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SCIENCE 



A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISH- 
ING THE OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN 
ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



NEW SERIES. VOLUME XX. 



JULY-DECEMBER 1904. 



I'lObSS' 



NEW YORK 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

1904 



THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY, 

41 North Queen Street, 

Lancasteu, Pa. 



t) o 5.73 



CONTENTS AND INDEX. 



N. S. VOL. XX. — JULY TO DECEMBEE, 1904. 



The Names of ConlrilmiorK are Prinlcd in Small Capitals. 



Abbe, C, Ultra-microscopy, 844 
Abbe, Jr., C, A Geographic Dictionary, 649 
Adams, V. D., Eeade's Earth Structure, 21^ 
Adams, J., Vegetable Balls, 86 
Agricultural Exhibits at St. Louis, 01 
Agriculture in Japan, 218 

AiKlNS, H. A., Thorndike's Educational Psychol- 
ogy, 644 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, Membership, 341, 679; Committee on 
Policy of, 570; Section C, 693; Convocation 
Week, 737; Philadelphia Meeting, 771; Ad- 
dress of the President, 897 
Ames, J. S., Physikalische Technik, J. Friek, 670 
Amoebae for the Laboratory, A. W. Wetsse, 650 
Amphibia versus Batrachia, L. Stejneger, 924 
Animal Heat and Fever, W. HuTOHiirsoiSf, 343 
Animals at Rome, C. E. E., 538 
Annelid Egg, Mosaic Development in, E. B. 

Wilson, 748 
Ant, Kelep, Pupation of, 0. F. Cook, 310; the 
Guatemalan Kelep, W. M. Wheeler, 437, 766 ; 
0. F. Cook, 611; E. Dwight Sanderson, 
887 
Antarctic Expedition, National, 411 
Anthropological Society of Washington, J. D. 

McGuiRE, 675 
Anthropology, at World's Fair, W J McGee, 253 ; 

History of, F. Boas, 513 
Appendicitis and the Race, E. G. Dexter, 19 
Apple, Vascular Bundles in, W. J. Beal, 889 
Armstrong, H. E., Mosely Educational Commis- 
sion, 129, 165 
Aster Formation in Cerebratulus, N. Yatsu, 889 
Astronomical Research, E. C. Pickering, 292 
Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry, N. Y. Acad. 

of Sciences, C. C. Trowbridge, 17 
Asymmetron Lucayanum in Bermuda, E. L. 

Mark, 179 
Autotomy, Regeneration and Natural Selection, 
0. C. Glaser, 149 

Bacteriology, The Sphere of, E. 0. Jordan, 657 
Badger, Peculiar Habit of, T. B. Comstock, 923 
Balfour, A. J., New Theory of Matter, 257 
Banks, N., Notes on Entomology, 155, 928 
Barnes, C. R., Ascent of Water in Trees, 179 
Baskebville, C, Science and the People, 266 
Bather, F. A., A Geographic Dictionary, 889 
Bauer, L. A., Solar Eclipse, 475; Analysis of 

Earth's Permanent Magnetic Field, 634 
Beal, W. J., Stomach Stones, 722; Vascular 

Bundles in an Apple, 889 
Becker, G. F., Problems of Geophysics, 545 



Beebe, C. W., Ornithological Notes from N. Y. 

Zoological Park, 538 
Beebe, S. P. and B. H. Buxton, Physiological 

Chemistry, Y. Henderson, 882 
Beet Culture in U. S., H. W. Wiley, 244 
Berrt, E. W., Notable Paleobotanical Discovery, 

56, 86; Torrey Botanical Club, 676, 923 
Beryllium or Glucinum, C. L. Parsons, 809 
Bessey, C. E., Botanical Notes, 118, 217, 471, 

689, 730, 848; Rendle's Classification of 

Flowering Plants, 434 
Bigelow, M. a.. Biology, N. Y. Acad, of Sci., 648, 

764 
Biological, Station of Univ. of Montana, M. J. 

Elbod, 205; Society, of St. Louis, J. A. 

Harris, 241; of Washington, W. H. Osgood, 

761, 840 
Biology, and Medicine, Exper., Soc. for, W. J. 

GiES, 79, 677 ; N. Y. Acad, of Sciences, M. A. 

Bigelow, 648, 764 ; Recent Development of, J. 

LoEB, 777 
Bird Life, Station for Study of, 284 
Birds, Passerine, Inheritance of Song in, W. E. 

D. Scott, 282 ; Song of, F. A. L., 376 
BisCHOFF, C. A., Stereochemie, T. W. R., 920 
Bishop, S. E., Cold-current System and Coast Cur- 
rent of Pacific, 338 
Boas, F., History of Anthropology, 513 
Body Temperature, C. F. Langworthy, 650 
Bopyrids, Professor Giard and, H. Richardson, 51 
Boric Acad, Borax, Digestion and Health, 26 
Botanical, Research, Laboratories for, 27; Notes, 

C. E. Bessey, 118, 217, 471, 689, 730, 848 
Botany at Cuban Experiment Station, F. S. 

Earle, 444 
Bower, F. 0., Plant Morphology, 524 
Bowman, I., Deflection of the Mississippi, 273 
Bradley, H. C, Taurin in Invertebrate Muscle, 25 
Brain, of Swedish Statesman, E. A. Spitzka, 612; 

-weight, Taguchi's, E. A. Spitzka, 215 
Briggs, L. J. and A. G. McCall, Artificial Root 

Inducing Movement of Soil Moisture, 566 
Brigham, A. P., Geographic Influence in American 

History, F. V. EMerson, 370 
British Assoc, for the Adv. of Science, 348 
Brown, B., Stomach Stones and Food of Plesio- 

saurs, 184 
Browne, Jr., C. A., Formation of Toxic Products 

by Vegetable Enzymes, 179 
Buchanan, G. C, Varise Auctoritatis, 408 
Burials, Intrusive, in Ancient Mounds, D. I. 

Bushnell, Jr., 408 
Burrill, T. J., Micro-organisms of Soil and Hu- 
man Welfare, 426 



IV 



SCIENCE. 



["Contents and 
L Index 



BusHNELL, Jr., D. I., Intrusive Burials in An- 
cient Mounds, 408 
BoTLEK, N. M. and S. Newcomb, International 
Congress of Arts and Science, yiT 

C, W. \V., Total Eclipse of September 9, 1904, 

Carlson, A. J., Nature of Action of Drugs on the 
Heart, 684 

Carnegie Trust for Universities of Scotland, 220 

Catalogue, International, of Scientific Literature, 
28 

Chambeklin, T. C, The State University and 
Research, 161 

Chemical Society of Washington, A. Seidell, 15, 
763, 921; L. S. MuNSON, 763; American, Gen- 
eral Meeting, A. M. Patterson, 38; N. Y. 
Section H. C. Sherman, 178; F. H. Pough, 
803, 841; Northeastern Section, A. M. 
CoMEY, 675, 806 

Chemistry, Modern, Relation to Modern Medicine, 
J. H. Long, 1 ; Inorganic, Notes on, J. L. H., 
249, 345, 441, 569; Organic, Problems of, 
W. A. NOYES, 490 

Chwolson, 0. D., Lehrbuch der Physik, W. Le C. 
Stevens, 277 

Clapp, C. M., E. G. Conklin, C. W. Hakgitt, J. 
S. KiNGSLEY, M. A. BiGELOW, College En- 
trance Option in Zoology, 850 

Clements F. E., Development and Structure of 
Vegetation, W. F. Ganong, 177 

Clemson Col. Sci. Club, H. Metcalf, 537, 764 

CocKERELL, T. D. A., Citing Types of New Genera, 
407 ; American Hydroids, C. C. Nutting, 799 

Cohnheim, 0., Chemie der Eiweisskorper, L. B. 
Mendel, 464 

Cole, A. D., Clarence L. Herrick, 600 

Cole, F. N., American Mathematical Society, 674 

Comey', a. M., Northeastern Section of Amer. 
Chemical Society, 306, 675 

COMSTOCK, T. B., Habit of the Badger, 923 

Congress, International, of Arts and Science, 33, 
349. 445 ; H. MtJNSTERBERG, 289 ; Invitation, 
N. M. Butler and S. Newcomb, 317 

Convocation Week, 737, 800, 838, 882, 920; H. L. 
FAIRCHII.D, 842; G. K. Gilbert, 885 

Cook, 0. F., Evolution and Physics, 87; Pupation 
of Kelep Ant, 310; Professor W. M. Wheeler 
on the Kelep', 611; Evolution of Weevil-resis- 
tance in Cotton, 666 

Corals, J. S. Gardiner, 765 

Cornish, C. J., Memoir of Sir William Henry 
Flower, P. A. Lucas, 342 

Cotton, Cultivation of, in West Indies, 186 

Coulter, J. M., Pteridospermaphyta, 149 ; Devel- 
opment of Morphological Conceptions, 617 

Crowell, J. F., Social and Economic Science, 
251, 313; Western Farm Values, 731; Recent 
Books on Economic and Social Science, 753 

Curie, Mme., Les Substances Radioactives, R. A. 

MiLLIKAN, 719 
Currents, North Pacific, W. H. Dall, 436 

D., B., Gossip about Lamarck, 811 
Dfemonelix, 0. A. Peterson, 344 
Dale, S. S., Germany and the Metric System, 682 
Dale, S. S., Metric Failure in Textile Industry, 
W. Le C. Stevens, 172 



Dall, W. H., North Pacific Currents, 436; Crus- 
taceans of Harriman Alaska Expedition, M. 
J. Rathbun and others, 462; DeMan on Ne- 
matodes and Waters on Bryozoa of Belgian 
Antarctic Expedition, 536 
Davenport, C. B., Animal Morphology, 697; Men- 
tal and Social Measurements, E. L. Thorn- 
dike, 798 
Davis, G. E., Wellesley College Science Club, 765 
Davis, Nathan Smith, F. S. Johnson, 237 
Degrees, Honorary, conferred by Univ. of Wis- 
consin, 92; in Engineering, W., 148 
Demmon, I. N. and A. B. Prescott, William 

Henry Pettee, 58 
DeVkies, H., Evidence of Evolution, 395 
Dexter, E. G., Appendicitis and the Race, 19 
Diederich, H. W., American and German Univer- 
sities, 157 
Dinomys, Rediscovery of, F. A. Lucas, 846 
Dinse, P., Katalog fiir Erdkunde, J. M. Nickles, 15 
Discussion and Correspondence, 19, 51, 85, 115, 
147, 179, 214, 244, 279, 309, 343, 373, 407, 
436, 465, 506, 537, 565, 605, 648, 679, 722, 
765, 806, 842, 885, 923 
Doctorates, Conferred by American Universities, 

225; and Fellowships, D. S. Jordan, 376 
Dopp, K. E., Tree-dwellers, 20 
Drums, Sympathetic, E. H. Hawley, 768 
Dutton, C. E., Earthquakes, G. K. Gilbert, 837 - 

E., C. R., Spectacles, 179; Animals at Rome in 
Ancient Times, 538 ; American Proboscidse, 890 

Eakle, A. S., Mineral Tables, A. J. Moses, 177 

Earle, F. S., Botany at Cuban Exp. Sta., 444 

Eastman, C. R., Geo-Biological Terras, 51 ; Kin- 
dergarten Science, 85; Varise Auctoritatis, 
215; Jordan on Fossil Labroid and Chseto- 
dont Fishes, 245; Ancient Natural History 
Lore, 347 ; An Ancient Fiction, 380 ; Paleon- 
tological Induction, 465; Fossil Fishes, 648; 
Style in Scientific Composition, 806; History 
of Scientific Nomenclature, 727 )sf P 

Eclipse, Expedition, Crocker, of Lick Observatory, 
412; Solar, Cooperation in Observations of, 
L. A. Bauer, 475; Total, of September 9, 
1904, W. W. C, 812 

Education, Higher in Germany and U. S., R. 
Tombo, Jr., 73; Industrial, in Germany, 691 

Educational Association, National, 474 

Electric Current, What is an, F. E. Nipher, 651 

Electrical Congress, International, 156 

Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, A. S. Wheeler, 605, 806 

Elrod, M. J., Univ. of Montana Biological Sta- 
tion, 205 

Emerson, P. V., Geographic Influences in Ameri- 
can History, A. P. Brigham, 370 

Emmons, S. F., Varise Auctoritatis, 537; The Term 
'Geology,' 886 

Entomology, Notes on, N. Banks, 155, 928; at 
World's Fair, F. L. Washburn, 769 

Enzyme, Endosperm, of Phcenix Dactylifera, R. H. 
Pond, 181 

Enzymes, Vegetable, Formation of Toxic Products 
by, C. A. Browne, Jr., 179 

Evolution and Physics, 0. F. Cook, 87; Evidence 
of, H. DeVries, 395 

EwiNG, J., Nuttall on Blood Immunity and Blood 
Relationship, 562 



New Seeies.T 
Vol. XIX. J 



SCIENCE. 



Fairchild, H. L., Convocation Week, 842 
Farm Values, Western, J. F. Cuowell, 731 
Faerington, 0. C, Ward-Coonley Collection of 

Meteorites, 77 
Farrington, 0. C, Gems and Gem Minerals, G. F. 

KuNZ, 307 
Felt, E. P. and D. B. Young, Culicid Larvae, 312 
Fiction, An Ancient, C. E. Eastman, 380 
Field, F., Sci. Club of Northwestern Univ., 885 
Fisheries Society, American, 244 
Fishes, Fossil, Jordan on, C. R. Eastman, 245; 

Earliest Mention of, C. R. Eastman, 648 
Franklin, W. S., Complex Musical Tone, 246 
Franklin Fund, 932 

Franz, S. I., Le Mouvement, R. S. Woodworth, 78 
Freer, P. C, Bureau of Government Laboratories 

of Philippine Islands, 105 
Fbick, J., Physikalische Technik, J. S. Ames, 670 
Furlong, E. L., Quaternary Cave, 53 

Ganong, W. F., Development of Vegetation, F. E. 
Clements, 177; Teaching of ifiology, F. E. 
Lloyd and M. A. Bigelow, 880 

Gardiner, J. S., Corals, 765 

Gardiner, J. S., Madreporaria, T. W. Vaughan, 
503 

Genera, New, T. D. A. Cockerell, 407 

Geo-biological Ferns, C. R. Eastman, 51 

Geographic, Congress, 349 ; Dictionary, C. Abbe, 
Jr., 649; F. A. Bather, 889 

Geological Soc. of Washington, u. 0. Smith, 760 

Geology, and Paleontology of U. S. Geological 
Survey, 119; and Mineralogy, N. Y. Acad, of 
Sciences, E. 0. Hovey, 604; the Term, S. F. 
Emmons, 886 

Geophysics, Problems of, G. F. Becker, 545 

Getman, F. H., Physical Chemistry, W. Le C. 
Stevens, 309 

GiDDiNQS, F. H., Concepts and Methods of Sociol- 
ogy, 624 

Gies, W. J., Soc. for Exper. Biology and Medicine, 
79, 677 

Gilbert, G. K., A Case of Plagiarism, 115; 
Earthquakes, C. E. Dutton, 837 ; Convocation 
Week, 885 

Gill, A. H., Sabin's Technology of Paint and 
Varnish, 671 

Gill, T._, State Ichthyology of Massachusetts, 321 ; 
Extinct Pediculate and other Fishes, 845 

Glasee, 0. C, Autotomy, Regeneration and Nat- 
ural Selection, 149 

Gratacap, L. P., The Museum, F. A. L., 501 ; Geol- 
ogy of City of New York, J. F. Kemp, 920 

Greek, Compulsory, at Oxford and Cambridge, 
928 

Gregory, W. K., Anent Gizzards, 888 

H., J. L., Notes on Inorganic Chemistry, 249, 345, 

441, 569 
Hall, A., Mathematics and Metaphysics, 651 
Hall, G. S., Mental Science, 481 
Hall, G. S., on Adolescence, E. L. Thorndike, 142 
Haller, B., Lehrbuch der vergleiehenden Anatomic, 

J. P. McM., 603 
Halsey, F. a.. Metric System, 373 
Halsey, F. A., Metric Fallacy, W. Le C. Stevens, 

172 
Halsted, G. B., The Lobaehevski Prize, 353 



Haeding, H. a. and F. C. Stewaet, Pseudomonas 

Campestris on Cabbage Seed, 55 
Haeeis, J. A., Biological Society of St. Louis, 241 
Hatcher, John Bell, W. B. Scott, 139 
Hawley, E. H., Sympathetic Drums, 768 
Haynes, H. W., Varia; Auctoritatis, 683 
Heart, Action of Drugs on, A. J. Caelson, 684 
Henderson, J., Stomach Stones and Food of Ples- 

iosaurs, 466 
Henderson, Y., Physiological Chemistry, S. P. 

Beebe and B. H. Buxton, 882 
Herrick, Clarence L., A. D. Cole, 600 
Hewett, E. L., Historic and Prehistoric Ruins, 

722 
HiLGAED, E. W., Soil Management, 605 
Historical Society, New York, 692 
Hofer, B., Fischkrankheiten, ]\I. C. Marsh, 14 
Hoover, H. C, Training of the Mining Engineer, 

716 
Horne, W. T., Torrey Botanical Club, 49, 84, 113, 

145 
Hovey, E. 0., Mont Pelfe, 23; Soufrigre of St. 

Vincent, 281; Geology and Mineralogy, N. Y. 

Acad, of Sciences, 604 
Howard, L. 0., Committee on Policy of American 

Association, 570 
Howe, C. S., Does a Technical Course Educate? 

97 
Hedlicka, a.. Nature of Man, E. Metchnikoff, 109 
Hubeecht, a. a. W., The Trophoblast, 367 
Hume, A., Sci. Chib of Univ. of Mississippi, 115 
Hutchinson, W., Animal Heat and Fever, 343 
Hybrid, Wheat-rye, H. F. Roberts, 248; wheats, 

W. J. Spillman, 681 

Ichthyology of Massachusetts, T. Gill, 321 
Ideal, Sciences of the, J. Royce, 449 
Inaugural Address, C. R. Van Hise, 193 
Investigator, Scientific, Evolution of the, S. New- 
comb, 385 

Jastrow, J., Overlooked form of Stereoscope, 683 
Jennings, H. S., Behavior of Lower Organisms, R. 

M. Yerkes, 750 
Johnson, F. S., Nathan Smith Davis, 237 
Johnston Scholarships of Johns Hopkins, 692 
Jordan, D. S., Doctorates and Fellowships, 376 
Jordan, E. 0., The Sphere of Bacteriology, 657 

Kelep, Professor W. M. Wheeler on, 0. F. Cook, 
611; and the Cotton Plant, E. Dwight San- 
derson, 887 

ICemp, J. F., Geology of City of N. Y., L. P. Grat- 
acap, 920 

KiDD, W., on Direction of Hair in Animals and 
Man, I. L. Whipple, 401 

Kindergarten Science, C. R. Eastman, 85 

King, F. H., Artificial Root, 680 

KiNGSLEY, J. S., Gaupp's Anatomy of the Frog, 
672 

KIRKWOOD, J. E., Onondaga Acad, of Science, 765 

Klinostat for Scientific Research, F. C. New- 
combe, 376 

Kraemee, H., Pictet on Vegetable Alkaloids, 47 

KuNZ, G. F., Farrington on Gems and Gem Min- 
erals, 307 

L., F. A., Song of Birds, 376; Gratacap on Mu- 
seums, Meyer on Museums in Dresden, 501 



VI 



SCIENCE. 



[Contents and 
Index. 



Laboratories, Bureau of, for Philippine Islands, 

P. C. Fkeer, 105 
Laboratory, Alpine, of Univ. of Nebraska, 185 
Lamarck, Gossip about, B. D., 811 
Landaoke, F. L., Ohio Academy of Science, 884 
Lanqworthy, C. F., Body Temperature, 650 
LarviE, Culicid, E. P. Felt, D. B. Young, 312 
Lee, F. S., International Catalogue of Scientific 

Literature, Biology, 720 
Lippmann, E. O. von. Die Chemie der Zucker- 

arten, F. G. Wiechmann, 111 ^ 
Lloyd, F. E. and M. A. Bigelow, The Teaching of 

Biology, W. F. Ganong, 880 
Lobachevski Prize, G. B. Halsted, 353 
LoEB, J., Development of Biology, 777 
Logic, The Field of, F. J. E. Woodbridge, 587 
Long, J. H., Modern Chemistry and Medicine, 1 
Longitude, Determination of, E. Smith, 466 
Lucas, F. A., Sir William Henry Flower, 342; 
Swallowing of Stones by Seals, 537; Redis- 
covery of Dinomys, 846 

M., T. C, Metric System, 147 

McM., J. P., Haller's Lehrbuch der vergleichenden 

Anatomie, 603 
McCall, a. G. and L. J. Briggs, Artificial Root, 566 
McConnell, Dr. J. C, 188 
McGee, W J, Opportunities in Anthropology at 

the World's Fair, 253 
McGuiEE, J. D., Anthrop. Soc. of Washington, 675 
Macloskie, G., Ascent of Water in Trees, 116,246 
Magnetic Field, Earth's, L. A. Bauer, 634 
Mark, E. L., Asymmetron Lucayanum, 179 
Marlatt, 0. L., Insects of Harriman Alaska Ex- 
pedition, 601, Microscopic Slides, 925 
Marsh, M. C., Hofer's Fischkrankheiten, 14 
Mathematical, Society, American, F. N. Cole, 
674; San Francisco Section, G. A. Miller, 
604; Analysis, E. Picard, 857 
Mathematics and Metaphysics, A. Hall, 651 
Matter, The New Theory of, A. J. Balfour, 257; 

Is it to be Abolished? F. E. Nipher, 506 
Mayer, A. G., Material versus Intellectual Devel- 
opment of Universities, 44 
Medical Education, J. H. Mussee, 230 
Medicine, Internal, W. S. Thayee, 706 
Meltzer, S. J., Physiology and Medicine, 557 
Memorial, John Bell Scott, of Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, 853 
Mendel, L. B., Cohnheim on Chemie der Ei- 

weisskorper, 464 
Mental Science, G. S. Hall, 481 
Metcalf, H., Clemson College Sci. Club, 537, 764 
Metcalf, M. M., Stomach Stones, 722 
Metchnikoif, E., Nature of Man, A. Hedlicka, 109 
Meteorological, Investigations at Blue Hill Ob- 
• servatory, R. DeC. W., 240 ; and Magnetic 
Observatory in Samoan Islands, 853 
Meteorology, Notes on, R. DeC. Ward, 57, 153, 
182, 283, 409, 440, 507, 540, 810, 847, 890; 
Present Problems of, A. L. Rotch, 872 
Metric System, T. CM., 147; F. A. Halsey, 373; 
A. E. Ortmann, 506 ; W. Le C. Stevens, 608 ; 
Germany and, S. S. Dale, 682; W. H. Sea- 
man, 722. 
Meyer, A. B., Museums in Dresden, F. A. L., 501 
Michigan, Univ. of, Research Club, F. C. New- 
combe, 112 



Microorganisms of Soil and Human Welfare, T. 

J. BURRILL, 426; Pathogenic, Life History of, 

T. Smith, 817; Microscopic Slides, C. L. 

Maelatt, 925 
Miller, G. A., Amer. Mathematical Society, San 

Francisco Section, 604 
Millikan, R. a., Des Substances Radioaetives, 

Mme. Curie, 719 
Miner, B. G., Attitude of American Universities 

toward Psychology, 299 
Mining Engineer, The, H. C. Hoovee, 716 
Mississippi, Univ. of. Science Club, A. Hume, 

115; The Deflection of, I. Bowman, 273 
MoEGAN, T. H., Phenomena of Organic ' Polarity,' 

742 
Morphological Conceptions, J. M. Coultee, 617 
Morphology, Animal, C. B. Davenport, 697 
Mosely Educational Commission, H. E. Aem- 

steong, 129 
Moses, A. J., Mineral Tables, A. S. Eakle, 177 
MuNSON, L. S., Chemical Soc. of Washington, 763 
MiJNSTEEBEEG, H., International Congress of Arts 

and Science, 289 
Musical Tone, Complex, Analysis of, W. S. 

Franklin, 246 
MussEE, J. H., Some Aspects of Medical Educa- 
tion, 230 

National Academy of Sciences, 732 
Natural History Lore, C. R. Eastman, 347 
Naturalists, American Society of, 813 
Newcomb, S., Evolution of the Scientific Investi- 

j-ator, 385 
Newcombe, F. C, Research Club of Univ. of 

Michigan, 112; Klinostat, 376 
Newton, Isaac, Studentships at Cambridge, 891 
New York Academy of Sciences, Astronomy, Phys- 
ics and Chemistry, C. C. Teowbeidge, 17; 

Geology and Mineralogy, E. 0. Hovey, 604; 

Biology, M. A. Bigelow, 648, 764 
Nickles, J. M., Dinse's Katalog der Gesellsehaft 

fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, 15 
Niphee, F. E., Is Matter to be Abolished? 506; 

What is an Electric Current? 651 
Nomenclature, Scientific, C. R. Eastman, 727 
Northwestern University Sci. Club, 1<. Field, 885 
NoYES, A. A., Physical Properties of Aqueous 

Salt Solutions and the Ionic Theory, 577 
NoYES, W. A., Problems of Organic Chemistry, 

490 
Nuttall, G. H. F., Blood Immunity and Blood 

Relationship, J. Ewing, 562 
Nutting, C. C, American Hydroids, T. D. A. 

Cockeeell, 799 

Ohio Academy of Science, F. L. Landacee, 884 
Onondaga Acad, of Science, J. E. Kiekwood, 765 
Ornithological Notes from N. Y. Zoological Park, 

C. W. Beebe, 538 
Ornithologists' Union, American, J. H. Sage, 815 
Oetmann, a. E., Metric System, 506 
Osgood, W. H., Biol. Soc. 'of Washington, 761, 840 

Pacific Cold-current System and Coast Current 

of, S. E. Bishop, 338 
Paleobotanical Discovery, E. W. Beeet, 56, 86 
Pala;ontologia Universalis, C. Schucheet, 649 
Paleontologieal Induction, C. R. Eastman, 465 
Paleontologists, Vertebrate, Amer. Soc. of, 812 



New Series 
Vol. XIX, 



;Es.n 
. J 



SCIENCE. 



vu 



Paleozoic Seed Plants, L. F. Ward, 279 
Paesons, C. L., Section C of American Associa- 
tion, 693; iBerylliiim or Glucinum, 809 
Patterson, A. M., General Meeting of Am. 

Cliem. Society, 38 
Pearson, K., Davenport's Statistical Methods, 765 
Pediciilate, Extinct, T. Gill, 845 
Pelge, Mont, from October, 1903, to May, 1904, 

E. 0. HovEY, 23 
Peterson, 0. A., Daemonelix, 344 
Pettee, William Henry, I. N. Demmon and A. B. 

Prescott, 58 
Philosophical Society of Washington, C. K. Wead, 

17, 675, 760, 801, 922 
Physical Science, Unity of, R. S. Woodward, 417 
Physiology and Medicine, S. J. Meltzer, 557 
PiCARD, E., Mathematical Analysis, 857 
Pickering, E. C., Astronomical Research, 292 
Pictet, A., The Vegetable Alkaloids, H. Kraemer, 

47 
Plagiarism, A Case of, G. K. Gilbert, 115 
Plant Morphology, F. 0. Bovver, 524 
Plesiosaurs, Stomach Stones and Food of, B. 

Brown, 184; J. Henderson, 466; S. W. Wil- 

LISTON, 565 
PoincarS, H., La Science et I'Hypothgse, J. W. A. 

Young, 833 
Poirier, CunSo and Delamere, Tlie Lymphatics, F. 

R. Sabin, 878 
' Polarity,' Organic, T. H. Morgan, 742 
Pond, R. H., Endosperm Enzyme of Phoenix Dacty- 

lifera, 181 
Population, of Great Britain, 219 
Pough, F. H., N. Y. Section of American Chemical 

Society, 803, 841 
Powell, J. W., Monument to, 854 
Prescott, A. B. and I. N. Demmon, William 

Henry Pettee, 58 
Prescott, S. C, Radium- Rays on Bacilli and 

Yeast, 246 
Probosoidse, American, C. R. E., 890 
Pseudomonas Campestris on Cabbage Seed, H. 

A. Harding, F. C. Stewart, 55 
Psychological Club of Cornell Univ., 85 
Psychology, Attitude of American Universities 

toward, B. G. Miner, 299; Experimental, 
Pteridospermaphyta, The, L. F. Ward, 25; J. M. 

Problems of, E. B. Titchener, 786, 844 

Coulter, 149 
Publications, Decennial, of Univ. of Chicago, 187 
Pygmies, African, Height Measurements of, S. P. 

Verner, 539 

Quaternary Cave in Shasta Co., Cal., E. L. Fur- 
long, 53 
Quotations, 182, 345, 379, 689, 769, 926 

R., B. L., Schumann's Praktikum fur morpholo- 

gische und systematische Botanik, 564 
R., T. W., Stereochemie, C. A. Bischoflf, 920 
Radium Rays, Effect of, on Bacilli and Yeast, S. 

C. Prescott, 246 
Rathbun, M. J., H. Richardson, S. J. Holmes, L. 

J. Cole, Crustaceans of Harriman Alaska 

Expedition, W. H. Dall, 462 
Reade, T. M., Earth Structure, F. D. Adams, 212 
Remsen, I., Tlie Age of Science, 65 
Rendle, A. B., Classification of Flowering Plants, 

C. E. Bessey, 434 



Rhizopods, Do they die a Natural Death? L. C. 

Wooster, 650 
Richardson, H., Professor Giard and the Bopy- 

rids, 51 
RiTTER, W. E., Biological Survey of Waters of 

Pacific Coast, 214 
Roberts, H. F., Wheat-rye Hybrid, 248 
Roman Numerals, LTse of, R. M. Yerkes, 309 
Root, Artificial, L. J. Briggs, A. G. McCall, 566; 

F. H. King, 680 
RoTCH, A. L., Problems of Meteorology, 872 
Royal Society, 770, 892 
RoYCE, J., Sciences of the Ideal, 449 
Ruins, Historic and Prehistoric, E. L. Hewett, 

722 

Sabin, A. H., Technology of Paint and Varnish, A. 

H. Gill, 671 
Sabin, F. R., The Lymphatics, Poirier, Cungo and 

Delamere, 878 
St. Louis Acad, of Science, 50 
Salt Solutions, Aqueous, A. A. Noyes, 577 
Sanderson, E. D., The Keleps and the Cotton 

Plant, 887 
ScHUCHERT, C, Palseontologia Universalis, 649 
Schumann, K., Praktikum fur morphologische 

und systematische Botanik, B. L. R., 564 
Science, Age of, I. Remsen, 65; and the People, 

C. Baskerville, 266; and Economies, C. D. 

Wright, 897 
■ Science,' Trimmed Copies of, 693 
Scientific, Books, 14, 47, 77, 109, 142, 172, 212, 

240, 277, 307, 342, 370, 401, 434, 462, 501, 
536, 562, 601, 644, 670, 719, 750, 798, 833, 
878, 894, 917; Notes and News, 29, 61, 94, 
123, 158, 189, 221, 254, 285, 317, 350, 381, 
412, 446, 476, 508, 541, 572, 613, 652, 693, 
733, 772, 813, 854; Journals and Articles, 49, 
112, 145, 178, 214, 241, 465, 505, 536, 565,' 
672, 759, 838, 882, 921; Societies, Convoca- 
tion Week Meetings of, 800, 838, 882 ; Compo- 
sition, style in, C. R. Eastman, 806 

ScOTT, W. B., John Bell Hatcher, 139 

ScoTT, W. E. D., Inheritance of Song, 282 

Seals, Swallowing of Stones, F. A. Lucas, 537 

Seaman, W. H., Metric System, 722 

Seidell, A., Chem. Soc. of Washington, 15, 763, 921 

Seward, A. C, The Jurassic Flora, L. F. Ward, 

917 
Sherman, H. C, N. Y. Section of American Chem. 

Society, 178 
Smith, A., Van'tHcff's Vorlesungen ueber theo- 

retisohe und physikalische Chemie, 241 
Smith, E., Determination of Longitude, 466 
Smith, G. 0., Geol. Soc. of Washington, 760 
Smith, T., Problems in Life History of Patho- 
genic Microorganisms, 817 
Social and Economic Science, J. F. Crowell, 

251, 313 
Societies and Academies, 15, 49, 79, 112, 145, 178, 

241, 537, 604, 648, 674, 721, 760, 800, 838, 
883 

Sociology, Concepts and Methods of, F. H. GlD- 

DINGS, 624 
Soil Management, E. W. Hilgard, 605 
Solar Research, Cooperation in, 316, 930 
Soufriere of St. Vincent, E. 0. Hovey, 281 



Vlll 



SCIENCE. 



C Contents and 
Index. 



Special Articles, 23, 53, 87, 116, 149, 179, 215, 

246, 282, 310, 344, 376, 408, 437, 466, 506, 

538, 566, 612, 651, 683, 722, 809, 844, 889, 

924 
Spectacles, Concerning, C. R. E., 179 
Spillman, W. J., Hybrid Wheats, 681 
Spitzka, E. a., Taguchi's Brain-weight, 215; 

Brain of Swedish Statesman, 612 
Statistical Methods, Davenport's, K. Pearson, 765 
Stejneger, L., Amphibia versus Batraehia, 924 
Stereoscope, Overlooked Form of, J. Jastrow, 683 
Stevens, W. Le C, Halsey and Dale on Metric 

System, 172; Chwolson's Lehrbueh der 

Physik, 277; Getman's Physical Chemistry, 

309; Metric Fallacy, 608 
Stewart, F. C. and H. A. Harding, Pseudomonas 

Campestris on Cabbage Seed, 55 - 
Stomach Stones, W. J. Beal; M. M. Metcalp, 

722 
Survey, Biological, of Waters of Pacific Coast, W. 

E. RiTTER, 214 

Taurin in Invertebrate Muscle, H. C. Bradley, 25 

Technical Course, C. S. Howe, 97 

Thayer, W. S., Problems of Internal Medicine, 706 

Thorndike, E. L., Hall on Adolescence, 142 

Thorndike, E. L., Educational Psychology, H. A. 
AiKlNS, 644; Theory of Mental and Social 
Measurements, C. B. Davenport, 798 

TiTCHENER, E. B., Problems of Experimental Psy- 
chology, 786, 844 

Toll, Baron, 123 

ToMBO, Jr., R., Higher Education in Germany 
and United States, 73 ; University Registra- 
tion Statistics, 909 

Torrey Botanical Club, W. T. Horne, 49, 84, 113, 
145; E. W. Berry, 676, 822 

Tree-dwellers, K. E. Dopp, 20 

Trophoblast, The, A. A. W. Hdbrecht, 367 

Trout, Golden, of Mt. Whitney, 61 

Trowbridge, C. C, Astronomy, Physics and Chem- 
istry, N. Y. Acad, of Sciences, 17 

True, P. W., Beaked Whales, 888 

Turkestan, Excavations in, 60 

Ultra-microscopy, C. Abbe, 844 

Universities, Material versus Intellectual Devel- 
opment of, A. G. Mayer, 44 ; American and 
German, H. W. Diederich, 157; and Educa- 
tional News, 32, 64, 95, 128, 160, 192, 224, 
256, 288, 320, 352, 384, 416, 448, 480, 511, 
544, 575, 616, 655, 695, 735, 776, 816, 856, 
896; The State, and Research, T. C. Cham- 
BERLIN, 161 ; Registration Statistics, R. 
ToMBO, Jr., 909 

Van Hise, C. R., Inaugural Address, 193 

Van't Hoff, J. H., Vorlesungen ueber theoretische 

und physikalisehe Chemie, A. Smith, 241 
Variae Auctoritatis, C. R. Eastman, 215; G. C. 

Buchanan, 408; S. F. Emmons, 537; H. W. 

Haynes, 683 



Vaughan, T. W., Gardiner on Madreporaria, 503; 

Recent Literature on the Stony Corals, 646 
Vegetable Balls, J. Adams, 86 
Vernee, S. p.. Height Measurements of African 

Pygmies, 539 

W., Honorary Degrees in Engineering, 148 
W., R. DeC, Investigations at Blue Hill Meteor- 
ological Observatory, 240 
Ward, H. A., Ward-Coonley Collection of Meteor- 
ites, 0. C. Farrington, 77 
Ward, L. F., The Pteridospermaphyta, 25; Paleo- 
zoic Seed Plants, 279; The Jurassic Flora, A. 
C. Seward, 917 
Ward, R. DeC, Notes on Meteorology, 57, 153, 

182, 283, 409, 440, 507, 540, 810, 847, 890 
Washburn, F. L., Economic Entomology at the 

World's Fair, 769 
Water in Trees, Ascent of, G. Macloskie, 116, 

246; C. R. Barnes, 179 
Wead, C. K., Philosophical Society of Washing- 
ton, 17, 675, 760, 801, 922; Crosby-Brown 
Collection of Musicians' Portraits, 214 
Weevil, Cotton Boll, 475; -resistance. Evolution 

of, in Cotton, 0. F. Cook, 666 
Wellesley College Science Club, G. E. Davis, 765 
Weysse, a. W., Amoebae for the Laboratory, 650 
Whales, Large Beaked, F. W. True, 888 
Wheeler, A. S., Elisha Mitchell Scientific So- 
ciety, 605, 806 
Wheeler, W. M., Pupation of Ants and the Gua- 
temalan Kelep, 437; Guatemalan Boll Weevil 
Ant, 766 
Whipple, I. L., Kidd on Direction of Hair in Ani- 
mals and Man, 401 
Wiley, H. W., Beet Culture in U. S., 244 
WiLLisTON, S. W., Stomach Stones of Plesio- 

saurs, 565 
Wilson, E. B., Mosaic Development in Annelid 

Egg, 748 
Wisconsin, Univ. of, Soi. Club, F. W. Woll, 721 
Woodbridge, F. J. E., The Field of Logic, 587 
Woodward, R. S., Unity of Physical Science, 417 
Woodworth, R. S., Le Mouvement, S. I. Franz, 78 
WoosTEE, L. C, Do Rhizopods die a Natural 

Death ? 650 
Wright, C. D., Science and Economics, 897 

X., Membership of American Association, 679 
Yatsu, N., Aster Formation in Cerebratulus, 889 
Yerkes, R. M., Roman Numerals, 309; Jennings 

on Behavior of Lower Organisms, 750 
Young, D. B. and E. P. Felt, Culicid Larvae, 312 
Young, J. W. A., Poincarg's Science and Hypoth- 
esis, 833 

Zoology, College-entrance Option in, C. M. Clapp, 
E. G. Conklin, C. W. Hargitt, J. S. Kings- 
ley, M. A. BiGELOw, 850 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Friday, July 1, 1904. 



CONTENTS: 

The Relation of Modern Chemistry to Modern 
Medicine: Peofessok J. H. Long 1 

Scientific Books: — • 

Hofer's Handbuch der Fischkrankheiten : 
M. C. Marsh. Katalog der BiMiotheh der 
Gesellschaft filr Erdkunde eu Berlin: J. M. 
NlCKLES 14 

Societies and Academies: — • 

The Chemical Society of Washington: Dk. 
A. Seidell. The Philosophical Society of 
Washington: Chakles K. Wead. Section 
of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry of the 
Neio York Academy of Sciences: Dr. C. C. 
Trowbridge 15 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 

Appendicitis and the Race: Professor Ed- 
win G. Dexter. ' The Tree Dicellers ' : 
Katherine E. Dopp 19 

Special Articles: — ■ 

Mo7it Pele from Octoler 20, 1903, to May 
20, WOJf: Dr. Edmund Otis Hovet. The 
Occurrence of Taurin in Invertebrate Mus- 
cle: Dr. Harold C. Bradley. The Pterido- 
spermaphyta: Professor Lester F. Ward. 23 

Influence of Boric Acid and Borax on Diges- 
tion and Health 26 

Laboratories for Botanical Research 27 

International Catalogue of Scientific Litera- 
ture 28 

Scientific Notes and ISfews 29 

University and Educational Vetcs 32 



MSS. Intended for publication and boots, etc., intended 
for review should be sent to tbe Eiitor of Science, Garri- 
aon-on-Hndfon, N. Y 



THE RELATION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 
TO MODERN MEDICINE* 

The history of the relation of chemistry 
to medicine is interesting to the physician 
as well as to the chemist, but has been 
studied mainly from the standpoint of the 
latter. From the remotest periods chem- 
istry, or, more accurately, the crude science 
or art which preceded it, found application 
in two directions, first, in the treatment of 
metals or ores or similar bodies to produce 
something of greater value, and secondly, 
in the curing of disease or prolonging of 
life. In both fields of effort the attempts 
were and remained through some thousands 
of years of the simplest character. Even 
in the work of Galen, who flourished two 
hundred years after Christ and M^ho has 
been styled the first of the .great physi- 
cians, there is little which suggests any 
attempt toward a systematic knowledge of 
chemical substances. According to the 
philosophy of the Egyptians and Greeks 
then current, all things, including the hu- 
man body, were made up of a limited num- 
ber of elements or qualities, usually four. 
With the proper mixture of these the body 
remained in normal health, but with the 
qualities out of proportion disease followed 
which must be attacked through the cor- 
rective agency of medicines. Galen 's medi- 
cines were mostly simple vegetable infu- 
sions or extracts of roots, barks and leaves, 
and the term galenical we still retain to 
describe the remedies which are essentially 
indefinite mixtures secured by processes 
similar in principle to those introduced by 

* Address before the Sigma Xi Society of the 
University of Kansas, June 6, 1904. 



2 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



the Egyptian. After 1,700 years of prog- 
ress we still find many'' disciples of Galen 
among us, and the remedies whicTi are 
'purely vegetable,' or advertised to be, find 
yet amon'g the ignorant the largest sale. 

The beginnings of chemical and medical 
knowledge came to western Europe through 
the Arab conquest of Spain and in that 
country were nurtured through many years. 
Alchemy and theology, howevei*, developed 
more rapidly and the learned showed great- 
er interest in the transmutation of metals 
and the saving of souls than in the perfec- 
tion of means for curing the ills of the 
body. The system of Galen remained ade- 
quate for the needs of physicians through 
a period of 800 years following the Moorish 
conquest. It could not be otherwise with 
miracle shrines in every village and burn- 
ing fagots for all that doubted- 

In the sixteenth century we recognize the 
first systematic attempts made to improve 
on the materia mediea brought down from 
Greece and Egypt. Paracelsus began to 
teach the value of artificial products in the 
curing of disease, and, although meeting 
with great opposition, he with his pupils 
gradually built up a creed which flourished 
a century and a half. Paracelsus, familiar 
with the doctrines of the alchemists, and 
through extensive travels well acquainted 
also with the operations in metallurgy in 
many countries, set about to apply the 
gradually accumulating knowledge to the 
production of chemical remedies for human 
ailments. He promulgated a crude theory 
of the normal conditions of the body and, 
like Galen, assumed that variations from 
that normal could be corrected by chemical 
agents. Civilized as well as uncivilized 
man has usually been a believer, in materia 
mediea, and the notion that arsenic or 
mercury or antimony or sulphur could 
build up what disease had torn down pos- 
sessed an element of plausibility that rapid- 
ly attracted adherents. Medicine became. 



in effect, a branch of applied chemistry and 
the chief energies of physicians were bent 
in the direction of medication rather than 
toward the development of diagnosis. "We 
can not wonder at the subsequent failure 
of the system, since it grew into a kind of 
exaggerated empiricism not far removed 
from quackery. Indeed, it is difficult to 
realize at the present time how the iatro 
chemistry developed and flourished as long 
as it did. It must be remembered that 
chemical analysis was then quite unknown, 
and of chemical compounds only such were 
in use as could be easily made from a small 
number of native minerals and the simple 
inorganic acids and alkalies then available. 
Of the substances called organic very few 
had been discovered. A system of chemical 
therapeutics based on so slim a foundation 
failed, then, because of the wide divergence 
between what was confidently promised and 
what experience showed was practically 
realizable. But while no good came direct- 
ly from this approach of chemistry to medi- 
cine, the indirect results were more impor- 
tant, since the large number of physicians 
turned chemists accomplished the discovery 
of many new substances. 

We hear little more of the influence of 
chemistry on medicine through the one 
hundred years following the decline of the 
iatro school. Not, indeed, until the time 
of Lavoisier and his colleagues, when the 
explanation of the respiration process in 
its relation to oxidation and combustion 
and the investigations by the calorimeter 
on the origin of animal heat called again 
attention to the possibilities of chemistry 
in the development of medicine. About 
the same time came the discoveries of Gal- 
vani and Volta, the importance of which 
was soon recognized. Those were inspiring 
times for the real science of chemistry new- 
ly born, when each day, almost, added some 
new fact to the rapidly filling store-house. 
The learned in all lands stood amazed at 



JoiY ], 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



the news brought in the journals or just as 
often in the letters from Paris, or London 
or even from little Weimar, where the 
Wahlverwandtsehaften reflected the curi- 
osity and enthusiasm of the epoch. There 
was for a moment danger that the medical- 
chemical history of the seventeenth century 
would repeat itself at the beginning of the 
nineteenth, when oxygen and the galvanic 
cell began to be hailed in some quarters as 
offering the key for all mysteries and the 
cure for all diseases. But the three hun- 
dred years following the rise of Paracelsus 
had produced a new race of thinkers, and 
only temporarily could men be brought 
away from a now well-developed and neces- 
sary tendency — the collection and investi- 
gation of facts. 

It is not my purpose to sketch the fruit- 
ful work of the next half century, as I wish 
to speak particularly of a later period, but 
it must be recalled that the pioneer labors 
of Dumas, Liebig and Wohler in organic 
chemistry made possible the later develop- 
ments in physiological and pathological 
chemistry. In this period of great scien- 
tific activity it must be admitted, however, 
that the practical influence of chemistry 
on medicine was not very great. Each dis- 
cipline developed largely in its own way, 
and while the practitioner recognized in 
physiology and physiological chemistry 
sciences of great interest and beauty, he 
was not very clear as to what uses he could 
make of them except in a few limited di- 
rections. Chemistry had become complete- 
ly divorced from pharmacy and cared noth- 
ing for the preparation of remedies, and 
the applications of chemical analysis which 
might prove an aid in diagnosis were as 
yet few and far between. In the eyes of 
the medical practitioner and medical stu- 
dent chemistry was very theoretical, to be 
tolerated rather tham to be cultivated. I 
have elsewhere called attention to the al- 
most futile efforts to build up courses in 



chemistry in the early medical schools of 
the United States. The efforts failed here 
as, practically speaking, they failed else- 
where at the same time because of the lack 
of immediate relationship of the one sci- 
ence to the other. A medical man might 
just as well be asked to study botany or 
zoology as chemistry, as far as any really 
helpful practical application was con- 
cerned, excepting, perhaps, in two or three 
simple tests. 

And so the situation remained until 
about 1860, when the views of Pasteur on 
alcoholic fermentation and the isolation by 
the German physiologists of several active 
soluble ferments or enzymes of the animal 
body began to attract wide attention and 
point the way toward an explanation of 
many processes taking place in the organ- 
ism. With the growing recognition of the 
character and importance of the work of 
the enzymes I think we have the first real 
tangible evidence of the dependence of 
medicine on the new chemistry. The doc- 
trine of the ferments as applied to the 
chemical changes taking place within the 
body is one, apparently, of indefinite ex- 
tension, and at the present day, after forty 
years of trial, it seems more than ever 
likely to hold its own and be capable of 
even wider development. In passing, I 
must add that it would not be fair to claim 
that the great advances just suggested were 
all due to the efforts of chemists. On the 
contrary, many of them were conceived and 
largely worked out by men who had been 
trained primarily in medicine rather than 
in chemistry. 

In speaking of the relations of modern 
medicine and chemistry it may be recog- 
nized that they are essentially of three 
kinds. We have first the very simple and 
so-called practical relation in which chem- 
istry becomes an aid to medicine in the way 
of diagnosis. Here analytical chemistry is 
alone concerned and the chemist is called 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



Upon to determine by tests the normal or 
pathological character of some body fluid 
or excretion about which the physician 
must have information before he can make 
a correct diagnosis. This work is, of 
course, extremely important, but, as ordi- 
narily applied, it calls, perhaps, for the 
lowest order of chemical knowledge and rep- 
resents the lowest requirement which can be 
made in the chemical education of the med- 
ical student. In the hands of the medical 
practitioner chemical analysis degenerates 
usually into a routine performance in 
which a few very simple and accurate tests 
are carried out in a marvelously inaccurate 
manner. Medicine is as yet very far from 
availing itself of the great aid which an- 
alysis is ready to offer in the solution of its 
practical problems in every-day experience, 
and this is largely due to the fact that in 
most of our medical schools instruction in 
chemistry stops before the student has be- 
come sufficiently familiar with the real sci- 
ence to feel at home in its applications. 
All medical students learn something about 
sugar and albumen and they usually are 
able to apply their laboratory acquisitions 
in later practise. But the same can not be 
said of their experience with acetone or 
indicah or the aromatic sulphates, for ex- 
ample. These, too, certainly have a mean- 
ing, and the student has probably learned 
the tests for them in his laboratory work. 
But, unfortunately, their relations to dis- 
ease are less tangible; their bearings do 
not become clear without a greater mental 
effort, and hence the once acquired facility 
is allowed to slip away, or to degenerate 
into a valueless routine, in which an as- 
sumed accuracy may be wholly illusory. 

Supposing, however, that the medical 
man's knowledge of analytical chemistry is 
full enough and satisfactory for the pur- 
pose, and that he continues to practise and 
even improve upon the tests which he has 
learned, something more is still desirable 



or necessary. Much that should be possible 
in diagnosis is often lost because of the dif- 
ficulty in connecting that which is shown 
by analysis with what it indicates or de- 
pends upon. The value of analytical chem- 
istry in medicine soon reaches a limit un- 
less it is accompanied by a very much fuller 
knowledge of general physiological chem- 
istry than is usually acquired. And, more- 
over, while routine analytical work may be 
extremely important, in many cases really 
essential to diagnosis, it is far from repre- 
senting the major service which chemistry 
may render to medicine. By analytical 
tests we are able to measure some of the 
effects of certain reactions taking place 
within the body, but the causes of the re- 
actions and the relations of the things re- 
acting involve ordinarily much deeper 
problems than those of simple analysis. 
An illustration may be given. Some years 
ago Ehrlich introduced a valuable test in 
the examination of uz'ine which is com- 
monly known as the diazo test, and which 
depends on the formation of an azo color 
when a certain reagent is added to the 
urine. To complete the reaction some aro- 
matic product must be furnished by the 
secretion, and the presence of this was sup- 
posed at one time to be indicative of a 
definite pathological condition. Later, 
through more extended clinical observa- 
tions, it seemed possible to connect it with 
still other conditions, and then a long dis- 
cussion arose as to the limits and useful- 
ness of the reaction. Among the many 
papers published in the discussion some 
have been good and some bad, even ab- 
surdly bad, because they overlooked wholly 
the essential conditions of the reaction con- 
sidered from the chemical standpoint. It 
is evident that many of the writers on the 
subject were unfamiliar with the chemistry 
involved in the diazo combination and were, 
therefore, led to absurd expressions. To 
fairly comprehend a problem of this kind 



July 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



-■5 



a good knowledge of elementary organic 
chemistry is necessary, and it is essential 
also that one should have some idea of the 
part played by bacteria in the organism in 
producing complex aromatic substances 
from the disintegration of proteins, since 
the indications here are often of great im- 
portance. 

And this brings us to consider the second 
type of relation between chemistry and 
medicine, a relation which involves the 
question of organic synthesis or disintegra- 
tion in the animal body. At an earlier 
stage in the discussion it was assumed that, 
Topsy like, things 'just growed that way.' 
Later the mysterious electricity and still 
more mysterious vital force were called in 
to account for everything not easily explic- 
able by known chemical or physical means. 
While it is probably true that many of the 
phenomena of life are and will remain 
quite beyond our power of explanation, and 
that here as elsewhere we must accept the 
ignoramus and ignorahimus of Du Bois 
Reymond as final, we are coming, on the 
other hand, to the recognition of the com- 
parative simplicity of other problems, the 
solution of which falls within the province 
of the new physiological chemistry. Medi- 
cine will be the chief gainer by these in- 
vestigations. 

It was certainly an auspicious day for 
chemistry and medicine also when Pasteur 
developed his biological theory of alcoholic 
fermentation. Not long after came the 
work of Kiihne, Briicke and others on the 
enzymes, already referred to, and finally 
Buchner to clearly demonstrate the long- 
suspected enzymic character of the yeast 
ferment. Practically all recent work in 
this direction has gone to show that so- 
called organized fermentations are all de- 
pendent in turn on enzymic ferments con- 
tained within the cells. This distinction 
may probably be made: in the yeast fer- 
mentations, for example, the sugar to be 



converted is drawn into the cell, and the 
products, alcohol and carbon dioxide, 
formed by the zymase, are in turn ex- 
creted. In diastasic and similar fermenta- 
tions, on the other hand, certain cells pro- 
duce an active ferment which is discharged 
to do its work outside the generating cell. 
The difference is thus seen to depend on the 
place where the reaction occurs, which is 
not a very important point. The ferments 
are essentially complex chemical sub- 
stances, able to bring about various reac- 
tions nearly all of which are of exothermal 
character. Of the nature of many of these 
reactions we have pretty accurate Imowl- 
edge, although of the exact mode of action 
of the enzyme itself our knowledge is 
scanty. For the present purpose, however, 
it is sufficient to recognize that these reac- 
tions are chemical and we are in a position 
to trace their bearing on medical problems. 
The simplest problems of enzyme action 
we have in the work of some of the so- 
called digestive ferments. In the changes 
wrought in starch by the saliva and by one 
of the pancreatic ferments the chemical ac- 
tion is one of hydrolysis and very similar 
to that occurring commonly in the vege- 
table world. In the germinating seedsj 
when starch becomes sugar to feed the de- 
veloping plantlet, water is added through 
the aid of diastasic ferments, and later, in 
the ripening of many fruits the same kind 
of a reaction takes place. These effects, 
however, are not peculiar to the enzymes; 
experiment shows that the same starchy 
substances acted upon by weak acids pass 
through the same series of changes occur- 
ring in the body, and even prolonged heat- 
ing with water has the same general effect. 
The hydrolytic and purely chemical nature 
of carbohydrate digestion becomes at once 
apparent. What happens in the digestion 
of fats is equally simple. Here, too, hy- 
drolysis plays the most important part and 
the work of the lipase enzymes can be 



6 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



duplicated in the vegetable kingdom and 
also in the laboratory by the aid of the 
simplest of inorganic reagents. A far more 
difficult problem for a long time was to ac- 
count in any way for the changes taking 
place in the digestion of proteins. The 
presence of a proteolytic enzyme in the 
gastric juice was recognized definitely by 
Briicke over forty years ago, and about the 
same time a substance called trypsin was 
found in the extract of the pancreas. 
These substances acting on proteins under 
certain conditions convert them into a series 
of intermediate and end products about 
which an enormous literature has been de- 
veloped. In the course of the long discus- 
sion it was discovered that many of the 
products which are formed by the enzymes 
may be obtained by the action of weak 
acids or alkalies, or water even at an ele- 
vated temperature, on the original proteins, 
and finally it was shown that an increase of 
weight follows in these cases as in the case 
of the addition of water to starch. All this 
evidently places the phenomena of protein 
digestion in the group of hydrolytic reac- 
tions, along with the much simpler starch 
and fat reactions. The digestion processes 
are, therefore, chemical, and the only thing 
about them which remains mysterious is 
the fact that from one set of body cells a 
ferment working in acid medium is pro- 
duced, while from a second set of cells a 
somewhat similar ferment working in an 
alkaline liquid is secured. Furthermore, 
all these changes seem to belong to the 
great group of catalytic reactions, of which 
more will be said presently. 

The general character of these operations 
was pretty distinctly fixed years ago and 
their importance clearly recognized. The 
chemical nature of the several enzymes 
themselves, however, is not known; the 
commercial products called pepsin, dias- 
tase, etc., are merely crude mixtures of 
which the active substances make up but a 



small part. The investigation of the prop- 
erties of these enzymes opened the way for 
the study of other reactions peculiar to the 
animal organism, which are likewise un- 
doubtedly of enzymic origin. In fact, the 
view is gradually gaining ground that by 
far the largest number of the body func- 
tions involve in some way the action of 
enzymes. The digestion phenomena are 
among the simplest and most readily ob- 
served, but patient investigation has 
brought to light other reactions as truly 
enzymic as these. In the liver alone there 
are no less than ten well-defined processes 
in progress, in the initiation of which en- 
zymes are concerned. For the mainte- 
nance of the wellbeing of the body the 
proper performance of these processes is 
as essential as is digestion itself. In a 
general way most of these processes have 
been known or suspected for years, but 
they were supposed to depend on some pe- 
culiar vital action of the liver cells them- 
selves. The situation here is analogous to 
that regarding the mode of action of the 
yeast cell, but most investigators now con- 
sider the enzymic or chemical theory as 
well established. The liver may, indeed, 
be compared to a laboratory in which im- 
portant syntheses and decompositions are 
constantly taking place. Some of these are 
of such a character that they may be easily 
duplicated in vitro, while others appear to 
be practically beyond artificial control. 
What is true of the liver is true of other 
organs where matter undergoes change. In 
the blood the presence of several of these 
ferment agents has been shown. 

These various observations have had an 
important bearing on a discussion which 
has been of. long duration. Since the days 
of Lavoisier physiologists have been trying 
to define the means by which the oxygen 
taken in by the lungs effects the oxidation 
of the food stuffs. Sugars and starches 
consumed yield finally water and carbon 



JOLY 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



dioxide. In this oxidation just as many 
heat units are liberated as would be set 
free by the same kind of combustion in a 
calorimeter. If work is done at the ex- 
pense of the consumed food stuffs it has 
been found that the animal makes a some- 
what greater return of mechanical energy 
than is possible with the best machines 
known. But while all this is interesting 
and important, it leaves the main question 
still unanswered: How is it accomplished? 
To effect such oxidations artificially would 
require very high initial temperatures. 
We can not burn sugar by the aid of the 
oxygen of the air except by reaching first 
a certain kindling temperature. To burn 
fats or proteins would be equally difficult. 
Yet in the animal body, and in the presence 
of fluids with a mean temperature below 
40° Centigrade, the oxygen given up from 
the arterial blood accomplishes these com- 
bustions continuously and with a regularity 
corresponding with that of respiration. 
The theories advanced to account for this 
oxidation have been many and all more or 
less unsatisfactory. By some it was sup- 
posed that the oxygen was first thrown into 
an active form like ozone, for example. 
The old Berzelius notion of catalysis was 
even fifty years ago advanced as a hypoth- 
esis, but nothing definite was suggested as to 
the nature of the catalytic agent. It is an 
interesting fact that after years of fruitless 
theorizing chemists are coming back to the 
idea of catalysis, but from a very different 
standpoint. The peculiar catalyzing agents 
active in so many ways in the body are now 
often assumed to be some of the so-called 
oxidizing ferments or oxidases. The theory 
of the oxidases is of rather recent develop- 
ment and there seems to be no question of 
the existence of these active principles in 
many vegetable products. Their actual 
presence in the animal fluids is not so 
readily demonstrated, but as a result of 
experiments a great many investigators 



have been gradually brought to accept this 
idea as a fact. What Ludwig forty years 
ago pointed out as likely is actually coming 
to pass. Chemical physiology is becoming 
largely a study of catalytic reactions. 

Among all the animal oxidations great 
interest attaches to the combustion of sugar 
in man. In the digestion of carbohydrates 
some hexose sugar is finally produced and 
absorbed and then carried by the portal 
circulation to the liver. There it is tem- 
porarily stored up as glycogen, and, as re- 
quired, is thrown out into the blood stream 
again to be oxidized for the needs of the 
body. Normally this oxidation takes place 
very quickly and no accumulation of sugar 
in the blood follows. But under certain 
conditions the oxidation of the sugar be- 
comes very imperfect or fails entirely, and 
to maintain the proper osmotic pressure in 
the blood the excess of sugar escapes by 
way of the kidneys. This is the situation 
in the disease known as diabetes mellitus. 
There are few pathological conditions on 
which more has been written. We can not 
say yet that the ultimate cause of diabetes 
is known, but many facts have been estab- 
lished by chemical investigation and quite 
recently the work of Cohnheim has shown, 
apparently beyond question, that for the 
normal oxidation of sugar the action of 
two enzymic bodies of distinctly different 
origin is required. One of these, as might 
naturally be expected in the light of earlier 
knowledge, is furnished by the pancreas, 
while the other comes from the muscles. 
The oxidation takes place, or may take 
place, in the fluid surrounding the muscular 
fibers. , Cohnheim has shown that the cell 
structures as such are not concerned in 
this oxidation, as it may be brought about 
in clear filtered solutions from mixtures of 
finely ground muscle and pancreas. It is, 
therefore, a chemical process and one of 
the most interesting thus far studied. Not 
the least interesting and important fact 



8 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



connected with the observation is this, that 
two bodies at least are concerned with the 
sugar in the reaction. One of these may 
act as a catalyzer for the other, or, taken 
together, both may act in the manner of 
the complement and intermediary body of 
Ehrlich, of which more will be said below. 
The point of importance here is that the 
theory of this oxidation has shifted around 
so as to become a strictly chemical one. As 
long as some specific action of the cell was 
called in to account for the observed phe- 
nomena the biologist rather than the chem- 
ist was interested in the solution of the 
problem. It now appears that "the chem- 
ical factors are the main ones to be con- 
sidered in the final effect. It remains, of 
course, true that the oxidizing ferments 
must be always the products of cell action, 
but the important idea suggests itself that 
they need not necessarily be produced by 
the same body which is later to use them. 
If investigators succeed in showing more 
specifically the nature of the two sub- 
stances, it may be found possible to secure 
them from other animals and introduce 
them when needed, much as antitoxins are 
introduced. 

Many of those present doubtless recall 
the beginnings of what is known as the 
germ theory of diseases. From his success 
in developing a satisfactory theory of alco- 
holic fermentation, which became of vast 
importance in the brewing and wine in- 
dustries, Pasteur was led to study the 
causes of failure often noticed in practical 
fermentation. Beers and wines sometimes 
become diseased and spoil in the process of 
making. They turn sour, or for other 
■reason become unfit for use. The explana- 
tion of this was found to lie in the presence 
of foreign ferments which induce new reac- 
tions. As a preventive of such diseases 
sterilization and pasteurization processes 
were suggested and have become common 
in many industries besides those for which 



first developed. From sick beers and wines 
Pasteur was led to study sick silkworms, 
then a question of great commercial in- 
terest in France, and found the cause of 
the malady and later a method of preven- 
tion. Following this wonderful work, men 
began to look for microorganisms else- 
where, and in the course of a few years 
specific bacteria were described as the ac- 
tive agents in inducing cholera, anthrax, 
tuberculosis and other dread diseases. Ac- 
cording to the germ theory, the invasion of 
certain tissues of man or the higher ani- 
mals by these bacteria is the real cause of 
the disease in question. It must be re- 
called that these organisms are extremely 
minute. Many millions of them would be 
required to produce the volume of a pin 
head, and that anything so small could give 
rise to cholera or typhoid fever seemed at 
first utterly unreasonable. That these 
minute things are the actual agents of 
many diseases there can now be no doubt. 
It remains to discover how they act. At 
first their effects were assumed to be largely 
mechanical and in the direction of the de- 
struction of tissues, but in many eases the 
tissue destruction is of secondary impor- 
tance. The notion gradually developed 
that many of the ' disease-producing bac- 
teria are active through the poisonous prin- 
ciples or. toxins which they elaborate. The 
toxins are complex chemical substances re- 
sembling in properties some of the alka- 
loids, or possibly belonging to the group 
of enzymes. At any rate, as soluble chem- 
ical agents, they are able to diffuse through- 
out the body and interfere with its normal 
functions. We appear to have then a 
chemical theory back of the germ theory 
and this development is proving of the 
highest importance from both theoretical 
and practical standpoints. The theory of 
the production of toxic substances by the 
bacteria involved, of course, no new as- 
sumption. Chemists had been long fa- 



Jai,T 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



U 



miliar with the production of poisonous 
matters by other vegetable cells, and the 
development of ptomaines, or cadaver poi- 
sons, was sufficiently well understood to 
suggest at once the formation of analogous 
substances in the living organism. ■ Hence 
the doctrine of the toxins as the important 
chemical factors in the causation of certain 
diseases, when once clearly stated, made 
rapid headway and is now very generally 
admitted and recognized. The investiga- 
tion of bacterial intoxications has become 
a chemical problem of rare fascination and 
importance, and through this work entirely 
new departments of research have been 
opened up, bringing into the practise of 
medicine, as well as into the literature, new 
ideas and new methods. The development 
of the notion of toxins was followed by that 
of the antitoxins, the potent agents which 
check or prevent the harmful work of the 
toxic ferments. The theory of the action 
of these substances on each other is largely 
a chemical one and is founded on a basis 
of experiment. It appears that in many 
cases studied toxin and antitoxin combine 
in fairly definite and constant proportions, 
which would necessarily be the case if their 
union is in any sense a chemical one. The 
behavior of one with the other has been 
compared to that of an acid with a base, 
but it is more like the combination of active 
salts to form complex double salts of en- 
tirely distinct properties. The extreme 
toxicity of potassium cyanide, for example, 
is modified by combination with iron com- 
pounds to produce the salt of a new and 
far less potent acid. 

Few topics in medicine to-day attract 
the attention given to natural and acquired 
immunity. The history of scientific in- 
vestigation in this field is not old, but 
already its literature has become enormous. 
Immunity may exist with reference to bac- 
teria, or to the toxins produced by bacteria, 
and in either ease it may be inherent or 



natural or it may be imparted. The 
natural immunity of many animals to bac- 
terial invasion does not necessarily involve 
any direct chemical action, and in the most 
widely accepted notion yet advanced to 
account for this kind of immunity certain 
large ceUs of the body, which have been 
called phagocytes, or devouring cells, play 
an important part. These seem to seize 
upon the foreign iavader and destroy it by 
a kind of digestive process. Such a prop- 
erty is observed in the large Avhite cor- 
puscles or leucocytes of the blood, and it is 
likely that a chemical action is indirectly 
concerned here. The cells may produce 
some specific chemical substance which is 
a poison for the attacking bacteria. It has 
also been held that in the gradual and 
spontaneous disintegration of these cells 
substances are thrown into the serum 
which have the real germicidal action. 
These are the alexins of Buehner, and in 
the theory of the latter they are enzyme- 
like substances. What the exact facts are 
we do not know, but I refer to the point to 
emphasize the growing tendency to look for 
the chemical factor in every body phe- 
nomenon. 

In the study of acquired or developed im- 
munity to bacterial toxins we find the most 
ambitious introduction of purely chemical 
theories. In this field the labors of 
Pfeiffer, Buehner, Bordet, Ehrlieh and 
others are preeminent, and in all cases the 
chemical idea appears as an essential fac- 
tor. This is peculiarly true of the so-called 
'side chain theory' of Ehrlieh, which at the 
present time attracts the widest attention. 
Years ago Pasteur introduced the notion of 
molecular asymmetry into chemical science 
and pointed out in effect the importance 
of the conception of configuration in deal- 
ing with certain problems. In 1894 dur- 
ing the progress of his famous investiga- 
tions on the bodies of the sugar group, 
Emil Fischer published some remarkable 



10 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol.. XX. No. 496. 



papers on the behavior of certain enzymes 
in the fermentation of sugars, in which he 
pointed out that in order to work as fer- 
ments the enzymes must possess a certain 
stereo-chemical structure, bearing a definite 
relation to the stereo-chemical structure of 
the sugar. Without this relation fermenta- 
tion can not take place. In order to 
make his meaning plain Fischer employed 
a figure which has since become famous. 
He said, in speaking of certain glucosides: 
'Enzyme and glucoside must fit into each 
other as a key into a lock in order that the 
one may be able to exert a chemical action 
on the other.' In one of these papers 
Fischer suggests that the idea of related 
molecular configuration of enzyme and fer- 
mentable body may prove of value in 
physiological investigation as well as in 
chemistry. We have apparently in this 
prediction of Fischer made ten years ago 
the basis of the Ehrlich hypothesis. 

Without going into minute details, the 
Ehrlich notion of bacterial or toxin action 
on the cells of the body, and immunity 
from the same, is briefly this. Bacteria, 
animal cells and toxins are all complex 
aggregations of more or less complex 
molecules. The latter have certain con- 
figurations dependent on the presence of 
side chains or side groups, to borrow an 
expression from organic chemistry. These 
side chains are dijectly or indirectly the 
points of attack or defense in the action 
of the several bodies on each other. In 
order that a substance may behave as a 
poison or toxin to cells of the body, both 
cells and toxins must, therefore, possess 
certain reciprocal configurations. It has 
been suggested by Ehrlich that it is through 
the presence, of these side gi'oups that the 
cells absorb their necessary nutriment and 
elaborate new structures from it. Some of 
the side chains may be constructed to com- 
bine with fats, some with carbohydrates 
and some with proteins, but in the presence 



of toxins or bacteria with the right kind 
of side chains combination with' these may 
take place instead. Certain phenomena 
seem to indicate that this combination is 
not a direct one, at any rate not always 
direct, and the conception of an inter- 
mediary body or linking complex has been 
developed. This intermediary body must 
itself possess two groups with special con- 
figurations; one of them fits it to combine 
with the cell, while the other brings about 
the combination with the toxic molecule. 

The complicated nomenclature called into 
existence to describe and express satisfac- 
torily the conceptions of this interesting 
theory appears at first sight a great draw- 
back in the way of readily following it. 
There are cytophil groups and toxophil 
groups, and both of these may be called 
haptophorous groups because they carry 
the combining or uniting property. Other 
terms employed sound equally strange to 
the chemist, but a little patient study dis- 
closes what is meant and we are obliged to 
recognize in the new doctrine an important 
widening out of biochemical science. Of 
course no one assumes that the theory, or 
the various other theories which have 
grown up around it, will persist in the 
present form. The chemistry of living 
things is admittedly the most complex of 
all kinds of chemistry, For new ideas we 
must have new figures and these of Ehrlich 
in the side chain theory are not more un- 
real than were the figures employed in the 
early days when a general chemistry began 
to be evolved from the atomic theory of 
Dalton. Besides this, the stereo-chemical 
speculations of Ehrlich and his school pre- 
sent for the first time a tangible working 
hypothesis to account for the phenomena 
of toxicity and immunity. In many re- 
spects the hypothesis or theory will suffer 
modification and so discard what is useless 
or false. But already it has stimulated 
investigation enormously and created in 



J-uXY 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



11 



medicine a situation analogous to that 
created in cliemistry by Pasteur and van't 
Hoff and developed largely by the latter 
and Fischer. In this new medical chem- 
istry there is the same distrust to overcome 
which was encountered by van't Hoff in 
the first years after the publication of his 
work on chemistry in space. It may be 
recalled that Kolbe especially was very 
bitter against what he called idle specula- 
tion and this is the attitude to-day toward 
an attempt to explain obscure phenomena 
in etiology in chemical language. It is 
true that complete chemical explanations 
of pathological conditions are in most cases 
not yet possible, but the bold speculations 
of Ehrlich, Buchner, Bordet and the other 
scientists who have contributed to the dis- 
cussion deserve cordial recognition. It is 
no fatal objection to their hypotheses that 
the leaders in the various schools differ as 
to details. The fact of permanent value 
is that they are all at work on a theory 
which is essentially chemical. 

The organic chemistry of the protein 
substances has advanced far enough to 
show that these bodies are complex aggre- 
gations of certain large and small groups. 
The elimination or destruction of some of 
these groups may not necessarily mean de- 
struction of the whole molecule. Doubtless 
it may remain a protein with several of the 
smaller groups lost. Outside of the ani- 
mal or vegetable organism there is appar- 
ently no simple way of regenerating what 
has been obliterated. In the living tissues, 
however, the proteins may possess the 
power of self -regeneration by some kind of 
a synthesis ; the loss of a few amino groups, 
for example, need not be followed by the 
decay of the whole. These amino groups 
may be convenient points of attack for cer- 
tain reagents, but not for others. They 
are, in a sense, the toxophil groups by 
means of which outside connection is made, 
but if the proper attacking agent is not 



used the protein remains unchanged. It 
is also true that certain reagents may in- 
crease the stability of the protein and in- 
hibit practically its destruction under 
given conditions. In general such mole- 
cules possess greater stability in presence of 
their dissociation or reaction products. 
Conceptions somewhat analogous to these 
are included in the Ehrlich immunity 
theory, according to which some of the 
separated side chains from the over-stimu- 
lated cell behave as antitoxins to cheek 
further action. 

In still another important direction the 
influence of chemistry is being felt in 
medicine and it is the new physical chem- 
istry which is now the vitalizing force. In 
one of his earlier papers van't Hoff called 
attention to what this kind of chemistry 
might do for physiology, and in recent ad- 
dresses he has come back again to the sub- 
ject. Ostwald has many times, and even 
more strongly, pointed out the importance 
of physical chemistry to the progress of 
medical theory. As long as physiology 
alone was concerned in this advance the 
influence on practical medicine remained 
somewhat problematical. The clinician 
has been almost as skeptical about the value 
of pure physiology as he has been about 
the value of pure chemistry. But many of 
the newer developments from the theory 
of solutions have been found applicable in 
questions of pathology, the recognition of 
which fact is of growing importance. A 
few of these so-called practical applications 
may be mentioned here. 

It is a well known yet always interesting 
fact that the osmotic pressure of the blood 
remains within narrow limits a constant. 
A slight increase following meals or a de- 
crease following large consumption of water 
is speedily corrected through the activity of 
the kidneys. The importance of this con- 
stancy in osmotic pressure appears when it 
is recalled that all the other organs of the 



12 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



body are more or less surrounded by the 
blood and necessarily in equilibrium with 
it. Any great variation in the osmotic 
pressure of the blood would, therefore, be 
followed by a change in the content or con- 
centration of every dependent cell. It ap- 
pears to be a special function of the kidney, 
therefore, to eliminate just enough of the 
accumulated blood products to keep this 
mean osmotic pressure at its normal value. 
If in any given case a wide divergence from 
this is found by experiment, the conclusion 
is at once drawn that some serious impair- 
ment of the kidney has taken place. The 
test is easily made with a small amount of 
the blood by what is known as the cryo- 
scopic method. Its diagnostic value is gen- 
erally recognized. 

Similarly, we have in the determination 
of electrical conductivity another simple 
method of finding a certain kind of solu- 
tion content. This method may be ap- 
plied to body fluids, especially to the urine 
and to the blood, and the informatic^n se- 
cured has often considerable value, since it 
is not exactly the same as may be obtained 
by the methods of chemical analysis. The 
general procedure has been applied in other 
kinds of work, twenty years or more, but 
only within the last four or five years have 
the applications in medicine been thought 
of. It will be recognized that these appli- 
cations are comparable to new methods of 
analysis and their value must be measured 
from that standpoint. 

But the chief value of physical chemistry 
to medicine does not lie in this direction, 
practical as it may appear. The develop- 
ment of the modern theory of solutions has 
wrought a most wonderful change in our 
mode of thinking of chemical problems, and 
while for a time this change was noticeable 
mainly in the treatment of questions of 
inorganic chemistry, it has finally appeared 
in the discussion of medical problems also. 
In pharmacology the conception of inde- 



pendent ions is a helpful one in explaining 
many points in the action of drugs which 
have hitherto been obscure. It is well 
known that the chemical activity of many 
substances in solution may be greatly modi- 
fied by the presence of other substances 
having like ions free. Physiological ac- 
tivity, it is found, is often modified in the 
same manner, and beyond question the prob- 
lem here presented will be found a fruitful 
one in the theory of medication and in the 
explanation of incompatibles. The im- 
portance of certain ions in the blood and in 
the muscular juices has just begun to be 
clearly recognized and the maintenance of 
these in right amount, even when only 
traces may be present, is a chemical neces- 
sity. It is known that the inorganic sub- 
stances which yield ions have a necessary 
duty to perform in the body. The con- 
stancy of the one per cent, of mineral sub- 
stances in the blood is doubtless more neces- 
sary than the constancy of the twenty per 
cent., or more, of organic substances. 

The physical chemists have given us a 
number of new general methods of attack- 
ing old problems. Some of them have an 
important bearing on live questions in 
medicine. For example, take the question 
of the solubility of uric acid and the urates, 
the deposition of which in the tissues is 
supposed to be the source of many disor- 
ders. For fifty years or more much has 
been written on the problem of dissolving 
these urate deposits or concretions, or of 
preventing their formation. Lately several 
writers have begun to study this .ever- in- 
teresting topic from the standpoint of the 
mass action law and dissociation hypothesis, 
and in a way which promises much for the 
clearing up of the fundamental conditions 
• of deposition. It has already been pretty 
well shown why certain suggested remedies 
have not been of value and can not possibly 
do what was long claimed for them. In the 
uric acid problem two fundamental ques- 



JULT 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



13 



tions are involved; one of these has to do 
with its formation in metabolism. The 
other is a question of chemical equilibrium 
at a given temperature. The first question 
is the more difScult and also practically the 
less important. The second question may 
not prove difficult of solution. 

I have spoken of the great work of 
Ehrlich and others in the development of 
the doctrines of immunity and toxicity. 
In the experimental examination of this 
problem it was found that many reactions 
between toxins and antitoxins can be car- 
ried out in the test-tube, leaving for the 
animal experiment certain final or crucial 
reactions only. In other words, a large 
number of important points in question 
seem to be strictly chemical and must be 
tested by chemical rather than by biological 
methods. In deciding on the nature of 
any given reaction taking place in solution 
and requiring time for its completion a 
determination of the so-called speed of the 
reaction is often of value. It has been 
shown that reactions taking place in one 
direction and involving one, two or three 
molecules follow certain definite schemes. 
The behavior of some of the simple fer- 
ments has been studied from this point of 
view and lately it has been found possible 
to submit the reaction between toxins and 
antitoxins to this kind of mathematical 
analysis. Something over a year ago 
Arrhenius and Madsen published a very 
important paper with the title: 'Applica- 
tions of Physical Chemistry to the Study 
of the Toxins and Antitoxins,' in which, 
from the observations of Ehrlich, the essen- 
tially chemical nature of these reactions 
was shown. This paper was followed by 
others by the same authors and also by 
Ehrlich, who takes exception to some of the 
physico-chemical generalizations, yet recog- 
nizes the value of the mathematical treat- 
ment. It is likely that this discussion is 
but the beginning of the application of 



physical and mathematical chemistry in 
the exact study of problems which at one 
time were assumed to be essentially bio- 
logical. I believe that medical science will 
derive great benefit from this alliance, as a 
means is here offered of testing the value 
of many assumed working hypotheses. 
There is a field here which is worthy of at- 
tention and which certainly can not remain 
long unoccupied. Many reactions taking 
place normally in the body will be found 
to lend themselves readily to the physico- 
chemical treatment and the applications in 
pathology will also appear as the methods 
become better understood. 

Many medical men are beginning to 
recognize the value of this line of inquiry 
in the development of research, and the 
question is often asked how may the 
practitioner of medicine make himself 
familiar enough with the new physico- 
chemical theory to derive any benefit from 
it. This is admittedly a difficult question. 
"With the student of medicine, however, the 
case is difllerent. He may be given from 
the start the proper training to enable him 
to understand something of the drift of 
this new chemistry, if not to practise it 
readily. An opinion has been cultivated 
for years in some of our medical schools 
that the only part of chemistry really im- 
portant for the physician is the organic 
chemistry of the food stuffs and their meta- 
bolic products. This is an extremely nar- 
row conception of the case and it has often 
led to a neglect of those branches of gen- 
eral and physical chemistry through which 
the foundation principles of the science 
may be most satisfactorily presented. With 
the growing importance of the applications 
of physical chemistry in medicine the chem- 
ical training of the medical man will have 
to be correspondingly advanced, and of 
necessity the foundation work in this train- 
ing will have to be done in the freshman 
and sophomore years of our scientific 



14 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. Xo. 496. 



schools and colleges, since few medical 
schools will have the equipment or be able 
to afford the time to do it properly. Physi- 
ological chemistry will become then a first- 
year study in all of our medical courses, 
and the young man beginning the study of 
medicine rpust bring with him a knowledge 
of general inorganic and organic chemistry 
sufficiently broad to enable him to grasp 
the new problems which medicine now pre- 
sents. 

J. H. Long. 

NOETHWESTEKN UNIVERSITY, CHICAGO. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Eandbuch der Pisclikrankheiten. Von Dr. 
Bruno Hofer, Professor der Zoologie an 
der tierarztlichen Hochschule und Vorstand 
der Kgl. Bayer. Biol. Versuchsstation fiir 
Pisclierei in Miinchen. Mit 18 Parben- 
tafeln und 222 Text-Abbildungen. Verlag 
der Allg. Fiscberei-Zeitung, Miinchen. 1904. 
This is the first book devoted exclusively 
to the diseases of fishes, a volume of 359 
pages well printed and Vifell illustrated. The 
author asserts that the first aim of his work 
has been to aid the practical fish culturist 
and secondarily to gather together the sub- 
stance of the few widely scattered scientific 
papers on _ the subject and his own unpub- 
lished material, the result of his observations 
as director of an experiment station. No 
technical knowledge is necessary to make use 
of the book. Particular diseases are described 
under the heads of external symptoms, course, 
cause, cure and prevention, the pathological 
changes receiving but passing notice. The 
scope of the work is limited to middle Europe 
and to fresh-water fishes alone, with Siebold's 
' Die Siisswasserfische von Mitteleuropa ' as a 
basis of nomenclature. 

The book is divided into four sections. 
These treat of general infections, diseases of 
special organs, the crayfish disease, and gen- 
eral measures against fish diseases. Pourteen 
bacterial diseases are described, of which six 
are regarded as specific infections, and the 
characters of the organism are summarized. 
The disease itself is given a distinctive name. 



as ' furunculosis,' ' purpura cyprinorum,' 
' pestis salmonis,' etc. The last is the 
widely known so-called fungous disease of 
salmon which engaged the interest of Huxley, 
who believed it to be caused by Saprolegnia 
alone. Dr. Hofer accepts the work of Pat- 
terson, who holds the fungus to be a secondary 
or terminal attack and describes ' Bacillus 
salmonis pestis ' as the primary cause. It is 
further interesting to note that the bacillus of 
tuberculosis is found in fishes, a form recog- 
nizably different from the parasite in man 
and not pathogenic for warm-blooded animals. 
Seven other organisms are found associated 
with disease, but their role is not regarded by 
the author as satisfactorily- determined. In- 
fections of fishes with bacteria and animal 
parasites are not unknown in this country, 
but serious epidemics due to them have been 
described only among domesticated fishes, 
while in Europe they seem to be more common 
and devastate alike the natural habitats as 
well as the ponds of breeders. 

Two general infections with protozoan para- 
sites are described, each caused by a myxo- 
sporidian of the genus Myxoholus. A sys- 
tematic list is given, profusely illustrated and 
with a short characterization of each species, 
of the sporozoa parasitic for fishes, in which 
Gurley's U. S. Pish Commission paper is 
largely drawn upon. This plan of illustrated 
synopses of the species is carried out with 
each group of parasites, more extensively with 
the Crustacea. 

The second section occupies two thirds of 
the book and is taken up with local diseases. 
The skin affections receive most attention and 
its lesions are mainly caused by parasites, the 
most important being the saprolegnious fungi, 
the great enemy of domesticated fishes. None 
of the tissues or organs is without its patho- 
logic affection. Even the nervous system is 
the seat of parasitism, the author himself 
having investigated a yet unnamed sporozoan 
which causes in trout ' taumellirankheit,' a 
torpor finally ending in death. Other au- 
thors have described * polyneuritis parasitica ' 
due to a Myxoholus, and a parasitic worm. A 
short chapter is given to an unexplained ex- 
ophthalmia, a symptom frequently seen as a 



July 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



15 



manifestation of, perhaps, several different 
causes, one of which is of considerable im- 
portance in this country and has been shown 
to consist in unusual amounts of- dissolved air. 

The third section is devoted entirely to the 
crayfish disease, ' Krebspest,' for years past 
widespread and destructive in Europe, but here 
unknown. The author and his assistant have 
made a special research on this subject and 
have described as the cause of the disease 
Bacterium pestis astaci, which attacks also, 
causing a general infection, several cyprinoids , 
and allied fishes in the waters of nature as 
well as in domestication. 

The last section consists of a few pages of 
general directions to the fish culturist with 
respect to measures to be taken at the onset 
of disease. In general there is little encour- 
agement to the breeder in the way of remedies. 
Therapeutics with fishes is not far advanced 
and the prognosis in the ease of the general 
infections is bad. Some cases of external 
parasitism may be successfully treated, but 
the chief reliance must be in prevention. 
Practical directions are given for the disin- 
fection of ponds and the natural remedy is 
frequently advised of removing infected trout 
to rapidly flowing stream's. 

The book is ' profusely illustrated with 
colored plates, drawings and photographs, and 
to these it owes a large part of its usefulness. 
The representation in color of the lesions of 
the bacterial diseases aids their identification, 
which is rather difficult at best. 

M. C. Marsh. 

Katalog der Bibliotheh der Gesellschaft f-iir 
Erdhunde zu Berlin. Versuch einer sys- 
tematik der geographischen Literatur. Von 
Paul Dinse. Berlin, Ernst Siegfried Mit- 
tler und Sohn. 1903. Pp. xxvii + 925. 
Price, 12 Marks. 

When the Berlin Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde 
moved into its own building the opportunity 
was given for a rearrangement of its library. 
The scheme in use had become antiquated 
and inadequate. To Dr. Dinse was entrusted 
the preparation of a new plan of arrangement. 
The results of this work lie before us in this 
large and in every way satisfactory catalogue, 
which from its fullness and fine subject classi- 



fication has high bibliographic value. The 
scheme of classification is close and thorough- 
going, yet based largely upon considerations 
of practical convenience. Two main divisions 
are adopted: general geographic literature 
and literature of single regions and the sea. 
Under the former are the subdivisions: (1) 
bibliography, (2) history of geography and dis- 
covery, (3) history of cartography, (4) meth- 
ods and education, (5) encyclopedic literature 
of geography, (6) collections and miscellane- 
ous writings relating to geography, (7) gen- 
eral physical geography, (8) general bio-geog- 
raphy, (9) general anthropo-geography, (10) 
geography of political and economic history 
of nations, (11) onomatology and transcrip- 
tion. These are again subdivided and when 
necessary or desirable re-subdivided, some- 
times according to subjects and sometimes by 
countries. The second main division, litera- 
ture of single regions, is subdivided by conti- 
nents and countries, and when the literature 
pertaining to a country is very extensive, this 
is again subdivided by subjects. Periodicals 
are arranged separately by countries. 

Among the admirable features the follow- 
ing may be noted. The names of authors, 
when known, and the titles of books, separates 
and periodicals are given without abbrevia- 
tions. When doubt might arise as to where 
a paper should be placed, it is given in full 
in the two or more places where it might go. 
At the end of every entry is given, incon- 
spicuously, the letter and number indication 
showing the exact location of the work in the 
library of the Gesellschaft. Under each sub- 
division the works are arranged in order of 
publication. An author index with abbrevi- 
ated title and page reference enhances greatly 
the usefulness of the work which will prove 
almost as useful to geographic workers in gen- 
eral as to the members of the Berlin Gesell- 
schaft fiir Erdkunde. 

J. M. ISflCKLES. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON". 

The 151st regular meeting of the Chemical 
Society of Washington was held on Thursday 



a 3 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



evening, May 12, 1904, in the assembly hall of 
the Cosmos Club. 

The first paper on the program, entitled 
' Heat of Dissociation Proportional to Atomic 
Weight,' was presented by Dr. E. A. HiU. 
The paper was a synopsis of the author's dis- 
sertation presented to the Columbian Univer- 
sity for the degree of doctor of philosophy. 
. The second paper on the program, entitled 
'The Colloid Theory of Plasticity,' was pre- 
sented by Allerton S. Cushman. The speaker 
reviewed briefly the evidence which has al- 
ready been published by himself and other in- 
vestigators, which tends to show that the two 
important useful qualities of clays, viz., plas- 
ticity and binding power, are caused by the 
presence of a certain proportion of colloid 
particles. To prove this, a large amount of 
evidence has been collected and artificial clay 
bodies have actually been synthetically pre- 
pared in the laboratory, possessing all the pe- 
culiar properties of natural clays. 

Experiments were made on the lecture table 
which showed that the addition of certain re- 
agents, such as tannic acid, alutm and am- 
monia, to a pure kaolin clay profoundly modi- 
fies the properties and the relation of the clay 
body to water. Such reagents have no action 
on inert crystalline particles, but they do upon 
colloids, producing various effects, such as 
coagulations, flocculations and deflocculations. 
Curiously enough, all these reagents, as was 
shown by a simple experiment, increase the 
binding power of clay, either by deflocculation 
of the colloids already present or by producing 
reactions involving the formation of new col- 
loids. Acheson has recently claimed and ob- 
tained a patent for increasing the binding 
power of clay by treatment with tannic acid. 
This process is called the Egyptianizing of 
clay on the, perhaps, somewhat fanciful theory 
that it was the tannic acids of the straw in- 
fusion rather than the fiber of the straw itself 
which gave strength to the low binding clays 
of ancient Egypt. Erom more recent work it 
is questionable whether small amounts of am- 
monia will not produce the desired effect even 
better than tannic acid at a much less expense, 
and in so simple a manner that its use can 
not be restricted by patents. 



Eor the last fifty years occasional investi- 
gators have been noticing that clays and soils 
have the power of absorbing certain ingredi- 
ents from solutions in which they are soaked, 
and further, that these absorptions are se- 
lective, certain substances being eagerly taken 
up and others rejected. If the clay is first 
heated to a certain point it no longer exhibits 
this power, showing that it is not due to ad- 
sorption on the particles. This again is a 
colloid property, and inorganic colloid precipi- 
tates made in the laboratory show the same 
peculiarity. Clays that have been treated 
with tannic acid and ammonia will absorb less 
water than the untreated clays and will, there- 
fore, require less water to bring them to a 
desired consistency. Thus the danger of 
shrinkage and cracking on drying out is less- 
ened. Attention was called to the importance 
of the study of these selective absorptions by 
clay bodies in the investigations of soil 
physics. 

The third paper on the program was en- 
titled 'Notes on the Methods of Detection of 
Sesame Oil,' and was presented by L. M. Tol- 
man. A number of imported olive oils were 
found by the author that gave a marked reac- 
tion with the Baudouin or Villerecchia re- 
agents. 

The substance in these oils giving this reac- 
tion can be removed by alcohol so that the 
purified oil gives no color with these reagents. 
If Sesame oil is present the reaction is not 
decreased by this method of purification. 

The fourth paper on the program, by Peter 
Fireman and E. G. Portner, on ' Some Ob- 
servations on the Dissociation of Chlorides by 
Means of a Qualitative Test,' was presented 
by Dr. Eireman. 

The last paper on the program for the even- 
ing was a ' Note on a Bibliography of Solu- 
bilities,' presented by A. Seidell. The author 
mentioned that the preparation of a bibliog- 
raphy of solutions had been begun about 
eighteen years ago by a committee appointed 
by the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. This committee reported 
eight years later (1894) that they had col- 
lected aU the references to work on solutions 
published prior to 18Y4 in the periodicals cata- 



July 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



17 



logued by the Royal Society. This collection 
has never been published, the manuscript be- 
ing still in possession of Professor W. W. J. 
Nicol, the secretary of the committee. For 
this reason the author undertook the prepara- 
tion of a bibliography of solubilities only for 
the years 1875 to 1903, inclusive, and for its 
compilation carefully examined the tables of 
contents or indices of twenty-six chemical 
journals and in addition gives references to 
papers contained in a great many other jour- 
nals. Short abstracts enumerating the chem- 
ical substances employed in the work are given 
for each reference and at the end an indexed 
list of all chemical compounds which have 
been employed in solubility investigations is 
given. 

At the conclusion of the formal program 
for the evening- Dr. Wm. H. Seaman, of the 
Patent Office, exhibited and explained a new 
form of spirometer (small gasometer) which 
may be used for testing the lung capacity, 
analyzing air, measuring gases, etc. 

A Correction. — At the request of Dr. Chas. 
Baskerville the following correctioif in the 
report of his lecture contained in the May 13 
issue of Science, page 758, is made. He did 
not call ' especial attention to the observation 
that all minerals which have the property of 
becoming phosphorescent under the action of 
radium rays contain the element helium,' hut 
that ' those minerals which are known to con- 
tain helium and are radio-active give off a gas 
or emanation when heated, which may be con- 
densed by liquid air and exliibits the same 
properties of causing Sidal's blende to phos- 
phoresce as do the emanations of radium com- 
pounds and thorium dioxide.' 

A. Seidell, 
Secretary. 

THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The 587th regular meeting was held on 
May 21, 1904, "Vice-president Day in the chair. 

A memorial address on the late Major J. 
W. Powell was read by Dr. W. H. Dall. A 
sketch of his life was given and some of his 
achievements; he was said to be far-seeing, 
much in advance of his time, as on Indian 
questions and irrigation; his predominant 



characteristics were courage, sympathy and 
insight. 

Professor E. A. Pace, of the Catholic Uni- 
versity, then spoke by invitation on ' The 
Rhythm in Visual Perception.' In the at- 
tempt to distinguish between physiological 
and (possible) physical phenomena the study 
of threshold phenomena may throw much 
light. So the fluctuations in the perception 
of a constant,^ just visible light have been 
studied. Various writers have attributed 
them to the afferent nerve, to the central 
organ, and to fatigue of the ciliary muscle. 
The speaker had disproved this last view in 
1891 by the use of atropine. Later observers 
found the periodicity stands in close relation 
to vaso-motor activity and respiration. The 
speaker's recent observations, still incomplete, 
on after-images show that the fluctuations are 
due to retinal fatigue. The paper was dis- 
cussed by the audience with reference to its 
bearings on observations on variable stars, 
and on the velocity of light by the Pizeau- 
Cornu method. 

Mr. J. P. Hayford, of the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, reported on ' A Test of the 
Transit Micrometer, as a Means of Elimin- 
ating Personal Equation.' In this instru- 
ment the observer attempts to keep the wire 
on the star, and the instants when the wire 
passes certain flxed positions are electrically 
recorded on the chronograph sheet. The prac- 
tical result is that in difi^erence-of-longitude 
work three nights' observations by the new 
method without change of observers are equal 
to ten nights with exchange by the old key 
method. 

After some discussion the society adjourned 
till October 15. 

Charles K. Wead, 

Secretary. 

THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
SECTION OF ASTRONOMY, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

The regular meeting of the section was 
held on May 2 at the American Museum of 
Natural History. The program consisted of 
four papers, abstracts of which are as follows : 
The Theory of a Double Suspension Pendu- 
lum: E. S. Woodward. 



18 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



Professor Woodward described a double sus- 
pension pendulum apparatus for determining 
the acceleration of gravity and gave a brief 
outline of the theory of the apparatus. The 
latter consists of two rectangular bars of brass 
about twenty kilograms mass each, connected 
by two steel tapes of equal length in such a 
way that when one bar is held rigidly hori- 
zontal the other bar will be suspended hori- 
zontally by the equal and parallel tapes. It 
was shown that when the suspended bar vi- 
brates longitudinally through small amplitudes 
its motion is very nearly the same as that of 
a simple pendulum whose length is equal to 
that of the tapes. It was shown also how 
small corrections due to the mass of the tapes 
and to their rigidity may be applied in order 
to get from the actual apparatus results in 
conformity with those of a simple pendulum. 
Measurements of the Primary Feathers of 

Recently Killed Hawks, and their Bearings 

upon the Problem of Bird Flight: C. C. 

Trowbridge. 

During the spring the author succeeded in 
obtaining a series of measurements of the 
primary feathers of the hawk's wings, imme- 
diately after the death of the birds, and 
secured additional proof of his theory that 
certain birds of prey habitually interlock their 
primary feathers in flight. 

It was found that when hawks are exam- 
ined immediately after they have been killed 
there usually appear deep depressions in the 
edge of the posterior webs of the emarginate 
primary feathers, where the feathers have 
been in contact, which are caused by the inter- 
locking of the primaries. 

The measurements consisted in determining 
the width of these depressions at short inter- 
vals of time immediately after the death of 
the hawks. It was found that the depressions 
gradually disappeared, both in cases where the 
feathers were found locked and were then un- 
locked, and in cases where the feathers were 
found unlocked. Data were thus obtained 
from which well-defined curves were con- 
structed, showing the recovery of the web of 
the feathers after the pressure caused by the 
interlocking feathers was relieved. A num- 
ber of life-size photographs were taken of the 



primary feathers immediately after the hawks 
were killed and the photographs of the depres- 
sions in the feathers when measured by a 
Eepsold measuring machine, gave curves 
which agreed very well with those obtained 
by direct measurement. Similar curves were 
obtained by artificially interlocking the pri- 
maries for several hours and then measuring 
the recovery of the web of the feathers with a 
micrometer microscope. It was found that arti- 
ficial locking of the feathers for ten minutes 
produced very slight or no depressions and 
locking them for several hours produced de- 
pressions only about one half as deep as those 
found when the hawks were killed. In the 
latter case they were from 2 to 3.5 millimeters 
deep, and required from one to five hours to 
be reduced to twenty per cent, of the original 
depth, the rate of change of the depth of 
depression being most rapid at first. 

It was concluded from the measurements 
and photographs that the jDrimary feathers 
found with the depressions in the web had 
been interlocked several hours or more pre- 
vious to the death of the hawks, which were 
killed while sailing in a strong wind, and that 
the theory of interlocking of the primaries of 
the wing in flight had been conclusively con- 
firmed. 
The Generation of Electrical Charges hy 

Radium: George B. Pegram. 

Dr. Pegram's paper related to the genera- 
tion of electrical charges by radium, with spe- 
cial reference to the suggestion of Soddy that 
when the a particles, carrying their positive 
charge, are expelled from the radium, there is 
no corresponding negative charge left behind in 
the mass. A few milligrams of radium bromide 
were enclosed in a thick lead capsule, which 
was supported on a quartz rod in an exhausted 
vessel. Gold leaves attached to this capsule 
gave no indication of a charge, showing either 
that there was the usual generation of equal 
amounts of positive and negative electricity 
when the a particles are thrown off, if, as. has 
been supposed, the number of a particles is 
much greater than the number of negatively 
charged particles, or else that the number of 
ft particles is about equal to the number of a 
particles. It remains to try a similar experi- 



JtrLY i, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



19 



ment with radium bromide which has been 
recently in solution, and, therefore, sends off 
few of the /J particles. 

Bending Moments in Rails^ for the Same 

Superstructure, under Different Types of 

Locomotives: P. H. Dudley. 

In previous communications to the academy, 
the author presented from stremmatograph 
tests, tabulations of the recorded unit fiber 
stresses in the base of rails, and their dis- 
tribution under moving locomotives and cars. 

The determination f:^om the unit fiber 
strains, of the negative and positive bending 
moments of the rails, due to the passing wheel 
effects, indicates that for a definite construc- 
tion of the superstructure of the permanent 
way, they are independent, partially, of the 
total load of the locomotive or car, but de- 
pendent upon the type of each, in construction 
of wheel base and wheel spacing, in loading 
the foundation. 

In a series of stremmatograph tests, on the 
New York Central and Hudson River Rail- 
road, near mile post No. 10, December 23 and 
30, 1899, locomotive No. 870, an eight-wheel 
type of engine, weight 220,000 pounds, draw- 
ing the ' Empire State Express ' of four cars, 
weight 430,000 pounds, at speeds of 42 and 
44 miles per hour, the average positive bend- 
ing moments for the engine were 12.40 inch- 
pounds, per pound of static load, for one rail, 
constrained by a negative bending moment of 
1.88 inch-pounds. 

The average positive bending moments for 
the entire locomotive were 11.48 inch-pounds, 
per pound of static load, constrained by a 
negative bending moment of 1.71 inch-pounds. 

On December 30 locomotive No. 2032, a 
ten-wheel type of engine, with closer wheel 
spacing, weighing 283,900 pounds, drawing 
the ' Southwestern Limited ' of ten cars weigh- 
ing 910,000 pounds, at a speed of 40 miles per 
hour, at the same place as the preceding tests, 
the positive bending moment for the engine 
was 10.80 inch-pounds per pound of static 
load, for one rail, constrained by a negative 
bending moment of 2.18 inch-pounds — a more 
favorable result than for the eight-wheel type. 

For the entire locomotive, the positive bend- 
ing moment — for normal tender wheels — was 



9.82 inch-pounds, for one rail, constrained by 
a negative bending moment of 1.90 inch- 
pounds, indicating a more favorable loading 
of the foundation. The bending moments of 
different types of locomotives on the same 
superstructure are a measure of the relative 
efficiency of the distribution of their loads to 
the foundation; while with the same type of 
engine the relative efficiency of the construc- 
tion of the superstructure of the permanent 
way can be measured. These are first bending 
moments measured in rails under moving loco- 
motives and cars. 

Dr. H. G. Pifford exhibited an electrometer 
specially designed for use in measuring radio- 
activity and showed the action of the instru- 
ment by lantern projection. 

C. 0. Trowbridge, 

Secretary. 



DISCV8SWW AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

APPENDICITIS AND THE RACE. 

In the possible effects upon the race of sur- 
gical intervention as a cure for disease we 
have a curious anomaly; nothing less in fact 
than the direct contradiction of the general 
proposition which is at the basis of the law 
of the survival of the fittest, viz., that what is 
good for the individual is good for the race. 
Some have questioned the validity of this 
so far as its application to certain phases 
of our social and institutional life is con- 
cerned, but I have yet to learn of any serious 
doubt having been cast upon it in its bearing 
upon the organic evolution of animal forms 
under natural conditions. Yet under the arti- 
ficial condition of the removal of diseased 
parts in order that the life of the individual 
may be prolonged we have precisely this. In 
order to give the discussion concreteness let us 
consider the possible racial effects of the now 
common operation for appendicitis. Since the 
old theory of foreign lodgments — grape stones 
and the like — in the appendix as the cause of 
the trouble has been proven false, at least in a 
vast majority of cases, we are forced to con- 
sider appendicitis a disease; an inflammation 
of a particularly serious nature, yet no more 
accidental in its origin than are similar con- 
gestions in other parts of the body. But 



20 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



scientists tell us that diseases of all sorts — 
at least the predisposition to them — are trans- 
missible; that they run in families, and that 
the probability is greater that the children of 
diseased parents will fall heir to the par- 
ticular maladies of the latter than that the 
children of unaffected parents will be troubled 
by them. It is true that in the case of appen- 
dicitis, recent acquisition as it is to the cata- 
logue of bodily ills, we have no exact data in 
support of the belief that it is transmissible, 
yet reasoning from analogy we have every right 
to believe that it is so. A hereditary predis- 
position to many other forms of inflammation 
similar in all respects except that of the part 
affected has been fully demonstrated and the 
inference is certainly a logical one that ap- 
pendicitis is no exception to the rule. 

But under the conditions of nature, such a 
transmission of disastrous predispositions is 
taken care of through the early death of the 
individual with the consequent impossibility 
of passing them to the descendants. If death 
comes before the period of maturity is reached 
the lack of offspring means the total annihila- 
tion so far as the race is concerned, of disas- 
trous consequence in that particular line of 
descent. If it comes early in maturity such 
annihilation is not absolute but only rela- 
tive, the danger to the race increasing with 
the length of life as measured by the number 
of children. In any event nature demands 
death without offspring on the part of the 
individuals possessing racially disastrous pre- 
dispositions. Yet that is what the prolonga- 
tion of life through surgical intervention con- 
troverts. All danger of death from the par- 
ticular diseased part, so far as the individual 
is concerned, is removed without lessening 
seemingly one whit its disastrous effects upon 
the race. A long life is assured so far as the 
particular disease is concerned and, all other 
things equal, a correspondingly large family 
with all the laws of heredity potent, so far as 
the probable transmission of the difficulty is 
concerned. To believe that the surgical re- 
moval of the diseased part does away with the 
probability of the transmittal of the disease 
would be to accept the theory of the transmis- 
sion of mutilations. This, few thinking 



persons, familiar with the field of scientific 
thought, are willing to do. Generations of 
artificially misshapen heads among certain 
savage tribes, of the mutilated feet of the 
Chinese women without racial effect, to say 
nothing of the lack of results of century upon 
century of circumcision, are all in opposition 
to it. And the corollary is that the good 
offices of the surgeon — whom, by the way, we 
shall probably continue to patronize in spite 
of any disaster we may see impending future 
generations — are the surest means of making 
permanent his calling. That this is true in the 
case of appendicitis is more easily seen than 
for other surgically prevented diseases, for we 
can not doubt that nature, left to herself, 
would in time eliminate the vermiform appen- 
dix altogether with the consequently disastrous 
results to the surgeon's income. We need not, 
however, impute to him any sordid motives 
when we say that he is taking the surest 
means of preventing such a catastrophe. 

Edwin G. Dexter. 
The University of Illinois. 

' the tree-dwellers.' 

To THE Editor of Science : Since the two 
articles which have appeared in recent num- 
bers of Science regarding ' The Tree-dwellers ' 
contain several statements not supported by 
facts, and since the criticisms made rest large- 
ly upon a hypothetical basis, it may not be out 
of place to call attention to the same through 
the columns of the paper in which the articles 
appeared. The articles referred to are a letter 
from Dr. E. C. Case, State Normal School, 
Milwaukee, Wis., published in Science, April 
1, and an article by Dr. Theo Gill, entitled 
" ' Horses ' not Horses," appearing May 6. 

At the outset I wish to acknowledge an 
indebtedness to Dr. Case, for it was his criti- 
cism which first called my attention to the 
possibility of making the startling interpreta- 
tion which he makes of the illustration on 
page 67, which he refers to as a Jurassic 
dinosaur chasing an Eocene horse, and the 
illustration on page 62 which he refers to as 
' a man in a tree watching a herd of the same 
horses ( ?) that were pursued by the Jurassic 
dinosaur ! ' Dr. Case continues, ' This makes 



JULT ], 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



21 



man contemporaneous with the dinosaur, al- 
though it is not so stated in the text.' 

The attempt to avoid many words un- 
familiar to children led to the use of the 
term ' horse ' on pages 66 and 67 where 
' mammal ' or ' ancestor of the horse ' would 
have been more exact. The lesson in question 
was intended merely to give some such general 
conception as Professor N. S. Shaler gives in 
his chapter on the horse in 'Domesticated 
Animals,' pages 58-9, where he states : " In 
the first stages of the Tertiary period, in the 
age when we began to trace the evolution of 
the suck-giving animals above the lowly grade 
in which the kangaroos and opossums belong, 
we find the ancestors of our mammalian series 
all characterized by rather weakly organized 
limbs fitted, as were those of their remote 
kindred, the marsupials, for tree-climbing, 
rather than for running over the surface of 
the ground. The fact is that all the creatures 
of the great clan acquired their properties of 
tody in arboreal life, and with such relatively 
small and light todies as were fitted for tree- 
clinibing." 

In so far as the illustration on page 67 con- 
veys the idea that the remote ancestors of the 
horse and other mammals once lived in prox- 
imity to dinosaurs and were preyed upon by 
these creatures, it is true to the facts. Its 
defects consist in the fact (1) that the form 
of the mammal in question resembles too 
closely that of the Eocene horse, and (2) the 
hind limbs of the dinosaur are not as long as 
the skeletons indicate. 

Although the dinosaur in question lived in 
the Jurassic period, as Dr. Case states, car- 
nivorous dinosaurs were abundant in the Cre- 
taceous and did not become extinct until the 
end of that period. When this fact is taken 
into account, and when it is remembered 
that the most eminent paleontologists still ex- 
pect to find in the Cretaceous rocks forms 
intermediate between the Jurassic mammals 
and the Eocene types, the reader can better 
appreciate the point of view of the author in 
presenting the lesson as it appears in the 
first edition. But the illustration is defective 
and it will not appear in the second edition. 
The two lessons on the wild horse, including 



the remote ancestors of the horse, have been re- 
vised, and although the ideas used are sub- 
stantially the same, it is hoped that they are 
expressed in a form which will not offend the 
genuine student of science. It must be re- 
membered, however, that the nature of the 
work precludes the use of technical terms. 

The horses represented in the illustration 
on page 62 are intended for Pleistocene horses 
and are briefly described at the foot of page 
70 and on page 71. It may be due to the 
stripes, which are hypothetical, and to his 
interpretation of the perspective of the picture, 
that have led Dr. Case to interpret the horses 
as Eocene forms. Although this picture is 
not incorrect, it will be replaced by one which 
can not be interpreted in such a way. 

Had Dr. Case read the text more carefully 
he might still be in doubt regarding the time 
relations of the dinosaur and the ancestors of 
the horse on account of my use of the term 
' horse ' on pages 66 and 67. But he surely 
could not have failed to see that man's rela- 
tion to these primitive forms is distinctly 
stated, even though technical terms are 
avoided. For instance, the first line of the 
text quoted by Dr. Case should make clear 
that the animal described in the following 
lines lived long before man appeared. Again, 
at the foot of page 70 and the top of page 71 
the form of the horse which was contempo- 
raneous with man of the mid-Pleistocene 
period is clearly stated. Had this not been 
sufficient. Dr. Case could have found two notes 
of warning against such an interpretation as 
he has made, on pages 146 and 154. 

The real evidence, then, upon which the 
criticisms of Dr. Case thus far considered rest, 
is this : The defects pointed out in the illus- 
tration on page 67, and the use of the term 
' horse ' in a sense wide enough to include the 
remote ancestors of the horse. The evidence 
which he has neglected is the text itself. 

In view of the well-established and readily 
available statements concerning the discoveries 
of Professor Cope in the United States, and 
Professor Boyd Dawkins in Europe, with 
reference to the hairy mammoth and the sabre- 
toothed Felis (Machairodus) , it is difficult to 
understand how Dr. Case could venture the 



22 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



criticism, ' This book is filled with just such 
mistakes throughout, notably a figure of a 
sabre-toothed tiger in fierce combat with a 
hairy mammoth.' Near the town of Hen- 
nessey, Oklahoma, Professor Cope obtained 
teeth and boiies of the mammoth associated 
with the bones of a sabre-toothed cat as large 
as a lion, as though ' death had overtaken it 
while feeding upon the carcass of the mam- 
moth ' (J. Acad, of Nat. Sci., Phil., IX., page 
453.) It is doubtless unnecessary to state that 
the illustration will stand as an accurate por- 
trayal of a combat which man of the mid- 
Pleistocene period undoubtedly witnessed many 
a time. 

Since Dr. Gill's criticisms appear to be based 
upon the statements made in Dr. Case's letter 
and not upon an examination of the book at 
first hand, they need little attention. There 
are a few statements, however, which the 
reader may be interested in comparing with 
statements of other eminent scientists. 

Dr. Gill states, ' But no ungulate in the line 
of the horse with five toes has been discovered.' 
Professor Cope writes (' Origin of the Fittest,' 
page 301) : " Phenacodus is antecedent to all 
the horse series, the elephant series, the hog, 
the rhinoceros and all other series of hoofed 
animals. It has five toes on all of the feet." 

Again Dr. Gill writes : ' Another pure as- 
sumption is that the primitive equoidean ani- 
mals lived especially in the marshes.' Pro- 
fessor Huxley in his American Addresses, re- 
fers to the Eocene horses as ' the short-legged, 
splay-footed plodders of the Eocene marshes.' 
Professor Cope writes (' Origin of the Fittest,' 
page 374) : " * * * the types with reduced 
digits are dwellers on dry land in both orders, 
and those that have more digits are inhabitants 
of swamps and mud. * * * Certain it is 
that the lengths of the bones of the feet of 
the ungulate orders have a direct relation to 
the dryness of the ground they inhabit, and 
the possibility of speed which their habitat 
permits them, or necessarily imposes on them." 
(See, also, Mr. Lucas's statement, McOlure's 
Maijazine, volume 15, page 517.) 

Still again Dr. Gill writes, ' But there is no 
need of confining such animals to the marshes.' 
Had Dr. Gill read the next few pages of the 



text he would have been spared the trouble of 
making the remark. 

Dr. Gill is certainly correct -in stating, 
' Every instructed zoologist would know that 
such a characteristic as five toes (or four) 
must necessarily be coordinate with innumer- 
able modifications of other parts,' but ,one 
can scarcely be expected to present all of 
' these innumerable modifications ' to the child 
of seven years. In presenting a brief account 
of the changes that took place in the feet and 
in reserving the changes in the structure of 
the teeth for a later period, I find support in 
the statement of Professor Cope (' Origin of 
the Fittest,' page 269), where he states, " The 
primary forms of mammalia repose in great 
measure on the structure of the feet. Those 
of the teeth are also significant, but present a 
greater number of variations among animals 
otherwise nearly related." 

While not a specialist in paleontology or in 
several of the sciences to which I find it neces- 
sary to go for materials, I have taken great 
pains to secure reliable data, and to consult 
with specialists concerning the same. Since 
Dr. Case's criticism was made. Dr. S. W. 
Williston, professor of paleontology of the 
University of Chicago, has kindly examined 
' The Tree-dwellers ' from the point of view 
of the paleontologist; and he has given me 
permission to state this fact in this letter and 
in the preface to the second edition of the 
book. In view of the 'fact that Dr. Case states 
that the book is filled with glaring errors, the 
reader may be interested in knowing that Pro- 
fessor Williston has authorized me to( state 
that aside from the changes made in the lesson 
on the wild horse referred to above, the 
changes he suggests are few and unimportant. 

It is too much to expect a series of books 
which represents such a radical departure 
from traditional text-books for children as this 
series does, to pass unchallenged. But this 
is not a matter to be regretted. That which 
causes one to review one's work, to weigh evi- 
dence more carefully, to eliminate errors, to 
reconstruct in the light of a higher truth, 
should be welcomed by all. A careful ex-- 
amination and criticism of the series is in- 
vited, with the assurance that the points which 



JvLi 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



23 



are brought to the attention of the author will 
receive due consideration. 

Katharine E. Dopp. 
ExTENSiOisr Division, 
The University of Chicago. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 

MONT PELE FROM OCTOBER 20, 1903, TO MAY 
•20, 1904. 

The publication in the daily papers of the 
statement that Mt. Pele had celebrated the 
second anniversary of the destruction of St. 
Pierre by a heavy eruption, has renewed popu- 
lar interest in the volcano. A few days before 
the appearance of this item, the author re- 
ceived, from a correspondent in Dominica, 
information that Mt. Pele had been in serious 
eruption on May 8 and had blown out the 
new central cone. Inquiry at the office of the 
American Trading Co. in this city elicited 
the statement that letters from their repre- 
sentative in Martinique, under date of May 
11, made no mention of the volcano, which 
would hardly have been the case had there 
been a great eruption. 

To-day copies of the Journal Ofpciel de la 
Martinique for May 10 to 20 have come to 
hand and the following quotation (transla- 
tion) of the ' Bulletins concernant le volcan ' 
will be of interest: 

May If to 6, 1904. — ^Mountain almost constantly 
covered. Discharge of vapor moderate. A few 
rather heavy rumblings from time to time. Some 
shattering was produced at the top of the dome. 
The height has slightly diminished. 

May 6 to S, 190^. — Mountain constantly cov- 
ered. Discharge of vapors very feeble Saturday 
morning, becoming rather abundant Saturday 
evening and Sundaj' (8th). Several discharges 
(flows) accompanied by rather heavy rumbling. 

May S to 9, X90/f. — ^Mountain remained con- 
stantly covered. Discharge of vapor rather 
abundant. 

May 9 to 10, 190Jf. — The mountain which was 
covered in the morning, became clear after five 
O'clock in the afternoon. jModerate discharge 
of white vapors. Several rumblings. The sum- 
mit of the dome has risen about five meters since 
April 26. 

May 11 to 12, 190.i. — Mountain covered during 
the day and free from clouds at night. Moderate 
discharge of white vapors. Frequent rumblings. 



Yesterday evening from 5:30 to 6 o'clock out- 
bursts of rather thick red clouds to slight ele- 
vations succeeded one another almost without 
interruption from the southeast side. At 7:45 a 
rather bright luminous point appeared near the 
middle of the dome. 

May 12 to 13, 1904. — Mountain clear in the 
afterpoon. Rather abundant discharge of white 
vapors mixed with red vapors. Several rum- 
blings, one of which was very heavy, yesterday at 
10:25 P.M. 

May 13 to 15, 1901f. — Mountain almost con- 
stantly covered Saturday and uncovered yester- 
day. Several low outbursts of red cloud. Many 
rumblings. Moderate discharge of vapors. Yes- 
terday morning at 9:50 a dust-flow of slight ex- 
tent descended slowly as far as the base of the 
talus of debris. 

May 17 to 18, 1904- — ^Mountain almost con- 
stantly covered. Some flows and rumblings Mon- 
day. Nothing noteworthy yesterday. 

May IS to 19, 1904. — ^Mountain constantly cov- 
ered. Nothing to note. 

(Signed) Pebnet. 

Since October 19, 1903,* the history of 
Mont Pele has not been characterized by any 
very startling events. The dome which has 
formed the summit of the mountain since the 
famous spine or obelisk was destroyed in Au- 
gust, 1903, has suffered many minor changes 
in altitude and form which have altered its 
appearance entirely from what it was at the 
beginning'. 

The history of the dome, as gathered from 
the Journal Officiel, is as follows : 

Octoher 21, 1903. — Loss of 5 m. 

October 22. — Loss of 3 m. 

October 25. — Slight modifications. 

October 26. — Additional modifications. 

October 29. — The dome has suffered certain 
changes; its height has been stationary for sev- 
eral days. 

November 3. — The dome has suffered certain 
modifications of form without change in altitude. 

November 5. — A considerable portion of the 
dome was blown off at 11:34 a.m. 

November S. — The dome rose 4 m. between the 
6th and 8th. 

November 10. — The dome seems to be destined 
to rapid disappearance on account of successive 
outbursts on the southwestern side. 

* See Hovey, ' Mont Pel6 from May to October, 
1903,' Sciexce, N. S., Volume XVIIL, p. 633, 
November 13, 1903. 



24 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



Tifovemher 11. — A needle, 15 m. in height, which 
existed on the western part of the summit of the 
dome, has disappeared. 

Novemher 15. — The dome has suffered rather ex- 
tensive changes. 

November 16. — The summit of the dome has 
undergone additional modifications. 

'Novemher 22. — At 8:30 a.m. an outburst de- 
stroyed a noteworthy portion of the dome. 

'November 21. — Loss of 3 m. in altitude. 

'November 29. — Additional modifications of the 
dome reported. 

December 2. — The dome has suffered important 
changes and has lost through outbursts 10 m. of 
altitude. 

December 10. — A large mass was blown off 
from the eastern side of the dome. 

December 11. — Loss of 8 m. in altitude. 

December 13. — Additional changes on the east- 
ern side. 

December 11. — Certain changes of form. 

December 21. — Slight modifications noted. 

December 31. — Loss of 3 m. since the 26th. 

January S, 1904- — Tlie dome has undergone 
many changes. The remains of the ancient spine rise 
rather rapidly while the other parts of the dome, 
which seem stationary, are reduced by almost 
continual avalanches. 

January 1. — A part of the dome has risen 3 m. 
since the 2d. 

January 8. — Else of 3 m. 

January 12. — Slight modifications without 
change of altitude. 

February 3. — Slight modifications. 

February 25. — ^Modifications of form without 
change of altitude. 

February 28. — A large mass fell. 

March 6. — ^Loss of 3 m. in altitude since Jan- 
uary 25. The southern portion of the dome is re- 
ported partly destroyed. 

March 13. — The altitude of the dome is re- 
ported stationary. 

March 11. — Sensible modifications noted. 

March 21. — Gain of 3 m. since the 18th. 

March 29. — Some modifications of form with- 
out change of altitude. 

April 3. — Rise ef 3 m. since March 27. 

April 15. — The summit of the dome has risen 
about 5 m. since April 3. 

April 20. — ^Rise of 3 m. noted. 

April 25. — The summit of the dome has risen 
about 5 m. since April 20. 

May 6. — Slight loss of altitude. 

May 10. — Rise of 5 m. since April 25. 

May 20. — Gain of about 5 m. since May 10. 



Summarizing the foregoing notes, there was 
a continual loss of altitude of the dome from 
October 19 to December 31 inclusive, with the 
exception of three days in November when 
the dome rose 4 m. The net loss of altitude 
in this period appears to have been about 28 
m. The daily bulletins are unsatisfactory in 
that ' modifications ' are noted from time to 
time without any statement as to their char- 
acter. 

On January 3, Professor Giraud reports the 
important fact that the remains of the great 
obelisk which towered above the volcano in 
the early part of 1903, were again rising with 
reference to the remainder of the new cone. 
The daily reports from that time on say 
nothing further, however, with regard to the 
spine. A period of elevation set in with the 
beginning of January, 1904, with a rise of 6 
m. during the first eight days of the year. 
Then for eleven weeks, the altitude remained 
stationary, except for a loss of 3 m. during 
the first week in March. "With the 27th of 
March, the rise seems to have become nearly 
continuous and amounted to 29 m. in eight 
weeks (to May 20), giving a net gain of 32 m. 
since January first. 

Whether this applies to the summit of the 
new spine which was reported rising early in 
January or not, the losses which took place in 
the altitude of the mountain during the last 
months of 1903 were regained during the first 
five months of the present year. 

The activity of the volcano, which was so 
great during September, 1903, as to seem to 
threaten a first-class eruption, gradually di- 
minished during the last quarter of the year, 
and there have been apparently few note- 
worthy outbursts to chronicle during the past 
four or five months. Few days, however, 
pass without clouds of steam rising from the 
crater, accompanied from time to time by 
dust-flows down the gorge to the Eiviere 
Blanche to the southwest or across the basin 
of the Lac des Palmistes to the east. 

Edmund Otis Hovey. 
Ameeican Museum of Natural Histokt, 
New York, June 11, 1904. 



Jui-Y 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



25 



THE OCCURRENCE OF TAUEIN IN INVERTEBRATE 
MUSCLE. 

A RECENTLY published paper by Agnes 
Kelly* on the occurrence of taurin iri Pecten 
opercularis and Mytilus edulis, leads me to 
announce a similar observation on the occur- 
rence of taurin among the muscle-extractives 
of Sycotypus canaliculatus and Fulgur carica, 
the zinc-bearing gastropods of Long Island 

Sound.f 

Taurin has been described as a constituent 
of invertebrate muscle since 1845, when 
Karsten isolated a crystalline body from the 
watery extracts of certain molluscs, and iden- 
tified it with the taurin separated from bile. 
Since that time the list has been largely ex- 
tended by Krukenberg and others, until it 
includes the following molluscs: Doriopsis, 
Turbo, Cassidaria, Mytilus, Ostrcea, Pinna, 
Area, Spondylus, Pectunculus, Pecten, Murex, 
Octopus, Loligo and Sepia. 

In a physiological-chemical study of vari- 
ous molluscs, which has been in progress in 
this laboratory for some time, under the di- 
rection of Dr. Mendel, taurin was separated 
in its characteristic crystal form, which, to- 
gether with its sulphur content and chemical 
reactions, left no doubt in regard to its iden- 
tity. This was further established by an 
analysis, which gave the following results: 

N. S. 

Calculated for NH..CHj.CH,.S03H.11.22% 25.62% 
Found 11.37 % 25.89 % 

Taurin has also been obtained from the 
muscles of Haliotis, the ' abalone ' of the 
Pacific coast, by Professors L. B. Mendel and 
M. E. Jaffa, and likewise identified by an- 
alysis. 

The finding of taurin — amido-ethyl-sul- 
phonic acid — among the products of muscle 
katabolism in invertebrates is of particular 
physiological interest in view of the close re- 
lationship which has recently been shown to 
exist between taurin, cystin and the proteids.:): 

* Agnes Kelly, ' Hofmeister's Beitrage zur 
chemischen Physiologie,' V., p. 377, 1904. 

t Cf. Science, Vol. XIX., No. 474, January 29, 
1904. 

t Friedmann, ' Ergebnisse der Physiologie,' 
1902-3, I., 1, and 11., 1. 



The apparent association of taurin and 
glycocoll — amido-acetic acid — in molluscs, re- 
calls the related occurrence of derivatives of 
these compounds in higher organisms. 

Harold C. Bradley. 
Laboratory of Physiologicai Chemistry, 
Sheffield Scientific School of Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. 

THE PTERIDOSPERMAPHYTA. 

Such is the name that I would propose to 
give to those plants, long extinct though they 
may all be, having the general character of 
Pteridophyta, but bearing seeds as in the 
Spermatophyta.* Such forms are now 
rapidly coming to light and are too well 
known to botanists to require enumeration. 
The name Cycadofilices which has been ap- 
plied to them seems objectionable in several 
respects. While most of them do partake of 
the nature of both cycads and ferns, it is not 
certain that all do so, and additional ones may 
not entirely justify this designation. It is 
probable that they may, if some already known 
do not now, show affinities with the Finales 
as well as with the Cycadales, and it is not at 
all improbable either that calamarian foi-ms 
will be found with true seed vessels. A name 
is needed that shall express the broader fact 
that the ancient Pteridophytes occasionally 
developed so far in their reproductive system 
that they take on the characters of Sperma- 
tophytes. The term Pteridospermaphyta ex- 
presses this truth. It is somewhat long, but 
not longer than a number of the terms used in 
current systems of classification for which 
there are far less cogent reasons. It has the 
further advantage of denoting the true order 
or direction of development, and not the in- 
verted order denoted by the term Cycadofilices. 

The Pteridospermaphyta constitute a phy- 
lum coordinate with the Pteridophyta and 
Spermatophyta. They mark the progress of 
plant development from the standpoint of the 
reproductive organs. It is true that they 
bridge over a great chasm hitherto supposed 
to be impassable, but this is what we ought to 
expect as the knowledge of nature increases. 

* This term is shortened by some writers to 
Spermaphyta. 



26 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



Just as the discovery of the exogenous struc- 
ture in many Carboniferous Pteridophytes 
(Galamites, Stigmaria, Sigillaria, even Lepi- 
dodendron) overthrew the old Lindleyan classi- 
fication into endogens and exogens, which was 
supposed to be fundamental, so the discovery 
of the Pteridospermaphyta causes the later 
classification into spore-bearing and seed-bear- 
ing plants, which was confidently believed to 
constitute a durable substitute, to break down, 
and we are in the presence of the important 
truth that in both their internal structure and 
their floral structure the early types of vege- 
tation advanced during Paleozoic time to a 
position not essentially different from that of 
the more developed types of the present day. 

Lester F. Ward. 



INFLUENCE OF BORIC ACID AND BORAX 
ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH. 

Bulletin No. 84 of the Bureau of Chemis- 
try, now in press, is the first of a series of 
monographs from that bureau embodying in- 
vestigations made in accordance with the 
following authority contained in the act of 
Congress making appropriations for the De- 
partment of Agriculture, to wit : " To enable 
the Secretary of Agriculture to investigate 
the character of food preservatives, coloring 
matters, and other substances added to foods, 
to determine their relation to digestion and 
health, and to establish the principles which 
should guide their use." 

These investigations were commenced in the 
autumn of 1902 under the direction of Dr. H. 
W. Wiley. Previous to their beginning a 
careful study of similar work done in this and 
other countries was undertaken and some of 
the laboratories where this work had been car- 
ried on, notably the laboratory of the Imperial 
Board of Health of Germany, at Charlotten- 
burg, were visited and the method of experi- 
ments investigated. The plan finally decided 
upon was to secure the voluntary services of a 
number of young men who would undertake 
to try the effect of the added substances upon 
their digestion and health, to make the neces- 
sary observations, and to submit themselves to 
the rigid analytical control which such a series 
of investigations required. 



The number finally selected for experiment ■ 
was 12, as this was found to be about the max- 
imum number which could be cared for with 
the analytical and culinary facilities afforded 
by the Bureau of Chemistry. A kitchen and a 
dining room were fitted up in the basement of 
the bureau and in December, 1902, the actual 
experimental work began and it continued, in 
the case of boric acid and borax, until July 1, 
1903. The work was so divided that no one 
of the young men under observation was re- 
quired to submit himself to the rigid control 
necessary to the conduct of the work more 
than one half of the time. The men selected 
were taken partly from the force of the Bu- 
reau of Chemistry and the rest from other 
Divisions and Bureaus of the Department of 
Agriculture. Each one was required to sub- 
scribe to a pledge to obey all the rules and 
regulations prescribed, and to abstain from all 
food and drink during the period of observa- 
tion save that which was given him iii the 
course of the experiment. Careful medical 
inspection of each of the members of the 
experimental class was secured, both directly 
and by collaboration with the Public Health 
and Marine Hospital Service. The details of 
the work, both analytical and medical, are 
found in full in the bulletin above mentioned 
which is now in press. Some of the conclu- 
sions are as follows: 

When boric acid or borax equivalent thereto, 
in small quantities not exceeding a half gram 
per day, is given in the food no notable effects 
are immediately produced. If, however, these 
small doses be continued for a long while, as 
for instance in one ease 50 days, there are 
occasional periods of loss of appetite, bad feel- 
ing, fulness in the head, and distress in the 
stomach. These symptoms, however, are not 
developed in every person within the time cov- 
ered by the experiment, for some are far more 
sensitive to the action of these bodies in small 
quantities than others. 

When boric acid, or borax in equivalent 
quantities, is given in larger and increasing 
doses there is a tendency to the somewhat 
rapid development in a more accentuated form 
of the symptoms above described. The most 
common symptom developed is a persistent 



JuiT 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



27 



headache, a sense of fulness in the head, with 
a clouding to a slight extent of the mental 
processes. When the doses are increased to 
-3 grams a day these symptoms are established 
in a majority of the cases but not in every 
case. They are also sometimes attended by a 
very distinct feeling of nausea and occasion- 
ally by vomiting, though the latter act is 
rarely established. There is a general feeling 
of discomfort, however, in almost every case, 
but the quantities required to establish these 
symptoms vary greatly with different indi- 
viduals. In some cases very large quantities 
may be taken without the establishment of 
marked symptoms, while in other cases from 
1 to 2 grams per day serve to produce in a 
short time feeling-s of discomfort and distress. 
No conclusions were reached in regard to 
smaller quantities than half a gram per day 
of the preservative, and, therefore, any state- 
ments in regard to the administration of 
smaller quantities must be based largely upon 
the results obtained with the quantities ac- 
tually employed. It is reasonable to infer that 
bodies of this kind not natural to nor neces- 
sary in foods which exert a marked injurious 
effect, when used in large quantities for short 
periods of time, would have a tendency to 
produce an injurious effect when used in small 
quantities for a long time. The general course 
of reasoning, therefore, would seem to indicate 
that it is not advisable to use borax in those 
articles of food intended for common and 
continuous use. When placed in food products 
which are used occasionally and in small quan- 
tities it seems only right, in view of the above 
summary of facts, to require that the quantity 
and character of the preservative, that is, 
whether borax or boric acid, be plainly marked 
so that the consumer may understand the 
nature of the food he is eating. 



LABORATORIES FOR BOTANICAL 
RESEARCH.* 
The publicity given to the opening cere- 
monials of the' new science laboratories at 
Cambridge by the king and queen on March 1 
will, it may be hoped, do something to rouse 
those who are responsible for the welfare of the 
* From Nature. 



nation to a wider sense of their duties. The 
time has surely passed when the remarks of a 
well-known prelate and of a prime minister, 
to the effect that they were born in a pre-scien- 
tific era, could be received, if not with overt 
applause, at least with sneaking sympathy. 

Sluggish as we are, some progress has been 
made. Up to the middle of the last century, 
and for some time after, there was scarcely a 
botanical laboratory properly so called in the 
whole country. Now we have the Jodrell 
Laboratory at Kew, a very modest institution 
when compared with the necessities of the case 
or to the excellent equipment of other depart- 
ments of this great national establishment. 
The Jodrell Laboratory is not intended for in- 
structional purposes, but chiefly for study and 
research, and much good work has been done 
there. 

At Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dublin, 
at University College, London, the Royal Col- 
lege of Science, and in many other univer- 
sities, agricultural colleges and technical insti- 
tutes, there are now more or less well-equipped 
laboratories under competent direction. But 
these are mainly for the instruction of students. 
Eeseareh laboratories are still rare, and those 
willing and competent to utilize them are also 
few in number. This condition of affairs is 
largely due to the indifference and lack of en- 
couragement on the part of those who ought to 
know better. The cui bono question is ever in 
their minds, and much too frequently on their 
lips. Abstract science does not appeal to their 
sympathies, or to their intelligence, unless 
some immediate practical result at once comes 
into view. When that happens the commercial 
instinct may perchance be aroused, and they 
begin to ask, will it pay ? Of course, no reader 
of this journal is likely to undervalue abstract 
science, and most of them are well aware of 
the enormous value of the practical results 
that may and do result from it. But even 
s\ich persons must have been startled to find 
how the observations of Bower and others on 
the minute anatomy of the prothallus and 
spore-producing tissues of ferns, observations 
which might have been thought to be too ab- 
struse and recondite to be of any practical 
value whatever, have directly led up to the 



28 



SCIENCE. 



LN. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



extremely important researches of Farmer and 
his associates into the essential nature of 
cancer ! 

Satisfactory as this undoubtedly is, we have 
only to look across the channel to see how 
puny — numerically and financially speaking — • 
are our efforts to promote original research. 
Our cousins across the Atlantic, a practical 
people if ever there was one, are even more 
energetic. Does a ' freeze ' destroy or seriously 
injure the oranges of Florida, what matter? 
In a very short time a man of science and a 
man of resource is on the spot. He looks for 
and finds a hardy stock whereon to graft the 
tender scion, he puts the resources of hybridi- 
zation to the test in the endeavor to procure 
hardy seedlings. All this is done at once by 
state or government agency. Here, if any- 
thing were tried in a parallel case, it would be 
with great deliberation and with little or no 
encouragement or support. 

Those farailiar with what is done to promote 
research in the universities and colleges of the 
United States, as at New York, Chicago, 
Philadelphia and in California, not to men- 
tion the older foundations of Harvard and 
Yale, must feel almost aghast at the progress 
that is being made, and at our own backward- 
ness. In the Gardeners' Chronicle for January 
30 is an article contributed by a well-known 
professor familiar with what is being done 
here as well as there. In that article he gives 
details as to the astonishing activity mani- 
fested in the American universities, mainly 
by the aid of funds provided by private indi- 
viduals. We too have reason to know and ap- 
preciate what is done by the government agri- 
cultural department, and by the very numerous 
experimental stations scattered all over the 
wide territories of the United States. 

As we write, there comes to us a report of 
the establishment, under the auspices of the 
Carnegie Institution, of a ' desert botanical 
laboratory, the purpose of such establishment 
being to study thoroughly the relation of 
plants to an arid climate and to substrata of 
unusual composition.' A laboratory has ac- 
cordingly been erected near Tucson, in 
Arizona, under the management of Dr. W. A. 
Cannon, of the New York Botanical Garden, 



who has been appointed resident investigator 
in charge of the laboratory. What may be 
described as a sort of preliminary report has 
been drawn up by Mr. Coville and Dr. Mac- 
Dougal, and a very interesting and copiously 
illustrated report it is. 

As some of our readers may care to see this 
publication, we may add that it is issued by 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
U. S. A. (publication No. 6). 

Vast as is their territory, and numerous as 
are their experimental stations and like insti- 
tutions, our cousins are not yet satisfied. They 
have invaded British territory, in a most 
genial and friendly manner it is true, but still 
they have annexed, with our consent, a portion 
of the island of Jamaica, and there they have 
established, at ' Cinchona,' a botanical labora- 
tory and research station open to the students 
of all countries. The direction is in the hands 
of Dr. Britton, of the New York Botanical 
Garden, in cooperation with Mr. Fawcett, the 
director of public gardens and plantations in 
the island. The policy of the ' open door ' 
pursued by the Americans in these matters 
prevents us from doing anything but acquiesce 
in their proceedings. But why what should 
have been a plain duty for us should have been 
allowed to be undertaken by others is a 
mystery. 

We do not question the utility of ironclads 
and cruisers as protectors of our commerce, 
but it is obvious to those who are watching the 
proceedings of our neighbors and of our rivals 
that if we do not largely extend our scientific 
training and induce our wealthy citizens to 
follow the example of their American brethren 
in endowing science, the necessity for protec- 
tion will vanish, and that not slowly. 



INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE OF SCIEN- 
TIFIC LITERATURE. 

The International Council met on Monday, 
May 23, and Tuesday, May 24, 1904, at the 
Rooms of the Royal Society of London, and 
transacted business as follows : 

On the motion of Dr. Uhlworm, Professor 
H. E. Armstrong was elected chairman of 
the meeting and Dr. H. Forster Morley secre- 
taiy. 



Jui.y 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



29 



On the motion of Dr. Blanford, it was re- 
solved : That the report submitted by the exec- 
utive committee be received and adopted for 
presentation to the Eegional Bureaus. 

The council authorized the distribution of 
the balance sheet to the several regional 
bureaus for publication in some recognized 
periodical in each of the constituent regions, 
in accordance with the regulation laid down 
at the Third International Conference. 

On the motion of the chairman, it was re- 
solved: That, in view of the success already- 
achieved by the International Catalogue of 
Scientific Literature, and of its great impor- 
tance to scientific workers, it is imperative 
to continue the publication of the catalogue 
beyond the first five annual issues. That this 
Kesolution be communicated to the Regional 
Bureaus, requesting them to bring it under 
the notice of the contracting bodies and to 
obtain the necessary guarantees for the con- 
tinuance of the work. 

It was resolved: That the executive com- 
mittee be authorized, in consultation with the 
Eegional Bureaus, to spend a sum not exceed- 
ing £100 in making the catalogue known. 

On the motion of the chairman it was re- 
solved: That a representative of Kiissia be 
added to the executive committee, and that 
steps be taken to invite countries not yet rep- 
resented on the Catalogue (Spain, Balkan 
States and South American Republics, etc.) 
to establish Eegional Bureaus. 

It was resolved: That the council accede to 
an application of the University of Ottawa, 
Canada, for the replacement of volumes of the 
catalogue lost in a conflagration which de- 
stroyed the whole of the university buildings 
including the library. 

A motion by Professor Korteweg to place 
copies of the catalogue at a reduced price at 
the disposal of the regional bureaus for the use 
of the experts was discussed and withdrawn, 
the feeling being that, although desirable, the 
financial position of the catalogue did not yet 
admit of such a step being taken. 

The proposal to extend the scope of the 
catalogue by the publication of additional 
series of vokimes dealing with such subjects 
as (a) Medicine and Surgery, (h) Agriculture, 
Horticulture and Forestry, (c) Technology 



(various branches), was discussed, and the 
opinion expressed that it was desirable that 
the executive committee should take the mat- 
ter into further consideration, in order that 
it may be brought under the notice of the 
International Convention in July, 1905. 

It was resolved : That all alterations pro- 
posed in the schedules shall be collected and 
edited by the central bureau; that the 
amended schedules, together with the proposals 
of the bureaus, shall be submitted to the 
regional bureaus for their opinion; and that 
the final editing of the schemes to be submitted 
for the approval of the International Conven- 
tion be entrusted to a committee of five per- 
sons, to be nominated by the executive com- 
mittee. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

The University of Michigan has conferred 
its doctorate of laws on Dr. F. H. Gerrish, 
professor of anatomy in Bowdoin Medical 
College. 

The degree of doctor of science has been 
conferred by Lafayette College on Francis P. 
Venable, president of the University of North 
Carolina and formerly professor of chemistry. 

The Western University of Pennsylvania, 
at its commencement held on June 16, con- 
ferred the degree of Sc.D. on Mr. Frank Hurl- 
but Chittenden, assistant entomologist of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

The University of Dublin has conferred the 
doctorate of science as follows : J. Dewar, 
Jacksonian professor of experimental philos- 
ophy, Cambridge, and Fullerian professor of 
chemistry at the Eoyal Institution; Professor 
J. H. van't Hoff, Berlin; Professor F. Klein, 
Gottingen; Major E. Eoss, C.B., F.E.G.S., 
professor of tropical medicine, Liverpool; J. J. 
H. Teall, F.E.S., director of the Geological 
Survey of the United Kingdom; W. H. 
Thompson, King's professor of the institutes 
of medicine. 

Dr. J. T. EoTHEOCK has, owing to ill health, 
resigned the position of forestry commissioner 
of the state of Pennsylvania. Mr. E. S. 
Conklin, present deputy commissioner, has 
been appointed his successor. 



30 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol.. XX. No. 490. 



Professor V. M. Spalding, of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, has received a grant from 
the Carnegie Institution for the continuance 
of an investigation at the Desert Laboratory 
of the absorption and transpiration of water 
by the creosote bush and other desert shrubs. 
He will be located at Tucson, Arizona, during 
the winter of 1904-5. 

The oiEce of Vegetable, Physiological and 
Pathological Investigations of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry has arranged with Professor 
L. li. Jones, of the University of Vermont, to 
do some special work on the diseases of the 
potato. Professor Jones has been instructed 
to obtain all available information in regard 
to European varieties, and to obtain seed 
tubers of valuable sorts, especially disease- 
resistant strains, for testing in various sec- 
tions of the United States. He has been ap- 
pointed a temporary special agent of the 
Bureau of Plant Industry of the Department 
of Agriculture for this purpose and is now in 
Europe engaged in the work. 

Mr. Thomas Manns, of the North Dakota 
Agricultural College, has resigned his position 
as instructor in botany and has accepted a 
position with the War Department in the 
Philippines. During the past two years Mr. 
Mann has been conducting investigations 
upon soil fungi as affecting the character of 
the crops upon the rotation plots of the Ex- 
periment Station. The results of this work 
are very promising and the board of trustees 
have instructed Professor H. L. Bolley of the 
department of botany to find a young man to 
continue the work. 

Dr. J. W. LowBER, F.R.A.S., of Austin, 
Texas, has been elected a member of the 
Belgian Astronomical Society, Brussels. 

Professor Henry Landes, head of the de- 
partment of geology in the Washington State 
University, who has been absent studying at 
the University of Chicago during the year, 
will resume his work in Seattle next Sep- 
tember. 

Professor Alexander L. Nelson has cele- 
brated the fiftieth anniversary of his professor- 
ship of mathematics at Washington and Lee 
University. 



At the alumni dinner of the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa, the former students of Professor 
Samuel Calvin, to the number of over two 
thousand, united in the commemoration of the 
completion of his thirtieth year in a professor- 
ship at that institution. The recognition took 
the form of a costly silver loving-cup, designed 
especially for the purpose of symbolizing the 
scientific achievements of the recipient. The 
cup is a classic Greek vase sixteen inches in 
height, and stands on a base of serpentine five 
inches high. It is adorned with casts taken 
directly from fossils, with a drainage-map of 
Iowa, with crossed geological hammers, a 
microscope, and the more conventional spray 
of laurel, owl of wisdom and torch of learning, 
— all in relief. One side bears an appropriate 
inscription in raised letters. Professor Calvin 
was elected to the chair of natural history in. 
Iowa's university thirty years ago. The chair 
has since been subdivided into four distinct 
departments. Professor Calvin retaining the 
department of geology. He has been state 
geologist of Iowa during the last twelve years. 

The Warren Triennial Prize of the value of 
$500, in the gift of the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, has been awarded to Dr. Max Borst, 
extraordinary professor of pathological anat- 
omy in the University of Wiirzburg, for a dis- 
sertation entitled ' Neue Experimente zur 
Frage der Eegenerationsf ahigkeit des Gehirns.' 

Dr. N. S. Davis, of Chicago, died on June 
16, aged eighty-seven years. Dr. Davis was a 
voluminous writer on medical subjects and 
took an important part in the organization of 
the medical profession. He was, in 1845, 
chairman of a committee whose report led 
to the establishment of the American Medical 
Association, and he was the first editor of its 
journal. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie has given £1,200 to 
the Royal Institution, to enable Professor 
Dewar and Mr. E. A. Hadfield to prosecute 
their investigation on the physical properties 
of steel and other alloys at low temperatures ; 
Dr. Frank McClean has given £100 to the re- 
search fund of the institution. 

It is said that Colonel Gorgas, chief sani- 
tary officer of the Isthmian Canal, estimates 



July 1, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



31 



that three hundred special physicians will be 
required during the progress of the war. These 
physicians will be in addition to surgeons of 
the army and navy, and will be selected from 
those who have recently graduated and com- 
pleted hospital service. 

There is wanted an economic geologist and 
paleontologist in the Mining Bureau at 
Manila, P. I., the salary of the position being 
$2,000. Applicants must satisfy the U. S. 
Civil Service Board, but should write directly 
to the Chief of the Mining Bureau, Manila, 
P. I. 

We learn from Nature that a meeting of 
members of the council of the South African 
Association for the Advancement of Science 
was held at Johannesburg, on May 19, Mr. T. 
Eeunert presiding. The chairman reported 
that he had been in communication with the 
German, French, Austrian and Italian con- 
suls, and was hopeful of the cooperation of 
these gentlemen in connection with the visit 
of continental delegates to South Africa with 
the British Association next year. Dr. Pakes, 
referring to the impending departure of Mr. 
Eeunert for England, mentioned that he would 
represent the South African Association at the ■ 
forthcoming Cambridge meeting of the British 
Association. 

The Institution of Civil Engineers gave a 
conversazione on June 15 at the institution 
premises. The guests, who numbered about 
1,200, were received by Sir William H. White, 
the president, and Lady White and the mem- 
bers of the council. 

The Discovery and the Morning have sailed 
from Lyttleton, New Zealand, for Plymouth. 
The British Medical Joural states that a 
number of French medical men who take an 
interest in English medicine and surgery pro- 
pose to visit London next October in order 
to see something of the hospitals and labora- 
tories. An influential committee has been 
formed in Paris, and a small organizing com- 
mittee, of which Dr. Triboulet is president. 
Among the senior members of the Paris fac- 
ulty who have expressed their intention of 
joining the party are Professors Bouchard, 
Lucas-Championniere, Chauffard, Landouzy, 
Lermoyez, Marie and Sebileau. 



A letter from Dr. C. Nordmann to the 
Revue generale des Sciences, abstracted in 
Nature, describes a newastrophysical observa- 
tory which has just been built near to Tor- 
tosa, in Spain, in latitude 40° 48' N. and lon- 
gitude 1° 47' E. of Paris. The general idea of 
the work to be prosecuted is to obtain infor- 
mation regarding the relations between solar 
and terrestrial phenomena. Two magnetic 
houses have been equipped, the one for abso- 
lute measures of terrestrial magnetism, the 
other for obtaining records of the regular vari- 
ations in the elements and of the extraordi- 
nary disturbances which appear to coincide, in 
point of time, with solar disturbances. The 
observatory is also to be furnished with an 
equatorial for observing sun-spots, an Ever- 
shed photo-spectroheliograph, and an instru- 
ment for determining the radial velocities of 
solar prominence eruptions. Another build- 
ing has been set apart for meteorological ob- 
servations and the study of atmospheric optics, 
and seismological observations have also been 
provided for. 

The committee appointed to enquire into 
the administration of the British Meteorolog- 
ical Council has made its report. We learn 
from the London Times that among its rec- 
ommendations are the following: That the 
registration of the Meteorological Office as a 
company under the joint stock companies acts 
should be cancelled; that the company should 
be wound up, and the office reconstituted as 
a department under the control of the Board 
of Agriculture and Fisheries; that the office 
be placed under the control of a man of 
science as director of meteorology, appointed 
after consultation with the Royal Society, but 
responsible to the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries; that an advisory board be appoint- 
ed, consisting of the hydrographer to the 
Admiralty, a representative of the Board of 
Trade, and one of the Board of Agi-iculture ■ 
and Fisheries, and two members nominated by 
the Eoyal Society, the functions of the ad- 
visory board to be consultative only, the direct- 
or being responsible to the Board of Agricul- 
ture and Fisheries for administration; that a 
second officer be appointed to act as scientific 



32 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 496. 



assistant to the director; that the fixed Parlia- 
mentary grant of £15,300 be transferred to the 
vote for the Board of Agriculture and Fish- 
eries; and that the post office should make 
arrangements at the 27 reporting stations in 
the United Kingdom for the transmission of 
daily telegraphic reports one hour earlier than 
the present one of 8:15 to 8:30 a.m., and that 
storm warnings should, if practicable, have 
priority over all private messages at all hours. 
The committee also call attention to the expe- 
diency of testing the efficacy of wireless teleg- 
raphy in providing advance news of weather 
in the Atlantic, and urge that no unneces- 
sary delay should take place in organizing 
this experiment. They also recommend that 
in future the cost of instruments supplied to 
his Majesty's ships be borne upon the Navy. 
Votes, except where such instruments are in- 
tended for use in research or observation spec- 
ially called for by the director of meteorology, 
and they consider that the premises now 
rented by the council are neither suitable in 
character nor adequate in space for the pres- 
ent requirements of the office, and that others 
should be provided wherein the staff might 
perform their duties under more favorable 
hygienic conditions, and necessary accommo- 
dation for the rapidly growing library might 
be secured. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

The new laboratory of physics and engi- 
neering, given by Mr. William H. Reid, of 
Chicago, to Washington and Lee University, 
was dedicated on June 15. 

At the recent commencement of the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska three men graduated from 
the Department of Forestry which was estab- 
lished two years ago. These men on the estab- 
lishment of forestry work in the university 
were transferred to. this department from 
other departments of science, and thus were 
able to complete the course in two years. The 
full course is four years, and the requirements 
for admission to the freshman class are the 
same as for other departments of the uni- 
versity. 

A DEPARTMENT of medicine with a two-years' 
course has been added to the curriculum of 



the Washington State University. For the 
present the work will be in charge of Pro- 
fessor Byers, head of the department of chem- 
istry. Dr. C. W. Johnson, assistant professor 
of pharmacy, has been made dean of the de- 
partment of pharmacy. 

A MEDICAL department will be established 
next year as part of St. John's College, a 
catholic institution at Fordham, New York 
City. 

The Mercers' Company have given a dona- 
tion of £1,000 to the Institute of Medical 
Science Fund (University of London), and 
the Clothworkers' Company have given £300. 

Mr. Francis G. Smart, M.A., M.G., of 
Gonville and Caius College, has founded, in 
the University of Cambridge, a studentship 
of £100 a year, tenable two years, for the en- 
couragement of botanical research. 

It is announced that work on the buildings 
for the Harvard Medical School has not pro- 
gressed as rapidly as had been hoped, and that 
, they will probably not be occupied until the 
autumn of 1906, instead of 1905, as was orig- 
inally expected. 

At Cornell University, Mr. Carl P. Thomas, 
a graduate of the class of 1895, has been ap- 
pointed assistant professor of marine engi- 
neering. Drs. James McMahon and John H. 
Tanner have been promoted to full professor- 
ships of mathematics. 

Dr. a. N. Cook, who has been professor of 
chemistry in Morningside College, Sioux City, 
for the past four years, has been elected pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the State University of 
South Dakota at Vermillion. 

Dr. C. H. Gordon, who has been acting pro- 
fessor of geology in the Washington State 
University during the past year, has accepted 
a call to the chair of geology in the New 
Mexico School of Mines. 

Mr. Harry E. Fulton, assistant in biology 
in the University of Mississippi, has been 
awarded a fellowship in botany for 1904-5 in 
the University of Missouri. 

Dr. Philip Henry Pye-Smith, M.D.,F.R.S., 
has been reelected vice-chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of London, for the year 1904^5. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Friday, July 8, 1904. 

contents: 

The International Congress of Arts and Sci- 
ence 33 

The American Chemical Society: Dk. Austin 
M. Patteeson 38 

Material versus Intellectual Development of 
our Universities: De. Alfeed Golds- 

BOEOUGH MAYEE 44 

Scientific Books: — 

Pictet's The Vegetahle Alkaloids: Pko- 

PESSOE Henet Ivbaemer 47 

Scientific Journals and Articles 49 

Societies and Academies: — • 

The Torrey Botanical Club: William T. 
HoEKE. The St. Louis Academy of Science 49 
Discussion and Correspondence: — 

Geo-Mologieal Terms: De. C. K. Eastman. 
A Reply to Certain Criticisms of Professor 
Giard respecting the Bopyrids: Haeeiet 

Richardson 51 

Special Articles: — 

An Account of the Preliminary Excavations 
in a Recently Explored Quaternary Gave in 
Shasta County, Cal. : E. L. Fuelong. 
Vitality of Pseudomonas Campestris 
(Pam.) Smith on Cabbage Seed: H. A. 
Harding and F. C. Stewabt. A Notable 
Paleobotanical Discovery: Edwaed W. 

Beeet 53 

Current Notes on Meteorology : — 
Antarctic Meteorology ; Vertical Decrease of 
Temperature in the Free Air; The Salmra 
and the Soudan; Monthly Weather Review; 

Notes: Peofessor B. DeC. Ward 57 

William Henry Pettee 58 

Excavations in Turkestan 60 

The Golden Trout of Mt. Whitney 61 

Scientific Notes and News 61 

University and Educational News 64 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review abould be sent to the Editor of Science, Garri- 
Bon-on-Hudaon, N. Y. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ARTS 

AND SCIENCE. 

The program has now been issued of the 
congress to be held as part of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition from September 19 to 
25 of the present year. The purpose and 
plan of the congress are thus described: 

The idea of the congress grows out of the 
thought that the subdivision and multipli- 
cation of specialties in science has reached 
a stage at which investigators and scholars 
may derive both inspiration and profit 
from a general survey of the various fields 
of learning, planned with a view of bring- 
ing the scattered sciences into closer mu- 
tual relations. The central purpose is the 
unification of knowledge, an effort toward 
which seems appropriate on an occasion 
when the nations bring together an exhibit 
of their arts and industries. An assem- 
blage is, therefore, to be convened at which" 
leading representatives of theoretical and 
applied sciences shall set forth those gen- 
eral principles and fundamental concep- 
tions which connect groups of sciences, re- 
view the historical development of special 
sciences, show their mutual relations and 
discuss their present problems. 

The speakers to treat the various themes 
are selected in advance from the European 
and American continents. The discussions 
will be arranged on the following general 
plan : 

After the opening of the congress on 
Monday afternoon, September 19, will fol- 
low, on Tuesday forenoon, addresses on 
main divisions of science and its applica- 
tions, the general theme being the unifica- 
tion of each of the fields treated. These 



34 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



will be followed by two addresses on each 
of the twenty-four great departments of 
knowledge. The theme of one address in 
each case will be the fundamental concep- 
tions and methods, while the other will set 
forth the progress during the last century. 
The preceding addresses will be delivered 
by Americans, making the work of the first 
two days the contribution of American 
scholars. 

On the third day, with the opening of the 
V sections, the international work will begin. 
About 128 sectional meetings will be held 
on the four remaining days of the congress, 
at each of which two papers will be read, 
the theme of one being suggested by the 
relations of the special branch treated to 
other branches; the other by its present 
problems. Three hours will be devoted to 
each sectional meeting, thus enabling each 
hearer to attend eight such meetings, if he 
so desires. The program is so arranged 
that related subjects will be treated, as 
far as possible, at different times. The 
length of the principal addresses being 
limited to forty-five minutes each, there 
will remain at least one hour for five or six 
brief communications in each section. The 
addresses in each department will be col- 
lected and published in a special volume. 

It is hoped that the living influence of 
this meeting will be yet more important 
than the formal addresses, and that the 
scholars whose names are announced in the 
following program of speakers and chair- 
men will form only a nucleus for the gath- 
ering of thousands who feel in sympathy 
with the efforts to bring unity into the 
world of knowledge. 

The organization of the congress con- 
sists of: 

Director of Congresses. — Howard J. Rogers. 

Administrative Board. — Nicholas Murray But- 
ler, president of Columbia University, chairman ; 
William E.. Harper, president of the University 
•of Chicago; R. H. Jesse, president of the Univer- 
sity of Missouri; Henry S. Pritchett, president 



of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
Herbert Putnam, librarian of Congress; Fred- 
erick J. V. Skiff, director of the Field Columbian 
Museum. 

Officers of the Congress. — President: Simon 
Newcomb, retired professor U. S. N. Vice-Presi- 
dents: Hugo Miinsterberg, professor of psychol- 
ogy in Harvard University; Albion W. Small, 
professor of sociology in the University of Chi- 
cago. 

The speakers and chairmen in the sub- 
jects more especially covered by this jour- 
nal are: 

DIVISION A — NORMATIVE SCIENCE. 

Speaker: Professor Josiah Royce, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Depa/rtment 1 — Philosophy. 

Chairman: Professor Borden P. Bowne, Boston 
University. Speakers: Professor George T. Ladd, 
Yale University; Professor George H. Howison, 
University of California. 

Section a, Metaphysics. — Chairman: Professor 
A. C. Armstrong, Wesleyan University. Speakers : 
Professor A. E. Taylor, McGill University, Mon- 
treal; Professor Alexander T. Ormond, Princeton 
University. 

Section 6, Philosophy of Religion. — Chairman: 
Professor Thomas C. Hall, Union Theological 
Seminary, N. Y. Speakers : Professor Otto Pfleid- 
erer, University of Berlin; Professor Ernst 
Troeltsch, University of Heidelberg. 

Section o, Logic. — Chairman: Professor George 

M. Duncan, Yale University. Speakers : Professor 

. Wilhelm Windelband, University of Heidelberg; 

Professor Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, Columbia 

University. 

Section d, Methodology of Science. — Chairman: 
Professor James E. Creighton, Cornell University. 
Speakers: Professor Wilhelm Ostwald, University 
of Leipzig; Professor Benno Erdmann, University 
of Bonn. 

Section e, Ethics. — Chairman: Professor George 
H. Palmer, Harvard University. Speakers: Pro- 
fessor William R. Sorley, University of Cam- 
bridge; Professor Paul Hensel, University of 
Erlangen. 

Section f, Esthetics. — Chairman: Professor 
James H. Tufts, University of Chicago. Speakers: 
Mr. Henry R. Marshall, New York City; Professor 
Max Dessoir, University of Berlin. 

Departmeni 2 — Mathematics. 

Chairman: Professor Henry S. White, North- 
western University. Speakers: Professor Maxime 
Bocher, Harvard University; Professor James P. 
Pierpont, Yale University. 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



35 



Section a, Algebra and Analysis. — Chairman: 
Professor E. H. Moore, University of Chicago. 
Speakers: Professor Emile Picard, The Sorbonne, 
member of the Institute of Prance; Professor 
Heinrieh Masehke, University of Chicago. 

Section h, Geometry. — Chairman: Professor 
William E. Story, Clark University. Speakers: 
M. Gaston Darboux, perpetual secretary of the 
Academy of Sciences, Paris; Dr. Edward Kasner, 
Columbia University. 

Section c, Applied Mathematics. — Chairman: 
Professor Arthur G. Webster, Clark University, 
Worcester, Mass. Speakers: Professor Ludwig 
Boltzmann, University of Vienna ; Professor Henri 
Poincarg, Tlie Sorbonne, member of the Institute 
of France. 

DIVISION PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

Speaker: Professor Robert S. Woodward, Co- 
lumbia University. 

Department 9 — Physics. 

Speakers: Professor Edward L. Nichols, Cornell 
University; Professor Carl Barus, Brown Uni- 
versity. 

Section a, Physics of Matter. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Samuel W. Stratton, director of the Na- 
tional Bureau of Standards, Washington. Speak- 
ers: Professor Robert W. Wood, Johns Hopkins 
University; Professor Francis E. Nipher, Wash- 
ington University. 

Section b, Physics of Ether. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Henry S. Carhart, University of Michigan. 
Speakers: Professor James Dewar, Royal Institu- 
tion, London; Professor DeWitt B. Brace, Univer- 
sity of Nebraska. 

Section e, Physics of the Electron. — Chairman: 
Professor Charles R. Cross, Institute of Technol- 
ogy, Boston. Speaker: Professor Ernest Ruther- 
ford, McGill University, Montreal. 

Department 10 — Chemistry. 

Chairman: Professor James M. Crafts, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. Speakers: Pro- 
fessor John U. Nef, University of Chicago; Pro- 
fessor Frank W. Clarke, chief chemist, U. 8. Geo- 
logical Survey. 

Section a, Inorganic Chemistry. — Chairman: 
Professor John W. Mallet, University of Virginia. 
Speaker: Professor Henri Moissan, The Sorbonne, 
member of the Institute of France. 

Section b, Organic Chemistry. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Albert B. Preseott, University of Michigan. 
Speakers: Professor Rudolf Fittig, University of 
Strassburg; Professor William A. Noyes, National 
Bureau of Standards. 



Section c, Physical Chemistry. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Wilder D. Bancroft, Cornell University. 
Speakers: Professor J. H. Van't Hoff, University 
of Berlin; Professor Arthur A. Noyes, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. 

Section d, Physiological Chemistry. — Chairman: 
Professor Wilbur O. Atwater, Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Speakers: Professor Albrecht Kossel, Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg; Professor Russell H. Chit- 
tenden, Yale University. 

Department 11— Astronomy. 

Chairman: Professor George C. Comstock, di- 
rector of the observatory, Madison, Wisconsin. 
Speakers: Professor Edward C. Pickering, director 
of Harvard Observatory; Professor Lewis Boss, 
director of Dudley Observatory. 

Section a, Astrometry. — Chairman: Professor 
Ormond Stone, University of Virginia. Speakers: 
Dr. Oskar Backlund, director of the observatory, 
Pulkowa, Russia; Professor J. C. Kapteyn, Uni- 
versity of Groningen, Holland. 

Section b, Astrophysics.— C)xa,irm.a.n: Professor 
George E. Hale, director of the Yerkes Observa- 
tory. Speakers : Professor William W. Campbell, 
director of the Lick Observatory; Professor Her- 
bert H. Turner, F.R.S., University of Oxford. 

Department 12 — Sciences of the Earth. 

Chairman: Professor Nathaniel S. Shaler, Har- 
vard University. Speakers : Professor William M. 
Davis, Harvard University; Professor Thomas C. 
Chamberlin, University of Chicago. 

Section a, Geophysics. — Chairman: Professor 
Christopher W. Hall, University of Minnesota. 
Speakers: Professor E. Wiechert, director Geo- 
physical Institute, Gottingen; Dr. George F. 
Becker, geologist, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Section b, Geology. — Chairman: Professor John 
C. Branner, Leland Stanford, Jr., University. 
Speakers : Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., secretary 
of the Royal Society; President Charles R. Van 
Hise, University of Wisconsin. 

Section c, Paleontology. — Chairman: Professor 
William B. Scott, Princeton University. Speak- 
ers: Dr. A. S. Woodward, F.R.S., British Museum 
of Natural History, London; Professor Henry F. 
Osborn, Columbia University. 

Section d, Petrology and Mineralogy. — Chair- 
man: Mr. Oliver C. Farrington, Field Columbian 
Museum, Chicago. Speakers: Professor F. Zirkel, 
LTniversity of Leipzig; Professor W. C. Brogger, 
University of Christiania. 

Section e, Physiography. — Chairman: Mr. 
Henry Gannett, United States Geological Survey. 
Speakers: Professor Albrecht Penck, University 



36 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



of Vienna; Professor Israel C. Russell, University 
of Michigan. 

Section f, Geography. — Chairman: Professor 
George Davidson, University of California. Speak- 
ers: Dr. Hugh R. Mill, director British Rainfall 
Organization, London; Professor Georg Gerland, 
University of Strassburg. 

Section g, Oceanography. — Chairman: Rear- 
Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee, United States Navy. 
Speakers : Sir John Murray, K.C.B., F.R.S., Edin- 
burgh; His Highness, Albert, Prince of Monaco, 
Monaco. 

Section h. Meteorology. — Chairman: Dr. Abbott 
L. Roteh, Blue Hill Observatory. Speaker: Pro- 
fessor Svante Arrhenius, University of Stockholm, 
Stockholm. 

Department 13 — Biology. 

Chairman: Professor William G. Farlow, Har- 
vard University. Speakers: Professor Jacques 
Loeb, University of California; Professor John M. 
Coulter, University of Chicago. 

Section a, Phylogeny. — Chairman: Professor T. 
H. Morgan, Bryn Mawr. Speakers: Professor 
Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam; Pro- 
fessor Charles 0. Whitman, University of Chicago. 

Section b, Plant Morphology. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor William Trelease, Washington University, 
St. Louis. Speakers: Professor Frederick 0. 
Bower, University of Glasgow; Professor Karl F. 
Goebel, University of Munich. 

Section c. Plant Physiology. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Charles R. Barnes, University of Chicago. 
Speakers: Professor Julius Wiessner, University 
of Vienna; Professor Benjamin M. Duggar, Uni- 
versity of Missouri. 

Section d, Plant Pathology. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Charles E. Bessey, University of Nebraska. 
Speaker: Professor Joseph C. Arthur, Purdue 
University. 

Section e, Ecology. — Chaii-man: Professor Con- 
way MacMillan, University of Minnesota. Speak- 
ers: Professor Oskar Drude, Kon. Technische 
Hochschule, Dresden; Professor Charles Flahault, 
director of the Botanic Institute, Montpellier, 
France. 

Section f, Bacteriology. — Chairman: Professor 
Harold C. Ernst, Harvard University. Speakers: 
Professor Edwin 0. Jordan, University of Chi- 
cago; Professor Theobald Smith, Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

Section g, Animal Morphology. — Chairman: Dr. 
Leland 0. Howard, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. Speakers: Professor Charles 
B. Davenport, University of Chicago; Professor 
Alfred Giard, The Sorbonne, member of the Insti- 
tute of France. 



Section h. Embryology. — Chairman: Professor 
Simon H. Gage, Cornell University. Speakers: 
Professor Oskar Hertwig, University of Berlin; 
Professor William K. Brooks, Johns Hopkins 
University. 

Section i, Comparative Anatomy. — Chairman: 
Professor James P. McMurrich, University of 
Michigan. Speakers: Professor Max PUrbringer, 
University of Heidelberg; Professor Yves Delage, 
The Sorbonne, member of the Institute of France. 

Section j. Human Anatomy. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor George A. Piersol, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Speakers: Professor Wilhelm Waldeyer, 
University of Berlin; Professor H. H. Donaldson, 
University of Chicago. 

Section k, Physiology. — Chairman: Dr. S. J. 
Meltzer, New York. Speakers: Professor Max 
Verworn, University of Gottingen; Professor 
William H. Howell, Johns Hopkins University. 
Department 14 — Anthropology. 

Chairman: Professor Frederic W. Putnam, 
Harvard University. Speakers: Dr. W J McGee, 
President American Anthropological Association, 
Washing-ton, D. C. ; Professor Franz Boas, Co- 
lumbia University. 

Section a. Somatology. — Chairman : Dr. Edward 
C. Spitzka, New York City. Speakers: Professor 
L. Manouvrier, School of Anthropology, Paris; 
Dr. George A. Dorsey, Field Columbian Museum, 
Chicago. 

Section 6, Archeology. — Chairman: Mr. William 
H. Holmes, Chief of the Bureau of Ethnology, 
Washington, D. C. Speakers: SeBor Alfred 
Chavero, director of the National Museum, Mexico ; 
Professor Edouard Seler, University of Berlin. 

Section c, Ethnology. — Chairman: Miss Alice C. 
Fletcher, President of the Washington Anthro- 
pological Society. Speakers: Professor Karl von 
den Steinen, University of Berlin; Professor A. 
C. Haddon, University of Cambridge. 

Division" D MENTAI, SCIENCE. 

Speaker: President G. Stanley Hall, Clark Uni- 
versity, Worcester, Mass. 

Department 15 — Psychology. 

Chairman: Professor Noah K. Davis, University 
of Virginia. Speakers : Professor J. Mark Bald- 
win, Johns Hopkins University; Professor J. 
McKeen Cattell, Columbia University. 

Section o, General Psychology. — Chairman : Pro- 
fessor Charles A. Strong, Columbia University.. 
Speakers: Professor Harald Hoeffding, University 
of Copenhagen; Professor James Ward, University- 
of Cambridge, England. 

Section b, Experimental Psychology. — Chair- 
man: Professor Edward A. Pace, Catholic Uni- 



Jott 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



37 



versity of America. Speakers : Professor Hermann 
Ebbiugliaus, University of Breslau; Professor 
Edward B. Titchener, Cornell University. 

Section c, Comparative and Genetic Psychology. 
— Chairman: Professor Edinund C. Sanford, Clark 
University, Worcester, Mass. Speakers: Principal 

C. Lloyd Morgan, University College, Bristol; 
Professor Mary W. Calkins, Wellesley College. 

Section d, Ainorinal Psycliology. — Chairman: 
Professor Moses Allen Starr, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Speakers: Dr. Pierre Janet, professor at the 
Sorbonne, Paris; Dr. Morton Prince, Boston. 

Department 16 — Sociology. 

Chairman: Professor Prank W. Blaekmar, Uni- 
versity of Kansas. Speakers: Professor George E. 
Vincent, University of Chicago; Professor Frank- 
lin H. Giddings, Columbia University. 

Section a, Demography. — Chairman: Professor 

D. Collin Wells, Dartmouth College. Speakers: 
Professor Walter F. Willcox, Cornell University; 
Professor Harald Westergaard, University of 
Copenhagen. 

Section 6, Social Structure. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Frederick W. Moore, Vanderbilt University. 
Speakers: Professor Ferdinand Toennies, Univer- 
sity of Kiel; Field Marshal Gustav Ratzenhofer, 
Vienna. 

Section c, Social Psychology. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Charles A. Ellwood, University of Missouri. 
Speakers: Professor Jean G. de Tarde, CoUgge de 
France, member de I'Institut, Paris; Professor 
Edward A. Ross, University of Nebraska. 

DIVISION E UTILITARIAN SCIENCES. 

Speaker: President David Starr Jordan, Leland 
Stanford, Jr., University. 

Department 17 — Medicine. 

Chairman: Dr. William Osier, Johns Hopkins 
University. Speakers: Dr. William T. Council- 
man, Harvard University; Dr. Frank Billings, 
Rush Medical College. 

Section a, Public Health. — Chairman: Dr. 
Walter Wyman, surgeon-general of the U. S. 
Marine Hospital Service. Speakers: Professor 
William T. Sedgwick, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology; Dr. Ernest J. Lederle, Commissioner 
of Health, New York City. 

Section 6, Preventive Medicine. — Chairman: Dr. 
Joseph M. Mathews, president of the State Board 
of Health, Louisville, Kentucky. Speakers: Pro- 
fessor Ronald Ross, F.R.S., School of Tropical 
Medicine, University College, Liverpool; Professor 
Angelo Celli, University of Rome. 

Section c, Pathology. — Chairman: Professor 
Simon Flexner, director of the Rockefeller Insti- 



tute. Speakers: Professor Felix; Marchand, Uni- 
versity of Leipzig; Professor Johannes Orth, Uni- 
versity of Berlin. 

Section d, Therapeutics and Pharmacology. — 
Chairman : Dr. Hobart A. Hare, Jefferson Medical 
College. Speakers: Sir Lauder Brunton, F.R.S., 
London; Professor Mathias E. 0. Liebreich, Uni- 
versity of Berlin. 

Section e, Internal Medicine. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor Frederick C. Shattuck, Harvard University. 
Speakers: Professor Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., Uni- 
versity of Cambridge; Professor William S. 
Thayer, Johns Hopkins University. 

Section f, 'Neurology. — Chairman: Professor 
Lewellys F. Barker, University of Chicago. 
Speakers: Professor Shibasaburo Kitasato, Uni- 
versity of Tokio; Professor James J. Putnam, 
Harvard University. 

Section g, Psychiatry.— Chairraaji: Dr. Edward 
Cowles, Boston. Speakers: Professor Th. Ziehen, 
University of Berlin; Dr. Charles L. Dana, New 
York City. 

Section h, Surgery. — ^Chairman: Professor Carl 
Beck, Post Graduate Medical School, New York. 
Speaker: Professor Nicholas Senn, Rush Medical 
College, Chicago. 

Section i, Gynecology. — Chairman: Professor 
Howard A. Kelly, Johns Hopkins University. 
Speakers: Dr. L. Gustave Richelot, member of the 
Academy of Medicine, Paris; Professor John C. 
Webster, Rush Medical College, Chicago. 

Section j. Ophthalmology. — Chairman: Dr. 
George C. Harlan, Philadelphia, Pa. Speaker: 
Dr. Edward Jackson, Denver, Col. 

Section k, Otology and Laryngology. — Chair- 
man: Professor William C. Glasgow, Washington 
University, St. Louis. Speakers : Sir Felix Semon, 
C.V.O., physician extraordinary to the king, 
London; Dr. J. Solis-Cohen, Jefferson Medical 
College. 

Section I, Pediatrics. — Chairman: Professor 
Thomas M. Rotch, Harvard University. Speakers : 
Professor Theodore Eseherich, University of 
Vienna; Professor Abraham Jacobi, Columbia 
University. 

Department IS — Technology. 

Chairman: Chancellor Winfield S. Chaplin, 
Washington University, St. Louis. Speakers: 
Professor Henry T. Bovey, F.R.S., McGill Univer- 
sity, Montreal; Mr. John R. Freeman, Providence, 
11. I. 

Section a, Civil Engineering. — Chairman: Pro- 
fessor William H. Burr, Columbia University. 
Speakers: Dr. J. A. L. Waddell, consulting engi- 
neer, Kansas City; Mr. Lewis M. Haupt, consult- 
ing engineer, Philadelphia. 



38 



SCIENCE. 



{N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



Section 6, Mechanical Engineering. — Chairman: 
President Alexander C. HumphreySj Stevens In- 
stitute of Teelmology. Speakers: Professor A. 
Kiedler, Konigliche Technische Hoehschule, Ber- 
lin; Professor Albert W. Smith, Leland Stanford, 
Jr., University. 

Section c, Electrical Engineering. — Chairman: 
Professor Arthur E. Kennelly, Harvard Univer- 
sity. Speakers: Signor G. Marconi, Italy; Pro- 
fessor Michael I. Pupin, Columbia University. 

Section d, Mining Engineering. — Chairman: Mr. 
John Hays Hammond, New York City. Speakers: 
Professor Robert H. Richards, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology; Professor Samuel B. 
Christy, University of California. 

Section e, Technical Cfeemistrj/.— Chairman : 
Professor Charles P. Chandler, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Speakers : Professor Otto N. Witt, Konig- 
liche Technische Hoehschule, Berlin; Professor 
William H. Walker, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Section f, Agriculture. — Chairman: Honorable 
James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington. Speakers : Professor Lgon Lindet, Na- 
tional Agronomic Institute, Paris; Professor 
Liberty H. Bailey, Cornell University. 



THE THIRTIETH GENERAL MEETING OF 
THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 

The thirtieth general meeting of the 
American Chemical Society was held in 
Providence, R. I., during Tuesday, Wednes- 
day and Thursday, June 21-23, the place of 
meeting being Rockefeller Hall, on the cam- 
pus of Brown University. At the opening 
session President Wm. H. P. Faunce, of 
the university, delivered an address of wel- 
come, and this was followed by a response 
on behalf of the society by its president. 
Professor A. A. Noyes. The members of 
the local section gave themselves without 
reserve to providing for the comfort of 
the visitors, and their hospitality received 
full appreciation. Luncheons were served 
in Sayles Memorial Hall on Tuesday and 
Wednesday by the courtesy of two local 
companies, T. P. Shepard & Co., and the 
Rumford Chemical" Works. The University 
Club extended its house privileges to all 
members of the society during the entire 



meeting, and on Tuesday evening enter- 
tained them at a most enjoyable informal 
reception. On Thursday afternoon, the 
members of the local section invited the 
visitors to attend a Rhode Island clambake 
at the Pomham Club, on the shore of Nar- 
ragansett Bay. This 'crowning event' of 
the meeting was closed by a series of im- 
promptu speeches, when Professor J. H. 
Appleton, the chairman of the local com- 
mittee, proved himself a very entertaining 
toastmaster. 

In addition to the regular morning ses- 
sions, an open lecture was delivered on 
Wednesday evening by Dr. H. W. Wiley, 
of Washington. This was the first public 
announcement of the results obtained in 
his important series of experiments upon 
the effect of the food preservatives, boric 
acid and borax, on metabolism. A sum- 
mary of these results appeared in all the 
leading newspapers in the issue of June 23. 

At the close of the last session a hearty 
vote of thanks was extended to Professor 
Appleton and his associates and to the 
various local organizations by whom 
courtesies were shown to the visiting mem- 
bers. The list of manufacturing concerns 
that opened their doors to the various after- 
noon excursion parties is too numerous to 
be included here. 

The number of members in attendance 
was 128, of whom 104 were visitors. The 
next nieeting will be held in Philadelphia, 
beginning December 27. 

REPORTS FROM INSTITUTIONS. 

A new feature was the presentation of 
reports from various institutions upon the 
research work which has been in progress 
during the past year. Lack of space for- 
bids the reprinting of these reports in full, 
and the following brief summaries, which 
may serve to give a general idea of the 
progress of such work, are by no means ex- 
haustive. It should also be said, in justice 
to those who presented the reports, that 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



39 



some were made impromptn, in response 
to special request. 

Harvard University. — Aromatic addi- 
tion products, especially new derivatives of 
tetrabromorthoquinone. Detection and 
estimation of small quantities of arsenic 
and antimony in toxicological work. Dis- 
sociation of certain addition products, as 
phenoquinone, in benzene solution. Atomic 
weights of iodine, cadmium, sodium, etc. 
Decomposition of silver oxide above 300°. 
Conductivity of potassium iodide in melted 
iodine. Energy changes of iron and 
nickel. Study of amalgam cells. Study 
of specific heats of liquids by a new method. 
Continuations of certain former investiga- 
tions. 

Columbia University. — Various research- 
es in physiological chemistry, some of 
which have already been piiblished. Or- 
ganic : On m-aminobenzonitrile. Extension 
of synthetic methods for the preparation 
of quinazolines. Physical : combination of 
a solvent with the ions. Dissociation of 
lead nitrate. Thermo-chemistry of electro- 
lytic dissociation. Ionic equilibrium of 
solutions of potassium silver cyanide, etc. 
Industrial: Electrical preparation of me- 
tallic magnesium. Extraction of radio- 
active bodies from earnotite. Analytical: 
Reduction of lead from litharge in pre- 
liminary assays. A crucible charge for 
gold and silvef in zinc ores. Determination 
of molybdenum in steel, etc. Separation 
of thorium from cerium, etc. Determina- 
tion of nitrogen in organic compounds. 
Determination of formaldehyde. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
— Physical Chemistry : Dissociation at high 
temperatures. Conductivity of fused 
electrolytes; also of very dilute solutions. 
Test of a method for determining absolute 
potential. Reaction between potassium 
sulphocyanate and mercuric sulphocyan- 
ate. Hydrolysis of ammonium sulphide. 
Dissociation relations of sulphuric acid as 



determined by comparative inverting 
power, etc. Industrial: Commercial prep- 
aration of chloroform from acetylene. 
Purification of low-grade rosins. Bleaching 
with sodium hypochlorite. Hydrocarbons 
in distilled wool grease. Organic: Sys- 
tematic identification of nitrogen com- 
pounds. Experiments with a view to pre- 
paring a bivalent carbon compound. 

University of California. — Gravimetric 
determination of free acids. Investigation 
of California petroleum, and also of tar 
from oil distillation. Action of nitrogen 
on various oxides in presence of carbon. 
Solubility of salts of boric acid in presence 
of salts of other acids. New method of ex- 
traction from sulphide ores. On the ex- 
istence of ethei's of fulminic acid. Chem- 
ical reactions of the cyanide process. Co- 
precipitation of gold and platinum with 
silver chloride. Constitution of p-nitroso 
compounds. Synthesis of acetylene deriva- 
tives. 

Yale University. — Kent Laboratory: In 
addition to eleven papers already pub- 
lished, there are sixteen investigations, 
some of Avhich are completed but not yet 
reported upon, while others are still in 
progress. Sheffield Laboratory: Work on 
double and triple salts. Heat of combus- 
tion of carbon from acetylene. Pyrimidine 
derivatives. Thiocyanates and isothio- 
eyanates. Triazoles. Labox-atory of 
Physiological Chemistry: Study of certain 
aspects of nutrition. Paths of excretion 
for inorganic compounds. Physiological 
chemistry of the compounds. Physiolog- 
ical chemistry of the invertebrates. Utili- 
zation of proteids. 

University of Chicago. — Dissociation 
phenomena in the glycol and glycerin 
series. Relations between the forms of 
sulphur. Velocity of saponification of 
imido ethers. Stereoisomeric chlorimido 
derivatives and the Beckmann rearrange- 
ment. Constitution of purpuric acid. 



40 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



Preparation of homologous alkyl isoureas. 
Ionization constants of phenolphthalein, 
and its use as an indicator. Relation of 
radium to uranium. 

Johns Hopkins University. — Phenylsul- 
phone-orthocarboxylic acid. Effect on 
zinc of dry hydrochloric acid dissolved 
in benzene. Clay mixtures and the burn- 
ing of porous cells. Preparation of cells 
for osmotic pressure work. Electric 
combustion furnace. Depression of the 
freezing point in concentrated aqueous 
solutions. Conductivity of electrolytes in 
mixtures of alcohol and water. Decom- 
position products of sodamide ; also its re- 
actions with phosphorus pentachloride and 
with yellow phosphorus. Temperature 
coefficients of conductivity from 40° to 
— 40°. Decompositions of nitroso com- 
pounds. A step toward the synthesis of 
camphoric acid. 

University of Wisconsin. — InfliTence of 
chemical reaction upon weight. Coloring 
matters of plants. Soap solutions. Phe- 
noxozone compounds (effect of substitution 
on the ease of formation of condensation 
products). Effect of oxidizing agents 
upon the solubility of gold in various re- 
agents. Formation of alkaline and silver 
tellurates, of chromium ammonium per- 
oxides, etc. Atomic weight of selenium. 
Osmosis with solvents other than water and 
with various membranes. 

Leland Stanford University. — Purifica- 
tion of feed waters, especially in arid re- 
gions. Spectroscopic study of some rare 
elements. Methyl amine as a solvent. Re- 
actions in ammonia. Hydrochloric acid 
addition products of stannous chloride. 
Modification of freezing-point method for 
molecular weight determinations. Meta- 
stability in the case of sodium thiosulphate ; 
also solubilities of ihe different forms. 

University of North Oarolt-Ha..— Investi- 
gations on thorium and certain of the rare 
earths: carolinium. Radio-active constitu- 



ents of monazite sands. Action of radium 
emanations on minerals. New organic 
salts of neodymium. Strontium malate. 
The methoxy group in certain lignocellu- 
loses. Action of bromine on trichlorethyli- 
dene diparanitrophenamine. 

Verbal reports were also made by Pro- 
fessor Bancroft, representing Cornell Uni- 
versity, and Professor Johnson, represent- 
ing the University of Michigan. 

PAPERS. 

The following papers were read before 
the society: 

The Ratio of Badium to Uranium in Min- 
erals: Bertram B. Boltwood. 
The investigation of a series of nine 
uranium minerals has led to the conclusion 
that the amount of radium present in any 
given mineral is proportional to the uran- 
ium content. This would seem to offer 
strong evidence of the truth of Ruther- 
ford's suggestion that radium is formed by 
the decomposition of uranium. The method 
employed for the quantitative determina- 
tion of the radium depends on the measure- 
ment of the maximum or equilibrium 
quantity of emanation formed from the 
radium salts present. 

The Qualitative Separation and Detection 
of the Group of Elements whose Oxides 
are Insoluble in Nitric Acid: Arthur 

A. NOYES. 

An account of this work, which is not 
yet in final form, will be published later in 
the year. 
Note on the Amount of Moisture ivhich 

Phosphorus Pentoxide Leaves in a Gas: 

Edward W. Morley. 

The author formerly found that the sum 
of the moisture left, and the phosphorus 
pentoxide absorbed, in a gas, is not more 
than a milligram in 45,000 liters. He now 
finds the phosphorus pentoxide alone to be 
one milligram in 45,000 liters. To the de- 
gree of approximation so far attained, 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



41 



therefore, it seems that the moisture left in 
a gas by phosphorus pentoxide is nil. A 
gas may be made as dry as the figures indi- 
cate, by passing at the rate of two liters an 
hour through 25 c.c. of phosphorus pent- 
oxide. The difficulty often experienced in 
filling a glass apparatus with a perfectly 
dry gas is due to the wetting of the dried 
gas by the water persistently adhering to 
the surface of the glass. 
Bromides of Ruthenium: Jas. Lewis Howe. 
These compounds were prepared by 
the action of hydrobromie acid upon 
ruthenium tetroxide. Addition of alkali 
bromides gives brom-ruthenites of the 
formula Xj'RuBrj, which, when boiled 
with dilute alcohol acidified with hydro- 
bromie acid, give aqua brom-ruthenates, 
X,'Ru(H20)Br5. The latter form, on ad- 
dition of bromine, the salts Xa'RuBrg. All 
of these salts are analogous and similar to 
the corresponding chlorides. 
Changes in the Composition of the Ferro- 
cyanides of Cadmium, Zinc and Man- 
ganese after Precipitation: E. H. Miller 
and M. J. Falk. 

Several new double ferrocyanides of 
cadmium, ammonium and potassium were 
described. The investigation also showed 
that the precipitate formed in the ordinary 
titration of zinc in the presence of am- 
monium chloride is an ammonium potas- 
sium zinc ferroeyanide, and not K2Zn3Fe 
(CN)^ as given heretofore. 
Silica Determinations : Harrison Everett 

Ashley. 
The Atomic Weight of Beryllium: C. L.. 
Parsons. 

An abstract of this paper has recently 
appeared in Science in a report of a meet- 
ing of the New York section (p. 923). 
The ' Drop ' Method for Surface Tension 
as a Means for Ascertaining the Molec- 
ular Weight in the Liquid State: J. 
Livingston R. Morgan. (By title.) 



Tlie Constitution of the Brasses: Wilder 

D. Bancroft. 

Six sets of solid solutions crystallize from 
molten mixtures of copper and zinc. Be- 
low 400° only five of these are stable. The 
a crystals (100-63 per cent, copper at 
400°) are yellow, the /? crystals (54^-51 
per cent, copper) are reddish, while the 
other four series are silvery. Brasses con- 
taining 51-40 per cent, copper consist of 
a mixture of brittle silvery crystals and 
ductile reddish-yellow crystals. An alloy 
containing 43 per cent, of copper was 
shown in which the fracture was silvery, 
while the polished surface was yellow. 
The Transport Number of Sulphuric Acid: 

0. F. Tower. 

Experiments were made with normal, 
one half normal, one fifth normal, one tenth 
normal, one twentieth normal and one 
fiftieth normal acid and at the tempera- 
tures 8°, 20° and 32°. 

It was found that the transport number 
decreases with the concentration and is 
practically constant at the concentrations 
one twentieth and one fiftieth normal. The 
average value found at these concentrations 
was 0.180 at 20°. At other temperatures 
between 8° and 32° the following equation 
holds : 

«,=:0.18° -f 0.0011(^ — 20°). 
The Hydration of Milk Sugar in Solution: 

C. S. Hudson. 

By determinations of the initial and final 
solubility of solid milk sugar hydrate and 
milk sugar anhydride, conclusions are 
drawn as to the state of hydration of milk 
sugar molecules in solution. The change 
in the hydration proceeds so slowly as to 
be accurately followed, and the results ob- 
tained by other methods are in entire 
agreement. 
Migration of Colloids: W. R. Whitney 

and J. C. Blake. (By title.) 
The Vapor Pressure of Sulphur at 100° C: 

HrppoLYTE Gruener. 



42 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



These determinations, in which carbon 
dioxide was passed over solid sulphur, re- 
sulted as follows: 

With prismatic sulphur .... 0.007 mm. 
With rhombic sulphur 0.0065 mm. 

Although this value is so small, consider- 
able amounts of sulphur pass over when 
water containing it in suspension is boiled. 
Some Notes on Laurent Polariscope Read- 
ings: Geo. W. Rolfe and Chas. Field, 
3d. 

These rotation readings are about 0.2 
per cent, lower than those given by the 
Lippich apparatus. The experiments of 
the authors indicate that this variation is 
not due to the imperfections of the polari- 
scope, as asserted by some, but to the 
nature of the light used. 
The Molecular Depression Constant of p- 
Azoxyanisol: H. Monmouth Smith. 
This value has been determined at dif- 
ferent times and stated variously to be 750, 
654 and 545. A redetermination of this 
constant was made and a value of 563 ob- 
tained. Ketones were found to give an ab- 
normal value 32 per cent, higher than the 
average found from other classes of com- 
pounds. 

The Sulphates of Beryllium: C. L. Par- 
sons. 

Of those described, namely, BeSO^ -41120, 
J3eSO,-2H,0, BeSO^-TH^O, BeSO^, and 
certain basic sulphates, the first is com- 
paratively stable in moist air, and the sec- 
ond in dry air. There is good evidence 
that the third does not exist, and the fourth 
could not be prepared by any methods used 
by the author. The basic sulphates are 
probably only solid solutions. 
Turpentine ai/ul Coloplionium of the North- 
ern Pine and Douglas Fir: G. B. Feank- 
FORTER. (By title.) 
Metallic and Other Salts of Eugenol: G. 

B. Frankforter. (By title.) 
The Wurtz Synthesis: James F. Norris. 
(By.title.) 



Strontium Malate: Alvin S. Wheeler and 

W. McKiM Marriotte. (By title.) 
The Oxidation of Phenylnaphthalene- 

dicarboxylic Acid: John E. Bucher. 

The principal products obtained were 
diphenyltetracarboxylie acid, two isomeric 
oxal-diphenyltricarboxylic acids, and a 
very small quantity of o-benzoylbenzoic 
acid. In addition to these, a number of 
other acids were found whose constitution 
has not yet been determined. 
The Decomposition of Nitroso Compounds: 

William A. Noybs and R. de M. Taveau. 

From the compound 

four decomposition products have previ- 
ously been described by one of the authors. 
By treatment of the nitroso derivative of 
the anhydride of this acid with sodium 
hydroxide and methyl or ethyl alcohol they 
have now obtained addition products of 
formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respect- 
ively, with the nitroso compound less the 
nitroso group. The investigation will be 
extended to other nitroso compounds. 
Substitution in the Aliphatic Series: A. 

Michael and H. J. Turner. 

When bromine is forced to act upon pro- 
pane, the effect is confined to the methylene 
group, while chlorine, which has more free 
energy, acts not only upon the methylene 
but also to a smaller extent upon the less 
susceptible methyl group. An analogous 
effect is observed in the case of hexane. 
Each halogen produces more of the sec- 
ondary substitution product than of the 
tertiary, but the ratio of their amounts is 
4 : 1 with bromine, and 3 : 2 with chlorine. 
Chlorine also yields a larger quantity of 
primary hexyl chloride than does bromine. 
The Effect of Constitutive Influences upon 

the Additive Power of Carbmyl: A. 

Miciiaeij and H. J. Turner. 

This M'as studied by observing the sta- 
bility of the semicarbazones in the presence 



Jtilt 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



43 



of acids of different strengths. The addi- 
tive power of methyl butyl ketone is greater 
than that of acetaldehyde ; of substituted 
aeetoaeetic ester, less than that of the ester. 
The Carbon from Acetylene, the Fourth 

Allotropic Form of Carbon. William 

G. MiXTEE. (By title.) 
Some Experiments on the Fuel Value of 

Coal Ashes. Henry Fay. (By title.) 
Bleaching of Flour. Edwakd Gudeman. 

(By title.) 
The Action of Water and Salt Solutions 

upon Certain Slightly Soluble Phos- 
phates: F. K. Cameron and L. A. Hurst. 

The hydrolysis was shown to be relatively 
great, and to depend upon the proportion 
of solid in contact with the solution. The 
effect of alkalies and acids was to increase 
the amount of phosphoric acid dissolved 
from iron or aluminum phosphate, but the 
effect of neutral salts could not be pred- 
icated. 
The Action of Water and Some Solutions 

on the Phosphates of Calcmm: J. K. 

Cameron and Atherton Seidell. 

Owing to the similarity between results 
obtained with iron and aluminum phos- 
phates on one hand and tricaleium phos- 
phate on the other, it was deemed advisable 
to study also mono- and dicalcium phos- 
phates, which can be obtained as definite 
and Avell characterized solids. Mono- 
calcium and tricaleium phosphates are 
greatly decomposed by water, while dical- 
cium phosphate is but slightly decomposed 
and is the stable form under ordinary con- 
ditions. 
The Solubility of Calcium Sulphate in 

Solutions of Nitrates: Atherton Seidell 

and J. G. Smith. 

Experiments were made with the nitrates 
of magnesium, calcium, sodium and potas- 
sium, the character of the phenomena dif- 
fering in each case. 
The Disinfection of Public Water Supplies: 

George A. Soper. (By title.) 



Relation of Chemical Disinfectants to 

Hygiene and Sanitation: "Wm. Dreyfus. 

(By title.) 
The Determination of Ammonia in Milk: 

H. C. Sherman and W. N. Berg. 

The method described is an adaptation 
of the Boussingault vacuum distillation as- 
modified by Shaffer for the determination 
of ammonia in urine. The results ob- 
tained in the examination of fresh milk are 
believed to be accurate within a variation 
of d= 0.0003 per cent, and furnish a very 
delicate means of following certain types 
of fermentation. The method is being 
employed in a study of the amounts and 
significance of ammonia in cows' milk. 
The Variations in Standard among Ventzke 

Saccharimeters: Harris E. Sav^^yek. 

Examination of sixteen quartz-wedge 
saccharimeters,— fourteen being Schmidt 
and Haensch instruments,— has shown that 
there seem to be two standards of adjust- 
ment among polariseopes of this class. 

Five instruments were found which evi- 
dently are intended to read 100°, on a 200 
mm. column of sucrose solution, prepared 
and polarized at 17^° C. and containing 
26.048 grams of sugar in '100 Mohr c.e. 
The other eleven instruments were as 
obviously graduated to read 100° on a 
solution of the same normal weight, at the 
same temperature, in 100 true c.e. 

The comparison of these instruments was 
made by the use both of quartz plates and 
of standard solutions of sugar. 
The Colorimetric Estimation of Magne- 
sium: Oswald Schreiner and W. S. 

Ferris. 

Magnesium precipitated with KgHPO^, 
then washed with three per cent, ammonia 
solution, dissolved in aqueous nitric acid 
and treated with ammonium molybdate, 
gives a color suitable for comparison 
against standard solutions prepared from 
sodium phosphate. Results were given 



44 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



showing an agreement of about 0.5 part 
per million. 

The Colorimetric Estimation of Phos- 
phates; Second Method: Oswald 
ScHEEiNEE and B. E. Beown. 
The first method previously described re- 
quires the precipitation of the phosphorus 
as the well known yellow molybdate con- 
taining phosphorus and ammonia. In this 
second method the phosphorus is precipi- 
tated with magnesia solution, washed with 
ammonia, dissolved in nitric acid, and read 
in the colorimeter after addition of molyb- 
date. 

Determination of SulpMir and Phosphorus 
in Food, Faces and Urine: J. A. Le 
Clerc and W. L. Dubois. (By title.) 
Device for Beading 'Nesslerized' Ammonia 
Tuhes in Water Analysis: W. P. Mason. 
(By title.) 
A Peculiar Occurrence of Bitumen and 
Evidence as to its Origin: William 
Congee Morgan. (By title.) 

Austin M. Patterson. 



MATERIAL VEB8V8 INTELLECTUAL DE- 
'VELOPMENT OF OVR UNIVERSITIES. 

The material development of our uni- 
versities within the past two decades may 
safely be characterized as phenomenal, and 
has been more than commensurate with 
that of the country at large. 

As a result the plain inexpensive college 
buildings of the past now stand by the side 
of palaces of to-day, while stately gate- 
ways and imposing walls flank the carefully 
graded grounds that once constituted the 
relatively unkempt campus. 

Public taste is being awakened and di- 
rected to an appreciation of the beautiful. 
But apart from the esthetic side the equip- 
ment of scientific laboratories and the de- 
velopment of college libraries and museums 
have been distinguishing features in the 
recent growth of our institutions of higher 
learning. 



The surroundings of the student are now 
far more hygienic than in the past, and 
things once regarded as luxuries are now 
rightly considered necessities of life. As 
an evidence of this we need only quote the 
following from a recent annual report of 
the president of Harvard University : ' ' The 
practise of fifty years ago at Harvard Col- 
lege in respect to ventilation would now 
be against the law, * * * and public 
opinion would not now endorse the com- 
plete absence of bath-rooms from the dor- 
mitories owned by the college, an absence 
which occasioned very little remark down 
to the year 1890." 

But lest we praise too unstintingly this 
unparalleled progress of the past twenty 
years, we should seriously consider whether 
the intellectual welfare of our universities 
is developing in even measure with their 
material progress. 

The beauty of college grounds and stately 
buildings can not of itself elevate public 
taste, nor can extensively equipped labo- 
ratories turn out great workers in the 
fields of science. Too often, indeed, these 
things stultify through the very sense of 
satisfaction they engender in our minds. 
A wooden shed at Penikese was a sufBcient 
opportunity for an Agassiz, and the dull 
routine of a colliery was but an incentive 
to the inventive mind of a Stephenson. 

The age demands strong men and we 
must learn to respect our colleges not 
for their wealth in material things, but for 
having been the cradle and the home of 
leaders of thought and action. 

A study of the reports of the commis- 
sioner of education and of announcements 
of college presidents and other officers may 
throw some interesting light upon certain 
phases of the intellectual and material 
progress of our colleges. Certain features, 
such as the increase in the number of stu- 
dents, the growth of libraries, the increase 
in the faculties and the development of the 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



45 



post-graduate schools, may, if taken to- 
gether and closely analyzed, be considered 
to provide a fair index of the intellectual 
growth of our colleges. 

On the other hand, the increase in total 
value of the property, the increase in en- 
dowment funds, annual cost of buildings 
and the amounts of benefactions and ap- 
propriations for college buildings and 
grounds may contribute more or less di- 
rectly to intellectual growth, but are not 
necessarily indicative of such development. 

The fact is that the material progress of 
our colleges has in the past twenty years 
outstripped the intellectual, and while they 
have unquestionably grown as centers of 
learning, growth in material wealth has 
been the great distinguishing feature of 
their progress. 

For example, we find that in the year 
1902 there were 1.53 times as many colleges 
and universities in the United States as 
there were in 1890. During the same 
period, however, the number of students 
increased 1.9 times, or in even greater ratio 
than the number of colleges. This cer- 
tainly is indicative of a growing desire, or 
a better ability, to take advantage of a col- 
lege education, and yet the total number of 
students in 1902 was but 107,391, or less 
than one seven-hundredth of our popula- 
tion. 

The student of 1902 found twice as many 
teachers in the colleges as compared with 
his predecessor of 1890, but as the number 
of students had also doubled, the classes 
Tinder each teacher were on the average as 
large as were those of 1890. It appears 
that our colleges, as a whole, have not 
been able to increase the teaching force in 
greater ratio than the growth of the stu- 
dent body, although it has long been recog- 
nized that small classes, or divisions, are 
necessary in order to secure the paramount 
advantage to the student of a close personal 
relation with his teacher. 



Our most progressive universities have, 
however, striven earnestly to attain this 
end, but have been able to achieve it only 
by appointing a large number of young 
instructors and assistants at small salaries. 
Indeed, the average salary paid to members 
of the faculty in our leading eastern uni- 
versities has declined steadily. At the 
same time the percentage of instructors, 
assistants and other subordinates serving 
upon the teaching force has risen. 

In other words, the teaching is now per- 
formed more largely by young and poorly 
paid men. Albeit, however, young as they 
be, they are men the average of whose 
ability is high. 

The ease of two of our greatest eastern 
universities is typical of the general situa- 
tion: In one of these in 1889-90, 39 per 
cent, of the teaching force were professors 
or assistant professors, and the average 
salary was $1,500; in 1892-03, however, 
the number of professors and assistant pro- 
fessors had decreased to 28 per cent, of the 
total number of teachers, while the average 
salary had declined to $1,257. 

In another great institution in the New 
England states, 49 per cent, of the teachers 
were professors or assistant professors in 
1890, and the average salary was $1,454; 
while in 1902-03, only 37 per cent, of the 
faculty were professors and the average 
salary was about $1,355. 

Promotion within the faculty of these 
great institutions has become so slow that 
it may be not inaptly compared with this 
condition within the United States Navy 
between the years 1868-98, when gray- 
haired lieutenants were the rule. The 
years of struggle have been lengthened for 
the aspirant to collegiate position, and col- 
lege teachers of marked ability are now 
ordinarily men of middle age before being 
promoted to an assistant professorship. 

This condition of affairs can not fail but 
to react unfavorably upon the universities 



46 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



themselves, for the best young men of our 
land must realize all too fully that effort 
and ability sufficient to win high honor in 
the professions, or in business affairs, will 
avail but little if exerted within the college 
walls, and that for many years they and 
their families must live upon less than is 
earned by railway conductors, or baggage 
inspectors in the custom house. 

It is, indeed, an open question at the 
present day whether the members of our 
greatest faculties compare favorably in 
judgment, or even in character, with lead- 
ers in law, medicine or affairs. Too often 
one feels that the narrowing influence pro- 
duced by years of poverty has had its final 
effect upon the minds of many of our best 
scholars. Unless conditions be changed the 
faculties of our universities must surely 
deteriorate, and the cause of education will 
suffer incomparably; and is now suffering 
to a greater degree than even the intelligent 
public realize. 

A certain lack of public respect for our 
great scholars is another but closely related 
factor that operates against the true inter- 
ests of education. The names of Whitney, 
Gray, Leidy and Peirce have an unfamiliar 
sound to us in comparison with those of 
Max Miiller, Sir Joseph Hooker, Sir Rich- 
ard Owen and Sir George Airy, their for- 
eign contemporaries of no greater worth. 

It is true that the hope of being able to 
advance the good of the world should be a 
sufficient incentive to our effort; but men 
are not abstractions of philosophy, and 
grievously underpaid and unhonored pro- 
fessions will fail to enlist the interest of 
our ablest youth. 

But to consider another phase of the 
intellectual growth of our colleges; one of 
the most recent as well as the most hopeful 
is the development of pos1>graduate schools 
by all of our leading universities. It is 
here, and here only, that advanced and pro- 
ductive scholarship appears among the stu- 



dent body. The love and ambition for re- 
search is fostered here, and comparison 
between our universities and those of Ger- 
many can only be instituted with reference 
to our post-graduate schools, for only in 
this direction of progress do we approach 
the German standard. 

Yet in 1902-03 the graduate students 
were but 4.6 per cent, of our student body, 
and if the graduate schools increase at the 
rate at which they have developed since 1890, 
more than a century must elapse before 
one half of the students in our universities 
will be in the graduate school. No great 
progress can be expected until the colleges 
can afford to appoint leaders of thought to 
professorships, the duties of which shall 
be confined to the graduate school. It, 
seems, indeed, remarkable that this has not 
been done, for we have long since recog- 
nized that a primary condition of success- 
ful management demands that special 
faculties shall preside over the affairs of 
our medical, law, technical and other 
schools under the auspices of universities. 
Why should our graduate schools be with- 
out a special faculty? The work of the 
graduate school centers upon research, and. 
it is, indeed, significant that the gi-eatest. 
encouragement ever given to research in 
pure science has come not from our col- 
leges, but from one whose unparalleled 
success was achieved through the practical 
application of principles of science to in- 
dustrial effort. 

There is yet another standard by which 
we may measure the intellectual growth of 
our colleges. Their libraries in 1902 con- 
tained 2.1 times as many volumes as in 
1890. Public libraries not connected with 
colleges, however, achieved the same in- 
crease in the same interval. 

We now approach the consideration of 
the growth of our colleges in material 
things between 1889-90 and 1902^ and the-. 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



TABLE SHOWING THE MATERIAL AND THE 'INTELLECTUAL' RESOURCES OP UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 
OP THE UNITED STATES IN 19U2; AND THEIR INCREASE SINCE 1889-1890. 







Eatio of 






Eatio of 


Material Resources, 1902. 


Amount. 


Increase Since 
1889-'90. 


'Intellectual' Status, 1902. 


Total Number. 


Increase Since 
1889-'90. 


Total value of property. 


$417,205,234 


2.83 


Number of universities 












and colleges. 


638 


1.53 


Value of grounds and 






Number of students. 


107,391 


1.9 


buildin<i;s. 


154,529,288 


2.4 


Post-graduate students. 


4,942 


2.47 


Endowment funds. 


185,944,668 


2.5 


Number of teachers. 


15,945 


2 


Benefactions received dur- 






Number of books and 






ing the year 1902. 


17,039,967 


2.8 


libraries. 


8,784,307 


2.1 


Appropriation received 












from states, cities, etc. 


6,437,493 


4.5 








Cost of buildings erected 


5,680,000 


2.8 








during the vear 1902. 


at least 


at least 








Income exclusive of bene- 












factions. 


33,868,244 


3.3 









result of our studies may be summarized 
in the accompanying table. 

Inspection of this table will reveal the 
fact that in the interval between 1889-90 
and 1902 the material resources of our col- 
leges have become from 2.4 to 4.5 times 
as great as at the beginning of this period, 
while their 'intellectual' resources, meas- 
ured by the increase in schools, students, 
teachers and books, have become only from 
1.53 to 2.47 times as great as in 1890. 

The progress of our colleges in the past 
twelve years has been material rather than 
intellectual. 

It is not the purpose of this article alto- 
gether to decry this progress, for many 
conditions have rendered it for the time, 
at least, desirable or even necessary, but it 
must be checked erelong and the intel- 
lectual side, the soul of the college, de- 
veloped in greater ratio. 

College presidents and boards of trustees 
must realize that imposing buildings and 
expensively equipped laboratories will not 
make universities. I grant that in our 
country it is usually far easier to gather 
funds for the erection of buildings than 
for the development of unseen things, but 
this fact alone should be a stimulus to 
those to whom the destiny of our colleges 
is entrusted to seek even more ardently for 



aid in the adequate endowment of pro- 
fessorships, for funds required in the 
prosecution and publication of research, 
for the enlargement of learned libraries, 
and for all things pertaining to the intel- 
lectual life of the college. Men who give 
of their wealth to aid our colleges are 
usually actuated by unselfish motives, and 
would gratefully receive the advice of those 
in control of the destiny of education, to 
advance the highest even if unseen, rather 
than to create the spectacular and super- 
ficial. 

Alfred Goldsbokough Mayer. 
Marine Biological Laboratory, 

TORTUGAS, Fla. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 

The Vegetable Alkaloids. With particular 
reference to their chemical constitution. 
By Dr. Ame Pictet, Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Geneva. Prom the second French 
edition. Eendered into English, revised 
and enlarged, with the author's sanction, 
by H. C. BiDDLE, Ph.D., Instructor in the 
University of California. New York, John 
Wiley & Sons; London, Chapman & Hall, 
Limited. -1904. 8vo. Pp.vii + 505. Cloth, 
$5.00. 
The publication of the classical work on 

' Die Pflanzenstoffe ' by Dr. August Huse- . 



48 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



mann, in 1871, marked the beginning of mono- 
graphic work on proximate plant constituents. 
This work was revised in 1882, but no subse- 
quent revisions have been made, and no other 
work has been published to take its place, 
doubtless owing to the great labor involved 
in collaborating the extensive researches of 
the past twenty-five years. Even ' Die Eoh- 
stoffe des Pflanzenreiches ' by Wiesner, the 
second edition of which appeared not long ago 
(1902), required the assistance of a dozen 
collaborators. In more recent years the tend- 
ency has been for authors to confine their 
attention to single groups of plant constitu- 
ents, as for example, the study of the carbo- 
hydrates by Tollens; the ethereal oils, by 
Gildemeister and Hoffmann, etc. One of the 
earliest of these works was that of Pietet on 
the ' Chemical Constitution of the Vegetable 
Alkaloids,' and the present work by Dr. Biddle 
is not only an English translation, but a re- 
vision of Pictet's work. 

It is almost a hundred years since SertUrner, 
an apothecary of Hanover, isolated the first 
basic organic substance, or alkaloid. He ob- 
tained from opium a body termed by him 
morphium, which he compared to ammonia. 
This subject, however, did not arouse any 
special interest until about 1817, and during 
the next twenty years a number of the most 
important vegetable alkaloids were discovered, 
including emetine, strychnine, caffeine, qui- 
nine, nicotine, conine, atropine, aconitine, etc. 
The complex nature of these alkaloids rend- 
ered their study difBcult, until Liebig showed 
that they are merely ammonia bases in which 
a hydrogen atom is replaced by an organic 
radical. This view was later confirmed by 
the classical researches of Wurtz and Hof- 
mann, which led, nearly fifty years after Ser- 
tiirner's isolation of morphine, to the first 
synthesis of an organic base, viz., conine, by 
Ladenburg. 

It was found that most of the vegetable 
alkaloids are derivatives of pyridine, a com- 
pound discovered by Anderson in ' Dippel's 
oil,' a product obtained by the dry distillation 
of bones. Not all the alkaloids, however, are 
related to pyridine, some, as caffeine and theo- 



bromine, being uric acid derivatives, as 
pointed out by E. Eischer, in 1883. Betaine, 
muscarine and some others are closely related 
to the amines of the fatty acids, while still 
others, as leucine and glutamine, belong to 
the asparagine group. 

The fact that most of the alkaloids were 
found to be in the nature of pyridine bases 
led to the study of the constitution of these 
bases as found in coal tar. Under the leader- 
ship of Hofmann research in this particular 
field was followed with a great deal of en- 
thusiasm, and to him belongs the credit of 
first establishing the constitution of an alka- 
loid, viz., conine, the chief alkaloid of poison 
hemlock, which later was prepared, as already 
stated, synthetically by Ladenburg. 

At the present, not only on account of the 
scientific interest of the subject, but also be- 
cause of the economic value of these products, 
a large number of investigators are devoting 
attention to the study of the chemistry of the 
alkaloids. The result is a voluminous litera- 
ture, and it is fortunate for not only students 
of chemistry and phyto-chemistry, but others 
as well, that these results have been brought 
together in the volume at hand. The work 
is divided into two parts, the first dealing with 
the artificial bases closely related to the nat- 
ural alkaloids, and the second with the chem- 
ical behavior of the alkaloids and the bear- 
ing of this on their chemical constitution. 
The book has been brought up to date in most 
instances, as seen by the incorporation of the 
brilliant investigations of Ladenburg, Merling 
and Willstatter on the synthesis of atropine, 
atropamine, belladonnine, inactive cocaine and 
tropacocaine; the recent investigations of Von 
Gerichten and Knorr on morphine and co- 
deine; the studies of Gadamer as well as 
Dobbie and Lauder on corydaline; Willstatter 
and Eourneau's work on lupinine ; Kauwerda's 
work on cytisine; and also the extensive 
studies on the alkaloids of jaborandi, tobacco, 
coffee, etc., by Jowett, Pinner, Pietet, Eischer 
and various other investigators. There are, 
however, a number of recent investigations, 
the results of which are not included, but 
which would enhance a work of this kind, as 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



49 



that of Miller on the constitution of ephe- 
drine; the researches of Paul and Cownley on 
the alkaloids of ipecac; and those of Fischer, 
Schlotterbeek and others on various alkaloids, 
which have been published in the past few 
years in the Proceedings of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. The physiolog- 
ical properties given in connection with some 
of the alkaloids might well be omitted in a 
work of this kind, particularly as a few of 
them are not entirely accurate. The index 
would be more helpful if the plant names 
were included in all cases, in addition to the 
names of the alkaloids derived from them. 
An enlargement on the parts dealing with 
physical properties and important chemical 
tests would add to the value of the book and 
make it appreciated by a larger number. 

Henry Kraemer. 



SCIENTIFIC JOUBNALa AND ARTICLES. 

The June number (volume 10, number 9) 
of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical 
Society contains: Report of the April Meet- 
ing of the Chicago Section of the Society, by 
T. F. Holgate; 'The Heine-Borel Theorem,' 
by Oswald Veblen; ' On Self -Dual Scrolls,' by 
C. H. Sisam; 'On Some Tendencies in Geo- 
metric Investigations,' by Corrado Segre; 
Eeply to Professor Snyder's Review of Study's 
Geometric der Dynamen, by Eduard Study, 
with Note by Virgil Snyder ; ' Notes ' ; ' New 
Publications.' 

The July number of the Bulletin contains: 
Report of the April Meeting of the Society, 
by F. N. Cole; Report of the April Meeting 
of the San Francisco Section, by G. A. Mil- 
ler ; ' On Linear Homogeneous Difference 
Equations and Continuous Groups,' by Saul 
Epsteen; Review of Warren's Experimental 
and Theoretical Course of Geometry, by R. E. 
Moritz ; a number of ' Shorter Notices ' ; 
'Notes'; 'New Publications'; 'Thirteenth 
Annual List of Published Papers'; Index of 
Volume 10. 

A general index of the Bulletin, from 1891 
to 1904, is in preparation. 

The American^ Journal of Science for July 
contains the following articles: 



H. A. Bdmstead: 'Atmospheric Radio-activity.' 
T. Holm : ' Studies in the Cyperacese.' 

. C. E. Beecher: 'Note on a New Permian 

Xiphosuran from Kansas.' 

C. Baskekville and G. F. Kunz : ' Kunzite and 
its Unique Properties.' 

li. 0. E. Davis : ' Analysis of Kuuzite.' 
E. H. IvEAiTs : ' Occurrence of Celestite near 
Syracuse, N. Y., etc' 

L. F. Ward : ' Famous Fossil Cycad.' 
H. A. Perkins : ' Comparison of Two Ways of 
Using the Galvanometer.' 

H. E. Med WAT : ' Further Work with the Rota- 
ting Cathode.' 

H. L. Bronson : ' Transverse Vibrations of 
Helical Springs.' 

D. B. Sterrett : ' New Type of Caleite from 
the Joplin Mining District.' 

J. Trowbridge and W. Rollins : ' Radium and 
the Electron Theory.' 

J. P. Rowe : ' Pseudomorphs and Crystal Cav- 
ities.' 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

THE TOEEEY BOTANICAL CLUB. 

The club met in the morphological labora- 
tory at the New York Botanical Garden, 
March 30, 1904. 

The first paper on the scientific program 
was ' Notes on the Cytology of the Aquatic 
Fungi,' by Dr. Cyrus A. King. Schroeter's 
classification of the Phycomycetes was re- 
viewed and attention called to the fact that 
the conidia of the Peronosporineas resemble 
sporangia since they germinate by forming 
internal zoospores. In the Saprolegniaceas, 
according to Trow, the eggs are at first mul- 
tinucleate, all except the sexual nucleus in 
each egg being disposed of by digestion. Dr. 
King'^ researches have shown that in the Lep- 
tomitacese, as far as known, the oogonia are at 
iu'st multinucleate and the supernumerary 
nuclei are disposed of by migrating to the 
periphery of the cell where they are cut off 
in a distinct periplasm. In Araiospora the 
peripheral nuclei surround themselves with 
cell walls in such a way that the ooplasm is 
surrounded by a layer of periplasmic cells. 
In Sapromyces there is also a periplasm in 
which the nonsexual nuclei are cut off; it is, 
however, reduced to a very thin layer. The 
formation of a body in the center of the egg 



50 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



of Araiospora by the coalescence of several 
small cytoplasmic patches from various parts 
of the ooplasm was described. The body 
probably is an attraction center for the sexual 
nuclei. A similar structure was not found in 
Sapromyces. Bhipidium was also briefly de- 
scribed. The presence of a periplasm and the 
migration of the nuclei from the developing 
egg indicates that the Leptomitaceae are more 
closely allied to the Peronosporinese than to 
the Saprolegnineffi. Photomicrographs were 
shown from Dr. King's preparations showing 
the facts brought out and showing also in- 
direct nuclear division in the oogonium and 
zoosporangium of Sapromyces. 

An interesting discussion followed. 

The second paper of the afternoon was by 
Mr. B. C. Gruenberg and was entitled ' Chem- 
ical Investigations on Hwmatoxylon.' Hsema- 
toxylin is one of the most valuable of com- 
mercial dyes and the business of supplying 
the wood from which it is made forms an 
important industry in some of the West In- 
dies. Considerable annoyance has been caused 
by the fact that some of the logwood or Hwma- 
toxylon trees contain little or no dye, whole 
shipments even having been condemned on 
this account. The so-called ' bastard log- 
wood ' is not always to be distinguished at 
the time of cutting. It is either lighter in 
color or if dark at first it can be recognized 
by not becoming still darker on seasoning for 
some months as does the good wood. 

Professor Earle investigated the disease in 
the field, and concluded that the lack of pig- 
ment was not due to external conditions, or 
to disease, or to immaturity, but that the 
logwood is a variable plant and the bastard 
form is a variety or subspecies. 

The percentage of carbon in the ash-free 
material was determined for different samples 
with somewhat varying results, but showing 
that the good wood contains a slightly higher 
percentage, due probably to the carbon in the 
pigment. 

Analysis of leaves, stems and roots of one- 
year-old plants showed that the bastard plants 
contained slightly more ash and water, but 
the difference was very slight. 

Extracts of the pigment were made with a 



number of different solvents from varying 
samples of wood. The extracts with different 
solvents did not give parallel results as indi- 
cating the amount of pigment. In diluting 
the extracts chemical changes occurred. Al- 
kalies increase the color of extracts of the 
good wood but not extracts of the bastard 
wood. Acids have a parallel effect. 

Results on the soluble substances in the 
wood were not satisfactory on account of de- 
composition on drying. There are probably 
several pigments. 

After a discussion of the paper the meeting 
adjourned. 

William T. Hoene, 
Secretary pro tem. 

THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS. 

At the meeting on April 4, Dr. C. Barck 
read a paper on ' The History of Spectacles.' 

The essayist divided the subject into two 
parts, the development of the industrial art, 
and the evolution of the scientific selection. 
In regard to the former, it is an open question 
whether the Chinese invented glasses prior to 
the Europeans. Of the ancient nations of 
western Eurasia, we possess only one relic, 
namely, a convex lens of rock crystal which 
was discovered among the ruins of old Nin- 
eveh by Sir Layard. To the Egyptians, 
Greeks and Romans glasses were unknown. 
The latter assertion does not agree with the 
common opinion, as expressed in the belief 
that Nero was near-sighted and used glasses. 
But this is due to a misinterpretation of a 
passage of Pliny, as proved at length by the 
reader of the paper. During the first twelve 
centuries of the Christian era there is no men- 
tion of spectacles; they were invented at the 
end of the thirteenth century by two Italians, 
Armati and Spina, either independently or 
conjointly. This is proved by a number of 
documents. The essayist then dwelt upon the 
gradual spread of their use, and the improve- ' 
ment of the frames and lenses. At first only 
convex lenses were used, concave ones being 
employed about two centuries afterwards. 
Cylindrical lenses for the correction of astig- 
matism, which had been discovered by Thomas 
Young in 1801, were devised by the astron- 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



51 



omer Airy in 1827. Bifocals were invented 
and first used by Benjamin Franklin, 1785. 
As to the selection of the appropriate lenses, 
this was at first done by the peddlers who sold 
them. Physicians for a long time paid no 
attention to it. Even after the epochal work 
of the astronomer Kepler had opened a new 
era in optics by demonstrating the physiology 
of the act of vision, 1604, physicians main- 
tained their reserved attitude and considered 
it below the dignity of their profession to have 
anything to do with the selection of glasses. 
It was only in the middle of the last century 
that the change took place. This was due 
mainly to the labors of Helmholtz and Bon- 
ders, who laid the foundation for the adjust- 
ment of lenses according to mathematical 
and optical principles. The invention of the 
ophthalmoscope, by which the refraction can 
be determined objectively; of the ophthal- 
mometer, which measures the astigmatism of 
the cornea; and the introduction of remedies, 
by which the accommodation can be paralyzed 
followed in rapid succession. By means of 
these instruments and methods of precision, 
the medical adviser is governed by well-estab- 
lished laws in the selection of spectacles, and 
this now belongs to the domain of science. 
The lecture was illustrated by a number of 
copies of old paintings and by drawings. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

GEO-BIOLOGICAL TEEMS. 

The fundamental idea of Mos is not con- 
veyed by the new terms proposed by Dr. Dall 
in Science (No. 494) for indicating collec- 
tively * land and fresh-water organisms.' By 
analogy with Leibnitz's protogaa, or the 
primordial world, epigasa would apply to the 
superficies of the earth, and the literal mean- 
ing of namatogaea is ' stream-world.' Cor- 
rectly formed substantives are geobios and 
limnobios, proposed by Haeckel as the equiva- 
lents of terrestrial and fresh-water faunae re- 
spectively. These may be readily combined 
in GEO-LiMNOBios ; or, if an adjective form is 
desired, aqua-terrestrial, or compounds of 
terrestris with mare, fluvius, lacus, etc., sug- 
gest themselves. Aqua having the general 



significance of fresh water (aqua pluvia, aqua 
fontana, aqua ccelestis, etc.) as opposed to 
salt, the distinction between aqua-terrestrial 
and marino-terrestrial is sufficiently obvious. 
Shorter than any- of these, however, is the 
Greek adjective form, Geo-limnous. 

Those who are in the habit of following the 
discussion of neologisms in Science may recall 
the sprightly flow of opinion that continued 
for some time in these columns (Vols. V. and 
VI.) in regard to certain physiographic ex- 
travaganza, such as ' Shickshinnies ' for syn- 
clinal valleys, ' remolino ' for pot-hole, ' cuesta ' 
for hill-slope, etc. If we may be forgiven for 
appearing ironical, it deserves to be pointed 
out that some of the more euphuistic of the 
terms proposed about that time are preoccu- 
pied. For instance, a round dozen of soft 
Spanish exotics were imported by Arthur 
Schott upwards of fifty years ago (Proc. A. 
A. A. S., 1856, p. 33), but for some reason 
they failed to germinate. Priority, strictly 
enforced, might quicken them with new life; 
then pot-hole, or ' remolino,' would acquire 
the chastened form of tinaja, the homely but 
expressive ' sink ' would give way to charco, 
and base-level to loma. The first of these is 
defined as ' a water-hole in solid rock, usually 
met with in crevices and ravines of rocky 
mountains.' Charco is a name given to 
" water-pools found usually in lower and level 
places. They are formed either by the decay 
of rocks or by washing out of beds of clay." 
Loma is ' a long narrow mountain or hill- 
ridge, with a level horizon.' 

0. R. Eastman. 

Harvard University. 

A reply to certain criticisms of professor 

GIARD respecting THE BOPYRIDS. 

Peofessoe Alfred Giard, a master in the 
knowledge of the Bopyridae, has done me the 
favor to examine and criticize the results of 
my recent studies on that group.* Professor 
Giard has aptly affirmed that a copy of Bon- 
nier's volume ' Contribution a I'etude des 
Bopyridse ' (a)t ought to be found in Wash- 

* See G. R. Soe. de Biologic, LVI., 1904, April 
22, pp. .591-594. 

t The letters in parentheses refer to the bibliog- 
raphy at the end of the article. 



52 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



ington. Unfortunately none of the libraries 
here has been favored with his work, — not 
even the Smithsonian Institution, which is 
very liberal in the distribution of its publi- 
cations throughout the world. It is to be 
regretted that the scientific institutions in 
France have not responded to the offer of ex- 
changes from the Smithsonian Institution and 
as a result many of their publications are not 
to be had here. Before the publication of my 
' Contributions to the Natural History of the 
Isopods ' (e), I made every effort to secure 
Bonnier's work, without success. After wri- 
ting to other libraries in this country, I have 
since succeeded in securing the loan of the 
volume from the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard College. 

With the humility of a disciple, I admit 
that I was in error (as I discovered before the 
criticism appeared) in considering that Giard 
and Bonnier had identified Grapsicepon fritzi 
with the species of Bopyrus found by Fritz 
Miiller on an Alpheus (c). The name Bopyrus 
alphei, it appears, was given by Giard and 
Bonnier in 1890 (6) to the form found by 
Miiller on a species of Alpheus, but as no de- 
scription or figure ever appeared until those 
I gave in 1900 (d), ten years later, I 
think no zoologist would quote Giard and 
Bonnier as the authority of the species, a 
name without a description or figure not 
being usually accepted. I do not agree with 
Professor Bonnier in placing Bopyrus alphei 
in the genus Bopyrella, for I consider it a 
true Proiopyrus, where I have recently placed 
it, the abdomen of the female being segmented. 
My figure is misleading, as it shows no seg- 
mentation, but, at the time it was made, I 
could not distinguish any segmentation in the 
specimen at hand, which was very transparent 
and colorless. Since receiving other speci- 
mens, I have been able to see distinctly the 
segmentation of the abdomen. In Bopyrella 
the abdominal segments are all fused. 

During the short time that Professor Bon- 
nier's work was in my possession, I was not 
able to examine all that it contains, but I 
noted the great similarity of my genus 
Parapenceon to his genus OrUone. I do not, 
however, consider my genus a synonym of 



Orhione, for it differs in not having the sixth 
segment of the abdomen of the female pro- 
duced into pleural lamellas, that segment in 
Parapenceon being very small and rounded. 
In the type species of Orhione the pleural 
lamellse are produced to such an extent that 
they reach beyond the extremity of the 
uropoda. The second species of Orhione, 0. 
incerta, described by Professor Bonnier, dif- 
fers in this respect from the type species and 
may come under my genus Parapenceon. The 
author suggests that the second species of 
Orhione may represent a new genus. The 
female of Parapenceon agrees more with the 
female of Cryptione Hansen than it does with 
the female of Orhione, but the males in the 
two genera are very unlike. When the male 
of Orhione is known, there may be other char- 
acters to differentiate Orhione from both 
Parapenceon and Cryptione. At present 
Parapenceon is quite as distinct from Orhione 
as Orhione is from Cryptione. 

Urohopyrus Richardson is certainly very 
close to Paloegyge Giard and Bonnier, but can 
not be considered a synonym. In the female 
of Urohopyrus ' the uropoda are a pair of 
douhle-hretnched appendages attached to the 
terminal abdominal segment; the inner 
branches are smaller and more slender than the 
outer branches.' The female of Paloegyge has 
small, simple, rudimentary, knob-like uropoda, 
not lamellar in shape nor elongated so as to 
extend beyond the terminal segment as is 
found in Urohopyrus. 

In speaking of the thoracic processes in the 
adult female of Argeia as not being of 
epimeral origin, but arising from the posterior 
portion of the segment, I made the statement 
that it was incorrect to refer to them as 
' lames pleurales.' My idea was not to sug- 
gest that Giard and Bonnier had confounded 
the ' lames pleurales ' with the ' productions 
epimeriennes,' but rather to point out that, 
in a strict sense, it is not exact to speak of 
them as ' lames pleurales.' They may be 
considered as the posterior divisions of the 
' lames pleurales,' that view being now gen- 
erally accepted, the anterior division of the 
' lames pleurales ' being placed lateral to the 
ovarian bosses on the anterior portion of the 



JULT 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



53 



segments. In Argeia, therefore, the ' lames 
pleurales ' are in two parts, an anterior and a 
posterior part, and it is not exact to refer to 
these thoracic processes, which arise from the 
posterior portion of the segments, as the 
' lames pleurales ' of the segments. 

In conclusion, I wish to state that I am not 
more willing to accept the ' loi naturelle ' than 
I was to accept the ' hypothese ' postulated by 
Giard and Bonnier until its confirmation has 
been maintained by facts. Professor Giard 
states that I have not carefully studied Argeia 
pugettensis coming from different hosts. I 
hope soon to give in greater detail the results 
of my researches on this form and on 
Bopyroides hippolytes. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

(a) BoNNiEE (J.). 'Contribution a I'Stude dea 
Epicarides. Les Bopyridse.' Travaux de 
la station eoologique de Wimereux, VIII., 
1900. 

(6) GiAED (Alfred) and Bonnier (J.). 'Pro- 
drome d'une monographie des Epiearides du 
golfe de Naples.' Bull, scient. Fr. et 
Belgique, XXII., 1890. 

(c) MiJLLER (Fritz). ' Bruehstucke zur Natur- 
gesehiehte der Bopyriden.' Jenaische 
Zeitsch. f. Naturw., VI., 1871. 

{d) Richardson (Harriet). 'Results of the 
Branner-Agassiz Expedition to Brazil. Pt. 
2. The Isopod Crustacea.' Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sei., II., 1900. 

(e) Richardson (Harriet). 'Contributions to 
the Natural History of the Isopoda.' Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Museum, XXVII., 1904. 

Harriet Eichardson. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 

AN ACCOUNT OP THE PRELIMINARY EXCAVATIONS 

m A RECENTLY EXPLORED QUATERNARY CAVE 

IN SHASTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. 

In the summer of 1902 the writer was com- 
missioned by the department of anthropology 
of the University of California to search for 
Quaternary caves in the belt of Carboniferous 
limestone exposed along the lower portion of 
the McCloud River. The work of that year 
led to the exploration of the Potter Creek 
cave which has already been described in 
Science.* 

*Wm. J. Sinclair, Science, N. S., Vol. XVII., 
No. 435, pp. 708-712, May 1, 1903. 



During the summer of 1903 further explora- 
tions were carried on by the writer under the 
direction of Professor J. C. Merriam, in the 
hope that caves of somewhat later age might 
he discovered. As a result of this work cave 
deposits containing remains of Quaternary 
mammals have been found in several new 
localities. Of these, the cave containing the 
largest quantity of remains is so situated with 
relation to the topography of the region as to 
indicate that it is younger than the Potter 
Creek Cave. To this cavern the name Samwel 
cave has been given, owing to the presence in 
it of a pool known among the Wintun In- 
dians as ' Samwel,' or spirit water. An Indian 
legend to the effect that a Wintun maiden 
had fallen into a very deep well in the cave 
while searching for water led to the most im- 
portant discoveries made here. 

The Samwel cave is situated on the east 
bank of the McCloud Eiver and about sixteen 
miles above its mouth. The entrance is on a 
Quaternary river terrace. Measurements 
kindly furnished the writer by Mr. J. S. Cil- 
ler, who visited the cave with him, show this 
terrace to be 355 feet above the McCloud 
River and 1,505 feet above sea level. The en- 
trance is a large, low arched vestibule leading 
to a series of galleries which widen again to 
large chambers. 

The first chamber is about twenty-five feet 
long. At the southeast end a vertical fis- 
sure about thirty feet high extends twenty 
feet into the wall. The top is arched over 
and the bottom is filled with a deposit of 
clay and stalagmite containing many bones. 
The highest point on this deposit is near the 
middle of the fissure. Prom this place it fans 
out, fills the farther end and slopes dovm to 
the floor of the main chamber where it spreads 
out. It has been excavated to the depth of 
four feet, and is seen to be composed of sev- 
eral strata. The whole is covered by a stalag- 
mite capping varying considerably in thick- 
ness. 

Many remains were taken from this deposit. 
They include limb bones, vertebrae, teeth, 
jaws and a large number of splintered bones. 
In the deposit on the floor of the chamber, 
near the entrance of the fissure, a dis- 



54 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



tinctly cliipped fragment of black lava was 
found six inches below the surface. Asso- 
ciated with it were splintered bones and re- 
mains of extinct mammals. It is possible that 
the flint may have fallen in from the surface 
or worked its way there through a small crevice 
in the floor, but before commencing excava- 
tion the floor had been cleared of all loose ma- 
terial and no crevices were observed. While 
not of the most conclusive character, the evi- 
dence seems to favor original association of 
the objects found. Bones of several extinct 
mammals were found cemented to the top of 
the stalagmite capping. 

rollowing is a list of the species found here : 

Ursus americanus Pallas. 
~Ursus n. sp. 

Vulpes sp. 
-I Putori%Ls arizonensis Mearns. 
^ Aplodontia major Merriam, C. H. 
" Aplodontia near major Merriam, C. H. 

Aplodontia rufa Rafinesque. 

Arctomys sp. 

Lepibs auduboni Baird. 

■ Thomomys sp. 

""■ Thomomys monticola Allen. 
~ Citellus douglasi Richardson. 
Sciurus sp. 

- Erethizon epixanthus Brandt. 

■ Euceraiherium sp. 
Haplocerus sp. 

- Odocoileus sp. 

Equus occidentalis Leidy. 
r Elephas sp. (tooth fragment). 
— Megalonyx sp. 

The materials in the fissure deposit had ac- 
cess at some remote date through an opening 
in the roof. Of this no trace can now be 
seen, owing to stalactitic growth. Its source 
was indicated by streams of bones and earth 
found on projecting ledges and in pockets in 
the fissure walls. 

On the sides of the chamber opposite the 
fissure several small openings lead to a lower 
series of galleries, in one of which a large 
pool of water winds among the rocks. At two 
places in the lower , labyrinth of galleries 
there are deposits similar to that in chamber 
one and from these bones and teeth were taken. 
From the position of these deposits they ap- 



pear to have entered through fissures leading 
from some other chamber or from the surface. 

High on the south wall of chamber one and 
ditficult of access is an entrance to a second 
and larger cavern. This has a high arched 
roof and several tunnel-like grottos lead from 
it. Through a crevice caused by a fault, a 
great quantity of earth, angular limestone 
fragments and gravel have partly filled this 
room. 

At the farthest end of one of the grottos is 
an oval pit-like opening, which seemed to cor- 
respond to the description of the well into 
which the Indian maiden fell. To explore this 
pit, holes were drilled in the hard floor of the 
grotto and into these steel pins were set for 
the support of a rope ladder. The well was 
found to widen towards the lower end and was 
really but the chimney of a large cavern. The 
skeleton of the Indian maiden lay imme- 
diately below the opening and over the greater 
part of the floor were strewn many bones of 
bear, cougar and a large extinct goat-like 
animal.* 

The deposit on the floor of this chamber is 
an accumulation of mud, stalagmite and 
gravel. This has been excavated, in places, to 
a depth of four feet, and in that thickness 
shows six distinctly separated layers of clay, 
breccia and stalagmite. 

Mammal remains were very abundant over 
the floor and through all the strata excavated. 
In many instances whole skeletons of car- 
nivores and of rodents were found. There 
are many complete skulls and numerous disso- 
ciated limb bones. The stalagmite encrusting 
some of the specimens was from one to two 
inches thick, the bone below the covering 
being in a perfect state of preservation. 
Among the fragments are numerous split 
bones. Some specimens show scorings of ro- 
dents' teeth and others bear marks made by 
the gnawing of large carnivores. 

Following is a provisional list of species 
from this chamber (No. II.) : 

Ursus n. sp. 

Ursus sp. 

* Euceratherium collinum Sinclair and Furlong. 
See Univ. of Calif. Pub. Amer. Arched, and 
Ethnog., Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 18. 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



55 



"* Urocyon townsendi Merriam, C. H. 
^ Procyon near lotor Linn. 
- Felis hippolestes Merriam, C. H. 
>• Mephitis occidentalis Baird. 
^ Mustela sp. 
— Aplodontia near major. 
~- Erethizon epixanthus Brandt. 
~~ Lepus auduboni Baird. 

Lepus sp. 
y Microtus sp. 
X Neotama fuscipes Baird. 
Neotoma sp. 

— Sciurus^sp. 

^ Citellus douglasi Richardson. 
I- Euceratherium collinum Sinclair & Furlong. 

— Euceratherium n. sp. 
'~ Odocoileus sp. (a). 

Odocoileus sp. (h). 
~ Megalonyx sp. 

The majority of the remains discovered are 
those of large carnivora or of cave-inhabiting 
rodents. This would indicate that these ani- 
mals have lived in the caves. Such evidence 
is supported by the fact that the remains of 
■ungulates and other forms which would natur- 
ally fall prey to the carnivora are generally 
much scattered and broken, and in some in- 
stances show marks of carnivore teeth. 

The position of the present entrance pre- 
cludes the supposition that any animal could 
hy means of ' it have gained entrance to this 
chamber. It is seventy-five feet above the 
cave floor with a straight drop from top to 
hottom. The approach to this chimney is 
through several difiicult and tortuous galleries, 
a route which animals would not follow, as it 
is far from the light. 

Under a portion of the overhanging wall at 
the southwest side of chamber two, a small fan 
of stalagmite-covered detrital matter sloping 
from the outside may mark a former entrance 
now entirely choked and sealed by the heavy 
stalagmite growth. It was possibly at this 
point that animals had access to the chamber, 
as there is now no outside entrance. 

A full report on this investigation will ap- 
pear later in the Publications of the Univer- 
sity of California. 

E. L. Furlong. 

Univeksitt of California, 
April, 1904. 



y 



VITALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTEIS (PAM.) 
SMITH ON CABBAGE SEED. 

Black rot of cabbage and cauliflower, 
caused by Pseudomonas campestris (Pam.) 
Smith, is a widespread and often destructive 
disease in the United States. The experience 
of farmers indicates that the disease may be 
transmitted by means of the seed; but plant 
pathologists have doubted this because it 
seemed impossible that the organism could re- 
tain its vitality for several months on dry 
seeds. P. campestris forms no spores. More- 
over, Eussell and Harding* found that when 
fresh bouillon cultures were dried at 29° C. 
on cover slips and kept in darkness ' an ex- 
posure of 45 hours invariably sufficed to de- 
stroy the vitality of the organisms.' 

Recently the writers have investigated this 
subject and find that P. campestris may live 
on dry cabbage seed for at least ten months. 
A quantity of cabbage seed was wet with water 
into which a culture of P. campestris had been 
thoroughly stirred. The seed was then dried 
and stored in test-tubes in darkness. Some 
tubes were simply plugged with cotton, while 
others were plugged with cotton and then 
sealed with paraffin. Once a month the seeds 
were tested for the presence of living germs 
of P. campestris. This experiment is un- 
finished; but at the end of ten months some 
live germs were found (both in paraffined and 
in unparaffined tubes) and healthy cabbage 
plants inoculated with these germs showed the 
characteristic lesions of black rot in from one 
to three weeks. 

The writers have also proved that germs of 
P. campestris actually do occur on cabbage 
seed. Four black-rot-infected seed-cabbage 
plants from Long Island were threshed separ- 
ately and the seed rinsed in sterile water. 
Cultures of this water showed the presence of 
P. campestris on three lots of seed. The 
identity and pathogenicity of these cultures 
were proved by inoculations into plants. 
Other portions of the water were injected 
directly into plants and black rot produced in 
six out of twelve cases. On combining the re- 

* Russell, H. L„ a*d Harding, H. A., ' A Bac- 
terial Kot of Cabbage and Allied Plants,' Wis. 
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 65: 19. 



56 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



suits of the two methods the presence of P. 
campestris is shown on the seeds of all four 
of the seed plants examined. 

Full details of these studies will soon appear 
in Bulletin No. 261 of the New York Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. 

H. A. Harding, 
r. C. Stewart. 
Geneva, N. Y. 

a notable paleobotanical discovery. 

The term Cycadofilices proposed by Potonie 
for the group of synthetic genera, which in 
Paleozoic times were abundant and widely dis- 
tributed, and which so curiously combine 
filicinean and cycadean anatomical characters 
with foliar organs entirely fernlike in form, 
seems likely to become a penuanent acquisition 
to taxonomy; although some students, follow- 
ing so eminent an authority as Zeiller, still 
regard the Cycadofilicales as merely a special- 
ized group of ferns. 

The announcement a few months ago* by Pro- 
fessors Oliver and Scott that the gymnosperm- 
ous seeds named by Williamson Lagenostoma, 
were borne by a species of Lyginodendron is 
most interesting. This identification is based 
on the identity of the capitate, often staUved, 
glands, which clothe the enclosing envelope, 
with those clothing the vegetative organs of 
Lyginodendron Oldhamium. These glands 
show the closest possible agreement in size, 
foiTQ and structure, and no other known Car- 
boniferous plant possesses them. In addition, 
the vascular system of the enclosing cupule 
was well developed, the structure of the large 
bundle agreeing with the petiolar strand in 
Lyginodendron; and the minute characters in 
the former are in close agreement with those 
of the xylem of the foliar organs of the latter, 
so that the evidence presented is • fairly con- 
clusive. 

Now Lyginodendron with a number of 
species under a variety of names ranges from 
the lower Carboniferous into the Permian. 
The calcified remains, often beautifully pre- 
served and including roots (Kaloxylon) , stems 
(Lyginodendron) and leaves (Sphenopteris) 
have been associated with the carbonaceous 

*Read before the Eoyal Society, May 7, 1903, 
and reprinted from the Proceedings. 



impressions of large finely divided fronds of 
the Sphenopteris type. 

The minute striicture of these parts is as 
well known as in living forms, as are the 
corresponding structures in Heterangium, an- 
other genus, considered in a general way an- 
cestral to Lyginodendron and exhibiting a 
balance of filicinean characters; while in the 
latter, though many filicinean characters re- 
main, the eycadean features are more pro- 
nounced, the primary bundles are isolated and 
arranged around a large pith, the vascular 
bundles both primary and secondary are sim- 
ilar to those of the peduncles in living cycads, 
and the roots, while agreeing with those of the 
Marattiacese when young, after their second- 
ary thickening are entirely gymnospermous. 

The fructifications of this curious plant 
have hitherto remained unknown, although 
certain poorly preserved iilicinean remains of 
the Galymmatotheca type have been so re- 
garded.* 

The structure of the seed as now set forth 
furnishes a preponderance of gymnospermous 
features, at the same time emphasizing the 
combination of transitional characters which 
distinguish the Cycadofilicales, and furnishes 
good ground for supposing that many of the 
plants which furnished the elegant fronds of 
AlethopteriSj Neuropteris,-\ Sphenopteris, etc., 
had already advanced in seed, bearing as far 
as, if not farther than, the modern Cycads. 

The seed under consideration, as does the 
similar one of Jjagenostoma ovoides, ap- 
proaches the cycadean type in that the integu- 
ment and nucellus are distinct in the apical 
region only, where the former becomes massive 
and complicated, consisting of nine chambers 
radiating from the micropyle. The free por- 
tion of the nucellus tapers upward reaching the 
exterior and plugging the micropylar opening; 
the separation of the nucellar epidermis from 
the underlying parenchymatous body of the 
free part of the nucellus forms a bell-shaped 

'■'Described by Benson (Ann. Bot. 18: 161-177, 
pi. 11, 1904) and regarded as the microsporangial 
sori of Lyginodendron. 

t In a recent note Professor Oliver ( New Phy tol- 
ogist, 4: 32, 1904) records seeds on the fronds of 
Neuropteris heterophylla. 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



57 



pollen chamber, open apically and containing 
pollen grains in its lower part. The vascular 
system of the seed consists of nine bundles 
radiating from a single supply bundle and 
running to the apex. 

It furnishes something more than suggest- 
ive evidence of the origin of the Mesozoic 
33ennettitales and Cycadales, on the one hand, 
and the Paleozoic Cordaitales and other and 
later gymnospermous orders on the other hand, 
from some type of Paleozoic Cycadofilicales, 
the latter leading back to the true Filicales as 
recently diagrammatically set forth by 
Coulter.* 

Professor Sewardf has styled this discovery 
of Oliver and Scott as ' one of the most im- 
portant contributions to botany published in 
recent years.' The full details, which are 
promised soon, will be awaited with im- 
patience.^: 

Edwaed W. Beery. 



GVBBENT NOTES ON METEOROLOGY. 
ANTAECTIG METEOEOLOGY. 

A EECENT number of the Bulletin of 
the American Geographical Society (Vol. 
XXXVI., 1904, 22-29) contains an account of 
Dr. Otto l^ordenskjold's Swedish Antarctic 
expedition of 1902-03, in which are numerous 
notes of meteorological interest. During five 
months, beginning with May, there was a pe- 
riod of storms with short intermissions never 
exceeding three days, during the whole of 
which period the average wind velocity was 
23 miles an hour, and during a whole fort- 
night it averaged 45 miles. The gales from 
the southwest brought the lowest temperature 
recorded. The stormiest day, in June, with 
a mean wind velocity of 63 miles an hour, 
was one of the coldest experienced ( — 24° F.). 
The mean temperature for the first year was 

* ' Morphology of the Spermatophytes,' p. 172, 
1901. 

t Presidential Address, Botanical Section, Brit- 
ish Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Southport, 1903. 

t These were read before the Royal Society, 
January 21, 1904, and a new class of seed-plants, 
the Pteridospermse, was proposed to include these 
and similar remains. 



about 10.2° P.; that of the summer being 
28.2° P. The general direction of the winds 
was southwest, i. e., out from the south polar 
region. 

VERTICAL DECREASE OP TEMPEEATURE IN THE 
FREE AIR. 

At the February meeting of the Eoyal 
Meteorological Society in London, Mr. W. H. 
Dines read a paper on ' Observations by Means 
of Kites at Crinan in the Summer of 1903,' 
this being a continuation of the work done in 
the previous summer, already referred to in 
these columns. The results of the ascents 
during August, 1903, show a mean tempera- 
ture gradient for the first 5,000 ft. of 3.2° per 
1,000 feet. This is at the rate of about .59° 
C. per 100 meters. In the previous summer 
the average rate per 100 meters was found to 
vary from .56° 0. per 100 meters in a column 
of 500 meters to .43° 0. at 3,500 meters. The 
averages thus accord quite closely with those 
given in Hann's 'Lehrbuch der Meteorologie,' 
pp. 157-161. 

THE SAHARA AND THE SOUDAN. 

According to Sir Frederic Lugard, High 
Commissioner for Northern Nigeria, the 
sands of the Sahara are gradually encroach- 
ing on the districts of the Sudan which border 
the desert on the south. Sir Frederic is of 
the opinion that the desiccation of the coun- 
try is chiefly caused by the destruction of the 
young acacias and tamarinds, which are cut 
down by the natives, and given to the camels 
for fodder. 

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW. 

The Monthly Weather Review has recently 
contained an unusual number of articles of 
general interest. Vol. XXXIL, No. 1, 1904, 
contains an account of the tornado of Jan- 
uary 22, at Moundville, Ala. This tornado 
was first noted about 1.20 a.m., the previous 
evening having been warm, with fairly heavy 
rains at intervals, and the wind blowing in 
heavy gusts from southeast and south. At 
Moundville nearly every building was demol- 
ished, and thirty-six persons were killed and 
eighty injured, out of a total population of 
about 300. The storm moved northeast; the 



58 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



path was five miles long, and 250 yards wide 
at the point of greatest destruction. The fun- 
nel-shaped cloud ' had a phosphorescent glow.' 
Debris from Moundville is reported to have 
been carried nineteen miles to the northeast. 
The tornado occurred on the southeast side of 
a well-marked barometric depression, accord- 
ing to the usual habit of these disturbances. 

Concerning lightning rods, Professor W. S. 
Franklin, in the same number of the Review , 
states that, ' given a good ground connection, 
then directness of path to ground from the 
region which is to be protected is so impor- 
tant that the matter of insulating the rod 
from the building, either by air spaces or by 
glass, is of no importance whatever in com- 
parison. If the path is direct, there is no need 
of insulation, and if the path is roundabout, 
effective insulation is not practically feasible.' 

A short article on ' Paths of Storm Centers ' 
brings together a few essential facts regard- 
ing the tracks and velocities of cyclones. 

NOTES. 

It is stated (Bull. Amer. Geogr. Soc, 
5XXVI., 39) that the front of the Muir Gla- 
cier has retreated two and a half miles in four 
years, which is a higher rate of retrogression 
than has been observed before. The present 
indications are that the glacier will before 
long cease to reach tide water. 

During 1903 Mr. W. G. Black, of Edin- 
burgh, collected in an open dish, 8J inches 
square, 17 ounces of ' dust and soot.' This 
would give a fall of 32 ounces per square foot. 

R. DeC. Ward. 



WILLIAM HENRY PETTEE. 

The senate of the University of Michigan 
has adopted the following memorial as offered 
by the committee. Professors Preseott and 
Demmon : 

Again the university senate has been sorely 
stricken, and we are called to record the loss 
of another of our beloved members. Por 
nearly thirty years he has sat with us in all 
our deliberations, scrupulously attentive to 
every official duty, thoroughly informed on all 
university affairs, courteous, firm and wise. 
Possessed of a genial and kindly nature, of 



refined sensibilities and a wide culture, he 
early won the respect and affection of his col- 
leagues and held these steadily to the end. 
He has gone from us honored by many years 
of valuable service to the university, and his 
loss must continue to be felt in many ways 
for a long time to come. It seems peculiarly 
fitting that the senate should come together 
and spread upon its records some expression 
of the esteem and love with which we cherish 
his memory and of our high regard for his 
services in the great cause of learning, services 
to which his life was devoted without reserve. 

Professor Pettee died at his home on Hay 
26, 1904. He was engaged in his regular 
duties in the university up to the last evening 
before his death, but his health had been im- 
paired for nearly a year and his physician 
had informed him of the uncertain tenure of 
his life. 

William Henry Pettee was born in Newton 
Upper Falls, Mass., January 13, 1838, of rep- 
resentative New England parentage. His 
father was a manufacturer of cotton fabrics 
and of mill machinery. In boyhood his stu- 
dious tastes had to be restrained and his college 
preparation delayed out of regard to his some- 
what slender bodily frame. He entered Har- 
vard College at nineteen years of age, took 
high rank in the required classical course of 
that period, was selected to deliver a Latin 
oration in the junior year, and graduated with 
distinction in the class of 1861. He continued 
in graduate studies in the same university for 
over three years, receiving the degree of 
master of arts in 1864, studying at first in the 
engineering work of the Lawrence Scientific 
School and then in the college, where at the 
same time he was an assistant in chemistry 
under Professor Josiah Parsons Cooke, Irving 
professor of chemistry and mineralogy and 
then well known as an author. Mr. Pettee 
had taken chemistry as his elective subject 
in his junior year. Of his remaining oppor- 
tunity for election he had chosen Spanish, in 
this having the pleasure of reciting for a year 
and a half to James Russell Lowell. As a 
chemical assistant, 1863-65, he taught the re- 
quired chemical physics to the sophomore class 
and had charge of the elective section of the 



JuLT 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



juniors in the laboratory. His period of study 
and travel in Europe was one of three years, 
from 1865 to 1868. Here his main work was 
in the Eoyal Mining Academy of Saxony, at 
Treiberg, with vacations in the mining re- 
gions of Germany. 

In 1868 Mr. Pettee returned to Harvard 
University as a teacher in the school of min- 
ing and practical geology then established 
under the direction of Josiah D. Whitney, 
the Sturgis-Hooper professor of geology, the 
director of various geological surveys, inclu- 
ding the Lake Superior region and California, 
and author of works upon the sources of 
metallic wealth, widely circulated in this 
country. Mr. Pettee's appointment in 1869 
was that of instructor in mining. He was 
advanced in 1871 to the rank of assistant 
professor in the same branch, with plans for 
his work upon the geological surveys to be 
carried on under the auspices of the Harvard 
School of Mining. 

In the summer of 1869 Professor Pettee 
made a geological and topographical survey 
of the South Park of Colorado, a district 
which had not been covered by the United 
States geological surveys. In the year 1870- 
71 he was granted leave of absence for the 
California State Geological Survey. Besides 
making a study of gold-bearing gravels, he 
undertook systematic work in correction of 
the determination of altitudes by the barom- 
eter. Some of the results of this investiga- 
tion, collected from the detailed reports of the 
survey, were published by authority of the 
California State Legislature in 1874, entitled 
' Contributions to Barometric Hypsometry,' 
with Tables for use in California, and a Sup- 
plement with Additions in 1878. The work 
embraced comparisons of the observations 
taken with the accumulated results of ob- 
servers in Europe and these could be collected 
but slowly from scattered publications. A 
library was formed on the subject. Professor 
Whitney's estimate of the onerous labor, the 
accuracy and perseverance of Professor Pet- 
tee's work in this undertaking appears in the 
prefatory note to the volume above mentioned. 

From 1871 to 1875 in addition to other 
duties Professor Pettee gave instruction to an 



elective section of undergraduates in physical 
geography, geology and meteorology. Before 
1875 the conditions of the gift supporting a 
school of mining at Harvard were altered and 
the special instruction in this subject was 
withdrawn. It was in 1875 that Professor 
Pettee was appointed to a professorship of 
mining engineering and related subjects in 
Michigan. How the turn of events here again 
released our friend from the limits of a pro- 
fessional specialty has been well stated by his 
honored colleague. Dean Green, of the en- 
gineering department, to whose article on the 
' Life of Professor Pettee ' this memorial is 
very much indebted. 

In the first semester of 1879-80 Professor 
Pettee was granted leave of absence from this 
university to continue his investigation of the 
auriferous gravels. His report of that work 
was published as an appendix to the first vol- 
ume of Whitney's ' Contributions to American 
Geology ' from the Museum of Comparative 
Geology at Cambridge. It has been adjudged 
to show that careful examination of phenom- 
ena, weighing of evidence, and painstaking 
accuracy, which those best acquainted with 
Professor Pettee always expect in papers pre- 
pared by his hand. 

In the meetings of the faculty Professor 
Pettee was rarely absent and in them he has 
naturally served as the undoubted arbitrator 
upon questions as to previous or conflicting 
legislation. A member of three faculties, in 
each he was equally serviceable, and his judg- 
ment was asked for more often than offered. 
He has been annually and inevitably reelected 
as the secretary of the university senate, and 
this body owes much to the form he has 
given to records and reports, both in the ma- 
king of history and through immediate publi- 
cation. 

It is not possible in this memorial even to 
enumerate all of the duties, important in ad- 
ministration, to which Mr. Pettee has been 
assigned. The files of university publications, 
in college libraries and everywhere, give evi- 
dence of the safeguard afforded by his editorial 
ability. In the organizations affiliated with 
the university he has been equally helpful. 

The annual transactions of the American 



60 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



Institute of Mining Engineers have been sub- 
mitted to bim for many years, from the publi- 
cation office in New York, for critical proof- 
reading and correction. Of this extensive so- 
ciety he is a life member, his election dating 
from 18Y1, and he has been a co-worker with 
its secretary, Rosater W. Raymond. He was 
one of the original fellows of the Geological 
Society of America ; a fellow of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science; 
in which he was general secretary in 1887; 
a member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences during his residence in Massa- 
chusetts ; and a member of the American Phil- 
osophical Society of Philadelphia. 

To his colleagues no characteristic of Mr. 
Pettee was more impressive than his fidelity 
to truth. Overstatement, exaggeration, dis- 
proportionate display were impossible to him. 
' True of word and tried of deed ' may well be 
inscribed to his memory as a Christian gentle- 
man. 

Your committee beg leave to recommend 
that the sincere and profound syxapathy of the 
senate be extended to the bereaved family of 
our departed friend, and that a copy of this 
niemorial be transmitted to them. 

Albert B. Prescott, 
Isaac N. Demmon, 

Committee. 



EXCAVATI0N8 /JV TUBKE8TAN. 

Professor Raphael Pumpelly, who is en- 
gaged in explorations in Russian Turkestan 
under the auspices of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion, has written a letter to Dr. D. C. Oilman, 
the president of. the institution, in which he 
says: 

The streams that rise in the high mountains 
of northern Persia emerge on to the Turko- 
man plains forming fans, or sub-aerial deltas, 
covering many square miles and each making 
an oasis. The water is all used in irrigating 
these fertile spots. Beyond them is the desert. 
Anau, where we have excavated, is on one of 
these fans. 

Here at Anau, about seven miles east of 
Aschabad, there are two great tumuli, and the 
ruins of a city — Anau — surrounded by moat 
and wall, and occupied till within the last 



century. The two tumuli, nearly half a mile 
apart, are nearly equidistant from the city at 
a distance of less than a mile. We have ex- 
plored both of these tumuli and I have done 
some work in the city. 

The northern and older tumulus rises 40 
feet above the plain; the southern and younger 
tumulus rises 52 feet ahove the plain. Both 
of these start with their lowest culture strata 
on slight elevations in the same original plain- 
surface — more than 20 feet below the present 
surface of the surrounding plain. That is to 
say, the plain has grown up more than 20 feet 
since the settlements began. I will show, 
further on, the different phases of this growth. 

In the older tumulus, we find a culture oc- 
cupying the lower 45 feet, and distinguished 
by the technique and decoration of its wholly 
handmade and interesting pottery. This is 
succeeded in the upper 15 feet by a more ad- 
vanced culture in which the finding of some 
remnants of bronze implements and lead beads 
(all wholly altered to salts of the metals) 
show a beginning acquaintance with bronze, 
while the still handmade pottery has changed 
and become more developed. Throughout this 
tumulus we have found nothing recognizable 
as a weapon of offense in either stone or metal, 
though flint knives abound. 

The southern, younger tumulus, starts with 
a developed wheel-made pottery, unpainted and 
of a technique wholly different from that of 
the older tumulus — though some hand-made 
pottery occurs not unlike some of the younger 
products of the older tumulus. 

From its base under the plain to its sum- 
mit this tumulus has Y4 feet of culture strata. 
There are evident here at least two sucessive 
cultures. Of these, that of the lower 62 feet 
is wholly in the bronze stage (but with survival 
of flint implements), while the upper 14 feet 
are marked by decided changes and by the 
introduction of iron, of which the wholly 
oxidized remnants of some implements were 
found. 

We have thus at least four distinct cultures 
occupying 136 feet, with a break in the column 
between the end of the old and the beginning 
of the new tumulus. We do not know how 
great this gap may be, but the presence of 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



61 



some fragments of wheel-made pottery on the 
surface of the older tumulus, as well as in the 
neighboring irrigation column, seems to repre- 
sent a transition from the older to the newer. 
This suggests the possibility that the gap was 
filled by the strata which has disappeared 
through wind and water erosion, and which 
must, in any event, have been of considerable 
thickness. 

Through all the cultures except the last — ■ 
that of the iron stage — there ran a remarkable 
and characteristic burial custom. The chil- 
dren — at least certain children — and seemingly 
only children, were buried in the houses, under 
the floor, in a layer of fire-hardened earth. I 
was struck last year by the fact that all the 
human bones I sent from here to Professor 
Zittel were those of children. The skeletons lie 
on the side with the knees drawn up in the 
' liegende hocker ' position. With them have 
been found beads of turquoise, lapis lazuli, 
carnelian and other minerals. Eighteen of 
such burials have been studied. 



THE GOLDEN TROUT OF MT. WBITNEY. 

The most beautiful and in many respects 
the most interesting of all the trouts is the 
famous golden trout of Mount Whitney. It 
is known only from a few small mountain 
streams high up in the Sierras on the western 
slopes of Whitney, the highest mountain in the 
United States. It was formerly abundant in 
Volcano Creek, tributary to the South Fork 
of Kern Eiver, and has been introduced into 
Cottonwood Creek and perhaps other streams 
on the east slope of the Sierras, tributary to 
Owens Lake. Its original home seems to have 
been Volcano Creek and in that stream only 
above the falls. 

During the last few years many camping 
parties have gone into the region and reports 
have reached the Bureau of Fisheries that the 
species is in danger of extermination. Re- 
cently Stewart Edward White, the author of 
' The Blazed Trail,' called attention to the 
danger, and President Eoosevelt, the true 
naturalist that he is and always alive to more 
matters of interest than any one else, addressed 
a letter to the Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries, asking that an investigation be 



made to determine what steps should be taken 
for its preservation. 

In compliance with the President's request, 
Commissioner Bowers is sending a party to 
the Mount Whitney region to find out all they 
can about the golden trout. It is intended 
to determine its present distribution, in what 
streams it is now found, into what it has been 
transplanted, into what additional streams it 
might be introduced, and whether the species 
can be propagated artificially. It is believed 
there will be no difficulty with cultivating the 
species if a few individuals for breeding stock 
can be gotten to one of the government fish 
hatcheries. This will not be an easy task, 
as the fish will have to be carried on pack- 
horses for 24 to 48 hours down the east slope 
of the Sierras through a semi-desert region to 
Lone Pine, or 3 or 4 days to Visalia. 

The expedition that will conduct these in- 
vestigations will be under the immediate direc- 
tion of Dr. Barton W. Evermann, assistant in 
charge Scientific Inquiry in the Bureau of 
Fisheries. The other members of the party 
will be Dr. Oliver P. Jenkins and Professor 
Rufus L. Green, of Stanford University, Pro- 
fessor Chancey Juday, of the University of 
Colorado, and Captain Charles B. Hudson, the 
artist, who will paint the golden trout in life 
colors. Professor Juday will make a special 
study of the food and feeding habits of the 
trout. Professor Green will study the physical 
characters of the streams to be examined, 
while Drs. Evermann and Jenkins will give 
their attention to the biological and fish- 
cultural problems involved and to the geo- 
graphic distribution of the species. The 
party will outfit early in July at Visalia, 
California, with pack outfit and enter the 
High Sierra by way of Three Rivers and Min- 
eral King. About a month's time will be 
devoted to the investigations and it is believed 
that the results will be of great interest to 
anglers and fish-culturists. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 
Harvaed University has conferred the de- 
gree of doctor of laws on Dr. William Osier, 
professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins 
University. 



62 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



Yale University has conferred the degree 
of doctor of laws on President Charles E. 
Van Hise, of the University of Wisconsin, 
and on Dr. W. S. Halsted, professor of sur- 
gery in the Johns Hopkins University. 

Amherst College has conferred the degree 
of doctor of laves on Dr. J. H. Tufts, of the 
class of 1884, now head of the department of 
philosophy of the University of Chicago. 

Hamilton College has conferred the doc- 
torate of science on Dr. E. S. Burgess, the 
botanist, professor of natural science in the 
Normal School, New York City. 

Dr. a. W. Harris, president of the Jacob 
Tome Institute and formerly director of the 
Office of Experiment Stations of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, has been given the 
doctorate of science by Wesleyan University, 
where he graduated in 1880. 

Mr. Theodore N. Ely, chief of motive 
power of the Pennsylvania Railroad, has been 
made a doctor of science by Hamilton College. 

Dr. E. Pfluger, the eminent physiologist 
of the University of Bonn, recently celebrated 
his seventy-fifth birthday. 

Dr. Rodx has been elected director of the 
Pasteur Institute in the room of the late M. 
Duclaux. Drs. Chamberland and Metchnikoff 
have been elected sub-directors of the institute. 

Dr. Michelerhana, of the Observatory at 
Milan, has been made director of the Observa- 
tory at Bologna. 

President Roosevelt has appointed Rear 
Admiral Robley D. Evans, Rear Admiral 
Henry N. Manney, Brigadier-General A. W. 
Greely, Lieutenant-Commander Joseph L. 
Jayne and Professor Willis L. Moore, chief of 
the Weather Bureau, a board to consider the 
question of wireless telegraphy in the service 
of the government. 

De. Robert ' Koch has returned to Berlin 
after his investigati.ons in southwest Africa, 
where he has been engaged for nearly a year 
and a half. 

It is reported that Captain Bernier will 
start in a fortnight for the polar regions. 
The arctic steamer Gauss, recently purchased 



from the German government, is now being 
refitted and provisioned at Quebec, and she will 
probably go to Halifax to secure part of her 
crew. She will then proceed around Cape 
Horn to Vancouver, and thence to Herschell 
Island, at the mouth of McKenzie River, with 
a party of Northwest mounted police to relieve 
the party stationed at that post.. From that 
point Captain Bernier will make an effort to 
reach the pole. 

Professor F. W. Rane, of the New Hamp- 
shire College of Agriculture, is spending the 
summer studying forest conditions in the 
northwest. 

The address on ' The Continuous Advance 
of Electrochemistry,' by Professor Joseph W. 
Richards, published in the issue of Science 
for June 17, was the presidential address be- 
fore the Electrochemical Society, delivered at 
Washington on April 8, 1904. 

It is hoped that the statue of Pasteur 
on the Place de Breteuil, Paris, will be un- 
veiled on the thirteenth of July, the day of 
the national fete. 

The Berlin municipal council has decided 
to erect, at the cost of the city, a monument 
in honor of Rudolf Virchow. 

Dr. Frederick Knapp, for many years pro- 
fessor of applied chemistry in the Chemical 
Institute at Brunswick, died on June 8, in 
his ninety-first year. Dr. Knapp was a former 
student and a son-in-law of Liebig's. 

The deaths are also announced of M. Victor 
de Luynes, professor of the Paris Conserva- 
tory of Arts and Measures; of Professor Carl 
Weibrecht, director of the Technological In- 
stitute of Stuttgart, and of Dr. Albert Rilliet, 
associate professor of physics in the Univer- 
sity of Geneva. 

A NEW museum of anthropology has been 
established at Hamburg. 

M. Charles E. Potron has bequeathed 
20,000 francs to the French Geographical 
Society. 

The American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers held a meeting at Chicago under the 
presidency of Mr. Bion J. Arnold. The meet- 
ing was devoted to a discussion of high tension 
transmission. 



July 8, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



63 



Mr. Andrew Carnegie has given to the 
British Museum the restoration of a skeleton 
of Diplodocus, made under the direction of 
Mr. J. B. Hatcher. Invitations veere sent by 
Dr. E. J. Holland, director of the Carnegie 
Museum, to view the restoration on June 30. 

The council of the jubilee foundation for 
German industry, which recently met in Ber- 
lin, has made appropriations amounting to 
over $12,000. Among the subsidies is one of 
$2,500 to Dr. Garbe, of Berlin, to study the 
American railway system, and one of $1,200 
to Professor Nernst at Gottingen for re- 
searches at high temperatures. 

At the forty-fifth meeting of the Society of 
German Engineers, held recently at Frank- 
fort, it was announced that the lexicon of tech- 
nology undertaken by the society is about half 
completed. The cost of this work will be over 
$100,000, for which the society has made itself 
responsible. 

A L.iBORATORY for the study of beet sugar 
manufacture, a branch of the Agricultural 
School of Berlin, was opened on May 8. 

The London Times states that Mrs. Percy 
Sladen, of Northbrook-park, Devonshire, in 
the desire to perpetuate the memory of her 
late husband, Mr. Walter Percy Sladen, some- 
time secretary and vice-president of the Lin- 
nsean Society, has undertaken to devote the 
sum of £20,000 to the promotion of scientific 
research, particularly in the subjects in which 
he was chiefly interested. She proposes to 
assign this sum under the name of the Percy 
Sladen Memorial Eund to certain trustees, in 
the first place of her own appointment, who 
are directed to employ the income arising 
therefrom, in their uncontrolled discretion, to 
' any research or investigation in natural sci- 
ence, and more especially in the sciences of 
zoology, geology and anthropology.' They are 
also empowered, if they think fit, to accumu- 
late the income for the purpose of fitting out, 
or assisting to fit out, any expedition designed 
to further such research. The following gen- 
tlemen, whom Mrs. Sladen has requested to 
be the first trustees, have consented to serve: 
Her brother. Dr. Tempest Anderson, of York; 
Mr. Bailey Saunders, Mr. Henry Bury, Dr. 



Henry Woodward, F.E.S., Professor Howes, 
F.R.S., and Professor Herdman, F.R.S. On 
the occurrence of any vacancy among these 
trustees Mrs. Sladen reserves to herself the 
right to nominate their successors; but by the 
deed of endowment it is provided that eventu- 
ally five trustees shall be severally nominated 
for a period of five years each by the following 
bodies in rotation, so far as they may have 
signified their acceptance of the power of 
appointment; the Royal Society, the Linnsean 
Society, the trustees of the British Museum and 
the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 

From September 15 to 18, 1903, a confer- 
ence of the engineers of the Reclamation 
Service was held at Ogden, Utah. At the 
time of this meeting the Reclamation Service 
had been in active operation for over a year 
and projects in each state had reached a point 
at which their relative merits demanded con- 
sideration. It was, therefore, deemed ad- 
visable to bring the principal engineers to- 
gether, in order to discuss somewhat inform- 
ally the methods and results of work. The 
eleventh irrigation congress was in session 
then at Ogden, and delegates were in attend- 
ance from the thirteen states and three terri- 
tories named in the reclamation law, as well 
as from Texas and the country farther east. 
The engineers of the Reclamation Service 
were thus enabled to meet public men and 
others who are interested in the work of irri- 
gation and to exchange views freely with them. 
The proceedings of this conference of reclama- 
tion engineers, compiled by Mr. F. H. Newell, 
chief engineer, have been recently published 
by the United States Geological Survey as No. 
93 of its series of Water-Supply and Irrigation 
Papers, a volume of about 350 pages filled 
with valuable data. Besides the purely tech- 
nical discussions and addresses, the paper in- 
cludes several interesting speeches made to 
the engineers by various governors, senators 
and other prominent people. It is published 
for gratuitous distribution and may be ob- 
tained by application to the Director of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, Washing-ton, D. C. 

The Paris correspondent of the London 
Times reports that some fifty men of science 



64 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 497. 



assembled on June 19 at the house of the 
Prince of Monaco to listen to a paper read by 
M. Charles Eenard, a member of the perman- 
ent committee of the International Naval 
Association, on a new scheme for a polar ex- 
pedition. M. Benard holds that only two 
kinds of exploration in the polar basin are at 
present rational — namely, annual explorations 
along the perimeter of the Arctic Circle, like 
that of the Prince of Monaco in Red Bay or 
that of Greely in Port Conger Bay, or else 
great expeditions well within the Polar Sea, 
with special boats fitted up as observatories 
and laboratories, solid enough to resist the 
ice pack, and capable of carrying provisions 
for the length of time required by the itiner- 
ary. M. Benard explained at length why the 
only feasible and rational route of penetration 
of the Polar Sea is one a little north of that 
followed by the Fram. The expedition ought 
to start from a Norwegian port, cross the 
southern portion of Barents Sea, take in dogs 
at Karabora, coast along Yalmal, ship at Port 
Dickson its coal, transported thither by special 
steamer, pass at the end of the summer along 
the Peninsula of Taimyr, arrive by the end of 
the autumn at the islands of New Siberia, and 
then, instead of going northward, as did the 
Fram, manage at all costs, even if it be neces- 
sary to winter in the LiakhofF or Bennett Is- 
lands, to reach a point on the 150th degree of 
east longitude. Thence the ship or ships need 
only drift with the ice. M. Benard urged the 
utility of having the expedition composed of 
two vessels in touch with each other by means 
of wireless telegraphy. The expedition should 
take three years, but be provisioned for five. 
It would not cost more than $300,000. The 
company signed a memorandum declaring this 
expedition to be of scientific utility. 

It is stated in the London Times that the 
man-lifting kite, as invented by Mr. Cody, 
has during the last few days been subjected 
to further trials at Aldershot with the view 
of testing its feasibility and usefulness for 
observation purposes in war time. The main 
features claimed for the kite are, first, its 
extreme simplicity and the ease with which 
the various component parts required to work 
it can be transported from place to place ; and. 



secondly, that it can be flown in heavy wind 
such as would render the use of the war bal- 
loon almost impossible. A number of Royal 
Engineers are now under instruction in the 
working of the kite in order that it may be 
thoroughly tested. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

Mrs. Henry Whitman, of Boston, has made 
public bequests aggregating more than $200,- 
000, including $110,000 to Radcliffe College 
and $10,000 to Harvard University. 

Mr. George Ehret, of New York, has given 
$10,000 to the permanent fund of Hamilton 
College. 

The Secretary of the Interior has approved 
the application of the board of trustees of the 
Columbian University of Washington to 
change the name of that institution to the 
George Washington University. 

Dr. C. Alphonso Smith, professor of Eng- 
lish literature at the University of North 
Carolina, has been elected president of the 
University of Tennessee, succeeding Dr. 
Charles W. Dabney, who has become presi- 
dent of the University of Cincinnati. 

Professor George S. Williams, of the Col- 
lege of Civil Engineering, in Cornell Univer- 
sity, has resigned to accept the chair of civil 
engineering in the University of Michigan, 
made vacant by the death of Professor Greene. 

Carl C. Thomas, instructor in marine engi- 
neering at the University of California, has 
accepted a call to Cornell University to the as- 
sistant professorship in marine engineering at 
Sibley College. He will succeed Professor 
William F. Durand, principal of the graduate 
school in marine engineering, who has been 
called to Stanford University. 

Dr. T. E. Nichols has been appointed pro- 
fessor of applied mathematics at Hamilton 
College. 

Dr. C. C. Stewart, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, has been appointed professor 
of physiology at Dartmouth College. At the 
same institution C. A. Holden, in mathe- 
matics, and G. R. Lyman, in botany, have been 
appointed to assistant professorships. 



SCIENCE 



A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Friday, July 15, 1904. 



G0NTEN-T8: 
The Age of Science: President Iea Eemsen. 65 
Higher Education in Germany and the United 
States: Rtjdolf Tombo, Je 73 

Scientifio Books: — 

The Ward-Goonley Collection of Meteorites : 
De. Olivee C. Fakeington. Woodworth's 

. he Mouvement : De. Shepheed Ivoey Feanz 77 

Societies and Academies: — 

Society for Experimental Biology and Medi- 
cine: Dr. Wm. J. Gies. The Torrey Bo- 
twnical Glub : William T. Hoene. The Psy- 
chological Glut of Cornell University 79 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 
Kindergarten Science: Dr. C. R. Eastman". 
'Vegetable Balls': J. Adams. A Notable 
Paleobotanical Discovery: Edwaed W. 
Beery 86 

Special Articles: — 

Evolution and Physics: 0. F. Cook 87 

Agricultural Exhibits at St. Louis 91 

Honorary Degrees Conferred by the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin 92 

Scientific Notes and Neics 94 

University and Educational Neics 95 



MSS. intended for publication and bookg. etc., intended 
for review should be sent to the Editor of Science, Garri- 
BOQ-on-Hud8on, N. Y. 



THE AGE OF SCIENCE* 

As much of the time of those who go 
forth from this institution to-day has been 
spent in the study of the sciences, it has 
seemed to me fitting to ask your attention 
to some considerations suggested by the 
phrase, 'This is the age of science.' I do 
not remember ever to have heard this state- 
ment questioned, much less denied, nor do 
I remember ever to have heard it satisfac- 
torily explained. It sounds simple enough, 
and does not appear to call for explanation 
or comment, and yet I think it worth while 
to examine it a little more carefully than 
is customary, to see in what sense it is true. 
For in a sense it is true, and in a sense it 
is not true. The statement raises two 
questions which should be answered at the 
oiitset. These are: (1) What is science? 
and (2) In what sense is this the age of 
science ? 

First, then, what is science? Surely 
there can be no difficulty in answering this, 
and yet I fear that, if I should pass through 
this or any other audience with the ques- 
tion, I should get many different answers. 

A certain lady, whom I know better than 
any other, has told me that, should she ever 
be permitted to marry a second time, she 
would not marry a scientific man, because 
scientific men are so terribly accurate. I 
often hear the same general idea expressed, 
and it is clear that accuracy is one attribute 
of science according to prevailing opinions. 
But accuracy alone is not science. When 
we hear a game of baseball or of whist 
spoken of as thoroughly scientific, I sup- 

* Commencement address delivered at Worcester 
Polytechnic Institute, June 9, 1904. 



66 



SCIENCE. 



[a\. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



pose tlie idea here, too, is that the games 
are played accurately ; that is, to use the 
technical expression, without errors. 

Again, there are those who seem to think 
that science is something that has been de- 
vised by the Evil One for the purpose of 
undermining religion. This idea is not so 
common as it was a few years ago, when 
the professors of seientifie subjects in our 
colleges were generally objects of suspicion. 
The change which has come over the world 
in this respect within my own memory is 
simply astounding. In general terms an 
agreement has been reached between those 
who represent religion and those who I'ep- 
resent science. This agreement is certainly 
not final, but it gives us a modus vivendi, 
and the clash of arms is now rarely heard. 
Heligion now takes into consideration the 
claims of science, and science recognizes the 
.great fundamental truths of religion. 
Each should strengthen the other, and in 
time, no doubt, each will strengthen the 
other. 

Probably the idea most commonly held 
in regard to science is that it is something 
that gives us a great many useful inven- 
tions. The steam-engine, the telegraph, the 
telephone, the trolley car, dye stuffs, medi- 
cines, explosives — these are the fruits of 
science, and without these science is of no 
avail. I propose farther on to discuss this 
subject more fully than I can at this stage 
-of my remarks, so that I may pass over it 
■lightly here. I need only say now that 
iiseful inventions are not a necessary con- 
sequence of scientific work, and that scien- 
tific work does not depend upon useful 
applications for its value. These proposi- 
tions, which are familiar enough to scien- 
tific men, are apt to surprise those who are 
outside of scientific circles. I hope before 
I get through to show you that the proposi- 
tions are true. 

Science, then, is not simply accuracy, 
although it would be worthless if it were 



not accurate ; it is not devised for the pur- 
pose of undermining religion; and its ob- 
ject is not the making of useful inventions. 
Then what is it ? One dictionary gives this 
definition: "Knowledge; knowledge of 
principles and causes; ascertained truth 
or facts. * * * Accumulated and estab- 
lished knowledge which has been system- 
atized and formulated with reference to 
the discovery of general truths or the op- 
eration of general laws, * * * especially 
such knowledge when it relates to the phys- 
ical world, and its phenomena, the nature, 
constitution and forces of matter, the quali- 
ties and function of living tissues, etc." 

One writer says: "The distinction be- 
tween science and art is that science is a 
body of principles and deductions to ex- 
plain the nature of some matter. An art 
is a body of precepts with practical skill 
for the completion of some work. A sci- 
ence teaches us to know ; an art, to do. In 
art, truth is a means to an end; in science 
it is the only end. Hence the practical 
arts are not to be classed among the sci- 
ences. " Another writer says: "Science 
and art may be said to be investigations 
of truth; but one, science, inquires for the 
sake of knowledge; the other, art, for the 
sake of production; and hence science is 
more concerned with the higher truths, art 
with the lower; and science never is en- 
gaged, as art is, in productive application. ' ' 

Science, then has for its object the accum- 
ulation and systematization of knowledge, 
the discovery of truth. The astronomer 
is trying to learn more and more about the 
celestial bodies, their motions, their com- 
position, their changes. Through his 
labors, carried on for many centuries, we 
have the science of astronomy. 

The geologist has, on the other hand, 
confined his attention to the earth, and he 
is trying to learn as much as possible of its 
composition and structure, and of the pro- 
cesses that have been operating through 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



67 



untold ages to give us the earth as it now is. 
He has given us the science of geology, 
which consists of a vast mass of knowledge 
carefully systematized and of innumerable 
deductions of interest and value. If the 
time should ever come when, through the 
labors of the geologist, all that can possibly 
be learned in regard to the structure and 
development of the earth shall have been 
learned, the occupation of the geologist 
wovild be gone. But that time will never 
come. 

And so I might go on pointing out the 
general character of the work done by dif- 
ferent classes of scientific men, but this 
would be tedious. We should only have 
brought home to us in each case the fact 
that, no matter what the science may be 
with which we are dealing, its disciples are 
simply trying to learn all they can in the 
field in which they are working. As I be- 
gan with a reference to astronomy, let me 
close with a reference to chemistry. As- 
tronomy has to deal with the largest bodies, 
and the greatest distances of the univei'se ; 
chemistry, on the other hand, has to deal 
with the smallest particles and the shortest 
distances of the universe. Astronomy is 
the science of the infinitely great; chem- 
istry is the science of the infinitely little. 
The chemist wants to know what things are 
made of, and, in order to find this out, he 
has to push his work to the smallest par- 
ticles of matter. Then he comes face to 
face with facts that lead him to the belief 
that the smallest particles he can weigh by 
the aid of the most delicate balance, and 
the smallest particles he can see by the aid 
of the most powerful microscope, are im- 
mense as compared with those of which he 
has good reason to believe the various kinds 
of matter to be made up. It is for this 
reason that I say that chemistry is the 
science of the infinitely little. 

Thus have I tried to show what science 



is and what it is not. Now let me turn 
to the second question. 

In what sense is this the age of science? 
In the first place, it is not true that sci- 
ence is something of recent birth. Scien- 
tific work of one kind and another has 
, been in progress for ages— not in all 
branches, to be sure— but nature has 
always engaged the attention of man, and 
we may be sure that he has always been 
trying to learn more about it. The science 
of astronomy was the first to be developed. 
Astrology was its forerunner. Then cam^ 
chemistry in the guise of alchemy. It 
would be interesting to follow the develop- 
ment of each, and to see how from the crude 
observations, and imaginings of the earlier 
generations came the clearer and broader 
conceptions that constitute the sciences, but 
time will not permit us to enter upon this 
subject. I can not, however, do justice to 
my theme without calling your attention to 
one of the most serious obstacles that stood 
in the way of the advance of knowledge. 

To make clear the nature of this obstacle, 
it will be best to make a comparison. A 
child learns a great deal in regard to his 
surroundings in his earliest years before 
he goes to school, and without the aid of 
his parents. He is constantly engaged in 
making observations and drawing conclu- 
sions, and his actions are largely guided by 
the knowledge thus gained. After a time 
school life begins, and the child then begins 
to study books and to acquire knowledge at 
second-hand. This is an entirely different 
process from that by which he gained his 
first knowledge. The latter is natural, 
the former is artificial. Then, too, he soon 
discovers that many things he sees call for 
explanation, and he is led to wonder what 
the explanation is. If he has a strong 
imagination, as most children have, he will 
probably think out some explanation. He 
finds that he can use his mind, and that 
this helps him in dealing with the facts in 



68 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



nature. Now comes the danger. It being 
much easier to think than to work, the 
chances are that in trying to find the ex- 
planation of things, he will give up the 
natural method and be satisfied with the 
products of his imagination. He will grad- 
ually give up dealing directly with things, 
and take to thinking alone. When this 
stage is reached his knowledge will increase 
very slowly, if at all. 

Whether this picture of the development 
of a child is in accordance with the facts 
of life or not, it gives an idea of the mental 
development of mankind. First came the 
period of infancy, during which observa- 
tions were made and much learned. Ef- 
forts were early made to explain the facts 
of nature. We have remnants of these 
explanations in old theories that have long 
ceased to be useful. They no doubt served 
a useful purpose in their day, but gradually 
one of the most pernicious ideas ever held 
by man took shape, and I am willing to 
characterize it as one of the most serious 
obstacles to the advance of knowledge. I 
refer to the idea that it is a sign of in- 
feriority to work with the hands. This 
idea came early and stayed late. In fact, 
there are still on the earth a few who hold 
it. How did this prove an obstacle to the 
advance of knowledge? By preventing 
those who were best equipped from advanc- 
ing knowledge. The learned men of the 
earth for a long period were thinkers, phi- 
losophers. They were not workers in na- 
ture's workshop. They tried to solve the 
great problems of nature by thinking about 
them. They did not experiment. That is 
to say, they did not go directly to nature 
and put questions to her. They speculated. 
They elaborated theories. During this 
period knowledge was not advanced 
rapidly. It could not be. For the only 
way along which advances could be made 
was closed. 

Slowly the lesson was learned that the 



/only way by which we can gain knowledge 
of nature's secrets is by taking her into 
our confidence. Instead of contempla- 
tion in a study, we must have contact 
with the things of nature either out-of- 
doors or in the laboratory. Manual labor 
is necessary. Without it we may as well 
give up hope of acquiring knowledge of 
the truth. When this important fact was 
forced upon the attention of men, scien- 
tific progress began and continued with in- 
creasing rapidity. • At present the old 
pernicious idea that a man who does any 
kind of work with his hands is by virtue of 
that fact an inferior being — that idea is 
no longer generally held. But we have not 
got entirely rid of it. In a recent address 
I find this reference to the subject: "How- 
ever the case may have been with what 
forty years ago was called the education of 
a gentleman, it seems to me to be one of the 
services of the scientific laboratory that it 
has taught to that part of mankind which 
has leisure and opportunities that manual 
skill is a thing to be held in honor both as a 
means for reaching mechanical results, and 
still more, as a way to train the mind. * * * 
Fifty years ago many men who called them- 
selves educated were mere untrained, un- 
developed children in manual skill, and 
some of them were proud of their incom- 
petency, for nothing would have more sur- 
prised them than an assertion that their 
inability to help themselves with their 
hands was a badge of ignorance. * * * 
While the high character and sterling 
worth of the medical man has always won 
respect, their skill in the use of their hands 
was long held by those who were superior 
to such weakness to place them beneath the 
lawyers and the clergymen in the social 
scale. ' ' Recently I came upon this old ' 
idea within college walls. In the college 
connected with the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity there are several groups of studies 
which lead to the degree of bachelor of arts. 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



69 



Group I. is largely made up of the classics, 
and it is therefore generally called the 
classical group. I happened once to be 
dining with a gentleman whose son was a 
student in Group I. in our college. Our 
professor of Latin was also present. Turn- 
ing to my colleague, the professor of Latin, 
our host, the father of the classical student, 
exclaimed : ' How those fellows in Group I. 
look down upon all the others ! ' I after- 
wards learned that this feeling undoubt- 
edly existed among the students, those who 
studied the classics, especially, forming, in 
their own opinion at least, a well-character- 
ized aristocracy. I have referred to these 
cases simply for the purpose of showing 
that the pernicious idea that hand-work is 
a sign of inferiority is not yet dead. But 
it has nevertheless been disappearing 
rapidly for some years past, and with its 
disappearance the development of science 
has kept pace. Which is the cause and 
which the effect it would perhaps be 
hard to say. At all events, the growth 
of every department of science has been 
more rapid within the last fifty years 
than during the preceding fifty years, 
though we should be doing gross injustice 
to our predecessors were we to belittle their 
work. The fact is, I am inclined to think 
that there never was a more fruitful period, 
in chemistry at least, than the last quarter 
of the eighteenth century. Farther on, I 
shall have occasion to speak of a few of the 
great chemical discoveries that were made 
during that period. No greater discoveries 
have been made since. In astronomy, New- 
ton 's great work was done more than two 
centuries ago. An age that can boast of 
the discovery of the law of gravitation 
may fairly lay claim to the title, ' the age of 
science.' Many and many a great dis- 
covery in science preceded the present age, 
but from what I have already said, you 
.will see that the reason for calling this age 
in which we live the scientific age is found 



in the fact that scientific work is much 
more extensively carried on at present 
than at any time in the past, and, further, 
the world is beginning to reap the rewards 
of this work. So striking are some of these 
rewards that they appeal to all. The world 
is dazzled by them, and is to a large extent 
unable to distinguish between the scientific 
work which has made these rewards pos- 
sible and the rewards themselves. The idea 
is prevalent that scientific work is carried 
on in order that rewards in the shape of 
practical results may be reached. I have 
no desire to bring my fellow- workers in sci- 
ence into disrepute. It would therefore 
perhaps be best for me to stop here; but, 
if you will bear with me, I will try to make 
it clear to you that one may be engaged in 
scientific work all his life, never thinking 
of what the world calls practical results, 
that he may in fact not achieve a single 
result that can be called practical, and yet 
not waste his time ; and that one may hold 
such a .worker up to admiration without 
running much risk of being taken for a 
fool. This will be my object in what I 
still have to say. 

While I have thus far referred to science 
in the broadest sense, meaning the science 
of nature, let me now turn more especially 
to the science to which it has been my lot 
to devote my life, and let me endeavor to 
show by a few examples the relations that 
exist between work that a.ppears to be of 
little practical value when first performed 
and results that, from the industrial point 
of view, are of the highest value. 

I have often been embarrassed by these 
questions put to _me in my laboratory: 
'What are you doing?' and 'Of what use 
is the work?' Generally I am obliged to 
answer to the first, "I regret that I can 
not possibly explain what I am doing. I 
have tried to do so in some cases, but I have 
been begged to stop"; and to the second, 
the only possible answer has been, ' I do not 



70 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



know.' I am well aware that such answers 
seem to show that the work is in fact of no 
value, and that this is the impression that 
my visitors carry away with them. Now I 
do not propose to try to justify my own 
work, nor to try to explain it. For the 
most part it has had to deal with matters 
that do not touch our daily lives, and there- 
fore it can not be made interesting, not to 
say intelligible. I shall, to be sure, show 
you how one piece of work carried out 
twenty years ago has become of world-wide 
interest, though when it was carried out it 
appeared as little likely to be of practical 
value as anything ever done. But this is 
anticipating. 

During the latter half of the last century 
there lived in Sweden a poor apothecary 
who, in his short life, probably did more to 
enlarge our knowledge of chemistry than 
any other man. Throughout his life he had 
to contend with sickness and poverty. He 
was obliged to carry on the business of an 
apothecary in order to keep the wolf from 
entering his house— he never succeeded in 
keeping it from the door. His great delight 
was to investigate things chemically, and to 
find out all he could about them. It is 
simply astounding to the chemist to find 
how many discoveries of the highest impor- 
tance he made. But I have not mentioned 
his name. I refer to the immortal Scheele. 
He died in the year 1786 at the age of 43, 
yet he will always be remembered, and 
those who know most of the work he did 
will respect him most. 

Though Scheele was an apothecary, his 
chemical work was not practical in the ordi- 
nary sense, and it was no doubt often diffi- 
cult for him to explain what he was doing. 
His most important discovery was that of 
oxygen — a discovery that was made at the 
same time (1774) by the English clergy- 
man, Priestley. Chemists know that this is 
one of the most important discoveries ever 
made in the field of chemistry, and, filled 



with this conviction, in 1874, one hundred 
years after the discovery was made, the 
chemists of the United States made a pil- 
grimage to Northumberland on the Susque- 
hanna to do honor to the memory of Priest- 
ley, who there spent the last years of his 
life. 

But why was this discovery so impor- 
tant? Oxygen, to be sure, is the most 
widely distributed and the most abundant 
substance in and on the earth; it plays a 
controlling part in the breathing of animals, 
and in most of the changes that are taking 
place upon the earth; a knowledge of it 
and of the ways in which it acts has done 
more than anything else to give chemists 
an insight into chemical action in general; 
and therefore has contributed more than 
anything else to the development of chem- 
istry. All this is no doubt true, but are 
these results practical? Could we go out 
into the world and form a company and 
sell stock on the basis of such a discovery? 
Or could the discoverer in any way realize 
in cash? The average man of the world 
would say: "No! there is nothing in it. 
It may be well for a few men who have not 
the power to compete with their fellow-men 
in the busy marts to devote themselves to 
such useless pursuits. Possibly something 
may come of it in time, but better some- 
thing practical, something that can be con- 
verted into hard cash. That is the test, 
and the only fair test by which we can 
judge whether any particular piece of sci- 
entific work is or is not of value. ' ' 

But I have already said that the discov- 
ery of oxygen was the most important dis- 
covery ever made in chemistry, and I might 
have added, the most valuable. In what, 
then, did its value consist? In the fact 
that it led to a more intelligent working 
with all things chemical. Operations that 
had before this discovery appeared mys- 
terious suddenly became clear, and every 
one engaged in chemical work was helped 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



71 



in many ways. If it is not enough for us 
simply to gain a clearer insight into the 
processes around us, if we must insist upon 
more tangible reward, no doubt it could be 
shown that the discovery of oxygen has 
contributed largely to the material welfare 
of mankind — not directly perhaps, but by 
enlarging our knowledge of chemistry, so 
that it may be said that most discoveries 
made since 1774 have been in a way 
consequences of the discovery of oxygen. 
Indirect results are often of more value 
than direct ones. 

But there is another discovery of 
Scheele's that illustrates in another way 
that a discovery that when made appears of 
little or no practical value, may eventually 
prove of immense practical value and be- 
come the basis of a great industry. This is 
the discovery of chlorine. Among the many 
substances examined by Scheele was one 
that is commonly known as black oxide of 
manganese. This occurs in nature in large 
quantity and has long been of interest to 
chemists. Scheele treated this with about 
everything he could lay his hands on, as 
was his way. When muriatic acid, or, as 
it was called by the older chemists, the 
spirit of salt, was poured on the black oxide 
of manganese, he noticed that something 
unusual took place. He soon became aware 
that a colored gas was given off, and that 
this gas had other properties besides that of 
color. It affected his eyes, nose, throat and 
lungs in most disagreeable ways. Many of 
those before me have had the experience of 
inhaling a little of this gas. I hope no one 
has inhaled much of it. It is one of the 
most disagreeable things chemists and stu- 
dents of chemistry have to deal with. And 
it is not only disagreeable, it is extremely 
poisonous. But Scheele did not stop his 
work because it involved discomfort and 
even danger. He persisted and carried it 
to a successful issue, and when he stopped 
he was able to give as satisfactory an ac- 



count of the now familiar chlorine as we 
can give to-day. The investigation is a 
model. It could not have been accom- 
plished without the enthusiasm, the pa- 
tience, the knowledge and the skill pos- 
sessed ' by Scheele. No ordinary chemist 
would have been ecjual to it. We shall not 
overstate the case if we say that Scheele's 
discovery of chlorine ranks with the most 
important and the most valuable of chem- 
ical discoveries. That of oxygen outranks 
it certainly, but chlorine falls in line not 
far behind. 

Now, why was this an important and a 
valuable discovery? Primarily because it, 
like the discovery of oxygen, though to a 
less degree, aided chemists in their efforts 
to understand chemistry and thus to put 
them in a position to deal more intelli- 
gently with chemical problems of all kinds.. 
That statement may, once for all, be made 
of every important chemical discovery. But 
while Scheele had no thought of any prac- 
tical uses to which chlorine could be put, 
and his discovery was not at first regarded 
as one with a practical bearing, it proved 
eventually to be of the highest practical 
value, and to-day it plays an exceedingly 
important part in practical affairs. As is 
well known, chlorine is the great bleacher, 
and as such is used in enormous quantity, 
especially for bleaching straw, paper and 
dift'erent kinds of cloth. As it would be 
expensive and inconvenient to transport a 
gas, and especially such a gas as chlorine, 
it is locked up, as it were, by causing it to 
act iipon lime, and the 'chloride of lime' 
or 'bleaching powder' thus formed, which 
readily gives up its chlorine, is a most im- 
portant article of commerce, many thou- 
sands of tons being manufactured annually- 
Then again chlorine is one of the most effi- 
cient disinfectants, and as such it is finding- 
more and more extensive use every year, 
and is plainly contributing to the welfare 
of man by interfering with the spread of 



72 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. Xo. 498. 



disease. Further, it is essential to the 
manufacture of chloroform, and that this 
calls for a large quantity of chlorine will 
appear when it is stated that nearly nine 
tenths of the weight of chloroform is chlo- 
rine. Chloroform, which has been of such 
inestimable value as an alleviator of pain, 
can not be manufactured without chlorine, 
and it could never have been discovered 
without the previous discovery of chlorine. 

Finally, without attempting to give a fuU 
account of all the uses to which chlorine 
has been and is put for our benefit, let me 
mention one more application, though in 
doing so I may run the risk of leading some 
of you to the conclusion that chlorine has 
its dark side as well as its light. It is with 
some misgivings that I venture to tell you 
that chlorine has found extensive applica- 
tion in the extraction of gold from its ores, 
and as gold is held by some to be the root 
of all evil, chlorine must, by the same 
token, be regarded as particeps criminis. 
A few years ago I visited the gold mines 
in the Black Hills of South Dakota, and 
there I spent some time in examining the 
chlorination process. I could not help 
thinking of Scheele and his simple experi- 
ments that first brought chlorine to light. 
I wondered whether, if he could see the ex- 
tensive applications of that greenish-yellow 
gas that first set him to weeping and cough- 
ing — I wondered whether his satisfaction 
in his work would be any greater than it 
ihust have been when the discovery was 
made. Compare the little room in the 
apothecary shop, the simple apparatus, and 
the apparent uselessness of the noxious gas 
with the great factories, the complicated 
machinery and the valuable applications 
already mentioned, and it is evident that a 
discovery that appears least promising 
from the practical point of view may be the 
beginning of the most valuable industries. 

Before leaving this part of my subject 
let me take a mtich less important example 



than those already spoken of, but one that 
comes nearer home. Nearly twenty-five 
years ago in the laboratory under my 
charge, an investigation was being carried 
on that seemed as little likely to lead to 
practical results as any that could well be 
imagined. It woiild be quite out of the 
question to explain what we were trying to 
do. Any practical man would unhesitat- 
ingly have condemned the work as being 
utterly useless, and I may add that some 
did condemn it. There was no hope, no 
thought entertained by us that anything 
practical would come of it. But lo! one 
day it appeared that one of the substances 
discovered in the course of the investiga- 
tion is the sweetest thing on earth ; and then 
it was shown that it can be taken into the 
system without injury; and finally, that it 
can be manufactured at such a price as to 
furnish sweetness at a cheaper rate than it 
is furnished by the sugar cane or the beet. 
And soon a great demand for it was created, 
and to-day it is manufactured in surprising 
quantities and used extensively in all cor- 
ners of the globe. Thousands have found 
employment in the factories in which it is 
now made, and it appears that in some Eu- 
ropean countries the new substance has 
become the sweetening agent of the poor, it 
being sold in solution by the drop. 

It is unnecessary here to discuss the ques- 
tion naturally suggested by the facts just 
spoken of, whether the discovery of the 
sweet substance has benefited the human 
race. It would be extremely difficult, if 
not impossible, to answer this question. 
But whatever the answer, it is clear from 
what has been said that the discovery was 
of importance from the practical point of 
view, and there was nothing originally in 
the work to suggest the possibility of a 
practical result in the sense in which the 
word practical is commonly employed. 

This is the lesson that we learn over and 
over again as we study the great industries. 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



73 



Ear.ely have they been the results of work 
uudertaken with the object of attaining the 
practical. Look at the beginnings of elec- 
tricity. A piece of amber when rubbed 
attracts bits of pith. A frog 's leg twitches 
after death when touched in certain ways 
with metals. That was all. Are such 
things worth investigating 1 No doubt the 
practical man said: 'No; stop trifling: do 
something worth doing.' And if he had 
been permitted to have his way, all the 
wonderful results that depend upon the 
applications of electricity would have been 
impossible. In every line, much study, 
much work, and much investigation are 
absolutely necessary before enough knowl- 
edge can be got together to make profitable, 
practical applications possible. During 
this early preparatory stage the work is of 
no direct interest to the purely practical 
man ; and yet without this work the appli- 
cations which he values would be impossi 
ble. Scientific work in its highest form 
does not pay directly. Those who devote 
themselves to the pursuit of pure science 
do not, as a rule, reap pecuniary reward. 
They probably enjoy their lives as much as 
if they did, though it is often difficult to 
make them believe this. But because it 
does not yield immediate reward to the 
worker, should the work stop? Surely 
not. Our only hope of progress in intel- 
lectual as well as practical matters lies in a 
continuation of this work. And even 
though not a single tangible, practical re- 
sult should be reached, the work would be 
valuable. Why? Because we are all 
helped by knowledge. The more we know 
of the universe the better fitted we are to fill 
our places in the world. All will concede 
the truth of that proposition. But if this 
is true we have the strongest argument for 
scientific work, for it is only through such 
work that we are enlarging our knowledge. 
There is no other way of learning. Some- 
body must be adding to our stock of knowl- 



edge, or what we call progress in intellect- 
ual and material things would stop. It also 
seems probable that moral progress is aided 
by intellectual progress, though it might be 
difficult to make this perfectly clear. I 
believe it is so ; though of course it does not 
follow that every individual furnishes evi- 
dence of the relation between intellectual 
and moral progress. 

But, my friends, whether we will or not, 
scientific investigation wiU go on as it has 
been going on from the earliest times, and 
it will go on more and more rapidly with 
time. The universe is inexhaustible, and 
its mysteries are inexplicable. We may 
and must strive to learn all we can, but we 
can not hope to learn all. We are finite; 
the mysteries we are dealing with are 
infinite. Ira Remsen. 



HIGHER EDUCATION IN GERMANY AND 
THE UNITED STATES. 

An article on ' Thirty Years' Growth of 
German Universities,' which recently ap- 
peared in one of the educational magazines, 
suggests an investigation along similar lines 
with reference to our own country and a 
comparison of existing conditions. There 
can be no doubt of the fact that there is 
manifested in this country an increasing 
purpose to lead the intellectual or the sci- 
entific life, which wiU inevitably tend to 
raise the standard of American civilization 
and culture. The growth of our leading 
universities within the past decade bears 
eloquent testimony to this fact, and we 
have no reason to be dissatisfied with the 
progress that has been made in the field 
of higher education. A mere glance at the 
figures in the above-mentioned article de- 
scribing the growth of the higher institu- 
tions of learning in Germany will convey a 
good idea of the marvelous intellectual ad- 
vancement of the nation since the Franco- 
German war. The author shows that, while 
there had been an increase of 38.9 per cent. 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



in the male population of Germany be- 
tween 1870 and 1900, the number of stu- 
dents in attendance at the universities and 
schools of technology, mining, forestry, 
agriculture and veterinary science has 
grown no less than 163.8 per cent, and 
allowing graduates of these institutions 
also to enter into his calculations, he finds 
that in Germany the number of men of 
university training has doubled within the 
last thirty years. The total number of 
■university students for 1900 is given as 
46,520 and the number of males in the pop- 
ulation of the country as 27,731,000, there 
being thus 16.78 students for every 10,000 
males, as against 8.83 thirty years ago. 

In attempting to compare the educa- 
tional conditions represented by these 
figures with those of the United States, 
several obstacles are encountered at the 
very outset. In the first place, American 
statistics would not be complete and would 
not constitute a fair criterion of the educa- 
tional characteristics of our country, were 
we to exclude from them all women stu- 
dents, for aside from the large enrollment 
at colleges for women and the great body 
of women pursuing graduate or profes- 
sional courses at the universities, it is not 
at all unusual to find the women in the 
collegiate departments of our larger uni- 
versities, especially the state institutions, 
far outnumbering the men. It is scarcely 
necessary to state that in contradistinc- 
tion to this state of affairs, the policy of 
permitting women to study at the Ger- 
man universities is just beginning to be 
looked upon here and there with any de- 
gree of favor. It would hardly be appro- 
priate to deny woman a place in the intel- 
lectual activities of our nation, and we 
shall, therefore, arrive at a fairer basis of 
comparison if we take into consideration 
not only the number of male inhabitants, 
but the total population of the country. 
Adopting this basis, we find that in Ger- 



many 's population of over 56,000,000 there 
were in 1900 about eight students for every 
10,000 inhabitants. 

In the second place, it would be mani- 
festly unjust to Germany were we to draw 
conclusions in regard to the relative par- 
ticipation of the people in higher education 
in this country and in Germany without 
first making deductions for the further dis- 
similarities of conditions that confront us 
at every turn. The term higher education, 
as employed in the United States, is a more 
comprehensive one than it is in Germany, 
including as it does with us a large number 
of college students and students in the 
academic departments of universities who 
would not be regarded in Germany as uni- 
versity students. Moreover, in Germany 
every professional student is in reality a 
graduate student; ho one is permitted to 
matriculate in the faculty of law, medi- 
cine, or theology without possessing the 
testimonium maturitatis, the equivalent — 
in general terms— of our baccalaureate de- 
gree, whereas we can boast of only a few 
institutions that call for a first degree as 
a prerequisite for admission to any one of 
these faculties, notably Harvard Univer- 
sity for law, medicine and theology, Co- 
lumbia University for law, and Johns Hop- 
kins University for medicine. It seems rea- 
sonable to suppose that at least the more 
prominent American universities will adopt 
the higher admission requirements for the 
professional faculties within the next dec- 
ade. At all events, even the most strenu- 
ous opponents of the theory must admit 
that the recent growth of the Harvard law 
school, which can point with pride to an 
enrollment of over 700 students, is a splen- 
did justification of the lately adopted ideal 
condition. 

Turning from the American professional 
schools with their inferior requirements to 
the so-called graduate or post-graduate fac- 
ulties, we meet with conditions that are 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



75 



most encouraging, for the number of grad- 
uate students in our universities has more 
than doubled within the past five years. 
Columbia University alone has almost 700 
resident candidates for the higher degrees 
registered under its graduate faculties of 
political science, philosophy and pure sci- 
ence, the majority of whom are preparing 
themselves for the teaching profession. 
And here we have another encouraging fea- 
ture of the educational development of our 
country, viz., the improved facilities for 
intellectual growth offered to our teachers 
by means of summer schools, extension 
courses, public lectures, and similar enter- 
prises conducted under the auspices of our 
leading universities. At its summer ses- 
sion of 1903 Harvard enrolled almost 1,400 
students, and almost 700 students are at 
present pursuing resident work at the 
Teachers College of Columbia University, 
which this year is also giving extension 
courses to 1,600 students. 

Having called attention to the difficulty 
of making direct comparisons of the growth 
of higher education in Germany and the 
United States, let us at least examine some 
of the salient features, of this growth in 
both countries. Viewed from the stand- 
point of increase of proportion of students 
to the entire population, the comparison 
slightly favors the United States, although 
the difference is not great, and the advan- 
tage would be lost entirely were we to make 
due allowance for the differences in concep- 
tions discussed above. The following fig- 
ures will serve to illustrate this point: In 
1870 the United States had a population of 
38,000,000, which by 1900 had increased to 
76,000,000, i. e., it had virtually doubled. 
In 1872 there were 8.52 students of both 
sexes in all branches of higher education to 
each 10,000 inhabitants, whereas in 1900 
there were 19.13, somewhat more than twice 
as many. In Germany the increase between 
1870 and 1900 was a little less than double, 



from 8.83 to 16.78 students for every 10,000 
males, the total population of the country 
having increased from 41,000,000 in 1871 
to 56,000,000 in 1900. We must also take 
into consideration the fact that the United 
States is growing much more rapidly than 
the German Empire. In the last decade of 
the nineteenth century the population of 
Germany increased 14 per cent., while that 
of the United States increased almost 21 
per cent., and this great increase in the pop- 
ulation of our own country is comprised 
largely of immigrants, of whom only a rela- 
tively small proportion is interested in 
higher education. Another interesting fact 
is brought out by comparing the actual 
numerical growth of the student body of 
the two countries, and employing this basis, 
the comparison would again favor the 
United States. Between 1889 and 1900 the 
total number of students in attendance at 
the German universities increased 36 per 
cent., whereas in America between 1890 and 
1901 the total increase* in the number of 
undergraduate and resident graduate stu- 
dents in universities, colleges and schools 
of technology amoimted to 86 per cent., 
and there would be little change in the rela- 
tive growth were the comparison extended 
to cover the past thirty years. 

One of the most interesting points ad- 
duced in the article mentioned is the 
marked change in the distribution of the 
students among the different classes of in- 
stitutions, the figures demonstrating that 
the schools of technology have since 1892 
expanded uninterruptedly and much more 
rapidly than the general universities. The 
reason for this expansion is to be sought 
not so much in the existence of lower en- 
trance requirements for the schools of tech- 
nology, nor in the circumstance that sev- 
eral schools have been permitted to confer 
an engineering degree, although both of 
these factors have some bearing on the de- 
velopment in question. We must go 



76 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



further to find the true cause. During the 
past decade Germany has made tremendous 
advances in the field of industries and man- 
ufactures, just as . has the United States, 
and the main reason for the increase in the 
ntunber of students of technology in both 
countries— the multiplication of this class 
of students in our own country during the 
past decade has been quite marked — is 
found in the endeavor to supply a demand, 
the prospective student carefully weighing 
the chances of earning a livelihood in one 
field or another. Wherever the supply 
begins to exceed the demand, a tendency 
toward reduction is immediately felt, as 
witness the falling off in the number of 
medical students in this country and else- 
where during the past year, which in spite 
of increased standards of admission and 
other minor causes, must be attributed in 
the main to the existing superabundance of 
physicians. In other words, at the present 
day when the professional schools are 
making such headway at the expense of 
the old general culture course, imiversity 
attendance becomes more and more in- 
fluenced by existing economic and indus- 
trial conditions, especially in a country like 
the United States, in which the practical 
side of life is emphasized with such vigor, 
and likewise in a country such as Germany, 
which during the past few years has 
adopted so many of our own methods in 
the conduct of its industrial and commer- 
cial affairs. While Germany can not be 
said to have sacrificed any educational 
ideals for this new movement, it has at all 
events allowed the influence of things prac- 
tical to be strongly felt. In connection 
with this important question of the wide- 
spread increase of applied science students 
as affecting both Germany and the United 
States, we might point out that in no in- 
stance does a German school of technology 
form a coherent part of a university proper, 
as is so frequently the case in this country. 



And what is more, it seldom happens that 
a German technological school is located in 
a university town, and more than one such 
school is never, under any circumstance, 
allowed to exist in the same city, whereas 
in the United States we revel in the luxury 
of supporting several technological depart- 
ments within hailing distance of one 
another, to mention only Harvard Univer- 
sity, the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology and Tufts College, for Boston, and 
Columbia University, the Stevens Institute 
of Technology and New York University, 
for New York City, all of which institu- 
tions offer courses in applied science. 

Nothing furnishes a more vivid illustra- 
tion of the practical tendencies visible in 
American education than the existence of 
departments of commerce and accounts as 
constituent parts of several of our lead- 
ing institutions of learning, and the con- 
templated establishment of a school of jour- 
nalism in connection with Columbia Uni- 
versity is but another phase of this constant 
and growing endeavor to enlarge the field 
of legitimate university activity in prac- 
tical directions. 

Summarizing briefly, we have found that 
both in Germany and in the United States 
wonderful progress has been made in re- 
cent years in the spread of higher educa- 
tion, and this development may be regarded 
as a specific manifestation of the general 
material prosperity which has character- 
ized the life of both countries during the 
past thirty years. The amazing develop- 
ment of the industrial activities of both 
nations has found a decided reflection in 
the rapid increase in the enrollments of the 
schools of technology and the university 
faculties of applied science, an increase far 
above the normal and illustrative of the 
modern striving to bring education into 
closer and closer accord with the living 
issues and problems of the day. And no 
harm will result from this tendency, pro- 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



77 



vided the proper ideals are never sacrificed 
to the popular demand, for there seems to 
be no cogent reason why the intellectual 
advancement of a nation should not be in 
perfect harmony with all those things that 
constitute the sphere of its practical ac- 
tivity. The future of higher education in 
Germany and in the United States will be 
proof against all attacks, provided there is 
no diminution in the proportion of per- 
sons animated by a desire to lead the intel- 
lectual life, and provided further that we 
never cease to adhere to those ideals of 
scholarship and learning which have con- 
tributed in such bountiful measure to Ger- 
many's commanding position in the educa- 
tional world. 

Rudolf Tombo, Jr., Ph.D., 
Registrar, Columbia University. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Catalogue of the Ward-Coonley Collection of 
Meteorites. By Henry A. Ward, A.M., 
LL.D. Pp. xii + 113, with 10 plates. Pub- 
lished by the Author. Chicago, May, 1904. 
The Ward-Coonley collection of meteorites 
comprises at the present time representatives 
of more falls than any other collection in the 
world. Of about 680 meteorites known, the 
Ward-Coonley collection contains 603, which 
is 43 more than the number in the Vienna col- 
lection, according to the latest catalogue 
(1902), and 46 more than the British Mu- 
seum collection contains, according to its 
latest catalogue (1904). The attainment of 
so remarkable a completeness by the Ward- 
Coonley collection is set forth in the catalogue 
just published by Professor Ward. The work 
contains much information of value besides 
being a catalogue. 

In an interesting preface the author de- 
scribes the manner in which the collection 
has been built up. Attention is called to the 
fact that exchange has proved quite as im- 
portant a means of acquiring meteorites as 
purchase, and a liberal policy in this regard 
on the part of museums and collectors who 
would enlarge their collections is urged. The 



Gregory and Siemaschko collections are stated 
to be largely incorporated in the Ward-Coon- 
ley collection, while extensive travel by Pro- 
fessor Ward yielded meteorites obtainable in 
no other way. The first seventy pages of the 
catalogue are devoted to a list of the meteor- 
ites represented in the collection. These are 
arranged alphabetically under the groups of 
siderites, siderolites and aerolites. The list 
gives the name of the meteorite preferred by 
the author, its classification according to 
Brezina's system, the latitude and longitude 
of the locality and a statement of the locality 
according to political divisions. Reference 
to the first description of the meteorite is then 
given and the weight in grams of the chief 
piece and total weight in the Ward-Coonley 
collection. It is evident that great care has 
been taken to render this part of the catalogue 
accurate in detail, and the large amount of 
painstaking labor necessary to achieve this 
result can be appreciated only by those who 
have essayed similar tasks. So thoroughly 
has the work been done, however, that this 
catalogue may be considered the most authori- 
tative work now extant in regard to the names 
and localities of the meteorites which it lists. 
American locality names of meteorites in par- 
ticular have suffered so wofully from the mis- 
takes of foreign authorities hitherto that it is 
cause for congratulation that the matter has 
been taken in hand by one so familiar with 
the subject as Professor Ward. 

PoUowing the list of specimens in the 
Ward-Coonley collection, an alphabetical list 
of all known meteorites is given with such 
synonyms as have importance. Here again 
the wide experience and knowledge of the 
author give the list a peculiar value. It has 
not been burdened with synonyms resulting 
from imperfect or careless spelling, but gen- 
uine synonyms have been retained. 

The next division of the catalogue shows 
the geographical distribution of all known 
meteorites according to countries. The meteor- 
ites of each country are arranged alphabetic- 
ally under that division and their date of fall 
or find, and classification as iron or stone 
shown. Division VI. of the catalogue has 
been contributed by Dr. Brezina, of Vienna. 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498.. 



This gives in complete form the classification 
of meteorites wrought out by Dr. Brezina at 
the Vienna Museum and now brought quite 
up to date. Seventy-four groups are named 
and under each group are given the meteor- 
ites assigned to each. The complete presen- 
tation of this classification is a work which 
will be of great service to students of meteor- 
ites and an aid to further study of the groups. 
■Following this a table shows to what extent 
these groups are represented in the Ward- 
Coonley collection. It appears that all the 
groups are represented and 95 per cent, of the 
group localities. The total weight of the col- 
lection is given as 2,495 kilos (5,509 pounds), 
and the total number of specimens as about 
1,600. The average weight of the representa- 
tives of each fall is 4,138 grams (9^ pounds), 
or, counting nothing over 50 kilograms to a 
fall, 1,Y46 grams (3f pounds). 

The following meteorites are stated to have 
larger representatives in the Ward-Coonley 
collection than in any other : Among siderites, 
Arispe, Bacubirito, Ballinoo, Canon Diablo, 
Canyon City, Central Missouri, Costilla Peak, 
Illinois Gulch, Luis Lopez, Nejed, Eoebourne, 
Saint Genevieve, Surprise Springs, Tongan- 
oxie, Ute Pass and Willamette. Among sid- 
erolites, Morristown, Pavlodar and Veramin. 
Among aerolites, Baratta, Bluff, Castine, 
Indarch, MacKinney, Mighei, Ness County, 
Oakley, Petersburg, Pipe Creek and Eushville. 

Adjuncts to the collection such as casts, 
micro-sections, betyl coins, etc., are listed and 
the ten illustrative full-page plates show the 
appearance of about fifty typical specimens of 
the collection and the manner of mounting 
and installation. 

It is a cause for felicitation that so large 
and complete a collection of meteorites is to 
be found on this side of the Atlantic, and 
students of science will join with Dr. Brezina 
in congratulating, as he does in a recent letter 
which the present writer has been permitted 
to see, Professor Ward ' upon the results of 
such uncommon energy and experience. In- 
stead of three first-class world collections, 
Vienna, London and Paris,' says Dr. Brezina, 
' there exist now four.' 

Oliver C. Farrinqton. 



Le Mouvement. By E. S. Woodworth. Paris,, 

O. Doin. 1903. Pp. viii + 421. 4 fr. 

This volume, which is a part of the 
' Bibliotheque Internationale de psychologie- 
experimentale normale et pathologique,' edited 
by Dr. Toulouse, is an excellent and complete- 
discussion of movement in all its aspects. 

The work is divided into two parts, viz., I.^ 
on the perception of bodily movements, and. 
II., on the production of movement. 

In the first part there are excellent accounts, 
of the physiological, clinical and anatomical 
findings regarding the muscular sense, and of 
the functions of the semi-circular canals in 
relation to sensations of movement. The re- 
mainder of the section is concerned with a 
general survey of the literature on the percep- 
tion of the extent, the time, and the force of 
movement, on the perception of lifted weights,, 
on weight illusions, and a critique of Weber's 
law in relation to the perception of movement. 

The second part — on the production of move-- 
ment — consists in discussions regarding reflex 
action, coordination, dynamogenesis, motor 
automatism, voluntary movement, rapidity of 
voluntary movement — including reaction time- 
— the precision of movement, and fatigue. 

Not every one will agree with the author 
regarding the role of the synapses in the pro- 
duction of habits, etc. (p. 227) : " S'il y a un- 
arret quelconque dans le systeme nerveux,. 
comme cela arrive pendant le sommeil, il 
provient probablement du synapse. Et prob- 
ablement aussi, c'est le developement des ex- 
tremites nerveuses et le rapprochement des 
extremites des branches de dendrites et de 
I'axe qui produisent la formation des habitudes, 
et la maturite des instincts." The movements 
of dendrites and the shortening of spaces be- 
tween parts of contiguous neurons has not 
been sufficiently investigated to make the above- 
statement ' probable.' 

Fatig-ue is considered to be a phenomenon 
connected with muscle, very little or not at all 
with the neurons controlling the muscle. This 
view, it is admitted, is somewhat radical, but 
the author guardedly concludes that ' the 
theory of the participation of the central 
nervous system in motor fatigue is without 
proof (p. 400). It might also be retorted:. 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



79 



that the theory of muscle being the only seat 
of so-called motor fatigue is yet without proof. 
The early experiments of Mosso and of other 
investigators do not clearly establish a nervous 
fatigue, but results in these, and certain later 
experiments may be explained in either vcay, 
namely, that there is nervous fatigue or that 
there is only muscular fatigue. There is, in- 
deed, as much reason to say that there is a 
widening of the synapses in fatigue as in sleep 
(see above). 

Such a book has long been needed both by 
psychologists and by physiologists. Material 
has been carefully chosen from psychological, 
physiological and clinical literature, and 
theory has been properly subordinated to fact. 
Shepheed Ivory Fr.^nz. 

McLean Hospital, 
Wavekley, Mass. 



SOCIETIES AKD ACADEMIES. 

SOCIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND 

MEDICINE. 

The seventh regular meeting of the society 
was held on Wednesday, May 18, at 8 :30 p.m., 
in the physiological laboratory of the New 
York University and Bellevue Hospital Medi- 
cal College at 338 East 26th Street. Dr. 
S. J. Meltzer presided. 

Members present. — Adler, Burton-Opitz, 
Dunham, Ewing, Gies, Jackson, Levene, Lusk, 
Meltzer, Murlin, Richards, Salant, Wads- 
worth, Wallace, Yatsu. 

Members elected. — ^P. B. Hawk, W. G. Mac- 
Callum, A. R. Mandel, R. M. Pearce, Franz 
Pfaff, William Salant, H. U. Williams, A. S. 
Warthin. 

ABSTRACT OP REPORTS ON ORIGINAL 
INVESTIGATIONS.* 

The Lecithin Content of Fatty Extracts from 
the Kidney {Preliminary Report) : E. K. 
Dunham. 

Rosenfeld has shown that the percentage of 
the alcohol-chloroform extracts from the dried 
kidneys of dogs, both normal and ' fatty,' 
fluctuates within very narrow limits. He calls 

* The authors of the reports have furnished the 
abstracts. The secretary has made only a few 
abbreviations and minor alterations in them. 



these extracts ' fat,' and regards the micro- 
scopical examination as entirely untrust- 
worthy for gauging the amount of fat in the 
kidney. His work on other organs has led 
him to the conclusion that, when the fat con- 
tent is increased in the cells, it has been trans- 
ported from the fat-depots of the body. It 
appeared to the author of interest to compare 
the extracts obtained from the kidney by 
Rosenfeld's method with similar extracts from 
the depot-fats. It was at once evident that 
they differed markedly in the percentage of 
phosphorus they contained, as is shown by 
the following analytic results. 

Percentage 
Alcohol-chloroform Extracts. of 

Phosphorus. 

Human kidney (mean of 28 analyses) 1.3849 

Panniculus adiposus (4 2288 grams) 0.0026 

Perinephritic fat (5.6750 grams) 0.0069 

The extract from the kidney contains from 
200 to 500 times as much phosphorus as the 
extract from depot-fat. These facts suffice 
to show that the two extracts are not directly 
comparable, and to throw doubt upon the idea 
advanced by Rosenfeld that the fat in ' fatty ' 
organs is a simple infiltration from the depots 
of the body. 

The phosphorus in these extracts was found 
to be wholly organic in character. Protagon 
could not be detected even in 400 grams of 
the tissue. The quantity of jecorin that may 
have been present was too small to influence 
materially the analytical results. The most 
probable compounds containing the phosphorus 
are forms of lecithin. The barium hydroxide- 
platinic chloride method for the separation of 
cholin was employed with the following re- 
sults : 





Extract, 
Grams. 


Phos- 
phorus, 
per cent. 


Platinum, 
Gram. 


Licithin in the Ex- 
tract (Calculated as 
Dl-stearyl-ltcithin), 
per cent. 


I. 


0.4600 


1.43 





37.23 




0.4600 


1.47 


— 


37.45 




1.5859 


— 


0.0650 


34.50 


II 


0.6032 


1.12 


— 


29.11 




0.6032 


1.11 


— 


28.99 




2.1556 


— 


0.0711 


27.40 



Before incineration, in the first case, the 
platinum salt in the crucible weighed 0.2009 



80 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



gram. The platinum, therefore, constituted 
32.7 per cent, of the salt. Cholin platinic 
chloride contains 31.6 per cent, of platinum. 
It appears highly probable, however, that some 
of the platinum salt was decomposed during 
the concentration of its solution with heat. 
It is also possible that some of the cholin suf- 
fered decomposition, or was lost, in the manip- 
ulations preceding its precipitation with 
platinic chloride. With these considerations 
in mind, the foregoing results render it highly 
probable that the phosphorus is present in some 
form of licithin, but although these calcula- 
tions are based on di-stearyl-lecithin, it is cer- 
tain that this is not the only lecithin present. 
The fact that lecithin obtained in moderate 
purity (about 99 per cent.) from the kidney 
extract promptly blackens with osmic acid, 
indicates that the oleic acid radicle is present. 
The recognition of this fact would make but 
trifling changes in the calculations in this 
report. 

The foregoing analyses appear to justify the 
conclusion that one may, at least tentatively, 
assume the phosphorus content of the extracts 
obtained to be dependent upon the presence of 
some form of lecithin. 

Upon this assumption the calculations given 
in the following table* are based: 





Extract, <S of 
Dry Organ. 

Phosphorus, 
^ of the 
Extract. 


Autopsy Report. 

^^--H ^1° a'' |3 

Human Kidneys. 

Grama. 


I. 


11.42 2.11 


55.07 6.29 ) Pneumonia and 




12,48 3.00 


52.03 6.49 i hepatic abscesses. ^"'^ 


II. 


11.44 1.35 


3.5.14 4.02 Tuberculosis. 200 


XI. 


15.40 1.18 
15.51 1.19 


30.84 4.76 ) Moderately fatty 

31.09 4.80 S kidneys. 


II. 


Beef Kidneys. 
15.02 2.10 54.64 8.21 



Dog Kidneys. 
I. 14.93 2.04 53.29 7.95 

Rabbit Kidneys. 
I. 16.59 2.53 66.06 10.96 f 

* The author presented a large number of data. 
The table here given shows only a few examples 
of the many results obtained. 

t 2.24 per cent, of the fresh kidney. 



These analyses demonstrate that even in the 
kidney, which can not be regarded as one of 
the fat-depots of the body and which probably 
plays little, if any, part in the general fat 
metabolism, the lecithin content must be 
taken into consideration in any study of the 
fatty extract. The limited number of the 
observations here referred to do not justify 
conclusions bearing upon the question of the 
nature of the fatty changes met with in the 
kidney, but it is the author's intention to con- 
tinue the study of this subject. 

On the Phloridzin Test in Bright' s Disease: 
P. A. Levene and L. B. Stookey. 
Investigation of the action of phloridzin in 
Bright's disease has a theoretical as well as a 
practical interest. The mechanism of kidney 
diabetes is as yet imperfectly understood. 
The original idea that it was due to a change 
in the permeability of the kidney epithelium 
has gradually lost support, and instead there 
is a growing belief in the hypothesis that, in 
kidney diabetes, the sugar owes its origin to 
an exaggerated catabolic condition of the 
kidney. This view was first expressed by one 
of the authors in 1894. In support of this 
theory evidence was brought forward to show 
that in animals with injured kidneys, phloridzin 
fails to bring about glycosuria, or causes it in 
less degree than in normal animals. However, 
it is impossible to injure, by means of drugs 
or by mechanical interference, only one special 
part of the kidney. In the course of Bright's 
disease there are known conditions under 
which the involvement of either the epithelium 
or of the glomeruli predominates to a very 
great extent, and this, of course, enables one 
to study the seat of the sugar formation within 
the kidney. The observations of most authors 
tend to show that when the epithelium of the 
kidney is injured administration of phloridzin 
fails to cause glycosuria or does so in very 
slight degree. 

The authors injected simultaneously phlo- 
ridzin and methylene blue, and compared the 
course of the elimination of the dye with that 
of the sugar. The results of their observa- 
tions in a general way corroborate the state- 
ments made by other writers. In acute paren- 
chymatous Bright's disease sugar fails to 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



81 



appear in the urine after the administration 
of pUoridzin. In clironic forms of the dis- 
ease, when only a trace of albumen can be 
detected in the urine, and when the permea- 
bility of the kidney for methylene blue is 
normal, there is frequently a diminished sugar 
elimination — diminished as compared with 
that in health under the influence of phlorid- 
zin. In no case was there observed an im- 
paired permeability for methylene blue with 
a normal sugar elimination, but the contrary 
was often the case. 

Levene's modification of Allihus's method 
was used for the sugar determinations. Fur- 
ther work in this direction is in progress. 

Effect of Blood Serum in Pneumonia upon the 

Heart (Preliminary Report) : Isaac Abler 

and Richard Weil. 

The object of these experiments was to de- 
termine whether blood serum in pneumonia 
has a specific effect upon the heart and, also, 
whether there is any difference in action be- 
tween the serum taken hefore and the serum 
obtained after the crisis. The experiments 
were made upon the heart of the turtle, use 
of the mammalian heart being impracticable, 
in this connection, for many reasons. The 
fluids to be tested entered the heart through 
a glass cannula introduced through the right 
aorta into the corresponding ventricle, passed 
through the septum into the left ventricle and 
flowed out through a cannula in the left aorta. 
Care was taken to keep the temperature, con- 
centration and hydrostatic pressure uniformly 
constant. The veins were all carefully 
ligated. The small diaphragmatic vein at 
the apex was tied and cut, the ligature con- 
nected with a writing lever, and the contrac- 
tions of the heart thus recorded upon a drum. 

Normal human serum acts upon the heart 
of the turtle as a violent inhibitor, but it was 
found that in a dilution of 1-20, or better still, 
1-15, it does not diiJer greatly in effect from 
' normal saline.' All sera were thereupon 
tested in dilution of 1-20 or 1-15, and the 
routine of each experiment as ultimately 
adopted was as follows : Infusion into the 
heart, (a) ' normal saline,' (&) normal blood 
serum, (c) ' normal saline,' (d) serum before 
crisis, (e) ' nonnal saline,' (f) serum after 



crisis. In this manner after considerable 
preliminary experimentation very character- 
istic tracings were obtained. 

Two cases of lobar pneumonia and one case 
of broncho pneumonia have thus far been 
studied. The tracings obtained were demon- 
strated and it appeared from them that the 
serum in pneumonia before the crisis, at least 
in the cases tested, acted upon the heart of the 
turtle as a most violent poison. The contrac- 
tions at once became extremely weak and slow 
and the pauses very long. The serum taken 
after the crisis gave tracings not very ma- 
terially different from those obtained with 
normal serum. 

The Influence of Alcohol on Biliary Secretion: 

William Salant. 

In the author's experiments, fasting or well 
fed dogs were the subjects. Operation and 
collection were conducted in the usual manner. 
Ether narcosis was employed in every instance 
without previous injection of morphine. The 
rate of secretion was studied by comparing the 
amounts collected during periods of fifteen 
minutes. The rate of secretion during the 
first four or five periods was used as a control, 
at the end of which time alcohol was injected 
by means of a burette into the femoral vein. 
Varying strengths of alcohol were used, four 
and one half per cent., thirty per cent, and 
sixty per cent. The quantities administered 
were usually about 4 c.c. per kilo of body 
weight. 

After the injection of alcohol it was found 
in all cases that the secretion of bile con- 
tinued to diminish, the diminution in the rate 
of secretion being, however, somewhat greater 
than in the two or three control periods im- 
mediately preceding the administration of 
alcohol. Since the much larger quantity of 
bile of the first and second periods probably 
represents bile that has been held back during 
the operation, it could not be considered as a 
control. The author, therefore, regarded as 
a control the rate of secretion during the 
following two or three periods. Whether this 
slightly diminished secretion is to be ascribed 
to the influence of alcohol can only be decided 
by further comparisons of the rate of secretion 
in alcoholized and normal animals. Thus, in 



82 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



three dogs -without alcohol the rate of secre- 
tion corresponding to the alcohol periods was 
as follows : A decline during the fourth, fifth 
and sixth periods, succeeded by a rise in the 
next period. In the second experiment the 
rate of secretion remained practically steady 
during the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth 
periods. In the third experiment there was a 
variation, but the average rate of secretion was 
about the same in the fifth, sixth and seventh 
periods as in the preceding two experiments. 
It would seem, therefore, that the diminished 
secretion following intravenous injection of 
alcohol might be due to the effect of alcohol. 
A study of the effect of alcohol on biliary 
secretion after injection into the stomach was 
also begun. It would seem a priori, in the 
light of recent investigations by Bayliss and 
Starling, Fleig and Henriot, on the relation 
of secretin to the secretion of bile, that the 
author's method of administering alcohol 
ought to provoke secretion of bile. In the 
few experiments the author has made thus 
far he has observed that when sixty per cent, 
alcohol was introduced into the stomach there 
was a slight, transitory increase of biliary 
secretion. With thirty per cent, alcohol there 
was in some cases an increase, in some a de- 
crease, of the secretion of bile as compared 
with prealcoholic periods. At this stage of the 
work it would be premature to form any con- 
clusion regarding this point. Whether this 
slight increase is due to increased gastric 
secretion and consequent formation of secre- 
tin, or is reflex in nature, will next be in- 
vestigated. 

The Influence of Repeated External Hemor- 
rhages on the General Composition of the 
Blood. G. M. Meyer and W. J. Gies. 
Various observers have noted the fact that 
the composition of the blood changes after 
hemorrhage, but no systematic study has been 
made of these modifications. The authors 
have begun such an investigation for the pur- 
pose of establishing a more definite basis for 
comparative blood analysis. They reported the 
results of their observations on posthemor- 
rhagic changes in the percentage content of 
water, total solids, organic solids and ash. 
Further study is in progress. 



Healthy, well nourished or fasting dogs, in 
light morphia-atropin narcosis were used and 
quantities of blood ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 
per cent, of body weight were taken. These 
amounts were drawn from the femoral artery 
and approximately the same quantity was 
taken in each experiment at regular intervals, 
varying from fifteen minutes to two hours, 
until death ensued. In one experiment a 
continuous fatal hemorrhage was effected and 
the blood analyzed in portions. Thus far 
twenty exijeriments have been carried out. In 
some of them the serum was also analyzed. 

The following conclusions were reported: 
Hemorrhage causes increase of water and de- 
crease of solids in the remaining blood. 
Hemorrhages of about 0.6 per cent, of tody 
weight cause little or no change in general 
composition of the blood until after 2.5 per 
cent, has been taken. Under the conditions of 
these experiments it was generally found that 
the longer the intervals between withdrawals 
the less the maximal differences between com- 
position of the first and last fractions. Short 
intervals between bleedings, all other condi- 
tions being equal, favored the largest total 
withdrawals before death ensued. 

The differences in the serum ran parallel 
with those in the blood, but were less marked. 
The ash did not vary very much in either the 
blood or the serum, no matter how much blood 
was taken. The blood ash and that from the 
serum were practically the same in relative 
amount, though different in composition. 

When small qiiantities of blood equal to 
about 0.2 per cent, of body weight were re- 
moved at intervals of about a half -hour, little 
change was noted in either blood or serum 
until after 3 per cent, had been taken. After 
this quantity had been lost the changes fol- 
lowing further hemorrhage were such as usu- 
ally occur. The maximum differences in 
percentage composition of the first and last 
fractions varied somewhat. The differences 
in the amounts of solids, for example, ranged 
from 1.5 to 3.5 per cent. 

In fasting animals the influence of hemor- 
rhage on chemical change in the remaining 
blood was somewhat more marked than in well 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



83 



nourished ones. The efPect on the serum was 
about the same. 

Other influences in the experiments were 
carefully controlled. The observed effects 
were due only in slight degree to the narcotics 
and the conditions attending the operations. 

Demonstration of a New Portable Sphygmo- 
manometer: T. C. Janeway. 
Dr. Janeway's instrument was designed with 
the object of secxiring a thoroughly portable 
clinical sphygmomanometer, in which nothing 
essential to accuracy should be sacrificed. It 
employs the method of circular compression 
of Eiva-Rocci, and Hill, with the 12cm. width 
of armlet proved necessary by Von Reckling- 
hausen. The special construction of the cuff 
allows of adaptation to arms from 15 to 34 
cm. in circumference. The original feature 
of the instrument is the folding U-tube ma- 
nometer. This is a jointed U-tube manometer 
(copied from Cook), fastened to the under 
surface of the box-lid, so arranged that, when 
closed for carrying, it measures 10:| x 4f x IJ 
inches, and with armlet and inflator weighs 
2J pounds. The manometer is perfectly se- 
cure when closed and stands firmly when open. 
The tube-caliber is 3 mm. The sliding scale 
is empirically graduated for each instrument, 
to compensate for variation in the glass tub- 
ing, and is accurate. All connections are of 
heavy pressure tubing. For inflation a 
Politzer bag is used, as by Erlanger, except 
that one with valve is necessary to flll the 
large armlet. The gradual release of pressure 
is provided for by a stop-cock, with needle- 
valve of special construction, the work of Mr. 
Charles E. Dressier, who is making the 
sphygmomanometer for sale. 

The method of use, as of the other modern 
sphygmomanometers, is based on the criterion 
of the return of the pulse after obliteration 
(Vierordt), for systolic pressure, and is similar 
to the Eiva-Rocci and its modifications. A 
fair approximation of diastolic pressure may 
also be obtained in most cases, using the 
criterion of maximum pulsation (Marey, 
Mosso). This is especially useful in cases of 
aortic insufficiency, or marked hypertension. 
For experimental work upon the systolic and 



diastolic pressures, it can not compare with 
Erlanger's more elaborate and costly instru- 
ment, but aims to serve the clinician by pro- 
viding him with an accurate yet not bulky 
or costly instrument, for general use. Stan- 
ton's sphygmomanometer, which appeared 
after this one had been begun, answers the 
same purposes. The only criticism to be made 
of it is, that 8 cm. width of armpiece does not 
afford a guarantee of complete accuracy on 
large arms. 

Demonstration of Cytological Preparations: 

Naohide Yatsu. 

Mr. Yatsu exhibited seven preparations 
demonstrating important cytological struc- 
tures found both in eggs normally fertilized 
and in some treated chemically. He spoke on 
the achromatic figure in mitosis, with special 
reference to the morphology and cycle of the 
centrosome. 

Preparation I. Metaphase of the first polar 
mitosis with two centrioles at each pole (egg 
of C ereiratulus) . 

Preparation II. Sperm nucleus with sperm 
aster, in which each daughter eentriole has ac- 
quired a new system of rays (egg of Cere- 
hratulus). 

Preparation III. Anaphase of the first 
cleavage mitosis, showing two centrioles in 
each centrosome (egg of Cerehratulus). 

Preparation IV. Telophase of the first 
cleavage mitosis, showing typical centrosomes 
(egg of Ascaris, Professor Wilson's prepara- 
tion). 

Preparation V. Mitosis without chromo- 
somes in a late blastula (egg of Asterias, un- 
fertilized and etherized). In one of the 
blastomeres the aster is dividing, forming a 
typical central spindle but devoid of chromo- 
somes. 

Preparation VI. Cytasters (egg of Asterias, 
unfertilized and etherized). Many cytasters 
are found in the cytoplasm, some dividing, 
some forming synthetic triasters. 

Preparation VII. Cytasters (egg of Cere- 
hratulus, unfertilized and treated with a solu- 
tion of calcium chloride). Many cytasters 
have appeared, the first polar mitosis being 
disturbed. 



84 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



The Influence of Siubcutaneous Injections, 

and of Instillations, of Adrenalin upon the 

Pupils of Frogs, with Demonstrations : S. J. 

Meltzer and Clara Meltzer Ader. 

Many observers have established the fact 
that subcutaneous injections as well as in- 
stillations of adrenalin exert no influence upon 
the width of the pupil in normal mammals. 
In a series of experiments published recently 
by the authors of this report it was shown 
that from 24 to 48 hours after the removal 
of the superior cervical ganglion a subcutane- 
ous injection or an instillation of adrenalin 
caused a considerable dilation of the pupil, 
which lasted an hour or longer. 

In the present communication the authors 
report that in frogs a subcutaneous injection 
or an instillation of adrenalin into the con- 
junctival sac causes an unmistakable dilation 
of the pupils of a normal animal. The dila- 
tion lasts a good deal longer than was ever 
observed in mammals even after removal of 
the ganglion; after instillation some dilation 
may be perceptible as long as 36 hours. The 
maximum dilation may even continue as long 
as 12 hours. 

When the cord is severed just below the 
medulla oblongata, the pupils usually become 
small and ellipsoid in shape. A subcutaneous 
injection causes them to become wide and 
round. Instillation has the same efEect. 
Finally the effect of instillation can be well 
observed also on the excised eyes, even when 
the adrenalin is applied some hours after ex- 
cision, provided the eyes are kept moist. The 
experiments were demonstrated. 

William J. Gies, 
Secretary. 

THE TOREEY BOTANICAL CLUB. 

The meeting of April 12, 1904, was held at 
the New York College of Pharmacy, with 
Dr. MacDougal in the chair. 

The first paper of the evening was by Pro- 
fessor L. II. Underwood on ' Cyathea and its 
Allies in Jamaica.' One of the objects of 
Professor Underwood's trip to Jamaica last 
year was to study the tree ferns in the field. 
Specimens usually show a single pinna with- 
out its connections or any part of the caudex. 



Such material has been used for types and 
one species has been described from a single 
pinnule. Although a species which is well 
known can often be recognized by a fragment 
of a good specimen, it should show as much as 
possible of a pinna, its connection with the 
main rachis, and part of the caudex. 

The Cyatheacese or tree ferns mostly have 
an elongated caudex or trunk, but a few are 
herbaceous. The more distinctive family 
characters are furnished by the sporangia, 
which are rounded-triangular with complete 
ring and are sessile or very shortly stalked. 
There are six genera in the West Indies dis- 
tinguished by the character of the indusium, 
habit and cutting of the leaves. 

Cyathea arborea is the oldest and best 
known of the West Indian tree ferns and the 
only one common to most of the islands, many 
of the species being found only on the islands 
on which they were originally described. It 
occurs at an elevation of 1,000 to 2,000 feet 
and forms a handsome tree with a spread of 
14 to 18 feet. Above this it is replaced by a 
similar but larger species of Alsophila. Cya- 
thea arhorea and C. elegans are noticeably 
distinguishable by the caudex, that of the 
former being smooth, while that of the latter 
is very rough and shaggy. C. nigrescens is 
common to Jamaica and Cuba. C. insignis 
is a handsome plant, but as only two were 
seen, and these represented perhaps 200 years' 
growth, they were not taken for specimens, but 
notes were made on the trunk characters. A 
fine specimen is in cultivation at the conserva- 
tory of the Botanical Garden brought up by 
Professor Earle. Of the sixteen species of 
Cyathea which are not doubtful, thirteen are 
endemic in Jamaica and three are knovra. only 
from type specimens. The sharp prickles of 
these and other species secrete a poison and 
wounds from them are very painful, so that 
collecting on the steep hillsides is likely to be 
attended with considerable discomfort. The 
genus Alsophila has three species which are 
well known. A. armata, occurring at 4,000 to 
5,000 feet elevation, has a usual height of 
40 to 45 feet and is the most graceful plant 
of the island. It is armed only with weak 
bristles. Alsophila a-spera, which is a lower 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



85 



tree, tas smooth leaves but prickly petioles. 
It occurs at about 1,500 feet elevation. Two 
of the species are endemic. Hemitelia has 
one species, described early in the last century, 
which is probably extinct, and two others very 
little known. A species of Lophosoria has a 
dense bloom on the under side of the leaves 
and is somewhat serophytic in habit. It has 
merely a woody base. 

Cnemidaria is distinguished by its habit 
and the cutting of its leaves. It has veins 
uniting near the midrib to form meshes. 

Amphidesmium, from Trinidad and South 
America, differs from all other ferns in that 
the veins bear a second or even third sorus. 

Most of the species discussed were illus- 
trated by herbarium specimens and by por- 
tions of their trunks. 

The second paper was by Dr. P. A. Eyd- 
berg, on ' The Flora of Northwest America.' 
A general discussion of the manuals available 
for the identification of the plants of different 
parts of the United States was given and a 
review of Mr. Howell's flora of the Columbia 
River region. 

William T. Horne, 
Secretary pro tern. 

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CLDB OF CORNELL 
UNIVERSITY. 

The session of 1904 has been devoted to the 
consideration of current theories of auditory 
sensation. The following papers have been 
read : 

Me. H. C. Stevens: 'The Helmholtz Theory.' 
De. J. W. BAiED:,'Tlie Facts of Auditory Sen- 
sation.' 

Me. C. E. Feeree : ' The Physics of the Ear.' 
Mr. C. E. Galloway: 'The Histology of the 
Ear.' 

Me. C. E. Galloway: 'Tlie Physiology of the 
Ear.' 

Peofessoe E. B. Titchenee„: ' Rutherford's 
Theory and its Relation to the Helmholtz Theory.' 
Professor I. M. Bentley : ' Ebbinghaus and 
Stumpf.' 
Mr. G. H. Sabine : ' Max Meyer.' 
De. T. de Laguna : ' Ter Kuile's Theory.' 
Miss A. Jenkins : ' Ayers's Theory.' 
Peofessoe Titchener : ' The Theories of Gray 
and Wundt.' 
Miss E. Murray : ' Hermann and Ewald.' 



Mk. Stevens: 'Objections to the Helmholtz 
Theory.' 

Professor Bentley : ' Is Analysis Possible 
without Resonators ? ' 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

KINDERGARTEN SCIENCE. 

Dr. Theodore Gill's arraignment in Sci- 
ence (No. 488) of popular writers on natural 
history who indulge in ' baby talk,' by which 
is meant the practise of ' talking down ' to an 
assumed inferior level of underetanding, is a 
point exceedingly well taken. The use of a 
' trot ' to enable the young idea to canter 
smoothly along the road to learning, and thus 
avoid the toilsome march, is as much to be 
deprecated in natural science as in classics or 
other studies. 

Dr. Gill's censure happens in this instance 
to be directed against over-popularizers of 
paleontology, whose administration of sugar- 
coated tabloids to juvenile readers is objected 
to on the ground, as he puts it, that ' science 
is scarcely food for babies.' But paleonto- 
logical writers are not the only offenders in 
this direction. For the employment of kin- 
dergarten methods of illustration, even in 
serious articles, no science can compare with 
physiography. The recent literature of this 
subject has been suffering from a mania for 
interpreting topographic features in terms of 
vital phenomena, and for correlating, or at- 
tempting to correlate, physical changes (cycle 
is a misnomer) with stages of organic develop- 
ment. Youths maturity and old age are 
terms constantly employed for indicating the 
successive expressions of unchanging forces in 
nature, for things as essentially different from 
life as the growth of the crystal is different 
from the growth of the individual. 

It may be answered that an analogy is not 
implied by the use of these terms in a figura- 
tive sense, or if one is suggested, it is not 
harmful. Harmful it does become, however, 
when, a false analogy is strained so far as to 
produce senseless or even ludicrous incongrui- 
ties. Without exaggerating the prevailing 
style of metaphor, it may be said that a co- 
ordinate value is placed by physiographers 
upon the ridges and valleys of landscapes, and 



86 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



the like-named structures in horses' teeth. 
They profess ability to examine a river's 
mouth and tell as shrewdly as any veterinarian 
v?hether the animated stream belongs to the 
colt stage, the four-year-old, or the decrepit 
old equine condition. To the discerning eye 
even pathologic conditions are revealed, for 
has not one writer described a stream with 
' blind staggers ' ? Let any one cast a glance 
over the recent literature, if one suspects the 
simile overdone, and note, amongst other 
things, the surprising array of anthropo- 
morphic conceptions of nature. Take even a 
master-craftsman like Professor Davis, orig- 
inator, if I mistake not, of the terms ' pirate 
stream,' ' captured tributaries,' ' drowned val- 
leys,' etc. (the hybrid * peneplain ' belongs to 
another story) — ^has he not said of Greece that 
it 'is a country standing up to its knees in 
the Mediterranean'? The fact may be liter- 
ally true, but it is hardly decorous to specify 
anatomical particulars. 

Another writer who believes in the virtue 
of parables characterizes a rapidly eroded land- 
surface as a ' precocious infant,' from which 
the lay reader may surmise that it has just 
graduated from kilts. But for delightfully 
refreshing imagery we must refer to a short 
article on ' The Aggrading Bar,' which ap- 
peared in these columns some little time ago 
(Science, V., p. 646), and begins as follows: 

" The little wriggling bar staggering blindly 
along in a broad meandering valley is like a 
small boy attempting to fill his grandfather's 
boots. The waste ^supplied from the side of the 
hills of the adolescent valley, cut by the ancestor 
of the present stream, is much too great a load 
for a little brook." 

Here the anthropomorphic suggestion is 
very skilfully rendered, in fact so realistically 
that the fate of this inebriate little brook, 
after taking on its load at the aggrading bar, 
might almost be said ' to point a moral or 
adorn a tale.' As class-room illustrations, or 
as intending to impart instruction by means 
of allegory, figurative descriptions of this na- 
ture may, perhaps, be tolerated, but it is 
gratuitous to suppose that the method of 
.5<^sop is better adapted to the needs of readers 
of Science than the method of Zadig. Sully 



Prudhomme, in his essay ' On the Nature of 
Things,' makes some pointed remarks on the 
habit personifying inanimate nature, which it 
may be well for physiographers to take to 
heart. 

Other illustrations of the kindergarten 
method might be given, but it is probably 
unnecessary to prove that the standard of 
most of our popular scientific magazines has 
become lowered through the habit of ' talking 
down ' to average readers, instead of raised 
by talking just a little over their heads. Let 
it be asked as a general question which style of 
writing is the more helpful to students, that 
which assumes too much on their part, or too 
little? Does not there come a time in the 
education of youth when suggestion by means 
of nursery methods ceases to be a virtue? 
When a student reaches the point where he 
may be expected to dig for himself, let us put 
a spade into his hand, taking care, however, 
to call it a spade, and not a toy for making 
mud-pies. C. E. Eastman. 

Hakvard Univeesity. 

'vegetable balls.' 
Regarding the subject of ' Vegetable Balls ' 
the following additional information may be 
worthy of note. This curious formation is 
characteristic of the section .^igagropila of 
the genus Cladophora and is mentioned in 
Engler and Prantl's ' Die Naturlichen Pfian- 
zenfamilien,' De lonis ' Sylloge Algarum ' 
and Hanck's ' Meeresalgen.' The most recent 
work on the subject seems to be that of C. 
Wesenberg on JEgagropila Sauteri (Overs, k. 
dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Eorh., IL, 1903, pp. 
168-203), of which there is a very good sum- 
mary in Jour. Roy. Micr. Soc, April, 1904. 
The alga occurs in Lake Soro, Denmark, and 
the balls attain the size of the fist or of a 
child's head. J. Adams. 

EoYAL College of Science, Dublin, 
June 29, 1904. 

A notable paleobotanical discovery. 

To the Editor of Science: Inasmuch as a 

note by the undersigned, entitled ' A Notable 

Paleobotanical Discovery,' in Science of July 

8, was delayed in publication it is only just 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



87 



to the writer to state that the article in ques- 
tion was written last January, before the final 
results of Professors Oliver and Scott had 
reached me, and that the footnotes which 
called attention to the later discoveries were 
added in April, when I read the proof. 

With regard to the statement in the opening- 
paragraph that the term Cycadofilicales was 
■destined to become a permanent acquisition 
to taxonomy, I had in mind rather the idea 
that botanists would henceforward be unable 
to dispute the existence of paleozoic plants 
intermediate between the Pteridophyta and! 
the Gymnosperms, rather than the question of 
terminology, and hence did not notice this 
slip of expression in a paper which further 
on mentions a new and vastly more appro- 
priate name for the group in question. 

Edward W. Berry. 

Passaic, N. J. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 
EVOLUTION AND PHYSICS. 

Eminent British biologists have recently 
visited severe criticisms* upon Lord Kelvin 
ior giving voice to the opinion that evolution 
lies beyond the borders of physics and chem- 
istry. The zeal with which they have hastened 
to the defense of current mechanical hypoth- 
eses of evolution apparently causes them to 
forget that it is exactly these physical con- 
ceptions with which Lord Kelvin may be sup- 
posed to be qualified to deal. And when Lord 
Kelvin admits that the ' forces,' ' principles,' 
' energies ' or other abstractions in use among 
physicists are not adequate for even a formal 
explanation of such biological phenomena as 
evolution, he states what is well-nigh axio- 
matic to some, and reaches a point of view ap- 
preciated by rapidly increasing numbers of 
hiologists.f 

The idea that there are biological phenom- 
ena essentially different from those of physics 
and chemistry has nothing to do with the 
theory of ' vital force ' of half a century ago. 
It does not overlook the vast amount of physics 

* Science, N. S., XVIII., 138, July 31, 1903. 

t See, for example, ' A Text-book of Botany,' by 
Strasburger, Schenck, Noll and Schimper, p. 158, 
liondon, 1903. 



and chemistry already found in plants and 
animals, nor the probability that multitudes 
of similar facts remain to be discovered. To 
argue, however, from the progress of knowl- 
edge in these directions that all the phenomena 
of organic existence are to be explained in 
current physical terms is to imitate the balloon- 
ist who reasoned that he would be able to see 
all the way around the earth if he could only 
go high enough. 

It is entirely possible, of course, to range 
organic evolution under chemistry or physics, 
but at present it seems not to assort well with 
the other phenomena treated in these sciences. 
The difference appears to be, furthermore, not 
merely one of degree, but of kind, so that it 
may well be asked whether it is not more scien- 
tific for Lord Kelvin to recognize and admit 
such a distinction, even though it may prove 
ultimately to have rested on a present limita- 
tion of knowledge, than for his critics to in- 
sist on the identity of phenomena between 
which no indication of relationship has been 
shown. At least we must expect that the un- 
prejudiced layman will think it quite as pos- 
sible that the biologists have been indulging 
in bad physics as that Lord Kelvin is totally 
in error with regard to the role of physical 
forces in biology. The outsider might even 
wonder why the eminent specialists from the 
two branches of knowledge are not organized 
as a joint committee to consider whether their 
fundamental conceptions are the same or not, 
instead of wasting time in mutual recrimina- 
tions of ignorance. In the scientific world, 
such charges can not, of course, go amiss, but 
conscious ignorance is better than unsupported 
assertion. 

Whether the formation of crystals should be 
called fortuitous or not is another question of 
words; it will hardly be insisted that it is a 
completely fortuitous ' concourse of atoms ' 
which makes crystals of regular form from a 
solution stirred up in a beaker; to cover our 
ignorance we ascribe to some substances a 
special property named crystallization. If 
protoplasm could be obtained from a similar 
dissolved mixture of its ingredients, this would 
be ascribed by parity of ignorance and logic 
to ' plasmatization ' or whatever such a prop- 



88 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



erty might be called. But such a discovery- 
would not end the physico-biologieal contro- 
versy, nor have any serious effect upon it, 
since we know already that the ' chemical com- 
pound ' termed protoplasm, however originated, 
has numerous activities not shared by other 
compounds, and explainable only by the pred- 
ication of numerous thus far unexplained 
properties, such as assimilation, growth, irri- 
tability, reproduction, etc. 

The biochemist hopes to make protoplasm in 
a beaker, but in transforming his homogeneous 
jelly into a ' sprig of moss ' he will need to 
utilize agencies not only unexplained, but not 
even analogous to the postulates or properties 
now ascribed to unorganized matter. These 
agencies or properties of life are doubtless as 
' natural ' as those treated in physics and 
chemistry, but they are different. To call them 
' creative ' or ' directive ' is, perhaps, open to 
objection, but they are certainly conservative, 
coordinative and constructive in a manner 
and degree for which we have no extravital 
analogy. The directive idea, however, is by 
no means extinct among biologists. Naegeli's 
' Vervolhommungsprincip ' has been succeeded 
by an equally hypothetical ' mechanism of 
heredity ' which Professor Weismann and his 
numerous followers are still seeking in germ- 
cells. It is possible, however, to frame an evo- 
lutionary theory without recourse either to 
' phyletie vital force ' or to incredibly com- 
plicated and yet inadequate mechanical de- 
terminants.* 

It is needless to fear that Lord Kelvin will 
destroy the fact of organic evolution estab- 
lished by Darwin, but, on the other hand, no 
amount of argument can rehabilitate Dar- 
win's first theory of the developmental process, 
that the environment causes variations and 
then selects the desirable changes. This view 
was abandoned, by Darwin himself, and is now 
held in its original logical integrity by very 
few working biologists, the non-inheritance of 
acquired characters having rendered it un- 
tenable. T]'T present multiplicity of theories 

* ' A Kinetic Theory of Evolution,' Science, 
N. S., XIII., 969, June 21, 1901 ; ' Stages of Vital 
Motion,' The Popular Science Monthly, LXIII., 
14, May, 1903. 



of development is a sufficient indication that 
there is, as yet, no generally accepted explana- 
tion of evolution or of the other characteristic 
properties of life, and no ' complete mechanical 
theory of the universe.' Lord Kelvin will per- 
form an important service for biologists if 
he encourages them to attempt an adequate 
formulation of the ascertained facts of their 
own science instead of thinking it necessary 
to base their structure on terms and concepts 
borrowed from widely separate fields of re- 
search. 

The Vocabulary of Science. — The interest 
of such a discussion as that precipitated by 
Lord Kelvin is not confined to the varied 
opinions advanced; it furnishes also an ex- 
cellent example of the more general and funda- 
mental fact that the ' advancement of science ' 
depends quite as much upon expression as 
upon investigation. This is true not merely 
because it is necessary to frame intelligible 
statements of scientific results which are to be 
of practical use> but because investigation it- 
self can not advance far beyond the language 
in which its results must be interpreted. The 
rational arrangement or classification of facts 
is supposed to distinguish the methods and 
discoveries of science from those of mere acci- 
dent and empiricism. 

As soon as they leave concrete data and 
distinctions, scientific men fall to dogmatizing 
like any other theologians, metaphysicians or 
philosophers. This is not, however, because of 
any special inconsistency or weakness, but 
because all are at the mercy of an inadequate 
vocabulary and can say only what has been 
said already, or something sufficiently similar 
to require a new word only now and then. 
On the borders of knowledge each word does 
duty for a great variety of ideas, and the same 
proposition often conceals essential diversity 
of thought. The less known about a subject 
the easier to dogmatize, or to formulate and 
establish a vocabulary, and an established vo- 
cabulary is a fact to be reckoned with as much 
as any other. 

Science and general literature are thus for- 
ever at war because, while comprehension ad- 
vances from the concrete and particular to the 
general, the language in which ideas must be 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



89 



formulated often develops in the contrary di- 
rection, from the abstract to the concrete. 
Generalizations built of facts are not abstrac- 
tions, but collective facts, while the words in 
which they are expressed nearly always trace 
their origins back to primitive abstractions. 
' Eorce ' was originally a mere synonym of 
' strength,' but has now become, in the minds 
of many, a physical entity, and 'heredity' or 
' heirship ' is actualized into a determining 
' principle ' of evolution. Philosophy came be- 
fore science, metaphysics before physics and 
physics before biology, in the history of prog- 
ress from the abstract to the concrete. The 
phenomena of personality are most familiar, 
but they have received the slightest scientific 
attention; in the phenomena of life we also 
participate, but have only begun to generalize, 
while the phenomena and theories of unorgan- 
ized matter are formulated almost as exten- 
sively as those of metaphysics, and with the 
assistance of as many abstractions. Kecent 
discussions of the constitution of matter read 
like metaphysical treatises, lacking only a 
certain ponderous assumption of certitude. 
The idealistic physicists argue that matter is 
electrical, while the materialists suspect that 
electricity may be material. 

Forces and Properties. — In dealing with un- 
organized matter the physicist has an apparent 
advantage over the biologist, since he is able to 
command definite quantities and uniform ma- 
terials and conditions of experiment, and thus 
secures results which can be stated in mathe- 
matical form, but this has not given him, as 
yet, an adequate insight into the nature and 
causal relations of the phenomena with which 
he deals. It is not the physicists who are at- 
tempting to extend their practice into biology, 
but the biologists who insist on paying tribute 
to physics, even after such an eminent spe- 
cialist as Lord Kelvin has pronounced their 
case hopeless, unless recourse be had to other 
' forces ' than those at his professional com- 
mand. 

Physicists are willing to recommend ' vital 
principle' as an aid in biological difficulties 
because similar ' hypothetical entities ' are 
much used to assist in the formulation of 



physical facts. That ' vital force ' does not 
really explain anything is no objection to it 
from the physical standpoint; neither do other 
' force ' abstractions. Their function is merely 
to assist the mind to follow ascertained se- 
quences of facts; they are our algebraic sub- 
stitutes for unknown causal connections. As 
soon as we thoroughly understand the mechan- 
ism, the instinct of causality is satisfied and 
the hypothetical ' force ' becomes superfluous ; 
it is useful only if it assists observation and 
experiment. The pld vital force which ' ter- 
ribly hampered ' biological investigation was a 
thoroughly bad abstraction, and has been con- 
signed to a merited oblivion. The unwilling- 
ness of biologists to restore this idol or to 
set up another in its place should not, how- 
ever, lead them to ascribe any superior virtue 
to the gods of the physicists, unequally doomed 
to dethronement. 

Physicians have long since given over gen- 
eral theories of disease and are reconciled to 
treating symptoms and removing causes. 
When other branches of science have received 
a similar amount of study they may be con- 
tent with phenomena and leave the ' entities ' 
to the metaphysicians. Phenomena, instead of 
being assigned to unknown entities, are more 
conveniently and practically classified into 
groups called properties, and in biology we 
are ready to give up the notion that each 
property or group of phenomena must have a 
' force ' or other hypothetical entity behind it. 
The perception has come that the properties 
of life are not distinct ' forces,' but are merely 
different aspects of the same vital process. It 
is as a process rather than as a ' force ' that 
life appears to lie beyond the phenomena of 
physics. 

It did not improve matters to analyze evolu- 
tion into two hypothetical opposing ' forces,' 
heredity and variation, or heredity and en- 
vironment; these abstractions have long con- 
cealed the universal facts that organisms fol- 
low each other in series of similar but not 
identical individuals, and that species are not 
merely influenced by environment, but are 
normally in motion. There is no heredity 
which keeps organisms exactly alike, nor any 



90 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



environment in which they will remain so.* 
The chief efiect of these abstractions is to 
breed others as hypothetical as themselves. 
The facts are very simple, the abstractions be- 
come vastly complicated. Biologists are zeal- 
ous for mechanical theories of their own mak- 
ing, but when Lord Kelvin fails to recognize 
these as adequate from the physical point of 
view and offers a ' vital principle ' instead, the 
gift is rejected without thanks, and with the 
ungracious reply that it is a cast-off notion 
which ceased to be useful many years ago. 

If evolution is ever explained in physical 
terms it will probably be done by making 
generous additions to the recognized proper- 
ties of matter, a course to which physicists are 
certainly nothing loth, but they are duly 
warned by Professor Lankester that such 
' facile and sterile hypotheses ' will not satisfy 
biologists. Indeed, it may be that the failure 
to recognize a distinct category of vital phe- 
nomena lies not so much in what might be 
called a materialization of life as in a certain 
vitalization of matter. We predicate for mat- 
ter our own mechanical limitations and refuse 
to consider such a possibility as the interaction 
or mutual sensitiveness of matter through 
space, although the alternative theories of 
ethereal media are extremely complicated and 
contradictory. 

Comprehension versus Formulation. — Phys- 
ics is considered fundamental to biology be- 
cause organisms are made of matter, but biol- 
ogy is in advance of physics in the apprehen- 
sion of its phenomena, and we are as likely to 
learn physics from biology as biology from 
physics. Life is, as it were, superposed on 
matter, and personality on life; each must 
have the qualities which make the next stage 
possible, but each stage may be viewed also on 
a plane of its own, and our intimate acquaint- 
ance with phenomena has not gone up from the 

* " * * * the loAV of heredity, would, if 
nothing interfered, keep the descendants perfectly 
true to the physical characters of their ancestors; 
they would breed true and be exactly alike." — 
Coues. 

" Were it possible for growth to take place un- 
der absolutely constant external influences, varia- 
tion would not occur. * * * " — Weismann. 



bottom of the pyramid, but from the top down. 
The ultimate facts of matter appear funda- 
mental from the mechanical standpoint, but 
the fabric of knowledge has been constructed 
thus far without them, and science must con- 
tinue to advance laboriously from the known 
to the unknown. It may be illogical to dis- 
cover the basal facts last, but such is the 
indication of history, to which it is well to be 
reconciled. 

Every-day objects and incidents are the last 
to secure critical study and scientiiic elucida- 
tion; it is the obscure and incomprehensible 
which challenges our curiosity. Primitive man 
seems to have taken interest first in dreams 
and specters. Astronomy, as incidental to 
astrology, was the earliest of the physical sci- 
ences, and still owes much of its popularity to 
the instinctive attraction of mystery and awe. 
With mental habits and instincts formed by 
such a history it is not strange that thought 
still travels unwillingly from the remote and 
abstract to the concrete and adjacent, and that 
even in science we are continually tempted to 
value formulation above concrete perception, 
and to confuse abstraction with generalization. 
The cabala is discarded and the syllogism is 
distrusted; in time it will become apparent 
that even the mathematical equation yields 
only the amount of comprehension originally 
put into it, and has no virtue beyond any 
other method of accurate statement. The 
' complete mechanical theory of the universe ' 
is not yet, nor is its completion to be hastened 
by eking out the hewn stones of ascertained 
fact with blocks of the dried mud of abstrac- 
tion. Such material may be very useful in 
temporary shelters for the workmen, but it 
has no place in the permanent structure. 

A General Classification of Phenomena. — 
Although abstractions and ' hypothetical en- 
tities ' must be excluded from among the re- 
sults of scientific study, there is still great 
need of general terms as a means of arranging 
ideas and classifying facts. It is here that 
biology may possibly aid her sister sciences, 
since biological classification is more concrete 
than any other, being based on ascertained 
causal sequence or common descent. Other 
classifications are of value in proportion as 



JuLT 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



91 



they serve a similar purpose. When the causal 
relations are prominent the analogy with biol- 
ogy may be close; in other instances the re- 
senlblance is only formal; the categories or 
grand divisions become mere abstractions, and 
the resulting association of facts follows no 
natural sequence. Philosophers who have 
sought to frame ultimate classifications have 
largely neglected to take advantage of the 
concrete basis of arrangement afforded by the 
coherence of the biological series. 

To integrate everything to the unity of a 
single ' substance ' or ' principle ' (monism) 
is an idealization of mathematical concepts for 
which no objective reasons have been adduced. 
Matter, life and person* appear, as yet, to be 
final categories of phenomena, comprising dif- 
ferent series of properties and meriting sep- 
arate vocabularies. The second and third cate- 
gories are not, it is true, independent of the 
first or of each other, but no causal nexus has 
been established. Matter gives us elsewhere 
no hint of the power of vital coordination, 
and consciousness is no necessary part or con- 
sequence of biological evolution. The ma- 
terialist defines matter so as to include the 
other categories, while the idealist would an- 
nex the universe to the realm of thought. 
From the middle ground of biology it is ap- 
pai'ent that such assumptions are devoid of 
practical meaning, in that they correspond to 
no perception based on objective experience. 
It is easy to say '' protoplasm is a chemical 
compound ' or ' matter thinks,' but these 
integrations are born of the confusion of 
words rather than of the conception of ascer- 
tained facts. The chemist will find that pro- 
toplasm is not a single compound, but an ever- 

* As a designation for the third category of 
phenomena this term, though open to many ob- 
jections, seems preferable to consciousness, as 
being at once more general and more particular. 
Consciousness is a property of person as inertia 
is a property of matter and evolution a property 
of life; in this sense consciousness does not be- 
come synonymous with intelligence, memory, in- 
stinct or mere protoplasmic irritability, as some- 
times implied by Minot and other biological writ- 
ers. Instincts, and even mental arts, such as 
language, are attaina.ble without subjective in- 
telligence or deliberate thought. 



varying infinity of compounds, each capable 
of work of which ' unorganized ' matter has 
given no suggestion. Neither is it necessary 
to confuse deliberate purpose with chemical 
affinity or physical reaction, in the vain at- 
tempt at the construction of a specious uni- 
versal equation. 

Students of nature have labored mightily, 
and they must also wait patiently. Science 
is advanced neither by disconnected particu- 
lars nor by meaningless generalities; all pos- 
sible associations of facts are to be considered, 
but essential distinctions must not be neglected 
and the unlike confused. To recognize bio- 
logical phenomena as distinct from those of 
physics does not require belief in an inter- 
mittent creation or a polytheistic theology, as 
suggested by Professor Lankester; the diver- 
sity is not lessened by ascribing it to gradual 
changes which both the physical conditions 
and the organisms have experienced ' since 
life began,' whatever that may mean. And 
until we know vastly more than we do about 
life and matter, nothing is to be gained by 
confusing either the phenomena or the vo- 
cabularies of biology and physics. Science 
observes, classifies and interprets facts, with 
the assistance of language, but neither facts 
nor words are science by themselves. 

O. F. Cook. 

Washington, D. C. 
October 16, 1903. 



AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITS AT ST. LOUIS. 
A PAMPHLET has been issued containing a 
description of the collective exhibit of the 
colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts and 
the agricultural experiment stations of the 
United States in the Palace of Education at 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The ex- 
hibit, as the pamphlet explains, is intended 
to illustrate the progress of education and 
research in agriculture and the mechanic arts 
in the United States, showing those distinctive 
features of the work of the land-grant colleges 
and experiment stations which differentiate 
them from other educational and scientific - 
institutions. It is probably the most com- 
plete and comprehensive display of its kind 
that has ever been attempted and is believed 



92 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



to furnish an instructive exposition of a phase 
of educational and scientific effort which is 
rapidly extending and is already exerting a 
potential influence in developing the industries 
and resources of the country. It is safe to say 
that in no special field of education and re- 
search has there been greater progress during 
the past decade than along the agricultural, 
industrial and technological lines represented 
by the land-grant colleges and experiment 
stations. The exhibit is under the control of 
the Government Board, and has been prepared 
under the general management of a committee 
of the Association of American Agricultural 
Colleges and Experiment Stations, of vphich 
Dr. W. H. Jordan, director of the New York 
Experiment Station, is chairman. Mr. James 
L. Farmer, special agent of the Government 
Board, is in immediate charge. The exhibit 
occupies about 16,000 square feet of space 
very favorably located in the Palace of Educa- 
tion. In addition to the displays of the U. S. 
Bureau of Education and of the Office of 
Experiment Stations of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, which represent the national 
government in its relations with these col- 
leges and stations, the space devoted to agri- 
cultural exhibits is divided into fifteen sec- 
tions, that occupied by the mechanic arts 
exhibits into nine sections. The displays in 
these sections have been prepared with the 
collaboration of experts selected from the fac- 
ulties of the land-grant institutions, agricul- 
tural experiment stations and the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, and cover all of the 
principal subdivisions of agriculture and me- 
chanic arts. 

The agricultural exhibits include soils, fer- 
tilizers, plant laboratory, field crops, horticul- 
ture and forestry, plant pathology, economic 
entomology, classed under the general head 
of agronomy or plant production; animal hus- 
bandry (investigation), animal husbandry 
(instruction), and veterinary medicine, classed 
under the head of zootechny or animal in- 
dustry; dairy laboratory and sugar laboratory, 
classed under the head of agrotechny or agri- 
cultural technology; rural engineering, or 
farm mechanics; rural economics or farm 
management ; and inspection. The mechanic 



arts exhibits include civil engineering, me- 
chanical engineering, electrical engineering, 
mining engineering, technical chemistry, 
architecture, drawing and shop practise (in- 
cluding textiles and trades), domestic science 
and ceramics. 



HONORARY DEGREES CONFERRED BY THE 
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 

On the occasion of the recent jubilee cele- 
bration of the University of Wisconsin, the 
doctorate of laws was conferred on some forty 
delegates. The words addressed by President 
Van Hise to several of the candidates were 
as follows : 

Henry Prentice Abmsby — Formerly pro- 
fessor at this university, with the aid of 
ingeniously devised apparatus you have for 
years been successfully working upon the very 
important problems of metabolism of food 
nutrients. Upon you, for these valuable re- 
searches on the nourishment of the body, and 
for vigorous administration of the Pennsyl- 
vania state agricultural experiment station, 
we confer the degree of doctor of laws. 

Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin — It is with 
the greatest pleasure that I, confer upon you 
the degree of doctor of laws. The University 
of Wisconsin owes you much. As her presi- 
dent for five years, you contributed to her de- 
velopment and upbuilding more than can be 
estimated. She honors you to-day for this, 
and also for your contributions to the science 
of geology. In your work in connection with 
the state and federal surveys, and in your 
comprehensive scientific investigations regard- 
ing the principles of ore deposition, the 
Pleistocene formations and the evolution of 
the solar system, you have combined in a rare 
manner patient collections of facts, discrimi- 
nating reasoning power and constructive sci- 
entific imagination. You have richly deserved 
the highest academic honor in the gift of this 
university. 

John Dewey — Profound philosopher and 
psychologist, you have successfully applied 
your learning to the study of childhood and 
youth. You have been an inspiration and a 
guide to students of education in every pro- 
gressive country. For distinguished service 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



93 



in the development of educational theory and 
practise this university confers upon you its 
degree of doctor of laves. 

William Gilson Faelow — For your funda- 
mental contributions to the morphology and 
classification of cryptogamic plants, in which 
you have advanced our knowledge of the evo- 
lution of plant life; for your valuable studies 
in applied botany, and because of your dis- 
tinction as a representative of all botanical 
enterprises of international scope, the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin confers on you the degree 
of doctor of laws. i 

Grove Karl Gilbert — ^Deep interpreter of 
nature, scientist of balanced jiidgment, geolo- 
gist of the first rank, preeminent in the de- 
velopment of physiography; upon you, espe- 
cially for the masterly formulation of the 
principles of erosion, by the authority of the 
regents I confer the degree of doctor of laws. 

Franklin Paine Mall — Foremost investi- 
gator in anatomy in America, leader in recent 
advance in medical education, you have estab- 
lished productive departments of anatomy in 
three universities. Tour teaching has in- 
spired a strong group of disciples doing im- 
portant work at this and other universities. 
You are well worthy the honor of all, for your 
aim is to decrease human suffering. This 
university, therefore, confers upon you the 
degree of doctor of laws. 

Edward Laurens Mark — This university 
confers upon you the degree of doctor of laws 
in recognition of your profound researches 
upon embryology and the animal cell, and of 
your services, for more than a quarter of a 
century, as the head of a great laboratory in 
which many of the zoologists of this country 
have been trained in the methods of fruitful 
research and inspired with the highest ideals 
of their science. 

Eliakim Hastings Moore — Teacher stimu- 
lating the study of the higher mathematics in 
America; leader accomplishing much for the 
betterment of mathematical instruction in 
schools of all grades; mathematician, whose 
erudite labors and fruitful research in an 
ancient science have made the world your 
debtor, upon you, for mathematical investiga- 



tions, by authority of the regents, I confer the 
degree of doctor of laws. 

Alfred Noble — I confer upon you the de- 
gree of doctor of laws on account of your 
eminence as an engineer, a scientist and a 
man of affairs. Your skill in large construc- 
tion, your broad views and sound judgment, 
and your knowledge of applied science, have 
made you an eminent expert and enabled you 
to make important contributions to the solu- 
tion of the great problems of transportation. 

Samuel Lewis Penfield — Your determina- 
tion of the molecular structure of complex 
minerals and researches upon the relation of 
crystal forms to chemical composition have 
advanced the knowledge of the constitution 
of matter. For determinative mineralogy you 
have written the authoritative text. Worthy 
successor of your illustrious predecessors Silli- 
man and Dana, you have won fresh laurels in 
science for Yale University. In recognition 
of this work we confer upon you the degree of 
doctor of laws. 

AuGUSTE Eateau — In recognition of your 
achievements as a mechanical engineer, as a 
contributor to the science of the flow of fluids ; 
as a distinguished inventor of steam turbine 
engines and as an author of standard books 
in engineering, upon the recommendation of, 
the faculty, by the authority of the regents, 
I confer on you the degree of doctor of laws 
of the University of Wisconsin. 

Edgar Fahs Smith — For piorieer work in 
the electrolytic separation of metals ; for valu- 
able researches upon the compounds of tung- 
sten, molybdenum and uranium ; for the train- 
ing of a large number of scholars devoted to 
the advancement of the science of chemistry, 
this university confers upon you the degree 
of doctor of laws. 

Edward Bradford Titchener — Through 
your skill in experimentation and your inde- 
pendence and sanity of judgment, you have 
become a leader in modern psychology. In 
many ways, and especially by your laboratory 
manual of experimental psychology, you have 
contributed to the creation of a new depart- 
ment of university study. For this work, the 
university confers upon you the degree of 
doctor of laws. 



94 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 



James Wilson — From the presidency of 
Iowa Agricultural College you were called to 
the cabinet by William McKinley. By Presi- 
dent Roosevelt you were retained as the head 
of the United States Department of Agricul- 
, ture. Under your solicitous care scientific 
work has risen to first place in the greatest 
bureau of agricultural research in the world. 
Upon you, for the encouragement and foster- 
ing of agricultural education and research, 
and thus helping to dignify the great funda- 
mental vocation of agriculture, this univer- 
sity confers the degree of doctor of laws. 

Egbert Simpson Woodward — As a mathe- 
matician you have departed from the beaten 
paths and have applied your art with unusual 
power to new fields in the border-land between 
astronomy, geodesy and geology. In recogni- 
tion of your important contributions to knowl- 
edge in this department of learning, the uni- 
versity confers upon you its honorary degree 
of doctor of laws and welcomes you to its 
fellowship. 

SGIETS'TIFIG NOTES AND NEWS. 

Dr. W. H. Maxwell, superintendent of 
schools in New York City, has been elected 
president of the National Educational Asso- 
ciation. 

The honor of knighthood has been con- 
ferred on Professor James Dewar by King 
Edward. 

Professor Robert Koch has been elected a 
member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, 
filling the vacancy caused by the death of 
Professor Virchow. 

Oxford University proposes to confer the 
degree of D.Sc, honoris causa, upon the fol- 
lowing persons, on the occasion of the visit 
of the British Medical Association: Thomas 
Clifford Allbutt, M.D., F.R.S., regius pro- 
fessor of physics at Cambridge; Andrew 
Clark, E.R.C.S., vice-president and chairman 
of the council of the British Medical Associa- 
tion; Thomas Dryslvs^rn Griffiths, M.D., presi- 
dent of the British Medical Association; 
Jonathan Hutchinson, F.R.S., late president 
of the Royal College of Surgeons; Sir Wil- 
liam Maeewen, M.D., E.E.S., regius professor 



of surgery in the University of Glasgow; Sir 
Patrick Manson, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.E.S.; Sir 
John William Moore, M.D., late president of 
the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland; 
William Osier, M.D., F.R.S., professor of 
medicine at Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more; Thomas George Roddick, M.D., M.P. 
(Canada), late president of the British Med- 
ical Association. 

Dublin University has conferred its hon- 
orary doctorate of science on Mr. Philip 
Watts, Sir James Dewar, Mr. Jethro J. Harris 
Teall and Dr.' William Henry Thompson. 

Mr. William H. Nichols, president of the 
General Chemical Company and of the Nich- 
ols Chemical Company, has received the doc- 
torate of laws from Lafayette College. Dr. 
Nichols has also been nominated by the 
council of the Society of Chemical Industry, 
to succeed Professor Ramsay as president. 

Sir William Ramsay, Sir Henry Roscoe and 
Professor Landolt have been elected honorary 
members of the German Bunsen Society. 

Sir Francis Sharp Powell has been elected 
president of the Royal Statistical Society. 

The General Assembly of the State of Mary- 
land voted, at its recent session, a gold medal 
to Colonel Charles Chaille-Long, in recogni- 
tion of his contribution to the solution of the 
Nile problem by the discovery of Lake Ibrahim 
in 1874 and his services to humanity rendered 
at the time of the bombardment of Alexandria 
in 1882. 

The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, will 
confer the Elliott-Cresson medal on Dr. Hans 
Goldschmidt in Essen-Ruhr, Germany, in 
recognition of his distinguished work in 
aluniinothermics. 

We learn from Nature that the French 
Society of Civil Engineers has this year 
awarded its prizes as follows : the annual prize 
to M. J. Bernard for his work on the installa- 
tion in the Red Sea of three lighthouses in 
circumstances of especial difficulty. The 
Michel Alcan prize was awarded to M. L. 
Guillet for his researches on the composition 
of steel, and the F. Coignet prize went to M. 
V. Picou for his work on the regulation of 
dynamos. A prize was awarded to Professor 



July 15, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



95 



E. Plospitalier for his works on the study 
of phenomena which by their rapidity and 
frequency baffle ordinary methods of anal- 
ysis. 

Mr. pi. C. Eussell, government astronomel^ 
of New South Wales, will retire at the end of 
the present year, after a service of forty-sis 
years. 

Dr. a. p. Luff has resigned his appoint- 
ment as scientific analyst to the Home Office 
of the British government. Dr. W. H. Wil- 
cox has been recommended by the Council of 
the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 
as his successor. 

Dr. JoHjf Bell Hatcher, curator of verte- 
brate zoology at the Carnegie Museum, Pitts- 
burg, died on July 4 from typhoid fever, at 
the age of forty-six years. 

We regret to record the death of M. Anatole 
de Barthelemy, the eminent French archeol- 
ogist, at the age of eighty-three years; 
of Dr. W. Weiss, professor of mathematics 
at the German Technological Institute of 
Prague, on June 18, at the age of forty- 
five years; of Dr. V. Merz, formerly professor 
of chemistry at Zurich; of Dr. Gilles de la 
Tourette, the well-known French alienist; of 
Mr. Edward Trimmer, for thirty-six years 
secretary of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
England; and of Lieutenant-General Dubro- 
vin, who was for a long time secretary of the 
Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Peters- 
burg. 

The Geographical Magazine states that the 
Russian Geographical Society, with the aid 
of money subscribed by a private person, is 
organizing a new expedition for the explora- 
tion of the northern coasts of Siberia, between 
the Yenisei and the Lena. The head of the 
expedition will be M. Tolmacheff, already 
known for his journeys and explorations in 
Russian Asia. 

In January, 1905, the Bombay branch of 
the Royal Asiatic Society proposes to cele- 
brate the centenary of its foundation by a 
public gathering, at which papers will be read 
and an exhibition of the possessions of the 
society held. 



The International Astronomical Congress 
will meet at Lund, Sweden, beginning on 
September 5. 

The subject of the essays for the Howard 
medal of the Royal Statistical Society for 
1905 will be ' A Critical Inquiry into the 
Comparative Prevalence of Lunacy and other 
Mental Defects in the United Kingdom dur- 
ing the last 50 years.' 

A conversazione of the Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers was held on June 28 in the 
Natural History Museum, London. The 
guests, who numbered about 1,500, were re- 
ceived by Mr. R. K. Gray, president, and Mr. 
Alexander Siemens, president-elect. 

A CABLEGEAji to the daily papers from Lon- 
don, dated July 8, says that the annual report 
of the Cancer Research Fund was submitted 
at the third annual meeting. It stated that 
the investigations of the year had resulted in 
discoveries having an important bearing on 
several crucial problems in connection with 
the disease, knowledge of which had been 
greatly increased. Briefly and untechnically 
stated the new facts are that cancer pervades 
the whole civilized and uncivilized world. 
Hence it is not, as was supposed, a product 
of civilization. It affects animals as well as 
human beings, and also fishes. It attacks all 
subjects at relatively the same age. It is not 
infectious and is not transmissible from one 
species to another. The cancer cell can reac- 
quire powers of self-propagation. Cancer is 
not attributable to a parasite. It is not in- 
creasing. Experiments have not shown that 
radium exercises a curative effect. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 
By the death of Mrs. Susan W. Clark, Clark 
University will receive $400,000, left in trust 
for her use, and a further sum of $50,000 to 
$75,000 from her estate. 

Mr. John D. Rockefeller has given Deni- 
son Baptist University, Newark, Ohio, $100,- 
000. 

It is reported that the Sheffield Scientific 
School, Tale University, will have a large en- 



96 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 498. 



teriiig class. There were 326 freshmen last 
year, against 207 the previous year. The re- 
turns from the entrance examinations show 
that there were Y30 candidates for admission 
to the school against 651 a year ago, an in- 
crease of 79. Of these there were 372 last 
June, a gain of 36. There was a similar 
increase in the candidates who took the pre- 
liminary papers. The number this year was 
358 against 315 last year, a gain of 43. 

Dr. Charles Schuchert, of the TJ. S. 
National Museum, has been appointed pro- 
fessor of historical geology in the Sheffield 
Scientific School of Tale University and 
curator of the geological collections in suc- 
cession to the late Professor Beecher. 

Dr. Dickinson S. Miller, instructor in phi- 
losophy in Harvard University, has been 
elected lecturer in philosophy at Columbia 
University. 

Recent changes in the scientific faculty of 
the State University of Iowa are as follows : 
The department of physics has been divided, 
Professor A. A. Veblen retaining the chair 
of experimental physics, while Professor A. G. 
Smith has been transferred from the chair 
of mechanics in the department of mathe- 
matics to a new chair of physics and me- 
chanics. Dr. E. T. Wells will continue to 
act as professor in charge of electrical and 
mechanical engineering. The chair of civil 
engineering, made vacant by the resignation 
of Professor A. V. Sims, will be filled before 
the opening of the coming academic year. 
Following the resignation of Dr. L. W. 
Andrews from the chair of chemistry in the 
college of liberal arts the reorganization of 
the work of instruction in this branch for the 
entire university has been assigned to Dr. E. 
W. Eockwood, heretofore professor of chem- 
istry and toxicology in the colleges of medi- 
cine. An instructorship in metallurgy has 
been established which is yet to be filled. 
Additional instructors in mathematics and 
in mechanical drawing are also to be ap- 
pointed. 

The following additions have been made to 
the faculty in the scientific departments of the 
University of Kansas : H. D. Hess, of Lehigh 



University, 1896, has been elected associate 
professor of mechanical engineering and di- 
rector of the Fowler shops; Albert K. Hub- 
bard, Yale, 1901, assistant professor of civil 
engineering-; George F. Kay, Ph.D. (Chicago, 
1904), Toronto University, 1902, assistant pro- 
fessor of geology and mineralogy; Robert W. 
Curtis, Ph.D. (Yale, 1904), Trinity, 1896, as- 
sistant professor of chemistry; Wm. J. Baum- 
gartner, Ph.D. (Chicago, 1904), University of 
Kansas, 1900, instructor in zoology; Charles 
G. Rogers, Ph.D. (California), instructor in 
physiology. 

The following appointments were made in 
the medical faculty of the Johns Hopkins 
University: Dr. Percy M. Dawson, associate 
professor of physiology; Dr. Joseph Erlanger, 
associate professor of physiology; Dr. Warren 
H. Lewis, associate professor of anatomy; Dr. 
Arthur S. Lowenhart, associate in physiolog- 
ical chemistry and pharmacology; Ernest G. 
Martin, Ph.D., instructor in physiology; Dr. 
Augustus G. Pohlman, instriictor in anatomy; 
and Dr. George L. Streeter, instructor in an- 
atomy. 

A fellowship is vacant in the Department 
of Chemistry, Ohio State University, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. The value of the fellowship is 
$300 and in addition the student is exempt 
from all fees. Applicants should apply to 
Professor William McPherson. 

The Yale coi"poration has accepted the 
resignation of Professor George Trumbull 
Ladd, head of the department of mental phi- 
losophy and metaphysics. 

Professor Des Coudres has been appointed 
director of the newly established laboratory 
for theoretical physics at Leipzig. 

A NEW chemical laboratory has been dedi- 
cated at Karlsruhe which will be under the 
direction of Professor Engler. 

Professor Krehl, of Tiibingen, has been 
invited to the chair of medicine at Strass- 
burg, left vacant by Professor ISTaunyn's re- 
tirement. 

Dr. Jos. Wellsteis", professor of mathe- 
inatics at Giessen, has been called to Strass- 
burg. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Friday, July 22, 1904. 



CONTENTS: 
Does a Teclmical Course Educate? President 
Chas. S. Howe 97 

The Work of the Bureau of Government Labo- 
ratories of the Philippine Islands: De. Paul 
C. Fkeer 105 

Scientific Books: — 

Metchnikoff on the Nature of Man: Ales 
Hedlycka. v. Lippmann's Die Ghemie der 
Zuckerarten: De. F. G. Wiechmann 109 

Scientific Journals and Articles 112 

Societies and Academies: — 

The Research Club of the University of 
Michigan: Pkofessob Frederick C. New- 
combe. The Torrey Botanical Club : Will- 
iam T. HoRNE. The Science Club of the 
University of Mississippi: Alfred Hume.. 112 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 
A Case of Plagiarism: G. K. Gilbert 115 

Special Articles: — 

The Ascent of Water in Trees: Professoe 
George MacCloskie 116 

Botanical Notes: — 

The Number and Weight of Cottonwood 
Seeds; Weight of Dandelion Doion; Tendrils 
of Virginia Creeper: Professor Charles 
E. Bessey 118 

Field Work for 1901f of the Division of Geology 
and Paleontology of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey 119 

Baron Toll 123 

Scientific Notes and Neu^s 123 

University and Educational News 128 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc.. Intended 
for review should be sent to the Editor of Science, Qarri- 
3on-on-Hud8on, N. Y. 



DOES A TECHNICAL COURSE EDUCATE?* 
Before we can answer the question ' Does 
a Technical Course Educate?' it is neces- 
sary that we understand what education 
should mean. We do not need to trace this 
word back to its root, to find its derivation 
in some ancient language and to learn its 
exact meaning in that tongue, but rather 
to find what it has stood for in the thoughts 
of men, what processes have been necessary 
to produce it and what its value has been 
to those possessing it. If we take a brief 
look at some of the methods and ideals of 
education in the past we may receive light 
upon its proper meaning to-day. Educa- 
tion is for the benefit of the individual or 
for the benefit of the state. In Persia, in 
Egypt, in Greece, in Rome, the individual 
was nothing, the state was everything. The 
hopes, the desires, the wishes of men were 
not considered; the growth and prosperity 
of the state were paramount. In Persia 
and Sparta education was for war. The 
education of the body was for the many; 
the education of the mind for the few. 
Aristotle was the first to teach that the 
ultimate end of education is the ability to 
enjoy the blessings of peace. 

Society derives its ideals of education at 
any epoch from the limits of knowledge 
at that epoch. A man can teach only what 
he knows. If he knows but little he can 
teach but little; if the sum of human 
knowledge is small, there is but little to 
be taught, although there is much to learn. 
In the early days of Greece the Trivium 
and the Quadrivixim embraced all knowl- 
* Inaugural address of the president of Case 
School of Applied Science, May 11, 1904. 



98 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



edge. Grammar, rhetoric and dialectics 
were taught to all who entered the schools ; 
arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music 
were reserved for the more advanced, who 
were~ few in number. The former were 
language studies; it was understood then 
as now that language, one's own language, 
is the most important subject for the begin- 
ner to study. It is a significant fact that 
the Greeks studied no language but their 
own. In Rome, too, aU knowledge was 
found in the Trivium. Having little else 
to study, the Greeks and Romans each built 
up a language and a literature which have 
never been surpassed, the former for its sci- 
entific accuracy, the latter for the beauty of 
its thought and the elegance of its diction. 
The sciences of the Quadrivium were slowly 
developed by the Greeks, the Romans and 
the Arabs, and in the case of geometry and 
music were brought to a high degree of 
perfection. But science in these early as 
in later days met with much opposition 
from those whose chief study was language 
or philosophy. Socrates believed that the 
study of science was profitless and wrong, 
' for he did not think that such matters were 
discoverable by men, nor did he believe 
that those acted dutifully towards the gods 
who searched into things that they did not 
wish to make known.' Locke must have 
been reading Socrates when two thousand 
years later in his 'Thoughts on Education' 
he said: "Natural pliilosophy as a specu- 
lative science, I imagine we have none, and 
perhaps I may think I have reason to say 
we never shall be able to make a science of 
it. The works of nature are contrived by 
a Wisdom and operate by ways too far sur- 
passing our faculties to discover or capac- 
ities to conceive, for us ever to be able to 
reduce them to a science." During the 
dark ages ignorance and superstition 
blotted out all education and all desire for 
education among European peoples, the 
Mooi-s of Spain alone excepted. Some 



remnant of learning remained in the mon- 
asteries, but it was only enough to accentu- 
ate the intellectual darkness which envel- 
oped the nations. 

The rise of the mediaeval universities 
marked the revival of learning. In Paris, 
Oxford, Bologna, Prague, Vienna and 
many other cities were established great 
schools of the liberal arts, law, medicine 
and theology. The Trivium and the 
Quadrivium were still the principal sub- 
jects studied. Learning was surrounded 
by a high wall and the only entrance to the 
sacred enclosure was through the Latin 
gate. All books were in Latin; Latin 
grammar and rhetoric were first studied. 
Pupils slowly repeated grammatical rules 
recited by the teacher and then learned by 
rote the Avorks of the classic authors. Dia- 
lectics next received attention and pupils 
spent years in wrangling in Latin over 
disputed constructions in grammar or 
knotty points of law and theology. There 
was no vernacular literature. The lore of 
the ages had been concentrated in Greece 
and Rome, and though these countries were 
now shorn of their ancient splendor, they 
still dominated the world of learning. This 
was but natural, as the languages of west- 
ern Europe were crude and unformed, while 
the classic tongues were polished and re- 
fined. Latin was the language of the edu- 
cated ; a knowledge of it opened the door to 
all art, literature and science. It was the 
badgeof an aristocracy, a secret brother- 
hood of learning. Those within the order 
had certain privileges not possessed by 
others and they looked down upon those 
outside their ranks. The education of this 
period lifted men out of the ignorance in 
which they had been engulfed for centuries 
and gave them all the knowledge of the 
world. This knowledge was centuries old, 
it is true, but it was fresh and new for 
those who had rediscovered it. They 
churned it over and over, pressed it into 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



99 



new forms and expressed their wonder and 
admiration at the beauty they found in it. 
But as a rule they made no effort to im- 
prove upon it, to discover new truths or to 
impress their own thoughts upon the world. 
The student who receives all his knowl- 
edge in a foreign tongue, different from 
the language of his every-day life and 
thought will seldom add to that knowl- 
edge. Truth reveals itself to him who 
diligently seeks it at all times and places, 
whose every thought is given to the search 
and whose mind is open to receive it even 
when engaged in the most commonplace 
affairs of life. A man living in his na- 
tive country thinks in his own tongue; if 
there are no words in that tongue to ex- 
press the ideas which come to hifti, they 
are apt to pass unheeded. 

The dawn of the renaissance brought new 
factors into the intellectual life of Europe. 
The several languages settled into fixed 
forms and became more refined. Reading, 
writing and arithmetic were taught in the 
mother tongue and so education spread 
among the common people. Scholasticism 
gave pl^ce to classic culture and the study 
of history, philosophy and mathematics be- 
came more common in the universities. 
Latin was still the language of learning and 
the classic authors the chief source of cul- 
ture. During the centuries which have fol- 
lowed, the changes in methods and sub- 
jects have been slow. In the past the 
teacher has been the most conservative of 
men. He has taught that which he himself 
learned and has followed the methods of 
his teachers. Education has been a rigid 
mold, a cast-iron form into which all were 
pressed and came out exactly alike. All 
culture and the greater part of learning 
were embalmed in the classic tongues and 
these mummified forms were thought to be 
eternal and unique. But the spirit of sci- 
entific enquiry has shattered the mold and 
one subject after another has been added 



to the curriculum of the university. Men 
have come to see that language is a means 
and not an end; that the true subject for 
study is not grammar, but the universe. 
It has taken many centuries to show that 
education is many-sided and of many 
forms. Until within a few years the cur- 
lieulum at each college has been fixed — so 
much language, so much mathematics, so 
much philosophy, so much or rather so 
little science. The student who had no 
taste for mathematics was forced to do 
as much as the one whose taste was for 
formulas and numbers; he who disliked 
language must cram Latin and Greek for 
years or he could not be called an educated 
man. But new ideas and new methods 
have come within the last half century. 
It has come to be recognized, the advocates 
of the new method say, that all men are not 
alike, that what is suitable to develop the 
mind of one will not answer for another. 
Individual tastes and capacities have been 
at last respected and no student is now 
forced to try to become a linguist or a 
mathematician or a philosopher or a sci- 
entist or a weak combination of them all 
against his wishes. The educational 
pendulum has swung from the conservative 
to the radical side and now the student 
may decide to specialize in chemistry, or 
logic or Anglo-Saxon before he knows what 
these terms mean. In some respects we 
have reverted to the methods of the 
mediseval universities, for now as then a 
student may graduate without much knowl- 
edge of his mother tongue. 

Which of the methods so hastily men- 
tioned has produced true education and 
which results shall we use to settle the 
question under discussion? Is the true 
method that of the Chinese which taught 
a worship of ancestors and a reverence for 
antiquity; or that of Pei'sia and Sparta 
which prepared men for war; or that of 
Athens, which in the words of Milton 



100 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



^taught men to perform justly, skilfully 
and magnanimously all the offices, both 
public and private, of peace and war'; or 
that of ancient Greece and Rome which de- 
veloped an almost perfect language and 
literature and produced an art and phi- 
losophy which have been the admiration of 
the ages; or that of the mediffival univer- 
sities which revived a part of the old 
learning but added nothing new, or that 
of the centuries succeeding the renaissance 
which laid chief stress upon classic culture 
but developed a vernacular literature and 
gave birth to the sciences; or that of the 
present with its tendency to absolute free- 
dom in the choice of studies ? Among this 
diversity of methods and results it is diffi- 
cult to select a criterion by which to settle 
our question. Many definitions of an edu- 
cated man have been given, but among them 
all I know of none that will appeal to a 
scientific mind like that of Huxley. He 
says : ' ' That man, I think, has a liberal edu- 
cation, whose body has been so trained in 
youth that it is the ready servant of his 
will, and does with ease and pleasure all 
that, as a mechanism, it is capable of; 
whose intellect is a clear, cold, logic engine, 
with all its parts of equal strength and in 
smooth running order, ready, like a steam 
engine, to be turned to any kind of work 
and to spin the gossamers as well as forge 
the anchors of the mind; whose mind is 
stored with the knowledge of the great 
fundamental truths of nature and the laws 
of her operations; one who, no stunted 
ascetic, is full of life and fire, but whose 
passions have been trained to come to heel 
by a vigorous will, the servant of a tender 
conscience ; one who has learned to love all 
beauty, whether of nature or of art, to hate 
all vileness, and to esteem others as him- 
self." 

Without attempting to rival this and 
other definitions, I may say that consider- 
ing the subject from an intellectual staud- 



point only, if we are to train educated men 
I believe we must teach our students to 
Imow, to search, to think. To know — what? 
This is the question which our institutions 
of learning have been trying for many cen- 
turies to solve. When all knowledge was 
embraced in the Trivium, the problem was 
easy. He who mastered the Trivium was 
educated. Now the very extent of knowl- 
edge makes the problem difficult. The 
chemist, the mathematician, the botanist, 
the philologist, each declares that unless a 
man knows something of his specialty he is 
not broadly educated. Enough is known 
in mathematics to keep a student busy for 
his entire life, and the same is true of all 
other branches of learning. The poor 
student is urged on by one teacher and 
conditioned by another, is given lessons by 
each long enough to consume all of his 
study hours, and wonders why he is obliged 
to try to master things he does not like ; or 
turned loose to browse as he pleases, seeks 
too often the easiest paths and gains but 
one side of an education. No man can 
know all there is to know. However great 
his attainments, however broad his sym- 
pathies, however brilliant his intellect, he 
can only prospect a little on the mountain 
of knowledge. Is it necessary to know all ? 
Are there not some things a knowledge 
of which is necessary in education, and 
others which can be left to the indi- 
vidual taste? I believe that in the future 
all colleges will answer this question, as 
some have already done, in the affirm- 
ative. Those which still adhere to the 
required curriculum must permit a cer- 
tain amount of natural selection, while 
those which offer almost absolute freedom 
in choice of studies must place more restric- 
tions upon youthful tastes. And what are 
these necessary subjects which all should 
master? First and foremost is one's own 
language. The ability to speak and write 
the mother tongue should be insisted upon 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



101 



in every scheme of education. It is evi- 
dent that the secondary schools can not 
complete this work. The entrance exami- 
nation papers in every college show that 
the students know very little about rhetoric 
and composition. It is a slow process to 
teach a student to express himself clearly, 
concisely, elegantly. Cato said, 'Get a 
firm grip on the matter and words will fol- 
low fast enough.' This may have been 
true two thousand years ago, but either it 
is not true to-day or our students do 
not conform to the condition. The Eng- 
lish language should be studied from the 
time the student enters college until he 
leaves if he is to be master of his own 
tongue. Modern languages, two at least, 
should also be insisted upon. Knowledge 
is not circumscribed by boundary lines nor 
learning located by latitude and longitude. 
No one country, no one language contains 
all the educated man should know. The 
study of literature will naturally be coin- 
cident with the study of language. The 
great thoughts of some of the great men of 
all ages, should be known and understood. 
The range of reading should be wide, the 
critical study of style and content be con- 
fined to a few authors. History should be 
included in the list of necessary subjects. 
The history of one's own country should 
be well known; the history of other coun- 
tries restricted to the most important 
events. Most of our college students have 
not studied American history since they 
were in the grammar schools and few if 
any of our colleges make it a required part 
of the curriculum. Can any knowledge be 
more important to the educated man than 
the history of his own country, and is the 
amount acquired in the grammar school 
before he is fourteen years old sufficient? 
History should not be confined to great 
events or to the manners and customs of 
the people, but should include past and 
present politics. Many years ago there 



was inscribed upon the walls of the his- 
torical rooms of Johns Hopkins University 
the words of Freeman, 'History is past 
politics; politics is present history.' Past 
and present political parties, the principles 
they have or do stand for, the success or 
failure of their policies and their efi:ect 
upon the welfare of nations, may well be 
required. The study of civil government 
is closely allied to the preceding. Very 
few of our college students can describe 
the government of the cities in which they 
live or tell the names and functions of the 
several courts of justice in their native 
states. Economics, though not a required 
study in most of our colleges, is one with 
which all should be familiar. The func- 
tions of land, labor and capital, the rela- 
tions of labor and capital, the nature of 
supply and demand, money, production, 
distribution, wages, rent, taxation, tarifi^, 
should all be tinderstood. Philosophy and 
ethics should, I think, receive a small 
amount of the time devoted to required 
studies. Nor can a man be called edu- 
cated unless he knows something about 
art. The several schools of painting and 
sculptiire, the great paintings, the great 
statutes, the masterpieces of architecture, 
should all be familiar to the student. 
Chemistry and physics have made the 
wealth of our modem world, have revolu- 
tionized our mode of living, have dictated 
the policy of nations and have changed 
the course of history. Yet how few of our 
institutions of higher learning require 
either of them except as entrance subjects? 
There is very little in mathematics which 
is necessary for the educated man to know. 
Arithmetic, algebra and geometry are stud- 
ied in the secondary schools and from the 
standpoint of knowledge nothing else need 
be required. 

Botany and astronomy are likewise neces- 
sary. The educated man moves among the 
trees, the plants, the flowers, by day, and 



102 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



sees above him the planets and constella- 
tions by night. No more than in the days 
of Job may he bind the sweet influences of 
the Pleiades or loose the bands of Orion, 
but he should know the north star when he 
sees it and be able to tell why the Coper- 
niean theory is true. 

Am I requiring the educated, the broadly 
educated man to know too mucTi 1 He can 
learn something of all these subjects dur- 
ing his college course and yet have a great 
deal of time left to follow his own indi- 
vidual tastes. The standard by which to 
judge the technical course, to ascertain its 
deficiencies, must be broad. In these days 
of telephones, electric ears. X-rays and the 
wireless telegraph ought we to call a man 
educated if he has not given considerable 
time to the study of physics 1 Ought we to 
call a man educated if he does not know 
the histoiy of the great political parties 
and our methods of government? Ought 
we to call a man educated if he moves 
among the phenomena of nature by day 
and by night with no more knowledge of 
them than if he were blind? And yet we 
are graduating from our colleges many men 
who know little or nothing of any of these 
subjects and we do call these men educated. 
The educated man is to live in his own gen- 
eration; he is a citizen of to-day, not of 
yesterday or to-morrow, and he should 
know those things which will fit him for 
the business, social and political life of his 
own time. 

To search. However much a man may 
know, there is yet more to be known. It is 
not necessary for the educated man to know 
everything, but it is necessary for him to be 
able to find anything in the realm of knowl- 
edge. He should be taiight how to use in- 
dexes, dictionaries, encyclopedias and other 
books of reference ; libraries, art galleries 
and museums should open their stores to 
him when he bids them. Every one knows 
how to look up a word in a dictionary or 



an article in an encyclopedia, but the sys- 
tematic use of all sources of information is 
rarely taught. The student has not been 
fully initiated into the mysteries of his or- 
der until he has been taught to search. 
Then the freedom of the scholar is his and 
the universe lays its treasures at his feet. 

To think. The most important and the 
most difficult! Man may be by nature a 
thinking animal, but if so, he does his ut- 
most to conceal his powers. The faculty of 
original thought never comes to most men. 
In childhood we must accept what is told 
us, and we become so accustomed to receiv- 
ing our ideas from others that many of us 
never outgrow it. We believe without 
question what we read in books, magazines 
and newspapers, what we hear in the class- 
room and from the pulpit and platform. 
But the broadly educated man must think 
for himself. The mind, like the body, 
should be put through certain exercises to 
gain strength. Mathematics and the ancient 
languages, which have been omitted froni 
the list of things the educated man should 
know, are among the most powerful in- 
fluences for training the mind. This is 
why they have held such an important 
place in the curricula of our colleges. But 
they are not the only subjects which will 
stimulate mental thought and teach the 
mind self-reliance. A man may grow 
strong by rowing, by using chest weights 
or by chopping wood. Any one of these 
•will stimulate the nervous system, send the 
blood to all parts of the body and keep 
every muscle in a healthy condition. The 
proper study of chemistry or philosophy 
or thermo-dynamics will have a like effect 
upon the mind. But there are many 
muscles in the body; if a man uses his 
biceps only, he will not grow strong in the 
legs. And there are many powers of the 
mind. If the intellect is to have all its 
powers of equal strength, as Huxley ad- 
vises, the man must be taught to think in 



JULT 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



103 



more than one direction. He must study 
language, mathematics, science, philosophy, 
not for knowledge only, but for discipline. 
If these requirements, which, I confess, 
have a large personal equation, are neces- 
sary to produce education, does a technical 
course educate? Perhaps it would be 
proper first to inquire : do our colleges and 
universities educate? Do they teach their 
students to know, to search, to think? 
Have they not gone too far in the direction 
of allowing any man to study anything? 
But it is the technical school and not the 
college which is under discussion. The 
technical school is a professional school and 
its duty is to train its students for active 
professional life. It is not a university 
nor a college. Its aims and its methods 
are different from either. Its business is 
to teach, and if it does not teach, it has no 
excuse for existence. In a university, the 
faculty are expected to do little teaching 
and much research work; in a technical 
school they are expected to do much teach- 
ing and little research work. Research and 
expert work are advisable to a limited ex- 
tent — limited, however, only by the time 
and strength the instructor has left after 
his regular work is done. They should be 
encouraged by the authorities in every pos- 
sible way under the above restrictions. 
Research work is the legitimate outcome of 
learning to think. He who possesses the 
power will find ways and means to use it. 
Coal burned in our furnaces yields but a 
fraction of its energy in useful work; the 
sun's rays shining upon the roofs of our 
manufactories have stored up energy 
enough to light and heat the buildings and 
to operate all the machinery within, but 
we use none of it. Surely there is oppor- 
tunity for original work by the engineer. 
The community has a right to demand that 
the professor in a technical school shall do 
expert work. The knowledge he possesses, 
the laboratories and apparatus at his com- 



mand should be for the use of the com- 
munity whenever this will not interfere 
with his first duty as a teacher. 

Engineering is a learned profession. 
Schools of law, medicine and theology do 
not attempt to give a broad education. 
They either require a liberal training for 
admission or they admit students from the 
secondary schools. In both cases the 
course of study is the same. The engineer- 
ing student usually comes directly from the 
secondary school. It would be possible to 
give him drawing and shop-work at once, 
to furnish him with tables and empirical 
formulas and have him begin technical 
work immediately. But this would make 
him a mere machine and not an educated 
engineer. The technical schools recognize 
that they are training for a learned pro- 
fession and require the students to give the 
greater part of their time for two years to 
liberal studies. The purpose of the Roman 
schools was utilitarian," but they furnished 
a sound training. The purpose of the 
technical schools is likewise utilitarian, but 
they give a broad and liberal education as 
far as they go. English is thoroughly 
taught during the time devoted to it. The 
training in modern languages is good, 
although its chief aim is to teach the stu- 
dents io read scientific books and period- 
icals. Mathematics is thoroughtly taught ; 
it has to be for it is the basis of all engi- 
neering work. Physics and chemistry are 
required to a greater extent than in any 
college. Economics is required in some and 
offered as an elective in many others. The 
technical student is taught to search. 
Books of reference, periodical literature, 
proceedings of societies and government re- 
ports are made a part of his education. 
And an effort is made to teach him to think. 
The connection between theory and prac- 
tice can only be learned by vigorous mental 
effort. It is only by right thinking along 
scientific and mathematical lines that the 



104 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



student learns to transform a theorenl into 
a dynamo or a formula into a compound 
engine. 

And thus I am led to the conclusion that 
a technical course does educate to a limited 
estent. It teaches the student to search 
and it teaches him to think ; it teaches him 
some of the things that an educated man 
should know, but it does not teach him all 
that an educated man should know. It 
would be much better if our technical grad- 
uates were broadly educated men as well as 
trained engineers, if they had received a 
college training before entering upon a 
technical course. In a university it would 
be easy to require this. Two courses would 
be open to the student. He could complete 
his college work with no reference to tech- 
nical subjects and then enter the engineer- 
ing department; or after completing those 
subjects which are considered necessary for 
a liberal training, he could choose a part 
or the whole of his electives in the technical 
school. In the former case his combined 
college and professional course would re- 
quire six or seven years; in the latter case 
five or six years. Some of our universities 
have such a requirement and I am glad they 
do. I believe the student should be trained 
to know, to search, to think before he 
enters the technical school. During his 
whole life he would have a broader outlook, 
a deeper sympathy with men and events, 
a greater influence upon the community. 
I am not sure that he would be a better 
engineer. 

But however desirable such a combined 
course may be, it is not possible at present 
to make the whole or a part of a college 
education a requisite for admission to the 
technical schools. In 1902 there were 
graduated about 1,600 engineers ; there was 
a demand for about 4,000. If a college 
diploma were required for admission, the 
number of graduates would not be more 
than a quarter as large as now. Even if 



it were possible to make such a requirement, 
I do not think it would be wise to do so. 
Whatever may be our opinion in regard 
to the best course of study, we must take 
into account the wishes of the student and 
the average technical student does not wish 
to go to college. He thinks the course of 
study too long and too expensive. He 
would be forced to give up all hope of an 
education if six or seven years were neces- 
sary to obtain it. A man's first duty is to 
make a living for himself and for those 
dependent upon him. The average boy— 
your boy and mine— has his own way to 
make in the world. He will be given an 
education but after that he must take care 
of himself. The technical course, if under- 
stood, is wonderfully attractive to the boy. 
The Talmud says, 'the end of learning is 
doing'; the end of a technical course is 
doing and the average boy wants to do 
something. He knows he can make a living 
as soon as he graduates. It is not strange 
that he wishes to begin this work as early 
as possible and to finish it as soon as con- 
sistent with thorough preparation for pro- 
fessional duties. 

In conclusion I would say that the tech- 
nical school has three great duties to per- 
form in education. 

First: To maintain a high standard in 
its professional teaching. It was created 
to do this work. Technical training is 
education of a high order, although not 
liberal. The mistakes of the engineer are 
destructive to property and sometimes to 
human life ; hence the standard of teaching 
should be high. 

Second: To see that it does not degen- 
erate into a trade school. The student will 
go into practical work when he graduates 
and so there is a tendency to give him more 
and more practical work in the school. 
There is no objection to this, provided it 
does not interfere with the broader studies 
already described. If the liberal studies 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



105 



usually given are dropped, the teehnical 
school will become a mere shop or drafting 
room. 

Third and last: To encourage those 
young men who are planning to enter 
teehnical work to first obtain a broad and 
liberal training to the end that they may 
be better citizens and wield a greater in- 
fluence in society, the community and the 
state. 

Chas. S. Howe. 
Case School of Applied Science. 



THE WORK OF TSE BUREAU OF GOVERN- 
MENT LABORATORIES, OF TEE 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

In an article published in a former num- 
ber of Science* a short resume of the plan 
which had been devised to further scientific 
work in the Philippine Islands was given, 
together with an outline of what the bureau 
of government laboratories expected to do 
in the future. At that time the organiza- 
tion had only begun, and the scientific work 
which was being performed was limited. 
Plans for a new building were under way, 
and an attempt was being made to obtain 
a large corps of scientific workers to carry 
on the necessary research work for the gov- 
ernment, but only a few men were actually 
on the ground. Two years have now 
elapsed, and it is possible to speak with 
certainty of the results accomplished, and 
with confidence of the scientific scope of the 
future. 

The new laboratory structure, planned 
carefully in the beginning, is now ap- 
proaching completion, and the adaptation 
of this building to the needs of the varied 
scientific work to be carried on can be ap- 
preciated. The branches of chemistry, 
bacteriology, pathology, botany, entomol- 
ogy, as well as the preparation of prophy- 
lactic and curative serums, have been am- 
ply provided for. Although it can already 
be said that each room will be occupied, 

* Science, October 10, 1902. 



there will, nevertheless, be no crowding 
for years to come, and only two or three 
woi'kers on specific subjects will need to 
occupy one room at a time. The building 
has been somewhat delayed, not only owing 
to uncertainty as to its location, but also 
because of lack of some of the materials 
necessary for its construction. The ma- 
chinery which is being installed will be 
ample for the purposes of laboratory tech- 
nique. It will supply compressed air, 
vacuum, steam and steam exhaust, as well 
as electric power in all of the rooms and at 
all of the desks where such aids are neces- 
sary, and the pressure, mechanically pro- 
vided, will give an ample water-supply for 
all parts of the building. 

One difficulty encountered in laboratory 
work in the Philippine Islands has been in 
the gas-supply. Owing to the nature of 
oriental coals, it has not been profitable to 
construct miinicipal gas plants. The price 
of the coal which can be obtained is high, 
and the products are not such as to yield 
large quantities of illuminating gas, and 
obviously the importation of the proper 
materials from Europe or the United States 
is out of the question. Gasoline, which is 
used so frequently for laboratory supply 
in other countries, is both expensive and of 
an inferior quality, and for this reason the 
bureau has adopted the method of prepar- 
ing its gas from cocoanut oil. Heavy cast- 
iron retorts are heated to redness in fur- 
naces, and cocoanut oil is then slowly 
dropped in. The product is a very high 
quality of illuminating gas with very little 
tar and a proportionately small residue in 
the retort. In the new building a battery 
of three of these generators will be in- 
stalled, and provision will be made for the 
putting in of a fourth unit, the capacity of 
the gas-holders being 2,500 cubic feet. 

The bureau, as at present organized, is 
separated in three buildings, one for the 
work in chemistry and botany, another for 



106 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



biology and the allied work, including ento- 
mology, and the third in conjunction with 
the preparation of serums. The aim of 
these various divisions has been not only to 
provide for the immediate necessities in 
the way of chemical analysis, diagnostic 
work for the hospitals and prisons, and the 
preparation of prophylactic serums, for 
which an urgent demand existed, but it has 
also endeavored by its research work and 
publications to help the government in its 
knowledge of existing conditions, and to 
point out methods for advancement, not 
only in matters of hygiene, but in the de- 
velopment of natural products and in the 
study of diseases of men and of animals. 

As is well known, one of the most serious 
problems which confronted the government 
of the Philippine Islands was the loss en- 
tailed by diseases of draft animals, which 
in times past has been so serious as prac- 
tically to paralyze agricultural industries 
in certain districts. The laboratories were 
called upon, not only to give advice as to 
the best means of preventing the further 
spread of these disastrous maladies, but 
also to prepare for the elimination of dan- 
gerous contagious diseases where they ex- 
isted. Therefore, in January, 1903, as 
soon as the serum laboratory was organized 
as part of the bureau, ari insistent effort 
was made to prepare larger quantities of 
rinderpest serum, and to gather a corps of 
veterinarians with their assistants, who 
would be able to visit all parts of the archi- 
pelago for the purpose of inoculating 
against rinderpest the herds still remain- 
ing. 

From a small beginning, with a few ani- 
mals, the rinderpest serum herd has been 
increased to a number varying from fifty 
to seventy-five animals, according to the 
needs of the service, and a steady supply 
of non-immunes for the purpose of fur- 
nishing virulent blood has been obtained 
from Shanghai. The demands have been 



very large, for not only has serum been 
furnished to the veterinarians in the 
islands, but when the government decided 
to purchase inoculated draft animals in 
China for the purpose of restocking the 
islands, the burden of the immunization 
and hygienic care of the animals upon their 
arrival in Manila at first was thrown en- 
tirely on the laboratories, and the shipping 
of at least one half the necessary serum to 
Shanghai has been undertaken throughout 
the life of the contract. 

The results in the islands have been most 
gratifying. The veterinarians have met 
with invariable success wherever they have 
gone, and the conditions have become such 
that rinderpest is non-existent in by far the 
greater number of provinces, and it is easily 
controlled in a short time wherever it re- 
appears. The method of immunization 
used has been that of simultaneous inocu- 
lation. 

The demand for vaccine virus has been 
very great, and the laboratories have been 
compelled to purchase a large number of 
calves for this purpose. These animals 
have, as a rule, when their quality would 
warrant, been sold to inhabitants intending 
to engage in the raising of cattle,* and in 
that way, after having been used for vac- 
cine purposes, they are of continued benefit 
in the restocking of the archipelago. Of 
course all of these animals are immunized 
against rinderpest before leaving the insti- 
tution. Plague prophylactic has been sup- 
plied to the board of health in quantities 
sufficient for all purposes, and its effectual 
use has been one factor in bringing down 
the number of plague eases to such a de- 
gree that the Philippine Islands may now 
be declared to be practically free from this 
disease. The rats caught by the board of 
health were examined for plague in the 
biological laboratory, and the results ob- 

* Tuberculosis has never been encountered in 
examining the calves used at the laboratory. 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



107 



tained were used in locating plague houses. 

The cholera epidemic, which began on 
March 20, 1902, and which was in the as- 
cendent for six months, naturally threw a 
large burden of work especially on the bio- 
logical laboratory, whose etiological studies, 
diagnoses and autopsies were the basis of 
action by the board of health. The large 
amount of routine work entailed thereby 
interfered with extensive investigations in 
the biireau, but the results have warranted 
the time expended. 

The attention of the biological labora- 
tory has also been devoted to surra, a dis- 
ease generally attacking horses, and which 
has caused many deaths in the islands. 
The extensive investigations of the bureau 
in this direction have been published in a 
monograph. The results, just as in the 
history of past efforts in this direction, 
did not lead to a method of cure, but they 
have nevertheless extended our knowledge 
so as to prove that the disease may be har- 
bored by rats and transferred by lice and 
flies, th^it it is not conveyed by food, and 
the researches have led to advice as regards 
detection of affected animals and their de- 
struction. It has also been shown that the 
native water-buffalo, termed carabao, is 
very susceptible and must be considered as 
an important factor in the extension of the 
infection. Surra infection has been one 
of the greatest difficulties encountered in 
the importation of draft animals from 
China, and the isolation of large herds and 
the endeavor to prevent its spread has been 
a task of no little magnitude. 

The biological laboratory has also under- 
taken investigations on the all-important 
subject of human diseases, and is now pre- 
paring for publication work on a method 
of protective inoculation against Asiatic 
cholera and on amcebic dysentery, and it 
has been fortunate enough to encounter 
and describe some new diseases. Research 



on beri-beri, plague, cholera, trypanoso- 
miasis, etc., is also in progress. 

Th^ veterinarians and inoculators of the 
insular government, with the exception of 
the ones necessary for actual laboratory 
work, have now been placed in a corps of 
veterinarians under the direction of the 
boai-d of health, of which body the super- 
intendent of government laboratories is a 
member, so that in the future the labora- 
tories can, to a much greater extent, as- 
sume their normal function of furnishing 
prophylactic serums and diagnostic work, 
while the actual details of inoculation, isola- 
tion and destruction of infected animals 
will become part of the duty of the board 
of health. By this improvement the di- 
rectors of the biological and serum labo- 
ratories and the employees in those divis- 
ions will be able to devote a larger amount 
of time to investigation and research in 
the lines which properly fall within their 
scope. 

As the policy of the government was to 
provide laboratories which would be of 
maximum usefulness to the people, it was 
decided more than a year ago to permit the 
general public to call upon the bureau for 
analytical and diagnostic work at reason- 
able and fixed charges to be imposed in re- 
turn for the results obtained. This priv- 
ilege has been taken advantage of by the 
public to a considerable extent, and a large 
variety of work has come to the bureau as 
a consequence. The other bureaus of the 
government, such as the custom-house, 
bureau of agriculture, bureau of mines, etc., 
have occasion to use the laboratory very 
frequently to obtain analytical results of 
all kinds, and as a result the chemical labo- 
ratory has gradually developed a corps of 
analysts who are accurate, careful and ca- 
pable of handling the work. In addition 
an endeavor has been made to begin sys- 
tematic investigations, and the first results 
of such endeavor have appeared in a bul- 



108 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



letin published by the bureau on the sub- 
ject of 'India-rubber and Gutta-percha.' 
At the same time Avork has been steadily 
carried on in relation to the important 
cocoanut-oil industry, and results are grad- 
ually being obtained which in the near 
future will warrant the publication, from 
the commercial side, of accurate and com- 
plete information. 

The field in the islands is very large 
and many topics remain to be handled. 
Especially is this true of many of the 
medicinal plants of the islands, of which 
very little is known, of the gums and resins, 
and of essential oils. 

The corps of botanists, now consisting of 
four men, has, as is necessary in a new 
country, been devoting its first attention to 
the preparation of an adequate herbarium, 
and the collection now contains over ten 
thousand numbers. Materials have been 
sent to various countries for identification, 
but with the laboratory facilities now on 
hand much of this work is being done here. 
The time will soon come when this her- 
barium win have assumed sufficient dimen- 
sions to warrant individual investigations 
with it as a basis, and in furtherance of 
this plan the laboratory, in conjunction 
with the forestry bureau, will establish a 
botanical garden at Lamao, across the bay 
from Manila. When this is accomplished, 
the field of work will be open for the plant 
physiologist and mycologist and work can 
be steadily pushed. The results of the 
botanical work up to the present have been 
published in two bulletins, with a third in 
the press. The entomologists have been 
more handicapped in their work of identifi- 
cation than the botanists, as the field in the 
islands is practically new, and the species 
and genera obtained are, to a large extent, 
undescribed. The work of securing an 
adequate collection has been steadily 
pushed, however, and at the same time the 



economic side has not been lost sight of. 
So far the entomologists have published 
two bulletins, one on 'Insects attacking the 
Cacao Plant, ' and another on the ' Austral- 
ian Cattle Tick,' which is present in the 
islands and capable of transmitting Texas 
fever. 

The library has steadily expanded, and 
although difficulty has been encountered in 
obtaining complete sets of some publica- 
tions, the chief ones in all scientific branches 
now represented in the bureau have been 
purchased and are on the shelves, so that 
literature for extensive research work is 
available. 

In all, the progress for the past three 
years has been most satisfactory, and the 
wisdom of the government in establishing 
one central laboratory institution, which 
could carry on all lines of necessary work, 
has been justified. In the place of a num- 
ber of poorly provided laboratories, we 
have a bureau which is well equipped and 
prepared for its work. The individual 
scientific worker need not be isolated at 
some point where intercourse with his fel- 
lows is difficult or impossible, but he finds 
himself in a scientific atmosphere and in 
contact with students of all branches, giv- 
ing him a broader and more satisfactory 
career and bringing to the government 
better results. In addition to these ad- 
vantages, a place is provided for visitors of 
scientific training, where they may learn 
what has been going on, and may, if they 
desire, carry on investigations of their own. 

The serial publications of the bureau, so 
far, comprise twelve numbers with two 
more in press, and the topics which have 
been covered demonstrate the value of the 
work. The list is as follows: 

Biological Laboratory. ' Preliminary Report of 
the Appearance in the Philippine Islands of a 
Disease Clinically Resembling Glanders,' by R. 
P. Strons-, M.D. 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



1 



109 



Chemical Laboratory. ' The Preparation of Ben- 
zoyl-acetyl Peroxide and its Use as an Intes- 
tinal Antiseptic in Cholera and Dysentery ' (pre- 
liminary notes), by Paul C. Freer, M.D., Ph.D. 

Biological Laboratory. ' A Preliminary Report 
on Trypanosomiasis of Horses in. the Philip- 
pine Islands,' by W. E. Musgrave, M.D., and 
Norman E. Williamson. 

Serum Laboratory. ' Preliminary Report on the 
Study of Rinderpest of Cattle and Carabaos in 
the Philippine Islands,' by James W. Jobling, 
M.D. 

Biological Laboratory. ' Trypanosoma and Try- 
panosomiasis, with special reference to Surra 
in the Philippine Islands,' by W. E. Musgrave, 
M.D., and Moses T. Clegg. 

I. ' New or Noteworthy Plants.' II. ' The Ameri- 
can Element in the Philippine Flora,' by Elmer 
D. Merrill, botanist. 

Chemical Laboratory. ' The Gutta-percha and 
Rubber of the Philippine Islands,' by Penoyer L. 
Sherman, Jr., Ph.D. 

' A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philip- 
pine Islands,' by Elmer D. Merrill, botanist. 

Biological Laboratory. ' A Report on Hemor- 
rhagic Septicaemia in Animals in the Philippine 
Islands,' by Paul G. WooUey, M.D., and J. W. 
Jobling, M.D. 

Biological Laboratory. ' A Report on Two Cases 
of a Peculiar Form of Hand Infection, due to 
an Organism resembling the Koch-Weeks Bacil- 
lus,' by John R. McDill, M.D., and Wm. B, 
Wherry, M.D. 

Biological Laboratory. ' Preliminary Bulletin on 
Insects of the Cacao,' by Charles S. Banks, 
entomologist. 

Biological Laboratory. ' Report on Some Pul- 
monary Lesions produced by the Bacillus of 
Hemorrhagic Septicaemia of Carabaos,' by Paul 
G. Woolley, M.D. 

Biological Laboratory. ' A Fatal Infection by a 
hitherto undescribed Chromogenic Bacteria- 
Bacillus Aureus foetidus,' by Dr. Maximilian 
Herzog. 

I. Serum Laboratory : ' Texas Fever in the Philip- 
pine Islands and the Far East,' by J. B. Jobling, 
M.D., and Paul G. Woolley, M.D. 

II. Biological Laboratory : ' On the Australian 
Cattle Tick — Boophilis Australis,' by Chas. S. 
Banks. 

Paul C. Freer. 

BUBEAU OF GOVEENMENT LaBOEATORIES OF 

THE Philippine Islands. 



8GIENTIFI0 BOOKS. " ~' ~ 

The Nature of Man; Studies in Optimistic 
Philosophy. By Elie Metchnikoff. Eng- 
lish translation, edited by P. Chalmers 
Mitchell. 1 vol. in 8°, pp. xvi -f 302, with 
author's portrait and twenty illustrations. 
New York and London, G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 1903. 

In ' The Nature of Man,' Elie Metchnikoff, 
a Eussian professor at the Pasteur Institute, 
in Paris, presents a valuable contribution to 
scientific philosophy. 

The book is addressed "to ' disciplined minds, 
and especially to biologists.' It is not, the 
author states in the preface, so much a fin- 
ished study as food for further thought and 
investigation, a program of work. But it 
reaches beyond this. It deals principally with 
the numerous imperfections and disharmonies 
in the human constitution and functions, with 
old age, with the vital instincts and with 
death. 

Man is a comparatively recent and possibly 
accidental descendant of some anthropoid ape 
and has differentiated from his ancestors prin- 
cipally through his brain. There are many 
parts of his constitution that have not kept 
the same pace in evolution; as a result, man's 
organism is not throughout harmonious and 
equally adapted to his present circumstances, 
which affects adversely his health, happiness 
and duration of life. 

Man is still covered with hairs, though they 
are no longer needed or capable of protecting 
his body from cold, and their follicles offer 
easy lodgment to microbes, which give rise to 
acne, or even worse forms of skin affection. 

The wisdom teeth furnish an instance of 
disharmony. They are not only nearly use- 
less, but often become a source of trouble that 
in exceptional cases leads to disease or even 
death. 

The vermiform appendage is another or- 
ganic disharmony, serving no useful purpose, 
but often the source of great disorder and 
danger to life. 

Degenerating organs in the human body, 
such as the caecum, exhibit disharmony. In 
fact, the whole of our large intestine is largely 
superfluous. It is of secondary importance to 



no 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



digestion and absorption. The loss of a large 
part of it could easily be endured by man. 
On the other hand, it is a source, through 
autointoxication, and diseases peculiar to it, 
of much danger to man's health and life. 

There are disharmonies in our organs of 
sense, and, particularly, in the organs and 
functions of reproduction; and there are dis- 
iiarmonies in our instincts as well. 

Senility should be a natural, physiological 
j)hase of man's existence, but as it exists, it is 
to a large extent a pathological condition. 
The fundamental organic change in senility is 
the atrophy of the higher and specific cells of 
our tissues and their replacement by hyper- 
trophied connective tissue. A very important 
destructive role in the process is played by the 
cells known as macrophags. The degenera- 
tion of the higher cellular elements and facili- 
tation of the work of the macrophags is aided 
by all agencies that weaken the organism. 
Among such stand foremost the poison of 
syphilis, alcohol and the products of intestinal 
fermentations. 

As to death, we are so accustomed to look 
upon it as something natural and inevitable, 
that it has long since come to be regarded as 
inherent in organisms. This has been dis- 
proved by biology. Low, particularly unicel- 
lular, organisms, are not subject to the natural 
death that comes inevitably to man and 
higher animals. There are even somewhat 
higher organisms, such as many polyps and 
some worms, to which natural death does not 
come; these animals divide indefinitely into 
new individuals. Hence, death is not neces- 
sarily inherent in living organisms. Even our 
own bodies contain elements practically im- 
mortal, the spermatozoa and ova. Natural 
death in man is probably a possibility rather 
than an actual occurrence. Old age, as it 
exists, is not a true physiological process, but 
exhibits many morbid characters. That be- 
ing the case, it is not surprising that it seldom 
ends in natural death. 

Would the appearance of natural death in 
man be accompanied by the disappearance of 
the instinct of self-preservation and the ap- 
pearance of another instinct — that of death? 
To this the author has no exact answer ; yet he 



adduces some testimony favoring that view. 
It is well known that the instincts of hunger, 
thirst, movement, etc., allied to those of desire 
of life and fear of death, often change with age. 
The instinct of death seems to lie, in some po- 
tential form, deep in man's nature. If human 
life followed its ideal course, fulfilling all its 
physiological functions, then the instinct of 
death would appear in its time, after a normal 
life and an old age healthy and prolonged. 
As it is, old men die in morbid old age and 
in the fear of death, without having known 
the instinct of death, and this constitutes the 
greatest disharmony of human nature. The 
goal of existence is the accomplishment of a 
complete and physiological cycle, in which oc- 
curs a normal old age, ending in the loss of 
the instinct of life and the appearance of the 
instinct of death. The normal end, coming 
after the appearance of the instinct of death, 
may truly be regarded as the ultimate goal of 
human existence. But before attaining it a 
normal life must be lived: a life filled all 
through with the feeling that comes from 
proper accomplishment of function. 

What is to be done? Before all things, 
it is necessary to try to amend the evolu- 
tion of human life; that is to say, to trans- 
form its disharmonies into harmonies. This 
can be undertaken only by science, and to 
science the opportunity of accomplishing it 
must be given. We must know the human 
constitution thoroughly, must understand the 
most intimate details of its mechanism. In 
the problem of his own fate, man must not 
be content with the gifts of nature; he must 
direct them by his own efForts. Just as he 
has been able to modify the nature of animals 
and plants, man must attempt to modify his 
own constitution, so as to readjust its dishar- 
monies. 

As will be plain from this brief reference, 
Metchnikofi's ' Nature of Man,' notwithstand- 
ing its slightly misleading title, is a disserta- 
tion on some of the most important phases of 
man's natural history. It is a work remark- 
able for its simple language and clear style. 
It is not, as the author admits, a finished 
work, but it is a well advanced one. 

There are a few points which are open to 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



Ill 



argument, especially that of the significance 
among mammals of the large intestine.* 

But on the whole the work bears the stamp 
of a production of an erudite scientist and a 
deep thinker. 

Ales Hrdlicka. 

U. S. Nationax Museum. 

Die Chemie der Zucherarien. Von Professor 
Dr. Edmund 0. von Lippmann, Director der 
Zuckerraffinerie Halle zu Halle a. S. Dritte 
vollig umgearbeitete Auflage. 1904. Braun- 
schweig, Friedr. Vieweg und Sohn. Gr: 
8vo. Pp. si + 2003. In two volumes. 
Price, M. 30 ; hound, M. 34. 
This work, the third edition of the prize 
essay 'Die Zuckerarten und ihre Derivate,' 
which first appeared in 1878, embodies the 
sum total of our present-day knowledge of 
the sugars. 

So great has been the progress made and 
the wealth of material accumulated in this 
field of research within the past decade that 
the contents of this work fill fully two thou- 
sand pages; for the sake of convenience the 
publication is issued in two volumes. 

The first of these volumes contains the in- 
troductory remarks, a copious table of con- 
tents and a full discussion of the monosac- 
charides. The second treats of the di-, tri- 
and tetrasaccharides, the constitution, config- 
uration and synthesis of the sugars, the rela- 
tions between the optical, caloric and other 
physical constants, the origin of the sugars in 
plants, and of the physiological importance of 
the sugars. In addition to this there are the 
addenda, bringing the discussion of the sub- 
ject matters up to the close of February, 1904; 
an author's and a subject index — the latter 
alone covering about fifty pages. 

When one recalls the various domains of 
knowledge with which the chemistry of sugar 
is necessarily in touch and contact, for in- 
stance general, organic, analytic, physical, 
physiological, medical, pathological chemistry, 

* Metehnikoff considers that, in the active mam- 
malian life, ' the need to stop in order to empty the 
intestines would be a serious disadvantage ' and 
implies that this factor may have had influence 
in the evolution of the organ. 



the chemistry of foods, of fermentation, bac- 
teriologji, agricultural chemistry, physics, etc., 
a faint conception may be formed of the 
gigantic task which confronted the author in 
his endeavor to deal adequately with his sub- 
ject. 

Of course, certain limits had to be set, the 
lines of demarcation had to be drawn some- 
where, and of this no one could have been 
more clearly conscious than the author. "With 
a modesty as charming as it is rare, he states 
in his preface : ' Completeness could not be 
attained in any direction,' and yet this work 
is the most thorough of all works ever pub- 
lished on the chemistry of the sugars. 

The fundamental idea governing its whole 
scope and plan is the giving of a detailed de- 
scription of the various kinds of sugars and 
their more immediate derivatives, while less 
closely allied bodies receive attention only to 
an extent necessary to define and establish 
their characteristics. 

Instead of entering into a detailed account 
of the well-nigh innumerable methods of an- 
alysis and technology, the author has sought 
to give their essence and spirit, to sketch in 
clear outlines their underlying principles. 
Data relating to the construction and manipu- 
lation of polariscopes, to the specific gravity 
of sugar solutions, etc., data which can readily 
be found in manuals and text -books, have been 
omitted. 

Scheibler's naming of the sugars has been 
retained,' the author deeming the time not yet 
come for the adoption of Emil Fischer's ra- 
tional system of nomenclature. A noteworthy 
feature of the book is the manner in which 
the table of contents and the index comple- 
ment each other, the former referring to the 
general topics, while the index lists the indi- 
vidual chemical terms and expressions. 

Space, of course, forbids here entering upon 
a detailed review of these volumes; all that 
may be done is to sum up in a few words the 
impression left by a careful, critical examina- 
tion of their pages. The style in which the 
book is written is attractive — concise, clear, 
forceful. There is no question but that von 
Lippmann in his ' Chemie der Zuckerarten ' 
has given to chemical science a monograph 



112 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



which in thoroughness, lucidity, in masterly 
treatment throughout, is rivaled by but few, 
excelled by none. F. G. Wieohmann. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 
The Botanical Gazette for June contains 
the following articles: Dr. Eoland Thaxter 
publishes a further contribution on the Myxo- 
bacteriacese, especially in reference to the work 
of Migula, Zukal, Miss A. L. Smith and 
Zederbauer; also establishing eight new spe- 
cies. John Donnell Smith contributes his 
twenty-sixth fascicle of ' Undescribed Plants 
from Guatemala and Other Central Amer- 
ican States,' describing twelve new species. 
Thomas H. Kearney asks the question, ' Are 
Plants of Sea Beaches and Dunes True Halo- 
phytes ? ' reaching the conclusion that these 
are not generally halophytic. Alice East- 
wood publishes fourteen new species of west- 
ern Polemoniaceae. George J. Peirce, in 
' Notes on the Monterey Pine,' shows that the 
difference in the quantities of water and 
solutes drawn up through the xylem into 
galled and normal leaves furnishes the reason 
for the differences in the amount of conduct- 
ing tissue as shown by the annual rings. In 
other words, amputated seedlings and branches 
bearing galled leaves develop bundles which 
vary from the normal according to the degree 
of injury which the leaves have undergone. 
This is confirmation of Jost's conclusion that 
leaves and vascular bundles are closely cor- 
related in their development. Amon B. Plow- 
man publishes the ' Celloidin Method for Hard 
Tissues ' as developed and perfected by Pro- 
fessor E. C. Jeffrey. M. A. Chrysler pub- 
lishes ' Anatomical Notes on Certain Strand 
Plants,' being the results of a comparative 
study of the leaf anatomy of certain plants 
in the vicinity of Woods Hole and near Lake 
Michigan. Charles E. Allen makes a prelim- 
inary announcement of his conclusions in ref- 
erence to chromosome reduction in Lilium 
canadense, being quite different in some points 
from those previously maintained. 

The June issue of the Bulletin of the Mich- 
igan Ornithological Cluh contains the follow- 



ing articles : ' Some Notes on the Life His- 
tory of the American Redstart,' by J. Claire 
Wood, with a full-page cut of the species by 
Louis Agassiz Euertes. Bradshaw H. Swales 
concludes his ' List of the Land Birds of 
Southeastern Michigan.' A. H. Griffith con- 
tributes ' Birds in Decoration,' which is il- 
lustrated by specimens of Japanese art from 
the Detroit Museum of Art. P. A. Taverner 
writes on the ' Tagging of Birds ' as a means 
of solving some of the vexing problems of 
migration. Walter B. Barrows describes the 
ornithological and oological collections of the 
Michigan Agricultural College, which is sup- 
plemented by a half-tone of the interior. 
Alexander W. Blain, Jr. notes the capture of 
' Three Rare Michigan Birds.' There are 
other notes of value and the Usual reviews. 
With this issue Professor Barrows becomes 
one of the editorial staff. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

THE RESEARCH CLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF 
MICHIGAN. 

At the meeting of the club held April 27 
Dr. Novy presented the results obtained in 
collaboration with Mr. McNeal on the cul- 
tivation of the organisms causing trypanoso- 
matic diseases. These investigators have been 
able to cultivate three of these protozoa. The 
organism Trypanosoma lewisi has now been 
under cultivation for two years. T. brucei, 
the cause of nagana or the tsetse-fly disease of 
South Africa, has been under cultivation since 
last August. The culture medium sent from 
Manila, after inoculation with the trypano- 
some from a cow suffering with surra, on 
arrival in Ann Arbor, showed an excellent 
culture of this organism which had developed 
en route. This organism was kept alive for 
sixty-five days, but all efforts to secure infec- 
tion in animals or to obtain subcultures failed. 

A comparison of the trypanosome from the 
Philippine suiTa with that from the Island 
of Mauritius seems to indicate that the two 
are entirely distinct. 

The cultural characteristics of the Phil- 
ippine trypanosome are such as to distinguish 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



113 



it readily from T. hrucei, the cause of the 
South African tsetse-fly disease. This con- 
firms the work of Laveran and Mesnil on the 
non-identity of these two diseases and effectu- 
ally disproves the view held by some that the 
various trypanosomatic diseases are due to 
one and the same organism. 

The culture of T. hrucei is nearly but not 
quite as virulent as the material from an af- 
fected animal. Such virulent cultures, devel- 
oped at room temperature or at 25° C, when 
placed at 34° C. for two days lose their patho- 
genic properties ; and by means of such attenu- 
ated cultures it is possible to immunize a 
guinea-pig. This fact is of importance, since 
it may have a bearing upon the prevention of 
these diseases. 

It was further shown that cultures of T. 
lewisi at times contain very minute forms of 
the organism and that when such material is 
passed through a Berkefeld filter the resultant 
filtrate on inoculation into rats produces a 
typical infection. This goes to show that even 
a large protozoon may have a sufficiently small 
form, even if it is not ultra-microscopic, which 
can traverse the pores of a filter. 

Dr. ~NoYy was followed by Professor Lloyd, 
who read a paper on ' The History of Ethics.' 

The last meeting of the year was addressed 
by Dr. J. E. Duerden, who gave an account 
of his researches on the morphology and de- 
velopment of recent and fossil corals, and by 
Dr. Geo. A. Hulett, who read a paper detailing 
the results of his work on standard cells. 

The latter paper showed that the hydrolysis 
of mercurous sulfate (Hg^SOJ, the depolar- 
izer, has been worked out, and the effects of 
the hydrolytic products of the electromotive 
force of the cadmium cell determined. The 
author's method of preparing electrolytic mer- 
curous sulfate was described, as well as meth- 
ods of preventing hydrolysis in the setting up 
of the standard cells. The results indicate 
that the cells are reproducible with a variation 
of but a few parts in 100,000. The details 
will soon be published in an article on ' Mer- 
curous Sulfate in its Relation to the Standard 
Cells.' •Frederick 0. Newcombe, 

Secretary. 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB. 

The club met April 27, 1904. 

The first paper of the scientific program was. 
by Dr. N. L. Britton, on ' Explorations in 
Florida and the Bahamas.' This was illus- 
trated by maps and specimens, and described 
the general features of the flora of the region, 
of the part of subtropical Florida south of 
Miami, to which a visit of three weeks' dura- 
tion was made in March and early April with 
Mrs. Britton and Dr. M. A. Howe, in coopera- 
tion with Professor P. H. Rolfs, of the U. S. 
Subtropical Laboratory. A detailed account 
of the flora was not taken up, inasmuch as Dr.. 
John K. Small, who explored the same regiott 
last autumn, and who will again visit it in 
May, proposes to publish a complete account 
of the material secured. Two genera, new to 
the continent, both represented in Florida by 
a single species, were discovered, Alvaradoa in 
hammock lands and Sachsia in pine lands^ 
both of these genera existing also in Cuba and 
in the Bahamas. 

Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, of the Field Colum- 
bian Museum, joined the party early in April, 
and the Island of New Providence in the 
Bahamas was partially explored. The distri- 
bution of plants of this island was described, 
the littoral zone containing many common 
West Indian and Floridan species, of which 
the most characteristic are, perhaps, the shrubs 
Jacquinia Keyensis and Salmea, petrohioides 
the latter endemic in the Bahamas. 

Between the littoral zone and the interior 
regions of the island there is in places a plant 
society, which may be termed an intermediate 
one, characterized by such shrubs as Buxus. 
Baliamensis, Banara reticulata, Calliandra. 
formosa. 

The pine lands {Pinus Bahamensis) contain 
among other species, Pteridium caudaturriy 
Vernonia Bahamensis and Byrsonima lucida,. 
as characteristic species. The palmetto lands 
(apparently Inodes Palmetto) contain more 
herbaceous vegetation than the other regions 
including Lin,um Bahamensis, Sachsia Baha- 
mensis and Saiiatia campanulaia, though also 
having a considerable number of shrubs. The 
' eoppets ' or ' hammocks,' as they are called in 
Florida, are areas devoid of either pines or 



114 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



palmettos and often occupy isolated area^ 
entirely surrounded by pine forests as in 
southern Florida; characteristic trees of these 
hammocks are Dipholis salicifolia, Eugenia 
confiisa,, Icacorea paniculata and Gocolohis 
laurifolia, all of which occur in similar situa- 
tions in Florida. 

Dr. C. F. Millspaug'h, who was with Dr. 
Britton and remained somewhat longer, was 
asked to discuss the paper. He reported that 
plants found in bloom at the center of the 
island were found in fruit at the west end, 
while at the east end, which is dry and rocky, 
the buds of the same species were scarcely 
started. South Bemini is much like New 
Providence in vegetation, though its elevation 
is less. A Rhus resembling jB. toxicodendron 
was found on Cat Cay and there is an inter- 
esting palm on the same island. 

Inquiry was made concerning Groton Elu- 
teria, which is prized in West Indian countries 
as a bitter drug, but is said to be disappearing. 
The plant had not been seen, but a guide said 
that it grew on South Bemini. 

Professor Underwood called attention to 
Odontosoria clavata, which in Jamaica and 
Cuba grows in very wet places and is a soft 
tender plant, while in the Bahamas what is 
apparently the same species grows in dry pot- 
holes and is firmer and stronger. 

The second paper was by Dr. D. T. Mac- 
Dougal on ' Desert and Delta Vegetation of 
Sonora and Baja, California.' The Colorado 
Elver has been called the Nile of America. 
It flows 600 miles without tributaries and has 
a delta 150 to 200 miles long by 50 to 100 
miles broad. In this region is the most pro- 
nounced desert in the United States and prob- 
ably in America. The topography of the 
region may be described as a great basin with 
the Colorado River flowing along the eastern 
margin. The Salton basin is 400 feet below 
sea level and in times of unusual flood is trans- 
formed into a great lake by overflow of the 
Colorado River, the last such flood occurring 
in 1891, when part of the track of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad was under water. At one 
point in this basin there has been an elevation 
of mud volcanoes from ten- to fifty feet high, 
where there are hot sulphur springs. The dry 



season is from August to April or May. At 
the end of the wet season the Indians dig 
holes deep enough to get into and plant their 
corn and melons in these. The surface of 
the ground becomes very dry, but enough 
moisture is retained to mature the crops. 
Within a few yards of the river channels 
relative humidities of eleven, twelve or thirteen 
per cent, were observed. The temperature of 
the summer flood water is 45° to 55°, while the 
air temperatures are the highest to be found 
in the country, 100° to 125°. At the lower 
end of the delta is a region of brackish water. 

Distichlis spicata is widely distributed on 
the mud flats; the Mexican poplar, an uniden- 
tified willow and the mesquite were the trees 
observed, while the arrow-weed forms almost 
impenetrable thickets. Within the width of 
a few yards one passes from river vegetation 
to true desert. 

Ammohroma Sonoroe, described by Torrey, 
has a stem two to four feet long, all buried 
except the head. It is parasitic on Atriplex 
roots. A puff ball with the same form and 
similar appearance was found, but it was too 
brittle to stand carrying. 

The east coast of Baja, California, near the 
head of the Gulf, is supposed to be the driest 
spot in America. One half inch of rain only 
has been recorded at Yuma during 1903, and 
Palmer visited an island in the gulf in 1889 
which had no rain for a year and a half. 
Landings were made at three points, the 
farthest at San Felipe Bay, 55 miles below 
the river. Mr. Brandegee visited San Luis 
Bay once, but the San Felipe region was 
entirely unexplored by botanists. Here the 
coast rises by gradual slope to 500 feet 
and then by precipitous rocks to peaks, 
one of which is over 10,000 feet high. 
The seasons are evidently irregular and not 
clearly marked. Many of the plants have 
milky or resinous juice and many are aro- 
matic. Cereus Schottii was found forming 
dense groves near San Felipe. Living plants 
of what is probably Cereus Pecten-aboriginum 
were brought home. The Indian-comb cactus 
has a short trunk and long branches in con- 
trast to the usual form of C. giganteus. 

Although the plants are very sparse it is not 



jDiY 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



115 



to be supposed that they have a harder strug- 
,gle for existence than others, as is shown by 
trying to grow them under artificial condi- 
tions. Fouquieria splendens seems to reach 
its optimum development in the delta lands. 
Cactuses with sheathing spines were noted and 
some of these shed their spines. The flora is 
not Arizonian. In San Felipe there are no 
plants with storage organs, for there Ls no 
surplus of water to store. 

In the discussion it was mentioned that the 
poison cacti are all unarmed. 

Professor Underwood remarked on a speci- 
men of the southern brake sent from Burling- 
ton, Vt This form described in recent years 
as Pteris aquilina var. pseudocaudata by Clute, 
is the Pteris latiuscula Desv., described in 
1827. "William T. Horne, 

Secretary pro tern. 

SCIENCE CLUB, UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 

The last regular meeting of the club for 
the year 1903-4 was held May 20 in the 
chemical lecture room. 

Mr. H. E. Fulton read a paper the purpose 
of which was to give some account of the life 
histories and habits of the common mosqui- 
toes. It was stated that of the thirty species 
of mosquitoes occurring in North America, 
ten have been found in Mississippi. Atten- 
tion was directed particularly to three genera : 
Culex, Stegomyia and Anopheles. The first 
was said to be the most numerous and widely 
distributed, not, however, transmitting dis- 
ease, so far as known, and important chiefly 
because of the annoyance which it occasions. 
The second, found in many of the southern 
states and flourishing in the tropics, was 
charged with being certainly instrumental in 
the transmission of yellow fever. The last, 
also widely distributed, was said to convey 
malaria. 

The four distinct stages — egg, larva, pupa, 
adult — in the complete metamorphosis through 
which every mosquito passes in its develop- 
ment were fully treated, as, also, the peculiari- 
ties of size, shape, markings, movements, etc., 
which differentiate the three genera. 

Length of flight, local breeding places and 
the methods used by the author of the paper 



in attempting to check and exter:ninate mos- 
quitoes in this vicinity were dl?'-j.Lsed. 

In speaking of the movements of the larva 
of Gulex, Mr. Fulton stated that he had ob- 
served a movement of which he had found no 
mention, this being in a horizontal plane, 
taking place as the larva moves under the 
su'-face or over the bottom or through the 
intermediate water, unaccompanied by violent 
body-movements, and probably caused by rapid 
vibrations of the numero".:s hair-like processes 
covering the body. 

Dr. J. B. Bullitt added some remaiks on 
those mosquitoes which transmit malaria and 
yellow fever. Alfred Hume, 

Secretary. 

DI8GU88I0N AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

A CASE OF PLAGIARISM. 

To THE Editor of Science: In a note on 
' The Mechanism of the Mont Pelee Spine ' 
(Science, June 17, 1904), I say: 'So far as 
the literature has come to my attention, it 
has failed to include a factor which appears 
to me of prime importance,' etc. Through 
this sentence I claim originality, and pre- 
sumptive novelty, for an idea which I now 
know not to have been novel, and think not 
to have been original. The idea was pub- 
lished six months earlier by Dr. A. C. Lane 
in a note on ' Absorbed Gases and Vulcanism ' 
(Science, December 11, 1903). It is not neces- 
sary, in dealing with my friend Dr. Lane, that 
I disclaim intentional plagiarism, but, as I flnd 
interest in the mental process of my blunder, 
I venture to relate what I suppose to be its 
history. It is altogether probable that I read 
Dr. Lane's note when it appeared, but the 
mental impression it made was so faint that 
in re-reading it now I can not definitely re- 
member seeing it before. Nearly a haK year 
later an idea as to the Pelee spine occurred 
■ to me and I wrote it out for publication. 
While I supposed the idea original, there was 
in my mind a faint suspicion that the sug- 
gestion might have come from some outside 
source, and this suspicion led me to search 
all the literature of the spine that I could 
recall having seen — but I did not recall that 
Dr. Lane had made a contribution. Thus a 



116 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



mental impression too faint for complete iden- 
tification, now that attention is directed to it, 
nevertheless rose into consciousness with the 
semblance of a spontaneous idea, and gave 
rise to a distinctly plagiaristic publication. 

G. K. Gilbert. 
San Fbancisco, 
June 28, 1904. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 

THE ASCEKT OF WATER IN TREES. 

Recent discoveries by Vesque and E. B. 
Copeland and others have brought us very 
near the solution of this inveterate problem; 
but botanists seem agreed to halt at the last 



f' 



'Area a\ 



;Cross-5ec.l 



'4s<T. cm^ 



H 


i ■ 

n 
I 


/l033 \ 

/gTns.\ 


^^^^^^ 


^= 


-—^ — :_ 


_ — : — _ 



Hijdrostatic 
Pa. ad 



ox. 

step, awaiting some occult signal from the 
physicists. The old toy of the ' hydrostatic 
paradox ' ought to teach them that water 
pressed upwards by the atmosphere has no 
divine right to call a halt at 1,033 centimeters. 
One fluid may support and also elevate an- 
other fluid to any required height. Thus the 
supported weight in the annexed diagram may 
be represented by a column of water raised 
a mile high or more. The condition is 
that there shall be no immediate continuity 



of mass between the fluid to which the 
atmospheric pressure is applied, and that 
which is to be lifted. This condition is se- 
cured in the tree by the numerous transverse 
septa on its water-ducts, which prevent the 
transmission of air or water in mass, but per- 
mit a very free molecular diffusion of water, 
and of everything dissolved in it. 

Assuming the diameter of a water-duct to 
be half a millimeter, it is easy to estimate the 
weight supportable by a septum at its base; 
seeing that its upward parts are protected 
from other atmospheric pressure. The area 
of the cross-section of the basal part, in centi- 
meters, if multiplied by 1,033 (the height in 
centimeters of a column of water equaling 
the atmospheric pressure), gives 2.028 cubic 
centimeters, or the sam.e number of grams, 
as the load which the basal septum can sup- 
port. This load may be a column of water 
filling the whole duct for a height of 34 feet, 
or it might be a column or stream of water 
twelve times as high and only- one twelfth as 
large in cross-section. If the duct were filled 
with one part of water and eleven parts of air, 
the water and air together should be supported 
by the atniospheric pressure at the base to a 
height of about 403 feet. Assuming that 
there were in this course about 90 cross-septa, 
approximately equidistant, we should have a 
fall of pressure with each succeeding stage, 
equivalent to about one third of an inch of the 
mercurial barometer, reaching zero at the 
summit. 

The mechanism in the xylem-ducts, however, 
can not be of this kind ; because not only would 
the gas-bubbles obstruct the current if they 
came between it and the walls, but the spread- 
ing out of the pressure of the ascending cur- 
rent over the septa would cause the ' hydro- 
static paradox ' to work backwards with greatly 
increased force. This compels us to favor the 
view of interning the gas-bubbles within the 
water. Dr. MacDougal states that ' the 
cavity of a wood-cell contains a bubble of 
gas' C Plant-Physiology,' p. 29). And Stras- 
burger describes the water as freely streaming 
round the gas bubbles, or between them and 
the walls. This arrangement of water sur- 
rounding gas-bubbles constitutes what is 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



117 



known as foam; not, indeed, of the rough 
kind, but ' dressed ' so as to be in unison with 
the shape of the duct through which it must 
pass. It would take a great many hundreds 
of meters of such foam to weigh a kilogram to 
the square centimeter. Thus the atmospheric 
pressure at the base proves to be sufficient for 
the work to be done. Every change of equi- 
librium will cause a movement upwards of the 
water which is the only movable ingredient 
of the mixture. 

If we are correct in accepting the observa- 
tions that the water thus surrounds and en- 
closes the continuous or beaded air-globules 
(which must also have much vapor of water) 
not only is the streaming of the water ac- 
counted for, but also such phenomena as 
capillarity and diffusion, and occasional stasis 
reminding one of the phenomena of capillary 
circulation of blood. Also the correlation 
which Strasburger, Vesque and others have 
observed between the state of the barometer 
and the streaming within the xylem-ducts is 
explained; and possibly the pulsation of gas- 
bubbles which MacDougal regarded as helping 
to raise the water upwards. 

The condition of low apical pressure is se- 
cured by the activity of the leaves correlated 
■with the structure of the ducts. The leaves 
are not known to actively attract the water, 
but they always remove it as it arrives, 
turning it into starch, and transpiring it in 
great quantity. When they die or are 
stripped, the ascent of water ceases (though 
at lower parts of the stem bleeding may be 
thereby induced). Also in the leaves and 
downwards the water-ducts are protected from 
direct atmospheric pressure by their structure, 
having spiral threads, and bars and thick walls 
to prevent compression, and having their very 
tips roofed over by domes. Their pits with 
thin membranes permit diffusion sideways, 
into other ducts or into parenchyma ; and 
thus interchange is secured among the dif- 
ferent elements. The machine will not work 
if the walls are torn, but if they are whole, 
their being dead does not obstruct their ac- 
tion. The fact that trees become stag-headed 
from a loss of water proves a delicate adjust- 
ment, especially as the different species have 



their differemces of height and other idiosyn- 
crasies relatively to the phenomenon. 

The transverse septa of the water-ducts ap- 
pear to us to play a leading part in the process. 
Transmitting the water by diffusion and inter- 
cepting the gases, they constitute a series of 
chambers each having a number of immobile 
air-bubbles, and permitting the water to flow 
between these by the only channel which it 
can take. We do not know how thick is the 
stream, otherwise than by the deductive 
method given above, but it probably varies in 
thickness and rapidity relatively to the height 
and leafage of the tree; very lofty trees hav- 
ing little leafage, and yet having many water- 
duets. We think that the dynamical part of 
the problem is explainable mainly by the vis 
a tergo of the atmospheric pressure at the base. 

The tracheids of the giant conifers exhibit 
the same principle, by their bordered pits with 
a torus which is centrally thickened and is 
overarched by diaphragms. The torus is a 
relatively large flexible membrane, which 
transmits the whole pressure, and at the same 
time limits the quantum of water that can find 
a passage upwards. 

The air drops are not only obstructed by the 
septa, but they seem to keep apart within a 
section, as if we had a combination of the 
Jamin-theory with the osmotic functions of 
the septa. Each air-drop seems to have a 
shell which prevents its fusing with its neigh- 
bors, and thus the system becomes a sort of 
emulsion, like the fat-globules in milk. My 
colleague. Professor E. H. Loomis, who has 
aided me by criticizing the physical points, 
furnishes me with a striking illustration of 
this phenomenon. A bubble of air having 
got into one of his barometers, and being im- 
prisoned between the mercury and the glass, 
he let in other bubbles. But these carefully 
avoided it; and when their course seemed to 
indicate collision and fupion, they turned 
aside and passed round it, escaping contact. 
Another colleague tells me of a case in 
Kansas where the lives of a community were 
saved during a drouth by a rotten pump which 
admitted air as well as water and raised the 
mixture about 40 feet after the other pumps 
had given ovit. 



118 



SCIENCE. 



IN. S. Vol. XX. No. 490. 



The second diagrani represents the air- 
bubbles as gradually narrowing upwards. This 
accords with the theorem of Schwendener and 
Steinbrink, who held that the duets are ex- 



SeptTXTTb. 



SeTTvi - s eptxiTTV. 




Xylem-dxict. 

(diagraTUTnatic) 

ceedingly narrow at their tips. The same 
result is given from observations on the red 
beech by Hartig and Weber. Strasburger had 
previously shown that narrow ducts contain 
very little air, and have streaming water; 
whilst large ducts in tall stems have much air 
and usually little water. If we accept these 



data we find an extraordinary correlation. 
Through the length of a lofty stem are wide 
tubes, whose contents are a column of froth 
of the lightest kind, having a maximum of 
air in a very thin shell of water. In the 
region of the leafy spray the conditions are 
reversed, narrow ducts and a relatively heavy 
load; and hence the need of a high vacuum, 
which is secured by the curious structure and 
the proximity of the leaves. 

I am obliged to Professor MacDougal for 
referring me to Steinbrink's paper, and to 
Mr. Earle Anderson for drawing the diagrams. 



George MACLOsjiiE. 



Princeton Univeesitt, 
June 25, 1904. 



BOTANICAL NOTES. 



THE NUMBER AND WEIGHT OF COTTONAVOOD SEEDS. 

At my suggestion, one of my students, Mr. 
B. E. H. d'Ailemand, made careful counts 
and estimates as to the number and weight 
of the seeds of the cottonwood {Populus del- 
toides). Selecting a well-grown pistillate 
tree about forty feet in height with a trunk 
two feet in diameter, and a spreading top 
fully forty-five feet from side to side, he care- 
fidly divided it by an imaginary vertical 
plane into two equal parts. One of these 
halves he divided again in the same manner, 
and continued the process until he reached a 
branch small enough to enable him to count 
the number of catkins which it bore. It was 
found in this way that the tree bore about 
32,400 catkins. Then a number of careful 
counts were made of the seed pods in the cat- 
kins, by which it was found that the average 
number is about twenty-seven. The average 
number of seeds in the pods was easily de- 
termined by a series of counts to be thirty- 
two. From this it appears that this partic- 
ular tree produced the enormous number of 
nearly twenty-eight millions of seeds. 

One hundred seeds with their cottony fibers 
attached were then weighed upon a chemical 
balance. The result was .065 gram. So the 
weight of a single seed is .00065 gram, and 
the total weight of all the seeds on the tree 
18.3 kilograms, or almost exactly forty pounds. 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



119 



WEIGHT OF DANDELION-DOWN. 

How heavy is a dandelion-down with its 
achene as it floats away on the breeze? The 
tiny parachute is so constructed that the 
weight of the achene brings the spreading rays 
at the summit of the slender rod (rostrum) 
into the proper position for floating in the 
air, as any one may readily see for himself 
by ' blowing ' a seeding dandelion head in a 
quiet place. It makes no difference what the 
position of the parachute may be, as soon as 
it is free in the air the weight of the achene 
rights it at once. One who has not closely ob- 
served dandelions will be much interested 
in watching the quick ' righting ' of every 
little parachute under the action of the tiny 
achene weight. Recently it occurred to me 
to find out how heavy dandelion-downs are, 
and at my suggestion Mr. d'Allemand under- 
took the delicate task of weighing them. He 
found that there are about one hundred and 
ninety achenes in each dandelion head, and, 
carefully counting this number, he determined 
their aggregate weight to be .085 gram. From 
this it was easy to calculate the weight of a 
single achene to be .00044 gram. It takes 
more than two and a quarter millions of 
dandelion-downs to weigh a kilogram, and 
somewhat more than one million to weigh a 
pound. In other words each parachute weighs 
about one millionth of a pound ! 

TENDEILS OF VIRGINIA CREEPER. 

It is pretty generally knovra nowadays that 
some Virginia creepers cling to walls by dis- 
coid expansions of their tendril tips, while 
others produce twining tendrils without such 
expansions. Among gardeners there is a pretty 
general notion that there are two quite dis- 
tinct kinds, distinguished mainly by the pres- 
ence or absence of disks. This distinction has 
even been admitted into recent descriptive 
manuals, as in Britten's 'Manual,' where the 
disk bearing form is called Parthenocissus 
quinquefolia, and a form with ' tendrils mostly 
without terminal adhering disks ' is set off as 
the variety laciniata. 

In a recent popular article Professor Pam- 
mel gives his opinion that this difference as to 
the formation of disks is not constant with 



any particular plant, and in a subsequent let- 
ter cites the case of the planting of a disk- 
bearing Virginia creeper which later formed 
ordinary twining tendrils only. On smooth 
surfaces the disks are not produced. This 
agrees with the statement made by Goebel in 
his ' Organography of Plants ' (page 268, 
English edition) as follows: " Mohl was the 
first to show that the adhesive disks on the 
tendrils of certain species of Ampelopsis ap-, 
pear in consequence of contact with a firm 
body. We have here to do with a contact 
stimulus. Different species of Ampelopsis 
behave differently. Some, like A. hederacea, 
possess ordinary tendrils which twine round 
a support and eventually become firm, woody 
structures, but if they do not happen to find' 
a support they die off at an early period. 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, on the other hand, 
fixes itself to walls and tree trunks by means 
of adhesive disks on its tendrils, but these 
can also act like ordinary tendrils. In ten- 
drils which do not come in contact with a firm 
body no viscid disks appear." Making allow- 
ance for some confusion as to the identity of 
the species, it appears that Goebel regards the 
formation of disks as a result of a mechanical 
stimulus. There is need of a number of care- 
ful observations on this point in connection 
with one of the most widely grown of all orna- 
mental climbing plants. 

Charles E. Bessey. 
The Univeksity of Nebraska. 



FIELD WORK FOR 190.', OF THE DIVISION 

OF GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF 

THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL 

SURVEY. 

The field work of the division of geology 
and paleontology. United States Geological 
Survey, for the season of 1904 will cover in- 
vestigations in many states. Dr. C. Willard 
Hayes, geologist in charge of geology^ has 
general supervision of this work. Some of 
the most important of the numerous parties 
in the field are here mentioned. 

General Investigations. — Besides investiga- 
tions confined to the limits of one or two 
states, several lines of work will be taken up 
that will cover wide general areas. -The gla- 



120 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



cial geology of the United States will be 
studied by Professor T. C. Chamberlin, who 
will have the assistance of Messrs. E. D. Salis- 
bury, W. W. Atwood, F. H. H. Calhoun, Frank 
Leverett, W. C. Alden and F. W. Taylor. 
The glacial areas in the Rocky Mountain 
region will be carefully investigated by Pro- 
fessor Salisbury, assisted by Messrs. Atwood 
and Calhoun. A monograph on the Pleisto- 
cene formations of the lower peninsula of 
Michigan and adjacent portions of Indiana 
will be cdmpleted by Mr. Leverett. Mr. Alden 
will map portions of southeastern Wisconsin 
for folio publication. 

The pre-Cambrian and metamorphie geology 
of the United States will be studied under the 
direction of Professor C. E. Van Hise, who 
will also complete his report on the geology of 
the Lake Superior region. In this work he 
will be assisted by Messrs. C. K. Leith and 
W. N. Smith. He is also directed to con- 
tinue investigation of the metamorphie iron- 
ore deposits of the United States, particularly 
those of the Eocky Mountain and Great Basin 
region. 

Other general investigations covering sev- 
eral states will be conducted by Mr. E. C. 
Eckel. He will complete a study of the 
cement industry of the United States and 
prepare a report in which special attention 
will be paid to the geologic and economic re- 
lations of the industry. Mr. Eckel will also 
complete an investigation of the slate industry 
of the United States, directing the work of 
Professor A. H. Purdue in Arkansas and Pro- 
fessor T. N. Dale in Virginia, West Virginia, 
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Maine and Vermont. 

The Mississippi Valley. — Several states will 
be included in an investigation to be made by 
Mr. H. Foster Bain of the lead and zinc de- 
posits of the Mississippi Valley. He will 
make a special study of their genesis, geologic 
occurrence and economic importance. His 
specific task is to examine the lead and zinc 
deposits of the upper Mississippi district in 
Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin and to prepare 
a preliminary report upon this district. In 
addition he will examine certain copper de- 
posits in Shannon County, Missouri, associ- 
ated lead and zinc ores in St. Genevieve 



County and in the Mine Lamotte district, and 
the St. Clair and Granby mines in south- 
western Missouri. He is also directed to re- 
examine the more important lead and zinc 
mines of the western Kentucky district and to 
make a reconnaissance examination of the lead 
and zinc district of the Appalachian Valley 
in Virginia and Tennessee. Mr. E. O. Ulrich, 
who is directed to investigate the Silurian and 
Ordovician paleontology and stratigraphy of 
the northern Mississippi valley, will cooperate 
with Mr. Bain in the study of the lead and 
zinc deposits of that district. 

Alabama. — An areal and economic survey 
of the Brookwood quadrangle, Alabama, will 
be made by Mr. Charles Butts, who will be 
assisted by Mr. Hoyt S. Gale. They will 
probably also begin work upon the Jasper 
quadrangle, Alabama. 

Arhansas. — Professor A. H. Purdue will 
make an areal and economic survey of the 
Winslow quadrangle, Arkansas. If time per- 
mits, he will also make an economic investiga- 
tion of the developed slate deposits of Ar- 
kansas. 

California. — The areal geology of the Red- 
ding quadrangle, California, will be revised by 
Mr. J. S. Diller. He will also complete an 
areal and economic survey of the Indian Val- 
ley Special quadrangle, California. 

Mr. Arthur C. Spencer will cooperate with 
Mr. Waldemar Lindgren in making an in- 
vestigation of the economic geology of the 
Redding quadrangle, California. 

An areal and economic survey of the Tejon 
quadrangle, in southern California, will be 
made by Mr. George H. Eldridge. He will 
also make, for correlation purposes, the neces- 
sary reconnaissance examinations of regions 
adjacent to this quadrangle. 

The areal and economic survey of the Santa 
Cruz quadrangle, California, will be com- 
pleted by Dr. J. F. Newsom, who will be 
assisted by Dr. Ralph Arnold. 

Dr. G. K. Gilbert will continue his investi- 
gations of the glaciology and physiography 
of the High Sierras. 

Colorado. — Under the direction of Dr. Whit- 
man Cross, detailed areal mapping will be con- 
tinued in the San Juan region of Colorado. 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



121 



The Ouray quadrangle will be surveyed and 
the work extended as far as possible into the 
adjoining Lake City quadrangle. The survey 
of the Engineer Mountain quadrangle will 
also be completed. Dr. Cross will have the 
assistance of Messrs. Ernest Howe, W. H. 
Emmons and Albert Johannsen. 

Mr. J. E. Spurr will begin an investigation 
of the areal and economic geology of certain 
mining districts in Colorado, chiefly in Gilpin 
and Clear Creek counties. Mr. Spurr will 
be assisted by Messrs. Sydney H. Ball, George 
H. Garrey and Oscar H. Hershey. 

Mr. S. F. Emmons will complete his mono- 
graph on the geology of the Leadville mining 
district and Dr. J. D. Irving will make an 
investigation of the ore deposits of the Ouray 
district. 

Delaware. — The Cretaceous and Tertiary 
formations of Delaware will be investigated 
by Professor William B. Clark. 

Florida. — Mr. George H. Eldridge will com- 
plete field work in the phosphate district of 
Florida and prepare a final report on the re- 
gion. 

Georgia. — A thorough revision of the areal, 
structural and economic geology of the Car- 
tersville special and Cartersville regular quad- 
rangles, Georgia, will be made by Mr. Lau- 
rence LaForge. Preliminary work will be done 
in the Dahlonega district by Mr. Arthur Keith. 

Idaho. — The areal and economic survey of 
the Cceur d'Alene mining district, Idaho, will 
be completed by Dr. F. L. Eansome. Special 
attention will be given to the ore deposits. 
Such reconnaissance examinations of the ad- 
joining regions as may be deemed necessary 
will be made. Mr. F. C. Calkins will assist 
Dr. Eansome in this work. 

Indian Territory. — Areal and economic sur- 
veys of the Sansbois, McAlester, Tuskahoma 
and Windingstair quadrangles, Indian Terri- 
tory, will be made by Mr. J. A. Taff. Mr. E. 
O. Ulrich will cooperate with him in deter- 
mining the stratigraphic succession in Indian 
Territory. 

Kansas. — Mr. F. C. Schrader will make an 
areal and economic survey of the Independence 
quadrangle, Kansas. He will be assisted by 
Professor Erasmus Haworth, who will pay 



special attention to the investigation of the 
underground structure and its relation to the 
accumulation of oil and gas. 

Louisiana and Texas. — Professor N. M. Fen- 
neman will make an economic investigation of 
the oil fields of the gulf coastal plain of Texas 
and Louisiana. 

Maine. — Dr. George Otis Smith will, with 
the assistance of Messrs. E. S. Bastin and 0. 
"W. Brown, continue the survey of the Penob- 
scot Bay quadrangle in Maine. Dr. Smith 
will also exercise general supervision over 
geologic work in New England and the crys- 
talline belt of New York and New Jersey. 

Maryland. — Acting in cooperation with the 
Maryland State Geological Survey, Professor 
William B. Clark will continue areal and 
economic surveys in Maryland for the prepa- 
ration of geologic folios. 

Massachusetts. — Professor B. K. Emerson 
will continue his investigation of the areal 
and structural geology of central Massachu- 
setts. 

Mississippi. — In cooperation with the divi- 
sion of hydrology, Mr. E. C. Eckel, assisted 
by Mr. A. F. Crider, will prepare a report on 
the geology and the water resources of Missis- 
sippi. 

Missouri. — The Silurian and Ordovician 
paleontology of central Missouri will be in- 
vestigated by Mr. E. 0. Ulrich, who will work 
in cooperation with the state survey. The 
lead and zinc deposits of the state will be 
examined by Dr. H. F. Bain. 

Montana. — Mr. W. H. Weed will complete 
the preparation of a report on the Butte 
mining district. 

New Jersey. — In cooperation with Messrs. 
N. H. Darton and W. B. Clark, Dr. Florence 
Bascom will make an areal survey of the pre- 
Paleozoic formations of the Trenton quad- 
rangle. New Jersey, in preparation for the 
Trenton folio. Dr. Bascom will also complete 
the mapping of the Paleozoic, pre-Paleozoic 
and Pleistocene formations in the Burlington, 
Lambertsville, Bordentown and Princeton 
quadrangles. 

Professor W. S. Bayley will complete the 
mapping of the crystalline rocks of the Rari- 
tan quadrangle. New Jersey. He will also 



122 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No, 499. 



make an areal, economic and structiu-al sur- 
vey of the crystalline rocks of the Delaware 
Water Gap, Easton and AUentown quad- 
rangles, in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

A thorough field revision of the areal and 
economic geology of the Franklin Furnace 
quadrangle, 'New Jersey, will be made by Dr. 
A. C. Spencer, who will also prepare a report 
on the economic geology of the district. Dr. 
Spencer will cooperate with Professor J. E. 
Wolff in the preparation of the Franklin 
Furnace folio. 

New York. — ^Professor E. S. Tarr will com- 
plete his investigation of the Pleistocene geol- 
ogy of the Watkins Glen quadrangle, ISTew 
York, and will prepare the Pleistocene section 
for the Watkins Glen folio. He will also in- 
vestigate the Pleistocene geology of the Har- 
ford-Owego quadrangle, New York, and pre- 
pare the Harford-Owego folio in cooperation 
with Professor H. S. Williams. 

Professor Williams, assisted by Dr. E. M. 
Kindle, will make an areal and economic sur- 
vey of the quadrangle that embraces the Dry- 
den, Harford, Owego and Appalachian quad- 
rangles. New York. 

Professor J. F. Kemp will continue the 
areal and economic survey of the eastern part 
of the Adirondack region. 

Nevada. — Mr. J. E. Spurr will visit the 
Tonopah district, Nevada, some time during 
the summer, in order to make a final revision 
of his conclusions before publishing the report 
on the Tonopah ore deposits on which he has 
been at work for the last year. 

North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee 
and Georgia. — Mr. Arthur Keith will com- 
plete areal and economic surveys of the Mount 
Mitchell, Nantahala, Cowee, Pisgah, Roan 
Mountain and Morganton quadrangles, in 
North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennes- 
see, with a view to the preparation of geologic 
folios. Assisted by Mr. Hoyt S. Gale, he will 
make a reconnaissance of the Hickory, Pick- 
ens, Walhalla and Dahlonega quadrangles. 
North Carolina and Georgia. Dr. W. Lind- 
gren, assisted by Mr. L. C. Graton, will make 
a preliminary investigation of the mineral 
resources, particularly gold and tin, in several 



counties of the northeastern part of South 
Carolina. 

Ohio and West Virginia. — A revision of the 
Cadiz-Steubenville quadrangles in Ohio and 
West Virginia will be made by Mr. M. E. 
Campbell, who will prepare the Cadiz-Steu- 
benville folio in cooperation with Mr. W. T. 
Griswold. 

Pennsylvania. — Mr. M. E. Campbell will re- 
vise the mapping of the Slatington quadrangle, 
Pennsylvania, for the preparation of the 
Slatington folio. In cooperation with the 
state of Pennsylvania, he will also survey for 
folio publication the Amity, Eogersville, Bur- 
gettstown and Claysville, quadrangles. In this 
work he will have the assistance of Messrs. 
W. T. Griswold and F. C. Clapp. 

The Trenton limestones of eastern Pennsyl- 
vania and their continuation into New Jersey 
will be mapped by Mr. E. S. Bassler for the 
purpose of furnishing information to Mr. E. 
C. Eckel that may be of assistance to him in 
the preparation of his report on the cement 
resources of the United States. 

In cooperation with Messrs. N. H. Darton 
and W. B. Clark, Dr. Florence Bascom will 
complete the field work and prepare for publi- 
cation the Philadelphia special folio. 

Texas. — Mr. E. C. Eckel will visit north- 
eastern Texas, particularly Marion, Cass, 
Morris, Camp, Harrison and Upshur counties, 
for the purpose of making a reconnaissance 
examination of iron-ore deposits and deter- 
mining the areas in which topographic and 
geologic work can most advantageously be 
taken up next year. 

Utah. — Mr. J. M. Boutwell will complete an 
investigation of the mining geology of the 
Park City district, Utah. He will also make 
a reconnaissance of the areal, stratigraphic 
and structural geology of the western portion 
of the Uinta Mountains. Mr. Lester H. Wool- 
sey will assist him. 

Vermont. — Areal and economic surveys will 
be made in western Vermont by Professor T. 
Nelson Dale. 

West Virginia. — Dr. George H. Ashley, as- 
sisted by Mr. W. C. Phalen, will make areal 
and economic surveys of the Nicolas quad- 
rangle. West Virginia. 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



123 



Mr. George W. Stose will complete the areal 
and economic surveys on the Pawpaw and 
Hancock quadrangles, in West Virginia and 
Maryland. He will be assisted by Mr. E. F. 
Burchard. 

Wisconsin. — Professor U. S. Grant will 
make an areal and economic survey of the 
Mineral Point quadrangle, Wisconsin. The 
work will probably be done in cooperation 
with the state survey of Wisconsin. 



BABON TOLL. 

Prince Ejiopotkin contributes to the last 
number of the Geographical Journal an ac- 
count of the return of the expedition sent to 
search for Baron Toll, under the direction of 
Lieutenant Kolchak. There appears to be 
little hope that Baron Toll and Dr. Seeberg 
have survived. The last news from them is a 
letter found in Bennett Island and dated No- 
vember 8, 1902. It is as follows : 

In company with the astronomer, F. G. 
Seeberg, and two hunters, the Tungus 
Nicholas Diakonoff and the Yakut Vassili 
GorokhofF, on June 7, I left the winter har- 
bor of the Zarya (Nerpichiya Bay of Kotelnyi 
Island). We followed the northern coasts of 
Kotelyni and Thadeeff Islands, keeping our 
course towards Cape Visoki on New Siberia. 
On June 13 I took the course towards Bennett 
Island. The ice was pretty broken. On 
June 25, three miles from Cape Visoki, the ice 
was definitely broken. Preparing to take to 
our haidaras [leather boats], we killed our 
last dogs. From here we were carried on an 
ice-floe, for four and a half days, 48 miles in 
the desired direction. Then, having noticed 
that our ice-floe had drifted 10 miles south- 
wards, we left it on July 31, and after having 
covered the remaining 23 miles in our hai- 
daras, landed on August 3 on Bennett Island, 
at Cape Emma. 

According to the survey of Seeberg, who 
has also determined the magnetical elements 
both here and on the journey — in ten places in 
all — Bennett island is a plateau, not higher 
than 1,500 feet. By its geological structure 
it appears as a continuation of the plateau 
of Middle Siberia, which is built up, here also, 
of very ancient marine deposits (Cambrian), 



pierced by irruptions of basalt. In places one 
finds, under the sheets of basalt, deposits of 
brown coal with relics of vegetation, namely 
conifers. In the valleys of the island, bones 
of mammoths and other Quaternary-period 
animals, washed out of the deposits, are found 
occasionally. 

As to the present inhabitants of Bennett 
Island, they are, besides the temporary visitor, 
the walrus, the polar bear and the reindeer. 
A herd of some thirty of the latter wandered 
on the rocky feeding-ground of the island. 
We fed upon them, and made out of their 
skins the fur cloth and the boots required for 
the winter journey. The following birds stay 
here : two species of Somateria, one sandsnipe, 
one bullfinch and five species of gulls, inclu- 
ding the roseate one. 

As for migratory birds, we saw one eagle 
which flew south to north, one falcon which 
flew north to south, and geese whose flock 
went also north to south. Owing to fogs, we 
could not see the land wherefrom these birds 
came; neither could we see Sannikoff's Land, 
any more than during our last navigation. 

We are going to leave here the following 
instruments: a reflecting circle with artificial 
horizon, a Krause's inclinator, the anemom- 
eter, the photographic apparatus ' ISTorah,' and 
some others. 

To-day we are going southwards. We have 
provisions for fourteen to twenty days. All 
in good health. 76° 38' N. lat, 149° 42' E. 
long. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

Lord Kelvin celebrated his eightieth birth- 
day on June 26. 

Mr. W. H. M. Christie, the astronomer 
royal, and Sir David Gill, of the Cape Ob- 
servatory, have been elected corresponding 
members of the Paris Bureau des Longitudes. 

The University of Manchester has conferred 
the doctorate of science on Professor Bohuslav 
Brauner, Ph.D., of the Czech University of 
Prague, Mr. Ludwig Mond, F.E.S., and Mr. 
W. H. Perkin. Professor Dixon, in making 
the presentations, said Dr. Brauner was an 
old student of this university, and one of 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



Mendeleef's most distinguished disciples. Dr. 
Mond had almost realized the dream, of the 
alchemist of transmuting common things into 
gold. Dr. Perkin had extracted from coal tar 
a whole spectrum of colors, and was, since 
Faraday's time, the man who had followed 
most deeply the vibrations of light as they 
penetrate molecules. 

M. A. Chauveau, professor at the Paris 
Museum of Natural History, has been elected 
director of the Marey Institute for Physiology 
in the room of the late M. Marey. 

The Scottish Geographical Society has 
awarded its Livingstone gold medal to Com- 
mander Eobert Scott, leader of the British 
Antarctic Expedition, and the society's gold 
medal to Mr. W. S. Bruce, leader of the Scot- 
tish Antarctic Expedition. 

Proeessor Ernest F. Nichols, of the de- 
partment of physics in Columbia University, 
has sailed for Europe and will spend next 
year in work at Cambridge, Berlin and Paris. 

Miss W. J. Robinson, instructor in biology 
in Vassar College, and Miss M. M. Brackett 
have gone to the Cinchona Laboratory of the 
New York Botanical Garden to carry out some 
embryological investigations. Mr. G. W. 
Collins, of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Mr. Wm. R. Maxon, of the U. S. 
National Museum, and Mr. Louis Agassiz 
Fuertes, of Ithaca, New York, have also re- 
cently carried out certain studies at Cinchona. 

Professor Clara E. Cummings, of Wellesley 
College, has been granted a sabbatical year, 
which will be spent in resting and studying 
the tropical flora. Associate Professor Furgu- 
son will have charge of the department for 
the year. 

Professor James Geikie has been elected 
president of the Scottish Geographical Society 
in succession to Sir John Murray. 

An Association for the Relief, Control and 
Prevention of Tuberculosis has been estab- 
lished at Newport, R. L, with Mr. Robert 
Frame as president. 

Dr. W. Schottler, of Maintz, has been ap- 
pointed geologist in the Geological Institute 
at Darmstadt. 



Lord Avebury was reelected president of the 
Ray Society at the annual meeting on June 9. 
The other ofiicers are: Vice-Presidents, Dr. 
R. Braithwaite, Mr. A. D. Michael and Lord 
Walsingham, F.E.S. ; Treasurer, Dr. DuCane 
Godman, F.R.S. ; and Secretary, Mr. John 
Hopkinson. 

Mr. Francis Edward Macmahon, inventor 
of the telegraph tape machine known as the 
' ticker,' died in England on July 5. He 
served in the United States navy during the 
civil war, and was in Admiral Farragut's flag- 
ship at the taking of New Orleans. Subse- 
quently he settled in England, and of late 
years patented many inventions, ranging from 
a tap to a chainless bicycle. 

The United States Civil Service Commis- 
sion announces an examination on July 2Y, 
1904, to secure eligibles from which to make 
certification to fill a vacancy in the position 
of mechanician in the Bureau of Standards, 
at $900 per annum, and other similar vacan- 
cies as they may occur in that bureau. No 
educational test will be given, and it will not 
be necessary for applicants to appear at any 
place for examination. The appointee must 
have had five years' shop experience, two of 
which must have been spent in a shop in which 
scientific instruments were constructed. 

Professor M. Ascoli, president of the Asso- 
ciazione Elettrotecnica Italiana, writes to the 
Electrical World that no fewer than 41 mem- 
bers have already formally engaged themselves 
for the trip to America, arriving in two 
parties about August 24-25. The official rep- 
resentatives will be Professor Ascoli and the 
two vice-presidents, Professor G. Brasi, of 
Turin, and Professor L. Lombardi, of Naples. 
The delegates of the Italian Government to 
the Electrical Congress will be Professor 
Ascoli on behalf of the Ministry of Posts and 
Telegraphs, and Professor Lombardi, for the 
Ministry of Public Instruction. 

The Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation states that the date set for the next 
session of the American Medical Association 
is July 11-14, 1905. This date has been de- 
cided on after considerable correspondence. 
The holiday season for the majority of medical 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



125 



men is from about the first week in July to 
September, and the schools have by that time 
all closed. Most of those who live in the 
east will want to utilize the trip to the associa- 
tion meeting as their summer vacation, and 
if the dat« were that usually adopted for the 
association meeting, these would not be able 
to attend. In July Portland has a delightful 
climate, and consequently there need be no 
fear of hot weather. 

We also learn from the Journal of the 
American Medical Association that the Ameri- 
can Society of Tropical Medicine has been in- 
corporated in Philadelphia. The officers are : 
President, Dr. Thomas H. Penton, Philadel- 
phia; vice-presidents, Dr. James Anders, Phil- 
adelphia, and Dr. I. G. Kinyon, Glenolden, Pa. ; 
secretary. Dr. Joseph McParland, Philadel- 
phia; assistant secretary. Dr. John M. Swan, 
Philadelphia; treasv/rer. Dr. Wharton Sinkler; 
council : Drs. E. G. Curtin, Judson Daland, 
Allen J. Smith, and W. M. L. Coplin. The 
men elected to honorary membership for valu- 
able research work in the prevention of 
tropical diseases are: Surgeon-General Will- 
iam H. Porwood ; Rear- Admiral Surgeon P. M. 
Eixey, Dr. Walter Wyman, Sir Patrick Man- 
son of England, Dr. A. Laveran of the 
Pasteur Institute, France; Professor Robert 
Koch, Germany; Professor Charles J. Martin, 
Sydney, N. S. W. ; Professor Aristides Agra- 
monte, University of Havana, Cuba ; Dr. Fred- 
erick Montazambert, chief health officer of the 
Dominion of Canada ; Professor Kitasato, 
University of Tokio, and Professor Eduardo 
Liceaga, head of the department of health, 
Mexico. 

. The Board of Estimate of New York City 
has appropriated $10,000 to pay the expenses 
of a commission of medical experts to pass on 
the question whether or not pneumonia is a 
contagious disease. 

The Emperor Francis Joseph laid on June 
21 the foundation stone of the new General 
and University Hospital for Vienna, to re- 
place the old general hospital built 120 years 
ago. 

It is announced that if sufficient support 
can be secured it is intended to publish from 



the office of The Journal of Medical Research, 
Boston, an atlas of bacterial infections in 
man. It will consist of one hundred plates — 
a few in color — with descriptive text. The 
reproductions will be ten by twelve inches, a 
large number of them with but one figure on 
a plate, printed on heavy paper and in the best 
manner. The volume will be furnished bound 
in half morocco, and copies will be numbered, 
for the edition will be limited. The price will 
be ten dollars delivered free in the United 
States and Canada. The authors will be Dr. 
H. C. Ernst, professor of bacteriology in the 
Harvard Medical School, and Dr. S. B. Wol- 
bach, first assistant resident pathologist to the 
Boston City Hospital. 

Mr. W. W. Canada, consul at Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, writes that an agitation has been on 
foot for some time looking to the passage of 
a law to prevent the wanton destruction of 
birds throughout Mexico; in fact, a proposed 
law has already been presented to the govern- 
ment by the Association for the Protection of 
Birds, and it is confidently expected that it 
will meet the approval of the executive. This 
law is intended to prevent the killing of cer- 
tain classes of birds useful to the agriculturist. 
Other kinds, such as for instance game birds, 
may be killed only at stated periods of the 
year. All birds of prey, and others destructive 
to the interests of the farmer, may be killed 
at any time and by anybody. Such a law, if 
rigidly enforced, can not fail to be of great 
benefit to the people of the United States, as 
for instance in the case of migratory birds 
that winter in Mexico, or even farther south, 
and that return to the north in the proper 
season if not killed off in the meantime. 

A Wild Birds Protection Acts Amendment 
(St. Kilda) Bill has been introduced in the 
British parliament by Sir Herbert Maxwell. 
To it is prefixed the following explanatory 
memorandum : " By section 9 of the Wild 
Birds Protection Act, 1880, it was provided 
that the operation of that act should not ex- 
tend to the island of St. Kilda. The object 
of this bill is by extending the protection 
afforded by that act to St. Kilda to provide 
means for saving the St. Kilda wran and other 



126 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



birds, whieli are becoming rare from tLe ex- 
term.ination with whicli they are threatened. 
It is proposed to exempt certain birds from 
the schedule to the act of 1880 as being re- 
quired for the support of the inhabitants of 
the island." Protection is given by the bill 
to the fork-tailed petrel, in addition to the 
St. Kilda wren, and the birds to be exempted 
from the schedule of the act of 1880, so far 
as regards the island of St. Kilda, are the 
fulmar, gannet, guillemot, puffin and razorbill. 

In the Hawaiian Islands it is now recog- 
nized that forest preservation is a matter of 
great and immediate importance to the lead- 
ing economic interests of the territory. The 
chief agricultural interest of the islands is 
sugar growing. In 1903 the exported sugar 
was valued at $25,310,684, or 96 per cent, of 
the total exports. The supply of water on 
which successful cane cultivation depends 
comes to a large extent from the forested 
higher slopes of the mountains, above the 
plantations. But the situation is complicated 
by the fact that cattle raising, which in eco- 
nomic importance stands second only to the 
sugar industry, depends largely on the use of 
the forest for range, and overgrazing has been 
the principal cause of injury to the water- 
holding power of the wooded area. As a pre- 
liminary to the formulation of a policy in the 
interest of the islands as a whole, the territory 
a year ago asked for an examination of the 
whole question on the ground by an agent of 
the United States Department of Agriculture. 
The report of Mr. William L. Hall, of the 
Bureau of Forestry, who made the examina- 
tion, is now being printed as Bulletin No. 48, 
' The Forests of Hawaii.' Both from a scien- 
tific and practical standpoint it gives much 
information concerning these Hawaiian for- 
ests and their uses. The conflict of interests 
between the cattlemen and the sugar planters 
is evident, but need not seriously menace re- 
habilitation of the forests. The cattle-men in 
many instances desire the forests for pastur- 
age. The planters rightly contend for the in- 
tact forest with perfect floor cover to secure 
the greatest possible storage of water for the 
supply of growing crops. But the clashing of 



interests is happily reduced by other condi- 
tions, chief of which is that sugar growing is 
the great sustaining industry and the domi- 
nant source of income. An additional potent 
fact is that many cattle raisers are also sugar 
growers, and their double interests compel 
them to take the broadest view of the needs 
of the islands as a whole. The Bureau of 
Forestry has supplied the islands with a for- 
ester, and is actively cooperating with the 
territorial authorities in all matters of policy. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission re- 
ports that the total number of casualties to 
persons on the railways of the United States 
for the year ending June 30, 1903, was 86,393, 
of which 9,S40 represented the number of per- 
sons killed and 76,553 the numbered injured. 
Casualties occurred among three general 
classes of railway employees, as follows : Train- 
men, 2,070 killed and 25,676 injured, switch 
tenders, crossing tenders, and watchmen, 283 
killed, 2,352 injured; other employees, 1,253 
killed, 32,453 injured. The casualties to em- 
ployees coupling and uncoupling ears were, 
employees killed, 281 ; injured, 3,551. For the 
year 1902 the corresponding figures were, 
killed, 167; injured, 2,864. The casualties 
connected with coupling and uncoupling cars 
are assigned as follows : Trainmen killed, 211 ; 
injured, 3,023 ; switch tenders, crossing tenders 
and watchmen killed, 57; injured, 416; other 
employees killed, 13 ; injured, 112. The casu- 
alties due to falling from trains, locomotives 
or cars in motion were : Trainmen killed, 440 ; 
injured, 4,191 ; switch tenders, crossing tenders 
and watchmen killed, 39; injured, 461; other 
employees killed, 72; injured, 536. The casu- 
alties due to jumping on or off trains, loco- 
motives or cars in motion were: Trainmen 
killed, 101; injured, 3,133; switch tenders, 
crossing tenders and watchmen killed, 15 ; in- 
jured, 279 ; other employees killed, 82 ; injured, 
508. The casualties to the same three classes 
of employees in consequence of collisions and 
derailments were : Trainmen killed, 648 ; in- 
jured, 4,526, switch tenders, crossing tenders 
and watchmen killed, 17; injured, 137; other 
employees killed, 128 ; injured, 743. The num- 
ber of passengers killed in the course of the 



July 22, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



127 



years 1903 was 355, and the number injured 
8,231. In the previoxis year 345 passengers 
were killed and 6,683 injured. There were 
173 passengers killed and 4,584 injured be- 
cause of collisions and derailments. The total 
number of persons, other than employees and 
passengers, killed was 5,879; injured, 7,841. 
These figures include the casualties to persons 
classed as trespassing, of whom 5,000 were 
killed and 5,079 were injured. The total num- 
ber of casualties to persons other than em- 
ployees from being struck by trains, locomo- 
tives or cars, were 4,534 killed and 4,029 in- 
jured. The casualties of this class were as 
follows: At highway crossings, passengers 
killed, 3 ; injured, 7 ; other persons killed, 895 ; 
injiired, 1,474; at stations, passengers killed, 
24; injured, 108; other persons killed,' 390; 
injured, 501; at other points along track, pas- 
sengers killed, 8; injured, 14; other persons 
killed, 3,214; injured, 1,925. The ratios of 
casualties indicate that 1 employee in every 
364 was killed, and 1 employee in every 22 was 
injured. With regard to trainmen — that is, 
enginemen, firemen, conductors and other 
trainmen — it appears that 1 trainman was 
killed for every 123 employed, and 1 was in- 
jured for every 10 employed. One passenger 
was killed for every 1,957,441 carried, and 1 
injured for every 84,424 carried. With respect 
to the number of miles traveled, however, the 
figures show that 58,917,645 passenger-miles 
were accomplished for each passenger killed, 
and 2,541,096 passenger-miles for each pas- 
senger injured. 

The council and ofiicers of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers gave a dinner on June 19 
at the Grand Hotel to the president. Sir 
William H. White. Among those present 
were Sir Guilford L. Molesworth (in the 
chair). Lord Kelvin, Sir Benjamin Baker, 
Professor Sir James Dewar and Sir William 
H. Preece. 

The Paris papers of June 22 publish ac- 
counts of the ' le fete du soleil ' — a sort of 
modern sun-worship function held in the Eiffel 
tower in Paris on the night of June 21. Le 
Matin of June 22 says that M. Janssen was 
the high priest of the occasion, and that an 



address ' d'une eSrayante erudition ' was de- 
livered by M. Flammarion. At half past 
twelve the assemblage mounted to the summit 
of the tower to ' assist ' at the rising of the 
sun. The paper remarks that " the cere- 
mony was a calm and dignified one which the 
moon lit up without jealousy. For though 
it be stoutly and most learnedly afiirmed that 
there was no night, it is none the less true 
that if one could see clearly it was on account 
of the moon, not to mention electricity." 

It is stated in Nature that the twenty- 
second congress of the Sanitary Institute will 
be held in Glasgow from July 25-30, under 
the presidency of Lord Blythswood. Sir 
Richard Douglas Powell, Bart., K.C.V.O., will 
deliver the lecture to the congress on ' The 
Prevention of Consumption.' It appears from 
the program that 250 authorities, including 
several county councils and county boroughs, 
have already appointed delegates to the con- 
gress, and as there are more than 3,300 mem- 
bers and associates in the institute, there will 
probably be a large attendance in addition to 
the local members. In cormection with the 
congress, a health exhibition of apparatus and 
appliances relating to health and domestic use 
will be held as practical illustration of the 
application and carrying out of the prin- 
ciples and methods discussed at the meetings. 
Popular lectures will be given in the ex- 
hibition on physical development, by Dr. 
P. Boobbyer; care of eyesight, by Dr. 
James Kerr; care of the teeth, by Mr. 
G. Cunningham; feeding and digestion, by 
Professor A. Bostock Hill ; and healthy houses, 
by Professor H. E. Kenwood. The sections 
and their presidents are : (1) Sanitary science 
and preventive medicine. Professor J. Glaister ; 
(2) engineering and architecture. Professor 
H. Eobinson; (3) physics, chemistry and biol- 
ogy. Professor Frank Slowes. There will be 
eight special conferences, the subjects and 
presidents of which will be as follows: Mu- 
nicipal representatives, Mr. W. F. Anderson; 
industrial hygiene, Mr. J. Steele; medical 
officers of health. Sir C. A. Cameron, C.B.; 
engineers and surveyors to county and other 
sanitary authorities, Mr. W. Weaver; veterin- 



128 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 499. 



ary inspectors. Professor James McCall; sani- 
tary inspectors, Mr. T. F. Strutt; women on 
hygiene, the Duchess of Montrose ; the hygiene 
of school life. Professor John Edgar. 



VSIYEK8ITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 
We learn from the London Times that the 
Schunck Laboratory, bequeathed to Owens Col- 
lege by the late Dr. Schunck, who had in his 
lifetime endowed the college with £20,000 on 
behalf of chemical research, has been removed 
from his residence at Kersal and rebuilt in 
the college precincts as nearly as possible in 
its original form. It comprises two floors and 
a basement, with the most modern appliances, 
also a valuable library and a collection of 
coloring matter, natural and artificial. Dr. 
Perkin, who assisted Dr. Schunck in the de- 
velopment of alizarin, performed the ceremony 
of opening the laboratory in its new home on 
July 1. Mrs. Schunck presented, through her 
son Mr. Charles Schunck, a medallion portrait 
of her late husband, which has been placed in 
the laboratory. 

Members of the graduating class of Har- 
vard University expect to pursue work as 
follows : 

Business 128 

Law 121 

Teaching 68 

Scientific pursuits 68 

Medicine 20 

Railroading , 14 

Architects 12 

Ministry 8 

Journalism 7 

The fact that ten times as many students 
expect to follow scientific pursuits as will 
enter the ministry witnesses a great change 
that has taken place within recent years. 

The relation that 'the evolutionary theory as 
originally laid down by Darwin has come to 
have in what would once have been regarded 
as widely removed fields was specially consid- 
ered by the zoological department of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan the second half of this 
college year. The course was supplementary 
to the course on organic evolution, and aimed 



to give a critical appreciation of the develop- 
ment of the evolution theory since Darwin, 
and of the bearing of that development on 
various fields of knowledge. The theory of 
evolution has so profoundly influenced psychol- 
ogy, ethics and social science, to say nothing 
of other subjects, that an acquaintance with 
the ground and import of this theory is a 
necessary part of the equipment of the student 
in any of these fields, as well as of the biol- 
ogist, who has an interest in the broader as- 
pects of his work. It was the purpose of the 
course to give the student the necessary basis 
for appreciating in some degree the import of 
biology. Somewhat more than half the time 
was devoted to organic evolution, particularly 
to its post-Darwinian developments, while the 
remainder was devoted to the evolution of the 
behavior of the lower animals and of man, 
and to social and ethical evolution. The 
course was conducted by different members of 
the zoological staff, each dealing with those 
aspects of the subject to which he has devoted 
especial attention. 

At the June meeting of the trustees of 
Western Reserve University the following 
appointments were made in the Medical De- 
partment: Torald Sollman, professor of phar- 
macology and materia medica; Frederick 
Clayton Waite, associate professor of histology 
and embryology; Roger G. Perkins, assistant 
professor of bacteriology and pathology ; Percy 
W. Cobb, demonstrator in physiology; E. D. 
Brown, demonstrator in pharmacology and 
materia medica; J. B. Austin, demonstrator in 
histology and embryology. The following 
gifts were received during the year : For the 
endowment of Harry Willson Payne Professor- 
ship, $100,000; for the Adolph Cudell Library 
fund, $200; for current budget expenses, 
$5,000. 

Professor Howard J. Banker, of the South- 
western Normal College of Pennsylvania has 
been elected professor of biology in DePauw 
University at Greencastle, Indiana. • 

Professor Georg Gaffky, professor in the 
University of Giessen, has accepted a call to 
occupy the chair vacant through the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Robert Koch, in the University of 
Berlin. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Friday, July 29, 1904. 



CONTENTS: 
The Moscly Educational Commission: Peo- 
FESSOE Henkt E. Aemstbong 129 

John Bell Hatcher: Professoe W. B. Scott. . 139 

Scientific Books: — 

Ball on Adolescence: Peofessok Edwaed 

L. Thokjstdike 142 

Scientific Journals and Articles 145 

Societies and Academies: — ■ 

The Torrey Botanical Club: William T. 
HOENE 145 

Discussion and Correspondence : — 

The Metric System: T. C. M. Honorary 
Degrees in Engineering : W. ' Peridosper- 
maphyta: Pbofessoe John M. Coultee... 147 

Special Articles: — 

Autotomy, Regeneration and Natural Selec- 
tion: Dk. 0. C. Glasee 149 

Current Notes on Meteorology : — 
James Glaisher; The Dust-fall of February, 
7903; Tcraperatxire of the Lower Air; 
New Mountain Observatories in Lapland; 
NiAcs: Piw;.-essce i\. DeC. Wako 153 

Notes on Entomology : Nathan Banks 155 

Tlie International Electrical Congress 156 

American and German Universities: Heney 

W. DiEDEElCH , 157 

Scientific Notes and News 158 

University and Educational News. 360 



MSS. intended for puhlication and books, etc., intended 
for review sliould be sent to ttie Editor of Science, Garri- 
son-on-Hud80n, N. Y. 



THE U08ELY EDUCATIONAL COMMISSION* 
I. 

The places visited by me as a member of 
the commission were New York, Baltimore, 
Washington, Cleveland (Ohio), Buffalo, 
Ithaca (Cornell University), Boston, Yale 
and Middletown (Conn.). But on a pre- 
vious occasion, six years ago, when I was 
three months in the country, I crossed the 
American continent twice from east to 
west, including the journey from Montreal 
to Vancouver by the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. I then spent a considerable time in 
the west and saw much of Chicago, as well 
as of Minneapolis and the great wheat re- 
gion in the northwest. As a student, I was 
brought much into contact with Ameri- 
cans; this has led me always to take a 
special interest in them, and I have all my 
life been a close observer of American scien- 
tific work. Any opinions that I may have 
formed are, therefore, something more than 
mere impressions derived from my recent 
brief ■visit. 

It is very difficult to evaluate the part 
which school education plays in the United 
States of America. That it plays a real 
part can not be doubted; but there is 
clearly a tendency somewhat, if not greatly, 
to exaggerate its relative importance as a 
factor in the national welfare. In point of 
fact, American cuteness would seem to be 
conditioned by environment rather than by 
school education. The country was settled 
by adventurous, high-minded men ; the ad- 
venturous and restless spirits of Europe 
have been attracted there for generations 

* Pieport of Professor Henry E. Armstrong, 
Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



130 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



past ; the conditions have always been such 
as to develop enterprise and to stimulate 
individuality and inventiveness: so that, 
during the whole period in which the con- 
tinent has been gradually acquired and 
' settled on, there has been a constant in- 
vigorating struggle going on against nature 
in one form or another, the Indian prob- 
ably ha^ang played no mean part in the 
education of the race. Such being the 
case, it is important to remember that some 
at least of these influences are now mth- 
drawn and that development may, in con- 
sequence, be along different lines in future, 
especially as the enervating influence of 
machinery is also coming into play more 
and more. 

In some respects, the Americans may be 
said to be a distinct if not an improved 
breed. Certain proclivities have undoubt- 
edly been unconsciously selected out, and 
there has been much cross breeding; hence 
a race has been developed differing in im- 
portant respects in its type of thought, if 
in no other way, from those represented in 
Europe. Moreover, success has given them 
belief in themselves and leads them to trust 
themselves. The natural resources at their 
disposal are boundless and their outlook is 
extraordinarily hopeful; they are bom 
optimists, in fact. They have also learnt 
to work together and to accept and support 
party rule; they seem, indeed, to tolerate 
direction and to subordinate their indi- 
vidual opinions to an extent which we have 
diificulty in believing possible— so much so 
that they may be said to lack individuality. 
Willingness to organize and to be organ- 
ized is almost characteristic of the nation. 
Uninfluenced by tradition, they are 
eminently receptive — always ready to con- 
sider and test new ideas; nevertheless, the 
conservatism characteristic of a young 
country is in many ways still manifest 
among them. 

It is difficult to trace the development of 



any American peculiarities to the schools 
—or to find any evidence even that the 
schools seek to utilize and develop the 
national idiosyncrasies. 

After seeing a number of schools in de- 
tail—both common schools and public high 
schools — it seems to me that they are much 
as our schools; that the problems they are 
seeking to solve are our problems; that 
their difficulties are our difficulties. In 
matters of organization and administration, 
we apparently can learn many things from 
them; but, as regards method, it seems to 
me that we have very little to learn; in- 
deed, in depth of purpose and originality, 
our best work may not unfairly be said to 
be considerably in advance of theirs. But 
whereas here we have no general belief in 
education, in America the common school 
system is universally held in high esteem 
and its influence is very great. The mere 
fact that all classes are brought together 
in the common school is in itself of the ut- 
most importance as affecting the social out- 
look; even those who prefer to send their 
children to private high schools seem to 
think it desirable that they should first 
attend the common school in order that 
they may consort with others. 

The belief in secondary education, es- 
pecially for boys, is far less general— it is 
probably no greater than ours— and yet, 
it seems to me, that it is by the existence of 
a well-developed public high school sys- 
tem that America is distinguished most 
from us and potentially placed most in ad- 
vance of us. 

"What has until recently counted as uni- 
versity education here is almost unknown 
in America. What will count as university 
education here ere long, as the various 
provincial universities become effective, is 
already developed in America to a consider- 
able extent and is advancing with giant 
strides. The support of university educa- 
tion is become a fashionable practise among 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



131 



nmlti-millionaires, and the appreciation of 
such education by employers generally has 
reached a point as yet undreamt of here 
and is growing rapidly, owing to the estab- 
lishment of an effective worl'cing connection 
between the manufacturing industries and 
the colleges. The belief in higher educa- 
tion may be expected to grow at a com- 
pound interest rate. This, it seems to me, 
is the great fact to be taken note of, if —as 
we undoubtedly must— we are to regard 
education as an effective means of promo- 
ting national welfare. It will undoubtedly 
force on the development of the public high 
schools. But, as I shall have occasion to 
point out, American education is for the 
most part still governed by eminently aca- 
demic and conservative traditions ; in some 
respects it lacks depth and practical out- 
look to a strange extent. 

The movement which has led here, dur- 
ing the past twenty years, to the erection 
of technical schools all over the country 
and of the numerous polytechnics in Lon- 
don, is only beginning to come into evidence 
in America. Evening class instruction, 
such as has grown up under our science 
and art department, is almost unknown 
there. 

In New York and other large towms we 
saw many fine public school buildings. 
But if buildings are to be regarded as evi- 
dence of appreciation, we may point to 
those erected by school boards all over this 
country; it is probable that in size, niun- 
ber and appointments they compare not 
unfavorably with those to be found in 
America, taking into account the areas 
dealt with. The building, it must not be 
forgotten, appeals to the public sense: it 
can be pointed to with pride. This is dis- 
tinctly the attitude adopted in America 
towards the public school buildings. I am 
not aware that we take particular pride in 
the erection of our board schools: it is 



rather our habit to grumble at the outlay 
they involve. 

The Common Schools.— In interior ar- 
rangements even the most modern schools 
are not superior to our own. And there is 
even less attempt made in them to provide 
pictorial decoration. Thring's great doe- 
trine of ihinking in shape has, if possible, 
made less advance thus far in the American 
common schools than in ours. 

Much has been said of the importance 
attached in the American schools to the 
teaching of patriotism and to the practise 
of saluting the flag which prevails in them. 
This involves the recitation occasionally of 
the formula: 'I pledge allegiance to my 
fla-g and to the republic for which it stands 
—one nation, indivisible, with liberty and 
justice for all.' This appeared to me to 
be a somewhat perfunctory exercise when 
I witnessed it. Thinking Americans with 
whom I disciissed the question seemed to 
regard the practise as of some value in 
cities like New York and Chicago, where a 
large alien element has constantly to be 
absorbed into the population ; but appar- 
ently they were of opinion that it was un- 
desirable as a general practise. 

It is almost unnecessary to say that the 
amount of attention paid in the common 
schools to reading and composition is in no 
way sutficient or satisfactory, the neglect 
of English among English-speaking people 
being proverbial. Apparently no greater 
effort is made in the American schools than 
in ours to lead children to read and to be- 
come really fond of reading. 

The teaching of drawing is also unde- 
veloped. Simple measurement work in 
association with drawing, which is being so 
much advocated here and which is grad- 
ually assuming importance in our schools, 
seems to be almost, if not quite, unknown. 
I did not learn that the attempt was being 
made anywhere to put the teaching of 



132 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



.arithmetic on a practical common-sense 
basis. 

Although manual training figures in the 
program, the interpretation put upon the 
term seems to be very different from that 
which is usual here, drawing commonly 
counting as manual training. In some of 
the schools, where space permits, woodwork 
is introduced into the upper classes for 
boys, and cookery and needlework for girls. 
The belief in such work is evidently grow- 
ing ; but at present the schools are undoubt- 
edly behind ours in promoting it and even 
more bookish than ours in their tendencies. 

The nature study lessons I Avitnessed, 
when not specifically botanical or zoological 
and scientific in character, were eminently 
superficial and worthless. 

As all classes attend the common schools, 
these can not be compared directly with our 
elementary schools, but must be thought 
of in connection both with these and with 
all other types of preparatory schools. 

There are two striking features in them 
— the air of refinement due to the attention 
paid to dress, especially by the girls, the 
preponderating element in most classes; 
and the attitude of familiarity assumed by 
the class towards the teacher. Distinc- 
tions such as poverty or occupation might 
well condition even in a democracy are 
scarcely perceptible. In America the 
teacher does not seem to be regarded as the 
natural enemy of the boy — as a person to 
be circumvented. The method of teaching 
which appears to be generally adopted in- 
volves, as it were, the constant exchange 
of opinion between teacher and pupil— not, 
as is here the case, either the communica- 
tion of information to the class by the 
teacher or the mere wringing of what is 
supposed to have been learnt from the 
pupil by the teacher. The method has 
both its advantages and its disadvantages. 
It develops that readiness of address which 
characterizes young Americans and leads 



children to give their opinions freely— far 
too freely many think — on all sorts of sub- 
jects ; and it encourages cuteness. But it 
imposes a very heavy burden on the teacher 
and operates against close study and con- 
centration of attention. In American 
schools there is no enforcement of discipline 
by means either of penalties or of prizes. 
Children are put on a footing with 
grown-up people and treated as young 
republicans. 

How, then, is discipline maintained^ Is 
it always 1 Perhaps the average American 
boy has not such a fund of animal spirits 
as the English boy — he is sprung from a 
tolerant race and from an early age tends 
to ape the behavior -of his elders more than 
the English boy does. Certainly one great 
cause of good behavior is the presence of 
girls along with the boys. On the occasion 
of my former visit, I discussed with one of 
the chief inspectors in Washington the rea- 
sons why the system of mixed classes had 
been abandoned there and then resumed. 
I learnt that one of the possible reasons 
was that it had been found difficult to keep 
the boys in order when alone. But un- 
doubtedly the chief hold teachers have on 
their classes is consequent on their main- 
taining the interest of the pupils. Many 
of my colleagues on the commission— not 
teachers— in fact, expressed the opinion on 
more than one occasion that the teaching 
was most interesting. But looking below 
the surface, I did not feel satisfied with all 
that I witnessed. Whilst every teacher 
will admit that it is necessary to create 
interest, we all know that it is not always 
possible to maintain this at bursting point 
and that in school, as in the world, unin- 
teresting work must be done sometimes; 
that, in point of fact, it is most important 
to acquire the art of doing uninteresting 
work in a serious and determined way. 
The American system seems to me to be one 
which imposes a fearful strain upon the 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCISNCE. 



133 



teachers— especially as they are mostly 
women. And it has some serious conse- 
quences. One of these is inability to con- 
centrate the attention. Everywhere the 
heads of the high schools complained that 
the pupils who came from the elementary 
schools could not concentrate their atten- 
tion upon their work. Several were of 
opinion that under the somewhat more 
rigid conditions of the high school improve- 
ment in this respect gradually took place 
as the pupils moved up. On the other 
hand, in more than one case it was ad- 
mitted candidly by the head teacher of the 
elementary school that the extent to which 
the children could concentrate their atten- 
tion diminished as they grew older and 
passed up the school; thirty minutes, we 
were told, was the longest period during 
which boys could concentrate their atten- 
tion and work effectively. This failing, I 
believe, is not unknown in our OAvn schools. 

PuUic High Schools.— Although we 
have no schools which are the precise 
equivalent of these, some of our higher 
grade elementary schools, come very close 
to them in many respects. It is noteworthy 
that, in a city like New York, few who can 
afford to send their children to private 
schools make use of the public high school 
— one chief reason assigned being that the 
classes in the latter are so large that indi- 
vidual pupils can not receive sufficient at- 
tention. Of those who enter, in New York, 
about fifty per cent, (mostly boys) leave 
during the first year to go into business; 
under ten per cent, remain iintil the fourth 
year. It is said that a much larger propor- 
tion are retained in the schools in the mid- 
dle west. 

In common with all my colleagues, I was 
favorably impressed by the way in which 
English literature was taught, but I could 
not discover that the teaching was carried 
to a logical end and fondness for reading 



inculcated.* I found no more evidence 
that proper attention was paid to writing 
and English composition than in our 
schools ; the subject which of all others is of 
primary importance seems to be equally 
neglected in both countries. I met with 
no proper attempt to correlate the English 
composition with any of the practical work. 

In the teaching of mathematics and sci- 
ence, the American high schools seem to 
me to be considerably behind our best 
schools. I came across little evidence that 
the practical methods of teaching mathe- 
matics and geometry which are coming into 
vogue here are appreciated; and the old 
academic methods of teaching science seem 
to prevail almost exclusively. No proper 
foundation for such work is laid in the 
elementary schools. 

In one respect there has been an impor- 
tant departure: the recognition of the 
value of manual training has led to the 
development of a special manual training 
department and, in some cases, of distinct 
manual training high schools ; in the latter, 
manual training takes the place of classics. 
In some cases, perhaps the majority, these 
are tending to develop into trade schools 
and to aim at proficiency in wood and metal 
work; they are elaborately equipped with 
tools. Nominally, they profess to regard 
the manual work from an educational 
standpoint, but it is quite clear that in 
most cases the will passes for the deed and 
that the teachers are not competent to de- 
velop the subjects pedagogically. 

But we met with one most remarkable 

* In tlie new Morris High School in New York 
— a magnificent building to accommodate nearly 
3,000 pupils — a very fine library will be provided. 
The head master told us that it was his intention 
to develop the use of this systematically and that 
many duplicates would be provided of important 
books. A feature in this school will be a per- 
manently darkened class-room with electric lan- 
tern, etc., into wliich classes can go to witness 
lantern demonstrations in connection with geog- 
raphy lessons, etc. 



134 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. .500. 



exception in the Brooklyn Manual Training 
High School. The head master of this 
school, Mr. Larkin, has conceptions of the 
educational possibilities which manual 
training may afford which place him on a 
special plane. His school at present is very 
inadequately housed. New buildings, how- 
ever, are to be provided, and it is to be 
hoped that these will not be so palatial and 
ornate as to destroy the true workshop-like 
character and atmosphere of the cramped 
quarters in which the work is now carried 
on. In the first year the boys do wood- 
work; in the second, metal work— chiefly 
forging; in the third, printing; in the 
fourth, machine-tool work. The second- 
year work was in the hands of a man of 
exceptional ability, not merely a smith, but 
an artist, so that the imagination as well 
as the mechanical aptitude of the boys was 
being well developed. The printing was 
in charge of a master who also taught chem- 
istry in the school — an enthusiast who had 
mastered the art of printing and was teach- 
ing it con amore. Ocular demonstration 
of his persuasive powers was afforded by 
the presence in the workshop of a valuable 
linotype machine, which he had induced 
the makers to present to the school. "We 
met with another man of this type teaching 
woodwork at a high school in Washington. 
He had been educated in the school and, 
perceiving the importance of the subject, 
had served for several years as a pattern- 
maker in the Navy Yard at Washington; 
then he had returned to the school as a 
teacher. 

It is men such as these that are needed 
to put manual training on a proper foot- 
ing—and it is all important that we should 
devise means of attracting such men into 
schools. 

The introduction of printing as a school 
subject may appear altogether absurd, but 
Mr. Larkin gave us clear evidence in proof 
of its value. Not only, he argues, is it of 



importance as a manual, mechanical ex- 
ercise, as the means of bringing lads into 
contact with a set of facts outside ordinary 
experience, as well as of familiarizing them 
with all that is involved in the production 
of the books they read, but it is also of 
value on the literary side. When lads are 
called upon to set up in type and print off 
something that they have written and to 
correct the proof, they begin to realize, in 
a way which is rarely done by the mere 
writer, how careless they have been in writ- 
ing, how poor their style. We were 
favored with copies of a journal produced 
in the school— printed and illustrated there 
— which certainly gave evidence of great 
skill. Mr. ■ Larkin has a true conception 
of the educational possibilities afforded by 
proper manual training: while depreci- 
ating the attempt to train up skilled work- 
men as tending to stereotype the teaching, 
he sees very properly that it affords op- 
portunities both on the mechanical and 
artistic side for general culture and that 
it may be made a most important adjunct 
of the literary and scientific work. Had I 
enjoyed no other opportunity than that of 
meeting him and of learning his views, I 
feel tiiat my visit would have been a fruit- 
ful one. 

But elsewhere I found an almost abso- 
lute lack of imagination underlying the 
manual training work — vague ideas of pos- 
sibilities but neither real understanding nor 
sufficient executive power — although tech- 
nically much of it was excellent. 

It may be hoped that manual training 
schools— both primary and secondary — 
will soon be established here in which at 
least half the time will be spent at experi- 
mental and manual work. There is no 
more important experiment to be made in 
education that that of determining the 
value of sucli schools. In these schools a 
whole floor at least should be fitted up as 
a workshop and every kind of manual work 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



135 



should be carried on, so that there might 
be unlimited manual temptation in the path 
of the scholar, who should be free to at- 
tempt anything that he liked without fol- 
lowing a routine course. 

School Management.— It is generally 
known that the American school system is 
very ineffectively controlled at the present 
time and that it is too often dominated by 
political influences. This is well brought 
out in a recent article in the Forum for 
October to December, 1903. In New York, 
both the elementary and the high schools 
are controlled by an able city superintend- 
ent, who has a staff of inspectors under 
him, and all appointments are made on a 
civil service, basis ; but a year or two hence, 
I believe, a Tammany-appointed inspector 
may be his successor. All the schools work 
to programs authorized by the superintend- 
ent, one program being laid down for the 
elementary, another for the high schools. 
The latter, however, is based on the elective 
system, a considerable range in the choice 
of subjects being allowed. There is no 
doubt that this system is subject to consid- 
erable abuse and that 'soft options' are 
much in request. It is beyond question 
most desirable that special aptitudes should 
be developed and that teachers should be in 
eveiy way mindful of these ; but boys and 
girls can not always be judges of what is 
good for them, nor have they the necessary 
worldly knowledge to settle for themselves. 
The Americans do not seem to have settled 
any more than we have what are the neces- 
sary elements of a rational course of school 
study. 

As they work to a common program, both 
the freedom of the high schools and the 
responsibility of their directors are limited 
in a way altogether unknown here, perhaps 
to an unfortunate extent. Given an ideal 
superintendent with an ideal staff, the sys- 
tem might work well. But no special effort 
is made or is likelv to be made to secure 



such an ideal executive; yet it should be 
aimed at. The combined intelligence of 
the teachers must be in excess of that of 
the executive and it should be brought more 
into operation ; unless the Americans de- 
sire to stereotype all teaching, they must 
be prepared to grant almost absolute free- 
dom to their teachers. This does not pre- 
clude either the holding up of example or 
fair criticism. Both here and there the 
spirit of cooperation needs to be brought 
effectively into action. Our education de- 
partment hitherto has had no intelligence 
department ; it has had no clearly thought- 
out, definite educational policy; there has 
been no effective means of keeping the in- 
spectorate informed on all matters relating 
to educational method and no recognized 
means whatever of securing exchange of 
opinion and discussion either among the 
inspectors themselves or between them and 
teachers at large. The work of education 
has been carried on in holes and corners 
into which outside influences have pene- 
trated with difficulty. In both countries 
we need to organize the work on a scien- 
tific basis; there should be some conscious 
effort made to substitute the good for the 
bad and even for the mediocre. 

Female Teachers. — Most of us who are 
conversant with school work were struck 
by the distinctly low average of attainment 
in the American high schools. To what is 
this attributable 1 In part probably to the 
conditions which prevail in American life ; 
but in large measure also, I venture to 
think, to the prevalence of mixed schools 
and the preponderance of women teachers. 

Admitting that it may be possible, even 
desirable, to bring up the two sexes to- 
gether in the earlier years of school life, 
I venture to think that we must sooner or 
later come to admit that it is wrong to do 
so during the later years, if the object be 
to develop a virile man. To put the matter 
in very simple terms, it seemed to me on 



136 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



the occasion of my former visit— and the 
impression was confirmed, during my re- 
cent visit— that the boy in America is not 
being brought up to punch another boy's 
head or to stand having his own punched 
in a healthy and proper manner ; that there 
is a strange and indefinable feminine air 
coming over the men; a tendency towards 
a common, if I may so call it, sexless tone 
of thought. 

But if coeducation be bad in itself, it 
becomes infinitely worse when the teachers 
are mostly women; they should rather be 
men mostly. Nowhere is the claim on be- 
half of women to equality with men put 
forward so strongly as it is in the United 
States. Nowhere, I believe, would it be 
found to be more disproved in practise, if 
carefully inquired into. Women have 
sought in recent times to prove that they 
can compete successfully with men in every 
field ; they claim to have succeeded, but the 
claim can not be allowed, I think. They 
have shown — what it was unnecessary to 
show— that they are indefatigable workers; 
and they have shown that they can pass 
examinations with brilliant success. But 
what has been the character of the exam- 
inations? Almost invariably they have 
been such as to require the reproduction of 
learning, not original effort. History 
records but very few cases of women with 
any approach to originality; it proves the 
sex to have been lacking in creative and 
imaginative power. Those who have taught 
women students are one ajad all in agree- 
ment that, although close workers and most 
faithful and accurate observers, yet, with 
the rarest exceptions, they are incapable of 
doing independent original work. And it 
must be so. Throughout the entire period 
of her existence woman has been man's 
slave; and if the theory of evolution be in 
any way correct there is no reason to sup- 
pose, I imagine, that she will recover from 



the mental disabilities which this has en- 
tailed upon her within any period which 
we, for practical purposes, can regard as 
reasonable. Education can do little to 
modify her nature. The argument is one 
which women probably will not, perhaps 
can not, appreciate. No better proof could 
be asked for, however, than is afforded by 
the consistent failure of women to discover 
special wants of their own — they have al- 
ways merely asked to have what men have, 
to be allowed to compete with men. Do- 
mestic subjects have been taught in the 
most perfunctory manner possible. 

Among the colleges we visited was that 
of Vassar — the chief college for women in 
the states. It accommodates some 900 stu- 
dents. The college is located amidst sur- 
roundings in fidl harmony with the grace 
of the inmates ; their charm of manner over- 
came us completely, even in the brief period 
during which we were privileged to fra- 
ternize with them. The teachers are most- 
ly men. The instruction is given entirely 
on academic lines ; lectures are delivered on 
economics, but I could not discover that 
woman's work in the world— 'domestics' — 
was considered in any specific way; it 
would come, I was told, under the head of 
technical education, which is eschewed. 
Apparently no use is made of the beautiful 
grounds in which the buildings are placed 
for nature-study or instruction in horticul- 
ture; as one of my companions remarked, 
nature is looked at only in the laboratory 
down a microscope tube. 

In some of the western coeducational col- 
leges, arrangements have been made to pro- 
vide for woman's specific requirements, 
which have given great satisfaction, I am 
told ; but this has been done at the instance 
of the men teachers. 

The M^omen teachers in America, it seems 
to me, are less likely than ours are to take 
a feminine point of view in instructing 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



137 



girls. The general environment seems un- 
favorable to the development of domestic 
tastes. 

From the point of view that I have ven- 
tured to advocate, women teachers must be, 
for most purposes, relatively inefficient; 
and as teaching is an occupation in which 
more than any other imaginative power, 
individuality, insight and originality are 
wanted, it is important that men rather 
than women should exercise the predom- 
inant influence. If it be the province of 
education to mold the race, there is no other 
question of greater importance claiming 
our attention at the present time — espe- 
cially as the difficulty of obtaining male 
teachers is increasing day by day. In both 
countries it is imperative that we should 
discover means of attracting men with 
practical instincts and of superior mental 
gifts into the teaching profession. 

The Training of Teachers. — The elemen- 
tary schools, at least in the larger cities, 
enjoy an advantage over ours in that, I be- 
lieve, their teachers usually all pass through 
a period of high school training prior to 
entering the normal or training school; 
their outlook is consequently, on the aver- 
age, somewhat broader. The methods 
adopted in training teachers appear to be 
no less academic than ours. 

The premier training establishment at 
the present time is the Columbia Teachers 
College, New YorJi— a palatial establish- 
ment. The teaching given in this college 
is in part academic, in part professional, 
the predominant class of student being 
those who are training to become super- 
visors, i. e., advisory or teaching inspectors. 

I had hoped to find that in this college 
the academic 'training had a certain bias 
imparted to it, just as at our Cambridge a 
certain professional bias is given to much 
of the academic training of those who 
graduate in the engineering tripos. But I 



was disappointed. And I was also greatly 
disappointed by what I heard when attend- 
ing some of the pedagogic classes; there 
was a high-flown air of unreality about the 
instruction; too much precept, too little 
practise ; no really severe practise ! The 
whole building seemed to me to be out of 
character with the work to be done ; far too 
ornate ; and the students — mostly women — 
looked far too respectable and tidy to 
please me. If they had been men I should 
have said that they needed to take their 
coats off and not to be above making their 
hands dirty. It does not seem likely that 
teachers so trained will be able to give the 
simple, practical, common-sense instruction 
that boys and girls stand so much in need 
of at the present day. The whole appeared 
to me to be a good illustration of the tend- 
ency that I seem to see in America to be 
guided by sentiment and emotion, and to 
work on academic rather than on practical 
lines. I do not think that the Americans 
can long claim to rank as a practical nation 
if such methods are allowed to prevail. 

We have sinned and are sinning grievous- 
ly here in the same way, but there are clear 
indications that we have recognized our 
mistake, and that we may shortly enter 
upon a new era in which common sense 
will prevail. I saw no such signs in 
America. 

College and University Instruction. — 
Even if it were necessary it would be diffi- 
cult to arrive at any consistent definition 
of the American college; but as a rule it 
may be said to aim at giving a liberal edu- 
cation rather than professional training. 
Where colleges or schools for both purposes 
exist, side by side, they together constitute 
the university. It is noteworthy that, with 
a few exceptions, the term university has 
only recently met with general application ; 
Yale College, for example, obtained the 



138 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



right to call itself Yale University only in 
1887. 

The college and university instruction, 
including that given in technical schools, 
is of interest to us at the present time from 
several points of view. 

In the first place, in America, as here, 
great complaint is made that students come 
to college ill-prepared to do the work;* 
that gamesf occupy too large a share of 
attention; and that the bonds of discipline 
have been unduly slackened of late years. 

* Professor J. J. Stevenson, of New York Uni- 
versity, deals in a very outspoken manner with 
this question in the recent January number of 
The Popular Science Monthly. To quote a few 
sentences from his article : " The old adage says 
' he who would command must first learn to obey.' 
That American lads are sorely in need of such 
training is only too evident. * * ♦ Such train- 
ing means — ^training to think, to reason. Lads 
too often fail to receive this training in secondary 
schools, as any instructor who has had to deal 
Avith freshmen can testify. Secondary schools 
to-day are little better than cramming houses to 
fit pupils to answer odds and ends of questions 
in papers for entrance examinations. Loose 
thinking and restlessness imder restraint char- 
acterize the American students in the lower classes 
at college; lack of home training may be re- 
sponsible in part for the latter characteristic, 
inferior teaching in secondary schools for the 
former." 

t The report of the President of Harvard Col- 
lege for the year 1901-1902 contains for the first 
time the report of the chairman of the committee 
on the regulation of athletic sports. President 
Eliot's comments thereon are highly instructive: 
" This report is interesting from several points of 
view. It exhibits, in the first place, the large 
number of students who are actively engaged in 
the competitive sports taken together. The fig- 
ures given are not accurate, but it is reasonable 
to suppose that at least two thousand students 
out of the thirty hundred in Cambridge take 
some active part in one or more of the thirteen 
sports in which an enumeration of the number of 
participants was made. * * * The chairman 
calls attention to the fact that the expenditures 
for football are steadily increasing. A quarter 
part of all who take part in this sport are in- 
jured enough to lay them up for ten days on the 
average, and a much larger proportion of those 
who really play the game are thus injured for the 
season. The changes in the rules during the past 



Moreover, it is said that those who have 
been brought up in towns are not such 
satisfactory students as those who have 
been brought up in the country. The lat- 
ter are not only more earnest but more 
practical. On this account the spirit pre- 
vailing in some of the western colleges is 
said to be far better than that met with in 
many eastern colleges. 

Although the elective system prevails 
very largely in those eases in which gradua- 
tion from college is a necessary preliminary 
to professional study, the course is pre- 
scribed. It is very noteworthy that the 
covtrse laid down is a broad one. Thus at 
the Johns Hopkins University, the follow- 
ing are the subjects prescribed in the 
chemical-biological or preliminary medical 
group : 

H' urs Weekly. 
First Tear. 

Physics 9 

Chemistry 9 

Rhetoric : 3 

English Composition 4 

Second Tear. 

Chemistry 9 

Biology 9 

French 4 

English Literature 3 

ten years have tended to increase the number of 
injuries rather than to diminish it. The tem- 
porary injuries are so numerous that it is im- 
possible to count on putting any particular eleven 
men into an important game on a given day. In 
order to provide the necessary number of substi- 
tutes for each place, the football squad often num- 
bers sixty men. Hence large expenditures. The 
outfit for candidates grows more expensive, be- 
cause they wear about fourteen pounds weight of 
padding and armor. On the whole, the game, 
under the existing rules, tends to become slower 
and less visible in its details, and therefore less 
interesting. Moreover, the ethics of the game, 
which are the imperfect ethics of war, do not 
improve. The martial axiom — attack the enemy's 
weakest point — inevitably leads to a deliberate 
onslaught on the cripple or the convalescent in 
the opposing line; and the habitual violation of 
rules, if penalties be escaped, is regarded by many 
as merely amusing." 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



139 



Third Year. 

Biology 9 

Philosophy 5 

History and Economics 4 

Elective Course 2 

English composition and reading, French 
and German, as well as economics, are in- 
cluded in all the complete engineering and 
science courses at the Case School of Ap- 
plied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. The same 
practise is followed at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, where, in addition, 
history (American and European) figures 
in the program. In these institutions the 
course lasts four years. The course of 
reading prescribed in the Case School is 
an instructive one. 

I inquired specially into the teaching of 
English composition. At the Massachu- 
setts Institute the instructor was taking 
the utmost pains to select themes likely 
to interest engineering students ; but the 
possibility of directly correlating the labo- 
ratoiy work with the literary work had 
not been contemplated. 

It appears to me that we may well take 
a leaf out of the American book and intro- 
duce an element of literary study into our 
engineering courses ; but when the question 
is considered, I trust we shall endeavor to 
correlate the literary work very closely 
with the practical work. I did not dis- 
cover that American students are any more 
willing to read studiously than ours are. 
Henry E. Armstrong. 

London. 

{To he continued.) 



JOB'S BELL HATCHER. 

American paleontology has suffered an 
irreparable loss in the untimely death of 
Mr. Hatcher, which took place, after a 
short illness, at Pittsburg on July 3. 

John Bell Hatcher, the son of John and 
Margaret Hatcher, was born at Coopers- 
town, Illinois, October 11, 1861, but at an 
early age was taken by his parents to 



Greene County, Iowa, where 'they settled 
permanently, and where he received his 
early education. As a boy, he provided for 
future college expenses by working as a 
coal-miner and what he observed in the 
mines directed his attention and interest 
to the problems of geology. In 1881 he 
entered Grinnell College, Iowa, and, after 
remaining there for three months, he be- 
came a member of Yale University, gradu- 
ating in 1884. His undergraduate years 
Avere devoted to the study of the natural sci- 
ences, and especially to geology and botany. 
Some collections that he had brought with 
him from Iowa attracted the attention of 
the late Professor Marsh, who appointed 
Hatcher, immediately on his graduation, as 
his assistant and at once sent him to the 
western field to collect fossil vertebrates. 

Thus began a career which was un- 
rivalled of its kind, for Hatcher had a 
positive genius for that particular work, 
as is well known to all who have had the 
privilege of accompanying him in the field. 
Marvelous powers of vision, at once tele- 
scopic and microscopic, a dauntless energy 
and fertility of resource that laughed all 
obstacles to seoi-n, and an enthusiastic de- 
votion to his work, combined to secure for 
him a thoroughly well-earned success and 
a high reputation. He may be said to 
have fairly revolutionized the methods of 
collecting vertebrate fossils, a work which 
before his time had been almost wholly in 
the hands of untrained and unskilled men, 
but which he converted into a fine art. 
The exquisitely preserved fossils in Amer- 
ican museums, which awaken the admiring 
envy of European paleontologists, are, to 
a large extent, directly or indirectly due 
to Hatcher's energy and skill and to the 
large-minded help and advice as to methods 
and localities which were always at the 
service of any one who chose to ask for 
them. 

Hatcher's uprightness and sincerity of 



140 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. Xo. 500. 



character, no less than his remarkable en- 
ergy and persistence, attracted to him the 
admiration of many western men, by whom 
freqixent tempting offers were made him to 
leave the unremunerative paths of science 
for the material rewards of business, but 
in vain. He would not seriously consider 
the abandonment of his chosen work for 
any reward whatever and he died in har- 
ness. 

In* 1887 he married Miss Anna M. Peter- 
son, who, with four children, survives him. 

Hatcher's -work for Professor Marsh and 
the U. S. Geological Survey continued for 
nine years and though, in 1890, he was 
appointed an assistant in geology in Yale 
University, he kept up his field-work with 
unbrokep success, amassing a very large 
part of the enormous and invaluable col- 
lections which are stored at New Haven 
and Washington. 

He accepted, in the spring of 1893, a call 
to Princeton University as curator of verte- 
brate paleontology and assistant in geology 
and at once threw himself into his new 
duties with eharapteristic ardor. For the 
three summers of 1893-5 he conducted 
field-parties of students through large parts 
of Utah, Wyoming and South Dakota and, 
with all of his old interest and skill, gath- 
ered priceless collections of mammals from 
the Uinta, White River, Loup Fork and 
Sheridan beds, accomplishing wonders, in 
spite of the scanty resources which sadly 
hampered his plans. His students became 
his enthusiastic friends and admirers, 
glorying in the courage and devotion which 
overcame every obstacle, material or moral. 
In return, Hatcher took the warmest in- 
terest in his students, especially in those 
who were struggling against difficulties to 
secure an education; in the quietest and 
most unostentatious way he was continu- 
ally devising effective means to help such 
students to help themselves and thus en- 



abled them to continue their studies with- 
out any impairment of their self-respect. 

The most important work which Hatcher 
undertook during his connection with 
Princeton was his exploration of Pata- 
gonia in the years 1896 to 1899. The plan 
was all his own. and was not proposed to 
the geological department until everything 
was nearly ripe for action; he secured the 
greater part of the necessary funds and, 
with characteristic generosity, was himself 
a liberal contributor. How successful this 
great undertaking was is very generally 
known and needs not to be repeated here. 
Great credit for this success is due to Messrs. 
Peterson and Colburn, who were associated 
with Hatcher in the work, but the soul of 
the enterprise was Hatcher himself. In his 
'Narrative of the Expeditions' he has left 
an extremely well-written and interesting 
account of these explorations, which, how- 
ever, gives the reader but an inadequate 
conception of the difficulties and perils 
which beset him, and of the boundless 
energy and courage with which those diffi- 
culties were met and overcome. Painful 
wounds, dangerous sickness, indescribable 
suffering, the hardships due to a severe 
climate and a savage wilderness and to 
inadequate equipment, in vain combined 
to turn him back, though he was twice com,^ 
pelled to return home for short periods of 
rest and recuperation. In the history of 
scientific exploration there are few chap- 
ters recording truer heroism and achieve- 
ment than Hatcher's journeys through 
Patagonia. 

The principal object of the expeditions 
was to gather the most extensive possible 
series of the fossil mammals for which Pat- 
agonia has been so famous since the days 
of Darwin's 'Voyage of the Beagle,' and 
next to determine the stratigraphical suc- 
cession of the beds in which these fossils 
occur. This involved extensive explora- 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



141 



tions of regions where no white man had 
ever been before and brought to light much 
geographical information. At the same 
time, the plants and recent animals were 
collected, so far as it was possible to do so 
without sacrificing the principal end in 
view, and in these departments also an un- 
expected measure of success was attained, 
and a representative series illustrating the 
botany, zoology and paleontology of Pata- 
gonia was secured. 

Hatcher then conceived the plan of pub- 
lishing together in one uniform series of 
reports, by the hands of different special- 
ists, all these results, which would other- 
wise necessarily appear in separate form, 
scattered throughout the various technical 
journals. This plan was submitted to Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan, and to his liberality 
it is due that this cherished scheme is now 
in process of realization and in a manner 
surpassing the hopes of its original pro- 
poser. In addition to the 'Narrative and 
Geography,' Hatcher had undertaken to 
write reports upon the geology and also 
upon the fossil Litopterna and Marsupialia. 
How much of this material can be put into 
shape for publication can not yet be told. 
In any event, he has raised for himself an 
enduring monument in these volumes, 
which owe their existence to him, however 
much or little may be his verbal contribu- 
tion to their contents. 

Hatcher finally returned home (little as 
he believed it to be a final return) in the 
autumn of 1899 and in the following Feb- 
ruary he accepted a position as curator of 
vertebrate paleontology in the Carnegie 
Museum at Pittsburg, a position which he 
occupied till his death. With undimin- 
ished interest and zeal he took up the 
larger and more exacting duties of his new 
sphere and conducted his work with dis- 
tinguished success. Paleontologists all 
know with what remarkable rapidity the 



collections of the Carnegie Museum have 
grown within the last four years and what 
a wealth of noble material has been brought 
together there, much of it unsurpassed in 
the world. No less than three great col- 
lections thus owe their, choicest treasures 
to the skill and devotion of Hatcher. 

It would, however, be creating a very 
false impression to let the reader suppose - 
that Hatcher was entirely or even mainly 
a collector. For a long time he modestly 
held back from bringing his own observa- 
tion and inferences before the scientific 
world and from this comparative seclusion 
he was late in emerging. He had been 
well trained and he had enjoyed great ex- 
perience in years of field-work over a vast 
territory in two continents ; more than this, 
he possessed a singularly original and in- 
dependent mind and the keenest powers 
of observation, and these gifts, combined 
with his wide opportunities, led him to 
many novel and important conclusions in 
dynamical and stratigraphical geology, 
only a verj- small part of which has yet 
been published. The paleontology of the 
vertebrates was the field in which he took 
the deepest interest and in which he has 
published most, his papers dealing prin- 
cipally with mammals and reptiles. These 
papers show the ability which he brought 
to his subject and there seemed every rea- 
son to hope that his unresting activity 
might continue for many years and that 
the harvest would correspond to the long 
and laborious period of preparation. But 
this hope has been denied ; Hatcher Avas cut 
off just when his powers and opportunities 
had reached their fullest development and 
the boundless field, in which he so loved to 
work, lay open and unrestricted before him. 
When his last illness attacked him, he was 
engaged upon a monograph of the Cera- 
tosauria for the U. S. Geological Survey, 
upon the monographs for the Patagonia 



142 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



Reports above mentioned, as well as \ipon 
several papers for the publications of the 
Carnegie Museum. 

It is a pathetic coincidence that the words 
which Dr. Dall applied in this journal to 
the late Professor Beecher should so soon 
find an exact application to Beecher 's 
former colleague in the Yale Museum : ' The 
ranks of those capable of bringing to the 
study of fossils keen insight and a philo- 
sophical spirit of inquiry, g-uided by prin- 
ciples whose value can hardly be exagger- 
ated, are diminished by one whom science 
could ill afford to lose, and to whom, hu- 
manly speaking, there should have re- 
mained many yeai'S of 'industry and fruit- 
ful research.' W. B. Scott. 

Princeton University. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Adolescence; Us Psychology and its Relations 

to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, 

Bex, Crime, Religion and Education. By 

G. Stanley Hall. ISTew York, D. Appleton 

and Company. 1904. 

The range of President Hall's two volumes 
is even wider than the title announces. Be- 
sides the topics there indicated, the book con- 
tains an ontline of the author's general psy- 
chological system, a philosophical credo, and 
multitudinous comments on the psychology of 
early childhood and adult life. The thirteen 
hundred and more pages are somewhat evenly 
divided among physical, psychological, social 
and miscellaneous phenomena. The author's 
division is as follows : 

Volume I. — Growth in height and weight, 
50 pages; growth of parts and organs during 
adolescence, 78 pages ; growth of motor power 
and function, 108 pages; diseases of body and 
mind, 88 pages; juvenile faults, immoralities 
and crimes, 86 pages ; sexual development : its 
dangers and hygiene in boys, 61 pages ; 
periodicity, 41 pages ; adolescence in literature, 
biography and history, 77 pages. 

Volume II. — Changes in the senses and the 
voice, 39 pages; evolution of the feelings and 
instincts characteristic of normal adolescence, 
65 pages; adolescent love, 49 pages; adolescent 



feelings toward nature and a new education 
in science, 88 pages; savage pubic initiations, 
classical ideals and customs and church con- 
firmation, 49 pages; the adolescent psychology 
of conversion, 82 pages; social instincts and 
institutions, 86 pages; intellectual develop- 
ment and education, 112 pages; adolescent 
girls and their education, 87 pages; ethnic 
psychology and pedagogy, or adolescent races 
and their treatment, 101 pages. 

The stiident will naturally divide the book 
as a whole into : (1) An array of facts bearing 
upon its topics, (2) an attempt to establish a 
parallelism between the mental development 
of human individuals and that of the whole 
phylum at one extreme of which they stand 
and (3) the author's educational recommenda- 
tions. The reviewer will follow this division. 

The array of facts presented implies an 
astonishing labor in reading, selecting and 
condensing. Over two thousand writers are 
quoted or referred to. -Whoever has made 
any pretense of saying- a scientific word about 
the rich life of concrete human nature, we 
may expect to find summarized. Be it the 
love of children for cats or growth of thoracic 
capacity or the lives of the saints. President 
Hall is equally ready with varied comment 
and plenteous references. No one person 
could estimate the completeness, accuracy and 
relevancy of this body of information as a 
whole. If the citations and summaries under 
each topic do represent adequately the views 
of the experts, President Hall's tremendous 
zeal will result in a corresponding saving of 
time and gain in insight for future students. 
If they do not, very many will be misled. In 
any case the array of information will, in 
these volumes as in the author's teaching, 
stimulate and suggest. In those fields where 
the reviewer could presume to judge, there ap- 
pears an unhappy tendency toward the selec- 
tion of authors and extracts which fit Presi- 
dent Hall's own prepossessions. And this 
suspicion is too frequently confirmed in cases 
where expertness is not requisite. We tend 
to lose confidence in no matter how eminent 
a scholar, when, in a description of ' Adoles- 
cence in Literature and Biography,' he gives 
a thousand words to a summary of Mary lie- 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



143 



Lane and not one to the masterly descriptions 
of youth by George Meredith; or when he 
brushes aside James's ' Varieties of Religious 
Experience ' as the work of a ' brilliant lit- 
terateur ' who ' lays on colors with a trowel ' 
and ' throws scientific caution to the winds.' 

It was to be expected that the author woidd 
use, at their face value, the replies to printed 
questions written by children . and normal 
school students and those interested enough 
to reply. Although he is probably the only 
one of the score of most eminent psychologists 
who put any trust in such replies. President 
Hall's confidence is serene and he does not 
even deign to justify his choice of a method 
so universally rejected by his peers. 

The second chief aim of the book, to show 
how human life in general and adolescent 
mind in particular demand a comparative and 
genetic psychology as their explanation, is 
fulfilled ta the extent of demonstrating and 
richly illustrating the fact that human nature 
in mind as in body bears traces of its long 
savage and animal ancestry. Although the 
author is, perhaps, brutal in his reproaches 
against the mere analysis of mental states, 
he is surely right in asserting the need of a 
true natural history of mind and in seeking 
to base theories of human behavior upon a 
dynamic rather than a static psychology. So 
much is irrespective of the particular connec- 
tion which he believes to exist between human 
mental life as we know it to-day and the men- 
tal history of the long line of our ancestors; 
namely, the recapitulation by the individual 
of his phylum's evolution. It is impossible 
for the reviewer to discover just what the 
recapitulation theory means to President Hall. 
At times he seems to agree with the thorough- 
going parallelism stated by G. H. Schneider 
a score of years ago; at times the logical out- 
come of his concrete illustrations can bo 
hardly more than a general continuity be- 
tween human and animal instincts and capaci- 
ties. In general he may fairly be said to ex- 
plain any similarities between present and 
ancestral conditions by a recapitulatory tend- 
ency rather than by similarity in conditions 
and to seek constantly for such similarities. 
Many of his explanations are so purely specu- 



lative as to weaken his argument. One is 
amused more than edified by reading that the 
' candle-light fever,' the excitement of children 
before bed-time, may be ' the reverberation 
in modern souls of the joy that in some pre- 
historic times hailed the Prometheus art of 
controlling fire and defying night.' And 
what can he mean by oiiering as evidence of 
mental recapitulation of a piscine stage the 
fact that the whales and others have changed 
from terrestrial to marine life (see Vol. II., 
p. 195) ? And does not the argument become 
a trifle intricate when the fear of water and 
the love of water and the sitting ' by the hour 
seeing and hearing the movements of water in 
sea and stream' all prove recapitulation? 

President Hall's educational recommenda- 
tions will be read by many who will skip his 
summaries of facts and misunderstand such 
of his psychological speculations as they do 
not forget. They are the most personal and 
heartfelt portions of the book, with the excep- 
tion of the eulogy of adolescent love, and will 
refresh many a student wearied by modern 
pedagogy. His fundamental principles are 
sufficiently startling. The tendency of evolu- 
tion, in other words, the probable future, 
should be the goal of human effort. Morality 
is simply being up to and ahead of the times. 
The survival of a race proves the moral fitness 
of the individuals composing it; therefore, 
educate people to survive and propagate. You 
thus improve them. Delay the age of nubil- 
ity, because the germs inherit the acquisi- 
tions of the individual, nay more, inherit the 
natures of previous ancestors only as the in- 
dividual reacquires them. The latest stage in 
evolution is your goal, but omit no one of the 
earlier stages, for each is a sine qua non for 
the next. To be rid of a trait , in later life 
cultivate it for a time in youth. But if you 
don't dare to let children be cruel and quarrel- 
some, at least let them contemplate these traits 
in literary or dramatic presentations. 

In concrete recommendations the influence 
of this amazing creed is outweighed by that 
of President Hall's great practical wisdom and 
sharpest insight into the follies of our present 
traditionalism. The readers of this journal 
deserve, in the case of his comments on sci- 



144 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



ence in the seliools, a more detailed review 
than has been possible of the book as a whole. 
" Science should be taught first in a large, 
all-comprehensive way, not without a distinct- 
ly religious spirit." In childhood and youth 
we should encourage the ' sentimental re- 
sponse ' to nature. Then should come popular 
science with many object lessons and stories 
of the heroes of science. Then the applica- 
tions of science ; ' the practical technological 
side of science should precede its purer forms.' 
' Last and highest comes pure science.' For 
example, in physics teach boys and girls much 
about the heroes of science and the drama of 
research, diminish quantitative work, be more 
superficial for the sake of harmony with the 
recapitulation theory, make large use of me- 
chanical toys, photography and the like. Let 
astronomy declare the glory of God . rather 
than of precise measurements. Let biology 
emphasize life activities and the general theoi-y 
of evolution. In general President Hall's 
destructive criticism of present high school 
test books of science, in which the zaan of 
science seems to postulate that what he hap- 
pens to know and be interested in is what 
school-boys should learn, is stronger and will 
be more profitable than his positive suggestion 
that we revert to the personification of ani- 
mals, ecstasies over nature and the goodness 
of God, and superficial cosmologies. The 
superficial cosmology has, perhaps, more in 
its favor than the present generation of men 
of science will admit. But it seems to entail 
rote memorizing as a method of study. 

Two general features of the volumes, one 
of content and one of style, it is the reviewer's 
duty to note. The acts and feelings, normal 
and morbid, resulting from sex are discussed 
in a way without precedent in English science. 
To realize the material presented one must 
combine his memories of medical text-books, 
erotic poetry and inspirational preaching. 
Witness the following : " Every gemmule is 
mobilized and the sacred hour of heredity 
normally comes when adolescence is complete 
in wedlock and the cerebro-spinal rings up 
the sympathetic system, and this hands over 
the reins to the biophores and germ cells, 
which now assert their dominance over those 



of the soma. In the most unitary of all acts, 
which is the epitome and pleroma of life, we 
have the most intense of all aifirmations of 
the will to live and realize that the only true 
God is love, and the center of life is worship. 
Every part of mind and body participates in 
a true pangenesis. This sacrament is the an- 
nunciation hour which the whole world re- 
flects. Communion is fusion and beatitude. 
It is the supreme hedonic narcosis, a holy 
intoxication, the chief ecstasy, because the 
most intense of experiences; it is the very 
heart of psychology, and because it is the 
supreme pleasure of life it is the eternal basis, 
and guarantee of optimism. * * * 

" Keproduction is always sacrificial. Man 
learns to live by dying and his life is at best 
a masterly retreat. Relaxation and detumes- 
cence are the first faint symptoms from afar 
of' senile involution and the Nemesis of death, 
toward which the individual shrivels. After- 
the high tide in which the ars amandi cul- 
minates, lifting existence, like the great bore 
on the Chinese rivers, the law of post coitum 
triste is gradually accentuated with increasing 
years. Now man truly knows good and evil,, 
euphoria and disphoria, and is, polarized to 
pleasure and pain." 

The feature of style is a baffling junction 
within the same paragraph, or even sentence,, 
of statements which to the commonplace mind 
have no logical connection. The extraordin- 
ary range and vivacity of the author's in- 
terests are probably the cause. But some 
sacrifice should have been made to the com- 
monplace thinker who will puzzle long and, 
perhaps, in vain to see the unity or logic of^ 
the hundreds of passages like the following: 
" The chief reason why our Bible is the best 
of all ethnic Bibles is because it is so deeply 
based upon genetic truth. The story of crea- 
tion is full of ancient and subtle symbols of 
divine generation. The tale of Eden and the 
fall, whatever historic validity it may or may 
not have, is a masterly allegory of the first 
stage in the decadence of love. Abraham, a 
nomad sheik, was a breeder of cattle, and the 
promise was that he should be a breeder of 
men like the stars of the heavens for multitude. 
Circumcision was a hygienic measure of great 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



145 



efficacy, as we shall see, as well as a covenant. 
The long wars with the Oanaanites and Baal 
worshippers were conflicts with phallicism, to 
the gross orgies of which the chosen people 
were always lapsing. All early Hebrew his- 
tory shows that while man knows how to breed 
cattle, Jehovah could breed men, and it is a 
study of human heredity far more effective 
than Plato knew how to make it. The New 
Testament begins with the annunciation and 
conception from on high, and a nursery scene 
of moving bucolic power, while Islam hypos- 
tatizes only the former." And what strength 
is added to a eulogy of wrestling by the last 
clause of this sentence : " The very closeness 
of body to body, emphasizing flexor rather 
than extensor arm muscles, imparts to it a 
peculiar tone, gives it a vast variety of pos- 
sible activities, developing many alternatives 
at every stage, and tempts to many undiscov- 
ered forms of mayhem." These two samples 
were taken practically at random, but one 
puzzling association so rings in the reviewer's 
ears that he must allow it a motor discharge. 
It concerns the psychology of prison life and 
is, " Not only men, but women fall* in a 
school-girl mash, but women can not organize 
or complot." Edward L. Thorndike. 

Teachees College, 
Columbia IlKrvEESiTY. 



and 653,627 in the dorsal roots, these numbers 
being in the ratio of 1 : 3.2. In the white rat 
this ratio is 1 : 2.3 and in the frog 1 : 1.2, indi- 
cating that probably the relative sensory sup- 
ply increases as we ascend in the zoological 
series. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 
The leading article in the Journal of Com- 
parative Neurology and Psychology for June 
is ' An Enumeration of the lledullated Nerve 
Fibers in the Ventral Eoots of the Spinal 
Nerves of Man,' by Charles E. Ingbert, a 
direct continuation of the same author's for- 
nier enumeration of the dorsal root fibers of 
man. An extensive discussion of the areas of 
the cross-sections of each root, the number of 
fibers per square millimeter of the cross-sec- 
tions and the relation between the dorsal and 
ventral roots is followed by figures and tabula- 
tions giving the data for each fascicle of each 
nerve root. There are 203,700 medullated 
nerve fibers in the ventral roots of the left side 

* The actual text is pall, which to the reviewer 
makes a truer statement, but the context suggests 
the correction. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
THE TOEEEY BOT.ANICAL CLUB. 

The meeting of May 10, 1904, was held in 
the library of the New York College of 
Pharmacy, Eev. L. H. Lighthipe presid- 
ing. 

The first paper on the scientific program 
was by Dr. H. M. Eichards, entitled, ' Notes 
on the Peat Bogs of Ireland.' The peat bogs 
have been variously estimated as covering 
from one fifth to one tenth of the surface 
of Ireland; probably the larger estimate is 
excessive. 

Dr. Eichard's observations at several points 
on the west coast including Donegal and Achill 
Island were given. The basis of the bogs is* 
not always the same, but in some cases it is 
glacial gravel. The thickness of the peat 
varies from one or two feet to forty feet, but 
no exposures of more than twenty-five feet 
thickness were seen. On the slopes and hill- 
sides the peat is thinner, but becomes accu- 
mulated in the lower situations so that the 
thickness of the bog does not necessarily show 
its age. Bogs have been known to burst, as 
in Sligo, in 1831, and to do considerable dam- 
age to houses below them. 

The peat is mostly vegetable matter and 
yields veiy little ash. According to Lyell, its 
formation is supposed to be due to the low 
temperature preventing complete decomposi- 
tion of the vegetable matter. Peat is not 
formed in warm countries and the additions to 
the beds are made in cold weather. In the 
bogs seen there was standing water only in 
the holes and ditches, but the soil was wet and 
soggy. Comparatively little of the bog oak 
is found. Some of the stumps are in place, 
showing that they are not driftwood carried 
into the bog. The dark color and hardness 
of the bog oak are said to be due to the action 
of a diatom, a Melosira, and the formation of 
bog iron ore is supposed to be due to the same 



146 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



diatom. It was suggested that part of this 
action may be due as well to Crenothrix. 
There is little of vegetable remains except at 
the top of the bog. Sphagnum makes up a 
comparatively small part of the peat bog 
vegetation as seen in the localities mentioned, 
and sphagnum peat is not so highly prized for 
fuel. A small Oarex seemed to be the prin- 
cipal peat forming plant. Two species of 
Drosera grow in profusion and the heather 
and ling thrive very well and contribute con- 
siderably to the peat. Pteridium and several 
small ferns are rather common. Sphagnum 
and many fresh-water alg83 grow in the holes 
and ditches, and from such places West has 
made fine collections of algse, especially des- 
mids. Peat bog soil has been found to be 
very sterile and at least two years are required 
to reclaim it, the method including throwing it 
up and exposing it to the air, and the applica- 
tion of fertilizers and lime. The cause of this 
sterility is not clearly understood, and is, per- 
haps, due to the lack of some of the necessary 
mineral salts and to the fact that the nitro- 
genous materials may not be in the best avail- 
able form for plant nutrition. Some of the 
reclaimed peat bogs are very fertile lands, but 
if neglected they quickly run back to their 
sterile condition. If cultivation ceases, the 
Pteridium, heather and carices come back in 
a few years. 

The second paper of the evening was by Dr. 
Marshall A. Howe, under title of ' Eemarks 
on some "West Indian Marine Alg».' The re- 
marks were based chiefly upon specimens col- 
lected by the speaker in March and April of 
the present year on the Florida Keys and the 
Bahama Islands, supplemented by specimens 
from Bermuda and Porto Eico and also by 
some obtained on a previous visit to Key West. 
The discussion was confined to the families 
Caulerpaeeas and Codiaceas, members of the 
order Siphonales and class Chlorophyceje. 
The family Caulerpacese, according to the 
more recent writers, consists of the Single 
genus Gaiilerpa, with probably sixty or more 
well-defined species, including plants of a 
great diversity of form and habit. Some of 
the earlier phycologists, impressed by these 



evident difi'erences, suggested generic segrega- 
tions, and it is probable that some of the pro- 
posed genera are as well limited as are many 
of the current genera among the Agaricacese. 
There is, however, not such an unwieldy num- 
ber pi species to afford an excuse for generic 
splitting as is the case with the agarics, and 
there is practically nothing but habit and ex- 
ternal form to lay hold of in limiting species 
and attempting generic segregations. Speci- 
mens were shown illustrating the principal 
sectional or subgeneric groups. 

The Codiacese were illustrated by specimens 
of Codium, Avrainvillea, Penicillus, Bhipo- 
cephalus, JJdotea and Halim,eda. The genera 
Penicillus and Bhipocephalus are especially 
well represented in the Bahama Islands. Four 
species of Penicillus and two of Bhipocephalus 
were shown, all of which were found growing 
within a mile radius in Bemini Harbor, Ba- 
hamas. One of these is supposed to be the 
species described from the Bahamas by 
Decaisne in 1842 as Penicillus oblongus and 
apparently not met with in the meantime. 
This species was transferred to the genus 
Bhipocephalus by Kuetzing. In reality it 
stands between the genera Penicillus and 
Bhipocephalus and weakens the distinction 
between them. It is easily a Bhipocephalus 
when it is young, but as it gets older becomes 
more like a Penicillus and might then be 
casually passed by as a form of the common 
Penicillus capitatus. The head, however, is 
usually more oblong than in that species, the 
branching of the threads of the brush is char- 
acteristic and the arrangement of the threads 
in the apical or younger part of the brush is 
always distinctive. 

Among the species and forms of Ealimeda 
exhibited was one from the Plorida Keys 
which is soon to be described as a new species. 
This has been confused with Halimeda Tuna 
by both American and foreign students of the 
genus, but is readily distinguished from that 
and other described species by the fact that 
the surface of each cortical tube or ' cell ' is 
drawn out into a strong spine. 

William T. Horne, 
Secretary pro tern. 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



147 



DI80US8WN AND CORItESPONDBNCE. 

THE METRIC SYSTEM. 

To THE Editor of Science : I wisli to add a 
hearty amen to what Professor Webster has 
said iu Science^ for June 3, 1904, in reference 
to the timidity of a few (a very few, I think 
and hope) of the friends of the metric system 
of weights and measures. As it is now more 
than a third of a century since I joined in an 
active dissemination of information regarding 
this system and an earnest advocacy of 
metrological reform through its adoption, and 
as I have enjoyed many opportunities for 
knowing the attitude of the people on this 
question, in various parts of the United 
States and at various times during these years, 
I hope I shall not be accused of extravagant 
or careless statement when I say that there 
are many more advocates of the adoption of 
the metric system in the country to-day than 
ever before, and that the opposition to it is not 
increasing, but everywhere steadily, and in 
some regions rapidly, decreasing. I will not 
undertake an elaborate proof of this statement, 
for it is quite unnecessary to do so and it 
will be generally admitted, I think, among 
those who have thoroughly investigated the 
subject. This sentiment is especially reflected 
in the general unanimity of opinion among 
representatives in congress, coming from all 
parts of the country and particularly in the 
aggressive and well-organized opposition that 
has developed within a few years. Indeed, 
nothing has been more encouraging to the 
friends of metrological reform than the rather 
sudden appearance of this not inconsiderable 
and always respectable mass of conservatism 
in battle array, for if the metric system can 
not stand under the most searching criticism 
or relentless opposition, then it ought to fall. 
Although it may be truthfully declared that 
there is not an argument against the adoption 
of the system that was not met and refuted 
more than twenty years ago, the recent publi- 
cation of papers, pamphlets, letters, etc., in 
which the old objections have been restated 
and the old arguments bolstered up, has served 
a useful purpose in bringing their weakness to 
the attention of a larger audience. The 



people will understand after a while, and they 
are beginning to understand now, that the 
commercial interests of the country, both 
domestic and foreign, are bearing an enormous 
and wholly unnecessary load on account of the 
selfishness of a really small group of men 
engaged in a special industry, whose opposi- 
tion is generally not due to any objection to 
the new system itself, but only to the alleged 
cost of substituting it for the old. In the 
meantime our great competitors in the world's 
activities have learned their lesson, most of 
them long ago ; the only one still holding fast 
(with lis) to this relic of barbarism, a thor- 
oughly unscientific system of weights and 
measures, is just on the point of letting go. 
That we must follow in the near future is cer- 
tain and all discussion, even including unrea- 
soning opposition, must hasten the day. 

It is of the greatest importance, however, 
that there should be no temporizing or ' arbi- 
tration' with the opposition to this, one of 
the most, if not the most, important economic 
reform yet brought to the attention of our 
people. It would be infinitely better to wait 
a few years longer (in which the inevitable 
operation of natural causes , will greatly di- 
minish the number of opponelits) than to 
yield to any suggestion looking to the reten- 
tion of the old units of lengths and mass or 
to any modification, in any essential feature, 
of the system as it is now in almost universal 
use among civilized nations. 

There is a great necessity for a reform in 
the method of using weights and measures in 
ordinary commercial transactions, to which 
the metric system lends itself, and which will 
be one of the most important incidental ad- 
vantages of its adoption. I refer to the more 
general use of weight instead of capacity 
measures. Practically, nearly every transac- 
tion involving quantity of matter can be better 
managed by weighing than by measuring; 
better, because nearly always far more ac- 
curately, and generally more conveniently. In 
the part of the world in which I am writing, 
the kilogram is practically the only unit 
used in dealing with all commodities, except- 
ing, of course, textile fabrics and the like. 
There is nothing taking the place of the bar- 



148 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



rel, bushel, peck, quart, etc., for apples, 
peaches, cherries, strawberries and berries of 
all kinds, potatoes, asparagus and, as far as I 
have been able to note, all vegetables and prac- 
tically all fruits, except oranges (sold by- 
count) are weighed out in kilos or grams. 
The man with the push-cart who peddles these 
things in the street always weighs them, and 
even the basket-man, whose entire stock in 
trade may often be bought for less than ten 
cents, carries his steelyard-like balance thrown 
over his shoulder. Indeed, I have never seen, 
as I have gone about the streets of Italian 
cities, in any of the many vegetable shops or 
other shops where food material is sold at re- 
tail, any other method of measuring quantity, 
barring a very few cases in which counting 
is used, as in dealing with^ eggs or oranges; 
even liquids are generally sold by weight and 
when a liter of anything is asked for it is 
usually weighed. This morning I happened 
to visit one of the largest grocery and food- 
supply houses in Florence. Among an almost 
infinite variety of products sold here there may 
be mentioned, peas, beans (dry), hominy, 
meal of various kinds, etc., alcohol, benzine, 
petroleum and very many other articles, all of 
which in the United States would ordinarily 
be sold by the quart, peck, gallon or other 
capacity measure. 

The manager told me that all of these, even 
including wine in which he deals largely, are 
sold only by weight; that he had ouce had a 
single liter measure in his store which he had 
used for a time in measuring petroleum, but 
that he now has no capacity measure whatever 
in his entire establishment. In some shops 
petroleum is sold by volume, but in many 
others always by weight. 

The use of weight instead of volume is a 
great benefit to the purchaser and is equally 
advantageous to the honest dealer, but it is 
only possible in a system in which the trans- 
lation from mass to volume is quickly and. 
easily made. Weighing can always be done 
with a much higher degree of accuracy than is 
possible with volume measuring, allowing the 
same time and care. 

Cheating by means of false measures, or 
by correct measures loosely filled or ' topped,' 



is very common, and inspectors find it diffi- 
cult to deal with. False balances and weights 
are much more easily detected. Then there is 
that large collection of most uncertain meas- 
ures of extensive use but without the least 
legal standing, including the box, basket, 
crate, package, ' bunch ' and the like, by means 
of which peaches, berries, etc., are retailed to 
a confiding public, the capacity of box or 
basket depending entirely on the disposition 
of the dealer and the scarcity of the commod- 
ity. It is worth a good deal to be protected 
from this sort of petty robbery. 

T. C. M. 
Florence, Italy, 
June 17, 1904. 

HONORAEY DEGREES IN ENGINEERING. 

To THE Editor of Science: For several 
years our technical press has called attention 
after each commencement season to the dis- 
proportionately small number of engineers 
among those whose attainments receive the 
sanction of academic approval in the form of 
honorary degrees. The Street Railway Jour- 
nal, the exponent in America of the most pro- 
gressive branch of electrical engineering, calls 
attention to this unsatisfactory state of af- 
fairs in its issue of July 16. 

The value of education is to a very great 
extent realized in service, and there is no 
better indication of true appreciation of the 
ends of education on the part of our institu- 
tions which are devoted mainly to the begin- 
nings of it than the conferring of honorary 
degrees wisely. 

Our universities, to the extent that they 
stand for research, have an end in themselves, 
and academic honors are promptly bestowed 
upon those who contribute to the advancement 
of learning. Our colleges and technical 
schools, on the other hand, are devoted almost 
exclusively to teaching and they have no end 
in themselves. No college teacher can draw 
much inspiration from the meager attainments 
of his untried graduates. The fruit of his 
labor is extra-academic, and the effectiveness 
of his labor depends upon his being sufficiently 
a man of the world to know these fruits and 
to draw his inspiration from them. If the 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



149 



granting of honorary degrees by our colleges 
to men outside of academic life has any reason 
to be, and surely it has, it is because such 
academic recognition is an expression of ap- 
preciation on the part of the personnel of the 
college of the things in which alone the re- 
sults of their labors take on the garb of reality. 
As an expression of this kind of appreciation 
the function of the college in the granting of 
honorary degrees contributes vastly more to 
the credit of the college when wisely per- 
formed than to the sum of honor that rests 
upon those who do the world's work and carry 
its heavy dignities. 

Quite the most absurd notion respecting 
this conferring of honorary degrees is the 
more or less confused idea of many a circum- 
scribed academician that it is the making 
rather than the marking of a distinction ; and 
growing out of this pitifully foolish idea is 
the exaggerated dread of the prostitution of 
this really vital function of our acadernic 
institutions. 

Let one read the words of President Van 
Hise (Science, July 15, p. 92) and consider 
whether anything could be more stimulating 
to a group of young graduates at a time when 
everything conspires to awake in them the 
most serious emotions. If the granting of 
honorary degrees is not a vital function it 
may easily be made such, and as such its 
greatest, perhaps its only benefit would accrue 
to the institution performing it. 

It is a general impression, and perhaps it 
is true, that the number of engineers is dis- 
proportionately small among those who at 
each commencement season receive honorary 
degrees. If it is true, it is to be hoped that 
some of our larger schools of engineering may 
consider it. In any ease it would be appro- 
priate for our Society for the Promotion of 
Engineering Education to look into the 
matter. W. 

^ ' PTERIDOSPERM.'i.PHYTA.' 

To TPiE Editor of Science: In proposing 
the name ' Pteridospermaphyta ' (Science for 
July 1, 1904, p. 25), Professor Lester F. Ward" 
does not seem to have" noticed that Oliver and 



Scott have published ' PteridospermEe ' as the 
name of the group, in a paper presented to 
the Royal Society, January 21, 1904, entitled 
' On the Structure of the Paleozoic Seed 
Lagenostoma Lomaxi, with a Statement of the 
Evidence upon which it is Referred to Lygino- 
dendron.' Abstract preprints of this paper 
were distributed early in the year, were pub- 
lished prominently in Nature, 69 : 334, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1904, and reviewed in the Botanical 
Gazette, 37: 237, March, 1904. The name 
was further established by Oliver in a paper 
entitled ' A New Pteridosperm,' published in 
the New Phytologist, 4: 32, January, 1904, 
and also reviewed in the Botanical Gazette 
(1. c). 

It was proposed by Oliver and Scott to 
establish ' a distinct class,' under the name 
Pteridospermse, to ' embrace those paleozoic 
plants with the habit and much of the internal 
organization of ferns, which were reproduced 
by means of seeds.' John M. Coulter. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 
AUTOTOMY, regeneration AND NATURAL 

selection. 
History warns us that it is the customary fate 
of new truths to begin as heresies and to end as 
superstitions; and as matters now stand it is 
hardly rash to anticipate that in another twenty 
years the new generation, educated under the 
influences of the present day, will be in danger 
of accepting the main doctrines of the ' Origin of 
Species ' with as little reflection and it may be 
with as little justification as so many of our 
centemporaries twenty years ago rejected them. 
—Huxley, 1880. 

Huxley's prophecy has not been quite ful- 
filled, for the fate of natural selection as a 
scientific account of organic adaptations still 
depends on the testimony of witnesses. Never- 
theless, the warning of 1880 is a wholesome 
stimulant to take before considering some 
recent objections that selection accounts 
neither for the process of self-mutilation, so 
common among the Crustacea, nor for the 
ability of living things in general to repair 
injuries by the restoration of lost parts. 

These two processes, autotomy and regenera- 
tion, have been studied by those who consider 



150 



SCIENCE: 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



them evidence in favor of selection, as well as 
by those to whom Darwinian explanations 
seem absurd. In this latter group is Professor 
T. H. Morgan, whose books, ' Eegeneration ' 
and ' Evolution ' and Adaptation,' * assert 
the inadequacy of selection. As the work 
summarized in the first volume has inspired 
the point of view from which the second one 
was written, a careful criticism of the former 
is a test of the soundness of the latter. Such 
criticism is difficult, not only from the nature 
of the subject, but especially because of a 
paradoxical frame of mind due to my agree- 
ment with Professor Morgan's main conten- 
tion without being able to accept his own 
reasons for it. 

Autotomy. — ^Professor Morgan regards the 
process of autotomy as a fatal stumbling 
block for the theory of natural selection. 
Thus on page 155 of 'Regeneration' we read: 

Even if it were granted that the theory of 
natural selection is correct, it does not follow 
that all useful processes have arisen under its 
guidance. We may, therefore, leave the general 
question aside, and inquire whether the process 
of autotomy could have arisen through natural 
selection (admitting that there is such a process 
for the sake of the present argument), or whether 
autotomy must be due to something else. 

If we assume that the leg of some individual 
Cray fishes or crabs, for example, broke ofif, when 
injured, more easily at one. place than at another, 
and that regeneration took place as well, or even 
better, from this region than from any other, 
and if we further assume that those animals in 
which this happened would have had a better 
chance of survival than their fellows, then it 
might seem to follow that in time there would 
be more of this kind of animal that survived. 
But even these assumptions are not enough, for 
we must also assume that this particular varia- 
tion was more likely to occur in the descendants 
of those that had it best developed, and that 
amongst those forms that survived, some had the 
same mechanism developed in a still higher degree, 
and, the process of selection again taking place, 
a further advance would be made in the direction 
of autotomy. This, I think, is a fair, although 
brief, statement of the conventional argument as 

* ' Regeneration,' by Thomas Hunt Morgan, The 
Macmillan Company, New York, 1901. ' Evolu- 
tion and Adaptation,' by Thomas Hunt Morgan, 
The Macmillan Company, New York, 1903. 



to how the process of natural selection takes place. 
But let us look further and see if the results 
cbuld be really carried out in the way imagined, 
shutting our eyes for the moment to the number 
of suppositions that it is necessary to make in 
order that the change may occur. It will not 
be difficult, I believe, to show that even on these 
assumptions the result could not be reached. In 
the first place, the crabs that are not injured in 
each generation are left out of account, and 
amongst these there will be some, it is true, that 
have the particular variation as well developed 
as the best amongst those that were injured, and 
others that have the average condition, but there 
will be still others that have the possibilities less 
highly developed, and the two latter classes will 
be, on the hypothesis, more numerous than those 
in the first class. The uninjured crabs will also 
have an advantage, so far as breeding and resist- 
ing the attacks of their enemies are concerned, 
as compared with those that have been injured, 
and in consequence they, rather than the injured 
one, will be more likely to leave descendants. 
Even if some of those that have been injured, 
and have thrown off the leg at the most advan- 
tageous place, should interbreed with the unin- 
jured crabs, still nothing, or very little, can be 
gained, because, on Darwinian principles, inter- 
crossing of this sort will soon bring back the ex- 
treme variations to the average. 

The process of natural selection could at best 
only bring about the result provided all crabs in 
each generation lose one or more of their legs, 
and amongst these only the ones survive that 
break off the leg at the most advantageous place; 
but no such wholesale injury takes place, aa 
direct observation has shown. At any one time 
only a small percentage, about ten per cent., have 
regenerating legs, and as the time required com- 
pletely to regenerate a leg, even in the summer, 
is quite long, this percentage must give an ap- 
proximate idea of the extent of exposure to in- 
jury. It is strange that those who assert off- 
hand that, because autotomy is a useful process, 
therefore it must have been acquired by natural 
selection, haVe not taken the pains to work out 
how this could have come about. Had they done 
so, I can not but believe they would have seen how 
great the difficulties are that stand in the way. 

A further difficulty is met when we find that 
each leg of the crab has the same mechanism. 
If we reject as preposterous the idea that natural 
selection has developed in each leg the same struc- 
ture, then we must suppose that a crab varies in 
the same direction in all its legs at the same time; 
and if this is true it is obvious that the prin- 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



151 



ciple of variation must be a far more important 
factor in tlie result than the picking out of the 
most extreme variations. The same laws that 
determine that one individual varies in a useful 
direction farther than do other individuals may, 
after all, account for the entire series of changes. 
If it be replied that natural selection does not 
take into account the causes of the differences of 
individual varia,tion, this is to admit that it 
avowedly leaves out of account the very prin- 
ciples that may in themselves, and without the 
aid of any such supposed process as natural selec- 
tion, bring about the result. The Lamarckian 
principle of use and disuse does not give an ex- 
planation of autotomy, since the region of tha 
breaking-joint is not the weakest region of the 
leg, or the place at which the leg would be most 
likely to be injured. 

We can not assume autotomy to be a fvinda- 
mental character of living things, since it occurs 
only under special conditions, and in special 
regions of the body. While it might be possible 
to trace the autotomy of the legs of the Crustacea, 
myriapods and insects, to a common ancestral 
form, yet this is extremely improbable, because 
the process takes place in only a relatively few 
forms in each group. The autotomy of the wings 
of white ants that takes place along a preexisting 
breaking line must certainly have been independ- 
ently acquired in this group. The breaking off of 
the end of the foot in the snail helicarion is also 
a special acquirement within the group of mol- 
lusca. 

Bordage has suggested that the development of 
the breaking joint at the base of the leg of 
phasmids has been acquired in connection with 
the process of moulting. He lias observed that 
during this period the leg can not, in some cases, 
be successfully withdrawn through the small basal 
region; and hence, if it could not break off, the 
animal would remain anchored to the old exo- 
skeleton. It escapes at the expense of losing its 
leg. The animal, having acquired the means of 
breaking off its leg under these conditions, might 
also make use of the same mechanism when the 
leg is held or injured, and thereby escape its 
enemy. The fact that the crayfish has a break- 
ing joint only for the large first pair of legs would 
seem to be in favor of this interpretation, but the 
crab has the same mechanism for the slender 
walking legs that one would suppose could be 
easily withdrawn from the old covering. It 
should also be remembered that we do not know 
whether the breaking joint at the base of the leg 
of the crab and of the crayfish would act at the 
time when the leg is being withdrawn from the 



old exoskeleton, unless the leg were first injured 
outside of the joint. 

Our analysis leads to the conclusion that we 
can neither account for the phenomenon of 
autotomy as due . to internal causes alone in 
the sense of its being a general property of 
protoplasm, nor to an external cause, in the sense 
of a reaction to injuiy or loss, from accident. 
There would seem then only one possibility left, 
namely, that it is a result of both together, or in 
other words, a process that the animal has ac- 
quired in connection with the conditions under 
which it lives, or in other words, an adaptive re- 
sponse of the organism to its conditions of life. 

We are not, however, able at present to push 
these questions farther, for, however probable it 
may seem that animals and plants may acquire 
characteristics useful to them in their special 
conditions of life, and yet not of suificient impor- 
tance to be decisive in a life-and-death struggle, 
still we can not, at present, state how this could 
have taken place in the course of evolution. For, 
however plausible it may appear that the useful 
structure has been built up through an inter- 
action between the organism and its environment, 
we can not afford to leave out of sight another 
possibility, viz., that the structure or action may 
have appeared independently of the environment, 
but after it appeared the organism adopted a 
new environment to which its new characters 
made it better suited. If the latter alternative is 
true, we should look in vain if we tried to find 
out how the interaction of the environment 
brought about the adaptation. The relation 
would not be a causal one, in a physical sense, 
but the outcome\ of a different sort of a relation, 
viz., the restriction of the organism to the environ- 
ment in which it can remain in existence and leave 
descendants. 

For one whose life consists of a struggle for 
existence, it is difficult to appreciate the deli- 
cate humor with which Professor Morgan ' ad- 
mits ' natural selection for the sake of argu- 
ment; it is more difficult for him to under- 
stand the objection that variations are not 
fit until they have been fitted into some part 
of the external world; but it is harder yet for 
him to see that ' the restriction of the organism 
to the environment in which it can remain in 
existence and leave descendants ' differs from 
' natural selection ' except in the number of 
words used to express the same idea. These 
minor points, however, have little bearing on 
the evidence from autotomy. To appreciate 



152 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



the value of this evidence it is necessary first 
of all to disentangle the fact that the crab 
has a mechanism to facilitate self -mutilation, 
from the fact that the mutilated parts are 
restored. This distinction is not only easy 
to make, since the legs regenerate at other 
levels, but it is also very important. One 
who recognizes the independence of these two 
facts does not hold the foolish opinions attrib- 
uted to him any more than he accounts for 
his ability to mend a broken clavicle by refer- 
ring to gifted ancestors whose success in life 
depended on the frequency and completeness 
with which they broke their collar bones. 

The separation between the fact that there 
is a mechanism for throwing off legs, and the 
fact that the legs are regenerated from the 
point at which they are thrown off, leaves for 
consideration only the basis of the belief that 
the breaking joint is not of use to the species. 
The evidence for this belief is as follows : 
' At any one time only a small percentage, 
about ten per cent., have regenerating legs, 
and as the time required completely to re- 
generate a leg even in the summer is quite 
long, this percentage must give an approxi- 
mate idea of the extent of exposure to injury.' 
Thus the extent to which the mechanism is 
used is held to be too slight to account for 
its existence in the other ninety per cent, of 
the crabs. However, as this determination is 
only for ' any one time,' it falls into a class 
of statistical evidence which shows, according 
to Professor Brooks, that ' our subject matter 
lies midway between those exact sciences in 
which we are told that figures can not lie 
* * * and those social and political sciences 
which show us continually how easily one may 
lie with figures.'* 

Granted that at any given time ten per 
cent, of crabs show that they have made use 
of the mechanism for throwing off their legs, 
this percentage gives no idea of the extent 
to which each crab uses the breaking joints 
during its entire life. How long a crab lives 
is not definitely known, but from analogy and 
indirect evidence five years is within the limit 
of life for some species. ' As the time re- 

* W. K. Brooks, ' The Intellectual Conditions 
for Embryological Science,' Science, XV., p. 488. 



quired completely to regenerate a leg even in 
the summer is quite long,' it follows that in 
six months an appendage may regenerate com- 
pletely. 

Five years represent ten periods of six 
months. If in each period we were to count 
the ten injured individuals of a given hun- 
dred, then at the end of the full term we 
should have counted one hundred injuries, 
which, according to the doctrine of chance, 
would have been distributed among sixty-five 
individuals. Thus in five years, two out of 
three crabs would have been injured one or 
more times. 

Regeneration. — Professor Morgan's book is 
one continuous protest that natural selection 
does not account for the ability of organisms 
to regenerate lost parts. Thus on the last 
page of ' Regeneration ' he summarizes his 
convictions in the following words : " It seems 
highly probable that the regenerative process 
is one of the fundamental attributes of living 
things, and that we can find no explanation 
of it as the outcome of the selective agency 
of the environment. The phenomena of re- 
generation appear to belong to the general 
category of growth phenomena and as such are 
characteristic of organisms." 

This demonstration, ' that the regenerative 
process is one of the fundamental attributes 
of living things,' seems valid; but to those 
who believe that natural selection is a law of 
nature, proof that the regenerative process is 
fundamental is likewise proof that natural 
selection has no bearing on this process. 
Natural selection is not an explanation of 
things ultimate any more than the law of 
falling bodies is an explanation of the funda- 
mental characteristics of matter. No one 
holds that Newton's laws are invalidated be- 
cause they do not explain the ultimate attri- 
butes of materials that fall, or of the space in 
which they fall, or why they fall in the order 
that we observe, because every one knows, or 
has known, that Newton's laws are merely 
records of events. Natural selection is the 
series of events which occurs in nature as the 
outcome of individual differences, the high 
rate of increase and the environment of liv- 
ing things. The charge, therefore, that this 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



153 



series of events does not explain one of the 
fundamental attributes of living matter is 
irrelevant. 

An explanation of this curious misappre- 
hension, as well as a remedy for it, may be 
found in the definition of regeneration as 
either the homomorphic or the heteromorphic 
replacement of lost parts, or the development 
of whole as well as imperfect organisms from 
pieces of adults, embryos or eggs. This 
definition leaves out of account a large class 
of true regenerative phenomena. Unless the 
term ' regeneration ' has become a technical 
one, intended to convey only half of its legiti- 
mate sense, every restorative process should 
be included under it. It seems to me that if 
all anabolic processes were included in our 
common acceptance of the term, we should 
neither forget that the ability to regenerate is 
a fundamental attribute of living things, nor 
try to account for it by natural selection. 

0. C. Glasee. 

Johns Hopkins UisrivEiisiTT. 



CURRENT NOTES ON METEOROLOGY. 
JAMES GLAISHEB. 

In the Quarterly Journal of the Boyal 
Meteorological Society, Vol. XXX., 1904, pp. 
1-27, Mr. "William Marriott, assistant secre- 
tary of the society, has a paper on the meteor- 
ological work of the late James Glaisher, 
F.R.S., whose death, in February, 1903, was 
duly noted in these columns. Glaisher was 
the founder of the Eoyal Meteorological So- 
ciety in 1850. He had, in 1840, been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the magnetic and 
meteorological department of the Eoyal Ob- 
servatory, Greenwich. He soon became in- 
terested in and conversant with all kinds of 
meteorological investigations, and through his 
instrumentality numerous meteorological sta- 
tions were equipped in various parts of the 
country. From 1847 to March, 1902, he sup- 
plied quarterly the results from those stations 
to the registrar general. He prepared various 
tables of corrections for the use of the observ- 
ers, the principal of which were his ' Hygro- 
metrical Tables,' which have passed through 
nine editions. He was a juror of the Great 
Exhibition of 1851, and as such he caused a 



great stimulus to be given to the manufacture 
of reliable meteorological instruments. Glai- 
sher was best known to the public by the 
twenty-eight balloon ascents which he made 
for scientific purposes in the years 1862-1866, 
on behalf of a committee of the British Asso- 
ciation. A bibliography of the writings of 
Glaisher is appended, and the statement is 
made that the instruments which he used 
during his balloon ascents have been given 
to the Royal Meteorological Society by his 
son. The last paper by James Glaisher ap- 
peared in the Quarterly Statement of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, 1902, and is en- 
titled ' Rainfall at Jerusalem in the Forty-one 
Years 1861-1901.' 

THE DUST-FALL OF FEBRUARY^ 190 3 . 

'The Great Dust-Fall of February, 1903, 
and its Origin ' is discussed by H. R. Mill, 
R. G. K. Lempfert and J. S. Flett in the 
Quarterly Journal of the Boyal Meteorological 
Society, Vol. XXX., 1904, pp. 57-88. The 
dust fell over nearly all parts of England and 
Wales to the south of a line drawn from 
Anglesey through Wrexham and Northampton 
to Ipswich, except in parts of northern Corn- 
wall, Somerset, Wilts and Mid-Wales. At 
many stations to the north of this line the 
dust-fall did not attract the attention of ob- 
servers, but is believed to have taken place on 
account of the distinct marks of yellow dust 
detected on the sunshine cards sent in to the 
Meteorological Office. The dust usually at- 
tracted attention either in the form of a dense 
yellow haze, like a London fog, or as a reddish- 
yellow powder, lying thickly on trees or roofs, 
or adhering to windows. There is reason to 
believe that the air which reached the southern 
half of England on February 22 started from 
the northwest coast of Africa on the nine- 
teenth. Dr. Flett, who examin.ed the dust 
microscopically, reports that the bulk of each 
specimen of dust presented to him for exam- 
ination consisted of comparatively coarse par- 
ticles of mineral and organic origin derived 
from the locality where it was collected. In 
addition to the coarser particles, all the 
samples contained a very fine-grained reddish 
clay, the particles of which were too minute 



154 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



to be satisfactorily determined mineralog- 
ically. Tliis clay was derived from some 
source beyond the British Isles, but it was not 
distinctive enough to afford much evidence as 
to its place of origin. 

TEMPERATURE OF THE LOWER AIR. 

In the Meteorologische Zeitschrift, XXI., 
1904, pp. 49-62, Woeikof discusses the tem- 
perature of the lower air and the relation of 
this temperature to the temperature of the 
earth's surface. The vertical distribution of 
temperature in the ground is considered under 
two principal heads, ' I., The Sun, or Diurnal, 
Control,' and 'II., The Radiation, or Noc- 
turnal, Control.' There are four types. The 
first (A) is characterized by a mean annual 
surface temperature higher than that further 
down. Where observations are available, and 
where this type is well developed, the surface 
is warmer than the air. In type B the tem- 
perature increases regularly from the surface 
downward; this may be called the snow type, 
and prevails where the ground is snow-covered 
for the whole year, or for at least three quar- 
ters of the year. In type C the temperatures 
of air and surface are uniform, and this 
occurs in moist, rainy districts of the middle 
and higher middle latitudes where there is no 
regular snow cover. Type D has a consider- 
ably higher mean annual temperatui'e in the 
ground than in the air, and is, therefore, the 
rule in tropical and subtropical climates. 

NEW MOUNTAIN OBSERVATORIES IN LAPLAND. 

Nature of June 16, 1904, notes the success- 
ful establishment, by Dr. Hamberg, of Stock- 
holm, of meteorographs at two high-level sta- 
tions in Swedish Lapland. One of these, on 
the Portitjokko, at 1850 meters, has been work- 
ing satisfactorily since July, 1902, with the 
exception of occasional interruptions of the 
anemometer owing to hoar frost. The second 
is on the Sahkok, at about 1,080 meters. Each 
set of apparatus weighs 1,000 kilograms. The 
clocks are to run for a year, the ' weights ' 
being 300 kilograms each. Instead of using 
ink, which is unsatisfactory, punctures are 
made every twenty minutes in the papers cov- 
ering the drums of the instruments. 



NOTES. 

Hann, in his ' Handbuch der Klimatologie,' 
second edition, Vol. III., pp. 249-250, gives a 
few notes on the climate of Manchuria, based 
chiefly on an article by Rev. John Ross in the 
Scottish Geographical Magazine for May, 
1895. In del et Terre for June 1, 1904, a 
summary of these same observations is given. 

In the Scottish Geographical Magazine for 
June, Victor Dingelstedt describes the Cri- 
mean and Caucasian coasts of the Black Sea, 
finds them analogous in many ways to the 
Genoese and French coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean, and states the belief that these dis- 
tricts are about to be developed as a health 
resort for those who stand in need of a sojourn 
in mild climates. 

The importance of the cyclonic control of 
our temperatures in the eastern United States 
in winter, and the dominance of the diurnal 
(j. e., direct solar) control in summer, is 
brought out in a paper on ' The Temperature 
Element of the Climate of Binghamton, N. T.,' 
in the Monthly Weather Review, XXXIL, 
1904, p. 78. The discussion of climate with 
due emphasis on the weather controls which - 
bring about different types or extremes of 
temperature, pressure, wind velocity, etc., is 
a matter which deserves much more attention 
than it has yet received. 

In a paper on ' Certain Relationships be- 
tween the Diurnal Curves of Barometric Pres- 
sure and Vapor Tension at Kenilworth (Kim- 
berley). South Africa' (Quart. Journ. Boy. 
Met. Soc, XXX., 1904, 41-53), J. R. Sutton 
refers to the views of a number of leading 
meteorologists on the part played by vapor ten- 
sion as a component of barometric pressure, 
and brings forward a series of observations at 
Kimberley designed to throw light on the still 
unsolved problem of the diurnal barometric 
wave. 

Meteorological observations from the Arctic 
and the Antarctic are accumulating with re- 
markable rapidity. One of the latest addi- 
tions to the collection from the Arctic is the 
series of four years' observations taken during 
the second voyage of the Fram, under Captain 
Sverdrup (Appendix IV., in ' New Land : 



JUM 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



155 



i'our Tears in the Arctic Eegions,' by Otto 
Sverdrup; translated into English, 2 vols., 
London, 1904). E. DeC. Ward. 

Harvard University. 



NOTES ON ENTOMOLOGY. 

As if we did not have enough names for the 
orders of insects, Mr. A. E. Shipley generously 
gives us seven more.* These are presented 
for the sake of having the names of all the 
orders terminate in ' -ptera.' The new names 
are Apontoptera for Collembola, Lipoptera for 
Mallophaga, Ellipoptera for Anoplura, Psocop- 
tera for Psocidse, Embioptera for Embiidse, 
Ephemeroptera for Ephemeridffi, and Paran- 
europtera for Odonata. He appears to have 
overlooked the fact that the mayflies already 
had two ' -ptera ' names in Plectoptera and 
Anisoptera (Steph.). His new term, Ephem- 
eroptera, has already been used in the same 
sense some fourteen years ago. If the terms 
Aptera and Neuroptera, which in the past 
covered all sorts of creatures, can now be ap- 
plied to one order, why can not Archiptera or 
Pseudoneuroptera be restricted to the Odonata, 
and Synaptera to the Collembola; these latter 
names have had a much more exclusive mem- 
bership. Nothing is done by Mr. Shipley with 
the Hemiptera, although it is nearly as hetero- 
geneous as the Neuroptera of Linne. However, 
there are ' -ptera ' names (from 1835) for the 
four principal groups. 

Now if the ' -oura,' ' -gnatha ' and ' -poda ' 
partizans extend their nomenclature to the 
various orders, the requirements of science 
may be met. 

A recent book by Georges Guenaux is a use- 
ful compendium of European economic ento- 
mology.f It forms a volume, in G. Wery's 
' Encyclopedie Agricole.' About 100 pages are 
devoted to worms, the remainder to entomol- 
ogy. One chapter is devoted to structure and 
classification, then follow chapters on insects 
injurious to all crops, to cereals, to beets and 
clovers, to garden crops, to fruit trees, to the 
vine, to forest trees, to horticulture, in houses, 
to domestic animals and man, beneficial in- 

* ' The orders of insects,' Zool. Anz., XXVII., 
259-262. 

t ' Entomologie et Parasitologie Agricole,' Paris, 
1904, pp. 580, figs. 390. 



sects, destruction of injurious species, and 
niyriapods and arachnids. The economic 
treatment is given with each injurious species. 
A great many of their remedial measures 
have been but little tried in this country. 

Professor C. B. Davenport has given us an 
instructive account of the habits of certain 
Poduridffi affecting the sea-beach.* Three 
species inhabit the beach between high- and 
low-water marks. At high tide they are in 
the sand to a depth of sis or more inches ; as 
the tide falls they come to the surface and 
sport about on the pebbles. He interprets 
their almost continual jumping movements as 
useful to increase respiration, and shows that 
they leap into the wind, and not before it. 
When the tide rises they bury themselves in 
the sand, and Professor Davenport thinks that 
they feed, while thus submerged, upon particles 
of organic matter in the sand. 

The peculiar wavy motion of centipedes has 
long excited even poetic minds to the wonder 
of how they managed to utilize all their legs 
in such a harmonious way. E. Eay Lankester 
has investigated the matter and arrives at 
several interesting results.f The legs move 
in groups or waves. Each wave includes a cer- 
tain definite number of legs, apparently con- 
stant for each species. In the forms studied 
each jvave contained from eight (in Peripatus) 
to sixteen members (in the millipede). The 
number of waves in a species depends upon the 
number of legs and the number of legs in the 
wave. Pie shows that in millipedes the waves 
of each side are opposite or synchronous, that 
is each leg of a pair moves just as its fellow. 
While in the centipedes each leg of a pair is 
in an opposite position from its fellow, so that 
the waves are symmetrically alternate. In 
the millipedes the body does not aid in loco- 
motion, but in the centipedes the motion is 
partially due to the undulations or wriggling 
of the body. This fact indicates the more 
complex nature of the centipede. 

* ' The collembola of Cold Spring Beacli, with 
Special Reference to the Movements of the Podu- 
ridse,' Cold Spring Harbor Monographs, II., pp. 30, 
1 pi., 1903. 

I ' On the Movements of the Parapodia of 
Peripatus, Millipedes and Centipedes,' Quart. 
Journ. Mier. Science, March, 1904, pp. 577-582, 
1 plate. 



156 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



Professor Aug. Lameere, the eminent Bel- 
gian coleopterist, who has for some time been 
engaged in the praiseworthy work of revising 
the Prionides of the world, has issued a con- 
siderable portion of his monograph.* Aban- 
doning older customs he has examined all 
available material in the European museums, 
and is thus able to furnish much synonymic 
matter. Each species is fully described, some- 
times with ethological notes, and there are 
tables tO' the species of each genus. After 
each genus he has a chapter on the relation- 
ships and geographic distribution of the 
species. 

Mr. J. E. Guthrie has prepared an account 
of the CoUembola of Minnesota.f Pifty- 
eight species are listed. There are synoptic 
tables to the genera and species. Under each 
species is placed the original description, to- 
gether with notes by the author; full syn- 
onymy is given, and there is a bibliography of 
works consulted. The plates illustrate the 
essential details of structure. It will be a 
very useful book, especially for one beginning 
the study of this neglected order of tiny in- 
sects. 

The fourth volume of Tutt's exhaustive 
work:); on the British Lepidoptera finishes the 
Sphingidse. The thoroughness with which the 
multitude of details has been arranged in this 
work will never cease to excite wonder. Two 
species occupy together over 130 pages. With 
this volume there is published a synopsis of 
the contents and general index to Volumes I. 
to IV. In the preface Mr. Tutt gives an ex- 
cellent criticism of the rules of nomenclature 
used by Eothschild and Jordan in their recent 
revision of the Sphingidai. It may be noted 
that he uses Sesia in place of Macroglossum. 

The Annales du Musee du Congo, which for 
some time has been published by the Belgian 
authorities, has commenced to treat of the 

* ' Revision des Prionides, Maorotomines,' M6m. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., XI., pp. 216, 1904. 

f ' The Collembola of Minnesota,' Geol. and Nat. 
Hist. Surv. of Minn., Zool. Series, IV., Minnea- 
polis, 1903, pp. 103, 16 plates. 

{ ' A Natural History of the British Lepidop- 
tera,' Vol. IV., London, April, 1904, pp. 535, 3 pis., 
by J. W. Tutt. 



insect fauna of the Congo region. Two por- 
tions have been issued; one on the group 
Prionides of the longicorn beetles, is by Pro- 
fessor A. Lameere; the other on the family 
Scutelleridse of the Heteroptera is by Dr. H. 
Sehouteden. The work appears in fascicles 
of folio size, and, if continued, will soon be a 
rival of the Biologia Centrali Americana. The 
plates appear to be fully equal to the best in 
that work. 

E. Lynch Arribalzaga has described a new 
species of bird-grasshopper,* Schistocerca per- 
uviana, which does considerable damage to 
cultivated crops in parts of Peru. It is closely 
related to several of the other destructive spe- 
cies, such as S. peregrina and 8. paranensis, 
and more intimately to the American bird- 
grasshopper of our eastern states, S. ameri- 
cana. Nothing has been done in the way of 
remedial treatment. 

In the same journal,f J. Brethes has given 
a revision of the South American Vespidse, 
and of the Eumenidee of the La Plata basin. 
Synoptic tables are given, and there are de- 
scriptions of many new species. E. L. Hom- 
berg in the same journal (pp. 377-512) de- 
scribes a great number of new bees and 
fossorial hymenoptera, principally from Ar- 
gentine. Nathan" Banks. 



THE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL 

CONGRESS. 

We are informed that under the auspices 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, an In- 
ternational Electrical Congress will be held in 
St. Louis during the week of September 12-17. 
The congress will be divided into two parts, 
namely : 

(1) A Chamber of Government Delegates 
appointed by the various governments of the 
world, invitations to which were issued at the 
beginning of the year from the United States 
government. The transactions of the Cham- 
ber of Delegates will relate to matters affect- 
ing international questions of electrical units, 
standards, and the like. 

* ' La Langosta Voladora del Peru,' Anales Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires (3), Vol. II., pp. 1-5, 1904. 
t Ibid., pp. 15-39 and 231-320. 



July 29, 190i.] 



SCIENCE. 



157 



(2) Tlie Congress at large, divided into 
eight section, as follows: 

General Theory: Section A, Mathematical, Ex- 
perimental. 

Applications: Section B, General Applications, 
Section C, Electrochemistry; Section D, Electric 
Power Transmission; Section E, Electric Light 
and Distribution; Section F, Electric Transporta- 
tion; Section G, Electric Communication, Section 
H, Electrotherapeutics. 

The president of the committee of organiza- 
tion is Professor Elihu Thomson, of Lynn, 
Mass. The vice-presidents are B. J. Arnold, 
Professor H. S. Carhart, Professor W. E. 
Goldsborough, C. P. Scott and Dr. S. W. 
Stratton. 

Three hundred and forty-three official invi- 
tations were issued some months ago to well- 
kno\vn workers in electricity, inviting papers 
for the congress. 168 of these invitations 
were issued to persons residing in countries 
outside of North America. As a result of 
these invitations, 105 American and 59 foreign 
specially prepared papers are promised to the 
congress. Up to June 30, 1,787 adhesions to 
the congress had been received, of which about 
1,300 have paid their subscriptions of $5.00 
each. Of these, 391 are from countries outside 
of North America. The following societies 
will cooperate with the congress at St. Louis, 
by holding simultaneous conventions and joint 
sessions : 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

The American Electrochemical Society. 

The American Physical Society. 

The American Electrotherapeutie Association. 

The Association of Municipal Electricians. 

The following societies will cooperate with 
the congress by appointing delegates: 

The National Electric Light Association. 

The Association of Edison Illuminating Com- 
panies. 

The Soci#tg Internationale des Electriciens. 
. The Schweizerscher Eleotrotechnischer Verein. 

It is expected that various other European 
societies will also cooperate. Fourteen thou- 
sand six hundred invitations have been issued 
to persons interested in electricity all over the 
world, inviting them to join the congress. It 
is expected that the ' Transactions ' of the 



congress will attain two or three large volumes. 
Persons interested in electricity and who desire 
to join the congress should apply to the gen- 
eral secretary. Dr. A. E. Kennelly, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. Each member 
of the congress is entitled to receive one set 
of the ' Transactions.' It is intended to issue 
the ' Transactions ' of the congress, when 
printed, to libraries and non-members for 
$10.00 per set. 



AMERICAN AND GERMAN UNIVERSITIES. 

It is interesting to note that of the 37,692 
students enrolled in the German universities 
for the term now drawing to a close, 3,093 were 
foreigners, of whom 986 were Russians. Fe- 
male students to the number of 1,314 were 
enrolled for the term. 

These figures do hot include such students 
as are merely guests (hospitants), of whom 
there are always quite a number. These enjoy 
all the privileges of the regular students, but 
they can not be graduated. If these be added 
to the others, it is safe to say that fully 10 
per cent, of those attending German tmiver- 
sities are foreigTiers. Almost one thousand 
Russians, or nearly one third of the foreign 
element, were matriculated last winter. Next 
come the Austrians and Hungarians, num- 
bering 601, or about 20 per cent. Switzerland 
furnished 322 regular students, and there were 
324 Americans enjoying the same opportun- 
ities. 

The number of foreign students, especially 
of those coming from Russia, has steadily 
grown, but a careful study of the attendance 
at the German universities seems to show that 
Americans have not been adding to this in- 
crease. Thus, if we look over the reports of 
the winter half-year of 1899-1900, we find 
that the total attendance at German univer- 
sities during that period was 32,834 regular 
students, of whom 2,369, or about 7 per cent., 
were foreigners; and that 607 of these were 
Russians, 455 Austrians, 265 Swiss, and 317 
Americans. Thus there were only seven more 
Americans enrolled last winter than there were 
four years ago. 

During the nineteenth century German uni- 
versities led the world in erudition and scien- 



158 



SCIENCE. 



[N.S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



tific investigation, and their great professors 
attracted many students from all parts of the 
world in quest of higher education. But 
times are altered. Having myself heen en- 
gaged in educational work as an American col- 
lege professor for a good part of my man- 
hood, I have naturally taken considerable in- 
terest in the life and work at the various in- 
stitutions of learning in this country, and it 
is my impression that the facilities for higher 
education are improving in the United States 
much more rapidly than in Germany. Despite 
all our imperfections one can not but admire 
the great upward strides which the American 
system of education, from the humble district 
school up, has been making during the last few 
decades. 

American educational institutions are the 
best equipped in the world. I know but one 
German university that can claim to be up to 
the times in this regard, and it stands third 
in the list of attendance. There is a steady 
progress all along the line of public instruction 
in the United States, and particularly in our 
higher class of universities. 

The regular reports of German universities 
will continue to show the attendance of Ameri- ' 
can students. Though their number may not 
increase materially, still they come. And it 
is well that they should, particularly those 
that have in view special studies and investiga- 
tions in certain lines ; for Germany is pre- 
eminently the land of specialists, and it must 
be admitted that German devotion to special 
work has added immensely to the sum of 
knowledge. Besides, a year or two spent 
abroad can not but prove to be a great blessing 
to the average American student, not because 
he needs it to prepare him for his life's work, 
but because travel and sojourn in this and 
other countries are in themselves a liberal 
education, and tend to broaden the mind, 
widen the horizon, remove petty prejudices, 
and supply an independent judgTaent of men 
and matters. A few semesters at a German 
university, bringing a young man in touch 
with the ideas and methods of the great schol- 
ars and scientists of this country, as well as 
with the spirit of the German student's life, is 
an advantage generally appreciated all through 



life. But all this is rather a luxury than a 
necessity. No American need any longer come 
to this or go to any other country for higher 
education. In my judgment the United States 
offers to-day facilities for collegiate, academ- 
ical and postgraduate studies equal in quantity 
and quality to those offered by any country in 
the Old World. Henry W. Diederich, 

Consul. 
Bremen, Germany, 
June 10, 1904. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

The daily papers announce, we trust cor- 
rectly, that Dr. Harry Tevis will establish in 
San Francisco an aquarium in honor of his 
father, the late Lloyd Tevis, which will be the 
finest institution of the kind in the world, 
the cost being $3,000,000 to $4,000,000. The 
aquarium will, it is said, be built in Golden 
Gate Park. Mr. John Galen Howard, super- 
vising architect of the University of Cali- 
fornia, is preparing the plans. 

Sir Joseph Daltou Hooker, the great 
British botanist, celebrated on June 30 his 
eighty-seventh birthday. 

Dr. Kuno Fischer, professor of philosophy 
at Heidelberg, celebrated on June 23 his 
eightieth birthday. 

Dr. Egbert Koch has been made honorary 
professor of the University of Berlin as well 
as a member of the Academy of Sciences in 
succession to Virchow. There are only two 
other similar positions at Berlin, the one held 
by Professor Auwers, the astronomer, the other 
by Professor Van't Hoff, the chemist. 

The Paris Academy of Sciences has elected 
as corresponding members M. Eugene Tisser- 
and in the section of agriculture and Dr. E. 
Metschnikoff in the section of anatomy and 
zoology. 

Dr. Pietro Blaserna, professor of physics 
at Rome, has been elected president of the 
Accademia dei Lincei. 

It is stated in Nature that a committee has 
been formed in the Victoria University of 
Manchester to procure a portrait of Professor 
Osborne Reynolds, E.R.S., the senior member 
of the teaching staff, as a memorial of the 



July 29, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



159 



long and distinguished services which he has 
rendered to the Owens College and of his 
many valuable original contributions to phys- 
ical science and engineering. 

Dr. H. S. Jennings, assistant professor of 
zoology in the University of Pennsylvania, 
has returned from the Zoological Station at 
Naples, Italy, where he has spent the past 
year conducting investigations on the beha- 
vior of the lower organisms as a research as- 
sistant of the Carnegie Institution. 

Mr. Robert T. Hill, late of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, has just returned from an 
extensive exploration trip in Mexico, which 
country he has been studying for many years, 
in order to ascertain its geologic evolution and 
history and relations to the geographic fea- 
tures of the United States and Central Amer- 
ican region. Mr. Hill's address will continue 
to be 1738 Q Street, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Frederick V. Coville, botanist of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, and 
Mr. Albert F. Potter, grazing expert of the 
Bureau of Forestry, have gone to the south- 
west grazing districts with a view to studying 
the ranges. 

The Mackinnon studentships of the Royal 
Society have been filled by the election of Mr. 
Bryan Cookson for research in astronomy, 
especially for a new determination of the con- 
stant of aberration, and Mr. L. Doncaster for 
work on the subject of variation and natural 
selection in plants and animals. 

A BANQUET was given to Mr. Chamberlin, 
the well-known British political leader, on 
June 30, by the Royal Institute of Public 
Health, in recognition of his services to pre- 
ventive and tropical medicine. 

At the second annual meeting of the British 
Academy, on June 29, Lord Reay was reelected 
president. 

Jerome Sondericker, associate professor of 
applied mathematics at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, died on July 22 at Wil- 
mington, Vt. 

Dr. Isaac Roberts, eminent for his work in 
astronomy, especially for his study of star 



clusters and nebulae, has died at the age of 
seventy-five years. 

The death is also announced of Dr. L. Nie- 
milowicz, professor of physiological chemistry 
at the University of Lemberg. 

The treasurers of the Institute of Medical 
Sciences Fund, London, have received the fol- 
lowing additional donations: Lord Howard de 
Walden, £3,000 ; the Company of Fishmongers, 
1,000 guineas; Dr. C. Theodore Williams £100. 

The British Medical Association is holding 
its seventy-second annual meeting at Oxford 
this week. Dr. G. D. Griffiths is the retiring 
president and Dr. W. Collier, the president- 
elect. The address in medicine is by Sir 
William S. Church and the address in surgery 
by Sir William Macewen. 

The Optical Society of London, of which 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook is president, proposes 
holding an optical convention in London nest 
year. 

Nature states that a large deputation has 
waited on Lord Londonderry, president of the 
Board of Education, to urge the compulsory 
teaching of hygiene in elementary and sec- 
ondary schools. The deputation was in sup- 
port of a petition which has been signed by 
nearly fifteen thousand medical practitioners. 
The petitioners urged the central educational 
authorities of the United Kingdom to consider 
' whether it would not be possible to include 
in the curricula of the public elementary 
schools, and to encourage in the secondary 
schools, such teaching as may, without devel- 
oping any tendency to dwell on what is un- 
wholesome, lead all the children to appreciate 
at their true value healthful bodily conditions 
as regards cleanliness, pure air, food, drink, 
etc' The petitioners remark that a wide- 
spread ignorance prevails concerning not only 
the nature and properties of alcohol, but also 
its effects on the body and the mind. Central 
education authorities are therefore asked to 
include in the simple hygienic teaching desired 
elementary instruction at an early age on the 
nature and effects of alcohol. Dr. Farquhar- 
son, M.P., introduced the deputation, and short 
speeches in support of its objects were made by 
Sir W. Broadbent, Dr. D. Griffiths, Sir T. 



160 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 500. 



Barlow, Sir Lauder Brunton, Sir Victor Hors- 
ley, Dr. Mary Scharlieb, Dr. Hutchinson and 
Professor Sims Woodhead. Lord London- 
derry, in reply, said the proposals made by the 
deputation had his sincerest sympathy, and 
he only wished it was in the power of the 
board of education to carry them out. He 
was as anxious as any one to see increased in- 
struction being given in the laws of health, 
but at the present time the necessary teachers 
did not exist, and he should be the last to wish 
anybody to act as instructor in such impor- 
tant subjects who had not received instruction 
in them. The board was at the present mo- 
ment devoting itself to the training of teachers 
and instructing them properly in the whole 
question of hygiene. He trusted that as time 
went on its efforts in that direction would 
bring about the desired results. 

The appropriation of $1,500 recently made 
by the New York State legislature for coop- 
erative hydrographic work with the U. S. 
Geological Survey will be used in maintain- 
ing records of the rise and fall, the ordinary 
outflow, floods and droughts of many streams 
in the state. By means of these records it is 
possible to determine in specific cases the 
water supply available for canals, public water 
systems and water power. The condition of 
streams in more than fifty places in the state 
is regularly reported. The work has gradu- 
ally grown until there is at present hardly a 
section of the state in which some river is not 
systematically measured. The list includes 
Chemung, Allegheny, Susquehanna, Chen- 
ango, Catskill, Delaware, Hudson, Mohawk, 
Saranac, Oswegatchie, Genesee, Oneida, Sen- 
eca, Oswego and Black rivers and their most 
important branches. The developed water 
power of these streams amounts to nearly 
300,000 horse power, and they afford an al- 
most unlimited amount of undeveloped power. 
Mr. Robert E. Horton, hydrographer, of Utica, 
N. Y., has charge of the work. 

We learn from Nature that the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences of Vienna announces the 
following grants : To the Vienna Society for 
Solar Observation, 1,600 Krone for observa- 
tions on climatic changes in the Goldberg 



glacier, and to Professor Eitter Beck von 
Managetta (Prague) 600 Krone for studies 
of plant distribution in the Julian Alps. 
Prom the Wedl bequest, to Drs. Obermayer 
and Pick (Vienna) 600 Krone for the chem- 
istry of immune substances, to Dr. Moritz 
Probst 800 Krone for continuation of work 
on the brain, to Dr. Karl Camillo Schneider 
400 Krone for a zoological expedition to 
Grado, to Professor Julius Tandler 1,000 
Krone for studies in the development of birds. 
The committee of the Treitel legacy awards 
the following grants : To Professor Hans 
Skraup. (Graz) 1,500 Krone for studies on 
albumens, to Dr. Franz Werner 6,000 Krone 
for a zoological expedition to the Egyptian 
Soudan, to Professor Julius Wiesner 4,000 
Krone for eifects of light on plant life in the 
Yellowstone district, to the Austrian Meteoro- 
logical Society 4,000 Krone for investigations 
of the upper atmosphere, and to the Earth- 
quake Commission 5,465 Krone 39 heller. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 
Dr. Albert Frankel, one of the leading 
German clinicians, who has been for twenty- 
seven years decent in the University of Berlin, 
has resigned. It is believed that his promo- 
tion to a professorship was withheld owing to 
the fact that he is a Jew. Dr. Hermann Op- 
penheim recently resigned under similar cir- 
cumstances. He was unanimously recom- 
mended by the faculty for promotion, but the 
recommendation was not confirmed by the 
ministry. 

Dr. Henry L. Woodward has been appointed 
assistant to the chair of physiology in the 
Medical College of Ohio, medical department 
of the University of Cincinnati. 

At the University of Leeds, Dr. J. B. Cohen 
and Mr. Percy P. Kendall have been ap- 
pointed professors of organic chemistry and 
of geolog-y, respectively. 

Dr. Doring has been appointed professor of 
analytical and applied chemistry at the Uni- 
versity of Ereiberg. 

Dr. Karl Scheel has been made professor 
and member of the German Eeichsanstalt. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Friday, Adgust 5, 1904. 

CONTENTS: 

The State University and Research: Pro- 
fessor T. C. Chamberlin 161 

The Mosely Educational Commission, II.: Pro- 
fessor Henry E. Armstrong 165 

Scientific Books: — 

Ealsey's The Metric Fallacy, Dale's The 
Metric Failure in the Textile Industry: 
Professor W. Le Conte Stevens. Clem- 
ents on the Development and Structure of 
Vegetation: Professor W. F. Ganong. 
Eakle's Mineral Tables: Professor A. J. 
Moses 172 

Scientific Journals and Articles 178 

Societies and Academies: — 

The Neio York Section of the American 
Chemical Society: Dr. H. C. Sherman.. .. 178 

Discussion and Correspondence : — ■ 
Asymmetron lucayanum in Bermuda: Pro- 
fessor E. L. Mark. The Ascent of Water 
in Trees: Professor C. R. Barnes. Con- 
cerning Spectacles : C. R. E 179 

Special Articles: — 

The Formation of Toxic Products by Vege- 
table Enzymes: C. A. Browne, Jr. The 
Endosperm Enzyme of Pliwnix Dacty- 
lifera: Dr. Raymond H. Pond 179 

Quotations : — 

The German Yellow-fever Expedition 182 

Current Notes on Meteorology : — 

Monthly Weather Review; Ocean Meteorol- 
°9y ; Wheat in Canada; International 
Cloud Atlas; British Meteorological Coun- 
cil: Antarctic Winds; Notes: Professor 
R Dec. Ward 182 

Stomach Stones and Food of Plesiosaurs: 
Barnum Brown 184 

The Alpine Laboratory of the Botanical Semi- 
nar of the University of Nebraska 185 

The Cultivation of Cotton in the West Indies 186 
Decennial Publications of the University of 

Chicago 187 

Dr. J. C. McConnell 188 

Scientific Notes and News 189 

University and Educational Neivs 192 

MSS. inteudedfor publication and books, etc.. intended 
for review should be sent to the Editor of Science, Garri- 
son-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



THE STATE UNIVERSITY AND RESEARCH.* 
It is the privilege of the private school, 
the denominational institution and the in- 
dependent university to select the phases of 
education to which they shall devote them- 
selves; but the appropriate sphere of a 
state system of education is predetermined 
by the inherent relations which the state 
sustains. The function of all state insti- 
tutions is the welfare of the commonwealth. 
By first intention, the state is not con- 
cerned with the individual, but with the ag- 
gregate body of its citizens. The state must 
necessarily deal with individuals, but rather 
as integers of the aggregate body than as 
individuals. State education, therefore, in 
the strictest construction, and in the high- 
est ideal, is the education of the aggregate 
body that forms the commonwealth. Edu- 
cation from the view-point of other institu- 
tions may deal primarily with the indi- 
vidual, and only secondarily with the aggre- 
gate. State education deals primarily with 
the aggregate, and only incidentally with 
the individual as a constituent of the aggre- 
gate. Obviously I am defining the ideal 
rather than the actual fact of practice; 
rather of the goal to be at length attained 
than any present achievement. 

In its earliest stages, formal education 
seems to have been altogether individual. 
Gradually it grew to be the privilege of 
select classes, and at length, but only at a 
late day and among the foremost peoples, 
it has come to be a possibility for all. 

* One of the two convocation addresse.s given 
on the oceasion of the semicentennial jubilee of 
the University of Wisconsin. 



162 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



Parallel with this extension of personal 
privilege, there has been a growth in the 
breadth of the educational conception. The 
elevation of the aggregate intellectuality of 
the people has begun to succeed the nar- 
rower idea of the education of the indi- 
vidual simply. To paraphrase the immor- 
tal apothegm of Lincoln, primitive educa- 
tion was of the individual, by the indi- 
vidual, and for the individual. The state's 
ideal effort is the education of the common- 
wealth, by the commonwealth and for the 
commonwealth. 

Lest this shall seem mere borrowed rhet- 
oric, let us examine the fundamental source 
of education in the ulterior sense, as dis- 
tinguished from the technical and narrow 
sense. It need not be affirmed that educa- 
tion is broader than 'schooling.' The de- 
velopment of mind and character begins 
before the school is entered, and continues 
long after the halls of learning ai'e aban- 
doned. Education is begun when thought, 
feeling and activity begin, and ceases only 
when thought, feeling and activity cease to 
be susceptible of modification. At all 
times, a large part of the educational in- 
fluences lie outside the schools. Educa- 
tion is derived from every mental contact; 
it is absorbed from the whole intellectual 
environment; it is inspired by infinite 
sources of stimulus. The course in the 
schools are merely a limited selection from 
possible means, chosen for supposed effect- 
iveness during the receptive and formative 
stages. 

The fundamental and ulterior sources of 
education do not lie in the conventional 
schools, but back of them. These sources 
can not here be defined at length, but in a 
- simple phrase, they may be said to lie in 
the great stock of ideas possessed iy man- 
kind. This phrase inadequately embraces 
the whole, but let us agree that it may 
stand for the whole. In so far as the stock 
of ideas of a people is narrow, defective 



and erroneous, on the one hand, or broad, 
demonstrative and exact, on the other, in so 
far the fundamental subject-material of 
education partakes of these qualities. In 
so far as the sentiments, beliefs, attitudes 
and activities of a people are narrow, loose 
and perverted, on the one hand, or free, 
generous and ethical, on the other, in so far 
education inevitably shares in these quali- 
ties. For these are the fundamental 
sources of education. The basal problem 
of education is, therefore, concerned with 
the entire compass of the intellectual pos- 
sessions of a people, and, in a measure, of 
all mankind. The special selections propa- 
gated in the schools are but a miniature 
reflection of the total possession, and this 
selection is usually noble or mean, as the 
whole is noble or mean. 

If these considerations are true, the fun- 
damental promotion of education lies in an 
increase of the intellectual possessions of a 
people, and in the mental activities and 
attitudes that grow out of the getting, the 
testing and the using of these possessions. 

In the education of the individual, the 
personality of the instructor counts for 
much. In the education of a people, the 
personality of a teacher is fused with the 
multitude of other, and often conflicting, 
personal influences, and, unless it be phe- 
nomenal, it is submerged. But determi- 
nate truths work together for permanent 
results. These results often lie athwart the 
trend of personal inculcations. True ideas 
work incessantly and unswervingly toward 
a destined end, while the thousand little 
waves of merely personal influence cross 
one another's paths and work one another's 
destruction. Determinate truth is radio- 
active, and sends forth a constant stream 
of penetrating, illuminating emanations, to 
which only the most leaden intellect is 
opaque. The discoverers of great truths 
and the authors of great ideas are the great 
educators. 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



163 



The education of the individual does not 
necessarily lift the education of the aggre- 
gate, for if we convey to the rising genera- 
tion only such ideas as we have inherited, 
the summit-level of education is not raised. 
There may be diffusion— there may be an 
evening up— but no lifting of the upper 
levels. If the intellectuality .of the new 
generation does not rise above that of the 
old, there is only a Chinese dead-level of 
ancestral propagation. 

If Ave are agreed upon this, let us turn 
to the question, Eow is real educational 
advancement to he secured? 

Some progress may be made in a live 
people by voluntary research and by the in- 
cidental accretions of common experience, 
but if our intellectual estate be left to such 
sporadic and unsystematic agencies, growth 
is a creature of uncertainty. If perchance 
there be laudable growth, it is scant credit 
to the state. If the enrichment of our in- 
tellectual world be left to spontaneous indi- 
vidual action, it can not be hoped that it 
will be continuous or systematically di- 
rected. It will follow the diverse lines 
that chance to be inviting to individuals. 
Inquiries will be taken up and dropped at 
pleasure, and will be limited by scant re- 
sources. There is as good chance of find- 
ing a rich man in heaven as in a laboratory. 

To secure laudable progress in the funda- 
mental conditions of education, systematic 
provision for scientific research is requisite. 
By scientific research I do not, of course, 
mean physical research alone, but rigorous 
investigation in any field. To give this re- 
search its best adaptations to the needs of 
a people, it should be systematically con- 
trolled in the lines most tributary to these 
needs. To make the results available to 
all who will use them, suitable means for 
iissemination are requisite. Inevitably the 
highest intellectual training will grow out 
of this, for such training is both the pre- 
requisite and the outcome of the struggle 



to find truth and to test it. Out of this 
training will come the best possible devel- 
opment of intellectual capacity, of right 
attitude toward truth, and of considerate 
action controlled by the scientific spirit. 

With the majority of Wisconsin people 
I hold that it is a legitimate function of 
the state to train boys to be farmers, but 
I believe it to be a much higher and truer 
function to develop the science of agricul- 
ture, to increase the intellectual activity 
of every farmer, to improve the agricul- 
tural art on every farm, and by such im- 
proved art, to furnish better and safer 
food to every citizen. That such a result 
is not an idle dream need not be affirmed 
in Wisconsin. Gigantic steps towards its 
realization have already been taken. The 
material results you know, for they are 
tangible. The intellectual and moral re- 
sults more easily elude recognition. I ven- 
ture to cite a personal observation. It was 
my privilege to compare the agric\iltural 
conventions of this state at two periods sep- 
arated by a decade, within which the ex- 
periment station became a potent influence. 
The dominant intellectual and moral atti- 
tude of the earlier period was distinctly 
disputatious and dogmatic. Opinions and 
floating notions played the part that should 
have been reserved for demonstrations. 
Interpretations were loose, and close analy- 
ses rare. In the second period, the domi- 
nant attitude was that of a scientifle con- 
ference. Opinions were replaced by dem- 
onstrations, or by tentative hypotheses. 
Conviction was sought by the presentation 
of determinate facts, gathered by experi- 
ment and laborious observation, carefully 
analyzed and cautiously interpreted. The 
whole was characterized bj^ a notable ap- 
proach to the methods of approved scien- 
tific procedure. The intellectual and moral 
contrast of the two periods was one of the 
most pronounced expressions of advance in 
the higher education in a great mass of 



164 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



people in the midst of practical life which 
it has ever been my privilege to Mdtness. 

If the state educates an engineer, it 
promotes the common safety, which is 
threatened by an ever-increasing multitude 
of new contingencies springing from new 
devices in construction, transportation, 
sanitation, electric lighting, et cetera. But 
if the state creates and spreads broadcast 
engineering science, it makes protective in- 
telligence more nearly a common possession, 
and lays the groundwork for universal cau- 
tion and for intelligent watch over every 
one who holds the power of life and death 
in his hands. The supreme function of 
the state's college of engineering is rather 
the creation and dissemination of engineer- 
ing science than the personal training of a 
technologist. 

If the state educates a physician, it con- 
fers a benefit on the commonwealth by so 
much as he contributes locally to the public 
health. But if the state investigates the 
cause of disease and the mode of prevention 
and cure, and propagates the results, every 
citizen, directly or indirectly, becomes a 
beneficiary, and the interests of the whole 
people are conserved. 

Doubtless it is a proper function of the 
state university to train lawyers, for their 
public service is indispensable, but it is a 
higher function to develop the science of 
law-making. The subject matter now 
taught relates chiefly to the application and 
consequences of laws already enacted, and 
especially to the litigation that springs 
from their obscurities or defects. Should 
not the chief effort lie back of this in inves- 
tigation precedent to law-making? With 
suitable provisions, the history of every law 
passed by the legislature may be traced by 
the methods of historical science, its. work- 
ings measured with approximate acci;racy, 
and its adaptation to its purpose scien- 
tifically determined. Similar determina- 
tions in other commonwealths are equally 



possible. Comparison between these, when 
sufficiently multiplied and critically dis- 
cussed, should give a basis for determining 
the best mode of legislative treatment with 
something of the confidence that clinical rec- 
ords give to surgical or pathological treat- 
ment. The important function of law-mak- 
ing may be subjected to the same anteced- 
ent processes of scientific inquiry, of judi- 
cial induction, and of intellectual caution 
and equipoise that obtain in medicine, me- 
chanics or agriculture. This may at pres- 
ent seem Utopian because of regnant prac- 
tise and prepossession to the contrary, but, 
given the same patience and ingenuity, why 
may we not treat the history of laws in the 
same critical, deliberate way that the sci- 
entific pathologist treats the history of dis- 
ease, or the scientific surgeon the history 
of an operation ? It will not be denied that 
if the modes of scientific research controlled 
this field, so especially the function of the 
state, it would be as beneficent in its sphere 
as scientific pathology is in its realm, or 
the high art of surgery in its field. Be- 
yond this historical treatment, there is the 
great untouched field of systematic experi- 
mentation in legislation under scientific 
co7itrol— hut the next speakers would have 
good cause for action at court if I entered 
on this untrodden field. 

These citations are merely illustrative se- 
lections. Research in every realm of a 
people's legitimate interests is an appro- 
priate function of the people's organized 
self, the state, and of the people 's organized 
instrument of research, the state university. 

The people of Wisconsin are to be con- 
gratulated on the important initial steps 
already taken by their university towards 
the fulfillment of its higher sphere. They 
are to be warmly felicitated on the larger 
effort upon which the new administration 
of the university has already entered with 
so much of vigor and enthusiasm. They 
are to be congratulated on the acknowl- 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



165 



edged ability of their new leader to direct 
the development of investigation in fruitful 
lines, an ability already eminently demon- 
strated by personal researches. It is a fur- 
ther ground of high hope that he adds" to 
commanding ability and fruitful experi- 
ence, so large and so true appreciation 
of the higher function of a state university. 
Conscious of my personal partiality, I 
yet believe that in truth the University of 
Wisconsin is a leader among its class in 
this higher field of research. But no uni- 
versity has yet fully entered upon it. 
Which shall be the first to become pre- 
dominantly an institution of research? 
Which shall be the first to fulfill the high 
destiny of an ideal state university 1 
Citizens of Wisconsin, given the means and 
the moral support, your new educational 
chief will lead forward with gigantic 
strides your beloved institution into this 
upper and broader field of usefulness. 
Will the means and the moral support be 
forthcoming? T. C. Chamberlin. 

Unitcksitt of Chicago. 



THE MOSELT EDUCATIONAL COMMISSION. 
II. 

In most American colleges the arts 
course occupies four years ; in a few only is 
it possible to graduate in three years. At 
Harvard College, where the subject of the 
length of the course has long been under 
discussion, it has recently been determined 
to allow students to attain the bachelor of 
arts degree in three or three and a half 
years, instead of four years; but owing to 
the improvement in the courses of instruc- 
tion it will be possible to require from 
candidates who obtain the degree in the 
shorter period evidence of higher scholar- 
ship than has been expected of their prede- 
cessors at the end of four years. The arts 
course at the Johns Hopkins University 
extends over three years ; but the standard 
of matriculation is said to be considerably 



higher than that maintained by institutions 
which require a residence of four years. 
The question whether the professional 
schools of the universities shall require a 
degree in arts or science from all candi- 
dates for admission is now being much de- 
bated. There is clearly a strong desire to 
raise the standard. This is well expressed 
in the following passage from the report 
made by President Eliot, of Harvard, at 
the close of 1902 : 

Since the wise and eiEcient conduct of American 
affairs, commercial, industrial and public, depends 
more and more upon the learned and scientific 
professions, the universities owe it to the country 
to provide the best possible preparation for all 
the professions. This best possible preparation 
can only be given to young men who up to their 
twenty-first year have had the advantages of con- 
tinuous and progressive school and college train- 
ing. 

President Eliot gives the following table 
showing the proportion in nine universities 
in which law and medical students holding 
a preliminary degree stand to all students: 

Holders Whole Per Cent. 

of a Number of of Holders 

Universities. Prelim- Law and of a Pre- 

inary Medical liminary 

Degree. Students. Degree. 

Harvard 886 1,134 78.1 

Columbia 562 1,260 44.6 

Pennsylvania 331 928 35.6 

Northwestern 220 691 31.8 

Mohigan 216 1,867 15.8 

Yale : 119 398 29.9 

California 118 269 44.0 

Chicago (Med.)... 100 325 30.7 

Cornell 75 607 12.3 

Harvard University "has definitely de- 
termined to pursue the policy of requiring 
for admission to its professional schools a 
preliminary degree and has already ap- 
plied this policy in all its professional 
schools except the dental school. The re- 
sult has been an improvement in its pro- 
fessional schools striking in proportion to 
the strength of the contrast between the 
former students and the present in regard 
to their previous training." 



166 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



At the Johns Hopkins University, candi- 
dates for the degree of doctor of medicine 
must be college graduates or must give 
evidence by examination that they possess 
attainments indicated by a baccalaureate 
degree in arts or science. Entering college 
at eighteen, the student is twenty-one or 
twenty-two years old on commencing this 
course of professional study; he is, there- 
fore, at least twenty-five or twenty-six at 
the conclusion of the medical course. A 
period of post-graduate instruction at home 
or abroad is then often entered upon. It 
is not unlikely that the example set by law 
and medicine will erelong extend to other 
professions. The undue length of the 
course of study thus arranged has natu- 
rally attracted attention. Recently Presi- 
dent Murray Butler, in particular, has 
commented on it and has proposed a fur- 
ther curtailment of the course. There are 
instances of such curtailment already. 
Thus at Cleveland, Ohio, where the Adel- 
bert College and the Case School of Ap- 
plied Science exist side by side, each having 
a complete four years' course, it has been 
arranged to give a double degree at the 
end of five years to those who have spent 
three years in the college and then two 
years in the school of applied science. 
President Butler proposes that the B.A. 
degree given at the end of a two years' 
prescribed college course shall be made the 
condition of entry to a professional course. 
He would give the M.A. degree to those 
who have followed an arts course during 
four years. 

It is remarkable that a people supposed 
to be practical, like the Americans, should 
be prepared to devote so long a period to 
study. I had many conversations on the 
subject, in which I expressed my surprise; 
but I must confess that, as a rule, my 
friends seemed surprised that I should take 
up such an attitude. I am almost led to 
doubt whether, in matters of education. 



our American cousins may justly be re- 
garded as a practical people. A course of 
study prolonged to an age bordering on 
thirty rather than twenty implies a most 
serious limitation on the period during 
which the individual exercises independ- 
ence; it casts an improper burden on 
parents; and it postpones the age of mar- 
riage unduly. This last point especially 
deserves some consideration. The follow- 
ing table, given by President Eliot in his 
report, records the number of surviving 
children of members of six classes gradu- 
ated from Harvard, from twenty-five to 
thirty years after graduation : 



Class of 



Number of 
A. B.'s. 



1872... 114 

1873 131 

1874 163 

1875 141 

1876 142 

1877 188 

881 

He points out that : 



Number 
Married. 

82 

96 
124 

90 
106 
136 
634 



Number of 

Children 

SurYiviug, 1902 

165 

181 

247 

171 

212 

286 

1,262 



If it be assumed that the surviving children are 
about one half males, it follows that the six 
classes have by no means reproduced themselves; 
that they have, indeed, fallen 28 per cent, short 
of it. Twenty-eight per cent, of the members of 
these classes are unmarried; and those who are 
married have, on the average, only two surviving 
children; so that the married pairs just reproduce 
themselves on the average. 

It is impossible to overlook the signifi- 
cance of such facts. Again, to quote Presi- 
dent Eliot : 

The table suggests that the highly-educated part 
of the American people does not increase the popu- 
lation at all, but, on the contrary, fails to repro- 
duce itself. If many other colleges and univer- 
sities publish class reports analogous to the Har- 
vard reports a competent statistician might estab- 
lish from the assembled reports some interesting 
and important conclusions. It is probable that 
the regrettable result indicated in the table is due 
in part to the late postponement of marriage on 
the part of educated young men, a postponement 
which the protracted education now prescribed for 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



167 



men who enter the learned and scientific profes- 
sions makes almost unavoidable. The young 
physician, la^vyer, engineer' or architect is now 
fortunate if he marries at twenty-eight or twenty- 
nine; whereas he should have married at twenty- 
five or twenty-six. To make earlier marriage 
possible is one of the strong inducements for 
bringing to an end the school course at seventeen 
or eighteen, the college course at twenty or twenty- 
one, and the professional training at twenty-four 
or twenty-flve. 

Our blind belief in academic methods of 
training has, perhaps, led us to overlook 
yet other all-important reasons for short- 
ening the courses. While at college or 
technical school the student is not only 
withdrawn from the world of experience— 
and that, too, during the most susceptible 
period of youthful freshness— but is always 
dominated by teachers; the time is so en- 
tirely spent in learning from others that 
there is no possibility of properly develop- 
ing either imaginative power or individu- 
ality. Therefore, not only is physical 
power sacrificed, but mental procreative 
power also — this latter surviving only in 
the genius; whereas, in reality, if educa- 
tion were of true avail, its one great and 
chief office should be to call forth and de- 
velop whatever spirit of originality, what- 
ever element of genius, may lurk in the 
mind. 

Over-teaching seems to me to be the bane 
of American schools of every grade, even 
more than of ours. And there is grave 
danger, especially in America, that the 
work of education may be over-organized. 
Classes are being formed to give special 
instruction in every section of every sub- 
ject; in consequence, much time is wasted 
in doing formally what might be done far 
more rapidly and effectively informally 
when occasion requires, under intelligent 
direction or with the aid of properly writ- 
ten instructions. 

It would almost seem that higher educa- 
tion is being given mainly in the interests 
of those who are to occupy secondary posi- 



tions. The industrial leaders in America, 
it is said, are mostly men who have not en- 
joyed the so-called advantages of a liberal 
education. They are men with minds un- 
fettered by the traditions which education, 
as now given, is only too likely to impart, 
yet trained in the world of experience, 
possessed of common sense. But there are 
exceptions which show that training in 
scientific method may be of advantage : a 
number of the men now at the head of the 
metallurgical industries commenced their 
careers as chemists — not as engineers, be it 
noted. 

The entire system of education, both here 
and in America, seems to require recon- 
struction from bottom to top ; it would be 
well, if I may say so, if we could scrap the 
whole wretched academic show and start 
afresh, in order that it may be greatly im- 
proved in quality and shortened in dura- 
tion. Two ideals should be kept in view 
—we should aim at the development of in- 
dividuality and encourage productivity. 
If a proper foundation were laid during 
early years a vast amount of time would 
be saved later on; if children were taught 
reaUy to read, if they were thoroughly 
-practised in the rudiments of scientific 
method, if they were even allowed to re- 
main 

Perplext in faith, but pure in deeds, 

there would be little that they could not 
afterwards accomplish within a reasonable 
time, because honesty of purpose would 
prevail among them and they would work 
with understanding and resist all but neces- 
sary guidance. The greater part of the 
work which is now done— far too late— at 
college might then be done at school; or, 
still better, college might be entered with 
advantage at sixteen. We need to remem- 
ber that, as Buckle tells us, the acquisition 
of fresh knowledge is the necessary pre- 
cursor of every step in social progress, and 
must itself be preceded by a love of inquiry 



168 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



and, therefore, by a spirit of doubt. One 
great reason of failure is that nearly all 
our teaching is dogmatic. To use Tenny- 
son's words:— 

There lives more faith in honest doubt, 
Believe me, than in half the creeds. 

We need to introduce broader and more 
philosophical conceptions into our educa- 
tional practise; it is almost impossible to 
keep pace with the growth of knowledge 
and absurd to add perpetually to the 
burden imposed upon the student. More- 
over, it is unnecessary. If more attention 
were paid to teaching principles and their 
application, less to mere facts, many of the 
difficulties with which the student's path is 
now strewn would disappear and he would 
do effective work; our higher education is 
unfortunately afBicted with the disease of 
fact-megalomania; if the meaning of one 
tenth of the facts we now lay before the 
student were properly taught, the remain- 
ing nine tenths might safely be jettisoned. 

As a very large number of American 
teachers have studied in Germany and the 
teaching is often based on German models, 
it is remarkable that the university system 
should bear so little resemblance to that of 
Germany. As a rule, far more routine 
work is done and far less attention is paid 
to research work than in Germany. At 
Cornell University, for example, although 
the course laid down for students of chem- 
istry covers four years, no thesis work is 
demanded. At the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, on the other hand, the graduate 
student who desires to take the Ph.D. de- 
gree follows a course almost precisely sim- 
ilar to the German coi^rse; but this comes 
after a two years' graduate course, which 
has no equivalent in the German system. 
Of late years, however, much attention has 
been given to research work in America; 
still, it is not yet rated at its proper value 
and those who are engaged in the work by 
no means enjoy the esteem they deserve on 



that account. Professor Richards, of Har- 
vard, for example, a chemist of brilliant 
originality as well as an extraordinarily 
exact worker, was not appreciated by his 
university until after he had been 'called' 
to Gottingen. Work which has no com- 
mercial aim or value iS not easily recog- 
nized as important. As the spirit of in- 
quiry is the mainspring of progress, its 
cultivation should be a first charge on the 
bank of education. Germany has long 
recognized this to be the case, but neither 
in the United States nor here does such a 
conclusion yet meet with acceptance. As 
the prizes offered by industrial enterprise 
are most alluring, it is essential that more 
active measures should be taken to develop 
the capacity for research, so that a larger 
supply of competent investigators should 
be forthcoming. And such men are sorely 
needed to act as leaders in every grade of 
education. 

Science in the Service of the State. — The 
most striking illustrations of American or- 
ganizing ability are to be met with at Wash- 
ington. So far as I am aware, there is 
nothing anywhere to compare with the way 
in -which science is being utilized in the 
service of the state by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, which is located in the 
capital. The origin and development of 
this department are sketched in a separate 
bulletin published in 1898. It was estab- 
lished by an act of congress approved by 
President Lincoln, May 15, 1862. Up to 
July 1, 1897, it cost, all told, $26,915,988, 
or less than $500,000 a year. 

The department now comprises the fol- 
lowing branches: Office of the secretary, 
the weather bureau, bureau of animal in- 
dustry, bureau of plant industry, bureau 
of forestry, bureau of chemistry, bureau of 
soils, bureau of statistics, division of ento- 
mology, division of biological survey, divi- 
sion of accounts and disbursements, divi- 
sion of publications, office of experimental 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



169 



stations, office of public road inquii'ies, 
library. 

AgTieultural experiment stations have 
been established in each state of the union 
under the Hatch Act of March 2, 1887. 
Agriculture is also supported by the en- 
dowment of agricultural colleges under 
the Morrill Law of August 30, 1890, out of 
funds arising from the sale of public lands. 
A list of the agricultural colleges and ex- 
periment stations, together with partic- 
ulars as to courses of study, etc., is given 
in a separate bulletin (No. 122) published 
by the department. The organization of the 
department in 1903-4, together with a brief 
statement of the work of each division, is 
to be found in a special circular (Division 
of Publications Circular No. 1) . Full par- 
ticulars as to the appropriations for the 
current year are contained in the act (Pub- 
lic No. 158). A year after its organization 
its entire force consisted of 29 members, 
mostly clerks. On July 1, 1902, the staff 
numbered 3,789, of Avhom 1,209 were ex- 
ecutive officers, clerks and messengers, 2,081 
scientific investigators and 499 laborers.* 

The Agricultural Department in Wash- 
ington is not merely an office— it is also 
a busy hive of research. A large num- 
ber of laboratories are attached to it, in 
which investigations are being carried 
on, bearing, in one way or another, on 
problems in agriculture. Much research 
work is also done in the state experi- 
ment stations ; in the main, however, these 
serve to bring under the notice of farmers 
the importance of science to agriculture by 
demonstrating the value of methods of 
cultivation, manures, etc. There is no 
question that the research work done under 
the auspices of the agricultural department 

* Since this report was in type I have received 
summary reports of work done in various bureaus 
of the department : I owe them to the kindness of 
their several chiefs. It is impossible now to 
notice them in this report^ but I trust to be able 
to deal with them specifically elsewhere. 



and in the experiment stations is of the 
very greatest value, and is contributing 
most materially to the development of agri- 
cultural industry. To take only one illus- 
tration, whereas, in 1884, the amount of 
sugar made from sugar beet was only about 
300 tons, the beet crop of the past year is 
estimated to yield 400,000 tons ; the amount 
of sugar made in the United States from 
the sugar cane being only about 300,000 
tons. This extraordinary increase, I be- 
lieve, is due practically entirely to the in- 
fluence exercised from Washington. A 
map showing the regions in which the tem- 
perature conditions were favorable to the 
growth of the sugar beet was first prepared 
by Dr. Wiley, the head of the bureau of 
chemistry. Seed was then issued to farm- 
ers in various districts, together with direc- 
tions how it was to be dealt with, and the 
produce was subsequently examined for 
sugar ; in this way it was determined where 
the beet could be grown successfvilly. The 
advantages to be derived from the cultiva- 
tion of the crop were also made clear to 
the farmers. An industry of great im- 
portance has in this way been gradually 
brought into existence; at the same time, 
farming practise has been vastly improved 
and land has increased considerably in 
value owing to its having received proper 
treatment. 

The department is undoubtedly exercis- 
ing an extraordinary influence on the edu- 
cation of farmers by distributing literature 
among them and by encouraging and help- 
ing them in every possible way; indeed, it 
is cei-tain that, by one means or another, 
the American farmer is gradually being 
led to see that science is indispensable to 
agriculture. 

The work that is being carried on in New 
York state under the direction of Professor 
Bailey, the director of the College of Agri- 
culture at Cornell University, Ithaca, may 
be referred to in further illustration, as 



170 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



this is now a head center of the nature- 
study movement. The character of one 
branch of the work may be best made clear 
by the reproduction of the following circu- 
lar letter relating to a reading course for 
farmers : 

To THE EdITOE, 

Will you not help us to reach the farming com- 
munity bj' inserting the following note ? The 
reading-course described below is provided for the 
farmer by state appropriation. We want him to 
receive the fullest possible benefit. Kindlj' send 
us a marked copy of the issues containing this 
notice. — Very truly yours, 

S. W. Fletcher, 
Supervisor of Farmers' Beading Course. 

WINTER EVENINGS ON THE FARM. 

The wide-awake farmer is now wondering what 
lie can do in the long winter evenings to aid him 
in the work of next season. He would like to 
know more about the things with which he has to 
do; how he can feed his crops better; how he can 
make a piece of ' worn out ' land fertile once 
more; how he can get the greatest feeding value 
from the stock of hay and grain in his barn. 
Many of these practical questions are in his mind 
at this time. 

We would suggest that one of the best ways of 
answering them is through the ' Farmers' Reading 
Course,' conducted by the College of Agriculture 
of Cornell University. Once each month, from 
November to March, a short lesson on some prac- 
tical farm topic is sent to each member. These 
lessons are written in a plain way, so that any 
farmer can readily understand. The only ex- 
pense to the reader is an occasional stamp in 
reply. Many thousand New York farmers are 
now enrolled in this reading course. All that is 
necessaiy to become a member is to send your 
name on a postal card to Farmers' Reading 
Course, Ithaca, N. Y. The state pays for this 
work, and every one in the state interested in 
farming has a right to its benefits. 

For many years Professor Bailey has 
been studying the improvement of .the 
grounds of niral schools. Recognizing 
that the school playgrounds are, as a rule, 
'bare, harsh, cheerless, immodest!' he has 
sought to interest those connected with the 
schools in making them attractive and has 
put forward hints for the proper laying 



out of the grounds. The literature on 
this subject issued from Cornell is of a most 
valuable character. 

But perhaps the most interesting of the 
movements going on under Professor 
Bailey's influence is the formal organiza- 
tion of junior naturalist clubs in schools all 
over the state. This is under the direction 
of Mr. John W. Spencer, known as Uncle 
John, whom I had the privilege and pleas- 
ure of meeting. The object of such clubs 
"is the study of nature to the end that 
every member thereof shall love the coun- 
try better and be content to live therein. 
Each member is expected to tell Uncle 
John at least once a month by letter or by 
drawings what he or she has seen or 
thought on some topic in nature-study sug- 
gested by the teacher or by the bureau of 
nature study." These letters are duly 
registered and read. On the receipt of the 
fourth, a badge-pin is sent to be Avorn as a 
testimony that the owner is entitled to all 
the honors due to a young naturalist. At 
intervals, Uncle John writes a letter to his 
young friends. These letters are full of 
charm. 

Teachers' leaflets and a 'nature-study 
monthly' are issued in connection with 
the enterprise. The number of children 
enrolled is over 35,000. There can be no 
doubt that a pioneer work of great impoi'- 
tance is being done, on which it will be 
possible to build in the future. It is not 
possible now to discuss in any proper way 
the method of teaching adopted. I desire 
to say everything in its favor, feeling as 
I do that the object in view is all impor- 
tant ; but I am satisfied that the work lacks 
depth and that those engaged in it are not 
yet aware of the extent to which it is pos- 
sible to introduce exact method into such 
studies; they need to be more fully ac- 
quainted with the practise of scientific 
method and with the art of discovery. It 
would be more nearly cori-ect to speak of 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



171 



the movement as one for the promotion 
of nature love rather than as nature study. 
At present it involves far too little real 
study and concentration of purpose ; which 
is unfortunate, as rural children particu- 
larly need training in exactness. 

One branch of work initiated in the office 
of experiment stations at Washington of 
extreme importance, to which reference 
should also be made, is that relating to the 
nutrition of man, which has been carried 
out in various parts of the states under the 
supervision of my friend Professor At- 
water— a fellow student with me in Ger- 
many in years gone- by— who initiated the 
inquiry in 1877. The scope and results of 
the investigation are described in the re- 
port of the director of experiment stations 
for the year ending June, 1901. Un- 
doubtedly the most important and valuable 
part of this work has been that done dur- 
ing recent years at the Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, Middletown, Comi., where a large 
respiration chamber has been erected and 
brought to a remarkable state of perfection 
by Professors Atwater and Benedict. The 
installation is a very costly one. It is pos- 
sible for a man to live within this chamber 
for days or even weeks and for account to 
be kept during the whole time, not only of 
the products of respiration, but also of the 
amount of heat given out and the oxygen 
consumed, with a degree of accuracy equal 
to that with which ordinary analyses are 
carried out in a laboratory. No better 
illustration can be given of the amount of 
thought and care which is now being de- 
voted to investigations of practical impor- 
tance in the United States. I went spe- 
cially to Middletown to examine the appa- 
ratus and was gratified beyond measure; 
to see it alone was worth a pilgrimage to 
America. The investigations which can be 
carried out with such a chamber are of far- 
reaching importance and touch very closely 
on the domain of household economics. It 



is much to be desired that we, on this side, 
should be able to do similar work. 

The geological survey is also a well-or- 
ganized department in Washington. The 
wealth of material at the disposal of Ameri- 
can geologists is extraordinary. If oppor- 
tunity beget supply, we may look to 
America as the breeding ground of geol- 
ogists in the future. Besides field work 
and the attendant office work, the depart- 
ment now carries on scientific research work 
on geological problems. It has a well- 
equipped chemical department, at the head 
of which is Professor Clarke, who a few 
months ago delivered in Manchester the 
lecture commemorative of the centenary of 
Dalton's atomic theory. Much valuable 
work has been done in this department, 
which is now quite the seat of authority in 
mineral analysis. Dr. Hillebrand, the senior 
member of Professor Clarke's staff, being 
probably the most accomplished and ex- 
perienced analyst of the day. 

Lastly, it may be mentioned that a 
bureau of standards has recently been es- 
tablished at Washington to do work on the 
lines of that done by our standards depart- 
ment, the board of trade and the national 
physical laboratory, but with a wider out- 
look than any of these and well provided 
with funds. 

When we consider how uncoordinated our 
efforts are, how little public appreciation 
exists of the value of science to the com- 
munity, it is impossible not to feel envious 
of what is going on in Washington. It 
would well repay us to inquire very fully 
into the causes which have operated to 
produce a willingness in America to listen 
to counsel which here passes altogether un- 
heeded. Something must be done to create 
a public belief in the value of knowledge, 
Avhich will lead us to coordinate our scat- 
tered efforts. So long as our outlook is 
merely insular the future may appear to 
afford little promise; but if we consider 



172 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



the possibilities the empire affords, there is 
no reason why our outlook should not be as 
hopeful as that of the United States. The 
resources at our disposal, the agricultural 
possibilities within the empire, may well 
be regarded as boundless; but we need to 
make ourselves acquainted with them and 
to take concerted measures to exploit them. 
To this end, it is all-important to constitute 
effective central organizations in this coun- 
try similar to those which exist in the 
United States. 

One other illustration may be given. In 
New York, on the occasion of our visit to 
the Museum of Natural History, Professor 
Bickmore, to whom this magnificent mu- 
seum owes its origin, favored us with an ac- 
count of the manner in which material was 
provided for illustrated free popular lec- 
tures delivered at the museum, for the pur- 
pose of making the people acquainted with 
their country and its resources ; and he de- 
livered a charming lecture to us in illustra- 
tion of the work. The lantern slides pre- 
pared in the museum are placed on sale, 
so that they can be used for educational 
purposes all over the country. The lecture 
we heard was of a very popular character ; 
it was quite clear, however, that pioneer 
work of a most useful character was being 
done. It was impossible not to feel that if 
the resources of the British Museum were 
were made known by sound popular lec- 
tures and handbooks; if the museum, the 
ordnance and the geological survey depart- 
ments and the colonial office were to co- 
operate with the education department in 
making known the conditions which prevail 
throughout our Empire, it would at once 
be possible to put the teaching of history 
and geography on a basis of fact and make 
these subjects eminently attractive. The 
geological survey exists as a branch of the 
educational department, but its reports are 
of technical rather than of educational 
value ; they might well, in part, be so writ- 



ten as to be delightful essays on physical 
geography suitable for school use, if only 
a little thought were given to them from 
this point of view. 

It is quite clear that the right spirit is 
at work in the United States ; but the lack 
of the critical faculty and of depth of pur- 
pose, combined with an excessive develop- 
ment of the utilitarian spirit, are serious 
drawbacks at present and militate against 
progress in education. Until higher ideals 
prevail and sober calculation takes the 
place of a somewhat emotional and super- 
ficial consideration of its problems, it will 
be difficult to introduce reforms. Here 
our difficulty is to break through academic, 
conservative traditions and to arouse an in- 
terest in education ; that in reality it is the 
most important of all subjects to be seri- 
ously considered has never yet been made 
clear to us either by preacher or by poli- 
tician—the message awaits delivery and we 
need more than anything else the man to 
inake it heard. 

Henry E. Armstrong. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
The Metric Fallacy, by Trederick A. Halsey, 
and The Metric Failure in the Textile In- 
dustry, by Samuel S. Dale. New York, 
D. Van Nostrand Company. 1904. Pp. 
231. 

A bill was introduced in congress in 1902 
with a view to the general adoption of the 
metric system of weights and measures in the 
United States. The committee on coinage, 
weights and measures secured the views of a 
number of prominent representatives of dif- 
ferent professions, trades and manufacturing 
interests, the majority of whom favored the 
bill. A change of such fundamental impor- 
tance required mature deliberation; and the 
committee were disposed to allow the fullest 
opportunity for discussion on the part of op- 
ponents as well as advocates. The bill will 
not be brought to a third reading for some 
months yet, and congress will not be apt to 
take any precipitate action. 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



173 



Mr. Frederick A. Halsey, associate editor 
of the American Machinist, presented a paper 
to the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers in December, 1902, in which his aim 
was to rebut the arguments of those who had 
advocated the metric system, and especially 
to show how great would be the cost of the 
change to the mechanical industries of the 
country. Mr. Samuel S. Dale, editor of the 
Textile World Record, published some articles 
with the same object in view, particularly in 
relation to textile interests. The final result 
is the volume now before us. 

The two parts of this volume are very dif- 
ferent in tone, and it would be unfair to use 
the same words of criticism for both. Mr. 
Halsey's mental attitude is fairly indicated 
by the following extracts from his introduc- 
tory chapter. He says (p. 12) of the metric 
system : " Nowhere has the system made ma- 
terial progress in industry except when backed 
by the policeman's club. * * * With their 
system of weights and measures as a founda- 
tion, the English-speaking peoples have built 
up the greatest commercial and industrial 
structure the world has known. They are 
asked to enter the slough of despond in which 
metric Europe wallows in order to help metric 
Europe out. They are asked to destroy the 
very warp and woof of their own vast indus- 
trial fabric in order that they may assist in 
weaving another of alien origin and with no 
resulting gain except to aliens. * * * Repre- 
sentative of their historic methods of develop- 
ment, foundation of their industrial life and 
bond of union between all sections — shall all 
these be destroyed for this French fad ? " (p. 
14). "The pro-metric argument is, substan- 
tially, an a priori argument. The metric ad- 
vocates adopt the methods of the old philos- 
ophers who laboriously sought to prove what 
ought to be. My method is that of modern 
science, which interrogates nature in order to 
learn what is." 

The last paragraph just cited is Mr. Halsey's 
comment after quoting the views of a number 
of pro-metric advocates, including such repre- 
sentatives of science as Elihu Thomson, Har- 
vey W. Wiley, S. W. Stratton, Simon Kew- 
comb and Lord Kelvin. Each reader can 



draw appropriate conclusions regarding Mr. 
Halsey's estimate of facts without any com- 
parison of personal standing. That his atti- 
tude is marked by judicial fairness and dignity 
can scarcely be claimed any more than that 
such method is ' that of modern science.' 
The objects of his criticism are men who have 
already manifested ability at least equal to 
that of Mr. Halsey in interrogating nature. 
What he writes about wallowing in a slough 
of despond and sacrificing our advantages for 
the benefit of aliens, all for a French fad, 
might, perhaps, be called political claptrap 
of the same value as the cries about ' in- 
fant industries,' ' pauper labor ' and ' sixteen- 
to-one.' It certainly is not argument. It 
emphasizes, what is evident on every page 
of his book, that he is a carping critic, much 
given to extreme forms of expression. For 
example, after quoting Dr. Wiley, Professor 
Newcomb and Dr. Geddes, he criticizes in 
these words (p. 96) : " Was there ever such 
a case of distorted perspective? Was there 
ever such a case of rainbow chasing? As an 
epitome of the reasons for making this great 
change this pamphlet is pitiful. Are we a 
nation of dreaming idealists and transcend- 
entalists that we should be swayed by such 
considerations ? " The man who advocates 
the displacement of the old standards, he 
says (p. 9Y), ' deserves to be placed in the 
pillory and held up to the scorn of men.' 
Eeally, this is somewhat disturbing. It might 
be considered intolerant if its author were not 
so evidently a victim of what Mark Twain, 
has aptly called ' French calm.' Such ex- 
pressions make it hard to take seriously what 
he writes. A wide but very uncertain margin 
of discount is naturally suggested. The writer 
who resorts to sarcasm whenever the chance is 
presented, who confounds railing with argu- 
ment, who suppresses or belittles everything 
that tends to controvert what he wishes to 
advocate, has only himself to blame if he for- 
feits the confidence of those who consider 
fairness an essential element in the effort to 
get at the truth. 

The metric controversy may be summed up 
in a very few words. Certain people wish to 
give to our weights and measures the same 



174 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



simplicity that characterizes our system of 
coinage, and in the remote future to attain 
international unity of coinage, weights and 
measures. Certain other people would lose 
money and otherwise suffer much inconven- 
ience by the change. No good can result from 
calling the former doctrinaires or denoimcing 
the latter as selfish. We have to consider the 
practical question, is the game worth the 
candle? If so, how can the transition be 
made least burdensome? If not, how can the 
existing system be improved with least incon- 
venience? Each of these questions may re- 
ceive a different answer, and none of them will 
be fully answered during the twentieth cen- 
tury. The present writer has elsewhere taken 
part in the discussion and expressed the belief 
that if the metric system is to be popularly 
adopted at all by English-speaking nations it 
must be through some sort of compromise. 
Of his critics one scientific friend, a physicist 
(Science, Vol. XIX., p. 860), prefers to avoid 
compromise and believes that the American 
people will soon do what the French and Ger- 
mans have done. Another, an engineer (p. 
Y67), opposes all change of standards and 
thinks the proposed compromise ' might be a 
good one if the English-speaking race were to 
disappear from the earth.' The newspaper 
press has manifested similar diversity in views 
expressed. 

The scientific men are probably as devoted 
to the metric system as the mechanical engi- 
neers are to its opposite. In the scientific 
laboratories no compromise whatever is now, 
or will be, necessary. The metric system will 
continue in use as the most convenient for 
laboratoi-y purposes. But outside of the labo- 
ratory there are a good many considerations 
that can not be ignored. Even if intemper- 
ately urged and exaggerated, as they are by 
Mr. Halsey, they must be candidly recognized 
by those who advocate metric reform among 
the people, and allowance has to be made for 
two very obstinate and omnipresent opponents, 
conservatism and vested interests. 

Mr. Halsey devotes a large part of his book 
to a presentation of statistical evidence in- 
tended to show that in all of the countries 
where the metric system has been made legal 



the people have held on to the old units to 
which they were accustomed. Adoption by 
statute is not a guarantee of adoption in prac- 
tise. A century has not been sufficient to 
cause the abolition of old names and units 
among the common people in France, whether 
in city or country, resort to them being usual 
when no penalty is involved. The same is 
true in Germany and Switzerland, and in 
every other country where the metric system 
is in business transactions either obligatory 
or permissive. The fact is in no way remark- 
able. There is no reason to expect within the 
next century that conservatism will be so 
diminished that the exclusive use of the 
metric system will prevail even in France. 
The progress already made is all that could be 
reasonably expected. If the system be estab- 
lished by legal statute in America no such law 
can be enforced until the people generally shall 
have forgotten old names and values. If old 
names are retained and values but little 
changed the task of assimilation is made 
easier, but reasonably complete assimilation 
will take several generations. Thus, while 
our American coinage system is a model of 
simplicity and convenience, the rural Virginian 
persists in using the names ' shillings ' and 
' pence,' utterly superfluous as these may be. 
Advocates of the metric system deceive them- 
selves if they think that new standards can 
be established among the masses, by statute 
or otherwise, 'within a few years. The initi- 
ative can be, and should be, taken by the cen- 
tral government, and in the application of the 
law all possible consideration should be ac- 
corded, particularly at first, to those whose 
large pecuniary interests are affected. The 
first result will be, not the abolition of con- 
fusion, but the increase of confusion by an 
addition to the units and standards in use. 
None of us to-day will live to see anything 
better than good progress on the part of the 
general public in getting accustomed to the 
new standards and losing devotion to the old 
ones. 

That fairly good progress has been made, 
and will continue to be made, in the use of 
the metric system for international commerce 
may be inferred from the following extract. 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



175 



printed by Mr. Halsey with another object in 
view. The collector of the port of New York 
says (p. 74) : 

I have caused to be taken from the files of this 
office a number of invoices from Spain, Italy, Hol- 
land and Belgium, and find as follows: From 
Spain, 233 invoices, in 37 of which the weights 
are expressed as pounds, the remainder being made 
out according to the metric system; from Italy, 
15 invoices, the weights therein expressed in the 
metric system; from Holland, 55 invoices, in 14 
of which the weights are expressed as pounds, 11 
of the 14 are expressed as pounds avoirdupois, 
and the other 3 invoices not stating the kind of 
pound, the remainder of tlie invoices being made 
out according to the metric system; from Bel- 
gium, 126 invoices, in 14 of which the weights 
are expressed in pounds, 31 in feet and inches, 
2 in yards, and 1 in gallons; the remainder being 
made out according to the metric system. 

This is very encouraging to those who be- 
lieve that all great changes must be gradual. 
One of the anti-metric advocates writes : ' The 
question of weights deals rather with the fu- 
ture, but linear measures are tied irrevocably 
to the past.' The metric advocates should 
accept this statement with the substitution of 
' strongly ' for ' irrevocably.' If the statement 
were true as it stands, we should still be meas- 
uring lengths in cubits. The inch has not 
been invariable in the past. It may yet vary 
enough to become exactly commensurate with 
the centimeter if the exigencies of trade should 
make this desirable, but not otherwise. Or, 
unwelcome as such a proposition may be to 
the physicists, the meter, which we all admit 
to be an arbitrary standard, may yet be length- 
ened enough to become equal to forty inches. 
In either event readjustment implies incon- 
venience and opponents will be plentiful. 

All fear about destroying the value of a vast 
body of technical literature founded on the 
English system is gratuitous. A very consid- 
erable body of literature has grown up, 
founded on the centimeter. Its value will 
not be destroyed if the millimeter should be 
lengthened to one twenty-fifth of an inch. 
Both the technical world arid the scientific 
world have thus far readily adapted their lit- 
erature to the times, with no regard for the in- 
violability of past usage. The fact that New- 



ton's ' Prineipia ' is now but little read does 
not take away its importance as the founda- 
tion of modern exact science. We simply 
adapt it to modem nomenclature and modern 
improved methods. 

Mr. Halsey's book closes with these words, 
which apparently settle the case of the metric 
advocates for all time : ' These people may 
legislate until doomsday; they may make in- 
finite confusion, endless turmoil, limitless sac- 
rifice ; but move the English inch ? — the Archi- 
medean lever is still unknown.' Dr. Lardner 
is credited with having proved that the At- 
lantic could never be crossed by a steam vessel. 
The role of the prophet is often unsafe;' as 
unsafe as the exhibition of rage in print. 

Mr. Dale in his discussion of the failure of 
the metric system to meet the requirements of 
those engaged in textile industry is in general 
more dispassionate than Mr. Halsey, but both 
writers exhibit considerable personal venom. 
This is intelligible, if it is not excusable, 
when we consider that each is a special repre- 
sentative of industries in which many millions 
of dollars are locked up in machinery that 
would all need to be changed if a law were 
passed that should impose a penalty upon the 
use of standards other than metric. Each 
considers that such coercion is implied in the 
legislation that has been provisionally dis- 
cussed in committee at Washington. Mr. 
Dale, after criticizing some testimony in favor 
of the metric system that had been given to 
the committee by the president of a New Eng- 
land cotton mill and the principal of a textile 
school, says (p. 148) : " This is the kind of 
evidence that was followed by a report bearing 
all the earmarks of having been dictated from 
that metric hothouse, the National Bureau of 
Standards." He calls the metric system a 
product of the French Revolution, associating 
it with the excesses of the Reign of Terror. 
He makes a violent attack on the personal char- 
acter of the greatest of French mathemati- 
cians, whom he calls ' the designer of the met- 
ric system,' and who ' exhibited an utter dis- 
regard of principle in both private and public 
life ' and ' appropriated the work of others as 
his own.' It is not uncommon to find men of 
genius who are deficient in administrative 



176 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



ability; but even if we sbould admit that 
the author of ' The Nebular Hypothesis ' was 
the ingrate, the time server, the fantastic 
visionary that he is here represented to be, 
it is hard to see what logical Connection 
this can have with the question of interna- 
tional imiformity of weights and measures in 
the twentieth century. Mr. Dale seems to 
think that his cause, that of protection to 
textile industries, can be helped by such per- 
sonalities. Of the gTeat mathematician he 
says : " He was familiar with theories of in- 
finity, but ignorant of the wants, necessities 
and limitations of textile manufacturing. The 
co-workers of this man in constructing the 
metric system differed from him only in de- 
gree. They were a party of mathematical 
prodigies, ignorant of the essentials of textile 
weights and measures." 

The textile industry is undoubtedly impor- 
tant, but not enough so to warrant Mr. Dale's 
apparent assumption that knowledge of its 
technicalities is needed by the student of 
science or the legislator. That these technic- 
alities are abundant and confusing is suffi- 
ciently shown in his chapter on ' The Con- 
tinental Chaos.' This oldest of arts has al- 
ways had its variable nomenclature, which has 
been developed without any reference to theo- 
retic consistency or international uniformity. 
Even if the metric system had never been 
devised, the chaos could hardly have been much 
worse than what is here exposed. Attempts 
in France to dispel this chaos by legislation in 
behalf of the metric system have been re- 
warded with little or no success. Conserva- 
tism has been too strong and vested interests 
too great to permit the enforcement of any 
interfering laws. The statutes were passed, 
but had no life. Scarcely any better success 
has been had in Germany or, indeed, anywhere 
else. English and American textile standards 
seem to have been adopted away from home 
more than any others, this progress being en- 
tirely an incident of commercial convenience 
and not through legislation. Mr. Dale thinl?:s 
that these textile standards will become the 
standards of the civilized world. Exiserience 
thus far certainly seems to indicate that legis- 
lation which contravenes custom in technical 



arts and manufactures is incapable of enforce- 
ment. Any attempts to sec"ure change must 
be wholly unselfish, and directed toward the 
advantage of future generations rather than 
of present interests. 

On the whole, this book is much to be com- 
mended to the attention of metric advocates, 
despite the unbalanced intolerance of Mr. Hal- 
sey and the ungenerous personality manifested 
by Mr. Dale. After discounting liberally for 
its bitter partisanship there remains a mass 
of information that must be taken into ac- 
count by those who wish improvement in our 
system of weights and measures. If the met- 
ric system, so thoroughly installed in our 
laboratories, which are all new, is to be 
adopted in our industries, many of which are 
old, no proofs of its excellence will be of any 
practical value in securing the displacement 
of what gives satisfaction to those who con- 
trol trade. If it is finally to win universality 
it will not be by legislation, but by its superi- 
ority, demonstrated by a multitude of trials in 
various fields, each initially on a small scale, 
and each suggested by the prospect of gain. 
Hope of general adoption within a few years 
after the passage of appropriate legislation 
has to be very limited. This statement does 
not imply that hope of its final adoption is to 
be abandoned. Nor must we claim that such 
adoption will simplify our weights and meas- 
ures at first; it will merely add to the di- 
versity; an addition to be deliberately made, 
with the prospect of the final disappearance 
of all except what experience may prove 
to be the best standards. Metric advocates 
believe these to be the metric standards. Be- 
fore final adoption standards must be sub- 
jected to competition like all else, and only 
considerations of utility will determine the 
survival of the fittest. 

There is no reason for metric advocates to 
relax their efforts to secure the adoption of 
the metric system by the government and its 
use in all government departments. An inter- 
national system of weights and measures may 
gradually become established for the benefit 
of international commerce. Whether it will 
be adopted in interstate commerce can not 
now be predicted. Initial legislation should 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



177 



be very elastic, and every concession should be 
accorded that may tend to secure to us the 
essential features of the metric system, even 
if we discard a good deal that its founders 
thought desirable for the sake of consistency. 
There is plenty of time yet to give this subject 
mature consideration without undertaking the 
role of either the optimist, the pessimist or 
the prophet. w. Le Conte Stevejjs. 

Washington and Lee Univeesity, 
July 8, 1904. 

The Development and Structure of Vegeta- 
tion. Studies in the Vegetation of the 
State [o/ Nehrasha'j, III. By Frederic E. 
Clements. Lincoln, Neb., published by the 
Botanical Seminar of the University of 
Nebraska. 1904. Pp. 175. 
In the present work Professor Clements has 
had a double purpose, first, to give an account 
of our present knowledge of the cardinal con- 
cepts in the study of vegetation, viewed in the 
light of their historical development, and 
second, to give more exact organization and 
classification to those ideas as well as greater 
definition to their terminology. He treats the 
idea of the association in its various phases, 
and with its diverse bases; of invasion, with 
its elements, migration, ecesis (or adjustment 
to the habitat), influence of barriers, endem- 
ism, polygenesis, kinds and manner of inva- 
sion; of succession in its various phases; of 
zonation; and of alternation, involving com- 
petition. Each section has its bibliography. 
Many interesting views are presented in the 
courge of the paper, among others the opinion 
that competition in plants has a purely phys- 
ical basis, or, in other words,' that competing 
plants influence one another only as physical, 
. and not as physiological, agents. This view, 
which it must be admitted is the only one 
justified by facts at present at our command, 
would make associations and other groups of 
this nature merely physical mixtures of plants 
with no organic connection between the mem- 
bers (excluding parasites, etc.) ; but it is not 
improbable that further research will show 
this view to be incorrect. Another feature 
of the paper is the attempt of the author to 
give greater definition to the terminology of 



the subject, to which end he proposes many 
new terms, all of which have the positive 
merit that they are etymologically appropriate 
and consistent. Whether or not these merits 
will result in their adoption remains to be 
seen, but Professor Clements's proposa;ls in 
this as in his earlier works have the great 
advantage of being first in the field. The 
author also emphasizes the need for accurate 
experimental and statistical field study as a 
basis for further ecological advance, a matter 
in which ecologists seem now to be in full 
agreement. Altogether, Professor Clements 
has given us a valuable and timely contribu- 
tion to the study of this increasingly attrac- 
tive subject, and his work is likely to exert 
no small influence in its development. 

W. E. Ganong. 

Mineral Tahies. For Determination of Min- 
erals hy their Physical Properties. By 
Arthur S. Eakle, Ph.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Mineralogy, University of Cali- 
fornia. New York, John Wiley and Sons. 
8vo. Pp. Y2. 

The new features in these tables are the 
prominence given to color as a classifying 
character and the restriction to the considera- 
tion of two hundred (approximately) common 
species. Lustre is made very subordinate, the 
divisions are by the ' streak,' color of the fine 
powder, and the subdivisions by ' color,' color 
of the mass. 

For minerals which crush to a colored 
powder this affords an easy and generally ac- 
curate separation. But the silicates of all 
colors and many light-colored minerals yield 
white powders and their distinction by phys- 
ical characters alone is not easy in average 
massive specimens, and this division extends 
over two thirds of the entire book. No re- 
source is made to blowpipe tests, the inference 
to be drawn from a paragraph in the introduc- 
tion being that ' blowpipe analysis ' should 
follow as a separate feature of the course. 
The time allotted to mineralogy in many col- 
leges would hardly permit this, however. 

The omission of the rarer species and the 
limitation of the necessary apparatus to knife, 
magnet, lens, streak-plate and hardness scale 



178 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



make the tables valuable for short courses or 
for field work. A. J. Moses. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 

The July number (volume 5, number 3) of 
the Transactions of the American Mathe- 
matical Society contains the following papers : 

E. B. Van Vi^ck: 'The convergence of alge- 
braic continued fractions whose coeflScients have 
limiting values.' 

W. FiNDLAY : ' The Sylow subgroups of the sym- 
metric group.' 

E. W. Brown : ' On the smaller perturbations 
of the lunar arguments.' 

B. V. Huntington : ' Sets of independent pos- 
tulates for the algebra of logic' 

H. F. BuCHFELDT: 'On the order of linear 
homogeneous groups (second paper).' 

J. B. Shaw : ' Algebras defined by finite groups.' 

O. Veblen : ' A system of axioms for geometry.' 

The contents of the American Journal of 
Science for July are as follows : 

B. B. BoLTWOOD : ' Ratio of Radium to Uranium 
in some Minerals.' 

F. M. McCnENAHAN : ' Constitution of Hydrous 
Thallic Chloride.' 

E. H. Sellards ; ' Study of the Structure of 
Paleozoic Cockroaches, with Descriptions of New 
Forms from the Coal Measures.' 

W. A. Parks : ' Remarkable Parasite from the 
Devonian Rocks of the Hudson Bay Slope.' 

C. R. Eastman : ' Asterolepid Appendages.' 
A. B. Plowman : ' Electrotropism of Roots.' 
O. C. Lester : ' Oxygen Absorption Bands of the 

Solar Spectrum.' 

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Dis- 
eases of July, 1904, contains two articles deal- 
ing with Multiple Sclerosis, one by Drs. W. G. 
Spiller and C. D. Camp of Philadelphia con- 
taining a report of two cases and some general 
observations on the nature of the condition, 
and the other by Dr. Smith Ely Jelliffe, of 
New York, on the occurrence and etiology of 
multiple sclerosis, as observed since the open- 
ing of the Neurological Department in the 
Vanderbilt Clinic of New York City. The 
interesting fact is brought out that this disease 
is less frequent than in foreign countries. 
There is also a discussion of Uremic Hemi- 
plegia, by Dr. T. H. Weisenburg, of Phila- 
delphia, in which he gives reports of several 



cases, and the results of various experiments. 
The Periscope contains extended abstracts 
from The American Journal of Insanity, 
Bevue de Psychiatrie and Nouvelle Icono- 
graphie de la Salpetriere, as well as miscellany 
and reviews of the latest psychiatrical and 
neurological books, published in this country 
and abroad. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 
NEW YORK SECTION. 

At the last meeting of the season, held June 
iO, at the Chemists' Club, 108 West 55th 
Street, the section elected as officers for the 
ensuing year: 

Chairman — Wm. Jay Schiefi'elin. 

Vice-Chairma/n — F. D. Dodge. 

Secretary-Treasurer — F. H. Rough. 

Additional Members of Executive Committee — 
E. H. Miller, M. T. Bogert, Wm. McMurtrie and 
T. J. Parker. 

The following papers were read : 
Alloys (Illustrated) : William Campbell. 

This paper gave the results obtained in a 
continuation of the work reported at the Jan- 
uary meeting. The work will appear in full 
in an early number of the Journal of the 
American Chemical Society. 
The Optical Rotation of Some Cyclic Com- 
pounds: F. D. Dodge. 

Dr. Dodge called attention to the fact that 
many of the constituents of the volatile oils 
contain ring-nuclei of three, four, five or six 
atoms, with varying degrees of saturation. 
These compounds are most frequently asym- 
metric ; which is shown by the optical activity. 
The questions as to how far the observed 
rotation phenomena are in harmony with the 
formulae which have been proposed, and as to 
whether the van't Hoff hypothesis is univer- 
sally applicable, were discussed. It is shown 
that in single ring nuclei, racemism is gen- 
erally theoretically possible, and often ob- 
served. In the cases of some double nuclei 
(as the camphor group) racemism appears to 
be impossible owing to the peculiar molecular 
structure. The exceptional optical properties 
of menthone were discussed, and a possible 
explanation found in a peculiar isomerism 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



179 



of the hexamethylene ring. ' Dextro ' and 
' Isevo ' menthone are shown to be not true 
optical isomens. Several other cases of rota- 
tion change were noted, and found to be due 
in general to chemical alteration of the 
nucleus. 

The author emphasized the value of geo- 
metric formula, and especially a modification 
of the Kekule-Baeyer tetrahedral models, and 
showed that certain plane formulae, which have 
been seriously discussed, are impossible of 
construction by the models, and must be con- 
sidered as, at least, improbable. 
The Determination of Formaldehyde: E. H. 

Williams. 

The author gave the results of a critical 
study of four of the more commonly used 
methods for the determination of formalde- 
hyde. Two of these, the ' iodimetric ' and the 
' hydrogen peroxide ' being oxidation methods, 
while the other two, the ' potassium cyanide ' 
and Leglers's ' aimnonia ' methods, are based 
upon condensation reactions. The oxidation 
methods were found in all cases to give notice- 
ably higher results than the condensation 
methods. Test analyses made with the addi- 
tion of alcohol, aldehydes and acetone indi- 
cated that the difference was not due to the 
influence of other substances present in the 
formaldehyde solution, but to the reactions on 
which the methods are based. Paraformalde- 
hyde may be determined as readily as for- 
maldehyde, with any of the four methods men- 
tioned- The formation and properties of the 
hexamethylene-tetramine, on which the am- 
monia method depends, will be studied further. 
H. 0. Sherman, 
Secretary. 

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

ASTMMETEON LUCAYANUM IN BERMUDA. . 

Besides establishing the fact that Am- 
phioxit^ cariioeus — knovpn since 1876 to exist 
at the Flatts — is found in numerous localities 
in these islands, the work of the station 
this year has resulted in the discovery that 
another representative of this very interesting 
group of Chordates — Asymmetron lucayanum 
— is also found in these waters. Especial 
credit for the discovery of this more rare ani- 



mal is diie to Mr. Louis L. Mowbray, a young 
Bermudian naturalist in the employ of the 
station. E. L. Mark, 

Director. 
Bebmuda Biological Station, 
Flatts, Bermuda, July 22, 1904. 

THE ASCENT OF WATER IN TREES. 

To THE Editor of Science : It would not be 
necessary to notice at all the note on ' The 
Ascent of Water in Trees,' published in your 
issue for July 22, were plant physiologists and 
physicists alone to be considered. A single 
remark, for the benefit of those who might be 
misled, will suffice to show the futility of the 
theory proposed. The structures at the lower 
end of the conducting tissues are essentially 
identical with those at the upper end. If at 
the upper end the ' water ducts are protected 
from direct atmospheric pressure by their 
structures,' they are equally shielded from it 
below. C. E. Barnes. 

The Univeesitt of Chicago. 

concerning spectacles. 
Eather an extensive literature exists on the 
question raised by Dr. 0. Barck in his paper 
on ' The History of Spectacles ' (Science, 
XX., July 8, 1904, p. 50) as to whether Nero 
was near-sighted and viewed gladiatorial com- 
bats with glasses. The passages in Pliny's 
' Natural History ' which have furnished food 
for this discussion occur in xi. 54, and xxxvii. 
16 ; and the best interpretation thereof known 
to the writer of the present paragraph is found 
in Dr. August Nies's interesting thesis ' Zur 
Mineralogie des Plinius,' pp. 18-20 (Mayence, 
1884). The claims of other alleged inventors 
of spectacles besides those mentioned by Dr. 
Barck are considered more or less fully in 
Beckmann's ' History of Inventions,' and in 
J. Fiedler's ' Geschichte der Erfindung der 
Fernrohre.' C. E. E. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 
the formation of toxic products by vege- 
table ENZYMES. 
No subject in the domain of plant chem- 
istry has aroused more discussion of late than 
the physiological role of the various enzymes. 



180 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



Concerning the specific action of a few vege- 
table ferments, sucli as diastase, invertase and 
lipase, a fairly clear and definite idea has been 
formed, but as regards the functions of other 
enzymes, particularly those of oxidizing and 
reducing properties, our knowledge is much 
less precise, and the greatest diversity of opin- 
ion prevails. 

As an example of the confusion which ex- 
ists it is only necessary to review what has 
been written within the past few years re- 
garding catalase. The property which ex- 
tracts from animal and vegetable tissues pos- 
sess of decomposing hydrogen peroxide was 
observed by Schoenbein in 1863, but Loew* 
was the first to ascribe the reaction to a spe- 
cific enzyme — catalase — to which he attributed 
both oxidizing and reducing properties. Loew 
is of the opinion that, in the respiration proc- 
esses of the living cell, hydrogen peroxide is 
formed and that this compound would act 
detrimentally were it not for the fact that it 
is destroyed immediately by the catalase. A 
similar view is shared by Pozzi-Escot,t who, 
however, declares that catalase is a reducing 
enzyme and has no oxidizing properties. 
Kastle:^ and Loevenhart, on the other hand, 
believe that catalase is concerned purely with 
oxidatipn phenomena and that Loew's sugges- 
tion, that it prevents the accumulation of 
hydrogen peroxide, is highly improbable. 
Without desiring to controvert any of the 
above opinions, I would like to suggest an- 
other possible explanation as to the role of the 
oxidizing and reducing enzymes. 

In the course of experiments with sugar 
cane I have frequently observed that cane, 
which had been sterilized by steaming, suffers 
a more rapid deterioration through the attack 
of molds and bacteria than raw cane. This 
also holds true, but less noticeably, of the 
juices from steamed and raw cane. Another 
observation frequently made was that the 
juice from the upper green portion of a living 

*Loew, U. S. Dept. Agr. Report No. 68. 
' Catalase, a New Enzyme of General Occurrence.' 

■|- Pozzi-Escot, American Chemical Joxirnal, 
June, 1903, p. 552. 

J Kastle and Loevenhart, American Chemical 
Journal, June, 1903, p. 583. 



cane was more resistant towards fermentation 
than juice from the riper joints lower down. 
The juice from the top of the cane also under- 
went a very rapid darkening after pressing, 
while that from the middle and bottom ex- 
hibited this change to a much less degree. 
The juice from steamed cane undergoes no 
coloration whatever. The change in color, 
resulting from the exposure of the juice or 
tissues of the cane to the air, is much better 
observed if the stalk be divided lengthwise; 
the darkening begins almost instantly in the 
region of the apex or growing point, and is 
less and less marked towards the bottom of 
the stalk. Such coloration phenomena are 
common to the tissues and juices of most 
plants and, according to Bertrand, are to be 
explained by the action of an oxidizing en- 
zyme upon bodies of a tannin nature. Such 
bodies occur in fact in the sugar cane, and 
microchemic tests show them to be most 
abundant in the growing parts. 

From the association of coloration phe- 
nomena with resistance to fermentation, it is 
natural to conclude that the dark-colored oxi- 
dation products produced by enzymes may 
have a toxic or germicidal action. That 
germicidal products, of even a very pro- 
nounced character, may be formed in cane 
juice by enzyme action was shown as follows: 
Samples of raw and sterilized juice from ripe 
cane were treated respectively with 0.2 per 
cent, of resorcin, orcin, pyrogallol and hydro- 
quinone, and left exposed to the air. In every 
instance the sterilized juices began to ferment 
first; as regards the raw juices, thosei treated 
with resorcin and orcin showed the least re- 
sistance to fermentation and those treated 
with pyrogallol and hydroquinone the greatest. 
The raw juice treated with hydroquinone 
turned nearly black in color and remained 
perfectly preserved for many weeks. In this 
case the toxic agent was no doubt quinone, 
the presence of which was plainly indicated 
by the odor. In the oxidation processes which 
take place, through enzyme action, when the 
tissues of green plants are cut or bruised, a 
quinone body may be formed, or, perhaps, an 
organic peroxide of the asymmetric peracid 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



181 



type, which latter group Freer* and Novy 
have demonstrated to be among the strongest 
germicides known. The formation of such 
toxic products would be of immense value to 
plants in protecting them against infection 
by micro-organisms, when their tissues are 
injured. Such protection would be most 
necessary in the regions of intense growth, 
and there in fact we find the oxidizing eiiect 
of the vegetable enzyxaes to be the greatest. 
The toxic products formed would undoubtedly 
have an injurious action upon the plant itself, 
were this not prevented by the reducing en- 
zymes, which prevent the diffusion of these 
substances beyond their points of formation 
and requirement. 

The oxidizing enzjrmes, no doubt, take part 
in other important physiological processes be- 
sides that of promoting the formation of toxic 
products. The importance of the latter -func- 
tion seems, however, to have been generally 
overlooked, and I believe it to constitute a 
phase of enzyme action well worthy of future 
investigation. 

0. A. Browne, Jr. 

Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station, 
Audubon Paek, New Orleans, La. 

the endosperm enzyme of phcenix dactylip- 

ERA — PRELIMINARY REPORT. 

The presence of an enzyme in the resting 
endosperm of the date seed has been demon- 
strated as follows: After the embryos were 
excised from a quantity of seeds the endo- 
sperms were ground to a coarse powder and 
this powder digested cold for six hours with 
distilled water. The aqueous extract thus ob- 
tained was made 40 per cent, alcoholic, after 
which precipitate No. 1 settled. This precipi- 
tate was collected over asbestos and washed 
with alcohol while the filtrate No. 1 was raised 
to 80 per cent, alcoholic, after which precipi- 
tate No. 2 settled. This precipitate No. 2 was 
collected over asbestos and washed with al- 
cohol. A portion of precipitate No. 1 was 
digested with 95 per cent, alcohol with con- 
stant shaking for fifteen minutes. The ex- 
tract was filtered and evaporated to dryness 

* Freer and Novy, Ainerican Chemical Journal, 
27, 161-192. 



over steam. A very slight residue remained 
which was insoluble in water and probably 
consisted of very fine asbestos which passed 
through the filter. This residue insoluble in 
water would not affect Fehling's solution, as 
was expected. The remainder of precipitate 
No. 1 was extracted with water and the ex- 
tract filtered. The filtrate was made 50 per 
cent, alcoholic and digested ten days at labo- 
ratory temperatures, after which time it was 
evaporated to dryness over steam, yielding 
residue No. 1. This residue was digested for 
several hours with 95 per cent, alcohol, the 
extract filtered and evaporated to dryness, 
yielding residue No. 2, which was found to be 
very soluble in water and to reduce Fehling's 
solution. Precipitate No. 1, consisting of 
carbohydrates insoluble in 40 per cent, alcohol 
and any proteid either insoluble or carried 
dovm with the carbohydrates — evidently dur- 
ing the ten days' digestion in 50 per cent, al- 
cohol — developed a reducing sugar soluble in 
95 per cent, alcohol. Precipitate No. 2 was 
extracted with water and the extract filtered. 
The filtrate thus obtained was measured 
equally into four flasks. Into each flask 5 c.c. 
of soluble starch was titrated. Flasks A and 
B were immediately made 80 per cent, alco- 
holic. Flasks C and D remained without al- 
cohol. All four flasks were digested at 40° 0. 
for six hours. The solutions were then evap- 
orated to dryness, yielding residues A^, B^, 0^, 
Z*,. Each of these residues was then digested 
for several hours with 95 per cent, alcohol. 
The extracts were filtered, and after evapora- 
tion to dryness the residues A„, B,, G^, D, thus 
obtained were dried for one hour at 110° C, 
removed to desiccator and weighed with fol- 
lowing results. 4, = 0.0085 gms., B, = 0.0090 
gms., C, = 0.0080 gms. and J>, = 0.0085 gms. 
All of these residues were soluble in water 
and reduced Fehling's solution with a total of 
0.0030 gms. of CuO. Whether this reducing 
sugar developed from the soluble starch or 
from the carbohydrates present in precipitate 
No. 2 is unknown. Evidently the activity of 
the enzyme contained in precipitate No. 2 is 
not inhibited by 80 per cent, alcohol. 

Raymond H. Pond. 
Northwestern University. 



182 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



QUOTATIONS. 

THE GERMAN YELLOW-FEVER EXPEDITION. 

We recently referred in our news columns to 
the fact that not long ago the Institute for 
Ship and Tropical Diseases in Hamburg sent 
a fully equipped expedition to South America 
to study yellow fever in particular. The re- 
sults already obtained by American, English 
and French observers will now be subjected to 
thorough tests, and further reports from the 
expedition will be awaited with much interest. 
We see in expeditions of this kind the strong- 
est evidence of the great interest now felt in 
tropical diseases and hygiene. This move- 
ment seems to date back only a few years. 
The epochal discoveries of Patrick Manson 
and Eonald Ross were followed by the estab- 
lishment in Liverpool of a school for tropical 
medicine by means of funds contributed by 
wide-awake and philanthropic business men. 
This school has sent out several investigative 
expeditions, the results of which have been im- 
portant in the fight against malaria, and more 
recently in clearing up the etiology of sleep- 
ing sickness. In addition, this school gives 
courses in tropical medicine. Other seaports 
have followed the example of Liverpool, and 
similar, institutions have been started in Lon- 
don, Hamburg, Bordeaux and elsewhere for 
teaching and research, location in seaport 
towns being necessary in order to gain access 
to the proper clinical material. The German 
expedition, which also is to study and report 
on sanitary conditions in South American 
harbors, is supported financially by the mer- 
chants of Hamburg. Whether viewed from the 
philanthropic or commercial point of view, the 
study of tropical diseases and maritime sani- 
tation is so important that we can only re- 
joice because it is fast becoming a matter of 
international competition. It may not be out 
of order to ask what is being done in this field 
in the great seaports of the United States, in 
addition to guarding against the importation 
of infectious diseases. So far as we know 
there is now no place in America where a 
physician may receive special instruction of 
the proper kind in tropical diseases and allied 
subjects. We look for the establishment of 
an institution of this kind in Manila before 



long, but it is quite evident that there is room 
and need for one or more such institutes in 
the United States, proper. — Journal of the 
American Medical Association. 



CURRENT NOTES ON METEOROLOGY. 

MONTHLY WEATHIiR REVIEW. 

The Monthly Weather Review for March, 
1904 (dated May 23), contains the following, 
among other articles: Professor R. F. Stu- 
part, of the Canadian Meteorological Service, 
writes on the ' Origin of American Cold 
Waves,' stating his belief that cold waves may 
originate almost anywhere over the more 
northern portions of the continent, and also 
expressing a doubt in regard to the cold being 
due entirely to radiation. Rev. Chas. H. Lee, 
of Racine, Wis., reports that in winter clouds 
may often be observed gathering on the eastern 
horizon over Lake Michigan, and moving land- 
ward. These clouds are usually seen about 
noon, after a clear, cold morning, with a tem- 
perature of about 0° F. At first the surface 
of the lake steams ' like a boiling kettle.' 
Later the steaming ceases, and clouds break 
off and slowly float shoreward from a great 
mass of accumulated vapor over the lake to 
the east. A paper on ' Precipitation for 
Twenty-nine Years at Dodge City, Kansas,' 
by E. D. Emigh, leads to the conclusion that 
there is no foundation for the assertion that 
the rainfall in western Kansas is increasing 
from year to year. Rev. Marc Dechevrens, 
of the Observatory of St. Louis, Island of 
Jersey, contributes a description of the ob- 
servations made by him on ' The Vertical 
Component of the Wind ' on the island of 
Jersey, by means of the Dechevrens universal 
anemometer. To this article are appended 
notes by Professors Abbe and Marvin. H. H. 
Clayton, of the Blue Hill Observatory, con- 
tributes ' A Study of Some Errors of Kite 
Meteorographs and Observations on Moun- 
tains,' this being the result of the careful kite 
work done at Blue Hill since 1894. 'The 
Winter of 1903-04,' which was characterized 
by unusual cold east of the Mississippi River, 
is discussed by W. B. Stockman. The editor 
of the Review considers ' Uniformity in Meth- 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



183 



ods and Standards of Instruction in Meteor- 
ology,' ' Weather Forecasts by Local Ob- 
servers,' ' Polarization of the Light of the 
Sky ' and other matters. 

OCEAN METEOROLOGY. 

Captain D. Wilson-Barker, in his presi- 
dential address before the Royal Meteorolog- 
ical Society (Quart. Journ. Boy. Met. Soc, 
XXX., April, 1904), believes that the solution 
of many meteorological problems should be 
sought in a closer study of the atmospheric 
conditions over the oceans. The work of 
Maury and Fitz Roy is appreciatively referred 
to, and the present state of our knowledge of 
marine meteorology is sketched. The author 
says : " In taking note of the meteorological 
work accomplished in different countries, we 
find the United States of America well to the 
fore. . . . The United States government is in- 
defatigable in collecting knowledge beneficial 
to seamen." The opinion is expressed that 
we have reached the limits to which it is pos- 
sible for us to go in weather forecasting with 
the meteorological knowledge at present within 
our reach. What is now required is a ' liberal 
infusion of scientific imagination into our 
midst.' There is appended to this paper a 
list of some of the publications bearing on 
marine meteorology issued between 1886 and 
1903, and the illustrations conaprise a series of 
charts of temperature, pressure, winds, rain- 
fall and cloudiness over the oceans. 

WHEAT IN CANADA. 

In the Canadian Magazine for April, Dr. 
Wm. Saunders, in discussing wheat-growing 
in Canada, states that he has received from 
Dunvegan, on the Peace River, 414 miles north 
of Winnipeg, samples of wheat weighing 64 
pounds to the bushel, and from Fort Simpson, 
818 miles north of Winnipeg, Ladoga wheat 
weighing 62J pounds to the bushel has been 
obtained. Between sowing and harvesting the 
time varied between 101 and 108 days. The 
quick ripening of cereals in far northern lati- 
tudes is well known, and the successful culti- 
vation of wheat in northern Canada means 
that the agricultural future of those northern 



territories is much brighter than was at one 
time supposed. 

INTERNATIONAL CLOUD ATLAS. 

A NEW edition of the ' International Cloud 
Atlas,' published in 1896 under the direction 
of de Bort, Hildebrandsson and Riggenbach, 
is to be undertaken, provided sufficient interest 
is shown in the matter by scientific men. 
The ' Atlas,' as is well known to readers of 
Science, presents views of cloud forms classi- 
fied in accordance with the so-called interna- 
tional classification of clouds, which was offi- 
cially adopted and recommended by the In- 
ternational Cloud Committee in 1891. The 
illustrations are beautifully colored, and quite 
apart from its great value to meteorology, the 
' Cloud Atlas ' is well worth owning for the 
beauty of the illustrations alone. It is to be 
hoped that all those who have found the atlas 
useful in their work will communicate with 
the committee in charge of the publication of 
the new edition. 

BRITISH METEOROLOGICAL COUNCIL. 

The committee appointed by the British 
treasury in December, 1902, ' to inquire and 
report as to the administration by the meteor- 
ological council of the existing parliamentary 
grant, and as to whether any changes in its 
apportionment are desirable in the interest of 
meteorological science, and to make any fur- 
ther recommendations which may occur to 
them, with a view to increasing the utility of 
the grant,' has made its recommendations. 
These include the reconstitution of the meteor- 
ological office as a department under the con- 
trol of the board of agriculture and fisheries; 
the appointment of ' a man of science as a 
director of meteorology, appointed after con- 
sultation with the Royal Society ' ; the ap- 
pointment of an advisory board of five mem- 
bers, two being nominated by the Royal 
Society, one being the hydrographer to the 
Admiralty, one being a representative of the 
Board of Trade, and one of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Fisheries; and the appointment 
of a second officer as scientific assistant to the 
director. The other recommendations relate 



184 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol.. XX. No. 501. 



to the transmission of daily weather reports 
by telegraph; the use of wireless telegraphy 
' in providing advance news of weather on the 
Atlantic ' ; an increase of the office staff, and 
the provision of new quarters for the central 
office. 

ANTAECTIO WINDS. 

Dr. Erich von Drygalski, in a paper read 
before the Royal Geographical Society on 
April 25 last, on the German South Polar 
Expedition, calls special attention to the winds 
noted during the Gauss voyage to the far 
south. The zone of prevailing westerlies was 
left behind and a trough of low pressure was 
crossed, the ship remaining on the southern 
slope of this trough, where the pressure rises 
again to a maximum over the continent. 
Here the winds were found to be prevailingly 
easterly, ' which sweep dovm from the south 
over the vast uniform and but slightly in- 
clined surfaces of the inland ice, and appear 
on the sea-board as easterly, foehn-like gales.' 
These gales, according to Dr. von Drygalski, 
give this south polar region its distinctive 
character, and also its limits, and by their 
frequency and uniformity 'they reveal the 
immensity and the- homogeneous nature of 
those Antarctic lands.' 

NOTES. 

A. B. MacDowall (Met. Zeitschr., XXI., 
1904, 77-Y8) believes that during the last sixty 
years sunspot maxima have been accompanied 
in England by higher temperatures. He thus 
takes a view directly opposed to that of Kop- 
pen and Nordmann, who believe that the 
temperatures are higher (in the tropics) dur- 
ing sunspot minima. MacDowall also pub- 
lishes curves of pressure at Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory and of the moon's phases, in which 
he considers the coincidence sufficiently 
marked to lead to a belief of cause and effect, 
and curves of relative humidity at Greenwich 
and of the moon's phases, which seem to him 
similarly related. 

The Deutsche Seewarte (Hamburg) has 
begun the publication of a pilot chart, to be 
issued quarterly, of the North and Baltic Seas. 
The same institution has also lately begun to 



issue charts showing for 8 a.m. each day the 
distribution of pressure over the North At- 
lantic between Europe and North America, 
and also the force and direction of the wind. 
These charts are published as soon as possible 
after date. 

Sir John Eliot, lately at the head of the 
Indian Meteorological Department, gives it 
as his opinion, as quoted in Nature, Vol. 69, 
538, that ' the next development of weather 
study will almost certainly be in the direction 
of international or world meteorology, and its 
relation to the phenomena of sunspots and 
terrestrial magnetism.' 

Two recent studies on the vertical distribu- 
tion of temperature in the free air are the 
following : E. Assmann, ' The Temperature of 
the Air above Berlin,' translated in Monthly 
Weather Review, XXXH., 1904, 177-180; L. 
T. de Bort, ' Decroissance de la Temperature 
avec la Hauteur dans la Eegion de Paris,' 
del et Terre, XXIV., 1904, 579-583. 

The Prussian Meteorological Institute has 
issued a new (second) revised edition of its 
' Anleitung zur Anstellung und Berechnung 
meteorologischer Beobachtungen.' The first 
part deals with observations at second and 
third order stations. E. DeO. Ward. 

Harvard Univeesity. 



STOMACH STONES AND FOOD OF 
PLESIOSAURS. 

In a recent paper* on North American 
Plesiosaurs, Dr. S. W. Williston, in discussing 
the probable significance of the pebbles so 
often found associated with plesiosaur re- 
mains, says : " What the use of these pebbles 
was I will not venture to say. They may 
have served as a sort of weight to regulate the 
specific gravity of the animals or they may 
have been swallowed accidentally. If, as I 
believe probable, the plesiosaurs were in the 
habit of feeding upon invertebrate animals, 
seeking such in the shallow muddy bottoms, 
the pebbles may have been taken with the 
food unintentionally. I doubt this, however. 
I may add that all specimens do not reveal 
similar pebbles." 

• Field Columbian Museum Publication num- 
ber 73, page 75. 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



185 



During the summer of 1903 the writer col- 
lected fossils in the Niobrara shales in South 
Dakota, finding the remains of many plesio- 
saurs. In nearly every instance a large num- 
ber of siliceous stones were found associated 
with the bones, often embedded in the matrix 
en masse. In one specimen in which the 
largest dorsal vertebrse were four inches in 
diameter, there was at least half a bushel of 
these stomach stones, ranging from the size 
of a walnut to four inches across. 

Considering the weight of these stones, the 
wonder is that so many specimens contain 
them. One would expect that when the flesh 
began to decompose, the weight of these stones 
would be too great to be contained by the 
weakened tissues and that they would be lost 
before the animal reached its final resting 
place. This may well explain the absence of 
stones in some cases. 

Throughout the Niobrara formation in 
Dakota baculites are very abundant while 
scaphites are rare, especially in the shales. 
I could not be certain that any of the baculites 
associated with the plesiosaur remains had 
been eaten by these animals but in plesiosaur 
specimen number 5803 of the American Mu- 
seum collection I found a variety of fossils 
representing this animal's last meal. Great 
numbers of fish vertebrae were scattered 
among the bones, while there were several 
pterodactyl bones, broken in small sections. 
But of chief interest were seven scaphites, 
more or less broken, which had without ques- 
tion been eaten by this animal. One other 
specimen had scaphites associated with it. 
The conclusion seems evident that invertebrate 
animals formed a large part of the food of 
plesiosaurs and that, in default of crushing 
teeth, the breaking up of the food was effected 
by the aid of these stomach stones, the presence 
of which further implies a thick-walled, giz- 
zard-like arrangement in the alimentary canal. 

Barnuii[ Brown. 



THE ALPINE LABORATORY OF THE BOTAN- 
ICAL SEMINAR OF THE UNIVERSITY 
OF NEBRASKA. 

The striking diversity of conditions and of 
vegetation in high mountain ranges makes 



them ideal places for field experiment. Their 
value is greatly increased, moreover, when 
their slopes arise directly from the plain, as in 
frontal ranges. This is the case at Pikes 
Peak in the Eampart range of the Rocky 
Mountains, where the distance from the plains 
at an altitude of 1,800 meters to the alpine 
summit at 4,200 meters is less than ten miles. 
The significance of this is evident when one 
reflects that these ten miles contain in minia- 
ture the habitats and formations found be- 
tween latitude 40° and the arctic circle : in 
less than a half-day, one may pass from the 
temperate zone through the boreal-subalpine 
to the arctic-alpine zone. The opportunity 
for the study of the development and struc- 
ture of vegetation is unique. The major 
zones are in evidence as nowhere else, and 
their ecotones are clear-cut. Weathering and 
erosion are at a maximum, making new 
habitats and destroying old ones, and the de- 
velopmental history of formations may be 
read from hundreds of stages. Experimental 
methods in vegetation and in the evolution of 
new forms may be applied with an ease and 
a certainty of freedom from accidents and in- 
terference which can be obtained only with 
dilficulty in other regions. The dream of the 
physiologist (ecologist) to have his laboratory 
out-of-doors may be realized here, and it is 
merely a matter of time until methods will 
be found by which research will deal primarily 
with the experiments of nature, and the walled 
laboratory will be relegated to a purely sec- 
ondary place. 

The reconnoissance work done by different 
members of the botanical seminar of the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska in various parts of the 
Rocky Mountains from 1893 to 1898 showed 
that the Pikes Peak region possesses the com- 
bined advantages of accessibility and diversity 
to a degree found nowhere else. This country 
was worked over more in detail in the summer 
of 1899, and Minnehaha, at an altitude of 
2,500 m. on the Cog railway, was selected as 
a base. Minnehaha is within an hour's walk 
of the plains, and an easy climb of two hours 
brings one to timber line on Mount Baldy. 
It is in the midst of the coniferous and aspen 
forests of the subalpine zone, in a locality 



186 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



peculiarly rich in talus and burn successions. 
Within a radius of five miles are found more 
than twenty distinct plant formations. In 
1903, stations were established at Manitou at 
1,900 m., and on the top of Mount Garfield at 
3,800 m., and automatic records were obtained 
throughout the growing season for the three 
zones, foothill, subalpine and alpine. During 
the present season, these stations are to be 
equipped with thermographs, psychrographs 
and automatic photometers, while water-con- 
tent determinations will be made at stated in- 
tervals. A small cabin has been acquired at 
Minnehaha, and it is intended to convert this 
into a laboratory ultimately. It is the pur- 
pose of the alpine laboratory to carry on in- 
vestigations under field conditions alone, and 
the building will be equipped only with such 
books, microscopes and other instruments as 
are necessary to field experiment. 

The general phytogeographical survey of 
the Colorado mountains, which was begun in 
1896, has been carried out along new lines in 
vegetational research, and is now nearly com- 
pleted. The structural characteristics of the 
mountain formations have already been indi- 
cated in a series of formation herbaria, en- 
titled ' Herbaria Pormationum Coloraden- 
sium,' issued in 1902, while the methods of 
research employed have just been published in 
a paper, ' The Development and Structure of 
Vegetation.' A large nuniber of permanent 
and denuded quadrats Jiave been established 
for the experimental study of invasion and 
competition, and considerable work in ex- 
perimental ecology has been initiated by 
changing habitats and transferring species to 
diverse habitats. Special problems in suc- 
cession and adaptation are under investigation 
by advanced students, and the results will ap- 
pear during the coming year. 

The facilities of the laboratory are at the 
disposal of botanists and students desiring to 
do advanced work or to carry on investigation, 
upon the payment of a nominal fee. Good 
accommodations may be secured at reasonable 
rates in the mountain hotels at Minnehaha 
and Halfway. Minnehaha is reached from 
Manitou by the trains of the Gog railway, 
over which commutation tickets may be ob- 



tained at reduced rates. Detailed information 
will be furnished upon applicati6n to Dr. 
Frederic E. Clements, The University of Ne- 
braska, Lincoln, ISTebraska. 



THE CULTIVATION OF COTTON IN THE 
WEST INDIES. 

It is satisfactory to report that the experi- 
mental cultivation of cotton in the West In- 
dies has proved a success, and that the in- 
dustry is now established on a commercial 
basis. Plantations exist in Barbados, St. 
Lucia, St. Vincent, Montserrat, Antigua, St. 
Kitts, Trinidad, and the smaller islands, while 
plots have also been started in Jamaica and 
British Guiana. The total area estimated to 
be under cultivation is 4,000 acres. During 
the season just ended Barbados alone shipped, 
up to March 31, 244 bales and two bags of 
cotton, weighing 61,0001b., and the gins have 
been busy since. The Imperial Department 
of Agriculture, which has the work in hand, 
has orders from planters for Sea Island seed 
sufficient to plant 7,000 acres, and as this 
quantity has been paid for the presumption is 
that it will be used. In Jamaica, where the 
pioneer work is being carried out by the Board 
of Agriculture, enough seed has been disposed 
of to plant 500 acres. A number of Syrians, 
who are acquainted with cotton-growing in 
Egypt, are engaged in the cultivation there. 
Central factories for ginning and pressing the 
cotton have been erected in the various 
islands, and a cotton gin expert from the Sea 
Islands has just completed four months' work 
on the machines, all of which are now in 
perfect working order. He states that the 
factory in St. Vincent is the best-arranged 
and best equipped he has ever seen. A nine- 
hours' run of the six gins yielded 3,8001b. of 
lint ; in Barbados, where the methods and ap- 
pliances are not so scientifically complete, a 
similar run gave from 1,5001b. to 1,6001b. 
There are a few private ginneries, but the 
majority are government undertakings carried 
on under the direction of the Imperial De- 
partment of AgTiculture. The cotton is 
ginned, baled and shipped for the planters 
for 3c. per lb. of lint ; seed cotton is also pur- 
chased at the rate of 4c. per lb., which is 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



187 



equivalent to payment at the rate of about 
lid. per lb. for the lint in the Liverpool 
market. The prices obtained for the Sea 
Island cotton have been highly satisfactory. 
One recent consignment from Barbados was 
valued at from 16d. to 17d. per lb., another 
averaged just under 15d., the highest price 
being 16jd., and the lowest 13d. Prices cur- 
rent exhibited in Barbados at the same time 
showed that Sea Island cotton was being 
quoted in Savannah at from lOd. to 12jd., 
but this was evidently the price for common 
lint, as the last crop on the Sea Islands 
brought from 30c. to 35c. — this, of course, 
representing the result of 30 odd years of care- 
ful selection and cultivation. The figures 
given are sufficient to indicate that West In- 
dian cotton, grown from Sea Island seed, is 
capable of yielding a return quite equal to the 
finest product of America. It is calculated 
that, the yield of lint being assumed to be 
2041b. per acre — the average in America — and 
the total cost of placing it in the Liverpool 
market 7d. per lb. for cotton fetching 12d. 
per lb., the net profit would be at the rate of 
£5 2s. per acre. Labor is cheaper in the West 
Indies than in the Southern States; the cotton 
gin expert referred to was amazed at the low 
value of the labor in Barbados. 

Sir Daniel Morris, the head of the Imperial 
Department of Agriculture, is of opinion that 
the only cotton that should be grown in the 
West Indies is the Sea Island variety, which, 
it is well known, is a native of these islands. 
Other varieties are therefore being eliminated. 
Some planters favor the Upland, and even the 
indigenous varieties which are still found 
growing wild, but it will tindoubtedly prove 
more advantageous to devote attention only 
to the highly cultivated long-staple Sea Island 
cotton. The area throughout the world suit- 
able for the growth of Upland is unlimited; 
that able to produce Sea Island is strictly 
limited. The latter fetches double the price 
of any other cotton, and like Blue Mountain 
coffee, will remain unaffected by future fluctu- 
ations of the market. A sample of the native 
cotton of Jamaica has been sent to England 
and pronounced very fine, being valued at 14d. 
per lb. It is a cotton which appears to resist 



insect pests, and many think that a first-class 
variety might be evolved from it. The experi- 
ments in the island, however, are being made 
with Sea Island seed, and it will probably be 
found wiser to begin where the Sea Island 
planters have left off than to engage in experi- 
ments which may not prove successful. 

Many difiiculties have naturally been en- 
countered in establishing the industry, owing 
largely to the inexperience and ignorance of 
the growers, the most formidable being the 
attack of the cotton worm. Remedies were 
not at hand, and loss was sustained, but the 
planters are now forearmed, and they believe 
themselves able to cope with any similar 
emergency. Every assistance is rendered to 
growers by the Imperial Agricultural Depart- 
ment, which has published and circulated an 
extensive literature on the subject. One of 
Sir Daniel Morris's latest ideas is to send the 
ofiioers of the department to the various 
islands to deliver popular lectures on the in- 
dustry with magic-lantern illustrations. He 
recommends, however, that only capable plant- 
ers should go in for cotton-growing at present, 
and advises those who wish to come out to the 
West Indies to embark on planting on a large 
scale, to pay a visit first to St. Vincent, and 
study the conditions and opportunities there. 
Great credit is due to him for his indefatigable 
efforts to promote the industry during the 
past four years. West Indian planters are not 
very ready to strike out on new lines, and, but 
for the steady persistence and influence of the 
department, aided by practical assistance from 
the British Cotton Growers' Association and 
West Indian Committee, it is doubtful whether 
the present important results would have been 
achieved. 



DECENNIAL PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNI- 
VERSITY OF CHICAGO. 

Most of the eighteen volumes originally 
planned as decennial publications of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago have been issued. The 
University Press announces the following as 
among the volumes that may be expected 
shortly : 

Lectures on the Calculus of Variations. By 

OSKAR BOLZA. 



188 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



This treatise is, in substance, a reproduc- 
tion in considerably extended form of a series 
of lectures delivered by the author at the 
Colloquium held in connection with the sum- 
mer meeting of the American Mathematical 
Society at Ithaca, N. Y., in August, 1901. 
It gives a detailed account of the typical and 
most important class of problems in the cal- 
culus of variations — in which an integral de- 
pending upon a plane curve and containing 
no higher but the first derivatives of the 
unknown functions is to be maximized or 
minimized — with special emphasis upon the 
progress of the theory during the last twenty- 
five years. The following topics are treated : 
(1) The older theory of the first and second 
variation from Euler to Jacobi, and the crit- 
ical revision of its foundations and demonstra- 
tions by DuBois-Eeymond, Scheeffer, Weier- 
strass and others. (2) Weierstrass's theory: 
the problem in parameter-representation, the 
fourth necessary condition; sufficient condi- 
tions. (3) Simplifications and extensions of 
Weierstrass's theory (especially by Kneser and 
Hilbert. (4) The so-called isoperimetric 
problems. (5) Hilbert's existence tjieorems. 
The Study of Stellar Evolution: A Popular 

Account of Modern Methods of Astrophys- 

ical Research. By George Ellery Hale. 

The purpose of this book is to tell how the 
origin, development, and decay of celestial 
bodies are studied in a modern observatory. 
The remarkable advances in astronomy during 
the second half of the nineteenth century, in- 
cluding the development of great telescopes, 
the introduction of the spectroscope, the many 
discoveries made with its aid and the results 
obtained through the use of photography, have 
given the study of stellar evolution a prom- 
inent place in the work of many observatories. 
The explanations of instruments, and methods 
are accompanied by illustrations, and the most 
recent astronomical photographs obtained with 
the telescopes of the Yerkes Observatory are 
reproduced in a series of plates. 
Glacial Studies in Greenland. By Thojias 

ChrOWDER CHAjrBERLIN. 

This book will consist of a detailed descrip- 
tion of about fifteen Greenland ice tongues, 
and of a portion of the main ice caj), dwelling 



especially upon the significant features, fol- 
lowed by a chapter on generalizations, a chap- 
ter on experiments, a chapter on theoretical 
deductions and a chapter on the applicability 
of the generalizations and deductions to the 
great ice invasions of the past. 

Studies in General Physiology. In two Parts. 

By Jacques Loeb. 

This work will contain some of the author's 
principal papers on the subjects of animal 
tropisms, heteromorphosis and artificial trans- 
formation of organs, artificial parthenogenesis, 
physiological effects of ions, the efliects of 
lack of oxygen, function of cell nucleus, etc. 
These papers have appeared in scattered Ger- 
man periodicals or as separate publications in 
German, and many of them are now out of 
print or inaccessible. 



DR. J. C. McCONNELL. 

In the death of Dr. J. C. McConnell, anat- 
omist of the Army Medical Museum, which 
occurred on July 25 at Liberty, N. Y., where 
he had gone for recuperation, more than one 
science has lost an efficient coadjutor. Apart 
from the profession of medicine and anatomy 
and their application to the duties of his 
office. Dr. McConnell utilized his leisure as a 
delineator of objects of natural history, espe- 
cially shells and fossils, crania and bones. 
He had for nearly thirty-five years carried on 
this work, and it is certain that as a draughts- 
man in black and white line, for scientific 
purposes, he had no equal in this country, if 
in the' world. 

About his last important work was the com- 
pletion of the drawings for the illustration of 
the still unpublished Miocene volume of the 
Maryland Geological Survey. Many thousand 
exquisite drawings had been prepared by him 
for the National Museum and various surveys, 
as well as the Army Medical Museum, in the 
course of his career. To those requiring such 
service his loss is nothing short of a calamity. 
In his personal relations Dr. McConnell was 
attractive and genial. His official associates 
as well as those who knew him chiefly as an 
artist, will sympathetically join in the regrets 
of his bereaved family. 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



189 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 
Dr. C. H. Tittmann, chief of the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, has left Washington for 
Alaska, where he will meet Dr. W. P. King, 
chief astronomer of Canada, in order to mark 
the boundary line between Alaska and Canada 
in accordance with the decisions of the com- 
mission that met last year in London. 

Me. Bailey Willis, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, has returned from China, where he 
has been making geological explorations under 
the auspices of the Carnegie Institution. 

Professor Charles E. Bessey, of the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska, is visiting the Minnesota 
Seaside Laboratory at Vancouver Island. 

Professor H. H. Eusby, of the New York 
College of Pharmacy, is at the Kew Botanical 
Gard,ens studying the herbaria from South 
America. 

Dr. T. Homen, professor of physics at the 
University of Helsingfors, and three other 
professors of the university have been deported 
to Eussia as a consequence of the assassination 
of General Bobrikoff. It is taken for granted 
that these professors had no connection with 
this crime, but in any case the conditions must 
be regarded as unfortunate. 

The senate of Heidelberg University pro- 
poses to establish a gold medal in honor of 
Professor Kuno Fischer to be conferred once 
in five years for work on the history of phi- 
losophy in Germany. 

The Paris Academy of Sciences has decided 
to award its LeCompte prize of the value of 
$10,000 to M. Blondlot for his researches on 
the so-called n-rays. 

At the celebration of the foundation of the 
University of Giessen on July 1, the rector. 
Dr. E. Brauns, made an address on the de- 
velopment of geology and mineralogy at the 
university since the year 1850. 

A medallion in memory of the late Sir 
George Gabriel Stokes, which has been erected 
in the north aisle of the choir of Westminster 
Abbey, was unveiled on July 7 by the Duke 
of Devonshire, chancellor of the University of 
Cambridge, and formally transferred to the 
authorities of the Abbey. Addresses were 



made by Sir William Huggins, Lord Eayleigh 
and Lord Kelvin. 

The monument erected to the memory of 
Pasteur in the Place de Breteuil, Paris, was 
unveiled on July 16 by President Loubet. In 
addition to Mme. Pasteur, there were present 
numerous oifieers of the government, members 
of the diplomatic corps and men of science. 

We learn from the Journal of the American 
Medical Association, that Professor Czerny 
has endowed a prize in honor of his deceased 
father-in-law, the famous clinician, Adolf 
Kussmaul. The sum of $2,500 has been paid 
for the purpose to the Heidelberg University, 
and the income will be awarded every third 
year, on Kussmaul's birthday, Pebruary 22, 
for the best therapeutic achievement during 
the preceding three years, published first in 
German literature. 

A portrait-bust of Dr. Otto Kahler, former- 
ly professor of medicine at Vienna, has been un- 
veiled in the arcades of the school of medicine. 

A PUBLIC meeting has been held at Bury, 
England, to celebrate the bi-centenary of the 
birth of John Kay, of Bury, inventor of the 
fly-shuttle, to promote a public fund for the 
erection of a statue in memory of the inventor 
and to institute scholarships. 

Mrs. Mary B. Coulston, recently appointed 
assistant in agriculture in the University of 
California, died on July lY. 

Sir John Simon, K.C.B., former vice-presi- 
dent of the Eoyal Society and president of 
the Eoyal College of Surgeons, well known for 
his important services on behaK of the public 
health, died on July 23, at the age of eighty- 
eight years. 

Mr. Alfred H. Allen, the author of a well- 
known work in eight volumes on commercial 
organic analysis and of many papers on ap- 
plied chemistry, died at Sheffield on July 14, 
at the age of sixty years. 

Dr. Eudolph Amandus Philippi, for many 
years director of the Natural History Museum 
at Santiago, Chili, and the author of many 
contributions to zoology and botany, has died 
at the age of ninety-six years. 

We regret also to record the death of Dr. 
Gustav Hempel, professor of agriculture at 



190 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



Vienna, and of Dr. Otto Christian Loven, 
formerly professor of physiology at Stockholm. 

M. Alfred Picard has been appointed com- 
missioner of France at the St. Louis Exposi- 
tion. 

The American Mathematical Society will 
hold its eleventh summer meeting at St. Louis 
on September 16 and 17. The headquarters 
will be at the Inside Inn on the Exposition 
grounds. Professors H. S. White, A. S. 
Chessin and E. E. Hedriek are the committee 
in charge. 

The French Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science meets at Grenoble from the 
fourth to the eleventh of August; the Swiss 
Association met at Wintherthour from July 
thirtieth to August the second. 

The International Botanical Congress will 
meet in Vienna next year from June twelfth 
to eighteenth. 

The trustees of the Percy Sladen Fund for 
the assistance of scientific research, the estab- 
lishment of which with an endowment of 
$100,000 we recently noticed, have held their 
first meeting, and will meet again in November 
to consider applications for grants. 

According to Nature the report of the com- 
mittee on ancient earthworks and fortified 
enclosures was presented to the congress of 
archeological societies on July 6. The com- 
mittee expresses regret that more archeological 
societies have not taken up the idea of com- 
piling a schedule of the ancient defensive 
works in their respective districts; and it is 
urged upon the secretaries of societies to ar- 
range, when possible, for the survey and 
scheduling of all such works as are included 
in the inquiry. The committee concludes the 
report by again impressing upon archeologists 
the importance of doing their utmost to pre- 
vent the destruction which from time to time 
threatens so many defensive enclosures of 
earth or stone. 

The Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation states that the first subject for its 
prize essay is announced by the medical fac- 
ulty of the University of Munich as follows: 
" It has been stated that mice can not be ade- 
quately nourished with pure food stuffs (albu- 



min, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and 
water). Other investigators, on the other 
hand, have succeeded in accomplishing this. 
The faculty offers a prize for research in this 
line on pigeons, which can readily be fed on 
mixtures of the pure food stuffs." The sub- 
ject announced for this year is given out again 
for further study for next year's competition: 
' Study of the structure of the germinal ves- 
icle in a large vertebrate.' 

The Scotia, bearing the Scottish Antarctic 
Expedition, under the leadership of Mr. Bruce, 
has returned to Glasgow, bringing, it is said, 
valuable collections. 

Eeports have been received from Dr. Max 
Uhle, who, since the beginning of the year, 
has renewed his archeological explorations on 
the coast of Peru, carried on by him through 
the liberality of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst for 
the department of anthropology of the Uni- 
versity of California. Dr. Uhle made new 
excavations at Ancon, in several parts of the 
so-called necropolis, with a view to determin- 
ing the relative ages of the cultures repre- 
sented by the different kinds of mummies and 
objects. After abimdant material for this 
purpose had been obtained, excavations were 
made a short distance south of Ancon. Here, 
in a hitherto unsuspected deposit free from 
mummies, remains of an early culture distinct 
in character from any other in Peru were 
found. After completing his investigations 
at this spot, Dr. Uhle proceeded northward 
along the coast toward Supe or beyond. 

We learn from the London Times that at 
the one hundred and fiftieth annual meeting 
of the Society of Arts held recently, the 
business consisted in the election of the new 
council and the reading of the report. The 
Prince of Wales was elected president for 
the third year in succession. The report 
stated that the society's Albert Medal had been 
awarded to Mr. Walter Crane in recognition 
of his services in the promotion of decorative 
art. The prizes given during the year in- 
cluded the Swiney Cup for a work on juris- 
prudence, the Owen Jones, Mulready, and 
North-London Exhibition Trust prizes for 
work by art students, and prizes for fire pre- 



August 5, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



191 



vention apparatus awarded at the Interna- 
tional Fire Exhibition last year, while the 
Benjamin Shaw Trust prize is now under 
ofEer for a respirator for use in dangerous 
trades. The numbers of candidates at the ex- 
aminations showed a large increase last year. 
The report concluded with some references to 
members of the society who had died during 
the past year, among the most memorable of 
whom were Sir Frederick Bramwell and Sir 
Henry Stanley. 

' The Economic Resources of the Northern 
Black Hills ' is the title of an elaborate report 
recently published as Professional Paper No. 
26 by the United States Geological Survey. 
The chief author of the paper is Dr. J. D. 
Irving, but chapters have been written by Mr. 
S. F. Emmons and Dr. T. A. Jaggar, Jr. The 
report is in two parts, the first part, on the 
general geology of the Northern Black Hills, 
being the work of Dr. Jaggar, and the second, 
on the mining geology of the region, that of 
Messrs. Irving and Emmons. The entire re- 
port fills 214 pages and includes over 40 illus- 
trations. The area covered is comprised 
mainly within the Spearfish and Sturgis quad- 
rangles, which were surveyed geologically in 
the summers of 1898 and 1899 under the direc- 
tion of Mr. S. F. Emmons. These quadrangles 
include the major portion of the mineralized 
and productive territory, but as a few ore 
bodies that fall without its limits have been 
described the title has been expanded to cover 
the mining region of the northern Black Hills. 
Dr. Jaggar's treatment of the general geology 
of the district includes a discussion of its 
general structure, topography, drainage and 
stratigraphy. The intrusive porphyries are 
described in detail and the history of their 
intrusion is given. A description of the Al- 
gonkian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Carbonifer- 
ous, Tertiary, and Quaternary formations of 
the district closes the first part of the report. 
In the second part of the report, which treats 
of the mining geology of the district, theoret- 
ical discussions are either excluded or made 
as brief as possible. The work is chiefly 
descriptive in character. The first four chap- 
ters describe (1) the ore deposits in Algonkian 
rocks, (2) those in Cambrian rocks, (3) those 



in Carboniferous rocks, and (4) those in rocks 
of recent origin. A fifth chapter is devoted 
to detailed descriptions of particular mines in 
the district. 

Sir Thomas Elliott, for the British Board 
of Agriculture, has sent the following reply 
to the Association of Chambers of Commerce, 
who urged the importance of establishing a 
national school of forestry : " The president of 
the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries fully 
recognizes the importance which attaches to 
the question of afforestation and to the pro- 
vision of a national system of instruction in 
forestry. Steps have already been taken in 
more than one direction to give effect to the 
recommendations of the departmental com- 
mittee which was appointed in 1902, under the 
chairmanship of Mr. E. 0. Munro Ferguson, 
M.P., to inquire into the subject. Through 
the agency of the Commissioners of Woods 
and Forests a school of forestry has been es- 
tablished in the Forest of Dean, and a move- 
ment is on foot for securing a suitable area 
of land in Scotland for the purpose of demon- 
strating scientific forestry. The board have 
taken steps to secure the establishment of at 
least two lectureships in forestry in England, 
and some of the leading universities and 
agricultural colleges have been giving atten- 
tion to proposals under this head. The agri- 
cultural departments of the University College 
of North Wales, Bangor, and of the Durham 
College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, ap- 
peared to offer special advantages as centers 
of instruction in forestry, and grants in aid 
of the establishment of schemes of education 
in the subject will be made by the board to 
those institutions. The board hope that the 
arrangements thus made will result in a con- 
siderable improvement of the facilities avail- 
able in this country for the acquirement of a 
knowledge of practical forestry." 

The following, according to Nature, is a 
summary of the prizes offered by the Belgian 
Academy for 1904 and 1905: For 1904, in 
mathematics and physics, critical phenomena 
in physics, viscosity of liquids, gtudy of n- 
linear forms where ?i> 3, thermal conductivity 
of liquids and solutions, each a prize of 600 



192 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 501. 



francs; unipolar induction of Weber, 800 
francs. In natural sciences, the Cambrian 
rocks of Stavelot (Belgium), 800 francs; 
modiiications produced in minerals by pres- 
sure, 600 francs; development of Amphioxus 

(see Bulletin, 1904, No. 4, for corrected an- 
nouncement), 1,000 francs; effects of osmotic 
pressure in animal life, and Devonian flora of 
Belgium, each 600 francs; hetercecism of para- 
sitic fungi, 800 francs; and physiological 
action of histones, 1,000 francs. All memoirs 
to be written in French or Flemish, and sent 
in before August 1, 1904. For 1905, in mathe- 
matics and physics, combinations of halogens, 
1,000 francs; physical phenomena accompany- 
ing mutual dissociation of liquids, 800 francs ; 
linear complexes of the third order, 600 francs ; 
principal terms in the periodic deviations of 
the vertical, 600 francs. In natural science 
for the same year, effect of albuminoids in 
nutrition, reproduction of Dicyemidse, forma- 
tions intermediate between the Bruxellian 
and Tongrian in Brabant, geological age of 
certain Oligocene deposits in Belgium, sexual- 
ity of the individuals resulting from division 
of a single ovum in certain dioecious plants; 
prizes, 1,000 francs for each of these five sub- 
jects; silicates of Belgian rocks, etc., 800 
francs. In addition to these ordinary prizes 
the academy will award the following: June 
30, 1905, a Charles Lemaire prize relating to 
public works; June 30, 1904, a Louis Melsens 
prize for applied chemistry or physics; De- 
cember 31, 1904, a Charles Lagrange prize for 
terrestrial physics; on May 1, 1906, a Selys 
Longchamps prize for researches on the Bel- 
gian fauna ; on December 31, 1904, a Theophile 
Gluge prize for physiology; and in 1906 a 
Frangois Deruyts prize for higher sjrnthetic 
or analytic geometry. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

The Board of Aldermen, New York City, 
has appropriated $5,000,000 for the erection 
of new school buildings, and $316,000 for 
recreation centers, vacation schools and play- 
grounds. 

The Company of Goldsmiths has given 
£5,000 to the University of London for poly- 



technic work at the Institute at New Cross 
recently given by the company to the uni- 
versity. 

We learn from the London Times that the 
negotiations between the hebdomadal council 
of the University of Oxford, the council *of 
the senate of the University of Cambridge, 
and the senate of the University of London, 
with a view to the establishment of a system 
of mutual recognition of entrance examina- 
tions and certificates which exempt from en- 
trance examinations, have resulted in a report 
by a committee of representatives appointed 
by the three bodies. On the report the Lon- 
don senate, who have adopted a resolution 
expressing their general approval of the sug- 
gested scheme, and their willingness to make 
an arrangement with the Universities of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge, or either of them, upon 
the basis of the proposal contained therein. 
The council of the senate of the University of 
Cambridge have already expressed their readi- 
ness to recommend that university to adopt 
the scheme. The matter is still under the 
consideration of the hebdomadal council of the 
University of Oxford. 

BuRTis Burr Breese, Ph.D. (Columbia), 
now of the University of Tennessee, has been 
appointed professor of psychology at the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati. 

At Johns Hopkins University, Dr. C. K. 
Swartz has been appointed instructor in geol- 
ogy and paleontology, and Dr. James Barnes 
assistant in physics. 

At a recent meeting of the board of trustees 
of Lehigh University the following were pro- 
moted to assistant professorships: In chem- 
istry. Dr. W. B. Schober; in biology. Dr. R. 
W. Hall; in English, Dr. Chas. H. Whitman; 
in civil engineering, Mr. W. L. Wilson. 

Dr. Louis G. Heyn has been appointed as- 
sistant to the chair of chemistry in Miami 
Medical College, Cincinnati. 

Dr. Wm. Litterer has been elected professor 
of histology, pathology and bacteriology in the 
medical department of Vanderbilt University, 
to succeed Dr. Louis Leroy, resigned. 

M. Mangin, of the Lycee Louis le Grand, 
has been appointed professor of botany in the 
Paris Museum of Natural History. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Fbiday, August 12, 1904. 



CONTENTS: 
Inaugiiral Address of President Charles Rich- 



ard Van Sise . 



193 



The University of Montana Biological Station 
and its Work : Professor Morton J. Elrod 205 

Scientific Books: — 

Reade on the Evolution of Earth Structure : 
Professor Frank D. Adams. The Croshy- 
Broum Collection of Musicians' Portraits : C. 
K. Wead 212 

Scientific Journals and Articles 214 

Discussion and Correspondence : — • 

The Biological Survey of the Waters of the 
Pacific Coast: Professor Wm. E. Ritter. 
Professor TaguchVs Brain-weight : Dr. Edw. 
Anthony Spitzka 214 

Special Articles: — 

Variae Auctoritatis : Dr. C. R. Eastman.. 215 

Botanical Notes: — 

Ecological Plant Studies; Animals in the 
Plant Kingdom; A Flora of Pennsylvania: 
Professor Charles E. Bessey 217 

Agriculture in Japan. . .■ 218 

The Urban and Rural Population of Great 
Britain 219 

The Carnegie Trust for the Universities of 
Scotland 220 

Scientific Notes and News 221 

University and Educational News 224 



MSB. mteuded f or publicatiou aud boots, etc., Intended 
for review should be sent to the Editor of Science, Garri- 
son-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT 
CHARLES RICHARD VAN HISE. 

" And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year. . . . 
A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you." — 
Leviticus, XXV ; 10 and 11. 

Upon behalf of the regents and faculty 
I thank the hundreds who have come here 
to join in the jubilee of the University of 
Wisconsin. We are delighted to welcome 
our guests from all parts of the United 
States, from Canada, from Europe, and 
from other parts of the world. Among 
the honored guests are official representa- 
tives of universities, academies and learned 
societies, of museums and libraries, bearing 
the congratulations of the institutions 
which they represent. That the chief 
learned institutions of the United States, 
a considerable number of foreign institu- 
tions, and many renowned scholars should 
regard this jubilee as of such consequence 
as to wish to take part in it, should en- 
courage the state to continue to support 
aud further to develop its university. 

Fifty years ago the instructional force 
of the very small college here situated, 
even then called the University of Wiscon- 
sin, consisted of four members— three pro- 
fessors and one tutor. That year there 
were in attendance 56 students, all men, 
of whom only 41 were of collegiate grade. 
At that time the only building on the 
ground was old North Hall. This build- 
ing still stands to give evidence of the 
architectural taste of those who designed it. 
Even in these early days Chancellor La- 
throp and other men who controlled the 
policy of the university had visions of the 



19-i 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



future. A wide avenue was laid out from 
the head of State Street to the crest of 
University Hill. Upon one side of the 
avenue, somewhat down the slope, was 
placed North Hall, it being planned to 
build a South Hall at the corresponding 
place upon the other side, and to locate 
the main building of the future university 
upon the crest of the hill. The dreams of 
the men of this time went even further 
than this, their plans providing for four 
dormitories. Later structures, and all suc- 
ceeding plans, have left free the broad 
avenue above State Street, and the three 
buildings— North, South and University 
Halls— stand at the places assigned them 
by the men who, in their minds, created 
these structures before the foundation of 
any was laid. 

At the end of the college year of a half 
century ago two students were graduated, 
Charles T. Wakeley and Levi Booth. We 
hoped the latter would sit upon the plat- 
form to-day as a guest of the university, 
but in the midst of his preparations for the 
long journey from Denver he was stricken 
with a serious disease. We deeply sympa- 
thize with him in his misfortune and hope 
for his speedy recovery. Upright and in- 
fluential in the community in which he 
lives, a leader in his chosen vocation, we 
recognize him as a type of the thousands 
who since 1854 have been granted the de- 
gree of this university. 

The morning is too far advanced to per- 
mit a narrative of the development of the 
University of Wisconsin from the time it 
bestowed its first blessing upon Charles 
T. Wakeley and Levi Booth. Many of us 
have read of, and some of those here knew 
of the struggle first for existence and, later, 
for advancement, during the twenty years 
from 1854 to 1874. 

At the beginning of this period Chan- 
cellor Lathrop was still president; then 
followed the two years' incumbency of 



Chancellor Barnard; the headship of Pro- 
fessor Sterling for six years ; the presidency 
of Paul Chadbourne for four years; and 
the four years' term of President Twombly. 
During these years great progress was 
made, with exceeding slowness and diffi- 
culty at first, haltingly always, but still 
progress. South Hall and University 
Hall, planned by the adventurous thoughts 
of the leaders of the early days, 
were built. Slowly recognizing that in a 
state university there must be no distinc- 
tion between the sexes, the authorities of 
the university constructed Chadbourne 
Hall and gradually admitted women to all 
the privileges of the university. Substan- 
tially the same relations which now obtain 
between the high schools and the university 
were established, the certificates of high 
schools being accepted by the university, 
thus linking together in one unbroken 
chain the various branches of state educa- 
tion. The departments of law, agriculture 
and engineering were started. Finally, in 
1872, the state, confessing that it had 
frittered away the university land-grants 
in order to attract settlers to Wisconsin, 
recognized its obligation, and gave to the 
university financial support to the ex- 
tent of $10,000 per annum. This sum was 
small, but it was of profound signifi- 
cance as marking a fundamental obliga- 
tion of the state, the ignoring of which 
would have delayed for many years the 
growth of the university, if it would 
not have indefinitely condemned the in- 
stitution to obscurity. At the end of 
this period of twenty years the faculty 
consisted of 29 members; the students, ex- 
clusive of the preparatory class, numbered 

3io. 

While the dawn of prosperity may b& 
said to have appeared between 1870 and 
1874, this latter year marked a new epoch 
in the university, for then came John Bas- 
com, of Williamstown, Mass., as our presi- 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



195 



dent. His administration continued for 
thirteen years, from 1874 to 1887. Pre- 
paratory work was now cut oii, and 
transferred to the high schools. The 
-College of Letters and Science, in these 
earlier years called the College of Arts 
and Letters, became consolidated and 
unified. Strong courses in the liberal 
arts were built up. While instruction 
in law and the applied sciences of agri- 
culture and engineering increased some- 
what, these subjects were still of very 
subordinate importance. During the ad- 
ministration of Dr. Baseom the instruc- 
tional force increased from 29 to 49, the 
college students from 310 to 505. At the 
beginning of this administration there was 
one so-called resident graduate and at the 
end there were three. These advanced 
students mark the dawn of graduate work. 
During President Baseom 's administration 
Assembly Hall and the first Science. Hall 
were built. A few years later the latter 
was destroyed by fire; but so rapid had 
been the development of science in the uni- 
versity, that it was necessary to replace 
this building by a larger and better Science 
Hall and to provide separate buildings for 
chemistry and shop work. 

Of deep significance with reference to 
the future was the fact that during these 
years ex-Governor C. C. Washburn, a 
man who had gained his fortune in the 
Northwest, gave a portion of this wealth to 
the university in the form of Washburn 
Astronomical Observatory. For more than 
twenty-five years this institution has been 
of inestimable advantage to students of sci- 
ence, and one of the important centers of 
productive scholarship at the university. 
It has thus helped to make the ixniver- 
sity known, not only in the state, but 
throughout the nation and the world. 
But, perhaps, most promising of all 
with reference to the future, was the 
action, in 1876, of the state legislature, 



which levied a continuing one tenth of a 
mill tax for the support of the university. 
In 1883 this tax was increased to one eighth 
of a mill and in later years the state grants 
have been further increased from time to 
time. Thus the state became committed to 
permanent and liberal financial support of 
the university. 

While the alumni of the time of John 
Baseom remember with delight their stu- 
dent days, while they retain much that 
they then acquired, while they place above 
price the intellectual attainments which 
have enabled them successfully to deal with 
the world, probably for many of them the 
most treasured remembrance, the most po- 
tent influence which they carried away 
from the iiniversity, was the pervasive, 
mastering, moral power of John Baseom, 
whose personality wrought itself during 
his presidency into every graduate. The 
men of the days of Dr. Baseom may, or 
may not, now believe the tenets of his for- 
mal philosophy and ethics as given in his 
books, and as pounded into them in the 
class-room with sledge-hammer blows, but 
they believe and share in his high ideals, 
are inspired by his burning enthusiasm, 
and have thus been led to stand^teadily for 
the right. 

Following the administration of Baseom 
came that of President Chamberlin, from 
1887 to 1892. During these years the new 
Science Hall was completed, the Law 
Building was constructed, and an appro- 
priation . was secured for a gymnasium. 
The instructional force increased from 50 
to 68 ; the students from 505 to 1,092. The 
graduate students increased from 3 to 22. 
The work in law, agriculture, and engi- 
neering, which had been mere adjuncts to 
the study of liberal arts, received organiza- 
tion as colleges. This perfected the present 
organization of the university into Col- 
leges of Letters and Science, of Engineer- 
ing, of Agriculture and of Law. 



196 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



A distinctive feature of Chamberlin 's 
administration was the recognition of the 
importance of applied science. The pro- 
found necessity for raising the ancient art 
of agriculture to a science, in order that 
the land shall yield its fullest return, and 
that the occupation shall be dignified and 
ennobled, was fully appreciated. It was 
also seen that in this age, in which the 
world is for the first time being taken pos- 
session of by man, advance is largely in 
the hands of the engineer. 

But, perhaps, of even greater significance 
than the development of applied science 
was the emphasis placed by Chamberlin 
upon scholarship and research — a definite 
attempt on his part to make the institution 
of which he was the head justify the name 
of university. To this end the system of 
university fellowships was established, 
scholars and investigators were added to 
the faculty, and the small beginnings of 
what, during the present year, became a 
graduate school appeared. The pro- 
found infiuence of this movement was not 
limited to the advancement of knowledge. 
It was equally important in the diffusion of 
knowledge. The man who is so full of 
enthusiasm for his chosen subject that he 
will burn liis brains for its advancement is 
an inspiring teacher. He is the man who 
illuminates the knowledge of a thousand 
years ago with the discovery of to-day. 

Following Chamberlin 's administration 
came that of Adams from 1892 to 1901. 
On account of the ill-health of Dr. Adams, 
for the last two years of his administration, 
the charge of affairs was largely in the 
hands of Dr. Birge, and, after Dr. Adams 's 
resignation in 1902, Dr. Birge was acting 
president until 1904. During these twelve 
years the gymnasium was finished, the 
large group of agricultural buildings, in- 
cluding , Hiram Smith Hall, the Horticul- 
ture-Physics building and Agricultural 
Hall, were constructed. And, crowning 



all, by the joint efforts of the Historical 
Society and the university, the superb state 
library building arose, little short of the 
perfection of the structures of the ancient 
models. This building stands as a perma- 
nent and powerful influence for the promo- 
tion of the beautiful and appropriate in 
architecture. 

During the twelve years' administration 
of Drs. Adams and Birge the instructional 
force increased from 68 to 180, the number 
of students from 1,092 to 2,877, and the 
graduate students from 22 to 115. 

The applied sciences of engineering and 
agriculture rapidly developed during those 
years toward their true proportionate posi- 
tion in the university. The course in com- 
merce, which may be called a course in 
applied arts, was organized. This course 
was at once a conspicuous success. 

The rapid rise of applied education in 
the university during the administrations 
of Chamberlin and Adams alarmed some 
persons, who feared that the infiuence of 
the liberal arts was thereby endangered. 
As a matter of fact, during Chamberlin 's 
administration the number of regular un- 
dergraduates in the College of Letters and 
Science increased from 217 to 711, and 
during the following twelve years to 1903, 
excluding those in commerce and phar- 
macy, from 711 to 1,232. During these 
same seventeen years the number of grad- 
uate students increased from 3 to 119. 

In education, as in industry, when a, 
fortunate development takes place which 
meets a need, it finds students adapted to 
it. Were it not for the courses of applied 
education in the university, it is safe to 
say that about 1,000 students now here 
would be somewhere else, and it is also 
certain that if technical education had no- 
where developed in this country, a large 
proportion of this 1,000 students would 
never have entered a university. If one 
but compares the very slow increase in 



August 12, lOOi.] 



SCIENCE. 



197 



the number of students at Oxford, where 
the old curriculum has remained largely 
intact, with the rapid increase in the num- 
ber of university students where applied 
education has developed, he will not doubt 
the correctness of these statements. Ap- 
plied education is mainly fed by a new 
constituency. While applied education 
may attract a few students, who otherwise 
would have gone into the courses of liberal 
arts, the tremendously increased momentum 
of the educational movement produced by. 
the large numbers that flock to the univer- 
sities probably has broi;ght to the liberal 
arts more students than have been lost to it 
by the rise of applied knowledge. 

While all this is true, it is fortunate that 
in this university the College of Letters 
and Science became so firmly established 
before agriculture and engineering were 
developed. So strong are the liberal arts 
and pure science, that I have no fear that 
the College of Letters and Science will 
lose its leading position in the university. 
For this college the union of the great His- 
torical Library, ,the University Library 
and the Wisconsin Academy Library is 
most fortunate. This superb joint library 
is doing for the liberal arts what the 
various science bviildings with their equip- 
ment have done for the pure and applied 
sciences, affording opportunity for the 
highest grade of Avork, an opportunity util- 
ized by the students in those departments in 
which men of university caliber occupy the 
chairs. As evidence of the increasing 
power of the College of Liberal Arts is the 
recent growth of graduate work, the stu- 
dents in which, with few exceptions, are in 
the College of Letters and Science. 

During the current year the schools of 
economies and political science, of history, 
of pharmacy, of education and of com- 
merce, which had been organized under 
the administrations of Chamberlin and 
Adams, have been merged in the College 



of Letters and Science. These changes 
place all of the economic work done in 
the university in the Department of 
Political Economy; all of the botan- 
ical and chemical work heretofore done 
in the School of Pharmacy under the 
Departments of Botany and Chemistry, 
respectively. The purpose of the change is 
to correlate the work in these various lines 
with the work in the liberal arts, thus 
unifying the College of Letters and Science 
without weakening its various courses in 
any way. The courses in commerce and 
in pharmacy now have the same relation 
to the other courses of the College of Let- 
ters and Science, that the courses in civil 
engineering and electrical engineering have 
to the course in general engineering. The 
graduate work of the university, being lo- 
cated in all of the colleges and represent- 
ing their culmination, has been organized 
into a school. 

The catalogue of the present year shows 
an attendance of 3,150 students, and an 
instructional force of 228, while this com- 
mencement there will be conferred in 
course 361 degrees, of which 334 are bach- 
elors, 17 masters and 10 doctors. If 
we contrast these numbers with those of 
fifty years ago, an instructional force of 4, 
56 students and 2 baccalaureate graduates, 
is it surprising that we should cry: 'and 
ye shall hallow the fiftieth year. ... A 
jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you' ? 
And with our joyfulness there is a pro- 
found feeling of thankfulness to the state 
that has had the wisdom to be guided by 
men of such breadth of view as to provide 
liberally for the education of its children 
and of all others who care to share its edii- 
cational hospitality. 

While the achievements of the past fifty 
years are sufficiently great for celebration, 
the ideal of the state university is still 
more worthy of celebration. A score of 
years ago it could not have been said of 



198 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. Ko. 502. 



any state in America, that it had shown 
Avillingness to support a university of the 
highest class; but now several state insti- 
tutions are recognized as standing in the 
first group among American universities. 
These institutions are mainly supported 
through taxation imposed bj^ a democracy 
upon itself, for the sons and daughters of 
the state, poor and rich alike. Until this 
movement of the state universities had 
developed, the advantages of all educa- 
tioual institutions of the highest rank in 
all countries had been restricted to one 
sex, and even now it is practically impos- 
sible for the sons of artisans and laborers 
to enter the doors of manj'. In state insti- 
tutions, where education is maintained by 
the people for the good of the state, no 
restriction as to class or sex is possible. 
A state university can only permanently 
succeed where its doors are open to all of 
both sexes who possess sufficient intellectual 
endowment, where the financial terms are so 
easy that the industrious poor may find the 
way, and where the student sentiment is 
such that each stands iipon an eqi^al foot- 
ing Avith all. This is the state university 
ideal, and this is a new thing in the world. 
The older universities of America have 
developed from small colleges. The earlier 
colleges of the United States were modeled 
upon Oxford and Cambridge. We turn for 
a moment to these institutions, in order to 
understand the nature of their influence 
upon the American university. If one 
were to name the most fundamental char- 
acteristic of these English institutions, it 
would be the system of halls of residence, 
involving commons, unions and athletic 
fields. The communal life of instructors 
and students in work, in play and in social 
relations is the very essence of the spirit of 
Oxford and Cambridge. It might almost 
be said that this constitutes Oxford and 
Cambridge. So fundamental have the 
English regarded the system that, from 



time to time, Avhen the students have be- 
come too numerous for accommodation in 
existing quadrangles, another college has- 
been founded upon the pattern of the 
others. If one were to consider the 
modern demands upon a vmiversity and 
especially the demands for wide oppor- 
tunity to study science, pure and applied, 
he could scarcely imagine a more antiquated 
system than that represented at Oxford 
and Cambridge. Indeed, the old system 
has failed to meet the new conditions, and 
Cambridge especially is being rapidly modi- 
fied under them, the various colleges con- 
tributing jointly for laboratories in pure 
and applied science, which may be utilized 
by the students of all the colleges. But, 
in making these radical changes, there is no 
thought of abandoning the halls of resi- 
dence, with their communal life. Rather 
than 'surrender these, the authorities would, 
I believe, give up all modern lines of work. 
The college system of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge may seem absurd, but for some rea- 
son these universities have produced an 
astonishingly large proportion of great 
statesmen, writers and scientists. The men 
of Oxford and Cambridge have been largely 
instrumental in extending the empire of 
Britain over the earth; they have contrib- 
uted liberally to the greatest literature of 
the world; they have furnished many 
fundamental ideas to science. In view of 
these stupendous results we need scarcely 
wonder that the Englishman is not eager 
to make over Oxford and Cambridge after 
the Yankee or the German model. 

In the early days of the University of 
"Wisconsin, when the only college buildings 
were North and South Halls, when Pro- 
fessor Sterling, his family, several instruc- 
tors and a majox'ity of the students lived in 
these halls, we had the essentials of the 
English system. Even when President 
Bascom came here in 1874 the remnants of 
the system still existed. Many of the men, 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



199 



a majority of the women and a number of 
the instructors lived in the dormitories. In 
1884 came the disastrous fire which de- 
stroyed the first Science Hall. There was 
urgent necessity for lecture rooms and labo- 
ratories to carry on the instructional work 
of the institution. Without any definite 
plan to change our system, indeed without 
any thought of the profound change which 
was being made in the character of the uni- 
versity, the students were turned from the 
dormitories, and halls of residence for men 
at Wisconsin were abandoned. 

I have no doubt that every one of the 
alumni here, who in the old days lived in 
North or South Hall, feels that this change, 
although possibly necessary at the time, was 
most unfortunate. The professor in the 
class-room and the laboratory can do much 
for a student, and especially he can do 
much if he believes that one of the highest 
functions of a professor is that of a com- 
rade. But, when the student goes out 
into the world, there is no other part of his 
education which is of such fundamental 
importance as capacity to deal with men, 
to see the other fellow's point of view, to 
have sympathetic appreciation with all 
that may be good in that point of view, 
and yet to retain firmly his own ideas and 
to adjust the two in fair proportion. Noth- 
ing that the professor or the laboratory can 
do for the student can take the place of 
daily close companionship with hundreds 
of his fellows. In the intimate communal 
life of the dormitories he must adjust him- 
self to others. He must be genial, fair, 
likable, or else his lot is rightly a hard 
one. This fundamental training in 
adaptability to and appreciation of his fel- 
lows can only come from attrition between 
a large number of human units. These 
are the reasons, understood without state- 
ment by Englishmen, which make them 
adhere to the Oxford and Cambridge sys- 
tem. These are the reasons, profoundly 



comiDrehended by Cecil Rhodes, which led 
him to leave his entire fortune to establish 
the Rhodes scholarships at Oxford for the 
Teutonic race, knowing as he did from ex- 
perience the influence of the communal life 
of Oxford in molding a world-conquering 
man. Believing, as he did, that the 
Teutonic people are to control the destinies 
of the world, he was deeply anxious that 
many of the best of the youth of Africa, 
Australia, Canada, Germany and America 
should gain the Oxford point of view. 

Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Pennsyl- 
vania, originally modeled on the English 
university, and suffering under no acci- 
dental disturbance, have retained many of 
the features of this system to the present 
day. If the University of Wisconsin is to 
do for the sons of the state what Oxford 
and Cambridge are doing for the sons of 
England, if it is to do even what the east- 
ern institutions are accomplishing for their 
students, not only in producing scholars 
and investigators, but in making men, it 
must once more have halls of residence, and 
to these must be added a commons and a 
union. At the commons the men meet one 
another each day ; at the union they adjoux'n 
for close, wholesome, social intercourse. 
The union should be a commodious and 
beautiful building, comfortably, even ar- 
tistically, furnished. When the students 
are done with their work in the evening, 
the attractive union is at hand, where re- 
freshments may be had, and a pleasant 
hour may be spent at games, with the 
magazines, in a novel, or in social chat. 
The coarse attractions of the town have 
little power in comparison. 

But, to build adequate halls of residence, 
commons and a union will require large 
sums of money. What more fitting thing 
for wealthy men of the state, who have 
gained their riches by taking advantage of 
its natural resources, than to turn back to 
the state some portion of their wealth for 



200 



SC-IENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



this most pressing need? In no way can a 
man leave a more appropriate and perma- 
nent monument for himself than by build- 
ing a hall of residence, a commons or a 
union. The state of Wisconsin is a safer 
trustee than any individual or corporation. 
The man who attaches his name to a hall, a 
commons or a union will tix that name as 
one to be loved in the minds of the unnum- 
bered sons of the state that during the cen- 
turies to come will flock to the University 
of Wisconsin to obtain intellectual training, 
to develop high ideals, and more than all, 
to gain sterling, vigorous, self-sufficient, ad- 
jiTstable manliood. May I not hope that 
before the end of this jubilee year the 
money will be forthcoming to provide for 
these needs, so that the necessarily very 
large demands upon the state may be re- 
stricted to supplying additional buildings, 
equipment and instructional force made 
imperative by the extraordinary increase 
in number of students at the university ? 

We have now very briefly sketched the 
effect of one of the influences of the English 
upon the American university, but there re- 
main other influences to be considered. The 
original American college was essentially a 
coimterpart of the English college; indeed, 
this was true well into the nineteenth cen- 
tury. But, in the second half of that cen- 
tiiry, important American modifications 
appeared to better adapt the college to our 
needs. Perhaps the most important of 
these was the development of pure science 
and its assimilation by the college of liberal 
arts. This radical change met a much 
more ready welcome in the west than in 
the east. For a long time in the east sci- 
ence was regarded as an intruder, and was 
only slowly and partially admitted to full 
fellowship with the studies of the old cur- 
riculum. When science was finally, grudg- 
ingly, given a place in some of the more 
important institutions, it was made an ap- 
pendix to the college, and in a number of 



cases a new name was attached. This is 
illustrated by the Lawrence and Sheffield 
Scientific Schools. In the west science did 
not receive separate foundations, although 
the courses in which science was the major 
line of work were at first kept separate 
from the old course in which the classics 
and mathematics dominated. A new de- 
gree was given for science, which, for many 
years at least, was regarded as inferior to 
the A. B. degree. To the present time in 
some institutions of the east the distinc- 
tion between work in science and work in 
the old curriculum is retained; and in one 
the organization of the college and .^the 
scientific school are so nearly independent 
that the college has introduced science into 
its courses, thus duplicating much of the 
work of the school. And in another, where 
the separate organization of the classical 
college and the scientific school is more or 
less formal, different degrees are granted 
in the college and in the school, without 
regard to whether the subjects pursued by 
the students receiving the different degrees 
are the same or not. In the state uni- 
versities where the college and school of 
science were never made separate founda- 
tions, and where with the great increase in 
number of subjects, freedom of election has 
been introduced, it has become recognized 
either that there should be a separate de- 
gree for every group of studies, or else one 
degree for any group of liberal studies. 
This latter alternative has been accepted 
by the leading state universities, and, in 
this respect, it is believed that- they are 
leaders in educational progress, although 
not pioneers, for Johns Hopkins led the 
way. No one now doubts the right of pure 
science to full admission to the list of sub- 
jects which may be pursued for a liberal 
education. Not only so, biit it is recog- 
nized that the scientific spirit has perme- 
ated and vivified the studies of the old col- 
lege course. 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



201 



Scarcely less noteworthy than the win- 
ning of a place for pure science in the uni- 
versity has been the rise of the great groups 
of studies classified imder political econ- 
omy, political science, sociology and history. 
From a very subordinate, almost insignifi- 
cant, place in the curriculum, they have 
risen to a place not subordinate to classics 
or science. 

The development of these subjects in the 
universities is destined to have a profound 
influence upon governmental progress. In 
the university men are trained to regard 
economic and social questions as problems 
to be investigated by the inductive method, 
and in their solutions to aim at what is 
best for the whole people rather than at 
what is favorable to the interests with 
which they chance to be connected. Such 
of these men as are filled with a burning en- 
thusiasm for the advancement of the race, 
are capable of great accomplishment, for 
they possess the enlightenment upon which 
wise action may be based. Already men 
who have studied history, economics, polit- 
ical science and sociology in the univer- 
sities have achieved large results in the 
formulation and enforcement of the writ- 
ten law, and in the growth of a healthy and 
powerful public sentiment. Soon such 
men will be found in every city and hamlet, 
leading the fight against corruption and 
misrule; but, even more important and 
vastly more difficult, leading in construc- 
tive advance. In these men lies, in large 
measure, the hope of a peaceful solution 
of the great questions deeply concerning 
the nation, some of which are scarcely less 
momentous than was that of slavery. 

But the western people were not content 
with the expansion of pure knowledge. 
They demanded schools of applied knowl- 
edge. This demand was early recognized 
in this and many other universities by the 
organization of law schools, which deal with 
subjects closely concerning each individual. 



So important is the subject of the law that 
these schools of applied knowledge were 
very early established and their subsequent 
development has been uninterrupted. 

After science found its way into the uni- 
versities, a natural, indeed an inevitable 
outcome of its admission into the institu- 
tions supported by the states demanding 
both culture and efficiency was the rapid 
growth of the applied sciences, of which 
the more impoi-tant are agriculture, en- 
gineering and medicine. But the people 
of the west went even further than this 
and demanded that language, mathematics, 
political economy and history should be so 
taught as to serve the man of affairs, and 
thus there arose here the first strong 
course in commerce in the United States. 
Such a course has now been introduced 
into a number of other institutions, inclu- 
ding one of the principal imiversities of the 
east. Whether one deplores or approves 
the rise of applied knowledge in the uni- 
versities, it is an inevitable movement 
which, for my part, I expect to see ex- 
tended. In the recognition of the intel- 
lectual power gained by pursuit of applied 
knowledge and its extreme importance in 
the development of the nation, the state 
universities of the west have been at least 
abreast of the eastern institutions. 

From the foregoing it is plain that the 
most important American modifications of 
the English college system have been the 
introduction and development of pure sci- 
ence and applied knowledge. While these 
modifications represented a great broaden- 
ing of the classical college, they did not 
produce a proportional increase in the 
height of the edifice of knowledge. 

This leads us to another influence upon 
the American university, which has pro- 
foundly modified it— the German influence. 
Some thirty years ago Johns Hopkins, at 
Baltimore, left his fortune to found a uni- 
versity, and Daniel C. Gilman was called 



202 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



as its first president. President Gilman 
saw an opportunity for a new type of in- 
stitution in America. Having visited uni- 
versities abroad, he became convinced that 
the great need was for a university upon 
the German model, where investigation and 
the production of scholars should be the 
dominating ideas. The ablest scholars at 
home and abroad were invited to fill the 
chairs of Hopkins.^ The siiecess of this 
new type of institution in America was 
almost instantaneous. Not only did Hop- 
kins soon become a chief center of re- 
search in this country, but it sent scores 
of men with Hopkins training as professors 
to other imiversities. Even earlier than 
the foundation of Hopkins, a steady stream 
of students was returning to America frxim 
German universities, bringing with them 
the German spirit. After the foundation 
of Hopkins this stream increased rapidly 
in size. The students trained at Hopkins 
and in Germany could not fail to influence 
the more important institutions of the 
country. There slowly appeared upon the 
stronger of the old colleges a superstruc- 
ture. 

This upward movement was more ciuick- 
ly felt in the east than in the west, but, 
even in the west, here and there, a scholar 
in the state universities appeared who was 
not content to do instructional work alone. 
At Wisconsin the first of these were Allen 
and Irving. Chamberlin, an investigator, 
believing in research in state universities, 
when he became president at Wisconsin, 
began systematically to develop scholarship 
and research. Other state universities 
have gone through similar stages of growth. 
Thus both in the east and in the west the 
graduate school has arisen upon the col- 
lege, and its influence permeates all 
parts of the university. But the growth 
of the graduate school in the American 
university has been slow. The cost of such 
a school, relative to the number of students 



within it, is large, and it has been assumed 
that the state universities especially must 
not go too far in the development of such 
a school. No mistake could be so fatal to 
the power for good of the state university. 
In Germany, where the universities mainly 
devote themselves to the class of work done 
in the graduate school, the universities are, 
without exception, supported by the gov- 
ernment. The German statesman regards 
it as a matter of course— as settled beyond 
dispute— that the production of scholars 
and investigators at the university is a 
necessity to the nation. To them, he be- 
lieves, is largely due the great position 
which Germany has taken during the las\ 
half century. It was after the disasters 
of the Napoleonic wars that the German 
educational system was reconstructed, at 
the top of which was the i;niversity. The 
rise of the university has been correlative 
with, and one of the chief causes for, the 
rise of Germany. 

If time permitted, I should be glad to 
consider the effect of university work upon 
the mind of the student, that is, work in 
which he takes a share as an investigator 
and during which he acquires the spirit of 
research. It would be easy to show that 
the qualities of mind gained by such Avork 
are those which best fit him for the strug- 
gle of life— which best fit him to handle 
difficult business, social and economic prob- 
lems. In Germany the university scholar 
is a man of affairs. He is found in all 
important divisions of administration. 
Almost every prominent German and Aus- 
trian professor is an official adviser to the 
government. Already, in America, we see 
the beginning of this movement. Univer- 
sity professors are asked to serve on tax 
commissions, in the valuation of railroads 
and in various other capacities. Within 
the next half century the number of such 
men in these and similar positions will in- 
crease many fold. The college-trained man, 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



203 



and especially the university-trained man, 
iSj directly or indirectly, to control the 
destinies of the nation. 

Bnt while the professor performs im- 
portant service outside the university, his 
greatest service is his own creative work 
and the production of new scholars in the 
laboratory and seminary. I unhesitatingly 
assert that there is no investigation of mat- 
ter or force or mind to-day in progress, 
but to-morrow may become of inestimable 
practical value. This could be illustrated 
by various investigations which have been 
made here. It is easy to show that the 
discoveries at the University of Wisconsin 
bring vastly more wealth to the state each 
year than the entire expenditure of the in- 
stitution, but to tell of them might seem 
like placing too great emphasis upon our 
own achievements, and I, therefore, turn 
elsewhere for illustrations. 

Scarcely more than a century since, 
Franklin began studies upon the nature of 
lightning. Later the character of electrical 
force was during many years investigated 
with remarkable power by Faraday. If, 
during these studies, some one had said: 
'Of what practical value can be the dis- 
coveries of Franklin and Faraday?' no 
one could have given the answer. Had this 
work been paid for by the state it would 
have been easy to show to the legislatiire 
that such a foolish waste of money was, 
wholly unwarranted. But out of the dis- 
coveries of Franklin and Faraday, and 
those M'ho followed them, has come one of 
the greatest material advances that the 
world has known. Electricity has become 
the most docile of the forms of energy. It 
serves to carry to distant points the power 
of Niagara. It is the nerves which make 
all the world one body, which bring to us 
instantaneously all the happenings in every 
quarter of the globe, which puts in our ear 
the vibrations of the voice of our friend a 
thousand miles awa}\ Through increased 



knowledge of nature the peoples of aU 
nations are being made slowly, haltingly, 
with occasional disastrous wars, into one 
family. And this is largely the result of 
recondite studies upon subtle forces, which, 
even now, we can not define, bi;t which we 
can utilize. 

A striking case of the profound sex'vice of 
the investigator is furnished by the studies 
of Pasteur and Koch. If, a half century 
since, a legislator in France had wished to 
be humorous at the expense of the scientist, 
what better object of derision could he 
have found than his countryman, Pasteur, 
who was looking through a microscope at 
the minute forms of life, studying the 
nature and transformations of yeast and 
microbes 1 And yet, from the studies of 
Pasteur and Koeh, and their successors, 
have sprung the most beneficent discoveries 
which it has been the lot of man to bestow 
upon his fellow men. The plag-ue and 
cholera and yellow fever are controlled; 
the word diphtheria no longer whitens the 
cheek of the parent; even tuberculosis is 
less dreaded and may soon be conquered; 
aseptic surgery performs marvelous opera- 
tions which, a few years ago, would have 
■ been pronounced impossible. The human 
suffering thus alleviated is immeasurable. 
These illustrations are sufficient to show 
that no knowledge of substance or force or 
life is so remote or minute, although ap- 
parently indefinitely distant from present 
practise, but that to-morrow it may become 
an indispensable need. The practical man 
of aU practical men is he who, with his 
face toward truth, follows wherever it 
may lead, with no thought but to get a 
deeper insight into the order of the uni- 
verse in which he lives. It can not be pre- 
dicted at what distant nook of knowledge, 
apparently remote from any practical serv- 
ice, a brilliantly useful stream may spring. 
It is certain that every fundamental dis- 
covery yet made by the delving stiident has 



204 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



been of service to man before a decade has 
passed. 

Already at Wisconsin here and there a 
scholar has arisen whose most elemental 
thought is to see deeper into the order of 
nature. Let the university search well for 
such spirits and give them unbounded op- 
portunity, for they are to be benefactors, 
not only of the state, but of the entire 
earth ; for a new truth, a new principle, is 
not the property of any state, but instantly 
belongs to the world. May men of creative 
power, trained by Wisconsin, leave our 
doors in ever-increasing numbers, until they 
become a great enlightening influence in the 
state and the nation! The final and su- 
preme test of the height to Avhich a uni- 
versity attains is its output of creative men, 
not in science alone, but in arts, in litera- 
ture, in ethics, in politics and in religion. 

I, therefore, hold that the state univer- 
sity, a university which is to serve the state, 
must see to it that scholarship and research 
of all kinds, whether or not a possible prac- 
tical value can be pointed out, must be 
sustained. A privately endowed institu- 
tion may select some part of Imowledge and 
confine itself to it, but not so a state uni- 
versity. A university supported by the 
state for all its peojole, for all its sons and 
daughters, with their tastes and aptitudes 
as varied as mankind, can place no bounds 
upon the lines of its endeavor, else the state 
is the irreparable loser. 

Be the choice of the sons and daughters 
of the state, language, literature, histoi-y, 
political economy, pure science, agriculture, 
engineering, architecture, sculpture, paint- 
ing or music, they should find at the state 
university ample opportunity for the 
pursuit of the chosen subject, even until 
they become creators in it. Nothing short 
of such opportunity is just, for each has an 
equal right to find at the state university 
the advanced intellectual life adapted to 
his need. Any narrower view is indefens- 



ible. The university .should extend its 
scope until the field is covered from agri- 
culture to the fine arts. 

The barrenness of America in the crea- 
tion and appreciation of literature, inusic 
and art is the point upon which Europe 
charges us with semi-barbarism. If the 
university does not become the center for 
the cultivation of the highest capacities of 
the human mind, where is the work to be 
done in this country? In America there 
is no other available agency. This work 
must be undertaken by the university, or 
else remain undone. 

If the people of the United States are to 
cease being mere money getters, if they are 
to accomplish more than material advance, 
if they are to have proportional develop- 
ment, the university must give opportunity 
for training in all lines of human endeavor. 

If the University of Wisconsin is to do 
for the state what it has a right to expect, 
it must develop, expand, strengthen crea- 
tive work at whatever cost. Only by so 
doing is it possible for the university to 
serve the state in the liighest way. For 
my part, I look forward with absolute con- 
fidence to the liberal support by the state 
of a school whose chief function is to add 
to the sum of human achievement. I am 
not willing to admit that a state university 
under a democracy shall be of lower grade 
than a state university under a monarchy. 
I believe that legislatures elected by all the 
people are as far-sighted as legislatures that 
represent an aristocracy. A great grad- 
uate school will be realized at some state 
university during this century. Is Wis- 
consin to have this preeminent position? 

We are now able to suggest the ideal 
American university — one which, has the 
best features of the English system Avith 
its dormitories, commons and union; one 
which includes the liberal and fine arts 
and the additions of science and applied 
science; and one which superimposes 



August 12, 1004.] 



SCIENCE. 



205 



npon these an advanced school modeled 
upon the German nniversities, but with a 
broader scope. In such a university the 
student in the colleges of liberal and fine 
arts has opportunity to elect work in ap- 
plied science, and thus broaden his educa- 
tion. He feels the inspiring influence of 
scholarship and research, and thus gains 
enthusiasm for the elementary work be- 
cause it leads to the heights. The student 
in applied knowledge is not restricted to 
subjects which concern his future profes- 
sion, but he has the opportunity to pursue 
the humanities and the fine arts, and thus 
liberalize his education. He, too, feels the 
stimulus of the graduate school, and, if one 
of the elect, may become an investigator 
and thus further ameliorate the lot of 
mankind by new applications of science to 
life. The student in the graduate school, 
primarily concerned with creative scholar- 
ship, may supplement a deficient basal 
training by work in the liberal arts and in 
the schools of applied knowledge. Thus 
the college of liberal arts, of applied knowl- 
edge and of creative scholarship interlock. 
Each is stronger and can do the work 
peculiar to itself better than if alone. This 
combination university is the American 
university of the future, and this the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin must become if it is 
to be the peer of the great universities of 
the nation. 

Wisconsin is among the state universities 
which have this opportunity open to them. 
Many of the states have divided their 
grants among several foundations, support- 
ing at different localities, schools of 
liberal arts, of agriculture, of medicine 
and of mining. In Wisconsin there is 
only one institution which attempts to 
do university work. Public and private 
funds alike, which are to go to a uni- 
versity, should come to that institution. 
This statement does not imply lack of ap- 
preciation of the excellent and very impor- 



tant work done by the colleges of the state. 
May they continue to thrive ; may they con- 
tinue to have the support of the citizens of 
the state; for the many thousands of stu- 
dents that during the next half century are 
continuously to demand a college education 
in this state can not be accommodated in 
one institution. Collegiate work should be 
done at several centers within the state, but 
professional and university work is so ex- 
pensive and the different schools and col- 
leges so closely interlock, that the best op- 
portunities can only be furnished in the 
various fields in the university. At a 
university of the first rank the oppor- 
tunities for instruction in the fields 
strongly covered are superior to those 
which can be offered in an institution de- 
voted to a single field. Wisconsin has 
fortunately escaped the fatal mistake of 
subdivision of its university effort. With 
the concentrated support of the state, 
public and private, there is no reason why 
the University of Wisconsin should not 
do in every line as high grade work as any 
in the country. My faith is such that I 
look forward with confidence to the future, 
with profound conviction that the breadth 
of vision, which has enabled this institu- 
tion to grow from small beginnings to its 
present magnitude, will continue to guide 
the state, until a university is built as 
broad as human endeavor, as high as hu- 
man aspiration. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA BIOLOCh 
ICAL STATION AND ITS WORK. 

The University of Montana Biological 
Station at Bigfork, on Flathead Lake, 
opened its sixth annual session on Ji^ly 
18, the session lasting for five weeks. 
The circular giving announcement of the 
work for the season contains a number of 
new and choice original photographs, giv- 
ing views of the region in which the station 
is located, including sketches of Flathead 



206 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. Xo. 502. 



Lake, the forests ad.iacent and the moun- 
tains in the vicinity. 

This station was started in 1899 as an 
experiment, in a state as large as Ohio, 
Pennsylvania and Michigan combined, with 
less than two inhabitants per square mile, 
and with biological study at a low ebb in 
the schools of the state. It was intended 
to fill the double mission of affording a 
place where a few might find suitable place 
for carrying on study in a field compara- 
tively unknown, and to supply a stimulus 
for the teachers and young naturalists, few 
of the latter having at that time yet ap- 
peared. 

It is practically impossible for Montana 
people to attend eastern summer schools. 
One reason is on account of railroad ex- 
pense. At present writing rates are ad- 
vertised from Chicago to San Francisco 
and return by a different route at iden- 
tically the same price as from Missoula to 
San Francisco and return, and at the same 
price as one way fare from Missoula to Chi- 
cago. For a few days in June one may get 
out of the state at a low fare. But Chicago 
students may visit Flathead Lake with little 
more expense for the return trip than re- 
turn trip from Lewistown, Mont., by taking 
advantage of reduced rates. Moreover, the 
summer is the pleasant time for one to be 
in the mountains, and most people wish to 
stay during the pleasant season. Owing to 
the fact that railroads grant tew privileges 
to Montana people, and Montana people 
wish to stay at home during the most 
pleasant portion of the year, it seemed 
advisable to look toward preparing a place 
at home where advantage could be tdken 
of beautiful scenery, healthful recreation 
and balmy mountain air, in a locality 
where 'unknown' is written on half the 
objects that greet the eye. 

The station has accomplished more than 
was anticipated at its inception five years 



ago. The small summer laboratory has 
long since ceased to accommodate the work 
of those in attendance. But, owing to the 
delightful weather prevailing at this sea- 
son, it mattei's little whether -the work be 
carried on indoors or not, unless table 
room and apparatus are needed. Students 
from twelve states have been present at 
different times, in addition to the many 
that have come from Montana. Already 
the schools of the state are feeling the 
eifect in the work in zoology and botany, 
not only throtigh the attendance of high 
school and grade teachers, but through the 
material which is collected and the printed 
matter prepared for distribution. '' 

The printed matter thus far issued by 
the University of Montana, emanating 
from the work at Flathead Lake, covers 
360 printed pages of close type, with 65 
plates and 40 other illustrations, all from 
original photographs or drawings. In ad- 
dition to this, numerous papers have ap- 
peared in various publications, greatly 
increasing the scope of the work. 

The study of the birds of the Flathead 
Lake country has been carried on by P. 
M. Silloway, the well-known ornithologist. 
The first publication included 128 birds. 
This study has been carried on continu- 
ously for four seasons, usually from June 
until September. A second contribution 
increased the list to 137, which includes the 
summer residents and a few early fall mi- 
grants. This careful systematic work is 
especially valuable in making a good begin- 
ning in the study of the birds in a region 
not well kno^\^l. The careful oologieal 
notes are full of interesting observations. 
Frequent references are made to calamities 
befalling old birds or their young. It is 
shown that birds occupy unfinished nests, 
which contain eggs. This may be due to 
the laziness or shiftlessness on the part of 
the mother, or to her inexperience, which 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



207 



prevents rapid working, or to the destruc- 
tion of a first nest. The finding of a nest 
of the willow thrush, which ordinarily 
builds close to the ground, six and one half 
feet up in a tree, will be of interest to 
students of animal intelligence, as illus- 
trating the change of habit due to environ- 
ment. The region in which the nests occur 
may overflow annually. 

Among the interesting notes concerning 
the distribution of Montana birds, that of 
the occurrence of the varied thrush, Hes- 
perocichla ncevia (Gmel.), is of impor- 
tance. This songster heretofore has not 
been reported east of the Coeur d'Alene 
.Mountains in Montana. It was found in 
abundance at the head of Swan Lake, and 
by reliable observers in the neighborhood 
it was reported to be a permanent resident 
and one of the earliest in nidification. 
The olive-backed thrush, Tiirdus ustulatiis 
swainsonii (Cab.), was found in numbers 
at the head of Flathead Lake, though in 
equally advantageous localities seventy 
miles farther south it was scarcely repre- 
sented. At Selish, on the Jocko River, we 
noted the long-tailed chat, Icteria virens 
longicauda (Lawr.), abundant in numbers 
and in full song, though we were too early 
for the nesting season. A small colony 
of Holboell's grebe, Colymhus holboellii 
(Reinh.), was found nesting on Swan Lake, 
and several sets of eggs, in complements 
of three, four and five eggs, were taken. 
Specimens of pigeon hawk, Falco colum- 
barius Linn., Richardson's Merlin, Falco 
richardsonii Ridgw., pygmy owl, Glau- 
cidium gnoma WagL, pileated woodpecker, 
Ceophloeus pileatus (Linn.) and the like 
were taken. 

Principal Silloway is now pushing his 
ornithological investigations in other direc- 
tions, to regions not visited by ornitholo- 
gists, with the idea of later preparing a 
work on the birds of the state. 



The biological station is favorably situ- 
ated for carrying on work in plant ecology 
lines. This is due to the fact that within 
a radius of ten miles there are several dif- 
ferent climates, giving rise to different 
plant formations. The west side of the 
valley at the head of Flathead Lake and 
the Mission valley at the south end of the 
lake have little rainfall, and a typical 
prairie vegetation is the result. Kalispell, 
situated in the prairie, has a I'ainfall of 
about sixteen inches per year. The east 
side of the valley has a greater precipita- 
tion and a forest formation results from 
this. Columbia Falls, situated at the base 
of the mountains on the east side of the 
valley, has a rainfall of a little over twenty- 
one inches per year. This town is only a 
short distance from Kalispell. The moun- 
tains near the station are very accessible, 
so that alpine conditions can be easily 
studied. 

The botanical work done in the summer 
of 1902, by Harry N. Whitford, was en- 
tirely along forest ecology lines. A map 
was made comprising some 96 square miles, 
which are situated mostly in the forest 
formation, but reach into the edge of the 
prairie. Five well-defined plant societies 
were noted. These are distinctly related 
to the amount of water in the soil, and 
that in turn depends mainly on the topo- 
graphic diversity. The hydrophytic socie- 
ties are closely associated with a great 
amount of water in the soil. They are 
located along streams and around lakes, 
and have plants in them resembling very 
much those in similar situations in the 
eastern part of the LTnited States. 

The mesohydrophytic societies are usu- 
ally adjacent to the meadows. Because the 
Engelmann spruce is the principal tree in 
these they are called the Engelmann spruce 
societies. Other trees associated with the 
spruce are the narrow-leafed cottonwood. 



208 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. i-io. 502. 



the aspen and the white birch. Bordering 
the Bngelmann spruce stands are the west- 
ern lareh-Doiiglas spruce societies, so called 
because they are the predominating trees. 
The western larch-Douglas spruce type of 
a forest is decidedly mesophytic. In places 
where the soil contains nearly as much 
water as that in the spruce society, the 
silver pine {Pinus monticola) , the lowland 
fir {Abies grandis) and the western arbor- 
vitffi are found. The lodge-pole pine is 
scattered all through the mesophytic area, 
sometimes forming almost pure stands in 
it. There is but little doubt that its pres- 
ence in the region is due to the influence of 
forest fires. It is a tree that fruits well at 
an early age. This gives it a decided ad- 
vantage over the other trees, because when 
frequent fires occur it is likely to be the 
only one with fruiting trees on the burned 
areas. 

In places in the forest formations there 
are 'sandy pockets.' These are likely to 
have prairie vegetation. The absence of 
trees is probably due to the fact that the 
sand is not capable of holding the water 
sufficiently long to enable trees to get a 
start. Closely associated with these ' sandy 
pockets' and bordering the prairie forma- 
tion are the bull pine-Douglas spruce so- 
cieties. The bull pine {Pinus ponderosa) 
is the most xerophytic of the conifers and 
thus extends further out into the prairie 
region than any of the others. 

A collection of the other plants of the 
region was made and their ecological dis- 
tribution Avas noted. This collection has 
been deposited in the herbarium of the 
Field Columbian Museum at Chicago. 
Careful studies were not undertaken in the 
alpine regions, though in hasty trips made 
into these regions some problems were 
noted for future studies. 

Extensive botanical collections were 
made in 1901. The station and the New 



York Botanical Garden worked conjointly 
during the season from June to September, 
Dr. D. T. MacDougal and "Wilson P. Harris 
gathered nearly a thousand numbers, the 
latter looking particularly after the lichens 
and mosses. The lichens have been iden- 
tified by Carolyn W. Harris, the mosses by 
Mrs. Elizabeth G. Britton. Duplicates are 
in the collections of the University of Mon- 
tana and the New York Botanical Garden. 
A check list of lichens and mosses has been 
issued, giving twenty genera and sixty- 
seven species of lichens and nineteen genera 
and thirty-seven species of mosses, a total 
of thirty-nine genera and one hundred and 
four species. 

The collection of flowering plants was 
gathered from territory much of which 
had never been visited by a botanist. The 
Mission range, fast becoming known on 
account of its grand scenery, was examined 
almost from end to end, a distance of 
nearly a hundred miles. The valleys at 
the base of the range are from 2,300 to 
3,000 feet elevation, while the summits 
reach 10,000 feet. Excursions were made 
with pack horses into the Swan range, 
where specimens were gathered from snow- 
banks and the edge of glaciers. The alpine 
willow was found abundantly at 7,500 feet, 
the stunted trees, but a few inches in 
height, bearing flowers. Days were spent 
in crawling over steep mountains, with a 
heavy pack as an encumbrance, without 
road or trail, in search of specimens. The 
large series shows the result. Each num- 
ber was taken in duplicate, one set being 
deposited in the herbarium at the New 
York Botanical Garden, the other at the 
University of Montana at Missoula. The 
identifications were by P. A. Eydberg, the 
well-known authority. 

Some observations on the forests are 
worthy of notice. The alpine fir, Abies 
lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt., is found at a 



Altgvst 12, 1904. 



SCIENCE. 



209 



low elevation, certainly as low as 3,000 feet. 
A few scattering trees are found on the 
banfe of Swan River near the laboratory, 
while forests of this species may be seen at 
the upper end of Swan Lake. Here the 
trees are large enough for logging. A tree 
at 3,000 feet elevation aged 120 years was 
one third larger in diameter than one aged 
200 years at 7,500 feet. The age of the 
largest trees at elevations about 7,500 feet 
is about 200 years. 

The alpine pine, Pinus albicaulis En- 
gelm., takes the place on the higher slopes 
of the yellow pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., 
on the lower levels. The yellow pine is the 
pioneer, pushing out into the dry and un- 
occupied valleys, preparing the way for 
those species requiring more moisture. The 
alpine or white-barked pine can not tolerate 
moisture. It is practically absent in the 
protected amphitheaters at high elevations, 
leaving the alpine fir to hold full sway. 
The alpine pine takes the dry slopes, ex- 
posed to the sun, or the rocky ridges where 
soil is scanty and where existence is had 
by the severest struggle. It prefers a nar- 
row and storm-swept ridge, or a dry and 
scorching slope, to the quiet, protected, but 
damp slope. Its gnarled, twisted and 
broken trunk is in marked contrast to the 
tall, tapering and stately alpine pine on 
the opposite side of a ridge, but a few rods 
away. 

The lodge-pole pine, Pinus murrayana 
'Oreg. Com.,' is a follower of other species. 
After the yellow pine, tamarack, or Doug- 
las spruce has made a dense forest, making 
a rich and damp soil, a fire may clear the 
forest. Then the lodge-pole springs up, as 
thick as it can stand. The region adja- 
cent to the laboratory shows this, where 
tall boles of monster tamaracks or yellow 
pines, amidst dense masses of younger 
lodge-poles, tell a mournful tale of magni- 
ficent forests but recently laid waste. Its 



ability to produce cones in a single year, 
coupled with the early maturity of the 
tree, six or seven years, gives the lodge- 
pole a firm hold on the soil. But it is its 
own destroyer, since it is intolerant of 
shade and may be squeezed out again by 
more hardy rivals. How many successions 
of species of forest trees there may have 
been will never be known. The evidence 
points to three in recent times : Yellow pine 
—Douglas spruce, tamarack and lodge-pole. 
Extensive collections have been made of 
the fresh-water invertebrata of the western 
end of the state. By means of a canvas 
boat the soundings of mountain lakes have 
been made, and the life of the waters gath- 
ered for future study. These soundings 
and dredgings have been made during the 
past five summers, and much material and 
information has accumulated as the result. 
Lakes hitherto called bottomless are known 
definitely. Flathead Lake, covering more 
than three hundred square miles, has at 
no place a depth of more than three hun- 
dred feet. Enough work has been done to 
prove that at some seasons of the year the 
entomostraca have a decided diurnal or 
nocturnal movement, ascending to or 
toward the surface at night or during 
cloudy weather, descending when the sun 
shines. The depth to which they descend 
is from twenty-five to thirty feet. This 
corresponds almost exactly to the limit of 
vision when the white net is lowered into 
the clear and blue water. Again, for some 
unknown reason, certain species seek the 
surface during the hottest weather and 
brightest sunshine, when they may be dip- 
ped up with a tin-cup. Daplmia thorata 
Forbes was exceedingly abundant in 1901, 
when Forbes made his visit to the region, 
but at no time in the five years' collecting 
have we found it in large numbers. There 
is much room for study of the plankton of 
the region, and the Avaters at such varying 



210 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. Xo. 502. 



elevations, lakes at 3,000 feet and others 
at 9,000, offer a fine field for the limno- 
biologist. A few seasons of collecting dur- 
ing the summer whets the appetite for more 
extended study during the entire season. 

A number of observations on the geology 
of the country have been made, suggesting 
fruitful fields for more extensive study. 
It has been shown conclusively that the 
northern end of the Mission range has been 
smoothed by the action of ice, a smaller 
mass from the south meeting a larger field 
from the north, the latter deflecting the 
former directly back— southward, but on 
the opposite side of the Mission range. It 
has been shown that the old bed of the 
Swan River was northward along the base 
of the Swan range, where it emptied into 
the Flathead near Kalispell, whereas it 
now empties into Flathead Lake at the 
northeastern corner. 

Much of the surface geology of the 
Flathead and Mission valleys has been 
determined. It has been shown beyond 
doubt that the present outlet of Flathead 
Lake is comparatively new, and that the 
former outlet was through the western 
arm, near Dayton Creek. The present 
level is several hundred feet lower than 
the former level, the new outlet uncovering 
the rich valley at the head of the lake. 
The moraines at the foot of the lake and at 
other i^laces in the Mission valley on the 
Flathead Indian Reservation have been - 
brought to light and partially described. 
The moraine at the foot of the lake is four 
hundred and fifty feet high, and many 
miles long. It has not been followed west- 
ward. From the lake one rises by a steep 
wagon road to the summit, descending on 
the opposite side to a plain lower than the 
lake. 

Incidentally shells have been gathered 
from various portions of the state. While 
few mollusks are to be expected from a 



region of rushing rivers and cold lakes, 
with small amount of lime in the water, 
yet the collection is very satisfactory and 
the number of species for the state is grow- 
ing. The entire list for the state numbers 
but sixty species and varieties.- Of these 
twenty-five have been collected west of the 
main range of the Rockies, forty-two from 
the eastern slope. Seven are found on 
both sides of the range. One new species 
and several new varieties have been de- 
scribed. No collecting for shells has been 
made along the Missouri or its tributaries 
except at Wibeaux (by Homer Squyer), 
on the extreme eastern border. The wide 
territory along the Missouri has not yet 
been touched. 

In entomology extensive collections have 
been made, principally of the lepidoptera. 
Only the diurnals have been determined. 
These show that the butterflies of the north- 
west are in much confusion, and the study 
is beset with great difficulties. The life 
history of a large number is as yet 'un- 
known.' Indeed, this stares one in the 
face on almost all occasions, wherever he 
gathers material in the state. So interest- 
ing did the study of these airy insects be- 
come that a systematic report has been 
prepared and is noAV in press. This report 
will include photographs of all the speci- 
mens obtainable, with keys for identifica- 
tion. It is based on the collections of the 
writer ; of Earl Douglas in the Ruby Moun- 
tain and the Madison range; of Professor 
R. A. Cooley, of Bozeman; of E. N. Bran- 
degee, of Helena, and of the late C. A. 
Wiley, of Miles City. It lists about one 
hundred and tM'enty-five species. A few 
points may here be mentioned. Parnassius 
smintheiis seems to be scarce at higher 
elevations in the western end of the state, 
bi;t is often abundant at 4,000 feet, and 
has been taken on the shore of Flathead 
Lake, 2,900 feet. Vanessa J. album is 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



211 



credited in all works as being everywhere 
scarce. It has been taken at Swan Lake 
by the hundreds, a dozen being taken in 
the net at a time. Anosia plexippus is 
scarce in the western slope. The milkweed 
has but lately been introduced along the 
railroads, and its numbers are increasing 
annually. But it is yet rare. Its mimic, 
Basilarclda disippus, has been taken at 
Gold Creek, on the Northern Pacific, where 
the last spike was driven, about fifty miles 
west from the summit of the range. It 
has not been taken further west. There is 
no doubt but that Argynnis Edwardsi and 
Argynnis nevadensis are synonyms, as 
shown by specimens from various localities, 
and by specimens in the Wiley collection 
and that of the writer, identified by Ed- 
wards himself. At Missoula butterflies 
were on the wing in 1903 as early as 
February 19, when Vanessa californica 
was taken. The cosmopolitan Pyrameis 
cardui is to be taken everywhere, while 
Pyrameis atalanta is very rare west of the 
range. As the state contains portions of 
four faunal areas, the Great Plains, the 
Hudsonian or Canadian, the Great Basin, 
and the Boreal, a diversified entomological 
life is to be expected. There are certainly 
many Pacific forms that have followed up 
the Columbia River and its tributaries. 
Indeed, it seems that the Pacific forms may 
have more invertebrate representatives in 
the western part of the state than those 
from the great basin. At any rate, many 
additional facts on distribiition are re- 
corded. 

The dragon flies, numbering less than 
sixty species, about one half as many as 
are to be found in New York state, have 
been determined, and are in manuscript. 
One species, Calopteryx yakima, considered 
by Calvert to be synonymous with G. 
cequahilis from the eastern side, has been 
found at Flathead Lake. Years ago Hagen 
described the species from specimens taken 



at Lone Tree, near the Yakima River, 
Washington. He believed that it crossed 
the range from the east at some point 
'above' (north of) Missoula. The finding 
of the species proves the soundness of his 
reasoning, and brings the species very close 
to the main range. It also confirms Cal- 
vert's view of the relationship between the, 
eastern and western specimens. Further 
reference to this insect will be found in 
Bxdletin University of Montana, Biological 
Series, No. 3. 

Among the various collections that have 
been made at the station may be mentioned 
the splendid series of photographs. These 
have been taken at all altitudes from the 
level of Flathead Lake to the 10,000-foot 
summits. They show various geological 
and physiographical studies and forma- 
tions of the mountain ranges, and serve to 
illustrate the changes that have taken place 
during ancient and recent times. Nega- 
tives have been made of the forests, trees 
and flowers, of large animals, birds and in- 
sects, illustrating phases of both animal 
and vegetable life. Many of these nega- 
tives are exceptionally good, and make re- 
markably good slides. When colored they 
show the views quite life-like. Altogether 
more than a thousand negatives have been 
secured. From these a book of photo- 
graphs has been made. From these as sam- 
ples it is possible to make selections, and 
slides will be made for those who may be 
able to make use of them. The book will" 
be sent to responsible persons for examina- 
tion with a view to selection of slides. 

Some of the studies here given show the 
charm of a new field to those who have been 
privileged to visit it. Numerous prob- 
lems yet awaiting solution could easily be 
proposed. With so many lakes close by, 
and others not far away, the daily, monthly 
and annual movements of entomostraca af- 
ford ample opportunity for the linmo- 
biologist. The alpine heights, the vast for- 



212 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



ests in the Lewis and Clarke reserve, the 
glaciated valley, the numerous mountain 
chains, the unknown animal and vegetable 
life, suggest numerous topics for the 
thoughtful student. 

There is no reason why eastern friends 
shoiild not make the laboratory a ren- 
dezvous during the summer. One can 
recreate ' to the fullest and yet have a 
definite object in view. It is impossible 
to visit the mountains and see them with- 
out some one of experience to help the 
visitor around. Vacation is gone before 
the wanderer 'hits the trail' he is seeking. 
His inexperience leads him to undertake 
things he can not do. Montana can not be 
seen from the car window. One must push 
out of the canyons. He is unwise who 
enters the pathless forests alone. They 
are too vast, the hills are on too large a 
scale, and the difficulties are too great to 
be entered hastily. 

From the laboratory the collector may 
easily reach alpine heights, where grand 
scenery is spread before him. He may 
gather material for future study, under- 
take serious study indoors, more serious 
and more difficult study out of doors, and 
have the help and wisdom of those who 
have spent years in wandering in search 
of such places as many wish to visit and 
such specimens as many would gladly 
gather. The building is entirely inade- 
quate to the demands of those attending, 
but it is believed that when the merits of 
the station are known and its opportunities 
fairly presented it will not lack for suitable 
quarters. 

The summer session opened on July 18, 
and continues five weeks. The illustrated 
pamphlet, giving full information, will be 
sent to any one requesting it. 

Morton J. Blrod. 
UNrvERsiTy OF Montana, 
Missoula, Mont. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 

The Evolution of Earth Structure with a 

Theory of Geomorphic Changes. By T. 

Mellaed Reade. New York, Longmans, 

Green & Co. 1903. 

This work may be considered as a sequel to 
the well-known volume entitled ' The Origin 
of Mountain Ranges,' by the same author, 
which appeared in 1886. It is divided into 
three parts. The first of these treats of ' Geo- 
morphic Changes ' and deals with Regional 
Oscillation, the Relation of Continental Evo- 
lution to Mountain Building, Continental 
Growth and the Sub-Oceanic Configuration of 
the Earth's Crust.. The second part deals 
with the ' Dynamics of Mountain Structure ' 
and the experimental elucidation of the same, 
while the third part is made up chiefly of re- 
prints of papers by the author on subjects 
allied to those just mentioned, which papers 
have appeared at various times and in different 
journals. 

The aiithor first cites numerous cases where 
there is distinct evidence of changes of level 
in the earth's crust, with concomitant bending 
of the strata composing the crust. He con- 
siders the principle of isostacy as quite inade- 
quate to the explanation of these movements, 
since the mass of the solid earth involved 
in upward movement is entirely too great to 
be explained by any sedimentation which has 
taken place in the same period of time. These 
changes of level the author believes must be 
due to change in bulk of certain sections or 
portions of the earth's crust, without change 
of mass; the irregularities in the earth's sur- 
face, in fact, arising from differences in the 
specific gravities of the earth's crust and the 
underlying matter. These specific gravities 
are not stable, but are subject to slow changes 
consequent upon changes of temperature. A 
rise in temperature and increase in volume 
create a protuberance; a fall in temperature, 
on the other hand, gives rise to a depression, 
even to one of those profound abysses of the 
ocean aptly named ' deeps.' The cause of 
these secular variations in temperature, how- 
ever, is not set forth, although in the mind of 
the author it seems to be in some way con- 
nected with chemical changes taking place in 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



213 



a solid globe. The very high specific gravity 
of the earth's interior as compared with that 
of the lithosphere, is believed by the author to 
be due to an increase in density of the ma- 
terials composing the deeper parts of the 
earth's interior, due to pressure, and is not, 
according to him, to be attributed to a dif- 
ference in character of these materials as is 
commonly supposed. 

The great continental or epirogenic uplifts 
above referred to are not to be confused with 
the comparatively trivial expansions and con-' 
tractions to which mountain building is due 
and which are dealt with by Mr. Mellard Eeade 
in his ' Origin of Mountain Ranges,' as well 
as in part two of the present work. These 
latter are local and due to tangential ' creeps ' 
in the lithosphere and surface rocks, which are 
accompanied by a lateral transfer of material 
from one place to another, and result from the 
uneven heating of great masses of sediment. 
The gTeat continental movements result from 
. alteration in volume of certain portions of the 
earth's crust, unaccompanied except to a minor 
extent by lateral movement. 

These great movements, moreover, have a 
very important influence on the secular varia- 
tion of sea level, since there can be no altera- 
tion in the contour of that portion of the sur- 
face which is covered by the ocean without 
a corresponding change of oceanic beach levels 
over the whole surface of the globe. 

In the second part of the book, the author 
enters upon a description of the results of an 
experimemtal investigation into the forms de- 
veloped in certain materials by heating and by 
compression. These are presented for the 
elucidation of the problem of the origin of 
mountain ranges, and represent a continua- 
tion of the results already set forth in the au- 
thor's former volume on the subject. The 
materials employed in these experiments were 
varied in character. At first the action pro- 
duced by alternately heating and cooling a 
lead plate, fixed about the edges in a solid 
framework, was investigated. Anticlinal 
folds, simple and overturned, were thus de- 
veloped in the plate, which became thinner 
in portions of its area owing to the transfer- 
rence of lead to the site of the fold. 



Subsequently a series of experiments were 
carried out on the effects of lateral compres- 
sion on narrow plates of lead alternating with 
strips of calico and covered by pieces of board, 
so arranged as to leave a vacant space above 
the middle of the composite plate. On com- 
pression anticlinal folds of several types were 
developed. 

Bars of soap were then compressed in a sim- 
ilar manner, but could not be made to bend, a 
fault with slickensided surfaces always devel- 
oping. Alternate layers of damp sand and of 
sand mixed with coal dust were then tried, 
and again the material would not fold, but 
sheared, developing a double set of sharply de- 
fined overthrust faults. Layers of moist sand 
were then alternated with sheets of tea lead 
and submitted to compression in the same way. 
In this case the lead prevented the sand shear- 
ing, but developed a complicated series of over- 
turned folds to which the sand accommodated 
itself. 

A series of experiments were then carried 
out on the circular compression of disks of 
various materials, with the development of 
domed folds of many types, some of them 
showing spiral or screw-like movements, sim- 
ilar to those described by Mrs. Gordon in her 
paper on ' The Torsion Striicture of the 
Dolomites.' 

The third part of the book consists of ' Re- 
prints, Speculations and Closing Remarks.' 

Among the reprints are the author's well- 
known papers on the ' Denudation of the Two 
Americas,' ' The ISTorth Atlantic as a Geo- 
logical Basin,' and a ' Theory of Slate Struc- 
ture and Slaty Cleavage.' It also includes 
chapters on ' Time as a Geological Factor,' 
and on the bearing of the present investiga- 
tions in the supposed permanence of ocean 
basins and continents, on which latter much- 
debated question the conclusion is reached that 
' interchanges of such magnitude have oc- 
curred in the distribution of the oceans and 
land masses during geologic time that it would 
be a misnomer to call them permanent.' 

The book, while containing many interest- 
ing observations and embodying much re- 
search, would be improved by a more careful 
elaboration of the material which it contains. 



214 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



in its present form' its various parts showing 
a certain lack of unity. It is well printed 
and elaborately illustrated. 

Frank D. Adams. 
ilcGiLL University, Monteeal. 

Catalogue of the Crosby Brown Collection 
of Musicians' Portraits. Biographical 
Sketches. New York, The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. 1904. 8vo. Pp. vii + 
131. 

In the series of handbooks relating to Mrs. 
Brown's great collection which have received 
notice in Sciekce as they have appeared this 
little volume is part IV. Along with musical 
instruments she has collected many hundred 
portraits of musicians; over 400 of these have 
been mounted, approximately in chronological 
order, on hinged frames, and placed in the 
exhibition galleries. 

This catalogue gives a sketch of the life and 
works of the musicians whose portraits are 
exhibited, arranged in order of framing. It 
has also indexes, classified, geographical and 
alphabetical. It is noticeable that no American 
is found in the list and no living English- 
man; this is doubtless largely due to the fact 
that photographs have been excluded except in 
one instance. In view of the many fine prints 
in the collection the addition of the names of 
artist and engraver would have added to the 
value of the work, and interested a wider circle 
of people in the collection. 

The pamphlet does not call for extended re- 
view here; its special interest to readers of 
Science arises from the fact that it is a well- 
considered attempt to make a museum collec- 
tion thoroughly intelligible to the public. 

Charles K. Wead. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 
The Botanical Gazette for July contains the 
following articles : W. J. Land has made an 
important contribution in the results of his 
study of " Spermatogenesis and oogenesis in 
Ephedra trifurca." Among the important re- 
sults may be mentioned the occurrence of two 
persistent prothallial cells in the male gameto- 
phyte, no wall separating the second pro- 
thallial from the generative and tube nuclei; 



also the remarkable pollen chamber developed 
by the breaking down of the nucellar beak to 
the embryo sac, the necks of the archegonia 
projecting into the pollen chamber and com- 
ing immediately in contact with the pollen 
grains. — E. E. Smith presents ' The water- 
relation of Puccinia aspa.ragi/ being a contri- 
bution to the biology of a parasitic fungus; 
both the direct and indirect results are dis- 
cussed. — D. T. MacDougal presents a some- 
what detailed account of ' Delta and desert 
•vegetation ' and shows that the region offers 
unusual opportunities for comparison of the 
most high developed xerophytic types of the 
desert with the broad-leaved forms of the 
delta which root in the mud. — J. 0. Arthur 
has given an account of the discovery of ' The 
Aecidium of maize rust,' which is found on 
species of Oxalis. The communication is in- 
tended not only to announce an interesting- 
fact, but also to illustrate a method of observa- 
tion not yet commonly understood. — B. E. 
Livingston and G. H. Jensen have published 
a short statement of a somewhat striking re- 
sult obtained from ' An experiment on the 
relation of soil physics to plant growth,' which 
gives somewhat conclusive evidence in favor 
of the view that the amount of water present 
in the surface layers of the soil is largely de- 
pendent upon the size of the soil particles. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE WATERS OF THE. 
PACIFIC COAST. 

To THE Editor of Science: The biological 
survey of the waters of the Pacific adjacent 
to the coast of southern California recently 
inaugurated by the San Diego Marine Bio- 
logical Association will be prosecuted con- 
tinuously for a number of years. The labora- 
tory connected with the survey,, at present 
located at Ooronado, is under the immediate 
charge of the resident naturalist, and is ready 
at all times of the year for occupancy by in- 
vestigators. 

The director is authorized by the managing 
board of the association to offer the privileges 
of the laboratory to biologists who may desire 
to visit this locality for a period in the prose- 
cution of special researches. Such facilities- 



August 12, 1004.] 



SCIENCE. 



215 



as the station possesses — which are not, as 
yet, extensive — will be gladly placed at the 
service of visiting naturalists without charge, 
but microscopes can not usually be supplied. 
It should be understood that at present the 
station is equipped and manned solely with 
reference to the survey. Any one who may 
contemplate accepting the invitation here ex- 
tended should communicate with the Director 
at the University of California, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia. The resident naturalist for the pres- 
ent year is Mr. B. M. Davis whose address is 
Point Loma, San Diego, California; and for 
special information relative to materials avail- 
able for study at particular times, living 
facilities, etc., he should be communicated 
with. 

The following are among the species of ani- 
mals that may be had at any time, at certain 
seasons of the year, or by special efforts in 
collecting : 

Ceratium, several species; Thalassicolla and 
other spumularia; Acanthometron and other 
Acantharia; several sponges, species unde- 
termined; Tuhularia crocea, Corymorpha 
palma, Campanularia cestualis, Sertularia des- 
moides; of medusae: Ohelia sp., Pelagia sp.; 
8plicero7iectes Jcolliheri; Renilla amythysiina, 
Virgularia sp., Cerianthus sp., Edwardsia sp., 
Sagariia pedrensis, Epiactis proUfera, Antho- 
pleura californica; Toxopneustres sp., 8irongy- 
locentroiiis purpufaius, Lovenia cordformis, 
Echinarachnius excentricus, Asterias capitata, 
Asterina miniata, Phataria sp, ; Ascopodaria 
sp., Bowerhankia sp., Crisia sp., Scrupocel- 
laria sp. ; several opisthobranchs ; Bulla rnebu- 
loscb, Monocerus sp., Oerostoma sp.. Chiton 
conspicua. Pectin aequisulcatus and mono- 
timerisj Octopus punctatus; Calanus finmar- 
chicus, Eucalanus attenuatus, Acartia tonsa 
and other species, Oithona, several species, 
Phronima sp., Paraphronima sp., Euphausia 
splendens, Callianassa longmana, Alphius 
clamator and other species, several hermit 
crabs; Ciona intestinalis, Perophora sp., Pyro- 
soma atlanticum, Salpa runcinata-fusiformis, 
Cyclosalpa affinis, Doliolum tritonis, Oiho- 
pleura sp., Dolichoglossus pusillus, Tornaria 
ritteri; Branchiosioma californiense, Polisto- 



trenia stouti, Gyropleurodus francisci, Galeus 
californicus, Urolophus halleri, Fundulus par- 
vipinnis, Typhlogohius calif orniensis. 

Wm. E. Ritter, 

Director. 
CoEONADO, Calif., 
July 7, 1004. 

PROFESSOR TAGUCHl's BRAIN-WEIGHT. 

To THE Editor op Science: In response to 
a further inquiry concerning the brain of the 
Japanese anatomist, K. Taguchi, the follow- 
ing communication was received from K. 
Yamagawa, president of the Imperial Uni- 
versity of Tokio : 

" In reply to your favor of May 9, 1904, 
I am sorry to say that the figure for the 
weight of brain in the last information, sent 
to you through Miss Gardener about the post- 
mortem examination of the late Professor 
Taguchi, was found to be wrong. It seems 
to me that the weight of his brain was put 
down as 1,920 instead of 1,520, which is the 
right figure, by mistake when it was copied 
from the original record. I apologize, etc. 

K. Yamagawa." 

The corrected figure places Taguchi's brain 
in the thirtieth place among those of men 
notable in the professions, arts and sciences, 
instead of second place, as first reported. 

Edw. Anthony Spitzka. 

July 28, 1904. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 

VARI.E AUCTOEITATIS. 

A PLEA for exactitude in citation of the older 
writers on natural history is, perhaps, less 
likely to be sustained than in the case of mod- 
ern authors, on the ground of their being anti- ' 
quated and of minor importance. Neverthe- 
less, from an historical and esthetic stand- 
point, precision of reference is as desirable in 
the one case as in the other. It is of course 
less irksome and time-consuming to accept 
some standard authority in lieu of verifying 
original sources; but errors once introduced 
into general compilations are apt to persist 
indefinitely. Instances of the latter sort are 
to be found in nearly all compendiums of the 



216 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



history of natural science, particularly those of 
geology and paleontology. 

A few eases invite attention. One fresh at 
hand is furnished by Dr. S. F. Emmons's inter- 
esting address on ' Theories of Ore Deposition 
historically considered.'* It is remarked in one 
place that ' as early as Origines, 600 B. C, the 
observed occurrence in the rocks of casts of 
shells and plants was attributed to periodical 
floodings of the land.' Now there was one 
Origen, an illustrious Alexandrian theologian 
and founder of the science of the church; but 
of an Origines who lived in the fifth century 
B. C, history is silent. Froni the date as- 
signed by Dr. Emmons it is probable that he 
intended to indicate Xenophanes, who com- 
mented on Sicilian fossils; or if he really had 
in mind one of the early Christian writers 
who mention them, the names of Pomponius 
Mela and Tertullian suggest themselves. But 
to make of Origen a plagiarist of Greek phi- 
losophy malgre lui is uncharitable, consider- 
ing his defense of its study. Dr. Emmons 
also credits de Saussure with being the orig- 
inator of the term geology. It was, however, 
proposed much earlier, Richard de Bury hav- 
ing introduced it as a special term, ' geologia, 
or the earthly science,' in chapter xi. of his 
Pliilohiblon,\ written one year before his 
death in 1345. 

For another example one may refer to Dr. O. 
P. Hay's recent paper on Cretaceous fishes 
frozn Mt. Lebanon,:j: in which he quotes an 
English authority (Mr. J. W. Davis) as saying 
that these remains were first mentioned by 
Herodotus. But inquiry is made of the father 
of geography in vain for confirmation of this 
statement, though a passage indeed occurs in 
Book ii. relating to fossil shells of Africa. 
Apropos of Lebanon fishes, we notice that Dr. 
Hay's authority extracts an article from a 
Parisian newspaper relating to their discovery 

''Bull. Geol. 8oc. America, Vol. XV. (1904), pp. 
1-2S. 

I ilr. E. C. Thomas' translation is now acces- 
sible in the initial volume of the King's Classics 
(1903). 

j; Amer. Nat., Vol. XXXVII. (1903), pp. 685- 
695; also Bull. Amer. Museum Nat. Hist., Vol. 
XIX. (1903),. pp. 395-452. 



by the last of the Crusaders; but no mention 
is made of the famous chronicles of Saint- 
Louis, by Sire de Joinville, in which this nar- 
rative occurs.* That Voltaire was familiar 
with the latter can scarcely be doubted, and 
who knows whether it may not have been 
father to his sarcastic suggestion that fossils 
were probably nothing but the disjectamenta 
of pilgrims returning from the Holy Land? 

But for the context, we might not be able 
to recognize under Professor Marsh's appella- 
tion of ' Albert the Great 'f a celebrated schol- 
astic philosopher of the thirteenth century, 
whose proper name was Albert von BoUstadt. 
Admirers of his learning accorded him the 
title of Doctor Universalis, envious ones 
called him the ' Ape of Aristotle,' though such 
contempt was unmerited. The name by which 
he is best known, Albertus Magnus, has been 
supposed to mean simply Albert the German. 
Dante refers to him, for instance (Conv. iii., 
V. 113), as 'Alberto della Magna,' la Magna — 
or I'Amagna — being Germany, whence also the 
modern Gallic equivalent. The patronymic of 
a well-known sixteenth century writer, George 
Bauer, or, in its more usual Latinized form, 
Agricola, has also been a source of some con- 
fusion. Even so careful a writer as L. F. 
Ward, for example, refers to him in his 
' Sketch of Paleobotany ' as Georgius Bauer 
Agricola. 

An anachronism occurs in the statements of 
the last-named author, and also in those made 
by Marsh, Lyell and other historians of geol- 
ogy, regarding theories of continental subsi- 
dence attributed by them to Alexander ab 
Alexandre. A pre-Copernican writer, he was 
naturally a stranger to the heliocentric cos- 
mogony, and it is not surprising that his 
' Dies Geniales ' is barren of speculations such 
as have been claimed for it, especially by Broc- 
chi. It is also impossible to verify the latter's 
assertion that fossils are mentioned in Boccac- 
cio's Filocopo, and the allusion to fossil plants 

*'Sayette' of'de Joinville, the scene of King 
Louis' discovery, and where news of liis mother's 
death reached him, is the old French name for 
Sid on. 

t ' History and Methods of Paleontological Dis- 
covery' (1879), p. 7. 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



217 



in ' I'Acerba,' by Cecco d'Ascoli, is of the 
vaguest description. 

A curious misquotation occurs in the bib- 
liography of the older literature contained in 
Agassiz's ' Poissons Fossiles,' where ' Les Ob- 
servations sur I'histoire naturelle, sur la phy- 
sique/ etc., ' an anonymous work in six vol- 
umes,' is credited to Gauthier. The title ob- 
viously refers to the journal conducted for ■ 
twenty years under that name by the Abbe 
Eozier, and continued after 1794 as the Jow- 
nal de Physique. The author of the alleged 
anonymous communication on Bolca fishes 
cited by Agassiz at the end of his bibliography 
was the celebrated geologist Albert Fortis, his 
correspondence with Testa having been col- 
lected and published in book form by Count 
Gazola in 1793 and 1794. 

To devote attention to minor minutss of this 
nature will no doubt be esteemed by many as 
'time elaborately thrown away.' But it must 
be conceded that accuracy even in smaller 
matters possesses an intrinsic virtue, and is 
as well worth striving for as are the third 
and fourth decimal places in mathematics, 
Cui 1)0710 may not be translated into the par- 
lance of ideal scholarship. 

C. E. Eastman. 

Harvard Univeesitt, 
Cambridge, Mass. 



see that we have here a rational and logical 
presentation of this much-abused and gen- 
erally badly taught subject. 

From Professor Clements we have in the 
table of contents of an ecological work by him, 
now in press, a similar outline of another 
phase of the subject. This work (which will 
cover about 300 pages) is to be devoted to re- 
search methods in ecology, treated under four 
heads or chapters : (1) foundations of ecology, 
(2) the habitat, (3) the plant formation and 
(4) experimental ecology. Under the first are 
discussed the need of and the essentials of a 
system in ecology; under the second, the fac- 
tors (water content, humidity, light, tempera- 
ture, wind, precipitation, air-pressure, soil, 
etc.) and their measurement by instruments. 
The third chapter deals with the methods of 
research, the quadrat, transect, migration 
circle, photography, cartography and herbaria. 
In the fourth chapter, devoted to experimental 
ecology, the purpose and the scope are set 
forth, followed by a discussion of methods of 
field experiment, control experiments, com- 
parative morphology and competition cultures. 
A book of this kind should go far towards 
correcting the 'looseness which has character- 
ized too much of the work in ecology. It is 
to be brought out by the botanical seminar of 
the University of Nebraska. 



BOTANICAL N0TE8. 

ecological plant studies. 
Professor Atkinson has recently issued a 
pamphlet of sixty-seven pages giving the out- 
lines of a course of twenty-one lectures on the 
relation of plants to environment, delivered 
in the Summer School of Cornell University 
in 1903 and 1904. Contrary to the views of 
some ' ecologists,' the professor devotes a good 
deal of time (nine lectures) to a study of the 
structure of plants, under such headings as 
the organization of the plant, plant tissues, 
types of stems, foliage-leaves, root, flower- 
shoot, pollination, fruit and distribution, be- 
fore taking up ecology proper. Under the 
latter appear such titles as ecological factors, 
vegetation types, plant migration, plant forma- 
tions, forest societies, etc. While these lec- 
tures are merely outlined, it is not difiicult to 



animals in . the plant kingdom. 
No doubt many a botanist has felt that 
quite too many animal-like organisms have 
been included in the plant kingdom in recent 
years. The slime molds were originally in- 
cluded upon their superficial resemblance to 
the puff-balls, at a time when anything like 
a critical study of the biology of the organisms 
was unknown. De Bary long ago placed the 
slime molds ' outside the limits of the vege- 
table kingdom,' yet they are persistently re- 
tained in botanical manuals, and systems of 
plants. ,Thus they still hold their place in 
Engler's ' Syllabus der Pflanzenf amilien ' in 
spite of his statement — ' kein Anschluss an 
hohere Pflanzen.' Scientific consistency cer- 
tainly demands their removal from the plant 
system. With them, also, should be cast out 
some much more recent animal intruders — the 



218 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



Flagellatre, Dinoflagellatw and the Silicoflagel- 
latce, which never had any good right to be 
included among plants. These are the things 
which are happily characterized by Dlr. 
Thaster in a recent article in the Botanical 
Gazette, as ' a menagerie of organisms whose 
zoology is orthodox to a degree.' 

Why the botanists should be bothered with 
all these ' beasts ' (as Dr. Gray would have 
called them) is a puzzle which has not yet 
been satisfactorily solved. Whether the purg- 
ing of the membership of the plant kingdom 
should go further and result in the expulsion 
of Volvox and its near allies is difficult to 
decide. In everything but its color Volvox 
is an animal — and a very good one at that — 
but whether its assumption of its green coat 
is sufficient to hide its essentially animal 
nature in other respects is, perhaps, open to 
argument, especially since it is such a pretty 
and interesting organism for laboratory dem- 
onstrations. While we should like to retain 
it, we are compelled to say that in all prob- 
ability it is to be relegated to Dr. Gray's do- 
main of ' beasts.' 

A FLORA or PENNSYLVANIA. 

Nearly seventy years ago Dr. Thomas C. 
Porter began the collection and study of the 
plants of Pennsylvania, and until his death 
in 1901 he continued the work practically 
without interruption. At his death his manu- 
script was found to be essentially completed, 
needing only the editorial supervision of some 
one familiar with his ideas. Such an editor 
was found in Dr. J. K. Small, of the New 
York Botanical Garden, under whose direction 
the ' Flora of Pennsylvania ' was brought out 
by Ginn, the Boston publisher. It is a syn- 
optical flora, all descriptions of orders, fam- 
ilies, genera and species being included in 
carefully made keys. Especial attention is 
given to habitat and distribution, and in this 
particular this is one of the most satisfactory 
floras ever published in this country. 

The book contains about three hundred 
pages, exclusive of the very full indexes. It 
deals with the spermatophytes only, the ferns 
not being included, so that the word ' flora ' 



is strictly proper as applied to the book. It 
includes 2,201 species, representing 655 genera, 
156 families and 43 orders. It is a great and 
enduring monument to the industry and 
ability of the author. 

Charles E. Bessey. 
University of Nebraska. 



AGRICULTURE IN JAPAN.* 
Only 14,995,272 acres, or 15.7 per cent; of 
the whole area of Japan, exclusive of Pormosa, 
consists of arable land, and 55 per cent, of the 
agricultural families cultivate less than 2 
acres each; 30 per cent, cultivate 2 acres or 
more up to IJ cho, or a little less than 3| acres, 
leaving 15 per cent, of the farmers who culti- 
vate farms of 3| acres or more. A comparison 
of the whole area under cultivation with the 
number of farm workers shows that, on an 
average, one man cares for a little less than 
an acre. 

The government has attempted to aid the 
progress of agriculture by laws respecting irri- 
gation, the protection of forests so as to con,- 
trol the flow of rivers in the interest of the 
farmer, the formation of farmers' guilds, the 
rearrangement of farm boundaries, and the 
improvement of drainage systems. Small as 
the farms are, their parts are usually separated 
so that a farm of 2 acres may consist of sev- 
eral nonadjacent lots, the average size of a 
lot being about one eighth of an acre. A law 
which went into force in 1900 provides for the 
rearrangement of boundaries by farmers ex- 
changing fields for those owned by others so 
as to make the farms more compact and en- 
large the fields to permit the use of horses 
and machinery, at the same time increasing 
the tillable area by straightening some bound- 
aries and removing others. About 20,000 
acres have already come under the operation 
of this law. 

For the purpose of further promoting agri- 
cultural interests the government maintains a 
State experimental farm and nine branch 
farms. The work at these farms is largely 
theoretical, and is divided into eight depart- 
ments, viz.j seed, saplings, agricultural chem- 

'■* Consular report from United States Consul- 
General Bellows, Yokohama, Japan. 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



219 



istry, entomology, vegetable physiology, to- 
bacco, horticulture, and general affairs. The 
results of the investigations are submitted to 
thirty-eight experimental farms, created and 
carried on by the provinces with the help of 
a subsidy from the general government, and 
theories are here subjected to the test of prac- 
tical application before general publication. 
Among the results already accomplished by 
this method are improvement in the quality 
and quantity of crops through more careful 
selection of seeds and better understanding of 
the varieties suited to the conditions in differ- 
ent localities; more efficient modes of destroy- 
ing injurious insects; ability to minimize the 
injury from plant diseases, such as smut, mil- 
dew, pear cluster-cups, etc. ; increased skill in 
the application of fertilizers, and the discovery 
of indigenous grasses suitable for meadows, 
all meadow grasses having formerly been im- 
ported. 

The general government aids the local treas- 
uries to maintain six local agTicultural schools 
for the instruction of farmers' sons in the 
general principles of agriculture, surveying, 
-veterinary science, and related subjects. The 
government also carries on an experimental 
tea farm, on which is a curing workshop ; a 
laboratory for investigating the disease of 
cattle and poultry; a cattle-breeding pasture 
for improving the native breeds of cattle for 
meat and dairy purposes,- and two horse-breed- 
ing pastures for promoting the introduction of 
Isetter horses. 

Efforts have been made to introduce sheep 
-Taising and swine raising, but with only partial 
success. It is claimed that the conditions of 
■climate and food supply present no serious 
obstacle to the success of sheep farming, but 
the statistics of 1901 showed only 2,545 sheep 
in the country. Swine raising has succeeded 
better, but can not yet be spoken of as an es- 
tablished industry of much importance, the 
number of swine having remained in the 
vicinity of 200,000 for several years. 

The principal agricultural products, named 
in the order of their acreage, are rice, rye, 
barley, wheat, beans, mulberries, sweet pota- 
toes, millet, buckwheat, rape, red beans, Italian 
millet, tea, indigo leaves, potatoes, sorghum. 



tobacco leaves, cotton and hemp. The area 
devoted to rice cultivation constitutes a little 
more than two fifths of the total area of arable 
land. The greater part of the rice fields are in 
low-lying land, which can be easily flooded, but 
some upland rice is raised. Mulberry trees 
and tea plants are usually planted on land not 
suitable for more important crops, such as the 
slopes of hills, sandy dunes, and similar places. 
In the warmer parts of the Empire barley and 
rape are often raised as a second crop after 
rice has been harvested, but farther north the 
excess of moisture required for rice leaves the 
land too cold for another crop the same year. 
Stock raising is still in its infancy in Japan, 
and is not likely to become an important in- 
dustry, owing to the high price of land and 
the coarseness of the native grasses, most of 
which are not fit for food for cattle or horses. 
Oats and maize as foods for farm animals are 
practically unknown, and what passes for hay 
is a kind of straw, which is chopped fine be- 
fore it is fed to horses. A little less than one 
sixth of the arable land consists of plains and 
pastures, and of this about two fifths belong 
to the state and the imperial household, tlie 
remainder being owned by private stock 
raisers, who raise stock principally for tillage 
and draft animals. The natives are not ac- 
customed to the use of butter or miUv, and do 
not usually like the taste of them, and their 
religious prejiidices have hitherto prevented 
the general use .of meat of any kind, although 
they now seem to be developing a taste for all 
these kinds of food. 

I'armers do not engage in poultry raising to 
a sufficient extent to provide the eggs needed 
for home consumption, these being imported 
from China to the value of over $500,000 per 
year. Emit raising, under the stimulus of 
government encouragement, has advanced con- 
siderably, but is not yet an important branch 
of farming in this country. Bee culture is 
engaged in to a limited extent, but the indus- 
try is still in a primitive condition. 



TBE URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF 
GREAT BRITAIN. 

The general report of the census of Great 
Britain of 1901 has recently been issued. In 



220 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



commenting on this report the London Times 
says: 

" Attention has been prominently directed, 
by the report of the Committee on Physical 
Deterioration, to what is there described as 
the 'urbanization' of the people; and hence 
few portions of the volume now issued will 
be of more general interest than those which 
set forth the extent to which this process is 
actually being carried on. We iind, in the 
first place, that the population has decreased 
in the five English counties of Huntingdon- 
shire, Nottinghamshire, Westmoreland, Oxford- 
shire and Herefordshire, and in the five Welsh 
counties of Montgomeryshire, Cardiganshire, 
Flintshire, Merionethshire and Brecknock- 
shire; the decrease ranging from 7.04 per 
cent, in Huntingdonshire to 1.62 per cent, in 
Herefordshire; and from 5.08 per cent, in 
Montgomeryshire to 0.17 per cent, in Breck- 
nockshire. In the remaining forty-five, Eng- 
lish and Welsh counties there was an increase 
of population, ranging from 45.11 per cent, 
in Middlesex to 0.003 per cent, in Cornwall; 
but the increase in Radnorshire, which was 
only apparent, and is said to have veiled a 
real decrease, was due to the presence in the 
county of a number of men who were tem- 
porarily engaged in the construction of water- 
works for the Corporation of Birmingham. 
Particulars are given for 1,122 urban and for 
664 rural districts, and it appears that the 
aggregate population of the former in 1901 
was 25,058,355, and of the latter, constituting 
the remainder of the country, 7,469,488; so 
that the persons enumerated in urban were 
to those enumerated in rural districts as 335 
to 100; the proportions in 1881 and in 1891, 
in the urban and rural districts as constituted 
at those periods, having been respectively 212 
and 258 to 100. The increase in the propor- 
tion resident in urban districts is attributed 
partly to an actual growth of population with- 
in those districts as they existed in earlier 
census years and partly to the growth of the 
districts themselves through the absorption of 
areas which were previously rural. It was 
pointed out in 1891, and is still the case, that 
a considerable number of the urban districts, 
although technically urban, are distinctly 



rural in character, being in many cases small 
towns situated in the midst of agricultural 
areas on which they are dependent for their 
maintenance as business centers. At the re- 
cent census there were 215 urban ' districts 
with populations below 3,000, 211 with popula- 
tions between 3,000 and 5,000, and 260 with 
populations between 5,000 and 10,000; and 
the report follows the example of its prede- 
cessor in stating the proportions between 
urban and rural dwellers from these three 
points of view. If we class with the rural 
districts all those urban districts with popula- 
tions below 10,000, the aggregate population 
of the remaining urban areas numbered 21,- 
959,998, the population of the same areas in 
1891 having been 18,964,882, and the rate of 
increase in the decennium being 15.8 per cent. 
In the rural areas, with the added small urban 
districts, the population increased from 10,- 
037,643 in 1891 to 10,567,845 in 1901, or an 
increase of 5.3 per cent. There are, never- 
theless, many rural parts in which actual de- 
population has occurred, and these are found 
in the rural and small urban districts of 
twenty-thi'ee counties; while, although there 
has been a small increase of population in 
rural areas in the aggregate, there has, never- 
theless, been a very considerable drain on the 
natural growth of the population of these 
areas. A table is given showing that, in a 
rural population of nearly five and a half 
millions, the natural growth by excess of 
births over deaths was 565,253 in the ten 
years preceding the census of 1901, but that 
the actual increase of poijulation was only 
64,599, showing a loss by migration of 500,654, 
equal to 9.1 per cent, of the population of 
1891." 



THE CARNEGIE TRUST FOR TEE UNIVER- 
SITIES OF SCOTLAND. 

The Carnegie Trust for the universities of 
Scotland has made awards for the year 1904-5 
of twenty-four scholarships, twelve fellowships 
and thirty-five special grants, the total value 
of which is somewhat more than $25,000. The 
fellows are as follows : 

Physical. — (1) Dugald B. McQuistan, M.A., 
B.Sc, Glasgow. 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



221 



Chemical. — (2) Charles E. Fawsitt, B.Sc, Edin- 
burgh (second year) ; (3) James C. Irivine, B.Sc, 
D.Se., St. Andrews (second year) ; (4) William 
Maitland, B.Sc, Aberdeen (second year). 

Biological. — (5) John Cameron, M.B., Ch.B., 
Edinburgh (second year) ; (6) Francis H. A. 
Marshall, B.A., Cambridge, D.Sc, Edinburgh; (7) 
Henry J. Watt, M.A., Aberdeen. 

Pathological. — (8) Carl H. Browning, M.B., 
Ch.B., Glasgow; (9) John C. G. Ledingham, M.A., 
B.Sc, M.B., Ch.B., Aberdeen; (10) S. A. K. 
Wilson, M.A., M.B., Ch.B., Edinburgh. 

Historical.— (U) Richard Bell, M.A., B.D., 
Edinburgh; (12) Duncan Maclvenzie, M.A., Edin- 
burgh ( second year ) . 
Grants for research are made as follows : 

Physical. — (1) George A. Carse, M.A., B.Sc, 
Edinburgh; (2) Professor MacGregor, Edinburgh 
University; (3) Thomas Oliver, B.Sc, Edinburgh; 
(4) William Peddie, B.Sc, lecturer in natural 
philosophy, Edinburgh University. 

Chemical. — (5) Professor G. G. Henderson and 
Dr. Gray, Glasgow and West of Scotland Tech- 
nical College (second J'ear) ; (6) A. N. Meldrum, 
D.Sc, assistant in chemistry, Aberdeen University 
(second year) . 

Biological. — (7) James H. Ashworth, D.Sc, 
x.assistant in zoology, Edinburgh University (sec- 
ond year) ; (8) John Beard, D.Sc, lecturer in 
embryology and invertebrate zoology, Edinburgh 
University (second year) ; (9) Cyril Crossland, 
B.A., B.Sc, assistant in zoology, St. Andrews Uni- 
versity; (10) Professor J. Cossar Ewart, M.D., 
Edinburgh University (second year) ; (11) Pro- 
fessor Paterson, West of Scotland Agricultural 
College, Glasgow; (12) John Rennie, D.Sc, assis- 
tant in zoology, Aberdeen University (second 
year); (13) William G. Smith, B.Sc, St. An- 
drews; (14) David Waterston, M.A., M.D., assis- 
tant in anatomy, Edinburgh University (second 
year) ; (15) John H. Wilson, D.Sc, St. Andrews 
(second year) ; (16) Professors R. Patrick Wright 
and A. N. M' Alpine, West of Scotland Agricultural 
College, Glasgow. 

Anatomical. — (17) Edward B. Jamieson, M.B., 
Ch.B., demonstrator of anatomy, Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. 

Pharmacological. — (18) Professor R. Stockman, 
Glasgow University. 

Pathological. — (19) James Kerr Love, M.D., 
Glasgow (second year) ; (20) Edwin Bramwell, 
M.B., F.E.C.P.E., Edinburgh; (21) Professor 
Carstairs C. Douglas, B.Sc, M.D., Anderson's Col- 
lege Medical School, Glasgow (second year) ; (22) 
Alexander H. Edwards, M.B., CM., Edinburgh 



(second year); (23) Alexander Goodall, M.D., 
Edinburgh (second year) ; (24) J. M. Kirkness, 
M.B., Ch.B., Edinburgh; (25) Professor Robert 
Muir, M.D., Glasgow University (second year) ; 
(20) Peter Paterson, M.B., assistant in surgery, 
Glasgow University; (27) W. B. Inglis Pollock, 
M.B., Ch.B., Glasgow; (28) Benjamin P. Watson, 
M.B., Ch.B., Edinburgh; (29) John M. Bowie, 
M.D., Edinburgh; (30) James Scott, M.D., Edin- 
burgh (second year); (31) Douglas Chalmers 
Watson, M.B., P.R.C.P.E., Edinburgh. 

Historical. — (32) William Cramond, M.A., 
LL.D., Aberdeen (second year); (33) Professor 
W. M. Ramsay, M.A,, D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D., Aber- 
deen University (second year). 

Economical.— {3i) William R. Scott, M.A., 
D.Phil., lecturer in political economy, St. Andrews 
University. 

Linguistic. — (35) Kenneth MacKenzie, M.A., 
Glasgow. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

Dk. Hermann Knapp, emeritus professor of 
ophthalmology in Columbia University, has 
celebrated at Giessen the fiftieth anniversary 
of his doctorate, when the diploma was re- 
newed. 

Albert von Eeinach, the geologist of Frank- 
fort on Maine, has been made an honorary 
doctor of philosophy by the University of Mar- 
burg. 

Professor V. M. Spalding has resigned the 
chair of botany in the University of Michigan. 
His address after October 15 will be Tucson, 
Arizona, where he will continue his work 
begun last year at the Desert Laboratory. 

Professor W. H. Pickering, of Harvard 
University, is at present at Mt. Lowe Observa- 
tory, California, continuing his observations 
on the moon. 

Dr. J. Wesley Hoffmann is here studying 
the cultivation of cotton on behalf of the 
British government. 

Professor Melville T. Cook, of the de- 
partment of biology at De Pauw University 
of Indiana, has been made chief plant patholo- 
gist by the Cuban government. 

Dr. Sidney D. Wilgus, of New York City, 
has been appointed by the State Commission 
in Lunacy as chief examiner, under the law 
passed by the last legislature creating a state 
board of alienists. 



222 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



Dr. George F. Shr.^dy, who has been editor 
of the Medical Record since its establishment 
thirty-eight years ago, has retired and is suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Thomas L. Stedman. 

The Middlemore prize of the British Med- 
ical Association for the best original work on 
ophthalmology during the past two years has 
been awarded to Mr. J. H. Parsons. 

The Academy of Sciences, Berlin, has made 
a number of subsidies including 2,300 Marks 
to Professor Adolf Engier for the continua- 
tion of his work, ' Das Pflanzenreich ' ; 1,020 
Marks to Dr. Emil Warburg for his investiga- 
tion on the specific heat of gases at high tem- 
peratures, and 1,000 Marks to Professor Walter 
Kaufmann for investigations on electrons. 

Dr. Judson F. Clark, of the Bureau of 
Forestry and instructor in the New York 
State College of Forestry at the time of its 
discontinuance, has been appointed provin- 
cial forester of Ontario. 

Dr. Hans Battermann, astronomer at the 
Berlin Observatory, has been made director of 
the observatory and professor of astronomy at 
Konigsberg. 

Captain Arthur Mostyn Field, E.N., has 
been selected for the appointment of hydrog- 
rapher of the British navy on the retirement 
of Eear-Admiral Sir William J. L. Wharton, 
KC.B., F.R.S. 

A committee has been formed in Bourg to 
erect a monument in memory of the astron- 
omer Jerome Lalande. 

The British Medical Journal reminds us 
that July twentieth was the hundredth anni- 
versary of the birth of Sir Richard Owen at 
Lancaster, where an inscription on a house 
in Thurnham Street records the place of his 
birth. 

De. Franz Hilgendorf, curator in the Mu- 
seum of Natural History of Berlin, died on 
July 6, at the age of sixty-four years. 

By the will of the late Frances Skinner 
Willing, of Chicago, the Mark Skinner Li- 
brary at Manchester, Vt., will receive $40,000 
as an endowment fund. 

There will be a civil service examination 
on September 7, to fill a vacancy in the position 



of laboratory assistant in pharmacology in the 
• Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of 
Agriculture, at $750 per annum. 

Eepeesentatives of the principal South 
American states met at Rio Janeiro from 
June 5 to 12, to consider measures of sanitary 
prophylaxis. 

Seventy-four members of the British Insti- 
tution of Electrical Engineers have signified 
their intention of attending the Electrical 
Congress at St. Louis. Among them are the 
president, R. J. Gray Esq., Professor John 
Perry and Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

The American Neurological Association 
will hold its next annual meeting at St. Louis, 
on September 15, 16 and 17, 1904, under the 
presidency of Dr. James W. Putnam, of 
Boston. 

Nature states that arrangements have been 
made which will make it unnecessary to close 
the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn 
Street, for a month in autumn as heretofore; 
the museum will therefore remain open to 
students and visitors daily. 

The Ziegler relief expedition arrived at 
Vardo, Norway, on board the Frithjof, on 
July 3, on its return from the north. Owing 
to ice and fog it did not succeed in reaching 
the America_, having on board -the Ziegler- 
Fiala arctic expedition. The Frithjof will 
sail north again as soon as possible. 

We learn from Nature that the following 
excursions have been arranged in connection 
with the Cambridge meeting of the British 
Association which opens on August 17 : 

Audley End and Saffron Walden. — Audley End 
Hoiise will be visited by permission of the Lord 
Howard de Walden; the church and museum in 
Saffron Walden form other items in the program. 

Brandon and Didlington Hall. — The most at- 
tractive features of this excursion will be the flint 
knapping industry at Brandon, Lord Amherst's 
Egj'ptian collections, rare books and illuminated 
MSS. at Didlington Hall. 

Cromer. — Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., has ar- 
ranged an attractive itinerary for those inter- 
ested in the geology of the Norfolk coast. 

Dylies of Cambridge. — This excursion includes 
an inspection of the well-known Fleam Dyke and 
Devil's Ditch, under the guidance of Professor 



August 12, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



223 



Eidgeway; opportunity will also be afforded for 
botanizing on the dylves. By the invitation of 
Mr. Richard Marsh, trainer to H. M. the king, 
tea will be provided at Egerton House, New- 
niarliet. 

Ely. — A visit to the cathedral, a building of 
exceptional areliitectural interest, under the guid- 
ance of the dean, forms the most important fea- 
ture of this excursion. 

Wicken Fen and Upicare. — Members will travel 
from Cambridge to Upware in steam launches. 
This excursion is likely to be of considerable in- 
terest to geologists, entomologists and botanists. 

Hatfield and St. Albans. — A visit to Hatfield 
House, by permission of the Marquis of Salisbury, 
visits to St. Albans Abbey, the site of Verulam, 
the sites of the battlefields of St. Albans, and the 
orchid houses of Messrs. Sanders, form the chief 
attractions. 

Lincoln. — The exceptional architectural and 
archeological features of Lincoln seemed to the 
committee sufficient justification for arranging an 
excursion to this city, in spite of its distance from 
Cambridge. The mayor of Lincoln invites mem- 
bers to tea in the Castle grounds. 

Norwich. — The cathedral, the hospital of St. 
Giles, and St. Andrew's Hall are the most impor- 
tant buildings to be visited. Hospitality is offered 
by the mayor of Norwich, and by Mr. and Mrs. 
James Stuart. 

Sandringham, Lynn and Castle Rising. — This 
excursion, which is likely to prove one of the 
most popular, includes visits to the Lynn churches, 
the castle and church at Castle Rising, also the 
grounds, kennels, stables and dairy at Sandring- 
ham. Tea will be provided by invitation of H. M. 
the king. 

J^'ishech. — The lord lieutenant of Cambridge- 
shire has kindly invited members of the associa- 
tion to visit the old-world town of Wisbech, and 
facilities will also be afforded for inspecting the 
woad works. 

According to Nature the new hall of the 
Eoyal Horticultural Society in Vincent 
Square, Westminster, was opened on July 22. 
The building, which includes a library, offices, 
council chambers, and a lecture room, in addi- 
tion to the large hall in which the society will 
hold its fortnightly exhibitions, has been built 
to celebrate the centenary of the society. In 
the address which Sir Trevor Lawrence read 
to the King and Queen the work of the Eoyal 
Horticultural Society was reviewed, and in 



regard to the efforts of the collectors sent out 
by the society in the nineteenth century, it 
was said, in the words of Mr. Andrew Murray, 
that " the results have affected the appearance 
of all England. Nowhere can a day's ride 
now be taken where the landscape is not 
beautified by some of the introductions of the 
Eoyal Horticultural Society." Perhaps noth- 
ing indicates more clearly the way in which 
the society has promoted the science and art 
of horticulture than the fact that whereas 
there. were one thousand three hundred fellows 
in 1887, there are now eight thousand, one 
hundred and fifty. Baron Sir Henry 
Schroeder presented the report of the build- 
ing and appeal committees, in which it was 
stated that twenty-six thousand pounds had 
been subscribed towards the cost of the hall, 
which will amount in the end to forty thou- 
sand pounds. It is the intention of the so- 
ciety to provide scientific instruction as well 
as practical training in connection with the 
gardens at Wisley. 

We learn from Forestry and Irrigation that 
a new classification of technical grades in the 
Bureau of Forestry went into effect July 1. 
This change was made in order to provide a 
set of generic titles that would tell more 
clearly what its men are doing. The titles 
are more easily distinguished, are more digni- 
fied, and mean more to the men themselves. 
The new grades with the yearly salaries they 
carry are : 

Forester, $3,500. 

Associate Forester, $2,700 to $3,000. — Chief of 
the ranking division and assistant to the Forester. 

Assistant Forester, $2,100 to $2,600. — Chiefs of 
divisions and men occupying positions of similar 
responsibility. 

Forest Inspector, $1,800 to $2,000. — Chiefs of 
the ranking sections of divisions and men in charge 
of independent lines of work of similar impor- 
tance. 

Assistant Forest Inspector, $1,500 to $1,700. — 
Chiefs of sections of divisions, except of the rank- 
ing section, and men occupying positions of similar 
responsibility. 

Forest Assistant, $900 to $1,400. — Men who 
enter the Bureau through the examination for 
Forest Assistant and have not yet been given 
charge of independent lines of work. 

Forest Agent, $700 to $000.— Men without civil- 
service standing, in charge of subordinate lines of 
work. 



224 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 502. 



Forest Student, $300. — Men" whose service is 
temporary and educational in character and whose 
training in forestry is incomplete. 

Nature leams from the Bulletin of the Kus- 
sian Society of ISTaturalists of St. Petersburg 
that the biological station which has been es- 
tablished near Alexandrovsk, on the Norman 
coast of the Kola peninsula, is now in working 
order. It is provided with all the necessary 
apparatus for pumping sea-water to a basin 
and an aquarium, as well as with a special 
sailing boat and all apparatus required for 
fishing and dragging. 

On the occasion of the meeting of the 
British Medical Association, Oxford Univer- 
sity conferred the degree of D.Sc. on a num- 
ber of visiting physicians, including Professor 
William Osier, of the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. Professor Love, Sedlian professor of 
natural philosophy, presented the recipients, 
making remarks in Latin. According to the 
translation in The British Medical Journal, 
he said of Professor Osier : " Among those 
who apply the results of modern science to 
the investigation of the causes and the cure 
of diseases, few have attained greater distinc- 
tion than William Osier. By his professional 
teaching, iirst in Montreal and afterwards in 
Baltimore, by his writings, which deal partly 
with questions of abstract science and partly 
with questions concerning the practise of 
medicine, by his skill as a physician, he has 
been for many years a leading exponent of the 
principle that the art of medicine should be 
based upon the most exact scientific knowledge 
of the day. For his work in exemplifying 
this principle, as well as for the merit of his 
contributions to science, he was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal Society. In him also we 
welcome a representative of one of those 
daughter states which are the pride of the 
mother country — the Dominion of Canada^ 
and also of that great republic of the west 
whose people, bound to us by the closest ties 
of kinship, are also among our best friends." 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 
The New York Evening Post states that 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Co- 



lumbia University, has received a bequest of 
$10,000 by the wiU of Mrs. Eleanor Cooper. 

Dr. Brown Ayres, professor of physics in 
Tulane University, has been elected president 
of the University of Tennessee. 

Professor George M. Duncan has, accord- 
ing to the daily papers, resigned his pro- 
fessorship of philosophy at Yale University. 
Professor G. T. Ladd, it will be remembered, 
presented his resignation last spring, to take 
effect at the end of the next academic year. 
Professor Hershey E. Sneath, who has hither- 
to held the chair of ethics, has been trans- 
ferred to the department of pedagogy. 

Dr. Henry J. Prentiss, professor of prac- 
tical anatomy. University and Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College, has accepted the chair 
of anatomy at the University of Iowa, made 
vacant by the death of Di-. J. W. Harriman. 

Miss D. L. Bryant, S.B., of the department 
of geology, '91 of the Massachusetts Institute, 
of Technology, received the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy, June 30, 1904, at Erlangen, 
with the distinction of magna cum laude. 
After graduating from the institute she 
taught geology at Greensboro, N. C, and be- 
fore leaving for Europe she took a course in 
petrography with Dr. Van Hise, at Madison, 
Wisconsin. She has since studied at Heidel- 
berg, and for the past two years at Erlangen. 
Her graduating dissertation was upon ' The 
Petrograpliy of Spitzbergen.' 

Miss Marion Stores, Ph.D., has been ap- 
pointed junior professor of botany in the 
University of Manchester. 

Dr. William Palmer Wynne has been 
elected professor of chemistry in University 
College, Shefaeld. 

Dr. L. Gerlach, professor of anatomy at 
Erlangen, has been made rector for the com- 
ing academic year. 

Dr. Hippolyt Haas, professor of geology at 
Kiel, has retired from active service. 

Professor L. Busse, of Konigsberg, has 
been called to a professorship of philosophy 
at Miinster, in succession to Professor E. 
Addickes, who has been appointed professor 
at Tiibingen. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE 

OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Fridat, August 19, 1904 



CONTENTS: 

Doctorates Conferred by American Univer- 
sities 225 

Some Aspects of Medical Education: Pko- 
FESSOE Dr. John H. Musser 230, 

Nathan Smith Davis: Frank S. Johnson... 237 

Scientific Books: — 

Investigations of the Blue Hill Meteorolog- 
ical Observatory : Professor R. DeC. Ward. 
Van't Hoff's Yorlesungen iiber theoretische 
und physikalische Chemie: Professor 
Alexander Smith 240 

Scientific Journals and Articles 241 

Societies and Academies: — 

The Biological Society of St. Louis: J. 
Arthur Harris. American Fisheries So- 
ciety 241 

Discussion and Correspondence : — 
Areas in the United States Suitable for Beet 
Culture: Dk. H. W. Wiley. Jordan on 
Fossil Labroid and Chcetodont Fishes: De. 
C. E. Eastman. The Ascent of Water: 
Professor G. Macloskie. Analysis of a 
Complex Musical Tone: Professor W. S. 
Franklin 244 

Special Articles: — 

The Effect of Radium Rays on the Colon 
Bacillus, the Diphtheria Bacillus and Yeast: 
Dr. C. S. Prescott. A Wheat-Rye Hybrid: 
Dr. H. F. Roberts 246 

Notes on Inorganic Chemistry : — 

The Melting Point of Gold; Fused Soap- 
stone Fibers; Explosions from Ferrosilicon; 
Bessemer vs. Open-hearth; Royal Society 
Conversaziones; Nature of Solutions: J. 
L. H 249 

Social and Economic Science: — 

University Competition for Graduate Stu- 
dents; Service of Science in Social Work; 
Virginia's Program of Educational Pur- 
poses: Dr. John Franklin Crowell 251 

Opportunities in Anthropology at the World's 
Fair: W J McGee 253 

Scientific Notes and Neus 254 

University and Educational Netos 256 

MSB. inteuiled for publicatiou aud books, etc., intended 
for reYiew should be sent to the Editor of Science, Garri- 
son-on-Hudaon, N. Y. 



DOCTORATES CONFERRED BY AMERICAN 
UNIVERSITIES. 

We publish for the seventh year statis- 
tics in regard to the doctorates conferred 
by our universities. The degree of doctor 
of philosophy or of science was received by 
281 candidates from 24 institutions. In 
addition to the 34 universities and colleges 
from which returns have been received, 
there may be a few cases in which the de- 
gree has been conferred legitimately by 
smaller institutions, but they are certainly 
very few. As a matter of fact, four fifths 
of all the degrees are conferred by seven 
universities. There have not during the 
past seven years, and probably never pre- 
viously, been so many degrees conferred as 
in the present year. The numbers for the 
seven years are 234, 222, 239, 253, 216, 266 
and 281. The figures fluctuate from year 
to year, but indicate an increase in seven 
years of about twenty per cent. This seems 
to be disappointingly small. In an article 
by Dr. Tombo, recently (July 15) printed 
in this .journal, it is stated that the number 
of graduate students has more than doubled 
in the past five years, and in an article by 
Dr. Mayer, also printed here (July 8), it 
is said that the number of graduate stu- 
dents increased two and a half times from 
1890 to 1902. It is not clear why the num- 
ber who receive the advanced degree should 
not increase as rapidly as the number of 
graduate students. This is not due to a 
raising of the standards, as these have re- 
mained about stationary; nor is it due to 
lack of encouragement on the part of the 
universities, as fellowships and other in- 



226 



SCIENCE. 



[isr. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



ducements are freely offered. Dr. Tombo 
states that Columbia has almost 700 resi- 
dent candidates for the higher degrees, yet 
it conferred only 29 doctorates at the re- 
cent commencement. A large number of 
masters' degrees was conferred, but the 
men receiving this degree stop short of 
research. 

TABLE I. 
DOCTOEATES CONFEEKBD. 



Tale 

Chicago... 
Harvard . 
Johns Hopkins 

Columbia 

Pennsylvania 

Cornell 

Clark 

Michigan 

New York .... 

Wisconsin 

Virginia 

Columbia 

Minnesota 

Brown 

Bryn Mawr ... 

California 

Princeton 

Boston 

Stanford 

Nebraska 

Washington... 
Georgetown... 

Vanderbilt 

Colorado 

Kansas 

Lafayette 

North Carolina 
Cincinnati 

Iowa 

Lehigh .... 
Syracuse.. 
Missouri ... 
Tulane 



1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


34 


30 


26 


39 


29 


36 


39 


86 


24 


37 


36 


27 


32 


36 


26 


24 


36 


29 


31 


28 


46 


33 


38 


33 


30 


17 


23 


31 


22 


33 


21 


25 


32 


39 


29 


24 


20 


15 


25 


14 


29 


18 


19 


7 


19 


21 


23 


20 


13 


12 


5 


9 


7 


1 


4 


10 


7 


4 


5 


3 


10 


10 


8 


5 


9 


7 


6 


4 


4 


9 


5 


7 


5 


5 


6 


2 


10 





2 


2 


8 


6 


3 


1 


1 





5 


3 


2 


4 


3 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


5 





3 


3 


1 


2 


2 





5 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 





3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


2 

















4 


7 


2 





2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 








2 





2 





1 





1 


1 

















3 


1 








3 


1 














1 














2 






1 
















2 
3 


















2 


1 




















1 


1 










1 














1 


2 
2 












1 























1 














234 


224 


239 


253 


216 


266 


281 



233 

228 

220 

205 

201 

145 

122 

48 

47 

44 

40 

22 

18 

17 

16 

16 

15 

13 

11 

10 

7 

5 

4 

4 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 



The 1,713 men who have received the 
doctor's degree during the past seven years 
have not been selected by a severe process 
of elimination, but have in large measure 
been artificially encouraged. Probably not 
more than one in five of them will advance 
science or learning to a significant extent. 
Yet perhaps one half of all academic ap- 
pointments are made from this small group. 
Science here suffers severely as compared 
with medicine or law, each of which pro- 
fessions receives some 5,000 recruits an- 



nually, allowing ample material for selec- 
tion for the higher positions. 

The first table gives details in regard 
to the universities which have conferred 
the degree during the past seven years. 
Harvard this year conferred 46 degrees, 
which is the largest number on the records. 
Yale, which like Harvard does not require 
the publication of the doctors' disserta- 
tions, still stands first in point of numbers, 
followed by Chicago, where the numbers 
are considerably augmented by degrees con- 
ferred on students of theology. A group 
of five universities conferred 181 out of 
281 degrees. Wisconsin conferred 10 and 
Michigan 8 degrees; in view of the con- 
stant strengthening of the state universi- 
ties and the large number of students from 
the central and western states who pursue 
graduate studies in the eastern institutions, 
we may expect a considerable increase in 
the number of degrees granted by the state 
universities. It is somewhat surprising 
that California and Stanford have together 
conferred the degree but twenty-five times 
in seven years. 

TABLE n. 

DOCTOEATES CONFEEEED IN THE SCIENCES. 



Chemistry 

Physics 

Zoology 

Psychology 

Mathematics .. 

Botany 

Geology 

Physiology 

Astronomy 

Education 

Sociology 

Paleontology .. 
Bacteriology .. 
Anthropology 

Agriculture 

Anatomy 

Engineering.. . 

Mineralogy 

Pathology 

Meteorology ... 



1898 
27 


1899 
32 


1900 
26 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 
33 


28 


26 


33 


11 


7 


15 


23 


12 


14 


17 


12 


11 


11 


15 


16 


12 


15 


18 


15 


9 


13 


8 


16 


10 


11 


13 


11 


18 


8 


7 


13 


11 


11 


12 


8 


11 


9 


17 


6 


5 


5 


10 


6 


10 


7 


4 


1 


4 


1 


8 


8 


1 


3 


2 


4 


5 


2 


4 


4 





5 


8 


2 


1 


2 








5 


3 


3 


4 


2 


1 





4 


2 


1 





2 


2 





1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


2 





2 


1 


n 


1 


2 














2 


2 


2 











1 





4 














1 





3 


1 





2 








1 


1 




















3 








1 

















105 


115 


113 


131 


106 


136 


128 



205 
99 
92 
89 
81 
79 
49 
27 
24 
18 
18 
11 
10 



The second table gives details in regard 
to the natural and exact sciences, in which 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



227 



about one half of all the degrees are con- 
ferred. There is this year a falling-oft' in 
the relative number in the sciences, which 
is, however, not large enough to be signifi- 
cant. The larger institutions, in which 
half or more than half of the degrees were 
this year in the sciences, are Harvard, 
Johns Hopkins, Cornell, Pennsylvania, 
Clark and Michigan. 

TABLE m. 

DOCTORATES CONFERRED IN THE SCIENCES. 





1898 


1899 

17 
13 
23 
7 
15 
2 
8 
5 
3 
4 
3 

2 
2 


1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 




1 





1 



115 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 

17 

14 

11 

23 

15 

8 

9 

10 

6 

4 

2 

1 

2 





1 

1 

1 



1 

L 






1 

0- 




128 


Total 


Johns Hopkins 
Chicago 


19 
12 
10 
11 
11 
11 
8 
12 

2 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 
2 



1 












20 
19 
12 
15 
10 

n 

6 
9 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 




1 
1 
1 







1 








113 


19 

16 

13 

15 

18 

13 

12 

7 



3 

2 

1 

2 

4 

1 

1 

1 





1 

1 







1 









9 
15 
14 
14 
10 
16 
5 
1 
5 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 


2 



2 







1 


10 
21 
18 
15 
13 
13 
14 
4 
4 

3 
4 

2 
4 
1 

1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
2 



1 
1 




111 
110 


Columbia 


101 
100 


Yale 


92 


Cornell...: 


74 


Pennsylvania .. 
Clark 


62 
48 


Michigan 


19 


Wisconsin 

California 

Columbian 

Bryn Mawr 

Virginia 


18 

13 

11 

9 

9 


Brown 


8 


Stanford 


7 


Nebraska 


6 


Princeton 

Minnesota 

Washington 

New York 

Kansas 




5 
5 
4 
3 


North Carolina 


3 

1 


Vanderbilt 

Colorado 

Georgetown 

Iowa 


1 
1 

1 
2 


Lafayette 


1 




2 


Syracuse 


1 




105 


131 


106 


136 


834 



The third table gives details in regard 
to the separate sciences. There was an 
unusually large number of degrees with 
botany as the major subject. Otherwise 
there is no notable change in the positions 
of the subjects. The subjects in which 
three or more degrees were conferred by a 
university were: Chemistry — Yale, Penn- 
sylvania, Columbia, Harvard and Johns 
Hopkins; P%stcs— Chicago, Johns Hop- 
kins and Clark; Zoology— Harvard, Chi- 
cago and Johns Hopkins; Botany — Har- 



vard and Wisconsin; Mathematics — Tale; 
Psychology — Clark. 

The names of those on whom the degree 
was conferred in the natural and exact 
sciences, with the subjects of their theses 
are as follows: 

JOHNS HOPKIN.S UNIVERSITY. 

James Barnes : I., ' On the Analysis of Bright 
Spectrum Lines ' ; II., ' On the Spectrum of Mag- 
nesium.' 

Harry Preston Bassett : ' Determination of the 
Relative Velocities of the Ions of Silver Nitrate 
in Mixtures of the Alcohols and Water and on the 
Conductivity of Such Mixtures.' 

Charles Edward Brooks : ' Orthic Curves ; or 
Algebraic Curves which satisfy Laplace's Equation 
in Two Dimensions.' 

Charles Geiger Carroll : ' A Study of the Con- 
ductivity of Certain Electrolytes in Water, Methyl 
and Ethyl Alcohols and Mixtures of these Sol- 
vents; the Relation between Conductivity and 
Viscosity.' 

Walter Buckingham Carver : ' On the Cayley- 
Veronese Class of Configurations.' 

Howard Waters Doughty: ' Phenylsulphone- 
orthoearbonic Acid and Related Compounds.' 

Otto Charles Glaser : ' The Larva of Fasciolaria 
tulipa (var. distans) .' 

Elliot Snell Hall: I., 'A Study of Some New 
Semi-permeable Membranes ' ; II., ' Experiments on 
the Preparation of Porous Cups suitable for the 
Measurement of Osmotic Pressure.' 

Henry Dickinson Hill : ' Measurement of Self- 
Inductance.' 

Arthur Isaac Kendall : ' An Investigation of the 
Methods of Bacterial Technique, Preparation of 
Cultural Media, Cultural Characteristics and the 
Classification of Bacteria.' 

Ernest Gale Martin : ' An Experimental Study 
of the Rhythmic Activity of Strips of Heart 
Muscle.' 

John Joseph Rutledge : ' The Clinton Iron Ores 
of Stone Valley, Huntingdon County, Pennsyl- 
vania.' 

Harry William Springsteen : ' The Magnetic 
Rotatory Dispersion of Sodium Vapor.' 

Charles Kephart Swartz : ' The Columbus For- 
mation of Central-Northern Ohio, including an Ac- 
count of the Geology of the Eastern Part of Mar- 
blehead Peninsula.' 

David Hilt Tennent : ' A Study of the Life-His- 
tory of Bucephalus haimeanus, a Parasite of the 
Oyster.' 



228 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



William Phillips Winter : ' An Investigation of 
Sodamide and of its Reaction-products with 
Phosphorus and with Phosphorous Pentachloride.' 

Rheinart Parker Cowles: ' Phoronis Architecta: 
Its Life-History, Anatomy and Breeding Habits.' 

UNIVBESITT OF CHICAGO. 

Thomas Eaton Doubt: 'The Effect of the In- 
tensity upon the Velocity of Light.' 

George Harrison Shull : ' A Second Contribution 
to the Establishment of Place-Constants for Aster 
Prenanthoides Muhl. at Clifton, Ohio.' 

Elizabeth Kemper Adams : ' The Esthetic Ex- 
perience : Its Meaning in a Functional Psychology.' 

Jessie Blount Allen : ' The Psychology of the 
Guinea Pig.' 

Raymond Foss Bacon; 'On Sodium Benzo- 
hydroL' 

William Henry Bussey : ' Generational Rela- 
tions for the Abstract Group, simply Isomorphic 
with the Linear Fractional Group.' 

William Harve Emmons : ' Tlie Geology of Hay- 
stack Mountains, Montana.' 

Fannie Cornelia Frisbie : ' The Effect of Pressure 
on Magnetic Induction.' 

Thomas Carlyle Hebb : ' The Velocity of Sound.' 

Arthur Constant Lunn : ' The Differential Equa- 
tions of Dynamics.' 

Charles Dwight Marsh : ' The Plankton of Lake 
W'innebago and Green Lake.' 

John William Scott : ' Studies in the Experi- 
mental Embryology of some Marine Annelids.' 

Laetitia Morris Snow : ' The Effect of External 
Agents on the Production of Root-hairs.' 

Charles Zeleny : ' Studies in Regulation and Re- 
generation.' 

^ COLUMBIA rNIVERSITy. 

Hal Truman Beans : ' Maminobenzonitrile and 
Some of its Derivatives.' 

Louis Israel Dublin : ' The History of the Germ 
Cells in PedicelUna Americana.' 

Myron Samuel Falk : ' On the Elastic Properties 
of Cement Mixtures.' 

Charles Savage Forbes : ' Geometry of Circles 
Orthogonal to a Given Spliere.' 

William Flowers Hand : ' A Further Investiga- 
tion of Syntheses of the Alkylketodihydroquinazo- 
lines.' 

William Jones : ' Some Principles of Algonkin 
Word Formation.' 

William Erskine Kellicott : ' The Development 
of the Vascular System of Ceratodus.' 

Arthur Colon Neish: 'A New Separation of 
Thorium from Cerium, Lanthanum and Didynium 
by Means of Metanitro Benzoic Acid.' 



Naomi Norsworthy: 'The Psychology of Men- 
tally Deficient Children.' 

Hervey Woodburn Shimer : ' The Upper Siluric 
and Lower Devonic Faunas of Trilobite Mountain, 
Orange Co., N. Y.' 

William Cullen Uhlig: 'The Nitrogen Contents 
of Commercial Distilled Water.' 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 

Edwin Plimpton Adams : I., ' The Electromag- 
netic Effects of Moving Charged Spheres ' ; II., 
' Water Radioactivity ; III., ' The Induced Radio- 
activity Due to Radium.' 

Glover Morrill Allen : ' The Heredity of Coat 
Color in Mice.' 

Lewis Darwin Ames : ' An Arithmetic Treat- 
ment of Some Problems in Analysis Situs.' 

James Carleton Bell : ' Reactions of the Cray- 
fish to Sensory Stimuli.' 

James Mackintosh Bell : ' Report on the Mich- 
ipicoten Iron Range.' 

Albert Francis Blakeslee : ' Sexual Reproduction 
in the Mucorineae.' 

Foster Partridge Boswell : ' Visual Irradiation.' ■ 

Daniel Francis Calhane : I., ' The Action of 
Sodie Ethylate on Certain Dibromdinitrobenzols, 
with Some New Derivatives in this Class'; II., 
' On the Manner of Oxidation to Quinones in the 
Case of Aromatic Diamines.' 

Henry Avery Carlton : ' On Some Addition Com- 
pounds Derived from Certain Aromatic Com- . 
pounds.' 

Frederic Walton Carpenter ; ' The Development 
.of the Oculomotor Nerve, the Ciliary Ganglion, 
and the Abducent Nerve in the Chick.' 

James Brown Dandeno : ' An Investigation of 
Some of the Effects of Water and of Certain 
Aqueous Solutions Applied to Foliage.' 

Joseph Horace Faull : ' The Development of the- 
Ascus and the Formation of the Spores in the 
Ascomycetes.' 

John L. Hogg : ' Pressure Gauges for High 
Vacua.' 

Arthur Becket Lamb : ' Tlie Specific Heats of 
Aqueous Salt Solutions.' 

Robert Greenleaf Leavitt : ' Trichomes of the 
Root in Vascular Cryptogams and Angiosperms.'^ 

Philip Anderson Shaffer : ' An Investigation of 
Metabolism in the Insane, together with a Discus- 
sion of Analj^tical Technique in Metabolism Ex- 
periments.' 

G rant Smith : ' On the Eyes of Certain Pulmon- 
ate Gastropods, with Special Reference to the 
Neurofibrillae in Linaw Maximus.' 

Philip Sidney Smith : ' The Copper Sulphide De- 
posits of Orange County, Vermont.' 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



229 



Alfred Marston Tozzer : ' A Comparative Study 
of the Mayas and the Laeandones.' 

David Hutton Webster : ' Primitive Social Con- 
trol: A Study of Initiation Ceremonies and Secret 
Societies.' 

Roger Clarlc Wells: 'The Atomic Weight of 
Sodium.' 

James Jacob Wolfe : ' Cytological Studies on 
Nemalion.' 

Henry Cook Boynton : ' An Investigation into 
the Relation between the Treatment, Structure 
and Properties of Steel.' 

TAXE UNn'EKSITY. 

Silas Palmer Beebe: 'The Effect of Alcohol and 
Alcoholic Fluids upon the Excretion of Uric Acid 
in Man.' 

Howard Logan Bronson : ' On the Transverse 
Vibrations of Helical Springs.' 

Robert William Curtis : ' The Action of the 
Halogen Acids upon Vanadic Acid.' 

Edward Lewis Dodd : ' Multiple Sequences.' 

Ralph Davis Gilbert : ' The Estimation of 
Vanadium.' 

George Samuel Jamieson : ' Researches in Or- 
ganic Chemistry.' 

Oliver Clarence Lester : ' On the Oxygen Absorp- 
tion Bands of the Solar Spectrum.' 

Herbert Edwin Med way : ' The Use of a Rotating 
Cathode in the Electrolytic Determination of the 
Metals.' 

Elbert William Roclcwood : ' Studies in Nutri- 
tion.' 

Burlce Smith : ' On Surfaces which may be De- 
formed with Preservation of a Conjugate System 
of Curves.' 

Clara Eliza Smith : ' Representation of an 
Arbitrary Function by Means of Bessel's Func- 
tions.' 

Robert Eccles Swain : ' The Formation of 
Kynurenic Acid by the Animal Body.' 

Mignon Talbot : ' Contributions to a Revision of 
the Helderbergian Fauna of New Yorlc' 

Andrew Lincoln Winton : ' Studies in Methods 
of Proximate Organic Analysis.' 

George Albert Young : ' Geology and Petrology 
of Mount Yamaska, Province of Quebec' 

CORNELL UNIVEKSITY. 

Fred William Foxworthy : ' On the Histological 
Structure of the Wood of the North American 
Coniferas.' 

Oskar Augustus Johannsen : ' The Chironomidae.' 
Thomas Lyttleton Lyon : ' A Method for Improv- 
ing the Quality of Wheat for Bread Making.' 



Alexander Dyer MacGillivray : 'The Embryo- 
logical Development of Gorydalis cornutus.' 

Arthur Renwick Middleton : ' The Determination 
of Acetylene.' 

Clarence Lemuel Elisha Moore : ' On the Quad- 
ratic Spherical Complex.' 

Walter Porter White : ' Spark Damping and 
Hertzian Waves of Small Damping.' 

John Wesley Young : ' On the Group of Sign 
( 0, 3 ; 2, 4, oc ) and the Functions belonging to it.' 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Donald Sinclair Aslibrook: ' Electrolytic Separa- 
tions Possible with a Rotating Anode.' 

Lloyd Balderston, Jr. : ' An Interference Method 
for the Determination of the Speed of Sound in 
Liquids.' 

Howard Winter Brubaker : ' Derivatives of Com- 
plex Inorganic Acids.' 

Roy Dykes Hall : ' Observations on the Metallic 
Acids.' 

Leslie Howard Ingham : ' The Use of a Rotating 
Anode in the Electrolytic Estimation of Zinc and 
of Nitric Acid.' 

John Franklin Meyer : ' The Thermo- Electromo- 
tive Force of Nickel Nitrate in Organic Solvents.' 

Sarali Pleis Miller : ' Determination and Separa- 
tions of Gold in tlie Electrolytic Way.' 

Ralph Emerson Myers : ' Results Obtained in 
Electro-Chemical Analysis by the Use of a Mercury 
Cathode.' 

Everett Franklin Phillips : ' The Structure and 
Development of the Compound Eye of the Honey 
Bee.' 

CLARK UNIVERSITY. 

Charles E. Browne: 'Psychology of the Simple 
Arithmetical Processes.' 

W. Fowler Bucke : ' Examinations and Grading.' 

Edward Conradi : ' The Psychology and Pathol- 
ogy of Speech Development in the Child.' 

Josiah Moses : ' Religious Pathology.' 

August W. Trettien : ' Psychology of the Lan- 
guage Interest of Children.' 

Fred Mutchler : ' A Study of the Structure and 
Biology of the Yeast Plant, 8. cerevisiae.' 

Jesse Nevin Gates : ' Cubic and Quartie Surfaces 
in 4-fold Space.' 

Arthur L. Clark : ' Surface Tension at the 
Boundary Between a Liquid and the Vapor of 
another Liquid in the Neighborhood of the Crit- 
ical Point.' 

Joseph George Coffin : ' The Calculation and Con- 
struction of a Fundamental Standard of Self- 
induction.' 

John Charles Hubbard : ' On the Conditions of 
Sparking at the Break of an Inductive Circuit.' 



230 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



TJNIVEESITY OF MICHIGAN. 

Alphonso Morton Clover : ' A Study of the Per- 
oxides of Organic Acids and the Hydrolysis of 
Organic Acid Peroxides and Peracids.' 

Lewis Ralph Jones : ' The Cytolytic Enzyme pro- 
duced by Bacillus Carotovorus and Certain Other 
Soft-rot Bacteria.' 

Ward J. MacNeal : ' The Pathology of Experi- 
mental Nagana.' 

Harriet Williams Bigelovv : ' Determination of 
the Declinations of Certain North Polar Stars with 
the Meridian Circle.' 

Edgar Nelson Transeau : ' The Bog Vegetation 
of the Huron River Valley.' 

Frederick Amos Baldwin : ' On the Life History 
of Trypanosoma Lewisi and Trypanosoma Brucei.' 

"DNrVEESITY OP WISCONSIN. 

Charles Elmer Allen : ' Nuclear and Cell 
Division in the Pollen Mother Cells of Lilium 
canadense.' 

Eollin Henry Denniston : ' The Structure of 
Starch Grain.' 

Susie Peroival Nicholas : ' The Nature and 
Origin of the Binucleate Cells in Some Basidio- 
mycetes.' 

Fritz Wilhelm Woll : ' On the Relation of Food 
to the Production of Milk and Butter Fat by 
Dairy Cows.' 

BEYN MAWR COLLEGE. 

Virginia Ragsdale : ' On the Arrangement of the 
Real Branches of Plane Algebraic Curves.' 

Marie Reimer : ' The Addition Reactions of Sul- 
phinic Acid.' 

XJNrVEESITT OF CALIFOENIA. 

William John Sharwood : ' A Study of the 
Double Cyanides of Zinc with Potassium and with 
Sodium.' 

William John Sinclair : I., ' The Exploration of 
the Potter Creek Cave ' ; II., ' New Mammalia 
from the Quaternary Caves of California.' 

COLUMBIAN ITNIVERSITY. 

Frank Van Vleck : ' Improvements in Ship Con- 
struction.' 

LELAND STANFORD JUNIOE UNIVEESITY. 

William Albert Manning: ' Studies on the Class 
of Primitive Substitution Groups.' 

UNIVEESITY OF NEBRASKA. 

Mrs. Edith Schwartz Clements : ' The Relation 
of Physical Factors to Leaf Structure.' 



PEINCETON UNIVEESITY. 

John Merrill Poor: 'Orbit of Comet 1900 IL' 

VV'ASIIINGTON UNIVEESITY. 

Samuel Monds Coulter : ' An Ecological Com- 
parison of Some Typical Swamp Areas.' 

NEW YOEK UNIVERSITY. 

Frederick G. Reynolds : ' The Viscosity Coeffi- 
cient of Air and the Effect of the Roentgen Ray 
Thereon.' 

SOME ASPECTS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION* 
This association has been, should be, and 
we trust will be the storm center of legis- 
lation for reform in medical education. 
Since the memorable editorials of Wood in 
the old Philadelphia Times, and the mas- 
terly papers and addresses of Pepper and 
the practical action of the University of 
Pennsylvania there has been virile progress. 
In most respects it seems definitely settled 
as to the course of education a candidate 
for the degree of medicine should take. 
Questions of pedagogy are still debatable, 
but we take it that that student who wishes 
the quickest returns, the most lasting re- 
muneration, perennial stimulation of the 
intellect and continuous enjoyment in the 
pursuit of his labors, should take a college 
education of three or four years, a four, 
years' course in medicine and, if possible, 
a hospital interneship. 

Reference need only be made to the re- 
ports to this association, to the famous re- 
port of the majority committee of the Asso- 
ciation of American Medical Colleges, to 
the numbers of the Journal of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, comprehensively 
devoted to education, and to many recent 
admirable addresses in support of the state- 
ments. 

There is talk about maximum and mini- 
mum requirements, about laboratory and 
hospital courses, the merits of didactic 

* Concluding part of president's address at the 
iifty-fifth annual session of the American Medical 
Association. 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



231 



and clinical teaching — a mass of material 
brought forth from the viewpoint of the 
educator, or looking to the welfare of the 
medical profession. We do not minimize 
the value of such lines of discussion. It 
has brought us to the position we have at- 
tained. But what of the medical student 1 
Should we not look at education from his 
point of view? Is he quite able to decide 
whether he should take up the profession 
of medicine? We hold that a great duty 
is due the aspirant for medical honors from 
teacher, and practitioner. It is a kindness 
due him to point out the best methods of 
securing such education as will yield him 
results commensurate with the ■ time and 
expense required. It would be a greater 
kindness to be enabled to show him that 
by reason of intellectual temperament or 
of physical or moral qualities he is not 
likely to reap the rewards he is anticipating. 
The large majority of medical students 
do not have a good reason for studying 
medicine. They are ignorant of the mental 
and physical demands made on them. 
They are attracted by an uncertain glamor 
and a specious glory, and heedlessly they 
go in. The failure of a large percentage 
of graduates in medicine to acquire more 
than a bare existence, and too often not 
even that, proves that they were not edu- 
cated properly, not fitted temperamentally 
nor physically, to pursue its duties. Should 
they not have opportunity for learning of 
the responsibilities and difficulties, rather 
than to have the brighter phases glorified? 
Would it not be well to have in our college 
curriculum a course of lectures for the 
student who contemplates entering a pro- 
fession, pointing out the rocks and shoals 
in his prospective career? An eminent 
practitioner, not connected with medical 
schools, would light up and darken the 
pathway in due proportions. Then, too, 
should not, as in the army and navy, some 
physical tests be required? The trophy is 



to the robust, and sad will be the career of 
the man who is physically handicapped. 

If there were any doubt about the value 
of a college degree to a man entering the 
medical profession it could be set at naught 
since the report of the Mosely Education 
Commission. Quotations like the follow- 
ing, while not pertaining to medicine alone, 
the result of extensive inquiry and mature 
deliberation, supported by the statistics 
they give, uphold the contention of a large 
employer, that 'for 99 per cent, of the non- 
university men, it is hopeless to expect to 
get to the top.' One opinion they express 
is that "there is still room for the boy of 
marked ability 'to come through,' but that 
his difficulties are greatly increasing, and 
that, useful as he is, his usefulness would 
have been greatly enhanced had he had the 
benefit of a college training." Still an- 
other commissioner reports that while only 
' 1 per cent, of the entire population of 
America has received a higher education 
in her colleges and universities, this 1 per 
cent, holds more than 40 per cent, of all 
positions of confidence, of trust and of 
profit' It is well knoMm that the 'geist' 
of the individual brings success, for which 
they say " it is recognized that the educated 
man takes in a wide horizon and puts more 
'soul' into his work." 

The essential of success in any depart- 
ment is diagnosis, which requires powers 
of intellectual penetration and discrimina- 
tion. President Thwing has again force- 
fully urged that 'reasoning of the mathe- 
matics — and mathematics is only reasoning 
— tends to promote clearness and accuracy 
in perception, inevitaileness in inference, 
a sense of logical orderliness. The study 
of the languages represents the element of 
interpretation. The study of history 
means the interpretation of life.' Are 
these not the main studies of a college edu- 
cation? While they may promote scholar- 
ship, they surely cultivate thought. It 



282 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



need scarcely be pointed out to this audi- 
ence that to be a thinker is the salvation 
of the physician. 

To the plea that the acquirement of a 
college degree takes up too much time and 
requires too much money, the material an- 
swer can be given from other sources to 
the effect that 'the men vrhom you are sur- 
prised to find holding such important posi- 
tions in factories, though not much over 
thirty years, are the very men who did not 
leave the technical college till they were 
twenty-three or twenty-four; the graduate 
may have been twenty-five before he donned 
a jumper, but in five years he learned more 
with the college training he had as a foun- 
dation than the regular journeyman of 
fifteen years of actual woi-k in the shop.' 
The experience of teachers who have 
watched the alumni agrees in that the col- 
lege graduates get quick returns and soon 
acquire a position of independence. 

The poor boy, therefore, need not be de- 
terred, for if he has the spirit and energy 
to work his way through four years, two 
years or three years more will be but very 
little in the final summing up. If the stu- 
dent only knew that the purchase of the 
best education, whether reckoned in time or 
money, was the most economical investment, 
in that as to the former, a thorough educa- 
tion at first is time-saving in later years, 
and as to the latter, the money outlay is 
returned more quickly, in more immediate 
M^ork and larger pay. 

There should be one educational require- 
ment—the equivalent of that for which a 
first-class college degree stands, whether re- 
ceived at a high school or university. 

After entering the medical school with, 
it is presumed, the proper educational at- 
tainments, his career the first year should 
be closely watched. That school has too 
many students if it does not have enough 
instructors in the first year to be able to 
judge with a reasonable degree of accuracy 



of the character and moral stability of the 
men. This is not to be taken in a prudish 
sense or with too critical a scrutiny of hab- 
its which are the overflow of the animal 
spirits or the expiring exuberance of the 
boy approaching manhood. This can be 
said, that a student who does not play fair 
in his exercises, Avho cheats in one demon- 
stration or evades another, who does not 
show manliness, frankness and truthful- 
ness in his first-year duties, wiU not be a 
good diagnostician. He will cheat himself ; 
he will cheat his patient. The teachers of 
the first year, or at least the second, should 
know this and block the student there and 
then. It would be a kindness. Let us 
then agitate whether we should not have a 
certificate of manliness, a certificate of 
health as well as a certificate of mental 
proficiency, before we admit students to our 
medical schools or permit them to go be- 
yond the first year. Let us not be decoys, 
alluring them on to later destruction, but 
rather be guardians, wrapping the strong 
arm of experience about them to lead them 
to the fitting pathway. 

Having permitted the student to pass 
further in his pursuits, we still owe him 
much. We must see to it that such course 
is given him the first two years of his stu- 
dent career that he will acquire such fond- 
ness for the science of medicine, such rever- 
ence for the exploration of its truths, that 
until his dying day devotion to it will be 
his stimulus and solace. As a corollary, 
we must insist that medical schools secure 
the best men in the market for these places 
and pay them salaries commensurate with 
their ability — good living salaries. 

It is in the first and second years of his 
career that the foundations are laid where- 
by the student becomes the medical thinker. 
To quote again: "The power of thinking 
should not be of a base and barren char- 
acter. The thinlring should represent and 
be concerned with a fine and rich content of 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



233 



knowledge. It shoiild have the exactness 
of intellectual discrimination; it should 
have the fullness of noble scholarship ; it 
should embody a culture which is at once 
emotional and esthetic and ethical, as well 
as intellectual." 

That a desire to relieve suffering, to ex- 
tend sympathy, to save life, is the impulse 
of the physician, we all admit, but where 
is the man among us who will not also 
admit that a scientific habit more quickly 
brings it about and more surely sustains 
and fortifies the humane instinct through 
the trials and tribulations of exacting prac- 
tise 1 That prosecution of professional du- 
ties soon becomes commercial that does not 
have for its basis a true spirit of scientific 
inquiry. How miserable must that life be 
which conducts an exacting, drudging, 
daily routine with only material reward in 
view. Few are the practitioners who have 
this sordid view; we can be as sure medi- 
cine would soon be forsaken if this view- 
point alone were considered. Hence in the 
laboratory of the first two years must be 
aroused and fostered the stimulus for life- 
work. 

The final years should be clinical years, 
and the last should be in a hospital. The 
medical school that allows its students to 
think siTch opportunity is not due them is 
most unfair to them. As our schools are 
now constituted, most of them can not give 
such requirements. The students should 
know, however, such requirement is neces- 
sary. "What has been said regarding the 
preliminary college education applies equal- 
ly forcefully to the hospital training. He 
is thrice armed who enters the arena thus 
equipped. Medical schools that can not 
give such education are cruelly unkind and 
unjust to the students by having them think 
it is not essential. Medical colleges that 
pass off a hospital training for one that is 
not truly such fake their students. The 
student who pays well for his training has 



the right to demand such as to fit him for 
immediate action. 

It is not the fault of the medical school 
alone that he can not get it. The public 
that cries out when there is mistake in 
diagnosis, fault in treatment, and that 
shakes its head at the deficient education 
of our students, must share the blame with 
the medical school. The public admits that 
its individual members may at any moment 
almost be at the mercy of a half-educated 
physician. It is not necessary to recount, 
for it is well known, how on land or sea, 
by day or night, some event may arise in 
an individual life, the care of which may 
mean life or death. Even with this knowl- 
edge they withhold means to relieve them- 
selves. They admit the necessity of a hos- 
pital training. But they, and particularly 
the public in control of hospitals not used 
for teaching, say each medical college 
should have its teaching hospital. They 
do not appreciate that to give an education 
which involves a hospital course would re- 
quire an expenditure of $500 a year for 
four years by each student. It has been 
estimated that the cost of maintaining a 
plant and paying salaries sufSeiently large 
to accommodate 600 students would require 
the above outlay by each student. Unfor- 
tunately, it is impossible to expect students 
to pay such figures, as it would render 
entrance into the profession almost pro- 
hibitive. It is manifestly impossible, as 
medical schools are constituted now, to 
educate all the students of the land proper- 
ly. Hospital training can not be given ex- 
cept by a few favored institutions, because 
the doors of hospitals are closed either by 
the governing body of the hospital or by 
the teachers in the medical schools. 

We believe, personally, if a decree should 
be issued that no medical school, including 
its hospital, should exist except on the fees 
derived from students, but little hardship 
would follow. The lessened supply of stu- 



234 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



dents would increase the demands on the 
practitioner, so that larger returns would 
follow. The poor student would sacrifice 
and strive to get a degree, knowing then 
he had a good asset. A diminution in num- 
ber and an increase in quality is demanded 
alike by the public and the profession. 
Such diminution in number would mean 
that the student would get back his invest- 
ment quicker and in larger amount than 
at present, hence good men would be at- 
tracted. If we could abolish sentiment for 
sense and educate accordingly, there might 
be betterment all around. As it is now, 
medical students receive part of their edu- 
cation through the bounty of the state or 
the charity of the public, as such education 
can only be given in endowed institutions. 
The public is taxed so that the prospective 
physician can make a living. Is it right 
that it should be? Perhaps a mechanic 
should demand such right to make his son 
a good workman. We must all admit it 
is the duty of the state to educate the youth, 
so that good citizenship is maintained ; we 
can question whether the state should edu- 
cate the members to obtain a livelihood. 

With the same indifference that the pub- 
lic views an epidemic's march they allow 
hospitals that are engaged in teaching to 
suffer for the want of funds. Moreover, 
they close their doors to the advent of 
teaching in the hospitals under their con- 
trol. We must admit those who do not 
appreciate the true function of a hospital 
have some ground for their contention. 
Ruled by sentiment chiefly, unfortunately 
an impracticable master, they sympathize 
with the patient who still harbors the belief 
of old that the medical student is one of a 
class that prowl about not unlike harpies. 
The public does not realize the difference 
in the student of to-day and the student of 
tradition. We can not hold to account the 
governing body of the hospital who has 
the point of view that it is harmful to a 



sick person to have them under the surveil- 
lance of an alleged student rabble. We 
must admit some patients become alarmed, 
particularly in institutions where they 
know they will have the sympathy of the 
governing body. An analysis of motive 
will show that the usual patient who will 
not allow a judicious amount of clinical 
demonstration when the sense of delicacy 
is not offended, is truly selfish, in that there 
is prevented that increase of knowledge and 
development of skill whereby suffering of 
others may be alleviated. A little encour- 
agement from the officials would allay 
alarm on the part of the patient. The de- 
sire to help others is infectious, and when 
one yields in a ward, others vie in the work. 
The truth of the matter is that in hos- 
pitals in which teaching is carried on, rare- 
ly, if ever, do the patients complain. In- 
deed, it is the experience of those teaching 
institutions that judiciously conducted in- 
struction is appreciated by the patient. In 
one hospital we might name most of the 
inmates are pay patients, giving $7 a week 
willingly, because they know they are buy- 
ing the services of the best practitioners in 
the land — the teachers of medicine— which 
service they could not get at tenfold the 
figure. The fact that teaching hospitals 
are overcrowded, not by the poor alone, but 
by people independent of charity, shows 
that clinical instruction is not a bugbear. 
If the governing boards would Imow that 
while a few patients might be alarmed, on 
the whole most of them would be gratified 
by the attention paid them, and their sense 
of rectitude and manliness appealed to by 
the satisfaction that they are doing some 
good in enlightening students, so that 
others could be relieved; that their admin- 
istration would be stimulated to do work 
beyond criticism; that the nurses would be 
aroused to better activity while under the 
observation of those not connected with the 
hospital; that the internes would do their 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



235 



very best to have most complete studies of 
the ease, and finally, that the chief in attend- 
ance, compelled to do his -best at the risk 
of his reputation, they would gladly open 
their doors, even at the discomfort of the 
few, but to the advantage of the many. In 
short, the hospital should have teaching not 
to oblige the medical school, but for its own 
survival and regeneration. The benefits 
the student derives by the object lesson of 
an orderly hospital can not be estimated. 
Will not every member of a hospital board 
admit that his own character, his own sym- 
pathies, have been benefited by his connec- 
tion with the hospital, even though, per- 
haps, he has not the advantage of an im- 
pressionable age? Can he not see, there- 
fore, how the youthful student can be influ- 
enced in thought and character and feeling ? 
He can not lightly toss aside this respon- 
sibility, nor even hide it by putting the 
onus of medical education on the teaching 
hospital. Every dollar endowing a non- 
teaching hospital robs the teaching hospital 
which is engaged in this larger duty. 

It is true a class who are compelled to 
have hospital attention may not sympathize 
with this feeling. How can we obtain the 
confidence of this class? Let us organize 
such association of prominent people in our 
teaching centers who will agree to have any 
operation, any feature of disease witnessed 
by medical students, at the judgment of 
their attending physician. It would be 
well if the individuals of such an organiza- 
tion would agree, first, to undergo hospital 
treatment; second, to be the object of ob- 
servation by students; third, to have an 
autopsy performed in case of untimely end. 
Such association would rob hospitals of 
their terror and teaching of its dread. No 
one can deny that on the whole the public 
would be benefited from whatsoever point 
of view we look at it. Indeed, the public 
ought to learn that disease is an enemy to 
themselves and their country. Just as we 



make sacrifices in time of national warfare, 
so we should be willing to make sacrifices 
in the daily battle for life. Just as aristo- 
crat and plebeian, landlord and tenant, 
fight side by side in the former, so they 
should array in solid phalanx in the latter. 

But there are hospitals willing to admit 
students, and yet the privilege is not availed 
of. This arises because the teaching force 
of the medical college is not willing to sink 
its personality and allow the student to go 
wheresoever he will for his instruction. 
Courage and some sacrifice is required per- 
haps. But, when one thinks of the mighty 
opportunity and the frightful waste, it is 
saddening. Every hospital should be a 
school. The fourth year should be so ar- 
ranged that the student could avail himself 
of the advantages of hospitals in the imme- 
diate vicinity. Let each teaching body 
have the student understand what he must 
see and do, and trust you the true student 
will see it at the best place and with the 
best men. He must be accountable, of 
course, with a rigidity that means the exact 
acquirement of knowledge. To this end 
the first two years could be well spent in 
the properly equipped laboratory univer- 
sity, whether in town or country, the third 
in the authorized hospital of the school, the 
fourth in extramural hospital work. 

Is it not anomalous that the hospital 
boards give to the nurses who are to act as 
aids to the physician the highest opportuni- 
ties, and yet deny it to those who are to 
give orders to the nurses ? This, of course, 
arises because training schools are the prod- 
uct of modern thought and have not been 
trammeled by tradition. 

But all this talk of the primary educa- 
tion avails bxit little if we do not see to it 
ourselves that education is continuous ; that 
from the day of our graduation, forwards, 
we do naught but toil, toil, toil. It should 
go without saying, as a mere business 
proposition, that unless we unceasingly 



236 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



labor but little of the fruits do we pluck. 
It is demonstrated in a practical manner, 
for when we look about us and find the 
methods of those of our brethren whose 
labors are not in vain each one bears the 
scent of midnight oil. 

The development of post-graduate schools, 
the growth of libraries, the groans of the 
.printing press, the enthusiasm 'of medical 
societies, all testify to the spirit of per- 
sistent self -education that is abroad. It is 
not for me to urge further the importance 
of each of us taking from time to time 
months for study and reflection. Every 
active doctor should have his sabbatical 
year. We dare say, extended observations 
would uphold that in income a gain is one 
hundredfold for each dollar invested in 
educational outings, and for every hour 
thus employed, ten is added to life. To 
finance a medical man from first to last 
successfully, we dare say spend all net 
earnings of the first five years on self-educa- 
tion; 25 per cent, of each five years for 
further education ; after ten years, 10 per 
cent, of the annual net earnings for an 
assistant, continuing the 25 per cent, in- 
vestment each five years. Health, happi- 
ness, increased usefulness to the community 
—a success which never comes from eccen- 
tricity, equal to doubling capital every ten 
years, would follow. To this must be added 
the great mental satisfaction of a more 
clairvoyant vision in the prosecution of his 
daily duties, the inspiration that comes 
from the doing of things, the stimulation 
that arises from the solving of problems. 

In the course of our work it is necessary 
for us to halt from time to time and review. 
Few of us are they who will not find as our 
days grow fuller an unconscious tendency 
to slight our work, to become slipshod, to 
hurry over matters. It is partly an evi- 
dence of overwork. The post-graduate 
school is the salvation. No obstacle can 
withstand the continuity of drill, which the 



earnest of us keep in action. If, to con- 
tinue the imposition, asked what element of 
character is perhaps lacking to the greatest 
detriment to the profession and public, we 
possibly, one and all, would say courage. 
This is seen in the hesitancy which mem- 
bers of the profession show in giving an 
opinion, in advising an operation and in 
asking for an autopsy. How much confi- 
dence is destroyed by the want of free, 
frank avowal of the physician that he does 
not know on the one hand, or of clear, pre- 
cise statement of his judgment concerning 
a case on the other! The greatest success 
in life is confidence. How many lives are 
lost by the worker in internal medicine not 
advising early and unequivocally an opera- 
tion for fear he might be wrong in his 
diagnosis! And how many more are lost 
because the surgeon lacks courage to do, 
either because he fears the patient may die 
and his record be marred, or because he 
may operate when it is not necessary ! We 
must admit we have had some operations 
done when they were not required, but let 
it be said to the credit of modern surgery, 
we have never seen an operation of such 
character performed by the right man that 
did any harm to the patient. On the other 
hand, the resort to operative procedures 
early, and ia cases that even yet are not 
considered of surgical relief, has saved lives 
and lessened suffering to a degree that far 
overbalances the now and then futile meas- 
ure. It may be assumed, without contra- 
diction, that every case of bad appendicitis 
that happens to get well without surgical 
relief has in its wake three to five that die 
for the want of an operation. In other 
words, the pernicious influence of a surgical 
ease that recovers without operation is evi- 
dent in creating the hope that other cases 
demanding operation might get well with- 
out it. 

And the man who does not want an au- 
topsy—not only the centers of courage need 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



237 



stimulation, but too often the entire med- 
ical storehouse needs refitting. Something, 
best known to the physician himself, we 
trust, is lacking in the one who treats an 
obscure ease for a day, six days, six weeks, 
and then does not want an autopsy. If 
true to himself, true to the demands of his 
profession, courage will not fail him. In 
our mental and physical round-up, we must 
see to it that courage is given a new back- 
bone from time to time. 

But, fellow members of the association, 
not alone as members of this organization 
may we indulge in self-congratulation, but 
as members of a profession whose limitation 
knows no bounds, we may join in felicita- 
tion. Neither language, nor creed, nor 
country fetters our profession's munificent 
sway. The thoughts of Ehrlich in Frank- 
furt, of our own Welch or Councilman, of 
Kitasato in Japan, are correlated. The 
knife of Mayo in America, of Robson in 
London, of Kocher in Berne contributes to 
the relief of suffering in far Cathay. The 
founts of Lister's genius and Pasteur's 
divine inspiration bring countless blessings 
to England, to India, to France and to 
Africa. What a stimulus it is to realize 
that, howsoever small the contribution of 
the hiimblest of us may be, its impulse will 
be felt in climes near and far and ages 
present and remote ! What awe can not but 
overtake us when we consider each heart 
throb we study entwines us to Harvey of 
two centuries ago; with every percussion 
tone reverberates the sound of Laennee's 
voice of a century ; with each vaccine inocu- 
lation, the simple observation and reason- 
ing of Jenner to stimulate our question 
and deductions ! 

We rejoice together and cherish our his- 
tory, by the warp and woof of which we are 
woven to the past. What heritage for us 
and our children ! Dead must be the soul 
that wearies of communion with the spirits 
of the past; deep must be its slumber on 



which falls the thought of centuries; leth- 
argic its activities that are aroused not by 
the deeds of heroic men ! ' ' Honor and for- 
tune exist to him who always recognizes 
the neighborhood of the great, always feels 
himself in the presence of high causes." 
We worship together our science, devotion 
to which brings forth character, smothers 
egotism, levels pretension, drives out soli- 
tude, develops such loftiness of thought 
which can see that 'against all appearances 
the nature of things works for truth and 
right forever.' Of our art, let us see to it 
that when the final summons comes it can 
be said of us, "Greater love hath no man 
than this, that a man lay down his life for 
his friends." 

John H. Musser. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



NATHAN SMITH DAVIS. 

It is the sad duty of this academy to 
chronicle the death of its oldest member, 
one of its founders, who during the more 
active years of his life was one of its ardent 
workers. Dr. Nathan Smith Davis left this 
life on June 16, 1904. In his last illness 
he fully realized the coming change, which 
he foretold beautifully in one short sen- 
tence, 'I am going home.' 

Dr. Davis lived a long, active and useful 
life. He was a man of supreme earnest- 
ness and seriousness ; of great force of mind 
and strength of character; of high ideals 
and simple tastes. 

His intense and lifelong sustained mo- 
tive — or inspiration — to accomplish thor- 
oughly the many useful ends to which he 
devoted his wonderful activity, left scarcely 
time for recreation. It left no time or 
thought for indulgence. His life was too 
full of purpose to lend much of its strength 
to self-gratification, nor was there much 
temptation in his well-ordered course. His 
chief pleasure was the satisfaction of use- 
ful accomplishment, and he found his 



238 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



recreation in diversity of employment. 
Earely, very rarely, do we see such subju- 
gation of the material man to the higher 
attributes of his being. He led an ideal, 
normal life on a high moral and mental 
plane; as he ignored the pleasures of the 
flesh, so he was also superior to its discom- 
forts, and endured its sufferings with forti- 
tude through many years. 

His lithe and vigorous body was the 
ready servant of his wonderfully well-co- 
ordinated mind and imperious will, and 
this with him meant much, for the de- 
mands he made upon his physical endur- 
ance were excessive. 

His comprehensive and prophetic mental 
vision foresaw the needs of his profession, 
and of his community, and was a guide to 
his remarkable executive faculty. His 
qualities all combined to make him a pio- 
neer among thinkers, and a general among 
organizers. It was through his semi-public 
deeds that he was most widely known— his 
great powers of mind found here their 
broadest opportunities, and it is through 
them that his memory will longest survive. 
The impress of his individuality was marked 
wherever his energy found outlet, and his 
rank was always among the leaders. But 
his memory 's richest heritance is not bound 
with his triumphs ; it lives in the homes of 
the thousands to whom he ministered in 
their sufferings, and who felt that in him 
they had a wise and loyal friend ; and 
again, in the minds and hearts of his many 
students, whose ideals were shaped by his 
life and conduct. All who knew him best 
knew the spirit of kindness that ruled his 
heart. His private life was as unassuming 
as his public life was aggressive. Among 
his friends he was quiet, cordial, not vei-y 
communicative, but spiced his conversation 
often with a tempered genial wit. 

A brief review of his career will show 
the richness of his life. His primitive en- 
vironment in youth and his limited op- 



portunities in education throw his successes 
into strong relief, and accentuate the ad- 
vantages to a man of an active, earnest 
mind, simple manners and upright ways. 

He was born January 9, 1817, in Che- 
nango County, N. Y., where his father had 
cleared ground for a farm. His first home 
was a log cabin, and his earliest realizations 
were the stern necessities in the struggle of 
svibjugating the forest to man's needs. 

His first sorrow was the loss of his 
mother when seven years of age. 

From early youth his mind was bright, 
active and acquisitive. He attended the 
district school in winter months and at six- 
teen was given a year in the Cazanovia 
seminary. In 1834 he began the study of 
medicine under Dr. Daniel Clarke, of his 
native county. He shortly entered the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
New York, and graduated January 31, 
1837. In the meanwhile he had studied in 
the ofSce of Dr. Thomas Jackson, of Bing- 
hamton. His graduating thesis was charac- 
teristic of him. Although still hardly more 
than a boy in years his selection of subject 
indicated breadth of understanding and his 
attitude towards existing opinion was bold 
and well taken. The subject was 'Animal 
Temperature,' and in it he took issue with 
the then existing authoritative view that the 
animal heat was developed within the lungs, 
and supported his argmnents in refutation 
by recorded experiments. 

In the following years he practised in 
Vienna, N. Y., and in Binghamton. In 
the latter town he married a daughter of 
the Hon. John Parker — the wife who sur- 
vives him. 

In these early years he found time, aside 
from his professional duties, to further 
prosecute his medical and surgical studies, 
and to broaden his field of knowledge in the 
allied sciences and economics. His mental 
activity soon gained him distinction. He 
wrote easily and freely, and several of his 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



239 



medical articles won prizes. He was soon 
known throughout the state and became an 
active and prominent member of the state 
medical society. 

In 1845 Dr. Davis was a prime mover 
and chairman of a committee to call a 
national convention of delegates from med- 
ical societies and medical schools of the 
different states to meet in New York. From 
this developed the American Medical As- 
sociation, the National Medical Society 
of our country, in which he justly took 
great pride, and which in turn revered 
him as its founder and chief org-anizer and 
most hearty supporter. 

Through his early work in this broad 
organization he became yet more widely 
known. 

In 1847 he engaged in practice in New 
York city and, in his medical alma mater, 
began his long career as a teacher. Two 
years later he accepted the chair of physi- 
ology and general pathology in Rush Medi- 
cal College of Chicago. In 1859 the med- 
ical department of Lind University— later 
the Chicago Medical College, and at pres- 
ent the medical department of North- 
western University — was organized with 
the express object of establishing a graded 
course of medical instruction. At that 
time no medical college in the country had 
a graded curriculum and the enterprise in 
hand was epoch-making. Dr. Davis was 
invited to take the chair corresponding to 
the one he held at Rush, which, after en- 
deavoring in vain to persuade his col- 
leagues to commit themselves to the graded 
system, he accepted, and took his seat in the 
faculty of the new college, where he re- 
mained until the time of his death. During 
many years he was the chief of the med- 
ical department and the dean of the fac- 
ulty. During the last years of his life he 
retired from active service, but retained 
his connection with the school as emeritus 
dean and professor of the principles and 



practice of medicine and clinical medicine. 

In supporting this new departure in 
medical teaching he followed his precon- 
ceived ideas. As early as 1843 he had 
earnestly advocated higher standards of 
professional qualifications for the practice 
of medicine in an address befcre the New 
York State Medical Society, and this op- 
portunity to put his convictions into prac- 
tice was eagerly seized, and the steady up- 
building of the new school Avas a vital part 
of his life work and that of his colleagues. 

Dr. Davis's interests and activities were 
by no means confined to the field of medi- 
cine. He was one of the initiative factors 
of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, of the 
Chicago Historical Society, of the Illinois 
State Microscopical Society, of Northwest- 
ern University, and of the Union College 
of Law, of which faculty he was a member, 
filling the chair of medical jurisprudence. 
He was also one of the founders of the 
Illinois State Medical Society. 

During all his life he was a warm friend 
and a strong supporter of the cause of tem- 
perance, and one of the founders of the 
Washington Home. 

In addition to his many duties he was 
a prolific writer and contributed much with 
his pen to guide professional thought and 
mold public opinion. He was for many 
years editor of the Northwestern Medical 
Journal. He afterwards edited the Jour- 
nal of the American Medical Association 
from 1883 to 1889, a task arduous in itself, 
but for which he found time amid the many 
other calls upon his strength and energies. 

In 1887 he took an active part in prepar- 
ing for the International Medical Congress 
to be held in Washington, D. C, and 
was at first secretary general and later 
president of the executive committee. 

None except those with him at that time 
can realize the enormous amount of work 
entailed upon him by the many simultane- 
ous duties in his various capacities of medi- 



240 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



cal practitioner, medical teacher, editor of 
the Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation and secretary general of the execu- 
tive committee of the International Medical 
Congress. During this severe strain he was 
stricken with complete right-sided paral- 
ysis, from which he fortunately soon re- 
covered, but which left him with a slight 
weakness of the affected side. This illness, 
although so serious, was for him only an 
incident. With his returning strength he 
again took up his burdens and worked on 
with energy, patience and success. In this 
he exemplified his dominating character- 
istics. Whatever he did was done with all 
his might, and here we have the secret 
of his life : it was his strength of character, 
his physical and mental efficiency, his 
singleness of purpose, his transcendent al- 
truism that made him a so potent factor 
in the development of so many of our use- 
ful institutions. 

With the cessation of his works, and the 

extinction of the light of his life we have 

lost an active agent and an unwavering 

beacon in the upward trend to better things. 

Frank S. Johnson. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Observations and Investigations made at the 
Blue Hill Meteorological Ohservaiory, 
Massachusetts, U. S. A., in the Tears 1901 
and 1902, under the direction of A. Law- 
rence Eotch. Annals of the Astronomical 
Observatory of Harvard College, Vol. 
XLIII., Part in. 4to. 1903. Pp. 115- 
239. Pis. IV. 

The Blue Hill volumes of the Annals of the 
Harvard College Ohservatory are always sure 
of a warm welcome at the hands of meteorolo- 
gists, because of the importance and the high 
quality of the results which they contain. The 
present volume is no exception to this general 
rule. If there be any who do not know what 
meteorology owes to Mr. Eotch, such persons 
will find a simple statement of the reason for 
this great indebtedness in the following words, 
quoted from the introduction to the volume 



before us, which is signed by Mr. Eotch : ' All 
the expenses of the observatory continue to be 
paid by the undersigned, except the cost of 
publishing the investigations and observa- 
tions.' 

The introduction makes fitting mention of 
the death of Mr. A. E. Sweetland, the young- 
est member of the Blue Hill staii, whose name 
has already appeared in the columns of Sci- 
ence in connection with investigations car- 
ried on by him at the observatory. A fire- 
proof addition to the observatory has been 
built, containing a library and a storage room 
for kites, and certain other much-needed addi- 
tions to the older building have been made. 
It may be noted, in passing, that the total 
cost of these additions and alterations 
amounted to $7,000, and was paid by Mr. 
Eotch. 

Besides maintaining the routine observa- 
tions and automatic records at the summit and 
base stations, the chief investigation carried 
on at Blue Hill Observatory has been the ex- 
ploration of the air by means of kites. The 
observations obtained by means of kites from 
August, 1894, to February, 1897, were pub- 
lished and discussed in Vol. XLIL, Part I., 
Appendix B, of the Annals of the Harvard 
College Ohservatory. In the present volume 
the kite observations, together with the simul- 
taneous ground observations, from March, 
1897, to the close of the year 1902, are pub- 
lished in full (Appendix C, by H. H. Clayton), 
while the discussion of these observations, 
which is eagerly awaited, is reserved for a 
later volume. Since December, 1901, kite 
flights from Blue Hill have been made once a 
month, when possible, in cooperation with 
similar ascents of kites and balloons in Europe, 
carried out under the auspices of the Inter- 
national Conmiittee for Scientific Aeronautics, 
of which committee Mr. Eotch is the Ameri- 
can member. The results of the kite flights 
made from the deck of a steamer during a 
trip across the North Atlantic, reference to 
which has been made in these columns, are 
given in Table XIV. It will be remembered 
by readers of this journal that, as the result 
of his success in flying kites from the steamer 
on this trip, and previously from a tow-boat 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



241 



in Massachusetts Bay, Mr. Eotch proposed an 
investigation by means of kites, flown from on 
board ship, of the meteorological conditions 
above the trades and the doldrums, a project 
which has received the approval of the Inter- 
national Aeronautical Congress, and of other 
scientific bodies. 

The ' Effect of Meteorological Conditions 
upon Audibility ' under various conditions at 
Blue Hill was observed during the year 1901, 
and the results are discussed by Mr. Eotch on 
pages 156-163. The source of sound was a 
steam whistle in the town of Hyde Park, the 
whistle being 4,400 meters northwest of and 
about 170 meters below the observatory. In- 
vestigations upon the electrification of, and 
upon the quantity of carbon dioxide contained 
in the air were conducted at the observatory 
by Mr. G. W. Pickard. Appendix D (pp. 215- 
239) is a discussion of ' Kites and Instru- 
ments Employed in the Exploration of the Air, 
at Blue Hill Observatory, 1897-1902,' by S. 
P. Eergusson, which will be found useful by 
any persons who are undertaking scientific 
kite construction. Of special interest are the 
sections which concern kite meteorographs, in 
devising and constructing which Mr. Eergus- 
son has shown the greatest skill, ingenuity 
and patience. 

Since Blue Hill Observatory first began its 
pioneer work in kite meteorology there has 
been a remarkably rapid development of sim- 
ilar work in Europe and elsewhere, but there is 
no reason to fear that the Blue Hill results 
will suffer in any way by comparison with 
those obtained abroad. E. DeC. W. 

Vorlesungen ueber theoretische und physihal- 
ische Cliemie, drittes Heft, Beziehungen 
zwischen Eigenschaften und Zusammensetz- 
ung. Second edition. By J. H. Van't 
HoFF. Braunschweig, Vieweg. 1903. 8vo. 
Pp. x + 155. 

This is the third and concluding part of the 
second edition of Professor van't Hoff's ' Lec- 
tures.' Since the German, Erench and Eng- 
lish versions of the first edition were noticed 
in Science, it is sufficient to say that in the 
present edition the subdivision and treatment 
of the subject are the same as in the first. 
There are a few verbal changes and some 



slight additions amounting to ten pages. The 
value of the book is iuunensely increased, 
however, by the fact that an index to the whole 
work has been furnished. The book is so 
familiar to chemists as a masterpiece of its 
kind that further commendation would be 
superfluous. Alexander Smith. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 

The Journal of Comparative Neurology and 
Psychology for July contains in addition to 
editorial and review matter, a paper of 67 
pages by Miss Jessie Allen, entitled, ' The 
Association Process of the Guinea Pig, A 
Study of the Psychical Development of an 
Animal with a Nervous System well Medul- 
lated at Birth.' This research forms an ex- 
cellent control to the similar one recently 
published by Dr. J. B. "Watson on the white 
rat, the nervous system of which is entirely 
non-medullated at birth. The rat comes to 
psychical maturity at about the twenty-third 
day; the guinea pig, on the other hand, reaches 
psychical maturity on the third day, but even 
in the adult lacks almost entirely that in- 
genuity which is so characteristic of the rat's 
method of overcoming obstacles in order to 
reach food. Histological examination of the 
developing guinea pig's brain reveals differ- 
ences from the developing rat's brain which 
can be closely correlated with the differences 
in psychical development. 

A QUARTERLY journal entitled ' Opthalmol- 
ogy ' will begin publication on October 1, with 
Dr. H. D. Wurdeman as editor and publisher. 
The associate editors include Drs. Chas. H. 
May, New York City; Casey A. Wood, Chi- 
cago; Chas. A. Oliver, Philadelphia; Blen- 
cowe E. Fryer, Kansas City; Albert B. Hale, 
Chicago; Edmond E. Blaauw, Buffalo; Chas. 
Zimmermann, Milwaukee; Dr. Wm. Zent- 
mayer, Philadelphia; J. Guttman, New York 
City; and Erank Allport, Chicago. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
THE BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ST. LOUIS. 

In an earlier number of this journal, 
August 14, 1903, there appeared a brief notice 
of the organization of the Biological Society 
of St. Louis. Since that time a more formal 



242 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



organization has been efEected, and since tlie 
society has constantly increased in strength 
and importance it seems desirable to give a 
brief account of the scientific programs of all 
the meetings which have been held up to the 
present time. 

At the first meeting of the society, held at 
the rooms of Professor Greeley, March 3, 1903, 
Dr. A. W. Greeley reviewed and discussed the 
work of Calkins upon the life-cycle of Para- 
mcecium caudatum. The program of the sec- 
ond meeting, March 24, at the home of Pro- 
fessor Coulter, consisted of a discussion by 
Dr. J. M. Prather, of Loeb's investigations 
on and theories concerning the prolongation 
of life in unfertilized eggs and a review by 
Mr. J. Arthur Harris of the essential features 
of the mutation theory as elaborated by Pro- 
fessor De Vries. At the third meeting, with 
the society as the guests of Dr. Budgett, April 
28, Dr. Oscar Riddle discussed the papers of 
Dr. Eigenmann on the eyes of the blind verte- 
brates of North America. Dr. Riddle had 
assisted Dr. Eigenmann in much of this work 
and in more yet to be published, and conse- 
quently the general discussion of the broad 
outlines of the problems involved and their 
relation to the whole perplexing question of 
degeneration were of especial interest. At 
this meeting, Mr. W. L. Eikenberry discussed 
the literature of the synthesis of carbohydrates 
in chlorophyll-bearing plants in the light of 
recent work on ' extra-organic ' photosynthesis 
- — a paper calling forth considerable discus- 
sion, because of the fundamental importance of 
work on enzymes. On June 2, the society was 
the guest of Mr. Eikenberry. Mr. J. B. Lillard 
reviewed Dr. Lillie's work on the refusion of 
blastomeres and an electrical explanation of 
mitosis, and Professor S. M. Coulter reviewed 
the treatise of Livingston on the role of dif- 
fusion and osmotic pressure in plants. The 
society adjourned for the summer months. 

On September 26, the society convened at 
the residence of Dr. Budgett. The host pre- 
sented a review and discussion of the recent 
work of Hardy on the behavior of protoplasm 
and artificial colloidal solutions. October 28, 
the society was the guest of Drs. Eyeleshy- 
mer. Potter, Wilson and Ransom. An ex- 



tensive business session in which several im- 
portant points in the policy of the society were 
discussed and fixed, was followed by the scien- 
tific papers of the evening. Mr. Perley 
Spaulding reviewed Ewart's work on proto- 
plasmic streaming in plants, and Dr. Peter 
Potter discussed his own work toward the 
establishment of a norm-plate of the human 
body. By new methods of hardening, it is 
possible to retain the organs in the position 
occupied during life while serial sections are 
made, and from measurements and tracings 
made from these, norm-charts may be pre- 
pared which illustrate with a high degree of 
accuracy the relative positions of the various 
organs. Numerous charts to serve as data 
for the completed work were exhibited. De- 
cember 2, the society held its session at the 
residence of Mr. Drayer. Among other busi- 
ness matters, the report of a committee on 
membership, recommending that election of 
new members, duly proposed and recommended 
by sponsors at a previous meeting, should be 
by unanimous ballot of members present, was 
accepted. The scientific program consisted of 
three original papers. Dr. E. C. Eycleshymer 
exhibited and discussed the more important 
features of the plates so far prepared toward 
the norm-plates of Necturus on which he is 
working for Kief el's ' Normaltaf eln zur Ent- 
wickelungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere.' Dr. 
J. Arthur Harris presented preliminarily the 
results obtained from a study of apically de- 
hiscent anthers. It seems that there is a re- 
lation not only between this mode of dehis- 
cence and the form of the anther and other 
floral parts as well, but between these and the 
geographical distribution of the genera and 
species in which it occurs. Professor S. M. 
Coulter discussed the establishment of the new 
biological station in the Bermudas and gave 
the resiilts of his ecological reconnoissance 
of the islands. All of these papers will appear 
later. January 6, 1904, the meeting was held 
at Hotel Granville. Dr. G. H. Holferty pre- 
sented his paper on the development and 
phylogeny of the archegonium of Mnium cus- 
pidatum, which has since been published in 
the Botanical Gazette. Dr. A. W. Greeley 
discussed his work on the structure of proto- 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



243 



plasm, giving the results of a continuation of 
the experiments described in a preliminary 
contribution to an earlier number of Science. 
This paper and a biographical sketch of its 
author by Dr. Lyon has appeared in the Bio- 
logical Bulletin since the death of Dr. Greeley. 
January 2Y the society again met at Hotel 
Granville. Dr. R. J. Terry discussed the re- 
sults of his researches on the skull of NecturuS:, 
soon to appear in one of the German anatom- 
ical journals. The officers for the year were 
elected as follows: 

President. — Dr. B. M. Bolton. 
Vice-President. — ^Mr. H. C. Drayer. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. Arthur Harris. 

On the evening of February 26, the society 
was the guest of Dr. Bolton. Dr. W J McGee, 
chief of the department of anthropology at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, presented the 
scientific paper of the evening, having selected 
for his theme some phases of the adaptations 
of desert faunas and floras to their environ- 
ment. He first compared certain old world 
deserts, with their very scant plant and animal 
life, with those of the new, where organisms 
show a high degree of systematic differentia- 
tion, and attributed this to the more rapid 
development of desert conditions in certain 
old world areas. There the changes were too 
rapid to permit the evolution of an adaptive 
habit and structure while in the American 
desert conditions have permitted the evolution 
of special forms well adapted to environment. 
He briefly described and traced the develop- 
ment of the clumps of vegetation so character- 
istic of the American deserts and discussed 
the interdependence, seeming almost a sym- 
bolic relationship, between the different plant 
and animal species of which they are com- 
posed. Some remarkable cases of symbiosis 
were described