacier, which terminated in a 
great wall of ico 150 lo SCO feet high. This glacier runs 
down Trom tbe Gushirbrum in the distance lowering up to a 
lieighl of over 36.000 feet. Tbe passage round th« end of 
the glxcter was not unattended wilb danger, for the stream 
wasffwiftand strong, and on my own i>ony I had lo lecon- 
noilre very carefully for poiuts where it wasHhatlo.* enough ^ 
to CTOte. while there was also some fear of fragments from. H 
the great ice-wall falling down ou the top of us when we 
were pi««>sing along close under it. After getting ronnd this 
obslacle we cnlei-vd a gravel pUtu. some three quartern of a 
mile broad, and wero then etieouutered by anoLlier glacier ^ 
runnitig across ibe valley of Ibe Oprang River. This ap- H 
pearcd lo me (o be one of the princi[Mtl sources of the river, " 
and I determioefl lo ascend il, Another glacier cotild be 
seeu to th« ttoulh, and yet a third coming in a s>^>iith-ejist di- 
rection, and rising apparently Dot very far from the KAra- 
konim Pass. We were, Iberefore, now in an ice-b'ino<I 
region, wiih glaciers in front of us, glaciers behind us, and 



KBRUAKV 2i 



)!r. 



SCIENCE. 



131 



icivn att ftround us. Bmtj suDw-cloads too were unfor- 
iDAtnlT collecting' lo iacPMM our ilifflcullies. and T Tclt that 
should tjjve n hard task before us. On 6rst tookiotr at 
one of tliCAc frlacicre it would app<^ar impoitsible to lake 
(wuies ap tboni, but tbe sides are alwavs covered witb uio- 
raiae, and my exppricoce in ibe exploration of tlie Muiitiigh 
Pass iu 18S7 sbon-ixl Lliat, by carerully recuDOoitnuj; abt^d. 
it »aa genf^ratl; p4^&.^ibte to lake ihe ponie-a for a considerable 
dialaace at Imst up such ffluciere; and aa the one we had oow 
lied seeojed uo worse Iban oth<*ni. and there appeared a 
kp in tbe rati^ wbit-h hioked as if it might be a pass. I Look 
tj ponicaOD, and after llir«« days' tKrarnbliDir on the ice, 
Tnacbed the fnot of the supposed pass, nnol started al 3 30 on 
tbe followinic niorniDfi to Ond if il vraa ut all practicable." 

Captain You»fifbus1>and was, however, oblifted to return 
after reaching a height of 17,000 feel, and he decided to re- 
irtt lo bis camp on Ibe Oprarig River. He lima dearribea 
19 glaeivn from wliick tliis rivor Uike« it« rise: — 
"ThelenRlh of this glacier is Ifl miles, and i1>> avenige 
br«adUi b&lf a mile: it is fed by three smaller ulariers on the 
west and nne on llie east. At ilit tipper tuart, immediately 
idtfr the pass, il is a snux>lU undulating snon-tield alKttil u 
lile ^nd a half in width. Liower down this n/vc is split up 
ioLo crevasses, which inrreaaa in aize Ihe further down we 
^ut. Tlieu the eurface i;radually breaks up Juto a mass of 
tcfrdomea. which low^^r down Itocome sharp ne«dle-1ike pin- 
nacles of puri- while lue. On eaeb side lateral grave) mo- 
mines appear, and other glaciers join, each witli its centre of 
wbite ice-peaks and its lateritl moraines, and preserving each 
its UMrn distinct course down the valley, until some three 
miles from ita termination in the Oprang Bi%*er, when the 
ice-peaks are all melted down and the glacier presents the 
appearance of a billowy mas.4 of moraine, and would look 
like a vo^t collectioa of ^avel heaps, weru il nut that you 
see, here and there, a <Mive or a clitT of ice, showing that Ihe 
gravel forms really only a very liiin coating on t)it> niirface, 
and that l>e»eath is all pure solid ice. Tbis ice is uf opaque 
white, and not so green and Irnnsparent as other glaciers I 
bare seen, and the snow at the bead of the glacier was dilfer- 
ent from any I have seen before; for beneath the surface, or 
_wheu it wafi formed into lumps, it was of tbe most lovely 
lie tmonpareni blue. I must mention, too, that every flake 
8DOW that fell in Ihe storm was a perfect bezagotial star, 
lost beautiful and delicate in form. Tbe mountains on 
"either side of the valley, especially on tbe easturu side, arc 
extreotfty ruggeil and prfcipitnnx, foniiiiig little nr no rest- 
ing-place for the snow, which draiiiH off immBdiately into 
glacier below. The western range, the main MuHtugfa 
ige, was cnvelopet) in c1nud.i nearly the whole time, and 
ily occaiiioQAlly caught a gliiupsi; of some peak of etu- 
■idous height, one of them, the Ounhirbmm. over 86.000 
and others 24,000 feeL The snowfall on these dioud- 
linB rooiu be very cooMderAble, and it acems that tbis knot 
of lofty mountains atlructs tbe great mass of the snow-clouds, 
and gei4 Ihe share which iiught lo fdll on Ibe KarAkorum, 
while these latter, being lower, attract the clouds to a less 
iitgtrt, and are iu conse«iuenc« almost bare of snow." 

A/ter some further exploration of the glaciers^ riven, and 
liajaes in this w-|d rvgioa. Captain Younghuabaud returned 
Ifl India by way of ICasbniir. In the summer of 189U, he 
ice ntore made his way northwards through Kashmir, with 
i'companion. Mr. Macartney. They reached Yarkand on 
r. 31. 

"AfiPr a re«t of two or three weoksalTarkand." Captain 
mgbusbattd went ou lo »ty, ' Hacarlney and I left our 



companions and started, for a trip round tbe Pamin. Ap- 
proaching ibis interesting region from ibe plains of Kasb- 
garia. one sees clearly how it haB acquired tbe name o( 
Bam i-duoya. or Hoof of tlie Wurhl. The Pamir Mountains 
rise apparoully ituite suddenly out of tbe plain from a height 
of 4,000 feet above »eal«v«l at their baM to over 25.000 f«*t 
at their loftient summits — a maxsive wall of rocks, snow, 
and ice. Mounting this wall the traveller comes OQ In the 
Bam-i-dunya, which would perhaps be better trnuslaled aa 
the ' upper slor)- ' of the world. Bouses in Turkistau are 
flat- roofed, and you aocend the outer wall and sit out on tbe 
roof, which thus makes an upper story, and il appears to tne 
that it was in ibis senile that the Pamir region was called Ibe 
Roof of the World. Tbe name, indeed, seems singularly 
appropriate, for once through the gorges which lead up from 
the plains, one enters a region of broad open valleys sepa- 
rated by coiiiparaliveiy low ranges of mountains. Tuese 
valleys are known as Pamirs — Paroir being tbe term applied 
by tbe natives of those parts to a particular kind of valley. 
In ihe Hindu Knsh and Himalayan region the valleys, as a 
rule, are deep, narrow, and shut in. But on the Roof of tlie 
World they seem to have been choked up with the tl/brif 
falling from the mountaius on cither side, which appeared 
to mc lo be older than lh<»« further south, to have been 
longer exposed to tbe wearing process, and to be nior« 
worn down — in many |iarts, indeed, being rounded olT into 
mere mounds, reminding one very much of Tennyson's 
lines: — 

*' ' The bills aro shadows, an<1 cfaey flnw 

From form to tona. and noUiing ■!«»(]■; 

They metl lik« nnrt; tliu soliil lamlo, 
Lik« cloud* they iiha[>« thfrn^clvm and iro.' 

The valleys have thus been filled up faster than the rainrall 
has been able to wash tbem out, and so iheir bottoms are 
sometimes as much as four or five miles hrond. almost level. 
and of considerable height above the sea. The Tagh Uum- 
baah Pamir rnns as low as 10.^00 feet, but. ou tbe other 
hand, ai its upper extremity the height is over Ifi.OOO feet: 
and the other Pamirs vary from twelve or thirteen to four- 
teen thousand feet above sea-Ievel. That is, tbe bottoms 
of these Pamir valleys are level with tbe higher summits of 
the Alps. 

" As might be expected, Ihe climate ts very severe. I have 
only been there in the autumn, and can therefore apeak from 
personal experience of thut seasun only; but 1 visited Ihetn 
in three successive years, and have Reen ice in the basin of 
my tenl in August. I have seen the thermometer at zero 
(Fahrenheit) at the cod of September, and 18" below (that 
is, 50" of frost) at the end of October. The snow on the 
valley tx>lloms does not clear away before May is well ad* 
vanccd. June and July and tbe beginning of August are 
said to be pleasant, though with cbilly nights; and then, 
what we in England might very justly call winter, but whtDh, 
nut to hurt tbe feelings of the hardy Kirghiz who inhabit 
thes* inhoapitablp regions all tbe year round, wo will, for 
courLesy^s sake, call autnmn. commences." 

Captain Youughn»haud and Mr. Macartney advanced up 
those long gravel deaert slopes which lead out of tbo plains 
of Turkistan, and then thnmgh tlie lower outer rangea of 
hills covered witb a thick deposit of mud and clay, wbieb 
Captain Vounghusband believes to be nothing else than the 
dust of the desert, which is ever present in the well known 
haze of Turkistan, deposited on the mnuntaio-sidea; then 
over Ihe Kara-da wan. Kizil da wan, and Tomt Passes: ihrou^ 
the narrow deQIe known as Ihe Tangilar, where nne has to 



123 



SCIENCE. 



^oL. xi: 



lo 4; 



force the ponies up a deep, violent stream ruiihin^r over huf^o 
bowlders between precipitous, PKjkj- cliffs, in which tlieje no- 
ticed large, square hol« plcn?&i, nuggesting' lo thpm that in 
former daj's this, the hitih road between Eastern and Western 
Asia, was probably improvrd by having a bridge over this 
difficult and UauKcrous part; then over tbe Cbichiklik ant] 
Koh-msmalc Vasspa nrid Ihe Tagarma Plain, lill they rtfirhed 
llie ubi^liborhdod of Tash-kurgan, the nnrlliernmnst point of 
Caplnin Yoiini^hiiitbaDd's explorations ill Ibe previous year. 
Pasfeinf,' ihrongh (he Little Pamir, Uiey stnick tbe Alichur 
Pamir near Chadir-taxh at its eastern extremity, and from 
there they looltpil down n broad level ralley. averaging four 
or five miles iu width, to some bi^b, snowy peaUy overhang- 
ing Lake Yeshil-kul at il-i western extremity. Tbe range 
boundiiifT this Pamir nu the north Is free of snow in sarnmer, 
bnt tlial Beporatiug it from Uu- Orcut Pamir is of oooaidera- 
hie beisht, tbe summits are always covered with snow, and 
tbe passes acroaa it difficult. Traces of ancient {{laciers are 
very frequent, and the western end near Lake Ycshit-kul ia 
choked up with their itiorait-es, forming a iM>a of gravel 
mounds, in tlie hollows of whirh numerous leaser lakes may 
be fte^n. On the borders of Teshil-kul. at a, place oalltHl 
Somalush, Captain ToungliuHband found the fragmenUnof a 
stone bearing jin ancient inscription iu Turkr, CliineM. aud 
Manchu. This intere«ling relic, as far as Captain Yomig- 
husband has been able to get the nibbing he took nf it 
translated, refers to the expulsion of the two Khojas from 
Kasbuor by tbe Chineae in l*^8. and relates how they ware 
pursued to the Badakhshau frontier. 

From tbe Ak sii Valley the two travellers ascended the 
sterile valley of the Ak-baitaJ. which at this season of lb« 
year (October) has no water in it, and visited Lake Rang- 
hul. " On the edge of tbia lake is a prumiount uutbtanding 
rock. In which there is n cave with what appears to be a 
periretual light burniuK '" it- This rock is called by (be na- 
tives Cbiragh-tasli, i.r-., ihe Lamp Hock, and they uw-ouiit 
for the light by t<aying that it comes from the eye of a dragon 
which lives in the cave. This interesting rock naturally ex- 
cited my curiosity. From below I could see the light quite 
distinctly, und it sfcmed to come from some pbosphureKcent 
substance. I asked the Kirghiz if any one had ever entered 
the cave, and they replied that 00 one would dare lo risk the 
anger of the dragon. My Afghan orderly, however, hud as 
liltle belief in dragons as I had, and wc set off to scale the 
cliff together, and by dint of taking off o-jrhouts aud scram- 
bling lip the rocks, very much like cats, we managed to reach 
the month of the cave, and on gaining an' entrance found 
that tbe light came neither from (he eye of a dragon nor 
from any phosphorescent substance, hut from tbe usual 
source of light — the sun. The eave. in fact, extended to 
tbe other side of the rock, thus forming a hole right through 
it. From below, however, you cannot see this, bnt only tbe 
roof of the cavern, which, l>eing covered wilti a lime deposit, 
retloeta a peculiar description of light. Whether the super- 
stitious Kirghix will believe this or not I cannot say. but I 
think the probability is that they will prefer to trust to the old 
LniditioDS of tbcir forefathen rather than the wild story uf a 
b^re-hrained stranger Tbe water of tbe Raog-kul is salt, 
aud the color is a beautiful clearbluc. Themouutninsin Ihe 
vicinity are low, rounded, and nninteret^ting, tbough from 
eastern end a One view of the great snowy Togarma Peak 
may he obtained," 

The winter was spent in Ka«hgnr. On July 22, 1S91, Cap- 
tain Youogbusbaud left to returu lo India by way of tbe Pa- 
mirs and Oilgit. 



" On reaching the Little Kara-kul Lake, a piece of tat 
eating geography, which T believe had been Brtrt noticed 
Mr. Ney Ellas, on his journey through tbvse parts son 
years ago. presented itself. Captain Trotter of the Porajrtb 
mission saw from tlie plains of Kashgar a stupendous peak, 
tbe height of which he found to be 25,300 feet, and the posi* 
lion of which he determined accurately. From Tash-kiir;gan 
or its neighborhood he uUo saw u high mountain inasa in 
the dirrctinn of Ihe peak he had fixed from near Cashgar; 
Imd weather prevented his determining tbe position of Ibis 
second pvsk. but he thought there was uo doubt that the 
two were Identieal. Such, however, is not the cane. There 
are two peuki<, aWut twenty miteb apart, one on either side 
of tbe Little Karakul I^ke. That seen from Taab-kurgan 
is the true Tagarma Peak, and oanuutbeseen from Kashgar; 
while ibot *ecii from Kashgar cannot be 9«en from To'*h kiir- 
gan. There appeared lo me to be very liule dilTereuce in 
height between tbe two. Both are remarkable not only for 
their extmordiuary height, but also for their great masstvo- 
ueHs. ThRv are not mere peaks, but great masses of 
mounlain, looking from the lak<^ ns if they bulged out from 
the oeighljoring pUin ; and one sees far more distinctly than 
is usually the ra.te, the layers upnn layers of rock which 
have been upturued liketho leaves of a book forced upwards. 
!t struck me, loo, especially from, the appearance of the 
rocks in the neighborhood of the northernmost peak, that 
these must have been upheaved far more recently thnn the 
worn -out looking mountains in the centre of the region of 
the Pamirs. The appearance of ibetse two Kreat moantain 
maues rising in stately grandeur on either side of a beautiful 
lake of clear blue water is, as may be well imagined, a truly 
magniHcent spectacle, and. high as they are. their rise is so 
gradual and even that one feels sorely tempted lo aseenil 
their maiden summits and view the scene from the loftiest 
parapets of the ' Roof of the World.' " 

On Oct. 4 Captain Youoghusband and a companion left 
the Tagh dum-hash P.imir to explore " an interesting little 
corner of Central Asia, the point where the Iwo wstershetls 
— the one between the Indus on the south and theOxtuand 
Kaiitern Turki«itan Rivers on the north, and the other between 
the Oxus on tho west and the Eastern Turkistan Rivers on 
the east — join. If any point can be called the Heart of 
Cvolral Asiit I should think this must b« it. Heru oii the 
Oiua side of the watershed are vast snow fields and glaciers, 
and among these, with three of its sides formed of cltffit of 
ice — tbe terminal walls of glaciers — we found a small l^k^ 
about three-quarters of a mile in width, out of which l1owal| 
the stream which joins the Panja branch of tbe Oxua t^ 
Bozai Oumbaz." 

After this Captain Younghusband made his way down to 
Kashmir. _ 



FURTHER CONFIRMATION OF THE DISCOVERY 

OF THE INFLUENZA BACILLUS. 

In January, 1800, Professor Babes of Bucharest investi- 
gated nine ca»e9 of iofluensa. The dilhcutty of studying 
them was ItocrMucd from the fact that complications with 
other diMaan were involved. Unfortunately, also. 00 ex- 
periments were made upon animals. Yet, from the results. 
then found,' it will be seen that tbe bacteria are the same as 
those discovered by PfeitFer. wlitch Btbes himftelf ackoowj- 
edges.' 

■ Ouinuoiatt tar B«ui«nol<isl«, Bd. vn., Na 8, is. IT-IS. 
• OsntMb* Mod. Wocfaeascbnn, F«b. 11, IIM. 



FeBKOAitv 26; 1893.] 



SCIENCE. 



133 



The bacteria showed the following peculJarilieB: — 

1, In frosh CASH tbe bacteria arc fouutl iu lurgc masses io 
Ibe muciM, tbftt IK, ID the inoer of the leucocjtesi the; torm 
a thick layer on Lbe eurfsoe of the inHaiuvd mucous mem- 
bnn?, Bud preu into the euperHcial lymph-spat-ea and often 
also into tbe inner orfraas. 

2, They fumi wry fine. |fi?n(.-rally poinlod, diplohactPria, 
or ftbort rods, witli a diameter of 0.2^. often making rliatns. 
One recoffnites in th« inner of the same chromatic itraoules; 
thta0 appear to be surrouodeil by a lif^ht Eone, and they are 
wiihoul Dtolion. With aiuline colors they slain feebly, in 
%)n|j;lR L-a»» bi'lter, anil ar« faint, ortluuol stain at all 1 except 
the cbraoialic granules), with Oriioi's method. In older 
c»M« and cultures, aa In tbe inner of tbe leucocytes, tbe 
bacterium La found in a stale of granular dialulegrstiou. fre- 
qiifiilly lea^en*^ in size or hwoIIe'ii ho that the Ihickiiei^s of 
tlin individual bacteria ran vary between 0.1 uud O.S ;f. 
Tbe thirkn«4« alito varies acoonliug to the coloring matter 
miployed. 

3, The bacteria citii be cullivated in many cases, especially 
IB friycerine. Tliere are formed here, especially deep in the 

Itrienl medium, very ^tmul] rod-like culuuiea. 

The bacterium is palhologiral for rabbits, since in some 
Its iDlroducttoD into healthy D««al cavitiM causes a 
f rC of AepMS, pneumouJN, and death of Ihe aiiimal. 
From Babes's investigations it a{)iK'ar5 that while mice are 
Dot always immune iii;iiiniit greater quuulitiea of the culture 
or the products ot the disease, and thai tUey can ilie. 

Aa there h now no special difficulty in recoguixing and 
'.atinif the very small bacleria to covcr-glaas preparo- 
I < It is to be hoped Ibat tbey may be made valuable in 
kgnosi», and that a way for preventing and subduing the 
may be experimentally investigated. 
fc««M»«M»nll«atc*i8ctowa. , A. MaoDoSa14>. 

LETTERS TO THE KDITOR. 
Making aa Herbarintn or Preserrtog Plants. 

time of yrar wht-n tji>tim)<it» are making plans for 
campaign. I am i»H going tlirougli the ^uliject by 
{ng intu details, a« Sctentx bas rewfilly notked several •mall 
iQuaU whi^'li treat fully of the eubjwt. I wiab to «mpba«ix« m 
fpw puiutt) wbicb have received too Utile attention. I am «ome- 
|bai familiar wUb tbe oollectiop dooe by tbe older botauisU of 
country, and with some in dtlicr counUieB. 
ft have a great ad%'antagc' in many ways over Ibe older col- 
Etora. We are Ivnmiiig all tbe time from each other. We are 

: deeper and deeper into ibe study of plants. 
t Almost everyone who preserves »perimens, on the start boards 
op a k>t of worthless traMi - of snips, lops, and mere fragments. 
Jton'l do It. btji study the BOhjeri well from every aide. I speak 
' mora particularly with rcforonce to grasses; hut the following 
It, ] fetri liurc, will apply with almost ec^ual forte to ni(K«t 
fsniilltM of planU. This is the statement which 1 believe to lie 
tme, with very few exceptions: — 

All truly good herbarium itpet'iDi«n0 have been made within tlie 
|«st tweuiy yeviK. and a very birite proportion of tboae prepared 
_dtirtag the last iwenly yean are far from guud. It It) no injiutlce 
I others lo say that. HQ far us I know, C. O. Pringle of Vermont, 
bis (sHtidioiuaieea tn tbis matter, started a reform wbicb scvms 
I be rapidly Bprfodlng. Wo should have an alvundance of mate- 
1, lowf r leaves, flowem, fruit, and rixit-suilk^ if there are any, 
little packages, of nnta, dowers, and aeods on Uie sheet fi>r 
]y. Sume years ago I i^Ktke of the imponanoe of preaervmg 
llioKS of many of uur plimtji. Thi? j« a good lime to refer to 
part of the subject, Mnce Mrs. Kellermnn has illustntted the 
UackbefTy. Tom to page ninety- four and study it. 
to raising seedling*, or pick tfaem up wherever they can be 
fuuud, Look out. too, for bixJs of tMca and shrubs, and collect 



them before tbe inner scales have folleo — as they are opening. 
Do not be aatisSed with mediocrity, but strive to have everythlog 
neat nnd oomplete. W. J. Beai^ 

Acricainrai ColUts, toftian Oh, Hkfe., r*b. tt 



The Bam Owl a Winter Resideot In Ohio. 

TRat the lum owl. Strix prathicola, is, at leasl, a rare winter 
ffi^ident of central Ohio ran no longer be quastioned. A Uw days 
since two individuals were foiiitd in the hollow trunk of u syca- 
more tree at Ulica, Licking County. Onf of them wsa kille«l by 
the fall of Ihe tree; this I liave not aeen. The other was taken 
alive, and I had the sH lief action of Mieing it last week in tb« poa- 
sewion of Mr. Newkirk vt Newark, 0. There is no doubt as to 
it« identity, nor «.-aD 1 ibink there ie any regardiOE tbo staled time 
and place of capture. 

There are tmt lew recorded iiu>ianoes of Ita ooeunence in tbe 

State, and none of tbe dates at hand ore (o winter. Or. J. M. 

WliLiiion, iu " Reports on the Bird« of Ohio.'* say?, " Rare visitor. 

Mr. Oliver Davie uf ibis city [Columbus] has a bpeeimen . . . 

kilk-d in this vicinity Nov. S. 1878. The dates of captnrM (Olr- 

cleville, Biunmrr, 1878; Columbus, November, 1378; t>Mr Ofncln- 

nati, April. 1A80] indicate that it is. at least, a itummer re^ideni 

of the Htate." It would seem that it is a pennaneni retideot; in 

all probability rearing it« yoang In central Ohio. 

D. S, Kblucott. 
frblo 8mi« ColTvratlr, OolaiblMM. Fabt IT. 



A Magnetic Cane. 

Capt. D. p. Sanpobp of lbii> city uwue a walkinR-eiick tbat 
IXMKesses magnetic properties, hut tvow it came by them be is un- 
able to L'Xplaiu. SevtTHl jutin ai;u bo purchased a strung, heavy 
cane, havtuv for its ceiitral poili -n u rod uf ezcellenl quality of 
steel, exlcudiDg throughout its entire length. At ll»e lower end 
it th about Ibe tbiokuesi of Ihe onlinnry lead pencil; at tbe 
top nearly three-qnarters of an inch in diameter. Il« outer part 
h composed of k-alher. which, having been cat Into nnga. was 
forced, one ring u|ion another. i|ll solid from end to en<I. This 
was rounded, lunoothed and polialied, attd varuiahefl. The can# 
wax lint)ihr(t. hnl, )>y <'itrleii«inf; the lower end wiih a Kteel ferrule 
through which the i.i?ntr«l wK^el rr«l jirojvcled lialf an inch ; sec- 
ond, by covering Ihe ut>i)er end of the cane with a circular copper 
plate over an inch in diftmetrr, »nd nliout une-sixleenlb of an 
inch in thicknew. 

Tbe caue was never near a magnet la its owner's knowledge; 
but recently be has noticed its magnetic property, which, la his 
belief. Is growing stronger. Now, what causes tbis? 

Th« water-tight non-conducting *^^vcring insulates tbe rod per- 
fectly, etcept at Ibe lower end, wbere, a» a matter of course, it 
romiancLy comes in contact with tbe earth. The upper port, cov- 
ered with tbe copper plate, is held in the warm and moiiit Itand 
for hours at a time. Now, will the conditions of intnilatlon, two 
mclals. molfilure of earth and hand, and difference in temperature 
between tbe two ends. aocouDt for the ezblbtllon of msgni-tic 
properties ? Will aome one offer an explanation ? 

A. U. BXAIS. 

M[11'Ml(»r1Il«.Qs.. F^b-eOi 

[If the writer of ibe above will take any steel rod and give It 
a uumliT of raps while held la a more or Iwe vertical position be 
will find ibat it wilt become magnetic. — Ep.] 



AMONG THE FDBLISHERS. 
The quesltoo of " Speed in LocomotiveB." which for a time 
lias BUi^meded hi popular IntoreM tbe luxuries of railroad travel, 
will be discussed in tbe Matvfa Stribner by a notable Kfoup of 
railway autboritiee. U. N. Fonioy, t^iitor of 7^ Raitroad and 
Eaoineering Journal, will consider tbe question uf -'The UmiM- 
(ions of Fast Running-.*' Theodore N. Ely. General Superinten- 
dent Motive Power. Penn»ytrania ttailroail. will irejit of "Train 
Speed asat^estion of Tramportatioo;" H. Walter Webb. Third 
Vice-Prttldent of the New York Central, will deacrlbe "A Pmc- 
lical Experiment" — tbe running of the Empire State express. 
The views of three aueb authorities, prosentod in a popular way 
io one numher. give for the 8r>t lime an ade(|uale knowledge to 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XIX. No. 47; 



tlie public of Ihe difficultira aud risk; inririreil inruaniog (hrtn)j;h 
tntitu at a high mte of apeed. 

— P. BUkistoit. Son. & Co,, Philkd^lphbi. have nenrly n>ady a 
"Monoffrnph on PliTniwil EJucnIioo,*" hy Fr«I^ri<;k Treves. 
F.B.C.S.. printi-d from tho nd^-anrc sheeti of " A Treatise on R»-- 
gieO€," by various uuthors. It it & e^sipnoalic expoditinn of a 
vtry imporlant subject that is at prM^nt attracting the atti^nti'in 
of school hoonb, college tm^u-rt, phjairiuns, and sanitarians 
geoemlly. 

— To Skukespwre atu-Ient^ the plan tmd ftcojw of Dr. Fiirnefl<t"a 
TarloTutu edition Ia univ^^rMlly known, ii# arc the Intlnue palna, 
judMiiit>ot, and rritical fai'ulty expendoil in the cx|MMlUon of each 
pbiy. Every volume as it appears btiD]^ into tmt focus nil the 
wMilLli of n Kf^al Sbakuspeare lilinity. mu artani>ed as lo be jm- 
ni«^ia(ply avc^sslble. "The Tempest " is the arolli voliime oE 
lliix iticorii [iHralilf (?(litiim, and will soon be publbhed by J. []. 
Lippinrolt C<.»inpnrty. The pinyit [irevioutity lisui^ are "As You 
Like It." '■ Romeo and Juliet," •' Hamlet " {% v.ila). •' Maclieth," 
"Kiug I#eur." "Othello," aod -'Merchant of Venice," 

— Under tl>e beading '*Oae Uuodred Miles an Hour," Mr. 
(7liatl>« N. Dfacon of the Reading Railroad discUMea. in the March 
Jjippt'tcolt, ll>9 fnt'tNand iK>Miilii]itic.-i of railway i>peed, and rejecu 
t>Mr po[>iilar oollon that a fai<t«r ratt* nec«ti>uirily mmna increased 
danger. 



— J. B. Lrppincott Company have jwn f«bli«heid a new »>liti' 
of '■ Soule's Synonymes," reviievl «n-l a-nhtrgml by George 8 Ho* 
ison, MiIIh profoHSiir of lUijIo^ophy in the Univ^riity of CHlifomli 

— Hotighton. Mifflin, A Co. will )ioi>l)>ih Immediately (be lec- 
tures in "The Kvolutiott of Christianily." recently deltTeieO at 
Ihe Ixiwell Institute, in Boston, bf Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbutt. which 
have been carefully revised by Dr. AhlioU for this |)nbl[('a(io-i 
book form; " E^tt itorial .%ui«rica," in tvbich )[. M R-ilInu dej 
scribes hi* travels to Kl Thomas, 5[arl)nii)u«, Barbxloe*, and tl 
principal (^pltnU of SiHilh .^nierica. This hoiu» n ill also ahortl 
isaue I) new work by A, P. }^nnelt, wliofto -'Occult World" nnl 
" Eitoterlc BuddbtKin "" ttecured so wi>le a reading. The new boo| 
will be named " The Itationale of Uesmeriaat." 

— U. L. Unlbrook Company, 23 Clinton Place. Nnw York CJt] 
UQiHiunce for intiuediate [Hililitntion a work on the hygienic trrfl|;3 
uitMit of ami'iirnplii.iii, which has heet) ia |>rep«ra(i;ja many ye^raj 
and which woiilil have been published earlier if it had not 
detained to.mait the vt-rdict on ProfeaKu Koch's merits. The 
book is written mainly for the patient. 

— In a volume of loore than two hundred [Migoa J- B. Llppio- 
cott Com[uiny will soon puliti-<h " Tyjie-Wriling and Businem 
(.Wre«iioiidence, " by O. R PbUimt, It is a compondium of the 
«otir« aubject, and pliicex in the bands of the novice just t>uch tn- 
fonnatiou a* •« inO"( ix'edett, To insure its practical efficiency 



c;alend\h of 3<XMBTIRS. 

Women's Aothropoloeical Society of 

America. Washington. 
Feb. aO.-Fulk Lork. 

Biological Society, Waabingtoo, 
Feb. JO. — W. Q. Dall. Factors in the 
Distribution of Animal life as IlhHiraiAd 
by Kfarine Forms. It la ezpcclort that at 
each meeting a paper of general biological 
Illt«re«t will tic inirodticed for discuaaion, 
the atwive being the Brst of the M-rl«s. F. 
A. Lucas, On Charcharodon mortooi; J. N. 
Rowi, The Flora, of the nalnpagm lalanda; 
Jnhn M. BolKioger, On the Identity of As- 
depias steuophylla, Uray, sod Averatoa 
auriculata. EuKeim. 

Appalachian Mountain Club, Boiton. 

Fed. 23.— Frederick H. Cliapin, Ascent of 
Cucompahgre Peak. Cliff-Dwellings of Nav- 
ajo Cafion. Culuradu (illustrated by about 
one liuudrei^ new alereopticoti views,) 



Business Department. 



Iiit»ndiu>; iDveatum and others int«reat«d 
in real estate tuatt«ni in iho rapidly der«lop- 
ing Stale of Texaa are invited to give acaxe- 
fal roading of the advertisonnint of tlie FoT- 
Wprth and Arlini^ou HeJKhtM T..aiid and lot 
TWtmant Company on flrst pitkf<- of this nam' 
her, Mr. E. W. Wntkin«. t56 Broadway, 
N»w York, will show views and map« of the 

firoperty advertised. The writer can vouch 
or tbt> entire rwliability and truthfalnoia of 
any itateuiffuia madv in the advertiaeoant. 



Spmal alteottoD ia eallad to the novel 
re|)rMeotatioa of solar and lumar acIi|WM, 
with pofinlar lectures nn utronomy, rvceatly 

inBuganitud at Carnegie Music Hail, entitled, 
"A Trip to the Moon.' 



POPUUR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 

P*r«>«laC«1lcffC(knd Normul SchooU. Pilc«soc«au 
'Bnt Irae bv po*! I>7 

til. D C. HOOttBS, af I Braadwari N. V. 



Wants. 



irmt iiu la fill a friilitn »/ lAt-i ekarmtt*r, tt il Util 

9fi. tfiAy Ade^ Iki ' H'ttni ' inttrttd um^tr tkii ktttti 
t'liKi .•»(!•» I, t/' Ar tilti^i Ikt fmHltkrr t/ Ikt mil' 
*iit tkarjuttr «/ ktt afflU-ttiem. Amyptrm Mtkimg 
iti/trmalinti m amy mrili/i.- fmntitm, Ikt addrwu ij 
amy tcttmltjU rnatt, rr tvAi* cam im dnjr iwd> uteikijrrl' 
amnjtr a /«ry<*" tftUBaami milk fk* m»tnrt^ tk« 
^^rt. it terJiatty imvUrJ It Ja m. 



\ (■B(>Ki;t(r?OKSI)tP IB CbeaiMrT is umaiti ^j 
t\ <ia<t wli» \im* bkd Ht* jumra' aipitrl«n» in tb»t 
eapsclt7- Would prefer to |lvs lastruoUon by 
]pi4ut«a and BxpMirosala ratlwr than b* tsit-boob 
mctliixls Would llks a posltioo la s coUMte or uoi' 

ri.fallr vberr IliF'rt) !■ a (cooil utiiilaiDt's Uboratorx. 

H[>oplsl [lointsor (irGtiKLlii'lsluii'iJ are: (I) TliorouKli 

coulrDl of ■ elam acid sa>'>^ ■•rdor durlDs Imrturaa 

Md rftOtatlOPi. Qt) AMurauv In ozptrlmmtliiii 
wllb ellaaiieals sad skill lu tb« manlpalatloa at 
ffli«nloal appantuB. Tke peraHsaion of ssTeral dts 
tiaKataMsd •daestora haa baeii givaa to r«f«r ta 
Ibini tt rMOtied. Would sot oars ta aoi!«pc a po- 
■ItloB parlDtc laM ttisn f l.SOO. Addraas B. a , ean 
o< SciMter. (f>« Broadway. Mow ToilL 



A DDRE88 WAyTEU.-WLDatMDooaa plMtasenl 
^ Ui« address .^ tlm Sfi'retkrr of lb* Ait]«r1un 

Pblloloflesl Aoe\t>tr- -il*" lliat <>■ Bsrbert Spsanr. 

"AI)D1^)K." B»oa> S4, IM Uadlxat St.. Ctiiaafo. IIJ. 



A DURKtiSKS Of Old Book DMlen «aaliid.-'Wt^ 
n loc to nbtaio* cumber uT old Ijoulis out oF print. 
I very muob deatn tba sddrsMWs or catalocuM ot 
rare aeoond- band hook dealen. ir.tbera la adltM-- 
t^ry or tiM of mth dvalvra I sbould tike to ubtaln 
poaaosalou »f «i>o. W. A DLAKKLV. CtilcaflU. lit 



w 



A IfTED.- Eloaka M tba Ms^la Laatoni Will 
•xnhauire. - How Uifl F«m Psys," by Cualvr 
aad HeoderB&Q ; "Gullure of Farm (In»iiB," lii 
Stnvart; -Aiu«rli>an AgrlnuJturtet," IMO and UNI. 
I NLEB ATKINSON. 49 WsUms St.. OtaOfS. N J. 



W^ 



ANTED.— (I) A wbit* aiafl varsad In wood aod 
iroD wovkiu, able to work froflt BpecUtoatloas 
and plam. aultad for an tDatmeur tit boya; hia boa 
ttiesa to bars oharce of stLups of MrtiooL ontUae and 
dJrvol thn wiirfc for tontiiioD and ■ludaAM; aalary to 
\>' fl.AV tiiT sitDum (nlDfl aontbt). (.1) A lasfi 

(blaifk jin'forro'l') (a t«af h the aolorvil, Itno w«(ktn| 

sad (orciua. subordlDUo to tba ptseediac; salary, 
9710. cfl) A man <wblta) oniapatwit to taka alajM« 
tn •QgUaertiy (sasiMaat'B poitcioai. bat wltb tb* 
•blllty to mwrbrm any at tli« work imjuIttiI Id mat 
of tbootiUMncBalaMnBitooiirsraDf aurnnireral- 
!!«■; aalanr fTMn tl.lXKI to %lfiiA A H. RKALS, 
HIUedserlDs. Oa. 



BOOKS: How lu Kxehance ikeni far 

oitarra. H«Bd « poata) lo lb« ai-iiKCK oxohaagv 
colomB (Inserttoo frae). rtallng Infefly what yen 
want to alebaiiKe. ScouwB. 0T4 Broadway, Vtrw 
York. 



Exchanges, 

|Preeofcbaq[e to all. il ofaatiafactorycbaractc 
Additu N. D. C. HodflM, 174 Kc«utwty, N«w Va»b.1 



Ta t)icbaD|[«: Ekperimaot Station balli>Uaa and 
r«iM)n8forHil)eliBs sad reports not la mrBlr. I 
will aeod liat al what 1 haw fa«- otclianwi P. H. 
BOLra. Laka OUy. nortJa. 

Finbbed (peetmcai at alt oalun of VcniuKil aufUe (cr 
Gnt (oudU Of cryiuli. Will \tt 0V*a only for TalaaUa 

•peciinan* t>«cau«r of the cow of poltibiax. C£0. W. 
PERRY. SUM GccJocikt, KulUad, Vi. 



Por eichuige.-^Ttiiee ropla <A ''Averinn State 
Papni Hcjiincoo SuodiiT Lcnilatioa," tl^i. Si.jo.acw 
and uiiui«d, Ic* "'Th* Sabbau,'' by Hann»n Kiitnbury, 
i8«o: "The Stbbatti."- by A. A Pbtln, ig.i; "' Hiiloi* 
of (iie InaiJtuliuti of tli« Mbblth I>*y, lu U«t* and 
Abi»«," bv W. L. Fufaci, 1I19; " HuiaaiiNU Plutca of 
ibe I^w, ' by Irvina Brov-nc; trt »th«i wvrka UBaaattoc 
(o valu'- of booLi ctchanjed. oa the qncHkni of nrera- 
mental I^^UUiion ia iefei«sc« 10 nltslon, pttioaal ubtny, 
tic. II pccfHTMt. 1 trill kII "Amcikaa Suie Vntn^ 
and bur Mbtr b4ol^ oa ibo w^iacu WILUAM AD- 
DISON BtAKGLY, CtikiKo. Til. 

Wanlad, in aifchsBC* for Iha fftllowiaK ■m/kt, lay 
■tandan! work* ob SurKery aad on Dj-aaaatof Cbtlilraii: 
WtlMirs*'Ani«ncanOrailt)Qlosy,'* J volkjCouci' "Uinla 
of ilic KonhwcM " and " RI<d« ol the Coferado VaM*y,*^ 
> *alh: Uiaot't " Land and Gatnt Birdi of H«w Baajfl 
tandj*' SamueU' " Out Notlbara and Eaitam BlMk;" aflff 
th< RcpoHk &n tbe Bird* of ihc pMific R. R. 5umvJ| 
bouad in a volt., maaaowt aod a rnoiplM* tct u( ihs 
Ra^oftiof ih( AtbaosMGeolotKalEurrer. Picaic |ii< 
cdilioiH >i>d d*lci in i»nn[xiedine. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALU ilisb Bcbool. D«* Motna. Iowa. 



Wanted i> buv 0) ejEebann a copy ol 
H«rHlolivy. or loha ndw 
C. ^AtJR. 



^i.>Tth .tnirnr.sn H«rpcl 
flutadcrphU. 1(41. ' 
Worcnlci, Ubm. 



Holbtvcif^ 
Joha RdwstJi. J nl( 
Out UnivtniiyJ 



For ulc or exehann, LaConic,"'Gealon; '* Qaain, 
"AcjitOBy," I iiAt ; PaiUTt '*PliyMalaKy,'*XiiK- adition- 
Sbopiurd, ApplsloB^ Ulbalt, And tileiD, "CheniftUyj 

iMfnUioail Seu- 
Bal- 



Jordan, " Maoual of Vcrtcbr.itca;" " InlcrM 
ttM»* DtlvtMryt" V<d. I. y»»riuit »/U»rpi 
fouf, ** Enbtyology." a va4*.; Leidvi " 
Sdtnct, tl voU.. naboaad. C T. MeC 



Sn'tntf, tl voU.. naboaad. 

Uexinitao, Ky. 



^"k^^ 



Toescbjiaca Wrifht'*" loe Aft in North A»rrics ' 
anil t.a Conto^k **ElcBWnt> ul C«oloc«" ICopyncbi iSS*! 
fur "DMwiaiun," by A. R.WallaM.^O'iRia of SMcia.' 
try t>Mwia. "DncDBE at Man." by Darwia. UaiiV 
Plaea in Nature," Haalcy, "MenUl Emtulian inAM> 
nuk,"by Roiiuiii«, "Pro.AdsB>i«t," by WlocbaU. Ms 
l>Doh> wanted eiccpt Ulcsl cdltifloi, uii booh* in t*.'i 
coadiiiou. C. b. Bti/wn, Ji., V^ndMbQi UniraniiyJ 
Nalbrilk. 1 can. 



for Sak or Bichanfc for bonlu a c o mp l m pnvita 
ebcodcsl laboTMorv outfit. Indudat lars* B«clc«r bal- 
anoe (noog to fiooi^), pUiisuni diihu and cmcJblta. 
■cate aiotZn, ilaia tilnainn apparanw, vtc. Far aale ia 
[iMt Of wbole. Abocfuupleic ftWof JW/AMv-rT""**', 
iH»-tMj(t»^i bound); MkiihaonUa Rtpoftt, iSm-iM); 
U. S. Com Siwrey, iBu-iSAg. Ftttl pnrtlcuUii to ca- 
qnlms. f. GAROlNeR, JR., P«mfm, Coan. , 



Februarv 26, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



125 



at bonk but beva <liTt<Icd iolo ^wtlona givlag f>aniple buMnesR 
titn- Ti-prr»votiD^ widflrjIifTvi'-'nl trade*, also rule^ f'-r punchi- 
ioo iml for ui^ian \hv varlouo kiuds of type-writinti inachinew. 

-^ Of Dr. Kraoz BtMU'a rnvnl publicalkms on ttie (-thnOKrA|ihy 
ad llnn^iMlc^ of ehe Aoierican North- wwi, U]« fotlovrine nw he- 
ft •!« ii»: 1. " Nolfii on tl)» (.'bemabum Laoguaft^," in Amrriain 
lnlhn/i>t>kioi«t foe January. 18M, pp. 37-+I The pPopI« -titxlf- 
iU lliis luQjiUSi[v <werv viaiti.'U by Boob iu ihn sumntvr ot |.<*1KI mt 
JlCvt SiKinJ, hq'I tbea ouly Ihrw pvreon* were surviiini;. IU-- 
irv Boas autbiiiK lbituu}Eb ImiJ evi>r b«^n made pui>Uc upon ihu 
iriims and very cunKonantif: laDj^aiigr. whlcli tovm% t<jf;vtlier 
iklh a iliateft nn Hip Pacitir Ooa^L, iinexplrrMl iw yot, » lio^Miitlic 
familr In itwir. 2. ■'Tliiid RepnTt on (b^ Indian? ot Grititli Co 
,]uiBlMa,~ ooninineil on pp. 3-4;! of Seventh Report nn the NorLh- 
rtbes of Canada, Cardiff meeltng. HiQl, nf the Brittsb Aai.^inaltoD 
tbs Adranccment of Sdenne; mostl; rthn liirapliicil and 



soiitatolotricsl. 3. • Vocabularin ol (he Tlittgit, Balda, and 
Ttdilrirsbino Lmgitauea." Amvrk-aa Pliil(iao]ibJ m1 Society of Pblla- 
deli'hlii, Out. i. 1891 ; in its Pr.ji-(?flinijd. pp. 1*3-308. These eopi- 
i>utj wur-l colleeiioD)) are so arrnn^l that the EiiBlieh tu^iQcatran 
stau'ls 6rfii, At tlie end of the artinle tbt-re are mia aod a Wag 
in l*«lu(D*hiBn with fntertinear traiiitlailiHi. 

— All leaclieni and Ihote inten-ifti'd in Jiizlier education wtll b«> 
aHnit;tv«l by llie (>apvr in the All-intic Muiiihtfi Tor March, by Pr 
few*>r Oeorgu II. Palmer of lUr'-arJ Uriivetaily, potiiiwl " ftmhta 
abiul XTnliiniity Bxtt-tieian." Tlie writt-r has :;iren Hiiw ttudjivl 
a QiriHl enrefut study, and relates the history or the m>ivprnent ifij 
Bn^land ami in the Qn)l«d States. Fie »prali4 of thf dilRcuUlM 
of 'iialiio;^ it a aut-c^-^a here, ooiog to the different aodal oimdi- 
li'inH uf the tno countries, and «ufiffl>est4 pUns by means of whicli 
ttie system may he made a possible Aucce&t in AmeHcaL TbepaperJ 
HI I well reimy n oorrftil reading. 



PROPRIETABY. 



Exhausiion 

Horsllirifs Aeiil fliosiibti!. 

A wonderful remedy, of the 
highest value in mental and 
nervous exhaustion. 

Overworked men and women. 
the ner\'ous, weak and debilitat- 
ed, will find in the Acid Phos- 
phate a most agreeable, grate- 
ful and harmless stimulant, giv- 
ing renewed strength and vigor 

the entire system. 

Dr. Edwin P. Vwe, Portland, Ha., Mya: 
'I barv tucd it in my owii otull^ wh«u auffer- 
icijcfroai u«rv POD exhaust ion, with gratifying 
~ iilt4. I bav« prescribed it for many of 
varioua forais of narvotu tl«biUty, and tt 
nerer failed to do good." 
DeacripCive pamphlet free. 

lM>f«rd OwBicai Worhi. ProvldtiK*, It.l 



Beware of Sabstitntea and Imitatioaa. 

4'A r'riOX.-B« BDr(< the word "Hora- 
ford***' )■ on ibt l*b«l. An oiiifira «ro 
iiarloUB. Nevtr xild Lii bulk. 



MISKRALUiJV. 



jirse of linertlogy for Toong People. 

Cuiiila«iB4t)roortMpoiidgBC«: mteqTBtaaiidbcKikB 

Collefltli>Q ud b«ok, " rinR *>rad«." vnc dvJu; 
[D. U CPiiliL Srad tor oiroulsr* tfl 

GU&TAVE OUTTENSBRO. 
rrmr»] HiK hScbo ol. P lltab untli. P*. 

lot K( the MrilOBtl liv 



nrkl noil Q (^cLn^ddrfucartlliis. 

-nre a BoapfiKn' «SIm». JlUm. Mla^aoualaatw 
^ .. la cliMAaipiTgByplMaf wVae. OltO.XJKSOtUuaou., 
tliHT«l(«ti«a. m «ail TKBrtailwav. New Vnrhrlly. 



SO CKiaifTOMKK rHBJB n> a prcinltini 
Wllb THB ORBAT DIVIDK. 

Tt)*)!* Cb-nnaae* Are e%t and polithtd rujdjr for 
Hrmmlrf tmmnllnic, kciD mr* ci(«a fr>->' tr' vacli aw 
■■bMtiboT ■fDdiDft • I , prtc« of y«*ilr sutiMttptten. 

A.ldr->~> TAB OBBAT DIVIOB* 
ICI4 ArapNlioeSt., DeDver, C«lo. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



ARTIFICIAL LIMBS 

WITH flttllER FIET AKQ HARM. 

Dnrahle In I'uBHirnctloD. Natural !■ AfIIod. 

KolirldM la M*f»iMfnl. 
Ai>d ll>« »OST L-DUFOKTABLK Tor Ihe irautr. It U 
Dol aaofual lu ira a ramict- wivhIiiK tu \tm flvtd* wtUb 
an arUflcuu ■»(. (wabnlmnaJDapvrylaiililibraliaims 
faat numlDf traUt, or an analBMr wiui hoad on tko 
^lr•K«lf^ <ir a nr^niati. c<arMi{>r, aiiMa, miner, rn CaeC 
mea ol vtctt touUdii af tabdr tt tho rati fmeUrv 
thplM MiiploriMefei.H«*rinio(M' or tw^aitiflctal I«vw1tli 
ivhbar (mL, pMtorailQ(Ba ainck aa ia*a la ponNnliin 
ol allihvlf- batoral aiMa)Mn,MirtitMg tkt tainvvait*). 
Ui Cact, FXporMtctDK UtUa or o« Umnvaalancf . 



f^'/zy 



■2*J 



Ornr lumartiflElal Itaib* of ittn Mvlu' tarfjMC lodaiiT 
Ma. BalaUlabed m<r tt F^ara. liulanedandputThaac^ 
%ty Ui> rnltfld Slauiu and Many tantgo fanaroiiianta. 
Hr our formaUa appUcantt <«a rinplr im wiUt all tk« 
dMa nocMaarr usMnina fli wblls inay r«niatA aikcoM, 
Uaa half ot Ui«le«»aiMl anus rurnbhed b)' ua aremiiM 
tnoi maa— rownala and profllra wtirututoiir M«lnc lAe 
waanra. ni alwara Kiuumomd. A tr«ailf«(irUDeMM 
wnhaallMalraaaneoluJ afiVTODlarar msaaurlDR. mtit 
(m. Aililnn 

A. A. MARKS. 701 Broadway. K. T. 



'lH',f\R Typewriter 



VKOmivuannl 
sviaacMunsi 



l>aU.*R. luiiij iik( cat- la^aiai tualltiwum Uv*'- *■"* 
UivHBa qnallir ul wurk:uLu ■ (ntla (afl tliMt. cWplviii 
■'th>apT>itilw. lai— ilif*. pw(H(irt*i>W*la i^l>t 
■»■■ nH>iani(« liA. *U*i>«aaliK*u;iraifi<i. II m: mi 
•teltiin Knwilafd. ClmlvDftw^ tllt:VTii W4IITI1'. ^nt 
W naprdM r.-> iiJWi »* mail, Ith ntra lar eatiiutr 

■t.H.I\(iEKKoi.i.aiir«.wi'«niudi8t.l(.i.t;ifr. 



THE CMCaPE.ST AND BEST 



67 PARK PIACE. NEW YORK 



BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 



Bookti ordered hy Mail, selected 

with care and forwu-dMl with prooitititeaa.- 

Bonks nut nf print nnd sczirce, 

will be B^ari^heil for witli thiin^u^bncM. 

Books not to be had, in ihi« 
country, will ha ImpnrtoU to onlat. 

CROTHERS & KORTH, 

(RooRi 22. Manhattan Builillii||>. 

96 Fifth Avenue, New York City, 



JOHR IRELAND'S Bookstore, 1197 Bfoaitffsy 

Kr Vlh BU. la csairwiilFnt l» Uir nalilcBcc ii>iar1e> ot 
cltf- It banDdjilaCBU> drop Into oa ilir wa> ua 
or rt<mn tuwa fin wfeclhoolwurKatlcNMn'. Rlaatntk 
''> nHi arlartcdaad eiMbraMaaIltlMiww«Ad«awlai4 i 
--^> u HOB M MwC OovaMowa pumimn wn 
■..-I t>r mall ttUb «Tary {MtOdMct tfeal OUlr waM J 
n I ' l>r M Hitli Miiiiiillrd aa If b u niwt la parvw. 



AMERICAN WOODS 

A book on WcQdi. cotiLnlnlujc 

PREI'AkATIONS OP WOOIMt 
fua MICttOSCOPH anu STEBB- 
OmCOK, add WOOUKX C.\RD!j, fm lnHt»- 
tlona, callinx eanla. etc Scml for ctrculam 

R. B. HOUOH. LamUU, N. V. 



An XUnstrated Jonmal for Mothera 

prBLIIHEn FOKTIVieUTLT. 

$1.00 a year. 
ChArlM BobiuMu, 907 Br<Mtdw»y, Hf. T 

~ the" BOTANICAL GAZEHET"" 

A monthly illuittrated juuroal of botiuiy ia 

all its departjaenta. 

■S ccn'a a Qumbar, tl.y a r<Br. 

Add«a. PUBLISHERS BOTAKICAL GAZKHB, 

rraH-fardavlllp, Ind, 



ESTERBROOK'S 
STEEL PENS. 

Of SUrFHlOn AND STASDAnt) QUALITY. 
Lading Nos.: 048. 14. 130, 135, 339. 333 

firr Stilr tilt -ill .•tlatiunrrit. 

fMI UTEIIItllK »T(EL PEN 10.. 

Worm. OanltB, H.J *ja Jo»a ■*!.. New V»rk. 



PATENTS 

FocINVBK7N:iHH. IOt««,ft K<KtK FKEE. Aiktf«aa 
W. T.fltsuvrati]. Auomi?} at Ljts.WaahlDittiia, D C 

BACKMUMIieiUiaail«>a»Blct«Hltar le^dtiu Maf- 
•jiM*. /TaJ/f Uw. KH, MAO. EXCHiCMOl, 
Schohafie N V 



126 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou XIX. Na 473 



DBT (iOOM, Etc. 






Real India Pongees, 

CORAHS, 

Unsurpassed for darability and wear. 

INDIA SILK SHIRTINGS, 

Stripee and Checks, new color- 
ings, and styles. 

RONGEANT, 

The New Summer Silk. 



yjtcai)ivmi cKy l^tla 6t 



NF.W VORK. 



DRESS GOODS 

FOR SPRING TRADE. 

Etpecial care has been takeu to provide, 
for the Spring trade, large and varied aft- 
aortiiienta of new weaves and shades m 
Pahs Dress Goods, remarkable for thtir 
richness and noveltsr. 

The choicest of these goods will be shown 
oa Tuesday, Feb. 33, as well as additional 
Dovelties in wooleru of Scotch and English 
maoufacture for Ladies' wear. 

Plisse Cashmere, in shingle plait s.Tucked 
eficcts in Plaids— iilomtiiated colorings. 
Piped. Corded, and Shirred Crepes and 
Crepoas. 

The rapid sale of novelties, previously 
shown, indicates an active demand for the 
above class of goods; we therefore ui^e 
Dpon our customers the advantages of an 
early selection. ____ 

James McCrccry & Co. 

BROADWAV A: lllh JtTRRRT, 
KKW VOHH. 

^ F 



fiSTE 

Emtioilery Wa. 

r«rlrOn' EuJ* al hair tirli>«i ■•Xf .•irx ■■ la ■ boa. Ail 
k-|MM Hill ftiid Kund (oloTk. MdI bjr null 



IbM •■«» tm An X(«4h><ra(t. «utV li> ■Ti>^ -A W»i>i>* 
I'fni **'n*>'ifiitcli*iilll* uidarrsaeke; BlarwuMM Id 

riir Hw BMW* M>d mMrf »> MUOi nUnateS bl 
an Kofaiowork wv wui «ni< on Mok tr«» 



MNANCIAL. 



M89 method of Protecting Property 
from Lightning. 

The Lightning Dispeller. 

Pnce, $20 to $30.— According to size. 

The Patent LiKhlnin^ Ditpellrr in a ccmluc- 
tor specially dosi^ed todiiuiiMitothB poorfry 
ot s iJ>;Ltuin)( discharg*. — to prevent \U 
doin^ harm , —placing sometbitig in its palb 
upon wliioh its capacity for causing daniaKe 
ma.j be exp«nded. 

No rtwordnd ease of lightnini; stroke has 
yet h««n nit^l against the principio of the 
Diiipol Ittr. ^D for ma known, the aissipatJon 
of a conductor has invariably protected undvr 
the conditions «mploycil. 

Oorrespondenoe oofiaiUMl. 

AGENTS WANTED 



TheAiDtrlcaii LlgbtniDg Protection CompaDy 

United Bat'k Building, Siuux City, Iowa. 



1 Al^UlVJ n. fOR NOM-RESIDENTS. 

TAYLOR & GUNSTON 

Take (ull Gh*rEC of property for tb« 

EASTERN INVESTOR. 

City, Town, and SubarlMa L9I», 

Garden, PtQii, Hop aod Timber Loads. 

10* . 6iarsot«ed od all Innstmeots. 

Hoas«« for sale oa the laiialmeot plan, b^ which 
the fiurGba>er can obtain an Income lutncleni Id 
coverall pafrnonM, kncludloc taKct,liisuraDce,ctc. 

lotormation rccardlof any psnlcular point in 
the stele ot Wiahincton cladly tumtibcd upon 
sppUcation. Pf rionsl attentleo Kiven to all loaaa. 
Correspondence solicited. Refer, by permlMioo. 
to the Paclftc NaUonal Sank, Tseoma, Wash.^ 
Gb«. H, Tliley, Ee^., lectetary and Treaiutef of 
tliaSeathern Espreis Co., and Frederick C. Clark, 
cr Clark. Chapin A Bushoell. New York. 

Address 504 California Bile, Taconia.Wa^. 

Eaelern ileprc*(nlatlve, 
H. F. TAYLOR. 47 Lafayelie Place. New York. 



PINANCIAL. 



MbodyHoughteUai &Ca 

BANKERS, 

69 Dearbora Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Loans and Inveslments on Real Estate Securitj 

txclusnelf. 
Prlnolpa) artd Interest Payable in Oold^j 

CHICAGO Cirr llORTGAtiES FOR SUL 
Foe Ui< oooTctkleiMM ot iKTMUMa wo carry ftoa' 
tffn.DOD to IB0O.0O0 of otialoa BMttcacea ai all tiates.* 
TboM loons ar« made by as after careful lnvcaU|ca> - 
lion o4 tka tillM, tho valao nt Ih* e««urttl«« otf«ce4 ^ 
and lespoBSlbltiir of Yn>rttwtm. In tranaactloK a 
btulaoaa of ovor );a.i>U.(UO, no ttU* aiiproved by w 
bos »r«r b««B aDcorMf ully attacked. 

IN ANV AMOUMF. 
Th«sa loaua vary III amoanl f rocu fUO to 9B'*,ttia,aa4. 
b««r trots per cent, to 7 par wax. lnt«r»at, payoAIs^ 
tntt-oit%'maiif nl oar offie*. ar al nick pimix mn /•• ( 
iweror Stall e<Mt- Tbe ctODdard rote on ordlnarT 
amoiMla, say fS.(UO (a SIO.OOO, farlDR S por fptii.; 
■SMller loana. 4H par oont. and 7 per cent.; lorce 
Iriaoa. on oxcpiitloiially atroog ■•narJty. &p«r ooat. 
dim] H4 par c»at. 

AT PAR AND ACCRUED WTEXEST. 
Vmso soeartUca are rvady for ddlTxry, and ore 
enjote a( nor aad eccmed lBt«T«at. Nu coainiljudaa 
Is^argod tb« buyer, itii' iniMirno ootnad ketac not. 

INVESTOfir INTEHSrS CAREO FOIIWITUOUrCHUSE. 
Wa collset oil Istntool sad nwait Ui but pari of tli« 
(.'oualry freo (if ebarjte. We see (bat all ii>eurai»e« 
pnllntn« pledSMl «a cdllateial aecuHlyan^ rvu#*i!<d 
111 rkplrvtlvu. aad tbot the loeeotoc upruircti;!] la 
roKi^ cf ralturo oa the port of tbe bonwrr f> |«y 
laim. III (itb«T vorda. we act as AaaooUl agents 
lor tb* Inveator withoat chsrKe' PortltM bayloa 
awrtaagea eiHniriog t>nlidln|; luoaa, whqjfe tba bothC 
logs ore net fully cosnplotMl, ate fitonjitead eOA-. 
plailan frea of nwoboalc'a Ifeas. J 



TAGOMA 



SOUTH BEND 
PUGEl CITY 



INVESTMENTS 



I GtlAHAXTEE 14 per tent per aunans 
Id on; of (be above eiltet. 1 bave nod* trom 40 lo 
£0 per cent, per aSBUni tor Boa-nsMsats. 1 also 
niske Orst mortcois. Impeuvcd resi sstate loaiia.oa 
uu4u«ft[oDabl» securities tma 8 te 19 per uent. peri 
aasnm act. Also bare cfaoloe banaUistB Pariii,1 
HapiUay MRd CardvB Latida. Corteapoitd- 
enea foUelled teuardln Vcstarn WsabiojttOB. All 
iBaalrlessaBweredpnMBptly. Address 

A. C. fllVKBLB, Taeoaaa. WaaUasiai 



PROTECTIONFROM LIGHTNING. 

All the capital desired for the parent companyl 
to handle my patents on a new method of protect- 
ing buildings from lightning has been subscribed. 
Sub-companies and agencies to introduce the 
invention are forming, and any desirous of tak- 
ing State-rights should address The Americanj 
Lightning Protection Co., Sioux City, Iowa. 

The English patent is for sale, and offers] 
an excellent opportunity for the formation of a] 
company now that the American company is soj 
favorably started. 

N. D. C. HODGES. 874 Broadway. New York. 



SCIENCE 



XEW YORK, MARCH 4. 1802. 



THE NEED OP PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING. 

A FEW — only a few — years bbo we learned pdycliolojry 
Iratn nntiqiiab^d text-books that by tales of cxlraordioary 
occurrences, quulatioQS of poetry, emphatic assertatioos. oc- 
casional proof!) by the phrase '' it ift evidcDl," and a few im- 
properly ob«erved facts, gave a complete enpositioa of the 
hufnan miod io 50U or 600 paj^ — ex<?«pt in some coses 
where tbe author wan kind euough to be ^alisBed with baU 
that amount. To day a psychologist of that kind Ifcturesto 
ban.' btuiches iu the uiiivc-rsilicH of Gttriuaii.v, and Iht; now 
jwycKology Itaa got Huch a hold iu America thai it is rapidly 
beoomini; a fashion, if not a fad. 

Still, in this rery fact Ihrrc lios u gr««t dani^er to Uie 
proper development of the science. There is a lendpncy to 
careloas work, to rapid shuttlini; off of quosi-experiiuental 
rttesrches, to a iieglt^t of the drudgery of a scienlitic inves- 
igalioD of the fatidamenttti problems, and to h pursuit of 
host stories, telepathy, and sensational hypnotic tales. 
Gren where the psychologisi is really a scientific man there 
IB a tendency to rest contented with merely qualitalive re- 
sults where quantitative mcasuremcntB could be made with 
tlie exercise of brains and patience. 

Iu regard to the sensationalism and quackery that have 
Muimed the garb of pfiychnlu^y we can do no moro ihao 
other science does in that respect, simply put tbe pub- 
c on its guard. If, as is usually thecase. the public prefers 
windle to science ; tlio matter is beyond our control. There 
also tittle to be .said against tlie so-called " theoretical '' or 
"metaphysical" psycbolot^y that has blocked sc;ientiQc de- 
velopment in the past and opposes it in the present. The 
"metaphysical" peycbology ia neither metaphysical uor 
paychological; the term is utted merely to cuver up the ina- 
bility or the dislike for careful obwrvalion and eirpf^rimentj il 
iiig much easier to sit at home in tbe study chair and spin 
la work on psychology than to put on the apron, clean bat- 
jee and smoke cbrouugruph drums in tbe laboratory. 
What is to be called to aitpntion here Is the fact that we 
pfrychologietB are not maLiuff tliu proper efTorls toward exac- 
titude in our experiments. In the first place it is becomiDrt 
too oomojon to coniiider that going through any careless 
•eries of manipulations is making an experiment. An ex- 
giineot is the systeoialic variation of the conditions gor- 
ing a phenomenon in order to obserre the results of such 
a variation. The amount of systematic preparation required 
and of careful observation to be exercised depends on the 
aULge. of development in which the science flndfi it«elf. Anj* 
lack of preparation that could have been ex[)e<:|pd, or any 
iJetifiency in tbe necessary care, removes Hit* pretended ei- 
pertment frnm tbe reulnis of Bcionce to thai of dllletantism. 
Pilletantistn may be all very good as a sourcv of amuse- 
ment, but it must never be considered as science. As 
Wandt bu remarked, " the most dani^erous enemy of psy- 
chology to-day is not the metaphysical psychology of former 
days, but tbeieU-anfllcient amateurism that considers every 
aimlesi toying as a soientiflc experiment" 



Aside from this amateurism there is another deflcieneyf 
perhaps of a still more important nature. In the variuns 
perifH'icals we meet accounts of qualitative exiieriiiienls that 
might just aa well have been made quantiralive. Of ooaraO'^ 
qualitative experiments are necessary as preliminary invwti-' 
galions, but they are inexcuuhle where quuilitalive ones 
can be made. That is to say. although they are necessary as 
forerunners of nteasuremeots^aud although at certain stages 
of iuvestlgalioD, they arc of incalculable value, yet the irt- 
eolisl must never re»t aatisSefl with theiu, but should regard 
them only as stepping- stones for further pro^eM. I 
find no belter w»y of staling thi« than by repeating the word*! 
of Sir Willinm Thomson: "I often say wbeu you can' 
measure what you are speaking about, and express it in 
numbers, you know something about it: but when you c&n- 
not measure it, wfaen you cannot exprvss it in number*. 
your knowledge i% of a meagre and nn.iatisfactory kind: it 
may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, 
in your thoughts, advanced to the sta^e of science, whatever 
the matter may be " (" Popular Lectures and Addresses." I.^^ 
73, Ixindou,