(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Science"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make iion-coninieicial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

-I- Refrain from autoiiiaTed querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Mainrain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use. remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from countiy to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at http: //books .google . com/ 




r 



f 



SCIENCE 



<-?. 



AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL 



PU BUSH ED fVEBKLY 



VOLUME II 



JULY-DECEMBER 1883 




CAMBRIDGE MASS. 
THE SCIENCE COMPANY 

1883 




Copyright, 1883, 
By the science COMPANY. 



RAND, AVERY, & COMfANV, 
BOSTOV. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



SPECIAL ABTIOLES. 



Abbolt, C, 0. Ocrurrmio* at maitiid'tMllilin*' |dfi«i in 

>v«>,l<-r»y. fu. . l'« 

■Ifi''"'.- ' ■ ' ''-.■■ *'1 

Aeoii-il ■./{/. KIR 

Anirl' ' I '■■ImiwnoMitflfMili.'nou, 111,111, ill 

rn«Y<l r-i:- r>< «.. '■iinncap.jlltnKvUef, IIKI,Xn.XS,<tl4,a&* 
AmvrMiD «xi>lpn(tkifl* nt .\>ki* /J/- ........ lU* 

American orlratal Mck'tT Ml 

AoMftMii •odnr or dvll "ngincvn, ftfUxalli mih«iI ean- 

nnlliMi of . . T6, luO 

Amrr*»m •'■*Wy ot oflcnuwojilil* »•» 

\ ' • nlon Id - TV> 

r .V. Tbe«lHiria lli>ii «D Um U.^-Mi-ran 

■ >n»r AlhiOrtM*. HI Ul, «!. HM 

Bi . L. Th* MrUi^uakn »t •Tsly 91, IMS, In lb* 



f //f. 



fijrlmU «e. 

) iiliiir<> Ita Duitl* aiHl otiiionntiltW* . 
A uiiKproI UngUDXe knl ha ■vtilclB, 



1 l 



rr 



111 \-Mfaiy of Uia lilgbar CriwUuH«, 
-,i;rii-tiphi(*r. lU. ..... 

Y ' I I 1 1 1 -oU w»«tlii>r . . . 
I .1 ixU« la phllDMHikJ 

'■ , «T. 



Curpoatt't. I'l Li;.. 
Cftj-ley, A ' . I. 

UlJ lu OLI,-! 

Oitrf •ImuJKiaiTrr'. ti-jiiirl 611 

CoOlC. C. 8. The a»t ot tbt ■oMtrowopt Id oMtcorutoay. 

ni. *« 

Oop0( Et. D. TlK] vtlilenee (br ■wlntloB In tb«tilnorTc>f 

•Kilnrt iDnmnialla 3Tt 

Qouas. eatiott. A liawlDX pf Mrda* <«r>. JiL <», utl, .■«« 

Coulter, J. U. 3un» ^lai-UI >cUun [n lullan* .... « 
0«U1A, J. D. KndincD frMu louitivni N«w EnglMd 

aj«lu»i tbi" twb*ni iliB"»)i or lb* ilritl ....... :i» 

nt «•. '■ .-J. r-vi 

DttWSOn. J. W. SatDD aoaoli-oil probleiB- i IM 

ElUer. J.S. >'a<«*onUi« t*o<oi7«( tbrTrox' iJ-i 
Immoclc. Q«Otv*. Ilw AncDlabonlorjral ttanyuU 

iU ..:.;.« 

DoltMkT. A. S. TlwwioiUdaa' pawrarf Ibr the icna*. 

Uanafllaiu 214 

BollpMortm 11 

Buy, B. T. ElBsile <ioa*l(l« ration* m to ilw iMftim of 
llw •loanle moitona ulilrb ntotiahly originate ladbi- 
UMia n, m 

On Do klnnlJc t'«MT<if ilia apenlllF Ib»I of aolld* . . . 4S4 

BTftDB, O. W. IUdla«nc4«n wltk cnmxl *«ti« . . . 2U 
Pu^unar, Hear;. Rxporlmvnt* in binwy artilun*- 

lln TAt 

mrl<l^lbb* aii4 ■••cat KrlfUaa ) 

nsic, 8. A. VHioMt laUieetiraof oananmTtilAn. . .421, i&T 

Wbbcii Maortatlnn lur ikii adoanamiml »f arlanoo .... W* 

Qf | i a pMc panlrol ot ni«iinc HKllmnita. /</. MM 

fl«r»la<l« vain* of ocrtalJi Uim«pmu« >s«nM> vxpcflnMita 

io •irii'mitnr . ttit 

aUbort, O. K. Ur«liMC« arawm md (mm dIalrtlwUon 

of (••IcTn Ti>ir» TO) 

aodwln>Aa«t«n, H. H. 'I'K< UluMlayaa mu 

Oood«, O. B. Theinti-inallontltl'liiirlnvililtilUirn. IU. 

IS*, nil 

OoTErnoiam a* a pvttllahLif booM .... S) 

Ort^nwleli otaMrralorr .* K'l 

El., H- A. Son^apat M ia ui ra l lona .... . . TJ 

HaII.B.H. AoMTal •ip«hm»lM> Id Uplud /;'.. . . SIV 

HaJsted, BjrroDO. A contbloMloii <»«liMit JIL . . T01 

>..L.'i<»i tMaarraa-ltaVBi- /f/. Ol 

>I«-r, O.wald. htrtraU AU 

[I<l|-a abi«mtlaii« o< Ike tnrnall of VuDua 1u ITM .... SIS 
Hltcboack, O. B. TU- «*r\y liutorj- <>( Um Xwth 

An»rfcan mmlnaai csa 

Bltpliooalc B. Waur-bmtlca aitd Umwonvler* tbt 

•iHiuaou maTtli at Hm luumaUiitial lUberioa MliUil. 

1101. Jit IU 

BoMen, B. S. A v*>*n -t 1m»1 RamlnBB ^plnat ut- 

nailnaa HI 

TlM! flindaMHinlal oataloguv nf lb* ITfrUat^ JmAMhcA . . It! 



Holdon. Zi. 8.. at>4 HiMllDffB, C, 3. a I1m -X |ar*«V 

Ihm doable *liirarSI*-''>i'-ft'>lal<^>iDbii lalaad brlWaan 

Aprtl-JTBn.l W«y 7. i»« , . , W 

Horn. QfloruA H. .I<>»:n l.ui>nnn' l^diola. flw fc ul l. KM 

Houffb, F. B. TJi" nwllK.a* of xiKlatlia ..... sn 

liitelllimicf of Amcrioa Lurtrt •I'lilrr 4S 

bimnallcuM |«r>dM(« cdaMBlfon. rtwttiitloiii uf, Ui rvU- 

tlun W (bMtnlflDaUaii o( l>.in|lliiil(<« aail vf il>n« . . . KU 

.laraupboivil. Jll. .■■■.■■ ■ in 

Eloff] P. H. The InnoFBti' of irrailtalioa. nulMura, and 
lint, upon [be dlTMttun ot rruwih Id cbo ru»|. ttJ nimt* 

(.{ (.law. .1 

KInnloutt, Leonard P. 'KniiiMW)** ... . sifi 

Ka«&tftnd. 3 Tli* alM irlbva of Lumo. Ill, . . . . IOi 

Eocb. Tti-pnrt of itm ••cnoan «bol«ni KHimlMlm . . . CTA 
Caolt^ater, B. R. 'n>a PMlovnisni mt UabMlcal r» 

•rarfh . MM 

pAflSAps, F. ae. Fipni>hraofi*l>blual*xiil(mtlun« , . Mfl 
L4Wla, B. C. The ttn-ai UTOnuO morato* actn* rami 

■ rlvasl*. m IK) 

Uck ln»»l •• 

Lyon, D. O. lta«e«t Habytnalun n-MMob . 4U 

Uaaajmllla •panla'a , . . 1*0 

UarOOU. J. S. Tbe analtln at lUnblb<4fc-iaa . . . . ^fa 

Marey, S. J. Tbe pbratoloilcal MaUou of Pari*. IIL 

DTI. TM 
USBon. O. T. 'Ill* aeopc aad t*1« oT anthrDpolosfe*! 

•1'i.iic. aM 

Uerrltxuin. O. B. IllnatraiUT«*pp«Mnar<i(Wtfi>Ma9]r. 

/I'.. - ta 

Ulnot, a. 6. Ikirour'* Ian rcMXirbN on rcrlpoiua. 

Ill . . . . «• 

rotnpoallloii ur Um tBaaodonn ... - . . II 

lUalolony of lll>«eta .... ... 40* 

Origin of Ibc nitau<l«nn. ttl. *1b 

UIIItM.II«nnaDti. PortntU HI 

Kall'insl tx^Attajaf aclrnxa. Knt«nibet Otoetlnif af . . . AA> 

National nbacrralol? . I]t 

N'ailnnii Irnlu In ■Bimca ............. VA 

Ke»lo. D. B. O'Neal*, Tb« uttoiMl tNlhra* etpMl- 

Ibja. til . . >. lt«, 114, «ll 

NftWOORib. SlmOD. Tb* piyahetaotoal mmIumUim al 

dinx-ll-ii lU 

I'he anlla of naaa aod focMi M 

KonlpnakWHiV. A. E..odiibclnl«niln'nr<'>re«nhaii>l, /U. . 731 
OebOTD, Henry F. Fmida tCaltUml Italfour. for. 

tnOt • SW 

IMri* ufaMrralOTy ...,.,.-.... ini 

Peale, A. O. Sniau ttJ*ow aotnpMlaiMia [01 

Peiroe. O. 8. Aiuiw rularnTdlvUhialnarllhn>«Uc . . TH 
PVOSV'lr. WllUam. Th* IVvonahlm ea>vnia and Ihalr 

euat«nla Mt 

Plokerbic W, S. Snrfbiw Mindmona nn the «Oitir 

planMa . lA 

lYrttahik «r abavmtloa at a tmoMih of ItwUkoUfrn ... Alt 

lUllwajr tlma, ataaAud .Ml 

Batbbon, B. B»oa»«uUnre In Fl<yrl4» nx 

Tha n. 3. flab.caniinuaaloa atoaaaot Albmnaa. 77/. . . n, 4n 

Beade. Jobn. sofittrt ju 

Roffere. W- A. Tbp damiu aurray ol ibc iMfUKWii 

lieaf«M m 

Bowlnutl, B. A. a ploa foT imra adanr* JQ 

Rvdar. J. A. Oyi>t«r-ca1iiiri< tn llallan-l n 

tci-arlim ••} .ura from arUn(<lallp fpTllllinl age* al Hlotk- 

I'll, Ud m 

Salmon. D. B. RAllahUltf of ik avldnno* «btaliM4 U 

llic iludy of conljuia fls 

Sauvaee. H. B. Tba t(i4lk«(aal •uuoii of Hntlamt 

ttl Alt 

Sawln. A. U. Rm) root* ef eqMoi ih 

Sohwatka, Frederlok. Tba tgluo ut ihe limali in. 

110. ^w. ISO. not, Ul 
Scott, W. B. On Iba OanloiHiiatit (if Iwlb In lb« l*in. 

►fpy. m TM 

On iIm <|avoI<n>ia«nl of iba idMiliaiy IhkIt In Fatra«ajK>B, 

anil iW alrnwnanf* of tbat ttifnixt In uUirr Ifpea. AL . Ut 

Sbaler, N. a. The AnwflaM awaup e]>pr«aa . . . . M 



""m^ 



SCIENCE. — CONTENTS OF VOLUME /7. 



Bhufeldt. B. V7. 1tmkrh»0|innllM>iHtroln|rB/Pk>lii. 

.-., ,,.t„. t, . rLiiui-i. y.i. , , mo 

i; '■' ui 

[ ivlwttn caMKIly: mith 

in IflO 

'Ilk. /((. . . ;* 

flu;.. IK ... . -w: 

BWi'. ...:,..,; IWI 

TttDDor, '£. Li, a fuBr-ibii*' efiiIm oI the AlbmroH. 

III. . ....«!* 

TburatOQ, B- ^ '' * -■ - ■' "■' ':'■ ..^,1,. 4m 

T«lor,E B. 1.0 

irb«pf\i.iJnit,.i.-, ,,|^ ,.1...... . , Ml 

UWUd »kl(« iiMional uinwim< . . , «, It* 



United ewu« *lK«>l.M-rTlee . MA, MT. M 

UkIi..' ^'^'.. .|...L,.\..nl«>wi4<lM<Urdllttir . , . . TS* 

t't(. - rw 

Ver: 1 1 niilnrBlIoiia In tba mlon of tbo 

U . . ;i.. caitcni COMI o€ llM Uulka) StUM 

by ilip I', b. flah coninikHkin ■■.....■•■ 1H 

Vlrcbow, B. Tlic laveBikii »>i ipttmA ot bnmM . . OI 

VlTltrcllon qiHwOnti Ul 

"W., W. C. Tliir An>cnaa«uMMtaikiDUlllnncapfrtl» . IKI 

Tlir lv»oni or i)i4i ■■ccilnir 9lt 



Wart' 



- /I .-f h w w? 



Wbttinaii.tJ. O. 1 ' 

(••Oloul-Mil iinilim , 

WUUftmftoa. W. O. 

oiM agu 



-_, ( >...i....n. 



IM; la 
In bcp- 

<>:? Nkpir* 



41 



«» 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



run 

Adwi'a L*fi«r« on nvoluUon ■ . . . tt» 

Alnwick CmIIc BinlqulUo*. Or Itiirn W. Uagmf ... IS 

Arclir^loffy la )t>rt*«>l IM 

ncit'* rrlion- bf liilblr ■p<«ch %>1 

Breulllvr** [<>iritfltt><alcPil>ldB. By SiUeant S. HoUm . . 114 

Brlup'a Btaiat'hnatut «H 

BotMin nr the r. S. fltih ctHBnilHtoe, «4L II *U 

Tbi"*i 1 '-'"-' ■ i<<) 1IH-I »f ItinvKonM and nonfblM . . va 

n,...i l-rnty. (IS7 

lli'l ".iHiaBHlut. nt. . ^ MU 

r.. ..,,,.. . . Tw 

Flfii . , , , . I<i3 

Kt,' ...... . SM 

Rl>i. . '.}•. 

V:' I.- - ''-'7 

Gril .... . - I 

Or ..■,.:,,,.. . -VI 

do: wirUullUlli . . iij 

III. , . Il-."l 

till' .1. . . ^.■■ 

III. f ritt» .... ;Tii 

llii' |[ WllltMl I^4«II 

II.. . I V. Ill Mu 

U. I «8 

III.-. ,-i. ■.!-■ 'I M,:. m 

]<).' villi' ri-cnii (luilm on. BjiA(A»i RlMn«, TI8 

III- IW 

Jul', < ififdiN ...... I . I ... . no 

Ku 'MntMtiu , wa 

!-■':-■ . " 

Ia'v. ,1.1k ... 2m 

.\li.. II. iidm r.uLicy ..... 18 

Mil . an-loiiri . -VJO 

Uu> ' I . il «/ Mzldennr . - . ■'•i'l 

)llli<-r lliiurT i<r>TlworvlblalN««t«otwlotH . . . . :«I 

Ulnor book uitleaa . _ _ . . 020 



rAUt 

Honnrt'*, dn, KIpeUo.vafnvu . , IB 

Murlon'i Bluirnpblnl Iihtour of aMroaopn* .... . AB 

llourion> v6i>tuKl« d> h llclkigu* ........ 11 

Ormeriid'a Ueport on li^rloaa loapMa Id Kn^Tand . . . tot 

I '■■ fUjllupfrdCiurtMe*. ByS.AftmUA .... ATI 

■ K-iit liiramld ............. Mt 

I lottiiWnf thmreticolcliciuUIrr 820 

' -'' ^''-o-.YorGMBtoBicrieuilttmlvlMlnK . MI 

' lupka TM 

t«aij' itiXufntlK . .IT* 

8i'i>i im.Iakt . SH 

" ■ T-'rnU(illy . . . 3M 

- cin'Hjr . . 1M 

..i;d Llrd-Utv . . MI 

Ml 

;r A( oMObftn PcBiwylnnUi M 

i^lcn) dl«|ao«i* IS 

-ivkklt. 3>j„ic>i abtifdl* bcir«(oii|B Toniella«|«B. Of 

Jutt<ih JfDyM TIS 

TajLirV .Mplwhft «■ 

TlnHipwii'* n>lllpp Rol*. til - , . 473 

Tluinmii and Toll'* TmllM< un iMliinl pblliMopk^ . Iirr. IM 
TnwKKliuiii of llio .linvrksD wiclvly at macMHloat «4ixl 

iii-«r. »T 

Tninmmiini> nt iM InwniMlMial gvodnlo Mwdfttloft of 

Burot.0. ay C.A. S -..-.. Mi 

Traui'* I'nliA £Mnt«iit«m 4b ■itaRMiwiHt. by (X a. 

Kt-iKrii au 

Trynn'* tiiruetural nnd *y*inDM)c «oi)cb»lov, vul. B. • . Wl 

Ti>t|.it'.OtkBCT*«iidlil>cllHi<L IB 741 

Wire's [tynnmiCMHilolon- W, NA, Itl.lSl 

VVitc'* M>.i^eTii pvra]ii.-rlliro 8M 

Winiiow* UavDtt OH the CkcMptak* oyMcr-bcita. lU. . MO 

KkKlM** nntbuktKleat ualooiy _ . . 4M 



WEEKLY SUMMARY OF THE PROGUKSS OF SOIEKCE. 



Jkwniilfx, M. 

AKrlculliu*!, 3D. lift. Ill, 1I«, 306, C», Mt. «». IVf. IH, T7I, 101. 

vat. 

Aiilkr»iioli>», la. 31. ». m. 114. l«i, ITO, 907. tO. 411, ««. MS, 

Ki», tk, nK, ««, :m, J4I, i;^ *H4, Mi. 
rVmlinMt. Wli 

A>irT.n»mr. It. lu, IT». »44, An, JTi, «f7, MO, «>>. 
niriloi fa, 44T. ^TM, oat. 7-ii. T4*. UI. 

[luuiit. ;i, .VI. NT, 113, II*, »t, AM. 417, MS, sn, m, mli, ni, 

:»,:::. stii. «ii. 
Chi'initirr. ix. 1>I. si. 141, LIO, »4. 3»^ 407, M«, bT*. 1T», MO. 

Ciwlknlvnlrj. XI, OR. T73. S8. 

(Vii-'i..'" •' •. rr. *i''. ««. «B, ns. 

CtMi : tl'2.Ul. 

K«i , »J. i«. ati, ass, •», i«. 

Uc'.ii I i'lu«'.>*3. 

Km cifldij. W. W. W6, IT*, W, M4. 



KiiElnceHnff. Id. SI. 110, IM, MO, 407, 446, Mt, ATS, «•. (NO, MB, 

tin. :M.f;o. :n, iss. 

Plub. U, 144. TSl. 

Oi'Offnpl.V, -JU. bi. ««, 113, 1(3. 1T7. 30n, sal, U». Ut, UT. STO, 
CM), on!, 000, ;rj, Liu; (.<«'■«;. M, M, li:. 'jm. rsi, M", 001, 
T3», tsxt; (Jt/ttmai,ttt; tAivti-^).m.M.\i T^.tW, 

no, no; (4*«u), to. Ill it;, m:. iki. .", m: 

(A'nrlA Atutrloi), SX; iSnuit Amrrlt:- >irv. ilO. 

«HI. 

Cn„Aofr. u, u, u. Ill, til, »i. 4i«, iiiA, «», «ai. tti, ni. aao. 

Inwel*, XI. (M. ik, 14% 031, 144. TTn. tiSi. 

l.lUiak.n.A!, Ill, 141, 444, A», Kit. 

Uitinm*]*. tl. U, HI, KH. 307, 410, US, 003, 133. TM, TTI. MS. 

tit. 
ll«n.l(.<i, W&,;M.iei. 
UiUl'MTinllr*. IS, W, O, 100, I3>. IT5. 370, 4»T. 144, 0T«, OSB. OOO, 

TtT. I4£, TOO, 7W. 93T. 
UcUltnnor. i3i DM, 408, Oil, 081. 



SCIENCE. — CONTENTS OF VOLUME H. 



UMMrlu*. aM. 



V-i«>m1orr, 111, -«, las, ite. STS. M», MXOW. HT. 

• , 14t. tIS, Ul, lOS, m, a». W. T19. TIT, 7TS, 130. 
-'. M, lU, »«. 3A1, 441, nu, <»J. ntl, Ttf. TTI, KO. 



Mi,*.-.e'.,i,-,. 

rtl)-4lrjti If. < 



■ .fun. 



myiiw, IK. H>. n. 140, m, 44t, iu, m^ tm. 

rnxflica. US. 14X HI 

IleiMlm, 34. U, KJ. SOT. 44:, KM. 

vm(«nii». :s. i\, u. 111. 143, sn. an, 411. ui, mi, it», m, 

la, 'lit. ZIO. !T1, W». S33. 
Woniu, Hn. 3K'.>. lUI. 1:1. I4S. ua. 
Zs>lkl<>B)r.3J.U, 11.1111,143. ITn.sa»,.-UI, 114; MT, ATB. Ul, SM, 

*r;, Kl, Ttl. ITJ. i«, WI. 



/.«r OiP CONTRIBVrORS WHOSK NAMES APPEAR BY IXJTIALS ly TflR WBBKtT SUXMABT. 



II. V. Anmb*!. 
W, K. lti..«Jk»- 
R lli'i;<iK>m. 



w. a. n«i.«. 

W, U. Davu. 
W. O. KiitLoor. 

tl. I» filHXlALB. 

C. K. (fKKCMk. 

K. a. U«LU 

n. A. HaIKK. 
W. U. IIUWBI.1. 



il. A. JBrrKfKa. 
L- Lll«&U>iiK0x. 
C. y «»»»iir 
U. Mt'NftiL- 

J. It ^UJl. ir', 

O ' 

0- - 

C. 1. .,._. -L 



8. t, rsxriEtD. 
W. M. rimiiuxo. 
J, W lYxTei.1, 

K. II- l(t(U4MI>*. 

V. W Ku*!.. 
R. II. SLCDDik. 

ft. t riMITtl. 

0. A. Srim^y. 



R, n. Tmnvtw- 
n. P. Tmn. 

«*. TRtL>«*V. 
J. TitiiwakitiaK. 
1'. W. TllCE 
W. Cruin. 

M. K. WADtWO«Tll 
L*. A. VoDKo. 



UST or PERSONS WHOSE WKITlxas ABB QUOTED I.V TJIE n-EEKlT SVUUART. 



,lMl"l^o. c..4a«. 
I'i. 

», 11 . 3X. 

' ». C dv. S44. 

j"0., H. 

n*.K..\., SIS. 

Va. ILK-,Xff4. 
.3S4. 

•■II. 117. 
, Ao«t4, 4 1 0. 

■r. A-C , 434, 43A. 

11.41, am. 

ui». K,. «'«v. 
h<^iii:.J,K.,ei. 
i"in. (««. 
[ Jlmli, AMI. 

Lnhui. J. ■-' , n^, xi. 

~ 11(1. .'iSfl. 

cir.C. A.. IK. 
I.e.. .11t&. 

ity.A:o. 

An!iry. A . «Mt. 
Ljtntt, I.. II., BHS. 

r. ELt'..8T9.4nn. 

_ _ ■W.f., 4111. 
iBvTpr. A , All. 
' B«llvj. W. \V,. »3H, DQIII. 

"" fikr. laa. 

», Jlr- H fl.l77. 

I'f. i:. .\ , i6». 

1. r".4TII. 

■ iUur, I -, HI. 
rBKhurv*. 43*, 4nM. 

D;^fcL. I'. .l.tj. 

MO. 

-Ui, 

ll.«n<lP.L.,iail. 



t ;t I . 

' > r.aill. 

: .iKl Rvjrvr. 

,j :. , . ..,,. 

»u«<. L. J., nil. 

Hhr.W, )■..«»>. 

tf|i..'.i I! "M KoniMil, 
1. R, 

. -iJi. 



J -r"'. 

lurii .' '1, 

linin< ' . . , ■■ -'!- 
I»->| VV,ii*.iB. U, ttT. 
^ni. a'Jl . 

piilii^liw. 4>. 
B0fl1>><. •T.t. 



BoMlmnl. 6** SclinlM ■ii4 

Buatliont- 
|toilchiin.|tra»d4-lF. &S- 
Cfulvln, 3«4- 
llouriK'. P. K .\.. Mjk 
ftoic, V.\4.30S. 
Bu«.litt't,. II. P., Mi4 Wkrirfi. 

J.C,4»1. 
boiiull Hnd OniUdrl, Wt. 

Unt' Id. Has. 

BreiuFi, L . VSH. 

llru-iL.. W.. aiij. 

Drcob«. W. K.,.1N». 

Brvpli. iJ. J., and I'mCaM, B. 

L.. 02.1. 
DochKcr. U..M, IBS. 
[1U*I^'D, 4)W. 
l!iir<:kli.irJl. :il. 
Iltilirr, ^l-iliilOK, Mid ILuU,ft8c>. 
Bullrr. J. r>.. 351. 

C'iutUI. 4IUI. 

Caldwell and Itobari', 14». 

(^raldwll. W M..43a. 

Caorbl, 1'a|>|ArDnr. 4 Ml. 

Cu'iliil a».| lioulo, S7II, 

('■fiiui,. I.., 1118. 

iTnapaty. :l. 

('4ll.»t, Mll«. J.,«(W. 

<.4)>7, A .MI. 

Chuiiolo. O .3U0. 

Oteniuy, l),.«fl«. 

Cb>ilt>.>l.4»X. Aia. 

ChcmnH-ir, S(Ht. 

CiMtIrr, K. i>.,m. 

ClH<do. las. 

01aiii>lC»Taa, J. J., IIA. 

Clart. B.*".. «tS. 

C«toV>I4,T.e.. 4S«. 

CotinlHlm and Hoy. 409. 

CwDilMk, J.U.. IftS. 

Cooa aoil Bcyti, 3M> 

(.'«iJto. K. r,.:u«. 

Copp. K. II., IT, Yfl, OA, l«3. 

CaiKlouJ, R.. A3. 

Cbnii-vlii, ISO. 

OornD. 40. 

C»m<i. 11). 

Coniu nail Obreehl, ITS' 

Corrn. A . l»«. 

f;Dr)<ril. ir.. 4T7. 

C»ulnnin, F. d«. 470. 

<'wu»y, as*. 

CMitln. F. W.. m. 

Ctmlt. T.. 383. 

Crumir. O,. e. 

rmioii.H.T.Sa.^. 

Crow, C. Z., imd Uiifl», A. 

P..»44. 
CiiMM aiul tiaebor, S7I. 

DaPr. Alt. 

I>«<ii«i*p. H50. 

tliun(i<ir md I>e« ('Ii>4i*mii, 

848. 
n*oa. K. B.. SOA. 
buw. J. D, lis. 



lMrt)n'UI.441. 
t>Brr>li', 3.M. 
I>arlr<^ [U»i Moral, 401. 
O'AuiU, I. , 'tWI. 
[larldM.b. I' .nUft. 
Iidlrtralii BTi.l Uiiciia-iop, 3011, 
Ihv t.'InUi-uu I . .'tS0. ^1* alao 
liMiiour Biid l*tj Oi>lfc*(iS. 
IHlIvr.J.B. S2. 
IntW. A., Ml. 
Itubi'irk. 30U. 
Uubiict, '.» . .^O. 
|)nrl<.'T,l-.^tl«,4IU. 
I>«flL-t. 4«S. 

Donitliiioa Mil Bio* ana. ASO. 
Voyt4t4wm, B7. 
DrMcti*, It. V , »Ta. 
Du«b«r,J.It.,l»4. 
Dtiaian, W. M., 70. 

njfhowski, 4es. 

KlMll, P.. MM. 

Klwritufcr. Sv QlinM. *-, 

■»>l Klicnnkfet. 
Killuod. ITT. 
RfutM*, 3«7. 
KKmiana, C, -MS. 
y.inm. Itt4, 
KItkiU. .\. II.. SIR. 
Kly. i:*v Iti.weil and Kly. 
Kru.ri, Itn. 

K-i U'.. 4117. 

Rr. -..(Id. 

KnuUiu. li'2H. 
Bwalit an.i Kubart. lOO. Vlfk 

KBtl"-. W, tl .OAJ). 27.1. 

KanLy. 33,1. 3110, 44«. 441. 

Fi>wk».>I W.M, 

Kick. A.. 1M4. 

Vloiainr- brr IMtl*r, nttdttlK. 

and 1UI<1. 
PlDtmU, MO. 
VlMbaF. Am Cnwaa and FU 

obar. 
Waottor, P.. ton. S7«. 
FJakvr, 110, 
Fwieher. R.. 003, n»i. 
nn<iDi-l. U., 134. 
FouHli'tor, A. 4.10. 
Fol.II.. n?1.3-J3. 
FuntalQv, U', P.. 33M. 

Fnrt>i>*, ana. am. 37a, 4.IA, 

FurW«,.II. (>., 4(M(. 

KtwIL ..4. A., 1.1fl, K77. 

Frtn«P, 444, 

PranK-uad. t*. K,. aiiil Jimlan, 

F.IOV. 
Vr»rr. A. 101. 

fnt'-t.V . lis. 

Vr*n. II. lUrtl,,. 73. 
Ftrdblleh..)^ 138. 
rroldoraiit, U , 1S9. 
Fulkr.A. J,.4I1. 

a«da«. 487. 
Oaidat.aCM. 



(i'lUf.Sftl. 






■.tl. 




:3T. 




. 4iifi, ooe. 




- .nao. 




'Qtni uJ Oaul«. 



■- I a. 

>' ' '>«»,Oiii'*n,sad 

tjili I .111. tl.V 
Uli-.,rJ,.l , IM. 

<iln*K<lt. lOH. 

Oi.iij[i.c . .1:14. 

liuninK. li l... lYl, 
Ovudjmr, W .1.,ai», 
Oontn. A.. 13,313- 
Ooaw, r. II .3W. 

draff, v.. 41 1. 

(inini, J. r. 311V. 

Oram, J. A .403, 

Or-y, A,3P4. 

lilaiiaiU'l. So BoiloU «ad 

<l r.ulmlsl. 
Ofrgiirin, Uarniil* d«, 4M>, 

Sit4. 
OrWdiBCh. ll..43«. 
Oflvmix. 43. 
Orw-vnian, 7.1. 

UtIHITttl. II.. 1ft. 

Orabrr, .170. 

UtlniKdul. S30. 

UinVrl. v., and KbMwavar, 

1«.1. 
<)ti»frld(. 1.13. 
GUIIIci. U.. 197. 

Ilaillcf.ir, .Y..243. 
KalKii. II. «» 44a. 
11.11. Umaai.xwn. 
IIni:rr. II.. .l&fl. 
Ilunnon, .lOO. 
Ilaii.>', b. T..V34.3SS. 
UiiBMn, 34T. 
Ilarci'i. I) , A74. 
|[,i,ii>>T.k, xa». 
lUni. \ ,;is. 
Iliirixjii. J- r..4M. 
Hkii|.l,4tl. 
Haiilrvnx, 344. 
lUtllawt, &.. 37n. 
Haynw, a. \Y.. 388. 

Hralll. E. R..974. 

Ilriincr, O., 1411. 

HflOri.. A4M. 

Urtl|>lln. A., 3AZ, .-taS. 

Iklni. KM. 

Utinrteb. lis, 

nellrluffvl. 11*,417. 

HttiitWy. 1 «A. 

ll'-mitic. .14*. 

IKulc. SO. 

Hi«.n. A.K. bw Or«M», C. 7., 

and llinrix, A F. 
tlll<l«tr«ltil>w>ll, 431. 
IUtalc,B. II., lUO. 

UeanHm,3m. 



VI 



SCIENCE. — CONTENTS OF VOLUME XL 



V. •' . '• ■- -.«■:.. 
i ■ . --(■.. 

I 

I .M. 

.. '. .'i4«. 

I 1.. »». 

110. 

I..31«. 

(C*btt8ni, t» J., «30. 
twwiitg, R. T>.,BI. 

Junr, iW, Its?. 

4V3. 
Jmmh, 303. 

Jvlin. ^u TdttT kiwi .lohn. 
JiOlMun. .1 II.. lAtl. 
■lotm, 14 IC ,01, 

■fanlou, K «»« F>«iikllilMl, r 

r.,iui<l Jnr^w, K. 
J*M«rail(], 3SA. 

KsrilmMn. 
Kuaor. .^.U..AM. Ml). 
Kciii. W.ssii. 
Kr»:rr. II, 1, , ,111. 

|(ir>j-N, r- ..1711. 

!■ '" S,.*.1», 

1 ri. 

)' . (. H.,aAO. 

1-, 

!■ ■!. 

h Bw»ld md K« 

i;- r 1 . 

InhlrnitMli, P., 116. 
[.!!- .'_,»7. 

\-, 5»B. 
71. 
. 4ID,S8U. 

V III, 

K -.an. 

K:ii;irlliil. 1' 11. 47.1. 

K«nita. 991, 

KuttM, .'lO. 

I.«i<howtri. U.RIIt. 
tM*-:*. U. D.np. 

[jtai'lilrllB. 5M. 

lasit. SAi. 

Ijirui'ttc. Rm Pral u>>1 Lb- 

ri>"l>r. 

L>MBli A.>.. nnK. 
Lul,.!. r.,3l>V. 
btninal, 139. 

Ll^wc*. (illiMn, Mid iTanxr 
loa. i<t. 
»v.. w. n., iiw, :tM. 

*t)r<l*IT. 400. 
_rAi>l, 43. 
iLif^ux. A . tin. 

I . ■ '.. 

i U. K, A'Vt. 

.hI^U. U,.]Ktl. 
Jnatt'ir, T.. 431(. 
LI^^..Il•^n. >: ' ■, lA. 
I 1117. 

1 

I , L, 4IM. 

I I 

I 

.11. 
ai/ifv*ii.tnr ■}., ini. 

,B.0.314,41»3.4VIi. 

niiM. 
■Mm.,!-. A.. «AS. 



MHralnn-. in, ftlS. Mil. MVt 
ftiM. 9n dM n«aetor and 

WilH:Kcr 
SI>itlol. 4*4. 
MiHiu'iiii-. 4"< I*Hi4t*lli wxl 

Uu^cuiiv. 
Mnjor, U.K., 30II. 
. UauiliMr, loa. 

UfilAlr..'>ai. 

'..74. 
. 101. 

Wiir. - . II 'l.,.iaIL 
Mnili^Ma, I'. II., I|34. 

Mi.r>l.. O.c ,«on. 

Malt.'!. tfUt. 
Mni<i<n>, K. i.. 4S0. 
Miiitlu, US. 

Mi>uii>iaT. A. 1'.. an«. 

M„.„.,..,,., K _ ,1. 

' , tao. 

■f. I04. 

JO-I.AIS. 
.", 43JI. 
t'..4Bl.AA». 

m*. 

^ Ci,.. 3SII, 



iiiO. 3nl. 3X1. 

■.a. 
i h«lcl>cri.34. 

Mi.ririr.jlmff KIlO IVatwrton. 

SKA. 
ii'jral- aMDatUn. 

univiiiit, K.. :ma. 

ilora.iii. A I' .-Jt,43.V 

Wmi(.-I, 1, . V-ll. 



' ', IHO. 

\|.il-,T., IMS. 



140. 

>cit^u~'di. 44, 
Noiim'.J.K.,iU. 

OtirKlil. Hh Piirtiu M.I Oti. 

recbl. 
Oltxninkl. K 5t« Wn>t>kw- 

««r, and Ul<i*wil[|. K. 
n'HrUI.II . 4UT. 
Oupvrt, L>., 431>. 
Oaboni, It.. ;isn. 
DiV>rnr, 491. 
Owati. It,4.10. 

t'Dnkani, .1 8., Jnn , 48*. 
IWkM'. U. W .»». 
l-nrlT, W.. a4.'>. 
ISirUch, J.. inA. 
ratMrwv, A..I , 1S3. 
fnuch'Xi iDil ItdiirHBil. 4e. 
I'KWirWthr. II.. 3«.-|. 

l*Mrack. an7. 

■■Mt.R. D..STH. 

r«n]iflt1,8. L-, 488- Ft«P Utr. 

tlri»li, 0. •]<, uiil roiUUII. 

H. I.. 
fVr)wtiM, ,141- 
iv<.-r. r. iit«Sfi)irMl< Minn 

I ''••••'T. 
; . . Ir. mi. 

I • , tvt. 

I1H>. 
.., 111. 

Ift. 

UOnnlnclw"" 



ro1tn»>r4. HMt, 
IVr- ' 1"-!, 
P.,- UK 

1V<: KII. 

i-i^ n'mwi. H.. 

Pfm>*t> t*«e BviDWIrJt tat 

PhtUe», AM. 
rutuaMi, P. W., M4. 

RaUi, O. (,.440. 

IUtI^r^. sa. 

lU) , .1111. 

R«Knu4. [■., and Olwiitlmnl, it., 

•S. 
Rrittiort. S^ Ultcbell u><l 

IMrlieit, anil WoimI Blul 

ReUIun. 
r»<l. t)ocBtitl<>r,n»l>UnK.4ii4 

tU\4. 
Rrln.a . (183. 
fMatnrnvr, IJ.,78. 
K*t»*'>l>«B. 4KS. 
Klnoi, 17B. 
Klnbardao^. |L A.,9. 
Kkbtrr. V. r..1T. 
KUigrr ■«<! (<«lii*l<iirT,9A. 
KInb. ISA. 
ICubvrU. rf-v t-KUwcU iMi 

tlohtrlL 
Roller uo II, SA4. 
I(nli<Tt»o. r., t«a. 
lUbtUMn, ». W., 2IA, A4a. 
Ilovhw. ,\.<)r, AST. 
Itunlc^bruitv, A. T.d«,lHll. 
fCi>.-t>a'.l(. (0-i. 
liohlft. lf..lA4. 
Ilonuiita, IL, 337. 
Ktkjr. t^*e robnli^hu and Hoy. 

BktMUi:r.«n, 30». 
Hanatilo, i'. A,, :t4A. 
T4«lh>tiiit<. Hrc Kl'lfi lUiil 
Baliixbur) . 

SalFIMly, W.,43S. 
tUIOiixin, i; . 4fl4. 
Ha)ivr>in, •!. 
Hui.l.ijr, 443. 
Itefcactli). 4S1>. 
Bcfcaiffrr. r. A.. tlO. 
BalwnEcr. IC. art. 
tJ^blauarrll). M4. Mft 
BidlkSMIll. atlO. 
fehlff. H.. S47. 
tifMch. 8110. 
-icbulilt, K., 430. ftn». 
s^nhii.'il't. A-, IftO, 
Sell I , . , r-«»r. Afl-i. 

Sd -lianl. 317. 

Botii.l , :i.J. 

.Snlinti(.i. I!.,,tl4. 
S.'t.iriMnr>l'<ti, <),, .to. 
8iKl««l.:k, SltA. 
Rlmni, R.,3U1, sitX. 
aiMddaftd Waril.tlT. 
Sibil ii. .!.. lun.. VSll. .%4lt. 
- «'arn»i,32». 
I'., S3. 

F rt-» Th.niiaa. X, 
W . K. K. 

- , iivii. 
.. 14. 

hbnt. 1 A ,'ill!l. 
Ri*JiiTi;i<r, 4n'j. 
tMrTl»t<k. K. v., 173. 

8t*T*>iia. Ht* [>uiiald*uit aii>l 
HloTma. 

-nrl .._-.iu.l \ln,-.i.miiJ4,0B. 

1 'H, 

;.ii«. 

403. 



MaUvr. sn, 
BiiiIimU!'* '.^ ■ 
Mm*!)*! 

8mM. '' , ja». 



idSriM*. 



TiMlitnl, P.. iLa.»a. 
TaU,A. 

T>lMUl«r. C, 9AT. 
Ta1^xi>d,41M. 
I'BKbaaaff, 831. 833. 

Tm>.4«. 
Tarl^ir, l«7. 

T=- ■ ■- ■■ 
I . r 

T. , ."irw. 

llii.n>ar. ,>. " " ' , B. 

P., 141. 
TrmilfU. 840. 
Tryoa, S71. 
TuHlf, A. II.. 031. 
1Vh«t<utI. K, IIS. 

Crt»i<.,t7.»M. 
takuw, tOA, tSS. 

ValmUnl. P. J. .> . S«T. 
Vmbty. H., lO«. 
V»«i Umiiaehv. 1*7. 
Van CailM^r. F. J, P.. 148. 
Van llaault- »« VMh 

Van lUaaelt. 
Vajraaltrc. fi07. 
Vanakoff, U.. fO. 

V^^>]r.Ilrfc. H., 344. 

Tuiiu*. UN. 

Vrtli aiul Vui lIuaHll, «74. 
\1eivntl. K ,98*. 
Vlnll'. |<(, 

Vi<j.i«,(^;..4a». 

Viwlckrr. 410, 44S. 
V<«*lrr. AIS, 

WadillnriMi,. II, J . 91. 
Wu««r, K., |||,4pn. 
U'akc, <', H ,Mn. 
WalTOH. r, U.. A1S. 
\Va1.H<kt. 4Wt. 
W*lk»r.J. T..iao. 
Wvil. Sati8br<I<l«iMl Wa 

Wann|9»tL i>t* \*wt*. <rin>«n|l 

ntS warlMU>n. 
WarniK, J. C. S«v HowttiWh. 

U. P., and WBnw>,.r, ir 
WarrtnUAn. J. N., 441. 

Walt-rfiir'l. 4n*. 
Wallrvlllt. ilu, IflS. 
Wnutris, ffS. 
Walanfum, 174. 
Wrlabiid, ,>Q. 
WernM. lt.K-.4H. 
WMlnac-)!!, 310. 
WWta. R. tl.. A4. 
Whuhain. .). M., 413- 
M'lilixTHii, r (I,. 348. 
Witl.-, IBK. 
Wl..,.rr. SOD. 
Wil.Ii, 4IO. 

wniiBMir, n. n 149. 

Wllli^uhby. C v.. 143. 
«"ilili-f«t, V ,'414. 
Wloalrm, IIIP. 
^Dlljni, B., and HrcnlM, 11,. 

A.ir.. 
W. tff. W . A«9. 
W, ■>,! ^..l ir.irb.-rl. Am. 
^^■ TOO. 

Ml 14)1. 

\Vl ,.,, .■:,, IU1>1 Olali-W- 

•kl. K.. 4. 
Wsndi, A9, 

Toun«,a A„l, 
Tunag. J.. BSA, 
rvUDK. ><. K .VU. 

K*w»ryktn, 103. 
ru..i. AA1. 



8CIBNCE. — CONTENTS OF VOLUME TL 



xn 



INTELLIQENOE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATTONa 



■una* at aOlBolaa. IM. 
, J»Mla«)<sl ■orTB}, Oa, TSl. TH, WfT. SB. 

OMlrautum.aii.tM. 
!!*■«) ImrtBii of on)n»er, M. 

■TAra iMiTtriTioiiB. 
ItOauto •tat* lAtentorr of uaiaral hlilorr. W3. 



M^»MPltim.tt» ImtdolT «f iMhnolonr, 440. 

V - ■.■"). 

W,S*«>. 

1.1111 rniH)' Ul .\llr'liitr»l'i W*. 

rvBur Axn Tunt.t* iKnnwwii*. 
Duillu; ubaurvatury, 44tf. 
Wllltaiu DoUaff, m. 



i.BTTBM T« TUB KBiToR. I& 14. ]<>«. (K. US, w. i«. sii, xfl. fu. xos, lu. 3w, 8u, 4<a. ub, <to, «)«, MR, !«, lu. M. aao, <U. us. 

l/(. Ml. 713, TW, ;m. (fJ TV), i». aM. 
Non-> *NI> M[w«.ST,ei.»l. l1{:.IH.lT0.1in,lU,gilT.M0.8M.IJJ.4l3.4M,4i4.IJ^Sie.MU,UO,lH.OM,a4,aa&,«ie,'reS.1U. Hi. 

Tit. "(. DOS, U7- 
lUOUT BOOK* AMD »itrauiTa,IKI.ail«,U8,UO.U(l.ZI0.SM.SM,UI,4M.4H.*%U0,fS3,Ue,aM,M». 



LIST OP ILLTTSTRATIONS. 



AciHi*U« loUOao uipanUia (tfl«>.) SIS, BIO 

AlhktroM, L'.B. tli>i A-.rainlsiliw M>Min«r, T: lakeliudtMl 
■nrUoN of. H. " . - labln, Bl , inolii latxmtury, 

tctvaii (Tiii, <<lkr end. W. Ihc 81itabea 

asiiiidlns b'^' ' furwini iliprk of, Tl : alpdrlH 

ii(bioii(i;riii>.i .... MS, Hi. M&, ST). Au, nt, nr 

AMM, oliv wi\» at, M; wmw- of «MaM Mlytonal chy 

walluf MK 

Aairo^oiny, lllaalniltva •ppaniB* for tXh 

Atinm lu.icnllir. ilUymni iifLi-iti'lKiai'* nir«a bi rip*ri> 

tii'i:i< un M 

: l-Mlmvnt* la T^jTUnd, dUKraiB Mjilalnlug. . . R3C> 

lOcU Maltknd. fvnnll ud altnaturo or . . . 3W 

.M»fa(SII|r>.) IM, IM 

llJiil4l*. Ann tabumliiryftt, US; m torn lT<:m Die lalHHra> 

lory . m 

ItornWiU. Jotthita, jiuiltkU •i>tl ilipialar* of OW 

Btv, pnlaf US 

BMMru loluJ MS 

BunUiialor, xvUoa tbrvuiti }i»*4 oT cniliryu I'f, tW, ■««- 

tliai ^t.roijvh l»ml ..r toilpiik of . . IM 

BruiitvaanriK. f-<1.tri.iiu<i of . . . . . 901 
Ow*. nuk* uf pOMtnl, til; (iiapi-n*)-.'!) iriicl. lur, 4!'< . diiw|>. 
410; iltafram ■tiowlDfi nrllvn "f ■uipttwli n umk lu*! 
OV; fillpUc >l|innf for, «'J>); ilniwMr f»f. tK*; iun<imat- 

leknUtltor 411 

,|]iWt'»akul).«>MU)Mr«f I'OlP-} - • • .40.M3.k»,UI.«a(i 

CWmhU In twrk TIM 

n iitBklu,4l*cn«*lM>«ltitn«ilU(if ':m 
iiriii, pottrBli and •Ignatww o/ . . . . .03 

-,^.i>nictrl*J, bgrrcAMtlMi 31 

Vi*li-»u>iU,t>OM <S> 

WUktthm iixMblU«i», Anxritaui MoHOn of latcniaUMial . . til 

Pl*«ali MtdUn rvMai .... , , . . M9 

yn^OtiiAi, hrininl !•■'' ....•••■ IIT 

Qa)vaMMnvl*r, lU'ihi". <i of ..,...■ M 

Ula>!Ul«r>iUj|>r>..[ i '■OwmI. Niap of . . . TU 

Of«"ltr, tci'i>ii,d I tB 

Ori-ciitnail, ■•ii>i> ' U3', map nf Korfctt- 

■ LI.' <:■<<'< . J. ' Id tnltutdlMof . • • TV 

dulf ..I Bl* 

llf I iinliMidaiinaWr*iir ua 

a>ti ' ... , . . tn 

taa-4bnrt )ur -liK.!.'. istt .... IM 

I|k». mittilnK nil ''■-. SIA; tor. wtlli >«u* tapplni. 317; 

■Ha^r.fT. •I.<.i.i...-<t>.-lt...l,.(l O.I ll'i.-, '.T'.' .....'.. t.l.t«k 



.1. vf, iW4t l.Hui. Krh-ra'.kn'f pari) 
.MM; Hfllon Itlt^ilffb flillni, KW, 



- (i4 .July ». 1*10, on Ulaiiil of. 

insp of . . . 






J*wincll« laland U= 

Luaf rur. laflUaJ aMlloii Uinnilt bud of cnlinro of. IM: 
MMloit ibroimh bead of older aaibryo of, Iti; aMIlon 
IhtvDrli liMd <■' yonne lArv* of. IftS; auciluD uf InMr 

.i.t...riipi.f iw 

I ' In l^wreboc, bortnll and algnalure uf , . . HU 

'lC"Ur ue 

I . :<iK(lnc.lVB; liwctiiK.vllliSntri'dMbfxIa.hM. 

::iJ.c*l'jrill^rBinifbr, w, m<<talllupiuikiaKlhr|i]BWB. 

roda of, KE; Mack'a Improrcil unin( liijoMor for - .. hi 

i.vxotjp*, «p«clvi«n of..., m 

t.B]«di, rgorrutra iif, CS; Uaddaii of, IM; Oartdan «miBi» 

of Mt 

Hacnriis nirvv* (3 flu*-) MS 

Uainalle obiervalbty at T.im Atianlea. p\»it at Of 

KayneUipboiM-. SKI; tut ynnUittUm Ol ibolvof kul««el llw 

m^or ttliAnl W4 

If oMgulArra* miMiuniiMI . U1 

HoduiiMtit Hill. Jcaa dtlu US 

Horaloe acroM rvnn^O" "•'!'. "lapof tkt (rvat Mniilnal IH 

Siaitrr, fiananna. p ' . . . 4IT 

yiuiicwiaali iHit.i I -.r liMd or, I.va; ikull oC 

lOB; hToldcaii i i-l •pinraliM of, 103; Tl|[hl 

fOtv-atm and ru-llui>.iituf> »liou[<Svr-|[lrdlu irf . . . . Id 
Thnnh^. iila|[i nm i ijrlilrlinr marrlairr lain rif . , > . . IM 

Oyaivr*. growthor. <<i> iDo. : : |j|*.j ML MS 

I'idpaUu. burtioc i i r.tufh Ibc bead of. 3M; p*ti. 

■sJHDalocnjr, :'' i>vrtl«B of ntrviiu* *fjifai. 

JOU; •ccUon v< ■ : iiw, SOT; pan nf ((vrncnial 

orcu. OW; MbWyo. jm; kacUoD uroiittli tliB upau 

blaMopoiv of tin SMbryD t» 

lliUamoMrat UoriMatua. akull of, MO; alcinvm of, HI; 

fcnva-loJat of 042 

rbjilatedcal lUlloa >l Put*, VO; plwl^nipl''" *" '> 

|Udpu],MI; pboUiiiTanhaof moRlai i»*n al(bup-l, 

Hliw, tiwiiml bolldrrV aw 

iMsUaruB, antlan OkuukIi Wad iif Udbtfu of IH 

llwks illaftaiBt shoiriny vctlbiia uf . . . , . . , . , ICV 

ttiimaina KilFTOptcfa ^ , fccllicpB» Sll 

Runty Kpu.! uj.l ihrOM Uaii of Hoy TM 

HaH*': .4IU,Mi 

Hta|;<j> iKinl>-t«a< T4a 

SwUiui. . .; ..bkiuiiirulof naribu railfi I . .Mo, mi 

Ktorel, Ixrnv , . . Ua 

mftMla, rtcctrlal (3 !!«■.) ..... . . . ta 

dkulb. i)lH«iafnoriraidlhl»dlC«>of . -it 

i^niiw.mift*. tlK; kiitfis itiodnn, 9U. ktilfo at horn. 3M. 

•fc..vN Ml 

Spcclr'-- '"■ ' ' i'*'i""'-t**roio(fy (4fl|(» ) . ii«,4M>.4»l 

Hn»..| . BM 

t<>rll.'" r D(^klnc.i|U-|lnilnslnT),X|;|*vi>r* 

uyt. ........ . ...i.t.'. ^; M mapli'irr*. UB. Urvloe fur 

imiMiig rvda iiglii fur, Wl: rc«ilunii>llB)t Joint (t>r *S 
pMlil«D of rod* ftir, M ; auloraad^ blac4 (yalaD Ibi . . Ih 



VUl 



SCIENCE ^ CONTENTS OF VOLUME /7. 



FAun rasB 

Telephone, PhJtipp RpJa's (A n^».), ...... 179,471,473 Jiilv. ISSS, a03j Air AtiKutt, ISt3. &U; r»r 8«pl«liiti«r, 

Tborinoini-tcr», deep-sea (3 ttKB.) , . ,1M. IfiB |gS3, QT'J ; for OcUiIipr, ItHM . ...... . . . . TST 

Tricycle, wuler , . . , , 770 Wtilrlwl"*!". cyduneM, anii turiiodu™, <11»({»»mi| ndiH iti^H 

UnHliiBhkn , . Ui explaining' IIH llan,.], 

UrniilellagrncillB (2fig8.) , , .TW, 7B0 dWu. Bll', nli. TQM, :«3. 71)4, ;3ll, T3D, ;M. TOO, 109, TBI 

Walnut, pt'cufiar ....._>.. TBI Znptyctilui cnrbonarln Sflt 

Weather map for May, 1883, 3fli fftr Jtun«, 1983, JSTi Fgr ^poJagli^l suili^u, Uuieb , , . . Uo 




t-r* 



SCIENCE. 



AN ILLUSTHATED JOURNAL PUBLISHED WEEKLY. 

t'irW miu ftmw. 



CAUUKIDOB, UAW.; MOaBB KIHa. ITBLUOEK. 



EBIDAT. JULY 0. 1883. 



FfBLD-ClUBS AND LOCAL SOC/ETtES. 
WrriiiN the last twfiilv vem-s tliere liavo 
been a gowl nmny expcrimeDts mmic in Uiis 
country towards the ricTelopmont of ftclciice In 
districts whtfi' ncw^a to public instruction, in 
tbfi traj of loetiircft nnd Urge nitiflcinns. wns 
not to be had. Some of these efforts liavc 
been sucd-ssftil, but Dian,v of them have failed, 
princiimUji' from a wiinl of uiidor<>t»iidiiig; uf 
tbe conditions thnt mAke success powihle. 
There are few countiT towns, in this or any 
other hind, where it ta possible to maintatu an 
acfldemy pntteroed ou the grenc societicfl. 
Sach instUatioDfl ran only do good when they 
are sure of llie support of many earnest irork- 
era. — of men to whom science is a matter of 
alt-alMorl>ing interest. Very few soclatlea eiin 
be muiiitaiued without a system of publicfttion 
which is very costly, and often of no measure 
of utility coni|>itri!d with tlieir t^|>euKC. 

To miikfl n society successful there mast be 
A dlfitinct object for it to attain, — one which 
is well within the rcsrh of such efforts as it£ 
membfjv oao bestow upon it. The success 
must he of a laoj^ihlo sort, — one that is con- 
stantly and rerulily attainable, and it) which 
many can take an active part. In the great 
societies of the world, tlji^ end is honor, or iil 
least notoriety, thai may Bimulaltt Uie nobler 
motive. In a vlUage, a town, or ev«ti a 
provlnclftl capital, neither of these ends can l>e 
hud with siilUcieiit certainty to Aitcnre the 
tnlent thnt ts open to temptation. So the 
local society lanj^itishes. or, doing bettor by 
itself, dies out !lUu^ethcr. 

There is another form of asaooiated acUou 
.-among the lovers of science that ctica|>es the 
NB.8a.-iMt.. 



dangers of the more prelenUoiis assoeiations 
Trliidi take Lhr name of society or academy. 
This is foniid in the C'.^id-cliib or puiety local 
society, which proposes for itself the study of 
tlie problems thsl lie at the wry thresholds of 
its people. Such associations have alreaily 
provMl wonderfully successful in the old world. 
They abonnd in Knglnml, and arc numerous on 
the continent. Tliey have found a plaiv in the 
affections of the people, and a certainty of 
couttnned life, whore scodcmieB bare dwindled 
away. 

>Vo do not bare to loc^ far into hninnn 
nature to see why this success has been gained. 
It is happily nstuml for meu to take more inter- 
est in neai' than in remote things. The prim- 
rose by the * rivulet's brim.' provided it is 
one's own ri\*idet, is more interesting than (he 
Victoria regia of far-off wilderneHSos. The 
geology- of the township where a man lives is 
more interesting than Umi of the Colorado 
oaBou, which has never concerned him. So 
it is that any association for the study of 
near things has a certainty of tiupport that 
cannot be secured for any general work in 
science; and tioid-olnhs whlr-h try to ])romot 
the study of a ton oi^hip. or at most of a county,^ 
are lUcely to find a support that surprises Iheir 
founders. 

Then, if the proper method be Mknrvl by 
these clubs, there enters iato their lifb an 
element of the holiday which is very far from 
tile senstorinl metltodf* of the more digiiilleil 
society. Their meetings should ho princi|MUIy 
in the onter air ; for they thus scctirc the liost 
that the ntudy of nature ran give, somethli 
of the fVcahnoss of wooils and field, 
the checiibl contact with other feltow-i 
beneath the ojien sky, — a n-lalion tlint has 
chann that is denietl within four wolhi. 

Wherever there is a single zealous student 



2 



of nattire, there is the g«i-[th of sii(;h au asKO 
ciation. He or sbe can easily gather together 
a dozen of boj-s and ghh, mvn hiuI women, 
who will find in open-air inquiry ft ridi reward 
for all the time and fort-o timt sUt-b autivity 
demands. There should \>c as little of the 
machinery of a society ns the cirtuinstancea 
will admit: a councilor tiirec to fivo jxirsoiis 




SCIENCE, 



nwakeuing uf the geograpliicul seu^ of Xh 
meml^Hers is one of the best restUts IhHt csn be 
ohtained l>y a fleM-cluh. In proper time this 
map can. become the p3ac* of reCOitl of a 
great deal of fact which cannot W feprcsetited 
by the 3peciiiicna thdt may be gathered frcvm 
the field that it represents. 

'I'be five hundred dollars' icventie upon nhicbJ 



to direct the scheme of sliiilies, and a. aecrfc auch a collection should always rest will aervej' 



tary, will serve all the first needs of 
elation. A few winter-time meetingi 
an interest in the discussiou of Uie 
that the neighborhood atTords, in the 
work that has been dont, and of wot 
to do ; but the most of the work ( 
done in the field-meetingK, 

When there are enougii engaged iii 
to warrant it, it will perhfips ha wel 
particular inquiries placed in spccii 
Each field-meeting should tH? for sou 
ular end or endR ; and, riner the Geitt 
done, the members should l)e gathered to- 
gether, Btill by preference in the oi>en air, for 
a discussion of the results obtained. 

In those cases where the circumstances 
admit, it is well for such a society to begin 
the making of a little museum devoted to the 
illustration of the field with which they have 
to deal. The cost of such a collection need 
not be great ; and the utility of the work is 
very great, provided it be not too much of a 
burthen to the association. It would best not 
be undertaken unless the club can see its way 
to a well-assured income of at least five hun- 
dred dollars per annum, beyond the rent of a 
room where it is deposited. (Generally it will 
be possible in towns of any size, and where 
public spirit reigns, permanently to seeure a 
■room in some schoolhouse or library build- 
ing, lai^e enough for the needs of the lit- 
tle museum. The walls of a room twenty 
by thirty will serve for the storage of speci- 
mens for many 3'ears, and its floor-space will 
be great enough for meetings in the winter 
months. 

The first thing to be secured is as good a 
map as can be obtained, on a tolerably large 
scale, of the region to be studied ; for the 



) economy, to provide ahelves {br 11 
09, to meet the cost i>f wlt'ohol. bottleg 
1 pay the trifling other ehnigts of tiW 

it is Itest tlmt tljo work oV aiicli 
should In- thoroHghly autouomocis, — j 
motive for its prowecution should yom< 
t. people themselves, — it will at time 
\o seciive the aid of some one specially] 
Lo suuh problems as its tichl attbrds,! 
ay of aciggestions concerning work to^ 
Many naturalists; will be i;lfid to 
give aid iu this way, cithef by a leetnn?, or hy 
written advice. Every field affords problems 
in geology, botany, entomology, etc., the solu- 
tion of which is within the limits of the 
simplest research if it only be patient and 
truth-seeking in spirit. More of the future of 
natural history lies in the prosecution of such 
inquiries than in all the work that can be done 
in the closet. 

Such collections, as soon as they are begun, 
will at once command tlie attention of work- 
ing naturalists. They are sure to l)e visited 
and studied ; and this interest they arouse 
will, in itself, pave tlie way to ;i quickened 
life, and better inquiry ou the part of the 
members of the club. 

When tiiese societies become numerous 
enough, — wlieu there are a dozen working in 
New Knglmid, for instance. — it will be well to 
have a little joint action among them, such as 
could be obtained by an annual meeting of rep- 
resentatives from them, for the discussion of 
methods and of problems to be jointly investi- 
gated. The interesting experiment of a state 
meteorological system in Missouri has shown 
bow useful local observers can be in this 
science. It might be well for the societies to 



Jivr 0. IMS. I 



SCIENCE, 



3 



arrange for Home oororuon Artitcni of Dbi^Qtra* 

lion ill tills Itrnnrh. Sd witli each of llip 
Hciericiti : conjoint aution would solve man^' 
prolik^nut (Imt are of tiic bigtiiwt IntcriMt. 

Then. n^n. tiitrrc woiitil ).>e n great iaflu- 
enoc on lU*.' exteusioii of !M.-i«nw't«acUinjj in iliu 
ptiblic Bctiootx, that wotild oerUinly come from 
tbe exist^m-e of wm-li local so<iipli€«. Ttid 
j^eatent (i»ng«r thai nww mi'iint.'cs tinttirnl 
ticieDCC in. that tlio imnnt »y»<teni of tencliiiig. 
itd tont^ apjiliiMl t^i otitpr braii'ibes of learning, 
will bp taken In Bcleuce-lcftt'hiDg. The |»rc*»t- 
coco of It lllLlc hand of hcUiaI ini)nir<>rs in 
iny town will t»e tliu licHt puKt^ible :tR>4iiniui-i> 
Iff^^ainHL tlila. T^t Uiu (rliildren have souil- sburi* 
Id t)K> opeu-air actual study, and Uic evil of 
tliv lHX>k-Aystvtii will «urol\ l>« mended in 
[Kirl ; for its imi»crrceUon(^ will be ser>u. 

It will oltoii )it; )H>»Hibl<^ to or^jniiixe mich n 
cliili ill itnini^lialo i^oiitu-rtion with thi- scbooU 
of tbo town wlwrc il startr<l. Experience in 
Kiiropp ■ibown ibat r-liildrrn reaililv and 7^hI- 
(iu»l,v ('iigujir ill HUfJi iiiqiiinGH, and iimkI only 
a llltip dirL-clion in ilieir work. 

Howover we look at il, wp nee mnch to Iio]w 
lUv exIuUBiuii of ihp fleld-plnl' svslvni of 
»cien(.-«* study. 



TUB ffATJOyAl. IIAILWAY EXPOSt- 

riox. 
t. 

TiiK exhibillon of mtlway appUnnces iion- 
helng bvld at Cbicngo is probnblv the most 
i-oinpleii- collt'ption of all the varii-d nppjirattts 
ii.-*pd in L'vcry doitfrtaifm of railruad working 
and coiislninliun lliat tite world bus ever *i?cn: 
lUid Ihf nuuiaj^fiui-nt are to !«-■ coiigraliilflle^l. 
tli.'kt. wliile liltlf liiis lipfn oiuitt<-d to tniike tlie 
allow t'uiDplt.-lc, tttill Ipsr imn Itt^en iiiplii<l4-<l 
winfb it iVtrpiyn to th*; siiljjecl of niilruails- 
Tbc PxliibiLs nui^e ovi?r n wide (ield, fivm 
ui)iform-ooat» to sXw\ laiU. railroad oCBcvrs' 
denka to rfvolviuf; »uow-pIougbe, mid fiviu 
an ulectiic railmad In full working, and eiuu- 
ing (piiltt liiindttoiue IraflK- revi^ipts. to Gvorge 
Stephenson's first Joeouiotive. which la sibown 
hy nn Euglisli railway I'ompimy. 

Th<f main quvftiouH wliicli are now awaiting 
iltitlon in the rallwny world an; well repre- 
i-ntofl in liie esjwsJtif/o. 'I'lie elieap trans- 
port of \ifa.\'y IVciglit'lralnfl over atec|) gnidi-:)*, 



the oonrvyanee of iM^rishablc articles. »u6ix as 
meat and fruit, and Ihp eontrol of Iht^ W« iifiw 
or iDomentnm of trains, iirp all i|iie8lioii9 which 
have to » ct>rtnin exlpni lieen solvrti: and 
flirther developmental of tbcsp soliitiooH are 
ahowo. A locomotive of unprecf<Ient«d size 
and power, fitted with a V8lve«}»enr of novel 
rtjiistniction. whleli vields excplloDt results, is 
shown by the Southern T'aoide ri**lrofld. and a 
large number of fiuo eog^iocs are shown by the 
Brooks and othwr locootolive works. The ei- 
hibttiou of refrigerator oars is very uoraplet«, 
;iik1 moat of tUcni appear to )>e of »iiiiple and 
plBcient design, Coutinuons brakes, applicable 
to freight-tmius, are exhibited ; and ae some 
ofthpiu appear worthv of wireful ex-^t mi nation, 
we blmll refer to Ihem K^ler on. 

While there enn lie no doubt, that as rcgai-ds 
okeapneHS and rnpidit^v of eon^lriicttou. general 
csr<'llence of bridges, l(KH>motivP8, ami pare, 
tbe railways of this {*ouiili'y are ahi;.id of the 
re^t of lilt' world. IIk.- aignalling ariangemente 
here, with few cxeeptlons, ai-e nidimentary and 
bicttieient, nnrl render fast travelling a matter 
of oondidcral>le dilHeiilty, if not danger. Il is 
impossible to nin a really faitt expn*.<»-trKln 
if tbe AignaU are nmbiguouft. and if every level 
oro8«iing is rnadf a rompulsory atopping-placc. 
Tbe !iavin|i in timv l>y fast trains can only bo 
fully fell In a great eoiintfy, when: very long 
journey* are not only |(Ossib|p. but are ffre- 
qnuiitly undui'taken ; iHit hitlieito thi*» fact baa 
Iwen little appixiiatcd . und people have been 
content to travel at a stow ^pecd. and put up 
with frequent stopjiugus. liccausu the railways 
were new, the raila roughly laid, and many 
bridges unsafe at a high aiHwd. But of late 
years these eouditions bavp Infen uiaterially 
changed. The wlde-spruad tise uf fitwtl mils, 
the grenter care iK^siowed on tlie mad-lKHl, 
and the introdnclion of iron bridgi>s of Htst- 
clasB workmanship, have reiutert^l high speed 
]>erfeetly safe and easy on most parts of good 
roads in the eastern bihI middle states ; but 
it is reudpred unftafu where switches are so 
amuigei! that they may be left oi>en to an 
appi'oactiinx train wittiuiit any digtial warning 
tbe engineer, or tliu signals are so formed Mmt 
the diffei'enee to Ihv eve between a clear <ir »U> 
right signal and a danger or Atop aigiial i» 
slight in «uowy weather or under certain at- 
mospheric eonditionii which render Ihu tlilTur- 
enec between coloiD imiwrt^ptihle, though h 
difference In form may Ik- peri.-eivi,Hl- 

Tbu oxpo!iit4on ie. however. c^peeiaUy dlroiig 
In Eiigniil apparatus; and there can lie little 
doubt that tlie niof<t in)|iorLanl reauit of tiie 
exhibliioD will be llie wide-Hpreatl adoption 



SCIENCE. 



|V0(.. ll., No. SS. 



of Home of tliMP Anretv apijliaricsia, n'nderoci 
nciviwjin' hy tlii',iiicr»'HHpd iHinilx'r nf trains, 
fltiil lliP ("ficl that l.lii' tliirkor ami \now iiitmiT- 
onr* [KiiitiliiliiMi iitiw lU'inanfU liotlt safer and 
fofiU'T irnvclling. The ronl gnin of tinw to » 
hiiHtnesA-uinn. oblninetl liy r dillcretirc oC n few 
milt'H mi hoor in tlw b|h;«1 of n long- journey 
ituiii. is liest llluatmU'd hv nil flctual case, — 
ft man in New York wlio wislies to do !i dny'» 
work \q Cliiciigo. He takes odv of tbe fiistort 
iimi lH*st uplKtinted trains he coii Qntl. — the 
Chicago limited. It leaves Svvr York at 
nine A.M., nod btnds him at Chicago at flovcn 
tho uejtt morning, having ticconiplishi'd nine 
hundred and deven mili.'c in iMtuty-six hours 
fifty-live minutes, allowing for Lbc dillVn-iu'i- iu 
tiuif iM'tnet-n ttiv two uitivt^. 'VUin muVva an 
avvingc .>4{i(.'<'il of 83.K milcK per linnr, inirliid- 
ing all ^litppagtw. Hut n^nnmc, what is surely 
not C!Xlriivti[;;iiit., ihiit ns high n »ne«I can Iw 
attained on the PenusylvRuia or any other 
l]rBt-cl.i)i5 American road ns on an Kngliah 
main line, and Trh.it shapi- does tho probleni 
auoroe? On one English road, tho Great 
northern, the distance between L^M-ds and 
London (a hundivd and righty-«ix miles and 
tlii*p-*]ii,irters) in done In three lionrs forty- 
five niiiiuleA, tncliidiitg live stoppages : on 
another, the Great western, Uie humtreil ;\nd 
twenty-nine miles and three-qunrlcrs btlwevu 
Birminghnm and London i^ run iu two hours 
Torty-live niiuiitos, iii<:Uiding two atu]>pagea ; 
ami as neither of tiK>Ke nuittra ia parliun- 
larly level or titraight. and Iwth i>asa tbnwgli 
Dtliuvrons junelione with a jx-rfcct maze of 
awiiohes and frogs, they give a faW idea of 
wliat IB possible in H|)i.fd on the rnilronda 
of thia coiuitjy. These figures give, resfice- 
lively, speeds of Ift.S imd 17.2 miles per 
hour. Taking as a fair average forty-eight 
rnile^ an hour, including sto[ip!igL-)«, the journey 
firom New Voi-k Ui ('liicago should lie done 
in eighteen hours ilfty-uine minutes, or, ^fty. 
nineteen h(mr8. — a saving of f)«ven honn« 
flfly-tive minutes on the prenent time; 90 
that, if the train were arranged to leave at 
llfty-livc minutes past four in the afternoon 
inatead of nine o'cU)ek in the forenoon, Iho 
whole of Uii« time would ba saved in the huay 
p«rt uf the day. •■llVcltiMlly mlding n d:iy to 
our ini.tgioary traveller'a buainiiee noil dollar- 
nnikiug life. 

lliuity be thought that BDch n de^luctinn Is 
unfair, na the Kngli^ti style of cur is so much 
lighter than the AniericiD ; bnt, ns a matter of 
fact, the average Knglish express-train ia con- 
sidernlily heavier than the Chicago limited, and 
(•anveys about three timoa Ibe number of |A8- 



sengers: and, as inirks and oil-Inbi .1«- 

hoxca are not yet universal (here. . ilvo 

resistonce per ion is probably higher. It cer- 
tainly, therefore, seems not only po^isilile. bnl 
feasible, lo attain these high t(pee<1s in tbis 
fonotri*, whore, owing to thi: long dUlancea lo 
be travelled, they arc moro valuable than in 
England ; and the groat st«)> towania atulnlng 
tliat cud is lite adoption of pro|x<r atul efHcicnt 
signalling arrnugemout^. Alt the otiicr steps 
ore achieved : the American passenger locomo- 
tive of the present day la |)erfeclly eorapelvnt 
to drag a heavy train at a speed of over sisty 
uiilei- an liour; the curs, an now eonstiucted, 
can travel ^^afvly and biuouthly at ttiut speed; 
and the »leol rail, the well- ball asitrtl lie and |>er* 
feet wurkmaiiKhip of I he mtKlern iron t>ndge. 
can w(>ll K»p{K)rl I he ihiuidering eoneiiiitiiou of 
an exprnsa -train nt full s|)«h>i1. But Ihib apeod 
can only be ninintnined for a few milea at a 
time if the engineer who guides this train Ik; 
doubtful whether thsit dimly-seen sjgn.il imply 
safety or danger, or if the laws of the state 
bring him to a fbll ataiui where his road is 
crossed by a small cor[»oration with a higli- 
sounding title, which owmi one locomotive 
witli a sjrlit tube sheet and two cara down a 
diteh. 

To run a fast- train, a dear, nninlernipt«d 
road is nbsolulely uef.'essury ; and the rea»on is 
not far to seek. To move a l>oi!y from a state 
of n*8t to a velocity of sixty mile* per hoor 
or eighty-eight feel \wr second, an aiuoniit ot 
work must be performeil equivah^nt to lifting 
that iKidy a Ijundrtnl and tweniy-ooe (feet. 
Mow, it Is apparent to the ftimpleal capacity 
that it reitnircB a pn.-Uy pimerAil engine to 
overcome the rt-MHtantH- of a train nmuing at 
sixty mihs iier hour without eveiy few milcH 
putting on brakes to lie-slroy tiy» velocity, mid 
then to lid it a hundrt^sl and (vveiily-one feel 
again to attain s|)ced : the resistance of the air. 
and the fnctiou of bearings on joiirimls ami of 
flanges against raJI«, going on all the time. A<i 
a matter of I'acl, showing what severe work this 
ia on an eugine, tJie /nlu express on the (>real 
western railway of Kogland, wliidi is tin- fa-ft- 
est train in the world, has l«een reiicitwllr 
earefiilly timed ; and it h found, that, thougb 
running over an almost absolutely level and 
straight road, it titkes a distance of twenty* 
six lo Iweuty-eight miles to attain its full 
siieed. aliout Ulty-eigbt miltis uud a half an 
Inwr. 

The adoption of a safe and tht)rnugli fiyatem 
of eiguatfl, eJliciently warning the engineer of 
n train of any danger In his )^>ath, whether 
from a misplaoed switch, on open draw, or a 



JcLvO, less. I 



SCIENCE. 



ftoight-train Abend, miiy be rcgnnJwl as of 

roat im|w»rW!ieo to the Arocricnn rnilroad 

p%tom. In o mnnncr irrowoing the cdific-P, atitl 

jhlifig roads lo he optfffttcd with grenter 

itT*il, ttaTety, nml regularily. 

ITb A« oDBrtinMii] 



THE INFLUENCB OF GRAVITATION^ 
MOISTURE, AND LIGHT UPON THE 
DIHRVTION OF GHO WTH IN THE 
ROOT AND STEM OF PLANTS. 

Mkmrrrs of my present hotnny rlasn linvo 
pcrforinrd some r-\|rt>rimpiits tliis spring, liear- 
in(; tt|Km tlic nbovc caj^tion. wliich, Alllinogh 
not clcvdojji Dj; nny Ibiuf; m>vr in the interest 
of tilt; wslPn^ioH of ex|(«rtinenUtl methods in 
tUe lower st-liools. it suotus \o mc may be 
' ftiuiiiJ wurtiiy of a rraonl in tli« columns of 

Scveu ballR of moss, ahoui four iticbos in 
dlnrricler. were prciurcil, in t4ie centi'e of wliiclt 
irere ptuotcd IVom fifty to a humlrcd grnius of 
nnis, hurley, or com : in some coses a mix- 
lurr of two of these grains. 

\o. I was bubikmlIwI iti IVeo air. lighted on 
nil sides, >'o. '2 was plawd on a gla»H tum- 
bler, in th(* lK>ttom of wlii^'h some wat^r was 
kcpl, bnt not f'noiigh to rise within two inches 
of the lowest pnrt of the l>nll. No. .1 wfta fit- 
led into tbe month of an inverted bolUgtsss in 
icli a manner that oii« hiilf of the ball was 
rilhio the jar and one liulf witbont it. No. 4 
was placed one half within and one half without 
a bclt-glns5 placed io a horizontiU attiliide. 
No. •'i was iu 11 tight tin can, the ball GtUng 
it like a stopper, so as to exclude the light 
and to prevent a cirtnilatioQ of air. One-half 
}C the ball protruded fVom the can, and the 
was iuvcrte<l. No. ti was placed io a 
^n tilmilar to Umt of no. A : but this was 
plat-ed in a horizontal atlitadc, as in no. 4. 
No. 7 wan nioniil&I uiK>n a spindle nitiniug 
through 'un (■enti'L-. The Bpiudle waa iiltarlied 
to the strm of the minnlC'hiind of an eiglit-day 
.otock in aiicli a manner thai, the axis of tlie 
lindlc was « continuation of the axis Iwrtring 
it miontc-hnnd of the rlock. The spindle 
ros a piece of one-eighth indt brass wire hav* 
ng a itrip of tin soldenKl to oite end of it. 
Th« tin wa» pcrforaltKl with a square liolc. 
rsaetly filling the shaft, of the minute-hnnd of 
the clock. The olhii end of the wire was 
Died down to form a Hmiill jounial, which worked 
iu a hole tK*i'cd iu n lump of »oI<Ier secured to 
the cud of a wire which acttnl as a supjmrl to 
thvdislaoteudof LhcBpi»dl«. This supporting 
vfre was first bent double, Poruilug a oariotr 



Vt and the solder, which served as a box Ibr the 
journal, dropped in the vertex. 'Hiotwo anus 
of the V were then bent upon them8etvci> in the 
aatne direction so as to form a right angle witl^ 
tlie plane of the V. Two lioles ^fe^e bored in 
tht IVame of the elock above tlio dial, bnt close 
Co il, and llif arms of Uie beni V luserted. The 
minute-hand wan then wmovod from the clock, 
and nliKO the washer behind it. The tin -iboul- 
<ter of the spindk;: was then p)ace<l upon the 
shaft, and the niinnle-band replaci'd ; the 
shoulder sending in the place of the washer, 
which had not been replaced. It was only 
nccc»s.Hry to shorten the pondolnm a little lo 
enable the clock to record time with its usual 
regularity. 

The results observed alter germination wore 
as follow* : — 

In DO. 1 the stem? all came out in a chimp 
nt tlic top of the hall, and Uie roots in a cluster 
from the under side. The rootle, however, 
after protruding from half an inch to an inch, 
curved upon themselves, and re-cnter»l the boll, 
or else wlthcreil. In no. 2 the stt^ms all came 
out at the top, and the roots at the bottom ; but 
the roota in this case continued straight down- 
ward into the water, no one of them turning 
hack into the ball. Iti no. 'i ttie plania de- 
ported themselves in all rc^pi'Cts an thoHO did 
in no. I . except tliat the growth was very much 
more rapid. In no. 4 all of the stems except 
two came out of the h-ill into frt*e air: two 
grew horiBontally into the IwU-jar. A large 
cluster of the roots came unt of the ball and 
entei-e<l the jar, and continued to grow horixon- 
tally. only depending so msich as was nece«* 
sary by their own weight. Othera of the roots 
emerged Ctom the lower side of thu outer half 
of the ball, but soon entered it again. Id no. 5 
all of the stems came up in the dark, damp 
atimis|)herti : an4l the routs cmerge<l IVom the 
loivt'r nide of the ball, hut re-eutered it again, or 
cIho piirished. Many of tlie stems (ontfi in thin 
case) threw out a pair of opjiosite bmlies, ap- 
parently st^condnrj' rootlets, whicli grew hori- 
zontally, In all coses observed, to a length of 
about one inch. The color of the stems in 
this case was a pole yellow. In no. *) all of 
the st«ma came from the ball upward into the 
light, and very many of the root.8 protruded 
horizontally into the can. some of tbciu leav- 
ing tbc ball above its ccntrv. A corn-root 
extenileti itoelf horizontally four Inches l*eyotid 
the surface of the ball, and in that distance 
was only depressed one-half of auiiiuh. On the 
corn-roots back of the sensitive tips, the deli- 
eat«; ruot-huirb were so uuiuci'ous ami long aa 
to give it a resemblance to the bulr^brusb fbr 




SCIENCE, 



IVoi,. II., So. S3. 



cleaning lamp-cbimneys. In tlii* ball a nuoi' 
ber of roots also emergt'd fioin tbe lower sidt2 
of the ball, but only to le-ciiter it iigain, as in 
the other eases. In no. 7 stums and roots 
came out together indistTiminately. and from 
all sides of the ball ; the roots, liowovcr, 
after protruding from half an inch to fiH inch, 
re-entering the ball or vcitliering. Tliia wsporf- 
ment was twice repeater!. In the lirat oagB 
more stems appeared from the side c " 
away from the face of th*- clack., and fp 
number of roots made their appeaain 
opposite side of the ball. It was ob, 
this case, however, tbnt the spindl 
about two degrees tow^ird the cloelr 
next experiment the spirnlle was c 
zontal, and no difference as fo [>l;icft 
ging of root and stem Mas Dlisc-ned. 

These experiments in comljination 
show with clearness the inUnejiti-' o: 
and gravitation in detcnnininu; the 
the root, and to suggest that tku ir 
moisture is the stronger of tlie two. 

The emergence of the stiisilivi; tips ut vuc 
primary roots from the damp bail into the dry 
atmosphere I suppose Darwin would have ex- 
plained as the result of the i>ersistence of the 
impressions in the root behind. The horizon- 
tally extending roots in the damp atmosphere, 
both dark and light, suggest that the response 
to gravitation in bo.th cases was m7. May it not 
be true that the diageotropism of roots is such in 
no other sense than that of direction of growth ? 
that it is in reality simply a growing toward 
the proper amount of moisture? This would 
appear to explain the oblique direction of sec- 
ondary branches, and the largely indifferent 
direction of tertiary ones. The balls in the jar^ 
placed in the horizontal attitudes indicate that 
the stem does not grow simply in a direction 
opposite to that of the principal root, for they 
were turned toward each other through an angle 
of nearly ninety degrees. The two inverted 
jars show that the steins did not seek a dry 
atmosphere, for in both cases they grew up 
into that which was more moist. The inverted 
dark jar shows that the effect of the impact or 
absorptiou of light on the lower half of the ball, 
and the absence of these effects upon the upper 
half, did not produce a sufficient contrast to 
guide the stem into the light ; but since, of the 
two jars placed in the horizontal attitude, only 
the ball in the mouth of the glass one sent 
stems into the jar, it seems possible, since 
other conditions were alike, that light may 
exert a small influence in guiding the stems 
from the ground. F. H. Kihg. 

Klv(-r Kvtijj, WiHconain, May IT, ISSU. 



SOAfE GLACIAl ACTION W IIVDMyA. 

With members of my elaaa in geology, I 

have been tixaminiug tlae glaeial deposits in 
this vicinity (Montgomery ooiinty) > Our cbief 
water-course is what is called Sugar (.'reek, a 
tributary of the Wabash River, which occupies 
a valley with a general south-westerly beaiing, 
viftualty tllc same trund which the Wabash has 
across the state before it makea its sliarp beuijl 
)Uth. Along the valleys of thu \VnbaBti 
;ar Creek, thprt; nro nl'Undaiit cvi'lenccs 
ciorwhJcli moved in tlic rlirection "f the 
tind in known i\a the Lake liiic glacivr^ 
vanced in the direction of the axim ot 
e, and »o up the Maiimec. ntid aci<o»a 
divide at Fort Wayne, into the Wabash. 
'reek HugH' bun been couipelledto l.>end 
to the Houlh tl i\ivf uiLIcs t>i the ives! of 
le ddposils nt' tliis old glaciiT, and has 
new channel through the solt snbcar- 
Mis ignndstone. At one place in this 
where the creek still occupies its pre- 
valley, it cuts through what we for- 
merly t.'on.'ii'ilt'rcd s\ l!iry;e Lerininal i]ii>r:iine, 
which lies sfjuarely across the valley. Recent 
floods have swept away some of this moraine, 
and laid bare the country rock. This rock is 
found to be smoothly planed, and absolutely 
coveied with glacial scratches all trending 
N. 20° W., or almost at right angles to the 
valley of the creek and the course of the former 
glacier. These scratches of the second glacier 
are now found in many places throughout the 
county ; and our old terminal moraine proves 
to be a medial moraine, and bears upon its back 
a line of huge bowlders with the same north- 
westerly trend. These facts are recorded here 
in the hope that they may be of some use in 
the consideration of a much-vexed question. 

John M. Coih.tkr. 

Wnbnsh ColleiiEC, CrawfordHville, Ind. 



THIi UNITED STATES FISH-COMMIS- 
SION STEAMER ALBATROSS.. 

I. 
1'kobablv no department of scientific inves- 
tigation has made greater progress in its meth- 
ods of work during the past ten years than 
that of deep-sea research. The successful 
introduction of steel piano-wire for sounding, 
aiid of wire rope for dredging purposes, marks 
a new era in this class of exploration, for 
which credit is mainly due to American skill 
and energy. While claiming so much in behalf 
of our own country, we frankly acknowledge 
that the only feasible method of using sound- 




JOLV 6, 1<83.) 



8CIENCS, 



ing*wire -mua devised by one of the betst kiiuwu 
Df Eu^lisb plivaicisls, Sir Wiliiiini ThumtiOti ; 
1ml iiis efforla were enlireU ignured by the 
looUier government, unil flrst bure fniit on tbis 
siUo of the AUantic, through the UUerality of 
the Anwrican ua\y. 

It i$ needless in this connection to (fiscUBS 
tb? rspi'l development of this system of deep- 
sea sounding, which has been so fully describixl 
by its most zcnloiis advocates. Meters. Bclknnp 



gesl^il by Mr. Alexander Aijn^Bix, iiiider whose 
8U|)vrv isiuu it wa^ Hntt put to trini on Lho uoiutt- 
ftuney steBioer Bl&lie in 1877. To MetMrs. 
8igi>bet! iiud AgUKsiz. and Llie oOlevrs of thfr 
Blake, is dac the greater auuher of improvv- 
meote in deep-sen dredges, trawls, and aecos- 
aorioa to sounding, which arc now employed 
on the American coist ; whUo the U. S. ftib- 
commission cinima priority sa to Ihe apptianous 
for moderate dcptba of water, although many 



iriiTTKii iTire> risH-mamBiioa stkimbb ALIAficafiB. 



Ipd Sigflbvc, of IJie United Stales nuvy. We 
mny l>u iiardoiiwl, however, for ruealliug the 
fiict. that it wna early in 11*71 that ('apt, Bel- 
knap mode his famous sounding- voyage aeross 
the Pacific Ocean in the l'. S. S. TuHcnrorn. 
while Uie Chnlteii^^er was still plodding its way 
aroinid the world with its onmbursoiue licni|M.>n 
FoiK'. oiif of ihi' Thonwou muchiIle^^ beiiij; cjiro- 
fulli" Hlowcd below, isinrn lln-n Cniinnnniler 
Sigitlx'eliHK soiH-rfciUil the Kuiinding-niachinc. 
on thi- |tro|)er working of whioh j>iir<\''ft^ witli 
virt: driKHiils, that further improvements sieeni 
im|H)Mi>ihl(i. 
The use of wire rDi» for dr^ging wm siig- 



of tliese nrc yet lu lx> Lhoroughly tested in th« 
det'i^er parts' of the ouean. 

Tbo great deisiderutuin in nuirinc explum- 
tiont has always bueo suitable vessuls for prop- 
erly enrrying on the work in all its braoebee. 
Otir cooBt-surrey, however, is graihially build- 
iug up a Heet of stenHiera which are admirably 
adapted lo their special lielj of sun-eying btkI 
sounding ; und several of these, among whiHi 
we may name the Hlake. the Hasslor, and the 
Bnche, have ali-eady rendt-i-od distinguished 
'leTTiccs ill the tiuc of doep-aea di'4*dglng oihI 
trawling. The latest addition to our ri- 
plorinjj-flect has been the conftlructioii of n 



SCIENCE, 



ivou n,. Wo. M, 



thoruughty B«a-^iag steamer Tor tbc ex* 
ptesi purpose or investigating our -mnrltiroe 
Itsbencii, in t>oth a sclciitiRc and {irnctic-al 
manacr, by means of every known applitnce 
8uttc<l to tbe work. Tliis new nndertaking 
Ib but an advance ftt«p in Uie progressive 
work of ti»e U. S. fisb-commissioD, under 
tbe able and judicious mauagtoDuot of Fro- 
fesflor Hftird, ami was drmandetl by tlic urgent 
oecesaily for a more extcndeil knowli><lge of 
our uff-sliuru Itsliing nrcaH. The inilinttvc 
in this dinwlion wns Iflkcn some three or 
four yearB ago, when Cougresa sanctioned the 
buihiing of the steamer Fish Hawk, in tUo 
combine^l inti-rcst^ of Qsh enlture aud ex- 
ploration. I*revioiisly. smiill o-ival sifatners 
luid been adnplcd u> the requiremeuts of 
the fish-commission as their sej^ices were 
needed; and, considering tbe pioneer char*! 



high scu, chaoiog schoi^ii uf flsh, or diving 
beneritb Um surfiice with the dredge and 
trawl. 

'Vht AtbntrotiH i« A twiu-seren prapetler, 
Hfi^ed &s a brigantiiie. and was tniill At Wil- 
mington. Del., daring [Hti'2, U\- tbe Piis«y & 
Jonea Company, who were aloo the builders of 
tbe !>teanier Fish Hawk. 8ho was dv«i^ned 
by 3Ir. Charles W, Copeland, euusutUng 
engineer of the XJ. S. lighthouse Wanl : and 
her entire constmction and subseqiK'iil iirei>- 
nmtion for acrriee have been under the 
imoK'diate sujiervijUon of her present oom- 
maoder, Lieut. Commander Z. L. Tanner, 
D.S.K. The launrh was suoecssfully made 
Aug. ID; and the work of fitting up tJi« 
vnrioua «|UBrtcrs ami of arranging tlie acicn- 
titic appliances wa« rapidly iMished to com- 
pletioD. Tbe trial uip began Feb. 9, 1883 ; 






15 



N? 



Bl 



n 



LuKciTcoiHU. BiCTiox or c"rrK» sriTsa rt'noMKiBHnw •nuvaN almitmom- 

1. TomUIml fon<a0U*: 3. n*b4«TU; 1. 8l<Bb«c koasiUng bmUo*; i. 0rt4g\a» tap** ^ i. Lover end a( diwtflttf koma; 
4. nrwdfanipn. I_ PUut-boaav- D. Chatt-nHoi; •. Uppo latiotMarjr; lA. yaUirallala'^aUUTnaaia; II. BbnUB-ilrMio ; iZ 0»ll«v; 
11. L'ppci uirlneroon: Ik Koimmm ia wuincm; 11. rMp-MU&i IS. &i»rcr«ftiDa: IT. faf-pmaimi*-, II. b«rtli-dMB. 



acter of their work, tbev rendered valuable 
aid. 

In asuociflting fiah^cultiire with acientiflo 
investigAlion. »ome sucriflce bad to be imifle 
at the expense uf one or other of these 
projccta ; as no Ktcamer, built tu enter llic 
shallow rivers and indentuiM of uur coast- 
line, eoold venture with safety to nny dis- 
Uioce from land. Fish-breeding was at that 
time eonsidercl the more iniportltnt ; nud tbe 
Fisb Hawk, with ber sbullow draught of 
water, must eonflne her o{>ei-ations to tbe 
vicinity of the coaMi: and yet, from a pe- 
niwil of lecent papers in this Journal by 
Professor Verrilj, it will I* seen ihat her 
couiribuiions to bioloj^v- have been surpri*- 
togly gre»t. The Albatross, howt^ver, ai 
tbe new ateamer baa been chiisleued, will, 
Bke ber nmme«ake, make her home upon the 



and at the time of writing ahe is making tuu* 
first long enilae. 

Id tlii^ constmrtion of the Albatross, sev- 
eral novel features io marine architecture 
bn%-e been Jnlrodnced ; as p.i«t ex|x^riencc has 
proved that the ordinftry form of bull is bot 
pooriy suited to tlie work i>f deep-sea dredg- 
ing and trawling. The most import.nnt mod* 
ification is at the stern, wbich bns lieen 
sharply modelled to enable her to back readily 
and safely in a seaway, her uautd melhou 
of propulsion while engnge^l in this das^i of 
work. Tlie rudder nod its iitta^-hmenls have 
also been tnadu of extra litrcngih to withslnnd 
tlie hnnl service to which tbey are thereby 
subjeetod. 

The grente-t length of the vt-ssel is two hno- 
dred aiwl thirty-four feet ; and the length at tbe 
ordinary water-line, with a draoghc of twelve 



Jolt 0, IMS.) 



SCIENCE. 



feet, tM'o huD'lrM TcPt. The hrendth of Ix-nm 
tuotiUltnl is tivi-nty-9cvon foet nitit a half. The 
regiAtcri-tl iirt toni>ag4> i« foui' liiiixirc^l tons, :io(l 
tlio «Iia)ilAi-era?nt on a tvfelve-feel drniiglit, A 
thoii«AitH toDH. Tbe frame-irork mid liiill are of 
iron, which alito enters lur^ielj'inlo the con^truc- 
tloi) of thedei'tcliDOKC. Forward and aIX. tli« 
iron skifsexlond to tlie lovol of tlie np|KTdeek 
to <!nclurtc tliu ]>ut)p-eahtn uud tojt-gullaiit fure- 
ca«tlti. while in lhi> intervening 8[>a<H> tJivy 
foiiit u liigh prolcrtinj; rail to Ihv main dttt'lf. 
Thy ilci-k- house (7-11)' which is i-igiiry-llirfp 
fd-t loni^, Uiirieun feet aiiiI » hnlf ffide, nml 
suvvn ivQ\ mid a ()uiirter higli. exienila rrom 
Just forn-nivi of the mainmnsl nearly to the 
foremast, leaving an am|)lc pat^^ngewuy on 
cither side hetween it and the rail. Tlie after- 
part is buiit of iron, with wuoden sheathing ; 
but forward of the fiiiiuel it is entirclv of wockI. 



followed l»y the steemgr fSO).mf»in lalwiralorv 
(21 ), ''ngine nml l>oil6r corni'tirUneiits (24, 
•1-i), which extend into the hold, uid lbs 
ward-room i'i-i). 

The forehold contnina the magiuino (•')« 
water-tAnki», iee-hoii»e (2U),aml a variety of 
storerooms, L'ndernwtth the bhoratorj- Is a 
large i-ooin (32) for the elovriige of natiuiU 
hirilory matvriaU : and heluw ihe ivard-room are 
the a]i(in»t)riato Hlon*ro<ini4 for Uh: uac of tho 
mtras. iliL' uavigiilor. and jtavmofilur. 

The pooiMcaliin ft.')), on (Jiematn deeJt, la a 
Urge, commodious room the eulire wiiUli of the 
shij), and eMemilng Ihirly fei'l foi-ward from 
the stern. It L-ontnins two islflte-nximrt. a hath- 
rooni. pantry, iind office, and is convenii'iilly 
ftjiiiished. The ward-ruoiu (Ifo) umlerneutb 
is thirty-eight feet long, and lina eight large 
state-rooms, a hath-rooro, and pantry. It is 



3Z 



u 



J % 



kTT/ 



Z8 



1 1 1 I I ] I I 1 1 I 11 1 1 1 t I r I 1 I 1 t r 1 - 



7.7. 



tuxiiiti'ixi ti, -Kc-Tr-iK i>r r'NiTEii ■tateh nan n>aaii»ii>x HTK^iiiili jti^aATnoti*. 

IV. Il**lln«a«>Kl(w; d> f)if«rw(Oi '/I. tmtit or mala l-Xfonnvtjr : ii. Bxllcr. SI. Cp*l-hinifc»ra: St. KnflnM; U. Ward. 
Mom; SL ObiM ikifermaii; It. Ma^Hilno; ' ' ' - ■ - — - 



Mom; SL ObiM ikif ermaii ; It. Ma^Hilno; SH. MavMina immuw; 9. I*p-Imk; U. LpMrbuU: U* Lowipr''bOlili 33. XMunl 



The forward eoniparlmcnl, wliieh is raised 
■bout lliree ftn-l iilHivt> (he general level of 
tlie ht>us*', i--* the pi I ut- house (7), eonUiinlng a 
Steam f|n»rtermtistei' to aid in steering. Fol- 
lowing it ill siicc'esi»ion are the eharl-room 
(*)>. up|»er lal»oraiorv (9). four atatc-rooms 
(10), Atram drum (11), galley (12), upper 
engine-room {VA), and entrance to the ward- 
room Mairway (U). 

Below the main deeic the vessel i» diridod 
intoitix water-tight i^ornparlJiieiits l>y (i^e trans- 
verse iron tiulkhcutl.s, there Ueiiig nUo an addi- 
tionnl Imlklieiid tvlijcli itt iiul closed. 

The lierth-dffk, lurward of tlie collision 
bulkhend. ik out up into 6ton-ro«>inH ( Iti), 
pndii*d liy scnltii^s from thf mnin di-ck. Next 
r»ft is the K-rlh-'hiek proper ( I K), which is forty 
feet \''WjL and (he width of the ship, with supe- 
rior uL-coaiiDodatiaiu for k large ckw. It is 



well lighted by a hroad akylight overhead In 
addition to the usual side-]wrt.H. These cpiar- 
lers. are entirely oecupieil hy the ollleers of the 
ship, the eivilian aetentille staiT heing aeeom* 
nitxlaled In (he four slate-rooms (U>) of the 
dcck-houie ahalt the iip|MT latwratorr. Tho 
latter rooms are livtter a^lapted for atudy than 
any others on the »liip; each having a largo, 
square eide-window at the pru|»er height for 
Hoi-king with the microsei^pe. should tlie natii- 
ralisl« desire tu eoiiduct tlieir more delicate 
ottservatioDt in privacy. 

Uf must iiilerest tu (lie sUidenl are the scl* 
enl.llie tpiiirters. which are very ca|?aeioiis. and 
nmply snilk-ii'nt for all po.ssilil(? nerds. Tbey 
occupy a central position. U'lng lhercl>y re- 
moved as far as possible from the extreme* of 
motion eaueetl by rolling and pltehlng. Tlicy 
cxteul fixim Just above the kcclaou to the upper 



10 



SCIENCE, 



Wuu. !!-. Krt. !ti. 



fli'ck. nrnl ron^inl or tiirM* room- 
IPVfU : till* lowf!*! (ilS) lifiiic a -: 
CcntriLl nn>> ('Jl } h general lalMn-nlMiy. ui imrk- 
room : nml thr itri)n'r ni)i> {'.tj n dcrk-lnlkont- 
(crv Tnr fi- tl work ami -tin!_v. T1»>*.o 

roomH fon witli oiitj nii'-lhiT U,v mi-iuis 

of stali-way«, bill nre enlhrlv cut olT from nil 
tlur rt'sl "f till* »lii|i. exiH-ptitij; Ihroiigti tlin 
Blili<-ilo<>t-ti of the u|)jj<-T In'Hjnitorv, Tin; two 
lOH-vr rooitw aro protet-twl fort' ntiil sR by 
wiit«r-tight iron hulkliends, itadiir^ to the 
miiiii <lt!cfc : auil tliQ stuieruoDi, wblcli c^ntniiiii 
tli'- !iiii-|>ly of olcobol. mu be tUHtlv a tigbt 
Imx, nnd iii-ttaoUy filled wiUi steanit iu ca«! of 
fire. 

Ligbt is ndmitted to tlie upiior lal>ornUiry 
thmugii a bkvligiit. ami two wiiiilims on tuoli 
^di*. uhil lu LliP gviioral UilHirilovy lliniiigli 
tbn*c jHirls on eni-li avlv. iind twit di't^'k- lights 
overlu'liil ; Itnl in ibe Bturfi-oom uitifictal lii;;ht 
is iipccsflnry. l>iiritig the day-time, therefore, 
the workiiifT-room^ are siifflcientiy well lighlttl 
for all oniitiiiri- ptirpoaca ; but the Byslfio of 
pleelric Inmps, which pcrvudes the entire ship. 
reiM'he-H its height of development In ihe»o 
quarters, am) e%'ery few feel of h\mvc contnina 
ita tittle ^lass i^tobe und hursi-Hhoe. 'L'he 
ctTcct at night tft rery brilHatit, nn<l work caii 
then go on nlhitit as ooiolbrtably a« in the 
hri^hli^Ht ituitHhini-. 



StTRPACK CONDITIOSS OX THE OTHER 
PlAi\'ETS. 

Is the Popular xivuev monthly for Juue iippaar»il 
an artk'Ie unililei] 'tost ot life,' by Jnhn t*n.u, 
upon die hiktilinblllty of tfac other v'ltiK^ts* To his 
cuiu'liiaioii (list m<wi of tlie larger (■txn'^io an pri>l>- 
alilj iiiisiiitfil fur liAbitaliiin by beliif:.^ like niirwIvMi, 
1 think ft'w Kstrunoiiioni vroiild ukc 4':ti-c'|itiaii : but 
wvvral ut liis(Uil«meiiU as tu Uivir furtai-v cudiIU 
tioUf ire «|t|N)ivnUy nt YA(taiiC4> trlUi luotl^m ob$*>r- 
vnlitiii. mill vrith ilii* rntilta of the itppllcitlioa of Uie 
prlaclplc!* of mcohuiics. 

A* to Uip li};ht rn>m lli« pUnt^l*, he auyst " In the 
flrsi piftoc, ** mlglit h»vi> b.-en foiijwtut^d even 
Ijcfotw till' rwinlMl'-iiH of the -ftetrtr'nco^. front llwlr 
UTvnt voliiute o( Iklit lu cunii>«r«(t wiih iWlr ilift- 
fuiCfts fniui tlic silt), All of lliUL- ;;r«!ia Itoilii^ [lliA 
fiiur flXli^rlor ]iliuieti| uro m-U iiimiiioiiH " Tlieri* is 
lomfi reniwii to t>>;)lpv« ihai «( crrtuin titoc^ p>jrli'<nit 
of (lir vtirfju'e iif Jii|titi!i* ili> Hlilntf Itr lliciriitrii light, 
hill it In ceruilnly v<-ry faint. a.t .itliisrwisc. whro IkIs 
Mti'llirf"' iMfB iitlo hia khftfloM, ihwy nonlilitiU r<Tlliirt 
•■<■ I" itie «wlh. lu i»oirit of f»vt, lioiriiv^r, 

•' , I nitnt fxiwe^rfiil (I'll.- SCO [Xr«, thc.V iil>»uluti?ly 

iliNtpiJcar. Ab tu tJio threv rvmnuiiiif plniiL'L*, ihoir 
llglit in %u fain; nt the h»«l, ttiat nnv ilct« ruiiiiall"r>ft 



ai to thi^ir FwlMntninoalLy arft cnilrel;r .mt of ilt<> 
riuMtiod. Tit" •^ji" ito^jropv slio^i w nothliu: whit- 
«vrj- on ibU ^uhjfot with n>gar4 tii an; of llii?t#i 
builk>«. 

Wvarvlbcn ti)li].Ilial "tlj> ' -'. > -iaB 

■iKiiU 1 . M. «nil thai of tlit> • !>aL 

ihr attrai^tlnn exoHnI tiy Jiitii'.>-[ . . ■■iiin«« 

tliiil of thi> varlli. A raati who v. i pounds 

OD tti« <!«rtlt, if ti , " It Jii|i;nrr, "inild thaliB 

Lbe gnuirul witli i. i trviui of •!■''■, tMHi p(ruiid>, 

or Sin f>n4. 111b •>>> h wi^tit wmilil ai ouo' iTUfti 
hliD into a tuiTv pulp, A hlck'^ry-nut. tillhii: fnim 
a li»tu;h, wmiild i-nuli thntiij:h lilm llk^ d tninlr^tnlU 
Again : water woulil wclsb tiftr«n tluie^ vi mueh 
aa iiiiK'k-llvflr. X UKxlpretii w;ive voiilit Hhlvtr to 
atonm ikv ^trungwl IronclM], *ic." A|>[>lytni[ tli« 

Mr 

ordluary foniiula, H' = |^„ — wh«r# M, tli« ouua 

of Jupiter, in terras of ili« mrth, I* -llli, ami t>, H» 
(liAiiii>ter, Is 1 1, ~ w>> Snd ttu? wvitilit* iV. nt an ol>J«et 
t>n Iheiiirfiifi; nf JupiU!r,e<iual>< f tl.or 2i timtw what. 
ItwouM wricjhhi-rr li«nc(^»<irl j'j.pDimd mail wouh) 
welgli }u»l ■iT'> pounil* (henr. and wniilil not \te aKf)- 
oualy liiOfHiveiiiv4iC(?<l by a whole l-ailt-o' of hickurjr- 
nuia, pruflikil he wore hla bal. W>tU refemice 
1x1 Mars, lir writes, that " llir ralaiive tiiaa* t<i Mars 
tMing only alMUl „'„ that of ilif rarth [U la t apitrfii. 
Iinat<>ly| , . . our lypk-»l man «>>ulil ooly wvijch 
HtKilit 2} |K>un(l>. . . . An t^tuu locunicKlvr wmihl 
not proprl a train of empty can. ... A nf)i--l)AH might, 
ba cAiigbl In (he baud without hami." Ac<N>nllng to 
Uu> law of Kmritntiiiu. th» ' lyplcnl man ' would weit^i 
00 (HiniidB. tjiipputing Dto SiMoo locotnulire n» 
duoMl in w<:ii(tit in ili<? proporrloa bv states, tlio ran 
would baaoalso: iherWon-, umleranyfiiclicnmlliloDa 
whatever, llw; S^ton lo«''iHtoliVK would draw po-choly 
aa ^Tpal a >|URnil(y u( matlrr itit^re ha it would upon 
Lh« (nrfacK of the earth. As to the rillv-ball, lu 
•tor«d t!MiTKy i» pnrpunlouai to UV^; that la. It la 
proportional m Ita nuuis, and Indopi-iidoni of lla 
weicfhl. Uut tin- mam of a bo-ly In tlit- *ani« thningb- 
oal th? univvri'i*: tboreforv DXpvrimrnu In rutchlng 
riflL-balU in the band on the surface of Mara would 
be danLccroiu. 

Fiually. ivferrlitK lu Han, ho *ayi. " Nolhinir can 
be more certiiiit than thai there I* nv lii|iiid hi Mara, 
and no life." A» »ei!u tbmu;tb thr tflev-ajae. rlui 
jHdiM ot M.tr« appi>ar at a brilliant wliit« color. 
n*ben •>□(' of tb« pule* it tamed luwardi the fuit, the 
■ix« of thi! while 'iMtt dlmini>htii. and, when It l> 
turned away atialn. it inerca5>^ S^me astraitorners 
have ItuagiiitNl Ovew white npoia lii Ik riiuw: In that- 
ciue, It is UiUicuK to account for llie dUapiuntraucv. 
unleu we »u(>poie that it tnelt*. It tbeivforL- seema 
nlh<ir A ntmiif way of expresalng It to ny that 
"nochiiu; can t<c niore C9rtH>n llian thai tUtsrv Is oo 
lli]ii)d In Mnnt.'* 'I1ier* arK M^teral othrr jMilnta 
ralM^I by our author whirh would b«ar mentioning. 
oa« ur two on ilio toibj'vt of rnL-niy. iMrtkiilarly " a 
larj;*! «*t'*cl of iti" i|nr4ilon, whldi »r«m» lo !«*• 
e<ini|K-d tbo atlwnliuu of LhlnltefB:" but I ILlnk tli« 
polnLi rofcrruil to above will bo iulfi'.-teiit for tbtj 
prf^aent ncrnaloir. W. II. I'ickkiuxo. 



JtTLV (^ 18«L] 



saiENCM. 



n 



COMPOSITION OP TUB itESODERM. 

DriDER Ui<3 title ' ArrhtblAst m<I pArublul,' Wal- 

dcyvT bus ptiblUbml a ha^ lullciv iArrh. miitr>*k, 
aniU.. xxii. I). In whleli he review* clilrOj ili*> views 
ConfAmlng ilte origin at Uie connwiivv ii)!»iu>, ItlocHt- 
v«is(.'lii, etc.; but be hUo ooii-ttdcre seventl cognat* 
ijiKwtlnns, 

llisS IrtTutigittlciiis bava bcAii cunfinwl ut vorlB- 
bmUs, bill lie n[<pnr^nll7 bi'lltves tbat liU view ts 
alB't apr'li^nble Ut Itivt'rlel'pnuf, Pri>(tf»iir Hii ills- 
UniEuikbes two dlaUiict j;roup»yf li»tiic«, — tlicarcbl- 
blasllcaiid imr»l>ln»lic. Tbe former incltiilea *tl Uie 
«!pUlicllAt, iiiuMulAr, nnd nenotis tisu<.-c. cviiiprliinn, 
iht-rcfun?. ttir clnmlf, tmitoth mii*<-I«s, uid nrum^lin: 
tiiv |Mm1>U»tlc jfToup i-oiDpriseH aII die cnnnccLlve 
tl»iic» nnd td'MK). nith wMch are i»iiiiii«d Uie blood 
iiRil lympb vckmI*. uid Alio tU« leiii'<i>cy l«*. Th« 
pAf»lilit>i »rlw§ l>frjond Ih^ vmbrjoiiie »rw> proper as 
ct'lU which grow iiiio ibe embryonic rpglon. These 
celU arisf, ftmirdlng m HU. out o( ibp gDiiiulw o( 
tbe while yotk; tbese gniDiiles, froiD evil* in tbv yolk; 
vfhkh f -ll* Jtre iiiiiiiiiirHiexl kucocym, IIihI *nu;r the 
awni wliilt- ll t^ still 111 tlib fuDlcle of ibi' ovary. 

Waldeycr avc«i>ls UiU division, but be difr«n from 
nu mxltiiy In l.n-i>|H)lnU, ^ fir&t, Iti exclitdiiif; the lin- 
ing of thc|fritAiio.ilCJkvitr fruir. Hit- li^tot endothelia, 
aud tberufore also from the pnrmbliMl; i)«v(iiidt In 
ascribing ti dlAereot origin lo ibe parKblH*ik ndU. 
(A* nigartl!! Uie firat puiol, lher« cui be no reuon- 
•lile doubt ibac Ill-tfi acrount of llie orlgrlii of thfl 
Uc)tnhnin<: i» ■'rroiieouf : became. 1, the d[Mpp«*r- 
UKw tif tb« otiginal ■■pitbelltim, iiiid the new fonua- 
tion by (eticoc)Ui8"f an vpillM'liniu tm top of il, was, 
to the la»t drip'Cv, Improbiiblr. fo that a grofis vrror 
of Db>er\-alloa would bo nioro probablu; 2, His was 
unable to bring fonrnrd any ilefiiiite ob^crvntionn in 
his f>ivor; 3, hlft eoncliulon was and bas since btcn 
contrailii^led by tb>; direct observatlnns of others. 
WaldevL-r bat done so«h1 wrvlco In ulling j;«i«ral 
altfotion to lli^iit- ohjecUoiia, but tbe mailer i:an 
hardly be con^Idired new.) 

A« n*$anls ihe sucvud point, «r« rvpniduce Wal- 
doypr'ii own *iiininary (p. 47). In thf- nfjigs of aJl 
animals which haT« blood and onncctirc tii<u« at 
ail. tbe segnenlntion of tbe egg doe§ not aintiniifl 
In the snine manner up lo tbe end; but onr> must 
d1>tiimui«b a primary and u Nccoodary Kgmvutalion: 
Ibo first dirldejt (lie egg, *o far ai tt in capable o( w^- 
tneiiuilon. Into a number of celto wblrb are malurs 
for tbif fiimiHlion of Ih" IImiic, and form Ibo prhnar)- 
gpnnlnal lay^n. A rfmnlmk-r of ininiaiuro sogiiifii- 
laLlon-oi'lli> (In h<l^>bl.^'•U(.- t-iri;s I, or uf cgt;-pr»b>plasui, 
which lias ii.il m«iiuiikI ibu i.'oll-foini (lii m«robl«»tIc 
*S8^)t >' 1^1 orer. In either foriu, ihis remainder 
(Io«9 not dirMtly enter Into the ^Tro-tnycra a« an 
tntrjjrul n>niponen(. but undertjoeii flrat a further cell- 
formation, — lb« upcondnry 9V)jni(inlati<>n. From tbe 
L-dliH lliuit fiinni^d, lb» jmrti rii:h>-r In pn>(opla«m urv 
cni off. and make the primltlrr paniblASt-cr^Ds; whilt 
tli9 i«rt ridivr In 5idk rviuainv only to bo ii»e<i as 
nutrlilfp iiiateriaL It will be >eeu tbul t]i« eMeuee of 
Vfaldey«r'« tb«ory ia, that a portion at tlic se^enttnt; 



CfS la iManlnd by the |it«efluc« n( yn)):; and m ibeni 
are some cell^, or, to inaroblastlG v%g*. tome protiw 
jdasm, wlUrb in loicgurd in d«velaf)Wtin I, nitd do«a aol 
directly enter Into tlie primitive layon, bat baooMM 
tiio p«rAUa»l, 

Tliw paniblaat Is «»i-iilla1ly Ideotlr.il wtib Lh« nes- 
encbyina of th* broUi*M IIiTtwie. except that ibo 
latii^r Include tlie MiuoUi muscioi in Uie group. 
Waldrj'cr itndi-ATora to justify Iiln Dii-ory of lli« oriKlU 
of tbi-'SL- llMue« fruni Ingginl cell*, but IL »rrJu* to 
the roporli^r unsuccessfully. 

Theri! Ie given aUo. p. SA-ti, a dtsciiaakin of tbv 
relation of the yolk to clmviuie. In which the vinwi 
adtaiiced s4-vcral years ago by MInot (Proc. Bo*f- •oc. 
nat.hlit,, xlx.lan* lirougbt forward anew, ap)<ar<'ntly 
without kiiowledftc of Hielr prcvlrjuj pnblk.ition by 
anuthiT writer. In tbii dS^ciii'tuon of the uTl;;iii of 
1h<' parablnst'Celh, p. l'-27. it apl'i'i^rit Ihal Flls'a vir-w 
of their i>rigiu from Urn while yolk U delinltuly ktiown 
to be untenable- Inridxntally. emphasis j^ laid n|>oD 
tho fact, that, in mrroblasKc ci*^!, the protopLu''in of 
the animal pole sen da down prucc>^sea into the yolk: 
It la from liieae process^ tu lite ' keimwall ' of Urd** 
ei^ Uiat tbe ]iarablK«l-ceils arisv, acconllne lo Wal- 
dcyer. Ill^ article, aa a whole, is cbleHy a dl^nsflan 
of tbe litemiUTL' nf bis luttjcct. C. S. Ml»oT. 



THE ECLIPSK OF iSSS. 
At tb« prewnt time, when IntrroNt is cblett; 
drawn toward Che *uC4^'t*(-s of tbe a.uronomm wbo 
observed ihc evll|ise of tbo sun moniJi before lut frotu 
the small Island* In ib« I'acltic (,>cean, the rwuila of 
tbe ecilpM* of May IT, 1^82. obtained In Egypt, Itave 
espet'ial significance. Thete were briedy stated by 
Dr. ^ebiiHtor al a late mt^etln; of tlio Etoyal atiro- 
nomk-al R'Olety. Uurliiit tbe progre** t>f tbe eclipsa 
threw phoU>tj;r.iphic Inslninieiita weri- al work: one 
took photographs of thv corona lUelf; a 8v'.-ond vai 
a pbolugrapble camera with a priim placed In 
front of It, thai Is. a specLro»cope nhbont a collima- 
tor; and the Lbtrd waa a couipli^lt! speciroscope. 
Photographs were cihlainet*^ all thr«« instruments. 
The (Ilrecl pboloRraphs of the cofwna imilcaln Ita 
viiriation* (rtiin rcllpM! to ecli[>se, —a matter of much 
Importance In aolar pbysic*. If the p)iot')gTaph« 
taken during eclipses in the past twvnty yeara are 
compared with each other, it will be »'■«« tlial the 
corona varies lo a regular way with the slat« f>f the 
sun's surface, althongb there are irregular in!n..>f 
changes. At tbe sun-spot mlniinmn Uie corona U 
much morw regular than at the maximum. At the 
minimum there Is a large equatorial exienxlon, and 
near iIk (olar poles a keriea of eurred rays. At ilii< 
maxliiiuni IhRre in pracUi'alty no rt>f;ulnrily al all : Ibe 
long Streamers go up sotnrlim>'4 in onv<llri-ullon, ami 
aoneilmus in another; and ilils last year, near tlic 
sun-epot maximum, there waa absolutely no»ymnietry 
in tbe appearance of the corona. 1*h« transiwrmry 
of the streamer* wan most striking. Onn iireiun^-r 
can Bometlme4 Ih) Irac-d tbrotigb another, thowlntj 
that Uie matter, witatever It la, must bv wry ibln. 
Tb* rif L« Alan from Uie aolar surface in an entirely 



SCll^NCE. 



[Vol. IL, No. 23. 



Irr«|tul«i' wny, will) « tendency yerjr often tnwiu'il Uie 
Uingi>ntliil (lirftinloii kt the lower pAru of tlie HfU. 
Tilt- I'liuUrgFAplis eslfiiil »tH>iii s illani<'lfr nml * hall 
from ihe Biiu's Unib, and a coutet afipun on lU« 
jilAtfs abouL ii wtlnr illnmtitpr nixl % Itxlf fnitu Lhe 
tun'a centre. It luiist liaro b«>n rery l>ri|;ht, u It 
ftpp«axs clenrly in the |>)toio^rHphi. Ueaxim'tnunU 
seem t4i lixlk-xic a ain^tll »hift In it* pu«Uiuii iliiring 
Uifl Ini^rva) Ix-twf^i the lint iihoto^rapli xnd tli<> Uft. 

Tumln^ now to the ]ihDti>|i[ra|)lia laketi with the 
cnmerKiuii] prt»ni In froat, — »ij Uistniiiienl which 
glrp* uii lm:i^>* of iliM pfomiQ«iiC)>4 m oft repealiNi 
M ibffiv uro rays In the pMinincnee, — tlw pl»t« 
«nipl<JVcd wori! sensible to tb« Infra-red aa vnl\ Ms 
viraltti r*y8. On« prominence gave a fi'^*^ number 
of liiitrs 111 thi> utlrx-vioteL The fact wat bruu;;ht 
(Hit In Ibis eot<|»M>. iJul thi) brightest lines in Uio 
projuliiDUi-n i\tv due, nvl to hjilruiffn, but to eal- 
dum. B«sii|i>« Ilifti^ and thi! liyilrogtm linos, llHtre 
li ihe liii« D., ill the yi>lli>w, and the C lino of 
hyitroXvti in thu rvU. aiiJ kiso a pliulujjrafih of two 
prt»miiienfp-lln?* In iJkP ultra-md. In atlilitlon to the 
promt neiim, thrrc arc vinihl*^ In the phoiographs 
ttvrtalu *li')rt rlng4 n>unil ihi; moon, which mean tiiat 
•t tliBM places the light sent nut by tli« Kawotis part 
aurrouuJliij; the tuoun i* tiut eonfineil U* the prom- 
inencBs. It U. &^ vroutd be cipKtftd, Uie gr«en 
coronal lint! which chiclly curre^ponils to one of 
those riiiii^. This ijnpHn line, K I4T4, is a Inir coronal 
llMff, and I* only vor)- faintly traceable In one of the 
proiulncticKi. 

In v'Misldcrlng the r«s[ill9 obtained with the com- 
ptele i|M.-ctn>u'ij]>e, It UafttrikinK fact ibat ooiueof the 
lines cMSs the tnnnn's disk, an.1 ettpHlally the two 
lines i/nnil K. TtU» proves that itie cakinni- lines, 
JB ami K, «'vn-»o virotig in (he pruiniuunces that the 
light wiM acJitUirfil in our atniosphere. and reilected 
rl^ht In from nt Ute ntnon. 

The pP)Biinence-linfa are very niitnertmB : thirty 
such line* appear In the photograph, Tlie hydroj^n- 
iines are thort!, Inrluditis thtwe In the ultra-vlnlel 
photographed by Or. liuK^ns: alfln // and K, and 
other oali'Iuiu-lluve; and still oih<.>n, chlolly un- 
known, -i* 

Cln.4c to the siiq'» limb we f»a only traee a eon- 
IJnuou* tip«:ciruiu, a very atriing one, going up ta 
nbdtit a •|uxrt'r of .-» «ol«r dinmeter. The photo- 
gntplts iK'ar •nil the diitlncUon between Iho Inner 
and the outer corona, the former bcin; mach 
itrnnger lu light. The boundary at which thli con- 
tinuous MpeeCrum end* corretpomls (o llii^ exti-uoton 
of the Inner ror'iiia. Thi^ conttnaniis s|>ecinim Is 
stronger on thu aide irhere the prominences are 
weakiu-. In the corona we Bmt <>( all •«» a very faint 
Continntitia npiilrum, aikI in that ivtnllnnoii:* *pte- 
train one nin trace at C Lhe reven<«l of the dark 
Fraonbofer lirnt'. In addillon, n irrieQ of faint true 
comiia] tin<-« can t>e (ncc<l in the Mitef regloiis of the 
oarona. W<- have not tMCi^l any known eiil)BUni'es 
In the solar corona. The ^r>.>«ier uunilKr of the 
pi-oniinence-llnes In the iitiravli>Iet are aloo nn- 
known, hut they aeera to he preient in Dr. iliij^in»'s 
pbolognph of tl*e spectrum of u Aitolliu!. 



f^ETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

irrt(<*^( m-trnt It In ii»n>trt rf^ulnMf M< ^ra>«/v/ir^'i/4UA. 

Th« relatlva ages of planets, ootnatB, and 
metoora. 

TtIR thi^'try LtiaL the «iin w«* once a |fi>i«oti!i mati 
extending beyond the mtst dUtaut planet, and tliat 
It liu contnu'ied Co itv prea<;ut tlltni^rttlou* by ib« 
continuous action of !;^ra<rliy, an<t U (till •») eontraeti- 
Ingi is now Y- r . t. 

It M well kii't« ■■! 

a gnseoiiF lio<.l\ ,■■.■.,[ ■■■J:, ,.>.ii^. .^..'i ..... .-..•' .o.|-^ut 

of ioUr m.Utf^r tn <r<)n->iNiui>-noe at lis inutlun Inwards 
the cencrv of graviiy in one cause, at leAit, — perhaps 
the [irlndpal one, — of the sun's high tempenslure. 
The moilem litw of the conservation of energy at- 
fordi dau for delcnnininE the nniounl of heat pro- 
ducod by the conden->allan of the suu's ma'-s from 
nni' vnlume to another, ll is thn* found that the 
L-onirociion to It* prt^Mnl dhnenaioua. from a primi- 
tive volume •.•xlenilfng indelinit<>ly hiyond iln« orbit 
of Neptune, would have kept up a uniform lupply of 
hvnt cgual to the present fur twiznty millions of yeiirs.1 
Tlie aire of the .'.dIw sy-Htum. however, may lie greut- 
cr or luM ilian this, as llie sun's radintiuu luiiy not 
have been con*tant. 

In any form of the nubular h>i<othe»h. Neptune Is 
the ulde^^t planet known, and the innerniotft of thfl 
number hit* had thi*. iuok: recent origin. 

A fuajorily of cornels piohahly move in hyperbolas, 
and vi»it the solar system but once, iymir orbits 
have beeu chanKwl Into ellipse* by plaitevsry p-irtur- 
b-ilioti. 

For any thing we can know to the conimrT. com- 
eUiry nuller has been falllni; towanls the w-ntre of 
our system in all sgwt of it* fxiilcn'-e. Wlieneter 
the |>erihello» dlxtauce has bi<«n le*< tlian the radlua 
of the sotar ^ptii-roid. thi* comvL's (irbiu-il inoiiun 
must have Wox\ arreHCnl. and ir<tii<)far]iieil Into iical. 

As the limits of k;eologlc»1 dau^* Ai'e det>-riniiie<l by 
the strata of ibe earth's eriut. so the "upitrlor timtts 
of Lhe age uf perlotllc roaieis ure Hx^U by the pKne- 
tary orbit:« next exterior to their |>erihelia. Uf tlia 
Eoraets krown !■> lie ptrrloillo. the perilielii>n dlslaoeea 
of thirteen are loss than lhe earth's <l itttani-e fnxn the 
sun. The )«es of ail the*e inu-i therefiire Uh leva 
ttian thai of the earth. In like luauner lb« ai-es of 
others arc shown u» )>c less than tluit of Venus, 
while Ib'tse of a few are found to be less than the 
age of Merv-ury. \\',- may concludi-, then, in general, 
(hat the ngi.-s uf coinot*, a* niein'ifrs of the solar sys- 
tem, arv teas than ihuse of plai)ul«. 

liut as mcteoMtih, punly at l>-Ait.arv derived from 
comets, tbelrorigio as M^jurale holies m connection 
with our syMetu must lie ittjll mun- r>t-<;nt: in fact, 
meteoric niaiter Is Ipeing coiislantly 'l-mch'^! from 
coinmlii nt cath •uecestive return t'l ' i. The 

liidieailona of ihli proeest were nin in Uie 

CAM: of lhe ^rcal comet of ISi:!, ami ....... ... .'ortilds 

of Lhe Uleiu ^^uu)l lutve been uiturAlcl from the 
comet In our own day. Uamii:i. Kikkwuuh. 

BloomlesUin. Itiil. 

nrst nse of wire In aouudluB. 
PnifftMor Verrill \s (|ulie right hi sii|i|ii>aln;* iliat I 

was nnaw '- - 

tioiiol ^^ "e 

loWiiliii i '.'■■■■ . 'f. 




July o. 1883.1 



SCFEXCE. 



13 



llm>iii;)i A n»val frlcrMl, of vn oflii^r in the Xovy 
dvpi«r<ltt«IIt, "iipniplnnv. whiidxT miv rr|ir>rl linil t>r<rii 

Eiulitf'iifJ. Tlii"yi iilcnoiigli lonnnk* 

r><iitirlr>), anit tlt-:i ■•:. r'^ulil ixit tind 

iMit tliitC noy l)iiti|^ !....: : , :. but Hut I he lo;;- 

Utokii w<T« At llif Jeparlmrtir On till* Ji'Tontit I 
tnxilc tin ftirihT M>«r>'ti fur )ir!>iiT-il tlnla; bill liiti>r. 
Oil CnmiljmitliT Banlcu's (nHBllnTion nt tlit- Ilviln)- 
{•niililr •tlflrc, 1 rnfittlotirit )l to hitn. and lie Uiul Ilia 
giHi<liii>4 I" f.iirch'llic log-bookc. and to nonO ma 
■■x»(ii>'> ■)( all f (eriMire* 'o tin; work witb wliv. roti- 
Ullicd !a liifMi, fr.i-" "■' -h ■ ' ti-.t(! wn* »iiu|iiI<Hl. 
t)uiibili->A oilier 1. liivw hwn uwd 

iilftrt. Ill res"i^' in ' ' ''»' wl"". U Is sp*- 

ctHcalty Httili-il 111 tliu lofi-Uo'litliAt it p&rii-Hl 'nwiiip to 
some- nf tlie link" rAtdiing nt tini<--ii mm otli^r*,' ■» lit* 
liDfl «ii« t'lii'l 'lit ill "lie or two CAW*. «i"t in otiicr* 
nft it was Wini; huulrd in. In nnotlivr ln«laiK'« it 
jMrtcil 'oiling to i>ni' of the ji'liKs raictilng uiion 
aiiutlifrr Joint on the w].' ll is ii'mbire in the 
ori/huil III!! rcfirrM [i> Um ht^aviii^ iiT Itio vessel: and 
the ImI fiitrv rej>e»t», ' eiillivly owliifi lo tin; »!iort 
ulp of tbv cnlcli ui»'ii lilt* reel.* Huvint; liad soiira 
erprri«'tir»* In ionndiii:: in ^rcut doinlis o( water with 
a Miinll >*ilitii:-i<'»*^I. 1 IiiiH' roriif' In thi- nitliilon. 
In which 1 think mi^it pn^rdnt^ li>iln>gTa[i1jcr« wuiild 
cuticur, (hat ii \s tiiiVMM.Bibiv thiil n pitiitib Miund 
abould btt oblaincd fn>in auch a Te!i«el undci nny clr- 
<rtuiifi>>iit<'«-<« likT-ty to r-criir in artiuil wurk. The 
wtinls "iwolcil by I'njfeAftor Vt'irlll fnim Wal'h'i tvpoit 
tboiv Ibjtl tlif lAltrr ofGo^r Oo«civol tiiniM-ir; for It i) 
evident, iha*. if tbo wirv ' trrvnt ii« iiii iindiur t<>kce|i 
the vcs>el iiundy,' tt ctmld nut have been plumb : and. 
ercn If il. »r>])<-arMl to be so at li)f) »ui(a<-c, vrliui It 
wa» bHow lh(t surface no liiftn fonid fHatc ullh coii- 
fideiicw, rxc-pgiL (hHt It wni not plniub. A atfranicr 
may be k>-pl over the wim. und, wltli wire (iroi^frly 
spliircil auil hiriivily wi-lKhlcd, n plumb (ound cult tw 
had. bni not oihrnrisi': and it may bo eonfldi^ntly 
>ald ihat iitcMriHif koimdln^ in dc<-p water dnlcH fruiu 
lb«<'i.<inbiiiati<Hi of theteiwofactora. 1 may vay, nloo, 
that Ui my ti'tm 1 diil uui. nor du I non. consider that 
iun-««>ful trial of a ftoundliig appnralUK huB bifiii 
arriri-d M. until bottom has been n-aclicd, and the 
•Igne of it bniiiglit up. Wm. H. Uall. 

WwhliiKUin, JunetS. ISB. 

Falao olainu. 

ll U to b<> rq;reltnl tb.iL ibo pAgt* Of a popiitiu- 
tna{!iuii>r of Idi^h Ktnnding ibmild li« made lli« vehicle 
of >*ii<h nn adverllseiiient a* api)»>ars In the C'wfury 
(iir .Fu)y. entiilf^d 'Clirap food for ihv inilllon,' re- 
prtntrd in tilt' |)iit>llalier'!t deitarlnirnt of SciKKt^C 
for Jun« 'ii. Of ihi- ni'Tit* <ii dtnierit" of a new 
(ood'prvKrrvntiti-, of which 'u many lia^c l>e«n 
brought forwani within the lagl fi-w yv^r*. I have 
nothing to vay: tin- IcMiinnny of j'rof. S. W. Johntiau, 
cil«'d In lU favor, is ce.rijiliity entitled to rirs|icclful 
coiisideratiou. Rul. I winii tn enll ntleiHIon Vi the 
ciaini of (ht! liivciilor of Ibe new no»tniui lo pnbHc 
gf,„ .1.1. ....... ..Ft (tita ^rroiind thill ht- !• ■' n l«llc(w of the 

Cti' Iv of lyondon. andalsoof ll>eGeot»f;k-al 

M> - ckoifd after unusually »cvi-n>cxuiniiia- 

Itiius. I'lVkiilctit llnxley, nf the hitler society, snld 
that 'no Ani^^riean »h<<old bonst of an eirclion with- 
out a eeveie "Inii:}!!*'.' 1" •■viili-m-f •■! ilii* prejiidlre 
towards .\niericiins. 'In' f.*-:! th;>^ I'l-f.'s-or llnondon 
w«!> ^iveii twohuiiilrrd and fifty (|ki<-.«tiimi ilivt) lime* 
(h>* if.'v.i\ nniiib<-r) Muir be rliMl. ile is now 9Uper- 
iuK-ndt'oi of the compuny's works," etc 

It l« noi ck-Ar what meaning Is to bv attni-hed to 
lh(> wurtis put Into lluslpy's [iiouth; bui It It a well* 
known fact LliaL nokLb«r in the socletiiu uan)e<I, nor 



any others wltli whteh 1 ant .idualntett, la iher** imy 

•>xii ml nation whalevcr refioinit, <it wr* h!iv <jtn"»- 

ilone oskcd. A ni'n 

of nWni niii>-t ItAvt' i 

date, and till- pa)ioi'ii; ■■;... -. . 

ntcr*»ary to nienil>ef?liip of lli< I 

I.oiiduii. wliloh hiin iieVclal 111 .. 

lis Vim, liiL-luilloK niaoT Ainericiion. In ilo<>: 

cainl'>cii<r of all M.-i«nlilli: laper* iiiitiM«t"'d In I 
am! .\inrriea Up to l^"^ iWoj*. n i 

*-Bln fur tin; name of ilio "- 

OJniiKUiy'k workM.' ][ Is nul ci. ..,;.,,... . ,.,...{. 

tiavrs that the oamcB of llluiirloiu men of *cl«nM 
and of Ic-anied nHetli'*. nonplM wlih .nr. nHiii* 
SlAtL-meoL^and absurd appeals tonal tomi : 
abould bii invnkvd, even indireetly. to i j 

their ivares. T. Stkhiiy m m. 

Moalital, Jaiw SD, IRQ. 



MACIOSKIB'S ELEMESTARY BOTANY. 

Eitnualary botany, irfiA tivdrMa' ^\uH* to tb< eromi- 
tuTfian and de*cri{Mi»i\ uf p!anl*. lly (iKOROB 
MAt;i.<MKiR. I) Sc , I.L 0.. profrsForof natural 
liistory in U» J G. Oi-wii sehocil «f Bcu-ncc, 
Priiicebin. XJ..UW. New York, Iloll, 18fe3. 
870 p. 13». 

SaKN<:K i« r«nly to welcome n new Itmt- 
l>ook, ii-skin^ only for soin*.' j^artiL-tilar line oT 
excelli'iiw :i^ a nanstiil of iu rciiboii tu W. 
CoDsuIi-'riiiy Ihiit " Ihlo volume nims lo mijiiily 
a rvndnMv Hkukli uf boUiiu," uml tto lo Ircat 
Uk- suiik'-'l " m* t'J mtri^l Uiv iviiiiU oT a lar<ii* 
uluss uf n-n')i-r6 who wish to know Hoinrthing 
of the Iboduuiciital ]iri[R'1]ilcs nml pliiloMijiht- 
ciil bt'nringa of thf Bcienfc wltlioiit bonifl dia- 
trac'tcd by tcchiiit'nHiip«."wc lltink that itArrail- 
ahle t'li II meter nnd iho coTnparfltivcIr uparitig 
use of imiwccRsary tocliiiicnl terma are- ainmtg 
its c-ominotMlalilp fcatorp*. Thft alyli- ih orn^y, 
.iKinclimos n little f>Hil in itn <Y>ii(-»t<.-[mliim8. an 
where "it ia ajiid that n inonkr-y llrnt intro- 
duced Ii'n to llif iicilicc of llio ChiiM'M? : the 
Kn^lish f!nvi>nimi'iil ■tinrti-d U» fullivntion JD 
A^suini. wlw'iii-e Uw Ixrut U'lis now conic ; " nnd 
in tlic t'ollowing itnnigrxjtU it beuonim WCD 
sunsntioiial . 

'■Their power of increasing in thickncRB 
imparts to rootA tUdr cnpndty for niis4.-tiler. 
Tticir vigor is somrwhiit siirprisliig. Thity 
make their way tlirough dt'Ust.* soil, looiivntng 
it so thni it betomes 6oft niul sjiongy. They 
can split roeks. ovei-tiiin wnllu and InilldingSt 
stop up Btiwcrs. and root up «>iir strwt-pavc- 
iniMiti!. They i-lTi-tt nion' injury to mnn'a 
liiuidiwork lliHii ti-nipi-st, firt-. nnd wnr com- 
liineil. . . . Wv. |>i)Kscttjt II mot hiig^iug an 
old Ijoitli" in irrwleoninhle t-iiptivity." jil»*^i 

In .1 well-known p;i&sit}{(? at Ibc clu^i? of one 
of liih tHK)ka, IVjrwin likoDo<l the lip of a root 
to the hrain of one of tliv lower aniiunla ; and 
liRiiita, wp kDow, are uajiahli! of uiisvlilef, and 



u 



SCIENCE. 



{Vot- ir., No. 42. 



tlicreftjn' of iletiioraliKation. Wla-tlu'i- ilit' 
rout wliicli llic niitlior is so IbrtiinuU' us lo |h^s- 
se^i is ill ili|i»<^ii)Ani:io cupiivily to tlic- txittk' it 
hugs, or whetlicr ttic holtle is cflptivnlt^ by 
llie cnrcsBiiig root, is not (juiic clear from Ihe 
context. Ami how stich dire mi^rliipf to 
mat) wronglil liv n>oU — more iiijurimis ' tban 
tenifieat, firr, nmi war coni>iiiip<1 ' — is to lie 
r«<»nrile<l with creative bciH'Volfnc-*, we iiliist 
Icavo for the IVinceton tli^ogi»na to settle, 
uji<l |ia«a oil lo auother toi>ic, that of juiiictoii« 
abHtiiK'iicv tVoin tv<'hiii(?alitius. 

WriU-rs *if t4?xt-liouk8 aru |)miio to i-mpluy 
nil tbit ici-hiiii-ul ttTiu^i Uu-v cun liml. i>»|>i>(nnllr 
nr.w-f>ni|rlfii (Kit'--< ivliiiJi have not yd pnired 
llicir riphl or rcsison lo exist liy coiitiimixi 
usngc. or wliici], though coiivciiiciit w iiii ori^- 
nal trcatiBc or iix-inoir, and harmlc'ts or even 
ubL'fiil in n glossnrv, may W lulvantiigcoiisty 
di3i>en»tfd with in oHiiiary sciontill*-' tt-unliiiig. 
Wi- nil know of tliu |>aiiit<*r ooumifiuoralc-d Uy 
Punch, who ' nihbed out a goo<l di-ul,' and 
who c-IftimtHl to ' get i\\* best ctfect^ that way.' 
Many iicie.titiiic b<M(kA for sttxlpnu' ii<w mit^ht 
lie Iteltfred hy the samp piiK*»>!*. !*rnfe8.'«^r 
Jilavlij^ki<> haft no w<'ll ivsisl^-d the oixliuary 
t(^tii|)lMli<iii, or r^'struiiKxl iu pnruiiUic«i» uuc-<l- 
lusit tuniitt wliit-h he did not liku to leave uiiU 
— .'tuoh »!> xjflvTH, C»iL'«k for wood, most barha- 
ron^ly (Jt-nnaiiixwl (us if. where a Greek said 
X'/l'/n ami a Komuii suid lignum, we might not 
say wtyxl when we tnuHut it) , — that it may lie 
a little iim$raeious to eomjilain of hi:^ making 
one or two himself, and luulcin'; thorn liadly. 
When; he anya. " to a\*oi<l t-onfiision, wi- ahull 
call [the M^d-contii] exoteat wwAendnteat,"' the 
inlVreiioo is, that tbe»' terms are origiQal. 
IJor. not to insist that cunfusion ii rather nm<li> 
than ftvoidi'd hy the siibsiitnlion of new iiHnie>« 
for wcll-rcroj^nizi'-l lild one*, ire niifjht sngm-nl 
tiiat the I'oiimge in in a smidl way pi-ilunlic, ex- 
cept tliat a ]HHlni)t wuiild imt violate what onr 
author III iiiiother plaee tfnn>i ' Ihi- jim i.x>nnnliii ' 
by UUiridiziiip (Jn-vk witli Latin. \or, if we 
Diutit have siieh Ureek-Latiu ei-ossen, woukl he 
have triinciited thum into iHoti Engli.sh, which 
is a» l<Md :i& u thjni ero!>)i. hut have written exo- 
tesia and endotcsta in fhll. vile as the terms 
■re. Oam^ie i» certainty new coinage : and 
the nutlior does not clearly stiy what In- means 
ll lo |ins(( for. Hut it may he gatlii*n-cl that 
" giunoiic «flliiity' means n*btton»>hip m^ar 
enough to allow itf Inii-rhifedini;. AV'.- lu-c to 
say. then, that »|iM-k'-4 U'loii^ing Wi diirerent 
l^'oera have ;;amelie atliiiil> in the rare cases 
when Ihfy can be* miiilt' In hyhridire ; and th-it 
certain 9|)ecieji Alriirtly «tf the saiiM- }j;i>nn9, 
which we Imvf faili-d lo li\ l>n<lize, ATc devoid 



of ^iiurtir aflliiity : so the term has no explan- 
alory v;iliie whattrver. 

Buiiu' of chf ttormwe'l wixhIciiI* are very 
^mhI ; m>>i«t of ih>- origiiml oiies an- quite the re- 
verse ; and the one wliicli is said to ii-pn'scnt a 
. 'tip shoot of pea' is n ciimplote puzzle, after all 
the cnligbteiimfnl which the tctteii>reM atfunU. 

Turning ovrr the pagra, wc now and then 
come U)ion Ktfttements whidi dam|)en any *«• 
lbiwia»m of rommemlatlon which a reviewi-r 
might wish to express. On p. 1<< no ri-'ad Ihat 
" cymosc flotveia are always u(.-iiiiumorpliic. 
being equally exposi-dlu tight in all iiirectiont*." 
Till* implication that '' acliiioinorphie.' i.e.. reg- 
ular, (lowtTs are so because rqually exposed to 
ligiil fniin alt diri>rtioii(i i»< a hit of dciluctive 
Imtaiiy of the Gnint Allen weluwi. And the 
asHi'i-tioii Mint vvniottf indoreTiivnce and aclitw- 
murphic llowrrs always go together is by no 
mcoDstnie, as witness nil I.jibialae and a large 
share of othfr diityn&motia flowers. The netsl 
** in Lepidinm. uu Iteirig mui><iciied. darts out 
mneilngiiiouti thrL-Ad<t." Ia Dr. Macloskin nure 
of thift. or docA Im infer that thei-R mn»t U* such 
threads Iieeami.e they exisl in van<««i» other 
ftc-cil>( and s«-ed-lik<* fruits which ih-velop muci- 
lage when wetliHt ? The bypowlyleilouary 
fttem " in Uie pea is short because \\w. sued re- 
mains underground." Wi-ru it not belter to 
say tlial the seed ivmuins uudi-rground because 
this iniliid ^tum dots nol leiigtiien? On p. Hi 
it is Rs»f>rtvil. or al k-asL im[jtied. that root* 
haii-s last all !>unimt-r lun^, ami may he renewed 
oil a surface thai has lost them. To Grfltit 
Alti'U, in the year \Mi, U allributexl the idea 
that neiitrid i-ny-flower^ of Com{)ositae av^ 
Bterilized meml)er3:^ct apart and enlarged for 
(iiiqKMes of display. IJn« Dr. Mae!o«kie met 
with no i*arlier cxjKwtioii of that doctriut*? 

Not to pnilongipiostioniii^, let iis i>av. that, 
for thodci who are most likely to uin* (his hook, 
it waa a good idea to dfvoU- a U-w jtagr!* at Iho 
cliMcto thcderivationof common it-niit, Latin 
and Greek rodt-word-*. and pn'hxcs, and to 
help tho.se who do not know the Gix>ek alpha- 
Iwt hy writing out the words, as ne-arly ae may 
be, in Itoniuu letters. 



THE GEOLOGY OF BKLGIVM. 
Grefitgie dr la B^lffiqut- P«r MicuKi, MoiitMi>\. 

2irob. (Iruxetles, //•!>«.-, 1880-M. 817; 10+302 

p., illnslr. 8". 

Tnt* book, a model iu its way. will be read 
witli eipiol profit by Ww geologi>»t and hv tlut 
general reader. The gindogiat will Dud In it, 
criticidly exposed, and In a short and (mpar- 
tint luauner, the imiuciise amount of labor 



Tm.r a, lasa.] 



SCIENCE. 



15 



and or detail which is seiittcrcd in tlie uuitx^r- 
ons ]>a|)cn; of tiic ni!lgiiin ^leolo^^ists. Any 
onp of onlinnry iDtclk<au»l culture, ami iuter- 
estt'il in Ui'Igritun, will find it a ulear and read- 
ahlp nttxuiiit of ihv po^^t history and chief 
fpaliin'B of tlir- rouiiiry. Two causes liave 
coiilribtil^il to mako rasli'r ibr tnsit or tlie 
aulhur : tlie works on thp gcolo-^- of Belgium 
by <rOm«lini», Pi.-walqin', and rspccially the 
(xOpbrfllrtt ' r'sr|uift3t'i* gt'-ologlqnps ' offJosftptet, 
linve nlix'ftdy i>oitil<Kt out the way to sncooss ; 
:iii<(. riturL>uvor. the nntiirnl di^jjoailion of tlie 
coimlrj' allo«» a verj- eimple grouping of facts. 
liolh geologically and g*y>jjni,iiliically, IM- 
gium is fornitnl of two diKtiuet (Jiirla. Tliu 
aoatbcrn tialf (tlie Antennes) is a billy r«gioii, 
a continiiiition of tlie old pul?ozoic niick-u* of 
Euro|x;, — the so-caliwi llercyiiian monnhiin- 
range: tbe norlbern half (Ftandres. etc.) is n 
dnt land or jfiairie rrgioa, and forms part of 
Llio ;;ri.'at plain of noilbern Kuropn, the basin 
of the Nortli Si'a. 'I'ho Arvlennea is a paleo- 
loic distrii-l ; Flaiidres. a tortinry one; the 
triiwsii*, .lurastiir, ami crotacooua fornmtiona 
forming bnt a broken linlt around the i>3leo- 
zoic masses. All these formations are, how- 
ever, studied by tbe author in a eomplp-t^ 
manner, and their niincratogical, paleontologi- 
oal, and strati graphical eharnotirs sncoe^aivelr 
dfiacribed. Both their historical divisions and 
their local extension arc given with care. 
Beginning with the old(?r rofks. we first meet 

^the Cainbiian shales, forming two principal 
ranges (ma^ifs de Itocroy and de .Stavelot). 
Thes*- roeks eau Iw uompared to the Ococ 

kOODglouK-ralctt and shntes of the Ap|>aliich>nu 
region ; tliey oootaio the curioua iiitert>edded 
rryslHlliiie fforpiiyroids, «o well illustrated by 
dulu V'alli'e PouH»iu and Kenard. whose [>a|KM'a 
are hi'fi- Buuimari^ed In twogmxl plates. The 
hililrian bed» fiirm two aiaaW orcsle extending 
cast and west, tlm^iigb Itrnbanl and Condros. 
■nd have BnppliH fosHils ol' Ibtrratide'a aerond 
fHuna. These beda, like the underlying Cam- 
brian, liave a southerly dip. The upper Sihi- 
rian fauna i» not represented. 

The folding of the .minrian rocks was tlic 
initial cause of the so-callod Dinaut and 
Nuinnr devono-c;irbonifer&us de|>r€!'sions, or 
basins. It W.-W ri>lloweii by a long-continued 
dtpre**ioo of the area, in oonsrt)Ufnr(i of 
which the ncoomulfltlon of an enormom^ thick- 
tie» of ntratiQt^ ixK'k^ within thegrr-at tronghit 
of Dtnant nlul of Naninr took phicc. This 
dnwnwanl bending uf the earth'& unwt did 
not ^ri on eoiitinuously. but tubuiJitLvl ld aonie 
iiTeguliirilies ri;lati'd lu the lireaka nuil unnier- 
009 Bti-ati graph i cat divisions uf the Duvonion 



foriuatiou, Tbe Devonian formalion of \r- 
doniiea is tbe most complete and bivt fftudled 
in nuro[N>. through the Inlwrtt of DinnunI, 
Goa<iek>t, Duponl., ami the anllior. It sliow^ 
a tliick scries of four tliousand nietn-s of 
alternating fossillfrrotia shales, aanditttrnps, 
and limesitoneg, marine for the chiv'f part, 
ihough !4omi' beda bav« ftirnlshorl Psllopliylon 
and other p1flnt-n>ma{n8. After lh<> perjivl f^r 
the mountain linientoue, littoi'al, bra' 
wal^r. and finally laenatrine and terre-' 
dopoMts, came in, and the coal continued 
foi-ming. 

A gi-neral nioveiiiunl of olovation auuctwded 
towiinla tbe und of tbv coal-meaauref). and 
foUled tdl the pnleoxoic avilimentB as if they 
bad lieen crushed frvni south t»> north. Itiia 
thrust had a more violent etfect in tbe Naioiir 
th»n in tbe Dinant basin. In the former arc 
comprised the eelebraterd coal-tlelda of Mous. 
I.if-ge, and Chnrleroy, — tbe chief caascs of 
Itelgian pro9|)erily and wealth. 

At the cltise of iho paleozoic [Hfriod, the 
motiutainoua region of soutiii>rn lh>lginm was 
formed : and Hince then it baa always boca 
expO!i(-d to denudation. South of this mouu- 
tainour^ district, tlio Jnrn-triaasic b^-da of east- 
ern France now began to acoumuIat« in tlie 
Golf of Luxemburg (ltunteraaiidst<>inun<l Ket]> 
per, and the Jiiraftsic from tlie AWeula eontorta 
l)eds to the middle ooUlts). These niesoxote 
seuB did uot penvtrnte north of tbe Anlennus, 
where the lower cretAceoua arc ihe mrjst an- 
cient mesozoic formations. 

The cretaceous Airniations In tlila flistrict 
possess g:eat interest. notwilhsl.tndiug their 
small gcograpbitqil csitent. The lower beds 
have ntniiahud llie splendid igimuo<lons of 
the liruAsela uinaeuni, and tliu up|>er onns 
aix' the wutl-knowu Maestridit l>eils. All are 
ehiedy littoral formatiuna; awl tlie .<<o-cailed 
lourtias of the middle erataceou? arc famoua 
by the variety suil richness of their faunaa. 
In the deep and narrow (iulf of Mons, the ore- 
taeeons Iteds ore found in a djalky condition, 
Hs in the Ani^lo-Frt^ncli basin*. 

In the nmgbborbood of Mon<« and Lnudon nru 
found the moflt iincii-nt representaUves known 
in Kuropcof tb<> tertiary e]>i>eh (syslirnes nion- 
tien. beersien). m* well' ilhisUalcd by (.'omet 
and Hriurt. The Lmalenian B_i~!i(em bos m 
wider extension, fonutng. with the other terms 
of the e<K.'en« seriee. nearly all of lower Bel- 
gium. Tbuii it is Ik Ihe widc-spn-iul inaas of 
Ibe l^onrton clay, which ravers the rundenisu 
anndtt. Unit Belj^ium owe^ its nieadowa luul 
wetl-cullivaled fields, which exleitd in an im- 
inFOBc plain iVoni tbe Brabant to tbe coast, 



16 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IL, No. n. 



and ttom Dunkirk to Ostcnd. Tito Bruicolliau 
anil l.aekeiiiai) t>,v8K-ms rcriu rii pcrlk-ial lilIU in 
lliv nvigtil>orliood of [tni»»fl^, lintid. «*U'. Tlit; 
oligoceiiu 8>«ti>iii shows two priiicijmUlivisions 
(tongrinn. rii)H.'liiiii). n*[iii.-li strctuli ucro«s tlie 
lower part of lliu rivur Kscuiil. wliure il Ivnvisi 
the cowne iUslricls. tliroiigli wUk-b it tiows 
in the western part or tlie counlri-. Tlit plio- 
t-ene forinntions ovi-rlnp irn'giiliirly the iindcr- 
l_\'iiig torlion- l^cds, nml I'slf-nii horn Antwerp 
to Louvaio. Mnnv due foHsils have hcfn fmiDd 
in tlicw boils, where Moiirlou aduiits sovoral 
diiisions, — Dirsliou (in part) . Auveraieii. and 
ScaMi*icn. The Usl choplei's of th« work 
Ircjit ol" the r|iiiil'eniary (ilihiviiii. hcsbaycn, 
nDd cmnpiiiicD) and rccont |K-rinds. 

Thuii^Ii Kprcial fttt^tilion hnn here born 
given to thf slrfltigraplitcnl extent and din- 
l>OHition of the W'^\», th« inithor hag treated 
with eijnMl care of iheir [ithologienl nnd puleon* 
tologicid yhanurlei**. their iiiiwnUs and fossils, 
ttwl the useful products they runitsh to Ik-1- 
giuu iudusttry. Il will he enough, to imliuile 
what amount of dueniuents are hieludeil in the 
book, tu slate UjhI the list* oi" fossils oeenpy 
S-IO, and the bibllogrnphiuil lists 14-1 pages. 



DU MOXCEL'S BLECTHO-MAGNETii. 

EUctrcmagnrU. Th« dulerminutioH nftht tltmrtil* of 
fheir contSnioiftn, By Til. Dv MnsCKt.. From 
th« wcond Fr*ncli Litton. New York, Ynn 

7^ na/ne. Truablatcd from th« Fnmoh b,v C. J. 
Whnrton. l^ondcrn, Spon, 1884. 

Tub grtiii interest in the pnictical applica- 
tion« of eluelricity deinaud^ simple trealiaes on 
the most econoniieal nielhwls of making elec- 
tro-mngnel!*. Count Tb, Du Jloiieel has en- 
deavored tu supply l\\h want, and has added 
Another treatise lu tlie long li'>t he h:us alivady 
pnbliflhihl upon eleetrieity. lie disclaims any 
emlea%-or to miike a treatise on elet-lro-raag- 
net8 which shall embody scienlifio theoriea 
upon that most ditheult i»f anbjccts. theoretical 
mQgtietii*m. Ilia desire is to give the meoh- 
auicinii a vadt wwcmhi by mcana of wbi<-h ho 
can eonstnict electro-magnets for ojterations 
outside the lalK>rator>'. Indeed, this trealiac ia 
intenile^l to Htand in tlie same relation 1o the 
milker of dyuaimi-eleetric madiinefi as a trea- 
tiBC on the pnielieal cfiii^tnielion of Iwiters, 
itiinna theories of ela&ticitv. would stand to 
thu constructor of ateam-engines. Tliore is 
need for such a tn-ulise, midoiibtedly ; for 
mueb expense ean lie saved by a little knowl- 
edge where 10 put the material to the U'st 
advaninge. Most of Iho dynamo macblaes 



which aro before the world at the present time 
arc defvolive in the arrangement of the win* 
of the iSftd eleetro-magiiets. I>neb the trva- 
tise of Du MonceJ supply this want? The 
author follows the antiquated French fashion 
of expressing the resistance of a wire in 
(enjis of the length and diameter, without 
spcciryirtc. in ranuy co8<'k. llie spet-iflc rPBist- 
nnec. Xlius. instead <if ohms, we read so 
many metres of telegraph-wire : and oue must 
enter into n tix>iibles«(me tirilbinr-tiinl dnidgerv 
to aseenain what is meant. The Kiiglish edf- 
tiou. publishe^l by S|>on. stalvsi in the preface 
the relutiuh brtweeii Du AloiKvl'snniti and Ihe 
eomimmly received units of reniatanoe and 
olectm-iiiotive force; Imt the Ameriea" <nli- 
tion, pubtt'^hed by Van Xostraiid. leaves the 
reader to (bid o*il thi* relation aft«r he has 
plodded «oiiie distance through the tn-atiac. 

The two imprints, one by Spon and the 
other by Van Xoslriuid, aiv varelcsi^ly edited. 
Thus, on p. 43 in Vna Notttrniid. we llnd an 
iucoiioislency hetwcea the values of t' and A. 

Oo p. 47, Van Nostrand gives 



ab 



^ o.ooosofl ^V/*y 



= U 0.0225 c/V^tX 
while Spon gives, oo p. 34. 

ab = ^( .0225 ^VJ^Y 

« ^ .000506 WV/T. 

We give tliis as an osample of similar mis- 
takes which meet the eye. The (lucfttion 
arisefl whether a more ciircAilly prep^rerl 
treatise, which would start with the funda- 
metiljd ^yst^'in of eteetrieal measurements, is 
not still needed. It \a uselc*^ for anv on^ to 
eiidcnvor tu become a practical cleotncian 
to-dny. without a sound training in nmthe- 
matica ax far as the principles of tho dilfer- 
ential and integi'al calculus. A genius may 
arise, but he wilt know enough to employ a 
steady plodder who has been steeped ia the 
prineiples of the cjdculiis. Most eoiistniclors 
who desire to bnild elertro-raHgncts will find 
that the exigenits of i*p.Hw mid material will 
demand a certain fiHiii. L'ntess they under- 
stand the theory of magnetic measurements, 
they will find the treatise of Du Moncel of 
little value ; fur so many and so Ini'ge approx- 
tniatiotis must be m.ide. that tlie Ibial result 
would not ilitfer much from those obtaincf) by 
a clmmb-mle. \Vc oomiuund to the precticat 



Jm,r 0, 18S3.I 



SCIENCE. 



17 



electrician u ^lii>ly of tlic ItmiliiiiieiiUtl mag- 
netic imiusiiiTituitiU rncliur tliati Uui pei-usul 
of ^rvatities of this nature. 



LEDGER'S SVN A.\D ITS I'LANETS. 

The »Mn, ilt platifli, ami /Aittr MiUUilt*. By Kev. 
EbMLi.tD LltmiRR, M.A. I>)udot), Stanford, 
l&JL*. 432 p. IS". 

Ov .Inrc A oon^iUorablu tuimln'r of aotot- 
pojuilar worka liave ap[war«I on Rslronomical 
suhjii:ls. Tbey nvum to intrel a full waut of 
tKc cotuniunity, and have twuD very sucoesa- 
ful. Wt! c;)tl llit'iii s«mj-|xi|}u)ur : Iwvuuiiu, 
wbile tLvy an* nut n-rittvii for {irotViisiuii;il h^- 
tronoruvnu. Ihvy arc ails|>lcil. in Llieir s-tylv nml 
idimIc nf Irentiia-nU ]k^^ to iJic grciit iMii-ysos ol' 
ti]^' biisin<!&» Bud ItiboHug popuhitioii than to 
llic eUuL-ntcd (X-'uplf who uii; (.■ngii^cd in v;iri- 
oqa iirofirsBicnial «(«ni|«itioii«- Thosir. fftr iti- 
gtant-o. who nrv luitiy in teaching. »r with Uie 
pmctice of incdlcin*' or law. or who aw pnrsii- 
Ing gcologieal or hiologieal ii-warrh (In ulinrt, 
preUy nnich all who wotihl tiatiirally aiitiscriiw 
for Kiiknck), geiiernlly wish lo keep au cou- 
rant of what ib going on in other than their 
own s[K-einl liwi* of-work.anfl are delight^id 
to Ami what they want, wlu-n they can got 
it in an attraetivi- form. 

Mr. I^lg^r's l>t«,)k is ah exeelleBt one of 
this cla(i!<. ]l is less diffiiso tbnn Mr. I'roc- 
tcr's c!*»»ys, nutl not <|iiite so imsgi native. 
It is nnrron'cr tu its scope than I'lofessor 
Newcomb's I'opiilar astronomy, but easier 
reading, and hiller of detail in reajicct to the 
subjects of wbieb it does treat. Il tiiakee no 
special claims to originality, bnt ia aectirate 
and clear, and the atylt* is nnpnitpntions and 
Kgrtieablc. Tile book is nii^'ly gotten ti|). and 
very well iUuHtniicd. Alujgelher, we have no 



hcsiifttion in pronoinicing it a voluroo well 
worili n-ftding mid i)oa%e«8iug. 

It ifi niadc lip of fllleen leotnrc^ read iu 
IHKl aial lHti2 ill Creshuiu culK*gt<. London. 
Two arc njjon llir mm. two are dovoli d to thu 
moon. lwi> to the i>arth. iiik) two lo t(ii|>iter and 
his satt'llilf'S. Each of the other planelM Iicih a 
chapter to itself (coonling the gronp of j.Jum'r- 
toid!« as one), and there is a chaptiT PutilUrd 
* Ptolemy versus Copcmictis.' NalnrnUy, tlic 
lectures arc not all of equal Intcrv^t and I'aJuo ; 
but none of Uieiu aiv poor, or iKMdd be woll 
diH|ieus<.-i] with. The cbii|>ti.'r» uiion Mar« and 
the planetoids ntiike u>< a» partii'ulnrly gCKK], 
and cuutain inroriiiiitioii nut (tthi'i'wri«e very 
easily accessible. The chnplcrs on Hn' sun 
aud moon ar>.' aUo ex<-ellvut. thongli niiltiially 
enongh. in the main, ouly an B)>iidgni(>nl lUid 
txinipilatioii from the re<!ent liookt; on thcne 
tmbjciTts; to which books the antliur hand- 
somely acknowledges his obligations. 

Tliere are remarkably few mistakes In the 
work : in fact, in reading it over for Uils notice, 
we have found none at all, imlosw we connt as 
anch, a blunder in the illiisLratfon on p. Ui, 
n-prcM-Dling the coni|>anitiVf size of the sun 
as seen from Mercury at perihelion and aphe- 
lion ; the diircrencc being represenliMl vcryoiucli 
gr>-at4^r thrill the Inilli. Si>t'iiking of iHiiNUa- 
tions, the tine Woodbury-lype of the eclipse of 
1^71 desicrvcs >9pecial mcDtiou. and sevei'ol of 
the pictures of Mars and .Inpjter arc unusually 
excellent. It its rather a pity that a few pogea 
of tables were not appended, containing the 
numerical statistics of the plaiicta.i'y syi^tem. 
They would have gn^atly inuruosed the value of 
the book for llioKc who wish not merely Lo read 
it on<«, bnt to keep it on their shelves for 
occasional reference. 



WSSKir SUMM^iRY OF THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. 



ASTRONOMT. 
Flexure of thebrokantruuit. — ProffftsorC. A. 

Youot:. ttftoralltulitiK (<> tb>! fM-1 that the flexun'-cor- 
rectloiiiir tl)is|>i'culli>r f<^nnr>f tniiMti^ itot trc«t'?d of 
In uiy of Uie rufiimon lext-buvlut on |ira<.-lical lulrun- 
oniy (nol «vfn in SawlUtcli, who sjn^iiilly iliiicribM and 
dhcuMK^ Uic initnini<>iil ItMlf), M&tui the throrj- of 
Iht! <>(>rrc4.-tjoD to traniltA of sUin otnarred with 
the 'broken Lratisii.' \rhicli is ofteo m grv&t uto 
Bieount 10 s IarK« frwtioD of & Mcoiid of time at Ute 
wniili. Thf L-uDii&iit of flexure muit be known, and 
\Xn r'tlrct ellmliialeil, bi!fon! ihe cnUlinatioii error can 
\m dclvniiincd by rvversul of ihe Inslrmnvni ou a 
drcoinpoUr nUtr. The rorrei-timi hiu ihe ume co- 



eSrlent witli the JsveJ-emtr; anil ilenoting UiIa lal- 
t«r, as iisunlly obuiiumi, by b, lh« lli>siir«-conslaiil 

by /, mill the i>ivol-enrrecli(m l>y p, lh« i!uiiiplp|« 
forcuuln. for ilto ' levcl-conMant ' li \(i it (J ± p}\, 
Thu», by flexure, (he Ume of cransli of a 6Ur to sf- 
f(^ct«it by/ ru> r wc il. Th« il^u at J <:liu\nv» wllh 
the revrnol of th* insirunniiil, buln; alwiy* plu* 
for eye east, nnd mlniift for cy« wen. Pn>f, Young 
glvM several method* of detcmihilnii;/: by obwrv- 
ing xenilb slxn in rrversad po^itionn of ihe itistni- 
m<^t. I>y niMm of the eolUniMtlnt! eye-|>lM!e and 
mercury- buin, or a vertical colliniaior supporied 
alwveibe Inttniiaent. oiid by l#iiit-*qiiaro trcatiaeni 
of ei|iutUotut K>*'*n ^y rw}H-utM ottttirfKUim nf Buit- 



18 



SCIENCE. 



fVoi.. n.. So. 22. 



Rtilff Sinn In tmUi itoRitlon^ <it ihe Insl rumen L, 
Kuuii* fnrnis of the ' braked l^Ieacoiic' IrniiiU, ^'[w- 
cially Uiosc with k slrtnlcr ftxis, rw|Ulrt> ibe kddiUon 
t>f terms lTiv»lvlii;t diIipt tuiiriJona nf t thui lu 
c<Mklno. Pn>f, W»t»on fpiiml r^r it ^Uck|ioti>lnin*li R 
fl»'««n>-f^iT*wlJ«n of till' fnnii C^ftw J +_r «>i ';) ftw: (I. 
Bill If the iixU U rf&*onab]^ *tlff, the pecnnd term ii 
ntvw FOtmlblc. ^{sULmrMt., Juii«.) o. v. t. p. 

MATHEMATICS. 

I>oubl* tbata-fimotioiiM. — M. CiupurT Kivi's ui 
RTcotinl nf »nnii> "t thp mor^ climienUry th*or»m» 
coDf^cnilDg Iht ihiMA-fiincIlona of tiro vArlahlci. He 
prtrt-e* flp*t. In a vry simple ni»imer, Ihsl llie «<|iiftml 
funetlnnn 'rail hv arntitK«i] In th* ffinii of a tlelprnit- 
nanr of the fourth order which MtiaBc* ali the conJl- 
tlon* of a (Imennliiaiit ft an onhnconol iiub.^tltut]on, 
Uv iIvTive? aim the G^iiel nOalloix hetwifeit thesf 
fiinntlnti)' anil thf>irnp|illcati<>ti la Kuinnx'r'* !iiir(«'«. 
A ntimlwr of otii^r fundamental theoi\-m« an atfto 
UTivml at In a very oknuentar^' luaiiuer, iDakiutr tlic 
pa]irr a valtiabie Intrtxliiction to the tUiily of thi* 
double tliel«-funclion» •^iJoxirn. rtlae ang. math., 
xcW. no. 1.) T. c. [a 

Perfodio faneUons. — M. IliimrKa ditcuMM slo- 
frle-rnl iinl 2n-fulil ('crimlii: fiiuriions which Uuoogb-* 
o«t ■ (inllfl rirgioii hnvn th«^ ciiaractwr of ralfnnal 
functions, and which an- real for real values of ihrlr 
Hh^imenls. More exactly he psamtn«4 the pro|>ertiM 
of the [»i'rlod8 of such AhclUn integrals as beloni; to a 
ri-al «]i{chrale form lurbtlde). Uy a rtal algct'rale 
form h^ m<>an!i the aggr«f^t« of all pairs nf valuea of 
('« vt whirli sailify an Irreducible alKebntlo equation 
(F(x, v) ~ '') whone ix>elSdent> are all ntat. Deliii- 
Ing a iMrimllc fuDotlon hjr Uxe equation 
•(li, + ;*-. u, + P, . . . II, + P.I = #(ii,. Ii, . . . u,), 
th* oomplos of (inanlUh^ /'« U called a pvriod of the 
fuiiell'm t, a singi* one of th«M '(uantlliea hi-iog 
called a inodului of perlodirltj-. A ptirlmt is then 
real Of pure Imaclnar}- when ilie tntxliill nf periodicity 
whieh e'>TisIjliile it %Tt real or |>ure imn^iniin,-. The 
prliH'iiial thi'orem arrlveil at by th^ author U aa 
follows: lei 9(u..iit , . . it.) denote a sluKle-raluei) 
2ii-fn)il fmriixlic function which •"«vrywhBre throu-^h- 
nut a finite region possi^ASP.s the rhamcter of a rational 
funtil'in, Hnil whldi takes mal values whenorer lu 
vvunirtnts are real; itieo tlMHi arc a)vay» n iwrJoO* 
pairs. 

{P-fl./^.S--. Pna^-l^:n+0.Pfn^»---Pn.n^0U 
wliir*!! (oriu to-^rlhiT a aytteni of |irimilivi [>erli»il»i nf 
the funrtinn. and which art; nf surh a tintiin', ih«i. for 
each pair, oni< of iIh* two eotidltioti* followlns li sutla* 
fled: eiilwtrlho tlr*t ihtIikI {P,g . . . P^g) '• r'wi. an4 
the fiOiroiid perioil {P,, „ j- «... T'n, n + jl w jiurely 
Imtmlnary: or tli« first perioO is ml. and the period 
(2P..r.4 «- P..*--.aP... «+fl-i'Hi)l« I'un-ly 
Una^luary. — (Jouru. rrint ans. maUL, xclv. no. 1.) 

T. C P 

PBTBICS. 

IdqnetNoUon of aiCroson tuid ciubottlc Oxlde- 

— S. \Vr'ihlcw»l(y and K. 01-»^wsl*l gt- ■ - r- 

d9iAl!>-d ■(■cmni of the liquvfactlun ' 

IK>ciK.i< K, 1. 9701, Tliei,'4« r«iaalnc<llnk.4..,^ 



nuhnilucd to n prcwun' of oni- hundrrd ami llfiy ni- 
Ki('*|t)i<-n>s anil a (Kritiwrntura ol — IHi'''; but. wlit<ii 
llieiin>«ure wits ihmly naducrd to fiftv atr 
the gas wiaa liqugded, presentlnt: a \ lilbh 
and esftporailng vory nplOly. l'nd>*r th^ 
ditions. the atithort luci-erdi^l In liniiffyin 
o.\lde, which fonnt>d acnlnrlftM liquid witn a vi-iiui^ 
inenl«cu3. — iCvmpUm rpndv*, xcvL 122^.1 c r. K. 

Optia 

Mira«0. — Tn an arUiJa «nlltlad ^' Stale of the 
atmosphere whkh pnylu^-e« the foriM ol mirkfie Ob* 
served by Vlnrr and by S«v>rn«by," I'mf, Tail pr<"««l" 
some Tory InU'reatlng nM«*reheii n^anllni; ih<*jw par- 
IJciilar fonnis of niimau. After an liisloricjil n'liv, lit 
whirh lid! rvfera to two valuable coiildbiiliona to the 
•ubji-4't hy \Vnlla«ton and by Blot, wbkb iga far to- 
wanl a volution of the proUem. but ban uofocta- 
natety fnlli-n into nbliYloti, he presentu hU own 
inrrstlgALlons. Ills method consists In ln*ating the 
('urviuur« uf a my oi Heht in ihc (vne way b* tti« 
motion of a proji'rtil«; th>> two rwco rorreaponding 
when, in lh« onso of mirage, the s'loarc of the indvK 
of refnK'lioii nf the air li pn»portinaal In tba dlslanec 
fruin a fiiven hori/tontal plane. 

Me flnd^v however, tluil, "whatever be tb« law of 
rcfraelivii index nf the air fprovidevl il be. the Min^ 
at tlie sauin cli-VHllon), all we have to do to fiud thif 
various possible images of an object al the nauie 
level as tho eye la to drmv ilte curvf. a/ certify far 
all ra\/» pamditff Ihrauoh the eye (n the tn-ttral ptaw 
CfMtaiMin'j thr ryr and (Ac /•tijrct, niKl Jlnd Hm intrr- 
Btrtli'ii with thf urrHeal Um nii<tieiii/ Itfttcm the rye 
and the otijeet," By itialclnK tuiubk npposlilon* 
ri^trdinii the diaiiii^ of drntity, he flnda IhnL " tltr 
condltlona re^iiiUlt^ fnr ilic production of Vhici>'t 
plien»menou ani a strmlum in which the refmctirr 
InOrx dimlnWhea iipwardx to d nearly iiailonary »t«te, 
and helovr it a 5lmtnin In which the upward dlininu- 
Uoti is elUior lejia. or vaiilthca altocielher." It will b«> 
sc^u that the solution of [be problem of auao«plieric 
density and refraction by (his nieaus la entirely In- 
(teteruiUiate. 'llie Bupposllinn of I>rof. Tall satiitiea 
IheciJinlltlons prosf-niedby tlinob*ervallon8of Vliirp; 
but iJial it li tho only law iir the tnn* law must Xf 
Yi-rtflM I'V iuvetllK.ili'iiit of a dlffervuL nnlurt*. 

The ninlhnd U ■^p^'cially valuable In It* Invcrae form 
MailonllnK a tcKlof niipiifMnl lawa of denslly and re- 
friu;liou in Ihitir Ability Ur tumUh tJie vnrlinu pbi^- 
ttoiDona Of nUrHftiL — jA'dlHre, .May 24.] a. lu c. 

Conceutrmted davaIop«r in one aolutiou. — 

Whrre ihi* phtilitcmphT hitt-niis To travel, and dei el- 
ope on ihc ftiuUi, it It very dfl*iriih1e to raluee his 
• ' iillit to tliB inialli'st txdk and to tlie fow(u>> 

'ihlc. Mr. <>. (ntmiT, (he ilry-platu mknu- 

l!]i' -Jii!!- timt" (III" iiic ii'l> viriiai^i- <il cul'cuu pdria- 

hlUiy. 

• minoct. 
,,., „. - 1.- . i ntltice. 



tVft. 1883.1 



SCIE^'CI!, 



19 



Ilromlilc nf ifQUunliiiQ . ,..,.. 1} ouDOca. 

rjr»f;allir jiciil SinillC*!*. 

Dissolve In >)i4lJll<Hl wMrr %> r>unNi«. 

Ai]<l »ul[>huric iu:Iil (c. p.) . . . . VM mfnlim. 
Adil «)Wi aintniHilJi («tr*iii^>t) . . , ■') <>(iiic««. 
Add tniurio nuilce u|j bulk lo . . -Ill otiucct. 

Tba snlpbarlc mctA nnA uinA amraonla Bhoald be 
nposiired v«ry VMActly. lD»ieii(l «f three ounces of 
cr;*UI(, two ■luiiCMi ut fTtim\nT i<ul|>)iltc ••( «o<U lilAy 
be MiibitlLiitrcl t)) prri'ltiri! ibp ■itnin •■fTrct. Dilut'- ■ 
fiuffleleiit iiiMitJly for on« (Uy'n um «a follows: for 
onlitisry ptir|>oB<is, one yati In elevfin; for wry short 
vviMuiiirvit, une p!»rt In (hree lo six; for over-ex puseil 
plalr's. or 111 all cimc-s where Rreat inicnaity and con- 
Inat are di^almble. on* part In twenty. This devel- 
oper may lie usH repeali^ly If It Is always relumed 
Immedialely lu Ihe pniinnK-W)Uh>, which should be 
pruvldH with a tl^it-flttiii^ nibb«r Alopper. An long 
a* th« volution rvniahi* tmn!t|>ar«ni, It li gM¥l: but 
trhea It looks iuudd> it> tii« .tliould be disco lit lmi«d. 
— tPhitad. pH"l., June.J w. b. p. f6 

BNQlNBBIUNa. 

Mlll-cnstuea. — Th« Soulhwark iron foundry baa 
cnn^Iriii'li-d for M^sura. <'b<!ii<>y Itrntliers of SouUi 
Mancbirsier, Conn., u com|iuuii<1 * Porter- Allen' mi- 
glue, baring stvani>oylSuil>-r8 VJ and '2\ Iticlios diam- 
eter, 2- feet atroke. to run al 180 rcvidutlona per 
mlnatf. The pnn-criBgtvcn at200ho*»p-power. Tlie 
nulo of expansion Is 16. The expendiliir<> of wati-r 
was l^.Ti pounds per horte-power and per hour. Of 
this, II.7S was accounted for by the Indicator: tho 
nai wa» wa»i«d by cnndpnaatloii in thfl 8t«un-<'yl- 
Inilera aiid by leakaite. In these eiit:<nM the low- 
prvwurerylitiH^ if slr-am-jarkoti-xl, and th« exhaust 
from ihc bigl>-pr«Rsurr t-ylindf-r p«s*<^a Into an Inter- 
mediate rceervuir, frijm which the Ian;? cylinder la 
supplied. Tbe r»Mirrolr acta a> n Heparator for Uie 
w*lt>r oarri^il in with Ihe steam: and ibis watex Ik 
trafipei' *^'f< *"*' *'"*'" '^'"' reach the low-])rc«aur« cyl- 
laiiT. — i.Vtchanlc. May 19.) K. U. t. [7 

Coinpi»aed •teel. — Teuta have been »>a>le at 
tli4 Wnt^rlnwn arvnal on rold-workcil steel luaita 
by Na)li)r & Co. at the Nornur vwti and Iron worka, 
Ronton. Mass. Tbepla^-.Ic limit Is raltwd from 2&.M0 
poiiiidi per satnan* Infh (I.tHJB kg^ j»t "q. cm.), in 
|Im> b"l<rolln<l liar, lo ilt.«')0 pounds |4.2K< kgs.l in the 
eold-r<il1eil 3lect, TIk* nliiinalc Ktrcn^'th Is incmwi^l 
(Mm r>O.JUi pounds l.!.?iW kg»,|in"fl,42'i(.M-l'>klt«.), 
hi one «•!»«, and lo rtl.MflO (r..7&i kit*. ) in aiinlli<~r. Tbt- 
r«>«iifu of lesiA utailft at the in«'bani<-al laboratory of 
(!«• Jopartnicnl ol pimlowriiiK "f tbr Sipv«n« Insti- 
tai" of iThnolniiy jin- B'*'"". showing ibf inoiraae 
diip to ci'ld rnllini: En tte 70 perc»Ml of tli« lu-tL-lna) 
liitalonal straneili with iron, and ov<;r ISO per i:^nt 
with aoft ^k-"!. 'I'lii* reiUifiice, or ■liuck>r«slsl)ug 
powvr. waa incrtaM'd. In an arrmge of three tesia, 
iirnrly ■tOd |ier c«nt in iron, and tn double the latt«r 
i|tiattilty In steel. — |/U(L) n. II. T. |8 

Timo-fna« toi artfilety. — Col. Richardson. K.A.. 
Itniti (li.il «H Mil' f"tin» of tlme-fiiiw at prewnt in 
oae arv uncaliafartorx . hiniv Ibcy depend (or their 



aeeiiracy m\ the tenglb of time tliiriniK which a " 
onluitin of coinpoKltioa bum*: and thl« is a i' 
whicli h diniruU of conirol at the l>fr«t, H.- pr. , 
to lako aJvnnlAgu <if the rapid and regular rt-i 
of tlio Rbtill during it* flight by whirh to work a 
ini-cbaniani. wliicli thall liberate a concuailon- fuM 
at Any ikvired moment. — (iVvc. rvg. artyL tasL. 
April, 1883.) c. k. m. |9 

OHXUISTBY. 

Baalc aolphatea of copper. — lly conlinui^l boil- 
ing of a snlutiiin of cuprlc sulphate, S. IT. I'lckcr- 
ing obuiiH-Vl a basie •iilpbnie, to which he sssitms 
thi- fonnula 50nO . IfSO, . ail.O. I'n-cipiiation 
lu tliR colli wlUi poluslo liydnue gave th« baiie sail 
'ICuO. SO,. — ICftcnk anrs, xivii. ISl.) c. r. m. 

iio 

Tb» b]rdrat«a of chlorine— K. Maiimen* tblnltB 
(bat llir liydraieCi . IHII.O, tni-nlioneii by Faraday, 
dot* not exist, Biaiimen^ obcflrvci) tbi> (nnnailon itf 
the hydrate CI . 4 n ,0, whIrh cryMalliziM In cubec, 
ajirlof th>> hydrate CI ,711,0 lu ■•'•■i|>mark«<] crysiah. 
With an cxcesi* of wat«r, th« bydrata CI . 4H,0 is 
converted Into the form CI . 13 1I<0, which forms 
onborbomhic orystaJs. — (ifufi. me, fhUn., xxxix. 
31I-.I c. F. M. lU 

Ammoniacal bromidea and oxy-bromld«a of 
sloe. — Wbt-n ^Inc <<\ide is dUtolvoil with tli« iiitl 
fii tieal In a soiuiion of animonlc bromidi', H. Andr^ 
states Ihnl ibe ruuipouiiil SZnBr, . S>IU| . II,0 Is 
fomied. This comi>ound Is coinplciely decomposed 
wIm'u IioIImI with a largi- iiuniitliy n( wattr, leavli^ 
ontyibooxtdc. ThcvunpoundSi^bBr, . 4NH, . 11,0 
is formed nhen tlic experiment is conductt^ lu iba 
cold. On pssning dry ammonia ga* into a Milntlon 
of Elnc bromide, it 1*1 ahsorl>cd, wltb the formation of 
(he product Z }^nBr, . ANH, . IlaO. The compfviind 
SZiillr, , 3 Nil. resuila when tbe amnionincal bro- 
mide 2ZnBr, ..'jSII, . 2II,Oi» heati-d. The follow- 
Inii oxy-bromldes were pre]iar«fl by mothoda similar 
{■• tliM^e which giv>! ih« uxy-clilorides: ZnBrt . 
4/.nO . imi.n, /uBr. . 4 ZuO . lUlifO, /nBr, . 
6ZnO . U 11,(1. ;tnltr, .(JZnO. »U,0.— f AuU. aa«. 
cAim., xxxIx. 90».) c. r. Ji. [13 

ArtlBotal bauftmautilte. — lly heatiRg maaieanous 
chlwriile to the jHiint of fusion fc>r several hours, A. 
tiorgeu obtaliiMl crj sUi«, on cooling, whleb po»si?Mwl 
-ill Ihe pru|ierties of the iniiieral liausmatuihe. — 
{t'iympUa rnn/ua, xcvi. 1I41.I r. y. it. \iZ 

Formation of aulpbidea by preaatirv. — W. 
Spring MibmlMi-il ftiK'ly divlclist magitt^sinm willi the 
amount >.>f <(iil|ih(ircalmlHli^ for one atom ton prcaa- 
ure of »j»ty-flvH biiiidrr^l atmospheres. Tho prod- 
uct |«wiTcd to be a homogeneous ma»s whi-'h gave 
off hydric sutiihldo when heated witli water to '/»>" or 
0"^. /iiie 'uiphide w»» Turm^'l l>v subjocUng a nilz- 
tiirv of xinc »n<\ ■utptiur l» the s^tnie |iies9urv. Ifoa 
united with sulphur, rormiuf;, prohably. a polysul- 
phide. Cadmium save a ynllow ptiwdnr. from Hl>l4:h 
Itydrochlork acid llt>i<i-nt<'d hydrle lulphide. Hiil- 
phide* of aliimifiiiin, bismuth, Inul, silver, coppnr. 



20 



SCIENCE, 



tVOL. n.. Mo. 23. 



Itn, u<t antimony wDni ublalnvd tqr tlih prown^ — 
(Btriehte deaUck. <hem. gatlUth., xrl. DOR.} c V. V. 

( AHiilytti-al-i 

D«t«rmluaUou of iiitios«D. — A Mw melliAd 
for tli'tiTmlolii^ nitrui^ii, appllcubli' to nil uiiru3Cii 
cnnipminilti, Is ttro|io&oil liv H. (.iroiiToti. It ronsiEtS 
mii«ntl»tl> In Iximlttg Cli» »iibMaiic«< aL ft lirietit-rod 
liCiiL III Acurrvnl lit aiii>orlifi«l»il steatn. He flnl a[»- 
(ilitMl tli« pr(>cv»« nn ilii- lafcc icale u> the production 
uf nnitiittnlurii »iilt>" fnim jwiit, btit liii» ■inw p<>rfi.i:|ml 
It %• nil Hfinlyiii-Al iiifttitxt. Tlio lubstAiicc U burn«\I 
lu li bivtu mi'l l)ie VA|»ini Kriniiig fnim It mrc iuwaokI 
over ft p;(i>K'JiiE Invvi nf binall rnkpitciil* vf a |>r<.-|ia> 
ntUnn fnJIoii t>y tbp aiitbnr 'rtmtjict-iniiiiii', aiid llicn 
ihroiigb slitn4anl add, &.« in i.hr sflalit-IImi- th^iIkkI. 
Thr c<>nia('t-itiiui8 CDPiHiEls '«( an lui>ltt-I niixtnrv of 
peat. irbMlk, Htiil rL'iii<>itt clay lu i-trliiiii |ir>iiKirtbiii», 
luiil tdu»i bo rfucvri.-<l afu-r atioul Hfiy com bu»l ions, 
'lite advanusea clAlmwl for ilic iiumIkkI arv. tlint cutn- 
bimtl'ina may siicceeil oach otiier rnpfdly jir the same 
appnraitia (eonstrucu^il of Iron, with s^hMlo* stop- 
|t«n|, thai lupi qu«iiilllt!!A of material ftwo to three 
gmin.i] May iM'Uvt^d. that \i« ilryiiiK(>r piilvvrualloti Is 
nMrsAary, >ti<l ibat It may \iri cornbiiiml wilb an a*b 
dfttermliinlioti. Nttntti'it arc dhsolvoil with addilinn 
ut itiinr, culBdcnt clay Is iHltled lo make « xUfl 
dnii|;b, iiint llix latlfr is inln>t>K'>r<t iiitii tli^ appa- 
ratti*. Tbf tin-ihnd Ih satd in give concuHant rr'Aiilu, 
which aro f llgluly hlglxT iban those obtailted by lli« 
Bodu'lline m<Mho(l. — [LandK. r^r».-»taU, xxrtll. K4:t.) 
n. p. A. |1S 

AORICCLTURB. 

ChcmLBtry of 'fairy-rlBg*.' — Tbi! rorniaifon on 
putiir«-lnu<l uf io-rallc(t 'falry-rini;*.' tlialls, of circlirs 
of ilark-grri-'n erus taotv luxuriant ibaii the »ur- 
roundlni; hprb»gp, ban long 1mk>h xuppiMi-d tn be c«m« 
n^ird with the growth and ikrajr of fui'gi, vblch 
arrve as maimrti for the Kraasus nliith (tircvcd tbcnt. 
The ellcut has by some lyi*n ii><:rili*il cbirlly In ihe 
asb o[ tilt! fungi, whik- othcra attrihnl« it tai'gt'ly to 
Lbftr nllro^n, Two views »n powlblv in rvganl lo 
th« way ill which the fungi »niH«h the anil. Thiry 
may hav» (bft power of aluckini* tbos^ organic and 
mineral tnait«r» in tlit! soil which are not avalUbIti 
as fo<Hl fvr hl){hcr planu, and ao of ronv«rMng Ihem 
into an available form, or it is possible Ihcit tbcy 
hnv« th« power (onH3lmilat« free ntlrogen from the 
air. imd (bu* lucrvaac the store of ihU element In 
tits MoII. l.awm. Rilbeit, and Warfiiitton have en- 
dea^orcd to dn'ide bi-lnnm Ibetf alti'riiailvea bv atia- 
IjKlitg aimpli;* of toil from wlililii. on. imd uui^de of, 
leveral siicb Hug*. AlmiMt onlforraly tltu perct-itt- 
ag* of uiirogen in the ani1*c«-«otl to Ihe depth ol 
nine Incbea was |:rf«lC'8l ouuiile the rinji, leaat 
wltliln It. and inirmieilinte on tlii' rinf;. T1m> renutta 
of llie carbon dc'trmiiiations were liniUar. but Iftss 
uniform. The autbora eonclnilo that llic fuiit:' •'■Im- 
ply render more available lo reiiettitioii niiit«>riabi 
alraiuJ}' exUtlng tn the wil ; and ihut, aa UieM- mali^ 
rials ar>; ukeu up and removed In Uie more abundant 
growth which follow-i. the eoU lit nalurully iiiipovtr- 
leli«d. Tbit conclusion applies, In the first place, to 



Uin nllro)[iis ; but It would n»ia Uial !t must be (Equal- 
ly true of the iwh In^rHicntt, Wliotlitr thrn- may 
Ddt nl)>n bn an Ktolullun »< fruo nliro^^Pii by tbr fungi, 
or wbotber, on Ibi! oUx.'r hand, nlin>g<-n ninv not b« 
aasiiniUU-d frunt (lie ajr. are aiob-lGrininid (po>itionH ; 
but the phenomena are dsplainable without iIium' »up- 
positions. — (Joiirr4. cAeiN. fit., ecxiv). -.MM.) it. r. .\. 

116 
OBOLOOT. 

Puarco beds in Franco. — fV.<fcs»or K. D. Copa 
refern-d iti an analysis by Dr. Li'iuoio*^ of the miinu- 
pial lyiws helonginit in ilie mune cfri-aj/ttcnue as 
ha.vjhK Iw'f^n madn iTxnisid'rahl}' lali>r Iltan llio >|H-Ak- 
^r's dla^fNitB trf simitar funnH fn>m tbu I'ihtco l>e<h, 
whk'h hid'iii-i lu tlie «aui« (^'ioslcal hmlxtiit. He 
claimed, that, a* thi! a^r of tlit^ American fdrmnlloii 
ha<lb(>'.>n th^ lir-i to tM^ iVAniielydi'ionnincil, li* iiamo 
ahuuM b« applied lo ibi- oorrvaporidinn French de- 
posiln. ^ { Acad. naL mc t'Mtwl.; mecliny June 12.) 

117 

Tlie Allegbsny oll-auid»- — Vr. C. A. Achbfirnvr 
stnlM that be had recently exanilni'il tho All<>i:hi'ny 
olMlelda of western New York, and had bi-t-n able lo 
determine one or two points of Interest both lo l^nm- 
tnercv anil to sieolofy, AfUrr deflnlni! the Ltrndford 
and Alletihony otl-fidd«, the raryiot; horizons of th(t 
oil-supply WITH alludist u*. lie hul dHemiintil ilmt 
the A!lcj;hi-iiy oil-sandi ot Xew York wert> out above 
tbe llradfonl sands of rcunsylranla, but were iti<> 
«une^ Investigations ej(lend«d into LivitiC'ton. SlMi- 
bcn, and Wyoming eouniJes. N.T., eslablUhiMl the 
bclivf that the nands hltuded w belong to the 
lowrr CbiMouiiit Kn>ii]i. Mr A»hbumer further r»> 
marked, that, while these iuiihIb are doubtless for t)i6 
mo»i jwirt nsorviiint of oil pnidiicrd In lower tvirala, 
some of ilii' mnl<.-rial wa* formed from plania cod- 
laiiiwl in lh<' »anil* tlu-ninetv.-*. Th»olI in I'piuitiyl- 
vania never reaehe« the rrservoirs from aliov?. 

Mr. ItenJnniinS. Lymnn »latod his belief that the 
oil always originates lu the sand where it ia found, — 
[Actui. nat. 4e.; meHiuo June 12.) |18 

OBOOHAPHY. 

Northern notes. Atlantle r«Elott. — Tlk> Ger> 
mania Milled from Hamburg. June A), with provisions 
•nd insinimeiitB for the German »«| edition at Oiira- 

Wrland luM. The departure of tbe ft'llli^i 

Barents In search nf tlie Dutch ez[H!dliloo on Ihe 

Varna took plac« as proposed. Th« acconnt 

recently publiKlied of tlte wlulrtrlng at ('a|H> Klnru, 
Pr«U£ Joaef [.and. liv the KIra party, rontaiori nuiner- 
ouei Items of inlcrvat in coniievtinn wltli (he imipoecd 
uw of ihi6 Inml as a starting-p(>lnt or b.-ite for more 
northerly expe<lition«. A« uii|;ht be ex{M-ct<*il fromtli« 
IniiilBXliy of Uio land, ibn wintor i« milder than In 
tliosame hnll"d<?«n the wti»lOr»t«nlttiid coast. The 
land la pnibubly slowly rising, like most otbtf arctic 
land. Tomwcs ninety feci abuvv the sea-level wem 
observed. Itrsident land -animals, such as relnd>-or, 
uiUlo harci! or rabbits, and ptarmigan. th«reare none. 
Of wandering arctk animals who Live hi the aca nr 
on the Ico. and nn> common to the whole froxen re- 




J 



Jiranr 0, 1S88.] 



SCIENCE, 



21 



glon, and MM-btrds, there i« ft cortftin "Upply. thv for- 
mer h^Ing pr«srai Uie year round, thougli only miilc 
bwrs occur in wliitep. and tlw eniall »uk* for two- 
UiinJ>< of tlisyomr. Tb« lou'est lempiTattira obwrt'od 
WW forty-tbrec d«|^r«es betow ser», F»hivnhpit, And 

tbU in liitituilfl WP. Troraholt, whose refleaix'lms 

into ibe Kurorm borealLs have proeO lis connection 
wiiii v|t!cirk-«i (lIu'lioi^M from llieeiirtb. propuMs to 
«pvnd the wlnlttr I;S8!1-m4 In Iceland, (l>>votlrig himnftlf 
to slmilM stuilii'* with L^mstrom't itpp;Lrxliis. and on 
the Iii)*3 lnilicnit:<l by bim. — TU« U.S. S. Tiiniic 
•oiled Jgnn U, (mm New York, to join the l'mt«iii 
at St. Jobn». En<ifn H. U. Di««cl. U.S. N.. aecom- 
panivs Che Vautlc as naturalist. Later advlciiii au- 
niiunm tlie dvpnntife of both v«u«Ii froni St. Johns 

for I>iidy Fnuiklln Bay. .Tuiw m The l»nni»h 

Suulh Greenland <!xp«»lltlnn has arrlvM ai Ua Held 
of work, and at last accounu vxiwctvd to bi>giD 
opAmions Imraeiliatdy. — vr. n. ii. (19 

Northern nates. PaotDc region. — JntK 3, the 
stiriitnHlilp DiikdM Jcfi Sjii Fruucitco for ui exGiir- 
aion tlinfuffhiiut Routli-c.i«lvn) Alaska with a largs 
nnintH>r of cxcunionUls. Similar exctiniuns are 

plannwl for July and August. The »diOAn«r r,eo 

has Kai|l^) from Sao Prandsco to Point Barrow, to 
rcliert; Liuut. Hay and his party, and to obtain 
absttluf; niHgnetk aittrononika) and |>«nilalun) ob- 
ser^aiioiiK al tho Mliktion. Rt-liimlDg, Mr. Clarke of 
tiii> ■taiml-scrvlif) will r«ii<>vi< the present offli.'er at 
Si. ^licliat-ls. Norton bound, and lake charge of thn 
ststion. which will be the moet northern al^tal-wr- 

▼Ice station then In operation. A Tcssel Uv llie 

hydn^r^plilc exploration of tht WAt*rs of .Muka, 
ttnder the auspices of the U 8. enast-niirrry. is aljout 
In be coaoirucicd oti t1i<> Atlantic ixuut. and sent out 
»{il <'a|M* Horn, it beirij; found that the expense of 
biti1iliii}( l)(>r on tlie I'aiiriflc r.t>A<it would considerably 

eiceixl Lli« funds )LvailAbl«, The last reports from 

the (iiiurE near JunuHU, Almka, are very favorable: 
thtr owiiiTs of one m'ltvt ' cieiine'l up ' ?U,(t;Kl In April; 
MU.uoubaTi^ bM^n refnsiNl by the owners of ntiotlirr 
claliii, A nnniLwr of miners will have preceded 
Ll«ut SchwHika on hit i*niniey down itie Lvwis mid 
Viilluii rivrrs Ibis season, boiinillo join tbcStrhrrffrtin 
purty on ttie T<inaiiab. If thcte nuinerouit pro^tperi- 
or« and uOventiirers were to reeoi-d ibjjit obicrvii- 
tlrm9, doubtless iiiuHi Valuable information on other 
tliwi mining tt>pi<-9 might be pres»-rved. — The 
ruck u|>on whivli the sieaiiier Eureka wa.* lost last 
Dontll pnivin to )»• a previ(iu>i|y iinknuwn danger, 
'Hn' dri-rfrase of Milmon in ihe riv.-rs of Oiu'^oa 
«ud (ilMiwIiera liw led to much activiiy iu pusliln; 
UKt Into lli« ni'W norllfWrvt ill search id unpilliii:ed 
•ln^«m4. A Kri^aL many ni'w »alR)on-lt*ber)c-s have 
been v^t.ilONht'd ul various points in Ilritish l.'tduin- 
hla :ind Alaokn. — Thi* U- ^. S. Adums Is u> visit 
Ihe isbtnil of KndiaU oii her sttiuioer cruise. ^-^ The 
aaiii'ifitles of Untl'ih Oohimhla hn%'i! li»iltiii«^ wii 
cxpltimtliin of thn Queen CitnrloUe t»landa irlib 
rpfe"-rK-».' to aKriculturKl i^nd*. The north-eastern 
]H)rIii>n of Ibp nortborn ixliind hiu brrn noted for 
nearlyatH-ntnryforltsatirActireaspret. The tlndson 
Say company baa lou^ hail a station al the enimnc^ 



of Maiuult Inlflt (namvd flaocnck Kivar by CapL 
C'rowcli of Boston In ITfll), whvre poUU>e<s artd other 
vv^lahli's nourish : and (he fat ond slunk app«canuier 
of the cattle has bsen often mentioned by mora nruent 
viidbirs. The w««tcrn coait of thcM islands has 
harilly biien vlslied hy explnreri xlnce iDprahani, In 
1791, luade bis slvelch-tnap of tin* coast. It is lilgb 
and mouuUiitons ai far »m known, and, Uke the 
aonth-eutnrn part of ihn group, likely to be chiefly 

raltudde for lt« tinibiir, ininprals, and ftsh. Thf 

body of a whit* man murdered by the British Indi- 
ana ha* txten foimd nrox .Mllbnnk Sound, cuncealml 
ncAr the sbora; while two .\iA^kan InilLtn". who 
enltvuned a visit to BHtbh Cotnmbia by siaylnz two 
Olilnamen, bsre l>e#o sentenced to bo han^-d At 

Victoria. V.I. Tiio stenmor I'inU of the U. S. 

tUT-y, which wait prepared for police-duly and wxplo- 
ration on lh« Alaskan coast, and lately proimiinrwJ 
UiLV-a worthy, has t>«eo re-e\ainlned, and iho dtTi«lon 
reverM^ : aim will Mil shonly pjd Cii|m> Uorn utid*-r 
(he eommnnd of Lieut. Uriel Sebree, U.S.N. 1'hls 
yuyxgu will ••fffr hxi^pIJvuC upjKirt unities for sclenlitic 
ob*<>rvaiioiM en ro«('', — — 'I'ht- U.-S. S. ('orwin. undur 
the cotnmaml of CapL Qealy. Ita* sidled under In- 
slnictions to visit Jun<^a^, and svttin certain quar- 
rels lietMieu American and RrltUh miners there, 
Ihen to proceed to the Pribiloff NIands to pral»-ct Uie 
■eal-tLth«ritt*: affir which St. Lawrence Biiiy, Herlng 
Struil, will br visited, and the prvicnls from tiK- gor> 
enm»enl to tbo^c hospitalile Chukrbls who prc'^erved 
(be lives of till- Rod'^f^rs jiarty will l>e di'llvei-ed. arc- 
tic wliiskcy-smttgfflen looked a[t«r, and Uie nsnal 
observniiuns made. — w. n. T>. [20 

BOTAITY. 
OijpbtgsBS. 

Hotea on I*aminarlae. — In the fourth part of hU 
n>isnrriaione_« phycuIi)i;iL<ae. Prof. J. B. At»*9Chong 
givirs B ^n'l*Ian of some speiriDs of LamJnari^i and 
related t:^'U?r-i, incliidin)^ svveral of Uie form* foimd 
in the Unilml Slates. ITe considers that L. platy- 
meris, Oc la I'yl-. is ihe same its L. Clou'^iooi, which 
he plaooij iuthcgenni HaCcyuia, to which be considers 
thai I» .\nderwmii iil*o U-Ioii^*. — w. o. r, [21 

lowafnnsl. — PrnffSwrJ. C. ArthurslvM very full 
descriptions of twelve «|>ecies of Iowa Kromyces, 
Inotuijlus one new s[ieole«, V. ucuinUnttu*. on Spar- 
lina. At the end is an Index of synonyms and 
ho4l-planis. ~ Uf Kit. ^th,n. n'T'id.. ii.) w. u. r. [22 

Xniuilotia Algae. — In a paper u» somv Algae '>f 
MitiliesuLii sujip'jsed lo be I>oiSOno(IS, I'fof. J. 0. 
Arthur gives an account of n sitccieH of Rivularia 
infolluu the water of ponds at W^itervillt;. Minn., 
and >tip|Mi<«d U> be tl>e cause of death or Injury to 
cattle, lie also dcSi*j->tM>s the cotiUiUon of Lake 
Phalen, near St. Paul, In which he found eereral 
KpiKien of N<»tiKhaceae, — (JJuil. Mtiut. aettiL, II.) 
w. a. r. 123 

Ohio fnofL —In a continuation of hts paper on 
Ihe mycolnglc flora of the Miami valky, Mr. A. P. 
Morgan Rl^es a description o( Ihe ilyporh-nlil. iMr* 
mint, Pratelll. and Coprinnrii of (he n-sion mentioned, 
litcluding slxty-flve Bpeeleii, — w. (i. f. [24 



22 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou n., Nc 22. 



ronnxtion or cyMtoUthK. — Chnreyre hu exftm- 
Inoil ibti il4>vi>lofHiietit (>r tl)p»c- b'Mltes witli vpcrinl 
refureiice to tlii: ^fl^^c« of Ute iiiat<-rialH from whU-b 
Uiejr lut [mxlucvd. Hi> fln<ls that ili« fuotl-re^nrvR lu 

poe«Miiig 'SlDbolds;* ami >vt U(« CAlotrcotw tu«l. 
U>r furniing ll)« KloboliU, ibouiili ilixHpixiuing at th« 
period --if geruilitAllon, iluv* nol contribute to the 
fiiruiuiiin irf lUt^ ryitnlith*. SomctinM^, when ^rown 
iitHiii pun.' dnntl. tlia niicillln^ exhibit Ui^ jWtrfe of 
the orHlulHh, hilt Duihing moiv. Ifpon chalky «oU. 
or «r*D onUnAry Miulb, the cyalolltbi appenr xvry 
ntma, — hi fact, assooti lu the coiyWon* nn^ iliUMi- 
RK^it froiu the scmI-coaU. If the M!«>|!i &ix' ntiule b< 
gn^rtnjnntt- in darktlcii, e?eri If <»lhtjr cODdltic/iis nra 
farfirahli>, the CTstollDui n^ritMn )ii Ihn rndlnicninnr 
«*r<?, Furtbcniioni. In HomftciuiiM. cyflollthAaln^Ailj* 
fvnoc'l dia«|>[it;ar u|k>ii keeping tbu plants Iti Uark- 
ne». — (ConiplM rtndiui, May SS-J O, I,. <». |25 

ZOOLOOV. 

A Dew bjrdrold polyp. — I'rnfeswr K. I>, Cope 
*l«scril>ed nn Interesting form of hrlroiii polyp fiiunil 
tn large nutiibei-H on tin' bark uf ■iibuHTiin^l IPrt-« in 
Dp|Hr Klnmmb L«ko. Oregon. It* cut-ncx-rititn in a 
moss of frt*cplug yi;llowl.«h stcniH emboililiNl in i»r- 
coilf. Koch xndid is of au eioiiRate ova] form, sessile, 
aiid witii BIS rays of e<(ual aii«, i-oth one-halt as long 
u Ibe iKxIjr. Thp zaiMs am Iranslui-fint. bin with 
two oval bwlks In ihe loner half of the botly-cavity 
of A yellow colur. Tb«>e ore ciillecta-d in niii««<« n» 
targe OS tho flst. Th* li^ngth of enrh to6ii\ is ono 
inlllitnelra. Tliey did not ^«iend thcin*«Iir» beyond 
UtU Ivnfith, nehherdid tbt* riiy^ tlon^tv to beyoud 
half the sAme during Ihi^ tlmo tbi^y were observed. 
They retrocK'd ilii-irui«lT'«« on b^ing IrrflaiAd. TUej 
do not |«o»in;8i luiy frinjwB llku iho arms of the 
poljino. A» the |ii>ii!>ci')i|<in of a co^iioedum dls- 
tlnjTubbes Ihl? cenni from all tho frcsb-waier hy- 
droldt, ll WAX pri.i|>o»cd to distintiuish It oa th« Lyp« 
of n new genuN with tlie n.tinc Itblxobj-rtra, the 
apndes being named rli(v)tlnclA. Aiinix<Mnpi to pre- 
•erve tomv of ihc iiiiui«» of zouidi in alcohol was 
not snMessful. — {Aead, not M. I'hUad, ; mreiiiuf 
Juno la) |26 

Abyssal moUusks.- Tbu fifth part of (he MdI- 
luscn of ibe l.iiibliiniu; and Vorcupliiv cspedilli^nt, 
by Dr. J. Gwjn Ji'lTu-is, has bw;n rettited. It Liiiats 
nf t)i>- lii>k-uocondiii, Polyplicopbora, Docoglii5<ia, 
and •H.'ulllimirhiaii' iimpiii^, coninlns supplementary 
nol4r« to tho prr-et dtn^ four {otris, and is illustrated hy 
two DicvHrnr platiw. The numliw of fippclfls first 
descrlbwl herein Is n»t Isrse: hut a surprlsiiic noin- 
ber of (acU as lo diitribulton, sym>njtny. bluj'rnphy, 
and external anatomy, are brought toj;<>th<^r. In 
adiipilng H l«l«-r noine than Acinatta for that grnus, 
he ohi«rvfia tbxl In the orijitnal ile(<.'ripUon no type 
or Bp«oM» WM mrntionn] by KM'bM^holIz, but baa 
apparefkCly overlooked ihe tact that the soneU true 
of the genua Tcciunt, by wbldi he would replmca 



Aotnai-n. Parts »v. and xvi. nf the pri>limi»ai7 

desciiiitiotis of llirt MolItiKcaof the Chaileugi'r ."viie- 
ditloii, hy Rtfv. Jl. |{nog>\Vat'W)n, are at liaiid. Tlnty 
cover th« naneltidor, Muriddn^, Sv-olitrlldue, and 
SoUrlidae hi ibt: Hmt. and the riMur*llld«« and 
Cocmlinldae In the ura-und part, QuUp a nuiuWr of 
the »pevl«i are fi^itn romparntlri'ly shaJlow water. 
KIkIii new tTwdft (•( PuncdirHIa wer" uhiaiuvil 
frntn one dredging ul a hiiality north i>f (.'iilebra 
Inland, near St. TlioinoA, In the I)ani->h W'eu ttidlM. 
One of these la the Urgent yi*t known. Tlio common 
Puncturella nixtt^^hiua Linn, "f Bnltsh. north-east 
AmoricAH, and Alnsknn »■*» was ohtainvil In Die 
Strniia of Magellan, at Kergiielen Island, and at a 
sintion l>etwei>n Ihnse two, which serma truly t«- 
inarkalile. The ajH^rculum of Nnssarin ksinpyla 
Watson, and thit detilltion of a nnw ipecins uf Coocu- 
lina froMi the Phlllpplno Islands, a^' tlu-un-d. 'ITw 
teeth closely n-jieinhle in ijoneral fe.itni'es tiioso of 
the Aiiierlran Bi>edr«. rxeept that the medLati lootb 
la more, and the major lalurals leas, developed than 
In the fnnos obtained by the V. -S. lish-ci-mnitsslou. 
The dcscripliom an In the full and faithful manner 
characteristic of Mr. Waisori'a work. — v. a. tr. 

[27 

EUemoglobln In tbo blood of Brknchlopoda. 

— tktniv years ago E. Van Beneden rtlsrtivori*d a dou- 
ble syeieui of drculatiun In suine of the piirnsitlc 
CoiWtMHla like Ihal In many annelids, and di-ncrlbed 
A comjilirated system of vesix-U witJi tnio witlU. Illlud 
with a red fluid iwuiaining hiu'iiKvi^lohln, but no eor- 
pusclra, luid riilln*Iy distini'L frinn the Isvnnar ays- 
lein uiiti rolorle-v't Uuiil cotiLainiug cori'uades. P. 
[tegnni-d and It. Ulaiichanl llnd u similar sy»i(>iu lu 
Apus. and believe that it exists alnn in some Cladorarft 
and nuraco<la. CbemlcAl exaininatlun conviniwa 
Ihum Ibat Inie hnein»gl<tbin is present In the blood 
of Apus, Is alvray* combined with oxyg<>n, and pla)'s 
•vme piirt In resplratiuii. — tZuot. ata., Hay T. IJ^.) 
A. ]. H. |28 

Fieah-water Copepoda. — F. W. Crostn enii- 
me.ntte4 Uk- general ni fr<N>.-awitninliig (.*i>pi-i>oda 
known to Inhabit Inland witters. ilCMrribes and Bi{- 
urcs (en ypcs.'ies uf CyelutH, hiilf of them new, from 
Camhridge, Mnn., and puhiishps a translation of d<^- 
scriptions In l(Ufl*la of several spedes of Cydojui by 
Poggunpol. .Mr. Cmgin note* the tjccnrremi' of the 
gr^arinlaii, Lagenella nobllls. In North American 
speeies of f>-cIops. — | TVunx. Kanmu atad. #c., vlii. 

isf^ ) s. I. B, isa 

losacts. 
Tb* male genital armature of Iiepidoptera. — 
Considering how ititpmtnnt a use bos bexin made of 
these organs to di«ihig\iibb ajiedes in nearly all other 
groups of Insects. It Is a little surpHslng to see bow 
few lepidopterists have ainlted themselves of the 
exKlleiit marks of distinction tbey afford. Itainbur 
In 1^^ (whose wriUngs (iohse In liio paper V>r/ore ui 
entirely overiooksl, de llann In 1842, and rr-veiith Bu- 
chatiait Whlte^ are tbi? »nly Huro|M-«n author* who 
hare paid anyattetitlon to the^e organs In butlrrlhcs ; 
and ficuddar and Burgess cund alone in this country. 



7LY 0. IM-ILJ 



SCIENCE. 



23 



appfaranu-o in eleven sppdfs of Ornitliopwrit, aitd 
flrty-*ix »i«-clto ..r p«piliu, fnclmlhigr.urown TIkmi* 
»utl TnmiL-. In our. r. hctimt-lui. ho loiini] n (light 
Mjinfiiolry in rht nrmatun? "f ilio two clnsi-ef. 
Go«iw i^ivM new niiin«!i lo nwiriy all tli^ i>artH. The 
, iWi'-pl»l«!a, or ditiM, whloh cwiK:<fRl iti« wliolu, \w 
t«nn«. US usual, 'vnlrcji;" Hie iowwilly pmjwilnR 
«rm»ture of thr itiU'rlor <i/ tLpBC.ihe 'hariif*;* Ihc 
iMak-Ilk^ m>*i)iil i-nilyDKiilitui of ilie eighth nbdutnlnni 
■viniifnt, lilt ' iiiiciii ;' ilip iiTipalrr'l ucpvtiflnge lying 
betwwri it iiiid thfl llitrnniill.nl organ, ilie 'scRphlufii." 
He ha» iU>ti(' p;trili-uliir st<r\-icfl in llic entv uitl) wliifli 
ho hoA rcjirtMlmcl tlx- Bcspbliim, — aji orsan consist- 
ing, ill Ihciwalhm-Uiils. 'jfcWtinoiuiiiDlriUiJU a mvin- 
bnuKiud Ixxly, a\A ihurcfonj badly ilbtorted tn tlried 
9pwlniM»8. Ttii* porti.m wm emdieil »nd drawn aft«r 
It bod been maile lo M-mnn- iln natural fp.--li appeiir- 
ancw by ahcurUftK a <Irop nf wal«r. Th.' v«rioly and 
BimiigMie** i>r form aiidiirmamre assutniTil by tbesa 
parrs, nnd pariiouIavU- by tht< so-ealk-d sraphimn and 
iiaqH!*. Is very remarkablo. In bin nnming o( tbi-M 
pari;, anew. Ot-SM bo* burdened its with new terms 
for orgajif whit-li are abundantly iiunied alroadv ; but 
Uiey win, perhapfi, hnvc their adTanUi^es. If iliey do 
not aun-ii-u after liuniologtn^i In olljcr iuset?)* are 
palnl<.-4l out. In bU rvroarlu «n tbcec organs In 
Qlliirr bullrrilies, (iosse fait» lo ttee th« hoinologles 
whivh «xf8l, x»v\ ffhlrh Htir^eH point* out in pait 
In « papi-r which Gox«« appears not lo bare lewi 
(Jniijr. mem. Bital. /,.><: nat. h(at.), aiid Buchanan 
IVhllti at WPII ITmn*. Linn. «or.. Zocii., 1. 358). In 
lirk-f, II may be »iiilwl ibat the orgaua in bmier- 
fll&> coDi-iat, btr*idca the hiiromiltcni organ, of 
»iinpty an nniiairml upper 'irgan, and palml lower 
■ppendaijeB ; bf.tb of ivbkli are attaotml. Uic upjwr 
immovabty. lo tiiu ninib abdominal se^mtint. The 
Upper oi-Ran noiially lufces On: fwrui o( a hf-.-k, nnd the 
hivrvr, oi clA»per9. In Ibr r^pilionljCT. however 
(Includinfjiu that both nn-alioW'Uils and piernN), tim 
doriuui of llie eVj/WA utcinunt of ilie abdomen is pro- 
longed po*U!riot<y Into a termiital li.>ok overlying and 
eouc<»iinii; the true ui^er uppemlaj;*!, and al lirsi 
readily mistaken for It. as «howu In liic swallow-iall* 
by WbiUt and In tin- plorids by Burgrti. Burgua 
al»o shows that fjil»c claApera exiitt in Dalials, differ- 
iDg wily from iru« clMp^r* la not being articulated. 
Bearing in mind the attavbincnc of ihn iiiffer«i\t ex- 
temal orgnns aneilUry to gtneratlon. their hoinolo- 
glei throuKlioui the InsecU are not diOlvuIt to Uitcv, 

Ilufltanan U'hfie termod iho ' upper organ ' of Sciid- 
der and Iiuri;e*» tin- 'legiimen.' aud th«ir 'clasps,' 
'barpagimea.' Tbe uncus of Ooior twhtcb on rare 
occMtons Is M-uiiilng In sdrio swallow-tail*) is there- 
(om iiu proix'T part nf the ordinary organs ancillary 
lo generation, ImL a prolun^ntlon of the elgb ill abdom- 
inal segnioni. The srnphium is ihc upper organ, or 
the (■■giimtin. ..f \STilte ; the viilvcs of aosse, tbe 
clasps of Sonibter and Butrcss or the bariugones of 
While : and the linr[i<-. merely ilie arniiilun] of iha 
eUvp, wblrb Is extremely rarled and complex, not 
only In Ib« gi-uup wbe™ (jo^s.- has bo nt-ll llltistpale.1 
It, but olsu iu many kkipjwra : Indeed, UiU bixarrc form 



or arinaiurt, boibof 'scftplifam' and 'liarpe.' iaaitRw 
indlailiim of Uic alH»n« Wtwiwn ih« swallow-ialls 
and "kliipeni. We may furiber remark, thai. If tlin 
old Bran* I'npilio la tba nxmir broken up by Ibo 
ud<lttional help affonlw! by these nrw ([ndiw, IJtMM) 
will have donu systenialisla n real ■errfc*. — (IVtm* 
L(«ut. «>c. Z-omA, £olil., ii, 268.) H. n. B. [30 

VEBTfiUBATBS. 

Chemistry aad phjraJology of blood-Benim. — 

Id dogs which bare U'vn stiirv.d for a p.>riod of flvo 
or six days, and wbicli previous lo tbo ruiunienfc- 
went of the starvation hiwl bwin fed for two nr three 
weL'ks on iion«e-llesb fra>«l „» far as p<»»ibte from fat, 
Burckhaiilt finds a dlmtnnllon in the tiiUt amount 
of protelds in tbe blood-scrum,, the loss rnrying furtn 
-t^toIO^of theorlgiiialaniouhlof i>rol/:lds|ir^i.ent. , 
Of the two proicids of Hcrum, (be <iii«nilly of si-rum- 
globnlin Increasej during siarvaUnii. the ln(.-rea»e 
ranging in his exiwrimenls from ti.ii% to (hU^ at 
the <iuanUty present before sianatiopt,' Serum-albu- 
men, on l!»e other band. BUfTers a marked diminu- 
tion, from 6.3% io:il.«tl% of tbe normal qnanllty. 
A calculation of thu probable loui of alhninvu fiwm 
Ilie blo-id and lynipb on Uie basis of hit enNcrinitinu, 
when compared with Ihe amount of urea exoteu'd 
by dogs, according to Vi.it, lii the Ant Ave days u( 
starvalluD, shows that Hit ((uanLiiy of albumen lost 
from lb« circulating llijulds U inucb too small to 
accotllit lor [bo pruldd d««lnicifou Uidlcatnl by the 
urea. Burckhardi maile umi of diiily.->l> rliiefly In 
delfnnlning the <iuamUy of ac rum-globulin preMuit 
In senini. Tbe aerum-albumeti was estiiuaied a> tba 
difference between ili.' inul (iroteido and tbe wrum- 
globulln. He stat«^ that Hanmiarstcn's nieib'jd «f 
obtaining Bwum-glohuliu by mi'ans of Mt^O, ia not 
rellahli!. Complete saluraiion nitli SItthU. thrtiwa 
down not only tbe M?rum-^l<>bulln, but also a bugs 
amount of prutcid, which rcat-mbles scrutu-alhnaien, 
as u»nally undemtood, in every respect except lu IU 
precipitation by iIg.sO,. — {,-lrcA. eaptr, paiA. pAor- 
moi., xvi. .122.) w. II. n. [31 

Double BtaiiUtiB blood-corptiaiiica, — Dr. Vlu- 
OCDt Harrii bas made a series of systeuaJc ex- 
perliHAnia on double •'talning of nnchtated hlnud 
corpufiCl«i» H'itli aniline dyes, and gives in conuectioa 
therewith a table of the aniline dye*, awl tlielr volu- 
bility In water and alcoboL A liule blood wu dried 
rapidly in a tJiiu layer on a ullde. and treated with 
two dyes In succession. The only cntlrvly ini'c<-sBful 
combinations were the following: roseiri ami onilme 
grtvn, fucbsin and muLhyl<^n blue, fiiclisin and Iliv- 
niarck brown, eosJn and rMUvln, ioiline green and 
Lb'smarck brown, Uuffman's violet and lllsniarek 
brown, aniline Tlotet and melbyleu blnv. Tbu 
greens were not at all permanent. Ihe r..*uiu warn 
often varlabli- and unrrriata. For su^i-vw (lie solu- 
tlona must lie iiuii«< fn-sh. The liiiie «adi dye In al- 
lowed to remain grwatty affecu tbe results. — {(juart, 
^oarn. micr. sc, 1*83. 2^2.1 c. b. u. [32 

Tbe prlmlUwe mouth of v«<C«br«EiB.— Acconl- 
IngtoUoubcr, IliegastraU moutb (nriglnatblaatuporv 



24 



SCIENCE. 



{Vol.. II., No, aa. 



nr prrMtomn) In rupresnntc<l bjr rarioita iMkri* tn vtTtiv- 
brstee. In Pwlrotuy/on. ^tariiv'xia, ami AmiililMn. U 
Is uu(lirii]B(l. lu kliiirktt it ja diridtfil iu(u two piart* ', 
l,4>., primlilve fiirrov. an<i pwiterior mu^iiikl oprn- 
i(ii:. Tn Uirdv it cnntlitls of ilii- prlTQltlrc furrow nn<) 
fnxrginxl nolch nf thv ptrrmiual irnca, bihI Indmles 
alfto till' varioii-t *mAU opi^ni'i^s furtm-il kt the Urm!- 
tml swrllliig of itiu finltryo ; vlt., tlic iiettreiil«ri<! 
cnnal, (tie i)»»«!tK« ulisorvcJ bj G.»»««rlii LfarDinbrjro 
of tlm C'oL-bitk>CltiD« bcMil oC b<?os. anil tb<> brcalc 
vrhirb aoracMJinps occurs bctweun llic &lliuitola fitok 
uid tbe nnuidcmial ingromJi buhinil the tall (cnuJal 

Rkuber alao a»)>ru In the same papftr ihttt tha 
bllnivrnl out^rowthd from tlie prlinlilve alreak nf 
ttutilo|4> cmbrynv are rmiiKilofiou!! nitli tbe i1h'i>9ili> 
lllft fomitng lb« intWMlftnti iii Atnpbloxus. — {ZrnU. 
uiU.. Ti. 14S, 103.1 * [33 

Bfeptlltt. 
Venom of »erp«nts — The cotisllliillan of tbn 
ri^nom nf i<-rlitMi of Ibii poiionoiia «orpcnu hns \>M-a 
fxamln^il by MIicIipII »htl Rt-lchert wlib intvnteliug 
UkI «.i|iH'wliat rrniarkiiMe re«iilt«. Ac^unling lu 
Ih«in, ttire« diittilict prot^lil* niuy l>« It^lntcd from 
Uie T«>nom of Lbe mnoruion nn'l the ralilpanikf (C. 
iiilam«nlviu). These ihey pmpi>« to chU re* pee live- 
ly, TUiii'iM-iM-plmi'', vpti'ini-iiloburui, aii<l TewiiH-Blbii- 
meii. Tlii^ viMioiit-i<''pl"iie m*y he ubitlnffl irom 
fri-sti V4>ii(>m. or riuiii tbe aqiicous solution of tbe 
dried iii:iti;riAl by dUlisl^, or by boiling uul flltvrlng 
oil fnim the prrcipil'lt^'d protrid). It i« Miliibl<> In 
wnii^r, nol coaguLai«d by bolllni;, and rradily diEdyza- 
ble. Its eoliitloiif, wblloaii-wering to all Iho S'^nwul 
leolR for iH^pUiiit-v, exhibit C4>rtaiii peciiliar n-actions 
wliictt ilislltiKiilsb It from the rlas^ of peptones aa 
usually niiilTtKrod, Tbo mDil marktsl »t these spe- 
elRc rroclioii* nre it* preclpluitloik from aeneous 
aoliillni):! by ^Ahifklloii Mllh jmbuuluin hydroxide or 
aodimn cblorldo, and by th« aihUlion of dilute acetic 
arid, lu eaiiilI"iiH ik>S!S05 tbe pobonoitti |in>[>en!e> 
pf venom, Ihnngb in a leu jiiarkiol degr<.fi, giving 
rise to piilrefnctiTc changes when Injected into the 
UvlntC animal. 

The Boliilion of the peptone obtained by boiling 
vennm, and nilering from ibc pri^cipitate of coagu- 
lalr«l proteiila, breAlis up on drtitii; »'tih tlic furiii*- 
tloii of two protelda, one of which i« *o)iiliW, and 
given all lh« reaciiona of lbe ori^nal siib«tAnc<>, ivith 
the ctcepLlnn that. it. in not pohmnoiis. Tlip ulber Is 
insoluble In water, and likewiw Innoruous. 

If Kn aqueous Holutiou of ven<>in ta allawi_-d to 
Stand for Mtmp time, a precipitnle occure wbieb gives 
ihe ii-ual rcacLltifis of £lubulln». Tbl§ siilKiancc 
potat'MiH-K all tbt toiic jmwei* of ficsll venom. 

After Ihfl separalJnn of the peptone and globulin, 
a third pruicid rvmalns In M>1utIon which [•> Hp)>arenlr 
)y closely (^nnnci-lcd with lbe albunien*. tbou^b the 
authois havi' not l>een able to obtain il in a Blalc of 
ButBcleni purity to make deciajre tests. It ts soluble 
in water, cnuijidale* tfelr>w 70° C, and ts prceiptinted 
fri^ni its folutinno by weak alkalies and acids. It Is 
fnuliiibly not polRiinou*. — {iltdteal neteu, April ^S 
1»83.> w. u. IL |34 



Cntaneoaa nerves In maminaia. — Or. Harrison 
Allen lioK fUccfM-di-d in tracini* nene-lltamenU' to tb'^ 
lar){er seiaa'-lio-iriiiii; halr-rolllcles ill maminals a* '■de- 
posed after dcpilaUoii. Uv i>'--Uevf>s thai tlie bair- 
folllclea of the oral, the menial, tbu supra-orbllal aait 
tbe dlsto-cnrpal lufis, as well as thow placi-d on tbe lat- 
eral ft»i>octs of Die limb*, are In all caw* supplied with 
nerver-fllaments, a* ure liii- pt«Tyl* uf birvU. Tn tpeei- 
m«ns In nbicli the folHcteM ar« ru'limuuiary there is 
n i-orTRspundiiiK failure of the nerre, lhu« bnlieatlng 
a clrt'« r(>latlnn twiwei-ii the two. — [Acad. not. sc. 
Pliilnd. : Tufriiiuj .IiiU'- I'i. ) [39 

Hervea ol tbe hunaao eyelid. — Von Ulsea de- 
scribes Uio ra.iull!i of bi^ stUilica. The nerves enter 
bi bundli^ from tlie ^d<;* a* well as from above, and 
are diHtribnti^d more tir leis parallel with the blood- 
vessel*, and form a rich plexus alons: tiie edge of the 
lid. Some details an.- slven as 1o the disiributiou of 
tlie nvm-s to the eoujunctir.v — {■SIUu>i{rs'i. alutd, 
leU*. llleii,Uxxv.,aMA.,iii.p. 172.] c h. m. [36 

ANTiraOPOLOOY. 
The autochthouee of Amerioa. — Dr. 3. Koll- 
man of Daael elves his views of American eranlol- 
ogy, lMuie<l on a study nf the brc«>lth indices of 1.600 
crania, ^uotrd from published meaaurement^i. and 
n-pivsviTling a)l the eouHirlos between Bering SlT«It 
and Ticrra de) Kuego, Five curves are appomled. 





Dnlkln. 


Utto- 


titrhy- 


TI,Fnfc<. 


Arta-AnA, 


s ! : : 








M 


■ifr 


■ i 


1 


' 


' r 






f- 


.1... 


1 X . 


r: - :± ::? 


■ ■ n+i-i- 






f' 


a 


i::: 


t i 


tH~ "N" 


T t • • 


M jS-r 


"NT 


thi 


-1 — 


4-4- - . » 
1 1 


S lie ' 




T " 1 1 j 1 1 


-J-Hf 


-lid 


s ^ 


¥i^- 






T ■ TT+TT 


rnn 


■-44— 


r^ 


+H+' 



■■.. .' 1 



ritmtftertrfiidJteH 



*■■■■■•■•■■'•■ ir ■■•■«ii ■■■■■■-.^•■■■■■■a>r ,■••« 



tt K T> U » n M W lU Ml kU-IM 

which reprwlncc graphically the breadth Indices of 
five groups of AuKTican sVulU. Curve 1. represents 
1^2 cnuiia of abohgmu of America, wliether from 



JUT.T 0, 1883.] 



SCIENCE. 



25 



KOdent lodfaa baryitig-plac«s it i^tcktd up on recent 

klUe-ikiMs; curvv U., 017 North Amerk-«n«, iricluil- 
tha tarrilorlea of the United Kut<^J HOd British 
Aravrkm with ifae exceiitlon of tlie Kskimo; curt^e 
U I., 348 Central mid Suutli AiucricaoN, iiiclntliiig tlie 
Mnsimn^ Ofi (wcnuni at Lb£!!r peculiar cIvtUtuLlon; 
fliifva IV.. 127 Eftklinu. vou^iMiQC of all crania (rom 
U«! iirrUc re;{i<tits uf Norlli Anivrica; eiirve V., 
3IIM pr«>C;<>lHmblftn«, (Ilm>riTnlnAt«l Imm oiht^rNoitb 
Ain«trlunB tiy tli<;lr nuknucr of burl*). !.«., moonit- 
buiidvn and oluticfrniw people. A iludy uf tbete 

tacliM, 1*. The plnrality "f ritri"ti«it in Amoricn; 

^. Tfae diffusian of thea^ variotics over the wliotn 
' eonclnrttt. As an lllustrKtlon, the 9ton«gnve people 
of Ti'iiuessee MQ cited. 'ITielr remalDa are (bOB» of 
linifte |>cople, M Mr. Putnftm hw afaowii tiy the 

orr«.ii)ondfioc^ nf their cuxtoma, and grade of clrlU- 
(,k>n; while llie iii«**un>ut«ntx of th«lr skalU by 

If. C'«rr show n varying pri)|iurtio^^ drttlcliocppb- 
'mil. n)«ito«(>phAll, hnwliyMphttll, a'^wllflclally iihor^ 
l«iivd vtanin. A people I* aii ctliitic unity, uhicb, 
arc»iiUng to tbo rvsutta of crAiiiology, iQar coii^IjiL 
of ;■» anatomical plurnlily of rAt'<-t: bui n. tMf: Is on 
attatotnicallT chanvrlcristic variety of Ibr biimaii *pc- 
cl«. Like the tiermnos, the mound-bnlldon cdnsiot 
of innny rxes which have combined to an ethnic 
unity. Tba term 'rarr,* as here em)>Ia;^d, isequiv- 
alitnt CO a sub-stMcInt id the 4i>c<:l«9 Homo aapleiis of 
Mr. Kollnuui's tynlKin, llluNtmIe<l by the rtillowing 
dlogiam. 



aifMisuutiiiio • • 



i ii'i'iii|ii 



« B «■ t 1 



(AftlCllu- Mmi>- Bfaw 
Mpball. Miibalt. Mfli 

»f. ». ir. 



S4 I>nllr1><i. Uawi Ilnabv- 
i * cvphall. M[ihnll. («|itMll. 



CtuBnaapnM»pa.«inoc«plMU. 

<Mmi>- rann.} 

SpacVs: IIomo wplcaa. 

Th4> varieties are dlstingufahed bypMuMaritim of 

tfa4 hatr: 1, 4, 7, being ^inoutli-lukireil, mdlc.ilett by 

■Itfii O; '2, 5, 8, etc., iiraigbt-batred, by Ibe ■ign 

\\ 8| 6) 9| etc.i woolly-haired, by the sign V. So far 

til known, only «imlglit-hair>iid varlotlci bare Iro- 
olgnUed into Ain«Tica. of iIm- follovrliii: lUb-fixwliM : 
1, Ufoad-fuCrd ilolii-.hoci'ph.tll (Eskimo) ; 'i. Droaii- 
facodmesallccpbnli I Indiana); X Hrout-facodbracby- 
cwpball ttnuund-builden) ; 4. Long-foMd bradijcvpb- 
ali (ancloat Peruvians). 



Like llie Kiiropean, tli« Amcriaui varleihia of lfa« 
species flouio fapiena bave loog Bini.-e |>iiB»o<l Into tlut 
coDiIition of permanent types. Tbv time of alMtl- 
city, of lb* ofBaoisatfon of new physically divtrto 
forms, baa long gone by, IVhetavcr linman remaUi* 
are foniid tn the glacial fonnatlann cf Eurofie, tliey 
are as highly oreauiied as to-day. Undoubtedly they 
repreaent men uf a lower plane of civilixaiion. It is 
erroneous at every Inobuep of advance in civilizaiian 
to Inferant'w nnd inor« highly organized race. Cro- 
nlolugrdonioMSli-atv« thai varietlet, UMcbAaKed y\\y^' 
tcally afoco Min glnilal i-poch, am continually maklnif 
tlielr way to higher grades of clvlllsalloii. — (2ettscAr. 
clA««(., ISS3, I.) c. A. 8, 13T 

Madagaacu-. — ITic vast (aland of Uailagaiou-, 
iMK) by SO.) mile* in extent, la unique in iu proaliuity 
to a rontinmt with wblcJi it has •neb feeble cunoec- 
llons, Its population is about 4.noti,<H)(): but It la 
Btibjecltogn.-ut fluctuaUoae throu(thepi<l<>inl('*, witch- 
craft, infanticide, Inlertrllml wan, and mnrdeni. Th>t 
peculiar formation of the island rtreets a tmpleal, 
nuUarial dlmaio Around the coaal, and a nearly tem- 
perate climate else where, All arouiul ch» WUn>J then* 
is a beltof fomtC, often splitting Into two pAita. which 
•neloeo fertile valteys t^emlnp with people. Tba na- 
tives an." the Horas, of Malay origin, and the Malaga- 
sy priipa-r, at AfriiNin origin, who for lli« pail hundred 
yr-arx have been augmented by importation nf slave* 
from central Africa. The ryatcm of government 
among the negro tribee Is purely African In form. 
Among the Ilovas, however, a queen boldn sway, 
through tliea^ent^y of a prime- minister, who la n-f>jfi- 
efo husband of tlie queen. The religion of all the 
Malagasy U fetUbIsm, with a shadowy reconuKioD of 
A superior power. They be!iev«» in gliiwt-nouis wbn 
are capable of good or harm to uh, and this belief 
leads to great respect for tbe dead. Their belief*, 
witchciafl, burials, roads, eommen:«, anil language 
liave been carefully studied by Dr. O. W. Parkntr, 
who has communicated a paper on the subjuct to the 
IJotKlon BiitbropoloKlcal institute. The Island became 
known l» tlH* Portuguese, Dul^b, French, and Engllab 
early In tlic Mventeentb century; although the Arabs 
traded tbcra long before that. At the beglnulRg of 
tba preoent century the llova* became tbe Hrm 
friends of tbe English, — a connection whlcJi has re- 
motned unbroken except during thf reign uf tjueeo 
Itanavalona I. Upon the aMaaslnatlon of bar sua. 
Ratlama II., the present syatcra of (|Ueen8 and prtme- 
minlsiets began. 

The latLgusgeB belong to tbe class of purely apoken 
longues, no one of thorn having over iM-cn reduced to 
writing by ihe native*. The ToweU) are ah, aji, ea, o, 
40.- the consonant sounds, 6, d, /, g, A, J, k, I, in, ■, 
xtf, p, r, K, I, v,2 ; tliu dipbihon^s arv ry ;uid vtc. 

Thrr number at con^onanul combinationa U verjr 
nsati, which occa&ion^ many vuphonie changes lo 
ompounds. Tbe meaulng of word* and sctiteneaa 
d«peiHlB little on the tone. Iftit much ou accent, poal- 
tiim, and the discriminative p-irllcle no. 

Unomatopoeift Is commoiu Tha grammatlt; Blrue- 
tur« is quit* regular. A large perceDiagc uf the word* 
are Iraceslilo to verbal and denominative root*, which 



3fi 



SCIENCE. 



rVoL. IL. No. 22. 



ar« sBlxed Md cotnpoundcd to an indttfinitv flzUnU 
OenilM-Ulmllcttted by ili« uffixnforinKlpiiD'l f«mal«, 
and therA 1« na riiatiiictioii bplweeu imiiuAt>' ami In- 
■nliiiBta. TtiH numi-ral Hystetn is dflcimal, and cnda 
M-Itli tapUrUa (irndpil am' the DtiTiiliers), ibe word (or 
« million. Ili'TV tirr two tnood* oF the T«rt>,— Die In- 
dJcailT«nU(l Uio lmpt>raiive. Tbcre are two c1uM>Aor 
peniiiinl |iroi)i>iu)>, — lli<.' IpvlusW^of ihe speaker, aoil 
tJi« L>xcJu*iv0. Other [wcu liar i Ilea lii xratnmnr orr 
pciinU'd out b]p Pr. Parker In an exhaii silver tlktion- 
ary of fourteen dialects, whivh uiilt^ iId' Maln-(ai»7 
with lfa« M.-il«T «U)ck-Iaiisuajjt«. T'j aci'ouni for tlilR 
annmaty nl rtit*« bhiI lani(iia|^, Ilr. IliMcbrjin'l niip- 
puMs tliv HcrnLt to have tirst Mltlrd the island, and 
U>1inv*>li«i*tioveri>uwcretl by Alrlcan maraud ts, irliu 
kilied mntt (>r Uii< Kova mi*n, and married tliefr 
wtTM. The rhildreii. Icarnlu); thrlr lancuafrv^ frum 
tbr mothLTt, piTpetuated ai the ume Limr^ Utclr 
Afrimn Idnw) iiml their Malay lanf;ua|i«, But Dr. 
Park«r »erlr>u»|f object* tt\ ihi* <;sptaiiation. Sir, 
Keanr U of the opltilon Uiat th<> Afri<-»n^ traro iniro- 
dnrvd a« sla>». who, ivIiIIq ^tradiialljr cumipUttg 
Uie blooil, woiibl have liUli- ntitcl n|H)n tfao langting**. 
Dr. ti. Oppert attii cotumonteil tipou tlie paper. — 
iJtnrtt. anihroj). itut., xll. JTS.) j. w. p. |38 



The flo>B oi ancient Bgypt— His Hndenl at 
anthmpotony i> repeatedly cliarmvd and «urprlMd by 
ibc \'ari«I and brilllaiiL llluiuliiatlnti llintMrn upon 
bis siib;«rt by ahter acl«nc«9. He Is luit leas pleaMd 
to know tliai r|uii8 IrttjuenU} the light procvoda 
Inthftoihvr diraction, aiwl ihat htiniaii custom pre- 
ser\'ffi for otlier srience) tbeir Hlbyllinii leaveA. In 
IS»1 Euill llni^eh Bey d<*c<iv<'n'il in llx.: vault o( a 
kluK i»f tha iwontletli ttyiiaity a Inr^v iiitmb«r <if 
plaiilA i-»iitair>rd in the fanoTAl ulT«rii)£a, rApatu, and 
wivnttis of ihf dead. Among llieee are Mveral 
spUL-laa uul known to have belonged to ancieni Egypt. 
Mr, G. ij<'hweinfurlh, ilepiited by M. Maspera, hoa 
etudlMd tlii'HA pliinis. and da<islli»d ihera in the Egyii- 
tolnjrical miH4uiii of llouhik. ar:c»nllnK lo (he hltjib 
pei-nonage* f'>r wIimu lliev nerv lHieti<l«d. A T«rf 
extended and tnt<Te>llii[i accf-unt of thr-*b labtir« was 
«omRiunic<ili>d to Sir .loseph D. Elouker, tij^foher with 
a Mit of til" wivaili», fluMvra, «!<:., dcturitfcd. Ex- 
ci-lli.-nt illu*lrntiut» accompany tha pap<!r irf Mr. 
^Sohw^lnfurtb. TIicjw obJ«t« wer«* exhlhltnl at the 
annual tvirve of llw Royal mi:\tlj o» lliv :!5th of 
May, .tn.1 ar« now on vinw at tb<i Royal ii[anUma, 
Ki!W. — (iVoinrt, May ill.) J. w. p. [39 



INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS. 



STATB INSTITOTIONS, 
Hbwiri veathn ttrviM, St. Laaia 

n'l-ather rei*ort /or Jiajf. — Thi> average loinp«m< 
luri! for May at thi- cenlnil vtnlloii ba* htwn fl3.4°, 
which i* i.d" below llie normal tempi^ntttirc, and l\.b° 
oliovt! Ibe lerapemtiire of May. IK^2. 8inr« ItSM the 
May Itfmpcrature lias ritllen beluw that uf la>l month 
fiTi- limef. Thr. extremist during last nmnth at Ihc 
eciiinil station wrn* '3s.n° and St^l°: although, in Uie 
ruhurbsof Si. Louis, the tKniiiviratun.' full tu30.0° on 
tlM evenini; of lh« 21st. In IS11 Dr. Kngieltnann 
obflervi^d a {rmpfrntnrc of SO.O'^ in 3Juy, but it wa* In 
the early part of the month. The luwett minimum 
tetDperatnreR rcpnrl«i were, 2!>.5° nt CentreTille; 
RI.O*', at Big Creek, Warren county; 32.0°, at Steel- 
vllle: ail other etatlon.s r«|iortiflt; over M.O". Tht! 
Iilgbest minimum temperatures are rcporliM] from 
Glasgow, 4r>.n", and narrisuuvli!... J7.()". TIm- hlKb- 
t9t maximum temperuturt^s repurttd were. Corrin^, 
01.0°; Miami, liS.U°: HarHsouYillti »ud Rie Creek, 
OO.O*. Til" highwt aviTiijt" t<jnippraturiTi reporlwd 
were, Caint, 111., (1fi.'J<>; Mnsooutab,Ill..ft5,uo; Ilnrrl- 
aonvltlc, (H u°; thr l'>wesi being nt Keokuk, lo„ 
«f.e°; Ma^-on,00.4<»; Louiilaua, W.^", 

The rauifuli at the central station was 2,61 inebes, 
which la 'IM InebAs below the normal May rainfall at 
St. I^uis. In western Missouri, however, from Ititrrl- 
sonville nortliwant along the Missouri valli^y, the rain- 
fall ban been over *i.-ren tni'lti'*: aitdatniali mti-ximum 
of ovitr sernu Inches occurs In the region arnund Imn- 
lon. An area of mialmum rainfall of bctw««n two 
wui thret! Inches occurs In aotiUvweat MlaMwri, 



arodtid Gr»«nQe)d and Lamar, and aiiotber uecura 
alnni; the Inwer ]U)>uouri below ChamoU. exti^ndlng 
along the Mls»ls«ip|)l lu far south as Cairo. 

Un the ntli, lumailoet occiirivd nt varioua points 
in Mlasouri and Knnsaa, a« follows: ibe town of 
Urunof^o. Jasper county, was destroyefl at about 7.40 
I'.K., two perBoui being killed, iiud forty iujnred. 
This tornado Is probably tlie one which pasneii about 
two miles mrrlh of CariJia£;e. □allstonca as large oa 
bcn'.« eg^ fril al .Sprln^flidd at about 10 p.m. An- 
other aiortn ]>.-issed two miles soulb-east of PatUina- 
ville, i>avic9i county, i>n Ihe same evening. Twu 
tornadoes pA».<eil tlirouj^b Kansas City at 5 o'clock, one 
passing a few minutes Inter than the otlier. Several 
persons wero kiHwl, and a (crt-al deal o( damage was 
done lo propertj-. Theac whirls were slender whip- 
like vortices, tliu diameter at lb« surface of the earth 
belns only a few feet, although the d«»tructl»e patlt 
was about seventy feci. TbAnc itlorius oHginnied 
apparently tn Wyandotto counly. Kan., where ihoy 
earned ureac damage. A later developmrot of thif 
sbinn passed throuKb Macon {.'ity. one hundred and 
twenty nlleKeast-nonh-^asl rn>ni Kami.^Cily, wher*- 
A tornado oci-umtd about 8.30 f.M. The track was 
from i>iie-r<iitrtli to tht«e.«if'bliis ot a mile wide. 
TiiM* persnuA wer<^ killed at .Maron. 

On the IStfa, lornadoes occurred In Mlasouri. Illl< 
nob, ami Wlsoonsin. At 7 P.W. a lirrnadudld coo* 
sider:kblc damage at Uerger, Uaseonad>? i-ounty. Mo. 
At aUiul H 20 P.M. a lomado parsed through Wcntx- 
ville from tbe sonih-wcit, causing $rual dei^truction 
to properly, and lost of life, a> far an !>u Taui, Ho, 
At alHiut tlio Mune time a storm passed from Cottle. 



Jm.T rt. less.] 



SCIENCE, 



'il 



vllltf, ilintugh Kim Point, to rirttfton, on UiellHocIa 
■bore iif the Mlaslnlppl lii^itr. 

H*ll.flt(irmii have occuirad as follows: at Btg 
Crerk. lOth; (V-ntrarillc. Olb; dglil milei tiurtb of 
SavBuiiali,3<l; ITunnitMl, Oth: r^utstarta.litb&nd lOUi 
(acflatSpringlicM and Dvverchurcb. near LnuUlaiin, 
l»rg** hail Wl on th« afternoon of ilie IJ'lli); Lamar, 
3d; Chamois. t>Lh, — a violent Aiorai of wind ami ball 
at 7 r'-M..fi>r»eTi>n lol«n tninuie^ thcliail ooiiip!ei«ly 
eotrring the itruijiid, tuma Hfmc9 wdiihlnij six ouiicvk- 
On the 16th, at.u.6(3 r.u., a dark rliiiiO in llii» koiiUc 
Wfirt moved lo the Hrc»l with a boaTj roaring noinc. 
■ppoarine to «|>eiii] its force vthva clou wcsl, rain and 
amaJI tiai) following, 

Killing fro*l8 oMiirrfid on the nighU of lh« Sist 
mod 2S(1. At Uii: Cre«k great damage wa« done to 
wheal. «.rii, >nit fruit. At CentrevlUi', alB P.M.. cm 
the 2}|il. ibe Iptnjiemmr.! «a« 32°. and (ell Ial«r to 
2P^'»°, — Ihc Ute<)t frnrt In ivlxteen yearn. Kog pri*- 
vfiiilcH damagip In the vallcj's uf ibu Klack Itlver, bui 
In the dry valley* ev^rythin); WiUt killed. Iioiiiitiaiia, 
Kfo at amirlM on tl>c 2al ; Cbnrnols. dostnictlTe fro»t 
with Iv-v au vliiliih of an inch thick in a pan of n*ai«t ; 
OrvunOclil, httavy frusl, wldch InjurtHl follngr of 
forast -trees so that ihey looked a« though worched hy 
nre. 

Whlln fro«t4 occurred ai Uannibal, Ureenfl«ld, 
AI«zlco, (;iiani>>it, .'ilh; Bannibal. l.;>iuisiHna, Chu- 
luoi). Miami, lllh: Iroti(on,mth;ov<>rth<>>^nlir«Mat<-, 
2Iat Mitil -J2d, but liKht lu the awuili-weit. where the 
t«nipeml.iire waw nlxiul 40°; Mrxli-o, Irunton (^^ at 
A.SI) A.M.), l.oiiirii:uia. Chanioi*. Miatni, (treonlleM, 
23d: Sodfttift. OfntruvlUc, GruunflvM (liieavjK IruD- 
lou, Clminuie. Miami. 31si. 

AntiKxni'M to A[>ril report. — At Cairo a heavy 
BbtKk of cftftlmiiakf na* fcllat 2.3G a.m. on the 13th, 
which lastMl thirty ?«coihIb. Vibrallons, ilirctj pt-f 
»«coikI, Iron) »outb-soutb-we»i lo noriti-north-viiftl. 
An old onissiory fr.une-buildiiti{. wlik-li urns iK-oiif^ei] 
at the tlniR the sboirk oc^urroil, was slinkt'n down anil 
COlU|«»i>ii the Intuatif* r«v«ivliic tligbt tnjuriea. 

I«>a seather Mrrioe, low* Kt^. 

WeaihtT lifitleiin /ir Mag. —Hay wai> remnrkabty 
CoM. very mi»>, with tate fro»ls, westerly and north- 
ftrljf MlniU prevalllnK. The mean lorajwratun: of the 
air WA« nearly live riejErpea Aefi/w norrnat, In fojty- 
Utl' yvar», Mny lias b'-fti »i"i lulu's aa coM or ei.'lder 
than thi. year; namely, In \^>. I!«7. !«.•<, IrtSI, 
1S.V.>. and isi^ 'I1><: lat'- 1m*lA al>nut tbc I'jtli and 
S2<1 wire i^enrial. 

Til*? rainfall wao intwh altovo normal lhn>u({b<iui 
town. rKcepI in iniiliJlr norLliem iowa and rlown the 
nttddle 'edar and Wapslplnicon ralleye. Tho lolal 
mitifallwai lil!!lie<ii along ih«UI*sis*li>pi>>nil Ml^^^nrl 
rirer*., and fmrn U'liyne to I'olb cmnly: in the rt- 
g\nn* hirre jipiS'lHed, Ihf rainfall nvera^ed seven 
iiH:li«5. Tho rain firtitn-ncy n•.\^ als-. hJcb: two of 
«v«*ry thrt'e May* wpru rjtny Iti tmnt twri* of the date. 

The prinL'ipal §torin-dayN H.ei>? the Hth and tUli, llie 
|.1ih and lltb, )7ih and -i7(h. On the 9tb a v«ry 
amall timivht did slittht dainnst* In Linn coutity. timr 
3{onra7*t«il9D: on llw olli«r 9torni>daja, town waa 



■pared tbe viitllMticm of tnrmdooi, whlrfa atruck. on 
the i:tr]i, Kai>9aa VMj; ISlIt, Haclne; SSUt, wuthflfn 
Iiidiaiia. 

Wbih- unnaiislly cold Hod iu\U) w«t, Ui« fRUon in 
mnch HKire pfondsint: tlian loal year, yfhtii Slay wai 
much colder. 

!i07KS 4SD NEWS. 

Stephen Alviander, professor eineriltt* of «•• 
Ironomy at ]>iinc«lon, died .lan« !0- EJe wai bum 
at Schenectady. N.T., atid waa educated al Ualaii 
GoQese. where he graduated In IR24. Slnco 1S10 b« 
han b«eii connected wllb Princeton, flml as profeaaor 
of aatrunomy, and later as profea-orir of mcchanies at 
well. .An an aatrwUDmer he bocame widely known. 

— Sir Filward Sahlnc, whoce denib ha* been latejy 
announced. Ha* born in Dublin in OcLolKrr, 1788. 
lie studied ai the mllttary nchooU of Uarlaw and 
\V'Xjiwii,'h, niid at the o«« of lift^-en entered the 
Knglinb army, in ISl^ he wua luatle rjipTaln, and 
look part in tbf! ramiuvi^ on the Nlit^ra frontier, 
comiOAnding the baiti'ri<^ at the «f'-ge of Fori Erie. 
1814. From l!^IS U> li<i5 he niad« a number of my* 
a^^ from Ihc i^'jualoc to the arctic reglOfi« for the 
purpose of studying lerrestrfol magnctiara, the H^an 
of the earth, and other questions In terrestrial 
physics. Hi- wa>i with Rom and Parry ou the arctic 
cxi^lillon of l.tIK, anil with I'arry the folloirlni* 
yi-ar. Hv i-dlted a numlier of trall^Iatlons of sclen- 
tillc hook*, and fMililinbeil a large number of papera 
on hie favorite slndicn. having read more than forty 
befont thf Koyat i^ociety, and having coatribnieil 
many to the procMdiiigs of the Urttisli asvoclalion. 
Prom IH27 to l&Xt he wa^ secreUrr of Ihc fhiyal 
society, and president for tbe ten y<-ar« 1H6I to HKTI. 
and preflldent of the British associaifon In 1833. tn 
I$i5 the French academy elected him as a corrv* 
aimndiuK member. 

— A r.-w weeks ago (April aeiiVoZK/esarE a sketch 
of the llf"^ of SpottlsiTOodv. In the number for June 
14 WR find a regrrl exprrvocd at hi* abaence. on ac- 
connt of nlckncfii, from the lloyal society meetlni; o( 
that week. On June ?I he ila-d. Bom in London, 
Jan, II, IK35, he U'lian his clArjiliiin liv a private 
school ai Lalcham, and thi>n ^t Kton and Harraw; 
his stay at Eton being sliori on ai-couui of aomw 
eiperlmenu n-|th dotonatlng miKtnret, In whlcti he 
was found to be hiicreatcd. In 1842 be eniereil 
Italllol i-olh-gu, O^ifonl. where. In hU but year (1A4A) 
as underzraduale, he reail with the Kev. 0arthol>>ntow 
Rice. ,\f!ur graduation he held uuiversily mnthi'- 
matirAt ^cbolarshlps fnr two yean, and for a short 
itnte lectured on Kfotnetry of three dlinen«lmi4. Hue 
be Mion look an arllrit part in tbe management of 
the large ]irinling-bu!>inr>'t about this time r<'9t^ned 
lo lilui by his father, and which he lani»ly dr^veluped. 
Hli *clentlllc work vxk mainly in mathematics, 
although of late years he ban devoti^d hiioMtlf tn 
phystrv. Ills recent inTcitigations in electricity being 
well known. When a yonng man, lia travailed 
widely, and, aniouif oihen, piibll*li«d a very lively 
nooount enllUed "A FaranUaae >ouniey ibrouch 



98 



6CIENCE, 



tVou IL.Ko.8S. 



mu«ni UuuIa Iq tlie ftmunn of IRSA." He alsn 

•tu«tl«tl IiLngiiagi's, Itutti orlvntxl Atnl Earope.iii. aiwl 
({live i'VliIeiicc ijf tliK [tioruu^liiiosf ot Ibi-JV Hluilies 
fa Itlscuntrihiilloiis to our kni>wlAilgi>. 

— The Dlckiuiii e]i|>e<llttoii, lu chiuiti> of Pn>f«w>r 
Nori!»iaklC>ItI, which kri Thunxi Mny ?9, In rcixirt- 
p4 Jia havltii; cuWoA m FCcikiuvik. K-cUnd, Junn i\ 
au<l wa* to Mnll for Crctfiiluiil on Ihv 10th. VThcn 
tlw txpmlilloii tUATUd. It was the intvotlnn that 
Count Slnimferiti [t)oUrii«l.), Or. Arpi (pliilologhtHud 
an-hiMlii^isEI. luid Mr. Flink (tulneraloglst) should 
OL^eiiibark. m Relkkvlk, and reniolii In Iceland for 
■tiiilj nii'l eKplonttloti. It I» reported by rwcctitly 
arrlrnl wh&lcrs that tin' condition of the %»a» tre*! 
from Iccliirid, as riigardK ici>, la at present not un- 
lavnrnble iv itiu «iiccce9 of tho vxpedition. The Sofia, 
upon which ll]« P'rI.y Ik etntiarked, is a lUtla iron 
propeller of Ins Lhau two hundred ton% capablr? of 
• apeod wt ol<!vcn knots, and draws ten feet of water, 
— a voMwl much letter siilled to her purpose ihaa 
the iU)Wl«)d]r craft whbrh have Ixwn u<^ in many of 
thv Eiistlisli expedition 4. It was orlt^liially intended 
that I':ilBiider should oointuaiid the !v>liit, but cir- 
euuu^taiicrs iiic<TVcii«d to prevent thU ; and tin- ves- 
ecJ biu bi><<ii tnininlod to Capt. Kmil Nlteion, who In 
well <iu»tlti4>d by experieoee, and who ulll bo ably 
i«coTiilt!<l by thf wcll-kuown Norvrir^ian ».••*-« insler, 
Johitnn(^>cn. The sci^ntilic stall docs not compre- 
hend ajiy of thi> nu<tnb«r9 of the Vega oxpedltioo, 
who are rno*cly i-n^B^cd In worltlng up the Inves- 
lignrtons miulp un thnt voyngc!, but, afl^r Baron 
Nordrn-ihlMd. in composed of Dr. Kotthofl, ento- 
molojibi und uruitfaologist ; Dr. Nathorst, KeoIo);iit 
and |)al<Mtil(il()glsl; Dr. ItorlSn, surgeon, bol^iisC, ai>d 
general tiioliip»i ; Mr. Forsslrund, laxhliTinUt and 
proparntor; Dr. Hani)>ci-i;, hydrogmphor ; Ur. KJcll- 
«tKiiu, phutogniplier. Botlde Ihmc, there art- a bar- 
poonwr, two mouniain I^pp» {(u scoirdHnc* with 
the AUggesUon of I'mfcjiaor Pries, to which we have 
nireftdy alln<l«d|, and eight or nine pirked men, to 
aocoinpau)' the parly uvvr the inland Ice. This 
party will bo provided witli fourU-en monlliB' provt»- 
iunn lit the most compact shape poailblc. The ctcw 
of the Sofia cotnpriseii twoiUy-four tuen. The party 
1* thoroughly equlppM) with scientific «p]ia>ratUK. and 
even includes u aylug-niacbme coniributetl for irini 
by Ita inventor, according to the Swt'dbb papers. 

— Ajnonfi the ntogt liitetestlnK of the living nntmnls 
in lh>- fptnl«iiii of th<' liuiidon fluhr^ries exhibition arc 
two Itrlliitli-horn hcari-rrs from ilic I»lo of flute In 
Seotland. Tiioy wen' nu^mb^Tx of a colony esiab- 
llnhed by tlii* l'*arl of llut« ii)K>n his ouilit of Ihitlie* 
say scirmi years since. A <.'uii«td«rable tract of land 
was walled in, and hcavera wi-ro Imported from 
Canada, whM] m>or established themselves, gnawing 
down the tre^, Inilkllng a d»m, and forming a lake 
of cnnslderable alse. The ' Iwarer wood ' Is coiisld- 
ereil uuo of ihu must inten-silni^ features of the 
(aland. Mr. K. U. Mntlfaews writes to the Fifid, 
complaining, that, in capturing the tun^ t>eateT« 1o 
send lu tlie exbibllion. the colony had b«on broken 
u|i, the (lams deatroyed, the houMS pulled down, 
and all the other beavers killed. It is to be hoped 



that Die dainagn is imt no serlons u (n rcpmented. 
for the awllniatlon of the .\mcrlcan beaver (n Scot- 
land IS a task wblcb i* nut likely Lo lie often aU 
templi^d. 

— The next Is^iie of the Proccwlings of the naval 
institute (vol. ix, nn. .1; wbule no. iH] will Ixr entire- 
ly diroted to an aniclx by Liciii. E«Jw«nI W. Very, 
on thv development of armor for naval un: Tba 
numbirr will thus l>c a catnplcic work of Itself, fully 
IDustratrd, and will pasM9u more thiui iirdJuary 
lntcn»r. In b«inH; Hi* only wori.- extant dr-Tiited 
es'-liisinily lo th<> delalli* of armor dev«lupnienL. 
Ordt-Ts for UiU DumberBhould be sent lo lb- seer*- 
tjiry U. S. naval Instltate, Anttspolti, Md., as early 
as poMlble. . Prico tl. 

—The extraordinary meeting of Uie geoli>gleal 
loclety of Fmnee for this yi*ar Is lo take plsu-w at 
Cliarlevllle <Arih-nne«>) on Snmlay, 8epL :i, and Ihti 
excursions will end Tues<lay, SepL 11. 

— The yearly meetlne of ibfl Schwelwrlschen 
naturforscheudon gew^llcrlinft will lalli- place from 
thn nth lo the Mh of August In Zurich, whi'h- the 
national exposition fe auraetlng aiuny people this 
year. 

— O. Valentin, for forty-live years professor of 
pbystotogy at the anlversity of Bcme. died on Ihs 
24l\i of May at rhe age of seventy -I hreA. He was a 
iiativt* of Bnwlaii. He wa.-< fuitncrly oda of Louis 
Agaj<slE*s collaborators; and the fourth fivmtacn of 
Aptasiz'a ' Monograplilct d'vi-hlnodermea vivania et 
fossHei*. coouinlng tlie anatomy of tlie genua Echl- 
m«, is by Valentin. 

— Past aaaiBtaiit-cngincfT N. B. Clarke. U. S. N., 
rood a paper on water-line defence aiid Kuu-shlelds 
for cruisers, at the meeting of the U. S. naval Inati- 
lute (Wasbin;,'toii braiichj on June 7. 

— The bureau of education has Issued, as one of 
the 'cireulnn of infonnalion,* a pamphlet containing 
tlie legal provisions rMi)>c^lIng the examination and 
llMnsltig of teacher*. 

— A eoiitribuior'i note in the Atlantfc mouthl]/ for 
June i-ails attrntton to the question of ihe spelling 
and pronunciation of geographic names, on which 
several articles have lately appearetl In foreign jour- 
nals. Til** <)Ui>sl)on is not Hlursys settled br adopting 
local spelling and sound, for in many coses foreign 
names aru well Anglicised, and will so remain ; th« 
difficulty b rather in knowing when; to begin using 
U»« orlRinal pronunciation. A» we do nil say I'areo 
and Balrleen, why may we not say Prii(,'ue anil 
nauue, even ibounh we do drop a *i»ihlo * fmm 
Calais, and attempt the diniculties of Knurn, Anileus, 
Cbartres, and lUaU'^ As to .St P<:lerabiirK. the 
onvr of sauctiAL-atioii I* not ours, but the Ku^inns', 
from whom we have uken it. Our mistake, tf it l>e 
one. is in putllne an » ttU^t Pet^r, fut thi* icldam 
occur* In the (irl^final, A slmlijir but incornnct ad- 
Ullioo is often ia»d<> in I'riiice Edward Island. The 
back -and' forth method of naming sc«i) In ihe Cier* 
man Ko^oen, which the couuibulor explains as 
coming from the original Oetman H^tua^en (w;«l«ry), 
throuith the French Kospet, is found again in the 
some pidyglol bordcrlaad la the Laaeh«r Hit, 



J«.r 0, 1WS.1 



SCIENCE. 



29 



— Tli« OomUlDn <1«) mapn. giwlngico ile Opafia 
jmi priliiiBlitfil. for lite Kxpoaiclon d« minerik nt 

Irld. I briuf accouni "( the liUWry nt lb« Mirvej- 
from 111 brglnnlng, nlrotit thr j-Kar 1S3I, niider D. 
Angifl Vftll^'ja, >lonn to tti« prrtoiit litQi>. Two iKsps 
Klion* the t-uniliUon of Lliv vr>- . in M«rdi. 1873, »l 
tlteb«gIniiIiieof the prvsenl w/siemnf tl)tt«urv«y,iuid 
111 Match nf tlin pr«»eu[ year, ^houitijj how gre&t au 
aninuiii ot work hua l>wn done in the lasi U'Q yenrs. 
Kightir«ii )>rovlnct*» are Atilehfld ; viz.. Oritnlo, Va- 
drid. SaiiUDder. CK^iellwn, Albacete, Murrlo. Tp- 
ntH, Ciidiz, /armgiixa, nu«iii-x, Cicen-i. VftlUiIolid, 
Htifctca, AvIlB, SahtRuncA, G(iu<lxla)nrn. Ban-Hona, 
■nd VoluiKiiL Mijrv ui' !•;» has b«eii jitihlithed cuii- 
camin^ tH*«nty>thrvr other province*, but Uicir full 
flescrlplivc otc-motr* nrv still ti> ai>p4>ar ; tIz., Coruflo. 
Ltii;o, OrcDEC, Puntevcdra, 8vi;uviii, Palendn, Do- 
loarvs, AlicantiF, Dur^s, I.ogroOo, Soriit, Alava, (i»i- 
puicoa, Vifcaya, Ta.rragonA. IItidvn.T»lcilo. Uiulajoz. 
Cunlob», niudad-Real, Gntnada, Savurrc, and Al- 
tuerlft. $eren provinces are entirely tinpuhli»hi<^l or 
undar study ; namely, Lit«ii, L^nda, Zainora, MAlaga, 
OemiiA, .l;»^ii, and S^fllln. A rough draught ot tbv 
final map, on th« fcale of 1 ; IOO.OjO, U shown In tho 
iFxpodtioiii u{>oti which all live work doii« up to dale 
la ent«rMl, 

— ThH Belgian photographic auocUtJon has ort;a~ 
ntml an iiiteruatiouBl exfaibltlon of phoiogrvphy to 
l)« hwia, ditiiog t^ month of August, 18S3, in the 
patai:* di-a li«atix-an U Bniaaets. 

— Thonixtli lni«rhailonal congress of orlenulisU 
vlll tw hold at U-ydni, S«|>L 10. 

— The international ci.ngrfias of aoclettea for the 
prevention of <?r(M'lly to animal* will be held nl 
Tleona tn Suineoihcr. A nuniWr "i I'wa.! »i^-ivii(;s, 
amont; th^ni thosu of Drrtln, f- •"•-■■ Munidi, 
Dresden, and Hanover, bvsldci Sitanlsh 
(tAllan, and RushIiui, luve expreui:. .].-.. .;iu:Qtiou 
to Ixj reprwent'T'l. 

— Thr- itriltsh KMociatton for the udvaneemejit of 
Mienf^o mei'M thU year at Simihpori, Sept. 10. 

— Or- William Lee ii:ad before the PhlliMuphlcal 
BOclnty ot VVA»liin^toi), Jun« 2, a paper on mwliir:d 
history m i[l<jiirai«il hy ni^dals ; I'rol. Theo. Gill 
dbcuiEcd nnaloutiU!* in i-jditwgntpby. The sucivty 
then adj'MinK-d llll Octohrr. 

Th<< Mathemntical »ection of the society adjourned 
for \hf (^uniniar on .lnno6. At the tn»t two ni»eL- 
Ing". Mr. li. W. mil dlscUMC"! the plnnvtarx perUir- 
batliinsol Uiu tiiooii, Mr. O. K. Udb(>iL (.■xpUinod tho 
troHMnirtlon of graphic uiblrs tor aae In connection 
Willi hU DL-w method of detenninins bdsbts from 
barumrtric datJ^ and Mr. K. 1). KUlou gave an Im- 
proved Ayfttfni nf clM'irlrial units. 

— An esciiriion to northern Norway anil SplLxbtir- 

En ill pmjec-lm) (o|; some of tho studriits ul lh« I'lirlx 
■ole >lo» ininM, Tiro French natnrali^tt will iic- 
oonipauy Uie party, whli^h will chnrtiT a stenmer 
dlmiiMl by a competent arctic nnvlgator for Lha par- 
po»e. 

— VriilrnMit Prln* faas propi^ard tbt> '■-ilmittatlnti nf 
Greenland by Lapps, on thu liy|><iih<'dli that In Ihe 
Interior, tn •ummer, alMindant reludeer-paMuni can 



be fouul. now the reindeer am i« get at It doen not 
ftct-in to have been rbiiiiidi>red, nor how thi-y uo to 
bu snbsiitml during thi-tr tmvei* or«r tlir i-ontinenta) 
ice-sheet. 

— Ur. Oliver W. HunUngion, oMlstanl In tfa« 
ohemkal Ubomtvry of IJnrvard college, baa »IIivd a 
booh of five<pluce lii];nitlbnis. which will fimiJIy fum 
port of a set at tablca mostly for use In eJioml«*l »l- 
fiilaiions, hilt la now publl&bvd In s(>|>arBt« form. 
Tlie logarithm tablvR lire well arranged, and very 
rlearly printed. The Iwok is puMInltnl hy Slocea 
King, Cambridge. 

— The museum al Oxford, Bug., hu lately bought 
tlie iinli)n« c-olle<:tlon of- Silurian foultf of l>r. Grln- 
ilnul of Malvern. 

— it Is TAre to find, at the present time, a wleotlDc 
mciuoir lu Latin, Aloyslus Molina, a Niudeui al 
Pisa, has, howevt^r, retutrfd to lh« ancient custom, 
and has publiih'-d a memoir, ' IV lioinlni« mamni*'- 
llutnquc culL>,' in volumu v, of the AHi drlUx HucietH 
Totc^tnn. The opening ■enlriice suflickntly describes 
th<i paper: " Expeclans duni Itanvifrus In ^ueum 
perfecte profcrat oonclu*.)oi\c8 nnmi^s suanim UivM' 
tlltaiionum de Intlma aiructura cutis, prodtwe Psla- 
linin breviter r|aae praeeipun facta kunt resumere, 
nonnullaa consideration e« addens, ijiius I|>m> fi-i-i dum 
)ivr dno* luiiios i»d Anavomlcaiu Sclentlom meuni 
adhiberl stndium in LaboraUirlo Analomiae Cum- 
parativae hujus univerxitalls." Tli« 'nouiuitJM 
conaidi!rallon«8. <guai Ipau feci' one Hnds not r^ry 
numerous, the chief vAtue of the paper beine ok a 
nummary. A good bibliography is ap|>ended. 

— Much progress has been made at th<' Lick olner- 
ratory during the past ye»r. The dome for the 
twelvv-lnch eiinatorial has been entlnly completed 
in K very llKiroiigh manner. It \a, tvilhoui Miy doubt, 
the roost conriMiteni attd complete dome of the ike 
in the Douulry. The tour-inch IranaU-hoHse, and 
UiQ buildings for the photoheltograph, are lu vapltal 
working order. They were nUliied but Decamber 
In a Ti>ry Ruccasiful absprration of the traotit of 
Venus- The walls of the main building are lulf 
done, and th« eellar for the dome uf tlie tli]rty-«lx- 
inch equatorial lo excavated. Maiiy ot the ori)*iual 
arrangeuiout» of the bulldium and givuodE vre.rv 
only provivional, and llieM are being replscod by 
others more substontliil and permanent. A brick 
reservoir containing ^3.<H)U gallons of water Iderlied 
from iliree sprlngv) has been bulll durint; ihi^ aGasnn; 
anothrr of 311,000 gallonn Isprluy-wuler). ourl nnMther 
n( }ill,UH) gallons (rain-water), will <iliorily he b^Kun- 
The Mftds have been extended. The hrjuw for the 
meridian clnrle (Repsuld) will be begun in n few 
H'cekj. OS well as a house for the astronomers, and 
bulhliugs to contain the appllancv* for hnatlng and 
lighting the bolldiog* and tnnvlng the dome. The 
end of tbiji seMon will show great progress. 

— The division of entomology of the IT. S. depart- 
ment of ngrleulliire hat b<giu the publli^tlon of a 
fcries of liullellns for the purpose of t'la''>ni; before 
the public, rurn-nl matter that wnuld rilhrr lose 
much of lu valu# If kept tor the annual report, or 
Dud tw apace In tlia limited pts" o' ^^ volumo. 



|Mor f»ch,a „jt at prrw.. ,11 ,ho.e LriihUr iJun 
» fl/th magnJuM^. 'fhl, work l« now co« , Ji 

8 to ,ho «ca„l of ,h. .ur". ,..„„h Oi8Un.-.l^d 
>t ..II good for «.nhb diBtaneo. rxc^dl,,.. ,w<> 
..i Ihat for .ur« « lower .t.lu.de, the aJ,L Juons 

lff.« o( Rlmosph^ric ^Unciiau of IlghlTndTr 
(rrirc«nu.Uttc«,. h. cho,« the cli.««.> of .>«, 

> pro,>er h«a l,y for r.pe«il„g ,!.„ o.fortl obs.rl 

6t«. .u.) «mk.rlng (he ™««reh oompl^i*. A 

[^ rT "' "•^"«>'">»« *" '«rt -t Oxford 1« 

■^■eu of uUervnuon* a™ embodied in ihe 



boBjiIierlc absorpUon 
^1 0,fo«I =<ms X Sec r.D. in^S^ 

!«K' jrholu effrri of U.e Mmo^pbew «i f'airu I. 
In.l..l»h th.. .,righu«'« of .u« .e.,, in ,hc ^Tith 
.bom tuo.|«..h, of .a u..B,.|tU.I«. „„i u Ox o d 
W oj..f,.a„h Of ,. „.8,.,u.,„. At «„ ,lSZt 
Niai .«P. he man w C«Iro will be brijrhUT 

» Englw. bj »l.„,u o„«.flrih of a ..,a«„im^7 

^ Bt Cairo ttiaii ,«, b.> »^,-n ,i Oxfoixl 
J«.iKler ItelvilJ, R.u |„, «Htt«n a primer 

ii. ip«hl.,K thB methods of vl«iW« ,p.^^ 
took r«n be «*„( by any e*n«l,.r without ...e- 
BBlng In U.r peculiarlUM of tho «y«t.-ni 
|«in*«poud«nt autM Uiai the slmrbMt *«i.^ 



Blwoo. K. Ni>iiv« 
BouMUier. i. i>, 



rt »*>er«(.lilqi«. I',ri3 

Cro«ll«..l. U.W 
•'(iKui >!>■», IWi!. 311 

DeadaTiatB du 

Du«ult. I-. ^»d,i 
«f»nB- ruu a tlf.r.l™i 
S p. ft*. 

Blwner. f. u<«e|.<, 

■JlMrlB. rtnita. A«Mpy, , 

,.r»br». J. 11. Ca«M 
■ ■ria. /t.i.iynt(v. iftQ, - 

^m. I. U ..ycbfl. 
qoa iito )ourB itiMioir 
* ■ .V(» p. »•. . 

rncero, ■. . , „'; 
Onmr. (f i...«tii wa 

<("■/..'«(.., i*,a. iny., 
InstructloiiB iMhtIvh 

Vlgrna* anirrk«|nw. J-n^^ 

Lo Breton, u. j^.wi 

»4t>U"*« djiiu. ruilb|itj|«. 

1-"" ^' ■'■' .. 1 

'^■"' :; 

•«w«. r. I. r',ri», A> J 



FRIDAY, JULY la, 188R. 



rUE GOVKHNMEST AH A PUBUSHfNG 
HOUSE. 

Wk have called Attrntion to the report of 
Mi!8itrs. Ames. SpotforH, and Buinl iipCD tb*- 
(liirtrilKiIion of public documents, and D<iti-d 
tbv prupni'lY q{ the reooinmcndiLlJoDB made 
to the goverameul bv Uio commiltce. irtheae 
recouiiueudations witc to be earned nut, some- 
thing would be gained ; but ire biive little faiLb 
that any real reform would bo elTected, for the 
evil lie* deeper, and r<iqtni-e« more radical 
treatmfDt. 

Ever sinee the govemmcDt went defluiicly 
into thu I'rinimg'^hasincsa in 1^61, ihp evil has 
bet-n growing, until now there in waste, t-on- 
rUsioii. and public mischief. It ts no more 
«aitenlint to govenioieat to carry on the Int^e 
priiitiiij; i>ustiM.'KS which it conducts tlinu it is 
for it to mADur:ict.ur<» pniHtr. Let us make 
a dbtinction. There is a ucceMity. iu the 
•tnltmiry xdininiistratiuii of Cuirgl'C6s nml Ibe 
executive dcpftrlraent. fur n largo prinliiig- 
ofBce in llu> imDit'diate ririnity ; and wo are 
quite ready to grant, as imninterial to our 
at^rneot, that it is better to hfivo such nn 
estflbliabnieut. wltli its uianaj^er aa a civil of- 
ficer of the I'uitcd iStntes. immediately uitder 
the control of Ci>nga*s8. Tboi-e is a vaat deal 
of printing required in the exigenolctt of the 
daily business of govt^nitoeol, and there U 
reason for thia being done by persons hired 
direoUy for the pnrpoAc. 

Then* the ncoeastty utops, but the huaineas 
of the printinj^-uflltv tlws not. Co-itly scion- 
iiOc rcpuru an- iii:iiiuriict»rud year after yitar, 
Htdt iheo published; thjtt is, given nwny rvch' 
lewly »ud with little dietcrimination. Thi* 
report of ^eieutiUc cX|ivrL&, to which we have 
rcfeiTed, points oat the desirability of a single 
agonvy for diolribution. n-bich should act ai>on 
•omt? syttcmntic plan. We lio not objct^t to 
a policy by which govcroment shall put before 
So. ».- tsn. 



the ]niblic the rctmlLs of the surveys and ux- 
parinients which it is csrrying on ; bux we 
contend, thut, iu doing tliis, it should employ 
economic agencies lUrvndy existing, which are 
far more efficient than any Jraniwlmle govern- 
mentAJ agency cno be. 

Government should contract with piiblt-sliers 
to print and puhllsli its scacutillcreporlH. The 
plan is pcrfoutl) feasible. Kvcry cojiy which 
the government might wi^b to give UTvay to 
public liljraries tvuW be bought of the pub- 
lisher tt a cMt fiAy per cent I««s, we venture 
to say, than government now pays (br the 
s&iuc work. U would l>c lh» publiiihcr'6 busi- 
ness to make the work kwiwn every wherts 
a»4l such n work would br far tnun* rend tlian 
it now la, fur it would bf tiiadc as oilier iKwks 
nre, and hroi^bt bvforo the iwople inlelli- 
gently. By such a iK>licy no scientific organi- 
zation or tiluUcDl of ()cii.'ucv uvw in coiumu* 
uicatioa with tbo di»lributi|ig-oQlce would 
suffer loss, while s grvnt mnoy people who 
are accustomed to get their books from lKX>k- 
sellers would conic into possession, In the rooRl 
notmra! way, of thin im|x)naM. budy of litera- 
ture. 

The effect nf such n system wouUl be to 
contract the business of tlie government [irint- 
tug-office. and that is an end doTOUlly lo bv 
wished for by every honcut citizen who ai-cs 
the neoe&sity of checking corniptioa by limit- 
ing the oppoilnoities for corra|»lion. The 
fewer salaried olHcc* tbi« government has, thi^ 
less chance IhiTc is for nn abuse of Ihc civil 
stii-vioe ; and science will gain nolliing by ask- 
ing favom iif till' nuirhine. Then- U »n excel- 
lent opportunity lit;rc for tin* educated classes 
to enter a protusl, and to encourage a reform 
in SflminislratiuM. We hnve been deinmiding 
that the admiuistratiou tlioidd be coDductod 
oo IrutjiuesM principles ; and the preneul system 
l)y which goverouii'nt prints and publishes 
books ts un-bu<iinc»)likc, extravagant, and In 
|)oril of being ficandalous. 



34 



SCIENCE, 



IVou IL, No. S8. 



tiona or ccitfila of the other levcra tn the 
frume. To exotiipUrv ihis. wc will talte ilirac 
IfviTB, A. II. anil <". If A iiud B lie in hiicIi 
po^llion llini a Nigiial given by ihc rauvotaciit 
ol'lfivvr (' will titi (Imi^^ei-oiis oi- mlslendiug to 
a train, tlic pivoted bur tronm^cled to lever C 
i» InckpfJ, iinii cHiinot bo iiiov4h) b^' any exer- 
tion of HtrehgUi on the [>ari fif tliv Higiialmaii : 
»nd llicrpfore ho (^nnittit oven bc^iii to move 
U'Vi']- r. And llir |hr)$.<til)itily of uiivtng x wrong 
SiKnitl in I'lil iH'yoiid doiihi. Similarly, iiolliin;^ 
)8 vfTvclr'd link's* tli*- lever <»m|>lotOfl iu stroke. 
The pivoted bur or* rock-^r.' through which the 
whole wi>rk of inlvrl'xrltirig \a done, moves 
only al the evtrvme vnds *>\' \\\v .*troko of the 
Ifiers. and Ihtri is only movvd by thp rifting 
or blling of th« *\mn^ deUmt. This invon- 
tioti, sinipU! as it 8et>io», ia the result of many 
yeati fspcrieiice, ficcifleuts hnving oftfn or- 
oqri-e«l tbroa^h n hizy «i;{»nlmAt) iMiiling hifl 
Itvev Ihrougb part oidy of the stroke, and thiia 
only iKirtially effocting Ihv locking. Thi* i« 
uow iinpot^ible ; and lliv mltntiof* of « switch- 
luaii to move w lever, i*X[MeHS(;d by bin gra-^iiing 
llu- lover and eo moving the spriujj-wUcli, jjide- 
pendeiitly of liia |Mittiiig the intention into 
foi-c*. actiiaU's all llu* nrtw&sary ItR-kiiig. 

The details of lyiiklrig-apiMmtna art- some- 
vliut ooni|>Ii<-»1t-4], but Ihc |iriiicS|>te is simple. 
Certain bars carrying biga or projection!* are 
tnftilc tn alide or move by Ibc movements of tbe 
KK-kers. Certain other bars, wliieh are also 
morwl by thR action of one or more nwkers, 
•re slotl'«<l or pierei*d with holrs. so that, in 
wrtain iwsitionti, the lugs in the first set of bars 
can enter the holes in lltf second set of bare, 
nod, in other jioHilioni*, the Ings strike against 
liio bars, and cannot bo moved. It '\4, of 
ooui'*?! obviyiis tlml th« arnniijement \h such 
as to prevent unsafe or conlradictury signals 
being gircu, and permit only of safe or harmo- 
nious Blgtials ; and, by a caM-fnl arrangement 
of the locklug-tt|)parnliiB, it i« Mmetimes pos- 
sible to make a few mnvemeitUi c-lfeet imjxtrtanl 
changes of tbc ewitehes and wgnals wiUi a 
miDimiim of levers awl coajpUeniion. 

]t is obvious, that, when .twitehcs are workwl 
ttom a distance, there is a chanueof the switch 
being incompletely clowd. owing eitlier to 
dirt, or a atone, or ice, choking the sviitch 
it*elf, 01 the switch-rods working it. There 
i« also a danger that the Bwitch-rwl might 
break or bec*>rae diaconnecled. ami that. 
though Ihe signalman moved all his levers, and 
all llio lockiog and unlocking was pniiH-rly per- 
formed in bis cabin, yet the switch ilM-lf might 
remain unshifted. or be left half oiwn. To 
obviato Uiia. the fftcing point lock was invented. 



TbtB ia a bolt whldi can only bo thot into 
a erosHbor connecting the two rails of tbe 
switch when the switch U either propcrlv 
clotieil. or wide open. A fniltire of tbc switeo 
c(ium*rtions. or an ob»tniction in tbc switch, 
will render it inipwiaible for the boll to enter 
the o[»eniug.tn lock Ihe switch; and. as the 
HignaluiauV lerer aolnatiiig this locJc iuicr- 
lockfl with tbe signal levers, no train can be 
Higiiallwl to approach until tlie switeb is citlior 
o!.>«;d, or wide open, as the c.ise may be, at>d 
firmly l.x-ked in it8 pix>iM>r )i't«i?!on. Byt on- 
other danger luis to he gii:i' iiAt: Rignal- 
mei), to Mve lime, will gill i .row a signal 
again to danger directly the engine of an ap- 
proaching trail) has passed ; bis other levers are 
then set free, and he can unlock his switch, 
and actually change the switch, before the whole 
train had passed, thus probably throwing the 
rear vehicles olf the track, and causing ft 
serious aeeideiil. To guard agaiusL this, a 
locking or detector bar is used, which lies near 
the rail, but clear of a wheel, when the .switch 
is either shut or full open; hut directly the 
swiLi'h is niovod from eltlter of ihc'K' iy)8ilio»s, 
the bar moves close to the tread of the rail, and 
Likes guch a {Kmiion that it must come in 
eonfaet with any wheel approaching the switch. 
A« the Itar i* made longer than the distance 
between any two tnieks, it follows, that, as 
long as a train is passing over the switch, one 
or mori' whcetn of the train must prevent this 
bar being moved, and, as the switch-look and 
the bar are arrangwl to move together, it fol- 
lows that the switeh chuuoI be unlocked untU 
the last truck of Uie last car of a train has 
passed. 'I'he Tuion awitch and signal com- 
pany adherei" to Saxliy and Farmer's arrange- 
ineiit of this bar whure it moves vertically. 
The I'enuAylvaoia steel company sbiils it lulc'r* 
ally. The latter movement is nioro ea$!l,v per- 
formed, and the bar ran serve as a guard-rail ; 
but its movetiiunt seems somewhat luible to be 
im|>eded by snow falling between liie rail and 
bar. 



THE WEATHER IN MAY, 1H83. 

TiiEUtF. have been two periods of very severe 
storms, and at many places ul' tornadoes. The 
lirst of these accompanied a - low,' first noted 
in Colorado' on the I3(h. Tliis muve^l n-iih 
eouftiderable cn«rgy over Colorado and Ne- 
bnunkn. Hn the I4th, iucrea»ing in energy, 

* tl kM bMn found IMVMMTT. owhiKialhcnMthiNakriha 
■uprnprUiUn, to ilmr iip all U'lTfruphlnu rv|K)n* wm hC Uu 
tforkT UcuiiU)li(:bHi(eUM<.lwrUai> lBMlrti|iwiil7 Ui llwoM. 



m^^ 



96 



SCIENCE, 



(Vou IL. Vo. S3. 



U mlvanoed into Ohio. At the morniag obsor- 
vatfoii of tills itaie. pressures .5 to .6 iacb below 
thr mean vct-rv tioLc-il ia Iowa. 

Hcpnns of hfiil on tlif 13tli. Mtli. auil ISLh. 
aomelimci vf n.tioiit.shiii^; Hiz<>, have txH'u tioiit 
fh>tn IhirtT-.siv Hhktion.'t, nioHtly in Iow». Ktiii- 
utSt Missoiin, Indinna. nii<] Illinoiii. 'I'lu- 
following is a, brief aiiinnmry of torniulo rf ports. 
iDdifttin ; Amily, Uili. 7.30 r.M. ; Wmorioo, 
nigbt of 14Ui, onl,r thrac bouses Ipft standing ; 
Muiiule, nigbt of 14tb: Irxlianspolia, 14th, <j 
r-H. Ill KaojM: Ttvv, 13tb, 5 p.». : Muncii*, 
Idtb. 4.:i(i r.M.. monl violunt storm over kuowQ 
in tJlu wUDty. In Mivbij;an: Wbile Ptgion, 
1 1tb, 4 t'.M. ; Slurgis. 1 1th, 3.30 r.u.. vniue 
from south-t^fUt. In Mii^sourl ; Kuiftiis City. 
l.'}th, 4.!10 r.u., from south-west, trauk from n 
hniKlrctl anil fifty to two hundred and Btly 

J«nlswld(?. damage 83UO.O0U ; Ci)iii<.-ron, 1-Mb, 
t'.tt. : Mncoiii IStli. 8 r.u.; J^itlouaburg. 
KUli. 5 f.ki. InObto: Fredtirlukstowti, 14Ui, 
aflernoon. 

The 8c«»Mil iM'i-lml wiia iiabered in by a deep 
' low ' in Colorado on the l7(h. At 11 p.m., 
W:ishington time, presfinrps at Vanklou nml 
^otth PlflU« wen? Sif.li! inobes, or more iJiaii 
.7 inch hclow the mf&n. On tli» Mtli the ' low ' 
moved into niionos4'>ta, and on the :!Otb a por- 
tion of It moved east into tlio ."^t. Lawrence 
TiilU'V ; while it*» influence was felt in forming 
a second stil'sidiurs * low * in wcfitftrn Tennc*- 
Bce on the satne d«le. Ttw laltfir moved *low- 
ly. and piiysud olT the Atlantic i-ou^i on the 
■itili. Tornadoes nie re|Kirted as follows, lii 
ArknnsJiK: Kureka Springs. 18Ui ; it cjlt a 
path n qnsrttT of a mile wide tliivuj^h a dense 
forest, niid deatroved several bnildiugti. In 
Illinois; Ilillsljon/, 18th. 10 i-.m., a fnnnol- 
atuipcd cloud moving nortii-iiust. the width of 
ilcfllniction, ten to thirty rod-s ; CSrarixia, a car 
loaded with stone weighing twenty-onp tons 
was lifted fram llie track, and the stones were 
st^nltcrcd : Chemung, IHth. before 6 i'.«. ; 
Chicago, night of 18tb ; Springfield, 18lh, 
7.liJi'.M.; lV(,uUiin. 18th, ll.30r.M.: Lilttr^ 
I>crry was n^-arly destroyed ; Jacksonville, iSlh 
evening, severest atorm ever known ; Edwards- 
villc, l'*lh evening, came fi-omflouth-cost. width 
of track six hundred to eight hundred foet : 
Talhda. IHih.a p.m. Up to midnight of liJlh, 
the number of deullis in lilinoi.') cauacd by the 
tornadoes of Ibis dale was nixty-lhree. In 
Missouri: Moody, 18tli. lyih, every bouse 
blown down : Berger, 18tb, 7 p.>i., six houses 
and one mill deeilroyed ; Omuogo, l«tli. 7.40 
P.M., alx person'! killed, 87.'j,0»)0 dnmage. 
New Tork: 21st. one of the eeverest atomia 
that ever visited Long Island. In Tennessee: 



Chattanooga, 2Uth. 4 p.m. In \\lBconsin; 
Janv^villo. I8th evening: itaelne, t^th. 7 f.M.^ 
twenty-flve ptH>ple killed, damage 8t><'itOuO, 
track five hnndrwl ynnls wide. 

The cluirl of monthly isobars, isotherms, and 
wind-directions i,* given on p. 35. The per- 
mnnenl summer low-prc-^sure area baa on- 
Inrged n litth-, and moved only filigbtly ftom its 
poailion lar.t month. Mcnn pre-«6urea are In 
general below tJie normal, except in l-'lorlda 
and the upper Mldsuuri valley. The moan 
temperature east of the ICMKh meridian waa 
Q.V below the mean; liigbust temperaturvi 
lOS** at I-Jtgle Pass. Tex., and Vuroa. Cal. 
riinoia and Missouri report damaging ftoats 
00 the -J'M. 

A eompaii$onuf floating ice with M:iy, 1HS2, 
shows the eastern limit u" west of last May. but 
llio southern limit is Uie tianie. The number 
and Hi^cof iccltcrgisai'emucU less than last year, 
while there bsH been no ficld-ict:. The Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, lilockdl last year, is clear tiits. 

There were deflciendes in rainfall ; Middle 
AUontic. ..V< inch: West Gulf, \.!>»: Rio 
t;rande valli*y, 2.3.1; extreme north-west, 
1.6;) ; audmiddlcplate&ii, .(VJ. Kxceasca : New 
Gnglniid, 1.41 ; South Atlsnlic, 2.91 ; Tennea- 
see, .54 ; Ohio valley, .77 ; lower lakers, 3.02 ; 
uppei- lake«, .H^: upper Mississippi valley, 
.08; Missouri viiHey,».ii:i ; middle slojw, 1.09; 
southern alope. i.lM; norllicrn plateau, .'Ji);' 
North I'acilie coast, .MtJ ; Middle I'aciQecottst, 
2..i:t; and .Suuthern I'aeitte eousl, .hO. Id 
C'alifornin tlm ruin has been four times the 
usual Mny fall. 

A hundred and thirty-niire cautionary sig* 
nals were displayed, of wbicli ^1% wcrc'jusd- 
flod by winds of 25 miles or more per hour, at 
or within lOO miles of Uic stalluu. 



SY MM ETHICAL USE.AH FJGURKS PRO- 
DUCED BY tiElLECTWS ALONG A 
HtVEH-BASK. 

In July, 18S2, 1 noticed on the Magagnitia- 
vie liiver, in New lininswick, some figures, 
apparently formed through combination of 
actual tls>iuK« in the rocks at the water'i* edge, 
and the relloetioiis of these Qssures from the 
surface of the water, which were not a Hide 
n^markable,. 

It W.1S late in the sitcmoon. Ouo thunder- 
nhnwcr bad Just ceased, and another was about 
to U-^n. The sky waa somcwlmt overcast, 
and the water mure or leas shaded by the forejit 
which covers most of the adjacent land. The 
banks of the ri ver are Iwld , iin.- shore being lined 
in many places witli steep rocks having abrupt 



JtTLT 18, \i»i.] 



SCIENCE. 



37 



fflwj. Thanka to the lifting of the Mlt or 
hmckii^li water bv the tide«, tho houghs of the 
l«H*9 which oTcriiHiig the livor avc- irimDiedoi! 
''Inifiiy (vnd ar^uaroly, as if bv ahears. at a piano 
uii > li marlta tbf limit loadiL-iI hy the water 
of the highest tides. By the snrnp mentis, the 
rookfl OD the «lrand are kept clear of vegeUi- 
tion ; so that there is ordiiiartlT a wflt-detined 
wall of hare rock between the water aiwl the 
trev», even when the tide is hitrh. aud Uic rivi-r 
oot ffir fVoin bcint; I\ill. Al tSte tiuu- [ nm 
ii|jeiikiiig of. there niis no wind : tho iiiiifan' 
of the water was absohiluly jrlaHsy. mid a 
supurb i'tfli.'<-lioii of the folia^vof ihe'foival was 
t^i he M'eii ill the iiiiiTur which tin- river raade. 
] had jitiit rt-iiinrki'd to a t-haiicc Pt>iii|i,iniui) uii 
our httle HleHinliual huw dillUidt il was to 
di^^tiii^'tiish bi'lncen the water niul tht- land, no 
<^tHlpl^■t.'ly wen' the rvnl rocks niidlnres blended 
with ihi'ir retlucliona, when roy ftttcntioii waa 
allracl»-d by a rock, apparently al the water's 
i«lge, wliieh was coTered with aymmetrioal lim-B 
nnd figure)*. 1 called out to a friend, who was 
Mnnditif; at auim- diittance from me on tlie 
deck uf the boat, to ' look at the jiictilred 
rock,* and, on turning from him tu ngatn li)ok 
at Ihv lihoff. I jierc-ciiotl, ihat il wub nut one 
rock alone that bori- flyiires : there wae u long, 
broad ribI*on or djulo of similar picturing at 
Ilie I'dgi- of Ihe watvr. miming along the shore 
LititHec>ii till- real tre<^H and tho pi<-lnrit)irfHliiced 
by the n-IliMrliun of the trees in the water. I 
am fortnnatc in Wing able to say that mv 
friend saw the picturing on the roek to whicli 
hi6 ntlcntioQ was thn? hnatily directed, for the 
fftct enables me to di^miaH the notion that the 
flgUTX'S might possibly have been '' subjectire ' 
lo myself. I had. however. haMly linw i-nough 
to gel a fair view of ihi- picture U-fore a new 
shower of rnlu rufUi-d the water, hid llie jhorc, 
and drove n-* iiniler (»vor. 

Beside Iierniig-l»one patlerna, tli«rc wore 
aymmetrictl lilies, bar.'*, and Ihitinc;:^ of various 
len^thH, (ogetber wilh fignrv^ ^nggcoting ehurl 
iiiaees. Htjiv>«. i>r even sik-siii* aiid nrr<iw», iw 
well n» olhei-» in the seiublimee uf liiefoyiyph- 
iv9- Iitdefd. the wh<»l« efffct was vt-ry Kgyp- 
tiuii-like ; while many of Lbe linua rvcalU'd those 
80 couiniouh itsed uf late years fur ornameQl- 
ing Airnituix*. — sueh liniM as are, I believe, 
lt.>chnivaily callvd ' rec*diiig.' 

On thinking thu mutter over. T was at first 
lueliiied lo believe tlinl I must have been look- 
ii :a nHliiral kaleidoM^opi^: bnt, on 

1 ^ nition and ob-scrvatioti. it seems 

I I muiple n-flcclion — that is to say, 

(li: ■ 111 by tile waier-mirrnr of lines, cracks, 
denu, or acai-fl n|Kin thii rook« ^might account 



for most, if not for all, tiie sp)iearancC5 1 wit- 
nessed. I regret Hint the atiiiiidr of mere 
nouder and adnnrntion into which my mind 
w/Ls thrown shontd have hindered me for tho 
moment frum ninking a pmjier eritical cxnmi- 
ufttton of the tigiirea : but I have been impresfecd 
tiy the eonceptioiis that similar appearancea 
(uninut jx^wiitblv \ms infivflticut when the water 
of Ilie river is stJU. and that «om»-' of the first 
rndimenl8 uf primitive art did prubably origi- 
nate in eflorts made to w|jjt'aucli Daiunil line* 
ations as thv»c. 

Then* is, 1 t>clieve, an old. |>«rhni« it Is an 
eiidb'sa. diBimle a* lo whether, in the lii^lor)- 
of hnman .-irt. tineh kinds of ornanientatlon as 
herrin^-bune figures, reeding, and fliiling have 
ever iH'eii derived from a <lin.-ct iinitaLiou of 
nainml objet-ts. or whether they have uot 
jilwaya arisen from mental coiiceptiona, U 
has s^emett to mc that (lie obriervation here 
recorded should hern- with considernhte force 
)D favor of the view of Otoat- students who 
refer the Iteginnings of all ihtngK to (hct« of 
actual ob«-rvalion nnd experience. 

I am well uware that the atmoapheric con- 
iJitions werr of agniewhat exceptional character 
at the mument when I saw the picturing ; bul 
it in evident that roek-li*8un'w, pni|K'rly pla»*d 
as i-eifurdi* n Ixxly of still w»ter. will uatiirolly 
be dupliiiited by reflectiou therefrom. Thtrre is 
every n^aMrii tu HUp]K)Ke that llgurL'K analnguns 
to Ihoi.>:e I witnc-Htied may oA«ti Iw seen where 
rockH anil watur meet, ami il U hard lo believo 
that they have not bc«n neeu freijni'iitly by 
]>ersons favorably 8ituale<l. There it* conso- 
(juently no improbability in the iden that some 
of itie prinutive design-s of savage nations may 
have been copied ftomthem. Different effeels 
woiild.of course, he produced indifferent locali- 
ties, .icoording lo the tjualily and mode of 
ati'Htificntion of the rocks, nnd to the nature of 
Ilie jointings, w^ams, and seur<^ which the rock« 
bear; iiikI it i» not unlikely Ibnt Ihe lOck^ on 
the Mngnguidavic Uiwr mny be ix-etiliarly 
well fitted Un exbii'ittng Ihtjse piclurinl ellVuta, 
But the cwpilal fact ordnpUcalion by reflection 
lunsl be common to all loealitica ; tuid there 
art- probably many plaveis where oniameiita] 
flynres would be i>rot[uced by mere force of 
repetiliun even of very simple forms : lliat is 
to say, by thu foimatioii, at one and the sjime 
time, »f a at'riei of Qgnrua i-ou)pri»ing many 
individual rellectiuns. each one of which was 
rdmiliir t^t all the tvst. A general idea of some 
kiniU of formi* thai may |>o».'«ibly he tieen where 
er.u'ks In rocks are rcllecterl iVom :t l^idr of 
calm waler may he got bv drawing (Iguret tike 
tho9C of the dingram which I have Mtocted 



38 



SCIENCE, 



(Vo*. u., No. as. 



IVom H liuntlred or ntow lint occurrwl Iv iitv- 
T^Q I'lfoil lilts beet) nimle in l)io tluijp'titti to copy 
Uie iictual a]>[>oai-HUcc<e acvii ou tlio rivvr-buulc. 



w r s^ 



Y 



A V ^ A^TT 

iLJL_J_JL^_l 
([i iJ» I U ^ 6 

An essentially ditft-reot style of re prase ntaLioti 
would be netted in order to cnnveya juat eon- 
ccplion of the PiTect of the scone I witnessed. 
With the exwptlon of the lieri-ing-boinj figure, 
I e.iiiDot )irofe!is that i-itber of the S<;un'!; of 
the ilinj;i-.im i^ lilit* smy if ihiyn^ I haw in New 
nniiii^wii'k. It in to ho r<'inembere(i. howt-ver, 
UiRt. wlinivver the f'urnis may )x that are pro- 
duced Ity wHi'Clion from oiie pfirtU-ninr bunk 
.qI' mck. the ifauw kuidn of furniB vvill iiBually 
and probably be rciwaled nguin nixl iignti) witli 
Ihe result ttiul u pRlterii or ''design' will be 
(irodileed. 

I consider myKcIf bo litlln qualified to look 
lip II niflttcr wh<ftly foreign to my usual stinlirs. 
Mint. 1 Imvi' [nude nn elTorl to seiireli for rec- 
ord.'' of (ibiM'iviiiiona similHr to the mi« lierp 
des(;ril)eil, though I am strongly ineliuod to 
believe that sueli records must exiiHt. I would 
my merely, thai on agnlii Ateiiming up the 
Mngnjfiiidflvic River at a time when a breeze 
WAS stirring, (iml the surface of the water was 
ruffled . I ROW none of the picturing excepting iu 
oiu* quiet nook or cove, where a scrioft of rejilly 
mtpeib ttorring-bone figiircR w.is jiroduced by 
rvBeetion from llie Kurfacu of the caltii water 
of the lined of iilrntitlciition between the Iteds 
of rock, whieb were here tille*! :it a t-onsider- 
uble nn^le- Allhuugh dnriuK this second vi»)t 
J saw none of (he • rewlini^,' or of the other 
kiudsof synimctrical tigiin's whieli lind bo inncU 
imprt'i-si'il n)e iHifoix*, the niulliplieily of the 
herniig-b'.Mive, i.e., the continued iv|}etilion of 
this figure, was BiM-fially noteworthy. A pecul- 
iar kind of beauty or btense of sMilisfaetion to 
the eye was thus obtained, whieli aRingle Qgitre 
would clearly not have been competent to give. 
It ie reasoQBble to suppose, -that wherever 



complete lierriii)£<bone ligurea ore fomicd, as 
bore, bv reflectjon uf Ihotte lines tH^twefu the 
Uyers of rock wliich arc conlinuott*. and, so to 
bay. perfect, « variety of rololod or deriveJ 
flgnreo will bv proiiuced by the roflecVioii of 
lines which are uol continuous : that la tv «J>yi 
the refleetions IVoui line« that an- inifH'rfect in 
any wity. ur brokeu into Mniunit li-ugtha. would 
give rise lo hieroglyphic ehuractei-s in counid- 
cniblc vai-iely. lhuu«;it t)u-y nilglit uli Iteloug to 
one iittiiinon •rri>np or kind. 

A I l.hc lime uf my M-eond visit to the rivftr, I 
conic! gr-r no rcn^tuii u> doubt thai the Agnre.^ 
might be Men almost nny d^y when the time 
of high tide, and confiei|nently of a flill river, 
happr-iw-d to Iw coincident witli the calm 
momentii so common in summer at the hoars 
not fur from aHnriAc and auuRCt. 

An beat'iog on the qncMion of hnrnnn imita- 
tion, it \<i of interest to note, that while herring- 
bone piilterns woidd naturally he produced 
wherever (be linew of stratitlcalion of tilte<l 
layers of rode aro reflected from calm wnter. 
i.e., in numberless loeHlilies. It is precisely these 
fignrc!) which have bwu most Ireqiiently du- 
lincatcil t>j- siivages upon pottery und other im- 
plemeuls as one of tlieir earliest artistic cflortii. 

Kseeptlng the two in^uiuoes beii> recorded, 
I have never notlcetl any such figures in Iho 
course of my own travels, nor have I hoanl of 
their being »een by others. I am ai«ur«d. 
moreover, by several of the mu«L competent 
and experienced observers of mj- acquaintance, 
that tliey have never \sitnei)<ied any thing dtni- 
lar- I exjjeet, iiowevor, for my own part, lo^ 
sec such ligui-fa from this time forth, when 
opiwrinnily olfcrs, tind I trust ijiat many other 
l>er»onM will ilo so. It is to Ih- hoj*ed, witbal, 
that some of the more noteworthy efTocts of 
tbU Hurt limy l»e aiviirali'Iv ilepiclcd. 

F. II. Stokkb. 

T/tE AMERICAN SWAMP CYPRESS. 

TrtE fbllowing observations on the bald or 
swamp cyprons of the sonthem statea am 
coDdcn.<iec) from the forthcoming second volume 
of the memoirs of the ICentucky geological 
■urvey. They embo<ly the results of ceitnin 
inqnirios which show thnt this ]}cealinr tree 
deaiTves uiore ntudy than has been given to 
it by our botanlsta. 

Thu Tiutodiiiru distlebpm Es, as U wgU 
known, a c'liumun tref in tlir AWBm)»i of tho 
southern stsilvs. extendiiiif ftxjin New Jersey 
to Teiiiis, and nortliwardly in the MissUsippl 
valley, to the luw-lamla of Boulbern lUtiiDis. 
It has several titles to cllstinctiuu: U is not: 




tr 18. I HO.] 



SCIENCE, 



3» 



only in flit its proportions tli<> notilcst <>r nil 
onr cionlfcroufi trees east of tlie Kockv Mnun- 
Utn6, v^iug III girth and height »\-itli the yelluw 
poplur (tbt' LiriudcuUron tiilipir<-TH or the 
tMituiii<tts), but it \n liy far tUt' most statoly 
nil ilii-otlrt'cji Iwldtigiiis: oil the eastern fnce of 
the wHiliru^iit. MoiT'ovtT. !l has <vrliiiu Imbiw 
wtlieli arp altogothor itei'uliar to it* HjM-cieH. 
flixl Mrhirh coti^litiito it ii very cx<^]Anma\ 
meintxT of the f 'oinffriio. 

When IJii* trt'L' grows on the dry j^rounil. 
or on » gnrfauo when* Ihr water does not stami 
during lilt' suninwr half of tin- jvar, it differs 
in no lni|>ort:iut featnre fmrii it« kindn-it 
speetci; l>ul, when tt ffrowA in svnmps wliich 
arc I1«)o<lfd during llie dpring or fsiuniuer 
months, tlie roots form exore9c«neP6, wlivoU rl«e 
80 Ihnt their crests ovt-rt^jp the Jcvel of the 
wntttr (hiring Uiese seasons. Theso exervs- 
eciiee'^ niu of van^'iiig height, their prujucltoQ 
above llic level of ilie i-ools depending on iht* 
de|>tti of ilit^ Kn'Hinp-watei's during tlio»e scu- 
Hon'. t>f j;r<miJi. Tliesi' conditions may he 
Bulj<il1i'<l hy pi'ojocUoDa, or 'kneua* as they 
arc eallt^l, ihnt riw only a feir itu^hcs nlmve 
tJltf n»ot. or thfy may rise lo the height of five 
or «Lx Tvt-l nhnve the 4nil. Tliese knecB are 
Bnb-rylimlrii-Al in form : near Llie haup Ihey ni-e 
etotigaU-d in llie direetion in whieh the root 
extends ; oIkivc, they give tt pearly ch-cnlar 
section; at the top tUev are cmivntr^I by a 
ca)>bage-shnp«l cx|>nn»ion of bark of irrejjidiir 
ghii(w. roueh nad warty wiihoul, ulteti hfillon- 
wilUin. Tliey are oft*?n us much as eight«H.'n 
tnuhi*»t in difiinoter. They are «o commonly 
hollow, ami of hu^'U size, that they are »oinetinie«> 
ufiiMl In the natives for beehives or for wcil- 
liUi*Jtet.H. for I'iiher uf whieh iwcR tbev are toler- 
ably nelt ndaptitl. A tree of hti-ge size, shv 
six feet ill dianieu-r. will often have at' many 
w thirty or forty of these kneea piojeeting 
above the sTrnmp-wa1erwliteh«urrotiiKis its iinse. 

Looking closnly ut lliesc knees, wu ulwrrve, 
that, unleSB t.hry are cvi<li*ntly dwatyix}, they 
gfiierally have a vftrj' ponms. spongy bark 
over the surface of tlieir ereHts ; and tlie biirk 
on ihitt Hutuiiiit, [K-(-iiug otT from lime to lime, 
t^tlefi fX[K)^b & ^iiisiilariy »pong,v Hurffli-o, nuoh 
M Wtf find ill the inner bark of the pine-tree 
when t-ht- tMJarae ouli^r bark 19 pei'le.i av&y. 

There liavc Iipimi luniiv eonjecilireit as to the 
Ainctiun of the*e knees, ll has b<M.'n wjpftoseil 
that thuy wore in tlie nntai-t! of onekers or 
braiiflies fnna the roots, which ijavc rise to 
new trees: but, nfler examining Uioiisands of 
ttieKe knee«, t ani euoviiiceil iTitit llicy never 
have Uii-) niiture. In no cnfte Lavc ] bvvn or 
hfard of any hiide «ii[H?aring on tUeiu. The 



only etew to their Amotion 1 have obtained 
in the fallowing way : whenever it hnppeos thnt 
the knceH become entirely submerged during 
the growing eeason, the tnMvs to whieh ihey 
belong inevitably die. Very extensive proof of 
this point wii-i given by the giineml siibnier- 
genei' of extensive disiriettt during the earth- 
<|nnk«^<4 of I8ll-l.i, ill the region near the 
Mi<iHt.v^ippi. wliere the i-vpre»»-l rees over a 
region •tevenil hundred mile.t in nn-a were 
kiilerl by a fuibftidniK-e thrd brought the water 
a ft»t or two byiow tlie cre«l* of the knees. 
In HeeUKool Lake, in Kentucky .'ind Tennoa- 
we, tiiuu«ind* of these long onliDorj- cypreas* 
bole« atill atami in the Khallow waters, thoiigli 
it is now «eventy yearti since they werv killeil 
by the flight Mibmep^nce of their knees. 

Tlie same tiling ean be seen on a smaller 
scale in several mill-ponds iii western Ken- 
tucky, where the ehiinge in level of tltc swamp- 
water has bninght tlK>se exen'Scences lielow 
the mirfaoc of the water. Tliesc facts — viz., 
the abnenee of the knees when iJie tree grows 
nir high land, and the denlh of the innt when 
llie' knees are permanently submerged — lead 
ine to the opinion that tlie iMc of these ex- 
crescences is -tn bring the sap white in the 
mots in eontact with the air. That they hare 
this Ametion is made more probable by iho 
fact that their heuiU, i.i*., the psrts which 
alwsys project alxive the watiT darii^ the 
gntwingsenson, remain very vascniar, aod, by 
a prooep! of desiinamalion. wecurc the expoi- 
are'of the inner bark to the air. 

It is oident thai this tree ntfords UB a verj' 
int^'restiug instance of a specialize*.! structure, 
that only develops when the plant ocaipies n 
certain position. We often find this tree nrtl- 
fltfially transplanted to the giutlens of tlm 
western country. It then sliuws no dintinut 
tendQDcy to form knees, though the surface of 
the rool!i show a few short spurs not over on 
inch or so high. 

It Is a well-known fact Ihnt the genns Tax- 
mlinm daU'a back into the early tcniivries. I 
am not nware, however, thnt fossil knees have 
ever Wen (ViiitkI. We havt: only tu exiuiilne 
the borders of thi- swamps lo see thiU it can- 
not. on the uphinds, niAlntaln a battle with the 
0>)Ulendiiig liri^ad-Iea%'wl tn^ea. though in my 
uTTitjeial open plaee it will grow with singular 
liixuriunee. 

It seoras to mo likely thai wp have here a 
verj- ioti>resliiig wise of a upeeies nwing ita 
survival to a peculiar habit of gmwlh. Tliero 
ran honlly be a doobi that the klndnsl of this 
Taxodium held an iiuiwrtant plauu on the 
continent beforv the <Ievclopmeot of the broad- 



4U 



SCIENCE, 



rot- n., wc 



lenvDcl troos. It Beema not nullkcly Itiat It 
was cro^ilol out on Uu? higher groiinrl, and 
ruroed to lluii ilatOf lo llii» AUUon wbUli the 
flwnni|t4 ftffoi-il. lu thenc iK-MiiHiiciit tlioiigh 
aliiillow miters it clearly \\a» hii titlTitril-ii^u uviT 
till* hroad-leAvM fontis of trees. 

T nm nf>' nwuv^ Hint nny *lrnctiires rescm- 
1 ' v fouinl Miiioiip other plants. 

I' Mini llicy «re iieuuliiir to the 

'I'nxoiliiiiii iliatiuhnm. we liuve in this species 
a v<;ry rouiiirkal'le L-39e of a peculiar org'oo 
iIt.'velopc<l for a ^jjccinl |mrpD«3. 

There \s nnothcr uilQrostiog problem cod- 
ociiiiiig this spcci<c-8. The »eedfi smrm to ger- 
minate lHiu(*alJj the irater. I liuie ^eeii m:ii)y 
young treos growing iu ivhut must hv (ivruia- 
nt^iit (twittop. where tin: soil wuh huHeil Uj thu 
depth ur a fuol oi' luaru. I liavc lonjj duKiri'il 
to ITS 6mtwi expLTiiUL'ilts on tUit: piiint. Iml 
hiive aui lH.'1-n alilr ta tin ho. t hofH* UmL mme 
oboiin'tir will iini.li'rt:ike the inquiry. 

Tliifl trc'i! in (r<>rlnin lo hnve h greiit economic 
viiluc. Its grent sizot iifl t'arornbic position 
in rciation to our grcnt wuterooursos. its vc-ry 
rapid growth and cxcollcDt Umber qualities, 
are all cnlculated to comincml it for une us a. 
conaiructivo wood. There iirc many million 
Acres of lao'l in the southern slatcit where it 
COUl<t he i^ullivatt'd to advantage. If K'ept 
from competition nith the dui'iihuniM trei.-j4, it 
vrill do :is well on any moist luwlund» as in Uio 
nelniil snampT). It» growth in uwrni nipid than 
tlmt nf any othtT of onr tinihcr-trueH ; the 
WDotl id Kaiil Iu he uuicli Hiruii<f(^r lliaii tliut of 
any pine i it eudnree well in Ihu o|H'n air wil-h- 
out paint, an is shown hy the favt thai the 
trunks of iree^ killed In lUl L still stand nnde- 
ua\ed in the Bwainps near tlie Mississippi 
River. M. S. Shaucb. 



' 1 



RECENT BABYLONIAN RESEARCH. 

l> llif PrTK-M,iIii)F!s yf Um! Socii'ty of hil>lk->l »rch»- 
Olog>- for N'AvctnlKr, 1882, Mr. T. 0. Pinches, the 
AflsyrlAD scholar of the BrlLlflh musuum, reports a 
diacovenr of more than onlhiftry Intorotc This i« 
xa historic&l iiutice ou ui {iiftcrilM:<l cjliiidcr, coming 
from the iiiirlcDt otiy of Sippar, and bt^longing to 
KaLiouldus, the Ual of the native Babyloniiui kings. 
Tin; tryllmlej wan written before t^rua had Cftptuivd 
fiabylnii, )>ut aft^r l)!s conquest of the UcdM. The 
iDfcriptlct) of NaWnlilui, ufl«r lh« usual Iniroduc- 
tory form'ilan, rrliui-ji the rwotijt ruction of •i^vernl 
faiiiuuH tfniplc«. The Hrst of these, lb« Urmple of 
the Bloon-god at llnraa, had been (iMtrojrcd by the 
MMtM. B«h)g ioatrufU'd by the gods U&rduk and 
Shi to r«l>aibi il, Nnbonldiu reiralls for this purpoM 
bii aniilAi from (•«!«, nii the twrdcrs of Egypt. He 
infomia us that the temple had once before bi?en r?- 



■tored Ity lh« Atwyriau king Assurhanlpal (Sarda- 
iiatialiu}. and lliat be fuiintl, whUe en^JMCnl In tba 
work, thv inscrtbeil (ryhmlert of A.Mlul>anlpal ami of 
Sluiimiiric5i;r IT. 

Tli>i K'*'i>' hSstoHi- t-vnit refcrrw! to In thin part of 
th** ItiSiTtplion l« thr fall of the MfdUn empln- be- 
fort- Cyrm Uip GreaL When rnmrnJiniVd to rMlam 
thfl t«-niplo by ihn <wl Manluk, XabonWtw retd'w 
tliat ilic M»li!« linit' iletitni) fd it, and rcci'ivcH iiom 
Uarduk Ihe promiw itiat they lu lh<>ir turn aball ako 
b« dvitroyoii. Nahonliliis Uion r4>laipf: "At Uip Ik>- 
Ctnnlntt of iliv ililrd yvar. th<;y (tbo fptAt) caoseil 
thiim (Dlnntlly *blin.' Uii M'llian nation) (<• go out 
to «ar: and Cyrus, king of the land Anzan, lbc-ir(llt. 
' hl«,' I.e., the MoiIImii nutiun'R) youniiE errvaitl, os'or- 
(hrcw Willi hiB «iiihI) army Ud* Meiltao ho8t«, e«p- 
tun^l A9l>»4t'>i. tiltie of the Medea, and carried him 
bound to hit own (Cyrus's) laud." 

ThoundorthU;d rnJjie of Ibis pMs.-xijn for ihe 4t>lil- 
tlon of th^ riddle Vfr n* by the rnnlticlini; lixiimony 
nf ibe Gnji'k wriitrs, n^ in ih-* r'-latlons of Cynii and 
the Persians to jL^tya^es and tbe MMo*. Is iu pari 
im)i.ilt(.-d by the unil>!K(iou> \t»y iit (b« ptuiKiunt. It 
la panly owliif; to clili itnibiguity that tlie translatton 
just Biv«n (Iiil<^r» from tliiil of Mr. I'iiit!bi>«, who reu- 
dcra: " fu the tliir"! y»«:ir. ho (ihu ijrod M^inluk) chiuoI 
Cynt^, kiu^fif .^n^au. his young ftorvnnl, lo )jo with 
his Uttl"' army ; he ovenlirew the widf-»prpii.liiig ^Iv 
maiidn IMvde»], he captured I»tuni(!eu (Ailya^), 
king of ^abumnda, ami tixik bin tri-nturi»* lo Id* (own) 
land." It U dKheiili to nay whether iht! wonl^ *bla 
servant* meari s«rVant M Manlnfe. a« Sir. Pinebea 
Hitpp'^jAva. or serTiiut {= tributary) of ih" Misllati 
l>«>ple: bnt the latter M^inH. forrertaln grnniiniiLical 
reaflon*. more pmbBblc. It is alv> improbable that 
Mabrtntiliui, a s (m-oIiU i ulHry of Mardiik. (>hi)uld fi)M>ak 
of Cynii. a (on-li^nfr, iw a servant id the »anie deity, 
although wc know tlmt Intt^r. perhaps for *tni» rea- 
sons, Cj-rus tvaafrieudly to Uie worship of MordukfV. 
ICawI. Vi). It {« more jimbtibie, iIihI, when Nabotd- 
dm mentions I'yrus as "his ktiiall •erruni.* hi- mean* 
to say that Cyrus wa? a vasxA prince to tbe Mrdes. 
The translation 'hini Intund' |lttirn>lt(rii,lii. hU bond- 
■ge'l. lnsl«iuj of 'hin treamttra,' Is w>>n fl«ijib1l>ti«d 
(I. Rawl. 13. :M tt.), and add* not a Hitle to Ibf hi- 
tereM of the patsa^e. 

In the Gunrifumt Atinabi of C'ynii, written after he 
lind cspiun^d ItAbyion. we hnvo ihit uioiiatch't brief 
account uf lb<* war with M&dia (TVana. ai-<. hlU, 
areti., vli. IM f.). Afi«ra reuewud careful collation 
of thin Iraporuint [>Auaji-, ilr. rUu-hea fan* publiHhed 
tbe original a no-und time [Prac. Me. biU. arfJt,, 
Nor., la*^). It it iiidortiinBtc that the ends uf the 
tines are lost by muliialion of the cUy tuMitt con- 
taining the iii»crl]>ll''D. Following h a ti-nnslatlon 
of tbla pasMUir: " [Astyages relied ujion his troopd] 
and tuarehed against Cyrus, kiiif) of Anfan to [cap. 
tore him?] . . . The troopH of Ailyaiju remlled 
against him, tttade hiui prifinncr [and dellvi-n-d him) 
lo Cyrus . . . Cyrut (maiulicd) lo EclMiAua, ihc 
rays] city. jIIi; e;i|iturrd) the silver, i(oM, Irvasuns 
(?}, (and) poffteMloHA ('.'), which Bcb^ktann liul coUen 
by plunder niii) ho carrlud to Anlan the treasures 



JuLT 13, I88S.] 



SCIENCE. 



41 



waA posscssionB which fhc took?j.' This tspfIoii 
fKffera sMghily from Hie ono offered hy Mr. I'iocbes, 
bnt not a» to the revoltof the triRips of .^slyiMjia, hia 
dflllTerr to rjTiu, ami Ihp (•aptarc of EctiAi«i)ii. 

The Kcounis of Xnbonidus und ut Cyrus rary 
•omewhKt. ThA liingui(i(<4 of tb« former tmplle* % 
h«ttl(i tn which Cfru* ilefftated thf> Moda^ and eap- 
tufnd Astyagoj, btiL iliw!i iK^t oientton a revolt, nor 
Lhv capture of EcbaUiia. tbu Mudlaii iiipltnl. The 
BtrcDQnt by Cynis, being the •late annnU, t« likely to 
be tli« ninrc^ etoct, arid enters more tnl4 doUill than 
tbaL of XnbonUIiiHi but the two are not at all cwiitra- 
dlclorv. Al! thai Nuhonidua wishwl to record was 
the oT^rlhrfivf of lh(> M<-dlaii power and the (ipim-i^ 
of thfiir klii$, fuid It waa uiilmporunt whetiicr iIiib 
took plaeu In battl« or by miillny. ll may be that 
ko did not know Ibu itr'tttiU at \X\f. wiir, or it la poMl- 
blp timt one dlrinioo of the Mwllaii army gavR battle, 
wbilu ahoihor mmiiiii'd and delivered Ait>'a::«9 to 
Cynu. TheiTi! \t an npimrtinl ditTerrnc^ in tli<> two 
acruiiiits M to thtt date of the oapliirL' of AMyafcea. 
Arc^irdliigto tbe Cynu toat, iIiIh ovenl took pliiw In 
the sixth year of Nabunldus, whiln NHbonldm says 
that it iKXurrrd in tlie 'third year." It la. however, 
nol clear fmm what [lolnt XabonldiM reckons, — pet- 
ba[» from the date of bis dream. 

There U nothing in either of them awounU to 
nhow whether Cynu wna m any way connocteil by 
birth with Astya^pa. As to the Klalion of the eoaa- 
trim of Media and Persia at this tlmv. it !> dear, 
from Ihtf laitituaK'' (>^ Nahuiddns, that Persia «*&« « 
very *mfill i>ower; and If Iho word ' Ills wrvani* 
{OTiUltnt), as applied to Cynui, mnana tbo wnraut of 
the Medes, t1)« conclusion would b.- that Cyrus wm 
a liihutaty king to tlic Mi-<iian power. This »grc« 
with thti .-kUtenicnt of llerodoui.4 (I. 107), that Cam- 
by»t.'», the faihot of Cyrus, wtw considered by As- 
tyagva as of rfspeclahli> family, but inferior to an 
oixlinary filMe, >'icolaus of DamoAcas alio niak«9 
Penia «ibj<-ri to MedUi (MUller, Trag. Mil. Or., Ul, 
8W>, Fr. M). 

. It U certi^n thai Um mjst«>ry surrounding the rela- 
tions of the Median and Penlan courts and pevf^lc 
CAD never be clmrtd up with the aidi hitherto p«»». 
KMod. Nothing but the cimteinporaneoiis literature 
oC lki>w |>«<.'ple^ themsclv(?», and of lu'lghborliig peo- 
ples, can ever snh-a the problem. In anolh'rr inscrip- 
tion Cynig calU hlmwlf the klnu of ll*byl«n, ion of 
Caubyn-S klli^ of Aoian, grandson of (.'jriia king 
of Aniaii, descendant of 5upii king of Anlan, rojal 
Dfbprins iV- lUwI. 35|. 'nii* language la, however, 
not iin--oiiflBti--Jit with the iratiiiion, w strongly repre- 
t«nl«t by the Greeks, that tbe t'tmiani were iribu- 
Utry to ihti Med'!*. To leavo the gi>vi>rnmcnt of 
Bubject nation* in ihr hands of native kings wiia the 
rule itv tliH Ulcr centurla* of the Awyrlan empire, 
and the Mwl'-s may well have praeliwd th* **me 
policy. It wa^ Biiniolcnt ttiai the vassal king i«lit 
bit yearly tribute, and, on proper occaeiloa, kUsod 
thi- foot of his nastor: but further th.tD Lhlj was not 
re'|Ulr«l, and he waa rBganlM la king in hi* own 
tribe or nation. 

A word aa to Anlao and Auzati. TheM are geo- 



graphical terms, — the fh-st a dry; the second appar- 
ently n land, became preceded by the slen tor a 
Country. Itat Htnc« thU *ign oU«n npntofola a ctly 
also, It may well be tliat Anian and Anian are only 
two different wny.^ of writing the name of thu mme 
plac«. TliU MMtniH to Iw alio the opinion i>f Profea- 
dor Sayce {l>ai»». «0f. 6J6I. Mr.-A., ill. *ir,). I'rob«bly 
there wna both a elly and a country Anian. or Anoui. 
Uiit what waB AnSnn ? In the eanie iascri|rtiua 
Cyrus rail* himself king of Anian ami king of J'et' 
(ila(Par«n, Trann. t»r. MM. nrcft..vll. ItkV IM), Pos- 
sibly Anian. or .^nxan, wa» ori^nally the natixj of a 
tribe, city, and district, to which Cyrus and hU fam- 
ily belongefi. 

Another t^-tnplo which Kalwnldu-^ rflstorta Is the 
cvlcbrnled temple of the Hun-i^od lit (iippar. Ncbu- 
clindnez/Ar. he relalei. had n-storrd tins i-diBcf, and 
had sought for cylinders, but without sucvcas. Hut 
Nabonldua waa determined to find the Ins^-riptiou of 
the founder of the lemple; and \t\t seaMi was re- 
warded, for, at a depth of eij;hlei>n c-ubita, he cam« 
airroM the cylinder of Xaram-Stii. son of Sargon, 
which no klnt: precediiu: liim had seen for 'tbre« 
Ihous^nd two hundred yciir«,' Accordiu^ to the 
custom of the kln^. he plai-ed an Inscription of his 
own by the «idv of that of N'aram-Sln. As the dal« 
of Xaiionidus wiu about ^M ILC. tliat of Nanun- 
Sin would so back lo 37&0 Jl.a But oven at thia 
ttmo civilization must have U-en far advanced, for 
Sarjioti, the father of Xaram-Sin llf the satna aa the 
Shrgon of Akmic), hail In hin library an astronomical 
work comprising seventy lablcu. With thU ancient 
date wonld agree the nialement of Sargon II,, king 
of Assyria 7^1-705 B.C.. tliat tlitee hundred niid 
Hfty prIiic«B had preceded him nn tlir tliroiio (Cylin- 
der inscription, f. -LIJI, and the li>n^ list uf itnliylonlan 
king*, nnmbfirlng, before tho tablet was broken, two 
bnudrvd or more. 

A third trmplc which Nabonidus restom, la that 
of the goddeas Anunit at Slppar. By digging he 
found the iiiscrlpllon of the last king who bad re- 
atnrod tin] temple, tfitsfyuifl-Burloi, son of fucIAf- 
VH, about lOM) it.(;. Anunit, goddess of thl* lemjile, 
«cems U) be Utc planet Vfiitu.<i aa monilng and aa 
evening star. 

Thnsa two celebrated ti?niples at Sippar ani neo- 
tloneil several tlmrs in the cuneiform literature. 
Ftom l5«-ro»u», alM, we know tliat th« people of Sip- 
par wen- Uutoted to the worship of itie sun, for bo 
mill the place ' city of the sun ' [f* aiiKti kijao £it«4- 
pMCJ. It was alio, uo iloiibl, as a part of this worship 
Ihiki the peoplu i>f SippKr, wliou the As^yrUn king 
Miltted in the land of .Samaria, biirtidd tlivir i-hlhlrvu 
h) Um fire (^ King*, xril. 81). I). O. LTOV. 



OCBAS WATER AND BOTTOMS. 

Tint oc<'an explnrpd by the Norskft Nordhava 

expedition, 1S78-T!*, was a p*rt of the Xorth Atlan- 
tic lying to the wost ai«l north o( Norway. Tin- si-a- 
water was e>peclaJly «tudied in order to ascertain, if 
posalMe, whether the relation itubsUtlng between tu 



SCIENCE. 



tVoL. ir.. No. 23. 



oompDiifnt p*Tt)t rari<*5 suWelently'Lo admit'of tlett-r- 
mlning Its diicciiittlniift hy Ui^ most es»cl itnalyUcEl 
IB«Uiodl, aatl vhctliLT, lit that CASc, I< w«n.> possible 
to deduct fomv ilelliiiu^ rtil« re^junlUii; tlimn. 

Aa tlic rt-auk uf Um *n»l)-w>, I,. Solimolrk oon- 
eludee. "Tbc hy(iotl]«<ii> which iuwume« tli« i>c«iiii lo 
ooDslsi tlirotigtiatiL iu vntin* doptli of ono bomnQA- 
n«ii>u fluiil, in wlilch the most arciirat^ of cltnnlciU 
amlysAsnliall r«ll u> detect. dis»imll&rity of ccmposU 
Uou. liu recfllrfd [roniib«expt!rlmeaUhoi^(ievci'itK<d 
j>r\ibAl>Iy ■lr()iiiC«r vouJInitstion thsu from nnj Hint 
liMK t;aiH' beftirt- l1k?i»." Some of Ihe most Iiitarcat- 
In;; resulu acc liUiubited aa foUowa, Uit^ first ublu 
thonriiig tb<.' mcAn siuoiiiiM vf i:«rl:Un suNunws io 
9r«-wfttprat varioti* duptb*, «nd Ibff •rroiiil sbowlng 
the same forditfi^riMit parallel} of lalllude: — 

:. 



SurfW*. 



tjbMlfle RMtliy ..... tM» 
CsUinnt iJao 

CWIdkra ooldc OuUTO 

ifuBoMaiB iisldv .... I u.sms 



BoUoiu. 



O.XJH 



InUr. ., 



ijmo 

I.tU 
D.<»7T 

0.1031 



Loan 

I.M3 

D.HTI 

0.1901 

o.au 



n. 



ObtorliM . . . . 



ir-n*. 7i*-aiP. I m*-«p. 



ijaoH 

OjOMO 
OJIM 
OlOM 


UMA 

fi.oen 
o.at« 

OilSU 


ij«m 

OuUTT 
DAM 

*.xea 



Tbr tnBan valut- of Uie nlla oocuning la au-Trster 
U ghrii M follow*: — 

CM^}.. l^kgOj, M(eo„ UtfCI,, KCL N«HIX>|, vin. 
uMi. «.t3U, (l.3tm, MSei, 0.1)747. OAIW, S.6al. 

Ilcnce IIX) parU of dry ti»-eaU conloin — 
Cw^nj. C«BO„ Wi|80,. UgO,. Kn, N'»ro„ ic«n. 
OJM;. iJUO, ttM. 10.3U, :i.i4, v.*T». Te.fti. 

Tli^ oceiin-liottnm atudled ta apv^cially Interesting 
from the amount of preient and put rolconlr anil 
glacial tiHIvliy In tli» lands fturrounditig ll. Here, as 
cUnwbvre, dt^jitb whs (uitml lo ha the [irlncllol factor 
ia dricrnilntn!; ibc character of the doposlts. .Vbmg 
ibf^ cuaxt» uf Nor»ay and Sphzbervvii, ([vnt'i^lly ai a 
lew (Iflpth tliiiii flv« liiinilrKd (HLiiotUK, Ute Imttom 
wa» found to l)oeov«n>d with a more or )««« plastic 
gray clay. It^ coaraeuuaa or Qdcocm varittA consid- 
erably ; loil grain' of quarts, a* a rulp with rounded 
t<(lj;cB, conNtiiuu- the chief portion of tlie mineral 
partloW In It- At lb« approsltnate depth uf from 
fire liuiidi^ to a thousand fatlwtns, a browu clay ii 
found, forming a IransitioD from the gray cbiy to the 
trUH oceanic (t^i>o«)u. 

Al nearly all depths bcloir a thousand fathom.^, aud 
aftcolUnm at l«n dvplhs, >• a fine Itgbt to dark brown 
oolored depoalt containing mintito while ab<-IU nf ttn' 
gtntti BUoeoUna, in altc and abape llkii a pin-licad. 



Thii •hell gives name to the cUy, which corrosponii* 
ap(in>si(Dat«ly to tlir (iliiblgorina ante at the Chal- 
Ivn^r 4tpedllii^n. The ground is taken, that (he 
power of sea-wuler EoiliMolrv tbt cartionale of lime 
of the loramlniferal ahelU Jx not owing In the gtvater 
amount of carhoub; ncid at greui d<-pl.b.-> Iu the ooeau; 
for th« ohnervation* of Mr. Torn^ sbowcil that thv 
3ca-wul<<r luvarlithly reaclcid as an alkali, aiitt bcncr 
tb« carb">nic add could nut bu trcs. Again: tbo 
laXUT was found to bo alvout the same la the dopUit 
ni Ibc ooesn as on the surface; while tb« general 
unlf'>rinily of compodllioii of the se».w-ater, as shown 
by QiuuL'rous invcstigatiotui. renders It Imiirabable 
that any doviatlon la ADKinnl of carbonic acid oC' 
curs; bcnc«' the power poatetnM by seia-unler to 
dissolve carbonate of lime does nut depend tipoa the 
greater or less praportlou of frev ciirbonic acid. 

The bottom of the nhallowocenn tietwem Norway, 
Beeren Elland. Kpltabnrgnn, and Xovnln iCemtaia, wai 
found lo be covered with a jfiveuUb-Kray claj con- 
taitiiag but fi'w animal retnaitis. Minute and gen- 
emily sliarp-edged quarts gralnn were the princi|>«l 
con»tUu«nL This deposit wms tcrninl thi' Rhabdam- 
mimi cl.-ir, fn>m a g»uiis of For^iniinlf<.>ra wblch often 
alHHmds in that part of the ocean-bed. This clay, 
according Iu Scbmelck, originates from the 'decam- 
poaition of quaruitle roclcc,' especially those of 
Beeren Ellnnd. 

on the rolcanic Island nf Jan Mayen, abov« the 
six-hundreil-fathotn liu«. oecuni a d(!i)oslt of dark- 
gray aand, aud sabulcMU clay containing fraitments of 
baultlc lava, olivine, auglt«, etc., which S'-ein to haT« 
been derlred from the volcanic dfbris of the i»lnod. 

An ini|>ortant fact bearing on the i)ue*tlon of tbc 
distribution of •IfbriM hy tMitUim-<iirrenl4 In the 
ocean Is the statement that "all sampt>*<i of water 
brou^t up from the iKittom were perfectly clear, 
wlthotit a trace of nosUnir particles." 

The oceurreiice of uuiuen'os st^inea and itebblee on 
the xea-fluvr, as well an not uncommonly a rocky bot- 
tom, Is of int«Te8t. Tbe |>e)>bles decrease- in slie and 
number lo going from the sbor« towanls deep water. 
While rare In Llie deep water siHicfa of i)i>- TJd par- 
allel, they are luite coiiiniou in that to the wcel 
of Spitzbcrgeii ajid ltc<!reu KilutKl, wherK drift-Ice 
abotinda. Out of three bnndred ntid Mveniy-five 
staUojie. pohblvs and fragments >if niiiiuralB and rocks 
wart dredged at a Imndred and tweoty-thrao of 
them, while at many 'ithcrs no aniitpli' of the bottom 
could beoblalnad on u-ct>unt of its rocky condition. 
Of e«pei'ial interest la tbe iiiidlng of niuuerotu frag- 
muuts of fiiiit aud chalk, a foMiJ (belemuilc) from 
theclialk, fragments of coal, and some iitiiatol slonca. 
Other pebbles aud frnginents found ivrre maihle, 
Um«Nt(iti«, granite of varii'liK ktmla, sand-itone, aigll- 
lite. iiiiartxil^, flint, chalk, granitic vniiistono. ({iiarU 
porphyry, gabbnt, bflMlt. puuiee, aiuygdaloidal meks; 
chlorltic. horublendle, i|iiart:(. mica, and other crystal- 
line ichi«i>i; calclte, ituan?, mica, hombteude, feU 
spar, asbestos, coal, olivine, augite, eoral, shells of 
varloor kinds, rotten wood, cic. 

Sobmelck conclude* that -irganic agency Is a «ub- 
ordiuate factor In the foriuatlon of tbc Roordepotlls 



JCLV 18, ISSSl] 



SCIENCE, 



4Z 



of tb» northern occkd, aa Is volcanic dihrU, but that 
tliQ Clii(?r portion of th» nulerUI ratmlaU of the soliil 
natter carried out lo m» bj rlritl-lce aixl glaciAl riv- 
•n. H. E. Wadswobtil 



r/ZK NATORAL HISTORY OF I if PL E- 
MENTSJ 

"WUKX will bearing be like w^'lng?" ii*ys the 
proverb. Words of doscription wUI never 
fve the Kntiip tbnt ibi; mloil lakes Ibroogh utual 
M uid liiimllttij; of objects; snd tbis Iswby, lit fix- 
: ftnd forming Idona of civlUzation, n mnseutu la >o 
ecvuwj:. Oi]4) uudcntaiids the fuucllon of such a 
Fntiseuin lh# Iietl*r for koowliig how lh« ntiiinrtuibtv 
Itollflctiotl formed by Oeii, Pllt-Riven tam« into ix- 
'ktcucu. About IMl itA ri>ll4!<'tor, ihL'ii Col, Lono 
Fox. was Mrting on a military *ub-<juuiiuitt«L- to ex- 
amine Improvemeuta in Brnxll artiui. In Ihn^e daf!) 
lh« Briiuh army was sUil anned (except special nfle- 
_.B)vnt with llifi bid tiiiootli-biira pcrcuwfon mnskct, 
Ii» wulUlcnnvrn ' Brawn K(»«.* 1^9 Improred wea- 
pons of c^nlinenlal armies bad brouj^lit on tbo <|ue»- 
Uon of reform; but tlto (ask of this cnminllTee of 
juniors to pfvss changes on the heads of the s«rv]c« 
liras not an easf one, even wbcu the Duke nf Wvlliug- 
ton, at last coi)vlnc4><t by actual trial at the butts, 
d>cr«ed tbaL h« would liave i-rtio- man in the army 
^armed with a rlde-miiskvl. Col. Fox was no mere 
iBOtitit, but A pmciical man, who knew wlmt to do 
and lii^w to do it; and bts place In the history of the 
de>tructiv9 niachinery of war Is marked bj his bav- 
[^Jng bwn lira originator nnd first Instructor of Iho 
chool of moskelry at Hythe. \Vbiinengag«<l in Ibis 
'Work nf Improving woAjrans hts experience led his 
thoughts Into a nrw channvl. It was forced upon 
hita that atnhliomlv tii«U tnililar}- habit could not 
^accept progreM by leaps and bounds, only bj luiall 
tfal changes, an alt<;nilion of the foru of ilie hul~ 
tt here, then a »ligbt rbangs in the groovlni; of ibv 
irre); and so on, till a anee^ssion of thrsii suiall 
cbangm gradually transformed a wRapoti of low or- 
gant:u«tion into a hlghvr oiiv, nhll« the dlsuppcaraneo 
of theltiteniiMtiiacslfiui, juthdiy w«n*>up<-nMded, left 
|jkppareni ({ap* In lh« stages uf Ihe Invention, — gaps 
sblch tbuM wbo had followed iu actual course knew 
' baum been nally filled np by a furies of Intcrme- 
ilMe stages. These stages Cot. Lane Fox collecliKl 
arranged In their actual order of (leretopm^nt. 
thetvupoti there ffrew up In bis mind tlie Idea 
kal sitcb bad been Ihe g«U4-i-al cuurs*; of •lv«eki|>> 
lent of arts annus mankind. ^^ *^^ himself to col- 
ct weapons and other implemenia till the wiilh of 
hii Iiuus« w<rre coveix-d from cellar to attic with terlea 
^Of ti|)«ars, boonifratigN, hows, arul oihcr ln«trumenls, 
groopcd as K) thaw llie [iroliabin bistnry of Ibeir 
rdopmcnu Att«r a while ihl3«x)taiH)e<l far beyond 
He limit* of a prlrate collection, and c^ew Into hi* 
laeenm. There the student may ob»erv<' In the ac- 

< Rtlisd frvtn a Uclam an n>lhrnpoln>]r. itetlTcml Fob. 31, 
*( Ibr t;Bl«'nlij mnMiTO, Oifonl, bj K- B. Tvuia. D.CX., 
PJL8. rram .VmUr* al ituj IT. 



rnal specimens the tmnaltions by whlrb the pnrrylng- 
stlclt, UBTil In Australia and etsevfaere to ward oti 
spears, must have piuried Into tho shield. It U rv- 
markablA that one of the forms of shield which lasted 
on iaiest <nlo mfxlfni itmea had nut pufscd into a 
mw* screen, tiut was ■till, bo io iip«>ak, fenrwl with- 
'1111.1 was thf target carried by tbo llfgltland reglmenu 
lu the low countries In 1747. In this niuaenm, again, 
arc shown the series of cbanffcs through which the 
nidest prote«4toii of Uie warrior by the hide* of anh 
mala led on to elabomte suits of pUtt^ and chain 
armor. The prlnclpl<!s which ore true of tlie develoti- 
ment of weapons are not leM appltrabte lo peaceful 
initrtimenla, whose hhtorj is illuaLral^d in thin col- 
lection. It Is seen how (as was pointed out by the 
late Carl Kngel) the priniltire strlnicod instrument 
was the hunter'^ bow, fiirnifbtNl nftrmardu with a 
gourd to Btrengtlip-n the tone byrc^onanM. till at last 
the hollow resonator cauie to be formed tu the bodf 
of the inslrumnnl, n.i in th« harp or violin. Thus Ihe 
hookah or nar|;llt<h etlU kecp4 immclhlng of the shape 
of the eumnnut-shell, from which it was originally 
niadr., and is slill called after (Persian, mirjil = cngo»- 
nut). Itut why describe more of these linrs of de- 
velopment when the very point of the argument la 
thatvvrbnl description fails to do tbeui justice, and 
that really to understand them they ou^bt to lie fol- 
lowed In the MriN of actnal specimens? All who 
have been initialed Into the prineipic of deve1o|)tBent 
or modified M-qnence know bow admirable a trainlnj[ 
the Study of these tan{:ibl« things is for the stndy of 
other brauehea of huinau history, where Intermediate 
ittages have more often disappeared, and thervfora 
trained itktil ami jtidgmrrit nr>' the more needed to 
guide Ihr imngination of the student In reeonstnicfr- 
inu the cuunv nluntt which art and science, morals 
and govenimont, have mored since thej began, and 
will continne to more In the fntar& 



THE ISTELUGENCE OP THE AMERl- 
CAN TURRET SPIDER. 

At the meeting of the Academy of natural sciences 
ai riiiladelphla, June 19, Ib'v. ilenry C. Uc€;ook 
exhibited nests of Tnrentula arenlcola Scndder, 
— a species of ground spider of the family Lyco- 
iildae, properly known as the turret spider. Tba 
imts In natural site are surmounird bystnicturea 
which qnite closely resemble miniature old-fasbloaed 
chlmntrys ruiii|K>Md of uiud and crossed slicks, as 
seen in Ihe 1i>f; cabins of |tiunecr Kettler». Prom 
half an Inch to one inch of the tube projects above 
ground, whik it extends stralgbt downward twelve 
or more inches into the earth. The iirojectlug por- 
tion, or turret, la In the form of a pentagon, more or 
less n^lar. and Is btUlt up ot blU of ([nus, sialki 
ol slmw, small twip, etc., Uld icnwa each other at 
the comers. The upprr or projcctiog parts bare a 
thin lining of silk. Taking Its poalUou Just InaMe 
the watch-tower, ibfl (plder Imps out, and eiptum 
such insects as may rome In Its way. Nesta bad 
been found at the base of the Allcg luiny Momitalns 



44 



SCIENCE. 



{Vol. U., VtK «. 



n«ar Aluwtia. ftntt In Nvvr J«rM5 on ih* Muborv. 
In tli« lUUtr IwatioD lli« aiiiiiwl bad nmllMl ILm>1( 
of ilh^ ltuil()iiig>m;il«rial ul lianil by fonnlus Ui« 
foanclAtlon of iu wjiLcb-ln«ernf little qusru p«bbl«B, 
somctlmei prcduHnR > KrucUit« ol conaidiiralilo 
bMul;. In Uii* ikuxI}- nite l)i« tub« I» praMTTfid 
ibUwrt hy n clRlintte Mwivllon of ellk, to wbteb Uh 
parllclei i>f suiO ■•Jhi;r«. Tlii* •ii-ratioii scarcrly 
prraentft iltr ctiftnici<-r of a vnl»liniti^. but liu suf- 
flrloiii <vi[iN{itU:ii(-y lo liuld Kliift s (mil nyliDder t>f 
saiii] wh«ii ii Is nrvTiilly irwi irvm ila siimiuncllDKs. 
A neat rrccntly obtain^ fmm VlooUnd, N.J.. fur- 
nlihtd an lDt«reHliig ilJustntloQ of the power of 
t1ir*i<! firan<>|i1<i to tiiiolligciitly adapt tbimiichft* to 
vurylng siiiTomtilingH, aod to tak« ulrnitilK^i! iif clr- 
eumebuicea witti wliicli tb«y c«iaaluly coutd not 
bavB been prevlotuly fomtllar. In order to pntervd 
Ui4i De*t wlilt a view to study Uw ll(«-hlit<>ry nt its 
OCCti|iaiit, Ibi- iikI coiiLaiiiinii; Lhi; tuli<> had tH.>«ii rarts 
fully du; ap, am) the upper and lower openlni;? 
plutKiid witb cuttoii. Upon iIil' arrival ol Uio ne»t 
In Pliilailrlidiiti, Ihi! plug ^lardiiig tim fiitnuiL-i' liiul 
been rtinoved ; but Uic oUut lind b'^t^n fi-tyoiicn, and 
allownl to remaia. Ttii^ spider, whirh atill inliabitL<>d 
tbe tube, ImnMd lately began ntaioTinii: tlia coltuu 
at the loirer porUon, and ca*i ntnue of U oul. 
Oitlded, however, apparently by lt« sense of touch, to 
lli« kirawledee iliat the soft Cbrea of tl» o^tton irnuld 
be an excelleiil inuterial with which to lui« the tubi>, 
■he speedily began puulni; U to that tue, and had 
soon Bpread a soft amooib layer orer tha ianar 
aurfa£4 awl around Ihtt upiuiiDg. The oejit in thla 
eoiidlttoii wa* i>xhih)itsl. and showed the tnt«rior to 
ba padded for about four inebM from the lutninlt of 
tbn towvr. Tbw Tery nianl(e«t iiifrmncr wa> ilravrn, 
thai tbe spldrr must for the firat tim'v have Ntme In 
coniaet vrlth such a material as ooLion, and had Ini- 
medialely uillUeil It? new esperienca by •nbitituUng 
the iofi fibrt' for tht* otiliTiary silken lining, or liy 
adding It thereto. 



LETTBRS TO Tim EDITOR. 

Bquatioiui of thiriS dvgrvc 

Tint second or tUinl Lerms of any c<luaHan may 
be niadc to disappear, and we may Lheroforo aasunie 



j:» f .1,T« 4- Ji - 0; 



(1) 



and Ibe tuluUou of this L-«)uaifi)ii must Involvo the 
gi'neralaoluliiin of cublra. AMume 



Hen CI- 






m 



y + ! - frel - *^x - it* + M ^«-jA 



..W^- 



J* - tp + »)* y + « 



1 »«-»»+«»«. r+«.8(v+ 



Tap" 






Ui 



-)3Sc<U — v)» = 
M^ + 240i«(r + !)• + iMrty + !)• - »4fr + »)•. 

I* + 8 V^ 3« - (p + ■)(• = a (S| 

Iq |1| uu) (3), cquatiDg nwOkit-Dtc, 

-(> + *)*"*. »* + »*« + »•--»- t») 

Wbence, from (4) and (&)« 



■-sf-T-V-i-5r 

SubflUtDtlag tlicae raltiea of p and a lo (>}, 



4 sr; 3 "** 



or 






If 






jr 



(OTOUU (Uf 



fanDQlft [&> 



In tlie caM of the frrsdiiFlblo eta«of fofiDuU (kj. 
wlilcb la aifullar to Cardan'a lormnla, fonnnla in I nuqr 

be tiuil. In tucii caau, only omt |>art. 



•* V"*'"' 



fuituula (u) U bnai^uary, ami vl~ ; ~ ir^ 1* xal; 
and if till* niunii df Iho Mnii nf rwiii-iitiin (1) be 

changed, wldcii Is il"iw,' '•>■ •'■ 'ly 

thv ngat of A and It In eiin ' )c 

In I /J ^d' 

tnie, that l«,y- - Ureal, and^— ^ — ^ b tm< 

aginary. 1VI. , ■ ! la, 

ihvii, arbllrrti ita- 

Lory t4> cjtp*ii^.i. •■• .... i,. Kif 

wfflclautuf ^—1 may b« made leas than unity wliau 
the ml term is unity, A. &L SaWim. 

Kvunlllr, Wtt. 

Bolai oonatmat 

It Is fe.inrd ;tta! the )r-\\t" nf Mr flur'Mi fScn:?lC«, 
L642)l'> . rt. 
nuveUii U 
should >' at 
In cumiti ing 
the qiuii r« 
of one j;^ ly 
of beat ^^ Ill- 
gram ol n-aic: 1' U 
a thousand time* n r <li. 
nary applicali- ■ - In 
eiUier caie. i). >y 
the unit-mat' lu 
the number 1'! 

Uilhregaru MdltloDal 

Unit* are rnijtiin'':, — a. ■.mil 1 1 .'uifu.'':, itiil a unit nf 
14ni«. This constant may Ite dcflnni In general limna 



LT LI. l&^.] 



SCIENCE. 



45 



lobe tbe nnnibcr of uniti of nin-heAt Inctdcnl.pciv 
nendlculftrlf un » untt-aurfKce. iu » unit of liiui?, at 
Hie iipiwr limit of Ui« e»nb's a(mQii>b*^r«: or fl Is th* 
Quiuberof liasnat Cfiiiiigrdile b uiilt-BUMi o( nater 
WDuld be raiwHl )n temi>«ratiiN> by the ann-heat iiid- 
"dem ]>crmndicii1iu-l7 on n uiiit-!<urta>.'e. in & unit of 
tltn«. at Ihe upper tirolL of the atiuusptiera. The lhi«o 
uiilu buret i tilt tcjiU-JarY, of conron, nrbitrtrv. fliit tiii>«( 
phf tkisiii. fallowing the Rxnmpli* of PouIUet (Cotnp- 
tM rvndtM. vii. S-t), take ili« eranii square co»tlra«- 
be. And mInatA, ni n>wiM^tlvd!v tli« iinlu nf miuii, 
»nrfaiT. and lime Wlih ' ' * ■ ': i» no 

diviT*lty, tlir iillinili.' b' i. but> 

/ornuiss auilsiirfai'«. >ifimi ..,. , .,.. .mlta of 

% Idtognm nnd a siinare ineiro. ami ttrnr^ itie ftp- 
Miviit COofiuUMi. To obtAiti n i(i.-QerMl expreulati 
for Uin i-Kliie at Ui9 ' soJAr conalani,' \ei 

Q — Quaiitliy »if stin-Wnt [iicidotit norituilly on n 
uniL-snrfacc in a unit o( time = eolir oon- 
■t»nt. 

S ~ Area of surface receiriiig Ute.heaL 

T = Timii of n;«fiving ibe h«af. 

m = Unit iiiaa* of wat^ir, 

n = Number of unit mnsiea of wiaer lieated. 

f* = Kt«i- In ti-tnpcramre of the mas* Ol watw. 
Tbeo Wo have 

gxsxr = n>tnixf<'. 

Couiequetitl). wbiui S, T, and h are severally ojual 
to iinily. -wv bav»i y — m > (*; and, wlicn m - 1. 
Q = t* = rise Lu i era pers turd of u unli-tna^is of 
tTCMr = valuo of aolar eonstimL in iinitg of lir^at. 

Now, whtu ibe nnit of time ivmatns th<r 4jine. but 
tlie uuItJi of innut am) turfm:*) ura ['tiungml, t]t« value 
uf I^ (wlilcb mcuuros the solar constant) will 1>e 
^mlt«r«d, luilcM boUi of iheai: imiu *r« rliangod In the 
Iff ratio. I'or, from ibe equation (j == n X 1°, It 

follow» that f rartea a< ^ ; but eridunUy Q U ppo- 

poclionn] U> tUe magnitude of the unit of Miriaoo: 
. „ . unit of surface 

**«• '^ ™^*« " tii.lt^-mi«of wawr " 

For «xani|)t«: uiinu Poulllet't uulu, Lanuli^y's 

twenl experlmentA inalco iba doUr otisiant = 2.M; 

that I*, the suu-bi-at incMntl iiormnlly on oni- srjunre 

rcniiuiclfp, in one imtniti!. at the npiwr limit of llur 

. AtrooopliiTH, would rait« the Itinpi.Tsttirc of one Kroiii 

|lrf water 'iM^ C, or would IisAl 2.81 «riim* of waiw 

V C. Now, tha unll rflmainlns; ibi? Hiran, if wf 

|U8nme tbi' unit of mn^*- to t>i' one kilogram ll.iMK) 

gnm*). and the uult of surfact^ lo ha oi\c s()uar^^ 

BUUrtt (lO^UOO sijnaro contiinetri-*}, w« oliould have 

111* «lne of Ihf <-OH«l;iiil f« = I *^y X 2.M = 28.4 

kUoftraiu- units of beat; ibal is, the sun-beat indigent 
nonnully on one sttuara metre, tn one minnte. at 
Uie upper limit of i)ie atmo«pherr', wnuld rai»* tlie 
tenipf^rLituiv u( ouc kllo^taiii of waler 28.4*' C, or 
woiiM hf-Ar. liS.-t kil'ii!r.-iTii« nt ivTvter 1° C. 

Mor>^'.>i L-r, n» It re'|Uire» :t dt.*BiiIte number of unit* 
of hull toii'piefyu untl-musof li*(:. 'jr to L'vaporate a 
uuli-mais of wau;r, orioprodnei!aunitof mMrhanlcaJ 

itgy, it follows that this constant tuay be mcMursd 
^jr eilber i>f tbe«e uniin. 

Tlw exact d'-'U-rminatlon of the value of this cou- 
atinl t> n mo^t n'ljn'-d and diftlcult exp^riiti'-ritnl 
ttrobkni: (or it hivulve-t the pre>ci«e estiitiatum of 
amount of viUr heat »b#orbeil In traversing the 

rth'l Btmojpb'.'te, or (hi; Itiw of i-Ktinciion of iiuii- 
In pafilni: Ihrougb It: hence It Is. that, allbouKU 
BverAl e\<'ellMit pbyskal (^xi)*rlm«nlfir» hare at- 

~ ad the |»rota]eni, their reiulta are not so aceonlant 



aa would be desirable. The follutrlog aro some ot 
the resultx: — 





1 

dat». I 

1 


-: U,.,\*tAST. 


Kxnn- 


Oms-enlU of liaat 
par )qQarc eeail- 
■■•rtiepct ailmiM. 


1 

jlUlofnni - uaito of 
brat l"rr Kimre 
■■Mr* liar ntlaiii*. 


I'eulUnl . . 1 

'i . 


ma 


s-sn 

IMO 1 

vsw 


1 T.r.-^ 



Baslu-ky. CkL, JoM U. U">. 



Jons LkCosTB. 



WARD'S DrXAUrC SOCIOLOGY. ' 

DynatMc Moc'talogy. or applied social *^*"*f^i <u baMtd 
upon tialical fociotofis and lAf Utt vomplci MtipiMf. 
»v Kk-itkr F. Ward, A.M. 2 vols. Xew 
York, Applrlon. 1S88. 20 + 708; 7-^flOOp, 8». 

I. 

'I'liis work i>i Air. Wortl in ooinpo^cil of two 
distinct pnrts. Tbe first gives Llic outltiieB o( 
hU pliiIoso|)liy, ua a biisin Tor hiit reaaouit^ la 
ilic. ow liiHl roUows. I'lii' (iticunil Is s tliKcus- 
sioii of ttio caus(« niiit coimoiiiKMH'PS of prog- 
ress, or evolution, in hntnnii tH>cict,v. For 
5otiie purj>03e.s it would Imv« h4>cn wis4> to 
give each parr, a disliuct title, ritierving for 
tbo In^t pnrt The one ii8«d ; hut Uil-. pbilo* 
sopbic sjalein pivpomuit-d in tht* first pari has 
evi<)e<iitly bc«n prepared lu a buais fur lli« 
second, and lii itself would not Im <!OUHidorod 
by the author as a complete fxhihit of his 
pbil<>sophy. 

Vol. i. contains: lirvt, an outline of tbo 
work, ill wliich llie aiiliior's piiri>osc« ara 
clearly sot forth ; second, nn historical reviow, 
rhitlly iluvolcd to n discutiaion of tUc philoao- 
ptiivM of August Coiutti and Herbert Spencer ; 
third, lliu L'osiiiic principle!* umlurlyiug Boclol 
phcnomenji, lit whii-h tliQ outliiR'H of the new 
syglom nm set forth. I'lider ihc gem-rttl Litlo 
of 'primary Hgt;if>gnli(in,' ho discjjswa the 
constitution of celestial bodies ami chrmicaL . 
rehitJona. Under that of > sccondnrv aggrega- 
tion,' b« discusses biology, psychology, utd 
the genesis of man. I'ndcr thai of * tertiary 
aggregation,' he discuasc-s the geoeaiii of so- 
ciety Aod the oboraclfri^tics of social organiza- 
tion. The purpose of ihi^ pn--liaiinary vuliime 
on ijciiHral pliiltisophvT -tnd of Ihe inlru<luctioa 
to the second volittne, is tersely given by Mr. 
Ward himself, as follows: — 

*' Thu purpodu of the present cbi^t«r 
[^chap. viii.]. as alrcwiy auuouucod. hjw beea 
to accomplish thu cotuplt-tu otteitutloii of 




scrsxcE. 



tbv reader for ihu rovigi: before hua. WitJif 
OUl tlit», iniu-li (linl IN lo f<ritti(^ liitgltt nppeur 

Ji)Wtu»j;lvfew, ttf nt Iriutl l<i*i- il« poinl. 

"Men tliiiik in HyBtciii-s- M<w»t 8,v>rt*Jiiiil-k; 
bvatleus nrc uniDtvlIigiblo iiiilc«» fallf^vruil 
iVoni tliv tiv^iniiiu^ uiitl ^raopud lu Uicir en- 
tirely, A fuiidaiiit-utnl tout* runs tliroiigli 
Iticm wlilcb )ireRurll>cs Ui« ii(M>ciai seusi* of 
ov«rt' lini% mid wUicb u wWlly uiiliuanl in 
isotat^^d imssn^ttt. The caivfiit reudur of mioU 
WorbH, witliniil. neccKSKrily ncqnieadnt^ 111 tlic 
nuthor's vk'Trs, in nble al least to uoniprcliund 
tht-m nnd lo do juslie* to tliem." . . . 

*' In tiio f'ollnwing afgiinidit. nnv to Itc 
tirii^lly fttnlcd, niid fiiilwcqurtilly lo l»n I'nlly 
olnbpratpdi tJio 'itatcmcntit made in tlii<> cliAp- 
tflf, as well an Ihoftc ionUini*>I in ttir ]irrce«l- 
ing voliimf. niial" l>i< tnk4<ii aii tlio )in<)is. or 
prcn)li<eR. niiit niiiHt li* ■jnuitfl 'for tin* nuko. 
of llip argiinH*ut ' »l ldi>»l, however niiHOund 
tbey may Iw dwnivd in tln;»isi*h-e«." 

Klsvwlierc llic llieory is inoru fully cUbo- 
mtcd , that itic mure compU'X scK'iKf;^ enn bo 
gFHsjM*d only 09 tlie more siinjde scicnws Hjwin 
wliich tbcy iirc baeed lire properly nndpiBtwxl. 
iind tinit nntJiropo logic Bcioticcn in gcnvml 
musl rc-fil flnuly npon phreics nud biology. 
Thougti tbe ri-ndor may <lilli-'r from Mr. Wsrd 
In r«l(iUon to liiii clAriHillcuti'iii ond cout'liiMOiib-, 
lip ftill Klill lii' itm*rffllPil in the flyuiniHry of 
his avKtcin iitui tin* {K-r^pifnity of IiIh piviK^n- 
lalian. 

The f^Meiitlul pHndpU' running Umoiigh ttio 
ln.*iitiM* is, thai pn>grr8« in society is lift»pd 
upon the Hintggk* for hn[))>ine8S in the i^HUiu 
lunnuvr iis biologic progress i» bnsed u|>on Ihv 
struggle fbr existonw. It is th^rofoi* a n?w 
system, in rndicnl contrnsl with that Imight in 
our iK-hoolv and enunciated by the minority of 
]>ublici»tK of till' present day, of whom Hax- 
bt'rt S|H*iKf r is tliv chief. For thiw slriiggl^ 
for hiippiiiL'ss the tciin ' conittion ' {cottari, to 
euilciuovj is uwd. luken from Sir AVilliam 
Ilamillun : and he sitys, ^' The term ' coniition ' 
will l>c cui|>lo_}ed in lids nork to represout the 
tifforts which oiganiKma ]Hit forth iu scoking 
the satisfnelion of their deKJreh, nnd tlio cmts 
thiK Kongbt Hilt lie desigiinlvd as tJie 'enda of 
conation,* " 

.Again, the author clasaiRps phenomena as 
gtnetie and ttieoJogie. Ttettetic phenomeriA 
ar« i%ach its appear \a series, with natural ante- 
cwlenta ami coii3f<iuentj'. nnfttfeeted by design 
or purpose. Telcoh-gie phenonienii do not 
apiH-iir in nntural m-Hi-s, the nnteci'denta l>cir^j; 
phrsicnl pirenomcna controlled by design ex- 
isting in mind, and the conecqueatfi l>«ing 
the purpmn for wbicb the will is cxcrvirtd* 



TUcoijgbouL tlio TTork thtwe two ciasweH ot'(>Ue- 
tMnnenu nre cU'firly di^liugnibbeil ; hot it (s 
iiiil»t>»jiilile, in n brief review, to t-vl forth flilly 
the imiRii'tnnee of the ditttinution, as the auUior 
hiiu.-«elf b»9 done. In general teiiUH, it tnay 
W sUited that biologic progress i» dtie to tJie 
«tt»i.'gle for csiBteiioe. anil iiivolvM genetic 
pbi-iiomenii ; while sociologiu progreiu ia duo 
to the struggle for happiness (cuDnliou)i and 
inrolvvs teleologic phenomena. 

*> All progress is bmngbt about hy uitapta- 
Utm. \\ hate^-cr vii-w wp may take of tJi« 
cause of progreas, It nnist be the resiill of n 
coiTcflpondenre Iwlwtcn Ihe orgimiMn and llw 
ehangi'd environment. Thift. in its whlest 
seii.oi'. is adaptatiiiii. Itut adaplAtion is of 
two kindii. due fonn of adapuiion is jtat- 
jiiM or crtjtjrenauo/. tlie other foini in acii»v or 
previ'sionn/. 'I'lie fumier ropresontA natHTat 
pnvgress, the biltvr txrtificint progress. 'ITlc 
funiicr lesnlls in a jrowlA, the Uilter in a 
tHanii/ucturv'. The one is the yonetic pioceMt 
tbe oilier the tetfoiogical nrocvw. In pasjiive 
udnptfltion the means nml the end are in im- 
mediate proximity, tJio varlntion Lakes plnc« 
by infinitesimal ditfereoces; it is a procvNs of 
differentiation. In nctivc adn])tatiou. on ibu 
contrary, the end is remote fimm lU»? nienna ; 
tlu hitler are adjuated to seeure Lbo former 
by the pvcrcise of fortsight ; It Is a process 
of calcniiitinn." 

By tbe term *ilyiinniio soci^ilogy,' a« nsed 
by the author, is to be nndertitood a systematic 
treatise on the Ibrws which ini|)el mankind 
into social relations, lo d€velop social organi- 
zation, and to provide and modify the insti- 
tutions of society. The subjwt-malter of 
dynamic eocioiog_v, ai>peariiig in the second 
volume, is jirraiigetl in the following ortlor, a» 
Bet forth by the autiior: — 

" The remainder of Ibid work will chieBj* 
cousi&t in the dlsenssion of six terma ; and 
tUwefore, before entering upon siieh ili»en*- 
sioti, it ia a primary necessity U* fumisU rigid 
deflnllious oftriieb of thetic tetins. 

•' For a purpose which will pn-&ciilJy appear* 
we will a>isign to each of tlicse terms a tetter, 
which will fix their onler In a scries rwt ad- 
mitling of any alteration. 

" The first of thes«? term*, which wo will 
designate by the letter A. is happinfM: tbo 
second, which we will .lesignate by li, is prog- 
ress; the third, which we will designate by C, 
is tijfnamic actiott ; the fourth, which we will 
designate by I), ia dynamic opinion : the fifth, 
which wf will desigOHle l>y K, is ' ■ ,* 

iind the sixth, wbieh wc will de^gt' , 1\ 

u 9duoati<m. 



Jttt.r la, 19M.J 



SCIENCE. 



47 



** Tbo deflnitioDB of ihcBe sue terms are at 
roltows : 

'•.A. TlapptDoas. — KxecAS of pleasur*, or 
oiyonnpiit. ovar paiii. or diseomforL 

•' B. l*i'u)irc*Hn, — Suc>)e>»s in ImniiCitiiJtiiig 
naturul |>ht>iiompna w-itli Iiiiinxn )i<lviitilugi>. 

'* (', Ilyufttuic avtioii. — Km|tIo_i'ii«riit of tlwr 
iuielleL'iuul, )uveiitir«, or iadireci lOttlUod of 
conntiou. 

"I}. O^'iiiiniic ui>InloD. — Corract viows of 
the relnljoiis of man to the uuivurKe. 

"K. Knowledge. — Acqiminiauoe wiUi tlw 

CIMlrOHUK-nt. 

•' F. F^hii'aii(ni. — Unlversftl ilistribiitiou or 
Oltaul ! 

"(.''I'i :i^ to Lbese ^x terma lliiw 

deQnetl. itiuit; are six theorems of [iynamic 
sociology, whUjIi rcqtilii^ to be elabornUN:! iiiul 
cstiiblishcd, aud to cucfa of which a aoimrata 
chftitter wilt hii de%-otu1. 

'''Continuing tht- literal df^si^Aliotia, thcM 
Ibeort'iits are thf following : — 

** A. Happiness is the iiUimato end of oonn- 

B. Pi-ogress is the direct means to happi- 

Ss: it 18, lliurefure. the first proxininti* etid 
of coiistiuu, ur prluiarv uieuui^ to thu ultimate 
end. 

*' C. Dyuiiroie notion is the dircvt means to 
progrcsH ; it is, therefore, the second jiroxi- 
inatr emi ol' conntiou, or fiecondoi'y mentis to 
the ultimstc end. 

"1). D,vnaiDio opinion is the direct means 
to djinninic action ; It is. therefore, the third 
proximate end of conation, or tertlani' means 
to the ulliinatc end. 

" K. Knowledge U Uie direct means to 
dj'tuunic f>pinioii ; it is, tlierefore, the fourth 
proxirnntc end of conation, or fourth means to 
the ultiinnle end- 

'* F. IvIiH.ntjon tH the direct liieimi* to knowl- 
cAgv: it ii, thcrefoi'v. the tll^ii |>roxiniule end 
of ounulioii, and is the Itllh and initial tiwoUB 
to thu uhiiniite L-nd." 

Tlie remaining six chapters of tht- work, 
nam^'ly. chapters ix.. x.. xi., xii.. xiii., xiv., 
treat uf Iliesv six subject;! terititim. 

In ehupt'vrix.. ttii^u, the doctrine is set fortli 
that happiness is the idlimnte end of eonntioo. 
or human cnde»vor. Mere Mr. VVArddisen&ses 
the h.'itiirt- nnd }:cuesis of feeling, n» the projirr 
baab of u philostipliie gyiiti'in involvins; the 
inlerftls nf niiin ; anrt he snlinetjiieiilly pd- 
denvtirs !<i •hImiw, liiat, what funetion i« to 
liioloiry, )V. lir>t; id to sociology. .\nd after a 
disf^mtion of the iiitetlectuni methnd at toni- 
pared with the phvaleal nu'lhuil of coniitiMu. 
and several colhtteral ftiibj^etv, hu sets forth 



lite doctrine Ihnt degree of feellug is eon- 
eointtant with derive uforganix&lion, aud that 
ttic pllisnit of litippinei^o Ity man lc»dM to 
Iittclier pitysiirjd, mcntid, and sociid or^niii- 
xxli('ii) ; tliiit, in turn, such higher orgunizaliun 
increase^ feeling, and thus iiivrcasvi* iJeagure, 
aud thus increatsus h:ippiue««. 

Cbn|>tcrx. is devoted to the eousidc ration of 
proKrefls ns the primary meniib tu hap[iim'£8. 
und iuHudeK ; n disnission of the difTorv-ncc 1>e- 
iftt'tJii dynnnii(' wnnulo^y and moral scieiiev*; 
tlieu n diwfitisitni of the {nflwth of the nieaUB 
for cominunicatini^ ideas, — language in all Ila 
foi-ms; then of the arts and iudnstries which 
arc (levelo|wd in the pnrsuit of sutHisteiK-e ; 
then lite origin of governmODt and the institu- 
tions «f govenimenl: nnd, flnally, the origin 
and institntions at' religion. 

C'-hnptcr xi. is enlithil -Action,' — a term 
chosen in prefeitnce to the more Cummon ex- 
presaion, conduct. The chapter is chiefly de- 
^ote<l to tlie dl^^-nsston of a sy^leiDallc ebrtsi- 
Hcation of aetiun>«. Brst, as involinitary and 
voluntary ; and voluntary actions ;in> :igain 
dividoii into impulsive or nensori-niotof, aud 
deliWrntivK or Ideo-motor. l^aeh of the latter 
uhiBSvii (.-ouiiiKts of Ivrn gronps : uiunely, iietions 
pos!jet<!^ing moral quatlLy. nnd actions devoid 
of moral rjuatitr. 

It is no part of the nnlhor's purpose to treat 
of action |>oss*.'89iug moral quality; nlthongh, 
in order to malic clear the Irreleviincy of such 
Bctionii to litK dUcunsioii, he oocnpies aorao 
space in going over tlie ground uanally covered 
by writers on etiiica. Actions de\-otd of moral 
qnality are those upon which )irogreHS cascn* 
tially dejK-nds. nnd chiedy thai branch which 
falls niider the more geneml lirad of deltbcra- 
live or ideo-nuilor aclions. 'I'liey are further 
atiUIividc*! into viatic nnd dyiniUiic, the former 
group t-Dtiiracing the great bulk of hiiinnn 
activities in the iK'rfonuance uf the ordinary dti- 
ties of life. Static aclion^ of this elas9 do not 
result iu progress, but tend dimply to prvM-rvu 
the existing social status. Dynamic nclionti 
constitute the really progn'*t.ivccl«!<sofactiyni«. 

The chief fact n-htch dii<tii^uishcK dyuauiic 
actions from nil others is, thai they are per- 
formed by the Imlin.'ct or inventivo method. 
All the progrcftA that has taken place in socie^ 
has hern dno to such action. However sjHm- 
laneoiis «nrb pn>i^re»K may apjicir, it haa, 
UPverilit'lenH, Wen the result of tcleolngic niClh- 
ods in fliljiiftting natur.t] phenomena in such a 
manner tlmt ihey will aeeoiupli-th do-sire<i ends, 
— rvrootc in lheiii«'lv«M«. tint foreseen by the 
intelligence of the dcvelojiing intellect. The 
results nre the essential elements of human 



48 



SCTENCE. 



\Vou U., Na 33, 



art ; and Donsc(|uont1y eirniKStfoii I* (Undsmoti* 
tally niid whoIlT nrtiflr-Ial. Here Mr. Ward 
intraliiOL's a wHes of illii»t(nilIon« of lypifAl 
dyttamie acUoiM iHMT<irineil in lite ootir<ir' of 
social progiWM8, for tho |mr|>oKe of elucttlatiug 
tba ceiiual idpa which lii> desires to embody la 
the tprra ' dynamin arltOD.' 

('hnpier xii. i-< a discaasion of opinion as 
tb« direct iiit-aDs to ptogrvsaivo ad ion. As 
dynainio actions aru i'ltN>-iii<>t(>r, tuich nc-tions 
must ri>*>iik Trom tin* poesenstoa by the njicnt 
of ci?rtain underlying aod directing iduiu. 
The truism that ' ideas rule tho world ' simply 
mcuits, that opinions dotcroiiiie nctions. But 
in onif'r to pro<luci* dyiiniuic acliona, — that 
is, actions which will, in f^ci, result in progress, 
— it is c««CDtial that the opinionf. wbieli under- 
lie them bo lu rigid harmony with objectirc 
reality. Dynamic action cau only flow Trom 
correct opinion. 

Opiniom twist not only Ik (Kjrrect, ihey 
must he im[mrtaiit . Vntras importanl, no 
appr«.<uiahlc d_\*naniir result will flow therefrom. 
Th(! HKJSt importnnl opinions, or idens, an 
arraiigtM] under four general hcadf) : Drst. cos- 
molofnc ideas: ^tccotid. biologic idcnii ; third, 
nntliropologio idia-* ; fourth. «<jciologie tde.-\s. 
Correct ideas bi^Ionging to theite four great 
claaMA constitute tite primary motive |>owei' to 
all human progre«a. 

Cfaapter xiit. is upoa knowledge, — the im- 
mediate data of ideas. Opiuious cauiiol bo 
directly reached. They arc not subject, to Uio 
will, eithet' of the parly holding tliem or of any 
otlier: they arvshnply tionuiniuenla. Obvloiialy, 
the nutocBdunls of idt^as eonslst in the data 
]H)san'8Mt.'<I by till' mind relative Ut the mate- 
rials and phi-nuniena of nature. Sticli datn are 
gronpcd by the author under the geneial U^rm 
' knowledge.' KnowIi*<li*e. therefore, must Urst 
exist ; and , if it exist, no effort need be e\]>end- 
ed in delcrminin^^ opinion. In thl^ chapter 
the antJior showa that the chfism which in fact 
separates the intelligence of the lowest and 
the highest olass^ft of m.inkiud is ehielly due 
to inequality in the pos&eMion of the datH for 
thought. He shows that the capacity of the 
mind in. in any particulftrchi^^of 80*.-iety. prnc- 
tically equal ; that, even in what »rc known os 
senii-oivilized nr barbaric raee*!, the capacity 
ejtists for a far greater aniouut of knowlvdgo 
than is ever obtHined. 

Chapter .\)v. is un education as the direct 
means to knowte<Ige. The po^sesaioo of 
knt)wledgp. thereftire, if it oould be secured, 
woiild conBliUit*? the tnte moang to the proxi- 
mate end, and thns secure the ultimate purpose, 
liut the human roiod la so constituted tluit it 



cannot be sAfcly iotniated to secure tlits end 
for itself: for the inOivi^lual eantioi understand 
Ihe iiecfMiiy for lliia knowledge, or gniilo 
himself irtsoly in it^s attainment, prior u> its 
acquisition : tliat ia, the period of acquisition 
la in the earlier yeara of the lift! of die Indi- 
vidual, when he must he guided by otJiers. 
The initial means in the entire series is Uiere- 
fore education, actively oonsidered as • fnoo- 
tion of socieir. 

The work r]one* with a comlensud but fun* 
damentnl ti-eut.ineut of the general subject uf 
popular e-bicntion, in which iipiwiirs a review 
of the Ynriotis theories thnt linvo been held, and 
thnt still control huninn action on this subject. 
lie divides the general l>ody of ]>ublic opinion 
into tive parta. which he denominates ' the live 
Itiuds of education.' These am: lirat. edu- 
cation of GX))erieuoe ; second, of diacipline ; 
Ihlrtl. of cultuns fourth, of rescHreh; fifth, uf 
information. The firnt four of these kinds 
of education are cnosidered for the purfioee 
of showing, tliat, however important in ihem- 
sch'e3, they are Insufflcient to nccjmplish the 
great end of securing an artificial civilization 
as the product of direct social action. The 
last of these forms of education, therefore, is 
the only one whicli end>odieft such promiiic. 

Tbft author sees little lio|)« in the imperfect 
and dewltory 3tl«?iupl« of individualu to itecuro 
this great need in society. To render it of any 
value, he claims that cilucatiou must be tliesys- 
tcmatic work of society in its orgauizcil capa- 
city. Ceasing to exert itself longer in valu 
attem[ila to secure directly the various proxi- 
mate ciid», society should vigomusly adopt this 
inital means, iiiid (.■ouceiiiriilc its enerjrtoa uu the 
work which in clearly practieable, — uiat of fur- 
nishing to all its members Ute data actually in 
its i»)HH('83ion. 

L'nder the heading 'Matter of i-ducilion ' 
the author briefly, but without ilugniatism, dis- 
cusses the gemTrnl iheoreni that the subject- 
matter should be ii knowledge of nature. — a 
knowledge of the environment of the individ- 
ual and of mankind. I^i& treatment of the 
methods of pofadar instruction is brief, main- 
taining that this is merely a matter of supply 
in thw politico-economic sense, which Wfill cer- 
tntidy come as rtoon as there i^hall l*e nn ade- 
quate doiiiiitid. He unyn, "" The methods and 
the teachers have always (wen as g«o«l as the 
popular notions of cilucation. and Ihuy will 
dfuibt.le>i!4 continue lo hn so." Thn onlyf-rile- 
rion whicli be (loos lay down with regard to 
method is tlint it bo teteolc^c. He intiists that 
educaUoti, like every other department of ciiili- 
xation, moat be an nrilQclal product; that it 



t,T 13. 1888.I 



SCIENCE. 



■19 



inuBt be uudertflken (leHlJOratolv, planm^ by 
human ititelUgeace, aod acbleveil through ha- 
nmn cffori. 

'I1ie Htiihor disonasea, In a liroad ami plillo- 
soflliir rnnnrier, fl greiil liotly of qiicsliotis in 
whicli civilizwl nrnii is <li?cply hiU'resU'iI. Hu 
has Ilii'i-efore wrilU'ii for a widt' r«ft<litig ; and 
Impplly liis slrle. in ila c^«ential cUaractt-r* 
iatjca, will uol repel thos« tu wljoai it is pro- 
*frot«d. 

OEOLOGY OF SOUTHERN PENXSYL- 
VANtA. 

Sdcmul gtolofficai ttmry of Pewtgt/lvania. — Report 
«/ progrtt* 7^. — TkK geologif of Bed/orri and 
Fulton coaniin. Uy J. J. Stevkxsom. Hnrris- 
Ijurg, .^MiTcy. 1882. 15-1-382 p., 2 ni«ps. 8°. 

pBopBSsor Stevessok has made a detailed 
survey of the Oislrict, which lias lod lo Iml fuw 
malcrial c-liaiigcs in tht' iimp uf thi^ flrsi giirvry. 
The de»pripti«ii9 of the slnn'tiiral p«>lu^ arc 
careful, phiin. and c-n-silr iirulrrHlood ; nml tho 
aeoond jinri nf thf report, ootisisliiig of o day- 
book of obstTvatiorift iilong tlie roads, with ref- 
enDL-e lo outcrops, minea, and qaarries, vill 
doabtleas |Wove very uacf\il. 

It U well that Profcasor Stoveuson has not 
oomplctoly Degleoted paleontology in bis de- 
Bcriptiouit of the various formations ; but tliin 
feature of hi» report is cajmblu of mtioli iiii- 
provetnent. only about gixty species being 
cited OS oe<>urrii>g iu a section tliat extends 
IVoin ttic oppor coat-nH^asures to tlio caleifer- 
oua. The \h1uu of liis dctenuiuution^, and 
the »eicutiSc iol«rc>&l of hU work, would have 
been mueh iu{:rL>&:$«Kl. if care liiid been t'lkun 
to colWvt and determine the fossils fuuiid in 
eaeli group, and lists of them puMished, 
together with Ibe. loualitles in whioh they oc- 
rcarretl. It i» not meant to infer that Prufca* 
HOT Stevenson's determinations arc incorrect, 
but simply tiiut he gives no evidence fn sup- 
port of tbeni. For instance : lie sny!<. " Some 
of these Invert contain fossils which are dia- 



tinetly Chemung, none whniovpr of I'ortage 
tyi* Iwing prwicriE ; but, owinj* cn the weatli- 
ering. the forms ran be identified only gcncri' 
cftUy." The wrili*r does not think he is nlono 
in doubting whether theiv are any fos-slls which 
are distinciirely Chemung. At any rate. It 
would be interesting to know what ihe^f in-n- 
era are. lie mentions no fossils in ]i' \ 

RivtT group, and in the Trenton nioni' 
three fonjis. tvliieh are also very comtnon at ttii- 
top of the lower Silurian. The dircetor of the 
surrey, in his letter of tninsmitlal. makes 
the following curious remark, which seems to 
indicate n peculiar coneeption oftbe objects of 
paleontology. He says, '* l*alcontologi9t« will 
find it an easy task to copy out ft'om the index, 
separately, the whole list of fossil nnmes, and 
arrange them oflcrwatds to ault their own pnr- 
jnwi-a." Certainly, j)aleoatologi8ta do not want 
to arrange fuHKiU lo anil theiuMt-lves, but to 
(iml out how nitlure has aiTanged tluiin. The 
two map4 uccompnnyinir the refiorl are of very 
itiditrercnt quality, aa it is ditHciilt, cspfcinlly 
over the Broad Top area, tofolli>won llu* maps 
the descriptions in the iCTt. Mr. Steven»o« 
disclaims responsibility for several things in 
them, which may account for the discrepancies 
between the text and the maps. Profeasor Le«« 
ley seems to think that the maps may be easily 
followfd by a person familiar wUli the oonnlry ; 
but the main should have been constructed so 
tlmt otiiers, also, may be able lo understand 
them. He scums to apply preconceived no- 
tions of urography. wheUn-r it agreea wiUi the 
geology aa Hludied in tin; field or not; and. If 
tht; resiwnRtidlity of preparing tli<- ma|w rested 
with Uie same jwrson who has done the (leld- 
work and prepared tiie text, the reeull woulil 
probably be more iotelligilde. Mr. Stevenson 
montions a l>ed ID') fbet almvc the Pittsluirg 
coal. This woiild apparently belong to the 
npper series, considered Permian in other re- 
ports of the survey ; but this doe* not appear 
to be rcpro^(itc«I anywhere on Die map. 



WEEKLY SUMMARr OF THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE, 



ASTBONOMY. 
BollpSM of Juplter'a satellite*. — Cornn pn>- 
pOMt U> oltaerve these (.cIIimcs photometricaJlf, coro- 
fwring \h« light tif the eatelllce during the lime 
while It Is entertns: or emi<rsin^ from Ihe ^adow 
vltb thnt p( nil arUndal satellite visible hi i^e uiue 
ffl*Mi An>l miule to vitry hi lirif(litnfis oA pltrJuiint bjr 
I adjustable ' cii's vyf: »o called. He ebows that 
moment wb«Q ihe ligbi o( the sateliite b Aotf 



that of Its unobscurpd eondllion Is lie one which 
can \m moKt ncciinilely tk-lennlti>-«l, xtiil ur^ei iLat 
Iho pUotomctric obMrr\'Alion!i tlttiuM Iw so arnriged 
aa Lo give an aulumitic n-ranj. Admiral S^ouchex 
has authorized the appHcaUon of the n«cM»arr ap- 
I>aratu» lu one ef the lar^e eqaalorlals of th« Paris 
ot»v>T»ttory. 

M. t'nrnu does not seem lo t>i> avmre that a nrj 
similar, but really anore predte, nKtbod of obwm- 



50 



SCFENCE. 



tTOL. II.. No. 38. 



tioo bu boen In use bI the Harvard oollese obur- 
vatorj for llie post two yean. Prof. Plderliig, 
howrTer, *crj wtaety preftn U" com pure Uu'wrlliisiiij 
aaitUiU with one of the other nittellltes, or wllb «ii 
Imace of the pUuut. nillier thun with an artificial 
star ; and lie umh pnlu-liAlloii npparattis lniti^»d of a 
nt*B eye to i!<)tinlli« ihf brlgJUncAs of I1i« oltJecU 
compared. — (Coffip(«Br«idtw, Juu«4.) c A. T. 

[40 
UATBBUATIC8. 
Theory of ItmoHona. — In * wirios of ihre« me- 
moirs, U. ApiMtll liat rci'roduti-il iu a more cxtvmled 
form A nuitilM-r nf iiivitsllgiiltnn<i wliirh lie hiut 
KceDtl)' comtnuiiicnlrd to the French ai-adtfiny of 
•deuces. The first of the thrtia meinoirs Irvau of 
unlfonii futK-Uotih of nti lUtatytlcal pulni (x, y); the 
t«nii *Einalyticiil point' meaning aiinply llie tyat^m of 
Tftlues of (X, v) lominl by aiiy orlilirary value of x 
and the. iay. m wtrreBjwndliiR valinjs of j/. Th>; Ant 
Motion of the inetoolr eontaiu* threr ihfvn-in* con- 
Mrnhig lh«) dereloptnent in ratlonnl fmctioikA of such 
fUnctJoit*. Ill ihK seiNxid •ectiun a uuifona fuiictlua 
Isdefliifd, oitd ttl«'> llio pv>k>« HtiiJ «»B«iitiHi singular 

Uctie Kinffuiiire «t«lle}. Fuiu'tlonfl with a 6tilu> nnin- 
ber of lingular point* are then tak<>n up, and a 
generalteatinii of a knowti theorem ronn-miiig Uia 
cocflBclenu In Ihe devAlopmont of a unlfonn fiinc* 
Uou Is glwu: viz.. If Fix. v) it a tmlform fimction 
of ili« Kiinlyiicnl point (r, p), having a finite number 
of slu^iilnr points [at. bi|. and If It, arc th« reklJtiM 
relatively to these points; tf, further, In a i^ertaln 

region of Uw Analytical point (x = oe, llin £ ~ Ct\ 



.(*) 1 



, — then ir« have 



we hare P^x, y) ^ Z 

ttie relation 

A\^' + Jf + ... + A\'" = ll,+R, + ... + B^ 
In thiK, ( ha« all values from I up to n, and it ha» all 
Tallica from I up lo m: ui denoting the nuiutx-r of 
values of jf correapondlng to a given value of x. 
Afivr a brief review of »oiDe of llie propcrtloa of ihu 
Abeliau int^xraU, the author giv«« a f|*tii*rHll£atloH 
pf a holoniorphlc function of > In the interior of a 
circle vbiitv c«iiire Is ii in irriu* of asi-ciidlnj; itowore 
of (j" — (il. Thn •iibjpct of function* with an Iti- 
ftlilto number of lingular polnu ii then taken up, and 
a grncraliutJon i§ first given of Ultrag-Zencr** 
tlicor«ni concerning lliese functions ; vIj^, if a aerie* 
of dlsiinci analytical poinia {a„ Ai ) . . . (o^ ^r) ■ . • 
are such Ibal Itm (a,, b,) = (a b) for v ~ ■», and If 
-PiUi *f, ft{x, tf) . . . F^ii, f) \» a Mirl.-* of rational 
fuiictiuiuof X and f/ which b«roinu infinitu only In 
tho two point* (<!,,&,) and ia,b) i-ejp«ctively. ihcit 
llicre exiAU a uiilfonn function *(£, v) having only 
the poUit (a. ti as an csstinliaj singular point, ami 
admitting as [wles the points (n^, 6,) Id such a man* 
BttT that the iliRerenc« *{x, jr) — F^lx, p) 1& regular 
in ibc point (a,, ^,). 

Tho second memoir tiy it. Appell [s a continuation 
of the Hmi. In it be cousldera the d«compocllton into 
prime (aclors of a uniform fuuclion of an utnlytt- 



cal pdnt (z, yl having only one nunntlal alnguliu* 
polut, and also gives a theory of doubly {lerlodlc 
function* with esseiiUal ulngular points. The author 
exaniini'!!, flret, funiHloiia having In a parallelogram of 
I>CTlods a Unite number of sInBular pointB, and give* 
au io(«tn«ting theorem ; vix., ihtt !ium of IIr- rt^aidUM 
of F{u) relativfi to the singular pointa sUaated In » 
given paxml It'll tKram of poriods Is e'lual to zero. A. 
general oxprefsion Is then oblainKl for a doubly 
periodic uuiforni function F tu) having In a given 
|Mrallelogram nf periods only on<'< siognlnr point. 

In the thinl memoir. M. Appell considers tlio de- 
velopment of funciJons In Hcries Inside an area 
bounttvd hy air* of circles. These three uiemoira 
by M. Appell. taken wllh a m<}iuolr by M. Pobii-ar^. 
which precedes lluoi, and which has already bcCTi 
referred to In these pages, cnnstituta- a very valuable 
Heriea of papers on the modem theory of fuikCUona. 
— McWmofA.. 1. no. 2.) T. c [*1 

PHYSICS. 

Iteuik*. 

Upper Umlt of audibility. — Pauchon and Ber- 
trand have invesUijaied lh« question of the effect of 
the lutviialiy ot tho sound upon this limit. A uren 
blown by iieam with pi«9surca varying from l>.& lo 
l,a atmoaphcres gavt> from 34,000 to 30,000 double 
vibntlous HA a lliidt; but. with certain modlAcailona 
and a higher prassure (2^ alinoH|iberes), ibe ino^l acute 
sound that could tw produced by llie Instrument, due 
to 3S.O0O vibrations, was fttill heanl. Motalllc rods 
of different lengths, set into longitudinal vibration 
in the usual manner, gave the following results: 1. 
The length of the rod giving thtl highest perceptible 
Konnd tii Independent of Its diameter ; 2. For steel, 
copper, and sllvpr, llw lengths are proportional lo 
the velocity of sound In tho«e media. These results 
disagree with those reached with the siren. The 
authors find, however, that. If the ear U aided hya 
teBonatlDg trumpet, the limit i.« allghti^ raised ; 
that the limit Is raised with ■uhxtanct-n like roslu, 
producing the most cncrgf^tlc friction ; and that the 
sound, even when too high lo affect the ear, still acta 
on a sensitive flame. 

These resiilta uf Pandion wllh the siren agree wltli 
the faci observed Beveral yeara since by Dr. H. P. 
Ilowdilcb of Boston, tlmt, with a Kdnig's bar of 
exceedingly large diiuneLur, tbw limit of audibility la 
higher than with one of the ordinary atze, — (Coni|>- 
Ua rettdun, April 9.) c. k. c. [42 

PtoduodoQ of whispered vowels. — I^efort 
calls attention to the wide range of wbUpered vowel* 
that can be arlllicially produced by blowing acroas 
resonant lubes or spheres: oti, <i (cloaed), o (open), 
It, eu, e,f. ^(closed), « (open), — all being prodiKed as 
tlie capacity of the resonator la diminished. By 
dEminisbing the length of an open tube the vowels 
a, d, e, eu, u, i, t, f, are surceeilvcly heard, while 
cm, 6, o, are obtained by closing the tipper end of the 
tube morv or Ie»». — {Cvniplt* r«n</u*, April S3.) 
C. H. C. I« 

Tkanamlsalon of aonnds by gases— Ney* 

reneuf baji studied the relative traiumisslon of soand 



■ 



Jin.Y 18, 1683.] 



SCIENCE, 



31 



ttaniiigli ftlr, cartionte oslil«. ctrbonlc acid, and illii- 
mlmitnf-tiu. Tbu aounil !.^ iranitniUiM throufrb n 
tulM two nivtri'-M long, contAJiiiiivi ill*' Kii^ ■*Kl"^'''iu«i>tMl 
upon, ftod tliv htltniiir U «tihlJ€d by noUdog the 
dbunca nt wliicb a sensitive tfuno Mftses to bv Mted 
npoii by IL H« flnil* that air anil carbpnlc oiddi; 
bAVe the skme tnoiminivu poirer, *ir and iltuminM- 
lag-gS4 glvevRrf varl!i)i)<> results, and carbniiic acid 
bu s much grn'JUiT tr»n!imIsi>lT^ p<iwer Uinn sir. A 
table of rcHiilts for air uid cnibonlc iield is Klven. — 
(,CtimptHi rrndu*, April :H).) c. n. C. [44 

SxpeHmentiil demo&itratlOD of 'Telocity of 
•Duml. — Crivi-Aux anun^fl n f(liu» tutm i>nd n L>m 
of pin*^ W00.1 of e<in»I letiijlli, so thnt iJiv jMuiLOAgv of 
a t>ulM through ei[h(>r tlio column of nir in ihc 
lube or tha wooden rod shall move odd of two ll^it 
screws, and ao br«ak ai» elMtrlc contact. The cur- 
pent from a battery is ilivided, and passes Into the two 
cotla of adljferontlal galvanonK>t«r ; Ui^ ll^hl 3i-r«w 
RHtlng on th? I'lii) of the r'Hl bcInK plac«(l In one 
circuit, ami a «itgllftr ncrew, n^stin^ on ii mcmbranf^ 
closln;^ the «ad of lli^ mhe. in the othpr. Thf> rt- 
aUtan<N>^ are (to nrmiigvil that lli« uecill'r ol rh« dlf- 
feivntliU galvanoiontrr rqmains normally tindvOvcU-'l. 
If a aounil It produced hj striking a drum, tlii^ ii^tHllo 
of til* galToiiamrti-r is deflected In such a direction 
as Coabow Uiat the conUict Is bnikvn by the njo«e< 
neiil of that acrew ruitlni^on the end of Ebe n-oiMlen 
rod, thns lllnitratlni; the greater velocity of the 
4oimd-wave In wood tlian In *lr. — (Jblirit. !>%«.■ 
May.) c. B, r, " [43 

ENQIXBBBINa. 

Bt«ct*ic atop for steam-eitKl>>«>- — Ur. Tate, an 
EiijriUh eii(;iiie«r, hu.i iiuubimil the LecUncb^ bat- 
lery, an el«cim- magnet, an auxiliary 9t«ani-cyliudar, 
au«l a stop, to the clo«lnt: of the atop-valv« of the 
atnaiR-f limine, i\ Ibi sudden !>toppaf(e should bccoiDf 
itMeawtry. It hai bern appilcl by Mr. Tate to the 
drl«iuji;-<:ni|tiu<.-aijf Li? lar^ woollun-intlU in Bradfori. 
Thp mrrhniijtni t-Qn*ii>ts of a w«ight«d xiipt-naion 
rod attached to the nlop-valrc by a bracket, and octn- 
atetl by a stnall steam- cy Undo r, tbv piston of whicli 
la eupplied with Bt«am through a valr« wlilch Is 
opened by the action of the electro-tnagnet and the 
WAighr^Ml nil. The nioTeroent of this auxiliary en- 
giue »bui« the stop-valve of the eiiein^* in a small 
fraction of the time usually re(|ulreil to close it by 
liand. The witva of the battery are narrled to varl- 
oua pariA of th>- mill, »o thnt the cnjElne can bo 'tibul 
down ' at atiy Instant, and fnitn any oiip of a nuiuber 
oT promptly acc«Mib)e pointa. This arrangement ta 
propotod to be attached to tlie euf^Invs of steant-v«a>tlSt 
the wires Iwing led to the brldee, and to olber part* 
of tb« vMsel witere the olScera can e.'ully reach the 
bututn. — (London llNica, (icL 21. f it. ii. t. (46 

ronna of steamata. — Two vessels r«oenUy built 
by th« Mr-fsrf. J. •£ Q. Tliompaou hav« been eumpare<I 
to di'tr-miiao Uielr ntlativtt economy a« a mnani of 
truiapcH-Latlon aa affected by a conilderable differ- 

iM io iiroponions. 0»v wu 800 Icot long. 42 foet 
beatn, and drvw IS r«>at of water : the s'Cmd was STS 
by 4fi by ao feet. Th« loiigvr reasel had le^a Snc cnd« 



than th« broader ithtp. The foriiMr re^nirad ft.IOO- 
bone power to drive her l.'i knots an hour, while the 
latter only demanded 3.000i At 13 knots, the ponur 
di^mandod was the same forbolli ; but at hlgh«r 
Speeds the dltfcn^Bro bocame eri>ater and fittaCtn. and 
luore and more in fdvor of the slioner, broader, bal 
finer ended vt-sKel. Ttii? Rain to In- expevtvil from 
t;lvln^ Hhlps greater beam, and, at the tame time, 
finer enii. 1^ ('](pect«>d to be obierveil in larger and 
faster vfsscl*. — ( JfccAowIca, May 2<l.) E. ii. t. |47 

Effloleocy of the Btaam-eoglne.— FmfeKior R. fi. 
Werner, of the Ti:ohnlca] hish scb<ioI at Darmsiaitl, 
publi*lie« a paper dtrscrihinc hi* trial of .t coniiKiund 
en^ini^ driving a mill In Ati g!>biirfl:. The eDj-ini' has 
an Indicated po>rvr of 13i humt^s. Tbc cylinders 
tiari: a proportion of 3. 73 Io I : they are st4'am- Jacket- 
ed, aa is tbc Intermediate reservoli : the ratio of ex- 
pansion is 14. The boilers carry a pressure of about 
T almoapberea, and the steam supplied •^uiitaina 3 
per cent water. The Nte^in-jacketf c«i>ilen*e about 
II percent of the Ateam, and the ryllnders demand 
about T kilosr8RiiflS.4 lbs.) of st>wni iier hor«e>|iower 
and (Mtr hour. Imiide that i^ndenKiil In the jaaki'ta. 
This U about the ainoiml rp^uinxl as a minimum to 
the bt-st-known Kngllyh and American engines. Iti 
this country, a very similar Bifiirv baa be«n reached bjr 
CorlUs mid by LeavitL — IZeituchr. eej'. rUitUfh. iug.. 
May.) R. a. r. [4B 

' Compound ' locomotivoa. — M. Mallet com- 
municacea to the French society of englneetv a note 
from U. Borodiiie, giving the rssuJla of experimenta 
to determine the relative economy of the aimpin and 
the compound system of engine for locomotive*. Thi< 
englnaa expi>rlni«ntsd witb were tho^e designed for 
the railway from fiayoune to Biarritz by U. Mallol. 
The trial* extendeil over a con«id»^rabIe period of 
tlme« and the comparisons were made fairly com- 
pli'te. The rceult sbowod the cum|>ound system to 
have nn economy of from ten to twenty per cent, 
according to the conditions under which they are 
carried out. The variation In tbe ratio i<f expao- 
i<)on Is very greatly restricted In tbe compound 
eiigttie. The uac of the ateam-jnckeU with which 
tbe engines were provided did not prove to be of 
ailvantaRe. Tbe expenditure of ii««m was grt-atwr 
when they werr In use titan when tliey were shut 
ott. — {Mtm. »nc. inff. i-(t.) a. ir. T. [49 

CHBUISTRT. 

Compoujida of ben so trichloride «^tJi pbeuola 
and phenyUmiuea. — When a uUxturu of <>nit molo- 
cule of benzol rich lunde and two molernles of (iIwdoI 
b heated gently, O. Ofibner And* that the foliovlog 
reactkm takes place: — 

r\ii,iiM 
Cii/:ci, • ic;h,o« - cva,ow +iitoi. 

C«II«OII 

The remaining (.'hlorbMi atom Ls replaced by a 
hydroxyl group wbea the product Is beuUsl with 
water, forming dioaytrlphenylcarblnol, — 




Bj nMjucUoD, dloxjrtriphvnylmvttun 

Is fDrmH. An anftlogou^-n-uciloo u1c«t pkM If 
KBorclne 1) used Instvul of plienut. The miilting 
RtMKlne Wnt^lii. by tvduelioo, giTPS tetrioxytri- 
phetijrlinetlian, — 

cu.rn nrigljgljj;. ^ 

With iirlmBrr nromalle arainu. txitizotriclilorido 
naitcil r*iiillly. Wht*n aiIiImI lo n mlxtnrv of ill- 
mettiyluillmf! aud sine cbluridc, ii formed maluliUo 
Rrewi,— 

(on) cn,K(C»i)| 

By rodticllun, Uils euluuiwe gave Uw oorreepoading 
luuki><t>aK, — 

(ill, <:,ii,s(ai«i," 

Tlic hiute mnlnrhliA ^en was padly dMonpowd, 
wbflu IicdUhI will) tiydrocliloric urM, into dliuethyl- 
amilio uiul l)pnx<i>10iro<!r)iylaiillliic Tbb n:«rUoa 
points U> th« ftillowiiig »Lruotaiv< for malu-lilie 
necn: — 

*^ ._ 

~ OH 

Tb>' jcUmi "f iM^iiWfyl irfchloriJe ii|ion bjdroxyl or 
anttilo romi>o»iiris seems, thsreforo, to be ttormsl So 
tho fi«ra pofitloa nltli re^j^ci to ili« antldu ur the 
liy4rosyl gr(>u[t. ^fdnn. rAi-m., ccxvll. OS.) c. P. U. 

[SO 
OESOUJQT. 

The Potsdam and Bt Petem suidAtoiie*. — 

The surface todurKllun uf llio frivhio roKduu and 
Si. P^ien Haodttnnes, us dMvrmlned by tnarroKupIc 
obdcnittions lu 1S7I-13. wu brought to tlio notice 
of the readers of t^;iENCK eunie tiiu« ago |i. 
14ti). whlk- a recent interesiloi; |ui|i«r by I'rof. 
B. D. trving g)v4^3 the r«aulls of his tuicrcMcoptc 
ioTWtigaliona on iho tAmti snbjecL In'ltig Anda, 
as Sori>jr had pi«^'ioii*iy, that ordti)«ry quarla !;raliis, 
fonnerly nmndm] aiul woru, harw been liiiilc mit 
and supplied with crystal farrti from Mliu dopos- 
it«d lat«r on tliniK lU: Unh thaL ibe Induration of 
th(iaborG-iiien(lou<Ml»nnilsU>iii!w.itiM!R from tbxdcpo- 
ritlon of intonlicijtl <itLarti ccnivntlng tlic graJDa. 
TIm^ deposited quant U found lu bu optically ori- 
■lUod. the same as the ■?n<:losi-il grnio, tvhii'b it dla- 
tinguUlu^iI by Us cloudint^ts aiid worn surface, and 
fr«i)uenUy by a coatlnj; of oxide of Iron upoo It. 

To the dc^posltloa of '^uartz upon vrom quartz 
grains i» iL'tcrilifld Hie ooeurrenee of quarts cryslals lu 
the Potsilam sandstono described in IgSi' by Iter. A. 
A. Toung. Credit should have been kIti^h by both 
Irving and Yuumk to Rev. John Mnrtlsb lor citllLug 
atleniion to lli« tKeurrvnre of qtiartic cryninN In 
piiUdtuu sandstone In 1)ST(>-Ti! IBttiL Wise. a«ad. iL 
32), eaiveclally sines Murri4b'» obMrrntlous wen lUs- 
or^it«d at th« Ume. 



All i|iiart2 crystali In nndstone havn not Uiia 
derivAtton. a> tb« wrlier »how«d for the Latce Hupe- 
tlor aandiluno in IS8I), llie i^ryatals of nlileli roind 
from old uruptlrt rocha owInK to tlie decumposltloii 
of the uiulrix. It is plMUaiiL to Qud my iwrlier 
obflervatlons on Uie surface Induration of the WIj- 
QoosUi sandtiones. and tbo formation lu Miem of 
luartx cryittjU, MiiKlaiitird i>y tb<- lutich more voinplolv 
Biid Taliiahl<! work of Irving, madn, aa his wu, with- 
out any knowltdgv of miiio. 

Irvinu holds that liie quarts dfiposilml may camo 
from lh« aatluii of water nn the occassional fitlspar 
particles In the rock, nlihouftli aom«tliucB from an 
uxleriial G<iur?L<. lie (orlltrr rritards tbH Induration 
of (jiiartiltes and (juitrta schtsia lu cauied b; Uie 
samcdcpoftitionof inU'rsiiciftl<(Uarlz. — (AmtiT.jtHira. 
«c.. xxT. 401. t »■ i:. w. [SI 

Antaaa w an alteration prodaot of UtanJte.— 
The tilanlie In a bioUto amphtbalt- (granite from the 
Tro«d wus found by Mr. J. 8. IJIiler to l»e replaoed 
by n IlKbl wlnt;>yellow to houvy-yellow uilueral, 
sJiowlu;;, under the niicrascapr, qiuolratic and rliom- 
blc B4>cilnn9. The fonuer arn' isotropic, and have a. 
well-marked cleatagc i»rallvl to ihi.-ir aldoa; ihu 
iallvr arc strongly doubly refracling, exlinguUh 
paraltet to the di^igonal, and bavp one cleavage par- 
allel to Lb« short diagonal and another to thi^eds^a. 
In onlcr to isolate the snWtauce. ihv flmdy pulver- 
ii«d rock was separated into two iHirlions, ona of 
Ugbtcrand th« other of heavier speeiflc gnivily Utan 
2.72, by means ot the poLaittiiuni-iodinu-uiiircury spIq- 
tioo. Thi; yf iloir miitrral waa found In the swond 
portion, vrhirh contained aldo Iron ore, iln^^n, and 
upatlie. The ore wim rcTinovcd by the cleclro-magnrt, 
and the apatite by nitric acid. By means of iJie ead- 
mlum-boron-IungNtnte snintlon Et was shown tliat ihe 
yellow ntlntTDl had a specific gravity between 8.0 aud 
4.5. Some jtrnins were picked ont. and fmind la b« 
insoluble in hot aqua res^a- 

The mixed nJreoii and yellow mineml powder gave 
a reaction for titanium, while the pure xlri^n wotitd 
not : henc« It was Inferred llial the mlneml contained 
titanium. Its aiit;|ps were fouiul to l>« 1<S^ :;4' and 
ISO" 16', white the enn«Rl>ondin; ones of antaftc are 
Vi" 51' and tSti^ W. From lu optical, chemical, 
and crystallo^rnphic chamc:ten>, it wils than Inferred 
that the yellow mineral w»* nniaae. — {AVuea^oArfr. 
mfner., 1S63.) 11. s. w. [52 

QBOOBAPHT. 

The 3*ano railroad. Pent. — Dr. R. froiwland 
glvM a reudnhli:- n<-count of n jonmey over this re- 
markable railroad from its i>cginning nt Mnilt-nrhi on 
the coast, through An-qul|«i, to Puno on liaUft Tili- 
raca, and of hi* farthn travels by boat on the lake, 
and by sUge. beyond to La Pas lu Bolivia. Hie 
features that attracted his special attention were the 
deep, narrow valleys followeid by the road in Ita tiharp 
windings while ascending from one pompa level to 
the next: the broad, OiU, barrt-n pampas at great aud 
groaier ollltudea: and the atiperb views of tlia vol* 
canic peak! and nu)S«* of ttw Cordillera, — Ulitl, 



JtrtY M, 1983.1 



SClEyCE. 



53 



Chaycani, and ndiuplcbu. dglileen to nineteen thou- 
•md teal ill heigbl. On tin.- pamira o( La Joyii (4,100 
fcBt) ha saw countlfua hll]«>ck9 of pure, sharp sanil 
imiilanoa), lu bair-niooii furtu, witb ibe curve to 
the WMi dr winilwan! (»r._- S<-iex<k, i. iS3). A 
mirage iftvp tti*-»o whiw hills tin* appi'nranoc nf ilrMt- 
Iw 111 an arctic ««&. — (Drulstili. geoyr. hUitUr, vf. 
IStft, inv) w, ji, D. [53 

Colombia. — R. D. Wlittc, for a«T«ra) ycnn rcsl- 
fl«iit In Colmnbla. and a companion ot Sliibvl and 
Ret** In NoiiiL' tit lltiiir i^xpeJItiuii", furnlslm a mm- 
Diary acM>unt o( Ibc muiv atlnctive i>ai-i9 of ihiN 
npnblic, and uf ita pnxIuctlDus, mid chniiee of dcvel- 
npnictit. SoTenil of (be rivera th.ii (low nortbwmvl 
bcLwMn paralkl ranges of the Oonjillcra ar« navi- 
ga.bl« fnr Hitiall a(«ainL>r» for many mile* Into tb« In- 
terior, iip«i)ltig (iJMiict; well iu]jtptc<I t^i ai;ricullur«, 
and well eu)ipltcd wItb timber and mineral prodncis. 
Above liw! k'W plains tbecltmtitn u boAlUiy. A good 
■han of tl)« world's plaiiuum supply It obtalnvd 
from tbe up{wr valley of tli<r Snti Jimn, aiid golil 
occurs In pmllcahlr iiuiititity in many of th« rivor- 
Ipravul*. Brief mention li niadu nf an avront of tbc 
Mtiowy volcnnw, I'Mracif; and Iho wKt'-n^Tve vtow (rom 
Iht Uerro Mnncbi<)iic, nearly Uu thousand feet high, 
wHt of Popiiyan, is higbly prnbiod. Tbu gl^^Iogical 
obMrvatloiis on th« origin of moanloln and valley 
/orm do not carry com irtloii, aixl tbe frt-'tvient men- 
tion at voleaniR upheaval and vall<>y9 nf rraclum rc- 
ulod one of tli« tlt^oHes ot llfty yMrs ni|d. — iProt. 
rog- il'^J^- «"c, V. t8*J, 'i-Ui.f w. K. ix [5* 

MAtoa.l 

The Kongo. — l>r. Pechnel-Loeicbe. a tnembcf of 
iho 0«nian-Afri«in tiipclltlon to Loatigo In lCTS-70, 
and Vx\r-t In ^liaqgc at Stanley Pr>o1 while Ktanley 
went to Kiiropfi, recently r<?ad an addh>39 mi tbo 
Kongo and tbo noighlwring mT.>uiiiidns of westeni 
Africa tiefonr th« (J^rman gifignipbiral rongrei'S »l 
Frankfort. Tbo riv«r Is rem.irkah1e for ibc rapids 
all aliini) its courser, and u^iweioJIy to it« narniw 
P«i>sa!:e iliroiigh iho mountains below i^tanley Pool, 
wbera it falls nine hundred and tvrenly-cighl feot in 
some three hunilrod and forty mllea. Of the severa) 
falls In tbl* part of lt« cour». only one U ventca), 
thai ot Uanglla, with a height of sixteen (e«l. There 
«rv two {terinds of high water, with a rl«« ol twenty 
fMi, wlion tlie falls disappear lu nutilfomi rusbing 
flow. Tbe water H»e< frtmi S«pt«nib*tr to January, 
falls fiom January to llnrcb, itltain^ Its fro«t«at 
helehl in tlio rainy months | A|iril and May), and Ita 
lowest level in July and Aoguil. >[.-iny of th« 
mountain brooks have cut deep elisnticls, and join 
iha main stream on a level ; but eonie of the latter 
rivers of tbo Interior, llowiiii: over horizontal roeks, 
have not cut llieir way so deeply, ami, on joinUif^ the 
Knn^o, (onn (*atarsrt9. Thus the Lueni;a fall* 
ifanw huiidreil feel, and tbu Liivubl five hundred 
feeu (This, if correctly ntpoileil, is wriaJnly « 
very ahnorni4l arrKngement.) Tb" mountain belt Is 
about two tuindred miles wide, rialn); fratn a sloping 
plain at almut fwi Iboiinmd feat to rounded and 
mi'ii"'"riuus elevaiioiis with a maximum of thrfte 
thunuLud fuel. The higher land Is grmasy. with nuall 



troet and apitarentiy lonflcu bnahn : tlie more lux- 
uHajit gniwUi nf lufly (rves uml palms Is hidden la 
the valleys. It is rbeM> deep and a[ee|xaidc>l rallays 
tliat uaki* tbo rather open npland dlftlmlt lu 
travnrso. Near the river, Uie natives bnve dt:>Lroyed 
nil the forest-trees, either by burning or cutting, The 
tUlagea ar« built on high and bai-e summits. Dr. 
Fwbuel-Iyoescbe regarded the Makoko (ruler of tbe 
streaiu), with whom de Braua bad made a treaty two 
ycarxago (Scikkck, i. 71'), as a local niter ot no e^neral 
autboriiy, Thu Unkoko's tan had reported tlmt his 
father ha<l coded tio land to de Brazia, and that he 
bad no I-'rencb Rsg In hli po3se«f<ion. There atv four 
Kakokos lu this regiOQ ; and none nl them Itan a right 
of precedence over the others, or any title to be 
»over)>i|>n of the Oalcke |>upulallon of thl» iiart of 
the Kon«o.— (Proc. rop. rtwisr. swc-, v, 1SS3. 280.) 
w. It. r>. |SS 

Tbo tnuatiamTa of tbo aonChont Kon^ baaXn. 
— Max Budmer. the fourth Ettropean who has tieen 
In this region in the Inst two centuries, fp«iit half 
a year at the residence of tbu 'niimtiaiuvo.' or kiti^ 
(SctENCR, 1. I'j;, and n^porls on the |tectiliar form 
ot bis govcrameuu The kingdom uu tbe MUthcrii 
side of the Kuiigu batiiu, llie spe^rlal tkltl uf the 
Gemuui-Afrlcan expIoralUtns, tncliid<*» an area about 
as large as tiermuny, Ita pupiilallon can hardly 
eiceed two mllllnns, and Its power cannot comptire 
with that ot Mie.sa's country, farlher east, wbero 
an army of a hundred thouaand men ran take tbe 
field. Hvrv the army is not more than one tlionsaiid 
strung at tbe highest ; aud Buehuer says he euuld 
go where he cliose with Elfty European snMicrk, 
If tbey wero not attacked by that mor<9 dreaded 
enemy, the African fever. And yet. through a lartje 
part of s»ulh>we]itern Afrtra, the miialiainvo Is the 
greatest native power. The most notable jtcctiliarity 
uf the suvernmcnt coniists in tliu presence of a 
second high Kotluiriiy tK-tides tlie muallainvo, 
namely, the 'lukokcssa,' or qncwn : she Is not the 
wife of the king, who has some slaty wlvoi ot hU 
own, but is (re« and Independent of him, having her 
own chief consort, the 'shamoami,' und nnmemus 
Inxiuently changing husbanJs ut lower order, Ilncb- 
ner traces tlia orlfiln of this form of goTernmeot, 
aitd gives a list of thirteen uiuattatuvos, down to 
Shanana or Naoeah-a-kat, tbe pr<>s6nt king, and tl*- 
scrlbes the different parts of the kingdom and ita 
neighbortiiK Htates. — (ZleulsiAs j/ei^yr. MoWa,, vl, 
1883, W.) W. M. D. [56 

BOTAJfY. 

PoUlnatlon of Rntaceas. — [*r|tan has studied th4 
adaptations for fertilization In a couBldenthlu nuRil»r 
of speeios of this betoraf;eueous order, luing liviii4 
materUI at the Derlln botanic garden. As few of iliu 
geuera have be<» previously studied lu thia rrepcet, 
a nttwr full traaalatioti of his tabubitml summary 
Is glvvn. 

I. MoitOOLlKUUa SPKCIU. 
A. With fUehfjumont Iprotandrvusi fivwrrt. 
I. Nutation succeMiveJy pUoea the dehiscent an- 
thers at (he point rhldi the recvpUv* stigma occu- 
pies later. 



54 



SCIENCE, 



iToL. IL. N'o. aa. 



a. Stfin mtd^veloiMit In tlie sUmdiAtje MMSe. 

a. Theniauif^nbria^ frninlb>>lri-irl{tn»lbi>r]ton- 
LeI pci*Uli'<ti, plajN: tliemM>lv«s aaafnsl Lhe orarfrre- 
eiimr llt<!lr ori-jhml pmUlnn, uiil »S*lri beconfte eracL, 
Ittit wiihoii^ r,^: piMali pl«n«; !u>1f-5Wllinii- 

don uKimlly : ttuta. 

^. The orlgifiHllv short, i-rvct fllnminUi trugUi- 
an, curve tnuard*. and again slnUghtcJi: pcUlit 
unilt^ri Wlow In A iiibflt cli»o polllnfttion posalhlo 
by ^nrliallon; C<>ifonem<i. 

0. Slyle Oe«elopf>l )ii ll)f> •Uunliiiiti- fiUjje, thnogb 
not alwAyH tn Its full Ituiglh; »o placed as ta oj>pou 
w«lf-IK>ninUJi>D. 
-^ Fluflrt'm 7.vgotiioryblir, 

n. Thti ntntnrtin which Hr on Iht lower lip «ur- 
c«altely homl npwnr>l, nml, kftcr <1chl»o«ncc, riumne 
th«lr oritiliiiO |>iiGlllon; llie eiitl of Hio ityle likvwla* 
bemlfl ii|i at ntitlurlly: hielartnvji 

rf. The »lftmon§, orlgliiully bent upwnnts, mic- 
CRSslvdy itra)8hl«ti m miuutity, tbca bend ouiwinl; 
the style, bent iIoirnTrnnl vrbcn youni;, stralchteiu 
wben the stigma bi'cunwrii receptive: I'aladentlron. 

= Flowers nclitiorriorphlc. Th^ Rliunents «ue- 
cculvely elotifCBtr after iJ«>hlMence. 

u. In the «tamliiBC<! BtRgu the «tyl« Ik biMit buri- 
sunUlly MroM tJif nvar)': the tl«uicntt hiMirt over 
ibD pl»lit NUcn-flFiVflly u miiturity, tlirn Icngthcft, utd 
tnrn ouiuriinlbcivr«eii the Rn»lly«roci petal*: IX»sma 
UuMl/riliit. 

0, Slinltiu-tuthelas^: bat the stAmlnAdU, and 
BoL llie p«la>.H, becoinv erect, the siaiueiiit beading 
OUlwanl Iml lilllo: Adenandra. 

f. Aft^r tiAworIng, U\t 8tyl« b«nd» outwiud and 
(lownn-anl Ih<i.wo«ii [hv viuiiluudiii, tli« petal* ramnln 
horizontal, thv stamfnodia lie aguinst tlio orar^'. and, 
aftvr ilc-hiftc^nco, thp f«n!le st«ni«ns rcgiime their 
original harir/>nt*l position: Uaroama. 

2. Thu ftianuns nutate but once, and slmulta.ne- 
oasly. In thr sUmlnale stage th«y are perpemllcu- 
lar, or incline but little toward each oihcr, so that 
the anthers arc In contact at thoir margin; In the 
plstlllaio Bta^e they hare bent ntil.ward. 

a. TIte anihi'rs fall away when the fllaneatS 
curve outward : liaeenia, 

b. Antlier* (x-rslslent on the bent fllamentfl. 

-^ l*(>llt>u may fall on the unre<;eptUe «tigmn, and 
M effect lelf-rertDlzatlon. Kvi^n lal>}r thj* i* not inw 
posslblo, as the tvlitd or (cravliaiion may carry pollen 
from t1i« rallexiMt «tami>nx to the mature sUftina, 

a. tu the phiillato stage the style elongates: 
Zleria and Eriimtfouin. 

8. With tionnally developed stlgnta: Bttronia 
(ex pnrlel. 

y. When the style lengthens, the iTlgnia may 
eucoiiDtor the anthers of the lUU eriyt stameui: 
AvtArcrftifon. 

=: The vls«ldlty of the pollen, and the situation ol 
the anthers. pn-vi?ut seir-pi>lliii.illon: JVrtroJwea. 
[f. The stamens do not uulalv at all. 

a. SoIf-poDinalion-posilhlo In the pendant Ilowen 
Mi*r the wpnratlon of th-- lobw of the Mlgma: 
Cprrea. 

6. Thf style li sarrountled by atamtnodla In the 



first stajT^: in the ne^omt «tsg<- iponlaneoii* pollina- 
tion by Qflghborlng llnivi-i-<^ in«y w.cut If InaeCt- 
crosslug has not heeu eiTecteHl: A'jathoana (es parte). 
11. IfffA n^urmffT^owsra. 

1. Self-r«rUllxaU<^n ini|MiH>ible. 

a. With visrM pnllvn; h'Tonta itx parte). 

h, T]iestl|;nia»urp3»«lnii: thitantlters: Triphaxia. 

2. SiHinUnmni si>lf- pull I nation i»ip<>»*it>Ie l>ecau*e 
of Ihr sitnatiiin of thi' tllanienit, but aponlnneoiu 
crossing l>«iwei'n neighboring flowers lavorrd; Agti- 
lAosmo |ox parte). 

S. Sponlanpoai pollination at either anrt opposed; 
crossing by InsecLi inevilabli^: Crjueta. 

4. Spontaneous cloae feriillxallcm postlble: croas- 
Ing favored : Cuvparia, Chet^i/a, 6Mmmia («x parte}, 
Murrof/a, Citrus. 

II. DiCLtXOCS .1PB0IBS. 
Si*lt-f(!rtlllattOB Iroposslble; crussiug ni;r:-vnry: 
PtflM, Skimmia (e« paste]. — {Jaftrfmch hot, ffttrt. 
Brryn, li.) w. T. (57 

2o6LoaT. 

HoUatk*. 

Credit to an Americao uaturallat. — In an 
offlcUl repuri by U. Donchfn-llrandcly. «erretary 
of Uie colli-se of France, tliu aulhur states that he 
has learned by twoyenrH of atudy that tlie sexes of 
the i'ortugiiese oyster are confined to separate Jndi> 
vldiialB ; that after this diBCorpr>- he concctv«l that 
it might be possible to artlDclalty fertilize the eigcB of 
this mollusk : and that, after two years more uf ex|)erl- 
monting, this attempt has l>eca sticee»sful. Ameri- 
cans will be iiKerestol to luarn that in 1610 aa> 
American naval offlcer. Lieut. Francis Winslow, 
who was statlonnl at Gibraltar for a few wc<el(», 
determined the Hnl»exnaliiy of the rortugnew oys- 
ter, and reait^d it fr^jm artillcially fortilizeO eggs. 
His reaulLi WI.TO printol in the .-I'licrican naiiirttUat 
In 1870 or 1880; but, as I hare no opportnnlLy for 
reference at presvot, I cauuut give the exort date. 
— W. K. H. [36 

Hot«a. — In the year-booli of the Vereln fiir 
vaierliindUcbe naturkunde In Witrtlerabernu published 
lately at Stnttttart, Weinland has a {taper on the mol- 
lusk faima of the Wdrttemberglseh Pranken, and 
Wandt one on the xone of Ammonites transveraarins 

In the Suahlau whiu Jura. The aecond part of 

the (Juarttrlf/ jmurnixl uf mtcrvwpiait actener con- 
tains a paper by I>ank«st«r on the existence of Kpen- 
i^l's olfactory organ and of paired genital dncta (n 

Nautilus immpllluR. Henite's 'Conchyilologle 

flnviatlle' of XMnking and Central China approaches 
completion. The oinib and concluding fasciculus 
will appear clunng the present year. It li Inxurl- 
ousty illustralMl, and ptinted in lar;^ iiuarto. ^^ 
Kn^teKs eontlnnation of Martini and Cbemnlta 
Conchyllen cabinet bids fair to i;o on, like Tenuy- 
•(■n')i brook, ftirever. Lieferutig S22 la aunonnccd. 
This work would be much bentiflled hy the total 
e'xeltislon nf Uir frlghifal eDgra\*in{n which ilius- 
Lraled the earlier editions and are sllll pressed into 
the aenrlco. —^ J. B. Uassi^s. known by hia concho- 



Jatt 13. 1863.1 



8CIENCE, 



55 



logtcd researches In Kcw CuJcdonla and Souihem 
Fnnee, luuivcenUy ditffl. — w. h. o. [59 

American paleosolc ifUMCta. — R. D. Lacoe, 

whMe cnlWlInn of iliMo ftlijcMa mu« Iw on* (■( ihp 
larfiMl. if uot lUe l«r3*il. in th*' L-oimlrv. lias prepared 
K lilt lit tliuaf liillierlii jiuNLilml. lu^luilliit; (weuly- 
aU g^niTi antt forty-^lglii iirfcicn »if be xnimli), flvp 
gpriLTA ftnd «|>«eiefl of irMhnids, and nitio genera 
aod aiooivcn speelea o( myriapods. — » totttl of fur ly 
genera and (^pvenly-two Mppcim. 'ITils Ktnhmix*, hfiw- 
(■T<^r, tbri« £;i-t)>^rmaiiil fourtoen specks cclil ttnpiib- 
listied. The liftl Is purely bibliographical, viccpiliig 
lliit It eoiil^tu cJircful iilatemeiKA o[ the plft'-v of 
dboovery of tlie fostils, the iianif! of the Hnd^r, and 
'tb« place of pr»u)nt deposit. Abnnt half of ihe 
I'dewrilied tpecU-s have boen publlsiicd wtlhln thelnsl 
Art fnmn. — [ Wyrnn. hltl. g^'A. aai:., pu'iL :'i. ) [60 
A monstrous oateTpillar. — K If. Jcnen flgiir«s 
• carious lAr\-a ai Uic ij«om«trld moth Mclantppc 
niouianiita of Eiifop^. whi^^b \\e exblbiled at an 
fnCiUiri'ii^lva] r«uti)iJii ai the Horal aqiiariutn on 
Mart:h &. It hn» tbo uittrtiiia)- aiid l«-gaof the perfect 
lnK<^ fully drvt'loped, whil* In olher rM|vccts a 
normal Isrva. Il was rvared from the egs ""i'h a 
doien olhifrs. I..MII Nm^mbrr ihli one, Uivu normal, 
«rmi Fonsldcrftbly larger than the ml at the brood. 



Afanonnal larva of Mtlamipp* moMfandUL 

and wa« noticed as a constaat feeder. " On 7«b. 15 
1 vas aAtonlRhed to And thnt. this forward Indlrldaal 
faa<t di*vel(ip«l (he anteuoac of Utfi Ima;^. but with- 
out In any other way altering Its larval appearance. 
IWa^pacvof lwoorlUr<w day« the aiiteniiM were 
bcaulif iilly |ie(^tinaled, and then ll>« prologs [thorariir 
tr^ '-'t of Che IniA^ became perfect, . . . BoUi 
ailluiitinc aud lega then Kradually ahraok aiul dried 
ttntil lhi-:a)lh."— (fntifni., xvl. 1:^1.} [61 

VEBTEBSATES. 

Temperature and pulse rate. — By means of 
bis ni:w mfthod of iaolallni; tliti mauimnliaii b«art, 
I'rof. Mnrtin haa \y^.t\. able to malcii an arcurale 
Itndy of llie i-fTect of varfatlons of tempera lun; an 
tlw rolv of beat of thn d<ifi'» heart wiii'ii i'umpl«ti?ly 
separated phyHioldgicany from all th« rest of the 
[body Gsn-pt the lunj^. In the brief abstract of hii 
VDrk which hni been published, a fhort d^cripthm 
of th« method of opuraliiig !■ given, toother with 
•ome of llie mor« Impurtaiit resulto which have been 
obulned. He Auds that In the ma-ninalUti hoart, as 
^iU Ibat of tiie tnys, th<i rale of beat Is grndiiaJly In- 
laed aa thi.- Irmperacure of the blotxl is raisml 
370 to Vi9 C 'n.e .pUck pul»« of rcTor can 
onr bt cxpialned by the d1r«ct acUou of tho 



beated blood on the beart luelf, without aanmlng 
any s|>ecfal action upon the extrinsic inbibltAry or 
Accelerator ncrrfr-ceniTM. 

Tlio raw <»f beat of the bfart I» found to h^ar a 
murb m«r»i dtrM:t relation In th*- t#'mijerahirG of 
the blood in ihw coronary artrri'^s than to thft tf-m- 
pfratiiru u( llic blood In tba right auricle or ven- 
tricle. 

An interesting point whioh corim ont of the method 
of work is, thai, although the deShilnatnl cairs 
blood med to nunH*h tfav heart was i«p<aie<lly cir- 
culated thmngh the heart and Um^ for •rifral 
hoarv, it gave no arldcnce of clotting at the end o( 
an experiment, ahoning that, flbtlnogcn l« not fnnr- "I 
In iJicae organs. — [Pror. rojf, jvic, no. 223, l»v-!. 1 
w. H. u [62 

Xirmpbatics of periosteum. — George Bo}:Raii 
and KnnerR (Italian rrlticiu<i I be pr«vi<ins writings on 
this tubjcct, and i:ir« ili« rcstillA <>t their oirn kiudlfs. 
Tbey assert Omt what Dudgv described a« lh« lym- 
phatics arc p--ally capillary biood-vvmcU. Their own 
conclusions Ihey v.iinninri»- a« follows : — 

I. The lymphatics i/t the p#ri<i«tcum exist only 
on ibe outer surfacj, or within (he outi-r gelatinous 
(white fibruus) stratum of tbc nirmbrane. They 
never ramify npon Uie Inner or Iwny surface, 2. 
Wlieii the periosteum b thin, more e«pecla)ly wbCD 
the animal Is <dd, the whole lymphatic plnxus lies 
free upon the outer surfiiof: bni when ilic iwrLwieum 
Is thick, lymphatic twigs may psM part way throngb, 
but Ihey ncvt-r reach tht^ Inner surface. 3, Th» Iith- 
phaliC4 nccomjiany the blood-rosels. as If arranged 
to drain them. 4. No lympbnties exbit on the sur- 
face of the great ciTltie^ of tbe bone. "There Is 
thus every reason to believe that tbe lymphatic* 
never come In contact Willi tbe bono U^lf, and that 
bone posaea^es no lymphatics apart from thnae found 
within the periosteum, which may be pltysioJugically 
considered, therefore, as the lympbalii^ of bime." 
— {Jovm. ntMt. phifgiol., xvll. 90S.) c. s. H. [63 

ClaMtfloadon of tbe Petromysontida, — The 

I.aniflvya have iNseii systematically considered by 
0111, ami are diRercntlatc4 into two snb-tamllles: 1. 
The Petroinytonllnae. * with the Miproral lamina mo- 
dianand nndlrid>->l:' and 2. TlioCaragollnae, ' wUli 
two lateral Moproral Inniinac.' Tlie former cmbracet 
»ix genera, one of which Is named for the Arst time 
ICxomegas, and Is Intended for the Petromy/.i)n aui 
croaIomu» of Buenos Aire!>: the Cnraitolinaeare con- 
fined to the southern bemlspbiT**; I.e., Australlaand 
I'aciOc Soutli America. — [Proc. V, S. hoL hiul, iv. 
&l'l.| [M 

Chaiaoters of tbe Ephlppiida. — The fandly of 
Kphipplids is dibtinguishtit by T. Gill from Che Cbae- 
todootlda by the blfurrAtion of the puaiL-iem|KinU 
bone*, and the wide, scaly Isthmus extending from 
Ibe peclnral region to the chin, ami pieiianling (be 
branchial apertureo. — (iVoc. V. S. nat. iriu*., i». 1167.) 

(6B 

Hxttnot famut of Idaho and OrBgon. — 
Professor E. D. Copv, refvriDg to tbe reoalns of 




bbM trom tbe middle r»\^ at tUe Snalca lUv«r In 
Idnlio knd OiUl»ro Oregon, atau<l tlitt bones coU«cte<l 
(ri>in st^clioni now ilry, l>ut wblch 1>mI lormorlji keen 
portions of Iakp-bft8ins iii tlic Uregon diiUict, In* 
dkAlod ft cloBo M?UtiDniliip wllh the lUbiu now fuuiid 
In the KwaiuluR lakes and rivvn. The nutabor 
u( ii|>«cleii or TtiheK coll^^ried from tho ld*lio bed* 
unoiinu Ui t.went]r<two. They are all distinct from 
thORv fouiul In Uie Ores>^ ba^in, uid gaduoI hv lOoif 
tiflvd will) cxinlin}; (uriii*, altbouRb, wUb two cxcep- 
Uotis, tbey belong lu 4>xlatlng gonerm. Four of tbe 
fkrolli«sof G«hes oblftlncd from tlieM IwdH are not 
now (ouufl woit of tlie Rocky Mouuialus, exc«pl a 
sLngltf #))«ci«* of one of them (I'prcidiwt in CkllfombL. 
Of rreii gtvatcr inlereat was the fact thai this 
IWuiA intliiilcfl r»?jirfl«;nlatlveB of ibc Cobliidai', — a 
tamllj' ot tithfii i-iiii(-«lj' aba«nt la thu llriiif; fitiinit 
of Norl-h Aniorlot. Tbe preumce of their ivtuajtis 
In the Idaho b«ds IndiMtes a probable former con- 
nMtlon 'bciwooD N^nh Am«rk-a uid Ada. Tbe 
nftntOi 'Idaho Luke' ami 'Idaho dc'iKuiU' wertt 
proposed for tbe lake and di^poiu tintr flntdcMrlbed. 
The form.-iUon U dlstlncl from any previously known, 
and Is older ihnn tbe Ori-gon lak«-d«poni(. Willi th« 
cxc«ptj<>n of A)>ha>, the ifuiaiiis of bui few Yi>rt«bra[«« 
tr«r8 found in thi> Idaho biMs, altbough ibn Ori*f[on 
deposit ar« full of ibe bones of maintnalB and blnli. 
The mean* of liidicaling the exa«t geological position 
of ibeM pliocene bods, as compared wlUi llioeii of 
KuropCt was u yei wanting. — {Aead. not. n. 
PkUttd.; meeijfiji JunelO.) [66 

BaptitaB sod bttrtt^lana 

Spermatosooa of nswt. — Dowdftswell describes 
a very mlnnifi barb nt ibe tip of the hoad of t4i« 
B|>«nnaloxa<mof tbvncwi: It mfasuivt 1.3 /j lu breadth 
b]r 3;> iu length. Up looked for It lu otlierantnials, 
but did not find IL — ((^tiart. ;'oiinL micr. »e.. 1883, 
830.1 f. «. H. 167 

Herveft of the frog's palate. — ftUrliiiK and Mac- 
donnld d«^i!ril)u fully the paUliiie nervc» of the frog. 
tti«i( uriifin. and llirir jt^ner^l luid minute distribu- 
tion. There ts a roitrtc plexus of m«dullated (lbre« 
and a Oner plexus vt naked Dhres. which last Inner- 
rate tbe lihio<l-v*ui.M-h nnd th<> glands, besides funning 
tb« ultimaie ramiUcations of th« nerveA. In the 
course of the former plexus axv acaturod unipolar 
cells, earh with ■ tlraigbt and a spiral fibre. There 
are, besides, mnny di'tuiU Ki^^"- This well lltu«- 
trated and adRttrablj written paper may be specialty 
rom mended to liistolottbu eDeaged In biboratory prM- 
llct. — iJovrn. anal, phudol., tvU. i9S.) c f: ». 

168 

ANTHROPOLOQY. 

Auatraliau claaa syatecna. — In tbe Australian 
division of the tribe tlie cotumnnes arr rrpresenied 
by two primary classes, cacb of which has a group 
of tot«ui iiaiues, which aro ehlefiy names of Lhings 
animate ch- inanimate. Tba two priraaty intei^ 
marrying classes are orora large p«rt of souih-(-a.<i(cm 
Australia called Kaglehawk and Crow. Each group of 
tol«m naniea is a re|>rcs«aUUlon of lla primary; and, 



as a general rule, any one nf tbe group may marry 
with any other of the complementary group. If the 
primaries ore A and II. and th« ^ruu[u. 1, 2, 3, etc., 
and I, tl, 111, otc, in curtain localities, A 1 must 
marry It I only, and so on. The next cbanga is tbe 
Subdivision of A and Q •* In tbe Eamllarol, tboa :— ' 
a 

2, 3, etc. 



I, ii, m, «tc 



The effect of tills Is to remove tbe woman of Ui« 

BMoud generation from the poaalblllty of marrying 
her father. Were this not so, IhA lair 'A (male) 
marrki D (female) ' would permit A to tak« bis 
daughter lo wifr, llie nimjder law forbidding tbe 
manisge of brothers and sisleri* cMily. 

Under i.be fonn ii + « = A and fr + = B, eacfl 
half of an original flnsi has marital righbi o»er Uie 
women of one juirticitlar half of tlie other ctaas, 
whose children do not take the clau name of tha 
mother, but of (iw sister class. For example: a +fi 
— b, who niiiftt marry o: and the children of the 
third generation, by mother right, will be again a and 
ff. Mr. Uowilt, who baa worked out these syaiemi 
wllh great patience, is of the opinion that ibis subdU 
vbiun into clasjiee was deaigned to render Impossible 
those unions wblcb were considered, and are now 
considered, asdeeppolhilion. Fie bas certainly Kiven 
the moHt rational explanation of aversion to moiher*- 
in-law. Under the old ri'jimt a daughier was of tlie 
clan of her uioiber, and B cuuld marry any A. Tlia 
Law against looking at a mmher-ln-law, therefore, 
was to prevent the possibility of marrying her. 

Idr. Uowitt sums up bis labors lu the following 
concluiduna ; I. The primary division prnrcnted 
brother nnd sbter marriage; S. The secondary, In- 
termarriage bctwuen parents and children; 3. Tbe 
pmhil'jttnn at intrrconrse between a woman and bar 
son-ln-Iaw prevented connections not to be reached 
by claas rule*; 4. Tbucu changes were all reformatory 
in tbe community. — (Journ. onMrop. fast., xii, 480.) 
J. w. r. (69 

Region of man'a evolntdon- — Mr. W. S. Dnnitau 
Is the author of a paper upon the probable region of 
man's evolution, in wbicb ibu fultowlug points are 
made. Man fLrnii-d ^ne of a set of f.imilles of man- 
like animals, somi'whal similar lo the present apt-*. 
Since only the lowi»t mcinbera of thv Primates have 
been dlsirlbtilHl to ttie eastcni and tbe wesieni con- 
tinent, it is probable (hat tlie Primates originated 
within the arcllo circle, while the btgher gronpt 
sprang from the eastern continent : iiuui, therefore^ 
did not urlgiuale within the sru|ie clrdn, nor In the 
new world. The (.'ynopilhi-cldse, since U>rtiarj- tjme, 
have beeu ^iiread over nearly tbe entire eastern ron- 
tinout. Thi? b«ninopllbfcidne have tmen dlsperoed 
over central and western Kiiropv tosoulhi^rn Europe 
and soutb-eastcm Asia, at far South as Ethiopia. 'J*ti« 
anthro)ioEd apes hare been moredrcutnscrilMHl, but 
all the genera of living apes ai« derived frrmt soulb- 
ern Europe and subtropical Asia. As apes existed 



Swr IS, IS88.J 



SCIENCE, 



51 



In Europe Kod Asia befon tlioy nucliecl th« tropicc, 
BO we nny lnf«r thftt mAn cxUti^l In J^iirop« luid 
Afrten be((>n' the \i<i/f tyj>es, tlie Akkiu and Ihr Actu, 
oceuiiled tropical Asia and Malasla, Tlie present 
babiut of tlw ape* i« tiui (.■oiiiiuclve to clmn^ : wc 
must li'Ok ui aotne i«^an wh«r« apc-s wcrn com- 
pclW to change llieir fowl and iuoil«» of loconiolloD. 
Tbe stnppiign of tli« »outh«rn nil){niliuii l>y va»t atidaLi 
or wati^r flliiil lip tti<« A|>«i III ti^npi'mii' regioiit. Tlie 
crowding of oUit^r animala in the same locaUono 
ahaqWDGd the fotvlligcace of the precursor of tuou. 
Eere, tb«u, Mr. Duncaa suppoMS the great rooflicl 
aotl tranalUon from tnan-Ilke npea to ape-lll» men 
took place. — IJotim. anUaop. (luL, xll. ttlZ-i/ih.) 
J.' w. p. [70 

Tylor^ loctUTM at Oxford. — The concluding 
porlJou of Dr. Tylor'e lectures on anthropo!o5y. de- 
IIv«r«4l in the OxfonI ninMiim In Pebniarj (we 1. 
105S), i« dttVot«d U> lh« bittor} of the ^^wtli of 
practical art. " In considering ttie rtalmR of aathro- 
poliigy ni a practical u)«(uit of ondcnlandinjt our' 
selvr», wi; ha<rr to form an opinion how th« id«a« 
and aria of anjr people nr« to ))<■ ao<r'ount«d for M 
dcvvlopcd from precndlng stages. To work out lb« 
lines along which thp process of organliation has 
acLu^tlj moved, la a lAiik needing caution. A trllMi 
ma; ha^-c aome art which plain!/ ahoir^ prngnwr from 
■ rid«r stale of things; and yet It may be wrong to 
suppose this ilpviKlopment to hars taken place among 
tbeutsolves ; It may be an ilcm of higher culture, 
thai they hatD lAamisI from sight of a more advanced 
nation. It Is eueDtia), In stiidylog eT«ii aavago and 
barbaric calliir*, to allow for borrowing." Itluslra- 
lions ar<? given bj Dr. Tylor of this borrowing, on* of 
wtitcfa is quIUi ainuslng. The later Danl»b traTc>]ler8 
vnong the Eskimo cnler v«ry inliiutvlr Into the dc- 
icriptioTi of tbf.' t<M)l» ami drM* of tlicM i>«op1i^ (irfore 
eoBUtit with Knrf'PAans, meaning tho poat-Cotiimbion 
nyag«rs: but, unwillingly In many iiuunccs, iliny 
mvt ileiMTtbing faihton* anil forms borrowed from the 
Skraelling ancestors of these very wnter<i a thousand 
7urA ago. Ajiollior very Itnpurlsnt point discussed 
la the lecturer U the posiIbiUty of national degrada- 
Uon. Dr. Tjlor was the lirat lo (liscorer, after the 
battle between the adroeaies of 'degradation' and 
Iboie of evolution, that both were ritrht, and that a 
propiir vii*w of butTiKU history mml include bollt vl- 
clMJtuded over and over again, and the commingling 
of both In every degrm M dimplirsity. Mr. Tylor 
gtv«!« a auoclnct account of tlie forioallon of the Pitt- 
Rivers collpctiun, now hou*(Nl Ml Oxford, and. in com- 
menliti" upon the erotullon of gesture-speech, pays 
tlila tribute to our country: "Tti« Ubi^r and ex- 
pense which aiilhropoioijlils in the Unileii SUI«a 
aru nnw b<^Mnwiiig nn the study of the indigenous 
tribes ci>ntraflta, I am Surry lo say, with t)io indlSer- 
oneH ittittwn to such otxervation* in Canada, where 
the lifthiis of y«t mrtffv ln[«re*ting native tribes are 
allowed to die out witliout even a rvcord." With 
very ^ri^kl sbrDwdnuii tbe speaker diwnfsed the sub- 
ject of ma^^lc and tlie henelit derived fn>m even such 
ttsAlRM sAarch as tltat for the 'io«t tribe* of iM-acl.^ — 
IXafnrf, May n.) J. v. v. 



pn 



Tbe ITorth' American Indiana and the horae.— 

Profeaaor Hovelaeque, In bis n^cent work l^^ races 
hunutties, gives as one of the inip->rtanl charai.-ter- 
Ixatinns of th« North-AtneHcao Indians tbe xlate- 
nii^ut tliAt they do not br«T'd Eiorscn, leaving It to be 
inferred from thu context that they obtain tbeir 
supply from wild herds. It may he remnrkinl, that, 
boWcVcr general ih« use of horses is at this time 
among the Indian trlb'^s of the great pUlni, an 
ethnologic dlNtliinlon based upon any treatment of 
that Hiihnal — a European itupurtailon and Intrusion 

— is hardly li^timnt«. For centuries affr ihn 
Columbian discovery bat a fttnaTl proportion of the 
tribes of North America ever saw a horse. Tb«! fact 
that the hor«e wai not known to or nsetl by them in 
their prehistoric condition consllliitfts an tmportsjit 
elvmeut 111 establiebint; their poi^ltlon In the etiinic 
sc:ile, their rise Crura savagery and barbarliiu having 
been retarded by that deprivation. Further, It muat 
be suggested that thr.re is little evidence, apart fn>m 
the novels of Capt. Uuync livid and lirultar au- 
thorltlea, of t)iH nxtstence in North America of bords 
of wild horseA similar to Lho*e In Soiilh America, 
sufnclfntly targe to supply the riajns tribes. Titer* 
were, doubtless, some wild horses, the descendants of 
tboM! Imported by the Spaniards, In a condition lo 
Ik- captured by a past generation ; hut probably no 
living Indian bai relied upon rocruiling bi!) stock 
from such henls, and bis horse* have been obtained 
by the clviliiccd method of purchase or tbe more 
caureuleuc process of stealing. Thn latter expe- 
dient has of biFe yeHrs been stopped by the powers of 
the (Iiiited SUtes authorities; so »ome of the irilies 
have learneil to breed from their hf>r»e», thoujjh it» 
yet tbe practice It llmltnl by tho «:tme wnni of pru- 
dence as U shown h) their uejilcvt to provide food and 
shelter for th^lr jwulcs. Tlie whole connection of 
the tribes with the hone simply shows a courw <A 
educAtiuN to a certain cxU.-qI by a foreigocivllixalion. 
Tbe statement of M. Hovelaci^ue is therefore as 
untrue In fact as it Is nnphliosopbic as an ethnic 
cUaracteritatlon. — j. w. r. [72 

BABLT mSTITXn'IONS. 

Land-holdins '" South Africa.— S(rH. Bkrtle 
Frere gives u« an accouiil of the systems of land- 
lennre among the aboriginul tribes of South Africa, 

— IhiAhmeo. Hoitenlou. Kaffirs. Among the Kafflrs, 
if a mui wiiihes to leave the paternal kraal, he seeks 
a Iraer of unoccupied laud, and biillils a kraal foe 
himself, ntfl wives pniciMvl to cultivate as much 
land as they please, and the live-4tock la tnnied out 
to paftura. Tlie settlement de.ac«nd» from father to 
souN unlesa. as often happens, this is prevented by 
the chief or an enemy. Titles rest simply on force. 
A man owns the land be occupies as long as be can 
hold It by his own might, or with the aid of tlie 
chief, or lh(i tribe, If this Is given. Authority of 
the chief or elders U) resume or rodOgnixe |>o<(.<tes*lan 
baa not been discovered by Sir Battle Prerii; but bs 
aays that It may, perhaps, be discowred by falur>f in- 
resllgator*. — (/oiirii. lOithrvp, Uat, Feb.) D, ft. ». 

173 



58 



SCIENCE. 



(Vou U., No. 28. 



INTELLiaEIfCE FROM AMERWAIf SCIEXTIFIC STATIONS. 



OOVBBNMBNT ORaAmZA.TIOM8. 
Van] 1nm« of antnuofc 

£ij>#rfHMfiU at Anna/n^lU. — By lUrecUoii v( the 
Xnval burouu of unlrtnncf^, cxfxirtincnu wilh the 
•U-fiiL'h NtcH gnu were rcsuiu-xl nl tbu expiTinpnlnl 
bauery rocenilj', ihe vitivt olijtjct being tc develoji 
and eruniiriLj*)) Uie li<)mi> lunmifiicttire i-f steel i>r»- 
Jeotilea. SWijI pn'>JwtUi>» nitinufni-tiiKi] by iln- Mid- 
T»lest.?el i-otuiiaiiy nwir rhil»d<tlpliU, hnviiig lUfliT^nt 
physical trliantrli^rUtirjt ns li> lAttfctiiie^, «xt<.-rii>lt>ilily, 
eic, yvf.Tv firBrt At a target wnsisilns ol two milil stiwl 
Ove-iucL pUiet stninglr bolted to^tltcT, ami tMclced 
with twritly inclies of live-oak. Tli« firtl aud tils 
second ahou broke up; lb« thin) |>iere<id th« plali^a, 
uid WHS stuppud by iJit: backlti};; vbilc the fourth 
IMffuraUi] lATEiet and backinK. »tid burit-d Itself 111 a 
motuid »il earth beyuiid the Ui^-sL Thl» projectile 
hod aa iiiilinl reloclty of l,l)i^l fe«t, and irciglied Ti'i 
pounds. The clmnje of powdor vma 32 pounds, and 
Uic BtrikiiiK energj- |>er iiidi of shot's clrcumrerencv 
Wits ICW foot^toiia. The i«tnlla Indicate lliat tlt«ni 
will be n/> B«rIoiu tlifltculty iii procuring ttie proper 
ntaterial for amior-pii)reiog shells lu tUU caiut- 
try. 

A soiDitwIial r«nuirltaht0 reaalt was obtainMl wiUt 
a prDi(>ctiIi: weighing tf2 pounili, and a diarfe of ;i3 
poiiiuli of powder. The triu^rzle veluclty obtained 
waa i,iiii3 feet per Mc«nd, with a pretMiire of altoul IS 
tons. Tbe ratio of chvKc to projeclili; was adopted 
aa being ntuirly that which will bo usod lu tho 
new ten-inch guns dtuigiied by Uoniinodoro Slcanl. 
Tli«M guns will tie mAnufni-lured at the Waahiugtan 
navy-yanl, and an) luteadcd for the batteries uf tbe 
tour double-tumsted mnnitors. 

It does not neoeuarliy follow that resulta equally 
Earorabla will be obtalniKl with the leo-lneh gun, 
alDfc ihf! miuiM'si of biitti charge and projeclU* will 
be grcaily 1ncT««sed. The preMurciS will Jaiibtl«<R be 
lilgtMr; but thuMi guitE will be iinlllclGiitly ntroog [o 
withstand a wnrlcing pressure of more than 21^ tons 
to th« sqnarc inch. The Indications, h»w«v«r, ar«, 
on the wholo, extremely faronible. to the flaecMs of 
the ten-inch gun. 

Tills experiiuODt b Ilfcewlae lnt<>r«*iing when eom- 
par«d with the record of a six-Inch gun cumiruiricd 
by Sir William AnnUronx. in which, wlUi an HO- 
pwund pruj«ctilo and a cliitrgu i>f 55 pounds of pow- 
der, a mu£xle velocity of 3,207 fe«t was reached 
witli a prejL<uro of 21 tons. In the latter coae the 
ratio of rlinrgr u> projectile Is 11: W. whurcaa in tbe 
former ca.te the ratio is 1 1 : ITj. It it, to Iw rvgretted 
that tbe sin of tbe chamber of this experimental 
gun does not permit the employment of a largetr 
charge of powder. 

Two six-)ach ginu, repreAenUngtbetypoa propo*e<l 
for the hroiadslde batti>r4eR of the new st«c) rruiaem, 
an! now In process of vo[]»truclion at the Wash- 
ington navy.yard, and wll) be ready for leatlug In 
AtlgUSU — J. H. B. 



U. B> wgnstfc otanrslofy at Lm Aagriet. Oil.> 

Uwjiiette oft#(?rp(iHrin.*. — Tlicre la at i>re!Pnt Itnt 
ono >etf-rc;tl>tering iiisgneLlc uljsiTWatnry within the 
llmilB of the United Staler. That ubsnrvalory Is 
locntcd In Lu* Anceles. Cal. : and the objcrl of the 
present article in to prrjpnt a brief description of 
the ohMl^rvatory and it« worli, together with a «hort 
arcount of its origin. 

Coulinuoufl series of mafnietic obftcmtlotis, corer- 
Ing longvr or shorter i>eriods. have been made at 
scToral sraiionsin \orUi America ; but, with two ex- 
ceptions, they have all been mado on thf casiom Bld<J 
of tile continent. Wv have a series of olwerva lions 
of five years (1S40-I.1) nt Olrunl collug-, IMiiladel- 
pbiA, by A. D. Itachr: six years' Abscri-atlnns at Key 
West, Pla. (IMK»-«M. I'y the V. S. coa»m«r\«y; and 
B lo«ig seriM, still continuing, at Toronto. Canada 
(iSll-'^l. We have, further, a series of nearly Are 
yean of pbot(.^raphic r^oords taken at )l»dl.^on. 
Wis., by tbe U. S. coast and gecMleilc survey. 

On the western coast the only continuons series of 
magnellc observations we have, were nuide hy the 
Russian government at Sftka at the toognctic and 
meteorological observatory eitnbliahed hi March, IA42, 
und maintained until the cession of Alaska to the 
United Sutes in OLtober. l^ffl; and the seiles of 
hourly observations at Point Barrow In l$.'i2-^ by 
Cap*. Msgnire. K.N. Up to the present lime, a rtmI 
part of these obtcr^-allons have remained nndlgented 
and uniliflCiiMed. 

it was then-fnr^- contemplated hy the coa»t-*tirvi'y, 
raatiy years ago. to obtain a continuous series of mag- 
netic records from some station on the weaicm roost 
of the Unitoil SI;iI«h ; nnd, with this end tii view, an 
Adie magnelo^raph of Uie latest and most approved 
pattern w&s purchased in lisOO. The ontt^reak of the 
war, however, prevented the earrylng-ouC of thla 
plan. 

Tbe Inatrumenu rrmnlned pacb-d unlll 1.S78. wheo 
a favorable time seemed to have arrived to put it 
lo ase. AssisUnt 0. A. Srliolt, sided by Mr. fjwsa, 
tlien set It up for trial in the basement of the const- 
survey ofll'.-e in Washington. Some minor defceu 
of ciKislrurtlon wen) remedied, and the fmagnelo- 
grapb set to work in January, 1870. It waa kept 
going fur about two weeks on trial, and fotind to 
perform SAtisfactorlly. During this lime. It was In- 
tpcclcd by Superintendent Patt«t*on, and its work- 
ings observeil by various mPmb<-« of the suney. At 
the clo»e of this trial It was packed up for ehlpmeni 
to some station In California. 

It was found, liowevfr, that more ntonoy would be 
ro'iulred to run the InsLrumeiit than could be then 
set apArt for this work, and It therefore remained 
in Lite coast-snrrey ofllce. 

In response to the Invitation of the International 
polar coufereiK-e. our government eonsenied, to ISHX, 



' CwiiminitMtt'd. v»lt 
Ui« C. 6. «n«*l and (c«ili 
asrisMai tn cfeart* at tlw . 



<f Uic ■■pDrlaiMidKil^of 
. U^aou* lUaaa. saiac 



■JITI.T IS, 18SS.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



to the wtablhhnieiiL of Lvq obs«rTlDg hUIIuds in high 
oortbem Ifttitudea. OUerTstiona, upeciM]!?' of i»ct» 
orologyanit mnsiiiMlBtn, vore u be uiid«rlAkvn ; and 
It w%3 uTKiiReO to cury on lbtis« observalioni undpr 
Ibe joint fttuplces tif th« •igi)a1-«ervic9 oiid ocmt 
■■nd gMxIetle surrey. The executive manigetnent 
of tbe»e fluuluiu, Uie Klecilon of obocrven, etc., vere 
put itni]«r the direction of tbe cblef iii]:njil>oO)o«r. 
Tbe coa>t->urTey co-oiirralci) by fiintl.iliin^t kucb m&g- 
netle Inntnimmu as wore on hand, and by tntlnlng. 
4]urlii)i: the slion time Kra) labia (or tbuir work, Hiv tiuig* 
nolle itb»«rvern selected by lliu xigiint-officr. II U to 
be rcgrcll«l ihiil ilicre w»a not time enough to j>ro- 
-cun: luitable differential liutnunuuta for llio sta- 
tions. 

Twro pArtW were despatclted to tho north, — one lo 
Lulr Franklin Bay, neat the norlliern end of Green- 
UutI, Milder Hih cbarge of UeiiU A. W. Urwely ; and 
tbe other to PitinC BkrTOW, .Uaska. under the diKc- 
tJou of f^lKuL V. n. Itay. ItoUi these pkriles nuhed 
tb«lr tleoi illation in ibe f»ll of 1381. 

It w»* the iirUh of Ui« Inl<>riiattouHl poUr cunf«r- 
«nce that atl the northL-m stations should be occa- 
■jfiti three years ; and a stMcial effort waa to be madv 
to Mciint w c>ontpletv and ci>ntiniioUR record from 
Au4!H»t. l^Ki, lo Augu»t^ IStSL hi the Spring of issa, 
additloiiaJ observers m<re selecteil by thesignal-oiBDe 
-to replace any of tbe former ones that oiigbt Lave 
bei:om>^ dUabled, or tu act us auxiliaries, abould sucb 
"be ii<>eile<l. These magnetic observers, like tbelr 
predce«»ots, received Instruction at ihe coast -survey 
■officii tirldr to tlieir departuna tor IbA north ; and a 
Ml of diS<^renti)il magnetic IiLxtninient*, hMUly con- 
atrucled, was sent bo Point Itarmw. 

The rprinK of l*t^ iweinod. therefore, u |>eculiarly 
^voralile ilnie to put Ihe Adie magnetograph to 
work, and u> s«cure at one and the aame time the 
lou^-dfilred serlf^'of magncllc obseryatluas from tho 
wealtrn coaM, and a series wliich would al»o be avail- 
able for coin|uirl!KJU with tbuse observations madi^ at 
the In ti>-niAil»nat polar conference Btailons. It was 
thervfure nuKiially hs'*^^! by tbe signal and coast 
aurvoy on)rt.-!i tu rstnlihsli a ma^iietu- siaiion at the 
joint e«[WM«c "f the tw<i otDeen. In tbe tnae of the 
uortlirrii siaLious. iht' niAnojcement was iulrusled lo 
the slgnal-offivv. The cxiM^naa of tlm Ijidy Franklin 
Bay ftlation was spiM-ifically providi.il fur by act of 
Congroia. The expcniw of tbe I'oint Barrow tlalluu 
waa to be borne by the signal -servicv and coast and 
geodetic survey J*dnlly. In the new statiou to be 
-eatahUshed in CalKomta, and which was to b« de- 
voted to ob^rvaiions of ina^ietlsm only, the oian- 
agernciit was left <*ntlr«ly In Lbe coast-survey. 

At Hr-it iNiii IHo;;>> was .4iiggi<9ted as the site of the 

• new glattuii, ii t'l-ing the ploi.'e on ihe nesteni coast of 

the Unile'l 5l«tcA fartltm from Ihc nurtlmm HtaticmK. 

A somcwha! bcKcr location, nearlyosfarroiith, wa-i, 

however, tliirtlly *lecied in L*« Angctcs. C'al, 

Plahs f»r a building were prepared In Washington. 
Jitid fortarded to Aulrlarit J. S. I.awiun of the coast 
and g«<»lei!n iiirvey, whu procecdi^l to Lo» AngeJes, 
•ltd Biipi'riiiif iidi-d the wltwtlon of a nUe, and erec- 
llon of a buildlug. In June and July, lSd3. 



In July, 16^, Ihe InstrumrnU, w«re shipped to Los 
Angcli>9, C'al., in the care of Mr, Werner Ijueat, a 
skilful luochanlelan in lbe coast-rarrey, and wbo bad 
attended to ibp luouiiiiusof the Instrumvitl In I8T9>, 
■□d to Ha packing up after the teat trial waa com- 
plete. 

At the tame time, lite wriier was assigned to the 
charge of tbe obscrvalory, with in>tructlo»» lo mount 
and adjuit the inftrumenl, dcKrinine its roiistanta, 
and procMd to bring out a continnoux r^^cord of the 
changes In lbe elements of tb« earth's maKii<H!>m. 
L>>avlng Washington July 36, tw arrived In Lo* 
Anfitfles Aug. 7, 18S2, wUero he found Mr.'Sueas la 
waiting, and the obacrvatory comph'le. 

After arranging prelimlnarlef, tho wor* of mount- 
ing and ailjUMini- tbe instrument was bf^n, and 
pushed forw.uU as mpldly ua pusalble. Observations 
for tlie determination of the contlanLs and scale 
Vflhies were wade; tJie conipensallon of Ihf vertical- 
force roignel for tempi'ratnre was madi>; tempera- 
ture co«lIlcienu> vtere determined; and finally, on 
Sept. S8, every thing was lu rvadlnnn, and the first, 
sensitive paper was put upon the cylinders, and the 
flrsl record made. Tbv lint few days were In tb« 
nature of atrial. A slight r^adjuiUnent was made 
on Oct. 1^, after which every thing workeat salla- 
faetflrfly. On Oct. ^1 tbe horizontal and verticml 
fbree cousianls were redetermined; and since that 
dale tho Iivstnuueut has continued to work almost 
perfectly, and to make a complete and conllnoons 
record of the changes of ull the mojinetlc ele- 
ments. 

The observatory IssitiiAtcd in latitude 34° KJ' K., 
rongHtndc IIS" 15" W. from Orwenwich. and 317 fM!t 
above the level of the si^a. It is on a railicr steep 
hillside sloping to Ihe south-west In the grounds of 
the Branch nonual school in the dty of Los Ang«W, 
exactly one mile. In a direct line, from the centre of 
the plazn, or [lark, In the centre of the old town, 
or ahonl a mile from the ceiitral busineas part of 
the town. Street-cars run within two M)iiares of the 
observatory. It is on adobe s^ill underlaid by clay, 
andinthr midm of aii orange planlalion fomtrrly 
known a« B*lle Vue Terrace. 

Tbv observatory is built of redwood fnstenml with 
copper nails. Is double walled, with an airspace 
2.6 feet between the walls; which walls are four- 
teen inches thick, and fliied with adobe soil. It 
is twenty-eight feet lon^ by tweniy-one feet wide, 
and p«inted white. The i-nuancv lo lbe ubservatory 
Is on tbe souih side. On tbe north side Is the pbo- 
togntpblc or dark room. P. where tbe various photo- 
graphic processtfH are ■■arried on. Tbb rutint If 
twelve f(et long by ten fei!t wide. The ai'voiiiiiany- 
ing plan will fbow tbe arroiisemeni of rooius and 
inj>truninnt«. Tbe three niajciiets are i>la<'«d, the unl- 
niar or dcclinomelcr, U, to the caftl, ihi- hiHlar or lior- 
izontal-foree maguctoinetcr, B, to the west, and Ihe 
venkal-fotcc magnetometer, V. to the north, of the 
c«ntr.it drivlni: •clock, C. A (dctnre of ihe Instnimeul, 
sbowiii- it as a nhoir, and al«u showing dclaih, may 
be found In Oonlon's Electricity and magne|l»m. 
For illuiuiiuitlou, itudent-lamps burning keros«o«-uU 



60 



SCIENCE, 



[Vol. n.. So. a*. 



ki» iiKfiil, xni) yiolr) sntfsfnrtnry rtsult*. 7*hv rvcnnl 
f< mn<1r' on pnp^r »«ri»ilu«I by ih« bronio-iodlije 
procwa. The p»f»i'r la EcriMiMzMl ix \\w otw^rvarory. 
EAch trace coulalttii two day*' reconl : Kud lb« r«conl 
la alMoluicly i-'otiiitli^tc atid contitiutiuB, avoept tlie 
llniA last In changln[; |)a)>«m lo Ixi^ln n new r<>rflr<l. 
Mid ill ' DiorlnK >poU,' or sliUtlii); tbe luminoiu dots 
to K'^t l)iB e«roRd day'* reironl on Win *amf nlHvt. 
The lime refiulivd («r tlie ilrHl r>[M>ruil<>ii It from 
Kvvn to cl^liL ralnutffl ; for th« second, from tvo to 
(brr« roliiutit. Tliu* only about ten tninutpf aro loet 
In two daya, or an avi^ragu of five minul^ti |»erday, — 



M* 



D-r «■ n' 
Dip W'30' 



M 



^ 



"s^^efes 



A. 



A 



ScAle oT feel. 



a quanttLy loo sniaTI to b« of ftny Itniwnance on any 
<Mca«ion ihiui far obtn-rei]. 

Onninlnateof tltnir on the tracn Is- r«prM«nt«d 
by iU of an ttich approsimat^ly, an<l a movttBUUit 
titrougli one intniUe of arc tiy the unlfllar magnvt 
is repre-'^nteil on tbe lrac« by ,3i) of »« Inch. A 
moliou of tbe btniar magnfii of one sealo dlrlEien, 
repreMnted on tli« Iocq byOL027 Inch, cotrrapnnds 
to a change nf liorlfmital forco of abixit Ha ^nVn part. 
Tb« lrac«) can readily b«! reail olT within half a scale 
ttlritlou, or cliaiixfa of force of Its i4na part are 
re<ror(t«(t. 'V\i\» niljci>tmrnt hax not proved too sen- 
sitive, as the ItiminoUH dot htu never li-ft the reconling 
cyliniter, except once for a short time during the great 
magnetic storm of November, ISJiS, 



Tisfton arvadmtltetl to the nhservatnry, and tbfr 
trace* generally show their piefienci: by a bre*k In 
the enn-e. 

Tlie Instrament records, as is well knom. ctiaiigea 
of decliuatiou. cbanKeH of liuritonlal forre, and 
ehanj;M of rentcal forre. Rarh at iticae change* 
is recorded on a separate «he«, or InwM aa it Is 
vailed; and ibnt, on an arera^, furly<live (race* 
are produced each month. Tbete tracts ar« six 
inches by sisteeii Inrhra and a half, and are made 
on plain phutogniphfc paper prepared for use at tJie 
obwrvniory. 

This preparation con*l*l» or two procesjes, 
salting and ulreriaa;. Thv sallinic |>r<tee«s, aa 
it In called, confist* lit noakiiif: Xhf )>a[HT from 
ten to fiffi-en mlnnl«8 in a bath of UtAMf- and 
bromide of potaBslum, with a lillle tliictuni of 
todlne added, after which the paper la bung 
up to dry. Till* proceu Is curried on In the 
dayll^L 

The allverln^ or Mixltiiiim process Is car- 
ried on in a room a» dark as can wrll be made, 
and th»n lighted updimly villi a rM lantom. 
Some difficulty Iisb been found in keepiiii; the 
room dark cuoueh, and on K>inv uociMluna 
tbe slIreriuR lias hero done at night. 

For sllTiTing, four wooilen trays arc placnl 
in a row: the first containing a bath of ultTat*? 
of ailver, acetic avid, and wnier; the seMmd^ 
diBtllleit ualer; the third, a weatt solution of 
cblorfile of aiumonlum; and the fourtli, dis- 
tilled water. A sheet of «alted )»a|>er is then 
floated on tray no. 1. special care and Eooie 
skill being re<iuin>d to prevent (a) any of the 
solution from gctlln; on the buck of the slieec, 
and {>') any air-bubbh's from clinging to th» 
front side of the »be«t. The Arst defect pro- 
duces blaini. and the iuvond, spot". In about 
nin« minute* Ihe paper Is transferred to tray 
no. S, being floated on a* in tht! ca^e of no. 
1, and a new nheet is floated on Iray im>. 1- 
In about nine minutes mcrv, the *\i*'f.\t arv 
movMl forward, at Iwfore; the paii^r in no. S 
Is floated on no. U: that in no. 1 is transferred, 
as bcfurt!, to no. 2. and a new sheet floated on 
no, I, This continues llll iray 4 i* reached; 
after which the seniiUzlnii; is complete, and 
thfl paper la then hung up lo drj- In th« dark. 
Spedal care b neeessary tn banelnK up the wet 
paper to avt^d stains frum ibe hngers, from the 
line, or from the pin which holda the paper on 
tbe line. 

' Ai(erdrylngtharoug[hly. till- pnperaarv taken down, 
packed in a lar);e ^nTelojic, and kept In adark drawer 
to bo iiaed as needed. From this ciirelotM; lliciftieeis • 
are traitsferred to the three rcconling eylinder* pr»- 
pared to carry them. Tlicy remslu two daya upon 
the cylindeni, and ihtis reeeiTc two days' record, Ai 
quartcrpost nine a,u. of caeb altojnaije day Ihs 
papers are diangvd. 

Over Ihe central drfring-clock ia hung a heavy 
orange-flannel curtain. Tu change p«per«, Uie at- 
Iwidaul, with Ihe rnrelope of sensilivt [wptr. go«fl> 



Jolt 19, 1883.1 



SCIENCE. 



61 



b«hin/t Dili (Isnti«l mrUIii. througb vbich. aiiffldeiiL 
lljUit Ennn the thivo limps iToiuea to nnable Uia 
ehuige Ui l>e m«4t« without furth«r tu-LiO<:!«l llfftit. 
Tbe onutge dauuel wr*M to i&ttjtfactorily «xcltiila 
Mtinlc Ugbt. 

Tb« tncce, removed from the cylliidvrit, are tliDn 

oarrled in a lainu eiivpiniiic to lh<> itxrk txiont, am] 

I tben dftreloped, tlie dereloitcr U9«(t U«ing [lyrogaUIc 

'•eld. The bsKt tlerelo|nii«ntB are those whioh tAk« 

lilat-e rather *)uickl]r. In about (en to flfleen mlnuleB, 

When tbn iI«'r«lopm»iit is slower, tbe traces arB 

iBsualty foiimJ inferior, \ftcr tli« develojiinent is 

CoiiipIet«. the traces arc flsed In hyposulphite of 

•nda fleanwil In a. 3x(iiTat«ii tolutioii ft aluui, wa>licil 

for ahnnt two boun In runiiln;; water, aii<t thco hung 

up to dry. After drring. the ttate la atampnl upon 

th«in. The exact Iriitonl of b<!Kiniiliig aiitl eudinsof 

.neb Hue on Ibe trace, togethKr witli tlie corrvipoitd- 

llag geate ralne, Is wiltlen on. Ttme obsomtioiu, 

with sextant and artldeial horizon, are taken frotn 

llise l« lime, aaually monthly, to regulate the sUnd- 

,kfd i-hr<inf>met«r. 

Aft^r the tracea hav* lM«n ihns cotni^etcd, tbej 
ar» pnw^Ucallr paper nesallvei, from which any num- 
ber of copi<-« iDiiy tie mmde photograiiblcally. Two 
I are inaile by iha irell-known Uiit^i^rliU proeeM. 
rb« Iracet require no i|>ecial ir«iumcnt, lucb u Oil- 
^tkR. waxing, «tc^ for lb« succ«6>fut application of 
tbia prot^a*. 
For lAhulatlng from the traces. It la found most 
(fo«iT«ni(Mil to lufl a niler subdivided Into hourly 
ifilioiu for the time Kale, and a triangular |d«ce of 
d-board npon the edge of whkli in niled the scale 
iponding to the trace lo be read. Tbe iinlfllar 
nd bIBIar trace* bars all he«D r««d, ubuJalud. and 
'^Ibe meana catcnlatecl. The vertical 'forca tracea hare 
not jtt b«en read. 

Th«rcisalflo In the magnet-room of the observa- 
tory a Ihemiograpb, whirh records tbe temperature 
iJtttry half-hour. From ibe records produced by it, 
!i» Um« of maximum temperntuiQ In tbe ohaervatory 
^ia found to be about five p.m., and the time of mini- 
mnoa temperature, about half-post ciRht A.if. At 
Ibaoe hnun the Uiemioinelerv under lh« bell glasses 
id near the n]ai:Tiets are r«ad : and from tbe«e rcad- 
nga ll appears that tbe magnata are subjected lo 
arenfe daily range of temperature of about 

On tbe 14th. l&tb, and Iftth of each month, obser- 
iViUlons are made lo d«t«rmine the absolut« deolU 
Jon, dip, and luicnalty. Theac observations are 
lade in tbe usual manner of taking such obset^ 
vatiuns by field parties in the coast and geodetic 
i^nrtey. Uonthly reports and return* of reaulta ar« 
lade to the auperinteadcnl of lite .turvey. 
Th« dK-Iinalliiai and dips have all Inwti computed, 
bat tbe Ini«-nsiile4 only approximatt'ly x'^ yft. The 
following tabli- conlalns tha dodlnallons and dips 
rMultlnff from Ihe monthly absolulu detertnlnations. 
Bael) decllnniion U ihe mean derived from the elon- 
gation on tbre<- succeialve days, and efti:h dip ia the 
mmi oC six acts wlilt two needles on tlie same three 
day*. 



i . ■ .r ir, '.■. 



UnDnulaBi 



Up. 



l*t>, Seyi. II, U, tt 

(>«. U. )\I«. . . . . . 

Xdv. lt.U.l« 

Dm. I*. IMd 

itn. Jan. li, :a. 14 

Krt. II. 1M*. ...... 

ilsrdi 14. iMe 

AprU II. 19, 1« ..,.,. 

Hay 14, 19, la 



The horizontal Intennity is approximately B.tn la 
BriUxh nniu = 0.775 dyna. 

I'. H, mafnriM abiTnlorj, 
l^m Aafcka, QaL, Jwn t, UpO, 



IfOTBS AND NEWS. 

Prfpfeiaor Huxley han b'uen elected prvaldenlat Ibe 
Hvyal Bocitty of Lonihin, In (he place of Mr. Spottia* 
wood. 

— The recently issued report of the slgnal-otfle* 
tor 1881 contains a record of primary' and secondary 
observing stalious, ettabllkbed in that year In .\1uka, 
vith summaries of oKif^rvallons at some Alaskan 
atatloni In preceding years. Ther« ii also some 
acc-ount of the Qtting-oul of the Oreely exp^lition 
tA Lady Franklin Bay and that to Point Harrow. 
But lh« moat important article for arctic studenta is 
tb« report of Prof. E. W, Nelson on the meteorology 
of St. Michaels. Norton Sound, nhert^, a« is well 
known, be bad been stationed for four years; his 
leisure being employed In pursuing Inveatlgatlons 
Into the natural history and ethnology of the region 
with the gn-aiest rncrgy, devotion. hihI sUcoesa. 
The article Itself being a summary and nn abstract, 
with somewhat wider limits in regard to the Iraat- 
ment of auroras and thfi ao-calM 'polar band' 
formation of clouds, it will not be aucmptcd to con- 
dunm: it facrx.-, but merely to call attention to some 
of its leading feature*. According lo obMrratlona 
bj Dan«iihower, Ibo position (btlherto somewhat 
unn-rtaln) of St. Michaels Is latitude 83° £14', and 
lon);ilude 108° 01]' west. The mean annual temiwr- 
Blurefor Uie {Wriod Ik SriO..*! F. Tbe highest obaerveal 
temperature was TS", and the lowest, — &5<>. A 
curloiu fnct was noted wllh great regularity, tn 
early winter darkness i-nnics on Iwtwevn tbrve and 
four P.M., and the t«m|>Cra(uie falls until about six 
p,u., when a rise follows of two or three hours' dura- 
tion, and sometime* Bve or six di^reea In extent, ((4- 
lowed by the usual steady noclumal fait, ft dues 
tiot r«Bnlt from changes in the wind, but may be due 
to greater radiation Imroedialely after sunset from 
tbe land, rciulCing In local atiuuspherlc movements, 
causing warmer air from tbe adjacent sea to Bow In 
lh« vicinity of tbe station. 

AlongahL>rc. winds N., N.E., S.. S.K., S. W.,arfi tooH 
prevalent. Winds u(I the sea, N.W. and W., arv tb« 
least fref]U«ni. not exficedlng together over ten per 
cent of the whole. Topographical bias is, however, 
distinctly evident, as at most stations In Alaska. 



62 



SCIENCE. 



fWl- Tl„ Wo. "33, 



The meamtred preclplUlion nvera(pJ twelve Inches 
will n iinarlrr. to which Mr. Nelaon estimates a 
correcilun of one-half more mutt be ulili^J for tm- 
tnrairunil)!); driijlu ami bluwti atiow. 'the reeonl and 
dl»ciiik>iori of ihe auroc* Is a rahiabli* crinii-tbutlon 
to thi' Kiibji^tn. and caUBot b« suRimarlzed. Tfaujuk-r 
ntoriD* arv .-ilmn*! unknown. LIf[hliiln|{ wxi nbwirtod 
bill twice, and no lliiindM was hoard dii ring Ui^'WholP 
poriutl, IL >a referred lu as r«puru*d common on tlic 
appcj* Ywkon In summer; but In li3(J5-4l^. b* rtx? vx- 
pionn of (Ik T«liM;niph pxiwdfllon oa tb« tijiiwr 
pari (tf the river, IhuiiJer and Itgbluing were not 
ob.im'ed on a sintcle n(.-ui»lnn. Ttiere arc but two 
wasuns at Su MlebacI*. — winter (October-May} and 
autanter (tlie retualnln;; five moittlisj. Tlie wa U 
[i|>cn until about Oct. 13; and the Ice disappear! 
la Lli« spHuK, unialljr in early Jnne. The titles are 
Mnall, but orer (lie shallow ftea. ailja«ent the rise in 
l«v«l duf to pilra i« often suAdi^iit to siihmerEO tbe 
mmb; ihoim for miles ifilaud. Cranknlufi I« nut 
a Kiuxmts. axcvpL for tnmlps, rndishi-s, and letUico. 
The earliMt binis, rhl«fty gcesc, begin to arrlre lit 
April; and the migration coiiiiuuesto June, Ihe main 
body of bli^s arriviny bvtwc^D Hay L6 and 8Q. 
Uoat of the birds leave for the south in August, 
an<l the flrst sharp (roat of September sends away 
tlie lagsards, 

— On tbe 1st of Janiiary, 1883, titers wen- iit oxUt- 
en«« 7t> sneioties of ^op^phy. (llslrlhtitcd all orer 
tb« world, with about 3$,00>J niemi>cni. 

— Tile Amerlcart »ocivty of mi>cb»alcal euytneers 
met at Clcveluud, O., June 14, President E. D. 
Leavitt, jun., of Cambridge, Maa^., In the chair. 
Elgtbty member* were present, and &fiy-(oiir were 
elretv>l, rnixitip; Ihe total membership t4.>fuur hundred 
and *ixtcen. Tbn pM|iers wcri- gent-i-uU) short, plain, 
Mid praetlcal. itr. J. K. Ilollon-ay described a ateam 
Martine svar for ilirvwinti mnrinu vniiinn ' otf tbe 
WUlre," It emitista of a slcjim-ejr|tnd"r and a frietiou- 
wheel on the main •haft, which can be acinateil l>y 
tbn auxiliary slmm-cylinder. Tlio device works either 
way, and may he applied repeatedly if neoeawry, 
Mr. Chsrics N_Comly detailed hi* ciptrlmiT "iih 
lubrlcatint; materials, rutulUng in ilie dulollltnion of 
grease for oil. Other momberv bsd found grease the 
cheap<.'r lubricant, but liiid observed ibat it hud a 
much higher coelficio.iit of frli^llnn Ihaii oil. Mr. J. 
E. SweeideM:ribed a new inetlnxjof (.-osiiug iron pipe 
bating fi:in|^«, making clilltcil fl;inge- faces and cored 
bnli-bi>len. Other p^p^ra remain to t<« re|>ort«d. 
Durin;; lliu session, It wati announced thai an honor- 
ary di-Kre*- had been cimfvrred on Prostdent Leavjtt 
h> tilt }jtev«n^ insiituu- or teL-hnolo^. 

— W. U. Kdward* annnunces Hint he will not, at 
pnrMnt, complete ilie tfyiiopslt of species voinmi^Dced 
in the tenth part ot his Uutierltlesof North America, 
but eubslltntu f<H- it a men? list ut sperlet, whieb wilt 
be i«<.u(<d with the next (coitoludliig) pan nf tbe »oe- 
ond series. 

RECEST BOOKS AND PA^tPtiLBTS. 

AnnuMlr* d* IVWirttit* puar ISSS. (Irv ■no**'], pM A. 
WMTciHl. l-iiTit, G«-iM<r- ftUar: ISIO. »■ p.. Uto.lr. »•, 



CQswettSt. N*uUe« Mif la ■■iBMlliMloa a n^jrutinc J'utia 
oouti'Ds [ilanle eiMlque. iy*\. tt»pr. Jtl^Ur^, lfl*i. lip. V, 

DotfaU. !'>' ta inaladh' J» ta •l||Bi< osiui* par ta pl.yllaftdii* 
pl do tin imltriDitut tfflfiuv, fvllr |.| #4»ihiiiiI>|»c. rri|>i|a*a, 

Bntflleb. T. Alfrnl. lluHMMit. I', JhIiim, and murit«ua, J- 
Hv|ion oil a ifcohi-iui' for aO|i|^lylli| coniHrpBait &Jr moUir^powi^t 
Ir, i)iii i(t«ii ot IttnalaslUsai wlili lalflaa itful runuiilas U'T «>>' 
ccilaUEitf j.y,' (1*1 fij) 4<ITkI oblAltiHil rroiu cuiapraaanl a^r^ Mitl 
cKMnpli - < xna dinwhia ll\r mttpMrtUun ttterfat. vUi 

coBlln>< 'v I'M. II. lUiWiMoii. Nfv Yotk, /^wa. 

1W8. » , i*. 

T^nwar, K, J, Thr rMmirrvi of iIh Itn.-kjr Uminlaliii ; 
hrlnj a brt»f <li«#nptkin otUie lalneral, irailnc. a«nitiilliifai, 
aiid nmWt nnourcn ol Colundu, ITlak, Aniuna, tn«, 0»*» 
Ua.l. ICU llhialr. t*. 

Forbes, I'. A- i*cl«ii<'M aii4 splflinailaiB. rarla, tnpr. 

.S<Ak>(brr, IH>. IS 11. T, 

ForwaUar, U. r>n^lSli>m>lra ItaMmcUuB •)■>■ aoNrila-oiiK^a 
par )(■ iHOimtt •!» b1«ti#* el lout rnaflCiWIMiH tuw I'smculaUiMl 
aniniu.!!". aiilil ale iinttqan* obMirtailun* aar la nt^UBd* 4i 
etivbrv I'^n^ra H tat lea rlaaluUua* iiu'a votSnacoDUw tVosalffi^^ 
fumi |HU la tiiifaoa ■)■•■ alma* I* i-uiifnSa lalariuUhtaal lalM k 
Milan <]u a ail 13 K-irMtnlitr lino (wjnr fMii^llorailnii du aott •!«■ 
aour-la niurta. i.fvn, imfir. ftlmt. liiA, S*M|i, K*. 

Fnuikluid, ■'' K. AtfHniumichonitcatMisJyaU. VuimO*^ 

opiui * I.^irailfii fllr dl'iiinlcnItiirt-liMnllier.'roulV. I*"- Kroakvr. 
L«li4o4i. JFarihiKaR. IH^ 300 p. «*. 

Ouenot, C Lra cIriDiM et lea iMdoos. Llnofea, Awftaa, 
ins. (tlbUMUiiut mondo. VT p. IT. 

IndlA- rubber sail suUa-Mrrlta aoj Ibdr oaUlnUlMi. l<on- 
■li-'i, tHMon. IW3. M* 

Jaffre, I'. Tfcterie Minpl#le SKaneabitra Aea awallallOM. 
tiOlvi SiuBtrw, imfv. Awil'iNi. ItW. M p,. p|. 4*. 

K«eplnir, W. TYu- ruHnt an<l )MilFOBU)tntf4iial aOnlUM of 
till! nruamt^i dcfwatu nflipnaro nn>l lidrkliiU i Villi ptalaa; 
bHni rtie l«oilDWMi prti« mm; tar I'm. L*niloe. OtmbrUi* 
trmiirun. I»t3. r. 

Kntrbt. n. MoTphciioKT of itM MtUtimU. with plslas. 

l.Ai''<Ii*u. I'ryJfH, ISin. 8*. 

KuropailClQ. Knabnnn {Katicm sr (1iId«m TarlinrtBBl - 
ltl>i<irli3il.(Mfgraphioal.i>1III*ry, aail IMIuitital. TraiulsMdkf 
^l"Jur liowaa. LMidoa. Tkarktr. UK, S*. 

tiAdUreatl, A. I.'auldr auinirvus tlana I'aUooiplittB Ae 
l.in»- l.illv, Impr. /'4*rl, IS$3. 8 p. »*. 

Leplsy, n. I.'OiiHn*c ct i'lMOKician [lulxrniifhul dam la 
b)>Ticsu<>na(]rramiM«e(k>aucn!«. Puis, (ngie. fttfrrvHtf, IMS. 
l«p. 9*. 

Macroba, A. ha Itott pven<HtT«ptitqu*, ctoaMln do I'tectI* 
nniiiiaHate nlnll il» ovariva dv M. Koill* Koh m do »•■ dlsot- 
pl.-a. I'wit, /'Ofli»fr/afph. ISO. ant^.\»uiU. K*. 

UerrtDeM. J .\ "laiU" un naTlantim. ftw tlic oa* of' 
■iniliriiia. l-iinitua, ' -■<}, 5(4 p. 9*. 

Mlll«r, W. j'bi IM». iMr nalan and liaUla. 

Uli\j. I.wrtnii, /Au<„ ., .... j:.! p. s*. 

IftUVue, liaMel. The iii<v>rtp« and unt^Ut ot («ainfliaal 
voalllMUBK mwtiiiiM. TniiBlalnJ anil wlifian lalrvlublliili bj A. 
L. tiicavpaa»n. Kitw York. Hfmt, ISU. Si p. If. 

OweB, T. O. NoUa no car<laanaa eulllTatlon. I^omilaci, 
tf<K(4«a.lSSI. r. 

Tliealncliinisplaatn'aniaaDal. l«niloa.i/«ddan,t$ni.l^. 

Plckorlnff, K. V. Kl«ii«it* <>f phyMul nwilputaura. 
Pan. 1. 't- Ijiiidun, Macmltl-iu. ]i-V\. 

Howaa, T. l>t>rwf aiiil ptilrifocnl. air; saiao prtndploa 
wtikli iniiil tfnnin ilv tfllcli-nt vinillailon ot vwm. ai«l ilw 
cITOeUV* hi|rt«nl(:lr<.*((Ui'iit uraEWir-tfiu: al*Ail>i- aaiiUary **a' 
tlbtlunuf huiiHiIralii* amleiiBiiMaiima. Naw Turk, O^iSwo, ISU- 

47 p. r. 

Roy, U. DnlmctkiD dna plijinoitraa par la aulfar* do aar. 
buac an iiK>r*ai ilea cuboi etfUllOFus, t-siku* wloiiuOaoa ot in. 
thiae. Boidraai, /"rrr^. isn. lU|i. «'. 

Setentlflc t:Bllfi>niUit. Vol. l, na, l. 8an PraMbeo aad 
(takla'id. I4p.. Illii>lr. I', tu. 

SooCt, -I' I>maliic ahil cu>>>ankl»K • (ini.'ll'al InialSto nr- 
bodfinu ibv mual r**ml vipcrionni In lliu npuikiMtiiii qf laS' 

&p- i:*. 
Smyth, W. W. Evoliitl«anaptaliicd. Londoa, jflMA,lsn. i 
Watt, A. Thi> hlKory ot a lump irf ololk : Ha Aamilf einja 

awl llicll UMi*. l^adoA, ^.JoAM>to«. isn. Stp.. IMailr. 11*. 
WItX, Ji' T.'fii iiln prsltijtir ilr lihr«(i|ijr, Duiin iW (Danlpah- 

OOIU lie pkytluiK ui^t^iutulrK a L llfcuiT. Tarw, GuuUtitr- 

Vtllar*. ISU. K'biiJ l,,. n^utii. S*. 



ntlDAT. JCLT 20. 1863. 



TUE U. i. NATW.VAL MUSEUM^ 

L 
TuR brief pamphlet roocDtl^' tsaucd by tbe 
6«isUiit director of ttiv museiim ba his special 
iport for 1S8I ii). perltups, onv of tlie niwt 
iportaiit ilocunienU which hna yot nppeurcd 
In the hlstiiry of Bcipnce in this conntiy. It 
represenls tlio mstJtuUon which in Uie ootunil 
crt>unH^ of events Bhould become the teailiog 
oi^nuization of its kind on this continent, 
and also fhrnieh the motive and the iiattem 
for ttiQ nmny similar copies vhich will nalu- 
mlly follow Mi oxnmple in other parts of 
our extensive |>068«8eion8. It nitjo prceenle 
to foreign nations the ideaU, which. Iliej will 
nntiirally suppose, repreaom oiir existing sclon- 
tillc 4.'iilt4irc And the tendencies of science in 
this country- They wilt hardly imagine thitt 
it has not been debated at all by scientinc men 
■t large, that it is the work of no reprcsen- 
UUve oommisMon, and tbnt it ennnol in any 
SCDM be considered as the deliberate result 
of coneuttation with the tcadtog men of the 
UDite<l Stat«5 in alt departments. 

In this rexpcct, we think th»t the action of 

the govt'rnmcnt — if the plan is, ntt we nnder- 

[BUnd, already adopted in the museum — is 

^open to the severest critictsm, and that it shows 

m curlona want of pnidence lo deOnit^iIy Retlle 

I'tbe future of an institution iit whlt-h tlie wliole 

reountr)- Is more deeiily intere»te<l than any 

other of its kind, without allowing the voice 

and tTtlicisins of acienltfic nicu to be hi-ard- 

It i» certainly » wide departure from Ihe wise 

example of tbe Smithsonian, and shows, ttiat. 

at TTatliiiijiton. success has nlreiidy iH-gtin lo 

dull tbe edge of the wine furethonglil wliteli 

IhI to audi Biicoe8sl\it results In the planning 

of that institution. 

Tliat the unmeum mast be a loser in infln- 

by such a proceeding lies in the nature 

K«.H.-i$sa. 



of things. The acience of this coutttr>- la 
certainly not res[X>neible for tbe plan, and, 
however guoil it may prove to he, has bad no 
proper op{H>rtunitte& for expressing its opinion 
about a matter in which its deepest interests 
are concerned. 

In his o|>ening considerations, Mr. Goode 
divides innseiimi* into three cJasses, — tho64> for 
record, those forroseaitih. and Ihose fore<luca- 
tion. lie considers that all tliree of these ob* 
Jects arc essential to the development of any 
fompretieuflive and pliilosopbically organized 
musenm. By i-eeorO. tbe author meana tJio 
preservation of collcctiuns which have served 
as the iustnioienta of past research ; and by 
reseaix'h, the aecinnulation of nialci-ials of 
all kinds to provide for new invf^ntigations. 
The author here aitsnmcs nn blstorieal stand- 
anl. find thinks that tJic otijeots of inn^onm 
adiuinistrntion detcrniim- their c]a:3silie:itiou ; 
whereas, in our o|>lnion, practical oonsldera- 
tions really settle the class to which a gircn 
musenm should be referred. There is, as tbe 
author remarks, uo separation of the two pur- 
IMMies of record nud research ; and it would 
perhaps have been clearer to the inexperl- 
encvd in this branch of technology if tbe 
pre>ter**ation of records, ami accumulation of 
uintei-ialR for research, together with ade(|Unte 
proTistou for the publicntion of original results, 
which is not mcntionetl by him, bad Iteen de- 
fined aa the Inae{iurablc trinity of a museum 
of the flrat einss. Mr. (ioode's opinion, that 
such muiteums ehould have exhibition' ruom^. 
and display l>oth their records and tbe resultaof 
research, indicates a broad and wi-ll-hnlnnced 
judgment of the aims of rouu-um sdminiHtra- 
tion. The prevalent ofiinion among yonng 
iiivcfitigalortt. that no piildie di.'iplay of records 
should hi- made, arL-U'-i from uheitaeleii which 
the expenses of exhibition bare heretofore 
present^^I lo the suoecssrul performance of tbe 
proper functions of iliis cLis^t of museums in 
the etKOurogeiuent of research, and olao to 



64 



SCIENCB. 



IVOU IL, No. «4. 



their (Vequent failures »& instrameiiU for the 
cducatiun of tlie pibtic. 

Two fuDL-liuns, llmt of inuscnaiB of rcsesrch 
Mtul tJi»t of tuuBvuniii of «ducatioii, Uavt- heatx 
conf^ised tn tlieir U'tB(il&}- of apet^inens; but, 
while this shows the neceiiaily of n netMii-ation 
ami a rhiuigc of policy in their oliolec of col- 
lections for fxhiliition, it floM not jiislifr llic 
witlidrBwal of valuable and useful rewards fVom 
pulilic view. Lcitvc to consiiU original speot- 
niotis cnnuut be lightly granteil, Hnil the idta- 
gyocrosies of their ^ruunliaoa is a lar^ element 
of oni.'ertuiiity iu Uie way of tiKMC desiring to 
see wich treasures. There are nlso classes of 
person* daily oti the tncreiwc wbu should, at 
Koy rale, have the privitejje of iiecing them, 
tliOHjih not 6t to be tru*iied with ilicir direct 
handling; and the wants of this einfts cannot 
be JuHtly disregTinleii. Wc are therefore most 
heartily iu Kvuipathy with Mr. OtmxIo in his 
opinion, that the highest value of original rec- 
ords is giveu to them when Ihey are ptaenl 
on exhibition ; but wu prohaMy differ in tliink- 
ing that Uiir should be done iu nmae-uins or 
collections exclusively devoted to research, 
and meant for the use of the special student 
rather than the general public. 

Mr. Roode's third closfl of muneumn, the 
eduts^ional, wc should designate as the second 
class ; since Lhesi; are onen separated from 
the former, and ought alirays to be conducted 
with distinct purposes, and governed by a class 
of men who are ^miliar with the educational 
wants of the pnttlic. i.e., nil those classes of 
persons who must get their information through 
the gloss, and are not permitted to handle 
specimens. The needs of this ctass ire but 
imperfectly understood by the invoaligator. or. 
It anderatood, very apt to be considered by 
him as of slight importance. It is t.'<ertainly 
not bis esscuLial func-tiuu lo satisfy these de* 
mands, as in the case of tli« true educator, 
and as should he the c.iae with the curator of 
on edncattonal collection. 

Mr. Goode's ideal of a great educational mu- 
seum is accomplished by the union of the natu- 
ral history and iiKlustrial museums ; and this 
has eralently oi-isen from bis experience and 



stndy of similar nnions occurring more or Ian 
acciilentally In the diffcreot great exhlbitioDS 
held in civilized countries uf late years. He 
poiuli) out, that, while these great industrial 
exhibitions have shown a tendency to betx^rae 
purely commercial, they have serv(.><l. wherever 
they have been hehl, as the starting-points, in 
time nnd materials, of permanent imtustria] mu- 
seums. Tlio effect of the woild*8 fair io Phila- 
deljihia in 167(t. iu accordflni-'c with this Uw, 
demonstrated the etltienlional value of n more 
permanent indtistriul muaeiim, and suggested 
that au immense tleld uf usefulness would bu 
Often to an institution which should be based 
upon similar grounds, but which would endeav- 
or, by a more efficient and scientiAo arrange- 
ment of its s|>eclmeu9, to impart ■ ' n eunsi<itent 
and systematic idea of the resources of Uia 
world and of human achieremenl." 

This nurel and somewhat startling aim Is 
announced as tbe fbturc guiding-star of tin 
National museum, which is declared to bo in 
the best [Kwsible trim fur llie aecomjilisliiueul 
of such a purpose, aince it is now Htarttiig 
anew, and is not encumbered by the immense 
masses of duplicates which have become the 
most seri4ius obstacles in the path of the older 
museums. It is. In other words, fti^c to choose 
the [MiChofits(\iture work ; and while this seems 
to ho true, nnil the author nuist be acknowl- 
edged the best Judge of the fact, wc do not 
find any allusion to^the accumulations formerly 
stored in the Smitbsouian, nor as to how these 
and other collections, made upon the old basis 
for purely .icientific research, are to he brought 
into harmony with the new ideal. ^ It is macbto 
be regretted, that, in thisiireliminarynnnuuncc- 
munt of so imporiaut a nntionnl enterprise, the 
author had not taken more space for such in- 
teresting explanatious, and u1m> for the ruller 
consideration of the an-fingeuieot of topics 
according lo tbeir relative imjiortance. 

This treatise shows, nevertheless, in all its 

■ I'bnugh w du flail (itt iiiiolcil In lliUlc* ImsftvdiM*!]' tHil«<r} 
Ibit ibrtc pollrt'ikiba, and ire prDtUC* iboM «bkli will b« COD. 
llnaMI)' flnwiotr In Traiu Ui« UwvluctMl tixrrrf, Ott f\»h voni' 
iiilulani.otiil .ribar •iiumia, arr t<> lie afnuiftil <iD sdlirrrcol |>)«n 
[rem iill ibv tillifT t>jIIi-«i1<>ot. It noukl t><iT« irnUl]- «iiHeiii*Bcd 
ua if trr inrnM b*>* kiiuwa wtiil IbU [lUn ofti. but IluUilMcfuf- 
lb«r U aald irf It. 



Jtn.T so, lasa.] 



SCIENCE. 



SA 



parts, that llie practical aspeota and flifficnlties 
of the quefttioo have been studied wUb great 
tborougliQcsa and ahility, nod tiave imluralty 
aU<^irln.'d llie time niid thoughts oC the uuthur. 
and tak<.>i). tiuTororo, the luost proinineut place. 
Whm Hevm to us the most valuKble and Aiu- 
dnmontal of all Ih« oon side r&t loos are brought 
in an itO<>om[sry. Thus we find an iDtJmalioti 
odIv that the miiseotii '* attc-mpta to show 
llio fvolutioo of ci%'ilizatioii ; " we cannot be 
wrung, it appears lu us, in imagining; that this 
is to be thL- great aim of the National muuc- 
um ; and again, *' the collections should form 
a museum of Buthropolofcv. the word ''unthro- 
polog\* ' being appli«d in its inost compre- 
hensive sense. It should exhibit the physical 
oharact«ristics, the history, tlx^ manncra^psst 
and present) of all jieoplea (civilized and sav- 
age), and should illustrste human culture and 
indDstr>- in all tia phases. Tlic cmih. Ita 
pbysieal stniRtiire and its products, is to bo 
exhibited with spcdat reference to its ada|)tn- 
Utm for um! by man and ita resources for his 
future needs. The ao-rfl//e*/ natural history 
eolUctiona — that is to *ay^ the coUfCtions in 
pure xoologij, gtology, and botany — should 
A* grouped in sepnrate »erif», w/dcA, though 
arranged on another ptan, shall illustrate and 
supplement the collections in industrial and 
euunomic natural history. " We felb imraeili< 
ately the deepest interest in knowing liow so 
large a part of the National museum t-ould be 
arranged on another plan without confhsing 
the eff-.'ct of the whole, but looked for ex- 
planations in rain. 
The idea of roakiog the National museum 
museum of flnthro|)ologj' must, we think, 
jntmand unqunltflcd respect ; and it seems to 
na to rontnin so innch of Aiture promise, that 
we feel all the inorv regret that Ute details of 
the scheme had not reeetved the healthy pur- 
gation of general and expert criticism. The 
claMilication Is also highly original, and ahows 
the result of extensive study, and practical 
knowledge of ways and methods. 

The (jeneral outlines of the scheme of elaa- 
ailication, which is announced as provisional 
open to neceasary^modiflcaUon, arc as 



follows: the exhibtUon of articles U (o be 
divided Into eight large di\'isiouB, or ^seo- 
lioDS,' including sixty-four smaller divisions ; 
which lust we shall, for eonvenietice, designate 
Under IJie name of ■ topi(»,' to distiognish 
thcui ft-om the sections into which they are 
grouped by Mr. Goodc, — *' Section I., Maa- 
kind ; II., The earth as man's nhode ; til., 
NoUiral resouix-ea; IV., The exptoitalive In- 
dustries; V.,The elaborative iudustriea; VI., 
Ultimate pruduoLa and their utilization: VII., 
SoL-ial relations of mankind; VIII.. Iiil«*l- 
lectual ocouimtions of mankind." 

We recognize the enormous diflicnlLiea in the 
way of the author of this scheme ; and, while 
ve congratulate him U|)on the siicccssfbl han- 
dling of the details. — which we have not the 
space to quote in full, ami therefore cannot do 
him [wraonally full Justice. — we must diaaent 
strongly fl-om the main ideas, which, we think, 
show the want of a broatl and masterly com' 
pi-eheoflion of ttie philosophical ideas which 
should go^'eru the elasslAcation and ptirixwes 
of our National museum. The scheme itself, 
in this respect, is a eurioos mixtui'e of the old 
notion, Ihat. in urdcr to understand man, we 
must uocessarily start with thfi study of man- 
kind, and of the modern Idea of evolution. 
The legitimate proocas of iDstruciion from tJiis 
Btaiid-point begins with the eimplest forms of 
life, and follows up ilieir developmental and 
evolutiouary history in organization and in 
time, until we arrive at the mg«t highly spe- 
cialized forma. 3Ian is the moat highly 
specialized of all animals, physically and 
psychologically, and therefore. It is claimed, 
needs to be viewed in the light of all knovl* 
edge, unobsaired by Uie prejuiliees and mts- 
ooDceptions which ai'c liable to arise from the 
adoption of the opposite modes of study. 

Certainly the former mode is incom[taU- 
ble with the thorough and direct method of 
studying the prineiplea of evolution, whether 
these relnle to one set of object* or another, 
and is not accoitlant with the Idea of the 'evo- 
lution of civilization * and the evident neces- 
sity of expressing, in all the minor industrial 
collections, *'thc steps by which man has ar* 




66 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XI., No. 24. 



rived at the present <:«nditiou in every direc- 
tion in which human iiidii->itrv has been oierleft, 
— a graphic history of the development of the 
humnn enitiire and civilizatiou." 

These are Mr. Goo-ie's own dodaraliona of 
what seem to be tli« vital intentions of hia 
scheme; and it is thtrrufore a sertoiiB error, 
both practically and theoieticalt.v, when he 
places the natural history of man, i"-'"^t— 
his psychology and individual manifot 
at the head of bis scherne, in place of 
this department the terminal one, to bi 
by visitors onl}' after tliey had gone 
with all the other departments. 

The author has arranged the seot 
sixt3-foiir topics according to a syate 
is artificial, and irrecuntilable with hi 
tious and his general olijects. and alj 



in tile pIsiQ^! ass^igned to matikinil. Mah id 
csaentialiy the product of the forces which 
have acted upon ttiis earth. Without going 
into the question of whether these Ibiut^B wore 
divino or material, which is of no value in 
such a technical diacussion, it is oertainly very 
illogieal to place the coaclusion before the be- 
gluuiug. Uie consequent before the antecedent, 
'-"fore the earth. This may be very satia- 
te those who need, or think they need, 
*(qflUy Bwlng the censBr before the old 
man's supremacy ill the uiiiverme; hub 
)ne the leas iinnaturnl and illogical to 
le modti of arrangement for the partB\ 
;i'eut Dollectiou, and another for tha 

future number we shall consider somo 
UJQQV features of this ela-bornte scheme^ 



LIST OF TWENTY-THREE NEW DOUBLE STARS, DISCOVERED AT CAROLINE ISLAND, 
SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN, BETWEEN APRIL £7 AND MAT 7, 188S, BY E. S. UOLDEN 
AND C. S. HASTINGS. 



Star. 



Stone, G7S] 
Anun. . . 
Lac.. 4936 . 
Anon. . . 
Luc., 5323. 
Anun. . . 
Lac, hVA . 

Lac.,573S, 

IviC, 5H1T . 
Lac., 58M. 
Lhc, (h)6S. 
Lac., fll3>i . 
.\ni)n. . . 
Slone, 82.":0 
Lnc, 0269 . 
Anon. . . 
Anun. . . 
eionu, B348 
c Lui>l . . 
Lac , MSB . 
I,BC.,6o4(l. 
tjlone, 92'2I 
Ijic, 7315 . 



a., 1880.0. 



A. in. 

10 '28 

11 31 

11 4« 
]1- 57 

12 31 

13 1 

13 n 

13 4g 

13 5P 

u e 

14 41 

14 60 



15 2 

15 3 

J5 a 

15 J 

15 8 

15 U 

15 14 

15 36 

15 44 

la 50 



«, 1880.0. 



-51° 18' 

-60 14 

—56 25 

—57 6 

—55 IB 

—fi-i b 

—82 57 

—53 33 

IB 



42 
30 



—49 
— Bl 

—67 

—40 ai 

-51 38 

— flO 27 

—as B 

—63 50 

—17 M 

— M 15 

—50 24 

—60 23 

-58 26 

—40 57 



240° 

3ao 

130 
240 
31)5 
300 

40 
330 
300 

30 
ISO 

WO 


70 

t2!a 

300 

170 
335 
17S 
210 
85 
12S 



2" 

5* 

U 
l( 

11 
1* 
2 
35 

31 
11 
5 
4 
3 
12 

u 

3 

'1 
2 

1 
2 
1 



MagH. 



8.5 - 9 

8.S - 9..1 
7-5 - 8 
8.5 - 9.5 

7.3 - e.3 

9.5 - 0.5 

7.5 -10 
fl.5 - 8.5 
as -13 

7 5 - 7.5 
7 - 9 

6 - S 

7 -10 
7 - 8 

7.6 - 9 
6.5 -13 
7.5 - 
B -10 
M.O - 8.5 
3-8 

7 - B 
65 - g 
7.5 -10 
8.0 - 8.5 



Observer. 



Ifolddu 
Huklon . 
Huldcn . 
Huldi-n . 
HoMph . 
Hulden 
Hulden . 
Ku»>«Jl . 
Holilen . 
Uni»l[>^s . 
H]iBLin)(K . 
liiisllngs . 
Uanlltiga . 
HaylliiKit . 
Iluld.^n . 
Haittliigi) . 
UiwCinKH . 
lliwIln^H ■ 
HiullnjfB . 
lltullngn . 
Huldfn . 
UasilngB . 
lloldtn . 
Holden . 



Date. 



May 1. 
April 28. 
May 1. 
M ay 4. 
May 1. 
May 4. 
Mhv 0. 

A. B. 
May 3, A. C. 
Miiy 1. 
May 2. 
Mav 2. 
April 2T, 
May 4. 
May 2. 
April 37. 
May 2. 
May I. 
Uny [. 
April 27. 
MHy 4. 
Muy 2. 
May 7. 
May 7. 



THE UNITED STATES FISH-COMMIS- 
SION STEAMER ALBATROSS.^ — \l. 

The fitling-up of a small floating scientific 
laboratory, which might remain at sea for a 
month or moie at a time, and yet include 
every necessary convenience, was a somewhat 
novel problem, and required a considerable 

' Concluded from Ifo, 22. 



amount of planning, based mainly upon past 
experiences of the fish-commission. The gen- 
eral arrangements are now, for the most part, 
complete, but ihey are subject to alteration 
and improvement. 

The main laboratory {see figures, pp. 68, 69) 
is twenty feet long, twenty-sis feet wide, and 
nearly eight feet high. The forward-end of the 
room is devoted to storage, and the sides and 



Jm-v W. im.] 



SCIENCE. 



67 



aftfr-und to work-tjibles. TUc Btorage-case 
cuiisisla of a eerips of six doiidle racks, wilti 
wiri.' tUjorp in fVonl lor luildinp Uit^ Irn; s or Itot- 
Ues ond Jiirs, tlic Iravft l»cin^ nil of the sniofi 
size, »o iu to 111 BQv i«irt of ibe case. L'niler 
the rark* arc six Inrgc bins for ilio lanks of 
Alfoliol it] use, Dip lar^. R»h-pnii8, dUlics. ami 
oilier hvavy Inlmi-fitor}- utcnsiU, nn«I Ht cillicr 
aide is a amttll cMe for chfinicals ami pte-ieira- 



as the geupral lalKiratory, lliougb of less beigbl. 
and 18 cntiivly Rttetl up Cor ih\: s^ira^v of jars. 
Iiottle!), tanks, akHttiol, xoutngU'itl t^ptviinena. 
ojkI the li^^hl^^r kWirls of i^>Ik-ctitig Hpfmnitiis. 
A sfiigtf aerii'd of bins on a IcicI with llie floor 
Kxtcnils urnitnd tho fotlro room, excepting In 
fmnl uf tb(! etalrn-a^', and sen'cs as coinpnrt- 
mnnta for tliD roppcr tanks of sltfihol. wbinb 
arc contained in nnlforto-aiied bojcofl. In these 



SM -,.^..' _ 



ii^c^ 



^^En) ■■TRnipi:, 



■ ■ ■ ) »l M| t . l 




'-niiitiiiiii 



a<' I 



U* ■ ■'j.-^'^j 









^Ss^^^^^ 



Im^ss... 



rtfTADt't CAMM. 



Uvea. In one of (he aftcr-corncra is a plioto- 
^grapbic dark room, and op]>o«iti- to it the »>ink 
ana *at*-r- supply. Tlie rcmaindt-r of the spaco 
00 ent'h rtido i» occupied by a sorting-tuhle. one 
be)D(; at ttif proper height to work whilf stand- 
ing, the olhcr white silting. The ant-r-btilkhead 
oitiininfi the arraiigcincnts for vhcinhal and 
physical invi.'^ ligations. coii&isLiDg of a broad 
tat>U>, Tcith drnvc'ia and cupboards uudumvatb, 
and rocks above. 
tba sLoreroom la of about thi^ aame size 



bins there Iti room for finy tank-boxea, encb 
with a capacity of sixteen gallons, making a 
total of eight hundred gallons iif nlcoliol vrbich 
it is pOMJhle to cfirry >n this wtiy. Agniiiitt 
the fore and afttr hidkheads, at)ovt> thv bins, 
aic two sets of niekd for U^ttlc-Irays. similar 
to lliose In the general lalkiratory. They aro 
inteu(U-d for llii; storage of the main supply of 
boltU-s and jars ; and. aa rapidly as those in the 
Uboralory la-come filled with spedmens, ihey 
are oarried belotr, and llicir plaoes supplied 




with oru|)ty oii^s, witlioul Ihe newRsity of r«- 
rnoi-iuj; any IVoiii ilio trays. On Uk' Iwo »kl<>« 
of lliv stoierooin are large, deep bins for iiet« 
and oOivr light apiiUatices, the di^eclges nnd 
trawls being stored elsewhere. 

Ttic deek-lnbor&lory. wliifh receives the 
greatest nmoiint of light, is more e8|>ccially 
arraiigi,Ml for study. The nfter-end is otrt'n- 
jiiL-d by a hookcoBc, with a inipboaitl for ibe 
physical appariaiis on oir* sWe ; and Ihu for- 
ward-*>nd. by ihu mcdicjil cruio. «ud stairway lo 
Ihc lower lal>orntory. A Ur^y sqiiHre tabhi, 
with Hin.'oin modal ionn for four ]>prennii, Rtiinda 
in Uir wnue of the roam, under llit skylijjhi. 
Umler onu window is the sink, nm) Wside it 
two iipriglit oylindricRl tanks for st^n-water 
And alitihol. which empty by ineaus of ranccts. 
TliG other window-»[)acc» are supplied witb 
folding tjibl(.>a, ntiich, wben nut in u»e, «ui he 
shut down against the wall. Arrangemi'Uts 



are yet to l>e niiido in this room for small work- 
ing-aquaria, whore the living forms and nilurs 
of delicate marine animiOs can t>e Atmliod and 
nctnrwl. They will probably be modelled after 
the new style of halchiog-jars. recently inlro* 
(luced at Washiugton, for the propagaliou of 
abnd and salmon. 

The Albatross is l\irni.slted with two pro- 
(icllcr- screws Itiatead of the usual numlwr, one. 
to enable Ikt lo execute more readily the vari- 
ous mariocnvrca demanded by tb« jiectiliar 
rbarscier of her work. Thi-y are right and 
left handed, — one being plaixil under each 
counter. — and incaaure nine feet in diameter. 
By their means the eiwuner can be turned 
completely around almost within her own 
length, and placed in poAitiou for dn^Iging 
and sounding without the dolnya ineidentai to 
moat expluring sleainen. The motive |)OWer 
it) furnished by two coroiwund ei^iues, with 



JVLT SO, 1088.] 



SCTEXCE. 



69 



two cylinders oacb, — one of higti, Uio other 
of low prtwsHre. — tho sIroJco ol' piston being 
thirty' jfidivft. The engines nre (iUghtlr in- 
oliilQd. tbc iippor ends of tlie cylinders l»cing 
dmwii inliooi-d over llie condenser, whii'b is 
ooininon to hiitli engines, ami fortna tlidr 
IVtiniiii^. 'J'lie IxtlU'ra are two in numltpr, of 
the ovvrlicoil reMim-fliii! pnltern. niut meiuiiire 
tweiiiy-one feet Atiil n half in length by eight 
feel mid n hull' in dijim<>(rr. 

'I'he |n-ojM?r vciililulinn of atl |>nrl» of the 
elii|i wng aireriilly couiidervd dnrinic her con- 
ilniclion. .'md tlic )dun adc»i»le«( ha* given tho 
greii(i.-*l tiflli>ir«ction. It oonsi-d's simply in> 
withdrawing Iho foid Air from the lower parts 
of end) room through small ventihitors. Uy 
means of a Slnrte\'aut exhaiist-fun with Wise's 



steam- motor nttnchment. The influx of nir Is 
froni nbove. throngli open doors or porta : nod 
n eonsinni circulatiou Is main'uidied. even In 
the lowest inliahilctl ponlonx of the ship. 

One of the most iniertwting fentunrs of the 
Alhnlroas is tlie sy^^tem of elfelric Ughling. 
wht<'h htis idready lu-en reten-ed to. Some 
Mirh mi'lliod of repim'ing ihc ilingy lamps 
common to most ocean vessels was tvnrlcred 
impeiativo from the fflct that Ihi» stoanicr is 
8up|>i>M>d to eonl-iniic her ohaervation* as regu- 
larly throngh tlie night as Ihrongh the dnyj 
and the surrounding Aurface of Ute sea miiMt 
sis') be lighted. To accoinpliah thU, a hun- 
dred ami Iwerily eight-candiv U liiin|Ki of the 
t^ison ineamlescent cystem ore di6lnbut«d 
through the ship; ereiy [wrlion. iiiclmling the 



r-^si^- 



»r3feC 



rrii) 



(')« 



illV 



f * 



iis3 



»Ai« uiwRATnMT, ^mta awn. 



70 



SCIENCE. 



I Vol- t^t "*• *i 



holds, BtoroTOomn, an ' twfe*, hftving iU 

tbftrc. Tlioy sre r. ■■■ v « Z drwuDa, 

drlvpii by an Aniiin^Ujn > -b^ip— d 

engirtc. An ni<NUut|>or v.- «!j7i«l 

by r>r. O- A. .Mui»««, itiiii itii' 
imlitt^ Ihe siirfncf of Xhv vtw 
cuit witli Uiu aatnf »vst«iu ; nod Iherv » ■!«* a 
powurfVil submnrine lamji which cun Iw lowvnnl 
to uiiyJeptb oot exceeding » ttiousiini) fe«t. 
TbiB Intter frature is qoite nov* 
el. sdO is to bv uspd to sttrnct 
Bcbools of fisb and otlwr tno 
swimmers, ibouM its Btrong 
ritvs of It^bt )>os8eH tbo ta- 
lluciicv wtilvb iixKy ore sup* 
po&i.>d U) biiVtf. 

Tile soumliog and 

dnedging ap(>tian»!S 

nnd worfctng-genr 

supplied to 

the Albs- 

tro ss 



ri 



o o 



/ 



Arc mftinty iMitternL'd aAcr those wbidi buvc 
been wicoossftillr introduced by the I.'. S, <.i>n.st- 
win-cy u-nd ri»h-commiB8iori hi retwot years. 
All ftuiinding operaliuna are lo be con- 
ducted with 8l«cl piaii'i-wirc of No. i!I Ann'ri- 
CSD gauge, OQ Ujv By»teiQ of -Sir Willinm 
Tiioinwo, for which imqwM two styles of 
Boundinj;-innchiuojt ni-r fiii-ni«)ird. (Jne of 
tbef»e 18 Ibi- iiivt;iilion of ConimniHli^r SigaliM, 
U.S.N., nod tJic olbor of Llt>ui.-CommaDd«r 
Tauuor, 1 1. S.N. The TooDor mschliu!, ia 



which th« rf. .Ilsho*? by hand, 

is cxtMTi-h .iitp*. snd !• in- 

ToD<)«d ^ '.'■■ ft 

i* alta*-).' '>f thr 

■■i deck. I'orwant of t(»u (>ii Tb« 

" ._-J>c* mtu'liino can be usi.kI j-tti*of 

water, down to tho dcopc»t pmrtJt of Ilie (kn-hd, 
am] is workrd by atvant^ U occupivs a pn^ml- 
n«nt position on the port side of tbc to|>'g»llant 
forecastle deck (■fre opposite page). '?'!i~ 
priactpal BcccMorles to suumliitK Bn> tli" ' 
bee sounding- rod. nitb dclachablo wciftni" ; 
the Sij^'tttii-v watL>r-cii|i ; und ibt- NegretU sod 
Zauibra duoji-sfa ibuniinravhT, wilb a new 
etyJL' of ruviTsibU* niflnl (■iis<> r('ui?nUy dovLscd 
by Mesara. Iliulie nnd 'ranncr of tbu Ibb-CODl- 
mission. Witii those npiiUsmtee. enniplM of 
thL- bottom forroatioi) nnd watrr. nnd tliL> totn- 
(wrntiirp of the latter, cam be oV>Lninrd al cnch 
cast of tbc It'sd : and, by using n bt-arier 
soaDding-wlre (Xo. 18 wire giuige), several in- 
termediate samples sod temperatures are sUo 
procurable witlimtl much additional tronble. 

Thu druilfptig .i|i|>!iiuuvii are &9 nearly per- 
fect ns an- Umse for Motiiwliiig, and oomprlM 
every improvement wliii-li hit-^ boi-n hitherto 
suggested. -Stecl-wirw rIre«ig«-rope meas- 
uring unlj »n inch nttd nn eighth 
ia circumfertuci- repine* Ihc old 
style tif Ibive-inch heii(|j<^n roi», 
which is no lougur ro<,r>nnU"I by 
dc'ep-s«adredgeni un this Ridi* nf tbo 
Atlnniic. Tbc* prtncipal udTnntiig<M 
of wire ro|w are its eom|tactnvs«, 
strcngUl. and ditrnliiUty, and Ibe 
rase and spuei) with which il can 
Iw bamlled. Tin* woriting-n'ol of 
tlK- Alliatross. on which 1,000 
fnlhoms mn bv sturcd at a 
time, <KTnpic» so sinnll s spnue 
on the -ifiip itmt il- presiiUCO 
Is war ■■■. 

Tin- I ' ii'ncriToo* 

sistM of a powcrliil I' n- 

gin<! on the innin d< ly 

in (Vont of lb'- foreni»-*t, and ft rt-rlitig-engittB 
nod reel on tin* bvrth-derk nnderni-ntli. A 
strong drcflging-hoom, Ibirty-His fi'«-t long, 
aod pivoted to the fomnsst iibnat ni-veo (tot 
above 4he deck, carrice the dredge-rope olei\c of 
tU« vesMcl. and can '«r raised anil lowon-d. or 
l>cn( aai<l4- at iiiiy angle, lo init Itic <-'inviMiier>co 
whil*! '1' r IrawUntl, Siidtk-ii stmlitB 

on Ihr. ■' "■ iir"' r'rii'?*'^! '-y " Sijf-h^o 

aoeomuMtor, oui: ' ' vo 

rabbor ar-bufir ~ >_>ii 

OD SO Iron rod. 'I'bis imporiaut iMxcaawry 
hangs sQspended fn^m thu maslbuad above th« 



Jolt », 1888.) 



SCIENCE. 



71 



Itoisting-maoliine. The wurse Ukon bv tbu 
(Ire<lg<>-ro]M* wliilv in use \s as follows: Btaii- 
ioji froiA tbv renl od which it is L'OiiUiiDetl, it 
jMUtaes tlirouyh a pulley on the berth-<let:k to 
tliu dniiu of th(> huis ling- engine, tbenee up 
to unit Lhruugh uo iron Mock at the lower end 
of ihe ucvumnltitor, and down a^in tlirough a 
(theave in tiie lietl of the boom, from which it 



and kIx tbousauO poumls. whioli i« less tbitn 
the tcnAilu strength of tberopcUK^v bk inlemleU 
to seoiire from breakage. Tlie amotuit of ro|w 
out atall times is reuoriled by a ix*giBtcrattJit;he<J 
to tjje alieave in tli<> hefl of the iNKtni, the sheavv 
meneuring just htiif a fnthom in circiimferenee. 
In |>rc[}ariug for worli. the drc<iging-lH>oni 
is topped np at the retjuisite nngie over tlie 



ng^V^ 









pdrwaiui ukck. 



-•Stflnds to the outer end of the hoom, where 
there is unotber large pulley. The free end 
of the rope i» 'piicctl into the eye of" n act of 
ufety-books. to which the (ii*.1go or tniw! is 
futt-Dfd, Hnd w'hi<.-h arv !h> anun^tMl an tuo|>en 
atwl rvli'Hse thf apparatiif, sliouhl the strain, 
by reason of fouling on the bottom, exceed a 
certnln au>ount. These hooks can be adjusteil 
to dclax-b at any point butweeo tJirc« thousand 



ftUirhoanl Itnw, iiml the londMl drwlge iir (rnwl 
ishoistci] above ibe deck, on which Htand.s ihe 
sieve or Inhs ready to receive its contents. 
Two method* of sifting or wjwhing the ma- 
teri»lM ar« rullowud. For the iranU. nhidi 
generally bring up h heavy loiwl, a large and 
deep, Bi|unre sieve, standing n|>ou ]eg» at a 
convenient height for working, is used. As 
the tail of the trawl is liftud a>>ove the deck, 



liclongiDg iQ tbe outtil of Uie AlbatroM wouM 
carrv us bc^voml ilie proj>er liiiiila oftliis arliclL- : 
MiBlcD it tosay.tUnt uvury inetti<Hl of (il)taiii- 
ig resutU kutiiv)i to tlic llstliornifn nml nuiriiit! 
ujc^iflt will Ik> triwi. Ttit! .S(.-ii-iitilt(' n[>pnru- 
m k inuiiily siich us has nlrendy iwen llior- 
ifhly Lcfll*Mi by Arnericnn ex[>c«lilions. niul 
null of it Iiits Ix'vn iloscrlbcd in pnblislicd 
ijmrtif. There nrt' raniiy mltlitionnl fontures. 
owrver, whicli linve buun Intfly nddod. The 
fisiicrmnii's outfit Is comjiloto, nui) oompriiu-ft 
nil kiitils of seines iukI ciU-tioL*. liiif-trawU, 
find hooka and lino. The priiiL-ipitl a|iplifti)c«s 
for ile<:-p-M--a resfKrc-h will Iko lite iifvtia.iys and 
Ik-(i in-ti«wU, hoLli ill tlit>ir original un>l ni<Mli' 
6eil foriuji i anil, in cQimei'tioii witii llu^ Inltnr. 
^^wo tnrge totritig-nets will ilIwilvi^ I>c iih«I. 
frlit!]' iiri; fuHteticii, one nt either 8i<1t< uf tlie 
^Wftwt, ill the »h«iw of wings, which uimiu Uwy 
now Iwar in Iho drotlgcr's vociilmlan't Thoy 
were introltmed as an expt'iiineut two yeun* 
Ago l>y Uiti n<ih-iH»nmJKHii>n : and. proving; im 
invaliiidilc ixtjimi't lo the trnw], they siktii Ikv 
ciitiie II pui-iniinenl. Ilxltii-e. Thu simple u\wn 
towiiig-ncU Rre to ftkiui »ln' surfaw of the 
5t-A III nil times, ivhi'n lht> spcinl of tlie Vtvi34.-I 
will |>ennit ; and oecosionnl IrinU will he mnilu 
will) (ho SigBbeo triip for nscertHinin!* tli« 
ntnouiuof animal lUV* within nny prcacril«d sn-a 
b<^low the Bnrfnfo. 

The ehemicAJ dopnrtmont hns not yet been 
romplftrly fiirnisho«l. hut nit the mow hnjior- 
tanl api»araUt3 fi>r making the princlpnl tcM*. 

I "and gI«8*wRre for saving wster-aamptes, have 
been f*iipplit-d. Tlie phol*igi'ai)hic->«'ttion ha-s. 
however, been p1tK'e<l in perfect niiiiiing-order, 
and ntfunls tlie invans of illn«tniliii>; nil Hort-i 
of objects, trimllier large or inicroseopic. It 



siry-i 

The it. S. kI 
by month Jtinc 
Ai]n-!«|K>ta, inn 
of Aiuhcrst (.vi! 
three itiehes A| 

Ah a m:i\iiiii: 
hnve pasHctI, it l| 
these oliaervati*! 
and preseot the 

In thi» table t 
observed iriduc: 
Italic tj-pc arc a 
uess. 

The ob^ervftt 
miule by the Slj 
Vb. The ineiin 
actual and inler]] 
the lust ininimnni 
lost miiKitniim n^ 

I'roressor Kl 
ing lAhh* of in: 
for the present 
in the main wit 

Epoch* of ntu. 
afth 



lUilMiNm. 



It^t.3 . 

lSlit.1 . 

IKIT.a. 
1»J8. 1 . 
1800.1 . 
lXlfl.l1 . 
188^.4 . 



«t!>inB.4n(nan«a<l mmliaiinfiB firm ■ 



JULT SO. 1883.J 



SCIENCE. 



73 







SStS S S S 2 




s s & & a B s s 31 a a s 


sasas 1 




- 




S3*'^23*^''**'' 


nR;<n~-> — •van — 


— c ti » — 




■"'«'• 


E B U C C - -. 


-. e s e n « a 


- • s 




s . 


n ta *■ M 3i B ^ 






* --a 




» 


M « « — O <* 01 




B ee9«»Ql<.«icec 


a^n^g 




R 






•veeoe«egn««o 


'-••ag 




K 


e o t> «• V %a 






»'•*«« 




s 


a a M •« *• •!. 4 






•-""n 




a 


a s ■ « e O «> 






Bca^a 




a 


M e •• e o O n 




0-iSeea*}*'-«0«a 


s « « e « 




a 


«* O ^ (Q a 04I 




G>o««*«eas^**«*n 






s 


o e M a a o 0) 




•«G*a**«09aO«»0 


m e a w •) 


i 


8 


a e t<>« B e» 0> 




aeo--ee»BCttao 




1 


« 


• e s Q o o M 




«a<^«)Qa a — Q^>i« 


U •* r* •* »- 


1 


• 


o e e g e o e 






k>9«^^9 


« 






■> 


9 ■« qt B a 


t 


U 








M e «• H e 


a 


X 


O n O ■• e n « 






« O •«i * 9 


m 


fl 


O S a •» o •« « 






ROOS-. 


3 






a«««««e'*a*HM^C 


gaeg w 


£ 


s 


a e o 7» e • • 




aaatoatq^O've 


S-»a2* 


«i 


s 


■Q 9 9*000 






g«-'S'» 




a 


rt * • k. O • « 






g- ^a* 


1 


2 


». a Q O o « o 




eOP9»a»-A-*eS;:« 


as^'s* 


n 


K 


^ o o a o «« 




•■lOO^^vao^o BMiB 






*. 


■ 91 » « « « O • 




tteBtt^ecaecao 


sa »''5 




♦• 






• a««<oso«0«go 


« — sa It « 




• 


». O B B| O Ot C 






ss'ga 




« 


C o o ^ o ^ O 






a = -2a 




- 


c •« » s o «! -^ 




soeee<»a«C<->^i->«« 


a = ''8s 




f* 


1 Q «s" = o a •• 






iSs'*** 




M 


O B ea e « jg « 




noooo»«ea994Q 


••S-SB 




- 


e -* t e « g • 






•• = "sa 


1 
1 


1 
1 


t^ ■■'■■' • 

■ - - 4 <■ - .* 

idlill 


jiiiiifiilii 


iltui-rl||l| 

4 £ a -I ai >; •; ■< ^ 2 is A 


"•it 

III 11 



JDI-T a). 18S8.] 



SCIENCE. 



75 



riulting xUc mcnlblr mimbcrs. it will 1* wea 
thnt there nru [itnin indications that lln- iiiaxi- 
iDiini h!i3 passtnl, thoiigU it is Uiuuulit t>y imna 
thnt it IB 6till iQ oomo. U. A. il. 



FIFTHUMU ANHGAl. CO^rVENTtON OF 

rut: amkricax .society of civil 

£jViV/.Vtfi«A. — I. 

The racmltiTS of ihi* society began to 
nssoruhlc in Chicngo nn p.nrly as Tliiirsdsy. 
June H. to visit the vxpoKiLiutt of raihvuy ap- 
ptiuicpa. Bud to inke pari in lliu exciiniioDg 
pt(Liinc<t Tor their benefit by tlie Kntrinecre' cLuli 
of tho iiorth-wcst. 

By Mondfly morning. June (S, the number 
of ihoFic iiiU-iiiliug to tukc ihc eppcinl train for 
St. I'aul. jp-ncrouily tcuderod by the officers 
of ilie Cliicaffo, Milwaukee, and St. Pnnl rnil- 
w.iy. Imd s-wclled to llirt-o hundred. The train 
of vigbl citr^, wc\[ tilled, left Chicago at 7.80 
A-M., arriving si .Si. I'aul tit 10 p.m. But few 
Bto[j« were mnile on the way, llie principal one 
being at Uiu vnw^ing of the Wisconsin River, 
for llie olijeet uf inspeettng the railway bridge, 
oikI taking ii better vienr uf the flue scenery at 
that iH>int. t^uite au accvusiuu to the party 
came (iH bonni at >[il«uijkoi'. 

|J|>(ni n-aehing St. raul, an engine of llie 
St. Paul, Minneaimlis. and ^[anilulia railroad 
was atlacbeil : and the train was drnun over 
Ujai line, through Mlnnc'oj>uJi3, to Ijike Min- 
nvt^nka, — a boautifid sheet of wnter some 
lliiny miles long, where, at Hotel Lafayette, 
tldrly-lhree miles from St. Paul, tbc members 
of the society and their invited guests were to 
be qimrletfd during the convention. 

The two eitieB of Minneai»olis and Kt. Paul, 
only a few mile^ a|)nrt, and each containing 
ovoV ciglity ihoiiaand inhabiisnta. were rivals 
for the opjKjrtuiiity of entertaining the society; 
iDd to iirevLMil any ilbfeeling, as well as to 
avoid crowding any of the city hotels, already 
taxed to aceommodale tli«ir own patrun», this 
summer hold, ju-tt openeti for the sesKon, only 
hnlll one year, newly enlarged ami {'urniBhetl. 
and capable of providing for the comfort of 
five hnndivd or uix hundreil guests, was dioeen 
for hfadfinarlers. With the exception thnt 
some vahiabtu time was lost in going to nnd 
returning from the place of holding tho daily 
Beasions. tlii)^ scU-ctton ie to be commended ; 
for the locjulton was extremely pleasant, ntid 
tJiu air fret*!) and cool. IIioac who did not 
desire lo go '■• tlie meoiings each day couht find 
rest and «.'i]j'>ynii_iit ;ir ihis agreeable summer 
r«9orl. A qptjciid train was at the service of 
the convention eacli day throughout the entire 



week. A Ini^e accession to the iiLiml>er of 
members present was made as (he week pro- 
gressed, so that the attendance wu larger than 
at any previous convention. 

Uu Tnesday morning the engineers took tJie 
spticial train for St. Paul, and tlieucu went to 
the state t-apitol, where the tlist meeting was 
calleil to ouler in Keprvsenwtivcs' hall, .\fter 
formal announcements uf pn^gmmme nnd ar- 
rangements, ihe usual addresses of wolcomo 
were made. 

The first paper rcati was by the late )t»Jor 
y. V. Farqnhnr, C.S. cog., on the building of 
the dike for the preservation of the Falls of St. 
Anthony. 

The falls, whieli furnish the watcr-|>ower for 
the mills of Jlinneapolls. were first described. 
A stratum of upper magneslnn limestone, eleven 
feet thick at the lower Mlge. is underlaid by an 
extremely soft Handrock, which is rapidly worn 
away ; and the limestone is thus undermined 
and broken off- The recession of the falls was 
rapid ; and, as the limestone outcrops with a 
thin e<!ge twelve hundred feet above the pres- 
ent brink of the falls, their Snal reduction to 
rapids would occur. If not prevented. Citi- 
zens dug a tunnel for a tail-race in the snnd- 
rock, and the river broke in at the upiaTcnd. 
The immediate destruction of tJie falls was 
imminent : and attempts to check the rush of 
water, which rapidly enlarge*! the tunnel and 
repeatedly broke through in different placea, 
proved ineff*?ctual. The citijtena, afler building 
coflcrdams at various weak points, disconragwl 
by failures at times of higli water, obtained an 
appropriation from the IT. S. government, on 
the ground that the wearing-away of the falls 
would injure navigation above. A plan was 
6nftlly proiX)Sod by Major Farqulinr, of exca- 
vating a tunnel across the entire river, through 
the saudrock, from the liineKtune overhead to 
the BOimd rock btdow. some forty feet, nnd 
filling it solidly with ef)ncretu. This work was 
cnrrieil out under his direction, and was fully 
explained in the paper, and illustratoil by 
druwings. The dike is eighteen hundred and 
seventr-Uve feet long, and bos successfully shut 
off the water which worked its way tlirough 
the soft sand^ne. The detailed statement 
ami cost can be found in the KL<[>ort of chief 
of erigineera, U.S.A., fbr lS"i). The action 
of tlie water has been injudiciously concen- 
trated upon a limited sjMice of some three 
hundred feet by tlie erection of wing-dams by 
the mill-owmM-s. 

In the discussion on this paper at the lime 
of its reading, and in remarks made the nv.xl 
morniog by the engineer officer now in chmge 



76 



SCIENC£. 



tVou 11., N-K U. 



of the ftilU, tlie oUut wtirUs of preBervaiiou 
— lh« timber »i>ryii, tW rolling (iamft above, 
nnii Uie crpj wliicii bml Iwori placet! iielow. 
tliu fatU — werv described wnd fuiiimuiiliii.1 
upon. 

Or. C. R. Eim;r,v road a abort paper, »nd 
«iil>iiiiltci] a tablu. shotviiig tbe cosl of steam 
uri;,r1iiet> uinl boilers compltitu. mid tiiv cost of 
operating the suioe fur thruv ImiuLrud and liiilfi 
dnv!) iu ttif .vcnr, iucliiding reijuirs niid rciiow- 
nU, aitd (living, tipou tbe dAta Hsstimod. the 
toinl eitst |MT bofRe-powcr maiDtainwl oontinu- 
oHsly. lie [loimwl out wby smtill engines 
wore ftonipurativcly more cxponslve to iniiin> 
lain than were large ones. Tbc dtseiisgioii of 
tbis pap^r ttoa ]>ost)ioiie(l tintiL the nt^xl dav. 

Tlie convention re-assrmhied at the slate 
oupitol on Wednpwiav morning. The di«cua- 
sion of Mfgars, Kurqnhar and Kmerv's pa[K-TS 
WAS first ill order. The qiie^stion was a^kcKl 
wbi'tbvr thu Amonni cxpendcil in the preserva- 
tion of St. Arilliouj's FmIIs would not have 
suHloud to tistablisb ami luxinUin aii eqiiivalt-nt 
pIiiDt of sleam-engiuejj. Dr. Kiii«r>' thought 
oot. 

Prof. T. HgglestOQ followed witb u papor on 
' An nceidcnt to stcRm-pipos nrislng from tlie 
use of blust-rurntii't! woul.' lie nttributud a 
ourmsiou and duhseqiieiit explosion of stenni- 
pipcjt ai Culunibia uollcgc: to the Rctting-l'ree 
of fiiilphur from tbw wool by the aclion of ex- 
tremely diluted Hoiutionn of oi-ganic ncids and 
tite rapid coirosinn of tbc piiio by thi; sulphu- 
ric acid, sustaining his position by rcjwrts of 
aualyscs and t^'^U. 

lie was strongly opposed by Dr. Emery, 
who cbiimeii ihat the corrosion was due to 
le»k:ig(< and moisturv, with niternnte wetting 
und dryinj* of the pipes, and that bbist-fur- 
uace wool was entirely Jonoeuou*. 

Mr. John Ijiwler of Prairie dii Cbien de- 
scribed the (xjnNlniclion of the two |>ontoou 
draws in tlie railwiiy-briitge across the Missis- 
sippi at. tJmt place. IvacU pontoon is four 
hundred and eight feet long, six fi-et deup, 
thirty-six feet wide on bottom, and forty-one 
feol wide on top. Tlie interior details, the 
wgiilation of height of track, the mcaiu* for 
fasK-niiig and for manuetivring the draws, were 
dciunnlKtl at U^iglh ; and Uie uont was »tate<1 
as one-sixth of lliu estimated co-it of tbc nsnnl 
iron swing-bridge. The bridge wa^t built in 
IHlAf and has been in continued use evur 
since. This bridge was seen from the train on 
tbf trip from Chie.igo. 

The last paix*r at this session, by G. Lin- 
denlbiil of Pitt-si)iii'gb. Penii., was upon the 
rebuilding of tbc Mynongabcla bridge at thft.t 



plaeo. frotu his design aud under bis direo- 
tiou. Tim first portion of hiH ptipt-r cnttiTL-d 
minutely ititn detaiU of the new fttru<4^ui-t'. and 
Vina illiisliated by tracings. Tin' luUer (>or- 
tiou wn;4 gccupied with a iliscnstion of tliK old 
susppusioD- bridge, buUt in l>t4(J by .loliii A. 
Roobbogi the condition of the same bcforo 
removal, the tests of the mattfriat reinovvU. 
ami the cSect of tlie excessive overloading to 
which it had been exfused for yeare by lUu 
increasing ainl licsvy iralflu over Ihe bridge. 

.VfXera brief iliscnsHinn. the convention then 
adjoununl ; a portion of the members repairing 
at once to Lake Minuutoulta. and the remain- 
der going to Minnt'a)iollK, where vigils were 
mailo to Ihe Wa^bbunt flouring<mill nud to 
the bridges, 

( Tb 6* a/iUimutd.} 



KiSETic voysinnHA nnyi a .%• to 

THE S'ATimE uF THF. ATOiflC MO- 
TIO.VS WHICH PnOUABLi' OHlGiSATK 

nAojATioys' — i. 

Tus assumption that the mpan kineUo 
energy of translation of the molecules of a ga* . 
ia ihc me.iHnre of lus icinperauire is one whose 
beautiful ugreemenl with exiiurinu'iit \iaa led 
10 its awepLance as a inN-e-wiiry part of the 
kinclic theory of gane^, and it h:L>4 often IlhI to 
the thougliltess conctu^^ioii tliat this trnnsbitury 
tnouon is also the mechanical source of the 
diitturbMnc*'* in the ctlicr wlilch oiiginnt*.-. miU- 
ations. lint there iwa m»ny ditllruUies in Ibu 
way of accepting this view. One of ihti first, 
and perhnp** tlie least, i^ the dilllculty of con- 
ceiving how such a motion of trantlatlou, whiob 
is cs4eutin1[y longitudinal, can originate a Jat- 
eral vibration, such as light and radiant heat 
must be. 

A greater dilUcuUy api^ears to l<v found in 
tbu extremely motlenite mean velocity uf trans- 
lation which the molecules of a gas are foiinj 
to have. .Molecular velocities, which are of 
the same order of nifignitnde a« Lh.il of Hound 
or of a rillu-ball, »ccin lianlly (tiri>(l to cium- the 
neces^r^i' uomprcsiiitms or il into rim ni^cs in a 
medium in wliich the rate of propagation U so 
immense ; or. to statu it in aitotlier way, if 
molecules, in describing ihuir pathn, original*^ 
radinlions, then the mutlou of a rillt^-tiall otigiit 
also to do so. ur. indeed, any much mure mod- 
erate motion, such as. that of a vehicle or 
animal. 

A still furilicr dilTloulcy Is. that there w 
another part of the kinetic theory which ap- 
pears to lie so related to this that both cunnot 

■ I'rrMUlnl in al»ini,<i to Uie ^rfUam of cticni l<i>]i an.1 pll/'* 

kai 4if lk> Obio laMbuilK' InuituM, April 2a, liu. 



JUfcT 20. 1883.] 



SCIENCE. 



T7 



bo rigoronftlr true »t the same time, as apiwun 
ttotn the fullowiug c'Diisidernliona. The moat 
probftbte diBtritiution of lliu t.'Oiu|jOH0iil luoloc- 
uUr velovitiuA ur a gas in eqiiililirium is iho 
SiMiiv ajt Hint of errors of oliatf^rvuLioii. Thi» 
dtsLriluiIioii U bixtiiglit aiioiit bv fortuitous 
iiioleoular fi)C(jiiiitt^n», niitl ila [ft-riuaueiiee is 
iuflua-d iiy n;:uM>ii uf tiietn. liut iu ua»c the 
[irogruss'Uf tiiotiuii of a iiiulcoiilu give*, rise Uj 
railinliuiiH. UiusL- iiiuluiniliM ivhutiu vcluciiius 
Hi'i; Uif gri'atfr aiv lUi- hotter, hikI coiiHi-qumit- 
Ijr mdiaip inoru he:H Kj oUi*;r iiiulectiluH tlinii 
they reo«ivf from them. Tht"V ibwlefore hwie 
jmrt of tbt'ir pnigreasive ttiii-rgy befuru Uiu next 
encounter. Tlii* whole vffvvl ytimld be lo 
retanl tlie motion of ihusc molcclik-j whose 
kinetic cnen<>" is grt^ntcr tban tlm mcaa, and 
nc«-Ienite those wliosc kinetic energy is te*s. 
This wonid cuiisc a uonslaMt iiiterfercnee with 
the (lUlribiition uf velocities aocordinf; to the 
\av{ uf itrobHliilitiea; niul tht? interference would, 
80 fsj' »8 we are At pr^-sent atite to furtnanesti- 
naate of ite uiuouni, be nufticient to (.-aaite the 
kiuettc cner^* of each inoleetile to ajiproaeli 
iadefliitlcly near ibi mv.in value during the 
time io which it deseril>es a very sinall fractiuu 
of tlie mean path between two aueceasive 
molccniur encounlers. If thia is the vaise. Uie 
kinetic energj,' of nny molecule does uot dilTer 
for any appreriahle time from its mean value, 
and ia in rlfcct tJic same during the wiiole 
path* ao that there ]s no anch disliiljutiuu of 
velociiies as has been asaumed. In ea^o the 
inlerferenou with the asaumed law is not ao 
compU-Je as this, it must appartntly exert au 
impurlaut iiitliiciico upon tlu- dtnlrihutioQ of 
velocities, especially in the ease of rarifiod 
gasea, in which the cnconntera are compara- 
lively infrefiuent. 

Again : if the progi-essive motioo of the mole- 
culea csn oiiginnte ladinlions consi^tin); of 
IniusverKe vibraliona. it would appear hijjbly 
improbable that tltcir rotary melton ohouUl nut 
altio do the Kuue. But, »« iui» been «hoi«'n iu 
a foiiuer pajfer.* the kinetic energy of trau!>la- 
tion diiTer* fi^>iu that of rotiitiou for im|>eilect 
gases : and the temi>ernliire cannot be simply 
propt^i tional to the mean n>tary energy, though 
It miglit poM»ilily he pri>{>orllonal lo the sum of 
the rotary and tran»lnlory cnei<;ies eomlancd. 

But a^ide from thette ditllcultic)!. which may 
serve lo ahotv the Intrinsic improbability of the 
anppoitition that the progressive motion of the 
molecules originntcs ra<liations, we seem to 
reach pretty dcci^ve evidence againat tlic aup- 
poftltion. when we conaider the specific heats 

> lin tilrnO.xi of itv^ <hi-ur|]Bftl ihL-tlrlat.flc — (Af.jMvc. 



of solid bodies, or when we consider the nftturo 
of the radiation ilaelf aa revealed by the spec* 

The ex[>enniental law of Dulong ami Petit, 
and the anidt^ouu results of Nutunann,' show 
that in )«olid iKpdie^ we mu^t (.^oii^ider the tem* 
l>er.iture to be \ue.isured mor-e nearly by the 
euei-g\' of the alum than by that of the mulo- 
culc. Now. it IS hardly sup|>osa<tlc that the 
trauslatury motion ufagatiuoua muleculi' ^huiild 
originate radiations, while that ol a eoliil should 
not. We i^hall not, at tbia Ma^n of ihedts< 
cusaion, cun3i<lerthc fijieet roaeopic evidence aa 
to Uic nature of the nioUutis which originate 
radiations, furtliertliaii tu notice that the char- 
acteristic spectra of gaaea appear wholly inex- 
plicable, on the supiMsilioti that they arc 
originated hy traaalalory motions, with veloci- 
ties distributed aeeoiiling to the law of proba- 
bibtira, or with velocities reduced liy radiation 
to an approximate equality, aa it haa lieen 
i^hown they might lie; for even the Himpleitt 
gasea have 8i>ecti'a coDsisting of at lea«t several 
Hues. 

If these reasons compel us to distrust the 
suptKMition that radiations originate iu the 
progressive or rotary motiooa of tlie nLulovules, 
does the supposition that radiations originate 
in tite vibratory motion, with ix-speet to each 
other, of the atoms in the molecule, afford a 
better explanation of tlic facts? Such a tno- 
tion, analogous to the clastic vlbratiuna of a 
bell or otbcr sonorous body, might very readily, 
perhaps, be shown, in cose of a complex mole- 
cule, to have sneh a relation to the molecular 
encounters, and thus to the mean kinetic 
energy of translation, that its eoet){^v would 
be directly proportional to it for each given 
gas. In case this were eslahliahe<l, sneh vibra- 
tions, considered aa the physical c&hug of radia- 
tions, would explain the )>henomena of gases 
as well sa the sup()oeitiou that they are due to 
the progressive kinetic energy ; and they might 
possibly be shown to explain tbo»e of solids 
also. 

Uut there is at least one dilDctilty. iii the way 
of ac^-4!)iling this sup^ioaitiou, which seeuiii in- 
superable In the ease of monalomic molecules ; 
for. if rudiattons could only oilginatc in the 
vibrutiuna of atoms with reapcct to each otiicr 
within the molecule, munatomic molecules 
could nut radiate heat at a4l, and could not 
bare a temperature. That this should be true 
is not only inconceivable, but contrary to the 
known fact that monatomic mercury gas bos 
a perfectly asivrtaiiiabte temperature : beiioe 

• Jmt. pA,:rJkfm.. t«IU. WlUlnn'a An>rrl«nilur<>Jh**(i. 



78- 



SCIENCE, 



(Vol. II., Mo. M. 



the iiutl.iotiK which ori'riiKiU' ra^Ialloiitt arf not 
(fiiilined to .siH'li vibmiions of atoms, oven if it 
lie [>^t-tsil)le itiiit. siK-li vilirntintm <ln ()nt;in.iti> 
nidiiiT-iona. Anrl this (vjuHidpration Ifmls tis to 
wliiit Bppenrs to be the trutli of the matter, 
wliicti is, thnt tlie ntomg lliomselves are in n 
state of internal vibration. As will be seen 
iubsequeutly, thU internal vibration is, no 
doubt, aocoiupllslicd under the action of internal 
force*, vrhicli pormit extremely small Ucfonoa- 
tions only of Uie atom by any externa) forcea 
which can he brought to bear upon it ; i.e.. the 
niodulus of elasticity of an atom ts very lai^e 
liHleed. and very large, no doubt, when com- 
Ijared with tlial of the moteeulc. Indeed, if 
sticU vibruiious exist ivUbiti the atom itself, it 
id not ditCeiilt to prove thut tlie force wblcU 
Irinds the parts of tin atom ttigothcr (:uid con- 
ee(ini>ntly ilB modiitiia of elusiicity) ih nint-'h 
greater than the cbenneal fon-i- binding tUe 
ntoin» together into a single molecule ; for it 
has been shown, in my pnper tipon the internal 
moleeular etiei^v of alomie ribration. that ttie 
flmoiinl of energy which can be imparted to a 
system like this is inversely as the modulus of 
i-liiftticity. But chemical atoms are bodies 
which we nr« now Nupitosing to be in iiitertiat 
vibration, btit to which it has been found ini- 
p08.sible to cotniniinicale energy in amount suf- 
ficient to cause them to fly to pieces. Since 
atouiit do not l>ee>.>mu decompu^i-cL u-hile mole- 
cules do under \arious eiruuitKituiiceM. it miisC 
be IhaL Lheir modulus of elantieily is much 
lurgiir Ulan that of moleeulea. 

This view aceonls with that of Loekyer.' 
who lias endcAvored li> explain the (Xilnddvnce 
of lines in the S|)ectm of dilferenl. elements, 
and the relation of temperature to Kpentra, by 
the supposition that the so-c-aller] chemiMU ele- 
ments aiv merely molecules which have never 
yet been decomposed by chemists. It must 
he admitted that the ex|)erimcntal evidence he 
odducua iA of a very cogent character : and it 
aecms to me that the demonstration by which 
I have filiown that the meau ent-rgy of such a 
vibralicm would be extremely small explains 
bow such a vibration can exist without di?- 
con]|K>8ing the ntore complex atoms even nt 
the highest artidciul temperaturcH, though 
Lockyur has reason to think that they are 
deoonipouod in the hotter stars, where only the 
itpectju of the elemenlii of low atomic weight 
are to be found. 

Were it Iruo that every degree of frwdom 
iiiust have tlie sanie kinetic energ,v, we could 

< t>i>.iiMlL'ii iT 111* w«rlllij|[ tiytH;ihr*i<, tl4>l llif *<>.mIIm1 

ebt-i' '!!■ an •midjkibixi Wltp* (.Vwfim, -Ian. 1 and 

rtaHf tot ■ new ilcpKttan: III tjicctniai wulf- 



y 



■to (,■■ 



", 1»7B>. 



not admU the possibility of such a vibration; 
lor not only would ■nich large atnounta of 
energy be required by the degrees of freedom 
whiuli seem nerlninly to exist Wtween tlio 
ntonis of complex molecules as to entirely eon- 
tmdict experimental values of the speclRc 
heat, but the supposition of additional de- 
grees of fVcedom witliin each atom would 
require an amount of energy, on the whole. 
many times tbe actual speulflc heat of such 
boilies. But when Uie amount of energy re- 
nnirc*l by Bucb degrees of JVeetlom is nearly a 
vanishing quantity, as I have siiown, there is 
nothing to prevent us h'om assuming that to 
be the truth whieh S[M.-ctrosfOpic evidence 
makes most probable. 

We may notice, in passing, thai the principle 
uiKJU wbic-h this p:q>er restn. that vibrations of 
this ehariicter can exist without abKorbiug aa 
appreciable amount of tiiuetie energy, enables 
us to explain at the same time the eMremely 
moderate rate at which exchanges of heal lake 
place between IxMlies by radiation. They ho- 
come only very slowly of the same tcniiwrn- 
ture. which fact needs explanation in view of 
the extremely rapid pro|>ftgarion of radiationa 
tberaselvcs. Now, accoi-ding to our !iiipi>osl- 
tion, during a molecular eiM^unt^^r the mole- 
cules are loiiglily >^baken. and there i.-* a dctcr- 
mioate dialribiition ofenergy to be fouiKl iiiuODg 
the atoms, at its eonvlusiou. in the furiii of in- 
ternal atomic vil>rution. which diHtributiou Is 
duo to the circumstunectj of the encounter. 
Those atoms which In I'haiK^c have more energy 
lliuii others radiate iiinn* rapidly ; and Hince ttie 
velocity of radinliun is so great, and the 
atomic dtstniiee so small, we may iLssutnc 
lliuL the M'veral atoms acquire almost Instun- 
laneously an energy* of internal vibration 
sensibly equal to the moan, so that in a ga« 
this is their condition during almost the eutirol 
ft-ec path of a molecule. In ease the goa Itfj 
becoming cooler by radiation to surroundlnf^ 
bodies, the atoms which nuliale to these bodies 
lose more of their \ibi'ftl«jri- ent-rgy than thi-y 
otherwise would, and thus h:ive Ir-ib mean 
energy tA' internal vibration than they ahould 
have under the law of distribution which de- 
termines* what fraction this energj' shall bo 
of the mean kinetic energy of the luolecides. 
At the next encounler, tlie atoms receive lUeir 
pro]x.'r shaiv of the mean kinetic eoerg}', 
which, l»eing iMrtially lost by radiation, is agntn 
auppliod : and so on. And because this trans- 
formation into inlcntal atomic vibration must 
lake place Iwfore it can be radlaled. and be- 
cause at the aauiu time the energ_v of this 
vibration is but an unuppreciable fraction of 



JULT at, IR»8.] 



SCIEXCE. 



7!l 



Uie tout kinetic energy, tbe process of ex> 
clino^ hy miliatloa in* on the whc^. slow. 
Were, however, the iranalatorr inoiion ihc 
direct t-aiise of rndiatioo. ilie Jveiinn^es he- 
Iweoii iliatiieruMHia liodira must apparently lie 
nearly inslaMUincous. 



orSTER-CUlTURE IN HOLLAND. 

TiiE flr»t of a serlc* of pspers on lite Eiirnpean 
o3rM**r nod oynti*r imliixtry of tbe EMtcru Schi-li]«* 
hM lusi l»e«ii imbllshwl by Mr. P. P. (,'. Hix-k, wwr©- 
l«rjr uf ihe commission of llie KoOlogipul Hintion of 
the ixiologicAl i«H.i<.ly of Uollaud. \\ i> to b« fol- 
lowod tiy & series of pnp«n ^oittiii up in almllar Mj'le 
l)afenilui>nu|K;i;iiili»l3; 1". On ih* cmbryolt^y of ibe 
Europ«kii»j:»i«ri 2^. On it-. Uy^. prtrasUes, and c«m- 
omaeals; 3". A review of the raiiii» of the £iuU:rn 
ScheWe; 4". a report on lh# i>by»iciiIftMi.lition»i«v. 
aented by tlio Enswrn Sciiftde; i*". A n'jhirt on ex- 
p«rlm<^iils iniMl« to d«tvriaino tbe condltliiiii under 
n-bicb tbo Hxation of Ihe Urvnl uysler occun. 

la th!* ri^port Ibe nutUor ituvoios n short chapter 
to adiftcUMJori of tile cla«»icjtl allnfrtuiu lu (be animal, 
from th(! HrtUifHo period ir, ihc ilme of tippian. Then 
<KHiies a chapter on tbe ref^m-nces to tbe oyster fuuiul 
In Conrad Gfi^t-r"* JlUtoria itnimatUan, lib. It., 
etiiclon of mail; folloim«I by an rxhiiuMive bibliog- 
raphy of itliieiy paijea, in which iht work* of up- 
wurda of two bnndred and •*;v*iity-tivo auiboni are 
mentkined, covering the jwriod from 1KS& lo HJS3, or 
nearly two hundred year*. 

Theu follows a pap<!run tho organ* of p>n«mUon 
of th.' oy8t«r, by Mr. llovk. actompaitiwl by an 
exwilcnt scrips of IIUio«mpbl«; pl*(*-a n:|jfV8«ming 
mlvnHojpic trauarersK' scciiom of tbe Kiiropcan 
wy^vr. Tbe t«w of thli i» in Dntoh and Krt-nch on 
altoniate page*. A chapter Is dcYot«ti t« a blvbtrical 
rfuMTH^ of oor knoitlwlj:* of the anatumy of the gen- 
erative organs, mii it succeeded by an account of the 
auibor'n III t^ ligations. 

A letXMid part it devoted lo th.- physiology of r«- 
productUiii, anil Is pn-ceded by an hLiioHeal sket^-h t>E 
thb pari of tlie subjwi, frcmi Ihu Ume of UHriicn- 
hnek fu llio prv»eiii. Tbp author jslvw a «ummary 
of bis results, biiCh afiaioinionl and phyniu log leal, as 
follun-s: rtie Kenrtal gland Is not a r-onipuci urgan: 
It Ilea o» llif ■urface of tbe body of the auiinal under 
aibln layer of >-onn4.'c'tiveti.H«tie(ntantlv|, Iwlow which 
bninchwl ducu tprv:ul out orer ihe reprodttiriiro 
organ, connvcu-d on Ihe Inner «iUevrf til the repr^xluc- 
Oth follicles, HTbich have a (ceneraily vertical direction 
lu lh<] Mirface of the tlaceral tuass, and which mias- 
inmose witli each other. Tho genarallTe products 
develop on llie wulU of tbo folllclaii, Uie ova and 
•pennalotoa being formed side by side. The autlior 

■ IVnbtimirmatcn^arVMXIiip'n •>/> i/r ivibr •■■ dt ortlrr- 
fuJUMt Utrtttlnf htbtnJt. .ifituri^g L ^Wtlb lllk' Ib 
Vrmtt.h liuyparl mr Ut rwAirrA^* wnrtruitnl rhallf* it 
r^lr^tmtiyr, UvmiMHt t-) l.«lditit, K. /. JWff, UH. »> 



Incllnps Co the bellflf thai tlie generative prodncta are 
developed from the cvtoderm. The o^^ an? devol- 
opcil fioiit single eplliielinl cellK adhvrrnl ui tlie wall 
of tlie parent follicle, while the inolhtir'CeilA of the 
cliaracteriblic luaastMt uf spermatozoa uru only por- 
tions of ituch cells. The organ of BnjiinuK dwt not 
havea cotiipaolfttrtK-lure ft* in oUicr laniellibr«nchs, 
but U coiDpoKed of a mass of ductA and blind sarr-, 
which foruis a ihin flat plate of coitalderabl" ipzient. 
Coiilrxry to whnt ni.iy be noted of tlie leprodiictlvo 
(land«, Ihe organ uf Itojaitus extend* Aonx^wliat )nU> 
Ihe mantle. Tlic duct»> and rnvltl«>a of the organ of 
Ik>j«niis pour Iheir contents Into a loiiEiludinal i-av- 
Ity. — tbe urinar)' ehamber, — Ihe walls of nhieh nrv 
also excretory In funcUon. and open ourwar^lly t>y 
way of a *lK?n urinary caual. Tlie exiunti\l orlQce 
of the renal <in{an opens into the Mnic cleft as tJtfl 
genital duct, a little behind the latter, but lliey do 
not HCtually join. Tliese gen l to-urinary aimtMes lie 
Im-Iow thfl aildurior on either •Ide of the'venttul pro- 
ws* of Ihc body^na**, A reno-perl cardiac cannl 
coniieeui ttw urinary ehamber wllh the iwHcardlao 
cMivIty. It la prtibnhle that the aurlclea of tho heart 
also exercise an ex<;A!tory fimcllon. 

An oyster which tias fry in the branehino la the 
parent of the rame. At the moment of emission 
(roiu the ovaries, not only bavo thv uva been ferti- 
Used, IhiI tlicy have also imumsI through tbe Jim 
Biacea of segnicntatlon. Tli« sperm necessary for 
fi-cundatiun iloes not come fr«m Ihe same parent 
The water which flows over other oyster* in the vi- 
cinity chargt'll with spenn, which they have s<a fr«<, 
if carried into ihe nianlto-raTtly of i>gH>l>earliig In- 
dividuals, and Into ihclr genital diicia and their 
branches. The oysters <.f the Eatlern Scheldo are 
two years old before they have brood; they are moat 
ptvllHc al tLc a^ ot four or Ave years. There are 
more sperni-liearing oysters in the Eastern Sebehto 
than etuif-hearini; ones. All of Ihe mature .^yt* ■« 
laid at once; the pruducllon of ipenn is probably 
continued for a longer thiiu. In every instance Utat 
fras Inveitlgated, the pnxlm-tlon mid enilsilon u( ovk 
is foUowml by a period during which no Afiemi is pif 
diiced. A Urge proportion of Iha hpat found fixed 
on the banks in Uie Kasu'm .'j'^helde va* piotialily 
not derived from the oysters InbablLlnK the cujti- 
vau-d be<ls. Culture appears to art injuriously upon 
the reprmluciive powrr* of the animal. In old oy«- 
ter« the liver u mnch morailerelii|>i^ (han in younger 
ones. Thlft greater development of the liver Is de> 
pendent upuii the less tnarlied dvvclopmeut of the 
reproducltve organs. J, A. KtdKR. 



QALTOX'S RUMAy FACULTY. 

hvfairiea utiu kumnn facully awl lU lietielapment. 
By FRANCirt Ualtox, F.ltS. New Vork. Mac- 
mkhn.Xm^ 12 -I- ^80 p., pi. «o. 

Mr. Galtvjn*:* re«e»rdie9 baTe for o good 
while (ittriKiieii the aitenlioo of Kii-ilish atKl 
Amerk-jui slmlcutf* of psyclioluyy ami nnilini- 
polog>'. As they arc hero brought togothur. 



MO 



SCIESCE, 



jyoL. n., So. )L 



I. Mr. 

'-'•>iocK Ui oar nutio* arw 

'•f haiMo fdunMsUr. H« 

rnurv rxmet awl ad- 

. drUUvl Inrntlgs- 

•imij neflcwieil ; mad tw 

' rnMiUi «■ uwflil Ibr a 

art nf ouitpriiiTv. wttlt^ ftLaJt 

-ni« li,.>i l>, ].r>-i>I .1, 'Kill ifb 



lo (< itr 



f'.-., ..-1 

.•I U»-ir I- 

fWN' m, liieii jjw^jil' 

not kriutiii lu r'liiiii' will \w alilv. I'y a proper 
iiltKl,<i or llH'lr furiiilv lii«t»rv. Ut <ll«i-over ttirir 
kulivHIt*'! ni'uUli iff valiiiiltle i|iiRlltit-ii. niiil tWlr 
rwKiMttuti uiiu'*iiio rank : uri'l ouch )rt.'r»i>na will 
bv ivitjH'olwl Iry an f rill|||it<<iH'il |Hil>Iio ntfonl- 
\t\^ In tiri'lr milk. I'liiplt* wli» rniik liigli In 
tltv piiircrilo iH'iili' will l>i> ininllliiitj to cunlMtii- 
liintr) tlicir kUx'k li^ iiitlann wltti [KTiion^ niurli 
Idtfi'i' ill Die HL-nli'. nnti tlii'ir Fi-^-liitg') In ihi« 
nintUT ivtil be ii|)|iii't'inU.><i. 'riiii<t iiiamni;<->' 
will t)vi-t>iiir k'Mt Mliiit, itnil i.-iviii2nlitiii mil 
|tnt^it>n-t InNliT. 

'I'liiit Mr. (lallon'ii reorarchefl vlll be of 
tnut'li ininii*<iliili< iikc lu vminti jn-nplc about to 
maiT,v, no u-uilifiil nM'lcwL'p can jm-omiIs*-; tiut 
to ihv (wvL-holutiUl, nt li'ii.tl, iltoy art> Iti Uicir 
pn'si'tit L>fiiiililion liatli Hltracllvi-' ami iiBcfiil ; 
nitd, IVtr tlio n-«l, U l< rotx-l] (nr Mr. Onlum 
nw'mly lo have «iij[m'«tr<l, more dcfinilrly tlinii 
I'Inio Ma« n)ilo to do. thai ihi'ir ounUt In l>r, 
iibO •nmw (iai iiiny ln', a ronl an of ciit;vni>-s, 
wliii'lt nvn l"f of itrMclit'ii) ini|j«nt.nttci' rulinail- 
khul. ' Mcillu'r .Mv. (lalloii nor any 

OH» «l«' ■" lt> <tf miiuli nmiv tlina to 

tiui«l Oinl liiv (><■«( jmix'iiU rimy In? oxjwolt^l 
''(.ft vIilMn'n ; luit llii*rfl an* 
!--i*tiHy. Mr. Oiillun'a ntont 
i; ..1! •,. (liiK (.nu'lli'ul Rspwct 



lo pUMllKV t* 

tt»ai)> "^ 

llUl.itf -I 
IMltUIV. >. 

•uoi oif all l£i<- . 
Titttta!. wbUr ȣ- 



Uint he liaa col- 
' to tlir nintU-r 
\ttya in onliiuirt 

■' ■ ' ilioM of 
' 11 llie 



Tbiiii. 
Uu-ir tifii;..! 
- or ntmiirv 

..;if,!-iiv ti 



in onv 'tnmgiy 01:1 
tbf nimmhimwm l< 

ffUO« ' 

thiv . 

iriij'iiuU auti taanlaJ i< 
twlnaliTeftrafNUt. It 
forai a BMvBtl «|aally mark' 
coDlnMtliK; >'"iii4<\^tiat •.iritu^ 
DTTM ar< iif'an.T to Ilk* 

kTnt»(|in|{ :,,, iiTMrlf. '>r Lb* 

' ir tiurtut 
■ '-jiral -.,..- 
' ttaturr-. 
:it *fty BIriMII;. 
■ . wlirretlM'cii 
•jNii..' I '■.■ n.— * of niirltliT ^1 ' 

WAV '• ■:'■..:.:■.). till' mntra«t. A 
)'l, ai.-cunling to Mr. 1 . 
■ with r^f'i'fl nf nniiti 

■nM to 1! 
I Miv of Opl' 

iIm* »ilv»iiui^e« of auy tiurtura. no tliai tiiey 
teinnni wikl, liowcvep tuiiuli we may try to., 
tninti llieni. l-'rum wtiutovcr siile, thru. 
mailer U vieww), nnluru itecinH «ii|>crior ii 
It* iwreUtcm-a to llif> forecs of nurture tlint 
u]*\tt»fnl Kill* iM-roistvnM' : and. if vf want 
iMimnn ston-lt to grow hrlter through Totai 
tnry t-fTort, we miiRl unilcrtak^ to >■■■■'' -V 
iniiinnr pr\>-natn] niid nntvstnil infli.> i.^ 

men* tlinn wc txy to betler the iDlliii.-iiLv« of 
odiK-Hl.ioii. 

Tbi!), Ibfii. is Mr. Gallon's most sit^iiiflcanl 
practleitl i^8ult. IIIn rescarcbcH u|>o[i vuriou 
prolik'ina of the science of chm-aMO-r. thai ban 
nut \cl Iwvu long eouuf^h alui1U-d ta bavu mnot 
Imniudiatv pritLaical Hi;;;uilk*aD(^<. i-annol eaail 
tiv Humini^il up in aav Abort notice. Tlir p*y 
cliologt'it is most interusUil in hi^ nvK'nrchoKon 
mi'mal imoffrrr and on nKSotnalinn of idratt 
Mr. (inllon Is of Lbr opinion Ibnt inlro«{ 
tion con hv mni\u n tnoiv exact soioiioe 
imcholodi"!* lisvc prpviously found it. Al 
so, indfiti. it vMt hv, no doiibi, alliMut whett 
In IhnltL'd to tlu' lowCHt onlcnt of nivntal fact 
lli'i'o Inli'o'iix'rtioii IB ^'lVIllly iiitlvd by plall 
and KunpK* ^pivnliont. A»k » man to tell you : 
he <!nii Hl>out whiil now gov% on in bis iniml. and 
ht> i^lll ttOBWtir a* wildly as yoit c«'"M «;-i> 
(■ut aak bim to call u]i in inind tint 1 

tils hat orof hit Iiuiiw, or totrJl_soii u; 

sonio coiii.-n>lr lustnm^ bf can vividh nn 
Ikt imislcal hnrtnoiiy ox i1i».ttnrt from mcloil] 
tind iiiomI houcst mt-n t-:ui ibvu aii>twi>t (nil 

h\ ami imcfVilly. It is Mr. < ■ t 

Ih hnvc fch'»»n bnw nttirh r-' 
lliit- - - l| 

of ll I 



Jolt SO, 1A88.| 



SCIENCE. 



81 



Dot peycbotogisU may be able to furuish to 

the pbvvliologist impoi-taiit H»d tru&twortbv 
dntn. 

We <\o not rememlier tliat our autbor \» quite 
plain iu (ieliniiig ona of the anffguard^ uecilcd 
to make this nicUioil iiac-nil. Do Aiiys, in ilo- 
icriblQ^r Ilia i-eei-firchtft inlo tiicnlal iningcry 
(p. 87), " Tlic toiiformiiy of rpplicft (Vom so 
many ilitfcirut Bourc^s, which was clpiir from 
Ihc first, the fact nf ihoir apparent inist- 
woithincftA Ix-hig on ihe wliolc much increattfd 
by ci-osft'Cxa mi nation, nnd Ilie eviilent ctfort 
made to give acriiratc aiMwcra. have convtooed 
me that it is n tuuub c»»icr matter than 1 had 
anticipntod, to oMaiii inislworthy replies to 
ItayvhoIogicAl quesliouv. Mntiy pwiTSons. eii- 
pccinlly wuraen am) intelHgent cliil'li^ii, take 
pleitoure in inli-ospeotion , and ?trive tljeir I'ery 
best to explain thtir mental processes. I 
think tliat a delight in ^elf-dissectioa miisl be 
a very strong tngre<licnt in the plenfeunj that 
many arc said to take in confessing theniselvea 
to parish priL-»t<«." But there tx an obvious 
mom! from all iliis. The niutliod. with ila qiics- 
liotis and croHa-qncsLions, with its interested 
Hiihjects and their pleasure in confeasing thcni- 
welvcs, is indeed frnitt'id ; but the outcome 
must be controlled by the maxim that the sub- 
ject's statements, when he is not himself an 
expert, must be trust<st implicitly only when 
they are out of relation to any precouceivetl 
thuory of his own about his mind, and equally 
out of relation to any i»op4jlar prejudice or 
superstition thai conhl influence lum. Gener- 
ally Mr. Galton seems to follow tliis ma:cim 
without explicitly recognizing it. The sim- 
plicity of bis questions is itself a security. If 
you a«k about one's meutal picture of Ids 
breakrast- table or of his hnt. you eAO lie tol- 
erably suru that he has uu prejudices or su- 
perstitions that will iilTect his answer. But 
it i& another thing, in case one is inquiring 
about the 'vi^tionsof sane {leniotitt.' anil men- 
tions aiime great man, nay Napoleon, who 
ia de<'lnred liy some one to have had visions 
of his 'star.' an<l to have Itoanted thereof. 
Here sneh evidence as can he gr>t would be 
worthless, even if the great man in ques- 
tion were not a notorious liar. For sui>er- 
■titiou, odce for all, attributes stars to great 
men; and, when a Htory exactly corrc-aponds 
to a known iind wide-spread superstition, we 
may ueuaily disr^ard Lbe ston' anve for 
the purposes of folk-lore. Vet. oo p. 17t3, 
Mr. Uultoo makes a bioi-t of this sort the 
basia of refleoUooa that of course may \tas- 
sihly be true : bo that hb caution la not quite 
perfect. 



In fact, we should be disposed to apply the 
maxim just stated yet more enrefully ; namely. 
if Ihe subject shows an unc^)mmon visuulizing 
I>ower. he ia botJi itisiruelive and dangerous, 
and ought lf» W ireate<l very tenderly. He can 
furnish many faelrt, Inil hii* replies are by no 
much the more a|>t l» he inllneneed by Homi> 
theory of hia own. .\ceuf>tomed all hi* life to 
his vivid Imagery ; veiy |»«">*ftihly a member of 
a family several of whom are uncounuonly 
gifted in this resjwct ; accustouieil, thervfore. 
to notice and talk about his power, and \»r- 
ha{>« to boast of it, — he may have formed 
already some vat n-glorioii» idea of what he can 
do or ought to do; aiKl, when yo<i set him at 
the task of talking about himself, you must be 
careful how you accept alt that it may occur 
to him to say. A brief experience with ono 
such sub)eot as we have just ilcscribed bos 
ci>uvinced us that serious danger would arise 
fVom applying Mr. 1>n]ton's method lo him 
without great care. And if we intended to 
publish any of hts exixrienee!). we Hiiould ixin- 
flne him strictly to com uion places, ehoidd not 
publish his sloriett of what he unet] to see 
when a child, and shoidd not introdnee any 
thing that he connected with ' elevated spir- 
itual ex]ierienec9,' or with any other artistic 
excellence of which he seemed to feel proud. 
We fear that some of Mr. Oalton's subjects 
nee«le«l more such watching. In flue, though 
Mr. Oalton's researches on mental imagery, 
since their first publication in the form of 
memoirs, have greatly lielj»ed introspective 
[wychologj-. no one. doubtless, wouki fear or 
deplore more than himself any misuse of them 
that should tend once ngoiu towards the myth- 
ologiual. Our suggestion is intended to help 
to waitl oir such > sad result, which, fur the 
followers whom Mr. t'tiltou is certain to have, 
might not liQ very far ofT. What might not 
our author have to mourn over, if • psychologi- 
cal assueiaiiona' were tu became fatddonable 
in country towns, and were to produce acrect 
of mauHHcript or printed proceedings contain- 
ing elevattil spiritual visualizing experiences 
by ohl miii<ls ami semi-spiritualistic reform- 
ers? Yet. in these days of impidar science and 
associations, who knows what yiv. Cialton'ii 
pleaslr^ way of speeeb might not produce, if 
he does not add to every new chapter of facta 
a note strenuously insisting that the exact and 
cautious method? that are commonplaces for 
him should be studied and followed by every 
ambitious one that would do likewise, however 
simple the subject-matter Investigaied may 
MHUU to be? 
Mr. GalCuD can claim c«pecial credit for hxn 




SCIENCE. 



invectipHtions into visualized numlKT- forms. 
Here the iinture of Ijie facts is the hc»\. {>iinr- 
nnty of Uieir general aeiwrac.v. 'lliey have 
generally been iioknown, lyivf lo the sul'Jccift; 
tbey are noi Uiingit of whicti people are apt 
to hoRst ; tlirir pptyrhnlogir'.-il eigniflcaniN? !k Tnr 
gTvaicr than their [wpiilar iiitertwt; Ihev have 
nothing of the elevatwl or of llje KpiriUial nimul 
ibem; tlie rrflenroh is quite aew. All iliie 
securei* Ibe sulistantial oon-eclneRS of the re- 
stilu, ilioiigb, pininly. further accurals research 
will iH'comc hiirOer when Mr. Gatton'^ facts 
bectmie tiioiie )M>|itilurly known. 

Oiic general reKult that Mr. Galton seemx lo 
have establishe'l is, tlint growth in the jwwit 
of ahwiraet thought is <jp|Kieetl to the free «le- 
velopnient of the visualizing facnlly. Scien- 
tific men have, as a rule, le^s vivid imagery 
than ))crauus of less abstract habits of mind. 
Adults viaualizo leas clearly than children. 
But tbis loss of visualizing power does not 
aignilV, he lella ub, loss of clear memorj' of 
details. •' SIiMi who declare themselves en- 
tirclv delioient in llie (lOwer of Hwinj* menial 
pietiirt'H can, nevrrthetcBii, give Hfcllko de- 
Hcripiions of what they have aeen." Again: 
" it is n mii4lakc to suppose that sharp sight is 
accompanied by clear visnal memory." Yet 
more: "the visualizing and the iJcDtifyiog 
[xiwers are by no means nece&i*arily com- 
bined." ThuA our author telU ua that one 
dislingui»he<l subject is good at recognizing 
face«i. but cannot visualize them at all. All 
these facis. and many others, seem to us to 
point to a result that Mj'. Galton sometimes 
approaclies. but does not distinctly formulate. 
Un the eoniniiy, in one place he says some- 
thing directly opjww.'d to it. " A visual im- 
agu." h« siiys (p. 113), "in ihu most perfect 
form of mental representation. wht*revcr Ihc 
shnjM^ [Ktsltion, iind relations ot ubji-cls in 
space are concerned." And lie Ihiuks that 
mere laziness is I'esponsible (br Che cummon 
starvation of this faculty ; hut, if this were ao, 
it is hard to »cc how a hcnilhy mental organ- 
ism should, in the course of its normal develop- 
ment, generally tend to outgrow the visualizing 
faculty. ' The most perfect form of mental 
representation ' for any purpose will not be the 
one that we should, as evohitionisia, ex|)ect to 
find growing naturally le»s as the mind de- 
motes itself more to tbst purpose ; yet who 
we more concerned with the exact relations of 
things in s)>ac« than workers in the details of 
deseriptlve natural science i^ And they, we arc 
tuld. are apt to lack the faculty In question. 
The siateweut juHl ipioted seems, then, to lack 
probability, and lo he ogaluat the main result 



to which, na we have said, all Iheee rescarctiM 
seem lo lead. 

This result, we think, is that the dearest 
memory, in the long-run. lends tn be tjie 
memory of acts, and not of the content of a 
sensatiou ajmrt. n-om Its immediate reUtioD 
to an action. This seems reasonable fW>m 
the jMiint of view of evoluUon. The life of 
an animal roneisls in doing what seems heat 
□nder the circumstflnces : an<l the seeming la 
dftermin*«l by instinct or individual exiieri- 
ence, eotipleal with immediate sensation. All, 
then, that seneatiuus mean for the animal, is 
summ<Ki up in Haying that the senHntion i« 
useful as (he sign of the nee<l of a certain kind 
of action. The asmcinlion of a given kind of 
sensation with a given kind of action results 
from iiKlividnal or aneestml expcrienee ; bat, 
in forming this association, not the whole of an 
experience need be remembered, but only so 
much IL8 shall gene as a sign of a given sort 
of action. The mouse, even If it Bed ftoro the 
cat, not by Inallnet. but vohmtaHly. would stUI 
not need to viituidize caLn, but only to remem- 
ber so much of the <<enHationfl amused by n cat's 
|ire-sunee eu should suffioc to arouse the right 
action. 

On the other band, if a given action is to 
be not automatic, but voluntary, the action 
must be comvivable clearly and In detail. If 
this is so, it will follow that the memory for 
ideas connected with muscular sensations, aud 
so for actions, both bodily and intellectual, 
would not merely be capable of substUution 
for %isuali2od images, but would normally tend 
to Imj bo substitute^!. In fact, if a visualized 
image were the ' most perfect form of mental 
repn^-sentalion ' for spinre relations, then geo- 
metrical H-'tlection and dellnition would be a 
nselesK amusement In alt case^ of small o^>- 
jertfi. Tht* other facts noted above, such as 
the relative [Kiwer \m ulenliry wilhout beiii'* able 
to visualize, seem lo us capitbU- of ex|)lann- 
tion in a similar fasiiion. by the relative preiHin- 
derance of ihc memory for actions, and conse- 
ijuently of relations (which we know by virtue 
of our own bodily and mental actions). o%'er the 
memory of the contents of bare fteiiaation. 

But we have said nothing of Mr. tiallon's 
compoaite photographs, of his researches on 
assoriation, or of the many other topicfl that 
render his liook not only very amusing, but 
es]>eciaily instnictive. as showing huw what in 
tbc faamls of another man would be mere dilet* 
tanleism becomes lu the bands of the m:islL>r a 
very valuable series of contributions lo science. 
Ami with these suggoetions we must leave a 
\iiry pleasout to|)ie. 



JtTLT 20, 1883.] 



SCIENCE. 



83 



STOWBLVS MICROSCOPICAL D/AG- 
JfOSIS. 

eoyii-ai diaanotis. hy Coarles H. Stow- 
■U., M D,, ana Lolmua Rked tiiTowcLL, M.S. 
Detroit, G. S. DatU, 1883. S^D3+U8't-M p.. 
10 pi. 8*. 

The title of thi-s l>aok led us to ex|iect n 
work iipccially referring to the R|]plIoj) lions of 
tlio ttiicmscope in niMlIcal [trncU<M>, anil we 
felt tlial a gofxi book of thnt 8co[>e would lie 
wetc-ome aiul valuable. Ah in the i]|>L-iiing 
sentence of tin- prefiHT Professor StowcII say« 
it lina liecn liis giKKl fortune to be no situate], 
diirinj; Uir pn.st few years, tliac liis entire time 
bus lieen devotetl to the study of histology 
and niicn^«co|iy, with R(iefi.tl reference lo the 
microscope in ilit relntioii to the practico of 
ror-dicine. onr flutiripatJonK soenied confirmevl, 
nnd the expectation nddud, of fiudiiig much 
uvw and ori^iioat mutter. An exuniiuiiLiun of 
ttic budy of llju book was disappuinLing. be- 
c»iMH> it iinve us aequuintjiuee with contents so 
luisccUuneous ami varied thnt we wi-re re- 
laiadcd of those su'calletl 'happy familiea ' 
whore di»cordniil iisisocintet' live in ooinpnlsory 
peace, — aoruftbiui; (piilu unlike a naiiinil anti 
nell'pi-0]H>i-tioned aK-^enibliige. 

The first ei}.'lily-lw(> pages alone deal with 
cllntcml micni^C'opy, nnd wt: think iioi snlis- 
fftrt<irily ; for the treatment is hiirned aud 
iitcnmplete, tJionj^h certjiinly accnrnte, whnt 
there is. The bent [tnrt i« the few pAgcs ou 
nriniiry <le]K>^il«, with the nccoinpHnyiot; ad- 
mirable |>Ute9 by Mm, StoweU. Th« portion 



i.>n pamHites and tumors is extremely ii)«d«> 
qnattt. The three specim-'Ds of JVHio*lex fig- 
ured, ijinst have encotinlered some fii^hlAil 
disaster before they were drawn. Vt'v re^i-et, 
tlial, instead of .ill thi». the author did not 
prc|>are a trnnslnliou of Bizzozero's .Vanua/e 
di mleraaeopia dtnira. 

'riie hulk of the Ivook is mode up of botani- 
cal articles, Uy >r>'ft. Stowell. on starch, wheat, 
and variou)) medicinal plants. These M-: pleas* 
antlj written, and the lllnatrations display llic 
authoress'^ skill in dranini; ; but we rulits In 
theao, an in the other parts of the volnmc, any 
delliiile piiqicwe, either of text-liook writinff 
or original research. In ihls connection, we 
are imprusiMHl by the absence of references to 
seientilic lileniture, 

Part iii.v by Mr. Walmsley, describes the 
melho'ls employed by him in the commercial 
manufncturo of inicroscoiie alidcK. It is ex* 
treinely elementary, awl the method's most 
employed in scientiflc biolog,v are iu large part 
unmentionetl. The &ame »uhjeot of methods 
baa be«u far better treated by aumeroiis pre- 
vious writeix. 

In sliorl., we are ijniti? at ft loss to ditoover 
the rai»on tl'Plre of this pli>aHnnily nnd clearly 
written, as well .ns beanlifidly ilhi»trntod work. 
The new and original malliT which we IiKiked 
for, after reading the prefncc, we have tiot 
found ; yet the tactn and figui-es seem all lo 
rest u|>ou i>er»onal obwrvaiion. 

To the amateur microscopist, the hook may 
well serve as a {Kuide to certain things not else- 
where so ivell desuribeil. 



WEEKLY SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. 



MATHEMATICS. 
OlassUlcatlou of surfacAs— In a memoir eon* 
taliioti In the Abhandl. kAit. xkail. wis*, zti Ikrtln 
fur 1968, M. Christoffcl ireAted uf the cln.stIflc.tUun 
of furffcofj! \ry fnrmulaling tlm chanjci^ which tuuk 
place in ii geodetic (rlnngle nn ih« surfnoe n-h4>n it 
waa iltii|>laceil or muTnl along on tbo lurfacv. M. 
Cbriacoffel wiw thus Ie«I lo a ciMslllotlon of surfarrs 
whirh iHciilrd llietii iiitu fourRruiips. Thi< Hrst group 
enniAlneil .ill surface* upon which no lUHplBccrnnrnl of 
s Si^Gtlc triiuigle coutil take place without altering 
UitilrlaiiKlA;(bearr<m(l eronpfonlalii«(l»urfiu»»upon 
which a geoilfitic triangle nili;hi \v diiplscfvl withtHit 
allnraiJon, prorldeil iu angle* moved uiwii certain 
(Icieniilnatfl curves; the thlr<Jxn>ui) evntnlncd lur- 
faCM upon wMcIi the giroii«tlc trinngle nii)i;ht be dii- 
pUccd wiihoul alteration In a sinsly lnflniti> numbnr 
of wayn; and llie fourth Ef^'up coutaincil surfaces 
npuu which the triangle could b« diiplacod in %,nj 
auaa«r wUhoui alUtratlon. In the prHont paper, 



U, V. Mansuldt rtvite* thl« cla4tl6cAtlon, nnd vliow* 
tliat Uie aurfwc^ omlaint^l In the third and fourili 
g;ranin an* idcnticiil. and that they Include all aur- 
(aoi-a wlih a i-onxlanl muiuunt of curvature, and only 
lhf«e. AIko he fIihwi Uiat tliu •«>cond ki'">*1' '^un* 
lains all siirfacea wbich ore dnT6lo|>able ii|K>n imr- 
iticeA of rotation which have nut a cotuuni measure 
of curratuie, and only thpRC. TIk author further 
revises a pap«r of Weingnrtcn'd. correcting an terror 
whfcli appeared there. — {Jttura. rtine ang. math., 
xciv. 1.) T. L. [74 

PffTSICS. 

Ueetrkity. 
Aurora borvali*.— ProteiMir Lem«lrdm has now 
given A MUTienbat dclAllnl account ttt his apparatus 
and experimenu hi Lapland. He and other* had 
yeara acn In Uut country obwrvM a peculsr liimlDoa- 
Ity, which b« calli 'pfaospboraBcanl.' In Ih^ form of 
' tiny flaniM ' playing al>oat the topa of imall moun- 
tain*. 




As lonK a&o m IS7t an ^iitapt wM nMMie to kwlst 

Ui0 pitMliictiiiii o( lh« aurora tipun ttieM hllttopi; but 
ttta resalu ofalalned were not, lo •rlf^nllAc men tn 
gAiioml, eiiUivlir sft(i>fiicuirr. Acconllnfrly, in lt)SS, 
I'ruf. LenutrOiii |ir«p3i«d to np^*t blx cxp«>rinicnLi 
Upon A mon cxuri)ile<l sralc. 

Upon itiet'ipof Oratiiiiturt M'^tmuln (Ut.. 67" :^l': 
long,. 27" 17'.3 t-asl of Ure«nwlrh). »boiK 640 in«ien 
abov» sptt-l«T«l, lie Uiil out, upuii iniulntora rai«ri] 
about '^i m. iihove the ^ronnil. & bare cttpper wtnt 
tn thD form abDvrn In Ihe llltutrnllnn, ttii> irlret 
beine ktKitu 1.5 m- np%n. The a>«a corirn^ Eii lht< 
Wky wiu about tHiO i(|aare metro*. Tlie Hiujtlo win) 
vbfcli nuiih' ii|i iblfl >plral was provided vritti niinirr- 
oiu poliil* itoMerwI <iii; au>l On? Inner «n<) wae ci»n- 
n*cL«iI bj Ml liistilali?al line with lite obMrning-ctaiJuo 
U the fool of llie mountain, wtH^rn Ui« ofrcult ran 
tfaivuglt ■ i^nlvanumuifr ami Into Uie eanh. 



AIIHAH'IKHII.NT or WinHlt. 

From tlift dar tlie nptiaratui viof DnMieiJ, viz . Dec. 
fi, "llirtv a]>p4!an>(l nlmott ev«ry itijibl a yeltowlab- 
while liimlno«ii<r arottml th« »ninnilt of the iiioun- 
Uin, wlilk- Dv fiicli liiinlnosiiy wa^ M'en around 
any '>ni> iif ib^ »ih«n! Tin' Unimex vmi-e variabl« In 
Inti'nsi Ljr, nnit In conitrnnt o*C)llni!nn a-< ihoiw nf a 
ilqubl Hit. Three tluii's It wa« u-»ted, 2) miles ofl In 
«oiiLh-4:a<L, by a Wn-dv ■pi-cErrvvop^ (imall itiix with 
two priMn»|. anil It rMurnwl a falnlly ciiiitinuous 
Hpccrrnm fnim D to F, In wbk-h thi; atimml linn 
A ^ 5My with ooft variable Iiitvn^ky wai obn^npd." 
TlM galvanometer, m(?anH-biic. shown] an extremely 
variable pcwittve nirrent from the wire at the lop of 
the mountain to tlic eaitli. 

An attempt waa niaile U> determine approxlniKtaly 
tfae elHtromolIve force of thU rurrent by ocoAslonallr 
Inlrodurine Into Ilia circuit a Le<:l«nch€ element, and 
wbsvrviog thr rliani;*i llius iirrxlureil. A« Uie iuiula* 
lion of lii« liiiir liuutin^ Up tbi' mouniMin waj not 
^ml, lioworer, we must accept with rautlon. as Prof. 
I<flmfttrom admiU, the ruKuUs Lhos obtained. Th« 
current from Ibe nwuntain tnp wxm apparently ■omiv 
timea less, and lometimitt considerably greater, than 
the I^clanvlit^ etcmonl produced. 

Similar re»uUi wen- obtalneiJ at PletarlntiiDturf 



Nfoiinlain liVfi mHi«i above tJie aM. In lai., n^° 
IW.O; long.. •i'<' 17.3 uat of Gfeonwlchl. wher« a 
imalicr <<iiri-ftil of wire wa* um-i1. 

There vwmii in tw very lillle dotibt that Prof. I-em- 
strum ha« ^ncitvdnl in prt-dncinn the Burvni at will. 
or nlhrr In aMisifng nature to proilm-* II. Soitia nf 
the cnitcliifcUin* which he drawn fn>ni liiitex[kcritncnl 
hiiWi'Tcr, will, no doulii, Ixi rt-ofived with caiula 
not bw.-aiwe iLey tet fonh any thine In 'ImIC ImprHb* 
titil>>, but tfccarrie Die cxiieritiienla ileicribed seont l»0 
few and ritu^h to dt^cldi^ the matter Iwymd a douhl. 
Tlitts be believer Uint " Ihe rUelricilf/ which dcKcnds 
Into the auninti belt |ih>i clr<?uiu|Mil»r belt of maxi- 
mum auroral aclivilyj i« Ibc jrHmmi/ cau*e nf the 
^realeai part of the lerrmtrlnl currrtit. and, ihniiiKh 
this, of the variaii'tn» of tlw tiiacml-Uc ftMiicnu." 
Uorenrer, Ondiiig tbnt lu sevurnl <;*•<■« iilrt«?rvci» In 
din't>ri>nt siatlunft werr near misuiklnf: •liffercnl auro- 
ral arct for the fame one, bo roncludeB thai" al( nieu- 
nrrmnnls of th« heigbt of the nurorn, calculnled on 
iboMr with a lotip biue north and sniilb. are alwa; 
CfToneou*. as the two observers nmer Mfl tho tttO' 
anivra. And even those calculations which ai« 1>a*«r<t 
on (he lueasur^mentii of the Insight and leiipih of an 
arc from one potnl, aod the hypotheKl* that the arr 
extends around Ihe mafnetfc pole, miin be e«>nsld- 
ered v«ry uiirpllablo, an no lativfaetory in«w<'r e. 
I>e given aft to what results would have been rdilalii 
«llit4e farther north or south. This Id sImj iltn ei 
witli auroiae with louf! biuai vvt and west," c*'^ 
He says, Ihorefure, "That tbn heiKhl of the aui\>ra 
bon^lls Is very variable I fully admit, but in my 
opinluu It has Im-«u i;r<riitly ov>.>r-riiti mated," 

It iH>ems probable that a nrrat many jwople Incline 
ton finiilar o|iinion,' and will merely rcgmt that Pr>d. 
I.tf-niMrum has not given them some lidter founda- 
tion for their dUbclief. For Piany yeaiv, however, 
tlie doetriiie has Hfceii current tbnt aurora* frf|tiet>tly 
exist at a hei|;bL of u hundred milea or uioreinnd Uli.- 
tululnnee of Prof. Lemslnim's present argumenu 
noniiift suoh a belief luost have be«u old fur a long 
time.* 

On several M<*aslon8 II wai olwerved by Prof. Lvin- 
slniiu's party that ibv peculiar Bpe<.'in>*«op1c auro- 
ral line "was relurnetl from evinry ijnarter of llw 
horlxoiital plane, (aiid> even from Uie xeniUi, ttfUmil 
ana aurora h'elnn vMhtf." 

Another tvhcnomenou of much Interest Is a " pecul- 
iar phosphorescent 'shine,' or diOuaed ltiiHluo«liy, 
which |K>M«es*rx »e%'cral pliues, but llie general rhnr- 
ncter of which Is a lumlnualty of a yEllow-whlt£ 
color, which renders the night as light as the uiuou 
with a thick hazy sir.'' On one occasion "e»Cfy 
object around fitood out dearly In a yellow-whiie 
liaxy phosphorescent luuiloosily of i|ukkly-shltiiiig 
Intensity." Apparently no spectroscope wa'> at hand 
at this time; tiiit on nnoilier nl^ht, when a similar 
'shine,' le«H hrlglil, but still BUfBclcnt to Dearly ob- 
scure the stars u|»ou tbc boriion, was se«n. an at- 
tempt to di«Corer the auroml line was uusiicretatul. 
It is trie that llie spectro9cope useil was iLOl. well 

> IVm. ray. Me., 1ST»4S, >n. 9K. 




JOLV SO, 1833.] 



SCIENCE. 



8d 



■dapM for tli« purpow: and Prof. LnnurSm st- 
tribiit«a tlie pbenonMiion to tbe UUM origin u ibe 

Prur. Lcimtrtei refen to Gronemau's meteoric 
Uieory of lb« xuronk, uiil no iluiibl CfJiiEililvni It to 
be d»t[io«Hl of Uy the trxpcriniriii* atrove dexrlbed. 
Il bM|>pi.'ii«, however, IhKt Ui« saina niiinhur of .Vci- 
turr roittatiis mn itriicte from Dr. Urunetnan. in 
which hn Bifs, "I b«llMv« I hiir« pr»ve<l by this 
naearcb that there exiati^il with th« «iiror» of Nor. 
I7i Lti8z, co.imic i1>hu pa,A<itni: ihrouj^h the upp«r 
•tratA of our ftttii'»[>hnrc with iinrat v^tucitf. «iiil 
lltrlnft, anconlinK to the niri*t iiit«r«>lii)f|: ubservnUun 
of Mr. ItiitKl Capron. 'U>i> iiiuitl gr«r)i line' of the 
aurura ijH-olruiu:" and. further, "It is rarj remark* 
kble tbnl thi* fxperiinenl cnm«* nt lh« ttaine time 
fts.tho intiTt^-sting cxperimenl of Pruf. Lenisttum, 
ebowiitg th«t el«i:ir4c currents mk able to give a 
d«veliipiu)>iit of ll^lit In our atmoiph«re, ]>o«s«»!tin|; 
the fame number nf undiiUtinns in a Mctrnd aa the 
auroral light. Now niir fottit'orolil lifing part of an 
ttorora, it icivc« a sironjter pro'>f of the onKin of tluit 
pbenoiiiMiion than Pn>f. I.cm«truin'i' expodmi-nt, tbo 
gTMi&it attrnrtlon of whieh is that vrc an- aUIr to 
Rptat It arbllrarily and with our own means- Var- 
thvr. I h»ve always maiatain^ that el«ctricUy, «x- 
ciLed i>ji*lly hy friction, mual lie oiii> of the cauaei of 
the auroral llaht . . . ami ft tremfl tit me T^ri- plan- 
tibln Uial co«iuic maltur, appruaohlu^ the «arlh, in- 
duces "loctric currpnti-i through the air, Thttrefore 1 
tliitih th,it Ihe reault« of I'rof. I^mstrom are in full 
harmony with the Idea of a cosmic origin of auronu^." 
— (jVuiur*, Slay H, SI, June 7.) k. a. u. [75 

0HEUT3TBY. 

A new add oocwrlni in Ui« jttioe of tbe 
bweL — K. O. Lippmann claima to har«> di)>co<verH 
a new arid In the Incnifttatfoni which form in Ihe 
rvapuTaUnjc-paiti from Uie juice o( unripe or par- 
tially i)eCfimpo»«d beet-roobt. Anuly*«8 gave reiulia 
corresponding to otycllrle acid 

( COiiU - uo, - c v 1 , 

\ CW>1I coou/ 

obtiloed by ['awo)(«cl; by boitlog dilorcllrtc acid. — 
[Berlchte deuUch. cJwm. y<*cH«A., xvl. 1078.) c. »•- «, 

[76 

ClimoIlQe • dcf ivatlvea. — v. v. Rlcbl«r found, 
Uiai. by wanning nn aqnixiiu Kolutlnn of the dlae'>- 
dtloriile of onhnph^-nylpropiolic acid, ■ carboxylic 
•eld of clnnolln9 wa« furined. a ■ubsUnu! which he 
nguda a* an analogue of cblnollne. 






C.1U, 



,cn*cu 



Onnolhw. 



— [UfrleliU detiUck. dem. ffv»rU»ck., xvi. ^ ] 
c. r. M. [77 

Compounda of tli« kotouM with li]Fdramin& 
^Tlir avii'in nf plifiiylltyiJraiine upon ketone* leemi 
lo txi 4nnlr>gnuft to Hint of liydroxylamine. With 
AceLoiHi, I]. (tfflHncgger obtaiti«d the compound 



CiL H iXf Hr(CH tl t« wlileh was deeompoMd, by warm- 
ing with diloti-acido. Into acviotm and phenylbydra- 
altie- Acfttophi-nnnpbcjiyDtydmxine r^MiUM frou 
the action of phenjlhydraxlms upon aceiophfnoo. 
(Mnnntliol gats th« substance CM! ,N,llCi U i ». 
WiUi diiuethylhydraziue, acetopbenon furtued 

ehlefiy (CH,J,N.cf;|[*'. — (CericAff dtvttt/L ckem. 

OMeiUelu, xvl. 6(11.) c. f. ic. 178 

MBTAXUCrRGY. 

Bolphuilc acid from pyiltea. — T1ilt« are ver; 
evident advanlaxi^s in uRin^ pyritra inUriul of brim- 
stone for Uie manufaciiirv of sulpburic lu-ld, provided 
(he r'tghi kind of pyrites Is at band. Thu <iuali(i«« 
neoesasry an- a high prr o-iit nt nulphur nnd inin, la 
order tliat the cost of handling ma; l>e a minimum. 
Lead, zinc, calciutu. and magnesium can only be 
prrsent In rery small ifiianlity, as ihey will roast to 
sulphates, and so cause u loss of sulphur; moreover, 
tUey lesFiO) the raluR of tbe Iron as a by-pmducL 
Copper to tbe amount of two or lliree per 'X'nt la 
fount] in snuie uf tln^ l>e»t pyril«-s fur this pur|HMi#, 
and Is extracU'd ab a hy-prfnliict. Hut the ei>|>oclal 
elenieni to be avoided la arsenic, both on account of 
tile rnpid corrosion cf the •ihambers, and thu render^ 
ing of Ihe&cid until for many uses. Hie Cost of a 
tun of oil of vitriol made from hrlmsione la estlmoted 
BttlilW; made from pyrites, at *!?,22. A number 
of Inralllltf* iti America furnish pyritea of goiid ipial- 
Ity. The only alterations %u th^ plant arc ih<- a4Mt- 
tionof a Glover tower, and ihc lubslitutiou of sniuible 
kilns, of which Illustrations are given, a» well a« of 
tin- S<-1iafrner sbelf-burnera. — {Sno- win. jonm., Jlajr 
&. ) It. II. It. [79 

Tbe Heiidera«>ii gaa-fumace. — Thta furnace 
aLienipis to Atiain to the higbrst heats required In Ihe 
shortest puvsibk- time, and with a complete utilixa- 
tion of ihe fuel. Tliese objects are renrhed by the 
uae. of sejiaratc rngine«- one fur ilte supply of air for 
the genenulnn of the gns, and the other for Its com- 
bustion. The details "f a trial and I llusi rations o( 
the furnace are given. The ra>ri!iuni{>(hm of fuel, three 
buiidredwetght per hour for the two-ton furnace, la 
low. — (£j»y. F/iln. jwam., May Jfl.) u. II. B. |80 

OaOLOOT. 
Tha minea of Cuba. — Sailrrain give* a brief 
arcoiini of thi> mine* now workctl. or that hare been 
worked In the past, nt least so far as known hy tha 
tieneral btupectinn of mlne«, Tbe ' mlnan di- asf.illo 
y de acetiM (oi)>) bit«rniiio»ca' are divid<il into 
ulnss o( aapbalt, of petroleum, and of naphtha, and 
number seventeen in nil. The pmapecis are enn- 
sldered favorable. al>otiL eleven or ibtrteen hundred 
looa being procured anDually. 'Hiey are 'Itusled 
mostly In tbe provinces of Pinar dej Rio. Mataniai, 
8antaC')arii,l*to. Prfuetpe, and llabana. Thecopper- 
mlnes are thirty In numlmr, almost all slliiated In 
tbe protinre xf ^ntlsgo dc Cuba, and a few In Satila 
Clara. The mineral eonslsla of reins of sulphate 
of copper, oaidenfnopper. nail re copper, ca/bimatn of 
mpper, and Indications of copjier p> rites, all uf which. 



86 



SCIENCE. 



tVoi- u., So. 



oi A «crtiun ilcplti, are aupposetl to unlie ia one vein 
of sultihitt« iif mpper. Tlie Imn-tnlTim, sevenu^n tn 
numln>r, src all siruuei] In tlie province of Suitijigu 
do Cub». Tlie Iron outiklsts uf lar);c •itfNifhrlKl 
ntuwf! nf oltjctu utd mii^neilc tmn an. Man|iKnes4> 
I9 rery al>unilaiit in ttiv {iroviiie*' uf SKuliitf n (|« Cutit, 
biltofiljr two lulne* haw U^tii wjiislorwii oti acctuiit 
of lU small rrimmerciHl Titlitc. Tliem ore Are p>UI- 
mliies •ItUBtetl iti iho provlo»ia nf Sauiiiigo >Iq Cub* 
itid Santa Clara, wIiom f»r«9pects sr« coimldereit 
gooaf, but wlikh are Doi worked ai present. Guano 
I* Worked In H\t^ islet* Roiitti of Cutxi, uiid 104 work- 
in<n were miiplo>«il on tbia vnrk lain. year. — (//irne 
rewfin ntfncr, hla ■/« Calm.) 1. p. m. (81 

The PMBoolt (Arivo&a) miuing rvgioo. — A 
map iif this fxgloii. uiil) Hoini* accoiiiil of ilie roctu 
and Tfins, liatt b«vn publlsbM by Julni T. Itlandj'. 
TIjo rocks aiiiwarlo li« mHlnlygranltt-s, arglllltiHi, ami 
«CtiI"U, Tbe aiKJnrlty oC tli« vehiit trvn'l nyyroxl- 
matf^ljr tiorib and aoiilli. In Ib^ *lrHtiti<-d niric* 
many veins M-rur having the airike and dip nf the 
encli'slnu rock, Inn ib«)' are of linilu-d ext«tiL In tlic 
Peck district Die veini are of qitnrtx, carrying sliver 
In tbe fiirm of I'liloriilci, ftuli>hidn, and in galena. 
Tbe arcilllte ha« Imm-ii eroded away so that some of 
tlieie veiim Mlnttd iw miirli an fifty feet blgh, wbllu (bey 
•re not more (ban six fi-«t thk-k al (be ba*e In Ibe 
grankv rid^u next mirlh, the veins ar^ qiianz and 
barltt. currying Bilrer, while In the sntinotd rocki 
thc>- are part hIIvit and pirl gold b«ar{ii|;. Tin* rfhia 
in lliG Uouiil I^nion granile aro prtn<l|knllyg(>til Ix-nr- 
lag. ibe gold Wing free on the lurfuce, bm In iqfrilo in 
depth. Tlie cbltrf portion of tb« rrTnalnlnj; reina in 
the rr^lon ar* mtxttil gold and »ilver tM-jwing, «ome 
belnc aa innrh a» thirty feet in thickness. Some 
velna of copjwr pyritps also occur. — (TVans. Amer. 
inaL tjtfn. mjr., Ito»ton mettlng.) m. R. W. 182 

OEOOBAPHT. 

RuHian cartofEiapbr.— U. Michel Venuknff 
prf»cnta frequent brief report* of iluMlan exptora- 
tlons and topographic work (o Ibe Preiich geopuphl- 
csl cocriety, and tuu recently described Ihr; animal 
exhibidnn of nutrttnomicnl and geoKraplitca] works 
hetd last Apifl in tlie Winter palace at St. P«lcir»> 
burg. The nurnliFTof cxbibiui exet^Kleil one hnndred 
an«t forty, ammiK which th« more notable w«m a 
route. tiuip nf ICuMJn In l£uropc { I : UOfiO.lXVl), in twou- 
ly-Hve shceu, of which seventeen are finished; the 
laKvit thMts of iht) special maps of the name coun- 
try ( 1 : JS0,O(»). published under the <lfrectlon of Geo. 
Slrelbeitftky; the general map of Huanta in Aala 
(IM.aiO.OiNt), In elsbmliceta, extendlnstolat. dO^ H; 
maps of ihe provinces of Finland and Bcsaarabia; 
of tbi- )M>niTi*ulB of Kainlirhitkn, preparnl nl Irkntak ; 
of the lerriUiry of Semlp^latlnak, lithographed at 
Omsk; the CliiueaeaudPerviau frontiers (I :&t<l,O0O); 
and many oiben of rvflona concerning which our 
chief knowled^ comn from Ruiatan stir^eys.^ 
w. u. u. [B3 

UrvUe.) 

If Otea. — Profeuor J. E. IfOuraa of Wanliingloii 
announces that b« bu In prepsrallon a work nlat- 



Intc to American pular exi>«dlllon«. The BuMlan 

itvpeiiat gposr^phical society of SL I'eirr" :- 

gesli tliai Out ub!>ervationii of the ini •\ 

politr stalloiis iMf pml'tiigi-al over another )>^iir. <>ii lIit- 
pronml ihiit a ikin]c)i> ye<ir s oboer^ationn ooTi^r too 
short n time to aJIurd really saiJafaoiory cumparalivo 
results; and, m<ireo>'er, it will be necessary for some 
of th« more advAnc4-d parties to make an end of their 
nbacrvntloiis Ix-fore tin: full year Is out In nnlcr 10 

br Biini of relumlrtg tinrliig ilie present autumn. 

Report* fri'iii Uurinic S^a Indicate that the winter 
th^n: hu been a w^vere one. Hnrly in tbe spring 
there. wnj> an ubundaiioe of Ive as far »omb an St. 
Paul Isiaod. Very few wbales hatl he«n taken op 
l<i latest advifM. — The reicirt of lli« court of 
Inqnlry Into Uie i-lrcumManoN of the low of the 
Jcunnelte and llie death of menibvn of ihv exprili- 
ttun U jii«t printed. It di>rs not contain th^ private 
Journals of Uc Lnnic and Collins, nor the papers of 
the liitter which were before ibt.- court. The text of 
tbe report ha* born mottly (uminarlr.eil by ibe dally 
pre&s, and contains nothing new of itn|>ortance. It 
Is presunieil dial the log-tioobA, and rfOiirtls nf oli»0r- 
vBilun*. et4.-., are reserved for a report on the resuita 
of the viiyngB, to b« Imn'aftCT tiiued. The most 
valnable thing In the whole dooumi>nt, whieli contains 
a nunibvr of iiiapt< and dtH^ruins, Is the map nf iho 
Ixsna delta constructed by Nlndemaiui, which run- 
tains additUmi to and correcUoua uf Utc map« in 
praMnt use. — w. n. n. [fi* 

UsO) 
NotM. — The Revue RiSo|^pbh|uo presents its 
■ubxcnlx-r* with a new cliart of Aula on a scale 
n.tt.UHi.iXiU. AKIiiMigb conUining anine new 
mader. it U not up to date, and is of very Imiwrfwt 

mechanical execution. TI10 Ku^siitii explorer 

KniK^bln leli?gr.*plis fnun Krasnovoitsk, tital, in cnikS* 
ing the sleppe lM-[w«>:n Cbantbui and UeIioI. he liaa 
disrorerud ihat Kalliin was mistaken in suppuiing ll 
(O be triivereed by sn ancient, channel of tlie Oxus, 
What tbe latter explorwr. three years ago, took for 
the dry l>ed of the Charxhul-Darla, Is renlly only a 
plain bonndcd on the north by a series of elevations, 
and K|>pearlng tn liav« no d«nnlle limit* toward the 

south. Poianin nnd Skasei are abi>ut (o cx|tlt>re 

tbe Chinese province of Gan-su and the iidja'.'Viil 
pnri« of Mongolia. Sukbaclicff, a yoitn^ |irx>pne(or 
u( Siberian gold-mine*, has coniribiiti'd Hn.iiOli niblca 

toward the exiwnscj of tlie esplur;iti<in. The 

topographic and gt^de-lc wi-rk in northern Khora>sao 
and simtlieni Torke-tan being finished, the iwundnry- 
llneb«tw<>en Russia and Penlafrom the Caspian ti> 
tliu Herl Rnd Klver nf Afghauistan will be eilabil^bod 
imnie<Iial«ly. ^^ Tli« dellnllu entablixhtuKnt uf tbe 
boundary between the Rti^ian province of bcmlpa- 
latinsk and the Chinese district of Tsungari will also 
be concliidet) this "uminer. By recent ciuiventlons 
a considerable part of the basin of the upper Irlish 
River li aimesed t.i Russia. Topographers me busily 
engaged in determining Its llmlla, niille other* con- 
tinue the wtnk of drm»rcjilioii of ilic (IU(rict» uf 
Kitldja and TarLiagalai, which is alrvailv well ad> 
vancnl. StII) others are developing the ofllcial litnlu 




b«twr«n tbti bnslns of th« Syr Dfcrl:» and th« TSrlm 
rffers. — w. n. d. |S5 

Oxna and Caapian. — A fwwnt rfixirt on ili* ief- 
oJtiiit^ invlensikvii by Ibe Kutsl.ui GtiKinreri to t|e- 
icrmltiP i( Ihff Oxus (Amutlaria) tx»s\tl bn tiinieil 
fmtn liB prosontrhann«l, whtrh le«d« to th« seit of 
Aral Imo the Usbol cliAUiiel, luxiIInK to lit- Cx9<{>inii 
ScA. <lAcli1e« tItHt it I* itiip<wiiblv wUtwul extended 
riineitt) worliN. A citnMl would liave to Iw con- 
rucbftl for « I^ngth of over twr> Imndrcd versU, 
a coat of at IcAal fifiCAit lo ttvQuly uiitlinn rubles, 
before it wnulil W pii'silile lo ilivurt tlie Ostu* froio 
ilapre*ciiteo«n!*. — Ifdm-ni. -j^oyr. ntlUA., 1688.231.) 
w. u. D. [06 

ZTotes. — Jo«»pb Thompson's pArtjr hn* b««n beard 
tioDi. lutvini; boeii obliged to retreat tu Slonitiisn, oa 
ftCCouiit of boslilitler oxckad by a camvAn in advanre 
of thrm. All well, and would make anotbcr aiart 

witli a itiflflreiit caravan. .Schwdnfurih has made 

aKrl'?iillBc journey (rMOi Cairo lo MIna Tobruk iu 
ryrtimioa,-^^yew» baa btvii reo-ivLil from Uie 
delayed lulian eipMllllon m Abyiulnlaand ihe cMist 
of tlui Ited Sea, accortlluR lo nbicb the |>rliicipal 
otSdat party are ilvtaiiiru] at Dnbra Tabur by King 
John. vMUi th«> fixplorer .\ntonellC baa sttccreded in 
gi'tllng away from Aesab and In travetling Ibrough 
lli« Aus»a couutry, prcrlou^ly rio»«d to Eiirdpeaiis, 
to ScIkm -^^Or Pwjitv bai relunied to Uukeiiga, 
■eeording to a letter forwarded by Portii^nM traders 
from Malanuc and n^lll alionly depart for Euroi>«. 
^— The {{«rmaii traveller Fli>i;el Ini* returned to 
tfae eon»I tmm hU journey in Adnmanr. — -The 
BrIiIMi goYenimrnt h*» annexed the terrltorjr lying 
•outh-en.^t of Ibv fomicr limita of Sierra Leone as 
Faru-i ll)p Lihwrinn bminilnni, hf^tM-ifvn that and (be 

ShcHtro I*liinds. Several French tradliig-alallons 

bavo. rvcenily been c«iabli>bcd on the Futa niallon 
ooaat, northward from Sierra I.eone, In the bope of 
Opening a lucrative tr^lBc with the rich Interior dis- 
tricts. Tlie French naval Burgeon Cotln bait hcen 

Intrusted with a mlulon to the old Kold-t'ountrj' of 
BuR! o« the upper Senegal. ^— The Morocco aii- 
thorilte* have permitted 8paln to nndertakn a toptv 
graphical infiMUGr'Tinn of the coantry amiind Hanta 
Cniz de Mar Pu'iuena. on lli« coast opposite tho 

Canary f<landv. Tlie kb«<livM ha> appointed 

the mloi-vter of (be interior and former governor 
of the Soudan, E^oub Pacha, to the prcaldency of thu 
8aclA<(d« gfographie dv Cairo Th« gvMera] eecre- 

Ury ia Dr. Ikmola. The credits granted for the 

Al^rian ndinlniitratlon, \>y the eommisslon to revise 
(be eatimsles, amount to about twenty-elgbt and a 
tialf million francs, of which about three rnlllloTi 
francs are for purpowf of culonlKallon. The Imports 
lato the colony from all *oureea In IftM were About 
eliibty mlllioin, and (lie ezporta about flfty-iijc 
mjlliinit. Tlie custom* r*c«ipt« fmro all aourvea 

were about t«n million franco. LleuL Angelo 

Ckrdozo at the Purtu^nme nary has juat relumed 
from MooimM^ne, Hhere he ba« l>eeii eight monibi 
flrgi^d in e^tploRvtion* In Sofala-land. [Ie a«ceDded 
Imi S»ptemb«r from Inbambatra toward Uulaniula 



and P«cbano, a]onE;*the^n»untaSnK'Io Martngva, and 
aoroas thd 8AblH KU-er Ui (■oanlm: ■ hence, de*cend- 
ing the Oorongoza to Sufaln, be returned to Inbam' 
bane !>} tlie avaeniuL -^— llerr Behie hai juit beeu 
Mtnt by the Inlenialioiial African a.<iAoclalion to 
relieva Bi>ckflr and rvptace M. JUaluin. whoot! ninii! of 
heallh rwgninis nn Immediate return to Eurn|>«. ^^ 
M. J. Lapeyre, second in command of Ibe Giraud 
expedition, whose health had given way, waa obliged 
to return from .\don to Frauce on ttiAt tcoouiiU — 
w. H. i>. (87 

BOTAWT. 

Byatomatlo hUtology. — Bj (his term, Veaque 
dviiignatra the systi'matiir chutui Rent ion uf plant) on 
the basis of hlsMlogy. The rnriationi uf blstul'-i^cal 
eletu);nts, m re^arvU siu, sbapff, and dUtrlbuilou, 
«Tf Ti In a single genus or species, »n very wide, and, 
vrllb limited exceptions, have not hitb^rUi been re- 
garded as very useful character* in clasalficntiuii. 
Veai|ue endeavors to nbow by an exaialnnt4on ol tJio 
orden Cnp^ariilaeesr, Crucifeiae, and FrMitkeDtncese, 
that some hUlolngicnl characters are mo nearly con- 
■tant 0* to jiKlify their employment In syxteinatic 
botany. Such, for instance, nr»i th« slomata and 
huin, the mucilage- CO I Is, (be pii]ii>nd>.-oells, the shape 
and eompoalllon uf tbc fibru-vikscnlar bundles, etc. 
But, as was to be expected, the cases in which th« 
hisiologicat characl<>r» arv uncertain are so numerous 
as to l«e discouraging. That the species in mtaj 
gonuracan be arranged Iu natural groups ou the basis 
of their minuto atructurn np|N>.iini to be pretty clearly 
made out by Vr»ijiie'» conlribiitloni. — {Aan. tit. 
not,. Oct.. vi. XV. 2.1 o. I., o. [S8 

Flowers of Aeaoulns glabra. — One of Prof. 
Coulter's studcnu tinds that Hie perfeet tfovers of 
tbc buckeye art: protugynoii». while oilier*, which at 
first sight apprnr prolandmni. rir.nlly have imper* 
fecily formed pistils. The)- an tbu.t potygamxu), 
wUh, It U thou>;b[, a tauduney tu monoiclsm. Beet, 
especially Api*, visit thi>m, but go mity lo nnofiened 
bu<ls, from which they obtain nectar by crowding 
their tongues between tbe petals. " The open flowers 
wore a*o(dc«I, and could only have Iwen (ertilixed by 
tliet'hanee of being near the buds; for the bees had 
evidently learned that the tatter cnnt^ned the 
nectar. ... It is a case of an Insect atlntcled by ft 
fluM-er which It doe* not visit, but may accidentally 
fcrlilize, and ohiainiiig nectar from a Itoner which It 
can neither ferllltte nur obtain pollen from." The 
species is worthy of further utiuly, ^(Aof. (^oirffr, 
June.) w.T. IBS 

ZOdLOOT. 

Olfaotory lobes of Uuflcta and vtrubrsMs. 
— G. Bellunel, In continuation of his two prevFons 
article* {Mtm. areaj. k. Bolv/ntt, IS&U. and AUi 
occod. r«a'c h'neej, 1KS(M41) on tbe olfactory lobe* of 
arthropod*, now reporu hie further observatlona, 
wliicli be has also e^tendetl to vertebruiet. The 
•nme fuiidanM-nlnl plun deirrminm Uiu ulniclnn' and 
relation* of the olfactory loben In both the higher 
ortbropuds and the vertebralea. The oltactorjr and 



68 



SCIF.XCE. 



(Vol- lU, No. 



•omn^unJ DbTM of tba lob«a an resolved Imo a 
fine n-ticulunt. which, gmuprd in crrtalii fpoU. furm* 
wliat ItoDiincI Ciillb the atfaciory glomeruli. Ttio lobe4 
of ■rUir(>[><)da bare &d chiut ixtrilnn with h iliiTiiM 
retlculuni, and sn Inner portion wlib Rlotncrull. lo 
V«rtcbnitca tbi- gaiigtiuu-celU lie wtlbin lUe rvfilon ot 
Ihtt ^lutDomll. In ri>rtfibniu>4 and criuUri^^ns tbrre 
an* numeroiii uuatl, and feuer liirc«, cell*. In In- 
•ccta tbe eletui-iita are of amall or medium sis«. In 
bOlb arUir€>|Ki'l« ami verlelirnU-a tbe Bbraa mUhH«h 
boUi a dirvci and a cnu* ((!kin»ma) communieaiion 
bvtwwn tbi' ulfaciorT and upiic 1oIi«h; liltewlae bo- 
tvriwn tlin iilf»cU>rv lobva nnd tb(> )ilgb«>r reiitn** 
(reniform bodies ol ^w|Ullla. fungiform of Inaetta, aiid 
livmlsfibores nf rcrtt-brates). These rcm^mblnnce.^ 
th4ianih>>rattrlbiit«) to an aualoKT ot fnnctloii, and 
Jiot Vn a inoqihokigiral hoiii'iiwxy liflwt-rn ri-rtrlinitfji 
and anhropoiJii. The ob*ervatlons were matlfi on 
S<|ulIlB, (>r>-]li>tali>a. tb« wl and frog. —(Arch. itaL 
MoL. III. IBI. A wrong tlU« la givt^n at th« bf>ad ttt 
tbe pajRi.) c. a M. [90 

Pratuoa. 

ActloQ of tanaiQ oo Paiameciutn. — H. J. 
Wndiliu^^ion stuu-s, thtii, b; brin^inK a drop of a 
solution of one pan cannkn In four partA glvcM-lne In 
contact with a drop coniaJiiins a ranuu^cluiu. tbe 
motion of ihe Animal it «la|i[M-d. and lb« cilia b>;(-i)iti<< 
beantirully dlsilitrt. The; appiMr (jtiiio Mraigbt and 
Burpriilnsly lirn^;, «<]ual to tliv eburt dianicCGr of the 
body. I'rvvli^usUluasaaUi ibc size and nnm)>er of tbe 
cilia bare been \fry iucorrcct. To kill infiuoria he 
rvcomincnda a satural«d alcobolic solution of buI- 
phuniuf acid; for, If a •mall <)aaniltT be added to 
water, tbe gaa Is set free, and the luitrnal* in tbo 
water polacinKd. He al»o KiHirtJi' an in(;rniiiu> d«vlcft 
lu catch iiifuHorUt: crumbiof very bartl bitknl bisrult 
are put In tbe water, wber« they will be held up by 
conforvai!; fungoid growths aprlng fmni «arb rnimb, 
Uie inftiHoria colb'ct betwr«n Ibc fllamcnla a« In a 
favoiiia rotort, and tbu wliole colony loay b« cup- 
ttirtd by pulling out the crnmb. — (Joiirn. roy. 
mier. (Mf. i>.a.(.. 111. J85.] c. B-ll. [91 

DeaoripUoue of tottfera. — To tbe «(gbt apeclea 
prevloualy dfiacribcd of the gr-nra Flo<cularia, C. T. 
Htidton now adds tbi^t, and gitcs also some notes 
on F. regallD Hudson, Thvae four Ia»t-mentIonrd 
epectca an.- described and figuml, and a aynoptlc 
table of all tbe apeclea la added. In an appended 
note, the author Gonimenta on I^cldy's Acyvlus and 
Oklyuphura (cf. SctKNCR, 1. .'JT). He thinks Ai^yclui 
Is relati'd to Uie lloAcnlea " lU ' nral CUp ' with the 
'Incurved b«ak ' may be fairly said to be tUo buccal 
fuiin«l of a I1iiac;u)e r«duLvd lo the paaM-sstoii of oii« 
lobe, vl2.. Hie dorsal one." The remainder is eon- 
c«ru«d with dulnlli, and with tJie degradation of 
fitrrtaln roliffr*. oomldorml in connection with the 
absence of the iroehal disk. ^ [Jotwn. my. mirr. «of. 
LoMd., Ill 101. J c. ». u. [9a 

Worn. 

Anatomy of O«phyfoana.— Dr. C, I'h. Sluiier 
gives a preliminary notion of liU ob^crvatlnns on tlie 
anatomy of varioni spedM. An abatract will be 



giran of Ilk deSnIlc memoir whan publUbed.— 
(Zoof. nil., »1. ttS.i c. B. u. 193 

AimoUd meaimataa with a ooraL — J. W. 
Frwkm ftnds annelid tnbva fonned on the nni 
youn^ Mycvdlum fragile. At tbe coral gmirs, 
sprvaJs round the Konn-lulM : but the latu-r rto* 
usually ■-•((Ually wlili coral. The prwencM of tb< 
tube* affrx'n the reKuiar srowiJb of tbe coral. Thi" 
ftpMlea of worm rt.ies not apiinu* to have breu deler. 
niinwl. — (.liwrr. <la^. nil. W»a.) r. a. «. 194 

Bpermatogeneala of NemeniDe*.— In an anlcl* 
In the Itrxyu ac. not., 1;*2. Itf.l. Sabalior dp^eribea 
the do^elojrnierit of the niwrmntonta In timi.TH-an 
noriiin. The |mr^ni O'-IU wparate into two pnrtu, iha 
c^'ntnvl Mnsu>pln>r<' and [lerlphtral lji«lli'e. wlik-h bi*- 
coino lude|i< tiOent, and aUni-Ji ihemaelres to the wall 
of Ihe Hiwimliutc. From ibi-ne iMnliea the spcnnatO' 
loa arli« by difterentlalton of the perlpherml pan 
Into spbenilefi. which (.-longale and beev»n> upenna- 
lozoa. In his t)>eor«tical conclusion, the author 
aiiiipu Iho theory fimt adranei^d by Ulitot \Hi»L em- 
Iralhi.. \y»'i), that the onllnai-y rolls are neuter, or 
eumblne bolli sc.vua] eletneuiJt, and thai »'bcn a M-p- 
aratlon lakes plxrat the soxnal priHluel» o.tt ^euer- 
ated. Ui^ makes an addition, howercr, to the tlH-ory, 
by the hypoltieslH thai tbe central i>«>tilun Is female, 
the peripheral male. (Tb-re are many f»ef.s vrbich 
appear at pr^jteni irn^ouctlable with this vi<-w of the 
sexual relatione wlUi in the cell.) — (■/••ura. foy. inter. 
•()«.ioiiJ., April, ll*8.-i.J c. s. M. |93 

VBnTXJIIlATBS. 
Action of alcohola ou the heart. — The rcl»> 
tlve effecta of dlUcrent alcohols uf tbe niar»b-gaa ao»j 
riea of hydrocarbons upon the vimiricle of tlie frog'l 
heart have been compared ejttmri men tally by Kinoer' 
and Saiusbury. Tbe method of experimenting was 
to place th(! heart In a Hny's Umoroeler. and fn«(l 
It with Ihe exirael of dried tHillork's blood until ll 
was beHiing n>>iina]]y; tho ateohol used was ihen 
added to the eirentntiog liquid in tiieb iiuanlities, 
delennlm-d by previous esperlinenia, a< tn completely 
arrest the coiitraciloiuof the heart wllbiu an hour. 
Tlie toxic action of tlie alcohol* uaeil wa* mcaaurvd 
by tbe dose sufficient to arrcM the activity of tlia 
heail. The following rusulu were ubtaincl. Nt 
mat methyl, ethyl, and propyl alcohol, — all three at 
the heart in diastole. Ihe ventricle losing its |iOW< 
to beat spontaneously, and refusing to respond to 
external iiitntilaiion. The excltablJIly of tbe heart 
to electrU-al stimulation la dliuiid>hed. The ' period 
of diminished excliabliity ' l> eliorleoed. The prl^ 
mary eflt'ct of the alitdioh mi the linart U not, 
might be suptMist'd from their therapeutical use 
canllac Rlimulant^, tit lucrcaM tbc fnre^ or frequency 
o( the ventricular contractions. The height of tho 
curve given by tbe tonometer dlmlnhlied sl'-aillly 
from the fin>l applicalJoti of the alcohol, aiid Ihe fi«- 
qiinncy of tlie iMials n-malned utiaflt-clcd, excopt Itt 
the later stages, wb<^u the power of tJie heart to t>e«L 
spoil tan CO us I y was lo>l. With regard to the toxic 
action of tbe dilTiTent ftlrohols, liie foUowinj^ num- 
bers are given [the llgur«s represent the number of 



JCLT iO, 18S&.] 



SCIENCE, 



8B 



minimi of obaolute alcohol in x )iiindr»t| cubic cvntl- 
■tetru of the clrcuUun^ liquid, neceaury to eauM 
«Mn|>)<it« UTvat of Uie ti»art): in«chi;t, 3i<rt,Q; ettiyU 
111; prui>yl Iprlnikry), 5U.S; iu>t>uty>, 11; ift«Mliijl 
(wnyl •iTOhol nl frrmi-ntmdin). •tfi- The activity nf 
tlir lilgltur inumlii>r> of tliv viriL'S IncrskMf rapidly; 
Klltl as thf projiyl, butyl, aiiil aitiyl alimliaU are ratti- 
•titii«iiiii of fusrl uil. Wo liav« eviilrncA of ttif dirMlly 
iiijurl«>ui ftleci of tb[9 impurity of 'irdinitry Kicobolio 
drinks. — ( PracUtioner, %xx. r. &iV. ) w. u. a. [9S 
PiUmoDarT eplthallnm. — Bnz»ill and Oraziadrl 
publlsb a iiai«cliiv(1> I 'j claim pHvrfty f->r ^.truln of 
tliPlr oh»prvati<mn on tliw ImiGpt. We biiTf only lo 
noiiee that ih'iy hnvc nm ^ivn nny h^^alino plnl«!S 
wlfbout imclvt in ibc opitlmliiuii. such as FcuralAck 
ba* ileocrlWI. Tln^y »!*«i i^^in iiuitt iii)Oti Um- prca- 
eiici! anil patttolo^ral hiiportancf of gmiipq of llttlu 
cells, not yut dlfTervDtlatcil iitlu ttie special pultouiiary 
«|>ttli<^lal cells (p!ai«*). — ( Arcli. Uni. blot., lit. iiti } 
a t. U . [97 

Binia 

Uuleculor la^er of the tetlna. — According to 
B«ll"U<.*i, tlie f"rmiili(in nl ili* innpr molecular layur 
at the retina bi-giui in the chit^k on lh« «i^lith <1«y of 
tncahiUon. Al that time then ia a HpeciHl row 
of dear cells Just outaldo the layvr. Tho rvlU in llio 
jtuatlon uf Uia lay<>r illtappear oa th^ nintb day : 
clrnr cells nmlergo fatty degenerail-m of III** 

jclcti*, and di-nppcar by il« twi^Kth day. They 
form tliv imilraiilnr layer, which, huwev«r, (Mititinuci 
lo ciilargr. Koth the Inner and outer molecular 
layer ore penetrated by (i|KIc nerTC-Abrei. Thui li 
pnidoced a itructuraJ nilatlon willi lh« uiok-vtilnr 
layers of the brain. — (^rcA. UaL bioL, ili. 19C.) 
c. *. u. [9B 

The bird* of Toulcak- — In tbls pnper llerr Miil> 
ler has given iia an cluhnratc review nf th« blnlsnf 
thlfl Island, basinl un a cwllcctlun uf sixteen linndrwl 
ftkins of oifr butidifl Hiul ttfiy-fiv*- npaxTli-^. Tb* 
paper i!otitaiU9 many syAt^-mnllt] liol/'S nf Inierest. 
l*bv autlior ha? prcparvU iin cxi^mlcd set of table« 
frviu w)ii<?b lie cnncliHles that rh<! Tonknh hlrdi b»- 
lung ralli« lo the Indo-CbineM «nb re|^i>D than lo the 
Indo- Malayan as glVAn by WAllacB. — \Jaurn. /. 
ormth., XXX. Ir.) J. A. J. 199 



Development of tlw liver and langa- — In 

eonnmnicn wtib bis reaearcbea on the development 
Uic lioily-cavlty Takow tnuln soinB obsurvailons 
_ the livvr and luns-i of embryo*, f rooi the sinus 
v«iio«*i« Ui«rK Rrom out irregular cavities into the 
Miiiiuui tranaveniim, wlileh eiienil Into papillary 
growth)', projcctinff tnlo the pericardial cavity. The 
Iiai'lllm! are, uf i-t»iniM, covireil by a i.'«>iillniialiiin of 
the epltlwliiim of ihf p«rlcardlal caviiy. They afl^r- 
wards itiiiLf into a f[K>ngy mi'^h of tiH^ue, into which 
th« liver exfinU as It grows. The furiber hl-l»ry 
was not (n||oM'--d. but IL Is girobable Cliat tli« hollow 
oulgrowths Irum the siuua veoosus becooie bepallc 
vMsel*. 

Concvmlns tbe lung*, from a stuily of a rabbit 
eiubryo of a little leiSs than tea days, Usliow drawa 



tba fol lowing; eon dual MIS. At Uic liino of the dotnro 
at ttifl 'TordiTdarra,' tb« separatloik of ouAphagua 
Rud trachea i« already indicaled. The Uinx Is an im- 
pMired i*va^iiiatiini of th« ventral wnll of th" * vor- 
denlarm. ' The tnichf a aii<l ibc lung arise at llie tamo 
Lime, and ludcpundcutly; but the acpanulm of the 
lung fmm thn * vntdenlann ' procwlea the stparation 
of Ihe (rat^'bea. The tiing ariM'* imnii-dlali^ly In froilt 
of the liver; at the satne time the cclh of Ihe mesft* 
derm arouiul the Ittng proliferate; and ITskuw believes 
that the pleural (I.e., cot^m) epitlielium forms not 
only the pleural epithi^llum, but also the d«epcr-lyltig 
Hiesodcnulc elements |mu±clC9, etc.) of the lun^t. — 
lArcit. mik<: unar., xxU. 2I».) c. n. m. [100 

A lifbiid betweoa tb« sayal and leba — Dr. 
Julius Kiilin aurtouncvn ihe binh, at Ihe agrlcultnral 
InBlliute of the Etalle univer-ity. of a hybrid belwectt 
the K>tyal of ea.'tem India and the tous-tiomed race ot 
x«bn- known as s.-tn^^a^, which wn- held In domesti- 
cation hy the ancient Exyi>lian". anil i> now abundant 
In Soudan and Aby-'-ilnla. T)w> hybrid in ijiicstioti 
la a female; It weighed, at blnb. 21.5 kilo^^intms. or 
about one>twentlet]i the weight of thn san^n mother. 
Tbe latter Is of a mottWl r^l and whlt« color, wblla 
the calf is of a clear red brown, only the belly and 
iiuier sidist of thti lef;s and the fetlocks being while, 
The hump on Ihe withers, so charaL-ii>ri«tI<r of the 
Ecbu, Is only sll(;htty durclnped. " In ihR birth of 
Itils luilmul It li shown that anlnials of tha most 
primilive fonus, which fur thousnnOs nf years have 
had nnchanged surrounding*, hy siiliabte trratnivnt, 
may Kmaln unimpaired In fi'rtlliiy, even when 
placed in relall'ins which are in the grvatest degrMt 
ditlirreut from lliusi: of Ihvtr nalivn home." ^ [Zoot-- 
ffar(iv, XXW. 1»N(, I3H.) F. W. T. [101 

AXTHBOPOLOOT, 
Orl^ of the Magyara. — Mr, Herman Varobery 
published a work iu Letpilg la*t year, In wbicb lie 
takes the ground that the ilnngarlaDa are of Turkish 
and not of FlnDixURrlan orlttln, as li believed by 
RHist eibiiolti^i«ta. and eni>Kially hy M. Ilnnfnlry. .\ 
cen^tu of the Turcr»-Tatar ato«k ii given, which may 
be of service to some of our readers. 

Toreo-Slbrrlan 14I,M3 

BaiurtnTurk««Mi I,M».<n« 

K''^l>l' «,«»,»• 

KiuR-KlrKlili aiejOW 

TurcDiwiiw I,a»;M» 

R«nK»V>>c* njua 

V»hrgt S.M)Jf<» 

KIpcKaka .... ni,HOO 

Kuranui n.iWl 

il«TU WKi.png 

Hiiihir* ... Mu.um 

Tmum ■tS'i.TIO 

''"WO* WWW 

Kuv«t(»|:'j toojm 

K<.i<><U> n^Bto 

TninaruuniilK Torka , , ttOJm 

InokTurlc*. ...,,.• noj)M 

OHasnil ....«.., •nMo/m 

— {Aniiiv. p«p Fantknp., kII. 297.) J. w. p. [103 

MaoroWotU. — The namtlve nf Genesis about 

tlie long llres of the patriarchs has very frcquentlr 



9U 



SCIENCE. 



IVoL. U., No. tC 



Ird bO th« fioltmion of the Kg«i o( perwni who hvit 
livoil lu a rsrjr gmt age. Lord Malahiile Is iitcllno)! 
lo glv« crcillt to till! gnu number nf nwos of reounled 
longevity oc<:urriiig tuiiong tho inaciiptioitt nwovpred 
tmrn (ilil tUiiuan {jisvea In Algeria and 'l*unhia. Hr. 
Keuler lias publUhed a collection of IbeMi, aiid ■ kUU 
mora compleCv a«riea is by Mr. Willruui, under the 
RUSplces of tbr Itnyal academy nt Iterlln. Upwanla 
of tan ihoiisanil iiiscriptlwrit) are Ibiis calenilared. 
Tht foUuvUis li a lixl from Numidia: — 



14 pvnHilia. 


iia 


10 


ii» 


s •■ 


Itt 


1 pHravn. 


Its 


1 perwHla. 


ua 


1 fmom. 


IIT 


1 " 


111 


X " 


u* 



At UaaUr, a imall town, Uk cemetery ylelda Um 



An** K )« 

UMvltllO ..... 100 

Oarflllila 160 

ttranltl IW 

NtMn ItG 

iVUxU lU 



Umreala laD 

Janitarlu lul 

UuUaII* . . . lOA 

AnutlMtr . . .Its 

.TuiMla ..... tOA 



I^rd Halahlde, in order to ahow Uie credibUity of 
these flj^uros, sppak* at IsngLb upon the duties of the 
Bonutn censors. — (/own. tuMrop, inaL, zii. 441.) 
J, -W. p. 1103 

The Pawne«B. — Sir. John D. Dunbar of Bloom- 
field, X.V., hu brought together In ■ ijuartu pam- 



phlet bit TvaeaKhM Into tht> Pdtil family of KorUi 
Amerioati Indian*, thv tribni eoihrxc^J in thii 
group arc the l'awnec«, Artkarai, Caildun, IluMOS 
ur Wama, Keecliies, TawaconiM, and fawncc t^lcu 
or WIcliilKs. The lut livi; are the southern or Ked 
liiver br.ini;he«. A brjvf account of each uf theM tS 
glren In the firat few pagea of the pamphlet The 
thini paragrnph li demoted to the Arlkanu, und the 
remainder of the nionof^ph lo the Pknl, or Pawneea. 
A very estfti)»ive hiUiiigrftpby of the stock liaa 
been collcoted, commencing with the expedlUon of 
Lewtf and Clarke, and including tli« publlcailon* of 
I'ikiT, LuJig, .1. T. Irrtag, Alumy, Ilayden, and th« 
rc|K>ru nf ibc Aercral commiMlunon of Indian af- 
fairs. EarliiT noUoas ua found In Is Hwpe, dn 
Tnttz, liiid (.'hurlevojx. 

The name 'I'lttrnoe' ta probably deiirod fri>n) Pit- 
rVe-l (a horn), Tvlerriag to their peculiar »calp-luck. 
The original huiiLlnK-SFtmiid extendi^il from the Nio* 
brani, aouth to the Arkansas, but uo dcliiiUe botuula- 
lies can bu fixed. 

Mr. Dunbar hai collected from Tarioua aoiirces Ui« 
traditions of their orlftfn and nilgrHUiin»(S 8), their 
conflicts (S S), their census ($ U>h and their later hta- 
tory since the bcslnuini; of our century. Consider. 
able HpiuM !• Klven to tlielr Iflbal organliAtion, 
physical cbaract«ri»tlf«, social usages, dresa, n*n)«i, 
lodges, arts, tnule, fcasia, bunllng, war, iMdk-ioB, 
inourtijtig, religion, calendar, present condition and 
pnispccU. Urict chapters are devoted to tlie cH*- 
braiod chiefs, ritaJc.4haru. Lone Chief, and Uedi- 
cin« UutL— J. w. p. [104 



INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS. 



STATE INSTITUTIONS. 
State nnJKinjtj of Eonas, lawrtass. 

WwilAo- rrport /or Ju f — The chief meteoro* 
logical feMnroa of thbi monih were the low mean 
lempenluro aud the abundant rainfall. Horing the 
fifteen preceding yean, three Junes have been coaler 
llian this, and only one (1876) has had a larger rain- 
fall. 

Mean temperature, ILSSS wblcb is 2.87'^ belov the 
June a<rerai;e. The liigbesi tnmperalnre was M^, on 
the SSd and :)Uth. The mercury reached or exceeded 
Wfi ou only six days. The lowest lempi^rktnro was 
48.9**, giving a range of 43.&° for the innmli. Mean 
umpcraUirc at 7 A.U., 6&22°; at 2 r.u., 80.S°; at 
«r.M.,Be.a''. 

f Ralufall. 7,73 Inches, which b ISO Inches aborn the 
June average. There were oevt-n tliunder-s bowers, 
one of which, on the night of llic llth.ronUnued fur 
six hunn, luid brought 'iMi Incho uf raiu. llic entire 
nlnfall fur the six months oX 1SS3 now completed 
has been 21.80 inobes, whicb is tVOQ incfaes above the 
aTerage for the flrst half-year of tha past fifteen years. 

Mean cloudlneaa, 38.M% of tho sky, the ttumth 
being 3.(U % clearer than the average. Number oL 



clear days (iM* 'ban oit<Mblrd ctoiidy), K; half clear 
(from one lo twu llilrds cloudy), I'-'; cloudy {more 
than two-Lhlnls), 4. There were four entlivly clear 
day*, and only one entirely ct'iudy day. Mean at 7 
A.M.. 42.07%; at 2 P.M.. 89.3J%; at tt f.U.. ««.«%. 

Wind: &W., •£* limes; S.K . M times; tl.Vi., 17 
iLmos; X.£., 14 times; N.. 4 timu; S., 4 limes: E., 
S times. The enlire distance travelled by the wind 
was 10,737 miles, which Is just two miles above the 
June average. This glvfls a mean dally Telocity of 
3^7.90 mile*, and a mean hourly velocity of 14.01 
miles. TUit hlKhesl velocity was 45 oiilcs un hour, 
on the i'iA and 23d. The thunder-atorm of the 
lllb WM UHhered In at 11.^10 r,M. by a very slrotig 
'straight ' n-ind, wbirh iinroofvd a portion uf the Cen- 
tral Khnol building at I^n-n-nce, but wai in no sense 
a tornado. 

Mean height of baromet*r, M.038 IiKhea; at 7 a.m,, 
'i9.0&U inches; at 2 P.M., 29.018 Uichet; at S P.M., 
ai'.uSO Inches: maximum. SQ.:fl7 Inches, on 14th; 
minlinum, 2J.4r71 inohes: monthly range, only Oi&lll 
Inch. 

Relative humidity: mean for month, 74.A: at 7 a.m., 
83.1; at 2 P.U.. 57.7; at 4 P.M., (S.!; gt«atea, U7, on 
£M and :!4Ui; least, S7, on Uth. 



Jolt ao, 1888.] 



SCIENCE. 



91 



PUBLIO AJfD PRIVATE [NSTlTQTIOMa. 

Okla THlejui lunnl^. DaUwan, 0. 

A't'lition* to fhf iNiu^UMi. — The IncrcAM to Ihe 
(»)lli;dti}us r-ir ibe y^r iiraounu to 9.2(ti ap«cimens. 
1*hf ahii of Lbir cumtor tl imL Ui liulld up « ftre«t 
mufcuin. but one of grvU Mtu-jtUonal i-aliin, which 
■hkll in UiDft contain ov«ry «i>eciin«n iic«ded to ex- 
pUiu tlm fa<;Ui uC iixiunil bistory u pniMiiteil Iti lUe 
lext-)>ook4 of t)i« i]«iMiTitn<-nt. All piirvtinHM mni 
•olk-lu^i] i*xcIiaiigeB are fur thla pud, and even Hip rol- 
iinleer excli&uges ivro tiirnMl lu Ibb diivctiun as far 
M pncil cable. W. f , Falconer ha« given an exl^n- 
nive ifillf cLiiin luailc «t tlie phosph&ie hcila of Charles- 
ton. S.C. An elcphanl'3 tooUi lu ttila CDUecllon 
mcuiirvjt t«ii by fourbwu iiietieB, auj welfilu tweuLy- 
ninr pound*. 

Prof. It. K. Call of X«b^^skl^ a most MithunlaiUc 
naturKltsi. BtH-nt iti« summer vf iSS'i vn u cuIlvcLlog 
trip thniugh Georgia. Thi* museum jninwl wiUi oth- 
er IrutilutluDs in dt^fraying hi* expcnstu. nnd ^hAring 
th« results. Alltioiigb Alt the material has not bvcii 
dLiiilhuied. over five ihounand specimens havfl bevn 
recitired, and a large number of new and ralnable 
apMtes. ' 

The IT. S. (Uli-commUston lias presented a collec- 
lion Ulostratini; the iiiitriii« fauna uf Ui« New Hni;- 
[land coast. It ronlnins nearly one hundred Apecira, 

kny of which were obiaiood by dmdtiiug at depths 

I great as two hundred fathom*. 

Cullfictions of iiiip<-it.-iiir<.' have also been recclTed 
from the late Mr. C R. HeCli^lian, a former axslstaiit, 
ud from Revs. J. M. Barker of Mesico, and U. Uan- 
h]I of India, and t]ie Br<ithers WDUs, recently re- 
tnraed from a Utur of tliC world. 

'I^e ilflvnt In all the cases are overcrowded; and 
at li»st twcnly-livt> thousand specimens are packed 
away In hoxw* nnd ilrant^nt, awaiting >tuJy, and rooui 
in which to display them. Tlie erection of one or 
more new ca*ca i* nKjulrvd. 



IfOTES AND NEWS. 

The ■nmmer courses of InatnictJoD in chemistry, 

offered to t«achen by Harvard university, opened 

July d. lu the chemical laboratories of Uoyl&ton hall. 

and will conliiiuK six weeks. The course in geueial 

and destripiivf rhfmlrtry La taken by iwolf e persons, 

thi> course in lualltatire iuia]y»l» by ten. and qtuuilU 

tatWe aaalysis t'y firn. Titers nre also ei^Ut pexsons 

who arc engn^i'd on advatio-d i]UaTitltAUve aitalvkls, 

jilc chemistry, and urijtiiial reMarvh. Leeiures 

I ijiveil twice a week on gi-Dnral c-li>rml«iry, ilailv on 

Qualitative analysis, and twice a Wi^^k on <|iianlllatlve 

!ialy*l«. The laboratories arc open daily frum S a.m. 

(1 I'.m. Tlie following suU-s an- r. prvM-nlt-d : 

lalof. Miwacliuselts, Xew York, N*w J-nvy, Ohio, 

lUlnois, Mivbi|!*n, Minnesota, yebraska. and Geor- 

|U. Uf the thlrty-llTe ponons mentioned above, five 

re women, and elRhi are continuing their work from 

prmer cimr*M. As in previous yean, thue course* 

are under Uie direction of Dr. C. P. Mnbery, 



— Upon the death of Cbarim Darwin, but year, 
the advocates of evulutloii in the Par!* antliropo- 
l(>gic<il society orgauiccd a Conf/rtnce annudle traits 
forinUtf, In Which ottfl of ihrlr niimbttr who la a 
spiH^Jalist shall *ei fortli the muniier lu whieh tlie 
dortrinx of t mm for mi Km has aflertnd liia drparlnii-.nt 
of r<?ifarv!h, ami also tlie argument* uhlcli his studies 
bavB furnialiud for the suluiantiatlon of llio doctrine. 
The upeiiin); lecture of the couree was delivered by 
M. Matliias Duvitl, upon t)ie mutual r^latkiitB of 
evolution and the embryology of the eye. atid Is 
published In thi; lUvue »eiftn(fique for 5lay Vi. The 
Itrei part of the dtsciusion is B» attack upon tb« 
doctrine of itpevial irroiUon and Hnal causes. It 
doe4 not seem to havo comtt lu the notice of our 
French culle*tiue<, that the doctrine o(,*l>«cial crea- 
tioii, liki- all olht-r d'lrlrliieK («*riilution, for ln*lancef, 
hxt mclllioil itself from time to time by the IncreaM 
of )iiionIt;dKe. " Thcsu adiuirable appr^'ptlalioos 
of an organ to an end," lays 11. Uiiviil, "arc ex- 
ptain«d by the gradual perfecting of a mechanism, 
which, setting forth fr^im simple and ekmentary 
adjUKtmentB, develops, bv beredlly and selection* 
tlie forms that are more nnd more ailvantagi^jui to 
the Individual. I'pon the question wheihi^r embry- 
ology confinus tills theory, It Is proposed to cxikmlse 
llie auccdiiive fortna whic-Ii tin! fye presi^iit* in the 
animal series, and the auceeuiveftaf;i-a of Ita dft- 
relopment In man or Uie higher vcrtebralea. In 
other words, the phylogeny will firtt be que>tlonod, 
and afterward the ontogeny, of ttie i/lofie oculaire, to 
see whether lhe.4e two scries of facta are a repetition 
the one of the oiber." Briefly passing over the 
unicellular form*, and tbote lu which the eye Is un- 
tllftereiiltalvil, thn author commence* bU more ape- 
cial Invoulgatloii wltli the tunicates and ampbloxus, 
from which point the ar&uracnt Is cundtivted with 
grrnt prvcinion, and is well illujitraleii. 

— i'he French academy of sciiuic«-s proposed aa a 
subject for one of lu ISSi prises the following: "To 
Und the origin of the electricity of the atmi>»phere, 
and the causes of the great development of electrical 
phenomena in storm-clouds." t^everal memoirs were 
received by the academy; but no one of them was 
o/ljiidgeil worthy of the price, although a rewitxd and 
encouragcmrnt of a thousand francs waa granted bo 
one of the compctJuirs. The academy, tben^fore, 
continues the atxtve a* one of tliK pnxe lubjectn fur 
1885. Blerauirs will be received up to June I, ISSo. 
Each muf-t bo accompanied by a seated envelope con- 
taining tlie iiain« and Btldri-«i of the author. Tha 
envelope will not be opened unless Ihe memoir Is 
BUDccBSful. The valuu of the prize la three thouaand 
francs. 

— ITictixth annual convention of .American libra- 
rians will In.' hi'ld in BufTalo, Aug. U to 17. The 
opening address will be delivered by the president, 
Justin Winiur. Excursions will be mode down tha 
NlA^ara Itiver, and. at the eloae of tlie se>*ti>ti, to 
NlBfcarn Falls. Further dculla may be obtained 
fn-m Bitr. Joba >'. Liruutl, Vuuug mea'a librorir, 
Hnlfalo. 

— The Smlth^nian Inultution will loAn publish 



m 



SCIEXCE. 



IVtiU. II.. ^<K 



Prof«i«or UoIUvn'A Ctlalo^e ot kImiOAc aoti le«Iinl 
CftI pfTloslkiU. pPi>of-»hrcu liive liefn fent lo the 
leiuliii!;llbTVl»o( iho couDtrj, witli ili« rcqutit ibai 
It vliould U> iioU'd wlint juuniftla ml^bl he on their 
ftbelvn: to tbiit wr> »hAll hivo a complete list of 
•TuiUbte Kleiitlftc periodicals. 

— Tlie Johita Ho[ikli)* univmity clrnilar for June 
ifl gken U|) 10 ^ ataioment of the work of lb« put 
year, aii4 a pra^mnint: of ihe counes oflvrwl (or Ute 

— ArcoKJing to fiaturir, ttiR era{>nx>r of Auatrlm 
on Joi« 5, tnaugurot^ tb* new Vfctma ((bsprraiory 
nn Urn Turhm Scbuiin:. in itie nui-thvrn ouiaklru if 
the town, Tho new bittUllng bat tatcni nine jreaw 
to coiiHintct; Anil <turiQ£ that ctrnt- tbn present di- 
rector lias iravt^llcd all over Etimpc and Amvrica in 
onlcr ti'tiii'ly the con^ruction an<I e^iiipmvolur th« 
b*'!»t nb^rrvftlorie*. Ttw? remit U. Uiat thu Vl«nna 
observatory It pntbably onn nf tho moAC «>tnp)fte In 
exfsU-ncf. 

— Dr. Ph. Paiilitschlce'* work on Ihe ' HetrfmnA- 
tMche er/ortchuiig de* nfrikaniitchen enntinrntn' <VI- 
«iin», lt48uf. In which lio gavo a brief niatt-niftui of 
tb« work of all explorers froni ancltrnt iliuea down 
to Om ilale of publication. Is now «upploiuent«il by 
hi« ' .\rril:/i-lueratur In dn- zeU rrm iStXf hit 1760 n. 
Chr,' {Vlvnnn. ItWJi. — a work of \Tt pafiei, with 
1,!!I2 titk*. ThIiuUh cartographic itiil to ultidy ill 
Uie sanie ilirertlon ta Kivni In EI. Kirperl'* maps 
of Iho progress of African axplorattoii from 17A0 to 
It^Tlt. anil of thv (.■spoililloti* uf thlxi century, col- 
oreil acconling to Ib^lr naliouaijty; eIi^m b^ing pub- 
liaht-d in the journal of tho Berlin gL-ographinl 
Kucleiy in ISTd and IKT4, and again In the ten larser 
•Gal» charts of Inner Africa by Pefprmiitin ami Haa- 
Kimlcin, iuo^d aA a supplement to lh« Milthtdittvjm 

In itoa 

— Mr. W. O. Ulack U preparing the liiilex for his 

Fkitk-inrilicinc, alremly In |irlnt, and ti> b<- URueil lin- 
mrillitiely hy the Fulk-lore smrloiy. The work livaia 
of tlie oHgln and communk-atiou of disvasi-. and thi> 
Infliiciicft in folk -medicine of charms, snints, aiid 
henvcnly b<Hlles. ^ 

The caino society hopes soon to obtain A>r publi- 
cation a collection of Zolu nur>i'ry litrntlurv, which 
hai been hi the hands of Uisliop CalUway for ten 
year9. This n-tll be an addition to folk-Ioro at very 
^Koi Interest and value. 



RECENT BOOKS A.\'D PAHPHLETS. 

Adrian, T. rctwr |irolr«(lvliMU' and itii<>>iiSub*«lubnnmB 
In vuMi'luiiirlirfath (iDaniUltlier kcKcbukalllicliurra. HorTtu, 

IKiJ. 1.4 p. »•. 

AmbaiU, i>. Anhiwnc nr ailldfeprllfuiic. Bl QaHm, 

ffuhtr. Ihdi.1. -1.1 p. r. 

AmuniiteBtU. u. L. El icmnMie del n mayo 4« IMT. 
SftnUiiC. d*<'lil1>>.ISS3. tin p. f. 

Baltard. n. a. naod book or Iha St. McIwIm Apmix 
auvilnttiiu. llluniilil, .ixItU A l'vinrt«f, pr,, iMI. fc+W ». 

BATTon, A. F. Vlitrt and tlnuHuliiirp; Iwlnc • In-Mlsr »ii 
Uw cuUO-Mlon or Uw rnpu «lnri «iUi ilrtctipitvn ul tbn prtn. 
■IpalraficOFk tandun, Ina, -JMp , I1iu*u. H*. 



BaMtlan, A. Vmlkfrrttlbiiin* »m nrnhiataiiMim und ■•rwuiill- 
tchaniclii i:»cl.b»tn. ItstlUi. /Aimmitrt, IHH, :o<l»t|>.. !{«at, 
pi V. 

BochMmpN- tjv nilciMiyma* tIaiM Inur* rappurla aVRC 
l^jteriiu^iia. rtUluwnlv, la payalulotlir ct 1* iniluloiil*. Fan*. 

iwa »' 

B«br9tld, L>. Eta- UoJ k)llla*>l«uKUnr*ii>u<l<1oUI, ncbat 
Flnrr aoiHtil iiuMrrfM.rvr rit.l.iV'i. ii<i ■ n. ui-iliii; tuii el«( abkHlt- 
lliait t<M> l1IMa|«k-i **. 

Berscb. ■>. t' '-' v>>^MllM^lle■a 

wm;b. niv'.-i- - "n'riau, 4rr 

Ert-iftir •< I". •!•» 

hrriaclw . r. 

BleuoArd. .'■ i.i i.iii;.cri- i (^'.urc* tar 

Ja p>r}>Il|Mr vl >■ -ITt |1-, tltUaU. f)". 

Braoco.W. ^. , •>rrHn«fO»llvilil|«lMiV^ 

fkoiK vuii Kniii l-t jli»t»>»lM lu Bciiwlor. UU cralufl*ohir 
e|nk-lian«. ilvrlln. ISVi. IWp. «i. ('. 

Brown, J ^ 'tlir fun-ai fUiiu ur tiu«Ui Aa»iralU. psil U 
I^fKlun. Ist^l. pi, t'- 

Buocolflk<^l' Ilk li'CV 4'' trmpoa"! frnaiaeni dfllpcatlrro; 
mtit^i itk |HWyik>iria *|i>.>rtnianu>e- Uluivu, IfumtJnrtt, IMU. 
i'iW. iNkrrj.. ItViSip. V*. 

BucldlLDd, f I."* tHBik(irnll(liiifiB>it>uJ UHila)[l(l, New 
can. LDKKliXi. )"». ^IW p.. niUKtr. «*. 

0*ndoU», A. da. L'oriyiiMi ilulta crimiB coUI*»«. Mltaao. 
Itti. U*p k'. 

Cantor, <«. < Irmiillaci-n rtocr aflpniriaMi ■«ai>UbUlifcrlU> 
Irhrv, raaLtirianllMb plillC'.iphUehcr vnroaeli la •Inr trim 4m 
unFndikhvti. I,ri(iiw, risAior. IbA'!. lit p fi'. 

OerOQ, t' ti'tii-llo >u>)nr !'>■ HMtrrtalx f «lb*ln« HMrtiaa an 
laiNaiOm (adii.lSKV Mi p . llliiiir. *'. 

COCETrVSHO UTu^rsfls) liili>r«B>Ui«ala U'tta IKMoloa Viavila 
•lal I& at Xt nilt'Ol.ir. I8MI. vol. I. KMIita e fmiltmiin. 
Kvna, Si^. fn.f. ilfii., \»Xl. V>i p., |il. ^. 

Cocteau. Peron. •! OautlUar, ^iiiiOm roMtk* •!• 

I'.llgcrir. fuf. i. Tnrrnlnt JnoMtliiUM. Tv\*, ISU. TO p., 
liluaic. r. 

Ondner, tl. fli^WiglMlM firDnir 4ardh Am bndai ■!«« atailk 
]<''lstiit Hiid il«^(«nblui«r nntirvtHiac. L«<biI|> //inWi'A*, LnB> 
l+fl p . pi r. 

DftVldowalcy. V-- Pit-rti-tnitn m c"'^ cl^'tai'. ciinwal», 

paair*. iBUvlUn*. rlP. T i 4n, ulik niklt- 

tiolk>. t>J »' T Uf atilll i>. ir. 

Dodal-Port, .\ li . i. Gme.lnmr. 

kUindlkhp oiiitllialiitihan-luiiik'vr- It'll; .iic trii> rcamnlflcn md 
wlalills**'D fruurti iter piluuinikuiMlo. ZBrtuh, IMH. H* p., 
Illwtr. S*. 

Fafc dl Druoo, F. Tli^rte doa ftiniH* bhulre*. IHirin^ 
t1"» WlnMr «*. 

Paber, <). t_ lihr lUhntr* cf '~> i Ani d-a (lab 

tlirri!i>r, null * ayBlFmaOr Hit .-if lit' >-> rrernlfd 

by 4" iiilr>t>Iiii>(i'Mi hy tjGiiiliitr. Ij < i'i>'i (*■ 

Falkonburjf ,<' Nl'Un .rl :■■■ i..i. - rl',«. 

fti- di'i iijtiiipfsiTtlir.Uiiiir la ai '' 'fi I . 'iL < . I I k' 'It 

•cullitliUli'ii iimi ■•quiniHxfU- III I <l'.ti (if.K i>[ '.1 '' 'I'^'lti 

iw:t ^*. 

FarS'inAtll. T. D»«tlKloiM iculucli-a dvlU ptmluola dt 
I'll*!!!. K'Hi aniwuaa Oarbi atwli^ctn a oaluM iwIIb aeala 4l I pvr 
ftjtf.iMr. Mllnan, l«31. IU4 p. «*. 

Oraatx. I^ H'u flj-kirlcitSt ami lhr« auvrmdunipn tm 
Wii'iir III ■«>)(, kiatiiitirrini|iiiii((. lanaliDrftr, o-UphctiW, and 
IrltKriipMi'. Hliillciirt. VU. lllUKr. ^*. 

GrotW. V. !>.-■ l'rr>Uil>«l lull's lid In pnniilrra irolona mk Im 
t>utvl' ill-' li>M ilr- llti'Kii* ri HrwhkiiA. Avtn pr*ra«* iJo Vlr- 
eliu*. lU-iUn. IS83. I3U p.. Illtolr. 4', 

H&lpbOQ. HttiiMilrv *iir Ik h^ImUiHi dua ^aallAiia ilUNiMI- 
Itvlhi llxHao** auk li'm** InUsnlvi. Pari*, ItU. Wl p. 4*. 

BSbrUnff, J> K. tlk«ut>«> <■< bird I1I« (rvto 3u yrara* obaifm. 
ilniii ft tlti-ir haniiu and bablu. I.(>itilaii, 1%<l- OK p., lllaMr. 

tc. 

HaCD. M. r. <I«. I>c la dilalabilli* Ac nti-tqut9 llqiiM» Ul- 
niiiqnv* n -Irt *»Iuiioiii aaltaiv. Uruivlic*. fit. iX p., Itln>t/. 

HolderlOh. T. d». Plan dc Ilk it r«phnk<it< -u <nUf..euir 
itr* |iU<iii". <|tll (iola>at<t lialllTntlinnvIl ■>! w r' ;<( 

flvi[ni'iiiii>i'ti1 iliia* CCIlc (Ii^. Lnuiaiiiic. tUidrl. ) 

a«llHe(rl, It. 11.1.'"— ' . -■ ■■ . -'• — ' ..,. 

KrHBiUalPII ■ir* Ackrlt- 



Horbort, i',.(rf«. - 

Inla>aatl'>iiul flahrrlea iti 
USL llliMU. 1'. 



. ■ oi Iha 
.i.w Turk, 



HafmanB, K. n«r hlTafaaMaler. SlaltuKCt, IMa, lllnau. 




TsR opening of the mnrine litborfttor^' in 
Najilei tt) 1^7-1 marks aD important c[)c>ob in 
the pmgreas 
of biologicii 
acudies, a» 
Beu.notoniv 
the ptxKli- 
gioas anil 
#ver-incTe!w- 
iugamouutof 
work which 
it pwMiucps, 
btic aIbo ill 
the general 
Interest wliich 

1 ts gUCPCSS 

bos inspired 
iaothurquiir- 
ten. As in 
Americn eea- 
Bi<le BchooU 
and [fthonito- 
rifia may hv 
trnced to the 
exnmpli' M>t 
at PcuikcM.'. 
so in Europi.- 
most of tbu 
maritio hibu- 
ratorles owe 
ttwir origin 
to iotltiences 
emnnati ng 
from Naples. 
Bat the ben- 
efiolal iuflu* 
•DOe of tbe 
29aple« station la bv no in<>nii8 confined lo 
Europe. Already we b^ar nf niitrtne HtAtiona 
in Atgien. in Sydney, ami in .Tnva. In Japan 
>, as wo ore Informed, a Isbomlory hnn been 
l)liriied by ProfeiiBur Iklitsnkuri iti a Huddb- 

Vn.S».— UBB. 




ist letDple, — anuxample tbe moral of wbiob 
i-i eiLAily drawn, 'rbiis llie predirliun niade 
by the foinidcr of tbe Naples 6talion, I'rofes* 
flor Anton Dohrn, some ten years ago, — that 
marine r.o6logy was deftUned to become para- 
mouui, nml that tbe enrth would soon be 

enuireled by 
a net - work 
of xoulogieal 
atntioDs, — 
eiveiiis to be 
rapidly ap- 
proRrbing its 
fu Itihnent. 

ICvcry one 
can now sec 
tbttt ibe Nb- 
jilcs labora- 
lory wsaagi- 
giiotie enter- 
prise, mag- 
nificent alike 
in coneep- 
tioii and in 
Acbievvtnent, 
altlioii^jb few 
are Rware of 
tbe magui- 
tudi' and va- 
ried nature of 
tbe dilOcut- 
ties wbieh 
opiKMcd its 
pro^rew. It 
ift a matter 
for rejoicing, 
that this in- 
stitution was 
planned on 
such broad 
and Hbentl 
views, and witb siicb wise prevision of tbe 
course its development should take in order 
lo scetire a long and proft|)erous existence. 
With the ndditlon of a pbysiologjoal depart- 
ment now duteruiiued upon, it becomes a bio- 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IL, No. as. 



logical stnlion !□ the broader scdbo of the 
won), — Nil organization ou a gnind si'alo for 
Xhf study of UHriiiv life in nil its n«p«cl«. lu 
brllltant earMr during the 6r»t iiini* Tenrn of 
ita oxi3t<?itw not only Insures its permanonry, 
Imt also gives ptwige of ftitiire growtli com- 
iDcnsuraie wiLh ihe ever-cxpandiDg neeilB of 
biological rcsoureb. 

Tliu BlAtion U no luaa liberal ia its matuige* 
meot Lhan comiil'L-liensirv in iu aims ; for it 
0)K*nK it« doors to DaluralUts rrom all quarters 
of tbe globe on like conditioDs. It is Lbe In- 
ternatloual charaoler of the station, combined 
will) tbv tintiirat ndvaritngeRor»il4mtioii, trhicli 
hn» madn it, in bo nliort time, the Mecca of 
biologists, and n sent of nnprccodcnu-il |}ro)illc 
acti^'ilj'. The mild and equable climate of 
Naples, ihc tinstirpnssod richness of the fauna 
and flora of lia buy, and the l>csl eqnipped 
laboratory iu the world, oonRpire to give the 
^Naples station pre-ciQineac-e among insUlii- 
liODB of its kind, ttnd to reader it probable 
thai it will remfiiii whAt it is now ackttowl* 
edged U> he, — the world's great bio)ogical 
sis lion. 

Tbe delailpd account given in Miss Knnn's 
valuftl^le artiele (Scirkck, Nob. 17 and IH) 
ninkp-'» it imneeeasary to enter here into a do- 
acriptlon of the lulvoratory ; and Mr. Cunning- 
ham's excellent rc%-iew of tbo work which ii 
has nireadj accomplished (yattin. Mai'ub 15) 
is doiibUoBS accessible to most of the readers 

pf fiCIKMCE. 

Let n« rnllHT wnsider llip praotiejil question 
of out- own interest, as AnieHcans, in this 
instltiiiion. Except in a single ami not4<- 
worthy cnse of vcr^' recent date, we have thiia 
far tAken no active interest in (liis matter. 
The dl6lanc« between us and Naples has 
seemed tu foster the Idea that we haw no 
immediate and c«>muion eoiicern with Knropeao 
nations in opportunitiett that lio so much near- 
er their doors than ours. Bnt r«cenl eveuts 
bavo demonstrnted that there ia a demand on 
the part of American natnrnlists for Just stich 
opportimitiea as are now otTered nt Naples, and 
nowhere olse; and with them political Isola- 
tion Is not likcl}- to bo miatakcn for sdeutiao 



EsoUitJon. That Lbttt demand does not arise 
fVoni whimsical reasons will oriainly b« coa> 
ceiled tiy all who understand its nu-Jining. .Still 
Uieit; may l>e some who will ask if the field for 
invesiigstion is not sulflrienlly broad nl homo, 
and the facilities for work sutlieiontly ample, 
to aatisQ' the requirements of Americjui nata* 
rallfita. With lUI due res|>ect to siic-li queries, 
we would suggest thut tJiey do not oontain 
the giat of Cite maltvr : for even on the pre- 
|K>8tei-Diis fiuppwiUoo that our fadtit!e« for 
biological rcHcaroh are fUUy as great as those 
at Naples, do one coukl daiin that they are 
identical ; so that it woidd still be |>orttncn( to 
ask. Can we not prolitnbly ndd tbe advontii^ea 
in Xoplcs to those cr\)oy«l at home? The real 
qnestion coinc<< to this : Arc there advantages 
at Naples which are not otfered here, and are 
they worth the time and mon*^ required to 
ohlain them? Now. it is no disparagement 
to home talent and resources, Co say that ttio 
.•idvsntagos of study at tlie Naples sUitioa 
are incompHrably greater, and certainly more 
numerous, tliau those at our commnnd. 3f<>t-c 
lhan this, there is not a single laboratort- lu 
Kurt>pe where Ihe slndont of nat.ur:d iuslury 
can pursue hia studies under w favorable dr- 
cumstanccs lis nt Naples. This Is doubtless 
much to say, when we remember that the 
laboratories of Hu-tlcy. LaiikvHter. I.acaz«- 
Duthiers, Van Beneden, Lctickart, llacWt.vl. 
Gegenbaur, Clans, Semper. Kultiker, Danrois. 
:ind Giard arc of world-wi<le rutniU) ; but li 
is not merely otir private opinion, it is aa 
acknowledged fact. Of oour«e, we are not 
now speaking of the comjinrntire merits of tbia 
institiiliou for students Junt beginning their 
studies, but for those who are already more or 
IcsH prepared for indepcndenl work. 

The Naples station makes uu prQteusion 
to fiiililling the fbnctious of a aohool or a 
colJp^L': ita aim ia to advance biological ro* 
sean-b ; and to this end it consecrates all ita 
energies. It Is a laboratory organixed and 
equipped, not for training the tnoKr. 
but for aiding tbe investigator. It i. , 
in uinuy respects, the excellences of all 
best laboratories of £urape combined, and sar^ 



Jtri.T S7, lats.] 



SCIENCE. 



95 



jHuses Uivni all in Uie iDOJchaiistiltle wr&Ith of 
its resources, and In the many cxce|AloDu] 
advADlagcs that oatoralt; siuing from ita inter- 
iiaUQfial character. 

Although no leotores or courses of inatnio* 
tioti are provided for, an ah\e aliiff of aHKialmiU 
arcconstaritlvetnplajed, whoaeaid and tMimscI 
lu all mnticrB pcriaining to metliods of work 
leave nothing U) Ue d«sir«d. It ut one of ilii- 
'great adiautagcs of irorU ut tbu statiou, that 
it gives one opportaiiities for the acquUitioo 
of methods. Ao institution which (Hitibefl 
n^carcli with euch enorgj' and succeas will 
natnrnlly he prolific in the discovcn- of ffnys 
and invuiui. Tht* station brings togettier a 
body of zenlftiid workers (W)m the best laliora- 
toHvR of Kiirope, nod thos. besidi^ g'^np a 
rare up|>i)ruinity fur the formation of valnnble 
acquHiDtanccs, direct interobauge of thought, 
and disoission of proUemi^. up^iis anollicr way 
fur the accumulntioti iind retint-'nivut of aietli- 
OI.U. It is in this n-ay that it bevoioea a sort 
of international tiepot for the rec*ption of dis* 
coveries and iinjiruvementa made ctHenriiire. 
The heterogeneous material thus obtained is 
eirted. systomatiKed. tested, further elalKtrnted 
and refinoil, and rndistrilHiteil. The methods 
of miCToseopicnl research published by Paul 
&Iayer, and the wcU-linown diBc-oTcrica of 
Gieahrecht, Bhow tliat the station in doing 
DO leas itoportant work as aa originator Ihau 
as an aocamulator and a distributer of metb- 

<Htl. 

}Jovr, whoever knowtt the valtie of inotlidds 
— atid we need iiol jirgiie with thoSre who do 
not — will admit, tliiil, in this |»articutnr, the 
Naples station is unrivalled, and that, from 
the nature of things, it will probal>ly remain 
BO indefinitely. However succt-asfiil we may 
becomo iu the development and appliealion of 
mctbodst we are not likety to sxg the time 
when it will uvt bo duittrable to see. and to 
know by i'X|>erieoce. bow work i« done at 
Naples. This onv but ftll-iroportant mutter, 
to say nothing of the many oUier advantages 
thnt t)iti«l accrue lo an occupant of }i table at 
llie litlatioii. — such a« social intercourse. dir<;et 
knowledge of a rery important fauna, aud 



opi>ortunllii!H of uoqutHng a knowledge of the 
four laogUHgeti with which every oaUirulist ntu^t 
now bv familiar, — uiukes it very desirable, 
IMtrticulnrly for oiir younger nuturallau, to 
spend some time at Naples. 

One of the indisponsable rcquisttea to huc- 
cessfid work in natural history is an extensive 
library ; an<l this is precisely one of the needs 
most felt In senside lal>orab)ries. Aa a rule, 
nnturalitiLR art! cum{>ellL>d to stiluct a t'aw of tbe 
books which they coi^ecture will be useful Lo 
tbcm. and traosporl. them to the pluco of study. 
This method is, of course, very unsatisfactory, 
for reasons loo obvioiis to be mentioned. The 
Nnples station haa met this difHculty by cstab- 
linhing a ]>cruaucnt library in an apartment 
adjoining its laboratory. Already this library 
haa become one of tJie most complete btologi- 
cul lihrarlcs iu Europe, aud forms one of the 
chief attractions of the station. Its mauage- 
meot, we arc happy to say, is tbe least cou- 
spicuouB thing about it. ThoM sccustomecl 
to depend U|Kin public lit^mries, 0|>en only at 
tttnted hoiirN, approadied only thruu^h otHeiitls, 
and encumbered with rules, blanks, flues, etc, 
have a pleasing cieo»e of relief on Rntling the 
doors of this rich library thrown open to tlicm, 
with the liberty of helping tlierasclvcs at any 
time to whatever books are desired, with no 
further reipiinMnent than to plaee a card bear- 
ing their uauic in the place of each book taken. 
This simfile device enables others who ebaoce 
to want the same books to Icnow precisely 
nliere to find Ihem. 

The supply of material furnishes another 
topic well worth consideration in this oonnco> 
tion. Jt is the method of supply, rather than 
itsrtchnesB, which merits attention. An organ- 
izHl IxKly of men is constantly employed for 
this purfKise; and they make It their busi- 
ness not only to know what material can be 
obtained, but also when and where. 'Iliese 
men ikow work with all Uie advantages of long 
experience and systematic training. Tbe 
occupant of » labte bas only to announce 
what object he wishes to study, and it is de- 
livered alive at his table. Iu this way the 
investigator Is able to flccompUBh the lai^est 



96 



SCTB!<rCE, 



IVou IL. No. 96. 



Btoouiit of work In a given time, atkI H-ftli tlie 
least ponaible annoyance. 

The Airoiflhlng of the table alao deeorvea 
attcptiou. Wlihin iwenty-four Iioure after 
Dotioe is ^ven. one timt.<< Ins table ready fur 
use, supplied with drttwini;-nial«riuU n lar:g« 
variety uf reiigtMits. stuining-nuids, luid nil t)ie 
appurteoances required for the most dilticnlt 
kinds of research. U is not the raw material 
tliflt one finda od his Uhle, but fvei-y thing 
act4ially pi-c|)Arcd and reaily for imineili&te use. 
Knrther needs are promptly supplleil on request. 
Thus every tiling is arrangml lo save the lime 
of llic i[ive8ti[rator, and render hia worif as 
eScotive as possible. Compare these facilities 
for study with those otfvi%tI anywhere el»e, and 
the contrast is at once apixirent. 

The conservator 'a de)iarlroent, aiider the 
direction of Salvatoi-c I^ Blanco, has become 
one of imiunal interest and importance; and 
the work it Is doing deserves to he generally 
known in this oounlrj*. Tlie work of litis de- 
partment Is the preservation of nil the material 
brought to the station, except wbut is rftpured 
to supply the tables imd the public :i<iiinrii>m. 
The success with which this most dithculdiuai' 
□ess of preserving marine »iiimnls in lifelike 
appearance is accjoinplifthed, is certainly msr- 
veDons, and richly deserves the highest trlbate 
of praise. This departntent is prodncin^ 
resulta of imtnenae value to scienoe, and its 
useAiluosfl is now widely recDguizbd. Its 
beautiful preparations adorn the shelves of 
nearly every museum in Eili-oiw, and it is 
ODDstantly sending out supplies to lahorAtorit^A 
for teaching ]>urpo«es. Many natur.tllslfl who 
find it inconvenient to worl^ at Naples are 
supplied by this department with material in 
BDch iwrfccl state of pre:*ervntion tor nnaloml- 
cal nnd histologieul stndy, that chey nro en- 
ablcil to carry out tbcir investigations without 
oDoe visiting the Btstion. There are undoubt- 
ediy museums and laboratories in this country 
that would <lo well to aratl themselves of this 
Opportunity. This deparlment has ln-en cre- 
ated for the special purpose of serving science 
in the above-nameil ways, ami not for increa*- 
!i^ the ftinds of the station ; ami hence the 



prcparntions are made (br n sum that eeari-ely 
more than cnveri ttie cx]Hm.-je of the iklcohol and 
f>tber rcagcnta used in their preservation. 

There is still anoth«r way in which this de- 
partment of the station might l>o ofimiwrtJinoe 
lo this oountrj', Doubtlem some armnge- 
nieMt« might h« madL- between our naval an- 
tliorilics iind the director of the station, audi 
as bare been made in the case of Germany 
and Ftiily. which wonid cnnbtc na to send an 
officer from lime to time to the station, witli 
n view to gaining a praciical knuwh'dge of 
the mctiiods of preserving Mnimnfa. In this 
way each of our wnr-«^hips might be BuppHvd 
with one ofHcer pre|Nired to take advantage of 
the rare opi»rl unities for advnnringourknowl* 
«lge of marine life which arise in the course 
of their distant erulsc^. 

Tn view of theconsiderahle numberof .Amer- 
ican students In tlie biological laboratories of 
l-'MrotK!, and the many apiillcatluna on thetr 
part for permission to work at Naples, there 
has nulurally been some surprise at the fact 
that America bss hitherto declined to con- 
trihiite any thing towai^U the sup|>ort of the 
station. The honor of taking th« first ftt«p 
towiiHs rec1-il>ing rxir mistake in this matt«r 
belongs to Williams college. It is to be 
ho[)cd that the exarajUe set by President Car- 
ter and the trustees of this college vltl not 
long remain the only evidence of our nppro- 
cialiou of the Naples stutiou. Three or four 
tables will at least be required to meet the 
demands of our xoOlogists alone, judging (Vora 
the number now ut work there. It is not 
right tlist Atnei'icnn students should go to 
Naples as l»cggars. to be received out of cour- 
tesy, or indirectly through the liberality of 
Knglish or (Icnnan iinlversiiieB. Of the twen- 
ty-si.^ tables now taken at the station, Ger- 
many controls twelve; Italy, four; Kngland, 
two; UuBsia, two; Belgium, two; Uolland, 
one; Uungni:}', one; Kwitxerland, one; and 
Williams college, one. Tliere nre four tables 
not yet dispowd of, two of whic^, at least, 
should be secured at once by America. WlU 
?>ot some one or more of our univerAities ta]c« 
this matter in hand? 



ivLX 2T. 1988.) 



SCIENCE, 



9.7 



The «atabli«hineiit of a hioli^cal atatioii at 
Wood's Hon, which, in the hands of Profcwor 
Hairtl. iriU ilonhtlosa he pushed to a spcedj 
Gompletion. will create facilitli^ for the stuilj 
or mannc life on a much Imager scale thou we 
have liitherto t^een in this voiintr^' ; and the 
sueceseful issuu uf Uiis enlerpriiiu. we venture 
to predict, will increase ratlior tbau diminish 
the inimtwr of Amerieao natnrnlists atXapIes. 
Whatever improves our fjicilitio* fur study 
will tend to increase tbe general interest in 
btolog)'. and to augment the number of natu- 
raliists who will eeek the best thnl tlie world 
ftffordii in the vray uf melbodn. Ttie time will 
never ooine when dirccL interchuuge of thought, 
and comjiarisoii of nictboda of research, will 
cvase to be of tbe highest importance to the 
biologist. On the contrary, tbesv things will 
become more anti nior« a necessarj' part of the 
experioneo of every one who aims to be a usc- 
fkil and aucoessAil student of life. Tbe prog- 
ress of biological stndtes will soon create a 
demand for more than um< international labora- 
tory, and we certairdy hoi>e that tbe new sta- 
tion at Wood's Holl will tjike this character. 
The establishinenl of several great elulions at 
different points, selected nccordtng to the rela- 
tive ricfaness and imimrUnue of the fauna and 
Dora, each offering facilities for study similar 
to those enjoyed at Naples, ami open to nat* 
nraliats of every countrjr, would prepare tbe 
way for a concentration and orgnnizstion of 
forces, ami inevitably miiw< Uie stawlard of 
work, and check the accuraulnLlon of drift- 
wood. It is obvious itiat the iisefkdness of 
one station would not be impaireil by the exist- 
ence of othcrst since the work of each wonld 
b« snpplementary to that of the others. 

The character and im|)ortant-e uf the pubU- 
cfllions of the station have been so well slated 
by Mr. C'unnin);hani in the article bcfuru re- 
ferred to, that little remains to lie said on this 
topic. In looking over the list of sjubscrihcrB 
to the Fauna andjUtra, we arc again forcod 
to acknowledge tbe slender intcr«»t which 
America has taken in the Naples station. 
Here is a colossal ncrics of magnificent mono- 
graplia, designed to give an exhaustive treat- 



ment of the plants and animals found in the 
Gulf of Naples, and published atn price that 
onght to insnrc them a place in tlie private 
library of every zo^iloglht and Imtaniat in the 
country ; and yet the list of subficribcra, ao- 
tionling to tlK! last circular, numbers only eight. 
Kvcn such connlrica as Holland ami Switzer- 
land outdo ns. Austria and Russia have each 
twice this number of subscribers ; Italy has 
nearly four times, England about five times, 
and Germany ten times, as many. 

Aa our poor representation cannot bo at- 
tributed wholly to indifference, II is aafle to 
conclude that these moni^aphs are not so 
generally known as they deserve lo be. Thirty 
of the series have already been announced, six 
of which have been oompletud. From two to 
four are published each year in quarto form, 
and illustrated with numerous expensive plates, 
at an annual subscription -price of only twelve 
dollars and a half. The number of subsuribera 
is now two hundred and seventy, ami the three 
hundred and fifty copies of Dr. Chun's ^ono- 
^raphie der Ctenophoiae — tlie 6rst in the se- 
ries — have been already nearly exhausted. 
The monographs are written either in Knglish. 
German, French, or Italian, according to 
the preference of tbe authors. Such brilliant 
.ichieveroents in the line of exhaustive research 
as are embodied in these mont^aphs certain* 
If command our homage, nnd assureilly de- 
serve a more generous recognition than tJiej 
liavB yet received in this country. 

C. O. WumuN. 



THE NATIOyAL RAILWAY EXPOSI- 
TIONS — HI. 

Is England and Europe geaeralty, signals 
of every eouteivable variety have been used : 
but experience has shown that the semaphore 
is the tiesC signal, and its universal adoption 
In (ireat Britain and on the busiest railways 
on the continent of Europe is a good exam- 
ple of ilie ductriue of the survival of the 
fitlCHt. Tlie exiHisitiou, we n^ret Uy observe, 
contains many forms of signals that are 
nnitlier distinct in ap|H'aranoe nor po<4ilive in 
meaning. It is hard to say whether wme of 
them mean anfety or danger. A mere change 

■ tkAtlnunl frtn Ho. S. 



98 



SCIENCE. 



iVou ft.. Ko. 



or color frijm reilTio whiio, without any 
change of r<>rm, o<nivi'_j-e no inronRation wlint- 
eviT id certain stalefl of tlie woalhtT bikI with 
curtain hackgruunds. Othi<r signals an- ahkti, 
liauk and front. Fflt'in<; the tmin. lliev sivnify 
danger: ^tunding ctlgc-wise. tb<-j mean siifi'ly : 
but uiifortunur4>ly it U (liin<.-ult to kiww 
wKctlii-r thcv rfftr to an east-bound train or a 
wcat-butiml triiin ; and, though tliey may be 
placed on the right bstid of ihe vDgitieer to 
vhom tbi-y rofor. this arraDgemeut is not 
alnava fteo fVoin niobiguity. 

Tilt ^caiapburo signals, as sboviu at tbc ex- 
poeiiiuu. cotiBiBt of vertical ]io£ts wLieb have 
one or morn arms plvottnl at tboir up|)er ends ; 
and tliLsv nrtas arft (.-uifubln uf moving tbrougb 
a rigtit allele in u v»rtii.'al plnni-. An arm 
raiKiul to a horizonlnl position signillpB ilnngor : 
inulincd at an an^l<' of about 4i't°. it »igniri<>H 
safi'ty. A [>on'erriii lamp is (ixci) oenr the top 
of the post ; and. when the arm stnnds hnri* 
zoiUally, a diak of red glass standi in front of 
the lens of the Inntern. which then, of eonrae. 
sliowa a red light, indicating danger. Whon 
th« arm drops lo an angle of 46°. the red disk 
movcR. and leavOK the lantern unobscured, 
showing a wliite light, and iiKlicatinH aafeCy. 

The suuiaphori.' arms are «eight«d. so that 
Uioir norma) position h horixoatal, indieiiting 
danger; ami Ibe i>i^nalm»ii has to overoome 
tills weight in pulling them lu Euifcty. Th(> 
oUji'Ol of this arrangement is, Uial the brenk- 
Bge (tf Ibf euimcction between the lever in the 
signatman's cabin and the semaphore will 
release the signal, and let it fly to danger. 

It is Rsnul U) place one signnl at or us near 
OS ]>o«ts)bIe to both the signalman's cabin and 
thi- spot where the engine of an mlvaneing train 
should atop If the signal is against the train. 
This signal is called the ' home * or • inuin * 
signal. Another signal in placed tioinc dis- 
tance olT in the direction from which the train 
conios: this is termed the '<listnnt' signal. 
The object of this arrangerm'Ut is, that, on 
catching oight of the distant signal, Ibe engi- 
neer is wanted, nnd l)as some time and distance 
in which to slop bis train before he rt-iicbes 
the home signal, beyond which the diingur lies. 

Ai^ (be levers work switcbei; and eignuls at 
a considerable distance, the connections I»e- 
tween them have to be cnrefnlly made and 
protected tVom accidental injury and the 
cfTects of the weather, while the difference in 
length rlue to dilference in temperature has 
to be compensated for ; so that the signal is 
moved with certainty, though the wire or 
pipe connceting it lo the le%-er vary in length 
i*evcrfll inches in the twenty-four hours, owing 



to the difference in tctnperatare 'belweei 
the day and night. The Peiinaylvania at 
oompaiiy exhlbiiti an (.■specially neat devU 
for keeping ttie wire ur connection lo a dl 



friJ.) f«,r 



•aa*rHOKJi. 



tAHt signal always tight. The win) is kflf 
stretched by nn ingenious application of tb 
pull of a weight, which acts only when iht 
signnl is in iu normal ix>»ilioti of danger t( 
which it is weighted. When the ^nal ii 



JotY 27, 1WI3.3 



SCIKXCE. 



9f> 



pn'nt<i to «»fttT, it U iJirectl)' controiicd by 

Connections to swilchi-s art- gtnt'niUy in«(ic 
by n)eat>& of rods ur {)i{>e& Joipted toguLlicr. 



DBncm FOB KlXrtXfl MaKlL-WlEB TI4UT. 

»ikI running on rollers. A • trunk! ng ' or 
wimilen t'overing is tlicn placed over Ihem lo 
pmli'cl tlicni from snow nrid Mie ffcct of nny- 
onp walking about tbo ynrd . 
As i( is very iniportfint ihnt 
the movrracnt of switi'bfs shniilcl 

he abM>liite and e\not nndr-r nil f—i^ 

conditions. — thnt ift to say, 
thnt tlift ftwitch he always either 
tightly closed or wide open, and 
never stnnd pfti^b' o|)eu, — a comptinsflting 
arrangement is intro<^liiced half wnv hftweon 
the (twitch and th« aignnl, so that, whaterfir 
the vurintion of ltrnt;th of foii nuction from t*m- 
jicnitun*. the swiU'h is unalfecLeO, ami its 
uovemvate can always be under exact coutrol. 



alway been experienced in keeping train* 
rnnniiig in the f^nme direction, onlhehflnH' line 
of mils, from running into one another, ax 
Dalnially.oii a crowrled line, an a('<-idental Ato(^ 
jiage lo even n fasl train may ennblu a alow 
train lo overtake il jind canse a rear collision. 
The I'ennsylvania railroad udojited, some veara 
BSo, what is known aa Ihu blot^k aybtum. by 
which a definite interval of space (tlie dis- 
tance between two ai^juiniog gi gnat- oji bins) 
can always be maintained lietween two follow- 
ing Irain.^. '^Thc system is too well known to 
need description here : but Mr. George West- 
iugbonso has invented a aystem in wliicU the 
SKtno results are obtained, not by men signal- 
ling from one cabin to another, bui by the 
traina tlii^maelvcs operating signals thi-ongh 
the medium of elecirieiiy. The principle of 
the invention is easily understood, allhougb the 
details are complicated and the results mar- 
vellona- A battery is connected to each signal 
by means of the raila, the c<irrent flowing 
to Ibe signal by od« rail, and returning by 
the other. The i>re8euce of an axlu and pair 
of wheels on the track enables ttie current lo 
Qow through them, instead of through the 
signal apparatus. I>irccUy the current ia thus 
short circuited, the signal Diea Id danger. 

Tbisximiiic principle is so ingeniously worked 
out in detail, thai » train approaching a rottd- 
croasing rings a boll- fixed on a post at the 



(3: 



Ull »■ rut V KMUl 



eanrt»»rruii unm rwt ■xrAmioM or aunt. 

• 

The full linea show the position in cold 
weather: the dotted lines, in hot. I* in evi- 
dent, however much the rod expand, the 
distance between switch and aignnloinn is un- 
altered, and therefore the movements of the 
switch and lever ar-e unaSbctcd. 

In working railroads, some dlfflcuUv has 



1 h >*TTIW 



crossing until the crosmng is reached, when the 
bell sto|)s ringing : and this is done by trains 
travelling in either direction. In working on 
an ordinary piece of road, two aignals liehind 
the train ai'c always kept nt danger : and. on 
a single line, two signals in advance of the 
train ate alwaya kept at danger against a train 
advancing in the op|X)sitc direction. In a few 
wonU, the trains warn one another of their 
proximity. 

We have dwelt on the snbject of signala at 
considerable length, as the question is novel, 
and of great and growing importani'e ; and 
we have no doubt that those who take nn inter* 
efit in railroads have found much to l>u gained 
by visiting the L>.\]K>Kilion. and atiulying this 
question im the spol. The two exlubils we 
have mentioned represent the l»P9l rcBiilts 
attained in Knglnnd after forty years' pntirnt 
ami carcfVd stndy of signals, under such trying 



100 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. U.. So. 



uondJtioiiB thftt the very existenon of rallwn^'B 
there d(^|>emU upoo the bandliiig of etiormotialy 
concentrated traillc with aafetj-, ofrtaioty, aud 
rapldiiy ; itni) the n^ults of Lltese labors an 
prul)»bly oot far from a perfect solaliou of Itto 
problem, aad deserve our most ciu«ftll study. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF 
THE AMERICAN SOCISTY OP CtVlL 
ENO/NERHS.i — [J. 

i)s Tliiirwliiy tlte (x>nveHlioii Hgain ns&eru- 
bl«l nt St. Piiiil, Hi 11 A.u., and li^^tciied lo a 
paper by J. P. Pi-izzell of St. I^jtiia. upon tlio 
wstcr-power nt St. ^Nntliony's KiUIb, The 
height of foil, watershed, raiiifiill, and horse- 
povcr utilized were givca. lie critit-iawl the 
means taken for pivscrring the fallB. the build- 
ing of stornge-damii nt the head watcra of the 
MiMlsaippii nnd the metho*! of using the water 
at Miiiuea|>oU«. He (xtademncd the waste of 
power ocCHsioiied l\v a gross disregard of the 
laws of hvdraiiitcs, aud (Kiinted nut the remedy. 
He stfttcd that three Ihiug* mhould be done. — 
the U.ij. j^ovvrniueut luut^t be iihluced to with- 
draw wholly, leaving the work of preservation 
of the folia to the owners of waler-power ; the 
two companies controlling the jrawer muat he 
united under one maongenieiit ; the natural 
width of channels at the falls must be restored. 

('apt. (). K. Mlchaelis. U.S.A.. foUowwl with 
a short paper on metrologleni investigations, 
whieh be said were brought about by the at- 
tempt lo determine how much a certain Imllct 
was ' out of true.' He cnnstnn;ted and oxhlb- 
ite^l an iiisuument closely allied to the spbe- 
rouwler, lo which he gave the iinine of ' tnpod 
calijier.' Ue read results uf me!i«urements with 
Uiis iustruuienl, aud applied it further to testing 
Uie accuracy of one turn of a screw-thread. 

Mr. D. J . Whittemore. chief engineer of the 
Clitcago. MilwBiikee, and St, Paul railway, 
Tend a brief paper on the U80 of the Nasmyth 
steam-hammer for driving piles, and gave iq- 
Htancca of the hindrnnee which a very slight 
* brooming ' of the pile-head offered to the 
effective action of the hoinmej-. He also sub- 
mitt<>d a seciiou fVom the top of a green Nor- 
way pine pile, where the friction of the fibres, 
under the r&pid blows of the hammer, bad 
generated .tnilUuent heut to burn iho heart of 
the bead of the pile fguite acroKs, 

l*apera by Benjamin Reeoe, of Toledo, O., 
upon railway-track repairs, and by .1. W. Vai- 
nara, uiKJii cause of decay in timber, were read 
by title, aud ordered printed in tbeprooee<lbgs. 

• C«ostu<tnl tHim No. 34. 



lu another room, before th* perianB 
directly ioU<re«ted, a paji^r was rcail by F. P 
Stearns of Boston, upon the tairrent meter, 
giving a theory for ttie maximum velocity of 
water. Iluwitig in au open chiumel, bein^ found 
txilow Lite surface. 

The tiociety then helda bueincaa-merting, t( 
which a committee for iiominalinn cilfii-era o: 
Uie society was elected. (Jouiniitte*w on onl 
form tests of oement and on the prescrvalioi 
of timber were granlwl (briber time. T 
committee ajtpuinted to procure aid ftota Con 
gress to carry on the teats of iron and stee 
reporlwl progress, and was LHjutium-d. 

The s|>eeial comroitti* on standanl tiai' 
made a repi>rt through Dr. Kgglestou to th^ 
etfect that they had obtained a general expres' 
sion of opinion flt>m mm prominent as engi- 
ueent, railway mauagiTs and opcratore, am 
others iu all'parU of the I'nitefl States an 
Canada, and fouud that eicccptional nnnnlmfty 
prevailed with re»iject to the I^indamental pritt 
ciple which shouM govern in the adoption o 
a system of standard time for tlie whole voan 
try. The benefits of a change from tlie prescD' 
lack of system were illuslruted, and it wa 
claimed tbui the time bad arrived for action i 
the matter. The report was aoceptod, and tbt 
committee continued. 

The convention ut St. Paul then sdjoumed 
The U. S. engineer offioers on duty in tli 
vicinity had an exhibit, in another room, < 
pbins showing tbr various works of improve 
mcnt umler tlieir charge. 

On Friday, June tii, the convcniion met 
3[innvApolii*. The party was carried fl-on 
Uotvl I^ifayette across Lake Mlnnclonkn bj 
steamer, and ttienw by a nan-ovr-gange railway' 
in open cars, lo the city. The meeting tool 
place in the opera-house, A welcome w 
given byex-Mavor Hand io behalf of the city 
a reply and the annual address, in the at^sen 
of Pi-esident Charles Paine, was read b; 
Director William MeUralf. who took for bi 
tiubjecl ' Knginuering improvements iu ih 
Mississippi valley.' 

Mr. WUlinm P. Shinn then read a pup* 
upon the subject, ' Mow enn railways bi> mad< 
more fdlfieul In ihii trans()orlBliou of fieighl? 
whi<rh is a seijnel In his |tapvr of similar titl 
read at the annual meeting in 1t482, and aj 
to sum up ihe discnasion, and more parti 
to reply (o the crilicisma of Mr. O. Chi 
thereon. He claims that facts and liga 
which be adduces, prove that the proaent ml 
age basis for the adjustment of ear accounts 
tweeii dilfei-ent railroad <>(>inpaniee is unjust 
the companies furniehiug tlm cars; that ll 



JULr £7, 1883.) 



SCIENCE, 



101 



cofltly Bwl djscourj^iiig to prompt sbi[i|K-ra; 
that it leads to slon* muvumciit or londed cars 
and to noii-uiovemvnt uf cm|tty <>ars ; lliat it 
is Dot |^ir:ii;iise(l in otlii^r [.xxinlrit.'s. nor does 
aoy liki' prnrti<y oliLiiu in any other liiiainesR in 
lliifl cvNintry. Thi* per-diem. Imsis, on the con* 
trarj', i« |»i?rfe<.'Uy {irncticalile, as proved by two 
}-cars' Irini oii llto I.inioii Pftciflc, and Chicago, 
Bnrhiifit*)!). and tjiiincy railroads, and itM use 
in rt nxMlilit-d foiin in tiro [!^uru|H>;in iswinlriw. 

At nouu tilt! uonventioD adjourned. Th« 
rest of titc day, and Saturday, were given up 
to till* rety pleasant excursions and entertaiu- 
m«Dtii furnished liy the people of the vicinity. 

If one-halt' as much is done to render the 
coming tneetJDg of the American Msociation 
plrasniit. Ihose who attend will Uud thonaeelvos 
well entertained. 



SOME GBYSEK COMPARISONS. 

Hatden's twcifVh annual it-port, published 
by lbt< t*. S. iutL-iior dL')Mtrlmi.-nt. has Ih-oii in 
tlie priutL'r's bunds far somb time, and will 
duubtlus)) be nhortiy i^tsued from tbo guvrrn- 
mcot iirinling-otHrc. Part ii. of this report 
relates lo the YuUnwslonc national park, and 
in it Lbe bot-springa are fidly described, and 
the geotogi- and topography of the pork treated 
of in docail. 

It iH pro|>OB<'d lierc- to (mint out bri(>ny some 
of the liiffervncva in I'elalioti to gvysyrw be- 
tween the resnlts of the work in Ihc pnrl< and 
tbose rejtuhtil by Bunsen in his stHdy of the 
Iceland flvld. It is not necessary to present 
Ouu^n'a oonelusions in detnil. nor to descrilie 
his thuory. with which doubtless the majority 
of the readers of Scikncb are familiar. 

Undbcn's oouclnsions, sa prvHunted livre. arc 
maiuly tliv same as staled by LeContv in hia 
Elements of geology, nitbough not (tonsidcred 
in the fiiinu' iirtlur. 

1, Btiiis4>n found in Iceland two binds of 
springs, viz.. acid springs nnd allcftliue car- 
tliJntUe iipring*; nnd he says that only t^knUnti 
earbnnale springs become silircons, and that 
oaly siiieat<.-<l springs form geysers. 

2. The silica tn solution does oot deposit 
on cooling, but only by drying. 

Oiirolwervalionsin the Yellowstone national 
park in the main verify this last conclusion, 
aim! It is inserted, becnnae I^eContc t^ikes ex- 
ception to it a9 follows: "This, however, is 
not trn« ; for tbe Vellowstone geyser- waters, 
which ' deposit abundanUy by ooctiitg. evidently 
bvvauau they cuntaiu miicb more silica than 
those of U-elajid.*" 

■ Tilt* 1* cvlJntly ■ gnoMiuUMl •trvr. 



The following table gives tbe roaults of thft 
obsurvatioos in the park as (br iA they have 
been niailc in regard to tile points just eno- 
merated. 



NklMC. 



Oii*1 . 



■" ImiKTtal 

piUon. 



■print. 



q«lM«pr^J I4J4 
Ocyur . .' 1.M 



RaaoUoii 
of 



■lit' liirtrc >HU«v 
Whni iHHUeaWfra 



ADwlIn*, PtrtatUf el«ar. od 

I llVUMik 

Add . . PtUeOy ekw, no 

drpMtU 
Alkallw. Ovmr, wlili aniMll 
I il«[iu*il of cclaU' 
liaiH alllsa. 
AllullM.' OMOne M Who* 
I iMiulail, Ml il*. 
pwdi In lMtU«. 



Here, then, we hsve an alkaline spring nnd 
ao acid spring, both of which are geysers. We 
see. also, ihat ihe meiv fact of cooling lii)» little 
to do with the Uirowing down of the eilicn, 
nor docs tbe pi-ceipilation ap|H-ar to he due to 
the uiminnt of silica held in the water. Ordi- 
narily the. formaLion of slliiteouit sinter or 
goyserite must be explained by the evapora- 
tion or drying of the wnter as it flows from the 
springs, or falls fW>m the geysers. 

The chiraneydike form is rcry noticeable in 
the orat«rs of the Yellowstone geysere : and 
l^eConte attributes il to the greater .ibnndnncc 
of silica in solution in the waters of the Yel- 
lowstone geysers.' 

As a fnot, however, tbe nnalyses already 
made of geyser- waters from the park show 
usually tt Kumller percentage of silica than do 
tho^' of Icclaud. Opal s|}ring (sec table 
above) is an exception, and it is a spring 
without the least ap|)caraace of a crater or 
oliimiiey. The real explsnatiou Is prot>ably 
in the grealvr age of our geyser region. 

;{. Bunnen's conolnsioos as to temperature 
are ns follows : — 

a. The tcmperatnre increases with tbe depth 
of the tube. 

b. At no point in the tube does the water 
have the tcmi>eraturc of ebullition which It 
should have under the pressure to which It Is 
subjected. 

c. The t^mperatiiro depends on tbe time 
that has elapAe<l filnce the la»t ernpllon : and, 
as a great eruption approaches, tbe nearer it 
oomes to the boiling-point. 

d. At a depth of forty-tlve feet In the Great 
gr^yser. tbe dilferencu beiwuou the observed 
temperature and llie calintlaled boUilig-lMint 
of the water for thiil depth and praasarv was 
the least. 

* KImbMIb of foo^otJ, f. IM. 



102 



SCIENCE, 



|Vni_ II.. Mo. ». 



In Uiu YellmrHtojiK nntioniil (wirk. wherever 
deep Uimpc rntiires were lakt-n in nciive BpriiiKi 
and jreytwrs. ttiey were found to increase wiUi 
tin- (ii'plh ; lint tcnipei-ntiires of f-I.ijHUioD wore 
rotiiiil nt the nurfnoc of mouy ■prints, and in 
Home tlic lenipcrnturea eaccw^e«I ibe tKiillng- 
point. A« the lime for an emptibu inagersor 
Rpproflchcd. tbo teroperatart- increased, w'hteh 
fact agrees wilb Ouqscu'a nhservatioav. 

In ISG.'i ti Mr. Brywo of EiUnlmrgh found 
that tlie Lube uf the Great geyser of leeluail 
lisB a led^e nboot forty-five feet below tbe lop 
of lliu Lulw, nud Umt. from t)enc»Ll) tins lettgc. 
•l*^ain- bubbles rose wbile the Itibe was niliiig. 
A tbcrmuuietei' sunk to ttiitf point was violently 
dashed about niid bn^keii, but. vrlien sunk 
lietow tl. wiU (|uioC and nndislitrtH?*!. The 
conebiKton is* tbal herv. is iiu opening l>y wbtcb 
Bleaiu and fluiierbi*atwi wfit*'r bnve Ju^esB to 
the uiaiu goyaer-tnbi* from ttie side. Similur 
aiile-opeiiings niv known to exist in Strokhr ; 
but tlic Great gcjv'Kr is so t\i\\ of wnter thatita 
strm^urv cannot lie so readily studied as in 
the cai^e of the smaller Strokhr. In Butisen's 
theory this jioint forty-Rve feet Mow tbe »ur- 
tbee plays an fmportant part. Hi' allowed bis 
thorinomfter to rumain at the bottom of tbe 
gey^cr-tnhe during a great eruption, and it 
was undislnrlied. Mr. Brysou's dii*covery 
explains it!) safety. It wa-«t below the active 
side-vent of the uey^or. 

UuuBeu's eOQchiaion would therefore prob- 
ably have to be ukkIiIUhI hi} far an ndatea 
to the tuui|M<raiur[! of ebnililioii not being 
reached ; for, i-ould he have obtained temiwr- 
atun>a in the side-titmduit, there is but little 
doubt that the boilin<?-|K)int wonid soon have 
b«eii reached, even for the pressure of tliat 
depth. The ma^ of water in the nmin tubes 
prevents that eondition nt the surfaep ; and. 
when it Is attained opitosiLe tbo aperture, an 
eruption uccniw. 

Bunsen'9 theory of the formation of geraer- 
tilbes also rEKjiiireH name modification. Con- 
trary to bin opinion, the depOHit of silica is 
not necessary for geyseric nctJon. In tbe 
Gibbon geyser basin in tlie oalional purk are 
several geysers conspicuous fivm tiie small 
amouat of siliceous deposit surrounding them ; 
and one in 1978 was entirely without a deposit. 
baviuK just broken out as a steam-vent. By 
the following year it had settled down to regu- 
lar geyser action. 

As alreaily mentioned, there are, in the park, 
geysers tjie water of whidi is arid in reaetiou i 
and tberefore the theory that before develop- 
ing into a geyser the spring must p,is?t through 
a preliminnrj' lr.inquil or non-cruptlve stage 



^i^ whieh it is an nci.l spring) is not war- 
ranted l\v the fuels observed in tin' Yellow- 
stone region. It is prohaitle Ibnl nil geysers 
are originally dnc to a violent outbreak of 
stenm and wat«r. and that the first stage is 
that of a. huge steam-vent, t'ndor sneh eon* 
dltions, irri-jfidai' eanties and pasungcs arc 
uioru likuly to be formcti tlkan regular tubcH. 
The lining of the {lassageii and tul>es takes 
plaee arterwards, and is a slow process. 
Whether the sublerraucau (Mifsuges in which 
the water is heated are narrow channels, eo- 
brgenients of tiilH's, or caveros and tuKtes, to 
prci'nbly of little eoiiwijuence, oxi-epl as tlie 
IM*rloda or Intervals of the geyser arc inflnenee<l. 
If water in a glass tube Iw lieatod rapidly 
from the bottom, it will be violently ex[i«llQd 
from the tulK\ or. if boiled in ii ketUe tlint has 
a lid ami a spout, either the lid will Ik* blowu 
off. or the waUT will Im- fori-ed out of Uie 
spout. In tbe first ease we have an explana- 
tion, in part at IcasC of Bnnaen's thiK>ry ; and 
Che second cxeinplilies the theories which pre- 
suppose the existence of subterranean cftvl- 
ttos and connected tubes. Tbe simpler the 
form of the gcysor-Uibe, the Wa is the im- 
pediment to the circulation of thf su|»erhefflted 
witter: and in this fAcl lies the explnnHtion 
of tlie ditferenoe between constantly boiling 
springs And geysers. The variations and 
niijilifieatiorid of the subterranean water-pas- 
sages, huwever. must he impurtaut TackirB 
entering into any completu cxplaautioii of ge)-- 
seric atiion. 

Bunsen's llieory. somewhat mfxlified, fai 
probably tbo iiemt yet pro|>o9ed, e8i>eci«lly that 
part of it whitih explains the effect of the rise 
of water nearly at the IvoiUng-point U> nn 
upper portion of the clinnnel where its tem- 
perature is in excess of that necessary to cause 
ebullition. Tbo excess of heat Is violently 
and inatantaneously applied to the produiition 
of steam. M<!l\tmzic, in 1«1U. alsoroeogniBed 
the fact that thf sudden evolution of Bleain 
was the pi-oximal« cause uf tb(> eruptions ; but 
he could not account for their periodical pro- 
<luelii*o. 

The wiiter of geysers and hot-springs baa 
been boiled and reboiled for an iucouceivable 
period, aiHi in freed from air as no other wal«r 
is. lU cohesion is therefore imuiens^dy in- 
creased ; and this fact, together with tbe 
obstruction Lo the free escape of steam caused 
by irregularities iu the chaouels. offers a com- 
pleti' explanation of tito superheating of the 
water; an<l it is well known. Umt, when water 
BO heated doe.-^ boil, the production of vapor 
Is instantaneous. A. C. Psalk. 



Jin.r S7, !ffi8.j 



SCIENCE. 



103 



THU AFFINITIES OP RtCHTHQFEMA. 

Via, >V. Waaorn voii Hldvri tlio rvsultv oT hU recent 
mlwly of the a<sv i^'nu*! Kiclitlmrania Kityt, {Anomla 
I^vrnncltitiK Koniiick) «o r«Rinrk<vbl<^ us tit (1e:>«r*6 
a pKlimln&r)' DOiJcv (fl*r. yeoL nuro. ttvlUt^xvi. \), 
yir. U»rnMi<le and I'rorevsors Vat^rlii aiu] Mdllcr 
w«r« nf ojiiiiion Uial iliJs fusil! wn* more titNUly r*- 
iMvd to th« corah tlii.n !o any other cIjuu of iin|inflll, 
wl)lle ProfeA<iQrs Zlitel niiil Llndatr^ni N«eme(l to l>« 
In ffttror of Uio rlew ilint it wa-t .t brtR*hiui>wJ. tu 
fHVOr of tlie lalttr vicir, Ihr nii(nu(>-<i|»i<: atnictutr of 
the shell 1« the tncsi tmportniit point. iLt ^ilky 
liulftt Is [deuti»l Mitli that uf I'ioOuc(.u», thuuKh 
this sc>«mi ui tw f(Ti-ct«'il hj liiGTcrpiit mvaiis. In the 
fthell *>f ProdUi'iiis it !» caiisi^ by obliquely uccndlng 
I>f1stn¥, vrhilsl in RiL-tiLhufcnli It detwiuls app&roiiily 
on tbi> Una lamlnktJoii of the shell, as in rinrunn or 
simlUr g«iitr«. Uf great iinpori&ncr is the prUiuailc 
Mmeiure *>{ the single l&minae i>f which the shell 
of Rii:hthnfeo[» la composed, buch a prisiDAllv 
alructlire i.i ehJoOy characteristic of mullu-ki ami 
moltu.trolds. Dr. WaAgeii htL<< iierer yet obMived 
this nructure lu coral&. In Calceola iaiKliUiiui. 
which w«-fiit> the itioal kindred f>>rtM among coral*, ii 
mlcrusi'oplc seciifm through th>^ larger Tklvt- nhowcd 
wall lu radial Kpl* ; but &1I tli«M! Mpta exhibited a 
Kranniar, not » prlKmatlc almclufe. The puiicLati'iu 
of tho kliL-ll is very similar to [hat of Productna, and 
Aoare the holl»w rooi-liku tubr« which |ieti«?trate the 
shell -unbalance of the Ltr^er falvc. and adhere to other 
I>ihII«<«. The wnaller »alv« can als^ be vt^ry well 
cviBp^red to the aame valve ui rroductua. atlhotigh 
It is doiibtful whetJier the thlt:k pnmllH rlilg«« on 
the hinfCV'liiic of tliia Tulve uf IUchthuft.'niA i-aii at all 
b« «-oiiipared to a eanlinal pruiH-«<, and wheilier ihe 
iinpreasious oo ihu valre cAn bo lakvu ah >nu^cular 
imprcaelons. Ketiiforin bodies aru moat cerialnljr 
absent. Nevertheless, amnn^ the bmchlopoils, the 
Produetlde* are the only one* lo which the geiiiu 
Afchlhofetiia might stAnd la any reiaiiuti. 

Rlchtbofeitla poAaewes certuin points of rescm- 
blaiiee willi ruijoso corals, — the lrref;uiar |»arti- 
Uonit in Ihe lower part of the larger valve ; the 
<oluiucll.vllke pvrUvn, which is dirMed off by ihreo 
▼ertlcoi *<'ptA ; tbv%e nepta them**tlt<«, which can 
>rell be compared to the prltnary and Ihe two lateral 
Mpia of H nigitffr eor&t ; the cellular Blnirluro of the 
shell i the seplA-lifce ridges on the outer wall of 
Lhe animal chambers, which arc in conneclioti itilh 
tbi! hollow canals which pierce the eiihstance of ihe 
■bell ; and the lorluoue tnbes tbeuisekes, Inio which 
Iba Canal* ure prolonged on the outer vide of the 
larger •nMf. 'I'here ran be no doulx, that on lirst 
Inapectiou, iKiioriuj; Ihe silky lustre of llie »hell, one 
would ho far niiirr llk'-K* Ui regani tbU fowil as a 
<ioral than as a brA/'hlo|(od. 

Tltc points of similarity b«tw«eii Riclitbufenia and 
the Rudisu, chlL-fly mppuriies. nrv not very numer- 
on*. If we nialie a sf<-tion of Kii-hthofenin frum the 
hlitgo-ilne to tho opposite w.iil, >o a.« just to lourti 
the nit^liaii rerUcaJ Bcplum, we obtain a fl|;ure rerj- 
sliullar to whnl a Illpjuirltes shows wheu cut ao as 
la tAucb the Qrst coluuit^llar fold. Another point of 



BliBUarltyrnnBlaU Is the dlrrctkn of the prixmR, of 
which the subsuncs of the sholl b eiuiipMrd. 'llie 
Utultil:! differ fn>in all the olbeTKroupa of Pelecypuila 
la havlnji the pri«in« of the outer shell arranfptd ver- 
tically ; I.e.. l->Q);iiudiiially to the wholi^ fxleosioo 
of the fhell. The same Is the eftse bi the uirdian 
shell-laycr of Itichtlinfeiila. A third point of great 
iaiportance exists in the palllal impre-»*ion which 
ii ivrmnion to ftlchthofi-nia and the Radlnta ; and, 
finally, It 1* not tjuilc certala that the 9lnnaUi>ni of 
the Urge waive of KichLhofenla iiu both aidi^ of tb« 
bing«'iitie, which stand In «o cIom a c<>itnt>cilon to 
th« laiernl venic-il !>epia, may not )>e n^nled ns llie 
br-glnniiig of Ihi" Ihfoldingt of |]ie shell, *v eli&racter- 
iitlc of the Itudi^la. TIm! di»lnnce in lime becwe<>D 
Kicbtbofenia, which romr% probably fnini the lintila 
between ibe carbon iforo us and Peninan fortnaih>n«. 
and Ihe 1liiili»ia, which are for the iu«i pn»t upper 
creiAceouft, U so enoriuous. and the absence of wvery 
conneciiiiK-link so cutnpieU!, lliai a clofie afhiiiiy be> 
twtfvn the pnienzolc and the creia<-eoui> fontis iiboiild 
not he cxpecled. It will then-fom tinly be possible 
to prtite Ihe ounneclion Iwtwcen Ihe present /o<»«il 
and the ftudlxu, wh<ii fnithrr niombers of such a 
dcveli>|miei>tal ttrrles are discoverwl. 

As the ca-ne now stands, it will be most prudent. 
In accorilance wlih the inlrro^coplc Alraciureof ib« 
■htttl, to consider the fotiei] an someiblng like a 
bracliiopMl, As far as Dr. Waagen's opinion goes, 
he is rohvlneert that i!irhth»fenia 1* a member r>f 
a seriea, wliieh, branrhjug off M>nivi^here fmm thd 
ru^fone oral*, ha» n-acbH in Hichthofeiila a bracblo- 
poddike «lHi;e, .tnd Is going to lenulnnle il» career 
•■ a IVIecypod. as one i>f Ihc Rudista. Bui opinion 
i« nolhing in science, and pnvif^ are cvi.-ry Tbtug. 
As yet, it cannot be pf*»iii\ely drnlfd Ibnt Rlchtllo- 
fenia may b<' a predeees^oir of the Kudisia. 

J. B. MARCor. 



THE GREENWICH OBSERVATORY. 

Amovo Ihe leading ]iolnU referred to lu the report 
of Ihe aatronoiner royal. W. B. U. ChrlsUe, F.IIS., 
to Ihe boarrl of viaiioTB of tlie Royal observatory, 
Ore<>nw|rb. read at the «"p^inl vlslfhllon OQ June £, 
are the following: — 

Besides the regular aiibjeeta uf observation with 
Ibe traiisil-clrcle, — the Buti, m"on. planets, ami fnn- 
duni<-ntal stars, — a new u'orkliig<ll«l uf V.fUlO star«, 
comprising all those down to tlin ■■Ixth macnilude 
inclusive, and noi observed linre I9D0, biu) been pr»< 
parrd, and waa hruuRliI tnlj> use at thi* beginning o( 
March. The entire number of transits ohseived wUli 
this inmrunient duiini; ibe year was 4,IKK; dder- 
tniontlons of iNillIrujitlitn>errnr, :IM ; detennitiatlons of 
level-error. 8:f3: number of circte-observations. 4,-19); 
di^Ii-rmituilEoaft of nadir-point. 3b8; relteciion-ob^er- 
vaiioiis of start, 4^1. Comet a IPn^ wat obwrved 
seven times on tlie meridian, and comet 'j i9i^i. ihree. 
The roiilJno reducilons of all the tihservittir'nH wiib 
this Instnttnent are repurlcii in an extraiirdlnary 
iUte of fofwarduess. Ft»jn> the b'-ginnlng <A this 
year, a correcltou of — tl".3U lias l>ea*i) applied to tlie 



lot 



SCIENCE. 



(Vol. IL. No. 



reaalu of the nMlirobsemtlnns to tanke ihtm agree 
in tba in»ui with the resull* o( tti« rvllt)ciIon-ob«€r- 
Talii'iis of «tan. This dUci>rdn(iec waa iii*ii(iii6c«til 
la 1S18, atiO If OD Ui« lncre;ise: lu foumt bas not 
yoi been inu-'cd. Three det^nuiniiitont of flexure 
twve becH iiiad« durltiK t,b« y<»ir. TIih tr<>i-rn;tlun for 
R~ />, Uie errc^ of wsunietl co-laUtiidc, and ih>! pml- 
tlon of Uie «vllpl)e, have tweo Iiiv«»tl^t«<l fur lS8i. 
The value for the co-latituile, from tb« obnervaUniis of 
1882, (» 38" 31' LM'.W. The crrwcijon to Ibe lahnlw 
oM'Kiuity of lh« wllptic i» + ff'.*4. The meui error 
of ibn ubtilu- rtgtit uc«iuiuu of the inouD, froiu 
ob*nrv»tlr)ni with Ihn Inwmii-circlc, i« + V.fti. 

l^e observiiliont of the moon with the ftltAiimiilh 
have been rmtricled to the 6etnl-lunaciuu between 
Uist i|iiu1flr aii'l lint- <|ii(tr(«r ; ami aoiiip limitAKons 
ti&Tc been ndapied tn the eorapuutloiu which 
nailer tJie reduction of obMrvailous with thia In- 
•tfUment oonpKnUivtfly liifUl. The m-win'B ilUmeter 
hJLs ht^n ueiuumij tliirtjMhr«e tkdea, cotiiitltig meas- 
itrei In bocli co-onllnatos with the tnntlb^lrcle and 
the altaxliuuiJi. 

X vury mloable mldition ba< bifu mIl(l<^ to the 
in«trunient4 of Ihe K'>y«l ubiervatoiy by Uir gift of 
the LaMull Lwo-feet' rcllttclin^ v<|ua[orlal, i;t-ii«r()usly 
preMltted by the MUtws Lits««ll. This is the tit*tru- 
meat with irhicb tlie Satumian sal«llile Uyiieiiofi was 
illMSorenHl In IMif. it wa^ r«inove>l (rnm Maiden- 
head early in March, ami haa bevn suUubly inoimt^d 
In Ihe gn>i)tiil* of Uie Royal otMi-rviUory. The telit- 
Mope baa two larf^ mirroK available lor ti*e; aud 
the astronomer myal coutemplaieii atuching one of 
ibein to the lube of the ' doutb-ewt e)|uab>rlal,' whkb 
baa u firiu inouiitinK and a perfect clot'k-worlc, and 
emphiyitiK i( for 9pectro*coplc aail pbotographlc 
work. The I^auell teleacope ltf<Blf in well united for 
the obwrvalivn of fitltii satellite* and cumeu which 
are beyond the preu^ijl inalrumenlAl meanji of the 
obscrvalurjr, 

Tltc obsers:iitioi» of the § glar ttclipse of 1683, ililay 
1", with llie s'>itth-ea*l e^naloriiil. hare beon torn- 
pletely reduce, and the final i>)uation.'* X'lvecl, 

tipeclm«0()plc ubaervHtiims during twvtve uionlhi 
Tiavc been •nmewhat resirlcie'l through llie prcMorc 
of phnUiLErapbIc reductions at iJie lime of a maxi- 
mnm of Hun-fiiHit fre<iiiency. The solar promincncea 
were obtHTvcd uu vlsht days, and four Bua-8|>>tU 
were examined on ei^iht dayi witli reference to 
broadening of line* tn Uieir apecLra. The speetrum 
of tbe great spot of 1882. Xov. 12-26, showed eoine 
remartiable revoraaU uf the liiiek uf hydrogen and 
sodium, and exlraordlnarj diftplaccmeni of the F line. 

As re(Earda detonninaliuiiB of motion uf xlars in the 
line of tisht, a hundred and forty-two in>-a>un-H Imris 
b»cn made of the diapiaeement of the V line In the 
apectn of twenty-three stars, and Lweuty-«lx meas- 
ures of the line b, in nine atars. The observations 
of Siriiu during tbe past winter lend, on tlic whidt^, 
1o contirm the impreulon that the rate of r«eessh>n 
of this star had dlmlnlBhcd pngrastlTely since LS77, 
and tlut its motion Is now on the point of being 
evuverle>l InUi oni^ of approach. 



The a|)p«tnim nf comH a IIQS was esamlned nn 
thrve nlKhte: ibst of the great eomrr. h l^At, also oa 
thrve ni^fht*; and thai of comet ii Il^<^, on one nighL 
The spectrum of Ihc nr«t-namiM objMt ibowAd the 
reltow sodiuni'linn with Krent brilliancy juM before 
perihelion i>as<ai;e. Tlie spmtnim of the aurora 
was also examined in 1.S82, Nor. 17. Th.; spwlro- 
scuplc observations of all kinds are compJoiely n- 
duewd Ut IAS.!, May 2a 

During llin year ending at thla time, pilot ograpfis 
of the sun were taken on two hundred days, and 
thrM) hundred and Lhlrty-nlne platen hare been 
s"tecb»l for preservation. The sun's dl«lc was free 
from spots on aev(>ndays; and, ninin ttie exttaorill- 
nary ouLbum of last Moremt>er, the sun has been 
comparailveiy ijulescent. Tlie aiiron'oner nyal pro- 
poses soon to employ a moditinl plioLohi.^liogtapli for 
this worii. so ax to obtain photographs of the sun 
eight Inches in diamelor liisLuad uf f-jur. The nieas- 
nremenl i>t a targe ntimtmr of Indian and other 
phototcraphs of thr sun, re^inln^l to Hit ^ps In the 
Greenwich series, has bciMi completed, these photo- 
grnplu bating been reoelvvd from tbe Solar jdiystes 
Ciimmittee. 

Tbe cuiirae of the magnetic observations has 
remained the same as In former years. Improre- 
menu have been made In the methods of photo- 
graphic regislratton. Thi>rc has b«en eonsldemblfl 
niaiEaeilt: scili-ity durlni; Ihe year. The distorbaucea 
of Noveinlwr last are Lo be detaihn) grnplilralij In th* 
'Gr«nwlch magnetic reAiiHl for 1882.* ParticnUrs 
of Eua^iietic disturbances are rqularty communicated 
lo the ColUertf -guardian newspaper, for the inform 
mation of mining surveyor*. 

The moan temperature of ICS2 was 4»°.«, or 0°.l 
lower than tlie average. The higtiest air-tempera- 
ture waaK'l^'.O, on Aug. I}; and tite lowest, SS^.S, on 
Dec. II. The mean monthly temjicralure wan abova 
the average from January lo May, Uien heJow until 
Sepieiuber. and differed little from the averai^ dur- 
ing the n^niainder of the year. The mean dally 
motion of Hit) air was SOQ milu, HI milt> grcater 
tbaii tbe uveragc The itreat«%t dally motion was 7A8 
miles, on Nor. 4; and Uie. Ii-atl, 3U miles, on Dec 11. 
The gmntest himrly velocity was fK miles, oa- 24. 
The number of hours of bright sumbine, ai recorded 
by Campbell's •nnsbine instrument, was 1.S4S; that 
is, 40 hour* above the average of ttie live preceding 
years. The rainfall uf 1882 was 36.-i Inches, slightly 
alinve tho average. 

In c>>nclusion, tlie restriction in tbe observations 
of tbe moon with the altaxlmuth enables more 
attention to be given to ubeerratlons with the equa- 
lorials. Two ob*«rver5 arc now available for spectto- 
8pn|tic obaervalions duriDg tbe coming year. Mr. 
Christie characterizes tlie past year as. In toutt 
slight degree, one of trBn>ittuii, and preparation for 
future work. Some ailministrative changes hare 
been mode; but the regolar onune of ohsrcrvaiion 
and r9iluction has not been disturbed, and the stand- 
ard nteridfan obsarvalions have lnwa maintained in 
full Ttgor. 



JCLT ST. 1883.] 



SCIENCE. 



105 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Impregnation In th« car key. 
Whkx t WM a hfiy, my father U'Ai lo winl mc m 
•onitr of Ihc nFigtil>ui> wilh our turkey -lieii, and we 
left her llirre wlih Ibe cock a day dt >o. Eithi-rlbls, 
or we wiiiilil Itorruw n cock Uir n day or ou, )ui<l turn 
liliu witli our ticii. Thti wm noi only for one year, 
bui Diir custom ; as wp opver wiiitLTvl a lurtivy-<^ock, 
ami wo illd raUr tiirki-yii b» ilii* pn^crn-c Tlicre wm 
no po-»il>lli(y of the lurkey-cock K'Uing witli inir 
hen nfter llie contiict tu<?tiIioiK-d ■oov«. 1 fliil not 
know ttitti ttiln {)in wa-i still unknown lo peuplc 
WliAt la Mil) u i]ni^>iioii tliut 1 sliould like H^Ulnd by 
(•xiMTlRM'nl IK, w)tft1ii-r Die HpcrmAti-znids are re- 
tametl i>i>iiiew)it!re In llie oviduct until tliu rgg* rcaclk 
« cerlHiii s'B^e of devvlopment, or whether they ac 
«4)ce linpre»nate the i-ggs. W. AIajin. 

Puinlwn.N.V., July ^ 

" [We^ive t>]ACe to the foregoinff exiraet from Mr. 
Mann'* letter, referring lo Sfr, Sbepard's ootnmtinl- 
eathin In Ni.. ll'. p. 578. on llie B»mr nuhject. There 
uv prohabls many ipecii-i nt bWd» in wtiii'h on« con* 
neetton wlih the malv -lunicea lo ini|ire»;nate a whole 
batch of eggA, Ttiat the turkey, like the coininon 
ben. I> one of ihese, is a fact whirh hanlly reqniivj 
(urtbiT eoiiflmiation. There can be Utile qiiektlnn 
Ibai llie •'t>eru>atnz'>IOs are retnlned In thn oviduct, 
as in Mher animal*, anil the egga Impregnated tia 
they tuvvefutfely mature.] 

Maoloakle'B Elementary botany. 
The ri'«itrw uiih whivh yuti (avur oiy Klemenlary 
botany citlechl.>-e~ me its to wliether 1 am fure that 
tbe seeds nf Lepidinm emit miuitafiin'ius threads. 
. Pnnull (iH? lo answer iJtat 1 am sure, having madp 
the e«prrlment n d<-xen time*. Vl'det". Iwides ihe 
orderc cited by llie reviewer, prove that tbe tialc- 
tueni a" t" cymose fl<-wcn bfln^ aciinomnrphtc re- 
qiiirra m'^JIGrBiiMn. I ■ympathiti' with ihe objection 
lo Ui« U-miB ■ eaoleu ' «n<l " enrtoleW;' but the lfnn> 
* priiiilne ' and ' M>cundine ' are bewildering lu authom 
a«well»- siuiknt«.and (;lve ]iriorIiy lutliepart which 
b In mo>l i-iuri. a r^-Miit of M-Conditry dinerentiallnn; 
'ij'ginrn' Is iibBolele, and the wlioi'e »ubi«;t of the 
develofment and sinirture of Ibe •ffd-vriil I requires 
revisiuit : hence tbv pmciiional use of lerni* which, 
tbi'UKh hvbrld, arw eaally undeniood, and iiui likely 
to niifllt-aji Ihc yuiitig;. G. M.vri,o»KlK. 

Jaly in. im. 

[We conjecture that Profeasor Uacloohie had iniicd 
In bli mind, or ni li-aai li> hi« Ntatrmpnl. two different 
ctfKt; — Miv. iliHl 111 which the wall of tbe Rurface- 
celU of the »eed-coat, clian|:ed into a ttubnuiice which 
swriu Into nuK-llnse npnn wt-tting, conrains a vpiral 
thfv;id, as in Collonda ; ibc other, in which there la 
no coniaiiirtl lbr>-iKl. Ai-conliii(; to otir ubaervations, 
(be »e«d9 of Lt-'pidliim belong to the latter: hence 
tlie 'CNtei-bi-ni,' »hic)i waa Iniendt-d Ui call attention 
to a poi-sihlt? (iv4>rs>glit. We have to-day veriflMl our 
obaeiraiiuii iii<un m-oIs of Lepidiiim niderale. Per- 
faap" I'rofrM'ir Uaclosklf will kindly hidtoaie tbe 
apeeies in which hv found ibp thn-adn. - Rkvjkwbr.) 

PrUDltlvfl streak of T«rtabiat«B. 

l>r. Htralil of Uarhurg ha-i had the kindneM to 
write Vt m<r conceniini; the a>>stnicl of biw regearcbea 
|S<-tKMCic. i. 52X). A pari of hli letter contains ao 
expl«nBtiun which I ahall be glad to have publtihcil 
tu Jusiit.-r lo Ur. :5tralil. Translate^!, tbe pauaga Is 
u fitllowfc- — 

** A* regania tha oteemed remark at tbe cloae of 



tbe alwlrscU— that I have declared erroneous Bat. 
fotir'i comparbon between the primitive tirvak and 
neitrenteric canal on one xide, and llie blastopore nf 
Amphin And tlRheA on the other. ~ the remark may 
be due Ion niitiiniJiTftnndinx. 8o far at known to 
m* from hi* deuriplions. Balfour pla<^ tbe neuron- 
tetic canal at itn' anterior end of (he primitre slrenk. 
But. a.> 1 have shown (n my paper, tbe neurenteric 
canal orlclnally lies In the middle of the primitive 
Nireak. Th^ objrcl ni my demon Rt ration is to show 
that the prt^mises from which Balfour sUrts do not 
ngrei; with iho obKcrvalii>nt : tble, I bcKere, was 
accomplished. Tlii* would also decide the aceond 
pi>iiitmade by you. — that myargumeQlallon aKalnsL 
Balfour wa» defective." 

I am much indehted to Dr. Stralil for his letlei*. 
and I tbluk others will value hi* short statement of 

his poallloD. Cu.VJtLBS SKlKtWIL-K MlSlVT, 

In an Indian grave. 
In an Indian graTe in !>l»nta Barbara county, Cal., 
the writer fuund a beautiful specimen of doubiy ter- 
minated limpid quartE, with a cavity half an Inch 
long coiitaititng water or some other Buld. It was 
iibout four twl below Iht* aurfaoe, and had been caro- 
fully depoeited with many other stone implctnenta, 
and was doubtless blglily priicvd by its abor1(lnBl 
owner. Stkphek BoWBua. 



WARD\S DYNAMIC SOCIOLOOY. 
If. 

It is proposetl to show the relation or Mr. 
Ward's piihlication to current thought. 

The law 19 coni|x>9wl of the rules of fotiduct 
which oi^ntiizcd society endeavors to enforce. 
The law, therefore, represents the quanlity ami 
quality of regulation, or, in other wonU, of 
governinent, which tbe people of the state 
in thtir corporate cttpaeity deem DcoGSsary for 
tbcir welfare. With respect lu the amount 
flod kind of goverumcDt (i.e.. of regulation, 
i.e.. of taw) wbicli the best interestA of 8001615 
i-cqutre, there is a very wide divergence of 
uplQion UotwocD the chief pubiieists of ciril- 
iud uationa and tbe people Llieniselvcs as 
lliey are rupre»ented by law-making l>odie8. 
The pulilicista tell tis we are governed too 
much ; but the people nre demanding nior« 
government, and. in obedience to this demand, 
law-making liodics are rapidly extending the 
scope of law. The carcftil observer of tbe 
progress of government, who is at the saute 
time a careful render of opinion presented in 
the larger hody of works on state craft, in the 
more careAilly prepared dittaertations on this 
subject appearing in tb^ great reviews, aud io 
many of the tieat editorials of the <laUy press, 
is astoniabed at the extreme cootliut betwecD 
opinion and practice. 

There are two classes of law-making bodies. 
— courts and legislatures. I'be growth of 
law tbruDgh the courts Ss almost unrecognized 
by iUq people at Urge ; yet its development 



lOfi 



8CIEXCE. 



rVoL. II.. Ko. 2&. 



hy Ibis agLMicy h perlia|>s more- rapitl lliaii by 
Itgislulioii. Tht5 lv^Ill )ii'iuci[>lt.<» eiiiiiiciiilcd 
in llic c(ccisioDs of a system of cuurls siK-h us 
wo liavo under the general goveri)un.'iil uml in 
the several Btates are rapirlly devflopiug lo 
meet tt)e demuiidfi of tJie vigorous growOi of 
civilization. Some months ngo the public 
prints nunoiinceii h decision of the supreme 
conrt of California which well iUiistmtes this 
atoLeuient. Id more than iwo-flfth* of llie urea 
of the lluittil States oil ogricultiiro is depcudent 
upon artificial irrigiition. In ISlifi tiic Cou- 
gVvjin of the ITnilcd State*, in order to promote 
mining induatHo!. in tht5 region, and inci- 
dcntaliy to promote agriculturo, cnai-tMl a 
statute giving to indi\idiiaU and corjiorutions 
the right to take the water of the ninning 
streams of that countrj* from Ihc natural 
chaDncU in which they run, and ciae the s-tnie 
for mining ami agricuUnral purposcM. Now, 
the nature uf this use is ftncli tbnl the water 
itsulfeauiiot be returned lo the natural clian- 
nvls to be umkI iigaio ; uu<l hy (Ui.-i law the an- 
tecedent L'oinmon luw relating lo ripuiiun rights 
wiLS re[>eHlv<l. As the agricultural interests 
of the country were devclrjpcd, it was soon 
(liwoveritl Iliat nil agricultural o|)crutions were 
nndtT the control of water iK>m|)«ni(>ii ; fbr 
lllcRC cumpanios claimed ownership lo . the 
water, and the right lo use It themaelvca or lo 
aell it to whom they pk-aacd. Rut the det^iaion 
mentioned above was to the elTcct that th<MC 
compauies i>i>»s<^>«s only tiie water-ways, the 
canals aitd hydmulic appliances oonnccl4n1 
therewith ; thul llioy are coiiiinoii carriers of 
water, and arc themselves Mibjuct to the law 
relating to common carriers. By redertiun it 
will W (wreeived that this decision will alfiKt 
vast jnlei'ests. aud deeply intluence the daily 
life of thousands, and evei)tu:dly of milUonAof 
people. This ser^'cs to illustrate the naturv 
of the court-made law, which is so rapidly 
growing, niid atfccting in a multitude of wayft 
the relatione of men. and restricting the rights 
of tliR few for till* benolit of the many, which 
la in Uic very nature of law. In the alH>re 
Rtatemenl it wilt Ih> observed that Uie initial 
change in the taw wuh the statute of l>i66. 
So the nati'uinl and .stale legi.slnliireri an; con- 
stantly engaged in inoking new laws for Ihc 
government of the people; and this, in the 
main, ever in oliodienco to popidnr demand- 
Such 13 the practice. The Ici^isl.iturv stimu- 
lates the court, and legal decisions incitt- new 
legislation; and thus it ia that the pubHc men 
of this country ami of other civilized nations 
devvUf their energies to the dmeUipiuenl of 
govcromeut hy devising new laws for the rvg- 



ulatlon of couducl. and creating new oltlcus 
for life udininislratiuu of law. 

Again ; in Gfcrj' conjintinil)- there is a b«idy 
of good and earnest people dcniitiidiug reform, 
or demising methods for tho improvement of 
mnnkind in diverse ways, — for the ivticf of 
the uofortuDutc. for the education of tho 
masses, to diminish autlbrlng, ciimc. out] 
ignorance : and the energies of these jteople* 
cierted everywhere, In season and out of 
aeadon. create a MUtimciit thnt law-muldug 
bodies coiniut ignore. 

Vet, in opposition to all thin. Die publicists 
ask for Ic9.s government, and say- * l-fi sod* 
cty alone.' 'I'his theoretic op|K»ition lo the 
course of progress, manifest in the develop- 
ment of institutions, arises from tho stand- 
point, or phase of the philosophy of evolntioD, 
al which our thinkers have arrived. The lawa 
of biologic evolution are applied to sociology. 
Tho philosophy of science, which Is but iu> 
choalv, is adjudged to Ih.' complete, and prin- 
ciples that retjuiru rcatiiotlon are held lo b« 
uni vernal. 

In biologic evolution the csiwc of progress 
is recognized as tlie survival of the ^llpst In 
tlif ritrtiggle for existence ; and this li^is btvu 
widely accepted as the cause of iMHiiologic 
pn>f:re6fi, and Herbert S|>pnccr is liie pr*)|)hHt 
of this philoMiphy. As net forth by him and 
his large following, pi-ogretis is awnired by an 
inexorable law of nature, which brooks no 
interference; and tlie elTorts of mankind to 
improve the condition of mankind do hut 
retard the nnl^u-al process ; and the pi-oper 
sphere of government is tho direct suppression 
un<l iHinishmunt of eriine, and timt otdy. It 
is from this jiostulalt: thai the theorists are 
antagonixing Ihe practice of all the leginlatnres 
ami c-ourta of civilization. _ Though Mr. Ward 
does not state the problem as above, yet his 
book is written to controvert the Speucerian 
and generally accepted theory, to present a 
new philosophy of society which shall bo suf- 
ficient warrant for the eourae pui-suod liy 
practical statesmen and Jurists, and toeupjK)rt 
the canic^t people of tbc world in their eirorls 
to beoellt the race. Ills poslidate, though 
Hiated in other 1«rms, ia e!iai>nlially thifi : thnt 
social progress la due to the struggle for hup- 
piness, and the .idoptton of that cxindnct which 
secures happiness; and Mint ihe process, in- 
stead of being natural and genetic, is artifieial 
and teleologic ; thnt men devise mctho>1s for 
seetiring happiness, and gradually attain their 
ends. 

Mr. Spenoer looks upon society as 
oi^auiain, and in this he is followed by 



Jolt in. 18S3.] 



SCIENCE. 



lOT 



Ward; but Uie rcirinor author makes it, the 
centnil point of hia soifiologv', nruund whidi nil 
other TaiM aro ^ath?n'«l. uud he cUhorntcs a 
system ofaimlnglt'S with t)Iolo«;icorgADiiuition. 
if. ill fact, llicv were !ii»inol(»gii!ti. It will 
_ rlta|>3 Ik* nt-nriT tin* Iriilli to sinak of a sUlP. 
father than Pouiety iit hirge. :i9 an orgnnism. 

Tho orgniiixatioii of iimtikintl i» twofold, 
— Wflivitjil luid rcgul»tiv»?. IJv llie nrtJntjU 
orgnnix.'ilioii. whtch 18 u<<iiaI1,v (Hscn^si^d in 
works oil politic'ul •.■coiiviiiy iindt-T tliu lillf 
' (livisioii of lalw.ir,' lh« u«Iostrii*» siid other 
oixupntions of inankiiid an.- parcclk-d out Lo 
indiviilimls aod corporations; eo Ibat a man. 
in working for himwif, works for muuy others, 
luid no intepifipeadencv of |>urt« in the social 
organism \i thu« etttnblisbptl. For the snc- 
OGEdflil opcrHtiou of the aclivitiil f>rgiinii'.nlion, 
the n^guliitivi* oi^Fmiziition is •■stnhlif^lx.Hl. 
whioli n-8ulLH in guvornmont. with its throe 
<v>-onl!iiuU! i)«|i:(itiuL-nt-i, — exociitive, legis- 
lative, ami jiulirial. Wltlioul dh ision uC labor 
andgoviTTiuK-niiil regiilnlJoii. lJi<* individuals of 
ihi! Iininnn rsi-e wunlil Ix? entirely diecrete ; 
with thctn, mankind is orgiinized into socielipa 
which wp call ' slut^a. ' In ao far as the p«>iilfi 
of ono state are rclntwl to the people of another 
through their industries, there is an inchoate 
oi^noiztttion of stat* with state, which can 
only he t-om|ilol<xl hy th« consolidation of such 
itAtvs. Tljough Mr. Spencer devotes an in- 
ordinate space to the demonstration of the 
organixalioii of itoeiety, he fails lo diseover. 
Ihut. in io far as organizntion in iieeompiished. 
the mclhfxl of Uiulogio proi^sp liy the snr- 
vival of the fittest i» re|K>ale<l. lu the slniggle 
for cxistem«, slutt- eoDii-& iuto competition with 
slAte ; aud lu thia cxt4.-nt the hiologic law of 
the survival of thu (ItlCBt applies. Bui in tlic 
nlfllioiis of the iutvrdciwndunt |Mirls of st.i(«'«, 
I.Ci Uie different ciusiws of {HX>))li.' existing in 
A tribe or nation, the law of the survival of tlip 
fitt«ht in Ihe Htnigglo for existence no longer 
applies ; the nnftc do not succiimli ; the wel- 
fare of each class (i.e.. each organ, inl4'rde- 
peiHlont part) flepends upon the welfare of 
each other part. — of Hie whole. There may 
be a competition for Icader^liip. or for cmi- 
lieiiw in other ro«l)eeta, but not for existence. 

ThooKi who adopt tlie spmceriau theory 
believe that they find conflrmatioii of Ibeir 
doctrine iu the history of legisUtion. In 
uodern Umcs, nqoo tJie did'crentiation of ex- 
eoative, legislative, and judicial orgaas and 
ftiuolioDs in ^oveniiDcut, legislatioD has olten 
beun unwise, tiud hins have failed to secure 
the pur)>oses for which they were enacted. 
In this hrauch of human eudea\ur It would be 



strange if it wore everywhere and at all dmes 
charaelerizerj by nistlom. when man has m 
frequeutly failed in other etforu 

Itut beside the general faiUire for lack of 
wis<lom. ihcn' hnf litH^n failure for iM>riain 
special rc'ssons. Kariy law was iHjmmon law : 
later law iH in ]>art slalutorv. In the change 
from the former l-o the liitlet-, many great mis- 
take* have been ma«1e. The Ixviy of Iniv exist- 
ing in a otate. he it tribal or oationnl. i^ the 
chief liody of the eUiiew of the people of such 
slate. lint among such people there are 
etliicd ndi<w not fuui>d in the law. but held 
by tndividuala in a greater or less number. 
These non-legalized etliics are of two kinds, — 
firvt, those which have passed from the law, 
and are yet held in veneration hy n part of 
the people ; second, (hose which tho more 
advauceil minds are endeftroring lo eatablish. 
The first are ot)solete ; the second, inchoate. 
Much of the luw ^^hieh .Sjwnceriau philosopbei-s 
have used to illustrate the folly of k-gislution 
baa Imhiii in iu^tiineet^ where au atleni[)t. lias 
been mwie lo revive ohaolele common-law prin- 
ciples by ctTeclive statutory law. Mr. JSpcncer*s 
ilhi5t rat inns are ctdofly of this elass : and be 
bns been followed by many a writer. Tbia 
source of disaster can be avoided, not by re- 
fiising to legislate, but by a proper knowledge 
of the course of progress In social ex'olutton. 
Tllis course of evolution has not been. n9 Mr. 
S)>eneer potilulateu and claliorately discusses, 
lh>m more regnlalion to less, from militaney 
to industrialism, but from leas to more law, 
and from non^essenlial to essential regulation. 
\Vhen diseases were believed to he the wor^i 
of evil spirits, or to result (nym the practice 
of sorcery, lite rclntinns of men lo 8up}>uKefl 
spiritual iwitigs wera regulatet). aud witchcraft 
was punlabod ; liut. when iliseaBes are dis- 
co\-ertMl to be <lue to unwholesome oooditioos 
of environment, flanllary laws are cnaclHl. 
.\nd in like manner in every department of 
gnvenimeut the change in going on. Laws arc 
soriotogic invenliunii. nnatogous to the tecb- 
□ologic inventions of the industries. Along 
with miieli failure there is much snccesit. As 
the pix>gre<is of industries would ceii»e were 
no new methods devised, so the progi-ess of 
society would end if new law were not enacted. 

IJynamic aoeiology, a* [iivaented by the 
author, is the philosophy of hnmau emleavor, 
and the jtistillcntiou ■>f uiau in his eiforl lo 
to improve his condition. Those (r-isous, and 
they are many, who are actively engagi-d in 
the promotion of instiluUuns and regulations 
for ibe benelil of rounktrHl. will find in it 
phitosophiu hope ; while tiiose who areoppoftcd 



U>8 



SCTFNCTi:. 



(Tou tL. No. SS 



lo tlif> counto of inrftolJcal evcnti^ api>ft«riii>4 m 
|/itl)lie iitTuirs ettnitoi utlbrH Id igiiurv tbetr 
«tronm*sl op])ODc>nt. 

Tliu L'voliiliori wliidi is dlsooxttrod every- 
where in nature, t" In; prtiiwrlv (ien>oii»lrttl«K 
mnst Imvc its ci^iilaiialiciD set Turtlt in tlinxt 
imrts. Kir^t, it iDUSt be t'X|tlatne<l n*|ii, tliiTf 
is i-hnngr. Tor without ctiiiDgc tliorr- eon If 
DO (levelopoicnt ; Boeond, it mittt bu shofm 
by whst flgoniT change r«Hutt9 in propivRs. 
for chnngc to inferior or co-ordinato coiKliiions 
is iioi evolution ; and. third. whiU U the L-oorau 
of progress, for. if tliore !« ni-ogr(*5«. it must bt* 
in some direction tliat can Iw: delennlQcd. uiid 
thus Bclenre Iwcohic^a prophctie. 

Of the three dcpartmciils of ftodology, — 
naineW. tho cjiii^*-!) of .mortal ehnnjie. tlitrt'aufHM 
of social progn'fts, unci the vtyxtme of tustnal 
prfigrCKH. — tite vrnrk imilcr oont-iilerntion, itft 
il« uame indiirntes^ is devoted lo hut otu>, 
— lUo cause of social progruiw; thoMgli it in- 
cidc'Ulnlly i|i8eusB<.-(i many of tbo sulijecto v( 
uvoluiiuu in other bnnicheo of iii^ieDoe, and 
the author ultimately readies the t■oDl^uBton 
ttiitt et)u<-utiDn iu the chief njeaus to secure 
social progi'eas, and thus secure buniau ha[>- 
pincas. 

On Ihe canHTt'Oliim vf nitior energy: a coHrclian of 

paper* and ditcuuirmi. By C. Williams Src- 
MKM8, l-'.R.S., D.C.L. Loiidou, ifaemtllan (t 
Co., 1883. aO+111 p. 8°. 

Tiu.>< is n collection of the oridinal paper 
read before the Koyal society by Siemeni*, and 
Uie cHliciimtH IVoin Kitxgerald, Faye. Hiru. 
AreJiibald. und othern, together with Iho ru- 
plies of Siunii'iiB. 

The tbeory. well Hummed up on p. 2'1. sup- 
poses tlml. fipace is lille<l wiUi a<)ui*oii(j vn{ior 
and cnrlmii (^>m[Hnii»U : that llieRo, hi low 
pre-33urei>, are (lisriofiiated liy the nidinnl ener- 
gy of the snn ; that the dissocinted elements 
aro drawn into the sun at ita pole^i, nnil«>, and' 
gencrnte hent aufHcient to gire a tenii^'riUnro 
of al)out 2.800° C ; and that the nqiieoui* va- 
|>or hikI cai'buu compounds formed ore again 
throiTii oir by e«ntiiftigal force At the sud's 
eqiuitor. 

A8 evidence of the presence of carbon va- 
pors in spaee, Siemena refers to the analyses 
of Dietcors, which in »ome i-SKCft have piovtfil 
that iiydrocurboiis were a <«ni(>oiH'iit of the 
melf'oric mat!*, and again to the work of -Vbney 
and }.aiigley ou ttie ubsoi'ption of the rudi»ut 
energy of the tuin. 

Tlie difisociation of vapors at low tetieions 



■n )• |roint which wnttik \o be well c«tnbtiflbect< 
One of the earlivsl proofo is given in I'Tof. J, 
U'illan) ttil'bs'B paper on the equilibrium ol 
hetenigfrn-ous snbeUuiccs.' He ahows. thai 
iti a nii.\ture of g»5e«, hs of oxygen, hydro- 
gen, and va[K>r of water. In which the vapor 
is fumiiv) with a dccreaite iu volume tmm that 
of the cninponents. il is poii^iblct to ui^'-if^n n 
Value to the Leusion suclt that Uie mixUiri' may 
be in a state of di^tnipaied energy ; i.e., in and. 
a condition that the energy of the .<y9ti>in 13 1 
uiinimum fur ttii entropy ; nod that any ehnnga 
In energy* can lie brought about only by work 
done by some outside ftyat»'m and in projwr- 
tlon lo thai outside work. In Mich n state, 
itolliing of the nnturc of an explosion (-lodd l>« 
eansed by an elfctric itpark 1 the eleiiienLi 
would cease to *h«jw tlie pheiiMnienou of i-hem 
ienl affinity- Willard Oibbd uribfit, "It ninr, 
inde•^d, be true, that at onlinan|- teiupetiitiin.*», 
except when the quantity either of hyijrogeii 
or of oxigeu ia very small ^vmpared with ihtt 
quantity of water, the state of dissipated en- 
ergy in one of Kueh extreme rnrefaclion as to 
lie entlivly bcyontl our power of e\)K!rimeiilal 
verlfiention." In the formula IVom which 
llic»e re.snlt« are deduc«<l, the ratio orrnrs <4 
the amnuniu of the cnniponentH to thai of the 
eoin[K)nnd, these amounts iM'ing ratsiH] Ut 
small (towers. This explaiiiB the qiialilic.iLion 
ns u> the amount of componeitls which um 
exist in IL free state. 

Thii) liit^t condition may b»v« an iniftortau 
bearing on the [KiiiHiliiUty uf Dip truth of Sle- 
moDK' theory ; Tor, although Gi'ibs has shown 
that diftsoriation may occur in rarefied vapors 
still tbe amount of the dissociation is ]iaiit«ij 
unless the rnrefaction be very givat. 

Some two or tJiree yearn ago i'rofeasor Og- 
den Kood suoceeded in gelling ciijeriuienta! 
evidence of dissociation va rarefied fiiincM at 
ordinani' temperatures, but baa uevor published 
bis results. 

Ur. Siemens gives, on p. I'A. what evidence 
be early obtained of diHMtciHLlon of ga-^rs in 
viiMium tubes under the influence of ''iinlighl.. 
W'lKHt he has done since may Ih* funnd from an 
ncfnunt of hi^t rei-ent lecture at the Itoyal in 
alitiition (JftifMrp, Slay 3>. f_>bjcclion* to tb« 
theory- ai'e well put by Fitzgerald when he ask^ 
(p. -11) " bow the interplanetary gases Dearth^ 
sun acquire a siiffldent radial velocity to pre- 
vent their becoming a dense atmosphorft round 
hlro ; wbycnormouFt Htrao<4pheres havt* not long 
ago beconn.' attached to Ihi- plnnetti, notably to 
the moon ; wliy the earth lia!> not long ago been 
dehiged when a constant streoiu of aqueoua 

• l*ru;. Cttnn. Mwl w., IIL 



Jxsvr »T. IWO.J 



SCJEXC£. 



109 



vapor, that would pnxlixv: n rain of moro thao 
lbirt,v iuclics iH*r iiiiruin) nil <u-nr ch<- parth, mimt 
amiually (msa »ul |>:ihL tlip nnrtli in unliT to 
supply Aid tn Im ilibwrriiiled hy tlie ln-nt Iliat 
aunualty [kiksca lIh' caitli : and why Wi< (.-an 
ftcv the Atara, allhiinj;li most of the sobr riulia- 
tiuiis niv almurbi'il wittiio aoiiie rt'aaonabk (Us* 
laocc of Uie tao." 

It CAR )m> hArdly lo»ki-<] on as a strong 
ntiflwor to Ihc fii^l qinrstjon, tliat " llie gases. 
hcing r»r iIm" iikibiI part hydrogen mid hydn,>- 
gen r<iiiipuuiul<«. Iiave a low specific gravity 
a« mii)t»ni'L>d with the denser gasts foniimg the 
|»»Tmuiicii( snlar atmosphere. On flasliinc into 
(litnoi'' in the itliotospiu'ie. their specifiu gravity 
woiiM l/e vastly diminished, thus giving rise to 
» wrloin rebound action, which. coiipTwl with 
their ae(|uired ouvraixl mution aud with the 
oentril^gid impube ibey receive by (Victionul 
contact with the lower atmosphere, i>on8lilule3 
them a siirfaci--slream llowing from the jwlar 
to the eijualorial mgiontt. an<l thence Into 
space." It IN irertuinly hard to ini^lerriljini) 
why ihf aitiiLM|ihi're i>f any tneinbcr of ihe 
BOlar svHlctn slionld not be mntle up ol' the 
galea nf intorplanctari' space in the same pro- 
portioDH in which they may exist in such q>aoe, 
if there la the ft-ec circulation called for by 
Siemens' theory. 

Fayc ottjccls that the presence of such a 
r««isting medinm in space as the va|>ors in 
iK>t to Ih' accepted, with our present knowledge, 
iukI that the centrifugal force ai the sim's 
ei|uatov is far too flwall for the action refjiiired. 

Hira, sturltog with the euppOKitiou that the 
wm'a lempcralurt is 20,<XM>-' C. writwi, that, 
although the diMKuHalc*! gases might unite in 
the eliromoephci-e. thi-y would, on passing don n 
thmiigh tbo sun's atinoapliere. be again disao- 
eiatfd. and absorb a-H mncli heat as ihey bad 
given ont on combining. To tlita, SJemena 



miglit have answered tbat tJie guaes wonhl 
again com'tine on p«s«ing off at the equator. 

The discussion of the theory at the time of 
it4 first stAtement waa most eai-iieitt ; but, ilt 
f^itc of the ingenuity displayed in i(a elabora* 
ttoD, it as yet cannot t>c aceeptetl as [irobable. 



Kurfht ; or, The poWrw door ajar, /A* m»/*tvrlet ofikt 
vfortd mifnterioujilif nutnlftl. By AsA T. GnRBH. 
CinciDnoti, Colimi. ISbi. 141 p , portr., Giita. 
1«°. 

TiiK publisher acts as editor of thia book, 
interspersing his own chapters among the 
author's in an odd fashion. Tiie florid periods 
of the one form a curioui^ setting for the rough, 
(ingnimiii:ttical laiiguiij^u of the other. 

The author ha»t ' iwelaliona ' of a ' woudor- 
fiil knowledgd ' which he olitalned. partly In the 
woodBf and [uirtly in Oil (.'tly, and dcAlres to 
impart them to scientific m«Mi. We will oflter 
them a bit. 

" If w«t would lnya1«)esmr»h-irlre down dawn («ic| 
from fvery point of llin earlJi. aixi ut witl«r. aiwl mil 
l>oint>t Wtvgrapb at oui- tiin** to m nctvon point, tbo re- 
mit, would Iw to fliiiJ that iliu aunusphera wx» gMintr 
aa fa«t as the rnrth. and tbo earth aa fa'^i .14 rh« at- 
DioApherie. '/"Am.* j'.u *« it U the BinKKtiilicrr; that 
carri«fl the eartb around. - . . 

"Third rvosun why th<! earth f» round: naimlsF. 
becauM the motinlaiiiii are. up, If clio earth wai Hat, 
the mountalna would be jutit as llatilp to be down aa 
up, btil Ma lb<- ciirvatura of th<- rarth u up, bonce th« 
mountains arw up. . . . 

'' If cotiiitl trAvsh !>}■ vibration, as eclcuce tcacbu. 
and ROlenee tea* lion tliat rfbratlon creal<>s heai, that 
if a cricket sbouM stand on one end of a iiolld slab- 
«tone and nili )ii* wtiiK* tofp-Ui^r, wby i« It (hat Llie 
vibratioQ with th« purticles of nnne does not cooi' 

Etfitcly mall the stoue hi ten luinuu^ ,' I Uvuy tlie 
j^thwJB." 

' Wonderftil knowledge,' indeftl ! 



WEEKLY SUMHAHT OF TUB PHOQliESS OF SCIENCE. 



UATHEMATIOB. 

Poiata of inflection. — Let (/ = iV*'^ + *«* = 
be an <;<)iialinii \n honiogeaeont co.^rdlnate8; ir, y, f. 
are iba *ldes of ihe triansle of r«ference, and 
u = CUE + ftv + CI ; >, ^, y,i. are iuleijers luch Uiat 
a -f- 4- y K 4; 0, 6, e, arc given quantlUes, and k A 
variable panuneter, Kor a ~ ^ = 7 - 1, this eifua- 
tioa ^ivuK a erslviu of cubic* baviiig, as U well 
known, their pnliitx of Inllmrtlon difttribuf-d bj tbrnm 
u|ioti ttirn^ riglit lines; vis., the xhrtt real points of 
Inlleclloii opun «, kimI tba remaining lix pelnla. Id 
three*, upon two imaginary lioe«. 



The aiitbrK, U. A. Lc«oux, praposen to consider the 
gviiiTal csfi? of curvn> of tlie order 6. !%« Ihre* ildos 
of th« triangle of rercrence are taiigenta |/i all the 
curtiit (if tli« *]Fsiein In the points where ibeae aides 
meettbe line m. Tbe order of contact l» tJ— ]; If dla 
even, the carve in the neighborhood of llie point itf 
contact lloi on one able of the tangent ; If ^ 19 odd, the 
cnrve here cuts the tangent, giving a point of Indeis 
Hon of a bbcbsr order. M. Lt^oitx tbowi that th« 
propcaed curves barn i magi n«ry point* of ioRection, 
whieb are dlatribntcd upon two conjugate tma^aary 
rli^l lines which arv ludopendeot of the value of k. 
If d i« even, llierc ar« no other inHectloDa: but. If d li 



no 



SCIENCE, 



lVot_ IL. No. 



<mMi llittrc ezht Uin>« rail poinU of InflvOIlon upon 
the ltt)f> u. *fl tbAt In th(^ Ia*t cmc thvrt t^tUU, u lu 
UiK COM of ciibics, nil liillci'liiiiiftj iil«tit*le. — (.Virup. 
OKH. nutlA., K«b.) T. O. [105 

ENCLNEEHING. 

Eteotrlc-UBbUiis maohtnoB ou ahlpliottzd. — 

ituiv tliati a iloziiii nf lilt- ttcAinert V'ylng K-twci.'n 
New York aim! Liverpool «n llltt^ tip wlUk ckctnc- 
llghUn^ maclilni^ry. Pralnbly three Uiucs u muij 
are ett fltt«d out on the Tarloun othrr linee af ocomi- 
IP>iiiS »t<-kni»1i)i)!!. The BHiish tU'uiiers «re UrRely 
sujipliiril with lh<> Sii'tn^nii nitil Huan n)j|iamliis. but 
Uirt oth*>r ij-Blctns »rc well rcpiv«etite<l. Thi- clcctrlc- 
llichl BppuniluK uf ttit! Arizutiu i;oiisieis of iwi> Sir- 
men* rnin[koiiii(l (lynKmoN, -iwli ouffid'/nt to lu^ipty 
cumni to three humlred hii;li-iv^Bl«not.'Sn-iin lumps. 
Ttiey are driven hy a [mlr of ' CaMonliui ' englnv! of 
dIim^ ami a iinlf Inch •.ylliflei'^ ami fourteen itich<f> 
kiroke tkf pluluti. The two tn»chluu are mounlol 
upon a coinnion foundation, and are set In sudi 
tnaiiiier tbui the (lrh'tni:-putl«y> do not Inierfei* with 
mcb other. Tha bi^lt* nre lig;Lti?neil !>; moving thft 
niiu.'blni-« away from «aolk oLh«r: ilu>y are formvd of 
one eontlnuous rope I'urrivd around tritch pulley len 
timi;]. HoU) cnbins, uiil the Rl<.iuriit;:<i lU) w«ll, arv 
lif;hted by thvse niuchilies. — ( i&i^in(«r{n(r. Mny.) 
n. Ti. T. 1106 

Hew engine for eleotrto-tlghting.— Mr. K. I). 
Faront bas dt-'slgniNl a new farni of toinpound rapine 
for elect ric-lisbting roacblnory. It conslsU of two 
cyliniliT*, llif largfT Mel uIkith thi^ amallvr. Th« apace 
bcLwM>n thi^ two plxtnnii 1* umlivliled, and la In com- 
municatiou wllli the iutnriur of tbc eiislne-ffome, 
and is nev«r put In counection with the it<:An)-«upply 
pipe. Th« steaiu drstvnters the iniull cylinder, tuid 
!• lhen<tr r^zlinuslfHJ hiin ibe larjie cylinder, thns 
tlrlvlDi; the pUtonK, wbt«h am both on a single rod. 
In qppwito dIrccLlout by a lytt^iu of Int«rn)llt4s) 
«xpan*inn. Thw «in^in« w Ihiw w^ii to be of Ihe 
* Wolff nystcm.' The apace bcln-ecii tho two plalons 
Is made to coniinunlcale with ilie lar^iT »picc In tl>e 
frame, merely to secnre a re<lui:e«t variation of tintoiin- 
t«rbalanccd prcsiiure. So slulfiiig-box ia necilcd In 
ibla engine In any Inacccsalble part of tliv muehlne. 
Tbe va]vo-i:«>iir 1» of the plainest poMlbla drvcripUun, 
and tlip wbolr «n);iiie i» tiullt with a view to simpli- 
city and smikll coat In «on»Lnicilon and operation. It 
in lnu-ndt»d lu bd driven up to futu hundred revolu- 
tions per ininiit«. — (i'w4«<alf"n indiwirtefl*. May.) 
B. n. T. 1107 

SC«am> jackets for ateam-enginea. — TferrHeim 
rcporla to the (iermain fiocioty of ptigineiir* ibe rosults 
of experitnantB to determine the eeonumy to be de- 
rived by itie «<lditlnn of steam •jaekeln lo varioua 
forntiof*t«ani>englne. HtiRndRthat aiiix-horsepower 
portable engine, unjarketed, ileman(lt;d an exc>iM 
of thlny-flTe i>er cent ovvr the theoretical <|ni(ntlty of 
•t«aui tttat «hould have been rnjiiired to do tho work; 
an cljtbieen inch Wbi-«l»ck engine re>taired the sanifl 
excess over the eulculated (inantlly. Both were non- 
ooudenslng. Cund«nslng-eu|tluci experience a still 
greater lou due to inti^nal ' cylinde-r londensaliun.' 



RnglnfH wxpandlng t«n times demand aeTentr-fa 
pt-T cunt (txiress: wh<^n cutting off at onc-tlfth. sixty 
two percent; and p.\i)imilliiK Ihriy ilnti-s, Qfiy-fli 
per cent n)or« than the cnleulated amount whvn Ili«; 
■r* itiij>ck«ted. Hy n.)d>iu; a jaikt-t, he cotidudfl 
tJiat Lhn lo«i ran be retlucol lo alKLy-foiir, ftftyfour 
and fnrty-etjjhi pi»r veni. Tlio ede^-l of inrieA^f 
pinion »iwin\ i* NiraiUr lu that of adding a jacket 
At) oti^inc at three feet, and at sovcn feet pi«lon «ii*^ 
per li-cttnd.pira a record of loss aiiinii tiling loninn;p 
six and »«\eniy per rent. The addition of thvroti 
denser causes liicfeaxe of lbl» low. A tweuiy-liie! 
non-4:ondrfLSii)]; engine, wurkin;; at Ave atiiiuiithere 
pressure, wa.* provided Willi a londcns^r, and, wliU 
lilt- puvrer was increased one hiindn.>d luid forty 
o-nl. Uie wattf wa» incM-awd from ftirty-lwo to alxiy 
two per cent. A hoHling-enginc. working Intannll 
lenUy, extiiblied a low of a hundred and forty-two i« 
eent of the weight of bleara utilized. — (iVi^rAnnfrj 
June.J B. B. T. [1 

AOBIOUL-TUBB. 

Th» E'**** evolved during tbe coovwraion a 
grass into bay. — In a aorics of •>speriineiils on tlil 
subject, ci-indticted by l>r. P. F. Fnnkland and Ur. : 
Jordan, freshly-cut grass In •luantlHes of Ovegra 
each wan allowed to aland lu a filau tube over roe 
ciiry. Tht' class tnlv wan fliled with air, inert (^e 
and esperlnienis wer« also iwrforuied f« poruo, ] 
air all Ihe oxygen was abiiorlwd at Ihe imd of tlird 
days, aiul 46% of carbonic dioxide vas vvoIto< 
At the end of thirty days the percentage uf earbonl 
dioxide reached S&.33, r«>iuiring a corrvspondln; 
amount of oxygen, which must hare come from tli 
Mihatance of tbe grata Itself. Nearly piirt< r»rboal 
dioxide was evolved io an atmosphere <iC the satn 
gM]>, and a bibber perce»lai;e seemed to be given oi 
in dnrkiiet* lliAU In aun1i;cht, ^though llie luitliM 
were Aomewhat In dnuht onthia point lu an atmo 
pherw of pure oxygen, the (alter was ftbturl)ed OOB 
pletiily in seven dnys, and the evolution uf nilroj^ 
ceaaed when the oxygen dlaappenred. Wln-n th 
cxjieriiui'nt was conducted In an altnottpliure 
hydmgeit, 'Jl.Il^ of tlila gu was TRplaceil by ca 
bonic dioxide' at tJie end of three days. It tbi 
appears that certain conatituents uf the grass nndl 
go a rapid procos* of oxidation, and that nltrog 
b evolveil at long as tbe atmoapherc contains fr 
oxygen. Tlie ducomposlUon-proituctaof grass, 
allowed to stand under water, were also ex> 
THp graM was first soaked in disltlleil water, 
di^solveJl air removed wlUt a Spren^l pump. Cti 
bunic dioxide formed at>oui iMi %, ami bydrojceii alwi 
t) %, of lhp>gaa«« collected at the end of l)ilrlyil:>yi. !{ 
ga> wa« evolved when tbe formation '^f liseteria 
prevented by the addlllon to the water of ptieni 
oir mercuric chloride. As tbe other prx>duct«of tl 
fcnncniAtlon, Si-ci.tc and lactic acids, and prolmU 
propionic aeld, were Idcnlififtd. — (Jotim. chem. 
June, isai.) c V. M. IK 

Abaorptloii of molstor* by soOs. — Fisher Ooi 
that, contrary to Enop's statement, Lbc amount 
hygroscopic moialure retained by a soil Tarle^ grant 
with tbe amoant of motsuire pteHent In llie air, 



aai^H 




Jpir 3T, l-W-l] 



SCIENCE. 



Ill 



wdi iks w iib ilio (i>n][»!>rnLuro. Ae tRmpemnres nM- 
glna »|>vn>xi ninthly rioiu M'^ lo 30" C, ttbtiiil halt M 
tniu'Ii Wiii<^r w,» ri'tKdiml In it >i»ir-iiUurat«d m in 
A Mtanilril itlmnajtlicn', A* tli« l<>Tti [M'ruUin^ wti* 
r»UflH, inurp WJter irns Kb»ortM-(l from th« H.itunttml 
AMihuijitiLTt', bill 1i*« from ilir liiilf-Haliiratiil oiifl, — 
IRtp. Cat. eoUrgt ngr., 1882, 5U.J n. p. A. jllO 

Xnfln*DC« of organio muiuies ou t«mpeiatiu« 
of lOU. — 111 expel luimiU on ibiii aiilijt-c^t, V. Wiifuer 
finds tUiil iirguilc iiiniiures raiM tbe tetn|icrMurc uf 
tba •oil 14 Ku exivQt iiK'rtia»uif; wjib tbi; i|inktiUty 
of the muiure, tlie trmprrature of tlie toil, ami it« 
itsuire. w> long a« iIio latter \a doI In sturb o)fccs»&a 
i'bliiilef Bcct'*t of us.yij'Pii u> lJi« tirginio niailvr, ur 
\ cool ili« xoil iiM> macb by tl9«vti)>uratloii. PoiusUy 
KUl rai'ly 4l(>c«)npofl*bllUy on the i»rt of the manure 
favor lliD nctluD. Tbo Increxse of lemiienlnre la 
grotittsst nt (irsi, mny contlniK from four (•■ lwi>lve or 
mure vrtekt. but umli-r practlml conditions 1,« luo 
•mall to be of niu<it ilgnlllcance. — if'trKA. ayr, 
J'AlfK, '. ST-i. I II. I*. A. 1111 

l(oi*tui« of tli« ■olt — la pot-cxperitnvnts with 
peat, llfinrii'li obuiin^l the lar^c^t (it>t> wfacn ihv 
p(»l (.■ontaliK-i) itxiy jwr otnt of iha tuUl •juanLliy of 
watrr wblcli ii an* u:i|Mible of conralnitiK. Etirller 
exiwrimcni by Hrllitcp*! on tundy M>il iisi\« iiearlr 
titr tunc reaiilia. Wlifn thi" moi&nins of Ihe |>p»l fell 
b«low twenty per ct-ni of its wuloi- rn|)3t:iLy, do ctoji 
«M n)»Uinr-i], wht)<' in ca^o of ■nnd a iitull crop wa« 
obialiiiHl M')w;n tbo moiitiirc wikt only ten per cent of 
ib« UJUl water-ca|wiiy, — (0ff(I. eeiUr.-Mal/., xM, 
l(K>.) IT. r. A. 1112 

OBOLOGT. 
Utbotegy. 
CteopaUa'K Moodlo. — In u p»|ier by t>r. V. Pnuter 
i« gU«u a iIe«^Tiplion of sotuv Ibin tectlous of the 
Wcw-Vork obelisk, mode by Prof. A. Sleluier of 
PnlberfC. necom|uinlod by four lEtliograptilc platen.' 
The r<wk Is r>»m[in*od of freih lulcroollne, sliowiiifi In 
polarixxd IlKht Its cbnnicl^ristir uratiim; uIl};iH-|a»-. 
lora^wliat dec(>tnpo;(«d, aiitl showing One twinning 
atrlntlon; <|tuiru in fnin* and ftruiulnr aucn-calvs, 
eonulnlni; llnid i-:x«iiti>*, trirhit«-ji, and iM-malili' 
pUb^; tlgiit iitixn hornblende vritbfrn>f;iilBroulliiU9; 
bletit« In lurgi- bruwu, tntn^lucvnt acaiefi: tiixnlio In 
numerous !RielII yellowliih-rv^l Rntin6; water-clear 
a<-tcular apniite i:rysl*U; iii»giifrite liiopai|<ie irrcen- 
lar grain* Mid In iH'iabf^dfona; minute sircon cryM&ls: 
y«IIowish-i!r>;en ni.-udle« of opidote and vjrldite. A 
gnuiUt! frutii GfnniuiLDtvii vm* re^jitiikd as Himilar 
lo the Syeiie griuutc. Tlu> tormer la compofled of 
mlprocliao, pl»Ktoi-l«»e, (luarla, hunihlende. biutite, 
mi»<:uvitp. Iltuiilv, ric. Fra/T giv«ja the literature 
of tb* «nbjiti, — iTraim. Amur, inat. mtn, enu-. 
AultOfi mrrliu^/.l ». i;. vt. 1113 

Jotunalifltlc litholofnr. — A weekly IwirDal «m 
<^tKbl'«bed lK*t year in Kn;;lnnil on thv p«cutiar plan 
lit publl'hitig d»ctlpti»ns of lnl<^ro»(>opl^ Bikles, with 
llgQreii uf il)t' txnw, «rhlk> dupllcjites of (lit' dncribed 
prepa/arioit* wi-ir Ut Itv aetiC to every nubwrilier. 
Thi" iii..i'k"I, it unrfer the direrlion of «-oin|iftlenl 
aprclall>i», would serve ut a valiuible mL-ans uf home 



training for iboae wbo aiv unaMe In plaiw ibeiu- 
itaWtB under the dtrect Instriinlon of competent 
tvachnn. It prornUral twenty-iils lilstiitngical, eigh- 
teen bolankal, and niKbt liiliuln^intl sectiunK a year. 
The llUiolo^iral dcju-rlpUon*. so fur, lutveenibriii'iN] 
tbe fullowlnf; rocka: plkriu>, ilolorite. diabate, md 
:iitil nliilf lyrnltH, And Mrrpeniine, wllli «oiiia bibllo- 
gripbir-tl liu«. Whilo lli» }i)tiriitU contain* fcome 
niatti^r of iolcresi lo litlio)o;^!ila. it Is, on ihi- whole, 
adbapp-iinUng anil unsafe (•uldefur a atadcnl. In 
»oniern»M tbeetyle of the lowest giaile of 'popular 
sclf^mitje le«tnr<irs ' ha« been aitoptrd : uml rh^) pbnuo 
'pluj^ of exo'niotle intniferenee.' unat (or reins, Is 
too good to be lo*t. — I .■Uu'^fcn in mt crtwcwplcoi *cl- 
«nc«, L*mdQtt, l!^!4:^-H3■} m. X. w. |L14 

UBTDOBOLOOT. 

Sun-apota. — At ih« uuiver«ity olitCTFatmry »t 

i:.mvr on irai -lays in 1S81. and -.lit in IBiW, Taichlnl 
h«A modi' ohAvrvatlons of unn-iipotA. Ilo BbowB th«t 
m l^'i there was an InrroA^c In spou over I6ftl. 
The tnemidatly iiiiiobertiy inoiiilis wiM,1n Itt'41, 19.TA, 
anil. In ISS2, -22.67. There wero pvcnliar maxima in 
tbo numlicr In April and Navt^mbcr, liVi. Taking 
each p«>rio<l of rontiatit aciitliy In the dally ob^wva- 
tionN ill |l^'2, a )"i-ond niaxtiimm and mitiimnm 
period appears at tbe bnll •nn'i mlatlon. For ihB 
facnia*' we al»» find thai the Increase it leu with \he 
i;rowch of llie spot^; ihe yearly uie»a In 1)^1 t>elu(; 
HH.-'ill, and, in ISHl', Kl.oA. Il Is believed froni thO 
«hararlerof the sun's aeUrll; nt tlie lost maxiuiiita 
period, as coinpareO with the present, tttal (be inaxi- 
muiu ftiutlmluvvs will occur iu ISSA. — dValtfr/or- 
acAei, .May IJ.) ti. a. ii. (US 

PHYSIGAI. OROGRAPHY. 

Art«BiJUi weUa lo Algsila. — In llie south of the 
provliio" of I'onitAiitiiie, Alp-ria, the bofing of afte- 
a'uui wells. I»ee"" "> l*^'- "*» conUnned with re- 
newed RcdrltT. after the In term ;it ion ot-'cailoncd by 
UiC Franco- I'niwi an war, under thr diret-tiun of M. 
Juii. At th>> end of l!^U the'lon^ line of wells fol- 
lowing the Waily Rlr. Iwlween Uiskra and Tugurt, 
liiuludrd 4^ «unk by Ibe .\rabs. and yixKlins (U.ChXI 
litre* a fninul>r, nnd ILS hnrrd by the French, yi«>h]in|; 
lJ3,0in litrva. Jn the aamf deeadc-, tlie nnmbT of 
palm-treeif in the mies had increiu>od from a.M»,000 
to ClT.lHiO; of frnit-treea. from -lO.lMJn (o IHVOU: of 
inhabilaiiu, from (l,^'^ lo lS,8:i^. During tlic first 
half of ttV4l, twelve nrw well* wen: hort-J. yielding 
22,l«(M Uirc», and. at the ond of l&^I, the total supply 
of wnler fniin ihiiie underground Donnr^s wai) VUU,- 
(KM) litres a minute. — <J. J. CUnna^enm, Bee. yftfgr. 
)n(rrn'if,,188;i. «.) Ill« 

Ctmenta of the Paolflo Oobbil — Anilaeil dis- 
floaws the general raotiun of ibe warm currents of 
the western and n>~>nh<>rn I'sclSr, brings together a 
number of dikiii nnl brtorr eivreluUrd, illuatnuesiheai 
b^ ma|>« and diatirams. and cornea In tlic cuucluilon 
that, l^, ibe warminj; Uifluence of lbt> North l'iu:iBc 
li (he Kiimsiwu, the motor |>ower of whk'h la the 
.wulh-wrM inon*onn, blowing from April to October: 
and. S°. that the Nurtli Pacific Ocean tiaa practlcnily 



])J 



SCIENCE. 



frou tt, V«. 



If'/ u'lT^.i^.TT, ',tn>' I>r^{ »tfi(; sSanllag do ttti 
a/-/:*** /'yr 'y:/(a/w :".^*j ioio Ike Afrtk OeaaA. — 

/;-/'/. /<m^^. v»/^ u-^^, li. l-^a, I ». H. D. (117 

Tb« Conaectlc ut Utss !■ tlw ,| ^"*«< yrifrJ — 

r'/fT/.T ;ir.«;* ',r iV)« i«f t^ Ikm4«4 Pm— <«li ill ai 
th- •■rA '4 M.e i^ thnr. «n4 6i>4a «« ld«n**, bun Uw 
itt-Althl ait'l ':>-/ftr4/rfM>M n< tbc tefTicM, Uma ■()«»• of 
tti*! riv-r > aa'jrfii fr/fio^ Utrtr we; MMlliamfri aIooC 

rii»W PHi« (lorlhwi.- f|, rluaii ibr tip;icrc' 
Ciiiiiiu\f,i-Li; ar;'l i(,-j.« dlfwrtlf »'julhm 
pr'-<*r.f. lli'li KiT' r --IujibcJ, U> tb« A* 
H^^TFi, zii'l ri'/t a! [fer «»7 slviiii tb* 
« WM f'.Ttli'-T]y 4<i|ijir««rrt. — f^lnrr. /•• 
I ■■--.-, -Vf), , w. M. ii. * 

Wew Ouinea. — \ Lm-(I»jr»' tHp litl« 
M'lrt^tiiy, Hia/li- tv. W. (i, t^w«* uul 
wiMi a [.arty iif n iti.iiMr l«'ti thpin OMf 
M'tTintairi, Atr'iut t wi, iIiohmiiiiI tv^i httth 
V%lli;y ni t)i>-. [>al<ik- Fliri'^r. Frrprn tin; tnC 
mit, tli'-jr tia/t a flri'- vl<-w of itpa and en 
val|i;y, lrit»rr»wr[.-il ).y HiJ^in wlU'llriZ •in-wnJI. iii mc 
vall'-y, Iti'^y vi»il«il il..- ll-.-im I'.iJH. — .jl.. lui I wu liun- 
dri-il ari'l lifLy fci-L in ti<;i;;ht, ami a hundred and fifty 
ft-H will'-. Tlir; travellern <i.iw many of llie natives 
of tliR K'ljiiri trUr*:<t, and found th<;iii all fri<fndl\ Hiid 
h'i)if;Ht. Tli*'y an; iimalli-r, (lark<;r, and mort' tiairy 
than tli'^ f.oii^t tn\nm, and it was not nnC'iinmon to find 
a man with b'iar'l ami iniMiacJii;. Tliey Ijave a super- 
MtjLloiiH belief, that, wtit^ij a nian dicw, hn htm l>een 
h':wili:lii:d hy a Spirit heiongiiig U> a n<>t(;li boring 
trllx;, who llifin inuit pay for Ilie Ioha: flgliting, 
th■;r•!to^l^ alwayx fidluwi Ilxi dvath of a man of any 
t-i)UnP.imi:tii'i:. Kriilt In very |d(?nliful and in (;reat 
varli'ty. Salt iit lilifhly jirkcd, ami makew a very ac- 
<;<-[i[ab1it pniHiMit. 'Mh; native nietliiid of f{(;tting lire 
In iii!i:iiljar; ii \iU;c<: of dry, plltiy nooil is flplil a liltli^ 
way, and hiild 'i]ii'n wllli a Hione; Noinr timiiT in put 
In tlm cli-ri, atirl a f-triji of rattan orbarjilxio In passed 
LliroiiKli It, and then pulled rapidly one way and the 
oltifT till Ninoki; and fire apjiear. In the 'Soi;cre' 
illfitrii't, tlie vlilaijes ronslNt of only eiirlit or ten 
lioiiiefi, an<t two or three ' tree-honses ' whlcti serve 
an fortx. Tln^ oi'ciijmntM prcjiare for an atluek by 
enrryliiK npaHniiply of Hton<'n into the trt'c-honst'H; 
and an ttx'y are Noini'llines over one hundred feet 
hl^li, and I'lmniantl the whole village, they are not 
eaxlly taken. TrnvellinK wan not eaxy. ax there were 
nnimiroiiM nlreiitiiH to ctoh*, ami leeches were very 
pluntlfiil lu the wet urais. ^ (/Voi;. roy. ijeoyr. stic, 
V. |Hs:[, :ir.:,.) w. m. i». [119 

Indlnii Kurveys. — A general n^port on surveys in 
Imlla during IMKi-H'.'. hy (ien. J. T. Walker, aii- 
tiouiii'1'1 llie eoinpleiloti of the IriatiKtilalion of all 
India on ihe lines limK a^o marked out hy (Jol, 
Kvi'rest ikiid sanetloiit'd by the Ka»t India company. 
Tb<' lali'st part of this (iroat Irlgononietrlcal survey 
was th« eastern frontier McrieB of triangles ext^mding 
from Assam to Tenasserini. where ll was brought to 



A dam «a • bm» lioe at HrtSeMte »i UffoL 
*ofttrfkk»l mnvT ht» ct»ihnM lu wodt In 
ana pan* of tlw pmlnwili. turtilii^ oot iBfep* i 
cial uaim anbndBC BMrtjr tv«bqr-flv* 
•tun Miln. taHMMfdnM HrflNVB tvTfj* 
•alw, A a«w ramj of lb» Boastr is W 
cstadag niaps *M aw of dtlraad AK toe ft 
tor BlUlt; la M Aumif fnfcHtai lai 
nglhm. 
The diM CM«npUc iaioreit Ib Ct» vofata* 
ad in the i«fi«nB oik mn»-H[malfty*b rspl 
inlnad nallTa cnratltn, aad la Ike p>|>oru fif 
exeruilva oAeca af tin mnwj im rbulr ilK 
iVw. nw. ffMvr. mc, r tKSS. Wi.) W' M. n. 

BOTAJiT. 

flew Pitfljiguiaafc — C^iniii ftlvM an aDooniu 
aaitoray and peraUaBttaa vC Uie mpan* to 
iou» 1T«tI)ai^n««e. tr^l«fp> axJocJa, Bctfc. 
rt.4 l« Oktde tku type of ft itew (ebiu, CuUfBCfll 
meUtrized by the ffirmitlian of llin KpartB In 
■It* caDceuirLc drcW. TIi*^ curiv'ii? TMiiculftri 
p«ri ftoni Lbe Unitod Stal/^j^ is figured, uid 
ond speelM of I^eenia Is descrtbod. The tw 
igitnii^ iMa.'<iaii«ia, In wliii^b thtf Fi'ore ciarSuc^s are sirr* 
ri.mndp't by a pt^i'iiliir en re I opt?, h.ta -in* rf-'jiri-snu* 
tative from North America which is figured by 
Cornu, — (.Ann. sc. nnt. xv. 2fi9.) w. n. r. [121 
Zygosporas of Mucors. — Bainler has studied 
the conditions whicti favor the production of zygo- 
spores in Mucors, and finds that llie conditions vary 
In the different species. Tlie absence of free oxygen or 
of light is not a neces-arycondilion, nor is a deficient 
supply of nourishment always required for tlie pro- 
duction of zygospores. Baiiiier cites a considerable 
number of cases where he has cultivated different 
species, and gives tlie manipulations required in each 
case for securing sporangia and zygospores; and he 
adds some observations on the chemical action of 
certain species. It appears that Phycomyces niteus, 
which iLsually grows oa fatty substances, which it 
decomposes, can also be cultivated on cochineal, caus- 
ing 11 to assume a deeper color, and rendering it more 
valuable commercially. Mucor raceuiosus, and a 
new species, M. tenuis, are described and illustrated 
in full. — {Ann. sc. nal., xv. a4:;.| w. a. f. [122 

PbeQ0gaiii3, 
Zilgnlficatlon of epidermal membranes. — Be- 
sides culinizalion. the change which characterizes 
epidermal cell-walls in general, the exposed wall may 
undergo two others: il may be convened into muci- 
lage, Ihereliy becoming weakened, or it may be ren- 
dered firm iiy the depnsiilon or infiliration of mineral 
matters. To lliese well-kn()wn transformations of 
epidermal cells, Lemaire now adds Uijnijicati'm, hith- 
erto supposed to l)e conlined lo internal tissues. For 
llie detei'tioii of tignine, he uses the useful reagent 
.suggested by Wiesner. pbloroglucine. A section of 
epidermis is transferred from an alcoholic solutioD 
of the agent to hydrochloric acid, when the lignifled 
membranes assume a rose color, ihe other parts ra- 



Jolt n. less.) 



SCIENCE. 



in«iiilng uncbaoged. Fur parposM of eanlrul, similar 
*»^Ui>n! arv &n\ cn-ateil witli either nitric acid or ■ 

',■' iieliklt^r. ilietlfrTilri'*l!irMnoiail. L«tniiln; 

1 i li«iiliio lu iliet:|>i>lorn)«l walls ol CvcmIj, 

nijiii i..m,>lvnn. ;unl in iJie (wttolo of cDrUln (ftni. 
Thi' sl^oiuift of cyinim^iMTtnAUi plunu li«ve twcii 
r>iiii:J \}y Ijlm tu ^ways Iikvi: itifl inetubruiM somfi- 
wliat ilRDlflcd. — ^^wn. «e. hoI,. xv. 3(«i,) o. l- «. 

[123 

MentaelU laevio^uUs am a fly-catcher. — Mtr- 
cus A. Ji^nt'A of Salt I.ak«i Ciiy. ariiug iipoii Ur. 
Orny'B Ku^igpstlon, nxAtuJnrd this plnul with iht fol- 
lowing liitcrvBiiiig ranilU; "Ui« Inres am thlclily 
biMMt wiUi conrM hnirv, vht^^h are ftiniisbffd wllli 
aercnU pairs of barb« ixiinthis dovnirarrl alonf 
tbciii, wliilQ ilie top Iiaa an aticlior-^baped gninmll 
twins a» Ixrg* »9 tlie otlier barbs, niese bniiw «(aiid 
•0 rluso tofi^-Oicr Uial iLe bju-bs KlmtMi Icuch. 
Thickly etadOliiK the loaf, wera many ileail and Aj\r% 
njuxiititoes, apcciei of sphU, anil utiier small Iiim«Is. 
<kim<- of ilie>« ui:re aiuitbt by the liead; but woat 
of tbotn were VM b; tlii^ prohoarU. u tln'lr h«wl« 
N'vrv t>Hi Icrirc w *\\\i between ib<t barb«. All 
wwre inuTA nr lnn» iuuliU>l«<l, pTubablf by other lii- 
*ei!ta. A «w«4'l fluid wb* tfi-rvtiM hjr (W IcAf, and 
tliii aLlrmml the Insectt. I'liert: waA no m-ldcnri; nf 
iiny^ dkcstl-tii Kidns on, ii» noiifl of tlie vlcilm* «oiild 
g«t ctii.ii! v>iu(i);ti to th» lurfaco of tio Iwtf to b« 
louffhed by tlie fluid." — (f/u(f. Tdrrrjr ttuh, JuttR.) 
o. L. o. (124 

Glougatlon of pedloela In Dldymoplesda. — 
[|vuiii)«y rails aiti'iitliiii id lUe eintigatlou of the 
liedlcels In Llie»e At^uitir orchid* nfliT ft-rtllizatlon, 
by wbiirh l.liv ri{iieiiing ■-tL|»tdir-<i itn! osrrii^l up nbore 
the decaying rrgL-tubli^ malter in which the pl^nLt 
grow. It i» thus qaU« dllTcratit from the G]i*nkraliuii 
at the flnwi.>r-4lalks of Arnchl!) nii>l olhrr plants which 
bury cbHr ri|>enlng fndl. What ltd oxacc bearing on 
•llti«eiiiinHlion may bo Is ant quite clear. — {Joam. 
ttnn, »vc. bot., June 0. 1 w. t, (129 

eoOloot. 

XoUatks. 

MedltAiraiioaji KoUnsca. — Dr. J. CJwyn Jof- 
frvVB pnbli^h^^ a useful annotated lltlof species ob- 
tainml ne.mr I rsUt by Admiral Sprall In «vMily to a 
hundred and twenty fatlioni!). They are mr»tly r\n\Ui 
iniiiui«. Ten new epecica are duK-ribed and well 
fiKiii*-d. Om-, an rxtn-mcly minute »hell, which 
might well proTc the fry of nomeihiii); lt>rg<:r, Is 
globoBOly cudigaI, iniiMjrforalc, and with llic pillar 
an^ulateil and spread out ai it« basx. It le referred 
to a new gouu*. Dru^tionia, am) placed In the Solari* 
Idae. A liat of O^trarnda and Fiiramlnlfera, collected 
with (be abells, \)i adde^l by Mr. DavM RoberisDu. 
~(Ann. man. iu(. ftitt. May.) w. Ii. d. fl3S 

Stmcture of the abfllt in bracbiopoda and 
Cliltona. — Van Bemmi^len ha* prepared an English 
afaaCmrt of ihat pan uf hli Dui'.'ti paper whicli rvlaies 
In th» braohiopoils. Thp principal point* of ths 
«lU*ertal.ktu are alio to be found lu tlie ,f^ndi4cAe(eft- 



Mckr^l, Ix. h. I~3. I88S. Tliai part relating tfl Uu ehl- 

lvu«. which Is the more Intereslitie because in a frwiher 
fleJd, has not Iweti iand>-' available fur sludenln wbn 
do not read Dutch. 'I'he paper It deddcdty euphu- 
uiorlcal, eoiiiiiiiiluii niuizh that Is Imporiaut bnl not 
ntiw, and :i hlile that \* new but »ot imitoriaal, if 
we oicept till- oi>lnl<iii» of the author. The ttatetnent 
that tfaure li any dllT^reuext, excvpt In d<^r«M>, between 
the ilructuro uf tiic peduncle in Llnfculldiie and in 
other brachlopmli, will nxjiiirw inuch toon-tlrmoristra* 
tiou before li can hope lu be accepted ; and the prltf 
dpiee upon which he [itcludca tlie Krvater In the lc»« 
by placing bracliloiioal!< among the r-hai'topod*. would. 
If carried to tlielf logical coucltulon. tnciuilc man 
amoup llie Ascldhuia. — [Ann. inap. not, hiil., hlAj.i 
w. II. i>. [137 

Bcouomlc moUualu at the FUb«ri«a exbibi- 
tloa, — TIic cataliigHfl of tfaa erouoinlc molltuloi 
exhibited by the U. t>. (ish-comtniuion at Lundoti, 
prvpared by Lteui. Wlnslow, T.S.N., hna just ap- 
pealed, and forms a pamphlet of tU pages, contaiii- 
ing much InfonnatltNi. — w. u. n. {X2B 

VERTBBBATB8, 

HomoIogusB of th« parta of tb« tampora] 
boaes. — SI. lAvociki, at i bo close of hU revtMion of 
this subject, offers the following ronclii^lnns ; — 

1. That the rvbtloni of the s<iuanii>sal oud the 
iiy){(>n)atlc proci-M In maiitmali< show how 111 applkd 
to the oviparous vcrtebmtcg are thft Terms • lympojitc 
bonu' (0<i tjfmpanitiiie), gunL-rally applied lu Ihv 
9qitAniO0Bl, and 'squamous portion of the tnni^ral* 
[{■KitUit lempnralfi], ijiven to the lygoniatic proeou. 
In theoviparotis vertebratcii liic lympauic bone doe« 
not exUt. 3. That llie zygomatic procesa. always 
ittcluded beiwir«u the H^iuimosal and the jugal, 
ahoHld oover b« cmfoundMl with the sqiiatnosal. 
3. That ihero ii a vulgar error rolallve to the lenipo- 
ral uf MrpciiU. lu which the lupeiior part of tbe 
*^QamoaaI ha* twen considered to Ix* Die maatold ; 
while, in reality, the mastoid fa iDTariably situated 
above or behind the auditory cavity, and Is n«v«r 
movable. 4, That tn binis the Miuamoeal cannot be 
represented by the [loaterior frontul. because the lat- 
ter is Qibilal In lui relations, while the fanner la lein- 
pural : also lliat ilio tyiconiiuir process should not 
be confoundnt with the JukaI, the one liavln^ nda- 
tioni with the aquanioul, the other with the mas- 
illary. 

I'he author also states concitnly that Utat bone 
must be cimsidered the si|uaHio»al which, Ihougli 
flied or movable, la situated In front of the auditory 
canal, and articulates wllh the pleiygoid and tb« 
inamlible. In the o*l|»rouh vertebrates, the stiUa- 
moial ha-i ontnmonly l>een wrongly denlgnate^ 'the 
lympank.' The zygomatic process, whether fixed or 
frre, is always Includeil Iwtwi^n t^f ii<|Uaiuokal and 
tlie malar. The parts of the l«nipursl are .it«»cl««i^ 
ly distinguishable by their tcleological relations. 

Tfao anihor fumUhefi the data for the table (•<» 
p. 114) of lb'.' synonymy of tike leniponU bone In the 
Iwhes and lower wrltrbrati-*. — (JfTm. aead. tc Tmt' 
loiiSA. Ir. I»^, 71.) F. w. T, [130 




ANT HH OPOLOGT. 

Domestication of the hotae. — SI. r'firiievln, dla- 
c'uesirji; iLe earJi<:sl uvldcuce ut tmoijij,' itia Iiorsi;, 
very pertinently set§ out with the question, " What 
isadiimesllcanimal?" and replies, "One that partici- 
pates in the doiiiua, submits itself to the domination 
of a master, to wLoni it renders its products or its 
services, reproduces in captivity, and gives birth to 
young, which become more and more submissive to 
control." The idea of domestication comports with 
that of property in some form. M. Cornevin, for 
reasons mentioned in his communication, places the 
time of the event in the bronze age contemporaneous 
with the bronze bit. The fact seems incontestable 
that the use of bronze was imported into Europe and 
Africa from the orient, M. Pietrement, in his work 
on the origin of the domestic horse, and, before him. 
M. Pictet, in his Oriijines indo-europcennen, have 
proved that the Aryans, of the central Asiatic plateau, 
utilized the horse at a lime when Europe was in the 
Stone age. In the discussion which followed M. 
Cornevin'a paper, M. I'aure remarked, that, while 
the bronze bit was good proof of the domestication 
of the horse, the hitter may have been tamed long be- 
fore bronze was known. Indeed, the Gauchos catch 
the wild horses with a simple lasso. Could not pre- 
historic man, after catching a horse by means of a 
lasso, like the Gauchos, have made a simple bridle of 
raw hide, and have managed the animal thereby ? ~ 
{linll. no-: anthrop. Lyon, \. llfl.) J. W. P. [130 

The ttoglodyteB. — SI. Ales. Hertrand, conser- 
vator of the museum of national anti([uities of St. Ger- 
main e-en-Laye, delivered an address in Decemlier 
last on the cave-dwellers, now published with copious 
illustrations in the first part, vol. ii., of the Btvue 
d' elhnoijraphie (Jan. -Feb., IStvl). The address is in 
popular language, and gives many valuable particu- 
lars, deduced from their remains, of the environment, 



itenaUs, and nrt of 4he pn^liistorli; inhttbl^ 
aiiM 01 r.nrnpe, Pi-rliApa the ntosi jnteruKtiiig poiuta 
in'« tiie eviil"jii:es prer-enU'd of their tl"me5ticfttlan 
of the reindeer, and the parallel drawn between 
their supposed mode of life and that of the modern 
hyperboreans. — .1, w, p. [131 

The Seters of Joal and Portudal. — Dr. A. 
Corre of the French marine service gives an interest- 
ing and illustrated ethnographic sketch of the re- 
markable people on the west coast of Africa, chiefly 
near Cape Verd, and mentioned by Urue, towards the 
end of Ihe seventeenth century, as being strongly dis- 
linguislied from the surrounding negroes. In many 
particulars, these people show cliaracteriHlics similar 
to those of tribes separated from them by half the 
circumference of the globe. A short sentence may 
be literally Iraiii-lated in illustration : "They call the 
uncle, father; th^ aunt, mother; the cousins, male 
and female, brothers and sisters." The writer of the 
sketch dill not appear to understand, or at least to fol- 
low up, this evidence of the system of consanguinity 
and affinity so frequently found in the stage of 
savagery. — {Uev. d'ethnoymphie, Jau.-Feb., 1883,) 
J. w. p. [132 

Houmanian ethnology. — Trajan con([ueted 
Dacia in A.D. 100, colonizing it with subjects drawn 
from various parts of the empire. When this same 
country became known to Ihe inh.ibitants of western 
Europe, they found there a people speaking a lan- 
guage derived from the Ijatin, and evidently descended 
from Roman provincials. With their imperfect 
knowledge of the intervening centuries, it was but 
natural, says A. J. Patterson, that they should-^ 
connect these facts together, and a.sBnme that the '> 
Wallacbs of their own times were the direct descend- 
ants of Trajan's colonists, and that they had dwelt 
uninterruptedly on Dacian soil. As soon, however, 
aa the Kouman language and Rouman institutions 



f* 



Jotr 57, 1883.] 



SCIENCE, 



115 



were exainiiKi) In Aviall, more iu>d more pointj wvre 
dl*<r»ci¥il which fouM udli ililTU-ijIiy Ite l>niiii;lil 
Itilo li«rnioiiy vfiib that prinut faeir view. lnt|tiircra 
will) WKtit iioL »u)i)ffl:L Ui diit ilUliirlMiii; Iiilliii'licc at 
Ittinmin |>it(rloll«in intni; ('• tlu' o>ii<'lii«iun LliAt tlie 
proeitt KuirlKnce-Hprakiiig |io[iiilittkiit ot Iti'UriiJiltia 
and Trail sylvaniu h^vt- mlsruu-d Ukltber fp'iii tlia 
UikIg soiilh of ili« Dntiiibn ilncp tho hi>ftinntii3 of 
llt« twelfth <:«niiirp. In iwlOitk'n !'• ilie orxllnary 
atbiuilo};:'? t'vlil<-iii-c, tlti^ [ibili>)<iF;l>Kl .in;iiuifiit ti»i 
bcffti uflrrtiiBlljF nr^'l by I'uiil iluti(«Ky. Both In 
Uiu toMdlc AKPS «nd «L Uie t»'*'*<^it ilme, a iimtile b 
foanil ill wiou* p>iu of tlu>. Balkan [letiiitNula 
whose flpr«cli »ocli>«d]r rriwiinh!<^s iliu o1 lh<> iiortlicrn 
RouiDUis aa to imiw llml ility mn: iliuk-cls vt viie 
lutgiiige, uikI mutt linrr Ix-r-ii (|itlu»tr<t (mm it rom- 
mon coniiv. — {Acadtmi/. iSnf H>.) J. w. r. fl33 



irorSS AND NEWS. 

It was kmiwn «nme iiuuiths hIiici* haw Mr. Iletirl 
HmtIssii hud mitda, n* lie claimed, a discovery ibat 
tli« I'urtiiKiiese IihiI iin ejtrlr il* |.Vt2 miipiW out IIim 
eaaiem watxiard of \\\c prrHcint linlliil Slates from 
Florida to tliv ii«li:lib»rbuod of 4f/* a^-nh lalilU(]«. 
A f«w wM^k* imri Mr. U>irrii<*c laid a copy nf tlie din* 
fiOTrivd map l>«rore thr* I'renth liibljttito witb docu- 
mentary proof of iu diiU- (l5iU|. A m<ir« particular 
lUtument bas rencbed lU In a Iciwr from the Iter. 
Kdward E. H»\v, written in Purb, alierL' In? had in- 
jpbctnl Mr. lltirrUae'Bi'Opy ot Ihii map and doonnieni 
whirb were found in lli« arcblvei uf the Kate family 
io UwJvna. We luu^t auiili coiiclti»lv« parllctilar», 
(olw piibli'hrd by Mr, Hurriui-, Imfiirc dt^tvnuiniitg 
if Uii* Uot be one of the important contribatlons to 
the ilody of uarly AtuericMn carluicnipliy, whjcb this 
whlloin N>w-Vort! |;iwyer l)a» msite. M«anwlil[« It 
ti not at all clear whether th*> new ni^p U Roinj; to 
GODtrkbule any tlilni; further than whut we Iihvu 
already known from tlie old Portuguese ehari, whK'li 
Leiewrl jtitc* iu his Uriijraf'hiedu iri'iyim <i,v, pi. 4:>, 
wllh n c<>n)<t<Tniral dnt«- belwoen KfOI and 15U4. Tida 
glvM a rod': n;i>res«iiiaiIoii of Florida, with Iw va^l- 
nrly iroast ir^niling uorUn'Tty, aud roiniiij^ahraplly la 
n «iid. Lyiu^ to tht^ nortb-imal, and In tnld-nccan, 
la a Mt of continental fhore. liidiraUnu the Curten^ 
d[»cov«rl«>> ill liK Uiltil]«d name, ' It'-g^iiK domiis,' 
witii 1) lari;e island iMl.jacerit t'alli^d ' I'erra laboru- 
Lorum.* or Laiirudur. Tho carliast priatiid map of 
Lhi« rvtflon b«ai« a ttroQi; rewmblnnee In ihe For> 
tugiie»c cbnrt, aiuI would sv^tu to har<* bfeii UaKiMl 
<tn Um utne or Mlmllar Information; and thiH li tbi^ 
famous Stobnicxa ninp, wblcli was published at 
Cracow not tar from l.'il:;. The ITill I'tolnuiy has 
tbe ITorti^rcal n^lon, but oinlia Floridn. Fr»ni two 
inHp> In tbn iTil^ PKdoniy a di-liueatioa very like tbv 
Porlu4(iiFHi chart can \m madr iipi anil afler (his Iti 
mntiiur* iM-canK- for ixime yearn an estnbllshed typv 
frequeiiily tutt with. Another I'oriii|{iie»e ciiai-t ia 
weii known u> Rtudfnts In ibis tleld; and that iH the 
on« whirb hai Uwn reprtjduwd by Stcvunv, Kunit- 
uiana, Kubl, and utiters. and U usually placrd be- 
tweeu I3U aud Ibau. If It embodied curn^nt knowl- 



«itt^ in Portugal, it was eonalnty not generally 
known tlier^ tluL Ihe enaterii coatt luiiled ulib th« 
f'orlereal region; for Lhe oc«an la ntpri-scnted a* 
washlns unlniurrnpteilly between. 

Fmni wb.li Mr. Ililc wrlli*«, llic n«wly found map 
Witutd M':'nt to bo much the vaine in charucter as tlic 
laiS priuliMl Flolcmy tnap^, ihtie carrjinje baok tlieir 
iIf 11 neat I on ten or elereti yean earlier; ai>d lliia, w« 
have soeii, take* us to the suppgaod date ll'm-}UH\ 
nt the Lclewid Portiixm^vs chart, whicli 'ly 

llk«> tli« IJi'-i roapM. and iieiMuin£ly like lii !>: 

but a HI^ht ot ilarriutf'ti di«c>>vereil chaii, iu dua 
tiiiio to rvAcb us, will vivo lu lomethinc wore than 
con)Mture oo which to ba»o an caUnutt* of lia Im- 
piirtance. 

Thfiv is onw ili»cov«ry, liowcTcr, whirb w« are 
waiting fur, and In timi- it may come: that It, the 
evidence, cartographical we bopo, rather than docu- 
mentary, LliAt the lllscatan O-di'^rman knew tht 
Oraiul Banks and the adjacent coiuta lung before 
Colntnbiu. IiMtemB haril«r not to believe thai UiU 
Was the ca^e than to helieie It. 'I'he hiirdy fisher- 
men of the Bay ot BImtav lixd aLnttrhi'd l)i4>lr <:oiirs«» 
fArtli>>r and fiirther to the unnu In punniit of the 
*liH'k-llsh ur cod, whldi nu» the suplit food uf 
Catholi*.* Enroll! for mora Iban a biiiidmd dnyH In the 
year. They had gone to Iceland, and, by riisj gra- 
dation, to the (ireenlind seas: and we mast ninem- 
ber tbnt on ihis very P'irlugiiese chnri of I501-15i)4. 
aud iu tbi! Plol^ujr, preceding tiiartinift of Coluinbns, 
<.ir<^<:nUnd yrm but n prnlont^aiion of north-w»ii4m 
Europe. Acconlinely. foUoiving their uaiiie, the 
lishcnnen could easily have cruisetl still farther 
along Ihe Labrador coH«t, and to tb« n<'lKhl>»rlHMHl 
of Newfoundland, without in Uie leait lUpponing 
they had found n new world, hut rather a liiihcrto 
inivi<i1ieal region of the olil world. So, on tlieir r»- 
tum, Uii'ir bailor's yarns would raise no HUKpicton 
of A new (|it»rlcr uf the ijlulte, such as Eur<^pe was 
eUrtled ac when Columbus relurne<l from his piir- 
pined qne.«t. It wu-i nut the lislK-rint^n's Tv-|)or1, ac- 
conlingiy. that could bavi: Incited Calwt; but, when 
news rea^'hiMl Englnnd uf the diwovory of the 
Spaniards, it can easily be conceived how llieso 
sailor's yarns may liare been tnterpt«t«d In the 
Ik^ltef that the land found by Caluinliua must, by 
the Btuilugj- of cuntinenls. havti stretched to the 
north, and could hi- (oiind by lullinK west froin 
England. Further, »o far as I'idiinihiii' view9> w«r«s 
•duired. that lie had reached the vvwfl of Asia, the 
reports nt >lari» Polo uiid the r(»t ihowed that llt« 
Asian coast must lie also in tlial very dlreelion. 
Now, when Cabot reachiM] tin- land, aud found lb« 
Riiilres adllng the slock -flsh or cod. batf^alao*. where 
did they i^t the very tenn which BlMsyan h-berniea 
had applied m thi? siune Ash forivnturlrs'.* This bas 
always b«en a puzule. It M<«raR to ns ilwt it will yet 
be dfsvovvrvd that Csttol ititd only r\-nched hy a 
Mtuthnrn pa»age tl)'- rrgion which the Ltl«4:ayans had 
long l>cen «aiUng to by the northorn. Tfae arfhites 
uf EurojM-, we af« couQdent, will yet revi.>«l the 
proof. Only last sutinner tbp Her. Mr. Hale, searcb- 
iog tiM* archives at Uadrid, found a sketch by Corl«s 




SCIENCE, 



of Uu< Gulf of Culrforoin. ninde tix ycari bafore thr 
«Rrll)u>l tlwl had preTloiiFlf been Iniuwti; ami It ijt»- 
(l.ivi'd ihc »tctit of C'nriM* own «x*mSuat)nn of 
llji- r'adAi; cuaal in ailvMicn nt lilit rit{>Ulna. Tliu 
»Tclilvvi« of the o1<I world hav« by no incui* y« 
yiolilrd hll ilinl tlifv inuy. 

— The funeral of thi^late Mr. WllllnmSpotUswoodc 
took plnce nt iiooit July in \Vc>tti)iiii»tPr AbWy, uiid 
W'M ■Itcmlr'd hj tiiniiy dislingulxhni men from tlic 
ritrlnua si-iciililk* and olhpr Bocirtir* with wliii:h lltr 
dcreiu)«d v\> connAclcd. TIifr« woe »Uo ft Urgr at- 
IcndanM if lb«g<ciicral public llio pal)-b«iin:ri w«ra 
MarriuU of SAliiburj, Oxford unlrerslty ; Lont firao- 
Tllle, Ijondon university; Sir W- aiemen*. Uritisb a?- 
»uciiiiioii; .^ir F. LclghCon. Royal acjuleiny; Sir J. 
Lnbbnck. IJnnaeau suciyty; .'«ir [iarllo Kr«r«. IUijt*! 
Aftatic siMiieiy; Sir W. Anti»tr<injt, Inotitulii nf flvil 
vugl»eer»; Dr. Erans. Koyal M>rieiy; OhJinp*IIor of 
Ib^oxclifqiicr, H. if- jfovcniuicui; I>ukco[ yorilmm- 
b«rland. I{(iy:d tu^litiitioD; ^(lulcr of Lhc «lntiiin*-n' 
romimny, Um ('om)vtiiy; Lord Abcrdnrc, Koynl 4*>o- 
Kiaphical awivly; O. Bii^li, Kaq., Hoyal astmnumi- 
»il aocicty; IV^fessor Flower, ZoOlogical society; 
Mr. Sliinii. Mr. Camy, Mr. Hunt, Mr. Millwo€>d, Mr. 
Wbilf, Mr. WilAon, rf>pres«ntlii5 departments In the 
Qupf-n'i iirJiiUitC'OtGuti. 

Tile AtheDafum »nyo of Mr, Npritllxwoodv : ".Mr. 
W. Spoil Ik woiMte'ii illDCa<i bat) from tbe flr^l rjatta^d 
SiorioaH aiarm; a:Jll it wni hoped that be noiild tii- 
imiph over lypboid-fover. though compUeAU'd by 
con^rstion of the luuip. HU aIri>nKtb h«d, however, 
Iwt'n ahak<'n by thft severe nt.-<:idiint ho im-t w llh sonie 
months ngo, utid ihure liliultidoubLLliailiittiudtifatl- 
Kable iiUftiilon to duties of varioui sorts bad nvor- 
tAsktsI «vvn his rigoious conatituiion. 1I« combinoil 
witb the »tuiliH« of a physicist and a matlu-malicliui 
lliu sujMrvision of a great merauitlk concern. To 
aocompliah all ibis; to make «iaborst« and d^llcata 
experiments, contribm*?- a «urcesftion of paixis to the 
Traiivirti"n» of the Hoynl society and The PhUo- 
KopMcal maaiaStic ; to nilx fii.>|uently in geuc-ml 
society : U> [imldft over t>i» cbiof of our *ci«titUic 
l>odleR, ftnd mftiuge a large biuinc^^ — w«s po5«ittl« 
Duly lo a tiuui who would map out tbu work of overy 
day, and n«v^rwant« a rainnlv nf his tima. And tliia 
was the CL'Sc with Mr. .Spottiswoodc. llis was 
eminently au urgantElng bmin, giflod wUb gr«>il 
clearness, complete tuaetery of del»Il, unfailing 
pnuclualliy, and iiower at onc« to Mi^Ue Iho essence 
nf any matter brought nndor his notice-. PerBonnlly 
be w.as moti kind and p;nerous, cnitnently tolerant 
of differenri-* of opinion, and conrteoux to all with 
whom It^ rami' in tonlact." 

— On Thumday night, July 12. I88S, tha newer of 
the Uuililiii^rg of tbc Indiana university was struck 
by lightning and tborougiily dcsli-oyed. Tlie build- 
ing was u faur-<rtory brick of Gnthlc doiign. Upon 
the first Hoot wore the eoliecLlous of geology, mlner- 
*loey< Kud arfheoloviy. and tiiv chemli-a1 laboratory; 
on the semiid doorwri*! ibe lihrarif^S and the phyaU 
col laboraUiry: whii« the third contained th<- valuabie 
soological colluvtiotks of ibc univcnily, and the luu- 
M<um of comiMrattvr anatomy. The lots as reporlMl 



is lu follows: imisi^niu, «75,<)nO: library, $H,OQ0; 
iaboralory, »1U,(KI0; building. (4A.<)(KI; total, »loe, 
(X)0: upon which there wa* a totiU Injurance 0/ 437,- 

Tli« entire Oiren collection of 95.000 «p«clmea» of 
geology and mliiora]«sy "■•sde.tlroyfsL Thlj coll 
tinn coniainrd many trpM nf sjiecies dAScHbi-d bj 
David Uale Owen and others. The seologlcal col- 
lection ai*o conlainf^ many niited »[M-i-im<-ni> froni 
Kuntpn and Amoricn, among tlir morr (■■■b'bnitpd of 
whlrti wcrf The larpe Wiirit-mbcrg Ichthyosaimii. and 
a M<.-i;alivnv.\ Irvui IlcinbTsun. Ky. Tlic lutter htut 
fortunately li*»"n dMiribt.! and Su^red by Pro(<ww»r 
(_*o|><< for the fonhtoniin;; rc)M>rt of Ibe Indiana p^o 
lugical surrey. .\ Qne set of Want's casts was 
d»^iroyed, bnt can readily Iw n»j>lnc<^d. 

Profesiu>r Van Nuy:«' i:h<-niii-al laboral^ry, lonialn- 
Ing a numt'or of tine imported plei^es of chfinioal 
ai)pAratn»; I'rofvssor Wyllc's physical laboratory, 
including a nnmUtr of llie ownf-r'i in^ontuns mncli 
anhinN, and thw oiitiro k'bthyotoglcal eoll'ytiimfi of 
Pnife^Aini Jonlan and Gilbert.— rvpmenling years 
of patlont work, and probably the (in««t pnvatv cot- 
Itvtlon or liahi:* in the United Slaien, — ivrrr alto 
dntroycd, together with rabuhle collections Ifelong- 
Ing tu tbe l*. S. national museum, Yale •.fille^'v, 
Corneii universlly, and otiier inacitutious. 

Thp Bmohvijle sociely of natural hhinry. of llnwk' 
tllte, ind., liiu been the first to oQcr aid tu l.bv imtti 
tntlon: they have pInciKl their entire caUccllon of 
dnplicntca at the serrice of the tnisiees, from wblclt 
sererai tbousand specimens will be received as aoon 
as aiTauKemenls i-an he made to act'ominodale Uietii. 
It is uudorntKod that the Iruilef^s will proceed at onca 
to R'placo tho building which wa« d<!9tjY>yeil; an<I 
they sliould «nN:t a sitb>»taniinl Ur«-proof building la 
which to keep what valuablv materlut tbey may1)ei»- 
after acquire. 

— The circular of tlie local commlitM of Ihc Ameri- 
can Msoclalton announces reduced rates on vt-ry 
many ralluayv and at tlt« hotels of Mihiit^polla. 
Tbe intter, however, are crowded at tlils M^d.son; and 
mombeni ore recommended to resort to the subur- 
ban hol«U on Lake Mlnnftonka and Lake t'alboun* 
iilxml twelve mliirii fnnu the city, to and frxim many* 
of which the. nuiwayn will carrj- mf-mbe-ra free, the 
time iKting ab4)nl. half iin hour. Many nii'mbers will 
be eniertninod by ibd citizens of iMinniii|Hill»; and 
a Bub-commlltee will cndenTor to tind rnl«rtittnm«bL 
for all who will nr>tl(y its obairwan, Hun. A. C. 
Rand, CArly. of their lutenlion to l><> pn3S«>ni. 

Th>- UHual favors will be granted by Iho telegraph 
coinpanie-s. Itadgca, a dally Innch, and l»w-pHi^'d 
carriages Will b« furnished, tOKelher with a descrip- 
tive anil ilttislrwteil ^ulde to the city of Miiiui-apolis, 
now in preparation. Kxpress packages containing 
apparatus, upectmons, mai^, books, drcwinijs, 01 
other articles d'-sigiicd for uso in the niiwtingN, wll| 
be forwarded by Uie American exprcM roinpany, and 
delivered free of charge at the tinivetsity of MinQi>- 
Hota, Such parcels should l>ei aiIdrv»M'd In care oj 
Prof. J, A, Dodge, to whom, also, all t<irn^poiideo« 
rejatintt to the same should be sent. After Aug. 12, 



JOLY «. IfiW.I 



SCTEXCE. 



U 



I 



iGitcn inn)' be addruMit to lUPiDbvrs ui Mliiii'>iiV"<Ii*< 
Ui cars of tlie association, and they vrlll Im iIi-li(*<T'->l 
from III*' oBlf-e of the IockI coniiuittco ftt the uni- 
ventlty. 

Ad excunion will l>e made w MInnutoukii, and 
reUirn, uii Bulurday ofleriKMiii. wben a Uwii |ni:tiic 
wlU be itn(4 at ihe Ijike Parle Hoinl. [f ii party 
of A huii'ln>i| mill fifiy or inorG deslr? to make on 
«xounl(Ni Uf WiiiiiiiH-c. <tu*l n.<liirii, at onu-lialf of 
ro^lar fUD, the Ht, I'lml. Minnoajmlis, mid Mftiiitf)ba 
nllwmjr Will imd a vpccial (ruin for tliclraccommo- 
liiilioit. No ileUuilo nrraiigutnviits bitvu yet Ik!«ii 
ni»|p for olliw exciiiTionii. 

The iTtlring nddrcM of Prciident J. W. Duwaon 
wilt Ifv gircii at tbc fVeslmiusIer chuivli. oo NLcollvl 
ari^nufl, on Wi-diieMlaf et-ening. A(t«r tli« uddrMi 
a rcfciitlon will be held by Uw local committee u 
llitr Xicolk'i Koiue. 

Tb« uiei>iUi]; will protmbly tw oii« of special Inter- 
est lu filnclul )^(i]oi;is(jt, iiunu>roui^ pa{M^n coiieeminK 
thp lenntnal moraine and other glacial jibonomena 
t)«itiK cxi)«cu<d. 

■^Tbo ;uiiiual ititwUng of Die Society for the pnt- 
molliMi uf agrlL'Ultiiral tictr-nt-e will tie Imld in Mlnii«- 
■pelU on Aii^ Vi aiiil 14, in ibo Agricultural i»ll«ge 
bolMlnd. of thv i^tnln uuivvrsitf. 

— A apccial public nii'«tiug of lite Cambridge ento- 
mological olub will be ti^ld In UlnnoiKilla, at the 
chapel of the uuKenlty, at iwo p.u. on Tueeday, 
Aii|;. 14, tj) wtiicb all person* Inttrested in «ot<N 
mology arc InvitM. 

— Tlii; anuiuU meoiiaijc of tbe Anierlcan forcelry 
oongtvs* will bnhuJdatijt. Paul, Minn., DotnoifincInK 
an >\>>ln>>i«day. Aug. iH, l^SS. Tbe loi^al comtnl(l<_>e 
hai lu Lliar^ the arrangement of railroad faclllLivs. 
etc. aunouncemcni of viblcb will be sent to all mom- 
liers In due time, and to all thone wlio express Ibelr 
d^ire til attoml tli« meeting. Pnp«n to be read at 
the ouirtiug, or a)Htira<M<t ot tbe name, Hbould h^ »ent 
la to Um coiTv^pundiui; secretary two «rwlu before 
RWetlng, :ircnnling tn thtr hy'lAwii of the cnngrevi. 

— A (:fO£nphical nnd ethnological exhiblUon will 
be held in Nancy from Au|:. 2V to S«pl. 20. 

— Til" Frpiii-h a««K-i»ti()n for tbv ndviuicament of 
aciAnces meet at itoucn, Aug. 1^2:1. 

— llie Alxih cnngre«s of tbe French geographical 
aodettea will meet under the pre»](leocy of Si. d« 
LaaMtpx at [loual ou tbe Stttli of Auk;iiKt. and remain 
fire da)'a lu neMlnn. A gM^rapliical espoitlllun will 
form ■ fixture uf the ineetinx- Tbe Miveniti coutp«as 
wHI niTC!t ikt Rou«n In 1litj4, and tbe fl^jhtb at Uran 
In 18HS. 

— The screntb congreas of the RusaJan acienlifirr 
■asodaUon wll) b« heltl In Odefva from Atig. 90 to 
SepL II. 

— 'I1ie Mxth annual meeting of the Amerlran 
fluciety ot niicmK>oj>l«Ls will beheld Id Cblca^, be- 
ginning Tuvtday, Aui[. T. li«^, aiitl continuing four 
day*. Ample pn-pnralioiiii an: nmlcinp by tlir cotn- 
tnitipc of the State mtcroicopk-al socil^tT of Illinois, 
and the (Itlcago academy of 8i'i>:i)e«s; and the Attend* 
ane« of metnht-nt is pxpvctml to be ItUK^r tbmi vrer 
Iwfore. First-clAM hou-l accomtnodationa al reduced 



fpoi'lal rates have been Mcnreit, and ebotov arrange- 
ni'-nt* nind^ f'lr thu conifwrl and cmTonlenre of the 
mwilnjr. Tltl«'4 nf pai*r« iniiy h.* sent In tbe »eore- 
tary. Prof. D. ». Kelllmtt. Ph.D.. lift Mtb St,. 
Buflalo, N.Y. l^lll prorislon will bn made for illus- 
Iraliun, by prujecliun npparatu*, of any article when 
(he authors may so desire. A special hour will be 
allotted Bocb day to tbe exhibition of objects and ap- 
pantufl referred to or described in c">ni muni cation* 
read bi'-ftini thp society; an *>vi-iiiiis w'" also be set 
apart for tbr prexcntatlon of meiUoilB of work. In- 
cludinu: Btalninu;, »i-ction-cuttlnK. mounting, micro- 
plmtography, etc. A geneml nili-ro»eiipl(3il KOtree 
will be heM on anoUior evenlitf:, and mfuiben ore 
rHquented to bring insinimente and slid>n wiib tliem. 
The exhibition of Instruments and nc*>-»»"rie* by 
makers and d«alei-s promlaea to be unusually line. 

The oHicers of tbe aoolety an Albert McCallii of 
Fiiltlleld. lo., preaideut; E. U. Oriflltb of Kalr[iorl, 
N.Y., .'viid Cl^^orge C. Taylor of Tbiliodeauii, Lft., 
ric^refii*leiiL-< ; 1). t?. Kellicott of flnSato. N.f ., sec- 
retary: and George E. Fell of BufTalo, N.Y., treaa- 
nrer. 

— TbeSoci^tj acad^mique of Brc^l held an eicbi- 
bltlon of matters relating to eeography, June 3-17. 
An espe^'lal object was to briug to n'HW ll>e rich 
ethnolntflf^al material which hni ncruniiilnliNl lu thH 
city daring many year^. Tbe Italic derated to Japan, 
China, Cochin-Ciiina, and WvH Africa, presented 
much of intnrrst. 

— In the /'fif/o»o;»flJf(i( transactMns for 1SI~ ip. 
325). Sir William l[eii>chel says, that. " bt.-side tbe >)S3 
star-gauges public bed la the PfdloeopMcat Irojtsuc- 
ffopw for 17W (p. 221). above 400 more hav» bean 
taken lu various poMs of the heavens." 

TheAe four bundreil unpubllsbed gauges have lately 
becu t-xtracted fn>m the orlKltial obs«'rvlii<{>hnok« 
pn-^iirvwl at the Hersebi-l family rt^aidem'e at Colling- 
WDod, tbrongh the kindnesn of Sir William llerturbel, 
tbe prasvnt baronet, and. of hh brother. Major John 
Hersehel; and thr manuscript has bren pnuented 
to Professor Holden, director of ths Woshbarn 
obsemUory. 

The original n^wrds are In the liandwriting of 
'Mi*« Cwollne tIerAcbel, and by ber faithful care 
every detail necessary to their an;urate deduf^lion is 
preserved. It will Ix- observed that ouly two-lblrds 
of the star-gaugm of IfurM-bRl barr bcmloforK been 
kmown. Tbe new aciini-tiilon will l>e welromed by 
those interested in ihta class of '>b)iervat[<'n^. They 
are a new gift from an inexhauntiblv mlo«. 

— The bureau of oilucntion has Just puhlJihod a 
rln-nlar nf informalion. c<mlaining the resulls of an 
iuquiry into tbe e(I<.x;ls of ■.v-oilucatlng ibe sexes in 
tlire* hundred and forty ciliea and lari^e town* of the 
Tnlon. Of these, three hundred and twenty-one 
practhe ro-eduratlon throoghout tbe public-school 
course, snrenti'en ox-durate for pMt of the course, 
and two BCiMirale the h'xes '•titiri'ly. A cartful 
analysi* of the reniotiK adduceil for co-edueatlon ert- 
ables the editor to furtimlate tfanm aa follows: co- 
education of the wxi'S i« preferred where pracllacd. 
bceatise it is, 1", notKroi, folloviitg thf u>ual stnKs 




118 



SC FENCE. 



(TOL. II., No. 3B. 



Uire of the family and ot sncLoly; 2°, cuati"ii>tTii , 
or in harmony with the hntiib-i ami seiLLiuwaLB of 
every-day life and law; S°, impnrtial, niturdlna to 
both Rexes eqnal opportuniliH-. far culture; 4", eco- 
nomical, using suluiol-funda to ilio beat odvuiUge; 
5", conuenient both to stipeniiW-ndenl and l«Ho}]er» 
in assigning, grading, instnirti'xi, a-nd difclpUnv; 
and, 6°, beneficial to the miuils,, njorals, liablLa, and 
development of the pupils, Tli-- i»aniptilttconcltidea 
by observing that *' both thii- gH?u*;ral Iji^iructloD of 
girls, and the common eQijihiynient ai women,. 
pub lie- school teachers, depend, to a vOry gl 
on the prevalence of co-educiiiidn, and tbi 
discontinuance of it would ei\uV\\ cilLer 
creased expense for additional buildings ar 
or ft willidrawal of educatiiinal piiviiege* 
future women and mothers of Hn.' uaiion.' 

— Mr, Charles B. Dyer, a ivillknywn c 
Cincinnati fossils, died at lil'^ htine on H 
July 11, after a painful illne-.s of a-vnr Llic* 
duration. lie was for many yenrs engagei 
ing one of the finest coUiwtton* of loe 
tology in the cotuitry, whiuh now repo. 
AgassJz museum in Cambridi^.e. His ra 
were collecied by himself, jind Ui» indlil 
pursuit of new and fine speiniiicni was uul. 
connection with Sir. S. A. JUUi.T. Mr, Dyei ibslh^i i* 
few years ago, at his own (■vjn-nii', a jiiunplili;! ivlth 
two plates, containing descriptions of new forms 
from his collection, entitled ' CLnitributions to paleon- 
tology.' Thirty years ago Mr. Dyer retired fiorn 
business wiili a moderate fortune, and devdted all his 
time to Collecting. He was an eccentric man, with 
strong feelings, but a fast friend and a pleasant com- 
panion. He wa^ in the seventy-eighth year of his 
age, and had lived in Cincinnati for over lifty-tive 
years. Ills name is attached to one of the common- 
est crinoids of the Cincinnati rocks, lllyptocrinns 
Dyeri, and to several very rare and beautiful forms 
discovered by him. 

— The Imperial geographical society of St. Peters- 
burg has awarded its great gold medal to JI. W. 
Abich for his researohe.'* into llif gftohig.v of the Cau- 
casus. The Liitkii uieilal was received bv \V. K. . 
Dollen of the I'nlkova oh.servatory for improvements 
in astrononiical Lnslruinents; N'itkofEski, liar.infr. and 
KrasnoperolY have received medals for ethnographic 
and statistical works; 0»hanin, for travels in Tnikes- 
tan, etc. Silver medals were awarded to Brunoff for 
meteorological researclies, and to Lessar, Schnlti;, 
Gladisheff, Kiseletl, llodionoff, and SlovtsotI for sur- 
veys and journeys, cliietly on the A^ialic frontier ot 
Russia. 

— The observatory at .Moscow was among the 
iistablishinents of the northern hcinisphire which co- 
operated with .Mr. David Gill, Her luajcsly's a.^trono- 
uier at Cape Town, in securing observations of the 
small planet Victoria, at its late ojiposition, for a new 
determination of the solar parallax. The ninth vol- 
ume (livraison i.) of the Antiaiea of this institution 
contains the results of these observations, logclher 
with several papers by its director, Dr, Brediehin, 
relating Co comets and allied subjects. 



RECENT BOOKS AlfD PAMPHLETS. 
•«• ifVsiWnriiiiiij-iiJr ijtir/ Hfij/ fitipn-i Ktlftu'lfil yVutn wrtal 

llltnitji/r irii/ioui trpnaitirilltui luf wt tnclml'd in tki» tM. 
RTfipUsnn rirn tnii<It Jur anintul rt/tOrl' nf AiKtHtat^ tMtk' 
iaibntv. nHniii rttiilflMi-J perioiiiraif, unil utnnjfflip* q/ OWt* 

HOBtiilaiiBV, K. hVi-iiiuliilrti iiri[lii|>'^' df I'^lcalHoLUM.. 

lUilltol. 111^1. r4irlii, IM.I. 18LI|k., lllliMr. 1^. 

Buxl«7.T. EI. ll^ubL-rn, LntndualgnvMlo tiuJIo iMh 

eoliIukI:i- M^llanu. IgM, :Ui p. V. 

Jolmaton's &^'I4allwl Bill**; nliti Hiplnnntarv trtt. 3 viika, 

l_\. I'liiLiii'i-.i^inii': li. ('r}rpu,|j„||„j, t.i.nfltiii, IRM. B2 plk f. 

, J. BiHiiir'n unit Ti»r»i"Wilg:i' mi( d«in intbkaio J"» !•• 

' i.truii^,i[iML-liilriiM. Ki^rUii, tiWI. i<3 j>. H*. 
I>, r, fjvr ptl»>ii(vMiUii', dfviiHuv U'ki-lirHtiiinij 't^r 
loniJ nnii drn uinitiir'iti-iiiUii lilinliini wiivli«'ud>:n 
[fDUV niih'l lub'-inltiKii; mr r|li> klli'hi', sowl-' kultcU' 
Ivr I'tiiiiiipliniKiirucliL. tjijL-Jlliibiirv. H^l. Illiiili'. ft'. 
[ ^V. li!Ofiuj£]'ri|ililb< iliif ■uhiil'^TiLniU'LMiitrn eiiruptt 
^MOUnliylLcli. Ii.-ltl r. KuHi'l, /'i>. Arr, M«a. IB p.. 

>. B., ovli 8, Almq^lBt, i>vi'Qik Hie.i tot mghtr. 

tftiiini r. nujckli'ilm, inha '2<i' I'M \i. S*. 

ualer, u. I'm ["^■"iw >ic vnniiiuu- I'll*!', ibm. 

g, K. nnn M>iln]ii>r liDskiTn, Ki>ulu([iBtli«F lMJai;Lin)l< 

faKl. 18t.1. tlliinli. 4', 

fya, tC. Dill riilfrlliiiiliiii dnp diivl>|iaii[Mr miil Avir no- 

init ]iii|)|»13t(:li:<'r 1(1 vt>r]ttii'Junii mil <W IbT.unl.i.iitlUa- 
linl'nnlirunic nllur urinn vim pipiilii'duttLuiigieii itnil 
ffK. Wl'ii. IW3. -jW)!., Illuilr, f. 
tL, I.- !.«■ i>l>v«ux ill' Ib. Fruiic*. frumlArf itiniin- 
inrMS". lll*1oli«iiMiiTi'llc i>t iinrtlculi^n.' <lt.v mni'- 
-..Ji.i|,i"li'" i-iiltr1r(i«trL-«iil'j"i-'rii"* t-ri riiii!>-i-. I'.iri*. IJiiia. 4°. 

Medical era., lui- »,, ii-". ', ' 'iiii*in.-ii, '.>(>*« ,(■ /ifibri.igr, 

July, IN-Ci. Hta-J 1). b'.m. 

Mlna-PalumbO, F. Mononmlla botnnlta I'li neiarla iullH 
ciilllviiy.ioiii.' ilfl jilNiaochi in SIbHU, RiliTiim. I.uurifC. ISfiS. 
■27-i 11., '^n [I . n°. 

ffazzsni, 1- 'I'miiniu iriilmiiliia |ii'iiiii-u. vul, t. MilBno. 
//i:./ih. IS-.;. (110 jj. S°. 

Patouillard, X. Tjit)Vil;iL> !iiiiilyll(.-iir Fiiiiyoriim. Dcserlp- 
tlriiir' I'l iiii^il^pi'' iiiicm!-i;ii|>iiiiii'h ilii i'limii[>ii<>ioiin iiuuvuuux, 
r:u{'r. ou L.'rJUi[ii<'B. I'l-iiu i- I'uli^iiy, l^^^. llliiptr. 8'. 

PattlSOn, M, M, (.'liriiilBlB. I.oTulon, ISsa. (lli^i*ue« of 
Biiiiii-r>.) illiiHtr, roy. 8'. 

Petenuann, a. Krchcrflu''- il-' ihiEiik- it <[■■ phymologlc 
-i|HjIii]ih:i->( u riiurii'iiltiiri'. Aimlv"" ili' niNlitrf:- fiTLilJBauU-B tl 
:ilirin iiuiir,". ly'l-Sl. ltni\i.*lk-'rs, ISSa. 44'' p. s'. 

Petera, I'. l):irBi.lluu2clliiitl9tlii'rfiiii(;iuiiii'ii liiivdi Hiicbeii. 
K.iiiiL;"!"!-!.'. ItM. :iJ|.. 4". 

PuCCi, K. Fi)nd!iiiivini ■!! ){>oiI'i-ni- vol. 1. Milaiio, llafpH. 
ls>,:i. JijH (1. S'. 

Rovelli, ','. l-ii UMfiii iK'll.' fiiiiiioiu' iKiIvnxi;ili' dl Orwii Bp- 
|illcjilii .ilki KViiili.i lii'i I'riiunii'iii ilvlUi irniviui^inLiu iiiilvi'ruale. 
l.'umi). Fi'imhi. 18S;), Hti p. S". 

Saint-Lager. DrfluriKincp. ■K- n'k'iUH'n n:iliirollv«. Tarls. 
ISM. 1.14 p. ^°. 

Sauvage, H. K. ),ii irnindt pL-cln; (|iiii»Jiiii!'). I'arin, t883. 
iihi-tr. s". 

Slack, .1. II. rr;ifll<-iil truiii-uuUiiii.', \fw Vi.rb, 1S83. 
illii-ir. »". 

Strasaer, il. Zur kmriinlHS ,\:-t fuiikiiunT'lli'n nni»a«Bii(igder 
(|Ui'ii;i'^iri'ili.-ii niu-ki-ln. Siiitli{iirt, Is^a. ll'i p. S . 

Targrionl-Tozzetti, a. *)riotiiTl ni-ntri. Firc'ii^f, 1882. 
illiiHir. S'. 

Toula, K. (ffulii^inolu' k:irli' vur (ii . '. I'.ii'ti-riig^irQ iiebBt 
Hii-iiii'ii mid Hi'r?,i'u''A iiKi. \Vi,'ii, issi. I'. 

Vallot, .1. faiiilc* Hiiv lit ll-'fu ilii Siiiiii^al. f.iBc.l. Taria, 
lSS;i. so p., |)l, s"-. ['r,i iLoiil;iiii fi-S lu-c.) 

V61ain, <'ii. IViiiiB olrim-nlaire di' Ki'uliii^li' Blriilivirajblque. 

V:iTir, 1S3J, ;iiii p., niuBir. 1:;°. '.. 

Kxcur.-'iHjii i{iJi]liiL^ir]Ur iLiijm li? Morviiii. I*iit"i--, 18S3. Ijf p.. 

ilhi:,tr. 4*. 

Vlolle,-'. Cnuifl ill' i)liy"iipi'', tome i. ['liy-iijiii; inidi-? 
lairf. p;inic 1. I'lirla, IhSJ. .,\\ p,, iVJ li;;, S°. 

Wernlck©. A. llniiid^iiifi.' diT olfimnuir lui'ilimiilil 
Uniilnscbwi'i!,'. l^S.J. 44* p,, MlusU. *>". 

ZoltZ, A. dp. I'rinclpil liidla I'ljiiiiKllaiiin di polii'drl v dl [loll.' 
guiii vfcrici. Milaiiu. Bridii, ISSa. 4Sp. s°. 



FRIDAT, AVGUST S. 18M. 



TffE 17. S. flATtOSM. MUSEUM. 
II. 

I.V a former numlior we reviewed some of 
t)ii> mipui'tiint prinoiplta of ^enural claeaifica- 
tion suggeHlcd liy Mr. (ioude'a plu of the 
National mubCiiiu. Wc reeume the Ko\hv to 
diaouss sotac of tlic enli^ut poinU in llie miuur 
g]'ut)ping» of the «&me scheme. 

Seclii>n iii.. ' natiirrtl resotiroeB.' i.e.. ' force 
and timlK'r, ' apixiarg to l>a out of plsce. 
Certainly Ujasc are primary subject* : and we 
caDDOt, OS s merely pmcticnl matter, undur- 
staud why the study uf pbyeic« and ehviuistry 
i« piftcoti iifler that of the ei^th, whicti is to be 
treated of tmrlier iimler the sep-irate lieadft of 
* cosmology,' 'geologji".' 'physiography.' etc., 
in flection il. Imagine n person trying to learn 
Bomethitig of tlie relsliotis of force ami nintter 
to iho bt^Lory of tbo developnieiit of the cai-tb 
and lis topogrnpliy ns it now appears, nnd Imv- 
ing in view tlic npplicationin of these sttxlie^ to 
the expl&nnlion of eome of muu's luigrnUous or 
rainal ditferencea. or to any other anthropologi- 
cb) prohlein which might reach buck to prituar^' 
oanD6ction». I9 it nupposahlG Lhat hia inquiriea 
w<Mlld Iwf niciiit.ited by pliiciiig the oollet-tjon 
In s\ich rt'lationa to each olhcr as conipletolj' 
to coror up and invert thoir Datura] rehitions 
and logical order? t>r is il prohahlc thflt tlio 
niiud uf the visitor would he more enlightened 
by getting bis infonnalioa about the relations 
of the rlemeuls nfler he barl pnBtted through 
celestial wivX lerrostnul pbysii-s nnd i.-hewi^try. 
aod all the applicntiouB of these to the history 
of the development of Uie eiutJi'' 

We t^an reiidily i>ictiire to ourselves the oon- 
fh^ion which might )h> geiiernteil in hb mitid. 
and the discovery be might make of the ueccs- 
«Uy of reviewing nil he bad passed over before ; 
liul we f:iil in altempla to imagine the advaii- 
ta^ti of this Invtir&ion. We cauuot, therefore, 
understand the consMvrstioiis which induced 



Mr. Goode to adopt this method of arraDging 
Uie acclions, nor why he did not [>laec nuttiral 
reeourcus Qist, Hnd man last, in hli natural 
hlatory dtviaion ; for that is what the Qrst lliree 
seclioaa realty constitutt; when taken tirgetlier. 
They would then Imve etoinl in Hppnixinmtely 
oataral, ami oi^rtajul}' respectably logical, rola* 
tions to each other. 

^^'c should (hen have had in section i.. phy«i- 
ic», cbemietry, and all the mineralogical, liotan- 
icid, iittd zootogicflt collections ns iiitroduelinns 
to the study of section ii., wherL' tbo princi- 
ples of science learned in pnasiug them in re- 
iii?w woiitd be found of etiscntial a^stance in 
iinderaljindiug tlie earth, with all the (opicB of 
ooamologT, geolog,v, etc., whether presented. 
as Mr. Goodc proposes, mlely aa man's nhode, 
or in its more uaturul relation to the nniverse 
vui a phiDvlary l»ody. The last 8eeu<i to us the 
preferable because more natnral mode of pres* 
cntation ; and tlie .inthor shows tliis by bring- 
ing in <MMiiiolog\'. This, if at all eU'ectlvot 
uiiist «hotr that the oArtli u a planet primarily 
miin habitable by man. and evolved wiihoMt ref- 
erence to his existence, ct>mln(!ti'd in its career 
by coamic forces unintlueuced by his presence, 
and. in all likelihood, dostiocd to become uafiti 
In ooume of time, for hin exiat^'ui.'e. 

After the enrth tw inau's »1><vl6 had been 
paiwed through by tlie viutor, we could readily 
conceive of hia beii% all the better prepared 
for the nnderatanding of action iii., * the nat* 
ural history of man nnd his adjuncts of aU 
k>nd<;.' 

i*asstng over bectiou iv. (' the exploitative 
industries') and section v. ('the elalioratlvc 
iiiduftlrieai'), which together constitute what 
appears to be a second grnnd division of the 
miiM<iiin representing the puruly tiiiluMtrial side. 
we come to section vi. In this xcccion nre in- 
ulnded foods, and drinks in their final stages 
of preimrallon for the use of nmii, narcotics, 
drees, buihiitigs. Iiiruituiv, heating aud Ulami- 
luttlon. meiilcine. hygiene, transportation. All 



120 



SCI^NCB, 



I Vol. 1L, So. m. 



of these ore dtippos4*tl to Imrc ii raorc illr«vt 
ritlntlon to tho physical rootlitioo of tnnnkiiid, 
biUicr trojD their untiire, or id tho iK'nilior 
B8 of their mamifuclurv which lunkc* thorn 
admissible to tJie cases of this MHition. 

SeclJon %')!.. * Not-iitl relatious of moiikiml 
l«odolog>' ttrwl its atx-eswrneK) ,' is to be iiri vx* 
position of the upptiancf'S htmI meUiodii ooiuIa 
imt of by iDAn in hia hocIaI reUttons, coraniu- 
iiipntioo of idoa* and tlieir n?«inl. tmdc tind 
comnii'rce, 8ocii?tios hihI fcdernlions, govrrii- 
ment nnd Iflw, war, (.wremonioH. 

Soctioti vill., ' iiit^llcelnal wciipatious of 
iDRDkind (art. science, and philovopfar),' w to 
show the fxisttng int«llecUial and moral coiidi- 
Uon of man, tittd the moBt jwrfeet result* of 
human achievement iti every ilimcLion nf ae- 
rivilr. Its topics are to W games a»d ainnsc- 
mr-Qts, music, ihe dramu, the arts, litcnitiiro, 
folb-lorr, srieiiw. philosophy, pdut^tiun, nnd 
climaxes of hnman arhievi^ini'iil.. 

Tiie ftbcth to the eighth sections contain the 
special topics which can be used to illustrnte 
Ibe reauilsof ihe iutvllectual progress of man 
moru completely and directly, i^erhaiM, Uian 
the iudntlrics, in sections iv. and v. ; and these 
are accordingly pian'<l iit a sitccfsston leading 
aatnrally to their cnlmination in the topic which 
tcrmitDitcs ftcr'tion vtii . , and is at the sanit* limt* 
tlie aixty-foiirlb and Inst of nil of the lopics. 
This terminal topic ia to be an i^xitoRition uf the 
most remarlEable Hchicvcmeutti of man. Hie 
sc|)aratioii of this from the liiial topic of sec- 
tioo i. ('man in his individual manifestations, 
reitrcsciitative lucu, biogmphy ') sliows, Ihiit, 
/lioiigb Mr. OowIp baa kept in view the key- 
uoiv of man's progress in civilization, the 
development of the indtviditnl, ho has never- 
theless either failpd in seeing, or oonsidpivd of 
lubonlhtaie lm[iorLauec. the racial |tcciiliar{liofl 
aod advantages of which the rcprceeutativc 
man is neoessatily only the concentrated or 
focalized expression. 

In fact, this want of what we might call 
paycliological insight is apparent everj-wliere ; 
and throughout the iwhemc the race is snNir- 
ilinutcd L^> the notion that man should be pre- 
sented and considered as a whole, whether in 



the dcvelopmetit of the topii^a Bei>amU'ly , or khc 
purely mmparative armngemanl of tlio aixty-^ 
four topics Uiemsclves as asscmbletl In tbo] 
diircr^-nl scvlioiis of the mwieum. In sectit 
i. man fa tr«atod of ' psychologically as A unit : *] 
and it is only lu the HMond topic of this[a4ai:- 
tion, where the nahirnl relatiun? of men fore 
ihe treatment 10 stand upon a racial basts, thai 
we find Ihis policy even apparently abandnned. 
Vk'f any Bp])aren(1y ; becaiiM', as wo iindi-rst 
it. the eflbrt here will be aot to show the 
toricnl or physical development of the races, 
so luuL'li as to contrast tbeni side by side au<1 
exhibit the characteristics of each race. 

In all il9 }uirts, the arraogemeut is bi 
in cat-h topic »\Km a ooniparison of the wort 
of dilferi'-nt races : and the olijfcb* used foil 
these pur|M>ses must be wilhdrawu from Ul 
natural aswcialions in otlicr collcctioos, 
their signinctuicc in the history, ph^'sical m 
psychological, of any pnrLicular race^ be saoci^ 
need. 

Tliis is liie metho<1 of comparntive anatomy ,1 
aiHl h&t certain obvious vivautages for the] 
study of auaUsmy if it is conhnetl in nppliea- 
tion within the weH-defim-d limits of any onoj 
ly|K> of plants oiaiiininls; but it is liable to k 
to serious errors when carried beyond tl 
limits. The dismembered organs or partCi] 
tiiough similiir, are, when found in di<>tin< 
types, unquestionably oriuu distinct in origts. 
The conipEirative method ncoessarily cnle acn 
the natural order of things in their n-'lHlltmc 
to time antl to the sueces»ive stages of thdi 
development : and this is an obvious defecl, 
which, when «|>ptied to nnthropologicid eul-- 
le<-tii>nt). is destnictivc of all natural com 
tions as lu the way in which modifications nai 
changes really ftrise or (low out of pre-exisUt 
I<icaIiKcrt or raclnl conditions. 

Anthropolog;,- as a science is essentially i 
curncd in tracing Uw history of dirfenrnt 
of men: it cliugft to the race as the safti 
basis of dassilieation »L present existing, sod 
it is the test by which all general concluaioni 
with regani to the nature of man and tlie cvuU 
lion of riviliz:ttii«n are judged. A musenm 
Bntbr<i|i'>logy departs widely rh>m this 



JBVWT S. 1883.1 



SCIENCE. 



tfiie scieatific ooDservatJsai when it a»- 
Jiif-. the tjisk of li«rujoiii«iiig Uie psvelioloKj- 
all Uic rnw» of men, ewppcinlly in tln" [ifpsi- 
i-nt almost iincxplotwl condiUon of tbis field 
in snrngo races, and when it dc«Lircs that it 
can pn-si-nta trim pictiirfi of the cxialing con- 
>n of nun by the method of general oom- 
"Isort of things n'hus<' cuDnpt-tioiiB. »a lhe,v 
iwl sid« by side, arc obviously unnatural. 
Tlic jn-eacntation of the i-i!suli» uf avhiuvc*- 
ent in all rlEreclloos, na attained by each 
CO or iiatiiral H^sociution of rnoeB, coul<l 
not linvL- Itut'n open to sacb serious ohji-c- 
>ns. Wrtiikl have hcen far more uffcclual, 
h1 more in awordance with the principles of 
^odern claA«iHeatioii and the practice of ma- 
iinK uf aothroiM>log}'. It wonhl, at any 
ito. bitvu rotuined lliu collectionti iu what art! 
lowri It) Ik- their nHliirul relations; mwh a 
iontatioQ could not have failed, therefore, to 
|c«l the wants of tltv futura and the dcmaudB 
tilt- pn-ite'iit in a iiiori- eH'cctiial way than Uy 
ly nrtinrtid cl»si*ilio;ilion, wliatevor Its <x)n- 
Buicnc«. 

We do ti'fl think that the indnstrial side 
>uUI have j^iilTered firom this policy, 1int, on 
contrary, wc think its jtnbjcct^ would have 
!i>at1y ^uitidl In Irilt'reot from lieing shown aa 
)vel(i[K;d by thi- ilirferenl raircii ; nor do nv 
ht'licvc thai sticli a plan would have demntided 
piorc nx^ni than Ihe pivsunt plan, required any 
^w duplicate collwlioua Oir ila proper illns- 
ntlon, oryt*t ha^c greatly increaftcd the difll- 
jlUea <trtlh.< <>IaHftiGc:it)on of tO[>it« which Mr. 
loodo har; so iihly buwilcd in hi^ scheme. 
'The comparalive method coiihl then, if 
iCfl iicci'Rsary, hare b<H;u rraortcil U> as 
a crowning clfort to show, side by side in a 
single collection, the nllimate aehitvementa 
and rcsutls atlnimil by each rncu, )iow far it 
had been ablo U> lulvRiioe in civitiKatiou, and 
fhftl liifliifUfc. if finy. Us finest work Iind had 
:>n the cxiKtiog i:«ii<lilions of that dviljxa- 
>n. Rucb « anmniary certainly could be so 
ititcti by jndiclonit »«olecliDu as to be brought 
llhin ihv mental gnt^p of thi* intelligent ami 
?nt Btndcnt; whorcna a definite oouocp- 
m of Mr. tiowle's sixty-fotir topics preenp- 



potfca ueQtal powers of a Litauic order. Ill 
fact, the {;ra[>l>ic picture of oivillxalUin which 
Uiey will [Ufi^ent will, from Uieir number and 
mode of arrangement. U> ne(«ssaHly licten^e- 
ncous. — an improrement. no donbt, on general 
notions in being' eoR)|M>Aed of nbjecta insteail of 
individualized mental couccpLlons. but certain* 
ly not capable of glNniig the harmonious eRV'Ct 
which the author aimt^ ut prtxlucing. 

The National museum is. however, to be 
not oDJy the rcprcscatative educational mu- 
seum of this country, btil is aUo to bv coiji- 
bioed with do]>art4uents of research. We have, 
therefore, to consider the probable influence of 
the museum of cclncation and its collections 
ufton the departments of reseapch, bequeathed 
to its care by the (Smithsonian, as well as 
those likely to come under its influence in the 
future. TIk'Sc last collections might. |)«rha[is. 
be safely Icfl to tbcmttclres ; but it must be 
rotuembercd, that, though at praseul secure, 
they will eveutually obey the taw of Rltraction. 
and their curators mnnt begin ininieili:itely to 
tAke an active interest in the collections which 
are to rcprewnt their nehievements before the 
country at large, and the relatione of these de- 
partments to the [irOBpccts of investigators. 

At preseut tJie departments of rcMcarcb and 
tliose of educjitkm are not only under one head, 
but the suhonliuaic olllcvs are ah» united lo 
the same persons. Under these circum^tanci'S. 
we view witli apprehension certain lendeucies. 
which are evident in tiie i>ampblet before us, 
hihI especially tlie prominenetf given to the 
indnstrial sections. Their present mode of 
arrangemeni and ideals do not definitively shut 
out all possibility of co-operation with business : 
on the contrary, if we understand certain pas- 
sages in Mr. Gootle's pamphlet, ihw (ri>-oi>eni- 
tion is invited, and s^mie flrnii» are alrendr 
providing Uic cases with collections of indus- 
trial products. We know that science is not 
the wcikest now in the N.itioual museum, nod 
oar feai-fi will probably highly amuse theotflccni 
of thelpdustrial sections; but ncverthcle-^s, we 
cnnnot sec what is to prevent enterprising lirnis 
from presently finding oat the value of these 
d«))nrtmeiit8 as adrorlising metllnms, and being 



122 




SCIENCE, 



\VoL. 11.. No. 



aggressively' if not successfully generous iu 
supplying their wnnts with expensive gifts, 
accompanied by their lufaintsa-carda. The fer- 
tility of the imagin:iLion in the construction of 
wedges may certainly be counted upon as quite 
equal to the openin*; of any cruoka which may 
present themselves ; and we think it would have 
been far more prudent to recognize and provide 
for these dangers, however remote th 
be considered. 

We are, of course, conscious ttmt tl 
of hands between seitnce and the ind. 
the general drift of tlie tendencies of 
especially in this country. Thn-t this 
vate the industries, we lijive no do 
that it will also elevsiti- \hf. ideals ot 
we do not believe. How wiLl the fl 
rector, however scientilic. avoid the 
of becoming, befor*:- the ^fovernrtienl; 
country, the repree.''ntntivf of great Cuuuxiti- 
cial and industrial questions and interests, 
and be in danger of having his interests and 
his thoughts drawn into the vortex of such 
affairs, to the exclusion and ucglect of the 
purely scientific aims and objects of the mu- 
seum? We do not chiim that this will be sure 
to be the case, but simply that we do not see 
how he can avoid the natural results of his 
position at the head of the great industrial 
museum of the countrj'. 

Mr. Goode's pamphlet also contains other 
matters, which, when viewed in the light given 
by the past history of other museums, show 
the neglect of essential precautions. There is, 
for example, no provision for limiting the ac- 
cumulations of specimens. On the contrary, 
overpowered by the wants of his world-embra- 
cing scheme, he appeals to public-spirited citi- 
zens to come forward and deposit their valuable 
and extensive private collections ; and it is 
especially recommended that the olliccrs, by 
a wise forethought, sliouUi encourage this pro- 
pensity to the utmost. 

Private collections have been made for the 
moat heterogeneous purposes : and it is well 
knowu that their possessors usually demand, in 
I'eturu for their generosity in giving them, that 
they shall be kept together, or have a goodly 



proportion of exhibition space allotted to thera. 
Stich anqualifled aptwala, and the neglect of all 
other precautions ' against the unliQiited acqui- 
sition of materials, are entirely at variance with 
the selective policj' previously announced, and 
a complete surrender of the prindpteB which 
should go vent ii museLim starting with u new 
ideal, and bunt upon nvoidiug the errors of 
-and the unnecessary burdens which Imd 
previously and ti'uthfully described liy 
toode as the greatest obstacles in the path 
S older museums. 

Iocs not require a prophetic eye to see iu 
?ar future, that assisted by the Fiah-coin- 
in, the Geological survey, and other de- 
lents of the government, the busineas 
y and liberality of the Amerietui cltizcu. 
ide, energy', nud influence of the present 
if museum, uncontrolled by any pnideutial 
runsiderations, hjkI fitiimiluteil In* the universal 
field they are required to cover, will heap up 
materials not only faster than they can be han- 
dled, but in such masses that they will become, 
as in older museums, serious obstacles to the 
progress of the museum of education itself, and 
be still more serious in tlieir ell'ects upon the 
museum of research. The resources of the 
National nuiseurn, however great they may be, 
will inevitably find themselves, sooner or later, 
blocked by these accumulations ; and their care 
will occupy the time of the olliccrs in an in- 
creasing ratio. Luckily for science, men in 
such positions have frequeutlj- found them- 
selves unable to resist the suggestive seduc- 
tions of research, and allowed collections to 
suffer while they studied ; hut many, too con- 
scientious to do this, have been sacrificed to 
the mere preservation of materials, whose labors 
would have repaid the daily wages of many 
more lower-class laborers to any civilized gov- 
ernment. Large accumulations, however, not 
only directly discourage the investigator bj- 



' Tliiil wiHre natniiflri'iiivsenlintt Iht: p'pirit of tho rauHcura by 
Uiis remark may hv learned In >f i . OooiiiV own worJa : "The 
cljihhllioaUDU priipoix'ii nliould iiruiidc a |)l:ii;t- for i:%-c?ry objecl 
Iu ejipteiice wliicli it is pmo-iblt- to dencrilie, or whlcb may be 
defiiuimli-'il by n inline- When Uie object ilwelf cunnol be ob- 
tained, Itx plaee ^iboiild be supplied by a model, ]>lclure, or dla- 
s^rum," 



AOQOBT 3, 1683.J 



SCIENCE, 



IJ3 



WMling hits time, but tli«ir iieccuMr; prcservn* 
tian Rtiikes nt k still niorv viUU poiot in Dsiog 
ii|> Tiinda wtiich coiiM otlierwUe tw- c-mployct! 
for Iho jmlilioution otrbe results of roM'&rchos. 
Tl)e,v also equally interfere n'uh tlie pordiase of 
tloUcntt? itiHlnimi'BtB, till- I'liiploymetit of Inbor 
to directly assist in CJirrying out llic |mri)osc8 
of researvli. prevent tlie piirclinac of saeli 
specimens or coItecUonn an inny ha essential, 
riDfi cut oir opportunities for travel and study 
in other museums or pnrts of the worUl. 

We think, therefore, that, while the Nattoiml 
tuuseum itiAy open wiine j^uitiis to the inresti- 
gator, it will neither directly do the vcrj* >v«t 
vork iu tliis dircetjoii. norglrc us noy graoods 
for believing that it will introduce n new era of 
pro9|>rrity for nlistmel inrcstigalion. It will 
add one more to the uscAil ^ciciiLific inetitti* 
tions of its kind, it will nndoubtedly eontribute 
to the prtjgress of scienee by ini-iviieing tlie 
opi«orliinitics for employmout and by the t-x- 
ntnple of il« ollloers ; but it will not do much 
for thptn or for ua in the way of nn exnlted 
ideal. 

If the TDUseatn of ediiCAtion had Wen lim* 
lied by a wise [wHcy of selection in ila ac- 
enmidationit of materials, and placed under a 
distinct stuff, wc could have made no siiuh ob- 
jecUons: tht-n the practical objects of its ex- 
iflt«:ncu woidd not have siiilcrcd, ue they now 
surely will, IVom the psychological tcmlvncies 
of the invesligating curators ; nor, on the other 
hand, would iho invfstiijMlors themselves have 
been distracted by ha'ting a double purpose 
In all that tiiey were doing, and frequently 
obliged to sacrifice one or the other. We do 
one wish to imply Uiat the muHtiums shouhl 
not be under one general bcod, and have all 
tbe bcnoilts of mutual association, but simply 
Intti.Ht that the ideaU are ((uitc distinct, nnd 
tiiu ollicerii should rL-ulize tills by being under 
different regulHlions, and under a different gov- 
omnipni., in vneb of the two miiHt'umn. The 
investigator cjinnot avoid placing on t'xhibiiion 
ihc record of bis own and others' work ; and 
be will Gtiil n thouiULml good reasons for crowd- 
ing the eoseif with line collections, beeuuse they 
Mv fine, nod because they aru imiwrtuni in 



rfrMaroh, or unique, or remarkable : and Ihe 
eduutlionnl idea will bo subortlinfttfi or com- 
pletely lost ill <inch parts of the nntiwnm, »o 
fur Hi the nveragi- student la coneemed. 

The co«t of the museum will he enonnons ; 
but if ita Icsiwna can l>c easily mastered by 
tlie average student, and m this ensc the 
student Is the avcmge congressman, he will 
not begrudge tlie fUmla whieh are niH-t>seary 
for ilK 8up[iurt. It uuiNt be i-emcnibored that 
thefw arc keen men, (piiek (o see the advan- 
tages of such lessons as the mn»eum can tsMcli 
tbera ; especially if, like tht- library, it can 
make itself realty n<wful to tliem, and kecji np 
with the times by Jlluatrntiug the new results 
of discovery and re^^earch in all departments 
of learning in an explnnntiiri' luul |K>pu]ar way. 
Wc ituiiginc tliat they will not be slow in call- 
ing upon the ofHecrs of the museum whenever 
tbey have need of their eerrlces, and that tbuy 
will be rntlier disgusted if any of the require- 
ments of researeli interfere with Uieir desire for 
tiiform»tion. 

While wi- wish the greatest sncocss to the 
National museum nnd its energetic and de- 
servedly popidnr dipcctor. and have the high- 
f'At i-espect and friendliest feeling towurds 
their nndcrtntnng. and a faith that thoy will 
finally work out a Twlter result than is jjrom- 
ised, Wc think that nvilhttr this faith nur their 
great scientific achievements, of which we are 
justly proud, nor the liberality of the govern- 
ment, can entirely make op for the abst-nce of 
the public recognition of a more purely scien- 
tific tdt>al in our National moaoum. 



KISETIC CONSIDKUATIONS AS TO THE 
NATVRR OF THE ATOMIC MOTIONS 
WHICH I'HOBABl.Y ORtOlSATB RA- 

MATWNS^^U. 

Having now sufUdently cleared the Held of 
iminiry by this preliminary discussion, let us 
consider the pro)Xr4t>() hypothesis aomewhat 
mure closely, both as lo what it is prt-clst-ly. 
and ii(^ Iu lion* far it is in accDitlance wilh the 
phenomena, 'llic whole outcume of l^ockyer's 
In vcRtig.n lions, lo whirb wo have relVrred, 
leads to the conclusion that ntnmhoflliu chemi- 
cal dements are complex liodics, all of which 

I Concluilwl ftais No. 34. Rr* •!■> /Vor. <M(u nMcA. bu<.« 11. SS. 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou II.. No. 



urc rortncil of ulliinnte ntora» or tbc same kiixl ; 
so that, on tliiK Ikvpolhvais, there is but one kind 
of iubsUnce ft'orii wliirli »ll otliein ate com- 
pouudwl. Cli^inirnl nloniA might Wcompsrt^l 
lo a cblme of l>elltt all nul frotn tb^ »iatne ma- 
tetial, but i!a<.-li liaving it« onit H)>ccial aeries of 
bannonic vibnttionn. 

A iHiceMarv rusiilt Quniiig frum Ihi* lijpotli- 
esfH would Ix', UiHt tUu fiLuuiiu nuigbls stiutikl 
all Iw exayl i]iaUi|iI«K 'jC sgme fracUnn of the 
atooiii; wi^igbi of bydi-ogcn, whU-b would in- 
clude Pruiit'g bj-pothi'sis as a pnrtipulfir cntie. 
Thi' expprimeutal data iire, i>erUuiH. not yet 
sitHidciitly prccifto to eoublc oi to obtain n 
Irnstworihy result as to tlic probability of the 
trntb of rroiil's byiioihesia; yot Clarke'*' ro- 
sults an to the ntomtc- wri)i;bt.« aet^in to nbon 
tiiat the hvpotboHis bus a liifjii degrve of probn- 
blUty. 

If th« cheioiad ntotnfl of itll Itodies nre As- 
sumed to b*- formed of uitini.it.n niotns, wliioh are 
in all reA|)t>('U equal xixi iiliki-, this bypotliMis 
fVirnishc* ii basis for invest tfjatiun sit uiiw «k-fi. 
iiite Hud siuipk-, suiiiv of ivhovv ooa»c<j(iuni'v8 
wv shall now timU-»vor to show to be in ac* 
cwdnuct! with exiwriuioutal factb. 

Wo wish, in tbe firet place, to show tbat tltla 
bypolhcsis itill mnko the tcmiwniUire. of n gas 
proportional lo its iucaii kinetic encf^v. A 
chemical atom may bo assurnod to Ik- a per- 
fectly elatttic botly, an it» dcfurmnlion Is as- 
siimrd to be cxtn-nifly »m&II. But arcorditif? 
to tbo niatli^nintic'd ihfory nf olasliu impact,' 
•* when two snch bo<lii''S come inlo rolllftion. 
•omctimes with gn'rtlfr ami sometimes with 
leas mntnal velocity, but with other circiiin- 
Atances similar, tlie volocilies of all particW» 
of either botiy at oorre^poiidiu^ limea of the 
impacts will aliTays lie in the Hiime propor- 
tion ; '* frum which it is clear, that in a mix- 
ture of two kinds of gas, as hydrogen and 
ox>'g«n for example, when tbc mvan velocity 
of th<> motcOulcs is so increased that the vibra- 
tion of the ultimate atoms of the hydrogen is 
incrpaaed a witaiii per cent, then that of the 
ultimate atoias of the osygeii i« increaswl by 
the eame [ler (rent. But thi' cin-unititarinea 
of the cni-niiriterH and the fon-on ai-ting bo- 
iwdin the nlitmale niok'irulca deti^rniint! what. 
(Vactioii the mean kinetic energy of vibration 
of the ultimate atoms shall be of that of the 
molecules whose encounters cause these vibni'. 
tions. Since the ctrcumataDccs attending tlic 
enoounten are dcpondont simply upon tho 
forces acting between tho ultimate atoms as- 

■ (\tiMtMiU of uniitra. MUi V. A rocaloiilftlloa o( Ibc •UmbIf 
odIkIuii. U'MlilnxUiB, IRQ. 

< 'DinniMMi nail Tall'* Knlunl f MtoMpby, IMT, •rl. M. 



anmed to lie in all rrAjHicta equal, (In; energy 
of their vibraU6(i will Itc the same In nn atom 
of hyrlrogen ad it I* in an atom of oxyv'^ti ; for 
«ach def{re« of fi-eeilora of every al'i ' ni 

of either element in siniilarlv clr. ■ I. 

lioth A8 reganlit fort-es li«'ti% utltor 

ultimutu atomic of the sann ;t, atwl 

alt»o K8 r\'i|;iir(lK tlio iiupnets uroiiicr moltK^iilea. 
The projiuaiLion •>( the kiuetic llieorv vrbirh 
makes the energj' uf encli degree r»|' frwilom 
the «uitn<'. which ban been ermneiMisly applied 
to the de^rt'cs of frewlom of molecndes, cnn 
therefore be correctly applied u> the ultimate 
■toma. 

But it might oot, at first glance, fac apparent 
whether IhcHC vibratioim are caused by, and 
are proportional to, itie mean progressive 
emir^v of tho molL'<iules. or to their rotary 
ettrrgy combinei) with it. Bui it is not dif- 
ficidl to show that tho vibralion-'t of the ctieral- 
eal Atoms with m^ijieot to each niher are pro- 
jtortioual to the moan pi'iipressive energy alone, 
:uid then to ithow the itnuie for the ultimate 
atoms. Although, in the paper npou ttw 
vibratory motioun of atoms within Uic mole- 
cule, we have for mathematical purposes eOn- 
sidered the eeuU'ifugnl force as causing vibra- 
tions of atoms with respect to each other, rat 
in fact the vibrations so caused jiro vanishing 
(juantities, cuinpared \vith Uio^e caused by the 
comiMjuent of the impulaivc force acting iluiing 
an encounter alon<,' llif line Joining the atoms 
of a niol<!culo. The m.igiitlndrof «nch n vibm- 
tlou, other things boing erjual, depends upon 
the stid<leiiness of the impuUc ; and the siid> 
(lenneMs of the force railed into ptay during 
a chatige of rotary velonty. by deviation from 
motioti in a tangent tOatno'tiou in a circle, can 
bear no comparison to tliu suddonneas of a 
direct impulse along the radius of the cjrelv. 
Hence the direct impulse due lo the progtva- 
sire motion ne«l alone be considered. 

It tbu» appears that the energy of vibration 
of chemical atoms with respect to each other 
Id a simple gas is pro[)ortiunal to its mean 
progressive encrgj-. The same is true of the 
vibrations, with rcttpeet lo eucli oilier, of tlic 
ultimate atoms tsbicb form a i-hendr;ai atom, 
anil for tbc same reaeonH ; for the fonvs which 
net uix)n the ultimate atomH are the impnisea 
due to tbc eniHinntcrs of other molecules, and 
those due to the remaining chemical atoms of 
the same molecule. The euctgy* of tbc Latter 
of these motions is propoitiooal to the fonucr, 
Oi has just hccu shown ; he^ce their sum is so 
aUo: Ilierefore the encrgi' exerted to deform 
n chemical molecule, and set it iu vibniLion, is 
proportional to the mean progressive en^rg}-. 





SCIEKCE, 



Bnt ti is to bd Doticed thiiL tJip- im|Milri(!s 
tint! to the rihrniioiM of the rhomimi ntotnH 
within a moloculo are vnstly more fttKiiiPnt 
than tlic molecular impiitMs; And it Apponrs 
prnbablu that the ribrntlona of the clicmicnl 
ntonu st>t lip during ttn encounter will i-flpidly 
decay, ci'eii in i-iaw ihey do not thfia«?Ives 
difL-otly oti^iuate ratlintions. Tbe vibratory 
energy or tbis kiud msy tlieu \w ohiin^l 
aImot4t iiistantJy into that of viljration of the 
idtimatv atums. 

Accordiii}; to llio liyiwtlie^ia whifih we ure 
now con'ililrriiig, the tfiii[MTatiirc of tbe body 
and llic iritfliiNUy ul' the ntdiatioii dvp<Mid smjIcK 
0U tile viliralory eiiergy of tbp iiltiiniite atoms : 
but, since Un'se iilllniaU* atums are aKsnnied lo 
b« in all resiM'cl-s I'ljual, Uiey vibratti under the 
action of the samp, forces, and havn thi- wiine 
d«}»Pe«3 of freedom und coiiatmiiil within the 
rh<-mica1 Atoms of one clement ns they do 
nitluii tho5)i- of a ditrerent element. Hence 
jt :ip[)p:ir:4. thul if tbe ultimate atom» of two 
litfi'if nt gast«i hsve ihc samt- vibrator)* ericr^ 
(i.e.. r^nUM? vilirnlions of Ibe Hiime intensity). 
«o thai tbe flow of radimit etier^jy is the same 
fruiti ail Ibo ultinntte »tuui« of vavU gas, then 
there will be uo distnrbuucu of this e<iniltl>. 
riuni when tliese ga^^es are mixed : in which 
case tho dislrilmtion of euenjj' in eire<'t«d by 
molceuJnr encounters, which distrilwte equal 
jean amounts of energy lo earb niulm-iile, iii- 
pad of bj radiations, which distribute etjual 
mean amounts of energy' to each utliiniit« aUmi. 
In ait4<iii|iting lo aecount for the hi^li sjterilie 
heat of lii|i)ids, I have elsewhere jjiveii i-casoii'* 
for supjKisiny; thfit it ii due to a ccrUiiii (ter 
<vnr nf disiutciation, which increases with the 
tciii|iernt:uro. It ap|teara probable, thai, al- 
l-hou^h floine smnll amount of dissociation may 
•>jci«t in gnse^ also, there i.<t not so 1ar){e a per 
wnt (u in the liquid state, nor does the ijor 
cent neceuaarily incn^ste wilb the temperature ; 
for by rcjwon of tho free progri^9si»*e motion in 
:* gau. which does not c.\i*t in a liquid, jiny 
lisaoeiiiteil atumit hH\e u much better op|K>rtu- 
Itty to recuiubilie ; an-l, a^be velix-ltic* (e»|>e- 
lally thos*' of free iitonis) increase with the 
rmpeninire. thew opportunities increase, an 
ipII ac the number of dissociations occurrinj; 
In a unit of timv ; so that, at a high temgx-ra- 
ture. an atom of gas may not tttay diasociuted 
so long aft at a lower tem)ierature. while iu a 
Uqnid thin interval will not be sensibly atfected 
bj' Uiei temperatnrc. 

It la thought thai tlie law of iMilong and 
Fetit reeettoii rea^toimble explanntiou on the 
-i^ that the ultimato atoms have each 
kitietic energy at. the 4ame temper- 



ature, as will Im i^iown in a aubgcqueot paper; 
but perhai« the atningost direct evidence in 
favor of tbe projwsed liyiwtlicais !«t found in thu 
fact that eren the simplest elements, such aa 
hydrogen or mercury, have spenlra of several 
lines at leaat, ftbowing that the .tnurut; of the 
light miiAt be sulHciontly c<:imp1ex to Iw able lo 
vibrate in a number of diJferent wny«, such aa 
may well Ix- pudsiltle for an atom forme>l of a 
Dumber of ultimitl)' nluiua, but such as ia iu- 
concciriible iu a molecule conuisting of one or 
two perfectly hard atoms. U. T. Knur. 



THE NATIONAL RAILWAY EXPOS!- 

Tioy.i — iv. 

Tiia exhibit of locomotives was remarkably 

coniplete, and oomprtsed engines differing 
widely in 8ize and power, and adapted for ever,\ 
variety of work ; Imt a certain uniformity of 
the design of the main features would *e«m 
to indicate tlial locomotive practice haa settled 
down into a certain groove. an<l that tin- mcth- 
odt« of iwnstrnction now ado|>te<l are so aatift- 
faelory that few exhibiters proiKwe to greatly 
improve upon them by any radical nltoration^. 
though one or two of these new departures, 
such OS the AVootten flrobox and the Stevens 
valvc-grjir, seem likely to oomo into extensive 
use. 

Tbe main tentlcncy of locomotive design 
%eems iij r»in rather in the direction of lai;ger 
bearing surfaces ami stronger working parts 
than iu any novel nietbiHla of ronsiruotion : 
while ))ound and nrciiratc workmanship, and 
plenty of goo<l mulerial indiciously distributed. 
are relied on to make n loooniolive durable. 
Uarii- working, and tiuxlworthy under trj-ing 
conditions. 

iU: v.. Shay of llaring. Micb., exhibits a 
tnodol of an engine of [teouliar eou$trtietiou for 
' logging" purposes. These small railways are 
p-jceewlingly ligbi in <ron«t ruction, and Ifie rails 
and ties are generally laid directly un the BUr- 
fai.v of tbe ground, without any great attention 
being paid Iu preliminary grading or align- 
ment : and iheri'forii a hiiitable locomotive must 
unite considerable tractive |M>wer with great 
dexibiitty of wbccl-baau, and a small weight, 
on any one pair of wheeU. Mr. Slu^v aeoom- 
plishcs this by using a Forney type of looc>- 
inotive. having a pairof drivers under the barrel 
of Uie boiler, and » four-wheel truck, carrying 
the tank and fuel, liehiud the firebox. All the 
wheels being made of the same dfam.'-ler, a pair 
of vertical engines ure secured lo one side qf 
the firebox, working a longitudinal shaft whldb 

■ CaHlltiBvl trvm >fo, tA. 



126 



SCIIiXCE. 



|Vnu 11^ Ko. m. 



jTmr-^A 



.„,,.(>:■« 



LnMitira loeoMms wtrm «z*v>d »Ri«iiNi-<rMireu. 



runs Ik!«hIv tbe wlit^eU. Hevel pinions uu 
tliis slitiO i'ligagc hevel irheeU on Ibe biib» of 
tlie wlicebt. and, as the sbaA in provided with 
iiulverettl mnd tuleat-opic joints, liie wbolc of 
t))Q wlicclu eiii) ))c driven siioulUi)bously. uu 
mtttlcr how sliorp Ui« eun'« over winch the 
utigltic may Iki rutiiiiu<;; and, nwitig to the 
interposition of jp-'i^ring. rt>mpHrativelv amall- 
siseil cylindfirs arc sulllclent to enable the 
eagioe to haul ver^' lienv-jr totvis, and yet run 
Biifllcu-nl.ly tnst. for the nAtnro of tJie worfa. 

Mr. Shny informs as that nearly n liiuidreil 
of tbcso ouginoB nre nt work. »oidc on wooden 
rails, and thHt they »rv ((iviiiy; great HHtisfni-- 
tioQ. The modtf of driving npix'tirs to be 
novel, ami. despite some complexity, is fi-w 
IVoni many of Ih*' disndrnntagcti of the Fairlie 



syvtom, which also utilizw the adbe«ion of 
rudiatiug lutles. 

Messrs. II. K. Porter & Co. of PiUsilmi^;!!. 
Pcnn.. also t-xhibit nn engine KpeciuUy adapted 
for lofjglng rsiilways. Ordinuvy inethiKls of 
roustruciion arc. hnwvver, followed ; and tha 
roU40f]urnt jmratt-r simplicity i» of grcjil iwl- 
vsntjige whtTt' ihe work for a fi-w nionrha U\ 
the yc«r is vt-ry severe, and no n^pair-shoiw 
are sitnnied witliin convenient distance. The 
engine cxbthited is of tJic followini; dimeo- 
sioiis. and is calculated to work safely on M. 
rail weighing only thirty pounds per yani:— 

CylhiderB. il!amet«r and stroke . 10 In. X |A In. 

|lriviii5-wlii!el», diameter 36 In, 

Truck' w hue U, diameter 88 I: 

Itk^Kl wliecl, b&so !jtui 



JOHN C: CUBCIK 



■ilfflW^ 



-;.D.8c?;.W.R R 



't 



i.(H«ii«) UKsiaorfTE tiaiamw kt U. K. roimia Jt Co. 



AntVH- .^ \9SA.\ 



SCIENCE. 



1'27 



Tout vhml IwM .... . IS n. 4 in. 

Welgbl In wnriclne nr<t>ir . :tl .IXJO Ihs. 

W«li!l)l OH driven.' i!fl.Ouu lU. 

Wat<ir4:apaclly at Uuilt MU gollotia. 

Mesara. Porter state llist a siuilar engjoe, 
forking (inv xml oigtil ou n road 1 1 loilea lu 

»)gih, wUii ^'hkIi's or >tA TeH ]H.>r milt!, bos 

in>Uc<] :t.v(i.(iuo firfi of lo^'s In ii liCMiK, ruu- 
niti)^ alkoiit \H{t luilctt in tlmt Liuic. 

Tin- fu;?;!!!; t-xliil>iti'il i» wftll (Ip-BLigncd, and 
lUi! H0rkin.-)ii7>)iip is fully vqasil' u> thai on a 
t1 mt-i.-his!. n)»ir)-iinr cn;;iuc. 

Tbc t'ook"' liKioiiiotiv© works of J'nieraoii, 
N..I.. <?xbil'it an I'ugiiie for tho .SoiUh*«rn 
pHciflc milroad wbieb is twlievt'd to In* tUo 
largi'e>(. locuuiotive in the world, tbo cvliiiders 
being ^0 iiK.-lit^» diAjnuter In no Ivb» ib&n flO 
iuu'lifs Klivku. Tlic di>sij^ii*<r uf IhM eiigii)«, 
Mr. N. I. Sluvcnij. goiii-nil muster mecbatiio 
uf Ui<.' CunUiil I'nuillc railitMid, i?. bunevvr, 
Ltitiildiiig a »lill lfirp[<;r fn<:ii)o nt the c<)m)JUQ\ '» 

iIio|w at SjKTanifiilo, <_'!il.. the i-ylirMlprs of 

rliich mpa-iin- 'il inulicK hy oii iiiclii-e. Thi" 

itfKt ili'vcloimu-nt will t>:ii>rt n tnu'ilve fortv 
of i'H |tiiiiiid'4 for evc-ry ]K}nnd [H>r f^qnare iiidi 
avi'1-af.'L' pri-3siir»' on tin- pi'^lona ; lliat is to «ay, 
wltii nn average jtrfAttun' on Llie pistons of H>0 
jioimdit prr squn-re int-ii throughout the r^U'okt', 
this en^iic wDiikt exert a Irftclive force or 
pull of :i7,«l)M poiiDd», 1b'*s IJie intf mitt friction 
of the working- purls of the oiiyine. WhetlK-r 
the avernge drawbar of Hie avt^ntye freijiltt- 
car is eapabk* of safely standing sneli a Hlruin 
a quL-Btioii which experience will pi-(jba)i|y 

jlve in a liiivction unfavorable to weak draw- 
Apart from their iinmen!*e eize. these 

igloca are inteivniiiig as iictrig litted with n 
novel form of valve-molion. Thi- engiue ex- 
hiUtetl has four slidc-valvi'i* to each cyhnder. 
two main valveii, and two riding cut-olf valves. 
An excellent diagram Ea obtained, the cat-olf 
beinir sharp, and the itoinprcKBion very alight ; 
and the <7pnr ftoeriLS well ndapteil to u slow-run- 
ning freighl-enpne. In (he later and laiyer 
engine, but two valves arc einploye<l, and lint 
one eccentric : motion being taken from thi^ 
engine en.MF,bead. The re!inlt« of this simplfr 
[ear pntuiitu' to b^; equiiU}r good) and the liinl- 

ip uf tliis oii^'ine vrlll be looked forward to 

ritti greut iiiLi'U'sl. 

Tli« tiranl b>eu»ioiive works tire ihe makers 

of the only **iii:ine whieh depart.* n-oni Ibo 

sober 6uit of black in which its eoiiiix-'titoiti are 

|jumyetl i and (\iithei- examinaliou show? that 

pocidinrittes are not contiued to the outsidil! 

Ippcanitiup, but extend to the IVivI lo be used, 

rbioh is entirelv novel iu chamcior. The. iu- 



veutor. [>r. Hulluial. pro|)aaett lo raise steuii 
by tnenux of the uomlHifition of demmpoeed 
water. The heat cvolve<l liy burning uapbtbi 
it! nai'd to H(!|»irate l,he oxygen and hydrogen 
in Buperheated steam; and. the airbon of the 
iniphihn kindly uniting with the oxrg«n tlnm 
s^'t fwe. the hydrogen is burnt by means of 
oxygen obtained t'Pom atmospheric air. Tlu- 
iuventor states th.'it llie only puMJucts of this 
combnscion are carbonic acid ami water, the 
nitrogen dtHiLpjM-ariiig in some niyalcri»ns man- 
ner iujI yet fnlly understood. The old fallac)' 
thai water con be deoomposeil and then r«- 
imited, with a jmHitive advantage as regania 
heat, is here again illustrnted : while the strong 
smt^U of bnrning imphtha during Ihe trial of the 
uDgiiie ill the e\[iosiLioii imlieate^l that this 
convenient auxiliary waa nse^l to a cuDsidarablv 
and probably wastef^il cxU'nt. 



a*^ pjy«f Si ■ 



€hrmf:rmt S' 



Im>iC4TuK nunKAiu outjuxkii ux ixtniMonri airuT at 

The Fbiladolphin and Reading raitroRd ox- 
Iiibit u fast paaecoger-engine litted with Wool- 
lena' patent Brebox, which is aUapied to burn 
any wasu- or inferior nuality of fuel. He- 
vcrHing the uflmd pr.ictice ou loiftmoiives. tlie 
comlninUon on tlii> engine is hIow. owing to Uie 
cnormou.-i area of ihe grat« (T2 stpian^ f''et)» 
instead of a xnintl one (lt> or 17 H(|ii:ire. feet), 
while thcbln»t is nm severe, and the Hre is one- 
third the usual Ihickne^t^ (4 inuliea insteail of 
10 or \'i inches) ; the result lieing a l«s(i vivid 
combuation, the interior of the fire-box being 
dull red iu place of tlie whilv beat usual when 



UB 



SCIENCE. 



IVoL. IL, Ko. M. 



» [oc(iniotiv<< \9 at work. Trints tit Thlciigo 
M>i<me<l lo inillcnut thai tb** engine wm wpa- 

lilo iirmiiint«iiiing siciini with mnKMt hny klmt 
•if tac], ntu\ Umt ilit> llgnitt !ii).| inferior coal 
of till- new norih-m-sl, which often conuiiits 
• •rily tliirty-flvc pt-r o-nt of carlion, <-au there- 
fore he uliltxr'd iimlcr locon)i>tivt>». 

Tilt' aIow cotnhiiiition doi^s not pt^xlnoc a heal 
intense ctnoil^h tu HtH*' Itiv -Iri^. :uii| lhfn>riirf 
the tircbim kvof^r ek-uii and fivi* fivm lOiiikcr; 
iind it Dcixl liaitlly bt (joint*-*! oul llmt this ia 
:in im|K>i-tant [jruutical emisidi- ration io ilciil- 
iug wttli Aid whioh containK ovi-r firiy |)cr cent 
of ash. 

Tho hug*! graU> nn>n ie ohtainiHl In' ptni^ng 
Lhc Gru anil prati^ Ikith c<>inph>l<>ly ovpr the 
(Iriviiig-wlici-ls. wlii-i-p |»li>nt_v of width is ob- 
LitinuhU- : iimt tlic firv))ox is accui-dingly made 
■111 less then s feel wide iafttdc, inslcnd of the 
u»nnl :iA inches. It niivht bo niitieiputt'd llint 
Uie increased height of tho centre of gravity 
wouhi tend to rnnko the cnfjine unsteady at a 
)iigh spee^l ; but a prouiselv oi>|»o*ito rewdt is 
oblAinetl. lu the engine rideii with reimirkuble 
4lendincss and ainooLhn('<)ft, even at llir higlie.it 

M[iOfd«. 

'I1ia Shnw engine hiw been »o orteo de- 
Kmbi-d, and been «o pioininenUy i'eforw the 
]nibliu, Ihul it if otify necessary to e»y here. 
Ihul, thungh exhil.>Ued at the (.'hii-ago expoui- 
lion, want of lime |>n.'veute<l any |m>|>cr suiun- 
tifie terttti bring made to iiscerliiin the real vuhu- 
iif tJie invention. 



UVTAI.UO PAiKtUil IruM PlBtAM-KOJIK. 

Vtuiotis forms of niulallic paiikiiig for t>i8ton- 

rotlB arc now being picteiisivoly Uited with ex- 
excellcDt result-*, the weai' of both nwl mtd 
[lacking l*eing very slight, while iJie tiso of anti- 



n-ielfon metal obvialeii the (ye<|uenr ronrwAls 
nfo«;f.*ary with boraji, ndph*T. and otbi-r pniJt- 
ings whieh an' dentroiert by besi iian 

by wear. In the packing which " ilo, 

l»rni-ifliun ia made fur any innminK-y in lliling 
i>y allowing the pieton-nx.! some [ilay in tho 
Htnlllng-lHix : the vibrating eup. 4, elidin^r on 
thf ball and socket ring, a. As the pactlug 
ringi* are prt-sso'l Io their work hy a spring. U 
i.s ini|ioHKible for a carcleas engineer to scrcir 
hiK ]Micking loo tight, or to make It ttear oa 
one side only of the rod. 



T" butler. 



Bavuliuag 



«lBllhlnl^> 






The Nftllonal Inbo-worku of Boalon. Mnsa.. 
exliibite<l an liijtetor at work, whirh noBsoased 
^*unie (KiintA of novelty, and ftppean-d to he well 
minj>t«l for use on locomotives working with 
bad water. The very (m-X thai a simple ar< 
mngviDent of hollow eonex fan enable stMm 
to Ua and force walvr into a l»«iler working at 
the same prv»»ure ix in irself n remarkable 
pnnidyx ; but Mack's injeetor. as hhown at 
work in Itn- exfKisiliun. fortt-d a email i(nautity 
of water into a boiler working at two hundred 
[>ounds [HT R<[URr<' iriHi wht-n thi' iujeetor itseif 
was only ^npitiicl with steam of hiilf that (itvas* 
ure. The npjinratus wuh ho arranged that 
the qnanlily of water foiveil against diiferent 
lK)ller-pr»-ssures by the same preHKiire of «teain 
conld he rcaidily giuigwt : and Lhe results were 
int«restlng as showing what a large raiigu of 
work ean Ik* performeil by an apjiaraluw which 
has no moving part«. The injei-tor in made 
it) severnl pieces, bo that it mn lie readily 
rjiken apart, ami elcam-d of seale dct»o»it«-d by 
hard or liuie ivater. When the iujeetor te 
start*?.!, the water ift lifted by means of a Jet of 
(fleam, wbieb niBliefl through a vciT Ibio holo 
running lungilndinally Ihiwugh the <rchtiT *pli>- 
dle ; the injector Iktouiiv:^ l\ill of water, which 
oscaiws at the overflfiw ; the ivgulaluig A]>indle 
is theD serewu".! back, and llw large volume 
of steam thuN adniSlle*! Ix ixjrKlenited by th« 
water already in the injeeltir. mhigl«» with lti 
and the momenluiu of the ntiiim due to tts 
great vcloeitj- (jwjme five lh(»UK:md feel p«r 
minute) drives the i»mlrincd sleiim ami watnr 
into the boiler. 



AtTADrr .t. I8SI ] 



SCIF.XCK. 



Via 



rUE JSTEHSATinSAL ri^IIEIilES EX- 
IHUlTloy.— ruiHO i'AfElt. 

Ik oight weeks over ftcvon hundred Ihonsand 

pCf%oil9 hnvo vi«jlltMl tho oxhibition : nnd lUen* 

are uo digiiK of niiy liucrcupto in tlif dailvntloinl; 

:iii<T. wliiHi a\fni4,'i!ri from twelve tliousttiHi to 

cijjhlecn tlit>u<uiud. cxr«?|il on Wediicsdovs. 

rheii. the firico ofiutiinFisiou being half n crowu 

'fnstefuj of one tihiltiii^, the nnmber is only 

atioiil, linir A8 grent. Wherever one trnvcU 

l)y piilint- conveyiitice, some of his neighbors 

iti tllc car or th«> oiniiibn^ nrc nlwrna IaiU-ii 

^itb thb po(ui<!!roi)e bUiv pHtnUiKix^ of thi^ rx> 

libitiou. [A>Ddo)i i» thoroughly permcaU'd by 

iiiltfrCHt ill fifth and fisbi-rifn. On Siiiidfiy 

fell 11 desire for a fluiiifiw "(" lopic, and soujjbt 

je under Uiv dome of St. I'huI's: but tht- 

UOn of WorcosUT, wlio oflleialfd nt the 

:«vrviuv. prenohed n serinoD on tliu lulraciilous 

dmiight of fit^he^. 

Sinco the middle of July Um galleries huvi^ 
bren lighted by clfKitricity until ten o'clock. 
The rennlt has been ver^' aattsfuetor}', the 
illnnitiiiition in mnnr cusbh ti«ing nior<- etl'ec- 
tivt! than thnt by Aunlight. The nruioyance of 
henvy Bhndnvrs is nvoidtt] by tJii* imf of s tai^e 
niiml)er of liiniptii. All the printMiNtl HyHlftne 
^bfing reprosfiiKsi. there i»an excellent iii>jK»r- 
loily for coin|*ari8on. Tho following \i l.lie 
offlcial dislrihulion of the electric ligbliiig of 
ihv exbihilion : — 



lli-d ihni n foiv large nrc-lutapB one prtilerabk' 
ton great onuilwr uf small ones. Th** light 
AOems softer, more )>owerfHl, and more evenly 
diirused. in a room like the mnio gollery as- 
Hi^ned to thi' Tnited States, wliere there are 
six lumiM in u room lirty by & huudrcd and 
Torly fet'l, nt ii diainnoe uf perlmii») fifteen feet 
from the flour, thnn br a <»y(ttcin like Lhut In 
the riritii*h st^ii-flaheij gallery, whrre the tivi'lv« 
hiindrv«l Swmii incandesrent lani|w are used 
■ to demonstmte tlio i)(>MibiHty of lighting lu-ge 
art<ni«by inoundeM^encv,'Mt)ieol)li-i«Iciitakigiie 
italva. Thirty lightjt of Ihe (iillcher or K4- 
rnnud* iNitLertia would give h niil<-b Iwtler vffevt 
ill thi-s grp.it Khe<l. eight bun<lred mtd forty by 
llfty feet in dimeiwion. The eflVet of a large 
uiimbet of ii)(-andeM.-eiil lumptt di8]X>!4eil along 
the roof of n room iu every dirwtion tn very 
iH'Wildering : Ihey detnict the attention, ami 
give one the feeling tliiit a long stay will be 
sure to rei^iilt in a headuehe. In the Chinese 
court tlie CrookeB hi candescent lanips are utjed, 
each su^peiKlotl under a bhadc of brightly- 
colored glares : the gi^neral olfitct \» rnlh<!r 
pretty, but the ooUeciionft are scareel]' din- 
cemible. 

My obarrviiiionrt »t the exhibltiiut have Iwen 
•■nnflrined by- what. I sarr at the lloyal college 
<)f surgeons at the eonversn/ione rei?eii(ly given 
by the president nitd L.i'ly \VelU. The uniseuni 
wjia perfeelly lighted I'y hIxmU <iix arc-lnnips 
in each uf iU apaetons halla. The nrc-light-s. 



1. finnvli* Itroitivt* anit oiini|ia«ir (llMilicill 
1. 8WBfl BDIta-d n>Tn|«»V lUoillnl) . _ . . . 
n, tllltvlwralwirit- %)>) luinpany Oi«*l^l'' 

4. JUatiHe-IUItt •ui'^ly MiBpanr (llmli«tl> . ■ 
t. AmMitl. Ttmnd'""!. ■»"' I*-" 

T, tii*ili-> i'-\i 

5. JstrliMlilufl tli'Tirtf >ltf» oompHny 'liinlKMi 



. .ml 0»<K» 



I lai'-lleliU. n,n()U-<'jii.ilii'|>'iw. (. 

;-i lii.',.r..t.-....-il , - ■ , 

' II Wiiir*, H''. . t<<ri T'l. 11 II r .. < -il •'-•1. 

' 'I f^V'*" ' 

I >>r«!.j Ui.lM.'.J»« ' ■*"" 

n»t. nnirt«. ... '. . . :','"' 

I ■ I iiir ;..•> 

) ' ■ .%fln«mt 

, <•<■-%> I'.rititlo \ . , ■- 

■ ....... .'■n i.n- 'i((,U 

i.-r ..... '■ ail'. iri^-llKliu iwi otMt. 

-•(4]vra»l lliivan' vMUfciilc, .«i Iiiniit-t..«».tit Unfit. 

■" I 

ill ' 

iijj I . . ... SK ■fr-taini-i f lj-i'rr>. 

-, H-Ijtniii 1 

I '■•.«■;,] . . . ■■•liMiiiH iJiililuiLki'ffj. 

''•oil liar* bwiiM f !«*), 

I ('....pl ■r ■-:..!. •i.i-| , *ar>- Imhi|i* inVrril»iiH»iHi|. 

I •'<"^';«'"*>^f»'-«h'""««'«"W ( »,,n-W,,.,n....-fc).K 

-.'..','.'.'.'.'.'. 34- 

W I' 

» itirrc-rvMi pAtuuf iln' I \n' >ii F>i|H of ««. 

I uuJIJhitf. .... .1 tki>u^iikij.:U)(. 



I havi^ been |>nrtirularly interested in slndy- 
ig iliL- :>■'■ i'v of the various llght-s to 

IUM.-UIII I I , ' luu) am Ihoroiighl.v sjills- 



loo, are used Jo the art tnuB^um at South Ken* 
singloQ with very excrllent ertcct : six oftlicni 
Nceompllabiug what is done, uo more ctfoetiveh 



130 




SCIEXCE, 



IVoi- II.. Xu. 9S. 



though i>crliA|>8 more agroeabk, in a boJl of 
tlie name size bv nlxjul two tiiimlrcrl gas-jcts. 
The e.\|M;nse of li^Iuing some twtntv balls by 
gas in this gciieroun iiiikniier mudt l>e largreat>er 
than bv elcctriciti . 

On ihe IHtli of Juno the International (Ubery 
conference began its sessions in tli^e <x>n6ur- 
vatorv of the Uoval horticultHi-nl society- iid- 
joining the cxhiliitLoii g:illej*if». Meetings 
have since been hi'lrl evi-ry thiy <.-x».i,'pl Wednes- 
days and Satnrdiiis. 'TUf iuailgui 
was di'Iivered by Professor lIuxJc^ 
an admirable intn^lui^tioti to tlie pii| 
were to follow. First rePening t' 
tiquity of fisiieriL'S ncid theif indu 
the history of mnii, he s[ioke iit 8& 
of the fisiienes of the PhoenirianB, Uli 
and tlie early Uritoria. Instistiag 
importance of fisla na food, lif nex 
tlie '{uestioii. ' Ar(> th*- lislierics db 
and, after tacitly hdiuiitiiig thnt ctrtal 
may be dewtroyt.l, nt-Hl on to de 
enormous abiind;iii(;e of oocit, m&cli 
rings, and sardiiivs, ami to t^x|tre» 
belief that their DumlKTs cnnnot be enec[>ea 
by human agency. lie concluded with a very 
strong condemnjilioii of iiniu'cessary Ipgis- 
lalion. 

U|>oii this occasion the Prince of Wales 
presided, anc] tiiere was an impressive assem- 
blage of diplomats and state officials. On tlio 
following day tlie prince again was present, 
and read a ]>aper an hour and a half in length, 
written liy Iiis biolher the Duke of Kdinburgh, 
who is absent in Russia attending the corona- 
tion of the czar. This pajjer. cntitk><l ■ Noti!S 
on the sea-tlsheries and liiihing population of 
the United Kingdom,' is in many lesjiects the 
most remarkable which has Iteen jti'esonteil to 
the conference. It is h\ far the most exbau^i- 
tive anil scholarly essay on the fisheries of 
Great Britain whicli lias ever been publislied. 
and contains a great store of valuable facts 
gathered by the Duke of Kdinbitrgb during the 
three years in which be served as admiral in 
command of the naval leservc. togctlur with 
extensive statislicfi obtained at hirf instanc*' 
by the men of the coast-guard. On the :?lst 
Sir James (libson Maitland. the proprietor of 
the most extensive fish-enltural establisliment 
in Kurojie, located at Ilowieton, near Stii'lin^, 
read a pa|»€r on the • Cnllure of Salnionidaeand 
the acclimatization of lisli,' and the following 
day Professor Leone Levi of University college. 
Loniion. on the ' Economic condition of fisher- 
men,' — an important contribution to social 
economy. On Mon<lay. the 25t!i. the Ameri- 
can commissioner read a paper on the ' Fisli- 



eritB of tlip Umiiwi Status antl the w<trk i»f thi* 
O. H. flsb-comnnseion.* >Ir. .hiinrs Riimh'II 
Lowell <>cciipic'd the cbnir, ntitl miulc one lif 
bia nise^ ami witlylittle speecht't* whic^i ruv ao 
Ibopoiigldv onjojed by the English [leoplp. 

Oh Ihe" i'Hth .Air. R. W. Doff* M.P.. apoki? 
flu tlip ' IIi-rriLig fieiherion : ' on the 29tb l*rof- 
A. A. W . Ikiibrticljl of I'trecht miivcreity,ou 
' (JyaNT-eiiHiire nod ttii? oVstGr-fisberiea in 
llollaiiij,' uu\\ Mr. U. U. Mnrstou. oil ' Conrse 
•cullurt,' — " «:«sirsi' (ish ' iu Englatul 
li/^vitig IVesh-waUir Eish other tbau the 
auriidav. On July 1 Mr. L. Z. Joncaa 
1 a pHpcr on thi* ^ KiGht-th's of ttie Doinin- 
(of Canada) ; ' and, un tlie 3d, Professor 
tiey apobe luost iinstruetively ii|Kin I he *Dls- 
•Bof flsbew,' eorifluliig Ills reinarke to Uift 
ury of the saliHou-infealSng Saprolegiila 
X. On I.Ue 5lli severMl of llie eornmisBttm- 
Iroin L-Dnltuetital Eiuvnwan nations sjKike 
,he tis.iieri<'s of their respective couutries- 
on the filh CH|)t. Tetiiple gave an Account 
he aiito.r<-lic seul-fl-ilieriefi. 
hediscusaions have been tti Komc ins.tAnces 
important, though the usual disposition to 
ramble has been i.liillicnlt to check. In fact. 
the iHJTKk'rons l!n(i=h syst'Mii uf i-losing each 
session with four formal speeches, in connec- 
tion with tlie votes of thanks to the chairman 
and the speaker, lian rather tended to encour- 
age the utterances of generalities. The ' prac- 
tical men.' as they style themselves, who take 
the very unnecessary precaution of informing 
their hearers that they make no claim to being 
■scientific,' have been rampant at these meet- 
ings. I'rofcssor Hu.xley's inaugural address 
has caused great unhapi>tness to those who 
believe in legislative protection without limit 
or reason. Close seasons for river- fisheries 
are needful and useful ; liut what is to lie done 
with eeon(miists who claim that legislation will 
relieve the salmon from its pestilential para- 
site, the Sainolegnia ferax? 

The jui'ies began their sessions about the 
middle of the month; and the galleries are 
still daily invaded by enterprising little groups 
of men with note-books. Their task is not a 
light one; for the number of exhibiters must 
be at least three thousand, and the heat is 
greater than Louilou has known since 18G0. 
Seieni'C is well represented among the jurj-- 
nien : Professor blower. Professor Altman. 
Mr. .lohu \V, Clark of the Cambridge museum, 
Mr. Henry Woodward of the lirltish museum, 
Profes-sor Moseley of Oxford, Mr. John Mur- 
my of the Challenger, Lord liussell, Dr. 
Murie (secretary of the Linnaean society), Dr. 
Francis Day, Professor Huxley, Mr. R. H. 



AuoustS, 1883.] 



SCIHNCI-:. 



131 



■*ai-| 



n 

I nt 



Swirt, PnifeBsor Ray Lankcstflr of rmvi^rtiity 
tioUcgc (Uiiidon) ftixl I'n^ft-ssnr ilrfflvy Bell of 
college, l>i'. Spcucer ColjboM. Mr. 
myn Mitt-licoclt ol' N^-w Vork, Mr. K, K. 
ill iif Wa.^hiiitjtoii. I>r. Iliitirethi of I'lfxioliL, 
nif'-ssor Siiiitt, l*rof*?»»ur TutTll Mtiil Dr. 
rylKJin of Swi:ili'n. Ur. W. A. Hiu-li of Nor- 
nvi l*roi'fHs«r (•igliult nf Fluntuuv. l>r. Hiviii- 
acbiitr of Vienna, nml Mr. K. I*. Kiuui^uy nf 
I* Svf liitiji' mti.'iriiin ( New .South Wnli'H>. — are 
all hrre in llie work. .Iiiat before tiio opening 
of the pxbtliitinn, jVa/"re, in an eftitorinl. nfU-r 
8latin» tital the iniinngraicDt of nffnirs hiul }>04>ii 
tnistod ahuo«t LMitiroly to * prnctical ' niutii to 
the 4.>xdiii>iori of ICuglish uion of Bciuiit'C, qx- 
prossc'd soriio doubt (i3 to whethi-r this policy 
wooitl «llet;l a* siillslhctory rosiili* as ihnt of 
ihe H^irlin i-xhibllioo. ti would I* inU'reviing 
Ut kiuiw how fur this Itint hn<t iiitliit'tu-i^il tbc 
Lion of the executivp i-oinnMll*-*'. Tho ooiii- 
Utev lin» tihown iUt'lf singularly neiisiLWe 
to the voit-e* «f wi>ll-inwminj{ nclvijiers, and 
I'hanges arc coniitatitly h^inp inaile for tb« 
livtler in tho niunnsi-uitfiit of alfHtra. For 
inslaoiw: tlie cutift^ii'UL-u chiimlKr litui Wen 
raiuoved (Vom the i-oiiBemiiorr. wht-re it was 
torture eithur tu spt-iik or to listi'ii, to otw of 
tbu pivUm;-giillei'icti »i-iu' the uimn (•utr;iD(re ; 
aticl lll(^ i<X|ichiiieiiLiil (isli-iiinrkc't in t'oniH-c- 
tion with tJie e.\hiliitioii hns lK*i>n thrown open 
Ui liw ptililic MitltoiiL lubntssioii-ftf'S, inxl n 
{soptiriiu- i-titriiiice (tut throitjirli from Kxhibiiion 
roiul. 

The pnprrs n-ad at tho ponfrrcnc« nre 
bring print4-d in full, together with t.t)c tlfscos- 
niantt which follow them, nnd will form n v-ib 
imhin IlitlC' library, when «iippkmentefl by the 
iihilllng hnndbookft to the exhibition, which 
Ate lieii»j{ vapidly printed- (•'iltwn of th<-*«! 
bAidhixfks are iinnminei'd, iti nddihoii to Uie 
ijjhlti-ri <ir iiKtre ' p:tj»Ts of Hit- itjrifen'tioes. ' 
lit* Uteniliire of the exhibition 18 ifw*r\x'<l for 
fnturt' di»i-iists)oii. It is much lo hv hoped 
Unit Die aulliorilies will t-rown the Berifsivilli 
an illu'lrai.'d rei)«>l1, prepared by seientiiic 
commit) ivs, ejimiinr to the viiliiiiith< * Anil- 
liche bcriehte iibcr die luternatiounle thjcheit'i- 
aQHetellnng zii Herlin.' 

The cloning mUIress at tlie ooDfercoco by 
I'rofi-'SSMtr Kny I^nnkeeler will be upon ' The 
sdi'iiLitie ivsulu uf (he cxhibltiuQ.' it would 
not h«! Kurpritiing If FrofeiBor Lnnkesler were 
to ch<>f)se lo ael the [Mirl of the prophet milier 
tlian that iif tJif recorder, iiml lo (N>inl out in 
blA di&*iiur»e ntiul the exhibition oiitiht to ilo 
(V>r lU'irni'e. A nnmh<T of prominent. «^iU'j»tor9 
-tigalort* iiiivi' !iln.'a4ly iiddrosjted to 
iil\i* eorriniii[v« a memorisd advoe.'it- 



ing the esUhliNhmeni of » natfonul tminne 
xoi>\ogkti\ station with a purt of the. «iiri4u» 
nindt*. which, from prewiit !ip|»ea»-:inceii, »rv. 
likely lo remain over at the eml of the exhiW- 
Iton. In .-another l>-tli-r I ho|M- to review briefly 
thu moitt im{K>rt^nt fi-alnn-e of tlie extiibitn of 
the evvvml eountries. («. Ufiovfx (.iouDk. 

Ul.^h>nni)J mil. J>il; 10. 



THE PAftfS OBSERVATORY. 

Wb al»triii.-l f Htm yalure llii^ items of ^U\t( itili>resL 
111 the report i>( Aditiinil MDiiehei:, tli» (llr\.->*i'>r of die 
Pari* nbnefVMtory, on the itiite uf tUM iti^iltuiion 
ilurliig tho [lAftl year. Tt.i MfrviMt hu been comliler- 
iihiy il«ran^il by Uie fii«|iiiriiUona for ihe tranBit if 
Venus. Till! various iiiumbcn^ of ihc expwHilun at- 
tiiiMl«() the otwervaliwy lo b« Irjineil Ktllii>riuph»(iig- 
raphy or in the iiv> of Llie ArtiflcUl trunsit, anil no 
ieaa than Dv« uf ilte iieranmtt at lb« olMcrvatgry 
tbeouvlvee took part in die work. The groundK of 
the obiervKlnry liiive h«eii extcntled, lh( e'^uiitorial 
emidf has been trisLtllcd. and sovi-ral Dnder);roun<l 
cbambera have been constructed for the i>urpo«« of 
•tudyhig ma^iieliim nnd lerrestrial phjAicM g«^nerally. 
A retUioii of f>iilaiiile> rntAlosne n( btar^, nniDtk-rtn^ 
forty lh<>u»<ai)d. ha* been jfoinu: on tor the piui four 
years. The gviiund catalogue, wlilrh will form i-lglit 
vuluiiie* in '(uarto. i« well in han't: and four TOluinfii 
will bo t>ulili»hi'il duriii); lh« n>?xl thri>« yeare. Me- 
ridian oliterrntinni, numberitiK a hutidrwl and ten 
tliouvaijil, hiive aiivady b«en made, to aaalst lu the 
i-ntiHtnicticiu uf ilie calatofjut. 

Th<>euiniDoii Inconvenlvnres aitvndlntt the use ut 
e<| iiaiori nil of tlu' n«ui«l f'-nn of couitruclion have 
Ivd M. I^fwy til tot>ccivr tht; idea uf adiiplin^ lo tlie 
e<|uatoriAl the ny^icm of ' tunrlLe liriti^,' einptoyed 
flni tu Knitlaiid, and afierwanl to a K'eaier <>«teut 
III Itfi-niany, i-ni^roiidly in amall tniniilt iii>lruiii«iita. 
The new enuitc e(|uatnrlal may he thu.'* rlpnrrilxtJ: 
tlifl polar Miiia uf the Instrument ia 8Up|>urte4l til ila 
extremllliwou lwoplllar», lik<-K invrldl.tnlitstriitneiit; 
round \\\i» iixis tlic telescope liimn, foiiiiiiiK a ri^hL 
ani^le ai the lowttr support: by tneaUF of n mirrar 
place^l at the aumiult of ihi) angle, ilie liglit l.t re- 
llt-etMl aioiiu tlie pivreed axia, at lli« und "f which thn 
rve-pleoe, or mieromrter, Is ploceii, I'ndT tlitw 
eondltloni, with thu tekscopeat rest, object* on the 
celestial tHgiintor |nun aim>!i!i the obnerirr'A fliild ot 
view. Ill onl^T to secure ilie observatUiu uf uliji^la 
not on the e<|uuu>r. a mirror five to rotate Ik phicnl 
before tJiw objcirt-^lniu, find i^nnecietl with tb« dec- 
llnatloh-cirele. Thn Inclination of thl« mirror ni»y 
iie (thniHieil mi as to thniw Into tho tutia llie light 
coming fr'.im a Mar of any deelinailon. The ol«vr*- 
er tuiiy tbnseiploro etery pat I uf I In- lieavens utUi. 
out quilting hl3 putltion at one end of the polar axlR. 
The leKntviiM! niav i>raralcally. by a rotation nf iJila 
axia, tfe ilin>c(ed toward any part of Iho celevdal 
r(|uator, whll*! a *tar uf nny dr"'l)iialHm m»y he 
miile to throw lt.t li^ht down the bruki-n tt-l>>tcope 
by nieant of the rxtvmal ndtrur. Ptrliniinary rt- 



SCIEXCE. 



IVuu II.. Xo. 



pcrliBenult»v«%h(.wu thai (his double n-rtf''-" ''■'■■•■ 
nut ■iccaslou a creat Iom oI U;:lil : uml lliv 

puUili of Uii- tllver uu almi rMrrurs ure vtL., 

wry. The olwiTvauiry pn'3M«M ttiU new tDAtruniem 
throueli tlio tll)eralliy iif the well-hiinwn imtron of 

til riigaril to iihyikkJ nKit^r\-«lloii». XI- BforoO, 
profeiDiiir uf jiliyRln nt 'Wanaw, wm occupted iit 
Pui<t tlurlny tli« uinnths r>r Jair »nil Atifiu^t, iia In 
IkTPCiNlltlg y^nn. wJtli lIiA «p«Ctro*cupii! «liidy (if ■!• 
monpliArlr ktMorptloii, working wtiliR brttmuf elvdrk* 
liglU feiil frt>ni Moot VBMrleii to t)i« fllnurvnlDry. 
In coiinMiHcmro nf (tie i)*clsli>n ttt Admlml Moiichei 
to aepamlf •)iF<'i»l riiet>?*irolo^tral liire*tl£atirtiiii from 
the aittronoml'-al work of the obsen'slory, ni'.'tn"ro- 
lof^cal «b»erviiiion» of n vaaeb lilghw volin' ■re now 
brinE mKil^, with th« ii[iec[iLl ohj^cL of tlfl/tnninUiv 
the ilifft^rvni cotreollons, of llm nalnre of rofrariion, 
to W jppllctl to Lhc a,M roiiomicul obs^rviiikiiii. A 
•L^rir* nf ntm^rratlnm \» Ut bo m><lr Irntn n o.-ipcivi' 
lAlliion of sucli h\u: ibat. with nnllnAr; put. It c\n, 
Iti crxtm wsatlier. taki? i;4.-lf-rL'giBiering bMroniPters, 
tliflrmoitK'tcrs, ami 1>>i;rouH>t«n up to a beigbt of 
fivL' l)uii(lri-<l, and witb pure liydrojt^n tu > h«igbl 
nf eight iiundred mMrvx The bAlltM>ii cannot be well 
niaTi:\^'d If tlio vi-]»cllT of tJie wind exceed* four or 
rtvi- intilnr* pvr spomd ; but Ibia U ii<it rtfKardeil M in- 
cniivciiii-ni, bi*caiiK- It it during rompM* raltii that 
tilt' ^rFittent ftbnorniAl perturbationt of utronujiitcal 
rcfrnctloii maiilfm themB«lv«9, Sltiiiilttuiouu" ob- 
MrvnlUiH* n-lll Ixt mndu oti ibe uieridian of th« Paris 
observatory, north At thn observatory of Moiitmartre. 
•tut noiilb Hi the ohiHirviilory of Monii-ourls 

Thf nmnlmctlon o( tin? ^rfal rvfnif-tor of Ifl m, 
focus, together with Itf dotnc W m. tn diameter. Is 
fitoadllf progressing. Tlw object -gla-is BgiirM by M. 
Mm-uii la already compkiv. Tlie duiiii.- it to bo ••( 
tbe tame dimensions »* the ranlbrton, nnd Uie lar* 
getil ever alteinpti'd. Tlie armDgptnent for Itieurlng 
Itii tiirninc with i-a'i!, and whkb hHH bt-vti ndnpted 
for lis coiislructino. Is ibat proposed by M. Kiffel. 
In onltr to reduce lo n mliiiuinna Ibc friction of 
Hrctdtir rolli'-n>, bt^ pro|prKH!!t to float llie duiii*i by 
meuno o( an annular ci'fm plnnged In a receplacb- 
of th)' JMini' fiimi, And fill<-il vrilli a li<iuiil wbtuh will 
not fnv^e, sutli iw an aiu^<^"^ solution of rhloride 
of niagnveiuiD. Al tUu Paris obHrvaiory II ia quIlK 
necesKitrr thai, some sncb arraugeinrnt %■ this sbould 
lie adop(«d; for Ihe oti^errator^' Jii .■>iluatr or^r tbr 
ratni*otubti. one result of wtiicb tiiu- Wtn, tbat for 
many years Ibc pdlars of the ni"ridi:in.rlrcl« en-ctcl 
in Ibe ^ardena'bave grndunlly inclined toward tiw 
eotl In coni>Ai]nf!nce of tbe displaeemeoi of tbc sol). 
With rrrorbanlstn of tbl» form for rotnitng the dome, 
anyprdintde i-liange uf level would not preront th*> 
donie from turning. 

Tbn magnetic ob«ervKiory tiow belne eoinplctnl 
wilt bo one of tbtt (Irit order. Six >ulil«rraiieiin 
ehambem of t-onfttanl l«mperainr« havs ht^n hiiill 
under Ibe b«sl possible I'oudltlona of Isutailon ntid 
slAblllly. An tKiter nail of »^'a^ty i id. thickness 
('■■closes a reclan^dnr upacv 40 m. In longib and 
U m wide, riimplctety inipci^'loUR tn moi.«ttirc. Tbe 



tniilr,.,] roof, I in. thiffk, la cnvcred hyMrth to tlw* 
■." of y in., anai ursi*" t»«d plunks |,>ri>i*>ct ll«» 

. ..iiHi IIh^ (linvl ray* of ilie sun atiil fruin fruai. 
The obinTving chnmben ran be Uf;btud dthrr by 
gas, or hy rcAecUon ritmi wllbout. 

AdvAritAffe hak liven taken of t|i« ^txlstmne of lhM« 
e.hamlwrrs by plmtlnK lu Ihrtn the cli>fk» from wblch 
tbc Lime i» dliiributnl thr lUBhi^ui I'tfrU; but. In (plw 
of all prvi'jiulbitis. the rbiitiilxjr* iiri' fc-uiid to bi* noC 
altutcelber fre« Iroin tulQor irTpldatlotii ri?*nlllni; 
from tbo tralOe of the sttcvlK ApparatU! liM beeit 
oonstructed, and Ls now ready for osa in l^iviutigU' 
IngtIwTcrtkal and stowinovein^iiUof ll^ewll. Thil 
nill )n> pinced In a gallery In Uta cataromba 97 Bu 
below the auKai^. 

T1i« election of an uuoDonilcal oluerrDiory on 
■he Dc du .Midi, at a b«!ght of 'i,^Mi in., U rngagiof; 
Lb« atli>ntlon of the dlrcotor. At tlUs elevation. It is 
Miid lo 1k' itasy to rvad at niglil by ilarilcht alomi, 
and flft«wti star* nrv vlsibk to Uie naked r-yi* In tlM 
cliif Icr of the rielade*. It is Iniciideal thai any ai- 
ironoiuvr wb» Mlnh«'B lo make any *p«x.>lal rvseanhp* 
may tak* Kdt,intHiie of the i,»b«eri'atory on Uia I'lc 
du Midi. 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Tba right whal« of tba North AtUntiO. 

I haVr notiofil in a lau> number of your juiinial 
a iTltlt^lMU ou I lie Ia!it Bulletin of th»' Atnrrlcan 
miweum of natural history. Itelne awny fniin l>>ivn, 
[ ba«o not a«ce>i> t<i wor)i« rcferrlnK to tbe subject 
of cotolo^-: hut wiib the aid of noi«s tbat I liami 
with mfi OH well a.4 rlrawinsA <if the Kuhjcrui Involved, 
I bo|ie to shi>w eooi'liif^lvety that other %)ewa Ihaft 
thoBi^ taken by tbv <:HiK- jri- tin- orivf-c tines. 

I tkhall not altenipl to juntlly the irari'lessneM tluit 
permtia the presence of lypographli-al <irrnni: but. 
w)»en an rrrala list u-eioiipaiites a work, 11 &lKHihl 
have due credit for Its Intentionn. 

Tlie writtr mys, " Tberw are orror* of sint«nent 
of ao pnve a characier as lo rtii)ulre notice." nn<i 
i-onlinneF. " It would ai-«:tn. for Itistanre. that onty 
Uie mei-eal iiovlce In eetolo^- i-onld bavo been int»- 
led," etc. — referring lu the identity of ibc ftl. Iaw- 
rcnw whatva, 

Leuon wrottf, " Wbal an Impauulrablc vril eoren 
nur knowlmliie of Ihe t'elaeea! (iro|dng In the liArk, 
woadi'aurc in u (idd pHrr-wn with thorns." | Mlevo 
thai ■i>iii<> ill latxr dny.H, not ijitite novtret, iiilmtt a 
decree of uuranillittriiy with tbe gfrnt be&sM of tlie 
nca. In that view, \H ua see If * errors nf ktaU'iovnl 
o( gravf cbaracler' hare really been inadi-. 

Tiic pr<»ldeiit of tht tioeln-c historical noiuetyt Dr, 
Aiidfijtoii. nitb J>r. DeKiiy'ii Reimrt <ni nia:rmslla 
before him, snvs, ■^{•eakiiiv: •>( a Inrua whiile ibst had 
foundered In the St. l^wrenw River, " It lurn-tl out 
to be an aged male. ap[)*reniJy ibe dpecien Ibklaena 
■nyjilloelu*. . . . The lineic w Mu-M ; thi' l>i-i]y, fur- 
rowed, preaenliii:. > .iritr.ce uf a rlitik>T-l'uill 
Ixuit, . . . 1 com : 1 a careful exaiuiniiilon. 

It auswereil fulU ^ . .(ai»ii(;lveu h> Dr. D<'Kay 

for the niyntict-liifl. ... As ibevkhald iiiy upon tha 
I«>tt0h, hi- wa» *(«ly-fivc fwl l^n^; the tlukc of bi*^ 
tnil was twelve fe*t: bis j:*«'. fifteen feet." 

This M bale was Jioliced primarily by u« for tho par' 
posv of dlrefflfng attention to the fact, that suvli 
j^reat form had really puebtsl intji tlie frc«b>watcr 



AvotMr 8, -mH] 



SCIENCE. 



13:3 



1 B8 lu* M Quobcc, aud to bIiqw iImi iMuuibly 

-^n-fuxAor Flower liut nilsaptirvlMuded wlieu ha w:ii 
ftoW f>f ^frnrnl.-il wbJilr* lii ihe ht. Liiwrcii<>«; hr, In 
' ripUuti. uAlUTHlly regarditig Ui«iii as 



several olUsriuilUes were prese»u?4 
oi the meoitoa ot vioat liiatincUte 
It: iIiTQDiUt sutem«nt. wtM huxrded. 



.In il 
diar.. 
nor WiL* 'j; 'r I. 

Til" flr*t ,1 UiucUln^ oa tbU aotic« of ttio 

S . * h^li', uid wblch la Incliidt^ by tlie 

I trif ');iari- orront of KUt«tDctil,' is &» 

( f-Hy utUIii Umt If ttn- oitalure 

^> . and iiol a It«l»Qiiopi«r, \i wa.f 

» 111 slzi?." A* "f^■ liiiU tiu ini4>n- 

ti^fu ul 4kr. .VM>, tbiA CKDiiot Ik rtguxled u 

mort* tlia^i 1 Dr. Aiiilcnon. uha tudsuted 

hi<i imi)Ukiin>'>i r_i]>^iiion mt above. 

The n-^xi )iv«tign In our tpxt i», "The furrows oa 

, tliv Iwll) tiJttunUlj tufUftwt tbe Bulaenoptcrs; but it 

|k iufeiTvd tlmt iImto W3U no donal tin." The liunal 

ilpuee llii Xitlai ait OKumlUil feature In Lhc latutr, 

nbscucf of itnj uotlci^ of it iiattirally micbimI HLrange. 

A-* there was mi ilrscriittiou of iht Lciad. save m 

^nlaLed tu Its leiiutb, the baltivn not b«ius uieaitureij, 

"lie uii1> cliarai:tiir Ihiii ^uggeated struugly ibt: Iln- 

waa the rllnkirbtillL ~aBj>ecL of tbi- bellv. Id 

Ullt view tliu stHtciiicnl tif ^(.-onaby migbt will IcimI 

(o mlaapirrebtiiiiiluu, uvcii by 9oni« not wliolly 

no* iocs. 

SGor«aby layfi (la lib ilcscrlptlon o( Uiv B. oijaii- 
cfltm). '■The iikli) (t( the hotly Is iHglilly furroweil, 
like Itii- w aier-IiiiL-4 iu cuar»e-)ai(l pap«r." 

The fluke lif llm uil i» tlriwribcd iw iwrl**; fwjt In 

togttt. Uere, ri'^HrdiiiK tlw! poMlblc fact of there 

tau iliikev to tliu tail, the total widlb ol the 

extremity would bet tw«iity-four i^% tliii) act- 

ncatiiivmfol of a large exauipli; of a ri^ht whale. 

bst i)i<; UTlicr iu the bullvtiu did **> n^anl it it 

[true, but. In (he lljjhL of aft«r-kuiiwli;ds«, wi' hare 

DO iliiultl that I>r. AndL^rson meant to include the 

rholv width an twelve feet. 

Iu thr HU««iire of defiiiiU! fenLur«s In Dr. Andor- 

»'s deseriiiiimi, and iu view uf the iilim.-uee of any 

Itaitipt ill tUu hiUleUn to aq^ue in favor of any on« 

1U9 or fl[teci<^. we i^ganl It as a subject thai hardly 

Uli fur criiii'ism. In .Oiort, UkJnf; the evidence 

'mriirtled, in nur mind il *««iii8 to bt^ quite aa easv to 

provfl the creniun; of uue );ctius a» th« other; aaJ I'V 

tbni w>r mean thJit Dr. Andereun'E |>oHilivu ciate- 

iii iil<l not CO for tiot)iiii({, V\>. ari- not, how- 

f ' Id h.izAnl an opinion that the whale was 

U". .. ■' 11 *»i- ('erloJoh iV" ' ■■ ■ .1.-. i,..m, — 

Tlii ,t reltirn to Sci-' 

Tha: ' iid not portray i. ^ 

far &* irUirti to tlie (irAcitlaml wliAle, is we tcei 

ire, filiioeiilibk' of il«inoi>stralioo, even if wo should 

ptoll thtt ii|iiiiliinii of chrei- of the. mi»I able n^lolir- 

J*ls. Thecriilo cUiim. "ThaC ll was the best ligury 

tttvsb/V], i( iii't i]iiiIi:Comici in nil (Mjiiits, of the 

pelea down to IrQi. wlieo Neiimnion's admirable 

ItLatrntioi) wj-i [i<iblikhc<i, bus, 1 think, hitherto 

been untiui.-stii>K<-d." When wh ai« told that our 

ifplDion tbal Sc'^ire^liy 'furnished to Bclencs ao In- 

, liglirv ' i» ' ail eiTDr of Itatmnent of iio grave 

eluracCcr as 10 nxiulre notice,' we answer by 

f---.*-. ^-..-hrlchi ai-' '■ !■■•' 

I L whale, : 

wn that lb- j" 

f« ari: hi^lui^ < iHi^io^iBbt, wbifftv wi>rk i> t'diitU 
^_ luh by I'r.-ir-isur flower. The lan«r. Uiore- 
TmS, Tr suppiitod 1(1 acnuie«i.-« En their opniiona. 
The*e author* >ay, " V\e uiiist euufe^is, that av to 



proportions we coaftiltt more In these drawf nns Irefer- 

ring to Mart«n'H and /orgilrager'aj than Scorosby'a. 
wtlieh e.;r[iiinly r>;prr;ti»iiU the Unrenlaod whale {It, 
myilieeiu.tf more uleitdisr (bun It re«lly is," 

lb-«iit>-x ihi*, we eliiiin in bv aide to demotiittrate 
the ixjrreetnek* of our siaiemeut by reference w 
tbo fl^unr«. We have before lu lhu«e of Saiinmon, 
Scoreaby, /.oradrager, and l^r^ni^de, representing the 
Clr««uland whaie. We also have the Uacbslroin 
flsiini of aonJcaijer, uublisbud In Lac^pMe's work. 
1A 1th Capl. fscammon s figure befuro an, the one ad- 
mitted by our eniic to be itn 'admirable illUftratloii.' 
coiniian^'nnw /.orj^dra^er '1 ; and we Dud, tlint, thoU|[li 
rude In fliii»h. it is nearly tin exact coiinterfwu't of ttie 
Sy.'amuion hicitr>f> We iter ilnu Uie fmrn i» bulky, and 
luu averyiibon 'BOialt,' or caudal region: that lis 
heixl ll of Ibt; proportion of one-lhird the total lencrlli 
of Iwdy; iLs pectoral hmbs are *ltuat<'d vei^ closely 
behind tb«- eye and anele ol the mouth, not a <iMartei- 
()f the total lenj;Ui of Hie ' t)l|i|H-r' dixtnni therefrom, 
— all of whk'b foaiorcs are recogntzed as corrcet. 

Ijitl .scoresby'i flgure be ecmparol wlih /org- 
(Irager's. which we havo seen Is e»4eitlially the wtne 
as ^-nmtnon's. We see that tlie form is not only 
iKit bulky, with a very short 'smUI,' orcaudai n-Klon. 
but ha4 the body very slunilcr, with an elonfpsteu 
'small:' the lait«r being »o alendcr that It Is repn*- 
B«nted whipping the uir like the tail of a saurian. Ila 
b«ad is o<ie.fi)Hrth of the total lungth of Ixxlr, In- 
stead of onq-tbtrd, as In riiiure, and In tlie jfor;;- 
(Irageruud Scanimun llgurcs. Its pecLomi limbs are 
sIliiatMl at adi«unoe from the ey^ and nngln of moutli 
re|tre»eiil^ by Uie lk>tnt length of the Uiubs. Il la 
the ruf ore seen, tliat, in ani:ordane« with all evidennr, 
Seureaby'i tl);ure was not eorrecl. Hence ll U "i»- 

Edorable that nearly orcry book publitilKd to thlH day 
ia« an llluurallon copied from .Scurebby." 

" 'Ti* true 'tis [Hty, and pity 'tis 'tis true.'' 

Our critic ueit aliribuies unfamiliArlty with Scores- 
by's ceioli'ijtcal wrlUngs, from the fact that we credit 
(iodman with 'an atnount of anatomical knowtedgo 
quite unusual.' 

The truth is, the etlition of Scorcsbj in our possea- 
•iuii does u»t e'iiii4lii ihe portion relating lo liiierior 
anatomy and pbysioloxy. and tba plak-s repre*4:ui>- 
Ing the siiinkoleji. It is ' An aceount of the aroiic 
felons, Edinburgh. ISgiP.' The work is not before 
us, but a releri-.nett to ihi.i i^lltion will verify our 
statement, ^ince the matter wu prep.tred for the 
buUeCiu, we Und that the Miveml pages relating to 
tbi* porthm of Se.>^re3by'k deM^rlplion were probably 
never priiited tlierciu. We have, however, found the 
whole in Sir Williaai Juidliir'i Nuluralisti' library, 
volume on whales, by t-'u). Ilnmlhon. 

[n view of LU1^ (act, one may reiilure to claim a 
decree of Itnmiinlty front severe erttlcum, though 
evidently be may be oiica to tlie sccusatlun that 
*h>- U none too futuiiiar with St^'uresby's eetoluglcml 
wrltint;s,' or at leaM hix varioui uilitluns. 

Not.l(Uvin(: laeL with this matter relaiiu); to tli« 
Anatomy una pliysi<>k>gy iu Seore^by's book. It wai 
but natural to attribute! to (iodnian 'itn amunnt . , . 
ijullo unusual.' 

A point succeeds this, conc«niin|{ which we must 
uke issue with tbe critic. He says, "The fact being 
that i;odman'B account is on unaccrcdllcd ooroplla- 

" liini Sctirvoby'x work, whole psfces being taken 
" etc. We Hnd in our mlltion of fti'dinan's 
tl bislory, iiutead of 'an unuccrediied cjia- 
pllatlun,' tho iol1nwln>;: "Having never personally 
pujoyed opporluuiiio* of studying the whale in bb 
native floiMs, and having derived alt we know In 
relation thereto Iriiui bcoresby, we should deem it 



134 



SCIENCE. 



IVt»t. II,. No. 



mi' ■ ■ ; lo k*iv.* W ■ In iMy 

«r •],*t at ll.i W« do 

ttl ■- ■ ■- U' lMlllVf>V 

III' NAii itciitliin* a 

H.-, ■ •■ . , i,,r, \lt ItiM 

fullOWB ID niaUoii U> lliii wlialt) i- ftcl' ' llie 

illlTeroiiL urnrllN of tlie at'rtinilR ftn<! - iCol 

Scor«»b»." U iii«i crilic"* f-'iitiori oi (..■.iin.m hu 
pl«jr«r) Miu^ wKli liliil, Hn oDrrilitloii of ^i-i>r«iby liftA 
wltli >!>, iwiiiar"* ^v! mil)' tliiuk It wiw to 'cry quiu,' 
«ud Jo)ii Willi tu in tbruvrlnic oui of the cave ihe tvo 
8lli>[t0r}' [MilitU. 

It niny lif> proptfr to wlil Utrri^, timt w<t i«r« fHirtllt&r 
with Sc<ir«tl>y*i (vi;un<l figure of my«(Ice(iii, wliicb •■ 
tuf far lni[>nived »*• tu liftvi' tim 'i^tii>ir shorli^tird : 
but iiciritiaiiatcly the Ant Aguiv, wltti ail Its Im- 
|Mrf(!Oiloti>-, iB l.h'> ona tbkt hK* l>eeii hMii|:ht rlonn 
to 114 tliruii)jb •i*iTj' >Mxik un tt&CHr»] bl*Li>r]>. 

The r^t^ruiic^- !'• Lta^hftrum't ftg^ure of nnrdnipnr 
i* obMure. 

It mntteni not wluit ihnt Szure i«; it wu nmtxlH 
M on«of nor<Ii'ap«rby r-- 1 ■-■ -"rl u<t. In c-omparl'iott 
witli llui olit flituVM'i-: i». wbi<?b wo iiiHim 

warn iiiiKrer tru« ib.iti " ■ ■ in genprnl prtijmr- 

lion, wlwly itiJmttlvd two ipcmm. 

Tbcy wBn> bntli, oa vie havi' said, nbuat equally 
liir«rr^i*t; yrC thty IkiiIi hull t.NTlAln futum« that 
■^rv«d M'illi tlic ile9cri|iti(iii« of [he two form*. Tbc 

iinnlcattcr liiwl !«■■■■■ I'-'-ii.— i i-:i.rlr tl»e ■am>^ 

tvriDi by VATiuiis < - beln^ l»Itl un 

iu Nlciidi-nieM ui: I : - y now fireitenLs 

III* nj[itr«, wbi>-h, ingi>-4>i "I iii-iiig bulky, with ft very 
tliorl 'small,' or cau(UI rp^ion, iinO k b^ad otie-tlifnl 
thv toCAl, hail qtiitp nf.ifly Un* pmjMirtbmH of the 
(iKure of Uaoliiiroiu, tvi>'iv«l by Cmler *% iJiat of 
nontcuar, anil wtlli tio uUilt iptr'.-lftr feikluiti todls- 
Unutuiiiii tbcm, 

Th* meutlon of iniu^unurlei. neeiii iieiir tlir cUnU) of 
tho crilichui. U nut wbully fr«- frum error; for i>X- 
»in())tf; Ui« vliMiim tnucliinK C'nl, llamilt^tii mini tbt' 
NatiiraliilA' library t.< cxiu-tly cirri^i. viti It l« nnllcctl 
»■ ciuii of tin- t-rror^ ibii! rumler Ibtf bl«orical r<-iiiMMi4 
' Mriou^ly iJwfii^'live mid Tiii>l<'iiliii;^.' WV »r# now 
wlUUiK 'o i""^! this HhuM'lnK, trtm'luK lo the fart* 
herein mfornHl to for imr vludlcntlon in iba facH of 
ihU gntra ch»rgo. J. H. (lor.DBR. 



F>>rtuni(l«ly for Dr. Ilnldpr. ltd did not «Uli- dlrtclly 
and une-tulTurBlty (hat the St. I^wivnoe whnl*- was 
n IUUvmh: but I'tu <iccu[>tu9 ««vt.>rnl pAt[« In trying 
to explain away the nbrloua diacrcrancJea Id the way 
uf Mii'h an Ulontifloatlon Jind Iti ons^ttlng thvm with 
IIm fo«iu''>t'UiV' 111 it* favor, k'arlnK the ii?»dor wicli 
l1iec»l>v|cUt)ri iliat tb« spi-^lmon it >-ltfd ns. In Dr. 
Hnlder'a opinini), an IniilAiicc of tlie ircoiiriMiioi! uf A 
Bala^^a in thi> m. [.awrt-'iice n«jir Queb^i?. Indeed, 
lie gnee *o ftr »* t<i *ay, "and thu .■•{■omul eirainpl^ 
[tUe oni' biTC lmiiic»llnul . . , abow* tbii! the largt-sl 
of the right wImt'-N (»itliu>na| liarc really tuun<>tiip|r 
way a» fur tip a frvih-wuter streim a< Quebec and 
Miinirffll " {p. ! Ifl). A«1n b:- «ty», •■ Thi» (.•xnnipk- 
la valuable f^r n-v'ord. l", u a spwlmt-n of unTianiil 
elte; '2^\ a* »»<-■ of gfvat agr: S^. m otic out of 
lie uninl hablint In »n far an U> be ijiitb- williln frenb 
walnr" |p. II-j|. From Ibo context, tbe point in 
doAbr M^m« to be. ri^t whitttier the *p«de> is a Ba- 
twrna, bul M-bdlitrlt Is K.dsarellmnr II. mjaticetue; 
and the wb'jl' t«ni>r of th^ argument (fur snch it 
r«Allv li} t" fairly vpvn lu only ibl^ eonuruclion, wbat- 
eTcr'may hnv** been lnitiidi>d. In evidence thai my 
nrliltlsiii on this pntnt Ix not prniinilK**, or dtic lo 
perTrr«ity nti my part, I may tile Mr F. W. Tm»'« 



ntrtleo C^ ":: of r>r. Hnldtir'* 

niffniilr, " niiule. 

;\j w ' ■ ■■ t" " -v raorely 

that in'- to tfU 

IIS wh"- iip (Dr. 

IIoV 1', -well' I'llil^iDly 'i-d 

ao>i 1 b.ind.' iind i-i a«k i il 

Cdl ■■ ■ ■■ -T ".'■■ ,-11. 

ral . ■ ' -.a 

ar«' 1 . . I. . !■ . '■ ■ r ij 

ami o[bereecoi"glii> to Janliiie: ami •ometimealnre. 
I [Aok pain* In &ati*ly myself that Jardtnt- wt* the 
author. A* ut GiHlman, I confrai i>^ i' <ne 

bin) hijii<al>^ In overlooklnti his rr«dli y, 

wbicli my frhnid l>r. lloMer a|>[ie<ir« ti< ii.i<<- T<iiior> 
lunalely only ret-enlly discovered; n(tierwiH>. donlK- 
le.<ts m/firtctiireon till* point %Tonld Dot bare been 
called ouL J. A. Amur. 

The Alnoa of Japan. 
On p. am of Si'ii:NrK, T). f. renhiiJlow objects to 
my atat«ni<>iit of thv (iiimb«f nf Ainoi, It h nitbor 
•urprlsiiitf how lilllr hf h«r<U what I «ahl. Tbe 
numliera tii> ijivp* nre official; l,<*., be give* Un* num- 
ber of Aiuoi known tu the Japimem; ({"^''^'''xu'^nt. 
'ITifirefore be reacliM the siirprlsltis n'^iili, tbaX, 
with ihe ex<^rpiioii of Ihc Ainos l.i l ' r from 

8at{balien (ni)w nt>oiil800). tlierem i nil Ibe 

firovlnce of I«?hlcarl. TUat pm^i...-- i- .0.>ut as 
ar^e iU llitaka (according tu Penhallow. with f|,0llO 
lo ii.(KHtl. 

EV-nbaliow );ivo» tbc Aino popniatlon in Kllaml, 
Kunbtm, Tukachl, and Tenhtwo aa rani^nj; from 9150 
to l.^tO In caoh, when ll l» well known that they are 
full of Airto8,asaiivonotniv(diiii); ihrre wllliee, Ihelr 
vlltaj;r<i bring Uilrkly acattercil along the eoaet and 
the biiiik* of nil the 'larger rivers. I ehnuld ntlmnte 
from tbo-M- »eitn at sul-Ii {Mints that tbri«- niuU bo' 
mare than AO.tiOil AJnos In all, Tak'nt: I'rnhnHDw'e 
figurt'f f<ir Ibnri and Hiuikii as wrrrot, and auum- 
ing that Ibe four pro\i(icrs nam4?d iiboK; miiFl have 
■M many Alnon a* llitaka, wr. ■houlcl h^v ahiml 
M.flO" ill lhe« five. (Jrantiiifi that I*u lilcati. Sbirl* 
bc«hi. and Xomuru have nito b>*rn liik<.-n n^ thikIi Iuu 
thickly {lopnlaied, Htlll wrt mci.il eiii< lb>fU) 4,n(M> 
mote tliBU I'enhallow allow*: I.e., almut il.Oi.tn. 

Now Hdd ir> ihi'in I'enhal1iiw't> niimlxr for IbuH, 
m>Nrlr -l.'xX). and (he small remnant of iisblma. 
(Perifiiillow. 2.V)), uid la«lly ("t ChWhlfua (nut 
Clilaumal or the Kurllea a minlmnm of 7.'iO, we ^l 
SS.tHOao the minimum r^r Vexo. .SA'.;liallo-n baking 
10.I1UO to l'i,CN)li, and South k'amtt^hatka r'.'KMi lo 
fl.CKN) (iMtrhap9 br««>, there cannot be f^wrr than 
50,000 AInoB aiioeuther. D. Bk.ip:($. 

The Iroqaola. 

A close flttidy of ihe IkluhiLwkF of tjuulwc proidiiwi, 
(.'iinaila. after llie plan and In tbe st-rviii^ of tlie Bu- 
reau (jf elhnology, reveals sovcrnt farli hitherto un- 
notked in tiio varioiu bi>ioriir<< of tbe Iroquois. 

Isolated liv the early Jesuit fathers front their fof^ 
mer racnii trieuds and Htirroimdiii.' inue of 

their olrl folk-lore and of iln-ir J' l ms bu 

disappetirpd. The division si-rl ■ ■ 'i ''■•■ir 

ginit'-i'diftrr innU^nnlly fnjm i !i.t 

tribes, aod pit^seni an inter" .ry, 

Tbe Mohawk gcntos, us ^hun O) .Uvicut, are the 
woW, hear, and turU<'. .\mon!; tbe Mohawks al Oka. 
we find. !n addition to Ihooe, (be lark and the eel. 
wlUle at Caitcbnawan they an> (lie hur, wolf, eala- 
incL, rock, lane, inrtle, and dov. 

Among I ln; wampum ln;li-> '-f thU tribe is a Tery 
flue one, upon wlilcb Ihe ealumet in tijjured Id white 



Aroiiw », l«8»,] 



SCIENCB. 



135 



u 

Ti. ,:. .,.■ 
Biirilti, I tt:4 



WAiapuiii bM'i*. tliE reinnltiilvr of th« bfU Iwioi; in 
4krk piirplf. Till* prohiihly beluiii^il to tlie K^tiit 
bvarins I'ln name ■-( ilu- wtluiuei, aii>l whuw ofliw H 
w< <r>' aiitl pr<.iMut tlisgraud calumet In nil 

Ml i >»4'tnf)ll<»-t. 

i)f the iioUiioii of thh trih«* upon tu 
«> mi hii/Ti-jitir);^ Hix) iiu[yM'(ii[it Maiy. 
..,iui,,i Ml' -^iifieriMr Aiituiiii- Kiiil Vim 
-■>ii ii) ail litviilu^ble col- 
I iiriry MiircoiiT. which will 
furiiUh Molixnk «yiii>it>iiii-ii (or n diiTl iotiarv Af l)l(> 
fix IrtrjrioU dUlectii. tuT wliicli ihirty t1iiiii''An<l wortli 
Itivtt tlrMiljr bswii gnibenHL Eiuuxmk tdirni. 

JU PaclBe At*., .funvy Cily. 

Many aaakes killed 
Tbe nu'iilMr o[ Miiik«» kill«<t ii'^iir (1il« elly iliirlux 
thff l.il" 'ivf>rfli)tr d( ib« Xutunha Kivcr li .-ihn'fsl Uh 
yoDil bi'ili;(. Thpy wcrn ilnvm hy tho w.iicr (rum 
Uic huttoiU' lands "fi ilie hiyher gruuu'ls, aad e*(te- 
i:tally U) ihn •■inbunkm'^nli thrown up :icri>M th« 
f<>r thi' lltitllii»toti and MUimiri and the 
t^a'jiQt.' milwiirE. It t> »>liiiirtusl (hn( more 
ittn clinns-iriil 4nitKe4 were killtfd within a milt' 
of (his tuiTii. TIicv wt-rt- chiufl/ gurUr snakes: but 
water iii')crM'(i>ii>. blun n*ci?rii, and nUll«>naktM wi-n- 
alw.i killed. A bune h«« oolincd In a (Muture stir' 
rouniU*d by n tvlrc [rii<.v in ibu ovi-rdowvd district, 

an-l -' - r-i. It una foiiiiil that li^veral Biiake^ 

b- I Ihf lung linir^f his m.inv, Siiici^ 

ni; i", I biivt* tntvdini nt^srly all iiv«r 

this •.^•tiiiiy, a purUun uf tbe ifroi] eugaj^ In gev- 
Jg04-^) •><i|i|F>rmt{un8: yvL. up Ki tliv tliim uf ihe prus- 
'i-rrlov. [ bad failed ta &<>« half a duzt^n 
■ ilrl. Thf "Virtlowi-it district nlrmg thi- 
iiid it»! »vi-raRf iii*r a mH» In width: aad 
It U UDloiiuliinj: vhorx «<> iiiiny ■tn:ikr<« found bidlox- 
pla^M. T'nili'xihir'dly, iifarly all the snakes in Llil« 
county are confined to the cr«ek and river h<>lton)a. 

Valkaiy. .Vol. . .Inly It), iwo. 

BwallowB In Boatoa. 

Baa anjr oii« 9««ii ■ «wallow In Bonion this mni- 
mcr 7 Tbv uld jirnvf rb t*ys, ' Ou>- swallow does nn[ 
make a Ruinincr.' Have we a lamtner and not arif 
avHllow? Uahi. l{ei>rM>Ta. 

Singular liglitning. 

On tho rrenlni; uf July -I. l^-^ I notlcnl saniff 
' tnln^ whirb dlltcrrd from any tliat 1 have prtul- 
_ t wen. Abont siitisd a niiw* of vi-ry tbreaten- 
ioK clotidit. -ici-umpaniod by lieary rain and ligliLQlui; 
of ibi^ u^'lal cburaoi«r, ruw In ihc nonb a-'!sc. and, 

lb It easterly ronne. paas»l a llttio to tbe 

:>ving U9 n few drops of rain Irom iL% 
ii>Tticdi;v. Il was quiukly »ui-«M^di>d bj 
a owin|Mi-.itirifiy thin cli>uil-«lralum. — nppiirrnCly tlie 
»ft«r-blnh "f ib<' imln siora, — tbe cmr*" of wlilcb 
wi ' Durinit ili ■■ of tliia 

lint not tr pi'fhapa 

ii'<.-i|ut9iii tl.>-<ii<.-> ■>! iii;litiiiii(; 
tlip llr-i Kpniikk-, (inine t" 
-'■Til «iile of a Iars<! btiililTns. 
.ulti-r n»<hr<i: but their Hi'ht, 
tit ni'ij^lihoring Ik>ii->-'->, wa« 
"' Al len;:tb, liuwi-i-er. one 

< iiT;iti.'1y no'.dl. It tuiSHml dl- 
■ ^ X Into live line, tliread-llkc 
w lii:bl. Each litic w.\» dlsUncdy 
i.irp l[iou;(b nul proitiincnl nnntlo. 
■ I'v m( Hif Hues was nearly reKiiIai, bnl 
r brancbod ni a greater angle ibau ibv 



inocr ihtw. Thf rcIiiilTe dl^i^rgenee wa.* similar to 
that of tbA oiilMret<-bed (iugers of A human band: 
but a *tlll mort) accurate <ilr-» may h« ){lven by tiM 
following iketclt. 



bv 

my : 

I cuuid mit ^«V Ui>' • 

lbri>wn on \h<- waU 



Tbe tath above described was followed, in a few 
mlnirieir. hr a ■xwond oiie. Apparently similar, but 
less aatl^fAelnrily no(£tl. Aft<.T this the rapid p<b«- 
>ag>! of thn Kbtrni cnrrird thw ligblniug t)«yond my 
limlte«l Bpaeeof ubservftLlnn. 

I may nild iliiii none of Ibc Hebtnins from this 
cloud aeeinril ti^ rnme to tbe earth. It« coum) ImIiiie 
itn an appiirenlly borijrontal plan>T. Tbe aiVOiDpAny- 
in); lliiindi;r n'aa unusually dnep and grand. 

WILMAK ItftewnKR. 

Deflective effect of tbe earth's rotation. 

In ScibVCB fur March i' iN<>. (). Mr. W, .M. tia*U 
says, "\ rorrect knowlivlge of Llif dclltviivi^ '"ITeffl 
of tbe earth'* rriintion Is generally accounted Uie 
result of ■t(tdl«a made witbm tbe last tw«nty-llv« 
years." 

TbiH eorr«ct knowb^lge, he wy*. U still dlapiiUid 
by some mttbors. 

By trankfiTrint; tbe axd nf routldn to the tangent 
plane on vrblch ihe IxhIv is ■upi>ov><) to tnovi'. and 
rciohing the oarib'" rouiry ni'Hiun Into iw" umtionp. 
— one around tb^ meridian "f [h«i tangent i'l^"i!t nnd 
tbe other aronnd n vertical tn ibnl plane. — It Is easily 
•enn, without recunm- to the e>|iUtlon« of motioti, 
that the angular motion of lh« langvnt plane wltli 
rvfj.'v^-'t to a Fixed plane will depend upon tbe angular 
rniallou of thu e.trib ami the sine of the latitude of 
[hi* tangent plane; from wliicb It. foltnws thai the de- 
flective force is the same, in what^Ter direetion the 
body i« «upp<KM.-d to move on any givi-n I.inui-nt |»lAnn. 

Itnt in i^-solviujj ibe actiutl motion into two ntn- 
tiims. respectively aMund the \ortli'al lu the umrt-m 
pU' - if '--iund Ibe meridian of that plane, w» 
hav I Ihe clfe-.t reitulling from tin- tatter.— 

aciii : i-i "f whieb would bavi? inlnxlutinl an- 

other term, containing a lunellon of, and therefor* 
varying with, the uu»im.- of thi-. angle ccmialned !■«■ 
tweeti the nii-ridlAn ami Ihe line of projection of tbe 
moving body: w« Itnvc nl*<'t neglected tlie fffecl of 
Iho ertiitrifuual foroe rvtultlnf; fnim the motion of tbe 
body, which Is a mlnifnuui when the motion i" In 
Uic meridian, and ama.\iinutn when at right angles 
m the meridian, and therefore aba varies with ihe 
oo^ino of !Ue nujk eonmloed lwiwe*ii the meridian 
and the liue "^ fi'xly. When 

the velocity 1-^ Tin* bt-r-jme 

wnslble; and .,,.,.;.!, .,,- ,,.,.■,,... I'-r— '■- i-^ist 
wbcn the body motOA In tbe meridian, ■>! 

wbrn the motion i» nt right aOK'''" with i m. 

Thi* cunclutlon U lu L'unflicc with lln^ 'conect 
kaowlodgv* above alluded to; viz., that Uie deBec- 



1!J6 



aClENCB. 



IVqu il. 3fo. a*. 



UoQ of ihfi itiovlns body dvMixIt 'not At "H >!■> 

direciion of Its motion.' Dut I nutv r-' 

il ' I'lnu by lUfHitii «i liiti 

:•■ (r.r the deriutloii 10 
ti 1..- oaa 

■'inpo- 

ij-' - -■- - - - 1.1 -. - :itin of 

the O'liiii- oi iL' '.ainiil tiviwccti Ihe uti^riil- 

laii Kpd llir liti<- ' ' n<>n uf ih<? niriTJiiit Imly. 

J. E. Hkhdhicks. 
D» Uitlan. h,, J«ly 14, U«. 



ALMVfCK CASTLE ANTIQUITIES. 

A deacnplh'f caiai'Mfue 0/ antttfuilifr, cki</iy British, 
at Atnmck Cmtlle. PtinbM] for |>rivaiK •iiatnbn* 
tioo. ^awcotttlu-uuoii-Tyuc, ie!>U- lUihif-, 
48 pi. 4*. 

Br tbe gcufmtiitv of tbe Dukf u( .Nortlnnu- 
betkml, tlic JtvKlun [luLitH- liljran' bus reoniLly 
been mativ llie n-c-ipieiit ot n cujty of this truly 
magniliivm vrnrk. uiiil of Uh> cninpaiii<jii vol- 
ume *l(w(Ti|itiv*' of the importnnt ^'ollection of 
Kgyptittfi iintujiiitiea, also prp-*iTv«l nt Aln* 
wifk. Ill no more sntisfnctory manner eonld 
tb«?, liliemllty ftud public apirit of tlw noble 
proppiptoi liwvc been manifested than in Uiu* 
atisiing bift tretL^iirc^s with the atitiqiiarica and 
ort-lovcrs of other countries. Sueh sumptuous 
vohniU'A an thone con^titiitv a uionuiiieiit aere 
pi^fgnnius. liko tliO!*e which illustrate the lit- 
trarv ami :irtistii' ti'-aMiri.* of Karl Spoueer 
at AltJiorp, or the ui:i}^'niru;i->nt puliliraliiiiis in 
which ih» Arvhihike Lmlnig of Autttria bus 
reconlcl hiH Iravi'la. 

Id its artlttUn anil mwlianieiil exwnlion, this 
patalojim! is l>L'_\oiii! pniis** : never Imve we seen 
inure Iwaiitifiil 01- more InllJiful delineations of 
tlu' variull>^ kinds of nulii|iiities. If we timnnt 
speak in (|ulte .'<ut'li high terras of comraefKln- 
tioii of the aceouipnnving letterpress, the fault 
sliotiid not be laid 10 the charge of Dr. t olHng- 
wood Bruce, upon whom devolved the tank of 
prtiKirlnfi: ihc work for the press. Ilis com- 
petency aa an nntk|iiary hiut het'n Kulllcieutly 
mahifcilei! by \n*i ahle and thorongb »Unly of 
'Th*: Koman wall." whose 'stations' have 
3*iet<|ed to the exj>lorer many ul' the objtwiade' 
Bcribfd in Ihe volume. Il is to Ibe uuliundy 
death of Mr. AMwrl Way. by whose aitsiiilaui^ 
and iidvicie much of the eollevtioo was gathered, 
who knew ile contents thoroughly, and to 
wboU) the |»eparation of the cslnlogtie hud 
bwin ori^ofllly intnisted, that any shortcom- 
iug must be iittrihntcd. Although several dis- 
tiiigiu.'ihod Knglish aniiqunric* have lent their 
aid to the editor in their res|jeotivc depnrtmenls 
of knowledge, we miss the inflm-nce uf one 
guiding luiud, familiar with the results of n^- 



ecnt nrchcological research in all ibt variou* 
bnuiftieii, .-ind eapable of • H|>eiilGing th«* latest 
word' u|>on the many inl*Te*ting jtnd impor- 
tant topics Duggeitted. Still the reader rAitnot 
fail Ut r(n:i'i\v ini^lriiriion from llui acr-otmtM 
jfiven <ir niiniemuh n'ii'Ti of vahon^ p«>riods in 
till* rii^e-* I>mg since iia-tt,«f- -ailty of 

ntany ut tin- obJertHdcliiieat. <i to jus- 

tify ibc chtim thai, — 

•• Sot roufh nor liarrenan' the winiHoB wayi 
or boar &nU(|Ult}>, but strown wUh llaw«is." 

Tbn oxprcflsion ' cLivtIy Hrilinh ' in the Utif 
must be undentowl to menu that the gre«il«r 
part of the auCiquitiea described have Iwen 
found in Great Britain. Thoi^e hrat rxtpntwnted 

belong to the prchiatono periods of stimc. of 
bronze, and »( iron, and cousiat mminly of 
weapQnH sod lmplcmcut«, fiucb as axm and 
celt4 of ^lonc. ond swords and celts of bronze, 
or of n gR'al variety of iIiom- nidi-, hand-made, 
sepidchrul vases found in grave -imiundB, In 
whioii was stored n ftiipply of food for the dead. 
To the Rnmc remote ages are to lie ascnbetl 
ibo»e singular markings found ujxtn atones. 
known to areheologist« by the name of ■ cnp- 
cnttings,* of which two rcmnrk&bte examples 
occurring in NorUmnibeiland are represented. 
TIkm are found in eountricA widely separated. 
«ud cvury where th«y closely roacmble one 
another. Jind Ihcy have greatly excrcisetij the 
inindh of imtiijiiarius as to their origin and »ig- 
uifieance. Tlie\ c«)iisi»t of a ^e^les of shallow 
pits or eup3. iiiciHtHl njKin ludgefi, or, more fn-- 
quently, upon bowhlent. Of tliui;e. a ueiitral one 
is often fonnd e)urriiinidt>d b_\ one <ir iiion* eon- 
centric circles : and a eharactcristie feature uf 
such grou)>s is a lon^Uidinul gioove exteuding 
from the central uup to beyond the outeniiosl 
of the circles that surround it. That ihcy an^ 
religious emblems Is generally concetlwl. as 
Che a&mc kind of marking'^ is found upon the 
filab'* of stone of which aneieul graves have 
l>eeii eoustnicleil. It i» highly prubable tiiat 
tbey arc a conventional representation of a 
primitive system of nature-wornhip lh;it pre- 
vailed among our Aryan Mn<H-«torH, syinlxjii/iug 
the mysterious origin of life. The whole sub- 
ject has recently l>evti tretitei] in the most able 
and exhaustive manner by thu leiuiieii atehe- 
otogist of the Smitbaunian institution, Mr. 
Charles Kaa, in the Hflli volume of Major Pow- 
ell's ' L'onlribulionft to Americuii elhnologj*.* 
Wo cunnot help feeling siirpriseit that the 
editor, while ciuotiDg largely from Mir .lantcs 
Sim|>NOu'B ' Archaic itculptures,* makes no ref- 
ori'ncc whatever to the late Profrssor Kdouaid 
Desor of Xeuchiltel, whose varlooa writiiiys 




AUacflT 3, 1$8S,| 

u|ion Ijtt pifrret A vcudh'$ htiTo 
tight upon this obscure 4iibjnct. 

Aootbc-r struui;)^ pruliloin bearing upon thU 
vexul qopsliuu of L'lirly rcliguni*. »vuilioU la 
init Just louchi-'«l «(joti in tliis vijIhiuo. \Vc 
refer to the use frum a vim'v leiuole {x^riud, 
cither far emblematic or <JucorntiY«> (inrjxstis, 
of a iweuliar forru of cnu^s, res<-nib)ing the 
Greek letter {eiuuuiu fuiu tinic« i-epeatc^. «• 
T)u» hits bteu wtUcd bv various iiftiuf», •— 1-| 
— the • rlijjiaiuinatt'd cro«»,' or 'giuuiua- ^ 
4lioo;' in ihu luiiMIe ngt-s tlic ' f^-lfut ; * nii<l 
i-uwiitl^". bv SiinBcril ^diuliirH. the ' 8Wa»<ii».' 
>[. Uiiritunr belU'vcs that thiH, »ltiu. \h a jirimi- 
uvc religious HVinliol of llit! Aryan races, arnl 
tliiit it rfprcwiii*, til*' two [jifi-i---- of woixi wliicli 
in early tinn-rt wi'r<^ laiil crosMtvia*' iicfon' the 
sacrificial altar in order to |>nnlin.'f the lioly 
fire, having their i-n<ls lieiit at n>;bt tin;;k<s and 
foAlcncd in such a wuy as not to be n»jvcd. 
Where tli<> piei'es eroj»M'd there was a small 
hole, in whiHi a third pieire of wood was rt>Ute<l 
by means of u coi-d until "Rtv was gunerate^l 
by iVictinn. This nI^d occiii'm upon two Koiofin 
altars floured in the %'oliime. nhich Imvc l>eeii 
tnuuferrei] to th« iniiKeiiru at Alnwick fitfiii 
iwigbboriiig 9tutioii» upon Ww Hoiuau wu]l, 
where they had bwn disinterred. Several rel- 
«rem'eH nrc giwii In authors who liavt- treated 
of thiv i>iitbk*m, — amotigthL'tn, to Dr. Schlie- 
lunnn, who found it at lliiwiarlik u|>on * whorb ' 
of baked clny : iind tlie atntemcnt is made, that 
flovontnrdly cnnio lo have a Christian r^ignifl- 
cmtion. and is fonnd in Xhn catacombs at Itome 
in conjunction with ttie usual Christinu sym- 
boU. The elaborate study, however, by I)e 
Mortillei. entitled Lb slgne de la croix tivtttU 
te c/*rwt/«j*wm«. is ctUirely overlooked, in 
which it& oceiirrence is trai'ed down from Ilip 
' IcrreranreH ' uf tljc n^u of bronze, in Kmilin. 
in upper Italy. 

A uni<|Ui- object represented 1*^ nn example 
ut tlie wo-cnllpd ' cbrwiii.1,' Ih« inoiiQ);i'am 
(oriiHrd by-niiitiiii{ the lirat two (irtrV'k (^harnc- 
ler» of till* uamv Clirisl, X siud P. This p, 
combiuiitioii h»<l lon>; Iwen iii u^u tuc -in s^T 
Abbreviation ofdiirfrfnt worda, and it \» ^r^ 
found upon tlie coinu;;e of various eniitern nu* 
tioiis. Cou^Uuittne ptaevd it upon the * l<aba- 
ruru' u s CbriHtiun emlileiii ; and it i» ol^>n 
met with upon lii» voiixs and those of his im- 
uiedint*.* succt'-isoirt, mid U(>on terra-cottii hitups 
found ill tlie ':iit;icuinbs nt Uome mid elsewlici'C. 
I'hrM!, at leatil, of itueli nncieni Christian 
lamps, have bi^cn discovered in Kugland : lint 
the rarity ot' the pn-^eni t:\.im]ih> cfiusisl* in 
tbr fact that il i^ i^inlio^sed ni>on the (iiitAidc 
of n tttih' drlnliing-cup made of red clay. 



Tfaii* <9nf cbe very UQcommoQ Itiud of pottejj' 
oe< ... I. i>roni;ht to li<];ht in Kn<;land. whidi 
vri<- . I'tured by tlic [tomanized Uritons 

at t-iuiaiut. in Nurllianiptuiuhiro, the t>uro- 
brivuc of tiie ItonuitiN. It is u^tfd OA an orna- 
ment ill iiAMxriulton witli a Very well executed 
i-epivtjetitfition of tlie coorsing of n hare, and 
it is protuibly tv be referred 1<t about the middle 
of tlie fourth eeiilury. 

Svvenil flue s|K-'ciinciiJiof aneieut Koman lU*- 
tile ware front l*oin|>vii are duHiieuled. »i wt*ll 
as those fbiind in (!rcat iiritain, among thein 
hniidsouie hinipH and facaiiiiile^ of the potter's 
HlampH, which are ofu-n found iiupr<»is<-d upon 
iJieir under nidi*. Such siumpH were also u»u- 
nlly plaueil upon the bottom of the lincnt kind 
of table-ware tliut was manufaotured by the 
Komflns. — that culled ■ Suniian ware' IVow 
the place of its origin, hnt of nhleh the be&t 
quality was fabricatM at Ani£Zo, ami spread 
by comintTCC over tlie whole Itoman world. 
It it of a Inatrous i-onil color, and olVn hax 
einliosnctl upon the oiitnide, Hgtireii of ditltrcnt 
deities, or <if raeii and animala, f<ipe<;ially of 
those ghuli.tlorinl AceneA of whicii thf* Uomaas 
w«i-Q so forKl. These ligureK wen- fashtc>ned 
in moulds, many of which iiavt< okiuo down Ui 
our own times, and are of a high gnide of 
artiittie merit, rrctjuently. however, tb« orua^ 
mentation <jonsiats only of harmonious couvcii- 
tional patterns, or of a sci-oll-work of leaves 
ntid vines of much graoe and heniiiy of design. 
The potter's stamp sumelimos contains the 
whole name, sometimes only initials, and occa- 
sionally it consists merely of some symbol. 
One Dgured in the volume Is n representation 
of ' a liny human fuol." which tlie cdlt^tr thinks 
is " prolwibly a n-bns upon the name of Ihc 
potter, which may have Iiceii CiiA^MrKS.'' 
Tbis Ih rather an nnforliinatc conjecture, ait it 
wiLi a t)|>i-cinl whim of some of the pottitrs of 
Aier-Xo to have their stnuips made in the tihape 
ofu human foot. TJiev an.' found in this form 
•^>n)aiuiug a variely of iiaiues. its well as no 
iiHUiL' at all. Tile writer bas in his possessiou 
at leasttwenl,^ ditlerent insoriptioneof this sort. 

It Is L'crtninly remarkable that only in Kng- 
land have there b<'eu found, it would ap|H>ar, 
any specimcna of (lie aetual shoes or itandalii 
worn by the I^>mau xoldiers. One sueh is 
rupresentuil trom the rnin» of one of the eamps 
Hint mark the line of tlie Uotnan wall. Siiid- 
lur dlHcbverios npun sneh mU^a arc n'corded, 
and a few nf tht-M-. olijects have hern found In 
the bed of Ihn Thames at London. The writer 
guw several that came to tight in Lomlon in 
in'ii. in excavating tlie fotiitdntion for a largo 
bnitdlng in the heart of the *city.* On that 



138 



SCIENCE. 



|V<ii. Jl.. NfK Mt 



fOWsmioii the ihuU tli.it ■inrioiiiided llip ForTllietl 
Kom»n town w«!i laid Imre, rnniic-il out oT tlie 
nntiiFMl 1k^ or h littli.' brook, tutd ii) it tlu-se 
and tnxiiv otlicr ciirioiiit ix*Ik'» wi-rc fouii<l. 
Tboi^c Auctdiit Ri^xOHii shoes nro einjipilntly lik« 
modem ours in pattern and itkxK' of fnhricn- 
tioti ; utMl. in coiiSKkTnlioa u( IliPir wcmdi-rrnl 
stilts of pivfivrvstion, Ihcy wuiitd sltio Ici Jus- 
lify lliu cabbli'r's provi-rb. ' Tht-re's nothing 
like Idutlier* 

Ain'inj; tJm ' moIiprHl rPtDains.' we find 
li};itn-d nml described -n broiizt- cflgle witli up- 
lifted lit'nd nnd u|>i.'ii lumit!].' Tiio l^iixl. Itow- 
evnr, strongly rcseinltles oiiu ri-pri-seMitd lu 
Arehatologin, vol. Iti, pi. 17. tlini n-im dihixn*- 
erod in tho ivoi-nt oxcuvalioiis nt Silrlieslot' in 
1H7U. Ttiis. ttie lnr<' .lotm Ittrltttnt (in-cn. in 
bis Making of Kn;j;l!ind, cnllA "n Icgionni^* 
eagle, hiddcji awny, a% it wnnkl seem, in ^omo 
sterol recess, nnd thri-e hnrii^d for ngc* to t»*ll 
the patlielic (flivof tbe fall of Sik-bi-sicr." hi 
llorsley's Itrtlunoiu muiann, tbi-rc ii (ilso 
Itgitred » friuiiiar bruuKc eagle disuovvioti in 
Knglfliiij. It id truv. tbut Llic Uoiuan euglus 
tliftt nre doliiicntvd ujioti Trajan's C'ulnnin nud 
upon tliL' Ati'li of C'onBtHnluie ariJ r\^[»rl■*^'IIlwl 
with ox|HiiKti'<t vving-t, and that .MonlfiHi^-oti 
aad ri't'cnt wiil^-rs upon cln^sind unliqiiiLy, 
(.■upyin},' him, hnvi' 8t;il«I thai ihfv weri; /nmrt- 
al/lif Duuli^ in tliU itmnnvr. All tbri><> of thcue 
bli^s. however, bavt" tht;ir fringe folded, from 
wbich n-n inny inlV-r that tbo other fai^hioit of 
representing thoiu mflv have aii^en in part 
n-om thp exi(;em-ieft ol' pictorial art. 

Wc hftvf an ftxumple given of one of iboae 
slngnl.'u' ftenlft. in the shajx' of a monkey 
perched ujHin n enbt*. made of a pccnliMr kind 
of porcelnin. And bearing nn inscription in an- 
cionl ('ltlne*t' chursclers, Kiieh a« are occasion- 
ally foniid in the bogs in vnriou* purtu of 
Ireland. Al (irst they were Iwliovetl lo b« of 
n-mole niitiipiily ; nnd it was even suppowd 
Ibat Llii'v hiut been brongbt into tiie coantry 
by the Mioeoicians, since U was oaserted thnt 
they are not to 1* found in China at the present 
tituo. Uut this is not the case, us they can 
uow Dceaatoiinlly be profHired of the dealer^; in 
cariosities in that country. The inscriptions 
are engniVMl in an aniiipie chnrnctcr, now only 
eniployrd for ^enl.t, nnd known aa the * Renl 
ehnr:u-t-er.' Kn'ipiently tlicy consist of some 
poetic (jnnljiUon like the one given ; ' When Ibe 
water falls, the rocks appear." Their presence 
is undoubtedly dne to moiierii ooinmero*, 
Ibougli not of a very recent period. In this 
partictilftr they resemble the little Chinese bol- 
tleH n8«d for holding snntf, whiub are fouud 
in ancient Kg^-piinn tombs, one of wbicb is 



prewn'ed in the mnsenm at Alnwick. They 
Ai-e abont two inche<^ in beight. nitil bnve on 
••m* sVIe A tlower. ami nn the other on ini«crl)»- 
tlon. whieh on severni <«pi*cinieMb n>Hdti. ' 'L'be 
flower opens: lo I flnotlii-r year!' This i« 
known to l>e a ((nolation from n (loet who 
lived in the eiglith century P.C. and the o\f 
jeet evidently whs inleniletl for n New-Vcnr'» 
gi(t. Inht*!rid of proving, as UosuUiiii sup- 
p08«l. the rxislence of a commerci' bclH(?eu 
the two uonntries in l*harnoniL% or at nit evcnlft 
in I'tolcmaic times, it in now known t)iat ibcy 
were brought lo I'^gypt in the middle ages by car- 
avana from western ('hlDn. They are not of ex- 
ceeding rarity, m Sir (itinlncr Wilkinnou states 
that he has seen more than twenty of tbem, 
fouml in the u^mbs at Ttiebea and other places, 
and tbewrit«<!rhn<«lialfadozen obtaine^l iu(-'airo. 
rnqncfttJonabiy the uio<4t pleasing objeet de- 
linearcd in tbe volume, and one of the glories 
of the colledioH, is the well-known • Hodge 
cop.' Tbi» is a little bronze vessel. alK>nt fonr 
inche>» in dinnietor nnd three in ln-igbt, of a 
simple bowl slmpc, and adometl in (iie most 
tn»terul manner with dilfereut cilored ennrneU, 
iu tlie style ealtetl cJinmplev^.. Id this, the 
metallic fifhl is cut away so as to produce cav- 
ities, In which is inserted the paste tlial be* 
comes vilrilicd upon lieing snl>Jected to beat. 
The ornameniation eonsi?*!* of a series of nnn- 
cU made tip of ftwir (Wpinre* of various colors, 
attenincing with compartmenlfl containing foar 
crescents of difTorrnt hues, set back to buck. 
The colorHAve turquoise ami dark blue, bennli- 
fillly coiitraMed with a narrow bonier of pah; 
red, which outlines and separates the severnl 
conHNirtini-nts. Aroniid the top runs an iri- 
seriplion wliioli is snp|K>sed to contain the 
name> of se vent I localities lying along tbe tine 
of the Kuman wall, but wbieli luis Uius ftif 
proved a pu/Kle to the interpreters. It Wiv* 
found in the year 1725, nt a plnee ealleil 
Kudge t'oppicc. uenr FroxHeld, in Willehire, 
in a well near the &ite of aome I'toman rnia«. 
The well was Ulled with rubbish ; and in il were 
also found four or Ave human skeletons, some 
animal bones, and seveml coins of the lower 
empire. It is described a* merely "a remark- 
able ivlie of tbe Koniiin times ; * hut this would 
ap|K!ur to be a vm-y unmeaning designation, 
when we call to mind llie fact that ' relies' of 
this description are never diseovert'd in Italy. 
It may l»e worth the white to give a brief 
account of tbe more important fl|x?Hmen> ■(!" 
ancient chamfilnv^' enamelling th.ii have i-omc 
to light in Kuro|)e. and to 6late what ift known 
or surmised in regard lo their probable origin 
and place of fiibncation. 



Ai*'>U*T S, !»«.] 



SCIEYCE, 



1:H) 



For (Mii7>nM«*!f o( i.'omiiiirismi. [lio editor tins 
given nn rn^rnving ofnii piiainnllcil lirunzi* nip, 
of .^tmitnr nl)»p«> nn<l methoil of mnniifiu-liirc, 
which was found nt lltirwoo*!, in North iimlH?r- 
Inihi. na<i is now m the Itriiish tniisuiim. He 
■IfO (IcHL-ribes n incsimilr uuC of n l>r»iitiAil ves- 
sel, tuiown BS Llic * Ufirtlow viisc,' Lhc- ori^iuHl 
of which wiiB nearly mined in a Are which took 
place \u Uw niitimioii of Lonl Ma>iiHril. b,v 
whom it W!i»iUs<ijvi*r4j(l in Ik'M. dnrinutfxcava- 
tioti*! niadi- in a stTii'^ of rviimrkHliU* flnt-lu}i|K'<l 
liim<ili 3iliml«<l nt Harl!ow, in Kswtx. A )"tnte 
showing it ill nil it^ pristirif bentily mnv Im* roiirxl 
ia .-lrc/i'ify/'»f/''i. vul. iR. |>1. 35. It it- now in 
the UritiKh tiinscuiii, whdv wiu kIso be suca n 
sltoilar viiav, <(is('ovuix'<l nt A tul>k-tuuse. itoar 
IkMhigiu!. Sitll ttiiuthur of thi' Hiirac uharuc- 
lor. fuiinil ill till* wchtcrii |)nrL of I'ninvc. is 
lireeervccl nt Au^utiK-iin*. Finally in thi> Me- 
moii'fs i/e /» goci^'ti^ <l^a antiqwiires du nord.n.s, . 
l>*6^, llit-rc I'* iv|H'i-8t'iil('d nn ('xer<><1ingly Waxi- 
Mftil »n»*<TiiuiMi of an t^nanii'Ued Uvowzv cup of 
tlic *:u\\v [.alU-ni. .liHc^iverwl in IHl'.Tin a jwal- 
ituMH III. Mnltl>oct'k. in l.he 3oiilhern part of 
the |H-nin<iila of .riillnml. in l)(>nmArk. 

Ilcsidc these V9a4-s, en:ui)i_>IWI flbnittt and 
bone-trappings have frctjucntly iN.'eii fonnd in 
ancient (iraves, especially in Knghmd. Pro- 
fewsor Iloyd Dawkins, in his Cave-huoting, also 
give* a pUte mpreiienting several broovhea of 
this kiml. which were discovered during the 
explointiun^ of the Victoria vfiw. in !»cttle. 
York«hiK*. This hjls jto muiied on account of 
its discovery iijiori the «>roiialion day of t^iieen 
Victona. in 1H;[!' ; and it is fS|K;i;ially inleresl- 
ID^ lUi Imviti;;! bi*en a plm^t^ of i-efugc oftlie uiis- 
cruble llrilish fiifiilives wlni llwl liuforu iJio 
sworii of Uic ■ coiiquering F.n«,'le.* 

The nrl of eniunelllng wn-s known to tJie 
aucient Egyptians, the KtruAcans, and Llie 
Greeks : but the laat liait cejised to make uem? 
of it Al least t«o hundred reaii it.C. By the 
IblinAns It wii«i iii'rver pratitiaeft at all : and It ia 
iiui alluded to by Pliny in bis cneyclopedic 



* Natural hiHlory.' The onlj rofcrcucc to it. to 
he fmtml in any ancient author ooenra in tlio 
Tmrtgines of Philostrattin the elder U>b. i.. im. 
27). In a description of n pictnre of a boar- 
hnnt. after cnnmernliDg the different color* of 
tho hors«s lidrleo by the yonthfol hunt^ucu, 
and iiAying that the bits were of silver ntkd the 
housings eniioh«d with gold and various eoloM, 
he atkU, '*Thev say thnl the Iiarbariurls. who 
dwell ne«r the oivuii, pour these ^-oIop* uiwu 
hei)t<.-d bniss, and that they iidhere, and lieeoiuu 
like stone, iiud pievcne the desigu»> made hy 
tliem. " Now. Iliiloitlratus was u <Jii-(-k rhei- 
uriviuii. cuUcd (Voui Aihen'<. in thu beglnuing 
of Die third century, to the court of .luUa 
lk)uua, wife of the ciiiiH-i'or Sepiliniua Sev- 
erus. Ax thta eui|K'iur ]>8aM>il consiilenitriQ 
time in HriUnii. where he built, ur at any rstu 
i>e|>aiitHl, the wall that goen by hia tuiine. and 
died at York, it ia by no means improbnble 
that I'hiloslraiua gained hin knotvleilge of ihc 
processes of eiinmelling fi-om aeeonnts brought 
to the eourt fn)in that rcgioit. To the Kngliah 
autiquiu-ieii It seisms to be eaiahlijhfd. by tho 
nunil>or and the beauty of such objects that 
liavc tx-en diatxivered in their own country, that 
thia woa the principal ocat of its nmuufnclure ; 
and Mr. John R. Oreen does not lie&it»le to 
call the ' party-colored enamel the i>eculitir 
workmanship, of Celtic Uritain.' Itut (Vom 
the fact that the lalo AbbC- Cochct hue found 
prcciaely ttimilar cnamullcd objm-ts in his e.\- 
ploi'atioiiti of ancient ivnielurioK lu Normandy, 
and fn>ni the dlaouvery of cupK of the snnte 
kiixl upon the fliiil of France, the nntiiiunries 
of IJiat naI,ion uiainlain that their own conntrj- 
men were ' the biirbnrians itint dwelt near the 
oct*an.' JVoB nnxtrum tuulas eomponerf Utea ; 
but certainly objeets of this character ought 
nevef to be styled ' Konnin.' 

We wish that we had more ajun'e nt otir dla- 
|K>saI to flirect atu-ntlou to the many other 
iteaulifkil objeeta of antiquity to Im_' found in 
this Hut oolleetiou. Hkxkv \V. IUtsks. 



WEEKiy SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. 



MATBXMATICS. 
Un«ai dUferentlal eqnatlooa.— M. O. Ftoquet, 

bia paiwr eiiti'lv<) "t-urf" rQwilffH" •tdfirrntieUtn 
Un^lrea ii i:-''J^i:imlr /••rirxli'iuv" hot nixile nn iit- 
toT«4tlni( nnil tti^-min^))' frti|M>rtAiit K<|()ltmii 4o Ibe 
tll«rmtnrv Df p^'dcxlle futiction«. lie rutixliiBnt a lio- 
RKM7''Di*oui baenr (IUIvi-ontl«l ciuatlon of ihe fonn 



tilt* <-o<'tBei''Tit.s lM>b)g unifnrtn fuiioilons baring all 
Ilia taaie iMMim), w, »nd thu gtrncml hiMgra) b<!lii|E «ut>- 
[HMWl unlfunti. If tb* wlalito b« chang^al by tbi- 
■UlMtltUtibll 

3£fa 

« =^ 
tbe rniiutt U a linear tmiiifonnaUAn of P, In wbidi 
(be cocdleif nl» nrv uni/urm tuiivltoDv uf ;. From ih* 
kn'iwti irxprirsiiuii fur iu inlrgrali In tlic rrglnn at a 



140 



SCI£NC£. 



I Vol, It., No. 



Kln^iilu" point, we nuiy. by BlnnB J ihfl fthoTP value, 
vary ibe *orm t>( Uie enliiiloris nf t* (ffl — i>. Tht; 
4iilhor jifrfpfi hnwi-vi-r, lo lr««l Hi* ipicoliun tHwcU*. 
Inwrmuiili Mhc Icihitsciialilcil ic"-m|>Ioy inftuy oniti* 
re!<ulu arri veil at by M. Fiicb*. aiitl n* hf. can u«o pro- 
cc>*e* li!rtilk*ut tvlib l))cw« c-iDiiloy<-tt by KucIik hi hi* 
Mtiily of rb« inbsgnvU Atonrnl a singular iKtiat. M. 
Kluqunl obuildi Ihos ■ lunduiumuU system, S, of 
mbicltrii* I'onnvcU'd with a certain nlf>vhniir< e<|iiiilion, 
d = i>, wbinb iit C*i\» the /uuiliimr-iitiil r-ju<ill>'n rrt'f 
llvt (» thr yerKxt w ; IbK tkul irn'iiilxtr n( .1 = in a At^ 
t<*ruilnmnl »( ilrurec m wltli respect to the tiitknowii '. 
Ttie r>Ii-iii«tiU of tlie »y«ifiti S uoiii-tltuta a* many 
I/r'iu/w ui tbe 4!()uiillori 1 = biu (liifinrt root*, »i)i1, 
by applying ■ prot^M* diir to M. lititribiir^r, th^w 
^roti|n ar« dif iJwl Inlu mii>-Qr'Mtp» wbicli art- mutu- 
ally ln<l»poiii1fnl. Thi? particular conrliiainn* arrlTPi] 
at arcAA (o)lnw*. 1. i^i (,, <« . . . r* dcum^ iIim 4b- 
lltiet niot« of -il ^0: lot X, denote itiu oritur parilng 
fioni irlilcb (li» minora or & tniase IkIhs all seru 
for ( = r4. 1°. P = a4imiU as tlUtlnct int'-gral* 
A, -f Af + . . . + ^ pcrloillc f unL-'ilonR of tb<t teciuiil 
kind, and no more. ^. Tbvrv exfjtu a fundamcuuil 
•iyrl«in(ifariliititin*, bicluiliii^, flnl, Ji, + il; + . .. + A. 
pcrioille futirtiotis at th« «t-(*oTul kiMl: ■««»><], 
m — (A, -f A, , . , 4- A. ) KXprewilotu, cncb bavins tbi- 
form of an InU^tiral (mlynoinial in x, and luirlni; for 
Co«iTi>:I«ntt prhudlc ftinrtionsof t1i<> MConii ktiid \wf 
*f*»\u^ Ww inmc mnlilpller. IP. Thn tniilrlpll4<n ol 
the p«rtfHllc functions wbicb appear In tU« funila- 
mpntal ity*u>in, oltb«r an uleiuents or kn coefllcienU In 
thcr<Irni';nKnr«eqnal lotbedirrerenLrootA ',,<,. ..f« 
nftbefandainuutjileqtuttttin. If. In order tliAt P^ fl 
may bt>(>- in pMrludic fum'tlimH uf tl)« Mcnnil kinil as 
illBtinct inlt^rah, it i* niTi-j|>ary HnH *nlticienl tbnt 
euL'li of ibo root« of A = sball annul nil tbi? nnnora 
of a up to tboKv uf an onlcr m^ual to tho degree of itiP 
mulilpllfir.y of t^rli root. In tli« abore. a periodic 
function of tlic M^ond kind, with a period w, mextm a 
fnni-Uon di'flrmd by relation F \t -^ •j\ = t Fix): e t» 
ibc mnlilpller; and. If r = I. tbe function !• »ald to bo 
pRriMlk uf tbn first kind. — {Axm. tieaU nanit. «(■/>,. 
Kob.1 T. c. (13* 

PBySICB 

Tbo effect of prcsaure ou tbe geUttne film. 

— ''apt. Abiii-y him <>Iiown. Ilial, if pre^iun- )■ n(t- 
plbvl 10 iliA <tf>naltiv<< surfnn- of the ^laltiio pl<tt<'>, 
tbe umn reimlt is obtained as if tlie piittv biul l>t)rn 
vxprinril lothf li);bt. Tlie r<dllor of tlxr Urilith jaur- 
it'i/ nj ftln'Ufjrnphij , >*xpfrimHntUt;; fnrtbi-r. IIikU ibat 
ai>ra''i((n. such %» may b« produced by tlii- inutinn of 
a gl:M« rod drnu-n uut to a lluu rtundMl poiift, lit 
ni)M-uiir> 10 ilie a«ilon. aixl ihat mpn' pn>*siirc, sncli 
M would be ubinineit by h 0HrrH.'nii.T'4 \\ms. pnidaces 
no cfToct wiialf riT. A. flriptH^I lllni wai nvxt pliMcd 
tipoii the other ont. iind tbr ninrklng« ntaili^ vriib (he 
roll upon it, wiUi virry liuavy prt-uun-.. On dernlop- 
metit Willi pyro, no effwl ihm iit finul prodneed ; but, 
hy pruluni:«d turlion, a ;;rveii fof; was vtr-nted In the 
•idjacAnl ri-^ion* of tlio Dim, leaving the flxarca clear 
on a dark ground. — (RrXt, jonrn. phot.. June Ifkl 
w. n. p. p35 



BiMbidiy. 

tTotpolax condnoUvity. — Hu^o Mtryer (.vuOrni 
tb)! result prnvloujly iibt&tiTHd by liliu, ibal llio mla 
enU [Mllomelan po&u>aM'< tli« curloni prapcny f>f nnl 
pcdar conductlTlt? for electri<rliy. If9 findi, \ti»*, Uin 
tlie ri'«istHit<« to H coiistitnl cuni*nl l« Ind'p^ndrnt n 
tii^ iluraMon of lb>- (-nrr«nl. uml l4uil ill(Ici>mil b|h>CI 
mriis uf tbv mineral lui? raillcolly diff'-rcnt In nioc 
Irlosl prop«rtiiM-- btmcn Umi Jn'--oiisi»l9nt r«<ult» i 
i1ltr<>r>-ot .ilf^Tvem nrr admisatblc. — (Hjia. yhy. 
chfm.. xlji. iD.) i. T. |U 

A cheap bolometer.— Baur d«acrlln* a fTi«r 
mn«<-upr wliiobonRititM of ihln^uld li*ave* i< 
with platinum chloriile, and cut so a« to com I 
surface with low nniBtaiice. These are atUi^iietl la 
oppofltp <>nds nf H cylinder wliieh is liolloir and <>p<il] 
ai Ibr end*, anil «oll<l In rhe mld>ll<'. 'I'hnui !i-a«e 
■re made the nrmii »f a Wli«4iHLotii! bridge, and pror 
to Im> a much more delti.att! tMt for radiunt best thao 
the tliennuptle. The author ti-rni* Mat- in<itrum<inl i 
mdlomoler. — (^lUL ;)Ay«. eAtw., clx. 12.) J, tk 

|U! 

MawmrBmBoC of the ohm. — J. Ki-6blli-b d« 
bCribes a ' dyunmonftrle ' meihoil of mi-aiuring tha 
(ihm: Ihr •e<»ud»ry coll U >ulani.-«d on a Hicid horj 
lonlnl arm. HUfi|kcn<kMl liilllarly 3<i that ibr plane ol 
wlndlni; in iKi'iteudleuIar to the mirldbiu; opposite 
piftoed the inducing <x>il, in <rhlcli. hy an In^t-nlou* 
arrauK^'ueiil of keys, the currcat is made, ahmnt-d 
and broken without a sp^rk. The con^niueni ailrae* 
tlons and repuhlons are measured by thi'» winding oj 
th« nuHjieiideal appsnttUK. Prom a pndimiuiiry ex- 
periment, the author la eniMiira^^d to con«idrr lit 
method a praeld'al uiie. — (.Inn. f>hy*. rhtm , %\x. 
l<)f>. ) 1138 

XNOINSBIUNO. 

Bngiiiea cA lake ateameni.~-Ono of ibe st«am< 
ent of ihn Wcsirrn uran^porutJon line has engines oi 
the ' oomponud ' tT|tc, rwn low nixl two htg;li pmsDur^t 
eydnd.-r-, nf 13) and of 411 incbin diameter and of 1«l 
lnchj>* Mroke, Tbe Hteam h otit olT al t( indiew )n 
tbi* biith'pi\-»«uic eyllndftr, and (be t'oneumiition of 
Ht«ani amount* to hut ID pounds per Ikiui aiuI par 
honv-power. The boat it ^^ feci loni;, iiS feci hiuiiu, 
and W ff(<i draught. The enginef and hollers wej^h 
about KHt tons The Uttor have KK) siunre feel of 
hTut^iurfAi:^. ittid .1.3^(1 Sii|Uiirt? t«#l nf heAliug-surfAca, 
AnolhrT vex«:l, the E. H. tlal<>. ha? simple ^ii^lnr*, 
carrlMi \.f»,** unit of (relchl at 14 ffrt draught, uuike 
aiiOUl l<> knot* an hour on 1,4^1) |i<iuiids of coal. 
The eui;ine» ar'.' ^)0 by 'M, and uru supjdied wlUl 
steam bv one bolter IS feet in dlameifir hy 1(4 feet 
long. — ( hftfhanfct, .Inno '£"&. ) K. it, T. |l39 

Heatiiig by aupeibeated ejdiaiut>«taam. 
Ur. \,vv\ I1u««y ba* duvlseil n method of h-mtlll|; 
building* in winter by tli« exlmusl-stfam (r>>m eti- 
(Etniu- hy llrft pas'ln^ It through a xufterbi-jit^r In tlM 
flue, arid there takini< up heal which would other- 
wIm> be sent up ibechhnney and WK«te<l. ']1ii-i(leam 
la thus deprived uf all m(>l«tun% and Ihnn hiMted 
Ut so blub a t.emperalun' Ihat It will heat more 
lliurou^hiy, and with ItS" obstnicllou hv bark ].»»««. 



Airiit-Hr .1. IS63.] 



SCIENCE. 



141 



lire, (hiiri fitturat&i itml wei «ienin. Bent l« tboa 
obU'rtiOil «ril1i<ml c<t>l. Hml riTHlerwl efffctire for 
itstffal &pt*"^'"*" *" * £fi^aier Axtt-iic tlwn lias 
bltlterto Iwt-H |>oxsll>lc. — ( .-Jmer. fjiat;^., .Iiily 7.) 
u. i[. T. [140 

OHEUISTRT. 

BleotroljrftU of bismuth sojuttons. — Ueun. X. 
W. Tltcimxrixnil K. P. Smith lliirl iliti bismuth may be 
aWnrAlvly d'jV';niiinetI In sulntlnn either at t>nlphKt«> 
Of au* ritralc by rl'-clnilyii*. By tlirue hiclirtimslt 
«)!> all (he bismuth wn« ^trpofllu.tl in a cuniiiart fonn 
in ihrfM! li-iiira. It wii.» *Ttt»hi'J. flr»i with u'iit<>r, tJwii 
wilt *1voIk<I. iirl*i!, »n<l v,i-ighMl. Tlift niluctloii 
jMS oil etjiully well hi « solution rontAliiln^ kn ex- 
ceBs of dtrlc acid. — ( Jmw. cAem. jViki-n., v. IN.) 
r. F. M. (141 

Bfltimatlon of budoeu in water without 
•oap solution- — lu'lrBil ii( llir UKiinl ineUiiHl for 
Mtlmitliiif; ttie h&nlnr*f of wnfr, O. Ilrhnfr prf^fera 
tUnttlnii with eliin<l»i-(l Biil|iluir)(^ ncid aiiiI swlic c«r- 
iMHile snlulWii». n« cbltns llial Un.- re«uH« i)l»- 
uUnei) wIlU Llie «o«|i oolulfoti we vrry variable and 
wholly unT«tUhlr. — I. Iiiaf^ji, Maf, ISS.^) C p. H. 

1142 

The pteaence of copper in cerealB ~ In an 
article on lUI*i subjoot. Mr. K. F. Wllloughby reviews 
tlw Itutnnwi ill whiiHi <X)|>per faas been found in 
cereals, and hr (inoto tli« following raiulu obtainM 
by Dr. V. lialippc:^ 

<'»I>l>cr In A urormm. 
Wl|rat fruiQ (7«ntnU Prance .... 0, ottHi gmt. 
" •■ \a dilUrt (Imtrt) ... a 0080 " 
•* ■• Gnuiil VllH«r3 (Olael . • 0.0082 " 

" ■• Michlituu 0. OMO " 

•* •* Anii>ri<'A (|{i>(lirlnt«tr) , . Oi €0a^ " 

•• " California 0. OKW " 

« " ^nliKJ Uric 0. 0051 " 

♦♦ '• Am«rii-a. Mift 0. Ollis '• 

" •' nuwla. b«H (Tagnrtrogl . 0. *)088 " 

*' ■' Alttif-r- ti.i.l 0. 0«m2 •* 

B^R 0. no^*! " 

Oal« *>. 0(«l *' 

Barley . ". "lo< " 

nice 0. Wl« " 

— {Anttid'U May, ^9S^.) a V. M. |143 

AOBICTJl.'nmB. 
red mlllt. — K«aw foiniO lliat a saiti|tlr 
til milk Wlilcli hwl briin Sl^alcd up and Ixraled to 101", 
anil tbcti prv'^ifrvinl for i*li;lit yeitrs, bud undcr^i^ 
dwMml i:baiij;e. Tlift iv,lor was brownish, and tho 
UbI« lntf>n«oly bitter. Tlift mtlk->ngar was cbnnged 
into di'Xlro?.e and K'viiIqup; Ibr caxelne und ftlbuuivn. 
ln>.> ■.".r..iiM A •cflinwnt yd-lilfd rrystals of tymsin 
'41 ■ Willi iHita.«h. Wilk prt'?crved fur a yvar 

l<j :.^., ..; procpsu was fcuinl by Vietli w»n»itlerably 
alt*r«4 Iti lattv, but unip1»« fc«pt in a cool rrllar fur 
uvend monlbit uppcartd unalierert. — (flfcd. r^nfr.- 
/Jna.. sil. &7.I n. P. A. |144 

r,«-~»|.>rlon of fe«dlu5-r««ona. — In two fned- 
I, .1 ntB with slrcrs. Caldwell and Robert* 

(^i , ; .t ration cnlculalnl m rorre.t|K-mi! to thai 



recommended by Wolff for mi>inli>nanco (."auH-d a 
Vt-ry dccld«il and tlmdy i;«ln In iircii;!)!, wlilh-a richer 
ration (fXTr- mtirh i;r>'ali'r ^aln^ ib.tu bavt^ bo-u otK 
ta(n«d by other exp^irimcnii^rs from mtlims calnilaiAd 
to funilsb the »auie ■iimunu uf illii<^illi)q matters. 
Tbey eon'^ln<l<' ttwt '■ We have noi yottiitlieicut daU, 
frnin actual fcitlhii^-i-xiieriiueDt^. upon which to baao 
a reliabi*? calculutlun of tlie Rialnti:rii.uire-rntlnn, or 
of a ration for Ihc produdian nf a orrtain «fteel,**^ 
{Hep. Cornell unic. exp. »tat., l»i&'-«S, 18.) ii. p. a. 

1149 

Oetertnlnatlou of piot«llie. — Trial* of StulMr's 
iueLho4l of nepAnillng tni<< pfotetn<' fMttk oth^r nitro* 
K«]iMU< DintUT* foiled to kIvc X«wbury cwm-onluit 
resulUi in llic <:«»i> Of noTrjd cr>ncriilr.it':() fodder*, 
and uuiDi^rouft liifficiiKiM in mauipulalion wen' cx- 
poriODCiKl. Willi coane (oddora the rtsulta w«re 
coacordant. — \ftep. CiunrU k«iV. ftp. ■ful,. ie?2-8S. 
.-H-f II. p. A. [146 

Detenni nation of pboapboiic add. — Peiuber- 
tnn'^ tncllioil for Ihe Toliimctric dGlcniiinatlou vf 
phosphoric acid in fertliiien* by tltratlnn with a 
fttandard solution of uuimoniuiti malylMlaie (laTo 
result* closely ai;re«ing with ^r»tinlK^ic deUiruilna- 
tlons. Two inproTeiiienLs in the proc«.'>» are dp- 
scribed. —(Kep. Corjtrii unte. tiii. rtot. l(*82-(*.'l. S& J 
II. f. \. |147 

UINEBALOOY. 

Peculiar crystalB of fluorlte, — t)n a hand speci- 
men of IliLorite. probably frotii Zliinwalil, Buhemia, 
P. J. E*. Van Talker noilcml Uiat thiTi^ w«rv <>n all 
(if Uie small cryntnls, wblcli w«>ni comblDalluns of 
irube, hexoctahcdroD. and otflahclron. well-di'fineiil 
marking* on i-vch etibtc face, making a ixrf^ci rec- 
tartgle whose sides were parsllel lo the inlcrvctioii 
of the cube and oetabe^lron. To (m*oui»i f'lr tliesM 
I>«ciiliar marking, whlolt were prc..4i-nt on all of iho 
crystalB, \\w anibor suRgealeil lliat eaeh crystal might 
orl;;liially liave l>e<>ii of a simpler form, an>iiii>l which 
a sub«equ>mt slifill of iliiorite luut )k)>>n de|Msited; 
and a wctton from a sin):le crystal, cut near and 
parallel lo a ctiWc (»«•. nbowiil, wb«"n riiamined by 
tnincinltt^sl ifghr. a colorless centre, with the i¥cian< 
)Enbr luarklng appt_-arlng an a dotlest linr>, and outride 
of itits anoiTtcr volorle«9 |>otlI<in voinplellng th« crys- 
tal. This fnllr rofifirnkod |.Ii'> anilior's 9ui{Ke*tIun 
of on enclosure of Quorilc in fluorlLe, showing: thai 
the crystals wen? origjiinlly of simple rorni, combina- 
tion* of cube and oclalietlroii, which bail Ireei^uiw 
coated with somf pigment, and siibnei|neniiy anothpr 
deposit of lluoritv had laketi place, bull<llnu up the 
bexdntobedruti pliuioA \m all of the solid *ii(;l'«. ^ 
iZrifcwAr. kn/aL, tH. «7.( s. r.. p. |14e 

OBOLOQT. 

Idtlwlofy- 
The eruptive rocks of Trybars, Bcbwars- 
wald. — <M.*<>rgi:^ il. Williams has published fur th« 
doctorate Jpi-ree a vahubl'? petrographk-.*! paper un 
the Trj'berg region, the couniry rocks of whlrh are 
tiuel**, ^ranliMe, ami ijraniie. cut by dikes of graiiile, 
■]Uarir-|Hirphyry, tiiii'a-*yi't»llr-|jiirph)ri;j', nilra^lln. 



U2 



SCIENCE, 



(Vol. It., Ho. tt. 



pfi^ii » porliciTi nl thf? Ki'^s^lberg irea. Thf craallll« Is 
a. cry8Ullin« criknuUr mlxiur« of (el*i>ar, tuitnz, itnil 
blntll«, Kiiil if rr^anlttd a« h lyplcftl nick iif iU klhil. 
Tlie •)u»rtf-i»irplivry hM n Ci>mf>ikct. red groundmiiu 
Itorphyriiiciilly i-nclu«intc ')UKrl£ kii<1 fvltjttr. klao 
Mollt«, npntltn, unil uixgtK-U'.n. Ttic inicn-fyvnlUi* 
{Hirptiyry Iiai a comiiACt, dec)' rcd'llih-bromt grounil- 
Rui<is, Ittililliig Iflutiu ftnd fclapoTt m wa)1 tx some 

Tfa« ii>^|))iiOii)«^t>ii'itilt $tiows It compaci, Krmuidli- 
bbek |;ruuiiilm«!k.>. lioMiiif; rrfstain ninl f;rAirt« nf n 
frtwh, neuly coltxlCM olivino. Tlir [:iviiiiiilina»< U 
composeil uf n tnlxtun- <>f aukIip, lilllv olivluc i^rya- 
lals, anil mminrtll<> ifnun* c>>itH>til<-(l by * C)li)rt»><v> 
niftM of iie|>lifllt? and glun. Some n-dilish brown 
blollti' wat observed, wtiilo npatilc In llttK- nei'dltia 
«>ccun abnnilantly. Tliti ])miht Ik Accompanied bv a 
pUu- uii) ni«|>, wliilo tbr cInMiOcalion fallowed Is 
tliiLt.nl PrwI. RHSi-nhiJSL-li of Heidelberg, wilh whom 
Dr. Wllllami Miidkd. 'I*Ii1b clnsoilicattnn of pniplire 
rucki l* now ib(! prcv^ilin); one in ().'iin«ny, ami, on 
actromit nf iIk* nitnilHrnF Itn4f<nhii>i<-li*s ntudrnMron- 
nwtti] wilh tlip r.S. ctwiouir.tl survey and mitbtwlicr 
litsMliition*, will ha »(Hia K«ucraily tuiil In Am>rf 
ie!ti,~fyme* inAWi. Mu'n., Ult., IS^t-l, li.l u. i;. w. 

1149 
aSOORAPHT. 

f Aivat.) 

DftnUb ezt>«dltlotui In Orevolauia in 1883 — 

Dr. Itink, who In nuw rcaldeiit lu Krisliauia. gives 
Boni^ d«tallfl AS to the proposed wnrk far thia a-a- 
«oii. LienU <i. Bolm, assisted by Lieut. Ganlft, 
ICeoJogUt KntiLt«n, bounlat F.twrlin (who alan ai-l« aa 
^iirgoon), and a nnnibiT nf trrwrilantlvM, will under- 
iak« the exploration of tlit! i'ast«ra coast oi (^rton- 
laad Id uuilaks, iu the narrow Ktrip uf wntvr bctwvua 
ibe gr«al atrcnm of drifl-ic<* «inl tin- Hhnra, wlit>re 
ttiCM boau tnAf be able to tecomjAhh niudi not 
prautlcabitt for a ve>is«1 Thvy will vndeavur lu post 
lhenrii1beni«xiri>ni« readied by^drnah, lU^H--30, and 
la p.-netnite to the lii(«rior by soino of the d«p fiords, 
thus obUiinin^ Bome ld<;a of l1k> rt>i;iun betnevn Un<in 
ftod the wealeru coaM. The other expedlllon will 
viidr.Avor Ut ma(i \l\e iinexplom) portion of the w«at- 
cm coaat between f;T° and lit" N. lai., and will be 
coiumaDdt»l by Lieut. Haiiiiaer, aasbted by Sylow 
aa ^job^giNt, and navitl Lieut. I^oeii. Pfotlcii lias 
already been inlccn of the arrival of thc9<> pu-tii!.<i in 
fin-enlaufl. — (.Yaliu-fii, Mai. IS83.) tv. ii. n. tUO 

Tbe death of Crsvatuc — Tbtt d>-t«ila of the ile- 
»truciiun of tlila f^atlant L'lplorar and til* parly have 
been obtaitifsl fmin a native inleqtretfir. who waa 
luadi; raplivv at ihr lime, but Qnally escaped aorosa 
th« ileacj-l to Ankarolii^n. The parly bad arrivad at 
a apot on tb<r right bunk of tbi> F^lroinayo, Ave leagues 
HtK>ve the f!lo Tlgre, wlit-rv tbore is u villaga of Toba 
Indiana oalled C;i ■'arouril. Aflar having bMnaaeurud 
nf a peapefcil wc\eomei the do<:tor bt>gan In dl*tHbut« 
preienia to the lutlv/s, who, at lhe> adv)c<> of Ihclr 
chief. rMiilerwl covutflfuii by the siglil of ihe valiiablp* 
ill the liaiid* of the ^arty, fell suddunly upon the ex- 



plomrt, ami -m- on ttir ■bur«. Tl 

ib^* bfuta I ui rvraitr by *win<ii 

were punupil, ami i-i-tnralof ihnni klll'><l Ui ihr n.*!- 1 

Only tW'>, llnliruL an>1 IlliUiC<>, Imlnn iloml oiriniTtn r - 

siiecrvdvil III ti>a<.>)iin;K llie t>ppo«jt>> Miurf . ' 
thfimsclvpi in lh» foreal. Nothing hut bv i 
them Bliice. Tli^ Interpreter waa mrripd .>a *• 4 
prJMiner. The bndlu were thrown iliU> Ibi* wnli-i 
or Ml wlit-rp they fell, Pn-epi that of Dr. Crov.vix. 
which wiu rarrli-d to a nei^iibnrlti;,' rlllage, «li>;r 
for lhiriy-*ix hour* the Tolia* nitii; and i>erI"rMi>?.] 
Incantaliuno anmnd It. nri)>r wlildi it wm couveji^l 
la a s|)ot ne«Lr u> oitd vlslhlt^ froni the liuu. Tbr 
Antentlne govvrnnieitt has aenl L'ul. .Sol mIUi two 
hundred men tip the I'Droniayo to pnni«h tlw BAaa»- 
aiii<i, white ihe i;eographir4l xocifly ol lliiritna Ayra* 
lia» tent ono of lu number l<> M-arch fur the- two 
lurvlvors, nnd report on the wbolr siibi<tc(. — W, It. r>. 

tISl 

Ciavaiuc'a voyac** ii> Otiiana.— Henri Pn>ulr- 
vaiix siiiumariiri^a pri-rioUKlnveifll^aliousof iberlvitrK 
of naloiio. and narmUiB the advances due to Cn>vanx. 
He notes that Oie IndlgenoUB iwpiilnilon of Guiana 
is vi«lbly dpcreonlni;, an>l <<lat>-« that ( remiiv Ik-IIi'vp^I. 
Uial. judging by the almndancf of vHlacT' < 

relien on the river-banks now abftolulely di i 
tbent woa funnerly an abumlant population. — [lUe. 
•j^'jr . May. I(«a.') w. it. n. U3 

Notes. — Dr. fitiiafi*ldl ha» mode Inierfiatlo); irii;- 
omiini-tricnl flnrveya In the t.'ordlltera, toeether with 
oliHitnatioiM on Klaciora. He will soon talio up the 
reffloii al>oul Acontragiia. Thw RukIIhIi brntli*.'rS 

ll««l<old. with Ibr warmi-ftt upprohnllon of the gov- 
ernment of Ihe rcimblk, have undertaken a mry exo^t 
gei>logi<raI. luineralogic-ul, and natural hi«t->ry *urvi-y 
<if llie different Argpnline «tat<M. — {Milt, 'jritffr. yo. 
mtii, xxvl. no. V.) w. II. r>. [153 

(A.M01.) 

NuiDb«r of J«wB in AMCn. — Acrordhig to the 
eHllaiate of Hriinialti, Lbe Jews In Africa number 
VrO.'VU). Gerhard RohlfsehlltrtMe this as muirh loo 
hish, and, by reviewing the eatiniaten of popnialk 
In all itarta of the cominent, condudea that Z2(i,f 
Is much nearer the truth. — (PHertn. tft'tyr. mttttC' 
ISH-LilL) v.M.V. |154 

The ooast-Uae of Tonla. — In hts dcwrlptJon of 
the Mediterranean lands, Th. Klnoh'T baa included 
Tunia In Ihe area of riaini; cuaaU about Sicily, 
Sitrdinla, and Routh-eaatem France. The i-orrettncsii 
of this is ijucstloned by Dr. J. Pitrtsch of BrYulati, 
who pres4!nt> a cuiutldHrable inasH uf evidence to sti"w 
that lbe TuninUn shnre<i have not changed their 
Altitude in Uie historic peritxl, ntlhoii^b their oitl- 
liue hog varied di»liiirtly at iwrloin (MtintA br drlta 
f;rowib. The rivet Misljerda llbr ancient fiagntiUs) 
has shifted its inouih xeveral miles lo the north, ami 
built out Ita delta into the Gulf of TunU; and Uu» 
In coiublnailon with the wind-action, by which inud 
hiu bi*4'n blown inland (rout Ihe shore, baa aililoit 
nearly one hniidriMl squnn* mlle-< of lowland bUl^tde 
of the wBSt'liMv of Lbe third reiilury l<e(ofe ('litnL 
Pur>u«r liiiea nf river-flow are dutliicUy rlsibla al 



Avawc », 1883.] 



SCIENCE. 



u;) 



Mreral poinla. Bat kII Ihis, aiiO other facia u( a aim* 
Uw luttirr, miut not be eiplalnei) by an elevation ot 
ibe IkikI: for Ure niln« of Cartbtige, ou a promontory 
A few Etlito* lo the south. Are «lill rluM to t)t^ sea, aiiO 
Uie rvinalnfl of some of ItH barhf^r-wnrka ttre yr^t at 
iltfi wat<!f'3 eiiiie, A Tiuittly of aaui-.<»t and modt'rn 
d«M!rl|itiuii« of UiU n^Ioii an- rr/*Tn;<l to.— (P#trm». 
i/togr. mUlL, Ift^a, »11, map.) w. u. u. [155 

ZOOLOOT. 

FnteMtt. 

Xlew aporoeoon. — A. Scbn«ld«r ha« dlicoTcrad 
In the Malplghlan veswlfi of IflApa an amoeboid pan- 
tile. MulU|>lic.tiloii laltes )>)»<:« priaolpallr by luenuA 
of Cyata. Eiicj^tniMit oixun ontj- lictwvcn itxlirid- 
uala Willi a RlnKb- niK^leuB antl ot tpbnrlcal form. The 
two coiijuiEiiteil ui>|aM<«it]8 KccrtU arDuo<t tlicmaclreB 
WTi-ral «iiv<-lop«!*. i-iM-b marked frith an »qualoriaI 
line of dchlftccnre. Each of ibc two ducIc! divide 
ialo Uiraa. Of the sii nuclei thus (onnetl. four, 
t«g«Ui*r wltfa a part of the gntnular ma»s, remain 
onnied, while the oiher two )>ecoine th«< aporea. The 
spMles Is named Ophr.vM-yAtis UiitAchlli. — IComptea 
rendns. 1863. 1378; .Inn. mag. n<U. kixt., xi. 400.) 
c. a- M. (1S6 

Electa. 

Obaarvatlooa ou HymenoptenL— In part x. ot 
Ilia Oliservatinn^, Lnbhock aoawtn aoma of Dr. 
Uullirr's objections to hia mflthods In atndrin^ thi* 
oolo^prvferencm of the bivp-befl, beUevlug that hie 
conclu»ioii9 are not Invalidated by them. To teit 
the *enw of bearing In lw««, (elephonlr comnmnlca- 
tlon WM eitobllabcd hetwmn two acts of boF,*. one 
of vliicb WHS iben excited, but with no effect on 
the oth«r. OIIk-i-s w«ro noniHiumpi) to visit honey 
piMCd neftr a mnaic-box, the potflUoii of wblob was 
ecvenl tioiea changed. Thu lieea did ntii, howerer. 
appear lo hear lite music, tbou^h lltey neem ui haw 
connected the preMnce of the Initniment with tliat 
ot the hone}-, and wf re cnldi-d liy It, even if it were 
not jilayinK, to long iw lh^«y could »w U; but if Ibey 
ci>uld not H-c It, preti if il wfi* playing, it did not 
•Mlat them. It is. bowovcr, unerrtaln bat thai hlfib 
OTer-lonrs, b«yuud onr range of bearing, may he 
audible to beee. 

Further experiiueota 9e«m to show that the InditK. 
Uy of wasps has bei>n nndf-rrated. One indlviduiil 
▼Uited koioo honey no les^ than a hundred and six- 
twri tiniea in a dur, t<iiutiri)t tii^nii^if «ach time, and 
rarrylu); away mnre thiui tttity-four grains nf honry. 
B»r worklng'boitnt extviidod from 4.i;t a.m. lo "1.47 
r.M., xrfaitA » he<*, W'>rklrig on lioney ttu* *an>e day, 
mailff but twenty<ntni> vi»H», b«tWL>eTi u.4& a.u. and 
7.16 P.M. 

A (Turimu di^ionstralion of the recognition of the 
ifueen by wnrker-anla was made In the foUowlnR 
vny: "I was At&rttng a new bciit i<f Laalus llaviis 
In whieli were l>vo ifueena. Wi- aIlow4>d th<> ants to 
take one of Ihein into their n«w k'^** li'>u>e; the 
other we lc<-|>< with a small retlnne in a iwparAti* liut- 
tlo. ]f this iMiitl** ix iil«r.Ml ni?ar the ne*l, some of 
tlw nlinue Uwiv It, so into thv ne>t, and lOon the 



anto eome out In fau-ge nurnben to oee, I had altuoA 
aald to pay thf^lr rdxprcra to, their t|uc«n.*' 

Th« dislike of ant^fortlic uUro-vitdel raya of the 
(peplrum, Indicatrd by earlitrr '■xp-.Timenta. wa.* fur- 
Uier «hnwn by th* uae of two ticreena, — "ne consist- 
ing of a (>olullun of Iodine in carbon bisulphide ; tho 
other of Indigo, carmine, and roseine, mixed ku a* to 
prvxlucv the same lint, bnl nol, liko iii$ bbulphlde 
solution, (nterei'pUng the ul(.ra-violei mys. Tha 
ants collectfid, in tno.n Instanre-i, under the iodioe 
acre^-R, 

The record of the oeenrrenm of Ponera eonLra^ta 
in England, and the deacHption of a new Australian 
honey-anl, >reluphurn» Bai;oti, an: of iutere.it to the 
f^lemallst. — {jfonm. Lima, mm., to^, xvlL) w. t. 

|U7 
{Sran«'it' *nfomotoffy.) 

Inaecta affectiiig the abmavberry.^Profeiuor 
S. A. Forbes iiimmaricoi what ho/ been published 
reapcciing tlie luiieois that Infest the strawberry la 
the Uniteil Suies, and adds oHgliial obsenatlotas 
reapwUnK oevr*! uf tbnui. Tlieae ulu^rvallont refer 
chli'dy to the crown-borer, the rooi^worm, and Urn 
crown-miner. A rary iise/ut calendar Is Klven, Inill- 
eating in ■ coticUe fonit the period* of eacli of the 
fipooles dlficuBAed and iha panlenlar place In which 
each Inauot occurs In each of in stagea. — ITVona. 
-WfM. Valtty horl. »oc, W^t J. u. C 1158 

Tb« bop- viae boter. — AlihouRh thl» pest has 
been very dettnictive for many year", Ih" li(*-hblory 
of the fipeelds has not been Irnown nil now. Prof. 
Conuuwk glveaan account, with flgures, of the Inaect 
In each of Iti itasos. — (jtnwr. ogHc, Jnat, 1863.) 

' [1S9 

VBBTBBRATBB. 
Are tfashingaalr-tieht? — That tlie lungs ar« nor- 
mally alr-tl]>lit luider tbe onlinary condition of life 
has been accepted In pliysiolot;y as an altnust oevea- 
flary coiiwi]iie(ic« of the funcliun which they perform. 
Ewald and Kobert hare lately rctiorled aocnc experi- 
ments which appear to show that thl.s belief t.* not 
strictly correct. If the intra- pulinouic pr«!>«ure Is 
raised above a certain limit, no! htgiber than may 
occur normally during life, there Is an eno'apc of air 
from the lungs Into the pleural eavlty ur Into ihn 
blood-vessels of the pulmonary circalation. ^Vhen 
A trurarlKwl dog was exposed to arttfieiat respiration 
ai a proporllonolly hl(;b pr^&sure for about an hour, 
the <to|! killed, and the chest opened under water, 
both the pteiimi tmvlty and the lieart were found TO 
cotitAin air. K^perimenta made upon ex^'ts^d lungt, 
expanded under water by poililve pressure, showed, 
thai, at a certain prrssitre, air t-acaped, while, if Lfae 
prc.«»ure wim again lowered, tbe lungs again bCM'Mne 
nir-iight. llic authors satisfied theuiMlvca in all 
caves that there was im> actual groH ruptun> of Ihe 
lung-tissue or blnod-ve4«e]s. The maximal expirato- 
ry pmsnre which a dog can produce wai foand to 
vary between SO mras. and itt mtns. of nercurjr; 
while, (u get an escape of .lir Into (he pleural cavity or 
heart, Il wiu only necessAry to keep the intra»puimon- 
Ic preHure at about 39 mmx. of merrury. A similar 
iMuJl was obtained with tmbblia. The escape of air 



( 



144 



SCIEyCE, 



IVoi- U., So. 



tnxy [&kd |iUc« iioi only Uuoa^ iiui Wklii uf (he 
ftUeoli. Iiut kIso through the tnetiOB, with Uia pro- 
dtiirtion of cmi>)iyi4eiDA of llie fnljciitjuteoiu cellular 
titiU)- at the iirck, wlilrh in Uutf. iiiAy Kjirnaal >U far 
MS thi> f sin^miUr:!) of the brnlj, ']1ie ))C<'tillkr [mUuh 
In lliQ ch<!M wlilcli fomctltuM follow upon violcjit ex- 
plrklorjr cHuru mAjr Ix- uwlii);, ibny think, to m stnnll 
tfoeapr of air into iJie pleural oaritj. So miknf lilthfir- 
to iiiexi>1ICAbl« cu<ei in irbleh, &fU'r •iidilra duaUt. 
kir Iui8 bvcn fuuml in tbo twort or pleutal cavity. 
Althongti ihere wn» no evitlenO' of mit mpliire, 
m&y b« rxplalned in this way l>y the e>cap« of air 
through Itui lunf^-tlfisue. — iPJUiytr'* an/ilc, xxx\. 
100.) w. II. u. 1160 

8truatarel«Bt basal aiibBtanct. — Tlit stnt«tur«> 
If.^ •uUfUncfl trhk-b turnm the biui)i of tlie 'Jelly* in 
medusuc, Enji^ry Uiiuks, is still represented In the 
blitlipr auiinals. prec«iling In cenaln plnc^M the true 
*'onn«'tive tl»su«. Emery employe tlio nun* firwn 
by flensen, ' Ii>au« of su-r«lii>ii,' It t>^inR !iapiw*ed to 
be secrvled by thi' nurroundln;; eplthHIa. In v«r<«- 
bnl«s ui aublsUc layer in tho oomva prMedea til* 
true cotinedtiva tUiiitt (KonOer, Eiiiitryj. Jn the 
ambryM of ti^kcMts, piuticularly those that lowv. 
the esic early, the oi-lodertu Is Affpatmteil by a llilck 
Uiyi^r »f honii>g<>n«ou», iinorganlziKl matter from the 
innrr U»itur«. This hyaline mkas alfo hil* out ch« 
embryonic mediAn dns. It is probably ehanged later 
Into iTounectlve titaue by tbe immicrnllou of eella. 
The clear nii^iubnuie* aepaiating two atljaiLvnl «pflbe> 
lia, or an eplthelinm from ennucetlTe Usinifl, tbe 
vlir»>u9 humor, and thf Nubttaitce filling iliu B4>gnietf 
tfttioii carlty of tin* ovuni, aiv aUo, |tcr)uipii, to be 
ennmeraUHl hen- m preterrallon* of a vi*r>' andeni. 
}>ritnitl<re formation, —the thsiir of Becrcllon of the 
musliliilAut ancntun of vertobratct, Its sxemsiira 
dvvi'lupmirnt in teleiiat larvae h probably an acquired 
embryonic characleriaUc. This interesting little pa- 
per especially d«B«rv8s attention from those studying 
tbe embryology of flabw. — (itrcA. ttoLbtot., ill. 37.) 
c s. M. {161 

Fisb. 

Motor<nerv« endiDga.— .Ciaccio has Invesllgated 
the motor-Di^rvir plittt^ii in ihe depretsor niutcle of the 
Jaw of TorpU4lo marmornta by treatment wiih doublp 
vliloride of gold ami ea>)mium. From tbe anterior 
third of tbe muscles, strips one millimclre ibick 
weie (rat with sclssora ; the strips were then left for 
five minutes In fresh Altered lemon-juice, washed In 
distilled water, and placed for half an hour in a one- 
per-vDiil sulnUun uf koM and cailinium, being kept 
dark: washed a^ln Inone-j-cr-cnt afjueonft solnilon 
of formic acid, in vrhlch tbcy wero left twolve houra in 
Uie dark, Dton twelve in the ligtit; Hnally, kept in the 
dark In sUwnger formic acid for one day, ami pt^ 
served in glycerlno. Such strips may be easily dis- 
sociated Into Bbre«. 

Two forms of nerve-endings arc obserrod. One, 
the rarer, represents probably the Initial form : ir con- 
itela of bunches of grains, suspended by peduncles 
ariduK l>y rc|>eated division of tliepale fibres toirardi 
tlieir lenuitiation. Tlir necond form ha* been pro- 
riously described {Man, accad. ae. Mit. fiojoi/no. 



1^7). bnt Lhi> folluwinK new points (li<(<ert« ni 
ibc end-plate Bp|>eari to be mom closely anited 
iiArcDlemm.i than 1o tbe muscular entntanca; bef' 
tlie nkniifi'-aiiimn of ll(i> fllirm appear certain Cvirin 
cl"'*, pi-obshly ciinnwtlve tlMin^, but wheilinr ibi 
lie witliiii nr wUhuiit the tarcolewma was ttot del 
mined; n M-i-nintary ulinnlli extends orer thi; print 
and »econ4Ur>', bnt stops at the tertiary brancbei 
tbe ultimate terminations are banches of 
lated grains, the grains being oolored dtil^ 
stalks llf;ht; flnatly, the presenre of a grannl 
bedding *ub<iiaiice ;irmtnd the nervous iiranchea. 
(^reJli. UaU bioL. ill. lb.) <'. a. u. 

Fiahea of tbe Batatoe River, New Jeney. 
Professor E. D. ("oi>e stateil that eleven «|>ecle* 
lected In the coufimvl w-atem uf a broken dam on 
KatsLon lUvcr, New Jersey. repri'»ftliled Uie Hsb fan 
of the Cnrollntan district of the nearctlr renJm, oi 
three t:il«Dd!nf[ Into the .UleiKlianiau dlslrict, 
npecire "f Ariiiurus new to acience was al nr*t SQ 
posod to be an iinusnally dark-colored example of t 
coionaii Amlurus nelfulosoa. A critical euuulni 
tloD soon showed that it dlffon In llie Imjioi 
cliaraeiers of the constderablj more anterior iixaiil 
of tbe dorsal fin, four to seven more anal rai 
more rounded outline of the caudal Hn. Its 
ten ally 11 lo tbe wastem A. naiolis, from w 
differs by Its more slender form and mora 
catidal flu. The nana A. proatblstius ww p 
for lu — i Acad, iwt, »e, PMlad.; m*€tlt^ June ail.) 



Color-markinga of mammals. — Proft:ssor £1 
baiconlinuivl hi<i studies In i-e^ard to the color-mar, 
lag* of vertebrates. 

As the result of his otnerrations, be has drawn* 
certain general prlnriplcs, which he upptlea tO 
diSeront f;roups. notably to the mammals. 

Tbe following general statemeuis aru clatMraia 
1. That tbe color-markio>;s of maiunixU may tie t 
dueed to longitudinal stripes, spots, and tranive 
stripes: 2. That the longitudinal stripes ure the ol 
est form, and that the other two follow in com 
3. That the primitive mammalian fauna was a t< 
gltudlnallj striped one; 4. That the males have bi 
first to talie on the new forms of markings, whl 
tbe frmatM hold longer to the older form; 5. Th 
the cffocU of ibi- law by which the development of ll 
niorklngii lakes place from Che ix^Hterior part of ll 
btxly toward the anterior jiart are not ao easily ti 
in mammals as in the case of other groups, sik 
as the aaurtans; d. That Id mammal!- the devola 
meiit of markings follows a regular course, that 
the longitudinal maridnga are fuUownl by spoi 
which, In turn, run together, and finally form t 
transverse or llKer stripes; 7, Thai the poslUon 
the amallesi, spot on a mammal la not accidental, b 
due to th<- action of genetic and phJIogen^Llc la' 
fi-om which it follow* that markings are an avalUb 
means for tlie determination of species; S. That 
regularity of the development of ninrkinga slv 
that they arise from consillutJonal causae. 

Tbe author takes the Vlverridae a* the origb 



AuGtm- 3, ISSS.1 



SCIENCE, 



145 



typ«* t>f tliv utrnlr9r«9, ami bdl^vt^s tliat in th« Uj-eiu, 
•'»U, '!og«, l)«an, aui] nrejuels, be c«ti lnic<? tlic fotiii 
*u4 poiitian of initrkln^ii piiaseaMd by the former. H« 
arknowledgcs several 'lifDciilties, bowever, tn Die 
Cflje ot tbe I«Of>anI, jxguar, atiil olhtr |wuli«riy •pot- 
ted caU. He bell^rft.t that the ungiilaiA* follow Ihe 
«&ae law lu regard u> ntArkin^ as tliu caruirores. — 
iJafu-t^h. v^ntn B«lrr(, nutnrk. iritrW., ix«l«. 1888. 
68. ( r.V.T. 1164 

AtnotJon oE tbo OTlco-tbyrofd musole. — 
ManH brings fonrAnl aome cxperimoiiu to ihovr 
that thn crko-tbyrold, and not tbe ibyro-arjXi-noid 
mutolft |» par p<l(^eIlcnc« Uie muselo tucd In thit 
jiroductioti of dltlfreiil UtTie» in sinking and speaking. 
Tliff nio«t iulerettlug |>olni of tlie [>nper, perhaps, >«, 
Uiat txc *)iow>, by F^xlst*>nn^ uiib niniplo leren the 
iiMVGni<>jita i>f Uie tbvroid and cricoid corttiagea re- 
apectlvciy, ilial, vIicd tb« diOcrcut cbv9l-iiu[«a (from 
to rfo'J arfl Kminrfed, th* thyroid rartii^e rc- 
Idk immovable, while the cricoid is brotu[ht doner 
and closer to ii as ihc pUi-b of the noi« ia ralRcd. 
In the ccjiitracLioa of ibo crico-lhyroid tuuwle, or, as 
he r*ef«r« (o call it, the Ihyro-cricold inuiclc, the 
thyroid canilagu Is llw>refoTA to be tonsid«r«d as 
tha Itxcd point. The fr^Koii of the tbyco-arytenolil 
mtucln, accunling to hira. Is proparatory to that of 
the crluo-ihyrold. In that U gives the vocal cord« tb^^lr 
pru])er position, and act^ an an antagonist to the 
latter tnuscK The length nnd uuslon of the vocal 
conls, hotrevpr, are governed l>j lli* cricm-Uiyroid. 
This view ni ilie fnnctlon of rhe crlcn-thyrold 1% sup- 
port«d by the rv>.<ulia ojuialnvd when the mu»de, or 
ih« nerve giuni; to It. is dtvldtfd Ui iho dog, and, 
titnoiig mia, by Dm puiLho logical cases In which thpri> 
[■ paralyiiR of this masclc. The general rcsnlt In 
«ueb owes ia a pronouoced hoarseness, and an in- 
ability tn soQod any but the lowest tones. — MrcA. 
dt piit/sinl.. ISaS, r>8'2.) W. n. it. ]1€5 

Buounatioa of atlmnli io the aenaory D«riraa 
of mtui. — From numerous cxporimcnt^ made upon 
Uiuunll with «)Bctriml stimuli, de n'att«rflle comes 
Ut thr conclusion that the actloR of atimnll applied to 
a sensory nerve lncn*aaeit, withiti cvrlain limits, tritli 
ihelr f n^iuency. Stimuli whieh are tnhinlnlinal, at 
long as tbvy follow nt »low intarvali. will call forth 
a aeniaHon n lixn londu to follow each oLliur with 
Ilt rupi'iity. This summation taiiM place more 
ily H-lii'u the Riluiiilatcd nerve is axpotod to tha 
iwUon of tlin kathode: and the author it of the opin- 
ion lliat it 1b local, as in moior uervea, and not cen- 
tral. 1*he AummaUou mny lie explalmrd as Ibe afU-j 
action of electrical stiiuulatlon; the Induction shocks 
foUowltig with inch npidity Uiat th<> nxclUtliun in 
Rach casA falls within Uif ]>crtotl of hHghiened irriui- 
wn%.y.~iNevrot. erntratbi. no. 7, 18tM.) w. u. a, 

|166 
ANTHSaPOLOGT. 

Tribute to Ametioui scholaiabip. — An inter- 

'wting Iribut'" to Aincrinan •rholarship is paid in Ibe 

I fact that M. Ilarhlrr.on tlieanlhorityof Mr. Stt^phcuK 

Hinl Uttrr writer*, was M9tliiii:np Del Klu't ' linagos 

of ro^t 111 lias>rvlW in front o( the model of tlw 



Temple of the Sun, m he had done in the Trucadero. 
Dr. Itau of the Smtili«unlan Initlitntion drew hlB 
atteuioD to Del Itio's dr^ripiioa of tfi>? Temple of 
the Crow, as well as to the bUtcnii'iilx of Du|Mi:> and 
tjatiiido; and th" t>a4-r«l|e(iiat Wafihingtoawill Hand 
in l)i>'lr pnipcr place In front of Ibe shrine containing 
the Ktonp of Uic Cro^a. AKaia. Trof. Cyrus lljoma* 
bos diMoTentd th.it the cast im ihu left slab of the 
Tahtet ot tha Crom* prom tnnciusivi^ly the corn:Ct- 
nesi of Ihfi utAtcment previously miule in S<:ib5CB. 
thai Waldectc's fiKuri* of this slab, at publisheil t>y 
the French scienillic cominisdon. IHWMIft. was cop- 
ied from Catberwood's drawing. Tlils It proved by 
the fact that Caiherwood'fi errors, of which .M. Cbar- 
nay's cast l>rim;s to view f)uite a number, are all 
faithfully reproduced la Waideck. — o. T. u. [167 

PrehlatoHo trepanning. — The object ot recmll- 
luK attention to thU much di^scribed subject Is Io 
spitak of IImt novel ftxiierimcnta nf I.. Oapltan. Many 
yean ago Dr. Charles l^aii, wishing to know how 
long It would take a savage tu bora a holv throutfb a 
har^ rook with a wooden spindle, using k;iiiiI and 
water, acLuall; ma<ie the experiment, and has put on 
record his experlenceL M, Caplun baa pnM»ed«d to 
the same way respecting prehistoric trephining. iMt- 
ing the various methods of boring and of removing a 
rondellc or fragment of bona. Tbft cxijerlments on 
the ikults of the dead were to study thu methods, the 
difllctilties in the way of the nporntion, and tli« time 
ro<|uired. It is the (rephlniug of thu living among 
savages, and Ute faulllyor llie result, that moMt inter- 
»t the student; therefore U. Capltan cuntlnuM hi* 
rescarebvs upon living canine subjects. Tb« first 
expHrimr.nt was upon a small spaniel. The skin of 
the hooil and («mpoml muscle were removed, and tha 
tniphiuiue was practised upon the sntero-superlor 
pnrltnn of tlie right |>arietal. The operation was not 
Yer>- painful, and in twenty mlnutRs a romlflle of 
bunu was rumovcd. Tbvrv waa little hemorrhage and 
the meninges were not wounded. Afti<r a few days 
the spaniel wasaa lively as ever. Two other dtigi* were 
subsequently treaud, with tike success. Just what 
the method and amount of cicatrisation might tie, 
after such prltnitive operations, will be known when 
tho auto|iay of Ibe subjects takes place in tbc future. 
— {JiulL f'ic. unlhrvp. Paris. v.SS&.J j. w. !■. [168 

CatUnlCt. — The beautiful red stone pipes in col- 
lecUons ot Indian <:uluuv-obje<:t8 ate innd« of a ston* 
called catUnile. Mr. E. A. UarU-r tells us that for 
nany generAllons ihe aboriglnea have procured this 
maioial from the Great red plpestone qUBrry. situ- 
ated on the dividing- ridge between the Minnesota 
and .Missouri river*, nt a plare called by tin- Frernrh 
C'.vleau dr» prairiKt. Cailln. the celebrated cravol- 
ler, was tha fir>t whltv man |>erinltL«d liy tlie ludiann 
to visit the place; and therefore Dr. C. T. Jackson. 
lo whom ipedmcns wer« senu named the mineral 
catllnlte. Thi> myths relating to the quarry, as wdl as 
surface iodlcatlous, show that the place luis been 
workM fur a very loni; lime, In 1073 MAr>^il<-ue 
>mokcd In peace a cailinite plp<i with tb>^ Indlant of 
iho upper Misnis<ippl. Father Hennepin applies the 
lenn 'calutoeC bi llirse cercmoitial plpM. ThareUuo 



lUi 



SCIENCE, 



1 Vrt» 



thi* 



ngiii.-.i '.r.'" 

DMOtA on Ltir' Ili'llli !'< [Ii>^ liiill 

Ibal objects of culinitt' tmvn b- ' 
gniTee In tlio tUteof N>w Tor)i, .\no rii^; '.'.[ht' k-tv 
(oanil on U>0 lui'^ictit ftlt^- of on oltntidinipd riliagc In 
Goontlx, ur ' iwrlv*' biindml milo* ilis- 

Iniil froiii irry o( MiimevoU, rvvf^ls 

ilic v'real n.tui lit irir> [ i>inniti(il>:aUon irlii(!li for- 
merly c^inij^d utyiy^ llif Nonh AiiKTk&o proiiJrfl, 
Wlioii w'c cutiftttcr thai imuiy pipca of cftUlnue hftvs 
l>e«ii uki-nfromth? tiottoinof moiindi from four to 
l«v('n(«>trt<!p|;., wli«TP [|i*y wf«r« foHml In nmriFrlion 
with d'<lli-wr«|)ivil copper kzm tuiii mnxtf oth«r nb- 
jccU of blg)i Anti((ulty, uhI that fimc of (tinn arc of 
Um tytiioil ftrmi of the oldf^t ni<iun<]-|>lpM, «« «t« 
(oroed to ftscribB i» some of ilMSin a liigb Miti<)uliy. — 
I Jiii«r. wit, Julr>) J* vr> r. [169 

The Cham»j coUecUon — Vi«ltor« lo Utv N.-i- 
tlonid inuiieuiD at Wulilugton are aur]>riMil lo finJ 
the en-al liall udjuluioj; tlm lost i)i>onriiy on tlit< itouili 
■ide ■hut otT hy scTMn*. Looking: bplilinl ibil bairi- 
cwIp. Uic visitor may !iuaf;in« liiniMilt trantportnl to 
CentKl Amt-'rica, Mnil In the prt^^nrr of totriK of her 
gTKiiilfiit sborisituil reniaitis. Hctv M. Bubitr. from 
till' Trofujero muivum la l'«rf<. (■ »i>Lling np rasta of 
the most, eelrhr«t«4l nVto of Mviicau snd C«iitr»l 
.Vnierlc&n ruiiii •■'Ciirctl l>y M. Cfaamay. The rf»tl- 
era of Sciit>c-K will recall that Mr. Pierre LorilliLnl 
of N«w Vork, con}oinUy wilb Itie Fren.-b (r)vrriim*-nt, 
eijulpiwfl an cxpcdliioii In IH^i. «n<l tnalntnitinl It 
for two yvnn, for s Kysteninlic lnvc*tIg>Uon of th* »o- 
callral 'niinMl ritiei ' and oth<^ r«mKln« uf nnplvnt 
civilization In f.'enirnl Amrrfm ikuil Mxelco. The 
expedition WM plitceil iindtT tlic chnrg*' of M. D^air^ 
Outrnay. and lliorotighly ([imlNhed wlili the means 
of making pliotngr^pha aoit ruls by tlio prorew of 
il. LoHn d« [^thI. f;(ipic« of these 01*11 were Ilnit 
to bf pn-«ftiti!d to llie Smllbsonian ln»Utution and to 
tbi* Fivnch govoriimeiit, the Utter tet to be plartHl in 
ihv Tnn-idero museum at Pari*. The Jtory <>I M. 
Chkniay'e irncets and successr* lias b«i'n told In the 
S'irrh AmtrUan review, comwnir'iag with Aut:ii>^t, 
isv>, ttieiHlitor, Mr. Thomdike Itic^, favoring ami 
LTi<x>ura»lii:; Llie tixpedlllou from the llrrU 31. ChAi- 
nay'i moiildr bavlit)i tivcu iraD^jHtritiJ to Parix, he 
procerded li> makn bi^ reprndii>:t(on», With refer- 
enoe to thn ^mitboonian ««rip«, now l>cliig ad up In 
th« Niittunal masciun, Mr. Itlw writes, '* Theee ca*t« 
lire iloplicatm of thowuow on jiermatient vxhilii'lon 
at IhoTrocAd^ro, Pftri*. Tlie eauita bav«t 1>e«n mmlf 
III oitltT tu alTorcl to sluili'iilf of Ameriiran uiitlqiiUlrt 
Ihe ftille*t opporliiiilty for sliulyius 11 > "• "rmlucis 
of liidlc^-miun art and the hitherUi in ! i- in* 

scrlptioiia." Tberollenion lnclri<|rt« [^ . f from 
Ooo^lnnp.i, the Rtoiieof TUoc. fnitfiueiil from Ten.-uco, 
thtrty-figlil pits-ejt from Pal«'ni|ar, Inrludln^' the 
moH rirlobratcd !<(?(ttpturi>« and tnserlptlonx, ami 
thirty-tour piecm from (liichCD-Iiza. M. Haniy wifl 
•horlly «?»■! » dfiall^^l aixvooi "f "ju-h p)e«e, and Uie 
fy.'AdArs of SciBJit-'R will receivu Ihv b«neni of bl* ln- 



forniatlon. Pn^ftMwr iUiri! i«il! ; 
Ihf 'i'<miplfo( Ui«* Sun avr] tl.,.nr 
(.'n>-*'» mounlml in w>Hvl«-n frkiaa*. 
!?<•« of ihr rcinmi which they on 
— J. w. r. 

BABLT iNaTrronovs. 

Tha Hottinshiuii rvoorda. ^ ' 
biimitttb iif Nollin|;b:inL I.A^i 
t^iuiriirti in Uindon. 

Iiri5 to \r<0. joil itxir II 

brarli!).' !it'>rynt Uiwo 

mttot Ml Mr. U. L. U 

PrimlliTe foik-mcwta. iwiows lh< 
xu totac extract* from lU An 
nlclp;)! rorporMUon of lltf ll(in>' 
ptiinltite vlllac» community 111 % 
opnieDl, he liiscxiien tariitu* rititonti 
ducribri as bclonjtlnf; lo the jirlmitiiT rltlaji 
blsiory of thi' priinillve village If ,: .• esi 

and eiilamvd. S*>me (>tt Int'-rr- ■ \ga 

tnUirc of Ihr riglil of prr-rtnplii>ji tthich hi 
•■iijoyf^. arc giren !t sptt-sr>, thai, "if 
»uld bU land (In v 
lawrully i>uler In:' 
offered to the pun-bj^i 
the money whb-h be !. 
Some pauAges bearing ufoii ilio lut(«ry >«! 
fivlil lyKtam are nlun ejird. 31 r. (^tiintti* 
opt-n-A'^hl Ajitem as 'the i>«»t evldeni-e of 
prlmlUre tenure nt land.' Tbe cusU'in of 
Kni{lish— or * junixr-rifcbt,' »» Mr. Ellitn 
obtained at Nottingham. ~ iTht nnUyi 



NOTES AKD NEWS, 

it Is hoped that the tww ntvlion for 
of the American awoclatlon for ihn advanr^nni^ 
ti^iMiee will r^welve Ihe earnest rivoperatlou, 
IttterMtMl, who HMy lltid It convenient to 
Tbe approaehioK roevtlnK at Minni'u{M>lt« 
■ rei>ii.| )i4?ld b) tb<- sctHion. Ttiont liavIo|f| 
Interest to present ai* rLvjnrjlwl to nott^j 
lary o( section D (A. A. A. S.| at tQl 
ttarljr as |>i>Mlble. firenlars r«laitiig 10 tl» 
may ■■'' obtalneil of the permanent sern-tary 
assoctallon. K. W. Pninain. at Ml ■■t-.I'. 

— Uuriiig liie coming yv^ai, • ' 
ina>.l<- at tit* physical lalmiaton 
iintTcr^ily with a vfrw lo aid In < 
national unit of elertrirnl t^"ii«[.-: 
mi*nl« will br [-arriHl im. iindi-r thr <1i| 
Prof.'aior Itowlnnd. wnti an jutrrmir it,< 
govarnrat'nt of iIh" Uih 
CommnnlcMti.*>l to tin- 1 
clectrlciaJis. iiiMtiug In I'arls. 

— Wo Alluded a fow weeks ago to the jwnni 
flr»l Walktir prt»e of the lto«ton •"■ 
biitlory lo Mr. Howanl Aymx ol Put', 
for his memoir vn lh<- devi^lDpment of 
Tbif iiieiiMir Is now irrinnn-.' l<% 'li« 
award of lti<i MHy>ni] pilin h ri tni 
Eral pu]>en» of iini|ii«MloiialN' ■■^■m 



M' 



At-ouaT 3, 1868.) 



SCIENCE. 



147 



irollMe. »nd the lubjects w«re so cllv«»e «5 to 
ke Jl tlifflcull til ileclde liet«e«ii them. Exiwrl 
ru HoTisht; wid II has bc^cn at last concluded to 
divide It ecjiLally '-"Cwwn William Pau^n of Waier- 
(oMii, Maia., wli» ufTcrk^d an VM^iy uii lh« devdup- 
ni«ot of i'hrjrgiiiildBe, and It. W. Conn of John* 
Hi>pkins utiirenity, who preiu^med an essay im tJi« 
llfe-liiKturjr of 'i:!ialiLaiti<iii» iiiilllta. 

— ItiNvgiilMiig Ihc dcoiaml for Iburoiighly tralued 
«ligiuc«n courtrsaDt with electrical aci«ne«, at tbft 
beginning of tbc nut Aaulemic year (Sept. ld,IH^l 
the traat««s of Cornell iiiiiveraltf will r«celve Mo- 
drills whn dMtre to fit thom&elved to enL«r this new 
and t.-oti(it«nlly exiendlnc lleld. While lh« general 

, Bttulie* ore mainly dioti.^ of the deparuneot* of civil 

iMd m<-cliatilcAi i^iifilnoeriii^, the nfMrclal atudiea of 

lUW coune KnihratN; ttin theory of electricity, the 

constructiuu kud U-istluK of telegraph llnri. oibles, 

|i,trumpntii, mid of dynamo machitu-x. and the 

of elcciricnt inMuuirmvnt, cleotricat llght- 

, the eleeirlcal traiic mission of [>ower. 

— During ih« |u9t y«»r original luriMtigBtloas, the 
FMUUi of which dihor liaru b«en oraoon will be [luU- 
lUbed, have btwn mule in iho biological labaratoryof 
Jolins Hopkins university, In the following htitK 
j«cU: Uiv dirt-cl actlMi ujion Ihr bi'ftrt of elhyl 
Alrohol. Ih« tntlaobc« of digilallnr npon the hnrt 
and bliMMl-ressels, tbu Inilueuccof iiiinliic upon tbc 
MiMnl-viruclB, tJie inllwi'n'X' of rRrfatloin in ulvrial 
prauure u|>ou the tiukc occupied by lh(> syatole of the 
biftn, thv minnte structure ot the kidney, the life- 
historr of Penicilllutu, v|«cous fennenution , the In- 
fll fLicg of vun')U« ilhiininalioua on tbe urowlli of 

■I, ihr tilriiclure >if Pcirpita, tlie stnii-turf of th<- 
eropod ^11, the deT^lopraent nf lh«' aiammar}' 
gland, Ihv f ciiictup.' iind prvportiei of Lbu eiivrrnous 
tlaan^ l>L'n<^t]i Um olfurlorj* mocntui nii:mbran)t. 

— The D. S. geological survey haa nppointed Prof. 
B. S. WUtlatDB of Cornell univvrally upon ila staff. 
Under Ha au^ptrcs bi> will carry out mnn> fully th« 
•tiidie« he has long nnderuken apon the upper Dc- 
TODlan foaells id lliti rich locslUlvs of bis nviglibur- 
bood !n New York, and extend tbe work heyond tlie 
Itmiu of thu slal(% as wc^ll as into the I ui mediately 
nnderlyint; and overlying slraia, for better compari' 
fOD of thu upiicr Dc-vouiau sped«», and study nf ibcir 
faonal ri^lationit. I'ntf«iiiior William* bax been «n- 
dcATortng to hiiild up a thorough scIkkiI of compan* 
tjrtt paloonbrlogy at <^'ornflll with ^ood succeu; and 
itie lualsUmcv he will gain from bis connection with 
the U.S. BiirvL-y will oiTer a special alLraLtiou to 
those wishing to pursue psieoniologlcal stud l&s under 
bin. Mr. ( '■ !!. Pro»scr, a recent graduate of Cornell, 
%aifaU him Lhii summer in his geological work In 
cotiii*eUon ultb the V.S. surrey. 

— A Tery inurcstln;: <kcich of tb« life of Count 
RUBlford, by l'r()f>**sor 'ryiidiiil, l» prlnleii in the Cott- 
t*mpar<ay rtrlne for .Inly, .\n account of hia aci- 
•oUflc labors is promised in a future issue. 

— W. lU If. CbrlsUu, r.K.S.. astronomer royal, has 
vilbOrawn fn>m ihe editorfhlji of TAf of^tertatt/iy. a 
monthly n*tirw <if lulronnmy. Tbli pcrindii-al will 
aowbv ttittwt by K. W. Uatuder, r,R..V.S.: and all 



coounanlentions nbuobl be atldrc^sfid to hint at ihi: 
Royal obsiTvaloTy. Criwuwlcb, aj) fumieriy. 

— lir. M. Uruin In Dorpat fropOMi a zoologicjtl 
InveuigaUoii of the Gulf of Finland. Tlie Ruaiian 
goremmenc wilt furnish a steamer, and the explora- 
tions arc to bo made on behalf of the Naturalist*' 
society ot Dorpst. 

— 'Dm AmtrUau upieulttirUt le the oihtb periodical 
In the L'aited Stated devuied to bees and spli-uliurv. 
Several of these papera have a circulation ouni- 
berlnK Ibouiuindfl, and one Is a weekly. It wnuld 
*eem rash t" start anoUier be« paper under then cir- 
cumstitncea. Ntlaa 3i. Locke, editor of Ihu new jour- 
nal, seems, ho-n-ever. to have counted the colt, and 
means tu act ou the prlneiple that tbi.-n; U always 
room up higlier. He in lui t-xin-rienceil b««.keeper, 
and «xp«n in all the manipiilnt-tonfi of the apiary. 
He baa paid special allentiou to the <[naUticft of the 
aevaml race« of Ih-v«, and U aiive to Lb« importanee of 
grut care In hreetllng b«ei, if the apiarist wouhl 
s«cure the highsst succoM, It is evident that hr 
intends to give spwciat atlention to niatleri of sci- 
entilie interest connected with bees and bee-tultuta. 

Mr. Locke has aUo secured the o-ssisLimce of th(> 
ablest writer* on the apiaiy in tbe country, —not 
men who are simply given to fine writing, but prac- 
tical men, who have won eminent *urr«M In the art 
which Ihvy practise. Tbe paper la published at 
Salem, Man*., and, in typography and general style, 
has no supi^rior among our apiarian periodicals. 

— Acconllng to .Yaf irre, the n>port of the sanitary 
commissioner with thn government of Bombay 
^bows, that, among other causes of death iu that 
preaideitcy in the year 18UI, 1.20Q persotui died 
from snake-blln. A comparison of the dwths iu 
1881 with the mean of those of iive prere<ting yi-ars 
sh'.'WN, that. In 1881 at least, tbe nuniber had In- 
creased. These litres prove tliat one person in 
1.1.810 of the wlu'le popuLitlon of the twunty-four 
preaktency districU died fmm «»aku-biie. AiMint; 
to Lhls tbe destruction of liuniaii life effected by dther 
venomous and carnlvorou* nninials, we tee how Im* 
[Minanl a matter Oi the n-nidcnts of those r^ORS U 
the deatriiction of ibis unfavorable environment. 

— All the readers of SciHifii: have hevji (itmiliar 
with the word ' wampum ~ from their childhood. 
KngiT Willinms wmliT In his Key, "The Naw-Eiij[- 
laml Indian* are ignonini of Knrrtp«-'« coyne. Their 
owiie ia nf two sorts. — on<! whlti.*, which they maki' 
of tb<- stem or slnrk <if tbt* p'^riwini.'lr, which lltey 
call metenulink when all the shell i-i broken off. TlUt 
they call t«utM/>u>ri (while), Tbe second la black, 
inclining to htu». whicli Is made of tbe shell of a 
fl^li which some English call bens (pu<|nabock)." 
This money was called snrkaattnck (sin^, hWkf. 
Various shells w»re used In different pans u( the 
country under names adopts fnini tJt<- tan^iuges of 
tbe tribes who coinM the money. Ititt in the history 
of Lht? early colimles the name ' wampum' baiicained 
■ fooling for all "hell-inoncy as well as for its imi- 
lallons. .Mr. Kanioat Ingerenll has brought losetbcr 
s Inrge amuont ot information on ib« subject Iu the 
May Xtttttrtitim. 



14« 



SCIENCE, 



IVoL !!., Kft. * 



^Th" «le»ili is annuiiiinKi of E. Mofatrr, »rcn«t«ry 
Of the [}aii(tlM> cammiS'iloTi.ftntl of llcnnutn Alrxati- 
An vuii Borhi))«ch of /uricb, Lhfi Uu«r In bte eAteiily- 
flfBt y«ar- 

— The detlh 1« atM fcnuounwil of Dr. .1. S. BuOer 
of Albany, nyonng entomolnglat wba hid pnbilfti«t 
A few i)«p«n ot Bome ImpurtariGe on L«|tl4loplera. 

— Ill 111* JiiiM" iitiiiilivr of Ihi? (fpumat <(f srlffnrr is 
j;iv«nthc fnllowlneiwcniitit offthird-caihigfroic- *' A 
l»dy living III Uie fieurpr tllitirlct {Cajx- Culonj-) bu|i- 
plin the G. It. Apn>/'t wiili tliti foUuwItiii partlciilan 
of tb« r^marknlilc lixbit^ of llils cmtture: 'I linw 
much p)«Murc In fumlfitiltit; nil tli« InfarniAliuu we 
UftVc, r^Kanlliig tho Inrgc frails which have proved 
M> ilMtrncllve lo our younR clilrk*n». A nnier-^lult 
ninti miiiiil ow terrnre, ami pviiws llirou^h Uic 
gmnml over whtcti th<? poiilir>' ranp«, Atid In thin th<> 
frog! barbiir. Tht^ flrsi time our «it«tiiiciit wa* ilmwn 
M> tlieir Innl-oatlnK ]irct|ii<ii«lly was bv Uie rrim of a 
small bird In a fucli«iii near thf oiroam. 'rbliiklng 
It bill b<!cti tcised by a tnake, Mvcml bM(«ned to 
the spot, and hih' a lipautifiil red tuid ftr^" "ugar- 
blnl ill Oie moutti of a large gnioniili frog. Only t)i« 
bird's liwid iraa visible; and.ib rrifi becomiiie faint- 
er, ibi* ttvK WM killed, aiid the bird teltriupd. It« 
fcatlicn v^tv all wei and alimy, and fur some dnya 
afur v€: iwidd disltnfiiil.qh It in thf RVilen by Its 
rufllml plumaee. Slm-t then Ihe same i-iwcies of fros 
bu on Mvoral <>cca.<fton^ in-vn kil1«d with foung 
chtckena. hnlf-»wn1low>»l: and onec a duokliiiK was 
n'«cned from the fwiic falo. Whether thf nnl«^ in 
nutunU to tlieae frog«, or A<i4iinii.-d to devoy the 
cliickims within llielr reach, wc know not: but Hi«jr 
consuatly make a chuckling sound ao (>][a^tlT llk« a 
hen calling Iter chlrJcpnti for food thai wc hnvi* Men 
wholv hruodv deceived, an<1 nishinj; toward* tho slult, 
whrre tlioy "uppi»t>d thi> Iifii l<i W. Thr (rogaare 
rtty wary, And It Is dilHcnlt to Hnd them unlcsa by 
the bcrvaiu) of their vlvtim*. W« have lost large 
nambcm of ttnall cbii'^kftn* In an iiiiaccoiiiitabI« 
maimer, niid feel sure now that these frogs mmt be 
answcrablt: for very iiiuiiy of thvtn. a» ifavro at\! no 
niU here, and Ui« clili-kvmM are csirvfutly housed at 
night. If 1 can give yoa any further details, 1 (ihall 
be glail todoeo.*" 

— Tlie distlngulslied »pectros'.-apl«l, M. lliollon, \% 
now working! at the oliservalory at Paris, m luw lxN>h 
hla custom during prerlons «umn]er!>. Tlie pr*t))0«ed 
obwrvatory ou the top of the Pic du Midi — when; the 
brothers Jfrnry vaw the jtbnet Vc nua wltii the nake^ 
Mye in full diiyllf^lit, when only three er (our degrcea 
from the »un. and two day* after the transit — Is said 
to be niakluc kxtaL progrea* toward cwmplntion. It 
Is ex petted iliiU A'lmiral Moitchez, M. Thollon. and 
otiier aat-ronoiticm will visit it toward the end of 
AlifCUbt. 

— The r(«'t«^oAr«wl\r^( der aalrcnomfiichen pe- 
»e/f<eWMlS iahrgang. erslea heft) la froiuispleced 
with a solar print of Dr. Carl C'hHEllan Bruhtis, the 
late dUct'lor of the observatory at t^l\t/.\R. In the 
neJtrofivre are brief notices of Bruhna and C. llaeker, 
»nd a more extended one of R Plantamnur, by Dr. 
Kudulph Wolf of Zurich. Among the /iftrariflcAe 



aurtgm nm the fiillowinK: Harklnnd, 3!or thrr'- 
de» Ktu-lic**chcii i-omi'ten, b\* Taul llaner: ' : 
draati, IW [firm In Ik LI on 11*11 perturhatfonii d'nof 
pUti^te par !•?( m^rhr-des d" M. tlvM^u, by O. ' 
ilinil ; (tiuxci, AalfoiiuiiiifttJie uiilernucbutil^eii i-.hii 
bmiernisse, by Th, too Oppolwr: and Fiachcr, Der 
emlluas der laiernlrefmcMon auf das r'-- ■■■ ■-^- 
horliontal-wiiikeiu, by Wlllieliu Schiir. 
newly elened members of '.he ucwiZ*-.'... . .... i. 

Harzer of Leipzig, J. Holetscbek uf Vienna, J. 
.Scheiner of Bono, and f. w... - ... .,< Kn-mnniiintter. 

The next ineettngof the ' witl Im* IhI.] :»( 

Tlnuua, commencing on 1- 1 ;....,.. ..,.L II, aitd bLeliiif 

foiit day*. 

— 'llie icr>olngicat cnmmifslon of Hpnin Iit.> i^i.... 

pari'd a iMmphli-tnf twenty pages for the : 
blbiitoii, now open al Madrid, giving a l<r 
of (he ■llffen'tit coidxfilcal fomiMtiort* 'j- 
Spain. Uirir gi>o);rapbii-al dlairibuijoii. getH4 . 
ters, and the mlnetmls of econoiute lnleri'$i oct 
In each. It also Ekves a abort orom'aphical aec"i: 
tbt eoiiiiLry, Wlil<-li has a higher average «!■ 
than any ouuntry In Kurope ixcepting Swlixi r 
The highest peak )• that of Mulsliacen, In the sit-m 
NVv«da, 3,*>04 metro* abuve the sea-level. The fui- 
malion which has the f*reuteat extent in Sp«Ia [s 
the tertiar>'. whicli covers M per rem uf Uie am^ 
face; next ■'omca th? primary, covcrltig 27 per eent; 
the second.irj-. 1*4 per cent; llie faipomnW, |u per 
cent; Ihe qwali-mary, 10 per cent; and Ihi* a»n|c, f 
percent, Given id numerical order, the mioceiie aiid 
• illitiH'ene cover logcllier 137,877 a kilun.: the Cam- 
brian and Silurian, 114,;tl2; the lilpogenlca, lO.rW.^: 
the iiiiatemary, i&.iTi; Uie rreueeotu, IT.Ohl 
eocene, T-i.^H; the Jnm-wie. 22,007; (he Ki 
23,418; ihu carbon if ervut>. ll.OOl: the pliocene, I'.i" <: 
the I)rvmilun,fi.7Sl); nnd the cryflalllne atmia. l.i. 
— a toul of 4ii4.li« n kilom. Tlie term ■ mr'i- ■ 
•jm(ca»' Is applied to what are ^>eucnilly calb"! ^ ' 
tonic and volcanic rocks, both old and recent prupUve 
rocks. 

— Pfcre Vldal, French ml&.4lonary at Taliiitn, Navi- 
gator's Islands, annouuceH iht* discovery, made i,ni 
year, of the place of burial of Conimandani Fleuriot 
de Langle, of the nnforiunale <-xpe<lllloD of la P«. 
rouse. De Langle ami hi* compaui<jns wvrv kill 

th<t iiativeit ai a ]M>lnt named Miusacre Bay, iii nv 
ccruber, 1787; but up to this recent datu their remains 
and place of burial had not baen dtseovcred. Tlie 
ptoMB niisslonnry Intends to erect an "jcplatorj- c ■,; ■ 
for the converted natives on tlie «i»ot wlierc rlieli -■ : 
banuiB ant'eelors' vk-tinis wen; hurled. 

— Mr. Heun' H Howorih. who It our ulandanl 
authority ou the Mongol*, review* with favor the 
work of the Itev. James nilmnur, who hu* Uvnl «» 
a inlHSionar^' ainoug tbi;ni. We have spinee otil> fur 
a brief ah«trat^t upon the hospiiality of lh>>se lean 
Kophislkated tribes of men: "Any travrller Is at 
l>erfecL lil)erLy to alight at any vlllafte he muy wUh. 
and demand admlitanec; and any Moegi>l nij.< < 
fuses adinlttauce, or glveN a cold welcome eri . . 
at once sttgrnatlied as mil a man, but a dog. .Vnj 
bfltt who did not offer tea witbuut muney and with* 



iA3b 



AcovsT s, lenS-l 



SCfENCE, 



14!) 



I 



out prie» would wmn r*rn thv <wni<> r«piitatioii ; tbi> 
■vMoti l>elnf, 1 tuftpoM. Ibnl 31on£i>lla bus no ItttiB. 
mill all trovt'lltfn arv i|<>pend«nt uti |iriv»i« booags 
for >h<-l((tr «tiil iX'rrrsliniQii L At flnt nifflit II lusetM 
rather etu-ilng to leap olT your hotic at thf tloor of 
a pcrf«ci itxani^r. xitd expect to find us pnp«n;d unt 
off«r«(l u> you free ; bui probably Ibe nia»t«r o( tli« 
l«ll wlicrr you refmib yourself b »l tbe same llnic 
«UILDg llk«wUe. n-TrMhing tilmadf in som« other 
mma*! (ant Mtnic huadro'l mlU'i- ttnay: nnd tbus tbe 
thioi; balancvs listtU. Tli« Iiuitpitaltly received by 
Jtfoitf^oU ill tnvvlling coni]M>n8atc* for tbe hdxpiUIity 
EhowQ to tntv«llcn." 

— Two noteworthy oniiilioloaic*! |i»per> appear fu 
tbe Annual Euagulnes. Tlio luMts and mental tralU 
n( tl)o rHVbinI in c^mtlnomenl have found an exceltenl 
stud<;ut in Olire Miller, wbo glvt-i uh in tbe Atlanttc 
» vivid picture of lu cnrlotiUy, and Ita tymnnyover 
weaker binU, with proofs of how It can learn by rx- 
perknce, and iia capacity for Jealousy. Tbe article 
li well wortb reaJiox. 

Tbe friends of Prof. A. M, Mt-yer of tloboken, 
who are aware of bit zoal as a aport^ouin, will be 
loas •arpri)if?d than thoM wbo know tiim only by bis 
profoiMlonal Btudic*, at hi» l»Ierettin}{ paper on tbe 
<iuatl. or 'Bob WbiUv M It )B familtarly known, 
wliicti s]>|Mar!iiU lUf Icadinj; paper (n tbe tnldsuramcr 
CmtHrif. Eiffbt or nine exquisite woodrute by Heard 
illuRirate tbe dlfleraiu •peoit^s of this claaii of game- 
birds In Kuropf^ nnd America, and far surpa5s In 
Uobli, and In exculkiiit-e of delUteatloii, any previous 
l>lclurMi «« hiive •een. 

— An Incfva^ed inlerMt Itt eronomb- entomology It 
being shown in fCne:)&nd. The Council of tylnrndnn 
iMy litrds of the privy cotmcil) have (ormt-d a com- 
mittee of adrke and reference regarding tbe enUrmo- 
loglc*l ctdlectioiia wbidi have existed for some cinie 
In conuecilon with South KonBlngton mu»eum. This 
ConimiileR U under Profeaior Huxley as ehalrmnn; 
and among lli*' ineiober* are Professor Woatwood, 
Mr. I>yt'r mutt-dlrector al Kew gardens), and Ulss 
Ormertrd. It U planned to fonu a collection of cK>e« 
tbattlinll show the iniM-ctJt tonininnlj tnjurioiia to a 
«eriouB extent to the cmpg, fruit nnd timbrr trees, of 
the British l.<tlei. Eiiirb case is to bv ai.Touiiianinl by 
abort tlfe-hlatoric» of ihe specfeB In it, and deacrip- 
tlon» of ibf ruott serviceable methodN of presenting 
their nivngei. It U tlm purpose of tbe committee to 
make tbi- collection tborougbly plain to Iw imder- 
stood, ao tbAl farmer* nnd i^anleut-rs uiay Ih.' able Lo 
t>OtWUU it M-rvir<>*bIy. A* farafl possible, the iiisecta 
will be shown in ail Bta^va, toi;Qtb«r with specimiMis 
of tli« injiirrd plant. In tliotn- citsi-* where apii^imena 
are too ainall or too perishable u> lie U3>^1, drawings 
ur ttiodela Will li'^ substituted. The rarryiug-oui uf 
cilia plan In a Iburoilghly •"■U-ntific mnnnar has been 
a'nured by pln>'ing Ihc prcpuralion of ibe caae^ In 
tbe lianda uf Professor WcSLwootl ami Ulu Ormt^rod. 

— In oril«r to bring io|;eiber the grcal'-sl aniuunl 
uC tolid iuf<>niMtion r^jrectlng (he nainrnl history of 
man, stud^nU have pnlillobed manoalsof anlhropol- 
f^tfum lime lo time, fonnnlating the 'i motions they 
dMtre to have ansucrvd. In I9(l<) Ocgetaudo. a mem- 



ber of the Inalitut d« Franc*, publhbed a itnarto of 
flfty-aeren pojceji, (^niJlkd '('uu>tiilurjUlon» >ur lea 
divemei m^Ihodes k siiivre dan>t I'observaiion des 
lieiipl-^ Miur^gr.' The SotniltS eihnolngt>iue dc Paris, 
In IKTU, pnblJKlicil its (irsi laetcoir, which wa* pro- 
ceded by gt:ncral inslructioDs atldnwsH to Irarellers, 
among which wvre three chapters on the Individual, 
family, social, and r(.-lii;ious life of peoples. Air. Qal- 
IflUn, in our own country, while pre[)aring hU eoiu- 
paraiive IrnliaD llngulaLlo!), b'nueil cir^jil&rs to all army 
officer), Indian agents, aiid inir':'llrrs. Mr. Sehool- 
crafl prepared a rrry clalxiratr scheme, tieorge 
Glbb« publlKhed throuch the SmlthAonian inslita- 
lion a liuuuislic circular, and The same Instiintlon 
ha« Issufd a number of others on anlbropoluglcal eub- 
jMta, The most claborat« published in iMir t-ountry 
arv Major ruw^ll's uiaiiu.i1 for colteclont of linguiik 
tirs,<And I'mfnisor Mawii'o directions to collectors 
for the Centennial eibibitlon. and hit {wmphlet ou 
ibo study of North American anU()uities. In ItfTft 
the (ieographlcal society of Paris publtthed • instm<N 
tious aux Toya^un.' The British assiH'IaiJon have 
prlntMl three sets of quMtlons, in I80I. ia%4, nnd In 
1^74. T)te lAit ntimt'i] bwrs the title ' Notes and 
queriea uu aiillintpology fur llie tMe of travellers and 
residents in unolrilir.ed lands/ The Au»trlan expe- 
dition lo iho frigate Kovars was (umi!ihed witli » 
vcr>' elaborate volume of questions upon anthropol- 
ogy. In addition lo tht.'»D. we have ' [nslrucUoos 
anthropologlquei ' and ' InftrurtloiLS eraniologitines * 
by Ihe Paris society, and manual* by Roberts oiid 
Kaltbrumier. Finally, tbe lasl-named society has 
be<'n diwiiMing with mncb learning and a ulight loos 
of temper a ' (^estionoalre dc soctolo}>le ec d'eihno- 
grapbie.' 

— Th«' followiniE invMiigailonB have been com- 
pleted by AilvarRViJ students at thechemiv<il laborato- 
ry of Johns Hopkins university durint; the post year: 
on the conduct of moist pboepboru.* and air lowards 
carbon monoxide; white phosphorus; oxiifaiiun of 
a compound containing the snlpbamlne ami propyl 
groups In ihe ortho-posiilon wl|}i reference to eadt 
other, showing protection of the pnrpyl: oxldallun of 
pai-adlpropylhoiiKlne-snlpluiinlde, iihowing proieetlon 
of Ihe pntpyl; nn th« nature of kinapie aciil; Uie |i». 
flntjuoe of light on fennenlatinn; ihi-mlcaj i-xamlna- 
Uon of minerals from the nf-ishborboud of June>'« 
Falls. 

— ll.-gardiHg Uie early lejeseople obeerratlons of tho 
ring of Saturn, I)r. II. O. van de Sandi- Dakhuyz<>B, 
the dtreetor of Ihe obsL'rvntory at t^ldi-n. wrltns to 
tho editor of The obarrruUny .- It Is dear itiat UcD 
is Dot the dlscAVeri;r ot ihn rlivision i>f Halurn's rinff* 
but that l.'afSini ouiflit to be accounted thr discoverer 
Is QOl quite so renain. In a volume ui M.S. obeeiv 
vailona by Iluygens. in ihe hbrury of the univt-ntlty 
of Leiden, there Is a drawlni; of Saiurn, tuiute iiltS 
Dee. K (and which lias been copied, and pidillshed by 
Kai»er in li'Wf. whervln the division in the ring, and 
thu difference of hri^htnca* tif the two parte, are clt'arly 
indicated. Atiore ami on Ihe sb1<- of the dinuing^ 
BuygviiH vrulv, among uth'-r ihtngN. "... Satumiu 
cum comite ol>^rTaliis liibo 30 jn^Iutn Campaul* 



150 



SCIENCE. 



(Vou IL, No. 



kd^nl d<.> C«>mlnlut. . . . |A 4««erIpUoii of IhK imU 
and Ih'' rlii^ &« st-^n hy tbi> ottncrvi-r Itcrr' tiiitr>wS| 
Mil nuecueitin^: tin- norUii) i|Uotl n JuM-{tb(j Catnptiuo 
juq oUni ol>»Krrktui)i, ut flaunt al> i|iS4> 'illla nini* 
probnl. . . .'' Wlii'n ILuvgciiit iiitilc iltiit >i1iMiiVHii(>n, 
Caaunl wiu with him: liui, from tbt- u'ltlcv in \ht 
Phtlom>pltical trtiivmciiojiM, ll t<i pmbahk thnt rKiKiiit 
>BW the dirtsioQ of th>' tiaf: In Auziinl »r .S-i<c«iiib<^r, 
lATfi; so that tht'ti* l-* DO ■uWcit'iii grnurtil [(• Ltilitk 
thai it was tlayeias nh>) shoMctl the dlvUlvn to 
CuMlai. Btit with rt'iiAn) to the alltiniou of IluyiiPtin 
to l)in niMi-rvuittin of th>- two purn oT Ihe rlliR, innth- 
l>y iJaiiip^inl, ami ih** flgiin- of tlit- uiur wlilch h" lisd 
publi»h-.-'l, ]>r, Ijakhuyztjn Marchfi] lii vain bi <li(ti*r> 
cnt bcMik* (or tin- figure iinLit h« fdiinil, bi'tn'Cfii a 
numWr of lftt<?M n'Mnvvnil to noyp-nf (mm I^-oixilil, 
Princ** of Etrtiria (the %ii'iiii Ix whont Uuyuviu tivU- 
cal*^ hi!> 'SyMriun SHluniiiim '], n abn'r. uT [ApiT 
with t«o |)rliit<-<l (Irawiucs of Sntnrn and Jupitn. 
The di-tnils lo thi.' briu of lb<* lailvi |)lui>i show tlut 
OkmiMial's telescope wa» a Twv ^ooii onr. Thi* 
«)i«dair of Ihi' tixik i» (o he ««*'■> nu tb<- dbk of 
Sfttani; nnd lb<' ouit'j- purl of ihe riiiic for HOtnewliai 
low than half tb>' toial lin-adth, I> dutb-d. nlilUt the 
ilint'l' iwit i* btii:hL Tb>-it' is ni> llnr bi-twn>D ihi- 
two pnrt>, tiut i)ii>r An- ilUtlnctl^ 'ii-pAruU'i] frrtni iu\i\ 
another by ih- ililTiTUiica in brii:biii>-#--'. Oii- axn 
airo ruv iruoit of thi- Inxirr dark rioK- " '^ blichly 
prohald*- tbnt thr- nliori' ward:t fit hlu]rxi*n» r^frr to 
thLi fl>,iir<> of Saturn ; and Dr. BakhiiyEon tbt-rT>fon> 
coucludvo thill Joseph Campattl wan the first u.^lroD- 
omiT wlin. by Ufan?> of i» vt-ry ^ood leh-siCKip*' made 
by hlin.<»>lt, utw dlAlhK^tly tbt! dark<>r and lh>- tirlghtiT 
|Mrt of lh<- riUK la KKU. Ii t-^, bofrcver, possible that 
Caiuinl wajt tbt- llrtt nho oiiw Ihe tlni- of sf^ixni- 
tjoD. Th>* ilrawInK* of Saliirn iind .Itipilt-r made 
hf Campani are priniM In *8(anHlal Lubleiitcoii dc 
LublenUrU TlieHlruni Couietlcuni,' FaTK priur, [niKe 
574. Lubieiiitji/ reo'ivril the drjiwlngv frr>nt Atliana* 
sJiis Kircbvr in Itomv. 

— The proprietors of the J/iilfroiime eve liavo sent 
aD exploring expedition to N«w Guinea. 

— In the Proce^iitil^ of the Ameriran pttihtaphir.al 
tocietl/ (XK. no. llSj Profussor PUny Karlu Chaae baa 
a long paper, thirty-lhree pagee. on ' pbolodjraamiw,' 
hi whtob, slarLlng with 'combined ooraetary harmon' 
Ics,' hi^ comoi out at * lines of force and of inniion ; * 
and PrufeMor Georee F. Barker kItqs aa acoouut of 
his rery rintpte funn id uiiiKlant buttery. 

— Tht' acrnnautliriil exhihitjun was held In 1'aris, at 
the Palalu du Trucud<!ro, from Juoo 5 to S4,~one 
week longer tlian wiu the In(«ntlou. llier* were 
a uuuiher of plati^ for flying- machinea showu, but a 
atrango lack of suctDttful reaullv. 



RBCEST BOOHS AlfD PAMPHLETS. 



I'll HporU a/ UiB<Hcan tmtll- 



UUrri 

!■<*.*• - 

AAUBS.li c. llTolwlaii:»MiBHMjofntikiMw alMtora 
ili^llvatml In MiHilM*!. Karcli. Ufia. Stair Yurk, Pmlntini. ISU. 
41 1>- i:'' 



AffistAi^am. — Wi*l>tia<liv v>.ii«u(*el>*t', t:«btl>>ffn' 
bIbllMh - ■ -■ - - -' - ■■■■■■ - -' 

■yntbri ■ 

.1.. l«v: .1 .'if. ■ 

Bontlojr, 

ml, Biu| iihyii . . . — .- . - !,-.„.■■ ■ ... 

IT. 

Bomard. (* <'hamf>iniia* »iw>rr«* a !•« lt»oMt« M M 
hA:iitl>wM. p.: " '■'in.l*m. 3DD )>.. U pi., alto*. «*. 



BoiUnolo. 

Iiandbovk. I ' 



:•' manlnlral Biiit ■anlUrr mffic 



BOUaela««q,if Utum d'^aalj— InAitllMaiBloiJnIlll 
(adaBin-ldil NUM. Ull"./Ua'i. IWU. U-JHp. I*. 
Carr, II- ' * 

la ilumutli' i.L. 
Cwxon. rmI 

coblriiu* t1«ii> In <1i 

iu-»lh"nu.llqiiif ii 1' 

/Hx.'Ir^U..-, I- 

Caaso. >'- 

Airlittmln III ' 
rarlB, Utmty 
CrW, I,- ' 
ttlMllia poor I.. '•-" •.' 
*n.l»a ir.i(;rli:iili&n>. I'li'.- 

Dntrulllon. v.wr^ ■. 



■iiuuiooraplitoal FiUiUlIi* i 



ii. 6-, 

DubolA, A. Ilbuiii* Baierolla i>ilc)>rt*M, ontilti 
»i-piilalrv; xm»] cl pMtIr ranaura, oluvut <4iM»*nr*. Ltn 
KT.. BarUn, ISU. ISl l>. ir. 

.^^— n< tnm*. (itccaai fiiKta«ll>|ii(« et obraiii nk 
IJnto^a. AorEoa, IM.1. I3( p. 13*. 

Duclau, H. \m ■rlcnco (H>)iaU1rr ; tra Iialkiiw ci lea 
mtM^ voyit«*r* adrtoM. Uivnvva. .Iri(«n/, INK. 1*1 p. I< 

FontAsnes. c N<>ifMirUiliooMv*it«<VMn iralo i>iiMt < 

ll:I»l(K-in'"t<i P«>1<ir>> l-Brt-, .l<-»n|', taw, V*|>p1iI, "*- 

■ur ii-* 

JHlfLIf 1 I II 

torn. til. 'i' -. :iiiii«,<'-»u.;i.»ri. ui'., Ji ]■. I>r^ 

iUBJW. B'll., 1-- t'. 

BoniOk. - — - -i ■> ufalillHlllf(<.*cWlinllbr1iai<rnil 
uM Ih tnlaiiil dtHi-ku. pi. I. ArUimpuda. MIiurmiioII 
A'l'it'iifJ pr.. IMS. Up.. [tlt>[. **. J 

Holmes, !*. Bnxnlr), I'nactlral clevlrie nKliUnv- !Ea 
Vr.fV, '^li'-i, IMV IM p., llllinr. «*. 

JohaflCon'B m-n lu*^ of t^o-nti) Arnca. wttli Indts. 1>Mi4a 

./uAnilojq, lit«l. 

Lahuidn, J. cl«. Tabl*i A* laaKrtibiiM>< paur tt> txiMbf 



tlnpljr <!iplnln^4. \/j\iAtt>. SaillUr*. IMS. Illiitir. 
Lyr&s (le MoI^od. l.a n>rr. ilfxttlpUoii ilr ■< - 

•.14 ritl'x'it** l*« iilit* rTi>i»r<|u»l>l**i Uattfgna. i. 
^U |> 1^' 

UartlD lO'l Watson. tUii IbpQk la tka fmMtjr aDil I 

fluia. I,.>;iil>r1i. r>iwin, IM3. IIIIMII. 

'.' I , K., nnd Joub«rt, J. A Iruallan «*■ «li 

<i. Ttiitirlattfil by B. AikhK'in. vul. l- 

• .. •■.<« J. , ti*. 

Olivor. .1. -V \V. fluiMpoUrry. 'I' 
(UTi> ,\ [>o|,uiar rxantlaaUoBvB t>t« r-, 
Amlnrii. [ipKilli>iHu>, ooiantrdai iMulc*, .l. 
1MB. H p. 6*. 

Plorrot.r. 1,0 ll»r« "tf iinrii 'W tnrlcoi JjCTviiwia, Tfl 
i! ilr^ d'apria !■ I'f i*» inaiiii 

>!i I --oiniwvaM ' IF. irKlri alpt 

U I -I ' l^ramr, 1M 

Bimmoada, I*. I., a 

|>r..J'i''t' II tn'niml uC r 'Id 

(Hmiiimvlally t'.M- .■'-■■- . 

oludlnit alMi .. '.. lutiaa aaniii 

IlKIVWilll. I 

Woolcock, J. ^luCua 1^ juUiiu-^L>lu«} ; ur, Uetur 



ritruAr, august lo, issi. 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
AOVANCKMENT OF SCIBNCB. 

Next wwk will see tlie annual nii>eting of 
the Anici'lcaa aHSOctaliou Tor tUc lulvuncement 
of science. Altliotigh the i»endiiUini-liki; swing 
or ils mij^ralion takes it tliU year to Uie 
weflternmosi point of tta meetings, — to a 
llourl'thit^ city that ttiu fuuiuted sinoc tlie 
ossociition bcgiiD its good work, — there is n 
proiiiia« of n larger nml more Huccessful meet^ 
in^ than fan? hwn its lot to iiav« for scvcriI 
jrearH. Though its roots go down slowly, tticrc 
18 gofMl reason to bclievu that this societv is ul 
lust taking Gnu boUl in our tiuni and stubborn 
A»iLTi«.'«n »<x;i«t>, whitili long st-cnicti to "leny 
It a ftUr chance of growth. It wan. In fact, a 
mach more serious task than it at first scorned, 
to cn'Attt in Atnericn an AJiAocintiun on iJtc 
hft^is of thni which grew ao rapidly and to 
well in the BnlL'th mothor-ixmntrj-. Tlie buc- 
ee»H of tile British niiaoeintion wua due in the 
mala to tlie fact tliat the diatancvs the tacia*- 
bere hud to travel werv small, so that a large 
part of the working members coukl be relied 
OD lo attend from year to year in a regular 
way ; thus giving a fontinuity to its inlellecUial 
life that has been dented to onr a«aocla(ioii. 
Tfaru In Britain, and the sifter kingdom of 
Ireland . there are a s^eore or more places where 
there exiattf a strong local life, a pride in tho 
rfpinnttoii of locality, and a mass of inherited 
wealth liberalized by long tradition tlut eould 
easily be brought to the support of »ucli meet- 
ings. Still more efTectire was the support 
whifb a centralized govcrnmeDt could give^ 
and the money that came easily at the call of 
[Ii> riftc lea/ters who made themselves 

r. . . ;.■ for till- work the association under- 
took. AH these ftdvanta^rcs were denied to 
the Americnii aasoclaliuii in its earlier years. 
In Llie most of lu uicellug -places thcru watt 
Ho. ZT.-lStt. 



little to nphold its work ; It tolled as a mis- 
siunary enterprise — pAtJeolly, but with scanty 
rewant. Its recent g:iin in piibUo esteem baa 
itcen in part llie result of iu own good and 
devoted work, but in larger measure it is tllQ 
rcstdt of tJic exceedingly rapid cbat^o in tlid 
condition of American city life, Tho fhiuUer 
spirit in our American towns, the grced for 
immcdtale ends, is passing awuy. Few towns 
of twenty tbouwiml people but have their 
leisured elas-s, or arc without some,welt-9bai>ed 
ambition for a good name among men of 
learning. Although the association was, in iu 
earlier years, somewhat before its time, our 
life is fnAl growing up to bo a support for such 
work as it seeks to do. Every friend of learn- 
ing will weleomc the assurance of strong lifu 
that tbeso changes give \m the as«^n.-)ution, and 
will look furwanl to its future with confidence 
ill iU work. 

Kxiwrieuce that we may gain ttom the 
resnitsof the association and of its kindreil so- 
cieties in the mother-country and on tlic con- 
tinent shows us clearly what this work should 
be. First of all is tlie gtKjd -fellowship, the 
solidarity that is bred by bringing together in 
one assembly people who have no other chance 
to gel the light from each others' eyes or the 
spirit lYom tbctr fellow -workers' tongiiea. 
However wc may value tbo material gain of 
fact, there can be do doubt that this is the 
precious thing which the asttociation ran give 
to American scieuce. Our workers are nceea- 
sarily scattered by the gcogniphi«d immensities 
of their lanth the teaching that the nuliire 
about their homes gives theiu is, front the cob- 
foruiity of conditions in almoi^t all ncighbor- 
liootla, limitL'd and incomplete. More than 
any other men of science, they nee^l a season 
of contact with those trained amidst other con- 
ditions. 8omc things grow well in a corner, 
but natural science is not of them. WboB»cr 
bos brought to a meeting of the Amerlcati 
association luvuioHea of similar gatherings In 



152 




SCIENCE. 



[Vol. U., So. 3 



Europe must have felt tlmt this social plnnunt 
in our Boeiety left much to he dcsli^d. The 

writer recalls tlip time whi^n he nltenfled the 
Swiss osaociatioij nt Uhfirirddun in one jrear, 
and the Amcriean the next, in a. rather gloomy 
manufacturing Lown,. At the Swiss meeting 
all the members dined lo^jether in a gardeo 
on the banks of the Rliine, after tho morning 
session had been gone tUroiigli wi^h ull dne 
solemnity. There was, be it confi 
wine, but so raii<;h wit tind wisd 
that the verj- pro|itietH or Iretot* 
have been moved to symicalhy. . 
fire that only a table can [jrovoke, 
mortals at least, tUeee diverse foil 
by raee and loiigne, wtie iu&cd iot 
brotherhood. 

Making all due allownnee for a 
need of taking diversions a. tittle si 
seem that we mig'lit ht'iglilen the 
ment In our mei'tinjjs. Kven tlie most augu&t 
British societies descend 1o tea afler the meet- 
ings, and find their profit in it from the closer 
and more familiar life that it gives. Although 
we use it little, our American folk have an 
unequalled capacit3' for after-dinner talking; 
half our folk have the toaai-maater in them : so 
we need not fear that such gatherings would 
be dull. 

Coming to the apparently moi-c scientific 
aspects of its lalroi's, maintaining the while that 
the science of good-fellowship is the prince of 
all learning, let us consider some other parts 
of the association's woik. The experience of 
the British association seems to show that they 
succeed in avoiding the extreme haphazard 
nature of the discussions which mark our own 
association. This is in part due to the con- 
tinuity of attendance of its leading members, 
but it seems as if a part of its gain in tliis 
direction had been due to the fashion of iiaving 
special committees charged with the study of 
lai'ge questions of public interest. Coming to 
tlic association with their minds full of the 
results of especially designated inquiries, the 
committee- men have been able to give an ele- 
ment of direction to its discussions that have 
often made them admirably deliberative, and 



i»xoccdiiigly profitable to a!l who hennl tlieM 
If our Afiaociution would take c&tc to proirid 

ooinmluees with important inqniries. and coul 

furnish theui with liiie money neecBianry for til 

seeiiring of iiifonniitioo when such tild w» 

required, wc might have each year a solid UoM 

of mstter which would losuro ;i [inillt to al 

who might attend. Giving th«se reports am 

their disaission the prccwlence in tho n»T(" 

^9, the vagarists. the lost Iribt-fl of cil'OlO' 

uflrers, law-finders, and olhers who wande 

the wilderness, would not he iMc to read'a 

a se»sion§ nnproiltabic to eliideiits, ti9 the 

t unriequeully do. even in tbe«o latlcr Aa^ 

the ftswooiatiofi,. 

There IB jet nnolher chance of bettering Lbi 
Bociat ion- work. One of its highest aims H 

foster the spiirt of phJIosophicaL inqui 
long the people with whom its lot is 
ira year to year. Something, but not mil 
may be accomplished by the mert' presence o 
notable riien, and their wise worda. Yet the 
odor of the sanctuary is but fleetmg : it is not 
in the least a monumental thing. The ordinary 
citizens or the school-children mark the fact 
that fur a week some hall puts on a beehive 
look ; the papers have reports, mostly luconi' 
prchensible ; and then the matter is foi^otten. 
There seem to be several ways of increasing 
the local effecta of these meetings. First, 
there shouhl be a careful preliminary study of 
the scientific ])roblems that the neighborhood 
affords, a sufflcient i)re3entation of those that 
are understood, and a suggestion of inquiries 
thereafter to be made. This should be printfed, 
and would serve for a local guide for the use 
of the association, anil as an incentive to local 
workers. Then, if it seems well, the associa- 
tion should offer some small prize to thoee 
students on the ground who woukl caiTy farther 
the inquiries that this report ha:» shown to 
be desirable. If the conditions permit, the 
association would do well to see that some 
local society, such as the fieW-club^ that were 
recently advocated in these columns, shotild 
be created, to remain as a successor to its 
objects and a fosterer of its work. In the 
inspiration that these meetings geueraUy 



AnopflT 10k 18M.] 



SCIENCE. 



Ida 



aroflse, siidi a society might even (wciire a 
suiait fund fur its muiuloimnce. 

U-wt, »imI if siit-1) a work be piwsiiiU'. liost 
of all. tlic asMidfltioD might, throiigli a {ii-o|)«r 
oommillee, do niiich tc promote scfcncc'tencb- 
Ii^ Id Iht-' aclioola of tbo cities when? it eapli 
ypflr bides. Kverv mi-eling of tin; aftsocialion 
hns among Its nticmUiitM lliose wlio have the 
mtiL'h-ucc(l«il »kill ill llie mutter oC icucliing 
■clciim. There is lianllv s puMir scbuol in 
the l»n«l where- there is not a crying need of 
»tic)i li#l|> a« coiilH best ho given at such 
timt's. There MioiiIJ bo a committoo, or even 
[lerliflps A fleotii>n of tlie assoctiition. devoted 
to tbe promotion of sutiml teaching iii ualural 
avtencv : for the gravest dauger bcrore this 
braiieb of learning is to Ih; found in the radi- 
cal iraiRTfu'ctloD of the luvlbod* of seienec- 
tcaohing in us« in our schools. Tlteite auggea- 
tiona niny aecm to ]a_v b^nvy hurdL>ns of 
adxice on tbe aasoctaifon, but none of iliem 
•vera beyond the promise of ita strength. 



IlECENT EXPLOKATIONS ffl TUH RE- 
GIOS OF THE GULF-STHRAM OFF THF. 

liAsratiX coA.sr of the uniteo 

STATHS Jtr THE U. S- FiHtl^COMMIS- 

4. Nature and origin of tbe deposits. 
Alumj |iart of tbe LJulf-Sti-eam slope exsim- 
Ined by aa, tbe lioUom. in 6't to U'tO fnthoms, 
MO to ill) miU'a from tbe shore, i^ eoTnp<isod 
inainlr of verj- fine siliceoiia sand, mixed with 
a little rlay, iuid t'ontiiininji: nlways a eonsid- 
eratilt^ peri-fiitagrof ihe filii-lls of Koraralnifern 
and other f-alfan-rms nrj^anitrnft. and frequently 
»(»h<'rieal, r<Ki-liki'. and stplhite sand-eovercii 
rhlzopoda. eomelimeti in largp qnantities. 
Among tbo Kuraiiiinilera. (ilobigorina la 
abiutdiinl; but many other fornix occur, some 
of them of large 8i/.e iind elfg:int in form. 
Grafna of green sand (gbin<-onit«) were fre* 
quently met with, but wore not abuudiint. 
Large (lunntilies of llie IuIhtb of unnuHda fn.- 
quoDtly oecnr. Some <>( these are made of 
oemenied miid. flue sund, or of gravel ; ulliers, 
of parebmentdike fiecreli'jnu. < hi the inshore 
plaiCHU.and tdso In the ileeper lociililieAon the 
AlD)ie. there* ia nonnlly more or less genuine 
Uiim) or elny : but ihi^ is generally misetl with 
considerable Hue aand, even In SOU to C<10 
fatliuma. Tlte aaud. boiruwr, hi otWii ao Hue 

> CtmUnund (Mn So. tO. 



as tx» resemble mud. and ia fh>qoent]y so ro- 
l>oried when the preliminary sounding* arc 
n\Ade. In M^ventl locultties tbe bottom was so 
' bant.* in f'l.i to ]2h fathoms, that tbelMdk of 
the material brotight up consisted of spongea, 
wt»rro-tiil>es, shells. etc.. with some gravel, but 
with neither mud nor tine sand. Such bottom* 
were very rich in animal life. In many 
instam^eH. even iu our deejier dredgtngs (aboat 
7(H) faihoMi!)), and tliroughuul tbe ))elt exam- 
ini*fl, we hHvi? taken ninuenaiH pebbliai. and 
small, ronnded bowlderx of all mzes. up Iu ecv- 
eral p<nmrls in weight, (^)nKiiiting of granite, 
sienlte, miea sehisl. ete. TbcHC are abundant in 
some kicalilies, iind covered with Aettniae, 
etc Probnbly. while frozen into the shore-ice 
in winter and spring, they have been recently 
Ooated out from our shores and rivcm, and 
dropped in this region, where the loo roelta 
rai)idly under the influence of the wanner Gulf- 
Stream water. Probably much of the oand, 
*.il>eeially the coarser portions, may have been 
tranaftorled by tbe flame agency. 

Another way. generally overlooketl, in which 
fine beiich-sand can be «rrie«l long distancea 
out to sea. is iu cou»equencc of ila floating on 
the surface of the water alter it ba9 been ex- 
IMfSed to the air, and dried on tbe beucbeH. The 
rising tide carrieB off a oousiderable amount 
of dry sand, floating in this way. In our Que 
towing-iiets we often tjike more or less fine 
viticeous sand which is evidently floating on tbe 
Burface, even at considerable distancea from 
the shore. The vast aand'bcaebee, extending 
from Long Islnnd to Florida, atfoid an ln«- 
hansiiblc snp|dy of this fine sand. 

The prev;dencc of fine aand along the Gulf- 
Stream <>lo|>e In this region, and tbe r(.>markable 
scarcity of fine mud or <:lay dcpoaits, indicate 
that there i.<> here, at the ttoltom. a current 
ni^iially antllrient to firevent. for the most part, 
the deposition of fine ai-gillaceoua sediments 
orer the up|>cr portion of the slope, in 05 to 
IjO fathoms. Sucb materials are probably 
carried along, for the greater part, till tltey 
eventually nink to greater deptUo. nearer tbe 
base of the slope, or Iwyond in the ocean-basin 
itself, where the currents are leas active. 
Doubtless, there are aUo belts nlong which the 
northern current mect^ and opposes tbe Gulf 
Stream, causing less motion, and favoring tbe 
deposition of fine sediracnls. It ia probable 
that motion of the water along ibe upper part 
of tlie nlo|)c may at)*o be caused by tidal cur- 
rents, whieh would modlfv tlio nortli-eastern 
How of the Onlf Stream, both in direction and 
velocity. Currents produced by protracted 
atorms might have the same effect. Id depths 



151 



SCIENCE. 



[ToL. II., Ko. 9t. 



gi-eater tban 200 fAtbonts on the outer sIo)>v, 
And in 2."i to Ou fHtlHJiiis oil X\w iii»buiv ]ilulcna. 
Lln-rc is ilouttlves & slon, (-old eurrcnl lu the 
ouiiLli>vri.-8t, It IB out probaUe tlmt these 
bottotu-mrrfiils are rtroDg enough to more 
even the IWie sand after it has once actoatly 
reauheil llio liottom ; nor is it throng cnoogh 
Ut prevent the gener&l deposition of ocenDio 
rornminifern, ptvixipoilB. etc. 

The existence ot actual carrcute in Ui(i 
region, suflli-iontl^j' powerful Co dlrectlv effect 
nti erosion of the bottom, is hardly iiupimiultlc. 
Such a result inuy be en'ectetl, however, in con- 
sequence of the pceulinr lialiit.4 of ocrtain fhthcA 
lint) cnistncea thnt abound on the<to ttottomfl. 
Many fishea, like tlie ' hake ' (I'lni-is), of 
which three species are common here, have the 
habit of roolini^inthemnd fortbcir food, which 
consists largely of Annelida and other mud- 
burrowinf; creiilures. Other fishes, those with 
ehnrp taib eKpecinlly, burrow actively into the 
mud or sswl, tail llrst; ami iu all [iroliablllly 
Macruruit. ahundnnl on these slopvs, has tlim 
habit. Stvernl biin-owing species of true eels 
and eel-liUL- Q^heH ure very alnindunt on these 
bott4>in!>. Many of the crahs and other cms* 
tacen are active hiirrowora. Such creutarea, 
by eoniiiiiiully vtirrin;; np the iHJtloni wdinicnui, 
(five tlif currenlH a chatic*! to oirry away the 
finer and lighter inati^rialn, leaving Lbe coarser 
hebtnd. 

Id many IfK^alitiea there are great qttantitiea 
of dead shells, both broken and entire. A 
small pro[K)rtion of the unbroken bivalves havo 
been drilled by carntvorons •ja»tro|)0(l8, but 
theru are lari^e nnn]l>er(i that show no anch 
injur)'. Thcae have, for tlic moat part, un- 
doubtedly servtd AM ftxKl for the «tar-fi«hc» an*l 
large Actiniiie, abundant on these gronndv, 
and from which I have oflen taken many kinds 
of entii-e sheila, including delicate pteropods. 
Many fishes, like the cod, haddock, hake, 
Qoundera. etc,, have the habit of swalloniiig 
gbcUs entire, and. after digesting the contents, 
tbejr disgorge the uninjured shells. Such flsheB 
abound here. Species of Octopus arc al^o 
known to feed upon bivalves without breakiii}; 
them, aitd O. Bainlii is <Mimmou in iIichi! 
depths. The broken BheUi have probably been 
destroyed, in large itart, by the large oralis ami 
other cnistaeeona having claws strong enough 
to crack the shells. The large species of Cancer 
and Ger^'on, and the larger I'aguri, abuudaut 
in this region, have strength sullieient to break 
most of the bivalve sIigIIb. Many tishet that 
feed on niolluMca al»4> cnmh the shells beTore 
swallowing them. Both fishes and cralis h»v«, 
doublleaa, tbua helped to uceutuulalc tlie bix>kcu 



shells that are often ecnttered ahnndanlly OT«l 

the )>olloni. I'olli in deep niid &hnllitw water.] 
Nnch accumulutiunii of KhellH would »oon iKfcnmnl 
far mtirv extensivu than they are, if they wemi 
not attoekcd by boring sponges and annelido. 
Certain common sponges, belonging to tbuj 
geuos Cliona, VCT}' rapidly perforate the IinnI-' 
est shelb iu every direction, making irregidnrl 
galleries, and finally utterly dcstroyiug them. 
On the outer gi-ounds we dredge up rarely' 
ft-flgmeuts of wood i but tiiese are genernlly 
pertbrateil hy the borings of bivalves (u&nally 
Xylnplmga dorNalia) nml other ercoiures, and 
by thorn would evidently soon be dcstrored. 

We very rarely meet with the bones of 
TcrtebnLtes at a diitta nee fVom the coant. 
Alth^ngh these waters swarm with vast schools 
oriishe«, while sharks, and a lai^e sen'porpoiser 
or dol|>hln (Delphioiis, sp.), often occur in 
large numbers, we very rarely ilrwige up any; 
of their bones. In a few iostaucets we haT9i 
dredged a single example of a Khark'a tooth, [ 
nud occasionally the hard ololilh» of fiahea. 
It is certain that not men-ly the flesh. Uil luublj 
of the Ifones also, of nearly nil the vertebrutesi 
that die in this region, nru very s{>eedily de- 
vourcd by the various auimaU that swnrm on ' 
the l>ottom. Kehlui are very Tond of fbh- ' 
bones, which they rapidly rontinnie. Flfihcft! 
caught on the hooks in this region* and left 
down an hour or two, werf nearly stripped of, 
their flesh hy small amphtpoil ertist-acea. 

Relics of man and his works are of ex- 1 
tremely rare occurrence at a distance fVom| 
the const, or even at a short distance oiitsido 
uf harhors, with the exception <if the clinkns 
ami Tragmenta of coal thrown o^'crboanl (Vom 
(iteamem with the aaheS. As nur di-edgings. 
are in the track of European steamers, sucli 
materials are not rare. A few years ngo^' 
even the«o would not have oeeurrvu. A rock 
forming on this scn-bottom would, therefore, 
not contain much evidence of the existence of 
man, nor oven of Uie eommoncat flshea und 
uelnoenna inhabiting the waters. 

5. PoasUlfsroua magnsalan limwstoDe nodul**. 

At several localities in tiHt to (i40 fatbomSf 
we dredged n-agraents and nodular masses or] 
ooncretiontt of a iHM.-uliar calcareous rock. c\\- • 
deutly of deep-sea origin, and doubtless fomuxl- 
at or near the plncet, where it wna obtained.* 
These fl|K>HnH>na varie*! in aize fn)m n few 
inehea in diameter up to one trrt-gutar nodular 
or <?onen'ti»nary m.^st- triken in f>lt) fathoms, 
wiiicb was 29 inches long, 1+ br<Mid, ami 6; 
thick, with all partA well rounded. Tbcse] 
uiaMtvs differ much in appearauce, color, kuc-| 




tiii'e, and fliicn(>«ts oC grnin ; hut llier nrc nil 
comitusnl or distinel. pnrlicji.-^ of s[lii>C(>U)i nainl, 
ol\i!it very Qno, t-iMnL-ntt-i) Uy mnrv or Ic^a aliuri- 
(liint limr aa<l inngiinMta rar)>nna.U*4. Snnii-- 
tline^ xmnl) rjiiarlK )K')i)iles oiwiir in llieiu. 'Dm 
flnf-^raiiipH variclii-s of Llio rwck are olten eX' 
ceciinglv compa^Tt, linni, ami totrgli, iisualU* 
grayish or greeniah in colnr. Tbcy are often 
borcii by aniielnlH, ximn^os, etc., ninl are 
UMiAlly wi^atlu-n'd lirown, duo U> Uiu prcnvncv 
of iron ((trr>)ix)ily in part ai ca^Iiunate. ■toini- 
limes ss inrite). The natwl CQiisiifts taainh' of 
roiiirdi-d gruitis of i|iiiirtz. wilb Kom« feUpRr, 
mica, garnet, and niagnetitc. [t 19 like the 
lixjrte -land drc<lged from the iMjttora in the 
same region. The calcareous cementing ma- 
tcrinl eeeois to have been derived inuinly from 
tli6 shelU of Kommiitiferu. almndantly dis- 
seminated through the sand Just as wc find tli« 
recent Koramitiiferu !u the name w^un. In 
aorac eases, disUuct casUi of Foraniinifem nru 
vi>iilile iu tbcrat;!:. In Hotiio pi(v;e9of itic rocJi, 
diaiitirt fossil ahelln wrre fuund, a|>)uirently of 
recitnl 8])ede5 (Aslarle, etc.). The laj^or 
mn^ica appear (o have been originallv coo- 
cretiona in a sorter dopowt. whieh hits been 
tDor« (H" leu worn away, leaving the hniil 
nodules so cxposc«l llmt tlie trawl coiitd pick 
thein np. The age of these rocka may be an 
great na the pleistocene, or even the pliocene, 
fto far as the ovideucu goc«. No rocks of this 
kind arc found on the dry land of this coast. 
U is probulfle. bowuver. that they tfetong to a 
part of the same formation as the massea of 
foHMilirerou^ sandy linn'Stone and catoarMiua 
BaiidHlone, oft^'U brought up by the (tlou(M>8t«r 
flshermeti fmin deep water on all tjie fi^ing- 
bankn. rroiti (ipoi;ge'B to the (Imtid Kank. 

Till! chftnicjtl coni|>osilton of Ilie^t: limestone 
MfhtuK'S 14 of nni<*h Interest gcnlugically. 
Analyses made by I'rof. l>. D. Allen prorc 
that they contain a eonsidoniUc .tmount of 
magnesia. They are, therefore, to be regarded 
na raagneainn liinestonea. or dolomitoa, of 
nM^nt aiibru.'inno origin. They alivo contain a 
notable qunntity of calcium |>ltoAphate. The 
pn-aence of tJie latter is not suipriRing when 
we consider the inimeii'<e uumlier of cirnivo- 
roiia fi<«licH. ci'pliahipods, etc., which inhabit 
theae wnten*. an<l fuitl largely u|>on the smaller 
lldliea, whose coniminiited bones mn«t. in part 
at least. b« disclniiged in their excri-menta. 
In fai-t. it iH prnlmble thnt the greater part of 
all the mnd and wind iJial cover lliese bottom? 
Ima DMOOfl more than oni-e through tlie inlc»- 
tinal canals of living animals. The Kdiiiii, 
liololiiiirinns, and many of the Btflr-ftshes and 
irartDs, conltnunlly anoUow large qnantalcs uf 



mud amlsnnd for the nake of thciDtntltc orgno- 
iriinn i-ontaincd in tt. and from wbldi th^y 
dorire their auslenanc**. 

The folloiving partial nnalyals by Prof. O. t). 
Allen gives the (wrcentage of the moat iin|»oiv 
taut constituents. The Bam|»le analyiod was a 
hard, compact, and very fine-grained mi^ifr* 
sian limetitune. Its color wiis yellowish green, 
with a darker green surface, weather('»l nidty 
brown in sooie places. It cootaincd Kome 
minuLe specks of iron prrite. Its specilic 
gravity was 'i.73. 

CtmpoMtitM Iff a deep-icaler limetltnt* 

l*or OHil. 

Ume 3M.i« 

Masnnli 14.4t 

]r<>n (e-tl lHiivtv<l ai protuxUlol iM 

l*b<M)tlu)rii: ad'l (mil wMi);bed). 

Iitsolulile residue (suiid) lILtfT 



WA TERIiOTTlES A NO THEItMOMKTmtS 
FOli JiEEl'-SHA JiKSi:AiiCU AT THE 
lyrBHSATlOSAL FiSUEHlES EXUt- 
HI TWA'. 

It would naturally be expeti'ted that at an 
cxhlbiLion of ihia kind in Kngland, whciv bo 
tnueh has been done in the pa<tt for deep-aea 
investigatii>n8, there would bo found a good 
collection of the apparatus used in deep-sea 
work. Great Uritain has, in fact, abown al- 
most nothing of tile kind; indeed, one lusy 
say, nolhiug wbatex'er that especially relates 
to dee|>-sea luveatigatioD. Alter spending the 
not inconsiderable sum of money rc«]uired to 
fit out (lie Challenger, the Uritish goverumcut 
seems to have lost all inleretit in deep-sea ex- 
ploration ; and other nations are c^irr,\{iig on 
the work with greatly improved api>aratU8, 
while Great Hrituin reata content with tJie lau- 
rels already woo. 

The United States exhibit is the most com> 
ptete of all. i^ rog-irdi) ajipnratns of this kind. 
iJcnmnrk ami Sweden have some apjuiratua 
for collecting H|>eeimena of water and olMerva- 
tiona of tero(M>rature, whieh, with the later 
forms used by the U.S. finh-com mission and by 
the coaitt-survcy, will furm tlic dlhId subjoel of 
thi« article. 

The Swi dish apparatus was devised by Prof, 
K. L. Ekniaii, prinL-ipuUy for the aw of tho 
Swedish expedition of 1^77, whicli earned out 
very thorough and syKtemntio liydrty^rsphiu 
iuveatigntions in the waters pxtendiug IVom 
U>e North Sea, through tite Ilallio, to the nx- 
(r«me end of the Oulf of RoUinia. Although 
the apparatus worked with entire sntiifaotioii, 
it would aoarci>l>- be u««<l at the present time, 
for it Ib uni\Qco«vi^ily heavy and large. 



156 



SCIENCE. 



CVou. XI., No. ?;. 



Two (brms of np|>nrntitB for rollpoting Mm- 
|>lc« of wftlor fntiii ilitrrreiii tlcptli* .iro Aliowti, 
iioth ixitiMiiirtrtl on Ihf sftinc priiKriplf. 'I'lio 
lirgtr, Imving an Ingt^nioiis meftiis of cloning, 
ii) cboHcti Tor tlcArritrtioit liere. It comUts 
or a bmeti i-j'Iirxler oi>eD m hotb ends, about 
leii iut-he4 ill If tig^lli t>v four uiul a half iu diain- 
i-ter. HiittinK rro<-l\ tliix^iir;h a bpHc-t- tioinetvliiil, 
grvalcT llmo its li-iigUi. iK'twevn Utrvv verlic-nl 
Ijinsfi roils iirguidL'D. wliUrb aUu cunftttiiti* tlie 
Traiuo uf tbu iijipiirutiiH. 'Wljt-u tbu i-tlindLT 
filiili'ti ilnwii. it rni-I<>si<5 u vt-rticill rod bavin^ 
n liorizntitul ]ilali' at tim l<i|i, ivbk-b forms u 
tight <MVcr for Ihc (t^vlimler, similar to the emi 
of a piston. The bottoio of Ebe cvIiriHtT fnlln 
into an npniilar grouvp in whicb i 6bcct'ri)lil>(.>r 
ring is titled, thus mokinff a tight joint below. 
A robber ring is also employed to woke the 
njipcr joint light. Iu the siiinller iiintniineQl 
the lower groove is llllod witli a mixture of 
tiiiet and «ax ; aiid the cytindi-r Ims an annular 
jthttu on top, tbf? bordijr of nbU^h oxtends in- 
wurtU Milbcirntly to Iw bent dounwurd no aa 
to lit into a situilur (tntove on tlu^ iipiKT snrrnra 
of tbf borizonli)! ilittk foriuin}; tbc Uip of tbo 
closed ehamiK-r. ^Vll^Ml lliu np|Minitu» i« wnt 
down, th).' c,\ liiidor is BUB|R>iid(.'d at tbe lop. 
Wbtn it reat-bes tbo desiixil dcptb, lb*.* v\ bndvr 
is released ^>y a owcliantsiii to be dvB«-'rilH'd, 
and falls, vuclosiiig a sample of tbe nuLer. Iu 
tbe .imaller upimratiia tbe eyUndur is Bu«taitii-d 
durinji descent by llic resistance offered by llm 
annular plate above referred to, wbiob is con' 
^idenibly larger than thu dintiieter of the cyl- 
inder. On drawing up the Hpimratus. tbe plate 
also acts to force the cylinder irelt down Into 
the groove*. Id the larger inBirumt-nl tbe eyl- 
Indcr la held up by a cnteb, actiinlcd by a- 
aystcm of levcra, which arc contnx-tcd with 
a turbine wbci?! c-ncloficd in a hrasR case at ihc 
top. During descent the water pnssca throngb 
tbe cam*, entering and leaving it freely through 
alrainers of bra*!- gAtiz*. and cause* the tur- 
bine to revolve. The latter turnip fVeely until 
tlie (le«irt><l dc[>lb is reaclieil. When SHcend- 
iiig, lb« wheel niukca a cerlnin nuinl>er of ruvo- 
lutions in ttiC- opjioeiite direction, ttiid soon auts 
upou the system of tevei'K thruugb a r:iLcbt*t 
and rntebcl-wtieel, thus relvttiiing the cylinder. 
This 11)^1 nimeut hits l>een tim^eessfully useil iu 
depths of Llirec huudretl uielres. It is snlU- 
oicntty ginxl to enable the (luuulity of air coii- 
tttioed in the water at difTereut depLbfi to he 
determined. 

ArfwidsoD'a watcr-bottlc, exhibited by Dcn- 
marit, is a simple cylinder of brasa, fthA[)cd 
sotnenbal Hkct a l)cli, duse^l by bottom and top 
plates with Uivelle^l edges cottuecied by a ceu- 



(rnl *U-m. The bell Hills, and tJie wliolc appft-| 
latiis ii drnwn up Ity the ccutnd rod. Thf 
jotnia an- made tight by gritiding tin- plati^sj 
bik) cytiodor togoth<-r. It is very rtiin|Je, ncrr 
light, and scemt to Ik* a gnoil imttrumeot. Noi 
Information concerning ila u»e i« available 
tbe preAcnt mt>iuent. 

Auoiher of IVofeaaor KIctnan'a Inttrnmcnt*] 
is usmI to collt'cl samples of water, and also to' 
enable tbo leniijeralure to be <.-orrectly deter-' 
mined. Allhoiigh iiuite dilleivnl in construe- i 
tioii IVnm thu i>tber>^. it is the xame in principle, 
cscrpl llint it is made to pnXi-et tile tiumplH 
frutn nny rban^e of icmpenilure wbile being 
drawn up, so that a ihennometer may be in- 
trrxlncii] on iKi'k to get the trmiM'mturc of j 
till' stratum of water from wbirb ii was takeii. 
The instniment lins been found to give accu- 
rate results at deptlis of two hundred owtrea. 
It is uoc stated wbethcr It bus boeu used 
greater depths. 

In ihiH infltruraent the cylinder la fixed be*i 
twccu two galvauijced iran itnh^ whicb. wllb 
four Itoiixontai ciix-ulnr b'lintU uf Uic same ma* 
teriiil oiitsiile, conMtituto tiie rrailie. reik-aibiiiil( 
a sort of cage. 'I"he lop luid IwHtom of the cyl- . 
inder arc r<irnied by what may In? descril»cd as- 
twu pislon-beada conneclc<l together by a liol- 
low rod. which slidea u|t and down on another 
roil rnuiiiug vi'tlieuUy lliruugb tbe middle of] 
the a|>panilua. The piston-huuda are madtt' 
of thick pitta-porcba spcunnl betwtH:n brass, 
plates. Tbe connccting-ro«t is also covcruil 
with gulla-|iercba. and the cylbider llself is 
Iliit*il witli it. Ilubbet- is useil tu make tliu 
Joints pci-fcctly tight. The samjilc of water 1« 
thus protcctc-rl by gutta-pcrchn In every <li re ction 
altoiit two and a half (-^ntlmetrcfl in ihicknraa. 
The up|>er piston-head i-Jirricft a brass platr, 
which otfer* anfHcient resistance to the water, 
while des<-«^nding. to siiAtnin it at Uie top of 
tbe ap|>Aratiin. On hauling in, tbe watcff 
forces the piston down into the cylinder, en- 
eluding tbe sample. The apparatua gives re- 
niarkabiy guotl results, if we miiy judge (Viim' 
some of the fignrce ^tven in the c«^ of tk, 
scries of temperatures taken in tbe Baltiir.; 
where the nllcrnations of euld and wariustrnl&- 
were quite remaikal'le. The tcniperalures 
were rewnlwl to lenilis of u degree of C"cb*ius*B 
scale. a6, indeed, it was ucccs^ury that Uioy 
should be, in order to make the remits of an-! 
questionable value : for the total ruriatioii In. 
temperature between deptlis of .^0 metre* i 
(wbou ibc t«in|>eraturc wu 1^.8) jwd tbd-i 
boifom, 210 metres, was only i'.l C, yet] 
thciv waft a rise to H^.U at 100 metros, aou a| 
fall to »M at SlU metrea. 



Auowr 10, IR8S.] 



SCIENCE, 



157 



"i 



Ko one woiiM iiiidoitnkft to obtain sucJi 
r«8uU« villi oiiy •li-i'ii-ncft themiumuU-r in use 
.11 tliat liini>. Till* MillfM'ae^ella in^iLniinoiit 
ivotiM utterly Tail lo rofMirtI Uu- h-iiUH'raluri^s 
nt the l>riiii)ni ; ati'l, even If it iliil n-- 
coiil tlu'Jii. its ri'»ilii)^9 nould liol in* 
regimU'd hs witliiri hiilf :i ili-'^n-t' K. 
of the exai-l l.'injk'iniiin'. Tt)*> Sio- 
nicits clvctnr- H|)|>ni-ntiii«, whtt-li )i.i> 
be«ii uscil mi IIk' Hlnke ivitli {^riM'. 
BOfceifl, cannot Ik; ile()Oli(k*il upon for 
Ifrenlcr ticuunicy ihua a qusrtur of 
Qoe tiegree. 

Cnpl. G. Rung of [ho Dsnisb nie- 
tcomloKiciil ini>tituU' exIiibiU aotoe 
IberavjiD^tcrs enclosed tviUiio thick 
layers of t'ork, only tLe ivalu^ beiug 
exp09«(t to view. In this way U U 
poasthle lu ubtniu ticpp-nitlor temper- 
ttluivB : fur tJtt< iiisiriiDiL'iilH <-an Ih^ 
bittilMl ii|Hiu ili'L-ii. au<l remliiigH nuiilt!, 

fori- any lu-at ouii {hhh xhtimgh llit* 

rk. Tilts melhoit, however, lU't'iiis 
mther |iriiiittivv ; niid, i!V»ii ir|irni!lu*K> 
bic. it is quite Ion glow to receive 
much commpiKlaiion- 

TUore can be uo dotibt that the best 
d«op-sen thonnomet^^'r la tlie latent 
NcgrHtl anil Zanibra form. ro|)re- 
•entt^il in H);. I. It is ftO well kiK>nii 
timt a ftiW i|«HC>ri|)t[ot) lit not neoes* 
Mfv ; iHit as a r^.■Illilutt'r it may be 
sail), that, when the inittrumcnl ta 
ii|ir)gbt, ttie mercury cxtumls u|i into 
Uiv tiiI>L- to a height correscondlo^ Fiu. i, 
U> the Urmjicnittire. If then [nvcrlctl, 
rbe mercury breaks al & |Kirticulnr (loint in tliu 
l>tinil At nnd riiiia donii to lUe othor oml. 
where the teui|>erutiuv in ix>nd off. The small 
qiiRHtily of nierciiry in the bore does tioi a\}- 
preciaHy ehangu iXo length fumlighl variallona 
of temperatitre. For a long tiiiu* thU has 
been the favorit^t intitrnnient for tnkinj; <leep- 
M^a tenii>ornture4 »int;ly, but until lat^?!}* tio 
monn« hait bt-on tieviscil for taking seHnl tem- 
|K'rature* witti it at & single t-usl. At the 
fl»li€rie« exhil»ltioii are shown three new 
mctho<ls of inverting tlio in<itnimcnt at a 
([iv^n «I*')>lh. The itrat wc «h;iU nu-nlinn is 
exUdtited by L*\>1. G. Rung of L><>ninark. It 
is avftreely worth white to (le«cril>e thi* np* 
[MiriUua iu detail ; for. althougli it ia uitdonht- 
edly an cxoellcnt device, the two other 
meilicKU to be dcttcriln-d are much better, 
Ixunnsu they are lighter aud Riuullei'. Capt. 
Banv ihvt>rlH the theruiomeler by sending doirn 
a > r ulun;: the line. Ky en lining (lie 
111 i' uaeb inglruuienl to free a mea- 



w 



acnger to invert the next instnttnent below It, 
he ohtatns aerial t«m[ier.ititivs !ti Uie same 
mnnncr an ts dune with the nk<w device of Mr. 
W. h. Bailli^. to lie fVtun descrilied. 

('apt. TiuDg alsn exhihlu a waler-bottle and 
thermometer wnnbiued. A bra-w eylinrtcr, 
perforated at the bottom with three small 
oriQce», hiu n pii«ton working air-lijjht wittiia 
it. Within tlie jiiston-rod, which i>*perfi>raied 
heiv and there, 14 a Segretti and iinmbra 
tlicrTitoinoter. the bulb lieing at Uie ottter 4ix> 
ireinity of the rod. 

To use the apparatus, the ]>iiboa is shoved 
in. uod the end of the touoding-rope tie*! U> lit* 
projec-tiog end of the pistou-rod. The n|>pa- 
ratua ia (hen inverled ; sud the lower vod of 
the cyliiKler. l)eing now uppermost, la aecnred 
to a ealeh a Hliort distance up ou the lino, 
lo ihts poKitiou ll. in lowered to the rc(|uirod 
depth, wlien ti nici^seiiger U sent dowu which 
reli-SHeA the cylinder. It fdlN, turns avor, 
and the welglil tH then trnitHri'rred to the 
piKton-vod. ThethermomeUT, being now bulb 
up. regi-^ters the lemijenmirc ; while the weight 
of the tyUndor eausea it to pull the piston-rod 
out to the fVillest extent, and. as the piston 
riaoA, it drawit the water into the cyliiuler 
throDgh the smalt holes in the bottom. 

Iu tIgH. '2 and a wu have illustratlona of the 
ingenious apparatus devisi-d by Commander 
Miignnghi of the Koynl Italian navy, ai»d 
exbihitetl by Merior^. NegretLi pud Zitrabru. 
It will Iw seen that the pro|)elIer- wheel C 
serewa U|i or dowu ua it ivvolvea. During 
desMiul the pn>pclk'r dne« not move, as the pin 
F is oguiast the atop <>. On revemlng Uie 
motion, the [irujwllur »crewii iipwunl until tlH> 
screw E releiisca the case, which tJwn turns 
over, as tn dg. 3, and ta held iu position b)' 
the spring K. 

A Ktill later funn of thin instrument has Just 
l>een made, in which the thertnnineter-case is 
8niipende4l on tnintonft at the lower end, in* 
stead of near the middle. 

Another method for aoeomplishing the same 
rcaiilt ha* Iteen deWaed by Mr. \V. I^. Ilallle, 
U S.N. In hi* arr-ingeineiit the case of tho 
thermometer is attached lo the nouuding-wire 
by a c-im-eateh at the bollom, and Ity two 
tnieral apriiig jaws At tbu top, which cncirdo 
the wire. 

A brass mes«en];er is sent down the wii« 
when the deslretl depth is neadted. wblcb 
opens the jawtt. ihua releasing the top of thu 
ejute. The laltvr then falU oi'er, turning un n 
Awivel at the bottom. A hook at the butlutn 
eorries n second ineHAenger. which is relea^ 
as the case curua over, and fall* down to invert 



ldt( 



SCIENCE. 



(Tot. XL, Hft, 



tht wjct inslruuimt; umI mi cm lbfmi)[li the 
Berir«. liistr-uH of M*iiiliiij{ down % titruritf^'r 
on the wire, n {■rojK-llrT-wlii-.d h»» ako Iwcu 
arrau^f^ t<> o|frii tltc jaw*, so that cilbvr 
mellio*! mnv Itc rmplovfil. 

'llie <jui-«l>(ii) HriscA, wlK'thrr, with thcM ox* 
erlK'iil ini'thoils of uMnj; tl»c iiistriimcnt, llw 
NiTcrrtii fttMl ZsuiKra tlKTmnnivltr caDUut Iw 
nui^c to r«'cr»nl at-c-iiniU'ly lo U-iilh* »f n 
ikgrer. It would s«i-iu. Ihut. Iiy f:Iviii|; it a 
tixfTt nn^ aud a i;umj>ar&titv1v tuii^ luU*, 



tUa ntgbl be daae. If oot. Ihf nKMt (l^limt<^ 
oba erw tioftg for «ab>aarfi(¥ U-m > will 

pKohftMr hatr ro Iv mnMc wilh - . ai of 

Kknan. tirlr, - - n the lurfiK-e ta s 

case (HI ' a it»u«risl tluDugb wbk-h 

hnrt emu.-- -- i;* [>•«•, or cbr L>t MnHlini: 
iknm a UienBOBtctcr tndoMd, tike Cupi. 
RiHi«'* '^ « thick CMC of BODKVMlacUuy 
mat- K. UjiuKtx3U 



AK/ii Auors OP" cvmcs. 
nwuaui I. 

[N tlw «C|Dalio& «■ -t- X«* 4- J? c^ n. Mil 

Uip rortU am tval, .4 and A Itarr 

itiKii*; niMl sliuulLaiwu«Ml)- (Hiauglric i-* 

of jlaml £tfliangfS«t([iiiof nMUt^fotjualioo, 

ah 

Absiiuc x»a, xm^iSw -s. 

<t + o 

and. cbangiof; sigijs of roots, 

sinew llie faclora (a' ■^ah-^V\ aitrl (»j«6*) 
|N>Mtiv4- wlicn Ibt nxfU arc n-al, wlintevrr 

sigD of ~-r-,t^ ■>■)<) A will linrr op|KmUe at 

and, fmin <l) ami (?), ftipiinltiintHHulv c(wi_ 
ghiff «iini« or A and £ ctiau^s bigas of roou' 
of c<)oauoD. 

tbkubi:m It. 

r Es greater Uian Ed ^aallty.l 

but (^) > <»* (Algcbrm) 

Lfuce iucqualilj (3) is tnw. 

l-'rom (I), omittiog the term ^, 

aud, ttQva (2). 






-.,-^^m 



AueiraT m KM.] 



SCIENCE. 



159 



In (4) the coefficient of ^— I roRV buve any 
nmgnitndc, nnd in (5) the cocflldont of ^— I 
i« the rociprotnl of tbftt laagnilnde. And since 
bom any cubic (Theorem I.) (4) or (A) may 
Kc obtained, it folIowA, Uuit, when the real part 
is imily, the cootljcicnt of ^— I may be made 
Ims thmi iitiity. and teal (Theorem II.). 

Put A = coeftlcleut of V~l* ^* bav«, by 
exftanidan, 

(!+«)' -*- (l-ii)' = 

/ 4.7.10.13 \ , 

Tbe scries, niready ooiirorging, is made doubly 
coDvergitig by tbe hij;h powei-s of n, nxacc n 
baa been made a fraclion. Putlitig n. for 
example, uo am&llcr tbaD ^\f. the eorrt-cUoii 
for the sum of ibo ««ries at Ui« «igbUi term 

would be less than f;400Tr00,O()O,rMK»,n00,0OO- 
And, as Uie precision of Iho value of r is de- 
lemiini'd proiiortionally to tlio accuracy with 
nhifh llu* scries is puminvd, it follows that a 
good approxinintioii Ui x iiiav be oblatiied by 
using a vciy few Qrst lenoK of the series. 

A. 31. Sawih. 



«rnr» 



TBE HABITS OP UURAEIVOPSIS TRf- 
DACTYLUS IN CAPTIVITY: WITH OB- 
SEKVATIONS OtV ITS ANATOMY. 

Thk Louisianian dtatrict of tbe Austrori- 
parinu region is a particularly rieh Geld for 
Cho berpctologist. Tbirty-six species of rep- 
tiles are knonu to be coulincd to its limits 
aloue, not to meution a 
long List of others that 
range genemlly over ihr 
sontiiern stales; and lo 
these we must add those 
species wbieh arc mcii- 
tioned by the old French 
aatbors, but have not 
yet becu taken by 
American notnralisls. n 
IctionledpfC of which fuel '- " 
always enhances llic in- 

len-^t of a couiitiy in V A — - --- 

Ujo eyes of Ibc explorer, vu,. l - 
who pushes bis way 
Uiruugh Ita tangled jun- 
gles, or viriia its uiifre*|uente4l iiput^ and its 
•uUrr forests, for tJie llrst time. 

Aner iny arriral in New Odenns. Ibc moiilhs 
It are iiicludoil in tbe pseudo-wiuter of Ibis 



■>:¥:: 



sal>-tr<ipi('al tund caioc and pniised by, before 
my collection could Ituu-vl of a Hiugle specimen 
represeutiuK the Ani])hiutiiidH : iiidee<l, it was 
uol uulil April had .'iluK>6t made its ap(>car- 
auoe that ii 8U|>vruunuate<l old negro presented 
himself one moniing with a live Init rattier 
soiall specimeu of tbe ibree-tocd siren, th« 
sithject of Ibis essay. 

He ealled il a * Congo eel,* — a name wUlob 
is indiherenily applied by evej'y one here, 
intelligent as well ns Iguorant. to ))Olli this 
replile and Amphiuma means. Long iKfnre 
this, n-porls had come to me from far ami near 
rtf Ihe dreaded ' Congo .' or • lamprey * aa it is 
often called. It was naivcrsally said that its 
bite was invariably fatal. To such an extent 
was this believed, tiiat, I am told, a phyid- 
ciau of Ihe city, of nndoubie<) reputation in 
his itfofCKsion, nnd a capital chemisi, but pos> 
sealing nothing moi'e tliau a general knowledge 
of niitui-ul scieuev. was aotuaJly making experi- 
ments with tUo view of examining the veoom 
of this innocent ampbihiiui. When my aims 
iKcanie pretty tlioroiigbly koowu throughout 
my section of tbe country, I n[>pned a voi^' 
diifcrenl kind of analysts to this problem : a 
good round sum of money was ofTcred to any 
one who would bring me the full rcconi of a 
well aullienticjite<l rase of denUi from the bite 
of the C^ongo snake, or eel. Tt is almost need- 
less lo add, that I never luid to pay tbe re- 
ward. One ]HirKOn, more mercenary than well 
informed in s<icli matters, did bring forwani n 
case of an byslericnl old colored woman who 
bad been bitten several years ago by a Congo 
eel. and died »ix months after the infliction of 
tbe wound, in spasms ' 

The small one, wliiob now came into inr 



-m^^k 



hj UM BQlhOf > 



brawn tram %\m M\tnt "p^MNR 



possession, was place<) in water, in a lai^e 
CfDmfiirlntilf vossel, for observations upon his 
luil)its. liefore hn was finally con!>igQed to Ul» 
iHiik iif .lUnlKil- In hnndling blu, llC rarely 



160 



SCIENCE. 



fVOL. IL, Kft. 



off)i?rc<J U) l-Iic. utilo8» i\\p PxairiEnntloi) wn^ pm- 
loD^ed or rouf!hly eomlucUKl : tbcii he would 
carl up. slowly open tiin mouth, aiiJ uinkc nn 
awkward lonp> ftt Ihe fingers or hantl ttmt 
iiclii him. Somctinws he wouM only open his 
motith. flnd hiss in n stiWucd mnnnor. On 
oncoccnsion, howovor.thi? reptile succeeded in 

fttinf; onl of bis tub durii)<; the night. When 
round htm. in the morning, in & di^tAnt pfirt 
«r the room, \i& eiiap^x-d nt ui« (juilo savngc* 
ly sevLTol Ihues befoit; he was retAkou. U 
WMS iiniiiNin}! to sot; tliv w)iy in nhicli li« ^iic- 
ct><Hle(l ill IcKptu^ oat of bi$ pU<.-t.' oX uoiilinu- 
inenti — o large lin batli-tuLt, witli the wnier 
i«TCU or eight inches below Uiu liriru. IIu 
8W«ui round «nd round with increiising rapid- 
It}' til) t)iu neirf«&ary im)>etus wut. ncriuiretl. 
ifticn he would pretUly niukt- a liort of spring 
ov«r til*-' Bkle of hiu tub ou the floor, when* ho 
would Miuirni runiid likt un eel until he way 
rfl|)Uired. In such sltiuiiiniiA hn iiftes Ids legs 
to thi' fiiU exl<^iii to Hhicli they seem capable 
of IwSnK pnl : in ilu> wnler, too, these memliers 
iiri' constantly Itroiiglitinlouse. — the fore-pair 
when lie desires to move very slowly forward, 
in wbieh ease he mny or may not, generally 
not, use the hind-pair in .liding the aetion. 
The fore-pair arc nli4o used alternately to push 
himself one way or another, when he wishes 
to clinngv hie oour^. A common use for tho 
liiod-iHiir, is lo throw Iheni forward, and brace 
Ihtiin ogHinfit the groun<l be may be passing 
over, in order tu chuck his unwarxl inuveraent 
eitber partially or entirely. In ewluimiDg 
about be hjia all Ibe appearance of the irom- 
tuon eel; and during them; times be drawn 
both pairs of limbs close beside his liody. when 
his action is grncefnl and tntereRting to behold. 
When tbi-se sirens are at rest, tliey eilber 
Rtrctch out iu gentle cnrvea, sluggishly along the 
bottom, or, what is not very uncommon for 
them to do, curl up tightly, in a spiral manner. 
lb« latter two thirds of their length, while the 
head and remaining third ia protmde^l for- 
ward in a direet line. In this c-urioiis position 
they tlojit near the surface, the head being 
lowermost. K two occupy the sBnie vessel, 
Ihey often turl about each other in a rather 
ollectionate m»nner ; but I Imve never wit- 
De.s.scd them quarrel or llgbt. Oue time I 
threw a doiul king-snnke into Ibe tub of uiy 
flrsl *mnll a|>eeimen. the snake being nt least 
three times us long as the siren. Imagine my 
snrpriee lo see him fly nt the intruder, seize 
him Jnut below (be head, straiobten out as stiff 
as he ponbl, then rapidly whirl i-onnd, as a 
drill does. Cflusing the dead anake lo Iw spirally 
coiled about his body. A motnont of quietude 



followed th'iH Mninge munueurre. during whit 
ttinc one couhl bl'c a cnindung niovi-nu^iit oi 
the p.nrt of the jaws of the siren going ou: 
hut. finding his enemy showed no reM6tiin< 
he slowly let go his hold, and, freeing btro«*l 
h'om the dead snake's eoils, swam altont tb4 
tub without paying blm any ftirtber attentlonJ 
In a few momonts, however, I rejwntcd thai 
exi>onment, when he made the «aiite attaci 
with just ns much vigor ns befurv ; but all but 
!W'i]uent trials failed, and [ c^iitd never indu< 
liiui to taku l\irlber bccd of Mivh n bormlt 
enemy. 

'i'bie slreo will ml cniylUli in eonfincincnti 
but I could never induce one tu lake any lliii 
else, although rnw U)cat Iti the coinuiorn bail 
used by the ncgroe-s In ontchiug thetn for me\ 
SometlmcB I)f fort' a meal, or tnay bti after, yooi 
(wjilive will swim grHcefuPy alioul bis liiuiteif 
quarlerti. mid mH.iL8)<mully rise to Mm surfaeej 
Blink his nofle out of the wrtter, and gltrc 
vent to a loud blowing sound, that may 
heard anywhere in a large nxtm. even if coQ< 
vcrsjition Imj going on. Aa remnrked above, 
my collectors usually t<K»k Much spfrimrnt ai 
were brought me, with the 'ordinary hook ant 
line, baited witii fre&h meat: but v*sry of 
Ihey are captured iu band di|)*net«. or «irec 
thrown out of a shallow drain or bayou with 
stick. They are most numerous afler htia^ 
rains, when Ibeir utiuul places of resort ar4 
flooded over. When taken by others tbaiil 
tlios<* who arc (collecting for me, they are Id-] 
variably despatched on the spot, and dread- 
fully nn<l wantonly mutilnU'<l. so deep-seale4ll 
is the dctestfllion and dread of this bnrmlesai 
erentiire in the mind.s of nil the people here* 
about. 

In a large, shallow tank of water. I have he* 
fore me now two fine Uvlng specimens of Uiil 
siren, wbieh liave been under my nbservaUot 
for nearly a fortnight. The larger of til 
two has a total length of eighty ireutimctrw* 
with u mid-girth of foui-te*fn centiuietrcs. [] 
have kept sperimenu aUve lltat tu«a»ure<3 
hundred or more wutiuietrci*, but they Uavi 
since- been consigned to alcohol. The spei-i-' 
men now before me, just mca-suied, Is of n dark 
olivuceouH brown above, and entirely 9>o on all 
the part« beyond the hiitd-pnir uf limbs. A 
patch of this color is also found u)k>ii ibc 
thivat. The color of the under parts is a dull, 
whitish leaden hue. being inottled with nn ii 
termediate i^hade ns it joins the darker 
more sombre color of the doi-snl nHpect of thtf] 
body. This mottling grows dcnsc-r aa it a[: 
proachcs tbc hinder limbs, where finally 
mtirgea into Che general tint of tJie ap|ier Mr-' 



Avtr-^T 10. tS8^.] 



SCIENCE. 



1, wliicb is c«rrie*l over the tail. A faiot 
fcterul diT-As*! is found along tlic mid-third of 
1^ )>oiIy, witli feeble cnrnigatiotui cro«<iing it 
'vertio;illy. that are ijuil*! ("vidont. as tho crea- 
ture ivrilhes hIkxii. .iiid tlie ei^l-like slime that 
D-itiiinliy cuver* Ijis tiilire body pnrlialJy dries. 
[The liml>» lu-o pretty well develoijert : each i» 
iree-flngored. or. belter, oftcb ijossesscs three 
lif^lts. Tbe liiiidor litubs mv larger tbuu the 
ones, snd stronger in ovory way. The 
taijertu to a tail beyond the ^ctiilnl liBiitirc, 
Sril no irell-innrkeil coiiBtriiaion iri<li(;atC'8 to ns 
ita exnet commence men I. or altiu-hnient lo ibe 
,body. It \g ronnded benenlli. bihI rini.'<hi'd off 
ilong the median dorsal line nilb a tliiek- 
tened. feebly pronounced crest. Seelions made 
Ihroiish ihn Iwwly itself, between llie fore and 
hind limbs, ar*' clliiitieal, with the major axes 
io the borlKoiiljil plane. I have taken other 
measnremvnid from thii) specimen, vhidi I 
present in tliu rorw of a table. 

Tolallmvtii . HOcMt. 

|l4«inh .... .11.0 " 

lafforrnmb. I.T •■ 

lilnJ-UMb . - . Li •> 

•■ ■■ hwl . - . . - . W ■• 

DliUmnr bvioMn tlia aye* ..... . . . lA ■• 

" " ■• >naiMU - Jl " 

•* " aiti|.i>oltito bat'n «yn and Doalrll*, t.3 •■ 

"'"- -'• ' •,- ..... *.a •■ 

..... a.1 •' 

ill. ; . M ■• 

•Imuv^ La " 

. rtvinelUlcft SjO " 

iiii>:»rur.i,.iw^ Mw^Mitiiiid-lUBiMUtipofuii, ap.n " 

The nasal apertures aru very small, and tJic 
ijyCK are black, round, a littlii more than a 
TnilltmeLre in dinmtaer. and devoid of lidH. 

I may remaa'k here, that, while cngtigeit in 
t*king Uicse mea.iiireinenla, this specimen snc- 
ceedcii in sei/.iii'f my thumb in his moiiih, and 
Immediately commenced his peculiar tryrntions. 
tnrniDg himself in tho long axis of \\\^ Ixxly ; 
■ but I was too strong for him, and soon dlsen- 
'■gagfrd myself. Tbe bite eauscd no more in- 
oonwnitnec than thoBC I have received from 
allffpitorft a month old. 

Tlic upper lips of tbe three-fin gcrM] siren are 
thin-edged and pendnlotis, extending from 
the couiiiiis^iire of the Jaw to n |mitit nearly 
Dppotiile th« uosiri] ou either siile, where thvy 
toergu into the rounded euoul. The tower lips 
do not meet in front by a ceiitimetn*. They are 
likewise thick and (ihiiq>ed^<xl, overhan^'ing 
the ronnnoii iiit^>;^uuient of the lower jaw, and 
originaiiiit^ punU'i-iorly within the eommisitiirc 
and beneath the upper li|K(. Minnie glandular 
o[X!ning4 are seen on tlic bead above, and in 
[the maxillary space beneath, Bymmetrically 
In rows, as oo other portA of the 



body. We find the gill-el#ft« with two 
obliquely placed lips, nith which they nan be 
eloaed, the anterior one being the larger. Tbe 
intt^rtial opcniugs to the gill-clefts arc far hack 
in the pharynx, nearly opposite the mdimcn- 
tar>' arwl partially cartilaginous larynx, whieJi 
latter communioitea directly with the snpcrior 
extremities of tbe memhraiious pahnoaary air- 
pessageg. A pair of normal luogs ore among 
tbe most exquisite of structures id any verte- 
brate. Here they are particularly beautiful, 
being very long, cylindrical in form, extending 
far down into the al>dumcii, lo terminate ia 
lK)inte4] estreinilies. Tin- right i* llilrlben ccn- 
timeireri Iringer tlian the led, and is carried 
nearly down to a point op|K)Bilc the ctoacjj. 
From one end to the other, the alimentary tract 
is nearly or quite a straight tube. The oeaoph- 
agenl |>ortion ia rather .small nod tubular, with 
a few eiroular constrictions iu lis lower third. 
This division soon dilates intoa spitidle-sha|)cd 
stomach of some size, which, in the specimen 
before me. is fonrleen eentimetrcs below the 
pharyngeal a|>erture. Below thiii last dilation 
tile iiilestinal t-rtict \% carried Htraight to the 
elo&ea, or rectal eulai'gement, into which the 
urinary and genital organs open. A rery 
peculiar feature is noticeable in the circulsx 
coD&trictions that occur in thi^ iutestine nt ir> 
regular intervals along ita length. S\-ts dark 
in color, the many-lobe<l li\-er is alioin twenty- 
sis centimetres long, and covers at itjs lower 
tenth, or thicker extremity, an ellijisoidal gall- 
bladder of no small size. Many fenturefi of 
interest and importance present themselves in 
the circ4ilfltory and renal systems ; but our spnoo 
wilt not permit us to enter upon tliem hero, as 
we have something to say about the osteology 
<iX M[imcnopsiB. Among other organs, a w^- 
developed pancreas is to lie observed ; and the 
WoUlinii bodice arc present, and their dilated 
upper extremities are about opposite the lower 
end of the livm-. 

The tongue lu this siren is in an extremely 
rudimentary stage of development- 1 will close 
this brief Bketeh of the anatomy of the soil 
parts — yet it cau hardly be termed a skctell, 
for many stnictui-es have not even Itoeu alluded 
to — by calling the reader's attention to the 
remarkable length of lime that nervous excita- 
bility, if I may apply such a term to the phe- 
nomenon, was kept up. My s|)eeimen was 
killed with chloroform. That of itself took a 
tang time, forty minutes or more ; but what 
is this, compared with the faet that itSi 
heart conlinncd to pulsate in good rhythmic*! 
time during three bonrs and » liair of my 
operftttotu, and after tbo moAt cvtenaive dis< 




SCIENCE, 



f*:' 



•*• 







Mr 



Ol 



p ;«* 



eMn 



'^ 



'it* 



vT- 



«e /* 



.*w. 



/■.. 



JW. 



n*. S. — Poiiuil, vrrL'.rnl. Uirral. anil |iiMirrlt.i ilrwi l-F Itie 
•kail of Uuinn^up'U thiterlylK* (ITc •In-}, m|-M-ilt»l)r irp- 
rMtmlitl la A, It, i'. Biiil tl. Kin'ii- lihr U-lliririM !>■■ IIh-hiiuv 
iBflPwUon In oBulu lew. /•<■/, prmrBiHlory, I'n.iTjiBor; ma. 
tn*llllnr]F i •.«, RplrnHrlhln<><<l:/>ii j,|wrMj>l>ciMiU./>(. iiirrv- 
yotii : >tf, iiiiHiMQMit; fir, c»luni<ll& attrii ; <«, itoi^pilal; 
0,c, OTfipkl»l vunl^lv . fHi» tfiimrMti-n Tiir I'i^l nf [ilirufnci|b«tfic 
■Ml illu*>«-|rtiiir) iivml iirdoi ina, iiSU'IiwI liAial alMilian, 
jl'a. i.L.T. * f'.niKl, ;,, jinrlTial, ei», f'-""'"'" '■ " il». ii«»- 
•«k'< ' lIu-liMul CivrTc, Ihc Urn l - nIVL 

Ctu->. -. .;. iiiAl rln»(ii( at iMiUdlktc. -... ..,-,j_. , Jhi, 
inwBB ■iiviiiim ; pi, rD«d ar Uip noutk. 



ficclionx had t>ccn niaile? Aotl (tnvr iionn itnd 
a hnlf aftiT, when nil ttic orgajin hail been ro- 
tnovcil. ami inroads mmtf n\^ol^ lli(> trunk. UUb 
creatiiK would Htill wrilho vigoruiish tiy sEinpIr 
pincbiiig liis tail, or close tiU Jhwa likf a vice 
ID a wa}' that woiil-l put ibe linnlii.'Ht (>( eele lo 
ahame, and cnish any claim tlit- l&lter mlglit 
bave in stnudiQcr at ltii:-Ue:td of the llslofUwa^ 
UDJmuls uiuhL tenac-ioiis of Vifv. Wt> fiml lh» 
Qranium of MnnienoiMfis veni' liiorougldv oasl- 
fied. and tnatiy ul' the sutures 4<h^n-Hl>ltt only 
afUr close iu'^pi.'Ction. Tbo toeth arc of Uic 
pl«Qrodotit tyiw, and may be seeu in alt s1ag«e 
of dcvclopmoDt iu the deep groovpf that frxiat 
Id the mandible, ttie maxilla, ttut proinnxilla 
(which uftually <iupport8lwi>lTo),and thcenliro 
iniiei' niui^iiiN of ttie deMivuilitig platen of thn 
vomers, which mcol each other fliiLcri'jrly (Bg. 
2. A). A long. ftU'Dder. i3|ibcu-i-Lliuiotil i* lo- 
scrtud bi'iwLvn tlK<w la<iL)iiiiii-:). iinilc dLiLiucUy 
aeen on the infi-riur atij>ect. 

The pri'TniixitIa Uirows luckwnnl a nasal 
process that oreriapn the frontJils aliove, and 
passes lirtweeii the nasals. These latter seg- 
ments arc very mui'h honeycombed iind grooved. 
— a charaotfriatic irhieh ts adopted by Uio an- 
terior extremities of the frontaU and the upper 
parlA of the maxilla on either side. The co 
ronal suture is net-n beyond, a demi-tojEenge 
Hlia)>eil ami elevated plate, derehipeil by the 
united IVontaU, directed backward (fii;. i. U). 
fc^adi outer margiu of the parietal region 
is I'uiKeU into a curliug cix-st. us if pushed 
up by the unusually larj^ &<|iminofiala. whieh 
lend If) the lotirral as[}eet of the Hkiill of thia 
ureature auch a massive ap|>earaiioe. An in 
other Urodela, a large columella auria 'm aeen 
on either aide, ■•xtemal to tlie exteiiatve jiro- 
cesses Ihal prujecl buckwaitl, to bear the 
occipital euodylt'9 (tig. 'i. I>>. A []ro-utic is 
well dcveIo|H.'d : but it is diDleult to determine 
in llie adult emnium whether a separate epi- 
otic and o|>i«thotic exi^t or cot, though I am 
ctrongly iiiflinod to think ibcy do not. Tho* 
ptcrA-goids art- coinplelcly ossified, and quite] 
esleosive. borizonlally Hatt4.'iit^d, nml citiT^-d 
plalfs of bonp. tlieir (intprior exireniitieii being 
prolrHitfed with a tibioii<t ttsHue lo foiiii Ihefloora 
of the orliils. The lower uiaxillu is veiy ile<-j>^ 
ami solid; and, iiUhou}<li the me4^'tin<{ of Uiv , 
dvnlaiy elcmeutB anleriurly is i|uite exteusivivj 
Ihe ifymphyttltt its nut firm. Nearly the entire 
baaierauiul region i» occupied by Uiu whlv-J 
apn'ndtng and iinlcrturly pnjiluced paraephc- , 
iK>id (fig. 2, AKvrhicli, with itboerratcd roiirgin,.] 
artieulales with tlie parallel vomerine plau-a 
beyond . 

We hove preacnted as for examination iu, 



Al'ODBT id. I»«.l 



SCIENCE. 



163 



thf hroi'ii'iiri ■ ■ i (fig. 3) two rt-nifnriii 
hi|x»-Ii^iils ill . siirniouiileil hv a triplo 

pi«oe of Uio »um«- uiiiioiinl ihnt nc-eiipioB (lii< 
ti^iiul Bito of llie j;Io&Bo-li,val. In Iho mwlinn 
liiw VIC hnvo a tbomiighlj- ossiliwi Imai-hynl; 
wliile cnrvwl hony ccnuo-liinlH, with evpniided 
cnrlilngiiiouft niit4Ti(>r ends, nrr siiapemletl from 
tl»' li_viM>-h)als. Kuiir Itrniiclitnl nrt'Le* ar* 
iT|>rc*cnlM : llie lirst p.-ur l»eilig long, ciirvrd 
bones, and (he t-iTinninin^ ones carlilsgt. The 
gill-clcn* o]>cn to tlip war of \he laat pair on 
either flktc. 

The s|)iiial column of un mlult Muraonopsis 
i*ofitniiig one hiiu'lri-*! iind ten well-ossificd 
^■i^rtebrap. Tlie set-'oitd auO lliiid of Ihcsc have 
suspcmK'tl froiii Utvir Uau&wvsc prot-fssca ficc 
riti3, of u'liic'h Hie niiU-rioi pjiir H llw liii-giT. 
A 9lr<lll^'ly iiijirtitij iiiU'rci)n<l> loiil iiroci'ss is 
formed L<t'twi.'t:ii Hit" two roncave faccls on the 
nntorior ri*i|Rt.-t of the :ulns. As a nile, nil 
these vfrteliiac, except ihe first ntui the os- 
troiui'l.v riiinmnitnry oaudiil onca. nre of th« 
uuphiLtH-luiia ivpc. with U>fiy ncuml spines. — 
ftLr-9]>rt'i«llng tniiisveraer) processes that become 
horizont.illv hrondf nfd iti inid-spinal n-gion, — 
ftntl with nell-niui'kcil zygipophisiul processes 
U) link the sericft together. None of these 
Tertehrae/ircnwMlihed to form a sacrum im^u- 



ii 



cl 



*' 



V 



ir»> 1 _ n. : 1.1. •.•L -ii.ii i.n»i.M.i •|i|<iinUB* of UurncnupaU 

- in rartllAiNl fA, nui)- 
rA.cvnun hynli W, *', 
.. ,,.... - . i ... ...i^leJt. 

nc'Ction vitli Ihe pclvin !q Ibo prconiidal rcgtoo ; 
bejoml whicli. eneli segment throws down 
pnrial hypnpupliysifil piocesses, which nro not 
loat. as Wf proi-fc^l ijjickwiuds, until we nnivo 
at Ihe iillimulD iioiIuIch that comph'to the tjp 
of tlm tail. 

In my i<[i[>('iincn the Ihirty-lhinl and tlitrty- 
fonrlli verlelirae have coaleKced in the moat 



pcmiirkahle manner, forming one bnne, with 
nearly nil the pnrls donblc. Tho appendii-nlar 
.tkcteton is represontcd by pxtremely nidimcn- 
l.nry aboulder and ]>olvii- girdles, wipporling 
crinally feebly dovoloju-d limbs, with Ihi^ir seg- 
ments arrau^tKl ra seen iu lig. -t. \Vc find 



l^it. I.— j\. ri|tli( fom-liiab NBd nidtinviilBiy »lioul>kr-|[trAIo; 
II, rtuhl M»il-Umt> and rutllinaDMiy prtin*. li«ih «li«ti<l)r sa- 
larsi-d. of M. irtibPljlM. Wtva •liiMfilanbyilwauilKr. 

Ilic eorinis hati Ihreo cnrtilaginoiis elements in 
its structure. — two in ihi: proximal row. ntid 
only oQc iu ibo di»tjd. Tins nnmhor is in- 
creased by an addtlioual segment in the tardus, 
nhich ha% two dcraenU in CAch row, aitlculaU 
iD<j with the digits, as nbown in tlte figure. 

Oss«ous tissoe of ao elementary charnoter 
may ho de))08ited in tlic humerus, tlie femur, 
ami cerlatD |)oiiits in the jielvis, more {Mtrticu* 
Inrly the projecting rod that nppeiirs to repre- 
sent the pubic bone ; otherwise all this part of 
the skeleton in onr siren remains in cartilage 
throughout life. U. W. SluirKi.iir. 



THE GREAT TEnWTJAL MORAISE 
ACROSS PEyaSYLVANlA.^ 

Arrr.K dMcriliini; Uic InTCili^allonii wliicli el9«- 
wbprc li&d di-innnfltnitful the exhlciice of a irufl ter- 
minal uioruinv lo the glwler covering nortli -eastern 
America, the nntbor nUlcd, thai hftvlng oblalneil the 
aid nf Iho geological surrey of Pennnylvanla. and, 
ilnring a p«rllDn of hi* work, the assltlancc of Prof. 
O. P. Wright, he h»cl twnn nliln to fnllow ami Ovfto« 
Lb« southern limit of glarintion fiir l)ic lirst liinc in 
■ eontlniioiu line four liundrfil mitrs In lenglli. and 
to ftnd that It was everywhere mnrked by a remark- 
al>t« iccumulalioii of gldciaied mfttrrial, which, wind- 
tug acroM moittilalna ami rallcyB, from Ihe lowlands 
of the DflJaware to the sreat Alleghany plateau, was 
continuMis from end tn (UkI, anO fornai^i) a true Iit- 
Qiliia) tnoruine. 

Tliere b a marked ditilnctloa between the gtacl- 
ateil porilOD o( renn«y1vaniu and tliat region »ouUt 
of glacial action. Altliowgli the general topography 
uf the two re«;ioni b alike, the varied snperfk-ial 
features due to glacial agencies, Ihe far travelled 
and scratched bowlders, tlie Bfflootlieil and itrlatcd 

< Abtinwl vf a papu \*fbtt Uw AMUtoaa MMMUtaa fet 
ib»*dmic<Mi«ito(«cl«iM>,laMMUMl,Aiiia«,tSM. Bj PnC 
It. Caaviu. 1.SWI*. 



164 



SCIENCE, 



IVou lU No. »i. 




rook-ec|>o«urc9>, thi- unaLratlfled dvpnsit of tit), Uia 
many kninvx, and <>4pocIally t1i« numwuf glucl'T- 
•crmtebed rragiuvnUt und jwbblcs, — nil [Ih^m ile|>iMiis 
are lu iirong cootrut with tlios^ »<)uth of tb« monine, 
wltvrosJI tbfl graveh are stratlAed nnd (h« pebbles 
wticT-worD, whero Uw rock* ai-e ncrer L>oU»hM] or 
strtntcd, but, on the othfir h&nd, aiXcn ilfK-omposHl 
to a KTest depth, iuiil where, exce)>i neftr Ibe MMONst, 
wide itretebr* of the more vl«vated regions ara per- 
fectly fret- from all drlfU 

Tbc method empioynl in discovoring thfl line of 
llie aranluB w«5 to xjgug ilang iu coone from the 
^Mclatod Into tbe noD>|[laclfttMl region, mnd vicr mtm, 
going eAcb time far enough oit the t>tic Atd? to be fully 
BalHlOed of the abociiee of fElocl&Uon. and, on lht> 
oth«r, lo (Ind undoiiblMl traces of Its ncllon. 

Nowhorfi south of tin* linit of tb(! Kirmlnal moraine 
barl hit fonnd any tracm of gtacla) aoilon, <Ul 9taU- 
MiCTitf liy other 'jevloffi*tii to the eontranf nutirKAttatid- 
tR|7. U'hen l>-picn]l,viIari>1ope(l, th« terminal monino 
Is ebaract«rltccl b; poruliar coutoan of lt« own, A 
series of hummocks, or low conical htlls, altiTiialc 
with short BiraiRht rlds«9, and enclose shallow buln- 
•hnpcd iIepr»Miotts, whidi, like luvertLiI liummocka 
in shnpi^.. arr- known on kftlU-holft. Large bowlders 
nre ecaUta^ ijv«r ilif. 5urf«ce; and lh« nnstrati fliid 
till which rouipiiwpji ihu dt-ponil fr (IIIih] with t(Iiu-itfr- 
leratclied twwhleni and fragroenu of all aIecx and 
alutpcs. Tbo areragi! wlilth of the tnoraltte is abotu 
one mllp. 

At many places, howeTer, the limit of glaclatlou is 
moiled roerelf bf an unusaal collodion of large 
transported bowlders. This Is especially the case Id 
front uf a hl(;h mountain range which baa 'combed 
out ' the drift from tbe Ice. 

The goneral conm« of th<^ moraine acmss Pennsyl- 
Ttinia was deftued oa follows: api*carln)i: flr«t In 
Norlhamptnii county, a mile below IIeIviiU'r<\ »I 1atl> 
tndu ■10'* AV. it wind* in a great cunrc. first wwlwanl 
and tbi>n northward, nmcblngtha bast) of the Kitlo- 
tinny Mountain, thrve miles «a«t of the Win<l-(iap. 

Ascending to the top of ihc KItlatlnny tloonialai, 
sixteen hundred feet high, the moraine crosses tlic 
Rnat valley between the Kittatlnny and the Poconu, 
and then Hwlni;B sharply back and around Pocono 
Knob, Immediately afterwards to ascend the sleep 
fac« of the mountain to tlio wide plateAU on lop, 
twvuly-oiie hundnHl fe«l oboni lh6 sea. CrossJnK 
ihtsinaflne curvt;, and heaped up In an imau'ns« 
accumulation. It goes first north and afuirwards went, 
reaching the gorgo of the I^vhi^li Itivnr, xninx t<.-n 
lailea nonh of Maach CThunk. It croM6« tbo gorge 
al Hickory Run, and. vlthoui swerving from its 
general norih-wi>slem course, ascends mnunlain 
range after mountain range, descends to the valley 
oi tbe east branch of the Siuiinebanna, and eroues 
tbe river at Beach Uaven. 

Then, following; tbe base of Huntington or Knob 
Honntaln, It llnally ascends It, and crossing Itei sum- 
mit, at a height of fifteen linndred fcoi above the 
Susquohaima just below, deaceads the uoriii slope of 
the mountain to tbe broad, undulating vallry to the 
north. Taking a northerly eoune. It fotlowt op on 



tl)c east liank »[ FtslUug 0Tt^\i to the N'oiib or 
Allt^hany Mouniuln, enten< Lrcoming couuty,'paa«« 
westwjiid aloug the Iwae of liie mountain, cnisshitc : 
in ita coarse Uie .Uuncy and l..oyahiiok ''reeki, and 
then, nrar the vlllacc of LoyalBock, tumi at right ^ 
angles, and OM^ndo lli>^ mountain. 

[laving rfai-hed the summit of the Alleghanlos, 
orer two tbotuiand tf^A above the sea, it posses west 
through a wild, woodpit r(-i<tuQ nearly as far oa ^n« 
Creel^ where it Ix'-^'iii-* n nearly straight north* 
wettward eourM through tbe Boulb-W£^I earner of 
TLgga county, and tbe uorth-weat part uf Potter. 
In tbe high grouttd of I'otter county, th** mnralne 
criMMA a great continental watenbml, ftom' which 
the waters flow into the Oulf of M< \l<-<'. I^kn 
Ontario, and rhe«a|>eak« Day. The m ' !■■«! 

finely shown at an deration uf twoni> < ired 

and eighty feet, being hlglur than eluwhere in*tH> 
Unltol ^taces. 

It now entexs the vtate of New York In tin- ■otilfa- 
wast rornL'r of Allegany county. Passing still north- 
west, and entering Caltarauguo t.>ounty. It twice 
crosses tba winding course of the .illeghmy KUor. 
east and wwi of Olcnn ; then U-uiulint; to a pouti Qre 
miles north of Sabimanca. In latltuili' Vi" lA', it fomiB 
a remarkable apex, whence to the uhlo line Its course 
U Rooth-vreat. Turning al right .'«ngl«i* to Iti forntrr 
course, the moraine passes toDth-west lhn>ui;Ii Uie 
south-east comer of CliiutatKiua county, and, keep- 
ing appnixiniaicly parallel to the course of the Alle- 
gheny Itiver. ro-enlers Pennsylranla in Ptiie Grove 
township, Warren county. ItcroueatheOnnewanga 
River seven miles north of Warren; then trending 
west, still at a general elevation of nearly two thou- 
sand feet above the sea. It crosses one goni;<> after 
anoUiiir, and forms a line Mparallnz not only the 
icliwlaled from the uon-gtoclated K'glon, but also tba 
cultivated from tbe uncnllivatxd »iid densely wooJeil 
region, it croa9<(» the nouLh.ea>t cornier uf Cntwtord 
county, skirts llw north-west and we«1 iMundury^of 
Venango county, ttosses Deaver Hirer eight rolles 
south of Xew Castle, and, trarersln}; tbe extrrmd 
north-west comer of Beaver county, crotoes the Ohio 
state line tii ttie middle of Dnrllngton township, 
thirteen miles norUi of the Obto River. 

The moraine thus leaves Pennsylvania al precisely 
tbe latitude al which It euter«d the sUla; and.lf a 
stmigbt line wnre drxvrn acroxs Ibr stale belweou 
Ih4r.i4- two |M)inla. the line of the moraine would fomi 
with li a nearly right-angled Ihari^'l*- whose apex 
wof n. huudrett mile* distant pi>r|>en>licularty froia 
Its Imsc. The total length of (be moraine, as here 
shown. Is about four hundred miles. The moraine 
crosses the Delaware at an elevation of two hucidroil 
and fifty foe:, the Allegheny al an elevation of four- 
teen liumlrtfd and twenty-flve feet, and the IVaverat 
an elevation of eight hundred fv«l, above the sea, 
or two hundred and twenty-ilve feot above Lalte 
Erie. lipou the high lands It rises higher by a 
thousand feet or more. 

Coining lo tbt.- details uf the morainCt sudj otl 
whieh an- of gmiit iutenvt, referenco was made to: 
itA fine dereloptnent in Northampton county, weal of 



166 



iSClENCE, 



IVvL. [I., Nv. XT. 



I)«npir, whrm ii fartu4 • mtIm oI liiiDiinnek^ lillls, 
whicli, a litinilrfO lo ttro tuitidrcj feci In tiulsht, 
KD'I cdvtrrci! Willi trmn*porIisl anil »liinU-il botrldcni, 
rise iktinipTlT out <if « eitif'j plain lo the wcM. 
Ulii'ial ■tiriuj.' npuii tfx|>uti_-tl •mrraix'S Pirar BatiRijr 
pmnl •nutli-W'^l. or t»wan!i ilir inominc. AUmr fol- 
lovtii^ iUe mumlric to llu- Imk <>f tlu' KlUutinny 
MtiuitUin. )l lH'<'^nH< nf ^reni Inlerc^l to kooir 
wlifitlior n gruftl Mm of Icu <le»c*uil<*J from Now 
JcTK^ nlun-; Kio Uiirer *ii]e of tbc mountun, ur 
wliclhor « tAi)ipii> pr.'Jfcied tlirou;;)! ibe Delaware 
WnurOip, or wlictI>or ttir I'lncifr, even w> dote lo 
tt> iioiitb<-ni limit, cniuv bu^lily ovlt ib<> lop of ib« 
tn'iiiiilalii, tiitrticcki-iS by il, iinrl urHmn^t'cl ia lln 
rniirso. Tlie last. Ihc tno»t improbnMc af ib»« 
liyiKitlicsra, aud ccruliilj- tlir least cxiH-etct) by llie 
nucltor, )ir>ive<l t» t<v un<IoiibU->lly >Ii« irutM^nv. I1i« 
nuilior liB(] iK'fii fttili- 10 xliow llinl Die moraine 
cronad ibe mountain near Otf^ol Knob: thai lug^ 
bowltlers. ilprivvil from lower cIvTHilon* »o«erftl mllt>* 
nfirlliwaril, lii- fH>rcli>-(l all »liiii;; tbt- Aiimmil, fMiirt^rii 
litinilrml (i>vt nboro Iba tifn: atid lliat, u uliona hy 
Ui»> iMunpioui tirlAV on tin* iiortltcrn slojw of ll»c 
motiiilAlii, riiitnini; up-hill, Ibo gtaciirr moved diago- 
nftlly up and ttctas^ Ibc monnlAin. UTitiiDiii-ticed in 
any vruy by tin: pn-senru of tin* WaCi;i' -Gup, and tluiJIy 
oamn tn an end In tbe valley soatb of iho tnoun- 
tain, as matkt-d onl by Iltr [eriDiiial morafne. Ruga 
bowlders of (oulllfpmiu llmesiono, »)melline8 tblriy 
feet long, «r«re torn by ibo lev from tlieir parent 
ktraU in Mnnrou county, on iliu north xlde of tb« 
roniinUin, liflnl a|> a tbousand fei-t, i-JirrJe^l across 
the mountain, and dropiwd finally in the slate %-alley 
uf Nortbampton county, llie auiUor bad found on« 
of tbefto llmeatone bonlders upon tbo very ■iimwll of 
the Tuounlaiii, wliero the Ja^cd samlaton« rock* bM) 
ccmtbed it out of Uic ice during Its paMage at-mss. 
The Journeys of tbew bowlders were tliort; but Lliai 
of a wrtl-rniimlcil bunrlilrr of Adirondack Dyenite, 
whlcb tlic ftutbor had found hi the same county, was 
about two hundred tnikt. 

Annthirr intor«>>trng point \% in Monroe rounty, 
upon the summit of I'ocono Mountain, orer tirb 
thousand fcvl above the sea, uhcni a gn^t rid^ 
of moralna hills tweUe inih>« long, onv mile tvide, 
and a hundred or mora feet hij;b. compoml of 
unstmtified till, and bearing numeraua bowlders 
of Adirondack giieltses and granlles, rises out of 
the li'Vi'l, aaiidy pliiin of the Pocotio platran, and 
swwp* iiroiiiid fri>m Poconn Knob into Carbon 
county. Known locally AS 'Long Ilidso,* lis origin 
bad nover Itmfonc brvn siwptjclud. li cneluecs re- 
luarkalilc liltlt- ' murnlne lakes' wllboul. inlet or 
outlet, and is heaped up iulo just ancb conleal 
bills as inny tw teen In the moraine In southern 
MastticbuM'lu. Nothing cui mote clearly show- the 
oontintiily and uniformity of action of the great 
glaciiir than the IdeiilEiy ol It^ moraine aecumulaUons 
at mu'h retnuti- jKduls. 

In ftiot, Mm ODiirsoof the moraine, as it wiutlii iron 
the top of llto Kiltalinny Mounialn down to Cherry 
valley, and then up again on to Lbo Pocono, Is a 
complete vindication of tho glacial hypotlietls. It la 



In nn jeiuie a wattfr-lirTPl, nor could It have besfi . 
fMHiicd by floating <c^ No other cau«^ than ihst trf 
A greiklKltcier r4iuld form acunlinuuiiincnuiuu'utiou 
uf ;;laclated mnlerlnl «-hlrh i-ontalni uo vridencM 
of nater-arllon. and wlilub tollnws inch a runrte. 
Keith«r on the niotintalm nor In the \-alli<y dtM-a tti» 
moralite n>u agaiu''t any detinvil harrier, as would 
he the case were it a »liorc-line. 

The luimr* uf Cherry valley, Una utamplaa of 
which appear aoiuh nf SirrtUdubnrg, '41 r.ag 

rolira of Buh-glncial iratcir- action, 'i i <m- 

[H>»\1 of itratlfled walvr-wuni gtmTiil, tirii ^ '.'itui 
an anticlinal stnictnre, and as a serie» i>f ronlral 
hills and nrticiilaled rld^n*, cnHiHiiiig ' kettle-brilns,' 
form ronspiruoUB uhjccis in the centre of tin- valley. 
They ap(>ear to have Iwf^ti formed by snli^laclal 
rivers, which, flowinj; fr»ui Ihe moralti4i liiiflcnninb, 
under or at the ttlgr of tite it'i', rmpiied into lh« 
Dclawaro valley. They thus pitibably dUXer in ortgtn 
fnini the lonfp-r katnrv in New Knglanil. and other 
region)* more remoii' from tlve edge of the glacier. 

The glacier bad producvd wry slight i'IT>>ci u|h>o 
Iho lo|>ogrH]iliy of Pennsylvania, ll nelUier lerrlled 
down luoutilains nor scooped out cailuua. The 
glacier passnl bodily across ilu> kharp edge of th« 
KUtatlniiy Mountain without having any apprcHaUt' 
eSe^t ujMMi II, the glaciated jurt of thu ridge Iwlngaa 
high and a-t «harp a» tUnL part aonih of tliv moraine. 

In describing the course of tli« moraine arroas 
Luxeroe county, the author sbowetl that ll ervcscd 
several mouutaiu chain* in succcn^Ioii, hy «nch of 
which It was locally deflected northward. At the 
point where ibe lenutnal mor&iuu cn>as«s Buck 
Uouniaiu, tn a line diagonally across the moUDtaln, 
the moraini^ was so sharply delined that he was 
able to stand with one foot upon the glaciated and 
lh« other upon the nuD-glaciale<l re^lou. It wu 
Interesting to find, tliat In/real of a mountain chain, 
such as LIuntiofitoh Mountain or lh« Alleghany 
MounuUn, Uie morAina wa^ poorly developed, as 
though the mountain bad 'combed out' the drift 
from the Icp. 

Ue descried an iDMrnotlve portion ol the moraine, 
where, l\iTva and one-hal( mites north-west of Ber- 
wick, il seems to abut ngnlnst a h]i:h tinte hill, wlilcb 
foniithea, thereiore, a »rrlU"i "f ihc «nd of the 
glnrler. U showM that Ihc exlrenitu edge of tb« to* 
was here only about four hundred feet thick, and 
that, while the ntoralne and the aeratched |>ubblea 
were carried iiloiis at llie liati* nl Ihe ice, abari> fnc* 
menu nf »aniIsionu w<>re carried on top. 

Intpcaklug of the niw.t made by Ibe monuns tn 
New York, and of the high plateau rei;lon of Poller 
county, it was infi-Tred, fi'om Ihc local lnniii<nee al- 
ready shown hy the author lo have been eseried by 
single mouutaiu cbalns, Ihat this region of iilglt 
elevation hud a deridfd luHneuco upon the general 
course i^f llio moraine. 

Certain facts observed as 1^ the gravel-ridgRsof Uwi 
Alleghcuy Hirer rendered il probable that the rlvcr 
Ouwed under a tongue of the xincier. leu miles broad 
and two miii-n long, through a xub-glaciai cliaunel, at 
the time of tta greatest cxtemtion uw 0)eaa. nis 



ii£ld 



Avacn 10. IMS.] 



SCIEJ^^CE. 



161 



iWi n Kinat imturnl ilmn twroes tliu x-Kllgy of Ibd 
On^ftt Valley Crwlf, n^iir mii, where the uii>rii1iic 
fltlvSrlit'H arnnW tliR vallf y frmn Side tn nitlis atirl hi* 
ipoWL- *>f the cdiiiMtt ImIwmh llie nutiiervus dnUif 
a{^ riillt^ys wliicli (liniiiod t)ia watora of Ibe m«Ittn(t 
Ice liibi Iho Alltglioii} liii'cr, ftml Umti- vallrys wliirh 
iCKik tiielr rise »otilli of tUt' murnlrK.', niiil wurv frm 
from &II ilrift, 

Aftr-r c^TlnR •oino dpiilts of the western lobe of 
tl. , aii'l dwi'llliii; upon Ibe agriculliinxl 

4iu. :i t llw moniinf, lie sjiokeof Bonio ciirioua 

depukiis c{ KUci»i«il iiintvrial wlilcti tioconvd hi s 
n»rrci« tlriii of iiroiiiMl iiiuii«'liMel]r in froiiL of tli« 
mnnlne, kimI «hicli lif Iiud itoiiiiil i1i« 'frin^.' 
TlifrMS ilcpoaits ci>nfii«tM] uf butrlilvn of Cuiiailiui 
gnnltR, anil i>1]\pt rooki. vrblch h« (omtd p<>r:1mmI 
Upon tti« Buinmil* of h)ll«, ftomMimes u far na live 
ial)i-« In froni uf tti« inonUic. llioiish iieri-r farther. 
TItis gtavlal ' (rliis*;.' confined to ilic « esc-ni part of 
lh<: Mfilr, wna found to inon'asfl in triiUti from tn-o 
miltH In ^V'turen iViunty Tr>l1veini]t>aim IhnOliiollnr, 
Md WiU At first B |>u£z]iii|j |il)rn'>ni>rnnn. The Uy- 
pntltmi* ■iti^]^i.|i>d vaf. thai, like lircnkerMunthf* M!n- 
ihorv, the top nf the iee uvcrreucheJ the lonreit rttrniA 
bjr llic wtilth of Ihn 'fringe,' and that while the 
tnwrAhie uurked tliu ha!llris-plAL-« of iht! hiittom of 
llie In-, by nlilch it na* (urtncd, lh« far-lrxnsr>oTiC(j 
boirld«rt ifcn> cArricil on more rntildly in the top 
*tFBlft of llie Icfl, and were dropped outsliU- of ibe 
funniinu to form tho * frlcig^.* It irns stnled thn: ih« 
■trioe in the w^ttfro part of Ihe itUili! »\\ pninU'il 
jHMIb east, being at right angltn lo lhn9<> In the 
pari nf tho alatc, hut, Uk« tbom. (wlliting 
1 towanln tho momhie. 
f^ttmrluflon, the Author rnrkw^ llie mor» Im- 
portAHl fAOlA (li«cor>'r^l iliirinf Mm «tplnrjitinn of 
(lielinfot Ihefnuruiiie, dwullinc u|>un [hu chancier 
of thu moralnn nherr cmning rivwr-tfaUeTS, tlie 
abflcne« of proof of an^ tongnirs of ioe dovn audi 
Titlleys, lilt alecocc of glaclul drift south of the 
moraine, the •ery flight erosion caused by ibe poiv- 
Mge of the gtncier. und espeelmlly upon the defleo 
tfens, largv and small, tu ilie line of the moraine, 
which were Inexplicable on nny other bypoiliusis 
IFuin that lhi> nirir;ilne univ de4i'ri1it-il wai pnvln-dotit 
atlh«f<»otofamntiniiouilce-»hertofimmcrtsec3(t«nt. 



LETTERS TO THE ED/TOtt. 
CbMige of bird*' not«« 

F^D aonie yrar* it )■»< Wen hnoM-n [o many about 
brre, that in our iiK'alliy rlir nnliiMl liinl {iriirdiiinlif 
*irglnla<iM4i hit? 1>eeii In the Ihihit of [miutin;; ili<: 
ntrt-m 1.1 ii>i' wliippuontill (Aninaloniua vuciti-niB). 
Fr: I have iTfid from time to lime in varl- 

av jiitininis, I Infi^'r tti»t It ia not gcnctnlly 

kn»t*(i Ut;^^ I'ihlw evt^r. In the wild >t:iie (t-Kjiecialiy 
<!amina!iB), ihaiic- Hivir sons. I tlicrefore thought 
flwtii t" rciiurt liifi c.\fr. I liiivfl in several inihnieea 
Icnnnhltil^ btiil li I'li in ,;>■ its Mini;, under C'iiiriti»-mcnl, 

for I'l nilfly (lillcr.iil ; hut ijii* in liie urilj ci*« I 

ha. wn where iiicli n tliiu!; lias wcwrrfJ In 

lb< [ bavo known of thl<i case for about 

tco )c^a. F. O. Jacobh. 

Naviik, iJeklnc tounij. O. 



St. Davld'a locka and udvatBal law. 

'riin arilcl" with the nliove heidiiis In Scikxi^k of 
Jun« l^l, by Dr. M. ¥.. Wu'UnorLb, liaa ju«t coma 
under my obtcn-atian; and, a» it refi^n tofiuesUonfl 
wbieii hav« aHu-ii rhtedy in cr-mcfiiiencc of my r©* 
Mritrclies nmring those rucLa. t shall deem it a f jvor 
if you win ollow me B]>act> In St:ii(?icK for n fuw 
rcuinrks In cxphinnilon. Piotoiaor Grlkii*'* p.ii»et 
ira« writlcn wlih, as lie simrs, 'n "cnse of duty to 
* il<.'f'*i>d llif vien-s of Ids predirrt-uor* ; ' and 11 is |Nrr- 
fecHy reitain, from ilin Im^ly tiiatiner In iililcti thu 
work KiLf grinn over by f rofesior Ueikiv and bb two 
nssislanlK. llint Itic object wru tu vltidienlf tliv iTurk 
of liic Genlu^ic.il survey of Ihitty or forty yeans ajo, 
ralljAT than to iipply tlie knoirlitilj^ti ^juUntl by tb« 
n-ork of many hnJeiA'ndutii ubservera *iiice that litn« 
to ciiTf«el iliu crrura well known to hate been lm)!!!* 
milted by the snrveyora, whicJi rv^ninin aa hioin oa 
(hp raap^ eren now l^vut^d by llie tJitdojjinil atirvcy. 
In Ihffdifllrici nf St. David'!), tln-M^ mapi ohow a pny^t 
intrnaive nln^B p;t8sli>g under (fie •-liy "I ^l~ I>avld'fi, 
about vijtlit miles In ivnaiii, and ullb »\\ u^Kngv 
width of about a mile. Tlie toulheni piirii<>it Is 
Fftlied «y«tilir, and tho oilier felMone. The rwk* ly- 
Ihr aton:; lb« north*»**teni edi;i' fur alimil a mite in 
widih are colorp^i an alter»'d (anilHian. pn!»niii«bly 
as ibe rfsult of the inini^ioM ; hut ou the Aoniii-eovl 
the rocks of the »anie a^ic air »vnppoaed u> he \u con- 
LACl with tike inAKS in an iinalta-rtxl condilirin. and 
withnntcven a line of fault lo »eparate Iheni. Tl»e» 
np|>^aranc<'a weru curiously xnoraaiuus if true : litrnev 
I f»lt it neceitwry to ko very carefullT tnii> tlie <iue»- 
tlon. My large acnu.-ilnt.in<-e with the di^irU-c, and 
111*' knowkdeo I had obtaiitrd in my cvplr>rJiion« 
aiuonit Ihe lower fofrsiiifenins rocks of the area. 
vnabled me to do tbi* with anme Rdt'an(A|;e. I luul 
also, from time to time, nineh valuabk as.'^Istance 
from Profe^fon Uarkneaf, llugliea, and Boniiey, and 
fmm Mr. T. Ilarii-n of the Hritiith innieum, Mr. 
TauTiey, etc. 

I found ibat under tbc same niime. rucks nf very 
different cbararter" liad ln't-.a iin»iii'ctl loKcther. Tho 
no-ealtcd syenite ridge waa acen to con^i«t in part of 
pranlloid rAck*, hut alao of i|uartz-fei.«Ues, of hidl<»- 
fllntas, of brKoiiA, and of porcetlanite* freely trav- 
ersed by tnlru«lve Oikei of vadoiia kind*. The lo* 
called mclainorpbic Cambrian on the north-west vrta 
«oon dlitcorered to be an entirt'ly dlallnci 'eries from 
any f'onibrinn roeka known in Ihe district, or, Indeed, 
anvwiiftro in Wal**, and to tx lar;;ely mwle np of 
rokaniv nieka: and the haul CamhiUn eoiiftloiner- 
nto, n» mnrki-d on iho survey-map", was aliuwn to 
ovrrlle tin- sranittid. the (inorlK-fehitc. iiJilletlinta, 
and Iho inltanic scliiiloae niid hrt'ceiulcd MTica uQ- 
•■nnformablv. and l<> bo niaintv inailo up nf fmsments 
deriwd from those Heriea. From tlie examination of 
the coni;loniernlra ul'o. it wa« xccn liial there were 
dlslinet~('v!denc<>4 nf tlicir having tieen dcpoilled 
along old coa»t-line*, and Dial their niiileria'a varied 
wilh the riH-ks iijioii nhicii tliny rejicr-t-d ; alto that 
tlv»e prp-Canibilan rocks mint b-TVo been much In 
the L'ondillun in which lliey nr« nuiv fiinii<), hcforo 
the Cambrian ranglomeiAies were de|Hulted upon 
them. Curioiialy, alao. 1 futind that luanj of tba 
mnsae* eidnred an Intrusive ffivcn^tonea on tlieanr- 
vey-ntapB were highly mlil rock*, and otliera In- 
durated volcanic ftiiie* of pre-('amhri,Mi a^-e. Indfcd. 
nearly all llic sn-ealUd intrusive nia^i^H inarkrd to 
abundantty on Ihe aorTej-m.Tpanmng ilii' oldn- rtieka 
In the St. David's nrea hare been proved l>eyond doubt 
to be tho result of crroticona observation; and yet 
wfl are told iiy the present dlnNMor-generol Ihnt little 
or no change Is reijuirvd in these uaps, and that b4 



168 



SCIENCK 



ITou II., Ko. 



(eel» It UU duty to 'detvnd ih« Tivvrs of hU tir«d«- 
CCMon' M th^re lii>]lci)U.->l. 'Vhirt is a ittll Ws;rr 
■ret nf the Dirucliikd (-••<rki' BtHiiit 1»n rnU'-i lu tb« 
etalot Sl DaviJ*«: ^ ". "' ' -, llicitc 

(jnuiitpid rocks iin : i b-rJi 

without i>rui]ucinK i— .-.. n tli" 

latter. Iiitl<-<pil, 1 haw nnw r >ii sis 

Uftu In Wnli-s whorvlyplLnl Di: < I roch.s 

ocftir uuJtr tliH CmiiliriAn or |>i<i'( .uitliiiAii lucLs; 
ftnd III nHthvr of tliete areas, ibuugli Bevi-ral t-xcfllfltii 
ubaxn-ers liavi:, in ailditiun tu riiysdf, searched ihc 
bouad«ritu cairfully, bnw we laund the slli;hlc«t 
itMlications iiT tlicir tieiiig liitnuivu iu tti>i<« roclu, 
lbou[;li tliev tir« n!) C'jlur<?d at lutnuive rockf In ibc 
■urvev-mups. In surural at these anas Ibfl IacL tlint 
tlioy musi be pre- Cumbrian nnkit m rvitil^rvil porfocUy 
ctTlKln, as lurt^r fr.-iKineitts »t the grunitniil rockj in 
^ZAUlj' tho iiniiii> cdiiilitiun in nhiih Itn-v are now 
luuiiil occur 111 tlir b;kial cunL;bttiii-'rAi«s of ihe f'ani- 
brlHii. Ill i>ii« area i>nly, iu Wulev, liaru 1 found 
DEiuuliaii rocl;^ r'licircly xurmuiiiled by nicks newer 
than tbo CitubriMii: and here (In- Llandovl^ry con- 
glouierairs and »anii!tluii«ji r<-|i<>s« ti|K>ii thcni, oud 
oiyj Uirgcly madi? up iW materials derived frwn thr 
Dimelliiii III ibc other areas m'wcr rocl'« tluiu tlii" 
CaiuUriLiii ai« foiind nci'ii^ioiially In cciuLact with 
llmiii-il jHirlious of the LUinctiao cxiMistirca ; but the^A 
fiflwcu ora clvorJT MAR to l»*a been produced by 
(auila. ' 

Iu Ills |iu]if*r to thu Geological iDdety. rufcrri'd to 
Lu SciKNct:. Prn(i>^5or Oclkle maintained "that tba 
'Dlmi'iiaii grmip* is an eruptive graiilti'' whUli liiw 
dHrupu-diitid altcneil thn Cainbiiau strata, nveii ulKivt* 
the lii>rix:>n of tli« )tui>posod basal eon glomu rate." 
Tbr pvidttni^i- luldiia-d Ut support thl* viuw wo* from a 
section at <^>;o(-LU'.*ugn, whnrp, as hesnppnsed, "tlw! 
cnti^lomeratc hud bo-ii lorn off and enc'ii>M'(l in t.ha 
grftiiiCn, and )i.li bRi.-ii liiti-ii.'iidy Indurated mi on to tw 
conn- -A aori of p«l>bly .tHan^iie," I'rofi^sor Uiii^hc) 
and iiiTself. aloo^ wilh it iiuinlwr of otJit-r cunipctviiC 
obaon'ei-s. iiave %\ncr. exdiuUiml tliis spot; ajid we 
found tiial the conglumorato litis quit<- lonanly upon 
tlu UiiDfltUn, ibat at almost ev«rV pulut ve could 
paM our bond bctwetru ihi; wiiukiuiQrato and the 
granitoid rock, and tJiat thv Oainbrlan conglomerate 
nod iin change wliutever iiidut-ed lu U bevond that 
rotuinon U> it iu all parta of tlm dhlrict. Twt other 
•«:ljuns were tDentlon«d, and drawiuKt exhibited to 
allow the ' Oiltiulian ' iniruaivu la lUti CNint>riun. and 
a* having eaten dwpiy Into thesarlasat Porthdals. 
These sections 1 Imew perfectly well, at the time, to 
be in the lim^ of rnulls: but for ^rr.iti^r saiislaction 
1 anked Pn>feBBor Uugbes and parly lo re-eXHTnine 
these witli m<'. The result proved thai 1 was entirely 
iIj;hL, anil tliai Professor Gelkie and his assisUnLs 
batl mUtakru a jiiticlion produced by wcil-marki?<l 
faulting for an iiitrnnion, and the t>eds uhlch be sup- 

f[>*>td hfwl been eateo away had simply boen droppwl 
y the faulu He could not produce a aliiAle ipecl' 
men showing contact alteration bctWMii tuo grani- 
toid (Dinii-iinn M-ru-») and ovi^rlyln^ rocks. His 
evidence, therctfore, f^tllJt utturly, on examinaUon'; 
and thi> i>rQ.Cambri<(ii a^e of the granitoid rock* of 
St. Dav!d's U r«adercd. It pn^ilble, more than evor 
rurtaiu. An atlcmpl was madn to show that the 
qiiartx-porpbvrii^.^ ivhiCh I had [wintixl out oa being 
inlnisivc Jn the PebidUn rocka, which altcrihe rocka 
ill Lhfir iiunirtilintc ricinity, wcrti jiinL such nkcka as 
might he apophyses of the ' granite,' but. with a curi- 
oiia want of knowledge of the fact that these quortr- 
porphyrii^ art; roiniiiuii to many other parts of lh« 
orvm far distant from the granitoid series, that tjicy 
ftbo actually iu touv phinta cut acrosa Uie latter. 



Aa Profeswr Grikic did not ip«iid ili'' titr.p ncr 
Mry to rsamliir the artn wUtim the \ 
are ehiellv «x(w>rtl. Imt J««»fily iinivi 



polnl, 1 Shall ^ : i urstioD m my [ 

in reply, to the I. ' >■ ' '"'^'<' ^'''^ 

menLion. that I exbibtltd ,t>«tii.ii uf iv 
vw from this group, Aod sliowi^d lai . 
Cambrian b;i<etit<'nt > ■ '■ ii'H fioni i.toiit 
land, consUf.na ftlm' »( the n>cks 

Arronian (^nuip upnii .-!.i,-. :,.!■)■ iepi>»e. The 
are colored in tli'; siir*ey-iuap as (Htmaire In b«ti * 
up in the SituHao i fossil If on- ui Ai-^riisl, 

Th« P.-bidian. ProfcHSor ' I 
Ut^ral part o( the Camlin : 
*ilgri> llial it lnidi"rlii-« tlf iitiiuju iei 'tin^iinnri.in:^ 
but »ny» the latter rests ijiilte eonfnmial>ly upon U* 
former. In the survey-mip these Pelildlau l«<rf 
Kup|>osed in be ('Anihrlan beds hiijher tJian il 

?iomeral«. but .ilt^ned by Ihi* "d calli-d Intr 
It-re, tluTi'fiiiv, vinic modlflenlioii o( the- niHp 
aeknoirlfilapij io b^ necp*«arv. 1I«I Pmfciomr lieil 



Ui ... . ■ ■ ij... ■ ■ . ■. I. 

bnr* ol ilin undeilyinft rocks, thai iliry lie unc 
ably on ilic fd^px of tbow Iwds, and alwi ths 
aiv \'-' ■ ujt of the rocks Iwlow. 

Pf : <l not refer to North Wali« In 

his I'M''-' . ""' ■'■ '■"■ 'oi'''* *'■'■■ ■' '■ ""■'■' ■■'•-■■■•■'•T 
thrjn than In Sooth W'liles. 1 iti • H 

the at'.entlon of the readers ; ■ c 

s«cUonn just published by the Gi-<>loj;ijila' i :> 

of tiondon, preparatory to the visit to be i 
members to (.'arnarvonFbin^ and Annrles-' 
2S. These section!) show in n rery clear in 

the Canibrlan eoTipI'i- ■-■-- ■- — "ver ;.. 

tlan, Arvoiiian, and 1 ih»t«re». TL- 

rocUkof Lt)«- first tw!< i '||{h an: in ili->t 

area, as at St. Ilavid's, coioivd ;iji intr'isive rocks in 
thu surr«y-tna|<a, mid the lost as alleretl CaniKrian 
and Silurian rocks. 

The sections have bwn [»repart<d by Prof. T. McK. 
IIuj?h« (Woodwardian profCMor of ge-do--*- ■' ' "•<• 
bridge, and forincrly of the (Jeolo-^ical (■u; 
has c.irefully worked out the g>>ol<>){y of tli 
Hi; lud I were the llr»l fj wdni out, In the j.'..! I '77, 
the »imll;irhy of the i-ornlillons iuhil>it<-d hcii; lo 
those at St. David's; and nini-e thun he has derou-d 
intieli time to tli.- elucidation of the fact* liearmg 
upon ''■■■ ..M.'.'inti^ in Ut.it ari-a. 

Ill (u". 1) be shows how the hasemrnl 

eniigi ■; i Uie Cambrian, b»*t«eon B;inc:'r an-! 

Caniaivun. eti-epTt over no k^sa than four - 
of the arcbean rocks: vit, at Uangor, ov 
nioubeds {I'ebidinul; at Drithdir, the Dir. 
(Arvoolau '.'): ai another part fnrihcr 9oui: 
beds (upper Oltnciian) ; and at Ttil Hill, i 
vtm hods |)ow-r Illmr-Llani. In acrlion 'J. 
foruiafde overlap of the 0.atnbrian over ll>< 
n«ar ll.inicor ix elcjirly nIiowii; and hi no. U. n di^:;r.>iu 
section fihowliij; the sequence of tht> rocks from ' 'iir- 
iiarvuu to Suuwdon, the basement beds of the d 
brian are shown rolling over the Carnarvon and 
orwig groups at dillercnt points. 

Allo^dthnr, the «viden«! afforded by these sect 
is of Llie most concluslee ki^id: aitd 1' .'C^nit 
sible to believe that thi« - 
seen and examined tliesc -■' 

experience) with the WVlsli i.k ^^, , ,.i. :...i. liui; i., u 
antii|ual«<l faith tliai all these {ire-Cam briaii 




tteowdiOB. 



A, ('■miii'T'ii iiro«i(< {UiDirtlua) ; JF. OUiorvlg groap. 
«, OMitluiuvnlr Bii<l •uii>l><^'nr [bau-mrtit UJ "f rimbrlan); b. Lower Mil Bilddta ^nloa* of CiUDtrlaii, u^t tuMli ..l<-c|. t>iil 
pfMiatily Iticlu^ttMt tWlrcli. Urjicilaii, IJiiipila One*, aiid Trvcwtduc br^t. r, Arootf , p, nf^tl"" Iron oni it, Uola tiroup, slih 
■Qlk>nllaia>v<M<MitlotN»>U: ^, ?a«lui a, BtulMii Kruuiid) ^, iHko*. 



il]r Intrnafve nusaes or alured beds of Slta> 
lUambriiiii n»«, Tlir liiksnl en ntclotii urate in 
I n)niii<t.i ill |iliii^tra nlniovt r-iidrely of cjuxrtx- 
F, Ht Other polnt« ot s mixture of grultold 
(trap Dlciotlati) and fvUlie rocha, and iu some casoa 
of whlsuu I may further m^niion wiUi re^rd ta 
ttie c-r}'»tMlinc itrliL-^M in Angksey and in Scotluid, 
•uppo»e<l by tb« Oeolo.^ical Rurrey alw to Iw of Cua- 
bnan and Silurfaa aoe, ibat the recent reaearcbes of 
BonncT. Cillairsy, l^p^rnnll, and ntywif, tend to 
ntakr It certnln tfaat ih<-f are all, live the aimilar 
ruckv Iti Ariiericit ilt-»erilw-<i hy Dr. Slwry Hunt aild 
utliers, of [<re-Cain)^rian »ge. Hckbv IIlClCS. 

July a, im. 



SUuilan Btmta new Winnipeg 

Prcntmli^ ttut it may be uf luurcet to soin« raad- 
cn of SctKNci: to read somcihine on the geology of 
a locality rn^ar WinnlMg. 1 take pleasure in fumiib- 
iil{{ liifonnatiiiii, bilherto uapulilUhed, cuiic«riiiii; 
an outcrop of Silurian itrata In thia part of ihe 
norili-weit. Tbia iitLcrfiitlng exposure occurs a iihori 
dtalAnce from Selkirk, altuated some Iwenty^ntt 
mllea north of WlnniMg on tho Cattadlan I'aciAo 
rmllwuy, an'l near the Kod Biver. 

At this placu a (inarry was opened about a year 
ago, n-hlcU.on exami nation. affonUnuuiy attraiaiona 
to a student of science. Ftoaalli belonging^ to aome 
sutieen apeclea ar« nuulDy obtalnad, not only In the 



17(1 



SCTEyCE, 



(Vol. It.. Jfo. SI. 



•olid roclc, but &1m> tti Lho iniiumeruUe vlitppliiin 
tbat Hh icalHrcd ahnm tlii- i]inrtT, 

The rwck ii mn^tusi*!! Ihiicsloiie, Hr«HC« n.vUiy. 
Htid. nhcii litinit, tg|i|ilif«<'v(-ir!1<-iit lime. HloHefmin 
ttik j>lftci' i" fllii|>i>«jd by fftil to U'intii|>c?, wlipre 11 i« 
oseil for onlUinry nntl oniiuixniUil Imiidiit" (ii>i,'i"-»". 
Mftti)' (i( lJlt^ fiiMiU liriiis III tlie ((vnn <'i 
fre<i»i>nily liiiftrferr' w li ii Uh:- ftuccossdil <1ri 
•tone. AhoiiL fmir Tcvt of Ortlt iiiiitenikl u.i'i.irf il.o 
rack; bni oi nnottiur ijiinrry Utrly u|h-iii'(I, iiriiror 
Uk riviT mi<l H slinrt iIlMitticc (arlliifr iiorili, th« <lrlfl 
uiuu-rinl aiuiiiB a Ihickncsx of liM-iit> fri-l. The 
roi^k h luiiili llieiame, but. Ajiftarcntly not !>u foMil- 

!'t flit" (|itVT]r flret referred to. llie retnaSn? cf ror- 
^iiig loilic ponvn Akecilnrtii, II . hi 

.-, nrr rery Dum^roiiv. Sun hh 

1.1 LI' ii.i'.M bear a cl<v*n rt-^rniliUtici' to I lie ,^rini> i nif 
•ilw, AnoHirr group o( v.'i-j- cotiimon ftmiU •m 
tvpre«'nl;nlve» of tin* K<-*m'ra Urlhoceriv, Eii'lw;fnM. 
O rill (?«.■! as. aiiU CyiiiK-vms. 

An p.'coQilcni !I|m>(-Iiiii'ii measuring «l^lit Incliec In 
diameiei, witli Uir4N? wliorls, unsfuitiul. Tll(^ spool flc 
Cliarftct^m :irc niitcli (ililila-rnlril, Lii( in gviirnil <i(il- 
Unc ami afipearaiici.- it I)«ui9 a olo'-e n.*MiubUoc«; to 
Trocliulilvj^ iiiiitiuttiiuH ot tlic Trvnluii. 

Setrral imjMTffft i)x<clmoit« i>( Trlloldm were 
tCMiud. Olio ai>p)-ara lo be a itieuitan- u( the genus 
lllkoiiiis. Fra;;HH'tiU of StDinaluiHira an- rotiimon, 
MliDwIn^ in all caws tlUlluct lamtiiatlon. and, in tw- 
eral, iv^ll-ileflued o»cu1b; irhilt> In a fvw, cunicii) 
(ilovatloiiE can be observeil. Tho ^jiwlmcni oMamcil 
wen' fdiiiiil nmnne Ibr fmgincnis »f rock gcaftorrd 
about tUc i|ii.iiTy ; but Ibu I'baracti-r* o( all ar<' rtcvrd- 
iiigl; uoUorm. Tbe larjitst obtained uieiuiuree 7 
IocUm avrvn, 5 in daplb, and 2 in ilticknes^. TLc 
Iunins6 are well marke<1. numberllif; four lo rhe line. 
Tbey prft^-nt a Murt-likc ap|iearanc«. Ibore being 
tliree creila In Ilie A>^;lb>n nntler rxamSnallon. Al 
tliB ■nuiinil of eacb creii a large aperiuni is obsor^ed. 
Viewinjc tltt> specimen from thu top, »ix of tlicM oo- 
cula arc 6C«^n, all alMul lb<- same iliilaiice apart. 
As yot, I bav« dlscnvort'd nn rods or pillars present; 
but there U no iiuMtlon rcvarilliiK ilii> preieiicv of 
well'inai'Lcd laminae and nscula. 

I have read r^r^fully ilic dcsrrlptlon of the specici 
S. tubcrcalnta. S. pctforalA, s griniilala, S. mnm- 
mlllala, and S. »*[i<>Iatii, of Nirliiili«on, and S. cvnceii- 
trlca of Ouliifuis. and none leom to enibr.iei; llie 
ipeclea from tlilt ((uarry. If any reader of Si.-ii:\ce 
can suggusl lliG »pecle:4 to which Uils InterejitinK '■><" 
all from Selkirk belongs, he n'rll cnnfei' a i;rcAt favor 
apon tho writer. J. Mdyv.s I'Axru.t. 

Pre-Boiiueville climate. 

lu n crillvul notice of my pri-iinilnary report on 
Lakf IJonni'villv (SciKyt-ti, no, SU),Mr. Darin pnlms 
out thai a cciialti ooiidusii'n ait Ui the history of tl» 
L&bln in not »usEalno<l by the phoiionienJi df sritbf^d. 
^Inro retidiri^ hi> ('(itiiincnt. ] Itav mtt U?cii able lo 
eoURnll my text; bill, if inetnory tcireii. Iiin iie.ilrli'tinn 
fa fully wnrranlrd. Still, lli" (■oiicln«ion Is not of 
necessity on-rlliroun; for ll Is \}mpm,\ U\ part on 
oraliu-d data, lho report ainiinc to prrfcut only an 
omline of tbe subject- Noor thru the (nnttt-r U itp 
t^r dt)>cii>«ii>ii, il may he well lo Indicate Ihrjie. 

Th« faL'l* let forth "n; iw fiilloits. Aljove ttiv 
Uonni'vllle »barv-line llie topo^raplilc forms are ihoM.' 

Eroducitl by nub-aoriul (tgi:ii>.>ie:«. Uetow lite slion!- 
De lb« details an> of Mib-a<|Ueou]) urigio, but Llw 



larS"*' fp»il«re« tre Bub-arrial in lypr. Htpeolallf 
aH? tlir grt'ai athivlat con 
menlii of »'iine of Unf uiuti 
tin- -dd watrr-iuaniln, llicir - i 
«icbi-d and "■iilH>''*<.'d by Iiike < 
^lui.i- -.ni.ii:,! .■1.1,1^ are of |jri- L , :. ..',. :.-. . -■- ■! 
bo goal nf drnltiagit — ' llif* ittkte 
— WA', lowpr irbiMi they wen buUl 
lliAii itiiniii:: tliL- Il4>tinevl!lc epoch. 

The i|iie>iloiied conctit'lon is, that Die tmipliiuiM 
of the babtn durins 'hi' long prr-UoTir f!- " '-' 
conu epiH-li was due lo artillly. Mi 

IM-n-^lves, that Ihe adilncnl jib^iuii 

erjiinlly irell ultli the sll^matlvi' hy|iiiihcM« iliat llin 

[tre-UoiincvlIM coiidilluii of tb« li«»iit wa^ one of 

Jrep drainage to the mvaii, Ibc jinsi-in ■ ■ 

of lh<■lul^ln'l rim hAvliig hm-n li<-i|liiiti-<l 

or ju^t before the beginning of tlio Bonnt-ti^L' ■ fi- 

ocli. 

On this liyiM>thv<!*, llir place at whkb the drainage 
of lho basin was dlscliar|:pd inuBt have acnutr-'l 
ihi! peculiar eondgnradim of a rlv<*r-''!tnntii'l: t'I 
since, iKourobservatiiinssliow.alliivi.i 
has not brt-ti ;;rrat in the region din 
and iMjst-BoiinevlDi- tlmo, \e*tii;e* ••• n 
■liduiil reinain. Tlii< fatl lb:i( ihvy hiiv" 
found got'ii far lo ktiow thai they an- imt i ' 
ii)tellfgetit learch lia« been made for tbeni, our etc* 
having Iwen Imined for their nccoKiillIon by the <ll»- 
covery of pre-Uunnevllle chaniieh tcilhju 1 
All the low piisKrH of the eii('lo>iiii: rim 

acnitiiilii'd. At uhalev^r pi^lnt^, then, i-iu - 

age »jBlem* b«Ti* lfitoi«<o'i-d ibi» liin, tiie cliaitni-Is 
.ippvnr to linvr been oblid^rated liy Lbi! eroaive and 
coiutruetlve &i,inicies of land acutpturu. 

Again: lh<' principal plnin uf ihi- IIcunevHIelmtlii 
I* at heart iiiounialnnu*, Ila surface Is '< ' 
becaui<e tli'.' alluvial mountain tt.i.'ies iirede'i 
by later dtriKKit*. ''f (he nature of tbesi ..-,-. .-.,.- 
we know llltle more than iha', the wppiTinoi.1 i» 
lacuslrine. the Iloimeville layer omrenlliig all else. 
Tin: depotiit rvprewiiliiig lh« prc-llonncxilte or 
allurlal-cone epoch iiiu«l be relatively bft.i»y, ami 
may W aituuii.'d to dondnute in the determination 
o( the evnerat conflRuraiion of the plain. Willi iJiu 
basin oTooed. a c>*nain xyHtem of .slopes would arise: 
with the ba^ln open, there would arise a Milaln 
other •ysleni. di-fiiiilrly n-Uteil to the point of dl»- 
cliati^. The nrtual system of slopes Is oiljuMed to 
Ui« cxislini! status, — a closed basin, urllb laeustral 
sedimenlntrou. , 

Assuming that there was u sonie remote date * 
fhann^l of onlflnvr, and that llie coiifijiuraUon of 
the pl.iin was adjuoted thereto, llie p^noil contumad 
in the ublilemlion of the one and thu r<>tuoddlliii{ of 
the other must havp been long as compared with the 
Iloniieville «ixn-h. The pri'-IIoniirvilli: portion of 
the iwriotl — i«|i(.-n the basin wns elost-d. but con- 
tained no lak<- — WHS prcsnmiibly cha racier) zvil by 
a climalu similar to the pr«>»vnl. 

The aridity of Hie pre-Uonnevilte epoch is one of 
lh« fcaturrs n.iRoclalln^ the Itonnr-vllln hlfllnry n-Hh 
fllaeiid history: for. if it be dinpruved. the /> "'■ 

flooding no longer di-mon>trates a climan' 

and the apparent hoiuolosy ill 

iJonnfville o»t.-illiiiioiis hnve. ot 

{nijilii'" Tjdiie if they were rro^^i ., :■ j ,■■■ - J 
t i« well, therpfore, to test ihorougiiiy «fL-r}- link in 
iLo chain of vvid«nco. Q. K. OlLUiun'. 

M»«Ja, July U, IMS. 



ii^bri 



-^'- 



Adouiit iri. i88».) 



I 



■ Adouiit 

I WAlitfS DYNAMIC socioLoar. 

I m. 

I AIk. Waiu* |irt»otitJi a clasalflcaUan of the sd- 
cncRS (lilTfring fVom tliose proposed tiy August 
C^mtP niitl Herbert Spencer. Ttie new cUissi- 
flcatioo i9 of great inlerfst, nnd deser^'cs eape- 
dnl n)>>ittioii. Tlie clftssilicntion of Comte 
wnii iimilc prUtf to tbe g^nt i1<^vclo[>t[U-nt of 
tnu<l<:rn stTiviititic reiMjHrcli, jukI i» iiiij>crfo<.'t. 
The iJ&4»ilifaLiun of S|wncer is, like uueti of 
his pliiloHopliy, u mixttiix* of metaptiywc&l 
sp«culiitioti and positive knowledge. Does 
the cln!ii!iific»tion of Ward meet the require- 
meaU of scieutilic philosophy? 

He divides (he Rubjeft-mntlcr of all science 
imo throe parts, wliit-h he douoiuinnlea the 
' primal^',' ' 80ooudai'.v.' and ' ti;rtiary ' aggre> 
gatloiui. It Is a cin&ftittfution of tbi; objc-cts 
of Uw ooetnos bv modus of aggrt^atiuu . The 
priiiury agpvgation ih tnoh^ciilur, »tuI given an 
iDorganic kitigdotn ; the ^t'lrondary U morpho- 
logic, and givea a hiotngic kingdom ; the terti- 
tkiy is sociologic, and is represented by human 
society. 

A mountain i^ an aggn^gation of rocka^ or 
geological formaiions, some of whioli mnj be 
Cr]'ftlaltiti», ulliera detrital. It i^ an iiiotijnnic 

i|ar aggregate, ami niutit Inll into Mr. Ward's 
class. But UiL* earth itsi'lf U an aggregate 
of solids, fluids, and gasctt. ita solids are 
molar ;iu'gregatc8 of detritul and tTystalline 
roi'k>«. These roeks at llie Hirface aip arrnngeil 
in iiioitniiiins, hilU, and vallc\s, nith intt'rren- 
iog liepreswions GIU>il with botlii'S of wati-r, — 
sens, lakt^H. mid rivcni; and tietieaMi. an un- 
knuivu interior ; and ahove, the atino9|ihere. 
The utnioK|iherp h in motion. The n-atcr is 
carriiMl into Uie air, and moves wilh it. and de- 
scends ngnin ii|H>n the earlli. The known noltd 
portion of (he cai-tb is also in motion, rising 
and falling in ita relation to the oentiv of the 
earth ; while portions of the nnknown int^'rior 
of OiP cirlh arc. by oxtriivasstion, coining to 
Uie fiuiTac*. nml the Un<l |x>rti<>ns of the t-aiih 
are In-inp rnnied by Uie wali-rs into the t^ea. 

<j>eolcit£iL u-:K'lies ns, Iheii. ttiat the farlh is 
OOmix^Mrd of iiiterde)K-iKlfnt parts : ibut the 
drcnltttion of the air, vf the wiilerB. of the 
solids, and of tbi* interior lirjniils is carried 
OD by the action of Ihu several interdependent 
porta : and tliu earth has l>epn not innptly com- 
pared by eminent geologists to a living or 
orgunizcd U'lno^. If wc proiwrly iinder!>tand 
Hr. Wunl, this n^gi'eguUon also is to be rele- 
gated to his first eliiss. 

Again : llie eurlh i» one of a gi'oiip of worlds 
composing the solar hyslem, — the solar aggro- 



SCIENCE. 



171 




gation, composed of inlcrrlepcndent giarts ; aod 
this aggr<>galioa is also to Im iiieJnded in the 
Qrat cbias. 

The inclusion of all of ihese modes of aggre- 
gation tn the one class is tacit. He does not 
clearly set tliem forth, and hia dtfflnt(ion» are 
impeiVect. It in difllcidt to uiulcrsland ft-om 
luK dieciission whether ihvy were coiisiden'd 
in his geiivnil Kcbvme, or whether bv would, 
if connitipriug them, establish one or two mnn* 
grand categories. 

Again : )Mycholog}' is included in the secon- 
dary aggregation as iiclonging to biology. Ak 
the term is now used by scientific men, * psy- 
chology' includes a cousidernliou of the bio- 
h}gie oi^an of the miud and its operutions. 
Through these oijor-ilions are [)rodiiced lan- 
gtioffes. givinjjt the seicuoe of |ihilolug\ ; arts, 
giving the seii-nce of leclinolog\- ; sooicliea. 
giving the science of sociology ; smd oi>!n- 
ions, giving the science of philosophy. With 
Mr. Ward, philology, technologj', and perhaps 
phikwopby, arc sniMiniinale parts of sociology. 
Though he doea not make direct statement to 
thia eHeot, yet his presentation leads to this 
conclusion, in the same manner aa his pi«Mli< 
Utinn i>r the subjuct of primary aggregation 
K<a<l9 to (he sup|K)sition that he intisnds to 
include molar and stellar aggr«gation» tlmrein. 

Tsychology has ita biologic orgnu in the 
brain ami nurvoua system : and mind is discov- 
ered in the lower onlers of life, as well as in 
man. The genesis of pmyeltologr is mauifcstly 
in biology. In like muni»er. the urgana of 
S|>eeeh. KOlive and |>aHf)ive. alike in ornl, Higii, 
and written Iau<:uage, are biologic; and Ian- 
gui^^e U also found In the lower orders of lil^. 
I>angiiRge, therefore, lifin its genesis in biologj*. 
In the same nuunier, the ur>^n? of the arts 
arc biologic: and rude arts are <li8coveri;d tu 
the lower onlers of life. Technoh)gy. tbcre- 
foro. ban its genesis in biology. Tlie first step 
in sociologic organizniiou is the biologie ililfcr- 
eiitiation of the sexea, giving hutilianil and 
wife, parent and child ; and rude ^.ocial orgau- 
izftliOH i^ also fomul in llie lowi-r oidei-a of 
lite. Sociology, tlierefoi-e, h»s its genesis in 
biology. The jianie fOnt^ideralioii* itiai wouhl 
lead to the relegatioii of p8_\clH>loj;y to liiology 
would also tend to the inelufion of philologj'., 
technology', and itociology, and |)vrhaps of phi- 
losophy. 

Now. these five sciemvs are tvt liound to- 
gether that the abtiencc of one woidd void all. 
They arc inicrdejM-ndent anp ro-ordinotc In 
such a manner that the evuhilion of one is 
dc|)CiideDt on the evolution of nil. Language 
is u rattans of coiDmunicsLiou belwecn IndlrU- 



\r^ 



SCIENCE. 



IVou IL, Jfa. OT. 



ua] miDdt). TMsnroic tnlDds ooold not develop 
lantriinjio : it is jircxliiiteii l>y many r(i-i'xi»iUng 
indivi'liinlft of oarh of a Ioh)^ »eHr& of gviicra- 
tions. Scidety urul iniiid wrr<> npwMmry to 
it« produclion. Tlie nria aro [irtifluwil liy 
rnnny {icrsons in the same miumer as 1iin(;iiagca. 
and involve Also the operntioiis of mitMl ; but 
the arta (»uld not have hecn (levclo[>eJ with- 
out tbc concomitant development, of language, 
for art is built on mU ftnd that which renuiins 
in art must pns«> from iwnwn to |>eniun and 
tiom generation to generation by meantt of 
laaguagc. The arts of absolately diMrele 
men could make no progrcM. 

F(ir tlie evolulion of sooiety, language ia 
necuesHrj- fur the inteivommiinication of 
tbougbL. Tht^ inliTduiioiidi'iice of men as 
iateeral pnrts of IkxHhh iMjlitii.' would btr im- 
poB8il)lit witlioiil Inuguage : and aoclologic 
organization is HppviKleiit upon tiiu difl'erf*n- 
tintion of humnn acLlvitics, or the division of 
labor, and is therefore dependent npon the 
devulopmont of arU or technology'. Fhilos- 
ophy. or the >icienoe of evolving opinion, U 
tlie final product of the mind, and is therefore 
dei>eiid4'nt upon psychologic evolution. It ia 
depeudi-ut u[^)n philology, for language ii> the 
would of thought, and dett^rminei) its form. 
It is deiwudcnt ui»on t«chnolngy, for by tlift 
arts men rcavb kuow ledge not otherwise attJiiu* 
able ; and upon sociology, for ii i» tlie com* 
bined knowledge of many, accumulating 
through the goiierntiotis. 

Again t all thui part of the evolutioa of 
psychology which distliiguiahes the human 
mind from that of the lower animals is ilue 
to the lertiarv aggregiilion in Ihf develop- 
ment of philology, toeiiiiology, sociology, and 
philosophy. In pliilologi* the nictJiotl of evo* 
biiifiu if) the snnivat of the ec>oiiomi<! in tlie 
8tiiiggl(^ for expression : and the course of 
evolulion is through tt»e *i>ceiaIization of the 
grammnlic pi-oocsses, the ditferentiution of 
the part* of speech, and the iiit<>gration of 
the &eiitenc(*-. The method of evolution in 
tecbnolog^v ia the survival of the uiii^ful in ttic 
Btrnggle to have; himI the course of evolution 
la the employment of tlie forces and material* 
of nature for tiiv bvnellt of innokiud. The 
method of sociologlc evolution is the aurvivid 
of justice in the struggle for peacu : aiKi the 
COUriH) of evolution i« the ditfereutintiun of 
the functions and organs of governmunl, ainl 
the integration of tribes and riatious. The 
melluxt of evolution in philoMophy in the »ar- 
vival of tiie true in the struggle to know; 
and tlic course of c\-olutioa is in the discern- 
ment and discrlminatioa of phenomena, the 



relegation fWnn nniLloglc to homolugio cate- 
gories in rlnssitl cation, and tho ilismvery of 
more and raon' couipli'x Ht'/iufni-^w. Iti iheni- 
psychulogic srienci'-* tht- stniggie, I.e., the 
endeavor, i.e., tlic runation, is teleologlc. 

The primary method of psychologic evolu- 
tion is (he survi%-at of the littciit in the «U-uggk- 
for existence, and Is puivly biologic I h*- 
struggling subject itself anrvivns. Tl» wt'c.n- 
dory or indirect method of psychologic evo- 
lution is by the ■OMMiM of the philotogic, 
technologic, sociologio. and philohuphic uicLh- 
o«i$; and, oofflbiued. they couxiitute the 
successful struggle for hap[uuc!is. .^Ul tjiat 
part of the evolution of psychology «}:;.!i 
separates man from ihf lower animals U line 
to this gecondiiry or indirect metiind, and is 
teleojogic : and progress la due, not to tlie 
survival of the littlest ofthe xl niggling .subjects, 
but to tJie wur^-ival of llio object for which 
the struggle is made. These dve sciences, 
therefore, constitute one group. tJirough the 
fttet that they belong properly to the tertinry 
Bggregfttion of matter, and the further fuct 
th.tt the method or caurkc of evolution exhitiiird 
therein is radically dilferont fnun the mi-lliiKl 
or cau^ of evolution in bio!og,v. The |j^i> 
sciences mv oo-ordinate, reciprocal, and in- 
tenlependeut. As biology has its genesis 
thn>iii{h protoplasm and organic chemistry in 
the phyoi*-!il ag'^rvgution, so these Gvu scicneiat 
of the t«rtiar3' aggregation have their geucsii- 
in biology, — In the biologic organs of man- 
kind, and the In-ginnings of these sdeuccs dts- 
covere>tl among the lower nnimals. 

Elsewhere Mr. Ward ulassilles phcnomi-na 
in the manner shown in the tnbic on the fol- 
lowing page, which itt copied from his work. 

Of the four groups thus derived, the first, 
inorganic. corrcs|)ond» to the group emhra<vd 
in his primary aggrrgalion : the scroni'*. or- 
ganic, to the group cmbrat;<'d in his netiondAry 
aggregation, hut cxclndeH p»ycholog_v. pbiluf- 
ogy, lcciinolog_v, sociology, and philosophy. 
If we combine his direct and indirect telco- 
logic phenomena into one gmiip, thu five grvot 
Hciences which iucludc the operations aod 
pt«ducis of the mind are thrown into ono. 
I>et the first, then, be callutl pUyaical phenotH' 
ena or pheuouiena of the pritunrr oggrvgnlion. 
and the seieuws which pertain thereto physical 
sciences; the second, hioinyic pbenonuna or 
phenomena nf the secondary nggrogatiOD, ami 
the sciences pertaining thereto biologic sci- 
ences. But what shall the third group be 
called? If the term psychology is nswl, it 
must be with a rrider connoting tlian that 
which it hsfl heretofore had. Psychology. 



A^ 



XVQVn 10. 1863.1 



SCIENCE. 



178 



/VieHomma are: 









fiur|Mitfr .' 
Ilie (CMtl lit pUyarcul en ate. 



Orpunlv . 
Ite reault Af «(UI (It Wivli>xl- 



ptucmlliiv a<v>iTdliiK til Uir 



IndlrcM laelteHl of cwimIim. 



•a nitnirKKlH l>y oii-uurra ■• luatifdalinl by niMi. I>a> 
hekiw man. tnnln ol tKr x-iiil fbrcea. 



Mklnc »Im' MMTdlMC t« anIlMiu Uii», <Mi4l prodii««4 %y u*e 



Mu»ral li>««M; <aii^( of prcdiAiwi ttt 



«anil>it!i4 of nat- 
uml I'WnoBirak 
(nodlfiL-d by tlw 
lilin>i\U<rT (BDUHjr. 



theiii wonid todude the openUioa* of the 
mlad. Afkd tb» pro4lucl5, nr restilts, of thnse 
operations. If wp use unUii'opol'jgy, the 
l«nn will not iiK-luiIe the be^^uiiicig^ of p»y- 
ohologi'. philoloyy. techiiologj. ami socioloyj-, 
found nmuiig tliu lower Hiiiroals : for they have 
miml, luiijjiiitgv. nrt, aud society hi a cuiu- 
parativuly luw form. Chi thu olhvr huml. ao- 
tbropology hiis been used so ns to Jndude 
the biology of mnn. If we ii»e sociology, 
rotlowlii^ Conito. Sp«Q«>r, nod Wait), the term 
must hic-Imlo inure thno tbeso nulhora design. 
iind somi' other term must he tieleoted for that 
difftm-ntiati-'d scil-ikh' whieh forms one of ilio 
f^i)(t of five, and which above has be*in desig- 
ruilcil as sooiolog^'. Altogether it neema 
better to nsc thf- t^rm anthropologic, which 
wotdd then inehide psycholocjy. philolog_v, 
technolo'^y. sociology, and philtiotophy. 

Mr. Wjii-d dot'* not relegaU- c-lliies to any 
place in his scheme. Slornl science relates lo 
that portion of human vonducl in n-hich the 
qiinlilivs of riglit and wrorig inhere ; und the 
moral qtinUty de])eud« upon Uie relfttion-s which 
uxUt betw^iin men and men : it is therefore 
» pore of eiodolngx' : nml the principal body 
of ethics at any time existing among a people 
14 forniidntL-<I as law, made by the court or 
llie li'>;i>4intiire. Mr. Spencer, in hit; essay on 
Ihc daiwiflcation of the sciences. gl%-es it no 
p]a4>e, but, in the olaliorate scheme of philos- 
ophy embraced in bio works, plaeea it above 
aocloln^y. 

It miiy 1k' anked, WItal |>Iace does login tnJie 
In tb** cltt-tnihcntion here proposed ? The reply 
Est ttwt tlM.> logic of the ancients has no place 
in aotenc^. To modem logic aometbing elM 
taa bcon added ; and Ibi» something else 
belong* to psychology. The logic of the 
aacieDts. and a iar^> part of that of modem 
ai' * ■ ' i^ns. is rt system designed to dis- 
pi. ii by a form of words. If it be 



trutbfblly Msertefl that an ohjfttit is white, no 
fbrrn of word* can prove the tnith of ihe ft«- 
»ertion. If fiiiestioned. the qnc^tioner most 
perceive tliMt the Itody is while in the same 
manner as tt was perceivwl by the iieraon 
mnkiug the assertion ; aud the asGcrtor cao 
only point out, i.e.. demonslnite, the ftitit. 
And the same is true of any other fact, how- 
soerer simple or complex. A truth or fact 
eao be pointed out or demonstrated to the 
eye, or to the mind's eye, but cannot be proved 
by a logical form of alatcment, The idea of 
logical proof in a ooneeplion of a time when 
powers were nw^ult; and logiedlvcMliNl of mcMl- 
crn appnrtennncrg Is anonnilt art. 

It wonlil make this article ton long t^i nUempt 
irt set forth fully the pl.ire of inniheinatics in 
this scheme; but quAntitntive relational, like 
qualitative relations, belong lo all degrees of 
»gg''«gat'if>u*'' t'* "II complexities of plienoro- 
ena. nitd to all Ht»ges of evolution ; aud, in tbe 
science of mathematics, relations uf quantity 
are considereil apart from other relations, aiKl 
in the abstract. 

Mr. S|)encer, alUiongh he prcseutit a classl- 
Qcation of the sciences, does not u^^c it in his 
philosophy of evolution, but practically uses 
the primary classification here set forth, under 
the terras ' inoiT^anic.' • organic* ami • super- 
organic ' evolution. 

The defect in Mr. Wanl'B elaasifipntlon hpre 
pointed out seriouHly iiiihienrcs birt pri>nenln- 
tion of the snbjprt of dt'namic nociolog)' 
proper, appearing in the siH^ind volume. It 
also greatly narrows bis view of tbe field of 
suc<M»sfbl endeavor for organized society. 
Mankind has made |>r(^resa, i.e.. secured 
bappioesBi quite as much by the effort for 
peace Hnd the eslablishmenl of justici.- u by 
tbe effort to know and the acqiii«ition of troth. 
It can be shown in other an<l diverge wayithat 
his view of sucooisfbl human endeavor is 



17-1 



SCIENCE. 



IVot. II,. JTo, JR. 



pbUoso)>bicall,v DiuTuw ; and lie sometimoe usqb 
the epiltiuts of the poeumiEt in n tnnnner uu- 
worUiv it)i> pliUusopber. 



FItOIT-INSKCTS. 

IhkcI* injurious to /ruils. UIO-'<UBte<J vrith iiO uaLs. 
Bt William Sackkers, I'luladelptiia., Lippiif 
«>*(. 1883. 436 p. 8". 

TnK niilhor hiis epjoj'cd cwptioual julvaii- 
tflgcs forliic propnrution of ihe work Uo Una 
nndortflbeii. Xot only liaft ho been ncqimiiilPii 
with llie work of einnomic ciiiotnoliigUit.'* 
through hU own participation in it. and n» 
editor of one of our principal pnfomoingicnl 
pericnlit-Hls. but for Incntj- veni-s past he lin» 
been an extensive fruit-grower na woil. H« i« 
tlius entirely ffttnilifir wilh wlmt is w.<tDt4:-<l. ami 
boa produced a prnctionl book of cotisidcrabtt- 
value. Not that it contains mncb lUat in ori- 
giua] or of novel present mt-ut : it it> rattier u 
plat]i and jtidickms slatcmont of what is known, 
but afcvftsiltif lo few because scatterx-d in ijcri- 
udical liLerulure. One is surpriiied at Uie «Ul- 
of the book when tie sees that no cflbrl ia 
made lo nil tt ouL with uunci'essary tuatti>r: 
rat*Ij' arc half a doiton i>agcs given to any one 
insect, and morn tlinn two liundi'ed ami fifty 
hamifid insci^s arc difwrnsHed. 

The inaecta are treated under the head of the 
plants ihey affect and the (tarts of the pinnt 
they atlAck, — an excellent im-lliod, first used 
in this i-oniitJ-y by Fitch. They nre desi-nhed 
in brtcf. niitecbnieal language, alinosl invaria- 
bly liguml, and cltt^n in se%*end t>(agee : uad 
the ftccotint of their injuries is fotlowetl by a 
ehoit etntoment of the best remedies, with 
HlustintionB of the parasites or other DRtnral 
foes wliicb keep the insects more or ics3 in 
check. The pinnts whii:b receive most attcii* 
Uon arc the appte {ii'i iiisectST 127 pages), the 
gniiM (5S iiiseds, 7f> i>flges), and the urniige 
{'2G 'mficcla, a puges). Next nfler (he«c in 
ifn]Kn-tanrc tut! ihe plum, pear, tlic various 
currnnia, the rasplwrrr. nnil the stniwherry, 
followed at a Utile distance by the peach; a 
fftw pages each suffice for the clicrry, quince, 
goosebcny, meion, crnnbenT. olive, nnd tig. 

Tho Ulustialions nic fflmiliarfnendfi tocntu* 
molo^ats, Almost all of them havuig atrt-'ady 
doiio abimdflDt service ; but thc_v are none the 
less valnnhic for the purpose of this work ; 
nnd tlie pa|H'r (*a wbieh ihcy are now printed 
pcTDiitR to many of thcin a respitut ability 
Lbey must rejoice to attain aUer long faiuil* 
iarity with the crude workmnosbip of the various 
guvcrnmeDl presses under which they have 



been lortttru). With a little moi« cure In 
prinliiig. they would have shown at their bcsi. 
Tlie only serioaa omisaiOD in the book U 
tlie absence of a sysiomatie dummary. or iudex* 
by which the inftcctft of the wiiite group iittadc* 
ing differcDt plaot^ should be brought together, 
This would th»! niori- i-endilj acrve to ln^p tlw 
fVnil-gTnwGr diAliiiguiith allied forms, ntn\ lenrn 
their different or sitnilnr habits- S'trb nn 
index coiiM have )>cvn mo easily txrnstriirlml, 
ainl wiiuld have tx'ciipied so liiile spnei*. thai 
it* nb^'iiec is the let>s excu<inbb-. 



BRK.UIKEH'S LOGAKirintlC TABLES. 

BrrJttitfr't LogaritimucA'lri<ja'%">MrSri*trbt Utftbt mU 
Mchx dfcimol-tlcUea. Neu bvrarbciLel ron 1^. 
Th. Alsiikcht, profettsor aud chief of wetiot^ 
ill the Royal Pnuslao geodetic institute Teotll 
Bt«r«Dly|«e edition. Berliu. R. Strict^, 1889. 
l8-i-&0Hp. 6°. 

ItKCJdiKEu's six-Qgure logarithms ven first 
published in lsb2 with a Latin test aud title: 
Nova tabula Berolinensis. etc. In IHGO a 
German eiiitibn was printed. Both these edi- 
tions were priiUe<i from movable ty^ws. In 
1869 u stcrcotyiied cilition was printed, witli 
some changes in tho contents of the work. 
Tho editions of IM.V2 aud 1860 contained a 
capital table of the sines aud tnngcDts of small 
arcs, which wa» omitted in the stcrcctyiie edi- 
tion ; and in Ibis latter e<Iilion a table of 
addition and subtrncliou logarithms was intfo- 
ducv«I- The oiniftiiiun of the table of the Aioc- 
tioii!) of small arcs was hanlly an improvement ; 
and, in fact, ibis omission caused Ihe early 
e<litions lo commaud a higher price than the 
later ulereotypcd one. 

The pres<>nt edition by Ur. Albrucbl com- 
bines the excellences of both the pn-cftdlng 
editions. It contaius the table of :hi> lugn- 
ritbmic sines and logarithmic taugeuis of arcs 
up to A" for each 1", and also includes Ui» 
addition and Hubtrsclion inblra. 

The rest of the work is Ihe same as the 
Btcreolype c<lition of l«Cil, i-scept Ihni four 
new jutges of convenient constont lognrlibmaj 
an' inscrtf-ti. nnd that certain tables rclalluci 
to units of weight nnd measure arc omittL>d. 

This collccUon uf laljles Is a ver}' ptuctieal 
aud valuable addition to our prcaout means of 
eoniputaliuii, ami it will be wideonied as such. 
In Ibe opinion of the writer, it in dku ihe uionl 
satisfactoiy 6in;j;le loUecliou of lni>k-s for stu- 
deots' use. although much can be suid in favor 
of the best of the livcijlucc tJiblcs for tlib* pur- 
pose. KuWAKt) !>. UOLUCN. 




WEEKLY S^/MMAUr OF THE PROGRESS OF SCIENOE. 



ASTRONOMY. 

Aftt70pby«lc«l otMervatlonft of Jnplter,— 
ItU-co pubitfllies a fine ««riet of clglitc«it limning) uf 
Ihe pJxnvt, ituulv. with on* exci-pHon, In ISSl, 1KS2, 
and 1883, bj- int-ans of tho t(^n*iricli Ii:;I«sCo|m; of llto 
obwrvilory of PaVnno. He gives, ftl*o, a lurgo 
numbvr erf inlcmm<!trlcai uinasures, and dvlnikd 
(leserl[>lloaa of Uie KpiHeaninoe of th^ planet iinil 
il« surfact-mnrkbif^v, on for1jr-*«Ti>ii dilTerfriil rfalrS. 
The effect uf Ihe ' nNl spm ' upofi iJte contour of ttia 
attjacerit Imlla I* well brought trnt. — ( if eoi. stx^. 
uprHr. Wo/., Miiy, 1K«.) C. a. V. [172 

Pbotometric observatloas of ecllps** of Jupi- 
tert BatAlIltes. — Coniu And Obnwbl sivo tho re- 
tiilu of Boine exiwrlnicnts U|]oi) artllit-lAl eclipa«« 
miwle lo Imlmte tbe ei-Upses of Jiiplier'* salellUea, 
lUbi;; Lhr< mi^ibrtil alreiuly nfirrMl lo Iti LhfM col- 
umni. TItPf flnti tbM tbe pnibtble error In iteler- 
mlnlsg tbe Utne wbFii llitt bttbt of ibe melU(L> Is 
mliicrd toonv-bnlf ili noriii.il amount I* about abiin- 
drMtUi of the total time of obMtiration. TbAjr pro- 
poM, also, tbe ugo of a|>oliiriMU)ple arrangMneiit in 
place of tbe 'cal"s-«ye,* and. In lbl« connection. 
ap|>eii>l tbe followius nol«: "We bave recetitlf 
learnert that tlie asUonomen of Harrant eoliase em- 
ploy an aiialuf ou) arnuu^ioent — uf wlilcb, however, 
the il«!*cHpU<m I* not kiiotrii to iit^for lli« puqiote 
at dflcmilnihg ilie moment of tllsappearanrp \pcvr 
arrivrr ik d^nir Vijwf/ue de i'rclat nut). If the 
■ppciratiu i> aiialoignus. tlie uivlbwlof ubM-rvatiun is, 
aa one iieefi, entirely ilitTfreiit." They havo (-viilenlly 
been mlslnfonoed; fi>r llie v«jr eua^nce of Prof. 
Pickering*! plan i-on-lsts In tlie deltirml nation, nui 
of Ibe moment of (IiBappeareiKWi but of balf-brij{bt' 
lieu. — {ComjittM mtdiiM, Jniie S&, IStiEI.) c. a.. T. 

1 173 
MATaaMATICS. 

Snrfaosa of oonatant eurratunt. — H. Weln- 
gancn hero doals with certain pruperties of the linear 
vlrmenta on surfaces wtlli a constant nteaiure of 
carYatur«. Certain considerttUuna conneclrd with 
lite modem ilienry uf funcilons. |)anlcularly IhaL 
portion of tlie tbevry (vliivb deals with linear differ- 
ential ci|uaUons of the M^oind order, havn leil him 
to<onje4>luri> tJial the dvUTmlnailnn of the gvodi^lic 
linn U|ioh a iurfno; of CHUiktatit curvature, by mrana 
of ncrlaJii given linear eleni«nt«, slanda in a clo«i 
relation lo the theory of iho linear difftrcnllal e<(ua- 
thHii of the scf^'ond onlcr. M. \VclDg.irtcn raakcii the 
remark (which, tbouub not new, Is iinponiml here) 
tlial the exleiKion of tbiJie projhsrtlM of curved »ur- 
fAMs, Bludleil and ennurlAlcil by (iiuiis, whirb de- 
pend njtou a s'ven fonnof tliefiucareieuieiit. l>mui.'b 
■InipUfled by Ow ixtnxlticdun of cvrlaln funcliuns ut 
tb« pcnItliKi of n pnint uimui thr surface. Tbe val- 
UM o( then* funolloni arc glren In trrms nt the ro- 
vttlchrtiti of the linear olcinent Id int^li a way. that. 
Iiy tbe iuln>iluclit»n '->r new (two) variable), we nnive 
a;piln at tbe uri^lNtil linrar element. The funrllona 
puaBesatng UtU (lu'*u)JAllir<i| {iroperty are called 



fleninn-lnmrlanta {^{pffiinyriHMrlnnten). As an ox- 
ample of dexloii-iiivarlajiU, we liave the *mea<mrfl 
of curvature* of a vurfuce. From the illffereiitinl 
cooncienlfl nf a 11exloii-ln\'arIant, and thn t'iau»lau 
covHiiTteiits. E. F, C, (.<( a linear riemeni u( a fturfacc, 
an Indefliule iiuinbvrof new li>\&rlA'iti>iran Iwfomteil, 
two only iif which an- iiidi- pendent. Th« author 
(flvcft a brief account of Betlraini's n-orlc on llioae 
fuiietiim», and theu constdcni jMriicularly Ibe sur- 
fai-«it vf c«>nslant curvature, Tbe pa|K>r 1« an ffX- 
ceedingly iiitercsitng «>n« to tbe siudv^nt nf tliis 
parlieulur branch of i;auin<!try, and is a valunbls ail- 
dilloQ ti* the previ'iut niemoira, by Al. WelngartMi, 
on this ami cti^iate auLijectA. — \Joum. rtiue anff. 
tmlh^teSi,) T. a {174 

PHYSICS, 
Datalty of the earth — Major R. r. Stemcck 
of tbe eoveinment UilUary-eeoviapbkal Institute of 
Vienna, la<t ye»r, tried Airy'v inoLbtKt uf the ileler* 
mlnaiiun of the earth'* mean denaliy in the .St. .\tlal- 
bert sliaft vf the silrer-i»lnRr« at Prfbroiu, Uoliemla, 
at depths of SIB and UT:t.S metru. tli* averugn ut- 
aull was btiii, wliicb agrccA oluMly with the values 
determined by other mcllioda. On omipaiiiig bis 
menurea with Alry'a, n curious agreement appears 
in the number of seconds t;aiiie:<l by a clock, at differ- 
ent, depths, and a continual decrease In Ilie ileduced 
mean deuilty aa tliu depth increasee. Airy fuuud 
[IS^4). at adeptb o( 3S3 metres, that bis clock gained 
2:'2It a day, and Uie dennity was ff.lii; r. SlcnteK^k'a 
figures are 511), •2'A, and 11.^, aiid UTJ. 2*-3, S.Ol, 
rv*pecliv«ly: wlieuci: be wiiicludei, "that, in tlm in- 
t'^rior of tbe earth, the ntnuilanl of gravity, deiitrlt- 
ugal force, and the altradloii of the Mtperincunibent 
moSK, is oonstaDU"— iilUlh. fc.-A. mittt.-nwffr. iittL 
Wita, imi^ iL 'tl.} w. u. o. [17S 

EUetHoity. 
Ovoc^^oal variation of borisontal In- 
tenaltr. — F- Koblrauwb pro[t<»ea to use a form 
uf Ilia locji-varlometer (deacrlbod In ^jih. phyn. 
cAeiH., xtUI. M*i) In wUleb the scale is at a distance 
A froui ilie axis uf suf>|>eii>ioii, and lUtacliei] to the 
loatrumenl, and oblaUiA between Ibe lioriaontal io- 
tciialtles at two dlffereui plocus the relation — 

-^ — = -^^(i - nl + ^(1 - t); 

f being Ibe angle ihrougb which the frame of the 
inittruiueut is lunietl, n and n' the deOecllons in 
seal e^ hi* ion «, and /> a coi'(nci«int t>f the tentiwns- 
ture, t. ~- (Ann. jAnii. chrni., xix. I'M.) J. T. [176 
Tbermocbamlcal propertlea of eleotroinotlTa 
force. — i-^lund iiiv«'<tt|c^te> the llnriiial clianguial 
iht! electrodes uf a v<diameler by pbcltig the junc- 
tions of a Ihonnoplle In front of Ih? rWlnxls*, and 
enclosing both In a porous meinbrAne. He fimts. lliati 
when Ilia elcctriMles are copper and lb<t li<iu'd copper 
lulpbsle, the elecirumotIr« force between tbe metal 
anil the lli|uid uses lea* bent for fnniiatiou of CurTvnt 
ibiui Is ut ficu lu llie formailuo uf ci>p|ier sulphate. 



176 



SCIENCE, 



|VoL. II.. Ko. ir,. 



Th« vamf Iftw lioM* for t\ne. aiul iliic aulp)i»t«, cad- 
litliiiii villi 114 A<vUtt>. anil li-ail witli lu ar<'t&l<'; t>iil 
tor 9lUi>r, with tm Miipliatc, iiUni(«. *n>l ivcetiiv. lh« 
li*w N revKDMHJ. In ■ Dititlnll citll, a/arliorl, \n%* tiCAt 
U iiti^il tor forniAiidi) nt ciirrenl Uuui Ib set (ni^ In 
the clii'iuiciil iclioii ut die oolL — (A»a.plti/M, chnit., 
»lx. 237.) J. t, 1177 

CUBUI8TB7. 

Spvvd of dissociation of brass. — Mr. E. 

Twiichell {Ufulrr Prof. Bobert 8, VVanlor'* diroc- 
tlon) maili' thn follnwitiit <]KU-niiinaiii>lia, which 
wt'i* su^esicil liy BoblotTf't ni^tlind for llm itrj>ara- 
tlori of w>iiiK!r siitl xine Iti alloys. A |il«i^e "f lir.'i*a 
vrim {tin- IT) ITii) mni. htrig utU 1.4^1 luni. In (lluiict^^r 
va.1 l)«u«d In rednoHS In s stre-tiii of hv>lrog«n In a 
inirrvtilu lubo. Tlin Ioha in wulK'tl. frotii hour to 
livur, Uglmn In the following tsbln;^ 



"niBit III 

bOSM. 




LnM 

f*t boar. 


Kill* pnoviit. 


A. 




8Al&Ti> 




.TMS 






ISW 


.lUt 


.iMT 


n 




l.»SiT 


.M^I 


.UM 


:» 




I.TiU 


.IMR-J 


.tOM 


M 




lltl* 


.OUT 


.41» 


to 




i.:iii<i 


MW 


.MUT 


M 




imi^i; 


.out 


.3»« 


U 




1 IHM 


.0111 


.■MB * 


IT 


u 


1.<I«V 


jtm 


MU 


»1 



Tlw a^iirv iriveii under A Are proporilonal to the 
'ir<ii<incieni of ■iim^tl," at calriiliitail from e.icli ob>er- 
viitliiii. on t]u« h)'pothA*I« ttiAi tlie xlnc »tp«lt«Ml at 
«neh nioiHiint i» pronorliniiAl to the whole qiiaiillty 
of eiiii? tirt-»t.-ni. The ewiuly dKrvasv lu Ui« lit*t 
iMUtun ahows (lt«( (lila liypol)ii.<>tiia doi** iiol oblAiti 
unil«r Ihe cuoOltlou^ of tbi> (^spittiruvnl, litil thiu utt 
npiireclable Interval of time la i-equtrwl for tli« irmna- 
fiT lif lino ffiiin lh« ventral portion to th« aurf.-iro of 
tho win). Further experiment* upon this difi»hn 
of line ure lu proi;rP34. — [^eci. cheni, fiUi/s. Ohto 
Mtch. iiuL; mtttin'j Msy Hl.| j.170 

AORICHLTDBB. 

Inflaeoee of WmpuriitarB snil ralsf sU on the 
wbeat-orop. — A compiiritoii of ihe sversKo turu- 
|i»rrtliini and the rainfall in England dnriujj llie 
inaolh« of July and August for th« lA«t lliiriy-slx 
ycnr.1, with the i-orreispoiidlng whaat^rop. ju^iiAen lUe 
folIowluK uoncluslon*: pruvld«d lb« stand I'f lli<! irrop 
XI the l>cK<»<iin;{ of .luly ii promising, n tempera- 
lure ftliovr the avera^t; for the fltictrceding two moullis 
InsuTi^s more than an average crop a^ n-ganif qiiaii- 
Lily, utiW" vxtraf»nlin«ry cirt-uru>laiice-, bucIi a» vio- 
lent storms, liiU>.rv«»e. Kalny weather may riHlnce 
the ijualiiy of the crop. On the other liantl, howuver 
proniUini; ihv crop may Ire nt the end of Jund-, a 
turn iw rat u re Mow tlio ar>.<ra'i» in July and An^kt 
involves u small crop. If tlw weather U rli'sr, the 
ipiallty may be goo>l. vhlie. U cold sud nhi sr« 
united, the poor««i cropi are the re«ul( ; aitrh ax Umw 
of 187V, when the temperature wa3 2.8.° P. biilOW the 



ai*ra|}<l, ami th» rainfall f<»ir InclH^ aliov« the aT«r- 
ose. or th.-kt of Inlft (rhepoonrit rrop on rei'ont), when 
the t(tni[>e nature wan 4.ft'* P. below the sverae^- — 
I HIni. tJ-tttr.-hlall.. xU. S^H.) It. f. A. 1X79 

Effect of pbOBphatio manares lu cUonghL — 
In the ciiurve of some fi<!td-i'xperiuiroLs mndv during 
Lhe very dry seaMin of IHHI. Cmmorlluf; obtcrvvd that 
Id one eiue manurloK wliti ainmonla oJnne prcMlawd 
a Krcater (tain tlian manuring with ammonia and 
KiitKr|>(iiii[ibat«. Tba mult may hare Ifeeii a<^ci- 
denul. as n<i ili]i>lii<alo tria|.< weta lo Itavu IwoB 
made; hni EnunfHIo^ thinks that tlie manuring wItt 
pliotplioik' a^-id hasteoeil tin! rip-niuff of iho |ilauts, 
whil« the aittmonla had tlm oppoaitv <ilTi.w:i of poit- 
pooliijf tbi- rl|K!n(nji, and keeptni; llic planu firenn 
ionzi-r, j'llila ofTei;t of phoikphorlr acid liai bir^tn oh- 
Hir^'ed In waler-cutlure ejtpt^rlmetita. and lUIca also 
K0UI6 u> uKiTi a almilar artlun. ) — ( flitJ. cciUr.-W'if^. 

xii. »i7 1 u. I-. A. |iao 

Oamaga to grain hj watcing- — Marker lia« 
examliiad a tu'ople of barley wlik'h tiad bivn ■-•tput«d 
to rain for foiittAiui days nfU'r It was cut A •■onsid- 
erablrt pro|Mnion of llii« slaA-h had bean rouvt'rLMJ 
Into suffur. A low of stwiit *\x [>«r cent of Mtarcfa 
look place. The alburninolda ware alw altered. iM'th 
the Insoluble and nolubli' prot«ine havln» bcun par- 
tially uoDverted liitoamldu. The proportion of •mi 
capaiile of iji-rmlnstion was reduci?<l from nln>ay-«ii;Iit 
per Mat to forty-five per L-enL Kobus obutuwl »1m- 
Usr reitulta In an examlmiUon of daroased whmL — 
Ittted. anlr.-buau, xil. &M.) n. P. A. [IBl 

MINBBaXOGV. 
Bnoloaures in mu»oovit«. — Tha occurrence of 

blotlte and muacorile in one cry«la] Is well known, 
and hwi tieen Iiiveailgated hy H. f^rrlll Lewis. H* 
prepared cleavatte-iix-lloni from one •peclmen. and 
arranged tlicm in Ihn order in whlrh lliey nrciirred. 
Till) biiililo rontrails ntrontily with the licht-eolomt 
miuouvlto. and hiis often welldefin«l odgcs. Tha 
two micas are arranged ayinnietrkally In relation to 
their prl«maliL- planes, as may be shown by th« crys- 
tal BAttttB when iliey are well developed, or by tlie 
Rtrlke-Stiurvs vrhleh are parallel In th« two mkas io 
the same folia, makini; )L probable that thfli' bavfi 
cryitalllzml ui^>Lher out of the same solution. In 
exnminliiit a series of Heetlon* from one apeclmeu. It 
la found lliat the |)rop<irtlon of thn two mtcaa rarifi 
In diffcront parts of the cryitul; the hioiil^. iho more 
utukiabl'i of the two tpi'clas, gradually nlvlnii way. aitd 
bclnij cli.xnwd Into the tniMv hard<F nio*<:ovlt«. 

Of a difftrreui ualura are the aup^'rHdal markinja 
of ma|;neiiie. which occor fr«m rarlous localitid^ 
Tlie*e m:»rl;ln^s form a series of hranclilng llnw, 
which ruu in tlir«e dIre<;liona across the pUt«« of the 
mica, crosslns each other at anittfts of flu^. and havD 
l>cen refcarded as repeate<l twlnnine around a dixleea- 
hedral axla. These line*, however, as shown by tb« 
aiUhor, bear a llxeil relation to Ibe axe* of the mica, 
and are not due to any Inhi^rrnt propHrty of the mag- 
netilfl. If a crysuil sliowlas the«¥ niarklni;s he dla- 
•ectoil. iho linv* nf markinK will all be found to lie in 
parulh^l direcliott: nor Is there any dlr«et oonnectloa 



AOOTCT iO, IHHa.] 



SCIENCE. 



IT 



with Uii; nurkionit on «djw;«nt ])UU>«: one mn^ hn 
Cf>vifr«<l Ity llii> iiiuhiiigt, llic itcst free fmrn itii^in. 
Til? mncnirtilu dun not |wm-tr»l<^, but Itn )U|»erd- 
cially upon lb« niir:i pUtvs, unci llin liimi fnllow llin 
direction of the layi of Ihi-ntrlkc-ttzurc, Tlu-nmhor 
rc^nla Umi lua^ietllo sm nut ilrrlvn) from Kiiy exter- 
nal »"urM. but from Ibc tim^ovlli? iUelf, occtirriiisi, 
not aIurk cracks or tii«»r lli* lalerior nf tiiu cryMiU*, 
but nfuuj)*'! in I'l" liileri.jr of lliC Miae. — (/Vo/-. 
mead. haU Kf. Pkilaii.. Vec, IStiiL) B. L. r. |162 

OBOOEtAPHV. 

'Jttarwf- ' 

ZMormatloQ of the earth's tuxfac*. — J. Olmxl 
csllt sll«utlai) to iMinie liiI»fre-l'iiJ! ohwrvxiioiifl on 
apparent cluuive* of le\oi ot iicl^libnriitg poitit*. 
Onfl sM!ountaUcsint by (ilntnlet Ifofit/imfioa. June. 
\%S^) Is of TillitCfA lit i}iv Jura wlileh werx hUld^n 
fK>ni e>icliiill»*t at (lir tw-;iiiiting ot tlin Cr-nUli-y. OF 
even only forty ycar^a^o, liui an' now In iklil. Kiist 
the roofs. Mild liiir i\\c mil*. tK-cnmf vbibli- by ilio 
aIuw WMr|>)iiK i>f llie ^roiiml. Aitutlivr cxantirln in 
rMordM ill Uolu-iuin. ainiul iliirty (iilli'ti t'Hiith of 
Kvisbail. vrlirrc itiu pE^ipIo of lliilu-n 2«»lli'i.'li are 
vonvlncod UiaL tlipir vlllaKe i» rbing; for thlrij y*«.ni 
ago tbey coold see imty (hr lop of Iho ^htin^ti-splrc 
in Otienreiitli. whik now nior« than lialf of It la In 
view, and B'nar nK>l« of lower buildinK* bavc al»o 
rlaan Inloniftlil- A lino of l<'vi>|(i hmt Itrcn run Xv^re 
to tlctL'ct iiny furthM ('liai>e*'8 {Vi>nyre» w. {jroyr., 
IS75). Glrard daei not atlrmpt any rritkUm of 
th«*» «tai'>in«nls. but »o(.'ept< l)i<?in tu pmvwl. TIiiTV 
would 9e*n) to be room for oilier explanotlonti Uian 
lll« one m^f9l6d. — {ltfv. dt fftwjr., 1888, .1-ID ) 
w. u. I). |1S3 

Mapa of Norwa7. — Tbe Norw«*ian geo^raphicnl 
survey (Gi^ugrirnkf optoiwllnit) lias puhlUlKid maps 
M fi^Iowi: a KUlde-ionp, shonin;; the progresa of 
trianffu) allot) frum 177U to IK7rt (only a siuall pitrt of 
tbla work nunnlitK iintlnUlied). — ba^ad ufton tlili are 
Mvml lopotntpbic uitips ••» mrloiut tcale*; for rhe 
■outhirn part of the rounlry •nnie areemn 1 : MJ.'XIO 
(or L : l0.tMlU), tn many tlieeis; ih^ sfiitfral map <*t 
soutbum Norvvy 1 1 - '10'*.000), in ciKbtcvn aUiwI*; 
dt"tric*-nM|ie (I : '.fnr).CIOO): aQ<l ivi-tnn9l(>-niap» |l : 
100.001)), It) Bfly-four Mcliona, with i-oiiloiirs and 
nounuin ahadln?, and the tarcer bodiei of wat/^r in 
blue. Tliifl scrvM as a bwiiD for the ceological survey 
under I'mf. Th. Kji-rulf. A KiMieral i;e(>li>f;i(ral map 
(I . l.<H)0,iiii(i) !• al«o piililUhtMl. Tliir orast-^iirvi'y 
publlftier I'liaris ot tiir ^onthf^l khnro on 1 : X),liuu; 
of the norUiern.on 1 - lOo.i^K), Thirty-two of ihr for- 
mer and tbirleen of tbc 1nlt<;r arc eo^)pl«t«^d. Uvalde* 
Uinu, Uierc ai« a guneral voaat-map (i : S0O.000) tn 
ihirtcun >heeii. and aiiotbvr on a smaller srale In five 
abevta, and nahfrj-rnaim |1 : UK>,()«lilt in eleven ■ih.fBU. 
■~-{MUth.ffeogr-Sv*. M'ieR, xxvL I8SU, IW.) w. u. V. 

[im 

Tb« Bavariftn foreat — Tim pbyileal featureit of 

this sabtnoiinialrious di<irict.<>!il«ndiiie nonh of ilte 
I>r.- ' • '■■ ' - r- •-■ Omta, are d««cril)«*d niider lu 
t.. -v by Dr. C. \V. van liiinilwl, 

auu iL- i.M ,,:,..,k0UB by Dr. EbtTmajrCT. Th* 



arllr)« Is lianlly ituMM>p[iblc of coneenlrfttion , itnd we 
reproalnce only what \n oald concerning ibr giat-iaiion 
of itii! hi^bercroniid e»iit<>m]>oraueoii« wltli thai of 
Ibc Al|>». It lo admitlMl (hat the dtluvlnl drtHwIlA 
do not point with dl«Linoliii>A^ U) glaHal action, that 
etrlaiionn and inoraliie-walU can hardly l"* re<ng- 
nUe<1,and tluu thechantotwMaLic nuinlnlclnndscapef 
«u proiiOuoL-ed itvar (he a<ljaeeiu A1(M. la alui^nt b«re; 
but the nu»i<^r«u4 »iuall lakes tn (lie hichcr part* of 
the eoiiniry (Arber-. tUrheU. Bestriuor-. Glr^l-Sei* 
and oilit'T*), and the plentlfnl peat -swam pa. the re- 
nainn of fvllnri waiei-lNiHinA, are a^'eepted *a evi- 
dence nf foniier jrlnelatlon. Among all lb« lake*, 
ihort- Is not one whieh f^aiinoi be explaineil aa rw- 
aultlnK ■>itb«f frotn I'VJil gtnrUil emtion. or from nV 
fttniclionof old valleyi by dri(l-depo*ll». —(HfUUcAe 
ffeogr. bldtler. vl. 188.% 21.) w. m. i>. |189 

Tel«srapb-Ilne In China. —Rinee the dentruclion 
of thf "hort railroad fnun ^haoQtifti to Wlisiing by 
(be Chinese «hortly after ita huildiniE In tH7T, It has 
tM>«it ihooKbr ttint there would W op|io»lUon to fur- 
ther Inlnxltirtion of foreign coittrivancea ; and two 
yrara ofo, wlntn the vonsLrudlou of ■ («1egT«ph-hn« 
was tH>i;un Ijntwei^n SliaoRha.! aud Ttantdin, a ]>ariy 
of ao)di<-n Wat iletniled to ^itard the foreign engi- 
neer! employed on It. The caulion (itovhI unneoea- 
nary: and the chief difflculttea eocoimtered were llie 
niiinerouN eanaU, aooie ot wliliih ha'! to he erot«eil by 
cable*. The want of cood fiails was a si-rlon* enibar- 
m^sment when tin; line ran ai a disiuiee from Ibn 
^rand canal. The line Is IMH mile* In leiiitib, and 
ri'qiilred nea'ty twenty thousand jwdeji. The con- 
atnietton wa^t be^ini in June, I8RI, at the (wo ter- 
mini, and In I>eoeniber wa.1 opetietl to public nsa. 
— ( Pf(. j/eovr. miUk.. ltW-1, ■^■tl.l w. m. ». [186 

Sxploratioaa in Cambodia. — Dr. "SfiM na- 
noMiice* hi" arrival tn l,.io». <in clit^ border of Stam. 
From Sauibnk to Snnihor Iho Mekooc River Is a con- 
linuons series of rapid*. pa*"*l>le (wily for the naUfe 
CHnoea. Thenee above to Iwio* llifl left bank If 
enctinibereil with sboola. The coinilr)- I* ch'ellf 
covered with forests, wbieh, along the river, are 
infesteil by f:iiineM> plrjtes, who render rlver-lralBc 
beiweei) l^aos and Cambodia very limited. Laos 
coniaina romc two hundred houses, and two thou- 
sand lllbahllanta, — Laotian* ntnl Chinese, wlio rmiu 
cotton and rice. Tbc conmierw U small. Iron in'oiey 
h In ta<; and the Chinme arc t.li« -chief traders. 
Tlie niins dv-cr^bed bv Oamler, to uxaiiiine wbtcb 
waa the chief "bjetrt of the cx|>i'dition. were visllMi). 
No Inscrtptions were found, and but a few inlerusl- 
Inir carvlnjf. A son of o»oii wjia filled with tliou- 
aanda of plecea of bark stamped, like medals, With 
tbrct! ligiire.t of Buddha; «oinc retained iracei of 
color and KihliiiK> Some slaineiies nf Iludillia of 
/irlencr were found in a io*»el eml>CTlde<1 in ibe cem- 
ent of ttw oven. Dr. NCis found Ibe raiiti* of Laos 
easeniiall/ the same m that of Ciitnb'Hlla. lie In- 
tendetl, at the date of writhiii, to penetrate a^ far as 
Daaiak, in SUin, where he would endeavor to obtain 
n* complete collection* as immsINc. — (C'onij«l» ren- 
dun toe siOiir., no. II. i n. u. I>. 1107 



178 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. n., No. ft. 



BOTANY. 
XnQuenoe ol diminlAhed atmospheric pi««flu>e 
CQ the growth of plants. — Kxj»eritn<'nu contliirt«il 
l>7 Wlt>l«r *i Tiit)iDKt>)i show, that, all other t'xUmiiil 
ojindltlpDi bcin^ iLt? tAiiie, itluiiU will ktuw tnunr ra|f 
Idly under tUmSHl/iiif't alnKi^kheric jtivsMir^. Thiia, 
ir a iqwclinvD o( ilie cuiiiiiiMn Wiiitlwir Iwiui {Vlt'la 
fnba) begmwii In a recpfitadv In wliU-h thtr [mvaurt 
of llin airmail Ike ronirolktl, it will be round to grnw 
futer until tli« pmiiira hns Ih-cii dlininKhvil lu lOO- 
9W tnm.; llie nunual prvi)>ure imdcr wlilcb the aii- 
ccsloni of lite plant bav« fluiirUhed bclnfi, of courac* 
DOl far from 700 mm. If, tiowc*er, the pressure is 
rv«luc«d Iwlow tins smaller figure given nbave, lliv 
r«tfl iif groirtli dliDfiii*!!?*. Wi«l«r found iliat Ibe 
curve Af growtli of tbe aunflnwrr is about tlu; same 
M Utnt <rf ilie Wan. It wm furtliiT tihowii by bis 
exiwrimerils, that xrovrth U ittUrtM by li)crea»ed 
[iri?s>urc intlll llte iiiliilmuni is rraclittl al i-2i alinn»> 
pbcrci, fniin wlilrli poinl Ibon^ Is again an ini'ivase. 
Although the thort abttiacl of tlivM iutiui!aliii)j re- 
sults 80 far |iuI>HjiliriJ i» nii-agr<.- in ihc vxtreme, it (a* 
(llratea tbnt thi.' G«ltl cnierfii ufKiD by Wkicr (anil by 
JJeri In Frnma-t may wiiniwi ns to rpvlh* «>mo nctlmie 
now IimIiI In rcganl lo tbe uJaptatloii of plants to lliulr 
lurroundiiij;! in p»l ages, and at the pivscui Ume 
upuii blgb mountains, — {iMatt. Mit.,Jaiy(i.\ a. i- a. 

Ilea 

PoUlmttioii of Cypella. — Two Brazilian tpc-oles 
of (Ilia genua uf IrUIvai- bnvv bevn »iudied from linm 
to time by PrilK Mullcr, who fimls a numbtr of inlrrr- 
rallMR p<'<.-uliarltlc8 In tlieir floworins. Tlic tlovert, 
llk« those of CordlH, etc., are produwd In abundance 
only on vi-rtafn days, wblcli re«ir nnir** or lew repii- 
larly, and aiiinarcutty imlrpeiwlently uf rlhnatic run- 
ditiuns. Nectar la ne^cretol In pockets on tho three 
pflUlfl, which Rr« flexlblv, so that «)i«n u Xyloropa 
or Bombus, to which Ihi^ Dnwrrs seem wrtl adapted, 
allghu on one fn i|Ue9t of iiMiar. It liendu orcr vrllb 
tbe weight of the Iwr, nhosv back la bruuglil in 
ronlarl with a ■ligina and the iinitcrlying anther. 
Oonimonly tbe Ix-e got-a innnrdinlrly to another 
dower without trying ibe other petals of tlicoueou 
whWb ll. has first settled, so that rroaaliig Is elTected 
by It. Oii« of the Bp«-clea studied proven to hav« 
sclMmpoient pollen: the olhe.r U fertile wllh Itn own 
pollen. The sllngleis bees (Tri^na), though uoL 
iiecexarily vxcIuiM by strtM^Uiml pt.-cuU unties frpm 
the nectar, du not obtain it readily; yrt Ihclr viaiia 
for the jtrnietiivtily colored (pale-bluhli) pollen are 
Buflicii-Qtly niinieixnia to prevvnt the larger bees fruiD 
vinllliig the flowers in numbers. —(BerfcAte dttitfr/i. 
twLifcwJZacA., Aprlia, 1K.S3.) W. T. [189 

ZO61.OOY. 

luflaeoos of Kiavltroiic«U-dlTlBlDii. — K. Pfld- 

ger, by placing fresh laid frogs' egg^ in a waleb-ghvs<, 
aiitl adiliiig a llnle water with semen, and jHKiHni; U 
off in a few M-conds, waa able to iinjinf^niitc Ih" egga 
vllhout allowing the g4-)atlnous envelopes time U> 
flwcll, llio eRRH then adhered to the giass, ami bq 
could be brought iuto vailous pusiUunt. The Biat 



division oerurs In three hours, and always 'r-. - ■■--•<- 
ral plaoRi na innUer bow ilm axis ot ih' 

When llie axis of the etx (from dark to *'. i 

lies burisonlally. thu plane uf dlvlalmi is alill alwa 
vcrtlral, but may form any angle with tlw orlr aiU. 
The Influence* of orarlty iti alio tbowti In that ilm 
H|'p<T f>o1e ilivldrK more rapidly than th<! loww. If 
l)k^ po«ltlan of the rgg la e^oi-tly tcvet-seil, tbla •lIU 
holds Into, and ditveh>|imeni prngnuiaea; »i> tlkal 
r«|>«uedly the medullary furrow, wllh lu lilub b»r> 
derlng ridxrs [ner«ous sysIiMu}, was found upon ihp 
wtiite side when this was uppomost. Out of srven- 
teen vgffl, twelve devehipiyl so thai the metllan plana 
of tlie body of tli« embryo coineidwl with that of ibe 
first dJviHioi) of the yolk. (This fact uf a nlalioii 
between the lines of dearn^ and the axra of body to 
not novel, as Pfluger Hwms lo think: there are many 
obsenratloDs on varioas anluials which prOTi* such a 
relation.) Prom IIksc cxperimenla it rvsuli» that 
the tojiograpby of tlie organs Is not d«lcrmln»d 1>y 
Ui« arratiitenieul of tbe >ub<<tano! around the axna ^^ 
of the r(u:, hut Itml Uir axis nrounit whhdi the orf;ana:^^| 
are groui>ed ts determined by graTlty. — (/;rtuf;«T*«^l 
arch. phyatoL, zul. Sll.] u; ■■ M. (190 

KanasU. 
0«im-Uyers of rodents. — JL Preser flmis In 
thu comm<>n gray rat and the houa<' mouHH Ibe santi* 
arrangement of the layer* as in tbo giilm'a pl^. lite 
dtreiitua appt^ara to dilTi^r In the mode of il> forniB' 
Uoii from thai which ordinaTiiyoblnlns; and iht-rery 
(.>arly, rapid, and vnluninous formation of its moIUI 
mass appeaiB to hare some dose and cunstanL r?^la- 
llon to the peculiar Inversion of the blastodormlt 
laycn which It found in tljese roalenls. — (.foiim,' 
rotf.niirr.*u<-. /.ond., Jui»r, ]!^],S4r>.) c. a. ii. [IBl 

Ineeatlnal absorptlDa of fat by lympfa-ocUo. 

— Zuwarj-kln has Biudioi] tbe Hmall lulesilne during 
aclire digpstinn, making si-rtionn stalued with p«r>, 
osmic acid and plcroearmine. The material iri 
obtained from doge, rabhlia, ami white rata, 
lyuijih-cvtls are found b'twem Uie rpltlirlial cells 
covering the fullide and lu the underlying adeooM 
tlssuR, and Anally In the moullu of the cbylot 
vcssvla. Thi-w cells alone cuntftln any fat, ttehii 
cliargrd with globules of various sllies. Tlioir mulli- 
tarlous Irregular fonna. and Uie IneonslanL shape of 
the nucleus, IiTdicate llial they were perfonnit 
active amoeboid morKmenUi when Hxod by llie uaml 
acid. From tliese appearanees Zawarykln conclniles 
that the lymph-celts (leacocyies) resorb the fal ; (hoy 
Cnler the epkhclbim. setae Uie pwllfilea of fat l>y 
amoeboid movement*, then dea<'einl Ijelweeu the eyl- 
Indcr-cella, tbniugh Ibe siib-epltheltat cndoihelluii 
and adenohl tissue, Into the n>ots of lli« chyhii 
reasHla. lu Peyer's patehe;i tbe cells are pri>>>r-ni ill 
crowds, and the resorption of fiil t^mmi jMir'ioularly 
nrtlvv at those jiolnu. (Th« pn«enro of lymph-rells 
belwreu (lie epiih*rllnl celt" of ihf iutA»f ii.»"i b-i* lnv^ 
known fur snmv lime, hut tlj>' 
OCCU1 rcnce ha* not lireii heretnfi ■ 
all lolvHnCetl the view ihal lbelni»ii;;t,i:.i i*^'ll» lemal 
mid be<:ouie epithelial cells; but Uiat apjicaivd high); 



Avovn 10. 1«B3.] 



SCTENCE. 



179 



Improljftbla Tlic tntnner in wliivb fat is •hiorbeil 
liiu t<Rcn mucli ■liH-tii'svd of U(e >'V«n<, liut Ui« «x* 
plan»Unii gjvrn iiy I'rof. /AWftrjkii) ojipfitn to a* 
Uie flpst aaU^arCory fine which has been oficrcil.) — 
[PJIOger'g arch. pAviof,, xxxL 281.J c. s. u. [^92 

AMTHBOPOLOOT. 

Braiii-wel((bt of boys and girls. — In the flnnl 
result of lliB uoiutuiflion of the two K-xes in lite tiu- 
■nxn rarr^. BnalomicAl rttiritrctwa will form mn Inipotv 
Unt factor. Mitny an«t<Hnl>tfl have rroaiplsnl this 
fftct, uid havD inttitutMl coinpariMus between Uie 
t*xva fr.im TBriiHid points ol riew. M. Gu»t»re le 
Bon revlrwii the work of M. MAnonirier an'l that of 
U. BiiOtii. both of whom aver (bat " mx. biu ito IiiQit- 
e»c8 on bra) 1 1 -weight. With them t3ir itiflm-ncr of 
tMt b nothing nior« Oian lh« Influcnro of height; and 
)( tliefptniile.<t IB a wliole exceed the lualn iu brain- 
W«iBht, It l« ■Imptj' t>ecaiue the w<^[ghl of the bod; In 
th>* fvmati-.i Ij) ruicIi Im-Iow tliat of Ihc males." U. 
)e Bob puia the this^r; of hi* sdvervarlea to the teat 
in a very iiigetilvus uiuinor by coni|>ar[nR tlie brulas 
of maka and females having ahmt thif »wnie welghL 
By thL» InYPstigattoii ll is shown that In the great 
majority uf casca ilie male ehfldren larpasi the 
femalee of the »nra« wi>Ighl In their cranial drcum- 
fvmc^. At the fame age, heigbl, and weight ol 
body, the fematf brain Is notably smaller llian thai 
of Uie ma}t.u — [Itult. toe. anthrop. Farls, ». 624-J'»3i.l 
J. w. r. [193 

Tba OaUbla. — Tbv trtlie of Galibis lives on thi- 
border* of the Sinainarl. nud not far from Cayenne, 
Ih French bulann, anit il consists ol only a few 
fantlllea. A |n>up of fifteen of them were sent to 
Paris In \^i: and several Rentlemen, among tliem 
Mr. Manoiivrlor, liAve undcrtAken to study their 
physique, custom.4, lan^a^, etc. The Gallbia were 
domlclle'l lit their native faihlon In ibe Jartiin (Tac- 
elttualali'}n, and patied their time In their ordinary 
puffults. The skin l.i re<bllBh browni but differs 
witb individuals, ouhiK partly to mixed blood: the 
tnto mlor I* al*u dii>f{ul«eil by tlie u»e of piiinL The 
hair and eyes arc jfl b1a<.-k. The other phy»lcal 
chamcicn, as well as tlirtr btti^uage and occupatioot, 
arw giveti with the greatest tninuteneos. A ■Ingle 
observation will show the extreme canlton with 
wlilcb fine theories should be spun. M. Ca|>ltsn 
BluiHeil carvfnlly Ilie (inweKses of making jiottery 
among the 'jnlibl*. Ilamy took ocension to remark 
apnn this as upon the greaitT rudenets of umamcuta- 
tlon In oth^r re^jK'Tts, and concluded that tltf^ trallhlii 
had uitirh dc^nerated itlnce Ibey were first studied. 
But UoTiiHet reoilled \iw ditcutsion to a sober view 
by rvtuarking that tbv ■iHvlroniis In our nitiaeum* are 
choice ohjeeis, selecleil by iravflters (or tlioir great 
beauty, while those nude by the Gsllbls In the jar- 
din were hy nulM warkra<>n for daily use. They show 
OS the KtMn of llm poor, while the voy»gi.'n bail 
■lespnllml tbc homes of the rich, Tbcoriei of degoo- 
uuUon based ution Bam<r*B facia w«re therefore an- 
substjuiiial. — \IIhIL IDT. anthrop. Parts, r. tin.) 
J. w. I'. fl94 

African psychology. — Uaa Buehuer, writing in 



Awland, speaks rather enoouragitigly of Dm Batitn 
neKrrj clianKtwr. " Tlie nt^ru In Ids native rondl- 
tion Is not apparently of a Inwer grade of natural 
Intelligence than the European of the eomtnon clasa. 
lie probably eicvts the European in n kind of »elfl)ih 
cunning, while the reslralnta of mural vnipl»4 and 
of the liner feelings operate less Mron^Hy upon him. 
Yet bo is not destitute of a sort of moral instinct, a 
kind of Ubuo contcienee, that causes him to hesitate 
lo da wrong. For this reason ibe negro is never an 
open thief." Mr. Jefferson ated to say that his 
slam were all bonftst, but they could Iwat Uie worid 
Hnding thing*. The negro, says Rucbner, Is above 
every thing po»itiTlst, practical, materialist, and is 
Inaccosiblu to Intangible cuii!.M era lions. Tlie qtie«- 
tjon 'Haa thenfgrn a religion?' raiinot Im! answered 
at once, eiU)l^r afflrmaiivcly nr negatively. It must 
first be made clear what Is to be understood by reli- 
gion. He has a confined mixture of vagint wHntS 
and superstitious impulses. A system of computing 
time can hanlly lie predicated of such a people; but 
tht^y have a kind of snpcrflcial calendar of the months, 
wlikh tbey m^e tu help regulate tbrir agricultural 
Dperallona. The negro undoubtedly possesses all tho 
capaciths for education and clvillzacton to at least as 
great an eatent as our primitive uict^stors. Tlu> 
fact that the psychical and intellcciaal, u well a* 
the physical, differences between particular races of 
men are really Inslgnlflcant. is desthicd to be made 
plainer, tb« more the iiibjcrt is impartially studied; 
and tht< efforts of certain men, learned in distlnctlonft 
of typea. to set up fixed marks of ecparalion bvtweeu 
ibom, will not succeed. — iPop. k. mvntMsi, July.) 
J. w. p. |195 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

Tba unexampled recent Increase In tbe meni- 
bemiiip of the AiticHcan aasnciatlon (or the advance* 
mcnl of science, from a little over one thousand Just 
before tbe Boston mcetlu); of I8S0. to nearly two 
thousand now, nnplies a mtulde ruble increaiw in il» 
funds, atul shoidd lin|>1y direct participation by the 
association In the endowment of rcsearcb, which Its 
means bavo not hitherto pvnuillcd. No other way 
is now open for the association to sdvaocs science 
so secnrety. 

We dctlre, therefore, to call tbe altentton of llie 
esecutivM buard of llw association to the direct wlvan- 
tagn which wniihl certainly result In fidlowliig the 
example of the Britlsb assodallon by nmklni; an an- 
nual grant to the Na|)>es zotUo^itnil itatitm, wboa«r 
claims and advanta^eii have already been so well 
stated In onrcdumnx by Mi<« Nunn and Dr. WliU- 
man. Tbo boani would And x*o lack of applicants 
for tbc ubie thus secured, tbe coat of which would 
be four handred dollars annually, 

— Mr. George M. Went of Escanaba, Micti., xends 
Of a pbotogT^>h of a hoe-ehap^ iiiipletnent wblob is 
Htated to have been ma<le of native copper l«y ham- 
mering. The bi.idc has a thiu nlgt', ami U sAiil to b^ 
nearly nine Incli*** Ioiik, at>u(it tlirM Inches wble, and 
onr-hair inch Ibiok at tlin liack witere It joins tbe 



]9^ 



SCIESCE. 



[Vol. IL, Ko. 27. 



■bank. The ibmnit {i ftn Indi iquare M ita imlan 
wlU) iht. hlnilL-, «tx IncliuK lone;, uml linlf an Inch 
Wjtilirv Ml i(> tliatiJ cliil. Tliia liiipleinriit MILD ftiuiiil 
iu Bruwii Uutiitly, Wis.. Uul I*. vii> tifllovt, iint>)lti! 
unong iho ni»ny copiwr ob|i!<:l<» found in North 
AmvflrA. »( wlili^h Wi*€on«lii lias yielded so )ar^ > 
pniiKirtloo. Wliitrue Iiatk no reiuon U> ilouhl tlic 
ttMirntetit thtkl thin liii[>li-mi>i)I U itiitlle of natlvt* i-*tp- 
IKT. »P ihuuld rM)irT liav« ll jilAci-d In uur hmids for 
cstofiil (•xAmliintJuii brfore fNitnmlLlhip; uurMjie* m 
tu iu rhiiraa'i^r uid lue. Slioiild II pn'>vc ro be ill 
lluu Uio ph»k>uriqi)i sii^.vu, ir« should like to giTfl 
» dnicripticri, wiUi Qgure*. 

— lit tile t)r«t ]inrt nf nn nrtici** in ' Yjoi'Ao^ at tfao 
Ki«lii?rh-ji i-xbiliilion.* Saturn of July IW glr«ft un- 
sDittH pntiai' Hi tlifl rollectiuiiB. pultllo and privKia. 
vkUilHU-'l by the United Stitm, nitd admli-m tlio 
bVKiity >i( the marine olijei u kIiowd l>y llic NB|)Im 
zitolo^icAl sUiilon. SpojkkliiK of the cnllcctloitB shown 
by tbu U. S, Uvh-couiuiisiioii, It Mr*> "It l» not an 
esitggnraUon to My titftt (bif vdli-clioM, both nn ac- 
count ot Uin ntng« nnd vArlrty uf Its abjfftii and the 
tnklrnctlVG way in which Dicy hnre been dl*|Hw>l uid 
treNti-tl by Uio Amcru'wti ciiiiimi'utioiier, Mr. I(ro«n 
Oi>oil«, hfts bren the adniltutioii of ftll Tivltui* " 

— AccATdhig to Nature, the Berlin ncidemy of 
ftclencn bos granted tU« following amaunt.<i finni its 
IIumboMt, luud: .ViXM runrk* lftl,2.V)) lo Dr. Ottu 
Fincli, for working at i|if> iMiliecUon bo ina<l« during 
his journvy in Polynetla; 0.000 marks (il .-'iOOl to Dr. 
Ed. Amini; (Mrvdau), for r«*«aruhif9 on tb« le|ffufty 
viiidcmic In titi; lIiLWJtllan laliuidA ; iho aaiii« amunnt 
m I>r I'nul Giissfvldi, to viiabic bini to wtitlnue and 
axtend bb exploring tour in thi^ Andi^ of <'lttll. 

~- The Sufirli taiIu*trieUr Jr MulhoUMf hiu awonlMJ 
its »llrpr niMlal {medaille ti'arrient hnr* f-atovra) to 
Mf. V. J. II, Woodbury of the Bo'ftou matiuloj-lurcn' 
Biutiml t1rv-in«uraiicc cumpouy (ur bis book, 'Flrn 
protMtiwn of mitli.' 

— Dr. J. W. Mnll«t ban roalgned the profeMottblp 
of chfimlitry Iu tin- Univcmity of Virginia. 



RECENT ftOOKS ANT> PAMPHLETS. 

llln«l<in lt^il^n. ■■>! In IMt IM. 

JEnvpfivH' an ■■ (.■fru-.^ii tn'H- 

ladiini. niitlii rifu^fuAiJ iKrittJititU, uuJ iiuUHilTt nf tjan* 

ttitfivhte atltit- 

Adunn. ■ ■ ''-^^ ■ '■■ Jini. .\ cottrfe MlcV ■ ;■ ' ' •-ftrr. 

'hv fnvliiHiHy ul til* nil n 

'riilg.-, .lime 28. IBW, * 



Coaparl, n 

A I 



nilliili{c lur kmmniM dr* lriiai£i>«t%*« dor 

IlkxniiD t>">P<<'lMn In kri nuil unlhrapowKlry. 
I 4 ■! iW Nallixml iihi>»wd. Wiuiilniicn, D/T. 

, .„■. ifthi. a: |i,. niu»u-. s*. 

Or^Snwood, M-iJor. Alil* to >nAk>nr anil atoBpsrallrs 
MMitmv. IximIoii, Aoi"*'", l*n. IVp- 13* 

Jill]; I .'lUr aiitrllUnB H't tflNnlnla* 

il«i II i> ilv rinittiin>onilFn liiMlrr. 

BkIw. (1 * I" lrt-i-*»» '""'i >-f 'IU<*. VMI.'Irlj'hlm. Brititen, 
IWt, (Brti)l«n'i tllw, iitutlf. .\ii»r. Lit., U.) tCl |i. H*. 

Hanu, J. lUiiJbueh dcr k(l«H«l<j«le. t»iuti(>n. In/ii- 

BnVlCtnB, M W, Co|ntHnUl*v Mnalonir M Mfipllvil t« III* 

iiuiuiiMv xf ilw iiiiui*. Ifjiifit tir Ucrte W«lb«. UMidttUt 
M'(iiMrr#»irJ<Hi.t>W. np„IUu<(r. ir. 



Hellmsnn. O. tl*|krnorium il«r 4i>auvlim •n*t*ir<ilDgl«. 



I . ilTi r[Lfrn]r'j i*lIiW i:'| •< Enl. yi nT^J Illi^niciP 

't>iiMD. LwKltlttit. Ar(i>'/, ISH. M'47T| 

Jalia, >U ' i'lv I'lmnilvw ««>! ihrv tx-laiilniiB tKr tUr thm- 
leUxjhr mill Miv^niwiJlc rbi-inU. WliiB, IfOtdtr, \fV^ II > 9MI )i. 

fC&llecber. ^- n^i-Kht »i* iwlorfuncbfr Utiil Hi-It .Iu Dull 
tlr\n)»i> I ■!< AHD krIiUcr. t:Ui* miUtririle. Kirllv, W* 

ms.i. guf, B-, 

KlDRstoii, tr, n. O. i^mrte* of Om ■aipieny of on I a 

Ci,'. .■..! .-..■.•. T,,,rdiMi. ,Vr/ivn., I^t IflJ i- , lllj.tr S- 

I •■ -I ■ I'liftMi ik. ' ' 

lllltlN. iK' I' 
.«tl.-. lr.,1.1.1: 



I'l' 



\.' 



■ ■r, !• r- ■ ' i(r:li->. 1; _- 

Hann. V. A iih>i>.iiiMiirm •••• 'l«i ■*Mcie 4er uxtbrmwWt. 

WUf'i ■■ ■ ■ - ■ :■• 



"HI 1-1 ■ 

i..ri>'i>Mi. r ■, 

Meyer, ■^■ 

■* i'lll'i>i-|il ' 

|lhciWI1. I.. II 



>, inJ jiailiulivlail i 

iKotK in «h«iHl'H:(>4>r. tiMirpholiV' 

' I'v Kin h>rlir«« ivr kcKiunl** 

iiin UBd MlMr tB<4MBar> 

> , .1 Bill. t>l. «*. 



Hicbols, ^v. i;. \VBi(t-a«ppi}' coii'Mrrcil uuiilIt from a 

rtir'nl.nl aiul .ullai} (litii.t jk-IhI. N V, ViUy, XMS. «<1U 
p., Illaatr. «*. 

Oboroy, a. FlAn von itJUinn and iiammMkAililMlMi 

iii»{ii><nitu uiiil iHuwuoutf lailunim. Orlliia, •%[ 

|f. »-. 

Ffaff, P. Dip (Xilwkki-lu)!)! itrr Kril Mf aliXKlBllarJu 

Knxilncv. Kin hHiniK *ur '(■■mlortltdli ilm malir 1*11 tin u 
Idi'llvnt, WtKit,. •-■ I • ^, 

Salonon, i'- ' l r;i.i.>Kaiitrn oikr 

allilinbrUtctiu auTi 11 i >rti -i iI.t ix'lmiin'.rn 

S^riBrKT) ixuinnnji m.l iLtui. r]ii<i4ij lu^ti i -o'"!: 

iKlini vi'ttiriiltiiBg. l.«l|iilK, IViipf. li.'U. 

8cb«U. A. LHo UMilivOvn iliir lAtliyniiL.. ;.. tiai-iM 

cloca nCulH-fllai.KliraulieD'ailllrunivlM*. U t«i, S*^''^, I'M*- 
B-M p., illiU4r. fl'. 

8e«t}OlUn. t'. TlipKnclltlilrlllatecudKii < in 

It* ii'MHuM* !■> iIm' iriiBorlal HWl Irlbal •yul' i 
mull lie "tH'! tii'14 •yBlcia of biiabailitrir. < 
1*U 4114 [> I i:i ni'iM Mill t» r. 

8tem6. <:. KHii<M>-rMui<>m. till TT atiMbtciard ■■ btban- 
ilriirk iiai-li ilrt ■■niiir ifrnaiili ion Joriny itrlivioafll <ni>l (pH 
liiloii liullwIUillMl. Iluf. 1., tt, UApHt. /Vryluv, ISSt. H p. 

8u««S, G. Daa miUu der crde. MIt -bUliluncan Md 
k*(i»iullit>ite. Blitti. 1. L«>p(U, /yrybi;, IWl IIDji- V*. 

ThCiitlpaOa, SIKanua t'. Driuunu-alvrirk siaetilSnty Iw- 
I'll tt«tn llvr Juunml of thfeMdclynf »ns, Mriih ag 
^> Pnck U n>|M. >.r., ^itx tflufnoKl. WO. 
, 21'. 

VlUlCtU, r. Zur Kf«r)>lokHi dcr rMhMikuiMi mil bMOtiJanv 
Tl(^lt*lrh( nuf TI«ijiMh1aii<i lui.l Oo(l«ndefa. Winn, INtaW, 
IBKI. 01 tw p., Ilhuilr. »'. 



Wnaoo, c 

llan uiuiiimlc* al Thlm 



Thr rr«««( ar«hiik dlteotrry (if nnrlmi Knp- 



Wood, II. A aMMD Miuiny Ibc WlU Owwvn. 
^(•ilfnt{'Ar<B, ins. 3M p., IllBMr. S* 

Zlockeo. c. r. in* MoiiMt 
kuhlmi. wIet 41* hiDdurM aar )|aak .. 

hohlrB, n*ch lUrra rrlaiU«ln allcc tu&. ..-„.-....: 

,S»nr. !*« 7*W)p «■. 

Zwackb-HolKliausen, W, nm- IN* UrtMawn llviiUi- 
W(ir* iiB'li >lttD Byti-iiti' Mbil ,Ii-B bi^liBiuaocw) Dr. \K. Ntlxn. 
Oct*. Itclitrltieig, HVda. |*,u. «>S1 p. r. 




■I 



PRmAT, AUOUST 17, ISfH. 



TUB AMERICAS AS^OdATfOS AT 
MIKSEAPOUS. 

Tut: iiumlicr or jmhiiiIo nrlio tntce an interest 
in .-fcU'iitKIi? tliftforuri' U vcrj- gn-at. Wi* mny 
lutauinr iJial it Ttir t.'KCi-m]» ustimnt^R Imscd ou 
ttic 8*ip]forL given lu Bciuiittflv i>cricxticalii nml 
societies. ']*be qiifSliuii is uot uf LliuusAJiiIe, 
but uf huii<ln!«|Et uT tJiuu^aoijs. Of a rvjiurt 
of Proft'Sior TyrKlnll's lectures on IlgUt in 
Nnw York, lh«m wwrp solif over n hiiir-miltion 
cit|i[cii. Tbiit wiw ten years ago : tin- ini|)ular 
interest ili ecicncc bas vaatly incrcastHl iii ibu 
iiilen*iil. Ttii& is sUuwq b> tbu gniu ^^l mt'tu- 
I'cnttiiii ill Van Aincrivnu Msooiutioi) Tor tlio 
ndvaiicoiiiciil of srivnw, Ueinjj williin tdo but 
four yeiirs 09 gn-iit ^•* in iin' |tr>'vir>nn iiiittv- 
ODC ycani. 

C^npEiri'il Willi wlittL nuiy W (.-alk-'l tiiu 
9ci(!iitili<' fiilloivinfj, tin- nunihvr oT workers in 
Bcii9iiL-<.* is sm:ill. L'pun that following Ibu 
wotlcLTs must (k>|K-ii<l for recruits. Ant], dl- 
recUy ui'uUii'iwims fur Hiipport. Scit-ncv iquhI 
lean oa Ucr friciKis: tbey ar^ iiuuieruus. but 
few of tlieiiJ }(lv« help. Thi'l-e lire lilr^fi iiiiU 
rich (•ouiiniiiiil.iL-d wIkti- the kK'al ik'vi_-lo[>nK'iit« 
arc oil a ]tar wirb the t'ickHrick cJtib. Tlic men 
am) meun>« for good norit »n> not wnnUng-, but 
tlie iiik]mUe 15. >Oh fur Ibe toUL-li of fl vnn- 
isliecl ham!,' like Uml of Loiii<} Agassiz, 10 
wami tbe donnani interest into life ! 

For Uii» purpose ihe American A8floulalton 
is an cirfctive Mf^eufv. It uiiilen in one l>wly 
Uut worker* miil those who are uol pruftM^ion- 
alljT eu^a^ed in atnonlifle piirsiiitA. It* mnii- 
:i{;eiueut !>houM bo ami i» fflvurnhlo to the de- 
airra of !K>Lb L-lasae9. lu the social featui-L-s of 
its meetings, all share ulikv, and perbapa with 
djtial /cAt. Hut the w-orkont regitnl the meet- 
ings ehielly ns thn mx'Jisions for bearing and 
ivjuUiig' [Hittcrti.* Tenebera, wbo form a large 
|uirt I'f llie miMiilK-fabip. si-ek the mosl rui-cut 
fcliiiig* of kiiuwlodgi-- lu uiIJ Lo liiuli' uapiicilieu 

X0.DI.-1WL 



for infltmction. A miijoriiy of the atlendnnts 
at dm lUeetEugBOonie aimply with a wholesome 
curitiriily fur tlw novelties of seieiiec. 

The pi-04hietiun and diihverj of 'patters* 
at tbesc moutingH givu rise to aoiuo queries. 
lu ibvre any natural reason for cx|)ecUug 
genius to Inirst into btoasom in August mlhcr 
Ibau in any other month? tf a man orftdcnv« 
ia dilii^utly pur^uinir some lino of research, 
tuuy not ibe ll<^bt that never was on sea or 
land lirciik upon bim in any other uf Lbc llfly- 
two weuk4 Iban tJie i>n« when be can pn'st-rtl 
ittoUii! annual meeting? If be keeps lurk hia 
aDiiouiicemeni; of progress iir diaeovery, or if 
bo hriugM it forward beforo h« ia fully pre- 
parw). dovt* he not hunu tlnj cause of sci«iioe 
and himaulf? 

The ' [>apcrs ' are of necessity often icdi- 
nical aiKl oninterc^ting to all oxeopt experts in 
some si>eeiftl line. At one of the nieetinfja a 
ocrtaio utfitbematician stativl the ea^p hluully, 
thiia: "I shall read my |)apcr by title only, 
as there is nuWd.v bul myself hem who can 
undi-ri«land it." 'J'be rapidity with wbieb a 
crowd of members tbins out whou the reading 
of a ttidiuieal pa|)er Hiirly begint. is at least 
fiii^gi'.«livt\ Nor should tlie dt-^uirluig erowd 
Ire denonnce<I as Ainii>ly utiworlliy of tlie 
prarbi spread bcft>rc them. Tbey wlH stay if 
the paper bos only a fair trace of iiopular iuier- 
eei. Doubikas many of Uioae who leave tbc 
asjwctation in ibeir Orst rear of uiomlivrship 
arc di.*iappoIutcd. Tbey had hopt:d for somc- 
t-liing not i[uite so 'dry.' Yet, if the reading 
of papers were diopiwd, Uic associattou would 
fail lo g-atber the workers of aetoncfi at its 
meetings. 

Platts have at times been conaldctvl for 
acoiriug addretisea from men wbo are known 
as piipuliir s|M<akers, i-apnlile of attracting 
large ttudieiicefi, f^pecially if aided by euitubb 
apparntns for the fiisplay of cx|ierimeut. In 
various wn\!4 >-y\c\v a t.<our»4.- uii^ht add hugely 
Lo the rvsuuivei und inHtK-tiee uf liiu usocla- 



182 




SCIENCE. 



IVoi. n., HiK 28. 



tion. "Wliat is vastly more inifxjrtnnt. it would 
rouse an LMitliiisi:isiii foi- si'it"in;e a.1 tins Jouallty 
of the raeeting, wliich, i£' rightly fpslon?*!, 
would give periniiiicut n-snlts. 

The Associntion has soitglit to mC'Ct Bomt' of 
these wants and difficnllica l>y creating a lar- 
ger iiiiinber of sections, (inch of which has a 
presiding otHcer, who is expected to deliver 
a formal address. Tlus is nn ad- 
only a half-way nieasunt?, 'I'lif pape 
in number every year ; mid llie scvei 
must all work at onee and anluons?" 
their reading in the allrj^ttcd time. ' 
member, even to a s]>eei:i.ltst who i 
gaged in two distinct linea of resea 
the disapiwintment of missing the . 
valuable papers when two or three an 
simultaneously. I 

Many of tiiese featnies tuust BppI 
nently at tlie present iifcCL^iug, The antteiKi- 
ance will consist in gruiiU-r prctpoilion thtm 
usual of the popular elenieut. The member- 
ship is now so huge that there is no risk of 
the meeting being insignificant in size, as at 
Dubucjue in 1M7"2. But, since Slinneaiiolis is 
the farthest i>oint to the west yet tried, its 
distance must withhold many familiar faces. 
After this, we shall know better whether the 
kind invitations of San Francisco may be 
nccepteii two or three years lience. Xext year 
the meeting should not be too far from the 
British association at Slontrenl. 

At least eight addresses will be given by 
presidents of sections, — excellent in their 
kind, but not quite a substitute for thoughts 
that breathe and words tliat burn. If free and 
wide discussion could be encouraged .at these 
meetings, tlic retiring president's address 
would now give abundant occasion. Dr. Daw- 
son hits hard where he thinks lie see>i a crevice 
in the armor of the evolutionists or of the ghi- 
cialists, and many will chafe if thei'e is no im- 
mediate opportunity to rctiu'u his thrusts. But, 
while it may fail of excitement, the meetiug at 
Minneapolis is very enjoyable. The, city and 
vicinity are pieturesijuc and <lelighll'ul. The 
hospitality of the west is as broad as its 
prairies W, C. W. 



77M' iGl,00 OF THE INNUiT. — L 

TiiK >Is(iuiiHanx of the iirctiu regions of 
Noi'th America call Ihemfielves ' Inniiits/ und 
their wiijter-himses, bulk of ice ond siuow, • ig- 
loos.' 'I'hisBliortesplunation inny be needed to 
umke dear my som^'wluit obHcuPo titlo- 

These strange hiits h»v*? been tncidenliilly 
described by many tr»v(<llGr8 hi the uccouuto 
of their ufctic explorations. But Iiejonid (be 
St they are rude domt^3 of sinjw, id tvbiub 
Kilar people live for tin* gn-jilei' |mrt of 
ir, litlie is known of the miiniiur ol" tlieir 
lotion, tbelr iuteruul an'ai]geu»>Lit, or of 
uditiuus which liavc Jed to their exiat- 

mauy inquiries I have been cfiUed ui>oti 
ver in regard ti> these northern i-ubiiia, 
lO misconeeptioiiis I have fouud even 
the better iuCornied of my quealiotnTB, 
id me to believe thiit an account of ihu 
) I saw ic during my life with the luniiilfi 
t>e of Inte-neRt. 

. oiigin of llie igloo oau only Iw gncsaod 
from the feiv I'acLs we know of early man. I 
will not rlibciiss the elh[K>logit.':il prolilem which 
would identify the Innuit of the present day 
with the cave-men of Europe, but, assuming 
that it is true, will sketch a possible history of 
the ice-hut. 

These cave-men are known to have existed 
along the edges of the mer de c/lace, which, 
during the ice period, oversi)rcad Europe, aud 
buried it as Greenland is proliably buried at the 
present day. What caused this great flow of 
I'ligidity to the south, or its retrogression to the 
north, it is needless to consider; suffice it to 
suppose that our hyperboreans followed it in 
all it?s migrations. Tiic earliest eviilences of 
their liislory are those they lelt in the eaves 
of middle Kurope when the glacier extended 
nearly to the Alps and l*yrenees, beyond which, 
with its outlying polar fauna of cave-men, cave- 
bears, cave-hyenas, mammoths, and reindeer, 
it never extended. 

These eaves were the work of nature. When 
these people lived in their vicinity, it is proba- 
ble thai the}- knew no other habilatious, winter 
or summer, and disputed their possession with 
the many animals whose bones are found beside 
the implements and boiics of the cave-men 
themselves. 

As the mer de rjlace, with snail-like pace, 
withdrew northward, it was followed by these 
children of the cold (the cave-men), driven, as 
some sujjpose, by tlie more powerful river-drift 
men, or following that climate which was the 
more couiicnial. 



AiraifaT 17, IWaj 



SCIENCE. 



\m 



Tttf povp-mpn in tlifir retreat, tigltUy HpM 
tiy otlipr trilics nr clirnntk* tenipi-T. wlitti tticy 
rv'OcliL'iJ tlic fiMer groluj^v runnntiDn& wliiuh uu 
lunger gave tlicm tlic wclfxunc shelter of na- 
l-iiro'i rmlc lioii^^ca (the ilroiiry cn\('s), must 
liDve look(Hl for U IVoiu otbi?r mL-mttt : ami 
tlic.*ie were only titoiies and sjiow-bariks. Tito 
formiT may Imve been iiswl Tor Uu-ir mow 
permiLiit?ut ItmmLS : but tlie l>o1(1 ialrriora or 
Blouf huts in 5<u<:h ii cHninte rau^t soon liavc 
'flriti^n tliciii to tht* nifirir cuinl'ortnMc ami 
t'aslljr liiiilL hoiiA4'.4 that cnii Itf^ ej^'Av.iieYl frotti 
n iiiovv-lj.-itik, and so grently rcsciuhle ttifiroUl 
iyivc-hom«*)». 

hiiriiiKMipfiist |Kirl. or lliffirpelrc-'^t, Oiecave- 
mrn, (.■.'np-iiii;ii no lonjjor, were in « liilly, 
httlf-moimtainoiw connlry, —« diameter or»nr- 
fai-c favMHiliIe 1o tlio formnlion of siiuw-drlft* 
Inrfjo ouuugli to allow of )[Mt or uxCAvaUon, in 
wliicli a family cciiiIJ eomfurtably n;sitl(!. Ht-re. 
tlMJP, WU.1 tliu first igloo, nuiifly mil into some 
|iivteL-tiu}: bank ul'tfrinw. Us walls knowing no 
OIIht I'ousljiictton (linn ilint of natiii-c. hucli 
rougli tyiicf of ari'tic jireliileittnif ore still lo 
l>e fiHitiit iiiiioiit; tlie imuiniitiiiti, wtieri' noixl \a 
iiukiinwn, 

Au tilt' ml(;i'!itin<* nca of icn ilclKMinhtxl ti|mn 
the fltioro'i of tht< Airlin Sen, itiid nilti<li'i'w its 
iry Idaiiket fi'om tliesi' moiv nortliern regions. 
Uh^ nnrteiil ari-tii- innti foiniil lnii)<U!ir. ua he 
rc3ctie<l tUo^f limits near tho Wliilc Spa aikI 
Jip mouth (if tlic IVt4>liorn, in A Unttei' ooiiiitry. 
Tile >iin<>w.ilnfla no longer hiy in siioh colitsiiHl 
«1i;|illi-*, Thi'V Hure (liitrl frinctions of the 
aiirfiice, mill tlalteni'ii with it. It nii>i no longer 
|l09Bilili> lo i-oiiilniet ;i (lei-p enonyli house l»y 
l«ili|ile exoiVHtiori. The prohlem wns |)rolw- 
jWy nint liy 'iigyiug as f«r a* po^sil'le, ituil eoiu- 
[plctiog the Btruc-ttire with bunks, whieh in time 
made of Mocks of snow ; for the snow 
of the nrctie winter is not of that plastic nature 
vbleli will allow oac to fashion it nt will, as 
schoolboys their forU nnd imitation- men, hut 
dcuse and compncc trom tJie extreme raUl arKi 
tlie [inciting wiml. Sneh were the fir»>t ly|]i- 
cal uimI porfect Igloos. ■ dii-eet oiitgiiiwUi of 
llie U'Vfl liiirron l!in<ts uf ihu arctic zone, — 
feftturrft whii!h ,vet tlelcrmine its gcogntphical 
'Imiin. 

Amie mnn stopped on the shores of ihe Mn, 

(brin the nnle inciin!* nt hnmt he «>iiltl follow 

titui iop no Ihri her. There was nniithrr mifrrntii m 

llie norlh. which w:i>» to atTect the chaiacttT 

'hi» 'Iwellins : this -nriA iho mlgrwlion of the 

Ift. A* boou at Hoo<i reaijhcil lil« door, 

Ithtr Uy direct micr»lioii of the forests or by 

Iriflio^ down the grcMt iiorthwiinl-lremliiig 

rivHrs, he would naturally ii«o it in the I'Oii- 



slniction of I/m permnnent |ioii«e«. its we nee 
iCMday among the mttircs t.bns sitontnl. The 
igloo WBM probiibly driven from Kur«|n*» Oiu'n 
from Aaia. and la now coufincd to cwrtain local' 
itios of North AmcHca. 

From writing of the tgloos of tho Innnits, 
the nniural inference is. IhnL the geogmphi^iil 
bqundarlcH of the two would l>e the sunn'. 'I'bc 
Innnibi reacJi from neriuft .StralUi (and even 
southward niong the Ala.slt!tn const uud out- 
lying i.'iliind.^) n<-nrly to Iho^u of Melle lale, 
foliiiwuit; the t^inuoii^ eoniit of Noith Amcrim 
at irre^tuUr interval)*. They |w>pnlttie the 
weslern nhoip* of Greenlfind, and on<* oei-ii- 
pii^l il» oaMteru side. Vet Um va^l stretch of 
oc«nn-line uitiftt bo Bborn of tlie urt-aler por- 
tion of iL» length liefoi-e wc can narrow it down 
to the part oooupted by tho i|;loo-buil4ing In- 
nuita. 

The dAta I have ulrcudy given restricting Uw 
igloo to the barren ltouikIs devoid of even 
tlririwoocl. and the fact tlial nearly all K»iqui- 
innux trihctt tire a ».4'ac<m9it-iibiding people, will 
aii«i)tt u» in » ron<^h l>iit fair approxiniution to 
ib) limits. — liinii* whi(!li vnti he n*n<lily made 
clear hy rt-feivnce lo ii map of the arelic re- 
gions of North America. The month of Jlmv 
ken7.ie in altont the dividing-line of the timber 
to the went and tin* barren country to the ea%t. 
I-'oreonsideralile disltinecs on both sides of it* 
month, there i« n good supply of driftwood. 
Where IhiH driftwoixl coa^eS on the east m xUa 
w(T(ii'm limit of iJie igloo, |m»bably Ully to 
one Imndi'cfl milcii from the river. l''rom tlii^ 
(loint they are found all along tho coftmt, on 
the portions of the Parri^ UlatKlx oecnpiwl 
by K»qiiiDiniix, the shore-i of Hudson's Ba> 
nnrl Straits as Jnr as MiuMe Inland, of Ctira* 
berlnnd Gulf, and many of the estnnries of 
llatlla's Bay. Tho limit on the south is. I Iw- 
licve, IIudBOu's Strait, and od \hv east Bafflo'd 
Bny. 

Tlic time during whidi igloos may be built 
de)jeiu1s on the length of Uiu winter. In sura' 
tncr iliti iiutivcfl use a tout of bctil or walrus 
skin. 

riic pole of greatest «ihl in plB<«d by Bent 
to the north of the l*«rry iBlundn. nearly n[ioii 
the eightieth pArallel, and in ulxmt It)!)'' W, 
longitude. I lielicve the thcrmometrii; obscr- 
vntir>n9 mfl<1p in the ar<^tic regions, .straggling 
n* they have been, go far townrrh showing 
tlint the magnetic and thermal jxileit arc the 
aame. Tbix would bring thu kini-at tempter- 
atnrcs aix huinlted mile? to Uie so<itb of Ilia 
|)osilion assigned by Bent. Wherever it maj 
be. there would tlie igloo have the longe«l uxj 
is^tvnce for the year. 



SCIENCE. 




184 



In the winter of 1878, K-ing near Uepf^f Ib- 
lainl ill Ninth IIikIsoh's ]l:iy, w« moiH inl« 
igioos on tin; 1st of Xov.-iiilnT. On Kiiijf Wil- 
liam's Land, next s]H'iii*;, ivf ;iiia[nli>ufd snow- 
hoiises, nml toiik lo IuiiIh on the ITlli of JunP. 
havinj^ livt-d an ijilno-lif'f for sovcii niouthB »iul 
sevt-nteen <la\s. That Hintor ut«>u Kiii£[ Wil- 
liam's Land we rcarcci onr Hi-bt igloo on Uie 
2r>lh of Sc|)teml)(T, liciriij <ji]<' niiKith am\ (Ivi- 
days earlier than at 1)o|kjI Ishiml the jjpt'viuus 
season. This would g-jve ii loin) of*"' — '''"'■ 
for the sonthfrn part of Kiui^; 'Williai, 
of eight months and t\vt'iii_\-hvrp thiva. 
threo-fonrlhs of tiie year. Ttiiw la ihi 
to the pole of greatest eold (he it the 
pole or aeeonliii^ to Bent) llint iiiiy w 
have lived (i la Lmuit, AH^nniiu^ t 
physical poles to i>e iikntii-al. and < 
tion having been so near llieni, — -hel 
only about a liundred mili-a dista 
must have experienced aKntit the i 
of annual iglou-life. Iti-tuniin^ t( 
Ihidson's iiay in tlie spiin^f it|" ISftO 
well as tlic majority of the Ksqiiiiii 
ing around Di^pot Island, uioieil iuro iiinia 
about the iniildle of M-av. •I'-wiuz iL.d'"i"-lire 
for North Mudson's Hay si^ineilnng over half 
the year, which is probably near the mini- 
mum. 

While, of course, climatic causes principally 
determine the annual toTi^<'vily of the snow- 
house, tlicy are not the only ones. As soon 
as the spring thaws commenee tumbling in 
the igloos, or making liieir struetnrc insecure, 
the native would gla<lly avail hiniseif of a tent ; 
but this he eannot di>, unless there be a clear 
8ix>t somewhere near, on whieh it ean be 
pitched. It may be a inimber of days froTn 
the time be would accept trnt-Iile before ihc 
hilltops or ridges commence pee|>ing through 
their winter covering. The inhinil ridges, 
higher ami more niaikeil. covered with Itlack 
moss, which, once through the crnsL, makes sad 
havoc witli ilie snow, appear mncli sooner than 
those facing the sea. whieh are Halter, enabling 
the inland reiniieer hunters lo occupy llicir tents 
earlier than the seal or walrus hunters of 
the coast. Some igloo-lmilders will wait until 
they ean kill enough seal to make a new tent 
before u^ing one. The ()o(jiTeesik Salik 
Es<iuimaiix of the Dangemns liapids of t!ie 
Great Fish Hiver ean be said to be pi'aetically 
without tents, securing nothing, or almost 
nolliii.g. from wliicli to make them. They hold 
to the shelter of an igloo late in the spjing, 
and seek it as soon as one can be made in the 
early winter. 

(7u lit (0 II (JH II <[/.) 



OiV THR DF.VF.KOP^tENT OF TIJE PIT- 
UnwHY noDY JN PETRfKUYXoflr, AXD 

run sifixn'-jcAxv/c or that u/taAj\! 
/x oriti-ui ryi'Ks. 

Is the Qiiiirtert'i jaurna! nf micrOnCnpinoi 
xciVncB (xxi, 7-jO) I piililisbcd a bri^f prolinif- 
nary piecoiintof lliedeiulopmentof thcpihiitarj' 
hmly in the tani|ii-ey. staling' that it whb forim-d 
from a part of tlio na^iil har. Tliiei aecuuut 
of n method of lorm»liQU s-o entiiTly diJTertriit 

*• „„j tiling ihat was known among the ver- 

I w,as leeeived with iiiercdiiliry by Hal- 

ho sayH (Cump. euibryjlogy, ii, y'lM}, 

e not myself couiptetely fiilhiwed lift 

meni in IViromyxon. but I haM- "h- 

1 Hligiitdiverliculuni of the stoniddneinn 

lielieve gives origin lo it. KiilhT dc- 

e in any case required before we eon 

n gi-oat a divergence fi'om the Tinrnial 

mervl. as Is Indioflted by Scott's slate- 

' Tlieao Hilk-t details have lon» been 

■endy for pnbticatioii. but I have heea 

ed by eireniii*vt:inecs from issuing llii-iu. 

ihoi'tly lo Continue ray srries of stnillcfl 

Mil tin; enibryolngy of I'ctroinyzoii, bnl, in tliL- 

ntean linii', lliiiik it advisablt^ to present Mii^ 

preliminary account. 

My friend, Dr. Dohrn of Naples, has lately 
invcstigalcil tiiis subject, and has come to the 
conclusion that neither Halfour nor myself can 
be coii'eet, but that the pituitary body arises 
from an independent invagination of the epi- 
blast between the nasal epitlielium and the 
nionlli (ililth. 2oul. ulnt. Neapd^ iv. I heft). 
On ex.'iniining Dohrii's figures, however. I was 
much pleased to find that liis disagreement with 
me is rather about tei-ins than facts; for these 
drawings correspond almost exactly with those 
that I have already published, and many more 
as yet unpublislied. 




Pm, 1. — Siii;itl!yl si'i-iir:ii ihri"i;:h liiiiil i.f liniipri-y embryo, m, 
moiiUi; /.f. [illiiltitry iniriaiJi.'iildii ; hi. tufiiinllbuluin; i/jf, 
hv|»jljliiBt i>f tlirii;il; ih, iiu[iH'lii>ri.l ; /, up(>Lr lip. 

The development of the pituitary body, as far 
as I have been able to tniee it. is as follows. 
Shortly before hatcriiing, the mouth is formed by 
a deep invagination of tlie epiblast (see fig. 1, 



I 



I 

I 



AiTiJcwT 17. IWLJ 



SClKyCE. 



1K5 



tnlwii fWim mv article in tliP Mnryfiol. ffhrb.. 
fViil. 'Hht npinT lip is somt'wliat roiiiidol 111 

Ic^imltmliiinl si-rlion. auil l>oiin<K-<l nnltriotlv I'y 

a wrv sliylil ili-i.t-cssiod. whlrli is tt»? hi-j;iinilii^ 
ror iIh' ifitnitiiry I'udy ; but. as tliL^ is jiImi tlii> 
^N'lrfiiiiiiig of (he iiivsffiiiwlioii to foriii Hit' utisal 

aac.' I liiivp pi-eferrrt! not lo ii-\ian\W tlicin. as 
iDubrn Ims iIodc. In Ibe iiexl sl.-ijic (lig. 2) 



Tt\. 



Vto. 1 — SmUoq Dinisiti hmd «r an oMi r iiahryn juM kch-re 
liakUuc. f'/, olbttory vidlMlum. Ullict Ixiiert m in Dx- |. 

t^ ' fpilhrlitiiij ha^ hpcome luiich lliiclc- 

piliiitnr.v iiiv«lnlion d^'eptr. kikI the 

ipprr iip t'lonfriued so a« to tiM-oine IdHii^inlnr 

tti BcTtioii. At, this time- tlie aaiiinl flvxiin: 

h.is n-aohisl its mnximiiin ; Ihoii^h il le Titr less 

than ill mml other yroiips, owiriy (u the rcla- 

"^tlvriy ^tnnll *\z(; of tho fow ami mill brainB. 

rUe (iifiulh i* vpnlrnl in position, i-orirsiiomiiii^r 
\t*n elintvXytn thp sclauhiaii iiioiith in |>o>titiou 
aiKl <thNiH'> 

Shortly oftor tills, tin- tippi-r lip hegini) tlmt 

pmnrknMe series of traiwrorniations to whioh, 
l» I loiiET 11)10 poiiitti) uiit. many of the most 
'iiikiiij£ pwdlimilit-H ofihu cvdostoiut' oisniii- 

isitiun ari- due. The posterior e<Igf of tlie lip 

iMDgntes rapidly. iTiHimiu-i iriflii;.'iilar in aec- 
ftinn ; whik- ihu whole aiUorior part of the herul 
rotates IbrwjirtlB. thus temling lo eorivct the 
CTniiial lliixiin', and bringing tli« mouth lo poiul 
Homtwhiit I'ornanl as ifcll 
as itunnirard. I(y this 
process the edge of tho 
lip. which in tigr. 2 la 
dirot;trd harkrards. now 

HM lo poini doH-ii- 

inia (flff. ;i): ot the J^^c^lT*'^ 

finnii> ttnio. the openinjr 

of tlic (lasal pit priiiiiti 

rorwards {iistcn<i .ir.l..wn- 

wftM*. 'I'lio iiivuliilioii 

for the na$al pasgnijc hikI 

pilnliury IkkI)' tuis now tHH*omc h long tube of 

'.'clU. vhich transYt?rsv fteottons show iis lo be 

' n* lf.Ml •■■■, 1 1I-.-.I, llio UlM MMMB, U |]tlUBCtU*llf4 



1>:1U!» iU IbL.Iv 



IMTltimlcd by n -tmall bimcn. 'ITic ewl ortJii* 
crlliilar tube rrncbcs to the iiiftindlbalnm. vrltb 
wliirh it lies in fUwe cuntnrt. Tliis |iorti<m 
willflivu flee to (hf jiltnllary liotly. lJ[t lo Ihii 
time there hiis U't-n no line of Hcjiurntlon be- 
twei-ri the pituiliiry involiitlnii and tJio na^I 
i-)iitliftitiii): hut nht'ii the proirsK of lolation 
(iC ihi' rip|irr lip. ami ("onTi^ton of ihi^ cranial 
lli-]^iii-c. i« eomplftrd, the edg*? of the Up 
|Mniit.H 4ltn-et)y rorward. havinj; passed tlir»«ij[ii 
an niijrle of 180'^, and rlie openiiijt of th*> nft<>al 
sniT is oil th»* dorsal iii>ii>^ad oftJie wniml »nr« 
face of the h^ad. At thix lime a fold Bpi»ear^ 
beluw the- oir«vtory epitlivliiiiii, ftoparntiiig it 
distinctly ftwra (h<^ pitiittiirt' iKinsajie. 

'Hie pitnit-iry Iwxly is fomwd from part of 
tJie epithi'iiiim of llils piiwtnge, find eonaisls 
ofsolid ri>lli(Hes.»4*pamt«<l l*y Lvnnuetivet)9!>iiv. 
Ai-oonlint;; to IVIini ( k«. rit. , p. 1 ?«). tbb IhkIv 
is not const ritteil oil' from the passngL'ur nn«»l 
snv at any liiuu during larval life. I have 
not been able to saii^^ry jnyself, ai* yet, ii)n>o 
iiih ]K>iut: but I am not inelimtl to a{;rre 
with UiiH view. 

As to ilie nHirplKdogical aigiiilli'amv of the 
pitult.iry lio«l>. many views have Ix'en inri- 
))oinidiHl, qoiiie of (hem hiaring upon (he rjtn'S- 
tioii of the orij»iii of the vertelimles. Some 
\vntt>ni hare eoiilrnded that the connHo-liyim- 
phyaial traet thningh the brain ia tlin romnnnt 
of the old mrMitli and fillet, whii'h, in thennco«- 
tor*(of lite verteliralvB. |jai((ipil thr«igh a rin^ nf 
n<*rvoii>* ItSHiie. as in the annt-litN. S|i!ieo will 
not permit a disru^sion of tliie hyiK>ttiesit ; ttor 
is »iicb discMssiijri necf^snry, o-* Ilnlfoitr ( Klne- 
innbranch tithes, p. I7'J) ba» stated the iiisu- 
jwrabte ohje.>tioiis to the view. Dohin, in tlie 
pamphlet already qtiott^l. ud')pt8 n \ien- some- 
what like oil e oiigiually pmirounded liy (ioite. 
and a<jds n Hugge-ilion ofhiB un-n. He t^nsid- 
ei-s the entire bliud nasal sac of the Inmpivv 
to belong lo the pitnitJiry body, and tlmt this 
Mtc tin-' artaen from the eoaleaoeniv of a pair 
of gill-alil«. Thlu hy|)othefti« in but the carry* 
iiig-out of the lliwiry so nhly advne-atfl in the 
very migjieslive pamphlet • Ueber drn nrnprnng 
der wirbrllhin-o.' lint, until it can bo dliowu 
that the vcrt^'brate month is a new fitrmalion, 
the existence of prc-oral gill-elefU liaidly mer- 
its diitr-nt'iion. I reserve for a later ]ka|ier the 
oonsideration of tlio orijrln of the veriebral* 
month, — a qnestion wbieh is llie turning- jM:iint 
of the <(oIiitii>n of all these ptub!i.'m«. 

Hfilfoor has sn^fgentv^l an explanation (>f Uie 
[dluiUry-boiIy. "It is." he eay^ <p. 3.^9), 
" clearly a rndiiuenlnry organ in existlnf»franl- 
at« vertebrates ; and Its development Indicntea, 
tiiat wliefi fiinctJQtiRl it waa iirubnldy a HOnne- 



186 



SCIENCE. 



JVoi,. It.. No.| 



organ opoiiing into the mniitli. or else a gkn- 
diilar organ opeiiuig intid iUc nioiilli." It »i>c-ii)a 
to me tLat tho facts of its cU'vt'lopmi'nt iu I'v- 
troiuyzon ncgiitive tliis li_v]X)tliesis, It is Uif-ro 
seen to have no (-onnrLtion with the ntoiutli ; 
nor is tliis morie of (ltvtio|init'ot so eiilirely 
cxcei>tional as it would tJt [list sceoi. Of hII 
known enilirvos of craniatf wrteltratcs, tUe 
lamprev lias perhaps the smallest f'nijn Slid 
the least cranial llexnre : wliicb stale of things 
allows space for a disiinit invnginalion txom 
without to reach the iuf^jmill-itliioi. ' "" 
Amphibia this is seen lu a less d^ 
invagination for the 
pitnitary body is 
formed before the 
appearance of the 



Sr«*. 




Fio. 4. — eoptlon lliro' 
lirnd of finliryo of 
lliiiiiMiiiilur ( nfli'T 
liillli')- Li'llrrn BB 
bi'foro. 




Pim. \ — ^'fntlim thru,.,.. 

yiiimit liiplpiilr.' iif Itotr r 

-UllIlT Uiitti-). U-LUTH ut bl'- 



month, and jnst above it; so tlint, whtn the 
moulh appears, the tw<i liiive nn njipnTeiit con- 
nerlion, being crowiieil Imgi'tlier liy the in- 
crc:ise(l eraiiial flcxnre. In oilier types — sni'li 
as the selachian, bird, tmiTninn!, ele- — Hie 
brain acquires a very great size in early eni- 
bryiinic stages, sind the cranial (Icxni'o is eon- 
seqnently very mucli inciensed. In those cases 
almost tlie only possible way for an oj)ibljistic 
invagination to reach the infundibiilnni is from 
the ei)ibl:ist of the month. If the reader will 
com|iare t