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h 



SCIENCE 



AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL 






PUBLISHED WEEKLY 



VOLUME XX 



JULY-DECEMBER 1892 



iL_ 



ATTENTION PATRON: 

This volume is too fragile for any future repair. 
Please handle with great care. 



iMCW I wivrv. 



N. D. C. HODGES 

1892 



INDEX TO VOLUME XX. 



Abbott, C. C, paleolithic man In North America, S70, 
844. 

Adulterants, 61. 

Af aasls Clab. 298. 

Age of metalB lo Sarope,960. 

Aldrlch, J. M., sease of direction, S68. 

Alffebrato notation, 859. 

Alley. R. J., modem synthetic geometry, S97. 

Alphabet, ancient Libyan, 80, 94, 105, 17B, 198, 868, 
890. 

Altakapas country, 878. 

Amblystoma tlgrlnam, 866. 

America, pre-Columbian migrations In, 886;<3erman 
oommemoratlve Tolnme on, 54. 

Amery, C. F., Instinct, 800. 

Ames, C. H., eleotrlo-llght action on plants, 891. 

Anatomists, society of, 841. 

Ancient Sgipt In the Light of Modem DlscoTorles, 
41. 

Animals, popular errors about wild, 155. 

Antarcilc exploration, 808. 

Anthropology at Chicago Exposition, 81; notes and 
queries on, 18. 

Antiquities of Yucatan, Tandallsm among, 865. 

Apgar's Trees of Northern United States, 167. 

Apteryx, Prof. Parker's studies on, 66. 
. Arabic geographical dictionary, 178. 

Archflsologlcal delusion, 876. 

Archnology li»80-189«. 867. 

Arohlppus, flight of, 891. 

Arcbliecture as an ethnic trait, 115. 

Argyll's Foundations of Hoclety, 81. 

Arlsuna cliff-dwellers, 889. 

Art-faculty, 90. 

Aryans, European origin of, 151, 165, 881; question, 
840. 

Asbmead, A. 8.. rice culture, 67; cremation of chol- 
era corpses, 188; cows' milk In Japan, 'ill; crema- 
tion of cholera corpses, 818; bert-berl, 881; leprosy, 
809. 

Asia minor, aborigines of, 80. 

Association agricultural colleges, 178; for the ad- 
Tancement of science, 61, 185; Rochester meeting 
of, 146; of weather services, 181. 

Atkinson, Q. F., botany at the experiment stations, 
8^8. 

Auld, R. C, The American horse, 185. 

Aurora, 65, 66, 178, 874; false, 818, 846. 

Auroras, «^«im thunderstorms, 281; photographs of , 
836; of 1898, 828. 

Axolc archa»an In Northern Michigan, 855. 

B 

Bailey, L. H., broader botany. 48. 

Bailey's Mental Arithmetic, 884. 

Baldwin, J. M.,TOlltlon In childhood, 886. 

Ball, v., lion breeding, 84. 

Barbour, B. H., rock swift. 885; Richardson's owl, 861. 

Bark-beetle destroyer, 856. 

Barnes, C. R., modern botany, 68. 

Barometric oscillations, 5. 

Barmcks, communal, 888. 

Baeques, 60. 

Basu, K., primitive fashions In India, 887. 

Bates, H. H., Star 1880, Oroombridge, 886. 

Bauer, L^ A., magnetic needle secular motion, 818. 

Bauxite, Alabama, 8 8. 

Bayard, A. F. C, Bngllsh climate, 5. 

Beauchamp, W. M., natural Implements, 805. 

Becher, F. A., psychology, 10. 

Beddard's Animal Coloration, U; Colors of Animals, 
808. 

Beddoe, J., primitive Russians, 814. 

Beetle, broods of elm- leaf, 16, 47, 91. 

Bell, A. G., teaching speech to deaf, 118. 

Bell, A. M., soundd of K, 816. 

Bendlre's Life Histories of North^merican Birds, 
178. 

Bereman, T. A., aurora, 66w 

Beri-beri, 881. 

Bernard's The Ai>oIld8B, 81. 

Bessey, C. B., monstrous poppy, 849; sense of direc- 
tion, 268. 

Bevan, D., foot deformity, 99. 

Bible, receutly found fragment of, 181. 

Bibliography, linguistic, 7. 

birch- tree as an ethnic laudmark, 806. 

Birds on nests, 99: near UanoTor. N. H., 86; acorn- 
eatlog, 133: Bngllsh sparrow and other, 184, 166; ef- 
fects of olYlltsatlon on, 188; diet of, fUl ; how to 
mount, 287; that sing In the night, 818, 848; rare, 
85'i. 

Birth-rate, 7. 

Black knot, 10; 188. 

Blackmar, P. W., Indian education, 147. 

Bllas, C. B., multiple ker. 860. 

Blood, color of human, 107. 

Blood- corpuscles, reticular structure of, 880. 

Bons, F., growth of children, 851. 

Bogus, B. JS., shrinkage of leaves. 168. 

BoUes, F., hectoring a hawk, 183; hnmmlng-blrds' 
food, 818. 



Bolley, H. L., potato scat, 855. 

Bone, aboriginal use of. In Vermont, 808. 

Bonney's Induction Colls, 884. 

Book-worm In New Tork, 111. 

Bossekop, 58. 

Boston sonool-boys, 874. 

Bostwlck, A. E., residual personality, 884. 

Botanical library, 841; explorations In Idaho, 811. 

Botany, a broader, 48; modem, 68; Industrial, 75; 

medical, 91; at the experiment stations, 888L 
Bowser's Trigonometry, 806. 
Boyle, D. 

Boys, Boston school, 874. 
Brain and skull correlations, 880. 
Brendel, E., ooleoptera, 106. 
Brlnton, D. G., ancient libyan alphabet, 105; Buro- 

Kan origin of Aryans, 165; ancient Libyan alpha- 
t, 194; Bthuscan ritual book, 818; Wrighrs Man 
and the Gladal Period, 849; Crania Ethnlca Ameri- 
cana, 878; ancient Libyan alphabet, 890. 
Broom-corn, 88. 

Bruner, H. L, humming-bird's food, 801. 
Burials, Mentone oaTO, 60. 
Burrill, T. J., hybridizing, 15. 



CaldweU, J. W., molecules and crystals, 88. 

Calkins, W. W., llchenology, 12 , 805. 

Call, B. E., science In schools, 1; chemistry of soils, 
89. 

Cambridge Natural History, 40. 

Campbell, J. T., aurora. 66; sense of direction, 818. 

Canadian archeology, 60. 

Carib tongue, 115. 

Carob bean, 41. 

Catamarca. antiquities of, 172. 

Caucasia. 19. 

Cave fauna of Kentucky, 840; dwellers of Arlxona, 
869. 

Celts and Kymri, 115. 

Ceratodus, 4. 

Ceylon agriculture, 89. 

Chad wick's Temperament, Disease and Health, 184. 

Chamt>er8'B*Bncyc1opa»dls, 18, 868. 

Chapln's Land of the Cllff-Dwellers, 888. 

Charlton, O. C, electricity on mountain, 177. 

Chemical spelling, 847; nomenclature, 278, 891; 
science, 187. 

Chemistry as basis of agriculture, 191. 

Chief Mountain Lake, 85. 

Child, locallBatlon In a, 861. 

Childhood, origin r f volition In, 886. 

Children, growth of, 851. 

Cholera corpses, cremation of, 182, 818; prevention 
of, 170, 193; add prevention of, 11(1. 

Chronology, 818. 

Church's Notes and Examples in Mechanics, 188. 

Civilisation as Influenced by race, 885. 

Clark, J. E, gynandrous flower hi»ad, 807. 

Clevenger, 8. v., trait of Jews. 106; celestial photo- 
micrography, 185; the brutal dove, 184; acid pre- 
vention of cholera, 151; brain and skull, 880; sleep, 
877. 

Clocks,anclent Japanese. 865; Turkish, 816. 

Clute, W. N., humming-bird's food, 888. 

Codling-moth In Oregon, 891. 

Cohesion, 48. 

Coleoptera, migration of, 105. 

Collas, 857. 

Collins, J. v., algebraic notation, 850. 

ColUns's International Date Line, 881. 

Comstock, T. B , wild animals, 155. 

Conclusions, uncertainty of, 80. 

Congress for experimental psychology, 88; of crim- 
inal anthropology, 885; of experimental psycho* 
logy, 888; mtteorologlcal, 841. 

Conn, H. W., Brooklyn Institute Summer School, 
157; Isolation of rennet, 858. 

Connecticut Board of Health Report^SOS. 

Conway's Works of Thomas Paine, 187. 

Com tamels, 97. 

Cornell University, 18. 

Coplln, W. M. L., foot deformity, 99. 

Coptic, linguistic affinities of ancient, 885. 

Cotton- seed meal, 267. 

Coues, B., nomenclature, 880. 

Coulter, J. M., botanical nomenclature, 146w 

Cousins, J. J., weights and measures In England, 
898. 

CovlUe, F. T., flora of Death Valley. 848. 

Cowell, I. C, latest glacial epoch, 808. 

Cows' milk, absence of, from Japan, 811. 

Cox, A. 0., how to mount birds, 827. 

Crane, A., ancient Mexican heraldry, 174, 861. 

Crayfish attacked by leeches, 280, 

CreseoD, H. T., graphic system of Mavas, 85; Maya 
day-signs 77; Maya graphic system, 101; pala»ollthlc 
man In Delaware valley, 805. 

Cretaoous xwlysoa, 887. 

Criminal anthropology congress, 885. 

Crlnold Heterocrlnas subcrassus. 66. 

Crocker's Dynamos and Motors, 868. 

Crops, fungous and insect enemies of, 88. 

Cross fertUlBlng and hybridising, 18. 



Cummins, D. H., Texas grpsum, 858. 
Cummins, W. F., sense of direction, 858. 
Cuneiform Ublet at Tel Hesy, 146. 
Currents, ocean, 19. 
Cyprus, Ohnef alsch-Rlchter*8 work in, 866. 



Dall, W. H. . Grand Gulf formation. 164, 819. 

Davis, W. M.j profile of bad-land divides, 946. 

Davis's Algebra, 298. 

Deaf, progress in teaching speech to, 118. 

Death Valley flora, 842. 

Decimal Association, 47. 

Deer, flathead, 87. 

Dennis, W., watching a snake, 888. 

Derby, O. A., Santa Catharina Meteorite, 854. 

Diamonds in meteorites, 15. 

Dictionary ef Medldne, 81. 

Diseases, Immunity from, 856; Infectious, I 

Dixon, E. T., hypotheses In dynamics, lA. 

Dixon's Migration of Birds, 89. 

Dobbin and Walker's Chemical Theory, 880. 

Dog, lealousy of a, 805. 

Doran, E. W., phylogeny of mOle cricket, 814. 

Dorsey, J. O., Maltunne Tunne measures, 194; 

ha arrow measures, 194. 
Douglass, A. E, rain In Peru, 881. 
Dove, the bratal, 184. 
Duck Islands, 184. 

Dumble. E. T^ flight of archlppus, 291. 
Dyche, D. T. D., Heterocrlnus subcrassus, 66. 
Dynamics, fundamsntal hypotheses of, 71, 182, 149, 

160, 268. 

E 

EameSjR., growth of gold, 850. 

Barle, Charles, variability of spectflc characters,?. 

Educational, standards In professional, 98. 

EdwanLs's Coals and Cokes In West Virginia, 878. 

Eells, M., twins among Indians, 198. 

Bgypt, Fllnders-Petries work lu, 867. 

Egyptian and Semitic languages, 181. 

Eigenmann, C. H., PerojpldaB on Padflc slope, 888. 

El Gran Chaoo, 832. 

Electric pbenomena on mountain, 177; light, action 

of. on plants, 891; phenomena on mountaina, 818, 

860. 

Ellis, W., temperature at Greenwich, 6. 
Elrod, M. J., reflex action in turtles, 868. 
Elton's Career of Columbia, 178. 
Emery, F. E.. soil moisture, 8i. 
Engel, H., Infectious diseases, 885. 
Bngllsh climate, 5. 
Ensilage, 47. 

Entomological types, 844. 
Eskimos, 840. 

Ethnic osteology, failure ln« 148. 
Ethnography, meaning of, 9 ). 
Ethnology as philosophy, 60. 
Etruscan ritual book, 178, 818. 
Evolution, laws of human, 88 J. 
Exhibition, geographical, 19.i 
Byes of Insects, 814. 



Face, study of the, 7. 

Famsworth, P. J., Great Lake basins, 74. 

Feeling, Introspective study of, 808. 

Femaid, H. T., crayflsh attacked by leeches, 880. 

Ferree, Barr, architecture as an ethnic trait, 116. 

Ferree's Comparative Architecture, 861. 

Fessenden, R. A., cohesion, 48. 

Figurines of stone age, 800. 

Finns, the, 178. 

Flora of Death Valley, 848. 

Flower farming, 4. 

Flower-head, gynandrous, 807. 

Flower's The Uorse, 287. 

Fog like lake. 187. 

Food exhibition, 18, 201; vegetable acids in, 889. 

Foot deformity from shoes, 99. 

Forel's Le L6man, 855. 

Forest tree Scolytld, 64. 

Forests of New Hampshire, 840. 

Formosa, 47. 

Foster's Physiology, 68. 

Freeman's History of Sicily, 81. 

French, G. H., nomenclature, 151. 

Fu-sang, 148. 



Gage's Microscope and Histology, 89. 
Galton, F., Boston school- boys, 874. 
Galvanometer, ballistic, 361. 
Gardiner, J., Tbomson*s ZoOlogy, 882. 
Garman, H., cave fauna of Kentucky, 840. 
Garman S., reptilian rattle, 16. 
tilaruer's Speech of Monkeys, 881. 
Gay Head. 176. 838, 373 
Geographical names, 186. 



Vol. XX.] 



INDEX. 



[July.-December, 1892 



Q«01oclcal expedition of Untyeralty of Nebraska, 47; 

dddety of America, 8<1; surrey of Indiana report, 

821; survey of New Jersey, 67; of Mlasourl, 855. 
Geometry, modem syntbetlc, 297; non-Sadidean, 

870. 
Gerland** Atlaa of Btbnography, 208. 
German association of science, 1' 8. 
Glbbs, M., aoorn-^attng birds, 188; bird on neat, M; 

birds tbat sine In tbe night, 818; effects of dTfliaa- 

tioo on birds, 188; bummioff-blrds' food, 289. 
Giflord, J., Altakapas oooniry. 872 ; introduotion of 

foreign spedea, 804; yeasts, 249. 
Gila monster, 819. 
01 relation in Montana, 162. 
Gladal epoch, date of latest, 802; theories, 860. ' 
Glycerine, iolld, 268, 278. 
Onat-Mtea, 215. 
Gold, growth of. 260. 

Gore^ Geodney, 875; Visible UnlTsrse, 888. 
Grand Onlf formation, 151, 164, 247, 819. 
Giape leaves, 88. 
Great Lake baalna, 74. 
Green Mountains' anticlinal, 8^ 
Grinnell, O. B., Chief Mountain Lake, 86. 
Grippe, 168. 
GrifWoid's Whetstones and Noraonlltes of Arkansas, 

107. 
Gypanm, Texas, 858. 

H 

Hainan, 19. 

Hair, study of, 860. 

Hall, J. N., sense of direction, 118. 

Ball, J. P., photographs of auroras, 286. 

Hamilton. H., preTontion of cholera, 170, 198. 

Haon, J., oarometrlc oscillations, 5. 

Hardiog, L. A., forensic microscopy, 212. 

Hargltt, C. W., Amphluma means, 159. 

Bari8se*S Discovery of North America, 89. 

Harvey, case hardening, 75. 

Hatch's Mineralogy, 187. 

Hatch, P. L., f tltte aurora, 818. 

Hawk, hectoring a, 12& 

Hay, O. P., biological papers. 248. 

Haaen, H. A., Moon and rainfall, 810; electric pheno- 
mena on mountains, 869. 

Heath, A., collas, 257 

Hemlptera, etc., 62. 

Hempers Gaa Analysis, 293. 

Henderson, C. B., woman's work for wages, 190. 

Heraldry, ancient Mexican, 174, 261. 

Heredity, 19\ 

Bloen'B Metal Coloring, 868. 

Him, monument to, 18. 

Hitchcock, A. 8., botanical library, 241. 

Hitchcock, C. H., Qreen Mountains' anticlinal, 8S8. 

Hitchcock, B , photographic laboratory, 160; pre-Aino 
race In Japan, 168. 

Hobbs, W. H., hornblende and auglte, 864. 

Hodge, F. Webb, Journal of American Bthnology, 
15«. 

Holf mannas Sloyd System of Wood-Working, 868. 

Holbrook, M. L., human blood, 1<'7; la grippe, 15)S. 

Holbrook s Treatment of Consumption, 264. 

Holder's Florida Beef, 216. 

Holmes, W. H., quarry refuse, 205. 

Hopkins, A. D., forest-tree Scolytld, 64. 

Hornblende and auglte, 854. 

Horse, intelligence of a, 188; American 186, 188; feed- 
ing of, 4. 

Hoskii s, L. M., hypotheses of dynamics, 128L 

Houston, B. J., weather in Mars, 86. 

Howe, J. L.^ extinction of mulatto, 875. 

Budson*s Naturalist In La Plata, 186. 

Human remains discovered near Mentone, 170. 

Humming-birds' food, 289, 291, 818, 888. 

Unnter-Duvar's Stone, Brouse, and Iron Ages, 89. 

Buntington, O. W., diamonds In meteorites, 1ft. 

Hussey. W. J., lines on Mars, 286. 

Hyatt, J., aurora. 874. 

Hybridism exemplified In the genus cdaptes, 826. 



Ice, impurity of, 141. 

India, primitive fashions In, 867. 

Indian numerals, 9; types of beauty, 11& 

Indiana, census of, 81. 

Influcnsa, 1(>8. 

Ink stains, 846. 

Implements, natural, 805. 

Instinct, 800. 

Intelligence of lower orders, 845. 

Introduction of torelgn species, 804. 

Inventors' academy of Paris, 186. 

Irrigation reports, 846. 

J 

Jackals, 88. 

Jackman's Nature Study, 898. 

James J. F., geological survey of New Jersey, 67 ; 
wheat rust snd smut, 98; Merrill's G^eognoey, 94; 
bird reporis, 178; destroying mosquitoes, 2i7; irri- 
gation reports, 846: agricultural reports, 861. 

Jamee*8 Alaskana, 292. 

Jsmleson's Applied Mechanics. 875. 

Japan, pre-Alno race In, 148, 168. 

Jealousy in Infants, 248; of a dog, 806. 

Jews, a trait of. 106. 

Johnson, L. C, Grand Gulf formation, 161, 247. 

Jonee, M. B., gila monster, 819. 

Jonee, B. W., rattlesniike, 277. 

Jordan, D. S., Hopklon seaside laboratory, 78. 

Journal of American Ethnology, 162. 



Kangaroo In America, 82. 

Kansas Academy of Science, 260. 

Keane, A. H., ancient Libyan alphabet, 178, 282. 



Keely's In Arctic Seas, 178. 1 

Kempton, G. W., Mars, 152; meteoric shower, 888; 

snake eats snake, 107. 
Kent, W., Bochester Meeting, A. A. A. 8., 185. 
Key, a multiple, 860. 
King, F. H., ensilage, 47. 
King, T. G., an archsBOloglcal delusion, 275. 
Klrby, W. F., entomological types, 244; Satumiidn, 

246. 
Kirby's Bntomology, 194. 

Laboratory, Hopkins seaside, 77; teaching, 68, 207; of 

plant diseases, 868. 
Lmng's Human Origins, 109. 
Lamentable case, 291. 
Land, our waste, 827. 
Lane, A. C, optical angle and angular aperture, 

864. 
Langley*s Bnergy and Vision, 802. 
Language, universal, 882. 
Languages, bibliography of American, 840; central 

American, 172. 
Larkin, B, L., Mars, 17; aurora, 65; meteoric shower, 

848. 
Leaves, shrinkage of, 168. 
Left- handedness, 60. 
Leland's Btruscan-Boman Bemains in Popular Tra- 

dltfon.884. 
Lepel, v., oxidation of nitrogen, 88. 
Leprosy, Immunity from, 809. 
Leverett, Frank, ice-sheet la Ohio, 108. 
Lewis, B. T., eyes of Insects, 814. 
Lewis and Clarke's Expedition over the Bocky 

Mountains, 178. 
Librsry of Prof. L. Just, 12l 
Lichenoiogy, 180, 2()5. 
Light rays of small wave* length, 216. 
Llgurians, Iberians, and SicuU, 90. 
Llnebarger, C. B., solutions. 862. 
Llnguisncs as a physical science, 206. 
Lion breeding, 84. 
Llveing, G. D., liquid oxygen, 169. 
Lobsters for New Zealand, 841. 
Lock's Mechanics for Beginners, 189. 
Loew, P., immunity from disease. 866. 
Lupton, A^ spontaneous combustion in mines, 299. 
Luschan, F. von, aborigines of Asia Minor, 81. 
Lydekker's Phases of Animal Life, 95. 



Mabery, C. F., laboratory teaching, 207. 

McCalley, Alabama bauxite, 808. 

McCalUe, 8. W., mastodon in Teonessee, 888. 

McCarthy, O., weeds, 88. 

MacDonald. A., 82; congress of psychology, 288. * 

MacDougali, D. T., botanical explorations in Idaho, 

811. 
McFarland, B. W., chronology, 218. 
McGee, W. J., man and the glacial period, 817. 
MacGregor, J. Q., dynamics, 71, 150, 282. 
McLean^ Indians of Canada, 110. 
MacBltchle, D., a Plot's house, 48. 
Magnetic circuit, 258; needle, secular motion of a, 

218. 
Magnus's Elementary Mechanics, 87S. 
Male and female, anatomical criterion for, 178. 
Malley, A. C, retlculatiMl protoplasm, 261. 
Mammoth In Siberia, 201. 
Mao and the glacial period, 275, 817, 860, 270, 295, 804, 

844; primitive history of, 90; primitive, in South 

America, 147. 
Mars, 152; lines on, 177, 282, 285; opposition of, 17; 

weather in, 86. 
Martin, D. S., A. A. A. S. meeting, 146. 
Mason, W. P.. laboratory teaching, 58; weights and 

measures, 868. 
Mastodon in Tennessee, 888^ 
Mather, F., sense of direction, 94& 
Maya chronology. 80: day* signs, 77; graphic system, 

25, 101, 121, 197, 4t; language, study of, 6w 
Maxwell, C. P., satellite of Moon, 66. 
Mechanical Engineering Teachers' Association, 82. 
Medical Association, Miss. Valley, & 
Meehan, T., deistogamy in pansy, 107; black knot, 

1^8. 
MendenhaU, T, C, uncertainty of conclusions, 20. 
Mengel, L. W., Duck Islands, 184. 
Merrill. G. P., box for microscope slides, 296. 
Merrill's Geognosy. 94. 
Merriman, M., Moon and rainfall, 810. 
Merriman's (Geodetic Surveying, 875. 
Men's Influenaa, 12B. 
Meteor, brilliant, 846. 
Meteoric shower, 888, 846. 
Meteorite, is Sao Francisco do Sul iron a, 264. 
Meyer's Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry, 108. 
Mice in Thessaly, 104. 
Mlchener, C, botanic trinomial, 245. 
Mlcbigan Minlog School, 145, 284. 
Microscope slides, box for, 296. 
Microscopy, forensic, 242. 
Migrations in America, pre-Columbian, 285. 
Milk, aeration of 166. 

Miller, Q. A., non-gudldean geometry, 870. 
Mlllspaugh, C. F., weeds, 61; medical botany, 91. 
Milne's Standard Arithmetic. 298. 
Minee, spontaneous combustion in, 299. 
Mining statistics, 836. 
Mississippi Biver, 814. 
Mole cricket, phylogeny of, 214. 
Molecules and crystals, 88. 
MoUufca, Ward's collection of, 869. 
Mont Blanc observatory, 5. 
Montgomery, H., science in schools, 142. 



Montmahon and Beauregard's Zoology, 820. 

Moon satellite, 66. 

Moorehead's Primitive Man in Ohio, 195. 

Morris's Physical Education, 265. 

Morse, E. S., 19; rooflng^es, 115; a pre-Aino race la 

Japan, 148. 
Mosquitoes killed by kerosene, 247. 
Mother and Child, 827. 
Moimd, Serpent, 275. 
Mounds, builders of southern, 261. 
Mouie, pocket, 857. 
Mulatto, extinction of, 876. 

N 

Nadaillao, Marquis de, discoveries near Mentone, 
170. 

Nadaillac's Manners and Monuments of Prehistoric 
Peoples, 291. 

Nahnatl language, 31 

Naitunne Tunne measures. 194. 

National museum publications, 106. 

Nervous diseases in low races, 889, 878. 

New York Academy of Sdenoe, biological sectlott«. 
267. 

New Zealand, biological notes from, 828. 

Niedllnger, C, animal phosphoresoenoe, 207. 

Nitrogen, oxidation of, 88. 

Nomenclature, 164, 219, 245, 268; in botany, 146; priori- 
ty, 116: question, 151. 

Norton, T. H., chemical nomenclature, 872, 291. 

Numerals, Indian. 9. 

Nutting, C. C, Beddard's Colors of Animals, 208. 



Oil on troubled waters, 47. 

Omaha arrow measures, 194. 

Optical angle and angular aperture, 854. 

Oriental Beriew, 877; subjects, need of instruction 

in, 859. 
Orientation of primitive structures, 6. 
Oralthologtots' Union, 248. 
Osborn, H. L., Amblystoma trigrinum, 866. 
Osteologlcal notee, 46. 
Owl, Bichardson's, in Nebraska, 861. 
Oxygen, liquid, 169. 



Palenque tablet, 88, 80. 

Palestine, 75. 

Palmer, C. B., Florida pitcher plant, 171. 

Pansy, deistogamy in, 107. 

Parker, W. T., misuse of quinine, 165. 

Pa*ker, H. W., linee of Mars, 28<. 

Parker's Elementary Biology, 81. 

Patterson, H. J., vegetable acids in food, 229. 

Peal, S. E., communal barracks, S28. 

Peddie's Physics, 878. 

Peirce's Critic of Arguments, 178. 

PeroopidsB on Pacific slope, 288. 

Perkins, G. H., aboriginal use of bone in Vermont,. 
20-^ 

PerdanrEngUsh Dictionary, 82. 

Personality, residual, 284. 

Peru, rain In southern, 281. 

Perurian languages, 6. 

Petroleum in Caucasus, 146. 

Phosphorescence, animal, 207. 

Photographic laboratory, 160. 

Photomicrography, celestial, 185. 

Pickering, K C, large southern telescope, 19& 

Plots' houses, 48. 

Pictures for projection. 818. 

Pile-structure, an aboriginal, 91. 

Pilling, J. C, lioguistic bibliographies, 7. 

PiUlog^s bibliographies, 84a 

Pilsbury, H. A., Ward's collection of mdiusca, 869. 

Plant. Florida pitcher, 171; disease reporis, 861. 

Plants of Michigan, 88. 

Piatt, C, impurity of ice, 141; solid glycerine, 228^ 

Plumb, C. S., aeration of milk, 166. 

Political science school, 201. 

Polynesian sodety, 88; ethnology, 840. 

Pope's Electric Telegraph, 866. 

Poppy, monstrous, 249. 

Posse's School Gymnastios, 209. 

Post, A. H., ethnology, 60. 

Potato scab, 865. 

Presoott. A. B., chemical sdence, 127. 

Prise, Alvarenga, 818. 

Profile, convex, of bad-land dirides, 245t 

Prosopology, 7. 

Protoplasm, reticulated, 161, 261, 874. 

Psychological assodatlon, 104; congress, 288; labora- 
tory at Tale, 894. 

Psychology, plea for study of, 10. 

Punishment, origin of, 288. 



toarry>re]ects, 260. 

)uestlon8 and Answers in Electridty, 868. 

[uinlne, popular misuse of, 165. 



R, sounds of, 217. 

Race and culture, 147. 

Rainfall and Moon, 810. 

Rattle, reptilian, 16. 

Battlesnake, 977; in captirity, 845. 

Baymond's Atmospheric Pressure, 821. 

Bedding, T. B.. intelligence of a horse, 188. 

Bonnet, Isolation of, 251 

Besplratory movements, action of drugs on, 316» 



Vol. XX] 



INDEX. 



[July.-December, 1892 



Rtaoads. 8. N., hybridism Id oolaptos, 335. 
Rice culture from a hygienic polut of ^lew, 57. 
Ridgway, R., birds that slog at nlgbt, 848. 
Rldgway'B Humming Birds, 178. 
Riley, G. V., broods of elm-leaf beetle, 16. 
Rl vista dl patologia Tegetale, 4d. 
Rockwell, A. D., nervous diseases, 878. 
Romanee^s Darwin and alter Darwin, 109. 
Rooflug tile ,115. 

Roihrock. J. T., our waste land, 827. 
Rowlee, W. W., germination of seeds, 189. 
Ruflner, W. H., Euglish rparrow, 165. 
Ruseeirs Bleotrlc light Cables, 883. 
Russian surreys, 61. 
Russians, primitlTS, 244. 

S 

St. Gerrats disaster, 89. 

Salamander, a, 866. 

Salt In sea- water, :iS8. 

Ssmpeon, F. A., English sparrow, 80. 

Sanborn, J. W., feeding horses, 4; spiders' food, 844. 

SaturnlldBB. 246. 

Saviile, M. H., Tandallsm among antiquities, 865. 

Scents S3S 

ScbAfer's Essentials of Histology, 89. 

Scbaufuss, C. F., Clerus fnrmlcarius L., 256. 

Schlegel, O., Fu-Sang, 148. 

School, Summer, of Brooklyn Institute, 167; science 
in bigb, 1; proposed cbaoges In studies in, 341. 

Schumann, v., light of smalt wave length, 216. 

Science in high schools, 1; in schools, 14S; teachers 
from Michigan normal school, 185. 

Scientific Roll, 349. 

Sclavlc skullf , 285. 

Scott's Chemical Theory, SSI. 

Scripture, B. W., localization in a child, 861; ballistic 
gslvanometer, 361. 

Seeds, facilitated germination of, 189. 

Seeley, F. A., Turkish time-pieces, 316. 

Seler, B., Palenque tablet, 38; Maya chronology, 80; 
Maya graphic system, 121. 

Sense of direction, 113, 207. 248. 262, 291. 818, 3'«. 

Sexton's Deafness and Dlticharge of the Bar, 109. 

Shufeldt, R. W., Beddatd's Animal Coloration, 11; 
apteryz, 66: National Museum publications, 106; In- 
dian tyyes of beauty, 115; vernacular name of the 
genus harporhynchus, 883. 

Shutt. F. T , agricultural obemlstry, 191. 

Skeel, F. D., Japanese clocks, 866. 

Skulls, shape of Sclavlc, 285. 

Blade, D. D., oeteologlcal notes, 46. 

Slater, J. W., scents, 283. 

Slater, W.. diet < f birds, 221. 

Slavic archeology, 8 6. 

Sleep, preliminary note on, 877. 

Smelling, science of, 215. 

Smith, C. C, solid glycerine, 268. 

Smith J. B., elm-leaf beetle, 92. 

Smith and Reliar's Experiments In General Chem- 
istry, 292. 

Smith's (Geology of Alabama, 877. 

Smitbsonian Institution Report. 165. 

Snake eats snake, 107; Congo, 150; bite, 255; watching 
a. 888, 

Snelt, M. S., oriental subjects, 869. 

Soil moisture, 81. 

Soils, cbemlsry of, 29. 

Solutions, 852. 

■Sonthwick, E. B , local hemlptera, 68. 



Sparrow, English, 79. 

Species, introduction of foreign, 804. 

Spencer, B, oeratodus, 4. 

Spiders' food, 844. 

Spon's Tables for Engineers, 862. 

Stanley, H. M., tornado whirls, 184; feeling, 208; 
markings of Mars, 285. 

Star 1880 Qroombridge, 286. 

Starry realms, 11. 

Stars, real motions of, 192. 

Stature from length of long bones, 206. 

Steinen, K. von den, Carib tongue, 115. 

Stelnmets, C. P., magnetic circuit, 258. 

Stephens, F., pocket mouse, 851. 

Stevenson, A. Jealousy In infants, 848. 

Stevenson, 8. T., arobs^ology, 1880-1892, 287. 

Stlne, W. M , aurora, 178. 

Stokes, A. C. reticulated protoplasm, 161; blood-cor- 
puscles, 380; protoplasm, 374. 

Btone, G. H., electric phenomena on Mountains, 818. 

Strode, J. B., heredity, 190. 

Strong, B. A., science teachers, 185. 

Samero- Akkadian question, 75. 

Swallow, C. W., rare birds, 9^. 

Swan, R. M., Zimbabwe, 6. 

Swift, L.,.aurur8B of, 1892. 823. 

Swift, black-throated rock, 2.35. 

Byrne's Modication of Organisms, 81. 



Taussig's Tariff History, 178. 

Taylor, I., origin of Aryans, 151; Buropean origin of ' 

Aryans, 221; letter T, 30O. 
Telephone, long-distance, 229. 
Telesc 'pe, large southern, 193. 
Temperature at Greenwich, 5. 
Thomas, C, Maya hieroglyphics, 44; Palenque 

tablet, 80. 
Thompson, A. H., the face. 7. 
Thomson, G. M., biological notes from New Zea- 

land, 828. 
Thomson's Outlines of ZoSlogy, 222. 
Thome's Diphtheria, 66. 
Thrasher or Thresher, 333. 
Tillman's Lessons in Hear, 189. 
Toads, blood from eyee of, 243. 
Todas, the. 5. 

Tompkins's Woodworker's Manual, 377. 
Tooth culture, 55. 

Toplnard, Prof., Celts and Kymrl, 115. 
Tornado-whirls In clouds, 124. 
Tourney, J. W., cliff-dwellers In Arizona, 269. 
Townsend, C. U. T., nomenclature, 164. 
Tree-line in Europe, 19. 
Trouessart, E. L., American horse, 188. 
Trowbridge, W. P., 102. 
Tucker, W. G., purification of water, 84. 
Tupaia javanensis, 5. 
Turner, C. H., grape leaves, 89. 
Turtles, reflex action in, 868. 
Twins among Indians, 192. 



U 



Uhler, P. R., Gay Head, 176; 878. 
Underwood, L. M., nomenclature, 116. 
University extension monographs, 89. 



Vandalism among antiquities of Yucatan, 865. 

Van Deman, H. B., sense of direction, 291. 

Vans, ancient, 212. 

Varlabilitv of specific charaotem, 7. 

Vasey's grasses of the Pacific Slope, 861. 

Yeq^er, M. A., auroras and thunder storms, 221, 

Tertty^B Electricity up to Date, 885. 

Vine, G. R., cretaceous polysoa. 8^7. 

Vlrchow's Crania Ethnica Americana, 278. 

Vocabularies, comparative; 147. 

Volition in childhood, 286. 

W 

Wadsworth, M. E., azoic arch»an in northern Mich- 
igan, 365. 

Warring, C. B.. Mars, 177. 

Washburn, F. L., ooddling-moth in Oregon, 291. 

Wasp study, 230. 

Water, chemical purification of, 34. 

Weed, C. M., birds at Hanover, 86. 

Weeds, American, 88: list of, 61. 

Weed's Spraying Crops, 69. 

Weights and measuree, confusion in, 858; in Eng- 
land, 298. 

Weismann's Essays on Heredity, 109. 

Well, breathing, i^. 

Wheat rust and smut, 93; In Indiana, 159. 

White. D., Gay Head, 882. 

Whlteley's Chemical Calculations. 138. 

Whiting, H. L., Mississippi River, 3l4. 

Whlton, A. M., ink stains, 846. 

Wlllard, J. T., a breathing well, 837. 

Williams, J. B , rattlesnake, 845. 

Williams, W. MMBalt in sea^water, 258. 

Williamson, A. w., motions of stars, 192. 

Williams's Geological Map of Baltimore, 855. 

Williams's History of Modem Education, 125. 

Williams's Sysrems of Ethics, 835. 

Wllllston, S. W., nomenclature, 263. 

Wilson, B. F., Indian numerals, 9. 

Wilson, Sir D.. left-bandedness, 60. 

Wilson's The Lost Atlantis, 265. 

Windt's Siberia as It Is, 81. 

Woman's work for wages, 190. 

Wood, De v., science of smelling, 215. 

Wood, H. C, action of drugs on retplratory move- 
ments, 8 6. 

Wood. H. R., glaclatlon in Montana, 162. 

Woodpeckers, American, 885. 

Wood^ Light. 188. 

Wood worth, C. W., laboratory of plant diseases, 866. 

Wooster, W. H., snake-bite, 255. 

Work, H., Sense of direction, 207. 

Wright, Q. F., man and the glacial period, 275; gla- 
cial theories, 860. 

Wright, J. McN., a wasp study, 220. 

WrlghVs Man and the Glacial Period, 249. 

Wright's Nature Readers, 67. 



T, pedigree of letter, 800. 
Tear-book of edentiflo sodetiea, 54. 
Yeasts In North American Review, 249. 
Yellow fever among Negroes, 88. 



Zimbabwe ruins, 6. 



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Natural Science in the High School 

Course. R. Ellsworth Call 1 

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Notes and News 4 

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AS Exhibited by the Extinct 
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Black Knot 10 

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A Plea for the Study of Psycholoijy. 
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Ball-Lightning. M, A. Veeder 11 

Book Reviews. 

Animal Coloration. R, W, Shufeldt. 11 

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NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE. 

BY R. KXdWORTH CALL: 

Thgre is needed no argument lo denoonstrale the necessity 
of training in science. It will be assumed that such trainiag 
is recognized as essential, and that its attainment can in no 
manner now be dropped from the curricula of the high 
schools. It is proposed, therefore, to briefly discuss the theme 
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Requirements. 

Comparative Educational Value. 

It appears to be a difficult matter to discuss this feature of 
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one's own training or one's taste. Something^ must be con- 
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especially so when demanded on the basis of culture value. 
Rather, then, than on individual opinion must estimation 
of comparative value be based on culture results. But what 
coDBtittites culture ? Is it ability to master in ordinary array 
numerous facts, devise and defend delightful theories, dis- 
play extended and intimate acquaintance with art, history, 
or song ? Is tt held to consist in deep research into lifeless 
tongues, effete philosophies, degenerate religions?' Shall it 
rest in useful citizenship, productive thought, inventive 
genius, polished rhetoric, political leadership? These one 
and all enter into the various conceptions of culture, and 
these all demand a hearing. Shall they be heard ? And 
how ? 

I take it that the prime factor in any educational system 
lies in its power to discipline. The numerous facts which 
the young person gains during the brief period of four years 
in the beet high schools represent but a very small portion 
of the sum that marks human attainment. Not the facts, 
nor their class alone, give the chief feature that is valuable 
in school life. The collation of facts from observation, their 
orderly and systematic arrangement, their intelligent dis- 
cussion, their applicability to the circumstances of the indi- 
vidual by way of amelioration, their power to draw out and 
direct the best side of the mind, this is discipline. But is not 
this also applied science ? Of such discipline the self is the 
end. It is not culture for a vocation, for professional train- 
ing, nor is it culture for an end. It is discipline as a 
means. 

It will be conceded, I presume, that all kinds of culture 
have not an equally important bearing on every line of ac- 
tirity in life; there is, or should be, occasion for discrimina- 
tion and choice. Culture, or, if one please, discipfine, ought 
to conform to this natural principle of selection. As a mat- 
ter of fact and of experience it is found that a student usually 
accomplishes but little till a definite and settled purpose 
presides over his movements, or over his intellectual tenden- 
cies^ The energies of youth are limited, naturally. To save 
from waste time, which has to a yoang man quite as much 



value ks effort, practical definiteness should be given to 
scholastic education. To this end, 1 believe, that selection, 
of those practical or professional activities, which alone have 
been deetned most effective in conserving, importing, and 
transmitting the civilization of any age, should be singled 
out for school Work. In this elective sense, and in this sense 
alone, every age has taught wlaat it knew and taught all it 
knew. In former days the physical sciences were not taught 
because they were not known; they are taught now because 
they are known. A proper interpretation of the historic 
facts, therefore, assigns to the physical sciences, in their phe- 
nomenal and empirical aspects, a place in the foreground. 

As a means of purely mental training I am disposed to 
accord the fiifst place to physical science. There is involved 
more than a suggestion of mathematics, more than mere 
ability to frame correct sentences, more than memoriter ex- 
ercises respecting isolated facts. Physical science means, if 
it moan aught, extended application of mathematical data 
and methods, statement of facts in other than sentential re- 
lations, the discovery -^ whether for the first time it matters 
not— ^of underlying laws. This is culture of the very broad- 
est nature; this means ability to generalise; this constitutes 
the first stage in a successful intellectual career. I do not 
believe that one who is abundantly able to develop Sturm's 
Theorem, trace all the wanderings of the heroes of the 
Odyssey or the ^neid, outline' the journeys of Paul in Asia 
Minor, or discover meanings in the *' Taming of the Shrew," 
of which its great author never dreamed, can compete in in- 
tellectual vigor with the lad able to determine the constitu- 
tion of a compound substance, decide correctly the affinities 
of a noxious, stranger plant, or to read facts older than the 
pyramid of Cheops in a scratched pebble found at the school- 
house door. The one reads fictions long bereft of true edu- 
cational value; the other deals with the facts of our daily 
lives. The one lives and thinks with an ancient, stranger 
people; the other breathes an atmosphere of intellectual ac- 
tivity and intellectual endeavor. The one deals with sym- 
bols — with words as various in significance as are different 
the minds that use them; the other with laws, unchanging, 
necessary, logical. The one taught by novelists, dramatists, 
and poets whose function it is to create imaginary worlds, 
dwells in an ideal world constructed to suit himself; the 
other lives in the midst of things of practical accomplish- 
ment. It seems to me, therefore, that this difference in the 
mental aptitudes of students ti*ained side by side, one trained 
in science, the other in a literature in which even the mas- 
terpieces of scientific writing find no place, will stand equally 
well for the probable values of their influence in after years 
in determining the current of events. 

I would have, then, a still more extended pursuit of physi- 
cal science in the high school. By this it is not meant that 
the additional work be in the line of new subjects, but that 
the time now devoted to heUes UttreB and ancient languages 
be curtailed; that the time thus gained be given, not to new 
subjects, but to the more extended prosecution of the few. 
The point sought to be enforced is that two or three subjects 
in science, involving observation, technic, and reflection, as 
botany or physics, zoology or chemistry, be prosecuted for 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 491 



very much longer periods. The busiDess of the high school 
is to train, to develop, to direct, not to give encyclopsBdic 
information nor to render the student an intellectual automa- 
ton. Its great aim is to awaken thought^ not as an end but 
as a means. Divorce such awakening from the rhetoric of 
pure philosophy, from the generalities of literature, from 
the dicta of questionable schemes. Join it to the exact 
methods involved in scientific research — whether original 
or in the lines laid down by another matters little; wed it to 
demonstration of natural law — whether before known is 
unimportant; weld it indissolubly to those mental processes 
v^hich involve the most intelligent ratiocination, and the 
high school curriculum has attained its maximum educa- 
tional value. But this assumes increased attention to and 
prosecution of pure science, and in this, we believe, lies the 
best and greatest educational power. 

Practical Character of the loformation Gained. 

Ten years ago, the English physicist, Professor Sylvan us P. 
Thompson, wrote the following: *' And ought we, then, to be 
surprised if, in pursuance of the system we have deliberately 
marked out for the rising generation, we keep our future 
artisans, till they are fifteen or sixteen, employed at no other 
work than sitting at a desk to follow, pen in hand, the liter- 
ary course of studies of our educational code, we discover 
that, on arriving at that age, they have lost the taste for 
manual work, and prefer to starve on a threadbare pittance 
as clerks or bookkeep^^rs rather than gain a livelihood by the 
less exacting and more remunerative labor of their bands ?^' 
True it is that this remark was volunteered in defense of a 
proposed scheme for technical training' — a scheme, the ne- 
cessity of which is self-evident even in this country, as is 
witnessed by the establishment of numerous manual training 
schools. But this does not durll its edge nor blunt its point. 
The ordinary training in the high school is not suited to the 
•demands of practical living. 

It is idle, perhaps, to volunteer the remark that this is a 
wonderfully practical age and this great West a model of 
practical life. The conditions that make the environment 
here are not met by the ordinary scholasticism of the mother 
East. We can scarce do less, then, than recognize that the 
hij^h school stands as the expression of the educational needs 
of a community. Those needs are limited or determined by 
the multitudinous business interests involved, and, though 
these be legion, sound economic theory and sound educational 
science alike demand their recognition in the various schemes 
of study. Such recognition has not always been accorded, 
and the small percentage of high school graduates stands 
somewhat in the attitude of menace to their perpetuity. 

The boy or girl who is skilled in the necessary technic of 
the physical or chemical laboratory has become a most use- 
ful member of the community. There are no secrets that 
are unsearchable, no mysteries intangible, no hopeless intel- 
lectual dabbling possible in the laboratory. Principles, sys- 
tem, painstaking manipulation rule therein, and they are 
necessary. To the one versed only in the arts of literature, 
the relations and significance of coulombs and atomic weights, 
of farads and* valence, of amperes and reagents, are neither 
attractive nor necessary. But, if disciplinary value alone 
be sought, who shall say that intellectual training may not 
<*ome as truly to him who intelligently uses a galvanometer 
or a burette as to him who traces his mother-tongue to its 
ancient stock ? And if both are to be measured by manual 
skill, by ability to devise and to execute, to draught and to 
realize, who shall say that the student inducted into that 
truer 6 eld of investigation and deduction, implied in the proper 



pursuit of physical science, has not an immeaaurable advan- 
tage ? He has, at command, a literature limited only by the 
bounds imposed upon physical research, methods as variant 
as the students who have trod the paths before him are differ- 
ent, opportunities for usefulness co-extensive with the physi- 
cal needs or comforts of the highest civilization. 

It seems to us that the time given to physical science in 
the ordinary high school curriculum is far too short to reach 
the highest practical advantages Usually such curricula 
encompass the whole round of scientific endeavor. A few 
weeks to this, somebody^s ^* fourteen weeks" to that, and a 
term to a third subject — these often without logical sequence 
— and the boy or girl goes forth trained in science. Did I 
say trained ? Forsooth, the first principles have not been 
mastered, the technic is entirely unknown. Add to this the 
positive, and, it will be granted, unfortunate fact that science 
subjects are taught by persons themselves untaught in 
either the matter or spirit of science, still less the method, 
and the cause of comparative failure is at hand. We say 
comparative failure, and use the term advisedly. We use it, 
because never less than a year is devoted to algebra, often 
more, usually an equal period to geometry, and the lion*s 
share of the time is given to language work. All the disci- 
plinary power possible is thus given to these subjects, and 
those who teach them recognize that time, and time alone, 
is productive of fruitful results. One, who in the face of 
such educational fadism, would dare suggest two years of 
botany or of zoology, three or four years of chemistry or 
of physi:s, would surely, like Paul, be thought ^'beside him- 
self."' And yet this is exactly the position we seek to de- 
fend. It will be conceded, we imagine, that science has 
disciplinary value, that its prosecution develops a most de- 
sirable phase of mental life, that in its exacting and pains- 
taking methods it stands without a peer; it will also be granted 
that among those who have traversed its inviting fields, 
thought and written on what they have seen and felt, there 
are very many .who have enriched, immeasurably, the litera- 
ture of their several lands; in short, it must be granted, it 
seems to us, that no phase of human thought exists which 
can be valuable for training in the high school that does not 
find an equally valuable counterpart in the sphere of science. 
The multitude of ways in which such knowledge and train- 
ing may enter into every -day life, in every social condi- 
tion, renders the argument of practical utility unanswera- 
ble. 

The radical feature in science training lies in the assump- 
tion that even elementary education should '* supply that 
exact and solid study of some portion of inductive knowl- 
edge," which Dr. Whewell long ago pointed out as a want 
in educational method. Through it education *"' escapes 
from the thralldom and illusion which reign in the world of 
mere words." The student's own examination and investi- 
gation of phenomena, his own conception of their relations 
and values, his own inferences concerning the laws he sup- 
poses to underlie the surface of things, these all constitute 
the practical side of his education. In this sense, it seems 
to us, physical science possesses a paramount value, and 
should be placed accordingly in a wisely adjusted scheme 
for study. 

The Teodencies of the Culture of the Day. 
Educational systems and schemes refiect, it will be con- 
ceded, the culture tendencies prevalent during their inaugu- 
ral. It cannot, however, be assumed that their arrange- 
ment has always been best, or that it has always 
fallen into the wisest and safest hands. The fault 



July i. 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



lies, not in the system, perhaps, which may he good 
enough considered as an end, hut in the peraonal training 
of those who have had these systems in charge. I think 
it true that educational methods and dicta are among the 
very last, if we except theology, to yield to the demands im- 
posed by changing environment. To one cultured along the 
lines fashionable a decade ago, it becomes a difficult task to 
change methods and opinions that are the outgrowth of such 
discipline. The maintenance of courses of study that are 
either largely classical or mathematical means simply a sys- 
tem based upon methods in vogue long since. A compro- 
mise is noted, however, in those schools in which a so-called 
''scientific course *' is provided; from this concessisn it is 
easy to pass to those schools whose work is largely along thei* 
lines imposed by physical science. 

This modification — whether it be forced or natural is 
immaterial — reflects the tendencies of the thought of the 
day. On all sides, and in all manner of ways, increased at- 
tention is being given to physical science. The reason is 
not past finding out -—it lies close at hand. Science enters 
into the home, social and mercantile life of the world to a 
degree never before known in the history of mind. It has 
builded upon a foundation broadly and well laid, because 
laid primarily with a just appreciation of the physical neces- 
sities of man. Those, who now toil, and no longer with un- 
requited labor, in the laboratories of the world have felt and 
still feel the impetus due to the appreciation. Not a law of 
life, not a condition in the physical environment of men, not 
a pest that may destroy his stores or his comfort, not a prod- 
uct of land, sea or air, but somewhere some one is busy work- 
ing out details, deducing laws, formulating results, suggest- 
ing utilities. The world is en rapport with works of this 
sort, and it is by no means uninformed as to their value. A 
new law of light, a new application of electric force, a new 
fact in chemistry, a new method of locomotion, these all are 
heralded as to an expectant community. The world waits 
for facts such us these, the world expects them. 

The question turns now on the manner in, and the extent 
to which this tendency is to be recognized in the high 
school curriculum. It does not need a prophet's vision, nor 
a sage's wisdom to give the answer. It will be answered on 
the lines that have reference to the circumstances, duties, 
and work of life. It were idle to stem the tide even were it 
desirable. It is not a counter-argument that the term 
*' practical tendency " is accepted at its narrowest meaning— 
that of bare and specific preparation for professional or busi- 
ness pursuits. Bat if even such illogical answers should be 
made, the fact still remains that the high school is the poor 
man's college. It furnishes the highest education which the 
major portion of the young men and women of a community 
can obtain. Who, then, shall say that it should not pre- 
pare, not alone for right living, which is solely a subordi- 
nate and moral aspect of the question, but for successful 
business living ? Why should not the studies pursued have 
discipline as a means and utility as an end ? We do not 
believe a thoughtful, intelligent answer can be negative. 
We ask, then, a modification of the traditional curriculum 
and the institution — better perhaps to say substitution — of 
one which has as a prominent feature the culture of to- 
day. The time has passed when one ignorant of the laws of 
health and the gross anatomy of the person, ignorant of the 
chemistry of cookery and the laws of ventillation, ignorant 
of the dynamics of physical nature and unlearned as well as 
unskilled in the manipulations of the laboratory, may pose 
as a cultured man, thojgh his knowledge of wonderful 



tongues and skill in rhetorical or literary art be never so 
great. ** What can you do f " not ** what do you know f ** 
is the question of the hour, and the high school of today and 
of the future will be compelled to answer the question. Will 
it do it completely ? Not as at present constituted, nor, if 
like the barrister, it be bound by the law of precedents, will 
it ever intelligently answer it. 

Relation to University Requirements. t 

To this phase of the subject attention will be but briefly 
directed. The high school does not exist for the college or 
the university; it is an end in itself. Its original institution 
did not contemplate its relations to these institutions as a 
gymnasium, but appears to have resulted from the more 
universal methods of gradation of school work. In cities 
it was learned that the time required to master the elemen- 
tary studies could be much shortened by rigid system and 
rigid enforcement of its necessary provisions. Following 
this it was discovered that students might complete their 
school life at too early an age. Additional studies were in- 
troduced, and finally a system involving a secondary educa- 
tion, formerly confined to private acfidemies and seminaries, 
became a part of the public school scheme; the high school 
became a fact. 

There can be no question that popular education did not 
contemplate the establishment of the high school. Ta 
many, and to us, its legal right to exist is questionable^ 
However that may be, the high school has come to stay. 
It has the support and sympathy of the liberally educated 
classes, and is not unappreciated by the less fortunate grades 
in society. So that the problem of its curriculum must be 
worked out in view of the interest these two classes of society 
evidence in general education. 

At the end of the scheme of public instruction stands the 
university. Most, if not all, of the States recognize this 
relationship, and the curriculum of the secondary or high 
school is devised to conform to it. We think wisely. Re- 
cently, in this city, DesMoines, a convention of school- 
masters discussed this, or a nearly related matter, and the 
opinion at that time expressed evidenced a condition of be- 
lief far from unanimity as to the requirements presented by 
the university authorities. But the university is right in 
high requirements; right in insisting that secondary instruc- 
tion be confined to secondary schools; right in assuming 
that its educational forces are to be exerted along the highest 
possible lines. Particularly is this true of the requirements 
in physical science. The proper prosecution of original re- 
search, which is certainly a university prerogative, the best 
presentment of modern scientific thought and method, which 
is the aim of university education, cannot be realized when 
its instructors are burdened with quasi-elementary work. 
So, back upon the high school must fall the work of ele- 
mentary instruction in physical science. This the univer- 
sity demands, and this the high school must do. Now, in 
the appointment of the various coui*ses leading to degrees 
in the universities, it is noticeable, if decade he compared 
with decade, that more and more are scientific subjects oc- 
cupying the fore-ground. More time to science, fewer sub- 
jects; more stringent requirements, greater opportunity for 
elections, these are the rule in the modern university and 
these must be understood and appreciated on the part of the 
high school. There are few good colleges and no universi- 
ties of standing which do not now demand at least a year in 
physics and a year of botany. In most others biological 
subjects are held as essential, and not a few require a fairly 



(> 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX.' No. i^^i 



^ pQq[ip)et€i,cov,rs^tip physicalgeograiJihy— €>f iallhigh sohool 
< sujbj^cts tbQ p(i03t4;i)9ScuU)aiD<i throne mosicoodmbaly poorly 
[ taught. C^rt^ioii , upiYQr$iMc(9»< as Harvard and Micbigao, 
I ^^ire ^lemeptilary , phainidtry \\ ioihers eotitely omit it, : be- 
icau^e in it studept8;are ioio > Qf tea poorly /(>repf^ red. ;8aid a 
( ju qi versity . prof es^oi? of chemistry : to me« . not loag m^, • * I 
prefer my studeDts to come to ine with no cheupiistryi I find 
they too often come with matter, and methods to be un- 
leamed^' Now, this must be remedied in the chemistry 
v^oi'k of tlie high sobobi; the ^'intlkrtment mu^l)fe(itisished ;^ 
<the fatilt must b^ oorreoted by proper hisftrudtiobs and sd^illled 
(methods. Without appliances, that is to fiteiy, withotit labora- 
itory facilities, radical and valuable retoluti6n is itiapb^sible. 
Physical science in the high school mudt be experrmedtal; 
: Without multiplying words, then, ibmay b^ stated that 
the high school must ^ive, to those* wh6 ask it, preparation 
)for enti^ance into university work. * It ttiuftt adapt it»s<!iencb 
veoinriculum to the requirements <6f the standard cblliege or 
univeraitj. ' For long years thede higher itistitutions com- 
pelled certain and definite work' in language atid tnathe- 
matics, they compel that work,' with Httlie or tio' mo^ificaCton 
.to^dayi Why cannot they, ^iiailly'we'lV <i<)inpfel proper 
Isei^nce preparation ? We believe ttiey can; wid tbin'k' they 
will. ' ' 

^ s Th^^ will not be, in the nature of things there <^nnot be, 
•aiset limit to science reqiiireknents in the utii verities. As 
.the tables ol the various laboratories, phr^sicfiil, ^^hemicaT, 
physiologioal and biological, become aver'ta^^d , up go the 
Irequiremenls. The standards of entrance ai^ being steadily 
iraisod, especially in Indiana University, Miichigan Univelf- 
sity, Cornell, Yale, Harvard, and tjelaud Stanfoi^, Ji*.', 
Universities, as fast as the high and otber secotidary schools 
will admit cf it. £o there is no goal; no end, ^ thid high 
sc^hool will ever need to k^p close watch on u^rvei'sity matters 
and determine its own work accordingly. Our owti StatiB 
omiversity proposes to the high siihool to oc^cupy advanced 
ground in this very matter; toctafn and hold the dohfiden<re 
of the univermty, on the one hand, to obeei a legitimate de- 
mand for more cocsplete preparation in ^iencc) on the- othei^, 
the high Bcho<^ course must be materially modified.' 



M 



THE FEEDING OF HORSES. 



BtTLLETt^ No. 13 of the Agricultural Experiment Station 
of Utah has been received. This bulletin reports the results 
of a feeding trial of horses by the director, J. W. Sanborn, 
tt reports the result of a trial in a direction that the Ameri- 
can Experiment Station literature is almost silent upon, viz., 
feeding horses hay and grain mixed, and feeding cat against 
whole hay to horses. 

It is a common belief with horsemen that when grain, 
especially meal, and more especially such meal as corn meal, 
is fed to horses alone or mixed with hay, it tends to compact 
in the stomach and produce indigestion. It is believed that 
it so far compacts that the gastric juices do not have free 
access to the mass of it. Furthermore, it is believed to be 
subject more to the washing influence of heavy drinking. 
Tti the latter respect it is known that the horse^s stomach is 
very small, and that grain is liable to be washed out of it, 
as the stomach necessarily overflows with >{7ater. 

As usual, the writer fed two lots of horses for nearly three 
months, one lot with hay and grain mixed, and the other 
lot with hay and grain fed separately. At the end of this 
period the food was reversed, and the horses were fed some 
two months more. It would be unnecessary to quote the 



^ures bflengihy trial. Suffice it fo say that it was found 
that horses,' as in the case of cattle atidpig$;^ho^i<^ "i^ dis(- 
iKivanlage by the division Of the ^graib aa^ hky into si^pia- 
ratefeeds over feeing hay misled with grain: Indeed, in 
this trial he fo^d a disadV^antage for tfacf horses on the hay 
and grain milled, they not rbaintaining their tf^lght sis well. 
The^Uthor ascribed' this result to tho fact that the tiinbtby 
bay when cut fioe, with its dharp soli J end ^, irtif^t^ and 
made sore the mouths of th(S^ horses, and posiiibly indtrc^ 
too rapid eating, as> when the hay and grain were tfioist they 
would be more likely to eat more Vapidly than wlien fed 
dry. Astbis trial is in accord Wi^th trials with' ruminants 
and with the pig; it would seeui quite probable th^t thti old 
ahdpeifsist^nt arguufient in favor of mixing hay abdgtain 
is not sound. ' ' ' •' ' ■! 

The second trial reported in this bulletin coveted feeding 
of icut against whole hay to hbrse^. ' This trial ateb covered 
two'periods in which tbei foods were ri»versled With the sM^, 
in order to dietermine whether ^ny change^ of weights found 
wasdue to tha individualiam of "the horses, or whether it 
wati due to tb4 sjrst^tn of Tesding: < ' The two^ peHodlB covered 
fr«im August 10 to Deb^rhbe^ai. As ih the ^tb^ ease, We 
wili not i^vie\^ the tabuUlM* data' thalb iaccompatiy th^bul- 
letiui' This, irtal was veiy decisively ib favor of the cut 
clovej^ forthe four months ^nd a half' covered by this period. 
Tbe food fed ^as clover, and the authoir' points out the fact 
thatclover hay and lucerne, unlike tittkbtby hay, do not 
present sharp, solid,' euttibg edgets; The results are decisive, 
and in aoeordanoe with those of- a trial ibad^ by the Indiana 
filxperitoentStdtion withoiittle: Director dauborn points but 
the fact thkt these tHais, eo^^ering nearly a yeairV time with 
four horses, showed thatbbrses consume practically th^saoie 
amownt of food that battle do when high-fed, atid make ft 
somewhat clear that horses make aS economical ude bf bay 
and grain as do battle, and heballs attention to the fact that 
the practice of charging more for pasturage of horses, wherd 
grooming is not involved; 16 not well f bunded. He alsb 
Shows that less food was eaten duritig the hot niont^s than 
duribg ihe<cooler months; and particular!;^ that the hbrses 
ate less grain diiring the hot naonths than during the cooler 
months; Thetrial ^^ems to show also that a rather large 
ration of grain for work-horsfes Is ab economical one. ' 



t 1 



ISOTES AND NElWS: 

The idea of flower- farming for perfumes seems to be excitipg 
a good deal of interest iii New South Wales, as many inquiries 
on the subject have lately been submitted to the Agricultural 
Depertmient. There ieu'e at present in the colony no means of 
illnsirating tbe practical operations of this indostry* bnt the 
Agricuitwpal G^azette of New South Wales hopes that this deft- 
ciency will soon be supplied by the institution of experimeDtai 
plots on onQOX more of the experimental farms. The Gazette 
points out that in scent farms large quantities of waste material 
from nurseries, gardens, orchards, and ordinary farms might be 
profitably utilized, while occupation would be found for some 
who are unfit for hard, manual labor. A Government perfume 
fiirm was lately established at Bunolly, in Victoria, and this 
promises to be remarkably 'successful. 

-- At the meeting of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria on 
March 14. as we learn f^m Saixire, Professor Bali win Spencer; 
the president, ga^e an interesting account of a trip be' had made 
to Queensland in search of Ceratodns. Special interest attaches 
to tb 19 form, since it is tlie Australiam representative of a small 
group of animals (the Dipnoi) which is intermediate between tlie 
fishes and the amphibia. Ceratodus has its hpme in the Mary and 
Burnett Rivers in Queensland, whilst its ally, Lepidosiren, is 
found fn the Amaron. and another relative, Protopterus, flourishes 



JuLy I, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



in the waters of tropical Africa. Althoagh unsuccessful in ob- 
taining the eggs of Ceratodus, owing to the early season, Professor 
Spencer was able, from a careful study of the surroundings under 
which the animal lives, to infer that its lung is of as great a ser- 
vice to it during the wet as during the dry season — a theory in 
direct opposition to the generally accepted one that the lung 
functions principally during the dry season, when the animal is 
inhabiting a mud-cocoon within the dry bed of the river. 

— A second attempt is to be made to build an observatory at. 
the top of Mont Blanc. As the workmen who tunnelled last year 
through the snow just below the summit did not come upon rock, 
M. Janssen has decided that the building shall be erected on the 
frozen snow. A wooden cabin was put up, as an experiment, at 
the end of last summer, and in January and early in the spring it 
was found that no movement had occurred. According to the 
Laceme correspondent of the London THmea, the observatory is 
to be a- wooden building 8 metres long and 4 metres wide, and 
consisting of two floors, each with two rooms. The lower floor, 
which is to be embedded in the snow, will be placed at the dispo- 
sition of climbers and guides, and the upper floor reserved for 
the purposes of the observatory. The roof, which is to be almost 
flat, will be furnished with a balustrade, running round it, to- 
gether with a cupola for observations. The whole building will 
rest upon six powerful screw-jacks, so that the equilibrium may 
be restored if there be any displacement of the snow foundations. 
The building is now being made in Paris, and will shortly be 
brought in sections to Chamounix. The transport of the building 
from Chamounix to the summit of Mont Blanc and its erection 
there have been intrusted to the charge of two capable guides — 
Erederick Payot and Jules Bossonay. 

— Dr» J. Hann laid before the Academy of Sciences at Vienna, 
on May 5, says Nature^ another of those elaborate investigations 
for which he is so well known, entitled « Further Researches into 
the Daily Oscillations of the Barometer." The first section of the 
^work deals with a thorough analysis of the barometric oscillations 
on mountain summits and in valleys, for different seasons, for 
which he has calculated the daily harmonic constituents, and 
given a full description of the phenomena, showing how the am- 
plitude of the single daily oscillation first decreases with increas- 
ing altitude, and then increases again with a higher elevation. 
The epochs of the phases are reversed at about 6,000 feet above 
aea-level as compared with those on the plains. The minimum 
on the summits occurs about 6 a.m., and in the valleys between 
Z and 4 p.m. The double daily oscillation shows, in relation 
to its amplitude on the summits, nearly the normal decrease, in 
proportion to the decreasing pressure, but the epochs of the phases 
exhibit a retardation on the summits, of as much as one or two 
hours. In the tropics, however, this retardation is very small. 
He then endeavors to show that these modifications of the daily 
barometric range on mountain summits are generally explained 
by the differences of temperature in the lower strata of air. In 
connection with this part of the subject, he considers that even 
the differences in the daily oscillations at Greenwich and Kew 
^re mostly explained by the different altitudes of the two stations 
and by the fact that Qreenwich is on an open hill. In the second 
flection he has computed the harmonic constants for a large num- 
ber of stations not contained in his former treatise of a similar 
nature, including some valuable observations supplied by the Bra- 
zilian Telegraph Administration, and others at various remote 
parts of the globe. 

— The last meeting of the Royal Meteorological Society for the 
'present session was held on Wednesday evening, June 15. A 
paper on *< English Climatology, 1881-1890" was read by Mr. 
F. C. Bayard. This is a discussion of the results of the climato- 
logical observations made at the society's stations, and printed in 
the Meteorological Record for the ten years, 1881-1890. The in- 
struments at these stations have all been verified, and are ex- 
posed under similar conditions, the thermometers being mounted 
in a Stevenson screen, with their bulbs four feet above the 
ground. The stations are regularly inspected and the instru- 
ments tested by the assistant secretary. The stations now num- 
l)er about eighty, but there were only fifty- two which had com- 



plete results for the ten years in question. The author has dis- 
cussed the results from these stations and given the monthly and 
yearly means of temperature, humidity, cloud, and rainfall. His 
general conclusions are: (I) With respect to mean temperature 
the sea-coast stations are. warm in winter and cool in summer, 
whilst the inland stations are cold in summer and hot in winter. 
(2) At all stations the maximum temperature occurs in July or 
August, and the minimum in December or January. (8) Rela- 
tive humidity is lowest at the sea-coast stations and highest at 
the inland ones. (4) The south-western district seems the most 
cloudy in winter, spring, and autumn, and the southern district 
the least cloudy in the summer months, and the sea- coast stations 
are, as a rule, less cloudy than the inland ones. (5) Rainfall is 
smallest in April, and, as a rule, greatest in November, and it in- 
creases from east to west. *'The Mean Temperature of the air 
on each day of the year at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, on 
the average of the fifty years, 1841 to 1890** was presented by Mr. 
W. Ellis, F.R.A.S The values given in this paper are derived 
from eye observations from 1841 to 1848, and from the photo- 
graphic records from 1849 to 1890. The mean annual tempera- 
ture is 49.5^. The lowest winter temperature, 87.2^, occurs on 
January 12, and the highest summer temperature, 68.8^, on 
July 15. The average temperature of the year is reached in 
spring on May 2, and in autumn qn October 18. The interval 
during which the temperature is above the average is 169 days, 
the interval during which it is below the average being 196 days. 

— The Todas, inhabiting the Nilgiri plateau, says Nature, are 
not dying out gradually, as has long been supposed. The last 
census figures show that they have increased by no less than 10 
per cent during the last ten years, there being now nearly eight 
hundred of them altogether. 

— In a recent number of the Journal of the Straits Branch of 
the Royal Asiatic Society there is an interesting note on the little 
insectivora, Tupaia javanerms. It is very common in Singapore, 
and especially in the Botanic Gardens, where it may be often 
seen running about among the trees. It is easily mistaken for the 
common little squirrel (Seiurua hippurue), of which it has much 
the appearance. When alarmed it quickly darts up the trunk*of 
the nearest tree, but it is a poor climber, and never seems to go 
high up like the squirrel. Besides these i>oints of resemblance, it 
appears to be largely frugivorous. It was found that the seeds 
sown in boxes were constantly being dug up and devoured by 
some animal, and traps baited with pieces of cocoa-nut or banana 
were set, and a number of tupaias were caught. These being 
put into a cage appear to live very comfortably upon bananas, 
pine-apple, rice, and other such things; refusing meat. The 
Rev. T. G. Wood, in his •* Natural History," states that T.ferru- 
ginea is said to feed on beetles, but to vary its diet with certain 
fruits. The common species at Singapore seems to be almost en- 
tirely frugivorous, though its teeth are those of a typical insecti- 
vora. 

— The Mississippi Valley Medical Association will hold its 
eighteenth annual session at Cincinnati, Oct. 12-14, 1892. An 
excellent programme, containing the best names in the valley 
and covering the entire field of medicine, will be presented. An 
address on Surgery will be delivered by Dr. Hunter McGuire of 
Richmond, Va., I^sident of the Amei[^can Medical Association. 
An address on Medicine will be made by Dr. Hobart Amory Hare, 
Professor of Therapeutics and Clinical Medicine, Jefferson 
Medical College. Philadelphia. The social as well as the scientific 
part of the meeting will be of the highest order. The Mississippi 
Valley Medical Association possesses one great advantage over 
simUar bodies, in that its organic law is such that nothing can be 
discussed during the sessions save and except science. All ethical 
matters are referred, together with all extraordinary business, to 
appropriate committees — their decisions are final and are ac- 
cepted without discussion. The constitution and by-laws are 
comprehensive and at th'^ same time simple. Precious time is 
not allowed the demagogue or the medical legislator. The offi- 
cers of the Pan-American Medical Congress will hold a confer- 
ence at the same time and place. B. S. McKee, M.D., Cincin- 
nati, is the secretary. 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 491 



SCIENCE: 



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York. 



THE DE LAINCEL FUND FOR THE STUDY OF THE 
MAYA LANGUAGE AND ITS GRAPHIC SYSTEM. 

BY WIf. M. AUQNBY. 

The de Laincel Fund, so-named, after a relative, by a gen- 
tleman of Philadelphia, now residing in Mexico, who con- 
tributes handsomely to its support, has for its object a 
thorough study of the graphic system of the ancient Mayas, 
by collecting vocabularies of that language and its dialects, 
and obtaining reliable artistic reproductions, by means of 
photographs, of the ancient cities and mural inscriptions of 
Central America, also photographing and copying ancient 
taanuscripts or other material which will be of service to 
students in this special field of research. 

The work will be carried on under the direction of an ad- 
visory committee, to be chosen from among ethnologists who 
are authorities upon, and students of, the Maya language, 
its paleography and art. 

The exploration of the fund will be carried on under the 
direction of Dr. Hilborne T. Cresson of Philadelphia, well 
known as an ethnologist in America and Europe. The re- 
sult of his researches have at times been published by the 
Peabody Museum, where for the past five years he has been 
a special assistant, working under the diif ction of Professor 
F. W. Putnam of Harvard University. Dr. Cresson's artis- 
tic training at the Ek^dle des Beaux Arts, in the ateliers of 
the sculptor Alexander Dumont, and the painter J. Leon 
Gkrome (his works having been exposed in the Salon of 
1877). joined to that of an accomplished French and Spanish 
scholar, especially capacitates him for this line of research. 
He has also for some years past been studying the Maya lan- 
guage under the direction of so distinguished an authority 
as Professor Daniel G. Brinton, and a good basis has thus 
been obtained for future research. 

The de Laincel Fund will act in conjunction with some 
of our leading American institutions, yet to be determined 
upon, or independently, as its patron may deem best. The 
work will be carried on during the healthy season in the 
south, adopting the plan already pursued by other exploring 



; 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. — IX. 

[Ekiited by D. O. Brinton, M.D., LL.D.1 

The Peruvian Languages 

Now that the great work of Dr. £. W. Middendorf on the 
Peruvian languages has been brought to a conclusion by the 
publication of the sixth and last volume, that on the Muchik 
(or Chimu or Yunca) tongue, the high value of this contri- 
bution to American ethnology should be urged on the scien- 
tific world. 

Dr. Middendorf is a medical man who practised his pro- 
fession many years ago in various parts of Peru, making a 
study of the native dialects his favorite recreation. He thus 
became practically familiar with them as living tongues, 
and backed up that knowledge by an acquaintance with 
such literature as they possessed. The results of this long 
devotion are now before us in six large octavo volumes, 
published by Brockhaus, Leipzig, and counting up in all to 
nearly 2,400 pages of handsomely printed material. The 
languages considered are the Eechua, the Aymara, and the 
Chimu, with an appendix on the Chibcha. There is an 
ample supply of grammatical analyses, texts, phrases, and, 
of the Kechua, a copius Kechua-German-Spanish dictionary. 
That the Aymara and Chimu vocabularies are not arranged 
alphabetically must be regarded as a blemish. One of the 
volumes contains the original text and a German translation 
of the drama of Ollanta, believed by many to be a genuine 
specimen of a native, pre-Columbian, dramatic production. 
There are also many songs and specimens of prose writings 
in the same tongue. Taking Middendorf 's practical observa- 
tions along with Tschudi's ^'Organismusder Kechua Sprache/' 
the student will find himself well equipped to master this 
interesting idiom. 

The Orieiitatton of Primitive Structures. 

The study of the relative directions which the walls and 
angles of ancient structures bear to the cardinal points has 
scarcely yet received the attention from archaeologists which 
it merits. 

Several varieties of this ** orientation,^^ as it is termed, are 
to be found, each with its own meaning. The ancient 
Egyptian mastabaa and pyramids have their sides facing the 
cardinal points. This arose from the desire of having the 
door in the centre of the eastern side to face the rising sun, 
and the western door, stay to face the setting sun, as it was 
through the latter that the god Anubis conducted the soul 
to the other world. On the other hand, the Babylonians 
and Assyrians directed the angles, and not the sides, of their 
temples to the cardinal points, for what occult reason is not 
clear. Again, Mr. J. Walter Fewkes has found that the 
kibvas, or sacred chambers, of the Tusayan Indians at the 
Moqui Pueblo are oriented north-east and south* west. This 
be at first thought was owing to the character of the bluff,, 
but there are reasons to believe it of a ceremonial origin. 

Some curious observations in this connection are reported 
by Mr. Robert M. Swan, about the Zimbabwe ruins, in the 
last number of the Journal of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety. He found a series of ornaments on the walls of the 
great temple so disposed that one group would receive di- 
rectly the sun^s rays at his rising and another at his settings 
at the period of the winter solstice, when these points in that 



July i, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



latitude were respectively 25^ &outh of east and west; while a 
third series of ornaments faced the full midday sun. Others 
were similarly arranged for the summer solstice; and a great 
stone over the temple showed, by alignment with the main 
altar and a carved pattern on the wall, the true north and 
south. 

Last year an English archseologist undertook a journey to 
Greece to make a special study of the orientation of the 
ancient temples on that classic ground, but his results have 
not yet appeared. Certainly, as will be seen from the above, 
the point is one full of significance. 

On Prosopology. 

There is little doubt that craniology, as a branch of an- 
thropology, has been much over-estimated, and affords only 
very insecure material for ethnic classifications. On the 
other hand, the study of the features of the face, which may 
be called Prosopology, from the Greek, prosopon, face, is 
yielding constantly more valuable results. The width or 
narrowness of the face, the nasal and orbital indices, the 
prominence of the jaws, the facial angles, and the devel- 
opment of the chin, all are points of prime ethnic signifi- 
cance. 

One of the leading European writers on this subject is 
Professor Kohlman of Basel, whose works are extremely in- 
structive. In this country a series of papers on *' The Eth- 
nology of the Face," by Dr. A. H. Thompson, have ap- 
peared in the Dental Cosmos for the current year. They 
place the details of the subject in a popular light, and em- 
phasize its value; but they would be more satisfactory had 
their author not been led astray by some of the books which 
be quotes. To class the Eskimos and the American Indians 
among the Mongolians is quite out of date; and to call the 
white race Caucasians, and to divide them into blondes and 
brunettes as leading subdivisions is scarcely less so. He 
does, indeed, distinguish an ^* Americanoid" type, from 
which he excludes the Eskimos and Aleuts as being *Urue 
Mongols; " on what grounds he or any one would be puz- 
zled to say. He describes the hair of this ** Americanoid " 
type as similar to that of the Mongolians, from which, in 
fact, it differs in nearly every respect. In spite of these 
drawbacks. Dr. Thompson's articles form a welcome and 
praiseworthy addition to recent American contributions to 
anthropologic literature. 

Linguistic Bibliography. 

The study of American languages will in the future be 
vastly facilitated by the admirable series of bibliographies 
by Mr. James C. Pilling, which are now being published by 
the Bureau of Ethnology. Some idea of their thoroughness 
may be gained from the fact that the latest issued, confined 
to the Algonquian dialects alone, has 614 double-columned, 
closely printed, large octavo pages ! Compare this with the 
258 pages of Lude wig's '' Bibliography of American Aborigi- 
nal Literature,'' which included all the languages of both 
North and South America ! 

Mr. Pilling has put forth similar volumes, less in size but 
not inferior in completeness, on the Iroquois, Eskimo, Da- 
kota and Muskokee groups of tongues; and proposes to lay 
a similar basis for the study of all the North American 
stocks. It would be most desirable for some similar cata- 
logue to be made relating to the tongues of South America. 

The Decrease of the Birth-rate. 

One of the most portentous problems is the decrease of 
the birth-rate in certain social conditions. It is asserted on 
apparently good authority that the Negritos and the Poly- 



nesians are dying out, largely owing to the infertility of 
their marriages. Certain South American tribes, the 
Quatos of Paraguay, for instance, will soon disappear from 
the same cause. But we need not confine our instances to 
savage peoples. Physicians say that our *' colonial dames," 
scions of Anglo-American families who have lived several 
generations in this country, have much smaller families 
than their great- grand mothers. 

In France this lessening of the birth-rate has assumed 
serious proportions, and has alarmed patriotic men lest as a 
nation it should become numerically too weak to hold its 
own in the conflicts of the future. The distinguished author 
and statesman, the Marquis de Nadaillac, has published 
some stirring admonitions to his countrymen on the subject 
under the titles '* Le Peril National and la Depopulation de 
la France." He finds the birth-rate least in the cities, in the 
richest communes, and in the most prosperous conditions of 
society. Turning to its causes, he has convinced himself 
that this diminution is voluntary and of malice prepense on 
the part of married couples. They do nol want the bother 
of many children ; they do not wish their property to be 
split up; they prefer pleasure and ease to the labor of 
parental duties. Young men prefer mistresses to wives, and 
mistresses are always barren. The competition of modern 
life and its rabid thirst for enjoyment undermine the family 
tie. The birth-rate is small, not for physiological but for 
sociological reasons. How far this applies to the United 
States has not yet been sufficiently investigated; but it is 
probably nearly equally true here. 



THE VARIABILITY OF SPECIFIC CHARACTERS AS 
EXHIBITED BY THE EXTINCT QENUS CORY- 
PHODON. 

BY CHARLES EABLS. 

It is a well-recognized law in biology, that a species or a 
genus upon the point of extinction undergoes a great amount 
of variation ; and, as an example of this kind, I propose to 
describe some of the variations which the species of the 
fossil genus Coryphodon exhibit. 

The fine collection of Coryphodon material in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History has enabled me to study 
this subject; and in a forthcoming pap>er in the Bulletin of 
the Museum I shall attempt a revision of the American spe- 
cies of Coryphodon. 

The great amount of variation in this genus is shown from 
the fact that no less than twenty-one species have been de- 
scribed, and only in a few cases have any of them been ac- 
knowledged as synonyms. 

Taking up the variation of the teeth, I will first describe 
the structure of a typical upper and lower molar of Cory- 
phodon. The superior molars are a modification of the 
primitive tri-tubercular type, in which the anterior crescent, 
or antero-external lobe, has been lost, or so much modified 
that only traces of it remain. On the an tero external por- 
tion of the crown there is a prominent cone, which is in 
connection with the single internal lobe by a sharp crest (see 
Fig. a, c); this forms the main grinding surface of the 
tooth. On the second superior molar of a true Coryphodon 
there is always a well- developed postero-external crescent 
(see Fig. 6, c), which is homologous with the postero- exter- 
nal crescent of other forms. This crescent may undergo a 
great amount of variation, as will be described later. In the 
last superior molar the postero-external crescent is repre- 
sented by only a crest, which runs parallel, or nearly so. 



8 




[Vol. iXX. No 491 



with the atiteH6r creUt already described. As in all the 
early Eocetie^Tertiary Mammalia; the pumolars of both the 
lower and upper series are much simpler than the true mo- 
lars: ThestHicture'of the lower molaiis of Coryphodon is 
iDterestiog*, as it represents a stage in the mddiflcatiori of a 
more primitive type, which had theenatnet arranged in the 
form of two symmetHcal V's or cres(c^nts. Now ia Cory- 
phodon the anterior limb of each crescent is nearly reduced; 
tfai^ applies especially to the posterior V. The portion of 
the tooth bearing the anterior V is raised high above the 
posterior or heel pari. 

The variiettion in ^iise of the teeth of the different species 
of Cbr^/iodon is very great, and in not a single instance 
bave I been abletb find two individuals, of the same species, 
whose teeth are of the same size. This variation is shown 
in the form Of the canines and incisoi^ teeth ; in the former 
the difference in sise'is largely due to age and se:c. 

The last ti^pei^ mbliar undei'goe^ a great amount of varia- 
tion, it varying from the nearly quad r&te form to thkt of an 
elongated oval, the latter^ form occurring in the more taoJdi- 
fied species. The n!iodificatioii of the elements of the crowil 
of the secdnd ^uperioi^ moTar is interesting, as we can trace in 
this trtiilsformation a true phyletic series, from the less spe- 
cialized to the moire mbdi fled species. The typical forms of 
Coryphodon have the external orient of ibis tooth well 
developed. The first step towards reduction of the crescent 
occurs Where the intermediate portion of the posterior limb 
(see upper Fig. p) difibppeai^, leavitig kn external isolated 
cusp (C testis). This conditioii is found permanent on the 
last superior molar of Ectacodon^ the latter genus not hav- 
ing a4v|i;nQed«o far in itsdeptal evolution (t? Coryphodon, 
The specieS) (7. eZep^n^ppai^ ^presents an in^rmediate stage 
in its dental evolution between that of Coryphodon testis 
and Ectacodon, 

Professor Cope established the genus MetaXophodon upon 
the chavaciev: of the cresdcent of the second superior molar, 
and in this gefitts the ipo6teariar:limb of the crescent is nearly 
veduoed. : As all stages exist in which this crescent is well 
developed down to that where it is wanting, I can not accept 
Metalophodon as a good genua, aod believe it should be con- 
aidered a sy nokiym of Ooryphodoni The most modified con- 
dition of this crescent is where it. is reduced to merely the 
anterior limb.- The lat^r stage is permanent in the last 
upper molar /of all the known species of Coryphodon; but 
it is interesting to note that in a genus described by Cope, 
called Mdnt^odofiy the last upper molar has a perfectly 
formed external cresoent«. 

The genua Manieodon difiPers from all other genera of 
the Coryphodontidce from the fact that the last upper molar 
has two well-developed internal cones. Now in all other 
forms of this family the postero-internal cone (hypocone) is 
wanting, although traces of it occur in C, elephantopus. 

It is not without considerable diflBculty that the homolo- 
gies of some ol the elements of the upper molars of Corypho- 
don are determined. The form of molar from which the 
Coryphodon type of tooth has probably arisen, occurs in 
ihe genus Pantolambda, which is from the Puerco or lowest 
Eocene beds of New Mexico. In Pantolambda both the 
external crescents of the superior molars are well devel- 
oped, and the internal cone has two crests running out 
from it. / Now what are the homologies of the anterior 
portion of the Coryphodon molar as compared with that 
of Pantolambda, The postero-externai crescent is equally 
well developed in both forms, but what has become of 
liie anterior crescent in Coryphodon, which is so strongly 



developed in Pantolambda ? The prominent cusp (see 
Fig. cm.) on the external face bf all the superior molars 
of Coryphodon probably represents the reduced anterior 
crescent of Pantolamhdii, This is the homology advanced 
by Professor Cope. The anterior crest of Coryphodon has 
arisen by the development of the crest running outwards 
from the internal cone ot Pantolambda. Thus it is by 
studying the earlier or more primitive types of many of the 
Mammalian phyla that we are enabled to interpret those 
marvellous changes which different parts of the dental and 
skeletal structures have undergone. 

The structure of the last lower molar displays considerable 
variation ; this affects particularly the elements of the heel (see 
lower Fig: A.). In the more primitive species the two cusps 
forming the heel are in a straight line, whereas in other vari- 
eties a small cusp may arise in the posterior valley of the heel, 
internal to the postero-internal cusps (e, n, a). The growth of 
this rudimentary cusp causes the pushing outwards of the 



.env 



a.e 



a^~ 




CLO\A^ 



vc 




A superior and inferior molar of a typical species of Coryphodon (C radians), 
a. e. &, antero external cone ; a. c, anterior crest; i, c. Internal oone; e. m., 
external median ooap ; e. c, poetero-extemal cresoeni ; a., anterior Umb of 
crescent ; p., posterior Umb ; h., heel of lower molar ; hy,d,^ external oone of 
heel ; enA, internal cone. 

internal of the two primitive cusps forming the heel ; further 
growth causes the primitive internal cusp to occupy a 
median position, and it now fulfils the function of a fifth 
lobe of some of the other Ungulates. This postero-median 
cusp is merely an analogical structure, and its development 
proves that it is not homologous "with the fifth lobe of the 
Lophiodonts. 

The skeletal variations are many in this group, they affect 
principally the length and heaviness of the limb bones, and 
also the size of their articular extremities may vary a great 
deal. 

The variations of the astragalus are particularly interest- 
ing, as upon them in some cases new genera have been es- 
tablished. A very primitive structure occurs in the tarsus 
of Coryphodon, as in all the other genera of the Amblypoda; 
that is, on the inner side of the astragalus, a separate bone, 
or rather a facet for this bone to articulate with, is present. 
The bone articulating with this facet is generally called the 
tibiale or internal navicular. Baur^ has shown that the 

t American Naturalist, January, 188&, p. 87. 



fiav r] 18^2.] 




tibiale bccttrt in* the tarsus of the recent genera GtercoZttd^ 
and Ehigthiison bb it does in that of Coryphodon;' therefore 
the p^'esence of Hhis bone mtist be considered as' one of this 
pHofritive character Of the skelet<^n of this extinct grouf^ of 
Ungulates. ' ^ 

l^e relations of the tibiale facet to the other facets of Ihe 
astragal as 'may vary a good deal, and in mtay cases the 
tibiale facet Appears to be absent, whereas it is really not 
separated from the navicular facet of the astragalus. 

In eonelusion, I wish to add that I was led to write this 
abstract in order to show the num^frdus variations of the 
species of Oorgphcidony and that in this group it is exceed- 
itigly dtffidt^l to say Where one species ends and another 
biegifvs. In tyvoist ciisesr the characters run into each other so 
fjMensibt;^ that H is almost impossible to separate the species. 
H<owever, I believe there are ttbout eight good' species of 
Carj^h&ddn whose <shfiraciers Show a progression from the 
primiiive t<vtbe more specialised types; this progression and 
specialization affecting the teeth more particularly, as already 
dipseribed. 

. AmwMn MioMnii of N«fear«| Htotoit* T^rm tork^ 



I * 1 1 " ii > ■ t 



; INDIAN NUMERALS. 

,»T IPWASP F. WILSQH. 

* In an essay on **Thef Ortgin of Languages," published 
several years ago by Mr. Hale, the idea is suggested that, 
as, for exam plF, amoilg our native Indians a family may, 
While hunting or iH tiitie' Of wiarfare, have chanced to become 
separated entirely' from the rest of the tribe, father, mother, 
and elder members of the family mtky all have perished, and 
tw6 or three Httl^e children hiav^ been left alone. Such chil- 
dren, Mr. dale thinks, would gradually invent a new Ian- 
l^age of their own, retaining, perhaps, a few words or parts 
of words of their tnother tongue. In this manner, he thinks, 
may be accounted for the remarkable diversity of tongues 
among the Itidians of the Pacific coast, where among the 
tnoutitainS and forests a fathily might thus easily become 
isolated, and the comparative oneness of speech on the g^at 
<!en%ral plaint bf this Oontinent and in such an open country 
as Australia. ' ^ 

If there is any good foundation for siich a thebry as the 
above,' we should expeet that the old words retained by these 
ybubg founders of ni^w varieties of speech would be words 
of the simpl^t chariadter atid those most often in use in the 
dbme^tic circle. And, iddeed, I think w^ do find that fire, 
Wat^r, I, you, one, two, thr^, four, five are the words that 
generally approach the nearest to one another in a compari- 
son of the different vocabularies. 

The North American Indians, as a general rule, count by 
the decimal system, as d6 most civilized peoples; but it is 
noticeable that, after giving a distinct name to each figure 
from one to five, they, \q many of the dialects, seem to com- 
mence anew with the figure six, the first part of that num- 
eral sometimes being a contraction, or other form, of the 
numeral one, and the latter part of the word seeming to 
poiot on towards ten. Thus, in the Ojebway we have (1) 
P^j>?< (2) i^iji (3) Qiswi, (4) niwin, (6) nanftn, (6) ningod- 
wAswi, (7) nijwaswi, {8) nishwaswi, (9) shangaswi, (10) 
midaswi. It will be noticed here that from six to ten inclu- 
sive the termination is aswi, Ningo, with which six begins, 
is another form of pejig (l) never used alone, but only in 
composition, thus: ningo-gijik, one day; ningo-tibaiigan, 
one measure. In the Cree language (another Algonkin dia- 
lect) the first ten numerals are as follows: (1) peySk, (2) 



niso, (3) nisto, (4* n66, (5)'niya'n«tr, (6*) nlkotv^^sik, (7) 
tepakftp, (8) ay ena'rte w, (9) keka mittf *tal, (10) mita'Cat. Here 
it will be uotieed that these Oree'numerals resemble 'those of 
the Ojeb^ays fromone to six, but with seven they branch 
out itito distinct words; then with ten they ebme together 
agttin, mita^tat not beinfg dissiihilar to teidasVi, and stM 
more tike midatchitig, the Ojebwiky equivalent tor ^^ ten 
times." Neither is th^ Cr^ numeral for nitie so iinlike Ihikt 
of the Ojebways as mEight ^t first sigfhtapp^r. Keka 
mita^tat theaUs ^'ueiEirly ten," and this suggests tbftt the 
Ojebway word shangaswi may mean th^ same, chegaiy^or 
chig' being the Ojebw^y^fok^neai^. ' 

The reason fbi* the decimal system beiug s^ prevalent all 
over the world, bbth auiong tiivilized lE^nd l>ftrbikroUs people; 
is doubtless the fact that human beings are ^)06ses8d)rs often 
fingers, five on each hand. The cothmbn tnatiner of tent- 
ing among the Indians is to turn down the little finger of 
the left hand for one, the n^xt. finger, in order for two, the 
next for three, the next forioiir, and the thumb for five; 
then the tbumbi of tbe ffiglH haiiifd for six;, : and so: on; until 
the little finger ol theijHgbt'hand is turned « down > for ten; 
In indioatin^;. numbers to others, ;tbei left hand kield upwilb 
all the fingers turned down; except the* little .fiugerwouM 
mean one V that and the next, finger taiti held- up wiomld 
meaatwQ.and soiQD^ In.countiog^iby teos.lhey wiUtclose 
tbe fingiera of each band to^ indicate ieajshitoov or th«ywijll 
bold both, hands up wltb ibe palms outward and fingers ;eiX- 
tended: for each) ten. / ' • • ? • »:•.:. 

Somelndian; tribes in. counting refovt' to. theiit ;toes> as well 
as their fingers, and thus follow the vigesimal system;. The 
ludiansof Quiaina, itis said, call fi ve a hand* ten two hands, 
and twenty a man^ / 

The Cakotas have a peculiar system] of their own. When 
they have gone over the ifingers and thumbs of hotb hands, 
one finger is temporarily Uirned down for .one ten* At the 
end of the next tenanotfaer finger is turned, and; so on^ to a 
hundred. . Opa winge, one hundred, is derived from pawinga^ 
to, go around in circles, to make gyrations. 

Indians are not generally good arithiaeticians^ , In their 
native state they have no ideaof making jeven. the simplisst 
mental calculation. To add orsubtradttbey will use atieks^ 
pebbles, or other such objects.) 

To illustrate the .manner in. whioh various tribes (some of 
them of different stocks) count from tea ut^wards^ examples 
are herewith given! from the Ojebwa(7,, Blaokfoot,: fiiicmac^ 
and Dakota languages: With the Ojebways 10 is midassd; 
11, 12 are midaswi ashi pejig, midaswi ashi ntj; 20, 80 tare 
nij tana, nisimidana; 1^1, nij-tana ashi pejig: 100, ningo* 
d wak ; 101^ niugod wak ashi pej ig. Wiith the Blackf eet 10 
is kepo; 11, 12, kepo nitsiko'poto; 20,' 30, nitsippo, niippa; 
100, kepippo. With the Miomacs 10: ts mtflin; H, 12^ 
mttiln tcel naukt, mtilln tcel tabu: 20, 30 are tabu inskttttk^ 
nasinska&k; 21, tabu insklia.k tcel na-ukt; 100, kftskim- 
tillnaktln; 101, kuskimttilnaktin tcel na-ukt. With the 
Dakotas (or Sioux) 10 iswiktcemna; 11, 12, wiktcemna 
sanpa wan jidan (10 more one), wiktcemna sanpa nonpa: 20^ 
30 are wiktcemna nonpa (ten two), wiktcemna yamni; 21, 
wiktcemua nonpa sanpa wao jidan (ten two more one); 100 is 
opawinge, meaning a circle. 

In some of the Indian language there is more than one 
set of the cardinal numbers. Animate objects may be 
counted with one set, inanimate with another. They may 
have a particular set for counting fish or for counting skins; 
perhaps a set for counting standing objects, and anotberset 
for counting sitting objects, etc. 



lO 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX. No. 491 



To give a few instances in the Ojebwaj tongue: nanan, 
5; nanominag, 5 globubar, animate objects, as turnips, 
seeds, etc. ; nanonag, 5 boats or canoes ; nanoshk, 5 breadths 
of cloth ; and nanoshkin, 5 bags full (nashkin meaning full) ; 
nanosag, 5 things of wood; nanwabik, 5 things of metal. 
In the Zimshian language ( Brit. Columbia) guel means one 
if the object is neuter, gaul, if masculine or feminine, gou- 
uz-gtln, when the thing is long like a tree or pencil, ga^at, 
if a fish or animal is spoken of, gUmmet, if applied to a 
canoe; the other numerals change in the same way. 

It is interesting to note that in the Ainu, the aboriginal 
language of Japan, a distinction is made in the numeral 
according as the object spoken of is animate or inanimate, 
thus: shinen, one person; shinep, one thing; tun, two per- 
sons; tup, two things. 

Sault ate. Marie, Ontario, June 8S. 



BLACK KNOT. 



Bulletin No. 40 of the New York State Experiment Sta- 
tion at Geneva (Peter Collier, director) contains a valuable 
summary of our present knowledge concerning this pest, 
from which the following is abstracted : — 

The *' Black Knot" is a disease of plums and cherries, 
which causes the formation of a hard, rough, black, wart-like 
surface on an enlarged or distorted outgrowth of the bark. 
The following statements, furnished by Mr. P. Groom Bran- 
dow of Athens, Qreen County, N.Y., indicate the former ex- 
tent and value of the plum industry in that region and its 
total devastation by the Black Knot. 

He states that, beginning at Cedar Hill, about four miles 
below Albany, the plum district included a belt about three 
miles on each side of the river and extended southward about 
thirty-six miles to G^rmantown. He began setting plums 
for a commercial orchard in 1861, and at one time had six 
thousand trees. Two of his neighbors each had about two 
thousand trees, and most of the farmers went into the busi- 
ness to a greater or less extent. It was no uncommon thing 
for a steamer to carry from one hundred to five hundred 
barrels of plums to New York at one trip. For four days' 
picking in one week he received $1,980. In 1884 he netted 
(l8,000 from his plums, and the next year he rooted out over 
five thousand trees on account of the Black Knot. From 
twenty-five hundred young trees two to three years old, 
left at that time, he thinks he has not yet realized over 



It was formerly believed that Black Knot was produced 
by some gall insect, and it is not strange that this opinion 
prevailed on account of the gall-like character of the knots 
and the fact that they are frequently in'ested by insects. 
Some believed it to be the work of the curculio, others 
thought that it was not the curculio, but some other in- 
sect or cause that produced the knots. But several years 
ago Dr. W. G. Farlow published, in the first annual re- 
port of the Bussey Institute, the results of his investiga- 
tions, which proved conclusively that the Black Knot is 
caused solely by a parasitic fungus which grows within the 
bark, and which is now known to science by the name of 
Plowrightia morbosa. It is recognized as growing on culti- 
vated cherries, and also on the wild red or yellow plum, the 
Chicasaw plum, the choke-cherry, the wild red cherry, and 
the wild black cherry. It is commonly most destructive to 
the plum, but also seriously attacks the cherry. 

The external appearance of the mature form of the Black 
Knot is generally well known. It appears at this stage as a 



rough, wart- like excrescence, or distorted outgrowth, from the 
bark of twigs and branches, and in severe cases may extend 
along the trunk for several feet. The first outward sign of 
the formation of a new knot is seen in a swelling of the 
tissue within the bark either in the fall or during the grow- 
ing season of the tree. The swelling increases till the bark 
is ruptured, and over the surface thus exposed the fungus 
sends out numerous threads (hypae), which produce a vel- 
vety appearance and are of an olive-green color. Microscopic 
examination of the velvety surface reveals multitudes of 
newly formed and forming spores borne on these upright 
threads. These spores (conidia) are called summer spores. 
When full grown they drop ofiP from the supporting threads, 
and when carried by winds, insects, or other agencies, to 
another host-plant, under favorable conditions they -may 
start growth and form a new centre of disease, from which 
in time other trees may also be infested, and thus spread 
the disease from tree to tree and neighborhood to neighbor- 
hood. 

The best way to deal with thoroughly infested trees is to 
cut them down and burn them at once, thus insuring the 
destruction of the spores before they spread the disease any 
further. Trees not badly infested may be treated by cutting 
off affected branches some distance below the knot. This 
operation is best performed in the fall immediately after the 
foliage drops, because the winter spores are not formed at 
that time and consequently there is less danger of their being 
disseminated in the operation, and also because the work can 
be done more thoroughly when there are no leaves to hide the 
knot. The summer spores must also be taken care of in their 
season. As soon as there is any indications of the formation 
of a new knot, in the spring or during the summer, the branch 
on which it occurs should be cut and burned. The first out- 
break will probably be noticed about the middle of May. 

It is important to note that if a branch containing the knot 
be cut from the tree and thrown on the ground, the spores 
will ripen in due time just the same. Therefore the practice 
of collecting carefully and burning every knot cannot be too 
strongly urged. 

The bulletins of the Massachusetts Experiment Station 
contain some experiments in the application of various sub- 
stances for the purpose of destroying the knot. Kerosene, 
turpentine, linseed oil, sulphate of copper, and a mixture of 
red oxide of iron and linseed oil are mentioned among the 
substances tried. These seem to be effective in destroying 
warts to which they are applied to saturation, but care 
must be used with the turpentine and kerosene or the entire 
branch will be killed. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



^*« CorregpondenU are requetted to be <u brief a$ poMible. T%e loruer'f nam« 
if in all oaeee reqfuired ae proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any qwriee conwnant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request in advance^ one hundred copies of the number containing hi9 
communication will tte furnished free to any corresi>ondent. 

A Plea for the Study of Psychology. 

The perusal of a report, written by a member of the visiting 
committee of one of our universities, induced me to write these 
lines. In the course of the report, the remark is made that the 
study of psychology is difficult, and therefore few students take 
the study. The importance and advantage derived from studying 
a subject are to be considered more than its difficulty. Its use- 
fulness is determined by its educational value; and surely there is 
no subject of study more useful and beneficial than psychology ; 
for all persons who deal with people require a knowledge of this 
subject. 



July i, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



II 



Since psychology has been taken out of the field of metaphysics, 
and has entered the domain of the natural sciences, it has devel- 
oped marvellously. The accuracy and stability it has attained 
are proportionate to its development. Biology has brought about 
this change. The former position psychology occupied was not 
so much to determine the relation and connection between mind 
and organism as to determine the science of pure thought. But 
DOW psychologists have studied the brain, anatomists have dissected 
the cerebral lobes, chemists have analyzed the different substances 
of the nerves and brain, and its size, weight, shape, and specific 
gravity have been taken into account for the sole purpose of deter- 
mining psychical phenomena; also the laws of development have 
been applied to the phenomena of the human mind. The study of 
animal instinct, *the growth of children, the customs, habits, and 
beliefs of early tribes and races, the study of defectives, the study of 
the brain and the senses and the logical connections of ideas, have 
all received their share of attention. There is no psychical phe- 
Domenon and no act of human conduct which does not come 
within the province of psychology. The sciences of ethics, of 
theology, of law, of jurisprudence, of history, of medicine, of 
pedagogy, and of politics presume a knowledge of the workings 
of the human mind. For who, unless competent to analyze cor- 
rectly and justly the feelings, desires, and motives that prompt 
action, would desire to determine the motives that underlie human 
conduct or pass upon the laws of right and wrong. How much 
more humane would a person be in his judgment upon the acts and 
conduct of another if he knew the causes of them. How many 
mistakes would be avoided in the training and education of the 
young, if parents and teachers were more conversant with the 
principles of psychology. How much more accurate could judges 
be in dispensing justice, if they were less dependent upon their 
personal experience, and knew more about the principles of psy- 
cology. What material aid could lawyers give in establishing the 
truth, if they were well versed in the study of psychology. How 
many grave blunders could be avoided, if statesmen and legis- 
lators understood more thoroughly the spirit of the times and the 
popular mind. 

That the larger portion of professional men know little, if any- 
thing, about pi^ychology cannot be denied, and if they do know 
something about the study, their knowledge is either founded on 
their personal experience and on common maxims, or it is de- 
rived from some book written from some particular standpoint. 
Most of such knowledge is incorrect and wrong, and it is one of 
the objects of psychology to correct these false notions. 

In conclusion, I will quote John Stuart Mill, who has given an 
excellent statement of the reasons why psychology should be 
stndied. He says: *' Psychology, in truth, is simply the knowl- 
edge of the laws of human nature. If there is anything that de- 
serves to be studied by man, it is his own nature and that of his 
fellow-men; and if it is worth studying at all, it is worth studying 
scientifically eo as to reach the fundamental laws which underlie 
and govern all the rest. There are certain observed laws of our 
thoughts and our feelings, which rest upon experimental evidence, 
and, once seized, are a clue to the interpretation of much that we are 
conscious of in ourselves, and observe in one another. Such, for 
example, are the laws of association. Ptjychology, so far as it 
consists of such laws, is as positive and certain a science as chem- 
istry, and tit to be taught as such.*' 

Franklin A. Becher. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 



Ball- Lightning. 



DuRiNa a severe thunderstorm yesterday the phenomenon of 
ball-lightning was seen in this village. An inspection of the lo- 
cality shows that the ball was located between a telephone wire 
and a conductor-pipe about three feet distant, and was doubtless 
of the nature of an electrical brush preceding the disruptive dis- 
charge. It was of a reddish color, and exploded with a report 
like a musket; but did no damage, nor was it attended by any 
smell perceptible to those who saw it, although they were distant 
not more than five feet. M. A. Veedeb. 

Lyons, N. T., Jane 28. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 

Animal Coloration. By Frank £. Beddabd. 8^. New York, 
Macmillan & Co. 

In the opinion of the writer the most concise and useful treatise 
upon the important subject of animal coloration has very recently 
appeared from the presses of Macmillan & Co. Its author, Mr. 
France E. Beddard, F.R.S., is especially favorably known in this 
country, among morphologists, through his numerous and admir- 
able publications which have appeared in connection with his 
duties as prosector to the Zoological Society of London. That 
position, coupled with the fact that Mr. Beddard has made exten- 
sive collections of materials to illustrate his ** DaTis Lectures '* on 
the subject of which his present volume treats, is ample evidence 
that he was peculiarly well fitted to deal with the subject. The 
work, a small octavo of some 800 pages, is gotten up with all 
that exquisite taste and style which has long ago made the house 
of the Macmillans so justly famous. Many excellent wood -cuts 
and sevej^l beautiful, colored lithographic plates illuetrate its 
pages, they being especially devoted to giving striking examples 
of '* protective coloration '' among animals, as well as '* protective 
mi micry , " * * sexual coloration, " * ' warn ing coloration , " * * colora- 
tion as affected by environment,*' and numerous kindred topics. 
Completing the volume, we find a well-digested ** General In- 
dex," and an '' Index of Authors* Names.'* Among the latter we 
note those of many laborers in this country, and it is gratifying 
to see that America*8 work along such lines is upon the constant 
increase, and from year to year meets with enhanced favor. Our 
author, in his ** Introductory,** clearly defines the distinction be- 
tween ''Color'* and ** Coloration,'* the former being the actual 
tints which are found in animals, the latter simply referring to 
their arrangement or pattern. Of course, the terms become syn- 
onymous in uni-tinted animals. "* The colours of animals are due 
either solely to the presence of definite pigments in the skin, or, 
in the case of transparent animals, to pigment in the tissues lying 
beneath the skin; or, they are partly caused by optical effects due 
to the scattering, diffraction, or unequal refraction of the light 
rays." Other matters more or less remotely bearing upon this 
part of the subject are briefiy, though ably, dealt with, nothing of 
im^portance having been overlooked. Mr. Beddard has not re- 
mained satis6ed with drawing upon any special class or group of 
animals for illustration, but has carried his investigations into all 
nature, touching in the mnst brilliant manner upon the signifi- 
cance of the colors and coloration of *' deep sea forms," ** cave 
animals," and indeed plant and animal growths from all parts of 
the globe. Nor has he omitted to discuss the theories of various 
other authorities than those advanced by himself; in short, the 
entire subject covered by this highly inviting field of research seems 
to be brought felly up to date, and in many instances the book even 
extends our knowledge. Biologists everywhere will thank Mr. 
Beddard for this contribution, and its modest price ($8.50) will 
constitute no real barrier to its soon appe<iring upon the shelves of 
every working naturalist in the United States. 

R. W. Shufeldt. 
Takoma, D.C. 

AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 

A NEW work on astronomy, entitled in ''Starry Realms,'* has 
recently come from the press of J. B. Lippincott Company. The 
object of the work is to give the general reader some sketches of 
specially interesting matters relatmg to the heavenly bodies. The 
opening chapters are devoted to the more important relations of 
the sun to the earth, in which the author illustrates the different 
functions which the sun performs. The moon's history, and the 
phenomena attendant upon the lunar world, the planets, the 
meteors, the stars, are also ably considered. The work is embel- 
lished with ten full- page illustrations, and others in the text. 

— Beginning with the July number, the magazine hitherto 
known as Babyhood will bear the name of The Mother's Nursery 
Guide, which expresses its purpose more fully and clearly than 
did the old appellation. There is no other change discernable in 
the essential features of the magazine, which looks back upon a 



I a 




[Vol. XX. No, 491 



proeperous past of nearly ^igbt years. The July number coDtaina 
a summary, by the medical editor, of the present status of the 
question of milk steWtieation, conciBrtiing the ralue of wlitch the 
last word bas not yet been said. ** Baby's Flannels'' fortns tbe sub- 
ject of aliother taoedical paper. . 

— The new edition of ** Chambers's Encyclopaedia'* is rapidly 
nearing completion, and with the advent of one more volume* this 
standard reference book will be at the command of all who are 
desirous of procuring a most accurate, convenient, and useful 
encyclopsedia. The ninth volume has just been issued. Among 
the more important American articles are found San Francisco, 
St. Louis, St. Paul, Scandinavian Mythology, Sir Walter Scott, 
Sewage, Sewing Machine, Shakers, Shakespeare, Shelley, Phil.^ 
Sheridan, Sherman, Ship-Building, Silk, Silver, Slang, Soda, South 
Carolina, Spain, Sugar, Spiritualism, etc. These are all copy- 
righted, as are also the articles by American authors in all the 
volumes issued. The maps of this number include Russia, Scot- 
land, South Australia, Spain, and South Carolina, prepared accord- 
ing to the latest geographical surveys. '* Chambers's Encyclo- 
paedia " is never disappointing, its articles are well up to date, and 
a large number of entirely new subjects are introduced. The 
illustrations are incomparably the best ever issued in a work of 
this character. The volumes contain on an average nearly a 
thousand pages each. Volume X. will be issued in the fall. J. B. 
Lippincott Company are the American publishers. 



— Messrs. Jo.seph Baer & Co., booksellers, Frankfort, are cell- 
ing the botanical library of the late Professor L. Just, director oC: 
t lie botanical garden connected with the Polyteobntcum at Carlfr* 
rube. The list includes many important works in yarious depart* 
ments of botanical science. 

-^In 1874 the British Association published a volume of '* Notes 
and Queries on Anthropology," the object being to promote accurate 
anthropological observation on the part of cravellers, and to enable 
those who were not anthropologists themselves to supply infor- 
mation wanted for the scientific study of anthropology at home. 
A second edition' has long been wanted and a committee was ap- 
pointed by the British Association to consider and report on the 
best means for bringing the volume up to the r^qtiirements of 
the present time. The committee recommended that the work 
should be transferred to the Anthropological Institute, and this 
proposal was accepted, the Association making grants amounting 
to £70 to aid in defraying the cost of publication. The new edi- 
tion has now been issued, according to Nature, the editors being 
Dr. J. G. Garson and Mr. C. H. Read; and everyone who may 
have occasion to use it will find it thorough and most suggestive. 
The first part — Anthropography — has been entirely recast ; the sec- 
ond part — Ethnography — has been revised, and additional chap- 
ters have been written. Among the contributors to the volume 
are Mr. F. Galton, Mr. A. W. Franks, Dr. E. B. Tylor, General 
Pitt-Rivers, and many other well-known authorities. 



7 



2E 



i^K^ 



^Societas Entomologica. 

Interaational EntomologicAl Society, Zu- 

ricli*Hottiiigen« Switzerland. 

Annual fee, ten francs. 

The Journal of the Society appears twice a 
month, and ooBfiistB entirely of original ar- 
ticlee on entomology, with a department for 
advertisements. All members may use this 
department free of cost for advertisements 
relating to entomology. 

The Society consists of aboat 4S0 members 
in all ooantries of the world. 

The new volume began April 1, 1892. The 
numbers already issued will be sent to new 
members. 

For information address Mr. Fbitz Rubl, 
President of the Societas £kitomologica, 
Zurich- Hottingen, Switzerland. 



HEO-DARWIHISH AKD NEO-UHARCKISl. 

By LESTE.i F. WARD. 

Annual address of the President of tbe Biological 
Society of WashingHon delivered Jan. 24, 1891. A 
historical and critical review of modem setentiflo 
thought relative to heredity, and especially to the 
problem of the transmission of acquired characters, 
The following are tbe several heads involred in the 
discussion Status of tbe Problem, Lamarokism. 
Darwinism, Acquired Characters, Theories of He- 
redity, Views of Mr. Oalton, Teachings of Professor 
Weismann, A Critique of Weismann, Neo-Darwin- 
ism, Neo-Lamarckism, the American "School,*^ Ap- 
plication to the Human Race. In so far as views 
are expressed they are in the main in Una with the 
general current of American thought, and opposed 
to tbe extreme doctrine of the non>transmisslbOity 
of acquired cbacaotezs. 



Price, postpaid) 26 cents. 



H. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, 1. T. 

SCIENCE CLUBBING RATES. 

lOj^ DISCOUNT. 

We will allow the above discount to any 
sabscriber to Science who will send as an 
order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting 
each at its full price* 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



Exchanges. 

[Preeof charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hedges, 874 Broadway, Mew York.l 

Taxidermist going out of business has quantity of 
finely-mounted speoimens of North American birds, 
mammals and reptiles and sklos of birds for sale, 
including a ftill local collection of bird skins, show- 
ing some great rarlations of species; also quantity 
of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, 
and mounted heads of same. Will give good ex- 
change for Hawk Bye camera with outfit. Apply 
ouickly to J. R. Thurston, 866 Tonge St., Toronto, 
Canada. 

For exchange.— A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather 
covered case, tor a photograph camera suitable for mak- 
ing lantern slides. Flute cost $97, and is nearly new. 
U. <l. COX, Mankato, Minn. . ■ 

Te exchange ; Experiment Station bulletins and 
reports for butletinB and reports not in my file. I 
will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. 
ROLFS, Lake City, Florida. 

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for 
fine foKsils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable 
specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. 
PERKY, State Geologist, Rutland, Vt. 

For exchange. — Three copies of ** American State 
Papers Bearing on Sunday Lceislation/' 1891, $9.50, new 
ana unused, for **Tbe Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, 
1840; **The Sabbath," by A. A Phelps, 1842; •• History 
of the Insiitution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and 
Abuses," by W. L. Fisher, 1859; *' Humorous Phases of 
the Law," oy Irving Browne; or other works amounting 
to value of books exchanged, on the question of govern- 
mental legislation in reference to religion. personalTiberty, 
etc. If preferred. I will sell **American State Psu>er8, 
and buy other books on the subject. WILLIAM AD 
DISON BLAKE LY, Chicago, 111. 



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New York. ' 



For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private 
chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal- 
ance (soog to i-h>m<{ ),^ platinum dishes and crucibles, 
agate motors, glass-blowing apparatus, etc. For sale in 
part or whole. Also complete file of Sitliman*t yournal, 
1869-1885 (69-71 bound); Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; 
U. S. Coast durvey. i8«4-i869. Pull particulars to en- 
quirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn. 

Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any 
standard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Children: 
Wilson's ^'American Ornithology,'* 3 vols.; Coues' '*Birds 
of the Northwest " and "^ Birds of the Colorado Valley," 
9 vols.; Minot's ** Land and Game Birds of New Eng- 
land^' Samuels' *' Our Northern and Eastern Birds;*' all 
the Reports on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, 
bound m « vols., morocco; and a complete set of the 
Reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey. Please give 
editions and dates in correspondmg. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALL, High School, Des Moines, Iowa. 



To exchange Wright's *^ Ice Age in North America " 
and Le Centers ^'Elements of Geology*' (Copyright x88a) 
for ''Darwinism.*' by A IL Wallace.^ Origin of Species.'^ 
by Darwin. ''Descent of Man." bv Darwin, ^'Man's 
Place in Nature,'* Huxley, **Mental Evolution in Ani- 
mals," by Romanes, '*Pre-Adamites,'* by Wiochell. No 
books wanted except latest editions, an<i books in good 
conditipi^ C. S, Brown, Jr., Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tenn. 



WANTED.- We want any and aU of the foUowing, 
providing we can tade ether books and maga- 
zines or buy them cheap for cash: Academy, Lon- 
don, vol. 1 to 28, 86, Jan. and Feb., '89; Age of Steel, 
vol. 1 to 66; American Antiquarian, voL 1, 2; Amexi- 
oan Architect, vol. 1 to 6, 0; American Art Review, 
vol. 8; American Field, roL 1 to 21: American Geol- 
ogist, vol. 1 to 6; American Machinist, vol. 1 to 4; 
Art Amateur, vol. 1 to 7, Oit., '4; Art Interchange, 
vol 1 to 0; Art Union, vol. 1 to 4, Jan., *44, July, '45; 
Blbliotbeca Sacra, vol. 1 to 46; Oodey's Lady's Book, 
vol. 1 to 20; New Englander, vol. 1 1 ; Zoologist, Series 
1 and 1, Series 8 vol. 1 to 14: Allen Armeudale (a 
novel). Aaymer's ** Old Book ^* Store, 248 4th Ave. 
S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

WANTED.— By a young man, a Swarthmore Ool- 
lege Junior, a pneltion as principal of a public 
high school in one of the Gulf States, or as Instructor 
in botany, phvsiology, and geology in an academy 
or normal school. Address B., care of Librarian, 
Swarthmore College, Penn. 

WANTED.— A teacher of Geology who is familiar 
with the fossils of the Hamilton Group, as 
instructor of Geology during July next at the Natu- 
ral Science Camp on Canandalgua lake. Apply to 
ALBERT L. ABET, Director, 220 Averlll Ave., 
Rochester, N. T. 

WANTED.— To act as correspondent for one or 
two daily or weekly papers. Have worked on 
paper for about two years Would like a position on 
editorial staff of humorous paper. Address GEO. 
G. MASON, 14 Elm St.. Hartford, Conn. 

TRANSLATOR wanted to read German architao- 
tural works at sight (no writing). One famllli^ 
with technical terms desired. Address *'A.,*'Boz 
149, New Tork Post Office. 

WANTED.— A position in a mannfaotnring estab* 
lishment by a manufacturing Chemist of in* 
ventive ability. Address M. W. B , care of Science, 
874 Broadway, N. T. 

WANTED.— Books on Anatomy and Hypnotism. 
Will pay cash or give similar books in eat- 
chauge Also want medical battery and photo out- 
fit. DR. ANDERSON, 182 State street, Chicago, 111. 



July i,- 1892.}- 



SCIENCE. 



<— il>e Opea jOourt .Publishiog Co., Chic^o, ba* just ready a 
Beoofid ie&iti9v^ irevtM^ aod lenlprge^; Qf Qeo. M. Trvmbidl's 
thneiy baok on'the tariff queaiion, " The Free -Trade Struggle in 



— Gharlee L. Webster ifc CO. announce tbat thej will issue in 
book form Mr. Poultney Bigelon's Danube articles describing his 
casoe To;a^ down that river, the title of the book being "Pad 
dies and Politics Down tbe Dannbe." 

— la JAppincott' t Magazine for Jul; "Peary's North Qreen- 
land Expedition and the Relief " is welt and interestingly oovered 
by W. E. Hugbee and Benjamin Sharp. Gertrude itherton con- 
tributes a short eaaay on "Geographical Fiction." 

— Charles H. Bergel & Co., Chicago, have just issued in their 
series of Latin-American Repnblice "A History of Peru," by 
Clements R. Harkbam, which gives a complete history of the 
country from the conquest to the present time. They have in 
press for the same series " A History of Chile," by Anson Uriel 
Hancock; ani in active preparation "A History of Brazil," by 



William Eieroy Curtis; " AHistory.of Argnitiae/'byjdary Aplia 
Sprague; and "A History of Bolivi»,"*>y T.-H: Anderson, TJ. 8. 
Minister to Bolivia. 

— Macmillan & Co. have just ready " The Barren Ground of 
Northern Canada," by Warborton Pike,, with maps. 

— Chain & Hardy Co., Denver, Cot., have just ready a little 
pamphlet, entitled "Review of Ore Deposits In Various Coun- 
tries," by Rudoir Keck, of Colorado Springs, Col. 

— G. P. Putnam's Sons have just ready an important work on 
"The English Language and English Grammar, being an histori- 
cal study of the sources, development and analogies of the lan- 
guage and of I he principles governing its usages, illustrated by 
copious ezamples from writers of aU periods," by Samuel Ram- 
sey; the fifth and concluding volume of the "Memoirs of Talley- 
rand;" " Elarth-Burial and Cremation," a history of earth-burial 
with its attendant evils, and the advantages offered by cremation, 
by Augustus G. Cobb, formerly President of the U. S. Cremation 
Society and Vice-President of the New York Cremation Society. 



m 



Acid Phosphate. 

A wonderful remedy, of the 
highest value Ifi mental and 
nervous exhaustion. 

Overworked men and women, 
the nervous, weak and debilitat- 
ed, will find in the Acid Phos- 
phate a most agreeable, grate- 
ful and harmless stimulant, giv- 
ing renewed strength and vigor 
to the entire system. 

Dr. Edwin F. Vose, Portland, Me., says: 
"I have used it in my own case when suffer- 
ing from nsrvoQs ezhanstion, with gratifying 
pssnita. I have prescribed it for many of 
the varioas forma of nervoos debility, and it 
ha> never failed to do good." 

Descriptive pamphlet free. 

Rumford Ctwnlal Wsrki, ProvFdinn, R. I. 

Beware of Snbatitutca and Imitations. 
CACTinN.—Be anre Iha word "Hora- 
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•pDrlona. Never aold In tiulfc. 



injt s llbr»rT. HiDts ab 

l]esr'a8ub«0TlpU0Dtotha"LlterarTLli;ht," 
a mODttJr macailiie of AuolBDt, Hedlnval and 
Modsni Literature I 01 

HOOaetaaltalueforSl.VI. S*Dip1a oopr ol " Lit 
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This book is the resnlt of an ftttsmpt fa) 
collect the scattered notices of fossil resins, 
exclusive of those on sjnber. Tbe work is of 
interest also on account of descriptions giveo 
of the insects found embedded in these long- 
praserred exndatims from early -vegetation. 

By CLARENCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH 

N. D. C. HODGES, IH Broadway, H. T. 



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N, D. C, HODOEH, BT« Br««4wBr, H. T. 



H 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 491 



QUERY. 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, say,) has failed 
to protect between two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
conductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light- 
ning was attracting the attention 

_ « _ 

of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub- 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First insetted June 19. No resj onse 
to date. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 

874 BBOASWAT, NEW YOBK 
JVST READY. 

THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A Journal of two Summer Cruises to that 
region; with notes on its early discovery, 
on the Eskimo, on its physical geography, 
geology and natural history, together with 
a bibliography of charts, works and articles 
relating to the civil and natural history of 
the Labrador Peninsula. 

By ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D., Ph.D 
e*', 513 pp., 13.50. 

R. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadf ay, M. T. 

THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL S. TROY. 

This contains a discussion of the reasons 
for their action and of the phenomena pre- 
sented in Crookes' tubes. 

Price, postpaid, 50 cents. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 

AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 

Material arranged and compiled for all kinds of 
works, excepting fiction. Statistics a specialty. 
Indexing ana cataloguing. Address G. E. BIVER, 
885 N. Itth Street, Philadelphia. 



TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since 

Jan. X, Z892. 

Aboriginal North American Tea. 
Actinism. 

Agriculture, Bzperimental, Status of. 

Amenhotep, Kiug, the tomb of. 

Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Adyanced Medical 
Students. 

Anthropology, Current Notes on. 

Architectural Exhibition in Brooklyn. 

Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics. 

Artesian Wells in Iowa. 

Astronomical Notes. 

Bacteria, Some Us^s of. 

Botanical Laboratory, A. 

Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian. 
BythoecopidflB and Cereopldee. 

Canada, Royal Society of. 

Celts, The Question of the. 

Chalicotbenum, The Ancestry of. 

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School of Applied 
Science. 

Children, Growth of. 

Collection of Objects Used In Worship. 

Cornell, The Chan«(e at. 

Deaf, Higher Education of the. 

Diphtheria, Tox-Albumin. 

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of. 

Eskimo Throwing Siick*. 

Etymology of two Iroquolan Compound Stems. 

Bye-Uabits. 

Eyes, Kelations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain 
Facial Expressions. 

Family Trait**, Persistency of. 

Fishes, The Distribution of. 

Fossils, Notice of New Qlgantlc 

Four- fold Space, Pcsslbiltty of a Realization of. 

Gems, Artificial, Detection of. 

Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York. 

Grasses, Homoptera Injarious to. 

Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of. 

»* Healing, Divine." 

Hemlpter* us Mouth, Structure of the. 

Hofmann, August Wllbelm von. 

Hypnotism among the Lower Animals. 

Hypnotism. Traumatic. 

Indian occupation of New York. 

Infant's Movements. 

Influenza, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of. 

Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico. 

Inventions In Foreign Countries, How to Protect 

Inventors and Manufacturers, the American Associ- 
ation of. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences. 

Jargon, Tbe Chinook. 

Ja«sidsD; Notes on Local. 

Keller, Helen. 

Klamath Nation, Linguictlcs. 

Laboratory Training, Aims of. 

Lewis H. Carvlll, Work on the Glacial Phenomena. 

Lightning, The New Method of Protecting Buildings 
from. 

Ltssajou's Curves, Simple Apparatus for the Produc 
tion of. 

Maize Plant, Observations on the Growth and Chemi- 
cal CompoeltioD of. 

Maya Codtcee, a Key to the Mjrstery of. 

Medicine. Preparation for the Study of. 

Mineral Discoveries, Some Recent, in the State of 
Washington. 

Museums, ITie Support of. 

Palenque Tablet, a Brief Study of. 

Patent Office Building, The. 

Physa Heterostropha Lay, Notes on the Fertility of. 

Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of. 

Polariscopes, Direct Reflecting. 

psychological Laboratory in the University of To- 
ronto. 

Psychological Training. The Need of. 

Psylla, the Pear-Tree. 

Rain-Making. 

Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska. 

Scientific Alliance, The. 

Sistrurus and Crotalophorus. 

Stal* Photography, Notes on. 

Star, The New, in Auriga. 

Storage of Storm- Waters on the Great Plains. 

Teaching of Science. 

Tiger, A New SabreToothed, from Kansas. 

Timber Trees of West Virginia. 

Tra'hecB of Insects, Structure of. 

Vein- Formation, Valuable Experiments in. 

W^eeds as Fertilizing Material. 

Will, a Recent Analysis of. 

Wind-Storms and Trees. 

Wines, The Sophisticated French. 

Zoology In the Public Schools of Washington, D. C. 



Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. 

X, zSga, 

Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Allen, Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Baldwin, J. Mark. University of Toronto, Canada. 

Barnes, Charles Reid, Madison,' Wis. 



i*"f'JS-» ^**^^ Univeralty. Woroeeter, Mass. 

Beal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mloh. 

Beals, A. H., MilledgevUle. Ga. 

Beauchamp, W. M., Baldwlnevllle, N.Y. 

Boae, Franz, Clark Onlverslty, Worcester, Mass. 

BoUey, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak. 

Bostwioh, Arthur E., Moutclair. N J. 

Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass. 

Brinton, D. G., PhUadelphla, Pa. 

CaU, B. Ellsworth. Dee Moinee, la. 

Chandler, H., Buffalo, N.Y. 

ComstockjTheo. B., Tucson, Arizona. 

Conn, H. W, Mlddletown, Conn. 

Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs. Col. 

Davis, W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 

Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H. 

Farrington, £. H., Agricultural StaUon, Champaiffa, 
111. 

Ferree, Barr, ^ ew York City. 

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y. 

Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C. 

Garman, S., Museum of Comp. ZootJ, CSnbridge, 
Mass. 

Golden, Katherine B., Agricultural College, Lafay- 
ette, lud. 

Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, 111. 

Hale, George S., Boston, Mass. 

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University. Worcester, Mass. 

Halsted, Byron D., I^utgers College, New Bruns- 

Haworth, Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

Hay, O. P., Irvlogton. Ind. 

Haynes, Henry W., Boston Mace. 

Hazen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C. 

Hewitt. J. N. B., Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 
D.C. 

Hicks, L. B., Lincoln, Neb. 

HUl, E. J., Chicago, lU. 

Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C. 

Hitchcock, Rom* n, Wanbington, D.C. 

Holmes, E. L. Chicago. IlL 

Hotchkias, Jed., Stauutm, Va. 

Howe, Jas. LewlP, Louisville, Ky. 

Hubbard, Gardiner G , Washington, D.C. 

jHckson, Dugald C. MadlHon, Wtsoousln 

James, Joseph F., Agricultural Dept., Washington, 
D.C. 

Johnson, Roger B , Miami University, Oxford, O. 

Kellerman, Mrs. W. A^ Columbus, O. 

Kelllcott, D. S., State University, Columbus, O. 

Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgb. N. Y. 

Llntner, J. A., Albany, N. Y. 

Loeb, Morris, New York City. 

Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Macloskle, O., Princeton, N.J. 

McCarthy, Gerald, Agricultural Station, Raleigh, 
N.C. 

MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C. 

Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J. 

Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C. 

Mill paugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Va. 

Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass. 

Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Ostwm, Henry F., Columbia College, New York 

City. 
Osbom, Herbert, Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa. 
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa. 
Plllsbury, J. H., Smith College, Northampton, Maes. 
Poieat, W. L.J Wake For^'st, N. C. 
Preble, Jr., W. P., New York City. 
Ruffner, W. H., Lexington, Va. 
San ford, Edmund C, Clark University, Worcester, 

Mass. 
Schufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C. 
Scripture, E. W.. Clark Unlverelty. Worcester, Mass. 
Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, 

Ma.<»s. 
Smith, John B., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, 

N.J. 
South wick. Edmund B., New York City. 
Stevent>, Gf orge T., New York City. 
Stevenson. S. Y., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Stone, G. H., Colorado Springs, CoL 
Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C. 
Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Todd, J. E., Tabor, Iowa. 

True, Frederick W., National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
Turner, C. H., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati,* 

O. 
Wake, C, Stanlland, Chicago, 111. 
Ward, R. Dec., Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Mass. 
Ward, Stanley M.. Scran ton, Pa. 
Warder, Robert B., Howard University, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more. M.D. 
West. Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
Whitman, C. O., Claik University, Worcester, Mass. 
Williams, Bdward H., Lehigh University, Bethle- 
hem, Pa. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



PUBLISHED BT N. D. C. HODGBS, 874 BBOADWAT, NEW TOBE. 



Tenth Ybab. 
Vol. XX. No. 492. 



JULY 8, 1892. 



Contents. 



Dlamonds 19 MxTEOBiTBS. Oliver Whipple 

Huntington 15 

The Nuxbeb of Bboods of the Impobted 

Elm-Leaf Beetle. C. V. RUey. . 16 

The Rbptiliav Battle. 8. Cfarman, ... 16 

Oftosrion of Mabs. Edgar L, Larkin, 17 

ObOSB-FeBTILIZINQ and HTBBIDIZINa — 18 

Notes and News 18 

On the Uncebtaintt of Oonolitsions. 

r. C. MendenJiaU 20 

Seicabks upon the Gbaphic System of 
THE Ancient Mat as. HUbome T. 
Cresson 25 

AXOXO THE PUBLISHEBS 27 

Kntend at the Post-Offloe of New York, N.Y., as 
Second-Claai Mail Matter. 



THE 




Bell Te 



COMPANY. 

U MILK ST., BOSTON, MASS. 



This Company owns the Lietters 
Patent granted to Alexander Gra- 
ham Bell* March 7th, 1876, No. 
174,465, and January 30, 1877, 
No. 186,787. 

The Transmission of Speech by 
all known forms of ELECTRIC 
SPEAKING TELEPHONES in- 
fring^es the rig^ht secured to this 
Company by the above patents, and 
renders each individual user of tel- 
ephones, not fUmished by it or its 
licensees, responsible for such un- 
lawltQ use, and all the conse- 
quences thereof and liable to suit 
therefor. 




Single Copies, Ten Cents. 
$8.50 Feb Yeah, in Advance. 



of Protecting Property 
om Lightning. 

The Ligbtning Dispeller. 

Price, $20 to $30.— According to size. 

The Patent Lightning Dispeller is a conduc- 
tor specially designed to dissipate the energy 
of a lightning discharge, — ^to prevent its 
doing harm, — placing something in its path 
apon which its capacity for causing damage 
may be expended. 

No recorded case of lightning stroke has 
yet been cited against the principle of the 
Dispeller. So far as known, the dissipation 
of a conductor has invariably protected under 
the conditions employed. 

Correspondence solicited. 

AGENTS WANTED. 

The American Lightning Protection Company 

United Bank Buiidmg, Sioux City, Iowa. 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 

A culture that lacks science is a one-sided culture. 



The Populab Science Montblt is the one periodical that gives access to the scientific culture of the time, and it will in the future 
represent scientific thought and achievement even more fully than it has in the past. The valuable series of illustrated articles on 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMEBICAN INDTJ8TRIE8 SINCE COLTTMBTJS, 

« 

now running in the Monthly, will be continued. There have already been published three articles on The Woolen Manufftcture, by 
S. N. D. Nobth; four articles on The Making of Iron and two on The Making of Steel, by W. F. Dubfee. The first of two articles on 
American Pottery appears in the December number. All of these are profusely illustrated; and similar papers on The Cotton Manu- 
facture, by Edwabo Atkinson and Gen. W. F. Dbapeb; Piano-Making, by Daniel Sfillane; Glass-Making, by Prof. C. Hanfobd 
Hendebson ; and on The Leather, Silk, Paper, Agricultaral Machinery, and Ship-building Industries will appear in course. 

Hon. Cabboll D. Weight will continue his incisive Lessons from the Census. Dr. Andbew D. White will contribute some con- 
cluding papers on The. Warfare of Science, and there will be occasional articles from Hon. David A. Wells and from David Stabb 
JoBDAN, President of Stanford University. 

The other contents of the coming numbers can not be definitely announced at this time, but the character of the contributions may 
be inferred from 

SOME OF THE ABTICLES OF THE PAST YEAB. 



The Stobaob or Blbotrigitt (illuatrated), Ftof. Samuel Sheldon, 

The Dsoliks of Bubal Nbw Eholand, Prof. A. N. Currier. 

CuLTiYATioir or Sisal ni thb Bahamab (iUastrated), J. I. Northrop, Ph.D, 

KocB^s Mbthod of Trbatino Consumption, Q. A. Heron, M.D. 

-9nuEBT-CLBANiNO IN Labos CiTiBS, Oen. Emmone Clark. 

Pbofbssob Huzlbt on thb Wab-Path, The Duke of Argyll. 

SuTCB or Danibl O. Bbinton (with Portrait), C. C. Abbott. 

SoifB Oabes of thb ZuKi (illustrated), John G. Owene. 

Oua Aobicultubal Bxpbbimbht Stations, Prof. C. L. Pareona. 



Tbb Colobs of Lbttbbs, PreHdent David Starr Jordan. 
Dbbbs and Adobnmbnt (illustrated). Prof. Frederick Starr. Four articles. 
Pbofbssob Buxlbt and thb Swinb Mibaclb, W. E. Oladetone, 
Illustbations of Mb. Oladstonb's Ck>NTBOVBB8iAL Mbtbod, Prof, T, H. 

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SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX. No. 492 



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NEW YORK, JULY 8, 1892. 



DIAMONDS IN METEORITES. 

BY OUVXB WHIPPLE HUNTINGTON. 

The mineral cabinet of Harvard College received some 
time ago, through the liberality of Francis Bartlett, Esq., 
one of the two large masses of meteoric iron first brought by 
Dp. a. E- Foote from Arizona, and called by him the Cafion 
Diablo iron. This mass of iron, weighing 154 pounds, is in 
many ways unique, and chiefly so for the circumstance that 
it contains diamonds. 

This fact was first made known by Professor Q. A. Koenig 
of Philadelphia, who found in cutting one of the fragments 
that the cutting tool refused to penetrate the wall of a small 
cavity which it chanced ta encounter, and this cavity was 
found to contain small black diamonds.^ One white dia- 
mond of microscopic dimensions was said to have been 
found but subsequently lost, and no further account of this 
interesting occurrence appears to have been published. 

In order to determine whether other portions of the Cafion 
Diablo iron contained diamonds, the author dissolved a mass 
of about one hundred grams weight in acid, assisted by a 
battery. The iron was supported on a perforated platinum 
cone hung in a platinum bowl filled with acid, and the cone 
was made the positive pole and the dish the negative pole of 
a Bunsen cell. When the iron had disappeared, there was 
left on the cone a large amount of a black slime. This was 
repeatedly washed and the heavier particles collected. This 
residue examined under a microscope showed black and 
white particles, the black particles being mainly soft amor- 
phous carbon, while the composition of the white particles 
appeared less easy to determine, though when rubbed over a 
watch-glass certain grains readily scratched the surface. 

The material was then digested over a steam- bath for 
many hours with strong hydrofluoric acid, and some of the 
white particles disappeared, showing thera to have been 
silicious. Most of them, however, resisted the action of the 
acid. These last were carefully separated by hand, and ap- 
peared to the eye like a quantity of fine, white, beach sand, 
and under the microscope they were transparent and of a 
hrilliaDt lustre. A single particle was then mounted in a 
point of metallic lead, and when drawn across a watch-crystal 
it gaye out the familiar singing noise so characteristic of a 
glaas-cuiter's tool, and with the same result, namely, of actually 
cutting the glass completely through. To verify the phe- 
nomenon, successive particles were used for the purpose, and 
with the same result. The experiment was then tried on a 
topaz, and the same little mineral point was found to scratch 
topaz almost as readily as it did glass. It was finally ap- 
plied to a polished sapphire, and readily scratched that also, 
pfroving beyond question that this residue of small, white, 
transparent grains must be diamond, though no well-formed 
erystals could be recognized. 

It has long been known that carbon segregates from mete- 
oric iron in the form of fine-grained graphite; and, when 

^ Amerioan Joomal of Selenoe, VoL zui., Noyemb«r, 1801. 



Haidinger found in the Arva iron a cubic form^ of graphite, 
it was suggested by Rose that the crystals might be pseudo- 
morpbs of graphite after diamond. More recently Fletcher 
described, a cubic form of graphite from the Youngdegin 
meteorite, under the name of Cliftonite.* 

Finally, a meteoric stone which was seen to fall at Nowo- 
Urei, in Russia, in 1886, was discovered two years later to 
contain one per cent of a carbonaceous material, which not 
only had the crystalline form of the diamond but also its 
hardness, so that, instead of being regarded as a pseud omorph 
after diamond, it was compared with the black diamonds of 
Brazil, called ^ ^carbonado.''' And, lastly, in the Canon Diablo 
iron we have true diamonds, though of minute dimensions. 
Thus it would appear that, under certain conditions, metallic 
iron is the matrix of the diamond. 

Now, we further know that when cast iron is slowly cooled 
a considerable portion of the carbon separates in the condi- 
tion of graphite. Moreover, the high specific gravity of the 
earth as a whole, as compared with the materials which 
compose its crust, give us ground for the theory that the in- 
terior of our planet may be a mass of molten iron. There- 
fore it would seem to be not an unreasonable hypothesis^ 
that diamonds may have been separated from this molten 
metal during the formation of the earth's crust; and a sup- 
port for this hypothesis may be found in the fact that at the 
Kimberley mines of South Africa diamonds occur in, what 
appear to be, volcanic vents, filled with the products of the 
decomposition of intrusive material thrown up from great 
depths. 

The late Professor H. Carvill Lewis, in examining the 
materials from the greatest depths of the South African 
mines, came to the conclusion that the diamonds were formed 
by the action of the intrusive material on the carbonaceous 
shale there found, and on this ground predicted the discovery 
of diamonds in meteorites;^ but it must be remembered that 
a similar geological phenomenon appears on a grand scale in 
Gi-eenland, and no diamonds have as yet been found in the 
Greenland irons, though they have been so carefully studied 
by the late Professor J. Lawrence Smith and others. 

It is difficult to conceive of any chemical reaction by which 
diamonds could be formed from the action of melted igneous 
rock on coal, and all attempts to prepare diamonds artificially 
by similar means have signally failed. 

The writer would urge that the segregation of carbon 
from molten iron is a well-known phenomenon, and the as- 
sociation of diamonds with amorphous carbon in the meteor- 
ite from Arizona indicates that under certain conditions such 
a segregation may take the form of diamond. The chief of 
these conditions is doubtless the length of time attending 
the crystallization, though it may also be affected by press- 
ure; and if the earth, as many believe, is simply a large iron 
meteorite covered with a crust, it seems perfectly possible 
that if we could go deep enough below the surface we should 
find diamonds in great abundance. 

• Min. Mac., 7, ISl, 1887. 

* American Joarnal of Sdenoe, zxyL, p. 74. 
« BritlBli AaaoGlatlon, 18B6, p. 667. 

Ibid, 1887, p. 780. 



I 



i6 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 492 



1 



THE NUMBER OF BROODS OP THE IMPORTED 

ELM-LEAF BEETLE. 

BT C. V. BILKY. 

At the meeting of the Entomological Club of the A.A. A.S. 
in Washington last autumn, Professor John B. Smith, it 
will be remembered, gave some interesting observations on 
this beetle, made at New Brunswick, N.J. As the some- 
what astonishing result of his observations, he stated that 
there was but one annual generation, and that the beetles 
actually went into hibernating quarters early in August. 
Professor Smith's statements were so emphatic, and bvidently 
based on such careful observations, that they could not very 
well be gainsaid, but as they conflicted with my observations 
on the species in the latitude of Washington, for which I 
have recorded two generations, and exceptionally a third, 
I was anxious the present season to go over the ground 
again, still more carefully than in the past, and, by rearing 
in confinement the first generation of larvae from the first 
eggs hatched, to thus verify, in a manner which could leave 
no possible doubt, the facts which I had previously recorded. 
In this brief note, I desire simply to state that at the present 
time (June 30) I have eggs laid by the second brood of 
beetles, i.e., the beetles obtained from larvas which were 
feeding during the month of May and early part of June, 
thus proving, in the most positive manner, that in the latitude 
of Washington there are at least two broods, and that the 
second brood of larvae will be feeding during July. 

The following from the Appendix to the second edition of 
Bulletin 6, Division of Entomology, Department of Agricul- 
ture, October, 1891, will bear repeating in this connection: — 
** One statement in the life-history of the Imported Elm- 
Leaf Beetle, as given in the preceding pages, may have to 
be corrected in the light of the observations of the past six 
years, and that is in reference to the number of annual gen- 
erations. Like other leaf-beetles^ this insect occupies an 
extended time in oviposition. The eggs appear to develop 
slowly in the ovaries, and a single female will deposit a 
number of the characteristic little yellow batches. This fact, 
taken in connection with the retardation of certain individ- 
uals of a generation, results in an inextricable confusion of 
broods. Adult beetles, pupae, larvae in all stages, and eggs, 
will be found upon trees at the same time, in Washington, 
during the months of June, July, August, and even later. 
Prom this fact it is almost impossible to estimate the num- 
ber of annual generations without the most careful breeding- 
cage experiments. There is no evidence that the facts upon 
record are based upon such careful experiments. Glover, 
in the annual report of this department for 1867, page 62, 
says: * After becoming pupae, in a few days the skin of the 
back splits open and the perfect insect crawls forth, furnished 
with wings, by means of which it is enabled to fiy to other 
trees and deposit its eggs, thus spreading the nuisance to 
every elm in the neighborhood; or it may ascend some tree 
and lay the eggs for a second generation, which destroys 
the second crop of leaves, frequently so enfeebling or ex- 
hausting the tree that it is unable to recover and eventually 
perishes.^ Again, in the Annual Report for 1870, page 73, 
he says: *The perfect beetles appear in a few days and im- 
mediately fiy up into the tree to lay their eggs for a second 
generation, which frequently destroys every leaf on the 
tree.' 

''The European records seem strangely silent upon this 
point. In the articles by Leinweber and Frauenfeld, referred 
to upon page 6, there is no indication of the number of gen- 



erations, but it may be inferred that only one, namely, that 
of June and July, has been under observation. Heeger, 
however {loc. cit., p. 114), says that ' under favorable cir- 
cumstances there are three to four generations during the 
whole summer. Toward the end of August the insect ceases 
feeding and retires — partly as larvae and partly as beetles — 
to winter rest under fallen leaves, in the cracks of bark, 
holes in the trunks of the trees, and in the ground itself.* 
This observation was made near Vienna. 

'* Our statement upon page 8 y^as a general one, based upon. 
the observations in August. This state of affairs may proba- 
bly hold in more northern regions, but in Washington it is 
safe to say that there are two generations, because, as just 
stated, newly developed beetles (the progeny of those which 
hibernate) appear in early June. These lay eggs, and, in 
fact, egg-laying may continue until the end of September, 
and larvae have actually been found by Mr. Pergande in 
October." 



THE REPTILIAN RATTLE. 



BT S. OABMAN. 



Among the specimens secured by Dr. Q^org Baur, in his 
explorations of the Galapagos Islands, there are a number of 
large lizards of the genera Conolophus and Amblyrhynchus, 
which exhibit certain peculiarities in the spines of the dorsal 
crest. Externally each of the spines resembles the rattle of 
a small rattlesnake. The likeness was evidently brought 
about by causes similar to those through which the rattle 
was originated. In a measure, these spines confirm my state- 
ment of the evolution of that organ as published in 1888 
(Bull. Mus. Com p. Zool., viii., 259). Figures 1-4, herewith, 
represent a couple of the nuchal spines in a lateral aspect 
and views, side and front, of one of the dorsal spines of the 
Galapagos lizard, Conolophus subcristatus. On making a 
longitudinal section of any of these spines they are seen to 
be wholly dermal and to contain neither bones nor muscles. 
Their epiderm is a little thicker than that of the scales on 
the flanks. It is apparent that for a time, after hatching, 
growth of the skin was rapid and regular. The spines de- 
veloped during this period were subpyramidal ; they tapered 
so much, on back as on neck, that the slough came off 
readily and was lost. A periodic growth was taken on in 
later stages, and, the spines having become more elongate, a 
slight constriction was formed around the base, from folding 
the skin by bending the spine from side to side. Becoming 
still more elongate, the foldings meanwhile increasing in 
extent and depth, a stage was finally reached which, may- 
hap aided by shrinkage, retained the epiderm of the spine in 
place as a cap after the general slough was cast. Thus one 
thickness after another was added to the covering of the 
spine, each of the older being shoved farther up, by growth, 
so as to expose below it a band of the newer cuticle. The 
folded lower edge, the collar, of the cap rested in a basal 
groove or furrow, and prevented displacement E^ch cap 
was closely applied to that beneath it, and the spine as a 
whole was solid. Outwardly the spines resemble rattles; 
internally the caps rest one upon another too closely to 
rattle. 

The tip of the tail of the common snake ends in a spine 
somewhat like that in the crest of the lizard. It differs in 
containing a bone, the end of the vertebral column. Slough- 
ing Lb similar in the two cases, a slight variation only being 
induced on account of the included vertebra. On most 
snakes the spine tapers greatly, and the cap is carried off in 



July 8, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



17 



the slongh. Od a fev there are conBtrictions and ridges 
around the cap, that recall those od the spines of the lizard. 
Aa it happens, those marked io this manner are the nearest 
living allies of the rattlesnakes. In the paper on the Evo- 
lution of the Battle, above cited, the copperhead, Ancis- 
trodon (Fig. 5), vas brought forward as most nearly rep- 
resenting the ancestor of the smaller rattlesnakes, Sis- 
trurus; and the bushmaster, Lacbesis (Fig. 6), of northern 
South America, was suggested as the most likely for the 
large rattlers, Crotalua. These forms were pointed out as bo 
nearly approximating a condition from which the posaession 
of a rattle was a necessary consequence that we might at 
any time expect to Qnd individuals on which the caps were 
mechanically retained. Uy conclusions in regard to the 
inception of the rattle seem to be indirectly confirmed by 
what obtains on the lizards. This will be the more apparent 
if it is home in mind that the present development of the 
rattle (Figs. 7-9} embraces much that is a consequence of its 




FIsH, ]->, Danbal aplDM, uid S-t, ■ dorsal iptna of ConolopbOB 
ric.B,Mfl ol AaclMTOdon ooDlortHi; Flf, S,(all 
SMrnma olanatiu, iit blnh ; Pigs. B-9, Crotalna oonflneDtn^ 



LaahMla mnnu ; Pig. 7, 



I, much that has been induced by its presence and 
use. The greater part of the shortening- for ward in the ex- 
tremity of the tail, of the compacting and consolidation of 
the poaterior vertebrae, with the enlargement of the cap to 
include them, and much of the development of the caudal 
muscles must be eliminated before one can realize the pri- 
mary condition of the rattle, a condition which was, no 
doubt, but a little advanced upon that now existing in An- 
Gtstrodon and lAchesis, aa sketched in Figs. 6 and 6. 
Has. Comp. Zool., Cambrldie, Hsu. 



OPPOSITION OF MARS. 



Thb coming apposition of Ifai* will be of interest to as- 
tronomers throughout the vorld ; and extensive preparations 
are being made to observe it. The face of the god of war is 
sure to be watched, drawn, and photographed with more 
care than ever before. And the most perfect spectroscopes 
made will be turned on his ruddy disk. The sun, earth, 



and Mars will be on the same straight line nearly, on Aug. 
3 at 13 b. 13 m., or at 1 b. 13 m. a.m., Aug. 4, 1892. The 
time of the opposition will be favorable for observation, since 
the earth passes its aphelion on July 1, while Mars does not 
pass his perihelion until Sept, 7. That ia, the earth will be 
34 days only past the time when at ita greatest distance from 
the sun ; and Mars but 8S days from its nearest approach. 
If these dates could coincide — opposition take place when 
the earth is at a maximum and Mara at a minimum distance 
from the sun — then would the earth and Mars be at a 
minimum distance from each other, or 33,664,000 miles; in 
which computation a solar parallax of 8.8" an^ a mean dis- 
tance of Marsof 141,500,000 miles were employed. However, 
since the opposition will occur midway between, it is proba- 
ble that, at the moment of the nearest approach of the two 
planets, they will be distant about 8G,50O,0a0 miles. 

The last opposition favorable for close observation was on 
Sept. 6, 1877; at whieh approach, Proeessor Asaph Hall dis- 
covered two minute moons in revolution around our neigh- 
boring world. This important discovery is best given in 
Professor Hall's own language: "The sweep around the 
planet waa repeated aeveral times on the night of Aug. 11, 
and at half-past two o'clock I found a faint object on the 
following side and a little north of the planet, which after- 
wards proved to be the outer satellite. On Aug. 16 the 
object was found again on the following side of the planet. 
On Aug. 17, while watching for the outer satellite, I discov- 
ered the inner one." Perhaps this optical discovery reveab 
the power of modem telescopes in a manner more impressive 
than any other, thus; "The outer one was seen with the 
telescope al a distance from the earth of 7,000,000 times its 
diameter. The proportion would be tbat of a ball two inchea 
in diameter viewed at a distance equal to that between the 
cities of Boston and New York " (Newcomb and Holden, 
"Astronomy," p. 338). 

These moons were seen with the 26-inoh glass at Washing- 
ton ; but now a 36-inch telescope is in waiting for Mars, and 
none can predict what will be discovered. The satellites are 
estimated to be 6 and 7 miles in diameter; and tbey have a 
most rapid motion. It is well to note some ot the facta 
about these bodies that served a great purpose, in sweeping 
away that mythology of astronomy, the nebular hypothesis. 
Distances from centre of Mars: Deimos, 14,600 miles; Phobos, 
6,800 miles. Times of revolution: Deimoa, 30 h. 18 m. ; 
Phoboe, 7 b. 39 m. But it requires 24 h. 37 m. for Mars to 
turn on its axis, which divided by 7 b. 39 m. equals 3.28; 
that is, the inhabitants of Mars have 8.28 months of Fbobot 
every day. This moon rises in the weet and passes through 
a phase in 1 b. 56 m. Deimos is 130 h. 37 m. from rising to 
rising, or 66 h. 18 m. from rising to setting. Its gain over 
the rotation of Mars is 3° 24' per hour, hence it requires lOS 
hours to gain a whole revolution, which, added tothediurnal 
rotation of the planet, gives the 130 h. 37 m. But 6G h. 18 
m. equals 3.165 months of Deimos; therefore the other satel- 
lite passes more than two full sets of phases while above the 
martial horizon, with plenty of eclipses beside. 

The main interest in the next opposition rests in the hope 
tbatan accurate mapof Mars can be made, or that good photo- 
graphs can be secured, or that the spectroscope may make 
further revelations concerning the absorption of solar rays 
by its atmosphere, or that the lines due to the vapor of 
water may be seen to better advantage, if possible, than at 
the last. Professor C. A. Toung, "Astronomy," p. 337, saysi 
"The probability is that ita density is considerably less than 
that of our own atmosphere. Dr. Huggins has found with 



i8 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No 492 



the spectroscope unequivocal evidence of the presence of 
aqueous vapor." 

The idea that water exists on Mars is supported by the 
fact that white patches are seen on the poles, and that these 
vary in size with variations of inclination of the axis toward 
the sun. The white area is now well seen at this observa- 
tory on one of the poles. So rapid has been the advance in 
celestial photography, and in spectroscopy, and also in the 
size of telescopic objectives during the last 16 years, that 
without doubt much additional knowledge of Mars will be 
gained in August. 

Kdoz College Obeerratory, OaleBburg, 111., July 1. 



CROSS-FERTILIZINQ AND HYBRIDIZING. 

Thb following excellent suggestions are from the emi- 
nent horticulturist, Professor T. J. Burrill, of the Illinois 
experiment station. The subject is one calling for the co- 
operation of farmers and fruit growers everywhere with the 
experiment stations, for where nature has laid the founda- 
tion for improvement by giving us such a wild seedling as 
the CJoncord grape, that should be made the basis for further 
work. 

Cross-fertilizing and hybridizing have been carried on to 
some extent, both for the efiPects of crossing and for the pur- 
pose of producing, if possible, new varieties of value. A 
number of crosses have been made in the apple, as for in- 
stance, between Ben Davis and Grimes, Ben Davis and 
Minkler, or Ben Davis and Duchess, with a view of getting 
something that will bear like the Ben Davis, but have the 
better quality of Grimes or Minkler, having the keeping 
quality of Ben Davis and the hardiness of tree of the Duch- 
ess. Different varieties of strawberries have been crossed, 
and plants are growing from the crossed seed. Blackberry 
varieties have been crossed, seeds planted, and plants are 
growing. Raspberries have been crossed — black varieties 
together, red varieties together, black with red, and black- 
berries with raspberries. We have now ready for planting 
more than a quart of seed from crossed raspberry and black- 
berry, or from selected varieties. 

Results are problematical, but there is certainly great 
room for improvement in our blackberries and raspberries. 
There is entirely too much seed for the amount of flesh. 
When we consider that our apples originated from a crab in 
no way superior to many of our own native wild crabs, and 
the excellence that has been developed by cultivation and 
selection, what may we not expect from our raspberries and 
blackberries, which are so much better naturally ? We have 
only begun with the raspberry and blackberry group of plants. 
I believe none of the blackberries or dewberries now cultivated 
are the result of growing plants from seed, but that all are the 
result of propagating natural seedlings, and it is not at all 
certain that we have yet the best of the wild varieties. Most 
of our raspberries are the result of chance. 

During the past three seasons some work has been done 
in the line of crossing and selecting corn. The results seem 
to indicate that corn grown from crossing two distinct varie- 
ties will be larger than the average of the kinds crossed, or 
where the parents are nearly equal in value. To be sure, 
nothing has yet been reported in that line, though there 
would seem to have been abundant time for seedlings to 
have been grown. If the results of our crosses in corn are 
to serve as an index, we might expect to find in a second or 
third generation fruit of the Vinifera type on vines of the 



Labrusca. There is a great difiPerence in the susceptibility 
of fruits to the influence of man. Our grapes have had 
more time spent on them, extending over a longer period, 
than have our strawberries ; yet the results from grapes are 
hardly to be compared with the results from strawberries. 

A small start has been made in the growth of nuts. The 
attempts at improvement heretofore have been confined 
almost exclusively to the pecan and chestnut. Attempts at 
improvement by growing seedlings from the best native 
trees have usually been a disappointment, because the seed- 
lings have been inferior to the tree from which seed was 
taken, just as 999 of every 1,000 seedlings grown from the 
Concord grape have been so inferior to the parent as to be 
unworthy of general distribution. But it must be remem- 
bered that while there are comparatively few chances for 
improvement by growing seedlings there are none from 
simply budding or grafting. 

The filbert and walnut of Europe are too tender for our 
climate. Why may not our hazelnut and walnut be im- 
proved so as to take their places, and be made valuable crops 
for the rough lands along our streams f 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



An interesting feature has been added to the first United 
States Food Exhibition, to be held at Madison Square Garden, 
New York, in October next, in the way of a national exhibit of 
dairy products. This department will be in charge of Professor 
James Cheesman, who represented the dairy interests of the 
United States at the late Paris Exposition. Professor Cheesman 
has a wide reputation as a dairy expert and as an authority on ail 
matters pertaining to the dairy interests. This part of the expo- 
sition promises to be one of its most popular features. 

— The Journal de Colmar of June 19 says : The president of 
the committee entrusted with the erection of a monument to 
Him has received a letter from the maire of Strasburg, in which 
he makes the following statement : " I have the pleasure of an- 
nouncing that, upon the receipt of your letter of the 23d, relative 
to the participation of the city of Strasburg in the erection of a 
monument to M. G. A. Hirn, the municipal council has deter- 
mined to contribute to this work the sum of 800 marks. I have 
ordered this amount to be credited to you, and it may be obtained 
from the municipal collector, who will transfer it to the treasurer 
of the committee, M. Baer. I trust that the example of Stras- 
burg will find many imitators." 

— Ck>mell University closed the college year 1891-2 on June 16, 
conferring above 300 degrees, of which about one-half were in 
scientific and technical courses, and a large number of which were 
the higher degrees. The graduating class was the largest in the 
history of the University, and is said to have t>een the strongest. 
The year terminates the connection of a number of the members 
of the faculty with the university, and this fact and the antici- 
pated growth for the coming year will render it necessary to ap- 
point a still larger number of new professors and instructors. 
The indications, judging from the numbers entering at the June 
examinations, are said to point to an entering class in September 
of not far from 500, and of probably fifteen or twenty per cent 
more in the upper classes and as graduate students, making a 
probable total of about 1,600 in all departments and classes. Sib- 
ley College, with its special and graduate schools and depart- 
ments in mechanical engineering, will prepare for a total of 625 
students, a hundred more than in 1891-2. In addition to new 
appointments already made, it is expected that professorships will 
be filled in geology, chemistry, and possibly one or two other 
subjects; also a number ot assistant professorships and many 
instructorships in all departments, including physics, engineering, 
and mechanic arts. The appointments in scientific departments 
are usually such as demand familiarity with laboratory instruc- 
tion, especially in electricity and mechanics. 



July 8, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



19 



— A Geographical Exhibition, we'^leam from the Proceedings of 
the Royal Geographical Society, will be opened this summer at 
Moecow, in connection with the two loterDatioDal Congresses of 
Prehistoric Archsdology and Anthropology, which are to be held 
in the ancient Russian capital. The General Staff will exhibit a 
collection of all the maps, descriptions, and surveys made by 
Russian travellers in Central Asia, China, and Korea, which are 
deposited in the Topographical Department of the General Staff 
and the Scientific Military Committee. They will show also the 
recently- published maps, based upon surveys in the Empire and 
adjacent countries. A catalogue of these works is now in prepa- 
ration. 

— The degree of M. A. was conferred, honoris causa, upon Pro- 
fesBor Edward Sylvester Morse at the recent Harvard commence- 
ment. Professor Morse was bom in Portland, Me., in 1838. 
When but thirteen years of age he began to form a collection of 
minerals and shells. His first occupation was as a mechanical 
draughtsman at the Portland locomotive works. Afterward he 
made drawings on wood for a Boston concern. In 1852 he began 
a course of study under Agassiz at the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology in Cambridge. In 1866 he founded the American Natu- 
ralist, now published in Philadelphia. In 1868 he was made a 
fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1871 
Bowdoin College gave him the degree of doctor of philosophy. 
In 1874 Harvard elected him to a university lectureship, and he 
was also chosen vice-president of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, of which association he afterward 
became president. While studying marine zoology in Japan he 
accepted a professorship in the Imperial University at Tokio. He 
made several other visits to Japan, and formed a collection which 
was recently sold to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Professor 
Morse is also the inventor of numerous ingenious appliances for 
both scientific and domestic uses. 

— The British consul in Hainan, in his last report, says, ac- 
cording to Nature, that during the past year he has made two 
journeys in that island, one to certain prominent hills near Hoi- 
how, known as the '* Hummocks,*' which lie fifteen miles to the 
west, on the road to Ch'eng mai, the other a gunboat cruise to 
Hansui Bay. The people at both these places, and presumably all 
along the north-west coast, though believing themselves Chinese, 
speak a language which is not only not Chinese, but has a large 
percentage of the words exactly similar to Siamese, Shan, Laos, 
or Muong. The type of the people, too, is decidedly Shan, with- 
out the typical Chinese almond eye. At one time (1,000 years 
ago) the Ai-lau or Nan-chau Empire of the Thai race extended 
from Yun-nan to the sea, and the modern Muongs of Tonquin, 
like the Shans of the Kwangsi province, the ancestors of both of 
which tribes belonged to that empire, probably sent colonies over 
to Hainan ; or the Chinese generals may have sent prisoners of 
war over. It is certain that some, at least, of the unlettered, but 
by no means uncivilized, tribes in the central parts of Hainan 
speak a type of language which is totally different from that spo- 
ken by the Shan-speaking tribes of the north-west coast. Yet 
the Chinese indiscriminately call all the non-Chinese Hainan dia- 
lects the Li language. The subject, Mr. Parker says, is one of 
great interest, well worth the attention of travellers. It was his 
intention to pursue the inquiry when making a commercial tour 
of inspection round the island, but his transfer to another pest 
compels him to abandon his scheme. 

— The latest researches of the Finnish expedition to the Kola 
Peninsula will modify, as we learn from Nature, the position of 
the line w*hich now represents on our maps the northern limits of 
tree-vegetation in that part of Northern Europe. The northern 
limit of coniferous forests follows a sinuous line which crosses 
the peninsula from the north-west to the south east. But it now 
appears that birch penetrates much farther north than the conif- 
erous trees, and that birch forests or groves may be considered as 
constituting a separate outer zone which fringes the former. The 
northern limits of birch groves are represented by a very broken 
line, as they penetrate most of the vallejrs, almost down to the 
sea-shore ; so that the tundras not only occupy but a narrow space 
along the sea- coast, but they are also broken by the extensions of 



birch forests down the valleys. As to the tundras which have 
been shown of late in the interior of the peninsula, and have been 
marked on Drude*s map in Berghaus's atlas, the Finnish explorers 
remark that the treeless spaces on the Ponoi are not tundras but 
extensive marshes, the vegetation of which belongs to the forest 
region. The Arctic or tundra vegetation is thus limited to a nar- 
row and irregular zone along the coast, and to a few elevated 
points in the interior of the peninsula, like the Khibin tundras, or 
the Luyavrurt (1,120 metres high). The conifer forests, whose 
northern limit offers much fewer sinuosities than the northern 
limit of birch- growths, consist of fir and Scotch fir; sometimes 
the former and sometimes the latter extending up to the northern 
border of the coniferous zone. 

— A sealed bottle containing a paper requesting the finder to 
report the place and date of discovery was thrown into the sea at 
Coatham Pier, Redcar, by Mr. T. M. Follow, on Oct. 8, 1891. On 
April 12, 1892, according to the Proceedings of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, the bottle was picked up by a fisherman off the 
island of Hjelmeso, in the extreme north of Norway. The bottle 
had been immersed for six months, and the shortest distance 
between the two points is 1,400 miles. This observation con- 
firms the general set of the currents from the east coast of Britain, 
at first south easterly and then northerly along the continental 
coast, as shown in Mohn^s map of surface drift in the North Sea 
and Norwegian Sea in Petermann^s ** Erg&nzungeheft," No. 79, 
for 1885. 

— The Russian Official Messenger (April 22) announces that 
the Ministry of Domains has decided to make, next summer, the 
following explorations in Caucasia: (1) The exploration of the 
mineral springs of the Eastern Caucasus having now been com- 
pleted, to carry out a similar work in Central and West Trans- 
caucasia; namely, the mineral waters of Khvedur, Uravel, T^iku- 
ban. Platen, and others, in the governments of Tiflis and Kutais, 
and in the Chemomorsk District ; (2) to continue the systematic 
geological exploration of the government of Tiflis, especially of 
the valleys of the Yora and the Alazan in Kahetia, and their min- 
eral resources, in view of the projected construction of a railway 
in Kahetia; and (3) as the detailed study of the Apsheron naphtha 
region was terminated last year, and the map of the region is 
ready, to complete the exploration of the Caspian coast naphtha 
region, and to explore the nickel ores of Daghestan. The geolo- 
gist, Simonovich, and the mining ofiicers, Konshin, Barbot-de- 
Mamy, and Gavriloff, are commissioned for this purpose, while 
M. Rughevich is commissioned to explore the naphtha region along 
the new Petrovsk branch of the Vladikavkaz RaUway, which 
yielded last year 15,000 tons of naphtha, and promises to become 
an important centre of naphtha industry. 

— Professor Elihu Thomson, the inventor of the Thomson- 
Houston Electric Company, contributes an entertaining, scientific, 
and thoughtful paper on ** Future Electrical Development," to the 
July New England Magazine. He explains the possibilities of 
electricity, in all the public and private conveniences of life, and 
gives practical examples of its application to manufactures, rapid 
transit, and domestic offices, such as cooking, ironing, heating, 
gardening, raising fruit and vegetables, etc. 

— Macmillan & Co. announce the issue of a new and extensively 
revised edition of Mr. Bryce's '' American Commonwealth.*' It is 
to be expected that this new edition will take notice of the many 
important changes which have occurred since the work was first 
issued. It is to be copyrighted in America. The same publishers 
have already issued more than half of Stephen's ** Dictionary of 
Biography,*' one volume of which is published quarterly. Thirty 
out of a total of fifty volumes have appeared so far, and the enter- 
prise is so well in hand that there will be no break in the publica- 
tion of the remaining parts. The work when completed will 
contain at least thirty thousand articles by writers of acknowl- 
edged eminence in their several departments. The memoirs are 
the result of personal research, and much information has been 
obtained from sources that have not before been utilized. It has 
been the aim of the editors to omit nothing of importance and to 
supply full, accurate, and concise biographies, excluding, of course, 
those of persons still living. 



/ 



20 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 492 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



PUBUSHBD BY 



N. D. C. HODGES. 



874 Broadway, Nbw York. 



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Great Britain and Europe 4.50 a year. 

Oommanicatione will be welcomed from any quarter. Abetraots of eoientiflc 
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them. The " Exchange *^ column is likewise open. 

For Adyertising Bates apply to Hkhbt F. Tatlob, 47 Lafayette Place, New 
York. 



ON THE UNCERTAINTY OF CONCLUSIONS.* 

BY T. C. MSNDBNHALL. 

About seven years ago, on the morning of a cold day in 
winter, a rough-looking, scantily-dressed man was observed 
to leave a freight car, which was standing upon a side-track 
near a small country town, and make his way rapidly into 
the fields and woods beyond. 

From his appearance it was evident that he belonged to 
that vast army of tramps which is never in need of mobiliza- 
tion and which carries upon its muster-rolls many who 
possess most of the virtues of the good and none of the 
vices of the bad, having lost only the power of further re- 
sistance against continued antagonism and unfriendly en- 
vironment. 

The behavior of this man excited no comment, and his 
existence was remembered a few hours later only because of 
the discovery of the body of a stranger, who had evidently 
been murdered, on the floor of the car which he had been 
seen to leave. Pursuit followed immediately, and capture 
within a day or two. One or two clever detectives interested 
themselves in finding evidence of his guilt, and within a few 
days had prepared a case which lacked little in the detail of 
its elaboration or in its artistic finish. 

It was proved that two strangers .were seen in the suburbs 
of the town at a late hour on the previous night, although 
they were not together. The prisoner was identified beyond 
doubt as the man who hastily left the car in the morning. 
The murderer had left no means of identification except a 
small piece of muslin, evidently torn from the sleeve of his 
shirt, and which was stained with the blood of his victim. 
On the arrest of the prisoner one or two blood stains were 
found upon his clothing, and, what was more convincing 
than all else, the bit of sleeve found in the car fitted exactly 
into the place in his own garment, from which it must have 
been torn in the struggle which preceded the crime. 

> Address as retiring president, dellyered Jan. 90, 18K, before tlie PhUoso- 
phlcal Society of Washington. 



While all of this evidence might be classified as ** circum- 
stantial," it was so complete and satisfactory that no jury 
could be expected to entertain serious doubt as to the guilt 
of the prisoner, and, in spite of his protestations of inno- 
cence, a sentence to life imprisonment was in accord with 
the judgment of the general public. 

Only a few weeks since this man was set free and declared 
to be innocent of the crime for which he had already served 
seven years at hard labor, the misleading character of the 
evidence on which he was convicted having been exposed 
through the voluntary confession of the real criminal. The 
facts thus brought out were, briefly, as follows : — 

There were three men in the case. The first, who was 
afterward murdered, slept upon the floor of the car when 
the second, the real murderer, entered it. In the dark be 
stumbled over the sleeping man, who awoke and immediately 
attacked him. The quarrel did not last long, the original 
occupant being left dead upon the floor of the car while the 
murderer quickly made his escape, leaving the village and 
neighborhood behind him as far and as fast as possible. An 
hour or two later the third man, seeking shelter and sleep,, 
finds his way into the car, and dropping on the floor, is soon 
in a deep slumber. He awakes at break of day to find that 
a dead man has been his companion, and to see that his own 
sleeve is smeared with the blood of the victim. Alarmed 
by this discovery, and realizing in some degree the perilous 
position in which he is thus placed, he tears off the stained 
portion of his garment, and, hastily leaving the car, he fleea 
from the scene as rapidly as possible. 

Nothing can be more simple or more satisfactory than this 
account of the affair, and yet nothing is more natural than 
that he should be accused of the crime and brought to trial. 
The evidence against him was convincing, and it was all abso- 
lutely true. It was not strange, therefore, that his conviction 
and imprisonment should follow. 

It will doubtless appear to many that the foregoing is too 
closely allied to the sensational to serve fitly as an introduc- 
tion to an address prepared for a society of philosophers, and 
I am ready to acknowledge the apparent validity of the crit- 
icism. I am led to its selection, however, because it is an 
account of an actual occurrence, which illustrates in a man- 
ner not to be misunderstood a not unrecognized proposition 
to a brief exposition and partial development of which I ask 
your attention this evening. This proposition is that, in the 
treatment of many questions with which we are confronted 
in this world, our premises may be absolutely true and our 
logical processes apparently unassailable and yet our conclu- 
sions very much in error. 

No department of human knowledge or region of mental 
activity will fail to yield ample illustration and proof of this 
proposition. An astonishingly large number of debatable 
questions present themselves to the human intellect. Many 
of them are conceded to be of such a nature that differences 
of opinion concerning them must continue, perhaps, indefi- 
nitely. 

But there is a very large and a very important class of 
problems, the solution of which is apparently not impossible 
and often seemingly easy, regarding which the most diverse 
views are most persistently held by persons not differing 
greatly in intelligence or intellectual training. 

Men whose business it is to weigh evidence and to reach cor- 
rect conclusions, in spite of inadequacy of information and 
perversion of logic, constitute no exception to this statement^ 
but, on the contrary, furnish many of its most notable illus- 
trations. 



July 8, 1892,] 



SCIENCE. 



21 



Many of the questions which present themselves to our 
jurists and juries are simply questions of fact, and the testi- 
naony on which the determination of such questions depends 
often comes from persons who are neither interested nor dis- 
honest. In such cases it ought to he easy to reach a true 
conclusion, hut there is often failure, growing out of honest 
differences of opinion. 

An eminent attorney not long since referred in conversa- 
tion to a certain decision of the Supreme Court of the United 
States concerning which there had heen a strong dissenting 
minority. The' question was one which involved neither 
passion nor politics, and he declared that to him it seemed 
utterly impossible for a disciplined mind to reach other than 
one conclusion regarding it. 

In any review of this subject, such as is here suggested, it is 
neither necessary nor proper to refer to the numerous in- 
stances of utter failure in our judicial system, attributable to 
a lack of integrity on the part of those who administer the 
laws or to the mischievous results of appeals to passion or 
prejudice by unprincipled advocates. It is sufficient to recog- 
nize the fact that failure in the administration of law is not 
uncommon where witnesses are honest, juries intelligent and 
well-meaning, and judges incorruptible. 

The rapidly increasing number of controversies within the 
church, to say nothing of those in which the disputants are 
on opposite sides of the wall, show conclusively that the 
logic of the theologian must sometimes go at a limping gait. 
In political or social economy there is great diversity of 
opinion among good and able men. Certain financial legis- 
lation by Congress is honestly thought by many people to be 
necessary to prevent widespread disaster and the financial 
ruin of one of the largest and most important classes of our 
citizens ; by other equally intelligent and equally honest men 
such action on the part of the National Legislature is con- 
demned as dishonest in principle and sure to be fatal to the 
business interests of the country. 

A large number of able and patriotic men address them- 
selves to the solution of the problem of the adjustment of 
duties upon imported merchandise. All have access to the 
same store of experience; the discussions and investigations 
of the past are open to all alike. In the end, however, their 
conclusions, even as to elementary principles, are diamet- 
rically opposed to each other. 

But I have neither the time nor the disposition to enter 
into an exhaustive examination into the miscarriage of logic 
in the regions of politics, religion, or social science. I must 
restrict myself to some consideration of the uncertainty of 
conclusions reached by what may be broadly included under 
the general term '' the exact sciences," a division of the sub- 
ject not unlikely, I hope, to be of some interest to members 
of this society. 

At the threshold of the investigation we are confronted by 
the term ** exact sciences," and it is of the utmost importance 
to reach a clear understanding of the meaning of this phrase, 
in the beginning. By some writers its application is liiiuted 
to the mathematical sciences or substantially to pure math- 
ematics. This does not seem, however, to be in accord with 
the general usage among scientific men, and a wider signifi- 
cance will be here given to it. 

Pure mathematics may, and possibly must, be regarded 
as a mode of. thought; as symbolic logic; as an abridgment 
of mental processes by the selection of that which is com- 
mon to all, and its formal expression by means of signs and 
symbols. Intellectual operations which, on account of their 
complexity and length, would be possible only to a few of 



the highest capacity are by the aid of mathematics brought 
within the range of the many. In virtue of the simple and 
beautiful nomenclature of the science, one can see at a glance, 
in a formula or equation, the various relations, primary and 
secondary, direct and implied, which exist among the sev- 
eral magnitudes involved, which, if expressed or defined in 
ordinary language, would be beyond the understanding of 
most intelligent people. 

The principles and rules governing mathematical opera- 
tions have been, in the main, so well worked out and so uni- 
versally agreed upon that in mathematics one can hardly 
go astray, at least not without the certainty of almost imme- 
diate detection and conviction at the hands of many skilled 
in the use of this wonderful intellectual device. When deal- 
ing with quantity in the abstract, or with matter under just 
such restrictions or possessed of just such properties as are 
prescribed, mathematics becomes a machine of certain per- 
formance, the output of which can only be iu error through 
the conscious or unconscious mistakes of the operator. As 
such it challenges the admiration of all, and it must forever 
be regarded as among the first, if not, indeed, the very first, 
of the few really splendid creations of the human intellect. 
When Plato, in reply to a question as to the occupation of 
the Deity, answered, '*He geometrizes continually," he exxt- 
phasized the dignity and the incontrovertibility of mathe- 
matical reasoning. 

It is no reflection, then, upon the importance and value of 
the science of mathematics to leave it upon the pedestal 
which it rightfully occupies, considering it as separate and 
apart from other sciences. In their development it may 
and does play a most important part, in which, however, it 
is identified rather with the investigator than with the sub- 
ject investigated; for, in studying the elementary principles 
of abstract dynamics, one may follow the now somewhat 
antiquated and cumbersome processes of Newton or the more 
simple and elegant methods of Clifford or Maxwell, but the 
results will in all cases be the same. 

Before finally dismissing the pure mathematics, however, 
especial attention must be invited to one or two principles 
involved in their application by way of contrast with the 
condition of things which exists in the domain of the other 
sciences. It is sometimes declared by way of a criticism of 
mathematics that ** what comes out of it is never better than 
what goes in." In a certain narrow sense this is true, but 
in a broader and truer sense it is as false as it would be to 
say that grain and fruit are no better than the soil from 
which they spring. 

The mathematician has the great advantage over the 
physicist, the chemist, or the geologist that he not only can, 
but almost necessarily must, completely define the elements 
with which he has to deal. If he deals with matter, before 
he can put it into his equations he must needs restrict it as 
to form and dimensions and endow it with definite physical 
properties, the relations of which are capable of analytical 
expression. If, after this, his power of analysis is sufficiently 
great, the conclusions which he reaches can have no element 
of uncertainty in them, provided always they are considered 
as referring only to the supposititious material with which 
the investigation was begun. That the conclusions are not 
in harmony with known phenomena is evidence only of the 
fact that the material of nature is not the material which is 
symbolized in the formula, and that certain properties which 
are common to both are modified in the former by the pres- 
ence of others which are not attributed to the latter. When 
MacCullagh, Neuman, Stokes, Sir William Thomson, or Max- 



22 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 492 



,t , 



well, each evolves a dynamical or mechanical theory of light, 
a lack of agreement among them or with known principles 
of optics can generally be traced to the fact that the medium 
in which they suppose the action to take place has not been 
endowed with the same common properties by all, and that 
in every case it falls short of an exact representation of the 
real ether itself. With this important restriction upon 
mathematical reasoning kept continually in mind, mathe- 
matics may be safely set aside as the **one science of pre- 
cision." 

What, now, are the characteristics of the so-called ** exact 
sciiences " other than pure mathematics ? Without attempt- 
ing a rigorous definition or a precise classification, it is suffi- 
cient for the purpose at hand to declare that the exact sci- 
ences are those whose conclusions are capable of being, and 
for the most part are, established by experiment and verified 
prediction. 

Among these exact sciences the most notable, in degree of 
exactness, is the science of astronomy. Although the con- 
clusions reached in the study of astronomy may not in gen- 
eral be established by experiment, the marvellous accuracy 
with which its predictions are verified has long ago placed 
it far in advance of other sciences. An inquiry into the 
cause of this excellence will not show that the logic of the 
astronomer is any more rigorous than that of many others 
engaged in scientific research, but rather that the premises 
on which he reasons are simpler, and, what is of greater im- 
portance, more nearly sufficient. Until a very recent period 
in its history, astronomy, although dealing with matter, has 
been concerned almost entirely with only one of its many 
properties. The one property thus far assumed to be com- 
mon to all matter is that long-known but still mysterious 
attraction in virtue of which there exists a stress between 
every particle and every other particle in the universe, ac- 
cording to a law the discovery and exposition of which justly 
entitles Newton to be considered the greatest philosopher of 
all ages. It happens that the hundreds and possibly thous- 
ands of other properties possessed by, or inherent in, matter 
have little if any influence on the dynamics of masses widely 
separated from each other, and therefore a knowledge of the 
law of gravitation seems to be sufficient to enable the astron- 
omer, having, of course, obtained the necessary data from 
observation, to trace the paths of the planets and to foretell 
the configuration of the heavens many years in advance. 
Within the past twenty-five years, however, the splendid 
discovery of spectroscopy, aided by great improvements in 
photography, has given rise to a new astronomy, known as 
physical, as distinguished from gravitational astronomy. 
The new science deals with a matter of many properties, 
some of which are but little understood While its conclu- 
sions are of vital importance and of intense interest, they 
result from deductions in which the premises are insufficient 
and are proportionately uncertain. The new astronomy 
must for a long time abound in contradictions and contro- 
versies, until, and largely through its development, we shall 
possess a knowledge of the properties of matter when sub- 
jected to conditions differing enormously from those with 
which we are now quite familiar. Because one astronomer 
declares that the temperature of the sun is 20,000^ F., and 
another, equally honest and capable, says it is not less than 
130,000,000^ F., it must not be inferred, and it never is, except 
by the superficial, that the whole science of solar energy is a 
tissue of falsehoods, and that those engaged in its development 
are deliberately planning an imposition upon the general 
public. Even such widely varying results as these may be 



based on observations that are entirely correct and experi- 
ments that are beyond criticism. The discussion of the re- 
sults obtained by observation and experiment may follow, in 
both cases, the very best models, and yet the conclusions may 
be erroneous and contradictory, owing to the insufficiency of 
data in the beginning. 

Unfortunately the omission of one or more important 
quantities from the equations of condition is not always 
known or suspected. The older, more exact astronomy is 
occasionally caught tripping in this way. An interesting* 
example of recent occurrence is to be found in certain ob- 
servations for stellar parallax made a few years ago by 
members of our own society. The observations were long 
continued, the instruments used were of a high character, and 
the observers were skilful. These conditions unquestionably 
promise success. It was something of a surprise, therefore, 
when a reduction of the observations gave for the parallax 
a negative result. As such a result could in no way be pos- 
sible, except, perhaps, through the assistance and interven- 
tion of a curvature in space (in virtue of which if a man^s 
vision was not limited he would, by looking straight for- 
ward, see the back of his own head), it was assumed that the 
work was not as well done as it seemed to be, or that some 
imperfection in the instrumental appliances had been over- 
looked. It now appears, however, that this record may be 
reopened, and that the results may prove to be of as great 
value as origfinally anticipated. Researches carried on dur- 
ing the past year or two have with little doubt established 
the fact that the latitude of a point on the earth's surface is 
not a fixed quantity, but that on the contrary it varies through 
a small range during a period somewhat greater than a year. 
It is believed that if this hitherto unsuspected variation be 
applied to the parallax observations, referred to above, the 
seeming absurdity of the result will vanish. 

If astronomy, the foremost of the exact sciences, is not 
free from the fault of basing conclusions upon insufficient 
premises, it will not be expected that among other sciences 
the evil will be of less magnitude. 

When we consider the sciences of heat, light, electricity, 
magnetism, and other specially investigated properties of 
matter, all of which are usually included under the general 
head of *' Physics," we meet with a formidable rival of as- 
tronomy in the extent to which they are entitled to be con- 
sidered as exact sciences. 

Physics treats of all the properties of matter, not omitting 
that which is the special domain of astronomy. As if this 
were not enough, the demands upon the science are such that 
it must also deal with that which is not matter, or, at least, 
is' not matter in the ordinarily accepted sense. Although 
physics deals with all of the properties of matter, no physi- 
cist knows them, or, possibly, half of them. Perhaps not 
one of them is entirely and completely known. It would 
seem, therefore, that this science must of necessity be one of 
uncertain conclusions. That it is far from deserving so 
sweeping a criticism is due to the fact that the properties of 
matter are not so closely interrelated as to make it impossi- 
ble to isolate one or more of them in experiment, and thus 
the problem is vastly simplified. It is probably impossible 
to do this rigorously in any case, so that there must always 
remain a small residuum of uncertainty due to the interfer- 
ence of unknown or imperfectly understood properties of 
matter. 

Thus it is possible to treat a mass of matter as though it 
possessed mass only, ignoring its electrical, magnetic, or 
optical properties, its relation to heat, its elasticity, and other 



July 8, 1892,] 



SCIENCE. 



23 



physical characteristics, and iDvestigate its behavior tinder 
the law of gravitation alone ; its optical properties may be 
found to be nearly independent of its relation to heat, elec- 
tricity, magnetism, etc., and so, in turn, each characteristic 
may be studied alone and equations obtained in which 
the number of constants is comparatively small. It is only 
after this plan has been pretty thoroughly wbrked out that 
it becomes possible to investigate the interrelations of these 
various properties, which are often obscure and difBcult of 
detection. Their discovery, however, especially one or two 
great generalisations pertaining to them, such as that of the 
conservation of energy, must be regarded as the grandest 
triumph of physical science. 

The science of physics is that which is most drawn upon 
in the formation of the so-called applied sciences. Wedded 
to mathematics as it is (and no amount of personal abuse on 
either side can ever furnish good reason for divorce), it be- 
comes the mother of engineering in all of its various forms. 
Through and by it, the forces of nature have been directed, 
the elements have been subdued and some of them over- 
come, and man has made himself master of the world. Its 
marvellous progress has, therefore, been observed by the 
people, and is understood by them perhaps to a greater degree 
than that of any other science. The most eloquent orators 
and the ablest writers have employed their genius in sound- 
ing its praises. 

It is not too much to say that when intelligent people 
speak, in a general way, of the wonderful things which sci- 
ence has accomplished during the past half-century, they 
have in mind, for the most part, the applications which have 
been made of discoveries in physical science. I think no 
one can justly question the assertion that of the several 
causes which have produced- the splendid advances in the 
material interests of the whole world during the ninete^^nth 
century, science has contributed far more liberally than all 
others. So remarkable have been her achievements that all 
the people have come to look upon her as being nearly, if 
not quite, infallible. A reputation of which the votaries of 
science may be proud has been established, but, at the same 
time, one difficult to maintain. Here, as elsewhere, it is a 
good name only that is worth counterfeiting. It is quite 
worth the while of one devoted to the interests of pure sci- 
ence alone to occasionally inquire whether an impure article 
is not being placed upon the market. However indifiPerent 
he may be to the welfare of the general public, his own self- 
ish instincts should incline him to such a course. He can- 
not clear his own skirts by declaring that the public deserves 
to be humbugged if it permits itself to be, for in this, as in 
everything else, the counterfeit when successful is not read- 
ily detected, and it is often made to appear more attractive 
than the genuine article. 

In respect to this matter physical science presents two as- 
pects. In a large degree it is a science of certain conclu- 
sions, and any false deduction is readily exposed by means 
of the many severe tests to which it may be subjected. On 
the other hand, in some of its branches it has not yet been 
found possible to isolate the elements which form a rather 
complex whole, and it therefore remains an observational 
rather than an experimental science. In the latter aspect it 
becomes comparatively easy prey for charlatans and well- 
meaning but ignorant non-professionals. 

In no department of physical science is this better illus- 
trated than in meteorology, the oldest and most abused of 
all sciences. From its early dayd. when weather forecasts 
were expressed in simple rhyme, to the present, when they 



are issued in a prose which. in its scope and richness of vocab- 
ulary sometimes excites our highest admiration, meteorology 
has been a favorite victim of pretenders, conscious and un- 
conscious. For years the people, after having first believed 
in, have patiently borne with, the predictors of disaster in 
the form of abnormal meteorological disturbances. They 
have suffered great mental distress, and they have lost enor- 
mous sums of money on account of floods, tidal waves, and 
earthquakes which never came, rains that never fell, and 
winds that never blew. They were becoming accustomed 
to this sort of thing, and were beginning to understand the 
spirit which guided the real meteorologists as manifested in 
the efforts of the great weather bureaus of the world, our 
own among the first, to foretell with a good degree of cer- 
tainty what might happen within the next twenty or thirty 
hours. But not many months ago they were again brought 
to a high pitch of meteorological excitement by the some- 
what sudden and certainly unexpected appearance of the 
*• Cloud-compelling Jove." He came not in the singular, 
but in the plural, and each of him brought the best and 
most scientific device for producing a rainfall whenever and 
wherever a sufficient thirst was found to exist. The history 
of this new industry cannot yet be written. It is still in its 
infancy. The fallacy of its methods has already been com- 
mented upon in a public journal, by a distinguished mem- 
ber of ojr own society, but a few remarks upon its some- 
what meteoric career during the past season will not be out 
of place in connection with the subject now under consider- 
ation.* 

The columns of the daily press reflected the general inter- 
est which was felt in the matter, especially in parts of the 
country where rainfall was greatly needed. As is always 
the case under such circumstances, the strong and entirely 
natural desire that its artificial production might be accom- 
plished was soon converted into a belief that it had been, 
and a readiness to accept the flimsiest sort of evidence of 
relation between the means employed and the end sought. 
This confidence materialized, or better, perhaps, was taken 
advantage of in the formation of an '* Interstate Artificial 
Rain Company, Limited " (I am quoting from the daily pa- 
pers of Nov. 10, 1891), which, after the manner of its kind, 
was apparently organized not for the purpose of actually 
producing rain, but for the formation of other joint-stock 
companies ready to purchase the secret method of doing it. 
An alleged experiment, on which a business transaction was 
based, is thus described: — 

** The party arrived in the city on Sunday, Nov. 1, and 
commenced operations on Sunday evening in a small out- 
house on the edge of town. The conditions were extremely 
unfavorable for rain. No results could be seen at first, but 
on Friday the sky became overcast with clouds. On Satur- 
day a high south wind prevailed, and on Saturday night 
some rain came from the south-west. On Sunday rain fell 
all day, and at night a norther arose. Reports from 100 to 
150 miles around this town show that rain fell on Sunday in 
most localities in considerable quantities." So convincing 
was this to the buying company that the secret process was 
purchased by them for the sum of $50,000, ** after which," 
the account rather unnecessarily adds, the selling company 
** left for home." But a business so profitable as this was 
not to be long without competition, and a few weeks later a 
telegram is sent to the leading newspapers of the country, 
announcing that a professor in a western State (it is pleasant 
to note that most of these public benefactors are "^professors") 
is prepared to furnish rain more promptly and at less cost 



24 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 492 






than the genius whose machinery and methods have invited 
public approval. Proposals to do the county sprinkling at 
so much per acre are invited and ofPered, and at one time 
it seemed as if the whole business would be ruined by over- 
production. 

One of the most interesting phases of this subject was the 
attitude in reference to it assumed by a large part, possibly 
the greater part, of the intelligent public. It was one of 
expectancy and limited confidence. ** Why not?" was com- 
monly asked. '* Look at what science has done within the 
last twenty-five years. Can anything be more astonishing ? 
and is the artificial production of rainfall more difficult and 
more wonderful than many things which are now common- 
place ? " To many the logic of the experiments was con- 
vincing. After many battles rain had fallen, long lists of 
examples have been prepared, and hence it must be possible 
to produce rainfall by cannonading. If these views were 
entertained by a considerable number of intelligent people, 
and it is believed that they were, the situation is one which 
ought to be full of interest to men of science, involving, as 
it does, both a tribute and a warning. 

It would be good for all if the intelligent public was in 
the habit of looking a little more below the surface of things. 
It is too much in the way of assuming that the president of 
the company engaged in exploiting an important invention 
or device is the genius who first discovered the principle in 
virtue of which it operates. It loses sight of — no, it does 
not lose sififht of, because it never knew — the patient toil, 
the unselfish devotion, and, what is perhaps more impor- 
tant, the unfiinching honesty with which a few men of the 
highest intellectual capacity have from the earliest times 
given themselves to the study of the laws of nature. 

It would surprise the public to know how long ago and 
by whom many of the most recent and most brilliant appli- 
cations of science were made possible. Would it not be in 
the interest of all if men of science were more ready and 
willing to take the intelligent public into their confidence; 
and would not the public, if familiar with the history of 
scientific investigation and accustomed to scientific modes of 
thought and criticism, be less the prey of charlatans and 
well-meaning but ill-informed enthusiasts ? A better knowl- 
edge on both sides would lead to a better appreciation of 
both sides, and the real worker in science would seldom go 
without that public recognition which has too often been 
denied to the ablest men. No better illustration of this can 
be found than in the life of the distinguished first president 
of this society, to stand in whose place must always be an 
honor to any man. With his great work as secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution the public is fairly well acquainted, 
and it has not been backward in bestowing honors in recog- 
nition of that work. Unfortunately, comparatively few know 
of what must be regarded, I think, as his greater work, the 
original researches in which he was engaged, and in which 
he was so singularly successful, before he became identified 
with the institution to which he gave the greater part of his 
life. Scant justice has yet been done to this important part 
of a career which must always be an inspiration to members 
of this society. 

But I am warned that the brief time during which I can 
claim your attention to-night is quite insufficient for any- 
thing like a full exposition of the theme which I have se- 
lected, and I must, I fear, somewhat abruptly turn about in 
order that I may leave with you in somewhat more definite 
language one or two thoughts which I have attempted to 
develop by illustration and example. 



Becurring to the unfortunate victim of circumstantial evi- 
dence, whose experience was related in the beginning, it will 
be admitted that the judge who charged, the jury who con- 
victed, the witnesses who told the truth, and the approving 
public were all in error, in that they failed to recognize that 
there was another way of explaining what had happened. 
It does not necessarily follow that the explanation which ex- 
plains is the true one. There are many natural phenomena 
which are in entire accord with more than one hypothesis. 
Indeed, there are some things which may be perfectly ac- 
counted for on an infinite number of suppositions, but it does 
not follow that all or any one of them must be accepted. There 
'is nothing especially novel in this proposition, but I submit 
that to a failure to keep it in sight must be attributed a large 
measure of the uncertainty of the exact sciences, as well as 
much useless and bitter controversy in science, religion, eth- 
ics, and politics. 

As a sort of corollary to this proposition I suggest that 
many reasoning and reasonable people are indifiPerent to, if 
not ignorant of, the fact that the value of evidence is greatly 
dependent on the way in which it arranges itself. To many 
this may be made a little clearer if I borrow a phrase from 
one of the most exact of modern sciences and speak of evi- 
dence as presenting itself in series or in parallel. Without 
pushing the analogy further, the superior strength of the 
latter arrangement will be evident upon reflection. On an- 
other occasion, I have referred at some length to the nu- 
merical representation of the value of testimony, and to some 
conclusions which are easily reached. As bearing upon the 
subject in hand, a single example of this method of treat- 
ment may be useful. 

Let there be two witnesses, A and B. Suppose that A 
tells the truth 51 times out of ^ 100 ; that is to say. assume 
that honesty holds the controlling share in his stock of moral 
principles. Let B be equally truthful and no more. Then 
if these two testify independently to the occurrence of a cer- 
tain phenomenon it is more likely to have occurred than if 
either one alone bore witness. This is evidence in paralleL 
If, however, A testifies that B declares that the thing hap- 
pened, it is less probable than if based on the testimony of 
either alone. This is evidence in series. Put as boldly as 
this, no one doubts the higher value of the first arrange- 
ment; but it is believed that a more careful consideration of 
this distinction will do much to secure a better judgment, 
not only where human testimony is involved, for here it has 
long been an established principle, but where conclusions 
are based on observation and experiment. 

It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that men of sci- 
ence, before accepting a theory or a hypothesis as finals 
should carefully scrutinize the steps by which it has been 
established to see that they are not only sufficient but neces- 
sary. The true philosopher will be slow to claim that the 
theory which he finds sufficient to explain all of a given 
class of facts is the necessary and true one; he will be con- 
stantly on the lookout for a new fact which his theory will 
not quite explain, and he will have much consideration for 
his friendly competitor who finds a difiPerent hypothesis 
equally satisfactory and efficient. Above all, he will not 
pride himself on the steadfastness of his views, and will 
rarely bind himself to be of the same opinion this year as 
last. 

If the general public could be made to understand the 
limitations by which science is circumscribed, the tentative 
and ever progressive character of scientific investigation, it 
would be good for the public and good for science. 



JuLy 8, 1892.] 



SCIENCE, 



25 



The human race is greatly handicapped by the presence 
of a good number of people who strenuously object to being 
disturbed. During a decade, generation, or century these 
good but sometimes unpleasant people plant themselves 
along certain lines in the domain of science or politics or 
religion, proclaiming essentially that '*here and here only is 
the truth, and here we fix ourselves forever/' After awhile 
they somewhat unwillingly and with no very good grace 
move forward into a new position, again honestly affirming 
and believing that the end has been reached. A better 
knowledge and a broader human sympathy would reveal to 
them the hitherto unsuspected fact that truth may at the 
same time be here and there. 

In the dissemination of this knowledge and the cultivation 
of this sympathy, science should lead, not follow. No sci- 
entific orgfanization so young in years has done more along 
these lines, especially by reason of its extensive membership 
and the vigor and enthusiasm of its branches, than the so- 
ciety over whose deliberations during the past year I have 
been permitted to preside. 

For the honor thus bestowed I beg now to make my for- 
mal and grateful acknowledgements. 



REMARKS UPON THE GRAPHIC SYSTEM OF THE 

ANCIENT MAYAS. 

BT HUiBOBNX T. CBXSSON, A.X., X.D. 

A Maya hieroglyph may be a single character by which a 
meaning is expressed by the sound of the name of the thing 
represented, or it may have a number of components that 
convey by a similar method a series of ideas. The 'glyphs 
of Kukuitz and of Cauac in the Codex Troano are examples, 
and another is that over the figure of Kiikulcan, or Ikilcabj 
the so-called long-nosed god, of whom representations appear 
so frequently in the different Maya codices. 

The figures of gods, with their head-dresses and the objects 
represented by the Maya scribes in the Codex Troano and 
other manuscripts, may be composed of a series of hiero- 
glyphic elements suggesting the names of gods and their 
attributes or of some of the various characters which they 
impersonate. An example of this is the head-dress of the 
long-nosed god of the Codex Troano, which reads Ikilcab, 
while his girdle expresses by phonetic elements the name 
Kukuitz, who seems also to have been Kiikulcan, Ueilcab or 
Caucus, and Itzamna, It is not improbable that KuJeuitZf 
Kukulcan^ Ikilcab, and Itzamna is the Hunakhu, or one 
Qod spoken of in the Codex Troano and referred to on the 
hieratic tablets, Casa No. 2, Palenque. 

I notice that in the photographs of the ancient cities of 
Yucatan apd other portions of Central America, that which 
we have hitherto considered as architectural ornamentation 
of Maya design is ikonomatic decoration, and a notable in- 
stance is the name Chi-chen-itza on the palaces of that 
ancient city, which are repeatedly recalled by Chi and itza, 
and less frequently by repetitions of the word Chen. I make 
this assertion subject to further alteration and improvement, 
as I have not examined the buildings themselves, being 
obliged to depend upon bad photographs and still worse 
wood-cuts. 

The hieroglyphs and ikonomatic ornamentations of Pa- 
lenque, Chi-chen-itza, Lahna, Tikul, Lorillard City, and 
Copan, judging by photographs taken at these places, seem 
to be allied to one another, but those of Uxmal are more 
arehaic, with the exception of Copan. 



The plan I have adopted in my analysis of the various 
components of a 'glyph, those standing for the sounds of the 
names of the things represented, is based upon the idea that 
the Maya script, both hieratic and demotic, is similar to the 
higher grade of picture-writing suggested by M. Aubin, in 
his analysis of the name Itzco-atl, — represented by the con- 
ventional sign for water, obsidian attachments to the shaft 
of the arrow, and a vase or pot, — which by reference to his 
work will more fully appear. 

Proceeding upon this plan, I endeavored to analyze Landaus 
Key, and have found that the Maya scribe simply gave 
'glyphs, whether simple or combined together, that carried 
out Landa's pronunciation of the Spanish alphabet, by means 

of characters which stood for the sounds of the names of 

* 

these letters. 

The hieroglyph of a tarantula or centipede, figured in the 
Troano plates — a claw pinching a rope attached to the foot 
of a deer-like animal, and also a hand attached to the same 
insect-like figure in the act of pinching — suggested the vari- 
ous curved 'glyphs of the verb CH (Maya, to bite), which 
are, I believe, in connection with the parrot 'glyph. Moo, a 
part of the primitive elements of the Maya alphabet. From 
this I have obtained Ch&, Ch£ (or Che), Chi, Cho, Chu, and 
from the Moo (parrot) 'glyph has been obtained a, e, i, o, u. 
This system has been applied successfully to the rendering 
of the components of the day-signs of the Troano manuscript 
and those of the Chilan Balaam of Kdua, using Dr. Brinton's 
plates for the work — those published in his essay upon the 
books of *' Chilan Balaam," pages 16 and 17. 

In several cases certain 'glyphs, such as that of IkHcab, 
Cauac, and Itzamna, have suggested meanings so clearly 
expressed that the words were easily found in the vacubu- 
lary of the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg, and had such a 
strong resemblance to objects and 'glyphs carried by the 
figures to which they belonged, that I venture to think the 
alphabet which I have arranged will eventually work suc- 
cessfully. It is based upon studies of the hieratic script 
made while at the Ecole de Beaux Arts in 1875-76-77, and 
work done on the Troano script in 1880; these researches 
being thrown aside and recommenced since Jan. 1, 
1892. 

Although Dr. Thomas and myself have proceeded in 
methods totally different from each other, and have never 
yet met to make comparisons, in quite a number of cases our 
methods have shown like results. I have mailed Professor 
D. G. Brinton, and the first-named gentleman, proof of this 
similarity of interpretation, and may also add that before I 
received a copy of Prof essor Thomas's ** Key " I had mailed, 
and I venture to say both these gentlemen had received, my 
analysis and arrangement of the Maya signs of orientation, 
viz., Chikin, West; Lakin, East; Schaman, North; Nohol, 
South. My arrangement of these signs corresponds to that 
of de Bosny and Thomas. The first sign of orientation on 
the list was determined by the O^i 'glyph. 

I mention the correspondence of my work with that of 
Professor Thomas to show that this similarity of interpreta- 
tion, referred to, cannot be the result of mere guess- 
work. 

The aspirates and signs of repetition and the determinatives 
of the Maya Graphic System are most important, and I give 
them as Landa expresses it, and also by dotted lines in cir- 
cles and curves. The phonetic value of the curve in the 
Maya alphabet is one of its strongest elements. Most of the 
characters in the key I have arranged are based on it and 
other natural suggestions of animate and inanimate nature — 



26 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 492 



such as the parrot eye, the biting mouth, and the mole-like 
teeth, the carved line of the serpent's body, and the beauti- 
ful outlines of the antennoe of the bee, also its sting, and 
last, not least, the graceful leaf of the maize, and other nat- 
ural forms which are symbols of fertility. 

It may be interesting to remark that the phonetic value of 
the antennoB of the bee was suggested by the third 'glyph, 
Cauac, on the Kukuitz bas-relief, left-band side of the Casa 
No. 3, Palenque. This 'glyph was traced to more demotic 
forms on plate 25 of the Troano, also plate 24, where it is 
upheld by the Goddess Cab, Near the figure of Cah is the 
same infant-like figure that is to be seen on the so-called 
tablet of the cross of Palenque. The component characters 
of the 'glyphs composing this child's body refer to his name 
as Iktlcaby and this same name is expressed on the bead- 
dress and hieroglyphs of the Qod-with-the-long-nose of the 
Troano, and other manuscripts, so-called by students to dis- 
tinguish him. Ikilcab and CauaCy the Cuch-hadb, are in 
some way clearly connected, for the components of the 
Cauac 'glyph of the day-signs of Landa and those of the 
Chilan Balaam of Kaua are closely connected with those of 
Caban. The Cauac 'glyph, if my interpretation be correct. 



reads Ikilcab, The ancient Mayas probably thought of the 
bee as Ikil, the sting, and Cab, honey. The 'glyph of the 
day-sign, Caban^ refers to that day-sign and Ikilcab, and is 
also the honey sign (*'Bee Keeper's Narrative," the Codex 
Troano). The numeral signs of the Troana, both red and 
black, seem to have been used at times ikonomatically. The 
serpent symbol on plate 25, division 1, Troano, is C^an, and 
close to it are numerals giving the suggestion HunaJcbu, the 
one God. On the sun symbol of this plate are numerals, 
which, in connection with the flute 'glyph (Chul) projecting 
above the sun-disk and the hand below pinching the ma- 
chete, suggest the interpretation **a name," ChukiU-ca- 
can. 

Alliteration and syncapation for the sake of euphony are 
especially noticeable in^he Maya language, but do not seem 
to be followed in the arrangement of their graphic charac- 
ters, and no regularity of procedure, in reading the compo- 
nent parts of a 'glyph, seems to exist. As a general thing, 
however, some object carried in the hand of a figure, or 
placed near it, serves as a sort of a determination or sugges- 
tion ; this is more frequently the case in the demotic than 
hieratic script. 



Publications Received at Editor's Office. 



Amcrican Journal of Polittob. Vol. I. No. 1. 86 

cents. 
C&UfBKRB^s BNOTOLOP.SDIA. Vol. IX. Philadel- 
phia, J. B. lilppinoott Co. Imp. 8^. 
CBB880N, HiLBORMK T. Report upon Pile-Struc- 

tares in Naaman's Greek. Cambridge, Peabody 

Moseum. 8<*. Paper. 81 p. 
National Popular Bcyxvw. Vol. I. No. 1. San 

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Reading Matter Notices, 

Bipans Tabules cure jaundice. 

Societas Entomologica. 

International Entomological Society, Zu- 

rich-Hottingen, Switzerland. 

Annual fee, ten francs. 

The Journal of the Society appeMrs twice a 
month, and consists entirely of original ar- 
ticles on entomology, with a department for 
advertisements. All members may use this 
department free of cost for advertisements 
relating to entomology. 

The Society consists of about 460 members 
in all coantries of the world. 

The new volume began April 1, 1892. The 
numbers already issued will be sent to new 
members. 

For information address Mr. Fbit2 Bubl, 
President of the Societas Entomologica, 
Zorich-Hottingen, Switzerland. 

lEO-DiRWniSl m KEO-UURCKISIL 

By LBSTBR F. WARD. 

Annual address of the President of the Biological 
CkMietT of Washington dellrered Jan. M, iSOf. A 
hlstozioal and critical reylew of modem soientiac 
thooght relative to heredity, and especially to the 
problem of the transmission of acquired characters. 
The foliOwins are the seyeral heads inyolred in the 
diaouBsion Status of the Problem, Lamarokism. 
Darwinism, Acquired Characters. Theories of He- 
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Ism, Keo-Lamarckism, the American **8chool,** Ap- 
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are expressed they are in the main in Una with the 

Sneral current of American thought, and opposed 
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of acquired characters. 

PHee, postpaid, 26 cents* 

I. D. C. HODGES, 874 Bnadiay, 1. 1 



Exchanges. 

[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.l 

Taxidermist going out of business has Quantity of 
finely-mounted specimens of North American birds, 
mammals and reptiles and skios of birds for sale, 
including a full local collection of bird skins, show- 
ing some great yariations of species; also quantity 
of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, 
and mounted heads of same. Will gtye good ex- 
change for Hawk Eye camera with outfit. Apply 
auickly to J. B. Thurston, 265 Tonge St., Toronto, 
anada. 

For exchange. — A fine thirteen- keyed flute in leather 
covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for mak- 
ing lantern slides. Flute cost $37, and is nearly new. 
U: (I. COX, Mankato, Minn. 

Te exchange ; Experiment Station bulletins and 
reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. I 
will send list of what I haye for exchange. P. H. 
BOLVS, Lake City, Florida. 

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for 
fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable 
specimens because of the cost of poUshing. GEO. W. 
PERRY. State Geologist, Rutland, Vt. 



For exchange. — Three dopics of '* American State 




of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and 
Abuses,*' bv W. L. Fisher, 1839; " Humorous Phases of 
the Law," by Irving Browne; or other works amounting 
to value of books exchanged, on the question of govern- 
mental legislation in reference to rel^ion, persoaalTiberty, 
etc. If preferred, I will sell ^^American State Papeis/^ 
and buy other books on the subject. WILLI Aid AD- 
DISON BLAKELY, Chicago, 111. 



For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private 
chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal- 
ance (soog. to i-iomg.), platinum dishes and crucibles, 
agate motors, glais-blowing apparatus, etc. For sale in 
part or whole. Also complete file of SiiiimMH*s ypmrmai^ 
i86s-i885 (69-71 bound); Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; 
U. S. Coast Survey. 1854-1869. Full particulars to en- 
quirers. F. GARDINKK, JR., Pomfret, Conn. 

Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any 
standard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Children: 
Wilson's ** American Ornithology,'* 3 vols.; Coues' ** Birds 
of the Northwest" and '* Birds of the Colorado Valley," 
t vols.; Minot's ** Land and Game Birds of New Eng- 
land^' Samueb' *' Our Northern and Eastern Birds;" all 
the Reports on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, 
bound in * vols., morocco; and a complete set of the 
Reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey. Please give 
editions and dates in corresponding. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALL, High School, Des Moines, Iowa. 

To exchange Wright's ** Ice Age in North America " 
and Le Conte^s ''Elements of Geology" (Copyright z88a) 
for ''Darwinism." by A R.WaUace, '^Origin of Species,'^ 
by Darwin, "Descent of Man," by Darwin, "Man's 
Place in Nature," Huxley, '^Mental Evolution in Ani- 
mals," by Romanes, "Pre-Adamites," by Winchell. No 
boolu wanted except latest editions, and books in good 
condition. C. S. Brown, Jr., Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tenn. 



Wants. 



Any person sttking a position for which ho is quali- 
fied by his scientific attainments^ or any person seehinj^ 
tome one to fill a position 0/ this character^ be it thai 
o/a teacher of scunce,chemist„ draughtsman^ or wheU 
not^ may have the ' Want * inserted under this head 
FRKK OP COST, (/ he Satisfies the publisher 0/ the suit" 
able character 0/ his application. A ny person seeking 
information on any scientific question^ the address of 
any scientific man, or who can in any way u*e this 
column for a purpose consonant with the nature if 
the paper ^ is cordially invited to do so, 

WANTED.— A collection of postage stamps: one 
made preyious to 1870 preferred. Also old and 
curious stamps on original letters, and old entire 
U 8. stamped envelopes. Will pay dash or giye in 
exchange first-class fossils, including fine czinoids. 
WM. F. E. OUBLBT, DanviUe, 111. 

WANTED.— To purchase laboratory outfit; bal- 
ances, eyaporatlng dishes, burettes, etc., 
wanted Immediately for cash. 0. E. 8PBIRS, 8& 
Murray street. New York. P. O. Box 1741. 

WANTED.— The services of a wide-awake young 
man, as correspondent, in a large manufactur- 
ing optical business; one preferred who has a thor- 
ough Knowledge of microscopy and some knowledge 
of photography. Address by letter, stating age and 
references. Optical, care of Science, 874 
New York. 



Broadway, 



S7 ANTED.— We want any and all of the following, 
' providing we can tcade ether books and maga- 
es or buy them cheap for cash: Academy, Lon- 
don, yol. 1 to S8, 86, Jan. and Feb., 'SQ; Age of Steel, 
yol. 1 to 00; American Antiquarian, yoL 1, S; Ameri- 
can Architect, yol. 1 to 0, 0; American Art Beyiew, 
vol. 8; American Field, voL 1 to 21 : American Geol- 
ogist, yol. 1 to 0; American Machinist, yol. 1 to 4; 
Art Amateur, yol. 1 to 7, Oct., '4; Art Interohange, 
vol. 1 to 0; Art Union, yol. 1 to 4, Jan., *44, July,^; 
BibliothecaSacra, yol.1 to 40; Qodey's Lady's Book, 
vol. 1 to 20; New Bnglander, yol. 11 ; Zoologist, Swlea 
1 and 1, Series 8 yol. 1 to 14; AUen Armendale (^ 
novel). Raymer's "Old Book^' Store, 20 4th Aye. 
S., Minneapolis, Mtnn. 

WANTED.— By a young man, a Swarthmore Col- 
lege iunior, a position as prinoipal of a publie 
Idgh school in one of the Qulf States, or as Instrnotor 
in Dotany, physiology, and geology in an academy 
or normal scnool. Address B., care of Librarian, 
Swarthmore College, Penn. 

WANTED.— To act as correspondeat for one or 
two daily or weekly papers. Haye worked oa 
paper for about two years, would like a position ou 
editorial staff of humorous paper. Address GBO. 
G. MASON, 14 Elm St., Hartford, Conn. 

TBANSLATOB wanted to read Qermaa arohitee- 
tural works at sight (no writinsr). One familiar 
with technical terms desired. Address **A./* Box 
140, New Tork Post Office. 



WANTED.— A position in a manufacturing estab- 
lishment by a manufacturing Chemin of ia- 
yentiye ability. Address M. W. B , care of Science, 
874 Broadway, N. 7. 



July 8, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 



A eKOOND reviaed and enlarged edition of a i>opular work on 
the tariff question, entitled "Tbe Free Trade Struggle in Eng- 
land," b; Gen. H. M. TrumbulJ, will shortly be isaued by the 
Open Court Publishing Company. 

— Charlee L. Webster & Co. will soon issue a work by R. L. 
Garner, entitled "The Speech of Monkeys." This work embodies 
hia researches up to the present time. Itis divided into two parts, 
tbe first being a record of experiments with monkeys and other 
animals, and tbe second part a treatise on the theory of speech. 
The work is written so as to bring tbe subject witbin reach of tbe 
caeual reader without impairing its scientific value. 

— Ginn A Co, will publish at once "Germau and English 
Soands." by C. H. Grandgent, director of Modem Language Ic- 
atruction in the Boeton Public Schools, The volume will contain 
a detailed account of tbe sounds that occur in German and Eoglish 
Speech, a description of the principal local variations in the pro- 



nunciation of both languages, and a series of diagrams shonlng 
tbe positions of the vocal organs during the formation of the 
vowels and the more difficult coosonants. 

— G. P. Putnam's Sons have in press *' Japan in Art and In- 
dustry," by Felix Regamey, translated by B, L, Sheldon (fully 
illustrated); "The Fairy Tales of India," coUecIed and edited by 
Joseph Jacobs, who follows up his " Celtic Fairy Tales " of last 
Christmas and " English Fairy Tales" of the preceding Chri-^traas 
by a selection from the gorgeous fancy of the East, illustrateil by 
J. D. Batten ; " Hygienic Measures in Relation to Infectious Dis- 
eases," comprising in a condensed form information as to the 
cause and mode of spreading certain diseases, and the preventive 
measures that should be resort«d to — isolation, disinfection, etc., 
by George H. F. Nnttall, M.D., Ph.D., Associate in Hygiene and 
bacteriology, Johns Hopkins University and Hospital; "Tem- 
perament, Disease, and Health: an essay," by Com. F. E. Chad- 
wick. U.S.A. (retired), and "Lyrics and Ballads of Heine, Goethe, 
and Other German Poets," translated by Frances Hellman. 




Acid Phosphate, 

Recommended and prescribed 
by physicians of all schools 



DYSPEPSIA, NERVOUSNESS, 
EXHAUSTION, 

and all diseases arising from im- 
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A TEMPORARY BINDER 

for Seimtt ii now ready, and will be mailed 
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BTbis binder it ilnog, duiabLe kAd 
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■■ken onl er replaced wiibouldit. 
curbing ihe othen, uid Ibe pipert 
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THE WEEKLY BULLETIN 

OF NEWSFAFEB ASD FEBIODICAL 
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Catalogues and Classifies Each Week 

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Tbfttbage maaa of material beretoforv Inascaulbla 
to the eager eeadent ii now rendered available. 
Speolal attention la Inrited to the Bulletin'! 

INDEX OFTECHNIGtL LITERATURE 

Bend for a free Htnple copif and learn bow 

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as Cante. 

iHANDBOOK OF 
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Tba idea of Mr. Bell baa mnoh I 

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meet with aooeptanoe."— BMton iVaniilv. 

" World' Bngllah deaerrea the owetnl ooDaldentloa 
of all eeriona Bobolan,"—Jfodeni Laivwv* "ate*. 

Sent, poatpald, on reoelpt of prion, 
H. D. C. HODGES, 974 Bioidvny, NmVofk. 



FOSSIL RESINS, 



This boiA la the remit of ao ftttuapt U 

collect the ac«tt«red aotieea of fouil rering, 

•xclngiTe of thoae on amber. Tbe work ia of 

tereat alto on aocotmt of deacriptiona siTan 

the iDBMtB found embedded in thew long- 

preaerred exndattona from early Tegetation. 

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28 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 492 



QUERY. 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, say,) has failed 
to protect between two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
<:onductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light- 
ning was attracting the attention 
of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub- 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First inserted June 19. No response 
\o date. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 

874 BEOADWAY, HEW YOEK 



JXJHT BEADT. 

THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A Journal of two Summer Cruises to that 
region; with notes on its early discovery, 
on the Eskimo, on its physical geography, 
.geology and natural history, together with 
a bibliography of charts, works and articles 
relating to the civil and natural history of 
-the Labrador Peninsula. 

By ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D., Ph.D 
8«, 518 pp., $8.50. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. T. 

THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL S. TROY. 

This contains a discussion of the reasons 
for their action and of the phenomena pre- 
'sented in Crookes' tubes. 

Piiee, postpaid, 50 cents. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 

AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 

MaterUl Mtmnged and compiled for all kinds of 
works, ezceptins flotioa. Statlstica a specialty. 
AoAenag and cataloguing. Address O. B. BIYBB, 
885 M. 10th Street, Pbiladelplala. 



TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since 

Jan. z, zSgs. 

Aboriginal North American Tea. 

Actinism. 

Agrioultore, Experimental, Status of. 

Amenhotep, King, the tomb of. 

Anatomy, The Teaching of , to Adranced Medical 
Students. 

Anthropology, Current Notes on. 

Architectural Bzhibition in Brooklyn. 

Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics. 

Artesian Wells in Iowa. 

Astronomical Notes. 

Bacteria, Some Uses oL 

Botanical Laboratory, A. 

Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian. 

Bythosoopidn and Cereopida. 

Canada, Koyal Society of. 

Celts, The Question of the. 

Cbalicothenum, The Ancestry oL 

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School of Applied 
Science. 

Children, Growth of. 

Collection of Objects Used in Worship. 

ComeU, The Change at. 

Deaf, Higher Bducfition of the. 

Diphtheria. Toz-Albumin. 

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of. 

Eskimo Throwing Sticks. 

Etymology of two Iroquoian Compound Stems. 

Bye-Habits. 

Eyee, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain 
Facial Expressions. 

Family Traits, Persistency of. 

Fishes, The Dlstributien of. 

Fossils, Notice of New Gigantic 

Four>fold Space, Possibility of a Realisation of. 

Qems, Artificial, Detection of. 

Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New Tork. 

Grasses, Homoptera Injurious to. 

Great Lakes. Origin of the Basins of. 

*' Healing, Dlrlne." 

Hemiptercus Mouth, Structure of the. 

Hofmann, August Wllhelm Ton. 

Hypnotism among the Lower Animals. 

Hypnotism, Traumatia 

Indian occupation of New York. 

Infant's MoTcments. 

Influensa, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of. 

Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico. 

Inyentions in Foreign Countries, How to Protect 

Inrentors and Manufacturers, the American Associ- 
ation of. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences. 

Jargon, The Chinook. 

Jassidn: Notes on Local. 

Keller, Helen. 

Klamath Nation, Linguistics. 

Laboratory Training, Alms of. 

Lewis H. CarviU, Work on the Glacial Phenomena. 

Lightning, The New Method of Protecting Buildings 
from. 

Llssajou^s Curres, Simple Apparatus for the Produc- 
tion of. 

Maise Plant, Observations on the Growth and Chemi- 
cal Composition of. 

Maya Codices, a Key to the Mystery of. 

Medicine, Preparation for the Study of. 

Mineral Discoveries, Some Recent, in the State of 
WajBhington. 

Museums, The Support of. 

Palenque Tablet, a Brief Study of. 

Patent Office Building, The. 

Physa Heterostropha Lay, Notes on the Fertility of. 

Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of. 

Polarlscopee, Direct Reflecting. 

Psychological Laboratory in the University of To- 
ronto. 

Psychological Training. The Need of. 

Psylla, the Pear-Tree. 

Rtdn-Making. 

Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska. 

Scientiflc Alliance, The. 

Sistrurus and Crotalophoms. 

Star Photography, Notes on. 

Star, The New, in Auriga. 

Storage of Storm- Waters on the Great Plains. 

Teaching of Science. 

Tiger, A x7ew Sabre-Toothed, from Kansas. 

Timber Trees of West Virginia. 

Tracheal of Insects, Structure of. 

Vein-Formation, Valuable Experiments in. 

Weeds as Fertilising Material. 

Will, a Recent Analysis of. 

Wind-Storms and Trees. 

Wines, The Sophisticated French. 

Zoology in the Public Schools of Washiagton, D. C. 



Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. 

I, xSgs. 

Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Allen, Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Baldwin^. Mark, University of Toronto, Canada. 
Barnes, Charles Reid, Madison, Wis. 



Baur, G., Clark University. Woroeeter, _ 

Beal, W. J^ Agricultural College, Mich. 

Beals, A. BL, MiUedgeville. Ga. 

Beauchamp, W. M., Baldwlnsville, N.T. 

Boas, Frans, Clark Oniversity, Worcester, Mi 

BoUey, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak. 

Bostwtch, Arthur E., Montdair, N.J. 

Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass. 

Brinton, D. G., PhUadelphia, Pa. 

Call, B. Ellsworth, Des Moines, la. 

Chandler, H., Buffalo, N.Y. 

Comstock^Thea B., Tucson, Arixona. 

Conn, H. W^ Middletown, Conn. 

CraginjF. w., Colorado Springs. CoL 

Davis, W. M., Harvard CoUege. Cambridge, Mass. 

Dlmmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H. 

Farrington, E. H., Agricultural Station, Champaign, 
lU. 

Ferree, Barr, New York City. 

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Foehay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y. 

Galiaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C. 

German, S., Museum of Comp. ZooL, Cambridge, 

Ml 



Golden, Katherine E., Agricultural College, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 
Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, 111. 
Hale, George S., Boston. Maea. 
Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario. Canada. 
Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Woroeeter, Maes. 
Halsted, Byron D., Rutgers College, New Brona- 

wlck, N.d. 
Haworth. Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 
Hay, O. P., Irvington, Ind. 
HayneStHenryW., BoetonMass. 
Haaen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C 
Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau of Ethn61ogy, Washington, 

D.C. 
Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb. 
Hill, B. J., Chicago. IlL 

Hill, Gea A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C. 
Hitchcock, Romyn, Washington, D.C. 
Holmes, E. L. Chicago, HL 
Hotchkiss, Jed., Staunton, Va. 
Howe, Jas. Lewis, Louisville, Ky. 
Hubbard, Gardiner G., Washington, D.C. 
Jackson, Dugald C, Madison, Wisconsin 
James, Joseph F., Agricultural Dept., Washington, 

D.C. 
Johnson, Roger B^, Miami Universi^, Oxford, O. 
Kellerman, Mrs. W. A^ Columbus, O. 
KelUoott, D. S., State University, Columbus, O. 
Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgh, N. Y. 
Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y. 
Loeb, Morris, New York City. 
Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohla 
Macloekie, G., Princeton. N.J. 
McCarthy, Gerald, Agricultural Station, Raleigh, 

N.C. 
MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C. 
Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J. 
Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D.C. 
Mill>:paugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Va. 
Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass. 
Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins Univecaity, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Oliver, J. E., Cornell University,' Ithaca, N.Y. 
Osbom, Henry F., Columbia College, New York 

City. 
Osbom, Herbert, Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa. 
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa. 
PUlsbuiTi J- H., Smith College, Northampton, Maea. 
Poteat, W. I^Wake Forest, N. C. 
Preble, Jr^ W. P., New York City. 
Ruffner, W. H., Lexington. Va. 
Sanford, Edmund C., Clark University, Woroeeter, 

Mass. 
Schufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C. 
Scripture, E. W., Clark University, Woroeeter, Mass. 
Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. ZooL, Cambrldlge, 

Mass. 
Smith, John B., Rutgers College, New Bronswldk, 

N.J. 
Southwick, Edmund B., New York City. 
Stevens, Gtoorge T., New York City. 
Stevenson, S. Y., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Stone, G. H., Colorado Springs, CoL 
Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C. 
ThurstoxL R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Todd, J. B., Taborjjowa. 

True, Frederick w.. National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
Turner, C H., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, 

O. 
Wake, C., Staniland, Chicaa o, HL 
Ward, B. Dea, Harvard University, Cambridge, 






Ward, Stanley M., Scranton, Pa. 

Warder, Robert B., Howard University, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, M.D. 

West, Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass 

Whitman, C O., Clark University, Woroeele^ Mass. 

WilUams, Edward H., Lehigh Univenity. Bethle- 
hem, Pa. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 

PUBLISHED BY N. D. C. HODGES, 874 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



/ 



Tbsth Year. 
Vol. XX. No. 493. 



JULY 16, 1892. 




Copies, Ten Cents. 
R Year, in Advance. 



Contents. 



The Chemistry of Soils. R, Ellsworth 

Call 29 

Current Notes on Anthropology. — 

X. Edited by D. O. Bnnton 80 

Notes and News 81 

Lion Breeding. V. Ball * 34 

The Purification of Water by Chemi- 
cal Treatment Willis O. Tucker. 34 

Letters to the Editor. 

American Weeds. Gerald McCarthy , 88 

Some Remarks on Professor Cyrus 
Thomas's Brief Study of the 
Palenque Tables. Ed. Seler 88 

A Grape Vine Produces Two Sets of 
Leaves During the Same Season. 
C. H. Turner 39 

Book Beviews. 

The Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages . . 39 

Journal of Proceedings of the Boyal 

Society of New South Wales 89 

Among the Publishers 89 

Entered at rhe Poki -Office of New York. N.Y.. as 
i«<H?ond-C1afl8 Mall Matter. 



THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A JOURNAL OF TWO SUMMER CRUISES 
TO THAT REGION. 

WITH NOTES ON ITS EARLY DISCOV- 
EBY, ON THE ESKIMO, ON ITS PHY- 
SICAL GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND 
NATURAL HISTORY, TOGETHER WITH 
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS, ARTL 
CLES, AND CHARTS RELATING TO 
THE CIVIL AND NATURAL HISTORY 
OF THE LABRADOR PENINSULA. 

By ALPHEUS SPRIR6 PACKARD, M.D., PLD. 

Sportflmen and omlthologistB will be interented io 
the list of Labrador birds by Mr. L. W. Turoer, 
which has been kindly reTised and brotiKht down to 
date by Dr. J. A. Alien. Dr. S H. Scudder has con- 
tributed the list of batterflles. and Prof. John 
Macoun, of Ottawa, Canada, has pi-epared the list of 
Labrador plants. 

Much puns has been taken to reader the bibliog- 
raphy complete, and the author is indebted to Dr 
i* rans Boas and others for several titles and impor- 
t ukt BQgEestions; and it is hoped that this feature uf 
the book will recommend It to collectors uf Ameri- 



It is hoped that the Tolume will serve as a guide 
to the Labrador coast for the use of travellers, 
yachtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as 
well as those interested in geographical aad histori- 
eal studies. 

513 pp., 8^ $3.50. • 



N. D. C. HODGES, 

874 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



®i)e SeientiHc ^mtxitan 

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SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 493 



■1' I 



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THE CHEmSTRY OP SOILS.' 

BT PBOFESSOB B. SLLBWOBTH CALL. 

' A 80MSWHAT extended experience in the chemical analy- 
sis of soils with a view to their agricultural value has led 
to certain conclusions which may not be altogether devoid 
of value to the readers of Science, Elspecially may this 
be true since there is often an entirely erroneous opinion 
among those most concerned respecting the useful deduc- 
tions which may be made from a complete chemical analy- 
sis of a soil. Usually it happens that if only the presence 
of certain desirable substances be shown, then the value of 
the soil for the production of this or that crop is assumed to 
be definitely settled. Nothing could, in general, be farther 
from the truih. Of course, something definite may be said 
of such soils as those in which both sand and clays, or 
either, predominate, but the conclusions in these cases are 
based on the physical characteristics of the soils rather than 
on their chemistry. Indeed, it is usual to classify soils in 
two general categories, the classification being based, on the 
one hand, on the method of soil-formation, and, on the other 
band, on its physical characteristics. The soils of Iowa be- 
long, in the main, to that class which is based on the 
method of formation, and are composed chiefly of transported 
or drift materials. It is, however, true that the Iowa soils, 
though glacial, owe much to the physical characters of the 
rocks which they represent as disintegrated and far-travelled 
cUbria. The sands and clays are all transported materials, 
most of them from points many miles to the north of the 
prairie regions which they now cover. It is, moreover, 
clear that no degree of coarseness or of fineness, which may 
result from the methods of origination of any soil, consti- 
tutes in itself sufficient ground for saying this soil is fertile 
or that soil is unsuitable for plant growth. Recourse mnst 
be bad to the ultimate composition of the sample, and right 
here enters an element of error against which, popularly, it 
is difficult to guard. 

The physical character of a soil or marl must be consid- 
ered when studied chemically. The finer the condition of 
the sample, in nature, the more readily are induced those 
changes in its chemistry which result from atmospheric in- 
fluences. That is to say, when coarse and fine soils are 
treated alike mechanically by the plow, the one may become 
mellow and well mixed, while the other is broken without 
being well mixed or turned. Now. the chemical processes 
which occur are most active and most complete in soils that 
are fine in texture. It follows, therefore, that a stiff, clayey 
soil may contain all the essential elements of the food of ^any 
plant, but be in such condition physically as to render the 
chemical processes difficult of operation. And, on the other 
hand, such a soil may be sufficiently fine, but the well-known 
tendency to *'cake^' or harden on drying or exposure would 
render it valueless agriculturally, no matter bow finely com- 
minuted its materials may be. 

1 Extracted from tbe Moothly Betriew Iowa Weatber and Crop SerTice, 
VoL lU., No. 5. May, 1892. 



Clayey soils, again, do not permit that free, subsoil cir- 
culation of water so necessary to growing crops. Circula- 
tion there is, but it is limited at best; open, porous soils ad- 
mit free, underground water-flows, but such soils soon dry. 
They lose large quantities of water through evaporation, due 
to the rather free circulation of air in the upper portions of 
the cultivated areas. 

Color, too, has little to do with deciding finally whether 
a soil will be fertile. Usually all earths which are dark- 
colored or black — a condition largely due to the amount of 
carbonaceous material derived from decayed vegetation — 
are considered fertile. It is true that common consent places 
all such samples among the fertile soils, but it by no means 
follows as a necessary deduction. So, too, that light drab 
or ashy-colored soils lack the elements of fertility is a notion 
which observation and experiment alike negative. The most 
fertile of Iowa soils is the loess, a peculiar and very fine 
marl covering many hundred square miles along the Missis- 
sippi and Missouri rivers, as well as the higher lands along 
the Des Moines. It is a soil the color of which would con- 
demn it for agricultural purposes, but it is one which is of 
exceptional value for all sorts of cereals, and is peculiarly 
adapted to the growth of fruit. It is finer in texture than 
is any other soil in the State. What, then, constitutes its 
peculiar feature, rendering it so valuable ? The answer to 
the query lies almost solely in its physical condition, which 
is of a fineness equalling that of any clay. This fine condi- 
tion renders it admirably suited to the action of native 
chemical agents. These are the real soil- makers. Soils that 
plants may use must be soluble, and one of the essentials to 
complete solubility is fineness of the constituent particles, 
A certain and definite relation to moisture must be estab^ 
lished and maintained, a condition which is practically 
reached by under-draining soils of a clayey nature. Too 
much water will compel adhesion of the smaller particles, 
and the product thus formed be eventually coarse and 
lumpy. Such a soil may be very fertile, but is not arable. 
This is the condition of most of the bottom lands of eastern 
Arkansas, the soils of which region are deficient in lime 
alone of all the ingredients which plants require. They are 
** wet and cold," and cannot be under-drained. Few soils 
of this nature occur in Iowa. 

To make a long story short, chemical analysis of any 
given soil will determine its probable agricultural value only 
within very wide limits, and for reasons whicli appear be- 
low. It may be said, at this time, that such an analysis 
may determine one of two things, (a) the presence or ab- 
sence of constituents which the plant must have, or (6) the 
presence of some substance which will affect injuriously a 
growing plant. The chemical laboratory will never sup- 
plant the province of carefully conducted experimental ag- 
riculture. But it may become a most valuable adjunct to 
the operations of the farm. The principles which underlie 
agricultural chemistry need only to be understood to be ap- 
preciated by those who have the manual labor of the farm 
to perform. 

Aside from these general considerations there remain yet 
others to which it will be well to advert. 



I 



so 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX. No. 493 



One of the great difficulties in the way of an intimate 
knowledge of the relations of plants to soils lies in our ig- 
norance of the laws of assimilation in the plant. The con- 
ditions under which the chemist studies these are of necessity 
artificial. He cannot he assured that he has even measura- 
bly reproduced the conditions of nature, and hence cannot 
be sure that similar results will be attained under such most 
natural conditions. Those most complex and peculiar 
changes which occur in chemical compounds under what, 
for want of a better term, are denominated '* vital forces'* 
can never, at least under the present limitations of knowl- 
edge, be fully understood. And right here is the gist of the 
whole matter. A knowledge of the chemical constitution 
of a soil must precede a study of its relations to the full or 
incomplete, as the case may be, development of a plant de- 
pendent on it for nourishment. In other words, the consti- 
tution of a soil is a determinable quantity, the life-processes 
of the plant constitute an indeterminate quantity, and the 
relation of the two is the thing sought. No amount of 
chemical experimentation can bring into view the unknown 
factor. 

The various experiment stations which are now estab- 
lished in every State in the Union can do much toward 
clearinfiT away a great cloud of agricultural superstition rel- 
ative to these subjects. There should be place for the theo- 
retical as well as the practical in their work. It should be 
clearly shown that the constitution of a soil has far more to 
do with the growth of a crop of corn than the moon, or than 
any other of the oft-quoted and still entertained notions of 
strange and hidden forces. Tall oaks do not grow from 
little acorns except under the most favorable conditions of 
soil, and these conditions, again, are affected by the innu- 
merable changes which occur in temperature, moisture or 
other variables, which render more or less tractable the va- 
rious compounds on which the plant must feed. 

The chemist who studies a soil does so by the same meth- 
ods as those by which he would examine an unknown min- 
eral and usually with no greater care. He wishes, simply, 
to know what elements may occur in it, under what condi- 
tions, in what abundance, to what degree they may be dis- 
sociated, and whether there be present any substance which 
would interfere with their assimilation by the plant. In 
this way he arrives at a fair knowledge of the sample, but 
he can tell you little of its value for agricultural purposes. 
He here depends not on his knowledge of soil constitution 
or of its genesis, but on the facts of observation, which are 
familiar to every farmer, and which he unconsciously con- 
nects as cause and effect. It does not need a chemist to tell 
an observant farmer that he will not be likely to reap a 
strong growth of wheat from a sandbar. He has had as an 
instructor an experience in the relations of crops to the labor 
expended on them that led him to definite and valuable con- 
clusions on this matter. But there are innumerable ques- 
tions which he may put to the chemist and hope for a profita- 
ble answer. When once the soil has been exhausted of a 
necessary constituent he may learn from experience that this 
or that material judiciously applied will remedy the defect. 
The farmer, moreover, has yet to learn that, even in Iowa, 
there cannot be a constant draft on a soil and the same crop 
be produced with equal value each year for an indetermi- 
nate number of years. Each crop lessens the productive 
|K>wes of a soil by the amount of material which it removes 
from the soil each season. Here it is possible for the chemist 
to aid the producer by telling him exactly what has been 
taken from the soil, and thus indirectly telling him what is 



needed in the compost he may apply. This borders on or- 
ganic chemistry and does not at present concern us. 

Among the substances which must be present in a soil to 
give it an average degree of fertility stands preeminent the 
compound known as phosphoric acid. But this substance 
does not exist in the soil except in combination with some 
other substances, known technically as bases. These sub 
stances are commonly, if not always, iron and alumina, with 
which they are in such chemical combination as to form 
salts known as phosphates. It is, however, not sufficient to 
know that these compounds are present. We must further 
know whether they are so associated with other compounds 
as to be readily disintegrated and rendered soluble, for un- 
less soluble they cannot be used as plant-food. Now, neither 
of these compounds of phosphoric acid — i.e., iron and alu- 
mina phosphates — is available in that form. Experiment 
has shown that the form in which these substances are avail- 
able is that of calcium (lime) phosphate. That this has a 
relation to the amount of calcium silicate in the soil is 
clearly proven, and that by a process of double .decomposi- 
tion of the three compounds the available one is obtained is 
also well known. But this process has not yet been cer- 
tainly traced in nature. As stated at the beginning, it is 
right here that the processes of the laboratory and those of 
nature need to be connected. Whpther they ever will be 
depends upon the support given to the great army of practi- 
cal chemists whose attention is now directed to the theoreti- 
cal features of agricultural chemistry. 

It should be a matter of congratulation to the farmers of 
Iowa that work along these lines is now progressing very 
favorably at the experiment station at Ames. A vast 
amount of valuable information may be expected from this 
source, and in due course of time it will come. 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. — X. 

[Edited by D. O. Brinton, M.D., LL.D.] 

The Ancient Libyan Alphabet. 

In Science, May 8, I called attention to the new light 
thrown upon the history of our alphabet in its ancient form 
by the researches of Dr. Glaser among the ruined cities of 
Arabia. Another curious study in the same line is that 
offered by the Libyan alphabet. It appears to have been in 
common use among the Berber tribes of North Africa long 
before the foundation of Carthage, and is still employed 
constantly by the wild Touaregs of the Sahara. It is not 
the same as the Iberic alphabet of Spain, and in its forms is 
almost entirely independent of the Phoenician letters. It is 
composed of consonants, called tifinar, and vowel-points, 
known as tiddebakin. The latter are simple dots, the for- 
mer are the lines of a rectangle, more or less complete. 
Several of them are found in the oldest Etruscan inscriptions, 
and on that known as the ^inscription of Leranos.'^ Sepul- 
chral epitaphs in this alphabet have been discovered dating 
two or perhaps three centuries before the Christian era: 
while rock-inscriptions of perhaps more ancient date, show- 
ing extremely archaic forms of the letters, have been copied 
from localities in the southern Atlas ranges. 

The writers who have given especial attention to this little- 
known subject are Faidherbe, Duveyrier, Halevy, Bissuel, 
and, recently. Dr. ColUgnon, who has a brief summary of 
results in a late issue of Lea Sciences Biologiques, 

The Aborigines of Asia Minor. 

The artistic and linguistic studies into the proto-ethnology 
of Asia Minor (see Science, May 20) are happily supplemented 



July 15, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



3> 



by the investigations of Dr. F. von Luschan of Berlin, on 
the Tacbtadschy of Lycia, published in the Archiv fur An- 
thropoloffie. This nomen gentile is not ethnic, but means 
merely ** wood-choppers,*' or ** board-makers." It is applied 
to a shy, secluded people, who live in the mountains, and 
fell and dress trees as their main business. 

On measuring them, Dr. von Luschan found that they 
had unusually short and high skulls, — hypsi-brachycephalic, 
— and were of small stature, with dark hair and eyes. Com- 
parison with some skulls from very old Lycian graves, and 
with part of the present population of Armenia and other 
portions of the region, led him to the conviction that in this 
type — so markedly distinct from that of the Greeks and 
Semites — he had before him the original of the most ancient 
population of the land. He considers it certain that it ex- 
tended over the whole southern half of Asia Minor; north- 
east to the Caucasus; east to the upper Euphrates; but its 
northern and western limits are not yet defined. He even 
bints that the short, dark, brachycephalic people of central 
Europe may be the western extension of the type. 

As to whence it came, he is not without an opinion. Not 
from Europe, not from Africa, not from northern Asia, not 
from southern Asia; all are excluded for sufficient reasons; 
central Asia alone is left; and somewhere in that mysterious 
matrix gentium he expects will be found the ancestral con- 
nections of this well-marked type. There, then, we should 
search for the linguistic analogies of the Cappadocian words 
quoted from Professor Tomaschek in my previous article. It 
would be a brilliant corroboration of a purely physical study 
in anthropology to discover such analogy. 

Work of the Eleventh Census Among the Indians. 

It is not generally known — in fact, it is pretty hard to 
find out — how much excellent anthropologic material is 
annually collected and in part published by the various de- 
partments of our central government. The army, the navy, 
the surgeon -generaPs bureau, the Smithsonian, the National 
Museum, and the specially created Bureau of Ethnology, 
all pour forth every year quantities of valuable observa- 
tions. 

Nor has the Eleventh Census been behind in this good 
work, as is testified by the ** Extra Census Bulletin," just 
out, on the Six Nations of New York. It is but the fore- 
runner of a series of such Bulletins on the remnants of our 
aboriginal population, and is an excellent earnest of the 
merits of its successors. 

The aim of these bulletins is to supply first-hand and ac- 
curate statements of the present social, religious, industrial, 
vital, and political condition of the tribes; in other words, 
they are ethnographic, in the right sense of the term. The 
general editor is Mr. Thomas Donaldson, and in this instance 
bis collaborator is General Henry B. Carrington. A large 
quarto of 89 pages, well indexed, with maps and photographs, 
gives a most satisfactory account of the present status of the 
Cayugas, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Senecas, and Tus- 
caroras. The action of the Census Bureau in this direction 
is the more welcome, as in the rapidly changing condition 
of the native tribes, not many censuses will tiave the mate- 
rial with which to occupy themselves in this direction. 

The Extension and Study of the Nahuatl Language 

If we may judge of the superiority of a language by its 
vitality, and by the impress it leaves on others with which 
it comes in contact, we must assign a high place to the 
Mexican or Nahuatl. It is still spoken in comparative purity 



by considerably over a million people, and it has made a 
deep impression on the Spanish of most of the Mexican and 
Central American States. 

For Costa Rica, this has been shown in a work issued in 
the present year at San Jos^ de Costa Rica, by Sefior Juan 
Fernandez Ferraz, formerly inspector-general of education 
in that republic. It is entitled, ''Nahuatlismos de Costa 
Rica,^' and is a neat octavo of about 150 pages, with an intro- 
duction on Nahuatl grammar of 75 pages. The alphabetical 
list shows that a large number of terms in the current speech 
of Costa Rica, which have assumed the form of Spanish 
words, are derived from the Mexican tongue. 

A similar work for Nicaragua, written by the late Dr. C. 
H. Berendt, is now preparing for the press under the effi- 
cient editorship of Dr. K. Lentzner of Berlin. The Nahuas^ 
or a colony of them, once occupied a considerable tract on 
Lake Nicaragua, and left the marks of their occupancy not 
only in interesting ruins, but on the language of their con- 
querors as well. It was in this Nahuatl- Spanish dialect thai 
the comedy of Gueguence was written (published in Phila- 
delphia, in 1883). 

It is agreeable to note in this connection that the study of 
the Nahuatl finds zealous advocates in Mexico, among whom 
the names of Pefiafiel, Pal ma. Hunt y Cortes, Altamirano^ 
Caballero, and Rosa, hold conspicuous places. 

Anthropology at the Columbian Exposition. 

Anthropology does not appear by name at the Chicago 
*' World ^8 Columbian Exposition." This is to be regretted^ 
as it is a fine opportunity lost to inform the people of the 
United States what this grand science is, and how its several 
branches stand related to each other. 

It is represented, in fact, in ** Department M," with a most 
competent chief, Professor F. W. Putnam of Cambridge. A 
descriptive pamphlet of this department which has just been 
issued announces that it includes ** Ethnology, Archaeology, 
History, Cartography, Latin -American Bureau, Collective 
and Isolated Exhibits," — rather a miscellaneous stock. It 
is further stated that there will be a section on physical an- 
thropology and an anthropological laboratory, which are 
classified as a subdivision under the section of ethnology. 
In spite of these defects in classi6cation, no doubt abundant 
and excellent material will be provided for the student^ 
which he can work up in his own way. A correspondent 
in Berlin informs me that Dr. U. Jahn, who has charge of 
the matter there, has prepared, among other things, a series 
of specimens of German houses of all varieties, to be erected 
at Chicago, and in one of them, the rathhaua, he will ar- 
range a complete exhibition of ancient and modem German 
costumes, domestic utensils, home manufactures, etc. The 
sections at Chicago on Folk-Lore, Gktmes, and Primitive Re- 
ligions will be under the supervision of Stewart Culin E^sq.^ 
of Philadelphia, who has lately been appointed General Di- 
rector of the Museum of Archaeology attached to the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Ybst numerous experiments have been recorded to show that 
moisture is saved by cultivation. Frank E. Emery of the North 
Carolina Experiment Station says: *' During this hot, dry weather 
every foot of plowed land should be kept well stirred <» the sur^ 
face with any tool which tends to keep it from baking. A k>09e^ 
fine surface will hold down water like a wet blanket. A field 
kept thus may give an increase in crop over one not cultivated 
equal to that produced by a heavy application of f ertilissers. Fke- 
servatioD of the soil- water thus becomes of great importanoe. A 



32 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 493 



blanket of fine soil on the surface during a hot, dry week can be 
of great value to the crop and really become the turuing-point for 
profit if present when loss might result from its absence.*' 

— The North Carolina Experiment Station has junt published a 
26-page Bulletin (No. 84) dealing with the fungous and insect 
enemies of garden and truck crops. The trucking interest has 
become one of the most important in the State. Good home gar- 
dens are not, however, so plentiful as they would be were it not 
for the ravages of insects and diseases. This Bulletin gives ten 
different formulas for compounding insecticides and fungicides, 
and explains the necessity for garden hygiene. The most approved 
forms of spraying apparatus are illustrated and described, and 
some trustworthy dealers in fungicidal chemicals are named. 
Everyone who has even a small garden is interested in the matters 
this Bulletin treats of. It is sent free to all residents of North 
Carolina, and will be sent as long as the supply lasts to residents 
of other States who send 6 cents in postage stamps. Address N. C. 
Experiment Station, Raleigh, N.C. 

— Dr. Arthur MacDonald, specialist in education as related to 
criminal and abnormal classes. United States Bureau of Educa- 
tion, Washington, D.C., has been appointed official representative 
of the United States to attend the international congress for ex- 
perimental psychology at London and also the international con- 
gress upon criminology at Brussels. The congress at Brussels 
will consider crime in its relation to biology and sociology. The 
congress is extremely cosmopolitan not only as to nationalities, but 
in the different departments of knowledge which it includes. The 
criminal must be studied as a member of the race, and this gives 
rise to the new science of criminal anthropology, or, in short, 
criminology. Here such questions will be discussed as to whether 
there is a criminal type distinguished by shape of cranium and 
face, anatomy of ears and nose, size of orbits and length of jaws. 
Another important question under this head is whether the crim- 
inal is born so or t)ecomes so from his surroundings. In this 
division of the programme are the names of the celebrated Cesare 
Lombroso, professor of legal medicine at Turin, and Dr. Brovardel, 
president of the medical faculty at Paris, and Professor Ferri, 
senator at Rome. But the criminal must be studied psychologi- 
cally, that is, as to the nature of his mind and will, and their re- 
lation to insanity and moral insanity. Among those who will 
speak in the congress on this phase of criminality are Dr. Magnan, 
chief physician of the Saint Ann Insane Asylum of Paris; Dr. 
Benedikt, the celebrated craniologist at the University of Vienna; 
and the brilliant French writer and legalist, Judge Tarde. Another 
and very important side of the criminal is included under the 
head of Criminal Sociology. This takes up crime in history and 
politics, the influence of profession and trade on criminality and 
their t>earing in the determination of penalty. But there is a 
practical as well as a scientific point of view in the study of the 
criminal. This will be considered in the congress under the title 
of '* Legal and Administrative Applications of Criminal An thro < 
pology.'* ThusDr Alimena of Naples will discuss what measures 
are applicable to incorrigible criminals. Then there are the gen- 
eral and fundamental principles of the school of criminal anthro- 
pplogy, which will be considered by Dimtri Drill of Moscow. Dr. 
Manouvrier, professor in the School of Anthropology at Paris, is 
to read a paper on the *' Innateness and Heredity of Crime; '* Dr. 
Bruxelles on ''The Functional Causes of Crime;'* Dr. Sernal on 
*< Suicide and Insanity in Crimintils." The distinguished Lacas- 
sagne, professor at the University of Lyons, will speak on " The 
Primordial Sentiments in Criminals," and Dr. Fioretti of Naples 
on *'The Applications of Anthropology to Civil Law.'* Thus it 
will be seen that not only specialists in criminology, but those in 
medicine, insanity, law, psychology, anthropology, and sociology, 
all will consider the criminal from their respective points of view. 
The congre<)s for exi^rimental psychology represents the precedent 
tendency of applying scientific methods to study the relation be- 
tween mind and body, or mind and brain, subjects which are of 
as much interest and importance in the case of criminals as of 
normal men. This is illustrated by the new psycho-physical in* 
Btrument called the plethysmography which indicates the least 
increase of blood in the arteries of the arm. Thus it has been 



found, that when the sentence of the judge is read before the 
criminal, there is a decrease in the flow of blood in the arm, but 
the sight of a glass of wine increases the flow ; when, for example, 
it is required to multiply nine times seventy- three an increase in 
blood flow is the result. The flow is little affected in a brutal 
murderer or born criminal, when a pistol is shown to him, whereas 
in the normal man the plethysmograph indicates a decided effect. 
The importance of this new instrument lies in this, that involuntary 
testimony is given as to the nervous and physical nature of the 
criminal. It is often unknown to him, and in spite of himself. 
Dr. MacDonald, after attending these congresses, will visit and 
study a few of the principal prisons and charitable institutions in 
England, France, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, and 
Italy. A work of Dr. Macdonald's, entitled '* Criminology," will 
soon be published by Funk & Wagnalls of New York. It is dedi- 
cated to Professor Lombroso, who writes the introduction and who 
himself is the founder of the new science. 

— A society which may have opportunities of doing much valu- 
able work lias been formed in Wellington, New Zealand, as we 
learn from Nature, It is called the Polynesian Society, *• Poly- 
nesia" being intended to include Australia, New Zealand, Mela- 
nesia, Micronesia, and Malaysia, as well as Polynesia proper. The 
president is Mr. H. G. Seth-Smith, chief judge of the native land 
court, while the Queen of Hawaii is patron. There has just ap- 
peared the first number of the society's Joumcd, in which there 
are papers on the races of the Philippines, by Elddon Best ; Maori 
deities, by W. L. Gudgeon; the Tahitian "Hymn of Creation," 
by S. P. Smith ; Futuna, or Home Island, and its people, by S. 
P. Smith; Polynesian causa tives, by E T. ; and the Polynesian 
bow, by E. Tregear. There is also a paper giving the genealogy 
of one of the chieftainesses of Rarotonga, by a native of Raro- 
tonga. The original was written in 1867, and is printed in the 
Journal, with a translation by Mr. Henry Nicholas, and notes by 
the editors. The editors are of opinion that the paper <* appa- 
rently supports by direct traditional testimony the theory pro- 
pounded by Hale, and subsequently advocated by Fornander, of 
the occupation of the Fiji Group by the Polynesian race, and of 
their later migration eastward to Samoa and the Society Group." 

— The second annual meeting of The Mechanical Engineering 
Teachers^ Association will be held at Rochester, N.Y., beginning 
Aug. 18, 1892. This place and time of meeting is chosen as coin- 
cident with that of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science in order to accommodate those who will wish to 
attend both meetings, and who may not be able to do so if at 
different times and places. The object of this a^'sociation perhaps 
is best stated in Art. II. of its Rules, viz.: '^To determine upon, 
and to secure by co-operation, the best courses of study, and the 
general adoption of methods of instruction, leading to the highest 
efficiency of schools of mechanical engineering." The meeting 
last year was largely occupied with the organization of the asso- 
ciation, 80 that comparatively little time could be devoted to the 
consideration of courses, methods, or appliances, either by reading 
of papers or discussion. But it is hoped that the Rochester meet- 
ing of this year will be productive of great good in crystallising 
the views of the now quite large body of professors and teachers 
into such tangible and acceptable matters of opinion as to form a 
working basis for all. The following points are suggested as of 
importance for study by way of preparation for good work at the 
meeting, either in the presentation of papers, topical or general 
discussion, viz.: What subjects should be embraced in the course 
of mechanical engineering leading to graduation? Should any of 
them be optional? Should there be a post-graduate course, and 
if so in what should it consist ? What should be the degrees for 
the above, and 'what the studies? Should there be included one 
or two modem foreign languages? What engineering studies 
should be included? What amount of mechanical laboratory 
should there be included ? What subjects should be included in 
the mechanical laboratory ? How much practice with the object of 
mechanical and manual training? How much fine mechanical 
practice such as scraping of surface plates, grinding of standards, 
etc. ? Should the construction of articles of manufacture be at- 
tempted at the school laboratory? What testing should be at- 



July 15, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



33 



tempted ? Should any part of the laboratory practice be classified 
as shop work, and so named, unless articles are made for sale ? 
Should anything be introduced that should be called '* shop work ? " 
Should that portion of the laboratory embracing the manual ele- 
ment be classified as " shop," '* school shop,*^ ** work shop," etc., 
or elementary mechanical laboratory ? Should the more advanced 
portion embracing testing of various kinds be classified in such 
way as advanced mechanical laboratory, testing laboratory, etc. ? 
It is further suggested that particular attention be given to the 
number of hours devoted to a subject, and the ground covered ; 
the method of instruction, i.e., whether by lecture, recitation or 
practice, separately or combined. The address of the secretary is, 
A. J. Wiechardt, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

— The North Carolina Experiment Station has distributed a 
targe quantity of broom-corn seed and instructions as to its culti- 
vation to alliancemen and others, with a view to establishing it 
among the profitable crops in places well adapted for its best de- 
velopment. Close planting on fairly rich land is required for a 
good crop of brush fitted for making fine brooms. In order to 
better assist those who desire to learn all they can of this crop, 
and that all may have the benefit of as much information as pos- 
sible on the subject of growing broom-corn and making brooms, 
the Experiment Station- will engage to supply as many as wish a 
copy of '* Broom-Corn and Brooms," a small book published by 
Orange Judd Co. of New York, at the wholesale price, with the 
postage added. The usual price is 60 cents. Send 80 cents in 
sUver or- stamps to the Experiment Station at Raleigh, if you wish 
a copy of this little book. 

— A paper upon the oxidation of nitrogen by means of electric 
sparks is contributed, by Dr. V. Lepel, to the current number of 
the Annaten der Phyaik und Chemie, It is well known that small 
quantities of nitric and nitrous acids and their ammonium salts are 
produced during the passage of high-tension electrical discharges 
through moist air. Dr. V. Lepers experiments, according to 
Naiurty have been conducted with the view of obtaining more 
precise information concerning the nature of the chemical reac- 
tions which occur, and the experimental conditions most favorable 
for increasing the amount of combination. The first action of the 
apark discharge appears to be the production of nitric oxide, which 
is immediately converted by the oxygen present into nitrogen 
peroxide. The latter then reacts with the aqueous vapor present, 
forming nitric acid and liberating nitric oxide in accordance with 
the well-known equation 8N0, f H.O = 2HN0, -f NO. It has 
been found, however, that the continued passage of sparks through 
the same quantity of moist air does not result, as might at first 
sight be expected, in the conversion of more and more of the 
atmospheric gases into oxidized products. For the passage of 
sparks through the gaseous oxides of nitrogen first formed results 
in their decomposition again into their elementary constituents. 
If, for instance, spark discharges are passing at the rate of one per 
second, the whole of the nitrogen peroxide molecules have not 
time to react with the water molecules to form nitric acid, before 
the passage of the next spark, and hence some of them suffer de- 
composition ; indeed, it is probable that a number of the nitric ^ 
oxide molecules first formed have not even time to combine with 
oxygen to form the peroxide before the passage of the next dis- 
<;harge, which brings about their dissociation. Hence it is, that, 
in a closed space, a limit is soon reached beyond which there is no 
further increase in the amount of nitric acid. For this reason the 
yield of nitric acid has hitherto been very small. Dr. V. Lepel 
has made experiments, therefore, with a slowly- moving atmos- 
phere, and under different conditions of pressure, and with various 
types of spark discharge, with the result that he has already in- 
-creased the amount of combination to 10 per cent of the total 
-amount of air employed. The air is exposed under increased 
pressure to a series of parallel spark discbarges in the same tube. 
The change of atmosphere is not made continuously, but inter- 
mittently, and the gases are expelled from the discharge tube into 
a large absorption vessel, in whioh the products are absorbed in a 
solution of water, or of a caustic alkali. Detailed accounts are 
g;iven in the memoir of the efficacy of the various forms of high- 
tension discharge, and Dr. V. Lepel is now experimenting with 



the discharge from a Tdpler influence machine with sixty-six 
rotating plates. Of particular interest are his remarks concerning 
the probable effect of the high- voltage discharges of which we 
have lately heard so much. He considers it not improbable that 
by their aid a new mode of producing nitric acid from the atmos- 
pheric gases on the large scale may be introduced, rendering us 
altogether independent of the natural nitrates as a source of nitric 
acid. 

— According to the Pioneer Mail of June 8, the residents of 
Howrah have been finding lately that jackals are animals of any- 
thing but an attractive temper. In some cases they have come 
nght up to the bungalows in search of prey. A little girl, aged 
about five years, was playing in a verandah, wh^n a jackal sud- 
denly rushed on her, and was dragging her away, when she was 
rescued. She was severely bitten. Three natives, while walk- 
ing along the Kooroot Road, were attacked by a jackal, which 
was only driven off after a stubborn fight; and a tale is told of 
two women, while standing near a tank, being attacked and bit- 
ten. So serious has the state of nuitters become that the public 
propose to submit a memorial to the district magistrate praying 
for the adoption of measures for the destruction of these pests. 

— G. Creighton. in a letter to Nature, June 80, on the immu- 
nity of the African negro from yellow fever, says: ** This point, 
interesting to anthropologists, is raised anew by a writer on the 
history of epidemics (Nature June 16), who asks whether the al- 
leged protection is supported by all recent authorities. Recent 
authorities are not so well placed forjudging of this matter as the 
earlier ; for the reason that immunity is not alleged except for 
the African negro of pure blood or unchanged racial characters, 
and that these conditions of the problem have been much less 
frequently satisfied in the yellow fever harbors of the western 
hemisphere since the African slave trade ceased. However, there 
was a good opportunity in 1866, during the disastrous yellow fever 
among the French troops of the Mexican expedition when they 
lay at Vera Cruz. Among them was a regiment of Nubians, who 
had been enlisted for the expedition by permission of the Khedive : 
that regiment had not a single case of yellow fever all through 
the epidemic. The African negro regiment brought over from 
the French colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe had two or 
three cases, with, I think, one death. The rest of the troops, in- 
cluding Frenchmen, Arabs from Algeria, native Mexicans and 
Creoles, had no immunity whatever, but, on the other hand, a 
most disastrous fatality. The medical officers of the French ser- 
vice have recorded the facts principally in the Archives de MSde- 
cine Navale, their conclusion as to racial immunity being the 
same that has passed current among the earlier authorities as a 
truth of high general value (admitting, of course, of exceptions in 
special circumstances), and a truth that has never, so far as I 
know, been formally controverted by anyone, although other 
points concerning yellow fever have been the subject of as obsti- 
nate controversy as those touching small-pox itself. The experi- 
ences of the French at Qor6e, a town with ten times as many ne- 
groes as whites, exactly confirmed those of Vera Cruz in the 
same year (^rcTi. de Med. nav,, ix., 848). The immunity of the 
African negro from yellow fever has become a paragraph in some 
anthropological text-books. It is from the anthropologists, and 
not from medical authorities, that Darwin cites the fact in his 
*< Descent of Man,*' adding an original theory of the immunity, 
which he was unable to establish after much inquiry. His theory, 
I need hardly say, was not that * * negroes in infancy may have 
passed through some disease too slight to be recognized as yellow 
fever,'* — whatever that may mean — ** but which seems to con- 
fer immunity.*' The theory, however, is another story, or 
*' another volume,*' as the writer just cited is pleased to suggest; 
and as for the historical fact of immunity, no one denies it, unless 
it be Dr. Pye Smith in his recent Lumleian lectures (Lancet, 
April 28, 1802, p. 901), who gives no reasons. It is unfortunate 
that the anthropologists (Darwin among them) should have intro- 
duced one element of dubiety in placing mulattoes on the same 
footing, in respect of immunity, as negroes of pure descent, and 
another in mixing up malarial or climatic fevers with yellow 
fever." 



34 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 493 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



PUBLISHED BY 



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them. The "Exchange " column is likewise open. 

For Advertising Rates apply to Hbnbt F. Taylor. IS Astor Place, New 
York. 



LION BREEDING. 

BY DR. V. BALL, C.B., F.R.S , HONORARY SECRETARY ROYAL ZOOLOGI- 
CAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

The breeding of lioa cubs commenced in the gardens of 
the Hoyal Zoological Society of Iveland in the year 1857, 
and has been continued through an unbroken descent to the 
end of 1891, or for thirty five years; from which, if we sub- 
tract the five years from 1874 to 1878, inclusive — when 
there was no breeding lioness in the gardens and no cubs 
were born — the actual period c f breeding lasted only thirty 
years, during which the average number of births has been 
5.3 per annum. 

Parents of the Cubs. 



MALES 

No. of Cubs. 
Natal (1857-64) 42 

Sire unknown (1869) . . 3 . . 
Old Charley (1866-74). 47 



Young Charley (79-84) 27 ] 

Paddy (1883-91) 31 j 

Romeo (1890-91) 9 



159 



FEMALES. 

No. of Cubs. 

( Natalie (1867-9) 10 

] Anonyma (1861-4) 20 

( Old Girl (1862-73) 55 

''Nellie (1869) 8 

\ Biddy (1871) 4 

Victoria (1879-81) .... 7 

{^Zenobia (1879-^) 17 

Queen (1884-91) 28 

Minnie 0884-6) 6 

Juliet (1890-91) 9 



159 



Sexes of the Cubs. 



Males 85 

Unknown ... 1 



Females 73 

Forward 86 

159 
Percentage of males to females 53.8 to 46.2, or a majority of 
7.6 males out of everv 100. 



The Number of Cubs in a Litter. 

Total number of litters, 43; number of cubs, 159; average 
number of cubs in each litter, 3.7. 

Of litters of 6 cubs there were 2 







5 






8 






4 






17 






3 






9 






2 






5 






1 






2 



Thus it will be seen that the average number of cubs in a 
litter approximates most nearly to 4. 



Months in which the Cubs were Born. 



January 6 

February. . . 14 

March .... 3 

April 22 

May 18 

June 9 

72 



( 



40 



July 5 

August 13 

September 27 , ^f. 

October 23^ ^^ 

November 13 

December 6 



} 



Forward 



87 
72 

159 



It is to be remarked that 90 out of the total of 159 were 
born in the four paired months, namely, April and May (40) 
and September and October (50). These amount to 56.6 per 
cent of the whole number, leaving only 43.4 per cent for the 
remaining eight months. 

Disposal of the Cubs. 

Died at, or shortly after, birth 30 

** after some months or year 12 

Retained for stock 8 

Sold (yielding upwards of £4,000) 109 

15» 



THE PURIFICATION OF WATER BY CHEMICAL 

TREATMENT.' 

BY WILLIS Q. TUCKER, H.D. 

Pure water does not exist in nature. It is an ideal sub- 
stance to which the purest water that can be prepared by 
the chemist only approximates. From a chemical standpoint 
every foreign substance which water may contain is an 
impurity, but, hygienically considered, water is called impure 
only when it contains excessive amounts of mineral matter 
in solution or in suspension; when it contains organic matter 
of vegetable or animal origin, or the products of the decom- 
position of such matter in quantities exceeding certain gen- 
erally accepted but rather arbitrarily assigned limtta, orwheo 
it is shown to contain living organisms believed to be asso- 
ciated with or productive of diseases which water may com- 
municate. All filth in food or drink is to be abhorred, but^ 
none the less, distinction must be made between thai which* 
containing or accompanying specific disease germs, may give 
rise to specific diseases, and that which is, while not unobjec- 
tionable, yet apparently incapable of materially affecting 
health. The chemist is as yet unable to distinguise disease- 
producing from relatively harmless impurities in water. He 
can recognize those constituents which indicate organic 
pollution; demonstrate the present existence of putrescent 
material, or show that such material has previously existed 

1 Read before tbe Medical Society of the County of Albany at a meeting' 
held February 88, 1888. Reprinted from tbe Albany Medical Annals, Aprll^ 

189a. 



JuLy 15, 1892. j 



SCIENCE. 



35 



by the recogDition of the products of its decay, but he can 
by DO means assert with certainty that any given water will 
necessarily give rise to disease or will certainly prove to be 
wholesome. Waters containing putrescent organic matter 
of animal origin have been drunk without harmful results. 
Such cases are on record, and, on the other hand, waters 
which analysis has shown to be of fair chemical purity have 
unquestionably given rise to disease. Nevertheless the 
chemical analysis of drinking waters, despite the limitations 
and imperfections of our best processes, furnishes most val- 
uable information, in no other way to be obtained, and I 
shall spend no time in a defense of this method of investiga- 
tion. There are unmistakable signs of pollution which 
analysis may reveal, and such warnings should not go un- 
heeded. If it be shown that a well receives the leachings of 
a privy-vault or cesspool, or that a running stream is con- 
taminated by sewage, as yet unoxidized and possibly in- 
fectious, such water should be condemned, and neither chem- 
ist nor bacteriologist should be required to demonstrate its 
disease-producing power. Indeed this would be in most cases 
entirely impossible, such proof being seldom attainable. 

Impurities in water exist in suspension or solution, and 
may be either inorganic or organic. Suspended matter may 
frequently be removed, wholly or partially, by mere sedi- 
mentation or by some simple process of filtration, but matter 
which is held in solution must be destroyed or removed in 
other ways. The boiling of water may produce a deposition 
of some of its earthy salts, a coagulation and precipitation 
of some of its organic matter, and a destruction of its micro- 
organisms including disease germs if present; and while this 
method of purification is frequently serviceable as a house- 
hold measure it is not adapted to use upon a large scale. By 
distillation a still further purification may be efiPected, but 
this is a still more costly process and can never come into 
general use. Within a few days I have examined a sample 
of distilled water prepared and sold in bottles for table use, 
in which, while the free ammonia was high, the albuminoid 
ammonia was very low; chlorine, nitrites, and nitrates ab- 
sent, and total solids almost nil. Such water is as pure as 
can well be made on a commercial scale, but it is necessarily 
too expensive to be commonly used. Aeration has likewise 
been resorted to for the destruction by oxidation of organic 
matter, and is said to have been employed more than a cen- 
tury ago by Lind on the west coast of Africa. Considerable 
improvement has been effected in certain city supplies by 
pumping air into the mains or reservoirs or by discharging 
water in jets or fountains into basins so as freely to expose 
it to the air. Where waters are shown to be deficient in dis- 
solTed oxygen, especially in the case of impounded waters in 
which patches of green algae appear upon the surface in 
warm weather, such treatment is often of the greatest value. 
It 18 an imitation of a natural process of purification, and the 
change effected is not to be regarded as purely chemical, 
being brought about by bacterial organisms, the nitrifying 
bacteria, which, under favorable conditions and in presence 
of free oxygen, convert nitrogenous organic matter into 
harmless inorganic forms. 

The purification of polluted water by direct chemical treat- 
ment has been effected with more or less success in many 
ways, all practical methods involving the separation of pre- 
cipitated matter either by sedimentation or filtration after 
treatment of the water. In other words, there is no chemical 
agent which, by simple addition to impure water, will render 
such water pure and wholesome. By chemical treatment we 
may precipitate lime and other earthy salts if present in 



undue quantity, coagulate and remove organic matter and 
bacteria, or promote the oxidation of such matter ; and various 
processes accomplishing, more or less perfectly, these results^ 
have, during recent years, been employed. 

Clark^s process, designed particularly for the softening of 
water owing its hardness to bi-carbonate of lime, consists in 
the addition of milk of lime, which results in the formation 
of an insoluble carbonate subsequently separated by sedimen- 
tation. Colored and turbid waters are clarified and organic 
matter and living organisms largely reduced by this treat- 
ment, as has been shown by Dr. Percy F. Frankland (Chem- 
ical New8, Vol. Ul., p. 40) and others, but if much organic 
matter is present the precipitation does not readily occur and 
filtration must be resorted to as in the Porter-Clark process. 
Other methods for softening water involve the use of caustic 
soda in addition to slaked lime, as in Howatson^s process, and 
the use of tri-sodic phosphate, now a commercial article, by 
which means the salts producing permanent hardness are 
largely removed; and in the household carbonate of soda 
(washing soda) is employed for the same purpose, though 
its use is impracticable on a large scale on account of the 
expense. 

Such methods as these, however, are primarily intended 
for purifying water for laundry use, manufacturing pur- 
poses, and making steam. They are more important from a 
technical than from a sanitary standpoint, and we pass from 
these to speak of those processes in which the main object is 
the removal of constituents believed to be harmful to health. 
Before doing so, however, a few words concerning filtration 
may not be out of place, the more especially as either sed- 
imentation or filtration is generally necessarily connected 
with every process intended for the purification of water. 
Filtration which is a mere straining, as for example, continu- 
ous filtration through sand or animal charcoal, may clarify 
a water without otherwise improving it in any respect, and 
if, after a time, the filter becomes foul, the water may be 
polluted rather than improved. I regard with disfavor most 
pf the old-fashioned filtering appliances, which not only 
gave a false sense of security, but often served as breeding 
places for the growth of living organisms. A house filter 
which is not easily cleansed is an abomination, being gen- 
erally allowed to take care of itself and in time becoming a 
source of real danger. A few years ago a case of no little 
interest was reported in the Chemical News (Vol. LU., p. 70). 
Two samples of water were analyzed for a family in which 
one member was ill with typhoid fever. One of the samples 
was from the house supply direct, and the other was the 
same water fi.ltered through a portable charcoal filter of the 
common type. This latter sample yielded a much larger 
amount of albuminpid ammonia than the former, decolor- 
ized fi.ve times as much permanganate of potassium, and was 
in every respect objectionable. On inquiry it was learned 
that the filter had been in use for more than a year, and that 
in the place where the owner had formerly resided he had 
found the water so bad that he had made use of it to filter 
that which he used for his bath. A few years ago when 
typhoid fever prevailed in Providence, R.I., and seemed not 
to be fairly attributable to the city water-supply, Dr. T. M. 
Prudden examined several of the filters used in private 
houses and found the typhoid bacillus in no less than three 
of them {New York Medical Joumaly Vol. l., p. 14). Fil- 
ters giving such results, it need scarcely be said, are a con- 
stant menace to health, but those which allow of easy clean- 
ing by reversed currents of water are free from most of the 
objections attending the use of the older forms. Five years 



36 



SCIEiViCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 493 



ago I analyzed some samples of Albany water, Bltered 
through a well-known filter manufactured in this city (the 
Blessing Duplex Filter), and found that a sample of water 
obtained by washing the filter after a day^s use, yielded of 
albuminoid ammonia, 0.1850 parts per 100,000, showing that 
the filter had retained a large amount of organic matter. 
Water which had passed through the sand of the filter only, 
yielded 0.0023, and that which had passed through both the 
sand and charcoal yielded but 0.0014 parts per 100,000. This 
latter quantity is about one-tenth that ordinarily found in 
our city water, and this is certainly a very good showing. 
Two years since I analyzed water which had been drawn 
from our upper service, both before and after filtration 
through the same filtering apparatus, and found the free 
ammonia reduced to a fifth, the albuminoid ammonia to a 
fourth, and the oxygen absorbed to two-thirds of the amounts 
originally present, by filtration; while a sample of water 
from the lower city service had its free ammonia reduced to 
a fifth, albuminoid to a tenth, and oxygen absorbed to a 
twelfth, indicating a vast improvement in a water at that 
time in singularly bad condition. These results I believe to 
be largely due to the efficient action of the animal charcoal, 
which in this device acts, not as a strainer or filtering medium 
proper, but as an oxidizing agent, provision being made for 
its constant aeration. In many filtering appliances animal 
charcoal is a fruitful source of trouble and danger, but if the 
real filtration is accomplished by other material and the coal 
is subjected to frequent aeration and renewed when neces- 
sary, it is a most valuable agent for effecting the oxidation 
of organic matter. I purpose soon to make some experiments 
with a view to determining how long animal charcoal retains 
its activity in such filters, though it is very certain that, with 
proper treatment, it will continue to operate satisfactorily for 
a long time. 

Of the chemical agents which have been employed in 
water purification, the most important are metallic iron, solu- 
tions of iron salts, generally the chloride, permanganate of 
potassium, and alum. Spongy iron, obtained by the reduc* 
tion of hematite-ore at a temperature of a little below that of 
fusion, thereby rendering the metal porous or spongy in 
form, was first made use of by Bischof, whose process was 
patented in England in 1871, though Dr. Med lock had se- 
cured a patent in 1857 for a process of purification based 
upon the use of metallic iron plates, and Spencer in 1867 in- 
troduced a material which he called magnetic carbide, in 
which the active agent was iron. The carbonic acid in the 
water, acting upon the iron in one or the other of these forms, 
produces a ferrous carbonate, which, by oxidation, yields 
hyd rated ferric oxide, and this is believed to effect the oxi- 
dation of organic matter and serve as a coagulant as well, 
producing a flocculent precipitate, which is subsequently 
separated by sedimentation or filtration through sand. Such 
methods have been employed with more or less success in 
various European cities, but Anderson^s process, which has 
been successfully used at Antwerp, Ostend, Paris, and 
Vienna, has generally replaced other methods of purification 
by iron. In this process the water is forced through revolv- 
ing purifiers consisting of iron cylinders revolving on hollow 
trunnions which serve for inlet and outlet pipes. On the 
inner surface of the cylinders are curved ledges running 
lengthwise, which scoop up and shower down through the 
water fine cast-iron borings as it flows through the cylinder, 
so that every portion of the water is brought into contact with 
the iron, which is kept constantly bright and clean by attri- 
tion. The water issuing from the purifiers is exposed to 



the air, by allowing it to flow through a trough, to secure 
the precipitation of the ferric hydrate, and by filtration 
through sand this precipitate is subsequently removed. It 
is claimed for this process that the organic matter is altered 
in form and largely destroyed, the albuminoid ammonia 
being reduced to from one-half to one-fourth, and micro-organ- 
isms largely destroyed or removed. At Antwerp 2,000,000 
gallons daily are thus treated, and Professor Edward Frank- 
land has shown that this water is completely sterilized and 
nearly all its organic matter removed. The cost, previous 
to the introduction of settling reservoirs before filtration, has 
been $4 per million gallons. In a paper read before the 
Franklin Institute in 1890 by Easton Devonshire, C.E., it is 
estimated that the cost of working expenses, with an output 
of 5,000,000 gallons per diem or over, should not exceed tS 
per million. 

Ferric chloride has been employed in Holland for removing 
clayey matter and organic impurities from the water of the 
Maas, which supplies Rotterdam. Carbonate of iron is formed 
and decomposed with separation of ferric hydrate which 
coagulates and removes the organic matter, but such treat- 
ment is attended with many difficulties and is not likely to 
come into general use. The same may be said of the em- 
ployment of permanganate of potassium, which oxidizes 
organic matter and by its decomposition yields manganic 
hydrate which precipitates much of the suspended matter 
present in the water. Such processes may be successful, 
here and there, on a small scale, but they cannot as yet be 
practically or economically employed in the purification of 
lar^re supplies. 

The only other purifying agent of which we need speak 
is alum. It is said to have been used for centuries in China 
and India, but particular attention was first directed to its 
use by Jennet in 1865. Most waters contain more or less 
bicarbonate of lime in solution, and the alum acting upon 
this constituent yields sulphate of lime, carbonic acid gas, 
and aluminic hydrate, as shown in the following equation: 

KjAl, (SO4) 4 -f 3 H, Ca (COj), =3 Ca SO4 -hK, SO4 
+ 6 COa + Alg (HO)e. 

As the aluminic hydrate forms and deposits it not only en- 
tangles and carries down finely-divided, suspended, mineral 
matter but coagulates and removes much of the dissolved 
organic matter as well. By this means peaty and other col- 
ored waters are decolorized; turbid waters containing finely 
divided clay are clarified and bacteria removed. Professor 
A. R. Leeds, in an experiment performed upon the water 
used at Mt. Holly, N. J., found that alum, added in the 
proportion of half a grain to the gallon, produced the follow- 
ing effect: '*0n standing the peaty matter was entirely 
precipitated in reddish-yellow fiakes and the water abo^e 
became perfectly colorless and clear. On pipetting off some 
of this supernatant fluid I found that instead of containing 
8,100 colonies of bacteritt per cubic centimeter, as it did before 
precipitation with alum, it contained only 80 colonies. On 
filtering some of this supernatant water through a double 
thickness of sterilized filter paper into a sterilized tube I 
found no bacteria in the filtered water. In other words the 
water had been rendered, by the addition of an amount of 
alum so minute as to be inappreciable to taste and almost to 
chemical tests, as sterile as if it had been subjected to pro- 
longed boiling. '^ {Journal American Chemical Society^ 
ix., p. 154.) 

Austen and Wilber made a valuable report to the State 
Geologist of New Jersey in 1885, on the *^ Purification of 
Drinking Water by Alum." They found that 1.2 grains per 



July 15, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



37 



gallon was sufficient for the complete precipitation and clari- 
fication of the New Brunswick city water, if sufficient time 
was allowed for settling. Such an amount is imperceptible 
to the taste and can exert no physiological action. If more 
alum is used less time is required for sedimentation, and vice 
versa. More than two grains to the gallon was seldom re> 
quired. They showed likewise that waters which will not 
yield clear filtrates on account of their containing finely di- 
vided clayey matters, even when filtered through the finest 
filter-paper, were immediately coagulated and precipitated 
by 1.16 grains of alum to the gallon, so that they could be 
filtered immediately after adding the alum, yielding bril- 
tiantly clear filtrates, and. in their opinion, no more than 
twice this quantity, or about two grains per gallon at most, 
need ever be employed. 

In January, 1889, a sample of peaty water from Athol, 
Mass., having a decided yellowish-brown color, was submitted 
to me for examination. Difficulty had been experienced in 
clarifying this water by filtration, and I made some experi- 
ments to determine the action of alum upon it. Our city 
supply was at that time yellowish in color and slightly tur- 
bid, and this was also tested. It was found that, in both 
cases, the addition of alum in the proportion of 2.3 grains per 
gallon gave rise at the end of twenty-four hours to a yellowish 
flocculent deposit, undergoing no further change on standing 
for four days, the water becoming clear and almost perfectly 
colorless. The waters were tested again by adding the alum, 
shaking in a fiask, and immediately filtering through paper. 
The city water became transparent and perfectly colorless, 
and the peaty water retained but a very faint, almost imper- 
ceptible yellowish tint. The peaty water yielded originally 
0.0226 parts of albuminoid ammonia per 100,000, but after 
the addition of alum, agitation and filtration, it yielded but 
0.0060 parts, or about one-fourth as much, showing how great 
an improvement had been effected. 

For household use, on a small seale, water can be easily 
clarified and purified by placing a layer of clean cotton, two 
or three inches deep, at the bottom of a glass percolator, such 
as is used by druggists, and pouring the water to be filtered, 
to which solution of alum has been added, into the percolator 
and allowing it to drip through into a clean vessel placed to 
receive it. The alum solution is conveniently made by dis- 
solving half an ounce of alum in a quart of water, and of 
this solution a scant teaspoonful should be added to each 
gallon of water to be filtered. Alum is now used in a num- 
ber of filtering and purifying systems which have of late 
years been brought prominently before the public by their 
inventors or the companies controlling them. 

If now it be asked, do such processes as these which we 
have described, admit of practical and economical application 
to the purification of large volumes of polluted water for the 
supply of our great cities, I fear that an unqualified affirma- 
tive answer can hardly be given. In American cities the 
consumption of water is much greater than in European 
towns. The *' Encyclopedia Brittanica *^ states that '^ the con- 
sumption varies greatly in different [English] towns, rang- 
ing from about twelve to fifty gallons per head per day," 
and that ^'an ample supply for domestic use and general 
requirements is from 20 to 25 gallons per head daily. '^ With 
us a hundred gallons is frequently supplied. Albany wants 
15.000,000 gallons, with a population of less than 100,000. 
Philadelphia and St. Louis consume 70 gallons; New York, 
80; Boston, 90; Chicago, 115; and Detroit, 150; while Glas- 
gow, Dublin, and Edinburgh consume but 50; London, 40; 
Oirminsrham, Leeds, and Liverpool about 30: and Manchester 



and Sheffield still less. On the continent it is about the 
same. Paris uses about 50 gallons ; Hamburg and Dresden 
60, and Leipsic but 23. In American cities the waste of water 
is enormous and to purify one gallon for drinking and house- 
hold uses and nine gallons for flushing water-closets, water- 
ing streets and extinguishing fires must ever be a wasteful 
process, to say the least. Many towns in this country %re 
now using water purified by artificial means, with apparent 
satisfaction ; but I do not think that the time has come when 
it can be said that such purification is practicable in all cases. 
Certain methods, like the Anderson process, give excellent 
results under favorable conditions, but competent engineers 
have not recommended them for American cities. Sedimen- 
tation, coagulation, filtration, aeration, all these have passed 
the experimental stage and are in a sense practical, but that 
processes involving so much manipulation can be advan- 
tageously employed in treating the enormous volumes of 
water required by large cities, especially where pumping is 
also necessary, is not as yet demonstrated. As regards fil- 
tration alone, it may be said that in our climate the filter- 
beds, which give satisfactory results in many parts of Europe, 
cannot generally be employed to advantage, and that this 
method of filtratign has been by no means uniformly suc- 
cessful even in Europe. In a recent report Dr. Theobald 
Smith has called attention to the fact that in the Berlin epi- 
demic of typhoid in 1889, *Uhe distribution of the disease 
was identical with that of the filtered river water,'* the filter 
beds being worked with great rapidity to make up for a de- 
ficiency in the water-supply, and the filtered water containing 
at times 4,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter. In discussing 
this case he says: '* These facts go far to prove that polluted 
water, when immediately delivered for consumption even 
after filtration, is not wholly safe. They likewise make prom- 
inent the fact, that, while filtration largely rids a given water 
of its bacteria, it is a process requiring the utmost care, tbe 
most constant attention, not only on the part of the engi- 
neer, but also of the chemist and bacteriologist. We are 
furthermore convinced," he adds, *^by these experiments 
that surface water which shows very little, if any, pollution, 
and which is stored before use, is safer than filtered water 
which before filtration is being-manifestly contaminated with 
sewage.'* As regards methods of rapid filtration under 
pressure, combining chemical treatment of the water, gener- 
ally by alum, as well, various systems are in use in this 
country, controlled by individuals or companies employing 
a variety of patented devices. Granting that the results in 
some cases seem to be excellent, I think the time has not yet 
come when they can be unhesitatingly recommended for the 
purification, in all cases, of large city supplies. I know of 
no city with a population of one hundred thousand that is 
using such a process to-day. That numerous infectious dis- 
eases are conveyed by water admits of no dispute. In my 
opinion it is vastly better to purify our sewage before dis- 
charging it into the streams which supply us with water, or 
keep it out of them if practicable altogether, than to attempt to 
purify the water which it pollutes. Chemical treatment 
and filtration may be practicable and efficient in certain 
cases, but I believe that the statement by the Rivers Pollu- 
tion Commission of England, more than twenty years ago, 
in their sixth report, is as true now as it was then: '* Noth- 
ing short of the abandonment of the inexpressibly nasty 
habit of mfxing human excrement with our drinking water 
can confer upon us immunity from the propagation of epi- 
demics through the medium of potable water." The cities 
of this country may eventually be driven to methods of arti- 



38 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No 493 



Hcial purificatioQ of tbeir water supplies, but it canoot be 
said that the conditions necessitating such action generally 
exist as yet. In most cases the safer and more economical 
course will be found to be either the securing of an unpol- 
luted water, if such be av^arlable, or the protection from pol- 
lution of existing sources of supply. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

0% Oorre»pond«nU are requetied tobeiu brief cut poaaible. The tortter'* name 
ie in aU caeee required ae proof of good faith. 

On requeet in advaneej one hundred eopiee of the number containing hit 
eommunication will befumiahed free to any correspondent. 

The editor vriU be glad to publish any qtn^ries comtonant vfith the chamct^r 
of the journal. * 

American Weeds. 

Professor Btron D. Halsted of the New Jersey Experiment 
Station has recently presented to the agricultural public a list of 
''American Weeds," — mostly phanerogams, — which contains 
no less than 75 L varieties and species, exclusive of noxious fungi. 
Well may the lon^-duffering farmer turn up the whites of his 
eyes at this formidable list. A closer examination, however, 
shows us among the '* weeds " all our cultivated clovers, medics, 
vetches, and many of our best; agricultural grasses. The criterion 
used by the New Jersey botanist in deciding what to admit and 
what to exclude from his catalogue is not apparent, and no word 
of explanation is vouchsafed. 

In the vegetable kingdom, if not in the United States Republic, 
it is true that '' it is self-evident that all plants are born free and 
equal.'* The distrnv^uishing of plants as weeds and not weeds is 
purely human and artificial. The pop'ilar idea of a weed seems 
to be a repulsive, or hurtful, wild plant. But few persons give 
exactly the same definition. I have been at some trouble to se- 
cure the defiDitions of a number of intelligent persons, and give 
below a few samples : — 

** A plant where you don't want it." —Director Ikiiperiment 
Station. 

** A noxious or useless plant." — Curator of Museum. 

*' A plant out of place.'* — Chemist. 

** A troublesome plant." — Chemist. 

" An obnoxious plant of many species not fit for food or medici- 
nal purposes." — Clerk. 

** A plant not edible, so far as known, nor medicinal, or other- 
wise serviceable to man, and which always thrives wbere not 
wanted."— Jn^pcc^or of Fertilizers. 

*' A plant for which we have no use so far as we know.'* — 
Meteorologist. 

" (1) Underbrush or bushes; (2) a useless or troublesome plant." 
-—Webster. 

My own definition : Any plant which from its situation or in- 
herent properties is hurtful to human interests; a vegetable mal- 
efactor. 

By the usage of the English language the name ** weed '* is 
oonnotative and implies in a plant a bad and hurtful quality. 
Used metaphorically or analogically it is always a term of oppro- 
brium. 

If we were dealing with individual plants as courts of justice 
deal with persons, each particular plant might he properly de- 
scribed as a weed or not weed according to the circumstances of 
each case. But here we are dealing not with individuals but with 
species and varieties, and can take note only of the general char- 
acter of the groups. If we have planted a bed of pansiee, and 
there springs up among the pansies a red clover plant, this particu- 
lar plant is hurtful to us, and therefore is treated as a weed, but 
we are not therefore justified in writing the species Trifolium 
protense in a list of weeds The general character, — the qualities 
for which the clover genus generally and this species especially 
are noted, are good and beneficial to mankind. It was only by 
chance or the carelessness of some one that this clover plant got 
into our flower-bed. '*The plant out of place" definition of a 
weed can refer only to a particular plant. It cannot be applied 



to a species, for a plant of any species is liable to be occasionally 
misplaced. 

We must maintain then that the inclusion in a list of weeds of 
such plants as the clovers, medics, vetches, and agricultural 
grasses is unjustifiable and wrouR:. 

A large number of Professor Halsted's ** weeds" are mere 
'* wildlings of nature" for which we have as yet found no im- 
portant use. But justice requires that in the case of plants as 
well as persons every one shall be held innocent until proven 
guilty of wroDg. 

Both from an aesthetic and from a practical standpoint it is true 
that most of these so-called weed plants are more useful than 
hurtful. They clothe and beautify waste places. Many of these 
wild plants furnish food and nectar for honey bees, and all aid 
more or less in conserving the fertility of the eoil, prevent wash- 
ing etc. It is as unjust to stigmatize such plants as '* weeds'* as 
it would be to call all savage tribes criminals. 

Professor Halsted omits wholly and without comment noxious 
fungi from his list of weeds. Yet these are our very worst and 
most dangerous weeds. In number they far outrun all the phan- 
erogamic species. 

To justify its inclusion in a list of ^* American weeds " a plant 
must not only possess a po$)itively noxious character, but must 
also be sufficiently obnoxious or wide spread to give it a national 
reputation. 

If we exclude from Professor Halsted's list all obscure and 
non-noxious species we shall have left about 150 species of weed- 
plants worthy to be called *• American Weeds." 

Gerald MoCabtbt. 

N. C. Experiment Station, Jnly 6. 



Some Remarks on Professor Cyrus Thomas's Brief Study of 

the Palenque Tablet. 

In Science, No. 488, Professor Cyrus Thomas stated that ** the 
particular manner of reckoning the days of the month " — or more 
precisely, the exact designation of a date by the sign of the day and 
the position it holds in the number of twenty days (uinal) that 
people are in the habit of calling a Maya month — as it is found 
not only '* in some of the series of the Dresden Codex," but through- 
out the whole of it, is also found on the Palenque tablet. This 
statement undoubtedly is a correct one. But Professor Thomas, 
following Professor Forstemann, asserts that the ''peculiarity of this 
method is that the day of the month is counted not from the first 
of the given month, but from the last of the preceding month; 
thus the fifteenth day of Pop, beginning the count with the first, 
will, according to this method, be numbered 16." If it were really 
so, this method of reckoning the days of the month would be a 
very curious one, and hardly to be understood. Professor Forste- 
mann based this assertion on the supposition that the calendar 
system of the Dresden Codex is the same as that which prevailed 
in Yucatan at the time of Bishop Landa's writing. In vol. xxiii. 
of the Zeitschrift fUr Ethnologie, published by the Berlin An- 
thropological Society, in a paper entitled '*Zur mexikanischen 
Chronologie, mit besonderer BerQoksichtigung des zaposekischen 
Kalenders,^* I have shown that tiie priests who wrote down the 
Dresden Codex did not begin their years with the days kan, mviuc^ 
ix, cauctc, as in Landa's time, but with the days been, B*tznab^ 
akbaly lamat, exactly corresponding to the acatl, tecpatl, caU^ 
tocbtl (cane, fiint, house, rabbit), the signs used by the Mexicans 
to designate their respective years. Beginning the years in this 
manner, the day 4 ahau 8 cumku is really the eighth day of the 
month cuniku in the been, or ** cane," years. The day 9 kan 12 
kayab is really the twelfth day of the month kayab in the same 
been, or ** cane.'' years; and thus with all the other dates through- 
out the whole Dresden Codex. 

The evidence derived from the fact that the same method of 
numbering the days of the month, that is to say, the same method 
of beginning the years, is also found in the Palenque tablet, leada 
— I agree with Professor Thomas — to the inference « that there 
were intimate relations between the people of this city and those 
where the Dresden Codex was written, and that there is no very 
great difference in the ages of the two documents." On the other 



July 15, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



39 



side, it is proved by nay «tatements that in this peculiarity both 
the Dresden Codex and the Palenque tablet differ from the Codex 
Troano-Cortez. For in the latter document the beginning of the 
years is in the days kan^ muluc, ix, cauae. This is proved by 
Codex Troano 23-30, when compared with the Dresden Codex 
2o-28. From this, and the generafl character of tlie Codex Troano- 
Cortez, we may safely infer that this manuscript is of a later date 
tl>Hn the Dresden Codex, and, perhaps, of a somewhat different 
lo -alitj'. 

Alluding to 9 C 9 D of the Palenque tablet, Professor Thomas 
remarks that on plate 48 and twice on plate 60 of the Dresden 
Caiex no number-symbol is attached where the day is the twen- 
tieth of the month. This is obviously an erroneous statement; for 
ill alt the three cases named, and also in the Palenque tablet, there 
is a particular element attached to the hieroglyph of the month; 
and this particular element reveals itself as a graphic representa- 
tion of the two eyes of the man {uinic)^ the substitute of the head 
of the slain, which I have shown is the usual representation of 
the man (uinic) or the number twenty {uinal) (see Zeitschrift fUr 
EtJinologie, nx., pp. 237-240. 

With reference to Professor Thomas's last remarks, I will add 
that the symbol of the hand, as it is seen in the hieroglypth mdnik^ 
is to be understood as a sign-language character for '* to eat,*' and 
therefore has the (>honetic value chi (compare the hieroglyph 
ehikin, west). The figure of the outstretched hand occurs as a 
substitute for the hatchet, the probable expression of the sound 
ch'cu:, •*to cut." The proper phonetic and figurative value of the 
outstretched hand seems to be pax, <* to beat." 

Dr. Ed. Sbler. 

Steglla, Qermany, June, 189*2. 



A Grape Vine Produces Two Sets of Leaves During the Same 

Season. 

The scarcity of information upon the production of leaves at 
abnormal times furnishes an excuse for the following communi- 
cation. 

In the yard adjoining me there is a large grape-vine of several 
years* growth. A month ago this was a viKorous plant ; the leaves 
were numerous and healthy, and the branches were loaded with 
grapes. Alx>ut that time numerous caterpillars attacked the vine, 
and in less than a week there was not a leaf left upon it. Numer- 
ous petioles, bearing fragments of the principal veins, were all 
that remained of the foliage. The grapes began to shrivel, and 
the smaller twigs to show signs of premature decay. 

But the end was not yet. About a week after the leaves were 
destroyed, buds located at the nodes — buds which normally would 
have remained dormant until next year — l)egan to develop a sec- 
ond foliage. Although not yet full-grown, these leaves have given 
a new lease of life to the vine. The few shriveled bunches of 
grapes that have survived the great draught upon their moisture 
are rapidly regaining their plumpness. The plant is itself again. 

One fact is worth noting; although almost four weeks have 
elapsed since the leaves were destroyed, the petioles remain 
attached to the stems. These petioles are as green as ever, and in 
most cases they retain short bits of the principal veins of the 
leaves Near the petioles these veins are green, but their free ex- 
tremities are shriveled and brown. C. H. Turner. 

UnlTeralty of Cincinnati, July 10. 



BCX)K-REVIEWS. 



The Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages. A Popular Treatise on Early 
Archeeology, By John Hunter-Duvar. London, Swan Son- 
nenschein & Co. New York, Macmillan & Co. 285 p. 
$1.25. 

As the author claims for this book no other character than that 
of a popular treatise, it will be sufficient to inquire whether it is 
a fair representation of the most approved views of the science, 
as expressed by those who have made it a speciality. This it 
usually is, although the author, who never quotes his authorities, 
has inserted opinions here and there which are certainly not those 
generally accepted. For instance, he understates the artistic 



relics of the Palseolithic period; he assumes that the weapons of 
the river drift were more ponderous than those of later date; he 
asserts that no idols have been recovered from the stations of that 
epoch; and that no human remains have been unearthed from 
the European kitchen-middens. Our countrymen will also be 
surprised to learn that Mound City is another name for St. Louis 
(p. 142). 

In spite of such slight blemishes, the book can be recommended 
as a convenient and usually accurate manual of this attractive 
science. It begins at the beginning, tracing the story of man 
from early post-tertiary times through the drift and cave periods 
in Europe, and the neolithic, bronze, and iron ages. There are 
special chapters on the lake-dwellers, fossil man, myths, pot- 
tery, sepulture, and art, and one on the mound-builders of the Ohio 
Valley. 

Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South 
Wales. Vol. XXV. 1891. 348 p. 

The creditable publications of this active society have already 
reached their twenty- fifth volume, and it comes replete with en- 
tertaining material. Several reports from the Sydney Observatory 
on celestial photography will have interest for the astronomer; 
articles on Kaolinite and the microscopic structure of Australian 
rocks will attract the geologist ; the causes of death among sheep 
anJ rabbits in Australia will be welcome to the agriculturist ; the 
folk-lorist will turn with pleasure to Mr. Pratt's translations of 
songs and myths from Samoa; while the mechanicians and cranks 
will be glad to read about a ship •which can be propelled by the 
action of the waves alone, and a fiying machine which is to navigate 
the sky by the motive power of compressed air. This is certainly 
a varied repast, at which each may find a dish to his liking. 



AMONG TfiE PUBLISHERS. 

A WORK on the '* Migration of Birds," by Charles Dixon, will 
shortly be published by Messrs. Chapman & Hall. 

— Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. have issued a third edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged, of Professor E. A. Sch&fer's ** Essen- 
tials of Histology." The intention of the author is to supply 
students with directions for the microscopical examination of the 
tissues. 

— A ' Dictionnaire de Chimie industrielle" is being issued in 
parts, under the direction of A. M. Villon, by the '* Librairie Tig- 
nol." It gives an account of the applications of chemistry to 
metallurgy, agriculture, pharmacy, pyrotechnics, and the various 
arts and handicrafts. 

— Henry Stevens & Son, 80 Great Russell Street, London, promise 
for next month Henry Harisse's *' Discovery of North America: a 
critical, documentary, and historic investigation, with an essay 
on the early cartography of the New World," etc. This important 
work by the foremost investigator in the field will make a quarto 
volume of 800 pages, with 23 plates and many illustrations in the 
text, and will be issued to subscribers in three styles, ranging in 
price from £5 to £12 16s. Only 860 copies are to be printed. 

— The American Society for the Extension of University Teach- 
ing, Philadelphia, has just issued five monographs on various 
phases of the university extension movement, being reprints from 
the Proceedings of the Society. These are: " The Place of Uni- 
versity Extension in American Education," by William T. Harris, 
U. S. Commissioner of Education; "The Organization and Func- 
tion of Li>cal Centres," by Michael E Sadler, secretary of the 
Oxford University Extension Delegacy; ''The Church and Uni- 
versity Extension," by Rev. John S. Macintosh; ** The Ideal Sylla- 
bus," by Henry W. Rolfe; and "The University Extension Class," 
by Edward T. Devine. 

— With the number for July, the ** Annals" of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science begins its third volume. 
The first article in the current number is entitled " Cabinet Gov- 
ernment in the United States." It is by Professor Freeman Snow 
of Harvard, and is an answer to the many pleas for the adoption 



i 



40 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 493 



in the United States of cabinet government as known abroad. 
The next article is by Mrs. S. L. Oberholtzer, and relates how 
much good *< School Savings Banks" have done and are doing. 
Professor J. B. Clark of Smith College has a paper on ** Patten's 
Dynamic Economics," in which he explains the latest system of 
political economy, taking up Professor S. N. Patten's recent book 
as a basis for his remarks. Professor L4on Walras of Lausanne 
contributes an article on the '* (Geometrical Theory of the Distri- 
bution of Prices/' in which he presents a geometric picture of the 
causation of the prices of all commodities Besides these there 
are articles by Mr. B. F. Hughes on ^' Basis of Interest/' by Leo 
S. Rowe on the ** Conference of the Central Bureau for the Pro- 
motion of the Welfare of the Laboring Classes,'* by Takekuma 
Okacta on ** Taxation in Japan,'* and the usual book-reviews and 
personal notes. 

— W. H. Lowderwilk & Co., Washington, announce that they 
have assumed the publication of ** Hickcox's Monthly Catalogue 
of Government Publications," which they will complete up to 
date and issue regularly and promptly in the future. Mr. Hick- 
cox will edit the catalogue as heretofore, but all rights in the work 
have been purchased by the publishers. Up to this time the work 
has been prosecuted under many difiSculties, and the pecuniary 
returns have been very inadequate, by reason of which facts it 
was not kept up with the regularity which its importance de- 
manded. It is expected to issue early in July the first six num- 



bers of 1802. under one cover, succeeding numbers to follow phiIv 
in each month thereafter. As rapidly as the matter can be pre- 
pared the back volumes will be completed and sent to subscribers. 
It is not expected that the undertaking will prove a remunerative 
one, but it is hoped that there will be a return suflScient to repay 
the actual outlay of money. The work is of the utmost value to 
every person who has occasion to handle or consult the current 
publications of the government, and these publications are now 
so varied and comprehensive that persons interested in any 
branch of science or business must appreciate it. 

— Under the title of ** The Cambridge Natural History,' Mac- 
millan & Co. have in active preparation an important series of 
volumes on the Natural History of Vertebrate and Invertebrate 
Animals, edited, and for the most part written, by Cambridge 
men. While intended in the first instance for thjse who have not 
had any special scientific training, the volumes will, as far as pos- 
sible, present the most modem results of scientific research. Thus 
the anatomical structure of each group, its development, palaeon- 
tology, and geographical distribution, will be considered in con- 
junction with its external character. Care will, however, be 
taken to avoid technical language as far as possible, and to exclude 
abstruse details which would lead to confusion rather than to in- 
struction. The series will be under the general editorship of Mr. 
J. W. Clark, the university registrar, and Mr. S F. Harmer, 
superintendent of the Museum of Zoology. The following writers 



Publications Received at Editor's Ofiice. 

,B .1 ..... 

Bush, Gbobob G. History of Higher Bdaoation in 
Massaohusetts. Washington, Bureau of Educa- 
tion. S^, paper. 456 p. 

HuHTBii-DuTAB, JoHN. The Stone, Bronse and 
Iron Ages. New Tqrk, Macmillan ft Go. 12^. 
285 p. il.85. 

IfATO, A. D. Sonthem Women in the Beoent Bdu- 
cational Movement in the South. Washington, 
Bureau of Education. 8", paper. 880 p. 

Mkbz, Chablbs H. Influensa. Sandusky, O. 
Beecher A Co., Printers. 12^, paper. 9b p. 

U. S. Dbpabtmbnt of Aqbxoultdbb. Foods and 
Food Adulterants. Part 7: Tea, Coffee and 
Cocoa Preparations. Washington, GoTexnment. 
8°, paper. 

Experiments with Susar Beets in 1891. Wash- 
ington, Government. 8°, paper. 

Record of Experiments with Sorghum in 1891. 

Wa^hington, Govemment. 8^, paper. 

Wbismamn, August Essays upon Heredity. Trans, 
by E. B. Poulton and A. B. Shi i ley. Vol. II. 
Oxford. Clarendon Press. 129. 286 p. 



Recuiing Matter Notices, 

Ripans Tabules : for torpid liver. 
Ripans Tabules banish pain. 

Societas Entomologica. 

International Entomolog^ical Society, Zu- 

rich-Hotting^en, Switzerland. 

Annual fee, ten francs. 

The Journal of the Society appears twice a 
month, and consists entirely of original ar- 
ticles on entomology, with a department for 
advertisements. All members may use this 
department free of cost for advertisements 
relating to entomology. 

The Society consists of about 450 members 
in all countries of the world. 

The new volume beg^n April 1, 1892. The 
numbers already issued will be sent to new 
members. 

For information address Mr. Farrz Kuhl, 
President of the Societas Entomologica, 
Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland. 

SCiENCE CLUBBING RATES. 

lOj^ DISCOUNT. 

We will allow the above discount to any 
subscriber to Science who will send us an 
order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting 
each at its full price. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



Exchanges. 

[Preeof charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.l 

Taxidermist going out of business has Quantity of 
finely-mounted specimens of North American birds, 
mammals and reptiles and skios of birds for sale, 
including a full local collection of bird skins, show- 
ing some great variations of species; also quantity 
of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, 
and mounted heads of same. Will giye good ex- 
change for Hawk Bye camera with outfit. Apply 
auicJny to J. B. Thurston, 865 Tonge St., Toronto, 
Canada. 

For exchange. — A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather 
covered case, tor a photograph camera suitable for mak- 
ing lantern slides. Flute cost (ay, and is nearly new. 
U. O. COX, Mankato, Minn. 

Te exchange ; Experiment Station balletios and 
reports for bulletins and reports not In my file. 1 
will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. 
BOLFS, Lake City, Florida. 

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for 
fine fossib or crystals. Will be siven only for valuable 
specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. 
PERRY. State Geologist, Rutland, Vt. » 

For exchange. — Three copies of *' American State 
Papers Bearing on Sundav Legislation," 1891, $t.50,new 
and unused, for '*The Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, 
1840; '*The Sabbath," by A. A Phelpa, 1842; ** History 
of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and 
Abuses," bv W. L. Fisher, 1859; ** Humorous Phases of 
the Law, ' by Irving Browne; or other works amounting 
to value of books exchanged, on the question of sovem- 
mental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty , 
etc. If preferred. I will sell **Am«rican State Papers,' 



Wants 



Au9 person seeking a position for which he is gnali' 
nedby his scientific attainments^ or any person seeking 
tome one to fill a position of thu character^ be it thai 
'/« teacher o/sciencoy chemist, draughtsman^ or what 
not, may have the * Want ' inserted under this head 
PRBE OP COST, i/ he satisfies the publisher of the suit- 
able character of his application, A ny person seekini 
information on any scientific question, the address of 
any scientific manner who can in any way use this 
column for a purpose com onant with the nature oj 
the paper ^ is cordial y invited to do so. 



A 



JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1892) desires a 

!>osition as instructor In mathematics and 
. cs. Address A. B. TUBNEB, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md. 



W 



ANTED.—A collection of postage stamps; one 
made preyious to i870 preferred. Also old and 
curious stamps on original letters, and old entire 
V 8. stamped envelopes. Will pay a ash or give in 
exchange first-class fossils. Including fine cnnolds. 
WM. F. E. GUBLET, Danville, 111. 



WANTED.— To purchase laboratory outfit; bal- 
ances, evaporating dishes, burettes, etc., 
wanted immediately for cash. 0. B. 6PEIBS, i8 
Murray street, New York. P. O. Box i741. 



and buy other book» on the subject. 
DISON BLAKELY, Chicago, 111. 



WILLIAM AD- 



For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private 
chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal- 
ance (aoog to x-iomic ),^ platinum dishes and crucibles, 
agate motors, glass>blowisg apoaratus. etc. For sale in 
part or whole. Also complete file of Silliman^s yournal^ 
1862-1885(63-71 bound); Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; 
U. S. Coast Survey. 18^4-1869. Full particulars to en- 
quirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn. 

Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any 
standard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Children: 
Wilson's*' American Ornithology,'' 3 vols.: Coues' ''Birds 
of the Northwest " and " Birds of the Colorado Valley," 
a vols.; Minot's " Land and Game Birds of New Eng- 
land^' Samuels' '' Our Northern and Eastern Birds;" all 
the Keporu on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, 
bound in a vols., morocco; and a complete set of the 
Reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey. Please give 
editions and dates in corresponding. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALL, High School, Des Momts, Iowa. 



To exchange Wright's ** Ice Age in North America " 



WANTED.— The services of a wide-awake young 
man, as correspondent, in a large manufactur- 
ing optical business; one preferred who has a thor- 
ough knowledge of microscopy and some knowledge 
of photography. Address bv letter, stating age and 
references. Optical, care of Science, 874 Broadway, 
New York. 



W 




Place in Nature," Huxley, "Mental Evolution in Ani- 
mals," by Romanes, **Pre-Adamites," by Wi»ichell. No 
books wanted except latest editions, and books in good 
condition. C. S. Brown, Jr., Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville. Tenn. 



ANTED.— We want any and *■ 11 of the following, 
providing we can t ade ether books and maga- 
zines or buy them cheap for cash: Academy. Lon- 
don, vol. 1 to 88, 35, Jan. and Feb., '89; Age of Steel, 
vol. 1 to 60; American Antiquarian, yoL 1, S; Ameri- 
can Arehfteot, vol. 1 to 6, 9; American Art Beview. 
vol. 8; American Field, vol. 1 to 81: American Geol- 
ogist, vol. 1 to 6; American Machinist, vol. 1 to 4; 
Art Amateur, vol. 1 to 7, O t., '4; Art Interchange, 
yol 1 to 9; Art Union, vol. 1 to 4, Jan., '44, July, '45; 
Bibliotbeca Sacra, vol lto40; Godey's Lady's Book, 
vol. 1 to 80; New Bnglaoder, vol. It; Zoologist, Series 
1 and 1, Series 8 vol. 1 to 14; Allen Armendale (a 
novel). Raymer's**OId Book ''Store, 848 4th Ave. 
S., Minneapolis, Minn. 



W 



ANTED.— By a young man, a Swarthmore Col- 
lege junior, a position as principal of a public 
high school in one of the Gulf States, or as instructor 
in botany, phvslology, and geology in an academy 
or normal school. Address B., care of Librarian, 
Swarthmore College, Penn. 

WANTED.— To act as correspondent for one or 
two daily or weekly papers. Have worked on 
paper for about two years Would like a position on 
editorial staff of humorous paper. Address GEO. 
C. MASON, 14 Elm St., Hartford, Conn. 



TBANSLATOB wanted to read German architec- 
tural works at sight (no writing). One familiar 
with technical terms desired. Address *' A.,*' Box 
149, New York Post Office. 



July 15, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



are enftaged upon the groups whicb precede tbeir names; Mam- 
DMls, Mr. J. J. Lister; Birds, Hr. A. H. Evans; Reptilea and 
Amphibia Dr. Oadow, F.R.S.; Fiah, Mr. W. Bateson; HoUuhcb, 
Hr. A. H. Cooke; Polyzoo, Hr. B. F. Harmer; Brachiopoda, Hr. 
A. E. Shipley; IiwectB, Mr. David Sharp, F.R.8.; Myriapoda. Mr. 
F. O. Sinclair; Aracbnoida, Mr. C. Warburton; Cniatocea, Pro- 
fesBor W. F. R. Weldon; Coelenterata, Mr. S J. Hickson; aod 
Sponges, Dr. W. J. Sollas. It is hoped that some ol tbe volumes 
which are already far advanced may appear in the course of next 
year. The series will be fully illustrated. 

— The Bibtia Publishing Company of Heriden, Conn., baa just 
iBBued its initial monthly Dumber of " Ancient Egypt in the Ltght 
of Modem Discoveries," edited by Cfaas. H. B. Davis, Ph.D., and 
Rev. Camden H. Cobem, Ph.D., ivilh an introduction by Bev. 
W. C. Winslow, LL.D. Over one hundred illUHtrations will ap- 
pear in the twenty-four monthly parts; in the June issue are mapd 
of Egypt aa a whole, of Upper Egypt, of Lower Egypt, of the Basin 
of the Nile, of the Canal of Joseph, and of Egypt during the 



pluvial period; this openiuK chapter treats of ''Egypt and Its 
Original InhabitantP," and it is largely ethnographical in ite cuts 
and letterpress. 

— Mr. F, Turner contributes to the April number of the Agri- 
cuitural Gazette of New South Wales a paper on the carob bean 
tree aa one of the commercial plants suitable for cultivation in 
New South Wales. The Agricultural Department distributed a 
quantity of seed last year, and some healthy young plants raised 
from this seed are now growing in several parte of the colony. 
Mr. Turner expects that when the tree becomes better known to 
cultivators it will be extensively grown to provide food for stock, 
more especially during adverse seasons. The carob can not only 
be trained into a very ornamental shade tree, but may be planted 
as a wind-break to more tender vegetation. He advises all who 
cultivate it to beep bees, it only a single hive. It ia astonishing, 
be says, how many flowers these industrious insects will viell in 
tbe course of a day, and be the agency whereby they are fertil- 




Acid Phosphate, 

Recotn mended and prescribed 
by physicians of all schools 

FOR 

DYSPEPSIA, NERVOUSNESS, 
EXHAUSTION, 

and all diseases arising from im- 
perfect digestion and derange- 
ments of the nervous system. 

It aids digestion, and is a 
brain and nerve food. 



■«irar* of BBkallfnteB and Imltatlona. 



A TEMPORARY BINDER 

for Seifiut ii now ready, axA will be mailed 
d on receipt of 75 cents. 



w^S \ 



K or replacd viihour du- 
mutilate for aubiequeiii 



N. D. C. HODGES, Publisher, 

I74 Broadway. New York. 



LITERARY OUTFIT FREE. 



tDfO l> Mudlllg UB 11.00 



mentloolDit 
■■ Hlacorlcal 
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;e b ok ooutalDtDK 1 



OODtalDtDK a 

oellauBOUa booka [asTerrdapartaieiitot II era^ 
tnro. IntendPd (or thoM wfio are about form- 
ing a llbrarr- Hlata aboat vhal bo ks to read 

the •'LlWrarr Llflit," 



(4.00 actual value for 11.00. Sample oopT of 
erarj Lliht," 10 oenta (poatal aard won't do). 
Addraaa, LlMrarr LlKbi, 

M 4tb Aia. B. MlDusapolla, Kl 



ESTERBROOK'S 
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caUty, wa an otTeiiiixtbeni u aboat ODa-flfth Jewalen' 
prlc««;n)c., II, ll.U, Rtt. nliM a rwa oimrMnlty to 
Hcura a nn» nm vtrj oueap. iBDiip^ MlBeral CatalotfUB 
Uc,. In cloth ate, Snppleaudtlc. Oia.L.B>ouBH*Cu_ 
HtneraloglMa, m and m Bnodway. How York CItr. 



THE WEEKLY RULLETIN 

OF VEWSPAFEB AITS PERIODICAL 

LITEBATTniE. 
Catalogues and Classifies Each Week 

THE PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF 
THE PERIODICAL PRESS. 

That bugs maaa at material becetofore laaooeulble 
Special attentloa la iDVJted to tbe BnUetlD'a 

IHDEX OF TECHNICAL LITERtTURE 

Send tor a JVea aomplc copv and learn hoT 

The Bulletin Supplies 

The Articles Catalogued. 



WORLD-ENGLISH, 

S6 CoDta. 

HANDBOOK OF 
WOALD-ENGLISH, 



Si ■ Preaident Andrew D, 

White, of ComeU UdlTeialty, 

_,.. the bluett tntereat a ot Cblla- 

tlan olTlliiatloD and of humanity would bo aerred 
b; fta adoption," 

"Soaot down, our tongoo la tbe beet for the world 
to unite apoa."— Brooklyn Eagle. 

'-The Idea of Mr. Bell baa much to reoom mend It, 
aod (heprsaentatlon la ohannlnglr oleat."— ^nuri- 

"The reanlt la a langua^ wbioh cannot faQ to 
meet with acoeptanao."— Soilon TravtUer. 

"World EnglUhdeaerreB tbe canifuloonaideratloD 
of all aetioUB aoholara."— Ifodem ZMntmaoe Nottt. 

Bent, poatpald, on reoelpt of prioa. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New Vork, 




FOSSIL RESINS, 



TliiB book i« the result of bd attempt to 
collect the scattered notices of foasil reaias, 
excluuTe of thoae on amber. The work is of 
interest also on account of deacriptioos given 
of the insect* (ouod embedded in these long- 
preeerved emdations from early vegetation. 

By CLARENCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH 
13", 11. 

M. P. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, H. T. 



POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 



N. D. C. HODOBS, 8T4 Br««dw«ri N. V. 



42 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 493 



QUERY. 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, say,) has failed 
to protect between two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
conductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light 
ning was attracting the attention 
of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub- 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First inserted June 19. No response 
to date. 

N. D. C. HODGES. 

874 BSOADWAT, HEW TOEK 
JUST READY. 

THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A Joamal of two Summer Cruises to that 
region; with notes on its early discovery, 
on the Eskimo, on its physical geography, 
geology and natural history, together with 
a bibliography of charts, works and articles 
relating to the civil and natural history of 
the Labrador Peninsula. 

By ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D.. Ph.D 
8®, 513 pp., $3.50. 

M. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, R. T. 

THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL S. TROY. 

This contains a discussion of the reasons 
for their action and of the phenomena pre- 
sented in Crookes^ tubes. 

Price, postpaid, 50 cents. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 

AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 
Mat«^rUl arranged and compiled for all klods of 
works, excepting flotiou. Statistics a specialty. 
Indexing and cataloguing. Address O. E. BIVER. 
885 N. loth Street, Philadelphia. 



TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since 

Jan. X, zSga. 

Aboriginal North American Tea. 

Actinism. 

AgrlcultTire, Experimental, Status of. 

Ameubotep, Klug, the tomb of. 

Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical 
Students. 

AnthropologF. Current Notes on. 

Architectural Exhibltton in Brooklyn. 

Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics. 

Artesian Wells in Iowa. 

Astronomical Notes. 

Bacteria, Some Uses of. 

Botanical i aboratory, A. 

Brain, A Few Charncteristics of the Avian. 

BythoscopideB an l Cereopidse. 

Canada, Royal Society of. 

Celts, Tbe Question of the. 

Cballcothenum, The Ancestry of. 

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School of Applied 
Science. 

Children, Growth of. 

Collection of Objects Used in Worship. 

Cornell, The Cbamee at. 

Deaf, Higher Education of Che. 

Diphtheria, Tox-Albumin. 

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of. 

Eskimo Throwing Slick". 

Etymology of two Iroquolan Compound Stems. 

Bye-Habits. 

Byes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain 
Facial Expressions. 

Family Traits, Persistency of. 

Fidhes, The Distribution of. 

Fossils, Notice of New Qigantic. 

Four- fold Space, Posslbiltty of a Realisation of. 

Gems, Artificial, Detection of. 

Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York. 

Grasses, HomopteralnJuriouB to. 

Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of. 

•* Healing, Divine." 

Hemlpten us Mouth, Structure of the. 

Hofmann, August Wilhelmvon. 

Hypnotism among the Lower Animals. 

Hypnotism, Traumatic 

Indian occupation of New York. 

Infant's Movements. 

InHuenaa, Latest Details Conoerning the Germs of. 

Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico. 

Inventions in Foreign Countries, How to Protect 

Inventors and Manufacturers, the American Associ- 
ation of. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences. 

Jargon, The Chinook. 

Ja(>sld!B; Notes on Local. 

Keller, Helen. 

Klamath Nation, Llnguiatlca. 

Laboratory Training, Alms of. 

Lewis H. CarviU, Work on the Glacial Phenomena. 

Lightning, The New Method of Protecting BuUdingB 
from. 

L1ssajou*8 Curves, Simple Apparatus for the Prodno- 
tlon of. 

Malae Plant, Observations on the Growth and Chemi- 
cal Composition of. 

Maya Codices, a Key to the Mystery of. 

Medicine, Preparation for the Study of. 

Mineral Dlsooverlea, Some Beoent, in the State of 
Washington. 

Museums, The Support of. 

Palenque Tablet, a Brief Study of. 

Patent OfQce Building, The. 

Physa Heteroetropha Lay, Notes on the Fertility of. 

Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of. 

Polariscopes, Direct Relleotlng. 

Psychological Laboratory in the University of To- 
ronto. 

Psychological Training. The Need of. 

Psylla, rbe Pear-Tree. 

Rain-Making. 

Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska. 

Scientific Alliance, The. 

Slstrurus and Crotalophorus. 

Star Photography, Notee on. 

Star, The New, in Auriga. 

Storage of Storm- Waters on the Great Plains. 

Teaching of Sclenoe. 

Tiger, A New Sabre-Toothed, from Kansas. 

Timber l*rees of West Virginia. 

Tra(*h(>8D of Insects, Structure of. 

Vein- Formation, Valuable Experiments in. 

Weeds as Fertllla'ng Material. 

Will, a Recent Analysis of. 

Wlnd-8torms and Trees. 

Wines, I'he Sophisticated French. 

Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C 



Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. 

X, xSga. 

Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa. 

AlNn, Harrison, Phlladelpliia, Pa. 

bb 1*1 win, J. Mark, UuWersty of Toronto, Canada. 

Barues, v.harleeReid, Madl«on, Wis. 



Baur, Q., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Beal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mien. 

Seals, A. H., MlUedgevllle, Qa. 

Beauchamp, W. M., BaldwinsviUe, N.Y. 

Boas, FrauB, Clark University, Woroebter, Mass. 

Bolley, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak. 

Bostwich, Arthur E., Montdalr, N J. 

Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass. 

Brlnton, D. G., PhUadelphta, Pa. 

Call, B. Ellsworth, Des Moines, la. 

Chandler, H., Buffalo. N.Y. 

Comatock, Thea B., Tucson, Arizona. 

Conn, H. W, M iddletown, Conn. 

Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs. Col. 

Davis. W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 

Dlmmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H. 

Farrington, E. H., Agricultural Station, Champaign, 
111. 

Ferree, Barr, "New York City. 

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins University. Balti- 
more, Md. 

Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y. 

Gallau4et, B. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C. 

Garman, S., Museum of Comp. ZooL, Cambridge, 
Maf»s. 

Golden, Katherine B., Agricultural College, Lafay- 
ette. Ind. 

Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, 111. 

Hale, George S., Boston, M«sn. 

Hnle, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

HaU, r. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Hal.Hted, Byron D., Rutgers College, New Bruna- 
wi-k, N.J. 

Haworih, Era<«mu8, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

Hay, O. P., Irvington. Ind. 

Hayues. Henry W., Boston Mass. 

Hazeu, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C. 

Hewitt. J. N. B., Bureau of Bthnology, Washington. 
D.C. 

Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb. 

HUl, E J., Chicago, 111. 

Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C. 

Hitchcock, Rom«n, Washington, D.C. 

HolnHes, E. L. Chicago, 111. 

Hotchkiss, Jed., Staunton, Va. 

Howe, Ja9. Lewif, Louisville, Ky. 

Hubbard, Gardiner G , Washington, D.C. 

Jackson, Dugald C, Madison, Wisconsin 

James, Joseph F., Agricultural Dept., Waehlngton, 
D.C. 

Johnson, Roger B , Miami University, Oxford, O. 

Kellerman, Mrs. W. A^ Columbus, O. 

Kellioott, D. S., ^tate University, Columbus, O. 

Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgh, N. Y. 

Lintuer, J. A., Albany, N. Y. 

Loeb, Morris, New York City. 

Mabery, Charles F., lleveland, Ohio. 

Macloskle, G., Princeton, N.J. 

McCarihy, Gerald, Agricultural Station, Raleitfh. 
N.C. 

MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C. 

Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J. 

Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 
D.C. 

Mill-ipaugh, Charles P., Morgantown, W. Va. 

Nichols, 0. F., Boston. Mass. 

Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Osbom, Henry F., Columbia College, New York 
City. 

Osbom, Herbert, Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa. 

Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa. 

Pillsbury, J. H., Smith College, Northampton, Ma«>8. 

Poteat, W. L., Wake Forest N. C. 

Preble, Jr^ W. P., New York City, 

Ruffner, W. H., Lexington, Va. 

Saoford, Edmund C, Clark University, Worcester, 
Mass. 

Schufeidt, R. W., Washington, D.C. 

Scripture, E. W.. Clark University. Worcester, Mass. 

Blade, D. D., Museum Comp. ZooL, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Smith, John B., Rutgers College, New Bmnswick, 
N.J. 

Southwlck. Edmund B., New York City. 

Stevens, George T., New York City. 

Stevenson, & Y., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stone, G. H., Colorado Springs, CoL 

Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C. 

Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Todd, J. E., Tabor, Iowa. 

True, Frederick W., National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Turner, C. H., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, 
O. 

Wake, C, Staniland. Chicago, 111. 

Ward, H. DeC., Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Ma«s. 

Ward, Stanley M., Scranton, Pa. 

Warder, Robert B., Howard University, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more. M. D. 

WeHt. Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Maaa. 

Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Williams, Edward H., Lehigh University, Bethle- 
hem, Pa. 



SCIENCE 



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A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE 

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AND SCIENCES. 



Tenth Tkab. 
Vol. XX. No. 494. 



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Contents. 



A Visit to a **Fict'8 House." David 

Mac Ritchie 48 

Eet to the Mata Hibbooltphs. Cyrus 

Thomas 44 

Ostsological Notes. D. D. Slade 46 

Notes AND News 47 

A Plea for a Broader Botany. L H. 

Bailey 48 

The Laws and Nature or Cohesion. 

Reginald A. Fessenden 48 

Notes on Local Hemiftera-Heterop- 

TXRA. E. B. Soulhtoiek 52 

Observations at Bobsekop. 58 

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Among the Publishers 54 

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[Vol. XX. No. 494 



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NEW YORK, JULY 22. 1892. 



A VISIT TO A '^PICT'S HOUSE." 

BY DAVID HAC RITOHIS. 

As I have to-day visited an admirable specimen of the 
underground structures so * frequently found in Scotland, 
where they are popularly known as "' Picts' Houses," some 
description of it will, I think, prove interesting to the readers 
of Science, although the place itself has long been known to 
antiquaries. There are very many examples of these struc- 
tures in the British Isles, notably in Scotland and Ireland, 
but unfortunately the information regarding them (almost 
invariably most exact and detailed) is for the most part 
buried in the various volumes of ''Transactions" of anti- 
quarian societies, and is thereby practically useless. If the 
descriptions already published regarding these ' buildings, 
together with reproductions of the diagrams illustrating 
them, could be focussed into one volume, the result would 
be of the highest interest to those who have paid attention 
to the subject, and would be a positive revelation to those 
who have not yet done so.^ And one great advantage to be 
derived from a comparison of the various delineations would 
be that the student would realize that, although such struc- 
tures are referred to under many names (such as under- 
ground caves, souterrains, weems, cloghauns, Picts* Houses, 
and — popularly — fairy halls), they all belong to one great 
class. 

The specimen visited by me to-day is situated at Pitcur, in 
Forfarshire, about two miles to the south-east of the small 
town of Coupar- Angus, and is locally known as ** the Picts^ 
house." It is entirely beneath the surface of the ground, 
and the portion of it which is still covered over stretches for 
about twenty feet beneath a ploughed field. That is to say, 
its roof is covered by a foot or two of soil, through which 
the plough passes without ever striking the flat, stone roof 
below. In other cases, indeed, the ploughshare has often 
been the first discoverer of these subterranean galleries. 

The ground- plan of the Pict^s House at Pitcur may be 
rouglily described as of a horseshoe shape, with a shorter 
gallery parallel to the exterior curve of one side. The 
horseshoe itself is about 130 feet in length from end to end, 
with an average depth of 6 or 7 feet, and an average breadth 
of about 6 feet. The shorter gallery is about 65 feet long, 
and its dimensions otherwise resemble those of the horse- 
shoe, except that it broadens out into a bulbshape at the 
inner end — a common feature in such structures. The line 
of length, in each case, is taken along the middle of the 
gallery, there being, of course, a great difference between 
the length of the inner and outer curves. 

Be it understood that both of these galleries are, as it were, 
great symmetrical ditches or drains, quite underground, and 
entered by several burrow-like doorways. Their sides have 

4 

1 1 may mention that, as a smaU beginning in this direction, I am about to 
lasue a i»amplklet (pabliabed by DaTld Douglas, Bdinburgh) containing several 
-written descriptions and sketchee of such structures; extracted from the 
^ Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotlsnd." 



been carefully-built walls of large, unhewn, unmortared 
stones, and these are still to a great extent unimpaired. The 
roof was formed by bringing the upper tiers of the wall 
slightly together, and then placing huge slabs of stone 
across from side to side. Two of the largest of these roof- 
slabs measure as follows: One (the largest oT all) is about 
74 inches in length, by 58 inches in breadth, and from 11 to 
13 inches in thickness, its shape being an irregular oblong. 
The other is about 60 inches long, by 48 inches broad, and 12 
inches thick. These are certainly very large specimens, but 
one is always struck by the great size of the flag-stones used 
in roofing these underground retreats. I have described aa 
unhewn all the scones employed in this building, but (as in 
similar cases) one is led to conjecture that some rough pro- 
cess of shaping must have been adopted, although the out- 
lines are perfectly rude, and no trace whatever is visible of 
any tool. The selection of these great stones, whether from 
a quarry or a hillside, their carriage to the scene of action 
(often from a very great distance), and the method used in 
placing them in position, are all problems which have greatly 
puzzled antiquaries. 

In the Pitcur ** house '^ most of the roof-slabs have disap- 
peared, having obviously shared the fate of so many monu- 
ments of antiquity, at the hands of proprietors and farmers 
in need of building materials and quite devoid of all interest 
in archaeology. But (perhaps because it goes underneath 
arable land) the northern portion of the great horseshoe 
gallery still retains its roof; and this part of the building is, 
therefore, in all probability, in its original condition. It 
appears to have been of itself a ** house," apart from the 
main gallery of which iV forms a portion, for it has a care- 
fully-built doorway leading into the main gallery; and, 
moreover, an extra ascent to the upper earth leads from the 
side of the wall just at the outside of this doorway. On 
going through the doorway of this inner portion, one finds, 
on the right hand, a small recess in the wall, about 33 inches 
high, 23 inches broad at the floor, and going into the thick- 
ness of the wall about 21 inches. Although this cavity is 
23 inches broad at the base, the two slabs which form the 
supports of its little doorway are made to slant towards the 
top, where the breadth narrows to 14 inches. Within this 
recess it is possible for a man of 5 feet 10, and of proportionate 
breadth, to sit in a squatting posture; but ilfis a very ^' tight 
fit.*^ I am particular in giving the dimensions of this recess, 
because the late Captain Thomas, a naval officer who de- 
voted much time and study to these subterranean structures, 
and who found this little recess on the right hand of many 
of their doorways, regarded them as probably identical with 
the *' guard-cells " of thePictish ** brochs." Captain Thomas 
quite realized that if these were really ** guard -eel Is '' they 
were useless for any but men of distinctly small stature — 
an attribute of the Picts, according to tradition. 

It is difficult to convey a true idea of such buildings by 
written description alone, but perhaps these notes will give 
thefeaders of Science some impression of an example of a 
very interesting class of structures. 

Easter Logie, Perthshire, Scotland, Jaly 1. 



t 



44 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 494 



KEY TO THE MAYA HIEROGLYPHS. 

ft 

BY CYBUS THOMAS, PH.D. 

I QIYE here in as limited space as possible a list of the 
Maya letter ^glyphs so far as I have determined them, to- 
gether:) with the corresponding phonetic equivalents; and 
some efxamples of my attempts at deciphering the written 
characters of the Codices. 

It is necessary to explain that the letter-equivalent given 
to each is to be understood as only the chief phonetic ele- 
ment of the character represented, for, in most cases, more 
than this chief or prominent element is ipcluded in the one 
^vmbol. The consonant sounds are those chiefly represented, 
'^lat the character, as a rule, combines therewith a vowel and 
sometimes even a subordinate consonant sound. Hence it 
,}|appens that the same consonant sound is represented by 
several different characters depending upon the subordinate 
phonetic elements combined with it. A change, however, in 
the character does not necessarily follow from a change 
in the order of the phonetic elements it represents; thus, 
what denotes ci as a prefix may stand for ic or c at the end. 

The examples given of the added vowel and subordinate 



k appears to be a combination of Nos. 3 and 5. The latter 
sometimes contains the dotted portion seen in 6. No. 6 is 
frequently found where it must be interpreted che, **wood,'* 
yet occurs without the dot-surrounded portion where it hat 
the same signification. Other variants are found in the 
Dresden Codex. 

7. K\ — Found as ke and ek, also as Ce. 

8. Ch\ — Sometimes chi, as in the symbol for Chikin^ 
**west;^* 'CV as final. Landa's first x appears to be an 
attempt to give this character which is the partially closed 
hand. 

9. KU\ — Lan da's symbol. This does not appear to be 
subject to any variations that affect its phonetic value. 

10. X\ — Cross-hatching usually indicates x (sh) as the 
leading phonetic element ; however, it is sometimes rendered 
by ch\ as is evident from its appearance in the symbol for the 
day Chicchan if we consider it phonetic. However, the day 
symbols cannot always be relied upon in this respect, as will 
be seen by what follows. 

11. X\ — Landa's second x is substantially the same as 
this character. But he has taken two characters for one, as 
in this the a; is represented by the dotted lines alone; the 




.3 












4? 






Pio. 1. 



consonant elements, are intended only as asserting that such 
combinations have been discovered ; there may be, and proba- 
bly are, others. As it would require too much space and 
too many illustrations to give full explanations of the steps 
by which I have reached the conclusions given, I must take 
for granted that those interested in the subject will be able 
to test these from what is presented. 



«" 



Letter Symbols (Fig. x). 

1 (a, b). B\ — I find no marks or rule by which to deter- 
mine from the symbol alone the combined phonetic elements. 
This is Landa's character for h with a dot added. 

2. Ca. — As a prefix, sometimes ka in the Cortesian Codex ; 
c hard or k as final. Landa's character. 

3. C\ — This is generally found in place of an eye where 
it denotes ctm, cin, or ct. 

4. C\ — Ci as a prefix, tc, ich^ or c as a su£Qx or final. 

5. C or K. 

6. CH' 

and often difficult to determine because the complete form 
intended is not always given. In some instances the little 
dot-surrounded character at the left of 6 is solid^ then a 
slightly different rendering appears tobe demarded. Landa's 



— The characters 6 and 6 are quite variable 



little loop at the forehead, or rather the little parallelogram, 
in it is a; the face character n. The whole character ap- 
pears to be properly rendered by ocan, ** slowly, leisurely, 
gently." The chief variation in the combination is found 
in the loop at the forehead, which may be a vowel or con- 
sonant. This form of x is seldom found except in combina- 
tion with n. 

12 (a, b, c). jE7and ^Efe.— The variations are shown in 12b 
and 12c. 

13 (a, b, c). L'.— This is Landa's first I, The variations 
are shown in 13b and 13c. Found in combination with 
different vowels, as 2e, oZ, etc. 

14. L\ — If Landa's second I be turned round it will be 
found to be a rude imitation of this character, which is the 
symbol for the day Ahau, Li, in the symbol for lAkifiy 
East; follows ku, etc. 

16. M\-Me, — Symbol for the day Men, 

16 (a, b). M\ — Varies in having the little loops at the 
top, sometimes solid, as in 16b. The dot-surrounded portion 
of 16b is used alone in one series of the Cortesiau Codex 
for this letter followed by e. The combinations have not 
been traced. 

17. M\ — This appears to be another form of m, or m 



July 32, 1892.] 



doubled, or combined with n. Not satisfaclorilf tested as 
7et, though m is certainly the chief phonetic element. 

18 (a, b). 3f' (t).— Althoug'h not tboroughly traced, I sm 
satisfied that this character, which is the symbol of the day 
Muluc, has m as its chief phooetio element, generally with 
o or u. The part representing the o is omitted from the da; 
symbol, but is found in the little ring and loops in 18b. The 
form of the contour of a character is generally of do signifi- 
cance as it may be rouod, square, or deeply notched without 
any change in its meaning. 




SCIENCE. ' 45 

T. CresBOo of Philadelphia auhsequent to the Brst notice, in 
Science, of my discovery, I am much pleased to learn that 
he has reached a similar determination as to some of these 
letter symbols by an independent method. As I was not 
aware until the publication of the Article mentioned, that he 
was at work on tbe Uaya characters, this agreement in our 
coaclueioDS is highly gratifying, and serves to strengthen 
both in the cooviction that we are making genuine progress 
in the solution of this difficult problem. 

I give here a few interpretations of groups of compound 
characters to illustrate the combinations of the letter sym- 
bols. 

Fig. 2 represents a group of four compound characters in 
the upper division of PI. XXII* Codex Troano, to be read in 
this order: upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right; 
which we will number in tbe order given 1, 2, S, 1- 

Tbe following is probably a substantially ootrect transla- 
tion; (I) U-Zabal, (2) Ule, (3) Cutz, [*) 2-yaxkin: "Set 
{or literally do the setting of) the snare for the turkey on 
the second day of Yaxkin." I can give no explanation of 
the little crosses above the symbol for Yaxkin. The preOx 
to Mo. 1 and to No. 2 is the character for u; tbe upper 
character in No. 1 appears to be the symbol for z reversed: 
the band across the lower character the b (possibly inter- 
changeable with p). Tbe figure below agrees very well 
with this interpretation. 



19. P or i^ (t). — Although I have not tested this satis- 
factorily, I am certain from my examinations that its pho- 
netic equivalent is p usually pp. There are some variations 
found chiefly in the lower portion. Tbe p and b appear to 
be interchangeable in the Codices even in the same word ; 
for example in the Dresden Codex 48c, we find the b char- 
acter in the symbol for the month Pop, while on 50b it is 
replaced in the same month symbol by our No. 19. 

20, 21, 23. I".— These characters (20, 21 and 22) appear to 
have t as their chief phonetic element, varied according to 
the markings in the upper portion. No. 20 is also varied by 
the marks in the lower or middle circle. 

23. Th'.— Is followed by e and i. 

24. Tz\ — I am also inclined to believe that the two 
streamers or lines which extend upward in characters, as in 
the symbol for the month Tzec, indicate the presence of this 

25. Z", Za. — Varied according to the markings in the 
Things and circle. 

26. O (dz). — Sometimes z. 

27. y. — The index to tbe variations in the signification 
if there be any. which is doubtful, will probably be found 
in the length and form of the stem. 

28. Bal or bil {%). — This is the Symbol for the day Acbal. 

29. Ch (?).— Usually followed by o or m when not ter- 
minal. Is the symbol for the day Chuen. 

30. Cab. — Tbe signification of the appendage so often 
found attached below this symbol has not been ascertained. 

3L. H^. — Sign of aspiration, the open ends always turned 
toward the character with which it is connected. 

32. Kin, — Sometimes without the wing. The latter ap- 
pears to be used for n, the circle for Art. 

33. Kal. — It the separate elements are represented, it is 
probable tbe section with the dotted line stands for the A: and 
the curved line with tbe two little teeth for the I. 

Having submitted samples of my interpretation to Dr. H. 




Tbe group shown in Fig. 3 is found in the lower division 
of plate 26 Cortesian Codex. The characters are taken and 
numbemd in the same order as in Fig. 2. No. 1 issupposed 
with good reason to be a deity symbol, the name however 
undetermined. Assuming this to be correct. I translate the 
group as follows: (Deity) xan yalcab kalcab, "As"or"in 
the name of (the deity) slowly gather the swarm of bees 
and inclose them in a hive." 

Tbe figure below shows a priest wearing the mask of the 
supposed deity hence we say "as." 




Fig. 4 is a group from the middle division of plate XXXII* 
Codex Troano. The characters are numbered in the same 
order as the preceding and are translated as follows: Mulcin 
ku ci- (god of death) xaan; "Collect together for the 
temple of the holy god of death palm wood." The picture 
below represents individuals bearing in their hands wbat 
appear to be blocks of wood on each of which is the symbol 
for cftc "wood." 

The little character at tbe forehead in No. 4 is the symbol 



46 



SCIEiMCE. 



[Vol, XX. No. 494 






for €La which is found in other combinations where it has 
the same signification. 

So far I have found no marks indicating the plural ; this 
may be represented by duplications. 



OSTEOLOGICAL NOTES. 



BY D. D. SLADB. 



The jugal arch is present in all of the order Rodentia, and 
is generally complete, although it exhibits many modifica- 
tions in its composition. Three bones form the arch, which 
is straight or slightly curved horizontally, while it almost 
invariably presents a curvature downwards. The position 
of the jugal therein serves as a determining character in 
grouping the various families of the order. 

The temporal fossa is often little developed, showing fee- 
ble energy in the action of the temporal muscle. On the 
contrary, the pterygoid plates and fossse are often largely 
increased in relation to the enlarged development of the 
muscular insertions. In close connection with these condi- 
tions, the coronoid process of the mandible is small, and 
even rudimentary, while the parts about the angle are 
largely expanded. The condyle is little elevated and pre- 
sents, with few exceptions, an antero-posterior articulating 
surface. 

Post-orbital processes of the frontals exist in a few of the 
families, but there is in no case a corresponding process from 
the arch. The orbit is never separated from the temporal 
fossa. 

In many of the rodents there is present a more or less ex- 
tensive dilatation of the infra-orbital foramen, through 
which passes, in addition to the nerve, that portion of the 
massetar muscle which has its insertion upon the maxilla, 
lliis extends around the back of the jugal process of the 
maxillM in a pulley-like manner, to an insertion just below 
the socket of the mandibular prsemolar, and thus co-operates 
with the temporal in moving the mandible in a vertical di- 
rection. Xhis attachment of a head of the masseter is pe- 
culiar to the order, and explains the use of the vacuity in 
the maxilla which is oftentimes of vast relative propor- 
tions. 

Assuming the present classification, all existing Rodentia 
may be brought into two groups, the Simplicidentata and 
the Duplicidentata. The first embraces the Sciuromorpha, 
Hystricomorpha, Myomorpha, and the second, the Lago- 
morpha. 

In the Sciuromorpha, the jugal forms the greater part of 
the arch, extending forward to the lacrymal, and posteriorly 
to the glenoid cavity, of which it forms the outer wall, and 
it is not supported below by a continuation backwards of 
the process of the maxilla. Jn the more typical forms there 
is no enlargement of the infra-orbital opening, while the 
post-orbital processes of the frontals are characteristic of the 
family Sciuridse. The external pterygoid plate is entirely 
wanting, and there is no fossa. 

The jugal arch in the Myomorpha is for the most part 
slender, and the jugal, which does not extend far forward, 
is supported by the continuation below of the maxillary 
process. The zygomatic process of the squamosal is short. 
No post- orbital process of the frontal exists. The infra- 
orbital opening varies. In the family Muridae, especially 
in the typical forms, this opening is perpendicular, wide 
above and narrow below, while the lower root of the 
zygomatic process of the maxilla is flattened into a thin 
perpendicular plate. Very much the same condition exists 



in the Myoxidse, while in the Dipodidae the foramen is as 
large as the orbit, rounded, and has a separate canal for the 
nerve. The malar ascends to the lacrymal in a flattened 
plate. In close connections with these conditions the 
coronoid process of the mandible is small and rudimenary, 
while the parts around the angle of the ramus are much 
developed. 

In the Hystricomorpha the arch is stout The jugal is 
not supported by the continuation of the maxillary process^ 
and generally does not advance far forward. The infra- 
orbital vacuity is large, and is either triangular or oval. 
The coronary process and the condyle are but slightly elevated 
above the dental series. 

In the Chinchillidse the jugal extends forward to the lac- 
rymal. In the Dasyproctidse, Caelogenys is characterized by 
the extraordinary development of the jugal arch, which 
presents an enormous vertical curvature, two- thirds of th» 
anterior portion of which, constituting the maxilla, is hol- 
lowed out into a cavity which communicates with the mouth. 
The nerve passes through a separate canal, adjacent to the 
infra-orbital opening. 

In the sub-order Duplicidentata, the jugal arch is well de- 
veloped. In the family Leporidse there are large wing-like^ 
post-orbital processes, while the jugal, but feebly supported 
by the maxillary process, continues posteriorly to aid in the 
formation of the outer side of the glenoid articular surface,, 
passing beneath the process of the squamosal. 

In the Lagomyidse there are no post-orbital processes, and 
the posterier angle of the jugal is carried backward nearly 
to the auditory meatus. The infra-orbital opening in the 
Duplicidentata is of the usual size. The angle of the jaw 
is rounded and the coronoid process much produced up- 
wards. 

In considering the significance of the jugal arch in the 
Rodentia, the peculiar vertical curvature downwards, which 
has already been noted, and which is a decided manifesta- 
tion of weakness, must be taken into account. This condi- 
tion is compensated in some of the families by the unusual 
arrangement made in the distribution of the muscular inser- 
tions of the masseter through the infra-orbital opening, by 
which increased energy is imparted to the powers of masti- 
cation, and whereby the action of the mandible is rendered 
fully equal to the demand upon its efforts. 

In those families where the above condition does not exist 
it is evident that the strength of the arch is still sufficient 
for the antero-posterior movement of the articulation so pe- 
culiar to the Rodentia and so characteristic of the act of 
gnawing. 

The relation of the arch to the neighboring parts must 
also be remarked. For example, the ascending ramus of 
the mandible differs according to the food. Elevated in the 
Leporidse, it is short in the Sciuridae, and still shorter in the 
Muridae. 

In the first the coronoid is broad, projects but slightly, is 
near the condyle, and far distant from the molar series, 
while the angle of the jaw is broad and well rounded, as in 
the Lagomyidae. 

In the other two families, squirrels and rats, the coronoid 
is feeble, pointed, and placed at equal distances between the 
condyle and the last molar; thus the masseter does not pos- 
sess a leverage as advantageous as in the hare. This mus- 
cle, however, in the rats has its maxillary attachments much 
developed, while few fibres spring from the arch — a condi- 
tion correlative with the feebleness of this last. 

Gambridgey June 21. 



/ 



July 22, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



NOTES AND NEW8. 

Thb recent publication is announced in Nature of the first 
number of a new monthly journal under the title Rivista di pato- 
logia vegetale. It is edited by Sigg, A. N. and A. Berlese, and 
published at Avellino, in Italy ; and is to be devoted to the study 
of animal and vegetable parasites infesting cultivated plauts, to 
the diseases which they cause, and the remedies employed to com- 
bat them. 

— According to Nature^ the Port Officer of Mangalore reports 
that a native craft was overtaken by heavy weather and made for 
Mangalore. where there is a bad bar with about eixht feet of water 
OD it. A tremend-iiis sea was breaking over the bar, so, before 
eroning it, and while running in, the native skipper opened an 
<Hlca8k. forming part of the cargo, and scattered it all round in 
the sea plentifully, with the result that be took his craft across 
the bar safely, and so saved the vessel and the cargo. The ves- 
881*8 name wan **BIahadepra»ad,'* and she was of 95 tons, bound 
from Cochin to Bombay. This is said to be the first case on 
lecord of a native tindal who has successfully used oil in trou tiled 
waters. 

• 

— In Science of July 8, the closing paragraph of the article by 
Dr. C. V. Riley, on **The Number of Broods of the Imported Elm- 
leaf Beetle,'* should have read : ** Our statement upon page 8 was 
a general one, based upon the observed shortness of the larval 
life, and upon the fact that the earliest larvae mature before the 
end of May, and upon the additional fact that we know that 
newly developed beetles are found early in June. Prof. John B. 
Smith, in a paper read before the Entomological Club of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, in August 
of this year, made the statement that there is but one annual gen- 
eration in New Jersey. The adult beetles develop* from the 
larvae which have fed during the summer, entering winter quar- 
ters as early as the first week in August. This state of affairs 
may probably hold in more northern regions, but in Washington it 
is safe to say that there are two generations, because, as just 
stated, newly developed beetles (the progeny of those which 
hlt)emate) appear in early June. These lay eggs, and, in fact, 
egg-laying may continue until the end of September, and larvea 
have actually been found by Mr. Pergande in October.*' 

— Mr. D. J. Macgowan, writing in the Shanghai Mercury^ gives 
an account of some remarkable statements made by a group of 
Chinese traders who lately undertook a mercantile exploration 
of the interior of Southern Formosa. They started from Lamalan, 
which Mr. Macgowan takes to be Chockeday of the charts, and in 
seven days reached their objective point, Hualin Stream. Tbey 
lodged in stone caverns, and the chattering of monkeys and the 
sounds of insects seemed to them *^ appalling and indescribable." 
The region was so '* weird " that it reminded them of ** legends of 
the kingdom of hobgoblins/' Among the trees were some of 
" prodigious girth, forming a vast forest." These trees are said to 
measure more than ten outstretched arms. A tree said to flourish 
in the same forest is described as bearing <' flowers, red and white, 
which are larger than a sieve, and of extraordinary fragrance." 
Mr. Macgowan adds: **Mr. Taylor, while searching for orchids, 
beard of these majestic trees and huge flowers, which he inferred, 
from what natives said, were epiphyte orchids. I am moved to 
make known this sylvan discovery in the hope that, pending the 
exploration of this terra incognita by our botanists, Dr. Heiu*y or 
Mr. Ford, residents in Formosa will take measures to provide 
those naturalists with specimens of flowers, seeds, leaves, and 
bark of the trees concerning which the Chinese have excited our 
curiosity." 

— *^ The New Decimal Association, whose headquarters are at 
Botolph House, Eastcheap," says the London Daily Graphic of 
May 14, " has memorialized the Lords of the Committee of Coun- 
cil on Education on the desirability of taking an important step 
in connection with the introduction of the metric system in this 
country. The May examinations of the Science and Art Depart- 
ment are known through the length and breadth of the land, and 
much has been done by means of these examinations to popularize 
and extend technical !?tudy. The mnmorial whicli has been pre- 



sented recommendir that in certain of the science examinatiooa 
alternative questions be given in future, based on the metric sys- 
tem of measarement, which may be taken at the option of the 
candidate in lieu of questions based on feet and inches In this 
way the large and intelligent class of candidates for certificates of 
the department will be induced to learn the metric system. The 
Committee of Council on Education has already ordered that the 
principles of this system should be taught in the higher standards 
of all elementary schools; and one of the steps taken by the school 
boards of London and other towns in consequence of this order 
has been to furnish the pupil teachers and advanced scholara with 
boxwood rules having a decimalized inch scale and a metric scale 
in juxtaposition. In addition to this, colored wall-charts of the 
metric weights and measures are used, and in this way the rising 
generation will to a great extent be prepared for the introduction 
of these weights and measures in future. 

— The second annual geological expedition of the State Univer- 
sity of Nebraska, undertaken by a party of six, left Lincoln for 
the fleld. June 31, 1899. This is known as the Morrill Geological 
Expedition, in honor of Charles H. Morrill, regent of the State 
University, whose liberality makes this work possible. The pii- 
mary object of the expedition is the collection and preservation of 
geological specimens in general, but more particularly the palason- 
tological forms for which the State and immediate surroundings 
are famous. The chief objective points are the Tertiary deposits 
of the White and Niobrara Rivers, and the Bad Lands of Nebraska^ 
Wyoming, and South Dakota. The expedition is provided with 
tents, — furnished by Governor Boyd,— with teams and heavy 
covered wagons of the prairie-schooner type, and with apparatus* 
camping equipment, and provisions for the summer. The pariy 
consists of six meml)ers, — exclusive of guide, — Mr. Thomas H. 
Marsland, Frederick C. Kenyon, Arthur C. Morrill, and Harry 11. 
Everett, all of the State University of Nebraska, and James H. 
Haines of Iowa College, together with Erwin H. Barbour, acting 
State geologist, as professor in charge. The '* Fossil Corkscrew, ' 
or Daimonelix, beds were visited first, and some tons of these 
extraordinary new fossils — noticed and figured in Science^ Feb- 
ruary, 1892 — were obtained. Native lumber and hay for padKinjp 
are carried, and specimens are boxed as found, and delivered at 
the nearest station or siding. At the close of the expedition these 
scattered collections will be brought togetiier and delivered at the 
State University in cars, which the railroad companies have gen- 
erously offered for that purpose. 

— The eighth annual report of the Wisconsin Experiment St<^ 
tion devotes a large share of space to questions relative to ensilage*. 
One chapter is devoted to a careful study, by F. H. King, of the 
construction and filling of silos. Mr. King, having visited 9$ 
silos in Missouri, Michigan,' Ohio, and Illinois, and several farmers 
while filling their silos, in order to obtain data for this chapter. 
Mr. King concludes that a stone silo, properly constructed, will 
keep the silage as well as a wooden one, but that it will be neces- 
sary to renew the cement lining frequently, or else to whitewash it 
with fresh cement every year, as the acids of the silage soon soften 
the cement. He finds that lath and plaster is a failure as a eik> 
lining, both because of the softening of the plaster and the liability 
to injury with the fork in handling the silage. Of the woodf n 
linings, that made by two thicknesses of boards with tarred paper 
between, all nailed firmly together, is showing greatest durability ; 
but all wooden linings rot soon unless well ventilated. Painting 
the lining tends to hasten decay instead of preserving it. From 
an experiment in feeding com silage in comparison with dry- 
corn fodder, the following conclusions are reached : 1. A daily 
ration of four pounds of hay and seven pounds of grain feed, with 
com silage or field-cured fodder com ad libUum, fed to twenty 
cows during sixteen weeks, produced a total quantity of 19,813 
pounds of milk during the silage period, and 19,801 pounds of 
milk during the fodder-corn period. 2. When we consider the 
areas of land from which the silage and fodder corn are obtained^ 
we find that the silage would have produced '^43 pounds more 
milk per acre than the dry fodder, or the equivalent of 12 pounder 
of butter. This is a gain of a little more than three per cent in 
favor of the silage. 



48 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No 494 



SCIENCE: 



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7ork. 



A PLEA FOR A BROADER BOTANY. 

BY L. H. BAILEY. 

The science of botaDj, as ordinarily considered and 
taught, has not laid hold of the full amount of territory to 
which it is entitled, and it has not, therefore, reached its 
full measure of usefulness. Strictly speaking, botany is the 
science of plants, but by general consent it appears to have 
dwarfed itself into a science of wild plants; or if it deals 
with cultivated plants they are such as fall to the care of 
botanical gardens, or, in other words, those which are culti- 
vated for the sole purpose of maintaining a collection. It is 
not strange that in the earlier days botanists should have 
eliminated from their domain the whole realm of cultivated 
plants, for cultivation then meant little else than the main- 
tenance and improvement of plants for merely economic 
purposes, and there was little science of cultivation. But 
now that the teachings of evolution have thrown a new pur- 
pose into the study of all natural objects, cultivated plants 
have acquired a fascinating interest from the abundant light 
which they throw upon variation and descent. In fact, 
aside from paleontology, there is no direction in which such 
abundant material can be found for the study of evolution 
as in cultivated plants, for in nearly all of them the variation 
is fully as great as in domesticated animals, while the species 
are very many times more numerous; and, by the fostering 
aid rendered by man, the accumulative effects of modified 
environment and selection are much more quickly seen — 
and therefore more intelligible — than in wild plants. My 
nearest neighbor, who is a paleontologist, and myself, a hor- 
ticulturist, compare our respective fields of study to the de- 
cay and burning of a log. In both decay and burning the 
same amount of work is Anally accomplished and the same 
amount of heat is evolved, but one process requires years, 
perhaps a century, for its accomplishment, and the other 
requires but a few hours. Cultivated plants afford within 
definite periods of time as much variation and progression 
as their wild prototypes exhibit in ages. So the garden is one 
of the best places in which to study evolution. It is a com- 



mon opinion, to be sure, that the variation of cultivated 
plants is anomalous and uninstructive because influenced by 
man, but this is wholly erroneous. I have yet to find a 
variation in cultivated plants which can not be explained 
by laws already announced and well known. It is strange 
that one can ever believe that any variation of natural ob- 
jects is unnatural ! 

But wholly aside from the fascinations of pure science, 
cultivated plants and cultivation itself demand the attention 
of the botanists, for horticulture is nothing more than an 
application of the principles of botany. Just now, mycology 
is making important additions to horticultural practice, but 
there are greater fields for the applications of an exact sci- 
ence of plant physiology, whenever that science shall have 
reached a proportionate development. In short, the possi- 
bilities in horticulture, both in science and practice, are just 
as great as they are in the science of botany upon which it 
rests; and inasmuch as it is absolutely impossible to separate 
horticulture and botany by any definition or any practical 
test, the two should go together in an ideal presentation of 
the science of plants. Horticulture belongs to botany rather 
than to agriculture. 

The ideal chair or department of botany, therefore, should 
comprise, in material equipment, laboratories, botanic garden, 
green-houses, orchards, vegetable and ornamental gardens, 
all of which should be maintained for purposes of active in- 
vestigation rather than as mere collections; and I am sure 
that no department of botany can accomplish the results of 
which the science is capable until such breadth of equipment 
is secured. I am aware that there are difficulties in such a 
comprehensive field, but the only serious one is the lack of 
men. Botanists, as a rule, care little for gardens and culti- 
vated plants, and horticulturists are too apt to undervalue 
the importance of scientific training and investigation; but 
the time cannot be far distant when men shall appear with 
sufficient scientific and practical training to appreciate the 
needs of the whole science and with enough executive ability 
to manage its many interests. Such men are no doubt 
teaching in some of our colleges today, were the opportunity 
open to them.' One cannot be a specialist in all or even 
several of the many subjects comprised in this ideal, but he 
may possess the genius to encourage and direct the work of 
other specialists. The first need is the opportunity, for there 
is not yet, so far as I know, an ideal chair of botany in ex- 
istence, where the science can be actively studied in its fullest 
possibilities and then be presented to the student and the 

world. 

Cornell University. 



THE LAWS AND NATURE OF COHESION. 

BT REOIMALD A. FESSENDEN. 

Desirous of finding some relation between the conductivity of 
metals and their other physical properties, the writer, several 
years ago. began to tabulate all the data he could find. Realizing 
the uselessnese of comparing the properties of substances whose 
natures are eseentially different, as wood and iron, it was decided 
to contine the work to the elementary substances. It was found 
that the only elements whose properties were at all well known 
were those of the five chemical groups comprising the following 
metals: I., iron, nickel, cobalt, platinum, osmium, iridium ; II., 
sodium, copper, silver, gold; III., magnesium, zinc, cadmium, 
mercury; IV., aluminium, thallium, indium, gallium; V., Mli- 
con, tin, lead. 

The data collected were not very concordant, but when they 
had been compared and the most probable values taken, laying due 
stress on the purity of the substances examined and the standing 



July 22, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



49 



of the observer, yarious regularities or laws were at once apparent, 
and it is for the purpose of pointing out one of these that the fol- 
lowing paper has been written. 

This piece of paper, taken as a whole, has certain properties, a 
oertain size, a certain weight, a certain motion, and is the seat of 
a certain force which attracts other ponderable bodies to it. A 
single atom of matter has its weight, motion, size, and force. The 
weights of the atoms form the basis of eleotrometric chemistry t 
their motion that of the kinetic theory of heat. To their size less 
attention has been paid, we have only Mendelejeef's curve and 
certain experiments of Roberts- Austen, who has showed that the 
tensile strength of gold is weakened, not in proportion to the 
weight of the metal alloyed with it, but to the volume, in the 
same way as ten lumps of gravel weaken a casting more than ten 
grains of sand. Of the force — the force of cohesion — still less 
28 known, in fact absolutely nothing, and the object of this note 
is to point out what the nature of this force is and what its laws 



In its early youth science was riotously extravagant of ethers, 
and any puzzling phenomenon was considered warrant enough for 
the creation of a new one. As it has grown older it has grown 
abo more economical, until at the present day the scientist who 
should ask for an appropriation of a new ether, to help him out of 
a difficulty, would be pounced upon. For this reason, if no other, 
we will confine ourselves to examining the various means by which 
oar present ether has been supposed capable of producing the 
forces which cause cohesion. 

1. Gravitation. There have not been wanting eminent scien- 
tists who have considered that gravitation could account for co- 
hesion, and there have been many ingenious theories proposed, for 
instance that of Watts, who supposed that (since the effects of 
gravity on the moon*8 path may be supposed to consist of two 
parts, one independent of the shape of the earth and varying 
inversely as the square of the distance, the other dependent on 
the shape and varying inversely as the cube of the distance) if 
the atoms were of irregular shapes it might account for the ef- 
fects. But no theory with gravitation as its basis will hold, first, 
because :he effects are much too small; second, because, as we 
shall see, the cohesive force is totally independent of the weights 
of the atoms and depends on the size only. 

2. Condensation and rarifaction of the ether caused by the mo- 
tion of the atoms. If we hold a pith ball near a tuning fork the 
pita ball will be attracted up to a certain distance, and will then 
be repelled if brought closer. This theory has been a favorite 
with many, but, as such an attraction would vary with the motion 
of the atoms in a way that we know the force of cohesion does 
not, it also must be dismissed. 

3. Electricity. That the force of cohesion was due to electricity 
has long been va^ely suspected. On the same principle appar- 
ently that electricity was considered to be the cause of life, i.e., 
''^Life is a wonderful thing and unexplainable, electricity is a 
wonderful thing and unexplainable; therefore electricity is 
life ^' — the argunnent being possibly aided hy an instinctive rec- 
ollection of the Athenasion creed, which states that *' there is only 
one incomprehensible." The writer is not aware that any evidence 
in favor of this theory was ever offered, so it was probably merely 
a gness. 

Having rejected theories 1 and 2, we may see how the facts 
agree with the theory that cohesion is an electrostatic effect. 

If we electrolyse a solution of silver nitrate, we know from 
Faraday'i work that every atom of silver deposited on the elec- 
trodes carries over a certain quantity of electricity. This quantity 
is always the same, no matter bow or when or where we perform 
the electrolysis, and this quantity seems to be related to the 
atoms in the same way as a pint of water to a pint measure. We 
may calculate the quantity on each atom in the following way. 
One cubic centimeter of silver weighs about 10.5 grammes One 
coulomb is carried over hy every 1.12 milligrammes of silver de- 
posited, therefore the charge on the atoms contained in one cubic 

10500 



centimeter of silver is 



1.12 



= 10* coulombs. 



As the sizes of the atoms vary from lO""' to 10"" centimeters 
in diameter, and silver is a small atom {{ the size of potassium), 



we may call its size 10"* centimeters. In a cubic centimeter of 
silver then there would be 10'* atoms, which would give as the 
charge on each atom 10* -j- 10** = 10^""" coulomb. The ca- 
pacity of an atom having a diameter of 10"* centimeter is 

10""" 

— — = 0.5 X 10"" farads, 

18 X 10" ^»*«»uo. 

The potential on each silver atom will therefore be about one 
volt. We may look at the cubic centimeter of silver as being 
made up of planes, each plane consisting of one layer of atoms. 
The distance between the centres of any two layers would be 
10"* centimeters. The potential on the atoms being one volt, 
the attraction between any two layers would be 

-~:^^^ grammes per cm* = 4500 kg. per cm* = cal- 
culated tensile strength of silver = 45 kg. per sq. mm. 

From Wertheim's results we have observed tensile strength of 
silver 88 kg. per sq. mm. That the calculated and observed re- 
sults should be so close is of course only a piece of good fortune. 
We had no right to expect it, as the data upon which the calcula- 
tion is based are not known with sufficient accivacy. Still, the 
result is a remarkable one, and places beyond question the fact 
that the known electric charges on the atoms can produce effects 
of the same order as those observed. 

Having shown this, we may follow up the theory by investi- 
gating in what way the cohesion of the metals would vary if this 
were the case. Evidently (since every atom, large or small, has 
the same quantity of electricity, and the larger the atoms of a 
metal the farther away the centres of the atoms would be) the 
cohesive force should be inversely proportional to some power of 



G H 




K_i 



FIG. 1. 



FlO. 8. 



the size (or atomic volume, as it is called, and which is got by 
dividing the atomic weight by the density of the substance). The 
following table shows this to be the case. In the first column 
are the names of the metals, in the second their relative sizes, or 
atomic volumes, in the third their rigidity, as given by Mr. Suther- 
land in the Philosophical Magazine of August, 1891 : — 

I. II. III. IV. V. 

Iron 7.1 750 x 10* 483 x 10* 550 x 10* 

Copper 7.1 430 483 550 

Zinc 9.2 850 314 340 

Silver 10 2 280 270 270 

Gold 10.2 270 270 270 

Aluminium 10.4 250 250 280 

Magnesium 14. 150 154 143 

Tin 16. 136 122 100 

Lead 18. 84 100 83 

Cadmium 13. 170 

As will be seen, the agreement is perfect, with the exception of 
iron, and those who are familiar how greatly the properties of 
iron are changed by the least particle of impurity will possibly 
agree with me in thinking that absolutely pure iron would be less 
rigid ; in fact, some recent experiments show that it is so, being 
nearer 600 than 750; but I have not inserted this value, because a 
comparison with a set of observations made by one observer at 
one time and by one method would have a greater value than 
comparison with a lot of picked results from different observers. 

Assuming the electrostatic theory, we can easily* calculate the 
exact function which rigidity shauld be of the atomic volume in 
the following way. 

Suppose Figs. 1 and 2 to represent two cubic centimeters of 
different elements* of which the atoms of one are twice the diam- 
eter of the other, or, to put it more accurately, the distance be- 
tween centres of atoms is twice as great in the one case as in the 



1 



50 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX. No. 494 



other. Let 1 contain the smaller atoms. Suppose one face made 
fast to the plank p, and both sheered slightly till they have the posi- 
tion shown by the dotted lines. It is evident that the ratio of work 
done in bringing the atom at Q over to H to that done in bring- 
ing .E to 2>, or C to A^ will be the mean ratio of the force of attrac- 
tion between K and O to that between E and F. This latter varies 
inversely as the square of the distance, according to the well- 
known electrical law, and, consequently, as the distance (7 £ is 
twice that of E F, the work done in moving EU> D will be four 
times that done in moving O to H, Again, in Fig. 1 there will 
be 2' as many atoms to be displaced as in Fig. 2. so that, on the 
whole, there will be 2' 4- 2' as much work done in displacing 
the cube in Fig< 1 as in Fig. 2. In other words, the rigidity «vill 
vary inversely as the fifth power of the distance between the cen- 
tres of the atoms, or as (atomic volume) ". Col. IV. gives the 
results calculated on this theory. As will be seen, they agree fairly 
well, as well as could be expected, considering the fact that we 
have left out one factor. This is the variation of rigidity with 
temperature, and as it would be obviously unfair to compare lead 
and silver at 600^ C, it is obvious that our calculated results should 
only be applied when the metals are at some one point, say, ac a 
temperature which is i the temperature of their melting-point 
As those metals having the greatest atomic volume, as a rule, 
melt at lowest temperature (though there are many exceptions to 
this) we may make a rough sort of formula, which shall give the 
rigidity at ordinary temperatures by multiplying again by the 
atomic radius, so we get (atomic volume) ' as the rate at which 




Fig. 8. 



PlQ. 4. 



rigidity varies with size of atoms. CoL V. is calculated in this 
way from the rough formula : — 



Rigidity = 



28 X 10»« 



Equation I. 



(atomic volume)' 

The formula for Col. IV., and the more correct one, if we 
neglect variation of rigidity with temperature, is 

12560 X 10' 
(atomic volume) " 



Equation IT. 



The other moduli are related to that of rigidity. For if we 
represent Toung*s modulus by — , then the modulus of rigidity 



is represented by - 



and the bulk modulus by 



2 (a -h 6) " » (a-26) 

where h represents the lateral shortening accompanying the longi- 
tudinal lengthening a. So if b bears to a any constant ratio, then 
Young's modulus and the bulk modulus will each be some fraction 
of the modulus of rigidity. The continental writers, at least a 

good many of them, hold that — = -z-. Kelvin, Tait, and 

a 4 

Stokes say there is no relation. On the one hand, it is certain that 

-is not constantly equal to i. On the other hand, it does not 
a 

follow that there is no relation between the two, and the evidence 

which has been brought to prove this has no value, for we have 

no right to argue from the facts that in india-rubber _ = _ , 

a 2 

while in cork _ = , say, — , that — does not have any con- 

a 100 a 

stant ratio in metals. The laws which govern the moduli of com- 
pounds and non- homogeneous substances like india-rubber and 
cork are not the same as those which govern homogeneous sub- 
stances like gold and silver. 



The following is a table of the metals and their Toung*B moduli. 
Col. I. contains the observed moduli taken from Sutherland'^ 
paper, and Col. II. contains the calculated values from the* 
equation. 

1^*^..^Li^^ TTT -^T^ ^>- ^..^ ..-!.. 'O X 10 f 



ponding to Equation I.). 




(atomic volume)* 


Metals. 


I. 


II. 


Iron 

Copper 

Zinc 


2,000 X 10* 
1,220 
980 


1,560 X 10^' 
1,660 
920 


SUver 


740 


750 


Gold 


760 


750 


Aluminium 


680 


690 


Cadmium 


480 


^ 465 


Magnesium 


890 


895 


Tin 


420 


295 


Lead 


190 


235 



There is only one metal which does not agree with theory, anJ 
that is tin (iron, of course, on account of its impurities doea noi^ 
but we know that, as we obtain iron more pure, we find its rigidi^ 
less, so there is very little doubt but that if it were abeohitely 
pure the agreement would be closer). But it is easy to show- 
that the observed results of tin are wrong. For the rigidity is 
given as 136 x 10* and the Young^s modulus as 420 x 10** There- 
fore, if we represent Young's modulus by — , then -— =- 

a 2 (a -f- o) 

_. Solving this we get 6 = .55 a. Therefore the bulk mxiduliiS' 
420 

is negative, and the more tin is compressed the larger 



3 (a - 26) 

it swells, a result which is absurd. This will emphasize the 
fact that the agreement between theory and experiment is as close- 
as that between the experiments themselves. 

It will be noticed that the ratio-rigidity. Young's modulus, is 



28 
about — . Therefore, as 



1 



1 



Poisson's ratio for 



78 2 (a -f 6) 2.7' 

these metals is, on the average, 0.85. Therefore the bulk modn- 
luB = 1.1 times Young's modulus, which agrees with tbe only^ 
datum I find in Everett, i.e., Wertheims's figures for brass, wbicb 
gives the ratio 9 48 : 10.2 = 1.08, very closely. All these modtilr 
must contain the atomic volume to the same power, but this ia 
not the case with the tensile strength ; for, according to this elec- 
trostatic theory of cohesion, we may look at a wire as made up of 
thin discs, each disc consisting of a layer of atoms. Tbe attrac- 
tive force between any two such layers would vary inversely as 
the square of the distance between them and directly as the num- 
ber of atoms in a layer. Combining these we find that it would 
vary as the fourth power of the atomic radius, or as (atomic vol- 
ume)^, making no allowance for the effect of temperature oo tbe 
tensile strength. The following table gives in Col. I. tbe ob- 
served tensile strengths, taken from Wertheim for wires 1 milli- 
meter ia diameter; in Col. II. the atomic volumes of the ele- 
ments, raised to the |- power; and in Col. III. the calculated, 
tensile strengths, as found by the formula. 

AQQ 

Equation IV. Tensile strength = * ii 

(atomic volume) > 

grams for wires 1 millimeter in diameter. 

n. 

18.7 

18.7 

17.8 

19.8 

22.2 

22.2 

28.2 

41 

47.8 

Col. IV. contains the melting-points in degrees Centigrade 
from absolute zero. Here we have to deal with a much more 



in kikK 



Metal. 


I. 


Iron 


65 


Copper 


41 


Platinum 


85 


Zinc 


15.77 


Silver 


29.6 


Gold 


28.46 


Aluminium 


18 


Tin 


8.40 


Lead 


2.86 



III. 


IV. 


48 


2,000 (?> 


48 


1,337 


86 


1,800 (?> 


88 


690 


29 


1,228 


29 


1,818 


27 


898 


15 


504 


18 


600 



July 22, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



51 



complicated phenomenon than that of rigidity. Rigidity is sim- 
ply a function of the cohesive force. The tensile strength of a 
sabetanoe depends not only on the cohesive force of the metal, 
bat also on its ability to resist flow. If a metal did not flow before 
being palled apart, there is no doubt hot that its tensile strength 
would be proportional to the |-power of the atomic volume. As, 
however, it does flow, and the amount of flow is not simply pro« 
portional to the diminishing of the cohesive force, we have to 
make a fresh allowance for it. In all the metals the melting-point 
is reached when the linear expansion has amounted to about 2 per 
cent. So when the cohesion has diminished about 4 per cent the 
atoms no longer hold the same relative positions, but one can slip 
in and take the place of another. So at equal distances from their 
melting-points only can the tensile strength be proportional to 
the |- power of the atomic volume. Consequently this ratio can 
only hold good with substances which have approximately the 
same melting-point. On examining the table, it will be seen that 
as copper, gold, and silver have approximately the same melting- 
point, the ratio does hold good with them. The same with 
tin and lead. Aluminium and zinc, which should be, the one 
slightly weaker, the other slightly stronger, than silver, have a 
melting-point about one-half that of gold and silver, and they 
have about half the strength at the temperature of comparison 
which they should have. The melting-point of iron and platinum 
is higher than that of gold or silver, and consequently their tensile 
strength is greater. The flow of a metal depends on two things, 
the cohesive force and the kinetic energy of the atoms. What 
function the flow is of the temperature, as reckoned in fractions 
of the temperature at which the substance melts, it is hardly 
worth while to go into now. If we suppose it directly propor- 
tional (though we may feel fairly certain it is not as simple a 
function) so that, at the same temperature, a metal melting at half 
the temperature that another does flows twice as easily, we get 
the following table, where Col. I. contains the observed tensile 
strengths, and Col. II. the calculated ones : — 



Metal. 


I. 


II. 


Iron 


65 


74 


Copper 


41 


48 


Platinum 


35 


48 


Silver 


29.6 


29 


Gk>ld 


28.5 


29 


Aluminium 


18 


18 


Zinc 


15.7 


16 


Tin 


8.4 


5 


Lead 


2.86 


4 



I have not been able to find any data on the tensile strength of 
magneeium. Theory gives about 9 kilograms for a wire 1 milli- 
meter in diameter. It would be interesting to find if experiment 
confirms this. 

If, when we have met with a new phenomenon in a substance, 
and are able to show that a certain property already known to 
exist in the substance is capable of producing effects of the mag- 
nitude observed, and that the phenomenon obeys the same laws 
as it would if it were caused by the already known physical prop- 
erty, we are to a certain extent justified in supposing that this 
property is really the cause of the phenomenon in question, and 
in applying our knowledge still farther, we have seen that the 
charges which we know the atoms have on them are able to give 
effects of the same size as those observed in experiments on ten- 
sfle strength, and that the various moduli follow the same laws as 
they would if cohesion wei^ an electrostatic effect, and we may 
now apply our formula to oiber and less-known phenomena. 

The velocity of sound in a wUe is given by the formula : — 

Elasticity here means Young's modulus, the formula for which, 
as we have seen, was constant -s- (atomic volume)', and atomic 
volume is atomic weight -s- density, so we have velocity of sound 

m wire = ( constant y ^.j^^ constant be- 

Vatomic weight X atomic volume/ > 

ing 78 X 10* ■. The following table gives in Col. I. ihe veloci- 



ties of sound in wires of a number of metals which have been 
tested, and in Ool. II. the calculated velocities for these and for 
other metals which have not yet been tested. 

I. II. m. 



Silver 


2.61 X 10» 


2.7 X 10» 


100 


Chopper 


8.66 


4.1 


110 


Gold 


1.74 


1.9 


186 


Alumin. 




5.1 


200 


Magnes. 




4.8 


275 


Zinc 




8.6 


874 


Cadmium 




2.8 


450 


Tin 




2.0 


•878 


Lead 


1.28 


1.4 


1800 



Col. III. gives the electrical resistance, silver being taken as 
100, and it may be noticed that in any one group of metals the- 
conductivity varies directly as the velocity of sound, and in pass- 
ing from one group to another, by multiplying the conductivity 
by the valency we get proportionate values for all the metals. 
The same holds good for the heat conductivity. No close agree- 
ment can be expected here, for there are too many things to be 
taken into account. It is merely mentioned here because the 
fact of there being a relation between the velocity of sound and 
the conductivity for heat and electricity throws a light on the 
nature of these phenomena. This will form the subject of a sepa- 
rate paper. It may be asked how an electrostatic force can pro- 
duce such effects. If the atoms are all similarly charged either 
-I- or — they would repel each other and not attract. The expla- 
nation i% probably this: The atoms, if we may call them so, of 
electricity are not infinitely smaller than the atoms of matter. 
When an atom is neutral it does not mean that it has no charge 
but that it has equal quantities of both kinds of electricity. The 
resultant effect of these charges on a body at a distance is zero, it 
behaves as if it had no charge, as shown below, in A, 





It the atoms be brought close together there is a state of un- 
stable equilibrium, and the effect is that either the charges move 
on the surface of the atoms or the atoms themselves move so that 
the atoms attract each other, as in B. Consequently all atoms* 



B 



O 




neutrally charged attract each other. If nothing further happens 
the attraction is simply cohesion. If, however, any third sub- 
stance connects the two outside parts of the atoms and so enables 
these parts to neutralize each other we have chemical combination, 
and the two atoms when separated show opposite charges, as- 
inC. 



C 




O 



Whether we accept the electrostatic theory of cohesion or not,, 
from the above tables of moduli, the following laws are evident. 

I. In any two metals the force of cohesion varies inversely as 
the square of the distance between the centres of their atoms. 



52 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. ,94 



I 



EI. In aaj one tnetiil the force of cohetiioD varies inrenely as 
the square oF the distiore between the centres of its atom*. 

We may expect the«e facte to be of great use Id the vtudy nf 
the properties of mailer. For, hnowiuf; the eize and weight of 
the atoms and tht^ relocit; with which they move, all that was 
wsntinf! to euab e us to calculate the behaTior of the atoms of 
matter, in the same war as we do the motions of the planets, was 
a knowledge of the laws of the force which holds them together; 
and, from the evidenci* giren above, I have no doubt that you 
will agree with me in saying that we have at least made a begin- 
ning in that direction. 

A few words mtglit be said about Poisson's ratio. It is, ts I 
said, not fair to argue from the behsrior of cork or iodla rubber 
that there is no reNiiion between longitudinal extension and 
lateral contraction or between o and 6. When *e compress a 
cork we are not compro^itiK the substance which forms the cork 
any more than we are compressing a piece of paper when we 
crumple it up in our han 1. A cork is like a dry spooge, and 
when we^iuepze a fipnoie up in our hand we are simply doubling 
up Ibecell-walU, not roinpressing the substance of the sponge. 
Theonly way in which we can determine the compressibility of 
cork is to soak it m ether or some substance which fills all its 
pores and then subject it to hydrostatic pressure. In the same 
way when we stretch india rubber, or ivory or jelly, the loogitudi- 
nal extension nt the pict of rubber is not in the least a measure 
of the loogitudiaal eztiniion of the substance of the rubber. All 
such substances are tua-.le up of two parts; rubber, for instance, of 
a hard elastic skeleton insoluble In most solvents, and oF a soft 
plastic substanc ', soluble in many solvents, by use of which the 
two parts may easily b,' HeparatGd, similarly ivory and jelly. Let 
us take a square cell as in Fig. S, the walls of which are of elastic 
material and the contents an incompressible plastic substance. 
Suppose it to be extertdel till its length is 4 centimeters and its 
breadth and thickness each 2 centimeters, as in Fig. i. The total 
area of cell-wall is 40 square centimeters, and [he total volume of 
incompressible contents is IS cubic centimeters. Imagine the cell 
to be relesiMd, it will regain its position as in Fig. U, and form a 
cube of side S.02 centimeters. In this case, the volume being the 
same, the cell area will be 88.1 square centimeters. So we Bnd 
that b; Btretohing the cell till its length was 60 per cent greater 
than before, we have only had to stretch the cell-walls S per 
cent. This gives us the explanation of the well-known fact that 
stretched rubber contracts when heat«d. For if we heat tJie cell 
shown in Fig. 4 Che incompressible contents will expand and tend 
to make the cell-walls take that shape in which they can hold the 
most. This is obviously that of the original oube, therefore the 
result will be a contraction. 

Of course the formulee. derived from this theory of cohesion, 
give us the means of calculating the physical properties of metals 
which have never been examined, or even discovered. For ex- 
ample, it shows us that we have at our disposal a metal far 
superior to any metal yet known, one which is stronger than iron, 
lighter than aluminium, and a better electrical conductor than 
silver. Aluminium, in spite o! itslightness, is too weak mechani- 
cally and too poor a conductor to be used in many caaes. But 
this new metal is four times aa strong as aluminium, and is twice 
as good a conductor of electricity. The metal referred to is 
glucinum or beryllium. All that is known about it is that it has 
anatomic weight of 9.1 and a density of l.T to 3, the exact flguree 
not being known. But from these scanty data we can deduce 
the following figures: 

Metal Rigidity Tensile st'gth Conductivity Sp. gr. 

Alumin. 250x10* ISKgms GO 3.76 

Silver 390 37 100 10.5 

Iron 750 42-6S 14 8 

Calculated for -„i^ .. ,., „ 

Glucinum ^^^ ^ "^' " 

We also see why diamond is so bard, and that there is only one 
other thing that might possibly scratch it, and that is a crystal of 
manganese. With the exception of glucinum, none of the other 
metals, either discovered or to be discovered, are likely to be any 
better than thoee we have now. 



NOTES ON LOCAL HEMIPTERA-BETEHOPTEEA. 



In the CORISID.a; Corisa Harrini TJhl is very c 
in our park lakes, and the draf-net brin^ manj of them to 
land at every haul. Another species as jet undetermioed is 
about one-third the size oF Harrisii, and equally abuoduDi. 

In N0TONECTID.a; Notonecta undulata Say. is very 
common. This was at one lime known as variabilM Fieb., 
a name quite appropriate, for they are variable to a markf-il 
degree, some of them beine nearly white, while others are 
very dark. Notonecta irrorata Uhl. is also common, and 
is a very beautiful insect, and more uniform in coloration. 

In NEPID^ Ranatra fuaca Pal. Beauv. is our only 
representative, as far as my observation goes; this was at one 
time koown as R. nigra H. Schf. 

Id BELOSTOMATIDif: we have two species. Benacta 
f/rtsetu Say., that ^ant among Hemiptera. Xhis much-named 
creature has been known as B. haldemanttaJje'idy, B. har 
pax Stal.. B. ruficeps var. Duf., B. diattnctum Duf., and 
B. aTiguatatttm Ouer. ; hut at last has settled down to B. 
griaeua. which name, I hope, gives credit where it belong. 
Zaitha Jluminea Say. is very common in our lakes, and the 
females are often taken with their backs completely covered 
with eggs, deposited in regular rows upon the elytra; ai the 
same time the young of all sizes will be brought up with the 
drag-net. 

In the family HYDEODROHICA and subfamily Sii. 
DiD^ I have but one representative species, Sttlda orbieulata 
Uhl., and it is exceedingly rare. 

In the sub-family HyDROBATlD.a; I have taken three species, 
viz . Limnoporus rufoacutellua Lat., Limnotrechus mar- 
gtTiattiaS&j., and Hygrotrechtts remigia Say; they are all 
about equally common on the waters of our lakes and in 
ditches and pools. 

In the family EEDUVID^ the sub-family Pikatisa is 
represented by Melanolestes picipes H. Schf., which is quite 
common under stones along with Carabidce. 

In the subfamily Reddvitha we have three species. Diplo- 
dus luridua Stal, is very common with us, but in Professor 
Uhler's list it is only given as from Mexico. Acholla mul- 
tiapinosa is also common; this has been known as A. aex- 
apinosus Wolff., and A. attbarmatua H. Schf. 

Sinea diadema Fabr, is not rare with us; this insect has 
had a number of names, and has been studied as S. multi- 
apinosus De G,, S. hiapidua Tbunb., and S. raptatoriua 
Say. I have a pair of insects from this State labelled Har- 
pactor cinctva Fabr,, which are probably what is now known 
as Milyaa cinctus Fab. They are of a beautiful pinkish- 
white color, and have the limbs banded with black. 

In the subfamily Corisika three species of Coriacua are 
represented. Coriacua aubcoleoptratua Kirby, a very com- 
mon and curious insect, and formerly known as C. canaden- 
sis Prov,, C. annulatua Reut, which is very rare, and C. 
ferualAuQ, rather common. 

In the family PHYMATID^ the sub-family PffYMATlNA 
is represented by that very common and curious insect Phy- 
mata Wolffii Sial. Phymata eroaa, which is quoted as com- 
mon throughout the State of New Jersey, I have never found 
here. 

la the family TINOITID^ and sub-family TlNQlTtNA I 
have Corythuca arqvata Say. as oue of Ibe most common. 
This species of Tingis is Found on the butternut, and was at 
one time known as Tingia juglandis Fitoh, and Dr. Riley 
found it on the white oak. 



July 22, 1892. J 



SCIENCE. 



53 



Corythuca eUiata Say, formerly known as Tingis hyalina 
H. Schf., is, I believe, the one so common on the button- 
wood, Platanris. I have a species taken from the paper 
mulberry Brouaaonetia and another species from Stophylea^ 
both new to me. 

In the family AOANTHID^ and sub-family Cimicina we 
have Acanthia lecttUaria Linn., which is very abundant 
and well distributed all over our city. In the family CAP- 
SID^ we are quite well represented. Plagtognathiia 6b- 
acurus Uhl. is very common. Episcopus omattis Eeut is 
quite rare; I have only taken about a dozen specimens. 
Garganus fusiformia Say is rather common, and Hyaliodea 
vitripennia Say is exceeding rare. 

Capsua ater Linn, is also rare, but is conspicuous on ae- 
count of its shinins: black color. Orthopa aeutellattia Uhl. 
is very rare indeed ; I have only taken about half a dozen 
specimens. Comptobrochia grandia Uhl. is also very rare. 
PoecUocapaua goniphorua Say. is very common ; this has 
been known as P. dialocatua Say and P. melaxanthua H. 
Schf. P. lineatua Fabr. is more common than goniphorua, 
and destroys a great variety of plantd. Poecilqacytua haaalia 
Reut., formerly known as P. aericeua Uhl., is also common. 
Lygus pratenaia Linn., which much resembles the last, is 
exceedingly common ; this was formerly known as L. lineo- 
laria Pol. Beauv, and L. oblineatua^&y. Calocoria rapidua 
Say. is common, and was formerly known as C mklticolor 
H. Schf. Neurocolpua nubilia Say. is very rare with us; I 
have but three specimens representing it. Phytocoria ex- 
imiua Beut. is also very rare, and a species of Phytocoria^ 
not determined, more common. Lopidea media Say. is very 
rare, as is Reathenia inaignia Say. Collaria meilleurii 
Pro v., which Uhler gives as Trachelomiria meilleurii Prov., 
is quite rare. Leptoptema dolobrata Linn, is common 
everywhere where there are grass and weeds. Miria offinia 
BeuL, formerly known as M. inatabilia Uhl., is not common. 
Triganotylua ruficomia Fall, is rare with us, making about 
twenty species of CAPSID^ taken here, which is probably 
only about one- third of the species that occur with us. 



OBSERVATIONS AT B08SEK0P.» 

The close connection between the Aurora and magnetism in- 
duced Herr O. Baschin to accompany Dr. Brendel to Bossekop for 
the purpose of observing this phenomenon. On January first of 
this year they entered the Alten Fiord, at the end of which lies 
Bossekop. It is built on the slope of one of the raised beaches so 
common on the shores of the fiord and in the adjacent valleys. 
An elevation of the shore amounting to 43 inches is said to have 
taken place during the last fifty years, but the calculations are 
not beyond suspicion. Dr. Brendel succeeded in obtaining pho- 
tographs of different forms of the Aurora, the only ones at present 
in existence. Violent magnetic disturbances have often been ob- 
served during displays of the Northern Lights, and the close rela- 
tion of these phenomena is further demonstrated by the fact that 
the centres of the arcs of light lie on the magnetic meridian, and 
that the corona, the most splendid form of Aurora, lies in the 
magnetic zenith. The most remarkable disturbances took place 
on February 14, accompanied by an unusually gorgeous display 
of the Aurora, when the magnetic declination was observed to 
vary more than 12^ — the greatest deviation ever noticed — 
within eight minutes. At the same time the disturbances in 
Europe and North America were so great that most of the self- 
registering instruments were unable to record them. It is not 
possible at present to determine with certainty the cause of these 
striking phenomena, but it seems probable that the great sun-spot, 
seventeen times as large as the surface of the earth, which was at 

> From tlie SooUlAh Geogrsphical Magaxine. 



the time visible even to the naked eye, was connected with the 
disturbances mentioned. 

The meteorological observations also presented much that was 
interesting. The temperature on the west coast of Norway does 
not fall nearly so low as might be expected in such high lati- 
tudes. Even at the North Cape the mean of the coldest month is 
only 28" F., whereas in West Greenland on the same latitude the 
temperature sinks every winter to — 40^. As, however, the dis- 
tance from the coast increases, the temperature falls rapidly. The 
minimum observed at Gjesvar, near the North Cape, is — 2^ F. ; 
at Bossekop, 88 miles from the open sea, — 22^ ; and at Karasjok, 
further south.but 120 miles from the coast, — 60^. Thus the in- 
fluence of the Gulf Stream, which prevents the fiords fropi freez- 
ing over, does not penetrate inland. The fall of snow in winter 
is not very large at Bossekop, but also increases towards the in- 
terior. In very cold . weather the snow does not come down in 
flakes, but takes the form of crystals of ice, which, having no 
cohesion, are blown about by every puff of wind. 

The Lapps may be divided into two classes, — the very poor 
fishermen of the coast and the nomadic Lapps of the mountains, 
who often possess considerable property. Of late years a third 
class has sprung up, which has settled in two inland places, 
Karasjok and Kautokeino. At the beginning of March the Lapps 
gather to a great fair at Bossekop, where many thousand ptamii- 
gan, several tons of reindeer flesh, besides butter and tongues, 
change hands. Herr Baschin drove to Karasjok in a reindeer 
sledge, a vehicle that requires a deal of management, in order to 
inspect the dwellings of the Lapps settled there. The village is 
situated on a stream of the same name, one of the headwaters of 
the Tana, the second largest river of Norway, and contains about 
200 inhabitants — all, with few exceptions, Lapps. Their dwell- 
ings are conical tents, 18 to 10 feet in diameter, with openings at 
the top to let out the smoke from the fire in the centre. Many 
Lapps own 2,000 to 8,000 head of reindeer. These people are not 
so powerful, intelligent, and honest as the Eskimo, and give the 
Norwegian Government much trouble through their propensity to 
steal reindeer. In Karasjok Herr Baschin found Balto and Ravna, 
the two Lapps who accompanied Dr. Nanseo on his journey across 
Greenland, and on his voyage home he inspected that explorer's 
new vessel, which is being built at Laurvig. It has a nearly 
semi-circulac cross-section, and is rigged as a three-masted schooner. 
It is of 250 tons register, and is constructed almost entirely of 
German oak. A small engine will enable it to make six knots an 
hour during calms. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



•*« CarretpimdenU are reqveBied to be cu brief a§ pouU>U, The tortur'a name 
ie in aU ccuee required a$ proof of good faith. 

On requstt in advance^ one hundred copiee of the number containing hie 
communication wiU befumi^^ed free to any correepondent. 

The editor will be glad to pttitlieh any q'vHea consonant toith the dian»cter 
of the journal. 

Laboratory Teaching. 

In a recent number of Science there appeared an excellent arti- 
cle by Professor Chas. F. Mabery upon *'Aims of Laboratory 
Teaching,*' in which occurred the following sentence: <' Probably 
the earliest attempt in this country to give systematic laboratory 
instruction, to classes of any magnitude, was made in 1865 at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.*' 

Professor Mabery is surely in error upon this point, as such in- 
struction had been given the students of the Hensselaer Polytechnic 
Instituie for many years previous to the date quoted. Our present 
laboratory, which is very complete and accommodates seventy-six 
students at a time in analytical chemistry, was built in 1862, to 
replace the one destroyed by fire in that year. Permit me to quote 
from a letter just received from Professor James Hall, geologist 
of the State of New York, who graduated from this institution 
many years ago: *' In regard to systematic laboratory instruction 
in chemistry, I can only say that when I entered the Rensselaer 
School in 1831 there were already laboratories fitted up for giving 
systematic instruction in chemistry, and each student of the class 



54 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 494 



was required to do laboratory work, and to prepare himself his 
cnaterial aod apparatiis, to give each day during the; course an 
extemporaneous lecture, illustrated by experiments, and full ex- 
planation of the phenomena and the laws governiog them. Every 
student was well grounded in the principles and elements of the 
science, and by a method of teaching never surpassed, if ever 
equalled, by any other." Wiluam P. Mason. 

Troy, N.Y., July S9. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 



The ninth annual issue of << The Year-Book of the Scientific 
and Learned Societies of Great Britain and Ireland '' has recently 
been issued by Charles Griffin & Co., Exeter Street, Strand^ Lon- 
don. The present issue gives a well-edited chronicle of the work 
done during the past year by the learned societies of Great Britain 
and Ireland, together with lists of the officers and a brief state- 
ment of the history and purposes of the organisations. The lists 
of the papers are quite complete, most of the society secretaries 
having given the needed information, and make a showing of 
^entific and literary activity with which we have as yet but little 
to compare in America. The hand-book is well made for its pur- 
pose, and would prove an excellent book of reference in American 
libraries. 



— A vigorous statement of the scientific principles upon which 
the treatment of criminals should be based will open The Bopular 
Science Monthly for August. It is by Professor Edward S.^orse, 
who takes as his title *^ Natural Selection and Crime." The War- 
fare of Science papers, by Dr. Andrew D. White, will be continued 
^with a chapter on *< Geography," in which are given the various 
mythological and theological ideas concerning the form of the 
earth and the proper mode of representing it that have prevailed 
in ancient and mediae vaJ times. '* The Manufacture of Boots and 
Shoes" will be described by. George A. Rich. This is one of the 
illustrated series of Articles on American Industries, and, in both 
the text and the pictures, tells a story of wonderful progress. An 
ethical study on ** Veracity," by Herbert Spencer, will be among 
the contents. 

— The Geographical Society of Germany will shortly publish a 
volume commemorative of the four- hundredth anniversary of the 
discovery of America by Columbus, which will, it is said, be one 
of the most elaborate publications ever issued by the society. Dr. 
Konrad Kretschmer, the editor of the forthcoming work, has 
visited all the principal libraries of Italy in search of material, and 
has had access to many rare manuscripts hitherto unused. The 
memorial volume will contain forty five maps relating to the dis- 
covery of America, thirty-one of which are said to have never 
been published. Emperor William has contributed 15,000 marks 



Retuiing Matter Notices. . 

Ripans Tabules cure hives. 
Ripans Tabules cure dyspepsia. 

Societas Entomologica. 

International Entomological Society, Zu- 

rich-Hottingeo, Switzerland. 

Annual fee, ten francs. 

The Journal of the Society appears twice a 
month, and consists entirely of original ar- 
ticles on entomology, with a department for 
advertisements. All members may use this 
department free of cost for advertisements 
relating to entomology. 

The Society consists of about 450 members 
in all countries of the world. 

The new volume began April 1, 1892. The 
numbers already issued will be sent to new 
members. 

For information address Mr. Fbitz Rxjbl, 
President of the Societas Entomologica, 
Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland. 

HEO-DiRWIHISI m HEO-IiliRGKISI. 

By LSSTE.^ P. WARD. 

Annual address of the President of the Biological 
Society of Washington delivered Jan. 84, 1891. A 
historical and critical review of modem soientlAc 
thought relative to heredity, and especially to the 
problem of the transmission of acquired characters. 
The following are the several heads involved in the 
discussion Status of the Problem. Lamarokism. 
Darwinism, Acquired Characters, Theories of He- 
redity, Views of Mr. Galton, Teachings of Professor 
Welsmaun, A Critique of Weismann, Neo-Darwin- 
ism, Neo-Lamarckism, the American "School," Ap- 
plication to the Human Race. In so far as views 
are expressed thev are in the main Jn lino with the 
general current of American thought, and opposed 
to the extreme doctrine of the non-transmissibility 
of acquired characters. 

Price, postpaid) 25 eents* 

K. D. C. HODGES, 874 Brotdiay, M. T. 

SCIENCE CLUBBING RATES. 

10^ DISCOUNT. 

We will allow the above discount to any 
subscriber to Science who will send us an 
order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting 
each at its full price. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



Exchanges. 

[Pree of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.l 

Taxidermist going out of business has quantity of 
finely-mounted specimens of North American birds, 
mammals and reptiles and skios of birds for sale, 
including a full local collection of bird skins, show- 
ing some great variations of species; also quantity 
of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, 
and mounted heads of same. (?ill giye good ex- 
change for Hawk Bye camera with outfit. Apply 

uiokly to J. R. Thurston, 866 Tonge St., Toronto, 

anada. 



I 



For exchange. — A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather 
covered case, u>r a photograph camera suitable for mak- 
ing lantern slides. Flute cost fa7, and is nearly new. 
U. O. COX, Mankato, Minn. 

Te exchange ; Experiment Station bulletins and 
reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. I 
will send list of what I hare for exchange. P. H. 
ROLFS, Lake City, Florida. 

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for 
fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable 
specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. 
PERRY. Sute Geologist, Rutland, Vt. 



For exchange. — Three copies of ** American State 




of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and 
Abuses," bv W. L. Fisher, 1839; '* Humorous Phases of 
the Law,'* by Irving Browne; or other works amounting 
to value of books exchanged, on the question of Kovem- 
mental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty, 
etc. If preferred, I will sell ^^American State Papers." 
and buy other books on the subject. WILLI ANl AD- 
DISON BLAKELY, Chicago, ill. 

For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private 
chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal- 
ance (aoog. to i-iom({.),^ platinum dishes and crucibles, 
agate motors, glass-blowing apparatus, etc. For sale in 
part or whole. Also complete fue of Siiliman*t yourual^ 
i86a-i885 {fia-jt bound); Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; 
U. S. Coast Survey. 1854-1869. Full particulars to en- 
quirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn. 

Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any 
standard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Children: 
Wilson's ** American Ornithology,'* 3 vols.: Coues' "Birds 
of the Northwest" and **• Birds of the Colorado Valley," 
a vols.; Minot*s '* Land and Game Birds of New Eng- 
land^' Samuels' *' Our Northern and Eastern Birds;*' all 
the Re^rts on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, 
bound m 9 vols., morocco; and a complete set of the 
Reports of the Arkansas Geolosical Survey. Please give 
editions and dates in corresponomg. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALL, High School, Des Moints, Iowa. 

To exchange Wright's ** Ice Age in North America " 
and Le Centers ''Elements of Geology" (Copyright i88a) 
for "Darwinism." by A R. Wallace, "Origin of Species.'* 
by Darwin, ''Descent of Man," by Darwin, "Man's 
Place in Nature," Huxley, **MentaI Evolution in Ani- 
mals," by Romanes, ^'Pre-Adamites,*' by Winchell. No 
books wanted except latest editions, an^ books in good 
condition. C. S. Brown, Jr., Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville. Tenn. 



Wants. 



A My perton tttkimg a position /or which ko is qumJi- 
fiedby his scientific atiainmsnft^ or any person seeking, 
tome one to fill a position 0/ this character^ be it thai 
^a teacher 0/ science^ chemist^ dranrhtsman^ or what 
not, may have the * Want * inserted under this head 
FRKK OF COST, (/ he Satisfies the publisher 0/ the suit- 
able character o/his application, A ny person seeking 
information on any scientific question^ the address of 
any scientific man^ or who can in any way use this 
column for a purpose consonant with the nature ej 
the Paper ^ is cordially invited to do so. 



JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1898) desires a 
_ . position as instructor in mat hematics and 
physios. Addres*; A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins 
tJniversity, Baltimore, Md. 



A 



W 



ANTED.— A oolleotion of postage stampe; one 
made prerious to 1870 preferred. Also old and 
curious stamps on original letters, and old entire 
17 S. stampea envelopes. Will pay ash or giro in 
exchange nrst-class fossUs, including fine crinoids. 
WM. F. E. OURLET, DanvUle, 111. 

WANTED.— To purchase laboratory outfit; bal- 
a:)oes, evaporating dishes, burettes, etc.. 
wanted immediately for cash. C. B. SPBIRS, 88 
Murray street. New York. P. O. Box 1741. 

WANTED.— The services of a wide-awake young 
man, as correspondent, in a large manufactur- 
ing optical business; one preferred who has a thor- 
ough knowledge of microscopv and some knowledge 
of photography. Address by letter, stating age and 
references. Optical, care of Science, 874 Broadway, 
New. York. 



W 



ANTED.— We want any and all of the following, 
providing we can tcade other books and maga- 
zines or buy them cheap for cash: Academy, Lon- 
don, vol. I to 28, 86, Jan. and Feb., '88; Age of Steel, 
vol. 1 to 66; American Antiquarian, voL 1, 2; Ameri- 
can Architect, vol. 1 to 6, 9; Amerioan Art Review, 
vol. 8; American Field, vol. 1 to 21: American Geol- 
ogist, vol. 1 to 6; American Machinist. toI. 1 to 4; 
Art Amateur, vol. 1 to 7, O ;t., '4; Art Interchange, 
vol 1 to 9; Art Union, vol. 1 to 4, Jan., '44, July, '45; 
Bibliotbeca Sacra, vol 1 to 46; Godey's Lady's Book, 
vol. 1 to 20; New snglaoder, vol. 11 ; Zoologist, Series 
1 and 1, Series 8 vol. 1 to 14; Allen Armendale (a 
novel). Raymer's *'01d Book " Store, 248 4th Ave. 
S., Minneapolis, MLon. 



W 



ANTED.— By a young man, a Swarthmore Col* 
1«S0 junior, a position as principal of a public 
high school in one of the Gulf States, or as instructor 
in Dotany. physiology, and geology in an academy 
or normal school. Address B., care of Librarian, 
Swarthmore College, Penn. 

WANTED.— To act as correspondent for one or 
two daily or weekly papers. Have worked od 
paper for about two years would like a position on 
editorial staff of humorous paper. Address GEO. 
C. MASON, 14 Elm St., Hartford, Conn. 

TRANSLATOR wanted to read German arohltee- 
tural works at slflrht (no writing). One familiar 
with technical terms desired. Address '*A.,"Boz 
149, New Tork Post Office. 



July 22, 1893.] 



SCIENCE. 



towards tfae expenses of publication, etc., and the work will nn- 
doofatedly be a, most valuable contribuliou to the early bialor; of 
America. It is ezp«cled that it nil] leave the government print- 
jng office earlj in August. 

— In a capital address on "tooth culture," delivered at the an- 
aual meeting o( the Eastent Counties Branch of the British Deutal 
Awociation, and printed in Lancet, Sir James Crichton- Browne 
vefierred to a change which haa taken place in bread, as one of the 
.canees of the increase of dental caries. So far as Eoglaad it con- 
cetned, this is essentially an age of white bread and fine flour, 
and it is an age therefore in which we ore no longer partnking, to 
anythiog like the same amount that our ancestors did, of the bran 
or husky parts of wheat, and bo are deprived to a large degree of 
.» chemical element which they contain — namely, fluorine. The 
late Dr. George Wilson showed that fluorine is more widely dis- 
tributed in nature than was before hi? time supposed, but still, as 
iie pointed out. it is but spaiingly present where it doea occur, and 



55 

tbe only chanoela by which it can apparently And its way into the 
animal economy are through the siliceous stems of grasses and 
the outer hunks of grain, in which it exists in comparative abun- 
dance. Analysis has proved that tbe enamel of the teeth contains 
more fluorine, in the form of fluoride of calcium, than any other 
part of the body, and fluorine might, indeed, be regarded as the 
characteristic chemical conatitiieDt of this structure, tbe hardest 
of all animal tissue, and containing 95 per cent of salts, against 
73 per cent ia tbe dentine. As this is so, it is clear that a supply 
of fluorine, while the development of the teetb is proceeding, is 
essential to tbe proper formation of the enamel, and that any de- 
ficiency in this respect must result in thin and inferior enamel. 
Sir James Crichton- Browne thinks it well worthy of consideration 
whether the re introduction into our diet of a supply of fluorine in 
some suitable natural form — and what form, he asks, can be 
more suitable than that in which it exists Id the pellicles of our 
grain stuffs? — might not do something to fortify tbe l«etb of the 
next generation. 




Acid. Phosphate, 

Recommended and prescribed 
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DYSPEPSIA, NERVOUSNESS, 

EXHAUSTION, 
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It aids digestion, and is a 
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FOSSIL RESINS, 

This book ia the result of an attempt to 

collect the scattered notices of foasil resitu, 
ezcluBiTe of tbose on amber. The work is of 
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of the insecte found embedded in these long- 
preserved exudations from early vegetation. 
By CLARENCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH 
12°, $1. 

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SCIENCE. 



lVol. XX. No. 494 



QUERY. 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, say,) has failed 
to protect between two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
conductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light- 
ning was attracting the attention 
of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub- 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First inserted June 19. No response 
10 date. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 
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JUST READY, 

THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A JoDmal of two Summer Cruiaea to that 
regioa; with notes on itt eftrl^ diicorery, 
on tlie Eskimo, on its physical geogTaphf, 
geology and natnral history, together with 
a bibliography of charts, works and articles 
relating to the civil and Qatnral history of 
the Labrador Peninanla. 
8y ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D., Ph.D 
8", 518 pp., ♦3.50. 

K. D. C. U0II6ES, 874 Broadiay, H. T. 



THE RADIOMETER. 

B7 DANIEL S. TBOT. 
This contains a disonwion of the reasom 
for their action and of the pheocmena pre- 
sented in Crookee' ttib«s. 

Price, postpaid, 90 centi. 
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AnthropologJ, Current Nolea on. 
Arctalleclural BibltiKlan Id BrooklTn. 
Arsenlc&l Poteonlui from Dcmeatlo Fabrics. 
ArMalan Wella In Iowa. 
AalronaMical Nates. 
Baolerla, Bums Daaa of. 
BotaDlfal Lalwratory, i 



BrMn. 



Few Cbaraotarlailca of 
~ Cereopldie. 



BjUiuaopfalB ana Cereopl 
Canada, Hojal Boctelr Of. 



Comtll, Tha Cbange ai 



IS Allan 



Hotor Huades of, to Cartalo 



EijmologT of 
Bre-Hablta. 
Bt«, Kslallonaol 

Facial Eipreuli-un 
Famllj Traits, PemlBtoncj' of. 
Flibea, The D{atribiiIlon of. 
Foulls, Notice o( Ns« QlEaDllo. 
Foui^Iold Hpaca, POBBlbllitr of a RaallEaUoD of. 



Glacial Fbecom 



IB In Nonbsastem New York. 



HjpDaiism amons the Lower ADimali. 
HTpnotlsm, Traumacle. 

Indian oocupallOD of N«« York. 

InfaofB KoTBineDtB. 

IdDdsusk, Latest Deialla CoDoarnlni the Qerma of. 

InTeDllODS In Foreign Countries, How to Protect. 
InTenlora and Hanuf aciurera, Ibe American Assocl- 



Janldte: Nolaa on Local. 

Klama'tb Nation, Llngutttlcs. 

Laboratorj Trslnlni, Alms Of. 

I^vU H. Canlll, Work OD Ibe Gladsl Phenomena. 

Llghtnlnc, Tbe NewUeitiodof ProiecUng Bulldlnis 

LiBMjou's Curres, Blmple Apparatnafor tbe Produo- 

Halse Plant, Obverratlona on tbe Growth and Cbeml- 

Kara Codtc«. a Key lo (be Hrsleir at. 
Kidldne, PreparattoD for the Btodf of. 
Hlueral Dlaooieriea, Borne Beoent, In lbs State oE 

WaahlDglon. 

Palenqne 'Tablet, aBrlef Btudj □!. 

patent Omce Bulldlni. The. 

PbjeaHeuroatropbaLay.Noteson thaFertlliCrof, 

Pocket Oopbsr, AnempCed Bitermluatlon of. 

Potarlaoopes, Direct Redacting. 

Faycholoclool Laboratorr In the UnlTenltr ol To- 

PsToholoflcal Training. The N«ed of. 

Pijtla, ihB Paar-Tree. 

HalD-TdaklDg. 

KlTOrs, ETolutlon of tbe Loup, In Hebraaka 

Sctentiac Alliance, The. 

Slstrurus and CrowJopbonu. 

Star pho(«rapbr, Notes on. 

Biar.TbeSew, '- ■--■— 



Ic Schools of WasblBgton, 1 



Aaron, Bnisue U.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Allen, Uarrlson, t^iladelpnia. Pa 

Baldwin, J. Mark. UnlTeraltT of Tonmto, Canada. 

Barnea, Ubaiies Keld, Modlaoa, Wis. 



Baur,G., Clark Onli 

Seal, W. J., Acricallaral CoUen, 

Beats, A. H., auiedgeTUle, Oa. 



tUob. 
'jBaidw^asTUla, M.T. 



Ich, Arthur E.. Honiclair, N.J. 

Bradley, MUtoc, Spring Held, Mass. 

Briutou. D. G., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Call. B. Ellsworth. Sea Molnee, la. 

Chandler, H., Buffalo, N.T. 

Comsiock/Tbeo. B., Tuoeon, Ariiona. 

Conn, H. w , Mlddlslown, Conn. 

Craain, F. W., Colorado Springs. Col. 

DaTla. W. U., Harrard College, Cambrldga, Haas. 

Dlmmock. George, Canobls Lake, N.H. 

Farrlngton, E. H., Agricultural Station, Champaign, 



Golden Katharine B.. Agricullnral College, I^ar- 

Hale. Bdwl'n M., Chicago. Ill, 
Hale, George B., Bosion, 
Hale, Horatio, Cr 

Halswd, Brron D., Bulgers College, Hew bnui»- 

wkk.N J 
Hawonb, Bratmua, OskAloosa, Iowa. 
Bar, O. P., IrrlngloD. Ind. 
Hayfiea, HeiUT W., BoaioaUass. 
Baun, IL A., Weather Bureau, WaBhington, D.C 
Hewitt. J. N. B., Bureau of Btbnoloffr, WaaUlogtoik 

D.C. 
Hlcka, L. E., Ltnooln, Neb. 
Hill, B. J.. Chicago, BL 

Hill, Geo. A., NaT^ Obserratorjr, WaahlDgloo, D.C. 
Hltoboock, Romrn, Waatalngton, D.C. 
Holmes, B. L. Chicago, UL 
Bolchklai, Jed., Staunton, Ta. 
Howe, Jaa. Lewis, LoulsTllle, Ef. 
Hubbard, Gardiner G., Washington, D.C. 
Jackson, Dugald C. Madlaon, Wlaconoln 
James, Joseph F.. Agricultural DepL, 7*— 

Jobnson, Boger B . Hiami nnlrerslt*, Oxford, O. 

Kellennan. Mrs. W. A Oolnmbns, O. 

Kellloott, D. B., Slate nnlTereltr, Colnmbiu, O. 

Kellogg, D. S., Plattaburgh, N.T. 

LlDtner, J. A., Albany. N. T, 

Loeb, MorrtB, New York CKj. 

Mabery, Cbailea F., Clereland, Ohio. 

Kacloekle, O., Priucelon, N.J. 

HoCartbr, Gerald, Agrioullural Station, Haleigk, 






Bon.O. T., Smitbsonlan 



NlobolB, 
NntiaU. 

Baltimore, 
Ollrer, J " 



Johns Hopkins nnlreraltr. 

R*. OoroeU DnlTaralir, Ilhaoa, JT.Y. 
aenrr F., Columbia College, New Tork 



inrr, J. H^Bmltb College, Northampton, Moaa, 
Poteat. w. L., Wake Forpsc, N. C. 
Teble, Jr^ W. P.. Now York Cliy. 





































Hutgera Coll 





lorge T., New York City. 
B. Y.. Pblladelpbla. Pa. 



Tbnrston. R. H-. Comell^nlTersltT, Ithaca, N. 
Todd. J. B., Tabor^owo. 



sUlJDiTe 



T. 



'ioua, d. &., nLoor.iowa. 

True, Frederick W., National Husei 

ton. D.C. 
Turner, C. H., CulTeraliy of Clndnni 



Wake. C, Slanlland. Chic* 
Uaas. 



Washing- 

Clnotonatl, 

__.JM0.II1. 

DeC., Harrard tInlTers]Cr,tCamnidg«, 

WardTstanley M., Sera 

H., Jobns HopklDS tJnlTeisitr, Balti- 
more. M.U. 
West. Gerald M.. Clark Unlreralty, WerceMar.Masa. 
Whiiman, C. O., Clatk tlnliersUT, Worosster, Haas. 
WUllanis, Bdward H., Lehlgb CnlTeraltr, Beihle- 



/f 



SCIENCE 

A' WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES, 

PUBLISHED BT N. D. C. HODOBS, 874 BBOADWAT, NEW TORE. 



Tenth Tbab. 
Vol. XX. No. 495. 



JULY 29, 1892. 



SiKOLx CoFiKS, Tsir Cknts. 
$8.50 Pkb Tbab, iw Advance. 



Contents. 



Bice culture in Japan, Mexico, and the 
United States From the Htoibn- 
ic Point of view. Alheri S. Aih- 
mead 57 

CuRKBNT Notes on Anthropology. — 

XI. Edited by D. O, Brinton 60 

Notes and News 61 

Modern Botany. Charles R. Barnes.,,. 62 

Notes on a Destructive Forest Tree 

SoOLYTiD. Andrew D. Hopkins. . . 64 

Letters to the Editor. 

Auroral Display. T. A. Bereman. . 65 

Magnetic Storm. Aurora and Sun- 
Spots. Edgar L. Larkin ,.* 65 

The Crinoid Heterocrinus Suberas- 
8U8. D. T. D. Dyche 66 

Professor Parker's Further Studies 
on the Apteryz. R. W. Shufeldt. 66 

A Satellite of the Moon. C. P. Max- 
toell 66 

Auroral Display. John T. Campbell. 66 
BookBeviews 67,68,69 

mterad at the Fost<01lloe of New York, N.T., as 
SeboDd-OUMB Mall Matter. 



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1 



y 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 495 



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SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, JULY 29, 1892. 

TLTURE IN JAPAN, MEXICO, AND THE UNITED 
CS FROM THE HYGIENIC POINT OF VIEW.^ 

BT ALBERT 8. ASHHEAD, M.D. 

' the most important problems to be solved by the 

medical profession is the application of a rational 
lent hygiene to the culture of rice. This culture 
) speak, at the very foundation of Japanese life. 
e rice crop is abundant Japan is well fed, healthy, 
ent; when it fails, Japan droops and starves. Japan 
ves on rice, and, consequently, a considerable part 
mlation in employed in the culture of rice. This 
ction of the people, at least, is exposed to all the 
which arise from a careless, imprudent, or slovenly 
f cultivation, and the dangers, as every one knows, 
great, and, as every one knows, also, littleis done 

to obviate them. 

ulture is a watery business. Almost the whole 
m of Japan forms around its island a fringe, fifteen 
ip, leaving the interior a comparative desert. This 
exceedingly populous. From one town to the other 
scattered along the roads innumerable houses, so 

impossible for a stranger to say where one village 
id the other ends ; they dovetail into one another, 
e. In the interior the rare population is concerned 
, lacquer, pottery, etc. ; but in this fringe there is 
anything but rice culture. The sea washes, pene- 

times partly covers by its tides, the coast-land, and 
( the constant dampness necessary for the growth of 
le sea takes away multitudinous parcels of the rice 
forming swamps; and sometimes seems to be intent 
3nsation by giving something of its own ; thus, for 

a portion of the city of Tokio, now inhabited by 
eople, and which 200 years ago was under water, 
tonsidered as a gift of the ocean, 
iveller in Japan is forcibly reminded of the cities of 
erched upon their elevated seats during the overflow 
;^rand river. Here the inundation is an artificial 

waters of the innumerable swamps formed, either 
a or by the rivers, have been directed into the rice 
around • the villages, and the latter appear like 

Even when the time of the flooding is ended, 
marshes remain everywhere, for the drainage is im- 
o say the least. The stork, the king of the swamps, 
Uional bird of Japan, semi-sacred, and, in olden 
ikados and Tycoons alone were allowed to eat of it. 
ast also, in an article on rice culture in Japan, take 
unt the exuberant canal system of that country, 
c of the country is almost all on the canals, which 
river to the other, and form a network of filthy 
ir the whole extent of the densely populated zone, 
filthy water, for it contains all the surface drainage 
pge cities. Garbage ' is continually, or rather sys- 
ly, thrown info the deep, elaborately' built, stone gut- 

■ 

oksated to the ^l-I-Kwal, or Society for the Adyancement of M edl- 
tn Japan. 

r It must not 1)4 forgotten that garbage In Japan la of a more simple 
Id kind thai^^rs; It cooBlsta chiefly of the refuse of flsh and vege- 
o meat ho^s, no stale bread or other characteristics of oar own 



ters in which there is a perpetual flow of water, so that even 
a regular eel fishery goes on in them. These gutters do the 
work of our scavengers, without any cost to the city; they 
carry the city fllth into the canals, and from the canals not 
only to the sea but also into the rice fields. A river is no- 
where allowed to pass without paying toll in the form of 
public service ; it enters into the sea only after it has washed 
the cities which it met in its course. On its surface it carries 
still more filth, if possible, than in its waters, for the con- 
tents of all the public closets, in the streets and in thehouses, 
are daily carted to some boats and brought to the rice fields^ 
to serve as manure. There, at the rice field, the liquid ma- 
nure is preserved in tanks until the proper time has come for 
using it, after the drainage of the plantation, when the far- 
mer feeds the growing plant by pouring over its roots with 
a dipper. The solid part is applied to the soil before the 
planting. 

From all this it appears that the culture of rice in Japan 
is naturally a thorn in the side of the medical profession. 

The first evil resulting from this occupation in Japan is 
impaludism, which is exceedingly frequent in all the rice 
plains until the monsoons of the spring and the autumn 
sweep away most of the paludic emanations. 

Typhoid fever and its complications, together with other 
pernicious types, and the diseases caused by the distoma are 
due to the infection of drinking water by their deleterious, 
system of manuring and draining. 

It has occurred to several leprologists that there may be a 
connection between lepra and impaludism. It is a fact that 
the more malarious the situation of a sea-coast the greater 
is the number of lepers there. Moreover, it may be consid- 
ered as a significant fact, that the first outbreak of leprosy is, 
in a large number of cases, in China as well as in Japan, 
preceded by one or several attacks of paludic fevers. It has 
even been suggested that the origin of leprosy might be in 
the malarious mud through which the rice laborers are con- 
tinually wading. So much for Japan. 

The situation in Mexico, a country allied with Japan in 
many ways, in climate, in constitution of inhabitants, irri- 
gation system, etc., is aptly described by Dr. Nazario Lomas,. 
member of the Board of Health of the State of Morelos, 
Director of the General Hospital, Cuernavaca (Morelos), 
Mexico. His paper on the subject was read in Kansas City 
(United States) before the An^erican Public Health Associa- 
tion, Oct., 1891. I give here the essential part of it: '* Dur- 
ing the last five years the cultivation of rice by irrigation 
has become one of the chief elements of the prosperity of 
this State (Morelos, Mexico). In course of these five years 
we have seen the plantations increasing rapidly, while a 
corresponding deterioration was observed in the salubrity of 
neighboring towns. And how could it be otherwise, seeing 
that the rice swamps are exposed to a mean temperature of 
33 degrees centigrade in summer and !^ degrees in winter ? 

'*I think I need not here enter into any details about the 
cultivation of rice ; iii a general way, quite sufiKcient for my 
purpose, every one is acquainted with this subject. Let me 
only remind the reader that there are two systems of culti- 
vation : dry (on hills), and by irrigation. The latter has 
two sub-divisions, irrigation by current and irrigation by 
flooding. 



1 



i 



58 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No 495 



"The sytem of irrigation by flood, which, happily,^we do 
not know as yet in the State of Morelos, but which is likely 
enough to be introduced by and by, as the rice culture pro- 
gresses, is the worst of all. It is this system especially that 
is meant when competent authorities denounce the cultiva- 
tion of rice as homicidal, declare its history to be one of 
blood, and contend that every sixteen hectolitres of rice are 
booght at the price of one man^s life. This form of irriga- 
tion is said by experienced men to combine in the most ef- 
fective manner all the evils of the very worst of sweet-water 
swamps. 

"The rice cultivated under the current system, now gener- 
ally adopted in this State, is irrigated from February to Sep> 
tember by means of currents, renewed according to the 
necessities of the plant, but generally continuous. Now as 
perfect slopes are rare, the drainage is rarely, if ever, com- 
plete, so that e^ery 6e1d of any considerable extent presents 
hollows ready to receive swamps. Moreover, the want of 
canals and drains, or their imperfection, is cause that at the 
points of entrance and exit the irrigation water diffuses itself 
in lagoons. But supposing even this system to be carried 
out in the most perfect manner, without any flaw, there re- 
mains still the evaporation, on an immense surface, from a 
soil exceedintfly rich in organic matter. The harvest begins 
in September. It leaves on the ground, more or less damp 
and swampy, a latjOfe quantity of vegetable detritus, whose 
decomposition fills t^e air with most pernicious, because ever 
renewed, poison. 

"As to the dry svstem, which is used on hill sides, I am 
not practically acquainted with it. Of course it is not as 
unhealthy as the two others, but then it is less productive. 

"Now, if once we have created in our midst this class of 
artificial morasses, with a large superficial extension, we 
find safely estublishej among us the paludic fevers and all 
classes of gastro- intestinal affections. These are always 
endemic in the districts where rice is cultivated. 

" Each proif ress of the rice culture is followed by a corres- 
pondent ad van ta ire gained by the fever. More than fifty 
per cent of the field-bands are attacked by it. It appears 
under all its forms, but mostly under those of daily intermit- 
tent, tertiary, and continuous fever; in the first two cases it 
is accompanied almost at the onset with swelling and hard- 
ness of the spleen, and Very frequently of the liver. It is to 
be observed that the continuous or remittent fevers do not 
at once appear as such, they are usually preceded by two or 
three attacks of daily intermittent fever, whose duration 
gradually iucrfases until the disease becomes continuous or 
remittent. Notwithstanding its paludic nature, this fever 
is not amenable to any form of quinine. Neuralgia, espe- 
cially in the form of trigeminus, urticaria, and iiurple spots, 
is very frfquciit. Pneumonia becomes here an epidemic, 
and is cured, oi very favorably influenced, by the use of salts 
of quinine: t is observation is continually made in the 
battalions wbic I'ome from the south. The day -laborers 
who come d > v r > n the central table-laud and the Valley 
of Mexico iJi' lost invariably affected with cachexia on 

their arrival. 

"I think ! 'he place to give a few details concerning 

the physical i|)hy of the State of Morelos It forms 

an inclined from north to south. Its highei»t parts 

are 2,000 m md the lowest 500 to 650 metres abov^e 

the level or The prevailing winds by day are from 

« 

south to no i^ht from north to south. 

"There i uidance of water, both from springs and 

rivers; the ^ sweet, the latter sweet and salt. 



"The course of the waters is naturally opposed to the forma- 
tion of lagoons or swamps, and the climate must have been 
very healthy in former times. 

"It is in thelower part of the State that the rice is cultivated. 
It grows there in company with the sugar-cane, another 
cause of paludism. 

"The hygienic measures which the State Board of Health 
submitted to the approbation of the gfovernment, through my 
initiative, are as follows: — 

" 1. The cultivation of rice by the flooding system is, in no 
case, to be allowed, even as a trial. 

"2. No new rice plantation shall be established, without a 
license from the government, for the granting of which, the 
Board of Health is to be consulted, the State engineer to be 
a member of such Board. The Board will appoint a com- 
mittee to study the subject, composed of one of its members 
residing in Cuernavaca, a physician from the rice districts, 
who may be a corresponding member of the Board, and of 
the State engineer. 

"3. If the ground, in which it is proposed to cultivate rice, 
is situated to the south or north of any village or town, and 
distant therefrom less than 3,000 metres, the petition shall 
be at once rejected, unless, in the opinion of the health ex- 
perts, not less than three in number, the three being unani- 
mous, an intervening hill, or forest, or other such natural 
feature, removes the danger. 

" 4. Any rice-planter who shall commence his harvest with 
the ground in a soaked condition, if such condition is due to 
bad management or carelessness, the waters not having been 
removed in due season, shall be liable to a fine of not less 
than $50, the amount to be fixed in consultation with the 
governor, and to be deposited with the funds of the State. 

" 5. The cultivation shall be suspended on any plantation, 
in which, in the opinion of the engineer of the Board, the 
irrigation waters form .swamps or lagoons, either at the en- 
trance or at the outlet. Once these defects removed, the 
permission to cultivate may be renewed. 

" 6. Any person may denounce before the Board, or its cor- 
respondents in the district, any defects in the irrigation or 
cultivation, which may cause the formation of swamps. 

"7. Whenever the rice is beaten down by strong winds, 
hail-storms, etc., it must at once be cut, and especially if it 
is in the water. 

" 8. The laborers employed in the rice culture will begin 
work after sunrise, and will leave the fields before sunset. 

" 9. The overseers will, under no circumstances, allow the 
wives of the laborers to bring them their meals or visit them 
in the fields. This prohibition applies with still better reason 
to children. 

" 10. The owners and administrators of rice plantations, 
who have the well-being of their laborers at heart, may apply 
to the State Board of Health and obtain from it a pamphlet 
setting forth the rules to be observed for the prevention and 
cure of paludic fever." 

There is a large rice culture in the United States also. 
How large is shown by the following numbers, which I 
have obtained from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
In 1879 the census data for the crop were as follows: — 

Pounds. 
South Carolina . . . 52,077,516 

Georgia 25,369,687 

Louisiana .... 23,188,311 

All other States .... 9,495,860 



Total 



110,131,373 



July 29, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



EBtimates by State CommissioDers of Agriculture are avail- 
able for recent years for South Carolina and Louisiana. The 
figures of production for the last three years at hand are: — 

South Carolina. Louisiana. 

1888 67,752,374 61,414,909 

1889 93,143,508 63,330,897 

1890 68,091,944 

The production for Louisiana for 1890 is given at about 
1,000,000 barrels of rough rice. 

The largest cultivator of rice in the United States is proba- 
bly Col. John Screven of Savannah, Ga. It is to the kind 
ness of tbis gentleman that I am indebted for the following 
information, relating to the rice culture in Georgia and 
the Carolinas (I leave Louisiana entirely out because the 
situation there is complicated by the presence of the sugar- 
cane culture). 

'* There are only two systems : tidewater, and inland or 
back-water culture. In the latter system, the wa.ter is de- 
rived from swamp or still- water reservoirs, formed by bank- 
ing in the water of swamps and so retaining it convenient 
for the irrigation of adjacent Oelds. The culture of such 
fields is practically the same as in tide-water culture, the 
water being applied and removed at pleasure, provided the 
reservoirs or back-waters are sufSciently supplied, as may 
not be the case in seasons of drought. In the former, or 
tide- water system, a want of water-supply can scarcely occur, 
certainly not at the periods of spring tides, on which the 
system of irrigation is commonly based. 

'' The tidal lands lie in the deltas of the rivers and in 
their natural state are subject to overflow, certainly in the 
spring-tides, and being extremely level may be covered by 
'great tides ^^ to a depth to hide summits. As these lands 
contract and settle under drainage and cultivation, this ad- 
vantage is increased after they are taken in. 

**They are embanked sufficiently to keep out the highest 
tides, and water gates, called '* trunks,'' are laid, so as to 
admit or discharge the water, as the tides rise or fall. At 
these gates the drainage fall is from four to five feet in the 
Savannah Biver, where the mean tide-fall is about six and 
a half feet. The average drainage of the fields, however, 
will not exceed three and a half feet. To make the drainage 
as complete as possible, main ditches, say six feet wide by 
four feet deep, are dug around the fields, which are again 
subdivided by minor ditches, 2 feet wide by three feet deep, 
called quarter drains, cut parallel about seventy-five feet 
apart. This ditch system is not all-important for irrigation. 
It combines greater value in the rapid and thorough drain- 
age it affords; for rice is an amphibious plant, and while irri- 
gation is very necessary to its successful growth, good drain- 
age, the more rapid the better, is equally necessary, for rea- 
sons which need not be stated here, as we have to consider 
only ita hygienic value." 

I had addressed to Col. Screven a number of questions 
relating to this subject. I give them here with the answers 
I received. 

1. Which is the least dangerous of the different systems 
of irrigation ? Answer. The tide-water system, because the 
water is not taken from stagnant reservoirs, and may be 
oftener changed. 

2. What is the system of manuring generally adopted, 
are human excrements used ? Answer. Commercial fertil- 
isers are more commonly used — human excrements never. 

1 This is tbe alnuuuio term for the high, spring tides raised by the imloii of 
or foil and perigee moon •— not storm-tides. 



3. What means are used to prevent the contamination of 
drinking water? Answer. Water from wells, sometimes 
artesian, is used, very commonly water drawn directly from 
the river, which, by the more careful, is cleared by settling, 
or is filtered. 

4. What seasons are most unwholesome for the cultivators ? 
Answer. The summer and ante-frost autumnal months, 
commencing with July and the harvest flow, and especially 
after that flow is removed, say, from August 16, when it is 
cast off for the harvest, and the water-growth, animal, and 
vegetal exposed to the sun and decay. 

5. Do the hands live in the immediate neighborhood of the 
plantations or, perhaps, on higher ground ? Answer. Either, 
as convenience dictates, or on the plantation itself. Very 
often higher grounds are more unwholesome than the level 
of the rice- fields. Settlements close to the river-shore, where 
the tides move the atmosphere, and the winds are least im- 
peded, are often the most healthy. High grounds overlook- 
ing rice- fields, and not well-shielded from them by vegeta- 
tion, are considered most unwholesome. It should be stated 
that the cultivators (laborers) in the rice-fields are negroes, 
who are constitutionally less liable to fevers than whites. 
Ordinarily, the white residents of rice -fields abandon them 
frona May 1 until frost the following autumn. 

6. What system is used to dry the ground ? Answer. 
The drainage method already described. The rice-fields are 
never pondy or muddy when properly drained. During the 
dry stages, they admit the plow, harrow, toothed roller, drills 
or any other appropriate agricultural implement, and are 
sometimes even dusty, when stirred. 

7. What is done to prevent the formation of swamps or 
lagoons ? Answer. Effective drainage. 

8. Is anything done to prevent infection from the rotting 
crops which have been beaten down by storms f Answer. 
When drainage is effective, serious infection is not likely to 
occur from crops beaten down by storms. 

9. Are laborers permitted to work in the rice-fields before 
sunrise and after sunset? Answer. The most dangerous 
time to laborers is in the harvest, when the hot suns raise 
noxious effluvia in the fields from decaying water vegeta- 
tion and animalculse. At such times the laborers (negroes) 
seek their work in the early morning before sunrise, so as 
to complete their tasks before afternoon, when the sun is 
most oppressive. They fear the sun more than malaria. 

10. What means are taken to obviate malarial and typhoid 
fevers ? Answer. None specially ; incidentally such drain- 
age as is necessary to successful rice culture Drainage and 
good health are as interdependent as drainage and good hus- 
bandry. As for typhoid fever^ it is unknown in the rice- 
fields, even among whites. Filth diseases are rare. If by 
^^ malarial fevers" is meant fevers other than those from 
paludal (marsh) causes, I venture to assert that in the rice- 
fields, and on the southern Atlantic coast generally, there is 
marked absence of them, and where fevers prevail from 
paludal (marsh) causes (bilious fevers ?) typhoid fever will 
not originate. It is a notable fact, that typhoid fever was 
unknown in the city of Savannah before 1861. 

In conclusion, I will in a few words give such advice to 
Japanese sanitarians as is clearly suggested by the preceding 
facts. 1. First of all, there is one thing that must be done if 
the culture is not to remain what it is now, a public calamity ; 
the immunditse must be kept out of the water. I should ad- 
vocate the use of artificial manures, — bone phosphatea and 
American fertilizers. Thus the general infection of drinking 
water with typhoid, cholera, and other germs, would cewie. 



1 



6o 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 495 



2. It would be worth while, perhaps, if a trial was made 
to obtaio negro labor for the rice plantatioDS. The nenrro is 
proof against malarious influences in a considerable measure. 
Might not colored laborers be imported from Georgia and 
the Oarolinas ? 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. — XI. 

[Ekiited by D. O. BHnUm, M.D., LL.D.} 

Canadian Archeology. 

Undbr the efficient superintendence of Mr. David Boyle, 
curator, the archaeological collection of the Canadian Insti- 
tute, Toronto, has grown to be the largest in existence, illus- 
trating the prehistoric condition of man in the province of 
Ontario. His excellent reports, which have appeared an- 
nually since 1887, describe with great accuracy and sufficient 
fullness the yearly accessions to the collection of antiquities. 

Objects which can properly be called palaeolithic have not 
yet been found in Canada. This is the opinion of Mr. 
Boyle as expressed in his last report. Of course, forms 
simulating those of the old stone age occur, but this is not 
conclusive. Stone is the principal material, and in its shap- 
ing and dressing the Canadian Indians were not behind their 
neighbors to the south. The collection also contains many 
specimens of their pottery. It is well burned, ornamented 
with designs in scroll and line, and some of the vases are 
''almost classic in outline." The pipes, both stone and 
clay, are a prominent feature in the reports, and evidently 
were the objects of solicitous workmanship. Copper speci- 
mens are by no means unusual, some being knives, others 
apear-heads, with planges and sockets, others ornaments, as 
beads, bracelets, etc. Examples in bone, shell, and horn are 
also figured. About a hundred of the crania unearthed have 
been examined. They indicate a people with moderately 
dolichocephalic skulls, averaging a cranial index of 74.5. 

It IB to be hoped that the government of the Dominion 
will continue to lend assistance to this creditable effort to 
illustrate the archaeology of Ontario. 

The Question of the Basques. 

As some readers of Science have manifested an interest in 
the Basques, they will doubtless be pleased to learn that at 
the next meeting of the French Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, to be held at Pau, from the 15th to the 22d 
of September next, the Anthropological Section intends to 
devote most of its energies to settling ** La Question Basque.*^ 
According to an announcement of the President of the Sec- 
tion, Dr. Magitot, the question is to be attacked on all four 
sides: first, the history and origin of the Euskarian people; 
next, their anthropological characters: third, their language; 
and finally, their traditions and folk-lore. From such an 
onset as this we may hope for some positive results. 

. Not much can be expected from a study of the language. 
There is probably no other living idiom which has had its 
vocabulary so completely foreignized as the Basque. At 
the Oongr6s Scienti6que International des Catholiques last 
year, the Comte de Charency, who is a good authority on 
the tongue, stated that at least nine-tenths of its words were 
borrowed from the Latin and Romance languages, and then 
proceeded to point out that a considerable percentage of the 
remainder were Celtic, Greek, or Germanic in origin. There 
is almost nothing left of the original Euskarian but its 
grammar; and this, it may be added in passing,* shows no 
relationship to that of either Ural-Altaic or American 
tongues, in spite of various statements to the contrary. 



On Left- Handedness. 

Why are most people' right-handed ? Why are a few 
left-handed ? These are questions which have puzzled all 
physiologists who have attempted their solution. The vari- 
ous theories put forward are compactly presented by Sir 
Daniel Wilson in his recent work, *'The Right Hand: Left- 
Handedness " (London, 1891). His 6nal conclusion is that 
left-handedness is due to '^an exceptional development of 
the right hemisphere of the brain." But it must be acknowl- 
edged that his evidence, consisting of a single autopsy, is 
far from sufficient. 

Sir Daniel calls attention to the fact that the forms of 
some ancient stone implements prove that palaeolithic man 
was sometimes left-handed, and distinctly was not ambidex- 
trous, as some have maintained. He does not refer to De 
Mortillet's tables in the Bull. Soc. D'Anthopologie, 1890, 
which show that at that time in France the men averaged 
more than twice as many left-handed individuals as at 
present; and at certain localities, asat Chassey, on the upper 
Rhone, the left handed were in the large majority. 

In Sir DanieFs generally very thorough volume there are 
but few references to this phenomenon in the lower animals, 
and no mention of its occurrence in snails. It may, indeed, 
sound like a **bull," to talk of animals as left-handed who 
have no hands, but the physiological phenomenon is plainly 
present. It is shown in the direction in which they con- 
struct the spiral of their shell. With the ordinary vine 
snail this is from left to right; but once in about 3,000 times 
it is from right to left. They are then known as sinistrorsa. 
In the genus Partula far more frequent exam pies occur, and 
indeed species have been named from this peculiarity. What- 
ever its cause, in molluskand in man the same law is operative. 

The Mentone Cave-Burials. 

Near Mentone, but on the Italian side of the frontier, there 
are several caves in the cretaceous sea-cliffs, whose contents 
have long attracted the lively attention of archaeologists. 
Unluckily, they have been worked over so much that the 
original stratification is no longer apparent; but throughout 
the mass, flint chips and rude bone implements have been 
abundantly found, of such a character that they have been 
unanimously referred to palaeolithic man, to that period of 
his existence in western Europe which De Mortillet has 
called Solutreen. 

Thus far, all is harmony; but in this deposit, at various 
depths, skeletons have been unearthed, and a lively discus- 
sion ensued as to whether these should be considered also of 
palaeolithic time, or of later date. This debate has been re- 
newed by fresh discoveries of such remains in February last, 
a good description of which, by Mr. A Vaughan Jennings, 
appears in Natural Science for June. They are said to be 
of unusual size, relics of men from six and a half to seven 
feet tall ; but it is well known how easily one is deceived in 
measuring skeletons. With them were worked ornaments 
of bone and shell, necklaces, and finely-chipped arrowheads. 
These indications point conclusively to the fact of deliberate 
interment at a period when mortuary ceremonies were definite 
and solemn rites, and unquestionably, therefore, to neolithic 
times. In spite of the depth at which they were found, per- 
haps twenty-five feet below the modern level of the cave 
floor, they must be accepted as endorsing De Mortillet^s re- 
jection of the human remaios as palaeolithic. 

Ethnology as Philosophy. 

Among the most thoughtful writers on the meaning and 
mission of ethnology must be named Dr. A. H. Post of 



July 29. 1892.] 



SCIENCE, 



61 



Bremen. He is the author of several important works, and 
an essay of his, on '* Ethnological Jurisprudence," was 
translated and published last year in the Monist, at Chicago. 

Id a recent number of the GlohiM he publishes some 
*' Ethnological Beflections," which are intended to set forth 
the true position of ethnology with reference to other sci- 
ences. He defines ethnology as ** the natural history of so- 
cial life," and he believes that the time will come when all 
the so-called '^ social sciences *' will be taught as its branches. 
He points out with force that this will bring about a revolu- 
tion in all traditional methods of education, for there is a 
fundamental and irreconcilable antagonism between the 
two methods. Natural science denies absolutely the free 
will of man, the validity of a priori reasoning on any sub- 
ject, the possibility of a ** categorical imperative " in ethics, 
the abstract truth of any doctrine of religion or morals, the 
supremacy of any individual. All is an endless and un- 
avoidable chain of cause and effect. 

It appears to me that such a view of ethnology is true so 
far as it relates to the growth of societies under natural sur- 
roundings. The social unit is cribbed and confined by iron 
laws, and its development is in a measure subject to these ; 
but in a measure only. It is even less true of the individual. 
For to deny free-will to man not only leads at once into 
logical contradictions of the grossest kind, but is contrary to 
the soundest maxims of inductive philosophy. As John 
Stuart Mill, whom no one will accuse of prejudice, pointed 
out, we are certain of nothing so surely as of our own feel- 
ings, and of these the strongest is that of our own individu- 
ality, and of it as a free agent. 

Dr. Post has here committed the same error as another 
distin^ished ethnologist, lately mentioned in these columns 
{Science, June 3), that of seeking to make ethnology syn- 
thetic, when its study should be objective and analytic. 
Where it leads him, his article curiously shows. On one 
page he says that to the ethnologist no social condition is good 
or had, but merely present as a subject for study ; and on 
the very next page he falls to bewailing the egotistic strife 
in modem society as threatening the ruin of the social edi- 
fice! 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Thb next meeting the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, to be held in Rochester, N.Y., Aug. 17-24, will 
be of nnuBual interest and importance, especially to the members 
of the Section of Biology. At this meeting will be considered the 
place of meeting for 1898, and consequently the attitude of the 
association toward the Columbian Exposition. But even of greater 
importance to biologists will be the consideration and probably the 
decision of the question of the division of the section into two, — 
one for the botanists, and one for the zoologists. It is hoped, also, 
that there will come up for discussion the report of the American 
Branch of the International Committee on Biological Nomen- 
clature. This report has nothing to do with the naming of 
species, but will consider the terminology to be employed in an- 
atomy, embryology, etc. In view of the matters of general in- 
terest to the whole association, and those of vital interest to Section 
F, it is expected that there will be a large attendance of botanists 
and zoologists and a long list of papers to be presented before the 
present section of biology. 

— Bulletin No. 23 of the West Virginia Agricultural Experi- 
toent Station, entitled ** Illustrated Descriptive List of Weeds," 
contains a considerable amount of information in a condensed 
form. It is written by Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, botanist of the sta- 
tion. IlJostrations of all the important families, as well as of a 
nufflber of species, enable one unfamiliar with the weeds torecog- 
aiw them. Short descriptions are given of each, with mention of 



any special medicinal value they may possess as household reme- 
dies. Some two hundred species are motioned. One might 
reasonably question the justice of considering the locust {Rcbinia 
paeudacacia), the honey locust {Qleditachia triacantJios), or the 
wild hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens) as weeds. The list 
would naturally not be the same for all States, but it is a little 
surprising not to find PotentiUa norvegica mentioned. In south- 
western Ohio, and doubtless other localities, whole fields have 
been overrun by this plant, and it is much worse In this respect 
than P. canadensis, which is mentioned in the Bulletin. A num- 
ber of typographical errors show carelessness in proof-reading. 

— At a meeting of the Paris Geographical Society on May 20, 
according to The Scottish Geographical Magazine, M. VenukofP 
gave a sketch of the surveys executed in Russia during the year 
1891. After referring to the exploration of the Black Sea con- 
tinued by MM. Spindler, Andrussof, and Wrangell, of which an 
account was given on page 154 of this volume, he turned to the 
geodetic and topographical work executed in the Crimea, which 
has been the means of ascertaining that the Roman Kosh (5,601 
feet high) is the culminating point of the mountains of the penin- 
sula, and not the Tchatyr Dagh (5,002 feet), as has hitherto been 
supposed. The phenomena of terrestrial magnetism and the local 
attractions of the mountains of the Crimea have also received at- 
tention. Among ihe geodetic works produced is a large map of 
the ti'iangulation between Kishineff and Astrakhan, along the 
parallel of 47^ 80' N. This arc extends over nineteen degrees of 
longitude. It is remarkable that this triangulation, though quite 
independent, agrees exactly with that of the 52d parallel in regard 
to the anomalies observed in the length of different degrees of 
longitude (see vol. vii., p. 494). Between the same meridians the 
differences of the lengths of degrees of longitude, as measured 
geodetically and calculated astronomically, have always the same 
sign. 

— For several years the chemical division of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, under H. W. Wiley, has been giving consid- 
erable attention to the subject of adulterants, and in part seventh 
of bulletin No. 18 is reported a series of investigations made on the 
adulterations of tea, coffee, and cocoa preparations. The conclu- 
sion reached is that teas are not now adulterated to so great an 
extent as formerly, and that the adulterants used are, as a rule, 
not such as may be considered prejudicial to health. In the case 
of coffee the use of adulterants seems to be on the increase. Of 
the samples of ground coffee examined, 90 per cent were found 
to be adulterated in some way, some of them containing no coffee 
whatever. Chicory is largely used as an adulterant of coffee, as 
well as wheat, rye, com, peas, acorns, molasses, etc. Not only is 
ground coffee adulterated, but numerous imitations of unground 
coffee are on the market, a few imitating green coffee, but the 
larger number intended to be mixed with roasted coffees. The 
following description of some of them is taken from the bulletin : 
*' 8,951. Coffee pellets, molded, but not in the form of coffee beans. 
When mixed with ground coffee would escape the notice of the 
purchaser, also probably in mixture with whole coffee. Compo- 
sition ; wheat fiour and bran, rye also probably present. Manu- 
factured by the Clark Coffee Company, ofiSce 156 State Street, 
Boston ; factory, Roxbury, Mass. Price, 6 cents per pound, or 5^ 
cents in 10-barrel lots. The manufacturers claim that an addi- 
tion of 33 per cent of these * pellets * to genuine coffee will make 
*an equal drink to the straight goods.' The manufacturers, 

after making extravagant claims for their product, state, with 
evident intention to further a fraud, that ' it is uniform in color, 
and can be furnished with any desired color of roast.' 8,955. 
Imitation coffee beans. Composed of wheat fiour, light roast. 
Manufactiured by the Swedish Coffee Company, New York. 8,956. 
Similar to 8,955, and of the same manufacture. Composition; 
wheat fiour and probably saw-dust. Dark roast; two kinds of 
berries. 8,957. Imitation coffee beans. Composition; wheat 
fiour. Manufactured by L. H. Hall, 1,017 Chestnut Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa." Another method of sophisticating coffee is to treat 
it for the manufacture of coffee extract, after which the grains 
are roasted a second time, with the addition of a little sugar to 
cover the berries with a deceptive glazing. 



62 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 495 



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MODERN BOTANY.* 

BY CHABLS8 B. BABNES, PBOFB8SOR OF BOTANY IM THE UNIVEBSITY 

OF WISCONSIN. 

I VEiNTUKE to say that the ideas conjured up by the words 
'* botany" and ''botanists" in the minds of those of you 
whose school days ceased anywhere from fifteen to twenty 
years ago, or perhaps even at a later date, will be one which 
is very widely different from the ideas that those words 
ought to bring up. To most people the word *' botany " re- 
calls something which chiefly means the collecting of flow- 
ering plants in the spring ; pulling flowers to pieces in an 
endeavor, too often a vain endeavor, to find out a long, hard 
name for the plant; an endeavor which .is often vain unless 
they have acquired the very useful trick of looking in the 
index for the common name. The word *' botanist" brings 
to mind a sort of harmless crank who spends most of his 
time in wandering about fields and woods and poking into 
swamps and bringing home arms full or boxes full of plants; 
perchance drying them and preserving them. Yet these two 
ideas are so extremely foreign to the subject of botany as it 
is thought of to-day, that I venture to present to you some 
hints of what modern botany is, and particularly what mod- 
ern botany is on its economic side. The study that I have 
indicated as being the common one is the study of a part 
only of botany ; one to be sure which is not without its value ; 
but it is only the most elementary part of the subject. It 
was very natural that when people began, in the revival of 
learning, and at the close of the middle ages, to study plants, 
they should first turn their attention to the plants which 
were nearest at hand, and to those plants which attracted 
their attention most readily on account of their size. So we 
find that the early studies of plants are almost exclusively 
an attempt to describe and classify; at first simply to de- 
scribe the plants which one found about him ; later to ascer- 
tain what the relations of these plants to each other were. 

* An address delivered before the State Aipricultural Society of WLsoonsin, 
Feb. 1, 1S88; Btenographically reported and pabllshed by permission of the 
secretary In advanoe of the volume of Proceedings for the year. 



From that day until the present this study and classification 
of the higher plants has been almost the only subject to 
which any very great attention has been given. In our own 
country the people who came to it, if they had had any train, 
ing at all in botany, had been impressed with the importance 
of the same ideas. They had come to a new country. It 
was their first duty to make known to those abroad who were 
studying plants, what the flora of this country was ; and, from 
the year 1750 on, collections of great number and often of 
considerable value went across the water. 

From 1750 to late in the present century little attention 
was given to any other department of botany; and it is only 
within the last ten or fifteen years that descriptive botany 
has had any competitors for favor. In Germany, however, 
the matter is widely different; it has been a much longer 
time since systematic botany, the study of plants as far as 
their classification is concerned, was the only topic which 
attracted attention. The reason of this is perfectly evident 
People exhausted the subject to a certain degree in that coun- 
try, and they then naturally turned their attention to some 
other phase of plant study. Germany and France stand far 
in advance of this country to-day in the investigations which 
their botanists have pursued, solely because of the longer 
time during which they have been at work, and the greater 
amount of time which each investigator is able to give to his 
own special subject. 

But students nowadays are not expected to collect flowers 
and flnd out their names and then congratulate themselves 
that they have studied botany. They are put to work with 
the microscope to see the very minutest arrangement of the 
complicated inachinery of plants. They are set to work with 
the pencil to delineate these arrangements ; to record their 
observation in a way which appeals at once to the eye, with- 
out the intervention of words; and, in spite of the repeated 
assertion that they cannot draw, they are told to do the very 
thing which they cannot do until they have learned how to 
do it. They are asked to equip themselves with chemical 
and physical knowledge, in order that they may be able to 
study this machinery in action ; and when they have attained 
a sufficient knowledge of other sciences, then, and then only, 
jcan they expect to unravel some of the mysteries of plant 
life, in many ways the least mysterious of organic things. 

Now, what is the object and purpose of such training as 
this ? First, it is to develop skill of eye, hand, and brain. 
It is to bring to them something of those qualities to which 
the essayist of the evening alluded. It is to enable them to 
see in the material things around them something more than 
bits of matter. It is to enable them to gain that breadth of 
comprehension and grasp of intellect which it is desirable 
that every educated man should attain. I hope, therefore^ 
that the members of this society will use their utmost en- 
deavor to have this sort of vital and vitalizing study com- 
menced in the schools below the college and university; in 
what we may call the primary schools as contrasted with the 
secondary ones. Most of the high schools in the State to-day, 
I am sorry to say, are studying this subject in the same way 
in which it was studied twenty-flve years ago, and they are 
doing this work partly because they have had no pull from 
higher schools to lift them to a higher level, and partly be- 
cause they know no better way. 

On its economic side this sort of training has its chief 
value, and it is that, I take it, in which the members of this 
society are mainly interested. Let me select a few topics 
from the very great number at my disposal in order to illus- 
trate to you, if I can, just what the economic bearing of this 



July 29, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



63 



science is; just what we may expect from it; just what we 
have a rig^bt to demand from it. 

Take the single topic of the culture of plants. In bow far 
has that been exhausted f How much do we really know 
about the reasonableness of our modes of cultivation ? How 
much do we know about the effect of other modes of culti- 
vation than those which have been in vogue for fifty, or one 
hundred, or hundreds of years ? One suggestion in this direc- 
tion may suffice as an illustration. If any man should sow 
Indian corn in the same way that he sows wheat, with the 
expectation of obtaining any crop of grain from it, we should 
almost consider him an idiot. And yet I wonder whether 
it IS very much less idiotic to sow wheat in the way that we 
do, with the expectation of attaining the best results possible 
from this as a grain crop. I do not say that we do not get 
a crop, often a good crop. A magnificent one, as compared 
with what we have ever had, has been raised in the past year ; 
but who knows whether the cultivation of wheat in some- 
thing the same way in which Indian com is cultivated, that 
IB* l>y giving it a much greater range for obtaining its nour- 
ishment, and better advantages of light and air, would not 
increase the yield by a very large percentage ? Indeed, 
there have been some experiments, on not a very small scale, 
which would seem to indicate that there are possibilities 
in this direction which we have not yet even attempted to 
ascertain. 

You bear a great deal from our own university experi- 
ment station about the food of animals; and Professor Henry 
is constantly experimenting to ascertain just what are the 
best foods to produce a given result with a given animal. 
He has endeavored to ascertain something of the effect of 
different rations upon the bones, upon the muscles, upon the 
fat of various animals. Why should we not have some ex- 
periments carried on in regard to the food of plants ? Does 
anybody know what the effect of a given ration of food for 
a plant will be t So far as I can recollect, experiments on 
what we may designate as feeding plants, have been carried 
on to a very limited extent. We have endeavored to ascer- 
tain particularly where plants obtain their nitrogen ; and for 
the last twenty-five years, almost, this question has been one 
under experiment and under discussion. I suppose that 
many of yon know something of the prolonged experiment 
which has been carried on at Bothamstead; and perhaps 
some of you know of the recent experiments of HeUriegel 
• and Wilfarth, and Frank, men who are endeavoring to find 
out whether plants, when kept in very vigorous condition, 
can obtain nitrogen from the air, or whether it is absolutely 
necessary to get it from compounds in the soil. Here is a 
problem which has been attacked in the way these other 
qaestions ought to be attacked, and in the very way in which 
we may expect a solution of these thousands of other problems 
in regard to feeding plants. The most recent experiments 
in regard to this source of nitrogen for plants make it quite 
possible that when plants are in a very vigorous and thrifty 
condition they are then able to fix the free nitrogen of the 
air; and that when they are not at their highest notch of 
vigor, they are then able to get their supply of nitrogen 
only from nitrogenous compounds in the soil. On this very 
point we have some recent experiments that perhaps would 
interest you ; and, bear in mind, I am only mentioning these 
as illustrative. I am trying to show the necessity for such a 
preparation in botanical study as will enable the men who 
are most deeply and profoundly interested in this very study 
to carry on some of those experiments that it seems so highly 
desirableJx) carry on. 



Only a few months ago a paper was published by two of 
the men who have been experimenting longest on this matter 
of nitrogen assimilation ; and they give some hints in regard 
to the harvesting of those plants which produce large quan- 
tities of nitrogenous material that may turn out to be of very 
great money value. It has been found that the contents of 
leaves of clover, so far as nitrogen was concerned, was very 
much greater at the close of the day, or near the close of the 
day, than it was in the morning or during the forenoon. 
That is, during the day, especially on bright and sunny days, 
the plants were able to manufacture large quantities of these 
materials. Now one of the main things for which our clover 
crop is grown is the large amount of nitrogenous materials 
which it contains as compared with other fodders. It is 
quite plain that if these results are correct, the harvesting of 
such a crop as this near the close of the day is going to give 
us a fodder whose money value is decidedly greater than that 
of one harvested early in the day, before the plant has been 
able to manufacture these substances; for in the course of the 
night the large majority of them are utilized for the plants 
own growth, and are converted into other forms of material 
which are less valuable as animal food. 

But I cannot dwell upon that topic. Let me give you a 
hint from another field. Perhaps if I should ask any of you 
what is the purpose of the shade-trees along the streets of 
our cities and villages the answer would be quite unanimous 
that these trees were for shade and beauty ; and yet these 
trees are not used for that purpose. At least nobody, I think, 
would imagine that that was their use, if he passed along 
the streets of our own city. He would think that the main 
purpose of the best elms was to furnish adequate stays for 
some electric pole or to support the telephone wires which 
pass through them. He would suppose, if he saw the city force 
making a street, that the chief purpose of the roots of the 
trees was to be grubbed out of the way for the first curbstone 
or sidewalk that the city wished to put along that way. If 
one saw people trimming their shade-trees, he would think 
that the main advantage of these was to afford an object les- 
son as to how badly work could be done, and how much 
injury could be inflicted upon an unoffending plant, appar- 
ently with the intention of affording it early relief from its 
sufferings by death. Our treatment of shade-trees in the 
streets of cities and villages is one of the crying shames of 
this day. Watch the ^* trimming'' of street trees. Ignorant . 
laborers half chop and half break off the limb of a tree, and 
leave the rough end exposed to wind and weather instead of 
caring for the wound properly. We seem to think we have 
no more duties towards that particular tree except to ged rid 
of a branch that may be a little bit in our way. We do the 
very thing which will subject that tree to the greatest danger. 
We offer the very best chance for the attack of parasitic ani- 
mals and plants on that tree; as though our main purpose 
was to destroy it, instead of our alleged intent, to trim it in 
order to maintain and augment its beauty. 

This naturally suggests the management of forests. Man- 
agement of forests ? We hardly know of such a thing in 
this country. We do not manage our forests. We simply 
cut them down, and then are glad that the cutters can move 
on to some other acre and cut it down in the same way. We 
have made almost no provision in this country for maintain- 
ing our supply of timber. People may say what they please 
about the inexhaustibility of our forest resources. Those of 
you who have given the subject any attention know that it 
is utter folly to say that our forest resources are inexhausti- 
ble, or that they are not being exhausted at a most extravar 



64 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 495 



! 






gant rate. Now meu traioed in the knowledge of bow plants 
live and grow and behave have some basis on which they 
can suggest ways of managing forests which will not only 
yield all the timber that is needed at the present time, but 
which will enable these forests to continue to yield such sup- 
plies for an indefinite period of years. Forest management 
is not unknown in other countries. We simply have trained 
no men in this country to have any idea what forest man- 
agement means. 

And then we have the immense subject of diseases of 
plants, and that is a study which seems to have attracted the 
greatest attention at the present day. The division of vege- 
table pathology at the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington is receiving a vast deal more attention than the divi- 
sion of forestry, and yet I doubt very much whether its 
money value to the people is any greater. The money value 
of the study of both these subjects to the American people, 
and particularly to the farmers of the country ^ is almost 
beyond calculation. We hardly realize what this money 
value is. We are so used to losing a certain percentage of 
our farm crops by diseases that we really pay no attention 
to it. If our animals, our flocks and herds, should be deci- 
mated as often as the crops, are, we should hear such a hue 
and cry as would bring immediate attention on all hands to 
it. I suppose there is no one of you, who has given the 
subject a moment^s thought, but will agree with me that 
the loss from rust on the wheat crop for the present year, 
stated in the very lowest possible terms, could not fall below 
one per cent. How much money does that mean on six 
hundred odd million bushels of wheat ? It means several 
million more than has been laid out in the study of plants 
in all the centuries. It means a great many hundreds of 
thousands of dollars more than we shall lay out the next 
century for the study of plants; and yet we are learning and 
can learn how not only to check but how absolutely to pre- 
vent such diseases as this. I do not say that this particular 
one can be absolutely checked at the present time, but we 
know ways in which it can be reduced to a minimum, even 
at present. The same thing might be said in regard to such 
diseases as those of the smut in corn and oats. Very careful 
estimates of certain years have shown us that as much as ten 
per cent sometimes of an oat crop is damaged by that one 
disease alone. That might mean a good many millions of 
dollars on that one crop. So that a study of these plant dis- 
eases is by no means either fruitless or valueless. 

But you say, ** Why not let anybody who is concerned 
with these matters study them ? " Chiefly because it is not 
possible for any man who does not know something of the 
life history of the parasite which causes a disease to go about 
checking or curing it. He may guess at some remedy, and 
he may, by a lucky guess, hit upon the right remedy. He may 
think of some process that possibly will turn out the right 
one, but he is not nearly so apt to think about the right pro- 
cess or to hit upon the right experiment as the man who has 
been properly trained for this kind of work. That sort of 
training means time to study, and tim^ to work, and money 
eupport while the work is being carried on. 

I might dwell at very much greater length on these vari- 
ous topics; but enough has been said, I hope, to give you some 
idea of what modern botany is and what the modern botanist 
is. It will at least give you a truer idea than you would 
have if you considered him merely as the man who goes out 
and gathers some plants, useful as this may be, or the man 
who tears apart some flowers to find out what the names of 
the flowers are. Bather, I would have you think of the 



botanists of the country as those men who are studying 
means of discovering, checking, and curing the plant dis- 
eases ; men who are studying how plants grow, and how they 
may be helped in their growth and not harmed. They are 
men who are studying what is the rational basis for our 
modes of culture ; and it is to these men the agriculturist 
must turn, with the hope that their experiments will lead 
him in the future, as they have in the past, to more rational 
modes of cultivation, and to better knowledge of the organ- 
isms, the very intricate organisms in spite of their simplicity, 
with which he has constantly to deal. 



NOTES ON A DESTBUCTIVE FOBEST TBEE 

SCOLYTID. 

BT ANDREW D. HOPKnYS. 

The family of beetles known as Scolytidse contains in this 
country, so far as known, something over 160 species. They 
are small, cylindrical, brown or black beetles. The largest 
one of the family, Dendroctonus terdyrana, is thirty-two hun- 
dredths of an inch long, while the smallest, Cripturgus 
atomua^ is but four hundredths of an inch long. With a 
few exceptions, beetles belonging to this family breed in the 
bark of wood of different forest and fruit trees. Each 
species usually has a preference for certain kinds of trees. 
Those feeding on the bark are called bark beetles, while 
those entering the wood are termed timber beetles. The 
bark beetles breed in and feed upon the inner bark of trees 
or logs, and when fully developed emerge through the bark, 
leaving it pierced with small round holes. The timber beetles 
enter directly through the bark, making their ** pin-hole*' 
tunnels in all directions through the wood; their eggs are 
deposited in these tunnels, and when the young are fully 
developed they emerge from the original entrance made by 
the parent beetle. 

It has been claimed that Scolytids never attack healthy, 
living trees. We acknowledge that as a rule the different 
species of this family have a preference for unhealthy trees 
or those which have been broken by storm or felled by the 
aze, but in this Dendroctonus frontalis we certainly have 
an exception to the rule. From the abundant evidence I 
have obtained during extended and careful investigation, I 
am convinced that the death of large and small, vigorous 
trees of Ave species of pine and of the black spruce was 
caused primarily by the attack of this insect; in fact, this 
species seems to have a preference for the green bark on the 
living pine and spruce which they invade. 

As Entomologist of this Station, I have conducted some 
investigations regarding the ravages of this beetle, and, since 
May 2 of this year, have travelled about 340 miles through 
some of the principal regions of the State, where the pine 
and spruce are most common. The species of pine observed 
were the White Pine {Pinus alba\ the Yellow Pine (P. 
echinata), the Pitch Pine (P. rigida), the Table Mountain 
Pine (P. pungens)^ and the common Scrub Pine (P. inops). 
The Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) is also a common and 
valuable tree on some 500,000 acres of the higher mountains 
and table-lands of this State. 

Trees varying from flve inches in diameter to the largest, 
finest specimens of the flve species of pine mentioned, and of 
the Black Spruce, were found dying in different sections 
from a cause which it was my duty to investigate. A large 
number of the dead, dying, and green trees were felled and 
examined. Every part of the trees from the roots near the 
surface to the terminal twigs and leaves was carefully 



July 29, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



65 



searched for possible causes of their unhealthy condition. 
The trees in the best condition to examine were those on 
which the leaves were yet green, but from their general ap< 
pearance indicated that they had been attacked by the char- 
acteristic trouble which was shown in a few yellow leaves at 
the tops. The roots of such trees were found in a perfectly 
healthy condition for some distance beneath the surface; the 
bark on the trunks from a distance of from five to fifteen 
feet from the base was green, full of sap, and apparently 
healthy; the leaves were almost free from insect attack and 
disease, in no case was there sufficient attack of this nature 
to indicate even a slight injury; the bark, however, at a 
point about two-thirds up from the base of the tree, was 
found in every case to be infested by Dendroctonvs fron- 
tcdis in sufficient numbers to kill all the bark for some 
distance above that point, and in this bark fully-developed 
beetles and pupse were found on May 5, thus indicating 
that the eggs must have been deposited in the bark the pre- 
vious summer or fall. All of the characteristic dead and 
dying Pine and Spruce trees examined showed abundant 
evidence that they had been invaded while yet green by this 
bark heetle. 

It would seem that the turpentine escaping into the bur- 
rows made hy the beetles in the green bark would render the 
conditions unfavorable for the progress of their work. They 
have, however, the power of removing it from their burrows, 
and they manipulate the sticky resinous substance with 
seemingly as much ease and in a like manner as the crawfish 
does the clay it piles up around its burrow. Often a half 
teaspoonful of the turpentine will be found massed about the 
entrance to the burrows made by Che beetle. They push the 
turpentine out through a hole kept open in the pitchy, ad- 
hesive mass. I have observed them backing out from the 
entrance, shoving behind them a quantity of the turpentine, 
and at the same time they would be completely enveloped in 
it. 

Trees invaded by these beetles the previous fall may re- 
main green until spring when they are usually attacked by 
the large Dendroctonua terebrans^ Hylurgops glabratus^ and 
Tomicus ccdligraphus, the two former at the base of the 
tree, the latter in the green bark above. They are in turn 
followed by numerous other species of bark and timber 
beetles until the invaded trees may be, as I have found, the 
hoets of at least twenty-five species of scolytids coming like 
reinforcements to the aid of D. ftontalis to make doubly 
sure the death of the invaded trees. Later on, these scolytids 
are followed by insects belonging to other families until a 
dead or dying tree may be the host of hundreds of species 
and millions of examples, breeding in and feeding upon every 
part of the tree from the base to the terminal twigs, render- 
ing it worthless for lumber within a year after it dies. 

Thus it will be seen that Dendroctonua frontalis may be 
the primary cause of not only the death of the trees but of 
their rapid decay. 

West Va. Agricultural Bxperiment Station, Morgantown, West Va., July SO. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



•*• OorrespondenU are requegted to be a» brief cu potsibU. Hie wntera name 
ieincM eaee* required eu proof of good faith. 

On requeet in advance^ one hundred copiea of the number containing hia 
0ommwnioation iviU be fumiahed free to any eorreavondent. 

The editor toiUbeglad to publieh any queries coneonant with the diaracter 
of the Journal. 

Auroral Display. 

On Saturday evening, July 16, there was visible, from this local- 
ity, in the northern heavens, the most brilliant auroral display 
which I have witnessed since the year 1859. Besides the usual 



exhibition of streamers of various hues, dancing along the northern 
arch like great hanging curtains, there was one most unique 
feature which I never saw or heard of before. A little after 10 
o*clock, when the great brilliance of red and pink streams seemed 
to be dying out, and the northern heavens assuming a pale uni- 
form hue, there appeared directly overhead a well-defined, nebu- 
lous arch, spanning the entire vault of heaven from east to west. 
At first a companion suggested that it was the Milky Way ; but a 
few seconds' observation detected the Milky Way, running nearly 
at right angles with the arch — the two resembling each other 
somewhat in width and general appearance, except that the arch 
was more clearly defined and uniform in shape and outline than 
the other. In about fifteen minutes it began to fade away and 
disappear, the eastern portion disappearing first. In a short time 
there was only a bright strip near the western horizon, which 
much resembled the tail of a comet; but it, too, soon disappeared, 
and there were then no traces of the arch to be seen. 

However, in a few minutes it began to reappear, and soon shone 
out bright and clear as before, — the arch being five to six degrees 
in width, — the eastern extremity at the horizon beinga little Bouth 
of east, and the other extremity being a little north of west, as if the 
whole had been drawn by a radius of a circle whose centre was a 
little east of the north pole. In ten or fifteen minutes this arch 
also disappeared as before. 

Between the arch and the upper extremities of the gay stream- 
ers in the north there were seversll degrees of space lighted up by 
stars, and without any apparent connection between them. The 
band or arch seemed wider at the zenith than on either horizon — 
probably the effect of the greater distance of the horizon points 
from the position of the observer. The night air was quite cool, 
and I retired before midnight ; and I have not learned whether or 
not the arch again reappeared. T. A. Bbreman. 

Mount Pleasant, la., July 20. 



Magnetic Storm, Aurora, and Sun-Spots. 

A MAONsnc storm raged here from 10.30 A. M to 4.80 p.m., cen- 
tral time, on Saturday, July 16, 1892. An electro- magnetic wave 
reached the general telegraph office of the C. B. & Q. R. R. at 
10.30 A.M., making it difficult to operate, especially with the 
quadruplex. The duration of the electric disturbance was six 
hours ; but the Impulses came with varying intensity. The energy 
always appeared as a wave, beat, or oscillation; and when fully 
developed in the wires, seemed to set up a counter electro- motive 
force in opposition to the batteries. The fact that electro- mag- 
netic eoergy traverses space in the form of waves, coincides with 
the now classical experiments of Hertz, who projected these waves 
not only through space, but brick walls. Perhaps a law like this 
will be dfecovered — All modes of energy alternate. 

It is doubtful if a constant pressure exists in nature. In some 
instances, telegrams have been sent by means of nature's elec- 
tricity — without batteries. This is merely a prophecy of that 
time coming wbeo men will appropriate electricity when they want 
it, as they do light and heat. 

An aurora appeared at 9.40 p.m., and consisted of many pearl- 
colored columns, at times tinged with red, occupying more than 
100"^ in azimuth, and all converging near Polaris. 

At 9.45 an apparition unusual in auroral displays was seen. This 
was a streamer of nearly white light, that, starting in a sharp point 
almost on the horizon, in the north-west, shot with great velocity 
north of Arcturus, passed over Corona Boreal is, which constella- 
tion it equalled in diameter, crossed Hercules and Cerberus, and, 
passing over Altair, descended almost to Mars in the south-east, 
terminating also in a fine point. 

This majestic sword moved bodily 10^ to the south, and, 
after shivering and pulsating throughout its length three times, 
vanished, after existing fourteen minutes. The whole aurora 
lasted forty minutes. On July 9, a large cluster of spots, 
with two smaller groups and one larger isolated spot, were 
seen on the sun. All the larger spots had bridges, and on the 
12th and 13th the tongues across the large one began to curve, 
which curvature rapidly increased on the 14 tb and 15th. On the 
16th, these jets were arranged nearly in a circle, or had assumed 



66 



SCIKNCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 495 



the twisting, rotary, or cyclonic form. One of the tongues was 
brighter than the solar surface, and seemed to be the most brilliant 
at from 9 30 to 10.30 a.m., at which time the electric wave dis- 
turbed the telegraphs. Whether the solar turbulence causes ter- 
restrial magnetic upheavals is a question that future physicists 
must decide. 

A sun-spot maximum is drawing near, and already there are 
lively electro-magnetic times. Edgar L. Larkin. 

Knox College Obaerratory, July 19. 



A Satellite of the Moon 



The Crinoid Heterocrinus Subcrassus. 
Two or three years since, I concluded to find out. if I could, 
the character of the termination of the column of the crinoid 
Heterocrinus subcrassus. Having a lower eilurian slab with about 
one hundred specimens of the calyx, with a great profusion of the 
columns diverging in every direction, I selected a culumn attached 
to its calyx, and followed it by uncovering, until I was rewarded by 
discovering the column diverging into well-defined roots ; length 
of column from calyx 12i inches, about li inches under the sur- 
face. 

At that time I believed that the genus Glyptocrinus were float- 
ers, and devoid of bases, or roots. 

About eighteen months ago something caused me to doubt that 
idea, and I commenced the investigation of the terminations of 
their columns, and now, after a great deal of work, and after many 
discouragements, I have been able to so far develop roots on the 
terminations of the columns of Glyptocrinus neali, Glypt. dyeri, 
and Glypt. baeri, that I have a specimen of each species, show- 
ing the calyx, colunm, and roots intact, on the slab, one slab 
of Glypt. baeri having on its surface several specimens of that 
character. 

One character of the specimens surprised me,— the diversity of 
the length of the columns between calyx and roots in the speci- 
mens just mentioned, the column of Glypt. neali, from two to 
four or five inches; Glypt baeri, from one-half an inch to six or 
eight ; Glypt dyeri, from one to four or five inches between calyx 
and roots. 

I have also found a specimen of Heterocrinus simplex, showing 
calyx, column, and inverted sauoerlike base, attached to another 

«>1"'^- Dr. D. T. D. Dyohe. 

LeiMUion, O. 

Profestor Parker's Farther Studies on the Apteryx 

In No. 485 of Science the writer invited attention to the very 
valuable contributions to our knowledge of the morphology of 
Apteryx that had been made by Professor T. J. Parker, F.R.S., 
of the Otago Museum (New Zealand). Those investigations have 
been continued on more extensive material, and the London Royal 
Society have just published in their Transactions (1898) the results, 
in a paper entitled " Additional Obeervation on the Development 
of Apteryx " (1 1 pages ; two col. lith. plates, of 19 figs.). Professor 
P&rker has kindly sent me a copy of this work, and I desire to say, 
in the present connection, in continuation of what already has 
been noted by me in my former review, that more advanced em- 
bryos of the bird under investigation (stage F*) show *• the pollex 
is unusually large, and the fore-limb has the characters of the 
wing of a typical bird." Better figures are given than in the first 
paper, showing structures of the brain and skull, and also that one 
** specimen exhibits an unusual mode of termination of the noto- 
chord." In other figures (stage G') the final form of the chondro- 
cranium, before the appearance of cartilage bones, is shown, and, 
what is a very interesting fact, •* that in A. aweni there is always 
a solid coracoid region to the shoulder- girdle, while in A, australis, 
as far back as stage F', there is a coracoid fenestra and a liga- 
mentous procoracoid.'' Finally, it is worthy of note that ** in 
addition to the elements described in the corpus an intermedium 
may be present " As I have already said, the working out of 
these anatomical characters, in such an important form as Apteryx, 
will most certainly prove to be of the highest importance and use 
to the general comparative anatomist the world over. There could 
be no safer hand to accomplish it for us than that of the distin- 
guished biologist of the Otago Museum. R. W. Shufeldt. 

Takoma, D.C., July 24. 



I HAVE seen accounts of an attempt to discover whether the 
moon has a satellite, and the accounts that have reached me seem 
to show one serious fault in the procedure. While I am not thor- 
oughly conversant with aU the pomts involved, it does seem to me, 
that, in taking a photograph of the region in which such a satellite 
would be found if it exists, the apparatus should be arranged 
vvith reference to stellar motion, and leave the moon out of ques- 
tion. Of course, the moon would be blurred, but we are not con- 
cerned about that. The fixed stars would appear plainly on the 
plate, while any one that had a motion different from theirs, es- 
pecially a rapid motion such as a satellite of the moon must have, 
would appear blurred on the plate; in which case only the blurred 
stars if such occurred, need be examined with any hope of finding 
a satellite of the moon. c. P. Maxwell. 

Dublin, Tex., July 80. 



Auroral Display. 

On Saturday night, July 16, 1892, 1 was returning to my home 
in Rockville, Indiana, from Clinton, Indiana, sixteen miles south- 
west. Mr. Harry Mcintosh, a young man of this place who had 
been helping me make a survey near Clinton, was riding with me 
in my buggy. We amused ourselves looking at a most beautiful 
sunset as we rode over the Lafayette and Terre Haute road, along 
the foot of the high hills east of the Wabash River. 

When we turned eastward, over the hills toward Rockville, it 
began to grow dark, and most of the clouds that showed up so 
beautiful at sunset began to vanish, till only a few streaks of 
stratus clouds remained. As we were descending the west hill at 
Iron Creek, five miles south- west of Rockville, we saw in front of 
us what we supposed was the new electric light at Rockville, 
thrown upward and reflected from a cloud or mist. As we were 
ascending the hill on the east side of the creek and near its sum- 
mit, we saw in our front the reflection of a great ligl^ from 
behind us. It was so noticeable as to cause us both to turn about 
on our buggy seat and look backward. There, at a bearing S. 
60** W. (that is the bearing of the road, with which the light waa 
in alinement), we saw a great white light radiating from a point 
at the horizon where it was brightest, right, left, and upward to a 
height of 10<> to 16<>, weakening in brilliancy as it radiated and 
terminated in a dark band or segment of rainbow shape, some 1(P 
wide. The light seemed to radiate from a point a half-radius 
above the centre of the circle which the black segment would 
indicate. Above the dark segment another segment or band of 
light, not so bright as the one at the horizon, formed a rainbow, 
or arch, some 1(P to 15^ wide. Above that second band of light 
was a light haze, or mist, through which the stars could be easily 
distinguished. Some 10^ up in that mist, and directly over the 
centre of the light at the horizon, was a light about as large as a 
man would appear to be if suspended from a Imlloon a thousand 
feet distant. It was about four times as long vertically as wide 
horizontally. Young Mcintosh saw it first and called my atten- 
tion to it, as I was watching the bright light at the horizon. 
When I first caught sight of it, it had the appearance of the head 
of a comet, only it was long vertically. When young Mclntoeb 
first saw it, it seemed to be a blaze such as a large meteor appears 
to carry at its front. We halted and watched it about ten min- 
utes, during which time it (the small light) slowly faded till only 
its locality could barely be noticed, then suddenly loomed bright 
almost to a white blaze, then slowly faded as before. It would 
loom up in five seconds, and consume five minutes in fading 
away. It kept the same position all the time, for we watched its 
position with relation to the stars to see if it moved. At this 
second appearance 1 decided to commit the general appearance to 
memory so I could sketch it afterward This little light loomed" 
up and faded four times when the big light under it faded also 
and made it dark there. 

I am not sure we saw this light the first time it appeared, but 
think we did. The small light above looked as the moon does 
when shining through a thin cloud, except as to the oblong shape 
vertically. 

When Hie first or south-western light faded nearly out, a light 



July 29, 1892.J 



SCIENCE. 



67 



at the horizon in the south loomed up, but not so bright as the 
first, nor had it any of the upper characteristics of the first, nor 
did it last over five minutes. When this second light faded a 
third loomed up in the north, quite as bright at the horizon as the 
first, but it was obscured or cut off from our view by a stratus 
cloud. This cloud was about 10^ above the horizon, at its under 
side (which, by the way, was its most northern limit). This 
limit, I judge from my frequent observation of clouds, was fully 
twenty-five miles north of us. We could see the light through 
one hole in the cloud near its bottom (or distant) side, and also 
through several thin places, but could not determine its upper 
shape. This third light (counting the southwestern light as the 
first) lasted about five minutes, when a fourth light loomed up in 
the north-west, and, very bright at the horizon, reached upward 
about 15^, lasted a few minutes, and faded out as did the others. 
Then one appeared in the north-east, in the direction of Rockville; 
but we were so near the town we were sure it was the new electric 
light (we had been gone a week), but on entering the town found 
the old gasoline lamps stQI doing service. 

On the first appearance of these lights at the horizon, I thought 
I saw a fiash of light, not as a blaze, but as if a mirror had be«>n 
turned so as to fiash the light into my face, then away so quick 
I could not be certain what I saw. Young Mcintosh thought he 
saw the same fiashes of light when the great lights first made 
their appearance. 

I saw this name electrical storm (if that is what it is) in the 
summer of 1884, from the town of Clinton, Indiana, and in July, 
I think. It had all the features I have given of this, except the 
one in the south-west with its three lights and dark segment, here- 
in described. The Clinton displaj was watched by apparently the 
whole population of the place, and was described by the Clinton 
Argus at the time. I reported it to the U. S. Signal Office at the 
dme, as I was then making voluntary observations for that ofiSce. 

The small li^^ht I have described as seen in the south-west, in the 
first light last Saturday night, is a new feature, so far as I know or 
can learn from my authorities. These lights occurred from about 
half past nine to half past ten o'clock at night. 

I wish to hear from others who may have seen these lights, by 
letter or pai>er containing published account of them. 

BodLTlUe, lud., Jaly 17. JOHN T. CaMFBKLL. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



Oeoiogieal Survey of New Jerspy. Annual Eeport of the State 
Oeologist for the year 1891. Trenton, 1892. Maps and 
plates. 

To this report Professor R. D. Salisbury contributes a paper 
called *' A preliminary paper on drift or Pleistocene formations of 
New Jersey." The title is somewhat misleading, inasmuch as 
there are few statements in it concerning the New Jersey forma- 
tions. It embraces mainly an account of the nature of the drift, 
the formation and movements of glacial ice, the work effected by 
ice, and a summary of the development, movements, and work 
accomplished by the ice pheet of North America. New Jersey is 
incidentally mentioned, and the only new contribution made is 
the statement concerning the discovery of the remains of a once 
extensive drift-deposit south of the terminal moraine. It is con- 
cluded that this was deposited by an ice-sheet previous to the 
formation of the great moraine; and that '* the interval which 
elapsed between the first and the last glacial formations of New 
Jersey was several times as long as that which has elapsed since 
the last." Assistant Geologist C. W. Coman contributes an in- 
teresting paper on the oak and pine lands of southern New Jer- 
iKj. The topographical survev showed that in 1888 there were 
oidy 480,730 atTesof cleared land in the southern counties, against 
1,826,000 acren of forest The proportion has not been greatly 
altered since Both uplan<is and swamps are heavily covered 
with timber, much of which is valuable for various purposes. 
"From a little distance a cedar swamp presents the appearance 
of a solid macs of dark green, while even when in the midst of it 
the eye can penetrate but a few yards among the thickly cluster- 
ingy smooth, gray trunks. The gum and maple swamps are 
scarcely les-i dense, and are even more difficult to penetrate. 



because of the abundance of underbrush, amid which the poison 
sumac, Bhus venenata^ is sure to be encountered by the unwary. 
The trees are often very large, exceeding 100 feet in height. The 
demand for white cedar for shingles, siding, planking for boats, 
and such other purposes as r^uire great durability underexposure 
to the weather, far exceeds the supply." Much of the uncleared 
land is well adapted for fruit raising and '< truck" gardening, 
and there is still room for a large addition to the permanent popu- 
lation of the State. 

Mr. C. C. Vermeule, the consulting engineer and topographer 
of the survey, gives a comprehensive review of the water supply 
and water power of the State, with tables of rain-fall and evap- 
oration, and accounts of the guaging of numerous rivers. A 
table is also given of all the water powers, with mention of the 
owner, kind of mill, fall, and horse-power. It is the intention to 
publish the full report on water power in the State as Volume HI. 
of the final report some time during the present year. Finally, 
notes are given by other hands on artesian wells, on the Passaic 
River drainage and the active iron mines in the State. The infor- 
mation given cannot fail to be of value to the inhabitants of the 
commonwealth. Joseph F. Jambs. 

Nature Readers — Seaside and Wayside, No. 4. By Julia 
McNaie Wright. Boston, D. C. Heath & Co. 1892. 8**. 
361 p. 70 cents. 

This volume is one of a series of reading-books written, the 
author tells us, **to direct the minds of our youth in their first 
studies to the pleasant ways of Natural Science." The earlier 
numbers of the series were devoted to lessons on the habits of 
animals and plants, but the present volume deals with a much 
wider range of subjects. The book begins with a lesson on the 
origin and structure of the globe and passes on to the considerar. 
tion of the geological epochs and of the animals and plants that 
characterize them. It is, in fact, a collection of brief essays on 
important tjpics in astronomy, geology, paleeontology, and 
zoology. The diversity of topics would seem calculated to cause 
confusion in the mind of a child ; but this is, perhaps, an evil 
inseparable from the modern system of education. 

Though the facts are presented in a somewhat too fanciful 
dress, the information is for the most part accurate, and the au- 
thor has taken great pains to point out that there are exceptions 
to many of the general statements. She has included, so far as 
possible, the results of the latest investigations. 

A few noticeable errors should be corrected. For example, the 
pig is made to figure as a typical odd-toed ungulate (p. 849). On 
page 800 the sperm whale is mentioned as the ^* Greenland sperm 
whale,'' which is. of course, misleading, as this animal is only 
very rarely found in Arctic waters. In another place (p. 148) the 
author refers to the squirrels and rats as being the first mammals 
to appear on the globe, a statement which no palseontologist 
would accept. We notice again (p. 8d0) that the vampire bats 
are described as *' very large bats given to blood-sucking." This 
is quite erroneous, as the true vampires, Desmodus and DiphyUa, 
are smi^ll bats, remarkable chiefiy in the modification of their 
teeth and digestive organs. 

The influence of English text- books is apparent in different 
paits of the volume. The common mole, for example, is described 
under the name of the European genus Talpa ; although as the 
book is presumably intended for American children, it would 
have been better to mention Scalqps or Scapanus, to which genera 
the commonest American moles belong. We can hardly find 
fault with our author in this instance, however, seeing that no 
general treatise on American mammals has been published for 
nearly half a century. 

In the illustrations, with which the book is well supplied, ar- 
tistic effect has been aimed at rather than strict accuracy; a 
number of them are entirely fanciful and represent only creatures 
of the imagination. They could be replaced to advantage, in our 
opinion, by figures of some of the real wonders of animate 
nature. 

In spite of these defects the book is a good representative of its 
class, and the lessons will doubtless be read by children with in- 
terest and proBt. F. W. T. 



68. 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 495 



A Text-Book of Physiology. By M. Foster, M.D. Sixth Edition, 
Revised. Part IV. (comprising the remainder of Book III., 
The Senses and Some Special Muscular Mechanisms, and 
Book IV., The Tissues and Mechanisms of Reproduction). 
New York, Macmillan & Co. 1691. 

Without doubt Foster's "Text-Book of Physiology" must be 
accorded the foremost place among the works upon this subject, 
which have been published in the English language. It embodies 
the results of the most recent researches in this department of 
biological science, and is not only comprehensive, up to date, and 
accurate, but is admirably arranged and most convenient as an 
encyclopaedic work of reference upon all that relates to the sub- 
ject. 

A large portion of the present volume is devoted to the senses, 
including sight, auditory sensations, olfactory sensations, gusta- 
tory sensations, cutaneous sensations, the muscular sense, and 
tactile perceptions and judgments. Each of these subjects is 
treated in a masterly manner, the anatomical elements concerned 
in each special sense being minutely described, and the facts and 
theories relating to the perception of various sensations being fully 
detailed. 

Chapter VII., **0n Some Special Muscular Mechanisms," con- 
tains three sections : one devoted to the voice, one to speech, and 
one to walking. 

Book IV., which concludes the volume and the work, gives a 



very satisfactory account of *'the tissues and mechanisms of re- 
production." 

Diphtheria, Its Natural History and Prevention. By R. Thorns 
Thorns, Assistant Medical * Officer to Her Majesty's Local 
Government Board. London and New York, Macmillan & 
Co. 1891. 

This is a valuable resume of what is known at the present day 
with reference to the etiology and prevention of diphtheria. The 
volume abounds in interesting details relating to the prevalence 
of the disease in England and Wales, and gives numerous facts 
showing the not infrequent transmission of the disease by con- 
taminated milk and its probable transmission by cats, which have 
been proved to be subject to the disease as a result of experimental 
inoculations in the trachea with bits of diphtheritic membrane, or 
cultures of the Klebs-Ldffler diphtheria bacillus. 

According to Thome Thome there has been a progressive in- 
crease in the mortality from diphtheria in England and Wales 
during the past twenty years, and this progressive increase has 
coincided in time with steady improvement in regard to such sani- 
tary circumstances as water-supply, sewerage, and drainage; and 
also with a continuous diminution in the death-rate from the group 
of zymotic diseases and from typhoid fever. 

The diphtheria mortality remains, as heretofore, greater in the 
sparsely-peopled districts, but there is a marked increase in its 
prevalence in large towns and cities. 



Publications Received at Editor's OfiBce. 



Bbmotibk, Capt, Charlbs. Life Histories of Ameri- 
can Birds. Washington, Government. 4". Paper. 
418 p. III. 

Chadwick, Fbkncb E. Temperament, Disease and 
Health. New Tork, O. F. Putnam's Sons. 8". 
86 p. 7S cts. 

Dall, WILLIAM H. InBtruotions for ColIectinK Mol- 
lusks. Washington, Qovemment. 8°. Paper. 
56 p. 

MooRBHBAD, Wabrxn E. Primitive Man in Ohio. 
New Tork, Q. P. Patnam's Sons. 8«. 86if p. $8. 

Philosophical Socibtt of Washimoton. Bulletin 
1888-91. Washington, The Society. 8". 652 p. 

RiDOWAT, BoBKBT. The Humming Birds. Wash- 
ington, Government S". Paper. 88 1 p. 

RiLBT, C. P. Directions for Collecting and Preserv- 
ing Invects. Washington, Government. 8°. 
paper. 147 p. 

Uniybbsitt of Minmbsota. Quarterly Bulletin. 
Vol. I., No. 1. 4°. Paper. ^ p. 



Beading Matter Notices. 

Ripans Tabules : best liver tonic. 
Blpans Tabules cure jaundice. 

Societas Entomologica. 

International Entomological Society, Zu- 

rich-Hottingen, Switzerland. 

Annual fee, ten francs. 

The Journal of the Society appears twice a 
month, and consists entirely of original ar- 
ticles on entomology, with a department for 
advertisements. All members may use this 
department free of cost for advertisements 
relating to entomology. 

The Society consists of about 450 members 
in all coantries of the world. 

The new volume began April 1, 1892. The 
numbers already issued will be sent to new 
members. 

For information address Mr. Fritz Ruhl, 
President of the Societas Entomologica, 
Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland. 

SCIENCE CLUBBING RATES. 

lOj^ DISCOUNT. 

We will allow the above discount to any 
subscriber to Science who will send us an 
order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting 
each at its full price. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



ExchsLnges. 

[Freeof charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.l 

Taxidermist going oat of business has quantity of 
finely-mounted specimens of North Amencan birds, 
mammals and reptiles and skios of birds for sale, 
including a full local collection of bird skins, show* 
ing some great variations of species; also quantity 
of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, 
and mounted beads of same. Will give good ex- 
change for Hawk Eye camera with outfit. Apply 
quickly to J. R. Thurston, S65 Tonge St., Toronto, 
Canada. 

For exchange. — A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather 
covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for mak- 
ing lantern slides. Flute cost $37, and is nearly new. 
U. (). COX, Mankato, Minn. 

Te exchange ; Experiment Station bulletins and 
reports for bulletins and reports not In my file. I 
will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. 
BOLFS, Lake City, Florida. 

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for 
fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable 
specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. 
PERKY. State Geologist, Rutland, Vt. 

For exchange. — Three copies of " American State 
Papers Bearing on Sunday Leeislation," 1891, $9.50, new 
and unused, for '*The Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, 
1840; "The Sabbath," by A. A. Phelps, 184*; *' History 
of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and 
Abuses,'* by W. L. Fisher, 2859; " Humorous Phases of 
the Law," by Irving Browne; or other works amounting 
to value of books exchanged, on the question of govern- 
mental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty, 
etc. If preferred, I will sell ^^American State Pwers, 
and buy other books on the subject. WILLI Am AD- 
DISON BLAKELY, Chicago, 111. 

For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private 
chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal- 
ance (aoog. to i-iomg ), platinum dishes and crucibles, 
agate motors, glass-blowing apparatus, etc. For sale in 
part or whole. Also complete iiJe of Sii/iman** youmal^ 
1862-1885 (6a-7i bound); Smithsonian Reports, t854-'i883; 
U. S. Coast Survey. 1854-1869. Full particulars to en- 
quirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn. 

Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any 
standard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Children: 
Wilson's "American Ornithology,*' 3 vols.jCoues' ''Birds 
of the Northwest" and '' Birds of the Colorado Valley," 
9 vols.; Minot's *' Land and Game Birds of New Eng- 
land^' Samuels' ^' Our Northern and Eastern Birds;" all 
the Reports on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, 
bound in a vols., morocco; and a complete set of the 
Reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey. Please give 
editions and dates in correspondmg. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALL, High School, Des Moines, Iowa. 

To exchange Wright's " Ice Age in North America '* 
and Le Conte^s ''Elements of Geology" (Copyright i88>) 
for "Darwinism," by A. R. Wallace. "Origin of Species,'* 
by Darwin, "Descent of Man," by Darwin, "Man's 
Place in Nature," Huxley, * 'Mental Evolution in Ani- 
mals," by Romanes, ''Pre-Adamttes," by Winchell. No 
books wanted except latest editions, and books in good 
condition. C. S. Brown, Jr., Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tenn. 



Wants. 



A ny person seeking a position /or which he is queUi- 
fied by his scientific attainments^ or any person seeking 
some one to fill a position of this character^ be it that 
o/a teacher 0/ science^ chemist^ draughtsntan^ or mhat 
not, may have the ' JVant ' inserted under this head 
FRKR OP COST, i/ ht Satisfies the publisher 0/ the suit" 
eJ>le character 0/ his application, A ny person seeking 
information on any scientific questiouy the address of 
any scientific man, or who can in any way use this 
column for a purpose consonant with the nature oj 
the paper y is' cordially invited to do so. 



JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1898) desires a 
. _ position as Instructor in mathematics and 

Ehyslcs. Address A. B. TUBNBB, Johns Hopkins 
^nlyersity, Baltimore, Md. 



A 



W 



ANTED. -> A collection of postage stamps; one 
made preyious to 1870 preferred. Also old and 
curious stamps on original letters, and old entire 
U S. stamped envelopes. Will pay jash or eive in 
exchange first-class fossils, including fine cnnolds. 
WM. F. E. GURLEY, DanvlUe, 111. 

WANTED.— To purchase laboratory outfit; bal- 
ances, evaporating dishes, burettes, etc., 
wanted Immediately for cash. C. E. SPBIBS, 2a 
Murray street, New York. P. O. Box 1741. 

WANTED..— The services of a wide-awake young 
man, as correspondent. In a large manouctur- 
ing optical business; one preferred who hasathor- 

knowledge 
stating age and 
Broadway, 
New York. 




W 



ANTED.— We want any and sU of the following, 
providing we can trade other books and maga> 
zlnes or buy them cheap for cash: Aoademv, Lon- 
don, Tol. 1 to 28, 85, Jan. and Feb., ^89; Age ot Steel, 
vol. 1 to 66; American Antiquarian, yoL 1, 2; Ameri- 
can Architect, yoI. 1 to 6, 9; American Art Beyle w, 
▼ol. S; American Field, vol. 1 to 21; American Geol- 
ogist, vol. 1 to 6; American Machinist, yoI. 1 to 4; 
Art Amateur, vol. 1 to 7, 0?t., M; Art Interobange, 
Tol 1 to 9; Art Union, toI. 1 to 4, Jan., '44, July, '45; 
Blbliotheca Sacra, yoI. 1 to 46; Qodey's Lady's Book, 
▼ol. 1 to 20; New Englander, yol. 11; Zoologist, Series 
1 and 1, Series 8 Yol. 1 to 14: Allen Armendale (a 
novel). Raymer's "Old Book ^* Store, 248 4th Ave. 
S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

WANTED.— By a young man, a Swarthmore Col- 
lege junior, a position as principal of a publlo 
high school in one of the Gulf States, or as instructor 
in botany, phvsiologv, and geology in an academy 
or normal scnool. Address B., care of Librarian, 
Swarthmore College, Penn. 

WANTED.— To act as correspondent for one or 
two daily or weekly papers. Have worked on 
paper for about two years Would like a position oa 
editorial staff of humorous paper. Address GEO. 
C. MASON, 14 Elm St., Hartford, Conn. 

TRANSLATOR wanted to read German arohltoe- 
tural works at sight (no writing). One familiar 
with technical terms desired. Address *'A.,"Box 
149, New York Post OflSce. 



July 29, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



69 



Spraging Crop*; Why^ When, and Bow. By CI.ABENCE M. 
Weed. Illustrated New York, Rural Pabliahing Com- 
pany. II Op. 
The author of this little book, formeilj coonected with the 
Ohio Agricultural Eiperinient Station, ia now at the New Hamp- 
shire Station in the capacity of EntoDDoloaist. He has gUea in 
a condensed (orm an account of many insert and Tungoiis foes of 
various fruits, trees, and vegetahJes. The informition in regard 
to the former is much fuller than in regard to the latter, which is 
naturally to be expected from an enlomologist. Quite Full his- 
tories are given of the codling moth, the cnrculio. tlie canker 
worm, and the lent catt«rpi liar. The only foogooa disease treated 
with any degree of fulness is downy mildew or hrown rot of 
grapes. The (ormulee for the principal fungicides and insecticides 
aregiten. together with instructions how to coiiit)ine the two. 
The few pqgcs devoted to spraying are scarcely adequate 10 give a 
iKgioner an idea of what to do or how to go to work to do it ; and in 
thiit respect the book is incomplete. Amon;^ the planti< whose in- 
sect and fungous enemies are discussed wt> find the apple, pe^ch, 
pear, plum, cherry, strawlietry, i^urrant, gooseberry, grape, rasp- 



berry^, rose, potito, cibbage, and others. Some of the worst fun- 
gous diseases are not mentioned, such as oat and wheat smut, 
apple met, peach yellows, pear and apple blight, etc. It cannot, 
however, be expected that in so small a book everything could be 
mentioned and described. It is, too. not improbable, that as 
these diseases cannot be prevented by sprayinf^. that they are 
omitted intentionally. On the whole the book is one which will 
prove useful to the general fruit grower. Joseph F. Jambb. 



D. C, Hbath & Co. have in press, and wiU soon issue " Ele- 
ments of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry '' and " A Treatise on 
Plane and Spherical Trigonometry," by E:lward A. Bowser, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Engineering in Rutgers College. The 
former is a brief courise in the elements of trigonometry, particu- 
lar attention being given to the numerical solution of plane and 
spherical triangles. It is prepared especially for high schools and 
academies. The latter is for more advanced work and covers the 
entire course in higher institutions. The books abound in numer- 
ous and practical examples, the aim being to make the suhject as 
interesting and attractive as posiiihle to the student. 



ARTIFICIAL LIMBS 

WITH iniEl rEET AHB HAHIS. 




Acid Phosphate, 

Recommended and prescribe(i 
by physicians of all schools 

FOR 

DYSPEPSIA, NERVOUSNESS, 

EXHAUSTION, 
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It aids digestion, and is a 
brain and nerve food.' 



■•ware .t sabatuates »iid imUation.. A. A, MARKS, 701 Broadway, H. T. 




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Leading Nos.: 048, 14, 130, 135, 239. 333 

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PATENTS 




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-a aatalOKUB, paper ' ' '■"■'—•-■ 



THE WEEKLY BULLETIN 

OF ITEWSPAFSB. ASH FEBIODICAL 

LIIEKATTTKE. 
Catalogues and Classifies Each Week 

THE PRINCIPAL. CONTENTS OF 
TRE PERIODICAL PRESS. 

That huge mwi of iDKteriallieretotarelDuceHlbla 
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[Vol. XX. No. 495 



QUERY. , 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter^ say,) has failed 
to protect betwe^m two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
conductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light- 
ning was attracting the attention 
of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub- 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First inserted June 19. No response 
to date. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 

874 BEOADWAY, HEW YOEK. 
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THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL S. TROY. 

This contains a discussion of the reasons 
for their action and of the phenomena pre- 
sented in Crookes' tubes. 

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AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 

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TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since 

Jan. I, xSgs. 

Aboriginal North American Tea. 

Actinism. 

Agriculture, Bzperlmental, Status of. 

Amenbotep. King, the tomb of. 

Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical 
Students. 

Anthropology, Current Notes on. 

Architectural Exbibitton io Brooklyn. 

Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics. 

Artesian Wells in Iowa. 

Astronomical N tes. 

Bact«*rla, Some Uses of. 

Botanical 1 aboratory, A. 

Brain, A Few i. barHOteristics of the Avian. 

BythoacopidCB an 1 Cereopldes. 

Canada, Royal Society of. 

Celts, The Question of the. 

Cballcotherium, The Ancestry of. 

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School of Applied 
Science. 

Children, Growth of. 

Collection of Objects Used in Worship. 

Cornell, The Cbanif e at. 

Deaf, Higber Education of the. 

Dlphtberln, Tox-Albuinio. 

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of. 

Eskimo 1 hrowiog Stick". 

Etymology of two Iruquolan Compound Stems. 

Eye-Habits. 

Byes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain 
Facial Expressions. 

Family Tralii«, Persistency of. 

Fidtaes, The Distribution «^f. 

Fossils, Notice of N»w Olgaatla 

Four-fold Space, PiBsibiltiy of a Realisation of. 

Gems, Artificial, Detection of. 

Glacial Pbeuomeua 1 Northeastern New York. 

Grasses, Horooptera Injurious to. 

Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of. 

** Healing, iiivine.*' 

Hemlpt»*r us Moath, Structure of the. 

Hofmann, August Wilbelm von. 

Hypnotism among the Lower Animals. 

Hypnotism, 'I^aumatlc 

Indian occupation of New York. 

Infant's Movements. 

Influenza, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of. 

Insects in Popular Dread in New Mexico. 

Inventions in Foreign Countries, How to Protect 

Inventors and Manufacturers, the American Associ- 
ation of. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences. 

Jargon, The Chinook. 

Jafisidie; Notes on Local. 

Keller, Helen. 

Klamath Nation, Linguistics. 

Laboratory Training, Alms of. 

Lewis H. Carviil, Work on the Glacial Phenomena. 

Lightning, The New Method of Protecting Buildings 
m>m. 

Lissajon's Curves, Simple Apparatus for the Produo- 
tion of. 

Maiae Plant, Observations on Uie Growth and Chemi- 
cal Composition of. 

Maya Codlees, a Key to the Mystery of. 

Medicine, Preparation for the Study of. 

Mineral Discoveries, Some Recent, in the State of 
Washington. 

Museums, The Support of. 

Palenque Tablet, a Brief Study of. 

Patent Ofllce Building, The. 

Physa Heterostropha Lay, Notes on the Fertility of. 

Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of. 

Polariscopes, Dlr<'ct Rt'flectibg. 

Psychological Laboratory in the University of To- 
ronto. 

PsTChological Training. The Need of. 

Psylla, the Pear-Tree. 

Rain-Making. 

Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska. 

Scientific Alliance, The. 

Slstrurus and Crotnlophorus. 

Star Photography, Notes on. 

Star, The New, in Auriga. 

Storage of Storm-Waters on the Great Plains. 

Teaching of Science. 

Tiger, A New Sabre Toothed, from Kansas. 

Timber Trees of West Virginia. 

Trachen of Insects, Structure of. 

Vein- Formation, Valuabli Experiments in. 

Weeds as Fertillz ng Mati'rlal. 

Will, a Recent Analysis of. 

Wind-Storms and Trees. 

Wines, The Sophisticated French. 

Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C. 



Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. 

I, zSga. 

Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Allen, Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Baldwin, J. Mark, University of Toronto, Canada. 

Barnes, Chartes Held, Madison, Wis. 



Baur, G., Clark University, Worxseeter, Mi 

Beal, W. J^ Agricultural College, Mich. 

Beals, A. H., MiUedgevlUe, Ga. 

Beaochamp, W. M., BaldwinsvUle, N.Y. 

Boas, Frans, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Boliey, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak. 

Bostwich, Arthur E., Montclalr, N.J. 

Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass. 

Brinton, D. G., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Call, B. BUsworth, Des Moines, la. 

Chandler, H., Buffalo, N.Y. 

OomstookjThea B., Tuoson, Arisona. 

Conn, H. W, Middletown, Conn. 

Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs, CoL 

Davis. W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Maaa. 

Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H. 

Farrington, E. H., Agricultural Station, Champaign. 
lU. 

Ferree, Barr, New York City. 

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y. 

Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C. 

Garman, S., Museum of Comp. ZooL, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Golden, Katherlne B., Agricultural College, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 

Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, 111. 

Hale, George S., Boston, Mass. 

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester. Maaa. 

Halsted, Byron D., Rutgers College, New Bmna- 
wiek, N.J. 

Haworth, Erasmus, Oskalooea, Iowa. 

Hay, O. P., Irvington. Ind. 

Haynes, Henry W., Boston Mass. 

Hazen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C. 

Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 

HickflL L. E., Lincoln, Neb. 

Hill, B. J., Chicago. IlL 

Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C. 

Hltcboock, Romrn, Washington, D.C. 

Holmes, E. L. Chicago, IlL 

Hotchklss, Jed., Staunton, Va. 

Howe, Jas. Lewis, Louisville, Ky. 

Hubbard, Gardiner G., Washington, D.C. 

Jackson, Dugsld C, Madison, Wisconsin 

James, Joeeph F., Agricultural Dept., Washington, 

Johnson, Roger B , Miami University, Oxford, O. 

Kf'Uerman, Mrs. W. A., Columbus, O. 

Kellloott, D. S., State university, Colambos, O. 

Kellogg, D. S., Plattsbnrgb. N. Y. 

Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y. 

Loeb, Morris, New York City. 

Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Macloskle, G., Princeton. N.J. 

McCarthy, Gerald, Agriooltural Station, Raleigh, 

N.C. 
MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C 
Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J. 
MasoQ, O. T., Smithsonian Institution, Waahlncton, 

D.C. 
MiU^paugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Ta. 
Nicbols, O. F., Boston, Mass. 
Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins UniveialtF. 

Baltimore, Md. 
Oliver, J. B., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Osbom, Henry F., Columbia College, New York 

City. 
Osbom, Herbert, Agricultural College, Amea, Iowa. 
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa. 
Ptllsbury, J. HMSmith CoUefre, Northampton, Mass. 
Poteat. W. L^Wake Forest, N. C. 
Preble, Jr^ W. P., New York City. 
Ruffner, w. H., Lexington. Va. 
Sauford, Edmund O., Clark Univeraily, Woioester, 

Masa 
Schufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C. 
Scripture, E. W., Clark University. Woroeater, Mass. 
Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. ZooL, Cambridge. 

Mass. 
Smith, John B., Rutgers College, New Bmnswlck, 

N.J. 
Southwlck. Edmund B., New York City. 
Stevens, George T., New York City. 
Stevenson, S. ?., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Stone, G. H., Colorado Spriugs, CoL 
I'homas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C. 
Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaoa, N Y 
Todd, J. B., Tabor, Iowa. 

True, Frederick W., National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C. • ««ing- 

Turuer, C. H., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, 

Wake, C, Stanlland, Chicago, IlL 

WDrd, R. Dec., Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Maf^ 

Ward, Stanley M.,ScrantOD, Pa. 
Warder, Robert B., Howard University, Waahlnc- 
Ton, D.C ' -«u«a- 

Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins UnlTersity, Balti- 
more. M.D. 

Weft. Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Woroeater. Mass. 

Williams, Edward H., Lehigh trniversity, Bethle- 
hem, Pa. 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 

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TsiiTH Tkar. 
Vol.. XX. No. 496. 



AUGUST 6, 1892. 



Contents. 

On ths Fundamental Hypothiseb of 
Abstract Dynamics. J, C, Mac- 
gregor 71 

The Great Lake Basins. P. J Fams- 
worth 74 

Notes AND News 75 

Tbe Hopkins Seaside Laboratory. 

David S Jordan 76 

TffB Antennjb and SnNO of Tikilcab 
AS Components in the Maya Day- 
SiONS. H. T. Cresson 77 

Letters to the Editor. 

The EInglish * Sparrow and Other 
Birds. F. A. Sampson 79 

On Maya Chronology. Ed. Seler. . . 80 
The Palenque Tablet. Cyrus Thomas 80 

Book Rbyiews. 

On the Modification of Organisms . . 80 

The Apodidas 81 

Lessons in Elementary Biology 81 

Among the Publishers 81 



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THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A JOURNAL OF TWO SUMMER CRUISES 
TO THAT REGION. 

WITH NOTES ON ITS EARLY DISCOV- 
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THE CIVIL AND NATURAL HiSTORY 
OP THE LABRADOR PENINSULA. 

By ALPHEDS SPRIIG PACKARD, I.D., Ph.B. 

SportameD and omlthologists will be interested In 
tbe list of LabiadoT birds by Mr. L. W. Turner, 
which has been kindly revUed and brought down to 
date by Dr. J. A. Allen. Dr. 8. H. Boudder has con- 
tributed the list of butterflies, and Prof. John 
Macoon, of Ottawa, Canada, has prepared the list of 
Labrador plants. 

Much piins has been taken to render the bibliog- 
raphy complete, and the author is indebted to Dr. 
Franz Boas and others for several titles and impor- 
tant BugKeetlons; and it is hoped that this feature of 
the book will recommend it to collectors of Awieri- 
eana. 

It is hoped that the yolume will serve as a guide 
to the Labrador coast for the' lise of travellers, 
yachtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as 
well as those interested In geographical and histori- 
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[Vol. XX. No. 496 



PUBUCATIONS. 



INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES. 

A PRACTICAL MANUAL, 

Concerning Noxious Insects and the Methods 
of Preyenting their Injuries. 

By CLARENCE M. WEED, 

Professor of Entomology and Zoology, New 
Hampshire State College. 



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NEW YORK, AUGUST 5, 1892. 



^ THE FUNDAMENTAL HYPOTHESES OF AB- 
STRACT DYNAMICS.' 

BT PROFESSOR J. G. MACORBOOR, D.SC. 

IB formally recognized axioms of abstract dynamics 
loyed by most writers are the three Laws of Motion 
iciated by Newton in the ** Principia," not always in the 
L given them by Newton, but in some form or other, 
obviously important that such axioms should be precise 
leir enunciation, independent of one another, sufficient 
;he deduction of all propositions applicable to natural 
^s generally, and as few as possible, 
lese axioms are sometimes regarded as constituting a 
lition ■ of force. As defining force, however, they are 
consistent with one another; for momentum being a 
ive conception, i.e., having magnitude and direction 
fh vary with the point by reference to which velocity is 
[fied, force, if defined by the first and second laws, must 
be a relative conception. And it follows that the third 
cannot in general hold ; for it is easy te show that if it 

for one point of reference, it cannot hold for another 
ng an acceleration relative to the first, 
le axioms are thus statements about the action of force, 
I being assumed to be already a familiar conception. As 
icable to the translation of bodies, they may be regarded 
T as hypotheses verified by the deductions made from 
I, or as generalizations established by direct though 
h experiments. When, however, we come to study the 
t of force in changing the rotation of bodies or their 

of strain, we assume the laws of motion to hold for the 
1 parts (particles or elements) of which we imagine the 
*s to consist. And therefore, as forming the basis of 
imics as a whole, they must be regarded as hypotheses, 
ther case it is necessary to note that both the popular 
the scientific conceptions of force ascribe to it a magni- 
and direction quite independent of the point of reference 
h may be used in specifying the motion of the body on 
h it acts. 

z. The Precision of the Laws of Motion. 

wing to this non-relative character of force, it is obvious 
the first and second laws of motion can hold only pro- 
1 the motion of bodies be specified relatively to certain 
ts. In omitting the mention of these points, Newton's 
are somewhat lacking in precision; and it is important 
(termine what the points are. 

}, according to the first law, two particles which are both 
from the action of force must have uniform velocities, 
ively to the unspecified point of reference, each must 
! a uniform velocity relatively to the other. Hence the 
law, as pointed out by Tait,' holds relatively to any 
cle on which no forces act. 

bBtract of the presidential address to the Mathematical and Physical 
n of the Royal Society of Canada, at the meeting held May, 1892. 

[azweU*B Matter and Motion, Art XL. 

ropertles of Matter (1885), p. 92. 



As, according to the second law, the acceleration of 
either a particle of finite mass acted upon by no force, 
or a particle of infinite mass acted upon by no infinite 
force, must be zero relatively to the unspecified point 
of reference, this law must hold relatively to all such 
particles. 

But such particles are fictitious. To bring the second law 
within the region of practical application, we must find 
accessible points by reference to which it holds. This may 
readily be done; for it is easy to prove it to hold for 
a particle acted upon by given forces, relatively to any 
other particle, with respect to which, but for the action 
of these forces, the former would have no acceleration. 
Thus, as is usually assumed, the acceleration, relative to 
a point of the earth's surface, of a body situated at that 
point and at rest or in uniform motion relatively to it, 
except in so far as its motion may be modified by given 
forces, may be determined by the application of the second 
law. 

It is interesting to note that this was the point of reference 
employed by Newton in the experiments made by him to 
verify the third law. In these well-known experiments ^ on 
the impact of spheres, the spheres were suspended by strings, 
and impact was made to occur when the spheres occupied 
their lowest positions. Their velocities before and after 
impact were taken to be proportional to the chords of the 
arcs (corrected for resistance of air), through which they 
had fallen, or were found to rise respectively. Hence the 
acceleration of a freely falling body was assumed to be verti- 
cal ; and the point of reference was consequently the point 
of the earth's surface at which the experiments were made. 
Also at the instant of impact, the spheres were passing 
through their positions of zero acceleration relatively to this 
point. Hence the equal and opposite changes of momentum 
observed were specified by reference to a point with respect 
to which, apart from the action of the stress due to impact, 
the impinging spheres had no acceleration. 

As the third law asserts merely the equality and opposition 
of two forces, it must hold for all points of reference ; or 
rather it is independent of points of reference. 

It follows that besides the points mentioned above, with 
respect to which the second law holds, there is, in the case 
of a system of particles, free from the action of external 
force, another, viz., the centre of mass of the system. For 
this point may be shown by the aid of the third law to have 
no acceleration relatively to any point, by reference to which 
the second law holds. 

It may easily be proved that the stress between two parti- 
cles is proportional to the product, by the sum of their masses 
into their relative acceleration ; and that consequently, if one 
of the particles be of infinite mass, the stress is proportional 
to the mass of the other multiplied by the relative accelera- 
tion. Hence if, in applying the second law of motion, a 
particle of infinite mass be chosen as point of reference, all 
the forces acting on a system of particles, both external and 
internal, may be regarded as exerted upon them by the 
particle of infinite mass. 

* Prlacipia: Scy>ollum t'» Axlomata 



72 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 496 



2. Independence of the Laws of Motion. 

Maxwell ^ maintains that ** the denial of Newton^s first law 
is in contradiction to the only. system of consistent doctrine 
about space and time which the human mind has been able 
to form/' If this be so, it must be possible to deduce the law 
from the doctrine of space and time, and it cannot be held 
to be hypothetical in character. Maxwell's argument is as 
follows: ** If the velocity [of a body freed from the action of 
force] does not remain constant, let us suppose it to vary. 
The change of velocity must have a definite direction and 
magnitude. By the maxim that the same causes will always 
produce the same effects, this variation must be the same, 
whatever be the time or place of the experiment. The 
direction of the change of motion must therefore be de- 
termined either by the direction of the motion itself or 
by some direction fixed in the body. Let us, in the first 
place, suppose the law to be that the velocity diminishes 
at a certain rate. . . . The velocity referred to in this hy- 
pothetical law can only be the velocity referred to a point 
absolutely at rest. For if it is a relative velocity, its direc- 
tion as well as its magnitude depends on the velocity of the 
point of reference. . . . Hence the hypothetical law is with- 
out meaning unless we admit the possibility of defining ab- 
solute rest and absolute velocity.'' 

This argument, which is endorsed by Tait,' may be us^d 
to prove Newton's law also to be without meaning. For this 
purpose all that is necessary is to substitute diapldcement for 
velocity or motion, wherever these words^ occur in the above 
quotation, and changes for diminishes. The argument is 
thus transformed into one equally good or bad, in favor of 
the cessation of motion on the cessation of the action of force, 
as against Newton's law. 

The fallacy — for the argument would thus appear to be 
fallacious — seems to lie in the incomplete recognition of 
the relativity of the law of motion under consideration. 
Thus, when, in the second sentence of the above quotation. 
Maxwell says: ** The change of velocity must have a definite 
magnitude and direction," he forgets that its magnitude and 
direction must vary with the point of reference. And the 
whole argument turns upon this asserted definiteness. 

While the first law must be considered incapable of deduc- 
tion, its right to formal enunciation among the fundamental 
hypotheses of dynamics has often been disputed on the ground 
of its being a particular case of the second law. This must 
be admitted; and its separate enunciation must therefore be 
pronounced illogical. 

There is one objection, however, which may perhaps be 
urged against the omission of the first law, viz., that Max- 
well ' and other authorities hold that this law, **by stating 
under what circumstances the velocity of a moving body 
remains constant, supplies us with a method of defining equal 
intervals" of time. As no such statement is ever made 
about the second law, it would thus appear that the omission 
of the first would leave us without a basis for the measure- 
ment of time. 

This objection, however, is easily met. For, first, the sec- 
ond law supplies us with more methods of defining equal 
intervals of time than the fi.rst law. In addition to the defi- 
nition given by the latter, it tells us, for example, that those 
intervals are equal in which a body acted upon by a constant 
force undergoes equal changes of velocity. 

1 Matter and Motion, Art. XLi. 

* Eocy. Brit. 9th Sd., Art. Mechanlca, S 896. 

> Matter and Motion, Art. .XLiii 



Second, both laws assume that equal intervals of time 
have already been defined. So far as power of defining 
is concerned, therefore, they give us nothing that we 
did not possess before their enunciation. The only ad- 
vance in time-measurement which we owe them is that 
they show us how to construct time-pieces which will mark 
off for us the intervals assumed to be equal in their enunci- 
ation. 

Third, the intervals assumed equal in the enunciation of 
these laws are not known to be equal. What they assume 
is therefore nothing more than a conventional time scale; 
and what they give us is nothing more than certain methods 
of securing accurate copies of this scale. 

And, fourth, both of these laws may be enunciated so as 
to retain all their dynamical significance, and yet md.'ke no 
reference to the measurement of time, by adopting as the 
definition of velocity not distance traversed per unit of time, 
but the distance traversed while the earth (or, better, a cer- 
tain ideal earth) rotates through a certain angle relatively 
to the fixed stars. Enunciated in this way these laws assume 
no definition of equal intervals of time, and can consequently 
supply us with no such defi.nitions. 

Newton's second law asserts that the acceleration produced 
in a body by a force is directly proportional to the force and 
has the same direction ; and as the assertion is without re- 
striction, the law implies that the effect of the force is the 
same, whatever the motion of the body may be and whatever 
other forces may be acting upon it. Many writers regard 
the latter implied part of the law as being the only hypo- 
thetical part. They therefore make it the second law of 
motion and attempt to deduce the former part from it, the 
argument being that since any number n of equal and co- 
directional forces will produce in a body an acceleration n 
times as great as that produced by one, the acceleration pro- 
duced in a body must be proportional to the force producing 
it. It is here assumed, however, that n equal forces in the 
same direction are equivalent to a single force of n times 
the magnitude. Thus the explicitly asserted portion of 
Newton's second law cannot be deduced from the implied 
portion except by the aid of an additional hypothesis; and 
the law as a whole must therefore be regarded as hypotheti- 
cal. 

The third law is supposed to have been deduced from the 
first by Newton himself. Maxwell^ appears to hold this 
view; Lodge ^ declares his adhesion to it; and Tait* says the 
third law **is very closely connected with the first." New- 
ton's discussion ^ of the third law, in which he is supposed 
to make this deduction, consists of two parts. He first shows 
by the experiments referred to above, that the law applies 
to the case of the stresses between bodies pressing against 
one another; and he then extends it by the aid of the first 
law to gravitational stresses, and by the aid of further ex- 
periment to magnetic stresses as well. In this extension he 
does not say that he is building upon the results of his ex- 
periments on impact, but it seems obvious that he does so. 
Maxwell summarizes his argument admirably in the follow- 
ing words: **If the attraction of any part of the earth, say, 
a mountain, upon the remainder of the earth, were greater 
or less than that of the remainder of the earth upon the 
mountain, there would be a residual force acting upon the 
system of the earth and the mountain as a whole, which 

* Matter and Motion, Art. LTin. 

* Elementary MecbanlOB (1886), p. 50. 

* Properties of Matter (1885), p. 108. 
' Prlnclpla: SchoUnm to Axlomata. 



August 5, 1892. J 



SCIENCE. 



would cause it to move off with an ever-increasing velocity 
through infinite space. This is contrary to the first law of 
motion, which asserts that a hody does not change its state 
of motion unless acted upon by external force." That this 
argument is based upon the assumption of the equality of 
the action and reaction between bodies pressing against one 
another, seems to follow from the consideration that other- 
wise the *' residual force," due to the possible inequality of 
the action and reaction of the gravitational stress between 
the mountain and the remainder of the earth, might be re- 
garded as neutralized by an opposite inequality in the action 
and reaction of the stress at their surface of contact. Even, 
therefore, if Newton's extension of his experimental result 
to forces acting at a distance were regarded as valid, the 
xhird law could not be regarded as deduced from the first. 
It would only be shown to be but partially hypothetical. 
But since, in the present state of dynamics, the laws of mo- 
tion must be regarded as applicable to particles, Newton's 
argument, though valid when they were considered applica- 
ble to extended bodies, can no longer be admitted; for the 
uniformity of the motion of a body free from the action of 
external force is itself a deduction, which can be made only 
by assuming the third law in its most general form. 

3. Sufficiency of the Laws of Motion. 

The be^t test of the sufficiency of the laws of motion is the 
question, Can they give by deduction the greatest of all 
physical laws, the conservation of energy ? This law may 
be proved, by the aid of the second and third laws of motion, 
to hold in the case of any system of particles which is neither 
giving* energy to, nor receiving energy from, external bodies, 
provided the stresses between the particles act in the lines 
joining them and are functions of their distances. It has 
a*so been proved by experiment to hold in a very large num- 
ber of cases in which the laws of the forces acting are un- 
known, the energy disappearing in one form and the energy 
appearing simultaneously in another form being measured. 
The amount of such experimental evidence is so large that 

00 doubt is now entertained that the law of the conservation 
of energy is applicable to all natural forces. Hence the 
fundamental hypotheses of dynamics should either include 
this law or give it by deduction. 

Although many writers state that this law may be deduced 
from the laws of motion. Lodge ^ is the only one, so far as 

1 am aware, who claims to make the deduction. This he 
does in a passage beginning as follows: *^ All this, indeed, 
in a much more complete and accurate form — more com- 
plete because it involves the non destruction of energy, as 
well as its non-creation — follows from Newton's third law 
of motion, provided we make the assumptions (justified by 
•experiment)," etc. It is unnecessary to quote farther; for 
when assumptions justified by experiment are called in to 
the aid of the third law, additional fundamental hypotheses 
are thereby selected. 

The second law of motion enables us to take the first step 
in the deduction of the conservation of energy. The proof 
4S so well known that I may simply cite that given by Thom- 
4BOin and Tait,' resulting in the familiar equation : — 

• • . ••■ *•• ... 

2 {X X '\- Y y '■\- Z z) =s 2 m (x X -^ y y -^ z z)j 

ID which the first member represents the rate at which work 
is being done by the forces acting on the particles of a sys- 

' Xt^mentary MeobAnlcs (1886), p. as. 

« Traatite on Nat PhU. (1879). Vol. I., Part 1, p. 969. 



tem, and the second is equal to the rate at which the kinetic 
energy of the system is being increased. It is usually called 
the equation of via viva, and, having been deduced from the 
second law of motion alone, is applicable to all forces, 
whether conservative or not. 

Newton gave this result in the Scholium to the Laws of 
Motion in a statement which may be paraphrased thus: 
Work done on any system of bodies has its equivalent in 
work done against friction, molecular forces, or gravity, to- 
gether with that done in overcoming the resistance to accel- 
eration. Thompson and Tait point out expressly ' that this 
statement of Newton's, which, owing to the form he gave it, 
is often referred to as his second interpretation of the third 
law of motion, is equivalent to the equation given above. 
Nevertheless, it has been interpreted as being little less than 
an enunciation of the law of the conservation of energy it- 
self.^ Thus Tait^ says it '^has been shown to require com- 
paratively little addition to make it a complete enunciation 
of the conservation of energy; " and '* What Newton really 
bunted was to know what becomes of work which is spent 
in friction." Besant* takes the same view.'' These writers 
seem to claim that Newton's statement is equivalent to what 
Thomson and Tait call **the law of energy in abstract dy- 
namics," viz., "'The whole work done in any time on any 
limited material system by applied forces is equal to the 
whole effect in the forms of potential and kinetic energy pro- 
duced in the system, together with the work lost in friction." 
Of this it may certainly be said that what it wants to make 
it a complete enunciation of the conservation of energy 
is a statement as to what becomes of the work spent in 
friction. 

Compare this, however, with Newton's statement, as para- 
phrased above, and it is at once obvious that what the latter 
wants to make it a complete enunciation of the conservation 
of energy, is a statement as to what becomes not only of 
work spent in friction, but also of work done against molec- 
ular forces and gravity, and of work done in overcoming 
the resistance to acceleration. Newton may possibly have 
known all this, but he does not say so; and we must there- 
fore hold his statement to be, as Thomson and Tait point out, 
merely a verbal expression of the equation given above. The 
question of the interpretation of Newton's statement is of 
more than mere historical interest; for if it would bear the 
interpretations which have been put upon it, the law of the 
conservation of energy would be capable of being deduced 
from the second law of motion alone. 

To pass from the equation of vis viva to the law of the 
conservation of energy, we require to know that the work 
done during any change of configuration of a system of 
particles acted upon by natural forces depends only upon 
the changes in the positions of the particles, and not upon 
the paths by which or the velocities with which they have 
moved from the old positions to the new. Helmholtz' 
showed that this deduction may be *' based on either of two 
maxims, either on the maxim that it is not possible by any 

« TroatlBO on Nat. Piai. (1879), Vol. L, Part 1, p. 870. 

4 This address was written before I had seen Professor W. W. Johnson's 
paper on **Tbe Mechanical Axioms, or Laws of Motion'* (Ball. N. Y. Math. 
8oa, Vol. I., No. 6, March, 189S). 

• Properties of Matter (1885), p. 101, and Recent Advances in Physical Sci- 
ence (1876), p. 88. 

« Dynamics (1886), p. 49. 

V Garrett (Elementary Dynamics, 1886, p. 47) ffoes so far as to say that New- 
ton's statement *' is nothing more nor less than Uie enunciation of the great 
principle of the conservation of energy." 

9 On the Oonsenratlo 1 of Force (1847): Taylor's Scientific Memoir?. NaT. 
Phil. (1858), p. Ui. 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 49"^ 



cotobioation whatever of natural bodies to derive an un- 
limited amouQt of meclianJcal force [energj], or on the as- 
sumption that all actions in nature can be ultimately referred 
to attractive or repulsive forces, the ictensity of which de- 
pends solely upon the distances between the points by which 
the forces are exerted." He showed also that it was imma- 
terial which of these maxims was assumed, as the other could 
he at once obtained from it. How by the aid of either of 
these hypotheses we pass From the equation given above to 
the law of the conservation of energy is of course well Icnown. 
The point to which it seems necessary to draw attention is 
that some hypothesis is required, and that either of these is 
sufficient for the purpose. 

As the second of Helmholtz's maxims is simply an exten- 
sion of the third law of motion, and as Newton's three laws 
have obtained such wide usage, it would seem to be desirable 
to adopt the second maxim as a fourth law of motion. Were 
we to select the 6rat maxim, it would be necessary to re-cast 
our fundamental hypotheses altogether.' Possibly it might 
be advantageous to take this course, to malce, as Tail* sug- 
gests, the laws of the conservation and the transformation 
of energy our fuDdamenlal hypotheses, and to banish the 
conception of force to the limbo of once useful things. But 
if Newton's laws are to be retained, they should be supple- 
mented by the second oF Helmholtz's assumptions. 

It is at once obvious that this fourth law will, like the 
third, be independent of points of reference; and it follows 
that the law of the conservation of energy will hold rela- 
tively to all points by reference to which the second law 
holds. This conclusion is inconsistent with Newcomb's 
assenicn* that this law "assumes that we refer the motions 
of all the bodies whose energy is considered to some foreign 
body of infinite mass, from which emanate the forces which 
give motion to the system." According to the above, this 
law may of course be expressed relatively to a particle of 
infinite mass, and, if thus expressed, the forces which give 
motion to the system may be supposed to emanate From that 
particle. But it may also be expressed relatively either to a 
particle of finite mass free from the action oF force, or to 
the centre of mass of the system itself whose energy is con- 
served. 

4. Reduction of the Laws of Mattoo. 

Finally, the four laws of motion may obviously be re- 
duced to two. The first has already been seen to be a par- 
ticular case of the second. The third is involved in the 
fourth ; for when it is asserted that natural forces are attrac- 
tions or repulsions, it is implied that their action and reac- 
tion are in opposite directions, and when it is asserled that 
they may be expressed as functions of the distances of the 
particles between which they act, it is implied that their action 
and reaction are equal. The four laws thus reduce to two, 
which may be enunciated somewhat as follows: — 

The Law of Force. — Relatively to any particle free from 
the action of force, the acceleration produced in another 
particle hy a force is proportional to the force and has the 
same direction. 

The Law of Stress. — Natural forces may be considered 
to be attractions or repulsions whose magnitudes vary 
solely with the distances of tbe particles between which 
tbey act. 



THE aRBAT LAKE BASINS. 



The problem of the origin of the Great Lakes has for a 
long time engaged the attention of the scientists, who have 
come to a variety of conclusions, none of tbem very satis- 
factory. Subsidence, ice action, glacial scooping, and Preai> 
dent Chamberlin's theory that they were hollows made by 
accumulating ice bending down the earth's crust. 

An article in Science of Juqc 3 presents a more plausible 
theory, that they are vallies of erosion, made by some great 
river, giving as evidence the map of Dr. Spencer, pointing 
out the discoveries and probable deep pre-glacial channels 
leading into the St. Lawrence and tbe Atlantic. Professor 
Spencer, in his paper on High Continental Elevations, read 
at tbe Scientific Association at Toronto, 1889, sums up by 
saying, " The lake basins are merely closed-up portions of 
the ancient St. Lawrence valley and its tributaries." " The 
take basins are all excavated out of PatseoEoic rocks except 
a part oF that of Lake Superior." 

If we go back in geologic history to Azoic times we Qnd 
that the first emergence of the continent was tbe V-shaped 
land around Hndson's'Bay, an open sea below it. Next, an 
emergence of a point below the V and a line of height ex- 
tending along the lower side of what we call tbe river and 
gulf oF St. Lawrence. A sea or strait extended round the- 
primitive laud from the Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean on the 
north-west. After the elevation oF the trough at tbe north- 
west, an inland sea was leFt covering Superior, Michigan, 
Huron, and Ontario, leading into the St. Lawrence Gulf. 
In time there was elevation and subsidence and flexion of 
strata, as pointed out by Professor Spencer, and the great 
basins were left as interior seas. There was a large water- 
shed to the north that compelled an overflow, that made 
its way in the deep channels that have been discovered, 
at some time out of Ontario, across New York, then, if there 
was continental elevation, making tbe deep channels down 
the valley of the St.* Lawrence and far out into the Gulf. 
Lake Champlain was a pool in a fissure of the Azoac world, 
that was connected with the open channel in tbe Arcbeao 
land. 

The ice period so obstructed tbe old outlet that when it 
was melting, the superSuous waters oF the great basins were 
poured into the Gulf of Mexico through the Illinois and 
Wabash rivers. When the ice disappeared, tbe old outlet had 
become obstructed by flexions of strata and mountains of 
drift. It is evident that Lake Michigan had a channel 
through Georgian Bay, and thence into Ontario. It is not 
yet apparent where the deep channel For the waters of Su- 
perior came in, or that it had any such. It has an insignifi- 
cant but sufficient outlet through the St. Mary's River. 
Michigan and Huron reach Ontario over the St. Clair flats 
and through the shallow trough that holds Lake Erie, which 
probably is of post-glacial age, and then into Ontario down 
the hill that is being cut back by tbe falls of Niagara. 

The great lakes were deep seas before tbe world was cold 
enough for ice, and were great basins before glaciers were 
possible. 

One could hardly conceive how glacial ploughing coming 
from the north or north-east could make chasms at such an- 
gles to each other. In regard to cut of channels of erosion. 
it would require a river from the south-west and north-west, 
from Michigan and Superior, oF such magnitude that great 
valleys or traces of tbem would be left. Lake Superior \k- 
360 miles long and ISO miles wide in some places, with a- 



JUST 5, 189^.] 



SCIENCE. 



75 



1 of 1000 feet, with a probable 100 or 200 feet more cov- 
witb sediment 600 feet above tide-water, which would 
i its bottom 500 feet below sea-level. To conceive it as 
Id river channel would require an elevation of the conti- 
of 1500 feet above its present level. It is, moreover, 
»unded by high rocky shores having few rivers coming 
it, as its watershed was never large and not channeled 
ords. 

ere may have been an elevation of the continent, but 

ikes went up with it; there was undoubtedly ice but the 

were there before it. They are pools left by the old 

* Sea. 

itou, Iowa. ^ 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

the latest quarterly statement of the Palestine Exploration 
as we learn from Nature, it Is said that considerable prog- 
i being made with the Akka-Damascus Railway, the route 
ich, after various expensive surveys, has been definitely de- 
upon. The line chosen is practically that first suggested by 

* Oonder, R.K.. several years ago. Beginning at the great 
B8 of Acre, the railway will run down the plain of Acre 
el with the pea, throwing out a branch to Haifa, at, the 
ern foot of Mount Carmel, and thence to and across the plain 
Iraelon, passing near Nazareth to Shunem and Jezreel, and 
^h the valley of Jezreel, skirting the slope of the hills, to the 
Jordan, which will be crossed within sight of Betbsbean. 
ordan here offers exceptional facilities for the erection of the 
ly bridge, consisting of two spans. Not only are the two 
ite banks of the river formed of solid rock, but the centre of 
?er contains a large block of similar rock, from which each 
>f the bridge will be thrown to the east and west bank re- 
dely. From the Jordan the railway will ascend the slope of 
kulan Plateau, along the crests that close the eastern shores 

Sea of Galilee, this ascent constituting the only difiicuU poi- 
f the line, but which the surveys now made show to be much 

of accomplishment than was originally anticipated. The 
u near EfAl being reached, an easy gradient will carry the 
f Seil Nawa and Kesweh to Damascus. Passing through 
nest plains of western and eastern Palestine, the railway 
B one of great importance. The authorities of the Palestine 
ration Fund are of opinion that its construction can hardly 

lead to important archaeological discoveries, and the com- 
i hope to make arrangements for obtaining full information 
ting these. 

*he Kew Bvlletin for May and June, according to Nature, 
na several contributions which will be of great interest to 
sts and to various classes connected with tie industrial ap- 
ons of botany. One of these contributions is a valuable 
(with a plate) by Mr. George Massee on a disease that has 
ed vanilla plants in Seychelles. In the same number are 
d the second of the Decades Kewenses Plantarum Novarum 
rbario Horti Regii Conservatarura, and the second decade of 
rcbids. An excellent illustration of the way in which the 
ities at Kew seek to promote industry is afforded by a cor- 
idence on Sansevieria fibre from SomalMand. The increased 
ion devoted to the production of white rope fibres in the 
n tropics appears to have had a stimulating effect in the 
ndies, and now the production of fibre from Agave vivipara 
nhay and Manila is followed by a fibre obtained from Somali- 
rom a singular species of Sansevieria. This fibre was first 
?d in this country as an *' Aloe '* fibre. It was soon noticed, 
er, that it possessed characteristics differing from all ordi- 
' Aloe ' fibre, and a request was made to the Foreign Office 
iolonel Stace should be invited to obtain for the Royal Gar- 
small sample of the fibre, a large leaf from the plant yield- 
and, it possible, a few small plants for growing in the Kew 
ion. In due time the specimens arrived in excellent order, 
was found that the fibre is one of the many so-called Bow- 
Hempe, and probably yielded by Sansevieria Ehrenbergii, 
t first collecteJ by Dr. Schwein flirt h. Little or nothing 



was known of it ui^ it was described by Mr. J. J. Baker, F.R.8., 
in the Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol. xiv., p. 549. Its 
locality is there stated as '* between Athara and the Red Sea.*' 
The plant is described in a letter to the Foreign 0£Qce, written by 
Mr. D. Morris, as a very interesting one, and he adds that Its ex- 
istence as a source of a valuable supply of fibre will be sure to 
awaken attention among commercial men in Great Britain. 
Messrs. Ide and Christie, writing to Mr. Morris, speak of the fibre 
as an excellent one of fair length and with plenty of '' life.*' ** In 
character," they say, " it strongly resembles the best Sisal hemp, 
with which we should have classed it but for your statement that 
it is derived from Sansevieria. With the exception of its color, 
its preparation is perfect, and. even as it is, we value it to day at 
£25 per ton. We are of opinion that if care were taken to improve 
the color a considerably higher price would be readily attainable, 
perhaps as much as £50 per ton, if a pure white fibre could be 
attained without loss of strent^th and lustre.*' 

— The Harvey process of rase- hardening, which has been so suc- 
cessfully applied to giving a hard surface to armor plates, is carried 
out as follows, according to Engineering : The plate to be treated 
is made out of mild steel, containing, say, 0.10 per cent to 0.85 
per cent carbon, and, after being formed to its final shape, is laid 
flatwise upon a bed of finely-powdered dry clay or sand, which is 
deposited upon the bottom of a fire brick cell or compartment 
erected within tbe heating chamber of a suitable furnace. The 
upper surface of the plate is then covered with powdered carbon- 
aceous material, which is tightly packed. Above this is a layer 
of sand, and over the sand is laid a heavy covering of fire-bricks. 
The furnace is then lighted and raised to a temperature suflScient 
to melt cast-iron, and this heat is maintained for a greater or lesser 
period, according to tbe amount of carbonizing to be effected. 
About 120 hours are said to be required for a plate lOi inch<>s 
thick. On removal from the furnace such a plate is found to have 
bad the composition of its upper surface changed. At a depth cf 
about 8 inches from this surface the percentage of carbon has 
been raised by about 0.1 per cent, which increases progressively 
as the outer surface is neared, when tbe amount of carbon may 
rise to 1 per cent. It is said that this process, though, as will be 
seen, it resembles the ordinary cementation process, does not cause 
any blistering of the surface of the plate. This the inventor at- 
tributes to the high temperature at which it is carried out; but 
it is also suggested that the absence of blisters may be due to the 
homogeneity of the metal used, which, unlike the wrought-iron 
bars used in the cementation process, is free from cinders. 

— An interesting addition to tbe much-vexed Sumero- Akkadian 
question has recently been made by an Ottoman scholar. Ohanoes 
Sakissian Effendi, an official in the Treasury department at 
Constantinople, has issudd privately the first instalment of a work 
intended to prove that tbe non-Semitic idiom of the cuneiform 
inscription is related linguistically to Armenian, Turkish, and an- 
cient Egyptian. He strenuously combats the theory of tbe Rev. 
C. J. Ball, of the affinity of Akkadian and Chinese. That 
Akkadian or rather Sumerian was related to Turkish cr to Ar- 
mpntan is by no means inherently improbable. We can hardly 
admit being convinced by the author as yet, and would prefer 
awaiting some ethnologic evidence before reaching a conclusion. 
But we cannot fail to welcome to the ranks of students of the 
ancient civilization of Mesopotamia the first subject of the Em- 
pire of which Mesopotamia is a part, who has busied himself \% itb 
cuneiform studies. Turkey has produced investigators in all 
branches of modern science, a classical archaeologist and explorer 
like Hamdi Bey, a Turkish lexicographer like the late Ahmed 
Vefik Pacha, or a man like Tewfik Bey Ebuzzia, the historian of 
Turkish literature, a writer on military matters like DjevaP^ha, 
the present Grand Vizier, or a student of pure mathematics like 
Tewfik Pasha, the present minister of public works. Sakiesian 
Effendi is the first Ottoman who, to our knowledge, has written 
on a subject connected with cuneiform research, and we take the 
appearance of his brochure as an omen that these studies will' be 
seriously taken up at the Imperial Museum in Constantinople. 
A catalogue of the cuneiform objects preserved in that museum 
would be eagerly welcomed by the learned world. 



76 



SCIEiMCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 496 



SCIENCE: 



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THE HOPKINS SEASIDE LABORATORY. 

BY DAVID S. JORDAN. 

One of the best equipped and most favorably situated of 
the marine laboratories for research is the Hopkins Seaside 
Laboratory on Monterey Bay in California. This institu- 
tion is an outgrowth from the biological departments of the 
Leland Stanford, Jun., University, its equipment having 
been provided for by the generosity of Mr. Timothy Hop- 
kins, one of the tnistee^t of the University. The laboratory 
is situated on a rocky point of land known as Point Aloha, 
which juts into Monterey Bay near the village of Pacific 
Grove. The laboratory is a two-story, frame building sixty 
feet by twenty. On each floor the many windows make the 
sides of the building virtually of glass. The lower floor is 
devoted to aquaria and to work in connecti n with aquaria. 
The upper floor is fitted up for advanced research, with pri- 
vate rooms for workers in special fields. On the lower floor 
are seven aquaria provided with running water, besides 
various glass jars and similar vessels used for the study of 
smaller animals. 

The fauna of Monterey Bay is peculiarly rich, as the life 
histories of the animals of this region have been scarcely 
studied by zoologists. The laboratory, therefore, offers spe- 
cial attractions to naturalists, particularly to workers on 
tunicates, jelly fishes, star* fishes, fishes, and nudibranch mol- 
lusks. The material for zoological purposes is extremely 
abundant, and one singular feature of the life of this region is 
the immense size to which many animals grow as compared 
"with the size reached by their relatives in the Atlantic. 

In the aquaria I notice many specimens of salpa, large 
transparent tunicates, reaching a length of four or five 
inches. There are nudibranch mollusks (Aplyaia) nearly a 
foot in length, and a twenty-armed star-fish (Pycnopodia) 
whose span covers the whole height of one side of the 
aquarium. This creature has been timed in making a cir- 
cuit of the four sides of the aquarium, covering the distance 
of about nine feet in just four minutes. Immense jelly 
fishes which will almost fill a bushel basket are also very 



common, and sea anemones, reaching a size by which the 
largest of the Atlantic seem like marigolds compared with 
sunflowers. Tunicates, chitons, limpets, sea urchins, sea 
anemones, octopus, and squid exist in great abundance and 
variety. Among the fishes are also many forms of interest 
in the aquaria, numerous species of blennies and sculpins 
abounding about the rocks. The blue hag fish {PolMotrema) 
occurs in great abundance. This is an eel-shaped fish about 
a foot to a foot and a half in length, which lives as a para- 
site in the bodies of other fishes. It enters at the eye or at 
the throat or some other soft place, and then by means of 
the rasp-like teeth, makes a hole in the body of its host and 
in time without breaking or disturbing the bones or viscera 
of the unfortunate animal, it will devour the entire muscu- 
lar system of the fish on which it feeds. Many of the larger 
fiounders and like fishes obtained in the Bay of Monterey 
are found to be half-devoured or reduced to mere hulks by 
the operation of this singular fish. The locality is espe- 
cially favorable for the study of the viviparous surf-fishes 
and rock-fishes. The huge torpedo or cramp fish, which is 
found across the bay about Soquel, also invites investigation. 
As I write, a crrampus 12 feet in length is brought in in a 
dray- wagon by a Portuguese fisherman from Monterey, while 
a constant stream of objects of interest comes in from the 
Chinese fishing camp at Point Alones. The marine flora of 
the Bay of Monterey is equally interesting. About one 
hundred and twenty species of sea weeds have been collected 
by Mr. Bradley M. Davis, who has charge of the work in 
botany. These range in size from the giant kelp, which 
here has a length of thirty or forty feet, down to the minute 
algae about the wharves. 

The laboratory is well supplied with collecting apparatus, 
with microscopes, reagents, embedding apparatus, and the 
usual material for study, this being brought from the labora- 
tories of the Stanford University. About thirty studeuts 
ha>^e been in attendance during the summer, some of these 
being advanced workers in different departments, some of 
them teachers and the others students from the laboratories 
of the university. 

Among the pieces of special work which may be noticed 
are the studies of Professor Frank M. MacFarland on the 
^gg segmentation of the nudibranchs, 'those of Frank M. 
Cramer on the nervous system of the limpet, those of Leav- 
erett M. Loomis on the sea birds of Monterey Bay, those of 
Wilbur W. Thoburn on the rock-fishes, those of Miss Flora 
Hartley on the anatomy of the abalone, and those of Mr. 
Charles W. Green on hydroids. 

The instruction for the summer has been in the hands of 
Professors Charles H. Gilbert and Oliver P. Jenkins, of the 
chairs of zoology and physiology respectively, in the Stan- 
ford University, assisted by Bradley M. Davis and Wilbur 
W. Thoburn, graduate students. The purposes of the labora- 
tory as set forth in the circular are: To supplement the work 
given in the regular courses of instruction in the zoological, 
botanical, and physiological departments of the university 
under the favorable conditions of such a station ; to provide 
facilities for investigators who are prepared to make re- 
searches in marine biology, for which the Pacific Coast offers 
exceptional attractions, in that its field is very rich and is as 
yet largely unworked, to afford an opportunity to those, es- 
pecially to teachers, who desire to become acquainted with 
marine animals and plants, and to learn the practical 
methods of their study. 

In respect to the abundance of material and newness and 
freshness of the fauna to be studied as well as in the matter 



August 5, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



n 



of comfort and con^reuieoce of liviu^, there are none of the 
.seaside laboratories which are so fortunately situated as the 
one at Pacific Grove. 

The views from the windows of the laboratory are singu- 
larly picturesque and attractive. On the east is seen the 
long curve of Monterey Bay, bordered by white sand-dunes 
covered with deep green chapparal, the dark pine trees of 
Pacific Grove, and the rocky promontory of Point Alones 
with its Chinese fishing camp in the foreground, and in the 
•distance the mountains which separate the valley of Monterey 
from that of San Benito. On the west the irregular coast- 
line is visible as far as the point of pines, and on the north 
the broad sweep of the bay -shore is in sight as far as the 
lighthouse of Santa Cruz. The Bay of Monterey, with its 
surroundings of rock, forest, and mountain, is one of the 
itiost picturesque in the world, and to the eye of the natur- 
alist it has no equal, at least short of the coral-lined harbors 
of the tropics. 

THE ANTENNAE AND STING OF YIEILCAB AS COM- 
PONENTS IN THE MAYA DAY-SIGNS. 

BT H. T. CRBSSON, AM., M.D. 

Bee-Ctjlture among the ancient Mayas seems to have 
received considerable attention, and the apiarists, we are told, 
liad patrons, — the Bacaba, — one of whom, called Hobnil^ 
was in especial favor. It was in the month Tzoz that the 
befi keepers began to prepare themselves for their celebration 
in Tzec, and the four Chacs were at that time presented with 
plates of incense, one for each Chac, the borders of wbich 
were painted around with designs representing the honey- 
comb. 

The species of bee which prepared the celebrated honey of 
Estabenttim, from a white flower resembling our jessamine, 
is like the common bee of Europe in shape and size, and 
differs from it only in having no sting; it is in fact the bee 
of Yucatan and Chiapas, and the honey which was prepared, 
especially durin<; the month when the Estabentdm bloomed, 
was much sought after in early t'.mes, and no doubt formed 
an important article pf commerce hetween the inhabitants of 
Maiam and the island that is now called Cuba. Four or 
five other species of bee are said to exist in Yucatan, but, 
with a few exceptions, their productions are inferior to the 
bee common to that country and Chiapas. 

That the honey-bee was highly esteemed by the ancient 
Mayas there is but little doubt; for we see this industrious 
insect represented in various portions of the **Bee-Keeper^s 
Narrative'' of the Codex Troano, while honey in the comb 
is represented by the Maya scribe as square cakes of that 
material (see Fig. 9, plate), carried in the hand of the *^god 
with the old man's face," — so named to distinguish him 
from other gods who were represented in the same narra- 
tive. Honey is represented by other hieroglyphs, one of 
wbich, shown in Fig. 8 of the drawing, has an especial con- 
nection with the antennae sign, and we will presently refer 
to it. If our alphabet interprets with a reasonable degree 
of exactitude, we suppose the god with the old man's face to 
be Kakuitz, who appears in one of his various characters as 
the patron of the bee-keepers. The phonetic components of 
the hieroglyph which invariably accompanies this god, sug- 
gest this interpretation. In front of the glyph we have 
components of the day-signs Chuen and Akbal enclosed in 
the dotted aspirate circle, while below it are Landa's aspirates 
twice, and even in some casea thrice repeated. This gives 
us **chu-chu " or *' khu-khu." Within the glyph, surround- 



ing the eye, is the scroll which is always present in this 
god's glyph, and to us suggests the phonetic value of ix or 
itz. The c^i glyph is generally placed underneath what we 
have assumed to be used as a determinative; the two round 
glfphs on either side of the tooth-like projections inside of 
the c^i glyph suggest that in this case it is to be used as 
Chu. I find this cM Rlyph appearing as ch&, ch£, c^i, cho, 
chu, a determinative being generally added to suggest which 
is to be used, whether it be d — a — i — o — u. An example 
of one of these supposed determinatives will be given further 
on in this paper. 

The sting of the bee is used in the day-sign yk or ik (see 
Fig. 7 of drawing), and appears quite frequently in glyph 
form in the Troano, also in Landa's day-signs and those of 
the Chi Ian Balaam of Kaua, and is attached to the body of 
the ahaulil-cah, who so frequently appears in the Troano 
with body erect as if ready to strike with her stinging appa- 
ratus (Fig. 10 of drawing). It can readily be seen that this 
sting is but a variant of that used in the day-sign ik (Fig. 7 
of drawing). It can also be seen attached to the right-hand 
side of the head-dress of the goddess (7a&, second division of 
plate 25, Codex Troano. The end of the bee's abdomen and 
the stinging apparatus (Fig. 3 of drawing) is somewhat 
square like those of the Codex Troano (Bee-Keeper's Narra- 



A. 




lO- 



tive); but it is easily recognized as a variant of glyphs 
7 and 10 of our drawing. The determinative ending 
is placed just beyond the stinging apparatus, and is com- 
posed of the % loop and hil; the dotted aspirate also appears, 
and the h(5b glyph is the parallel line running out from the 
il curve — '*ishkil-h&" is thus expressed, an admirable 
suggestion of ^* Ikilca^^ (h is understood). 

The antennae of the bee appear in the day-sign Cauac; in 
fact the signs yk (or ik), Cauac, and Cahan^ all have the sting 
and antennae of the bee as components. This connection 
will be more apparent by reference to Dr. D. G. Brinton's 
study of the *' Books of Chilan Balaam," pages 16 and 17. 
The day-sign 13 Caban, in the Chilan Balaam of Kaua, has 
the antennae of the bee for its components, and 2 Cauac and 
5th ik have the antennae and sting, one more component 
appearing in 2d Cauac than in 5th yk. These same signs in 
the Landa and Troano columns of Brinton's plates have the 
honey signs, and the antennae and hive, all used as phonetic 
components of the glyph, that of Landa and the Codex 
Troano rendering the word ikUcab with great simplicity. It 
is expressed thus, *'x-il-cab," the dotted ah^ or a; aspirate, 
being added to assist the reader iif obtaining the correct in- 
terpretation. The Cauac glyph also appears in the bas-re- 
lief of Kukuitz, the left-hand slab alongside of the doorway, 
Casa No. 3, Palenque. By placing a lens on a good photo- 
graph of this masterpiece of the scribe sculptor's art, the an- 
tennae of the bee can be seen attached to the honey -sign (Fig. 
1 of the drawing shows this glyph), the antennae being at- 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 496 



tached to the honey- sign. In the more derr.otic Cauac 
glyphs, honey is represented as shown in Fig 8 Erosion 
has partially destroyed one of the components of the Casa 
No. 3 Catiac glyph of which we speak, but by comparing 
the photograph with Catberwood's drawing, it will be found 
to closely resemble this component in the demotic Caiuzc 
glyph. It is simply the aspirate circle (dotted), enclosing 
two small squares as in the Land a glyph of Cauac. In 
this connection it may be interesting to add that an at- 
tempt to interpret, by means of our alphabet, the in- 
scription at the top of the left-hand slab, Casa No. 3, 
Palenque, gives as follows: **The gods — earth — sky — 
water — maize — Kukuitz and Xukulcan — Cauac — Muluc." 
The slab at the right-hand side of the doorway of Casa 
No. 3 we think represents Kukulcan with the wart-like ex- 
crescence and the antennae sign attached to his forehead. 
The inscription, according to the rendering of our alphabet, 
reads *' Kukulcan, u-ahkin imix, ah-Cimil, Chikin.'^ The 
forefinger of the left hand of Kukuitz on the left-hand slab 
of Casa No. 3, Palenque, points to a glyph just above, which 
is probably the hieratic glyph of this god, bearing, we think, 
strong affinities to the demotic character, an attempt at the 
analysis of which has already been given in this paper. 
Just above the Kukuitz glyph, in the perpendicular column 
in front of the god's face, is Chikin^ above Chikin is Ahau^ 
the next two glyphs not yet determined, and then imme- 
diately below the horizontal line of glyphs in the right-hand 
corner of the slab is Cimi, Just above Cimi is Kan, and 
to the left Ikilcdb; the third to the left on ihis parallel line 
of glyphs seems to be the long-nosed god — probably Kukul- 
can — next to it Itzamna^ and the end glyph on the left 
seems to express '* Itza.'^ This interpretation is made subject 
to further alteration and improvement; to give detailed 
analyses of these glyphs in a short paper is impossible. 

The small figure on Plate. 25 of the Codex Troano (6), 
turned head downward, shown in drawing B, has some in- 
teresting relations with the antennae glyph attached to the 
honey-sign (see Figs 1, 4-6, drawing A — 1 and 6 = hieratic 
script, 4 = demotic). The drawing B is but a portion of the 
original design of the scribe, the hand supporting the an- 
tennae sign, enclosed in the circular glyph underneath the 
upturned foot, is that of the goddess Cab, or the earth. Just 
above the antennae glyph (phonetic value == i-kil-cab) is the 
foot which = uoc. The hand of the goddess supporting this 
design is the c^^i glyph, but in this place it has the phonetic 
value of Chdy the hd determinative being quite conspicuous 
on the thumb, its end protruding well into the circle enclos- 
ing the antennae glyph. This obtained, we have suggested 
**ch&-uoc" or Cauac, 

The ca glyph in the eye of the child figure and the foot 
also give us, cauoc a repetition of cauac. The antennae of 
the bee with the slight i curve at the end give the phonetic 
value ikil, and the honey squares below give us cab = ikil- 
cab. There is evidently some close connection between 
caiuxc and ikilcab, for the head- dress of this child figure has 
the scribe^s method of representing honey by squares and 
suggestions of ikil. The work of the scribe sculptor was 
necessarily different from that of bis more demotic brethren, 
who drew the more cursive script, yet there seems to us to 
be a not improbable relationship of this figure on Plate 25 of 
the Troano to that upheld in the arms of the ahkin on the 
Casa No. 2 group — Palenque. The peculiar slit or de- 
formed feet and variants of the head-dress suggest that fu- 
ture study may show some connection between these figures, 
and that ikilcah and cauac may have a dual meaning or 



personality. Mr. W. Thomson, who has been residing \n 
Chiapas for many years, informs me that during a visit ta 
Lorillard City his Maya servant, who had been a bee hunter id 
his youth, accompanied him, and while they were preparing 
a resting place for the night the cry of a jaguar was heard; 
the old man shook his head, and laying his hand on a sculp- 
tured lintel near the door of the temple, said rapidly *' The 
jaguar calls, the bee leaves the centre of the maize flower 
and seeks the hollow tree,'^ then turning toward the bas-re- 
lief he indicated the head covering of the figures ejacalating 
'^^caby'*^ then as if startled at what he had said, he relapsed 
into silence, and no amount of questioning could obtain any- 
thing further from him. I cannot recall where I have read 
it in one of Dr. Brinton^s books, but he mentions that Dr. 
Berendt while travelling with a Maya guide overheard some 
remark which he made having an interesting meaning, but 
the man, recollecting that he was accompanied by one of 
the white race, stopped short in his words and nothing fur- 
ther could be elicited from him. The suggestion of cah^ a 
hive, was an excellent one, for the head coverings of these 




figures, as represented by Charnay on page 391 of his *' Yilles 
du Nouveau Monde, '^ seem to be representations of bee hives; 
and it was the antennae sign to the right-hand side of the 
large figure on this slab, or lintel, that led my learned 
friend to make the suggestion that the antennae, attached to 
the sign for honey, might possibly exist on other sculptured 
Maya reliefs. As I have stated, it exists in the manuscript 
Troano (see Plates 24 and 25), and a sculptured slab in the 
Smithsonian Institution has it represented by an incised 
square, to which the antennae are attached (see A, Fig. 6). 
It is the most demotic form of the hieratic-scribe-sculptor^s 
work that I have examined. The glyph in question is to be 
seen on a cast which is now hanging on the stairway- wall of 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, to the right- 
hand side of the long gallery in which Professor Thomas 
Wilson has arranged his interesting synoptical cases. No 
record is attached to the cast, but by its character and tech- 
nique it seems to be a copy of one of Charnay's squeezes, 
probably from Lorillard City. The antennae glyph fre- 
quently appears near representations of corn leaves, and as 
we have the day- signs Ixim aind t'A?, the latter, there is but 
little tlcubt, being but an abbreviation of tA:t7 = the sting^ 



August 5, 1892,] 



SCIENCE. 



79 



(the sign used for this day is the bee sting), there is evidently 
a connection betweea ymtXy ik, caban, and cauac^ whose 
componeuts are all more or less associated with, or composed 
of, the bee and honey signs. 

When I speak of the components of a glyph it may be 
that an example will make this more readily understood. 
Take the day-sign manik. We have in this glyph, as repre- 
sented by Landa, four components; the first is the glyph 
not unlike a carpenter's T-square which has the phonetic 
value of ma; near it to the right are three short lines which 
= n; and below to the left is the ich or ix glyph, which 
gives us, together with the others, **Ma-n-ich" — an excel- 
lent suggestion of Manik. The day-sign, chicchan, was 
represented by a pot, the base of which was crossed by 
hatchings giving the phonetic value x; the white space at 
the end of this divides the hatching from a black line, to 
which tooth-like processes are attached, giving the phonetic 
value of **^<f-c^." We now have x or sh, which, joined to 
hdj =»/; placing ch before this we obtain ** c^-xa '' — the 
suggestion of **Chi-xa" or **chicchan." The hieroglyph of 
the day-sign Ahau contains as components the a glyph, 
from which perpendicular lines mount to the top of the circle 
enclosing them. The straight \mes=hd, and the two 
small round circles on either side of the ha =00, giving us 
**Ah-h4-oo" or ** Ahau." The phonetic components of 
Landa's B are simply expressed by conventionalized foot- 
marks = be in Maya; and when Landa asked for hay (the 
way he pronounced it in Spanish), the Maya scribe jotted 
down representations of footprints which recalled to him the 
sound of the name of the thing represented — in other words 
be — pronounced ba in Maya. 

I believe the standard of phoneticism in these old Maya 
glyphs to be about the same as the more advanced system of 
writing used by the Nahuatalacs, and described by M. 
Aubin. The phonetics of some of the Maya day signs are 
quite obscure, others quite clear and easily interpreted. 

The scientific world is already coznizant of the painstaking 
labors of Professor Cyrus W. Thomas of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology, and his researches upon the Codex Troano are of ines- 
timable value. I have recently had the pleasure of working 
in conjunction with Dr. Thomas as a member of the staff of 
the above-named institution, and I am convinced that his 
alphabet is based upon a solid foundation. Although we 
are both working by independent methods of research, like 
results have been obtained in several cases by repeated tests. 
His recent publication in Science adds other similarities of 
interpretation; surely this correspondence of results cannot 
be the result of accident. Dr. D. G. Brinton, Professor of 
American linguistics and archaeology in the University of 
Pennsylvania, in a recent letter, says, ** The correspondence 
between your interpretations and that of Professor Thomas 
in certain cases is strong prima facie evidence that both 
methods are based on correct principles." I have but to re- 
peat Dr. Thomas's words ''that this agreement in our con- 
clusions . . . serves to strengthen both in the convic- 
tion that we are making genuine progress in the solution of 
this difficult problem." 



" The Optics of Photography and Photographic Lenses," by J. 
Ttaill Taylor, editor of the British Journal of Photography, is a 
useful little volume for those who desire to master the optical 
priociples involved in the construction of photographic lenses. 
The work is also of value to the practical photographer, as it ^ives 
directions for the proper use of diaphragms, for the testing; of 
lenses, etc. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

•*• Corre^;iond€nU are reque§ted to beau Inrief a» pouible. The wruer't nam9 
i§ in €Ul ooiM required a» proof of good faith. 

On reqneet in advanoej one hundred copiee of the number containino hie 
oommunieation uHU befumithed free to any eorreepondtnt. 

The editor viill be glad to publith any queriee coneonant vfith the eharaoter 
of the journal. 

The Eniclish Sparrow and Other Birds. 

I HAVE often read accounts of the English sparrotv driving out 
our native birds, and for several years have been watching closely 
to see what the truth is ; and from my observations I must con- 
clude that many persons write facts from imagination. 

That matters may be better understood, I may state that for 
twenty-three years I have lived on Ohio Street, the principal 
business street of the city, l)etween 9th and 10th streets; this 
being near the centre of the city, the business buildings extending 
on Ohio Street half-way between 7th and 8th streets, and the 
residences having considerable ground around them, with many 
shade trees from fifteen to twenty-five years old. 

The English sparrow came to Sedalia about twelve years ago, 
and for a long time did not get away from the vicinity of the 
business centre. Some five or six years ago, during a severe win- 
ter, I saw them one time only as far out on Ohio Street as Broad- 
way or 8th Street, to which point they had come hunting some- 
thing to eat on the street. The followiug summer they were 
frequently seen on the block between Broadway and 9th Street,, 
but came into my yard only a few times. The following sum- 
mer they were frequently in the yard, but made no nests. Since 
that time they have built their nests in the yard, and have fed in 
large numbers in the cUicken-yard. 

The trees are now large enough and dense enough to furnish 
protection for birds, and of late years more kinds are found in 
the city than formerly. The blue jay stays the year round, and 
during the winter as well as summer the red bird and some other 
kinds are frequently seen. In summer the tree black bird, the 
robin, the cat bird, the rain crow, or cuckoo, and the wren are 
abundant, and make their nests. In addition to these, the brown 
thrush, the mocking bird, the red- head woodpecker, the red- head 
flicker, the sap-sucker, and other kinds are often seen, some of 
them daily. 

Now, which of all these birds has been affected by the sparrow ? 
Not a single one of them. They are all as abundant as they were 
five years ago, or at any time in the past, and much more so than 
they were ten to twenty years ago, before there were as many 
trees as there are now. 

In addition to the birds mentioned, I might name three others. 
The town martin has always been in the city in great numbers, 
making their nests in all kinds of cavities around the houses in 
the business part of the city. These same places were taken pos- 
session of by the sparrows; and they being here the year round, 
and making nests even in the winter time, the places belonging 
to the martins were appropriated before their arrival, and when 
they came they had to fight to recover them. I was much inter- 
ested in watching one of these fights. Across the roof of a one- 
story building next to my office, and in the top of the adjoining 
building, a martin had found a hole, and had appropriated a 
place within for a nest. A sparrow had also afterwards done the 
same, and was found in possession when the martin arrived from 
its winter pilgrimage. The latter at once gave fight, and time 
and again during their fight they would fall to the roof below, 
and were so intently engaged that more than once I had my hand 
almost upon them before they would let go of each other. The 
martin won the fight, and the sparrew gave up the nest it had 
taken. 

As I now sit in my yard the martins are circling overhead by 
the hundred, they staying during the day in the business part of the 
city. It is very evident that the sparrows have not run the mar- 
tins out, although they are direct competitors for the same nest- 
ing places. 

Tears ago the chippee always made its nests in my yard, but 
has not done so for six years, except in one case, and that nest 
was abandoned without being completed. I do not know the 
reason; I imagine the English sparrow domineers over the little 



So 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX. Na 496 



ohippiDg sparrow, but still the lacter quit nesting in my yard 
before the former commenced. 

I put up boxes which were formerly occupied by bluebirds. 
As soon as the sparrows nested in my yard they took possession of 
these boxes; and when the blue birds came they did not havp the 
grit or strength to turn the intruders out, and they went else 
where to nest. After nesting time they are seldom seen in the 
city during the summer. Very clearly the sparrows have driven 
the blue birds out of this part of the city, and possibly thechippees; 
but if they have affected any other kinds, my obervation has not 
been keen enough to detect it, though I have had my attention 
directed to it for years. F. A. Sampson. 

Sedalla, Me., July 9&. 



On Maya Chronologfy. 

In a former communication, answering Professor C>rus 
Thomas's *'Brlef Study of the Palenque Tablet," I stated that the 
theory brought forward by Professor Forstemann, that the Dres- 
den Codex does not count the days from the first of the given 
month but from the last of the preceding month, is to be put 
aside. Professor Forst^mann's theory is based on the supposition 
that the calendar system of the Dresden Codex was the same as 
that which prevailed in Yucatan at the time of Bishop lAuda's 
writing. This supposition, however, is an ei'roneous one. In the 
»* Zeitschrif t fOr Ethnologic," Vol. XXIII., I have shown that 
the priests who wrote dovrn the Dresden Codex did not begin their 
years with the signs kan, mtUuc, ix, cauac, as in Landa's time, 
but with the signs been, eHzndb, dkbal^ lamat, exactly correspond - 
ing to the sisns used by the Mexicans to designate their respective 
years. Beginning the years in this manner, the day 4 ahau, 8 
cumkuj is really the eighth day of the month cumku in the been 
or **cane" years, and conformingly all the other dates through- 
out the whole Dresden Codex. 

I wish to call attention to a passage of the Chilam Balam of 
Mani which seems to confirm my opinion. It is said there (Brin- 
ton, Maya Chronicles, p. 98): **In the Katun, 18 Ahau, Ahpula 
died. It was in the course of the sixth year before the ending of 
the katun, as the counting of the years was in the east, and (the 
jear)4Jran seated upon the throne, on the 18th day of (the 
month) Zip, on the day 9 i^Vuto;, Ahpula died '' Now it occurs 
only when beginning the count with the first day of the month, 
that a day 9 Fruix is the 18th day of the month Zip. And, 
indeed. In the year that begins with the day 4 Kan, the day 9 
jFVui'a; is the 18th day of the month Zip — beginning the count 
with the first. 

Here, therefore, we have the same designation of a date by the 
sign of the day and the position it holds in the number of ttventy, 
or a Maya month, as in the Dresden Codex. It seems scarcely 
probable that the natural manner of counting seen in the passage 
of the Chilam Balam, quoted above, should be replaced in the 
Dresden Codex by another and wholly unintelligible one. 

Dr. Ed. Seler. 

StegliU,Jal7 84, 1888. 

The Palenque Tablet. 

Allow me to say in reply to Dr. Seler that I did not '< follow 
Dr. Fdrstemann" in regard to the peculiar method of counting 
■days in the Dresden Codex. I had discovered this peculiarity be- 
fore I was aware that anyone else had noticed it, and have now 
an unpublished article on the series, — Pis. 46-^0, — based on that 
method, which was prepared some time ago. While at work on 
this paper the thought occurred to me that the series might be 
based, as Dr. Seler supposes, on a calendar in which the years 
commenced with Been, Ezanub, Ahbal^ and Lamat, and a table 
was prepared on this theory. 

I quote from that paper my reply to the suggestion. After 
noting the fact that the count began with the last day of the 
month, I remark, '^ It might be argued from this that the years 
and months began with what have been considered the last days, 
but for the fact that ail the historical evidence is against such a 
conclusion, and, as can be shown, a full and complete explanation 
of this series can be given without resorting to this theory." 



There are also some difficulties in the way of this theory. 
Pushing back the series one day is a very simple process; but it 
will sometimes throw dates in the five added days which do not 
belong there, and would break the continuity of the Katunea and 
cycles. Moreover, I think this custom of counting from the last 
day of the month will explain the reason for commencing the oom- 
bering of the Katunes with 18. 

I think it quite probable that, if Dr. Seler will attempt to trace 
out on his theory the three long series on Plates 46-50, each run- 
ning through 104 years, he will find that it will faU to work. 
If not, then it is immaterial, except as regards the succession of 
the epochs, whether we count the commencing days the last or 
first of the month. 

As this theory is wholly unnecessary to explain the peculiarities 
of this Codex, and as Plates 25-28 appear to he based on the 
methoii of counting from the last day of the month, I see no good 
reason for adopting it. 

Dr. Seler thinks my statement that day-numbers were not at- 
tached to raonth-syrobolj« on Plates 48 and 50 of the Dresden Co- 
dex when the number was 20, is erroneous, and calls attention to 
certain characters which he believes are symbols for this number. 
The Ijttle characters he alludes to are certainly present, and, as 
they are not parts of the month characters, may be intended to 
denote the fact that the month is completed. But it is difficult 
to explain on his supposition the fact that the symbol on Plate 48 
to which this sign is attached is that of the month Yax, when the 
date is U Eb, the twentieth day of Chen ; and one of those on 
Plate 50 is the symbol for the month Pop, when the date is Xllk, 
the twentieth day of Cumhu, In other words, the symbol in each 
case is of the month following and not that to which the twenty 
days apply. His explanation therefore fails to solve the difficulty, 
and cannot as yet be accepted as fully satisfactory ; nevertheless, 
it must be admitted that these added characters have some refer- 
ence to the completion of the month. 

His interpretation of the open-hand symbol by pax, " to>-beat/' 
appears to be erroneous, as there is nothing connected with it 
representing the phonetic element p. Cyrus Thomas. 

SmlthBOoian Institution, WashlDgton, P.C. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



On the Modification of Organisms, By David Syme. Melbourne, 
George Robertson & Co. 8^. 

On account of the many questions dealt with in this book, it is 
difficult to do justice to its contents within our limits. The prime 
object of Mr. Syme's clearly- written and forcible work is to show 
the falsity of the theory of natural selection, and to present an- 
other hypothesis to explain the cause of the modification of or- 
ganisms. The greater part of the volume is taken up with crit- 
icisms of Darwin's statements and method of exposition, and the 
author's ideas as to the true cause of modifications are not brought 
forward till near the close of the work. 

They are embodied in what may be styled the doctrine of *' cel- 
lular intelligence.'* *'The cell is the biological unit," Mr. Syme 
asserts. **It is the irreducible vital entity; it is the seat of life 
and energy ; it is the key that unlocks the mystery of organic 
modifications ** (p. 142). But it is more than this. It is the ele- 
ment 'which ** feels, thinks, and wills*' (p. 144). In other words, 
it is intelligent. 

Startling as this doctrine is, the author does not hesitate to 
claim for it a wide application. In the movements of the stamens 
and pistils of fiowers, the selection of grains of sand by rhizopods, 
and the healing of wounds, he sees the operation of this ** cellular 
intelligence." 

Modifications of organisms are brought about by the stimulat- 
ing infiuence of external conditions. ''These conditions, if uni- 
form, .pronounced, and prolonged, will, according to their nature, 
invariably incite the organism to change in a definite direction.'' 
Mr. Syme holds that modifications result from the action of the 
organism itself and not from any diiect infiuence of environment. 
Hence he rejects the terms **use" and ** disuse," which mean 
only ''function and its absence,'' and prefers to say that modifica- 



August 5, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



81 



tions occur in accordance with tbe law of **e£fort and absti- 
nence." 

As to whether acquired characters are inherited, Mr. Syme 
offers no definite opinion; and hence the most important question 
in this coonection remains unanswered. For, if modi6cations 
resulting from the response of an organism to new influences affect 
only the passing generation, it is diflScult to understand bow they 
can become fixed, as they certainly do. 

It should be stated further that Mr. Syme avows a belief in tbe 
existence of *' vital force," which is the cause of the phenomena 
of life and is inherent in the living cell. He asserts that Lewes*s 
ridicule of this idea was due to his misunderstanding the questions 
involved. 

Our space does not admit of more than a brief mention of Mr. 
Syme^s objections to the theory of natural selection, but many of 
them deserve serious attention. The case of the relation of hum- 
ble-bees to clover may be cited as an example. Darwin states 
that '* humble-bees alone visit red clover, . . . hence we may in- 
fer as highly probable that if the whole genus of humble-bees be- 
came extinct or very rare in England, . . . tbe red clover would 
become very rare, or wholly disappear" (Origin of Species, Ed. 
1880, p. 57). On this point Mr. Syme remarks: ''Darwin says 
that T, praiense will not produce seed unless it has been visited 
by humble-bees. . . . But this is quite a mistake. Red clover 
seed had been grown and exported from New Zealand long before 
tbe humble-bee was introduced there; and I am informed by one 
of the leading Melbourne seedsmen that he has been supplied with 
this seed, grown in tbe western district of Vietoria, for tbe last 17 
years; although no humble-bees have ever been introduced into 
that colony" (p. 112). It does not seem possible that both these 
statements can be true. 

Many similar facts regarding the relation of insects to the color 
and form of flowers, the results of cross-fertilization, and tbe sig- 
nificance of secondary sexual characters, are cited by Mr. Syme 
in bis endeavor to prove the falsity and insufiiciency of the theory 
of natural selection. F. W. T. 

The Apodida, A morphologiccLl study. By H, M. Bernabd. 
Nature Series, London and New York, Macmillan & Co. 
8^. $2. 

Thib is an extremely interesting study of the PhyUopod crusta- 
ceans, Apus, Lepidurus, etc., with the view of using them as a 
key to solve the problem as to the origin of the Crustacea and the 
true aflSnities between the different groups. His study has led 
the author to the conclusion that Apus is derived from a carni- 
vorous annelid, whose five anterior segments have become ven- 
trally bent over. He believes he has shown the trunk of Apus to 
be a true link between the many segmented annelids and the crus- 
tacean fewer-segmented body, that it exhibits a gradual trans- 
formation of tbe annelidan cuticle into the crustacean exo-skele- 
ton, while the annelidan parapodia are shown to be capable of de- 
veloping every form of crustacean limb, Apus supplying the clue. 
In short, he regards Apus as affording an almost ideal transition 
form between the annelids and Crustacea. Further, he shows 
that if this is true for Apus, the long-contested Limulus or horse- 
shoe crab and the Trilobites must have had a similar origin. He 
concludes that while only one group of modern Crustacea admits 
of derivation from the Trilobites, all the rest except Limulus can 
be deduced from the ApodidxB, 

Whether this hypothesis be finally accepted or not, the author's 
discussion throws light on many contested points, and cannot 
fail to have a beneficial influence on future discussions and theo- 
ries of classification of the animals to which it relates. 

LeMsons in Elementary Biology, By T. Jbffbet Parkeb. Lon- 
don, Macmillan & Co. 8^. $2.25. 

Pbofessob Pabker, a well known pupil of Huxley and profes- 
sor of zoology in the University of Otago, New Zealand, has en- 
deavored in this work to give an account of the structure, physi- 
ology and life history of a series of typical organisms in the order 
of their increasing complexity. He begins with the unicellular 
organisms Amcebay Hcsmatococeus, Heteromita, EugloBna, Proto- 
myxOf Mycetozoa, Sacchnromyces, and Bacteria. He then takes 



up those unicellular forms in which there is an increasing com- 
plexity, such as Paramocciumy Foraminifera^ Diatorus, and 
Mucor. 

Next come organisms, in which complexity is attained by eel) 
multiplication, though with little differentiation, fungi, and algae; 
then solid aggregates in which differentiation is a marked factor, 
such as Hydra and Porpita, From these he proceeds to poly- 
gordins, mosses, and ferns. About fifteen pages are given to the 
higher types, starfish, crayfish, mussel, and dogfish, and to the 
higher plants, and special discussions on cells and nuclei. Biogene- 
sis, homogenesi«, oiig^n of species, etc., are discussed in special 
chapters. In general, little criticism is suggested by the facts 
stated. For the teacher it may be said to be wholly unfit for 
elementary work, properly so-called. The author revels in a truly 
Lankesterian pollysyllabic vocabulary, wjiich the 18-page double- 
column index by no means fully -explains. A very dispropor- 
tionate amount of space is given to a few low types, and the pupil 
cannot obtain any general idea of the animal kingdom from the 
book without an amount of knowledge, insight, and study not to 
be expected of beginners. We should think the book well adapted 
to deter any student who was obliged to use it from taking any 
further interest in the study of biology, though an accomplished 
teacher might find it suggestive of what to avoid in his work. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 

The Duke of Argyll will publish in the fall a book called 
** The Unseen Foundations of Society,'' which is described as an 
examination of the fallacies and failures of economic science due 
to neglected elements. 

— The New York History Co., 182 Nassau St., N. Y., have 
just ready the second volume of the *' Memorial History of the 
City of New York." 

— Harry de Windt has written a book entitled ^* Siberia as It 
Is,'' which appears to be a defence of tbe Russian system of 
prison management, and is intended to be a reply to Mr. Oeorge 
Kennan and other travellers and writers who have attacked that 
administration as a system of ** cruelties and atrocities which is a 
disgrace to a civilized country and to the nineteenth century." 

— It is thought that it may be possible to bring out additional 
volumes of Freeman's ** History of Sicily," so large is the mass of 
MSS. left by the historian. The MS. referring to the Norman con- 
quest is practically complete, and would form a volume by itself. 
Besides all this, Freeman left more or less complete materials for 
a history of Rome down to the time of Mithridates ; considerable 
fragments of a history of Qreece; a work on King Pippin; a frag- 
ment of Henry I. ; and some other manuscripts. 

— W. B. Saunders, 918 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, have just 
ready *'A New Pronouncing Dictionary of Medicine," by Dr. 
John M. Keating and Henry Hamilton. The work is a volumi- 
nous handbook of medical, surgical, and scientific terminology, 
containing concise explanations of the various terms used in 
medicine and the allied sciences, with phonetic pronunciation, 
etymology, etc. 

— The F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, have just ready a 
new edition (tbe tenth) of tbe ** Book on the Physician Himself, 
and things that concern his reputation and success," by Dr. D. W. 
Cathell, of Baltimore. The Davis Company will publish early in 
September <*The New Pocket Medical Dictionary," compiled by 
Dr. David Braden Kyle from the latest authorities, and containing 
words recently introduced into medicine ; also, addenda of abbre- 
viations, afi&xes, list of diseases known by proper names, list of 
poisons and their antidotes, etc. 

— The Clarenden Press has just issued a collection of the prin- 
cipal speeches delivered during the French Revolution, edited by 
Mr. H. Morse Stephens, the English historian of that period. The 
orators chosen are eleven in number, including Mirabeau, Bar^re, 
Danton, Robespierre, and St. Just. Prefixed to each is a life and 
explanatory comment; while a general introduction deals with 



82 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No 496 



French oratory in general and the oratory of the Revolution. 
Many of the speeches have not before been reprinted, even in 
France ; and special attention has been paid to securing an accurate 
text, and to the spelling of the proper names. 

— W. H. Allen & Co , London, are going to bring out with all 
speed Dr. Steingass^s *' Persian- English Dictionary,'' which has 
been six years in preparation, and which has been subsidized by 
the secretary of state for India. Another book is to appear in 
October, viz., two volumes on the history of the land revenue of 
Bombay, by Mr. A. Rogers, a retired civilian, who has searched 
the records at the India Office and traced the various changes in- 
troduced since the days when the Marathas handed over the task 
of gathering the revenue to the highest bidder. The work will be 
illustrated by a map of ei|ch collectorate, reduced from maps sup- 
plied by the Qovernment of Bombay. Mr. Demetrius Boulger is 
going to write for Messrs. Allen a popular history of China. 

— The August number of The Mother^ 8 Nursery Guide con- 
tains a number of articles that will be valuable to mothers of 
young children during the present season. Dr. H. D. Chapin, in 
an article on '* Catarrh of the Stomach,*' gives explicit directions 
as to the diet necessary in this common ailment; the medical 
editor describes *' Some Improvements in the Preparation of In- 
fants' Foods,'* and Dr. S. M. Ward has a paper on '< Intestinal 
Worms," which in some respects runs counter to the prevailing 



medical opinion on that subject. He says: ''I am constrained 
to believe that young physicians pooh-pooh the suggestions of 
mother and grandmother too often, when asked if worms may 
not be the cause of certain symptoms which the chOd presents.'* 
The article will be found very suggestive and practical. The 
'' Mothers' Parliament " contains letters on <* Summer Recreation 
with Baby," ** Study of Child Nature," '* Choosing a Cow," etc. 

— Archibald Constable & Co. have in the press and will publish 
shortly an authorized translation of " Antagonismus der englischen 
und russiachen Interessen in Asien," with a map embodying the 
latest information. 

— In the Overland Monthly for August, in an interesting article, 
entitled '* The Economic Introduction of the Kangaroo in 
America," Robert C. Auld suggests, to take the place of the de- 
funct buffalo, the introduction of the kangaroo from Australia, 
it being valuable as providing ** flesh, fur, and footwear." He 
finds that the kangaroo *' (1) Is easily domesticated ; (2) breeds 
readily in captivity ; (8) is easily maintained ; (4) has excellent 
and abundant fiesh of a very edible kind; (5) is valuable as a 
fur-producer; (6) makes excellent sport when at large; (7) can be 
bred and reared on an extensive, inexpensive scale, by simply 
fencing in a tract of country not suitable for other stock; (8) be- 
comes easily and thoroughly acclimated, and is quite hardy ; (9) 
and can be procured very easily and cheaply. ' 



Publications Received at Editor's Office. 



Bbal, W. J., and Wheslbr. C. F. Miobigan Flora. 
Agrlcultaral College, Mich. 8<*. Paper. ISO p. 

OoNNSOTicuT. Fourteenth Annual Report of the 
State Board of Health. New Haren, The State. 
8«. 240 p. 

FowLBR, N. C. Jr., and Others. Home Warming 
and Ventilation. Geneya, N. T., Herendeen 
Mfg. Co. 120. Paper. 64 p. 

Gaktmedx. Problems in Physics and their Applica- 
tion to Djnamic Meteorology. Published by 
the Author. 8^. Paper. 48 p. 

Maooun, John. Catalogue of Canadian Plants. 
Part VI. Mnsoi, Montreal, Qoyemment. S". 
Paper. 206 p. 

WiLLiBTOV, S. W., AND Otbrrb. Report on the Ex- 
amination of Certain Connecticut Water Sup- 
plies. 8<». Paper. 499 p. 



Reading Matter Notices. 

Ripans Tabules cure hives. 
Ripans Tabules cure dyspepsia. 

Societas Entomologica. 

International Entomolog^ical Society, Zu- 

rich-Hottingen, Switzerland. 

Annual fee, ten francs. 

The Journal of the Society appears twice a 
month, and consists entirely of original ar- 
ticles on entomology, with a department for 
advertisements. All members may use this 
department free of cost for advertisements 
relating to entomology. 

The Society consists of about 450 members 
in all countries of the world. 

The new volume began April 1, 1892. The 
numbers already issued will be sent to new 
members. 

For information address Mr. Fritz Ruhl, 
President of the Societas Entomologica, 
Zurich- Hottingen, Switzerland. 

SCIENCE CLUBBING RATES. 

10^ DISCOUNT. 

We will allow the above discount to any 
^subscriber to Science who will send us an 
order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting 
each at its full price. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



Exchanges. 

[Preeof charge to all, if of aatiafactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.l 

TazidermlBt going out of buaineaa has quantity of 
finely-mounted Bpeclmene of North American birds, 
mammals and reptiles and skios of birds for Sale, 
including a full local collection of bird skins, show- 
ing some great yariationa of species; also quantity 
of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, 
and mounted heads of same. Will give good ex- 
ohanse for Hawk Bye camera with outfit. Apply 

nickly to J. R. Thurston, 885 Tonge St., Toronto, 

anada. 



t 



For exchange. — A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather 
covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for mak- 
ing lantern slides. Flute cost $97, and is nearly new. 
U. C). COX, Mankato, Minn. 

Te exchange ; Bxperiment Station bulletins and 
reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. I 
will send list of what I hare for exchange. P. H. 
ROLFS, Lake City, Florida. 

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for 
fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable 
specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. 
P£RRY. State Geologist, Rutland, Vt. 

For exchange. — Three copies of '* American State 
Paperi Bearing on Sundav Legislation/* 1891, $s.50, new 
and unused, for '*The SaDbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, 
1840; '*The Sabbath," by A. A. Phelps, 184a; " History 
of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and 
Abuses," bv W. L. Fisher, 1859; '* Humorous Phases of 
the Law,*' by Irving Browne; or other works amounting 
to value of hooks exchanged, on the question of govern- 
mental legislation in reference to religion. personalTiberty, 
etc. If preferred, I will sell ^^American State Papers/* 
and buy other books on the subject. WILLIAM AD- 
DISON BLAKELY, Chicago, 111. 

For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private 
chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal- 
ance (soog to i-iom^.),^ platinum dishes and crucibles, 
agate motors, glass-blowing apoaratus, etc. For sale in 
part or whole. Also complete file of Siiliman'M yournaiy 
1863-1885 (6a-7z bound): Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; 
U. S. Coast Survey. 1854-1869. Full particulars to en- 
quirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn. 

Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any 
standard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Children: 
Wilson's "American Ornithology,'" t vols.; Coues' ''Birds 
of the Northwest" and ** Birds of the Colorado Valley," 
3 vols.; Minot's ''Land and Game Birds of New En^r- 
laod^' Samuels* *■" Our Northern and Eastern Birds;" sul 
the Reports on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, 
bound m s vols., morocco; anfi a complete set of the 
Reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey. Please give 
editions and dates in corresponding. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALL, High School, Dcs Moines, Iowa. 

To exchange Wright's " Ice Age in North America " 
and Le Contc's '^Elements of Geology" (Copyright i88a) 
for "Darwinism," by A R.Wallace. "Origin of Species/' 
by Darwin. "Descent of Man/' by Dar\k'in, "Man's 
Place in Nature," Huxley, ''Mental Evolution in Ani- 
mals/' by Romanes, '*Prc-Adamitcs.'* by Winchell. No 
books wanted except latest editions, anH books in good 
condition. C. S. Brown, Jr., Vanderbih University, 
N.ishville. Tenn. 



Wants. 



A ny person teeking a position /or which he it qnali' 
fied 6y hi* scientiJU atiainmen<s^ or any person teekint 
tome one /# fill a position 0/ this character^ be it that 
eifa teacher 0/ science^ chemist ^ draughtsman^ or what 
not, may have the *1Vant' inserted under this head 
FRKK OP COST, ij he satisfies the publisher 0/ the suit' 
able character ofi his application, A ny person seeking 
information on any scientific question., the address of 
auv scientific mauy or who can in any way use this 
column for a purpose consonant with the nature oj 
the paper ^ is cordially invited to do so, 

A JOHNS HOPKINS graduate (1898) deelrea a 
position as instructor in matbematios and 
physios. Addres*} A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins 
UnlTersity, Baltimore, Md. 



W 



ANTED.— A collection of postage stamps; one 
made preTious to 1 870 preferred. Also old and 
curious stamps on original letters, and old entire 
U S. stamped envelopes. Will pay oashorgiye in 
exchange flrst-olass fossils, including fine ciuolds. 
WM. F. E. GUBLET, Danville, lU. 



WANTED.—To purchase laboratory outfit; bal- 
ances, evaporating dishes, burettes, etc., 
wanted immediately for cash. C. E. 8PRIBS, 8S 
Murray street, New York. P. O. Box I741. 

WANTED.— The services of a wide-awake young 
man, as correspondent, in a large manufactur 
ing optical business; one preferred who has a thor- 
ough knowledge of microscopv and some knowledge 
of photography. Address by letter, stating age and 
references. Optical, care or Science, 874 Broadway, 
New York. 

WANTED.— We want any and til of the following, 
providing we can t ade ether books and maga- 
zines or buy them cheap for cash: Academy, Lon- 
don, vol. 1 to 88, 36, Jan. and Feb., '89; Age of Steel, 
vol. 1 to 66; American Antiquarian, voL 1, 8; Ameri- 
can Architect, vol. 1 to 6, 9; American Art Review, 
vol. 3; American Field, vol. 1 to 81; American Geol- 
ogist, vol. 1 to 6; American Machinist, vol. 1 to 4; 
Art Amateur, vol. 1 to 7, O^t., '4; Art Interchange, 
vol 1 to 9; Art Union, vol. 1 to 4, Jan., '44, July, '45; 
Bibliotbeca Sacra, vol. 1 to 46; Godey's Lady's Book, 
vol. 1 to 80; New Englaoder, vol. 1 1 ; Zoologist, Series 
1 and 1, Series 8 vol. 1 to 14; Allen Armeudale (.s 
novel). Raymer'8''01d Book "Store, S4S 4th Ave. 
S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

WANTED.— By a young man, a Swarthmore Col- 
lege junior, a position as principal of a public 
high school in one of the Gulf States, or as instractor 
In botany, physiology, and geology in an academy 
or normal school. Address B., care of Librarian, 
Swarthmore College, Penn. 

WANTED.— To act as correspondent for one or 
two daily or weekly papers. Have worked on 
paper for about two years would like a position on 
editorial staff of humorous paper. Address GEO. 
C. MASON, 14 Elm St., Hartford, Conn. . 

TRANSLATOR wanted to read German architec 
tural works at sitsht (no writing). One familiar 
with technical terms desired. Address *'A.,"Box 
149, New York Post Office. 



August 5, 1892.J 



SCIENCE. 



83 



— D. Vrd Nostrand Compaay will publish in the fail in their 
Scienoe Series " A French Method of Obtaining Slide- Valve Dia- 
Rrams," by Lloyd Banston, Aw't Naval Constructor, U. 8. Navy, 
Mtd " A. Graphical Method for Swing Bridges," by B. F. La Rue. 

— Profeesore W. J. Beal and C. F. Wheeler have prepared for 
the thirteenth annual report of the State Board ot Agriculture of 
Uicbigan a catalogae of plants of (he State. It contains IBO 
pagea, and is much more than a mere Hat. In the 111 orders 
represented, these including the phaneroB;ame and vaacular crypto- 
gama, there are 504 genera and ITMspeciesand varieties. A map 
showing the provisional districts int« which the State is divided 
ia prefixed to the catalogue. The distribution of each plant is 
mentioned, and remarks are made upon many species. It is only 
poeeible to refer to some of the numerous topics touched upon in 
the introductory remarks. Among them we Gnd a general de- 
•cription of the topi>grapby of the State, with lists of the plants 
characteristic of the ten districts, lists of the plants occurrinf; in 



the "Jack-pine plains," the prairiea, and in the eastern and west- 
era sides of the Slate in the latitude of 44° 40'. Ther« are also 
valuable hints in regard to the trees best adapted for planting 
about the home and along the roadside \ planting a wild garden ; 
trees and shrubs noted for the color of tlieir foliage in autumn; 
native climbing plants; plants indicating a fertile soil; trees valua- 
ble for timber; native and introduced weeds; rare or local 
plants; medicinal plants, etc. Not the least interesting topic is 
that relating to wild fruits and nuts, the remarks of Dr. Asa 
Gray made in 1873 being quoted. He speculated upon what the 
rf&ults would have been if our civilization had had its origin in 
North America instead of the Old World. Apples would have 
developed from the wild crab; plums from several wild species; 
ilie persimmon, the paw paw, the ground nut. hickory nut, and 
iralnut would hold the places now filled' by others; and perhaps 
2,000 or 8,000 years hence some of these will have taken a 
front rank among the edible fruits of the then existing races of 



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Speech Reading and ArticolatioD 
Teacbing. 

By A. MELVILLB BELL. 

ft-tee, 25 CetUt. 

Fracticsl Iiiatructioni in the Art of Beading 
Speech from the Mouth; uid in the Art cu 
Teaching Articulation to the Deaf. 
[TblB Work— written at the auggeatlaD of UIh 
Sarah Fuller, Frlnolpal of the Horace Mann Sahool 
for the Deat Barton. Hasa.— U, bo far aa koDwa.tbe 
Brat Treatlae published on " Speech RsadlUK."] 
rrom Prtnetpalt of IntlituHont far theOeaf. 
"Admirable in Ita conclaeDeu, oleacneeaand tree 
dom from teohnloality," 
" The almplloltr and perEeoUoa of tbla little book. 

" Full ol exact and helpful obaerratlona." 
" A Terr Intoreatlng and Taluabie work." 
" The rulea are olearlT glien and will be of great 
oHUty." 
" Brery artloalatloa teaoher ehonld etudj It," 
■'A model ol oleameu and ■Impllclty. wittaont 
baTlnK Hny of the puzzllni; ajmbalB that trouble tbe 
common mind, , . . The eierolaeB given inapeeoh- 
readlng from the Upe are eBpeolally fiitereBtlnn. and 
of great Impnrtance for tbe student of phonetics." 
— J&odem tfanguage yotet. 

*,* The nboTe work may be obtained, by 



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POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 



N, D. C, HODGEtf, 874 Broadwe]', N. V. 



84 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 496 



QUERY. 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, say,) has failed 
to protect between two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
conductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light- 
ning was attracting the attention 
of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub- 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First inserted June 19. No response 
to date. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 
874 BBOAOWAT, NEW TOSK 

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THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL S. TROY. 

This contains a discussion of the reasons 
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TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Titles of Some Articles Published in ScUnoe since 

Jan. I, i8ga. 

Aboriginal Korth American Tea. 

Actinism. 

Agrlcnltare, Experimental, Status of. 

Amenbotep. King, the tomb ot 

Anatomy, The TeaohiDg of, to Advanced Medical 
Students. 

Anthropology, Current Notes on. 

Architectural Exhibition in Brooklyn. 

Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics. 

Artesian Wells In loira. 

Astronomical Notes. 

Bacteria, Some Uses of. 

Botanicsl Laboratory, A. 

Brain, A Few Characteristics of the Avian. 

BythoecopldsB anl Cereopids. 

Canada, Koyal Society of. 

Celts, The Question of the.* 

Cbaliootbenum, The Ancestry of. 

Chemical Laboratory of the Case School of Applied 
Science. 

Children, Growth of. 

Collection of Objects Used in Worship. 

Cornell, The Change at. 

Deaf, Higher Education of the. 

Diphtheria, Tox-Albumln. 

Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of. 

Eskimo Throwing Stick*. 

Etymology of two Iroquolan Compound Stems. 

8ye-HabttB. 

Eyes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to Certain 
Facial Expressions. 

Family Traits, Persistency of. 

Fishes, The Distribution of. 

FoesUs, Notice of New Gigaatic 

Foui^fold Space, Possibility of a Realization of. 

Gems, Artificial, Detection of. 

Glacial Phenomena in Northeastern New York. 

Grasses, Homoptera Inlurlous ta 

Great Lakes, Origin of the Baslna of. 

*' Healing, Divine." 

Hemipten us Month, Structure of the. 

Hofmann, August wllhelm von. 

Hypnotism among the Lower Animals. 

Hypnotism, Traumatic 

Indian occupation of Now York. 

Infant's Movements. 

Influenaa, Latest Details Concerning the Germs of. 

Insects In Popular Dread In New Mexico. 

Inventions in Foreign Countries, How to Protect 

Inventors and Manufacturers, the American Associ- 
ation of. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences. 

Jargon, The Chinook. 

Jassfdee; Notes on Local. 

Keller, Helen. 

Klamath Nation, LingulsticB. 

Laboratory Training, Alms of. 

Lewis H. CarviU, Work on the Gladal Phenomena. 

Lightning, The New Method of Protecting Buildings 
m>m. 

LIssaJou's Carres, Simple Apparatus for the Produo* 
tlon of. 

Maize Plant, Observations on the Growth and Chemi- 
cal Composition of. 

Maya Codices, a Key to the Mystery of. 

Medicine, Preparation for the Study of. 

Mineral Discoveries, Some Reoent, in the State of 
Washington. 

Museums, The Support of. 

Palenque Tablet, a iBrlef Study of. 

Patent Office Building, The. 

Physa Heteroetropha Lay. Notes on the Fertility of. 

Poeket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of. 

Polarlscopes, Direct Refieotlng. 

Psychological Laboratory in the University of To- 
ronto. 

Psychological Training. The Need of. 

Psylla, the Pear-Tree. 

Rain-Making. 

Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska. 

Scientific Alliance, The. 

Slstrurus and Crotalophorus. 

Star Photography, Notes on. 

Star, The New, in Auriga. 

Storage of Storm- Waters on the Great Plains. 

Teaching of Science. 

Tiger, A New Sabre -Toothed, from Kansas. 

Timber Trees of West Virginia. 

Tra7he» of Insects, Structure of. 

Vein- Formation. Valuable Experiments in. 

Weeds as Fertllfz^ng Material. 

Will, a Recent Analysis of. 

Wind-Storms and Trees. 

Wines, The Sophisticated French. 

Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C. 



Some of the Contributore to Science Since Jan. 

I, 189a. 

Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, Pa. 

All<>o, Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BsldwlD, J. Mark. Univers ty of Toronto, Canada* 

Baruee, charles Reid, Msdtson, Wis. 



Banr, G., Clark University, Worcester, Masa. 

Real, W. J., Agricultural College, Mich. 

Beals, A. B., MilledgevUle, Ga. 

Beauchamp, W. M., Baldwlnsvllle, N.Y. 

Boas, Franz, Clark University, Woroeeter, Mass. 

Bolley, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak. 

Bostwlch, Arthur E., Montdatr, N J. 

Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass. 

Brinton, D. G., PhUadelphia, Pa. 

Call, B. Ellsworth, Dee Moines, la. 

Chandler, H., Buffalo, N.Y. 

ComstockjTheo. B., Tucson, Arizona. 

Conn, H. w, Middletown, Conn. 

Cragln, F. W., Colorado Springs. CoL 

Davis. W. M., Harvard College. Cambridge, Mass. 

Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H. 

Farrington, E. H., Agricultural Station, Champaign^ 

Ferree, Barr, New York City. 

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins University, Baltl> 
more, Md. 

Foehay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y. 

Gallaudet, B. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C. 

Garman, &, Museum of Comp. ZooL, Cambridge. 
Maes. 

Golden, Katherine S., Agricultural College, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 

Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, 111. 

Hale, George S., Boeton, Mass. 

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario. Canada. 

Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Woroeeter, Mass. 

Halsted, Byron D., Rutgers College, New Brans> 
wick, N.J. 

Haworth, Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

Hay, O. P., Irviqgton, Ind. 

HayneSfHenry W., Boeton Mass. 

Hasen, u. A., Weather Bureau, Washington, D.CL 

Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau of Ethnology, Washington^ 

D.C/. 

Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb. 

HUl, E. J., Chicago. 111. 

Hill, Gea A., Naval Observatory, Washlngtmi, D.C. 

Hitchcock, Romyn, Washington, D.C. 

Holmes, E. L. Chicago, UL 

Hotchklss, Jed., Staunton, Va. 

Howe, Ja& Lewis, Louisville, Ky. 

Hubbard Jjlardiner G , Washington, D.C 

Jackson, Dugald C, Madison, Wisconsin 

James, Joseph F., Agricultural Dept., Washingtoo. 

D.C. 
Johnson, Roger B , Miami University, Oxford, O. 
Kellerman, Mrs. W. Aj^ Columbus, O. 
Kellloott, D S., ^tate university, Columbus, O. 
Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburghr N. Y. 
Llntner, J. A., Albany, N. Y. 
Loeb, Morris, New York City. 
Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Madoskie, G., Princeton, N.J. 
McCarthy, Gerald, Agricultural Station, Raleigh, 

N.C. 
MacDonald, Arthur, Washington, D.C. 
Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J. 
Mason, O. T., Smithsonian Institution, Washington^ 

Mili^paugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Vil 

Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass. 

Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, M d. 

Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca,,N.Y. 

Osbom, Henry F., Columbia College, New York 
City. 

Osbom, Herbert, Agricultural College, Amee, Iowa. 

Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa. 

Pillsbury, J. HM_Smlth Collefre, Northampton, Mass. 

Poteat. W. L., wake Forest, N. C. 

Preble, Jr^, W. P., New York City. 

Ruffner, W. H., Lexington. Va. 

Sanford, Edmund C, Clark University, Worceeter,. 
Masa 

Schufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C. 

Scripture, E. W., Clark University. Woroeeter, Mass. 

Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Smith, John B., Rutgers College, New Brunswlok,. 
N.J. 

Southwick, Edmund B., New York City. 

Stevens, George T., New York City. 

Stevenson, & Y., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stone, G. H., Colorado Springs, CoL 

Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C. 

Thurston, R. H., Cornell university, Ithaoa, N.Y. 

Todd, J. B., Taborjjowa. 

True, Frederick W., National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Turner, C. H., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati. 
O. 

Wake, C, Staniland, Chicago, lU. 

Ward, K. Dec., Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Ward, Stanley M.,ScrantOD, Pa. 

Warder, Robert B., Howard Univeraity, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins Univeraity, Balti> 
more. M.U. 

West. Gerald M., Clark University, Woroester, Mass. 

Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Woroester, Mass. 

WUllamn, Edward H., Lehigh university, BetlUe- 
hem. Pa. 



/^ 



SCIENjQE 

A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE *^^AND SCIEMCES 



PUBLISHED BY N. D. C. HODGES, 874 BROADWAY, NEW YOh.'"^^ 



'«C^ 



Tenth Yeab. 
Vol. XX. No. 497. 



'^? 



AUGUST 12, 1892. 



h. ,,JLK Copies, Ten Cents. 
$3.50 Per Tear, in Advance. 



Contents. 



The Chief Mountain Lakes. George 
Bird Grinnell 

Birds Breeding at Hanover, New Hamp- 
shire. Clarence M, Weed 



Hot Weather in Mars. 
Houston 

* ' Flathead ' * Deer A . . . 



Edwin J. 



Some Analogies Between MoiiBCX7i.ES 
AND Crystals. John W. Caldwell. 



Notes and News. 



Current Notes on Anthropology.— 
XII. Edited by D. O. Brinton 

Medical Botany. Charles Frederick 
MiUspa ugh 

On the Present Tendency Toward 
Higher Standards of Profes- 
sional Education. A. H 

LrmsRS to the £ditor 

Book Reviews 

Among the Publishers 



85 

86 

86 
87 

88 
89 

90 
91 

92 
92 
94 
95 



INSECTS AND INSECTICIDES. 

A PRACTICAL MANUAL, 

Concerning Noxious Insects and the Methods 
of Preventing their Injuries. 

By CLARENCE M. "WEED, 

Professor of Entomology and Zoology, New 
Hampshire State CoHege. 



Intend at the Foet-Offlce of New York. N.Y., as 
Secood-CaMS Mall Matter. 



HrHAT 18 SAIO ABOUT IT. 

" I think tbat you haye gotten together a very 
useful and valuable little book/'- Dr. C. V. Blley, 
U. ^. Entomologist, Washington, D. C. 

"Tt is excellent/'^ James Fletcher, Dominion Bn- 
toiuologist, Ottawa, Canada. 

" I am well pleased with it "—Dr. F. M. Hexamer, 
Editor American Agricuituriat^ New York. 

" It seems to me a good selection of the matter 
which every farmer and fruit grower ought to hare 
at his immediate command.'**— Prof. 8. A. Forbes. 
State Entomologist of Illinois, Champaign, III. 

" A good book, and it is needed.''-^rof. L. H. 
BaUey, Cornell University. 

"It Is ene of the beat books of the kind 1 have 
ever Been/*— J. Freemont Hickman, Agriculturist, 
Ohio Experiment Station, Columbus, Ohio. 

** I shall gladly recommend it.**— Prof. A. J. Cook, 
Michigan Agricultural College.- 

Price, $1.25. 

Sent postpaid to any address on receipt of price. 



H. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, Hew York. 



Mew Method of Protecting Property 
from Lightning. 

The Ligbdiiiig Dispeller. 

Price, $20 to $30.— According to size. 

The Patent Lightning Dispeller is a conduc- 
tor specially designed to dissipate the energy 
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No recorded case of lightning stroke has 
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of a conductor has invariably protected under 
the conditions employed. 

Correspondence solicited. 

AGENTS WANTED. 

Tbe American Ugbtnlng Protection Companj 

United Bank Building, Sioux City, Iowa. 



THE LABRADOR GOAST. 

A JOURNAL OF TWO SUMMER CRUISES 
TO THAT REGION. 

WITH NOTES ON ITS EARLY DISCOV- 
ERY, ON THE ESKIMO. ON ITS PHY- 
SICAL GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND 
NATURAL HISTORY, TOGETHER WITH 
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS, ARTI- 
CLES, AND CHARTS RELATING TO 
THE CIVIL AND NATURAL HISTORY 
OF THE LABRADOR PENINSULA. 

By ALPHEUS SPRHG PACKARD, I.D., PLD. 

sportsmen and ornithologists will be interested in 
tbe list of Labrador birds by Mr. L. W. Turaer, 
which has been kindly reyised and brought down to 
date by Dr. J. A. Allen. Dr. 8. H. Scadder has oon- 
trlbated the list of butterflies, and Prof. John 
Jiaeoiin, of Ottawa, Canada, has prepared the list of 
Labrador plants. 

M nch pains has been taken to render the bibliog- 
raphy complete, and the author is indebted to Dr. 
Ftbiub Boas and others for sereral titles and impor- 
tant BOggeations; and It is hoped that this feature of 
the book will recommend it to collectors of Ameri- 



It is hoped that the volume will setye as a guide 
to the Labrador coast for the use of trayellers, 
yachtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as 
wen as those interested in geographical and histori- 
cal studies. 

513 pp., 8^ $8.50. 



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SCIENCE 

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i 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX. No. 497 



PUBUCATIONS. 



Speecb Reading and ArticnlatioD 

TeacMng. 

By A. MELVILLE BELL. 

Price, 25 Cents, 

Practical Instructions in the Art of Reading 
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[This Work— written at the suggestion of Miss 
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first Treatise published on ** Speech Reading/^J 

JPVont Principais of Institutions for the J>eaf. 

** Admirable in its conciseness, clearness and free 
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" The simplicity and perfection of this little book. 

• • • 

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** A very interesting and valuable work.** 

** The rules are clearly given and will be of great 

utiUty." 

*' Every articulation teacher should study it." 

*'A model of clearness and simplicity, without 
having any of the puzzling symbols that trouble the 
common zoind. . . . The exercises given in speech- 
reading from the lips are especiaUy interesting, and 
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NEO-DARWIHISN AND HEO-LANARCKISN. 

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Annual address of the President of the Biological 
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historical and critical review of modem scientidc 
thought relative to heredity, and especially to the 
problem of the transmission of acquired characters, 
The following are the several heads inrolved in the 
discussion Status of the Problem, Lamarckism. 
Darwinism, Acquired Cliaracters, Theories of He 
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THE BOTANICAL GAZETTE. 

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Edited by Pxof. S. Calyik, Uniyersity of Iowa; Da. E. W. Clatpols, Buohtel College: John Btbbmam, 
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PaoF. RoB'T T. HILL, U. S. Irrigation Survey: Da. AMoaaw C. Lawson. University of California; R. D . 
SALiSBuaT, Uniyersity of Wisconsin; Joskph B. TTaasLL, Oeol. Snr. of Canada; E. O. Ulbiob, Minnesota 
Oeologioal Survey: Paov. I. C. Whits. University of West Virginia; PaoF. N. H. Wihohbll, University 
of Minnesota. Now la its IXth yolume. $8.50 per year. Sample ooples, iiM) cents. Address 



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NEW YORK, AUGUST 12, 1892. 



THE CHIEF MOUNTAIN LAKES. 

BY QEOBOB BIRD QRINNELL. 

Volume I., Pacific Railroad Reports, pp. 548-549, Mr. 
Doty speaks of visitini^ the Chief Mouataia Lake, and 
)e8 it and its companion sheet of water. The maps of 
irvey and other more recent ones show lakes to which 
ime is given, and references in some recent literature 
to the lakes shown on those maps, 
lakes so named are, however, not the ones mentioned 
. Doty, hut lie about 25 or 30 miles to the north and 
if those which he visited, and it would appear that 
If r. Doty's time no geographer has recognized the lakes 
be saw and which. he speaks of as '^the well-known 
Mountain Lake." Those called by this name on gov- 
Qt maps and referred to in reports of the international 
ary survey, published in 1876, are locally known as 
ai Lakes, but, of course, are not to be confounded 
be true Kutenai lakes lying on the Pacific slope and 
bend of the Columbia River. The so-called Kutenai, 
tie Kutenai, lakes are crossed by the international 
ary line and form the sources of the Little Kutenai or 
ton River, and it is probable should be known as the 
ton Lakes. Chief Mountain is a well-known land- 
of north-western Montana, but the Chief Mountain 
are unknown in that country, and the lakes mentioned 
. Doty are locally known as the St. Mary^s Lakes, 
the large river flowing from them is called St. Mary's 
It is the most important stream meeting Belly 
from the south. The town of Lethbridge, in Alberta, 
T., stands at the junction of these two rivers. 
Doty's description of his route, of the country, and of 
Mountain Lake is very clear, and anyone who is 
Ar with the region traversed will at once recognize 
be lakes on St. Mary's River are Chief Mountain 

a number of years I have been in the habit of visiting 
^on in question, which has been practically unknown 

hunters and trappers, and have explored a section 
cing perhaps 900 square miles. 

iote from Mr. Doty's narrative of his journey from 

[edicine Lodge Creek to the Chief Mountain Lakes. 

date of May 27 he says : ** The country is considerably 

1 by high hills and narrow valleys of spring brooks, 
with thickets of poplar and willow and flooded by 
' dams. In twelve miles came to a fine stream [now 
I as Willow Creek] which is a branch of Cut Bank 

and in sixteen miles reached the Cut Bank itself, the 
lortherly fork of Marias River. It is a rapid stream, 
et wide, and flows through a rich valley. . . . Abroad 
^rail leads up the valley indicating that the pass is 
erably used — probably by the Pend d' Oreilles and 
laies who come through to hunt buffalo. Crossed at 

ford ; pushed on over a range of high hills and en- 
cl on a small stream eight miles from Cut Bank River, 
is no doubt one of the sources of Milk River. . . . 



'' May 28. Morning cold, and the hills are white with 
snow. The country is quite flat and full of springs and 
spring brooks, which are the sources of Milk River. On our 
left is a heavy forest of pine timber fifteen miles in length 
and extending into the plain eight miles from the base of 
the mountains. Immediately after passing the point we 
obtained a view of the chief {sic) of King Mountain, which 
is a bare rocky peak of a square form, standing at a distance 
of five or six miles from the main chain, and connected with 
it by a high ridge wooded with pine. In seventeen miles 
came to a broad valley, the sides of which are wooded with 
pine and poplar; and in the bottom, five hundred feet below 
us, we saw the blue water of a mountain lake. This is the 
well-known Chief Mountain Lake. It takes its name from 
Chief Mountain. . . . Descending, into the valley, in four 
miles, we reached the lake and encamped in a beautiful prairie 
bordering it. 

*' May 29. Moved up the lake three miles to its inlet and 
encamped. In this camp we remained until June 5th. . . . 

*' Chief Mountain Lake is seven miles long by one broad. 
Its banks are low and shore gravelly; the water clear and 
very deep. The valley of the lake is six miles in breadth, 
and is rolling prairie interspersed with groves of cotton wood 
and poplar, and in the low places the birch and willow. The 
soil is a reddish loam and is fertile, as is indicated by the 
luxurious vegetation. Pine of a fair size and thrifty growth 
is abundant and can easily be obtained, and there are inex- 
haustible quarries of good limestone. 

^^ Connected with Chief Mountain Lake is another three- 
fourths of a mile wide and extending some nine miles into 
the mountains in the form of a bow, and I therefore called 
it ' Bow Lake.' It is shut in by mountains coming close 
down to the water, and has no valley susceptible of cultiva- 
tion. 

'' The mean of observations for latitude gives as the lati- 
tude of this, the south end, of Chief Mountain Lake 48^ 43' 
09", or 17 miles south of the boundary line. . . . 

Numerous little streams emptying itito these lakes are 
filled with beaver dams and beaver, this industrious ani- 
mal having been left in quiet possession of this country 
since the low price of its fur has rendered it unprofitable to 
trap them. Elk, moose, and deer are abundant, and salmon 
trout of large size are taken in the lakes. 

** June 5. Started due north along the lake-shore, and in 
seven miles came to the outlet at the extreme northern end. 
The outlet is called in the Blackfoot language Mo-koun or 
Belly River. It is a swift, deep stream where it comes from 
the lake and about 80 feet wide, and its course for some miles 
is due north. This is the most southerly of the head-waters 
of the Saskatchewan River." 

This excellent description of the country makes it clear to 
my mind that the name Chief Mountain Lakes belongs to 
those lakes, in north- western Montana, which are locally 
known as the St. Mary's Lakes. This name was given them 
nearly fifty years ago by Hugh Munroe, an old Hudson's 
Bay man, and Mr. Doty's companion on the occasion of his 
visit to the lakes. 

It would seem from Mr. Doty's description that the stream 



86 



SCIEiMCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 497 



which we know as St. Mary's River is the true Belly River. 
This seems natural and proper, for at the point where they 
meet, the St. Aiary's is a larger stream than Belly River. 

As stated by Mr. Doty these lakes are two in number, the 
lower about seven miles long by a mile wide, the upper per- 
haps eleven miles long and nowhere more than a mile in 
width. The lower lake lies north and south, and the upper, 
Mr. Doty's Bow Lake, is bent about half-way up its length, 
its upper or south-western half lying nearly east and 
west, and its lower or northern half nearly north and south. 
Beyond the head of this upper lake is the narrow river-val- 
ley running back in two principal branches for a dozen miles 
and beading on the Continental Divide. The southernmost 
of the two branches is much the larger of the two, and is fed 
by extensive glaciers, which I have visited. 

The lower end of the lower lake is not more than seven or 
eight miles from the Chief Mountain, the most striking 
landmark in this region. The waters flowing into the St. 
Mary's River are divided from those which flow into Cut 
Bank and Milk Rivers, tributaries of the Missouri, by a high 
ridge running out from the Rocky Mountains, and known 
as Milk River Ridge. 



BIRDS BREEDING AT HANOVER, NEW HAMP- 
SHIRE. 

BY CLABENCE K. WEED. 

Thb village of Hanover, N.H., is in the region dividing 
the Canadian and Alleghanian faunas, and possesses many 
animal forms from both. To assist in determining more 
definitely the precise limits of these faunas, the Ornithologi- 
cal Club of the New Hampshire College undertook last 
spring to record the birds breeding within five miles of Han- 
over. The following list includes the species observed this 
season by the members of the club. Especial mention should 
be made of the assistance rendered by Messrs. P. L. Barker, 
R. A. Campbell, and C. E. Hewitt. 

Oreeu Heron, Ardea vireacena. One nest observed. 

American Woodcock, Philohela minor. Three nests ob- 
served. 

Ruffled Grouse, Bonasa umbellvs. Three nests observed. 

Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperi One nest observed. 

Acadian Owl, Nyctala acadica. One nest observed. 

Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythrophalmus. One nest 
observed. 

Belted Kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon. Two nests observed. 

Downy Woodpecker, Picus pubescena. One nest ob- 
served. 

Golden- winged Woodpecker, Colaptea auratvs. Two nests 
observed. 

Night Hawk, Ckordeilea virginiamia. One nest found 
fifteen miles south-east of Hanover: and others reported by 
outsiders within three miles of the village. 

Chimney Swallow, Chcetura pelagica. Many nests. 

Ruby-throated Humming-Bird, Trochilua colvbria. One 
nest. 

Kingbird, Tyrannua tyrannua. One nest. 

Pewee, Sayomia phoebe. Many nests. 

Traills' Flycatcher, Empidonax pusillfia^ var. trailli. 
One nest. 

Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimua. One nest seen 
at Grafton Centre, N.H., fifteen miles south-east. 

Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata. One nest at Fairlee, Vt, 
eighteen miles north. 



HOT WEATHER IN MARS. 

B7 PROFESSOR EDWIN J. HOUSTON. 

The recent severe, protracted, hot weather, that existed in 
the central and eastern portions of the United States during 
the latter part of July, formed, in all probability, but part 
of various general phenomena produced by profound solar 
disturbances. 

So many of the earth^s natural phenomena find their 
origin in the solar radiation, that it is impossible to vary 
either the amount or the distribution of the solar energy 
without markedly modifying terrestrial phenomena. Such 
influences, however, are not limited to terrestrial phe- 
nomena; they must extend beyond the earth and be shared 
by all the members of the solar system. / 



Crow, Corvua americanua. Two nests. 

Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorua. One nest. 

Cowbird, Molothrua ater. Three eggs found in a bobo- 
link's nest. 

Red- winged Blackbird, Agelaiua phceniceua. Two nests. | 

Baltimore Oriole, Icterua gaUmla, Several nests. 

Red Crossbill, Laxia curviroatra. In 1891 a very young 
specimen was brought me that apparently must have been 
raised in this vicinity. 

* 

Yellowbird, Spinua triatia. Two nests. 

V xxv^le Yinch^ Carpodaxma purpureua. One nest. 

Bay- winged Bunting, Pooccetea gramineua. Several nests. 

English Sparrow, Paaaer domesticua. Several nests. 

Savanna Sparrow, Ammodramiia aandwichenaia^ var. aa- 
vanna. One nest. 

Chipping Sparrow, Spizella aocialia. Several nests. 

Song Sparrow, Meloapiza faaciata. Several nests. 

Swamp Sparrow, M. georgiana. One nest. 

Snow Bird, Junco hyemalia. One nest observed at Graf- 
ton Centre, N.H., fifteen miles south-east. 

Indigo Bird. Paaaerina cyanea. Two nests seen in 
1891. 

Barn Swallow, Chelidon erythrozaater. One nest ob- 
served. 

Purple Martin, Proqne aubia. One nest. 

Bank Swallow, Clivicola riparia. Two nests. 

Cedar Bird, Ampelia cedrorum. Two nests. 

Great Northern Shrike, Laniua horecUia. Two nests. 

Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivdceus. One nest 

Yellow Warbler, Dendroica oeatitxi. One nest. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler. Dendroica Pennaylvanica. One 
nest. 

American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla. One nest. 

Oven-bird, Seiurtta aurocapillna. One nest. 

Catbird. Oaleoacoptea carolinenaia. Two nests. 

Brown Thrush, Harporhynchua ruftia One nest. 

House Wren, Troglodytea <Bdor, One nest. 

Short-billed Marsh Wren, Ciatothorua aitellaris. A nest 
supposed to be of this species is reported. 

Chickadee, Parvs atricapillua. Two nests. 

T&wny Thrush^ Turdua fuaceacena. Three nests. 

Hermit Thrush, T. pallaai. Two nests. 

Robin, Merula migratoria. Several nests. 

Blue Bird, Sialia aialia. Several nests. 

Of course this list includes only a portion of the birds 
breeding here, but it may serve as a basis for future obser^ 
vations. 

New HampftUre College. 



August 12, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



87 



Natural phenomena form but links in endless chains of 
cause and effect. An evolution or expenditure of energy, 
such, for ezamplie, as that following a sun spot, produces a 
number of allied pbenomenb which are themselves the 
causes of subsequent phenomena, and these in turn the 
causes of still other phenomena, the chain extending in 
most instances far beyond our ken. 

There has been unusual solar activity during 1892, as has 
been evidenced by an unusual number of sun spots. The 
great spot observed in Philadelphia and elsewhere in the 
early part of the year was one of the largest ever studied, 
and since that time numerous other abnormally large spots 
have appeared. 

It would seem that these rather unusual outbursts of solar 
energy hare produced the following terrestrial phenomena, 
viz. : — 

(1.) The recent brilliant auroral displays. 

(2.) Magnetic storms, or marked disturbances in the values 
of the magnetic intensity, in inclination and declination. 

(3.) Unusually severe electric storms, as evidenced by the 
existence of abnormal earth currents. These electric storms 
are in reality connected with the magnetic storms. 

(4.) Marked disturbances in the earth's meteorological 
phenomena. These have been evidenced by the long spells 
of unseasonable weather that have occurred so frequently in 
the United States during 1892, one of which was the recent 
unusally hot weather before alluded to, the unusual severity 
of which accords well with the unusual solar activity. 

8o, too, does the severity of the allied phenomena. Take, 
for example, the auroral displays, which have seldom been 
equalled in these latitudes for brilliancy. So also the electric- 
storms and magnetic-storms, which have been unusually se- 
vere during 1892. According to the observations of Mr. Finn 
and others, as many as eleven such storms were recorded 
during this time. Their dates were as follows: February 
13, March 6, March 12, April 24, April 25, April 26, May 16, 
May 17, May 18, July 12, and July 16. 

The storm of July 16 was unusually severe, and caused 
great disturbances on the various telegraph lines. The earth- 
currents were so strong that the lines could be operated en- 
tirely by means of earth-currents. This was done, for exam- 
ple, in the case of one of the lines between New Tork and 
Boston. On the same day, July 16, an enormous spot 
appeared on the sun. 

And DOW for possible extra-terrestrial influences and phe- 
nomena. The recent opposition of Mars has brought that 
planet nearer the earth than she has been at any time since 
1877, and nearer than she will ever be again until 1909. The 
opportunity has therefore been particularly good for studying 
those peculiarities of the surface that have always been of 
such interest to astronomers. 

Some observations recently made on Mount Hamilton ap- 
pear to show a marked decrease in the mass of snow within 
the polar caps, as is inferred from certain characteristic 
markings at these points of the planet. This disappearance 
is unusual, and would seem to indicate unusually hot weather 
in our sister planet. The Martian thermometer has probably 
been way up, and the weather has, to form a phrase from 
the fiery color of the planet, been at a red-heat. 

We may add, therefore, another effect produced by the 
unusual sun-spot, viz., 5. The extra-terrestrial effects. 

Of course the influence may be mutual. It may be that 
the unusual proximity of Mars may be the cause of the great 
number of spots, in which case we may thank Mars for the 
recent terrific heat. 



** FLATHEAD " DEER. 

In the American NaturcUiat for August, 1887, were given 
some instances of the occurrence among deer of hornless 
specimens. Here we shall summarize these, preparatory to 
giving in full some original particulars furnished us by a 
Q«rman correspondent. 

Lord Lovat is quoted as having seen humle (hornless) 
stags. They are able to thrash stags of their own or greater 
than their own weight. Several of them were undisputed 
masters of large herds. 

Mr. Horatio Ross has also shot them. They are more 
frequent than generally supposed. They are no whit in- 
ferior to their horned brethren. A full-grown humle is very 
formidable in fight. During the rutting season Mr. Ross 
has seen one in possession of a large herd of hinds, who 
drove off all rivals. 

Both these gentlemen's experience refers to Scotland. The 
following mentioned special cases refer to Germany. H. 
von Nathusius of Altaldensleben, Saxony, and Ludwig 
Beckman have supplied very interesting information which 
is well worth reading to those interested in venery. 

These hornless deer occur wild, they write, and are very 
fertile and impressive. In the Illufdrirte Zeitung, published 
in Leipzig (Oct. 2, 1886), there is a picture of a fight between 
a horned and a hornless (ttag, in which the hornless stag dis- 
plays the mastery. Hornless stags have been mentioned in 
Gkrman sporting literature since the seventeenth century. 

These are cases of what is regarded as variation, but which 
really appear to be referable to atavism, as will be immedi- 
ately seen. 

'There are two species of deer that are normally destitute 
of horns as a characteristic. The first of these is the musk- 
deer; these have peculiarly long canine teeth. These {Moa- 
chfA8 moechiferoua) are natives of Thibet and Nepaul. The 
second is the water- deer, Hydropetes inermis. It is found 
in the marshes of the Yangtze, above Chinkiang, China. 
The Chinese are strongly averse to the flesh, which Euro- 
peans, for want of better, pronounce tolerable. 

Passing from living to extinct forms of deer, we find that, 
tracing them backwards, they become more and more simple 
as to horns, till reaching the lower miocene no member of 
the family is possessed of antlers. It will thus be admitted 
that the claim that instances of hornless deer of the present 
time are only cases of atavism, or reversion to the early 
condition of the head of the species, is simply the truth. 
Further, the above facts prove that horns are of the nature 
of acquired characters — a rather interesting fact just now to 
bring out in connection with the Wiesmannia that is raging. 

The following is a translation of the communication we 
received from our Oerman correspondent: — 

'^The hunter of the deer species has for long designated 
the deer which are destitute of antlers by the name of ^ flat- 
heads,* or modnche. On the skull of such deer appears a 
so-called hombaae^ usually the real bearers of the antlers, 
remarkably stunted and entirely overgrown with the elon- 
gated hair of the forehead. The cause of such striking ap- 
pearance is often held to be the long-continued inbreeding 
occurring in certain districts, or the lack of new blood ob- 
tained by bringing in deer not related. 

^^ If we notice how the deer and roebucks which have been 
confined for domestication and freely fed with oats, rye, 
peas, com, acorns, chestnuts, and beechnuts, often develop 
uncommonly large and branching antlers, it seems just to 
conclude that a lack of these and other means of nourish- 
ment hinders the growing of horns. In fact the so-called 



i 



88 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 497 



'flatheads' are more particularly fouadpn the pine-wood 
regions, where game is obliged to subsist solely upon heather 
forage (sweet broom), and where food is to be found only in 
occasional places. 

** As transitory forms, there are also in such districts, in 
addition to the few flatheads found at all times, deer having 
one ^scurr' or stunted horn, while the other horn is well 
developed, bearing perhaps ten to twelve branches, and the 
majority of the rest of the deer have only small, smooth 
antlers of light color, some curiously bent or spirally 
twisted. Deer which instead of antlers bear a long, straight, 
spear-like born on one side were formerly called ' provincial 
murderers,' as they were considered a very dangerous enemy 
of other deer during the rutting season, and on which ac- 
count their destruction was sought. 

''In the main, these so-called deformities, and even the 
total absence of antlers on the flatheads. can in no way be 
considered an indication of the lack of procreative power, nor 
can they be classed with the abnormal forms or the total loss 
of antlers, which results from injuries, and which reappear 
in their young. The flathead deer are seldom unequal in 
strength or weight to the others of the same age and the 
same district, but occasionally excel the latter in these re- 
spects. They also early enter the rutting season, and show 
themselves equally ready for the conflict. Their art and 
manner of fighting are singular enough ; like the female, 
they rise up high on their hind feet, and with their fore-feet 
they, from above, mercilessly strike their antagonist. It is 
remarkable how the antler-bearing antagonist intuitively 
enters such conflict by rising on his hind feet, making no 
use of his terrible weapons. On such occasions the flathedd, 
having developed superior skill in his movements, almost 
always puts to flight in a few rounds much larger deer with 
immense forked horns. Also at other seasons the contests 
may be observed in regions where the flatheads are found, 
and where at times a troop of such game is run together into 
a narrow space, as is the case occasionally during the prepa- 
rations of a suspended hunt; yet those encounters are less 
fierce and soon ended, as they are brought on by the momen- 
tary invitations and accidental meeting of the deer in the 
press." 

Have there been any cases of deer, bisons, etc., with 'flat^ 
or hornless heads noticed in America ? A. 



SOME ANALOGUES BETWEEN MOLECULES AND 

CEYSTALS. 

BY JOHV W. CALDWELL. 

Obbkistry and crystallography are closely related 
branches ; they are, indeed, but parts of one great whole. The 
special design of chemical laws is to present the methods 
and conditions of the re-arrangement of atoms, which re-ar- 
rangements we generally denominate chemical reactions. 
The laws of crystallography, on the other hand, primarily 
relate to the element of form. While the first series of laws 
concerns the arrangements of atoms, the second takes cog- 
nizance of the arrangements of molecules: while the one 
considers the influence of the chemical force of affinity, the 
other is concerned with the physical force of crystalliza- 
tion. 

. A consideration and comparison of the most important 
laws of the two series will develop, I think, a most interesting 
parallelism and correspondence. Thus, the first great law 
of chemistry is that of definite proportions, in which is stated 
the principle of the fixed and unchanging composition of 



e^ery compound. It finds its satisfactory analogue in the 
crystallographic law of the constancy of the interfacial 
angles, first propounded by Steno in 1669, and re-enunciated 
by Rome de I'lsle in 1783. 'It affirms that for a certain 
crystal species, under conditions of absolute identity of chem- 
ical constitution and equality of temperature, the correspond- 
ing interfacial angles in different individuals will be found 
always to be equal and constant; and this holds in imperfect 
as well as perfect crystals. It is evident then, that what 
the law of definite proportions is, in regard to chemical con- 
stitution, the law of constancy of the interfacial angles is, in 
respect to crystalline form. 

Another equally perfect and beautiful correspondency 
obtains between the law of multiple proportions and that of 
the rationality of the indices. The former emphasizes the 
simple multiple ratio of one element as it unites with some 
other element to form two or more compounds; whereas 
the latter, an important crystallographic law, attributed to 
Hatly, articulates the remarkable fact that the modifications 
of specific crystalline form always take place by a multipli- 
cation of one or more of the index values (or the reciprocals 
of these, the parameter values), by small and simple numbers 
or fractions, by rational and not by irrational quantities. 
The analogy here existing is easily appreciated : in the one 
case we have presented the method (namely, by simple mul- 
tiple ratio) of the formation by weight of chemical com- 
pounds containing the same elements; in the other, the 
method, also by simple multiple ratio, by which is deter- 
mined the modification of fundamental form of a crystalline 
species. 

A third analogy is found in the comparison of the law of 
valency or equivalence in the chemical domain, and the 
law of replacement or substitution in the crystallographic. 
The first of these, of course, refers to the relation by weight 
in which the various elements react; potassium heinsr ex- 
changed for sodium in the proportion of 39 of the former to 
23 of the latter; and, in like manner, chlorine (35.5) for 
bromine (80). The chemical type or idea is continued in 
such reactions, although one of the original constituents may 
have been substituted by another element. Correspondingly, 
the law of replacement allows the crystallographic type or 
idea to be continued, though by altered agents. Thus, the 
recognized substitution -power of magnesium and calcium 
allows, in compounds of the latter, a greater or less substitu- 
tion of the former, without change of crystalline form ; cal- 
cite and dolomite are both rhombohedral in crystallization, 
the angles of the two differing slightly. 

A fourth analogy is expressed in the allotropisms and 
isomerisms of chemistry, and the dimorphisms and poly- 
morphisms of crystallography. The allotropism of elements 
is probably to be explained upon the basis of different 
atomicities of the elemental molecule; but, however ex- 
plained, like atoms are able in many cases to build up struc- 
tures sometimes as variant in physical characters as are the 
diamond and ordinary charcoal, having chemical dispositions 
as different as common phosphorus and red phosphorus. 
Similar suggestions apply to the subject of isomerism. Now, 
to this, crystallography presents an analogue in the di- 
morphism so often to be seen in minerals; one and the same 
substance showing itself in nature in two (sometimes more) 
crystalline forms, i.e., belonging to distinct crystalline sys- 
tems; take, as illustration, calcite (rhombohedral) and arra- 
gonite (ortborhombic). Here again diversity of form is set 
over against diversity of physical and chemical characters. 

A fifth analogy (the last that I shall venture) bases upon 



August 12, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



89 



the bypothecatioD of actual molecular structural form — cod- 
figuration, according to Wunderlich's proposed term to ex- 
press stereo-chemical relations. The subject of molecular 

. configuration is comparatively new ; still we are becoming 
familiarizeid with diagrams and models intended to represent 
such relations. Many of us may have been at first indis- 
posed to accept these views as anything more than visionary 
and fantastic; but the more we have pondered them, the 
more have we been impressed with their significance and 
beauty. Shape, form, and volume must be attributed to 
molecule as well as to mass; the only trouble has been in 
regard to the former, the apparent audacity and hopelessness 
of any attempt to penetrate matter to such depths. The new 
and most refined sense furnished to us by the use of polar- 
isEed light, makes us aware of isomers identical in every re- 
spect, save their response to this delicate physical agent. 
Optical isomers have given rise, under the crucial investiga- 
tions of such men as van t'Hoff, LeBel, Wunderlich, and 
V. Meyer, to the hypotheses of the asymmetric carbon atom, 

^ and the tetrahedral arrangement of the valence-bond, and 
the saturating atoms or radicals. The simple and symmetri- 
cal tetrahedron of methane must be accepted as the perfect 
analogue of a crystal of the same geometric form ; and the 
optical isomers resulting from the different arrangements of 
the same atoms or residues around an asymmetric carbon 
atom, may, in like manner, be taken as the analogues of 
enantiomorphous crystals, as of quartz, right-handed and 
left-handed ; the pairs in each case being perfectly equivalent, 
but not superposable. 

Ghemloal Laboratory, Talane UniTerslty, New Orleans, La. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Thr cause of the terrible disaster at St. Gervais is now being 
investigated by several men of science. There can be no doubt 
that it originated in the small glacier called the Tdte Rousse, 
which is nearly 10,000 feet -above sea-level. According to a cor- 
respondent of the London Times, who writes from Lucerne, Pro- 
fessor Duparc is of opinion that the habitual drainage of this 
glacier bad for some reason, or other became either totally blocked 
or obstmcted; the water gradually accumulated in its natural 
concavity or bed ; and the ever-increasing volume had exercised 
such an enormous pressure as to force a passage and carry away 
a portion of the face of the glacier with it. The mass of ice and 
water rushed down the rocks which dominate the glacier of Bion- 
naasay, not in a single stream but in several, and then reunited 
into one enormous torrent at the foot of the Bionnassay glacier. 
A different theory is held by Professor Forel, of which the corres- 
pondent of the Times gives the following account : Professor Forel 
does not see how a quantity of water sufficient to force away so 
large a portion of the glacier could possibly accumulate in so 
•mall a body as the Tdte Rousse, which has a total superficies of 
less than one hundred acres. It slopes freely on three sides; it is, 
in fact, one of the most abrupt of the whole chain of Mont Blanc ; 
and, in a glacier of this description, with an altitude of nearly 
10,000 feet, there are none of the conditions of a great accumula- 
tion of water. In his opinion, therefore, we must look for the 
main cause of the disaster in the natural movement and breaking 
up of the glacier. He estimates the volume of ice which fell at 
between one and two million cubic metres. The mass, first in 
falling and then rushing down the rapid slope, became transformed, 
for the most part, into what he calls a lava of ice and water. The 
ravine, he says, through which this avalanche rushed shows no 
traces of any great evacuation of water; in the upper portions of 
its transit there is no mud and no accumulation of sand, but, 
on the other hand, there are great blocks of glacier ice strewn 
everywhere^ and at several points he found portions of pow- 
dered ice mixed with earth. Then, again, if this had been sim- 
ply a torrent of water falling, it would have found its way 



down the more violent inclines, instead of, as in this case, 
passing straight over the frontal moraine at the foot of the 
glacier. In this higher region, therefore, all the evidence 
points to an avalanche of ice, which, starting at an altitude of 
nearly 10,000 feet, and descending at an incline of 70 per cent 
for 5,000 feet, was pulverized by its fall, a large portion of it 
being melted by the heat generated in its rapid passage and con- 
tact with matters relatively warm. It rushed into the ravine by 
the side of the glacier of Bionnassy and joined the waters of the 
torrent which issues therefrom, and, further aided by the stream 
of Bon Nant, it became sufficiently liquid to travel down the 
lower portions of the valley at the slighter incline of 10 per cent, 
and yet retained sufficient consistency to destroy everything in its 
passage. That this torrent was not composed merely of mud and 
water is proved, he says, by the fact that it did not always maintain 
the same height when confined to the narrower ravine, and that 
the remains on the sides of the rock show it to have been a viscous 
substance rather than fluid. 

— At a meeting of the London Chamber of Commerce on July 
25, as we learn from Nature, Mr. J. Ferguson read a paper on 
<* The Production and Consumption of Tea, Coffee, Cacao (Cocoa), 
Cinchona, Cocoa-Nuts and Oil, and Cinnamon, with reference to 
Tropical Agriculture in Ceylon." He referred to the position of 
Ceylon, its forcing climate, its command of free cheap labor, and 
its immunity from the hurricanes which periodically devastated 
Mauritius, from the cyclones of the Bay of Bengal, and from the 
volcanic disturbances affecting Java and the Eastern Archipelago. 
The plantations of Ceylon afforded, he said, the best training in 
the world for young men in the cultivation and preparation of 
tropical products, and in the management of free colored labor. 
The cultivation of cane-sugar, although tried at considerable out- 
lay on several plantations forty and fifty years ago, proved a fail- 
ure. More recently experiments by European planters with 
tobacco had not been a success, notwithstanding that the natives 
grew a good deal of a coarse quality for their own use. Although 
cotton growing had not been successful, the island had proved a 
most congenial home for many useful palms, more particularly 
the coconut (spelt without the a to distinguish it and its products 
from cocoa — the beans of the shrub Theobroma cacao) and pal- 
myra, as also the areoa and kitul or jaggery palms. Within the 
past few years Ceylon had come to the front as one of the great 
tea-producing countries in the world, India and China being the 
other two, with Java at a respectable distance. Mr. Ferguson 
said one of the chief objects of his paper was to demonstrate which 
of the products of the island it was safe to recommend for extended 
cultivation in new lands, and which were already in danger of 
being over-produced, and he had arrived at the conclusion that 
coffee, cacao, and rubber-yielding trees were the products to plant, 
while tea, cinnamon, cardamoms, cinchona bark, pepper, and even 
palms (for their oil) did not offer encouragement to extended cul- 
tivation. Statistics relating to the total production and consump- 
tion were given in an appendix. 

— A third edition, largely rewritten, of *' The Microscope and 
Histology," by Simon Henry Gage, associate professor of physi- 
ology in Cornell University, has l>een issued by Andrews & Church, 
Ithaca, N. Y. This volume contains much useful information, 
systematically arranged, and will, no doubt, be appreciated by 
those who are learning to use the microscope and desire to famil- 
iarize themselves with the most approved microscopical methods. 
Chapter I. relates to "The Microscope and its Parts;" Chapter 
II. to **The Interpretation of Appearances," which will be of 
special value to beginners ; Chapter III. gives detailed informa- 
tion with reference to " Magnification, Micrometry, and Draw- 
ing;" Chapter IV. treats of <^ The Micro-Spectroscope and Micro- 
Polariscope ; " Chapter V. of '* Slides, Cover- glasses, Mounting, 
Labelling," etc. 

— B. Westermann & Co. wUl publish in September the third 
volume of Conway and Crouse's translation of Karl Brugmann's 
*' Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germaoic Languages." The 
fourth and concluding volume, with a full index, will be issued 
next year. 



90 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XX. No. 497 



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CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. - XII. 

[Edited by D. G. BHnton, M.D., LL.D.] 

Lig^urians, Iberians, and Siculi. 

Professor G. Serqi occupies the chair of anthropology in 
the University at Rome, and Professor G. Niccolucci that 
in the University of Naples; but these two scientists of 
eminence are far from agreeing* as to the ethnic position of 
the Ligurians, or as to the shape of their skulls. Professor 
Niccolucci described some alleged Ligurian crania, which 
seemed to show them to have been a round-headed people, 
and hence, the Professor inferred, of ** Turanian" origin. 
But Professor Sergi insists that the said skulls were only 
those of modern Modenese, and neither ancient nor Ligurian. 
His own authentic series of Ligurian skulls proves them, on 
the contrary, to have been long-headed,^ with narrow noses, 
orthognathic, and with no similarity to Turanians; but with 
a very close likeness to the ancient Iberian type, such as the 
brothers Siret exhumed from the neolithic deposits of south- 
em Spain. What is more, in two series of neolithic skulls 
from southern Sicily he proves that identically the same 
peculiarities recur; so that the ancient Siculi and Secani who 
held that region before the Greeks came, he believes to be 
branches of one stock, and both of them out-posts of that 
same Ligurian people who in proto-historic times occupied 
most of the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, from the Straits 
of Gibraltar to the tip-end of the Italian peninsula. For 
him, Siculi, Sicani, Ligures, Iberi, as ancient ethnic names, 
all refer to branches of the same stock ; and the cave men of 
Mentone and the Arene Candide in Italy, and of Cro Magnon 
in France, alike furnish us with specimens of the Ligurian 
cranial form. His interesting essay is in the Bulletino di 
Paletnologia Italiana, December, 1891. 

The Meaning of Ethnography. 

In the first number of a new journal, Bibliothique de 
V Alliance Sdentiflqae, Tome I., Fasc. I., appears what we 
should call a ** symposium" on the meaning and the objects 
of Ethnography. The writers are Jules Oppert, Claude Ber- 



nard, Jomard, A. Castaing, Leon de Rosny, Jules Simon, D. 
Marceron, and other well-known names. 

One perceives in most of their contributions that confusion 
of terms which is so prevalent in France, and which is so 
severely and justly criticised by Topinard in his last work, 
*'L,Homme dans la Nature," pp. 7, 8, 23, 24, etc. By its 
derivation and according to its early and correct usage, 
ethnography means a description of the actual condition of 
a people or peoples. So it was employed by Niebuhr and 
Campe early in the century, and so it is used to-day by 
Gkrland, Ratzel, and the other leading ethnographers outside 
of France; and so it should be in France. A word common 
to science should connote the same ideas everywhere. 

Jomard defines it as ''the science whose final purpose is 
to explain the progress of humanity." C. A. Pret gives us 
the terse sentence, '* Ethnography is the social history of 
humanity." Another contributor puts it, ** Ethnography 
seeks to define the laws of the moral and intellectual evolu- 
tion of man." Carnot studies it, '*' to discover a solid 
foundation for my political faith;" de Rosny, ''for the « 
new lights it casts on the grand and enigmatical problem of 
destiny." 

These are brave words, and they tell us a great deal about 
the meaning and purpose of ethnology, but are wholly mis- 
applied with regard to the term ethnography in its correct 
sense, either in French or English. They illustrate the need 
of a correct nomenclature in this science. 

The Primitive History of Mankind. 

A volume on this subject which is at once scientific and 
popular is a decided benefit to the study of anthropology; 
and such a one we have in Dr. Moritz Hoernes^s ''Die 
Urgeschichte des Menschen nach dem heutigen Stande der 
Wissenschaft" (Vienna, H. Hartleben, 1892). It is clearly 
printed and abundantly illustrated, and its scope may be 
guessed from its size — 672 large octavo pages. It takes in 
the whole of what is now called the " pre-history " of Europe^ 
beginning with the alleged remains of tertiary man and ex- 
tending down to the time when history proper takes up the 
thread of the development of the human race in that conti- 
nent. Several chapters of an introductory character ex- 
plain the nature and objects of pre-history, and examine 
into what we may understand by the earliest conditions of 
culture in the human race. 

Dr. Hoermes is not a mere book-maker, as is so often the 
case with authors of popular scientific works, but is a promi- 
nent member of the Anthropological Society of Vienna, and 
a practical laborer in the vineyard of archaeology. He has 
a right, therefore, to press some of its wine wherewith to 
treat the general public. May they quaff deeply and become 
intoxicated with the attractions of this new science, full of 
promises and full of mysteries ! 

Early Development of the Art-Facnlty. 

The development of the art-faculty is as much an ethnic 
as it is a personal trait. As we find among our own ac- 
quaintances some singularly gifted in this respect, and 
others, of equal or greater general ability, quite devoid of it,, 
so it has been with nations and tribes in all periods of cul- 
ture. In lower stages of development it is more ethnic thaa 
personal, the individual then being less free. 

For these reasons the scepticism which has met the dis- 
covery of free-hand drawings on horns and bones dating- 
from palaeolithic times is not well founded. Those from the 
caves of La Madeleine in France representing the mammoth 



August 12, 1892. J 



SCIENCE. 



91 



and reindeer are well known ; still more remarkable are those 
from the Kessler hole, near SchafiPhausen, in Switzerland. 
A sketch of a reindeer feeding, now in the Rosgarten 
Museum, Constance, and one of a horse, in the Schaffhausen 
Museum, both from this locality, are so true to nature that 
one is surprised that they could have been drawn by a per- 
son not regularly instructed. Yet the draughtsman lived 
at a time when the Li nth glacier covered the site of the 
present city of Zurich, and the musk-ox and reindeer pas- 
tured where now grow the vineyards of the Rhine. ^ 
Several curiously inscribed stones and shells have within 
the last few years been found in the eastern United States, 
regarded by their owners as the work of aboriginal artists. 
Two of them represent the mammoth: others, scenes from 
life, as battles. While not to be rejected at once, grave sus- 
picion attaches to all such for obvious reasons, the first of 
which is the constant recurrence of frauds in American an- 
tiques. There is now no doubt that Professor Wright was 
deceived in the small terracotta image from a great depth in 
Montana which he described ; and it is very easy for an en- 
thusiast to fall into such snares. 

An Aboriginal Pile-Structure. 

A late issue of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology is a 
report upon pile-structures in Naaman^s Creek, near Clay- 
mont, Delaware, by Dr. Hilborne T. Cresson. It will be 
remembered that in Science, Vol. XV., p. 116, etc., there 
was a correspondence on the character of the structure which 
these pile-remains indicated. The facts as set forth in the 
pamphlet now published show that at the mouth of Naaman's 
Creek three groups of pile-huts were discovered, in a line 
running from north to south across the creek. In the im- 
mediate vicinity, at various depths in the mud and gravel, 
about 700 stone implements were found, some quite rude, of 
argillite, others highly finished, of jasper, slate, quartz, etc. 

Ab the mouth of the creek where it falls into the river was 
evidently a favorable camping and fishing ground for the 
natives, these implements might reasonably have been ex- 
pected in such a locality. Was their presence in any way 
related to that of the piles ? Dr. Cresson conjectures that 
the piles originally formed native fish- weirs. It may be so, 
but a careful study of the plans which he furnishes, and an 
inspection of the piles themselves at Cambridge, lead me to 
think they were intended as supports for some structure 
which rested upon them. Were they the rude piers of some 
early Swedish bridge across the creek ? Were they the 
abutments of an ancient wharf ? Were they the foundations 
of dwellings ? The average size of the groups, about 12 by 
6 feet, would answer the requirements of the latter theory ; 
and palefittes were by no means unknown among the Ameri- 
can aborigines. 

MEDICAL BOTANY. 

BT CHARLES FBKDBBICK lOIiLSPAUaB, M.D. 

In looking over the prospectuses of the various medical 
colleges of the United States, one fails to find in a great ma- 
jority of them anything to indicate that the important sub- 
ject of medical botany is taught One wonders at the apathy 
of medical institutions in this respect when pausing to con- 
sider the fact that seven-tenths of the drugs in general use 
have a vegetable origin, and an action upon the animal 
economy analogous to their botanical relationship. 

I fully agree with Professor Barnes^ in his statement that, 
to the general public (and I am sorry to add, to the average 

1 Sdenoft, V^ XX., page 08. 



Board of Instruction as well), the first thought arising to 
the mind when botany or botanist is mentioned, is a vague 
picture of *'a sort of harmless crank, '^ wandering about 
fields, woods, and bogs, picking insignificant weeds and car- 
rying them home, principally to tear them in pieces when he 
gets there. I urge, with the professor, the necessity of mod- 
ernizing botanical instruction in colleges and normals, and 
would add to the list pharmaceutical and medical institu- 
tions. Examine the text-books on materia medica used in 
these latter institutions, and what do you find ? Simply an 
alphabetical arrangement of drugs. This does not meet the 
needs of the subject treated, for a student should be trained 
to study drugs in accordance with their analogy to other 
drugs, and not according to their indexial position in a lan- 
guage. In order to do this he must have, not a rudimentary 
knowledge of botany and vegetable chemistry, but a thor- 
ough and systematic attainment of the subject, not only as 
represented by the fiora of the campus and surrounding 
woods and fields, but of the world at large. Upon opening 
these actual text-books we shall find atropine, aninflamatory 
poison, preceded by aspidium, an anthelmintic, and followed 
by aurantia, a simple carminative, none of these bearing the 
least rational relation to the others. An index would have 
found these drugs readily, while their disposal in this man- 
ner will teach the student nothing, nor will it in the least 
assist his memory to retain the uses of them. 

Drugs of botanical origin are as closely allied to each 
other medically as the plants from which they are derived 
are botanically; therefore in the above illustration atropine 
should have been preceded by stramonium and followed by 
hyoscyamus. Again genera and families of plants have 
true and constant familial and generic drug action, and the 
individual species of these have idiosyncracies of action pe- 
culiar to themselves. To continue the same illustration, 
belladonna and atropa, with their atropa atropine; stra- 
monium, with its datura-atropine; and hyoscyamus, with 
its hyoscyamine; together with other Solanacese — to which 
botanical family they belong — all cause delirium, but its 
character differs in each drug: they all dilate the pupil, but 
the expression of the face under the dilation is dissimilar; 
they all cause spasmodic action, but the spasms are varied; 
and among other symptoms they all cause an eruption of the 
skin, but in each case the eruptions may be readily distin- 
guished. This study may be carried through the whole 
range of the drug action, not only in the family here pre- 
sented, but through the whole natural plant system as well. 
This being true, should not the medical student's first train- 
ing in materia medica be a thorough course in systematic 
te^ny ? 

Pure science in the collegiate study of drugs has of late 
been set aside for the greater study of the less useful ques* 
tions of etiology and diagnosis. Of what immediate care to 
the patient are hours of scientific and exhaustive guesswork 
as to what caused him to be ill, when he knows that this is 
followed by but a moment^s thought expended upon the 
more vital question of what drug should be employed to 
make him well again ? Take up the first medical magazine 
at your hand; in it you will doubtless find a long disserta- 
tion upon some case in practice. Column after column 
will be found to be devoted to the elucidation of points of 
diagnosis and etiology, and suppositions, perhaps, of bac- 
terial invasion and cell disintegration, then a line or two to 
therapy, then the post mortem. 

Careful, comprehensive, differential, and comparative 
study of botany and vegetable chemistry in their relation to 



92 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No 497 



materia medica must be followed in order to educate a good 
therapist, and the sooner our medical institutions make a 
requisite of this branch, the better it will be for patients 
treated by their graduates. 



ON THE PRESENT TENDENCY TOWARDS HIGHER 
STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 

One cannot but observe with pleasure, in the present 
general advance and spread of higher education, that this 
advance is affecting not only the institutions of higher 
learning themselves and the general population, but also 
the strictly professional or technical schools. And whilst 
I wish in this short paper to refer more especially to law 
and medicine, my remarks will apply also to other — per- 
hapsjto all other — professions. 

The medical education of this country has, deservedly 
enough, for many years been looked upon with little favor, 
and has ill stood the test of competition with the methods of 
other countries ; but now we are observing a great change 
in this respect, and there is no doubt that before many years 
the degree of M.D. from an American university will be as 
valuable a certificate on its face as can anywhere be ob- 
tained. Medical courses of four years^ duration are now 
being adopted, or have already been adopted, by the leading 
medical schools in the country. The requirements in pre- 
liminary education have also greatly increased, and one may 
hope that before long such subjects as botany and zoology 
may be added to the requirements of a good English and 
general education from the intending student of medicine. 
State legislation itself has not been idle, and we find in the 
State of New Tork, for example, that no person can practise 
medicine without undergoing an examination conducted by 
the State Board of Examiners. A requirement of prelimi- 
nary education has also been added, and though as yet no 
more than an elementary education is required, we may 
hope for better things in future. 

As regards the profession of law, the advance is perhaps 
even more marked ; more marked, that is, as regards legal 
education, for we no not find that the advance in the require- 
ments for admission to the bar has been so considerable as 
might be desired, though they have been by no means 
neglected. Three- year law-school courses, which not so long 
since were unheard of, have now become the rule rather 
than the exception ; and even in those schools which still 
see fit to maintain a two-years' course for the degree of bache- 
lor of laws, a graduate course has been commonly added. 
Towards the general extension of the study of law so as to 
include the Roman or Civil Law, the tendency is by mo 
means general, caused no doubt by the non-requirement of 
this branch for admission to the legal profession. Some 
universities, indeed, in their college courses, offer instruc- 
tion in this subject; but it must be remembered that the 
majority of law-students are not college graduates, and so 
the breadth of their legal knowledge will be measured by the 
instruction given in the law school, however the depth and 
extent of what subjects they do touch upon may be increased 
afterwards. Tale is, I believe, alone among the universities 
in this country which gives extended courses in the civil 
law, and encourages their study by the bestowal of a degree 
(that of D.C.L.) ; but even then the course is one taken by 
but few students, and, as the catalogue says, is intended for 
those who intend to be something more than practising law- 
yers. This is not as it should be, and we must look to the 
future for more general study of this subject, for without it 



law can hardly be taught as a science, for law is — and 
should be known as — a science. 

Education preliminary to the study of law has also risen 
greatly. Latin is now a usual requirement, and we may 
doubtless soon see it a universal one. 

• The day is not far distant then, let us hope, when the 
title Doctor or Lawyer will in itself mean an educated man. 

N. H. 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

0^^^ Oorretpondentt are requested tohe<u brief cu poeeibU. The mrtter'e name 
i§ in <mU octaee required <u proof of good faith. 

On requett in advance^ one hundred eopiee of the number eontaining hie 
communication will he fttmiehed free to any oorreepondent, 

17!m editor will be glad to pitblieh anv qtieriee eoneonant with the ^araeter 
of the Journal. 

The Blm-Leaf Beetle. Galenica xanthomelsena Schr. 

In Science, No. 492, for July 8, 1892, Dr. C. V. Riley records 
the facts, that at Washington, D.C., the images from the first 
brood of larvsB of the above insect had already appeared, and that 
eggs from beetles of this summer brood had been obtained June 
28. In a letter dated July 27, Dr. Riley informs me that from 
these eggs larvsd had been obtained and that these larvae were 
then pupating. Dr. Riley's observations are positive, and prove 




Fio. 1. 



that there are two broods at least of this insect at Washing^n, 
D.C. They prove also that the beetles will mate and oviposit 
readily in confinement, and that there is only a brief interval be- 
tween the appearance of the beetles and ovi position for the second 
brood of larvae. This means that the beetles of both sexes are 
sexually mature when they emerge from the pupae, or that they 
mature very rapidly and copulate within a very brief period after 
assuming the imaginal form. The accuracy of these observations 
I do not question; but neither do I admit that I am in error in 
claiming that in New Jersey, north of New Brunswick, there is 
only a single brood of this insect. 

My acquaintance with the beetle at New Brunswick began in 
1889, in which year I protected the large number of elms in and 
near the college campus and about the Experiment Station by 
spraying with a London purple mixture. In the Report of the 
College Experiment Station for 1888, Dr. Qeorge D. Hulst, my 
predecessor in office, had stated that there were two broods of 
the insect annually; and on the appearance of the summer brood 
of beetles, I made ready to spray again as soon as the second 
brood of larvae should begin to appear on the protected trees. 
They never did make their appearance, and I was unable to find 
a second brood on any other trees in the city. Dr. Hulst, in re- 
sponse to questions, informed me that he had noticed only one 
brood of larvae in 1888; but there had been a cyclonic storm 
about the time they became mature, which freed the trees and 
covered the ground beneath them with thousands of the slugs, 
only a few of which ever found their way baek to their food. 



August 12, 1892. J 



SCIEM CE. 



93 



To this destrootioD he attributed the absence of the second brood 
which published accounts led him to expect. I recorded these 
facts in my Report for 1888, claiminfi: positively that there was a 
single brood only at New Brunswick. My observations, carefully 
repeated in 1890 and 1891, simply confirmed this conclusion. 

These observations were presented at a meeting of the Entomo- 
logical Club of the A. A. A. S., and, though he could not gainsay 
my facts. Dr. Riley yet doubted the correctness of my conclusion, 
as his parer in Science also shows. I therefore resolved to repeat 
my work yet more carefully in 1892 and to make it conclusive if 




Fia. 8. 

possible. The first signs of the beetles were noticed on May 17, in 
the form of small round holes eaten in a few leaves ; on the 19th 
a few of the beetles were seen, and after that date they increased 
rapidly in numbers for some time. The weather for a few days 
was cold and wet, the insects were sluggish, and no eggs were 
observed until May 29. For special observation I selected a small 
tree between my home and the laboratory, which I passed several 
times daily, could see all parts of easily, and which was a prime 
favorite with the insects. 

E^gs began hatching June 6, while yet oviposition continued. 
After the middle of the month the hibernating beetles diminished 
in number, and on the 80th not a beetle could be found. June 
29 the first pupss were formed and larvae matured daily thereafter 




Fio. 8. 

in greater abundance. At this date a very few unhatched egg- 
clusters were yet to be found, but of those collected, only one 
mass gave larvss July 1. Since that date and up to date of writ- 
ing (Aug. 1), there has not been a cluster of eggs on any tree that 
I have examined, and I have closely scanned many dozens, large 
and small. Eaily in July I gathered in over 200 pupae and mature 
larvae under the observed tree, and placed them in breeding-cages 
and jars Adults began to appear July 8, and very rapidly there- 
after in the open air as well as in my cages. It is interesting to 
note that on June 29, whenJI secured the first pupa, Dr. Riley 



already had eggs of a second brood. The beetles bred by me fed 
readily and abundantly for nearly three weeks, and then more 
slowly, until at this time they refuse to feed entirely. During all 
this time there has not been a copulation nor an egg-mass in any 
jar, nor have I observed a copulation or an egg-mass in the open 
air. On July 80 1 observed a disposition on the part of my insects 
to refuse food and to hide among the dry leaves. I therefore 
selected a considerable number of them of both sexes for examina- 
tion. In all, the sexual structures were immature or undeveloped. 
In the male it was difficult to get the testes, because they were 
mere empty thread-like tubes. In the females the ovaries were 
mere bundles of tubes without even partially-developed eggs. I 
gathered rather more than forty specimens from the trees, and 
found the same state of affairs, except that in one specimen the 
ova had begun to develop. This morning I selected a few fresh 
and fat specimens — all females, as it proved — and though the 
abdomen was much distended, the distension was caused by the 
fully-dilated crop and stomach, and the ovaries were yet less de- 
veloped than in any previously examined. Soon after the beetles 
appeared in May. I examined a number of them and found that 
in all the sexual structures were fully matured. In the males the 
testes were quite rigid coils, which were easily removed entire, 
while in the females the ovaries so completely filled the abdominal 
cavity that it was impossible to open it without detaching or 
crushing some of the eggs. The beetles earliest matured are now 
seeking winter quarters. 

I consider my observations, now carried on for four years in 
succession, as conclusive of tbe fact that at New Brunswick, N. J., 
there is only a single brood of this species annually. I present 
herewith figures of part of one ovary (Fig. 1) of a beetle taken 
May 25, in which the oviduct and part of the developed eggs are 
removed ; of the ovaries of a beetle taken July 30 on the trees, in 
which they were best developed of all those examined (Pig. 2); 
and of the ovaries of a specimen three weeks old (Fig. 8), with 
which all the others thai were examined agreed in that they were 
at least no more developed. All the figures were made by tbe use 
of a camera with a Zentmayer binocular stand, 2-inch objective, 
a eye- piece, and drawing-board six inches from camera. The 
vagina is not shown in Fig. 8, but is as large as that shown at the 
base of Fig 2, and this is the only structure that has the full size. 
I have not considered it necessary to figure the male organs, though 
the difference between spring and summer beetles is equally 
striking. In none that I examined did I find anything like a de- 
veloped testicle. John B. Smith, Sc.D. 

Bntcers CoU«c«« Aug. 1. 



Wheat Rust and Smut. 



As a general rule the Bulletins issued from the various State 
Agricultural Experiment Stations, while not notable for the 
amount of original matter they contain, are fairly accurate in 
their statements, and their recommendations are to be relied upon. 
Occasionally errors creep in, some of them the result of haste in 
compilation, others the result of not being conversant with the 
latest information on the subjects discussed. In the former cate- 
gory must be placed the statement made In Bulletin No. 88 of the 
Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station that wheat rust can be 
successfully treated by what is known as the Jensen hot-water 
method ; that is, immersing the seed in water having a tempera- 
ture between 182^ and 135^ F. Wheat rust has been long under 
investigation. It has caused a loss of about £2,000,000 sterling 
annually in Australia, and it is safe to say that there is not a 
country or a State where wheat is grown that has not suffered 
from its ravages. The fact is that while wheat rust is described 
and illustrated in the Bulletin in question, the treatment for pre- 
vention of wheat smut is given. It is needless to say that what 
s applicable to one is not to the other. Farmers who expect to 
prevent wheat rust by the hot- water treatment will be sorely dis- 
appointed. Perhaps their disappointment will result in making 
them question, without cause, however, the benefits to be de- 
rived from treating for smut. Between the two diseases there is 
a vast difference; one (rust) attacks the leaves, the other (smut) 
attacks the grain. In the latter case treatment of seed will be 



94 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 497 



beoeficial. In the former it will do no good whatever. This is 
mainly because in the former infection takes place probably by 
means of spores disseminated by the wind, so that whole fields 
soon become infected. It cannot be denied that an efiFectual 
remedy for wheat rust is still a great desideratum. 

Joseph F. Jambs. 

WaehlogtODf D. C, Aug. 5. 



The Ancient Libyan Alphabet. 

In Science, July 15, Dr. Brinton has some remarks on this sub- 
ject, which I have read with surprise. The old Libyan alphabet, 
he says, ** appears to have been in common use among the Berber 
tribes of north Africa long before the foundation of Carthage (1), 
. . . and in its forms is almost entirely independent of the Phoe- 
nician letters (2). It is composed of consonants called tifinar (3), and 
vowel-points, known as tiddebakin. The latter are simple dots (4), 
the former are the lines of a rectangle, more or less complete (5). 
Several of them are found in the oldest Etruscan indcriptions (6). 
. . . The writers who have given especial attention to this little- 
known subject are Faidherbe, Duveyrier, Halevy, Bissuel, and, 
recently, Dr. CoUignon (7)." • 

To avoid repetition, and facilitate reference, I have numbered 
the points in this passage on which I should like to ofifer a few 
observations. 

1 and 2. What authority has Dr. Brinton for referring this 
alphabet to pre-Carthagenian times, and for stating that its forms 
are almost entirely non-Phcenician? I have hitherto regarded the 
Punic origin of the Libyan letters as an established fact accepted 
by all epigraphists of weight, and notably by Mommsen, who un- 
hesitatingly recognizes their Semitic descent: *'The Libyan or 
Numidian alphabet now as formerly in use amongst the Berbers 
in writing their non-Semitic language is one of the innumerable 
offshoots of the primitive Aramaean type. In some of its details 
it seems even to approach that type more closely than does the 
Phoenician itself. We are not, however, therefore to conclude 
that the Libyans received it from immigrants older than the 
Phoenicians^ It is here as in Italy, where certain obviously more 
archaic forms do not prevent the local alphabet from being re- 
ferred to Greek types. AH that can be inferred is that the Libyan 
alphabet belongs to the Phoenician writing older than the epoch 
when were composed the Phoenician inscriptions that have sur- 
vived to our time" (History of Rome, iii., 1). 

It follows that the Numidian ancestors of the Berbers received 
their writing system from the Carthaginians, earliest Phoenician 
settlers on the north African sea-board, and, consequently, that the 
Libyan alphabet had no currency ** long before the foundation of 
Carthage." The archaic forms referred to by Mommsen were the 
forms in use in Tyre and Sidon in prehistoric times, whereas the 
extant Phoenician inscriptions date from historic times; hence 
the discrepancies between the latter and those preserved by the 
Berbers, most conservative of all peoples. 

3. Not the consonants alone, but the whole system (mainly, of 
course, consonantal as being Semitic) is called *' tifinar," or rather 
**tifinagh." The sounds gh and rh interchange in the Libyan 
dialects (Oltet and Bhet; Melghigh and Melrhirh, etc.), so that it 
is not always easy to decide which is the original sound. But 
here there is no doubt that gh is organic; and Barth, for instance, 
always writes Tefinagh, plural Teflnaghen : ** There was in par- 
ticular a man of the name of Sdma, who was very friendly with me. 
On reading with him some writing in Tefinaghen, or the native 
Berber character, I became aware that this word signifies nothing 
more than tokens or alphabet. For as soon as the people beheld 
my books, and observed that they all consisted of letters, they ex- 
claimed repeatedly, < Tefinaghen — ay — Tefinaghen ! ' " (Travels, 
v., p. 116). There is, however, more in this word than Barth 
was aware of. When stripped of the common Berber prefix te, it 
reveals the '^Finagh," i.e., ** Phoenician," or "Punic" origin of 
the letters in their very name. Note the stress stiU falling on the 
rootyin, as in Pcmi. 

4. F. W. Newman explains lidebdkka (pi. Tidehdkken) to mean 
*< a dot on or under the letter" (Fooa5.), in fact any diacritical 
mark of the kind, and not merely vowel signs. Some, however. 



are doubtless ufied to voice the consonants, as in Hebrew. like 
other Semitic alphabets, Tefinagh had originally no vowels, bnt 
only three breathings, transformed in some systems (Greek, Italic) 
to pure vowels, in others (Cufic, Arabic) to semi-vowels and 
vocalic bases. But all this merely tends to strengthen the view 
that the Libyan is a Semitic alphabet. 

5. This statement is to me unintelligible. In the published 
Libyan alphabets (Fr. Ballhom, **Alphabete orientalischer und 
occidentalischer Sprachen,'* p. 8; Hanoteau, **Essai de grammaire 
de la langue tamachek," and others) curves occur quite as fre- 
quently as straight lines, while acute decidedly prevail over right- 
angles. Of the eight letters copied by Barth (I. , p. 274) two only 
can be described as ** more or less complete rectangles," forms 
which are certainly less common than, for incttance, in Hebrew 
and Estranghelo. 

6. It would be strange if resemblances did not occur between 
the Libyan and the characters of *'the oldest Etruscan inscrip- 
tions/' seeing that both have a common Semitic origin, the former 
directly through the Phoenician, the latter indirectly through the 
archaic Greek. But such resemblances obviously lend no color to 
Dr. Brinton's peculiar views regarding Libyco- Etruscan linguistic 
affinities. 

7. Of the writers here referred to, Faidherbe and Halevy alone 
can be regarded as specialists. On the other hand, there are 
serious omissions, such as Dr. Oudney, who in 1822 first discovered 
the existence of the Berber alphabet; F. W. Newman. '^Patriarch 
of Berber philology ; " Mommsen and Hanoteau, as above ; lastly, 
A. Judas, who was the first to clearly establish the Phoenician 
origin of these characters in a paper entitled * ' De TEcriture libyoo- 
berber," contributed to the Revue ArchMogique for September 
1862. A. H. KEAinL 

Broadhunt Gardens, London, N. W. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



Handbook for the Department of Cfeology in the U. 8. National 
Museum, Part I. Geognosy, — The Materials of the Earth's 
Crust. By George P. Merrill. Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1892. 89 p. 12 pi. 

The U. S. National Museum is probably the greatest institution 
of its kind in this country. The museums located in New York, 
Cambridge, Boston, Philadelphia, and other large cities present to 
the residents of those places and to students many facilities for 
study. This is particularly the case with the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York and the Museum of Ck>mparatiYe 
Zoology in Cambridge. But neither one of these has been planned 
upon so extensive a scale, or is destined to attain such mammoth 
proportions, as the National Museum at Washington. The coun- 
try at large is familiar with some things to be found at the 
museum from the numerous expositions at which displays of ita 
treasures have been made ; but no one who has not visited and 
lingered long in its great but crowded quarters at the National 
Capital can adequately realize the broad foundation upon which 
it is based, or the immense variety and scope of its collections. 
There are gathered together here materials which cover all human 
arts and all the natural sciences — anthropology in its widest 
sense, from the rude, chipped-fiint implement of palaeolithic man 
to the delicate Sevres china of civilized man; rocks and fossils 
from the most ancient formations to the most recent; animal 
forms from the minutest insect that flies to the hugest creature of 
land or sea. Scarcely an object, indeed, in which man has had 
aught to do, or to find interest in, but is to be found here. 

The collections are not, either, lying idle. A large corps of 
curators is constantly at work, either arranging the old colleo- 
tions or studying and comparing the new. The results of these 
studies appear from time to time in the Proceedings of the Museum 
— a publication scarcely known to the public at large even hy 
title, on account of its limited circulation — or else in the Annual 
Reports of the Museum, which are more widely known from being- 
distributed as congressional documents. Unfortunately, these 
last usually appear from two to three years after the date they 
are stated to be reports for. 

In the early days, when the Smithsonian Institution was the 



August 12, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



95 



repository for the national collections, these reports touched hat 
lightly upon the vast amount of material stored away. Within 
the past five years, however, and since the National Museum has 
become recognized as the place where all government expeditions 
shall deposit the material collected by them, a large volume has 
been annually devoted to this branch alone. Those which have 
been issued are filled with information upon a great variety of 
subjects, although special attention seems to have been devoted 
to ethnology. Naturally, other matters are treated of, and it is 
likely that, in the future, place will be given to all departments as 
fast as the several curators find time or see fit to devote their at- 
tention to making the collections under their charge known to the 
outside world. 

The article under review, for it is merely an excerpt issued un- 
der a separate cover from the Report of the Museum for 1890, and 
covering pages 50^-591 of that report, is one which, while designed 
to be a handbook for the collections, is in reality a condensed ac- 
count of the rocks forming the earth's crust. In it one will find 
concise descriptions of the sixteen principal elements that go to 
make up rock masses ; a list of the original and secondary minerals 
of these rocks ; an account of the macroscopic and microscopic 
structure of rocks; the chemical composition (in brief) and the 
color. The most extensive portion of the handbook, however, is 
that which deals with the kinds of rocks. Under this head we 
have described the four varieties of (1) aqueous, those formed 
through the agency of water either as chemical precipitates or as 
sediments; (2) Cdolian, those formed from wind-drifted meterials; 
(3) fnetamorphic, those changed by dynamical or chemical agents 
from an original aqueous or igneous origin ; and (4) igneous (erup- 
tive), those brought up from beneath the surface in a molten con- 
dition. It is not necessary to go into details as to all these classes, 
or to mention the various divisions made of them ; an extract or 
two will serve to show the character of the remarks For exam- 
ple, under Chlorides we read : — 

*' Sodium chloride, or common salt, is one of the most common 
constituents of the earth's crust. From an economic standpoint 
it is also a most important constituent. It occurs in greater or less 
abundance in all natural waters, and, as a product of evaporation 
of ancient seas and lakes, it occurs in beds of varying extent and 
thickness among rocks of all ages wherever suitable circumstances 
have existed for their formation and preservation. Salt- beds from 
upwards of a few inches to thirty feet in thickness occur in New 
York State and Canada, while others abound in Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, and Louisiana. There are also numer- 
ous surface deposits, of great extent, in the arid regions of the 
West" (p. 633). 

Cnder the head of Siliceous group, infusorial or diatomaceous 
earth, we find the following: — 

" This is a fine white or pulverulent rock composed mainly of 
the minute shells, or teats, of diatoms, and often so soft and friable 
«B to crumble readily between the thumb and finger. It occurs 
in t>eds which, when compared with other rocks of the earth's 
crust, are of comparatively insignificant proportions, but which 
are nevertheless of considerable geological importance. Though 
deposits of this material are still forming, e.g., in the marshes of 
Yellowstone Park, and have been formed in times past at various 
periods of the earth's history, they appear most abundantly asso- 
ciated with rocks belonging to the Tertiary formations. 

*' The celebrated Bohemian deposit is some fourteen feet in 
thickness, and is estimated by Ehrenberg to contain 40,000,000 
shells to every cubic inch. The Australian specimen exhibited is 
from a deposit four feet in thickness. In the United States, beds 
are known at Lake Umbagog, New Hampshire ; Morris County, 
New Jersey; near Richmond, Virginia; Calvert and Charles Coun- 
ties, Maryland; in New Mexico; Graham County, Arizona; 
Nevada; California ; and Oregon. The New Jersey deposit covers 
about three acres, and varies from one to three feet in thickness ; 
the Richmond bed extends from Herring Bay, on the Chesapeake, 
to Petersburg, Virginia, and is in some places 80 feet in thickness; 
the New Mexico deposit is some six feet in thickness and has been 
traced some 1,500 feet; Professor LeConte states that near Monte- 
rey, in California, is a bed some 60 feet in thickness ; while the 
geologists of the fortieth-parallel survey report beds not less than 



800 feet in thickness of a pure white, palebuff, or canary-yellow 
color as occurring near Hunter's Station, west of Reno, Nevada. 

**The earth is used mainly as a polishing i)owder, and is some- 
times designated as tripolite. It has also been used to some ex- 
tent to mix with nitro-glycerine in the manufacture of dynamite. 
Chemically the rock is impure opal*' (p. 640). 

It is in such books as these that the young student finds his best 
helps. Tbe information given is accurate; the paths are made 
pleasant ; the rough places are smoothed. It is greatly to be de- 
sired that the other departments of the Museum may have as 
useful descriptions of iheir contents. Joseph F. Jahbs. 

Washington, D.C., Aug. & 

Phases of Animal LifSj Past and Present, By R. Ltdeekeb. 
London. Longmans, Green & Co. 8^. $1.60. 

Tms admirable series of essays, which was originally published 
in Knowledge, has been reprinted in an attractive form both as re- 
gards typography and illustrations. Tbe essays are concisely 
written, and reveal a wealth of knowledge on the part of the au- 
thor. The explanations of scientific discoveries and conclusions 
are neither too elementary nor too technical, and the essays will 
be read with pleasure as well as profit by anyone interested in 
zoological lore. 

The earlier and the closing chapters of the book are devoted to 
the consideration of various morphological adaptations, such as 
protective armor, the modifications of limbs for fiying and swim- 
ming, and tbe forms of teeth and horns. The author then takes 
up tbe fossil reptiles, describing the characteristics of the ichthyo- 
sanrs, plesiosaurs, and dinosaurs, and explaining the differences 
between them. Other chapters relate to the tortoises, the extinct 
gigantic birds, the egg-laying and marsupial mammals, and other 
animals whose structure and history are of special interest. There 
is for the most part no close connection between the various 
topics, but they are all important and worthy of attention. 

In the treatment of morphological subjects Mr. Lydekker makes 
use of certain metaphorical expressions which may possibly mis- 
lead tbe unwary reader. Various modifications are spoken of as 
• if they resulted from the conscious, intelligent action of the ani- 
mals concerned. It is stated, for example, that the ancient mail^ 
clad fishes *' appear to have come to tbe same conclusion as the 
more advanced divisions of the human race, that a massive armor 
for the protection of the body is an encumbrance " (p. 7). Again, 
the reptiles *' held divided opinions as to whether a bony coat of 
mail was or was not a thing to be retained as a permanency." 
Such expressions are calculated to induce a wrong way of looking 
at things unless, indeed, the Lamarckian idea that modifications 
result directly from the efforts of organisms is to be accepted. 

One is surprised to find in the writings of t*o good a naturalist 
as Mr. Lydekker the statement, or insinuation, that the separation 
of the amphibians from the reptiles is due to "that tendency to 
multiply terms for which they (tbe naturalists) are so celebrated'* 
(p. 8). Mr. Lydekker, of course, well knows and, indeed, takes 
pains to explain, that the separation was made on account of the 
fact that the typical representatives, at least, of these two groups 
are very different both in structure and mode of development. 
There have undoubtedly been many instances in which naturalists 
have coined new names unnecessarily, but this is certainly not a 
case in point. 

These are small defects, however, and are entirely overbal- 
anced by the excellencies of the book. It deserves and will re- 
pay perusal. 

AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 

*< The Delaware Indian as an Artist " is the subject of a fully 
illustrated paper by Dr. Charles C. Abbott, to appear in The Popu- 
lar Science Monthly for September. The objects of art which are 
represented include carved-stone gorgets, a wooden spoon-handle, 
wooden masks, and other carvings, many of them showing much 
skill. Professor J. S. Kingsley will describe '*The Marine Bio- 
logical Laboratory at Wood's Holl,'* giving pictures of its build- 
ing and interior arrangements. Something is told also of its 
neighbor, the laboratory of the United States Fish Commission. 
Surgeon George M. Sternberg, U.S.A., will have a paper on '*In- 



96 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 497 



fectious Diseases: Causation and Immunity," giving the facts 
that have been established in this field up to date; and ' A Further 
Study of Involuntary Movements," by Professor Joseph Jastrow, 
supplementing a previous paper on this subject, will appear. 

— Charles Scribner's Sons issued on Aug. 8 Stevenson's long- 
expected book on Samoa, entitled **A Footnote to History," being a 
narrative of the varied history of that island for the past eight years. 

— J. B. Lippincott Company*s August Bulletin of New Publica- 
tions contains, among other announcements, the following: ''Pho- 
tography : Its History, Processes, Apparatus, and Materials. Com- 
prising Working Details of all the more Important Methods," by 
A. Brothers. In the preparation of this work, the author's aim 
has been to produce a Handbook for the Use of Students of Photog- 
raphy, which should give the results of practical experience, and 
include — as far as possible within a moderate compass — infor- 
mation gathered from many sources, and not readily accessible. 
The newer methods have been dealt with in sufficient detail, and 
special attention given to the processes in use prior to the intro- 
duction of the gelatino-bromide method. Some of these processes 
are in danger of being neglected through the facilities which the 
newer methods have introduced. But, as Professor Brothers 
demonstrates, the new processes do not give results equal to the 
old, and are totally unsuitable for some purposes — such as making 
negatives for photo-lithography, and in various other ways. 
Where practicable, the plates illustrate the processes described, 



thus making the work distinctly more serviceable to students. 
** In Starry Realms : a New Work on Astronomy," by Robert S. 
Ball ; ^< Regional Anatomy in its Relation to Medicine and Sur- 
gery," by George McClellan, M.D.; "Steam Boilers: their De- 
fects, Management, and Construction," by R, D. Monro. Of 
books in press, ** A Short Course on Zoology Designed for High 
Schools and Academies," by C. De Montmahon and H. Beaure- 
gard ; translated and adapted for American schools by Wm. H. 
Greene, M.D. "Recent Rambles, or in Touch with Nature," by 
Charles C. Abbott, M.D. 

— Ginn & Co. have nearly ready ** German Orthography and 
Phonology," by George Hempl, Assistant Professor of English in 
Michigan University. They will publish in the fall ** Fourier's 
Series, and Spherical, Cylindrical, and Ellipsoidal Harmonics," 
with applications to problems in mathematical physics, by W. E» 
Byerly. 

— Outing for August opens with the first instalment of Wheel- 
man Frank G. Lenz's description of a cycling tour around the 
world. The rider is at present somewhere on the broad western 
plains, en route for the Pacific coast, and during his two-year 
jaunt he will traverse Japan, China, India, Persia, Turkey, Aus- 
tria, Germany, Holland, France, England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
Mr. Lenz will communicate his experiences to Outing from con- 
venient points of his journey, illustrating, his articles by photo- 
graphs taken by himself. The opening chapter describes the trip 



Publications Received at Editor's Ofiice. 

Apoab. AusTiir C. Trees of the Northern United 

States. New York, American Book Co. 12". 

824 p. $1. 
ABKANaAS Obol. Subvit. Annual Report for 1800. 

Little Bock, Press Print. 8". 474 p 
Bban, Tablbton H. Notes on Fishes Collected in 

Mexico. Washington, Government. 8*. Paper. 

lU. 
Bbbbdiot. Jambs B. Corystoid Crabs of the Qenera 

Telmessus and Brimaorus. Washington, Ooy- 

emment. 8*>. Paper, ill. 
BoLLBB, T. Dix. Chinese Relics in Alaska. Wash- 

inKton. OoTemment. 8*. Paper. 111. 
BiOBMiiAini, Cabi. H. The Fishes of San Diego. 

Washington, Qovemment. 8*. Paper. 
Hoffman, b. B. The Sloyd System of Wood 

Working. New Tork, American Book Co. 12<*. 

942 p. fl. 
Jbffbbson, Samubl. Columbus. An Bpio Poem. 

Chicago, S. C. Griggs ft Co. 12«. 2))9p. 
LniTON, Edwim. Notes on Avian Bntosoa. Wash- 
ington, GoTemment. 8". Paper. 111. 
Mason, Otis T. The Ulu, or Woman's Knife of 

the Bskimo. Washington, GoTemment. 8*. 

Paper. 111. 
Bathbubn, Mabt J. Catalogue of Crabs of the 

Family Perlcerldas Washington, GoTemment. 

8*. Paper. 
RiOKOPF, Rbbbcoa D. a Supplementary First 

Reader. New York, American Book Co. IV*. 

122 p. 26 cts. 
Shufbldt, R. W. The BTolntion of House Building 

among the Navajo Indians. Washington, Gov- 
ernment. 8*. Paper. 111. 
Shufbldt. R. W. A Maid of Wolpai. Washington, 

Government. %^. Paper. 
Smith, John R. Revision of the Genus Cuculla, 

etc. Washington, Government. 8*. Paper. 

86 p. 
Bttnbobb, Lbonhabd. Preliminarv Description 

of a new Genus and Species of Blind Cave 

Salamander. Washington, Government. 8°. 

Paper. Dl. 
Sttnbgbb, Lbonhabd. Note» on a Collection of 

Birds made In Japan. Washington, Govern- 
ment. 8*>. Paper. 
Williamson. Mrs. M. Bubton. An Annotated List 

of the Shells of San Pedro Bay. Washington, 

Government. 8<>. Paper. III. 



INDEXES 

TO 

Volumes XVIL and XVIII. 

OF 

SCIENCE 

are in preparation, and will be 
issued at an early date. 



Reading Matter Notices. 

Ripans Tabules : best livor tonic. 
Eipans Tabules cure jaundice. 

Exchanges. 

[Preeof charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New Vork.l 

Taxidermist going out of bosiness has quantity of 
finely-mounted speoimens of North Amencan birds, 
mammals and reptiles and skias of birds for sale, 
inoluding a full local collection of bird skins, show- 
ing some great variations of species; also quantity 
of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep, 
and mounted heads of same. Will give good ex* 
chanse for Hawk Bye camera with outfit. Apply 
anickly to J. B. Thurston, 265 Tonge St., Toronto, 
Canada. 



Te exchange ; Experiment Station buUetins and 
reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. I 
will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. 
BOLF8, Lake City, Florida. 

For exchange. — A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather 
covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for mak- 
ing lantern slides. Flute cost $97, and is nearly new. 
U. O. COX, Mankato, Minn. 

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for 
fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only foe valuable 
specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W. 
PERRY, State Geologist, Rutland, Vt. 

For exchange. — Three copies of " American State 
Papers Bearing on Sunday Legislation/* 1891, $1.50, new 
and unused, for **The Sabbath," by Harmon Kinssbury, 
1840; '*The Sabbath,'* by A. A. Phelps, 1849; *' History 
of the Institution oif the Sabbath Day, Its Uses and 
Abuses," by W, L. Fisher, 1859; '* Humorous Phases^ of 
the Law,'* by Irving Browne; or other works amounting 
to value of books exchanged, on the question of govern- 
mental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty , 
etc. If preferred, 1 will sell **American State Patpers.**^ 
and buy other books on the subject. WILLIAM AD- 
DISON BLAKELY, Chicago, ill. 

For Sale or Exchange for books a complete private 
chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal- 
ance (soog. to i-iom^.), platinum dishes and crucibles, 
agate motors, glass-blowing apparatus, etc. For sale in 
part or whole. Also complete file of Siiliman** Journal^ 
1863-1885 (6a-7x bound); Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; 
U. S. Coast Survey. 1854-1869. Full particulars to en- 
quirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn. 



Wants. 



Wanted, in exchange for the following works, 
andard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Child 



Surgery 



any 
ren: 



WiUon's "American Ornithology,*' 3 vols.; Coues' ''Birds 
of the Northwest" and ** Birds of the Colorado Valley,** 
a vols.; Minot's '' Land and Game Birds of New Eng- 
land^' Samuels* *' Our Northern and Eastern Birds;** all 
the Reports on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, 
bound m a vols., morocco; and a complete set of tne 
Reports of the Arkansas Geoloaical Survey. Please eive 
editions and dates in corresponding. R. ELLSWORTH 
CALL, High School, Des Momcs, Iowa. 



A ny ptrton tttkimg a p^iti0n ftr which he i* qumli' 
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tome one to /Ul a position o/^ this character^ be it thmi 
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position in laboratory or chemical works. Address 
218^ E. 7th Street, New Tork, care Levy. 

A MAN, M years old, of extensive experience, hav- 
ing the demes of A.M. and Ph.D., desires a 
first-claas openms as a teacher of Zodlogy and 
kindred studies m a college or university. Can 
furnish numerous testimonials or references as to 
success and skill in most modem laboratory 
methods. Address B. W. D., Md. Agr. College, 
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A YOUNG MAN, with a thorough training in Ana- 
lytical Chemistry (including analysis of miner- 
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or as assistant to such. Address to WM. LAWSON. 
16 Wasldngton Ave., Toronto, Ontario. 

A JOHNS HOPKINS sraduate (1802) desires 1^ 
position as instructor in mathematics and 
physics. Address A. B. TUBNEB, Johns Hopkins 
iTniversity, Baltimore, Md. 



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August 12, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



97 



aCTOet the AUegbanies from Pittsburgh Tia WashingtoD to New 
fork, and » profuwlj illustrated. 

— The ezperimeDt station of CnmellUnivereitj coudncted an 
experiment ia 1890, showing verj decided beneficial results frocn 
removing the tassels from a part oF the groning corn ; theii calcu- 
lations showing about flftj per cent gain from the rows from 
which the taseels were removed over the alternate rows on which 
the tassels were allowed to remain. Tbie remarkable showing 
caused a similar experiment to be undertaken at the Ohio station 
in 1891. Thirt^'two rows of com, running orer quite uniform 
land, were selected upon which to make this trial. On Aug. 1, 
the tassels were pulled from each alternate row. At cutting-time 
four rows, having the tassels removed, were cut and shocked to- 
getber, then four rows from which the tassels were not removed 
were shocked together. Continuing this throughout the thirty- 
tvo rows, they bad when done four shock rows of each. When 
busked theae shock rows were neighed separately. Tbej also 



separated the merchantable from the unmerchantable com, and 
calculated the field of each separately per acre. They Hod that 
the unmerchantable corn frooi the four plots from which the 
tassels were removed afcragee 26 percent, while the averages from 
the other four rows is 31 per cent unmerchantable. The calcula- 
tions also show that the average yield per acre is about one bushel 
leas than where the corn was left undisturbed. It is probable that 
the tassels were not removed in this experiment early enough. To 
insure or even make possible beneficial results from removing tas- 
sels, the pulling should be done as soon as they appear, and before 
the stalk has weakened itself in an attempt to perfect the tassel. 
The theory upon which thisexperiment is based is that the strength 
that would otherwise go to the maturing ot the tassel and produc- 
tion of pollen is diverted to the use of grains, and from their more 
complete development more com is produced. The fodder in this 
experiment was not weighed, because back-water from a high 
river damaged it to such an extent as to make tbe weight unre- 



Acid Phosphate, 

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98 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 497 



QUERY. 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one- sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, say.) has failed 
to protect between two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
conductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light 
ning was attracting the attention 
of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First inserted June 19. No response 
to date. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 
874 BROADWAY, NSW TORE. 



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THE RADIOMETER. 

By DANIEL 8. TROY. 
This contains a discussion of the reasons 
for their action and o( the phenomena pre- 
•enled in Croolcea' tubes. 

Price, poilpRld, SO cents. 
N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



Ind^Bc and uAaloEDlUK. Addreaa d. Bi'slTSft 
■ft M. Isth Btreet, PbUadSlpbla. 



TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. 



of Some ATtielei Publlifaed in Seitnet alDCi 



AborlslDBl Nortli America 



m. Kkni, 



MMShlDg Of. to AdTaoced He 

Anibropolan< Cumat Notes on. 
Arctilteoiural Bxtilbltlon In BnwklTiL. 

' ig from Domeallc Pabrica. 



.reealcal Pi 

■ wt 

ileal Nnl 
Bacierii 



Anealao Wells in Iowa. 



l»,aome _ . 

Boiaolc^ Laboratory. A. 
Bmln. A Fe* cbaracterlellca of 
B;tb<w»pldiB and CereopldB. 
Cai ada. Royal Sofleiy or. 
Cflt.. TUB Quesllon ot the. 
Challcbinrnam, Tlie Ancestrr of 
Cbemlcal Laboratory ot Ibe Caai 



DL|ibCbarli>, lui- 

Eiretrlcal BnglDser, Tlia Tecbnloal Eduoallon of. 

Eiklmo Tbn>*lDf Bilckr. 

Rlymoloay of two Iroquolaa Compoui 

Kye-Habita, 

Kyfl^ RelaUODBOf Ibe H olor Miuclea 

Fade] Eipreulons. 
Family Tralv, PenUtency of 
Flabeo, Tbe DIsirlbailon of. 

Foealls, Notice ■ 

Fourfold Space. 

Gems. Amndal. Detection ... 

Oladal PneDomeDB 1" Nortbeaatern New York. 

Qraaeee. Homoptera Injurloue lo. 

Oreat Lakes, Ur)|lD ol ibe Baatus of. 

- BeallDg. UiTlne." 

Hemlpien ns Hoatb. SirDctare of Ibe. 

Bofmann, Aufuet Wllbelm ton. 

Bypnotlam amoof the Lower Animals. 

HypDDllam, Traumatic 

Indian oocnpall on of New York. 

Infant's UoTementa. 

iDHuensa, Laieel Deialla Concerning tbe Germa of. 

Inaecta In Popular Dread In New Heiloo. 

Inventloos In Foreign Coantrlea, How to Protect 



, Academy of Sdenoes. 



Laboratory Tralnli 
Lewla B. Can 111. V 
LISbtDlni 

LleiiMon'a Carree, Simple Apparalua tor the Prodao- 
tlon or. 

Halse Plant. OOeerratiOQS on the Orowth and Cbeml- 
cal CompogttlOD ot. 

Maya Codlcae, a Key lo tbe Myitery of. 

Hfdiclne, Preparation for Ibe Btudy of. 

Mineral DlaooTerles, Borne Beoent, In tbe Btate of 

Uaaaams, The Support of. 

Palenque Tablet, a Brief ijludy ot. 

Patent OlPce Building, Tbe. 

P&jea Ueieroetropba Lay, Noies OD tbe Fertility of. 

PocketOopbr- " ' — * 

a Uie OnlTenttyat To- 

Fsictioloflcsl Training. Tbe Need of. 

Paylla, ihe Pear-Tree. 

Baln.Haklnc 

Rlyere, BToluiion ol the Loup, In Netiraska.- 

Scientific Alliance. Tbe. 

Sliirurua and Crotalophoms. 

Star Pbotograpby, Notes on. 

Star, The New, In Auriga. 

Storage of Btorm-Waiere on tbe Oreat Plains. 



Vein- Formation, Valuable Experiments In. 
Weed! as Fertilising Material. 
Will, a Recent AnalyaU at. 

Wlnee, Tbe Sopblatlcaled French. 

Zoology In the Fabllc Schools of Washington, D. ( 



Banr, O., Olark DnlTSralty, Worcester, Haas. 

Beal, W. J^ Agrlcaltura] College, Hlob. 

Beals, A. H., fllUedgeTUIe.Oa. 

Beauchamp, W. H., Baldwlairllle, N.Y. 

Boas. Frana, Clark (TnlTeieliy, Woroester, Mass. 

Bolley, H. L,, Fargo, No. Dak. 

Boslwloh, ArtHur K., Monlolalr, N J, 

Bradley, Mllion, Sprlngaeld, Uase. 

BrlnloD, D. O., Philadelphia, Pa 

Call, B. Elliwortta, DeaMoloea, la. 

Chaodler, H., Budalo, N.T. 

Oomeiock^Theo. B., Taceou, Arisona. 

CODQ, H. W. Middlelown, Conn. 

CragiD, F. W., Colorado Springe. CoL 

Davis. W. H., Barrard College, Cambridge, Haaa. 

Dim mock, Oeorgs, Cauobte Lake, N.H. 

Farrlnglon, E. a.. Agricultural Station, Champaign, 



more.W 
Fosbay, P. Max, Rocheater, N.T. 
Qatlaudel, E. H., Kendall Qreen, Washington, D.C. 
Garman. S., Muaaam of Comp. ZoOL, Cambridge, 

Qolden, Katherlne B.. Agrlooltural ColleBV, I^Iay- 

Halc'Bdwin H., Chicago, 111. 

Hale, Oeorge S.. Boeton, Maaa. 

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

Hall, T. Frootor, Clark UnlTersity, Woroeoler, Maaa. 

Halsted, Byron D., Ruigera College, New Brona- 

■ick, N.J. 
Haworth, Erasmus, OskslDOaa, Iowa. 
Hay, O. P.. Irrtagton, Ind. 

Haaen, H. A., Weather Bureau, Washlnfton, D.C. 
Hewitt. J. N. B., Bureau of Etbnolofy, Wasblagloo, 

Blckej L. B.. Lincoln, Neb. 

HUl, A. J., Chlrago, II L 

BlU, Oeo. A., Naval Obserralory, Waahington, D.a 

Hltohoock, RomiD, WashlagUMi, D.C. 

Holmes, B. L. Chlugo. IlL 

Botcbklsa, Jed., Staunton, Va. 

Howe, Jas. Lewis, LoulsTllle, Ky. 

Hubbard, Qardlner G , Waahtnglon, D.C. 

Jaokaan,Dugald C. Madison, Wlaooasin 

Jamea, Joaeph F., Agricultural Dept., WaahlnctOO, 

[nlUnlTemlty.. 

Columbus, O. 
KeUloott.D S., state UnlTerBltT,Columbaa,0. 
Kellogg, D. S., Plattabuiwb. N. Y. 
Untoer, J. A., Albany, N. t. 
Loeb, Korrla, New York Cliy. 
Mabery, Cbarles F., lleveland, Ohio. 
Hsoloakle. a., PrinoetoD, N.J. 
HoCanby, Qerald, Agricultural Station, Raleigh, 

DoDald, Artbur, Waahlnrton, D.C. 



Some or tl 



Scimee Since Jan. 



BaldwiD. J. Mark. UnlTersity ot Torooti 
Bans*. Camriaa Reld, Uadieon, Wis. 



,, Johna Hopkins Cnlverallr, 



Balllmore, Md. 
OIlTBT, J. R., Comsll nnlTerslty, Itbaoa, N.T. 
Oabom, Henry F., Columbia College, New Tork 



y, J. H., smith Collefre, NonWnpton, H 
... W. L., Wake Forrat. N. C. 
e. Jjy W. P., Now Tork City. 



Blade, D. D., Museum Comp. ZooL, Cambridge 
Mass. 

BmKh, John B., Rutgers College, New B 



rsT. 



pnuadslphla. Pa. 
nadoBprl 

Thurston, B. H., Cornell unTvereliy, Iltaaca, N.T. 

Todd, J. B., Tabor, Iowa. 

True. Frederick W., National Hoaean 

Turner, C. H., UnlTeislty of Clndnnali, Cioelnnatl, 






., Bcranlon, Pa. 



. . ey B., ocranion, ra. 

Warder, Robert B., Howard ITnlTeralty, 1 

ton, D.C. 
Welch. Wm. H., Johns Hopkins TTnlnralty, B»Ut> 

Weet, Gerald H., Clark ITnlTerslty. WoToeatsr, Mass. 
Whitman, C. O., CLaik Unlverain, Woroester, HaM. 
WUUams, Idward H., Lehigh D&lranl^, Bechl*- 



/H-f 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

PUBLISHED BT N. D. C. HODOBS, 874 BBOAD^i^^HBW TOBK. 



TsNTH Year. 
Vol. XX. No. 498. 



AUGUST 19, 1892. 



Contents. 



Ths Bibd on its Nb8T. Morris Oibbs . . 99 

Foot Defobmitt as the Result of Un- 
scientific Shoes. W. M. L. Cop- 
Un and D. Bevan 99 

Pbonetic Value of the Ch'i Gltph in 
the ICata Graphic System. Hil- 
borne T. Creason 101 

Death of Pbofessor W. P. Trowbridge. 102 

Notes and News 103 

The AicEBiCAN Psychological Associa- 
tion. , 104 

The Pest of Field-Mice in Thesbaly 
AND Loeffleb' 8 Successful Meth- 
od OF Combating it. Medde BoU 
eon 104 

Lattebs to the Editor 105 

Book Reviews 107 

Among the Publishebs .\ . . 110 

iBtered At the Poct-Offloe of New York, N.Y., m 
Becond-GlMi Hail Matter. 



THE 




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Thi8 Company owns tbe Letters 
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of Protecting Property 



from Lightning. 

Tbe Lightning Dispeller. 

Price, $20 to $30.— According to sl2c. 

The Patent Lightning Dispeller is a conduc- 
tor specially designed to dissipate the energy 
of a lightning discharge, — ^to prevent its 
doing harm, — placing scxnething in ite path 
upon which its capacity for causing damage 
may be expended. 

No recorded case of lightning stroke has 
yet been cited against the principle of the 
Dispeller. So far as known, the dissipation 
of a conductor has invariably protected under 
the conditipis employed. 

Correspondence solicited. 

AGENTS WANTED. 

Tbe American Lightning Protectipn Conpan) , 

United Bank BuHding, Sioux City, Iowa. 



THE LABRADOR COAST. 

A JOURNAL OF TWO SUMMER CRUISES 
TO THAT REGION. 

WITH NOTES ON ITS EARLY DISCOV- 
ERY. ON THE ESKIMO, ON ITS PHY- 
SICAL GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND 
NATURAL HISTORY, TOGETHER WITH 
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS, ARTI- 
CLES, AND CHARTS RELATING TO 
THE CIVIL AND NATURAL HISTORY 
OP THE LABRADOR PENINSULA. 

Bf AIiPHEDS SPRHG PiCKARD, I.D., PLD. 

Spoitsmea snd omlttaologists will be interested in 
tbe list of Labrador birds by Mr. L. W. Tomer, 
vhich has been kindly roTlsed and brought down to 
date by Dr. J. A. Allen. Dr. 8. H. Scndder has oon- 
tilbiited the list of butterflies, and Prof. John 
Haoonn, of Ottawa, Canada, has prepared the list of 
lAbcador plants. 

Maeh patns has been taken to render the bibliog- 
twf^j cooplete, and the anther is indebted to Dr. 
Frans Boas and others for seyeral titles and impor- 
tant sogieestions; and it is hoped that this feature of 
the book will recommend it to collectors of Ameri- 



It is hoped that the Tolome will serre as a guide 
to the I^brador coast for the use of trSTellers, 
yaehtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as 
wen 9a those interested in geographical and histori* 
ealstodice. 

518 pp., 8M3.60. 



N. a C. HODGES, 

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SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. Na 498 



—THE SHORT CUT^— 

Comphtt Xnowr/ai^o of what it im'ng taid onall 

THE GREAT TOPICS OF THE DAT 




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BECAUSE—" ir one has only ten biIdbI 

ouibly poated on the evenia at the 
whole world by readlnc thUvaluabla 
publicatloo.' '—SttOtl* Fttu-Tlmtt. 
BECAUSE '" It ia llluatrated lavUhljaod 
well asd la indlapeoaablc." " 



BECAUSE-"!! U the b 

through which a buay 

•brtut."--C*aiiinxy jH. O 
BECAUSE-" The ' Kevlew 

alwaya lDttreBt[ng."-«. C Sum. 
BECAUSE— -' Tbe usual briibt and tnn- 

chant analyala of literary novelliei 

none of their own.'^^aw turk CuZ 
atnlal Adeirtlar. 
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THE Review OF Reviews,! 



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Walker Pmes in Matnral Hi&toi;. 

The Boatoa Boclaty of Natural HlaUrr 

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CONTKIBUTIONS TO OCR KNOWLEDOK ClF 
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■e April I, 



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SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, AUGUST 19, 1892. 



THE BIRD ON ITS NEST. 



BT MOBRIS GIBBS. 



(JOH many iDterestingf points ia relation to the nest- 
B of our friends, the birds, have appeared, I have 
I anything concerning the position which the pro- 
>arent assumes while incubating. The subject has 
Duch interest to me, and in the past years many 
»ns have been made, which plainly indicate that 
rietors of nearly all nests "have their exits and 
ances.^' Many there are, as the kingfishers, wood- 
and other species, which reach their eggs by a 
)eniDg or burrow, and these of necessity must 
■om the same source ; but all seem to have a well- 
osition in sitting, as we shall see. 
i remember the attitude of the domestic hen, turkey, 
and how rarely this position is changed ; and with 
bird the tendency to a shift is even less, for with 
1 fowls we can alter their posture by placing a 
a variety of positions about the nest, but with the 
its of the wood any interference generally results 
on. The robin when building her nest often tries 
brooding breast is to fit the growing structure, and 
when a bare, fiat platform gives no indication of 
kted sides to follow. Later, the male sits in the 
cup, and speculates, probably, on the outcome of 
s, and views the outlook from the crotch. During 
iays of egg-laying the female is not on, or rather 
ructure to any extent, unless the weather is cold or 
she assumes almost any position. It is only after 

I of incubation begin, a period which lasts fourteen 
dot, that the robins adopt a standard, shared in by 

he pair. The male, who shares in the duties of 
'hen going to take his trick, almost invariably flies 
lis mate in the same path, and arriving at the back 
t as his feet are about to touch the edge, the female 

dart forward between the branches which comprise 
door. This front door, as I prefer to call it, is then 
) exit, and toward it the incubating bird always 
r bill. It never directs toward the tree-trunk, and 

points towards an open spi^ce in the foliage when 
c-leaved tree or bush. 

II birds, so far as I am able to learn, the exit is a 
observation for the sitter, from which it can get a 
riends and foes. The owls and hawks from an ele- 
iition can command a fine view of the surroundings, 
aquatic birds the sitter almost invariably occupies a 
presenting toward the water. Shore birds, as the 
*s, rest on their nests in a position to best view the 
r pond. Bails and gallinule9 face the water, the 
jally building so that they can plunge from their 
rectly into their favorite channels. The loon, who 
* rather forms, its nest away out from shore in a 
vegetable matter, usually the foundation of an old 
I house, invariably faces the open, deep water. From 



that position it can slide into the lake at a second^s notice. 
Anyone can prove this position of the loon by examining the 
premises when the owner is away. The nest proper is' merely 
a trough-like depression, evidently formed by the bird^s efforts 
at hollowing, rather than in building up the sides. This 
oblong depression is a foot and a half long and o^er ten 
inches wide, and the eggs are always placed from three-fifths 
to two-thirds of the distance from the front end. 

In a large number of nests of the brown pelican, which I 
examined on an island in Indian River, Florida, all gave 
evidence that the old birds sat in one position, usually with 
the front to the water. It was interesting to note, that, 
although the very young birds, which occupied many of the 
nests, assumed no regular position, the larger young nearly 
all presented towards the shore. 

In the case of ruffed grouse and quail, the position occu- 
pied while on the nest is invariably that which gives the best 
view of the surroundings from the more or less concealed 
retreat. Who ever heard of a grouse's nest where the old 
bird faced into the brush pile or toward the stump or log? 

The arboreal sparrows, vireos, and many other smaller 
birds usually sit upon nests built on horizontal limbs, with 
the head from the trunk, and when the nest is much elevated 
the position is usually chosen so that the sitter will face the 
prevailing wind. Birds will nearly always, when on or off 
the nest, face the wind; and, if observations are taken, 
nearly all birds on the nest will be found in one position if 
a strong wind is blowing. 



FOOT DEFORMITY AS THE RESULT OF UNSCIEN- 
TIFIC SHOES. 

BT W. M. L. COPLIN. MD., AND O. BBVAlf, M.D. 

Ik approaching the subject of scientific foot-dress, one of 
necessity combats the traditions, experiences, and fashions 
of centuries. If we are to judge of the foot coverings handed 
down to us as relics from the courts of France, Spain, Eng- 
land, and Q^rmany, we can but conclude that for an ex- 
tremely long period of time, probably eight or ten cen- 
turies, the dressing of the human foot has been, even in the 
so-called civilized countries, but slightly different, and only 
in degree, from the customs of the followers of Confucius 
for thousands of years. Fortunately for art, unfortunately 
for the history of civilization, so called, the artist of olden 
as well as modern times has not copied, except in portraiture, 
the cramped foot, the narrow toe, the elevated heel, and the 
pinched instep, which have long accompanied the human 
foot. It seems reasonable to suppose, however, that the 
Roman artist and critic, and the Qrecian as well, fully at- 
tempted to give us the perfect foot as found in the well-devel- 
oped Grecian woman of the day. The sandals worn at the 
time when Rome was in her splendor were undoubtedly so 
constructed as to afford ample opportunity for the develop- 
ment of the foot, and exhibit the beauty of its conformation. 
The gladiators, if we are to judge of their physique by the 
rude representations which are handed down to us from 
their times, trained in extremely loose-fitting sandals, and 



* 

r 



war 



lOO 



/ 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 498 



fought their battles in ''shin buskins/^ rarely wearing any 
foot covering at all. 

The first criminal step taken was that of lacing the entire 
shoe; this error led rapidly to the pinching of the foot, and 
in order to retain the foot well forward in the shoe the high 
heel became a necessity. This is not the histological reason 
why the high heel was first put on the shoe, but it is evident 
to the thinker that, with the narrow toe worn daring the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, it would have been practically 
impossible to have prevented excoriation and severe rubbing 
of the heel had the shoe remained flat; hence to prevent 
this the heel was elevated, and the foot shot forward to the 
toe of the shoe, and its return toward the heel prevented by 
the elevation of its posterior extremity. 




Fio. 1.— Infant's foot, nerer worn a shoe. Scale, three^lghths of an Inch to 
one Inch. 

This can be but a brief riaum^ of the history of the im> 
proper foot* wear; it is sufficient to say, that, as fact, the 
wooden shoe or the cast shoe is more conducive to maintain- 
ing the normal contour of the foot than the pinchy leather 
shoe. 

To return to the consideration of our subject proper, aside 
from the influence of evolution upon the human foot, we 
are to remember that the foot of a child as nearly represents 
the ideal of a perfect foot as anything of which we can con- 
ceive; so, taking that for a basis of our observation, let us 
glance for a moment at the essential features in maintaining 
the beauty of this small piece of God^s handiwork. 

As briefly outlining the course which the deformity of the 
foot pursues as the result of improper shoeing, the accompany- 
ing diagrams are presented. They are in no sense pictures, 
and are made by placing the foot upon paper and carefully 
tracing a continuous line around it; the same is true of the 




FiP. S.— FiTS year-old chll J'8 foot, sbr wing beginning deformity. Scale, two- 
eighths of an Inch to one Inch. 

shoe except that it is drawn in broken lines. It will be ob- 
served that the broadest part of Fig. 1 is at the tip of the 
toes, that the toes are separated, that the pencil line can be 
readily made between the toes without displacing or pushing 
them aside. The foot is almost triangular in shape; from the 
tip of the little toe, a line projected backward will touch 
almost the entire length of the foot, and the inner margin of 
the big toe being continuous with the line at the side of 
the foot. The toes are straight, and when turned up, 
that i^, f ul ly extended, they will be separated from each 
other and evince perfect freedom of motion, both flexion and 
extentiou in all the phalanges. The instep is well arched, 
both on the plantar and dorsal surfaces; the foot is pliable; 
and, when extreme flexion is made, it will be manifest in the 
arch as well as in the toe; the heel is not found extending 
backward, it is round from above downward posteriorly and 
from side to side; there is no sharp angle, and the thicken- 



ing of the plantar skin begins gradually. This foot has 
never worn a shoe, and therefore does not show any of the 
evidences of the slowly developing deformity. Next we will 
consider the foot of a child five years old (Fig. 2). It will be 
observed that the great toe is beginning to deflect towards its 
fellows; the little toe deflects slightly towards the inner side 
of the foot ; the greatest width of the foot is no longer at the 
tip of the toes but at the metatarso-phalangeal articulation ; 
the toes can be but slightly separated by voluntary effort on 
the part of the individual. The toes are beginning to show 
slight stumping, and the overriding of the little toe and of 
its neighbor is beginning to manifest itself. The foot, 
although fat and plump, has not the smoothness, softness, 
and roundness which the infantile foot possesses. A line 
drawn from the heel along the outer or inner margin of the 
foot but slightly touches the great toe or the little toe at its 
base, and neither of them at their first phalangeal articula- 
tion. The tracing of the shoe shows exactly how the foot 
must be compressed in order to adapt itself to the shoe; and 
it is to be remembered that these drawings were made upon 
the outside of the shoe, and the foot must go on the inside of 
the covering of which this is an outside tracing. The nar- 
rowing of the toes must inevitably follow this pinching. 

Passing on to the next degree, we have that of an adult 
foot (Fig. 3). The deformity here is sufficiently well marked to 
speak for itself; a step further it becomes more marked, and 
reaches its climax in Figs. 4 and 5, where we have a later stage 
thoroughly represented. Here the great toe is overriden by 




Fio. 8.— Adult's foot, showing Increabed deformity. Scale, one-eigth of an 
inch to one inch. 

the second toe, which lies parallel with the third toe; they 
are stumped, with nails and sides flattened. The fourth toe 
bends under the third toe. The bend at the first and second 
phalangeal articulation is angular, and both angles are sur- 
mounted by corns. The little toe bends far under the fourth 
toe, and at the metatarsophalangeal junctions of the small 
toe and of the groat toe articular enlargements are well ad- 
vanced. Lines drawn along the outer and inner margin of 
the foot no longer touch either the great or little toe. The 
heel now projects backward as a result of the lacing to which 
the ankle has been subjected. The foot is flattened in the 
sole, and in some cases enlargement will be observed in the 
tarso- metatarsal articulation of the great or, more com- 
monly, the little toe. These changes, as represented by the 
above succession of flgures, are but the history of one foot, 
if it could be followed fix>m infancy to adult life or later. 
The skin of the sole of the foot will be thick, and in no small 
number of cases corns will be situated either upon the heel 
or internal or external ball of the foot. During the develop- 
ment of these deformities the gait of the patient — for by 
this time the sufferer is a patient either of the doctor or 
the chiropodist — will have materially changed. Instead of 
the free, swinging gait of childhood and youth, easily and 
comfortably maintained, we have now the mincing, narrow 
gait with evident unsteadiness in the ankles, a tendency to 
prevent pushing forward of the foot and a manifest effort 
required in ascending or descending stairs or steps. There 
is a poorly developed calf as a result of the heel being highly 
elevated. The leg is narrow and flat; the calf is deficient 
and the tendo-achilles prominent. Climbing stairs, or go* 






«• > 



• •• • 



August 19, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



lOl 



iag up hills, or working bicycles or pedals, or Blanding 
OD tip-toe, or daaciug, tires out the calf, produces pain in 
the bamstring muscle and a weakness in tbe back. These 
conditions are not rarely ascribed to ingrowing toe- 
nails, corns, or a tender fool, while in fact they are the 
legitimate outgrowths of slowly developing anatomical de- 
formities. Added to the improper shape of the shoe and its 




poor construction, we have the element of bad leather with 
stiff inflexible joining, all going as important factors of the 
development of tbe deformity. The question of the arrest 
of these changes, tbe prevention of deformity, lies, of course, 
entirely in properly made shoes. The shoe should certainly 
be the same width from the metatarso-phalangeal articula- 
lioi to tbe tip of the toe. Crowding should be prevented. 
The soles should be flat, no heels to jab the foot forward 
upon the toes. The weight should be transmitted directly 
to the plantar arch, and not to the ball of the foot. Stock- 
ings should be wide and not taper at the toes, having a uni- 
form width as in the shoe from the ball to the tip of the toe ; 
they should be seamless in the area coming in contact with 
the toes and soles. The texture of both tbe stocking and the 
shoe should be pliable, and neither should be worn long 
enough to become saturated with moisture. 



PHONETIC VALUE OF THE CITI GLYPH IN THE 
MAYA GRAPHIC SYSTEM. 

BT HtLBOBira T. CBKSBON, A.M., N.D. 

The Ch'i glyph, which figures so extensively both in the 
hieratic and demotic script of tbe Mayas, seems to have 
been used in the most archaic forms of their graphic system . 
as it appears in their altar tablets of Copan (see Fig. S of 
ihe illustration accompanying this article), and it is also to 
be remarked among the ikonomatic decorations of various 
ancient Maya cities. 

Ch'i, ID Maya, means "to seize" or "bold" with pins, 
thorns, or claws, or other sharp-pointed objects; this would 
be clearly ikonomatic for Ch'ic or Ch'i. In 1676, while in 
Parts, it was my good fortune to examine, at tbe library of 
the £cole des Beaux Arts, an excellent photograph of the 
tablet to the left-hand side of the doorway of Casa, No. 3, 
Palenqne, which, in a previous article published in Science, 
I have suggested is probably a bas-relief of Ktikuitz. The 
design and technique of this masterpiece of the Maya scribe- 
BC u I ptor's art is especially fine, particularlj' the ikonomatic 
decorations which ornament the figure of the god. Tbe 
head-dress of tbe figure represents feathers, maize leaves, 
the quetzal bead, and other decorations, notably that of a 
heron {Baackd) in the act of pinching a fish (caj/) in its 
powerful bill. The suggestion of £aac-ft(itn the act of pinch- 
ing cay in its bill (Fig. 6). although it recalled by means of 
the various phonetic components of the crane's head, neck, 
and eye, that the scribe intended to suggest to one's mind ha- 
eaba, or hack kabah, or it may be ah kaim, also sug- 
gested that ch'i, " to pinch," " bile," was implied by the ao- 
tioo of the heron's bill. It would make the sentence more 
complete, for the fish, cay, is, in fact, but a determinative, 



showing that eh'J is intended rather than ch'i, thus giving 
us "Ba-ha&cha" or "bai-chi-ba," an excellent rebns-like 
suggestion of oA AnAa, which in Maya =" he who has a 
name." I notice that in tbe Casa, No. 2, tablet, Palenque, 
that the main clouie of Brasseur calls attention to "ah 
kaba," and a sculptured vase recently discovered in Yuca- 
tan, now in the Peabody Museum, has this same hieroglyph 
incised upon it in connection with other components which 
suggest xmorkaba-kin^ "days without names." The so- 
called " nail-head " component of this glyph seems to have 
the phonetic value of d. It is absent, however, on the vase 
just referred to. In order to find out whether the ch'i glyph 
was used in other localities, a reference to Catherwood's 
drawing of the glyphs on the top of an altar at Copan. and 
various other sculptured tablets, indicates that it was used 
repeatedly by tbe Maya scribes. In one instance, at Copan, 
it recalls Chikin, the '■ west" or "sun-bitten." (Fig. 13). 

The ch'i glyph bas numerous variants, and seems to be 
accompantwl by determinatives so as to indicate the vowel 
combinations, such as chd, chd, ch'i, cAo, chti. We have 
called attention to a supposed determinative in a previous 
article published in Science, and one has already been re- 
ferred to in this article. Where tbe glyph has no determina- 
tive whatever, as in Fig. 1, I accept it as ch'. If accom- 
panied by the small circle, as in Fig. 2, I use it as cA't. 
The sign of May orientation (Fig. 13), Chikin, tbe " west " 
or "sun-bitten," is an instance where this phonetic value 
has worked successfully. Where the cA't glyph accom- 
panied by two small circles (Fig. 15) placed on either of the 
tooth-like attachments (Fig. 16) which generally accompanies 
it, tbe phonetic value cA'w is suggested (see Figs. 4 and B). 
Fig. 19 gives an admirable example of where two of the 
count-numerals are attached to the glyph ; and, accepting it 
as a determinative, we obtain the phonetic value ch'd. 

The ch'i glyph sometimes appears as shown in Fig, 18, 
and the resemblance of it to that of the day-sign, manih 
(Fig. 10), is striking. Manik has the same components, 




only the outer line of the glyph encloses it completely, while 
in the cA't glyyh the two ends of the pinching claw, or 
hand, are left open. Where it is closed we have a glyph 
formed, as in Fig. 30, which is not unlike the draughtsman's 
T-square, and seems to have tbe phonetic value ma. Tbe 
T-square glyph (Fig, 20) is used at Palenque, small ventila- 
tors in the walls of one of the houses being shaped like it. 
At Ch'i Ch'een-Itza it appears as an ikonomatic decora- 
tion on the walls of a temple, and the small component 
(Fig. 11), so often used in tbe Maya glyphs, also appears as 
an ikonomatic decoration at CA't, Ch'een, Itza. Its phonetic 



I03 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No 498 



value a«eii» to be ich, as an affix, and chi aa a sufflr. Id 
Fig. 18 it is a prefix and reads ich, suggettiag tbat cVt is 
the proper phonetic value to be used. The determinatives 
that we have referred to in this and other articles seem to 
be phonetic. 

Fig. 3 is the Uot Landa, and there is reason to think that 
it is correct, for the o or u attached to it is divided in half 
by a line which I believe, from results obtained in other 
directions, is the vowel o with the cut-line through it. In 
the various Ch'u (or Ch'o) glyphs (Figs. 4 and 5) that we 
have given this component of the glyph is square (Fig. 16). 
It has the cut-sign in the middle, or is divided by it, and 
gives a fair representation of teeth. Co^tootb in Uaya 
(pronounced Coo), and, as in Figs. 3, 4, 6, the cut-sign runs 
to the perpendicular line (Fig. 17), whose phonetic value in 
my alphabet = H; either end of the A glyph touching the 
ch glyph, which envelops it externally, as in Figs. 3, 4, I 
accept it as a suggestion of h' or ch'u 

What we have designated as the cut-line, or sign, appears 
in other places. A good example is shown in Fig. 6. It is 
the well-knowu honey-sign, but in this case is combined with 
other glyphs. I act on a principle of analysis which so far 
has given good results, that the glyphs and Uaya decora- 
tions are composed of ikonomatie components, and that the 
Uaya scribe sculptor and his more demotic brethren do not 
seem to have used any meaningless decorations, either in 
their hieroglyphs or the ornamentation of their palaces, 
all these being in keeping with the words which they in- 
tended to convey to the reader's mind by the sound of the 
name of the thing represented. Fig. 6 is a glyph in the 
second row of the outer page of the Codex Troano. It 
is placed in front of Plate 35 of Brasseur's work. We will 
begin our analysis aa follows: (a) Tbe upper, left-hand 
glyph and the determinative sign below it on the lower, 
left-hand side; (6) the upper, right-hand glyph and the 
honey-sign below it at the lower, right-hand side. The o or 
u glyph is composed of the eye glyph, ich, or uich, placed 
on either side below the tooth-like appendage, Co. Just 
above it, in the elongated, oval glyph, is the hd or h glyph, 
aline running through o or u, these two glyphs giving us an 
admirable suggestion oF cA'u or ch'o. By taking half of this 
upper glyph it can easily be seen that the u of Landa (Fig. 3) 
is but a variant of this glyph (Fig. 81). The upper right- 
hand glyph (Fig. 8) has the dotted ah aspirate, together with 
the t loop and I curve. Descending from the i loop is the 
twisted glyph (or line), whose phonetic value I have so far 
used with success as ba (from ba, twisted, tortuous, bent). 
By trying every combination that can be obtained from 
this glyph and the preceding glyphs, I find that the fol- 
lowing word was probably that intended by the Uaya 
scribe, viz., " oh'u-h-oo-sh-il," or "ch'hucil." Turning to 
the vocabulary of Brasseur, which seems to suit this kind of 
work better than the dictionary of Perez, I find that tbe 
word in Uaya means "sweets." This placed over the honey- 
sign, at the lower right-hand corner, indicates that we are 
not far astray in our analysis. The honey-sign has the two 
small, square, black, count glyphs attached to its left upper 
and lower comers = ca, or "two;" next comes our dotted 
aspirate line, which has the phonetic ralue eh or x; beyond 
this aspirate, to the left, is the Mar h,& perpendicular line, 
giving us in connection with tbe other components and the 
aspirate "ca-hA" (6 is uDderBtood)=ca&, or "honey." 
"Sweets-honey" is, I think, a fair interpretation of this 
glyph, which anyone who has studied the "Bee-Keeper's 
Narrative " of the Troano will recall aa intimately associated 



with honey and the honey-comb. Its component, I'l, is the 
antennae of the bee, with tbe i loop attached. 

This antennse glyph I have shown in a previous article to 
be intimately associated with the honey-sign Cab. 

The second u of Landa's alphabet (Fig. 14) is expressed 
by the o and u and the I curve to which the twisted glyph, 
ba, is attached. This gives us "Ho-ba;" and the aspirate 
of Landa, marked by the indented curve between the il and 
ba components of this sign, changes the bti into hd or yJ, 
giving us "Ho-ya"^"to water," "sprinkle." The m of 
Landa is often seen placed below the hieroglyph of the Brma- 
nienL, and is intimately connected with hd, or " water which 
refreshes the earth with rain," "dew and moisture." Ca, 
hd, o. u have an interesting relation with the ch'i glyph, and, 
from what we have related, seem to be determinatives. 

The ch'i glyph is represented in many different parts of 
the Troano either as tbe claw-like appendage qf the shell fish, 
as in Plate 24 (&), Codex Troano, the centipede or tarantula 
claw, as in Plate 13 ,Troano (6.C.), Plate 18 (6), Plate 9 (c), 
or as the "pinching hand," with its crustacean like thumb 
on Plate 25 (b), Troano. 



DEATH OF PROFESSOR W. P. TROWBRIDGE. 

Professor Williah P. Trowbridoe, the head of the ea* 
gineering department of the Columbia College School of 
Mines, died of heart-failure at his home in New Haven last 
Friday. He was bom in Troy, Oakland County, Uich., 
May 25, 1828, and entered the West Point Military Academy 
in 1844, where he graduated four years later, receiving an 
appointment as second- lieu ten ant in the corps of engineers. 
He had served as Assistant Professor of Chemistry during 
the last year of his course at the academy, and after his 
graduation he was occupied for some time with astronomical 
work at tbe West Point Observatory. In 1851 he was ap- 
pointed to a position on the Coast Survey under Superin- 
tendent Bache, which he held till 18GQ, and at a later time 
he took part in the survey of the James and Appomattox 
Rivers and in a series of surveys on the Paci&c coast. 

In 1854 he had received a commission as first-lieutenant 
in tbe U. 8. Army, which he resigned two years later to ac- 
cept the profesiiorBhip of mathematics in the University of 
Michigan; but after a year of service, he resigned his pro- 
fessorship also, and was appointed scientific secretary to the 
superintendent of the Coast Survey. During the Civil War 
he again served in the army, and rose to the rank of brig- 
adier-general ; bis work in the army being largely in con- 
nection with fortifications in New York harbor and else- 
where. 

After the war was over be resigned his commission again, 
and entered the Sheffield Scientific School of Tale Collie 
aa Professor of Dynamic Engineering, but resigned in 1877 
to take the professorship of engineering at Columbia, which, 
as we have stated, he held up to the time of his death. 

Professor Trowbridge was the author of a treatise on 
" Heat as a Source of Power" and several other works on 
engineering subjects. He was the chief agent of tbe tenth 
census for collecting statistics relating to power and ma- 
chinery employed in manufactures. He was for four yean 
Adjutant-General of Connecticut, was Vice-President of the 
New York Academy of Sciences and of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and was a fellow 
of the National Academy of Sciences. For several yean 
Professor Trowbridge was a director of the Science Com- 
pany. 



19, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



103 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Mtion whether an attack of influenza confers protec- 
Bubeequent infection is one which must have often 
ing the experiences of the last three years, but the data 
tion are not yet fully available. The amount of infor- 
lich must have been gleaned by the family practitioner 
I of the country upon this and many other points con- 
B malady would, if collated, go far to settle the matter, 
urse notorious that certain individuals have suffered 
than one attack ; but the conviction is pretty general 
^ases really form but a small minority of the large num- 
ave suffered. Then, again, it must be deemed possible 
^gree and duration of the protection may depend on the 
hich the primary attack exhibited, for one can hardly 
doctrine of attenuation of virus in the case of this dis- 
h shows so much variation from the ordinary course 
e disorders in general. In a highly interesting cou- 
pon the filatures of the present epidemic in Berlin, ao- 
lAinceit Dr. Ruhemann directs especial attention to 
on of protection and affords valuable evidence of it. 
amarks that the more gradual evolution and persistent 
Df the present epidemic, as compared with the rapid 
r course of the pandemic of 1889 to 1890, have afforded 
y for more closely studying the character of the malady, 
has especially enabled us to recogniie more clearly its 
nature. According to him, influenza has prevailed in 
r since the beginning of last September, and he notes 
s occasion the stress of the outbreak had fallen to a far 
ient upon women and children and less upon men than 
ise two years ago. His own practice affords proof of 
ally in the fact of the greater frequency of uncom- 
ses among women than among men. As to the ques- 
tection, he has observed that members of families who 
sly attacked two years ago have either escaped entirely 
or been only slightly affected; whilst, conversely, the 
IS cases of the present time have arisen in households 
influenza sparM during its earlier visitation. He notes 
eni of Dr. Edward Qray, to the effect that " many per- 
Bcaped the epidemic of 1776 were affected by that of 
nany who escaped the latter were affected by the for- 
bowing that a century ago this question of immunity 
issed unnoticed. Dr. Ruhemann gives his experience 
ies. numbering 198 individuals. In 1889-90 there were 
influenza among this group, whilst in the present out- 
40 have been attacked, and, what is of special interest, 
of this number were affected (and that but slightly) 
ago, whilst of the 64 then attacked only 4 have again 
stims. Should this prove to be anything like the gen- 
race it would go far to substantiate a fact that has hith- 
lucb disputed, even to the extent of declaring that one 
Jisposes to another. That one individual may have 
arrenoes during the prevalence of a single epidemic 
I Dr. Ruhemann*s opinion, mitigate against the general 
' protection, since he thinks many such recurrences 
plained by lack of caution on the part of the patients 
Kwing themselves to fresh infection before they are re- 
ill health. That influenza does protect from a see- 
on should reassure many persons who, having once 
rerely from it, dread a repetition of so depressing a 
d it may be further comfort to them to learn that the 
bave to suffer at first, the less likely are they to suffer 
If, then, influenza shares this common property of 
e diseases, it is not so remarkable that it should not 
select the young in preference to the adult and aged, 
the whole community is more or less '* unprotected ** 
St realgars after an absence (in pandemic form) of 

meeting of the GeseUschaf t Deutscher Naturforscher 

held last year in Halle, it was arranged that the 

neeting should be held this year at Nflmberg, from 

the 16th of September. This society, similar to the 

I American associations for the advancement of scienoe, 



together with a medical association, is divided into thirty-two sec- 
tions, about two-thirds of which belong to the medical side, and 
the remaining are scientific, if it be allowed to use the word in 
the narrow sense. The three general sittings are to be opened 
by addresses from Professors His of Leipzig, von Helmholtz of 
Berlin, and Qfinther of Munich respectively; and in the meetings 
of the sections — for example, in chemistry — papers will be read, 
among others, by Ostwaldand E. v. Meyer; in physics by Wiede- 
mann and Boltzmann; in mathematics by Q. Cantor, F. Klein 
and KSnigsberger. On one of the days of the meeting excursions 
are to be made by certain of the sections. Those of physics and 
zoology and some of the medicinal sections go to Eriangen, where 
the apparatus of the University laboratories will be used in demon- 
stration of papers. On the same day the sections of botany, 
mineralogy, and geology, ethnology, and anthropology make a 
scientiflc excursion to Neuhaus or Pommelsbrunn. As before, the 
German Mathematical Society meets with the general Science So- 
ciety, and thus the number of papers in the section of mathematics 
is probably larger than in any other section. There is to be a 
technical industrial exhibition in charge of the general society 
and the Bavarian government, and the Mathematical Society has 
undertaken an exhibition of ** mathematical models, drawings, 
apparatus, and instruments, serving both for teaching and research 
in pure and applied mathematics.'* This latter exhibition is to 
include only those instruments having an interest primarily mathe- 
matical, while the instruments having to do with the experi- 
mental sciences, and of more practical use, are to be placed in the 
general exhibition, which will be especially rich historically, as the 
collections of the Nfimk)erg Industrial Museum are to be utilized. 
-The mathematical exhibition is to include historical surface and 
curve models, such as those constructed by PlUoker and Klein, and 
later those of the Brill collection; and certain unique models 
which have been in university collections, and which have become 
dilapidated, are to be as much as possible re-set. In connection 
with these models explanitory lectures are to be delivered, those 
thus far announced being as follows: Dyck, introductory lecture 
on the mathematical exhibition; Bjerknes, bydrodynamio phe- 
nomena analogous to electric and magnetic; Finsterwalder, sur- 
face curvature; Mehmke, reckoning machines. Other lectures 
are to be given on function- theory surfaces, etc. In this connec- 
tion it is of interest to note that Professor Klein, who probably 
exerts the most infiuence in the Qerman Mathematical Society, 
and who is a member of the mathematical advisory committee of 
the Chicago exhibition, sugg^ts that such an exhibition of models 
with demonstrations be introduced there. 

— For some eight years the theory has been before the scientiflc 
world that the great ice-sheet bridged the Ohio River near Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, sufficiently to block its channel and raise the waters 
above the place of bridging to a height of 500 to 600 feet above 
the present river-bed. Silt deposits east of Cincinnati near the ice 
margin have been cited as evidence of this dam since they stand 
about 600 feet above the Ohio. These silts have been found by 
Frank Leverett, U. S. Geological Survey, Madison, Wis., to be too 
widespread to admit of this explanation, since they extend west 
past Cincinnati, covering much of southern Indiana as well as 
portions of States farther west. They are also of later date, Hince 
they rest upon the drift deposited by the ice when It bridged the 
Ohio, and are separated from it by a considerable time-interval, 
shown by humus stain, leaching of till» and erosion of surface of 
the underlying drift. The apparent absence of strlsB south of the 
Ohio River and the meagre amount of drift there indicate a thin 
ice-sheet with feeble movement. These facts and a comparison 
with other districts where conditions for damming appear to 
have been more favorable than on the Ohio, lead to the conclu- 
sion that the river would not be blocked except for very brief 
periods. 

— Nepiunia^ May, 1802, reports a singular phenomenon from 
the Balearic Isles. On March 4, about o'clock in the morning, 
a violent wind from the north blew over Seller in Majorca. As 
the wind died away, the rain by which it was accompanied in- 
creased, and at the same time the ground was covered by a yel- 
lowish coating, which proved to be sulphur. 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 498 



SCIENCE: 



A' WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL TBi ABTS ASD SCIEKCES. 



D. C. HODGES. 

S74 Broadway, Niw Vork. 



Qnat Britain uid In rape 4.50* femr. 

Communla»tlDDavU1baweIo»mBdfromuiT quarter. AbstcactaoInlentlBo 
papsra ai« oolloltcd, and one buadred ooplei ol the lnu« oODtalnlng iDoh will 
bfl maltnd the aathor on reqaeat In adTanoe. Rajeoted ouuiiuarlpts will be 
rMnned to the antborg onlr when tbe requisite amoant of poatage accom- 
panlei tbe manaaiirlpt. VhateTsr Is lotended for iDsertloa mmt be aatbentl- 
oated br the nama and addreas ot the writer: not neoessarllT lor pablleation, 
but aa a gaaiant7 ot good taitb. We do not bold onraalTea Tsapooatble tot 
asr TlaworopliilonB eipreeaed In the oommnnlaatloDi of onr oarreapondenta. 

Attention la oaUed to the "Waata" oolumo. It la loTaluabieto tboae who 
oae n In aolioltinf iBformatlon or aeeklng oew poaitlODt. Tbe name and 
addreaa of ^ipUoanta iboold ba iItod Id fnll. 10 tbat auwen will go direct to 
tbem. The "BxehanKe" aolnmn la lUewlae open. 

Pot AdTaitlalDi Batae applr to HnraT F. TatLoB. It Astor Plane, New 
loA. 



THE AMEBICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL AaSOCIATION. 

Ik response to an invitation issued by President G. Stan- 
ley Hall of Clark TTniTersity, a preliminary meeting of pey- 
ctudogiats from variouB institutions was held at that univer- 
sity, Worcester, Mass., on July 8. 

The meeting was presided orer by Professor G. 3. Fuller- 
ton of the University of Pennsylvania. After a general 
expression of opinion as to the form of organization, it vrr 
determined to refer the entire matter to a committee consist- 
ing of President Hall of Clark UuiverBity. Professor Fuller- 
ton of the University of Pennsylvania, Professor Jastrow of 
the University ot Wisconsin, Professor James of Harvard 
University, Professor Ladd of Yale University, Professor 
Cattell of Columbia College, ProfeEsor Baldwin of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. 

Thiecommittee was authorised to determi tie the place, time, 
and programme for the next meeting and then to report a 
plan of organization. 

It was the sense of those present that these gentlemen 
should constitute a council to be renewed by frequent elec- 
tions and should choose from their own number an executive 
committee to direct the more urgent affairs of the association, 
and that the first three gentlemen named should act tempo- 
rarily as such committee. 

Sessions were held in the afternoon and evening, at which 
papers were read by Professors Jastrow, Banford, and 
Bryan, and Doctors Nichola, Krohn, and Gilman. It was 
decided in response to an invitation from Professor Fullerton 
to hold the next meeting of the association in Philadelphia, 
at the University of Pennsylvania, on Tuesday, Dec. 27, at 
10 A.M. 

Professor Jastrow was appointed secretary to provide a 
programme for that meeting. He invites all members to 
submit to him at Hadison, Wisconsin, titles of papers wiih 
brief abstracts and estimates of time required for presenta- 
tion. 

The original members who were either preseot at this 
meeting or sent letters of approval and accepted member- 



ship, are as follows: Frank Angell, Leland Stanford, Jr., 
University; J. Mark Baldwin. Toronto University; W, L, 
Bryan, Indiana University; W. H. Burnham, Clark Univer- 
sity; J. McK. Cattell, Columbia College; Edward Cowles, 
McLean Asylum; E. B. Delabarre, Brown Uuiversity; John 
Dewey, University of Michigan; G. S. Fullerton, University 
of Pennsylvania; E. H. Griffin, Clark University; G. SUnley 
Hall, Clark University; J. G. Hume, Toronto University; 
J. H. Hyslop, Columbia College; William James, Harvard 
University; Joseph Jastrow. University orWiscoasin; W, 
O. Krohn, Clark University; G. T. Ladd, Yale University; 
He rbei-t Nichols, Harvard University; William Noyes, Mc- 
Lean Asylum; G. T. W. Patrick, University of Iowa; Josiah 
Boyce, Harvard University; E. C. Sauford, Clark Unive^ 
sity; E, W, Scripture, Yale Duiversity; Lightmer Witmer, 
University of Pennsylvania; H. K. Wolfe, University of 
Nebraska. 

The following additional members were elected: Dr. T. 
Wesley Hills, HcGill College, Montreal; Hugo MUnsUrberg, 
Harvard University; A. T. Ormond. Princeton College; Ed- 
ward Pace, Catholic University, Washington; E. B. Titcb- 
ener, Cornell University. 

Professor Jastrow asked the co-operation of all memlwrs 
for the section of psychology at the World's Fair, and invites 
correspondence upon the matter. 



THE PB8T OF FIFLD-MICE IN THE8SALY AND 
LOEPFLEE'S SUCCESSFUL METHOD OF COM- 
BATING IT." 

The valley ot Thesaaly was recently threatened with en- 
tire destruction of itsgrowingcropsby swarms of Seld-mice, 
which had suddenly appeared in such alarming numbers 
that the farmers and the government were at their wits' ends 
to disoovor efficient means to combat the pest. Several dif- 
ferent poisons were tried at public expense, and it was also 
attempted to drown the mice out in some places; but owing 
to the difficulties of application and tbe inefficiency of these 
methods, it was found greatly desirable to look for other 
means. Pasteur was applied to by one of the large land- 
owners for cultures of some microbe which could be used to 
destroy the mice, and Pasteur promptly referred his corres- 
pondent to Loeffler in Greifswald, who had discovered a 
bacillus which would answer the purpose. Pasteur's answer 
was sent to tbe government at Athens, and as tbe attention 
of the government had already been called to Loeffier's 
work by the Grecian ambassador at Berlin, Loeffler was re- 
quested to send cultures to be used in the infested districts. 
Fearing that tbe testa would not be made in sucli a manner 
as to secure success, Loeffler informed the Grecian ambassa- 
dor, that, although he was willing to give the cultures, he 
would prefer to make the experiment himself, provided his 
expenses were paid. 

On April 1 Loeffler received notice that if he would come 
the Grecian government was willing to pay bis expenses 
and those of an assistant. So, after being informed that 
the mice were of the kind ' that be had found susceptible U 
infection with his bacillus, Loeffler and bis assistant. Dr. 
Abel, set out with a supply of cultures on April 5 from Ber- 
lin, and arrived in Athens April 9. On going to the patho- 
logical laboratory he was shown some of the mice from 
Tbessaly, and to his chagrin be found they differed from tbe 

1 Caatralblatt for Baocarlologia und ParaalCeDkaDde Bd. Xlt, Ka 1. 
> Arrlcola arralla. 



August 19. 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



J 05 



kind he had worked on at home. Fortunately, however, it was 
found that the mice at Athens were even more susceptihle to 
inoculation and also to infection through the alimentary 
canal than those in Germany. This fact was established in 
a few days by inoculating and feeding the mice in the 
laboratory with cultures of the organism. Preparations for 
experiment on a large scale were at once made, and Loeffler, 
Dr. Abel, and Dr. Pampoukis, director of the bacteriological 
laboratory in Athens, set sail on April 16 for Volo, and went 
by rail from thence to Larissa, the capital of Thessaly, 

Loeffler had found that the micro-organism, Bacillus typhi 
murium,^ grows very well iu a decoction of oat and barley 
straw to which 1 per cent of peptone and i per cent of grape 
Hugar have been added. So a large amount of this liquid 
was prepared and inoculated. Pieces of bread about the 
size of a finger were soaked in these cultures after abundant 
growth was secured, and the bread was then distributed in 
the openings of the burrows of the mice. A number of 
mice were also inoculated and turned loose; this was done 
because the mice eat the bodies of those that die, and spread 
contagion in this way. It had been amply proved by ex- 
periment that the bread soaked in the culture could be eaten 
by man and various domestic animals with perfect im- 
punity. 

In a few days after the holes had been baited, news came 
from all sides that the infected bread had disappeared from 
the holes. This news was very satisfactory, as it could by 
no means be certainly counted upon beforehand that the 
mice would eat the bread, surrounded as they were with 
abundance of fresh food. A visit to Bakrena, about nine 
days after the experiment had been started at that place, 
showed that the mice had ceased their activity entirely. In 
two other places, Nochali and Amarlar, a similar result was 
obtained. Several burrows at tfiese places were opened and 
found to be empty or to contain sick, dead, or half-eaten 
mice. There were sick and dying mice sticking in many of 
the openings. A number of sick and dead mice were car- 
ried to Larissa, and examined. They were found to present 
all the characteristic lesions of the typhoid fever of mice, 
and to contain the organism in their internal organs. 

Reports from other places which Loeffler subsequently re- 
ceived, were all satisfactory. So Loeffler is j usti6ed in closing 
his very interesting account of his expedition with the fol- 
lowing words: *'The science of bacteriology has thus again 
proved its great practical significance, and hence also its 
right to be specially cultivated and advanced." 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

«*• OorretpondenU are reguetted to be a$ brief aa poaHble. The writer •» jiame 
iaimaU eaeee retitiired as proof of good faith. 

On re^ueet in advamee^ one hundred oopiee of the number containing hia 
eomwannieation will befumiehed free to any correepondent. 

nbe editor wUlbeglad to publish any queries coneonant with the character 
of the journal. 

The Ancient Libyan Alphabet. 

In Science, Aug. 13, Professor Keane offers some inquiries and 
statemente relating to a note of mine on the Libyan alphabet. 

The note referred to was partly based on an article by Dr. OoUig' 
non, as was indicated. Dr. Oollignon is one of the highest author- 
ities living on north Aftican ethnography and arcbasology, as Pro- 
fessor Eueane doubtless knows. He would not make the following 
statement unless he had good grounds for it: *' Quant a la forme 
Do^me des caractdres libyques, on ne peut nier qu^elle ne remonte 
i one haute antiquity ; eUe est, en tout cos, amUrieure d Carthage.^^ 
Of oooree. Dr. CoUignon is aware of the common theory that the 
leiteis were of Punic origin ; but considers it time to discard it. 

> Camtralttlatt t Bacteriologie and Parasitenkande Bd. IX., Ko. 5. 



As to Professor Keane's suggession of the origin of the name 
tifinar, from Finagh = Phoenician, it is purely fanciful, and his 
assertion that the stress '* still falls on the root Jin," is utterly in- 
correct, as it falls on the last syllable, and not on the penult (see 
Hanoteau, **Grammaire Tamachek," p. 5). 

It is true that in loose language the whole alphabet, or any 
alphabet, is called tiflnar ; and it is not quite correct to say that 
all the tiddebakin are vowels. The proper distinction is thus 
given: '< Les signes exclusivement trac^ en traits sont nomm^ 
tiflnar; ceux trac^ avec des points sont nomm^s tidd^xikin." 

How Professor Keane, quoting Hanote&u*s ^'Qrammaire Tama- 
chek," can deliberately write that in the Libyan alphabet ** curves 
occur quite as frequently as straight lines," can only be explained 
by the supposition that he never saw the book he quotes. It is 
before me now, and out of the thirty-five simple and compound 
letters only three are curvilinear, and all of these are recognized 
as mere variants, and placed after the true rectilinear forms. I 
refuse to think that this is a fair example of the accuracy of Pro- 
fessor Keane's quotations. 

Whether they were derived from a rectangle or not, has some- 
thing more than theoretical importance in relation to their 
posdible derivation from Egyptian forms; but it need not be in- 
sisted on. That all the original forms were composed of right 
lines is a point of considerable interest, which has not been dis- 
proved. 

As to what writers may be considered specialists in the study, 
there is room for legitimate difference of opinion. When Pro- 
fessor Keane rejects Duveyrier, he rejects the author who beyond 
all others has a practical acquaintance with the written speech of 
the Touaregs — the only tribe who still use the tiflnar. Professor 
Newman's works have been laid aside as substantially useless, on 
account of their phonetic system, by the best French scholars — 
notably Ren6 Basset; and Dr. Ou^ey never claimed to be an 
adept in the tongue. D. G. Brinton. 

Media, Pa., Aug. 15. 



Remarks on the Migration of Coleopters. 

One might suppose, on simply looking at the map of the earth, 
that the animals of the northern hemisphere would exhibit a greater 
structural uniformity than those south of the equator. 

In the north the continents on one side are separated only by 
the narrow Behring's Strait, on the other the Gulf Stream, and 
the prevailing west-east storms connect both continents, making 
migration of insects a possibility. 

The similarity of climates of the northern half of the continents 
is less favorable to the production of generic varieties than are the 
southern lands, isolated by wide troughs of the ocean, with a 
variety of climes and altitudes; and, indeed, as we go northwards 
the varieties decrease in number. 

If we abstract from the coleol»terou9 groups genera which 
are most likely to migrate from one continent to the other by 
commerce, such as the Staphilinidse, the Silphidse, or the phyto- 
phagous insects, transportable in their food-plants, the rest of the 
forms will represent the aboriginal masses of 400 years ago. 

In the far north above latitude 50^, and where Asia approaches 
so near to the American shores, the indigenous genera of both 
continents differ comparatively little; the genera are common, 
and some species are identical in both continents. Ck)mmerce in 
these regions was slight, even up to our days, and an uninter- 
rupted natural development manifests itself everywhere. 

True northern genera, such as the Carabus, Calosoma, and Cy- 
chrus, have species of strict similarity, such as Calosoma syco- 
phanta, indagator, etc., extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
in the eastern continent, and Cal. scrutator, calidum, and wilcoxii 
in America; Carabus cancellatus, clathratus, and monilis on one 
side, Car. serratus, limbatus, and vinctus on the other, and Car. 
truncaticollis on both sides of Behring Sea. 

If we asRume that the land holding the greater number of species 
of one genus constitutes a centre of development, that is the birth- 
place of that genus. Accordingly, the genera Cy chrus and Calosoma 
are to be taken as of American origin ; the first being represented 
in Europe and Asia by four and in America by^thirty species, the 



io6 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 498 



latter in Europe by about half a dozen and in America by twenty- 
five species; while Carabus is represented in Europe and Asia by 
the respectable number of 100, and in America by a short dozen 
species. 

My favorite family of Poelaphidse, unlike their relatives, the 
Staph ilinidae, seem not very apt to migrate on the lines of com- 
merce, but extend over a space of 60*^ latitude north and south. 

In the colder regions of the north the species of one genus in- 
habiting both continents are very similar, while the tropical and 
southern genera, with a comparatively small number of species, 
differ in form so much that they can hardly be retained under one 
name. 

Their habits, which suffer an involuntary modification by 
transi)or.tation through atmospheric forces into localities of differ- 
ent nature, produced in the fittest to survive changes of the mo^tt 
grotesque forms, and by repeated dislocations confined them in 
circumscribed localities. 

This holds good for the tropical forms of this family in the large 
continents; but there are examples of genera occurring in places 
far apart. Tmesiphorus, Tyrus, and Hamotus are of that nature. 
To the latter belong Upulona ratfray and Cercocerus lecoHte, which 
differ, according to M. Raffray, by the more elongated form of 
the last joint of the maxillary palpi in Cercocerus, and the former 
occurs in the Friendly Islands, and the latter, together with the 
rest of Hamotus, is found in the western regions and on the Pacific 
coa^t of America, north and south. 

The streams of the Pacific Ocean are directed from west to east, 
and therefore would not allow a migration against the stream; 
consequently the original abode of those species must have been 
situated in the west of America, and their migration, considering 
the multiplication of forms in America, must date back to the re- 
motest ages. 

The TenebrionidaB present a typical family of non-migrating 
beetles. The large majority of tenebrionide genera are wingless. 
They are slow in motion, and live on dead animal and vegetable 
matter. The generic forms of most of those in America are but 
distantly related to those of the eastern continent. The genera 
common to both continents are few, and the few immigrant 
apecies are winged, with one exception recently found — Blaps 
mortiraga — and such genera, which are at present assumed to be 
common to both lands (as Asida), owe their name to the now ac- 
cepted basis of analytical marks. 

The existence of these analogical forms can be explained only 
by the different geological and geographical conditions of the sur- 
face of the earth in remote ages. But there is always to be con- 
sidered the axiom that similar conditions produce similar forms. 

Emil Brendel. 



Cause of a National Trait. 



It is a matter of common observation that Hebrews, as a rule, 
are more than ordinarily devoted to their families, and their home- 
life is beautiful in many ways. As everything has a cause, the 
most plausible one in this regard appears to me to be the severe 
persecutions to which that race has been subjected for centuries, 
compelling clannishness and affording them their greatest happi- 
ness at home. Persistent influences acting through numberless 
generations would surely institute a racial peculiarity such as 
this. S. V. Clevenoer. 

Chicago, Aug. 15. 



Review of some Recent Publications of the U. S. National 

Museum. 

For some time past the National Museum has been following 
the very desirable plan of issuing, in separate pamphlet form, the 
contributions of those authors who publish in the Proceedings or 
other reports of that institution. These pamphlets are uniformly 
contained in neat paper-covers, tasteful in color, and bear upon 
the outside page the title and author of the article and its num- 
ber, from what standard publication of the Museum extracted, 
and, finally, the volume, pages, and plates (if any) of the latter. 
It would be well, indeed, if other institutions and societies always 



followed suit in these last two features, for if one thing be more 
annoying than another to a worker in science with a working 
library, it is to receive reprints of papers that bear nowhere upon 
them this very important information; especially when an author 
desires to quote from reprints that have been submitted to him. 
At this date the Museum has issued a number of pamphlets of the 
character to which the attention of the reader has just been 
drawn, and it is believed that brief remarks upon these may 
prove to be of interest. 

In No. 898 Mrs. M. Burton Williamson gives *' An Annotated 
List of the Shells of San Pedro Bay and Vicinity,*' in which two 
new species are described by W. H. Dall. This list is brought 
quite up to date, carefully describes a great many species, is sys- 
tematically arranged, and is illustrated by 39 excellent figures on 
plates. It will, no doubt, prove of use and value to the con- 
cliologists of the Pacific coast and elsewhere. Dr. Edwin Linton, 
in No. 893, gives some very full and valuable <* Notes on Avian 
Eiitozoa," illustrated by nearly 100 figures of structural details. 
Entozoa found in specimens of Larus califomicu8, Fuligvda val- 
lisneria, Oedemia americana^ and Pdecanus erythrorhynch'us are 
dei^cribed, in addition to parasites found in other birds collected 
by Mr. P. L. Jouy at Guaymas. Mexico. ''One new genus was 
mt t with among the parasites of the duck, Oedemia americana. 
This genus, which I have named Epision, is chatacterized by a 
singular modification of the anterior part of the body into an or- 
gan for absorption and adhesion." In a brief paper, entitled *' A 
Maid of Wolpai," with one plate. Dr. R. W. Shufeldt gives an ac- 
count of the customs and dress of the young women of that 
Pueblo (No. 889) ; and the same writer, in another paper (No. 902) 
entitled *'The Evolution of House Building among the Navajo 
Indians." describes the gradual improvement observed by him in 
the building of their houses by those Indians in New Mexico, 
since their contact with the whites. The paper is accompanied 
by three plates illustrating the subject. Lieut. T. Dix Bolles of 
the navy comments briefly on ** Chinese Relics in Alaska" (No. 
899, one plate), and from his studies of them he is forced to be- 
lieve that at least two centuries ago a Chinese junk must have 
been driven upon the Alaskan Coast. A very useful paper is that 
by Mary J. Rath bun, giving a *' Catalogue of the Crabs of the 
Family Periceridee in the U. S. National Museum " (No. 901), and 
it is illustrated by numerous figures of various species of that 
group Papers of this class are especially desirable, and at the 
time of its appearance there were to be found in the collections 
of the Museum 48 species of Pericmdce^ for which a valuable 
synonomy is given, with a <*Key" to genera and species. Akin 
to this last is still another beautifully illustrated paper by Mr. 
James E. Benedict, on ^* Corystoid Crabs of the genera Telmessus 
and Erimacrus." Very little is known of these forms, and the 
writer's article is based on specimens collected in Alaska by Dall, 
and 01) the Albatross collections (No. 900). No less interesting 
are two admirable papers by Eh:. Leonhard Stejneger, both of 
which are illustrated (Nos. 894, 904). The first gives a « Prelimi- 
nary description of a new Genus and Species of Blind Cave Sala- 
mander from North America," — a remarkable form from the 
Rock House Cave, Missouri. **A new genus and species of sala- 
mander may not be such a startling novelty even at this late date, 
but the interest is considerably heightened when we have to do 
with the first and only blind form among the true salamanders.** 
It has been named by the author TyphJotriton spelmus. Dr. 
Stejneger's second paper is of considerable length, presenting, as 
it does, extensive ** Notes on a Collection of Birds made by Harry 
V. Henson in the Island of Yeso, Japan." It contains many ex- 
cellent embryological plates. Professor Carl H. Eigenmann, in 
No. 897, makes a contribution to the study of ''The Fishes of 
San Diego," in which " especial attention has been paid to the 
spawning habits and seasons, the embryology, and migration of 
the fishes of Southern California." The paper is of great eco- 
nomic value, and lacks not in interest to the anatomist. 

Finally, we have three very thorough entomological articles 
from the pen of Dr. John B. Smith (Nos. 890-892). They deal 
with a <* Revision of theCenus Cucullia; Revision of the Dicopi- 
nse; Revision of Xylomiges and Morrisonia" (plates XL, III.). 
These contributions will be welcomed by the entomologist, fully 



[JUST 19, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



107 



ig forth, as they do, characterizatioiui of the several genera 
ipecies to which the author has given his attention. 

R. W. Shufeldt. 

na, D. a, Aug. 16. 



The Color of the Blood in Man. 

LYING recently examined a large numbt^r of specimens of hu- 
blood from, persons of different ages ranging from four to 
Ky-six years, some being those in robust health, others 
; tuberculous, I was struck with the great difference in the 
B of color presented, some being of a very rich tint, others 
pale. The richest color was in the blood of a girl twenty- 
ears of age, a graduate of Vassar College, who bad the 
est anthropometric measurement for respiratory capacity in 
Bs of about SOO girls. Her health was excellent, and she con- 
Mi rather more flesh-food than is usual. The next highest 
was found in the blood of a woman about seventy years old, 
a somewhat unusual chest measurement, having also excel- 
respiratory cajMicity and being in fine health. This woman, 
le contrary, does not eat flesh at all. I expected in her case 
id a more than ordinary number of white blood corpuscles; 
here were far less than usual, it being difficult to find them, 
were so few. The palest blood was from a chlorotic Irish 
int-girl of twenty-five years, and in a tuberculous boy of 
There was not much perceptible difference in their cases, 
pri had naturally good respiratory power, but she had les- 
I it by tight clothing and an almost constant in-door life for a 
time. After spending a month at the seaside, I examined 
Aood again, and found the tint somewhat deeper than before, 
'e know, the color of the blood is caused by the hssmoglobin 
e red blood corpuscles, and if this is greater when the respira- 
capacity is greatest, may not the color of the blood be height- 
by enlarging the chest and increasing the lung-power? 
1 some observations I have made I believe it can. 

M. L. HOLBBOOK. 
fork, Aug. 18. 

Snake Eats Snake. 

HiLB walking over a dry mesa, yesterday, I noticed a small 
e slowly crawling to the shelter of a mesquit bush. On 
iring it, I found it to be of a very dark olive-green color, in 
, square pattern, the lines between the plaids being of lighter 
1; underneath, white, with very dark-green blotches. Its 
was very dark green, and rather small; it had small fangs, 
length of the snake was nineteen inches. Noticing that the 
seemed much distended, I opened it, &nd found, nicely 
Bd away inside, the body of an ordinary, brown, striped ** g^rass 
9,** as we call them here, twenty-two inches long. This green 
B may be a new species of snake-eating serpent. The grass 
3 is very swift, and I am puzzled to know how the green 
i caught it; it was swallowed head-first. 

C. W. KSMFTON. 
> Blanco, Arlsona, Aug. 8. 



Cleistogamy in the Pansy. 



very si 
Uly be 
8 were 
y occur 
30ome 
balkley 
naome 
:lier oonl 
clei 



, in ** Forms of Flowers,*' notes that, though cleis- 
le rule in the genus Violas the pansy, Viola tricolor, 
known to exhibit it, though it does sometimes pro- 
all and closed self- fertilizing flowers, which would 
irmed cleistogamic if some portions of the floral 
abort. In our country this condition may more 
ban in the Old World. In many localities the pansy 
irtially wild and cleistogamy may be looked for. 
aimer has sent me some specimens in fruit, found 
ilace in New Jersey, which are certainly in one or 
ition noted by Mr. Darwin. They appear to be 
ic, but were too far advanced to determine with 

Thomas Meehan. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 

Annual Report of the Oeologioal Survey of Arkansas for 1890. 
Vol. III. Whettftones and the NovaculUes of Arkansas. By 
L. 8. Gbiswold. Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Thb history of the rise and progress of geology in the United 
States remains to be written. It dates back to early in the cen- 
tury; for in 1807 McClure published a paper containing geologi- 
cal observations. Mitchell, Eaton, Dewey, Silliman, and hosts 
of others followed one another in rapid succession. Nor were the 
observations of private individuals all that appeared in the early 
decades, for in 1828 Olmsted published a report on the geology 
of North Carolina, as one result of a regularly organized State 
survey, while Hitchcock in 1881 reported upon the geology of 
Massachusetts. Between that date and 1840 State surveys had 
been organized and reports had been published in Maine, Connec- 
ticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- 
land, Virginia, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, 
and Michigan. The general government, too, had sent expedi- 
tions to the north-west, Schoolcraft reporting upon the Michigan 
r^ion as early as 1820. It is true that many of the State surveys 
ceased after the issuance of a few documents, but their existence 
even for a brief period was evidence of the belief in their value. 
Some of the States organized second surveys at a later date and 
published numerous volumes, among which New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky are especially to be noted. The 
survey of New York has been continued from 1887 until the 
present time. 

In those olden times the State survey reports were general ; ob- 
servations were made over an extended area; profuse details 
were given of township or county geology; but no one subject 
was treated in an exhaustive manner. The result was that, when 
ten or a dozen or more volumes bad been published, it still re- 
mained to collate and epitomize the information. For the States 
of New York, Pennsylvania, > Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois and others 
this has never been done, and the numerous volumes of these sur- 
veys are masses of details with full and comprehensive accounts 
of scarcely a single subject. Dr. Branner, as the State Geologist of 
Arkansas, has seen fit to change this ancient order of things, and 
as a result in his annual reports we have volumes describing the 
Mesozoic geology, the gold and silver fields, and the coal of the 
State, as well as exhaustive volumes on Manganese and the Nov- 
aculites. The first geological survey of Arkansas published two 
reports, in 1859 and 1860. The beginning of the war put a stop 
to the work, however, and it was not until 1888 that any further 
work in the State was published. The report for that year, and 
those for 1889 and 1890, of which the volume under review is the 
third, contain much information valuable alike to the State and to 
the world at large. 

Whetting, or sharpening, is one of the ancient arts. That it 
was practised by early civilized man is evidenced by the existence 
in the Sanscrit of the word fa, meaning to sharpen or whet. 
From this comes the Latin 00s, a whetstone, hone or flint-stone, 
and hence ootoria, a whetstone quarry. Cotieula, meaning a 
small touch-stone, is also a derivative, and from this comes the 
French cotieule, meaning a whetstone of a flne quality. Novacu- 
lite comes from notxicu/a, a sharp knife or razor, and this in turn 
is derived from the Latin novare, to renew or to make fresh. 

Many writers from Pliny down discuss whetstones or hones for 
sharpening tools. Linnesus used the word novacula in his time, 
and it was seemingly anglicized by Richard Kirwan into novacu- 
lite in 1784. Mr. Griswold believes, although all mineralogists do 
not agree with him,* that it is practicable '* to revive the word as 
a scientific term, in its original sense, to denote a fine-grained, 
gritty, homogeneous, and highly siliceous rock, translucent on 
thin edges, and having a conchoidal or sub-conchoidal fracture. 
If this definition is strictly adhered to, no confusion will arise 
from the use of the word in commerce " (p. 18). 

The knowledge of whetstones in America dates from 1818, 
when they were mentioned by Bringier as occurring in Arkansas. 

> Prof etior J. L. La«l«y Is now ant ag ed on this work, and VoL I. of his final 
report has appeared. 

* For example, G. P. MerrUl In Annual Beport U. a Nat Mna for 1800, 1888. 
p.6aft. 






io8 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 498 



Since then they have been found in many parte of the country, no 
less than 106 localities being now known whence they have been 
obtained. All of these localities are naturally not equally good, 
and many of them are not now worked at all. 

Some useful hints are given by Mr. Griswold in Chapter iv. on 
the purchase and care of whetstones, and especially that little- 
understood matter, the use of lubricants; and in Chapter v. the 
subject of manufacture of stones is discussed. This dates back to 
thebeginningof the Christian era at least, for definitely-shaped 
hones are found at Pompeii. At present, in America, the stones 
mostly come from Indiana, Arkansas, New Hampshire, and Ver* 
mont; although there are other States producing them. The to- 
tal out- put is small, and $75,000 would represent the value of the 
manufactured product in 1880. 

Of the Arkansas stone proper, considered a typical novaculite, 
only about 60,000 pounds are quarried annually. The most of 
this goes to New York to be manufactured, whence it is largely 
shipped back to Arkansas. The blocks are laid in plaster of Paris 
in the bed of the gang-saw, and the saws are so arranged as to 
waste as little as possible. The sawing is slow, '* saws going at 
the rate of 80 swings per minute will only penetrate the stone in 
the gang-bed at the rate of H inches in 10 hours. Marble is 
sometimes sawed at a rate of nearly 8 inches per hour, though for 
dense marble 2 inches per hour is a closer estimate.** After the 
first cutting the slabs are sorted, and the useless pieces thrown 
away, this being done again and again as the pieces are reduced 
in size until only 25 per cent of the original amount remains as a 
marketable product. Of the Ouachita stone, a coarser variety of 
whetstone, a much larger amount is produced, this being in 1889 
1,040,000 pounds. The method of cutting is about the same as 
for the Arkansas stone, while the waste is about 50 per cent. 

Mr. Qriswold deals extensively with the petrography of the 
novaculites, giving descriptions of numerous microscopic sections 
from various localities. The conclusions may be summed up as 
follows : Novaculite rocks were deposited in deep water as sedi- 
ments, the carbonate of lime crystallising as rbombohedruns. 
Consolidation of the siliceous portions produced a hard, brittle 
rock, which, being subsequently folded and elevated above the 
sea-level, was subjected to erosion. During this process the cal- 
cite crystals were removed, and subsequently a secondary deposit 
of silica took place. 

In regard to the sedimentary origin of the rocks, Mr. Griswold 
says: — 

** It may be somewhat difficult to conceive of a constant supply 
of very fine fragmental silica, almost totally without other mate- 
rials, in sufficient quantity to form beds several feet in thickness 
with very thin layers of slate between, and making a formation 
from 500 to 600 feet in thickness, yet this seems to have been the 
manner in which these rocks were formed. After all, the con- 
ception is not so difficult when one considers that the fragmental 
silica of many of the slates and shales is as fine as that of novacu- 
lite, and as the percentage of silica in the sediments forming 
these rocks is increased, the resulting rock approaches more and 
more closely the novaculite. Thus with the novaculites are asso- 
ciated v( ry argillaceous shales, grading into siliceous shales and 
then into transparent novaculites. The almost absolute purity of 
the novaculites still causes doubt as to the possibility of this mode 
of origin ; but many coarse sandstones are nearly as pure, and if 
the novaculites can be considered as extensions of the sandstones 
toward the deep sea, where the finer fragments would settle, then 
we have at least a close approximation to the sediments forming 
the novaculites. That the same action which produces the angu- 
lar fragments of quartz in sandstones must also a£ford a very large 
amount of exceedingly fine quarts is evident** (p. 192). 

Many pages of the report are devoted to details of the geology 
of the novaculite area, but It is obviously impossible to enter into 
any of these here. A brief epitome only can be given of the geo- 
logical history of the area, which in Mr. Oriswold*s words is as 
follows: — 

" The sequence of events in this history seems to have been as 
follows: A deposition of very fine fragmental material on the 
deep-sea floor to form the Silurian strata, included in the upper 
part of which are two groups where graptolites abound. ^At the 



end of the Lower Silurian deposition, through the periods known 
as Upper Silurian and Devonian, there was an almost total cessa- 
tion of the deposition of sediments. There seem to be two possi- 
ble explanations for this fact : First, there may have been a de- 
pression of the sea-bottom which left this area so far from sh(Hre 
that no thick sediments were accumulated over it, and this was 
followed by an elevation in Lower Carboniferous limes renewing 
sedimentation in perfectly conformable beds; the second explana- 
tion is that while upper Silurian and Devonian beds were being 
deposited elsewhere, the same period was occupied by a deposition 
in the Arkansas area characterized by Lower Silurian organisms. 
This continued until a decided change of conditions in Lower 
Carboniferous times renders necessary a change in the nomen- 
clature of the beds in consequence of the change in the character 
of the fossils. 

**True Coal- Measure strata covered the novaculite area also, 
for they are found in Texas in a latitude considerably south of 
84^ 30', while the trend of the formation is nearly east and west 
through this part of Arkansas and through the Indian Territory. 
The south members of the coal strata of northern Arkansas hsTs 
been worn completely away, and are now buried beneath the Cre- 
taceous and Tertiary deposits which cover southern Arkansas. 

*' Following the formation of the Coal Measures, and probably 
synchronous with the Appalachian uplift, came the elevation of 
Arkansas above sea-leveL The time following this post-Carbon- 
iferous elevation of Arkansas has been one of erosion, though we 
have evidence of some periods of accumulation as well as denu- 
dation. The three periods of accumulation were the Cretaceous, 
Tertiary, and Pleistocene, during which there were i)artial and 
perhaps complete submergences of the area" (pp. 206-207). 

The final chapter of the volume deals with the fossils of the 
area. These, it is true, are few in number, but seem to be suffi- 
cient to justify the assertion of the Lower Silurian age of the de- 
posit. Dr. R. B. Gurley contributes some remarks upon the 
graptolites found in shales both underlying and overlying the 
novaculites. His conclusion is that two horizons are represented, 
one of Calciferous, the other of Trenton age. Comparisons are 
drawn between the Arkansas beds and those of Point Levis in 
Canada, Calciferous in age, and those of Norman's Kill in New 
York, of Trenton age. A number of new species or varieties are 
described by Dr. Gurley. Joseph F. James. 

Wa8blDgtoii,Aag. 11. 

Outlinea of Theoretical Chemistry, By Lothab Meyer. New 
York, Longmans, Green, & Co. 

The author of this volume is well known b^the successive edi- 
tions of his "Modem Theories of Chemistry -'^^ by the share 
that he took in developing the periodic law of theOfunents. The 
larger work was translated some years ago by FrofuSfson Bedson 
and Williams; and the same translators have put this iEilume into 
good, readable English. 

The author says (in view of the various works alread jpublished 
on theoretical chemistry): "I have not considered tb; require- 
ments of students alone, but have been desirous of ofPei^S »on»e- 
thing to those friends of scientific investigation who ba) neither 
the intention nor the time to concern themselves with « details 
of chemical investigation, but wish to become acqua <^ ^^^^ 
the general conclusions arrived at. With this objec<«n view, I 
have abstained from too large a use of the numeric.4'^***^^ 
observations and measurements, and have avoided giv^Og detailed 
descriptions of experimental methods. . . . The genef»l — l"^y 
say the philosophical ■— review of the subject has b^n my chief 
aim, to which the details should be subordinated." 

The author's purpose, as thus expressed, has been 
sure carried out. Chemists will prefer his "Mode 
Chemistry," if they would become really proflcien 
of the science; and to such this work may seem su 
many, who are chiefly interested for practical reaso 
analysis or manufactures, may be glad to find so ^ 
line,'* compressed into 216 clearly-printed pages, 
not made up of distinct chapters, but the sections 
each other in natural order, giving some promi 
lowing topics : Atomic theory, the several method 



good mea- 

Theories of 

in this aspect 

uous. But 

in chemical 

an **Out- 

The work is 

im to succeed 

tce to the fol- 

determining 



UST 19, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



109 



liar atid atomic weights, the periodic law, valency, the con* 
>n of chemical compounds, physical isomerism, density, 
, refraction, solution, crystallization, diffusion, evaporation, 
iution of g:a9e9, relations of heat to chemical change, disso- 
I, electrolysis, migration of ions, speed of chemical change, 
of mass and avidity. The following sentences are from the 
ding paragraph : *' We have gradually receded from the 
f a static state of equilibrium of the atoms, brought about 
^ir powers of affinity, and we now consider the atoms and 
)lecules, which are built up of atoms, as particles in an ac- 
ate of movement. Their relations to each other are essen- 
letermined by the magnitude and form of their movements, 
cal theories grow more and more kinetic/' 
e Americans, at least, will dissent from the judgment of 
thor in still making the atomic ratio H : O equal to 1 : 15 . 06 ; 

may well be hoped that this well-balanced compend of 
g theories, in its English dress, will widen the interest already 

in the philosophical aspects of this science. R. B. W. 

B88 and Discharge from the Ear, By Samubl Sexton, M.D. 
listed by Alexander Duane, M.D. New York, J. H. Vail 
Co. 89 p. 

i object of the writers of this small volume is to bring before 
dfession the merits of the operation of excision of the drum 
rane and ossicles in cases of chronic deafness from catarrh, 
eory of the operation is stated at length, and a number of 
n which it has proved successful are reported. It would 
«en more satisfactory if a complete tabulation of all cases 
>en offered, so that a more accurate estimate could have been 
i as to results. From what is stated, however, the procedure 
rly one of much service in some instences. 

n Origins. By Samuel LAma. Illustrated. London.. Chap- 
an & Hall, 1892. 

i is an exceedingly well- written and interesting summary of 
I theories, facts, and mysterious questions connected with 
[gin of mankind on earth, by a somewhat remarkable man, 
previous works, ** Problems of the Future " and " Modem 
e and Modem Thought/* met with a wide circulation in 
ad. The author, Mr. Samuel Laing, the son of the translator 
Norae Sagas, comes of a good old Scottish family and was 
1 wrangler of his year. Well-known in the House of Com- 
as ''the member for the Orkneys," Mr. Laing twice served 
. Qladstone's administrations, as finance minister to India 
lancial secretary to the treasury, and is now the president 
)Toeperous English railroad. This veteran of finance and 
has always found solace and delight in the study of abstruse 
6c problems of the day. His various publications present 
}ults of wide and discriminating reading and research, in a 
I, concise, yet comprehensible style for the benefit of those 
ave not the time to look into such matters for themselve5>. 
he present volume Mr. Laing deals first with the abundant 
ces of the existence of civilized man upon earth at least a 
ind years before the date of the creation of the world as 
by theological chronologists. A clear outline is presented 
condition of religion, art, science, and agriculture of ** Old 
' as revealed by the earliest monumental records and in- 
ons of ancient Egypt, Assyria, and Chaldea. These alone 
convincing proof of the great antiquity of civilized man 
I the existence of a high grade of culture at the earliest 
of the historical period, which was preceded by legendary 
f less duration and by the long- forgotten antecedent neo- 
era and remoter epoch of palaeolithic man. 
evidences of science are then considered as revealed in 
ical and palssontological records of the past. The effects of 
acial period, CrolPs theory of its cause, and Quaternary, 
ry, post-glacial, and inter-glacial and pre-glacial man are 
sed in turn. The geological data from the Old and New 
s. favorable and opposed to the antiquity of man, are stated 
lear impartiality. The author seems well acquainted with 
)rks of American scientists such as Abbott, Morton, Brinton, 
it, Whitney, and Shaler. He shares, however, in the preva- 
>nfusion with regard to the Toltecs. His main argument is 



governed by the force of the logical postulate of continuous evo- 
lution. <<No one now believes," he writes, *'in a multiplicity of 
miracles to account for the existence of animal species. Is man 
alone an exception to this universal law, or is he, like the rest of 
creation, a product of what Darwinians call evolution, and en- 
lightened theologians 'the original impress?'^* He is therefore 
led to the conviction of the great antiquity of the human race. 
He would seek for human origins at least as far back as the Mio- 
cene period, and search in the earliest Eocene strata for the col- 
lateral ancestors both of the existing races of mankind and surviv- 
ing species of anthropoid apes. '* With this extension of time.*' 
he concludes, ** the existence of man, instead of being aa anomaly 
and a discord, falls in with the sublime harmony of the universe, 
of which it is the dominant note.'' 

The volume is well illustrated from varied and modem sources. 
There are a few obvious misprints, such as Tyler for Tylor, tri- 
lateral for triliteral, Mortillot for Mortillet; which will doubtless 
be corrected in the forthcoming second edition. The first is already 
exhausted. Aombs Cbane. 

Brighton, England, Aug. 1. 

Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems. By Db. 
AuausT WsjSMANN. Authorized translation by Messrs. Poul- 
ton, Schonland, and Shipley. New York, Macmillan & Co. 
2 vols. S^, 

Those who have followed the active discussion of the remarka- 
ble investigations and stimulating hypotheses of the author of 
these volumes will not expect in this place a review of the works 
which have made his name famous even among those who have 
not been willing to accept all his conclusions. Such a review 
would be inadequately accommodated in a volume as large as either 
of those which are mentioned here. It would amount to a sum- 
mary of existing biologic theory, which is being added to daily, 
almost hourly, and from which the teaching effect of time daily 
dissolves away some misconception or superfiuity. In common 
with the great body of American naturalists we believe that the 
most talked-about strand in Weismann*s woof of hypothesis — the 
assertion of the non-transmission of acquired characters — is not 
only an erroneous but an entirely unnecessary assumption, an 
assumption which, carried vigorously to its necessary conclusions, 
may well be termed the key-note of a genuine *' gospel of despair." 
This assumption at present is upheld chiefly by a sort of circular 
argument which explains the ** acquired character " to be one ac- 
quired by the body solely, exclusive of the reproductive plasma, 
while any character which is shown to be transmitted is put out 
of court as having been acquured by the '' whole organism." But 
whatever be the fate of any of these special views, either of Weis- 
mann or his opponents, there can be no question as to the great 
importance of the questions involved, or of the scientific, honora- 
ble, and impartial spirit in which the great Oerman naturalist has 
discussed them. 

While many of the problems concerned are strictly scientific 
and to be adequately discussed by trained naturalists alone, some 
of the questions, and the conclusions which result from all, are of 
the utmost importance to every philosopher, theologian, and soci- 
ologist. It is therefore a matter for general congratulation that 
the essays in question have been put into English in a form which 
excludes all doubt as to the adequacy of the translation or the 
faithfulness with which his ideas have been presented. 

The work appears with the well- known elegance of the Oxford 
Press, and should find a place in every working library. 

Darwin^ and after Darwin^ an Exposition of the Darwinian 
Theory, and a Discussion of Post-Darwinian Questions. By 
Qeobge John Romanes. I. The Darwinian Theory. Chi- 
cago, Open Court Publishing Co. xvi., 460 p. 8^. 

This treatise, the first of two contemplated volumes, has grown 
out of a series of lectures delivered before the University of Edin- 
burgh, and is devoted to the general theory of organic evolution 
as Darwin left it. As these lectures were delivered to learners, 
and in their present form are intended for the general reader, the 
author states that he has lieen *< everywhere careful to avoid as- 
suming even the most elementary knowledge of natural science " 



1^4 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 499 



proving the daring of the jay in dealing with the most audacious 
of the bird -destroying hawks; second, in showing the assistance 
which an expert hawk, or a pair of hawks hunting together, must 
gain from the inclination of the jays and woodpeckers to hector 
them instead of seeking safety in retreat. The advantage which 
the owl enjoys in drawing other birds around him is well known, 
but it is not often that so good an illustration is given in the case 
of the hawk. Frank Bollgs. 

Ctaocorua, N H., Aug. 80. 



Tornado-Whirls in the Upper Clouds. 

This morning I witnessed what seemed to me a very interest- 
ing and unusual phenomenon, which may be worthy of record. 
I noticed that a number of light flock clouds, moving north-east 
in the upper atmosphere, became, on reaching a certain small 
well-deflned area, very raj^ged, and assumed the characteristic 
tornado forms. Many looked like jagged craters, reminding, me 
strongly of the photographs of sun-spot whirls; some were honey- 
combed, and all were greatly torn. In the course of some ten 
minutes* observation, I saw at least a dozen such tornado-centres 
in cirro-cumulus, detached clouds floating almost directly above 
me. Such appearances in the lower clouds I have often observed, 
but this is the first time I remember seeing the upper clouds dis- 
turbed in this manner. The wind at the time on the surface of 
the earth was a forty-mile gale from the south-west, and there 
were frequent dust- whirls. Hiram M. Stanley. 

Marquetie, Mich., Aug. 18. 



The Brutal Dove. 

TwBNTY-ONE years ago (Aug. 14, 1871), a mature, male dove 
flew into the house of Mr. Paul Closius of Chicago, and soon be- 
came quite domesticated. **01d Tom,*' as he is called, was 
rescued from the great fire of the following October, and later 
was given a female mate, which he pecked to death. 

Thinking that it might be an instance of incompntibility, he 
was given another, which he tormented, neglected, and abused, 
until she also perisheil. 



Naturalists are aware of the sentimental error which typifies 
gentleness in the dove, and have often remarked its ferocity. This 
instance also confirms the belief that doves are long- lived. 

S. V. Clevenosr. 

Chicago, Aug. 17. 

BOOK-^REVIEWS. 

Temperament, Disease^ and Health. By Frbkch Ensob Chab- 
wiCK. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. 85 p. 

A REAL service is rendered science by those who emphasize the 
individual as well as environmental side of pathology. The tre- 
mendous development along certain lines of modern pathology 
should not be allowed to obscure the fact that predisposition of the 
organism is as potent a ** cause *' of disease as virulence of the germ. 

The author of this book avows himself a special pleader on the 
very first page: *'This little book is written primarily to put for- 
ward two ideas : First, that there is associated with temperament 
a specific rate of change; second, that the failure to keep up that 
rate, or, in other words, a failure to have elimination keep pace 
with accession of material, is the primal cause of organic disease." 
This thesis is maintained quite consistently throughout the book. 
*' I thus venture to define what is known as ' organic disease ' as 
a failure in rate of change. And, further, that, however asso- 
ciated, bacteria are the resultant rather that the causes of such 
diseases" (p. 16). 

It will noi be perfectly obvious to everyone that the phrase 
<' failure in rate of cliange " brings us much nearer the real problem. 
The vexatious question will still be asked, Why should there be 
this failure to obtain adequate elimination of broken-down mate- 
rial? The final solution of this question of temperament must 
wait for a much deeper knowledge of the individual cell as well 
as of the cell-complex. Every attempt, however, at an explana- 
tion, although necessarily tentative and imperfect in character, 
serves its purpose in keeping the subject open and in stimulating 
research. 

Errors of statement do not seem to be numerous. One strongly 
suspects, however, that the Mitchell mentioned on page 38 is no 



Reading McUter Notices, 

Ripans Tabules cure hives, 
liipans Tabules cure dyspepsia. 

INDEXES 

TO 

Volumes XVII. and XVIII 

OF 

SCIENCE 

are in preparation, and will be 
issued at an early date. 

FOR SALE. 

The Paleontological Collection of the late 
U. P. James, of Cincinnati, Ohio. Many 
type specimens and thousands of duplicates. 
For further information address 

JOSEPH F. JAMES, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C. 

POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
VOCAL PHYSIOLOGY. 

For use in Colleges and Normal Schools; Price 50 cenc« 
Sent free by post by 

N. D.€. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



Societas Entomologica. 

International Entomological Society, Zu- 

rich-Hottins^en, Switzerland. 

Annual fee, ten francs. 

The Journal of the Sooiety appears twice a 
month, and consists entirely of original ar- 
ticles on entomology, with a department for 
advertisements. All members may use this 
department free of cost for advertisements 
relatintc to entomology. 

The Society consists of about 450 members 
in all countries of the world. 

The new volume began April 1, 1892. The 
numbers already issued will be sent to new 
members. 

For information address Mr. Frttz Buhl, 
President of the Societas Entomologica, 
Zurich- Hottingen, Switzerland. 



Wants. 



SCIENCE CLUBBING RATES. 

10^ DISCOUNT. 

We will allow the above discount to any 
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PATENTS 

For INVENTORS. 4(>'page BOOK FREE. Address 
W. T. Fitzgerald, Attorney at Law, Washington, I>.C. 



A ny perttm teeking a ^atitian /or which ht is ftiaii- 
tied by hittcitntific attainment*^ or any person tookini 
torn* on* to fill a position 0/ this char actor ^ ho it thai 
of a teacher of science^ chemists draurktsman, or what 
not, may have the ' IVant * inserted under this head 
FKKs OF COST, if he satisfies the publisher of the suit' 
able character of his application, A ny person seeking 
information on any scientific question^ the address of 
any scientific man, or who can in anv way use this 
column for a purpose consonant wUh the nature oj 
the Paper ^ is cordially invited to do so, 

WANTED.— A position as zoologioal artist In coii> 
I eotion with a aolentiflo expedition, iBatitotioo 
or individual iDvestigratlons. Bxperienced in mlcro- 
sooplc and all soientiflo work. Baferenees KireB if 
desired. Address J. BENRT BLAKE, 7 PrenUsa 
Place, N. Cambridge, Mass. 

YOUNQ MEN destined for a medical career may 
receive iDstniction in branches introductory 
thereto, at the same time. If desired, parsnlBg the 
so-oalled elementary medical stadies. Adraaced 
students can have cllntoal icstruotlon, use of 
modern text books, eto. Will take one or two 
students into my family and office. Such must 
furnish unexceptionable references. Qutsalng by 
mail. Address Dr. J. H. M., in oare of 417 Adams 
Avenue, 8cranton, Pa. 

CHEMIST AND ENGINEER, graduate Qemaa 
Polytechnic, Organic and Analytical, dealree a 
position In laboratory or chemical works. Addreei 
213H E. 7th Street, New Tork, oare Levy. 

AM AN, 86 years old. of extensire experience, hav- 
ing the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D., des&es a 
flrst-olaM« opening as a teacher of ZoGlogy and 
kindred studies in a coUeffe or university. Can 
furnish numerous testimonials or referemcee as to 
success and skill in most modem laboratoiy 
methods. Address E. W. D., Md. Agr. College, 
College Park, Md. » -» » 

ATOUNO MAN, with a thorough training In Ana- 
lytical Chemistry (Including analyste of miner- 
als, food, water, etc ), and holding a diploma of the 
School of Practical Science, of Toronto, and good tea 
timonials, desires a position as Analytioal Chemist 
or as assistant to such. Address to wM. LAWSON, 
16 Washington Ave., Toronto, Ontario. 



August 19, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



Ill 



6x the exact date of their immigration. Their history reallv 
begins with the fine moraiog. last week, on which Hr. W. E. 
Benjamin of 7S1 Broadway, New York City, took from hia ehelf 
R worn leather- bound copy of Seneca, published iu London in 
1873. and found two healthy specimens of the genua Agloaaapin- 
guinaiU ensconced in a buirov through the bottom of the precious 
book. 

— Harper & Brothers have in preparation an illuatrated edition 
of Oieen'a "Short History of the English People,*' a work which 
has probably been more widely read and enjoyed than any other 
of its kind. The illastrationa have been aelecled with the purpose 
of carrying oat tbe favorite wiab of the author, to interpret and 
illustrate Engiiah history by pictures which should show how men 
and things appeared to lookera-on of their own day, and how con- 
temporary observers aimed at representing them Besidea a targe 
uumber of elegant wood-engraving.-i, the work will contain several 
colored plates, including reproductions from manuacripts, illumi 
nated missals, etc., executed in the highest etyle of chrotuo- 



lltbography. An exhaustive series of portraits of eminent persons 
will atao be a prominent feature. Tbe Hrat volume may be ex- 
pected shortly. 

— Prof. Bernard Bosanquet of London, whoee "History of 
jEathelics" haa recently been published by Hacmillan & Co., 
has juat completed a course of fifteen lectures at the School of 
Applied Ethics, Plymouth, Haas. His theme was an historical 
survey of Greek ethics, tracing to the present day the inRuenceof 
Plato and Aristotle. In cleameae, precision, and in power to in- 
terest and Btir hia hearers Mr. Bosanquet proved as effective a 
teacher as England has ever sent across the sea. His ability as a 
thinker haa been familiar to American students through his work 
on locic, which takes high rank as an authority. A recently 
published volume in the Contemporary Science Series piesenis hia 
" Essays andReviews," ahowing him lobe oneof the most indsive 
and sympathetic writers of the time in the fields of ethical and 
phil.>sopbical inquiry, Mr. Bosanquet intends 10 visit Colorado and 
the Yellowstone region before returning to England next month. 




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Price, 3.") Cents. 

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*,• The above work may be obtained, by 
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on I'eoeipt of price, from 

1. D. C. HODGES, 814 Broadf ly, <. T. 

Patents 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 498 



QUERY. 

Can any reader of Science cite 
a case of lightning stroke in 
which the dissipation of a small 
conductor (one- sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, say,) has failed 
to protect between two horizon- 
tal planes passing through its 
upper and lower ends respective- 
ly? Plenty of cases have been 
found which show that when the 
conductor is dissipated the build- 
ing is not injured to the extent 
explained (for many of these see 
volumes of Philosophical Trans- 
actions at the time when light- 
ning was attracting the attention 
of the Royal Society), but not 
an exception is yet known, al- 
though this query has been pub 
lished far and wide among elec- 
tricians. 

First inserted June 19, 1891. No re- 
sponse to date. 

N. D. C, HODGES, 
874 BROADWAY, HEW YORK. 



THE RADIOMETER, 

By DANIEL 8. TROY. 

This coDtainB s diiciusioii of the reOBOiu 
(or Uieir action Bud of the pbeuomeiuk pre- 
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Price, postpaid, 50 centi. 
N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. 



THE BOTANICAL GAZEHE. 

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AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 

UMfrial ■moged ud compiled lor kll kinds ol 
TOTki. sic«pt1ng aotlon. Statlgtlca a apedaltj. 
iDdeilBE ud catalomliur. AddreH O. E. BIVBB 
tgt N. intb Stteat. PhiluielphU. 



TO THE READERS OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Title* of Some Article! Publlihcd Id Srirnce lincr 

Aborlilnal North Amorloui T«s. 

Atrlculcure. ExperlmeDtal. SbttuB of, 

AuBlomy, iVe Teocbluc of, to Advoucoil Hsdlca 



BmlD, A Fsw ctiaraccerlitica of 

BjlbcMCoDldn uid CereopIdB. 
Cbd(uI&, RoT&l Society at. 
CflliB, TDs Question or the. 



Ctaemlci 



>r the Lue echool of Applied 



CornelL The Cbuve ml 



Wonblp. 

Eduoulou of the. 
uiIiiitueria.'i'oi-Albuinlii. 
ElBCtrlc«l Bngluser, Th« Techoleal EduoaUon of. 
Beklnio ThrowlDg Sdckr. 

BIjmolocj of two IroquolBU OompODDd Stems. 
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Xree, RelBUonaof tbeHolor Mueoleeof, 10 Certal 

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Famllr Traits, PerelBieocr of. 
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Pour-fold Spwie, Posalbllllr oE a ReallzaHoii of. 
nun. iirtiaclal, DetaoUon of. 

■ " Tort 



^na la Nortbeaatem M< 

, Homoptera In] DTlouB lo. 

lal Lakee.inlslaol IheBaeluBOf. 



Oladal Pbeuoi 

Oreal Lake*. U> 
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HrpDotlun amoDB tba Lowe 
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^„ , Laleet Detalle CoDoenilai tlia 

[uecls In Popular Dread Id New Heiico. 
[iTeDtiODS in ForelBU CoUDtrles, How to Protect. 
m^Dlorsand ManutactoreTS, the American Aeaoi 
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Iowa ABsden 

JaHldn; "Sm— »■. >~.~. 

KeUer. Helen. 

Klamath Nation, LIdcdIsHcs. 

LaboratoiT Trainiag, Alms of. 

Lewis H. Carrtll, Work OD tbe aUtolal PbeDomi-na. 

LlKhtniDK, The New Hstbod of PniecUng BuildlDgs 

Liaealoa'a Corree, Simple Appantu for tbe Prodoo- 

Ualie Plank Obeerratlona on tbe Orvwtta and Chemi- 
cal CompoelUoa of. 

Mara Codices, b Eer to Ibe HTSlerr of. 

Mfdldae, Preparatlou for tbe Sludr of. 

Hlneral DiBCOTerlee, Some Beoenl, In the State ol 
WaeblDlton. 

If useume, Tbe Support of. 

Palenque Tabtet, a Brief Sladj of. 

Patent ODtce Buildlna, Tbe. 

Pbrea HeleroatropbaLar, Notes on theFertUltr of. 

Pocket Gopher, Attempted Bxlermlnatlon of. 

PolarlBOOpes, Direct BefiecllDC. 

PBTCbolopcal LatHFatoTT In tbe Unlnislt; of To- 

PsTcbotovIcal Training. n>e Need of. 

PSTlla, TJie Psar-Tree. 

Ralii-IlaklDe. 

Rlien, KtoIuUod of tbe Loup. In Nebraska. 

ScleDtlOG Alllanoe, Tbe. 

Slstrurua and Crolaloplionu. 

Star Ptaolocrapbr, Notes on. 

Hiar, The New. In Aariga. 

Storage ol Btorm-Wacers on the Great Plains. 

Teaching ol Sdenoe. 

Tiger, ANsw Sabre-Toothed, from Kanua. 

Timber Trees of West Virginia 

Tiachrai ol Ineecta. Structure of. 

VelD-FormatlDn, Valuable Siperimenta in. 

Weeds u Fertilising Material. 

Will, a Recent Analfals ol. 

WInd-Stomu and Treea. 

Wlnee. Tbe eopbislicaied Frencta. 

Zoologr In the Pablla Schools of Waahlniton, D. C. 



e of the Cdb 



ta adaice Since Jan. 



Alien, Harruon, rauadajpnia, i-a- 
BaldwlniJ. Hark, DulTersltr of Toronto, 
Barnes, Charles Reld, MadlsoD, Wis. 



Baor, O., Clark Dnltsraltr, 

Beal, W. J., Agrtcultaral College, Mloo. 

BmUs, a. B., auiedgeTUle, Ga. 

Deaucbsmp, W. M., BaldwlnsTllle, N.T. 

Boas, Frana, Clark UnlTerBlIjr, WonMoter, Haas. 

■>""-- a. L.,Farg- "- "-■■ 

BradierT^ilton, SprlngOeld, t^assi 
Brlnton, D. G., PhUaddptala. Pa, 
Call, E. Ellsvonb, Dee Molnee, la. 
Chandler, H., BoOalo, N.T. 

ComatockjTheo. B., Tucson, Ariaooa. 

Conn, H. W, Mlddlelowa, Conn. 

CraglB, r. W., Colorado Springe. CoL 

Dails. W. M., Harrard College, Cambridge, Heaa. 

Dlmmock, Oeone, Canobis Lake, N.H. 

Farrlngton, E. S., Agricultural SUtlim, Cbampalgo, 



Foebay, P. Mai, Rochester, N.T. 

Qallaudet, E. U., Kendall Oreen, Washington, D.C. 

Garman, S., Museum ol Comp. ZooL, Cambridge, 

Golden, Eatberlne X.. Agricultoral CoDege, Lafaj. 

Hals, Edwin H., CMcago, III. 
Hale, George 8., BceKm, Hoes. 
Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 
Hall. T. Proolor, Clark UnlTereltT, WOToeater, Kaas. 
Halsted, BrroD D., Kutgeis College, New Bruns- 
wick, N.J. 
Haworth, Eraamus, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 
Har, O. P., IrrlDnon. Ind. 
Ha:rnea, Heurr w., Bostoa Hass. 

Haien,H, A., Weatbf-" ' 

Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau 01 

Hlc^', L. E. Lincoln, Nab. 
UUl, E. J.. Chisago, la 



EUmMogT, Waabington, 



■1 Obaerralorr, Waabiaglon, D.C. 
Hlictaoock, Romiin. Wasblagtm, D.C. 
Holmes, E. L. Chicago. UL 
Holcbklsa, Jed., Staunton, Va 
Howe, Jas. Lewis, LaaUnUe, V.J. 
Hubbard, Gardiner G., Waablngton. D.C. 
Jackson. Dugald C, Hadleou, Wisoonsln 
James, Joseph F.. Agricultural t>ept., Waablofton, 

Johnson, Roger B . Miami CnlTsrsltT, Oxford, 0. 

EeUsrman. Mia. W. A,, Columbus, O. 

Eelllootl. D. a, SUte Unlreraltr, Colambus, O. 

Eellogg, D. 8., Platleburgb, N.T. 

Llotner, J. A., Alhanr. n: T. 

Loeb, Morris, New Tork dlf. 

waberr, Charles F., Cleretand, Oblo. 

MaclosVie, Q., Prtnoeiou, N.J. 

McCanbr, Gerald, Agricultoral Station, Ralelgtk 



on, 0. T., I 



a BopUna UnlTerallr, 

DalUmore, Md. 
ill*er,J ~ " 

CltT. 

Oebom, Herbert, Agrloultnral Collega, Amsa, Iowa. 
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Amee, Iowa 
PIUabQrr, J. H., Smith College, Northampton, Maia 
Poteal. W. L., Wake Forest, N. C. 
Pnble, Jry W. P., New Tork City. 
Ruffner, W. H., Leilnglon.Va. 
Sanford, Edmund C, Clark nnlveraitr, Worcester. 

Haas. 
acbDfeldt,R. W., Washington, D.C. 



John R. Rntgsrs Ctdlege, New 

Ick. Edmnad B.. New Tork Cltr. 
i onoi-iii T., New Tork City. 
Ptalladelphia, Pa. 



IteTenaoD, S. T.. Ptalladelphia, Pa. 
iloue, G. H., Colorado Springe, CoL 
homaa, Cttob, WoebinKlOD, D. 0. 
■burstoiL R._H,, Cornell UnlTerslly, 



I,' Fred'erlck 4r., Natli 
D,C. 
r, C. H., UnlversItT c 



Cincinnati, Cludniuli, 



Ward, Stanley U., Scranton, Pa. 

Warder, Robert B., Howard University. Wasblnl- 

tOD. D.C. ^^ 

Welch, Wm. B 

more. H.D. 

West. Gerald M.. 

Whitman. C. O., Clark Unlre 

WIMams, Edward H., Lshlgb tnlvanlr:^ 



., Johns Hopkins Uniyersltr, fialO- 



m-t^ 



SCIENCE 

A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

PUBLISHED BT N. D. C. HODGES, 974 BBOADWAT, NEW TOBK. 



Tenth Tear. 
Vol. XX. No. 4»9. 



AUGUST 26, 1892 



Contents. 



Is Thee M^'Seitsb of DiBEcnoN ? J, N, 

Ball 113 

CuET^rr Notes oe Anthbopoloot.— 

Xin. Edited by Z>. G. Brinton. . . 115 

S^KE Ponrrs in the Nomenclature - 
pBiOBinr Question. Lueien M, 
Underwood 116 

Tee Pboobesb Made in Teachino Deaf 
Children to Bead Lips and Talk, 
IE THE United States and Canada. 
Alexander ChxMham Bell 118 

Reeaeeh on North American Lichen- 
oloot. — prkuminart. w, w. 
C€Ukin$ 130 

Lbrbbs to the Editor 121 

Book Reviews 134 

BBlOTVd at the Fosi-Oflloe of New York, N.Y., m 
Seoond'COaw Mail Matter. 

MACMILLAN 



INSECTS m IHSECT1C»BS. 

A PRACTICAL MANUAL, 

Concerning Noxious InBeots and the Methods 
of Preyenting their Injuries. 

By CLARENCE M. WEED, 

Professor of Entomology and Zoology, New 
Hampshire State College. 




Single Copies, Ten Ceitts. 
$8.50 Per Tear, in AoTiiNCE, 



WHAT IS SAID ABOUT IT. 

" I think that yon have gotten together a rerj 
aaefol and valaahle liUle book.*'- Dr. C. V, Blley, 
U. R. BntomologUt, Washington, D. C. 

"It Is excellent.*^— James Fletcher, Dominion En- 
tomologist, Ottawa, Canada. 
• ** I am well nleased with it.^'—Dr. F. M. Hexamer, 
Editor American Agriculturist^ New Torfc. 

" It seems to me a good selection of the matter 
which every farmer and fmlt grower ought to have 
at his Immediate command/'— Prof. 8. A. Forbes, 
State Entomologist of Illinois, Champalcp, 111. 

" A good book, and it is needed.^*'--Prof. L. H. 
Bailey, Cornell UniTersity. 

** It is ene of the beet books of the kind I have 
erer seen.**— J. Freemont Hickman, Agriculturist, 
Ohio Experiment Station, Columbus. Ohio. 

" I shall gladly recommend it.**— Prof. A. J. Cook, 
Michigan Agricultural College.^ 

Price, $1.SS« 

Sent postpaid to any address on receipt of price. 



I. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, lei York. 



of Protecting Property 
Vom Lightning. 

Tbe Ligbtning Dispeller. 

Price, $20 to $30.— According to sizti 

The Patent Lightning Dispeller is a condae- 
tor specially designed to dissipate the energy 
of a lightning dischai^, — to prevent its 
doing harm, — placing something in its path 
upon which its capacity for cansmg ^^wg^ 
may be expended. 

No recorded case of lightning strdke has 
yet been cited against the principle 'bf the 
Dispeller. So far as known, the dissfpatioa 
of a conductor has invariably protecte<^«nder 
the conditions employed. 

Correspondence solicited. 



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SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 2, 1892. 



2 IMMEDIATE WORK IN CHEMICAL SCIENCE.' 

BY ALBSET B. PRESCOTT. 

[SION of science has a work of its owd to do, a work that 
;ht be done for its own sake, and still more must be done 
ent of what is due to the other divisions. Each section of 
station has its just task, and fidelity to this is an obliga- 
II the sections. Those engaged in any labor of science 
ibt to the world at large, and can be called to give an ac- 

what they are doing, and what they have to do, that the 
ly be shown on all sides. 

e in my power to make the annual address of this meeting 
MTvice at all to you who hear it — in your loyalty to the 
on — I would bring before you some account of the work 
ranted in the science of chemistry. Of what the chemists 
le in the past the arts of industry speak more plainly than 
Is of any address. Of what chemists may do in the future 

be quite in vain that I should venture to predict. But 
iture of the work that is waiting in the chemical world 
•resent time I desire to say what I can, and I desire to 

the interests of science in general. The interests of sci- 
m well assured, cannot be held indifferent to the interests 
iblic at large. 

The Hidden Composition of Matter. 

ot a small task to find out how the master of the universe 
The task is hard, not becaune of the great quantity in 
Latter exists, nor by reason of the multiplicity of the kinda 
pounds of matter, but rather from the obscurity under 
ie actual composition of matter is hidden from man. The 
bs reach a conclusion that matter is an array of moleculei>, 
ings, not so large as a millionth of a millimeter in size, 
formation of these they leave to the work of the chemist •>. 
.Uest objects dealt with in science, their most distinct ac- 
)ecome known only by the widest exercise of inductive 



The New World of Discovery. 

»lm of chemical action, the world within the molecules 
r, the abode of the chemical atoms, is indeed a new world 
little known. The speculative atoms of the ancients, 
H^hanical divisions, prefiguring the molecules of modern 
yet gave no sign of the chemical atoms of this century, 
account of what happens in a chemical change. A new 
uiowledge was opened in 1774 by the discovery of oxygen, 
(red upon in 1804 by the publications of Dalton, a region 
note and more difficult of access than was the unknown 
it toward which Christopher Columbus set his sails three 
B earlier. The world within molecules has been open for 
hundred years. The sixteenth century was not long 
For an exploration of the continent of America, and the 
Lth has not been long enough for the undertaking of the 
I. When four centuries of search shall have been made in 
d of chemical formation, then science should be ready to 
tongrees of nations, to rejoice with the chemist upon the 
his task. 

reU known that chemical labor has not been barren of re- 
Tbe products of chemical action, numbering thousands of 
is, have been sifted and measured and weighed. If you 
t happens in a common chemical change you can obtain 



of the retiring prealdent of the American ABSociatlon at Roches^ 
St. 1898. 



direct answers. When coal bums in the air, how much oxygen 
is used up can be stated with a degree of exactness true to the 
first decimal of mass, perhaps to the second, yet questionable in 
the third. How much carl>onic acid is made can be told in weight 
and in volume with approaching exactness. How much heat 
this chemical action is worth, how much light, how much electro- 
motive force, what train-load of cars it can carry, how long it 
can make certain wheels go round, — for these questions chemists 
and physicists are ready. With how many metals carbonic acid 
will unite, how many ethers it can make into carbonates, into 
what classes of molecules a certain larger fragment of carbonic 
acid can be formed, — the incomplete records of these things already 
run through a great many volumes. These carboxylio bodies are 
open to productive studies, stimulated by various sorts of inquiry 
and demands of life. Such have been the gatherings of research. 
They have been slowly drawn into order, more slowly interpreted 
in meaning. The advance has been constant, deliberate, some- 
times in doubt, ahvays persisting and gradually gaining firmer 
ground. So chemistry has reached the period of definition. Its 
guiding theory has come to be realized. 

The Central Truth of this Science. 

*' The atomic theory " has more and more plainly appeared to 
be the central and vital truth of chemical science. As a working 
hypothesis it has directed abstruse research through difficult 
ways to open accomplishment in vivid reality. As a system of 
knowledge, it has more than kept pace with the rate of invention. 
As a pholosophy, it is in touch with profound truth in physics, in 
the mineral kingdom, and in the functions of living bodies. As 
a language, it has been a necessity of man in dealing with chemi- 
cal events. Something might have been done, no doubt, without 
it, had it been possible to keep it out of the chemical mind. But 
with a knowledge of the primary elements of matter, as held at 
the beginning of this century, some theory of chemical atoms was 
inevitable. And whatever theory might have been adopted, its 
use in investigation would have drawn it with a certainty into the 
essential features of the theory now established. It states the con- 
stitution of matter in teiipis that stand for things as they are made. 
The mathematician may choose the ratio of numerical notation, 
whether the ratio of ten or some other. But the chemist most 
find existing ratios of atomic and molecular mass, with such de- 
gree of exactness as he can attain. Chemical notation, the index 
of the atomic system, is imperfect, as science is incomplete. 
However defective, it is the resultant of a multitude of facts. The 
atomic theory has come to be more than facile language, more 
than lucid classification, more than working hypothesis, it is the 
definition of the known truth in the existence of matter. 

The chemical atom is known, however, for what it does, rather 
than for what it is. It is known as a centre of action, a factor of 
infiuence, an agent of power. It is identified by its responses, 
and measured by its energies. Concealed as it is, each atom has 
given proof of its own part in the structure of a molecule. Proofs 
of position, not in space but in action, as related to other atoms, 
have been obtained by a multitude of workers with the greatest 
advantage. The arrangement of the atoms in space, however, is 
another and later question, not involved in the general studies of 
structure. But even this question has arisen upon its own chemi- 
cal evidences for certain bodies, so that *Uhe configuration'* of 
the molecule has become an object of active research. 

Known for what it does, the atom is not clearly known for what 
it is. Chemists, at any rate, are concerned mainly with what can 
be made out of atoms, not with what atoms can be made of. 
Whatever they are, and by whatever force of motion it is that they 
unite with each other, we define them by their effects. Through 
their effects they are classified in the rank and file of the periodic 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XX. No. 500 



BjBtem. The physictslB, however, do not stop short of the philoau- 
phical studj of the atom itself. As a vibratory body its more' 
meats have be<'Dunilermatliematii'BlcaIculationo; aaa vorb-xriDg 
its pulsations have been asaumed to agree with its combiQin^ 
power.' Ah an operating magnet its interaction with other like 
magnets has been predicated as the method of valence. There are. 
as I am directly assured, physicists ot penetration and prudence 
noTv looking with confidence to studies of the magnetic reiaHoos 
of atoms to each other.' Moreover, another company ol workers, 
the chemists of geom<'tric isoraerisu], assume a configuration of 
the atoms, in accord with that of the molecule. 

Hypotbeses to be Held Apart. 
The Btimulaling truth of the atomic constitution of the molecule, 
a great truth in ela^lic touch with all science, excites numerous 
hypotheses, which, however profitable they may be, are to he stoutly 
held at a distance Trom the truth itseir. Such are the hypotheses 
of molecular aggregation into crystals and other mineral forms. 
Such are the biological theories of molecules polyrneri^ing into 
cells, and of vitality as a chemical property of the molecule. Such 
are the questions of the nature of atoms, and the genesis of the 
elements as they are no tv known. — questions on the border of meta- 
physics. Let all these be held distinct from the primary law of 
the atomic constitution of simple molecules in gaseous bodies, an 
essentifll principle in sn exact science. The chemist should have 
the comfortable assurance, every day. as he plies his balance or 
precision, that tbe atom-made molecules are there, in their several 
ratios of quantity, however many unsettled questions' may lie 
around about them. Knowledge of molecular atruclure makes 
chemistry a science, nourishing to the reason, giving dominion 
over matter, for beneficence to life. 

Hen Who Make Science. 
Every chemical pursuit receives strength from every advance 
in the knowledge of the molecule. And to this knowledge, none 
the les% every chemical pursuit contributes. The anal.Tsis of a 
mineral, whether done For economic ends or not, may furnish a 
distinct contribution toward atomic valence. The further exam- 
ination of steel in the cables of a suspension bridge is liable to 
lead to unexpected evidence upon polymeric unions. Rotham- 
sled Farm, where ten years is not a lonK time for the holding of 
an experiment, yields lo us a classic history of the behavior of 
nitrogen, a history from which we correct our theories. The 
analysis of butter for its substitutes has done something to set us 
right upon the structure of the glycerides. Clinical inspection of 
the functions of tbe living body fain dnii» a record of molecular 
transformations too difficult for tbe laboratory. Tbe etforts of 
pharmaceutical manufacture stimulate new orders oF chemical 
combination. Tbe revision of the pharmacopueia every ten years 
points out a humiliating number oT scattered errors in the pub- 
lished constants on which science depends. The duty of the 
engineer, in his scrutiny of the quality of lubricating oils, brings 
a more critical inquiry into the laws of molecular movement. 
There is not time to mention the many professions and pursuits 
of men who contribute toward the principles of chemistry and 
hold a share therein. If it be the part of pure acience to find the 
law of action in nature, it is the part of applied science both to 
contribute facts and to put theory to the larger proof. In the 
words of one who has placed industry in the greatest of its debts 
to philosophic research, W. H. Perkin, " There is no chasm be- 
tween pure and applied science, they do not even stand side by 
side, but are linked together." So in all hranchea of chemistry, 
whether it be termed applied or not, the best workers are the 
moat strongly bound as one, in their dependance upon what is 
known of the structure of the molecule. 

Waiting for Workers. 
Studies of structure were never before so inviting. In this di- 
rection, and in thai, especial opportunities appear. Moreover, the 
actual worker here and there breaks into unexpected paths of 



promise. Certainly the sugar group is presenting to the chemist 
an open way from simple alcohols on through to the cell sub- 
stances of the vegetable world. And nothing anywhere could be 

more suggestive than the extremely simple unions of nitrogen 
lately discovered, Tbey are lilcely to elucidate linkings of this 
element in great classes of carbon compounds, all signiGc&nt in 
general chemistry. Then certain comparative studies have new 
attractions. As halogens have been upon trial side by aide with 
each other, so. for instance, silicon must be put through its paces 
with carbon, and phosphorus with nitrogen. Presently, also, the 
limits of molecular mass, in polymers and in unions with water, 
are to be nearer approached from the chemical side, as well as 
from the side of physics, in that attractive but perplexing border- 
ground between affinity and the states of aggregation. 

And all for Mankind. 

Such is the extent and such the diversity of chemical labor at 
present that every man must put limits to the range of his study. 
The members of a society or section of chemistry, comioi; 
together to hear each other's researches, are better able, for thp 
most part, to listen for instruction than for criticism. Still leM 
prepared for basty judgment are those who do not corns 
together in societies at all. Even men of eminent learning must 
omit large parts of the subject, if it be permitted to speak oF 
chemistry as a single subject. These considerations admonish ui 
to tie liberal. When metallurgical chemistry cultivates skepti- 
cism as to the work up^n atomic closed chains, it is a culture not 
the most libera). When a devotee of organic synthesis puts 8 
low value upon analytic work, he takes a very narrow view of 
chemical studies. When the chemist who is in educational service 
disparages investigations done in industrial service, he exercisn 
a pitiful brevity of wisdom. 

Tbe pride of pure science is jusliQed in this, that its truth ii 
for the nurture oF man. And the ambition of industrial art il 
honored in this, itsskill gives strength toman. It Is the obliga- 
tion of science to bring tbe resources of the earth, its vegetatiOD 
and its animal life, into the full service of man, making tbe 
knowledge of creation a rich portion of his inheritance, in mind 
and estate, in reason and in conduct, for life present and life la 
come. To know creation is to be taught of God. 

The Means of Unification. 

I have spoken of the century of beginning chemical labor, and 
have referred to the divisions and specialties of chemical study. 
What can I say of the means of uniting the earlier and lBt«i 
years of the past, as well as the separated pursuits of the present, 
in one mobile working force? Societies ot science are among 
these means, and it becomes us to magnify their office. For 
them, however, all that we can do is worth more than all we 
can say. And there are other means, even more effective than 
associations. Most necessary of all the means of unificatioii io 
science is the use of its literature. 

It is by published communications that the worker is enabled to 
begin, not where the first investigation began, but where the lut 
one left off. The enthusiast who lacks the patience to consult 
books, presuming to start anew all by himself in science, bas 
need to get on faster than Antoine L Lavoisier did when he began, 
an associate of the French Academy in IT68. He of immortal 
memory, after QFteen eventful years of momentous labor, reached 
only such a combustion of hydrogen as makes a very simple class- 
experiment at present. But, hovrever early in chemical discovery, 
Lavoisier availed biniself of contemporaries. They found oxygen, 
he learned oxidation : one great man was not enough, in 1774, 
both to reveal this element and show what part it takes io tbe 
formation of matter. The honor of Lavoisier is by no means tbe 
leijB that he used the results of others, it might have been tbe 
more had he given their results a more explicit mention. Men of 
the largest original power make the most of the resulta of other 
men. Discoverers do not neglect previous achievement, bow- 
ever it may appear in biography. The masters of science an 
under the limitations of their age. Had Joseph PrieMley lived in 
the seventeenth century he had not discovered oxygen. Had 
August Kekul^ worked in the period of BerseliuB, some other 



September 9, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



143 



used bj the pupil in speaking or writing, or met with in reading, 
for several years afterwards, and all of tbem were completely 
separated from the other words requisite to constitute any sen- 
tence. This was an unnatural method, and, it is needless to say, 
an unscientiOc method. By exercises in composition, and also by 
means of dictation exercises, i. e., a careful selection from an in- 
teresting story or history, suited to the capacity of the pupils, 
and with just enough new words and idioms in it to ensure prog- 
ress, orthography is taught scientifically. By this means the 
child sees the relations of the words, understands their usee, and 
so more easily remembers and uses them. Thus it is in the 
teaching of science to children. Is it not true that natural and 
physical science is even now taught in many of the schools of the 
United States in very much the same manner as spelling was 
wont to be taught in olden times, in a disconnected, detailed, and 
unnatural way ? But, it may be objected that the curriculum is 
already loaded with studies, and, therefore, there is not room for 
all the sciences on the common-school programme. My reply is, that 
in place of increasing the load I would actually lighten it. Requiring 
elementary, practical, concrete, object-instruction in nature does 
not imply an increased amount of work. The sum total does not 
need to be greater. If demanded in the interest of health, the 
total amount should be lessened. But the work should be nat- 
ural ; and, being more natural, it will, of course, be lighter and 
more acceptable. The study of nature is pre-eminently that 
which cultivates observancy, and accordingly comes first. Tet, 
it cannot be taught without a language; and the language in this 
country must be the English. Writing, spelling, reading, gram- 
mar, composition, drawing, geography, and arithmetic can all be 
taught while giving instruction in the natural and physical sci- 
ences. In fact, the teaching of science to children implies prac- 
tice in drawing, writing, oral composition, written composition, 
and a certain amount of arithmetic. An afternoon's, or, better 
still, a forenoon's ramble over the fields, up a canyon, upon the 
side of a mountain, or along the shore of a lake or bank of a river, 
or a visit to a good museum, will ordinarily a£ford abundance of 
material and opportunity for penmanship, letter-writing, draw- 
ing, measurement, calculation, and oral and written language 
lessons. 

Hence, it is plain that it is not a specialist in any particular 
branch of the sciences who is needed to teach children. The 
teachers should be chosen with reference to their fitness for teach- 
ing children of a certain stage of mental development. This is 
the natural standard. It is not really necessary that the teacher 
have a college education, or a knowledge of the advanced 
studies. But, it is absolutely necessary that the teacher 
be possessed of good common-sense, be able to see clearly the 
things around him, be accurate as far as his work extends, and 
be full of love for that work. There is a little book entitled 
'* Directions for Teaching G^logy,*' by Dr. N. S. Shaler, professor 
of geology in Harvard University, which ought to be in the hands 
of every common-school teacher. After an experience of twenty 
years, teaching all grades of students. Dr. Shaler expressed himself 
as follows: *' It seems to me very desirable that the first steps of 
the child in the study of the physical world should be given by 
teachers who give the beginnings of the other branches of learning. 
Although it is held by some students of the problem of science- 
teaching that the work must be done by special teachers of sci- 
ence, I' am inclined to believe that the view is a mistaken one. 
The special teacher will have to divide the intellectual life of the 
student, and in the infantile stages of this education it is difficult 
to make this division." 

As to methods of instruction in elementary science, the judi- 
cious use of books, pictures, charts, maps, and models is proper. 
Bat the instruction should be largely by open-air excursions of 
two or three hours each, and taken twice or thrice a week. It 
can easily be accomplished in most places throughout the greater 
portion of the year. Of course, in inclement weather the in- 
struction must be given in the schoolroom. It is there the ma- 
terial collected by the teacher and pupils in their rambles may be 
examined and studied. The schoolroom may serve the good pur- 
poses of a shelter, and a place for exercises in description of the 
exourrione and of the specimens gathered. It should also be used 



for the inspection and study of manufactured articles, which are, 
of course, the products of scientific industry. These exercises 
should be varied. Oral questioning is useful. Written de8crip-% 
tions are still more useful. Drawing is of great service as an ex- 
act form of expression; but much care should be taken to prevent 
it from becoming merely a mechanical exercise and thus inter- 
fering with true inspection. This indoor work is especially useful 
for reviews. In reviews, the memory becomes trained and 
strengthened ; and let it not be forgotten that the memory ought 
to be trained and strengthened. Memory is an important faculty. 
I have no sympathy with the modern tendency to despise mem- 
orizing. I believe strongly in the cultivation of the memory. 
What would noan be without a memory ? As a matter of fact, I 
know of nothing that hinders and cramps my teaching more than 
the lack of a strong, full, retentive memory on the part of the 
student. Often it is with difficulty he can recall the meaning of 
words in his text-books. He cannot follow me because he has 
forgotten the significance of many of the words, English as well 
as technical, used In the lectures or explanations. For the same 
reason, many times he omits taking notes, or else he causes delay 
by stopping the instruction in order that whole sentences may be 
repeated for his benefit, his memory not being strong and active 
enough to grasp and retain more than a very few words at any 
one time. Why should so many young people enter college at 
the age of sixteen or seventeen with weak and leaky memories ? 
If the question had reference to the reasoning faculty, it could be 
satisfactorily answered, inasmuch as reason appears later than 
memory, and has not had time for development. But, the mem- 
ory can and should be developed in the primary and secondary 
schools, and the study of nature is eminently adapted to this de- 
velopment, as it is also to that of comparison. I am disposed to 
think the high schools might do much more in this direction by 
wisely conducted examinations upon large portions of the work. 
I say ** wisely conducted ; " for I know there are examinations 
that are not wisely conducted, and such would not produce the 
desired result. It is not enough for a young man to tell me that 
^e knew a subject one or two years ago. If I wish to engage 
him to do a certain kind of work in which a knowledge of that 
subject is required, I wish to ascertain what he knows about it 
now, and whether he can use it now. Discipline of the mind is 
one thing, and practical knowledge is another. True education 
must include both. A student may shine in the class-room day 
by day; yet he may not be able to pass a good examination or 
even a fair examination on the whole year's work. He does not 
possess that particular kind of power which will enable him to 
hold a year's work. This faculty should be recognized and im- 
proved. 

With reference to the mode of instruction by frequent excur- 
sions, that the young people may, under a competent guide, get 
a first-hand knowledge of nature for themselves, allow me to call 
attention to an article from the pen of Dr. J. M. Bice, which ap- 
peared in a recent number of the Forum, In the article referred 
to Dr. Rice sketches the work he saw done in primary schools in 
G^many and New York during his visits to both. He commends 
the German method by field-excursions as being scientific, and 
condemns the American method, or that which he witnessed in 
New York City, as being unscientific. The contrast between the 
two systems is very forcibly brought out. Dr. Rice concludes his 
interesting article in these words: " If life be made a burden in- 
stead of a pleasure to the child, the blame falls upon those persons 
who fail to place their children in the hands of individuals who 
know how to educate them without destroying their happiness." 
This I take to be an appeal from Dr. Rice, not to a few persons, 
but to the American people at large, to free their children from 
the evils of a close-confining, hot-house, mechanical system of 
primary education. Doubtless in many instances the teachers 
are to be pitied rather than blamed. Assuming them to be 
qualified and reliable teachers, desirous of taking the little ones 
out for study, the principal, if there be one, or the superinten- 
dent, may possibly object; perhaps some members of the board 
may object, or the children's parents may offer opposition. Un- 
der these circumstances, what are the teachers to do? Simply 
stay shut up in the school-house during the finest weather, and 



i 



■30 SCIENCE 

would be idle to inquiie into their reepective adT&ntagea. This 
macb, hotFever, ia evident enough, cbemical work u extensive, 
and there is immediate want ol it. 

Various other branches at science are held back by the delay of 
chemistry. Many of the material resources of the world wait 
npon its progress. In the century Just before ns the detnanda 
upon the chemist are to be mach greater than they have been. 
All the interests of life are calling for ttettet chemical informa- 
tion. Hen are wanting the truth. The biologUt on the one 
band, and the geologist on the other, are ehaminK us with int«r- 
^rogatories that ought to be answered. Philosophy linfjers for the 
results of molecular Inquiry. Moreover the people are aaking 
direct questions about the food they are to eat, or not to eat, ask- 
ing more in a day than the analyst ia able to answer in a month. 
Tbe nutritive sources of bodily power are nut safe, in the midst 
of tbe reckless activity of commerce, unless a chemical safeKuard 
Jie kept, a guard who must the better prepare himself for his 
duty. 

The Subsistence of Science. 
Now if the people at large can but gain a more true estimation 
of the bearing of chemical knowledge, and of the extent of the 
chemical undertaking, they will more liberally supply the sinews 
of thorough-going toil. II must be more widely understood that 
achievements of aoience, such as have already multiplied the 
hands of Industry, do not come by chances of invention, nor by 
surprises of genius. It must be learned of these things that they 
come by breadth of study, by patience in experiment, and by the 
slow accumulations of numberless workers. And it must be 
made to appear that tbe downright labor of science actually de- 
pends upon means of daily subsistence. It must i>e brought 
home to men of affairs, that laboratories at aeclusiou with deli- 
cate apparatus, that libraries such as bring all workers together 
in effect, that these really cost something in the same dollars by 
which the products of industrial science are measured. Statistics 
of chemical industry are often used to give point to tbe claims of 
science. For instance, it can be said thatihis country, not mak- 
ing enough chemical wood-pulp, has paid over a million dollars a 
year for its importation; that Great Britain pays twelve mil- 
lion dollars a year for artiScial fertilizers from without; that 
coal tar is no longer cotinted a by-product, having risen in its 
value to a- par with coal gas. But these instances, as striking as 
numerous others, still tend to divert attention from the more 
genera] service of chemistry as it should be known In all the 
economies of civilization. 

It is not for me to say what supplies are wanted for the work 
of chemists. These wants are stateid, in quit«-detlnite terms, by 
a sufficient number of those who can speak for themselves. But 
ifmy voice could reach those who hold the supplies, I would 
plead a most considerate hearing of all chemical requisitions, and 
that a strong and generous policy may in all cases prevail in their 
behalf. 

Tbe Le»Mi of a Life, 
If any event of the year is able to compel the attention of the 
world to the interests of research, it must be the notable close of 
that life of fifty years of enlarged chemical labor, announced 
from Berlin a few months ago. When thirty yeare of age. 
August Wilhelm von Hofmann, a native of Qiessen and a pupil 
of Liebig, was called to work in London. Taking hold of the 
organic derivatives of ammonia, and presently adopting the new 
discoveries of Wnrtz, he began those masterly contributions that 
appear to have been so many distinct steps toward a chemistry at 
nitrogen, each as manufacture and agriculture and medicine 
have thriron upon. In 1810 he opened a memoir in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions with these words. " the light now begins 
to dawn upon the chaos of collected facts." Since that time the 
coal-tar industry has risen and matured, medicine has learned to 
measure the treatment of disease, and agriculture to estimate the 
fertility of the earth. It seems impossible that so late as March 
of the present year, he was still sending his papers to the jour- 
nals. If we could say something of what he has done, words 
would fail to say what he has caused others to do. And yet, let 
it be heard iti these United States, without such a generous policy 



[Vol. XX. No. 500 



of expenditure for science as gave to Dr. Hofmann bis training 
in Qiessen, or brought him to London in 1848, or built for Idm 
laboratories in Bonn and Berlin, without such provision by tbe 
State, the fruits of his service would have been lost to tbe ' 
world. Aye, and for want of a like broad and prudent provision 
for research with higher education, in this country, other men 
of great love tor science and great power ot inveatigatiou everj 
year fail of their rightful career for the service of mankind. 

Endowmenta for Research. 

For the prosecution of research, In the larger questions doit 
before ns, no training within the limitations of human life can 
be too broad or too deep. No provision of revenue, so far as of 
real use to science, can be too liberal. The truest investigatioD 
is tbe most prudent expenditure that can be made. 

In respect to the support that is wanted for work in science, 1 
have resBOD for speaking with confidence. If I go beyond tbe 
subject ivith which I began I do not go beyond the warrant of 
the association. This body has lately defined what its memb«n 
may say, by creating a committee to receive endowments for tbe 
support of research. 

There are men and women who have been so far rewarded, 
that great means of progress are in their hands, to be vigoroudj 
held for tbe best advantage. Strength is required to use large 
means, as well as to accumulate them. It is inevitable to weallb, 
that it shall bo put to some sort of use, for without investment it 
dies. By scattered investment wealth loses personal force. The 
American association, in the conservative interests of learning, 
proposes certain effective investments in science. If it t>e not 
given to every plodding worker to tve a promoter of discovery, 
such at all events is the privilege of wealth, under the autboritj 
of this association. If it be not tbe good fortune of every inves- 
tigator to reach knowledge that is new, there are, every year, in 
every section of this body, workers of whom it is clear that thej 
would reach some discovery of merit, if ooly the means of work 
could be granted them. Whosoever suppliee the means faiilj 
deserves and will receive a share in (he results. It is quite with 
justice that the name of Elizabeth Thompson, the first of tbe 
patrons, has been associated with some twenty-one modest deter- 
minations of merit recognized by this association. 

Tbe Association as a Trustee. 

"To procure for the labors of scientific men increased facili- 
ties " is one of the constitutional objects of this body. It is time 
for effectiveness towards this object. The association has estab- 
lished its character for sound judgment, for goad working organi- 
zation, and for representative public interest. It has earned its 
responsibility as the American trustee of undertakings in science. 

" To give a stronger . . . impulse . . . to scientific leeearch'' 
is another declaration of what we ought to do. To this etd 
larger endowments are necessary. And it will be strange If some 
clear-seeing man or woman does not put t^ thousand dollars, or 
some multiple of it, into the charge of this body for some search- 
ing experimental inquiry now waiting for the material aid. The 
committee upon endowment is ready for consultation upon all re- 
quired details. 

'* To give . . . more systematic direction to scientific te- 
search " is likewise stated as one of our objects. To this intent 
the organization or sections affords opportunities not surpassed. 
The discussions upon scientific papers give rise to a concord of 
competent opinions as to the direction of immediate work. And 
arrangements providing in advance for the discuaeion of vital 
questions, as formally moved at the la^t meeting, will in one way 
or another point out to suitable persons such lines of labor as will 
indeed give systematic direction to research. 
In Fellowship. 

In conclusion I may mention another, the most happy of the 
duties of tbe American association. It is to give tbe hand of hos- 
pitable fellowship to the several societies which year by year gather 
with us upon the same ground. Comrades in labor and in re- 
freshment, their efforts reinforce us, their faces brighten oot 
way. May they join us more and more in the companionship 



PEMBER 2, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



131 



ireetens the severity of art. A meeting of good workers is 
«inbraDoe of pleasure, giving its zest to the aims of the 



BRICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE WEATHER SER- 
VICES. 

ONVKNTION of representatives of State weather services was 
a Rochester, N.T., on Aag. 15 and 16, 1893, in conjunction 
he forty- third meeting of the American Association for the 
icement of Science. The convention was called to order by 
Bor Mark W. Harrington, chief of the Weather Bureau, 
lade an address of welcome to the representatives present. 
(Cgeated certain important subjects for discussion, and ap- 
d committees on permanent organization, programme, etc. 
leraianent organization was effected, and the following 
s were elected: President. Major H. H. C. Dun woody; first 
resident, B. 8. Pague of Oregon; second vice-president, 
Chappel of Iowa; secretary, R. E Kerkam, chief of State 
ler Service Division, Weather Bureau; and treasurer, W. L. 
of WiBoonson. 

title, American Association of State Weather Services, was 
d by the convention, and it was decided to hold annual con- 
ns in future at the same time and place as those of the 
can Association for the Advancement of Science, 
following representatives were in attendance : The U. S. 
^ent of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, being represented 
^feasor Mark W. Harrington, chief; Major H. H. C. Dun- 
, forecast official ; Mr. R. E. Kerkam, chief of State Weather 
B Division; Mr. N. B. Conger, inspector; and Mr. P. J. 
Iph, stenographer; F. H. Clarke, Arkansas; J. A. Bar wick, 
roia; John Craig, Illinois; C. F. R. Wappenhans, Indiana; 
Chappel, Iowa; Frank Burke, Kentucky; E. A. Evans, 
;an; Q. A. Lovelend, Nebraska; J. Warren Smith, New 
id; E. W. McOann. New Jersey; R. M. Hardinge and W. 
T, New York; C. M. Strong, Ohio; B. S. Pague, Oregon; 
Ball, Pennsylvania; S. W. Glenn, South Dakota; G. N. 
iry, Utah; J. N. Ryker, Virginia; and W. L. Moore, Wis- 

• 

y of the representatives who were unable to be present at 
nvention forwarded papers giving their views on various 
ta of interest to be discussed. 

subject of instrument-shelters and a uniform manner of 
zpoeure was debated, and it was the concensus of opinion 

uniform pattern of shelter should be adopted for use 
bout the entire country. The subject was referred to a 
ttee consisting of Messrs Smith, Moore, and Pague, with 
ttiona to report as to the most suitable shelter and manner 
Mure to be generally adopted by State weather services. 
he subject of whether the voluntary observers should be 
id with self -registering maximum and minimum thermom- 
ihe prevailing opinion was that such instruments should be 
and used in determining temperature means and averages, 
rer and whenever practicable. The old method of making 
S^ at 7 A.M., 2 P.M., and 9 p.m. of the dry thermometer 
)e continued whenever desired, but the means should be 
d from the self- registering thermometers where such in- 
•nts are in use. 

> the adoption of a form to cover the needs of a great ma- 
of the voluntary observers who are supplied with dry or 
ium and minimum thermometers and rain-gauges, it was 
1 to adopt a form which was suggested by the secretary, so 
sd as to admit of making three or four copies, at one writing, 
ms of the indelible carbon process, thus saving the observers 
tying of the form at the end of the month ; the object of 
rangement being to give a copy of the monthly report to the 
f the chief of the Weather Bureau, one to the office of the 
r of the State service, and one to be retained by the ob- 
and also to make such additional copies as he may desire 
isb to the local press, etc. 
forecasting of thunder-storms was the fourth subject dis- 

and an interesting paper on this topic was read by the 
ma representative. 



The proposition to print the weekly, monthly, and annual re- 
ports of the State weather services in a uniform manner was freely 
discussed. The desirability of uniform reports was generally 
admitted, but it was thought impracticable at this time to take 
any action in the matter, as a number of States have appro- 
priated fuuds for printing reports according to definite size and 
style. 

The discussion of the question of the best methods.of signaling 
weather forecasts by display-men covered a wide range. The flag, 
the whistle, the semaphore, and the sphere, bomb, and flash-light 
systems were freely discussed, and an interesting paper was pre- 
sented by the New England representative on the system of spheri- * 
cal bodies hoisted on a staff. This subject was referred to a com- 
mittee composed of Messrs. Conger, Glenn, and Kerkam, for report 
at the earliest practicable date. 

On the subject of inspection of voluntary observers' stations the 
decision was that each voluntary station should be inspected at 
least once each year, to keep up the interest of the voluntary ob- 
servers and to enable the directors of State services to become 
thoroughly familiar with each station and its surroundings. It 
was recommended by the association that sufficient leave of absence 
be granted the Weather Bureau representative at each State ser- 
vice centre to enable him to make a tour of inspection. 

Relative to the subject — the relations of State weather services 
to agricultural colleges and experiment stations — it was decided 
that, owing to the lack of telegraphic facilities and other means 
of disseminating weather information, it would not be practicable 
generally to have the central stations of the State weather ser- 
vices at such colleges or stations, but that a very close co-opera- 
tion would be desirable. 

The subject of an exhibit at the World's Fair was the last gen- 
eral subject discussed. It was decided that each State service 
should have its exhibit in the building set apart for the use of the 
State, and not to have the exhibits collected in the building for 
the use of the United States Weather Bureau. 

Mr. E. T. Turner of New York and Mr. E. H. Nimmo of Michi- 
gan were elected to active membership in the association, and the 
following honorary members were also elected : E. F. Smith, 
California; Professor R. Ellsworth Call, Iowa; Charles C. Nauck, 
Arkansas; Professor William H. Niles, Massachusetts; G. H. 
Whitcher, New England; H. G. Reynolds, Michigan; H. F. Alcia- 
tore, Oregon; Major Richard V. Gaines, Virginia; Professor A. L. 
McRae, Missouri; C. F, Schneider, Michigan; Professor Louis 
McLouth. South Dakota; and all active voluntary observers of the 
United States Weather Bureau. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Mr. Thbodor Graf of Vienna has in his possession a remark- 
able treasure in the shape of fragments of the Bible recently 
found in Egypt. They consist of a portion of Zechariah, chap- 
ters iv-xiv., in the shape of a papyrus book in a fair state of 
pre^aprvation. The fragment is that of a Greek translation, and 
from the shape of the letters the MS. would api)ear to belong to 
the fourth century, making it the oldest Bible MS. thus far dis- 
covered. The same papyrus also contains fragments of Malachi. 

— The current number of the Zeitachrift der Deutschen Morgen- 
Idndischen Oesellachaft contains an article of the highest import- 
ance by the distinguished Egyptologist, Dr. Adolf Erman. He 
discusses in a most cautious way the supposed relationship of the 
Egyptian with the Semitic languages. A careful examination of 
the consonants and vowels, the accent, the pronominal suffixes, 
the pronouns, and the demonstratives, the nouns, adjectives, 
numerals, and verbs, as well as of the syntax, leads to the con- 
clusion that on the grammatical side there is sufficient evidence 
to warrant the assertion of a relationship between Egyptian and 
Semitic: An examination of the vocabularies shows only a com- 
paratively small number of words which are identical, but this 
number will probably be increased when the laws of phonetic 
change come to be better understood. The conclusions of Profes- 
sor Erman, if accepted, will be epoch-making, since they wUl es- 
tablish the identity of the cvHture of the Nile and Mesopotamian 
valleys. 



I 



132 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol.. XX. No 500 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



PUBUSHED BY 



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address of applicants should be given in full, so that answers will go direct to 
them. The ** Exchange " column Is likewise open. 

For Adyertising Bates apply to Hknby F. Taylor, 18 Astor Place, New 
York. 



CREMATION OF CHOLERA CORPSES. 

BY ALBERT 8. A8HMXAD, M.D., LATE FOREIGN MEDICAL DIRECTOR OF 

TOKIO HOSPITAL, TOEIO, JAPAN. 

Japan baa almost everything, or believes tbat it has almost 
everything, to learn from us; but there are a few things 
which it would be wise for us to consent to learn from Japan. 
The Japanese, a prey from time to time, like all Oriental 
countries, to cholera epidemics, and, having the cholera 
always with them endemically, have early found out that 
the cholera corpses should be burned. 

There are in the city of Tokio six crematories. They are 
not only destined to the incineration of cholera corpses; for 
cremation is imposed as a religious duty by a number of 
Buddhist sects. In the oldest cemetery in Japan, that of 
Koya-san, near the great water-falls in Wakayama-Ken, 
700 English miles south of Tokio, cremation has been prac- 
tised, as is generally believed, as a religious rite these 1200 
years. 

Naturally, the rite of incineration had no difficulty in that 
country in passing from the religious conception to a sani- 
tary application. The first sanitary cremation edict was 
issued by the government in 1718, during an epidemic which 
seems to have been very destructive. Japanese documents 
speak of that period with trembling awe; 80,000 a month 
died in the city of Yedo; undertakers could not make coffins 
fast enough : gra^e-yards were all filled up. The Japanese 
are singularly struck by the idea that the men who worked 
at the cremation furnaces after sunset were themselves 
changed into smoke before sunrise, and that the tomb stone 
cutters of a day found (horribile viau!) their own names 
carved on the morrow^s tombstones I Finally the priests of 
all the sects united in asking for a general application of the 
cremation rite; ashes alone, they said, should be buried; at 
every burial-ground mountains of casks discouraged the 
diligence of the grave-digger; a multitude of corpses (the 
Japanese documents have the simplicity to add that they 
were mostly poor persons) remained unburied for weeks. 
The Japanese have long believed that this was a cholera epi- 



demic, the first that ravaged the fertile sioeet-flag plain; bat 
that is a delusion. Cholera paid them its first visit more 
than a hundred years later. It was then that the religious 
character departed once for all from the cremation rite; for 
the government, seeing that the fire was too slow, ordered 
the bodies, wrapt in mats and quick-lime, to be sunk into tbe 
sea; cremation ever after was only a sanitary operation. 

In the past thirteen years there have been 456,080 reported 
cholera patients in the empire; of these 303,466 died, tbat is, 
66|- per cent. Every one of these corpses has been burned. 
Under police regulations, in the city of Tokio, there may be 
eight public crematories (of course, this has nothing to do 
with the private establishment of each Buddhist burial- 
place), placed outside of the city-limits. The law requires 
that they shall be constructed of brick and large enough to 
burn at least twenty-five corpses at a time. Each furnace 
must have a chimney over thirty feet high. Each crema- 
tory is expected to have a separate furnace for burning dis- 
charges, and a separate disinfecting room. This furnace is 
to be of brick and capable of incinerating at least twenty-five 
casks (bushels) at a time; its chimney must be thirty feet 
high. The law requires further that the disinfecting com- 
partment shall be divided into two spaces, one a bath-room, 
not for the corpses, of course, but for persons suspected of 
harboring the disease ; the other a fumigating place. Crema- 
tion can only be performed from sunset to sunrise; tbe 
corpses are not stripped of their clothing, and are one and 
all accompanied by their burial certificate. 

In the Buddhist cemeteries cremation is thus performed. 
The corpse is brought in a square wooden box or barrel (tbe 
regular Japanese coffin) in a sitting position, according to 
the national custom. A hole in the ground with sloping 
sides awaits it, at the bottom of which are two stones, up- 
right and parallel; across the top of these stones fire- wood 
and charcoal are piled. Around the corpse, placed upon tbe 
pile, a circular wall is built up, formed of rice -straw and 
chaff, perhaps to a height of five or six feet, and the wall 
itself is wrapped in wet matting, which during the whole 
operation is continually moistened. The fire is kept up 
during twelve hours, after which the ashes and bones are 
picked up with chop sticks by the oldest representative of tbe 
family, enclosed in a funeral urn, and buried after seven 
days of various religious observances. 

It is most regrettable that cremation has not with us tbat 
religious origin which recommended it first to the Japanese. 
Reason and good sense have never proved such strong 
foundations; otherwise the advisability of the cremation of 
cholera corpses would have occurred to us long ago. It is 
useless to object that these precautions do not preserve Japan 
from cholera epidemics. The disease is kept up there by 
causes which cannot be reached by cremation. The houses 
are built in unhealthy places, they are squalid and in every 
way insalubrious; the water is wretched, infected by im- 
purities dropping from ill-kept closets. There would be no 
end, if we tried to enumerate all the causes of disease, which 
render the wisest precautions useless. None of these causes 
exists in our western countries, and the cremation of cholera 
corpses would have yielded its whole sanitary benefit. If 
we burned our corpses, the bacillus would be destroyed effec- 
tively; in Japan, the dejections of the living, contaminating 
the well-water, the system of promiscuous public bathing, 
etc., keep it alive in spite of the cremation. 

When the cholera, some years back, made its appearance, 
not in New York, indeed, but in its harbor, — that is, in tbe 
quarantine station, — having been brought by an Italian 



September 2, 1892.] 



SCIENCE. 



133 



immigrant ship, the dead were baried on Staten Island at the 
qaarantine bmrying-grounds. If we were as ready to profit 
by past observation as we ought to be, cremation woald hare 
been introduced then and there. For in 1866, when some 
cholera immigrants had been buried on Ward^s Island, an epi- 
demic started almost immediately in the part of the city 
nearest to that burial-ground; there, in 93d Street and 3d 
Avenue, the first case occurred. This was certainly a fact 
to be taken into serious consideration. No man interested 
in the health of his fellows will be content to say that this 
was only chance. And if it is more than chance, why then 
has it never been proposed to prevent the propagation of the 
disease by fire; as other peoples have long been accustomed 
to do? 

There are four rules, by observing which we can absolutely 
prevent cholera from setting foot on this continent: — 

1. Let the drinking-water be perfectly isolated ; that is, 
keep the cholera germs from the drinking-water. 

2. Let the foeces and other discharges be disinfected with 
quick-lime or common white-wash. This is, by the way, 
what Professor Koch recommended to the Central Sanitary 
Board of Japan. 

3. Let the clothing be disinfected with dry heat, 100^ C, 
and afterwards with steam. 

4. Finally, let the cholera corpse be cremated instead of 
buried. 

4 King Street, New York. 



ACORN-EATING BIRDS. 

BT MORRIS QIBB8, M.D. 



In Michigan there are, to my knowledge, six species of birds 
which feed on acorns. Of these, the passenger-pigeon and mourn- 
ing-dove swallow the acorn entire, with its shell intact, only re- 
moving the cup or rough outside covering. The white-bellied 
nut- hatch occasionally hoards the acorns away, and only draws 
on its store after some months, and when the firm shelly cover- 
ing readily gives away to its sharp, prying bill. The other three 
are the well-known blue- jay, common crow- black bird, and red- 
beaded woodpecker. The methods employed by these birds in 
opening an acorn are so entirely different, that a description may 
not be uninteresting to your readers. 

Kalamazoo City is nestled in a valley which was once nearly 
filled with oak trees, and large numbers of the burr-oak, Quercus 
macrocarpa, are still standing. The acorns of these trees, some- 
times called over-cup or mossy-cup, are nearly ripe and are now 
falling, and the birds which feed on them gather to satisfy their 
love for the nutritious kernels. So far as I am able to learn, the 
birds, except in rare instances, do not pick the acorns from the 
tree, but have to content themselves with the fallen fruit. Occa- 
sionally one sees a bird attempting to pick an acorn, but it is 
rarely a success, as the twigs are small and do not accommodate 
the swaying bird well, and, moreover, at this season of the year, 
many acorns are still strongly attached. 

The red- head, deigning to descend to the ground, seizes an 
acorn, and flying with it in its bill to a spot where there is a small 
cavity in the dead portion of a trunk, or to a crevice in the bark, 
immediately begins to hammer it with its sharp-pointed bill. In 
a couple of strokes it has removed the outer shell or cup, and at 
once attacks the still green-colored shell which directly surrounds 
the meat. The inside, or shell proper, quickly gives way, usually 
nearly in halves, and the woodpecker enjoys the kernel. The red- 
bead rarely comes into the city, and is never here continuously, but 
at this season he is quite often seen and heard, and I have thought 
that the acorns brought him. The woodpeckers are as nearly 
strict insect-feeders as any birds we have, unless an exception 
is made of the swifts and swallows, yet here is an instance 
of a varied diet. However, the red-head is quickly satisfied in 
the acorn line, and soon begins circling the trunk, or more often 
limbe, for his legitimate food. 



The blackbird confines himself to the ground in his efforts for 
acorn meats, and I have yet to see him in a tree with one. Walk- 
ing up sedately to an acorn, and making no effort to seize or con- 
fine it, it strikes savagely and almost aimlessly. Its bUl frequently 
glances, and the splintered shell dances about, until at last a huge 
piece of the kernel is dragged out, after which the bird leaves for 
other quarters or begins on another acorn. 

The jay swoops down with flaunting blue wings, and, seizing 
the largest a