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Full text of "Science"

NEW SERIES. VOLUME LI. 



JANUARY- JUNE, 1920 




NEW YOBK 

THE SCIENCE PEESS 

1920 






SCIENCE 



/X" 



THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY, 

41 North Queen Street, 

Lancaster, Pa. 



CONTENTS AND INDEX. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. L.— JANUARY TO JUNE, 1920 



THE NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS ARE PRINTED IN SMALL CAPITALS 



Aerostatic Pressure and Gravity, A. McAdie, 144 
Acceleration, Centripetal, and Weight, B. L. New- 
kirk, 321 
Agriculture, N. Y. State College, 317, 431 
Alexander, J., Blue in Snow, 465 
Allee, "W. C, Amer. Soe. of Zoologists, 214 
Allegheny Observatory, 458 
Allen, W. E., Micro-plankton, 487 
Alter, D., Sunspots and Earthquakes, 486 
American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence : A Ticket to St. Louis, Schoolmaster, 16 ; 
St. Louis Meeting, G. T. Moore, 48 ; Grants, 83 ; 
Dues and Salaries, 115; Financial Report, 194; 
Minutes of the Executive Committee, B. E. Liv- 
ingston, 470 ; Vice-presidential Address, Public 
Health, C.-E. A. Winslow, 23; Advances in 
Dynamics, G. D. Birkhopf, 51 ; Biologist, Mes- 
sage of, W. Patten, 93 ; Anthropology and Psy- 
chology, A. Hrdli5ka, 199; Physics in War and 
Peace, G. F. Hull, 221 ; Sexuality in Mucors, A. 
F. Blakeslee, 375, 403; Section A — Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy, F. E. Moulton, 220 ; 
Section B — Physics, G. W. Stewart, 352; Sec- 
tion E — Geology and Geography, E. T. Cham- 
BERLIN, 491, 518; Section F — Zoology, H. V. 
Neal, 147; Section H — Anthropology and Psy- 
chology, E. K. Strong, 418, 441; Pacific Coast 
Division, 457, 532; Southwestern Division. 509; 
Eesearch after the 'War, E. A. Harper, 473 
Ames, J. S., Einstein's Law, 253 
Anesthetics, Local, H. G. Barbour, 497 
Anglo-American Library, 480 
Anopheles, F. E. Chidester, 244 
Anthropological Soe. of Washington, 39 
Anthropology and Psychology, W. V. Bingham, 353 
Ants and Scientists, A. Mann, 87 
Aquarium, Steinhart, 136 
Arctic Expedition, Canadian, 167 
Aristotle and Galileo on Palling Bodies F. Cajori, 

615 
Armsbt, H. p.. Organization of Eesearch, 33 
Arthur, J. C, Busts, 246 
Ash Dune Plants, W. D. Richardson, 546 
Atm-osphere, High Levels in, A. McAdie, 287, 438; 

J. G. Coffin, 366 
Atmospheric Moisture, C. F. Brooks, 440 
Auroras, C. F. Brooks, 392; Joel Stebbins, 485; 

E. D. EoE, Jr., 486 
Aviation, Psychology of, H. M. Johnson, 449 

Baker, F. C, Fish Food, C. Juday, 273 
Baker, H. P., Eesienation of, 136 
Ballistics, A. G. Webster, 368 
Barbour, H. G.. Local Anesthetics, 497 
Barker, H. C, Siphon, 489 
Base Maps of the XT. S., 213 
Bauer, L. A., Solar Eclipse, 201, 581 
Benedict, F. G., Professor Pawlow, 243 
Berry, E. W., Seward's Fossil Plants, 47; F. H. 
Knowlton, Fossil Plants, 369 



Bingham, W. Y,., Anthropology and Psychology, 
353 

Biochemist in Hospitals, F. S. Hammett, 131 

Biological Surveys, 40 

Biology, Course in, Y. Henderson, 64; L. L. BuR- 
lingame and E. G. Martin, 452 

Bird, Banding, 456; Stomachs, Eehinoderms in, H. 
L. Clark, 594 

BiRKHOFF, G. D., Advances in Dynamics, 51 

Blaokwelder, E., U. S. Geological Survey, 346 

Blakeslee, a. P., Sexuality in Mucors, 375, 403 

Blood Serum of Limulus, L. Loeb, 17 

Botanic School in Eegents Park, 58 

Botanical, Eesearch, J. M. Coulter, 1; Achieve- 
ment, W. Trelease, 121; Station, Cinchona, D. 
S. Johnson, 235 

Bovakd, J. F., Western Soe. of Naturalists, 299 

Bowie, W., Board of Surveys, 233 

Boyd, P. P., State Academies of Science, 575 

Boyle Medal, 266 

Braehiopod Fauna, Pocono, W. A. Price, 146 

Brain Workers, Federations of, 272 

Breed, E. S., Legume Nodules, 391 

British, Eesearch Associations, 38; Natural His- 
tory Museum, 88 ; Association, 627 

Brooks, C. P., American Meteorol. Soe., 275; Eain- 
fall of the U. S., 324; West Indian Hurricane, 
369; Auroras, 392; Eainfall Interception 439; 
Atmospheric Moisture, 440; Irregularities in 
Temperature, 488 

Brown, E. W., Motion of the Moon, 481 

Burgess, E. S., Eaymond B. Earle, 340 

BuRLiNGAME, L. L., General Biology, 452 

C, J. M., A Splendid Service, 44 
Cajori, F., Palling Bodies, 615 
Calculus, History of, A. S. H.athaway, 166 
California, Acad, of Sci., 161; Inst, of Tech., 181 
Calvert, P. P., Bust of E. D. Cope, 264 
Cambridge Nat. Sci. Club, 238 

Carbon Dioxide, B. Harrow, 465; and Crop Pro- 
duction, M. W. Senstius, 614; Monoxide, W. 
M., 437 
Cats, Killing, H. Gunthorp, 87 
Cerebellar Localization, F. E. Miller, 413 
Chamberlin, E. T., Section E — Geology and Geog^ 

raphy, 491, 518 
Chemical Soe., Amer., C. L. Parsons, 20, 69, 209, 
342, 350, 373, 397, 444; Lalboratory Supplies, W. 
L. EsTAEROOKE, 155; Engineers, Inst, of, 410; 
Industries, 628 
Chemistry and Commerce, W. Haynes, 188 
Chick Embryos, E. E. Claek, 371 
Chidester, F. E., Anopheles, 244 
Chlorine, Separation of, W. D. Harkins, 289 
Chromosomes and Linkage, C. W. Metz, 417 
Chumley on Fauna of Clyde Sea, C. A. KoroiD, 65 
Clark, E. E., Chick Embryos, 371 
Clark, H. L., Eehinoderms in Bird's Stomachs, 594 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, 10, 608 



SCIENCE 



Cobb, N. A., Nematodes 640 

CocKEKELL, T. D. A., Scieuce and Polities, 115; 

Darwin, 296 ; Government Pensions, 392 
CoFriN, J. G., High Levels in Atmosphere, 366 
Cole, P. N., Amer. Math. Soc, 91, 300, 523 
Cole, E., University Dept. of Medicine, 339 
CoLTON, H. S., Zoology Course, 382 
CoMPTON, K. T., Iodine Yapors, 571 
Conn, H. J., Legume Nodules, 391 
Constants, Physical and Chemical, 432 
Cooke H. L., Triangulation, 211 
Cope, B. D., Bust of, P. P. Calvekt, 264 
Coulter, J. M., Botanical Research, 1 
Crampton, C. E., Evolution of Paitula, A. G. M., 

142 
Crop Inspection, P. A. Spragg, 113 

Dadourian, H. N., Ionization and Radiation, 296 

Dartmoor, Water Power and, 107 

Darwin, T. D. A. Gockerell, 296 

Davidson, Mackenzie, Memorial, 360 

Davis, B. M., Amer. Soc. of Naturalists, 169 

Dehydrated Meat, M. H. Givens and H. B. Mc- 

Clugage 273 
Differentials, E. V. Huntington, 320, 593; A. S. 

Hathaway, 464 
Dissection, H. Gunthorp, 543 
Dolomieu, G. P. Kunz, 359 
DOREMUS, C. A., Atmospheric Nitrogen, 635 
Drinker, Pres., and Lehigh University, 510 
Drosophila, Intersexes in, A. H. Sturtevant, 325; 

Chromosomes and Linkage in, C. W. Metz, 417 
DuANE, W., Spectrum Series, 505 

Earle, Raymond B., E. S. BxmGESs, 340 
East, E. M., and D. P. Jones, Inbreeding and Out- 
breeding, R. Pearl, 415 
Eclipse, Solar, L. A. Bauer, 301, 581 
Ecologio Investigations, W. P. Taylor, 283 
Ecological Society, H. Moore, 66 
Ecology, Journal of, 161 

EiGENMANN, C. H., Vandellia and Urinophilus, 441 
Einstein, A., Tirae^ Space and Gravitation, 8 
Einstein's Law of Gravitation, J. S. Ames, 253 
Electrochemical Soc, 387. 
Elliot Medal, H. P. Osborn, 629 
Embryos, Chick, E. E. Clark, 371 
Engineering School, Harvard, 361 
Entomological Expedition, Cornell, 342 
Entomology in the U. S. Nat. Museum, 236 
Equator, Weight of Body moving along, E. V. 

Huntington 45 
EsTABROOKE, W. L., Chemical Laboratory Supplies, 

155 
Ethylene and Sulphuryl Chloride, W. Foster, 641 
Eucalyptus, Drought and, J. McMurphy and G. J. 

Peikce, 118 
Eugenics Congres, 363 

Evolution, of Pigeons, C. 0. Whitman, T. H. 
Morgan, 73 ; of Partula, C. E. Crampton, A.G.M., 
142; Forerunner of, M. Shipley, 315 

F., H., Physical Chemistry of Metals, Schenck, R., 

190 
Pairchild, H. L., Musical Sands, 62 
Fairchild, H. L., and Univ. of Rochester, 536 
Farlow, William Gibson, 82 
Ferry, E. S., Physics Measurements, A. DeF. P., 348 



Fetzer, L. W., Herbert Spencer Woods, 159 

Pippin, E. C, Singing Sands, 64 

Fisheries, Deep-sea, 627 

Fixation of Nitrogen, F. B. Wann, 247 

Forest, Service, U. S., 343; Club, 362; Product 

Laboratory, 534 
Formulse for Dates, W. J. Spillman, 513, 568 
Foster, W., Ethylene and Sulphuryl Chloride, 641 

Gardner, M. W., Colored Photographs of Speci- 
mens, 556 
Garrison, P. H., Sir William Osier, 55 
Gas, Natural, 59, 135 

Genus, Use aud Abuse of, W. Stone, 427 
Geological Survey, F. L. Ransome, 173, 201, 535; 
E. Blackwelder, 346; Society, Southwestern, 
387 
Geologists, Amer. State, Assoc, of, T. L. Watson, 

19 
Geophysical Union, Amer., H. O. Wood, 297, 495 
German Physicians, 58 
Gibbs, Willard, Medal, 536 
Givens, M. H., Dehydrated Meat, 273 
GoDDARD, R. H., High Altitude Research, 141 
GooDSPEED, A., Amer. Philos. Soc, 572, 595, 618, 642 
Goring, Charles Buckman, J. A. Harris, 133 
Gravitation, Time, Space and, A. Einstein, 8; Ein- 
stein's Law of, J-. S. Ames, 253 
Greely, a. W., E. Shackleton's South, 543 
Greene, C. W., Amer. Physiol. Soc, 248 
Grier, N. M., Mounting for Jellyfishes, 297 
Gunthorp, H., Killing Cats, 87; Dissection, 543 

H., W. A., David S. Pratt, 207 

Hale, G. E., Cooperation in Research, 149 

Hammett, F. S., Biochemist in Hospital Staff, 131 ; 

Journals for Prague, 488 
Hamor, W. a., Mellon Institute, 625 
Hakkins, W. D., Separation of Chlorine, 289 
Harper, E. A., Research after the War, 473 
Harris, J. A., Charles Buckman Goring, 133 
Harrow, B., Carbon Dioxide, 465 
Haskell, A. C, Graphic Charts, R. voN Huhn, 466 
Hathaway, A. S., History of Calculus, 166; Dif- 
ferentials, 464 
Hawaii, Scientific Work in, H. F. Osborn, 613 
Hawk, P. B., Unpalatable Pood, 299 
Hayfoed, J. F., G. L. Hosmer's Geodesy, 88 
Haynes, W., Chemistry and Commerce, 188 
Headley, F. B., Alkali Salts, 140 
Health, Public, C.-E. A. Winslow, 23 
Hegner, R. W., Blood-inhabiting Protozoa, 187 
Helium Atom, I. Langmuir, 605 
Henderson, Y., Course in Biology, 64 
Hering, C, a Problem in Mechanics, 46 
Herrick, J. J., Orthogenesis, 621 
High, Altitude Research, B. H. Goddard, 141; 
A. McAdie, 287, 438; Levels in the Atmosphere, 
J. G. Coffin, 366 
History of Science, L. Thorndike, 193 
Holder, R. C, Unpalatable Food, 299 
Hosmer, G., Geodesy, J. F. Hayford, 88 
Howe, J. L., Conditions in Hungary, 487 
HrdliISka, a., Anthropology and Psychology, 199 
Hubbard, B., Tertiary Formations of Porto Rico, 

395 
Huhn, R. von, Graphic Charts, A. C. Haskell, 466 
Hull, A. E., Radiation, 507 



New SERiEa."! 
VoE. LI. J 



SCIENCE 



Hull, G. F., Physics in War and Peace, 221 
Human Foot-prints, C. Stock, 514 
Hungary, Conditions in, J. L. Howe, 487 
Huntington, E. V., Weight of Body moving along 

Equator, 45; Difl^erentials, 320, 593 
Hurricane, West Indian, C. F. BaoOKS, 369 

Iddings, J. P., Louis Valentine Pirsson, 530 
Illinois Acad, of Sei., 109; J. L. Pricer, 327 
India, Scientific Work in, 292 
Influenza and Pneumonia, 162 
Intersexes in Drosophila, A. H. Sturtevant, 325 
Inventions -and Patents, A. Stewart, 421 
Iodine Vapors, K. T. Compton and H. D. Smyth, 
571 

Jellyfishes, Mounting for, N. M. Grier, 297 
Johnson, G. E., Journal of Mammalogy, 570 
Johnson, D. S., Cinchona Botan. Sta., 235 
Johnson, H. N., Psychology of Aviation, 449 
Jones, D. F., Paraffine Euler, 245; and E. M. 

East, Inbreeding and Outbreeding E. Pearl, 

415 
JuDAT, C, Horizontal Rainbows, 188; Fish Food, 

F. 0. Baker, 273 

Keily, W. E., William Dixon Weaver, 558 
Kelly, W., Meteor, 568 
Kingsbury, B. P., Origin of Notoohord, 190 
Klopsteg, p. E., Physical Methods, 384 
Knowlton, F. H., Fossil Plants, E. W. Berry, 369 
Kofoid, C. a., Chumley on Fauna of Clyde Sea, 65 
KuNZ, G. F., Dolomieu, 359; Platinum, 399 

Ladd-Franklin, C, Logic Test, 414 

Lambert, W. D., Problem in Mechanics, 271 

Langmuir, I., Helium Atom, 605 

Ledoux, a. E., Singing Sands, 462 

Legume Nodules, H. J. Conn and R. S. Breed, 391 

Lester, O. C, Oscar A. Randolph, 429 

Levene, p. a.. Learned Societies, 261 

LiLLiE, E. A., Physios, Physiology and Medicine, 
525 

Link, G. K., Colored Photographs of Specimens, 
556 

Little, C. C, Transplantable Sarcoma, 467 

Livingston, B. E., Scientific Research by Coopera- 
tion, 277; Executive Committee of the Council 
of the Amer. Assoc, 470 

LoEB, L., Blood Serum Tissue of Limulus, 17 

Logic Test, C. Ladd-Franklin, 414 

Louisiana Entomological Soc, 386 

M., A. 6., Evolution of Partula, C. E. Crampton, 

142 
M., W., Carbon Monoxide, 437 
McAdie, A., Aerostatic Pressure and Gravity, 144; 

High Levels in the Atmosphere, 287, 438 
McClugage, H. B., Dehydrated Meat, 273 
McCoy, H. N., and E. M. Terry, Chemistry, J. F. 

NORRIS, 438 
McEwEN, 6. F., Statistical Methods, 349 
Macloskie, George, W. M. Rankin, 180 
Maeoun, James M., H. I. Smith, 478 
McMuRPHT, J., Eucalyptus, 118 
Mammalogy, Journal of, C. E. Johnson, 570 
Manganese, 237 



Mann, A., Ants and Scientists, 87 

Martin, E. G., General Biology, 452 

Mathematical, Soc, Amer., F. N. Cole, 91, 300, 
523; Assoc of Amer., 120; Meetings, 509; Re- 
quirements, 317, 629 

Mayo Brothers, 569 

Mechanics, Problem in, C. Hering, 46; W. D. 
Lambert, 27 

Medical, Strike in Spain, 38; Education, 108; Dis- 
coveries, State Rewards for, 145; Assoc, Amer. 
Journal of, 563 

Mehl, M. G., ' ' Petroliferous Provinces, ' ' 541 

Meisinger, C. LeR., Snow and Winter Wheat, 639 

Mellon Institute, W. A. Hamob, 625; Death of 
Members, 340 

Metals, Fatigue Phenomena in, 293 

Meteor, W. Kelly, 568 

Meteorological Soc, C. F. Brooks, 275 

Metron, E. Pearl, 515 

Metz, C. W., Chromosomes and Linkage in Droso- 
phila, 417 

Michael, E. L., Asymmetrical Frequency Curves, 
89 ; Statistical Methods, 349 

Micropipette, C. V. Taylor, 617 

Micro-plankton, W. E. Allen, 487 

Miller, D. C, Amer. Physical Soc, 171 

Miller, F. E., Cerebellar Localization, 413 

Millikan, R. a., Quantum Emission Phenomena, 
505 

Mineralogical Soc. of Amer., H. P. Whitlock, 219 

Mines, Bureau of, 83, 457, 482 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Inst, of, 184 

MooDiE, E. L., Thread Moulds, 14 

Moon, Brown's Tables of the Motion of, 481 

MooRE, B., Ecological Soc, 66 

MoORE, G. T., St. Louis Meeting of the Amer. 
Assoc, 48 

Morgan, T. H., Whitman's Evolution of Pigeons, 
73 ° ' 

Moses, Alfred J., H. P. W., 429 

Moulton, F. E., Section A — Mathematics and As- 
tronomy, 220 

Mucors, Sexuality in, A. F. Blakeslee, 375, 403 

Museum of Nat. Hist., 182; H. F. Osborn, 636 

National, Academy of Sciences, Gift to, 110; Meet- 
ing, 495; Publications and Membership, 508; 
Henry Draper Fund, 587; Museum, 587; Re- 
search Council, 110, 353, 409, 589 

Natural Conditions, Preservation of, 316 

Naturalists, Am. Soc. of, B. M. Davis, 169; West. 
Soc. of J. P. Bovard, 299 

Navy, Vacancies in, 615 

Neal, H. v.. Section P— Zoology, 147 

Nematodes, !N. A. Cobb, 640 

Neotropical Research Sta., H. P. Osborn, 585 

Newkirk, B. L., Centripetal Acceleration, 321 

Newton, A. J., Photogi'aphy, 514 

New Zealand Institute, 239 

Nichols, E. F., Resignation of, 458 

Nipher's "Gravitational" Experiment, F. W. 
Very, 102 

Nitrogen, Fixation of Atmospheric, C. A. Dobemus, 
635; from the Air, 323 

Nobel Prize, 208; J. Alexander, 348 

NoRRis, J. F., General Chemistry, H. N. McCoy 
and E. M. Terry, 438 

Notochord, Origin, B. F. Kingsbury, 190 



SCIENCE 



Notes, W. A., System of the Sciences, W. Oswald, 
116 

Ohio College and Exp. Sta., 386 

Orthogenesis, C. J. Hereick, 621 

OsBOKN, H. P., Neotropieal Eesearch Sta., 585; 

Scientific Work in Hawaii, 613; Elliot Medal, 

629; Scientific Men in Europe, 667 
Oscillations, Small, W. Weaver, 614 
Osier, Sir William, F. H. Garrison, 55, 184, 341 
Ostwald, W., System of the Sciences, W. A. 

Notes, 116 

P., A. DeP., Physics Measurements, E. S. Perry, 
348 

P., G. J., WUhelm Pfeffer, 291 

Paleontologieal Soc. of Amer., 148 

Paleontology at Yale, C. Schdchert, 80 

Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress, 431 

Paraffine Huler, T>. P. Jones, 245 

Paris Acad, of Sci., 208 

Parsons, C. L., Amer. Ohem. So«., 20, 69, 209, 
342, 350, 373, 397, 444 

Patten, W., Message of the Biologist, 93 

Pawlow, Professor, F. G. Benedict, 243 

Pearl, E., Inbreeding and Outbreeding, E. M. East 
and D. P. Jones, 415; Metron, 515; War and 
Population, 553 

Peikce, G. J., Drought and Eucalyptus, 118 

Pensions, Government, T. D. A. Cockerell, 392; 
Civil Service 392 

Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Medicine, 588 

Petroleum Geologists^ 468 

"Petroliferous Provmees," M. G. Mehl, 541 

Pfefifer, Wilhehn, G. J. P., 291 

Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange, P. M. Scales, 
214 

Phillips, Prancis C, A. Silverman, 455 

Philosophical Soc, A. Goodspeed, 572 595, 618, 
642 

Phipps, Henry, Institute, 265 

Photographs Colored,^ of Specimens, M. W. Gard- 
ner, and G. K. Link, 556 

Photography, A. J. Newton, 514 

Physical, Soc, D. C. Miller, 171; Methods and 
Measurements, P. E. Klopsteg, 384; Investi- 
gations in Physiology and Medicine, R. A. 
LiLLiE, 525 

Physicist, Polydogmata of the, G. W. Stewart, 85 

Physiological Soc, C. W. Greene, 248 

Pirsson, Louis Valentine, J. P. Iddings, 530 

Platinum, G. F. KuNZ, 399 

Polynesia, Investigations in, 430 

Population, War and, R. Pearl, 553 

Portland Cement, 293 

Porto Rico, Tertiary Formations, B. Hubbard, 395 

Prague, Journals for, F. S. Hammett, 488 

Pratt, David 8., W. A. H., 207 

Preservation of Natural Conditions, 316 

Price, W. A., Pocono Brachiopod Fauna, 146 

Pricer, J. L., Illinois State Acad, of Sci., 327 

Probable Error, E. L. Michael, 89 

Problem in Mechanics, C. Hering, 46; W. D. Lam- 
bert, 271 

Protozoa, Blood-inhabiting, E. W. Hegner, 187 

Psychology of Aviation, H. M. Johnson, 449 

Publications for Europe, 481 



Radiation, A. E. Hull, 507; Ionization and, H. N. 

Dadourian, 296 
Rainbows, Horizontal, C. Jddat, 188 
Rainfall Interception, C. F. Brooks, 439 
Randolph, Oscar A., 0. C. Lester, 429 
Rankin, W. M., George Macloskie, 180 
Ransome, F. L., National Geol. Survey, 175, 201 
Rattlesnake, Vibration Rate of Tail of, M. 0. 

Williams, 15 
Research, Botanical, J. M. Coulter, 1; Organiza- 
tion of, H. P. Armsbt, 33; Associations, Con- 
ference of British, 38; in Great Britain, 134; 
High Altitude, E. H. Goddard, 141 ; Cooperation 
in, G. E. Hale, 149; Scientific, by Cooperation, 
B. E. Livingston, 277; and the Universities, 
415; Competition in, 515; Grants for England, 
559; for Amer. Assoc, 563; Station, Neotropical, 
H. P. OsBORN, 585; Council, National, Gift to, 
110; Meeting, 494; Anthropology and Psychol- 
og.V, W. V. Bingham, 353; Division of States 
Relations, 409; Officers of, 589 
Richardson, W. D., Ash of Dune Plants, 546 
Rockefeller Gifts, 11; to London, 609; to Uni- 
versities and Colleges, 610; to Rochester, 610 
EoE, E. D., Jr., Auroras, 486 
Royal Society, Royal Medals of, 11 
Rubber Cultivation, 82 
Russell, H. N., Triangulation, 213 
Russia, Scientific Men in, S. Mosgulis, 322; H. C. 

Wells, 414 
Rusts, J. C. Arthur, 246 

St. Louis, A Ticket to. Schoolmaster, 16 

Sands, Singing, H. L. Fairchild 62; E. 0. Pippin, 

64; A. R. LeDoux, 462 
Sarcoma, Transplantable, C. C. Little, 467 
Sauropod Barosaurus, G. E. Wieland, 528 
Scales, F. M., Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange, 

214 
Schenck, E. Physical Chemistry of Metals, H. F., 

190 
Schoolmaster, A Ticket to St. Louis, 16 
Schuchert, C, Paleontology at Yale, 80 
Science and the New Era Printing Company, 46 
Science, and Politics, T. D. A. Cockerell, 115; 
History of, L. Thokndike, 193; State Acad, of, 
P. P. BoTD, 575 
Scientific, Notes and News, 13, 40, 60, 85, 110, 136, 
163, 185, 209, 239, 267, 294, 318, 344, 363, 388, 
410, 433, 459, 483, 510, 537, 565, 589, 611, 630; 
Lectures, 60; Men in Eussia, S. Morgulis, 322; 
H. G. Wells, 414; in Europe, H. F. Osborn, 
667; Workers, English Union of, 361; Congress, 
Pan-Pacific, 431; Ajiparatus Makers, Assoc, of, 
588; Literature, Popular, J. L. Wheeler, 593 
Senstius, M. W., Carbon Dioxide and Crop Pro- 
duction, 614 
Service, A Splendid, J. M. C, 44 
Shackleton, E., South, A. W. Greely, 543 
Shipley, M., Forerunner of Evolution, 315 
Shull, a. F., Zoology Course, 312 
Silverman, A., Francis C. Phillips, 455 
Singing Sands, H. L. Fairchild, 62, E. 0. Pippin, 
• 64; A. R. Ledoux, 462 
Siphon, H. C. Barker, 489 
Societies, Learned, P. A. Levene, 261 
Smith, C. A., Unpalatable Food, 299 
Smith, C. A., Utah Acad, of Sci., 551 



SCIENCE 



Smith, H. I., Totem Poles, 86; James M. Macoun, 

478 
Smyth H. D., Iodine Vapors, 571 
Snow, Blue in, J. Alexander, 465; and Winter 

Wheat, C. LeR. Meistnger, 639 
Soil Acidity, O. B. Winter, 18 
Solar Eclipse of May 29, 1919, L. A. Bauek, 301, 

581 
Spectrum, Ultra-violet, D. L. Webster, K. A. 

MhjLikan, W. Duane, a. E. Hull, 504 
Spillman, W. J., Formulas for Dates, 513, 568 
Spragg, F. a.. Crop Inspection, 113 
Squier, G. O., Multiplex Telephony and Teleg- 
raphy, 445 
Standards, Bureau of, 10 
Statistical Methods, G. E. McEwen and E. L. 

Michael, 349 
Stebbins, J., Auroras, 485 
Steiuhart Aquarium, 136 
Stevens, E. L., Eoot-rot of Wheat, 517 
Stewart, A., Inventions and Patents, 421 
Stewart, G. W., Polydogmata of the Physicist, 85; 

Section B — Physics, 352 
Stiles, C, Rules for Zoological Nomenclature, 594 
Stock, C, Human Eoot-prints, 514 
Stone, W., Genus, Use and Abuse of the, 427 
Strasbourg, Mathematics at, E. B. Wilson, 243, 

534 
Strike, Medical, in Spain, 38 
Strong, E. K., Section H — Anthropology, Amer. 

Assoc, 418, 441 
Sturtevant, a. H., Intersexes in Drosophila, 325 
Sunspots and Earthquakes, D. Alter, 486 
Surveys, Board of, W. Bowie, 233 
Survival of the Unlike, W. Trelease, 599 
Symbols, Unification of, W. P. White, 436 
Synthetic Ammonia, 562 

Taylor, C. V., Mieropipette, 617 
Taylor, W. P., Ecologic Investigations, 283 
Technology Plan, W. H. Walker, 357- 
Telephony and Telegraphy, G. 0. Squier, 445 
Temperature, Irregularities, C. P. Brooks, 488 
Terry, E. M. and H. N. McCoy, General Chemistry, 

J. F. NoRRis, 438 
Thorndike, L., History of Science, 193 
Thread Moulds and Bacteria, R. L. Moodie, 14 
Time, Space and Gravitation, A. Einstein, 8 
Totem Poles, H. I. Smith, 86 
Toxicity of Alkali Salts, E. B. Headley, 140 
Trelease, W., Botanical Achievement, 121; Sur- 
vival of the Unlike, 599 



Triangulation, H. L. Cooke, and H. N. Russell, 
211 

Universities, Handwriting on the Walls of, 245 
University and Educational News, 14, 43, 62, 84, 
112, 139, 165, 187, 211, 242, 270, 295, 319, 346, 
365, 390, 413, 435, 462, 484, 512, 540, 566, 592, 
613, 633 
Utah Acad, of Sei., C. A. Smith, 551 

Vandellia and Urinophilus, C. H. ElGENMANisf, 441 
Verner, Alfred, 607 

Very, P. W., Nipher 's ' ' Gravitational ' ' Experi- 
ment, 102 

W., H. P., Alfred J. Moses, 429 

Walker, W. H., Technology Plan, 357 

Wann, F. B., Fixation of Free Nitrogen, 247 

Watson, T. L., Assoc, of Amer. State Geologists, 

19 
Weaver, W., Small Oscillations, 614 
Weaver, William Dixon, W. E. Keily, 558 
Webster, A. G., Ballistics, 368 
Webster, D. L., Quantum Emission Phenomena- 
Electrons, 504 
Welch, William H., In Honor of, 266 
Wells, H. G., Scientific Men in Russia, 414 
Wlieat, Foot-rot of, F. L. Stevens, 517 
Wheeler, J. L., Popular Scientific Literature, 593 
White, W. P., Unification of Symbols, 436 
WniTLOCK, H. P., Mineralogical Soc. of Amer., 219 
Whitman, Prank Perkins, 105 
Whitman's Evolution in Pigeons, T. H. Morgan, 

73 
WiELAND, G. R., Sauropod Barosaurus, 528 
Williams, M. C, Vibration Rate of Tail of Rattle- 
snake, 15 
Wilson, E. B., Mathematics at Strasbourg, 243, 

534 
WiNSLOW, C.-E. A., Public Health, 23 
Winter, 0. B., Soil Acidity, 18 
Wisconsin Academy, 388 
Wood, Horatio C, 106 

Wood, H. 0., Amer. Geophys. Union, 297, 495 
Woods, Herbert Spencer, L. W. Fetzer, 159 

Zoological Nomenclature, R. C. Stiles, 594 
Zoologists, Amer. Soc, W. C. Allee, 214 
Zoology Course, A. P. Shull, 312; H. S. Colton, 

382 
Zuntz, Library of the Late Professor, Y. Hender- 
son, 569 



SCIENCE 



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Vat* LI, No. 1305 



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SCIENCE 



Friday, January 2, 1920 



CONTENTS 
The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science: — 

The Evolution of Botanical Research : Peo- 
FESSOE John M. Coultee 1 

Time, Space and Gravitation: De. Albeet 
Einstein 8 

Scientific Events : — 

The Annual Report of the Director of the 
Bureau of Standards; Needs of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey; The Royal Medals of 
the Royal Society; Mr. RocTcefeller's Gifts. 10 

Scientific Notes and News 13 

University and Educational News 14 

Discussion and Correspondence : — 

Thread Moulds and Bacterig, in the Devon- 
ian: Professoe Eoy L. Moodie. Vibration 
Bate of the Tail of a Rattlesnake : Mabel C. 
Williams. A TicTcet to St. Louis: School- 
master 14 



: Articles: — 
The Protective Influence of Blood Serum on 
the Experimental Cell Fibrin Tissue of 
Limulus: Dr. Leo Loeb. A Preliminary 
Note on Soil Acidity: O. B. Winter 17 

Alaham,a Meeting of the Association of Ameri- 
can State Geologists: Peopessoe Thomas 
L. Watson 19 

The American Chemical Society : Dr. Chaeles 
L. Parsons 20 



MSS. intended for publication and booka, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on- 
Hudflon, N. Y. 



THE EVOLUTION OF BOTANICAL 
RESEARCHi 

A MEETING of the American Association in 
St. Louis is of special interest to botanists. 
When this city was little more than a frontier 
town, Dr. George Englemann became one of 
its citizens. In spite of his duties as a suc- 
cessful physician, he became one of our great- 
est botanists. In fact, in the days when tax- 
onomy was practically the whole of botany, 
and our virgin flora was being explored, the 
great American trio of botanists was Asa 
Gray, of Cambridge, John Torrey, of New 
Tork, and George Englemann, of St. Louis. 
Englemann's distinction was that he published 
no general botanical works, but selected a 
series of the most difS.cult problems in taxon- 
omy, and in a masterly way organized for us 
many perplexing groups. With these groups 
his name will always be associated. To a 
botanist, therefore, St. Louis means the home 
of George Englemann. 

There is another association also for the 
botanist. St Louis is the home of one of our 
great botanical gardens, identified for those 
of us who are older with the name of Henry 
Shaw; but we are becoming accustomed to its 
later name, the Missouri Botanical Garden. 
Its plans and activities represent a fitting 
continuation of the spirit of Englemann and 
Shaw, adapted to the progress of botanical 
science. 

In consequence of these associations, St. 
Louis may be said to have a botanical atmos- 
phere, of which botanists are very conscious. 
We have the feeling, therefore, not of a visit, 
but of a home-coming. 

A presidential address, delivered to a group 
composed of investigators representing all the 
sciences, and including also those interested 

1 Address of the president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, St. Louis, 
December, 1919. 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



in science should deal with some interest 
common to all. In my judgment our common 
bond is interest in research; in fact, the 
major purpose of this association is to stim- 
ulate research by the personal contact of in- 
vestigators. In selecting as my subject, there- 
fore, the evolution of botanical research, I am 
assuming that the situation developed may 
apply in a general way to all scientific 
research. 

My purpose is not to outline the history of 
botanical research, but rather to call attention 
to certain evolutionary tendencies and to pro- 
ject them into the future. We are aU famil- 
iar with the gradual historical development 
of different phases of botany, until botanists 
became segregated into many distinct groups, 
the only common bond being the use of plants 
for investigation. This segregation was for a 
time very complete, so that the interests of 
one group would not have been affected if 
none of the other groups had existed. This 
monastic phase of botany has subsided some- 
what, not for all individuals, but for the sub- 
ject in general. The different groups are 
coming into contact and even interlocking, 
so that the science of botany bids fair to be 
recognized as an increasing synthesis, rather 
than an increasing disintegration. In con- 
nection with these gradual evolutionary 
changes, I wish to emphasize three tendencies 
which seem to me to be significant. As in all 
evolutionary progress, the tendencies may 
seem numerous, but the three I have selected 
seem to me to be especially prophetic of a new 
era of botanical research. 

1. One of the growing tendencies of botan- 
ical research is to attack problems that are 
fundamental in connection with some impor- 
tant practise. The outstanding illustration, 
of coiu'se, is the increasing attention given to 
the problems that underlie agriculture; but 
there are many other practises also which are 
bedded in botanical investigation. We all 
realize that this tendency was stimulated by 
the war; in fact, this has been the experience 
of all the sciences, more notable perhaps in 
the case of physics and chemistry than in the 
other sciences, but a very obvious general re- 
sult. This tendency is so strong at present, 



that I do not believe it will ever subside, but 
it should be understood. There is no evidence 
that it is tending to diminish research whose 
sole purpose is to extend the boundaries of 
knowledge, which all of us must agree is the 
great objective of research. It merely means 
that experience developed in connection with 
an important practise has suggested funda- 
mental problems, whose solution is just as 
important in extending the boundaries of 
knowledge as in illuminating some practise. 
In fact, among our most fundamental prob- 
lems are those that have been suggested by 
experience. The injection of such problems 
among those not related to general experience 
is not to the detriment of the latter, but 
simply extends the range of research. 

I have no sympathy with the artificial 
segregation of science into pure and applied 
science. All science is one. Pure science is 
often immensely practical; applied science is 
often very pure science; and between the two 
there is no dividing line. They are like the 
end members of a long and intergrading 
series; very distinct in their isolated and ex- 
treme expression, but completely connected. 
If distinction must be expressed in terms 
where no sharp distinction exists, it may be 
expressed by the terms fundamental and 
superficial. They are terms of comparison 
and admit of every intergrade. The series 
may move in either direction, but its end 
members must always hold the same relative 
positions. The first stimulus may be our 
need, and a superficial science meets it, but 
in so doing it may put us on the trail that 
leads to the fundamental things of science. 
On the other hand, the fundamentals may be^ 
gripped first, and only later find some super- 
ficial expression. The series is often attacked 
first in some intermediate region, and prob- 
ably most of the research in pure science 
may be so placed; that is, it is relatively fun- 
damental, but it is also relatively superficial. 
The real progress of science is away from the 
superficial, toward the fundamental, and the 
more fundamental are the results, the more 
extensive may be their superficial expression. 

Wot only are practical problems not a 
detriment to botanical science, but inciden- 



SCIENCE 



\ 

S'^ffT «„. Friday, January 9, 1920 

Toi» LI, No. 1806 ' ' 



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January 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



tally they strengthen its claim on public 
interest as a science that must be promoted. 
As an incidental result, I look with confidence 
to a future of far greater opportunity for 
research than has been possible heretofore, re- 
search which must be increasingly funda- 
mental and varied. Even if this were not 
true, my creed for science is that while its 
first great mission is to extend the boundaries 
of knowledge, that man may live in an ever- 
widening horizon, its second mission is to 
apply this knowledge to the service of man, 
that his life may be fuller of opportunity. 
From the standpoint of science, the second 
may be regarded as incidental to the first, but 
it is a very important incident, and really 
stimulates research. In short, I regard this 
so-called practical tendency in research as 
being entirely in the interest of research in 
general, in increasing the range of funda- 
mental problems, in contributing a powerful 
stimulus, and in securing general recognition 
of the importance of research. 

2. A second tendency, which I regard as 
more important, is an increasing realization 
of the fact that botanical problems are 
synthetic. Until recently a problem would be 
attacked from a single point of view, with a 
single technique, and conclusions reached that 
seemed as rigid as laws from which there is 
no escape. In plant morphology, for example, 
and I speak from personal experience, we de- 
scribed structures, with no adequate concep- 
tion of their functions. Plant physiologists, on 
the other hand, would describe functions, 
with no adequate knowledge of the structures 
involved; while ecologists often described re- 
sponses, with no adequate knowledge of either 
structure or function. The same condition 
obtained in the other segregates of botany. 
We all recall the time when plant pathologists 
described and named pathogenic organisms 
and paid no attention to the disease, which of 
course is the physiological condition of the 
plant. In short, not only taxonomists, but all 
of us, were simply cataloguing facts in a kind 
of card index, unconsciously waiting for their 
coordination. This coordination has now be- 
gun, and is one of the strong tendencies which 
is certain to continue. The morphologist is 



beginning to think of the significance of the 
structure he is describing; the physiologist is 
beginning to examine the structures involved 
in the functions he is considering; and the 
eeologist realizes now that responses to en- 
vironment which he has been cataloguing are 
to be interpreted only in terms of structure 
and function. In other words, around each 
bit of investigation, with its single point of 
view and single method of attack, there is 
developing a perspective of other points of 
view and other methods of attack. 

This does not mean a multiple attack on 
each problem by each investigator. We must 
remain morphologists, physiologists, and ecol- 
ogists, each group with its special technique 
and special kind of data. But it does mean a 
better estimation of the results, a watchful 
interest in the possibilities of other methods 
of attack, a general toning down of positive- 
ness in conclusions. We all realize now that 
plants are synthetic, and that is quite a 
notable advance from that distant time when 
we thought of them only as objects subservient 
to laws of nomenclature. This increasing 
synthetic view is resulting in a proper esti- 
mate of problems. The data secured by each 
investigation constitute an invitation to fur- 
ther investigation. We have in mind the 
whole problem and not scraps of information. 
In short, the synthetic view has developed 
about our problems the atmosphere in which 
they actually exist. 

3. A third tendency, which seems to me to 
be the most significant one, is the growing 
recognition of the fact that structures are not 
static, that is, inevitable to their last detail. 
As a morphologist, I may recall to your 
memory the old method of recording the facts 
in reference to the development of such a 
structure as the embryo of seed plants. ITot 
only every cell division in the ontogeny was 
recorded, but also the planes of every cell 
division. The conception back of such 
records was that the program of ontogeny was 
fixed to its minutest detail. It is probably 
true that such a structure is about as imiform 
in its development as any structure can be; 
but it has become evident now that many of 
the details recorded were not significant. In- 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



stead of cataloguing tliem as of equal value, 
we must learn to distinguisli those that are 
relatively fixed from those that are variables. 

In the same way, much of the older work in 
anatomy must be regarded as records of de- 
tails whose relative values were unknown. 
Even the structures involved in vascular 
anatomy are not static, but many a phylo- 
genetic connection has been formulated on the 
conception of the absolute rigidity of such 
structures in their minutest detail. This con- 
ception has made it possible, of course, to 
develop as many static opinions as there are 
variables in structure. 

Perhaps the greatest mass of details has 
been accumulated by the cytologists, in con- 
nection with their examination of the machin- 
ery of nuclear division and nuclear fusion. 
In no other field has the conception of the 
rigidity of the structures involved become 
more fixed, even to the minutest variation in 
form and position. Of course we all realize 
that any field of investigation must be opened 
up by recording all the facts obtained; but we 
must realize that this is only the preliminary 
stage. The time has come when even the 
recorded facts of cytology are being estimated 
on the basis of relative values ; that is, the in- 
evitable things are being differentiated from 
the variables. 

The same situation is developing in the field 
of genetics. We all recall the original rigid- 
ity of the so-called laws of inheritance. It 
was natural to begin the cultivation of this 
field with the conception that the program of 
heredity is immutable, and that definite struc- 
tures are inevitable, no matter what the con- 
ditions may be. There was probably more 
justification for this conception in this field, 
on the basis of the early investigations, 
than in any other, but experience has begun 
to enlarge the perspective wonderfully. The 
rapidly accumulating facts are becoming so 
various that consistent explanations require a 
high degree of mental agility. More funda- 
mental, however, is the recognition of the 
fact that the problem of heredity involves not 
only germinal constitution, which gives such 
rigidity as there is, but also the numerous 
factors of environment. In other words, such 



problems have become synthetic in the high- 
est degree, making possible results that are 
anything but static. 

In considering these illustrations of the 
tendency to recognize that facts are not aU 
pigeon-holed and of equal value, it is be- 
coming more and more obvious that our botan- 
ical problems are in general the application of 
physics and chemistry to plants; that laws, 
when we really discover them, are by definition 
static, but that their operation results in any- 
thing but static structures. In other words, 
structure must respond to law, but the partic- 
ular law that is gripping the situation may be 
one of many. 

With such evolutionary tendencies in mind, 
what is the forecast for botanical research ? I 
wish to call attention to three important 
features that seem certain to characterize it. 
1. It will be necessary for the investigator 
who wishes to have a share in the progress 
of the science, rather than merely to continue 
the card catalogue assembling of random data, 
to have a broader botanical training than has 
seemed necessary heretofore. Our danger has 
been that the cultivation of a special tech- 
nique, which of course is necessary, is apt to 
limit the horizon to the boundary of that tech- 
nique. In some cases the result to the in- 
vestigator has been more serious than limiting 
his horizon; it has led him to discredit other 
methods of attack as of little importance. In 
case this attitude is associated with the train- 
ing of students, it is continued and multiplied 
by pedigree culture. The product of certain 
laboratories is recognized as of this type, and 
it is out of line with the evident direction of 
progress. 

This demand of the future does not mean 
that one must specialize less than formerly. 
It is obvious that with the increasing in- 
tricacy of problems, and the inevitable devel- 
opment of technique, we must specialize more 
than ever. What the new demand means is 
not to specialize less,_ but to see to it that 
every specialty has developed about it a botan- 
ical perspective. In other words, instead of 
an investigator digging himself into a pit, he 
must do his work on a mountain top. This 
secures some understanding and appreciation 



Januaby 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



of other special fields under cultivation, some 
of which will certainly interlock with his own 
field. To meet this situation will demand 
more careful attention to the training of in- 
vestigators than it has received. Interested 
and even submerged in our own work, as 
we must be, still we must realize that the 
would-be investigator must develop his atmos- 
phere as well as his technique, or he will 
remain medieval. 

To be more concrete, the morphologist in 
the coming days must appreciate the relation 
that physiology and ecology hold to his own 
field. This is far from meaning that he must 
be trained in physiological and ecological in- 
vestigation ; but he must know its possibilities. 
The same statement applies in turn to the 
physiologist and ecologist, and so on through 
the whole list of specialties. 

This first forecast of the future applies to 
■the necessary training of investigators rather 
than to investigation itself. 

2. A second important feature that is sure 
to be included in the botanical investigation 
of the future is cooperation in research. 
During the last few years the desirability of 
cooperation has been somewhat stressed, and 
perhaps the claims for it have been urged 
somewhat unduly. This was natural when we 
were desiring to secure important practical 
results as rapidly as possible. It opened up, 
however, the possibilities of the future. I^o 
one questions but that individual research, to 
contrast it with cooperative research, must 
continue to break the paths of our progress. 
Men of ideas and of initiative must continue 
to express themselves in their own way, or the 
science woiild come to resemble field cultiva- 
tion rather than exploration. It is in this 
way that all our previous progress has been 
made. The new feature is that individual re- 
search will be increasingly supplemented by 
cooperative research. There are two situa- 
tions in which cooperative research will play 
an important role. 

The more important situation is the case 
of a problem whose solution obviously re- 
quires two or more kinds of special technique. 
There are many problems, for example, which 
a morphologist and a physiologist should at- 



tack in cooperation, because neither one of 
them alone could solve it. Two detached and 
unrelated papers would not meet the situ- 
ation. Our literatm-e is burdened with too 
many such contributions now. The one tech- 
nique must be a continual check on the other 
during the progress of the investigation. 
This is a very simple illustration of what may 
be called team work. It is simply a practical 
application of our increasing realization of 
the fact that problems are often synthetic, and 
therefore involve a synthetic attack. 

Another simple illustration may be sug- 
gested. If taxonomists and geneticists should 
work now and then in cooperation, the result 
might be either fewer species or more species; 
but in any event they would be better species. 
The experience of botanists can suggest many 
other useful couplings in the interest of better 
results. In the old days some of you will re- 
call that we had investigations of soil bacteria 
unchecked by any work in chemistry; and side 
by side with this were investigations in soil 
chemistry unchecked by any work with soil 
bacteria. 

Perhaps the most conspicuous illustration of 
discordant conclusions through lack of co- 
operation, so extreme that it may be called 
lack of coordination, may be found in the 
fascinating and baffling field of phylogeny. 
To assemble the whole plant kingdom, or at 
least a part of it, in evolutionary sequence has 
been the attempt of a considerable number of 
botanists, and no one of them, as yet, has 
taken into consideration even all the known 
facts. There is the paleobotanist who rightly 
stresses historical succession, with which of 
course any evolutionary sequence must be con- 
sistent, but who can not be sure of his identi- 
fications, and still less sure of the essential 
structures involved. History is desirable, but 
some real knowledge of the actors who make 
history is even more desirable. 

Then there is the morphologist, who stresses 
similarity of structures, especially reproduc- 
tive structures, and leaves out of sight not 
only accompanying structures but also his- 
torical succession. 

Latest in the field is the anatomist, espe- 
cially the vascular anatomist, who compares 



6 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



the vascular structures in their minutest de- 
tail, and loses sight of other important factors 
in any evolutionary succession. 

Apparently no one, as yet, has taken all the 
results from all fields of investigation, and 
given us the result of the combination. In 
other words, in phylogeny, we have had single 
track minds. This has been necessary for the 
accumulation of facts, but ujifortunate in 
reaching conclusions. 

This is but a picture of botanical investi- 
gations in general as formerly conducted; and 
it seems obvious that cooperative research will 
become increasingly common as cooperation 
is found to be of advantage. 

The second situation in which cooperative 
research will play an important role is less 
important than the first, but none the less 
real. 

It must be obvious to most of us that our 
literature is crowded with the records of in- 
competent investigations. Not all who de- 
velop a technique are able to be independent 
investigators. They belong to the card cata- 
logue class. They are not even able to select 
a suitable problem. We are too familiar with 
the dreary rehearsal of facts that have been 
told many times, the only new thing, perhaps, 
being the material used; and even then the 
result might have been foretold. It is un- 
fortunate to waste technique and energy in 
this way; and the only way to utilize them is 
through cooperative research, for which there 
has been a competent initiative, and in the 
prosecution of which there has been a suitable 
assignment of parts. In my judgment this is 
the only way in which we can conserve the 
technique we are developing, and make it 
count for something. I grant that the prod- 
uct of such research is much like the product 
of a factory, but we may need the product. 

In one way or another, cooperative research 
will supplement individual research. Individ- 
uals, as a rule, will be the pioneers; but all 
can not be pioneers. After exploration there 
comes cultivation, and much cultivation will 
be accomplished by cooperation. 

3. The most important feature that will be 
developed in the botanical investigation of the 
future is experimental control. Having rec- 



ognized that structures are not static, that 
programs of development are not fixed, that 
responses are innumerable, we are no longer 
satisfied with the statement that all sorts of 
variations in results occur. We naust know 
just what condition produces a given result. 
This question as to causes of variable results 
first took the form of deduction. We tried to 
reason the thing out. 

A conspicuous illustration of this situation 
may be obtained from the history of ecology. 
Concerned with the relation of plants to their 
environment, deductions became almost as 
numerous as investigators. Even when ex- 
perimental work was begun, the results were 
still vague because of environment. Finally, 
it became evident that all the factors of en- 
vironment must be subjected to rigid experi- 
mental control before definite conclusions 
could be reached. 

What is true of ecology is true also of 
every phase of botanical research. For ex- 
ample, I happen to be concerned with mate- 
rials that showed an occasional monocotyle- 
donous embryo with two cotyledons, while 
most of the embryos were normal. The fact 
of course was important, for it connected up 
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons in a very 
suggestive way, and also opened up the whole 
question of cotyledony. Important as the 
fact was, much more important was the cause 
of the fact. We could only infer that certain 
conditions might have resulted in a dicotyle- 
donous embryo in a monocotyledon ; but it was 
a very unsubstantial inference. That problem 
will never be solved until we learn to control 
the conditions and produce dicotyledonous em- 
bryos from Monocotyledons at will, or the re- 
verse. Comparison and inference must be re- 
placed by experimental control; just as in the 
history of organic evolution, the method 
shifted from comparison and inference to ex- 
perimental control. It will be a slow evolu- 
tion, and most of our conclusions will con- 
tinue to be inferences, but these inferences 
will eventually be the basis of experiment. 
In fact, most of our conclusions are as yet 
marking time until a new technique enables 
us to move forward. 

These illustrations from ecology and morph- 



Januaet 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



ology represent simple situations as compared 
with the demands of cytology or genetics, but 
the same need of experimental control is a 
pressing one in those fields. The behavior of 
the complex mechanism of the cell is a matter 
of sight, followed by inference, when we know 
that invisible factors enter into the perform- 
ance. How the cell program can ever be 
brought under experimental control remains 
to be seen, but we must realize that in the 
meantime we are seeing actors without under- 
standing their action. In fact, we are not 
sure that we see the actors; the visible things 
may be simply a result of their action. The 
important thing is to keep in mind the nec- 
essary limitations of our knowledge, and not 
mistake inference for demonstration. 

Even more baffling is the problem of ade- 
quate experimental control in genetics. We 
define genetics as breeding under rigid con- 
trol, the inference being that by our methods 
we know just what is happening. The con- 
trol is rigid enough in mating individuals, 
but the numerous events between the mating 
and the appearance of the progeny are as yet 
beyond the reach of control. We start a 
machine and leave it to its own guidance. 
The results of this performance, spoken of as 
imder control, are so various, that many kinds 
of hypothetical factors are introduced as ten- 
tative explanations. There is no question but 
that this is the best that can be done at 
present; but it ought to be realized that as yet 
no real experimental control of the perform- 
ance has been devised. The initial control, 
followed by inferences, has developed a won- 
derful perspective, but a method of continuous 
control is yet to come. 

Having considered the conspicuous evolu- 
tionary tendencies of botanical research and 
their projection into the future, it remains to 
consider the possible means of stimulating 
progress. It will not be accomplished by 
increasing publication. It is probably our 
xmanimous judgment that there is too much 
publication at the present time. Wliat we 
need is not an increasing number of papers, 
but a larger percentage of significant papers. 
This goes back to the selection of problems, 
assuming that training is sufficient. A leader 



is expected to select his own problems, but we 
are training an increasing army of investi- 
gators, and the percentage of leaders is grow- 
ing noticeably less. There ought to be some 
method by which botanists shall agree upon 
the significant problems at any given time, 
in the various fields of activity, so that such 
advice might be available. It is certainly 
needed. 

I realize that our impulse has been to treat 
a desirable problem as private property, upon 
which no trespassing is allowed. Of course, 
common courtesy allows an investigator to 
work without competition; but the desirable 
problems are still more numerous than the in- 
vestigators; and we must use all of our in- 
vestigative training and energy in doing the 
most desirable things. There need be no fear 
of exhausting problems, for every good prob- 
lem solved is usually the progenitor of a brood 
of problems. We will never multiply investi- 
gators as fast as our investigations multiply 
problems. In the interest of science, there- 
fore, we should pool our judgment, and in- 
dicate to those who need it the hopeful 
directions of progress. 

Not only is there dissipation of time and 
energy in the random selection of problems, 
but there is also wastage in investigative 
ability. Every competent investigator should 
have the opportunity to investigate. The 
pressure of duties that too often submerge 
those trained to investigate is a tremendous 
brake upon our progress. I am not prepared 
to suggest a method of meeting this situation, 
but the scientific fraternity, in some way, 
should press the point that one who is able 
to investigate should have both time and 
opportunity. A university regulation, with 
which we are all too familiar, which requires 
approximately the same hours of all of its 
staff, whether they are investigators or not, 
should be regarded as medieval. 

In conclusion, speaking not merely for 
botanical research, but for all scientific re- 
search, it has now advanced to a stage which 
promises unusually rapid development. The 
experience of the recent years has brought 
science into the foreground as a great na- 
tional asset. It should be one of the func- 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



tions of this great association to see to it 
that full advantage is taken of the opportunity 
offered by the present evolutionary stage of 
research and public esteem. We must choose 
between inertia and some display of aggressive 
energy. 

John M. Coulter 
Univebsitt of Chicago 



TIME, SPACE, AND GRAVITATION^ 

After the lamentable breach in the former 
international relations existing among men of 
science, it is with joy and gratefulness that I 
accept this opportunity of communication with 
English astronomers and physicists. It was in 
accordance with the high and proud tradition 
of English science that English scientific men 
shoidd have given their time and labor, and 
that English institutions should have provided 
the material means, to test a theory that had 
been completed and published in the country 
of their enemies in the midst of war. Al- 
though investigation of the influence of the 
solar gravitational field on rays of light is a 
pui'ely objective matter, I am none the less 
very glad to express my personal thanks to my 
English colleagues in this branch of science; 
for without their aid I should not have ob- 
tained proof of the most vital deduction from 
my theory. 

There are several kinds of theory in physics. 
Most of them are constructive. These attempt 
to build a picture of complex phenomena out 
of some relatively simple proposition. The 
kinetic theory of gases, for instance, attempts 
to refer to molecular movement the mechan- 
ical thermal, and diffusional properties of 
gases. When we say that we understand a 
group of natural phenomena, we mean that we 
have found a constructive theory which em- 
braces them. 

THEORIES OF PRINCIPLE 

But in addition to this most weighty group 
of theories, there is another group consisting 
of what I call theories of principle. These 
employ the analytic, not the synthetic method. 
Their starting-point and foundation are not 

iFrom the Londoa Times. 



hypothetical constituents, but empirically ob- 
served general properties of phenomena, prin- 
ciples from which mathematical formula are 
deduced of such a kind that they apply to 
every case which presents itself. Thermody- 
namics, for instance, starting from the fact 
that perpetual motion never occurs in ordi- 
nary experience, attempts to deduce from this, 
by analytic processes, a theory which will 
apply in every case. The merit of construc- 
tive theories is their comprehensiveness, adapt- 
ability, and clarity, that of the theories of 
principle, their logical perfection, and the 
security of their foimdation. 

The theory of relativity is a theory of prin- 
ciple. To understand it, the principles on 
which it rests must be grasped. But before 
stating these it is necessary to point out that 
the theory of relativity is like a house with 
two separate stories, the special relativity 
theory and the general theory of relativity. 

Since the time of the ancient Greeks it has 
been well known that in describing the motion 
of a body we must refer to another body. 
The motion of a railway train is described 
with reference to the groimd, of a planet with 
reference to the total assemblage of visible 
fixed stars. In physics the bodies to which 
motions are spatially referred are termed sys- 
tems of coordinates. The laws of mechanics 
of Galileo and Newton can be formulated only 
by using a system of coordinates. 

The state of motion of a system of co- 
ordinates can not be chosen arbitrarily if the 
laws of mechanics are to hold good (it must 
be free from twisting and from acceleration). 
The system of coordinates employed in 
mechanics is called an inertia-system. The 
state of motion of an inertia-system, so far as 
mechanics are concerned, is not restricted by 
nature to one condition. The condition in 
the following proposition suffices: a system of 
coordinates moving in the same direction and 
at the same rate as a system of inertia is itself 
a system of inertia. The special relativity 
theory is therefore the application of the fol- 
lowing proposition to any natural process: 
" Every law of nature which holds good with 
respect to a coordinate system K must also 
hold good for any other system K' provided 



Januabt 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



9 



that K and K' are in uniform movement of 
translation." 

The second principle on which the special 
relativity theory rests is that of the constancy 
of the velocity of light in a vacumn. Light 
in a vacuum has a definite and constant 
velocity, independent of the velocity of its 
source. Physicists owe their confidence in 
this proposition to the Maxwell-Lorentz theory 
of electro-dynamics. 

The two principles which I have mentioned 
have received strong experimental confirma- 
tion, but do not seem to be logically com- 
patible. The special relativity theory achieved 
their logical reconciliation by making a 
change in kinematics, that is to say, in the 
doctrine of the physical laws of space and 
time. It became evident that a statement of 
the coincidence of two events could have a 
meaning only in connection with a system of 
coordinates, that the mass of bodies and the 
rate of movement of clocks must depend on 
their state of motion with regard to the 
coordinates. 

THE OLDER PHTSICS 

But the older physics, including the laws of 
motion of Galileo and Newton, clashed with 
the relativistic kinematics that I have indi- 
cated. The latter gave origin to certain gen- 
eralized mathematical conditions with which 
the laws of nature would have to conform if 
the two fundamental principles were com- 
patible. Physics had to be modified. The 
most notable change was a new law of motion 
for (very rapidly) moving mass-points, and 
this soon came to be verified in the case of 
electrically-laden particles. The most im- 
portant result of the special relativity system 
concerned the inert mass of a material 
system. It became evident that the inertia 
of such a system roust depend on its energy- 
content, so that we were driven to the con- 
ception that inert mass was nothing else than 
latent energy. The doctrine of the conserva- 
tion of mass lost its independence and became 
merged in the doctrine of conservation of 
energy. 

The special relativity theory which was 
simply a systematic extension of the electro- 



dynamics of Maxwell and Lorentz, had conse- 
quences which reached beyond itself. Must 
the independence of physical laws with regard 
to a system of coordinates be limited to sys- 
tems of coordinates in uniform movement of 
translation with regard to one another? What 
has nature to do with the coordinate systems 
that we propose and with their motions? Al- 
though it may be necessary for our descrip- 
tions of nature to employ systems of coordi- 
nates that we have selected arbitrarily, the 
choice should not be limited in any way so far 
as their state of motion is concerned. (Gen- 
eral theory of relativity.) The application of 
this general theory of relativity was found to 
be in conflict with a well-known experiment, 
according to which it appeared that the 
weight and the inertia of a body depended oh 
the same constants (identity of inert and 
heavy masses). Consider the case of a system 
of coordinates which is conceived as being in 
stable rotation relative to a system of inertia 
in the INTewtonian sense. The forces which, 
relatively to this system, are centrifugal must, 
in the iNewtonian sense, be attributed to in- 
ertia. But these centrifugal forces are, like 
gravitation, proportional to the mass of the 
bodies. It is not, then, possible to regard the 
system of coordinates as at rest, and the 
centrifugal forces of gravitational? The in- 
terpretation seemed obvious, but classical 
mechanics forbade it. 

This slight sketch indicates how a general- 
ized theory of relativity must include the laws 
of gravitation, and actual pursuit of the con- 
ception has justified the hope. But the way 
was harder than was expected, because it con- 
tradicted Euclidian geometry. In other words, 
the laws according to which material bodies 
are arranged in space do not exactly agree 
with the laws of space prescribed by the 
Euclidian geometry of solids. This is what is 
meant by the phrase " a warp in space." The 
fundamental concepts " straight," " plane ," 
etc., accordingly lose their exact meaning in 
physic's. 

In the generalized theory of relativity, the 
doctrine of space and time, kinematics, is no 
longer one of the absolute foimdations of gen- 
eral physics. The geometrical states of bodies 



10 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



and tlie rates of clocks depend in the first 
place on their gravitational fields, which again 
are produced by the material systems con- 
cerned. 

Thus the new theory of gravitation diverges 
widely from that of Newton with respect to 
its basal principle. But in practical applica- 
tion the two agree so closely that it has been 
difficult to find cases in which the actual 
differences could be subjected to observation. 
As yet only the following have been sug- 
gested : 

1. The distortion of the oval orbits of 
planets round the sun (confirmed in the case 
of the planet Mercury). 

2. The deviation of light-rays in a gravita- 
tional field (confirmed by the English Solar 
Eclipse expedition). 

3. The shifting of spectral lines towards 
the red end of the spectrum in the case of 
light coming to us from stars of appreciable 
mass (not yet confirmed). 

The great attraction of the theory is its 
logical consistency. If any deduction from 
it should prove untenable, it must be given up. 
A modification of it seems impossible with- 
out destruction of the whole. 

No one must think that Newton's great 
creation can be overthrown in any real sense 
by this or by any other theory. His clear and 
wide ideas will for ever retain their signifi- 
cance as the foundation on which our modern 
conceptions of physics have been built. 

Albert Einstein 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF 
THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS 

A REVIEW of the work of the National Bu- 
reau of Standards for the year ending Jime 
30, 1919, is given in the alumni report of the 
director of the Bureau of Standards at Wash- 
ington. The report describes the functions of 
the bureau in connection with standards and 
standardization, and contains a chart and 
description of the several classes of standards 
dealt with. The director also gives a clear 
idea of the relation of the bureau's work to 
the general public, to the industries, and to the 
government, and includes a special statement 



of the military work of the year. Brief state- 
ments are made upon practically all of the 
special researches and lines of testing com- 
pleted or under way at the bureau. The list 
of these topics occupies 12 pages in the table 
of contents. 

The bureau is organized in 64 scientific and 
technical sections and 20 clerical, construction 
and operative sections. During the year the 
bureau has issued 51 publications, not inclu- 
ding reprintings, 36 of which were new and 15 
revisions of previous publications. In the 
several laboratories of the Bureau more than 
131,000 tests were made during the year. 
The appropriations for the year, including 
special funds for war investigations, were ap- 
proximately $3,000,000. A noteworthy event 
of the year included the completion of the 
industrial laboratory in which will be housed 
the divisions having to do with researches and 
tests of structural materials. The building 
also includes a commodious kiln house for 
use, among other purposes, of the ceramics 
division in the experimental production of new 
clay products and for general experimental 
purposes. 

The report comprises 293 pages and may be 
obtained as long as free copies are available 
by addressing the Bureau of Standards, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

NEEDS OF THE COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 

Declaring that the work of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, which pro- 
vides the navigating charts which are the 
direct means of protecting from loss the 
vessels of our navy. Coast Guard, and mer- 
chant marine, is seriously hampered by lack 
of funds, the superintendent of the survey 
makes an appeal for an adequate appropria- 
tion to remedy this situation, in his annual 
report to the secretary of commerce. 

In order to make and put these naviga- 
tional charts into the hands of all who de- 
mand them both the field and office forces 
must be kept up to the highest standards of 
efficiency, and this can not be done without 
sufficient funds to maintain and operate 
modem surveying vessels and obtain able 
officers and crews to man them. In addition 



Januaby 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



11 



to the funds needed for the field work of the 
bureau, larger funds than are now available 
are required for carrying on the office work, 
for it is necessary to have highly trained men 
to prepare and care for the data used in 
making up these charts. 

Lack of money prevents the bureau from 
obtaining a sufficient number of such men, 
and many of those at present in the service 
are leaving for better salaried positions else- 
where. There have been large numbers of 
resignations from the commissioned personnel 
and other scientific arms of the bureau, in 
fact, from all classes of the service, and it is 
expected that these conditions will continue 
until something is done to meet the situation. 

The superintendent points out that the con- 
dition is so serious that it threatens to jeop- 
ardize public welfare, for, he says : 

The commissioned officers are the lowest paid 
men of their training in the federal service. Their 
salaries, compared to those paid in the army and 
the navy for similar qualifications, are 30 to 50 
per cent. less. Much of their work is more hazar- 
dous, requires special training, and takes them into 
all our country's possessions as the pioneer workers 
or navigators — surveyors who ' ' blaze the trail ' ' on 
land and sea. And no army or navy officer has 
greater qualifications, nor do they sacrifice more 
than the officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
yet the latter works for much the lowest salary, 
gets no longevity pay, no emoluments, and after he 
has given his best years to the service of his coun- 
try he must retire without pay. 

Too few persons realize the sacrifices a man of 
ability is making at the present time by remaining 
in the Coast and Geodetic Survey. Before this 
country entered the war conditions had grown to 
a serious stage, but since the signing of the armis- 
tice steady disintegration has gone on, and the 
situation has reached a point where the quality of 
the Survey's employees is declining principally 
under the stress of present economic conditions. 
Unless proper relief is forthcoming at once, and 
the present salaries are materially advanced, this 
important branch of the federal government, which 
has so much to do with the protecting of human 
lives, will, in a measure at least, be stripped of its 
best brains. 

THE ROYAL MEDALS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 

As has been noted in Science these medals 
were awarded to Professor John Bretland 



Farmer and Mr. James Haywood Jeans. In 
conferring them on November 30 Sir Joseph 
Thomson, the president of the society, said: 

Professor Farmer 's work is eiharaeterized by the 
fundamental importance of the problems worked 
upon; thus his memoirs on the meiotic phase (re- 
duction division) in amimals and plants are of as 
great value to zoologists as to botanists, and his 
conclusions and interpretations of the complex 
nuclear changes which precede the differentiation 
of the sexual cells have stood the test of criticism, 
and remain the clearest and most logical account 
of these very important phenomena. His papers, 
in collaboration with his pupil, Miss Digby, on the 
cytology of those ferns in which the normal alterna- 
tion of generations ds departed from has thrown 
new light on problems of the greatest biological 
interest, and especially on the nature of sexuality. 
In his cytological work on cancerous growths Pro- 
fessor Farmer has established the close similarity 
between the cells of malign-ant growths and those 
of normal reproductive tissue. 

Mr. Jeans has successfully attacked some of the 
most difficult problems in mathematical physics and 
astronomy. In the kinetic theory of gases he has 
improved the theory of viscosity, and, using gen- 
eralized coordinates, has given the best proof yet 
devised of the equipartition of energy and of Max- 
well 's law of the distribution of molecular veloci- 
ties, assuming the validity of the laws of Newton- 
ian dynamics. In dynamical astronomy he took up 
the difficult proiblem of the stability of the pear- 
shaped form of rotating, incompressible, gravita- 
ting fluid at a point where Darwin, Poincarg and 
Liapounoff had left it, and obtained discordant re- 
sults. By proceeding to a third order of approxi- 
mation, for which very great mathematical skiU 
was required, he showed that this form was un- 
stable. He followed this np by the discussion of 
the similar problem when the fluid is compressible, 
and concluded that for a density greater than a 
critical value of about one quarter that of water 
the behavior is generally similar to that of an in- 
compressible fluid. For lower densities the be- 
havior resembles that of a perfectly compressible 
fluid, and with increasing rotation matter will 
take a lenticular shape and later be ejected from 
the edge. 

MR. ROCKEFELLER'S GIFTS 

There were announced on Christmas day 
two large gifts by Mr. John D. Eockefeller, 
$50,000,000 to the Eockefeller Foundation and 
$50,000,000 to the General Education Board, 
the money to be available for immediate use. 



12 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



In transmitting the gift to tlie General 
Education Board Mr. Eockefeller forwarded 
this memorandum : 

The attention of the American public has re- 
cently been drawn to the urgent and immediate 
necessity of providing more adequate salaries to 
members of the teaching profession. It is of the 
highest importance that those intrusted with the 
education of youth and the increase of knowledge 
should not be led to abandon their calling by rea- 
son of financial pressure or to cling to it amid dis- 
couragements due to financial limitations. 

It is of equal importance to our future welfare 
and progress that able and aspiring young men and 
women should not for similar reasons be deterred 
from devoting their lives to teaching. 

While this gift is made for the general corporate 
purposes of the board, I shoiild cordially indorse a 
decision to use the principal, as well as the income, 
as promptly and largely as may seem wise for the 
purpose of cooperating with the higher institutions 
of learning in raising sums specifically devoted to 
the increase of teachers' salaries. 

In reference to this gift. Dr. Wallace 
Buttrick, president of the General Education 
Board, makes the following statement: 

The general public is well aware that the salaries 
of instructors in colleges and universities have not 
thus far, in general, been sufficiently increased to 
meet the increased cost of living. The General 
Education Board has since the close of the war re- 
ceived applications for aid from colleges and uni- 
versities the sum total of which would practically 
exhaust the working capital of the board. 

An emergency esists. It is urgently necessary 
to take steps to increase salaries in order that men 
in the teaching profession may be able and happy 
to remain there, in order that young men and young 
women who incline to teaching as a career may not 
be deterred from entering the teaching profession, 
and, finally, in order that it may not be necessary 
to raise tuition fees and thereby cut off from aca- 
demic opportunity those who can not afford to 
pay increased tuition. 

As Mr. Rockefeller 's memorandum shows, he rec- 
ognizes the urgency of the present situation, and 
has given this large sum to the Greneral Education 
Board to be used in cooperation with the institu- 
tions for the purpose of promptly increasing the 
funds available for the payment of salaries. It has 
been the policy of the board to make contributions 
to endowments, conditioned upon the raising of 



additional supplementary sums by the institutions 
aided. 

The gifts of Mr. Eockefeller to the General 
Education Board since its establishment in 
1902 have been as follows : 

1902 $1,000,000 

1905 10,000,000 

1907 11,000,000 

1909 10,000,000 

Total $32,000,000 

The board distributes the interest on the 
above funds currently and is empowered to 
distribute the principal in its discretion. 
Eecently Mr. Eockefeller gave the board the 
sum of $20,000,000 for the improvement of 
medical education, the interest to be distri- 
buted currently and the principal to be dis- 
tributed within fifty years. 

In transmitting the gift to the Eockefeller 
Foundation Mr. Eockefeller specifically au- 
thorizes the trustees to utilize both principal 
and income for any of the corporate purposes 
of the foundation which, as stated in the 
charter, are " to promote the well-being of 
mankind throughout the world." " While im- 
posing no restriction upon the discretion of 
the trustees Mr. Eockefeller in his letter of 
transmittal expresses special interest " in the 
work being done throughout the world in 
combating disease through improvement of 
medical education, public health administra- 
tion and scientific research." Mr. Eocke- 
feller also alludes to the recent gift of $20,- 
000,000 to the General Education Board to 
promote general education in the United 
States, and then adds: 

My attention has been called to the needs of some 
of the medical schools in Canada, but as the activi- 
ties of the General Education Board are by its 
charter limited to the United States I understand 
that gift may not be used for Canadian schools. 
The Canadian people are our near neighbors; 
They are closely bound to us by ties of race, lan- 
guage and international friendship; and they have 
without stint sacrificed themselves, their youth and 
their resources to the end that democracy might be 
saved and extended. For these reasons if your 
board should see fit to use any part of this new 
gift in promoting medical education in Canada 
such action would meet with my cordial approval. 



Januabt 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



13 



Tliis last gift makes the total received by 
the foundation from Mr. Eockefeller $182,- 
000,000, of which both income and principal 
were made available for appropriations. In 
191Y-18 $5,000,000 from the principal was 
appropriated for war work. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. Jacques Loeb, of the Rockefeller Insti- 
tute for Medical Research, Dr. Robert An- 
drews MiUikan, of the University of Chicago, 
Dr. Arthur Gordon Webster, of Clark Uni- 
versity, and Dr. W. W. Campbell, of Lick Ob- 
servatory, have been elected honorary mem- 
bers of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

Dr. Otto Klotz, director of the Dominion 
Observatory, Ottawa, has been appointed the 
representative of Canada on the " Committee 
on Magnetic Surveys, Charts and Secular 
Variation " of the International Geodetic 
and Geophysical Union, recently formed at 
Brussels. 

Dr. C. 0. Mailloux, who was elected presi- 
dent of the International Electrotechnical 
Commission for the next period of two years 
at the plenary meeting in London on October 
24, was the president of the American com- 
mittee. He is the second American to hold 
that honor. Previous presidents have been 
Lord Kelvin, Dr. Elihu Thomson, Professor 
E. Budde and Maurice Leblanc. He is a 
past-president of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, and was the first editor 
of The Electrical World serving in that capa- 
city in 1883. 

Dr. Herrick E. "Wilson, having resigned his 
position as assistant to Mr. Frank Springer, 
of the U. S. ^Rational Museum, will continue 
research work upon fossil crinoids at his home 
in Oberlin, Ohio. 

The American Institute of Baking, founded 
by the American Association of the Baking 
Industry, has begun work in Minneapolis 
under the direction of Dr. H. F. Barnard as- 
sisted by an advisory committee of the Na- 
tional Research Council and in cooperation 
with the Dunwoody Institute. Dr. Barnard 



has been connected with the State Board of 
Health of Indiana for nearly nineteen years 
and was federal food administrator of that 
state during the war. 

Dr. Paul G. Woolley, who recently re- 
signed from the chair of pathology at the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, is reported to have 
accepted the direction of a laboratory for 
medical diagnosis at Detroit. 

Professor A. E. Grantham, for twelve 
years head of the department of agronomy in 
Delaware College and agronomist to the Dela- 
ware Agricultural Experiment Station, has 
resigned, his resignation to become effective 
on February 1, to become manager of the 
Agricultural Service Bureau of the Virginia- 
Carolina Chemical Company, with headquar- 
ters at Richmond, Va. 

Dr. L. W. Stephenson, of the Geological 
Survey, has been granted a six months' leave 
of absence in the early part of 1920, in order 
to do stratigraphic work for one of the oil com- 
panies in the Tampico oil field. 

Professor J. C. McLennan, F.R.S., has re- 
signed as scientific adviser to the British 
Board of Admiralty, to return to his duties as 
professor of physics in the University of To- 
ronto. 

Dr. Wickliffe Rose, general director of the 
International Health Board of the Eockefeller 
Foundation, and Dr. Richard M. Pearce, re- 
cently appointed director of a new division of 
medical education, sailed on December 11 for 
Europe to secure information about public 
health administration and methods of medical 
education in England and on the Continent. 

Dr. Theodore C. Lyster, former colonel of 
the U. S. Army, is now in Mexico representing 
the yellow fever commission of the Rockefeller 
Foundation of which General Gorgas is the 
head. 

Dr. O. Holtedahl is organizing a ITorw^- 
ian exploring expedition to Novaya Zemlya, 
and expects to sail in June. A botanist, a zool- 
ogist and a meteorologist will accompany the 
expedition. Dr. Holtedahl will devote his time 
to geological and geophysical problems. 



14 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



At the dedication of the new pathological 
laihoratory of the Philadelphia General Hos- 
pital the principal address was delivered by Dr. 
William H. Welch, of The Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, who spoke of the important part played 
by morbid anatomy in the advancement of 
medicine. Drs. Arthur Dean Bevan, Chicago, 
and Louis B. Wilson, Rochester, Minn., also 
spoke. 

• Nature records the death on November 25 of 
Frederick Webb Headley, at the age of sixty- 
three years. Mr. Headley spent nearly forty 
years of hjis life as an assistant master at 
Haileybury College, where he succeeded in 
maintaining a body of active boy-naturalists in 
the college. He was the author of " The Struc- 
ture and Life of Birds " and " Life and Evolu- 
tion." 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

Mb. John Markle has agreed to provide the 
sum of five thousand dollars a year for five 
years beginning January 1, 1920, for the con- 
tinuation of the mining engineering course at 
Lafayette College, which was suspended dur- 
ing the war. 

It is planned to establish a school of engi- 
neering under the joint direction of the Car- 
negie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines and the coal operators 
of the Pittsburgh District. 

Delegates from French and Swiss universi- 
ties met recently ait Geneva and made arrange- 
ments for interchange of students and pro- 
fessors with credits for corresponding work. 

Dr. Meyer G. Gaba, who was an instructor 
in mathematics at Cornell from 1915 to 1918, 
has been appointed associate professor of 
mathematics at the University of Nebraska. 

Dr. James Playfair McMurrich, professor 
of anatomy in the University of Toronto, has 
been elected dean of the faculty of arts. 

Dr. T. Harvey Johnston has been appointed 
to the new professorship of biology at the 
Queensland University. Dr. Johnston was one 



of the traveling commissioners sent abroad by 
the Queensland government to investigate the 
Prickly Pear problem. 

At the University of Cambridge Dr. F. H. A. 
Marshall, fellow of Christ's College, has been 
appointed reader in agricultural physiology, 
and Mr. P. Lake, of St. John's College, reader 
in geography. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

THREAD MOULDS AND BACTERIA IN THE 
DEVONIAN ■ 

While making a comprehensive survey of 
the comparative histology of the skeletal paks 
of ancient vertebrates, in conjunction with the 
study of paleopathology, my attention was at- 
tracted to the enlarged and distorted shapes of 
many lacunae in the carapace of Borthriolepis 
and Coccosteus. Closer examination under the 
oil immersion revealed the occurrence of thread 
moulds and bacteria in the almost disrupted 
lacunar spaces, and since these organisms have 
never before been noted in the osseous elements 
of such ancient vertebrates, a brief description 
will be given of them here. There is a great 
gap in our knowledge of ancient bacteria espe- 
cially between the Pre-Cambrian bacteria de- 
scribed by Walcott and the Carboniferous 
forms described by Renault, so that we know 
nothing of the occurrence of bacteria especially 
in bony material during the early and middle 
Paleozoic. 

The occurrence of thread moulds (Mycelites 
ossifragus) in the hard parts of invertebrates 
and vertebrates, from molluscs to man, has been 
noted for more than eighty years and the liter- 
ature is very extensive. The canals made by 
the penetrating moulds, known as the canals of 
Boux or Wedl, have been noted by Kolliker in 
the hard parts of invertebrates, fossil and re- 
cent, by Triepel in recent human bones, by 
Shaiier in ancient human teeth, by Senders in 
a Neolithic skull, by Roux in the skeletal parts 
of vertebrates. Carboniferous to recent. They 
have been recently seen in the bony parts 
of Devonian vertebrates, doubtless they have 
a very wide distribution and may be regarded 
as one of the most ancient types of organisms 
in existence There is nothing peculiar in 



Januaet 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



15 



their occurrence in the ancient vertebrates 
except that their course of growth is modiiied 
by the histology of ancient bone. In the 
absence of definite lamellaa the mycelia often 
seek out a lacuna, enter it and growing out 
along the direction of the brief canaliculi, 
espand both the lacuna and canaliculi until 
the entire structure is disrupted and the 
canals meet other canals growing out from 
adjoining lacunae. In modern human bone 
the mycelia very often follow the inter- 
lamellar spaces, but ancient bone has seldom 
any definite spaces of this kind and more 
often is to be regarded as an osteoid sub- 
stance. That the appearances described for 
the enlarged lacunae are not normal is easily 
checked by a study of normal lacuna in the 
adjacent material. A single microscopic field 
will show both normal and invaded lacimae. 
The canals, from 2-4 micra in diameter have 
an undulating course and offer easy channels 
of entrance to invading bacteria. 

The presence of these thread moulds would 
seem to indicate that the piece of bone show- 
ing them was preserved in a moist sandy or 
muddy place close to the shore, thus agree- 
ing with our previous conceptions of the pres- 
ervation of fossil material. It is difficult to 
see how the moulds would find entrance if the 
material were embedded under sand or silt in 
deep water. The ancient Egyptian mummies, 
buried for thousands of years in the dry sand 
of Nubian deserts do not show such canals, 
nor do the Cretaceous vertebrates from Kansas 
show them. Seitz has figured them, though 
apparently did not recognize their nature, in 
the bones of Labyrintliodonts and dinosaurs, 
and I have seen evidences of them in sections 
from the vertebra of an American sauroped 
dinosaur. 

The bacteria doubtless have entered the 
bone along the course of the Canals of Boux 
and may be detected at first by the beady, 
nodular appearance of the canal. Often the 
bacteria, in Bothriolepis, for instance, have 
invaded a canaliculus which the MyceUtes 
did not find. The small clumps, or nodes, 
may clearly be regarded as colonies of bac- 
teria and doubtless as a form of the Micro- 
coccus, described by Eenault in the canaliculi 



of Permian fish bone. The beady appearance 
of an invaded canal of Roux or canaliculus 
recalls exactly the pietiu-e of the invaded 
dentinal tubules in cases of human dental 
caries. We are, of course, in this case, as in 
the case of other ancient phenomena, arguing 
from the known to the unknown. Here is an 
ancient situation which parallels a similar 
modern situation and the argument is sound 
because on it for over one hundred years we 
have built the science of paleontology. 

These conditions can not be regarded as 
disease in any sense, but are rather to be 
regarded as the agents of decay in ancient 
times. They are the agents of decay and dis- 
ruption at the present time and from present 
evidences the same agents of decay have been 
at work for many millions of years, at least 
since Devonian times. Eoy L. Moodie 

Department of Anatomy, 
Univeksity of Illinois, 
Chicago 

vibration rate of the tail of a 
rattlesnake 

Through the courtesy of Professor H. E. 
Dill, curator of the natural history museum, 
opportunity was offered to make a brief study 
of the rate of vibration of the tail of a dia- 
mond back rattlesnake, Crotalus Adamanteus. 
This specimen came from Texas on September 
15, 1918, but had been in captivity for some 
time previously. Its age is not known, as 
that can not be accurately determined from 
the number of rattles, some of which are 
known to have been broken off, and two of the 
nine or ten remaining are in poor condition. 
A new rattle is formed with each moulting, a 
process which has occurred twice during the 
nine months that the animal has been in the 
laboratory; the second moulting occurred six 
months after the first. The snake is about 
five feet four inches in length and rather 
thin, since it refuses food. It accepts water, 
however, and in the latter part of March two 
sparrows were forcibly fed to it. It is exceed- 
ingly alert and vigorous, and frequently strikes 
at any object that is near its wire cage. It 
has learned some discretion, and does not risk 
the resultant bump against the wire unless 



16 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



ratter strongly provoked. Its fangs are in- 
tact. 

With the aid of two assistants, Mr. Ledieu, 
who kept the head out of mischief, and Mr. 
Bunch, who manipulated the apparatus, it was 
possible to secure a fairly accurate short time 
record. A Deprez marker, together with a 
suitable time indicator, was adjusted to trace 
upon a smoked drum. With one method of 
recording a small mesh cap of copper wire was 
fitted over the rattles and connected with a 
flexible wire through a battery, the marker, 
and a curved brass plate. Touching the wire 
cap to the brass plate completed the circuit. 
With slight provocation vigorous movement 
resulted and the writer would hold as far back 
from the tip of the tail as possible and still 
be able to direct the tip so that it would strike 
the plate with each complete vibration. Fear- 
ing that the cap might be heavy enough to re- 
tard the motion, we tried again using a double 
strand of very fine copper wire wrapped twice 
around the rattles bringing this wire in con- 
tact with the plate as before. The average 
time of fifty-three consecutive vibrations, 
with the first method, was 30a (lo-.OOl sec.) 
with a mean variation of lOcr. The corre- 
sponding result for twenty-five vibrations by 
the second method, was 28(r, with a mean va- 
riation of 3.5(T. 

To the writer two surprises are contained in 
this record, the first being the relatively great 
variability in rate of movement, the extremes 
ranging from about lOcr to 50cr. After at- 
tention was directed to the variations in speed, 
they become marked even to the unaided ear, 
although no distinct rhythm can be detected. 

The second unexpected result is that the 
pitch of the tone produced does not depend 
upon the speed nor upon the constancy of the 
tail vibration but upon the natural resonance 
of the rattles themselves. The pitch of this 
tone, as determined by two musicians with a 
very keen sense of pitch, and checked with 
accurately tuned forks, is between C and Ct; 
the tone is expressed, therefore, by about 128 
to 135 vibrations per second. Very marked 
changes in rate of tail, from the fastest that 
could be produced by marked provocation, to 
the almost quiescent state, did not cause a 



fluctuation of the pitch beyond this approxi- 
mate half-tone. The tone itself is exceedingly 
complex however, and it might conceivably 
vary with thfe number and size of the rattles. 
It was possible to detect, but not to identify, 
certain overtones. 

The popular impression that the rattler uses 
his rattles as a warning that he is about to 
strike is regarded by Mr. Dill as quite erro- 
neous. This snake, when striking normally 
does so first and rattles afterward, if at all. 
It will, for instance, strike at a bird placed in 
the cage, rattle, then strike again. It appears 
that the rattle is rather to terrify than to 
warn. It is also used as a defensive mech- 
anism. The instinct to vibrate the tail is not 
peculiar to the rattlesnake, but is common to 
many other species, as, for instance, to the 
non-venomous king snake and the blue racer. 

Mabel C. Williams 
State TJnivebsity of Iowa 

a ticket to st. louis 
I AM a schoolmaster. I am not earning a 
living for myself and family, though my 
position is coimted a good one. I shall be a 
schoolmaster till I die: I have chosen teach- 
ing as my service, and am too old to change. 
My three sons will not be schoolmasters. 

Before the war I was able to make ends 
meet. I could then devote all my time and 
energies to the duties of my position. Then 
came increase of passenger rates, and a war 
tax added, and I and my family have since 
stayed home. I even bought several liberty 
bonds and my children bought war savings 
stamps at the beginning. 

Then came also increased freight rates and 
of cost of food, and I and my boys began 
gardening. Then came also increase of wages 
and decrease of competence in artisans, and I 
and my boys began doing our own repair work 
— carpentry, plastering, roofing, ditch-digging, 
etc. But, staying always home, and raising 
beans, and fixing spouts is not what I am paid 
for doing, nor does it get the best results from 
the long training I have had. And ever since 
the close of the war I have been vainly hoping 
to be allowed to devote my time again to my 



Januabt 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



17 



teaching and research; for I am first and last 
a schoolmaster. 

The war having ended more than a year 
ago, I thought I should like to go to the 
meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science at St. Louis, to meet 
my colleagues from the other universities and 
to talk over plans for the future. Now at the 
last the poor old decrepit TJ. S. Eailroad Ad- 
ministration, which, I verily believe, has done 
more than any other single agency to increase 
the cost of living, decides that this association 
is not educational ! Therefore, its members 
are not entitled to the reduced fare previously 
granted to those attending " meetings of 
religious, charitable, educational, fraternal, or 
military character." This, the equivalent of 
2 cents per mile, which was full fare before 
the war, may be granted for truly educational 
gatherings, such as those of public kinder- 
gartners; but it is not for such as we are: we 
pay 3 cents per mile with a war tax added, or 
we help the railroads by staying at home. 

Such is the judgment of a high official in 
that administration (Mr. Gerrit Fort, assist- 
ant director), who is doubtless provided with a 
salary adequate to support him and his family 
while he renders such decisions. Hear him : 
" The term ' educational ' taken in its broad 
sense could be construed to cover a very large 
number of conventions. It was necessary, 
therefore, to restrict its definition, and this 
was done by confining it to those conventions 
having to do with elementary education, such 
as meetings of school-teachers." 

This is the last straw! 

Schoolmaster 



SPECIAL ARTICLES 

THE PROTECTIVE INFLUENCE OF BLOOD 
SERUM ON THE EXPERIMENTAL CELL- 
FIBRIN TISSUE OF LIMULUS^ 

In the preceding communication we showed 
that the solutions of difFerent salts, which are 
constituents of blood serum or seawater, 
differ in their effect on the cellfibrin tissue 
and that the amount of regenerative out- 

1 From the Department of Comparative Pathol- 
ogy, Washington University School of Medicine, 
St. Louis, Mo. 



growth of the tissue is different in different 
solutions. If we cover a wound with 6/8 m 
NaCl healing may take place; a small piece 
of excised placed on a cover-glass and sur- 
rounded by a di'op of NaCl solution may show 
a good outgrowth imder the conditions of our 
experiment in which usually a small amount 
of blood serum was adherent to the piece. 
However, all of these solutions are inferior to 
the blood serum of Limulus. It was of inter- 
est to determine which constituent or combi- 
nation of substances in the blood serum was 
responsible for the superiority of the serum, 
whether it was caused by the balancing action 
of salts or by another constituent. 

Addition of calcium chloride in various 
quantities to the sodium chloride solution did 
not improve the latter and usually made it 
less favorable for the tissue. The addition of 
seawater in which the inorganic constituents 
are present in proportions similar to thosa 
found in blood serum, prevented an active 
outgrowth altogether. Inasmuch as it was 
possible that the alkalinity of the seawater 
was injurious to the tissue, we used seawater 
with a hydrogen ion concentration which cor- 
responded to an approximately neutral solu- 
tion. This did not improve the effect of sea- 
water. The Van't Hoff solution mixture of 
salts was likewise much inferior to an isotonic 
l^aCl solution. These results made it im- 
probable that the beneficial effect of blood 
serum was due to inorganic constituents. 

This conclusion was corroborated by the 
effect of the heating of blood serum. Heat- 
ing the blood serum to 85° for a short time 
sufficient to coagulate a certain amount of 
its proteid destroyed the greater part of tho 
beneficial effect of blood serum. Heating 
this filtered fraction still further to 100° for 
a short time, and thus producing an addi- 
tional coagulation, made the blood serum as 
unfavorable as seawater; such heated and 
filtered blood serum had still the blue color of 
normal oxygenated Limulus blood. However, 
how far a proportionality exists between the 
intensity of heating and of loss of beneficial 
properties of the serum needs further investi- 
gation. 



18 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



At present we may conclude that the speci- 
fically protective effect of blood serum is due 
not to the combination or inorganic constitu- 
ents but to the proteid constituents of the 
blood. This may perhaps explain the fact 
that different blood sera may differ in their 
beneficial effect. We even found that the 
blood sera of diseased, anemic Liviuli may 
become as ineffective or as injurious as sea- 
water. Whether the action of microorgan- 
isms enters as a factor in the case of blood 
sera of anemic Limuli remains still to be 
determined. 

Leo Loeb 

a preliminary note on soil acidity 

Whatever may be the cause and nature of 
soil acidity, apparently part of this acidity is 
due to some of the materials which constitute 
the soil itself. This gives rise to the question 
as to whether the minerals from which the 
soils are derived are acid; and if not, what 
changes occur in these minerals to make them 
acid and what factors cause these changes. 
Therefore in some work on soil acidity that 
has recently been done in this laboratory, the 
problem was attacked along a line somewhat 
different from that usually followed. Instead 
of working with acid soils entirely, neutral 
and basic soils were also chosen and the one 
factor which probably, more than any other, 
has to do with the natural changes produced 
in the soil forming minerals — namely, water 
leaching through the soil — was investigated. 
After workiiig with a few soils, it seemed 
advisable to experiment with the more abun- 
dant minerals which constitute certain types 
of soils, and with a few of their decomposition 
products. 

Such materials as the following were taken 
for the experiments : soils, rocks, miscella- 
neous gravel, pure minerals such as quartz, 
hornblende, microcline and garnet, and some 
of the decomposition products of the above 
mentioned minerals and rocks such as silicic 
acid, kaolin, silica, etc. ^Nearly all of the 
rocks, gravel and pure minerals were found 
to be either neutral or slightly basic. The 
materials were leached with water containing 



carbon dioxide, and analyses were made to 
determine what changes had occurred, both 
in the samples and in the percolated water. 

The results from this work show that of all 
the samples that were leached, no matter 
whether the original material was basic or 
acid, the resulting material was acid; and 
that with the exception of the decomposition 
products such as silicic acid, kaolin, etc., 
nearly all of the samples became more acid. 
The fact should be emphasized here that all 
of the materials, with the exception of the 
soils themselves, were minerals or rocks which 
contained no organic matter. Hence the acid- 
ity was not due to organic matter. 

From the above statements, the conclusion 
may be drawn that the compounds formed 
from some of the soil-forming minerals due to 
leaching, are an important factor in making 
soils acid. 

Having shown then that some of the mate- 
rials of which soils are composed, on being 
leached with water containing carbon dioxide, 
make soils acid, the next logical step in this 
research was to try to determine how these 
compounds give rise to this acidity. 

This problem was attacked by determining 
the hydrogen ion concentration of neutral 
water extracts of the materials in question; 
and by determining the hydrogen ion concen- 
tration of similar extracts after different 
known quantities of standard calcium hydrox- 
ide had been added. A curve plotted from 
the results of these determinations should 
show (1) any excess of hydrogen ions in the 
solution; (2) the presence of any compound 
that is capable of taking up calcium hydroxide 
as a result of adsorption, by the formation of 
addition products, or by true chemical action; 
and (3) any excess of free hydroxyl ions. To 
illustrate, let the following figure represent 
the relation between the hydrogen ion con- 
centration (expressed as P;,) in a solution and 
the amount of calcium hydroxide that has 
been added. Then line ab shows a decreasing 
excess of hydrogen ions in the solution; he 
that the hydroxyl ions are being removed from 
the field of action as fast as they are added; 
and cd, an increasing excess of hydroxyl ions. 



January 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



19 



The curves plotted from the results of the 
determinations made on acid soils and on the 
decomposition products of the soil-forming 
minerals are similar to the one described 
above, while those made on neutral or alkaline 
soils are similar to lines he and cd of that 
curve. This apparently indicates that there 
are some dissociated acids or acid salts pres- 
ent in the solutions of acid soils, and of the 
decomposition products; and that with all of 
the materials some of the calcium hydroxide 
is entirely removed from the field of action. 
These statements are interesting, especially 
when compared with the conclusions drawn in 
regard to soil acidity from results obtained by 
the freezing^ point method. The conclusions 




Pig. 1. 

by that method are contrary to the former of 
the above statements, but agree with the latter. 
Some other interesting facts concerning 
these curves are that where they first reach 
the neutral line, they show a lime requirement 
as determined by the so-called Jones^ method; 
and that where they leave the neutral line, 
they may indicate what Sharps and Hoagland 
term "potential acidity" or what Bouyoucos* 
terms " maximum lime requirement." It is 
also interesting to note that the curves vary 
somewhat when bases other than calcium hy- 
droxide are added to soils. Barium hydroxide 
gives rise to curves similar to calcium hy- 
droxide, while sodium and ammonium hydrox- 
ides gives curves represented by lines ah and 
cd in the above figure. 

1 Mich. Agric. Col. Exp. Sta. Technical Bui., 
No. 27. 

2 Jour. A. 0. A. C, Vol. I., p. 43. 

3 Jour. Agric. BesearoJi, Vol. VII., p. 123. 

< Mich. Agric. Col. Exp. Sta. Technical Bui. No. 
27, p. 37 



This work is being continued with the hope 
that within a short time sufficient data will 
be obtained to warrant a more complete dis- 
cussion of the subject. O. B. Winter 

Michigan Agwcultukal College, 
ExPEEiMENT Station 



ALABAMA MEETING OF THE ASSOCIA- 
TION OF AMERICAN STATE 
GEOLOGISTS 

One of the most successful and profitable annual 
field meetings of the Association of American 
State Geologists was held in Alabama, September 
1 to 6, 1919, on invitation and under the able 
guidance of the state geologist, Dr. Eugene A. 
Smith. Headquarters were at the Tutwiler Hotel, 
Birmingham. 

An instructive printed guide of 14 pages briefly 
summarizing the essential geologic features to be 
observed at each place visited in the state was 
prepared by Dr. Smith and associates. As orig- 
inally planned, the program called for a division 
of the party into two sections (Highland and 
Coastal Plain), to be together only on the first 
and last days. This .plan was later modified to 
exclude the Coastal Plain section, but was closely 
adhered to for the Highland section, which closed 
with a visit to the University of Alabama, so long 
and well known to geologists as the home of the 
distinguished host, Dr. Smith. 

Much of the Highland region of the state, long 
known for its varied and complex geology, was 
covered by excursions, and many of the interesting 
features of physiography, structure, stratigraphy 
and economic geology, were reviewed. Among 
some of the more important localities visited were 
the famous Birmingham district, w^here oppor- 
tunity was afforded for observing some of its more 
important geologic features, including visits to 
iron and coal mines, limestone quarries and indus- 
trial plants ; the extensive iproductive graphite area 
between Lineville and Goodwater, the largest do- 
mestic producer of graiphite; the marble quar- 
ries near Sylaeauga; and Sheffield and Florence 
where are located the government nitrate plant and 
prospective water-power developments at Mussel 
Shoals on Tennessee Eiver. 

The geologists participating in a part or all of 
the excursiions were : Eugene A. Smith and W. P. 
Prouty (Alabama), J. A. Bownocker (Ohio), G. 
F. Kay (Iowa), H. B. Kiimmel (New Jersey), I. C. 
White (West Virginia), W. N. Logan (Indiana), 
S. W. McCallie and J. P. D. Hull (Georgia), W. 



20 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Yoh. LI. No. 1305 



O. Hotcihkiss (Wisconsin), Collier Cobb (North 
Carolina), H. F. Oleland (Massachusetts), Her- 
man Gunter (Florida), W. A. Nelson (Tennessee), 
George Otis Smith, E. O. Ulrioh and Charles Butts 
(Washington, D. C). 

Thomas L. Watson, 

Secretary 



THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 
VII 

division of biological chbmistby 
I. K. Phelps, Chairman 
B. A. Gortner, Vice-chairman and Secretary 
Chemotherapy of organic arsenicals: C. N. 
Meters. A discussion of the transitions of arsenic 
therapy leading up to the production of salvarsan. 
A chart showing the methods of approaching the 
mother substance is presented. The reduction 
process is briefly discussed, followed by a consid- 
eration of the chemical and physical properties, the 
toxicology, the impurities, and the preservation of 
salvarsan. The chemical and physical factors as 
related to the administration of the drug are dis- 
cussed based upon clinical observations as a result 
of an extensive investigation of the methods used 
by leading dermatologists. Standard methods are 
recommended in order to eliminate reactions which 
unnecessarily result from faulty technique and im- 
proper use of chemical laws when salvarsan is used 
in organotherapy. 

The chemical composition of arsphenamine (sal- 
varsan) : G. W. Eaiziss. 

A comparative study of the trypanocidal activity 
of arsphenamine and neo-arsphenamine : J. F. 

SCHAMBEKG, J. A. KOLMEB AND G. W. EAIZISS. 

Chemotherapeutic studies with ethylhydrocup- 
rein and mercurophen in experimental pneumococ- 
cus meningitis of rabbits: J. A. Kolmee and 
GoRO Idzumi. 

Coordination of the principles of chemo-therapy 
with the laws of immunity and the successful appli- 
cation in the treatment of tuberculosis: Benjamin 
S. Pasohall. The tubercle bacillus is protected 
by waxy substances consisting chiefly of unsatu- 
rated highly complex alcohols and equal quantities 
of phosphatides with which they form a colloidal 
complex and which in turn exists in close union, 
possibly physical, more probably chemical, with the 
protoplasmic substances of the tubercle bacillus, 
both proteid and carbohydrate in nature. Saponifi- 
cation breaks up this complex without destruction 
of the important immunizing substances and makes 



possible separation by solvents. By this means 
toxic and easeating substances of the Oholin Mus- 
earin group are eliminated as well as the ordinary 
poisons elaborated by the tubercle bacillus pro- 
teins and protein derivatives. Esterification of the 
fatty acids with ethyl alcohol forms a valuable im- 
munizing substance as these fatty acids have so far 
been found not to conform to those found in our 
common food products. Esterification of the higher 
alcohols with salicylic benzoic, acetic or other suit- 
able acids establishes a new side chain or anchoring 
group which greatly enhances the reactivity be- 
tween the antigens themselves and the receptors of 
the tissue cells so that absorption of these alcoholic 
esters takes place in the tissues in a few days 
without producing caseation and tissue necrosis 
even when given in doses of from 3 to 5 o.c, and 
following these injections of the mixed esters spe- 
cific wax digesting ferments form in sufficient con- 
centration to split the protective waxes from the 
tubercle bacUlus living within the host whereby 
disorganization and destruction of the organism 
ensues and the patient absolutely recovers and re- 
mains well. Thus combining the principles of 
chemico-therapy with the laws of immunity, a new 
substance was found for the treatment of all forms 
of tuberculosis which was successfully used in our 
own practise and named by us Mycoleum. 

The chlorinated antiseptics: Chloramine-T and 
dichloramine-T : Isaac F. Harris, Ph.D., Eesearch 
Laboratories, E. E. Squibb & Sons, New York. 
Toluene-p-sodium-sulf onchloramine ( chloramine-T ) 
when prepared in state of high chemical purity is 
an extremely stable compound, both in crystalline 
form and in solution. Toluene-p-sulf ondiehloramine 
(dichloramine-T) is quite stable when prepared in 
very high purity chemically dry and protected from 
dust, organic matter and sunlight. Pure dichlora- 
mine-T can be kept in pure, anhydrous chlorcosane, 
without appreciable decomposition, for several 
months, if protected from continuous action of 
direct sunlight. In the reactions between the pro- 
teins of the tissues and Dakin's solution, chlora- 
mines of the proteins and free sodium hydroxide 
are formed. The latter furnishes the solvent power 
attributed to Dakin's solution. When the chlora- 
mines react with bacteria and necrotic protein mat- 
ter, chloramines of the proteins are formed and 
toluene-p-sulfonamide is set free. The latter is 
inert and innocuous. The chloramines can be em- 
ployed with more precision and in greater concen- 
tration than Dakin's solution. 

An agent for the destruction of vermin-method 
of application: Albert A. Epstein. (By title.) 



Januakt 2, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



21 



The purpose of the communieation is to put on 
record the compoaitiou of an active vermicide and 
a suitable method of its application, which was 
primarily intended for the army. The vermicide is 
a solution, the base of which is kerosene. The odor 
and irritating properties of kerosene are disposed 
of by a special process. To this as a base are 
added heavy oils and demulcents whioh promote the 
retention of the vermicide and repellent properties, 
by the objects to which the solution is applied. 
The solution destroys lice within one minute, and 
nits fail to develop after about eight minutes con- 
tact with the solution. As proven by various tests 
the solution is destructive not only to lice, but to a 
large variety of insect-parasites affecting man, 
animals and plants. The solution is applied by 
means of a spraying device. 

An iodine preparation for intravenous and intra- 
spinous use: Albert A. Epstein. (By title). It 
is possible by means of heat under pressure to dis- 
solve native iodine in solutions of dextrine without 
the aid of the usual solvents. The amount of iodine 
thus brought into solution bears the approximate 
relation of 1 : 35 to the quantity of dextrine present. 
The solution thus obtained is homogeneous and 
fairly permanent. It is strongly bactericidal, its 
potency ranging from 2^ to 25 times that of the 
better known antiseptics. Its action is rapid. It 
is relatively non-toxic when given intravenously and 
intraspinously. Animals rendered septic by ex- 
perimental means have been freed of bacteria by 
intravenous injection of the solution. Clinical ap- 
plication has been made in cases of bacterial endo- 
carditis and typhoid; the clinical course of the 
disease having been modified by its .use. One of 
the constant effects of intravenous injection is a 
febrile reaction followed by a very marked leuco- 
cytosis. Intraspinous injection has been attempted 
in tuberculous meningitis. Although the ultimate 
course of the disease has not been modified by this 
procedure the solution itself proved to be innocuous. 
The subject is undergoing further investigation. 

TTie local anesthetic actions of saligenin and other 
phenolic alcohols: A. D. HiKscnrELDER, A. Lund- 
holm, H. NOERGAKD AND J. HULTKRANS. Since 

Maeht had shown that benzyl alcohol has local an- 
esthetic properties, other members of the phenolic 
alcohol aeries, phenylethylalcohol C0H5CH2CH2OH, 
phenylglycol CeHjOHOHCHiiOH, cinnamie alcohol 
CaHsOH = CHCHoOH, saUgenin CeHjOHCH^OH 
(salicylic alcohol), methyl saligenin CoHiOCHs- 
CH2OH, ethyl saligenin OoHiOC^HbOHjOH, pipero- 

O 
nylic alcohol CeH3< >CH2CHjOH, and homosa- 



ligenin CsHaOHCHaOHCHa (1:2:4) were investi- 
gated. Lengthening of the side chain diminishes 
the local anesthetic power. Saligenin is the best 
of the series. It is the least irritating to the tis- 
sues, much less so than benzyl alcohol. It is only 
half as toxic as the latter, longer and in half the 
concentration. It is a practical surgical anesthetic, 
and in six tonsillectomies and one tumor removal 
in man proved to be as good as procaine. Lethal 
dose for man would be more than a liter of 4 per 
cent, solution. Covering the phenolic hydroxyl di- 
minishes the local anesthetic power. Homosaligenin 
is a good local anesthetic, but more irritating. 

The effects of drugs which inhiiit the para- 
sympathetic nerve endings upon the irritability of 
intestinM loops: A. D. Hirschpelder, A. Lund- 
holm H. NOERGARD AND J. HULTKRANS. DrugS 
which inhibit the parasympathetic nerve endings, 
such as atropin, amyl nitrite, benzyl alcohol, benzyl 
benzoate and saligenin cause a definite elevation 
of the threshold of irritability of loops of intes- 
tine to intermittent electrical stimuli. The nor- 
mal rabbit's intestine responds with an annular 
contraction to a stimulus from a Harvard induc- 
tion coil at 10 to 12 cm. After painting the mes- 
enteric border of the intestine with any of the 
above-mentioned drugs in 2 per cent, solution or 
emulsion the stimulus must be raised to one with 
the coil at 4 cm. This rise in the threshold, or 
decrease in the irritability, is probably due to the 
transition from response by the nerve to response 
by the muscle after the nerve impulse has been 
blocked. The same strength of impulse was re- 
quired after all the paralyzing drugs. 

The effect of fever upon the action and toxicity 
of digitalis: A. D. Hirschpelder, J. Bicek, F. J. 
KucERA AND W. HANSON. The actiou of the drug 
was studied in cats and frogs whose body tem- 
perature had been raised by immersion in a 
water-bath. Increasing the body temperature in 
both cats and frogs diminished the size of the dose 
necessary to cause death. This is less marked at 
the lower ranges of temperature than in the higher 
temperatures, and it is most marked within one or 
two degrees of the thermal death-point of the 
animal. At 41° the lethal dose for cats is not re- 
duced, at 42° it is one half to two thirds the nor- 
mal, at 43° it is only one third to one half the 
lethal dose in normal animals. This proves the 
necessity of caution in the administration of large 
doses of digitalis to patients with high fever. 

The toxicity of tohaoco smoTce from dga/rs, ciga- 
rettes and pipe toidcco: A. D. Hirschpelder, A. 



22 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1305 



E. Lange and a. C. Teaman. Previous investiga- 
tors had shown that the amount of nicotine in the 
smoke from a oigar or a cigarette or from smok- 
ing pipe tobacco bears no relation to the nicotine 
in the tobacco itself. "Light" tobacco may give 
smoke rich in nicotine, ' ' strong ' ' tobacco may 
give smoke poor in nicotine. Storm van Leuven in 
Holland showed that smoke from the so-called 
nicotine-free cigars gives a smoke that contains a 
good deal of nicotine. Since riicotine is not the 
only poisonous constituent of smoke, Hirschfelder 
and his collaborators studied the poisonous action 
of the smoke itself, or rather the poisonous action 
of extracts made from passing the smoke through 
salt solution and through ether. The amount nec- 
essary to kill a frog was determined. Using several 
popular-priced brands of cigar, cigarette and pipe 
tobacco, it was found that the smoke coming from 
a given weight of tobacco varied somewhat, but 
not very greatly in its poisonous action on frogs. 
When the same weight of the same sample of to- 
bacco was smoked in the form of a cigarette and 
in a pipe and as a cigar there was sometimes very 
little difference in the poisonous quality of the 
smoke, but usually that which was smoked as a 
cigarette was somewhat less poisonous. Neverthe- 
less, cigars and pipes seem much stronger than 
cigarettes. This is 'because since the burning 
occurs chiefly along the surface of the tobacco, so 
much more tobacco is being converted into smoke 
at each instant in these than in the cigarettes. It 
is largely a question of cross section. Cigars have 
about four times the cross section of cigarettes, 
pipes nine or ten times. If all three were smoked 
equally fast, the smoker would get an overwhelm- 
ing dose of nicotine from cigar and pipe. There- 
fore, these must be smoked more slowly than the 
cigarette and can not be inhaled. If the smoker 
did not inhale the smoke, the cigarette would be 
the lightest form of tobacco. 

. Some applications of protein chemistry to medi- 
cine and pliarmacy: I. F. Haeeis. 

Action of tricJilorotertiary iutyl alcohol (chl-ore- 
tone) on animal tissue: T. B. Aldrich and H. C. 
Ward. The action of chloretone on animal tissue 
has not been studied, although glands of various 
kinds have been preserved in a sterile condition in 
chloretone water for a number of years, without 
any apparent injury to the active principles they 
contain. In order to test the action of a saturated 
aqueous solution of chloretone on animal tissue 
pieces of various organs were removed from the 
animal (dog) as quickly as possible after death. 



cut into small pieces and distributed among several 
sets of bottles containing water saturated with 
chloretone. One set was kept at 37°, one at 15°, 
while others at summer room temperature. One 
set at room temperature was inoculated with B. 
Froteus. Control tissue with only distilled water 
showed a high degree of putrefaction in two days. 
Every few days the tissues were examined and the 
general appearance, color, odor, etc., noted. In 
general the tissues became soft and spongy and 
lost much of their normal color. There was at no 
time a suggestion of putrefaction. In fact, cul- 
tures made every few days from all the bottles 
showed their contents to be sterile. Histological 
studies show that while there is no evidence of 
bacteria, there is evidence of autolytic changes, 
since some normal cell constituents are entirely 
lacking. It would seem that chloretone is one of 
the few substances (in weak dilution) that will 
allow autolysis to proceed under sterile conditions. 

) Conclusions. (1) Chloretone in saturated aque- 
ous solution exerts a definite baetericdal action at 
aU temperatures. (2) Chloretone in saturated 
aqueous solution prevents the development of the 
common molds. (3) Chloretone solution is not 
suitable as a fixative for histological materials. 
(4) Chloretone solution while acting as a bacteri- 
cide, does not inhibit autolytic action as evidenced 
by our histological findings. (5) Chloretone solu- 
tion is a desirable agent for preserving glands and 
gland extracts from which the active principles are 
to be obtained. 

I The outlook for chemotherapy in the chemical 
industry of America: C. L. Alsberg. (By title.) 
Blv£ eyes: W. D. Bancroft. 

Charles L. Parsons, 
Secretary 
{To he continued) 



SCIENCE 



A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of 
Science, publishing the official notices and pro- 
ceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science 

Published every Friday by 

THE SaENCE PRESS 

LANCASTER. PA. GARRISON. N. Y, 

NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Entered in tbe po«t'office at Lancutcr. Pa., u Kcond dsut manm 



SCIENCE 



Feidat, January 9, 1920 



CONTENTS 
The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science : — 

The VntUled Fields of Public Bealth : Peo- 
FESSOE C.-E. A. WiNSLOW 23 

The Organization of Besearch: Professoe 

H. P. Aemsby S3 

Scientific Events: — 

Conference of British Besearch Associations; 

The Medical Strike in Spain; Besolutions of 
'■• the Anthropological Society of Washington; 

Biological Surveys of States hy the United 
: States Department of Agriculture 38 

Scientific Notes and News 40 

University and Educational News 43 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 

; A Splendid Service: J. M. C. Weight of 

', Body moving along Equator: Peopessoe Ed- 

: WAED V. Huntington. An Odd Problem in 

'. Mechanics : Dr. Cabl Heeinq 44 

Quotations : — 

Science and The New Era Printing Com- 
pany 46 

Scientific BooTcs: — 
Seward's Fossil Plants: Professor Edwaed 
W. Beeey 47 

The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science: — 

Beport of the St. Louis Meeting : Peofessob 
George T. Mooke 48 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garriaon-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 



THE UNTILLED FIELDS OF PUBLIC 
HEALTHi 

A SHORT time ago two Yale undergraduates 
came to my laboratory to consult me in regard 
to the choice of a career. One of them was a 
son ef a public health administrator of the 
highest eminence; and they particularly 
wanted to know something about the field 
of public health, what it included, what was 
the nature of the work involved, what were 
the qualifications required, and what the 
financial rewards and the more intangible 
emoluments to be expected by those who 
might enter upon this career. I told them 
what I could of the current tendencies which 
to me seem to make public health one of the 
most stimulating and attractive openings 
lying before the college student of the present 
day; but I found that the answer to their 
question was by no means a simple one to 
formulate. The public health movement has 
been expanding so rapidly that what was " the 
New Public Health " fifteen years ago in- 
cludes only the more conventional interests of 
the present day. 

It seemed to me as I talked with these young 
men that we needed a formulation of current 
tendencies in the protean field of public 
health and an outline of the lines of future 
development so far as they can safely be fore- 
cast. It is essential that the worker in this 
domain of applied science should see clearly 
the goal toward which he is aiming, however 
far ahead of the immediate possibilities of the 
moment it may appear to be. Above all, it 
is desirable that we should have a definite and 
inspiring program to lay before the young 
men and women of the country who hesitate 
in the choice of a career. On every hand we 
hear the question, put by an eager young 

1 Address of the vice-president and chairman of 
Section K — Physiology and Experimental Medi- 
cine—St. Louis, January 2, 1920. 



24 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



woman to the brilliant head of the instructive 
District Nursing Association of Boston, " Miss 
Beard, I want to go into public health. What 
it it ? " It behooves us to answer this question ; 
for the greatest of all needs in this field is 
undoubtedly the need of a personnel, larger in 
quantity, and better in quality, than that 
which has been available in the past. 

For these reasons I have determined to de- 
vote my address as retiring chairman of the 
Section on Physiology and Experimental 
Medicine to a tentative, if necessarily im- 
perfect, formulation of the scope and tend- 
encies of the modern public health campaign. 

I spoke of the public health movement as 
protean, and it is indeed true that the em- 
phasis in this field has shifted with a rapidity 
almost phantasmagoric. 

To a large section of the public, I fear that 
the health authorities are still best known as 
the people to whom one complains of un- 
pleasant accumulations of rubbish in the back 
yard of a neighbor — accumulations which 
possess those offensive characteristics which 
somehow can only originate in a neighbor's 
yard and never in one's own. Sanitation, the 
maintenance of cleanly and healthful environ- 
mental conditions, does indeed represent the 
first stage in public health. When Sir John 
Simon initiated the modern public health 
movement in London three quarters of a 
century ago his primary task was the elimina- 
tion of the masses of accumulated filth which 
kept alive the pestilences of the Middle Ages. 
When General Gorgas undertook the task of 
making safe and feasible the building of the 
Panama Canal he was in the same way con- 
fronted with problems that were primarily 
those of environmental sanitation. The re- 
moval of excretal wastes, the purification of 
sewage, the protection of water supplies and 
the elimination of conditions which permit 
the breeding of insect carriers of disease — ■ 
these are always and everywhere the first tasks 
for the public health expert; and in the early 
phases of the public health movement in any 
coimtry it is natural to visualize public health, 
primarily in terms of sanitation. 

There is stiU much to do in this most funda- 
mental branch of public health. That terrible 



scourge of the Middle Ages, typhus fever, 
was only held in control during the war by a 
systematic and organized attempt to destroy 
the louse which carries the parasite of this 
disease; while the infection of bubonic plague, 
the black death of the Middle Ages, has been 
spread broadcast throughout the world during 
the past twenty-five years, and is held in check 
only by a vigorous campaign against the rats, 
ground squirrels, and other rodents which 
harbor the germ of this peculiar pestilence. 
The control of malaria, which takes a heavy 
toll of strength and vitality from the popula- 
tions of our southern states and is estimated 
to cost the nation over $100,000,000 a year, 
is one of the mightiest tasks which confronts 
the sanitarian, but a task which, as the dem- 
onstrations conducted by the International 
Health Board have made clear, is easily within 
the range of practical accomplishment, by 
systematic drainage and other measures taken 
against the mosquitoes which carry the germs 
of this disease. Malaria is with us always, 
but there are many maladies which like yellow 
fever arise from endemic foci in certain par- 
ticular regions of the globe, and thence spread 
wherever the steamship and the railroad train 
can carry their inciting causes. Of recent 
years the bold idea has suggested itself of 
undertaking an offensive against these pri- 
mary endemic foci of disease without wait- 
ing until the invaders cross our own national 
boundaries. In this way General Gorgas has 
carried the war against yellow fever into the 
enemy's own country at Guayaquil, and an 
organized campaign against such disease on a 
basis of world cooperation, perhaps through 
the agency of the International Red Cross, is 
full of promise of achievement in the future. 
There is much then to be done in the field 
of environmental sanitation, yet as the public 
health movement progresses the tasks of sani- 
tation in the narrow sense are gradually ac- 
complished and therefore become relatively 
less important. Constant attention is of 
course required to maintain the environment 
in a healthful condition, but in most civilized 
communities, in temperate climates, environ- 
mental sanitation has become a matter of 
routine, and the pestilences spread by polluted 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



25 



water and by insect carriers have ceased to 
figure as important factors in the death rate. 

As the aims of sanitation are approximately 
realized in a given community, the attention 
of the health official turns from the water- 
borne and insect-borne diseases to the more 
subtle and more baffling maladies that are 
spread by direct contact from one individual 
to another. As typhoid, cholera, plague and 
typhus fever approach the vanishing point, 
measles, pneumonia and influenza become 
relatively more and more important. The 
control of community infections tends to re- 
place the sanitation of the environment in the 
first rank of public health problems. The pre- 
dominating tasks in this phase are tasks for 
the bacteriologist rather than for the engineer. 

The leaders of the public health movement 
in the United States fifteen years ago were 
concerned primarily with problems of this 
sort. Their interest lay in the detection of 
incipient cases and of well carriers — those in- 
dividuals who while in normal health them- 
selves are cultivating and distributing from 
their bodies the germs of specific commu- 
nicable diseases — in isolation, in bedside dis- 
infection, in the breaking by any possible 
means of the vicious circle which transfers 
the discharges of the infected individual to 
the mouth or nose of the susceptible victim. 

In the case of certain of the acute com- 
municable infections we are fortunately able 
to invoke another weapon against our mi- 
crobic enemies, by the prophylactic or thera- 
peutic use of vaccines and immune sera, 
and so far the production of artificial im- 
munity against attacks of the microbes of dis- 
ease has proved on the whole more effective 
than our attempts at breaking the chain of 
contagion by isolation and disinfection. 
Smallpox, for example, has dwindled from the 
position of the chief pestilence menacing the 
human race to almost the condition of a med- 
ical curiosity, solely and directly as a result 
of the use of vaccine. Typhoid fever has been 
practically eliminated from the army by an 
analogous procedure. Antitoxic serum has 
placed the control of diphtheria within our 
grasp and diphtheria persists as a cause of 
death simply because of the failure to recog- 



nize the disease with sufficient promptness 
and to apply the protective measures at our 
disposal. 

In general this second or bacteriological 
phase of the public health movement, while 
it can boast such remarkable achievements as 
those to which reference has just been made, 
is stiU far from the complete success which 
has attended the applications of environmental 
sanitation. It may be stated with some con- 
fidence that there is not one of the diseases 
originating in the non-living environment 
which we do not know how to control and 
which it is not entirely practical to control, 
given adequate funds and personnel. Before 
some of the contact-borne diseases on the 
other hand we still stand almost helpless. We 
may be able to reduce the death rate from 
pneumonia by the use of protective vaccines, 
but there has been as yet no actual victory won 
sufficiently clear to admit of statistical dem- 
onstration. We can do much to mitigate the 
after effects of infant paralysis, but we have 
no effective method of controlling its spread. 
Before the ravages of a pandemic of influenza, 
such as swept the world in 1918, we are still 
practically without defense. Sanitarians have 
been accustomed to quote with horror the fact 
that bubonic plague killed 6,000,000 people in 
India during a period of ten years. Influenza 
carried off more than this number of persons 
in India in the four autiunn months of 1918, 
and if this should happen again next year we 
should still be powerless to help. 

There is much then to be done in the fleld 
of the community infections, many problems 
yet to be solved by the bacteriologist and 
serologist, before this group of diseases will 
pass under our control. Yet the suppression 
of community infections, like the sanitation of 
the environment, is but a part of the broad 
public health movement of the present day. 
The task of the health officer is to save lives, 
and to save as many lives as possible, by the 
intelligent application of the resources placed 
at his disposal. If he be wise he will direct 
his energies and his appropriations according 
to the indications derived from a study of 
vital statistics. He will apply his resources 
at a point where the greatest number of lives 



26 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



can be saved with the least expenditure of 
effort. From this standpoint there are two 
aspects of the public health program which 
tend, and rightly tend, to overshadow all the 
rest, the campaigns against infant mortality 
and tuberculosis. These are the two lines of 
endeavor which promise the largest results in 
actual life saving; and in both these fields of 
effort the part played by sanitation and 
bacteriology in the narrow sense is a relatively 
small one. We can reduce infant mortality 
by the pasteurization of milk, by the elimina- 
tion of flies, and by protecting the baby from 
contact with infected persons; but these are 
after all incidents in a broad program which 
involves the education of the mother in the 
whole technique of infant care, feeding, cloth- 
ing, airing and bathing. What we are really 
aiming at is a reform in personal hygiene. 

The campaign against tuberculosis offers 
another illustration of the same general prin- 
ciple. We can do something by providing a 
sanitary environment in which the worker is 
protected against vitiated air and harmful in- 
dustrial dusts. We can do something by con- 
trol of the careless consumptive and the con- 
sequent reduction of the menace of specific in- 
fection. Our main weapon against tuberculo- 
sis is, however, again, the weapon of personal 
hygiene. The principal machinery upon which 
we rely is designed to detect the early case 
and to impose upon the individual in the 
home or in the sanatorium a regimen of daily 
living that will make it possible for his own 
tissues to wage a winning fight against the 
invading microorganisms. Once more the 
problem is primarily a problem in the personal 
conduct of the individual life, and we see 
the teacher of personal hygiene emerging as 
a supremely important factor in the present- 
day compaign for public health. 

According to the Director of the Census the 
five principal causes of death in the Registra- 
tion Area of the United States for 1916, with 
the number of deaths caused by each were as 
follows : 

Heart diseases 114,000 

Tuberculosis 101,000 

Pneumonia 98,000 



Bright 's disease 75,000 

Cancer 58,000 

Of these five causes of death there are two, 
pneumonia and tuberculosis, in which the sani- 
tation of living and work places, the isolation 
of the infected individual, and in the case of 
pneumonia, the use of sera and vaccines do 
play an important part. Even with tdbercu- 
losis and pneumonia, however, education in 
personal hygiene fills a large place in the mod- 
ern preventive campaign. Heart disease and 
nephritis may of course often be the end re- 
sults of bacterial infections, but the immediate 
problem of their control is not to be sought 
along conventional sanitary and bacteriolog- 
ical lines. In the past they have indeed been 
considered as beyond the range of control 
measures of any kind. With these diseases too 
it seems clear, however, that education in per- 
sonal hygiene offers large possibilities of effec- 
tive results. If the weakness of the heart or 
arteries be known in time the adoption of 
proper rules for daily living can at least post- 
pone the fatal result, if it can not effect or- 
ganic cure. 

It is for these reasons that the public health 
campaign of the present day has become pre- 
eminently an educational campaign. There are 
those who maintain that because the public 
health authority alone possesses the power to 
enforce regulations with the strong arm of the 
law such authorities should confine themselves 
to the exercise of police power, leaving educa- 
tional activities to develop under the hands of 
private agencies. The actual amount of life- 
saving that can be accomplished by purely re- 
strictive methods is, however, small, and such 
exercise of police power as may be necessary 
can only gain in effectiveness if it forms an 
integral part of a general campaign of leader- 
ship in hygienic living. 

We have now added to the function of the 
sanitarian and the bacteriologist that of a 
new figure in the public health campaign, the 
teacher of personal hygiene; but we can not 
stop here if we are prepared to follow the 
courageous public health official in his determi- 
nation to adopt whatever machinery may prove 



Janttaet 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



27 



necessary for tbe saving of a maximum number 
of lives at a minimum cost. 
I Education in personal hygiene is in part a 
general propaganda applicable to all alike. 
There are certain fundamental principles as to 
food, fresh air, exercise and rest, -which every 
one should know in order to manage wisely the 
delicate physical machine entrusted to his 
charge. Unfortunately, however, each living 
machine is in some respects different from 
every other living machine, and in many cases 
deviations from the normal are so marked that 
they demand fundamental modifications in the 
regimen of daily life. The man with the weak 
heart needs less exercise, the man with weak 
lungs more air and more rest, the man with 
diabetes a special kind of food. In addition to 
the hygiene for the normal, which we may 
teach to all, there is a hygiene for the abnormal 
which requires an adaptation to each specific 
case. But it is obvious that the teaching of 
this kind of hygiene demands first of all an 
individual diagnosis. We are here face to face 
with the problem of the relation of the physi- 
cian to the modern public health campaign. 

In the past a sharp line was drawn between 
the measures taken by pulblic health authori- 
ties to check the spread of epidemic disease 
and the daily routine of the practitioner in the 
treatment of the individual case. The first was 
public health, the second private medicine. 
With the passing of every year it becomes 
harder to draw such a sharp line, more difficult 
to say where public health should end and pri- 
vate medicine begin. The history of medical 
school inspection offers an excellent example of 
the tendency to obliterate such arbitrary lines. 
The physician was first sent into the schools in 
Boston in 1894 to perform a definite police 
function, to detect cases of communicable dis- 
ease and by so doing to protect one child 
against the danger from another. If it had 
been proposed at that time to organize clinics 
for free treatment of disease among school 
children, the proposal would probably have 
been denounced as socialism of the most dan- 
gerous kind. Just so soon, however, as the 
physicians began actual work in the classroom 
they found that acute infections passing from 



one individual to another played but a smaU 
part in the total burden of preventable disease 
borne by the children in the schools. They 
found defects of teeth, defects of vision, defects 
of hearing, enlarged glands. Nine tenths of 
the time of the school inspector of to-day is 
devoted to problems of this kind. He is no 
longer protecting one child against another. 
He is helping each child to attain its maxi- 
mum possibilities of health and efficiency. 

The discovery of non-contagious physical 
defects was the first step in bringing the pub- 
lic health movement into intimate contact with 
the individual child. Very soon, however, it 
became evident that the detection of remedi- 
able defects was of little value unless some- 
thing was done to remedy them, and the school 
nurse was drafted into service to follow the 
child into the home and to persuade the par- 
ents to take the measures indicated by the med- 
ical examiner's report. The development of a 
school nursing service as an educational 
agency of this sort resulted in New York City 
in increasing the proportion of defects actu- 
ally treated from 6 to 80 per cent. In a cer- 
tain number of cases, however, a new difficulty 
arose. Remediable defects were present and 
the parents were willing and anxious to have 
them treated, but they were without funds to 
pay for the special medical care that was 
needed. The next step was as logical as the 
preceding ones. It involved the establishment 
of school clinics for the treatment of children 
unable to obtain the necessary care in any 
other way. So, with the establishment of nose 
and throat clinics, eye and ear clinics, dental 
clinics, for the school child the obliteration of 
the line between public health and private 
medicine was well-nigh complete. 

If it is good public policy to provide for the 
school child whatever machinery is necessary 
to make possible the attainment of a reasonable 
standard of physical health, it is difficult to see 
why the same arguments do not apply to the 
adult as well. As a matter of fact exactly the 
same tendencies to provide (a) diagnosis, (fi) 
hygienic advice, (c) treatment when necessary, 
are already manifest in our tuberculosis clin- 
ics and our venereal disease clinics, and are 



28 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



beginning to deyelop in connection even witli 
diseases of the heart and arteries and cancer. 
If it is sound economy to provide for the early 
diagnosis and sanatorium treatment of tuber- 
culosis, it is just as sound to provide for the 
early diagnosis and surgical treatment of 
cancer. The two diseases are equally danger- 
ous, and equally burdensome to the commun- 
ity; they are equally preventable, if the right 
educational and clinical procedures are organ- 
ized for their control. 

From both sides of the artificial boundary 
line between public health and private medi- 
cine comes the appeal for a closer correlation. 
The public health worker needs the physician 
because in so many diseases education depends 
on diagnosis and demands the application of 
medical skill. The far-sighted physician is 
equally eager to link up his science with the 
public health program, because on his side he 
realizes that medicine can never attain its full 
potentialities of service unless it is made really 
preventive through some type of effective pro- 
fessional and social coordination. It is a 
striking fact that in spite of the great advances 
in medical science diseases like heart disease 
and nephritis and cancer, which have been 
handled in the past along strictly medical lines, 
have shown no decrease comparable to that 
which has been manifested in the group of 
maladies with which the sanitarian has dealt. 
This is not because medical science is helpless 
but it is because medical knowledge has gen- 
erally been applied only when disease has gone 
so far that the damage is irremediable. Med- 
ical knowledge will be highly effective only 
when applied in the incipient stages of disease. 
When this comes to pass " preventive medi- 
cine " will become a reality and not merely a 
catch word. 

It is not for us to say to-day in just what 
fashion the reorganization of medical service 
which will make it effective for prevention can 
best be brought about. In the working out of 
such a schenie there must be first of all, within 
the profession itself, effective coordination of 
specialties in clinical and laboratory lines to 
provide the type of expert service which is fur- 
nished by our best hospitals and which no in- 



dividual private practitioner can possibly 
supply. In the second place such organized 
medical care must be made available not 
merely for the very poor and very rich but for 
the entire community, for those who can afford 
to pay the whole or a part of the cost of the 
service they require, and for those who can 
not pay at all. Finally, if medical care is to 
be made reaUy preventive in its ajyplication 
its cost must be so distributed as to encour- 
age systematic recourse to the physician as an 
agent for the detection and control of incip- 
ierit disease, rather than as a last resort when 
illness has become too grievous to be borne. 

There are those who believe that these ends 
may be attained through group medicine and 
it is interesting to notice that very similar ends 
have actually been reached in the nursing field 
through private initiative as manifested in our 
best visiting nurse organizations. There are 
others who claim that medical and nursing 
service can best be provided in connection with 
a plan for sickness insurance and there are 
still others who urge that the insurance prob- 
lem should be handled as a distinct and sepa- 
rate one, and that the early diagnosis and pre- 
ventive care of incipient disease should be at- 
tained through a definite system of state medi- 
cine. 

The working out of the best plan for secur- 
ing such ends as these is a fascinating task for 
the publicist of the future, and it is quite pos- 
sible that the problem may be solved in true 
Anglo-'Saxon fashion by no single logical pro- 
cedure but by diverse methods, suited to local 
ends and local circumstances. The remarkable 
developments during the past ten years in the 
field of industrial medicine may have a wide 
bearing on the general solution of our problem 
as a whole. Some 900 different industrial es- 
tablishments employ at this time 1,500 indus- 
trial physicians, and the plant hospitals under 
their chaise, from first-aid dressing stations, 
are developing into educational centers and 
diagnostic clinics and laboratories for the 
study of industrial physiology and vocational 
guidance and rehabilitation. 

We have seen the emphasis of the public- 
health campaign move steadily inward from 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



29 



the environment to the individual. The pri- 
mary interest of the health officer has been 
transferred from the swamp and the dung heap 
to the control of infections and thence to the 
detection of non-contagious physical defects 
and the hygienic guidance of the individual 
living machine. 

In the development of the public health cam- 
paign to the realization of its fullest oppor- 
tunities there is taking place to-day a swing of 
the pendulum backward to a new interest in 
the environment, but an environment of a na- 
ture very different from the simple environ- 
ment with which Simon dealt. General 
Gorgas at Panama fully grasped the signifi- 
cance of the wider and more subtle environ- 
ment which most of us are just beginning to 
glimpse as an essential problem in the public 
health campaign. He eliminated yellow fever 
and malaria by the drainage of marsh lands, 
but he attempted to deal with pneumonia by 
raising the wages of the employees upon the 
Isthmus, for he realized that in the case of this 
and many other diseases the most effective 
weapon at our disposal is the building up of 
general vital resistance, which depends upon 
the maintenance of a satisfactory social and 
economic level. 

Dr. Emmett Holt has said that there are two 
causes of infant mortality — ^poverty and ig- 
norance. In the infant welfare movement, the 
anti-tuberculosis campaign and every other 
field of public health, we come sooner or later 
to a realization of the fact that education and 
medical and nursing service, while they can ac- 
complish much, can not cope successfully with 
the evil effects of standards of living too low 
to permit the maintenance of normal physical 
health. 

As I have elsewhere pointed out, in the 
Johnstown survey, Miss Duke tells us that the 
infant mortality in one ward was 271 deaths 
per 1,000 births against 134 for the city as a 
whole and 50 for the ward which showed the 
lowest rate and the explanation is that " this 
is where the iworest, most lowly persons of the 
community live — families of men employed to 
do the unskilled work in the steel mills and the 
mines." Dr. Sydenstricker and his associates 



in the TJ. S. Public Health Service in a report 
on the relation between disabling sickness and 
family income among cotton mill operatives in 
South Carolina find that a monthly income 
equivalent to less than $12 ■per person (on an 
adult male unit basis) the sick rate was YO.l 
per 1,000 ; with an income between $12 and $14 
it was 48.2 per 1,000 ; with an income between 
$16 and $20 it was 34.4, and with an income of 
$20 and over it was 18.5. 

We can conclude from these figures and from 
many similar investigations that poverty and 
sickness are closely correlated. We can not 
conclude that the poverty is responsible for 
the excess of sickness. In some instances the 
relation of cause and effect may be reversed.- 
In other cases both poverty and disease may be 
due to underlying inheritance. People do not 
usually live in the poorest quarters of a city 
or work at its underpaid employments by 
choice or by accident. In general, and on the 
average, we shall find in such districts and 
such employments a concentration of tubercu- 
lous stock, of alcoholic stock, of feeble-minded 
stock — poor protoplasm and a bad environment 
supplementing each other in a vicious circle. 

No one can perhaps tell just how far 
poverty in such cases is the real and effective 
cause of the failure to achieve and maintain 
a normal standard of physical health. It is 
clear, however, that there is a certain standard 
of income below which the maintenance of 
health is impossible; and it seems reasonably 
sure from the studies of Eoyal Meeker, of the 
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, that a cer- 
tain not inconsiderable proportion of the 
population of the United States has to-day a 
family income below that figure. 

If an initially normal family can not gain 
a livelihood adequate for its minimum phys- 
ical needs, there is evidently a problem of 
social readjustments which our nation must 
face as a fundamental of post-war reconstruc- 
tion; but what shall we say of the family 
which on account of inherent physical or 
mental defects is unable to reach a minimum 
level under a wholly fair and equable basis of 
compensation? There are but two alterna- 
tives as I can see it; since the moral sense 



30 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



of mankind repudiates the rigorous applica- 
tion of the principle of unhindered natural 
selection. We can let the combination of de- 
fective protoplasm and crippling environment 
accomplish the major portion of its work and 
then salvage what we can from the wreck by 
some form of institutional relief. Or we can 
apply our social energy and our community 
fimds to make good the deficiencies in the 
beginning. I have little doubt as to which 
will be found in the long run the cheaper way, 
and I am quite certain that the preventive 
method will prove more conducive to a high 
national morale. 

If the foregoing outline of the problems of 
public health be accepted as correct, it will be 
obvious that the field as thus visualized is no 
small and restricted one. The claim to so 
large a province will be denied by many, 
within, as well as without, the public health 
profession. The logic of the situation and 
the tendencies of social development are, how- 
ever, sweeping the public health movement 
forward to a future of wider possibilities than 
those dreamed of by its own protagonists. If 
we are looking to the future we must conceive 
our subject in terms no smaller than those of 
the following definition: 

Public health is the science and the art of 
preventing disease, prolonging life, and pro- 
moting physical health and efficiency through 
organized community efforts for the sanita- 
tion of the environment, the control of com- 
mimity infections, the education of the indi- 
vidual in principles of personal hygiene, the 
organization of medical and nursing service 
for the early diagnosis and preventive treat- 
ment of disease, and the development of the 
social machinery which will ensure to every 
individual in the community a standard of 
living adequate for the maintenance of health. 

Public health conceived in these terms will 
be something vastly different from the exer- 
cise of the purely police power which has been 
its principal manifestation in the past. 

Even to-day it is still possible to make an 
effective argument for increasing health de- 
partment budgets by showing that appropria- 
tions for the protection of health are in most 
cities far less than those which are made for 



police and fire protection, matters of far leas 
moment in actual possibilities of community 
service. As a matter of fact the police de- 
partment and the fire department furnish 
criteria much too modest for the public health 
department of the futxire. It is rather to edu- 
cation that the possibilities of public health 
should be compared. I look to see om- health 
departments in the coming years organizing 
diverse forms of sanitary and medical and 
nursing and social service in such fashion as 
to enable every citizen to realize his birthright 
of health and longevity. I look to see health 
centers, local district foci for the coordination 
of every form of health activity, scattered 
through our cities, as numerous as the school 
houses of today and as lavishly equipped; 
while the public health services of the city 
and state will constitute a corps of experts 
comparable in size and infiuence to the great 
educational organizations of the present day. 
In the development of the public health 
campaign of the future along such lines as 
these it is obvious that many different experts, 
of fundamentally distinct training, must con- 
tribute their special resources to the common 
task. Ignoring all minor specialties there 
must be at least the following seven types of 
highly qualified persons in this field: 
The physician The epidemiologist 

The nurse The engineer 

The bacteriologist The statistician 

The social worker 
In addition there must be inspectors to 
supervise sanitary conditions, housing condi- 
tions, food stores and the like, for whom no 
special training is provided anywhere in this 
country, but who should be offered brief prac- 
tical courses to fit them for the relatively 
modest duties which their task entails. 
Finally there is the administrator who organ- 
izes and develops the work of all the rest. 
The physician in the public health field 
practises medicine but with a difference, in 
that the goal before his eyes is prevention as 
well as cure, and that he has always in view 
not merely the individual but the community 
as well. In the infant welfare station and 
the school clinic and the tuberculosis dispen- 
sary he visualizes not merely the individual 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



31 



case but its family environment and its pliys- 
ical background. He is constantly striving to 
find the incipient causes of disease and to 
deal with those causes before they reach their 
deadly fruition. He must be much more than 
a physician in order to fulfil this task; for he 
must have a knowledge of bacteriology and 
sanitation, of health administration and sta- 
tistics, above all of social relationships and 
social machinery which the curriculum of 
even the best medical schools can not attempt 
to supply. 

So the public health nurse must be a 
trained nurse skilled in the relief of suffering 
and the bedside care of the sick, but she must 
be much more. Her work is primarily that of 
the health teacher, the messenger who carries 
into the home and interprets to the individual 
mother the gospel of good health. She must 
work largely alone, not under the immediate 
direction of a physician. She must know her 
bacteriology and her physiology, her sanita- 
tion and hygiene, well enough to teach their 
principles to others; and she too must deal 
with the individual, not merely as an in- 
dividual, but as an element in a complex social 
group. 

The bacteriologist in the laboratory and the 
epidemiologist in the field are two more of the 
specialists needed, whose work is concerned 
primarily with the war against the com- 
munity infections. The former offers aids in 
early diagnosis and prepares sera and vaccines 
for the prophylactic and therapeutic treat- 
ment of these diseases; the latter by his 
detective work makes it possible to trace out 
the subtle pathways of infection by which 
they spread from one person to another 
through the complex web of community life. 

The public health or sanitary engineer is 
again an engineer plus. He must have 
mastered the underlying sciences of physics 
and chemistry, of structures and hydraulics, 
and he must also be familiar with the tech- 
nical applications of his art to the particular 
problems of sewage disposal and water supply, 
ventilation, illumination and the like. 

The statistician correlates and analyzes the 
records of births, deaths and illnesses, keep- 
ing an expert finger as it were on the pulse of 



the nation's health. His work is the book- 
keeping of public health, indicating the lines 
of profitable expansion and furnishing us with 
the credit balance of lives saved to the com- 
munity as a result of various public health 
endeavors. 

In the case of each of these experts, and in 
the case of the social worker who is operating 
in the field of public health, there is required 
sound elementary education in some funda- 
mental branch of science with the addition of 
specific training in its applications to the 
field of public health. For the nurse who 
desires to become a public health nurse there 
are offered four-month and eight-month 
courses of special training in public health 
nursing. The physician who desires to be- 
come a public health physician, the engineer 
who desires to become a sanitarian, the bac- 
teriologist who desires to become a public 
health bacteriologist, the social worker who 
desires to apply a fundamental knowledge of 
the principles of social readjustment within 
the field of public health, must similarly 
undergo a special training, if their services 
are to be made promptly and fully available. 
It is for this purpose that our leading univer- 
sities and technical schools offer the Certifi- 
cate in Public Health, which like the Master's 
degree is the equivalent of a year's graduate 
study. The C.P.H. course gives to the med- 
ical graduate the special training needed to 
equip him for the application of medicine in 
the field of public health, and in the same way 
enables men and women who have had college 
training in the fundamentals of bacteriology, 
engineering, sociology or statistics to fit into 
their special places in the general scheme of 
health protection. 

To turn from these special phases of the 
public health campaign to the organization of 
the movement as a whole, it seems probable 
that the ideal public health administrator of 
the future will be the man or woman who has 
been first medically trained and has then 
specialized in a school of public health. If 
I am right in my belief that the public health 
movement of the future will go far in the 
direction of including medical and nursing 
service within its ample bounds, it is clear 



32 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



that a man who has both a medical and a 
public health training will possess peculiar ad- 
vantages as an administrator. It is for this 
reason that the principal eastern universities 
offer the highest degree in this field, the 
Doctor of Public Health, only to medical 
graduates and require that it be earned by 
a rigorous course of two years of academic 
study. 

It will be long, however, before the supply 
of doctors of public health is nearly adequate 
to the demand, and for some time to come ad- 
ministrative positions, as well as laboratory 
and statistical positions, and those concerned 
with social reorganization, will be open to the 
college man or woman of marked ability who 
devotes a single graduate year to study for 
the Certificate in Public Health. 

It can be said with very literal truth of the 
field of public health to-day that the harvest is 
ready and that the laborers are few. On all 
hands there comes to us the call for bacteriol- 
ogists and statisticians, for industrial physi- 
cians and school physicians, for public health 
nurses, and for health officers. The American 
Red Cross is inaugurating a nation-wide cam- 
paign for the development of health centers 
throughout the country. Each one of the thou- 
sands of health -centers to be started under this 
plan will call for an expert personnel which 
does not exist at present. The state of Ohio 
has just conducted a civil service examination 
for a list of candidates for 110 positions as 
full-time health officers within that state, at 
salaries ranging from $3,000 to $6,000 a year, 
with permanent appointment under the civil 
service law ; and it was necessary for the state 
to organize a special course of instruction in 
order to have anything like the number of 
fairly qualified candidates for the responsible 
positions within its gift. 

The science and the art of public health 
have progressed to a point where they can 
render to the public a service to be measured 
in the saving of hvmdreds of thousands of lives 
in this country every year. Public authorities 
and private agencies from one end of the land 
to another are realizing these possibilities of 
service and are ready to provide the necessary 



funds and to give the necessary powers to 
properly qualified experts. The lack in the 
whole scheme of things at the present moment 
is the lack of personnel. As a prominent offi- 
cial of the Rockefeller Foundation said to me 
the other night, " The way they are appropri- 
ating money for public health in the southern 
states frightens me, because we haven't the men 
to send to them to help them spend it wisely." 
We stand, I believe, at the beginning of a new 
phase of human history, a phase in which the 
physical and mental health and efficiency of 
the human being will be transformed by sci- 
ence as the physical background of civiliza- 
tion has been transformed in the past half cen- 
tury. In the name of the need that confronts 
us for the personnel to carry on this work I 
believe we have the right to say boldly to the 
college men and women of America that we 
need them in this great business. We can 
promise to the college graduate, whether his 
leanings be toward work in the laboratory, 
toward sanitation in the field, toward the tasks 
of social propaganda and social reconstruction 
— ^we can promise to the medical student, and 
we can promise to the graduate nurse — ^liiat 
each and all of them will find in the public 
health movement of the future careers which 
will compare favorably in security and in ma- 
terial rewards with the average return which 
is won by the college and medical graduate in 
other fields. Above all we can promise the op- 
portunity of a kind of service which brings a 
satisfaction deeper than any material reward. 
There are great unsolved problems waiting 
for the Pasteurs of the future. Influenza, 
pneumonia, cancer and the rest of the uncon- 
quered plagues will some day yield to the pa- 
tient assault of science, and it may well fall to 
the lot of young men who are entering our 
laboratories to-day to write the obituary of 
these diseases as Walter Reed did that of yel- 
low fever in 1900. Two of Reed's letters to his 
wife after he and his associates had made the 
great discovery that ensured the conquest of 
yellow fever in the ensuing year, are so full 
of the solemn dignity of such a victory that I 
will quote them. 



Januaby 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



33 



Six months ago, when we landed on this island, 
absolutely nothing was known concerning the prop- 
agation and spread of yellow fever — ^it was all an 
unfathomable mystery — ^but to-day the curtain has 
been drawn. 

And later on N^ew Year's Eve, lie wrote: 

Only ten minutes of the old century remain. 
Here have I been sitting, reading that most won- 
derful book, "La Boche on Yellow Fever," 
vmtten in 1853. Forty-seven years later it has 
been permitted to me and my assistants to lift the 
impenetrable veil that has surrounded the causa- 
tion of this most wonderful, dreadful pest of hu- 
manity and to put it on a rational and scientific 
basis. I thank God that this has been accom- 
plished during the latter days of the old century. 
May its cure be brought out in the early days of 
the new. 

Tet we need not wait for any of the great 
discoveries of the future to make the public 
health campaign of the present day hear fruit. 
We want sanitary statesmen as much as in- 
vestigators. We need organizers and propa- 
gandists for the cause of health, capable of 
building wisely the great scheme of health 
protection of the future and of enlisting in its 
support the enthusiastic cooperation of the 
peoples of the earth To the administrator, as 
much as to the investigator comes the con- 
sciousness of a reward for his labors, fuller 
and more immediate than that which can be 
earned in many walks of life, for he can know 
that in a given city in a given year so many 
hundreds or thousands of men and women and 
children are alive and well who would have 
been in their graves except for him. What 
old Sir John Simon said of industrial diseases 
is true of every kind of preventable malady 
which afflicts mankind. 

The canker of . . . disease gnaws at the very root 
of our national strength. The sufferers are not few 
or insignificant. They are the bread winners for at 
least a third part of our population. . . . That 
they have causes of disease indolently left to 
blight them amid their toil ... is surely an in- 
tolerable wrong. And to be able to redress that 
wrong OS perhaps among the greatest opportunities 
for good which human institutions can afford. 
C.-E. A. WiNSLOW 

Tale School of Medicine 



THE ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH^ 

This is an age of organization. Almost 
within the lifetime of some of us the in- 
dustries, with the exception of agriculture, 
have passed in large degree from the individ- 
ualistic to the corporate form. Combinations 
not merely of national but of international 
scope exercise a large measure of control 
over manufacturing and commercial activities, 
while associations of the greatest variety — 
comm.ercial, charitable, reformatory, labor — 
have multiplied until their name is "legion." 
Almost every conceivable calling, from the 
midwife's to the undertaker's, is organized. 

Since science is a product of human 
activity its methods must necessarily be in- 
fluenced by the spirit of the time. In partic- 
ular, the successes of groups of scientiiic men 
in making important contributions to the solu- 
tion of the technical problems raised by the 
entry of the United States into the world war 
has led to an emphasis upon the advantages 
of organization and cooperation in research 
which was very much in evidence at the last 
meeting of this association. This was partic- 
ularly evident, perhaps among the biologists 
where it was, in the words of another, " the 
dominant note," but the same note has been 
sounded by various prominent writers both 
before and since that meeting. It seems 
desirable, therefore, in view of this apparently 
strong trend of both public and scientific 
opinion, to inquire somewhat carefully into 
the extent to which it is justified and as to 
the probability that a more complete organi- 
zation of research will enable it to render 
more efficient public service. In attempting 
to do so I shall, of course, have reference 
particularly to agricultural research — im- 
plicitly if not explicitly. 

In the early history of science, research was 
necessarily upon an almost purely individual- 
istic basis. Men of genius here and there 
were laying the foundations of the present 
amazing superstructure not only without 

1 Address of the viee-ipresident and chairman of 
Section M — Agriculture, American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, St. Louis, December, 
1919. 



34 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



public support but subject soraetimes to scorn 
and even persecution but more often to an 
indifference not reaching tbe level of con- 
tempt. By slow degrees, however, it began 
to dawn upon the public that the investiga- 
tions of these dreamers really had some sig- 
nificance for the practical conduct of life. 
Very gradually at first, but with an accele- 
rated velocity as time went on, the scientist 
came to be recognized as a useful member of 
society although even yet he seems too often 
regarded in the light of a sort of "medicine 
man " who can be called upon to work 
magical incantations in times of need or peril 
or as a magician who, by some sort of leger- 
demain, can accomplish the seemingly im- 
possible. 

Along with this growing recognition of the 
'economic and commercial value of its results, 
■scientific research began in time to be re- 
garded more and more as a public function 
:and to be more or less adequately supported, 
•either by private endowment or notably by 
-governmental action. The latter has been 
especially the case with agricultural research. 
I need not rehearse to this audience the 
familiar story, beginning with the foundation 
of the first public experiment station at 
Moeckem in 1852, the growth of the Eu- 
ropean experiment stations, the founding of 
the early American stations by state action, 
the enactment of the Hatch and Adams Acts, 
the increasing appropriations by the states 
and the enormous growth of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. For agricultural 
research it has been a period of expansion and 
organization upon an unprecedented scale 
and it is scarcely to be wondered at that the 
real nature of the end aimed at was some- 
times lost sight of in the consideration of the 
means by which it was to be reached nor that 
the proper freedom of research should have 
been in some degree menaced, on the one 
hand by bureaucratic administration and on 
the other by the pressure for immediately use- 
ful results. 

It is unnecessary to remind you that this 
tendency gave rise to a wholesome reaction. 
For several years it appeared necessary to 
stress the fundamental significance of the in- 



itiative and independence of the individual 
investigator but by the time the United States 
entered the war it may be said that this view 
had received fairly general recognition and 
there was perhaps a tendency to excessive 
individualism and a certain lack of coordina- 
tion and cooperation in agricultural research. 

"With our entry into the war began a new era 
in scientific activity as well as in world poli- 
tics. Urgent war needs led to a concentration 
of scientific effort upon special problems of the 
most varied character and to a degree of co- 
operation and coordination imtil then un- 
known. The results were almost spectacular 
and as a natural consequence there has come 
a revival of interest in cooperative work and 
the demand for better organization of re- 
search which has already been referred to. 
Probably the most conspicuous as well as the 
most familiar example of this is found in the 
statement made by The Hon. Elihu Eoot be- 
fore the Advisory Committee on Industrial 
Research of the National Research Council.^ 
He says: 

Scientific men are only recently realizing that the 
principles which apply to success on a large scale 
in transportation and manufacture and general 
staff work apply to tiem; that the difference be- 
tween a mob and an army does not depend upon 
oeoupafcion or purpose but upon human nature; 
that the effective power of a great number of sci- 
entific men may be increased by organization just 
as the effective power of a great number of labor- 
ers may be increased by military discipline. 

All other (than very great) minds need to be 
guided away from the useless and towards the use- 
ful. That can be done only by the application of 
scientific method to science itself through the 
purely scientific process of organizing effort. 

It remains to be seen whether peoples thoroughly 
imbued with the ideas and accustomed to the tra- 
ditions of separate private initiative are capable of 
organizing scientific research for practical ends as 
effectively as an autocratic government giving di- 
rection to a, docile and submissive people. 

Similarly Whetzel' writes: 

2 SciENOE, November 29, 1919. 
8 Science, July 18, 1919. 



Januakt 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



35 



The fact remains that while the rest of man- 
kind has gone far along the way which we (the 
scientific men) have discovered and pointed out we 
still remain largely isolated and intrenched in the 
feudal towers of our individualism. Here behind 
moat and wall we shape and fashion those intel- 
lectual darts with which at our annual tourneys we 
hope to pierce the haughty pride of some brother 
baron. Yet common sense, the common good, the 
very progress of our profession demands that we 
abandon this ancient outworn attitude. 

And Coulter^ says : 

Our isolated, more or less competitive investiga- 
tions have resulted in a certain amount of progress ; 
but it has been very slow compared with what co- 
operation would have secured. 

Nor do the advocates of organization lack 
apparently convincing examples of success in 
scientific cooperation. 'Not to speak of the 
striking wartime achievements in the applica- 
tions of chemistry, physics and engineering, 
one may name such typical illustrations in 
the field of agriculture as those cited by 
Shear,^ namely, the cooperative work of sev- 
eral bureaus of the Department of Agricul- 
ture upon the chestnut blight problem and 
upon the spoilage of fruits and vegetables in 
transit and especially the work of the War 
Board of the American Society of Phyto- 
pathologists, while in a related field the work 
of the Interallied Scientific Food Commission, 
although cut short by the German collapse, 
may also be cited. Shear speaks of this trend 
cooperation as a " tide in the affairs of men." 

But not withstanding all these emphatic 
dicta, may it not be well to call a moment's 
halt to consider whither this tide is carrying 
us and whether it really " leads on to for- 
tune." May there not be a certain danger of 
overlooking the significance of the individual ? 
We must beware of being stampeded by the 
brilliant successes of the war time into an 
undue exaltation of the virtues of cooperation 
and organization. Both are doubtless very 
valuable but many of their ardent advocates 
seem to overlook the fact that the recent highly 
successful essays in cooperation which they 
emphasize were chiefly directed to the solu- 

■« Science, April 18, 1919. 

5 Scientific Monthly, October, 1919, p. 342. 



tion of immediate technical problems by the 
application of knowledge acquired largely by 
individual research. The striking results of 
war-time cooperation were very largely of the 
nature of inventions rather than of discover- 
ies. The achievements in sound-ranging, in 
ballistics, in submarine detection, in aviation, 
in gas warfare, in the control of plant dis- 
eases and the like were possible only as the 
fruition of long and patient researches into 
the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, 
and biology conducted quietly by individuals 
or by little groups without public notice or 
applause. It is just as true to-day as it ever 
was that the permanent and significant ad- 
vances of science depend in the last analysis 
on the initiative and originality of individ- 
uals. ITothing can alter this fundamental 
fact. 

But on the other hand the fullest recogni- 
tion of the paramount importance of the in- 
dividual investigator should not blind us to 
the great significance of the experiences of 
the last few years. Let us first consider what 
they teach us as to the sort of problems best 
suited for cooperative effort. What is the 
field of cooperation as contrasted with in- 
dividualism ? 

As just noted, the problems of war-time co- 
operation were largely the problems of prac- 
tise and it is these practical problems which 
seem to offer the greatest opportunity for co- 
operation. Such problems, however, consti- 
tute one extreme of an intergrading series 
whose other extreme is the problems of so- 
called " pure " science. Using Coulter's^ 
terminology and speaking of the former as 
superficial and of the latter as fundamental 
problems, it may be said that in general as 
we pass from the superficial toward the funda- 
mental, cooperation becomes a less and less 
promising method for research. Usually the 
best thing that can be done for the man of 
scientific vision, who is capable of the most 
fundamental kind of research, is to supply 
him with the necessary equipment and facili- 
ties and then let him alone. Committees and 
cooperators are in danger of being hindrances 
rather than helps. Comparatively few of us 

6 Science, April 18, 1919, p. 365. 



36 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



can be ranked in that class, however. The 
majority of investigators must be content to 
be journeymen rather than master builders 
on the edifice of science and the rate of prog- 
ress of the structure depends very largely on 
the persistent, conscientious work of the ordi- 
nary investigator. The advance of science as 
a whole is, after all, a rather prosaic affair, 
including a vast amount of drudgery and 
requiring patient " plugging " rather than 



Furthermore, the problems of more imme- 
diate importance to mankind are often the 
less fundamental ones or those near the 
middle of the series. It is for the more super- 
ficial or practical problems and for the ordi- 
nary investigator that organized cooperation 
seems most promising. It is investigators of 
this type, possessing varying degrees of initia- 
tive and inspiration, who can profit most 
largely by mutual association, particularly in 
connection with the more superficial prob- 
lems, while it is in this type of investigation 
that the initiative and inspiration of the in- 
dividual is at once most significant and most 
in danger of being suppressed. They, more 
than the genius, need the inspiration and 
stimulus to initiative which comes from close 
contact with their fellow workers. 

Another class of problems in which co- 
operation seems especially called for are those 
requiring the application of diverse branches 
of science. Such was notably true of many 
war problems and is perhaps particularly the 
case with the larger agricultural problems of 
a more or less practical nature — especially 
regional problems such as the development of 
farming in the semi-arid regions, the study 
of plant diseases or, in a different field, such 
questions as sewage disjiosal. 

In brief the teaching of our war experi- 
ences, as I see it, is that our rate of future 
scientific progress will depend, not exclusively 
upon cooperation on the one hand nor upon 
individualism on the other but upon a wise 
combination and adjustment of the two in 
varying proportion according to the nature of 
the problem attacked and the abilities of the 
investigators concerned. 

Granting the truth of this view, a second 



fundamental question is, " How can coopera- 
tive effort, where desirable, be most efficiently 
organized ? " 

Substantially three things are to be effected. 
First, that effort shall be directed to really 
significant and fundamental problems. The 
issues of civilization are too vast for us to 
lapse into dilettanteism. Second, that the 
methods employed shall be soimd, so that 
effort may not be frittered away in empirical 
experiments leading nowhere. Third, to 
secure that stimulus to zeal and persistence 
which comes from association in a common 
cause. 

How can these objects be realized? How 
can we gain the advantages of association 
and cooperation without sacrificing that init- 
iative of the individual upon which, in the 
last analysis, the efficiency of even practical 
research depends. I think we should all agree 
that this can not be effected by any such 
bureaucratic or even military organization as 
would seem to be contemplated by the words 
of some writers — notably by Mr. Hoot in the 
passages which I have quoted. Let me re- 
peat a single phrase: 

That the effective power of a great number of 
scientific men may be increased by organization just 
as the effective power of a great number of laborers 
may be increased by military discipline. 

Such expressions as these, like a certain 
notorious report on academic efficiency, if 
taken at their face value, betray an almost 
ludicrous misconception of the conditions of 
productive scientific activity and are partic- 
ularly surprising in a man of Mr. Roofs 
breadth of view, who in the same statement 
has shown so clear an appreciation of the 
value of abstract research. Organization of 
this sort may serve for a works laboratory 
doing routine control work or perhaps for the 
law offices of a great firm but we can not 
stimulate scientific investigation by stran- 
gling personal initiative. The question is 
how investigation can be coordinated without 
destroying the individuality of the investi- 
gator. This can not be done by laying down 
hard and fast plans involving any sort of 
factory system of division of labor. 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



37 



And yet, as I have tried to make clear, 
reason-able cooperation and coordination in re- 
search offer possibilities for greatly increasing 
the rate of scientific progress. Individualism 
and cooperation must not be antagonists but 
yokefellows in the chariot of science. What 
then shall be the binding force which shall 
fuse these two ideas ? Precisely the same that 
held together the various groups of scientific 
men during the war, viz. ; the tie of a common 
interest and a common purpose. I have com- 
pared the great body of investigators to jour- 
neymen but this does not mean that they 
are merely " hands." They are self-directed 
workers and therefore any organization of 
them must be democratic. They are all 
partners in the enterprise and sharers in its 
profits. The men who worked together almost 
night and day to devise eiScient gas masks 
or means of submarine detection or methods 
of sound ranging were not workmen under the 
orders of a superior, but free associations of 
scientists with training in common or related 
fields of research and under the inspiration of 
a common patriotism. Precisely this is what 
is needed to achieve the victories of peace. 
Effective cooperation can not be imposed from 
above by administrative authority but can 
only come by free democratic action of in- 
vestigators themselves. In saying this I am 
not charging administrators with either in- 
difference or incompetency. The difficulty lies 
in the nature of things. There must be the 
will to cooperate. 

We may, I think, distinguish two distinct 
forms of cooperative organization which we 
may call for convenience institutional organi- 
zation and subject-matter organization. 

In the agricultural field, at least, much em- 
phasis has been laid in the past upon insti- 
tutional cooperation as between different ex- 
periment stations, between the stations and 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and to 
some extent at least between some of the 
bureaus of the latter department. Much 
anxiety has been expressed over the real or 
supposed duplication of work by the state 
stations and Section 3 of the Hatch Act seems 
to contemplate more or less coordination of 
experiments. It is within the memory of 



some present, too, that the first conception of 
the Office of Experiment Stations was that of 
a central directing agency. While this idea 
was early abandoned, numerous voluntary 
efforts toward the coordination of projects 
have been attempted through committees of 
the Association of Colleges and Experiment 
Stations, one recent suggestion, that of a sort 
of Agricultural Research Council, constitu- 
ting more or less of a reversion to the early 
conception of the Office of Experiment 
Stations. 

On the whole, however, it may be doubted 
whether the results reached in this way have 
been commensurate with the conscientious 
and praiseworthy efforts put forth by the ex- 
periment stations and the Department of 
Agriculture. These institutions and to a 
large degree the individual bureaus largely go 
their own way, with the exception in the case 
of the stations of the restrictions involved in 
the approval of projects by the Office of Ex- 
periment Stations, and this condition seems 
likely to continue. 

Meantime the various forms of war work 
have afforded striking illustrations of the 
success of the second type of cooperative 
effort, viz., cooperation by subject-matter. 
The significant lesson of war-time organiza- 
tion is the efficiency with which scientific men 
in the same field have got together, largely 
independent of institutional or administrative 
subdivisions. I believe that this same prin- 
ciple can be applied to the more fundamental 
research problems — that scientific men may to 
advantage organize in this way, forming 
group or regional conferences which might 
be especially profitable for those living in 
somewhat isolated localities and not in such 
ready contact with their fellows as is the case 
with those situated on the Atlantic seaboard. 
Such free conferences, formulating the com- 
mon judgment of workers in identical or re- 
lated fields can scarcely fail to furnish both 
guidance and inspiration for the progress of 
research. In brief, I believe we can very 
effectively promote research by consultation 
and conference of those interested in partic- 
ular subjects or groups of subjects. We 
should thus have a loose organization at right 



38 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



angles, so to speak, to the administrative 
organization, which would bring the collective 
judgment of experts to bear upon the choice 
of scientific problems and upon the adoption 
of adequate methods for their solution and 
which would not be in any sense antagonistic 
to the official organization. 

Much progress has already been made in 
this direction. For example The American 
Society of Animal Production has formulated 
a valuable set of standard methods for the 
conduct of feeding experiments, while the 
very effective work of the "War Board of the 
American Society of Phytopathologists is 
familiar to us all and still another illustration 
is the Association of Southern Agricultural 
Workers. But the most significant and com- 
prehensive achievement in the organization of 
American research is one which has been 
prominently before the scientific public and 
with which we are all familiar, viz; the Na- 
tional Eesearch Council. From the point of 
view advocated in this paper its organization 
is peculiarly significant because it was effected 
by the voluntary initiative of the investiga- 
tors themselves and because, therefore, it is 
thoroughly democratic in form and has been 
careful both in its initiation and development 
to conserve the individuality of the research 
men. The past successes of this wise combi- 
nation of organization and individualism 
demonstrate its essential soundness and con- 
stitute the best guarantee of its future 
achievements. 

Henry Prentiss Armsby 

The Pennsylvania State College 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

CONFERENCE OF BRITISH RESEARCH 
ASSOCIATIONS 

A CONFERENCE of research associations — the 
second of a series — organized by the British 
Department of Scientific and Industrial "Re- 
search, was held according to Nature on 
December 12 in the lecture-theater of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers. The Eight 
Hon. A. J. Balfour, Lord President of the 
Cotmcil, appropriately presided, the Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Eesearch 



being a committee of the Privy Council. Mr. 
Balfour, who was warmly greeted on his first 
public appearance in his capacity of head of 
the department, delivered a short introductory 
address on the national need for scientific 
research, especially in its application to in- 
dustry. Three points emphasized by Mr. Bal- 
four were that, though man does not live by 
bread alone, the amelioration of the material 
lot of mankind can come only through prog- 
ress in scientific knowledge; that we must not 
imitate, but follow the example of the Ger- 
mans in realizing a helpful and close alliance 
between science and industry; and that in 
the prosecution of this aim the paramount 
interests of pure science must not be over- 
looked. Papers were afterwards read by 
Major H. J. W. Bliss, director of the British 
Eesearch Association for the Woollen and 
Worsted Industries, on " Eesearch Associa- 
tions and Consulting Work and the Collection 
and Indexing of Information," and by Dr. W. 
Lawrence Balls on " The Equipment of Ee- 
search Laboratories." There was a general 
discussion on the subject-matter of the two 
papers, from which it was clear that, although 
there is a large common measure of agree- 
ment among the different associations, there 
is also enough variety of circumstance and 
character to make it desirable for each asso- 
ciation to work out its own salvation in many 
problems of organization and method. It is 
the intention of the Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Eesearch to continue period- 
ically these conferences of research associa- 
tions. As the department, in fostering the as- 
sociations, is engaged La a novel adventure in 
government enterprise, the research associa- 
tions have to set sail on uncharted seas, with- 
out maps or precedent experience to guide 
them, and these periodical conferences must 
be of great help to them in mapping out their 
courses and taking their soundings. 

THE MEDICAL STRIKE IN SPAIN 

The Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation states that the town of Jerez de la 
Frontera, which has a world reputation on ac- 
count of its famous wines, has just witnessed 
the first general strike of physicians. This 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



39 



strike originated because the municipal au- 
thorities, disregarding all statutory provisions 
and trusting to political influence, failed to 
keep their pledges, and the salaries due the 
employees finally amounted to 1,000,000 pese- 
tas (about $200,000). When the physicians be- 
came tired of seeing that, in this period of 
better compensation for labor, they were the 
only ones who could bring home the wages 
they had earned, they unanimously decided to 
go out on strike. The mayor and the members 
of the town council were very indignant at 
this action, their arguments running somewhat 
as follows : " It is very strange that the physi- 
cians should be so rebellious, and especially 
now, when the town council has just spent sev- 
eral thousand dollars for celebrations and bull 
fights, thus showing our desire to please the 
people and attract foreigners. The physicians 
do not bear in mind the fact that we can not 
pay their salaries, since to do so would be to 
show partiality in their favor; in a place where 
no one is paid, it is an imposition to ask for 
money. If we have spent so much for festivals 
it has been only because the buU fighters and 
actors would not have come otherwise; but 
every one understands that if we could have got 
out of paying them, we would not have paid 
them either." These reasons did not influence 
the physicians, who suspended all official rela- 
tions with the municipal authorities, and who, 
while continuing their care of the poor, refused 
to submit any reports, would not sign any offi- 
cial certificates, or attend the municipal dis- 
pensaries, and let public opinion and the gov- 
ernment decide the matter. At first the local 
authorities threatened the physicians, at whose 
head was Dr. Aranda, one of the most promi- 
nent surgeons of Andalusia. The physicians 
proved adamant against all kinds of pressure 
that was brought to bear on them for over a 
month. At last the government decided to en- 
force the law ; it dismissed the municipal coun- 
cil and appointed new counselors so as to help 
solve the situation. The result has been that 
the physicians will immediately receive one 
half of the amount due them, and the balance 
very shortly. This is the first medical strike 
that ever took place in Spain. It has received 



support not only in the country in general, but 
also at the hands of the government. 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The attention of the Anthropological So- 
ciety of Washington having been called to an 
open letter published in The Nation of De- 
cember 20 by Dr. Franz Boas under the title 
" Scientists as Spies," and after said article 
was read and duly considered, the following 
resolution was adopted and ordered to be sub- 
mitted to the American Anthropological As- 
sociation at its meeting in Boston; to Section 
H of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science meeting in St. Louis; 
and to the Archeological Institute of America 
at its meeting in Pittsburgh, with a request 
that suitable action be taken by these associa- 
tions. Also, that a copy of this resolution be 
sent to The Nation and Science, with a re- 
quest for its publication. 

Resolved: That the article in question unjustly 
criticizes the President of the United States and 
attacks the fundamental principles of American 
democracy; 

That the reflections contained in the article fall 
on all American anthropologists who have been 
anywhere outside the limits of the United States 
during the last five years; 

That the information thus given is liable to have 
future serious effects on the work of all anthropol- 
ogists outside the boundaries of the United States; 
and 

That the accusation, given such prominent pub- 
licity and issuing from such a source, will doubtless 
receive wide attention and is liable to prejudice 
foreign governments against all scientific men com- 
ing from this country to their respective territories, 
particularly if under government auspices; there- 
fore 

Be it resolved, that in the opinion of the council 
of the Anthropological Society of Washington, the 
publication of the article in question was unwar- 
ranted and will prove decidedly injurious to the 
interests of American scientists in general; that 
the author has shown himself inconsiderate to the 
best interests of his American colleagues who may 
be obliged to carry on research in foreign coun- 
tries; and that his action, therefore, deserves our 
emphatic disapproval. 



40 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



BIOLOGICAI. SURVEYS OF STATES BY THE 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRI- 
CULTURE DURING 1919 

"Work in biological investigations of birds 
and mammals by the Bureau of Biological 
Surrey, II. S. Department of Agriculture, and 
cooperating institutions, while somewhat in- 
terrupted by the war, is rapidly getting back 
to normal. The work falls into three prin- 
cipal divisions, namely, investigations of 
habits, distribution, migration, and systematic 
studies of birds, investigation of the habits 
and relationships of mam mala, and natural 
history surveys of the states. This note deals 
with work under the latter head only. 

In Wisconsin the State Geological and ISTat- 
ural History Survey is cooperating with the 
United States Department of Agriculture in 
the work, which is in charge of Dr. Hartley 
H. T. Jackson for the Department of Agri- 
culture, and Professor George Wagner of the 
University of Wisconsin for the State of Wis- 
consin. Work was begun May 15 and con- 
tinued until September 20. The principal 
field of cooperation was the northwestern part 
of the state, special attention being devoted 
to the Apostle Islands in Lake Superior. Mr. 
Harry H. Sheldon for the Biological Survey, 
and Mr. Arthur J. Poole for the Wisconsin 
Survey assisted throughout the season. 

In Montana, Mr. Marcus A. Hanna, as- 
sisted by Mr. Harry Malleis, worked the vaUey 
of the Missouri and the bordering plains and 
mountains from the mouth of Milk Eiver 
westward, under the general direction of Mr. 
Edward A. Preble. The Little Eockies, Moc- 
casin Mountains, Big and Little Belt Moun- 
tains and Castle Mountains were visited dur- 
ing the latter part of the summer. Victor 
IST. Householder was a member of the party 
during the early part of the season. 

The biological survey of Florida was con- 
tinued by Mr. Arthur H. Howell. Field 
studies were carried on during March and 
April over a large part of Lee County and in 
the region around Lake Okeechobee. The 
collections in the Florida State Museum were 
examined and the specimens carefully identi- 
fied. A collection of bird records from 
Florida, both published and unpublished, 



shows approximately 390 species and sub- 
species recorded from the state. 

Cooperating at different times with the Bio- 
logical Survey in field work in the state of 
Washington were the following : Professor 
William T. Shaw, State College of Washing- 
ton, Pullman; Professor H. S. Brode, Whit- 
man College, Walla Walla; Professor J. W. 
Hungate, State Normal School, Cheny; Pro- 
fessor J. B. Flett, National Park Service, 
Longmire; Mr. William L. Finley and Mrs. 
Finley, Portland, Oregon; and Stanton War- 
burton, Jr., of Tacoma. The Biological Sur- 
vey was represented for a part of the time 
by Mr. Stanley G. Jewett, Pendleton, Oregon; 
and throughout the season by Mr. George G. 
Cantwell, PuyaUup, Washington, and Dr. 
Walter P. Taylor, of the Biological Survey, 
the last named in charge of the work. In- 
vestigations were made in the Blue Moun- 
tains area of extreme southeastern Washing- 
ton, in which occurs an unusual mixture of 
Eocky Mountain and Cascade Mountain 
types; and in Mount Eainier National Park, 
in connection vsdth which the circuit of 
Mount Eainier was made for the fijst time, 
so far as known, by any vertebrate zoological 
expedition. 

In North Dakota Mr. Vernon Bailey worked 
through September and October to get data 
on the hibernation of mammals and on the 
stores of food laid up for winter by non- 
hibernating species. He has returned with 
many valuable notes to be added to his report 
on the mammals of the state, and with an 
interesting collection of live rodents for study 
of habits in captivity. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Sm William Osler, regius professor of medi- 
cine at Oxford University, died on December 
29, aged seventy years. 

Dr. L. O. Howard, chief of the Bureau of 
Entomology of the United States Department 
of Agriculture and for twenty-two years per- 
manent secretary of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, was elected 
president of the association at the St. Louis 
meeting. Dr. Edward L. Nichols, who last 



Januakt 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



41 



June retired from the chair of physics at Cor- 
nell University, was elected general secretary 
of the association. The other officers elected 
and a report of the meeting are given elsewhere 
in this issue. 

Dr. Shepherd Ivory Pranz was elected presi- 
dent of the American Psychological Associa- 
tion at the meeting held in Cambridge last 
week. 

Professor Ealph B. Perry, of Harvard 

University, was elected president of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Association at the meeting in 
Ithaca last week. Professor Alfred H. Jones, 
of Brown University, was elected secretary. 

At the Boston meeting of the Paleontological 
Society, officers were elected as follows : Presi- 
dent, P. B. Loomis, Amherst; Vice-presidents, 
C. C. Case, Ann Afbor; Ealph Arnold, Los 
Angeles; E. M. Kindle, Ottawa; Secretary, R. 
S. Bassler, Washington, D. C; Treasurer, 
Richard S. Lull, New Haven; Editor, W. D. 
Matthew, New York. 

At the Society of American Bacteriologists, 
also meeting in Boston, the following officers 
were elected: Dr. Charles Krumweide, of the 
research laboratory of the New York Health 
Department, president; Dr. P. C. Harrison, 
president of the MacDonald College in Mon- 
treal, vice-president; Dr. A. Parker Hitchens, 
of Indianapolis, was reelected secretary-treas- 
urer, and Dr. J. W. M. Bunker was chosen 
assistant secretary, a new position in the or- 
ganization. New members of the council are 
Dr. P. P. Gay, professor of pathology and bac- 
teriology at the University of California, and 
Dr. C. G- Bull, professor of immunology at the 
Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene in Balti- 
more. A committee on national research was 
created, consisting of all the past presidents, 
with Dr. Bunker as executive secretary, and 
Dr. S. C. Prescott, of Boston, as chairman. 

The William H. Nichols medal of the Ameri- 
can Chemical Society will be conferred on Dr. 
Irving Langmuir for his work on " the arrange- 
ment of electrons in atoms and molecules," at 
the March meeting of the New York Section of 
the society. 



The Perkin medal for 1919 has been awarded 
by the American Section of the Society of 
Chemical Industry to Dr. Chas. P. Chandler, 
for his work on the standardization of kero- 
sene. The committee in making the award 
called especial attention also to the work Pro- 
fessor Chandler, as head of the chemistry de- 
partment of the school of mines at Columbia 
University, has done in training men for the 
chemical industry. The medal wiU be pre- 
sented to Dr. Chandler, "dean of American 
chemists," at the regular meeting of the So- 
ciety of Chemical Industry, American Section, 
at the Chemists' Club, New York City, on Jan- 
uary 16. 

Dr. Louis A. Bauer will repeat his illus- 
trated lecture on " The Solar Eclipse of May 
29, 1919, and the Einstein Effect" at the 
Johns Hopkins University, Monday after- 
noon, January 12; at Yale University, under 
the auspices of the Society of Sigma Xi on 
the evening of January 13; and at Brown 
University on the evening of January 16. At 
the stated meeting of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences at Boston on January 
14, he will give an illustrated address on " Ob- 
servations of the Solar Eclipse at Cape 
Palmas, Liberia, and other Stations." 

At the meeting of the Philosophical So- 
ciety of Washington on January 3 the follow- 
ing pajjers were read: Enoch Karrer: I. 
" Diffusion of light in a searchlight beam." 
II. " The contrast sensibility of the eye at low 
illumination." F. E. Wright : " The contrast 
sensibility of the eye as a factor in the re- 
solving power of the microscope." L. A. 
Bauer : " Further results of observations of 
the solar eclipse of May 29. 1919. 

Sir Oliver Lodge delivered the Trueman- 
Wood lecture on " Some Possible Sources of 
Energy," at the Royal Society of Arts on 
December 10. 

We learn from Nature that on December 
10, a memorial tablet with a medallion por- 
trait and a suitable inscription was unveiled 
in memory of Sir Ramsay in the presence of 
Lady Ramsay and a large number of friends 
and members of the University of Glasgow. 



42 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. U. No. 1306 



The address of presentation was delivered by 
Professor Gr. G. Henderson, of the Regius 
chair of chemistry, and the custody of the 
memorial was accepted on behalf of the Uni- 
versity Court by the vice-chancellor. The 
medallion is the work of Mr. Paulin, and is an 
excellent likeness; the design of the memorial 
is due to Sir John J. Burnet. The mural 
tablet is placed at the head of the great stair- 
case leading to the Bute Hall and the Hun- 
terian Museum. It is set in an arched recess 
lined with grey marble, and bears reliefs illus- 
trating Sir William Eamsay's numerous dec- 
orations and honors. 

The trustees of the American Medical As- 
sociation have made an appropriation of 
money to further meritorious research in sub- 
jects relating to scientific medicine and of 
practical interest to the medical profession, 
which otherwise could not be carried on to 
completion. Applications for grants should 
be sent to the Committee on Scientific Ee- 
search, American Medical Association, 535 
North Dearborn Street Chicago, before Feb- 
ruary 1, 1920, when action will be taken on 
the applications at hand. 

We learn from the Journal of the American 
Medical Association that on the initiative of 
Professors Forssner, Forssell, Holmgren and 
Dr. Key, of Stockholm, and Professors Quensel 
and Petren, of Upsala, and Lund, a meeting 
was held recently to organize the Svenska 
Sallskapet for medicinsk forskning to promote 
scientific research in Sweden. Already 169 
members are enrolled and the officers elected. 
They include a number of prominent laymen, 
directors of banks, consuls and others besides 
leading professors in the medical sciences. 
Professor Quensel in the opening address em- 
phasized that the rapidly changing world has 
brought the necessity for new orientations and 
the blocking out of new routes, and he cited the 
saying, "If the human race can be perfected, 
it is in the medical sciences that the means 
for this must be sought." The aim of the new 
society is to provide funds for medical research, 
and the treasury starts with a donation of 
5,000 crowns from a legacy. 



The next annual congress of the Royal In- 
stitute of Public Health, which suspended 
these meetings during the war, is to he held at 
Brussels from May 20 to 24, inclusive, by invi- 
tation of the Burgomaster, M. Adolphe Max. 
Delegates will be invited from all the universi- 
ties, municipalities and other public bodies in 
due course. Meanwhile, all wishing to take 
part should communicate with the Hon. Sec- 
retaries, the Royal Institute of Public Health, 
37 Russell-square, London, W.O. 1. 

The magnetic-survey vessel Carnegie left 
Washington on October 9, on a two year 
cruise of 64,000 nautical miles. She arrived 
at her first port of call, Daker, Senegal, West 
Coast of Africa, on November 23, but owing 
to bubonic plague sailed a few days later and 
is now en-route to Buenos Aires, Argentina, 
arriving there about the end of January. Mr. 
J. A. Fleming, Chief of the Magnetic Survey 
Division of the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, has been designated to represent 
the director of the department in the in- 
spection of the work and vessel at Buenos 
Aires, and he accordingly sailed from New 
York on December 31. The scientific person- 
nel of the present cruise consists of the follow- 
ing: J. P. Ault, in command; H. F. Johnston, 
magnetician, second in command; Russell 
Pemberton, surgeon and observer; A. Thomas, 
H. R. Grummann and R. R. Mills, observers. 

According to the Journal of the American 
Medical Association during a recess in ses- 
sions of the International Conference of 
Women Physicians in New York, thirty-five 
distinguished women physicians from foreign 
countries visited the Johns Hopkins Hospital 
recently and studied facilities at the institu- 
tion. The general program for the day was 
arranged by Dr. Florence R. Sabin, Balti- 
more, who received the delegates. The first 
inspection was of the gynecologic department, 
where Drs. Howard A. Kelley, Guy Hunner 
and Thomas S. Cullen acted as pilots. At 
the Harriet Lane Home, an exhibition of 
children's diseases was prepared. Dr. John J. 
Abel, gave a short address on the general sub- 
ject of physiology, followed by a talk on 
dietetics by E.V. MeCollmn. Dr. George L. 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



43 



Streeter gave a talk on embryology. Luncli- 
eon was served at 1 o'clock, after whicli Dr. 
Adolf Meyer, Head of the Henry Phipps Psy- 
ekiatric Clinic, lectured on tke work of kis 
department. The remainder of the afternoon 
was devoted to a study of the obstetric de- 
partments. 

Professor George C. "Whipple, of Harvard 
University, as kas been noted in Science, has 
been appointed director of the division of 
sanitation in the Bureau of Hygiene and 
Public Health of the League of Eed Cross 
Societies. He has been granted leave of 
absence from Harvard University for the 
second half year and will go to Geneva in 
February, returning to Cambridge in Sep- 
tember, 1920. The organization referred to 
will be virtually the Health Department of 
the League of Nations, and it will offer ex- 
ceptional opportimities for sanitary engineers. 
Heretofore the Red Cross has chiefly engaged 
in relief work. It is now to add to this work 
that of preventing disease by improving sani- 
tary conditions. Professor Whipple is a 
member of the engineering firm of Hazen, 
Whipple & Fuller, ISTew York City. Another 
member of this firm. Colonel Francis F. Long- 
ley, has been appointed associate director of 
the division and will go to Geneva about the 
first of December in order to be ready to 
undertake emergency work in the Balkans 
should typhus fever break out there. 

The fall meeting of the Bureau of Personnel 
Research, which was recently held at the Car- 
negie Institute of Technology, was attended by 
representatives of the following cooperative 
concerns : the American Multigraph Sales Com- 
pany, the American Rolling Mill Company, the 
Burroughs Adding Machine Company, the 
Carnegie Steel Company, the Commonwealth 
Edison Company, Crutchfield and Woolfolk, 
Equitable Life Insurance Company, B. F. 
Goodrich Company, John Hancock Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, H. J. Heinz Com- 
pany, Kaufmann Department Stores, Miller 
Saw-Tri mm er Company, Packard Motor Car 
Company, Philadelphia Company, Phosnix Mu- 
tual Life Insurance Company E. W. Woods 
Company, and The Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company. Dr. Bingham, the 



head of the division of applied psychology of 
the Carnegie Institute of Technology, was one 
of the speakers at the meeting. 

A BILL recently has heen passed by the 
Canadian House of Commons creating a fed- 
eral department of health and providing for a 
minister of health and advisory committee. 
The authority of the department will extend 
to all matters affecting health within the 
jurisdiction of the Dominion of Canada. 

At the recent Bournemouth meeting of the 
British Association for the Advancement of 
Science a meeting was held with the object of 
eliciting opinions as to whether the recently 
formed Scientific Research Association should 
be continued or wound up. Professor A. Gray 
presided over a small attendance. It was ex- 
plained by Mr. A. C. Tansley, the acting sec- 
retary, that the functions of the new associa- 
tion were the establishment of adequate means 
of communication and coordination in science, 
the organization of the endowment for re- 
search, and publicity and propaganda. Cir- 
culars sent out last spring to 2,000 scientific 
people had elicited only 230 replies. There 
appeared to be a certain amount of hostility to 
the association on the part of leading scientific 
men, and there was apathy on the part of the 
general mass of scientific workers. No de- 
cision was arrived at, but Professor Gray said 
that they must press upon already existing 
bodies the desirability of conserving to the 
very utmost the interests of pure science. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

A SCHOOL of public hygiene has been estab- 
lished as a separate department of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. This department, which 
has been under the supervision of the medical 
school, and which was the first school of public 
hygiene in America, will continue under the 
direction of Dr. Alexander C. Abbott as di- 
rector. 

A NEW $150,000 chemisti-y building has been 
completed at the State College of the Univer- 
sity of Montana, Bozeman. Appropriate dedi- 
catory exercises will be held on January 14. 
Professor W. F. Coover, head of the chemistry 
department of the Iowa State College, will de- 



44 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



liver tlie principal address. The occasion of 
the dedication marks the completion of twenty- 
five years of service in the institution by Pro- 
fessor W. M. Cobleig'h, head of the department 
of chemistry. 

Dr. Harold Hibbert has been appointed as- 
sistant professor of chemistry in the research 
department of organic chemistry, Tale TJni- 
versity, !New Haven, Conn. 

Dr. Louis E. Wise has severed his connection 
with E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, 
where he held a research position at their 
Jackson Laboratory, Wilmington, Del., and has 
accepted the position of professor of forest 
chemistry at the N"ew York State College of 
Forestry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. T. 

Dr. Harlan H. York, head of the botanical 
department at Brown University, has resigned 
to take charge of similar work at the University 
of West Virginia, Morgantown, West Virginia. 

Mr. G. H. Hardy, fellow and mathematical 
lecturer of Trinity College, Cambridge, has 
been appointed to the Savilian professorship of 
geometry at Oxford University. 

Dr. John Cruiokshank, pathologist to the 
Crichton Royal Institution, Dumfries, has been 
appointed Georgina M'Eobert lecturer in 
pathology in the University of Aberdeen. 

Professor C. H. Desoh has been appointed 
professor of metallurgy at the University of 
Sheffield, in succession to Professor J. 0. Ar- 
nold. Since September, 1918, Professor Desch 
has been professor of metallurgy in the Royal 
Technical College, Glasgow. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

A SPLENDID SERVICE 

Apart from the eminent contribution 
rendered to science and the Pan-Americaji 
spirit by Dr. Branner in the publication of 
his fine geological map and monograph,^ it is 
a particularly distinguished and generous 
service to common American interests made 
by the Geological Society of America at the 

1 "Outlines of the Geology of Brazil; to accom- 
pany tlie Geologic Map of Brazil," by John Cas- 
par Branner, Bulletin Geological Society of Amer- 
ica, Vol. 30, No. 2, June, 1919. 



expense of its own treasury. Eor the first 
time the Geological Society has ventured so 
far afield and freely invested its resources in 
what might seem at passing glance purely the 
scientific welfare of an alien country; but it 
is not to be denied that the claim of fratern- 
ity had no little to do with the attitude of the 
Geological Society toward this enterprise. 
The bond of geological brotherhood between 
the United States and Brazil has been a long 
and strong one. Out of the little village of 
Aurora on Cajniga Lake, New York, came the 
first impulse toward the establishment of this 
tie, when the generosity of the late E. B. 
Morgan enabled a Cornell professor and some 
of his students in 1871 to begin the systematic 
study of the rock geology of the Amazonas 



Thus started the Brazilian careers of Pro- 
fessor Charles Fred Hartt and his young 
associates, Orville A. Derby, Herbert H. 
Smith and John C. Branner who joined the 
work in 1874, and their labors are now a 
historical part of the development of geology 
on the South American continent. So per- 
haps it is eminently appropriate that an 
American Geological Society should now come 
to the help of one of these pioneers in Brazil- 
ian geology and enable him to summarize and 
commemorate the results of his own and his 
associates' life-long work in that coimtry. 
Dr. Derby became a Brazilian subject; Dr. 
Smith, after a life of rich experience as a 
scientific collector, recently met a tragic end. 
Upon Dr. Branner has fallen the mantle, for 
during his active years he has been a frequent 
visitor to Brazil and an unremitting student 
of her geology. To him thus comes the 
privilege of preparing the first geological map 
of the whole area of that vast cotmtry so far 
as exploration has gone, and of setting forth 
the conclusions drawn by himself and by 
many colleagues and collaborators in this 
great field. 

This note is not intended to be a review or 
critique of Dr. Branner's map. It is a most 
illuminating production, of necessity drawn 
on broad lines and with a few simple explana- 
tory devices, thus intimating at a glance how 
much remains for future students of the 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



45 



science in this fertile land. We applaud the 
author on his achievement; others may ex- 
press this appreciation more analytically; but 
in this paragraph we acclaim the high-minded 
attitude of the Geological Society of America 
in making so wise a use of its money and 
so excellent a contribution to the common 
good of the Pan-American States and to geo- 
logical science. 

J. M. C. 

WEIGHT OF BODY MOVING ALONG EQUATOR 

To THE Editor of Science: A prominent 
engineer, Dr. Carl Herring, recently proposed 
to me the following question : " Does a body 
in motion along the earth's equator weigh 
less (or more) than the same body at rest? " 
Since this question, in some form or other, 
has come up several times in recent dis- 
cussions, the following solution, although en- 
tirely elementary, may be not without interest. 

Let us picture the body as supported by a 
string from the roof of a train running west- 
ward at speed v along the equator, and let 
/S^the tension in the string. 

The question then is: What is the relation 
between S and v ? 

Let T (=1,038 miles per hour) be the ab- 
solute velocity of a point on the earth's 
equator (neglecting the motion of the earth 
in its orbit and the motion of the solar 
system in space). Then V-v is the absolute 
velocity of the train (eastward) in a circular 
path of radius B (== 3,963 miles) . 

Hence, by a well-known formula of kine- 
matics, (V-v)^/R = the absolute acceleration 
of the body toward the center of the earth.^ 

Further, let W = the ordinary weight of the 
body (that is, the value of the supporting 
force S when the train is at rest on the earth's 

1 Dr. Hering 's surprising statement in Science 
for October 24, 1919, implying tha/t engineers do 
not generally recognize the idea of "accelera- 
tion" in a direction perpendicular to the path, is 
not borne out by an eiarrtination of engineering 
text-books, all of which (fortunately) define ac- 
celeration in the standard way as the rate of 
change of vector velocity. For further comment 
on Dr. Hering 's paper, see Professor C. M. Spar- 
row's letter in Science for November 21. 



surface), and g= the ordinary falling ac- 
celeration (that is, the acceleration, with re- 
spect to the earth's surface, with which the 
body would begin to fall, from rest, if the 
supporting string were cut) ; and let E = the 
force with which the earth pulls the body 
toward the center of the earth. Then E-8 = 
the net force acting on the body in the direc- 
tion toward the center. 

Hence, by the fundamental principle that 
forces are proportional to the accelerations 
they produce,^ we have 



whence 



E-S _ {V -v)^JR 
W 



(1) 



To determine E, we note that if v = then 
S = W, so that 

E=W + ^^ = (1.00345) TF. (3) 

gU 



Hence finally, 



«=^{'+S[-('-f)1}- 



(4) 



From these equations we see that as v, the 
westward train-speed, increases from to y, 
the supporting force S will increase from W 
to (1.00345) W, which is its maximum value; 
as V increases from Y to 2V, S will decrease 
again from its maximum value to W; and if 
V is increased further to about 18 V, 8 will 
become zero. 

For reasonable traln-si>eeds, therefore (up 
to one or two thousand miles per hour!), a 
iody moving westward will require an in- 
creased force to support it against falling. 

For example, let « = 60 miles per hour. 
Then if F = l lb., we find £' = 1.000387 lb., 
an increase of about 1/25 of one i)er cent. 

2 Eeasona for preferring the form F/F' = a/a' 
to the form F = ma as the fundamental equation 
of mechanics may be found in two articles by E. 
V. Huntington : ' ' The Logical Skeleton of Elemen- 
tary Dynamics, ' ' American Mathematical Monthly, 
Vol. 24 (1917), pp. 1-16; "Bibliographical Note 
on the tJse of the Word Mass in Current Text- 
Books," ibid., Vol. 25 (1918), pp. 1-15; also in 
controversial papers in Science from December, 
1914, to October, 1917. 



46 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



Of course if the train runs eastward, the 
required supporting force will be less than if 
the train were at rest. In particular, if the 
eastward train-speed is about 16 V, S will be 
zero. 

There are thus two speeds, one westward of 
about 18,700 miles per hour, and one eastward 
of about 16,700 miles i)er hour, at which the 
" weight " of the body as measured by an ob- 
server on the train (that is, the tension in 
the supporting string S) would be zero. 

Edwaed V. Huntington 
Haevard Unxversity, 
November 22, 191& 

AN ODD PROBLEM IN MECHANICS 

To THE Editor of Science : In a recent dis- 
cussion the writer offered the following prob- 
lem which seems to be new and of interest, 
judging from the answers and lack of answers. 

Assuming the earth to be a perfect sphere, 
the net weight of a body on this earth is Gr — 0, 
in which G is the force due to gravity and C 
the centrifugal force due to the rotation of 
the earth. Hence the net weight of a body at 
the equator when moving east at a velocity 
(relatively to the earth) equal to that of the 
surface of the earth, about 1,000 miles per 
hour would be G — 40, that is, less than when 
at rest, while when moving west at the same 
velocity it would be G, that is, greater than 
when at rest. 

If therefore a flywheel were revolved at the 
equator with that circumferential speed and 
in a horizontal plane, the northern part 
moving east, it would seem to follow that it 
will tilt to the south, as the southern half 
should be heavier than the northern half. 
Due to a time lag the tilting might be to the 
southwest. It is here assumed that its gyro- 
scopic tendency to get into a vertical plane 
has been duly counteracted and may be 
neglected. 

Or stated in a different form, suppose a 
light disc be revolved at this speed in a 
vertical plane at the equator, and to have two 
equal symmetrically placed, heavy masses on 
its rim. When the plane of rotation is north 



and south it woidd be dynamically balanced, 
but when that plane is east and west it would 
seem to follow that the masses at the moment 
they are at the bottom would be heavier than 
when at the top and if so the disk would be 
unbalanced dynamically, vibrating with a 
period double that of the period of revolution. 
Its center of gravity would oscillate below its 
center of rotation. 

It is acknowledged to be possible, theoret- 
ically at least, to move a mass so rapidly over 
the earth that G = hence the net weight 
then is zero ; it would then go on encircling the 
earth, if the air friction were eliminated; the 
moon is an illustration. At lower speeds 
therefore there should be a part of this loss 
in effective weight. 

The two cases cited, if the results are as 
described, would afford a basis, theoretically 
at least, for a mechanical compass, like the 
gyroscope compass. 

Oael Heeing 

Philadelphia, 
October 27, 1919 



QUOTATIONS 



SCIENCE AND THE NEW ERA PRINTING 
COMPANY 

Old wood to burn, 
Old books to read. 
Old wine to drink. 
Old friends to cling to. 

It takes a near-millionaire to burn "old 
wood" on his hearth these days; "old books" 
are the delight of the bibliophile, but are poor 
stuff in producing the wherewithal of a print- 
ing establishment; "old wine" will soon be 
only a hollow mockery — 

But " old friends to cling to ! " Ah ! there is 
the kernel, the gem that glitters from the quad- 
ruplet ! 

All of which is jusit by way of introduction 
to an acknowledgment of one of the most 
gracious compliments ever paid to The New 
Era Printing Company. 

As the year fast nears its close, it marks the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of The New Era 
Printing Company's production of Science, a 
magazine whose contributors enibrace the 



January 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



47 



ablest men in all scientific lines in the world, 
and weekly finds its way through the mails to 
all parts of the Eastern and "Western hemis- 
pheres. 

From its distinguished editor, J. McK. Cat- 
tell, this morning a magnificent silver vase was 
received as a token of appreciation for The 
!N'e(w Era Printing Company's efforts. With it 
came this letter: 

Science, 

Editorial Department. 
Garrison-on-Hddson, N. Y., Dec. 28, 1919. 
The New Era Printing Company, 

Lancaster, Pa. 

Dear Mr. Sershey: In order to express recogni- 
tion of the admirable manner in whicli The New 
Era Printing Company has printed Science for 
twenty-five years^ and of our friendly relations dur- 
ing this long period, I am sending a token of ap- 
preciation. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. McK. Cattell 

From 'base to top the sterling silver vase 
measures twenty and one-half inches, and is 
mkDdeled and embellished along exquisitely 
chaste lines. It is a Lebolt production, hand- 
hammered, of uncommon weight, and bears this 
inscription : 

Science, 

1894-1919. 

To The New Era Printing Company. 

In Grateful Appreciation. 

The New Era Printing Company is con- 
strained to a public appreciation of Editor 
Cattell's handsome remembrance. " Old friends 
to cling to ! " — what more apt response or hope 
for the years to be? — The Lancaster Daily 
New Era. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 

Fossil Plants. By A. 0. Seward. Vol. IV. 

Pp. 543. Cambridge, University Press. 

This, the concluding volume of the Cam- 
bridge text on fossil plants, is devoted to a 
consideration of the Ginkgoales, Coniferales 
and Gnetales. The final proofs were passed 
in the spring of 1918, but the printing was 
held up because of war conditions so that a 
number of recent contributions could not be 



considered. The method of treatment in the 
present volume is consistent with that of the 
preceding volumes and the same lack of bal- 
anced treatment is shown in the present work. 
To cite but a single instance of this, six lines 
are devoted to the remains of Ginkgo from 
North America although Ginkgo is exceedingly 
well represented in the Mesozoic and early 
Eocene on this continent. 

As regards the subject matter, a chapter is 
devoted to the Ginkgoales, recent and fossil. 
The second chapter considers Ginkgoidium, 
C zekanowshia, Feildenia, Phoenicopsis and 
Desmophyllum — genera that are believed to be- 
long to the Ginkgoales. The third chapter in- 
cludes supposed Ginkgoalan genera of still 
more doubtful allegiance. The nine following 
chapters are devoted to the Coniferales. There 
is a rather full and excellent accoimt of recent 
Conifers. These are grouped in the following 
nine families: Araucarinese Cupressineae, Cal- 
litrinese, Sequoiinese, Sciadopitineffi, Abietinese, 
PodocarpineEB, Phyllocladineas and Taxinese. 
They are considered as probably monophyletic, 
the Araucarinese being regarded as the most 
ancient and the Abietinese as the most 
modern. There are some illuminating discus- 
sions of vascular anatomy and the view is 
expressed that the cone scales in the Araucari- 
nese are morphologically simple ovuliferous 
leaves, the double cone scales of the Abietinese 
being derivatives of a simple form of sporo- 
phyll. Mesembrioxylon is proposed for the 
fossil woods formerly referred to Podocarp- 
oxylon and Phyllocladoxylon. The final chapi- 
ter is devoted to the Gnetales and is without 
noteworthy features. 

Opinion will difPer as to the necessity or 
desirability for some of the new generic terms 
that are proposed, e. g., Ginhgoites for Ginkgo 
leaves, on the ground that even in the 
Tertiary forms the confirmatory evidence of 
flowers and fruits is lacking: Oupressinocladus 
for vegetative shoots of conifers of a cupres- 
soid habit : and Pityites for abietineous fossils 
of uncertain generic relationship. There is 
but slight profit in compounding confusion 
and although a conservative attitude is war- 
ranted in dealing with the vegetative remains 



48 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



of conifers there is but slight evidence in the 
more recent history of the study of fossil 
conifers to show that stem anatomy or 
strobilar morphology furnish any easier read 
or more definite criteria than vegetative habit, 
and from the nature of the remains we can 
not hope to have all of the criteria in in- 
dividual cases. Even the older students in 
dealing with foliar impressions were not 
guilty of more pretentious absurdities than 
have been put forward imder the banner of 
anatomy during the past decade. 

The present volume contains 190 illustra- 
tions which on the whole appear rather uni- 
formly better than those of volume m. al- 
though it is difficult for the reviewer to under- 
stand why paper and presswork were wasted 
on such illustrations as that forming the 
frontispiece of the present volume. The bib- 
liography which has a certain air of complete- 
ness really contains not more than about 
twenty per cent, of the literature, but i)erhaps 
this should not be criticized since it avowedly 
contains only " papers and works referred to 
in the text." 

On the whole it seems to the reviewer that 
Professor Seward has performed a difficult 
task about as well as could be expected, and 
despite their obvious shortcomings, which have 
been freely criticized, these four volumes are 
a mine of information for the student inter- 
ested in the floras of the past. 

Edward W. Berry 

Johns Hopkins TjNnrBRSiTT 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 

THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 
REPORT OF THE ST. LOUIS MEETING 

The seventy-second meeting of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of 
Science and the affiliated national scientific 
societies was held in St. Louis, December 29, 
1919, to January 3, 1920, under the presidency 
of Dr. Simon Flexner. 

In spite of the adverse ruling of the United 
States Railroad Administration on the grant- 
ing of reduced fares and other difficulties at- 
tending travel, the attendance was most satis- 
factory. All sections held sessions except 



Section C, and twenty-two affiliated societies 
presented attractive programs. The experi- 
ment of holding all meetings under one roof, 
namely the Soldan High School, is believed to 
have been a success, for the advantages of this 
concentration, including registration head- 
quarter and luncheon facilities, more than off- 
set certain minor difficulties. 

The formal opening of the meetings of the 
association took place in the spacious audi- 
torium of the Soldan High School on Monday 
evening, December 29, Chancellor Hall of 
Washington University delivering the address 
of welcome. President Flexner responded 
fittingly, after which he introduced the re- 
tiring president. Professor John M. Coulter 
who then delivered the address on " The 
Evolution of Botanical Research," which was 
printed in the issue of Science for January 2. 

At the conclusion of his address the re- 
vised constitution was read and unanimously 
adopted. The following changes were made 
in the copy of the revised constitution as it 
appeared in the ISTovember 21 issue of Science. 

Article II. Increasing the annual dues from $4 
to $5 and the fee for life membership from $75 to 
$100. 

Article V. Changing the title of Section H from 
Anthropology and Archeology to Anthropology and 
that of Section I from Psychology and Philosophy 
to Psychology. That the proposed Section J be 
designated as Section K and that the letters as- 
signed to sections following be dropped back one 
letter alphabetically in the order given. 

The Committee on Policy submitted an 
amendment to the Constitution to be acted 
upon at the next meeting providing for a 
section R, Conservation of National Re- 
sources. 

The new constitution was declared in effect 
at the end of the present Convocation. 

A reception was tendered to the members of 
the association at the close of this meeting. 

On Tuesday evening at the Soldan High 
School an address complimentary to the mem- 
bers of the association and affiliated societies 
and the citizens of St. Louis was delivered 
by President Flexner. His subject was 
" Present Problems in Medical Research." 



Januabt 9, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



49 



Thi'oughout the meetings the uFual number 
of vice-presidential and other addresses were 
delivered covering a wide range of subjects. 
Many of these dealt with scientific problems 
of present day interest and attracted wide 
attention. Since the names of the speakers 
and their subjects have already appeared in 
the preliminary announcement printed in 
Science and on the final program there is no 
need of repeating the list here. 

Smokers and dinners provided by the va- 
riouB affiliated societies were held and enter- 
tainment for visiting ladies in numerous 
private functions contributed to the social 
success of the meetings. 

Matters of general interest to members 
eminating chiefly from the committee on 
policy acted upon favorably by the council 
were: 

1. That the amount to be paid -pev member 
to the management of Science be $3 and that 
it be requested to fix the subscription price of 
Science for non-members at $6. 

2. That approval be given of certain meas- 
ures under consideration with the Carnegie 
Endowment for International Peace as set 
forth in a letter addressed to Dr. Worth, 
but embodying substantially the following 
recommendation; that the British, French 
and Italian equivalents of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science be 
invited to send delegates to the meeting to be 
held a year hence in Chicago. 

3. That the American Meteorological So- 
ciety be admitted as an afiiliated society and 
that entrance fees be remitted in the case of 
those of its members who join the association 
during the coming year. The council further 
declared itself as looking with favor on the 
affiliation of any national society which is 
interested primarily in scientific research. 

4. That the president be authorized to ap- 
point a committee on international auxiliary 
languages to cooperate with a corresponding 
committee of the International Research 
Coimcil. 

5. That Dr. George H. Perkins and Dr. C. 
J. S. Bethune be made emeritus life members 
under the Jane N. Smith fund. 



6. That pursuant to certain resolutions ad- 
vocated by the ISTational Physical Education 
Service, the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science will be pleased to 
cooperate with the National Physical Edu- 
cation Sen'ice in promoting physical educa- 
tion. 

7. That the general adoption of the metric 
system by national and state governments be 
apprtived. 

S. That the executive committee be re- 
quested to consider the possibility of paying 
the mileage of secretaries of sections to and 
from annual meetings. 

9. I'hat sectional officers avoid placing on 
their programs papers relating to acute polit- 
ical questions on which public opinion is 
divided. 

10. That the association wiU look with 
favor on any plan approved by the men of 
science in the coimtry for the encouragement 
of research in engineering imder the auspices 
of the government. 

11. That the association endorses and " com- 
mends the general purposes of The Save the 
Redwoods I/eag-ue" in its efFort to preserve 
some of the oldest trees in the world. 

12. That the Southern Educational Society 
be admitted to affiliation and that the ad- 
mission fee be remitted in the case of those 
members of the Southern Educational Society 
who join the association during the coming 
year. 

13. That there be authorized the organiza- 
tion of members of the American Association 
for the Advajicement of Science in New Mex- 
ico, all or part of Texas and such other terri- 
tory as may seem advisable into a Southwest- 
ern Division of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science and that Dr. D. 
T. MacDougal be the representative of the 
executive committee for such an organization. 

14. That the sima of $4,500 be made available 
to the committee as grants for the ensuing 
year. 

15. That the by-laws as printed in Science, 
November 21, be adopted, with the following 
amendment to be added at the end of Article 6, 



50 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1306 



Section 1. " State and city academies affiliated 
witli the association may also be allowed for 
their expenses, the entrance fees collected 
through their efforts and an amount for their 
expenses not to exceed $1 for each member in 
good standing." 

Under ithe head of new business Professor 
John M. Coulter and Professor H. B. Ward 
presented a veribal report for the committee on 
affiliation of state and local academies. The 
report dealt with preliminary steps looking 
towards the affiliation of state academies in 
accordance with the following general plan : 

1. That state and local academies may be aflBli- 
ated with the association on a financial basis that 
will yield the associaton $4 net per member. 

2. Any state or local academy which concludes 
arrangements for affiliation within the first six 
months of 1920. may be accepted for the entire 
year 1920, fees paid to the association before that 
date to be adjusted in accordance with the detailed 
plan. 

3. Two alternative plans are considered with re- 
spect to membership in the academies, namely: 

(o) All members of the academies to become 
members of the association. 

(6) To establish two grades of membership, of 
i which one will be national, involving mem- 

bership in both academy and association, 
the other local, consisting of academy 
members only. 

4. The academies will collect joint dues and 
transmit the association's share to the treasurer. 

It was voted that this report of the commit- 
tee on affiliation of state and local academies 
be received and approved. 

In accordance with the provision of the new 
constitution which calls for an executive com- 
mittee of eight elected members to replace the 
old council, the following gentlemen were duly 
elected members of this committee: J. McK. 
Cattell, H. L. Fairchild, Simon Flexner, W. J. 
Humphreys, D. T. MacDougal, A. A. Noyes, 
Herbert Osborn, H. B. Ward. 

Under the terms of the revised constitution 
Dr. H. L. Fairchild and Dr. Franz Boas were 
duly elected members of the council. 

Dr. E. M. Yerkes and Dr. G. T. Moore were 
elected members of the committee on grants. 

The seventy-third meeting of the association 



and of the affiliated societies will be held at 
Chicago, beginning on Monday, December 27, 
with the first general session on Tuesday even- 
ing. It was recommended that the four suc- 
ceeding meetings be held in Toronto or Buffalo, 
Boston, Cincinnati and Washington. 

Officers were elected as follows: 

President: Dr. L. O. Howard, Bureau of Ento- 
mology, Washington, D. C. 

General Secretary: Professor E. L. Nichols, Cor- 
nell University. 

Vice-presidents : 

Section A, Mathematics: D. B. Curtis, North- 
western University, Evanston, 111. 

Section B, Physics: J. C. McLennan, University 
of Toronto. 

Section C, Chemistry: S. W. Parr, University of 
Illinois. 

Section D, Astronomy: Joel Stebbins, University 
of Illinois. 

Section E, Geology and Geography: Charles 
Sehuchert, Yale University. 

Section F, Zoological Sciences: J. S. Kingsley, 
University of Illinois. 

Section G, Botanical Sciences: E. H. True, Bu- 
reau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Section H, Anthropology: G. R. Gordon, Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Section I, Psychology: E. K. Strong, Jr., Car- 
negie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh. 

Section M, Engineering: C. L. Mees, Rose Poly- 
technic Institute, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Section N, Medicine: J. Erlanger, Washington 
University, St. Louis. 

Section Q, Education: C. H. Judd, University of 
Chicago. fj ijj 

George T. Moore, 
General Secretary 



SCIENCE 



A Weekly Journal devoted to the AdvancemcBt of 
Science, publishing the official notices and pro- 
ceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science 

Published every Friday by 

THE SCIENCE PRESS 

LANCASTER. PA. GARRISON, N. Y, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Ejiteied in tbe pott-officc «t Lancutcr, Pft.. u lecond dais matta 



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SCIENCE 



Hew StiBtes 
Vol. LI, No. 1307 



Friday, January 16, 1920 



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SCIENCE 



( JAN 19 19^ 



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Fbidat, January 16, 1920 



CONTENTS 
The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science: — 

Mecent Advances in Dynamics: Propessoe 
George D. Birkhofp 51 

Sir William Osier: Lieutenant Colonel F. 
H. Gaerison 55 

Scientific Events: — 

A Botanic School in Regent's Farh; The 
Attitude of German Physicians towards In- 
human Actions; Conference on Waste of 
Natural Gas; Scientific Lectures 58 

Scientific Notes and News 60 

University a7id Educational News 62 

Discussion and Correspondence :— 
Musical Sands: Professor H. L. Paikchild. 
More on Singing Sands: E. O. Pippin. The 
Initial Course in Biology: Professor Yan- 
DELL Henderson 62 

Scientific Boohs: — 
Chumley on the Fauna of the Clyde Sea 
Area: Professor Charles A. Kofoid 65 

The Ecological Society and its Opportunity : 
Dr. Barrington Moore 66 

The Canadian Branch of the American Fhyto- 
logical Association 68 

The American Chemical Society : Dr. Charles 
L. Parsons 69 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on- 
Hudaon, N. Y. 



RECENT ADVANCES IN DYNAMICS^ 

A HIGHLY important chapter in theoretical 
dynamics began to unfold witli the appear- 
an<je in 1878 of G. W. Hill's researches in the 
lunar theory. 

To understand the new direction taken 
since that date it is necessary to recall the 
main previous developments. In doing this, 
and throughout, we shall refer freely for 
illustration to the problem of three bodies. 

The concept of a dynamical system did not 
exist prior to !N"ewton's time. By use of his 
law of gravitation IsTewton was able to deal 
with the Earth, Sun, and Moon as essentially 
three mutually attracting particles, and by the 
aid of his fluxional calculus he was in a posi- 
tion to formulate their law of motion by means 
of differential equations. Here the independ- 
ent variable is the time and the dependent 
variables are the nine coordinates of the three 
bodies. Such a set of ordinary differential 
equations form the characteristic mathemat- 
ical embodiment of a dynamical system, and 
can be constructed without especial difficulty. 

The aim of ITewton and his successors was 
to find explicit expressions for the coordinates 
in terms of the time for various dynamical 
systems, just as Newton was able to do in the 
problem of two bodies. Despite notable suc- 
cesses, the differential equations of the prob- 
lem of three bodies and of other analogous 
problems continued to defy " integration." 

Notwithstanding the lack of explicit ex- 
pressions for the coordinates, Newton was 
able to treat the lunar theory from a geo- 
metrical point of view. Euler, Laplace, and 
others invented more precise analytical meth- 
ods based upon series. In both cases the 
bodies which are disturbing the motion of the 

1 Address of tie vice-president and chairman of 
Section A — Mathematics and Astronomy — -Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science, 
St. Louis, December, 1919. 



52 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



Moon are assumed first to move in certain 
periodic orbits, and the perturbations of tlie 
Moon are assumed to be the same as if the 
other bodies did move in such hypothetical 
orbits. The principle of successive approxi- 
mations characterizes these methods. 

The chief other advance made was based on 
the following principle: if a function is a 
maximum or minimum when expressed in 
terms of one set of variables it is also a 
maximum or minimum for any other set; 
hence, if the difFerential equations of dy- 
namics can be looked upon as the equations 
for a maximum or minimum problem, this 
property will persist whatever variables be 
employed. This principle, developed mainly 
by Lagrange, W. E. Hamilton, and Jacobi, 
enables one to make the successive changes 
of variables required in the method of suc- 
cessive approximations by merely doing so in 
a single function. 

Here too the results are chiefly of formal 
and computational importance. 

The last great figure of this period is Jacobi. 
His " Vorlesungen iiber Dynamik " published 
in 1866 represents a highwater mark of 
achievement in this direction. 

Nearly all fields of mathematics progress 
from a purely formal preliminary phase to a 
second phase in which rigorous and qualita- 
tive methods dominate. From this more ad- 
vanced point of view, inaugurated in the 
domain of functions of a complex variable by 
Riemann, we may formulate the aim of dy- 
namics as follows: to characterize completely 
the totality of motions of dynamical systems 
by their qualitative properties. 

In Poincare's celebrated paper on the prob- 
lem of three bodies, published in 1889, where 
he develops much that is latent in Hill's work, 
Poincare proceeds to a treatment of the sub- 
ject from essentially this qualitative point of 
view. 

A first notion demanding reconsideration 
was that of integrability, which had played so 
great a part in earlier work. In 1887 Bruns 
had proved that there were no further al- 
gebraic integrals in the problem of three bod- 
ies. Poincare showed that in the so-called 
restricted problem there were no further in- 



tegrals existing for all values of a certain 
parameter and in the vicinity of a particular 
periodic orbit. Later (1906) Levi-Civita has 
pointed out that there are further integrals 
of a similar type in the vicinity of part of 
any orbit. 

Thus it has become clear that the question 
as to whether a given dynamical problem is 
integrable or not depends on the kind of 
definition adopted. However, the most nat- 
ural definitions have reference to the vicinity 
of a particular periodic motion. The intro- 
duction of a parameter by Poincare is to be 
regarded as irrelevant to the essence of the 
matter. 

From the standpoint of pure mathematics, 
a just estimate of the results foimd in in- 
tegrable problems may be obtained by refer- 
ence to the problem of two bodies, or, more 
simply still, of the spherical pendulum. The 
integration by means of elliptic functions 
shows that the pendulum bob rotates about the 
vertical axis of the sphere through a certain 
angle in swinging between successive highest 
and lowest points. But the form of the differ- 
ential equation renders this principal qualita- 
tive result self-evident, while the most ele- 
mentary existence theorems for differential 
equations assure one of the possibility of ex- 
plicit computation. Hence the essential im- 
portance of carrying out the explicit Integra-' 
tion lies in its advantages for purposes of 
computation. 

The series used in the calculations of the 
lunar theory and other similar theories were 
given their proper setting by Poincare. He 
showed that they were in general divergent, 
but were suitable for calculation because they 
represented the dynamical coordinates in an 
asymptotic sense. 

The fact that the first order perturbations 
of the axes in the lunar theory can be 
formally represented by such trigonometric 
series had led astronomers to believe that the 
perturbations remained small for all time. 
But the fact of divergence made the argument 
for stability inconclusive. 

It is easy to see that this question of 
stability, largely unsolved even to-day, is of 
fundamental importance from the point of 



Januaet 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



53 



view formulated above. For, in a broad 
sense, tbe question is that of determining the 
general character of the limitations upon the 
possible variations of the coordinates in dy- 
namical problems. 

We wish to mention briefly four important 
steps in advance in this direction. 

The first is due to Hill who showed in his 
paper that, in the restricted problem of three 
bodies, with constants so chosen as to give the 
best approximation for the lunar theory, the 
Moon remains within a certain region about 
the Earth, not extending to the Sun. In fact 
here there is an integral yielding the squared 
relative velocity as a fimction of position, and 
the velocity is imaginary outside of this 
region. 

In his turn, Poincare showed that stability 
exists in another sense, namely for arbitrary 
values of the coordinates and velocities there 
exist nearby possible orbits of the Moon 
which take on infinitely often approximately 
the same set of values. His reasoning is ex- 
tremely simple, and is founded on a hydro- 
dynamic interpretation in which the orbits 
appear as the stream lines of a three-dimen- 
sional incompressible fluid of finite volume in 
steady motion. A moving molecule of such a 
fluid must indefinitely often partially re- 
occupy its original position with indefinite 
lapse of time, and this fact yields the stated 
conclusion. 

In 1901 under the same conditions Levi- 
Civita proved that, if the mean motions of 
the Sun and Moon about the Earth are com- 
mensurable, instability exists in the following 
sense: orbits as near as desired to the funda- 
mental periodic lunar orbit will vary from 
that periodic orbit by an assignable amount 
after su£B.cient lapse of time. This result, 
which is to be anticipated from the physical 
point of view, makes it highly probable that 
instability exists in the incommensurable case 
also. 

These three results refer to the restricted 
problem of three bodies. 

Finally there is Sundman's remarkable 
work on the unrestricted problem contained 
in his papers of 1912 and of earlier date. 
Lagrange had proved that if a certain energy 



constant is negative, the sum of the mutual 
distances of the three bodies becomes infinite. 
Sundman showed that, even if this constant 
is positive, the sum of the three mutual dis- 
tances always exceeds a definite positive quan- 
tity, at least if the motion is not essentially 
in a single plane. Thus he incidentally veri- 
fied a conjecture of Weierstrass that the 
three bodies can never collide simultaneously. 
These and other results seem to me to render 
it probable that in general the sum of the 
three distances increases indefinitely. Thus, 
if this conjecture holds, in that approxima- 
tion where the Earth, Sun and Moon are 
taken as three particles, the Earth and Moon 
remain near each other but recede from the 
Sun indefinitely. The situation is worthy of 
the attention of those interested in astronomy 
and in atomic physics. 

As we have formulated the concept of 
stability, it is essentially that of a permanent 
inequality restricting the coordinates. We 
may call a dynamical system transitive in a 
domain under consideration if motions can be 
found arbitrarily near any one state of motion 
of the domain at a particular time which pass 
later arbitrarily near any other given state. 
In such a domain there is instability. If we 
employ the hydrodynamic interpretation used 
above, the molecule of fluid will diffuse 
throughout the corresponding volume in the 
transitive case, and will diffuse only partially 
or not at all in the intransitive case. The 
geodesies on surfaces of negative curvature, 
treated by Hadamard in 1898, furnish a 
simple illustration of a transitive system, 
while the integrable problem of two bodies 
yields an intransitive system. Probably only 
under very special conditions does intransi- 
tivity arise. 

It is an outstanding problem of dynamics 
to determine the character of the domains 
within which a given dynamical system is 
transitive. 

A less difficult subject than that of stability 
is presented by the singularities of the 
motions such as arise in the problem of three 
bodies at collision. The work of Levi-Civita 
and Sundman especially has shown that the 
singularities can frequently be eliminated by 



54 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



means of appropriate changes of variables. 
In consequence the coordinates of dynamical 
systems admit of simple analytic representa- 
tion for all values of the time. In particular 
Sundman has proved that the coordinates and 
the time in the problem of three bodies can 
be expressed in terms of permanently con- 
vergent power series, and thus he has " solved " 
the problem of three bodies in the highly arti- 
ficial sense proposed by Painleve in 1897. 
Unf ortimately these series are valueless either 
as a means of obtaining qualitative informa- 
tion or as a basis for numerical computation, 
and thus are not of particular importance. 

Prom early times the mind of man has 
persistently endeavored to characterize the 
properties of the motions of the stars by 
means of periodicities. It seems doubtful 
whether any other mode of satisfactory de- 
scription is possible. The intuitive basis for 
this is easily stated: any motion of a dy- 
namical system must tend with lapse of time 
towards a characteristic cyclic mode of be- 
havior. 

Thus, in characterizing the motions of a 
dynamical system, those of periodic tj^pe are 
of central importance and simplicity. Much 
recent work has dealt with the existence of 
periodic motions, mainly for dynamical sys- 
tems with two degrees of freedom. 

An early method of attack was that of 
analytical continuation, due to Hill and Poin- 
care. A periodic motion maintains its ident- 
ity under continuous variation pf a parameter 
in the dynamical problem, and may be fol- 
lowed through the resultant changes. G. 
Darwin, F. E. Moulton and others have ap- 
plied this method to the restricted problem 
of three bodies. Symmetrical motions can be 
treated frequently by particularly simple 
methods. Hill made use of this fact in his 
work. 

Another method is 'based on the geodesic in- 
terpretation of dynamical problems. This has 
been developed by Hadamard, Poincare, Whit- 
taker, myself, and others. The closed geodesies 
correspond to the periodic motions, and the 
fact that certain closed geodesies of minimum 
length must exist forms the basis of the argu- 
ment in many cases. As an example of an- 



other type, take any surface with the con- 
nectivity of a sphere and imagine to lie in 
it a string of the minimum length which can 
be slipped over the surface. Clearly in being 
slipped over the surface there will be an 
intermediate position in which the string will 
be taut and will coincide with a closed 
geodesic. 

Finally there is a less immediate method of 
attack which Poincare introduced in 1912, 
and which I have tried to extend. By it the 
existence of periodic motions is made to de- 
pend on the existence of invariant points of 
certain continua under one-to-one continuous 
transformation. The successful application 
of this method involves a preliminary knowl- 
edge of certain of the simpler periodic 
motions. 

Periodic motions fall into two classes which 
we may call hyperbolic and elliptic. In the 
hyperbolic case analytic families of nearby 
motions asymptotic to the given periodic 
motion in either sense exist, while all other 
nearby motions approach and then recede 
from it with the passing of time. In the 
elliptic case the motion is formally stable, 
but the phenomenon of asymptotic families 
not of analytic type arises unless the motion 
is stable in the sense of Levi-Civita. 

In a very deep sense the periodic motions 
bear the same kind of relation to the totality 
of motions that repeating doubly infinite 
sequences of integers 1 to 9 such as 

. . . 2323 . . . 
do to the totality of such sequences. 

In trying to deal with the totality of 
possible types motion it seems desirable to 
generalize the concept of periodic motion to 
recurrent motion as follows: any motion is 
recurrent if, during any interval of time in 
the past or future of sufficiently long dur- 
ation T, it comes arbitrarily near to all of its 
states of motion. "With this definition I have 
proved that every motion is either recurrent 
or approaches with uniform frequency arbi- 
trarily near a set of recurrent motions. 

The recurrent motions correspond to those 
double sequences specified above in w'hich every 
finite sequence which is present at all occurs 



Januait 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



55 



at least once in every set of N successive in- 
tegers of the sequence. 

In any domain of transitivity the two ex- 
treme types of motion are the recurrent 
motions on the one hand and the motions 
which pass arbitrarily near every state of 
motion in the domain on the other. Both 
types necessarily exist, as well as other inter- 
mediate types. 

The precise nature of such recurrent mo- 
tions has yet to be determined, but Dr. H. C. 
M. Morse in his 1918 dissertation at Harvard 
has shown that there exist," non-periodic 
recurrent motions of entirely new type in 
simple dynamical problems. 

Such are a few of the steps in advance that 
theoretical dynamics has taken in recent 
years. I wish in conclusion to illustrate by 
a very simple example the type of x)owerful 
and general geometric method of attack first 
used by Poincare. 

Consider a particle P of given mass in 
rectilinear motion through a medium and 
in a field of force such that the force act- 
ing upon P is a function of its displace- 
ment and velocity. In order to achieve sim- 
plicity I will assume further that the law of 
force is of such a nature that, whatever be the 
initial conditions, the particle P will pass 
through a fixed point infinitely often. 

If P passes with velocity v it passes 
at a first later time with a velocity v^ of 
opposite sign. We have then a continuous 
one-to-one functional relation v^ = f (v). If 
V is taken as a one-dimensional coordinate in 
a line, then the effect of the transformation 
v^ = f («) is a species of qualitative "reflec- 
tion " of the line about the point 0. 

If this " reflection " is repeated the result- 
ant operation gives the velocity of P at the 
second passage of 0, and so on. But the 
most elementary considerations show that 
either (1) the reflection thus repeated brings 
each point to its initial position, or (2) the 
line is broken up into an infinite set of pairs 
of intervals, one on each side of 0, which are 
reflected into themselves, or (3) there is a 
finite set of sucih pairs of intervals, or (4) every 
point tends toward (or away from it) under 
the double reflection. 

Hence there are four corresjKinding types of 



systems that may arise. Either (1) every 
motion is periodic and is a position of 
equilibrium, or (S) there is an infinite 
discrete set of periodic motions of increas- 
ing velocity and amplitude (counting the 
equilibrium position at as the first) such 
that, in any other motion, P tends toward 
one of these periodic motions as time in- 
creases and toward an adjacent periodic mo- 
tion in past time, or (3) there is a finite 
set of i)eriodic motions of similar type such 
that, in any other motion, P behaves as just 
stated, if there be added a last i)eriodic mo- 
tion with " infinite velocity and amplitude " 
as a matter of convention, or (4) in every mo- 
tion P oscillates with diminishing velocity and 
amplitude about as time changes in one 
sense and with ever increasing velocity and 
amplitude as time changes in the opposite 
sense. 

Here we have used the obvious fact that 
there is a one-to-one correspondence between 
velocity at and maximum amplitude in the 
immediately following quarter swing. 

This example illustrates the central role of 
periodic motions in dynamical problems. It is 
also easy to see in this particular example that 
the totality of motions has been completely 
characterized by these qualitative properties 
in a certain sense which we shall not attempt 
to elaborate. 

What is the place of the developments re- 
viewed above in theoretical dynamics? 

The recent advances supplement in an im- 
portant way the more physical, formal, and 
computational aspects of the science by pro- 
viding a rigorous and qualitative background. 

To deny a position of great importance to 
these results, because of a lack of emphasis 
upon the older aspects of the science would be 
as illogical as to deny the importance of the 
concept of the continuous number system 
merely because of the fact that in computa- 
tion attention is confined to rational numbers. 
George D. Birkhoff 



SIR WILLIAM OSLER (1849-1919) 

After a tedious and painful illness. Sir 
William Osier, Regius professor of medicine 
at Oxford, died at his home in Norham Gar- 
dens on December 9, 1919. In spite of in- 



56 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



termediate convalescence, a severe attack of 
bronchitis, due to exposure through attending 
a professional considtation, developed into a 
pneumonia vcith pleurisy and empyema, neces- 
sitating surgical drainage; and although he 
had been cheerful three days before his death, 
the end was gravely apprehended by those 
around him. He is survived by his widow. 
Lady Osier, and two brothers, his only son 
having been killed in the war. 

Sir William Osier, the son of Rev. F. L. 
Osier of Falmouth, England, was born at 
Bond Head, Province of Ontario, Canada, on 
Jidy 12, 1849. A medical graduate of Mc- 
Gill University (1872) with the customary 
post graduate study in the London clinics and 
German universities, he became lecturer and 
professor of the institutes of medicine at Mc- 
Gill in 1874 and easily rose, without stress or 
undue effort, to the top of his profession. 
In succession, he was professor of medicine 
at the University of Pennsylvania (1884^9) 
and the Johns Hopkins University (1889- 
1904), was appointed Regius professor of 
medicine at the University of Oxford in 1904 
and received his baronetcy in 1911. On July 
11, 1919, his seventieth birthday was honored 
by the presentation of two anniversary vol- 
umes made up of contributions by English 
and American colleagues.^ Due to delays in 
printing, the completed voliunes reached him 
only a few days before his death. 

Of Osier's scientific work, it may be said 
that no great physician has been more firmly 
grounded in the fundamental disciplines of 
his calling. Of the arduous years of post- 
mortem work at Montreal the Pathological 
Reports of the Montreal General Hospital 
(1876-80) are a permanent record, as also 
the eight editions of the great text-book on 
Practice of Medicine (1892), which has been 
translated into French, German, Spanish and 
Chinese. The disciple of Morgagni and Vir- 
chow is equally apparent in the hundreds of 
clinical papers, the larger monographs in 
Osier's "Modern Medicine" (1907-10), the 
Gullstonian lectures on malignant endocar- 
ditis (1885), and the separate treatises on 
the cerebral palsies of children (1889), 
chorea (1894), abdominal tumors (1895), 

1 Science, September 12, 1919, p. 244. 



angina pectoris (1897), and cancer of the 
stomach (1900). From the start he did 
much original investigation of high quality. 
At the age of twenty-five (1874), he described 
the blood platelets associated with the name 
of Bizzozero, and defined their status as the 
third corpuscle of the blood and their rela- 
tion to the formation of thrombi. Such early 
papers as those on the blood in pernicious 
anemia (1877), overstrain of the heart (1878), 
fusion of the semi-lunar valves (1880) reveal 
the born clinical and pathological observer. 
Osier was a profoimd student of all modes of 
aneurism, of tuberculosis, of typhoid fever, of 
disorders of the circulation. He was the first 
to emphasize the relation between mycotic 
aneurism and mycotic endocarditis, first de- 
scribed the ball-valve thrombus at the mitral 
orifice, the visceral complication of erythema 
multiforme (1895), chronic cyanosis with 
polycythemia, laiown as Vaquez' disease 
(1895), multiple telangiectasis (1901), the 
erythematous spots in malignant endocarditis 
(1908), and he discovered the parasite of 
verminous bronchitis in dogs (filaria Osleri, 
1877). But to sense the magnitude of Osier's 
clinical work, it must be taken by and large 
in the 730 titles of the recently' published 
Osier Bibliography (1919). 

At the farewell banquet given him in ISTew 
York in 1904, Osier said that he desired to be 
remembered in a single line : " He taught 
clinical medicine in the wards." He found 
his great opportunity when he became phys- 
ician to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Dur- 
ing the six years intervening between the 
opening of the hospital (1889) and the begin- 
ning of undergraduate instruction in medi- 
cine (1893), Osier blocked out the arrange- 
ments for a graded whole-time upper resident 
staff of men of exceptional promise, a lower 
resident staff of one year internes, careful 
instruction in case-taking and clinical lab- 
oratory work for third year students and the 
appointment of fourth year students as " clin- 
ical clerks," in actual charge of patients in 
hospital, for three months each. The feeling 
of confidence and of personal responsibility 
acquired by these advantages was further 
strengthened by assigning advanced pupils to 



January 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



57 



teach extempore, to read and report on for- 
eign literature, to cultivate the history of 
their profession. In his Saturday night meet- 
ings at his home in West Pranklin Street, his 
aim with young students was to make good 
physicians of them, to make good men out 
of them, to teach them to think for them- 
selves and to be themselves. As Dr. H. M. 
Thomas has said, Osier " put the students in 
the wards, but he did not leave them there; 
he stayed with them " ; and he adds : " What 
good there is in me as a teacher and a phys- 
ician I owe to him." This is the common 
sentiment, that he took his students with him 
into the upper reaches of their profession and 
the broad sunshine of actual life. Only 
Astley Cooper or Carl Ludwig could have 
produced such a train of loyal disciples; only 
Pasteur could have inspired such universal 
regard and affection. 

Space permits but a passing reference to 
Osier's work on the history of medicine, to 
which, through his personal interest and his 
many tmique contributions, he gave a greater 
impetus than any other; to his civic activities, 
his labors in behalf of medical libraries, his 
splendid service to his country in wartime. 
His great collection of original texts and 
documents relating to discoveries and ad- 
vances in the science and art of medicine, 
the hobby of his later years, was all but com- 
pleted as to items, but the big human touch 
which would have made its catalogue one of 
the unique things in medical bibliography 
could only have been given by Osier himself. 

Essentially English in character. Osier had, 
through his forebears, Cornish and Spanish 
elements in his composition, easily sensed in 
the " hauntings of Celtism" in his ringing 
eloquent voice, the suggestion of the hidalgo 
in his slender, aristocratic figure, the clean- 
cut features and the tropical brown eyes. His 
was the longish head of the man of action, 
the active practitioner against disease and 
pain. Osier's warm glance and utter friendli- 
ness of manner told how naturally fond he 
was of people. He had the gift of making 
almost any one feel for the moment as if he 
were set apart as a valued particular friend, 
and so became, in effect, a kind of universal 



friend to patients, pupils and colleagues alike. 
But there was nothing of the politician in 
him. He rather paid with his person through 
the demands made by importunate patients 
and visitors upon his time. Such an effective 
concentration of the " fluid, attaching char- 
acter " has seldom been found in a single 
personality, possessed, as it were, by the im- 
partial, non-exclusive spirit of all pervading 
ISTature, " which never was the friend of one," 

But lit for all its generous sun, 
And lived itself, and made us live. 

Many are the tales of the clever hoaxing 
and practical joking put over by Osier on his 
boon companions and professional fellows in 
his salad days, but the chafling was carried 
on in such a jolly spirit that it left no sting 
behind. In his address on the male climac- 
teric, delivered on the occasion of his retire- 
ment from the Johns Hopkins faculty, he 
found to his dismay that he had chaffed a 
whole nation. The hazards incurred by his 
chance reference to Trollope's fable about 
" chloroforming at sixty " have been set forth 
at undue length in the public press and even 
on the stage. But Osier's reasoning about the 
comparative uselessness of men at sixty, iu 
the face of the imposing array of exceptions 
in Longfellow's " Morituri Salutamus," was 
obviously an expression of his essential prefer- 
ence for and innate sympathy with the on- 
coming race of younger people, whose worth 
he had sensed many times over in his be- 
loved pupils. 

The last two years of Sir William Osier's 
life were clouded by the death of his only son. 
Lieutenant Revere Osier, an artillery officer 
and a youth of great promise, who was killed 
in the action about Ypres in 1917. This he 
bore bravely, concealing his grief from his 
friends and busying himself with his own 
duties to the sick and wounded, but, the war 
at an end, his loneliness increased in spite of 
the companionship of his wife and his ever- 
generous hospitality to American officers and 
physicians. Toward the end, his intimates be- 
gan to realize that he had " trod the upward 
and the downward slope " and was done with 
life. Up to that time he had remained cheer- 



58 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



ful, buoyant, resilient, as if, like the beloved 
of the gods, he was predestined to die young. 
Tet the supreme test was nobly borne, and 
to many of his pupils and colleagues, who see 
in the death of this great, benignant phys- 
ician, the loss of their best friend, the ex- 
pressions of ancient belief will not seem un- 
availing: Requiem wternam dona ei, Domine, 
ef lux perpetua luceat ei. 

F. H. Gaerison 
Army Medical Museum 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

A BOTANIC SCHOOL IN REGENT'S PARK 

The report of the committee appointed last 
April by Lord Ernie, the former president 
of the British Board of Agriculture, to con- 
sider what steps should be taken to improve 
the usefulness of the Royal Botanic Society 
in London, is now published and an abstract 
is given in the London Times. The members 
of the committee, all of whom sign the report, 
were: Lieutenant-Colonel Sir David Prain, 
F.E.S., director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew (chairman) ; Sir W. H. Dunn ; Surgeon- 
General Sir A. Keogh, Imperial College of 
Science and Technology ; Sir Malcolm Morris ; 
Major R. C. Carr;Mr. Morton Evans, joint 
secretary of the Office of Woods; Mr. H. J. 
Greenwood, L.C.C.; and Professor F. W. 
Keeble, F.R.S., Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries and Royal Horticultural Society; 
with Mr. G. C. Grough, B.Sc, secretary. 

The society was incorporated in 1839, and 
was granted a lease of 18 acres in Regent's 
Park vmtil 1870. This lease was renewed by 
the Commissioners of Woods and Forests in 
1870, and in 1901 at an increased rental. The 
present lease terminates in 1932. 

The committee have formed the opinion 
that the Royal Botanic Society could be made 
more useful both from the scientific and edu- 
cational point of view by the establishment 
of: (1) A school of economic botany, at which 
a knowledge of the economic plants and their 
products including those of tropical regions, 
might be obtained; (2) an institute which 
might be made a center for research, more 
especially in plant physiology where the living 



plant is essential; (3) a center for teaching 
in horticultiu'e, the students of which could 
receive their necessary training in pure 
science at existing London colleges; (4) 
courses in school gardening, at times suitable 
for teachers in elementary, continuation, and 
other schools. In addition, the committee 
consider that the gardens might extend their 
present utility as a center from which colleges 
and botany schools could be supplied with 
material for teaching and research, and in 
which students could make use of the existing 
facilities for the study of systematic botany. 

In an appendix the committee deal with the 
financial side of the scheme. They consider 
that the suggestions need not entail, in their 
initial stages, any very great expenditure. 
Buildings should be of a temporary nature 
and of not more than two stories, and might 
be erected near the present greenhouses. 
After giving details of the laboratories and 
rooms required, the committee suggest that 
the staff should consist of the following: 

A director at a salary of £800 to £1,000, able 
to cooperate with the teachers of botany in 
London, and with a knowledge of economic 
problems or of vegetable physiology. An as- 
sistant director, salary £500 to £700, to be 
appointed after the director. His knowledge 
should supplement that of the director — e. g., 
if the former be an economic botanist the 
latter should be a physiological botanist. An 
assistant, salary £250 to £400, to act as curator 
of the museum and librarian, with a general 
knowledge of plant diseases. At least one of 
the officers should have a practical knowledge 
of the tropics, tropical plants, and their 
products. 

The committee estimate the total cost of 
the staff, with attendants, etc., at £3,000 to 
£3,500 per annum; the cost of the buildings, 
£4,000; and the cost of equipment, including 
books, plants, etc., £500. 

THE ATTITUDE OF GERMAN PHYSICIANS 
TOWARDS INHUMAN ACTION 

It will be remembered that a protest signed 
by M. Calmette and four other members of 
scientific organizations who had remained at 
Lille during the occupation by the Germans, 



January 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



59 



charged acts of inhumamty, sasdng in conclu- 
sion : " The high command in Germany willed 
the war, bnt the people in arms approved it, 
and resolutely waged war with the most 
ferociously cruel means, even the physicians 
with the army doing the most odious acts 
without a word of excuse, regret or pity." 
The Deutsche, medizinische Wochenschrift of 
April 10, 1919, as quoted in the Journal of 
the American Medical Association, related 
that the matter was brought up in the Berlin 
Medical Society, and Calmette's protest and 
the resolutions voted thereon by the Academie 
de medecine at Paris were discussed. Dr. 
Fuld offered a resolution that the society 
should go on record as expressing its regret 
at such happenings as were specified in the 
Calmette protest, but his suggestion was op- 
posed by Orth and others, the speakers saying 
that there was no proof of the truth of the 
statements made by Calmette, and no voting 
should be done on a matter of which only one 
side had been presented. Finally a committee 
was appointed to report after obtaining an 
official copy of the resolutions that had been 
adopted by the Academie. The Wochenschrift 
of ISTovember 6, 1919, relates that this com- 
mittee recently presented its report. It was 
in the form of a resolution which was adopted 
without a dissenting voice. The members of 
the committee were Fuld, Kraus, Krause, 
Morgenroth and Schwalbe, the latter the 
editor of the Wochenschrift. The resolution 
in translation reads: 

The Berlin Medical Society is not in a position to 
pass judgment on the Manifesto of the Lille pro- 
fessors and the Academie de Medicine and on the 
published justification issued by the German au- 
thorities, entitled "LiUe under German Eule and 
the Criticism of the Foe." But the society does 
not hesitate to declare openly that it condemns in 
the most imqualified manner all inhuman actions, 
wherever, whenever, and by whomsoever they may 
be committed. This attitude corresponds to the 
spirit of medicine always held high by the Ger- 
man medical profession, that really international 
spirit to which we are loyal and to which we as- 
sume all other physicians are loyal wherever they 
may be and to whatever nation they may belong. 



CONFERENCE ON WASTE OF NATURAL GAS 

A PUBLIC conference of governors, public 
utility co mm issioners, state geologists, home 
economic experts, natural gas companies, 
ovmers and officials, and appliance manufac- 
turers has been called by Secretary of the 
Interior Lane to meet under the auspices of 
the Bureau of Mines at the Interior Depart- 
ment Building, Washington on January 15, 
to discuss the waste of natural gas in this 
country both by consumers and gas companies. 
As a result of the work of the experts of the 
bureau on this question, it is declared that 
in using natural gas the consumers through 
faulty appliances obtain an efficiency of about 
13 per cent, from a gas cook stove, 25 per 
cent, from a house-heating furnace, and 10' 
per cent, from a hot-water heater, although in 
good practise these efficiencies can be trebled. 
Dr. Van H. Manning, director of the Bureau 
of Mines, writes in regard to the purposes of 
the conference: 

Domestic consumers waste more than 80 per 
cent, of the gas received. The efficiency of most 
cooking and heating appliances could be trebled. 
By making natural gas worth saving the 2,400,000 
domestic consxuners in the United States could get 
the same cooking and heating service with one 
third the gas; that is, make one foot of gas do the 
work of three and greatly delay the day when the 
present supplies will be exhausted and consumers 
must go back to more expensive manufactured 
gas. 

It is time for the public to take a new view- 
point on the waste of natural gas. It is time for 
the domestic consumer to realize that his duty is- 
not done when he cries out against the flagrant 
wastes occurring in the gas fields and demands of 
his government that such wastes be abated; he 
must realize that he himself is likewise at fault 
and that it is time for him to set his own house in- 
order. Furthermore, the domestic consumer must 
realize that these wastes do not concern him alone,- 
and consequently he has not the right, merely be- 
cause he pays for the gas, to employ it in any 
manner that pleases him, no matter how wasteful. 
Natural gas is a natural resource in which every 
inhabitant of this country has an equity. Those 
who waste the gas do so at the expense of those- 
who would use it efficiently. Natural gas is not 
replaced by nature, and in comparison with the life- 



60 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



of the nation the duration of the supply will be 
brief. 

The public has a right, therefore, to demand that 
this natural asset be used to the greatest advantage 
of all and that no one be allowed to waste it. Nat- 
ural gas in each ctiy is a community asset and 
every consumer has a right to demand that waste- 
ful use shall be prohibited in the interest of the 
public service. This is particularly important dur- 
ing cold spells in the winter when the supply is in- 
sufficient and actual suffering may occur. Clearly, 
it is not right that any consumer suffer at such 
times because of the extravagance and waste of 
other consumers, even though they are willing to 
pay for the gas wasted. Nor can the citizens 
justify demands for better service from the public 
utilities without making provision to correct 
abuses in their own homes. It must be recognized 
that the public has been and is to-day just as much 
a party to the crime of wasting this natural re- 
source as are the companies that produce and 
market it. 

SCIENTIFIC LECTURES 

Under the auspices of the division of geology 
of Harvard University, Dr. James Mackintosh 
Bell, former government geologist of New Zeal- 
and, will give a series of nine lectures on topics 
in economic geology. These lectures are 
given in the Geological Lecture Room, Geolog- 
ical Museum, at 4.30 o'clock, and will be open 
to the public. The dates and titles are as fol- 
lows: 



"The Waihi goldfield, New Zea 
' ' The Mount Morgan copper mine 
' The Mount Bischoff tin mine, Tas 
' ' The Mount LyeU copper mine, 
"The Spassky copper mines, Si' 
"The Atbasar copper mines. Si' 
"The Sadbury nickel-copper area 
"The Cobalt Silver Camp, On- 
' ' The Porcupine goldfields, On- 



January 5, 
land. ' ' 

January 7. ' 
Queensland. ' ' 

January 9. ' 
mania. ' ' 

January 12. 
Tasmania. ' ' 

January 14. 
beria. ' ' 

January 16. 
beria. ' ' 

January 19. 
Ontario. ' ' 

January 20. 
tario. " 

January 21. 
tario. ' ' 

The following are among the lectures to be 
given at the Royal Institution : Professor W. 



H. Bragg, six lectures adapted to a juvenile 
auditory on The "World of Sound; Sir John 
Cadman, two lectures on (1) Modern Develop- 
ment of the Miner's Safety Lamp and (2) 
Petroleum and the War; Professor G. Elliot 
Smith, three lectures on The Evolution of 
Man and the Early History of Civilization; 
Professor Ernest Wilson, two lectures on 
Magnetic Susceptibility; Professor Arthur 
Keith, four lectures on British Ethnology; 
The Invaders of England; Professor A. E. 
Conrady, two lectures on Recent Progress in 
Photography; Professor A. H. Smith, two lec- 
tures on Illustrations of Ancient Greek and 
Roman Life in the British Museum; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel E. Gold, two lectures on The 
Upper Air; Sir F. W. Dyson, Astronomer 
Royal, three lectures on The Astronomical 
Evidence bearing on Einstein's Theory of 
Gravitation; and Sir J. J. Thomson, six lec- 
tures on Positive Rays. The Friday evening 
discourses will begin on Friday, January 16, 
1920, at 9 o'cock, when Sir James Dewar will 
deliver a discourse on Low-temperature Stud- 
ies. Succeeding discourses will probably be 
given by Sir C. A. Parsons, Mr. S. G. Brown, 
Professor W. M. Bayliss, Dr. E. J. Russell, 
Mr. W. B. Hardy, the Hon. J. W. Fortescue, 
Professor J. A. Fleming, Mr. E. McCurdy, Sir 
J. J. Thomson, and others. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

At a meeting of the Societe de Pathologie 
exotique at the Institut Pasteur of Paris, 
held on December 10, Dr Simon Flexner of 
The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- 
search, in New York, was elected an associate 
member. Dr. Flexner was also elected to as- 
sociate membership in the Societe Royale des 
Sciences Medicales et ISTaturelles of Brussels, 
at a meeting held on December 1, and to the 
Societe Beige de Biologie of Brussels, at its 
meeting of December 6. On December 22, 
Dr. Flexner was made a corresponding mem- 
ber of the Bataafsch Genootschap der Proe- 
fondervindelijke Wijsbegeerte of Rotterdam, 
Holland. 

Official notice has been issued by the 
French Academy of Sciences of the award of 



Januaky 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



61 



the Bordin prize in mathematics to Dr. S. 
Lefschetz, assistant professor of mathematics 
in the University of Kansas, and of the La- 
lande prize in astronomy to Dr. V. M. Slipher, 
director of the Lowell Observatory at Tlag- 
staff. 

Former assistants of Dr. Edwin R. Le 
Count, professor of pathology in Rush Med- 
ical College, tendered him a banquet on 
December 17 and presented him with two 
paintings as a recognition of esteem and 
gratitude. The presentation address was made 
by Dr. Frank R. Nuzum, Janesville, Wis., who 
presided. Addresses were also made by Drs. 
Herman A. Brennecke, Aurora; George E. 
Clements, Crawfordsville, Ind. ; William H. 
Burmeister, George H. Coleman, Arthur H. 
Curtis, Morris Fishbein, Edward H. Hatton 
and James P. Simonds, Chicago. 

Surgeon General Sm Alfred Keogh and 
Sir Almroth E. Wright have had the honorary 
degree of doctor of science conferred on them 
by the University of Leeds. 

Sir Donald MacAllister, superintendent 
of the British Medical Council, has been in- 
vested by President Poincare, with the cross 
of the commander of the Legion of Honor. 

Dr. a. S. Loevenhaet, professor of phar- 
macology and toxicology at the University of 
Wisconsin, was elected president of the Phar- 
macological Society at the annual meeting 
held in Cleveland last week. 

Mr. Elmee H. Finch, geologist of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, has recently been ap- 
pointed chairman of the Mineral Division 
Land Classification Branch, U. S. Geological 
Survey, succeeding Mr. A. R. Schultz, re- 



Dr. Forest B. H. Brown, research fellow at 
Tale University, has been appointed botanist 
on the staff of the Bishop Museum at Hono- 
lulu. Dr. Elizabeth Wuist Brown has been 
appointed research associate in cryptogamic 
botany in the same institution. 

De. p. G. Agnew, physicist in the Electrical 
Division of the Bureau of Standards, has re- 
signed to become secretary of the American 
Engineering Standards Committee, with head- 



quarters at the Engineering Building, 29 
West 39th Street, Few York City. 

Dr. Arthur Lachman, a well-known chem- 
ist of San Francisco, formerly professor in the 
University of Oregon, was last seen on the 
street at noon on December 11, 1919. Since 
then his family and friends have been unable 
to obtain any clue or any trace of his where- 
abouts. It seems probable that he had an 
attack of amnesia with loss of identity and 
wandered away. Dr. Lachman is known to 
many readers of Science. Any one having in- 
formation in regard to him is requested to 
communicate with his family or with Dr. 
Felix Langfeld, 272 Post St., San Francisco, 
California. 

Lancaster D. Burling, invertebrate paleon- 
tologist of the Geological Survey of Canada, 
has accepted the position of geologist with 
S. Pearsons and Sons, Limited, of London, 
England. His first assignment is to work in 
the old fields of Trinidad, for which he will 
leave upon the first available sailing. 

Captain W. E. Brophy, C.E. (Columbia, 
'15), formerly of the Barrett Company and 
later of the Chemical Warfare Service, U. S. 
A., has joined the engineering staff of Arthur 
D. Little, Inc., at Cambridge, Mass. In the 
early part of the war. Captain Brophy had 
charge of the construction and operation of 
the plant at Astoria, Long Island, for the 
manufacture of high absorbent carbon for use 
in gas masks and later he designed, construc- 
ted and operated an additional unit for the 
purpose at San Francisco. 

Dr. Hideyo ISToGUCHi, of the Rockefeller In- 
stitute for Medical Research, has landed at 
the port of Progreso from which he will pro- 
ceed to Merida in order to carry on confirma- 
tory studies of his discovery of L. icteroides 
and to try on a larger scale the curative prop- 
erties of the specific serum prepared by him. 

Mr. W. H. Darton, geologist of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, will spend two months in 
the Dominican Republic early in 1920 to in- 
vestigate oil conditions for a New York com- 
pany. 



62 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



At the thirty-sixth Annual Convention of 
the Association of Official Agricultural Chem- 
ists held at Washington beginning on ISTovem- 
ber 17 the following officers were appointed 
for the ensuing year : President H. 0. Lyth- 
goe, State Department of Health, Boston, 
Mass.; Vice-president, W. F. Hand, Agricul- 
tural College, Agricidtuial College, Miss.; 
Secretary-Treasurer, C. L. Alsberg, Bureau of 
Chemistry Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. 0. Additional members of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee are C. H. Jones, Univer- 
sity of Vermont, Burlington, Yt., and W. W. 
Skinner, Bureau of Chemistry, Washington, 
D. C. 

At the annual meeting of the Washington 
Academy of Sciences, held on January 13, 
Dr. F. L. Eansome, delivered the address of 
the retiring president on " The Functions 
and Ideals of a ^Rational Geological Survey." 

The sixth lecture of the series of The 
Harvey Society will be by Dr. Carl Voegtlin, 
professor of pharmacology, United States 
Public Health Service, on " Recent Work on 
Pellagra " at the New York Academy of Med- 
icine on January 24 at 830. 

Dr. Geobge Macloskie, professor emeritus 
of biology of Princeton University, died at 
Princeton, on December 4 in his eighty-fifth 
year. 

The death is announced of Professor A. 
Eicco, director of the Observatory of Catania 
and vice-president of the International As- 
tronomical Union. 

The death is announced of Professor E. H. 
Bruns the director of the University Observa- 
tory at Leipzig. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

An anonymous gift of $1,000,000 has been 
offered to Throop College of Technology, at 
Pasadena, California, conditional upon an 
equal amount being raised fi'om other sources. 

Mr. Gustavus F. Swift, of Chicago, has 
added $8,000 to the previous endowment of the 
Gustavus F. Swift Fellowship of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, making the income from that 



fellowship amount to $925. This fellowship 
is awarded for the encouragement of research, 
and is given only to a student who has already 
proved his capacity for investigation. 

Dr. William H. Walker, head of the Re- 
search Library of Applied Chemistry at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has 
been appointed head of the new division of 
industrial cooperation and research. 

Dr. M. G. Seelig, has accepted the position 
of professor of clinical surgery, at the School 
of Medicine of Washington University at St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Dr. Walter H. Eddy, of Teachers College, 
Columbia University, associate in physiolog- 
ical chemistry, has been appointed assistant 
professor of physiological chemistry. Dr. 
Eddy has recently returned from France, 
where he served fifteen months with the 
A. E. F., as major in the Sanitary Corps. 

Harold S. Palmer, instructor in geology in 
Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., leaves on 
February 1 for Honolulu to take charge of 
the department of geology in the University 
of Hawaii. 

Sir Richard Glazebrook, who recently re- 
turned from the directorship of the British 
Ifational Physical Laboratory, has been ap- 
pointed to the Zaharoff chair of aviation 
tenable at the Imperial College of Science and 
Technology, founded by Sir Basil Zaharoff, 
who gave to the university the stun of £25,000 
for this piirpose. 

Dr. G. M. Robertson has been appointed to 
a professorship of psychiatry and Dr. J. H. 
Ashworth to a professorship of zoology in 
the University of Edinburgh. 

Dr. Fritz Paneth, director of the chemical 
department of the German technical high 
schools at Prague, has been appointed pro- 
fessor of chemistry at the University of 
Hamburg. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

MUSICAL SANDS 

The article on " Singing sands of Lake 
Michigan " by W. D. Richardson, in Science, 



January 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



63 



November 28, gives suggestion for the present 
writing. 

The phenomenon of sonorous sands was 
very thoroughly studied in the years 1882- 
1889 by Dr. H. Carrington Bolton and Dr. 
Alexis A. Julien, both of New York City. 
The very interesting results of their enthu- 
siastic research were published in several 
short articles in the Proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of 
Science and in the Transactions of the New 
York Academy of Sciences. A brief review 
of their work may be worth the space. 

The preliminary paper was read at the 
Minneapolis meeting of the Association, 1883, 
describing their study of the musical sands at 
Manchester, Mass., and on the island of Eigg 
in the Hebrides; with reference to many other 
localities. This paper is printed in the Pro- 
ceedings, volume 32, pages 251-252. 

After a year of extensive travel and study 
of the phenomenon, and with volimainous cor- 
respondence, a second paper was read at the 
Philadelphia meeting, 1884, and printed in 
abstract in volume 33 of the Proceedings, 
pages 408--il5. In this article the sounds 
emitted by the sands are indicated by musical 
notation. Some search of old writings had 
shown that allusions to the phenomenon were 
found in the literature of the past one thou- 
sand years; and that famous localities, like 
Jebel Nagous, had been visited by many 
travelers. A brief chronology of the study 
and writings from the sixteenth century was 
included. 

In Volume 3 of the New York Academy 
Transactions, pages Y2-76 and 9Y-99, for 
1884, Dr. Bolton described the phenomenon 
on the Baltic coast, and in the sand-hill of 
Arabia and Afghanistan, especially at Jabel 
Nakous, or " Mountain of the Bell " on the 
Gulf of Suez. A paragraph at the close of 
that article is worth quoting. 

The localities in which sonorous sand is found 
may be divided into three classes: first, sea- and 
fresh-water beaches, where all the sand possesses 
the sound-producing quality permanently, as at 
Eigg, Manchester, Plattsburg, etc.; secondly, sea- 
beaches where small tracts of the sand possess 



acoustic properties transiently, as along the At- 
lantic coast, in New Jersey, North Carolina, and 
on the Baltic; thirdly, sand-hills in the interior or 
otherwise, whose steep slopes give rise to acoustic 
phenomena of great magnitude, as at Kauai, in 
Nevada, and at Jebel Nakous and Reg Euwan. 

Volume 8 of the Academy Transactions, 
1888, pages 9-10, prints a letter giving the 
conclusion of the authors as to the cause of 
the sounds. And on pages 181-184 is given a 
very interesting letter of Dr. Bolton, from 
Egypt, describing his visit to Jabel Nagous. 
In Volume 9, 1889-1890, pages 21-25, Dr. 
Bolton gives a fuller account of his visit to 
Arabia Petraea, and also a summary of the 
conclusions reached by Dr. Julien and him- 
self, as follows: 

Dr. Julien and I beHeve that the true cause of 
sonorousness in the sands of singing beaches and 
of deserts is connected with thin pellicles or films 
of air, or of gases thence derived, deposited and 
condensed upon the surface of the sand-grains dur- 
ing gradual evaporation after wetting by seas and 
laies or by rains. By virtue of these films, the 
sand-grains become separated by elastic cushions 
of condensed gases, capable of considerable vibra- 
tion, and whose thickness we have approximately 
determined. The extent of the vibration and the 
volume and pitch of the sound thereby produced, 
after any quick disturbance of the sand, we also 
find to be largely dependent upon the forms, struc- 
tures and surfaces of the sand-grains, and espe- 
cially upon their purity or freedom from fine silt 
or dust. 

In Volume 8, page 10, of the New York 
Academy Transactions, is described the open- 
ing by Dr. Bolton of two packages of sea sand 
collected at Eockaway Beach four and five 
years previous, and which gave distinct high 
notes when quickly rubbed or shaken. 

The present writer has a large bottle of the 
Eockaway Beach sand, collected with Dr. 
Bolton on that summer day in 1884, when the 
beach was singing clearly. The bottle has 
been closed with a cork stopper, but was 
opened, for a minute, a few years ago for re- 
moving a sample. The bidk of the sand has 
been in the bottle over thirty-five years. This 
day, December 2, it has been poiired into a 
stocking, and when quickly compressed has 



64 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



given clearly the characteristic high note, 
audible at considerable distance. But since 
it has been spread out in the warm dry room, 
and received some handling, it has lost the 
sonorous quality. 

H. L. Faiechild 
Universitt op Rochestee 

more on singing sands 

To THE Editor of Science: The comment 
of Mr. Richardson in a recent number of 
Science (November 28, 1919) on the singing 
sands of Lake Michigan, calls to mind some 
observations made a number of years ago that 
should be considered in connection with the 
hypothesis he advances to explain the singing 
quality of the sand. 

These sands were encountered by us in 
connection with the soil survey of Allegan, 
county, Michigan. The singing quality was 
particularly well developed within four to six 
rods of the lake shore. We collected a sample 
of several hundred pounds which was for- 
warded to the Bureau of Soils at Washington. 
After the material was in the sack on the 
beach, the singing quality could be developed 
by merely running the fingers through the 
sands. 

The material was shipped by freight and 
stored in the basement of the building then 
occupied by the bureau. Some months later 
the material was looked up and examined. It 
had completely lost its singing quality. Of 
course it had dried out. There was no leach- 
ing and presumably no change in chemical 
composition. 

It has seemed to me that this quality is 
associated with two primary factors namely: 
(a) Very well rounded and smooth particles, 
(6) A particular amount and condition of 
moisture. Neither a very wet nor a very dry 
condition suffices. We have noticed a slight 
tendency to this singing quality in walking 
over the sand dunes in that section of Mich- 
igan, if the foot is jammed into the sand so 
as to get below the very dry surface layer and 
into contact with the somewhat moist sand 
immediately below. 

I am inclined to think the percentage of 



moisture when coupled with the smooth, 
rounded particles is the chief factor in devel- 
oping singing sand. That per cent, is some- 
where in the region of the lento-capillary 
point or the margin between hygroscopic and 
free capillary moisture where, due to surface 
attraction of the sand particle, film movement 
is very sluggish. It might be defined as the 
first stage of film solidification. 

Elmer 0. Pippin 



THE initial course IN BIOLOGY 

The botanists are more and more loudly 
proclaiming their academic rights as against 
the zoologists. In most American xmiversi- 
ties now there is a course in general biology, 
and it is given, often entirely, by the depart- 
ment of zoology. It is a very large course, 
running sometimes to several hundred stu- 
dents a year. It involves a large staff, assist- 
ant professors, instructors and assistants, and 
thus provides places for graduate students 
without fellowships. Sometimes it carries 
more patronage than all the other courses in 
zoology, botany and related subjects combined. 

Naturally the botanists feel aggrieved, when 
they compare the few students who reach their 
courses, and the inadequacy of the assistant- 
ships for their support in botany, with the 
opident conditions in the department of 
zoology. 

Professor George E. Nichols has presented 
recently in Science data bearing on this 
matter, and has discussed with fairness and 
ability the question of the initial course in 
biology. The initial course in any field is a 
difficult subject : whether it should be designed 
primarily as introductory for those who in- 
tend to go further, or as broadly educational 
for those who can not. 

I take it as axiomatic that there is a certain 
minimiun of information regarding matters 
biological which every educated man ought to 
have, and that this would consist particularly 
in some knowledge of the living himian body. 
In fact, however, a large number of students 
are passing through our universities, many 
are even taking courses in biology, who fail 



January 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



65 



to obtain this minimum. I have known of 
engineering students who believed that the 
child is born through the umbilicus. I have 
sat opjKDsite to an astronomer who refused 
to finish a glass of dark beer when he learned 
that in passing from his mouth and stomach 
to his kidneys the black and foaming fluid in 
the glass in front of him would have to go 
through his heart. 

I am inclined to agree with Professor 
Nichols that general biology, as given by zool- 
ogists, is a course which is suited primarily to 
introduce students to animal morphology. 
But I doubt whether a com-se of this sort half 
as long, followed in February by an exactly 
similar course by botanists and introducing 
students equally to plant morphology, would 
be a better arrangement. 

To my mind neither the zoologists nor the 
botanists should give the initial course, for if 
either or both have a hand in it, it will have 
the emphasis of a specialist. It will deal 
primarily with morphology plus a single func- 
tion, that of reproduction. 

The initial course should be a course in 
physiology. I may illustrate what I mean 
by spealiing of zoologists as specialists, by 
quoting a distinction which I once heard a 
physicist give of the difference, as he saw it 
impartially, between zoology, or general biol- 
ogy, on the one hand, and physiology on the 
other. The former, he said, dealt with re- 
production, the latter with all the other func- 
tions of life. 

Now it is nice to know about amebte and 
frogs and the germination of seeds, but a 
lawyer, or an engineer, or a journalist, or even 
a doctor, can get along and yet know very 
little of such matters. If, however, he has no 
notion of his own insides — of what purpose 
his food serves, and of why he keeps breath- 
ing — well, he simply is not an educated man. 

Even for the student who is going far in 
zoology, or botany, I believe that the first 
great lesson should be in function, with struc- 
ture included along with, but not emphasized 
above, chemical and physical basic facts. 

The student should begin, therefore, in that 
field in which knowledge of function has been 



most highly developed, a field which has the 
most powerful appeal for a himian being, the 
field of " human," that is, mammalian, phys- 
iology as presented par excellence in that 
marvelous little book, Huxley's " Lessons in 
Elementary Physiology." 

It seems — at least some of us hope — that to- 
day we are about to see a displacement of the 
academic college course in favor of a junior 
college, which would give such general sub- 
jects as the languages, American history, ele- 
mentary chemistry and physics, and the one 
or two other things that every one should 
have; to be followed in the senior college by 
groups of increasingly specialized studies, 
each group aimed to a definite end. If this 
is to come, neither the course in general biol- 
ogy which Professor Nichols condemns, nor 
the combined elementary zoology-botany which 
he favors, is entitled to a place in the curricu- 
lum of the junior college. 

But a brief course in human physiology is. 
At least, so thinks a physiologist. 

Yandell Henderson 

Tale UNivEBSirr 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 

The Fauna of the Clyde Sea Area, being an 
attempt to record the zoological results ob- 
tained by the late Sir John Murray and his 
assistants on board S. Y. Medusa diu-ing the 
years 1884 to 1892. By James Chumley. 
Glasgow. Printed at the University Press. 
1918. Pages vi + 200, 1 map and 3 figiiies 
in text. 

The former secretary of the Challenger 
Office and of the Lake Survey of Scotland, 
Mr. James Chumley, for many years asso- 
ciated with the late oeeanographer and marine 
zoologist. Sir John Murray, has compiled the 
data regarding the latter's explorations of the 
Clyde Sea Area in a " Eaima " of that region. 
The work has been financed by the Carnegie 
trustees for the universities of Scotland. The 
work contains brief account of the Scottish 
biological stations at Granton and Millport, 
which respectively preceded and succeeded the 
explorations which are here summarized. 



66 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



The physiographic investigations made during 
this survey were published in the Transr 
actions of the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh in 
1892 and 1894 by Dr. H. E. Mill, but the 
zoological results had never been assembled 
for publication. 

The region surveyed has an area of 1,160 
square miles and includes the Arran Basin, 
the Great Plateau at its mouth, the Estuary 
of the Clyde, and a series of narrow locks or 
fiords of which Loch Tyne is the largest. 
These locks have about 95 per cent, of normal 
sea water and receive a mean tidal increment 
of about 4 per cent, of their total volume so 
that the habitat is typically marine in most 
essential particulars, but modified by restric- 
tions on circulation and the resulting condi- 
tions in temperature typical of fiords. 

The seven typical regions are treated sep- 
arately in the faunistic summaries in which 
the species are arranged systematically from 
Protozoa to Vertebrata, with notes on locali- 
ties, depths and frequencies. All groups are 
represented except parasitic ones and Protozoa 
other than Foraminifera, but somewhat un- 
evenly and in the older nomenclatures in some 
instances. The records are based mainly 
upon the catches of the dredge rather than 
those of the plankton net. There are two 
full bibliographies arranged chronologically 
and systematically. A grand summary in- 
cludes 806 species of which only 8 per cent, 
are found in all of the seven subdivisions. 
It is highly probable that further explorations 
will greatly increase the elements of the faima 
common to the several subdivisions. 

This faunistic study will be useful to 
American investigators of the North Atlantic 
faima as well as to those who will frequent 
the newly established Bute Marine Laboratory 
at Rothesay in the Clyde Sea Area, which for 
research purposes replaces the Scottish Ma- 
rine Laboratory at Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, 
which is now in the possession of amateur 
interests and in the service of more popular 
aspects of the biological sciences. It is to be 
hoped that the unparalleled service to marine 
zoology rendered by Sir John Murray may in 
time be recognized by a memorial on the 



shores of Scotland in the form of a marine 
biological and oceanographical research sta- 
tion whose equipment and work will be worthy 
of the name it should bear. 

Charles A. Kofoid 
UNivEKSirT OP California 



THE ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND ITS 
OPPORTUNITY 

Perhaps no other scientific body in this 
country has the opportunities for cooperation 
possessed by the Ecological Society. Its mem- 
bership is made up of workers in zoology, 
botany and forestry; its field is no less than 
the relation of all life to its environment. 
Last summer five members of the Ecological 
Society, representing zoology, botany and 
forestry, camped together near the summit of 
Mt. Marcy in the Adirondack mountains of 
New Tork for the purpose of doing a con- 
crete piece of cooperative research on the 
plants and animals at timber line, and to 
bring together into a list some of the prob- 
lems in ecology. The persons and institu- 
tions cooperating were: Barrington Moore, 
president of the Ecological Society, Norman 
Taylor, for the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
George P. Burns for the Vermont Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Charles 0. Adams 
and T. L. Hankinson for the New York State 
College of Forestry at Syracuse. 

The results of the study at timber-line will 
be published elsewhere. The list of problems 
is given below. The list is by no means all 
inclusive, nor does it attempt to be thor- 
oughly logical. It states general problems, 
with their subdivisions, and gives also a 
number of specific problems which in reality 
form parts of general problems. The pur- 
pose of this list is threefold: (1) to show 
gaps in our scientific knowledge, or subjects 
in which the fundamental facts needed for 
fxirther human progress are lacking; (2) to 
show subjects in which cooperation is es- 
sential, subjects which a given science can 
carry only to a certain point and which must 
be taken up by one or more other sciences 
for solution; (3) to suggest specific problems 
for research workers and students. 



J-ANUART 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



67 



GENEEAL PEIOBLEMS 

I. Factors influencing the distribution of land 

plants and animals. 

(1) Geographic position. 

(2) Altitude. How far does altitude per sa 

influence distribution? 

(3) Topography. 

(a) Aspect, steepness of slope, valleys, 
benches and other land forms. 

(6) Influence of size of land mass of 
mountains, i. e., isolated moum- 
tains vs. mountain masses. 

(c) Influence of water masses. 

(4) Historical factors. 

(a) Physical (geology, past climate). 
(6) Biotic. 

(5) Climate. 

(a) Moisture. 
(6) Temperature. 

(c) Solar radiation or insolaition. 

(d) Light. 

(e) Wind. 

(6) Soil. 

(a) Physical properties. 

1. Texture, desirability of a phys- 

ical constant: is wilting co- 
efl3.cient such a constant? 

2. Soil moisture. 

3. Sou air. 

4. Soil temperature. 

5. Soil stratification or profile. 
( 6 ) Chemical properties. 

1. Solutions. 

(a) Aqueous extracts (cor- 
relations with fertil- 
ity. 

(&) Acid extracts. 

(c) Full analyses. 

2. Gases. Chemical properties of 

soU air. 
(e) Biotic properties. All life plant as 
well as animal, influencing the 
soU. 

II. Factors influencing the distribution of aquatic 

plants and animals. 
A. Standing water. 

(1) Geographic position. 

(2) Altitude. 

(3) Depth, and fluctuations of depth. 

(4) Historical factors. 

(a) Physical (geology, past cli- 

mate) . 

(b) Biotic. 

(5) Climate. 



(o) Temperature. 

(6) Solar radiation or insolation. 

(c) Light. 

(d) Wind. Important in aera- 

tion of water. 

(6) Wa/ter solution. 

(a) Color and turbidity. 

(6) Mineral and organic content. 

(c) Gaseous content. 

(7) Biotic factors. 

(8) Bottom. 
B. Running water. 

(1) Geographic position. ' 

(2) Altitude. 

(3) Fluctuation. 

(a) Whether it fluctuates at all 
(streams on east slope of 
Cascade Mts. of Oregon do 
not fluctuate). 

(6) Extent of fluctuation. 

(c) Period of fluctuation (di- 
urnal or irregular). 

(4) Swiftness. 

(5) Depth. 

(6) Historical factors. 

(7) Climate. 

(a) Temperature. 
(6) Solar radiation or in- 
solation. 

(c) Light. 

(d) Wind. 

(8) Water solution. 

(o) Color and turbidity. 
(6) Mineral and organic 
content. 

(9) Biotic factors. 
(10) Bottom. 

III. Studies of factors influencing distribution. 
(A suggested method of procedure). 
A. Field survey of the problem. 

(1) To determine significant associa- 

tions of plants and animals. 

(2) Determination of center and ex- 

tremes (northern and southern, 
or east and west, or upper and 
lower in altitude). 

(3) Instrumental readings at each of 

the above points, and their in- 
terpretation. 
B. Laboratory studies. 

(1) Growth under controlled condi- 

tions (with recording instru- 
ments if possible). 

(2) Analysis of critical effects. 



68 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



(3) Determination of specific require- 
mentg. 
C. Field interpretation of laboratory re- 
sults. (In the case of temperature 
this will probably mean remeasure- 
ments unless recording instruments 
have been used.) 

IV. Studies of plants and animals at the edges of 

their ranges. Determination of the environ- 
ment at the edge of the ranges of plants 
and animals should help to give, for the dif- 
ferent environmental factors, the limits 
within which individual species of plants 
and animals can grow. 

V. Ecological differentiation in plants and ani- 

mals, structural and functional. 

(0) Ecological differentiation in single spe- 

cies. 
(6) Growth forms and regional distribution. 
Frequency of occurrence and abund- 
ance, correlated vrith environmental 
factors. 

VI. Migration of plant and animals. 

(1) Wind. 

(2) Animals. 

(3) Water. 

(4) Free movement of organisms. 

(5) Landslides and avalanches. 

(6) Movement of environment. 

VII. Relation of present plant and animal life to 

past floras and faunas. 

(1) In unglaciated regions. 

(2) In glaciated regions. 

(3) Post-glacial changes. 

VIII. Origin and composition of organic soUs. 

Includes forest soils, humus, peat, muck, 
etc. 

IX. Studies of soil organisms. Bacteria, nema- 

todes, fungi and other organisms. 

SPECIAL PROBLEMS 

X. Relation of osmotic pressure to elongation. 

XI. Relation of temperature to root absorption. 

XII. Seasonal rhythm in organism, e. g.: 

(1) Resting period. 

(2) Photosynthesis of evergreens in 

winter. 

XIII. Relation of mycorrhiza to root hair devel- 

opment. (Part of general problem of 
symbiosis.) 

XIV. Composition of light under forest canopies. 

Is this diffused light or light of different 
compositionf 

XV. Effect of shade on chlorophyll content. 

XVI. Water requirement of forest trees. 



XVII. Nutrition of forest trees. Influence of vari- 

ous kinds of soils. 

XVIII. Minimum requirement of solar energy for 
tree seedling growth or leaf development. 

XIX. Factors controlling the natural pruning of 

forest trees. 

XX. Factors controlling the non-periodic shedding 

of the leaves of forest trees. 

XXI. Study of seed bed in forests under natural 

conditions, in relation to germination and 
establishment; comparison of seed bed in 
forests with nursery seed beds. 

XXII. Sensitiveness of roots of different species 

to: (ffl) lack of oxygen, (&) soil acidity, 
and (c) soil alkalinity. 

XXIII. Studies of fungi in forest soUs. 

(1) With relation to rendering nutrients 
(chiefly nitrogen) available to 



(2) With relation to soil reaction (acid- 

ity or alkalinity). 

(3) Influence on ventilation. 

(4) Effect on plant roots. 

XXIV. Selective absorption of roots in soil. 

(1) Under different soil moisture con- 

ditions. 

(2) Under different atmospheric con- 
ditions. 

XXV. Pull exerted by roots in withdrawing water 

from soils under different moisture con- 
ditions. Influence of atmospheric con- 
ditions Barrington Moore, 
Chairman Committee on Cooperation 



THE CANADIAN BRANCH OF THE 

AMERICAN PHYTOPATHO- 

LOGICAL SOCIETY 

The first annual meeting of the Canadian 
Branch of the American Phytopathological Society 
was held at the Ontario Agricultural College 
Guelph, Ontario, December 11 and 12. 

Canadian phytopathologdsts were well repre^ 
sented at this meeting. Among those taking ac- 
tive part in the proceedings were: Dr. A. H. E, 
BuUer, University of Manitoba; Dr. J. H. Faull 
Toronto University; Mr. P. A. Murphy, Dominion 
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Charlottetown, P, 
E. I.; Mr. W. H. Rankin, St. Catharines; Mr. W, 
P. Fraser, Saskatoon, Sask. ; R. J. Blair, Forest 
Products Laboratories, Montreal; Mr. F. L. Dray 
ton. Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa; Pro 
fessor L. Caesar, Professor J. E. Howitt and Dr. R, 
E. Stone, Ontario Agricultural College. 



January 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



69 



The president, Professor J. E. Howitt, in his 
address dealt with what should be the aims of this 
society. These, briefly summarized, are as follows : 

First. To provide adequate facilities for the 
training of research men in plant pathology in 
Canada. 

Second. To make provision for the publication 
in Canada of the results of scientific investigations 
in plant pathology not of interest to the general 
public. 

Third. To make available to the general pub- 
lie the practical application of results obtained 
from scientific research in plant pathology. 

Fourth. The unification of recommendations 
made by the various pathologists regarding the 
control of the more common diseases. 

Fifth. The carrying out of a plant disease sur- 
vey to secure information concerning the financial 
losses caused by disease to agriculture and for- 
estry and the distribution of plant diseases through- 
out Canada. 

Sixth. The adoption of a standard of qualifica- 
tions required of men entering the field of plant 
pathology in Canada. 

Seventh. The apppointment of an advisory 
board to confer with the federal and provincial au- 
thorities regarding plant quarantine and other re- 
strictive legislation. 

Eighth. The maintaining of a bibliography of 
Canadian plant pathology. 

Dr. E. C. Stakman, of the University of Min- 
nesota, was a guest of the Canadian Branch and 
dealt with the cereal rust problems in the United 
States and Canada. 

The papers on the following program were given 
at this meeting: 

President's address, J. E. Howitt. 

"Health and disease in plants," F. L. Drayton. 

' ' Decay in timber of pulp and paper mill roofs. ' ' 
(Illustrated with lantern slides.) E. J. Blair. 

"Butt rots of the balsam fir in Quebec Prov- 
ince," W. H. Eankin. 

"Leaf blight of the white pine," J. H. Faull. 

"Pseudorhiza of certain saprophytic and para- 
sitic agarioinae" (illustrated), A. H. R. Buller. 

Address of Welcome, President G. C. Creelman. 

Address, Dr. E. C. Stakman. 

"Education of plant pathologists." Discussion 
led by Dr. J. H. Faull. 

"Witches broom of the Canada Balsam and the 
alternate hosts of the causal organism," B. E. 
Stone. 

"Some comparative observations upon the shape 



of Basidia and method of spore discharge in the 
Uredinese and Hymenomycetes, " A. H. R. Buller. 
(Illustrated with models and lantern slides.) 

' ' Smut of western rye grass, ' ' W. P. Praser. 

Address, E. C Stakman. 

' ' Some observations made in inspecting for leaf 
roll and mosaic of potatoes," J. E. Howitt. 

' ' New or little-known diseases of potatoes which 
cause the running out of seed," P. A. Murphy. 

"Breeding beans for disease resistance," G. P. 
McRoster. 

' ' Combination sprays for apple and potato, ' ' G. 
E. Sanders. (By title.) 

' ' Some data on peach yellows and little peach, ' ' 
L. Csesar. 

"Fungi new to Ontario," A. W. McCallum. 

"Some fungi and plant diseases comparatively 
new to Ontario," R. E. Stone and J. E. Howitt. 

The following officers were elected for 1920: 

President — Dr. A. H. R. Buller. 

Vice-president — Dr. J. H. Faull. 

Secretary-Treasurer — ^Dr. R. E. Stone. 

Additional Members of the Council — Professor 
J. E. Howitt and Mr. F. L. Drayton. 



THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 
VI 

Colloidal reactions fundamental to growth: D. 
T. MacDougal. (By title.) Living cell masses 
from the growing parts of plants in which the 
H-ion of the sap varies from PH, 3.9 to 7 may 
show an unsatisfied hydration (absorption) capac- 
ity which causes a swelling of 6 to 80 per cent, in 
thickness in distilled water at 18 to 20 C. Dried 
(dead) sections of the same material in which the 
salts originally dissolved in the sap have been ad- 
sorbed by solids at high concentrations during the 
progress of desiccation, show (total absorption) 
hydration capacities which causes enlargements as 
high as 550 per cent, of the volume of the dried 
material. The aspect of comparative swellings in 
acid and basic solutions (tested between 0.5 M 
and 0.000001 M) in the two cases are different, 
probably due to changes in the colloids caused by 
the adsorption of salts, etc. The actual volume 
reached by such material in swelling includes some 
osmotic action and is limited by the morphological 
or mechanical features of the tissues. Artificial 
mixtures of pentosans, agar, mucilage and gum, 
and of plant albumins made up to simulate so far 
as possible the composition of the plasmatic (liv- 
ing) colloids, show comparative hydrations or total 
swelling similar to cell masses, and of an equiva- 



70 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



lent or greater amplitude. SpeeiaUj prepared and 
purified agar and albumins prepared by E. E. 
Squibb & Sons are used in these experiments. 
Some of the results obtained are not explainable 
on the basis of the simple action of the H or OH 
ions, especially in the use of alkaline hydroxides, 
ammonia and amino-<:ompounds. The reactions 
noted are fundamental or contributory to growth. 

The antisoorhutio value of the banana: H. B. 
Lewis. (By title.) 

: A study of various culture media, especially with 
reference to increasing their buffer effects and ad- 
justing thei/r Ph values: M. B. Meacham, J. J. 
HOPFIELD AND S. P. AcEEE. (By title.) Titration 
or buffer curves of com meal extract, malt extract 
and bean extract, culture media and chestnut bark 
extract, are shown. The desirability of adding 
acids, bases and salts to these extracts to make 
them more useful as culture media by increasing 
their buffer effect is pointed out. The further ob- 
ject of rendering, at the same time, the titration 
curves as near straight lines as possible is sought. 
Data and curves are given showing the practical 
a,ttainment of these objects for two of the media. 
The preparation of the media is carefully de- 
scribed, so as to make possible their reproduction 
to within 0.25 to 0.50 of a Ph unit. 

The cause of and remedy for certain inaccuracies 
in Sausmann's nitrogen distribution method: S. 
L. JoDiBi AND S. C. MouLTON. (By title.) The 
proportion of acid amide nitrogen obtained by 
Hausmann's method, as modified by Osborne and 
Harris, is constant and does not depend upon the 
quantity of magnesium oxide applied to the dis- 
tillation. The percentage of nitrogen contained in 
the magnesium oxide precipitate is the higher, the 
greater was the quantity of magnesium oxide em- 
ployed in distillation, and vice versa. Conversely, 
the proportion of monoamine and diamino nitrogea 
is the smaller, the larger the amount of magnesium 
oxide used in distillation. In order to obtain uni- 
form results and a minimum of ' ' humin ' ' nitrogen 
it is necessary to use the least possible amount of 
magnesia which is sufficient to render the substance 
to be distilled alkaline. In the case of plant and 
animal materials the uniform application of one 
gram, of magnesium oxide seems to be satisfactory, 
while in the ease of proteins one half of one gram 
suffices. 

The antiscorbutic properties of raw lean beef: 
R. Adams Dxjtcher, Edith M. Pierson and Alice 
BlESTER. Guinea pigs weighing 250 to 300 grams 



were divided into experimental groups containing 
four pigs to the group. Cold water extracts of raw 
beef (representing 5, 10, 15 and 20 grams of beef) 
were fed daily to the individuals in each respec- 
tive experimental unit. Other pigs received oats 
impregnated with chopped raw beef, the consump- 
tion of beef averaging 3 to 5 grams daily. In all 
cases scurvy developed in the same length of time 
as when the meat and meat extract were omitted 
from the diet, indicating that raw beef does not 
possess antiscorbutic properties so far as these 
properties can be ascertained by the method de- 
scribed. 

Preliminary observations on the influence of the 
diet of the cow on the antiscorbutic o?kJ growth 
promoting properties of milk: E. Adams Dutcher, 
Edith M. Pierson and Alice Biestee. Guinea 
pigs receiving a daily diet of oats (ad lib.), water, 
and 25 c.c. of autoclaved milk (from stall-fed 
cows) developed scurvy in 15 to 18 days and died 
in 25 to 30 days with great loss in body weight. 
When 20 c.c. of autoclaved milk (from cows fed 
on grain and green grass) were substituted for the 
"stall fed" milk, scurvy developed 10 to 15 days 
later and death did not ensue for 40 to 60 days 
and no great loss in body weight occurred. Eaw, 
pasteurized and separated milk (from cows on 
green grass) has been fed, and the results indicate 
that the nutritive value of these milks is higher 
than milk from other sources. 

Bhubarb as an antiscorbutic: Edith M. Pierson 
AND E. Adams Dutcher. Guinea pigs which have 
developed scurvy may be relieved and cured by in- 
troducing into the diet solid rhubarb, raw rhubarb 
juice, or rhubarb juice which has been boiled for 
fifteen minutes. 

1 The function of vitamin in the metabolism of 
Sclerotinia cinerea: J. J. Willaman. (By title.) 
The brown-rot fungus will not grow normally on 
purely synthetic media. "When these media are 
supplemented by additions of vitamin, normal 
growth occurs. The vitamin has been prepared by 
adsorption on fuller's earth from a large variety 
of materials, including peach and plumb juices, 
young tomato leaves, sprouts of beans, wheat and 
potato, the leaf buds of beans, fimgus mycelia and 
sporophores, yeast, com pollen, milk and pan- 
creatin. Every material examined yielded the 
vitamin. Those materials which are characterized 
by high respiratory activity, either actual or po- 
tential, such as yeast, pollen, fungus spores, gave 
the most active vitamin preparations, both for 
vegetative growth and for reproduction. It is be- 



January 16, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



71 



lieved from these results that the vitamin in ques- 
tion will be found universally distributed in plant 
and animal tissues, and that it plays an essential 
part in the respiratory process. The evidence 
favors the view that this vitamin is the water- 
soluble antineuritie B. 

The preparation of a stable vitamine prodxict 
and its value in nutrition: H. E. Dubin. An ac- 
tive stable vitamine product has been prepared 
from corn, autolyzed yeast, and orange juice. 
This vitamine product, containing the antineuritie, 
antiscorbutic aud antirachitic vitamines, has been 
given the name ' ' Vitaphos. ' ' A tentative analysis 
shows 10 per cent, calcium oxide, 15 per cent, 
phosphorus (mostly organic), 3 per cent, nitrogen, 
and 2 per cent. fat. Experiments with pigeons, 
guinea pigs and finally with children receiving 
"Vitaphos" in the diet, gave results showing that 
the product possessed marked growth promoting 
properties and both preventive and curative prop- 
erties as regards polyneuritis and scurvy. Cases 
of rickets treated with ' ' Vitaphos ' ' showed marked 
improvements and considerable gain in weight. 
Further experimentation is under way. 

I Chemical isolation of vitamines: C. N. Myers 
AND Carl Voegtlin. Brief historical discussion of 
previous chemical work with special reference to 
the pioneer researches of Casimir Funk. Vita- 
mines are classified as antineuritie, antirachitic and 
antiscorbutic. Autolyzed yeast filtrate was used 
in part of the experiments but was found unsatis- 
factory on account of its complexity. Mastic 
emulsion, Lloyd's reagent, and ferric chloride 
were used in removing the active material from the 
filtrate. These purified fractions were tested for 
activity on polyneuritic birds. Dried yeast was 
finally used as the source of active material. 
Purification by means of heavy metal precipitation 
was carried out yielding a crystalline substance. 

The vitamine content of wheat flour: C. O. Johns, 
A. J. Finks and M. S. Paul. 

The relation of plant carotinoids to growth, fe- 
cundity and reproduction in fowls: Leroy S. 
Palmer and Haert L. Kempstee. White Leg- 
horn chicks were raised from hatching to matur- 
ity on rations containing the merest traces, if not 
entirely devoid, of carotinoids. The full grown 
hens exhibited normal fecundity although the 
yolks of the eggs were devoid of carotinoids. The 
carotinoid-free eggs showed normal fertility. A 
second generation of chicks, free from carotinoids 
at hatching have been hatched from the carotinoid- 



free eggs. Carotinoid-free egg yolks contain a 
residual yellow pigment readily extracted by ace- 
tone, which is not related to the normal axantho- 
phyll of the yolk. This paper appeared in fuU in 
the September issue of the Journal of Biological 
Chemistry. 

The physiological relation between fecundity and 
tlie natural yellow pigmentation of certain breeds 
of fowls: Leroy S. Palmer and Harry L. 
Kempstbr. (By title.) The fading of the yellow 
color from the ear lobes, beak, shanks, etc., of a 
hen during fecundity is due to the fact that fe- 
cundity deflects the normal path of excretion of 
xanthophyU from these parts of the skin to the 
figs yolk, with the resulting gradual disappearance 
of pigment from the epidermis because of natural 
physiological changes in the structure of the skin. 
It is impossible to restore xanthophyU to the epi- 
dermis or to color the adipose tissue of hens as 
long as fecundity exists. The loss of pigment from 
the ear lobes, beak, shanks, etc., as the result of 
egg laying, is an index of continuous fecundity 
only, not of heavy egg laying. This paper ap- 
peared in full in the September issue of the Jour- 
nal of Biological Chemistry. 

■ The influence of specific feeds and certain pig- 
ments on the color of the egg yolk and body fat of 
fowls : Leroy S. Palmer and Harry L. Kempster. 
(By title.) Carotin and annatto are without in- 
fluence on the color of the visible skin parts and 
adipose tissue of poultry. Sudan III. colors only 
the adipose tissue of non-laying hens and is with- 
out effect on the visible skin parts. With laying 
hens the egg yolk is colored in addition to the 
adipose tissue. XanthophyU readily colors both 
the adipose tissue and visible skin parts of fowls 
of the type of the White Leghorn breed, as long 
as fecundity does not exist. Yellow corn and 
green feed are rich in xanthophyU. Hemp seed, 
barley, gluten feed and red corn contain traces of 
xanthophyU, while wheat, wheat bran, oats, cot- 
tonseed meal, meat scrap and blood meal contain 
negligible quantities of the pigment. This paper 
appeared in full in the September issue of the 
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 

The relation of the natural enzymes of butter to 
the production of "tallowiness" through the 
agency of copper salts: Leroy S. Palmer and W. 
B. Combs. (By title.) "Tallowy" butter was 
produced by the addition of 0.017 per cent, copper 
lactate to both raw cream and cream which had 
been pasteurized at 79°-80° C. In each of several 
experiments typical tallowiness and bleaching oe- 



72 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1307 



eurred in the raw cream butter several weeks be- 
fore it appeared in the butter from the pasteurized 
cream. The oxidizing enzymes in raw-cream butter 
apparently accelerate the catalytic activity of the 
metallic salts which cause the production of typical 
"tallowy" butter. It was found that over-neu- 
tralization of the cream failed to accelerate mate- 
rially the production of tallowiness by copper lac- 
tate. This paper will appear shortly in the Jour- 
nal of Dairy Science. 

The nutritive value of commercial corn gluten: 
C. O. Johns, A. J. Tinks and M. S. Paul. 

The effect of calcium on the composition of the 
eggs and carcase of the laying hen: G. Davis 
Bttckner and J. H. Maetin. Authors have shown 
that limiting the calcium supply of laying hens to 
that naturally occurring in the foods fed, causes a 
progressive thinning of the shell yet it does not 
materially change the percentage composition of 
the egg shells or their contents. The continued 
laying of eggs under this condition causes a grad- 
ual depletion of calcium in the carcase of the hen. 
It would seem from the figures obtained that as 
long as the economy of the hens permitted a forma- 
tion of an egg shell that the contents of the sheU 
would remain constant, thereby permitting an 
average supply of calcium for the proper develop- 
ment of the embryo of the chick. 

Protein requirement in tlie maintenance metabol- 
ism of man: H. C. Sherman. (By title.) 

Tlie development of Tribolium confusum Duval 
in certain foods : Eotal N. Chapman. This study 
has shown that the confused flour beetle, Tribolium 
confusum, grows at about the same rate in the dif- 
ferent grades of wheat flour and in some of the 
so-called wheat flour substitutes, but in certain of 
the low grade wheat flours and in some of the 
"substitutes" metamorphosis is retarded. The 
rate of development in first middlings wheat flour 
was adopted as the control. The instars were 
plotted on the ordinate and the time in days on the 
abscissa in such a way that the curve of develop- 
ment would be a straight line bisecting the angle. 
When the curves of development in other foods 
were superimposed upon the controls they were 
found to be very similar except for a prolongation 
of the last larval instar. Since metamorphosis 
takes place during the last instar, this prolongation 
has been taken as a measure of the nutritive effect 
upon metamorphosis. Certain low grade wheat 
flours, rye flour and rice flour prolonged the last 
instar while corn flour, steel cut oats and a syn- 
thetic food prolonged all instars about equally. 



The influence of quinine on uric acid excretion in 
man: H. B. Lewis and "W. L. McCluee. (By 
title.) 

The uric acid content of normal human saliva: 
H. B. Lewis and W. S. Griffith. (By title.) 

Further studies cm the chemical composition of 
normal and ataxic pigeon brains: Mathilde L. 
Koch and Oscar Riddle. A second series of 
analyses made on brains of pigeons affected with 
hereditary lack of control of the voluntary move- 
ments shows deviations from the normal brain in 
size and chemical composition. The brains are 
smaller. Eight analyses made on cerebrums and 
cerebellums show more pronounced changes in the 
cerebellums. Data for the chemical changes in the 
brain which accompany age have been obtained for 
a series of ages in the pigeon. The new and 
earlier evidence warrants the conclusion that chem- 
ical diSerentiation does not proceed as rapidly in 
the brain of ataxic birds as in the brains of normal 
birds. 

A comparison of the distribution of various 
chemical groups in parts of the human and pigeon 
brain: Oscar Riddle and Mathilde L. Koch. 
Separate analyses made of anterior and posterior 
parts of the normal pigeon brain make it possible 
to compare these with similar paits of the human 
brain. It is found that the direction of the per- 
centage differences in composition of the two parts 
of the brain is the reverse of that of the human in 
the case of every chemical fraction obtained. Also, 
from a chemical standpoint the cerebellum of the 
pigeon is an intermediate of the pigeon cerebrum 
and the human brain (cerebrum and cerebellum). 
The pigeon cerebrum is chemically least differen- 
tiated, the human cerebrum most differentiated, of 
the four organs compared. 

Charles L. Parsons, 

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A. W. Christie 20 

Notes on the Natural History of the Bushy- tailed Wood 

Rats of California, by Joseph Dixon 25 

Geology of a Part of the Santa Ynez River District, 

Santa Barbara County, Cal.. by Wm. S. W. Kew .25 

The Marine Algae of the Pacific Coast of North Amer- 
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Friday, January 23, 1920 



C01^XJi,NTS 

Whitman's Work on the Evolution of the 
Group of Pigeons: Professor T. H. Morgan. 73 

A Paleontological Revival at Yale University : 
Professor Charles Schdchert 80 

William Gilson Farlow 82 



i?c Events: — 
Besearch on Eubier Cultivation; Experi- 
ment Stations of the Bureaat of Mines; 
Grants for Besearch of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. ... 82 

Scientific Notes and News 84 

id Educational News 85 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 

Polydogmata of the Physicist: Professor 
G. W. Stewart. Totem Poles for Museums : 
Dr. Harlan I. Smith. To Mil Cats for 
Laboratory Use: Horace Gdnthorp. Ants 
and Scientists : Dr. Albert Mann 85 

Quotations : — 
The British Natural History Museum 88 

Scientific BooTcs: — 
Sosmer's Geodesy: Professor John P. 
Hatpord 88 

Special Articles: — 

Concerning Application of the Probable 
Error in Cases of Extremely Asymmetrical 
Frequency Curves: Dr. Ellis L. Michael. 89 

The American Mathematical Society: Pro- 
fessor P. N. Cole 91 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to Tbe Editor of Science, Garriaon-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 



WHITMAN'S WORK ON THE EVOLU- 
TION OF THE GROUP OF PIGEONS 

The tliree volumes containing the work of 
Professor Charles Otis Wliitman on pigeons 
published by the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington is a fine memorial to one of the 
leaders of zoological research in Anaerica. 
In the course of the sixteen years devoted to 
this work Whitman brought together birds 
from all parts of the world, bred them, studied 
their juvenile and adult plumages, and their 
habits, and made many crosses between differ- 
ent species. When he died in 1910, his ex- 
tensive and valuable collection of living birds 
was saved through the devotion and sacrifices, 
both personal and financial, of Dr. Oscar 
Riddle, the editor of these posthumous 
volumes. After that first year of precarious 
existence, the Carnegie Institution met during 
the five years following the expenses of main- 
tenance, and during this time the birds, under 
Dr. Riddle's care, were transferred to the lab- 
oratory at Cold Spring Harbor where Whit- 
man's work is being carried forward. With- 
out this support only a fragment of Whit- 
man's results cotild have been preserved or the 
birds kept to complete many of the important 
problems that were at the time of Whitman's 
death still unfinished. The editing of the 
work has been admirably done by Dr. Eiddle. 
It is a fortunate circumstance that what was 
left fell into the hands of one familiar with 
Whitman's ways of thinking, and thoroughly 
conversant with the many problems that had 
grown out of Whitman's studies ; for " not 
more than one fifth of the matter" was in 
shape for publication when Whitman died. 

Volume I. gives Whitman's views and his 
evidence for orthogenetic evolution. The 
editor says in the preface. Whitman " has 
accumulated the most weighty evidence for 

1 Postlmmoiis words of Charles Otis Whitman. 
The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1919. 



74 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



continuity as against discontinuity in tlie 
phenomena of variation, inheritance and evo- 
lution." And with this verdict his reviewer 
is not inclined to disagree, because as a care- 
ful study of Whitman's evidence and mean- 
ing shows, there is not much difference be- 
tween what he understood by continuity and 
what is to-day called more often discontinuity. 

In the introductory chapter from a manu- 
script written in 1909 that formed part of a 
lecture given at Clark University, the keynote 
to Whitman's antagonism to the mutation 
theory of de Vries is struck — a note that 
recurs throughout the first two volumes. 
Weismann, he says, taught us to look to 
germinal variation as the source of all varia- 
tion that is hereditary. Then follows a para- 
graph that takes us to the heart of the matter : 
" Do we not have, then, in germinal variation, 
a better criterion of what is specific than we 
get in sudden appearance? Indeed, is it not 
here that the seeming suddenness of first ap- 
pearance finds its explanation, and likewise the 
fact that so-called mutations involve the whole 
organism ? If we are to accept the physiolog- 
ical conception of development, as is inevit- 
able in my opinion, it is easy to see that a 
change, however slight, in the primordial con- 
stitution of the germ would tend to correlate 
itself with every part of the whole germ-sys- 
tem, so that the end stage of development 
would present a new facies and appear as a 
total modification, answering to what de Vries 
would call a mutation. That some thing of 
this order does sometimes occiu- I have in- 
dubitable evidence, and in such form as to 
dispel the idea of discontinuity and sudden 
gaps in transformation." 

With a slight shift of wording and emphasis 
the essential part of this statement is not very 
different from what we think to-day, for who 
will dispute now that a change (mutation) in 
the germ-plasm may affect many parts of the 
organism that develops out of such a changed 
germ-plasm ? Such a view has not been found 
to dispel the idea of " discontinuity " of 
characters; on the contrary it is in full accord 
with it. 

But the unit character is Whitman's ieie 
noir. "The idea of unit-characters, however. 



as distinct elements that can be removed or 
introduced bodily into the germ does not 
appeal to me as removing difficulties, but 
rather as hiding them; in short, as a return 
to the old pangenesis view of preformed char- 
acters. In this theory, as is well known, we 
have two miracles involved. The first con- 
sisted in a centripetal migration of preformed 
gemmules, and the second in the centrifugal 
distribution of the same elements. DeVries 
dismisses the first of these, but accepts the 
second, and on it rears the superstructure of 
his theory of mutable-immutable unit-char- 
acters. With all due respect to the distin- 
guished author of this theory, and with 
abounding admiration for his great work and 
model methods, which have aroused universal 
interest and stimulated enormously experi- 
mental bionomics, I am strongly persuaded 
that his hypothesis of unit-character fails as 
a guide to the interpretation of the species 
and its characters." 

" It is true a great amount of work on 
Mendelian heredity seems strongly to support 
the unit-character hypothesis, and that cytol- 
ogy offers some further support. iN'everthe- 
less, I have to confess a wholesale scepticism. 
The germ, as I believe and have long main- 
tained, stands for an organized whole. It is a 
unit-organism, not an organism of units; all 
the features that arise in the course of devel- 
opment are within the sphere of the individ- 
ual unity and integral parts of it, and what- 
ever specificity they possess is completely 
determined and not of independent origin." 

" The strongest suggestion of unit-char- 
acters is found in the phenomenon known as 
segregation. I do not understand the im- 
portance of this striking behavior of so-called 
alternative unit-characters. I am familiar 
with it and deeply interested; but I am un- 
able to see in them the stmi total of all we 
know about heredity. What I have said in 
regard to unit-character applies to the Men- 
delian doctrine. Mendelism, like mutation, 
neglects the natural history of the characters, 
it experiments with and is not primarily con- 
cerned to know how characters have orig- 
inated and multiplied." 



Januaby 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



75 



It may be that the emphasis laid on unit- 
character by some of the earlier enthusiastic 
followers of Mendel and the frequent confu- 
sion in their writings between the unit-char- 
acter, so-called, and the change in the germ- 
plasm that gave rise to it, may justify Whit- 
man's scepticism; but this charge can hardly 
be brought against de Vries, who stated over 
and over again that a single change in the 
germ-plasm may be the cause of manifold 
although slight changes in the characters 
throughout the whole organism. 

In contrast to change by mutation Whit- 
man opposes orthogenesis. Evidence for the 
latter he finds in his study of the group of 
pigeons. The evidence is the familiar argu- 
ment from comparative anatomy and from 
the hypothesis of " recapitulation."^ Before 
taking up the evidence I can not refrain from 
quoting a fine and characteristic statement of 
Whitman's in the same lecture: 

" I take exception here only to the implica- 
tion that a definite variation-tendency must 
be considered teleological because it is not 
' orderless.' I venture to assert that variation 
is sometimes orderly and at other times 
rather disorderly, and that the one is just as 
free from teleology as the other. In our 
aversion to the old teleology, so effectually 
banished from science by Darwin, we should 
not forget that the world is full of order, the 
organic no less than the inorgatiic. Indeed 
what is the whole development of an organism 
if not strictly and marvelously orderly? Is 
not every stage, from the primordial germ 
onward, and the whole sequence of stages, 
rigidly orthogenetic ? If variations are devia- 
tions in the directions of the developmental 
processes what wonder is there if in some 
directions there is less resistance to varia- 
tion than in others? What wonder if the 

2 Whitman uses the word ' ' recapitulation ' ' in the 
sense for which the reviewer argued in 1903 ("Evo- 
lution and Adaptation," Chap. III.). As so used 
it means something essentially different from the 
word "recapitulation" in the original sense of 
Darwin and Haeckel, unless the changes in the 
germ-plasm add Stages only to the end of ontogeny 
as Whitman seems to think is the way in which 
the process takes place. (See a later footnote.) 



organism is so balanced as to permit both 
unifarious and multifarious variations? If a 
developmental process may run on throughout 
life (e. g., the lifelong multiplication of the 
surface-pores of the lateral-line system in 
Amia) what wonder if we find a whole species 
gravitating slowly in one or a few directions? 
And if we find large groups of species all 
affected by a like variation, moving in the 
same direction, are we compelled to regard 
such ' a definite variation-tendency ' as teleo- 
logical, and hence out of the pale of science? 
If a designer sets limits to variation in order 
to reach a definite end, the direction of events 
is teleological; but if organization and the 
laws of development exclude some lines of 
variation and favor others there is certainly 
nothing supernatural in this, and nothing 
which is incompatible with natural selection. 
Natiiral selection may enter at any stage of 
orthogenetic variation, preserve and modify 
in various directions the results over which it 
may have had no previous control." 

How far one is justified in extending the 
orderly sequence of embryonic development to 
the sequence shown in evolutionary advance 
is a large question and will no doubt be 
settled some day by fuller knowledge. At 
present our speculations must rest on the 
evidence at hand, and this evidence. Whitman 
finds, as stated, in his comparative studies of 
pigeon coloration, and in a most ingenious 
experiment of feather plucking. 

His studies of domesticated breeds and their 
wild relatives led him to conclude that the blue 
wing with two black bars is not the original 
pattern as Darwin supposes, but rather the 
checkered wing covered with black spots. 
Both patterns are found to-day in wild birds, 
hence these birds can not be appealed to for a 
decision. But an examination of other spe- 
cies of pigeons shows that the checkered type 
is widespread and occurs in many varieties; 
and the young in many groups show a more 
checkered pattern than do the adults them- 
selves. The Japanese turtle dove comes near- 
est, in Whitman's opinion, to the original type 
of wing pattern. The elaborate consideration 
that Whitman devotes to the subject indicates 
how important the question appeared to him; 



76 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



for, from it lie derives the support of his 
orthogenesis. Since the same kinds of ad- 
vances are observed over and over again in 
different groups, and since no plausible reason 
can be given why such changes are of benefit 
to the species, it follows, on Whitman's view, 
that some internal agency has brought about 
these parallel advances. 

The change at molting that transforms the 
young plumage into that of the adult is often 
abrupt, almost like a mutation, yet a simple 
ejqDeriment shows that in the interval the con- 
stitution of the bird has been progressively 
advancing. If feathers are plucked in the 
intervening stages, the new feathers show an 
advance over the young feathers still present, 
an advance in the direction of the feathers 
that are to come at the next molt. And the 
nearer to molting time the operation is per- 
formed the nearer the approach to the newer 
feathers. Here then what appears to be a 
sudden change has in reality been led up to 
by a continuous series of preparatory stages; 
so, in Whitman's view, what appear at times 
to be sudden and great changes in evolution 
(mutations) are in reality only end stages of 
continuous advance. The development of the 
bird repeating the history of the race shows 
continuous change but the exegesis of molt- 
ing gives us only the earlier and the later 
picture. To discuss this theme would take us 
too far afield, but it is a matter not unfamiliar 
to the morphologist. It should be pointed out 
that a change (mutation) in the germ-plasm 
affecting principally the end stages would be 
expected to give residts that are in no sense 
incompatible with this picture. 

Whitman obtained a few "mutations," i. e., 
new types of pattern that were transmitted. 
The mutant change, he points out, is only an 
extension of a character already faintly pres- 
ent in the birds and present in certain wild 
species. What is produced is not new but a 
" continuous " extension of a character al- 
ready present. Hence such mutations are not, 
he contends, new unit-characters but exten- 
sion or diminution of characters already in 
existence. Such, in fact, are the majority of 
mutations known to us to-day. 



Whitman thinks a very old idea reincar- 
nated in Darwin's theory of pangenesis (that 
the body characters impress their influence on 
the germ cells) while nominally rejected sur- 
vives in more subtle guise in some more 
modem theories such as de Vries's theory of 
pangenesis. In this theory the nucleus is 
looked upon as the seat of the hereditary com- 
plex. Its " vital " units are self -perpetuating 
by division, so that the nucletis in every cell 
remains the store house of all of the hereditary 
materials. In the course of embryonic de- 
velopment these vital elements, pangenes or 
genes, are set free in the surrounding cyto- 
plasm of the cell, where they multiply and 
determine the fate of the cell. " The mjth of 
transmission was not eliminated; it was only 
reduced in its field." " Transmission thus be- 
came more direct, but its mysteries remained 
as imfathomable as before. The imit-char- 
acters are assumed to preexist in the chromo- 
somes and to stand in need of transportation 
from the nucleus to the body of the cell in 
order to develop." But " if an innumerable 
host of specifically distinct unit-characters are 
let loose in the cell-plasm, how are they to 
reach precisely predetermined points in the 
organism, and at just the time when needed? 
It is here that the theory breaks down, for 
the difficulty is not one that further investi- 
gation may hope to solve, but one that lands 
us in hopeless speculation. So long as the 
primary assumption is that of ready-made 
unit-characters, specifically distinct and inde- 
pendently variable, whether located in the 
nucleus or in the cytoplasm, or in both, the 
problem of development will remain in- 
scrutable." 

A perusal of de Yries's pangenesis theory 
will show that Whitman has put his finger on 
a weak spot in the specidation, in so far as 
this view pretends to explain how the specific 
pangens of the nucleus are supposed to 
migrate out of the nucleus of each cell at the 
right time in particular regions of the em- 
bryo, but de Vries laid no emphasis on this 
and was familiar with the absence of evidence 
for such an interpretation. The same diffi- 
culty confronts us to-day, but if I understand 



Januaey 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



77 



the situation rightly no one would be bold 
enough to claim any such time relations of 
pangen migration nor does the theory of 
nuclear influence call for such a hypothesis in 
any sense. It is ony necessary that nuclear 
influence should in some way affect the 
chemical changes that go on in the surround- 
ing cell to cover completely the situation. No 
time relation is expected or called for, and 
who to-day will deny, in the face of extensive 
evidence, that the nucleus does have an im- 
portant influence on the cell? With this 
understanding one can agree cordially with 
Whitman's concluding thrust : " The doctrine 
of germs laden with independent unit-char- 
acters, or pangens, each predestined, so to 
speak, to flower in its own place and time 
strikes me as teleological mythology, fine spun, 
to the verge of absurdity. We have not yet 
fathomed primordial organization, but it is 
safe to assume that the germ sets out with a 
biophysical constitution of a given specific 
type, within which metabolic, generative and 
differentiating processes under normal condi- 
tions run on in a self-regulating way." 

The title of Volume II. epitomizes its con- 
tents, " Inheritance, Fertility and the Domi- 
nance of Sex and Color in Hybrids of Wild 
Species of Pigeons." Seven manuscripts of 
less than one hundred pages, nearly 2,000 
pages of breeding records, and two hundred 
illustrations comprised the original material 
of this volume of two hundred twenty-three 
pages. Only a few chapters, viz., I. (1904- 
05), XII. (189Y), XVI. (1898), and XVH. 
(1906) were left complete. The remaining 
chapters (containing fragments and sections 
by Whitman, and his breeding records) con- 
sist in large part of analyses and discussions 
by the editor based on Whitman's data to 
which have been added many of the later ob- 
servations and views of the editor. This work 
of elucidation and summarization has been 
well done, making the text readable, and 
guiding the reader through a maze of not com- 
pleted and intricate data. 

One of the outstanding results of the hy- 
bridization work, which constitutes the bulk 
of this volume, is that offspring produced by 
crossing species of generic or family rank are 



males. This fact is in conformity with re- 
sults obtained in other species of birds (see 
Guyer). The result is however complicated, 
according to the editor, by a second result, 
viz., " that, in many crosses of very distinct 
genera and species, fertility (developmental 
power) is shown to be highest in the spring 
and lowest in the autumn, and that male off- 
spring predominate in the season of highest 
fertility, while females largely predominate in 
the season of lowest fertility." Several pages 
attempting to explain the apparent contra- 
diction follow this statement, but since " it 
may be emphasized that Professor Whitman 
was by no means inclined to dogmatize as to 
the interpretation of this sex series," the sub- 
ject need not be fvu-ther discussed here. 

In certain crosses between checkered and 
barred domesticated races the results show 
that checkered birds may throw some barred 
offspring. That the two may differ by a 
single factor difference may seem probable, 
especially in the light of other evidence (Bon- 
hote and Smally, Staples-Browne) not re- 
ferred to in the text. The relation is men- 
tioned here because it elucidates a point not 
fully understood by opponents of Mendelian 
interpretation, viz., that such a relation is 
not claimed by most Mendelians as showing 
necessarily that the barred character must 
have arisen by a single mutation, although it 
may have done so. There may have been, as 
Whitman thinks, a long line of more graded 
intermediate steps between the two; still the 
barred and the checkered types might be differ- 
entiated to-day by a single factor difference 
provided both contained all other genes in 
common. In other words the modem check- 
ered and barred birds, as compared with the 
old checkered type, would be supposed to 
carry an entire series of gradually acquired 
factors, and the checkered birds one further 
factor. Thus one change in the complex that 
gave the barred type is supposed to have 
sufficed to suppress all of the new stages. 
The two checkered birds would differ then in 
the entire series of gradually acquired factors, 
and also in the single final factor that caused 
the apparent badt-throw. There are also 
records, some of them too fragmentary to be 



78 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



significant, bearing on the question of the 
greater likelihood of the first egg being a male 
in " pure " species — a question that goes back 
to Aristotle and has as often been denied as 
aJRrmed. A table on page lYl (Table 170) 
appears to indicate that this is the case in the 
Streptopelia senegalensis where twelve males 
came from the first egg, and only two females 
came from the first egg, while only two males 
came from the second egg and nine females 
from the second egg. The evidence that has 
been advanced in refutation of this relation is 
due, the editor suggests, to the use of "mon- 
grels, collectively known as domesticated 
pigeons." More data must be obtained and 
statistical treatment applied to settle this 
question. The genetic evidence shows that 
the female is heterozygous for the sex-chromo- 
some, and if the method of disjunction of the 
sex-chromosome in the egg is affected by the 
conditions that prevail when the first egg is 
set free from the ovary, we may possibly find 
in this relation an excuse for such a result. 
If this should turn out to be true, the cause 
of the maleness of the generic hybrids must 
be sought in some other direction. 

The chapter (XTV.) on Heredity contains 
mainly the more general points of view 
reached by Whitman in 1907. Coming at a 
time when Mendel's discoveries had received 
general notice and had been, even then, con- 
firmed from many sources, the chapter con- 
tains results of exceptional interest. The 
groimds for Whitman's objection to any 
theory resting on the assumption of unit- 
characters is contained in the following strik- 
ing paragraph: 

"Every theory founded upon the postulate 
of unit-characters, or specific determinants 
stored in the nucleus is necessarily committed 
to some form of centrifugal distribution dur- 
ing the course of development; and for each 
element to be distributed it is necessary to as- 
sume either that it is passively transported to 
its destination or that it finds its own way 
automatically. In either case it would be 
nothing less than a miracle for a specific 
pangen to reach a prescribed point in such a 
complex mosaic field as the organism repre- 
sents; and, for this to be fulfilled, not only at 



the predetermined point, but also just at the 
moment for harmonious development with its 
immediate neighbors, with symmetrical and 
correlated groups, with inter- and intra-lock- 
ing systems constituting a microcosmic whole, 
incomparably more difficult to grasp than the 
stellar universe — for all this to be fulfilled is 
utterly beyond the boimds of scientific credi- 
bility. To try to conceive of normal develop- 
ment as thus prepunctuated in all its time 
and space relations— as proceeding from ready- 
made elemental characters, automatically dis- 
tributing themselves or guided by entelechies 
— is to indulge in ultra-scientific teleology." 
The statement imputes apparently, to Men- 
delism in so far as it deals with unit-factors 
and unit-characters an implication from de 
Vries's hypothesis of pangenesis; viz., the 
migration from the nucleus of " organic 
bodies " which multiply in the cytoplasm and 
determine the fate of the cell. There is the 
further implication that the migration is so 
timed that it takes place at each critical place 
in development. With Whitman's criticism 
most students of heredity will agree, but it 
should be noted, as I have pointed out above, 
first that Mendel ism makes no such appeal, 
second that the relation of specific materials 
in the nucleus need not be supposed to have 
any such time relations as here stated, and 
third a careful reading of de Vries's " pan- 
genesis " shows that he does little more than 
make a passing reference to such an interpre- 
tation and to-day, at any rate, it is not an es- 
sential part of the doctrine of nuclear action. 
Whitman's own view makes it evident that he 
is not inclined to disregard the nucleus as one 
of the elements in the " organization " that 
supposedly has some action on " the cell as a 
unit." Granting that differences may exist 
in the nucleus of different species, different 
end products are expected. The evidence that 
such differences may be related to specific sub- 
stances in the nucleus is no longer a specula- 
tion but rests on the analytical evidence from 
Mendelian heredity. In what way and at 
what times the nuclear materials take part in 
the determination of characters we do not 
know. The essential point is that we are in 



Januaey 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



79 



no way committed to any interpretation. 
Stated negatively we might add that there is 
nothing known at present to preclude the 
possibility that the influence is a purely chem- 
ical process. We find ourselves, therefore, 
practically in agreement with Whitman's atti- 
tude when he says : 

" N'ow while ontogeny is so wonderfxdly ex- 
act that we never cease to be amazed at its 
performances, we must not forget that germ- 
cells are subject to slow variation. In fact, 
it is only germ-variation that has to be con- 
sidered in phylogeny as in ontogeny. Conse- 
luently, when the germ-cell takes a step for- 
ward, ontogeny begins with an initial differ- 
ence that sets the whole series of ontogenetic 
stages on a diverging line that digresses so 
little as to be undiscoverable until nearly at 
the end of development."^ 

Whitman's failure to find " dominance and 
recessiveness " of character in his pigeon 
crosses led him to attack the supposed im- 
portance of these relations. To-day we know 
more cases where the hybrid shows in some 
degree an intermediate development of the 
contrasted characters than where dominance 
is complete Obviously the distinction has no 
importance since the law of segregation is 
found to hold as well when blending occurs 
as in cases where the somatic differences are 
clearly evident. The hybrid pigeons fall, 
therefore, in this respect into line with 
familiar phenomena. The failure of " split- 
ting" in subsequent generations is a i)oint 
that calls to-day for special consideration, 
but will not be dwelt on here. 

In this chapter, and in several that precede 
it, Whitman and the editor speak rather 
frequently of what is called " weak " and 
" strong " germs as having an imi)ortance in 
determining the " strength " to which a char- 

3 The reviewer would add an important reserva- 
tion, viz., that a "forward step" in the germ- 
plasm might affect any stage in the course of de- 
velopment, or in the extreme case every stage in 
the development. This view is obviously consistent 
with what Whitman states, but, if emphasized, 
would to a large extent undermine the value of the 
evidence from ontogeny in interpreting ancestral 
ttages. 



acter develops, even causing a " reversal of 
dominance." Curiously enough their effects 
are supposed to be transmitted so that fertility 
in the offspring is also affected. Even the 
occasional mutations found by Whitman are 
ascribed to this source. Pigeons unquestion- 
ably fTornish unusual material for the study 
of this appearance. It is perhaps too soon to 
attempt to state how much or how little in 
variation to ascribe to such an influence, aside 
from the obvious effect in the immediate off- 
spring. 1^0 doubt further work along these 
lines will help us to define more sharply what 
is to be understood by the somewhat vague 
attributes " weakness " and " strength." 

There are important discoveries recorded 
in this volume that can only be referred 
to briefly; the "divisibility" of characters 
(meaning intermediate conditions) as seen in 
hybrids, the study of a " dominant " mutant 
character; the discovery as early as 1896 of 
sex-linked inheritance (of which a number of 
cases in other birds are well understood to- 
day), the cross between the last surviving 
members of our wild passenger pigeon and the 
ring dove, the relative influence of egg and 
sperm on the time of hatching of the hybrid 
young. Each of these results marks an ad- 
vance in our understanding of heredity. 

The third volume containing Whitman's ob- 
servations on the " Behavior of Pigeons " is 
edited by Professor Harvey A. Carr. Thirty- 
two short manuscripts were left. It appears 
that Whitman's first period of study in this 
field was from 1895—98. In a few lectures at 
Woods Hole in 1897-98 some of his conclu- 
sions are given. After a period of five years 
a renewed interest in these directions recui-red 
and many notes were made. The Woods 
Hole lecture in 1906 gave an opportunity for 
further consideration. Despite the very frag- 
mentary remains of this work — fraginentary 
only in comparison with the extensive obser- 
vations that Whitman had made, this volume 
contains many observations of great interest 
and gives an insight into the character of 
Whitman's methods, where the most careful 
and minute observations are interpreted with 
a breadth of intelligence that is truly remark- 
able. There are few if any groups of animals 



80 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



so well suited to studies of this kind as are 
tlie pigeons. The elaborate courtship, the 
fidelity of the individuals to each other, the 
mating and nesting habits, the part taken by 
the female and the male in incubation, the 
feeding instinct of old and young, the wean- 
ing and the rythmic sequence of broods offer 
a fascinating opportunity to the student of 
animal behavior. Whitman obviously had in 
view a large program toward the accomplish- 
ment of which he had progressed much fur- 
ther that these notes indicate. Some of the 
lines of work opened up by him have been 
pursued successfully by his students Pro- 
fessor Craig and Dr. Eiddle, but according to 
their statement his knowledge far outstripped 
that of any other observer in this field. 
The many observations here recorded are 
clearly only the material out of which, in 
time, he had expected to link up the evolution 
of instincts with the study of the evolution of 
structure and color. "If Professor Whitman 
had completed his work, he would have pro- 
duced an extensive treatise on the phylogney 
of the pigeon group. . . . The voices and the 
behavior of the various species would have 
been used, like the color patterns, to throw 
light on the relationships, derivation and 
method of origin of pigeon species " (Craig 
and Riddle). According to Carr, Whitman 
developed " what one may term an ortho- 
genetic conception of instinctive development. 
Instincts are not novel and unique construc- 
tions which spring, without ancestry, into be- 
ing; rather each new instinct is but a slight 
modification or organization of tendencies al- 
ready in existence." When one sees how vital 
the instincts are for the existence of the 
species it is probable that however the changes 
originated the advances would most probably 
be those involving only slight modifications of 
intincts already in action. 

The Carnegie Institution and equally Dr. 
Eiddle are to be sincerely congratulated on 
having preserved for American zoologists the 
last great work of Whitman. The wonderful 
colored pictures, almost entirely the work of 
the Japanese artist Hyashi, are marvels of 
beauty and accuracy, and stand for the 
minute attention that Whitman demanded at 



every stage of his work. The same attention 
to detail is shown in Whitman's early work 
on cell-lineage, on the leeches of Japan, and 
on the embryology of fishes, and explains in 
part his far reaching influence on American 
zoologists. It is rare to find combined such 
delicacy in treatment of detail with the sweep 
of philosophical interpretation of which Whit- 
man was equally master. 

Whitman stood at the parting of the ways. 
We may regret that he did not enter into the 
new era that even at that time was opening 
up its far reaching vistas, but this need not 
blind us to the fine example he set — an ex- 
ample of unworldly devotion and absorption 
in his work, of self-criticism made possible by 
simplicity and honesty of character, of fair- 
ness that led him to appreciate and to state 
accurately and kindly the opinions of others 
with whom he disagreed heartily. 

T. H. Morgan 

Columbia TJNnrEKsiTY 



A PALEONTOLOGIC REVIVAL AT 

YALE UNIVERSITY 
Othniel Charles Marsh was appointed pro- 
fessor of paleontology at Tale in 1866, this be- 
ing the first time such a chair was established 
at any university He was unquestionably one 
of America's leading men of science, and in 
vertebrate paleontology "he stood without a 
peer." He had collected fossils long before his 
graduation from Yale in 1860, and after taking 
the doctorate at Heidelberg, he became deeply 
interested in the wonderful array of extinct 
vertebrates that the TJ. S. Geological and Geo- 
graphical Survey of the Territories was finding 
in the " bad lands " of Nebraska. In the mean- 
time, his uncle, George Peabody, had founded 
at Yale the Peabody Museum of Natural His- 
tory, though the building was not erected until 
1875. Marsh saw the great western wilderness 
for the first time in 1868, going over the Union 
Pacific into Nebraska and Wyoming. In 1870 
he fitted out the first Yale College Scientific 
Expedition, and took west with him twelve 
enthusiastic students. Prom this time the 
flood of boxes shipped to the university grew 
annually greater and greater. In 1899 Pro- 



January 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



81 



fessor Beecter said of these collections: Pro- 
fessor Marsh "brought forth in such rapid 
succession so many astonishing things that the 
unexpected became the rule. The science of 
vertebrate paleontology could not assimilate 
new material so fast. . . . The constant stream 
of vertebrate riches which, from 1868 to 1899, 
flowed into the Peabody Museum from the 
Eocky Mountain region had a similar bewilder- 
ing effect upon Marsh, for it was impossible for 
him to do more than seize upon what appealed 
to him as the most salient. As a collector 
Marsh was seen at his best, and the collections 
he amassed during his forty-five years and 
more of activity in this direction form a last- 
ing monument to his perseverance and fore- 
sight." 

In Marsh's day, Peabody Museum was a very 
busy place, with a large staff unearthing and 
preparing the coUeobions so that the master 
mind might make the treasures known to sci- 
ence. At least 400 new species and 185 new 
genera were described in abbreviated form 
previous to 1896, mainly in the American Jour- 
nal of Science. In 1892 came the first check 
to his activity, and Marsh had to let go a con- 
siderable portion of his staff. He was then 
sixty-one years of age, but he struggled on, 
thinking that somehow he could describe the 
great mass of still unknown animals assembled 
in the museum, and make them fully known 
in large monographs Seven years later the 
Great Reaper took him, with his work still 
imdone. 

Professor Charles E. Beecher took up the 
work after Marsh's death, but he had no one 
to assist him in unearthing the collections 
except two preparators. Even under these 
conditions, however, the public were shown 
for the first time the skeletons of some of the 
wonderful animals of the past mounted as 
they appeared in life. The exhibition collec- 
tions grew apace, and long before Professor 
Schuchert succeeded Beecher in 1904, they 
had outgrown the building. Two years later 
Professor Lull was added to the staff. Now 
we have mounted or ready to mount so many 
of our treasures that we are yearning for the 
new Peabody Museum, to take the place of the 



original building which was destroyed in 1917 
to make way for the Harkness dormitories. 

Professor Marsh left $30,000 "to be ex- 
pended by the trustees of said Peabody Mu- 
seum in preparing for publication and pub- 
lishing the results of my explorations in the 
West." The trustees have heretofore held 
that only the income of this fund should be 
used in this way. However, having only this 
income to devote to the Marsh Collections, it 
was but natural that progress should be slow. 
We have now come to realize this fully, and 
the recognition has brought use to a new turn 
in the administration of the collections. 

As it was evidently Professor Marsh's wish 
that both the income and the principal of the 
" Marsh Publication Fund " should be used 
in work on his collections, the trustees of the 
museum have recently decided to spend as 
much of the fund as will be required to make 
known the collections. The study of the 
Marsh material is therefore progressing far 
more rapidly than it has at any time since the 
donor's death. We have now on the staff of 
the mxiseum, working imder the guidance of 
Professor Lull, besides the two preparators, 
the following research associates: Dr. George 
F. Eaton and Assistant Professor John P. 
Buwalda, who give us half their time, and 
Drs. Edward L. Troxell and Malcolm E. 
Thorpe, who devote all their time to the 
Marsh collections. 

In imearthing the imknown in science, no 
one can predict what the results wiU be, or 
how quickly they will be forthcoming, but we 
trust that in this case they will be abundant 
and timely. In working out the new things, 
however, we have also to consider the old ones, 
which, viewed in the light of the knowledge 
of to-day, were inadequately described. How 
vast are the treasures that Professor Marsh 
has left us is not even at this time fully 
known to the curators, but if it should take 
from ten to twenty years more to complete 
the description of the fossil vertebrate mate- 
rial assembled by Professor Marsh, Tale will 
but be the richer scientifically. 



Charles Schuchert 



Tale TJNivi»siTT 



82 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



WILLIAM GILSON FARLOWi 

The Botanical Society of America records 
its appreciation of the great loss sustained 
by the society, by American science, and by 
botanical science througbout the world, in 
the death of Professor William Gilson 
Farlow. 

Educated as a physician, he yielded readily 
to Asa Gray's suggestion that he broaden 
the scope of botany at Harvard University by 
developing there an interest in flowerless 
plants, which up to that time had scarcely 
appeared above the horizon of professional 
botanists in America. In preparation for 
this he traveled extensively in northern Eu- 
rope, at a time when extended travel was un- 
common, meeting and forming personal rela- 
tions with the leading authorities on cryp- 
togams; and he had the very unusual priv- 
ilege of working in De Bary's laboratory at 
Strasbourg, where he associated intimately 
with other young men who were to continue 
the work of this great leader after his own 
untimely death. 

!N"ever overburdened by large numbers of 
half-interested students. Dr. Farlow com- 
municated his own enthusiasm and indus- 
trious habits through long years to a limited 
niunber of men who have been counted for a 
generation among the leaders in American 
botany, and particularly in that branch of the 
science which De Bary's classical studies of 
fungous parasitism laid as the foundation on 
which the art of phytopathology has been 
reared of late, particularly in America, with 
much success and economic benefit. 

Though familiar with ferns, and especially 
with the marine algs of New England, of 
which he published an early monograph. Pro- 
fessor Parlow's interest always centered in 
the fungi, and the larger number of his pub- 
lications have dealt with these plants. 

He served his science particularly weU in 
securing for permanent reference preservation 
the historic herbarium of Curtiss, one of the 
pioneers in American mycology, and that of 
Tuckerman, long the authority on American 

1 Memorial adopted by the Botanical Society of 
America. 



lichens; and since the death of Asa Gray, in 
1887, he has been recognized at home and 
abroad as the foremost of American botanists. 

Among his unpublished manuscripts is the 
completion of a compendious Bibliographic 
Index of North American Eungi, one volunae 
of which was printed in 1905, and of which 
the remainder should be brought to publica- 
tion promptly now that his work on it is done. 

A keen critic, an encouraging teacher, a 
kindly and sympathetic friend, and a man of 
the broadest international interest, Professor 
Earlow is mourned by all who knew him. 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

RESEARCH ON RUBBER CULTIVATION 

A COEEESPONDENT writes from Sumatra: 

During the last week of August and the first 
week of September, 1919, Dr. J. J. van Hall, di- 
rector of the Laboratory of Plant Diseases in 
Buitenzorg, Java, and Dr. E. D. Rands, botanist in 
the same la;boraitory ; specially engaged on a study 
of the brown bast disease of the Hevea rubber, 
made a journey to Sumatra to study conditions 
there. 

On September 2, 1919, a conference on brown 
bast disease was held at the A. V. R. O. S. (Alge- 
meene-proefstation voor Rubber-Cultur, Ooat-kust 
van Sumatra) Proefstation. This was attended by 
Acting Director F. C. van Heurn, of the A. V. R. 
O. S. Mr. J. C. Maas, and Dr. H. Heuser, also of 
the A. V. R. O. S., Dr. J. J. van Hall and Dr. 
R. D. Rands, both of the Laboratory of Plant Dis- 
ease, Mr. Oarl D. La Rue and Mr. P. E. Keuche- 
nlus, botanist and mycologist respectively, of the 
Holland-American Plantations Company, and Dr. 
J. 6. Polj director of the experiment station of the 
Oultur Maatschappij Amsterdam. 

The cause of the disease was first discussed, Dr. 
Rands giving recent evidence secured by him 
pointing to a physiological origin. Mr. Carl D. La 
Rue stated that results obtained by Professor H. 
H. Bartlett and himself in. 1918, and later by him- 
self alone, indicated that the same bacterium was 
always present in bark affected with brown bark 
disease. Mr. Keuehenius stated that he also found 
bacteria to be constantly present in diseased tissue, 
and that he had secured positive results from inoc- 
ulations with these bacteria. 

Conditions favorable to attack by the disease 
were also discussed as well as methods of treat- 



January 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



83 



ment. All present agreed that the disease is the 
most serious one known to the rubber industry, that 
treatment alone was too expensive, and that meth- 
ods of prevention should be disoovered if possible. 

Later at a special meetiug an experiment was 
planned by Messrs. Rands, Maas, Keuohenius and 
La Rue to test more fully whether or not the dis- 
ease may have a physiological cause. After visit- 
ing a number of rubber estates on the east coast of 
Sumatra and in Atjeh, Drs. van Hall and Rands 
returned to Java. 

The first technical meeting of the personnel of 
the experiment stations for the rubber culture was 
held in Budtenzorg, Java, on November 1, 1919. 
Representatives of the Central Rubber Proefsta- 
tion, the West-Java Proefstation, the Malang 
Proefstation, the Besoeki Proefstation, the Labora- 
torium voor Plantenziekten, and the research de- 
partment of the Holland Plantations Company. 

Among the subjects discussed were brown bast 
dise-ase, mildew-diseases of leaves, borers, thinning 
put of trees on estates, and selection. The last 
topic is only now beginning to be a matter of con- 
cern to rubber planters, although experiment sta- 
tion workers have been interested in ii for several 
years. 

EXPERIMENT STATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF 
MINES 

In connection with, the work of the Bureau 
of Mines, Department of the Interior, the bu- 
reau is now conducting eleven mining experi- 
ment stations, located in the various mining 
centers of the country, and bending their ener- 
gies toward the special mining problems that 
are local to their part of the country. So 
great has been the demand for knowledge con- 
cerning the character of the work nndertaken 
at these various mining stations and its 
general relation to the mining industry, the 
bureau has issued a bulletin describing the 
work of the stations. Dr. Van H. Manning, 
director of the bureau, isketches the work of 
the different stations as follows : 

The station at Columbus, Ohio, situaited at a clay- 
working center is employed mostly on ceramic prob- 
lems. In this counjtry there are about 4,000 firms 
manufacturing clay products, including brick, tUe, 
sewer pipe, conduits, hollow blocks, architectural 
terra cotta, porcelain, earthenware, china and art 
pottery. The amount invested in these industries 
is approximately $375,000,000 and the value of the 
products exceeds $208,000,000 annually. 



The station at Bartlesville, Okla., is investigating 
problems that arise in the proper utilization of oil 
and gas resources, such as elimination of waste of 
oil and natural gas, improvements in drilling and 
easing wells, prevention of water troubles at wells, 
and of waste in storing and refining petroleum, 
and the recovery of gasoline from natural gas. 

What the Bureau of Mines has done for the great 
coal-mining industry, chiefly through investiga- 
tions ait the experiment station at Pittsburgh, Pa., 
has been published ia numerous reports issued by 
the bureau. Some of the more important accom- 
plishments have been the development and intro- 
duction of permissible explosives for use in gaseous 
mines, the training of thousands of coal miners in 
mine-rescue and first-aid work, and the conducting 
of combustion investigations, aimed at increased 
efficiency in the burning of coal and the effective 
utOization of our vast deposits of lignite and low- 



The Salt Lake City station has devised novel 
methods of treating certain low-grade and com- 
plex ores of lead and zinc. These methods show a 
large saving of metal over methods hitherto em- 
ployed, and have made available ores that other 
methods could mot treat profitably. 

The Seattle station is busy with the beneficia- 
tion of the low-grade ores of the Northwest, and 
the mining and utilization of the coals of the 
Pacific states; the Tucson station is working on 
the benefieiation of low-grade copper ores; and the 
Berkeley station has shown how losses may be re- 
duced at quicksilver plants and how methods at 
those plants can be improved. 

In the conduct of these investigations the bu- 
reau seeks and is obtaining the cooperation of the 
mine operators. At more than a dozen mills in the 
west engineers from the stations are working di- 
rectly with the mill men on various problems, and 
the results they already have obtained more than 
warrant the existence of the stations. Success in 
solving one problem may easily be worth millions 
to the country. Mining men are using these sta- 
tions more and more freely as they realize that tihe 
government maintains these stations to help them, 
and that the difficulties of the operators, both 
large and small, will receive sympathetic consid- 
eration and such aid as the stations can give. 

GRANTS FOR RESEARCH OF THE AMERICAN 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 

OF SCIENCE 

At the St. Louis meeting of the association, 
the council assigned the sum of $4,500 to be 
expended by the Committee on Grants for 



84 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



Research during tlie year 1920. The mem- 
bers of the committe for the cm-rent year 
are: Henry Crew, chairman; W. B. Cannon, 
E. T. Chamberlin, G. IST. Lewis, George T. 
Moore, G. H. Parker, Robert M. Yerkes, and 
Joel Steibbins, secretary. 

The committee will hold a meeting in 
Washing-ton in the month of April, when the 
distribution of the grants will be made. Ap- 
plications for grants may be made under the 
general rules given below, wliich were adopted 
in 1917; but the committee especially invites 
suggestions from scientific men who may 
happen to know of cases where young or 
poorly supported investigators would be 
greatly helped by small grants. 

1. Applications for grants may be made to the 
member of the oommittee representing the science 
in which the work falls or to the chairman or sec- 
retary of the committee. The committee will not 
depend upon applications, but will make inquiry 
as to the way in which research funds can be best 
expended to promote the advancement of science. 
In such inquiry the committee hopes to have the 
cooperation of scientific men and especially of the 
sectional committees of the association. 

2. The committee will meet at the time of the 
annual meeting of the association or on the call 
of the chairman. Business may be transacted and 
grants may be made by correspondence. In such 
cases the rules of procedure formulated by the late 
Professor Pickering and printed in the issue of 
Science for May 23, 1913, will be followed. 

3. Grants may be made to residents of any 
country, but preference will be given to residents 
of America. 

4. Grants of sums of $500 or less are favored, 
but larger appropriations may be made. In some 
cases appropriations may be guaranteed for sev- 
eral years in advance. 

5. Grants, as a rule, will be made for work which 
could not be done or woiild be very difficult to do 
without the grant. A grant will not ordinarily be 
made to defray living expenses. 

6. The oommittee will not undertake to super- 
vise in any way fhe work done by those who re- 
ceive the grants. Unless otherwise provided, any 
apparatus or materials purchased wiU be the prop- 
erty of the individual receiving the grant. 

7. No restriction is made as to publication, but 
the recipient of the grant should in the publica- 



tion of his work acknowledge the aid given by the 
fund. 

8. The recipient of the grant is expected to make 
to the secretary of the committee a report in De- 
cember of each year while the work is in progress 
and a final report when the work is accomplished. 
Each report should be accompanied by a financial 
statement of expenditures, with vouchers for the 
larger items when these can be supplied without 
difficulty. 

9. The purposes for which grants are made and 
the groimds for making them wiU be published. 

Joel Stebbins, 

Secretary 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Richard C. Maclaurin, president of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 
1909, died from pneumonia in Boston on 
January 15. Dr. Maclaurin was bom in 
Scotland in 1870. He was educated at the 
Universities of New Zealand and Cambridge, 
and was appointed professor of mathematics 
in the University of New Zealand in 1898. 
In 1907 he was appointed professor in mathe- 
matics and physics in Columbia University. 

Dr. Jacques Loeb, of the Rockefeller In- 
stitute for Medical Research, was elected 
president of the American Society of Nat- 
uralists at the recent meeting held in 
Princeton. 

Professor F. B. Loomis, of Amherst Col- 
lege, has been elected president of the Paleon- 
tological Society. 

Dr. Phoebus A. T. Levene, of the Rocke- 
feller Institute for Medical Research, in New 
York, was elected associate member of the 
Societ-e Royale des Sciences Medicales et 
NatureUes of Brussels, on December 1, 1919. 

Mr. J. H. Jeans, of Cambridge, formerly 
professor of mathematics in Princeton Uni- 
versity, has been nominated as secretary of 
the Royal Society. 

Dr. Paul Sabatier (Toulouse), and Dr. 
Pierre Paul Emile Roux (Paris), have been 
elected honorary members of the British 
Royal Institution. 

The Swedish Medical Association has 
awarded its jubilee prize this year to Dr. 



January 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



85 



Hans Gertz of the physiological laboratory of 
the Karolinska Institut for his work on the 
functions of the labyrinth. It was published 
in the Nordish Medicinskt Arhiv in 1918. 

The president and fellows of Magdalen 
College of Oxford University on the express 
recommendation of the General Board of the 
Faculties decided to award a pension of £450 
per annum to Professor Sydney Howard 
Vines, M.A., F.E.S., F.L.S., fellow of the 
college, and honorary fellow of Christ's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, who is resigning the Sher- 
ardian chair of botany with the fellowship on 
December 31 next, after a tenure of thirty- 
one years. This is the first occasion on 
which the new system of pensions for pro- 
fessors instituted by the college with the ap- 
proval of the imiversity has been brought 
into operation. 

Professor Edgar James Swift, head of the 
department of psychology of Washington 
University, has been invited to give two lec- 
tures before the officers and students of the 
Post Graduate School of the United States 
ISTaval Academy at Annapolis. The subjects 
of these lectures are " Thinking and Acting " 
(February 14), and " The Psychology of 
Handling Men" (April 10). 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

At the dinner of the alumni of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, held in Cam- 
bridge on January 10, it was announced that 
the endowment fund of four million dollars 
had been obtained by the alutmni, thus secur- 
ing the gift of an equal sum from the hitherto 
anonymous " Mr. Smith." It was revealed that 
" Mr. Smith," who has now given eleven mil- 
lion dollars to the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, is Mr. George Eastman, president 
of the Eastman Kodak Company. 

The trustees of Oberlin College have granted 
increases of salaries for all in the service of 
the institution. Early in the fall the faculty 
of the college appointed a committee under the 
chairmanship of Professor C. G. Rogers to 
consider the salary needs of the members of 



the faculty. The report of the committee, ap- 
proved by the faculty, was transmitted to the 
trustees, and findings calling for a fifty per 
cent, increase in the salaries of all teaching 
and administrative officers of the college, dat- 
ing from September 1, 1919, were approved. 
This action adds about $175,000 to the annual 
budget of the college. 

Annouxcement has been made at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania of a gift of $50,000 
from the estate of William C. G«odell for the 
establishment of a chair of gynecology in the 
medical school. The trustees have adopted a 
resolution providing that as far as possible 
rooms and facilities for the carrying on of re- 
search work be extended to emeritus professors 
in all departments. 

The pathological buildings of the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital group, the professional work- 
,shop of Dr. William H. Welch, was wrecked 
,by fire, January 12. It is said that none of the 
valuable specimens was lost, nor were any of 
the records of research work damaged. 

Professor A. P. Coleman, geology, has been 
elected dean of the faculty of arts of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. Professor J. Playfair Mc- 
Murrich, anatomy, has been elected chairman 
of the board of graduate studies, which corre- 
sponds with the graduate faculty in many uni- 
.versities. 

Dr. Harold Pringle, lecturer on histology 
and assistant in the department of physiology 
in the University of Edinburgh, has been ap- 
pointed professor of physiology in Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in the room of the late Sir Henry 
Thompson. 

Dr. F. W. Keeble, assistant-secretary of the 
British Board of Agriculture, has been elected 
to the Sherardian professorship of botany of 
Oxford University in succession to Professor 
,S. H. Vines. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

THE POLYDOGMATA OF THE PHYSICIST 

The mind of the physicist may be said to 
be somewhat in confusion. But there is no 
reason to hope that it ever will enjoy the 



86 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



logical perfection of a consistent set of 
theories. He constructs the electromagnetic 
theory of light and must needs adhere to it 
on many occasions, yet with fidl knowledge 
that it can not be correct. He rejoices in the 
existence of the universal constant, h, and 
the appearance of the quantum, h^, in reson- 
ance and ionization potentials, in photoelec- 
tric X-ray phenomena, and in the theory of 
heat radiation, yet he can not be reconciled 
to the existence of the quantum in the phe- 
nomenon of the passage of light through a 
vacuum. He builds an atomic structure 
which will not only provide a clear picture, 
but will also furnish quantitative results in 
striking agreement with experiment; and yet 
he must, in his building, reject certain prin- 
ciples which elsewhere he adopts without 
hesitancy. He rejoices in the achievement of 
the general theory of relativity, which, unless 
proved untenable, gives a logical consistency 
at present— and probably for many, many 
years, unattainable by other means; yet in 
his constructive thinking he sometimes uses 
the ether which the general theory of rela- 
tivity ignores, and he lives in his old Euclid- 
ean world which the present developments 
from this theory deny. 

In short, the physicist can not be consist- 
ent. Moreover, he can not progress unless 
this inconsistency is a stimulus and not an 
annoyance. He must live as if in several 
compartments, enjoying in each one the con- 
sistency possible therein, and being not dis- 
tressed but rather interested and invigorated 
by the failure to unite these compartments 
into one consistent whole. If he " believes," 
he must be inconsistent. If he progresses, he 
must adopt a set of dogmas in the small com- 
partment in his immediate problem. If he 
follows with full sympathy modern progress 
in physics, he must have not one, but many 
dog-mas, and these not wholly consistent with 
one another. 

I refer not merely to the multiple-theory 
method of attack upon a problem, for the 
dogmas are not even altogether similar in 
kind, but more especially to the ability to 
appreciate thoroughly not only " constructive 



theories," but also "theories of principle" 
(quoting from Einstein) It is not merely 
the approach from a different viewpoint in 
the same universe, but it is the ability to live 
in more than one imiverse. 

All of this may be obvious, but yet, in 
point of fact, now and again there appears 
evidence that even physicists of note are 
pained by this role. They seem to resist by 
objections which do not aid in the extension 
of these compartments, or by a rebellion 
against the obviously advantageous policy of 



G. W. Stewart 
State TJNrvEEsiTT op Iowa 

totem' poles for museums 

Fifty years ago some of the best totem 
poles of the Haida Indians of Queen Charlotte 
Islands cost the Indians several thousand 
dollars each. To-day many of these may be 
purchased for a dollar and a haK or two 
dollars a foot. That is, an average totem pole 
can be purchased, crated and put aboard a 
steamer at Masset for about one hundred 
dollars. 

Many of the Haida totem poles have dis- 
appeared. A few have been taken to mu- 
seums where they are preserved; some have 
been burned; many have decayed. Several, 
seen during the past summer, at Yan opposite 
Masset, have recently been blown over by the 
wind. In a few years all will have disap- 
peared unless means are taken to save speci- 
mens of this art for the future. However the 
other tribes having totem poles may feel at 
this date, the Haidas have come to the point 
of neglecting the poles and being willing to 
sell them. They are owned by families, and 
negotiations as with an estate are necessary 
for properly obtaining them. 

This ISTorth Pacific art is one of the treas- 
ures of Canada and the United States. Ex- 
amples of it should be preserved in each large 
city of the continent. It may not be gen- 
erally known how easily this can be done. 

In the summer the Haidas of Masset are 
busy fishing. In the spring they have less to 
do and some are in need of money. Mr. Al- 
fred Adams or Mj. Henry Edensaw are trust- 



January 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



87 



worthy Haidas of Masset, B. 0., who are 
capable of corresponding and executing the 
purchase of a pole or poles, and of engaging 
other help and superintending the lowering 
and creating of poles, their transportation 
across the inlet from Tan to the wharf at 
Masset and their shipment to destination. 
The poles are very heavy and the cost of 
handling will be perhaps equal to the price 
of the poles. They are soft and their own 
weight will crush parts of the carvings un- 
less they are properly crated. Some of the 
poles 50 to 60 feet in length may have to be 
cut in sections for shipment. 

Here is an opportunity. Examples of this 
unique art now going to decay may be 
rescued, loaded and started on their way to 
safe-keeping in our museums at the rate of 
about one hundred dollars per specimen. 



Harlan I. Smith 



Geological Sukvet, 
Ottawa, Canada 



TO KILL CATS FOR LABORATORY USE 

A QUICK and humane method of killing a cat 
or other small mammal in the laboratory is to 
put the animal under an open topped bell jar, 
i. e., a bell jar which has a small bottle-like 
neck at the top through which there is an 
opening. This mouth should be comparatively 
small, not over a half inch in diameter, and the 
neck should be at least an inch long. After the 
animal has been placed under the bell jar, a 
very small quantity of ether or chloroform is 
poured through the opening in the top, and it 
is then corked up. The liquid strikes the sides 
of the neck and immediately runs down in a 
thin film over the inner surface of the bell jar 
and evaporates into the chamber in two or 
three seconds. The enclosed animal shows its 
effects almost immediately, and dies in a very 
short time. 

While it is not necessary, it is beitter to seal 
up the base of the bell jar because occasionally 
the animal falls down after it becomes uncon- 
scious, and its head comes in close proximity to 
the crack between the jar and the object on 
which it is placed, and it thus obtains suffi- 
cient air to delay its death. This can be pre- 



vented by wrapping a damp towel around the 
base so as to exclude the air. By placing the 
bell jar on a glass plate and sealing with vase- 
line, an airtight chamber can be made, but the 
advantage thus gained does not make up for 
the care necessary in order to avoid getting 
one's clothing in contact with the greased sur- 
faces. 

Horace Gunthorp 
Washburn College, 
Topeka, Kans. 

ants and scientists 
To THE Editor of Science: As a result of 
watching a colony of ants and attending a 
scientific meeting on the afternoon and even- 
ing of the same day, it seemed to me the two 
teeming hordes of excited workers — the in- 
sects and the scientists — had some queer traits 
in common, as : 

1. How they work in ranks and cohorts, 
mutually attracted by some exciting discovery 
that a wandering member has stumbled upon, 
and that awakens the most astounding and 
intense interest. 

2. How they immediately set to work to 
pull opposite ways, fight valiantly over their 
treasure, and heroically keep it up after they 
have amputated some of each others' legs and 
other appendages. 

3. How they take up one thing, drag it 
about for a time, and then drop it for some 
other thing. 

4. How they often expend enormous labor 
on something that isn't worth a darn; and 
here Mark Twain's story of the two ants and 
the grasshopper leg came to mind. 

5. How their splendid industry is generally 
circular in direction; so that after long 
struggle, they get the thing back to the exact 
spot from which it started. 

6. How they firmly believe that " they are 
the people " and refuse to admit or bother 
over bigger intelligences that are their inter- 
ested observers and that can and sometimes 
do sweep them and their hills and rimways 
and stores into oblivion. 

7. How, measured by final results, they are 
nevertheless a wonderful body of workers; 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



and in tireless energy, patience and talent, 
stand out preeminent in their respective 
groups. Albert Maotj 



QUOTATIONS 

THE BRITISH NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 

We learn that there are at present vacancies 
in the entomological, zoological and geolog- 
ical departments of the ITatural History Mu- 
seum which have been open for several 
months, and that more vacancies are expected 
in the immediate future. The museum is 
one of the great national instruments for the 
collection, classification, and preservation of 
specimens of the animal and plants, the rocks 
and minerals, of the world. For the ade- 
quate performance of its duties, it must have 
a full staff of able and devoted specialists. 
It should require no defense on utilitarian 
grounds, for the advancement of natural 
knowledge of the kind to which it is devoted 
is recognized as a privilege by every civilized 
state. But there are plenty of utilitarian 
arguments. Take entomology alone: the 
number of living species of insects is esti- 
mated at over 2,000,000. The preserver of 
insect life on human life is continuous. As 
household pests, as carriers of disease, as 
enemies of stores or crops, they are every day 
being found to have an unexpected economic 
importance. It is to the experts and the 
collections of the ^Natural History Museum 
that we have to turn for the requisite in- 
formation, and unless the museum has an 
adequate staff we turn in vain. The diffi- 
culty in filling posts with suitable men is 
partly financial. The present rate of pay for 
assistants in the second class is from £150 to 
£300, and in the first class from £300 to £500 
a year, with a temporary war bonus. These 
salaries — the " despair " of Professor Stanley 
Gardiner, whose cogent letter we publish in 
another column — are no longer sufficient to 
attract or to retain men of the right attain- 
ments, imless they happen to have private 
means. The smallness of the staff and its 
inevitable division into water-tight compart- 
ments makes promotion slow and capricious. 
These disadvantages are increased by an 



antique privilege of the principal trustee, who 
nominates candidates for vacancies instead 
of advertising for them. It has frequently 
happened in the past that middle-aged medio- 
crities have been brought in and placed over 
the heads of the existing staff because of 
their acquaintance with a group in which 
some of the trustees are interested. The fact 
is that the mode of governance of the Natural 
History Museum is medieval. It should be 
separated from Bloomsbury and placed imder 
a body of trustees selected not because they 
make a hobby of collecting bugs or butter- 
flies, but because they have a wide knowledge 
of the scientific purposes which it is the 
business of the museum to subserve. — The 
London Times. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 

Geodesy, including Astronomic Ohservations, 

Gravity Measurements and Method of Least 
.Squares. By George L. Hosmer. John 

Wiley and Sons. First edition, 1919, 377 

pages, 6X9, 115 cuts. 

This book is especially to be commended for 
the skill shown in the selection of illustrations, 
both photographs and drawings, and for the 
excellence of arrangement and printing of the 
text and tabular matter. These things con- 
tribute substantially to the satisfaction and 
comfort of the user. 

Still more is the book to be commended for 
its positive qualities, which make it a distinct 
and valuable addition to that part of the litera- 
ture of geodesy which serves to carry informa- 
tion and understanding from the extreme spe- 
cialists who are developing the methods and 
extending the knowledge in these fields, to the 
students and the practising engineers who de- 
sire to get a well-balanced view of the whole 
field of geodesy quickly. The old well-known 
matters are restated well in effective grouping. 
The ideas, formulae and tables most needed by 
the student and the practising engineer are 
selected from the great mass of available ma- 
terial with rare skill. The recent developments 
in geodesy are shown in true perspective with 
respect to old things, to a quite unusual extent 
for a text-book. 



January 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



89 



Among the comparative recent develop- 
ments in geodesy that are especially well 
stated in the book are (1) the importance of 
determining the relative strength of different 
proposed chains of triangulation as fixed by 
the geometrical relations, and the methods 
for quickly doing so; (2) the relation between 
the average length of the lines in a triangula- 
tion and the rapidity, economy, and accuracy 
of that triangulation and its convenience to 
the user; (3) the advantages of the light and 
rapidly built towers such as are now used in 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey; (4) the ad- 
vantages of the transit micrometer on portable 
instruments for determining time accurately; 
(5) the application of the interferometer to 
determination of the flexure of the support of 
a pendulum used to determine the relative 
values of gravity at different points. These 
things are stated forcefully and with good 
judgment as to their relation to older ideas 
and methods. 

Though he has looked carefully for errors 
of omission, the reviewer, who has a back- 
ground of experience which naturally tends 
to make him keenly critical, finds only three 
that are, in his opinion, important. 

1. On its best direction theodolites the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey uses two sets of 
double parallel lines in the micrometer micro- 
scopes with which the horizontal circle is 
read, the two sets being so placed that the 
observer moves the micrometer screw only one 
turn between a forward and the corresponding 
backward reading, instead of five turns. This 
is a time-saving convenience which also in- 
creases the accuracy, and surely should have 
been mentioned in the book. 

2. The necessity of tracing back the adopted 
field length of a base measuring tape to the 
standard meter and the methods of doing so 
are inadequately treated in the book. The 
developments of the past twenty years have 
made it clear that one must concentrate much 
more keenly on this part of the work than 
the book indicates. 

3. The area method of computing the figure 
of the earth from geodetic and astronomic 
observations is barely referred to on page 204 
without explanation. In view of the fact that 



this method gives a much higher degree of 
accuracy from the same observations than the 
traditional arc method, it certainly deserves a 
page of general exposition in the book, even 
if it is possibly too difficult for the student to 
grasp in full. The student and the engineer 
should know that the more accurate method 
exists, should know its general character, and 
in a general way why it is more accurate than 
the arc method. 

The author of the book has shown such 
ability to see with the eye of an expert, and to 
exercise the judgment of a practicing geodetic 
engineer, that one may confidently expect that 
even these three omissions will not occur in a 
second edition. 

John F. Hayford 



SPECIAL ARTICLES 

CONCERNING APPLICATION OF THE PROB- 
ABLE ERROR IN CASES OF EXTREMELY 
ASYMMETRICAL FREQUENCY CURVES 

In a study of the fecal pollution of shell- 
fish. Dr. James Johnstone^ raises an im- 
portant question : that of determining the 
most probable value of a measure from a 
series whose frequency distribution is highly 
asymmetrical. In such instances it is evi- 
dent, although prevailing practise contradicts 
the statement, that it is illegitimate to apply 
the probable error in the usual manner. For 
such application presupposes a symmetrical 
(Gaussian) distribution, and, since a wide 
range of biological measurements is char- 
acterized by an asymmetrical distribution, the 
matter merits consideration. 

Dr. Johnstone lists the following counts of 
colonies of bacteria growing on twenty plates, 
each having been incubated a standard length 
of time after being inoculated with 1 c.c. of 
an emulsion, in 250 c.c. of water, of five 
muscles collected at random from the polluted 
area: 7, 24, 40, 15, 22, 20, 17, 9, 16, 29, 7, 9, 
10, 26, 15, 11, 21, 17, 10, and 41. Dr. John- 
stone assumes each count to be an estimate of 
the number of bacteria per c.c. of the emul- 

1 ' ' The Prolbable Error of a Bacteriological 
Analysis," Eept. Lane. Sea-Fisli. Lab., 1919, No. 
XXVII., p. 64-85. 



90 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



sion, the variation between the counts being 
attributed to errors in sampling. He then 
raises the question as to the most probable 
number of bacteria present, and, after point- 
ing out that, according to custom, the arith- 
metic mean of the counts (18.3) would be 
regarded as the most probable number, proves 
this to be untrue by showing the frequency 
distribution to be highly asymmetrical, as 
follows : 

Counts Frequency 

6-10 6 

11-15 3 

16-20 4 

21-25 3 

26-30 2 

31-35 

36-40 1 

41-45 1 

Although Dr. Johnstone discusses this dis- 
tribution, and, by employing Galton's graph- 
ical method, determines certain constants, he 
fails to answer the question he raises. 

In cases of this kind it seems as though 
the simplest procedure is to find some func- 
tion of the measurements whose frequency 
distribution is Gaussian, and apply the prob- 
able error to that function. The reason is 
that an asymmetrical distribution implies 
that some influence other than " chance " is 
operative, and substitution of a function 
whose distribution is Gaussian enables their 
separation. In the particular case at hand, 
and it is typical of many within the province 
of biology, this function is the logarithm. 
This is easily demonstrated by grouping the 
logarithms of the counts with respect to a 
deviation of =t0.1 from their mean (=1.2046) 
as follows : 

Logarithm Frequency 

0.505-0.704 

0.705-0.904 2 

0.905-1.104 5 

1.105-1.304 6 

1.305-1.504 5 

1.505-1.704 2 

1.705-1.904 

The arithmetic mean of the logarithms 
(1.2046) is the logarithm of the geometric 



mean of the counts (=16.02), the geometric 
mean, by definition, being the twentieth root 
of the product of the twenty counts. Accord- 
ingly, the Gaussian distribution of the 
logarithms shows that the counts cluster in 
approximately constant ratio about their geo- 
metric mean, or, to express it otherwise, that 
variations in the count are compensatory in 
the geometric mean. This signifies that 
variation in the count is not primarily 
attributable to errors in sampling and that 
each count is not an estimate of the number 
of bacteria present per c.e. in a homogeneous 
emulsion, but rather that conditions favor- 
ing the propagation of bacteria fluctuated in 
an " accidental " way either during the period 
in which the twenty samples were removed 
from the emulsion, or from place to place 
within the emulsion, or both. "Whether or 
not this interpretation be correct, the log- 
arithmic frequency distribution demonstrates 
that something of like nature occurred. In 
any case the most probable number of 
bacteria per c.c. corresponding to the most 
typical condition of the emulsion is the geo- 
metric mean of the coimts (16.02) ; and, in 
the same sense, 250X16.02 = 4,005 is, of 
course, the most probable nmnber of bacteria 
in the whole emidsion. 

The reliability of this estimate may be ap- 
proximated by applying the probable error to 
the logarithms. The standard deviation of 
the logarithms, a, is 0.224, the probable error, 
or, better, the " probable departure " from the 
logarithm of a single count is 0.6745 o- = 
± 0.1511 and the probable departure from the 
logarithmic mean is 0.1511/V20 = ±0.0337. 
It follows from tabulated values of the prob- 
ability integral that, had the entire 250 c.c 
been examined, it is as likely that the 
logarithmic mean would have been within 
1.2046 rt 0.0337 as that it would have been 
outside these limits, while the odds are about 
4.6 to 1 that it would have been within 
1.2046 ±2(0.0337), about 22 to 1 that it 
would have been within 1.2046 ± 3(0.0337), 
and nearly 142 to 1 that it would have been 
within 1.2046 ± 4(0.0337). The numbers cor- 
responding to these logarithms are the limit- 



January 23, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



91 



ing values of the estimated number of bac- 
teria per c.c. ; that is, the odds are even that 
this nmnber lay between 14.82 and 17.31, 
about 4.6 to 1 that it lay between 13.72 and 
18.72, about 22 to 1 that it lay between 12.69 
and 20.22, and nearly 142 to 1 that it lay 
between 11.74 and 21.86. 

This, I believe, answers Dr. Johnstone's 
question in so far as the small series of counts 
permit. The problem is ts^pical of many that 
have not received due consideration by either 
biologist or statistician; and conclusions de- 
parting widely from the truth are continually 
being reached through failure to apply any 
criterion of reliability on the one hand, and 
through an erroneous application of the prob- 
able error on the other hand. It is hoped this 
brief presentation will stimulate discussion. 

Ellis L. Michael 
ScRipps Institution, 
La Jolla 



THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL 
SOCIETY 

The twenty-sixth annual meeting of the society 
was held at Columbia University on Tuesday and 
Wednesday, December 30-31, with the usual morn- 
ing and afternoon sessions on each day. The at- 
tendance included 96 members. President Frank 
Morley occupied the chair, being relieved at the 
last session by Professor J. L. Coolidge. The fol- 
lowing new members were elected : Dr. H. E. Bray, 
Rice Institute; Professor I. L. Miller, Carthage 
College; Dr. Helen B. Owens, Cornell University; 
Professor E. W. Pehrson, University of Utah. Ten 
applications for membership were received. 

At the annual election the following officers and 
other members of the council were chosen: vice- 
presidents, C. N. Haskins and E. G. D. Richardson; 
secretary, E. N. Cole; treasurer, J. H. Tanner; li- 
brarian, D. E. Smith; committee on publication, 
E. N. Cole, Virgil Snyder, and J. W. Young; mem- 
bers of the council to serve until December, 1922, 
T. H. Hildebrandt, Edward Kasner, "W. A. Man- 
ning, H. H. Mitchell. 

The total membership of the society is now 733, 
including 80 life members. The total attendance of 
members at all meetings, including sectional meet- 
ings, during the past year was 393 ; the number of 
papers read was 187. The number of members at- 
tending at least one meeting during the year was 



252. At the annual election 156 votes were cast. 
The treasurer's report shows a balance of $10,- 
692.23, including the life membership fund of 
$7,168.87. Sales of the society's publications dur- 
ing the year amounted to $1,811.52. The library 
now contains 5,690 volumes, excluding some 500 
unbound dissertations. 

It was decided to proceed with the incorpora- 
tion of the society under the general law of the 
state of New York. A committee was appointed to 
consider plans for the organization and adminis- 
tration of the society after the retirement of the 
present secretary and librarian from their offices 
at the close of the present year. A committee was 
also appointed to consider the formation of an in- 
ternational union of mathematicians. The com- 
mittee on mathematical requirements presented a 
report, which was laid over for consideration at 
the February meeting. 

The following resolutions, introduced by Pro- 
fessor R. C. Archibald as chairman of the com- 
mittee on 'bibliography, were adopted by the coun- 
cil: 

The council regards the preparation and publi- 
cation, in America, of a dictionary of mathemat- 
ical terms as not only most desirable but also en- 
tirely feasible, provided that financial aid for the 
preparation of the manuscript can be secured. 

Impressed with possibilities for the more exten- 
sive development of pure and applied mathematics 
in America, and with the importance of such de- 
velopment to the nation, the Council records its 
conviction that there are undertakings whose ac- 
tive consideration would be highly desirable if ade- 
quate financial assistance might be regarded as 
available. Among such undertakings are: 1. The 
preparation and publication by societies or individ- 
uals of surveys, introductory monographs, transla- 
tions, memoirs, and treatises, in important fields, in- 
cluding the history of mathematics. 2. The organi- 
zation of research fellowships. 3. The preparation 
and publication of an encyclopaedia of mathematics 
ii. English. 4. The preparation and publication of 
an annual critical survey, in English, of the mathe- 
matical literature of the world. 5. The prepara- 
tion and publication of a biographical and biblio- 
graphical dictionary of mathematicians. 

The meeting of the society immediately preceded 
that of the Mathematical Association of America 
on January 1-2. A very pleasant occasion was the 
joint dinner of the two organizations on New 
Year 's eve with an attendance of 114 members and 
friends. 

The following papers were read at the annual 
meeting : 
The sum of the face angles of a polyhedron in 

space of n dimensions: H. F. MacNeish. 



92 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1308 



A connected set of points which contains no con- 
tinuous arc: G. A. Pfeiffek. 

Fundamental types of groups of relations of an 
infinite field: C. J. Ketser. 

The theorem of Thomson and Tait and its converse 
in space of n dimensions : Joseph Lipka. 

Foncelet polygons in higher space: A. A. Bennett. 

Continuous matrices, algebraic correspondences, and 
closure: A. A. Bennett. 

Concerning points of inflection on a rational plane 
quartic: L. A. Howland. 

Geodesies motion on a surface of negative curva- 
ture: H. C. M. Morse. 

The geometry of Hermitian forms : J. L. Coolidge. 

Rotations in space of even dimensions: H. B. 
Phillips and C. L. E. Moore. 

Note on geometric products: C. L. B. Moore and 
H. B. Phillips. 

A memoir upon formal invariancy with regard to 
hinary modular transformations: O. B. Glenn. 

The invariant problem of the relativity transfor- 
mations of Lorentz appertaining to the mutual 
attraction of two material points: O. E. Glenn. 
(Preliminary report.) 

The mean of a functional of arbitrary elements: 
NoRBERT Wiener. 

Bilinear operations generating all operations ra- 
tional in the domain Q: Norbert Wiener. 

Frechet's calcul fonctionnel and analysis situs: 
Norbert Wiener. 

A set of postulates for fields: Norbert Wiener. 

On the location of the roots of the jacobian of two 
binary forms, and of the derivative of a ra- 
tional function: J. L. Walsh. 

On the proof of Cauchy's integral formula by 
means of Green's formula: J. L. Walsh. 

On the order of magnitude of the coefficients in 
trigonometric interpolation: Dunham Jackson. 

A problem of electrical engineering: P. L. Alger. 

Properties of the solutions of certain functional 
differential equations: W. B. Fite. 

Determination of the pairs of ordered real points 
representing a complex point: W. C. Geaustein. 

Sheffer's set of five postulates for Boolean algebras 
in terms of the operation ' ' rejection ' ' made com- 
pletely independent : J. S. Taylor. 
„Ex, the magic wand of actuarial theory: 0. H. 
Forsyth. 

A formula for determining the mode of a fre- 
quency distribution: G. H. Forsyth. 
Asymptotic orbits near the equilateral triangle 
equilibrium points in the problem of three finite 
bodies: Daniel Buchanan. 



The definition of birational transformations by 
means of differential equations: C. L. Bouton. 
Area-preserving, parallel maps in relation to trans- 
lation surfaces: W. 0. Graustein. 
Note on linear differential equations of the fourth 
order whose solutions satisfy a homogeneous 
quadratic identity: C. N. Reynolds, Jr. 
A practical problem of aerodynamics and thermo- 
dynamics: J. E. EowE. 
A property of permutation groups analogous to 
multiple transitivity : W. B. Carver and Mrs. E. 
F. King. 
Some pseudo-finiteness theorems in the general 
theory of modular covariamts: Olivb C. Haz- 
lett. 
Note on the rectifiability of a twisted cubic: Mart 

F. Curtis. 
The representation of fractions of periods on alge- 
braic curves by means of virtual point sets: 
Teresa Cohen. 
Necessary and sufficient conditions that a linear 
transformation be completely continuous: C. A. 
Fischer. 
On the structure of finite continuous groups with a 
single exceptional infinitesimal transformation: 
S. D. Zeldin. 
On the location of the roots of the derivative of a 
polynomial: J. L. Walsh. 

Abstracts of the papers will appear in the March 
issue of the society's Bulletin. 

The thirteenth western meeting of the society, 
being a joint meeting of the Chicago and South- 
western Sections, was held at St. Louis on the same 
days as the meeting in New York. The next reg- 
ular meeting of the society will be held in New 
York on February 28. 

F. N. Cole, 
Secretary 



SCIENCE 



A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of 
Science, publishing the official notices and pro- 
ceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science 

Published every Friday by 

THE SCIENCE PRESS 

LANCASTER. PA. GARRISON, N. Y, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Entered ia the post-office «t Lancaster. Pa., at second clan auttot 



SCIENCE 



Nkw Sebies 
Tgll II, No. 1309 



Friday, January 30, 1920 



Single Copies, /15 C' 
Annual SubsceSiptk 




Heineman on Milk 

This work appeals to sanitarian, laboratory worker, physician, producer, economist, 
and student. For instance the sanitarian will find chapters on adulteration and adul- 
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on such subjects as Metchnikoff's theories on fermented milk and bacterial flora, milk- 
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and desiccated milk, cheese, butter, ice cream, with illustrations of new apparatus. 
For the economist and student generally there is here presented a complete study of the 
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SCIENCE 




Friday, January 30, 1920 



CONTENTS 

The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science: — 

The Message of the Biologist: Pbopessor 
William Patten 93 

On Nipher's " Grcmitational" Experiment 
and the Anomalies of the Moon's Motion: 
De. F. W. Vert 102 

FranTc Perkins Whitman 105 

Horatio C. Wood 106 

Scientific Events: — 

Water Power and Dartmoor; Medical Edu- 
cation; SdentifiG Lectures; The Illinois 
Academy of Sciences; Gift to the National 
Academy of Sciences and the National Me- 
secsrch Council 107 

Scientific Notes and News 1 10 

University and Educational News 112 

IHscussion and Correspondence: — 

Official Field Crop Inspection: Frank A. 
Spkagg. Science and Politics: Professor 

T. D. A. COCKERELL 113 

Quotations : — 

The Dues of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science and the Salaries 
of Scientific Men 115 

Scientific BooTcs: — 

Ostwald on the System of the Sciences: 
Pkofessok William A. Notes 116 

Special Articles: — 

Drought and the Poot-system of Eucalyptus: 
James McMdrpht and George J. Peikce. 118 

The Mathematical Association of America . . ] 20 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review ehould be sent to The Editor of Science, Garriaon-on- 
Hudaon, N. Y. 



THE MESSAGE OF THE BIOLOGIST^ 

It is eminently fitting that we biologists, 
like virile swarm spores, should periodically 
come together in a holiday spirit of mutual 
exchange, and after giving and receiving our 
messages, go back to our life work, reinvigor- 
ated and reoriented, to prepare for another 
brief period of social conjugation. 

The messages we send to one another will 
have little carrying power, and little influence 
on the receiver, if they are not specific in con- 
tent, limited in scope, and securely wrapped 
up in the precise technical terms of our own 
familiar code. 

On the other hand, the biologist would be 
wholly lacking in social instincts if he 
failed to recognize that he also has a more 
comprehensive message for the layman, who 
is largely dependent on the biologist for his 
working knowledge of the great domain of 
nature-life, and by whom the biologist is pro- 
vided with the necessary means of existence. 

This larger message must have a different 
vehicle. It must first be summarized, digested 
and metabolized into the vernacular, before it 
can circulate through the body of social life, 
reach its terminals, and there accomplish its 
strengthening and rectifying purpose. 

We may well ask ourselves whether we have 
such a message to give, and if so, what it is, 
and who, or what, is our authority. And by 
"we," I now mean all of us, not merely the 
biologist, but the astronomer, geologist, chem- 
ist, physicist and psychologist, for we are 
what we are to-day because of the underlying 
community of our methods and purposes, and 
because, in our concept of evolution, we ac- 
knowledge the same mental sovereignty. 

This concept, of which we are the trustees, 

1 Address of the vice-president and chairman of 
Section P, Zoology, American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, St. Lonis, January 31, 
1919. 



94 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



initiated in man a veritable intellectual muta- 
tion, wMcli is now rapidly expressing itself in 
new pliases of social action, and in the emerg- 
ence, like the parts of a growing embryo, of 
new types of social architecture. It is our 
duty to interpret this concept, and to see to 
it that its real significance is understood, and 
rightly used in social growth. 

The social metamorphosis which historians 
call the renaissance was largely due to organic 
improvements in the system of educational 
circulation and the transmission of mental 
possessions from man to man. Learning was 
democratized by translating the bible and the 
classics into the vernacular, and by this better- 
ment in transmission across time and space, 
the profits of a dead past were made to flow 
more freely into a living futiire, making those 
profits in some measure the mental heritage of 
the common i)eople, and their enduring germ- 
inal possessions for self-constructive purposes. 

In this accelerated social growth, the base 
line for the orientation of human conduct, 
and for the measurement of right and wrong, 
good and evil, was the bible, the classics, and 
the divine right of civic and religious leader- 
ship. The power and stability of these ex- 
ternal directive agencies was universally ac- 
knowledged, the source of their authority un- 
questioned, and like radiant beams, their 
trophic influence was formally expressed in 
the prevailing architectonics of social pro- 
cedure. 

We are now witnessing, incident to a new 
birth of social vision, a new social convulsion, 
much more significant than that of the middle 
ages, in which science, and especially bio- 
logical science, unconsciously played, and is 
stiU playing, a very important part. For when 
we recognized a new source of authority in 
lawful nature-action and in evolution, the old 
base line for the measurements of human con- 
duct vanished, and many of the old bonds of 
social allegiance were destroyed; and now we 
are asked: "What shall be the new compulsion 
to constructive social action, and on what au- 
thority can we stay the march of anarchy? 

And you, as biologists and American men 
of science, can not shirk the grave responsi- 
bilities of social leadership now thrust upon 



you, for it requires little gift of prophecy to 
forsee that America is destined quickly to 
become the world's chief center of biological 
learning, as she is to-day the center of the 
broadest sympathy with human life and 
nature. 

Perhaps it may clarify our vision if we 
first ask, not what biology is, but what science, 
as a whole, does, and what she tries to do. 
It will little help us to enumerate all the 
sciences, or be told there is " pure " science 
and applied science; science experimental, 
and descriptive. Behind and beyond all these 
varied aspects of science there must be com- 
mon motives, and common purposes in the 
scientists, if we are rightly to include them 
as intelligent beings in the same class. 

Let us therefore precipitate and remove 
these adjective purities and impurities, and 
you will then agree with me, I believe, that 
there still remain in science several over- 
lapping functions and purxwses. First to ex- 
plore and to chronicle. To that end, she aims 
to discover what things are contained in 
nature, where they are, what they do, what 
the order is, step by step, of their coming in, 
their growing up, their going out. And then to 
memorize, to conserve her mental possessions, 
to register, in convenient and enduring sym- 
bols the result of her explorations, for future 
usage. Second, to compare and explain. To 
that end, she aims to discover why things are 
as they are, in what respects they differ, in 
what they agree, how one thing influences an- 
other, constructively, or destructively, and to 
distinguish the right ways of doing things 
from wrong ways. Her third function is to 
do things rightly. In that respect, she is 
artistic, architectural. To that end, by con- 
forming her ways of doing things to nature's 
ways, she aims to create, and to conserve, and 
to use her records and her knowledge of right 
and wrong profitably. 

Thus three qualifying motives pervade sci- 
ence: the acquisitive, the ethical and the 
moral. She seeks knowledge through experi- 
ence, wisdom through understanding, and 
profit through obedience. One purpose is 
self-constructive, or egotistic, the other, self- 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



95 



giving, or altruistic. Botli are cooperative 
functions; in action, continuous; in rightness, 
cumulative; in effect, creative. 

The renaissance of to-day has its chief 
creative impulse in the consciousness of evo- 
lution. This revelation of modern science, 
which we all acknowledge as our guiding star, 
has come to mean world-growth, or the pro- 
gressive organization and architectural up- 
building of nature. !N"ature is now the source 
of our authority, and creative nature-action, 
as expressed in nature-growth, is the stand- 
ard of all our values. Science is therefore 
compelled to express all her measurements in 
jwsitive and negative constructive terms, 
which ultimately must be oriented in refer- 
ence to this gradient base line of nature- 
progress, called evolution. 

In this nature-growth, we fail to discover 
any gain or loss, either in basic constructive 
matter, or in energy. But gain there must 
be, if evolution is a reality. That gain is, in 
reality, a moral and ethical gain, or a gain in 
that creative action and constructive right- 
ness which we call organization and directive 
discipline. There are no better positive and 
negative terms to express those gains, both 
relatively and absolutely, than the familiar 
terms, right and wrong, good and evil. 

On this point, therefore, there need be no 
equivocation in our message. The profit in 
evolution is in better constructive action. 
By the conservation of these profits, nature 
augments her capital in constructive right- 
ness. 

But how is this profit made and conserved? 
That is the really vital question. Until it is 
answered there can be no underlying intel- 
lectual stability in human life, individually, 
or socially; no basic unity of purpose in 
human conduct. Here otu- vision is not so 
clear. Many of us believe that on this point 
we have no comprehensive message to give. 

The most familiar attempts to explain how 
evolution takes place are restricted to special 
aspects of evolution, and are often epitomized 
in personal names, such as Darwinism, La- 
markism, Weismannism, Mendelism. Among 



us there are natiu-alists, morphologists, phys- 
iologists, and psychologists; breeders, experi- 
mentiilists, and bio-chemists. And surroimd- 
ing us on all sides are the physicists, chemists, 
geologists, and astronomers, with whom we 
must reckon, for their domains and their sub- 
ject matter overlap ours in countless ways. 

But unfortunately between all these workers 
there is little common understanding and 
much petty criticism. 

Are we building out of aimless contribu- 
tions to science a new Babel's tower of dis- 
jointed, slippery words, with nothing to hold 
them to constructive lines, and preserve the 
unity of purpose in our social architecture? 

Perhaps the most comprehensive terms, al- 
though they have little meaning outside the 
organic world, are " natural selection," the 
" struggle for existence," and the " survival of 
the fittest." But granting their validity within 
the organic world, they have no definite moral 
significance. They convey no implication as to 
how man, or anything else, must act in order 
to exist, to say nothing of surviving. What 
is the fittest? Why is it fit? Why does it 
survive? If right combinations happen pri- 
marily by chance, why, or how, do they come 
to happen regularly ? How can " right acci- 
dents " become cumulative, or lawful, or deter- 
minate, unless there is a saving, or more 
enduring, directive element in that something 
we call rightness? 

When the layman makes his holiday call 
on his biological menagerie and points his 
umbrella at us, hoping to receive through that 
safety-first device a brush discharge of in- 
formation, we fail to " come across " with 
illuminating answers to these very pertinent 
questions. But to conceal our low potential, 
and preserve our self-respect, we all resort to 
certain unintelligible sounds, or warning sig- 
nals, according to the particular pen in which 
we have been bred and exercised, and which 
are guaranteed to scare away, or charm into 
inaction, the most intrepid questioner. One 
mumbles something about " environment " and 
" ecology," and crawls back into the bushes. 
Another wheezes something about " enzymes " 
and "vitality"' and goes on with his experi- 
menting. Another climbs to the top of his 



96 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



cage and yells " eugeuics," wMe his mate in 
the corner faintly lisps " euthenics." Some 
particularly active youngsters jump into a re- 
volving wheel, and every time it makes a com- 
plete revolution shout " chromosomes, chromo- 
somes, chromosomes." A few old-moss-backs, 
a rare variety, mournfully harp on " morphol- 
ogy." And one majestic megatherium com- 
prising all in one, coughs up an " energy com- 
plex," followed by a prolonged roar, in several 
volumes, in which one can distinguish the 
words " action, reaction, and interaction." 
The clergymen, senators, and Bolsheviki, with 
their retinues of lady friends, exclaim " How 
wonderful, and so true." Life indeed is com- 
plex, energetic, and full of actions, reactions, 
and interactions! And all of them deeply 
impressed, go back to their deadly work, and 
act, and believe, if at all, just as they did 
before. 

After they are gone, all the animals agree 
that no one has any right to bother real, 
simon-pure scientists with such fool questions. 
Let them go to — well, "Where? To Germany? 
To Nietsche, Bernhardi, and Treitsche? To 
the militant philosophy of dominion, to a 
half-witted selfishness, in politics, commerce, 
and kultur, frankly upbuilt on the doctrine 
of the survival of the fittest, the fittest uni- 
versally acknowledged, by themselves, to be 
the Germans and their system? 

Or to the spiritualists, anthropomorphists, 
and sentimentalists, who see nothing clearly 
in the mirror of nature but a distorted image 
of themselves? 

Or to Huxley and his " I don't know " fol- 
lowers, who can discover no ethics or morality 
in nature-action; neither warning nor invita- 
tion, nor directive discipline, but merely a 
drab, unoriented neutrality of " unmorality," 
leaving man nothing but himself with which 
to orient himself; leaving him to create his 
own system of ethics and morality out of his 
own inner consciousness? 

The biologist has fotmd no evidence for the 
broad assimiptions of these philosophers. In 
nature, he sees no one-sided dominion of the 
strong over the weak, or the weak over the 
strong; no special privileges; and no freedom 
from obligations. Ifeither does he see any 



warrant for puling sentimentality, nor any 
expectation of an unaggressive neutrality in 
nature-action. 

Nature, so far as we have been able to dis- 
cover, is an enduring, self- constructive system, 
gaining and preserving her gains, in a definite 
way, according to her own system of ethics 
and morality. In so far as nature-growth is 
manifest in evolution, we can not deny that 
at least to that extent her ethics are con- 
structive and her morals saving. 

Man's constructive and saving principles 
can not be otherwise, without severing all his 
bonds with nature-action in a futile attempt, 
like that suggested by Hioxley, to set up an 
anarchistic " imperium in imperio," or a Bol- 
shevistic " microcosm within the macrocosm." 

I can not believe we have reached that 
parting of the ways, for man's highest activi- 
ties are all too clearly but extensions of na- 
ture's ways and means of creating and pre- 
serving her products, in which man uses 
whatever intelligence he may have, and the 
cultural implements he has constructed, as 
special instruments to attain his ends. 

The specific gravity of the western variety 
of biologists will not let him fioat in a vacuum 
of cosmic mysteries with the Hindoo; and he 
does not care to wallow in a quagmire of 
metaphysics with the Greek. He gladly 
plants his substantial mental feet on the first 
firm substratum he can reach. And even 
though that substratiun be nothing more than 
the molecular quicksands of physics and 
chemistry, it safely leads him to the rising 
shores of hard realities. 

But now that we biologists, as evolutionists, 
feel reasonably safe in our storm-proof 
shelters of established facts, the spirit of ad- 
ventm-e again leads us forth to wider excur- 
sions, and we ask ourselves whether it is 
possible to reduce all the constructive proc- 
esses of nature to a simple formula, which can 
be expressed in familiar terms of tmiversal 
human significance? This is a venture 
doomed apparently beforehand to defeat, for 
it takes us back again to the most ancient 
beaches of human controversy, strewn with 
the wreckage of all man's early and late 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



97 



attempts to launch a religion, or a philosophy, 
that will stand the test of experience. 

And all these mournful wrecks are jealously 
guarded by marooned mariners of hope, and 
their beach-combing followers, who show no 
mercy to intruders. But modern science, 
which has wisely built on firmer, though drier 
ground, must ultimately extend the founda- 
tions of all of her out-housings down to the 
low water mark of this old shore, and while 
the attempt is fraught with danger, it will 
ever be an inspiring task for those engaged 
in the process of social reconstruction that 
now lies before us. I know of no other engi- 
neers whose occupation should better fit them 
for leadership in this task than the biologists, 
occupying, as they do, a central strategic 
position in relation to chemistry and physics, 
geology and astronomy, sociology and the 
humanities. 

When to this end, we examine, as best we 
may, the attributes of these basic, chemical 
elements of nature's substance, we find in 
them, as in human social atoms, a potential 
constructive and creative power which becomes 
clearly manifest in the familiar processes of 
chemical action. In that process we are com- 
pelled to assume, if we are willing to assume 
anything, that some influence, or effect, we 
know not what, or how, is exercised by one 
element on another, the result of which may 
be the formation of a new unit, or compounded 
individuality, with a new style of architecture 
of its own. Coincident with this construction, 
the former attributes of the constituent parts 
vanish, and in the new unit a different at- 
tribute appears which was not there before. 

We may profitably translate this construc- 
tive process into the vernacular, without, T 
trust, seriously offending the properties of the 
purest scientist, even though the words may 
savor of morality. 

We may say, for example, that when the 
right chemical elements are in the right rela- 
tions to one another, or if they are moved into 
them, or placed there or if these elements 
themselves find the right relations by chance, 
or otherwise, cooperative action between them 
then takes place automatically, or under a 



compulsion neither can resist, and something 
new is created. In this cooperative action, 
each element evidently does something, or 
gives something to the other, and receives 
something from the other. It is in fact ap- 
parently a clear case of creative action 
through mutual subjection and mutual serv- 
ice — not necessarily service for each other, 
because for all we know these elements may 
be the original anarchists and would much 
prefer neither to give anything to anybody, 
nor receive anything from anybody — but for 
the molecule so created. 

In this creative process, the essential 
factors are, unity, mutual service, mutual 
discipline, and some sort of constructive 
rightness. When these conditions are ftil- 
filled, something new is created, and these 
anarchistic elements then become, perforce, al- 
truistic agents, or accessories, to some ulterior 
creative act, in which they may or may not be 
interested. In spite of themselves, by their 
mere existence, they are compelled to act for 
something beyond self, and in doing so they 
cease to be anarchists and become more or less 
orderly servants in a staid molecular society. 

Mr. Molecule, therefore, is created by the 
mutual services and directive discipline of his 
constituent atoms, or elements, and by his 
home surroundings, all acting cooperatively to 
give him birth. In his creation, he becomes 
endowed with a sovereign quality of his own, 
subject to the sovereignty of his outer world. 
He endures as long as those cooperative 
services are rightly performed, and the dis- 
cipline rightly maintained, and no longer. 
His existence, therefore, is contingent on the 
performance of these services, and on the ex- 
istence of some degree of rightness within 
himself, and outside himself; and that mole- 
cule which does survive has preserved within 
its makeup some measure of that rightness. 
In that measure of cooperation and rightness 
lies the fitness of his constituents, and the 
selective agency in the evolution of the mole- 
cule. 

But the molecule thus peremptorily set up 
in business for itself, and without being con- 
sulted in any way as to his own wishes in the 
matter, has his own work in the world to do. 



98 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



subject to his own specific attributes and ex- 
ternal compulsions. This new anarchist, by 
force of circumstances, may be compelled to 
help in the construction of proteids to be used 
by some future plant or animal life, even if 
his anarchistic soul does rebel at the per- 
formance of such useless altruistic labor, and 
at such tmwarrantable interference with his 
freedom of action. 

If we now make a momentary excursion 
toward the other extreme of nature-action, 
into the domain of the astronomer, we appar- 
ently find the same constructive, selective, and 
saving agencies at work that are manifest in 
the upbuilding of the molecule, only the sys- 
tem and its component parts are larger, the 
time and space factors greater, and the im- 
knowable movers have different names. 

Here the cooperative agencies are the 
sovereign cosmos, and the sovereign individ- 
ualities it contains. These solar systems, 
with their constituents suns, planets, and 
satellites, and their subordinate elements, are 
grouped in partially visible architectural en- 
tities, suggesting the wholly invisible mole- 
cular entities of physics and chemistry. 

The gains in this cosmic action-system are 
formulated in sidereal architecture, and the 
continuity of its constructive services is mani- 
fest in the stability of its organization. The 
morphology of the heavens, like that of mole- 
cules and living organisms, is not only an 
index of past and present physiologic action, 
but an assuring prophecy of future action. 
"Without this forward and backward aspect, 
along a gradient line of progressive nature- 
action, science itself could not exist, for there 
would be no base line for the profitable orien- 
tation of intelligent thought or action. 

In each of these larger sidereal units, and 
systems of units, is embodied the smnmed 
up profits of past cooperative actions. In this 
self-construction lies the egoistic phase of 
these individualities. The ulterior altruistic 
services to which they are accessories are in 
some measure apparent in the terrestrial con- 
ditions under which, without our consent or 
approval, we now exist. So let us get back to 



earth again, where these agencies have made 
life and constructive thought a jiossibility, 
and have rigidly defined its impossibilities, 
whether we like these invitations, restrictions, 
and compulsion of nature's discipline, or not. 

In the terrestrial world, the most con- 
vincing and familiar example of creative 
unity through cooperative action, is the living 
organism. But plant and animal life stand 
on, and in, the altruistic achievements of the 
physical world. They are pensioners of the 
past, using both the oldest and newest instru- 
ments of nature in their self-construction. 
The individual plant, or animal, is the product 
of its cooperating elements, cells and organs, 
and its environment, and is itself a cooper- 
ative agent in that environment. It is sub- 
ject to its own sovereign attributes, as well as 
to those of its constituents and its habitat. 
The individual gain is everywhere contingent 
on the general. The plant can not long en- 
dure without the animal, the male without 
the female, and neither without their retinues 
of other servants. They exist, as they do, 
because of these mutual services, within and 
without, past and present. Their profit is in 
service betterments: their working capital, 
past betterments conserved. 

In this phase of nature-action, the cooper- 
ative system is formless, elastic, and demo- 
cratic. Plants and animals are the actor- 
imits, widely separated it may be, in time and 
space, but everywhere intermingled regardless 
of high or low degree. And the system now 
assumes the familiar give and take of pre- 
datory life and reproduction, where consmner 
and consumed, parent and offspring, egoism 
and altruism, perform reciprocal functions in 
the universal metabolism of nattire-life. 

Consider, for example, the nut, the mouse 
and the cat. 

If the mouse destroyed all the nuts, it 
would destroy itself. Its interests are best 
served when nuts are encouraged. If it had 
intelligence, it would cherish and preserve 
them. If it had the necessary cultural im- 
plements, it might profitably spend its spare 
time and energy in producing more and 



Januaky 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



99 



better nuts. Not even a " nut " could reason- 
ably object to tbat. On the other hand, the 
cat is an efficient educator. It teaches the 
mouse to confine its attention to its own 
affairs, and both teacher and pupil are the 
better for that. 

And when the mouse is about to die, and is 
brought to earth, it does not wholly go to 
waste. A percentage of him goes to make an- 
other nut, and a percentage helps to make 
another cat, which without the one and the 
other could not exist. And finally nature 
levies a tax upon the cat, and in due season 
the cat pays his taxes. 

By virtue of this rigorous nature discipline, 
which prescribes when, and how, and where, 
the nut, the mouse, and the cat may act, and 
what they must, and must not do, each in its 
own way makes a living, as many others like 
them have done in similar ways before, a suffi- 
cient testimonial to the constructive and 
saving virtue of the system. 

But this is only one part of this system 
of give and take. The plant, the mouse, or 
the cat, as an individual, not only gets, or 
receives enough income from all sources to 
pay his personal running expenses, but on the 
whole, each in his own way, makes a profit. 
Part goes into alterations, repairs and addi- 
tions, or into what we call growth. But 
there is always a definite limit to individual 
holdings, or to the growth of every individual 
system, which is peculiar to itself. When 
that limit of cohesion is reached, or ap- 
proached, the surplus overflows into other in- 
dividualities and becomes their possession. 

Much of this surplus of the profiteer, which 
for him is imusable, is scattered right and 
left with astounding prodigality, and this un- 
willing altruism on his part becomes one of 
the chief sources of income to life at large. 
But an adequate percentage becomes a special 
entailed endowment to a new individual, sim- 
ilar to the first, thus setting up a substitute, 
or a direct lineal descendant in the business oi 
life, giving him a fixed capital in germinal 
materials, quick assets in germinal food-stuffs, 
with containers and protective envelopes, all 
rightly constructed and arranged, and the 
whole package so located in time and space 



by the administrators of these estates as to 
insure for it, in the long run, a new life of 
adventure among the hazards and inviting 
opportunities of the outer world. 

Thus in this larger spongeoplasmic fabric 
of nature-life, visible only to the more com- 
prehensive instruments of the mind, kingdoms 
and classes, races and species, young and old, 
the physical and organic entities of the living 
and the dead, are unconscious partners in a 
common system of cooperative action. In this 
social metabolism across the larger reaches of 
time and space, each unit, in the reciprocal 
egoism and altruism of life and death, plays 
its respective anabolic and eatabolic func- 
tions, and thereby gives the system, as a 
whole, its self-sustaining, vital power. 

Through the shifting patterns of this grow- 
ing fabric, we most clearly see the converging 
threads of genetic lineage, the long, gradient 
lines of alternating youthful egoism and 
parental altruism, on the one hand vanishing 
in the primordial life that has its issue in the 
terrestrial loom, and on the other, radiating 
into the abyss of future possibilities. Every- 
where shot through and across these more 
rigid hereditary lines are those which mark 
the sinuous course of predatory action, and 
other actions less discriminating. Thus the 
whole system is woven into that variegated 
plexus of success and failure, tragedy and 
comedy, joys and sorrows, good and evil, 
which makes up the cooperation functions of 
life and give it creative unity. 

And then man, a new nature-anarchist, the 
most modern pattern in this moving-picture 
fabric, makes his appearance on the screen, 
and surrounded by his satellites of cultural 
instrimients, and with both positive and nega- 
tive poles of his very material self flaming 
with the auroras of intelligence, attempts to 
set this system which gave him birth to rights. 

He is little conscious of the source of his 
own endowments, or that his ethics and 
morality, as manifest in his sporadic out- 
bursts of social philanthropy and benevolence, 
are not his own institutions, but the compul- 
sory application of world-old constructive 
principles to his own peculiar affairs. ISTor is 



100 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



lie fully eonscioTis that his boasted material 
inventions and discoyeries, his canoes and 
battleships, his ovens, highways and machin- 
ery, his microscopes, telephones, and tele- 
scopes, his commerce, literature-science, and 
art, are but improvements, or enlargements, 
outside himself, of his own internal organs 
and functions, and that he must use these cul- 
tural instruments if he would use them con- 
structively, in precisely the same ways his 
vital organs are used in his bodily growth 
and preservation. 

In their functioning, these cultural instru- 
ments extend, deeper into time and farther 
across space, the power of his sense organs 
to discriminate between good and evil, and 
increase the range and velocity of the load 
his muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other 
bodily organs can move, or carry. In other 
words they serve to increase the rate and 
diversity of the mutually profitable exchange, 
mental and physical, between the human mole- 
cules of social life, and between man and 
nature. They alone give man's social life its 
cooperative unity and power, just as the co- 
operative action of molecules, cells, and organs 
give unity and power to his body. Their 
saving and constructive action is contingent 
on the growth and right usage of intelligence, 
as the construction and preservation of his 
body is contingent on the evolution of right 
reflex actions and instincts. 

And now, in this twentieth century of the 
historian's calendar — when the human blasto- 
derm, for the first time in cosmic evolution, 
has practically enclosed the terrestrial egg, 
filling in all the habitable surface of this 
cosmic yolk-sphere, establishing its capillary 
network of highways, and its nerve plexus of 
communication, joining its racial blood-is- 
lands and national placodes into one organism 
— ^humanity has ceased to be a germinal po- 
tentiality, or a mere vision of the prophets. It 
has become a present and very obvious reality, 
and the academic flickerings of the philosophic 
auroras are now sufficiently luminous to be 
visible, as practical questions, to the poli- 
tician. Indeed there is still hope that some 



rays may eventually pass the threshold of sen- 
atorial sensibility. 

But the man of normal social instincts and 
average intelligence, in spite of himself, is 
now compelled to recognize this unity in 
human life and nature, and the dependence of 
that unity on the fulfillment of mutual rights, 
of mutual services, and mutual obligations. 
In this more humble state of mind, he does 
not now ask "What will I do?" but "What 
must we do ? " to preserve social life and social 
structures. What is our protection against 
the will to destroy? With destructive agen- 
cies everywhere now at hand for those who 
have the will to use them. What shall be the 
compulsion to constructive action? 

The answers to these questions can not be 
found in precedents, for there are no preced- 
ents in the whole histoi-y of evolution for 
man's present social conditions. The solu- 
tion must be found in the intelligent appli- 
cation of the elementary principles of ethics 
and morality, principles which have their 
roots in the biological and physical sciences. 

We must not accept Huxley's despairing 
assertions that " cosmic nature is no school 
of virtue, but the headquarters of the enemy 
of ethical nature," and that " the cosmic 
process has no sort of relation to moral ends." 
To do so we should have wholly to ignore 
the manifest creative power in cosmic action. 
We may surmise, from internal evidence, the 
irritation that provoked Huxley's brilliant but 
unconvincing dialectics, and it may be said 
that his point of view then, and the chief 
target of his attack, is not ours now. 

And surely it is not for us " to fight the 
cosmic process " even under a fighting Hux- 
ley; nor on the other hand need we accept the 
stoical philosophy of protective mimicry and 
regard "living according to nature as the 
whole duty of man " ; nor need we be horrified 
at the thought of ethics as " applied natural 
history." 

Eather is it our duty to understand nature- 
action and to cooperate with it; to distinguish 
between the minor tactics of evolution and 
the grand strategy of evolution, and with our 
own peculiar instruments be willing and 
happy agents in its consummation. Man has 



Januasy 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



101 



but his animal organs, his cultural imple- 
ments, and his intelligence, or his knowledge 
of right and wrong constructive ways to work 
with. The more those instruments are aug- 
mented, the better he can direct nature's con- 
structive agencies to his own egoistic ends, 
and in so doing, man himself then unwittingly 
becomes a new and better altruistic agent in 
evolution. 

We scientists, conscious of our purpose as 
constructive social agents, have three broad 
fields of activity open to us, as already indi- 
cated in defining the various functions and 
purposes of science. First, investigation, or 
the discovery of nature's ways and means of 
creative action. This is the ethical side of 
our work. Second, the constructive usage of 
these ways and means, or their application to 
the growing demands of social life, and their 
usage in the regulation of human conduct. 
This is the moral side. And, third, the con- 
servation of our ethical and moral gains 
through education. The first two we may 
now ignore, for their significance is duly 
appreciated and their future is promising. 
But the educational side of our work is in a 
very serious condition, and it may even now be 
too late to avoid disaster. It little matters how 
much we may develop either our technique, or 
the spear-head of our research, if the so-called 
common people still have the ghost-hunter's 
paleolithic mental attitude toward natural 
phenomena, and their leaders a similar atti- 
tude toward social problems. 

'No social life can endure that is not under 
some common compulsion to united action. 
"With the growth of the spirit of freedom 
and democracy, and the absence of any com- 
monly recognized dictatorship in church or 
state, that compulsion can come only through 
a common understanding of the elemental 
necessities of social life, and through that 
sense of personal benefit and personal owner- 
ship in social institutions which alone can 
create the will to cherish and protect them. 

The compulsion of elemental intelligence, 
acting in social unison, can alone provide the 
enduring directive and cohesive power essen- 
tial to social cooperation. Man's will to 



create can be steadfast in purpose only when 
his intelligence becomes stabilized in its 
trophic attitudes, and rightly oriented to ele- 
mental realities. Man, stumbling in igno- 
rance, must be bandaged with restrictions and 
propped up with crutches of force. A nation, 
pricked by the xwisoned shafts of a lying pro- 
paganda, will dissolve in anarchy, though the 
armies and navies of the world have failed 
to break it. 

In our education, we continually over-em- 
phasized social rights and individual freedom 
of action, and ignore the obligations essential 
to partnership in any social or constructive 
compact. It is not without significance that 
ordinary people, like you and me, can discover 
no specific mandate in the Constitution of the 
United States. It broadly defines what the 
state does, or will do, in certain contingencies, 
and what its citizens may, or may not do, but 
says nothing about what the citizen must do 
in return for what the state does for him. 
The absence in citizenship of a formal and 
specific contract, defining a common purpose 
and recognizing mutual liabilities and mutual 
benefits in its attainment, is in marked con- 
trast with modern business procedure, as well 
as with almost every other form of intelligent 
cooperation. It is, therefore, not surprising 
that an international covenant for the specific 
purpose of reducing the danger of interna- 
tional wars to a minimum, in which an at- 
tempt is made to define national rights and 
obligations in that undertaking, has a strange 
and unfamiliar soimd. 

The absence of this covenant principle is 
noticeable in almost every phase of modern 
education. Science, even, does not formally 
recognize a covenant with nature, although 
nature virtually says to man " Know me, and 
serve me, and I will serve you." Much of our 
biological teaching is like a shop window dis- 
play of nature's competitive goods, with a 
varied assortment of human notions thrown 
in, but with no guarantee as to their signifi- 
cance, or quality, or usefulness. The peda- 
gogical barker, seldom having convictions of 
his own, proudly displays the impartiality of 
his " purely scientific " attitude, and leaves 
the callow purchaser to decide for himself 



102 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



which trinket he will select for his mental 
adornment. 

Perhaps all of us can get together again on 
conunon ground by putting our concepts of 
nature-action into simpler, more comprehen- 
sive formulas, universal in application, and 
somewhat as follows. In so far as we have a 
right to assiune that purposeful action is in- 
volved in any constructive functioning what- 
ever, or in anything that has been accom- 
plished, we may assiune that the purpose, or 
grand strategy in nature-action, is evolution, 
or self-construction, or growth. To that end, 
serviceable agents must first exist, or be con- 
structed, in which is resident a basic right to 
receive service, and a basic obligation to give 
service. As all constructive action is con- 
tingent on the fulfilment of these mutual 
rights and obligations, the categorical im- 
perative to existence is mutual service. 

As corollaries to this categorical imperative, 
the following compulsions are laid upon these 
constructive agents. In all sustained construc- 
tive action there must be: (1) A mutual di- 
rective discipline, or mutual adaptation; that 
is, a mutual subjection, and yielding to one 
another's influence. (2) An individual free- 
dom of opportunity for self-constructive, or 
egoistic action, within rigidly circmnscribed 
limitations. (3) Mutual service or cooperative 
action, in which, soner or later, the profits of 
egoism must be surrendered, through altruism, 
to some ulterior creative act. (4) Conserva- 
tion of these profits as an accumulating capital 
in constructive rightness, and its endowment 
to O'ther individualities for usage in further 
constructive action. 

In that phase of cosmic evolution which we 
call social growth, science and religion are the 
outstanding cooperative agents. They better 
serve their ulterior purposes the better their 
mutual services, and the better their mutual 
adaptation of thought and act to creative 
ends. 

Science and religion always have asked, and 
doubtless always will ask, the same funda- 
mental questions. What creates, what pre- 
serves, and what destroys the products of na- 
ture, and how may man profit thereby? The 



answers, whatever they may be, must ulti- 
mately be expressed by them in essentially 
equivalent terms, their verification sought in 
constructive action. 

The large element of unpredictable returns 
resident in all phases of nature-action de- 
mands trial; creative turns justify the experi- 
ment. 

These unsuspected potentialities are revealed 
in the trimnphs of nature's creative art and 
thus confirm her independence of established 
laws and precedents. Therein is the source of 
man's undying hope and faith, his abiding im- 
pulse to endeavor. 

William Patten 

Dartmouth College 



ON NIPHER'S "GRAVITATIONAL" EX- 
PERIMENT AND THE ANOMALIES 
OF THE MOON'S MOTION^ 

From his assumption that matter is en- 
tirely electrical, Fessenden concluded^ that 
the atoms in the interior of solid bodies are 
charged electrically, contrary to a common 
conception that a static charge resides wholly 
on the surface. Fessenden's assumption has 
now been completely confirmed by Professor 
Francis E. Nipher's experiment with an elec- 
trified Cavendish apparatus,^ which shows 
that when thin electrified shells of metal are 
substituted for the large leaden spheres, no 
effect is produced on the inner small sus- 
pended spheres, protected by a metal case, 
when the electricity is applied. This, of 
course, simply corroborates Faraday's " ice- 
pail " experiment. But when the large leaden 
spheres are restored to place and electrified, 
the electricity gradually soaks in, and after 
about half an hour this interior charge of the 
atoms has accumulated sufficiently to produce 
an electrical repulsion of the small spheres, 
greater than their original gravitational at- 

1 This paper was read at the twenty-second meet- 
ing of the American Astronomical Society at Har- 
vard College Observatory, August, 1918. 

2Electr. Soc, Newark, 1890; Electr. World, 
August 8-22, 1891. 

3 ' ' Gravitational Repulsion, ' ' Transactions of the 
Academy of Science of St. Louis, Vol. XXIII., p. 
177, 1917. 



Jandabt 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



103 



traction by the material of the unelectrified 
large spheres. Professor Nipher calls this a 
" gravitational repulsion," but this appears to 
be a misnomer. If the lead had really be- 
come gravitationally repulsive, it should also 
repel the earth, and the leaden spheres should 
rise up and float away. Needless to say, this 
is not what happens. Contrary to the usual 
conception of a static charge, the electric 
charges have penetrated into the substance of 
the metal. Since it is thus shown that a 
charge of electricity, which in other respects 
would not be distinguished from a static 
charge, has in this instance slowly been ab- 
sorbed by the metal, permeating its substance, 
the thin metal of the protecting case can be 
no barrier to the transmission of such a 
charge as this, and the metal case no longer 
protects the inner balls of lead from directly 
receiving a corresponding electric charge of 
the same sign as that of the large spheres, 
and thus there is repulsion between the two, 
no matter whether the electrification be posi- 
tive or negative. However, since the electric 
penetration progresses very slowly, the large 
spheres presumably take more time to charge 
up than the small spheres. Consequently, if 
after a preliminary application of one sort of 
electricity for a sufficient time to produce 
saturation, the electrification is changed to 
the opposite sort, we should expect that the 
electrification of the small spheres would 
change sign first, and for a while there should 
be electric attraction, or at least a progress- 
ively diminishing repulsion, l^ow this is ex- 
actly what takes place, though sometimes with 
rather vigorous tremors, as if the interior 
distribution of the electricity were not quite 
uniform and as though its unloading were 
spasmodic; but eventually, if the experiment 
endures long enough and the electrification is 
sufficiently powerful the signs of the electric 
charges become the same in both large and 
small spheres and the temporary electric at- 
traction changes back to a repulsion. There 
are some anomalies connected with the orien- 
tation of the applied electricity when direct 
contact of brushes is the method of applica- 
tion, which possibly signify that the lead 



spheres are not entirely homogeneous for 
charges communicated in this way. 

While the gravitational and electrical 
forces are intimately related, insomuch that 
a common entity — the electron — is presum- 
ably concerned in both, their modes of action 
and speeds of transmission appear to be 
entirely difFerent. The electric phenomena 
which counterfeit gravitation in the pre- 
ceding experiment, are irregularly variable 
and slow. Gravity is constant and its im- 
pulses so rapid in their transmission that 
their speed has never been directly measured. 
There is no reason to suppose that gravity is 
conveyed by electro magnetic vibrations with 
the speed of light, for these imiformly give 
repulsion, and not attraction; nor is the final 
action of the penetration of the electric 
charges other than repulsion, while, in spite 
of Professor Cipher's title, there is no evi- 
dence of any gravitational repulsion. 

From the result of Nipher's experiment, we 
may infer that the penetration of electrons, 
emitted by the sun from time to time and 
entering into the substance of earth and 
moon, will produce a variable electric repul- 
sion between these neighboring bodies, and 
it is conceivable that some of the unaccounted 
irregiilarities in the moon's motion may be 
produced in this way. 

The positive electric potential of the at- 
mosphere increases in an upward direction, 
at first slowly, then more rapidly, though 
sometimes quite irregularly, often attaining a 
value of tens of thousands of volts at a height 
of a few miles. This electrification of the 
air is the result of the ionization of some of 
its ingredients through absorption of the 
sun's rays. The ionization is greatest in the 
upper air, partly because the incoming rays 
are there rich in the ultra-violet rays which 
are the most efficient ionizers, and the upper 
layers are the ones which first take toll of the 
radiation before these rays have been depleted ; 
but the electrification is also greater in the 
upper air partly because these layers are 
furthest from the surface of the gromid 
and can not lose their charge by conduction 
to the ground as easily as the lower layers. 
Although air is a very imperfect conductor. 



104 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



the section of this conductor being equal to 
the entire surface of the globe is enormous, 
compared with the distance to be bridged; 
and thus the minute specific conductivity of 
the air multiplied by the section and divided 
by the length of the path is still an appre- 
ciable quantity even locally, and a very large 
one taking the earth as a vfhole. Moist air 
conducts better than dry, and the electrifica- 
tion at a given altitude is on the average 
several times as great in winter as in summer, 
because the drier air of winter is a better 
insulator. 

The following examples are from U. S. 
Weather Bureau observations at Drexel, 
Nebraska, in 191Y (e^mean pressure of 
aqueous vapor in the air up to the given 
height, measured in millibars ; v = positive 
electric potential of the upper layer in volts). 



arily negatively charged by contact with the 
ground, these conditions of electric distribu- 
tion in the atmosphere are fairly persistent. 
The two electricities are continually com- 
bining, but are as constantly replenished. 

The incoming electrons from the sun may 
be absorbed by the upper air, but they serve 
to increase the absolute potential of the earth 
by a process which is independent of the 
radiant ionization; and as I have shown that 
there is conduction between the upper and 
lower layers of the atmosphere and adjust- 
ment of its ever varying charges, the in- 
creased absolute potential of the upper air is 
eventually, and probably pretty rapidly, trans- 
ferred to the ground. Thus the ground re- 
ceives its permanent negative charge from 
the sun; and in spite of all sorts of irregular 
electric variations in the intervening atmos- 



Height Above 


Jan. 11, P. M. 


Jan. 18, A. M. 


Jan. 


26. A. M. 


June 12, A. M. 


June 19. A. M. 


June 23 


, A. M. 


Sea-level, 


























Meters 


« 


V 


e 


V 


* 


V 


" 


V 


e 


" 


e 


V 


500 


1.44 


410 


2.39 


390 


2.17 


1,130 


12.48 





10.06 





18.47 





1,000 


1.43 


3,420 


2.04 


2,090 


2.14 


7,520 


10.18 





8.97 


40 


15.24 





1,500 


1.62 


6,355 


1.89 


6,160 


2.62 


17,735 


10.46 





8.40 


320 


13.27 





2,000 


1.80 


9,645 


1.67 


7,625 


2.76 


20,775 


7.73 


315 


7.86 


870 


10.65 


310 


2,500 


1.87 


14,650 


1.35 


12.280 


2.79 


22,300 


7.00 


805 


7.21 


1,245 


9.56 


490 


3,000 


1.91 


19,850 


1.13 


16,085 


2.71 


25,060 


6.75 


1,295 


6.68 


1,710 


8.74 


340 


3,500 










2.57 


26,835 


6.46 


1,785 


6.07 


2,405 


7.82 


480 


4.000 














6.40 


2,270 


5.50 


3,255 


7.24 


535 


4,500 


















5.10 


4,200 


6.70 


550 



On the given dates in January, which are 
fairly typical, the average positive electric 
potential was 20,332 volts at 3,000 meters for 
e^l.92 m.b., and in June a potential of 
1,375 volts was found at the same height for 
e=:Y.39 m.b. So far as ionization of water 
vapor is concerned, there should be more of 
it in June per unit volume of air; but in 
•spite of this, the greater atmospheric con- 
ductivity at that time cuts down the potential 
to a much lower value than the winter one. 
Evidently there is continual conduction from 
the air to the ground. This does not neutral- 
ize the negative charge of the ground, partly 
because of the large electric capacity of the 
latter, but mainly because the prevalent nega- 
tive charge of the earth as a whole is con- 
tinually being restored. Except for convec- 
tive uplifting of local bodies of air tempor- 



phere, the permanent negative charge of the 
ground is maintained with only such minor 
fluctuations as occur in magnetic storms. In 
these, the showers of electrons received by 
the earth from the sun at times of great solar 
activity certainly penetrate into the earth's 
solid substance almost immediately, in spite 
of atmospheric obstruction, and produce elec- 
tric " earth currents " of considerable magni- 
tude. We must conclude that the absolute 
potential of the earth is continually varying. 
Newcomb's investigations of the inequali- 
ties of the moon's motion* indicate the exist- 
ence of unexplained fluctuations in the moon's 
mean motion — a great fluctuation possibly 
with a period of between 250 and 300 years, 

+ Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical So- 
ciety, Vol. LXIX., p. 164, January, 1909. 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



105 



though the change may prove aperiodic, and 
a lesser one of about 70 years. Professor 
IN'ewcomb says :' 

Taken in connection with the recent exliaustive 
researches of Brown, which seem to be complete in 
determining with precision the action of every 
known mass of matter upon the moon, the present 
study seems to prove beyond serious doubt the 
actuality of the large unexplained fluctuations in 
the moon's mean motion to which I have called at- 
tention at various times during the past forty 
years. 

And he concludes, after examining every 
known cause of motion, that " if we pass to 
unknown causes and inquire what is the 
simplest sort of action that would explain all 
the phenomena, the answer would be — a fluc- 
tuation in the attraction between the earth 
and the moon."^ This is in line with my 
present suggestion, but as yet we have no 
certain knowledge whether there is corre- 
spondence between the supposed attractive 
change and the solar emission of electrons. 
However, the comparison which Professor E. 
W. Brown has made between the variation of 
the moon's mean motion in longitude and the 
fluctuation in height of the maxima of the 
sun-spot curve'' lend considerable confirma- 
tion to the view that the 70-year period in 
the moon's motion is in fact due to a varying 
electric repulsion between the moon and the 
earth owing to the larger reception, by both 
bodies, of negative electrons when sun-spot 
maxima are highest and when, presimiably, 
solar electronic emission is exceptionally 
great, with consequent slight reduction of 
gravitational control and loss of motion owing 
to electronic repulsion. We might suppose 
that the electrons thus received by our earth 
from the sun, form a fluctuating electronic 
" atmosphere," outside of the denser air, but 
attached to the planet. ISTipher's experiment, 
however, favors the supposition that there is 
actual electronic penetration into the solid 
substance of the outer layers of the earth. 

6 Op. cit., p. 164. 

6 Op. cit., p. 169. 

7 See Report of the Australian meeting of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, Transactions Sect. A, pages 311 to 321. 



Professor Brown says :^ " With some change 
of phase the periods of high and low maxima 
correspond nearly with the fluctuations above," 
referring to his curve of the variations of the 
moon's motion in longitude, where negative 
values of the moon's motion-variation from 
the mean follow close after the high sun-spot 
maxima of 1780 and 1850, while positive lunar 
values (that is, increased speed from greater 
total attraction) are equally associated with 
the low solar maxima of the epochs near 1S15 
and 1885, or half way between the epochs of 
high sun-spot maxima. Nevertheless, as the 
electric hypothesis was then imbroached. 
Brown considered the connection open to 
doubt because, as he says, " it is difficult to 
understand how, under the electron theory of 
magnetic storms, the motions of moon and 
planets can be sensibly afEected." But this 
difficulty which was felt when the only hy- 
pothesis in sight was that of some sort of 
magnetic effect, disappears in the light of 
the now known efficacy of electronic penetra- 
tion. Similar, though much smaller varia- 
tions, with apparently identical period, are 
foimd in the motions of Mercury and the 
Earth in respect to the sun, but in these there 
are some discrepancies, and until these are 
cleared up, the proposed explanation, though 
plausible and perhaps even probable, can not 
be considered as certainly established. 

F. W. Very 

WeSTWOOD AsTROPHTSICAla OBSERVATORY, 

Westwood, Mass. 



FRANK PERKINS WHITMANi 

Professor Whitman was of New England 
stock. The Whitman (originally Wightman) 
family came to Massachusetts in 1632. The 
line of Whitmans has included three clergy- 
men. The father of Frank was William 
Warren, early in life a lawyer, but later en- 
gaged in business, who died in 1902, at the 
age of eighty-two. Caroline Keith Perkins, 
the mother of Frank, died at the age of forty- 
one. She and the mother of President Taylor, 

8 Op. cit., p. 321. 

1 Minute adopted by the Undergraduate Colleges 
of Western Keserve University. 



106 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



of Vassar College, were sisters. Her father, 
Aaron Perkins, served the Baptist church as 
minister for over seventy years. The Perkins 
family also settled in Massachusetts early in 
the seventeenth century. 

Professor Whitman was born and spent his 
boyhood years in Troy, N". Y. After attend- 
ing a private academy, the high school, and 
also for a while a private home school in 
Pittsfield, he entered Brown University and 
graduated in 1874. He was a member of 
Alpha Delta Phi, Phi Beta Kappa, a Junior 
Exhibition speaker and on the commence- 
ment list. After graduation he tatight in the 
English and Classical High School of Mowry 
and Goff for four years, at the same time 
pursuing graduate studies at Brown Univer- 
sity, and received the master's degree in 1877. 
In the year 1878-9 he studied physics at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at the 
same time making astronomical observations 
with E. C. Pickering, and working on lenses 
with Alvan Clark. He spent the following 
year at the Johns Hopkins University. Dur- 
ing this time he was associated with Mr. New- 
ton Anderson, who later founded the Univer- 
sity School in Cleveland. 

In 1880 Professor Whitman was called to 
the professorship of physics at Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute at Troy, where he re- 
mained until he came to Cleveland. His 
work in Adelbert College and the College for 
Women began in 1886, and continued until 
1918, when, after a year's leave of absence, he 
became professor emeritus. He acted as dean 
of Adelbert College from 1903 to 1906. 

He was chairman of the physics section of 
the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, and thus vice-president of 
the association, in 1898. His vice-presiden- 
tial address was on the subject color-vision. 
Two years before he published a paper on the 
subject of the flicker photometer, an idea 
not original with him, but he developed its 
possibilities .and it has since been perfected 
by others. His scientific ability was critical 
rather than creative. For this critical faculty 
there developed few opportunities, hence his 
scientific activities were confined mainly to 



college halls. He was not a research scholar 
and never wished to be considered one, but 
he did have a profound knowledge of the 
great problems of physics and astronomy, and 
he kept up with the research work done in 
these branches. He devoted much of his at- 
tention to the possibilities of lecture experi- 
ments as a means of instruction. The con- 
struction and administration of the physics 
laboratory naturally received much of his 
time and interest. He never failed in the 
mass of executive work which is required in a 
college, and in this field he showed the great- 
est capacity and usefulness. In addition to 
his minor interest in local organizations, he 
was a member of Sigma Xi, of the American 
Physical Society, of the American Astro- 
nomical Society and of the Ulimiinating En- 
gineering Society. He received the honorary 
degree of Sc.D. from Brown University in 
1900. He was a trustee of the University 
School of Cleveland, and took an active in- 
terest in its development. 

During his long connection with Western 
Eeserve, Professor Whitman endeared him- 
self to his colleagues in an imusual degree by 
his unfailing courtesy and generosity, the 
charm of his personality, the wisdom of his 
counsel, and the absolute integrity of his 
conduct. A righteous man, whose ear was 
ever open to the voice of an enlightened con- 
science, he inspired complete confidence and 
made himself a trusted leader. He brought 
honor to his profession, happiness to his 
friends, a rich service to the university; and 
in the halls of memory, his figure will long 
remain a type of perfect faithfulness. 



HORATIO C. WOOD 

Horatio C. Wood, M.D., LL.D., emeritus 
professor of materia medica, pharmacy and 
general therapeutics in the University of 
Pennsylvania Medical School, died, January 
3. The obituary notice in the Pennsylvania 
Gazette states that for three generations mem- 
bers of the Wood family have been on the med- 
ical faculty. Dr. George Bacon Wood, one of 
the founders of the Philadelphia Collie of 
Pharmacy, and an uncle of Horatio C. Wood, 



Januabt 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



107 



was professor of materia medica at Permsyl- 
vania from 1835 until 1850, and professor of 
the theory and practise of medicine until 
1860, when he resigned. Dr. Horatio Charles 
Wood, Jr., is professor of pharmacology and 
therapeutics, having succeeded to one of the 
chairs held by his father when he retired. He 
is survived by these children : James L. Wood, 
Milford, Pa.; Dr. George B. Wood, Dr. Ho- 
ratio Charles Wood, Jr., and Miss Sarah K. 
Wood. 

Dr. Wood was 'born in Philadelphia, January 
13, 1841, a son of Horatio Curtis and Eliza- 
beth Head Bacon Wood. His first American 
ancestor, Richard Wood, emigrated from Bris- 
tol, England, in 1682, settling first in Phila- 
delphia and afterwards in New Jersey. Ho- 
ratio C. Wood was educated at Westtown 
School and Friends' Select School, and was 
graduated from the medical department of the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1862. 

In his youth he developed a fondness for 
natural hisitory and 'before studying medicine 
became a worker in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, distinguishing himseK by his orig- 
inal work. After spending several years in 
hospitals. Dr. Wood began private practise in 
1865, making a specialty of therapeutics and 
materia medica, meainwhile continuing his nat- 
ural history studies and publishing numerous 
papers on this branch of science, especially 
cell botany. In his early life Dr. Wood also 
was a student of entomology and published 
thirteen original memoirs upon the subject. 
He abandoned these studies after 1873 and 
devoted his whole attention to medicine. 

He was appointed professor of Jbotany in 
1866 in the auxiliary faculty of medicine in 
the university which had been established and 
endowed by his uncle. Dr. George B. Wood, 
and held this position ten years. He also made 
a special study of nervous diseases and upon 
the organization of the University Hospital 
in 1874 was appointed clinical lecturer, be- 
coming professor in 1875 and retaining this 
chair until 1901. He also was professor of 
materia medica and therapeutics from 1875 
until he retired. 

Dr. Wood was the author of numerous med- 



ical and scientific works including " Thermic 
Fever or Sunstroke," 1872 ; " Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics," 1874; "Brain Work and 
Overwork," 1880 ; and " Nervous Diseases and 
their Diagnosis," 1874. In cooperation with 
Professors Bennington and Sadtler he revised 
the United States Dispensatory. 

Lafayette College conferred upon him the 
degree A.M., in 1881 and LL.D. in 1883. He 
received the degree LL.D. from Yale in 1889 
and from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1904. He was a member of many learned so- 
cieties including the National Academy of 
Sciences, was president of the American 
Pharmacopoeial convention from 1890 until 
1910, and was president of the College of 
Physicians in 1902 and 1903. 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

WATER-POWER AND DARTMOOR 

As similar problems must frequently be 
solved in the United States, the following may 
be quoted from Nature: 

The proposal to develop electrical energy from 
water-power on Dartmoor has led to a strong pro- 
test against interference with the amenity of the 
moor as appreciated fcy the lovers of solitary 
places. Mr. Eden PhiUpotts first directed atten- 
tion to the matter by a letter in the Times of De- 
cember 10, in which he called on the Duchy of 
Cornwall, the landlords of Dartmoor, to act 
quickly "and help to create a body of Parliamen- 
tary opinion; otherwise the destructive and ill- 
considered enterprise may receive sanction from an 
indifferent House of Commons next session. ' ' A 
Plymouth correspondent supplied to the Times of 
December 23 an account of the scope of the pro- 
posed scheme, and on later days other writers ex- 
pressed their strong disapproval of the project 
from local, engineering, or esthetic points of view. 

The scheme of the Dartmoor and District Hy- 
dro-electric Supply Company is briefly to utilize 
the great rainfall and high altitude of Dartmoor 
in the generation of electricity at several power 
stations situated on different streams, to convey 
the current to the neighboring towns and villages 
for ordinary municipal purposes, and possibly to 
erect industrial establishments where current 
might be used for electrolytic or power purposes. 
It is claimed that this work will furnish needed 
employment for the population of the district, 



108 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



provide a continuous and economieal supply of 
eleotrieity for lighting, traction and heating, re- 
duce the congestion of railway trafiie by diminish- 
ing the demand for coal, and generally increase 
prosperity and confer public benefits more than 
sufficient to counterbalance any interference with 
agriculture, fishing righits, or the pleasure of 
visitors to the Moor. 

The general, and especially the local, public is 
not qualified to weigh the rival claims, and as 
things now stand Parliament must proceed by the 
old, cumbrous, and very costly method of hearing 
eloquent advocates and technical experts on all the 
points raised. 

At present the whole question of the water re- 
Sources, and especially of the water-power of the 
British Isles is being investigated by a committee 
of the Board of Trade, and on this account Parlia- 
ment may be inclined to postpone the considera- 
tion of private bills dealing vrith water, if not of 
special urgency, until the committee has reported. 
There are few areas in England where an unused 
gathering-ground exists at an altitude allowing of 
the development of water-power, and it may well 
be considered inexpedient to aHoeate them finally 
before a hydrometric survey has been carried out 
to enable the available power and its cost to be 
calculated on a sure basis before work is com- 
menced. 

MEDICAL EDUCATION 

The Council on Medical Education of the 
American Medical Association, the Associa- 
tion of American Medical Colleges and the 
Federation of State Medical Boards of the 
United States will hold a congress on medical 
education and licensure at Chicago on March 
1, 2 and 3. The program is as follows: 

MONDAY, MARCH 1, 1920 

Morning Session, 9:30 A.M. 

Introductory Remarks by Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bevan, chairman of the Council on Medical Edu- 
cation, Chicago. 

Dr. George Blumer, president of the Association 
of American Medical Colleges, New Haven, Conn. 

Dr. David A. Strickler, president of the Federa- 
tion of State Medical Boards, Denver, Colo. 

' ' Present status of medical education, ' ' Dr. N. 
P. Colwell, secretary of the Council on Medical 
Education, Chicago. 

Symposium on "The needs and future of med- 
ical education," Dr. George E. Vincent, president 
of the Rockefeller Foundation, New York City. 



Dr. Ray Lyman Wiibur, president of Leland 
Stanford University, Stanford University, Calif. 

Dr. Henry S. Pritehett, president, Carnegie 
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 
New York City. 

Dr. Harry Pratt Judson, president, University 
of Chicago, Chicago. 

Mr. Abraham Flexner, secretary of the General 
Education Board, New York City. 

Monday Afternoon, 2 P.M. 

"The larger function of state university med- 
ical schools," Dr. Walter A. Jessup, president of 
the State University of Iowa, Iowa City. 

' ' Full-time teachers in clinical departments, ' ' 
Dr. William Darrach, dean of Columbia University 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 
City. 

"Research in medical schools, laboratory de- 
partments," Dr. Oskar Klotz, professor of pathol- 
ogy. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 
Pittsburgh. 

"Research in medical schools, clinical depart- 
ments," Dr. G. Canby Robinson, dean, Washing- 
ton University School of Medicine, St. Louis. 

TUESDAY, MARCH 2, 1920 

Morning Session, 9:30 A.M. 

' ' Graduate medical instruction in the United 
States," Dr. Louis B. WUson, Mayo Clinic, 
Rochester, Minn. 

"Interallied medical relations; qualifying ex- 
aminations, licensure, examinations, graduate med- 
ical instruction," Dr. Walter L. Bierr-ing, secre- 
tary of the Federation of State Medical Boards, 
Des Moines. 

"Essential improvements in state medical licen- 
sure, ' ' Dr. John M. Baldy, president of the Penn- 
sylvania Bureau of Medical Education and Licen- 
sure, Philadelphia. 

"Interstate relations in medical licensure," 
Francis W. Shepardson, director of the Depart- 
ment of Education and Registration of the State 
of Illinois, Springfield. 

Tuesday Afternoon, S P.M. 

Reports on Medical Teaching from the Commit- 
tee on Medical Pedagogy of the Association of 
American Medical Colleges. 

Remarks by the chairman. Dr. W. S. Carter, dean, 
University of Texas, department of medicine, Gal- 
veston. 

Anatomy : Dr. Charles R. Bardeen, dean, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison. 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



109 



Histology and embryology: Dr. F. C. Waite, sec- 
retary, Western Keserve University Scliool of Med- 
icine, Cleveland. 

Physiology: Dr. E. P. Lyon, dean. University of 
Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis. 

Biological chemistry: Dr. Otto Folia, professor 
of biological chemistry, medical school of Harvard 
University, Boston. 

■WEDNESDAY, MARCH 3, 1920 



ion, 9:30 A.M. 

Pharmacology: Dr. C. W. Edmunds, assistant 
dean, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann 
Arbor. 

Pathology: Dr. James Eming, professor of 
pathology, Oornell University Medical School, New 
York City. 

Bacteriology and parasitology: Dr. A. I. Ken- 
dall, dean. Northwestern University Medical 
School, Chicago. 

Public health and preventive medicine: Dr. Vic- 
tor C. Vaughan, dean, University of Michigan 
Medical Sehoiol, Ann Asbor. 

Wednesday Afternoon, S P.M. 
Separate business meetings will be held by the 
Association of American Medical Colleges and the 
Eederation of State Medical Boards. 

SCIENTIFIC LECTURES 

The facility of medicine of Harvard Uni- 
versity offers a course of free public lectures, 
given at the medical school, Longveood Ave- 
nue, Boston, on Sunday afternoons, beginning 
February 1 and ending March 28, 1920. The 
^ lectures begin at four o'clock and the doors 
will be closed at five minutes past the hour. 
No tickets are required. 

February 1. Child welfare. Dr. Eichard M. 
Smith. 

February 8. Smallpox and vaccination. Dr. 
Edwin H. Place. 

February 15. Protection against infection in 
diseases other than smallpox. Dr. Harold C. 
Ernst. 

Fdbruary 22. Diseases of the teeth in relation 
to systematic disturbances. Dr. Kurt H. Thoma. 

February 29. Pneumonia. Dr. Frederick T. 
Lord. 

March 7. Some aspects of alcohol. Dr. Percy 
G. Stiles. 

March 14. New conceptions of the structure of 
matter. Dr. William T. Bovie. 



March 21. Health and industry. Dr. Cecil K. 
Drinker. 

March 28. Some points of interest to the pub- 
lic in regard to medical education as brought out 
by the recent war. Dr. Channing Frothingham. 

The trustees of the Eopes Memorial an- 
nounce that the eighth course of lectures on 
botany is being given in the trustees' room at 
the Eopes Mansion, 318 Essex Street, Salem, 
Mass., by Professor M. L. Fernald, of Har- 
vard IJniversity, on Thursday afternoons, at 
4.15 o'clock, the subject being The Geo- 
graphic Origin of the Flora of IN'ortheastern 
America. The lectures are: 

January 15. The maritime flora: the flowering 
plants of sea-margin salt marsh tidal estuaries and 
strands. 

January 22. The coastal plain flora: the plants 
of sand hills ; of Cape Cod; of eastern New- 
foundland. 

Januaxy 29. The deoiduous forests: the Alle- 
ghenian flora and its history. 

February 5. The Canadian forests: simHaritiea 
and variations of circumpolar forest plants. 

February 12. The actic-alpine flora: the con- 
trasting ranges of the floras of the granitic, lime- 
stone and serpentine mountains of northern New 
England, Quebec and Newfoundland. 

February 19. The cosmopolitan flora of the 
future. 

The objects of the course are to present in 
brief outline the more striking features in 
the history of the floras of the northern 
hemisphere — their antiquity, probable migra- 
tions and wholesale extinctions in geological 
time; and to make clear why, unless the more 
sensitive and easily exterminated of our wild 
flowers are intelligently safeguarded, they are 
doomed to early extinction. 

THE ILLINOIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The thirteenth annual meeting of the Illi- 
nois State Aoadeany of Science will be held at 
Danville. The preliminary program is as fol- 
lows: 

PETOAY, PEBRUAJRY 20 

11 A.M. Business session. Eeports of officers 
■ and committees. 

2 P.M. General scientific session for the read- 
ing of papers. 



110 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



5:30 P.M. Delegates and citizens assemble at 
Elks' Hall. 

6 P.M. Academy banquet. 

8:15 P.M. Public session of the academy in the 
Washuigiton school and auditorium. Address by 
the president, "Alaska and its Eiches." (Illus- 
trated by lantern.) 

9:30 P.M. Informal reception. 

SATTJEDAT, PEBRUAEY 21 

9 A.M. General scientific session for the reading 
of papers. 

1:30 P.M. Business session. Election of officers. 

The Indiana Academy of Science has been 
invited to participate and will send a number 
of delegates as well as contribute to the pro- 
gram. The South American expedition con- 
ducted jointly by the University of Indiana 
and the University of Illinois will be discussed 
by the director, Dean C. H. Eigenmann, of 
the University of Indiana. 

Amendments to the constitution providing 
for the affiliation of the academy with the 
American Association for the Advancement 
of Science and creating two classes' of mem- 
bers, viz., national memibers and local mem- 
bers, have been unanimously accepted and 
will come up for final adoption. 

GIFT OF THE CARNEGIE CORPORATION TO 

THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

AND THE NATIONAL RESEARCH 

COUNCIL 

The Carnegie Corporation of New York has 
announced its purpose to give $5,000,000 for 
the use of the National Academy of Sciences 
and the National Research Council. It is 
understood that a portion of the money will 
be used to erect in Washington a home of 
suitable architectural dignity for the two 
beneficiary organizations. The remainder will 
be placed in the hands of the academy, which 
enjoys a federal charter, to be used as a 
permanent endowment for the National Re- 
search Council. In announcing this gift the 
report from the council says : 

This impressive gift is a fi,tting supplement {o 
Mr. Carnegie's great contributions to science and 
industry. 

The council is a democratic organization based 



upon some forty of the great scientific and engi- 
neering societies of the country, which elect dele- 
gates to its constituent divisions. It is not sup- 
ported or controlled by the government, differing 
in this respect from other similar organizations 
established since the beginning of the war in Eng- 
land, Italy, Japan, Canada and Australia. It in- 
tends, if possible to achieve in a democracy and by 
dem'ocratic methods the great scientific results 
which the Germans achieved by autocratde meth- 
ods in an autocracy while avoiding the obnoxious 
features of the autocratic regime. 

The council was organized in 1916 as a measure 
of national preparedness and its efforts during the 
war were mostly confined to assisting the govern- 
ment in the solution of pressing war-time problems 
involving scientific investigation. Reorganized 
since the war on a peace-time footing, it is now 
attempting to stimulate and promote scientific re- 
search in agriculture, medicine, and industry, and 
iu every field of pure science. The war afforded a 
convincing demonstration of the dependence of 
modern nations upon scientific achievement, and 
nothing is more certain than that the United States 
will ultimately fall behind in its competition with 
the other great peoples of the world unless there be 
persistent and energetic effort expended to foster 
scientific discovery. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. Burton E. Livingston has been elected 
permanent secretary of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, to 
succeed Dr. L. O. Howard, elected president 
of the asociation. Dr. Livingston will retain 
the professorship of plant physiology at the 
Jolms Hopkins University, and the office of 
the association will remain at the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Dr. W. a. Noyes, head of the department 
of chemistry of the University of Hlinois, has 
been elected president of the American Chem- 
ical Society. 

At the Cincinnati meeting of the Federa- 
tion of Societies for Experimental Biology, 
presidents of the constituent societies were 
elected as follows: The American Physiolog- 
ical Society, Professor Warren P. Lombard, 
of the University of Michigan (reelected) ; 
the American Bio-chemical Society, Professor 
Stanley J. Benedict, of Cornell University; 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



111 



the Society for Experimental Pathology, Dr. 
William H. Park, of N"ew York City; the 
American Pharmacologists' Society, Professor 
Arthur S. Loevenhart, of the University of 
Wisconsin. 

The presentation of the Parkin Medal to 
Professor-emeritus Charles F. Chandler, of 
Columbia "University, by Professor Marston 
T. Bogert, of Columbia University, took place 
at the meeting of the Society of Chemical 
Industry, at the Chemists' Club, ISTew York 
City, on January 16. 

At a meeting held on December 1, Pro- 
fessor Thomas B. Osborne, of the Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station, was elected 
an associate member of the Societe Eoyale 
des Sciences Medicales et I^aturelles de 
Bruxelles. 

The prize of $100 offered in 1914 for the 
best paper on the availability of Pearson's 
formulse for psychophysics, to be judged by 
an international committee consisting of Pro- 
fessors W. Brown, E. B. Titehener and E. M. 
Urban, has been awarded to Dr. Godfrey H. 
Thomson, of Armstrong College, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, for an essay entitled " On the 
Application of Pearson's Methods of Curve- 
Fitting to the Problems of Psychophysics.'' 

At its last meeting the Eumford Committee 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences made the following appropriations: to 
Professor Frederick A. Saunders, of the 
Jefferson Physical Laboratory, one hundred 
and fifty dollars in addition to a former ap- 
propriation in aid of his research on Spectral 
Lines; to Professor David L. Webster, of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, three 
hundred and fifty dollars in addition to a 
previous appropriation in aid of his research 
on X-ray spectra. 

Me. Elmer D. Merrill, who has been in 
charge of 'botanical work for the Philippine 
government since 1902, has been appointed 
director of the Bureau of Science. In addi- 
tion to his duties as botanist. Bureau of Sci- 
ence, Mr. Merrill was chief of the department 
of botany. University of the Philippines, from 
1912 to 1919, first as associate professor, later 



as professor of botany. In March, 1919, he re- 
signed from the university in order to devote 
his whole time to the botanical interests of the 
Bureau of Science, was made acting director 
of the bureau in June, and director in Decem- 
ber, 1919. 

Dean Charles Fuller Baker, of the college 
of agriculture, University of the Philippines, 
takes a year's leave during 1920, because of 
failing health. He plans to spend a large 
part of this leave in the higher regions of the 
Philippines. His address will continue to be 
Los Baiios, Philippine Islands. 

Mr. R. S. McBride, engineer-chemist of the 
National Bureau of Standards, resigned on 
January 15, to become the engineering repre- 
sentative in Washington, D. C, of McGraw- 
Hill Company of New York City. His first 
work will be in connection with certain coal 
and fuel utilization problems of particular in- 
terest to Coal Age. His address is Colorado 
Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. E. Mead Wilcox has resigned as pro- 
fessor of plant pathology in the University of 
Nebraska and plant pathologist of the Ex- 
periment Station, effective April 1, 1920, to 
accept the directorship of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station being established at 
Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. 

Dr. W. S. Gorton has resigned from the 
Bureau of Standards, where he has been en- 
gaged in work on potential-transformer test- 
ing and automotive engine ignition, to accept 
a research position with the Western Electric 
Company in New York City. 

W. Armstrong Price, paleontologist of the 
West Virginia Geological Survey, is spending 
the winter months at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, where he is carrying on his work on West 
Virginia fossils through the courtesy of the 
geological department of the university. 

The list of British new year honors, as re- 
ported in Nature, includes Sir Bertrand Daw- 
son, physician in ordinary to the king, and 
dean of the medical faculty of the University 
of London, to a peerage. Among the new 
knights are Professor Arthur Schuslter; Dr. 
E. A. Wallis Budge, keeper of Egyptian and 



112 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



Assyrian antiquities, British MTiseum; Col- 
onel W. A. Cliurchman, ministry of munitions 
explosives department; Dr. J. Court, known by 
his researches on diseases of miners; Mr. F. 
C. Danson, chairman of the Liverpool School 
of Tropical Medicine; Mr. D. E. Hutchins, 
for his services to forestry; Mr. James Kem- 
nal, for public services in connection with the 
manufacture of munitions; Mr. F. S. Lister, 
research bacteriologist. South African Insti- 
tute for Medical Eesearch; Mr. H. J. Mae- 
kinder, M.P., and Dr. F. G. Ogilvie, director 
of the Scientee Museum, South Kensington. 
Professor S. J. Chapman, joint permanent 
secretary. Board of Trade, and Sir Richard 
Glazebrook, have been promoted from C.B. to 
K.C.B. Dr. G. R. Parkin has been promoted 
to the rank of K.O.M.G., and Mr. H. N. 
Thompson, chief conservator of forests, Ni- 
geria, has received the honor of C.M.G. 

Professor Banti, of Florence, Dr. Van 
Ermengem, of Ghent, and Dr. Pawinski, of 
Warsaw, have been elected correspondents of 
the Paris Academy of Medicine. 

Officers of the American Philosophical 
Society for 1902 have been elected as follows : 
President, William B. Scott; Y ice-presidents, 
George Ellery Hale, Arthur A. Noyes, Hamp- 
ton L. Carson; Secretaries, I. Minis Hays, 
Arthur W. Goodspeed, Harry F. Keller, John 
A. Miller; Curators, William P. Wilson, 
Leslie W. Miller, Henry H. Donaldson ; Treas- 
urer, Henry La Barre Jayne. 

Officers of the Brooklyn Entomological 
Society for the year 1920 have been elected 
as follows: 

President: W. T. Davis. 

Vice-president : J. B. de la Torre-Bueno. 

Treasurer: Kowlaoid F. McElvare. 

Beoording and Corresponding Secreta/ry: Dr. J. 
Bequaert. 

Librarian: A. C. Weeks. 

Curator: Geo. Franck, 

Publication Committee: J. R. dc la Torre- 
Bueao, editor, Geo. P. Engelhardt, Dr. J. Be- 
quaert. 

Delegate to Council of New TorTc Academy of 
Sciences: Howard Notman. 

Dr. Louis A. Bauer gave an illustrated lec- 



ture on " The solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, 
and the Einstein effect," at Brown University, 
under the auspices of the Sigma Xi, on Jan- 
uary 15. He repeated the lecture at Columbia 
University, Friday afternoon, January 16. On 
Friday evening, February 6, he has been in- 
vited to address the American Philosophical 
Society in Philadelphia at the stated meeting, 
on "Observations in Liberia and elsewhere of 
the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and 
their bearing on the Einstein theory." The 
address will be illustrated by lantern slides of 
all exx)editions showing the fully developed 
solar corona and remarkable prominences, as 
well as the deflected star images. 

At a meeting of the Society of Medical 
History of Chicago on January 17, addresses 
were made by Colonel Casey A. Wood, on 
"Walter Bailey, the first writer of an Oph- 
thalmic Treatise in English," and by Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Fielding H. Garrison, on "Med- 
ical Men and Music," and "Remarks on the 
Medical History of the War." 

Professor George M. Stratton, of the 
University of California, is giving a series 
of lectures in San Francisco, during January 
and February on psychology and health. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

The Massaohusetts Institute of Technology 
wiU 'be administered by a special committee 
composed of three members of the faculty, the 
corporation having decided that it is not ad- 
visable to name an acting president in succes- 
sion to the late Dr. Richard C. Maclaurin. 
This administrative committee will be com- 
posed of Dr. Henry P. Talbot, chairman of the 
faculty and head of the department of chem- 
istry ; Professor Edward P. Miller, head of the 
department of mechanical engineering, and 
Dr. William H. Walker, director of the newly 
instituted division of industrial cooperation 
and research. Frederick P. Fish, senior mem- 
ber, has been eleicted chairman of the execu- 
tive committee of the corporation and a sub- 
committee, consisting of Everett Morse, 
Francis R. Hart and Edwin S. Webster, has 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



113 



been chosen to keep in toucli with the affairs 
of the institute and to cooperate with the fac- 
ulty and officers of administration. 

At the University of California Dr. John C. 
Merriam, professor of paleontology and his- 
torical geology, has been appointed dean of 
the faiculties, and Dr. A. C. Leuschner, pro- 
fessor of astronomy and director of the Stu- 
dents' Observatory, dean of the Graduate Di- 
vision. 

Dr. John M. T. Finney, associate professor 
of surgery in the Johns Hopkins Medical 
School, has been invited to accept the chair of 
surgery art; Harvard University, his alm:a mater. 

Dr. Homer L. Dodge, formerly assistant 
professor of physics at the State University 
of Iowa, is now professor and head of the de- 
partment of phyisios at the University of 
Oklahoma, Normani Okla. He has also been 
appoirrted director of the State Bureau of 
Standards. 

Miss Catherine Beekley has been appointed 
as instructor of zoology at the University of 
Oregon to temporarily fill 1he place left by Dr. 
C. H. Edmondson, who has resigned to take 
up work in the University of Hawaii. 

Dr. Egger C. Smith, of the United States 
Bureau of Entomology, has resigned to accept 
the ixjsition of assistant professor of entomol- 
ogy in the Kansas State Agricultural College. 

Dr. W. H. Brown, formerly associate pro- 
fessor of botany in the University of the Phil- 
ippines, has 'been promoted to the full pro- 
fessorship and chief of the department, Mr. 
Elmer D. Merrill having resigned to utilize 
his whole time in the interests of the Bureau 
of Science. 

Mr. Harold Boyd Sifton, of the Seed Lab- 
oratory of the Department of Agriculture, 
Ottawa, has resigned to accept a position in 
the botanical laboratories of the University of 
Toronto. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

OFFICIAL FIELD CROP INSPECTION 

In a recent number of Science Professor H. 
L. Bolley, in an article on this subject, has 



pointed out that until we have control of seed 
grain production we will continue to have 
mixed varieties and the best ones will continue 
to be lost through carelessness. Bad weeds 
and diseases will be spread with the seeds. 

He states that "the work of each cereal crop 
improver and public educator on breeding dies 
with him," and mentions Wellman, Haynes 
and Saunders as examples. "Seed improve- 
ment must last through the life of many men 
and for this there must be plans based on es- 
tablished law." 

I am glad to state that crop improvement 
associations are springing up in many states. 
Michigan and Wisconsin have each had an. 
association for about ten years. During the 
summer (1919) there was a meeting of crop 
improvement association men at St. Paul, 
Minn. The states of Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and 
Kansas had representatives at the meeting, 
showing that those states were active. Be- 
sides this we know that Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Iowa, Nebraska and Colorado are thinking 
strongly of organizing crop improvement asso- 
ciations. 

Professor Bolley, it seems, does not believe 
in " cooperative breeders associations." A 
state-controlled seed inspection under the 
direction of the agricultural college such as 
Professor Bolley advocates, will in most cases 
be preceded by a cooperative seed growers 
association. It is possible that the North 
Dakota work is not done by an association, 
as the North Dakota representatives at the 
St. Paul meeting were interested in alfalfa 
seed only, and the pedigreed seed was all sent 
to Fargo for recleaning. This can't be done 
when a state is to be supplied with pedigreed 
seed. 

Wisconsin was the first to organize one of 
these associations, and now they have state aid. 
Most of us have not reached the stage where 
the lawmakers have recognized the value of a 
supply of pure seed, representing the highest 
yielding pedigreed varieties. Each of the crop 
improvement associations is fostered by the 
agricultural college of its state but can not be 



114 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



an organic part of any agricultural college be- 
cause the crop improvement associations are 
producing and selling associations. 
, First, before one of tbese associations can 
work, some plant breeder must Have spent 
years purifying old varieties, or breeding -up 
pew ones. In eitber case the varieties to be 
tested must have originated from a single se- 
lected plant where thousands are usually se- 
lected and tested. The work of variety testing 
piay continue for several years, and usually 
does, before a superior variety is located. 
The next stage is to try the new variety in 
various parts of the state. If it is generally 
found superior to local varieties it is time for 
an association to begin. 

Thus before a crop improvement association 
can work, a superior variety must exist. It 
may have been produced in the same or another 
state but must have been found superior by lo- 
cal testing. 

To distribute a new variety in small quanti- 
ties without control, always means that farm- 
ers lose it by allowing it to be mixed with local 
varieties. The agricultural college can, with 
the aid of county agricultural agents, see to it 
that a new variety is kept pure until it leaves 
the farm where it is being increased. But 
if the grower is to continue to produce 
pedigreed seed and any considerable number 
of growers are to be interested, the producer 
must be able to obtain a higher price for 
this seed than is paid in the open market. 
He has seen to it that the land was free from 
other grains and noxious weeds. He has 
treated his grain for smut. He has cleaned 
his drill. He has pulled weeds and gone to 
considerable extra expense. All this trouble 
must be paid for. It is true that farmers are 
glad to grow a high-producing grain, that they 
may produce more bushels. They are also 
willing to grow a grain of higher quality if 
they can obtain a better price. But, as a ride, 
they are not willing to produce seed for other 
folks without a profit. They are business 
men not philanthropists. 

To find a market for the new seed grain, 
there has to be a selling agency of some kind. 
This agency is taking the form of a crop im- 



provement association. This is a farmers or- 
ganization in every state where the movement 
has gone far enough to be of substantial value 
to the state. Usually the extension specialist 
in farm crops is the controlling agent. He is 
often the secretary of the association but not 
as an officer of the agricultural college. In 
Michigan he sees to it that the fields of grain 
are inspected while in head and before har- 
vest. The farmer whose field passes inspection 
also submits a recleaned sample of the grain 
to the secretary. If his grain is acceptable the 
grower receives the shipping tags of the asso- 
ciation. The grower certifies on the shipping 
tag that the seed conforms to the state seed 
laws and to the sample submitted to the asso- 
ciation for inspection. Also if these points 
are not found true he agrees to refund the 
purchase price. 

To illustrate how pedigreed grains can be 
taken care of, let me mention some Michigan 
experience. A bushel of Rosen Rye was sent 
to Mr. Carlton Horton at Albion in 1912. We 
now estimate there were 400,000 acres of Rosen 
Rye in Michigan in 1919. A peck of Red Rock 
wheat was sown by Mr. John Odell on a half 
of his garden patch in 1913. Mr. Odell lives 
about seven miles south of Allegan in Trow- 
bridge Township. He grew YJ bushels of Red 
Rock in 1914 and sowed seven acres. He had 
this seed for sale in 1915, but could not have 
interested his neighbors if it had not been for 
the county agricultural agent, the miller and 
the banker, nor could this seed have continued 
to be kept pure and sold for seed had it not 
been for the Michigan Crop Improvement 
Association. However, I personally inspected 
over three hundred acres in 1917 that con- 
tained less 1 per cent, of other varieties and 
almost no weeds. All this came from the peck 
of Red Rock sent to Mr. Odell four years be- 
fore. In 1919 there were about 60,000 acres 
of Red Rock in Michigan. Several others of 
our breeding products have likewise been 
taken care of. 

Frank A. Spragg 

Plant Beekdee, 
Michigan Agricultural College 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



115 



SCIENCE AND POLITICS 

At the St. Louis meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
the council passed the following resolution : 

That sectional officers avoid placing on their 
programs papers relating to acute political ques- 
tions on which public opinion is divided. 

I know nothing of the circumstances lead- 
ing to this resolution. If papers offered to 
the sections were inspired by partisan politics 
rather than by science, they would deserve 
condemnation and exclusion. But the reso- 
lution does not refer to such papers; it im- 
plies that scientific men should not discuss 
matters relating to acute political questions 
on which public opinion is divided. To one 
who believes that in the present chaos of con- 
flicting opinions and purposes the finger of 
science should point the way to safety, this 
seems almost incredibly stupid. I am of 
course aware that a scientific man who tries 
to throw the light of truth on the field of 
political discussion is not imKkely to be 
abused for his pains. He may find honest 
people doubting his integrity or his intelli- 
gence. He himself is only too well aware of 
his liability to error. But in the face of all 
this, he must and should persevere, knowing- 
well that his feet are set upon the path of 
progress. T. D. A. Cockerell 

TjNrVERSITT OF COLORADO, 

January 14, 1920 



QUOTATIONS 

THE DUES OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 
AND THE SALARIES OF SCIENTIFIC MEN 

The revised constitution of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
as presented at the Baltimore meeting, was 
adopted at St. Louis with only one substantial 
change — an increase of the annual dues to five 
doUars. This change had been recommended, 
after careful consideration, by the committee 
on policy and the council and was adopted by 
unanimous vote at the opening general session 
of the association. The increase in the dues 
only meets the general situation. All the ex- 
penses of the association have increased in 
some such proportion, except the salaries of 



the officers, and it would be unfair to them and 
a bad example to other institutions, to retain 
nominal salaries paid in deipreciated dollars. 
This has been done in the case of teachers in 
many institutions of learning and for scien- 
tific men in the sei-vice of the government, 
while commensurate with the increased cost of 
living have been the increases in wages for 
many of the working classes, and of the earn- 
ings of most professional and business men. 

Institutions of learning and the scientific 
bureaus of the government have suffered 
alarming losses from their staffs. At the pres- 
ent time many men of science are hesitating 
between loyalty to their institutions and re- 
search work, on the one hand, and duty to their 
families and the attraction of new opportuni- 
ties, on the other. In one government bureau 
three men are now holding open offers of 
twenty to thirty thousand dollars a year to see 
whether the Congress will increase their salar- 
ies to six or eight thousand. 

If men are driven aiway from positions where 
they are using their ability and their training 
for the general good, and if those who remain 
are compelled to use time that should be de- 
voted to research or teaching to earning money 
from outside sources, the future of science and 
with it the welfare of the nation will be jeop- 
ardized. A generation might pass before there 
would be recovery from the resulting demorali- 
zation. It would be indeed humiliating to 
conquer Germany in war and then permit it to 
surpass us in the arts of peace. 

It is certainly unfortunate that the Ameri- 
can Association should be compelled to in- 
crease its dues, as measured in dollars, at a 
time when all costs are advancing to such an 
extent that those living on fixed salaries find 
it extremely difficult to make both ends meet. 
It would, however, be a still more serious mis- 
fortune to permit the work of the association 
and its publications to be crippled. These are 
important factors in the advancement of sci- 
ence and in impressing on the general public 
the place of science in modern civilization and 
the need of maintaining research work for the 
national welfare. 

The meetings of the association and the 



116 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



pulblioations going to its members and read 
by a wide public are forces making for ap- 
preciation of tbe value of science to society 
and the need of giving adequate support to 
scientific researcb and to scientiiic men. Eacb 
member of tbe association contributes to this 
end and does his part to improve tbe situation 
for others as well as for himself. It is conse- 
quently to be hoped that no one wiU permit 
his membership to lapse on account of the 
necessary increase in nominal dues, but, on the 
contrary, rthat every member use all possible 
efforts to increase the membership of the asso- 
ciation and to promote its influence and its 
usefulness. — The Scientific Monthly. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 

The System of the Sciences; PHnciples of 
the Theory of Education. By Wilhelsi 
OsTWALD. The Eice Institute Pamphlet, 
Vol. n., No. 3, Nov., 1915. 
These two lectures were prepared to be 
given at the inauguration of Eice Institute 
but the author was prevented from delivering 
them in person by the outbreak of the Great 
War. The pm'pose of the lectures is ambi- 
tious, being no less than to propose a fun- 
damental system or classification for the 
branches of science and, on the basis of this 
system, to suggest a system of pedagogy which 
should replace, in some measure, our present 
system. The subjects now taught, in our 
universities, in particular, have grown up in 
an irregular, hit-or-miss fashion, especially as 
regards the introduction of new subjects, 
because " Wherever there is a gifted repre- 
sentative of a new discipline who is an ex- 
cellent teacher and at the same time scien- 
tifically productive, he will be able sooner or 
later to acquire the means and influence to 
develop this new discipline into a recognized 
science." Professor Ostwald wishes to sub- 
stitute for this accidental development a 
rational, systematic cultivation of those fields 
which will be most useful — presumably, 
though he avoids saying so directly, with 
the repression and discouragement of the 
gifted individual who does not properly fall 
into the scheme which has been laid down. 



This is scarcely in accord with that "Lehr- 
freiheit " of which the older Germany was so 
proud. 

The historical method is used, in part, to 
discover the proper system. " All sciences in 
the early stages of their development formed 
one great whole, which, together with all 
other departments of human activity having 
to do with mental work and cogitation, was 
intrusted to the oversight of a single corpor- 
ation — the priesthood." And so the theolog- 
ical faculty is the oldest — then came law — 
he might have said, perhaps, the Eoman Law, 
for our modern world — and medicine. All 
the remaining sciences are vmited in the 
fourth, the philosophical faculty. The great 
technical schools form, practically, a fifth 
faculty, which is not, however, recognized as 
such. 

The statement on p. 112 that " the pure and 
abstract sciences grow by degrees out of the 
applied sciences " seems scarcely consistent 
with the beginnings of the higher forms of 
knowledge in the hands of the priesthood. 
!N"or does it agree with the development of 
science through such great masters as Gallileo, 
ISTewton, Boyle and Lavoisier. Applied sci- 
ences made very slow progress until men 
came who were interested to know the secrets 
of nature rather than to apply their knowl- 
edge to practical ends. The same idea is 
emphasized again on p. 121 in the statement 
that " all sciences have had their origin in 
the needs and desires of life." This is a 
utilitarian point of view which we are 
scarcely prepared to accept. 

The over-emphasis on classical and linguis- 
tic studies is traced back to the time of the 
Eenaissance when such studies opened to the 
world a wealth of material from an old and 
superior, but half-forgotten civilization. At 
such a time the exact knowledge of the lan- 
guages which should bring back the old life 
and philosophies of the Greeks and Eomans 
was well worth while. But now that we have 
developed a different and very much better 
civilization of our own the time devoted to 
classical studies can not be so well justified. 
It is possible, however, that the author under- 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



117 



estimates the value of those linguistic studies 
pursued in his youth that gave to him a 
power to use language clearly and forcibly 
which it would have been difficult to acquire 
in any other way. 

In the further discussion of language it is 
pointed out that the content of words which 
have grown up in the usual manner, through 
long use, is often vague. This and other con- 
siderations lead the author to advocate the 
use of an artificial, general language with 
accurately defined words. Such a point of 
view overlooks the fact that many of the 
words of our mother tongue carry in them- 
selves delicate shades of meaning which 
represent our memory of their use in a great 
variety of connections. Such words can not 
be successfully replaced by words of a foreign 
tongue, still less by the words of an artificial 



In classifying the sciences the simplest and 
most general ideas came first. These embrace 
logic or relationships, mathematics, or num- 
bers, order, form and quantity, and the 
science of time, for which there is no dis- 
tinctive name. The second division, energet- 
ical sciences, includes mechanics, physics and 
chemistry. These use the concepts and prin- 
ciples of the fijst division while the sciences 
of the first division are, in an important sense, 
independent of either of the others. The 
third division, the biological sciences, is 
divided into physiology, psychology and 
" culturology." 

Thus far the divisions of human knowledge 
and the pedagogical sequences based upon 
them may be accepted as useful and there is 
very much of sound common sense in the 
discussion. But very many will object to the 
complete omission of any direct reference to 
moral and religious education, and to his 
treatment of the child as merely an " energet- 
ical machine" (p. 202). On p. 120 the 
author says ; " We shall renoimce in any sci- 
entific system the consideration of all super- 
natural relationships of whatever nature, and, 
on the other hand, we shall extend our scien- 
tific problems to each and every field of 
human experience." If by " supernatural re- 



lationships " is meant some one who inter- 
feres occasionally and irregularly and capri- 
ciously in human affairs, the large majority 
of scientific men will agree. But if Professor 
Ostwald means that there is no "Power not 
ourselves which makes for righteousness " 
many of the leaders both in England and in 
America will dissent most strongly. In re- 
membrance of the bitter controversies of the 
past, we are wont to be very silent about 
questions of this kind, but to very many it is 
simply unthinkable that the orderly universe 
in which we fijid ourselves is merely the blind 
resultant of the interaction of matter and 
energy without some intelligence which is in 
and through it all. 

Somewhat related to his philosophy is Pro- 
fessor Ostwald's statement (p. 206) of "the 
most general problem of every human life" 
as " the attainment of happiness." He re- 
calls his former conclusion that " the most 
important requisites for happiness are, first, 
the greatest possible amount of completely 
transformable free energy, and, secondly, the 
greatest possible amount of energy trans- 
formed voluntarily." It is very interesting to 
notice the naivete of the last phrase. Any- 
thing done " voluntarily " is either a self- 
deception or it is in flat contradiction with a 
materialistic or mechanistic philosophy. But 
there is no mechanistic philosopher who does 
not act as though he considers himself, prac- 
tically, a free agent. 

The definition of the conditions of happi- 
ness is incomplete in a still more important 
respect. It overlooks the fact that in matters 
of happiness "he that saveth his life shall 
lose it." Happiness is not found best by seek- 
ing it directly. "We condemn and despise the 
man who makes his own personal happiness or 
even the personal advantage of his family the 
supreme object of his life. The great men of 
the world have risen far above such consider- 
ations. The time is coming when the class, 
or community or nation which considers its 
own advantage as paramount to that of all 
others will also be condemned. Indeed, the 
execration which Germany has brought upon 
herself from the whole world was chiefly due 



118 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



to iter supreme national selfishness. Un- 
fortunately, some of the nations which have 
condemned her so unsparingly are not free 
from the same fault. 

As so often happens, Professor Ostwald is 
very much better in his conduct as a man 
than his philosophy might lead us to expect. 
In these days of international bitterness and 
hatred, it is worth while to recall an incident 
of the St. Louis Congress of Arts and 
Sciences. Professor van't HofE gave an ad- 
dress in which he presented a masterful sketch 
of the historical development of chemistry, 
especially from the point of view of the 
atomic and molecular theories. In the course 
of the address he wrote on the blackboard the 
names of some of the great leaders in chem- 
istry — such names as Dalton, Dulong and 
Petit, Pasteur, La Bel, Guldberg and Waage, 
Curie and others. At the close of the address 
Professor Bancroft, who was in the chair, 
called on Professor Ostwald. Those were the 
days when Ostwald and some others wished 
to find some way to get on without the atomic 
theory. He began his talk with a very kindly 
criticism of the address in which he proposed 
to substitute "energy " for " atoms " and sug- 
gested that at the hands of the Curies atoms 
had " exploded." Then he picked up a piece 
of chalk and saying " I have still another 
correction to make " he wrote in the name of 
van't Hoff at three different places among the 
great names on the board and in each case 
those who were present recognized instantly 
that van't Hoff, in three widely separated 
fields, had done work of the same fundamental 
and far-reaching importance as the work of 
the other men. It is the kindly, generous 
spirit shown in this incident which endeared 
Professor Ostwald to his students and to 
many others with whom he came in personal 
contact. 

The suggestions with regard to students 
helping each other with their tasks are novel 
and striking. "It is considered at present 
one of the worst oilenses for one child to help 
another solve its task. Is, then, mutual will- 
ingness to help a characteristic so exceedingly 
general that it must he systematically done 



away with in school? Is not, rather, egoism 
and narrowmindedness a fault under which 
we suffer severely? I do not hesitate to 
express the conviction that a considerable 
amomit of this illiberality is imparted to our 
growing youth in school by the prevalent 
notions regarding this mutual help and the 
usual treatment of it." So far, good, and 
worthy of consideration in our treatment of 
children and of students. But the corollary 
is not so good — " others learn at an early age 
that in their advancement they have need of 
the assistance of better endowed ones, and, 
what is the best thing for all of them, they 
learn subordination and how to work in rank 
and file" — a picture of a world where some 
are born to rule and others to be ruled. How 
different from the democratic ideal, where 
these same differences still exist and always 
will exist, but where men should work to- 
gether, not as superior and subordinate, but 
each according to his ability, for the common 
good. 

"We can not take the space for a more 
detailed criticism of the addresses. While 
the author of this review dissents most 
earnestly from a part of the philosophy which 
lies at the foundation of the papers, there is 
very much in them which is sound and worthy 
of most careful study. 

William A. N'oyes 



SPECIAL ARTICLES 

DROUGHT AND THE ROOT-SYSTEM OF 
EUCALYPTUS 

In the fall of 1913 the eucalyptus trees, 
especially the Eucalyptus globulus in the 
Arboretum of Stanford University, were evi- 
dently dying. Various persons questioned the 
members of the Department of Botany here 
as to the reason for the grave appearance of 
these large trees and none of us was able to 
give an answer satisfying to himself. For 
this reason we undertook to determine the 
cause of the trouble. 

By permission of the business office we 
tapped various trees with an auger to the 
heart and found that the wood and bark were 
entirely free from disease of any sort. The 



January 30, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



119 



trouble manifested itself in. the change of 
color of the foliage, the leaves turning brown 
as if burned or killed by frost, and drying out 
and presently beginning to fall. The leaves 
which fell showed no sign of fungus or bac- 
terial infection. We were therefore forced to 
conclude that the trouble was further down 
and we were compelled by the condition of 
the trunk to suspect that the difficulty was 
either between the trunk and the leaves or 
below ground. As we had no convenient 
means of climbing the trees to make any ex- 
amination of the branches, we concluded to 
look at the roots first. 

By laying bare the more superficial part of 
the root system with pick and shovel, we 
found that the large superficial roots had 
been broken through at various distances 
from the trunk by the heavy plows which, 
up to that time, had been used in the spring, 
for a number of years, to clear the ground 
imder the trees of weeds. The deep plough- 
ing had resulted in the serious injury, the 
wounding or amputation, of all the roots to a 
distance of twelve or fourteen inches below 
the surface. In this way the roots, absorbing 
moisture from the upper layers of the soil, 
were either very seriously limited, or ab- 
solutely destroyed, as regards their capacity 
for absorbing water ; and the soil water supply 
of these trees came therefore through the 
taproot or its deeper branches and from the 
branches running vertically downward from 
the imderside of the uninjured lateral roots, 
from distances below the surface, of which 
we have no means of knowing anything. 
Whether one half or what other proportion of 
the absorbing surface of the root was thus 
destroyed we also have no means of knowing. 
The condition of the roots led us to suspect 
that this might be the cause of the condition, 
deplorable in appearance, of the blue gum 
trees throughout the Arboretum. 

We were confirmed in this suspicion by ex- 
amining the root system of the Monterey 
cypress {Oupressus macrocarpa) tree growing 
close to the big eucalyptus tree previously ex- 
amined. We were interested to find that the 
horizontal roots of the Monterey cypress grew 



enough deeper in the soil entirely to escape 
the heavy plows which had wounded or am- 
putated the roots of the eucalyptus. This 
Monterey cypress tree presented none of the 
deplorable features of the eucalyptus trees, 
for although its foliage was dusty, it was 
green and far from dying. We therefore con- 
cluded that the trouble with the big blue gum 
trees of our Arboretum was lack of water, 
due to an impaired root system. 

That this suspicion was justified we believe 
is confirmed by two additional observations. 
Many of the eucalyptus trees which were evi- 
dently dying, as indicated by the brown color 
of the leaves, were cut down. Those that 
were cut down early enough, promptly stump 
sprouted, and have since grown up into prom- 
ising young trees, borne on the old butts. By 
thus drastically reducing the evaporating sur- 
face, the water absorbed by the roots was con- 
served and the quantity became immediately 
adequate to meet the loss. Additional con- 
firmation of our suspicion has been furnished 
during the last two years. 

In the winter of 1917-18 there fell in Palo 
Alto scarcely more than eight inches of rain. 
In the following autumn there was no sign 
of injury among the eucalyptus trees, of 
which there were still many in the Arboretum. 
To be sure, raany of the larger and finer had 
been cut five years earlier, but enough were 
left to show damage if the damage had been 
present, for the rainfall in the rainy season 
of 1917-18 was about an inch less than in the 
fifth year preceding. Furthermore, although 
the rainfall in Palo Alto in the rainy season 
of 1918-19 was approximately twenty-three 
inches, there has been practically no rain 
since early March until late September; and 
there is not yet a total of one inch of rain in 
the immediate vicinity of the Arboretum, 
though there is no sign of drought among the 
eucalyptus trees. 

The manner of keeping down the weeds in 
the Arboretum, however, has been changed, 
since our observation of the injury due to 
deep ploughing, and the disk harrow or spring 
tooth harrow are all that are used for cutting 
down and keeping down the weeds which are 



120 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1309 



necessarily mamerous on tlie floor of an open 
woods like our Arboretum. The necessity 
therefore of protecting the superficial parts 
of the root system, even of a deep-rooted tree 
like blue gum is perfectly obvious from the 
foregoing description. 

One more conclusion can be drawn from 
these observations. The Monterey cypress 
above referred to, was growing at no great dis- 
tance from the eucalyptus trees but was in no 
wise impoverished by its more rapidly grow- 
ing neighbor. There is a general impression, 
based no doubt on a certain amount of 
accurate observation, that the eucalyptus is a 
bad neighbor and that trees, shrubs, and 
herbaceous plants set too close to eucalyptus 
trees will suffer for lack of water. The above 
observation shows that if the plants set near 
eucalyptus have the habit of sending their 
roots lower than the superficial part of the 
root system of the eucalyptus, such results 
will not foUow. 

Therefore, it would seem to be possible, not- 
withstanding general belief to the contrary, 
to plant trees and shrubs fairly close to euca- 
lyptus providing they can get along with the 
amount of light which the growing eucalyptus 
will keep from reaching the surface of the 
soil. This may make possible the fuller 
utilization of areas of soil already carrying a 
certain niunber of eucaljrptus trees. 

James McMuephy, 
George J. Peerce 

STA^fP0RD University, 
November 1, 1919 



THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION 
OF AMERICA 

The fouitli annual meeting of the assooia.tion 
was held at Columbia University on Thursday and 
Friday, January 1 and 2, 1920. A joint dinner 
with the American Mathematical Society occurred 
on Wednesday evening. About 150 were in at- 
tendance at the various sessions. 

The general topic for all sessions was "Mathe- 
matics in Relation to the Allied Sciences." The 
program was as follows: 

"Mathematics for the physiologist and physi- 
cian," Dr. HoraAio B. Williams, assistant pro- 
fessor of physiology, College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. 



"The regular solids and tihe types of crystal 
symmetry," Dr. Paul L. Saurel, professor of 
mathematics, College of the City of New York. 

' ' The mathematics of physical chemistry, ' ' Pro- 
fessor George B. Pegram, dean of the school of 
mines, engineering and chemistry, Columbia Uni- 
versity. 

"The mathematics of biometry," Dr. Lowell 
J. Beed, associate professor of biometry and vital 
statistics, Johns Hopkins University. 

"An experiment in the conduct of freshman 
mathematics courses," Dr. F. B. Weley, professor 
of mathematics, Denison University. 

Preliminary report of the National Committee 
of Mathematical Requirements, Dr. John. W. 
Young, professor of mathematics, Dartmouth Col- 
lege. 

"Mathematics for students of physics," Dr. 
Leigh Page, assistant professor of physics, Yale 
University. 

At the business meeting the election to member- 
ship by the council of 73 persons and two institu- 
tions was announced. The treasurer's report 
sihowed receipts of $4,728 on 1919 business, ex- 
penditures (up to December 15, 1919) of $4,317, 
and an estimated final balance of $2,050 for the 
end of the year 1919. 

The result of the election of ofiicers was as fol- 
lows: 

President: David Eugene Smith, Columbia Uni- 
versity. 

Vice-presidents: Helen A. Merrill, WeUesley 
College, and E. J. Wilczynski, University of Chi- 
cago. 

Additional memiers of tlie Council (to serve 
until January, 1923) : R. D. Carmichael, Univer- 
sity of Illinois; E. R. Hedrick, University of Mis- 
souri; H. E. Slaught, University of Chicago, and 
J. W. Young, Dartmouth College. 

To fill the vacancies caused by the election of 
Professor Wilczynski to a vice-presidency and the 
reappointment of Professor Slaught as manager 
of the Monthly, the council appointed as members 
of the council E. L. Dodd, University of Texafl, 
and Oswald Veblen, Princeton University. 



SCIENCE 



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Published every Friday by 

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Entered in the poet-office at Lancuttr, Pa., at lecond clan matter 



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Since hydrogen ion concentration of culture media, body fluids and of 
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SCIENCE 




Friday, February 6, 1920 

CONTENTS 
Botanical Achievement: Professor William 
Trelease 121 

The Biochemist on the Hospital Staff: Dr. 
Frederick S. Hammett 131 

Charles BucTcman Goring: Dr. J. Arthur 
Harris 133 

Scientific Events: — 

The Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Sesearch of Great Britain; Natural Gas 
Conference ; The Steinhart Aquarium; Bes- 
ignation of Dean Baker of the New Yorh 
State College of Forestry 134 

Scientific Notes and News 136 

University and Educational News 139 

Discussion and Correspondence : — 

Unreliable Experimental Methods of Deter- 
mining the Toxicity of Alkali Salts: F. B. 
Headlet. On High-Altitude Besearch: Dr. 
Egbert H. Goddard 140 

Scientific Books: — 

Crampton's Studies on the Variation, Dis- 
tribution a/iid Evolution of the Genus Par- 
tula: A. G. M 142 

Gravity and Aerostatic Pressure on Fast Ships 
and Airplanes: Professor Alexander Mc- 
Adie 144 

State Bernards for Medical Discoveries 145 

Special Articles: — 
A Pocono Brachiopod Fauna: Dr. W. Arm- 
strong Price 145 

Tlie American Association for tlie Advance- 
ment of Science: — 

Section F — Zoology: Professor H. V. 
Neal 147 

The Paleontological Society of America 148 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 



BOTANICAL ACHIEVEMENTi 

Twenty-five years ago The Botanical So- 
ciety of America imposed on me the task of 
preparing a presidential address. To-day I 
meet a similar obligation laid on me by the 
somewhat more democratized society which 
continues to bear that name. 

For my subject then, I took botanical oppor- 
tunity — moved, you may say, by the hopeful- 
ness of youth which looks forward and plans 
optimistically. To-day I wish to speak of bo- 
tanical achievement — moved, you may say, by 
the observed tendency of age to live in the 
past. Possibly, later, you may not be sure that 
in choosing complementary subjects I have 
not wanted to extract much the same hopeful 
anticipatory lesson from both. 

As one looks back over the past, he some- 
times finds it difficult to pick out the signifi- 
cance of individual components of the con- 
glomeration that forms the present super- 
structure of our science, and its foundations 
are buried in obscurity. Perhaps the most sig- 
nificant observation that he makes is that a 
person who is minded to add to it has each 
year to climb to a greater height before his 
own work can be commenced — unless he turn 
his attention to repairing the weaknesses and 
filling the crevices and pointing-up what has 
been done by others. 

Work of this kind really makes the structure 
stronger, really keeps it from crumbling at 
some weak point under the weight that has 
been added above, and gives it an appearance 
of finish that must be secured at some time 
and by some one's labor before it can meet 
with final approval under critical inspeetioiL 
Undertaking it may bring to light, even, 
wholly faulty workmanship or the incorpora- 
tion of materials that have already begun to 

1 Address of retiring president of the Botanica?. 
Society of America, given at the Botanists ' dinner, 
St. Louis, December 31, 1919. 



122 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



disintegrate, and in this way may lead to re- 
placements at various points and to reenforce- 
mient of the very foundations. 
' In putting up a building, such work is 
found to delay completion of the enterprise to 
a surprising extent after it seems to the casual 
observer to be about finished. Those who do 
it usually derive their satisfaction as work- 
men from knowing that they are accomplish- 
ing something necessary but which ought al- 
ways to have been left as they leave it ; or their 
esthetic sense is gratified in the pleasing finish 
that they give to what they found strong and 
serviceable but raw; or they know that they 
are safeguarding the completed structure 
against the inroads of time: but they do mot 
see it really grow under their hands. 

If we understand science to be systematized 
and formulated knowledge, we may be par- 
doned for stopping to wonder whether some- 
times we may not fail fully to grasp the mean- 
ing conveyed by these words. Knowledge in a 
particular field may appear to be systematized 
and formulated in itself while it lacks com- 
parable incorporation into the knowledge of 
other things. It may appear ideally dissoci- 
ated from useful application: but perhaps it 
never is so in reality. Segregation of the arts 
which apply science in the practical affairs of 
life, perhaps does not really remove the neces- 
sity of considering aH of these applications in 
the classification and formulation of that 
knowledge which science claims as its peculiar 
field. 

The edict of an emperor, the injunction of a 
priest, the counsel of father to son, in the far- 
off days when civilization was establishing 
itseK on the Tigris and the Ganges or in 
China, fails to come within our definition of 
science. We call such instruction empirical 
rules. But in doing so we can not fail to rec- 
ognize that before Aristotle philosophized on 
the phenomena of life and Theophrastus for- 
mulated what he knew of plants — which we 
call the beginning of the science of botany, 
men had acquired knowledge in our special 
field and had classified it obviously to the ex- 
tent of rejection of what they could not use 
and of selection of what they made the basis 



of an agricultural practise which may have 
been crude and inefficient as measiu'ed by the 
standards of to-day, but which was adequate 
to their needs and appears very refined in 
comparison with the earlier dependence for 
food upon the chase — either on land or water, 
or gleanings of roots and fruits from the 
plain, the mountain-side, or the forest. One 
hesitates, even, to think of these still more 
primitive practises as carried on independ- 
ently of a very large amount of knowledge 
gathered and sifted and winnowed through 
many preceding generations as men worked 
their way toward an empirical precursor of 
what we now agree to call science. 

When Liefbig, the chemist, disposed of the 
humus theory of nutrition of ordinary plants 
he is considered to have been making a contri- 
bution to the science of botany. When Gil- 
bert and Lawes in the field, and Winogradsky 
in the laboratory, put the completing link into 
the chain of the circulation of nitrogen as an 
active element, they are considered to have 
been making the same kind of contribution to 
the same science. I am wondering if my late 
and lamented' associate Cyril Hopkins, calling 
himself an agronomist, has been far from the 
same field of science in teaching farmers in the 
great corn region of the world how to maintain 
for their children and their children's children 
a soil fertility that the first generation of 
white settlers imperiled, and if the last service 
of his life — carrying his message to those who 
now farm the worn-out lands of the Hellespont 
— ^must be excluded from the recognition that 
we accord to the achievements of science. If 
in considering its achievements I chance now 
and then to wander too far from standardized 
or forming definitions of our particular sci- 
ence, I trust that the lapses may be excused as 
evidence of unclear vision rather than wilful 
disregard of established boundaries. 

The superstructure of botany, broadly de- 
fined, looks much the same to the casual ob- 
server as it did twenty-five years ago. It has 
been made more finished in parts, windows 
have been put in where there were blank walls, 
some parts have been pointed up or rebuilt, 
perhaps the gables have begun to take form 



Febeuaht 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



123 



toward its final closing in; but a snapshot to- 
day from certain positions looks very like a 
snapshot taken a quarter-century ago except 
that what seemed then to he temporary lean-tos 
are beginning to look as if they belong where 
we see them lOr to give unmistakable signs of 
strengthening as well as amplifying the whole. 

Perhaps this is the impression made on the 
superannuated workmen of a generation ago, 
and of some of those whose activities have con- 
tinued from the earlier time up to the present. 
The idea of many who have come on to the job 
within the past two decades is very different. 
Under their own hands they have seen the 
shaping of the gables and the rising of the 
wings, and in their eyes these have given to the 
whole a very different appearance from what 
it presented when their work began. Indeed, 
under their guidance, and from viewpoints of 
their selection, it may scarcely look like the 
sam.e edifice; and they may even point with 
pride to a well-finished and symmetrical annex 
in comparison with ragged parts of the main 
wall still defaced by temporary scaffolding. 

The edifice of our science is less comparable 
with a modern warehouse like the great sup- 
ply-base that the army constructed in nine 
months on the levee at 'New Orleans, than with 
a medieval chateau that has been changed 
from a feudal castle into a modernized home. 
The first is planned and constructed as a whole, 
and is consistent throughout. The other has 
existed through and developed with the cen- 
turies until most traces of its original plan — 
if there ever was one — have become obliterated. 

Perhaps in this may be found explanation 
of an impatience that is manifested sometimes 
by botanists who do not like to see old sym- 
metry changed, or by others who do not like 
to see labor wasted on walls that are no longer 
serviceable or to see these guarded from dis- 
memberment so that their materials may be 
used for additions. Both kinds of criticism 
are likely to continue as long as construction 
continues. It may prove a misfortune for bot- 
any if either ceases, because the end of its use- 
fulness will have come if it ever reach a stage 
in which it can no longer be changed with the 
changing times; but it will have become a 



ramshackle unserviceable monument if it ever 
reach a stage in which it has lost the unifica- 
tion of consistency in its details. 

The achievements of botany have been like 
the achievements of nations in many respects, 
indeed like human achievements in the aggre- 
gate. It is impossible to trace its history with- 
out seeing some of the factors whieh have con- 
tributed to or retarded its advancement. Men 
and incentive have been necessary in the first 
place, opportunity in the second, and intelli- 
gent leadership in the third. Of these, per- 
haps, it may be said that "the first shall be 
last, and the last first," without too great devi- 
ation from, the truth. 

Men without leadership, even though they 
have opportunity and incentive, do not usually 
accomplish great things : and what unled men 
have achieved has resulted from their ability 
to plan for and lead themselves. They have 
been pioneers whose restless spirit has led them 
to spy out the land beyond the confines of the 
known. From the reports or echoes of their 
experiences has come knowledge that the lim- 
its of the knowable lay beyond the limits of 
the known as they found them; and their in- 
dividual incursions have been followed ulti- 
mately by the invasion of numbers of men 
under the organization of leadters. 

These are the true settlers : their leaders are 
the apostles of progress. Yet there rarely has 
been a time when an exodus or a hegira has 
been complete; and when it has, others less 
happily circumstanced have found in what 
was abandoned something to allure them from 
what they already possessed. Even good lead- 
ership, too, may have failed in adequate pre- 
liminary knowledge or planning, and more 
than once the new has proved inferior to the 
old or has been abandoned under wiser or bet- 
ter-informed guidance, or a generation and 
more of men have wandered in the wilderness 
before reaching the promised land; and lesser 
and transient migraitions often have preceded 
or accompanied a large movement. 

The founders of our science were pioneers 
rather than leaders : men with restless minds, 
no more satisfied with limitation of their field 
of action when they could see beyond its 



124 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



arbitrary boundaries than some of lis to-day 
are satisfied with an arbitrary zero-date for 
the scientific naming of plants when it is evi- 
dent that scientific nomenclature began in part 
at a much earlier date. 

Without the natiu-e-philosophy of Aristotle 
there would have been no starting point for 
the systematization of Theophrastus. Tet 
without centuries of knowledge accumulated 
through human exi)erience there would have 
been no background for either. They were 
the men who through systematization and 
coordination made the known understood, and 
thus opened knowable paths into what for 
them was the unknovm. 

It was a little incursion led, after a thou- 
sand and more years of mental vegetation, by 
a few nature-loving men of the Ehineland 
across the old boundaries. Though their day 
was that of revolt against theologically re- 
stricted thought, these resurrectors of a buried 
but not yet dead science were free-thinkers 
rather than protestants when they turned 
from canonized books to a real examination 
of nature. They were few in number and at 
first isolated in action; their excursions did 
not lead them far from home, but they were 
joined early by others, and their spirit found 
an instant echo in the sunny south. Instead 
of remaining explorers they became leaders of 
little bands whose small advances and retreats 
cleared the way for advance after advance of 
the usually better organized and at times 
better led army of searchers after the truth 
who in due time became known as botanists, 

Small wonder if this growing army saw its 
legitimate opportunity less comprehensively 
and less clearly than we see it nearly five 
hundred years after the movement started! 
Without such pioneers, the science of botany 
might have remained to this day within the 
bounds that Theophrastus found to encompass 
it over two thousand years ago. Without 
other, later, even more venturesome pioneers, 
what they saw in it might remain to us as its 
present content. 

Back of their activities was the incentive 
that imderlay these, the unquenchable human 
thirst for knowledge. Through the following 
centuries this has operated side by side with 



the equally ineradicable human instinct for 
leaving well enough alone; and men have 
progressed dominated and restrained by the 
massive inertia of conservatism, but break- 
ing free every now and then for a trial of 
the individual inertia of motion, much as a 
molecule of evaporating water passes off into 
freedom — ultimately to be lost in space, to 
enter into a new cycle, or to return to the 
bondage from which it made its escape, with 
far-reaching derangement in any case of the 
stability of what it left behind or joined. 

Effort, when really effective, is purposeful. 
When the microscope provided means of see- 
ing clearly what living beings consist of, it 
was not Hooke, who first published its revela- 
tions, but Malpighi and Grew, who shortly 
afterward examined the structure of living 
things with a view to understanding their 
vital processes, who laid the foundation for a 
broader science than their predecessors had 
conceived. They and their followers, in plan- 
ning and building on the lines that we now 
recognize from long habit as being those that 
characterize botany, did not go far from the 
procedure that has distinguished successful 
human effort in general, in which a search 
after the true and the effective has shaped 
itself usually into a quest for proof or disproof 
of some theory of what is true or effective. 

Without the guiding line of philosophy, the 
search might or might not have reached its 
goal. But with it, the result has depended 
upon adaptation of the means to the end — 
an adaptation which in our own day and in 
the last quarter-century has grown with sur- 
prising rapidity and extension of the experi- 
mental questioning of nature to which science 
turns with confidence for the solution of those 
problems that really lie within its field. Be- 
yond that field still lies the realm of meta- 
physical speculation, which Lewes, half a cen- 
tury ago, protested against calling philosophy 
because in this sense he felt constrained to call 
the restless motion of philosophic speculation 
rotary in contrast with the linear (perhaps 
one would rather say dendritic) progress of 
science. The lure of the pioneer lies in the 
prospect of novel as well as great return. A 
few years ago some botanists were discussing 



rEBEUAET 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



125 



present-day opportunity in botany, and the 
opinion was voiced that it lies in the line of 
large and special equipment opening fields 
beyond the reach of the ordinary man. This 
may really be so. Certainly the first men to 
use tlie microscope were privileged beyond 
their fellows: but as we look back on their 
work they do not shine with a brilliancy cor- 
responding to the greatness of this privilege. 
Eather, they profited by it to the extent of 
their knowledge and talent; made much or 
little progress according to their possession 
of these personal gifts; and have been sur- 
passed by men who much after their day were 
impelled and instructed to look deeper and 
see further with the same instrument. 

The optimism which led me twenty-five 
years ago to see hopeful opportvmity for every 
man inspired by an all-compelling curious in- 
terest in nature and natural phenomena leads 
me still to see hopeful opportunity ahead of 
every such man — proportioned to his talent 
and under everyday environment rather than 
dependent on the special and novel provision 
which may fall to the lot of a fortunate in- 
dividual here and there. 

Botany, as a science, grew out of the 
gradually accumulated knowledge of plants 
acquired through using and cultivating them. 
The art of applying this knowledge really 
underlay the science into which it has been 
organized and fonnulated, though to-day it 
rests upon this, which constitutes a firm 
foundation in agriculture, medicine and the 
varied fermentation industries. That its scope 
should broaden, was as inevitable as that the 
natural horizon should amplify for a man 
climbing to a hilltop. That the mere selec- 
tion of suitable subjects for microscopic study 
should result in closer observation of all that 
was looked at was equally natural. That Van 
Helmont's demonstration that plants are not 
built up out of earth should have preceded a 
separate analysis of all possible sources of 
their substance is self-evident. But discovery 
of the large part that the atmosphere plays 
in this organic synthesis, of the marvelous 
organism that a vegetable cell proves to be, 
and of the part played in heredity by some of 
the parts of this unit organism of organisms, 



is seen to have resulted more from the in- 
telligent ingenious use of means at hand than 
from restricted privilege. 

If one were to lapse into momentary 
pessimism in an optimistic review, the slip 
would come from recognition of the in- 
stinctive conservatism that inclines most of us 
to see only a form of some well known plant 
in a specimen that the inspired discoverer 
knows and even describes as hitherto un- 
known ; or that leads us to ignore as " dirt " 
or artefacts the seemingly uncharacteristic 
parts of our preparations — as Lohnis believes 
that the most eminent bacteriologists have 
done; or that leads to a wish that experi- 
ments on living things were not so apt to 
turn out differently from the predicted result. 
We may destroy puzzling intermediates, throw 
away disappointing preparations, or exclude 
unsuccessful experiments from our calcula- 
tions: but we do not explain them in doing 
this — we merely evade the truth that they 
mutely offer for our apprehension. It is the 
exceptional man who, even if he lay them 
aside for the time, as Haeckel, in his youth, 
did the " bad " species of his herbarium, can 
not rest imtil he understands them. 

This is the true pioneer type, not content 
with what is believed to be the known nor 
satisfied with little excursions beyond its 
border, but boldly, in season and out of season, 
pushing out into the unknown. Such incur- 
sions, guided by the compass of correct meth- 
ods and starting from the direction of ac- 
quired knowledge, have been, are and seem 
likely to conltinue to be, the epoch-making first 
moves in scientific progress. 

Men who lead in such progress sometimes 
set off with general approval and good wishes. 
They follow the bent of their less enterprising 
fellows. Even rumors of their achievements 
are received at par and passed on at a pre- 
mimn. Fortunate, then, for science, if the 
log of their journey come back for verification, 
for our average human tendency is to believe 
what we want to believe, and those of us who 
do not travel to the pole care for little more 
than to be told that it has been reached by an 
enterprising explorer when we confidently ex- 
pected such an explorer to get there. 



126 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



Quite as often, the pioneers set o£E in a 
direction that is uninteresting to the rest of 
us. They go and come, and we hear with 
passing attention if at all what they have 
been doing. 

Sometimes they do a good deal of talking 
about the inadequacy of what is accepted cur- 
rently; they are regarded as heretics or at 
best as destructive critics. "We complacently 
await the calamity that we believe them to 
court, and are incredulous if not really dis- 
appointed when they do not disappear for 
good but return and ask for an impartial ex- 
amination of what they claim to have brought 
back. 

Each of these types has been represented 
over and again in our science, which has 
profited by the good of each; and in the long 
run it can not suffer through the bad, because 
time inexorably eliminates this. But there 
have been quite enough instances of mistakes 
and delays and discouragements on the one 
hand, and of spurts of stimiilated effort on 
the other, following the activities of men 
blessed with the gift of originality and at the 
same time favored or hampered by its human 
concomitant of radicalism or conservatism, 
of sanguine credulity or of phlegmatic in- 
credulity. 

Starting from isolated springs of impulse, 
progress has settled into a continuous flow of 
constantly increasing volume and rather fixed 
direction, over and over again, until a new 
touch of genius or a new revolt against the 
established order has opened new channels 
that have broadened and deepened with the 
years without causing the main course to rim 
dry. 

Sometimes change has come through the 
talent of coordination, as when Linnseus 
brought chaos into order in the arrangement 
of flowering plants, or Saccardo in laboriously 
assembling the fungi. Sometimes it has come 
from an attempt to dam the main channel as a 
means of diverting a part of the flow in a new 
direction, as when Schleiden fought the sys- 
tematists. Sometimes broad epitomization has 
caused the change, as when Sachs revivified 
the science by giving it coherence as a whole. 
Sometimes an epoch-making improvement in 



technique is to be seen, as when Strasburger 
showed how the most transient inner processes 
of the dividing cell may be preserved for com- 
parative study extending over months or 
years. Sometimes a device accurately record- 
ing for later study every phase of a passing 
physiological process has shown what was un- 
seen before. Sometimes, and perhaps more 
often, the result has been achieved through 
the purposeful imtiring straightforward work 
of a man possessed at once of the plodding 
industry of the laborer, the genius of the de- 
signer, and the perspicacity of the philoso- 
pher: such men were von Mohl, Hofmeister 
and De Bary. 

Whatever its type, work that has left its 
mark indelibly on the science has been done 
by men endowed with an infectious enthu- 
siasm. These men may have lived to see 
their own discoveries set aside as incomplete 
or even faulty, like Schleiden; or they may 
have discarded their own forceful convictions, 
like Sachs; or they may have known that in 
doing a serviceable work effectively, they were 
as effectively placing a barrier before the 
greater work that they foresaw ahead, as did 
Linnseus when he substituted an artificial key 
for the real taxonomy that he could not 
develop. But, however far it may have been 
from perfection, what these men did appealed 
to the understanding; what they said obtained 
a hearing; and, above all, their consuming 
interest was communicated to others and yet 
others. They proved leaders as well as 
workers. 

The personnel of botany forms a roster of 
men sometimes working alone, unstimulated 
and without following, sometimes founding 
schools, sometimes following in the footprints 
of masters. The suggestive thought is that 
these masters for a considerable part have 
been self made: that their followers who have 
become masters have broken for themselves 
new paths; and that one and all they have 
been workers fitting their work on to that of 
others, systematizing all, and enlisting eager 
hands to do the work that they saw ahead 
waiting to be done. They may not always 
have had what we call a proper veneration for 



I'EBKUABY 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



127 



the antique, or a good sense of perspective, 
but they have left their mark on the edifice. 

Two somewhat paradoxical if not antithetic 
achievements in botany stand out conspicu- 
ously in the last quarter-century or so : in- 
creasing assimilation of the science itself with 
cognate sciences into the broader science of 
life — biology; and an increasing tendency for 
its own members, differentiating into organs, 
to segregate into offsets and strike root for 
themselves. 

To-day we rarely hear any one talk of the 
food of plants being inorganic, and that of 
animals, organic; we hear, rather, of green 
plants as the food makers of the world. Even 
the word assimilation has fallen into disuse or 
become hyphenated as applied to this process. 
Digestion, metabolism, nutrition, have become 
subjects of parallel investigation in the two 
branches into which the tree of life has 
evolved. 

The incipient stage of cell division, with 
qualitative bipartition in its somatic stages 
and qualitative segregation in the formation 
of gametes in all but the very lowermost of 
protista, has become so largely known as to 
make it hard to think of any bit of existing 
protoplasm as other than a fragment of one 
primordial protoplast, or ito think of a proto- 
plast of today as not genetically related to 
every other protoplast past or present. 

The chemico-physical activities of plant and 
animal no longer claim attention as separate 
problems; absorption, selection and rejection 
of material, ionization, diffusion, osmosis — 
all have become biological rather than zoolog- 
ical or botanical questions, as they pertain to 
living things; but botanists are doing their 
full share toward answering them. 

That botanical investigation should have 
demonstrated Mendel's law two generations 
ago or exhtuned it two decades ago, places 
this discovery among the achievements of 
botany; but on it has been founded the bio- 
logical superstructure of genetics — as valued 
an adjunct of the stockbreeder as of the 
breeder of plants. That a botanist differen- 
tiated between fluctuations and mutations and 
so simplified the understanding of natural 
selection has not prevented that differentiation 



penetrating into every branch of evolutionary 
investigation. 

That toxins became known when the activi- 
ties of bacteria were studied, has not pre- 
vented the student of animal physiology from 
carrying the same study of excreta into the 
relations of animal parasites and their hosts, 
or from developing from it the theory of auto- 
intoxication. Enzymes, hormones and vita- 
mines — whatever either may be, now lie in the 
common field of biology, but some of the best 
work on them is done by botanists. 

Out of the harmonies and disharmonies of 
plants with the manifold kinds of environ- 
ment that the world offers, has developed a 
line of ecological observation, experimenta- 
tion, and speculation that not only has 
brought the microscopic algse of the world- 
plankton into recognition as the first fruits 
and the foimdation of all aquatic life, past 
and present, but points as unmistakably to the 
individual birth, adolescence, mature life and 
senescence of a fiora as the experience of 
agronomy does for a plant or recorded history 
does for a community of men: it has passed 
forever from the kodak-census stage. 

Incursions into the no-man's-land confront- 
ing science are increasingly paralleling the 
phenomena that ecology deals with. The 
rapid invasion of an army of men, or a swarm 
of locusts such as I have seen blackening the 
sky in Central America, carries its own sug- 
gestion of impending conquest or devastation. 
The trickling of a thin thread of water 
through the dike, the exploration of a few 
pioneers or the settling of a few families be- 
yond the front, may escape notice as sig- 
nificant; and the army may be driven back 
or the grasshoppers stopped by attention to 
their breeding places. The most-heralded ad- 
vances sometimes prove the least important, 
and the humblest, the most significant, in 
retrospect. 

Who but a croaking pessimist would have 
dreamed that an miknown fungus spore 
dropped on the Emerald Isle would lead to 
famine and starvation affecting a large popu- 
lation of men; that a rather iminteresting 
imperfect fungus added to the local flora of 
!N"ew York would cause the magnificent chest- 



128 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



nut forest to disappear from our seaboard; 
that the cultivation of a water plant woidd 
choke the streams of England or render those 
of Florida unnavigable ? The like is going on 
all of the time without such results, and even 
the man who knows speaks often to an un- 
hearing audience when he ventures to pro- 
claim that an immigrant can do what the 
leopard moth has done to the elms of New 
England or the boll-weevil to the sea-island 
cotton : but the lesson is being learned, bit 
by bit, and applied with quite as much zeal 
as wisdom. 

In much this way, science has reached its 
achievements: sometimes annexing large fields 
that have proved less profitable than they were 
advertised to be; sometimes finding itself in 
possession of most fruitful territory that it 
did not know it was invading. That the 
mountains of conquest sometimes prove barren 
and the drained plains of slow sedimentation 
sometimes prove of inestimable productivity 
may well lead us to embark in future on 
the most lauded enterprise with reasonable 
caution, and to foster in every wise way the 
experimental prosecution of even the least ob- 
viously promising of minor undertakings. 

Among newer lines of botanical activity 
none stand out with more significant dis- 
tinctness than those directed toward getting 
conclusive demonstration of the active causes 
of organic variation and of organic function 
through a direct questioning of nature. To 
such experimentation, the shifting theory and 
complicated phenomena of physical chemistry 
are fundamental; to it, the deftest and best 
controlled manipulation is essential; to it, 
recognition and successive elimination of the 
many interwoven conditioning factors are in- 
dispensable. From it, the subtle change that 
converts living into dead matter is not capable 
of separation. 

Biometry, laborious to the last degree, is the 
scale by which some of its results are to be 
made evident and coordinated. Biochemistry 
has taken assured place as one of its most 
necessary tools. Even the physical intricacies 
of behavior in colloids that never figure in 
vital phenomena are being pressed into daily 
use as furnishing analogies for if not demon- 
strations of the workings of that substance. 



protoplasm, which alone lives, alone responds 
to stimulus in the sense of the physiologist, 
and alone increases its substance through 
nutrition. 

This entire line of advance is very new: 
some of its progress is startling: but its final 
results do not appear to promise to be those 
of metamorphosis but rather of cumulative 
mutations, perhaps mostly small. In it, above 
all other lines of progress, caution, conser- 
vatism and avoidance of too free generaliza- 
tion and haste in announcing and applying 
results appear to be desirable. 

It is natural that a science concerning 
itself with the prime makers of human food — 
and for that matter of all food, and of the 
healing agents and poisons of the world, should 
have gleaned its very first results from the use- 
fulness or noxiousness of the materials of its 
study, and that its achievements should have 
acquired great economic importance. Too 
much stress can not be laid on the fact that 
this is so, and within reason too much can not 
be expected from its future activities. 

This science works within the bounds of 
what we sitill regard as natural law, and will 
continue to be so limited however these boun- 
daries may be defined and extended. Never- 
theless because of its discoveries the unpal- 
atable has been made palatable and the un- 
wholesome made wholesome in food; two 
blades of grass and two grains of wheat really 
have been made to grow where but one grew 
before; it has unraveled the mystery of the 
epidemic scourges of farm and barnyard, has 
pointed the way to prophylaxis and breeding 
of hardier races, and at the worst, has shown 
Where therapy is futile. It certainly will make 
known and understood the critical periods in 
crop growth, and enable the agronomist to 
fositer and protect his crops with profit at these 
periods; and it is not unlikely to enable the 
man who knows to judge and score the grow- 
ing crop as the growing herd is judged and 
scored. It has founded a practise of self-sus- 
taining fertility of the soil, and it points a way 
to restoration of impoverished soils. 

These achievements have not come by leaps 
and bounds of either discovery or application : 



February 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



129 



they pepresent gradual aecomplislunent in both 
directions. Nevertheless such practical results 
have been reached within the memory of men 
now living — many of them indeed through 
men now with us. The methods of our science 
are analytical, its application is educational: 
both require time, and the applications of its 
teachings tend to pass its results from the 
questioning realm of science into the formu- 
lated empiricism of an art. 

The world stress that we are passing through 
has caused attention to be turned, as never be- 
fore, toward science; and science and its 
methods have received a utilitarian recogni- 
tion never before accorded them. If botany 
and its dependent arts have met practical ex- 
pectation as chemistry and lihysics and their 
dependent arts have, its hopeful activities are 
assured quantitatively and qualitatively for 
generations to come: if it has shown an in- 
herent lack of the liability of these sciences, 
in which application is almost synchronous 
with discovery, an understanding of its slower 
but none-the-less certain methods will secure 
for it opportunity for equally honorable and 
useful future advance; and if we think it has 
been slow in response we must recog-nize that 
like the plants with which it deals it requires 
a period of tilth and growth between seeding 
and harvest. 

Useful though it may be, until it shall have 
become a finished work, fit companion for those 
arts and lachievements now kept from oblivion 
through the kind offices of the museum, it will 
be a sorry day for this or any other science 
when its prosecution proves to be dependent 
upon the evident and immediate usefulness of 
its discoveries. 

When the inspiratSon of the greatest of 
modern botanists, Sachs, gave to botany some- 
thing of the meaning that it now has, its place 
in the educational world changed. Though 
biological science from its more complex na- 
ture fails to give the promise of unmistakable 
and predictalble answer to experiment that the 
physical sciences pledge and furnish, it took 
place quickly and without question as one of 
the foundation stones of the educational idea 
v?hieh recognizes experimentation and observa- 



tion as of fundamental value in training the 
human mind. 

Perhaps it was put to this use in the best 
possible way and for the best possible reasons. 
Its achievements for two generations show that 
large results have come because of or despite 
its incorporation into the curriculum of even 
the secondary schools: the methods of using 
it, at any rate, have been largely those believed 
best calculated to make investigators of the 
pupils who studied it. 

To some people, it has seemed from the first 
that all who study a science can scarcely be 
expected to become specialists in it. There is 
no reason for surprise in the patent fact that 
few of the myriads of students of botany dur- 
ing the last half-century have become pro- 
fessional botanists: investigators are born 
rather than manufactured. There may be just 
ground even for a growing feeling that in its 
application to education, botany should ap- 
pear in a different guise and with different ac- 
cents from the same science as the investiga- 
tor knows it. 

If we are wise and alert who wish to see bot- 
any or even biology at large continue — as we 
all must believe that it should — an element of 
popular instruction, we must see that in the 
school it regains that simple understandable 
everyday relation with everyday life that its 
vastly simpler precursor possessed ; that in the 
college its more complex present-day relations 
with life are made part of the equipment of 
all of those who are to teach it in the schools 
and to follow it into the university; and that 
in the university its study is characterized by 
a breadth of understanding and a scope of 
vision commensurate with that refined spe- 
cialization which marks the successful delver 
after facts. 

This is a suggestive gathering. It is a ses- 
sion of The Botanical Society of America, but 
there are present many members of the Phyto- 
pathological Society, of the American Society 
of Naturalists, of organizations of ecologists 
and geneticists, of fern students and of moss 
students. Such organizations are meeting in 
affiliation with the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, and members of 



130 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



the botanical and agricultural sections of that 
great Association are of our number. Pomol- 
ogists and men devoting themselves broadly to 
horticultural science are with us. I should not 
be surprised if there were present also men 
w'ho call themselves bacteriologists, foresters, 
or pharmacognosists, though the immediate 
affiliation of their special national societies has 
been shaped otherwise. We are here at the 
present moment as botanists, viewing botany 
from the various sides of its many specializa- 
tions and applications. To-morrow we shall 
be pressing its subdivisions and segregations 
intensively in specialized sessions. Let us not 
forget when we do this that in union lies 
strength and that in division of labor lies effi- 
ciency; nor that efficiency usually reaches its 
maximum in the connected correlated organs 
of an organism, each taking and giving for the 
common good. 

I would not urge the tyro among us to be- 
come less a cytologist, less a bryologist, less a 
physiologist, less a bio-chemist, than his great- 
est inspiration prompts : but I would urge him. 
earnestly to be more a botanist, more a natur- 
alist, more a disciple of a bro«d science which 
in strength and efEectiveness and sy mm etry 
comibines all that is good of its many and di- 
versified component parts. 

Horticulturists talk of graftage. They know 
that their art can produce more effective crea- 
tures (than nature has evolved; but stock as 
well as scion is selected for its inherent worth, 
and both are essential to the whole that is 
built up from them. 

The great world upheaval has severed many 
a scientific union that seemed destined to last 
interminably. Some of the disjointed parts 
may never reunite: some unquestionably re- 
quire careful handling. It appears to be our 
plain and paramount duty now to see that, if 
worth it, the parts of the old tree be given a 
chance to establish themselves anew, either on 
their own roots or on a better footing — not 
thinking for a mo^ment that the tree of science 
is limited in time or space or components, but 
remembering always the old maxim that the 
whole is equal to the sum of all its parts and 
greater than any of its parts. 



Out of the world dismemberment has come 
opportunity for cooperative world reorganiza- 
tion and reconstruotion which can be made 
more effective in science than anything that 
has preceded it. The opportunity is ours. If 
we make the most of it, we shall attain the 
greatest of the achievements of science. Even 
if we fail, we need not miss the lesson that ac- 
complishment in our field is of necessity never 
final but proves always to be the opening of 
new fields, fresher and larger, to those who 
understand the real nature of achievement — ■ 
out of which opportunity continually develops. 

SOME SUGGESTIVE ADDRESSES, ETC. 

Allen, W. E. The naturalist's place in his com- 
munity. Science, n. s. 50: 448-451, Nov. 34, 
1919. 

Arthur, J. C. Research as a university function. 
Science, n. s. 49: 387-391, Apr. 25, 1919. 

BaOey, L. H. The modern systematist. Science, 
n. s. 46: 623-629, Dec. 28, 1917. 

Bailey, L. H. Some present needs in systematic 
botany. Proc. Amer. Philosoph. Soc, 54: 58-65, 
Apr., 1915. 

Bailey, L. H. What is horticulture? Proc. Soc. 
Prom. Agric. Sd., 26: 31-40, 1905. 

Bessey, 0. E. Some of the next steps in botanical 
science. Science, n. s. 37 : 1-13, Jan. 3, 1913. 

Botanical teaching. A conference at the Minneap- 
olis meeting. Science, n. s. 33: 633-649, Apr. 
28, 1911. 

Campbell, D. H. The present and future of bot- 
any in America. Science, n. s. 41: 185-191, 
Feb. 5, 1915. 

Clinton, G. P. Botany in relation to agriculture. 
Science, n. s. 43 : 1-13, Jan. 7, 1916. 

Copeland, E. B. Botany in the agricultural college. 
Science, n. s. 40 : 401-405, Sept. 18, 1914. 

Coulter, J. M. Botany as a national asset. Sci- 
ence, n. s. 45: 225-231, Mar. 9, 1917. 

Coulter, J. M. The evolution of botanical re- 
search. Science, n. s. 51 : 1-8, Jan. 2, 1920. 

Crozier, W. L. The position and prospects of bot- 
any. Science, n. s. 48 : 193-194, Aug. 23, 1918. 

Davis, B. M. Botany after the war. Science, 
n. s. 48: 514-515, Nov. 22, 1918. 

Farlow, W. G. The change from the old to the 
new botany in the United States. Science, n. s. 
37: 79-86, Jan. 17, 1915. 

Gager, C. S. A basis for reconstructing botanical 



rEBBUART 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



131 



education. Science, n. s. 50 : 263-269, Sept. 19, 
1919. 

Gager, C. S. Horticulture as a profession. Sci- 
ence, n. s. 49: 293-300, Mar. 28, 1919. 

Gager, C. S. The near future of botany in Amer- 
ica. Science, n. s. 47: 101-115, Feb. 1, 1918. 

Galloway, B. T. The twentieth century botany. 
Science, n. s. 19 : 11-18, Jan. 1, 1904. 

Ganong, W. F. Some reflections upon botanical 
education in America. Science, n. s. 31 : 321- 
334, Mar. 4, 1910. 

Hitchcock, A. S. The scope and relations of taxo- 
nomic botany. Science, n. s. 43 : 331-342, Mar. 
10, 1916. 

Jones, L. E. The relations of plant pathology to 
the other branches of botanical science. Phyto- 
path. 1: 39-44, 1911. 

Lefevre, G. The introductory course in zoology. 
Science, n. s. 50: 429-431, Nov. 7, 1919. 

Livingston, B. E. Some responsibilities of botan- 
ical science. Science, n. s. 49: 199-207, Feb. 
28, 1919. 

Lyman, G. E. The need for organization of Amer- 
ican botanists for more effective prosecution of 
war work. Science, n. s. 47: 279-285, Mar. 22, 
1918. 

Nichols, G. E. The general biology course and the 
teaching of elementary botany and zoology in 
American colleges and universities. Science, 
n. s. 50: 509-517, Dec. 5, 1919. 

Orton, W. A. The biological basis of international 
phytopathology. Phytopath. 4: 11-19, 1914. 

Osborn, H. Zoological aims and opportunities. 
Science, n. s. 49: 101-112, Jan. 31, 1919. 

Peirce, G. J. What kinds of botany does the 
world need now? Science, n. s. 49: 81-84, Jan. 
24, 1919. 

The reconstruction of elementary botanical teach- 
ing. New Phytologist, Dec, 1917. A series of 
papers. 

Eitter, "W. E. A business man's appraisement of 
biology. Science, n. s. 44 : 820-822, Dec. 8, 1916. 

Roiberts, H. P. Agricultural botany in secondary 
education. Science, n. s. 50: 549-559, Dec. 19, 
1919. 

Shear, C. L. Fdrst 'decade of the American Phy- 
topatholo'gical Society. Phytopath. 9: 165-170, 
1919. 

Shull, A. F. Biological principles in the zoology 
course. Science, n. s. 48: 648-649, Dec. 27, 
1918. 

Stevens, N. B. American botany and the great 
war. Science, n. s. 48 : 177-179, Aug. 23, 1918. 



Stockberger, W. W. The social obligations of the 
botanist. Science, n. s. 39: 733-743, May 22, 
1914. 

Trelease, "W. Botanical opportunity. Bot. Gaz., 
22: 193-217, Sept., 1896; Smithsonian Eeport, 
1898: 519-536. 

Zeleny, C. The personal relation of the investiga- 
tor to his problem. Science, n. s. 50: 175-179, 
Aug. 22, 1919. William Trelease 

The Univeksitt op Illinois 



THE BIOCHEMIST ON THE HOSPITAL 
STAFF 

During the past few years there has been, 
gradually evolving in the general mind, and 
particularly the medical mind, the idea that; 
the chemist is actually something more tharsi 
a druggist or a detector of arsenic. The 
present records of the efforts directed towards 
an elucidation of the reactions of the human 
organism in health and disease, along the 
lines of chemical investigation, are an 
achievement that by their very import, if not 
their voluminousness, have forcibly directed 
the attention of the medical profession to 
the possibility that here is a line of attack 
worthy of notice. The rapid progress being 
made is adding so much to the fundamental 
knowledge of how the organism carries on its 
activities, that the solution of the many 
problems being brought to light is most turbid 
in the minds of the chemical physician and 
he is turning to the biochemist for clarifica-- 
tion. Scientific medicine to-day acknowl- 
edges the fundamental value of chemistry 
in the fight for the prevention and cure of 
disease; it recognizes now, as never before, 
the need of ascertaining the basic facts con- 
cerned in body reactions and that the satis- 
fying of that need rests in the intensive ap- 
plication of biochemical methods to the study 
of the human organism. Outside of diabetes 
there is a general lack of definite information 
concerning the intricate processes going on, 
giving rise to, or accompanying pathological 
conditions, and there is opening up a larger 
opportunity for acquisition of this informa- 
tion through the open-hearted cooperation 
between physician and scientist that is now 
becoming evident. 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



In view of these facts and since there is 
an increasing mimber of hospitals that are 
coming to realize that the optimum treat- 
ment for their patients depends not only in 
having at hand the means of attaining all 
possible data, but also that the hospital 
should be the center for investigation, and 
are adding to their staffs men specially trained 
in biochemistry, it seems apropos to discuss 
briefly some of the points these new alliances 
are bringing up. 

The average physician dumps all chemists 
into one class, leaving the biochemists un- 
differentiated, considers them analysts and 
mentally determines their status on the hos- 
pital staff as one a little lower than the plant 
engineer, but somewhat better than a nurse, 
although lacking even a nurse's conception of 
medicine. 

Somewhere, though just where I do not 
recollect, I have read a discussion in which 
the distinction was drawn between the types 
of workers in chemistry. It was there 
brought out that whereas a chemist is always 
an analyst, an analyst need not necessarily be 
a chemist, since a chemist is inherently a 
thinker in chemistry. On the hospital staff 
it is the chemist that is needed and it is the 
chemical specialist, the biochemist, for just 
as in the medical profession there are special- 
ists devoted to certain types of disorders, so 
have we of the chemical profession divided 
ourselves according as our inclinations and 
training have fitted us to pursue certain more 
or less well defined lines of endeavor. The 
efficient biochemist, however, must be not 
only well founded in information and ability 
to think in terms of all branches of chem- 
istry, but he must also be familiarly ac- 
quainted with the principles of physics and 
general biology. This is merely the ground- 
work and foundation, on it there must be 
erected the superstructure of a knowledge of 
morphology, physiology, bacteriology, pathol- 
ogy and the phenomena of normal and dis- 
turbed body functions. Only one with such 
training can be of masimiim service in the 
field of hospital activities. To a man so 
equipped the opportunities for usefulness are 
large, and the full utilization of his services 



can not but resut in benefit to patients and 
science. 

The question of what and how much 
routine analytical work should be placed on 
the shoulders of the biochemist is one of im- 
portance, and by routine analytical work is 
meant the regular and systematic chemical 
examination of every hospital patient. 
Routine work, it is true, must and should 
be done, for from such analyses it is possible 
to follow the progress of disease and the 
response to treatment. Moreover, it is from 
the accumulated mass data carefully corre- 
lated that the conclusions can be drawn lead- 
ing to the understanding of fundamentals, 
but routine blood and urine analyses can be 
made by any skilled technician while it re- 
quires the cooperative efforts of the clinician 
and the medically trained biochemist to 
interpret the results. I^ow the biochemist 
being primarily trained for and adapted to 
research should not have his time so taken 
up with routine that he can give but meager 
attention to the outlining and carrying on 
of investigations. In fact I do not believe 
that this work should be a part of the duties 
of the biochemist, except in so far as the 
results are directly applicable to a certain 
specific problem, but that it should be done 
by a technician, leaving the biochemist's time 
for the investigatory cooperation essential for 
progress. 

The fundamental purpose of the hospital is 
the cure or relief of the patient, and it shotJd 
be the aim of the biochemist as an integral 
part of the institution to plan his work to 
that end. He has two points of view that are 
synchronous as to ultimate effect but differ- 
ent in immediacy. The one line is intended 
to throw light on the present condition and 
progress of the patient under treatment; it is 
individual. Correlated with this is the group 
study of specific disturbance in various in- 
dividuals with the aim of acquiring informa- 
tion as to the general processes occurring in 
the disorder. These are the immediate ob- 
jects of study. In addition, he should have 
in mind and as an object of his attention 
investigations along the lines of basic phe- 
nomena not connected with any individual 



Febsuakt 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



133 



or specific pathological condition, but more 
with the point of view of contributing in- 
formation as to fundamental functioning. 
The immediate proposition looms the larger 
because it is the more pressing. But who 
will say which is the more important? 
Logical planning will result in such an 
intimate dove-tailing of both the immediate 
and the basic lines of effort that the per- 
spective of time will afFord a well founded 
understanding of the causes contributing to 
disease, which understanding will lay the 
path for cvire and prevention. 

This can not be done nor can full develop- 
ment be obtained without a close cooperation 
of the other members of the hospital staff 
with the biochemist. And it almost goes 
without saying that this cooperation can not 
be effected unless the biochemist is equipped 
to understand the point of view of the 
clinician and is capable of giving to the 
clinician assistance in the working out of his 
problems. Progress can not be expected when 
the biochemist either by preference, or lack 
of opportunity to do otherwise, remains 
cooped up with his test-tubes and beakers 
knowing nothing of the patients save as 
numbered bottles of urine on which he makes 
his little tests. Consultations should be held 
at which the general outlines and progress of 
investigation should be discussed and oppor- 
tunity afforded for the examination of any 
particular case necessitating a biochemical 
interpretation or study. 

Complete independence should be allowed 
the biochemist in the outlining of his meth- 
ods of procedure and the problems for in- 
vestigation, always, however, seeking assist- 
ance and ready to give help when his special- 
ized training fits him to be of service. His 
administrative duties should be confined to 
his own lines of activity and general labora- 
tory supervision or directorship since it is in 
that field his capabilities have been developed. 
The instruction of nurses in the principles of 
physiological chemistry by the biochemist 
should be encouraged since the proper collec- 
tion of specimens depends upon their intelli- 
gence. They can not be expected to have an 
appreciation of the precautions necessary in 



collecting the material if they are set to do 
it as automatons and with no knowledge of 
the purposes involved. 

In these days of ours the question of 
compensation is extraordinarily vital. The 
scientific specialist is such because he can not 
help it. His mental make-up forces him to 
spend his life in giving, not in getting. He 
is rarely a success in self-directed commercial 
enterprise. He has no inclination to enter 
such work unless driven by necessity, and 
then it is with repugnance, that he competes 
with his fellow-men in the accumulation of 
dollars. Rather does he live a life largely 
deprived of the creature comforts accorded 
those mentalities whose urge is acquisitional. 
But whose is the greater service is obvious. 
Why should not such workers be given com- 
pensation sufficient to allow them to have 
homes and more than bare necessities? Why 
should they be forced to derive their major 
joie de vivre in intellectual introspection? Is 
it because the work is of low value or is it 
because of sluggish appreciation and lack of 
self-advertising? Whatever the causes it is 
not right, but no matter how wrong it is we 
have men, and will continue to have men who 
will gladly devote themselves to science what- 
ever the compensation. Nevertheless meas- 
ures should be taken by properly organized 
associations, to so educate those necessary of 
education that future generations of sci- 
entists, if not this one, may receive an ade- 
quate income in recognition of their con- 
tinued contributions to human welfare. 

Frederick S. Hammett 

Pennsylvania Hospital, 
Philadelphia 



CHARLES BUCKMAN GORING 

Few of the readers of Science will be 
familiar with even the name of Charles 
Goring.^ His time was largely spent as a 

1 Goring was born in 1870 and died in 1919. He 
was a student and later a fellow of University 
College, London. He served on a hospital sliip 
during the Boer War. At the time of his death — 
met at his post combating the influenza epidemic — 
he was Medical Officer in Chief at Strangeways 



134 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



prison medical officer. His one monumental 
work, whicli may perhaps best be described as 
the hiology of the convict, is still unfamiliar 
to all but a limited circle. 

Goring's work^ was based on thousands of 
data and is stringently biometric in form, but 
he was no mere measurer, card shuffler and 
constant computer. He knew his convicts as 
the trained student of animal behavior knows 
his organisms — and better, for he had not 
merely their physical measurements and an 
intimate personal knowledge and evaluation 
of their mental characteristics but knew much 
of their ancestry and family associations. To 
Goring, measurements were inviolate — not to 
be juggled with, modified or discarded because 
they did not substantiate a popular theory. 
Better proof of this could not be found than 
the fact that the raw data for his book were 
set up before the calculations were well under 
way. Goring as a thoroughgoing biometri- 
cian believed that in many fields of research 
valid conclusions must rest upon the mathe- 
matical analysis of large masses of data. But 
in his research each constant was critically 
weighed against his own broad and intimate 
personal experience of the individual in- 
stances which constitute the mass. 

1 find it difficult to decide just what char- 
acteristic of Goring impressed me most when 
we were working together at the Biometric 
Laboratory ten years ago. Sometimes it was 
the steadfast scientific piirpose which had sup- 
ported the years of painstaking detail upon 
which his great book rests — detail scrupulously 
executed notwithstanding the fact that there 
was at times little prospect of its ever serving 
as a basis for constants and generalizations. 
Sometimes it was the breadth of interests, 
knowledge and sympathies of one whose work 

Prison, Manchester. Those wbo desire may find a 
portrait and a more adequate appreciation in Bio- 
metrilca, Vol. XII., pp. 297-307, pi. 1, 1919. 

2 Goring, C. B., "The English Convict; A Sta- 
tistical Study." 444 pp. London, 1913. Abridged 
edition, Wyman and Co., 1915. The statistical 
work on this volume was carried out alt the Bio- 
metric Laboratory with the cooperation of H. E. 
Soper and with the helpful suggestion and criti- 
oism of Professor Pearson. 



lay in a field seemingly so circumscribed. 
Sometimes it was the entire freedom from 
both callousness and sentimentality of a man 
who had spent a decade, more or less, with 
the inmates of the British prisons. 

One sentence tells much of the man. One 
day I asked, "Why is this to be The English 
Convict instead of The English Criminal f" 
He replied instantly, " Perhaps some of them 
are not criminals, only convicts." 

J. Arthur Harris 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUS- 
TRIAL RESEARCH OF GREAT BRITAIN 

The following is a list of research associa- 
tions which have been approved by the depart- 
ment as complying with the conditions laid 
down in the government scheme for the encour- 
agement of indiistrial research and have re- 
ceived licenses from the Board of Trade under 
Section 20 of the Companies' (Consolidated) 
Act of 1908 : 

British Boot, Shoe and AUied Trades Research As- 
sooiatiom, 
Technical School, Abington Square, North- 
ampton. 
Secretary — ^Mr. John Blakeman, M.A., M.Sc. 
British Cotton Industry Research Association, 
108, Deansgate, Manchester. 
Secretary — Miss B. Thomas. 
British Empire Sugar Research Association, 

Evelyn House, 62, Oxford Street, London, W.l. 
Secretary — Mr. "W. H. Giffard. 
British Iron Manufacturers Research Association, 
Atlantic Chambers, Brazennose Street, Man- 
chester. 
Secretary — Mr. H. S. Knowles. 
British Motor and Allied Manufacturers Research 
Association, 
39, St. James's Street, London, S.W.I. 
Secretary — Mr. Horace Wyatt. 
British Photographic Research Association, 

Sicilian House, Southampton Row, London, 

W.C.I. 
Secretary — Mr. Arthur C. Brookes. 
British Portland Cement Research Association, 
6, Lloyd's Avenue, London, E.C.3. 
Secretary— M.X. S. G. S. Panisset, A.C.G.I., 
F.C.S. 



I'EBRUAEY 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



135 



British Research Association for the Woolleii and 
Worsted Industries, 
Bond Place Chambers, Leeds. 
Secretary — Mr. Arnold Profcisher, B.Sc. 
British Scientific Instrument Research Association, 
26, Russell Square, W.C.I. 
Secretary — Mr. J. W. Williamson, B.Sc. 
British Rubber and Tyre Manufacturers Research 
Association, 
c/o Messrs. W. B. Peat & Co., 11, Ironmonger 
Lane, E.C.2. 
The Linen Industry Research Association, 
3, Bedford Street, Belfast. 
Secretary — Miss M. K. E. Allen. 
Glass Research Association, 
7, Seamore Place, W.l. 
Secretary — Mr. E. Quine, B.Se. 
British Cocoa, Chocolate, Sugar Confectionery, and 
Jam Trades Research Association, 
9, Queen Street Place, E.C.4. 
Secretary — Mr. R. M. Leonard. 

Scliemes for the establislmient of Research 
Associations in the following industries have 
reached an advanced state of development. 

RESEARCH ASSOCUTIONS APPROVED BY THE DE- 
PARTMENT BUT NOT YET LICENSED BY THE 
BOARD OF TRADE 

British Music Industries Research Associa- 
tion. 

British Refractory Materials Research Asso- 
ciation. 

British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Asso- 
ciation. 

Scottish Shale Oil Research Association. 

PROPOSED RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS WHOSE MEMO- 
RANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCUTION ARE 
UNDER OONIDERATION 

British Launderers Research Association. 
British Electrical and Allied Industries Re- 
search Association. 
British Aircraft Research Association. 

INDUSTRIES ORGANIZATIONS ENG.AGED IN PREPARING 
MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION 

Silk Manufacturers. 

Leather Trades. 

Master Bakers and Confectioners. 

In addition to the industries included aibove, 
certain others are engaged in the preliminary 



consideration for forming Researbli Associa- 
tions. 

NATURAL GAS CONFERENCE 

Secretary Lane, of the Department of the 
Interior, announces that the following ap- 
pointments have been made for the committee 
of ten authorized by the resolution at the 
Natural Gas Conference, held under Secre- 
tary Lane's invitation at Washington, Jan- 
uary 15, 1920: Van H. Manning, director. 
Bureau of Mines, chairman; John B. Corrin, 
The Reserve Gas Company, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania; L. B. Denning, The Ohio Fuel 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; J. 0. 
McDowell, Witchita Natural Gas Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; W. L. McCloy, 
The Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania; John S. Rilling, Public Service Com- 
mission of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania; Miss Edna N. White, American 
Home Economics Association, Detroit, Mich- 
igan; Art L. Walker, Chairman, Corporation 
Committee, Oldahoma City Oklahoma; F. W. 
Wozencraft, Mayor, Dallas, Texas; Samuel S. 
Wyer, Consulting National Gas Engineer, 
Columbus, Ohio; and Dr. I. C. White, state 
geologist of West Virginia, Morgantown, 
West Virginia. 

The functions of this committee will be to 
consider the wastes now going on in natural 
gas and the relations between the natural gas 
companies and the consuming public. The 
committee has been carefully selected from a 
number of nominations with a view to repre- 
senting equally the interests of the public 
and the natural gas companies. Dr. Manning 
writes : 

The development and utilization of the most 
ideal fuel known to man — natural gas — ^has been 
accompanied by lalmost inconceivable wastes. Al- 
though these wastes have been greatly reduced dur- 
ing recent years, they have by no means been elim- 
inated and the country to-day is paying the penalty 
of its sins by the depletion and even exhaustion 
of many of the formerly prolific gas supplies. 
These wastes have occurred in the fields where the 
gas is produced; an the lines through which the 
gas is transported; and from the cooking stoves, 
furnaces, boiler plants, etc., where the gas is ulti- 
mately consumed. 



136 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



Through the knowledge and experience which 
has been gained in the natural gas industry, it is 
now known how these wastes can be practically 
eliminated, but the main obstacles now to be over- 
come before these economies can be put into eSect 
are economic rather than technical; that is modern 
engineering can control these wastes, but it is nec- 
essary that the saving be made worth while. 
There must be a thorougih consideration of the 
broad, underlying eeonoonies of the gas business 
and its relations to the conservation and better 
utilization of natural gas. There is a necessity 
that the public more thoroughly understand the 
economics and technique of the gas business to 
the end that machinery be devised and put into 
operation whereby the interests of the public and 
the gas companies can be brought together in such 
a manner that the gas now being wasted can be 
saved and used. 

It is the purpose of this committee to consider 
these broader questions of the relations between 
the consuming public and the gas companies, that 
a program may be drawn up looking forward to 
the application of those engineering principles 
which it is known minimize the waste of natural 
gas now taking place and prolong the supply of 
gas to the consumer. 

THE STEINHART AQUARIUM 

The erection of an up-to-date aquarium in 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, is an event 
of some significance in tlie scientific world 
and tlie fact that it is to be under the direc- 
tion and management of the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences and supervised by Dr. Barton 
Warren Evermann, the ichthyologist, will in- 
sure it fulfilling its piu'pose of quickening 
interest in the fauna of the Pacific Ocean and 
the inland waters of the Pacific coast area. 

Funds for the building of the aquarimn 
amounting to $250,000 have been provided 
through the munificence of the late Ignatz 
Steinhart who stipulated in his will that the 
management should vest in the California 
Academy of Sciences. By an amendment to 
the city charter the city of San Francisco has 
imdertaken the maintenance of the aquarium. 
The aquarium will be built adjoining the 
Academy's Museum building and will be 
equipped with a full complement of glass ex- 
hibition tanks. Outdoor pools for the ex- 
hibition of aquatic mammals form an essen- 
tial part of the building scheme. 



Dr. Evermann is now in the East and will 
visit the aquariums of Boston, New York, 
Detroit, Philadelphia and Washington to 
study carefully the most approved methods 
of installation. 

RESIGNATION OF DEAN BAKER OF THE NEW 
YORK STATE COLLEGE OF FORESTRY 

An appeal for better salaries for educators, 
particularly those in ISTew York State and in 
the New York State College of Forestry, at 
Syracuse marks the letter of resignation filed 
by Dean Hugh P. Baker, who has resigned 
after eight years of service, to accept twice the 
salary he is rated as receiving at the State 
College of Forestry, by becoming secretary of 
the American Paper and Pulp Association. 

Although he receives a big increase in pay, 
Ms letter of retirement specifies that the in- 
ducement which caused him to leave the Col- 
lege of Forestry was not the salary, but the 
opportunity to carry the profession of forestry 
into a great industry, that of paper manufac- 
turing. His letter discloses that last year he 
refused an offer of $7,500 to enter a business 
career, but that the trustees increased his 
salary from $5,000 to $6,000 to remain, and 
he declined the offer. Owing to the rigidity 
of the New York state budget system, how- 
ever, even this raise would not take effect 
until July, 1920, and only then if approved 
by the legislature. In his letter of resigna- 
tion, he says this of the salaries of teachers : 
" The public is apathetic, to say the least, as 
to the needs of education, with the result 
that our public schools and colleges and uni- 
versities throughout the country are suffering 
for the lack of the right kind of men and 
women in the teaching profession." 

Dean Baker's last work at the College of 
Forestry will include an effort to secure ade- 
quate salaries for the educators in the college, 
some of whom are paid smaller than men in 
the same relative positions at other state 
educational institutions. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. David F. Houston, formerly president 
of Washington University, secretary of agri- 
culture, has been nominated by President Wil- 



I'EBRUABT 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



137 



son to succeed Senator Carter Glass >as secre- 
tary of the treasury. E. T. Meredith, of Iowa, 
publisher of Successful Farming, a director of 
the Chicago Federal Reserve Bank and demo- 
cratic candidate for senator from Iowa in 
1914, will succeed Mr. Houston as secretary of 
agriculture. 

Dr. Hugh S. Cummings, of Hampton, Va., 
has been selected to succeed Dr. Rupert Blue 
as surgeon general of the Public Health Serv- 
ice. General Blue lias served two terms as sur- 
geon general. He was first appointed during 
the administration of President Taft and was 
reappointed by President "Wilson. Dr. Blue 
will remain in the Public Health Service en- 
gaged in research work. 

Dr. Herman M. Biggs, New York state com- 
missioner of health, was reappointed by the 
governor for a term of six years, on January 
12, and the appointment was unanimously con- 
firmed by the senate on the same day. 

Professor Graham Lusk, of the Cornell 
University Medical College, has been elected 
associate member of the Societe Royale des 
Sciences Medicales et Naturelles de Bruxelles. 

Dr. W. p. Eudd, of the department of chem- 
istry of the Medical College of Virginia, Rich- 
mond, has been elected president of the Ameri- 
can Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. 

The council of the Geological Society of 
Londton has made the following awards: Wol- 
laston medal to Professor Baron Gerard Jakob 
de Geer (Stockholm) ; Murchison medal to 
Mrs. (Dr.) E. M. Shakespear; Lyell medal to 
Mr. E. Greenly; Wollaston fund to Mr. W. B. 
E. King; Murchison fund to Dr. D. Woola- 
cott, and Lyell fund to Dr. J. D. Falconer and 
Mr. E. S. Pinfold. 

At the recent meeting of the American Psy- 
chological Association at Harvard University, 
a committee was appointed to formulate stand- 
ards for the qualifications and certification of 
practising psychologists for the United States. 
The committee consists of Professor Bird T. 
Baldwin, State University of Iowa, chairmau; 
Professor Walter F. Dearborn, Harvard Uni- 
versity; Professor Leta S. HoUingworth, Co- 
lumbia University; Dr. Helen T. Wooley, Vo- 



cational Bureau, Cincinnati, and Dr. Beards- 
ley Ruml, The Scott Company, Philadelphia. 
State departments of education contemplating' 
the certification of psychologists should con- 
sult with a member of the committee. New 
York, Wisconsin, New Jersey and California 
recently legalized practising psychologists. 

Professor Heber W. Youngken, head of 
the department of botany and pharmacognosy 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, has 
accepted the invitation of the board of con- 
trol of Botanical Abstracts to become editor 
for the section of pharmaceutical botany and 
pharmacognosy of this journal. 

Dr. R. E. Rindfusz, formerly an assistant 
in the chemistry department of Oberlin Col- 
lege, is now chief chemist in charge of re- 
search for the American Writing Paper Co., 
Holyoke, Mass. 

Professor Thomas L. Hankinson has been 
named ichthyologist of the Roosevelt Wild 
Life Experiment Station of the New York 
State College of Forestry, at Syracuse Uni- 
versity. For the past seventeen years Pro- 
fessor Hankinson has been engaged in the 
study of fish in Michigan and Illinois, and 
for five years has been cooperating with Dr. 
Adams in the study of the fish in Oneida 
Lake and the Palisades Interstate Park 
region; since 1902 he has been teaching bio- 
logical sciences in the Eastern Illinois Normal 
School, Charleston, Illinois. 

Word has been received that the well-known 
Swedish geologist, Professor Gerard De Geer, 
of Stockholm, expects to visit America in 
the autumn of 1920, in order to study the 
glacial geology in the northeastern part of 
the United States and Canada. 

Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, of the Field 
Museum of Natural History, accompanied by 
M. H. B. Conover, of Chicago, sailed January 
28 for Venezuela where they will make gen- 
eral zoological collections and distributional 
studies in the Maracaibo Basin and the 
Sierra de Merida. 

In the latter part of October, 1919, Carl 
D. La Rue, botanist for the Hollandsch- 
Amerikaansche Plantage Maatschappij, re- 



138 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. VoD. LI. No. 1310 



turned to the laboratory at Kisaran, Asahan, 
Sumatra, after a five-weeks stay in Java, 
where he represented the research department 
of his company at the First Scientific Con- 
gress of the Netherlands East Indies, and at 
the First Technical Meeting of the Personnel 
of the Experiment Stations for the Eubber 
Culture. 

We learn from Nature that Mr. Willoughby 
Lowe has recently started on a mission to the 
west coast of Africa for the purpose of collect- 
ing specimens for the South Kensington Nat- 
ural History Museum. Captain Hubert Lynes, 
E.N., has just left England on an expedition 
to Darfur, where he intends to make a special 
survey of the avifauna of the Jeb-Maria Moun- 
tains for the bird department. 

Mr. D. Franklin Fisher, formerly connected 
with the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, New York, N. T., in the 
capacity of food and drug inspector, has re- 
cently resigned from that position to become 
research chemist in the laboratories of the Van 
Camp Packing Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

The annual Darwin Lecture at New York 
University will be given on Friday, February 
13, at 4 P.M., in the auditorium at University 
Heights by Robert Cushman Murphy, curator 
of natural science at the Brooklyn Museum. 
Mr. Murphy sailed for Peru last August to 
iconduct the Brooklyn Museum Peruvian Lit- 
toral Expedition. He has made a comprehen- 
sive study of the avian marine fauna of the 
Humboldt Current and of the Coastal Islands. 
He has been successful in taking hundreds of 
pictures — still and moving — of birds and other 
animals. 

Dr. William J. Humphreys, of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau, gave the address of the re- 
tiring president before the Philosophical So- 
ciety of Washington on January 31, on " A 
bundle of meteorological paradoxes." 

Dr. S. W. Stratton delivered an address on 
the " Advantages of the general adoption of 
the metric system in Easton, Pa.," on January 
16, under the auspices of the Lehigh Valley 
Section of the American Metric Association. 
Under the same auspices Dr. Harrison E. 



Howe lectured on December 12, on the work 
of the National Research Council. 

On the alumni lectureship in chemistry, 
Oberlin College has had Colonel W. D. Ban- 
croft, chairman of the division of chemistry. 
National Research Council, lecturing on " Col- 
loid chemistry," and Mr. Marsh, of the Her- 
cules Powder Co., lecturing on " High ex- 
plosives." 

At the meeting of the Royal Society on 
February 5, by the council, the program con- 
sisted of a discussion on " The theory of rela- 
tivity," opened by Mr. Jeans and continued by 
Professor Eddington, the Astronomer Royal, 
and others. 

We learn from Nature that active steps are 
now being taken in the government to estab- 
lish a memorial to Lord Lister in Edinburgh. 
The university and the Royal Colleges of 
Physicians and Surgeons in Edinburgh, under 
the control of which the memorial will be es- 
tablished, have determined to provide an insti- 
tute for research and teaching in medicine. A 
site has been secured, and a committee is now 
being formed to make an appeal to the public 
for a sum of £250,000. Mr. Balfour, chancellor 
of the university will be president of the com.- 
mittee. 

There has been established at Case School 
of Applied Science, in memory of the late 
Professor Sabine, of Harvard University, the 
Wallace Clement Sabine Research Fellowship 
in Acoustics. Its purpose is the encourage- 
ment of investigation in the science of acous- 
tics. The holder of the fellowship will pursue 
his studies and carry on original investigation 
under the direction of Professor Dayton C. 
Miller. The facilities afforded by his labora- 
tory for research in any part of acoustics are 
unusual, and this is particularly true as re- 
gards the analysis and synthesis of sound. A 
candidate for this fellowship must be a college 
graduate and should have had at least one 
year of advanced study in physics. The sti- 
pend is $1,000 a year. 

Rear Admiral John Elliott Pillsburt, U. 
S. N., retired, president of the National Geo- 
graphical Society, distinguished for his con- 



Febeuary 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



139 



tributions to science, especially on the Gulf 
Stream, as well as for bis services as an officer 
in the navy, has died at the age of seventy- 
three years. 

EiCHAKD Bliss, -wiho died at Newxwrt on Jan- 
uary 7, was at one time an assistant in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
and bibliographer of the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey and the Northern Trans-conti- 
nental Survey. For thirty-one years, until his 
^retirement in 1914, he was librarian of the 
Redwood library at Ifewport. 

Dr. S. Mackay, professor of chemistry at 
Dalhousie University since 1896, died from 
pneumonia in Halifax, ]!f. S., on January 6. 
Dr. MJackay was born in Nova Scotia in 1864. 
He was educated at Dalhousie and the Johns 
Hopkins Universities. 

The Senate has passed a joint resolution 
appropriating $500,000 to be used by the 
Public Health Service in combating influenza. 
The resolution directs the Public Health 
Service to investigate influenza and allied 
diseases in order to discover their causes and 
prevent their spread. It requires the allot- 
ment of money to imiversities, colleges and 
other research institutions for scientific in- 
vestigation. The Public Health Service is 
accorded the privilege of making selection of 
such institutions. 

A MEETING of surgeons, representing the 
surgical staffs of all the great teaching hos- 
pitals of Britain, assembled in the theater of 
the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 
January 8, as we learn from Nature, under 
the chairmanship of Sir Rickman J. Godlee, 
and resolved to form an " Association of Sur- 
geons of Great Britain and Ireland." British 
surgeons have thus followed the precedent set 
by their colleagues the physicians, who formed 
a similar association a number of years ago. 
The object of the newly formed association 
is to permit surgeons as the staffs of the 
hospitals to meet together from time to time 
at various centers in order to exchange ob- 
servations and compare residts. The associa- 
tion will stand as the representative body for 
British surgeons, and in that capacity will 



represent British interests at international 
surgical congresses. Sir John Bland-Sutton 
was elected president of the new association. 

There has been formed recently in Chicago 
a Scientific Laboratory Workers' Union, No. 
16,986, American Pederation of Labor. This 
includes fifteen members, physicians, chemists 
and bacteriologists of the Bureau of Labora- 
tories of the Chicago Department of Health. 

At the annual general meeting of the In- 
ventors Union, held in London, the provisions 
of the Patents and Designs Bill were warmly 
discussed in view of the inadequate protection 
the bill provides to British inventors. A reso- 
lution was carried to the effect that the gov- 
ernment should be approached to consider the 
creation of an all-empire patent to replace 
the present system which entailed an initial 
outlay of several hundred pounds to secure 
protection in Great Britain and the domin- 
ions and colonies for the simplest invention. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

The corporation of Tale University having 
requested Dr. Fred T. Murphy to make a sur- 
vey and report as to the school of medicine 
and Dr. Murphy having presented his views 
and recommendations, the eommittee on edu- 
cational policy unanimously recommended the 
following minutes which were adopted by the 
corporation : 

1. That there is a clear and definite opportunity 
and obligation of the university to medieal educa- 
tion. 

2. That the Yale School of Medicine has a valu- 
able nucleus of men and material and sound tra- 
ditions, which richly justify the development of 
an institution for mediical education of the highest 
type. 

3. That the corporation accept as a policy the 
development of a medical school of the highest 
type to include the pre-clinioal and clindeal years of 
instruction upon such principles of medical educa- 
tion as may be approved by the corporation, after 
conference with the medical faculty. 

4. That every effort be made to obtain at the 
earliest possible date the necessary funds with 
which to expand and develop the buildings, the 



140 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



equipment, the instruction, and the research, and 
the service, in aoeordanoe with the best ideals of 
modern medical education — as an essential unit of 
our university plan for development. 

Professor "W. H. Dalrymple has resigned 
the editorshiip of the Journal of the American 
Veterinary Association because of his appoint- 
ment to the deanship of the college of agricul- 
ture of the Louisiana State University. The 
nominees for the governorship and the legisla- 
ture have pledged themselves the support of 
the (movement for a greater university, in 
Which movement it is proposed to raise three 
million dollars for the college of agriculture. 

Dr. Allen E. Stern, of the department of 
chemistry at the University of Illinois, took 
charge of the division of physical chemistry 
at the University of West Virginia, beginning 
in February. 

Dr. Henry C. Tracy, of the Marquette Med- 
ical School, has been appointed professor of 
anatomy at the University of Kansas. 

Dr. C. H. Edmundson, professor of zoology 
at the University of Oregon, resigned at the 
close of the fall term to accept the position as 
head of the department of zoology and director 
of the research laboratories at the College of 
Hawaii, Honolulu. 

Professor Clarence Moore has resigned the 
chair of biology in Dalhousie University, Hali- 
fax, N. S., and has been succeeded by Pro- 
fessor Dowell Young, of Cornell University. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

UNRELIABLE EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF 

DETERMINING THE TOXICITY OF ALKALI 

SALTS 

A METHOD frequently used by investigators 
of the toxicity of alkali salts is to add certain 
percentages of salts to soils, plant them to 
crops and estimate the toxicity by the de- 
pression of the crop growth. They assume 
that if sodium carbonate or other salt is added 
to a pot of soil, that it remains in solution in 
the soil and that its toxicity can be measured 
by subsequent crop growth. Very elaborate 
and expensive experiments have been per- 
formed based upon this assumption. 

'Now it has been shovra by various investi- 



gators that soils absorb a part, at least, of the 
salts added, and that the crop growth in these 
treated soils is much more closely related to 
the proportion of alkali salts recoverable from 
the soils than to the proportion of salts which 
have been added. In other words, the toxicity 
of salts is not so accurately measured by the 
amount added to the soil as by the salts 
recoverable by analysis after the treatments 
have been made. 

Two papers have been published in the 
Journal of Agricultural Research which illus- 
trate the erroneous conclusions that may be 
reached when toxicity is determined by the 
per cent, of salts added, viz., " Effect of alkali 
salts in soils on the germination and groAvth 
of crops," by Prank S. Harris, and " Soil 
factors affecting the toxicity of alkali," by 
F. S. Harris and D. W. Pittman. In both 
these investigations the attempt was made to 
measure the toxicity by correlating crop 
growth with the amount of salts added. In 
the first-named paper Mr. Harris reaches the 
following conclusions which are not in accord- 
ance with results obtained by other investi- 
gators. The questionable results quoted below 
would almost certainly not have been secured 
had the more accurate method been followed 
of measuring toxicity by correlating crop 
growth with the soluble salts found in the 
soil after the various additions had been made. 

The conclusions which appear to the Avriter 
to be unjustified are : 

1. " Only about half as much alkali is re- 
quired to prohibit the growth of crops in sand 
as in loam." 

Since no analyses were made Mr. Harris 
did not know how much alkali was contained 
in the soil solution in either sand or loam and 
the conclusion is therefore unjustifiable. 

2. " Results obtained in solution cultures 
for the toxicity of alkali salts do not always 
hold when salts are applied to the soil." 

This statement may be true but his experi- 
ments do not warrant the drawing of such a 
conclusion for here again the author did not 
determine the concentrations of the soil solu- 
tions and he therefore has no basis for com- 
paring the toxicity of salts in solution cul- 



Eebbuaet 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



141 



tures with the same concentrations in soil 
solutions. 

3. " The toxicity of soluble salts in the soil 
was found to be in the following order : sodium 
chlorid, calcium chlorid, potassiiun chlorid, 
sodium nitrate, magnesium chlorid, potassium 
nitrate, magnesium nitrate, sodium carbonate, 
potassiiun carbonate, sodium sulfate, potas- 
sium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate." 

Since the author did not determine and did 
not know how much of these salts were 
actually in the soil solution he could not very 
well indicate their relative toxicities. It will 
be noted that sodium carbonate is placed near 
the bottom of the list as a relatively harmless 
salt, whereas, as a matter of fact, it is one of 
the most toxic salts occurring in the alkali 
soils of the west. 

4. "Land containing more than the follow- 
ing percentages of soluble salts are probably 
not suited without reclamation to produce 
ordinary crops : In loam, chlorids 0.3 per cent. ; 
nitrates, 0.4 per cent.; carbonates, 0.5 per 
cent. ; sulfates, above 1.0 per cent. In coarse 
sands, chlorids, 0.2 per cent.; nitrates, 0.3 per 
cent; carbonates, 0.3 per cent, and sulfates, 
0.6 per cent." 

Here again the author draws conclusions 
without having accurate data on which to base 
them. If the above percentages were to be 
adopted by chemists in determining the suit- 
ability of alkali soils in the field for crop 
growth, the results would be misleading in the 
extreme. The results are not in accord with 
those obtained by determining toxic limits 
in field studies, nor with laboratory experi- 
ments in which toxicity is related to the alkali 
actually in the soil solution instead of to that 
which was put in. 

In the paper by Harris and Pittman, pub- 
lished in IsTovember, 1918, the authors have 
adopted the same erroneous method but they 
are more careful in drawing conclusions as 
the absorption of the salts added is apparently 
recognized but is not determined and related 
to crop growth. The conclusion, however, 
that " Loam soils and soils with a high water- 
holding capacity may be successfully farmed 
at a higher alkali content than others" may 



possibly be true but there is no data given 
in the paper which justifies the conclusion, for 
the per cent, of alkali salts recoverable from 
the two kinds of soil was not correlated with 
crop growth. 

It is also suggested that the results ob- 
tained by Brown and Hitchcock published 
under the title " The efFects of alkali salts on 
nitrification" (Soil Science, Vol. IV., No. 3) 
and by Singh on the "Toxicity of alkali 
salts" (Soil Science, Vol. IV., No. 6) would 
have been more valuable had they been corre- 
lated with the recoverable salts rather than 
with the salts added to the soils with which 
they were working. 

F. B. Headley 

Newlands Experiment Farm, 
Failon, Nevada 

on high-altitude research 
I AM beginning to appreciate the difficulty 
of making one's self understood in a state- 
ment where matters are suggested rather than 
explained in detail, and where a critical 
attitude is urged until a result is actually 
verified by experiment, even when one feels 
perfectly confident beforehand what the result 
will be. The present statement is written for 
the purpose of correcting any misconceptions 
that may have arisen from my recent presa 
statement. 

First, the time necessary for a preliminary 
exploration of the atmosphere will be re- 
quired chiefly for the preparation. It is not 
like an exploration of " darkest Africa," for, 
with the proper rocket apparatus and instru- 
ments, each flight will occupy but a short 
time; and not many will be needed to obtain 
a very considerable amount of information, 
such as an accurate knowledge of densities, 
that would be needed for any further devel- 
opments. 

The expense also will be chiefly that for 
preparation; namely, for machine construc- 
tion and tests. A final form of apparatus, 
designed for reaching any particular altitude, 
should not be expensive. This is, of course, 
true of any product that requires machine 
development. 



142 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



Incidentally, the object of these experi- 
ments is by no means restricted to the taking 
of photographs in the earth's atmosphere, al- 
though this application may have more uses 
than were at first suspected. 

Eegarding the ultimate developments of 
the method, I do not wish to leave the im- 
pression that these will be restricted to re- 
searches in or near the earth's atmosphere. 
On the contrary, every one of the matters so 
far proposed is, as I have already main- 
tained, based upon sound physical principles, 
and can therefore be realized. Further, there 
are additional principles, the application of 
which is certain to lead to results of even 
greater interest and importance. All these 
results will be realized, however, not by argu- 
ment and discussion, but by the application 
of real research methods to the problems that 
are waiting to be solved. 

Egbert H. Goddakd 
Claek College, 

WoKCESTEE, Massachusetts 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 

Studies on the Variation, Distribution, and 
Evolution of the Genus Partula. The 
Species Inhabiting Tahiti. By Henky Ed- 
ward Crampton. 313 pp., 34 plates, 252 
tables, Y text figures. Publication N"o. 228 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
January, 1917. 

Interest having been diverted from pure 
science by the war, no adequate review has 
appeared of this monumental and funda- 
mentally important work which represents the 
results of four journeys of exploration made 
by its author in Polynesia; in the course of 
which more than 75,000 adult snails were 
collected together with over 7,000 adolescent 
individuals; more than 200 of the valleys of 
the Society Islands having been visited for 
this purpose. 

The present volume deals with snails from 
Tahiti alone, and the thorough, scholarly, 
and conservative treatment given the subject 
renders this work of paramount value to all 
future students of the variations of Partula. 
Not alone were variations and distribution 



of the adult snails studied, but the yoimg 
contained in the brood pouches of the adults 
were dissected out, thus throwing light upon 
the fecundity of each variety, and the ratio 
of elimination of the young before they can 
reach maturity. 

Crampton shows that these snails are not 
found in the dry low-lands along the shore, 
nor do they occur in the cold regions of the 
high peaks of the interior, for a temperature 
of 55°-60° P., stops their activity. The 
snails are therefore restricted to the relatively 
moist deeply wooded troughs of the inter- 
mediate regions of the valleys where they are 
commonly found during the day-time on the 
undersides of the leaves of the banana, wild 
plantain, caladium, turmeric, wild ginger and 
dracffina. 

The ridges between valleys are generally 
dry, and thus the snail population of each 
valley is more or less isolated. Crampton finds 
that these snails descend from the trees and 
bushes and feed during the night, or on moist 
days, upon decaying vegetation. The young 
and adolescent being more active in this feed- 
ing reaction than are the adults. 

It has long been known from Garrett's 
studies that the Tahitian species of Partula 
like the Achatinella of Oahu varied from 
valley to valley, some forms ranging over a 
wide area while others are restricted to a 
single valley, or even to a limited region 
within a valley. 

In general moreover the farther apart two 
valleys the wider the diversity between their 
snails, although this is not always the case. 
Crampton's work has the merit of giving 
precision to our hitherto more or less vague 
knowledge of the distribution of the 8 species 
of Partula found in Tahiti. He shows con- 
clusively that great changes have occurred 
since Garrett studied the snails, in 1861-1884, 
and that in some cases the species have spread 
over wider areas, and in the interval have 
produced some new sub-species or varieties. 
Thus the fascinating picture of a race in 
active process of evolution is presented. The 
details of this process are rendered clear by 
the excellent photographs of relief maps, and 



rEBRUART 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



143 



the numerous diagrams which accompany the 
text. 

In a brief review such as the present it is 
not possible to do justice even to some of 
the more important details of Crampton's 
masterly work, but it is interesting to see that 
according to^ Garrett, Partula clara was rare 
and fotrnd only in a sector of valleys com- 
prising about 1/4 the area of Tahiti, while 
Crampton found it to be very common and to 
range over 4/5 of the whole island, this dis- 
persal having been accomplished by migration 
fromi the former restricted habitat of the 
species. There are now 1 subspecies, and 
mutation has occurred not only in some of 
the new valleys the snail has occupied since 
Garrett's time but also in the area in which 
it was found by Garrett. 

Partula nodosa which in 1861 was confined 
to Punaruu valley has now migrated into 6 
other valleys, and 3 new varieties have arisen 
in the area into which it has traveled, as 
Crampton illustrates in his test-figure 6 on 
page III. 

Nearly one half of Crampton's volume is 
devoted to an analysis of the group species 
Partula otaheitana with its 8 subspecies and 
varieties of primary, secondary, and tertiary 
degree, thus constituting the most complex of 
the known species of Partula. 

Crampton collected more than 20,000 adult 
and 6,000 adolescent snails of this form in 
practically every habitable area of Tahiti. 

In Fautaua valley these snails form an 
extremely complex colony which stands in 
parental relation to the diverse colonies of 
other valleys; for in any one of the latter the 
shells exhibit one combination or another of 
the so-called unit characters displayed by the 
Fautaua gi-oup as a whole. In this snail 
Crampton finds some evidence that in the 
variety ruhescens red and yellow colorations 
bear a Mendelian relation to one another, red 
being dominant. On the other hand in the 
variety affinis plain color seems to be domi- 
nant over the banded pattern in Mendelian 
inheritance. 

Partula hyalina is peculiar in not being 
confined to Tahiti for it is found also in 
Mangaia, and Moki of the Cook Group and 



Kurutu and Tubuai of the Austral Islands, 
and in marked contrast to this wide dispersal 
Partula, filosa, is found only in Pirai, and 
P. producta in Faarahi valley and have not 
migrated from these valleys since Garretfs 
time. 

Crampton concludes that in the production 
of new varieties the originative influence of 
environment seems to be little or nothing, and 
isolation is a mere condition and not a factor 
in the differentiation of new forms. This is 
in accord with the studies of Bartsch upon 
Cerion, for he found that no new varieties 
were produced in any of the numerous 
colonies of Bahama Cerions which he estab- 
lished upon the Florida Keys from Eagged 
Keys near Miami to Tortugas. When how- 
ever, these Cerions of Bahaman ancestry 
crossed with the native Florida from the 
second generation of the hybrids gave rise to 
a large number of variations both in form 
and color. 

This observation indicates that similar ex- 
periments should be conducted upon Partula, 
for it seems possible that new species may 
result from the breeding of mutations with 
the parent stock, or of species with species 
producing fertile hybrids unlike either of the 
parent stocks. 

The editorial work upon Crampton's volume 
reflects the greatest credit upon Mr. William 
Bamtun the well known editor of all publica- 
tions of the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton. The 15 colored plates lithogTaphed by 
Hoen are faithful reproductions of the colors 
and appearance of these snails, and the fact 
that the book is published upon the best of 
paper is fortunate for it will be even more 
interesting to students a hundred years hence 
than it is at present. 

Crampton's work is of such wide interest 
and importance, and in the light of Bartsch's 
observations so suggestive of future experi- 
mental research that it is hoped these studies 
may be pursued continuously under the 
auspices of the Carnegie Institution until 
final conclusions have been reached through 
breeding experiments conducted in the field. 

A. G. M. 



144 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



GRAVITY AND AEROSTATIC PRESSURE 
ON FAST SHIPS AND AIRPLANES 

The latest issue of the Meteorological Office 
Circular, No. 42, December 1, 1919, contains 
an interesting note on the Behavior of Marine 
Barometers on board fast ships. The views 
expressed are based on certain experiments 
made by Professor Duffield upon the value of 
gravity at sea. In his work it became nec- 
essary to study carefully the variations of 
pressure recorded by a mercury barometer of 
the new type under different conditions of 
ship motion. 

It has been suspected for a long time that 
on fast ships and in strong winds, pressure 
readings might be considerably influenced by 
eddy action. 

The experiments in this case were carried 
out on H.M.S. Pluchy, a destroyer. Steaming 
at 22 knots against a head wind of about 12 
m/s., the barometer showed a fall of 1.2 kilo- 
bars compared with the reading when going 
with the wind. This is an aspiration efl^ect 
and will vary with the location of the instru- 
ment aboard the ship. Three barometers were 
used and the change in the cabins was only 
0.4 kb. The fall is sudden and unless the 
navigating officer is posted might be taken as 
an indication of impending change in weather. 
It is stated that opening or closing doors and 
ports did not materially affect the readings 
but this we are disposed to question since it 
has long been known that very noticeable 
aerostatic pressure variations occur during 
high winds on opening or shutting doors and 
windows. At Blue Hill Observatory using 
large and sensitive barographs with fast 
moving record sheets we have obtained vari- 
ations of from 3 to 5 kbs. The location of 
the oi>ening determines the character of the 
change; windward openings cause a rise, lee- 
ward ones, a fall. 

This brings home the necessity of correcting 
the records of fast ships and it would be 
especially interesting if our Hydrographic 
Office would fm-nish open scale barographs to 
fast ships and analyze the variations in aero- 
static pressure when such vessels were en- 
countering high winds ahead or astern. If 



our ships and planes could also carry pressure 
tube anemometers of the Dines's pattern or 
the modified form provided for the Navy, 
records showing to a nicety gustiness and rela- 
tion of speed to pressure would be available. 

The next interesting feature of these ex- 
periments is the deduction that a ship moving 
east and therefore travelling with the earth's 
rotation experiences a consequent increase in 
the centrifugal tendency, resulting in a slight 
decrease in the value of gravity as indicated 
by a mercurial barometer. A west-bound ship, 
on the other hand, would show an apparent 
increase. This was put to test on the Pluchy 
and it was found that 

on a west course the mercury barometer when com- 
pared with an aneroid stood relatively higher than 
when on an east course, indicating that the mer- 
cury weighs less because a longer column is needed 
to give the same pressure. For a speed of 22 knots 
the difference amounted to approximately 0.2 kb. 

Since bodies travelling east are lighter than 
when they are travelling west, we expect to find 
(other things being equal) a west wind above an 
east wind, a shell fired east with a longer range 
than when fired west, and an airship going east 
with a larger carrying capacity than when flying 
west. H. M. S. Plucky weighed about 4 owt. less 
on an east course than when steaming west. 

Professor Edward V. Huntington in Sci- 
ence, January 9, 1920, p. 45, shows that a 
body moving westward at high speed requires 
an increase in the supporting force. 

Dr. Carl Herring in the same issue discusses 
the possibility of moving a mass so rapidly 
that the net weight would be zero. 

Aerographers of course are familiar with the 
equation on which the above reasoning for 
gravity rests, namely 'iwv cos <^ sin a- In this, 
0) is the angular velocity of the earth's rota- 
tion, that is 2^86164 seconds or .0000Y292 
radians per second; v, the velocity of the ship 
in meters per second, <j), the latitude and a the 
deviation from true north or south, of the 
ship's course. Dr. Duffield gives this value 
for latitude 50° N. as .005 kb. per knot. 

Another matter under discussion is the 
effect of the ship's vibration due to engines 
upon the sensitiveness of the barograph rec- 
ord. At present it can be said that on a vi- 



February 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



145 



brating ship the lag of the instrument is much 
reduced. 

All of the above applies with even more 
force 'to airships. Deflective influence will 
modify the course not only in a horizontal but 
also in a vertical plane. Professor Marvin has 
shown that wien a machine is climbing with 
given power, the ascent will be more rapid if 
made clockwise than when counterclockwise; 
this of course for the northern hemisphere, and 
conversely in the southern. So the aviator 
must watch his barometer not less than his 
compass. With him it is all important that 
true static pressures be recorded; and at least 
he should be keenly alive to the importance of 
the corrections to be applied, most of them 
functions of speed. When an aneroid is mov- 
ing at 45 m/s (100 miles an hour) not an un- 
iisual speed, he may be called upon to add to 
or subtract from his proper speed, the air 
speed, say 25 m/s., also the earths angular 
velocity. 

The exposure of the barograph is important. 
The containing box must have an opening 
either facing the wind or away from it: if 
the former, the pressure shown is aerostatic 
plus aerodynamic. Zahm and others have dis- 
cussed pressure distribution around a steam- 
like body and J. G. CofB.n has actually de- 
signed and used a container that rotates 
periodically. He found that when the aper- 
ture was 45° either side of the head-on posi- 
tion the observed pressure was normal or true 
static. 

From all the aibove, it is evident that here- 
after in ithe icharting and discussion of storm 
centers at sea, as based on pressure readings, we 
must know whether the ships were headed east 
or west, the angle of inclination of the ship to 
the wind, the speed of the ship and the speed, 
direction and gustiness of the wind. 

Alexaioder McAdie 

Blue Hill Observatory, 
January 20, 1920 



STATE REWARDS FOR MEDICAL 
DISCOVERIES 

A REPORT has been issued by a joint com- 
mittee of the British Medical Association and 



of the British Science Guild, which has been 
considering the question of awards for med- 
ical discoveries. According to the abstract 
in the Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation the committee defines medical dis- 
coveries as being: (1) the ascertainment of 
new facts or theorems bearing on the human 
body in health and on the nature, prevention, 
cure or niitigration of injuries and diseases; 
(2) the invention of new methods or instru- 
ments for the improvement of sanitary, med- 
ical and surgical practise, or of scientific and 
pathologic work. The reasons given for re- 
warding medical discoveries are the encour- 
agement of medical investigation and the dis- 
charge of a moral obligation incurred by the 
public for its use of private eft'ort. The 
various public types of rewards are cited as: 
titles and honors given by the state, by uni- 
versities and other public bodies; prizes and 
medals; patents; promotion and appoint- 
ments; pecuniary rewards by the state. Con- 
cerning the general principle of assessment, 
the committee hold that, in the interests of 
the public, all medical discoveries should if 
possible receive some kind of acknowledgment 
or recompense. But in view of the variable 
conditions, nature and effects of particular 
investigations, it will often be difficult to 
assess the kind of recompense suitable. In 
the first place, a distinction should be drawn 
between comi)ensation and reward. By com- 
pensation is meant an act of justice done to 
reimburse losses; by reward an act of grace 
in appreciation of services. The following 
different cases should be considered : A. Dis- 
coveries involving pecuniary or other loss 
either by direct monetary sacrifice or by ex- 
penditure of time, or by diminution of pro- 
fessional practise, without corresponding pecu- 
niary gains. An example is that of Jenner, 
who occupied himself so closely with the in- 
vestigation of vaccination that he lost most 
of his medical practise and also a consider- 
able sum in expenses. This was fully ac- 
knowledge by Parliament, which granted him 
$150,000. B. Discoveries that have increased 
the professional emoluments of the investi- 
gator by enhanced practise or other means. 



146 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



Such are frequently improvements in surgical 
operations or medical treatment, whicli leads 
to increased practise. Another case is that of 
serums, etc., which may have been protected 
and put on the market. Here compensation 
can not be demanded, and pecuniary rewards 
are generally unnecessary. On the other 
hand, honors are often and justly bestowed 
for such work. C. Discoveries that involve 
neither gain nor loss to the investigator. 
This class includes most of the good and some- 
times great clinical, pathologic and sanitary 
discoveries. Here also compensation can 
scarcely be demanded, and honors are already 
often given, but pecuniary awards should 
sometimes be bestowed as an act of grace 
when the value of a discovery greatly exceeds 
the emoluments of the investigator. This 
principle should hold even for men who are 
directly paid for undertaking the research, 
especially when such payment is (as usual) 
small and the discovery great. Special atten- 
tion is drawn to: (1) men who have refused 
lucrative posts to complete researches; (2) 
men who have refused to protect their work 
for fear of limiting its application, and (3) 
men who have carried out investigations for 
governments for little or no payment, on 
patriotic grounds. 

In the public interest, the committee in- 
sists on these principles: (1) No medical dis- 
covery should be allowed to entail financial 
loss on him who has made it. (2) Compensa- 
tion or reward should be assessed as equal to 
the difference between the emoluments actually 
received and those which a successful clinician 
might have received in the same time. Addi- 
tional reasons for this are that few medical 
discoveries are patentable, and they seldom 
give good grounds for promotion or for admin- 
istrative appointments in the public services. 
Whether a particular discovery shall receive 
large or small assessment will depend, in ad- 
dition, on these considerations: (1) Width of 
application. For example, the work of many 
of the older anatomists, physiologists, and 
parasitologists, of Pasteur and of investi- 
gators of immunity, have affected most recent 



discoveries. Discoveries on widespread dis- 
eases, such as the work of Lister, Laveran or 
Koch, are often more important that those 
on more limited maladies. (2) Difficulty of 
the work done. The solution of a difficult 
problem requires more study and also more 
time and cost, and therefore deserves more 
recompense than a chance observation. (3) 
Immediate practical utility. A strong plea 
can be made for state remuneration in cases 
of this kind unless they come under Class B. 
Curiously, they never receive it, and academic 
recognition is also often not forthcoming. 
(4) Scientific importance. Discoveries not of 
practical utility may become so at any 
moment and should be included in the scheme 
if sound and of wide application. 

During the last few years, the British gov- 
ernment has disbursed an annual grant of 
about $300,000, under the Medical Eesearch 
Committee, for subsidizing investigations au- 
thorized by the committee and carried on by 
workers selected by it. This grant does not 
remunerate discoveries already made, but 
proceeds on the principle of payment for 
prospective benefits. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES 

A POCONO BRACHIOPOD FAUNA 

The Pocono formation of the Appalachian 
Mississippian measures is known to contain 
marine fossils in places but little has been 
published on the subject and the information 
is scattered and difficult to assemble. The 
writer has recently found two beds of sand- 
stone in the Pocono Series on Laurel Moun- 
tain in Tucker county. West Virginia, which 
contain branchiopod impressions and has as- 
sembled the following list of occurrences of 
fossils in strata which are considered to be 
of Pocono age. Since the present note is 
written in the field, full descriptions of these 
localities and complete citations to the litera- 
ture are not given. 

POCONO FAUNAL LOCALITIES 

1. At Altamont, Maryland, on the western 
limb of the Georges Creek-Potomac Syn- 



February 6, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



147 



cline, noted by G. C. Martin, 1903, Mary- 
land Geological Survey, (Report on) Gar- 
rett county, pp. 91 and 92; marine in- 
vertebrate fauna noted in the Pocono but 
not described. 

2. In the Broad Top Coal Field of Southern 

Pennsylvania a Pocono fauna has been 
collected from a black shale by Messrs. 
David White and G. H. Girty. They 
have been studied by Dr. Girty and de- 
scribed in manuscript. The fauna con- 
sists of only a few genera and species, 
only three or four species being found 
at any single locality. In order of abun- 
dance the forms noted were: Chonetes, 
Gamarotaechia, Shipidomella, discinoids, 
and the pelecypod Cypricardinia (oral 
communication from Dr. Girty). 

3. At the Beaverhole (ford and limestone 

quarries) on Cheat River in Preston 
county. West Virginia, 8 miles east of 
Morgantown, brachiopoda were foimd 
some years ago by Professor S. B. 
Brown in a dark shale near the base of 
the Pocono. A small collection consist- 
ing of a very few species of brachiopoda 
was obtained by the writer several years 
ago, but no list of the forms is at present 
available. 

4. On Laurel Mountain, in Tucker county. 

West Virginia, brachiopoda have been 
found in two sandstone beds lying ap- 
proximately 30 and 90 feet, respectively, 
below the top of the Pocono. The lower 
of the two faunal members rests upon a 
shale which becomes deep red in color a 
few feet below its top and seems to be 
the highest red bed at this point below 
the top of the Pocono. A small assem- 
blage of forms, which are, however, 
abundantly represented by individuals, 
was noted. The upper fauna consists of 
the following forms as noted in the field, 
given in the order of relative abundance: 
Choneies, Schizophoria, Spirifer (coarse- 
ribbed), a gastropod (cf. Pleurotomaria) , 
a pelecjrpod {cf. Cypricardinia or Gram- 
my sia). The lower fauna contains the 
following: Spirifer (fine-ribbed), abun- 
dant, and Gamaroioechia. 



5. On Limestone Mountain in Tucker comity. 

West Virginia, in talus accumulation 
from the Pocono were found impressions 
of Schizophoria in sandstone. 

6. In the Price (Pocono?) Sandstone of 

Southwestern Virginia brachiopoda have 
been collected from at least two localities 
by G. W. Stose, (oral communication), 
and their presence noted in Bulletin 530 
of the U. S. Geological Survey, p. 251. 
The study of the Maryland and West Vir- 
ginia collections is contemplated by the 
writer and he would be glad to receive 
through these columns or otherwise addi- 
tional information concerning Pocono faunas. 

W. Armstrong Price 
West VmoiNiA Geological Sukvet, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 

SECTION F— ZOOLOGY 

The Oonvooaition Week meetiings of Section F 
(Zoology) of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science were held in conjunction 
with those of the American Society of Zoologists 
at Saint Louis, Missouri, December 29, 30 and 31, 
1919. 

At the business meeting of the section, Professor 
Caswell Grave was elected secretary pro tern.; 
Professor George Lefevre, of the University of 
Missouri, was elected memiber of the council; Pro- 
fessor B. H. Ransom, of Northwestern University, 
was chosen member of the general committee; 
Professor H. B. Ward, of the University of Illi- 
nois, was elected member of the sectional commit- 
tee for five years. 

The seeitdonal committee nominated Profe^or 
John Sterling Kingsley, of the University of Illi- 
nois, as vice-president of the section for the en- 
suing year. 

The address of the retiring vice-president of 
Section P, Professor WilEam Patten, of Dart- 
mouth College, upon "The message of the biolo- 
gist" was delivered at the annual dinner of the 
American Society of Zoologists at Hotel Statler, 
Wednesday evening, December 31, and is printed 
in the issue of Science for January 30. 

H. V. Neal, 
Seeretary 



148 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1310 



THE PALEONTOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF 
AMERICA 

The eleventh annual meeting of the Paleontolog- 
ical Society was held at Boston, Mass., in the 
Bogers Building of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, December 30 and 31, 1919, in afSlia- 
tion with the Geological Society of America. The 
meeting was the 'bes.t attended in a number of 
years, and numerous papers on the various 
branches of paleontology and stratigraphy were 
presented. An important item on the program was 
the symposium on the teaching of paleontology 
which was combined with a similar symposium on 
the teaching of geology delivered before the joint 
membership of the Paleontological and Geological 
Societies. The result of the ballot of officers for 
1920 was as follows: 

President: F. B. Loomis, Amherst, Massachu- 
setts. 

First Vice-president: E. C. Case, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 

Second Vice-president: Ralph Arnold, Los 
Angeles California. 

Third Vice-president: E. M. Kindle, Ottawa, 
Canada. 

Secretary: B. S. Bassler, Washington, D. C. 

Treasurer: Richard S. Lull, New Haveu, Con- 
necticut. 

Editor: W. D. Matthew, New York City. 

The address of the retiring president. Dr. R. T. 
Jackson, was on the subject "Studies in varia- 
tion and a proposed classification of variants. ' ' 

Following is a list of papers presented. 
Recent restorations of fossil invertebrates: John 

M. Clarke. 
The "good use" of the term "fossil": Richard 

M. Field. 
The presence of Upper Silurian sandstone in Es- 
sex County, northeastern Massachusetts : A. F. 

FOERSTE. 

Paleontological collections in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton: Percy E. Raymond. 

The value of Foraminifera in stratigraphic corre- 
lation: Joseph A. Cushman. 

The intercalation of thecal plates in Eolocystites 
in connection with the criteria upon which species 
can 6e distinguished : A. F. Foeeste. 

A revision of the anticosti section: W. H. Twen- 
hofel. 

The hydrozoan affinities of SerpuUtes Soweriy : W. 
A-Rmstrong Price. 

The Paleozoic section of the lower Macl'cn.He 
Miver valley: E. M. Kindle. 

Echinoderms of the Iowa Devonian: A. 0. Thomas. 



Camirian formations and faunas of the upper Miss- 
issippi valley: E. O. XJlrich. 

Bibliographic studies of the Cambrian: Charles 
E. Eesser. 

Correlation of the middle Cambrian of Newfound- 
land and Great Britain: B. F. Howell. 

The Trilobites as ancestors: Percy E. Raymond. 

The foraminiferal fauna of the Byra/m Marl: 
Joseph A. Coshman. 

Study of the life processes in fossils: R. S. 
Bassler. 

The method of appearance of additional arms on 
increasing age in Caryocrinites : A. P. Foerste. 

Origin of the " Beach Sock" ( Coquina) at Log- 
gerhead Key: Richard M. Field. 

Notes on the teaching of paleobotany : Marian D. 
Martin. 

Further discussion of the ecological composition of 
the Eagle Creeh flora: Ralph W. Chaney. 

New mounts in the Princeton Geological Miiseum: 
Wm. J. Sinclair. 

A study of the entelodonts: Edward L. Troxell. 

A mounted sheleton of Moschops capensis Broom: 
William K. Gregory. 

Small mammals in the Marsh collection: Edward 
L. Troxell. 

A new method of restoration for fossil vertebrates : 
Richard S. Lull. 

The Oligocene Equidm in the Marsh collection of 
Peabody Museum, Yale University: John P. 

BUWALDA. 

The Pawnee creek beds of Colorado: F. B. Loomis. 
Nothrotherium Shastense, a Pleistocene ground 

sloth of North America, with remaD'hs on the 

Megalmiychidce: Chester Stock. 
Tli.e present statiis of the Paleocene: W. D. 

Matthew. 
A mounted sTceleton of Pteranodon: W. D. 

Matthew. 



SCIENCE 



A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of 
Science, publishing the official notices and pro- 
ceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science 

Published every Friday by 

THE SCIENCE PRESS 

LANCASTER. PA. GARRISON, N. Yo 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Entered in the pott-afficc »t Lancuter. Pa., ai tecond clan mattflt 



SCIENCE 

Jr??T .„, Friday, February 13, 1920 single copies, 15 cts 

▼81.. LI, No. 1311 ' ' ASNUAL SnESCEtPTION, 86.00 

B 1 a k i s t o n 



FEB 14 



SCHAEFFER 

The Nose, Paranasal Sinuses Nasolacrimal 
Passageways and Olfactory Organ in Man 

A Genetic Developmental and Anatomico-Physiological 
Consideration 

By J. PARSONS SCHAEFFER, A.M., M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Anatomy and Director of the 
Daniel Baugh Institute of Anatomy, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. Formerly Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy, Cornell University Medical College, and Professor of Anatomy, Yale University 
Medical School. 

204 Illustrations, 18 In Colors. Large 8vo. Cloth, $10.00 Postpaid 

In studying a given region of the body in an extensive series of cadavers one is profoundly im- 
pressed with the ever-recurring departure of the morphology of the part under investigation from 
the conventional or typal description. This is particularly applicable to the gross anatomy of the 
paranasal (accessory) sinuses. 

While there may be a "typical" gross form for regions, organs and structures, it is, strictly 
speaking, not often encountered in nature. The typical is ideal and the region, organ, etc., as re- 
gards shape, size, relations, configuration, etc., very commonly in their actual or real anatomy are 
variants. It is therefore of the greatest importance that the student early recognizes the very com- 
mon and constant anatomic variations that beset the human body. All that the observant student 
need do is to witness the dissection of a series of cadavers to have impressed upon him that there is 
no fixed and unalterable type in very many of the parts of the human body. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, some students never get beyond the belief and thought that every structure and organ and 
region conforms to an arbitrary and fixed normal, and it there is a slight digression from the conven- 
tional text-book description the term "anomaly" is applied. With this erroneous and unfortunate 
belief they go forth into the practice of medicine. The far-reaching and direful effects of such faulty 
conceptions of the anatomy of the human body are so obvious that they need not be discussed here. 
It, of course, goes without saying, that one must primarily have a fundamental understanding of 
the ground plan of the human body ; it cannot be gainsaid that one should be equally cognizant of 
anatomical departures therefrom. 



P. Biakiston's Son & Co. 

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Calendars of the Indians north of Mexico, by I^eona 

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The Effect of Several Types of Irrigation Water on 
the Ph Value and Freezing Point Depression of 
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A. W. Christie 20 

Notes on the Natural History of the Bushy-tailed Wood 

Rats of California, by Joseph Dixon 25 

Geology of a Part of the Santa Ynez River District, 

Santa Barbara County, Cal., by Wm. S. W. Kew .25 

The Marine Algae of the Pacific Coast of North Amer- 
ica, Part I. Myxophyceae, by William A. Set- 
chell and Nathaniel I.yon Gardner 1.50 



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SCIENCE 



FEB 141920 



Friday, Tebeuary 13, 1920 



CONTENTS 
Cooperation in Besearch: De. George Elleky 
Hale 149 

General Chemistry and its Belation to tlie 
Distriiution of Students' Supplies in the 
Laboratory : Professok W. L. Estabrooke. 155 

Herbert Spencer Woods: Professor Lewis 
William Fetzer 159 

Scientific Events : — 
The Lister Memorial Institute in Edinburgh ; 
A Journal of Ecology; Public Lectures of 
the California Academy of Sciences; Deaths 
from Influenza and Pneumonia; Gifts to tlie 
National Besearch Council 160 

University and Educational News 163 

Scientific Notes and Netvs 165 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 

Further History of the Calculus : Professor 
Arthur S. Hathaway 166 

Scientific BooTcs: — 

Beport of tlie Canadian Arctic Expedition, 
1913-18 167 

The American Society of Naturalists: Pro- 
fessor Bradley M. Davis 169 

The American Physical Society: Professor 
Dayton C. Miller 171 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 



COOPERATION IN RESEARCHi 

No one can survey the part played by 
science in the war without reflecting on the 
ultimate influence of the war on science. 
Able investigators have been killed or in- 
capacitated, and with them a host of men who 
might have taken high places in research. 
Sources of revenue have been cut ofl^, and the 
heavy financial burdens permanently imposed 
upon individuals, institutions, and govern- 
ments must tend to reduce the funds available 
for the advancement of science. On the other 
hand, the usefulness of science is appreciated 
as it never has been before, and some newly 
enlightened governments have already recog- 
nized that large appropriations for research 
will bring manifold benefits to the state. 
The leaders of industry have also been quick 
to appreciate the increased returns that re- 
search renders possible, and industrial labora- 
tories are multiplying at an unprecedented 
rate. The death of available investigators, 
and the higher salary scale of the industrial 
world, have seriously affected educational in- 
stitutions, members of whose scientific staffs, 
inadequately paid and tempted by offers of 
powerful instrumental equipment, have been 
drawn into the industries. On the other 
hand, industrial leaders have repeatedly em- 
phasized the fundamental importance of sci- 
entific researches made solely for the advance- 
ment of knowledge, and the necessity of 
basing all great industrial advances on the 
results of such investigations. Thus they 
may be expected to contribute even more 
liberally than before to the development of 
laboratories organized for work of this 
nature. Educational institutions are also 
likely to recognize that science should play 
a larger part in their curriculum, and that 
men skilled in research should be developed 

1 Address given before the Eoyal Canadian In- 
stitute, Toronto, April 9, 1919. 



150 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



in greatly increased numbers. The enlarged 
appreciation of science by the public, the 
demand for investigators in the industries, 
and the attitude of industrial leaders of wide 
vision toward fundamental science, should 
facilitate attempts to secure the added endow- 
ments and equipment required. 

On the whole, the outlook in America seems 
most encouraging. But the great advance in 
science that thus appears to be within reach 
can not be attained without organized effort 
and much hard work. On the one hand, the 
present interest of the public in science must 
be developed and utilized to the full and on 
the other, the spirit of cooperation that played 
so large a part during the war must be applied 
to the lasting advantage of science and re- 
search. Fortunately enough, this spirit has 
not been confined within national boundaries. 
The harmony of purpose and unity of effort 
displayed by the nations of the Entente in 
the prosecution of the war have also drawn 
them more closely together in science and 
research, with consequences that are bound to 
prove fruitful in coming years. 

The Honorable Elihu Root, who combines 
the wide vision of a great statesman with a 
keen appreciation of the importance and 
methods of scientific research, has recently 
expressed himself as follows: 

Science has been arranging, classifying, method- 
izing, simplifying everything except itself. It has 
made possible the tremendous modern development 
■of the power of organization which has so multi- 
plied the effective power of human effort as to 
make the differences from the past seem to be of 
kind rather than of degree. It has organized itself 
very imperfectly. Scientliie men are only recently 
realizing that the principles which apply to suc- 
cess on a large scale in transportation and manu- 
facture and general staff work apply to them, that 
the difference between a mob and an army does 
not depend upon occupation or purpose but upon 
human nature; that the effective power of a great 
number of scientific men may be increased by or- 
ganization just as the effective power of a great 
number of laborers may be increased by military 
discipline. 

The emphasis laid by Mr. Eoot on the im- 
portance of organization in science must not 



be misinterpreted. For many years he has 
been president of the board of trustees of 
tlie Carnegie Institution of Washington, and 
an active member of its executive committee. 
Thus kept in close touch with scientific re- 
search, he is well aware of the vital impor- 
tance of individual initiative and the necessity 
of encouraging the independent efforts of the 
original thinker. Thus he goes on to say: 

This attitude follows naturally from the demand 
of true scientific work for individual concentra- 
tion and isolation. The sequence, however, is not 
necessary or laudable. Your isolated and concen- 
trated scientist must know what has gone before, 
or he will waste his life in doing what has already 
been done, or in repeating past failures. He must 
know something about what his contemporaries are 
trying to do, or he will waste his life in duplieat- 
iug effort. The history of science is so vast and 
contemporary effort is so active that if he under- 
takes to acquire this knowledge by himself alone 
his life is largely wasted in doing that; his initia- 
tive and creative power are gone before he is ready 
to use them. Occasionally a man appears who has 
the instinct to reject the negligible. A very great 
mind goes directly to the decisive fact, the deter- 
mining symptom, and can afford not to burden 
itself with a great mass of unimportant facts; but 
there are few such minds even among those ca- 
pable of real scientific work. All other minds need 
to be guided away from the useless and towards the 
useful. That can be done only by the application 
of scientific method to science itself through the 
purely scientific process of organizing effort. 

It is plain that if we are to have effective 
organization in science, it must be adapted 
to the needs of the individual worker, stimu- 
lating him to larger conceptions, emphasizing 
the value of original effort, and encouraging 
independence of action, while at the same 
time securing the advantages of wide cooper- 
ation and division of labor, reducing unnec- 
essary duplication^ of work and providing the 
means of facilitating research and promoting 
discovery and progress. 

A casual view of the problem of effecting 
such organization of science might lead to 
the conclusion that the aims just enumerated 
are mutually incompatible. It can be shown 

2 Some duplication is frequently desirable. 



Febeuakt 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



151 



by actual examples, however, that this is not 
the case, and that an important advance, in 
harmony with Mr. Root's conception, is en- 
tirely possible. 

It goes without saying that no scheme of 
organization, effected by lesser men, can ever 
duplicate the eiwch-making discoveries of the 
Faradays, the Darwins, the Pasteurs, and the 
Eayleighs, who have worked largely unaided, 
and who will continue to open up the chief 
pathwaj'S of science. Even for such men, 
however, organization can accomplish much, 
not by seeking to plan their researches or con- 
trol their methods, but by securing cooper- 
ation, if and when it is needed, and by render- 
ing unnecessary some of the routine work 
theiy are now forced to perform. 

Let us now turn to some examples of or- 
ganized research, beginning with a familiar 
ease drawn from the field of astronomy, where 
the wide expanse of the heavens and the nat- 
ural limitations of single observers, and even 
of the largest observatories, led long ago to 
cooperative effort. 

In the words of the late Sir David Gill, 
then Astronomer Royal at the Cape of Good 
Hope, the great comet of 1882 showed " an 
astonishing brilliancy as it rose behind the 
mountains on the east of Table Bay, and 
seemed in no way diminished in brightness 
when the sun rose a few minutes afterward. 
It was only necessary to shade the eye from 
direct sunlight with a hand at arm's length, 
to see the comet, with its brilliant white 
nucleus and dense white, sharply bordered tail 
of quite half a degree in length." This extra- 
ordinary phenomenon more brilliant than any 
comet since 1843 marked the beginning of 
celestial photography at the Cape of Good 
Hope. No special photographic telescope was 
available, but Sir David enlisted the aid of 
a local photographer, whose camera, strapped 
to an equatorial telescope, immediately yielded 
pictures of exceptional value. But even more 
striking than the image of the comet itself 
was the dense background of stars simulta- 
neously registered upon these plates. Stellar 
photographs had been taken before, but they 
had shown only a few of the brighter stars, 



and no such demonstration of the boundless 
possibilities of astronomical photography had 
ever been encountered. Always alive to new 
opportunities and keen in the appreciation of 
new methods. Sir David adopted similar 
means for the mapping of more than 450,000 
stars, whose positions were determined through 
the cooperation of Professor Kapteyn, of 
Groningen, who measured their images on the 
photographs. 

Stimulated by this success, the Henry 
brothers soon adapted photographic methods 
for star charting at the Paris Observatory, 
and in 1887 an International Congress, called 
at Sir David's suggestion, met in Paris to 
aiTange for a general survey of the entire 
heavens by photography. Fifty-six delegates 
of seventeen different nationalities resolved 
to construct a photographic chart of the whole 
sky, comprising stars down to the fourteenth 
magnitude, estimated to be twenty millions in 
number. A standard form of photographic 
telescope was adopted for use at eighteen ob- 
servatories scattered over the globe, with re- 
sults which have appeared in many volmnes. 
These contain the measured positions of the 
stars, and are supplemented by heliogravure 
enlargements from the plates, estimated, when 
complete for the entire atlas of the sky, to 
form a pile thirty feet high and two tons in 
weight. 

The great cooperative undertaking just de- 
scribed is one that involves dealing with a 
task that is too large for a single institution, 
and therefore calls for a division of labor 
among a number of participants. It should 
be remembered, however, that a very different 
mode of attacking such a problem may be 
employed. In fact, although the difference 
between the two methods may seem on first 
examination to be slight, it nevertheless in- 
volves a fundamental question of principle, 
so important that it calls for special emphasis 
to any discussion of cooperative research. 

One of the great problems of astronomy is 
the determination of the structure of the side- 
real universe. Its complete solution would 
involve countless observations. Nevertheless, 
Professor Kapteyn, the eminent Dutch astron- 



152 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



omer, resolved many years ago to make a 
serious effort to deal with the question. In 
order to do so, as he had no telescope or other 
observational means of his own, he enlisted 
the cooperation of astronomers scattered over 
the whole world. 

In organizing his attack, he recognized that 
the inclusion of only the brighter stars, or 
even of all those contained in the Interna- 
tional Chart of the Heavens, would not nearly 
suffice for his purpose. He must penetrate as 
far as possible into the depths of space, and 
therefore hundreds of millions of stars are of 
direct importance in his studies. Moreover, 
it is evident that if he were to confine his 
attention to some limited region of the sky, 
he could form no conclusions regarding the 
distribution of stars in other directions in 
space or such common motions as might be 
shown, for example, by immense streams of 
stars circling about the center of the visible 
universe. 

As the measurement of the positions, the 
motions, the brightness, and the distance of 
all the stars within the reach of the most 
powerful telescopes would be a truly Utopian 
task. Professor Kapteyn wisely limited his 
efforts, and at the same time provided a 
means of obtaining the uniformly distributed 
observations essential to the discussion of his 
great problem. His simple plan was to divide 
the entire sky into a series of 206 selected 
areas, thus providing sample regions, uni- 
formly spaced and regularly distributed over 
the entire sphere. Conclusions based upon 
the observation of stars in these areas are 
almost as reliable, so far as large general 
questions of structure and motion are con- 
cerned, as though data were available for 
all the stars of the visible sidereal universe. 

As already remarked. Professor Kapteyn de- 
pends entirely upon the volunteer eilorts of 
cooperating astronomers in various parts of 
the world. One of these astronomers assumes 
such a task as the determination of the bright- 
ness of the stars, of a certain range of magni- 
tude, in the selected areas. Another deals 
with their positions and motions, another with 
their velocities measured with the spectro- 



scope, etc. Each observer is able to take a 
large number of selected areas, covering so 
much of the sky that he may separately dis- 
cuss the bearing of his results on some im- 
portant problem, such as the distribution of 
the stars of each magnitude with reference to 
the plane of the Galaxy, the motions in space 
of stars of different spectral types, the velocity 
and direction of the sun's motion in space, the 
dependence of a star's velocity upon its mass. 
Moreover, each observer is free to use his 
utmost ingenuity in devising and applying 
new methods and instruments, in increasing 
the accuracy of his measures, and in adopting 
improved means of reducing and discussing 
his observations. He also enjoys the advan- 
tage of observing stars for which many data, 
necessary for his own purposes, have been ob- 
tained by other members of the cooperating 
group. Outside the selected areas, such data 
are usually lacking, because so small a pro- 
portion (;f the total number of stars has been 
accurately observed. 

In physics, as well as in astronomy, there 
are innumerable opportunities for cooperative 
research. A good illustration is afforded by 
the determination of the exact wave-lengths 
of lines in the spectra of various elements, 
for use as standards in measuring the relative 
positions of lines in the spectra of celestial 
and terrestrial light-sources. This work was 
initiated in 1904 by the International Union 
for Cooperation in Solar Research, and is now 
being continued by the International Astron- 
omical Union. The spectrum of iron con- 
tains thousands of lines, many of which are 
well adapted for use as standards. The work 
of determining their positions was undertaken 
by the members of an international committee, 
in accordance with certain specifications 
formulated by the Solar Union. But those 
who took part in the investigation were not 
bound by any rigid rule. On the contrary, 
they were encouraged to make every possible 
innovation in the manner of attack, in order 
that obscure sources of error might be dis- 
covered and the highest possible accuracy in 
the final results attained. The outcome dem- 
onstrates most conclusively that organized 



Pebruart 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



153 



effort and freedom of initiatiye are by no 
means incompatible. Important instrumental 
improvements of many kinds were effected, 
sources of error previously unsuspected were 
brought to light, and means of eliminating 
them were devised. A by-product of the in- 
vestigation, of great fundamental interest, was 
the discovery that the peculiar displacements 
of certain lines in the spectrum of the electric 
arc, which are gTeatest near the negative pole, 
are due to the influence of the electric field. 
These displacements, previously unsuspected, 
are sufficient to render such lines wholly mi- 
suitable for use as standards unless rigorous 
precautions are observed. The international 
committee, in the light of the new information 
thus rendered available, will now have no diffi- 
culty in completing its task of determining 
the positions of standard lines with an ac- 
curacy formerly unattainable. 

The variation of latitude is another subject 
in which international cooperation has yielded 
important results. It was found some years 
ago by astronomical observations that the 
earth's axis does not maintain a fixed direc- 
tion iiL space, but moves in such a way as to 
cause the earth's pole to describe a small but 
complicated curve around a mean position. 
The change in the direction of the axis is so 
slight, however, that the most accurate obser- 
vations made simultaneously at different 
points on the earth, are required to reveal it. 
These were undertaken at several stations 
widely distributed in longitude, in Italy, 
Japan, and the United States. A new photo- 
graphic method has recently been devised 
which will probably render unnecessary the 
use of more than two stations in future work. 

An extensive cooperative investigation 
planned by the Division of Geology and 
Geography of the National Research Council 
involves the joint effort of geologists and 
chemists in the study of sediments and sedi- 
mentary deposits. This is of great impor- 
tance in connection with many aspects of geo- 
logical history, and also because of its bear- 
ing on economic problems, such as the origin 
and identification of deposits or accumulations 
of coal, oil, gas, phosphates, sodiimi nitrate, 
clay, iron, manganese, etc. 



The essential requirements are sufficient in- 
formation on (1) modern sediments and 
deposits and (2) changes in sediments after 
deposition and the causes of such changes. 

In the study of sediments now in process 
of formation it is important to learn the 
mechanical state and shapes of particles of 
different sizes, their mineralogical and chem- 
ical composition, the arrangement of the 
material composing the deposit, the source of 
the material, the transporting agencies, and 
the cause of precipitation. Modern deposits 
must be studied in the scores of forms in 
which they are laid down : in deserts and arid 
regions and in humid climates, in the beds of 
great lakes, in the track of glaciers, and in 
marine beds off the coast, in deltas and bays, 
or on submarine plateaus, in lagoons, and on 
reefs in subtropical and tropical waters. 

In much of this work chemical investiga- 
tions are essential, especially on the composi- 
tion of the waters flowing into the ocean, 
yielding data on the chemical degradation of 
the continent and the amount of soluble mate- 
rial discharged into the sea. 

In undertaking this extensive investigation, 
which would include the studies just cited and 
others on ancient deposits, the following pro- 
cedure is proposed: (1) To make a more com- 
plete survey than has yet been made of the 
investigations that are at present under way 
in the United States and Canada. (2) To pre- 
pare, in the light of present geological knowl- 
edge, a program for the investigations needed 
to supply an adequate basis for interpreting 
sediments. As knowledge advances, the pro- 
gram will have to be modifled. (3) To can- 
vass the field for existing agencies that are 
suitable in prosecuting such investigations. 
(4) To assign problems to those institutions 
or individuals prepared properly to prosecute 
researches of the kind needed. (5) To pro- 
vide additional ag-encies for the study of prob- 
lems of sedimentation and thereby make 
possible investigations for which there are 
either no provisions or only inadequate pro- 
visions at present. 

It is easy to see how an investigator 
choosing to deal with some aspect of this 
large general problem would be assisted by in- 



154 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



formation regarding related work planned or 
in progress, and how readily, as a member of 
the group, he could render his own researches 
more widely useful and significant. 

Another interesting piece of cooperative re- 
search, which involves the joint activities of 
geographers, physicists, zoologists, and prac- 
tical fishermen, is centered largely at the 
Marine Biological Laboratory at La Jolla, 
California. Systematic measurements of the 
temperature of the Pacific near the coast 
show occasional upwelling of cold water. 
Simultaneous biological studies reveal a 
change in the distribution of microscopic 
organisms with the temperature of the water. 
This has an immediate practical bearing, be- 
cause the distribution of the organisms is a 
dominant factor in the distribution of certain 
food fishes. The source of the temperature 
changes and their influence on meteorological 
phenomena, are other interesting aspects of 
this work. 

In the field of engineering, the possibilities 
of cooperative research are unlimited. The 
fatigue phenomena of metals have been chosen 
by the Engineering Division of the National 
Research Council, acting in conjunction with 
the Engineering Foimdation, as the subject 
of one of many cooperative investigations. 
Metals and alloys which are subjected to long- 
repeated stresses frequently break down, espe- 
cially in aircraft, where the weight of the 
parts must be reduced to a minimum. The 
elastic limit and, to a lesser degree, the ulti- 
mate strength of steel can be raised by work- 
ing it cold, provided that a period of rest 
ensues after cold- working. The tests indicate, 
however, that increased static strength due to 
cold working does not necessarily indicate in- 
creased resistance to fatigue under repeated 
stress. In the case of cold- stretched steel, for 
low stresses the fatigue strength is actually 
less than for the same steel before stretching. 

These phenomena, and others that illustrate 
the complexity of this problem, afford abun- 
dant opportunity for further research. The 
membership of the committee includes repre- 
sentatives of educational institutions, the Bu- 
reavT of Standards, and several large industrial 



establishments. The work was divided among 
the members, two dealing with its metallo- 
graphic features, two with machines for test- 
ing, two with mechanics of the materials in- 
volved, and one with a survey of the subject 
from the standpoint of the steel manufacturer. 
The results already obtained promise much for 
the future success of this undertaking. 

Scores of other illustrations of effective 
cooperation in research might be given, espe- 
cially in astronomy, where each of the 32 
committees of the International Astronomical 
Union is constituted for the purpose of organ- 
izing cooperative investigations. In spite of 
the length of this list of committees, it can 
not be said that astronomy oifers any unique 
possibilities of joint action. The division of 
the sky among widely separated observers is 
only a single means of cooperation, which may 
be paralleled in geology, paleontology, geog- 
raphy, botany, zoology, meteorology, geodesy, 
terrestrial magnetism and other branches of 
geophysics, and in many other departments 
of science. Most of the larger problems of 
physics and chemistry, though open to study 
in any laboratory, could be attacked to advan- 
tage by cooperating groups. In fact, it may be 
doubted whether research in any field of 
science or its applications would not benefit 
greatly by some form of cooperative attack. 

As for the fear of central control, and of in- 
terference with personal liberty and individual 
initiative, which has been entertained by some 
men of science, it certainly is not warranted 
by the facts. Cooperative research should 
always be purely voluntary, and the develop- 
ment of improved methods of observation and 
novel modes of procedure, not foreseen in 
preparing the original scheme, should invari- 
ably be encouraged. They may occasionally 
upset some adopted plan of action, but if the 
cooperating investigators are following the 
wrong path, or neglecting easily available 
means of improving their resiilts, the sooner 
this is discovered the better for all concerned. 

Canada and the United States, enjoying 
similar natural advantages, and lying in such 
close proximity as to permit the greatest free- 
dom of intercourse, are most favorably situ- 



February 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



155 



ated to profit by cooperation in research. In 
both countries national movements for the 
promotion of research are in progress and im- 
portant advances are being made. The ex- 
ample set by the Canadian government in 
establishing the Honorary Advisory Council 
for Scientific and Industrial Research and 
that of the Royal Canadian Institute in 
organizing this series of addresses on research 
and its applications, have stimulated and en- 
couraged us in the United States. The 
friendly bonds that have joined the two 
countries in the past have been greatly 
strengthened by the war, and I am sure that 
our men of science will welcome every oppor- 
tunity to cooperate with yours in common 
efforts to advance science and research. 

George Elleby Hale 



GENERAL CHEMISTRY AND ITS RELA- 
TION TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF 
STUDENTS' SUPPLIES IN THE 
LABORATORY 

The object of the general chemistry labora- 
tory is, I take it, to teach chemistry. Its 
mechanical aspect is clearly a business on a 
par with any other undertaking that has a 
special object in view. True, the methods 
will differ somewhat from other endeavors, 
but the main idea of striving " to put across " 
a definite proposition puts the laboratory side 
of teaching chemistry on a straight business 
basis, and subject to the ordinary rules of 
business. Now a business firm no matter 
what the character of its work, knows that if 
they are to compete with others, they must 
avail themselves of every method, scheme or 
device that will cheapen production, facilitate 
transportation, add to the efficiency of their 
employees, or in any other way make better 
goods at a lower price than the competing 
firm. They are ever on the watch for a new 
idea and many dollars' worth of machinery 
are often scrapped to give place to a newer 
and more efficient machine. Many firms em- 
ploy efficiency experts constantly seeking to 
improve or save anywhere and everywhere 
throughout the works. iN'o progressive firm 
ever stands still, but is ever changing its 
methods for better ones. This does not seem 



to be true always in the conducting of a 
chemical laboratory. What "Bunsen did" 
many years ago is good enough now, and the 
old song, " the old time religion is good 
enough for me " seems to apply very appro- 
priately to the management of many labora- 
tories. 

Such a state of affairs should not be, and 
these laboratories with unchanging methods 
will go to the wall as surely as will a busi- 
ness house run on similar ideas. 

A recent questionnaire sent to a large 
number of institutions in all parts of this 
country reveals the fact that general chem- 
istry is regarded as the most important and 
vital course in the department. The grade of 
work done in all other eoui-ses is determined 
by the nature of this course. If it is poorly 
given, all other courses are built on a poor 
foundation, and a poorly trained chemist is 
the result. The importance of this course is 
further brought out by this questionnaire, 
when we note that the number of laboratory 
hours in general chemistry varies from six to 
eight per week, for one year. In some cases 
this is in addition to a year of physics and 
chemistry in the high school. This, in many 
cases means that a student before he can take 
qualitative analysis in college has had in the 
high school one year of chemistry of say five 
hours a week for forty weeks, which makes a 
total of two hundred hours. In college, he 
has two laboratory afternoons of three hours 
each and three or four recitation hours a week 
for a year of thirty weeks, which amounts to 
2Y0 hours as a minimum. In other words, 
the student has had 200 hours in high school 
and 200 hours in college, or a total of 470 
hours, exclusive of all home study both in 
high school and college. A few years ago 
these same institutions gave only five hours a 
week to general chemistry, but the growth of 
chemistry in this country has demanded a 
correspondingly increased preparation of stu- 
dents (on the part of institutions) and a very 
generous response has been given all over 
America. This increased preparation has been 
made possible by putting into the students 
earlier and basic training the best the institu- 



156 



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[N. 8. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



tion had, in quality of instruction, equipment, 
largely increased laboratory time, and a uni- 
versal recognition that the important course 
to the department, as a whole, is general 
chemistry. It might be said, and some pro- 
gressive administrators and teachers do say, 
that a chemistry department can be rated in 
terms of its general chemistry. We can al- 
most say that there is no department of chem- 
istry in this country that can be classed as a 
great or strong department whose general 
chemistry is not the best course that the de- 
partment can secure by having experienced 
teachers to handle the work, having excellent 
equipment, modern laboratories, and a suffi- 
cient number of laboratory hours to do the 
work required. Unfortunately some few large 
institutions still have not changed their gen- 
eral chemistry to meet the new conditions. 
One has only 4J hours a week for one year 
without a year of high school chemistry as a 
prerequisite; another has had its hours re- 
duced by the board of trustees from five hours 
a week for a year to four (without a year of 
high-school chemistry as a prerequisite) ; this 
despite the strong protest of the administra- 
tive head and the entire teaching stafE. This 
is certainly a mistake, a short-sighted policy, 
and a backward step by the board. Why 
should a body of business men who are not 
experts in this line, determine the policy of a 
department and neglect the advice of those 
who do know and have the good of the depart- 
ment at heart? 

The greatest confirmatory proof of the 
statement made that a department of chem- 
istry is great in proportion to the quality of 
its general chemistry is found by making a 
list of those institutions, which rank highest 
in this country from the point of view of 
■ research and of the training of its students, 
and comparing the effort expended in making 
general chemistry the very best. It will be 
found that the institutions of the highest 
rank have a first class course in general chem- 
istry with six hours a week or more in lab- 
oratory work for one year. Those who do not 
take this ever-growing and modern point of 
view will surely become decadent departments. 

The ever-growing importance of chemistry 



will demand an ever increasing efficiency. I 
predict that the time is not far distant when 
an investigation carried on by such an organ- 
ization as the Carnegie Foundation similar 
to that done in the medical schools'- of this 
country and Canada, will be instituted, and a 
result similar to that of this report on low 
grade medical schools, viz., an elimination of 
those institutions who do not do so good 
chemistry work. When such a report is pub- 
lished, those low grade institutions will cease 
to teach chemistry, because the students, 
knowing the true state of affairs will either 
not elect chemistry, or if interested, will go 
elsewhere where the subject is properly taught. 

Before taking up the working of the 
" Freas System "^ in the general chemistry 
laboratory, we wish to review briefly the exist- 
ing methods now in use. 

First, the old side-shelf reagent system 
which is very common, in fact now exists in 
most college laboratories in this country. 
Nothing can be said in favor of this system, 
as it has no virtues, and possesses innumerable 
evils. It is wasteful, expensive, tmtidy; al- 
most impossible to prevent contamination of 
chemicals and is one of the main sources for 
wasting students' time and encouraging petty 
theft. In a chemical laboratory of one of the 
oldest universities in this coimtry, where the 
side-shelf reagent scheme is used, a student 
needs one particular chemical five times 
during the course. For this one chemical 
alone he has to walk five hundred feet during 
the term. One hundred and forty chemicals 
are used, and it can readily be seen that a 
large amount of time will be wasted if he 
makes but one trip for each chemical. One 
trip to the side shelf for these chemicals 
means a walk of thirteen miles, while a 
double trip, which is most common, would 
amount to a twenty-six mile walk or equal to 
two or more laboratory weeks work. The 
director of this department told me that while 

1 Published in a report to the Carnegie Founda- 
tion on Medical Education in the United States 
and Canada by Abraham Flexner, Bulletin Num- 
ber 4, 1910. 

2 Science, May 30, 1919. 



February 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



157 



taking these laboratory walks to the side 
shelf the student was deep in chemical 
thought and therefore it was a good thing. 
My observation of students in this labora- 
tory and elsewhere leads me to believe that 
this director seldom enters the chemical lab- 
oratory, and therefore does not know the true 
state of affairs, nevertheless he regards him- 
self eminently qualified to pass on such 
matters. 

One of the most serious objections to this 
system is not cost, or waste of students' 
time, but the slovenly habits which a student 
of a necessity acquires. 

In going to a 2-kilogram bottle of potassium 
iodide, for example, to get 2 grams of that 
salt the neat and quantitative idea of general 
chemistry is absolutely lost, although he may 
be assigned to some general quantitative ex- 
periments during the course. Thus, the 
orderly habits which are so necessary to a 
good chemist, are not formed when they 
should be formed, viz., during the early days 
of his chemical training. 

I can not pass without referring to a com- 
mon sight a few years ago in another large 
laboratory in this country. Large bottles of 
chemicals were put on side tables for student 
use. A cheap porcelain pan balance and a 
box of weights stood nearby. Suppose a stu- 
dent needs 5 grams of potassium bromide, 
should it be a bit lumpy, a rusty ring stand 
served to break up the liamps. A handiul of 
'the expensive chemical was then placed on 
one pan of the scale and the old and corroded 
5 gram weight on the other pan. The stu- 
dent brushed the excess chemical from the 
pan to the floor till he had remaining ap- 
proximately 5 grams. In the morning I have 
seen the cleaners sweep up dust pan after 
dust pan full of valuable chemicals from the 
floor near this side table. There was seldom 
any supervision on the part of the instructor 
in charge when the students were getting 
their chemicals or conditions would probably 
not have been so bad. This institution of 
course was not famous for turning out great 
chemists and a sudden change in administra- 
tion alone would save its life. To-day this 



same laboratory is one of the most up-to-date 
and progressive laboratories in this country. 
Few of the former teaching staff now remain, 
as they were too firmly fixed in the old ways 
to make reform possible. 

The next step in the evolution of the hand- 
ling of students' chemicals and supplies was 
to give him a kit of apparatus and place on 
his bench in the laboratory all the chemicals 
needed for the day or week. If two men 
worked on opposite sides of a bench this one 
set was sufficient for them both, e. g., in a 
laboratory which holds 28 students at a time 
14 such kits are used. This was a very great 
advance over the side-shelf reagent plan, as 
it eliminated a great deal of walking on the 
part of the student, thus enabling him to do' 
much more work. One institution made this; 
change and at the same time enormously in- 
creased the amount of assigned laboratory 
work per afternoon. While this scheme is a 
great improvement, it has still serious draw- 
backs. Chemicals are still bound to be mixed 
up and contaminated no matter how watch- 
ful the instructor maj- be. Certain chemicals 
are always running short, as some student 
will take more than his share even though a 
cheap balance is provided for every two men, 
so that weighing out approximate amounts is 
an easy and rapid matter. 

Theft of chemicals is still possible, as no 
instructor can watch 25 students all at one 
time, and even if he could do so, he can not 
determine whether chemicals placed in a test 
tube were for laboratory or home use; this 
method while cheaper than the first is still 
expensive, because the students are bound to 
waste chemicals when they are handy and do 
not cost them anything ; the bottles are always 
getting mixed up and out of place; and finally 
it entails enormous amount of work on the 
stock system or for the instructor, out of 
laboratory hours, as well as a certain amount 
of the same kind of stock work during the 
laboratory period. 

In one institution^ where this plan has been 
in operation for the past five years a special 

3 Professor C. D. Carpenter 's laboratory at 
Teachers ' College, Columbia University. 



158 



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[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



staff of women is employed to make up sets 
of common chemicals, place them on the stu- 
dents' desks and on completion of this set of 
experiments, refill the bottles and place them 
away for the next time needed. One equip- 
ping a week generally suffices for a laboratory 
with several fillings of certain bottles. This 
plan relieves the instructor of stock duties, 
but is still open to the objections named 
above. 

In another large institution with nearly 
1,000 students in general chemistry, the 
change was made from the side-shelf plan to 
the method of supplying a student chemicals 
at his bench. Here again the amount of lab- 
oratory work was nearly doubled per after- 
noon, because of the more efficient handling 
of supplies and a corresponding saving of 
students' time. Unfortunately in this insti- 
tution no provision was made for the putting 
up of sets of chemicals by the stock division 
and the entire teaching staff in this division 
became stock keepers and more energy was 
expended in filling bottles than in giving in- 
struction. This overload was at once ob- 
served in a decreased efficiency of work on the 
part of the instructor, and strenuous appeals 
have been made to the administrative head to 
relieve a most intolerable condition. Much 
cheaper and less highly trained people can 
and should be secured to fill bottles and do 
this kind of work, and a director of a chem- 
istry department is short-sighted indeed who 
insists on his teaching staff spending most of 
their time doing the work of a ten-dollar-a- 
week boy. It can be clearly seen that the 
efforts to improve the work in general chem- 
istry in this particular institution are not 
appreciated, or conditions wiU be improved at 
once and the teacher given a chance to per- 
fect himself in his chosen profession and give 
the students the benefit of his experience. 
The failure of an executive to encourage and 
aid progressive teachers in the development of 
new ideas along this line is not only a very 
great injury to the teacher concerned, and to 
the institution as well, but is professional 
suicide to the administrator himself. It has 
been shown that the second scheme is an im- 
provement over the first, but is still open to 



objections, and while it possesses consider- 
able merit, it has many fatal defects. 

The third plan, viz., the Freas System in 
the general chemistry laboratory has all the 
virtues of the second plan and none of its 
defects. In fact, when this plan is properly 
installed and carried out, it leaves little to be 
desired for both student and instructor. 

The plan in brief is to give the student on 
his first day all the apparatus and chemicals 
he will need for that course. The student 
after the payment of all fees and deposits 
reports to his instructor and is assigned in 
writing to a bench in the laboratory. He 
takes this assignment to the stock room and 
receives his apparatus and chemicals in heavy 
cardboard or metal boxes and takes them to 
his bench. This kit he arranges in his desk 
as stated in his directions If he has properly 
arranged his material he can quickly find 
any special chemical or piece of apparatus 
and is ready for work within two hoiu-s of 
starting. He puts his own padlock on his 
bench and he alone is responsible for its con- 
tents till his course is completed at the end 
of the term. He has received just enough of 
each chemical to perform the experiment plus 
a slight excess to offset any possible unavoid 
able accident. Should he be careless and not 
perform his experiment properly he must go 
to the store room and sign for more chemicals 
which of course are charged to his account, 
and later deducted from his advance breakage 
and " excess chemicals " deposit. Eight here 
it should be stated for clearness that the stu- 
dent is charged for all apparatus and chem- 
icals, but is given as a free allowance the 
average value of the chemicals used by his 
class. If he has a modern bench, with a 
hod in front of him, all walking about has 
been eliminated, and the amount of labora- 
tory work that he can do per afternoon can 
be nearly tripled over that possible under the 
side-shelf reagent scheme. 

Contamination of chemicals is impossible 
under this plan, as each container is plainly 
labelled and is under the personal care of the 
student interested. 

The factor of expense has been reduced to 
the minimum, as there can be no waste from 



February 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



159 



the department's point of view and the stu- 
dent has received as a free allowance, suffi- 
cient chemicals for his needs, providing he is 
the average student and exercises moderate 
care. The possibility of theft is withdrawn 
absolutely, as the kit belongs to the student, 
to do with as he wishes, and no student will 
or can steal his own things. The prices on 
his list are selected from the most recent 
catalogue of the largest apparatus house in 
his vicinity, so he has no temptation to take 
things home because he saves by so doing. 
In fact in many cases an apparatus house 
wUl sell him things somewhat cheaper. The- 
oretically the student can if he wishes get all 
his kit elsewhere, and this is encouraged, as 
it will save the department the trouble of 
furnishing it, but the student would much 
rather take the department kit which is all 
ready made up and easy to procure, and is 
Just exactly what he needs in his course. 

This system takes out of the hands of the 
teaching staff all cares in regard to apparatus 
and chemicals, as this side of the work is 
handled by a trained body of men and women 
who soon learn to do the bottling of chem- 
icals and the assembling of the same into kits, 
with the greatest speed and accuracy. In 
rush times, student help makes possible the 
doing of a great deal of work in a short time 
and is a benefit to both the department and 
the student. 

The Freas System is just as helpful and as 
easily installed in a high school as in a tech- 
nical school, college or university laboratory. 

Of course each student must have the 
average size bench, viz., about 8,000 cubic 
inches, in order to hold this kit. Many lab- 
oratories give the student more space than 
this, but if one takes the measurement of a 
student bench in high schools and colleges 
all over this country, the figure 8,000 cubic 
inches is about the average. Unfortunately 
in a few good institutions circumstances over 
which the departmental authorities had no 
control, forced a reduction of students' bench 
space. More students were crowded into the 
laboratories than the benches were able to ac- 
commodate, and it seemed at that time wise 
to begin to reduce the size of the student 



bench. In one case this went on until a stu- 
dent finally had but one drawer of about 400 
cubic inches. In such a space only the most 
meager equipment can be placed, and the stu- 
dent of course suffers through lack of appara- 
tus and an enforced walking to the storeroom 
and back for every little thing he may need. 
The pendulum has started to swing back, and 
I have no doubt that before long this depart- 
ment will restore the normal 8,000 cubic 
inches. 

Some may say that the cost of installing 
this system is prohibitive. This is not so, as 
can be shown by actual figures in institutions 
using it. Others may wish to know where 
this scheme has been tried out for a sxifficient 
length of time as to insure it being out of the 
experimental stage. The department of chem- 
istry of Columbia University in New York 
City has been using this system for the past 
eight years with an ever-increasing satisfac- 
tion to all concerned, in all divisions of the 
department. 

There is no question but that the Freas 
System is the cheapest, everything considered, 
most efiicient, and up-to-date method of hand- 
ling students' supplies yet devised. If a 
chemical department wishes quality of work 
above everything else, then this system will 
be an enormous aid to both student and in- 
structor; but if quantity is the object to be 
obtained, then it does not matter so much, as 
quality of work is probably given but little 
thought. If a department must handle large 
numbers of students and wishes quality of 
work as well, then there is no question but 
that the quicker the authorities investigate 
the Freas System the better. No unpreju- 
diced man can see this system in operation 
without feeling that he wiU not be satisfied 
till it is as speedily as possible installed in his 
own department. 

w. l. estabrooke 

Department op Chemistet, 
College of the City or New York 



HERBERT SPENCER WOODS 

Heebert Spencer Woods, assistant professor 
in the department of physiology, pharmacol- 



160 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



og-y and biocliemistry, died on January 4, 
1920, in Dallas, Texas, following an operation. 

Professor Woods was bom and raised a 
Missourian and descended from Virginia and 
Kentucky stock. 

He received the A.B. and A.M. degrees from 
tlie University of Missouri. While pursuing 
■work for the Master's degree he came under 
the influence of the late Waldemar Koch with 
whom he conducted fundamental research on 
the distribution of the lecithins. 

Later work and study were had at the Uni- 
versities of Illinois, Wisconsin, and Cali- 
fornia and at the Ohio Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. His earliest teaching experi- 
ences were enjoyed at the Universities of Illi- 
nois and Wisconsin and later on in a high 
school of California. 

Professor Woods's first teaching in Texas 
was at the Texas Christian University, at 
Fort Worth, and a little later at the Grubbs 
Vocational College, an institution connected 
with the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege of Texas. 

Those who gained an intimate acquaintance 
with Professor Woods found him to be a man 
possessed of extraordinary ability. His habits 
were simple and abstemious, his temperament 
sensitive and impetuous, very often not san- 
guine and serene enough for steady happiness. 

As a man of science he was essentially 
clean, candid and a devout lover and seeker 
of the truth. 

When he died he was thirty-six years of 
age, a period in life when most begin to live 
in enjoyment of the progression of science. 
He was a fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. 

Lewis William Fetzer 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

THE LISTER MEMORIAL INSTITUTE IN 
EDINBURGH 

As has been noted in Science, the project 
originated before the war, for the establishment 
in Edinburgh of a permanent memorial to the 
late Lord Lister, has been revived. The Brit- 
ish Medical Journal states that the University 



of Edinburgh, the Royal College of Physicians 
and the Royal College of Surgeons of Edin- 
burgh have come to the conclusion that the 
most suitable form for such a memorial will be 
an institute in which the iScientific investiga- 
tion of disease in any of its forms can be 
undertaken, and in which the principal sci- 
ences concerned can be adequately taught. It 
was in Edinburgh that Lister elaborated and 
consolidated his system, and it is a^ppropriate 
that the scientific spirit which animated him 
and the methods of research he developed 
should be commemorated and continued in that 
city. Lister's work in the wards of the Royal 
Infirmary would have 'been fruitless — ^could not 
indeed have been carried out — had he not first 
tested his theories in the laboratory. It was in 
and through research ithat his system of treat- 
ment came to fruition. Research was the key- 
note of his work, and it is to research and the 
teaching of the results of research that the 
proposed memorial is to be dedicated. The 
need for such a centralized teaching and re- 
search institute in Edinburgh, it is said, is 
pressing. At the present time the burden of 
such work is borne by the university depart- 
ment of pathology and the laboratory of the 
Royal College of Physicians. Of these, the 
former, built and equipped thirty-five years 
ago, is now inadequate, and the resources of 
the latter, particularly as regards the accom- 
modation of the workers, are entirely insuffi- 
cient, even for present needs. There is as yet 
no permanent memorial to Lister in Edinburgh, 
and it is felt that the rapid development of 
(pathology, of bacteriology, of clinical pathol- 
ogy, of pathological chemistry, and of other 
cognate branches of knowledge has widened 
tlie field to such an extent as to render it nec- 
essary that the building erected to his memory 
shall be modern in design and equipment, and 
sufficiently large to house all the departments 
enumerated. The proposed new institute will 
be managed by a board on which the univer- 
sity and the two Royal Colleges will be repre- 
sented. 

A conumittee has been formed to make an 
appeal for £250,000 to pay for the site, to erect 



Februaby 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



161 



and equip the necessary buildings, and to pro- 
vide for maintenance, apart from remunera- 
tion to research workers. A site, described as 
extensive and extremely suitable, has been se- 
cured close to the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary 
and the medical school of the university at a 
cost of over £50,000. The president of the 
committee is the Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, 
M.P., chancellor of the university, and vice- 
presidents are the Duke of Atholl, the Earl of 
Rosebery, Earl Beatty, Lord Glenconner, Lord 
Leverhulme, and Sir J. Lome MacLeod. An 
appeail has been issued, signed by Sir J. A. 
Ewing, principal of the university, Sir R. W. 
Philip, president of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians of Edinburgh, and George Mackay, pres- 
ident of the Royal College of Surgeons of 
Edinburgh. The university has given £10,000, 
the college of physicians £10,000, and the col- 
lege of surgeons £5,000. 

A JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 

Cooperation in science doubles the value of 
each man's knowledge and efforts. The Eco- 
logical Society of America, comprising zool- 
ogists, botanists, foresters, agricultural in- 
vestigators, climatologists and geographers, is 
a link in the cooperative chain which will 
bind the natural sciences together. The 
society has long felt the need of having its 
own journal, and at its St. Louis meeting 
last December voted to start a serial publica- 
tion to present original papers of an ecological 
character. 

The enterprise is made possible by the 
generous action of the owners of Plant World, 
who are giving this magazine to the Ecolog- 
ical Society to continue as its official organ. 
The new serial will begin as an illustrated 
quarterly of about 200 to 300 pages per year, 
known as Ecology. The Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden is undertaking the publication of this 
journal in cooperation with the Ecological 
Society under an agreement substantially like 
that under which the American Journal of 
Botany is now being published. The Plant 
World will complete the present volume, num- 



ber 22, and Ecology will begin with the num- 
ber for March, 1920. Barrington Moore, now 
serving his second term as president of the 
Ecological Society, has been elected editor-in- 
chief. 

PUBLIC LECTURES OF THE CALIFORNIA 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The California Academy of Sciences, under 
the direction of Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, 
maintains a Sunday afternoon lecture course 
devoted to popular science topics in its Mu- 
seum in Golden Gate Park. This course is 
steadily gaining in popularity and serves a 
useful purpose in bringing into closer relations 
the research man and the public. The lec- 
turers are largely drawn from the research de- 
partments of the University of California and 
Stanford University. Eollowing is the sched- 
ule for Eeibruary and March: 

February 1. "The ocean as an abode of life." 
Dr. W. K. Fisher, director of the Hopkins Marine 
Station of Stanford University. 

February 7. "Life of the deep sea." J. O. 
Snyder, associate professor of zoology, Stanford 
University. Illustrated. 

February 15. "The ocean meadows, or the 
microscopic life of the open sea. ' ' Dr. C. A. Ko- 
foid, professor of zoology, University of California. 
Illustrated. 

February 22. "Fishes of the California coast." 
E. C. Starks, assistant professor of zoology, Stan- 
ford University. Illustrated. 

February 29. ' ' Marine mammals. ' ' Dr. Harold 
Heath, professor of zoology, Stanford University. 
Illustrated. 

March 7. ' ' The fur seals of the Pribilof Is- 
lands. ' ' Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, director of 
the Museum, California Academy of Sciences. Il- 
lustrated. 

March 14. ' ' Life between tides. ' ' Dr. W. K. 
Fisher, director of the Hopkins Marine Station of 
Stanford University. Illustrated. 

March 21. "Oceans of the Past." Dr. J. P. 
Smith, professor of paleontology, Stanford Uni- 
versity. 

March 28. "Systematic and economic phases of 
California marine algffi. ' ' Dr. N. L. Gardner, as- 
sistant professor of botany, University of Cali- 
fornia. 



162 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



DEATHS FROM INFLUENZA AND PNEUMONIA 

The Bureau of the Census has issued a 
bulletin containing records of deaths in larger 
cities from influenza and pneumonia which 
are as follows: 



oil of the ISTational Academy of Sciences on 
June 24, 1919, which records gifts for the sup- 
port of the council from the Carnegie Corpo- 
ration and the Rockefeller Foundation. 
The president of the l*I"ational Academy of 





Influenza, Week Ending January 


Pneumonia 


, Week Ending January 




3 


10 


17 


24 


31 


3 


10 


17 


24 


31 




2 

1 

2 



6 
3 
2 




1 









1 
1 
1 




1 

5 
6 


2 
1 

1 


2 


1 

2 




1 




1 



1 


13 
2 
2 
3 

1 


2 


1 




1 

2 

3 

3 
13 


2 





2 

1 



1 






1 




21 
1 
1 






2 
2 



1 

3 
3 



13 
2 
1 
5 
2 



1 



6 

1 


2 






2 
2 
2 

200 
1 
4 

5 
1 


1 
5 
45 
1 



11 
2 
2 
4 
1 
4 
108 
3 
1 
3 
5 

1 

1 
6 

12 
15 
1 

1 
2 
28 



3 
1 

14 
4 

25 

8 

2 

586 

1 

16 
5 

10 

19 


73 
8 
2 

1 

1 

27 

46 

2 

14 

8 

9 

557 

12 

12 

16 

11 

2 

8 

9 

77 

52 

27 



1 

8 

7 

77 

4 


4 

6 
29 

9 

24 
13 

4 
92 
15 
26 

5 

15 
2 
3 
3 
12 
12 
18 
9 
3 

14 

14 

19 

4 

15 

10 

13 

189 

7 

5 

62 

54 

4 

5 

6 

8 

45 

7 

19 

7 



6 

8 

31 

5 


2 
17 
20 
11 
27 
10 

8 
94 
12 
19 
12 

4 
20 

7 

1 

16 
14 
13 
15 
10 

5 
12 
24 
10 


14 

6 

24 

205 

4 

4 
53 
47 
13 
12 

2 
13 
55 

4 
13 

2 

4 

9 

8 
22 
10 


2 
10 
34 

8 
28 

7 

7 

132 

11 

24 

9 

7 
18 
10 

4 
16 
12 
27 
18 
10 

4 
11 
13 

7 

8 
14 

8 

27 

248 

6 

6 
70 
51 

8 
13 

8 

7 
41 

20 
4 

2 
8 
8 
25 
9 


3 

10 

24 

14 

43 

17 

8 

272 

16 

22 

6 

8 

23 

5 

2 

20 

19 

51 

18 

9 

2 

11 

34 

7 

4 

26 

9 

23 

403 

17 

12 

105 

50 

9 

7 

6 

11 

67 

14 

33 

6 

3 

9 

7 

53 

7 


11 








45 




10 








9 




12 




523 




24 




25 




17 












3 
















47 








16 




6 


Memphis 


9 

114 








10 




41 












751 












137 




65 








12 




13 




14 




159 


St. Paul 






32 


Seattle 


12 








23 




11 


Washington, D.C 

Worcester 


104 
10 


Total 


42 


54 


68 


482 


1,765 


868 


913 


1,020 


1,525 


2,265 



GIFTS TO THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 

The last issue of the Proceedings of the N'a- 
tional Academy of Sciences prints the minutes 
of a joint meeting of the executive hoard of 
the National Research Council with the eoun- 



Sciences presented the following resolution 
which was passed by the Carnegie Corporation 
of N'ew York on June 3, 1919, making pro- 
vision to cover expenses of the ^National Re- 
search Council during the coming year: 



Pebeuary 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



163 



Sesolved, that, pursuant to paragraph 3 of the 
resolution recording action taken at the special 
meeting of the board of trustees held March 28, 
1919, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars 
($100,000) be and it hereby is appropriated to the 
National Academy of Sciences for the use of the 
National Research Council for the year beginning 
July 1, 1919; and that the treasurer be and he 
hereby is authorized to make payments as needed 
to the extent of $100,000 on certificates of the 
chairman of the National Academy of Sciences and 
the chairman of the National Research Council. 

Moved: That the executive board of the National 
Research Council go on record as appreciating the 
recognition by the Carnegie Corporation of New 
York of the work which it is accomplishing by ap- 
propriating the sum of $100,000 for its use for the 
year beginning July 1, 1919. 

The chairman of the National Research 
Council presented the following letter from 
the Rockefeller Foundation, appropriating the 
sum of $20,000 to meet the expenses involved 
in conferences of special subcommittees on re- 
search subjects of the Division of Physical 
Sciences. 

THE EOCKErELLER FOUNDATION 

June 20, 1919 
My Dear Mr. Merriam: I have the honor to in- 
form you that at a meeting of the executive com- 
mittee of the Rockefeller Foundation held June 16, 
1919, the following resolution was adopted: 

Mesolved: That the sum of twenty thousand dol- 
lars ($20,000) be, and it is hereby, appropriated to 
the National Research Council for the Division of 
Physical Sciences, of which so much as may be 
necessary shall be used to defray the necessary 
travelling and other expenses involved in confer- 
ences of the subcommittees of that division during 
the year 1919. 

Very truly yours, 

Edwin R. Embree, 

Secretary 

Moved: That the chairman of the National Re- 
search Council express in behalf of the executive 
board its appreciation of the interest which the 
Rockefeller Foundation has shown in the research 
work of the Division of Physical Sciences by ap- 
propriating the sum of $20,000 to meet the ex- 
penses involved in conferences of special subcom- 
mittees on research subjects of that division. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Officers of the Geological Society of Amer- 
ica were elected at the Boston meeting, as fol- 
lows: President, I. C. White, Morgantown, W. 
Va. First Vice-president, George P. Merrill, 
Washington, D. C. Second Vice-president, 
Willet G. Miller, Toronto, Canada. Third 
Vice-president, F. B. Loomis, Amherst, Mass. 
Secretary, Edward B. Mathews, Baltimore, 
Md. Editor, Joseph Stanley-Brown, New 
York, N. Y. Councilors, H. E. Gregory, New 
Haven, Conn.; R. A. Daly, Cambridge, Mass.; 
William S. Bayley, Urbana, EL; E. W. Shaw, 
Washington, D. C. ; T. W. Vaughan, Washing- 
ton, D. C; George F. Kay, Iowa City, Iowa. 
Past Presidents, Frank D. Adams, Whitman 
Cross and John C. Merriam, are likewise ex 
officio on the council. 

Professor Lafayette B. Mendel, of Yale 
University, has been elected an associate mem- 
ber of the Societe Royale des Sciences Medi- 
oales €t Naturelles of Brussels. 

Dr. R. Bennett Bean has been elected a 
corresponding member of the Anthropological 
Society of Rome. 

Professor Aethur Stanley Eddington, of 
the University of Cambridge, has received the 
G. de Ponteooularit prize of the Paris Acad- 
emy of Sciences for his studies of stellar mo- 
tions. 

Professor H. G. Greenish, dean of the 
Pharmaceutical Society School of Pharmacy, 
London, has received the honorary doctorate 
from the University of Paris. 

Dr. Hanz Gertz, of the physiological labora- 
tory of Karolina Institute, Stockholm, has 
been awarded the Jubilee Prize by the Swed- 
ish Medical Association for his work on the 
functions of the labyrinth. 

Me. T. W. Reader has been selected by the 
British Geologists' Association as the first 
recipient of the Foulerton award. The sum of 
money which has enabled the association to 
make this award is the recent gift of Miss 
Foulerton in accordance with the wishes of 
her late uncle, Dr. John Foulerton, who was 
for many years secretary to the association. 



164 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



Me. E. M. Davis resigned from the Power 
Section of the Water Resources Branch, U. S. 
Geological Survey, in October, to take up work 
as statistician for the Electrical World. He 
takes the position of Mr. W. B. Heroy, for- 
merly of the survey, who has entered the em- 
ploy of the Sinclair Oil Corporation. 

Professor W. S. Brown, who has been act- 
ing as chief of the division of horticulture of 
the Oregon Agricultural College since Pro- 
fessor C. I. Lewis resigned to become manager 
of the Oregon Fruit Growers' Association, has 
been appointed permanent chief. 

Since the return of Mr. Eugene Stebinger 
from private work in the Tampico oil field of 
Mexico he has been appointed chief of the for- 
eign section of the Mineral Resource Branch, 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. Frank Schlesinger, director of the 
Allegheny Observatory, lectured on " The Ein- 
stein Theory of Relativity from the Point of 
View of an Astronomer " at the Carnegie In- 
stitute of Pittsburgh on January 27. The 
lecture was followed by a general discussion 
of the subject. 

The death is announced of Dr. Christian 
R. Holmes, dean of the college of medicine. 
University of Cincirmati. It was largely 
through his energy and enthusiasm that the 
General Hospital with its fine equipment was 
built and the College of Medicine organized. 
By the terms of his will Dr. Holmes gave 
$25,000 to establish a medical joui-nal. A 
memorial fund will be collected by popular 
subscription in order to establish a depart- 
ment of research in medicine. 

Dr. David S. Pratt, who since the begin- 
ning of the year has been a practising chem- 
ist at St. Louis, has died at the age of thirty- 
four years. He had taught in the Univer- 
sity of Pittsburgh and later had become an 
assistant director of the Mellon Institute of 
Industrial Research. He had received his 
doctor's degree from Cornell University. 

Dr. E. E. Hoskins, assistant professor of 
anatomy in the University of Minnesota, died 
on January 30 after a brief illness with in- 
fluenza and pneumonia. 



The death is announced of Professor 
Severin Jolin, incumbent of the chair of 
chemistry and pharmacology at Stockholm 
and at Upsala. To him is ascribed in large 
part the high standard of the Swedish Phar- 
macopeia as he has taken an active share 
in the revision of the different editions. He 
had recently been elected president of the 
Swedish Medical Association. 

The Bulletin of the American Mathe- 
matical Society records the deaths of the 
following German mathematicians: Professor 
E. Bottcher, of the University of Leipzig, 
at the age of seventy-two years; Professor O. 
Dziobek, of the Charlottenburg Technical 
School, at the age of sixty- three years; Pro- 
fessor F. Graefe, of the Charlottenburg Tech- 
nical School, at the age of sixty-three years; 
Professor E. Netto, of the University of 
Giessen, at the age of seventy- two years; Dr. 
K. T. Eeye, formerly professor at the Uni- 
versity of Strassburg, at the age of eighty-one 
years; Professor R. Sturm, of the University 
of Breslau, at the age of seventy-seven years, 
and Dr. J. Wellstein, formerly professor at 
the University of Strassburg, in his fiftieth 
year. 

The annual meeting of the Society of Ameri- 
can Foresters was held in New York City 
on January 14, 1920. The meeting was 
given up to the consideration of papers on 
technical forestry presented by members, and 
reports of special committees and the officers 
for the past year. 

On Ootober 3, 4, 5 and 6 there was held at 
Batavia, Java, the first Dutch East Indies Sci- 
entific Congress with two hundred and seventy 
members in attendance. Papers were read be- 
fore mathematical, biological, medical and geo- 
logical sections and at the General Session it 
was decided to continue the association and to 
hold the next meeting in 1921. The congress 
concluded with a two-days' excursion to the is- 
land-volcano Krakatau to study the renewing 
vegetation and geological formations. 

The eighth annual meeting of the American 
Association of Variable Star Observers, which 



February 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



165 



was held at Harvard College Observatory on 
N'ovem'ber 8, viras attended by about fifty mem- 
bers and friends. Mr. Leon Campbell was 
elected president for the year and Professor 
Anne Young, of Mount Holyoke, was elected 
vice-president. The program of the meeting 
consisted of papers and reports, followed by a 
banquet at which Rev. Joel Metcalf was the 
guest of honor. This association is com- 
posed of amateur astronomers who are anxious 
to contribute observations of value, and over a 
hundred thousand observations have been pub- 
lished. It offers an opportunity for all lovers 
of astronomy to do work of value; particularly 
those who have small telescopes stored away 
and do not know how to put them to use. Any 
one interested should write to Mr. William 
T. Olcott, secretary, 62 Church Street, Nor- 
wich, Conn. 

The University of Illinois has recently 
added to its collections a historical herbarium 
of about 3,000 specimens formed early in the 
last century by Dr. Jonathan Roberts (1805- 
1878). Dr. Paddock, after holding a professor- 
ship in the literary department of the college 
became a professor in Worthington Medical 
College, at Worthington, Ohio, when Dr. J. L. 
Riddell, well known as a botanist in his day, 
moved from that institution to the University 
of Louisiana. He is said to have been a schol- 
arly man, and an ardent botanist, who enjoyed 
particularly the friendship of SuUivant, the 
banker^bryologist of Columbus. 

A MEETING was held in New York City on 
December 3 to commemorate the eightieth 
anniversary of the beginning of Captain John 
Ericsson's work in this country, and the 
thirtieth anniversary of the death of Captain 
Ericsson and of Mr. Cornelius H. De- 
Lamater, founder of the DeLamater Iron 
Works, where Captain Ericsson's most im- 
portant work was executed. The exercises in- 
eluded addresses by Hon. Lewis ISTixon, com- 
missioner of public works. Borough of Man- 
hattan; Rear- Admiral Bradley A. Fiske and 
Hon. W. A. Ekengren, Sweden's Minister at 
Washington. Mr. H. F. J. Porter gave an 
illustrated historical review of the work per- 



formed at the Phoenix Foundry and the De- 
Lameter Iron Works. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

Mr. Charles H. Swift, of Chicago, has 
given $5,000 to the University of Chicago for 
its department of geography, for the purpose 
of sending a member of its stafE to Asia the 
coming autumn. Assistant Professor Well- 
ington D. Jones is to make the trip. He will 
carry on geographic studies either in China 
or in India, the choice being determined by 
conditions in Asia when the trip is made. 
This will be the second trip of Professor 
Jones to Asia made possible by Mr. Swift's 
generosity. 

Boston University has concluded an ar- 
rangement for an exchange of professorships 
in mathematics for the college year 1920-21 
with Tsing Hua College, Peking, China. 
Professor Robert E. Bruce, chairman of the 
department in Boston University, will ex- 
change with Professor Albert H. Heinz, of 
Tsing Hua. Professor Heinz, head of the 
department of mathematics, is a graduate of 
the University of Missouri and has been at 
Tsing Hua nine years. This college is umder 
the control of the Chinese government and 
was founded with part of the returned Boxer 
Indemnity. Professor Bruce will sail from 
the Pacific coast in April. Professor Heinz 
will reach this country in time to begin his 
work at Boston University at the opening of 
the college in September. 

In recognition of the gift of £34,500 by 
Sir Ralph Forster, Bt., to the fund for the 
chemistry building and equipment at Uni- 
versity College, London, the organic depart- 
ment of the chemical laboratories will be 
known by his name. 

At the University of California, Assistant 
Professor B. M. Woods has been promoted to 
a full professorship of aerodynamics. 

De. Carroll W. Dodge has succeeded Pro- 
fessor Harlan H. York, as head of the depart- 
ment of botany at Brown University and 



166 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



"Walter H. Snell, formerly of the Office of 
IriTestigations in Forest Pathology of the 
Department of Agriculture, has accepted an 
instructorship in the same department. 

Professor A. K. Peitersen, who for the 
past seven years has been assistant professor 
of botany and assistant botanist of the experi- 
ment station, of the University of Vermont, 
has gone to Fort Collins, Colorado, where he 
has been elected professor of botany. 

Professor Swale Vincent, who has occii- 
pied the chair of physiology at the University 
of Manitoba (Winnipeg) since 1904, has been 
appointed professor of physiology in the Uni- 
versity of London (Middlesex Hospital). He 
will probably take up his duties in Loudon at 
the beginning of May. 

Dr. Harold Pringle, lecturer on histology 
and assistant in physiology in the University 
of Edinburgh, has been appointed professor 
of physiology in Trinity College, Dublin, 
succeeding the late Sir Henry Thompson. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

FURTHER HISTORY OF THE CALCULUS 

To THE Editor of Science: Please make a 
correction of my college address to Eosb 
Polytechnic Institute, in the paper on " The 
Early History of Calculus," in Science for 
July 11. The error is due perhaps to the fact 
that only my name was signed to the article. 

The quotation from the " Encyclopedia 
Britannica" should be stated as from the 
ninth edition, since it has been omitted in 
the eleventh. The historical part of the 
article "Inf. Cal." is entirely changed in the 
last edition to one of still stronger German 
bias. It makes the statement, for example, 
that Leibniz did not meet Collins, nor see the 
tract " De analysi per aequationen . . ." on 
his first visit to London in 1673. No verifi- 
cation of this statement is offered. English 
histories and documents have it the other 
way with regard to Collins. 

Evidence of the possible duplicity of Collina 
which indicates that he was an agent under 
Oldenberg as early as 1669, appears in the 
rewritten history. To quote: 



The tract "De analysi per aequationen ..." 
was sent by Newton to Barrow, wlio sent it to 
John Collins with a request that it might be made 
known. One way of making it known would have 
been to print it in the Philosophical Transactions 
of the Eoyal Society, but this course was not 
adopted. Collins made a copy of the tract and 
sent it to Lord Brouucier, but neither of them 
brought it before the Eoyal Society. ... In 1680 
Collins sought the assistance of the Eoyal Society 
for the publication of the tract and this was 
granted in 1682, yet it remained unpublished. The 
reason is unknown. . . . 

The usual history is that Collins was the 
active agent in soliciting the tract " to make it 
known." Also, Oldenberg was secretary of the 
Eoyal Society, and published the Transac- 
tions for his private profit, without supervis- 
ion from the society. The relations of these 
two men were intimate. The tract was prob- 
ably brought directly to Oldenberg — he has 
shown that he had knowledge of it — and that 
he did not act upon it in his official capacity 
is evidence of conspiracy to suppress it. When 
both were urging Newton, as already cited, to 
undertake " for the honor of England," a cor- 
respondence which Leibnitz had planned, it 
was at that time within their power to promote 
greater honor to England by publishing the 
tract in the Transactions. In reference to the 
threatened publication in 1680, the death of 
Oldenberg about two years before, had left 
Collins without his principal, if Oldenberg 
were such, and that transaction might have 
been a shrewd move on Collins' part to retain 
his honorarimns through Leibniz. At least 
some cause delayed Leibniz seven years in the 
publication of his calculus, already prepared, 
while it was put in in the hands of the printer 
immediately after the death of Collins. 

There is reason to believe that Leibniz had 
information of matters transpiring in England 
before he left Germany. It is difficult to ex- 
plain otherwise the grandiloquent announce- 
ment of wonderful discoveries of new meth- 
ods in mathematics, which heralded his visit 
to Paris in 1672, with no work to show, and 
with admittedly inferior mathematical knowl- 
edge for such work. The London exposure by 



Pebeuaey 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



167 



Pell, in 1673, is clarifying. Leibniz was a poli- 
tician, not a mathematician, and worked and 
wrote for the power and prestige of Germany. 
To this end he founded the Berlin Academy of 
Science, and was perhaps the first to inaugu- 
rate that system of espionage on scientific 
work in foreign countries by which the use- 
fulness and credit of as much of that work as 
possible might be transferred to Germany. 

It may be urged that calculus has been 
benefited by the interference of Leibniz. 
This is true as to notation, but it has been 
harmful as to the theory and understanding 
of the subject. On the one hand we have an 
illogical infinitesimal method, on the other an 
incomplete derivative one in protest of the 
first, whose rival expounders reason along dif- 
ferent lines, and hardly understand each other. 
Newton substitutes one rigorous theory, 
broader than either of these, neglecting no 



Starting from given corresponding values, x, 
Vj z, the actual variables are corresponding 
increments to these with a common -first value, 
0; and starting with any corresponding incre- 
ments, Ax, A2/, Aa, we form an ideal variation 
in the same ratio, A'a; = Nl^x, A'y = NAy, 
A'z = NAz, where the common multiplier N, 
varies. This is the familiar law of uniform 
variation between two sets of values of the 
variables, and the symbols A'x, etc., are not 
limited to small values but vary from to 
00, as iV so varies, however small Ax, etc., 
may be. 

Such A'a;, A'y, A'z are approximate fluxions; 
and the exact fluxions dx, dy, dz, are limits of 
these for lim. Ax = 0, lim. Ay = 0, lim. Az = 0. 
For example, let z ^xy, then Az = yAx -\- 
(x -|- Ax) Ay, and multiply both members by N. 

A'z = yA'x -f- (a; -f Ax) A'y, 
whence by limits, dz = ydx -{- xdy. 




Az^^shaded area, A's^sbaded »rea. dz'shaded iir«». 

We may illustrate the three variations geometrically: 

(1) Actual. (2) In the Same Eatio. (3) In the First Eatio. 



quantity, however small, leaving no unex- 
plained symbol, and yet of an arithmetical 
character of the utmost simplicity. A free 
translation of his definition in " Quadrature 
of Curves," is as follows: 

In their highest possible approximation, 
fluxions are quantities in the same ratio as 
the smallest possible corresponding increments 
of variables, or, in a form of exact statement, 
they are in the first ratio of nascent incre- 
ments. 

Thus fluxions, or differentials, are inter- 
preted as ordinary arithmetical increments, 
but in a variation defined as in the first ratio, 
or, as the variables hegin to increase, or, in 
the instantaneous state, which are all one. 



Arthur S. Hathaway 
Rose Polytechnic Institute 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 

REPORT OF THE CANADIAN ARCTIC EXPEDI- 
TION, 1913-18 

Shortly after the return of the Southern 
Party of the Canadian Arctic Expedition with 
their collections in the fall of 1916, steps were 
taken to arrange for the publication of the 
scientific results of the expedition. Although 
the general direction of the operations of the 
expedition had been under the Department of 
the Naval Service, most of the scientific men 
on the expedition were under the Geological 
Survey, of the Department of Mines, the col- 



168 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



lections were destined for the Victoria Memor- 
ial Museum, of Ottawa, and interdepartmental 
cooperation was desirable in publishing the re- 
sults. An Arctic Biological Committee was 
appointed jointly by the two services, to select 
specialists to report on the various groups of 
specimens represented in the collections of the 
expedition, to distribute the specimens, and 
■arrange for the final publication of the reports. 
This committee consisted of: Chairman, Pro- 
fessor E. E. Prince, commissioner of Dominion 
Fisheries; secretary, Mr. James M. Macoun. 
C.M.G., botanist and chief of the biological 
division of the Geological Survey; Professor 
A. B. Macallum, chairman of the Commission 
for Scientific and Industrial Research; Dr. C. 
Gordon Hewitt, Dominion Entomologist, of the 
Department of Agriculture, and Dr. R. M. 
Anderson, zoologist of the Geological Survey 
and lately chief of the Southern Party of the 
expedition, representing the expedition. Each 
member of the committee was made responsible 
for the editing of reports in his own section, 
and Dr. R. M. Anderson was appointed general 
editor of the reports. This committee has been 
at work for nearly three years, but owing to 
the difficulty of securing the services of the 
fifty or more competent specialists needed to 
:Work up the reports, on account of the exi- 
gencies of war and other reasons, the first of 
the technical reports was not issued from the 
press until July 10, 1919. 
I These biological reports, and to a. large ex- 
tent the geological and ethnological reports 
which it is hoped will follow them, were mainly 
the results of the work of the scientists of the 
•Southern Party of the expedition, owing to 
the unfortunate death or elimination from 
work of most of the scientific staff of the 
Northern Party of the expedition and the total 
loss of their collections with the Karluh in 
1914. As a result the later activities of the 
remainder of that party were practically all 
geographical and other work and collections 
merely incidental. The small amount of frag- 
mentary material which was brought back in 
1918 has in most cases been included in the 
reports issued, but in some cases a separate 
paper will be issued. 



The plan adopted by the committee is to issue 
the report on each group or subject as a sepa- 
rate paper, of the regular octavo size which 
has been found to be the most convenient and 
popular for modern scientific papers. Most of 
the papers are illustrated by line drawings or 
half-tone engravings from photographs, and in 
some cases by helioitype or colored plates, illus- 
trating many new species and a few new 
genera. These papers are mostly too technical 
to be of interest to the general reader, and the 
separates are intended to be distributed at 
time of issue to specialists interested in the 
particular branch covered, and 1,000 copies of 
each paper are to be kept by the government 
and bound into volumes for distribution to 
public libraries, universities, colleges and other 
scientific institutions. Eight volumes have 
been arranged for the biological series, includ- 
ing reports on mammalogy, ornithology, ich- 
thyology and invertebrate marine biology, ento- 
mology and botany, and the parts as issued are 
numbered as parts of these volumes. They are 
not issued in consecutive order, but each part 
is printed as it is ready, in order to avoid delay 
in making the knowledge available to the sci- 
entific world and to the public. The amount 
of specimens and data available and the char- 
acter and scientific reputation of the special- 
ists engaged in the work promise to make this 
the most extensive and comprehensive publi- 
cation on Canadian and western Arctic biology 
since Richardson and Swainson's " Fauna 
Boreali-Americana " (1829-31) and Hooker's 
"Flora Boreali-Americana" (1840). 

The volumes in preparation are as follows: 

yolume I: General Introduction and Narrative. 

. A. Northern Party. 
B. Soutihern Party. 

Volume II: A. Mammals. B. Birds. 

Volume III: Insects. (10 parts.) 

Volume IV: Botany. (Cryptogams) (5 parts). 

Volume V: Botany. (Phanerogams.) 

Volume VI: Fishes, Tunioates, etc. (2 parts.) 

Volume VII: Crustacea, (12 parts.) 

Volume VIII: Mollusks, Eohinoderma, Coelenter- 

, ates, etc. (9 parts.) 

Volume IX: Annelids, Parasitic Worms, Proto- 
zoans, etc. (12 parts.) 

Volume X: Plankton, Hydrography, Tddes, etc. 



Pebkuaet 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



169 



I Eleven of the separate parts of the different 
volumes have "been issued: 
Volume III. — Insects: 

, Part A — CoUembola, by Justus W. Folsom. 
July 10, 1919. 
Plart B — Neuropteroid Insects, by Nathan Banks. 

July 11, 1919. 
Part C— Diptera. July 14, 1919. 
Crane-flies, by Charles P. Alexander. 
Mosquitoes, by Harrison G. Dyar. 
Diptera (excluding Tdpulidae and Culieidae), 
by J. R. Malloch. 
Part D — Mallophaga. and Anoplura. Seiptember 
12, 1919. 
Mallophaga, by A. W. Baker. 
Anoplura, by 6. P. Ferris and G. H. P. Nut- 
tall. 
Part E — Coleoptera. December 12, 1919. ' 

Porest Insects, including Ipidae, Cerambycidse, 

and Buprestidffi, by J. M. Swaine. 
Carabidfe and Silphidffi, by H. C. Fall. 
Coccinnellidfe, ElateraidEe, Clerysomelidfe and 

Ehynchophora, by C. W. Leng. 
Dystiseidae, by J. D. Sherman, Jr. 
Part F — Hemiptera, by E. P. Van Duzee. July 
11, 1919. 
Sawflies, by Alex. D. MacGillivray. 
Parasitic Hymemopltera, by Charles T. Brues. 
Wasps and Bees, by F. W. L. Sladen. 
Plant Galls, by E. Porter Felt. 
Part G — Hymenoptera and Plant Galls, November 
3, 1919. 
Sawflies, by Alex. D. MacGOlivray. 
Parasitic Hymenoptera, by Ohas. T. Brues. 
Wasps and Bees, by F. W. Sladen. 
Plant Jails, by E. P. Felt. 

Part H — Spiders, Mites and Myriapods. July 
14, 1919. 
Spiders, by J. H. Emerton. 
Acarina, by Nathan Banks. 
Chilopoda, by Ealph V. Chamberlin. 
Volume VII. — Crustacea. 

Part A — Decapod Crustaceans, by Miss Mary J. 

Eathbun. August 18, 1919. 
Part B — Selhizopod Crustaceans, by Waldo L. 
Sehmitt. September 22, 1919. 
Volume VIII — MollusT(s, Echinoderms, Coelenter- 
ates, etc. 
Part A — Mollusks, Eecent and Pleistocene, by 
Wm. Healey Dall. September 24, 1919. 
Volume IX. — Annelids, Parasitic Worms, Proto- 
zoans, etc. 
Part A — Oligochaeta, by Frank Smith and Paul 
S. Welch. September 29, 1919. 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NATU- 
RALISTS 

The thirty-seventh annual meeting of the 
American Society of Naturalists was held in Guyot 
Hall, Princeton University, on December 30 and 
31, 1919. 

The report of the treasurer showing a balance 
on hand of $327.33 was accepted. 

The following changes in the constitution, rec- 
ommended by the executive committee, were au- 
thorized. 

Article III., Section 1, to read: The officers of 
the society shall be a president, a vice-president, a 
secretary and a treasurer. These, together with 
three past-presidenlts and tbe retiring vdce^resi- 
deut, shall constitute the executive committee of 
the society. 

Article III., Section 2, to read: Tbe president 
and vice-president shall be elected for a term of 
one year, the secretary and treasurer for a term 
of three years. Each president on retirement 
shall serve on the executive committee for three 
years. Each vice-presiident on retirement shall 
serve on the executive committee for one year. 
The election of officers shall take place at the an- 
nual meeting of the society, and their official term 
^all commence at the close of the meeiting at which 
they are elected. 

On recommendation of the executive committee 
the society accepted an invitation from the Na- 
tional Eesearch Council to appoint an advisory 
committee to act with the Division of Biology and 
Agriculture. The following were elected to this 
committee: Herbert S. Jennings, Alfred G. Mayor, 
George H. Shull, Eoss G. Harrison, Bradley M. 
Davis. 

A request for financial support from the man- 
agement of Botanical Abstracts was discussed by 
the society witt the result that a motion was car- 
ried to the effect that such appropriations were 
against the general policy of the American Society 
of Naturalists. 

On motion the society approved of the appoint- 
ment by the chair of a committee to consider and 
report on genetic form and nomenclature. This 
committee consists of Clarence C. Little, Donald 
F. Jones, Sewall Wright, Alfred H. Sturtevant 
and George H. Shull. 

The foUowiag resolution presented by Charles 
B. Davenport and strongly supported from tlie 
floor was adopted. 

Whereas, A current index of scientific publi- 
cations is necessary to the progress of science and 



170 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



can tie conducted properly only by bibliographers 
of experience, and at great expense; and 

Whereas, The Concilium Bibliographieum of 
Zuricli has for a quarter of a century maintained 
a valuable and unique service in international bib- 
liography, especially in the fields of zoology, 
physiology, vertebrate anatomy and general biol- 
ogy; has continued the bibliography of Engelmann 
and Carus which covers the period from 1700 to 
the present; and has maintained a service of gen- 
eral bibliographic information; and 

Whereas, the ^sciences named are the pure sci- 
ences upon which the science of medicine rests; 

Therefore resolved, that the American Society 
of Naturalists (which has in the past made such 
subsidies to the Concilium as it could afford) cor- 
dially endorses the effort of the Concilium Bib- 
liographieum to secure adequate financial support 
in this country. 

There was elected to honorary membership in 
the society, William Bateson, John Innes Horti- 
cultural Institute, England. 

The following were elected to membership: 
Joseph C. Arthur, Purdue University; Henry C. 
Cowles, University of Chicago; William Crocker, 
University of Chicago; Herbert M. Evans, Uni- 
versity of California; Edward M. Freeman, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota; Ales HrdliCka, United 
States National Museum; Clarence M. Jackson, 
University of Minnesota; Warren H. Lewis, Johns 
HopMna Medical School; Ann H. Morgan, Mount 
Holyoke College; John T. Patterson, University 
of Texas; Everett P. Phillips, United States De- 
partment of Agriculture; Donald Reddick, New 
York State College of Agriculture; Jacob E. 
Schramm, New York State College of Agriculture ; 
Homer L. Shantz, United iStates Department of 
Agriculture; Henry B. Ward, University of Illi- 
nois. 

The following program was presented at the 
morning session of December 30: 
Causes of variation in sex ratio of the wasp, Badro- 

hracon: P. W. Whiting. 
Population and race in the Pacific area: W. E. 

Bitter. 
The evolution of Pacific coral reefs: A. G. Mayor. 
The relative importance of heredity and environ- 
ment in determining the pieiald pattern of 

guineorpigs: Sewall Wright. 
delations between nuclear number, chromatin mass, 

cytoplasmic mass and shell characteristics in 

Arcella: R. W. Hegner. 
The function of the striae in the rotation of the 

Suglenoids and the problem of evolution: L. B. 

WAI.TON. 

Iodine and the thyroid: W. W. Swingle. 



Selective fertilization in pollen mixtures: D. P. 

Jones. 
Changing by castration the hen-feathered into the 

cock-feathered condition: T. H. Morgan. 
Application of the chromosome theory to embryonic 

differentiation : E. G. Conklin. 

The session of the afternoon of December 30 
consisted of a symposium on Some relations of 
biology to human welfare. 
The theoretical problems of forestry: Raphael 

ZON. 

Biology in relation to ethics: W. E. Ritter. 

Biology and society: W. M. Wheelek. 

The significance of some general biological prin- 
ciples in public health problems: Raymond 
Pearl. 

General biology in its relation to medicine: H. E. 
Jordan (read by title.) 
The program of December 31 consisted of the 

following papers: 

A type of primary non-disjunction in Drosophila 
melanogaster : A. H. Stuetevant. 

A sex-linTced recessive linkage variation in Droso- 
phila melanogaster : C. B. Bridges. 

A race of Drosophila willistoni giving a shortage 
of females: D. E. Lanoefield and C. W. Metz. 

Mutants and mutability in different species of 
Drosophila: C. W. Metz. 

Two hereditary tumors in Drosophila: Mary B. 
Stark. 

Inheritance of the rubriealyx cliaracter in CEno- 
thera: G. H. Shull. 

An analysis of an intergrading sex character: A. 
M. Banta and Mary Cover. 

Precocious development in Salpa: a biological not 
a utilitarian phenomenon: M. M. Metoalf (read 
by title.) 

Ontogeny versus phylogeny in the development of 
the sensory apparatus in mammalian embryos: 
H. H. Lane. 

The influence of alcoholized grandparents upon the 
behavior of white rats: E. C. MacDowell and 
E. M. Vicari. 

Evidence of specific evolution in the genus Partula 
in the Society Islands: H. E. Crampton. 

Inheritance of flower form in Phlox Drummondii: 
J. P. Kelly. 

An extra chromosome in Camnula pelludda; vari- 
ations in the number of chromosomes within the 
testis: Mitchel Carroll. 

Inheritance of milk production and butter-fat per- 
centage as slwwn by first generation hybrids 
between the dairy and beef breeds of cattle: J. 

W. GOWEN. 



Feekuart 13, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



171 



The vascular anatomy of dimerous and trimerous 
seedlings of Fhaseolus vulgaris: J. Arthuk 
Harris, E. W. Sinnott and J. Y. Pennt- 

PACKEE. 

Genetic investigations in Crepis: E. B. Babcock 

(re^d by title.) 
Selationships among the genes for color variation 

in rodents: L. C. Dunn (read by title.) 
Dice casting and pedigree selection: H. H. 

Laughlin. 
Known matings in a species with heteromorphic 
homologous chromosomes; reconibinations ob- 
tained in F^ and F^: E. Eleanor Carothers. 
The relation of the somatic chromosomes in (Eno- 
nothera LamarcTciana and 0. gigas: E. T. Hance. 
Concerning the inheritdnce of hroodiness in do- 
mestic fowl: H. D. GooDAiiE (read by title.) 
Heredity of tioining from the paternal side: C. B. 

Davenport. 
Notes on the human sex ratio: C. C. Little. 
An experiment on regulation in plants: E. N. 

Harvey (read by title.) 
A series of allelomorphs in Drosophila with non- 
quantitative relationships: H. J. Mullee. 
The rate of evolution : E. G. Conklin. 

The Naturalists' dimier was held on the even- 
ing of December 30 in the dining hall of the 
Graduate School of Prineetooi University with 
eighty-itwo in attendance. The presidential address 
by Edward M. East was entitled "Population." 
The ofScers of the society for 1920 are: 
President — Jacques Loeb, Rockefeller Institute 
for Medical Eesearch. 

Vice-president — Bradley M. Davis, University of 
Michigan. 

Secretary — A. Franklin ShuU, University of 
Michigan (1920-22). 

Treasurer — J. Arthur Harris, Carnegie Station 
for Experimental Evolution (1918-20). 

Additional memiers of the Executive Commit- 
tee— J'ohn H. Gerould, Dartmouth College (1920) 
George H. Shall, Princeton University (1918-20) 
Wdlliam E. Castle, Harvard University (1919-21) 
Edward M. East, Harvard University (1920-22) 
Bradley M. Davis, 

Secretary 



THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY 

The twenty-first annual meeting (the 101st reg- 
ular meeting) of the American Physical Society 
was held at Soldan High School in St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, on December 30, 31, 1919, and January 1, 
1920, in afaiiation with Section B — Physics — of 



the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. 

At the business session held on December 31, 
1919, officers for 1920 were elected as follows: 

President — J. S. Ames. 

Vice-president — Tleodore Lyman. 

Secretary — D. C. Miller. 

Treasurer — G. B. Pegram. 

Managing Editor — P. Bedell. 

Councillors — ^F. B. Jewett and Max Mason. 

Members of the Editorial Board — E. L. Nichols, 
C. M. Sparrow and "W. F. 6. Swann. 

The question of the relation of the society to the 
work lof the trustees for the Preparation of Crit- 
ical Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants 
was brought before the society; after discussion it 
was, by general consent, referred to the president, 
the councillor and the trustee representing the so- 
ciety, for such action as may seem best. 

At the meeting of the council held on December 
30, 1919, the following elections were made: to 
regular membership, T. H. Gronwall, E. H. Ken- 
nard, Henry A. McTaggart; to associate member- 
ship, William H. Agnew, W. H. Bair, Vola P. 
Barton, Henry M. Brook, J. T. Lindsay Brown, 
John A. David, E. C. Gaskill, Charles W. Hender- 
son, F. F. Householder, Teizo Isshiki, Charles S. 
Jewell, P. Kirkpatrick, F. W. Kranz, Charles P. 
Miller, Greorge S. Monk, Chalmer N. Patterson, 
Herbert J. Plagge, Geo. E. Raburn, S. P. Shackle- 
ton, George C. Southworth, John Alden Terrell, 
John A. Tobin, A. P. Vanselow, E. E. Zimmer- 
man; transferred from associate to regular mem- 
bership, Harold D. Babcock, Clifton G. Found, R. 
C. Gibbs, J. A. Gray, Frank B. Jewett, Edwin C. 
Kemble, Fred Loomis Mohler, Lindley Pyle, C. V. 
Raman, Paul E. Sabine, F. B. Sil^ee, Elmer H. 
Williams. 

On Tuesday afternoon, December 30, 1919, the 
president, J. S. Ames, delivered an address on 
"Einstein's theory of gravitation and some of its 
consequences." This was a masterly presentation 
of the development and conclusions of this theory, 
and it was listened to by the largest audience of 
the meetings. 

The session on the afternoon of Wednesday, De- 
cember 31, 1919, was under the auspices of Sec- 
tion B — Physics — of the American Association of 
the Advancement of Science. The retiring chair- 
man of Section B, Dr. G. F. Hull, gave an address 
on ".Some aspects of physics in war and peace." 
Following this there was a symposium of four 
papers on "Phenomena in the ultra-violet 



172 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1311 



spectrum, including X-rays," "by E. A. Millikan, 
D. L. Webster, Wm. Duane and A. W. Hull. 

The programs consisted of thirty-four papers, six 
of which were read by title only, presented at four 
different sessions. The program of eight papers 
given at the session of Wednesday morning, con- 
sisted exclusively of papers relating to acoustics. 
The average attendance was about eighty-five, the 
maximum being about one hundred and twenty- 
five. The program was as follows: 

Variation of transparency to total radiation with 
temperature of source: S. Lerot Brown. 

The dissipation of heat hy various surfaces in still 
air: T. S. Taylor. 

The influence of air velocity and the angle of inci- 
dence on th-e dissipation of heat: T. S. Taylor. 

The measurement of thermal expansion of metals 
at ordinary temperatures: Charles D. Hodg- 

MAN. 

A metJwd for determining the photographic ab- 
sorption of lenses: G. W. Mopfitt. 

Defects in centered quadric lenses: Irwin Eoman. 

The sinTcer method applied to the rapid and accu- 
rate determination of specific gravities: N. W. 
Cdmmings. (Read by title.) 

Amplification of currents in the Bunsen flame: C. 
W. Heaps. 

A new type of non-inductive resistance: H. L. 
Dodge. 

Some laboratory uses for the contract rectifier: -T. 
C. Jensen. 

An undamped wave method of determining dielec- 
tric constants of liquids: W. H. Hyslop and A. 
P. Carman. (Eead toy title.) 

Difficulties in the theory of rain formation: W. J. 
Humphreys. 

A physical theory of ocean or reservoir tempera- 
ture distributions, regarded as effects of solar 
radiation, evaporation and the resulting convec- 
tion: Geo. F. McEwen. 

'Electromagnetic induction and relative motion: W. 

r. G. SWANN. 

The influence of blowing pressure on pitch of or- 
gan pipes: Arthur C. Lunn. 
A photographic study of explosions in gases: John 

B. DUTCHEE. 

A photographic study of sound pulses through 
erooTced and curved tubes, with deductions con- 
cerning telephone mouthpieces, phonograph 
horns, etc. : Arthur L. Foley. 

A photographic method of measuring the instan- 
taneous velocity of sound waves at points near 
the source: Arthur L. Foley. 



A possible standard of sound — J., study of opera- 
ting conditions; II., study of wave form: Chas. 
T. Knipp. 

The performance of conical horns : G. W. Stewart. 

A photographic study of tlie wave-form of sounds 
from large guns in action: Dayton C. Miller. 

The calibration of a sound chamber and sound 
sources and the measurement of sound transmis- 
sion of simple partitions: Paul E. Sabine. 

Transmissions of sound through walls: F. E. 
Watson. 

Charcoal absorption and cyclic changes: Thos. E. 
Doubt. 

The heat of vaporization and loorlc of ionization : C. 
S. Fazel. (Eead by title.) 

Energy content of characteristic radiations: 
Chester W. Rice. 

The spectrum of radium emanation: R. E. Nt- 
swander, S. C. Lind and E. B. Moore. 

The Zeeman effect for electric furnace spectra: 
Arthur ,S. King. (Eead by title.) 

Critical potentials of the "L" series of platinum: 
David L. Webster. 

On the possibility of pulling electrons from metals 
by powerful electric fields: E. A. Millikan and 
B. E. Shackelpord. 

On the recoil of Alpha particles from light atom^: 
L. B. LOEB. (Eead by title.) 

Beaetive hydrogen in the electrical discharge: 
Gerald L. Wendt and Robert S. Landauer. 
(Read by title.) 

The construction an-d design of a device permitting 
the application of a ciurrent pulse for a prede- 
terminate number of milliseconds: Lyndley 
Pyle. 

The spectral transmission of various glasses: 
Henry P. Gage. 

Dayton C. Miller, 

Secretary 



SCIENCE 



A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of 
Science, publishing the official notices and pro- 
ceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science 

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CIENCE 



Friday, February 20, 1920 
contents 

The Functions and Ideals of a National Geo- 
logical Survey: F. L. Eansome 173 

George MaclosMe: Professor W. M. Rankin. 180 

Scientific Events: — 
The California Institute of Technology; The 
Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees 
of the American Miiseum of Natural His- 
tory; The New York Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineers; Resolutions on the Death of Sir 

iter 1 81 

Notes and News 185 

University and Educational News 187 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 

Blood-inhaiiting Protozoa for Class Use: 
Professor R. W. Hegner. Horizontal Eain- 
lows: Professor Chancet Juday. Chem- 
istry applied to Commerce: Williams 
Haynes 187 

Scientific Books: — 

Schench's Physical Chemistry of the Metals: 

H. F 190 

Special Articles: — 
The Developmental Origin of the Notochord : 
Professor B. F. Kingsbury 190 

The Conference at Cleveland on the History of 
Science: Professor Lynn Thorndike .... 193 

The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science: — 

Financial Report of the Permanent Secre- 
tary and of the Treasurer 194 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review aliould be Bent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 



THE FUNCTIONS AND IDEALS OF A 
NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEY^ 

Introduction. — Diu'ing the period of unrest 
and uncertainty through which we are still 
painfully groping, the many distracting calls 
upon my time and thoughts have made per- 
formance of the duty to prepare a presidential 
address particularly difficult. In view of these 
circumstances I may perhaps hope for some 
indulgence on your part if my eiiort shows 
some lack of thoroughness in its preparation 
and falls soniewhat short of the high standard 
set by some of my distinguished predecessors. 
The subject of a presidential address to the 
academy should, 1 think, be of wider interest 
and more general character than would 
ordinarily be an account of work in the 
speaker's particular branch of science, and 
this condition I have attempted to fulfill. 
Although what follows will deal especially 
with national geological surveys much of it 
will apply in principle to any scientific bureau 
conducted as a government organization. 

Reasons for the Existence of a National 
Geological Survey. — In the beginning it may 
be well to review briefly the reasons for the 
existence of a national geological survey. 
Why should the government undertake work 
in geology while investigations in other sci- 
ences are in general left to private initiation 
and enterprise? The reasons that may be ad- 
duced will differ with the point of view. The 
geologist will suggest that whereas some 
sciences, such as chemistry, physics or astron- 
omy may be pursued with success with sta- 
tionary and permanent equipment at any one 
of a number of localities, geology is regional 
in its scope and is primarily a field science as 
contrasted with a laboratory science. Geology, 
it is true, must avail itself of laboratory re- 

1 Address delivered as retiring president of the 
Washingt/on Academy of Sciences on January 13, 
1920. 



174 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



sources and methods, but the geologist can 
not have the greater part of his material 
brought to him ; he must himself seek it afield. 
Thus it comes that comprehensive geologic 
problems require for their solution the equip- 
ment of more or less expensive expeditions or 
travel over large areas. Such projects as a 
rule can not be undertaken by individual 
geologists or by local organizations. The 
preparation of a geologic map of a whole 
country, with its explanatory test, generally 
recognized as essential fundamental work, is 
an undertaking that requires consistent efiort 
by a central organization extending over a 
period of years. Such a map is not likely to 
result from the patching together of the re- 
sults of uncoordinated local effort. From a 
broadly utilitarian point of view, the intelli- 
gent layman as well as the geologist must 
recognize that the development of a country's 
natural resources in such a manner as to 
secure their maximum use for the greatest 
number of its citizens necessarily depends 
upon reliable information concerning the 
character, location and extent of these re- 
sources and that this information should be 
available before they are exploited, by those 
who have eyes only for their own immediate 
profit, or before they pass entirely into private 
control or are exhausted. Such information 
can best be obtained and published by an im- 
partial national organization responsible for 
its results to the i)eople as a whole. Such 
a layman will recognize also that knowledge 
of the mineral resources of a country must 
rest upon a geological foimdation. As Pro- 
fessor J. C. Branner has recently said in his 
" Outlines of the Geology of Brazil " : 

After a life spent chiefly in active geologic work 
and in the direotion of such work, I should be re- 
miss in my duty to Brazil if I did not use this 
occasion to urge on Brazilian statesmen the serious 
necessity for the active encouragemenit and sup- 
port of scientific geologic work on the part of the 
national and state governments. Knowledge must 
precede the application of knowledge in geology 
as well as in other matters; and unless the devel- 
opment of the country 's mineral resources be based 
on and proceed from a scientific knowledge of its 
geology, there must inevitably be waste of effort, 



loss of money, and the delay of national progress 
inseparable from haphazard meithods.^ 

Finally, the citizen of narrower vision will 
regard as sufficient justification for a national 
geological survey the fact that he himself can 
turn to it for information and assistance in 
the development of particular mineral depos- 
its, to his own material advantage. 

As a matter of fact, most of the progressive 
countries of the world maintain geological 
surveys so that the desirability of such an 
organization appears to have been generally 
recognized, whatever may have been the par- 
ticular reason or reasons that set in motion 
the machinery of organization in each 
country. 

Eecognizing the fact that most of the prin- 
cipal countries have established geological 
surveys and granting that there are good 
reasons for considering the maintenance of 
such an organization as a proper govern- 
mental function, we may next inquire: What 
should be the ideals and duties of such a geo- 
logical survey? How may these ideals be 
realized and these duties performed? 

General Legal Functions. — The organic act 
of the United States Geological Survey speci- 
fies indirectly and in general terms the field 
that the organization shoidd occupy. It 
states, with reference to the director: 

This officer shall have the direction of the Geo- 
logical Survey and the classification of the public 
lands and examination of the geological structure, 
mineral resources and products of the national do- 
main. 

Doubtless the laws or decrees under which 
other national geological surveys have been 
established also prescribe to some extent their 
duties. Such legal authorization, however, is 
a rule so general as to leave room for con- 
siderable latitude in its interpretation. I 
proijose first to discuss the functions of a nat- 
tional geologic survey without reference to 
legal prescription or definition and after- 
wards to consider the extent to which some 

2 Branner, J. C, "Outlines of the Geology of 
Brazil," Geiol. Soc. America, Bull., Vol. 30, p. 194, 
1919. 



February 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



175 



of the actual conditions interfere with the 
realization of these ideals. 

Usefulness in Science.— It has been the 
fashion in some quarters of late to emphasize 
usefulness as the chief criterion by which to 
judge the value of scientific research under 
government auspices. It has been intimated 
that this or that scientific bureau of the gov- 
ernment must do " useful " work if it is to 
justify its existence and its expenditure of 
public, funds. The statement is usually made 
with an air of finality, as if a troublesome 
question had been once for all disposed of 
and the path of the future made plain. As a 
matter of fact, however, when it is said that 
science must be useful in order to receive 
government support we have really made very 
little advance. Probably the most idealistic 
scientific man will admit that ultimate use- 
fulness is the justification for scientific re- 
search although that end may not enter into 
his thoughts when he undertakes any partic- 
ular investigation with the hope of increasing 
human knowledge. Men will differ very 
widely however as to what is meant by use- 
fulness in science. It is well known to all 
scientific men, although not yet as widely 
recognized by others as it should be, that the 
utility of research is not generally predict- 
able. For example, the investigations on 
electricity for hundreds of years preceding 
the middle of the nineteenth century had, so 
far as could be seen, no practical bearing. 
The experiments of Volta, of Galvani, and 
even those of otit own Franklin, outside of 
his invention of the lightning rod, were not 
conducted with any thought of utility and 
were probably looked upon by the people of 
the time as diversions of the learned, not 
likely to have much effect upon human life 
and progress. How erroneous such a view 
was it is imnecessary to point out to a genera- 
tion accustomed to daily use of the trolley car, 
telegraph, telephone and electric lights. !N^ot 
only is the utility of science not always pre- 
dictable but it is of very different kinds. That 
astronomy has certain practical applications in 
navigation and g«odesy is well known; but 
important as these applications are they seem 



insignificant in comparison with the debt 
that we owe to this science for enlarging our 
intellectual horizon. This, too, is usefulness 
which I venture to think is of a truer and 
higher sort than much that passes current for 
utility. The classic researches of Pasteur on 
the tartaric acids, on fermentation, on the 
anthrax bacillus, on the silkworm disease and 
on rabies, were so-called applied science of 
the very highest type, indistinguishable in 
the spirit and method of their pursuit from 
investigations in pure science. They were 
not merely the application of knowledge to 
industry but were extraordinarily fruitful 
scientific investigations undertaken to solve 
particular industrial and humanitarian prob- 
lems. They are especially interesting in the 
present connection as probably the most con- 
spicuous example in the history of research 
of the merging of pure and applied science. 
Pasteur was doubly fortunate in that he not 
only enormously enlarged human knowledge 
but was able to see, at least in part, the prac- 
tical application of his discoveries to the 
benefit of humanity. The value of his re- 
sults measurable in dollars is enormous, yet 
this is not their only value. Professor Arthur 
Schuster, in a recent address, remarks: 

The researches of Pasteur, Liater and their fol- 
lowers, are triimiplis of science applied directly to 
the benefit of mankind; but I fancy that their hold 
on our imagination is mainly due to the new vista 
opened out on the nature of disease, the marvelous 
workings of the lower forms of life, and the al- 
most human attributes of blood corpuscles, which 
have been disclosed. 

The efEeet on a community is only the snmma- 
tion of the effect on individuals, and if we judge 
by individuals there can be little doubt that, ex- 
cept under the stress of abmormal circumstances, 
pure knowledge has as great a hold upon the public 
mind as the story of its applications. 

Quite independently of any recognized use- 
fulness, investigations that yield results that 
are of interest to the public are willingly sup- 
ported by the people and this fact is signifi- 
cant in connection with what I shall have to 
say later on the function of education. As 
illustrations of this truth may be cited our 
government Bureau of Ethnology and our 



176 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



large public museiuns. Probably few who 
read the admirable government reports on the 
aboriginal antiquities of our country and on 
the arts and customs of the Indian tribes 
could point out any particular usefulness in 
these studies but they have to do with human 
life and their popular appeal is undeniable. 
The average visitor to a museum probably has 
little conception of what to a scientific man 
is the real purpose of such an institution. 
He gazes with interest at the contents of the 
display cases without realizing that by far the 
greater part of the material upon which the 
scientific staff is working or upon which in- 
vestigators will work in future, is hidden 
away in drawers and packing cases. The 
principal recognizable result so far as he is 
concerned is that he is interested in what he 
sees and feels that he is being pleasantly 
instructed. 

In other words, it is as important for man 
to have his imagination quickened as to have 
his bodily needs supplied, and in ministering 
to either requirement science is entitled to be 
called useful or valuable. 

It may be remarked in passing that 
Pasteur's work had this in common with pure 
science, or science pursued with the single 
aim of adding to human knowledge, in that 
Pasteur himself could not foresee all of the 
applications that would in future be made of 
his discoveries. 

Enough, I think, has been said to show 
that the term usefulness as applied to science 
covers a wide range and that when employed 
by people of imagination and liberal culture 
may include much more than when used by 
those whose only standard of value is the un- 
stable dollar. 

Functions under an ideal Autocracy. — If 
government were in the hands of a wise and 
benevolent autocracy a national geological 
survey would be so conducted as to be useful 
to the people whose taxes go towards its sup- 
port; but it would probably be useful in the 
broader sense that I have outlined. It woidd 
give the people not perhaps what they think 
they want but what, in the wisdom of their 
government, seems best for them. I believe 



that a survey so directed would aim to en- 
courage and promote the study of geology 
by undertaking those general problems and 
regional investigations that would be likely 
to remain untouched if left to private enter- 
prise. It would lay the foundation for the 
most economic and efficient development of 
the natural resoiu-ces of the country by ascer- 
taining and making known the location, 
character and extent of the national mineral 
resources. As an aid to the intelligent utili- 
zation of these resources, and to the discovery 
of deposits additional to those already known, 
it would properly occupy itself with problems 
concerning the origin and mode of formation 
of mineral deposits. Last, but not least, it 
would accept the responsibility, not only for 
making known the material resources of the 
country but for contributing to the moral 
and intellectual life of the nation and of the 
world by seeing to it that the country's re- 
sources in opportunities for progress in the 
science of geology are fully utilized. I may 
illustrate my meaning by examples taken 
from the publications of the IF. S. Geological 
Survey. In my opinion such works as But- 
ton's Tertiary History of the Grand Canyon, 
Gilbert's Lake Bonneville, and the investiga- 
tions of Marsh, Cope, and their successors, 
on the wonderful series of reptile, bird and 
mammal remains found in the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary strata of the west are ftilly as ade- 
quate and appropriate a return for the ex- 
penditure of public funds as a report describ- 
ing the occurrence of a coal bed and giving 
the quantity of coal available in a given field. 
Many years ago when the United States Geo- 
logical Survey was under heavy fire in Con- 
gress one member of that body in some un- 
explained way learned that Professor Marsh 
had discovered and had described in a govern- 
ment publication a wonderful fosssil bird 
with teeth — a great diver up to 6 feet in 
length. He held this up to ridicule as a 
glaring example of the waste of public fimds 
in useless scientific work, quite unaware of 
the light that this and similar discoveries 
threw upon the interesting history of the 
development of birds from reptiles and upon 



February 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



177 



evolution, or of tlie intellectual value of such 
a contribution to knowledge. The representa- 
tive of a people educated in the value of geo- 
logic science would, by such an exhibition of 
ignorance, discredit himself in the eyes of 
his constituents. 

Functions in a Democracy. — Our govern- 
ment, however, is not an all-wise benevolent 
autocracy but is democratic in plan and 
intent and suffers from certain well-known 
disadvantages from which no democracy has 
yet been free. The wishes of the politically 
active majority control and these wishes may 
or may not coincide with those of the wisest 
and most enlightened of the citizens. The 
funds for government work in science must 
be granted by Congress and the vote of each 
congressman is determined by the real or sup- 
posed desires of his constituents. A national 
scientific bureau, if it is to survive, must 
have popular support, and to obtain and hold 
such support it must do at least some work 
that the majority of the people can under- 
stand or can recognize as being worth the 
doing. Here evidently compromise with sci- 
entific ideals is necessary. Something must 
be sacrificed in order that something can be 
done. Such concessions and compromises are 
inseparable from democratic government and 
the scientific man of high ideals who is un- 
able to recognize this fact wiU inevitably fail 
as a director of the scientific work of a gov- 
ernment bureau. Such a man is likely to in- 
sist that no concessions are necessary and 
that the public will support science that is 
not interesting to it or from which it can see 
no immediate resulting material benefit. One 
very eminent geologist with whom I was once 
conversing held this view. He said that he 
had always found that he could go before a 
legislative body and secure appropriations for 
scientific research by being absolutely frank 
and making no attempt to show that the 
results of the work would be what the average 
man would term " useful " within the imme- 
diate future. His confidence was possibly 
well grounded, but I am inclined to think 
that the success gained by him was rather a 
tribute to his earnest eloquence and winning 



personality than a proof that the people are 
yet ready to contribute their taxes to the suj)- 
port of investigations that, so far as they can 
see, are neither useful nor interesting. 

Character of Compromises. — Lest it be sup- 
posed that I am advocating the surrender of 
the high ideals of science to the political bus- 
iness of vote-getting I hasten to point out 
that surrender and compromise are not synon- 
ymous and may he very far apart. Some com- 
promise there must be, but in my opinion the 
most delicate and critical problem in the 
direction of a national scientific bureau is to 
determine the nature and extent of this com- 
promise so as to obtain the largest and stead- 
iest support for real research with the least 
sacrifice. Complete surrender to popularity 
may mean large initial support, but is sure to 
be followed by deterioration in the spirit of 
the organization and in the quality of its 
work, by loss of scientific prestige, and by 
final bankruptcy even in that popular favor 
which had been so seduloiisly cultivated. 

The extent to which concessions must be 
made will depend largely of course on the 
general level of intelligence of the people and 
upon the degree to which the less intelligent 
are influenced through the press and other 
channels by those who are able to appreciate 
the value of science. The more enlightened 
' the people the more general and permanent 
will be their support of science. 

Importance of Popular Education in Geol- 
ogy. — This leads us to the consideration of 
what I believe to be one of the most important 
of the functions of a government scientific 
bureau, namely, education. Of all forms of 
concession, if indeed it is really a concession, 
this is the least objectionable and most fruit- 
ful. Its results are constructive and cumula- 
tive. It is not, like other concessions to 
popidarity, corrosive of the scientific spirit of 
an organization and in so far as it calls for 
clear thinking and attractive presentation on 
the part of those puting it into practise as 
well as the ability to grasp and expound es- 
sentials, its educational effect may be sub- 
jective as well as objective. Whatever may 
be true of other sciences, geologists in this 



178 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



country have shown little interest in popular- 
izing their science or in encouraging its pur- 
suit by amateurs. Such attempts as have 
been made have often been inept and unsuc- 
cessful and the professional geologists have 
looked witli more or less disdain ujwn those 
of their fellows who have tried to espotind 
their science to the people. They have felt 
that men with unusual ability for research 
should devote all of their energy to the work 
of enlarging the confines of knowledge rather 
than to dissemination and popularization of 
what is known to the few. There is undoubt- 
edly much to be said for this view and when 
applied to certain exceptional men it is 
strictly correct. "When, however, we think of 
Darwin and compare the magnitude of his 
achievements with the pains that he took to 
make his conclusions comprehensible by the 
multitude, we are inclined to feel that only by 
extraordinary ability and performance in cer- 
tain directions can an investigator in natural 
science be altogether absolved from the duty 
of making himself intelligible to more than 
a few specialists in his own line. There are 
imdoubtedly many scientific men, thoroughly 
and earnestly convinced of the importance of 
their researches, who would in the long run 
be doing more for humanity and perhaps for 
themselves if they would spare some time to 
tell us as clearly and attractively as possible 
■what it is that they are doing. While I be- 
lieve this to be true of scientific men in gen- 
eral, it is particularly true of those who are 
o£Gicially servants of a democracy. A demo- 
cratic government might almost be character- 
ized as a government by compromise, and this 
is one of the major compromises that con- 
fronts scientific men in the service of such a 
government. The conclusion that a very im- 
portant function of a national geological sur- 
vey is the education of the people in geology 
and the increasing of popular interest in that 
science, api)ears to be unavoidable, yet it is 
surprising how little this function has been 
recog-nized and exercised. The results of such 
education are cumulative and a direct and 
jiermanent gain to science whereas, on the 
other hand, the consequences of prostituting 



the opportunities for scientific work to satisfy 
this and that popular demand for so-called 
practical results in any problem that happens 
to be momentarily in the public eye, is a kind 
of charlatanry that is utterly demoralizing to 
those who practise it and that must ulti- 
mately bring even popular discredit on science. 
A bureau that follows such a policy can 
neither hold within it nor attract to its serv- 
ice men animated by the true spirit of in- 
vestigation. 

Metlwds of Education. — It is not practic- 
able in the present address to discuss in detail 
the many possibilities of educational work in 
geology. Only a few general suggestions can 
be offered. 

In the first place the importance of edu- 
cation by a national geological survey should 
be frankly recognized and the idea that it is 
beneath the dignity of a geologist to partici- 
pate in this function should be discoimte- 
nanced. A geological survey should include 
on its staff one or more men of high ability 
who are especially gifted in interesting the 
public in the purposes, methods and results 
of geologic work — men of imagination who 
can see the romance of science; men of broad 
sympathy who know the hearts and minds of 
their countrymen from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific; men imbued with the truthful spirit 
of science; and finally, men skilled in the art 
of illuminating the cold impersonal results of 
science with a warm glow of human interest. 

It should be the duty of these men to see 
that so far as possible all of the results of 
geologic work are interpreted to the people so 
that every citizen can benefit to the limit of 
his individual capacity. Magazines, the daily 
papers, moving pictures, and all possible 
means of publication should be utilized. 
There should be close contact with educators 
and special pains taken to prepare material 
for use in schools and colleges. Carefully 
planned courses at university smnmer schools 
and elsewhere might be given by members of 
the educational or publicity staff, or by cer- 
tain selected geologists from the field staff. 

Geologists in preparing papers and reports 
should consider with particular care the ques- 



February 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



179 



tion " Who may be reached by this ? " Some 
scientific results can not be popularized and 
these may be written in the concise accurate 
language of science. Others, however, may 
by taking sufficient care and trouble, be made 
interesting to more than a small circle of 
scientific colleagues. Every effort should be 
made to enlarge this circle by simple and 
attractive presentation. In some cases I am 
inclined to think that a geologist might issue 
separately or as a part of his complete report, 
an abstract or resume in which all effort is 
concentrated on an endeavor to be interesting 
and clear to as many people as possible. If 
this were done, I am sure that the writer 
would be in a position to appraise more truly 
the value of his complete report and might 
proceed to rewrite some portions of it and to 
omit others, without loss to science and at a 
saving in pajMr and printing. 

Belations with Universities. — ^In connection 
with the subject of education attention may 
be called to the fundamental importance of 
establishing and maintaining close and cordial 
relationship between a government scientific 
bureau and the universities. The advantages 
of such a relationship are so many that it is 
difficult to enumerate them all but it may be 
pointed out that any plan of popular educa- 
tion in science will be seriously crippled if 
the professional teachers, whose influence in 
molding the thoughts and determining the 
careers of the young men and women of the 
country is so great, are out of sympathy with 
the government organization that is attempt- 
ing to quicken the interest of the people in a 
particular branch of science. Moreover, it is 
vital to such an organization that it shoiild 
attract to its service young men of exceptional 
ability in science. This it is not likely to do 
if professors of geology feel that they must 
conscientiously advise their most promising 
graduates to avoid government service. 
Doubtless some teachers of geology in the 
universities fail to realize the necessity for 
some of the compromises inevitable in a gov- 
ernment bureau, or in their impatience at 
some of the stupidities of bureaucratic pro- 
cedure are inclined to place the blame for 



these where it does not belong; a few may 
cherish personal grievances. No class of men 
is without its unreasonable members and 
neither rectitude nor tact can prevent oc- 
casional clashes; but if a national geological 
survey can not command the respect and 
hearty support of most of the geological 
faculties of the universities the consequences 
to the progress of geology must be deplorable. 
Any approach to such a condition demands 
immediate action with less emphasis on the 
question " Who is to blame ? " for in all prob- 
ability there is some fault on both sides, than 
on " What can be done to restore relations of 
mutual regard and helpfulness ? " 

The Amateur in Geology. — In the present 
age of specialization we are apt to forget how 
much geology owes to amateurs, particularly 
in Britain and France. Sir Archibald Geikie 
in the concluding chapter of his " Founders 
of Geology " dwells particularly on this debt. 
He says: 

In the account which has been presented in this 
volume of tihe work of some of the more notable 
men who have created the science of geology, one 
or two leading facts stand out prominently before 
us. In the first place, even in the list of selected 
names which we have considered, it is remarkable 
how varied have been the ordinary avocationss of 
these pioneers. The majority have been men en- 
gaged in other pursuits, who have devoted their 
leisure to the cultivation of geological studies. 
Steno, Guettard, Pallas, Fiichsel, and many more 
were physicians, either led by their medical train- 
ing to interest themselves in natural history, or 
not seldom, even from boyhood, so fond of natural 
history as to choose medicine as their profession 
because of its affinities with thaA branch of sci- 
ence. Giraud-Soulavie and Michell were clergy- 
men. Murchison was a retired soldier. Alexandre 
Brogniart was ait first engaged in superintending 
the porcelain manufactory of Sfevres. Demarest 
was a hard-worked civil servant who snatched his 
intervals for geology from the toils of incessant 
official occupation. William Smith found time for 
his researdhes in the midst of all the cares and 
anxieties of his profession as an engineer and sur- 
veyor. Hutton, Hall, De Saussure, Von Buch, 
Lyell and Darwin were men of means, who scorned 

3 Vocations would seem to be the right word 
here. F. L. E. 



180 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



a life of sloitiiful ease, and dedicated themselves 
and their fortune to the study of the history of the 
earth. Playfair and Cuvier were both teachers of 
other branches of science, irresistibly drawn into 
the sphere of geological inquiry and speculation. 
Of the whole gallery of worthies that have passed 
before us, a comparatively small proportion could 
be classed as in the strictest sense professional 
geologists, such as Werner, Sedgwick and Logan. 
Were we to step outside of that gallery, and in- 
clude the names of all who have helped to lay the 
foundations of the science, we should find the pro- 
portion to be still less. 

From the beginning of its career, geology has 
owed its foundation and its advance to no select 
and privileged class. It has been open to all 
who cared to undergo the trials which its success- 
ful prosecution demands. And what it has been in 
the past, it remains to-day. No branch of natural 
knowledge lies more invitingly open to every stu- 
dent who, loving the fresh face of Nature, is will- 
ing to train his faculty of observation in the field, 
and to discipline his mind by the patient correla- 
tion of facts and the fearless dissection of theories. 
To such an inquirer no limit can be set. He may 
be enabled to rebuild parts of the temple of sci- 
ence, or to add new towers and pinnacles to its 
superstructure. But even if he should never ven- 
ture into such ambitious undertakings, he wiU gain, 
in the cultivaition of geological pursuits, a solace 
and enjoyment amid the cares of life, which will 
become to him a source of the purest joy. 

In this country at the present time, as Mr. 
David White in an as yet unpublished ad- 
dress, has I believe pointed out, the amateur 
geologist, due partly to the way in which the 
subject is taught, is rare and few indeed are 
the contributions made to the science by those 
who follow geology as an avocation or hobby. 
This is unfortunate and an improvement of 
this condition should be one of the major ob- 
jects of the educational program of a national 
geological survey. The science lends itself 
particularly to its pursuit as a recreation by 
men of trained intellect who must find in the 
open air some relief from sedentary pro- 
fessions. In a country still so new as ours 
geologic problems lie on every hand and many 
of these can be solved wholly or in part with- 
out elaborate apparatus or laboratory facili- 
ties. The standards for the professional geol- 
ogist should be high, but there is no necessity 



that maintenance of such standards should be 
accompanied by a patronizing or supercilious 
attitude toward the work of the amateur. 
Eather, let the professional geologist cultivate 
sympathy, tolerance, and generosity toward 
all who are earnestly seeking for the truth; 
let him help by encouragement instead of 
deterring by disdain. There is no better evi- 
dence of a wide interest in geology than the 
existence of numerous amateur workers and 
it is decidedly to the advantage of the pro- 
fessional geologist and to the science to en- 
courage in every way possible the efforts of 
such workers and to increase their number. 
F. L. Eansome 
(To be concluded) 



GEORGE MACLOSKIE 

George Macloskie was born in Castledown, 
Ireland, in 1834. He studied at Queens' 
University, Ireland, receiving the degree of 
A.B. and A.M. Later, at the University of 
London, he took the degrees in course of 
LL.B. and LL.D. He was three times gold 
medalist. After he had been some years in 
America the University of Ireland granted 
him the honorary Sc.D. 

He was for 13 years (1861-'74) pastor of 
the church of Ballygoney, Ireland. During 
his student life and while discharging his 
pastorial duties he was actively interested in 
the study of natural history. This interest 
had attracted the attention of his friend and 
one-time teacher, Dr. McCosh, the new Presi- 
dent of Princeton College, who called him in 
to occupy the chair of natural history in the 
recently established John C. Green School of 
Science, at Princeton. 

In this chair, later termed biology, with 
imfailing devotion he served the college and 
imiversity for 31 years, retiring in 1906 as 
professor emeritus. During this period, in 
addition to his teaching and executive duties, 
he wrote his " Elementary Botany vnth Stu- 
dent's guide to the Examination of Plants " 
published by Henry Holt & Company, 1883, 
which for several years was used in his 
classes. He published also a nmnber of 
papers on botanical subjects, chiefly in the 
Torrey Bulletin and entomological papers, in 



Febeuaet 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



181 



The American Naturalist and Psyche, deal- 
ing mainly with the structure of the head and 
mouth parts of the house fly and mosquitoes, 
and the trachese of insects. 

An omnivorous reader, he kept ahreast of 
the advances of his science and at the same 
time retained a keen interest in mathemat- 
ical, physical and linguistic studies, publishing 
papers dealing with the mathematical proper- 
ties of lenses, and on hyperbolic functions. 
His self-acquired mastery of a reading knowl- 
edge of the modern languages led him to a 
desire for some more universal means of com- 
munication, so that he was attracted to the 
Esperanto movement and became one of its 
early American promoters. 

Bred as a theologian he was nevertheless in 
sympathy with the then new doctrine of evo- 
lution, and throughout his life was a firm 
upholder of the essential harmony of science 
and religion. His papers on this subject were 
numerous. 

His retirement from the active duties of a 
professor did not lessen his aboimding zeal 
for work, for he then began and carried 
through to completion a three-volume report 
on the Flora of Patagonia — a labor that 
might tax the energies of a much younger 
man. 

Dr. Macloskie was true and loyal to his 
adopted country while cherishing with pride 
his Scotch-Irish ancestry. He was a man of 
strictest probity, affectionate, enthusiastic and 
impulsive; he was just and sympathetic in his 
dealings with his students; a most devoted 
and unselfish collaborator in the work of his 
own and other departments; loyally devoted 
to his friends through good and evil report; 
a good citizen and a Christian gentleman. 

In 1896 Princeton University granted him 
the honorary A.M. As one of her adopted 
sons he served her faithfully in his life and 
his death comes as a loss to his former pupils 
and colleagues. W. M. Eankin 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

In view of the many developments taking 
place in the institution, by which it is being 



rapidly transformed from a college or pri- 
marily local relationships into a scientific 
school of national importance, the trustees 
of Throop College of Technology, at Pasa- 
dena, voted at their annual meeting on Feb- 
ruary tenth to change its name to the Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology. 

The developments of the recent past and 
those assured in the near future that have 
seemed to justify this action are briefly as 
follows : 

There have been received by the institution 
two gifts of $200,000 each to form permanent 
endowments for the support of research in 
physios and chemistry, respectively; and in 
addition $800,000 has been given for general 
purposes, on condition that this endowment 
be increased by additional subscriptions to 
two million dollars. 

Other gifts aggregating $380,000 have been 
received for the construction of new build- 
ings.. With the aid of these fimds a building 
for chemical instruction and research, named 
after the donors the Gates Chemical Labora- 
tory, has already been completed and is occu- 
pied by the chemistry department, which in- 
cludes five professors and assistant professors, 
two instructors, and six teaching fellows. A 
laboratory for aeronautical research has also 
been built, and investigations on airplane 
propellers are in progress. During the latter 
part of the war a laboratory for submarine 
detection was erected and the researches in 
tliat field are still in progress, with reference 
to both commercial uses and future military 
developments. This work will next year be 
transferred to the new physics building; and 
the war laboratory will be equipped for ad- 
vanced instruction and research in applied 
chemistry and chemical engineering. A 
building for instruction and research in phys- 
ics is now being planned, and is to be erected 
dm-ing the year. In recognition of the dona- 
tion which made it possible, it will be known 
as the Norman Bridge Physical Laboratory. 
In addition, a building to serve as an audi- 
torium and music hall, both for the Institute 
and for the Pasadena Music and Art Asso- 
ciation is to be built at once upon the campus. 



182 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



An impressive architectural plan for the 
whole campus has been prepared by the dis- 
tinguished New Tork architect, Mr. Bertram 
G. Goodhue, and all the new construction is 
being carried out in accordance with this 
plan. 

There have recently become associated with 
the faculty of the institute a number of well 
known investigators. Dr. Arthur A. Ifoyes 
has resig-ned his position at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology to become 
director of chemical research at the California 
Institute. Dr. Robert A. MiUikan, of the 
University of Chicago, has arranged to spend 
one term of each year at the institute, and 
will have general supervision of the research 
and instruction in physics. Professor Albert 
A. Michelson, of the University of Chicago, 
will also spend much of his time there for the 
purpose of carrying on researches on the fun- 
damental problem of earth tides, for which 
the necessary equipment is now being in- 
stalled. Dr. Harry Bateman, formerly of 
Cambridge University and Johns Hopkins 
University, had previously joined the faculty 
as professor of aeronautical research and 
■mathematical physics. 

In the development of the institute special 
•emphasis is being placed upon research, not 
•only because every institution of higher edu- 
cation should contribute to the advancement 
of science, but also and particularly because a 
prominent feature of the work of instruction 
is to be the training of engineers of the re- 
search or creative type. While the institute 
•will continue to offer four-year undergraduate 
courses which fit its students directly for the 
positions of operating and constructing engi- 
neers, two new courses of instruction, to be 
known as the courses in physics and engineer- 
ing and in chemistry and engineering, will 
soon be announced by the faculty, in which 
■special stress will be laid on an imusually 
thorough grounding in the three fundamental 
-sciences of physics, chemistry and mathe- 
matics; and in the last two years of which 
much time will be assigned to research in 
physics and chemistry; the time required for 
.these purposes being secured by omitting 



some of the more technical engineering sub- 
jects included in the other engineering 
courses. 

The faculty has also been strengthened on 
the side of humanistic studies by renewal of 
the arrangement with Alfred Noyes, the Eng- 
lish poet, which was in effect before the war, 
under which he will during the next year 
give courses of lectures on English literature; 
and by the appointment of Paul Perigord as 
professor of economics. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE BOARD OF 

TRUSTEES OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Announcement of the nature and scope of 
the activities of the American Museum of 
Natural History during the past year and of 
a prospectus for the coming fifty years was 
made on February 2 by President Henry 
Fairfield Osborn, at the annual meeting of 
the board of trustees, held at the home of 
Arthur Curtiss James, 39 East 69th Street, 
who acted at host. 

Due to its urgency, the matter of main- 
tenance and building funds was given prom- 
inence. It was reported that the Museum is 
now facing the most critical time of its 
history. 

While progress is being made in many 
directions. President Osbom said, it is not 
symmetrical, and in order to secure a har- 
monious educational treatment and to truth- 
fully arrange our present collections, the 
museum needs double the space which it now 
occupies. It is fifteen years since the build- 
ing has been enlarged, and during this time 
the collections have nearly doubled. Presi- 
dent Osborn ascribes this marking time of 
progress not to lack of cooperation on the 
part of the board of estimate and apportion- 
ment of the city, which has recently mani- 
fested its confidence in the institution by in- 
creasing the annual maintenance fund fifty 
per cent.; nor to lack of interest on the part 
of the trustees, who have been signally gen- 
erous, contributing the simi of over $100,000 
in 1919 alone to meet deficiencies in the bud- 
get; nor to lack of friendliness on the part 
of the Board of Education, which has also 



February 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



183 



given its cooperation. He gave tkree very 
sufficient reasons in the following: the un- 
precedented growth of the collections; the 
actual shortage of funds in the city treasury; 
and the interruption by the war of building 
extension through personal subscription of the 
trustees which was planned in 1913. 

He went on to point out that the whole 
educational system of New York city and 
state has suffered from the same causes; that 
conditions have arisen where we are com- 
pelled to take a very large and constructive 
view of the future. The need of the hour as 
felt in every one's m^ind is Americanization, 
which can be accomplished only through the 
thorough training of our youth according to 
American ideals. The free schools, colleges, 
libraries, museums, scientifically arranged 
parks and aquaria, free lectures and free con- 
certs designed for instruction and inspiration 
form the structure on which Americanization 
rests. In this structure, the American Mu- 
seum has won a vital place. In its school 
educational work, the museum holds a strong 
I)osition. In the last five years it has reached 
5,650,595 children directly and indirectly 
through its lecture system and traveling 
museums; it has expended $89,126.08 of its 
own funds directly on public education, in 
addition to the $1,538,057 expended on ex- 
plorations, collections and researches, the re- 
sults of which ultimately find their way into 
the school mind. The scope and efBciency of 
its public educational work is such as to have 
called forth the enthusiastic admiration of 
the British Educational Mission on its recent 
visit, and to be taken as a model for educa- 
tional development in Great Britain. 

With all this obvious advance, the museum 
has in certain ways come to a full stop in its 
educational activities. This is particularly 
true of exhibition work. In hall after hall 
the arrangement is less truthful and more 
misleading than it was twenty years ago, for 
the collections are jumbled together out of 
their natural order, giving, in cases entirely 
erroneous impressions. It is therefore, not a 
civic luxury, but a paramount educational 
necessity which demands the enlargement of 



the musemn buildings and the provision of 
the necessary equipment. The most impor- 
tant thing for the museum to-day is imme- 
diate building space and equipment. And the 
next most important thing is the immediate 
increase of its general endowment by not less 
than $2,000,000 in addition to the munificent 
bequest of Mrs. Russell Sage. 

In exploration and field work but little 
more activity was possible than in 1918. Eoy 
C. Andrews continued his work in noi'thern 
China and Mongolia, and has been eminently 
successful in securing valuable series of goral, 
serow and mountain sheep. Paul D. Ruth- 
ling and Karl P. Schmidt have collected 
reptiles and amphibians in Mexico and Porto 
Rico. Henxy E. Crampton has continued his 
work in the Society Islands; George K 
Cherrie and Harry Watkins have secured col 
lections of small mammals and birds in 
Venezuela and Peru; and Herbert J. Spinden 
has made archeological collections in Peru, 
Colombia, Dutch Guiana and Central Amer- 
ica. In the United States, valuable and 
unique archeological and ethnological mate- 
rial was secured in Arizona and New Mexico 
by Leslie Speir and Earl H. Morris, and a 
collection of Miocene fossils including a slab 
containing a nmnber of skeletons of the two- 
horned Rhinoceros Diceraiherium were ob- 
tained by Albert Thomas in Nebraska. 

During the year over 600 accessions to the 
collections were recorded. Some of the more 
important gifts were: the painting of the 
eclix)se of the sun in 1918 by H. R. Sutler, 
presented by Edward D. Adams; a Chinese 
painting on silk of the last dynastic period, 
1761, presented by Ogden Mills; a lacquered 
dog-house from a Chinese imperial palace, 
from Miss Theodora Wilbour; skin of an 
albino deer, from Archibald Harrison; a 
series of bronze objects from Sumatra from 
Arthur S. Walcott; and a collection of ethno- 
logical specimens from Zuni, from Mrs. Elsie 
Clews Parsons. 

Nearly 900,000 people visited the museimi 
in 1919, exceeding by 175,000 the attendance 
of 1918. The net gain in membership was 
615, the total membership now being 5,183. 



184 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



OHlda Frick was elected a trustee. 

Those present at the annual meeting were: 
Thomas DeWitt Cuyler, Cleveland H. Dodge, 
"Walter Douglas, Madison Grant, William 
Averell Harriman; Archer M. Huntington, 
Adrian Iselin, Arthur Curtis James, J. P. 
Morgan, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Percy P. 
Pyne, Theodore Roosevelt, John B. Trevor 
and Francis D. Gallatin. 

NEW YORK MEETING OF THE AMERICAN IN- 
STITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGICAL 
ENGINEERS 

The American Institute of Mining and Met- 
allurgical Engineers under the presidency of 
Mr. Hoover, met in 'New York City this week. 
Three sessions of the annual meeting were de- 
voted to the subject of coal. In the first of 
these facts were brought out on some of the 
questions around which controversies raged 
during the recent strike, including: Why is 
production intermittent? How and when do 
the irregularities occur? How many days a 
year do the men actually work? What are the 
actual wages received by men during each sea- 
son and in what way can the wage basis be 
changed? How and where can coal be stored 
at the mine, at industrial plants or elsewhere? 

The fundamentals of the problem were pre- 
sented in a series of papers by authorities. 
Van H. Manning, director of the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, outlined conditions in a paper on 
" The problems of the coal industry." George 
Otis Smith, director, H. S. Geological Survey, 
presented a statistical analysis of the rate of 
output over a period of years, showing the 
relative effect of shortage of transportation and 
of labor and lack of market and other factors 
in the production of coal. H. H. Stock, of the 
University of Illinois, discussed the storage of 
bituminous coal at the point of production, at 
centers of distribution and by the consumer. 
S. L. Yerkes discussed transportation as a fac- 
tor in irregularity of coal-mine operation. 

The business side was presented by Eugene 
McAuliffe, president of the Union Colliery 
Company, in a paper on stabilizing the market. 
Edwin Ludlow, of the Lehigh Coal and Navi- 
gation Co., discussed conservation as applied 



to mining methods, by-products and constmip- 
tion. 

Unpaid taxes on mines amounting to $200,- 
000,000 were involved in a discussion at an 
open forum held on the subject of mine taxa- 
tion. The views both of the government and 
the mine owners were presented, the discussion 
being led by Ralph Arnold, valuation expert of 
the Petroleum Division of the Internal Rev- 
enue Department ; J. R. Finlay, who evaluated 
the mines of the state of Michigan; J. Parke 
Channing, of New York, and R. C. Allen, vice- 
president of the Lake Superior Ore Associa- 
tion. 

In the evening of February 17 more than one 
thousand delegates and their friends attended 
a banquet at the Waldorf-Astoria at which 
Lawrence Addicks was toastmaster. President 
Herbert Hoover, retiring President Horace V. 
Winchell and Professor James F. Kemp, of 
Columbia University, were the speakers. 

Besides Mr. Hoover as president, the follow- 
ing officers were elected : Frederick Laist, Ana- 
conda, Mont., and Seeley W. Mudd, Los 
Augeles, vice-presidents. W. R. Walker, New 
York; A. S. Dwight, New York; R. M. Oatlin, 
Franklin Furnace, N. J.; G. H. Clevenger, 
Washington, D. C, and W. A. Carlyle, Ottawa, 
Canada, directors. 

RESOLUTIONS ON THE DEATH OF SIR 
WILLIAM OSLER 

On motion of the executive committee of 
the Federation of American Societies for Ex- 
perimental Biology in Cincinnati December 
30, 1919, the following minute was drafted: 

In the death of Dr. Osier, the medical profession 
has suffered an immeasurable loss. Belonging to 
no cult, or age, or clime, but descended in direct 
line from Hippocrates, he was master of the art of 
medicine in its purest form. As a teacher, he was 
again master, painting with broad strokes pictures 
of disease never to be forgotten by the student. 
An investigator and an inspirer of investigation, 
a worthy counsellor of brother physicians, a delver 
in the history of medicine, and an ornament to its 
letters; and withal so human and of such rare per- 
sonal charm as to be beloved of all who eame in 
contact with him. Such was the man we mourn. 

We grieve not only at loss of leader and friend, 



Febkuakt 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



185 



but also that death overtook him in the very shadow 
of the great conflict which brought him so great 
personal loss and sorrow and robbed him of the 
mellow years which were so fully his due. 
(Singned) 

C. H. Bunting, 
Henry A. Christian, 

A. S. LOEVENHART, 

Committee 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. Ludvig Hektoen, of tte John Mc- 
Oormick Institute for Infectious Diseases, 
Chicago, has been elected honorary member of 
the Pathological Society of Philadelphia. 

Dr. E. V. McCoLLUM, professor of chemical 
hygiene, school of hygiene and public health, 
Johns Hopkins University, has been made cor- 
responding member of the Academie Royale 
de Medecine de Belgique. 

Dr. Herbert E. Gregory, Silliman professor 
of geology, Yale University, sailed on February 
17, to resume his duties as acting director of 
the Bishop Museum at Honolulu, Hawaii. 
Professor Gregory will return to New Haven 
in September. 

Dr. William T. Sedgwick, senior professor 
of the Institute of Technology and head of the 
defpartment of biology and public health, will 
be the first exchange professor with the British 
universities of Cambridge and Leeds. Dr. 
Sedgwick will leave for England early in April, 
and expects to spend the summer in Europe, 
returning to Boston in September. 

Dr. Egbert W. Hegner, associate professor 
of protozoology in charge of the department of 
medical zoology in the School of Hygiene and 
Public Health, has been appointed a delegate 
from The Johns Hopkins University to the 
Congress of the Royal Institute of Public 
Health which meets in Brussels from May 20 
to May 24, 1920. Dr. Hegner wiU read a paper 
at the Congress on " The relation of medical 
zoology to public health problems." He ex- 
pects to spend the months of June, July and 
August in study at the Liverpool and London 
Schools of Tropical Medicine and in visiting 



other institutions in Europe and Africa where 
medical zoology is being taught or investigated. 

Ernest F. Burchard, geologist in charge of 
the iron and steel section, U. S. Geological 
Survey, has been granted a ten months' ab- 
sence and will make geologic investigations in 
the Philippines. 

Dr. M. W. Lyon, Jr., formerly professor of 
pathology and bacteriology, George Washing- 
ton University, and at one time connected 
with the Division of Mammals, U. S. National 
Museum, and captain in the Medical Corps 
during the war, has left Washington to take 
charge of pathological work at South Bend, 
Indiana. 

We learn from the Journal of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association that, foUovdng the 
usual custom. Professor Laveran, formerly 
vice-president, has assumed the duties of pres- 
ident of the Paris Academy of Medicine for 
the year 1920. Dr. L. G. Eichelot, hospital 
surgeon and professor of medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Paris, was chosen vice-president for 
the year 1920, and Dr. Arcard, also of the 
University of Paris, was elected secretary for 
the year. Dr. E. Lejars, professor of clinical 
surgery, has been elected president of the 
Surgical Society for the year 1920. 

It is announced in Nature that Professor 
R. T. Leiper, reader in helminthology in the 
University of London, has been awarded the 
Straits Settlement gold medal by the senate 
of the University of Glasgow. The medal was 
founded some years ago by Scottish medical 
practitioners in the Malay States, and is 
given periodically to a graduate in medicine 
of the Scottish universities for a thesis on a 
subject of tropical medicine. 

Dr. Carlos E. Porter, editor of the Eevista 
Chilena de Eistoria Natural, of Santiago, 
Chile, is about to publish a work, upon which 
he has been engaged for fifteen years, on the 
museums and naturalists of Latin America. 
The work will comprise three volumes abun- 
dantly illustrated. Dr. Porter is enabled to 
publish this work through the financial sup- 
port of Dr. Chistobal M. Hicken, professor of 
botany and geology in the faculty of natural 



186 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



science of Buenos Aires, known through his 
explorations of Patagonia. 

Sir Arthur Newsholme, lecturer on public 
health administration, school of hygiene and 
public health, Johns Hopkins University, de- 
livered the annual Frederick A. Packard Lec- 
ture of the Philadelphia Pediatric Society in 
Thompson Hall, College of Physicians, Feb- 
ruary 10, on " ITeo-Natal Infant Mortality." 

At the meeting of the Institute of Medicine 
of Chicago, January 30, at the City Club, Dr. 
Victor C. Vaughan, of the University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, presented a paper on 
" Remarks on the Chemistry of the Protein 
Molecule in Relation to Infection," and Dr. 
Karl K. Koessler spoke on " The Relations of 
Proteinogenous Amins to Medicine." 

Among the speakers at " Farmers' Week " 
at the Michigan Agricultural College from 
February 2 to 6 inclusive, were Dr. E. V. Mc- 
Collum, of the Johns Hopkins University; 
Dr. F. J. Alway, of the University of Minne- 
sota, and Dean Alfred Vivian, of the Ohio 
State University. Being members of the 
American Chemical Society they were the 
guests of honor at a luncheon given by the 
local section of that society on February 5, 
at which about forty members were present. 

As a permanent memorial of Dr. Christian 
R. Holmes, his friends have inaugurated plans 
to raise a fimd of $1,000,000 for medical re- 
search, the endowment to be known as the 
Christian R. Holmes Medical Research Fund. 
The Carnegie Corporation has made a gift of 
$250,000 to the medical college of the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati, as a tribute to Dr. Holmes's 
services and to endow a chair in his memory. 

Robert Hollister Chapman, for many 
years topographical engineer of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, died of pneumonia in 'New 
York where he was attending a meeting of 
the American Alpine Club, of which he was 
secretary. After the United States entered 
the war Mr. Chapman became a major in the 
Engineers' Reserve Corps. He was bom in 
New Haven in 1868. 

Dr. Elmer Ernst Southard, Bullard pro- 
fessor of neuro-pathology at the Harvard Med- 



ical School, died from pneiunonia on Feb- 
ruary 8, aged forty-four years. 

Sir Thomas R. Eraser, F.R.S., emeritus 
professor of materia medica. University of 
Edinburgh, died on January 4, at seventy- 
eight years of age. 

Dr. Edwin A. Strong, emeritus professor 
of physics at the Michigan State ITormal 
College, died on February 4 at the age of 
eighty-six years. He devoted nearly sixty 
years of his life to the promotion of educa- 
tion and science in Michigan in long terms of 
service at Grand Rapids and Ypsilanti. 

A REGULAR meeting of the American Phys- 
ical Society will be held in Fayerweather Hall, 
Columbia University, New York, on Saturday, 
February 28. If the length of the program re- 
quires it, there wiU also be sessions on Friday, 
February 27. The next following meeting of 
the society wiU. be held in Washington on April 
23 and 24. 

Mr. James Simpson, vice-president of Mar- 
shall Field & Co., Chicago, will present the 
Field Museum of Natural History with a large 
assembly hall or theater. The seating capacity 
will be 925, exclusive of lobbies extending 
around three sides of the theater. The theater 
is to be in the west wing of the main building 
of the museum. 

A Pasteur Institute has been inaugurated 
at Managua, Nicaragua, presented to that 
country by the President of Mexico. The 
institute has therefore been named Institute 
Antirabico Carranza. 

Under the auspices of the Pan-Pacific Union, 
arrangements are being made for a scientific 
conference to be held in Honolulu, Hawaii, Au- 
gust, 1920. The purpose of the conference is 
to outline some of the fundamental scientific 
problems of the Pacific Ocean region and to 
formulate methods for their solution. The 
plan involves the cooperation of representative 
scientists and institutions from the countries 
whose interests lie within or about the Pacific 
with the hope that a program of research may 
be developed which will eliminate duplication 



February 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



187 



of eSort and of funds. The program of tlie 
conference is in the hands of the Committee on 
Pacific Exploration of the National Eesearch 
CounciL 

The U. S. Bureau of Chemistry at Washing- 
ton announces that the work on photosensitiz- 
ing dyes b^un during the war for the Bureau 
of Aircraft Production has met with such suc- 
cess as to make possible the preparation in the 
United States of dyes of all the recognized 
types: pinaverdol (including Orthoohrome T), 
cyanine, pinacyanol and dicyanine; and of a 
new type useful for astrophotographic work. 
The Color Laboratory of the bureau will place 
its experience at the disposal of any manufac- 
turer who wishes to prepare these important 
photographic aids for the American market; 
and pending their commercial availability is 
prepared to supply them to users at a price 
fixed by the secretary of agriculture. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 

NEWS 

Dr. Edgae F. Smith, provost of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania since 1911, tendered his 
resignation to the board of trustees on Febru- 
ary 9. Dr. Smith became professor of chem- 
istry in the University of Pennsylvania in 
1888. 

Dr. Jacob Gould Schurman has resigned 
the presidency of Cornell University. Dr. 
Schurman, previously professor of philosophy, 
became president of Cornell University in 
1892. 

Dr. Charles W. Dabney has resigned the 
presidency of the University of Cincinnati, 
which he has held since 1904. 

Dr. John M. T. Finney, Baltimore, has 
declined the offer made him by Harvard Uni- 
versity and will continue his connection with 
the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical 
School. 

Dr. H. H. Lane, who has since 1905 been 
head of the department of zoology of the 
University of Oklahoma, has accepted a posi- 
tion for nffid; year as head of department of 
zoology, of Phillips University, Enid, Okla- 
homa. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

BLOOD-INHABITING PROTOZOA FOR CLASS 

USE 

At the present time there are several large 
and important groups of Protozoa that remain 
unknown to students of biology chiefly be- 
cause they are not easy to obtain when they 
are needed. One of these groups that is of 
added interest because of the economic im- 
portance of some of its members contains the 
hemoflagdlates, including the trypanosomes. 
Trypanosomes are responsible for the hmnan 
disease known as sleeping sickness, that is 
prevalent in certain parts of Africa, and for 
Chagas' disease in South America. They 
also cause diseases in domestic animals such 
as surra, nagana, murrina, mal de eaderas 
and doiu-ine which result in great losses every 
year. 

The first trypanosome described was foimd 
in the frog in 1843 and was given the name 
Trypanosoma rotatorium. Specimens belong- 
ing to this species oeciu' in the frogs of this 
country, particularly in the " water " frogs 
such as the green frog, Rana clamitans, and 
the bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, but they are 
present usually in small numbers and not all 
frogs are infected. If it is desired to obtain 
for study this type 8i)ecies the centrifuge may 
be used to concentrate the specimens. Blood 
may be obtained from an etherized frog and 
mixed to prevent clotting with a solution of 
sodiimi citrate made up as follows: sodium 
citrate, IJ grams; sodiiun chloride IJ grams; 
water 250 c.c. After centrifuging for about 
ten minutes the trypanosomes, if present, will 
be found in a layer at the top of the mass 
of red blood cells. 

A much more simple method of furnishing 
trypanosomes to a large class of students is 
to collect a few newts, Diemyctylus viridescens, 
from the water. Tobey in 1906 first described 
the species in these newts naming it Try- 
panosoma diemyctyli. He foimd them pres- 
ent in every specimen that he had pvirchased 
in an animal store in Boston. The writer 
has had a similar exi)erience with newts col- 
lected for him in Pennsylvania. Seventy- 



188 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



eight of the olive-green water form and seven 
of the Vermillion land form were examined. 
Every one of the former was abundantly sup- 
plied with the parasites, but only two of the 
land forms were infected. 

All that is necessary to obtain living speci- 
mens of the trypanosomes for study is to 
snip off a little piece from the end of the tail, 
and then squeeze out several drops of blood 
on each slide. A cover glass can be added 
directly or a ring of vaseline m.ay first be 
spread around the blood so that the preparation 
will be sealed when the cover glass is put in 
place. In such a preparation the spiral move- 
ment of the organism is evident, and the 
flagellum and undulating membrane are easily 
observed in action. The nucleus and other 
structures are clearly revealed in dried films 
stained with Wright's or Leishman's stains. 
Obtain a drop of blood near one end of a 
clean slide. Place the end of another slide 
near the drop of blood at an angle of about 
30 degrees with the shorter end of the slide. 
Draw this slide along until it touches the 
drop. When the blood has spread along the 
edge, push the slide fairly rapidly toward the 
other end. A thin even film will result 
covering about one half of the slide. Allow 
this to dry. Then place a few drops of the 
stain on the film and allow to remain one 
minute. Add double the volume of distilled 
water and after five minutes wash the film 
with distilled water, and dry in the air. 
Balsam and a cover glass may then be added 
but the stain will fade. If oil immersion ob- 
jectives are available no cover glass should be 
used but the oil placed directly on the iUm, 
and after the examination is completed this 
oil may be wiped off with lens paper or washed 
off with xylol. The stain may be obtained in 
small 0.1 gram tubes. This amount is dis- 
solved in 10 c.c. of pure methyl alcohol and 
is then ready for use. R. W. Hegner 

School op Hygiene and Public Health, 
The Johns Hopkins Universitt 

horizontal rainbows 
To THE Editor op Science : With respect to 
Eeese's accoimt of an " unusual form of rain- 



bow" in Science for December 12, 1919 (Vol. 
L., p. 542), it may be said that, in Europe, 
rainbows on the surfaces of ponds and lakes 
have been reported from time to time diu-ing 
the past fifty years. They have been observed, 
also, on several bodies of water in Japan 
during the past few years and the investiga- 
tors of that country have given some atten- 
tion to the mathematical explanation of these 
phenomena. 

In the United States these spectral displays 
have been seen frequently on the surface of 
Lake Mendota at Madison, Wisconsin, during 
the past ten or twelve years. Some of these 
displays have been unusually brilliant and 
varied; double and triple primary bows to- 
gether with a secondary bow have been noted 
at times. These phenomena have been de- 
scribed in the Monthly Weather Review for 
February, 1916 (Vol. 44, p. 65). 

The complete bows that have appeared on 
the surface of Lake Mendota possessed a very 
different outline from the diagram shown by 
Reese. They were parabolic in shape instead 
of circular; neither did they possess an in- 
verted segment connecting the outer extrem- 
ities as in his figure. 

As far as the present writer is aware, these 
horizontal rainbows have been reported for 
only two lakes in this coimtry, namely. Lake 
Mendota and the lake referred to by Reese. 
This seems to indicate that it is not a wide- 
spread phenomenon, or else other observers 
have not taken the trouble to publish accounts 
of their observations. It would be interest- 
ing to know whether these spectral colors 
have been seen on any other bodies of water 
in this country. 

Chancey Juday 

Madison, Wisconsin 

chemistry applied to commerce 
The divorce of science and industry, which 
has long been a noisesome skeleton in our 
economic household, is fast being annulled. 
" During the war, American industry acquired 
- — or had thrust upon it — a wholesome respect 
for American science," Drug and Chemical 



February 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



189 



Marlcets said in a recent editorial, and this 
organ of commercial chemistry might well 
have added that at the same time American 
science learned the wholesome lesson that 
American industry has problems and aims not 
altogether ignoble. It is no longer the hall- 
mark of the practical business man openly to 
hold in contempt all knowledge gained from 
books or laboratories. The man of science 
no longer believes that the application of his 
training and talents to practical problems is 
prostitution. 

During the war period, the practical prob- 
lems of the chemical industry were problems 
of production. American chemists helped 
solve these production problems, and, now 
that war conditions are passing, American 
chemical manufacturers naturally turn to 
them for help in solving the problems of 
distribution. This help must come finally 
from our colleges and universities. 

It is not necessary for me to point out that 
chemical manufacture is a "key industry," 
nor to emphasize the fact that, if we are to 
keep the tremendous advantages we have won 
during the past five years in the development 
of the American chemical industry, a bitter 
trade war must be successfully waged. Soon 
our manufacturers will meet, both at home 
and abroad, the products of foreign com- 
petitors. Then the trade war will be declared 
in earnest, since our domestic consumption 
of chemicals is not sufficient to support a self- 
contained industry. Our Allies have all in- 
creased their chemical productivity greatly, 
and they appreciate, quite as well as we do, 
the vital importance of this industry. Ger- 
many has always had a nice comprehension of 
the place of chemicals in industry and in war- 
fare, and her chemical equipment, both men 
and plants, is intact. 

To make chemical products in competition 
with the world avails us nothing if we can not 
market them successfully in world-competi- 
tion. Chemical manufacturing is the most 
diversified and technical of industries, and its 
basic conditions place a premium upon tech- 
nical training; its productive branches are 
as complex, for the diversified products to 



be marketed are bought by many consumers 
and their uses are various and often highly 
technical. Men of technical, chemical train- 
ing who can market our American-made 
chemicals are needed to-day. 

Detailed, expert knowledge of the goods he 
handles is an important part of the salesman's 
equipment, for, since he can no longer sell 
his customers by means of cigars and jokes, 
he must render them a service. This service 
is often expert advice. Dyes must be properly 
applied; medicinals must be intelligently pre- 
scribed; aromatics must be skillfully com- 
bined. New markets must be developed for 
old chemicals and new products must be intro- 
duced. A smattering of chemical trade jargon 
is poor equipment for such work, and it is 
worth remembering that the German dye 
trusts took pains to send out salesmen trained 
in the chemistry of dyestuffs and speaking 
the language of the countries they visited. 
The haphazard supply of men who have taken 
more or less chemistry at college and who 
chance to become salesmen is in no way able 
to meet this kind of selling competition. 
Graduates in chemistry are seldom fitted by 
temperament or experience for this work: 
salesmen are not often equipped with tech- 
nical training. Chemistry applied commer- 
cially to distribution is even further removed 
from the pure science than are industrial re- 
search and production work. The commercial 
instinct, however, is not to be condemned, 
and courses in commercial chemistry would 
attract undergraduates who, after a year's 
course, would normally drop out of the ken of 
the chemistry department. The training of 
so-called chemical engineers has brought to 
the study of chemistry many students anxious 
to become plant executives, but quite in- 
different to analysis, research, or teaching. 
Courses in commercial chemistry would, in 
like manner, open up new opportunities. 

The foundation of such courses would nat- 
urally be a broad one of chemistry upon 
which could be raised a working knowledge of 
analysis and of important industrial processes. 
The uses of chemical products in the indus- 
tries — steel, textile, leather, rubber, paper. 



190 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



glass, fertilizers, etc. — ought to be treated in 
such courses, and crude drugs, essential and 
fixed oils, and petroleum, are products closely 
allied commercially to chemicals about which 
the student should know something. A series 
of lectures on the chemical markets — how 
chemicals are sold, containers, insurance, fire 
risks, sales contracts, etc. — ^might well be 
delivered by some sales manager or broker 
familiar through daily, practical experience 
with this subject. Supplementary courses in 
applied economics, such as given in many of 
the larger universities on banking and finance, 
commercial law, traffic and transportation, 
business administration, advertising, and even 
actual salesmanship, might to advantage be 
offered to the students of commercial chem- 
istry. 

A deftaite and very real need for men with 
technical training in chemistry as applied to 
commerce exists and, as yet, there has been 
no systematic, serious effort on the part of 
our colleges and imiversities to supply this 
demand. Young men equipped with this 
training would find places in the most highly 
paid branch of industry open to them, and 
institutions giving this training would in- 
crease the scoi)e of their chemistry depart- 
ments. Moreover, to supply the American 
chemical industry with technically trained 
merchandizing experts will strengthen a "key 
industry," necessary to national prosperity 
and, in event of war, essential to national 
preservation. 

Williams Haynes 

New York City 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 

The Physical Chemistry of the Metals. By 
EuDOLPH ScHENCK, Profcssor of Physical 
Chemistry in the Technischen Hochschule 
in Aachen. Translated by Eeginald Scott 
Dean, Eesearch Metallurgist, American 
Zinc, Lead and Smelting Company. New 
York. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1919. 
Vin + 239 pages. 

It is surprising that this book published in 
Germany in 1908 should have escaped the eye 
of the translator imtil now. It is, however, 



most encouraging to the future of American 
industry to fiad the translator connected with 
one of the large metallurgical plants. Usually 
texts which deal largely with theoretical sub- 
jects are translated by college men for use in 
their classes and find their way into the prac- 
tical field only indirectly. It is, therefore, 
doubly welcome to see a translation eman- 
ating from an industrial plant. 

The book deals very largely with principles, 
but is eminently practical for the metal- 
lurgist. The chapter headings: I. Properties 
of Metals; 11. Metallic Solutions and Alloys; 
m. Alloys of Metals with Carbides, Oxides 
and Sulphides, Iron and Steel, Mattes, Phase 
Eule; rV. Metallurgical Eeactions, Oxidation 
and Eeduction; V. DecomjKisition of Carbon 
Monoxide, Blast Furnace Process; VI. The 
Eeactions of Sulphides give a good idea of the 
subject matter contained in the book. All of 
this material is essential to the well-trained 
metallurgist, but particularly that in the last 
four chapters. Each subject is treated briefly, 
but clearly and special emphasis is laid upon 
equilibrium phenomena and the factors which 
influence equilibrium. The reactions between 
carbon and oxygen and metallic oxides receive 
the full attention they deserve. 

With the many merits which the book has 
it is surprising that it has some simple faults 
which might easily have been con-ected. As 
examples might be mentioned the following: 
the omission of the eutectic lines in the dia- 
gram on page 51; the form of curves 1, 2, 
and 4 in diagram on p. 50; the inadequacy of 
the treatment of Crystal Growth on p. 20; 
the synonymous use of the terms martensite 
and austenite; the use of the term sorbitic as 
applied to chilled cast iron. These are, how- 
ever, unimportant and it is hoped and be- 
lieved that the book will be a distinct help to 
American metallurgists. 

H. F. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES 

THE DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGIN OF THE 
NOTOCHORD 

The notochord is so constant, fundamental 
and distinctive a structure in the Chordate 



Pebbuaet 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



191 



group tliat its interpretation — as is of course 
thoroughly known — has received gi-eat atten- 
tion, and it plays a part in many of the 
theories of "the origin of vertebrates." 
Despite the great theoretical importance at- 
taching to the origin of the chorda dorsalis or 
notoehord, we find in the current text-books 
statements of its origin most conflicting — and 
as it seems to me unnecessarily so. Of five 
standard text-books of himian anatomy in the 
English language, two give the notoehord as 
entodermal, three as derived from the prim- 
itive streak. Of five text-books of histology, 
two describe the notoehord as entodermal, one 
as ectodermal, while two make no statement; 
two standard comparative anatomies give the 
notoehord as entodermal; of seven embryology 
texts, five state that it is of entodermal origin, 
although three of these qualify it as an ap- 
parent origin only, one gives the notoehord as 
mesodermal, while one states that it may in 
different vertebrate groups be ectodermal, 
mesodermal, or entodermal. Three standard 
text-books of pathology state that the noto- 
ehord is an endodermal structure. Most text- 
books of zoology will probably be found to ad- 
here to the entodermal origin of the noto- 
ehord. The preponderant statement is thus 
that the notoehord is an entodermal structure, 
and since this is the origin in the latest 
human anatomy and in the latest vertebrate 
embryology, it is clear that this interpretation 
is not an old obsolete one held over from edi- 
tion to edition. 

In the attempt to reconcile the apparent 
differences of origin of the notoehord or the 
different interpretations, we have two atti- 
tudes illustrated: (1) Kellicott in his "Gen- 
eral Embryology" confessedly accepts an 
origin from any one of the three germ-layers 
when he says (p. 358) : The " notoehord may 
with equal correctness be described as ento- 
dermal, mesodermal or even ectodermal, in 
varioiis forms." Kingsley, in his " Compara- 
tive Anatomy of Vertebrates," who accepts 
the entodermal origin says, however (p. 18, 
footnote) : " The statement is made that in 
some groups the notoehord arises from an- 
other germ layer than the entoderm, but 



these statements apparently rest on erroneous 
observations or interpretations. Different 
origins in different vertebrates would tend to 
show that what are called notoehord are not 
homologous." It requires but brief review of 
the early development of the chick (for ex- 
ample) to recognize that the notoehord is here 
developed from the primitive streak and hence 
not entodermal. Furthermore, the funda- 
mental plan of the vertebrate body is so con- 
stant and the occurrence, jjosition, extent and 
relations of the notoehord so uniform that any 
suggestion that the notoehord is not homo- 
logous in the different vertebrate classes must 
be rejected at once as without evidence. 
Finally, it would be improbable that such a 
structure as the notoehord should have funda- 
mentally different origins in different forms 
as Kellicott felt forced to asume. 

When the facts of vertebrate development 
are fully examined, it becomes at once appar- 
ent that it is unnecessary to assume lack of 
homology, error in interpretation or real 
diversity in origin, but that in all vertebrates 
whose development has been traced — ^from 
Amphioxus up to man — the notoehord is 
formed from the dorsal lip of the blastopore 
or (in higher forms) its equivalent the prim- 
itive streak. For the preponderance of the 
view that the notoehord is an entodermal 
structure perhaps three things are mainly 
responsible: (a) the prevailing tendency to 
interpret development as seen in the con- 
venient transverse plane, with (6) neglect of 
the concomitant changes in the long axis and 
without an appreciation of the dorsal lip of the 
blastopore as the center of differential growth 
which lays down, along with other structures, 
the notoehord. (c) The preponderant work 
done upon the development of the lower 
vertebrates, particularly Amphioxus and the 
Amphibia, where, as followed in transection 
without an accompanying consideration of the 
growth in the longitudinal planes, it would be 
unhesitatingly stated that the notoehord was 
folded off from the entoderm. But even in 
these forms, it would be only the first, more 
cephalic, portion, of the notoehord that could 
be under any interpretation termed ento- 



192 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



dermic, since as soon as the so-called "tail- 
bud " has formed by growth-transformation of 
the blastoporic lip, differential growth in that 
region continues to form notochord that has 
no association with the entoderm whatever. 
Cerfontaine,^ it may be pointed out, in his 
classical paper on the early development of 
Amphioxus, has critically studied the develop- 
ment of the notochord from the dorsal blasto- 
poric lip, and accordingly ranks it as an 
ectodermal structure. 

It is unnecessary to take up here in detail 
the evidence of the formation of the notochord 
from the blastoporic lip. There is no reason 
to consider the development of the chick as 
exceptional among birds. In mammals, the 
evidence as it accumulates shows the same 
mode of origin (from the primitive streak), 
as exemplified by the recent careful descrip- 
tion of Huber- for the guinea pig. 

The acceptance of the origin of the noto- 
chord from the dorsal lip of the blastopore 
(resp. primitive streak) throughout the verte- 
brate group (including Amphioxus) leads 
naturally to the statement that the notochord 
is to be regarded as ectodermal ia origin. 
For many years it has seemed to the writer 
that the conception of a germ-layer should 
include nore than topographical relation. It 
is therefore advantageous to consider the blas- 
toporic lip, primitive streak and so-called 
"tail bud," undifferentiated material rather 
than definitive ectoderm, and having within 
it the " potentialities " of the several struc- 
tures developed out of it. Its cells would be 
" totipotent " or at least " pluripotent," if we 
wish to use these terms. Particularly from 
the pathological viewpoiut, in the interpreta- 
tion of teratomata from the persistence of un- 
differentiated cells of primitive streak or tail- 
bud origin would this be helpfvil. 

The notochord throughout the vertebrate 
class shows the marked association with the 
entoderm, which is of course directly respon- 
sible for the prevailing view that the noto- 
chord is an entodermal structure. While in 
the phylogenetie interpretation of the origin 

1 Cerfontame, P. Arch, de Biol, Vol. 22, 1906. 

2 Huber, G. Karl, 1918, Anat. Record, Vol. 14. 



of the notochord this fact must ultimately be 
taken fiill account of, ontogenetically, the 
entoderm is the only one of the three germ- 
layers which can not be considered as the 
source of its cells — the one to which it may be 
referred. Many, as indicated above, from the 
fact of the superficial location of the forma- 
tive centers in the blastoporic lip will regard 
the notochord as ectodermic. One may, as 
Keibel clearly does,^ consider it unnecessary 
to refer the notochord to any germ-layer. 
However, if we must group the notochord in 
with one of the three fundamental germ- 
layers, it has seemed to the writer that the 
notochord must be included among the meso- 
dermal structures, for the following reasons : 

(1) The mesoderm — or, to make due allowance 
for other possible sources of mesoderm — that 
portion of the mesoderm with which the 
notochord is associated is developed from the 
blastoporic lip (resp. primitive streak, tail- 
bud), and is similarly "handled" in develop- 
ment. When, as in Amphioxus the notochord 
is at first associated with the entoderm, form- 
ing temiKirarily part of the roof of the arch- 
enteron, the mesoderm is similarly associated. 

(2) It attains like the mesoderm an interior 
(intermediate) position. (3) It is endoskele- 
tal in its physiologic significance. (4) The 
notochord in amphibia and reptilia at least 
gives rise to hyalin cartilage, a tissue of 
recognized mesodermal characteristic. This 
seems to be clearly shown by a number of 
investigators.* Considerations similar to the 
above led TriepeP to pronounce the notochord 
a mesodermal structure. 

Were the pathologists to accept the noto- 
chord as a mesodermal structure rather than 
entodermal, it may be suggested that the close 
resemblance of chordomata to myxomata, 
myxo-chondromata and chondromata, which I 

3 Keibel, Franz, 1900, Anat. Eefte, Vol. X.; 
Keibel, Fr., 1910 ; Keibel and Mall, Vol. I., Ch. V. 

4 Bruni, A., 1912, Anat. Eefte, Vol. 45. Krauss, 
Fr., 1909, Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Vol. 73. Pusanow, 
I., 1913, Anat. Ansieiger, Vol. 44. Sohauinsland, 
H., 1906, in Hertwig's Sandiuch d. vergel. Entw. 
ges.. Vol. III., Pt. 2. 

5 Triepel, H., 1914, Anat. Eefte, Vol. 50. 



Febedaky 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



193 



understand so frequently makes diagnosis 
difficult, miglit have added significance. 

B. F. Kingsbury 
Depaktment or Histology 
AND Embryology, 
Cornell XJniveesity 



THE CONFERENCE AT CLEVELAND 
ON THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Readers of Science may be interested in 
some account of what was probably both the 
most novel and significant conference of all 
those held by the various learned associations 
at their recent holiday meetings, namely, the 
conference devoted to the History of Science 
at the Annual Meeting of the American His- 
torical Association in Cleveland. Of even 
more value than the papers read and the 
public discussion, although these were marked 
by an unusual degree of originality, interest, 
and enthusiasm, and were heard by an au- 
dience of very gratifying numbers, most of 
whom remained throughout the unusually 
long session, was the opportmiity offered — in 
many instances for the first time — to those 
engaged in research in this promising field 
to become personally acquainted, and to talk 
over matters of common interest informally 
and face to face. 

The chairman of the conference, George L. 
Burr, librarian, and Andrew D. White pro- 
fessor of history at Cornell University, and a 
former president of the American Historical 
Association, presided with something even 
more than his characteristic charm and 
felicity. In his opening remarks he noted 
the fact that while isolated papers bearing on 
the history of science had been presented at 
some previous meetings of the American His- 
torical Association, this was the first time in 
the history of that organization that a con- 
ference had been especially devoted to that 
subject. He also emphasized the rapid strides 
that research in this subject had made in 
recent years. Of the papers which followed it 
will be possible to give only a very brief and, I 
fear, otherwise imperfect summary here; it is 
to be hoped that they may be published in 
full at an early date. 



T. Wingate Todd, professor of anatomy in 
the medical school of Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, in an illustrated address on Egyptian 
medicine showed the predominance of ritual 
and superstition in that field and the employ- 
ment of similar postures and paraphernalia 
by the natives of modern Africa. He ques- 
tioned whether the priest-physicians of the 
Nile Valley advanced far beyond the stage of 
primitive practise in dentistry, general sur- 
gery, and therapeutics; and was also skeptical 
as to their contributions to pharmacology. 
Before the Eighteenth Dynasty abscesses 
were incised and fatty tumors removed, but 
surgery of the extremities is doubtful. Dur- 
ing the Fifth Dynasty splints were used with 
the idea of supporting the injured limb rather 
than of controlling the fragments. 

The paper on " Peter of Abano : A Medie- 
val Scientist," 125(>-1316( ?), by the present 
writer discussed the sources for and chief 
events of his life, showing that he perhaps 
lived beyond 1316 and taught at Treviso and 
Montpellier as well as at Paris and Padua, 
that the evidence for his being protected and 
employed by popes is better than that for his 
supposed trial by the inquisition, and that he 
was a commentator on Aristotle, a critical 
translator especially from the Greek, and an 
experimental astronomer, as well as a keen 
student of medicine and natural science. He 
was far, however, from being free from the 
superstition of his age. 

Louis C. Karpinski, professor of mathe- 
matics in the University of Michigan, spoke 
concerning " The history of algebra." After 
touching briefly upon the contribution to 
mathematical speculation made by the Egyp- 
tians, he illustrated the relations of Greek 
geometry, especially in such a problem as 
that of the construction of a regular pentagon, 
to the development of algebraic thinking. He 
concluded with a summary of the contribu- 
tions made by several Arabian mathematicians 
to the growth of algebra. 

Henry Crew, professor of physics in North- 
western University, discussing " The problem 
of the history of science in the college cur- 
riculmn," pled for a more human treatment 



194 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



of the sciences and argued that the teaching 
of science might be made more stimulating 
to young minds by some treatment in each 
case of the i)ersonality and achievement of 
the man who had discovered the scientific fact 
or law in question. He further advocated 
separate courses in the history of science in 
the four fundamental fields of physics and 
chemistry, zoology and botany. He also raised 
the question of the age and academic position 
of the men to offer such courses. 

The discussion was opened by Dr. Harry E. 
Barnes, of The IsTew School for Social Ee- 
search, who noted that of the four papers on 
the program only one was by a professor of 
history and expressed regret that of all the 
workers in the history of science probably 
even less than this twenty-five per cent, were 
professed historians. He emphasized the high 
value and promise of the history of science 
compared to the old political history, and 
sketched the progress particularly of Amer- 
ican historiography of science. He also men- 
tioned the increased space given to the history 
of science in the new Syllabus of Professor 
James Harvey Robinson's well-known course 
in the Intellectual History of Europe. 

Charles H. Haskins, dean of the graduate 
school of Harvard IJniversity, who was chosen 
at this meeting second vice-president of the 
American Historical Association, expressed 
his sense of the importance of the history of 
science and desire that a conference in the 
subject might become a permanent feature of 
the program. In speaking of Professor Hen- 
derson's course at Harvard in the history of 
science, he suggested the advisability of re- 
quiring one laboratory course as a pre- 
requisite to the course in the history of 
science, so that the students woidd not con- 
sider the history of science as a substitute for 
science itseK. 

Dr. Walter Libby, of the University of 
Pittsburgh, after a brief tribute to the 
memory of Sir William Osier as a friend of 
the history of science, advised that courses 
should be given for freshmen in the general 
history of science, and saw large possibilities 
for advanced work in this new field of univer- 



sity research. As for the less easy problem 
of the intermediate courses, he suggested the 
treatment of the history of physics, chemistry, 
and the like by experts in those subjects with 
the possible cooperation of the professor of 
the history of science. A treatment of va- 
rious epochs by the department of general 
history with emphasis on the relation of sci- 
entific progress to the advance of civilization 
was also to be desired. He alluded to the 
course in the history of science and civiliza- 
tion now required of freshmen in the com- 
bined arts and medical course at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, and to courses offered in 
the histories of medicine, pharmacy, and psy- 
chology at Pittsburgh. 

In view of the good attendance at this con- 
ference, although it was not arranged for 
until almost the last moment, and the fact 
that the program was a little too crowded, I 
am inclined to suggest that another time 
there should be at least two conferences 
planned, one for papers embodying historical 
research, and the other for a discussion of the 
teaching of the history of science. 

Lynn Thorndike 

Western Beservb Univeesitt, 
Cleveland, Ohio 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 

FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE PERMANENT 
SECRETARY 

L. O. HOWARD, PERMANENT SECRETARY, IN ACCOUNT 

WITH THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION TOR THE 

ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE 

Dr. 

To balance from last account $7,575.45 

To receipts from members: 
Annual dues previous to 

1918 $435.00 

Annual dues 1918 479.00 

Annual dues 1919 31,330.00 

Admission fees 535.00 

Life membership fees 500.00 33,279.00 

To other receipts: 

Sale of publications $22.50 

Interest on accounts at 

bank 114.35 

Miscellaneous receipts, in- 
cluding treasurer's pay- 



Februakt 20, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



195 



ment of Science sub- 
scriptions for life mem- 
bers, foreign postage, sale 
of programs, etc 901.96 1,038.81 

$41,893.26 

Cr. 
By publications: 

Publishers Science $22,108.85 

By expenses, Baltimore meeting: 

Sectional secretaries ' commutations, 
accounts, carpenter, preliminary 
announcements, badges, programs, 
press secretary, local secretary, etc. 1,822.50 

By expenses. Pacific Division 1,500.00 

By expenses, Washington ofl&ce: 

Salary, Permanent Sec'y. . $1,500.00 
Salary, Assistant Sec 'y . . 2,100.00 

Extra clerical help 2,356.25 

Postage 1,391.07 

Office supplies 115.88 

Stationery and forms 1,564.45 

Express, telegrams and tele- 
phone 139.96 9,167.61 

By miscellaneous expenses: 
To treasurer, life member- 
ship fees $1,250.00 

To refund of overpaid dues. 7.00 

To unredeemed bad check 

of member 3.00 

To exchange charges by 

Amer. National Bank. . . 2.52 
To auditor. Committee of 
One Hundred on Scien- 
tific Eesearch and Com- 
mittee grants 42.88 1,305.40 

$35,904.36 
By balance to new account 5,988.90 

$41,893.26 
The foregoing account has been examined and 
found correct, the expenditures being sup- 
ported by proper vouchers. The balance of 
$5,988.90 is with the following ■Washington, 
D. C, banks: 
American Nat. Bank of Washington. . . $405.38 

Ditto (Savings Department) 3,205.59 

American Security and Trust Co 2,377.93 

$5,988.90 
Herbert A. Gill, 

Auditor 
Washington, D. C, 
December 20, 1919 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 
BALANCE SHEET 



Investments : 

Securities (Exhibit " A ") $114,766.75 

Cash in banks 3,657.69 



$118,424.44 

Liabilities 
Funds : 

Life Memberships 343 at $50 $17,150.00 

Jane M. Smith Fund 5,000.00 

Colburn Fund 77,755.74 

Miscellaneous Funds 14,861.01 

114,766.75 
Uninvested Interest 3,657.69 



$118,424.44 



CASH STATEMENT 

Meceipts 
1918 

Dec. 16. Balance from last report . . 
Interest from se- 
curities $5,447.18 

Interest from bank 

balance 52.94 

25 life Commuta- 
tions 1,250.00 



$3,827.95 



6,750.12 
$10,578.07 



Dishursements 

Investments 

$2,000 U. S. Victory Loan Bonds... $1,989.25 

Grants 

W. P. Whiting $200.00 

Myra M. Hulst 200.00 

E. L. Moodie 200.00 

A. L. Foley 150.00 

Orin Tugman 100.00 

E. M. Terry 150.00 

F. C. Blake 100.00 

E. B. Frost 500.00 

Donald Reddick 500.00 

S. D. Towney 250.00 

C. H. Eigenmann 500.00 

A. HrdUeka 200.00 

G. L. Wendt 350.00 

S. A. Courtis 100.00 

Gilbert M. Smith 100.00 

L. B. Arey 400.00 4,000.00 



196 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1312 



Interest on Life Memberships 
343 members ($17,150 at 

4 per cent.) for 1918... 686.00 
4 members (Jane M. Smith 

Fund) 200.00 

Accrued Interest on purchase of $2,000 
Victory Loan Bonds 

Cash in Banks 
Fifth Avenue Bank of New 

York $1,499.49 

U. S. Trust Company of 

New York 2,158.20 3,657.69 



886.00 

45.13 
$6,920.38 



$10,578.07 



(Exhibit "A") 

SCHEDULE OP SECUEITIES 

Securities Purchased 

Par Value Purchase Value 

$10,000 Chicago and North- 
western Railway Co. gen- 
eral mortgage 4 per cent, 
bonds, due 1987 $9,425.00 

$10,000 Atchison, Topeka 
and Santa Fe Railway Co. 
general mortgage 4 per 
cent, bonds, due 1995 9,287.50 

$10,000 Great Northern Rail- 
way Co. first and refund- 
ing mortgage 4.25 per 
cent, bonds, due 1961.... 10,050.00 

$10,000 Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Co. consolidated 
mortgage 4.5 per cent, 
bonds, due 1960 10,487.50 

$10,000 Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quincy Railroad 
Co. general mortgage 4 
per cent, bonds due 1918. 9,350.00 

$10,000 Union Pacific Rail- 
road Co. first lien and re- 
funding mortgage 4 per 
cent, bonds, due 2008 9,012.50 

$10,000 Northern Pacific 
Railway Co prior lien 
railway and land grant 4 
per cent, bonds, due 1997. 9,187.50 

$10,000 New York Central 
and Hudson River Rail- 
Co. 3.5 per cent, bonds, 
due 1997 8,237.50 

$8,000 IT. S. Second Liberty 
Loan Bonds 8,000.00 



$2,000 V. S. Third Liberty 
Loan Bonds 2,000.00 

$2,000 U. S. Fourth Liberty 
Loan Bonds 2,000.00 

$2,000 V. S. Victory Liberty 
Loan Bonds 1,989.25 $89,026.75 

Bonds from Colburn Estate 

Par Value Appraised Value 

$20,000 Acker, Merrill and 
Condit Co. debenture 6 
per cent, bonds $13,600.00 

$7,000 Buffalo City Gas Co. 
first mortgage 5 per cent, 
bonds 1,540.00 

$8,000 Park and Tilford Co. 
sinking fund debenture 6 
per cent, bonds 6,400.00 

$42,000 Pittsburgh, Shaw- 
mut and Northern Rail- 
way first mortgage 4 per 
cent, bonds, due February 
1, 1952 4,200.00 $25,740.00 

$171,000 $114,766.75 



I certify that I have audited the accounts of the 
Treasurer of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science for the period December 
16, 1918, to December 20, 1919; that the securities 
representing the investments of the association 
have been exhibited and verified; and that the in- 
come therefrom has been duly accounted for. 

The financial statements accompanying the 
Treasurer's report are in accord with the books of 
the association and correctly summarize the ac- 
counts thereof. 

Herbekt a. Gill, 
Auditor 

Dated December 20, 1919. 



SCIENCE 



A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of 
Science, publishing the official notices and pro- 
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LANCASTER. PA. GARRISON, N, Y. 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Entered in the post-affice at Lroncastct, Pa., u Kcond dan muttim 



SCIENCE 



New Series 
Vol- LI, No. 1S13 



Friday, February 27, 1920 f"'-' <^°"^' ^^ c''^- ,.„. 



Physical Chemical Apparatus 





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SCIENCE 




FEB 28 wo 



Friday, February 27, 1920 

CONTENTS 

The American Ansociation for the Advance- 
ment of Science: — 
On the Eelations of Anthropology and 

/; Dr. Ale?. HkdliCka 199 



The Functions and Ideals of a National Geo- 
logical Survey : Dr. F. L. Kansome 201 

David S. Pratt ; W. A. H 207 

Scientifia Events: — 

The Bonaparte and Loutreuil Foundation of 
the Paris Academy of Sciences; Award of 
the Nobel Prize to Professor Haier; Dye 
Section of the American Chemical Society. 208 

Scientific Notes and News 209 

University and Educational News 2] 1 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 
A Proposed Method for Carrying Triangula- 
tion across Wide Gaps: Dr. H. L. Cooke, 
PsoPESsoR Henry Norris Russell. 211 

Two New Base Maps of the United States. ... 213 

Special Articles: 

Substitutes for Phenolphthalein and Methyl 
Orange : F. M. Scales 214 

The American Society of Zoologists: Pro- 
fessor W.. C. Allbe 214 

The Mineralogical Society of America: Dr. 
Herbert P. Whitlock 219 

The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science: — 

Section A — Maithematics and Astronomy: 
Professor F. E. Motjlton 220 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on- 
Hudaon, N. Y. 



ON THE RELATIONS OF ANTHROPOL- 
OGY AND PSYCHOLOGY! 

If w© are (to compare two objects and study 
their relations, we will naturally want data as 
to their dimensions, their composition, and 
their observed influence upon each other. In 
comparing two branches of science we should 
thoroughly know their scope, the intrinsic 
work and the tendencies of each, and their mu- 
tual interplay and cooperation. This stipu- 
lates, in the first place, a clear definition of 
both of the branches concerned ; in the second, 
a good acquaintance with their workings and 
their possibilities; and lastly, a possession of 
some satisfactory measure of the field of ac- 
tivities of each of the two branches for direct 
comparison. 

In considering the relations of anthropology 
and psychology, the conditions just named are 
regrettably, not all fulfillable. We are fairly 
clear to-day as to the definition of scope, and 
work done, as well as doing and to be done, in 
physical anthropology; but we are less clear 
in these respects when it comes to other sub- 
divisions of the " science of man," and matters 
are even less eatiafactory when we approach 
psychology. 

In a general way, we all feel that psychology 
and anthropology are related. The very ex- 
istence of this joint Section, as well as that of 
the joint committee of our two branches in 
the National Eesearch Council, are sufficient 
proofs of this feeling, in this country at least. 
"We all know also that anthropological studies 
of human activities, both in the far past and 
at present, ithe studies of language, beliefs, 
ceremonies, music and habits, as well as the 
studies upon the human and animal brain and 
on the sense organs and their functions, are 

1 Address of the vice-president and chairman of 
Section H — Anthropology, American Assoeiatdon 
for the Advancement of Science, St. Louis, De- 
cember, 1919. 



200 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



of direct and intense concern to psychology; 
while on the other hand we are equally aware 
of the fact that many of the studies of the 
psychologists, such as those on hereditary and 
group conditions, and on behavior of primi- 
tive peoples are of considerable interest to 
anthropology. But when we examine more 
closely into these relations, we meet with vari- 
ous setbacks and difficulties. We soon see, al- 
though again only in a general way, that the 
psyehttlogists and anthropologists of whatever 
shade of color can and do exist quite independ- 
ently; that they actually work to a. very large 
extent unknown to each other; that as time 
goes on they associate rather less than more at 
the colleges and universities; that they pro- 
gressively drift further apart in nomenclature, 
methods and other respects, and that in no im- 
portant way are they really coming closer to- 
gether. No one, I am sure, would claim that 
if every anthropologist disappeared to-day, 
psychology could not go on as well as it 
has hitherto; and no one could claim on the 
other hand, that anthropology could not exist 
without the aid of psychology. 

In our institutions the two branches proceed 
to-day, as well known to all of us, quite inde- 
pendently. Our great museums all have their 
departments of anthropology, but none that 
of psychology; while in some of the colleges, 
in the War Department, and the Public Health 
Service, matters are the reverse. The publi- 
cations of one of the branches are scarcely 
known to the workers in the other, and bar- 
ring rare exceptions there is no thought of ex- 
changes, references or mutual reviewing of 
literature. The terminology is divergent, in- 
struments and methods differ; our most im- 
portant international congresses and relations 
are wholly distinct ; at our meetings we mingle 
only through courtesy and habit; and as has 
well been shown during the years of war there 
was no actual cooi)eration of the two branches 
in this greatest of contingencies, and but little 
concern in one of what the other might be do- 
ing or planning. If the anthropologist takes 
up the list of psychological publications such 
as furnished by the Psychological Index he 
will note that as this proceeds from year to 



year it progressively drops reference to anthro- 
pological publications; and the same condi- 
tion is observable in the anthropological bibli- 
ographies in relation to what may be consid- 
ered more strictly psychological work. 

It is also known to you that for several 
years now increasingly strong efforts have been 
put forward from both sides to separate in this 
association anthropology from psychology and 
have each form its own section, efforts which 
now have been successful. 

Bearing all this in mind we can not help 
asking: Is there really any relation of conse- 
quence between modern anthropology and psy- 
chology ? 

There is indeed such a relation; but it has 
never thus far been sufficiently defined and 
never as yet sufficiently exploited. This rela- 
tion is of such a nature, that during the pre- 
liminary and earlier work in both branches it 
could and had to be neglected; but as psychol- 
ogy progresses it will grow in strength, to 
eventually become of importance. 

I may be permitted, in the first place, to 
point out the areas of contact and interdigi- 
tation of the two branches. 

Unfortunately, I meet here with the serious 
initial difficulty of defining psychology. After 
striking this snag in the preparation of my 
address, I turned to a series of the foremost 
representatives of your science for help, and 
the help did not materialize. Some of those 
appealed to would give no definition; others 
would attempt it only circumstantially, so that 
it was of little use for my purpose; while the 
rest defined or inclined to define psychology 
as the " science of behavior," which characteri- 
zation does not seem to be sufficiently compre- 
hensive. 

I then turned to the publications given in 
the last few volumes of the Psychological In- 
dex and particularly the volume for 1918, 
which presumably is the most representative. 
It gives 1,585 titles. Out of these I found, 
so far as I could judge from the titles, 14 per 
cent, dealing with neurology and physiology; 
28 per cent, dealing with neuropathology and 
psychiatry; 6.5 jier cent, dealing with sociol- 
ogy, ethics, and philosophy; 2.5 per cent, with 



FEBK0ABT 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



201 



religion, mysticism, and metaphysics; 3.5 per 
cent. o£ the titles were mixed and indefinite; 
4 per cent, dealt with animal psychology; 36 
per cent, with human psychology; and 6.5 per 
cent, with what approached physical and gen- 
eral anthi'opology. 

I foimd further that the publications in- 
cluded in your index, and hence those in 
which you are interested, range from anatomy 
and histology of the nervous system to mathe- 
matics on the one hand and metaphysics on 
the other, covering practically the whole vast 
range of phenomena relating to the nervous 
system and mental activities of man and 
animals. This shows indefiniteness, incom- 
plete crystallization. 

As psychology advances, its field will doubt- 
less become better differentiated, and possibly 
separated into a number of special sub- 
branches. When this happens the relations 
of the various subdivisions of psychology and 
those of anthropology will be more evident 
and easier of precision. It will then be found 
that your anatomical and physiological sec- 
tion will have many points of contact with 
physical anthropology, while your sections on 
behavior, beliefs, habits, dreams, etc., will con- 
nect in many respects with the anthropolog- 
ical studies which are to-day grouped under 
the terms of ethnology and ethnography. 

However, even such clarified relations would 
be of no great importance, were it not for the 
fact that psychology must as time passes on 
enlarge the scope of its activities, until no 
small part of these shall really become an- 
thropological. 

And here I must define anthi-opolog-y. Its 
old definition as the " science of man " is not 
sufficient, being too comprehensive and too 
indefinite. But if you will examine the 
activities in any branch of anthropology, you 
will find that although they deal with a vast 
array of subjects they are all characterized by 
certain something distinctive, and this is the 
comparative element. Anthropology is essen- 
tially a science of comparisons. It is com- 
parative human anatomy, physiology, psychol- 
ogy, sociology, linguistics, etc. And being 
comparative it does not deal with individuals 



or mere abstract averages, but with groups of 
mankind, whether these are social, occupa- 
tional, environmental, racial, or pathological. 
In brief, it is the science of hiunan variation, 
both in man himself and in his activities. 

Let us now return to psychology. In the 
course of its development, psychology will 
unquestionably find its choicest field in group 
studies. It has already begun in this direc- 
tion. It compares classes with classes, as 
during the late war; it will enter in the not 
far distant future into race psychology; and 
it will compare other definite human groups 
with groups, study their variations and the 
causes of these, study evolution, involution, 
and degenerations of the nervous organs of 
mankind as a whole — and all this will be or 
be very near to anthropology. 

A word in conclusion. Anthropology and 
psychology as they are to-day, are fairly inde- 
pendent branches of scientific activities, with 
no closer actual bonds and interdependence 
than those that exist, for instance, between 
either of them and sociology, or history. But 
in their further development and particularly 
that of psychology, the two branches will ap- 
proach closer together until an important part 
of their activities will be in the same orbit. 

A. Hrdlicka 



THE FUNCTIONS AND IDEALS OF A 
NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. II 

Kinds of Work to he Undertaken hy a 
National Geological Survey. — There has been 
considerable difference of opinion as to the 
kinds of work that should be undertaken by a 
national geological survey. Shall its field be 
confined to what may be included under 
geology or shall it embrace other activities, 
such as topographic mapping, hydrography 
and hydraulic engineering, mining engineer- 
ing, the classification of public lands, the col- 
lection and publication of statistics of mineral 
production and the mechanical arts of publi- 
cation such as printing and engraving. These 
various lines of activity may be divided into 
two main classes — those that are more or less 
contributory to or subordinate to the publi- 



202 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LL No. 1313 



cation of geologic results, and those that have 
little if any connection with geology. 

The speaker is one of those who believe that 
a geological survey should be essentially what 
its name implies — that it shoiild confine its 
activity to the science of geology. This opin- 
ion is held, however, in full realization of the 
fact that here as elsewhere some compromise 
may be necessary. This may be dictated by 
law or may be determined by policy. 

The organic law of the TJ. S. Geological 
Survey, for example, includes among the 
duties of the organization "the classification 
of the public lands." There may be some 
difference of opinion as to what the framers 
of the law meant by this provision, but it is 
at least a reasonable conclusion that they in- 
tended the sort of classification adopted by 
the General Land Office. If so, the determi- 
nation of the so-called " mineral " or " non- 
mineral " character of public lands is un- 
doubtedly a proper function of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, although it is one that 
was neglected by that survey for many years 
and has not yet received the recognition of a 
specific appropriation, except recently, in con- 
nection with the stock-raising and enlarged 
homestead acts. 

Topographic Mapping. — ^Inasmuch as the 
preparation of a toxMgraphic map is a nec- 
essary preliminary to accurate and detailed 
geologic mapping, a geological survey is 
vitally interested in seeing that satisfactory 
maps are available as needed. Whether the 
national geological survey should itself under- 
take this mapping depends upon circum- 
stances. If another government organization 
is equipped for doing this work and can pro- 
vide maps of the requisite quality when 
needed, it would apjwar that the geological 
bureau should leave this work to the other 
organization, particularly as the maps re- 
quired to keep abreast of geologic require- 
ments are likely to constitute only a part of 
the work of the topographic bureau. There 
are certain decided advantages, however, in 
having the topographic work done by the 
geological survey and these advantages must 
be weighed against other considerations. 



With the topographic and geologic work 
under a single control, the geologist is more 
likely to be assured of getting the kind of 
map desired at the time needed. Cooperation 
between geologists and topographers is apt to 
be both closer and more flexible than were the 
two staffs in separate organizations. Finally 
the field work in topography and geology is 
in some respects alike and is carried out by 
similar methods and equipment. Occasionally 
the two kinds of work can be combined and 
carried on simultaneously. 

The general question, Whether a national 
geological survey shall do its own topographic 
mapping, appears to be one that can not be 
answered once for all but must be determined 
for each country. In an old country where 
accurate and detailed maps have long been 
made by military and other organizations, a 
geological survey may be under no necessity 
of providing its own topographic base maps. 
In a new country, where exploration is still 
in progress, the geological survey may have 
to make its own topographic surveys. The 
The main point, as I see it, is that the geo- 
logical survey must have maps of the stand- 
ard required by it with the least possible 
delay, but should not undertake to make them 
itself if other organizations that can and will 
provide the maps needed are already in the 
field. 

We have seen that there is at least a very 
close connection between topographic and geo- 
logic mapping and that in this relation may 
lie a sufficient reason why both kinds of work 
should be undertaken by the same organiza- 
tion. Is there as good a reason why the 
study of geology and the collection of statis- 
tics of mineral production should be united? 

Statistics of Mineral Production. — When 
shortly after the organization of the TJ. S. 
Geological Survey the collection of statistics 
was begun, those geologists who were most in- 
fluential in m-ging that the survey should 
imdertake statistical work adduced as the 
principal reason that the people desired such 
figures and if the Geological Survey did the 
work it would be able to secure larger appro- 
priations than if the task were left for others. 



Februaey 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



203 



It does not appear to liave been thouglit at 
that time that geologists were the only men 
who cotild satisfactorily do statistical work 
or that it was necessary to impose this task 
on them. Subsequently, however, the work 
was apportioned among the geologists. The 
reasons for this step appear to have been first, 
that the results of having the statistical re- 
ports prepared under contract by specialists 
who were not on the regular staff of the 
organization had proved unsatisfactory; sec- 
ond, that by apportioning the work among 
the geologists already on the staff not only 
would the apparent cost in money be less 
than under the former arrangement, but it 
would, in a book-keeping sense, be very much 
cheaper than taking on new men for this 
particular work; finally, it was argued that 
geologists could apply their knowledge of the 
field relations of ore deposits to improve the 
character of statistical reports and would 
themselves benefit by additional opportunities 
to visit and examine many deposits that they 
might not otherwise see. 

It is undoubtedly true that the statistical 
reports of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey have greatly improved in accuracy, full- 
ness, and general interest since this plan was 
adopted. It is also true that some geologists 
have turned their opportunities as statistical 
experts to good account both in enlarging their 
experience and by gathering material that has 
been worked into geological papers. liTever- 
theless, the policy has, in my opinion, been a 
mistake both economically and scientifically. 
It has insidiously filched the time of highly 
trained men who have shown originality and 
capacity for geologic research and has tied 
these men down to comparatively easy and 
more or less routine tasks. Some geologists 
who were once scientifically productive no 
longer contribute anything to geological lit- 
erature but are immersed in work that men 
without their special geological training could 
do as well. To a certain extent the policy is 
destructive of scientific morale. A young 
geologist sees that a man who publishes an- 
nually or at shorter periods reports on the 
statistics of production of some metal be- 



comes widely known to all interested in that 
metal and is considered by them as the United 
States Geological Survey's principal expert 
on that commodity. This easily won recog- 
nition, with all that it implies or seems to 
imply in the way of promotion and of in- 
dustrial opportunity must constitute a real 
temptation so long as a scientific man is ex- 
pected to contribute his own enthusiastic 
devotion to science as part payment of his 
salary. The incidental geological opportuni- 
ties offered by statistical work are found 
chiefly in connection with a few of the minor 
mineral resources, rather than with such in- 
dustrially dominant commodities as petroleum, 
iron or copper, and these opportunities for 
the individual geologist are soon exhausted 
and are likely to be purchased at a price far 
out of proportion to their value. The sup- 
position that geological training is essential 
for good statistical work in mineral products 
is a fallacy, and no man who shows promise 
of making real contributions to geologic sci- 
ence should be placed in such circumstances 
that he is virtually forced to worship an idol 
whose head may be of gold and precious 
stones but whose feet are assuredly of clay. 
I am emphatically of the opinion that the 
collection of mineral statistics is not logically 
a function of a national geological survey. If, 
however, such a survey is committed to this 
task by law, by the lack of any other organi- 
zation to do the work, or by well considered 
reasons of policy, then it is even more certain 
that the duty should not devolve upon geol- 
ogists at the expense of their own science, but 
should be cared for by a special staff. Some 
cooperation between the statistical staff and 
the geologic staff may be advisable but the 
extent of this cooperation should be deter- 
mined by those fully alive to the necessity of 
safeguarding geology against encroachments 
by statistical work. 

Water Resources. — Studies concerned with 
the occurrence of underground water are of 
course as much geological as those concerned 
with the occurrence of petroleum. Investiga- 
tions of surface waters, however, including 
stream gaging and the study of water-power 



204 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



come within the field of engineering and have 
so little connection with geology that it is 
difficult to see any logical ground for their 
inclusion within the group of activities be- 
longing properly to a geological survey. In 
an ideal apportionment of fields of endeavor 
among the scientific and technical bureaus of 
a government, stream gaging and estimation 
of water-power would scarcely fall to the na- 
tional geological survey. As it happens, the 
United States Geological Survey does perform 
these functions and I am not prepared to say 
that there is not ample legal and practical 
justification for this adventitious growth on a 
geological bureau. There has been little or 
no tendency to draft geologists into hydraulic 
engineering and consequently the principal 
objection urged against the inclusion of sta- 
tistical work within the sphere of a geological 
survey does not here apply. Apparently the 
only practical disadvantages are the intro- 
duction of additional complexity into a pri- 
marily scientific organization and the con- 
sequent danger of the partial submergence of 
principal and primary functions by those of 
adventitious character. 

It should be pointed out in this connection 
that certain studies of surface waters, espe- 
cially those that are concerned with the char- 
acter and quantity of material carried in sus- 
pension and in solution in river waters, have 
much geological importance. Such studies 
supply data for estimating the rate of erosion 
and sedimentation. They are to be regarded, 
however, rather as an illustration of the way 
in which geology overlaps other branches of 
science and utilizes their results than as 
reason for considering hydraulic engineering 
as normally a function of a geological survey. 

Foreign Mineral Resources. — One of the 
results of the war was to suggest the advan- 
tage to the citizens and government of the 
United States of a central source of informa- 
tion concerning the mineral resources of for- 
eign countries. The United States Geological 
Survey undertook to gather this information, 
primarily for the specific purpose of supply- 
ing data to the American representatives at 



the Peace Conference. As the director of the 
survey states in his fortieth annual report: 

Two general purposes were served — first that of 
obtaining a clear understandiiLg of the relations 
bertween our own war needs and the foreign sources 
of supply from which these needs must or could 
be met; second, that of obtaining an understand- 
ing of the bearing of mineral resources upon (the 
origin and conduct of the war an4 upon the po- 
litical and commercial readjustments that would 
follow the end of hoatdlities. 

This work, of a kind that so far as known 
had not previously been undertaken by any 
national geological survey, has been continued 
with the view that it is important for those 
who direct American industries to possess as 
much information as possible concerning those 
foreign mineral resources upon which they 
can draw or against which they must compete. 
The results aimed at are directly practical 
and are largely obtained by compilation of 
available published and unpublished material 
as it is manifestly impossible to make direct 
detailed investigation of the mineral resources 
of all foreign countries. Nevertheless the 
work appears to fall appropriately within the 
field of a geological bureau and if it can be 
made to furnish the opportunity, hitherto 
lacking, for geologists in the government serv- 
ice to make first-hand comparison between 
our own mineral deposits and those of other 
lands the experiment will probably bear scien- 
tific fruit. 

Mineralogy and Paleontology. — Mineralogy 
and paleontology are so closely related to 
geology that there can be no question of the 
propriety of including the pursuit of these 
sciences within the scope of a geological 
survey. 

Chemistry and Physics. — The application of 
chemistry and physics to geological problems 
admits of more discussion. Chemical work, 
however, as carried on in connection with 
geological investigations is of such special 
character and must be conducted in such 
intimate contact with geological data as to 
make it almost certain that better results 
can be obtained with a special staff and equip- 
ment than would be possible were the routine 



I'EBEUAKY 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



205 



and investigative work in geological elieni- 
istry turned over to some central bureau of 
chemistry. The same argument is believed 
to be applicable also to physics. Research in 
geophysics was at one time a recognized func- 
tion of the United States Geological Survey 
but since the founding of the geophysical lab- 
oratory of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington, this field has been left almost entirely 
to that splendid organization which is un- 
hampered by some of the unfortunate re- 
strictions of a government bureau. Under 
these particular and unusual conditions this 
course may have been wise, although it does 
not negative the conclusion that, in general, 
investigations in geophysics are logically and 
properly a function of a national geological 
survey. 

Soils. — The study of soils, with reference to 
origin, composition and classification, is un- 
questionably a branch of geology, but the 
geologist, with tradition behind him, gener- 
ally looks upon soil as a nuisance and geo- 
logical surveys have reflected his attitude. In 
the United States the classification and map- 
ping of soil types has for some years been in 
progress by the Department of Agriculture. 
While quite devoid of any enthusiasm for 
engaging in soil mapping, I wish to point out 
merely that this work, if its results justify its 
performance by the government, and if the 
classification adopted is based on chemical, 
physical and mineralogical character rather 
than on crop adaptability, is properly a func- 
tion of the national geological survey. 

Seismology. — Another subject that is com- 
paratively neglected by national geological 
surveys is seismology. It can scarcely be 
asserted that earthquakes have no economic 
bearing and conspicuous or destructive ex- 
amples usually receive some official attention 
— after the event. The comparative neglect 
of systematic study of earthquakes is probably 
due to a number of causes. One of these is 
that few geologists specialize in seismology — 
a science in which little progress can be made 
unless the investigator possesses unusual qual- 
ifications in mathematics and physics. An- 
other reason probably is that to most men the 



difficulties in the way of gaining real knowl- 
edge of the causes of earthquakes and espe- 
cially of predicting with any certainty the 
time, place, intensity and effects of earth- 
quakes appear rather appalling. Finally earth- 
quake prediction or even the recognition of 
the possibility of futm^e earthquakes in a par- 
ticular part of the coimtry is likely to have 
consequences decidedly unpleasant to those 
responsible for the prediction. Experience in 
California has shown that a community still 
staggering from a violent shaking may insist 
with some acerbity that nothing of any con- 
sequence has happened and that it never felt 
better in its life. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, I believe 
that a national geological survey, in a country 
where serious earthquakes have taken place 
and may occur again, should consider the col- 
lection and interpretation of seismological 
data as part of its duty. Such work is 
regional in scope and can not be carried far 
by local initiative and by individual investi- 
gators on their own resources. In spite of 
difficulties I believe that it is within the range 
of possibility that some day we shall be able 
to predict earthquakes with sufficient relia- 
bility to give the prediction practical utility. 

Summary. — Briefly summarizing what has 
gone before, I conclude that the chief primary 
function of a geological survey is geological 
research and that the spirit of investigation 
should be the same whether the work is under- 
taken to increase knowledge and to serve as 
the starting point for further attacks on the 
unknown, or is begun with a definite eco- 
nomic or practical result as its desired goal. 
Compromise and concession are inevitable but 
the necessity for making them should not and 
need not permit the real purpose of the organ- 
ization to sink from sight. If the members 
of a scientific bureau can confidently feel that 
those charged with its direction make such 
concessions wisely with the higher purposes 
of the bureau really at heart their whole atti- 
tude towards their work will be entirely differ- 
ent from that into which they will fall if they 
become convinced that scientific ideals receive 



206 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



only perfunctory regard and that tlie real 
allegiance is directed elsewhere. 

What may be called the chief secondary 
function of a national geological survey is 
believed to be popular education in geology 
both for the benefit of the people and as pro- 
viding the most enduring basis for the suj)- 
port of such an organization by a democracy. 
Such education should be conducted through 
every possible channel and in close coopera- 
tion with all of the educational institutions 
of the country. One of its objects should be 
the revival and encouragement of amateur 
geological observation and study. In this 
connection I heartily approve the present 
trend in the policy of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science and 
believe that this great organization will ful- 
fill its purpose and advance science much more 
effectively than in the past if it will leave 
to the various special scientific societies the 
holding of meetings devoted to the presenta- 
tion of scientific papers, and devote itself to 
the popularization of science and to the en- 
couragement of cooperation between different 
branches of science. 

Personnel. — Finally a few words may be said 
concerning the relation between the personnel 
of a geological survey and the results ob- 
tained by the organization. If such a survey 
is to attract to its service men of first-rate 
ability and to hold these men after their 
development and experience has made them of 
the highest value, certain inducements must 
be offered. Salary is unfortunately the first 
of these that comes to mind imder conditions 
that continually force the scientific men in 
government service to recognize painfully how 
inadequate at present is the stipend upon 
which he had existed before the war. It is 
all very well to insist that the scientific man 
does not work for money and should not 
trouble his thoughts with such an unworthy 
consideration. ISTevertheless if he is to do the 
best of which he is capable he must be lifted 
above the grind of poverty, be able to give his 
children those educational advantages that he 
can so well appreciate, have opportunity for 
mental cultivation and feel his social position 



to be such that he can mingle without humili- 
ation with his intellectual peers. If it is 
destructive to the scientific spirit to set up 
material gain as an object it may be equally 
blighting to scientific achievement to force 
the attention continually downward to the 
problem of meager existence. The normal 
scientific man usually has other human beings 
dependent upon him and the traditional spirit 
of self-sacrifice and the indifference to mate- 
rial reward that are commonly attributed to 
the true investigator may, when these mem- 
bers of his family are considered, come very 
close to selfishness. 

However, salary, important as it is, is by 
no means the only determinant. If it is 
reasonably adequate most men who are ani- 
mated by the spirit of science will find addi- 
tional reward in their work itself if this is 
felt to be worthy of their best efforts. A man 
of first rate scientific ability, however, will 
not enter an organization in which con- 
secutive application to a problem is thwarted, 
in which he is expected to turn to this or that 
comparatively unimportant task as political 
expediency may dictate or in which the gen- 
eral atmosphere is unfavorable to the initia- 
tion and prosecution of research problems of 
any magnitude. If a man of the type in mind 
finds himself in such an uncongenial environ- 
ment he is likely to go elsewhere. The final 
effect upon the organization will be that its 
scientific staff will be mediocre or worse and 
it wiU become chiefly a statistical and engi- 
neering bureau from which leadership in 
geology will have departed. 

If, on the other hand, a young geologist 
can feel that every possible opportunity and 
encouragement will be given to him in ad- 
vancing the science of geology; that results 
on the whole will he considered more im- 
portant than adherence to a schedule; that 
imagination and originality will be more 
highly valued than routine efficiency or mere 
executive capacity; that he will not be 
diverted to tasks for which, important as 
they may be, his training and inclination do 
not particularly fit him; that those directing 
the organization are interested in his develop- 



February 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



207 



ment and will give him all possible oppor- 
ttmity to demonstrate his power of growth; 
and that appreciation and material reward 
will be in proportion to his scientific achieve- 
ment; he will then be capable of the best that 
is in him and will cheerfully contribute that 
best to the credit of the organization that he 
serves. 

A national geological survey should hold 
recognized leadership in geology in the coun- 
try to which it belongs and attainment of this 
proud position must obviously depend upon 
the quality of its geological jjersonnel. With 
respect to personnel at least three conditions 
may be recognized — first, that in which the 
ablest geologists in the country are drawn to, 
and remain in service; second, that in which 
geologists perhaps of a somewhat lower grade 
as regards scientific promise are attracted to 
the service for a few years of training and 
then pass out to positions where the opportuni- 
ties for research or for increased earnings are 
greater; and third, that in which able young 
men no longer look upon the geological survey 
as a desirable stepping stone to a future 
career. Who can doubt that it is the first 
condition that raises an organization to pre- 
eminence in science and the last that marks 
opportunities lost or unattained? Those re- 
sponsible for the success of a geological sur- 
vey, if they be wise, will watch the trend of 
the organization with reference to these con- 
ditions much as the mariner watches his 
barometer and, like him, if the indication be 
threatening, take action to forestall disaster. 
F. L. Eansome 



DAVID S. PRATT 



Dr. David S. Pratt, formerly assistant 
director of the Mellon Institute of Industrial 
Eesearch of the University of Pittsburgh, 
died in St. Louis, Mo., on January 28, after 
a short illness from pneumonia. He was a 
member of the American Chemical Society 
and of the following fraternities: Phi Kappa 
Sigma, Sigma Xi, Alpha Chi Sigma, and Phi 
Lambda Upsilon. 

Dr. David Shepard Pratt was born in 
Towanda, Pa., on September 20, 1885, the son 



of Charles Manville and Louise Hale (Wood- 
ford) Pratt. Following the completion of the 
collegiate course at Cornell University (A.B., 
1908), he was appointed a fellow in chemistry 
at that institution (1909-1911) and in 1911 he 
received the degree of Ph.D. Dr. Pratt then 
joined the staff of the Bureau of Chemistry, 
Washington, D. C, as asistant chemist, but 
shortly afterward was selected as chief of the 
Organic Division of the Bureau of Science in 
Manila, P. I., where he spent three productive 
years in chemical research and as a member 
of the Pure Food and Drug Board. In 1914 
he decided to return to the states and accepted 
a professorship of chemistry at the University 
of Pittsburgh. Dr. Pratt occupied that chair 
and the headship of the organic department 
of the school of chemistry at " Pitt " from 
1914 to 1917, in which year he was made an 
assistant director of the Mellon Institute of 
Industrial Research. On January 1, 1920, 
Dr. Pratt resigned at the institute and was 
arranging to enter consulting chemical prac- 
tise in St. Louis, Mo., at the time of his fatal 
illness. 

Dr. Pratt was known principally for his 
published investigations on phthalic acid 
derivatives, but his reports of researches on 
various problems in the domain of tropical 
chemistry have also been of importance and 
he was a recognized authority on chemical 
Philippiniana. At the Mellon Institute Dr. 
Pratt enjoyed broad opportunities to apply, 
in the inquiries of the industrial fellowships 
under his supervision, his splendid equipment 
in chemistry and many results of technical 
imjwrtance were obtained through his sug- 
gestive aid. His profoimd knowledge of pure 
organic chemistry and his familiarity with 
research methodology were respected by his 
associates and played a prominent part in es- 
tablishing the high success of the system in 
operation at the institute. His departure to 
enter professional practise was sincerely re- 
gretted by all of the members of the institu- 
tion. He is survived by his wife, Fredonia 
Elizabeth (Johnson) Pratt, and an infant 
son, David Shepard Pratt, Jr. 

W. A. H. 



208 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI, No. 1313 



SCIENTIFIC EVENTS 

THE BONAPARTE AND LOUTREUIL FOUNDA- 
TIONS OF THE PARIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

We learn from Nature tha.t of the Y2,500 
francs placed at the disposal of the Academy 
by Prince Bonaparte, it proposed to allocate 
30,000 francs as follows: 

Five thousand francs to Charles Alluaud, travel- 
ing naturalist to the National Natural History Mu- 
seum, for a geological and botanical expedition in 
the Moroccan Grand Atlas Chain. 

Two thousand francs to A. Boutaric, for the con- 
struction of an apparatus for recording nocturnal 
radiation. 

One thousand francs to Emile Brumpt, for con- 
tinuing his work on parasitic hsemoglobinuria or 
piroplasmos of cattle. 

Three thousand francs to E. Faure-Fremiet, for 
undertaking a series of studies on histogenesis and 
certain surgical applications. 

Three thousand francs to A. Guilliermond, for 
pursuing his researches on lower organisms and on 
mitochondria. 

Three thousand francs to Joseph Martinet, for 
continuing his researches on the isatins capable of 
serving as raw material for the synthesis of indigo 
coloring matters. 

Three thousand francs to A. Vavssi&res, for the 
continuation of his researches of the marine mol- 
luscs, family Cyprseidse. 

Ten thousand francs to the Federation francaise 
des SocietSs de Sciences naturelles, for the publi- 
cation of a fauna of France. 

The committee appointed to allocate the 
LoTitreuil foundations recommended the fol- 
lowing grants: 

1. To establishments named by the founder: 

Ten thousand francs to the National Museum of 
Natural History, for the reorganization of its li- 
brary. 

Seven thousand five hundred francs to the Paris 
Observatory, at the request of the Central Council 
of the Observatories, for purchasing an instrument. 

2. Grants applied for direct : 

Six thousand francs to the Society Ggologique du 
Nord, to enable it to take up work interrupted by 
the war. 

Ten thousand francs to 1 'Ecole des hautes etudes 
industrielles et commerciales ed Lille, for restoring 
the material of its chemical laboratory. 

Twenty thousand francs to the Observatory of 



Ksara (near Beyrout). This laboratory was prac- 
tically destroyed by the Turks and Germans. The 
grant is towards its restoration. 

Eight thousand francs to Henri Deslandres, for 
the study of the radical movements of the solar 
vapors and the thickness of the gaseous atmosphere 
of the sun. 

Seven thousand five himdred francs to Maurice 
Hamy, to carry out certain improvements in astro- 
nomical apparatus of precision. 

Three thousand five hundred francs to Felix 
Boquet, for the publication of Kepler tables. 

One thousand francs to G. Raymond, for the con- 
tinuation of his actinometric experiments. 

Ten thousand francs to Charles Marie, for ex- 
ceptional expense connected with the publication of 
the ' ' Tables annuelles de constants et donnees 
num&iques de chimie, de physique et de technol- 
ogie. ' ' 

Ten thousand francs to the Federation frangaise 
des Sooietgs de Sciences naturelles, for the publica- 
tion of a French fauna. 

Two thousand francs to P. Lesne, for his re- 
searches on the insects of peat -bogs. 

Two thousand francs to A. Paillot, for his re- 
searches on the microbial diseases of insects. 

Two thousand francs to Just Aimiiot, for the 
methodical study of the varieties of potato. 

Five thousand francs to Albert Peyron and Ga- 
briel Petit, for the experimental study of cancer in 
the larger mammals. 

Three thousand francs to Th. Nogier, for com- 
pleting the installation of the radio-physiological 
laboratory of the Bacteriological Institute of 
Lyons. 

AWARD OF THE NOBEL PRIZE TO PROFESSOR 
HABER 

By order of the minister from Sweden the 
first secretary of the legation has made public 
the following statement correcting certain re- 
marks that have appeared in the daily press 
concerning the award by the Swedish Acad- 
emy of Science of a Nobel Prize for chem- 
istry to Professor Pritz Haber of Berlin- 
Dahlen. 

1. The invention for which the prize was 
awarded to Professor Haber was the synthesis 
of ammonia by direct way out of its constitu- 
ent elements. 

2. The report on which the award was made 
stated that the Haber method of producing 



Pebeuabt 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



209 



ammonia is cheaper than any other so far 
known, that the production of cheap nitric 
fertilizers is of a imiversal importance to the 
increase of food production, and that con- 
sequently the Haber invention was of the 
greatest value to the world at large. 

3. The Haber method was invented and 
published several years before the outbreak 
of the great war. At the International Con- 
gress for Applied Chemistry held in the United 
States in 1912, it was described by Professor 
Bernthsen. The method was consequently 
known to all nations before the war and avail- 
able to them to the same extent. It seems 
to have been put into practise in the United 
States. 

4. Ammonia, the product of the Haber 
method, must be converted into nitric acid 
in order to give rise to explosives or to cor- 
rosive gases. As a matter of fact, the Haber 
plants in Germany were erected with a view 
to producing agricialtural fertilizers. 

5. As far as I know, no gas masks have 
ever been manufactured in Sweden. In all 
events, there existed in Sweden during the 
whole war an export prohibition on all sorts 
of war material. That prohibition has been 
rigorously upheld. 

6. The iN'obel Prizes are paid in one single 
I)Ost and not in monthly installments. 

DYE SECTION OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL 
SOCIETY 

Tpie second meeting of the Dye Section 
will be held in St. Louis, beginning "Wednes- 
day, April 14. At this meeting the com- 
mittee on permanent organization will submit 
" By-Laws " for the consideration of the Sec- 
tion, the approval of which by the Section 
and by the Cotmcil, will be the necessary 
steps to the permanent organization of the 
Dye Chemists of the United States, as the 
Dye Division of the American Chemical 
Society. 

The secretary asks all scientific workers in 
the field of dyes to present the results of their 
researches and experiences at these meetings 
of the dye chemists. Papers on the manufac- 
ture, properties or application of dyes, both 
of coal tar or natural origin, will be of timely 



interest. Any chemist having any such sci- 
entific information ready for presentation is 
asked to communicate at once with the secre- 
tary, giving subject and time for presentation. 

As is usual, full details of the final pro- 
gram, time and place of meeting can be ob- 
tained by addressing Dr. C. L. Parsons, 1709 
G. Street, IST. W., Washington, D. C, or the 
undersigned. E. ISToreis Shreve, 

Secretary 

43 Fifth Avenue, 
New Yobk City 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Eear AoMmAL Egbert Edwin Peary, re- 
tired, the distinguished arctic explorer, died 
at his home in Washington, on February 20, 
from pernicious anemia, aged sixty-three 

years. 

Professor E. G. Conklin, of Princeton 
University, and Professor T. H. Morgan, of 
Columbia University, have been elected hon- 
orary members of the Belgian Society of 
Zoology and Malacology. 

Dr. John E. Swanton, of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, and Dr. Truman Michel- 
son, of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
and professor in George Washington Univer- 
sity, have been elected corresponding members 
of the Societe des Americanistes de Paris. 

The Bulletin of the Johns HopMns Hos- 
pital for December contains a record by Dr. 
Thomas S. Cullen, of the work and writings 
of Dr. Henry Mills Hurd, Baltimore, who was 
the first superintendent of the hospital. 

Dr. James Harris Eogers, of Hyattsville, 
Maryland, has received from the Maryland 
Academy of Sciences, Baltimore, its in- 
ventor's medal for his work on " underground 
and sub-sea wireless." 

It is stated in Nature that the council of 
the Glass Eesearch Association has appointed 
Mr. E. L. Frink, Lancaster, Ohio, director of 
research. The secretary of the association 
says : " Mr. Frink has a lifelong experience of 
the American glass trade and glass research, 
is well known to the foremost English glass 



210 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



manufacturers, and his appointment is wel- 
comed by the British glass industry." 

Peofessob Frank G. Haughwout has been 
placed in charge of the work and investiga- 
tion in protozoology and parasitology in the 
Bureau of Science, Manila. He has resigned 
his chair in the University of the Philippines, 
but win continue to lecture to the medical 
students. 

Messes. 0. G. Derick, William Hoskins, 
F. A. Lidbury, A. D. Little, Charles L. Eeese, 
and 0. P. Townsend, have been appointed as- 
sociate editors with Dr. John Johnston, editor 
of the Technological Monographs of the Amer- 
ican Chemical Society. Messrs. G. 'N. Lewis, 
L. B. Mendel, Julius Stieglitz and A. A. 
Noyes, have been appointed associate editors 
with A. A. N"oyes, editor of the Scientific 
Monographs of the society. 

Professoe H. a. Curtis, who has held the 
chair of organic chemistry at Iforthwestern 
University, has resigned to enter industrial 
work. 

Mr. E. K. Brodie has been transferred from 
the position of industrial fellow at the Mellon 
Institute of Industrial Research to the chem- 
ical department of the chemical division of 
Proctor and Gamble Company, Ivorydale, 
Ohio. 

De. George Heyl has become vice-presi- 
dent and technical director of the Heyl Lab- 
oratories, Inc., New York City. 

The directors of the Fenger Memorial As- 
sociation have awarded Dr. Harry Culver a 
grant to aid in the study of certain urinary 
infections. 

De. Edwin Dellee, secretary of the Brown 
Animal Sanatory Institution, University of 
London, has been appointed assistant secre- 
tary to the Royal Society to succeed Mr. R. 
W. F. Harrison, who, owing to the state of 
his health, has resigned the office, which he 
has held for twenty-four years. 

The following awards have been made by 
the council of the British Institution of 
Mining and Metalliirgy: (1) Gold medal of 
the institution to Mr. H. Livingstone Sulman, 
in recognition of his contributions to metal- 



lurgical science, with special reference to his 
work in the development of flotation and its 
application to the recovery of minerals. (2) 
"The Consolidated Gold Fields of South 
Africa, Ltd." gold medal to Mr. William 
Henry Goodchild, for his papers on " The 
Economic Geology of the Insizwa Range" 
and " The Genesis of Igneous Ore Deposits." 
(3) " The Consolidated Gold Fields of South 
Africa, Ltd." premium of forty guineas to 
Dr. Edward Thomas Mellor, for his paper on 
" The Conglomerates of the Witwatersrand." 

At a recent meeting of the advisory com- 
mittee of tie American Chemical Society it 
was voted to recommend to the Board of 
Directors that a sum not to exceed $1,000 for 
traveling expenses be placed at the disposal of 
Professor W. A. Ifoyes, the president of the 
society, for the year 1920, for the purpose of 
visiting local sections of the society, such 
trips to be made by arrangement with the 
president but only on condition that the sec- 
tion or sections visited pay one half such ex- 
penses. It was suggested that local sections 
so far as possible arrange with the president 
or among themselves for joint meetings or 
continuous routing. 

It is noted in Nature tibat December 31, 
marked the bicentenary of the death of John 
Flamsteed, first astronomer royal of England, 
and the rector of the parish of Burstow, 
Surrey, where he is buried. Flamsteed was 
bom four years after Newton. Though pre- 
vented by illness from attending a imiversity, 
he was devoted to mathematical studies, and 
in 1671 sent a paper to the Royal Society. 
Three years later he published his " Ephe- 
merides," a copy of which, being presented to 
Charles II. by Sir Jonas Moore, led to Flam- 
steed being appointed on March 4, 1675, " our 
astronomical observer" at a salary of £100 
per annum, his duty being " forthwith to 
apply himself with the most exact care and 
diligence to the rectifying the tables of the 
motions of the heavens and the places of the 
fixed stars, so as to fijid out the so much 
desired longitude of places for the perfecting 
the art of navigation." The observatory at 
Greenwich, constructed partly of brick from 



Febeuaey 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



211 



old Tilbury Fort and of timber and lead 
from the Tower of London, was designed 
by Wren and built at a cost of £520, the money 
being derived from the sale of spoilt gun- 
powder. 

A Research Medical Society was organized 
recently at the Loyola University School of 
Medicine. The following officers were elected 
for the academic year 1919-20: President, 
R. M. Strong; Vice-president, F. M. Phifer; 
Secretary, A. B. Dawson; Treasurer, E. S. 
Maxwell; Memhers of the council, S. A. 
Matthews, George W. Wilson, and F. B. Lusk. 

Professor Frederic S. Lee, of Columbia 
University, lectured recently on "Problems of 
industrial physiology " before the Royal Ca- 
nadian Institute, Toronto, and the Johns Hop- 
kins School of Hygiene and Public Health. 

Professor H. N". Holmes, head of the chem- 
istry department in Oberlin College, has re- 
cently lectured at Case School of Applied Sci- 
ence, Cleveland, and before the Cincinnati 
section of the American Chemical Society on 
" The industrial applications of colloid chem- 
istry." 

An address on the " Theories regarding the 
formation of phos.phate deposits " was given at 
the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station on 
February 16, by Dr. Walter H. Bucher, of the 
department of geology of the University of 
Cincinnati. 

Professor H. Shipley Fry, director of chem- 
ical laboratories, University of Cincinnati, 
lectured on " The electronic conception of 
valence and the constitution of benzene" be- 
fore a joint meeting of the Leigh Chemical 
Society and the Lexington, Kentucky, section 
of the American Chemical Society at G-eorge- 
town College on February 13. 

At a meeting of the Faculty Club of the 
University of Mississippi on February 2, 1920, 
Dr. Hiram Byrd, director of the department 
of hygiene, delivered a lecture on " Rattle- 
snakes." 

The president of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians, London, has appointed Dr. F. W. An- 
drews to be Harveian orator, and Dr. R. C. 



WaU to be Bradshaw lecturer for this year. 
The council has appointed Dr. Martin Flack 
to be Milroy lecturer for 1921. The Oliver- 
Sharpey prize for 1920 has been awarded to 
Professor Emil Roux, of the Pasteur Institute, 
Paris. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
NEWS 

Mr. J. Ogden Armour has made a further 
gift of six million dollars to the Armour In- 
stitute of Chicago. A new site for the school 
has been purchased at the cost of one million 
dollars, and five million dollars will be ex- 
pended on biiildings. 

At Yale University, Dr. W. H. Sheldon, 
of Dartmouth College, has been appointed 
professor of philosophy. Dr. W. R. Longley, 
has been promoted to a full professorship of 
mathematics. 

Dr. E. F. Hopkins, associate plant pathol- 
ogist at the Alabama Polyteclmic Institute 
and Exi)eriment Station, has been appointed 
plant pathologist and assistant professor of 
botany at the University of Missouri. Dr. 
Hopkins will begin his work on April 1. 

Dr. C. L. Metcalf has been promoted to be 
professor of entomology in the Ohio State 
University. 

Dr. H. G. Fitzgerald has received an ap- 
pointment as profesor of hygiene at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, to succeed Dr. J. A. 
Amyst, who has been appointed deputy min- 
ister of health in the Federal Department of 
Health, Ottawa. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE 

A PROPOSED METHOD FOR CARRYING 
TRIANGULATION ACROSS WIDE GAPS 

So far as is known, the possibility of ex- 
tending an arc of triangulation across straits 
or arms of the sea has been limited in the past 
to cases in which one shore is visible from the 
other, or at most where the masts of a vessel 
anchored in mid-channel are visible from both 
shores. It has occurred to us that much wider 



212 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



gaps may be bridged by the use of lights 
raised to a high altitude by aircraft or pilot 
balloons. For example, the distance between 
the Florida reefs and Cuba is about 90 miles, 
and the shores not high enough to permit of 
intervisibility. From an aircraft at a height 
of 5,000 feet or more above the middle of the 
straits both sides would be readily visible in 
clear weather. Suppose now that a series of 
stations along the Florida coast had been con- 
nected in the usual manner with the triangu- 
lation net of the United States, and that an- 
other series of points on the Cuban coast had 
been connected with a triangulation covering 
the island. A light carried by a dirigible or 
pilot balloon above tlie middle of the straits 
could be observed from two or more stations 
on each shore, and its position accurately 
fixed with respect to both systems of triangu- 
lation. If two or three such aerial points at 
distances of 30 or 40 miles along the axis of 
the channel have been tied in this fashion to 
both triangulations, a strong connection will 
have been established between them. 

It is obviously necessary either that the 
" aerial point " should remain fixed while ob- 
servations are being made on it, or that the 
observations at the different stations should 
all be exactly synchronized. The first is im- 
possible, but the second alternative can easily 
be realized by using practically instantaneous 
flashes as signals and observing them photo- 
graphically. A quantity of flash powder suffi- 
cient to produce a signal which could be 
photographed from 50 miles distance could 
probably be carried by an unmanned balloon 
of moderate size and cost, or failing this, a 
series of such charges attached to parachutes 
and ignited by time fuses could be dropped 
from a dirigible. 

The photographic records would preferably 
be made with lenses of moderately large 
aperture and long focus, such as are used for 
astronomical chart work, which give a field 
of good definition several degrees in diameter. 
If the observation stations are several miles 
back from the shore line, a series of reference 
lights can be established on the shore, and 
their azimuths accurately detei-mined in ad- 



vance. The photographs wiU then show these 
lights as well as the distant flashes, and the 
angular elevation and azimuth of the latter 
can be determined directly from the plates 
themselves, in exactly the same manner in 
which astronomers determine the position of 
a planet with reference to neighboring stars. 
A number of successive flashes could be 
recorded on one plate, provided they were 
so spaced as to avoid confusion, with marked 
economy both in flying time and computa- 
tion. Clear weather would be necessary, but 
not more so than in the case of ordinary 
methods of observation. 

With regard to accuracy, it is well known 
that this standard method of determining 
angular position by the measurement of photo- 
graphic plates is capable of very high 
precision. For example, at the Allegheny Ob- 
servatory with a 4-inch objective the probable 
error of a resulting angular coordinate derived 
from two plates was found to be =!= 0.2". The 
apparent angular diameter of the flash as seen 
from a distance of 50 miles would be roughly 
1" for each foot of its actual linear diameter. 
As settings may be made on the center of a 
photographic image within 1 per cent, or 2 
per cent, of its diameter, the azimuth of the 
flash should be obtainable with sufficient 
accuracy for purposes of primary triangula- 
tion, particularly as the mean position deter- 
mined from the several successive flashes on 
one plate should be regarded as the real unit 
of observation. Irregularities in refraction 
are likely to be less serious than in the case 
of rays which pass closer to the earth's 
surface. 

This method might also be advantageous in 
crossing wide areas of swamp or jungle. The 
limiting distance over which it is available 
can be determined only by actual experiment, 
but it is likely to exceed 100 miles, which 
would be great enough to permit the exten- 
sion of continuous triangulation along the 
whole chain of the West Indies. The theoret- 
ical distance of the horizon from an altitude 
of 20,000 feet is over 170 miles, so that if the 
difficulties involved in producing flashes pho- 
tographically observable at this great distance 



Febbuary 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



213 



can be surmounted, it may ultimately be 
possible to connect Australia with the East 
Indies and so with Asia. 

H. L. Cooke, 
Henry ISToeris Eussell 
Princeton TTnivebsity 



TWO NEW BASE MAPS OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

An outline base map of the United States 
ou the Lambert Zenithal equal area projection, 
scale 1-7,500,000, dimensions 19| inches by 
25| inches, price 15 cents, has just been 
issued by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

The map covers the whole of the United 
States, including the northern part of Mexico. 
Only state names and boundaries, principal 
rivers, capitals, and largest cities are shown, 
the chief object being to furnish a base map 
for political, census, or statistical purposes on 
a projection in which the property of equiv- 
alence of area is one of the essential features. 
It is the first publication of a projection of 
this type by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

The two errors, to one or both of which all 
map projections are liable, are change of area 
and distortion, as applying to portions of the 
earth's surface. Errors of distortion imply 
deviation from right shape in the graticules 
or network of meridians and parallels of the 
map, involving deformation of angles, curva- 
ture of meridians, changes of scale, and errors 
of distance, bearings, or area. 

In the mercator projection as well as in 
the Lambert Conformal Conic projection, the 
changes in scale and area can not truly be 
considered as distortion or as error. A mere 
alteration of size in the same ratio in all 
directions is not considered distortion or 
error. These projections being conformal, 
both scale and area are correct in any re- 
stricted locality when referred to the scale of 
that locality, but as the scale varies in lati- 
tude from point to point large areas are not 
correctly represented. 

In the Lambert Zenithal projection the 
zenith of the central point of the surface to 
be represented appears as pole in the center 
of the map; the azimuth of any point within 



the surface, as seen from the central point, 
is the same as that for the corresponding 
points of the map; and from the same central 
point, in all directions, equal great circle dis- 
tances to jKiints on the earth are represented 
by equal linear distances on the map. The 
amount of scale error, as we depart from the 
center of the map radially, increases (scale 
becoming smaller), while in a direction at 
right angles thereto the scale is by the same 
amount too great. 

For a distance from the assumed center of 
the map equal to 23 degrees of arc of a great 
circle, an extent embracing the whole of the 
United States, the maximum scale error is 
but one and seven eighths per cent. The 
amount of this error is less than one third of 
the scale error in a polyconic projection of 
the same area, while the direction errors 
(errors of angles and azimuths) are likewise 
considerably less than in the latter projection. 

An outline base map of the United States 
on the Lambert Conformal Conic projection, 
scale, 1-5,000,000, dimensions, 25 by 39 inches, 
price, 25 cents, has also been issued by the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. This map is 
similar to the one on the Zenithal Equal Area 
projection in general treatment. It is larger 
in scale, however, but embraces a lesser extent 
of latitude, being limited to the area of the 
United States, whereas the zenithal equal area 
map includes the greater portion of Mexico. 

The map is of special interest from the fact 
that it is based on the same system of pro- 
jection as that which was employed by the 
allied forces in the military operations in 
France. 

The term conformal has been defined as 
follows: If at any point the scale along the 
meridian and the parallel is the same (not 
correct, but the same in the two directions) 
and the parallels and meridians of the map 
are at right angles to one another, then the 
shape of any very small area on the map is 
the same as the shape of the corresponding 
small area upon the earth. The projection is 
then called orthomorphic (right shape). 

The value of this new outline map can best 
be realized when it is stated that throughout 



214 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



the larger and most important part of the 
United States, that is, between latitudes 30 J ° 
and 47^°, the maximum scale error is only 
one half of one per cent. Only in southern- 
most Florida and Texas does this projection 
attain its maximum scale error of 24 per cent. 
This implies, however, an error in the areas 
at these extreme parts equal to the square of 
the linear distortion, or an error of 5J per 
cent. 

While this error in area may be accounted 
for by methods already described, the Zenithal 
projection on the other hand is free from this 
inconvenience. 

The choice then between the Lambert 
zenithal and the Lambert conformal for a 
base map of the United States, disregarding 
scale and direction errors which are con- 
veniently small in both projections, rests 
largely upon the choice of equal area as rep- 
resented by the Zenithal and conformality as 
represented by the Conformal Conic projec- 
tion — the former projterty appealing directly 
to the practical use of the map, the latter 
property being one of mathematical refine- 
ment and symmetry with definite scale factors 
available, the projection having two parallels 
of latitude of true scale, the advantages of 
straight meridians as an element of prime 
importance, and the possibilities of indefinite 
east and west extension without increase of 
scale error. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES 

SUBSTITUTES FOR PHENOLPHTHALEIN AND 

METHYL ORANGE IN THE TITRATION 

OF FIXED AND HALF-BOUND CO^i 

During the past year the writer has had 
occasion to make a great many determina- 
tions of sodium carbonate in the presence of 
the hydrate by the double titration method 
with phenolphthalein and methyl orange as 
indicators. The end point with methyl 
orange was not satisfactory. A number of 
new indicators were tried with the result that 
two were found which may be used as substi- 
tutes for phenolphthalein and methyl orange. 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of 
Agriculture. 



An added advantage of these two indicators^ 
is that both have the same color changes. Six 
drops of one indicator in 75 c.c. of solution 
gives a fairly deep blue in the presence of 
sodium hydrate and carbonate and on titra- 
tion with hydrochloric acid retains this color 
tmtil the hydrate is all neutralized and the 
carbonate converted into bicarbonate when it 
changes at the neutral point to a muddy 
green and then with a slight excess of acid to 
a lemon yellow. The addition of three drops 
of the second indicator will noAV change the 
solution to a deep blue, which continues until 
the bicarbonate has all been destroyed, when 
the solution shows the same intermediate 
change as before and becomes a lemon yellow 
again when a slight excess of acid is present. 

These indicators are among the nine recom- 
mended by Clark & Lubs^ for the colorimetric 
determination of hydrogen ion concentration. 
The first indicator, thymol blue (thymol sulfon 
phthalein) is prepared by introducing 1 deci- 
gram of the substance into a Florence flask 
and then adding 4.3 c.c. of jj,/20 sodium hy- 
droxid. The solution is best heated by intro- 
ducing the flask into hot water and agitating 
imtil the indicator is all dissolved. When 
solution is complete, the volume is made up to 
250 c.c. with distilled water. 

The substitute for methyl orange is brom 
phenol blue (tetra bromo phenol sulfon 
phthalein). This indicator is made up in 
the same way except that 1 decigram requires 
only 3.0 c.c. of n/20 sodimn hydroxide. 

F. M. SCALKS 

U. S. Depabtment of Aqrictjlt-dee 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
ZOOLOGISTS 

The American Society of Zoologists held its 
seventeenlth annual meeting in conjunction with 
Section P of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science and the Ecological So- 
ciety of America, Deeemtjer 29, 30 and 31, in the 
Soldaji High School building, St. Louis, Missouri. 
President C. M. Child presided throughout the 

2 These indicators may be obtained from Hyn- 
son, Westcott & Dunning, of Baltimore, Maryland. 

3 Clark, Wm. Mansfield, and Lubs, Herbert A., 
Jour, of Bacteriology, Vol. II., Nos. 1, 2 and 3. 



Tebeuakt 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



215 



meetings. The other officers for the year were: 
Vice-president, H. H. Wilder; Secretary-Treasurer, 
W. C. Allee; Executive Committee, L. J. Cole, E. 
P. Bigelow, H V. Wilson, M. M. Metealf, George 
Lefevre; Meniber Council A. A. A. S., C. P. Siger- 
foos; Local Bepresentative, Caswell Grave. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS 

Ait the business meeting the Executive Commit- 
tee reeommended the following persons for elec- 
tion to membership in the society: George Delwin 
Allen, Albert W. Bellamy, William Charles Boeck, 
Calvin O. Esterly, Frank Blair Hanson, Charles 
Eugene Johnson, Ernest Everett Just, James Er- 
nest Kindred, Mrs. Ruth Stocking Lynch, Thomas 
Byrd Magath, James Watt Mayor, Dwight Elmer 
Minnich, Carl E. Moore, Thurlow Chase Nelson, 
Nadine Nowlin, Charles H. O. Douoghue, Albert 
Dimoan Robertson, Francis Metealf Eoot, Elizabeth 
Ajiita Smith, Dayton Stoner, Gertrude Marean 
White, Sadao Yoshida. All were duly elected. 

The treasurer 's report showed a balance of 
$809.59, an increase for the year of $63.21. 

ADVISOBT BOARD 

At (the request of Frank R. LiUie, chairman of 
the committee on cooperation and coordination of 
the Division of Biology and Agriculture of the 
National Eesearch Council, the executive commit- 
tee approved, and the society passed the following 
resolution : 

Besolved: That there be established a, permanent 
committee to be called the advisory board of the 
American Society of Zoologists, consisting of eight 
memlbers appointed by the executive committee, 
two each for periods of one, two, three and four 
years; and thereafter two each year for a four- 
year term. The chadrman of the board shaill be 
elected annually by the board. 

The duties of the board Shall be: 

1. To represent the American Society of Zool- 
ogists before the National Eesearch Council. 

2. To correlate the various research agencies of 
the country in zoology; including various govern- 
ment bodies, both national and state, museums, re- 
eearch establishments and universities. 

3. To promote international relations in zoology. 

4. To take up other problems for the promotion 
of research in zoology, subject to the approval of 
The Executive Committee. 

President Child announced the appointment by 
the executive committee of the following advisory 
board : P. E. Lillie, Wm. E. Castle, C. C. Nutting, 
G. N. Calkins, J. T. Patterson, M. M. Metealf, V. 
E. Shelford, Robert Chambers, Jr. 



THE JOURNAL OP MORPHOLOGY 

Owing to the request of Professor J. S. Kings- 
ley to be relieved of the editorial management of 
the Journal of Morphology at a date in 1920 not 
yet definitely fixed, The Wistar Institute through 
M. J. Greenman, its director, approached the Amer- 
ican Society of Zoologists, proposing that the BO- 
ciety assume responsibility for the scientific policy 
and the election of the editorial board of the 
Journal of Morphology, subject to the approval of 
the advisory board of The Wistar Institute and 
fuU financial responsibility for the Journal to be 
kept by The Wistar Institute. 

Mr. Greenman further proposed that the society 
appoint a small special committee on publication 
which should meet with the advisory board of The 
Wistar Institute in Philadelphia at certain of its 
regular meetings held in April to discuss journal 
affairs in general, and those of the Journal of 
Morphology in particular. 

Whenever the committee was called to attend a 
meeting in Philadelphia all expenses of travel and 
entertainment incident thereto are to be paid by 
The Wistar Institute. 

After discussion it was voted to approve the 
general proposition of assuming responsibility for 
the scientific policy, and the appointment of the 
editorial board of the Jownal of Morphology; 
and the Executive Committee was instructed to ap- 
point a committee on pulblication whose duties 
would be: 

1. To initiate a scientific policy concerning the 
Journal of Morphology. 

2. To nominate aji editorial board. 

3. To consult with the advisory board of The 
Wistar Institute concerning both the proposed 
policy and the editorial nominations. 

4. To refer the recommendations for final de^ 
cision to the executive committee in 1920, and 
thereafter through the executive committee to the 
society at its annual meeting. 

M. M. Metealf, Caswell Grave and W. E. Castle 
have been duly appointed members of the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

NEW BT-IiAW 

The following new By-law was adopted: 

By-Laws (Add) No. 4 
The National Eesearch Council allows the so- 
ciety three representatives on the Division of Biol- 
ogy and Agriculture. Of these three representa- 
tives, one shall be elected each year to serve three 
years. The method of election shall be the same 
as that used in the election of the ofScers of the 
society. 



216 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



PROPOSED CHANGE IN CONSTITUTION 

Although final action eould not be takea at this 
meeting, the following proposed amendment to the 
Constitution was read: 

Article II. (Add) Section 4 

Honorary fellows, regardless of membership in 
the society, may be elected upon unanimous rec- 
ommendation of the executive committee, by a ma- 
jority vot« of the members present at any meeting 
of the society. The number of honorary fellows 
shall be limited to ten and not more than one shall 
be elected on any one meeting of the society. 
Honorary fellowships does not involve the payment 
of dues nor does it confer the right to vote. 

After discussion, it was voted that any amend- 
ment to the constitution shall not contemplate the 
elevation of members of the society, and that hon- 
orary membership shall be limited to members of 
foreign societies. 

RESOLUTIONS 

The resolution committee, consisting of Caswell 
Grave, Bennet M. Allen and Chancey Juday, re- 
ported the following resolutions, which were 
adopted by standing vote, and ordered spread on 
the records: 

William ErsTcine Kellicott 
1878-1919 

Mindful of the great loss sustained by the Amer- 
ican Society of Zoologists and zoological science 
in the death of William Erskine Kellicott, the 
members of the society find comfort and satisfac- 
tion in recalling the mature and substantial char- 
acter of his scientific contributions, the unusual 
abilities he displayed as a teacher of zoology, and 
above all the pleasing personality of their co- 
worker and friend. 

The society, therefore, desires to record this 
minute in recognition of his services to zoological 
science and to mankind. 

George L. Kite 
1882-1919 

During the brief period of his labors, George L. 
Kite showed special aptitude, and an adequate 
preparation for the investigation of the difficult 
problems which lie in the field where zoology, 
chemistry and physios meet. His loss is only par- 
tially repaired by the inspiration which the meth- 
ods he developed and the results he attained are 
affording to the workers who have taken up the 
problems he relinquished. 

The American Society of Zoologists places this 
minute on record, thereby expressing its regret at 
the early loss of this promising member. 

ELECTION OP OPPICEES 

The nominating committee composed of S. O. 
Mast, V. E. Shelford and B. M. Allen, reported the 
following nominations: 



President, Gilmau A. Drew. 

Vice-president, Caswell Grave. 

Member Executive Committee to serve five 
years, C. M. Child. 

Memier of Division of Biology and Agriculture, 
National Eesearch Council, to serve three years, 
F. E. LiUie. 

Nominations from the floor were called for but 
none was suggested, and the officers as presented 
by the Nominating Committee were duly elected. 

On nomination of the executive committee, C. C. 
Nutting was elected member of the council of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science in place of C. P. Sigerfoos, resigned. 

SESSIONS POK THE PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION 
OP PAPERS 

At the meetings of the society for the presenta- 
tion and discussion of papers a total of 42 papers 
were presented in full, and 28 were read by title. 
Seventeen of the papers were followed by discus- 
sion. 

List of Titles 
The titles have been arranged by the secretary 
of the zoologists according to the rules of the so- 
ciety, in the order of thedr arrival. 

Papers marked with an asterisk were read by 
title. 

Embryology 
"The individuality of the germ-nuclei during the 
cleavage of the egg of Cryptoiranohus alleghe- 
niensis: Bertram G. Smith, Michigan State 
Noi-mal College. 
*A sex intergrade pig which resembles a free-mar- 
tin: Will Scott, Indiana University. 
Hetention of dead fetuses in utero and its hearing 
on the problems of superfetation and superfecun- 
dation: Albert Kuntz, St. Louis University, 
School of Medicine. 
*An explanation of the early development of the 
peripheral nervous system in the vertebrate em- 
bryo: H. H. Lane, University of Oklahoma. 
The thyroid and parathyroid glands of Bufo tad- 
poles deprived of the pituitairy glands: Bennet 
M. Allen, University of Kansas. 
The influence of thyroid extirpation upon the vari- 
ous organs of Bufo larvce: Bennet M. Allen, 
University of Kansas. 
Stages in the development of the thymus, para- 
thyroid and uJtimobra/nchial bodies in turtles: 
Charles Eugene Johnson, department of zool- 
ogy. University of Kansas. 



Febeuaet 27j 1920] 



SCIENCE 



217 



The results of the exti/rpation of the thyroid and 
of the pituitary anlagen on the suprarenal tissue 
in Bana pipiens: Alice L. Brown, Kansas State 
Agricultural College. (Introduced by B. M. 
Allen.) 

Cytology 

*The effect of hypotonic and hypertonic solutions 
on fibroblasts of the embryonic cMck heart in 
vitro : M. J. Hogde, school of hygiene and public 
health, Johns Hopkins University. 

*Coelenterates and the evolution of germ cells: 
George T. Haegitt, Syracuse TJniversiity. 

Cytological criteria for the determination of 
Amoebic cysts in man: S. I. Kornhauseb, Deni- 
son University. 

The spermatogenesis of Anolis caroUnen-sis : The- 
OPHILUS S. Painter, University of Texas. 

The presence of a longitudinal split in chromosomes 
prior to their union in parasynapsis : W. K. B. 
EOBEBTSON, University of Kansas. 

Chromosome studies in Tettigidw. II. Chromosomes 
of BB, CC and the hybrid BC in the genus 
Paratettix: Mart T. Haeman, zoology depart- 
ment, Kansas State Agricultural College. 

Parasitology 

Notes on the life-cycle of two species of Acantho- 
cephala from fresh-water fishes: H. J. Van 
Cleave, University of Illinois. 

On the life-history of the gape-worm {Synagamus 
trachealis) : B. H. Ransom, U. S. Bureau of 
Animal Industry, Washington, D. C. 

A new bladder fiuke from the frog: John E. 
GuBERLET, Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Stillwater, Okla. 

Studies on the development of Ascarida perspidl- 
lum, parasitic in fowls : James E. Ackeet, Kan- 
sas State Agricultural College. 

*New data bearing on the life-history of Sarco- 
cystis tenella: John W. Scott, Undversity of 
Wyoming. 

Contributions to the life-history of Gordius robustus 
Leidy: H. 6. May, Mississippi College. 

Leucochloridium problematicum n. sp.: Thomas 
Byed Magath, Mayo Clinic. (Lantern.) 

Two new genera of Acanthocephala from Venezue- 
lan fishes: H. J. Van Cleave, University of 
Illinois. 

*Note on the behavior of embryos of the fringed 
tapeworm: John W. Scott, University of Wy- 
oming. 

Contributions to the life-history of Paragordius 
varius {Leidy) : H. G. Mat, Mississippi College. 



Geneitics 

Selection for increased and decreased bristle num- 
ber in the mutant strain "reduced" : F. Payne, 
Indiana University. 

The mutational series, full to bar to ultra bar, in 
Drosophila: Charles Zeleny, University of 
Illinois. 

Variation m the percentage of crossovers and se- 
lection: J. A. Detlefsen and E. Egberts, Col- 
lege of Agriculture, University of Illinois. 

Inheritance of color in the domestic turlcey: W. E. 
B. EoBEETsoN, University of Kansas. 

Seredity of orange eye color: F. Payne and Mar- 
garet Denny, Indiana University. 

The tabulation of factorial values for eye-facet 
number in the bar races of Drosophila: Chaeles 
Zelent, University of Illinois. 

LinJcage of genetic factors in mice: J. A. Det- 
lefsen and E. Egberts, College of Agriculture, 
University of Illinois. 

Forty-two generations of selection for high and 
low faoet number in the white bar-eyed race of 
Drosophila: Charles Zelent, University of 
Illinois. 

On the inheritance of congenital cataract in dairy 
cattle: J. A. Detlefsen and W. W. Yapp, Col- 
lege of Agriculture University of Illinois. 

Ecology and General Physiology 
Observations on the habits of larval colonies of 
Fectinatella: Stephen E. Williams, Miami 
University. 
Animal aggregations: W. C. Allee, Lake Forest 

College. 
Behavior of the larvce of Corethra punctipennis 
Say: Chaunoey Jubat, Wisconsin Natural His- 
tory Survey. 

* Studies on chitons: W. J. Ceoziee, Hull Zoolog- 

ical Laboratory, University of Chicago. 

*0n the natural history of Onchidium: Leslie B 
Arey and W. J. Ceozier, Northwestern Univer 
sity. University of Chicago. 

*Ihe olfactory sense of Orthoptera: N. E. Mc 
Indoo, Bureau of Entomology, Washington 
D. C. 

On a new principle underlying movement in organ- 
isms: A. A. Schaefper, University of Tennessee, 

The relation of the concentration of oxygen to the 
rate of respiratory metabolism in Planaria: B, 
J. Lund, Laboratory of General Physiology, 
University of Minnesota. 

* Experimental studies on the cerebral cortex and 



218 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



oorpus striatum of the pigeon: F. T. Rogers, 
Marquette School of Medicine. 

*PJiotic orientation in the drone-fly, Eristalis 
tenax: S. O. Mast, Johns Hopkins University. 

*Behavior of a tunicate larva: W. J. Ckoziee, The 
University of Chicago. 

*Vision in the seventeen-year locust, Cicada sep- 
tendecim: S. O. Mast, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. 

'Periodicity in the photic responses of the eugle- 
noid, SeptooincUs texta, and its bearing on re- 
version in the sense of orientation : S. O. Mast, 
Johns Hopkins University. 

'Adaptation to Ught in Euglena variabilis ( ?) and 
its hearing on reversion in orientation: S. O. 
Mast, Johns Hopkins University. 

*The maze-iehavior of white rats in the second 
generation after alcoholic treatment: E. 0. Mac- 
DowELL and E. M. Vicari, Carnegie Institution 
of Washington. 

*The relation of modifiaiility of behavior and 
metabolism in land isopods: C. H. Abbott, 
Massachusetts Agricultural College. (From the 
Csborn Zoological Laboratory, Yale University; 
introduced by Henry Laurens.) 

The rate of ca/rbon dioxide production by pieces of 
Planaria, in relation to the theory of axial 
gradients: Geoboe Delwin Allen, University 
of Minnesota. (Introduced by E. J. Lund.) 

Evolution 

"Irreversible differentiation and orthogenesis: C. 
JuDSON Heeeick, The University of Chicago. 

"An analysis of the sexual modifications of an ap- 
pendage in sex-intergrade Daphnia longispina: 
A. M. Banta and Mart Gover, Station for Ex- 
perimental Evolution. 

Comparative Anatomy 

'The Urodele vomer: Inez Whipple Wilder, 
Smith College. 

'The origin, function and fate of the test-vesicles 
of Amarouoium constellatum : Caswell Grave, 
Washington University. (Lantern.) 

Respiratory organs of Ucides eaudatus, a West In- 
dian land crab: C. C. Nutting, University of 
Iowa. (Lantern.) 

'The homologies and development of the papal or- 
gan of male spiders: W. M. Barrows, Ohio 
State University. 

'Morphology of the enteron of the periodical ci- 
cada, Tibicen septendecim Linn: Charles W. 
Haegitt and L. M. Hickernell, Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 



'Sexual dimorphism in Nemertians: W. R. Coe, 

Yale University. 
The columella auris of the Beptilia: Edward L. 

EiOE, Ohio Wesleyan University. 
*T7ie spiraoular organ of elasmobranch, ganoid 

and dipnoan fishes: H. W. Noeeis and Sally 

P. Hughes, GrinneU College. 

Invitation Program 

Faunal areas on the Pacific slope of South Amer- 
ica: C. H. ElGENMANN, University of Indiana. 
Discussion led by 0. C. Nutting, University of 

Iowa. 

Polyembryony and sex: J. T. Patterson, Texas 
University. 

Discussion led by S. I. Kornhauser, Denison Uni- 
versity. 

Physiological life histories of terrestrial animals: 
V. E. Shelford, Illinois Natural History Sur- 
vey and the University of Illinois. 
Discussion led by Thomas Headlee, New Jersey 

Agricultural Experiment Station. 

The worlc of the National Besearoh Counml in re- 
lation to zoology: C. E. McOlung, chairman, 
Division of Biology and Agriculture, National 
Research Council. 

Papers Contributed by The Ecological Society of 
America 

Hydrogen ion ccmcentration in tlie different stages 
of pond succession: V. E. Shelford, Illinois Nat- 
ural History Survey. 

Distribution of life on a river bottom : A. D. How- 
ard, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

Changes observed in river fauna above Keokuk 
Bam: A. D. Howard, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

Ecological succession of insects in stored food 
products: Royal N. Chapman, University of 
Minnesota. 

Papers following the Zoology Dinner 
The message of the biologist, vice-presidential ad- 
dress for Section F: William Patten, Dart- 
mouth College. 
Motion pictures of the Barbadoes-Antigua Expedi- 
tion: C. 0. Nutting, University of Iowa. 

exhibits 

Slides of stained cysts of the intestinal amoebaa 
and flagellates of man : S. I. Kornhauser, Deni- 
son University. 

Wire models of paths of oysiter larvse, dero, etc. : 
A. A. Schaeffer, University of Tennessee. 



Februakt 27, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



219 



The embryonic colmnella auria of the lizard, 
JEwmeces: Edward L. Eice, Ohio Wealeyan Uni- 
versity. 

Phenotypes ia coat colors in mice: J. A. Detlef- 
SEN and Elmer Egberts, Laboratory of Genet- 
ics, College of Agriculture, University of lUi- 
noisL 

Demonstration of synapsis stages in the chromo- 
somes of grouse locusts and other grasshoppers: 
W. E. B. EOBERTSON, University of Kansas. 

Feathers iUustratinig the inheritance of color in 
varieties of the domestic turkey: W. E. B. 
EoBERTSON, University of Kansas. 

The development of the asexual larvee in Para- 
eopidosomopsis : J. T. Patterson, University of 



Full proceedings of the meeting togeither -with 
abstracts of papers and a list of members and their 
addresses will be found in the Anatomical Becord 
for January, 1920. 

W. C. Allee, 
Secreta/ry 



THE MINERALOGICAL SOCIETY OF 
AMERICA 

At a meeting held in the quarters of the 
Department of Mineralogy at Harvard Uni- 
versity on December 30 a group of 28 mineral- 
ogists from all sections of the United States, 
including representatives from Canada, or- 
ganized a nevF society to be known as the 
Mineralogical Society of America. This ac- 
tion was the outcome of a movement started 
at the Albany meeting of the Geological 
Society of America in 1916 for the bringing 
together into a permanent organization of 
workers in science whose interest lay largely 
or wholly in mineralogy, crystallography or 
those allied sciences which include physical 
crystallography and mineral synthesis. 

A provisional Constitution and By-Laws 
were adopted which defined the object of the 
society as the advancement of mineralogy, 
crystallography and the allied sciences and 
provided for several forms of membership, as 
follows : 

1. Fellows, who are to be nominated by the 
council, must qualify for eligibility by having 
produced some published results of research 
in mineralogy, crystallography or the allied 
sciences. Fellows are eligible for office in the 



society and may vote upon amendments to 
the Constitution. 

2. Members, who comprise persons who are 
engaged in or interested in mineralogy, crys- 
tallography or the allied sciences, but who are 
not qualified for fellowship. Membership 
carries with it the right to vote upon all 
matters except the amendment of the Con- 
stitution, but members are not eligible for 
office. 

The Constitution also provides for Patrons, 
who shall have conferred material favors upon 
the society and Correspondents, or residents 
outside of North America who are sufficiently 
distinguished in the subjects for which the 
society stands to warrant their receiving this 
recognition. 

Because it was recognized that the com- 
paratively small attendance at the meeting 
did not adequately represent the probable 
initial membership of the society, the lists of 
charter fellows and members have been kept 
open Tontil a later meeting of the society. 

It is expected that the general membership 
of the society at the close of 1920 will number 
some 350 to 400 fellows and members. 

It was decided to publish a journal devoted 
to mineralogy, crystallography and the allied 
sciences, which shall be the official organ of 
the society, and which the general member- 
ship of the society shall be entitled to receive. 
The present plan is to enlarge the American 
Mineralogist to include research papers and 
abstracts, but at the same time to retain the 
valuable features of this publication which 
has become recognized as of permanent inter- 
est to such collectors and amateurs who are 
eligible to membership but not fellowship. 
The council of the society has under con- 
sideration the question of affiliation with the 
Geological Society of America. 

The provisional officers of the new society 
which were elected at the December meeting 
are: President, E. H. Kraus, of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan; Vice-president, T. L. 
Walker, of the University of Toronto; Secre- 
tary, H. P. Whitlock, of the American Museum 
of Natural History; Treasurer, A. B. Peck, 
of the Bureau of Standards, Washington; 



220 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1313 



Editor, E. T. Wherrj', of the Bureau of 
Chemistry, "WasMngton ; and Councilors, A. 
S. Eakle, of the University of California (1 
year) ; F. E. Van Horn, of the Case School of 
Applied Science, Cleveland (2 years) ; F. E. 
Wright, of the Carnegie Geophysical Labora- 
tory, Washington (3 years) ; and A. H. 
Phillips, of Princeton University (4 years). 
The formation of a society whose object is 
to promote and foster the mineralogical sci- 
ences comes at a time when there is a distinct 
need in this country for such a body. The 
growing importance of this field of research, 
already felt to a marked degree in the period 
preceding the war, has now with the necessary 
curtailing of scientific activity in Europe, 
assumed scope and size. It is acknowledged 
by observers of the trend of events that scien- 
tific prestige has come to abide in America 
rather than in the countries of the Old World. 
No more keenly is this tendency sensed than 
in those industries which are demanding 
trained workers in crystallography and phys- 
ical mineralogy for their research laboratories. 
If then, science is to keep pace with industry 
in this period of reconstruction and if our 
universities and technical schools are to 
supply to the increasing stream of students 
coming to us from abroad, the high standard 
of scientific education which has come to be 
demanded of us, it is eminently right and 
fitting that such specialized bodies as the 
Mineralogical Society of America should be 
formed and fostered. 

Herbert P. Whitlock, 
Secretary 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 

THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 
SECTION A— MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY 

Inasmuch as the American Mathematical Society 
and the Mathematical Association of America both 
had meetings at St. Louis during the period of the 
meeting of the American Association, only one for- 
mal meeting was held of Section A. At this meet- 
ing, which was a joint meeting with the American 
Mathematical Society, the following papers were 
given : 
Becent progress in dynamics: Professor G. D. 

BiRKHOPT, retiring vice-president of Section A. 



Some recent developments in tJie calculus of varia- 
tions: Professor G. A. Bliss, retiring chairman 
of the Chicago Section of the American Mathe- 
matical Society. 
A suggestion for the utilization of atmosplieric 
molecular energy : Mr. H. H. Platt. 
What has been heretofore Section A has been 
divided into two sections, " A ' ' — Mathematics, and 
"B" — Astronomy. The officers of Section A are 
as follows: 

Vice-president — D. E. Curtiss, Northwestern XJni- 
versity. 

Secretary — Wm. H. Eoever, Washington Univer- 
sity. 

Memiers of Sectional Committee — 5 years, Dun- 
ham Jackson, tJmversity of Minnesota; 4 years, A. 
D. Pitchard, Western Reserve University; 3 years, 
G. A. Bliss, University of Chicago; 2 years, James 
Page, University of Virginia; 1 year, H. L. Bietz, 
University of Iowa. 

Member of the Council — Gi. A. Miller, Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 

Member of General Committee — E. V. Hunting- 
ton, Harvard University. 

The officers of Section B are : 
Vice-president — Joel Stebbins, University of 
Illinois. 

Secretary — P. E. Moulton, University of Chicago. 
Members of the Sectional Committee — 5 years, 
Philip Fox, Northwestern University; 4 years, H. 
N. Russell, Princeton University; 3 years, Harlow 
Shapley, Solar Observatory; 2 years, H. D. Curtis, 
Lick Observatory; 1 year, J. M. Poor, Dartmouth 
College. 

Member of the Council — S. A. Mitchell, Univer- 
sity of Virginia. 

Member of General Committee — E. B. Frost, 
Terkes Observatory. F. B. Moulton, 

Secretary 



SCIENCE 



A Weekly Journal devotjed to the Advancement ot 
Science, publishing the official notices and pro- 
ceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science 

Published every Friday by 

THE SCIENCE PRESS 

LANCASTER, PA. GARRISON, N. Yo 

NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Entered in the post-office at Lancwtcr, Pa., u lecond cla« nsttct 






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Voi^ LI. No. 1814 JKIDAT, MARCH O, ly/U ^^^^ Subsceiptioh, 8e.OO 



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SCIENCE 



Friday, Maeoh 5, 1919 



CONTENTS 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science : — 

Some Aspects of Physics in War and 
Peace: PRorEssoE Gordon F. Hull 221 

Board of Surveys and Maps of the Federal 
Government : WiLLLiM Bowie 233 

The Cinchona Tropical Botanical Station again 
Available : Professoe Duncan S. Johnson. 235 

Entomology in the United States National Mu- 
seum 236 

Scientific Events: — 

Manganese in Costa JEica and Panama; The 
Cambridge Natural Science Club; Fellow- 
ship of the New Zealand Institute 237 

Scientific Notes and News 239 

University and Educational News 242 

Discussion and Correspondence: — 

Mathematics at the University of Stras- 
bourg: Professor Edwin Bidwell Wil- 
son. Professor Pawlow: Professor Fran- 
cis 6. Benedict. Anopheles quadrimacu- 
latus and Anopheles punctipennis in Salt 
Water: De. P. E. Chidester. A Paraffine 
Buler for drawing Curves: Dr. D. P. Jones. 243 

The Handwriting on the Walls of Universities. 245 

Special Articles: — 

Two Destructive Busts ready to invade 
the United States: Professor J. C. Arthur. 
The Fixation of Free Nitrogen by Green 
Plants: P. B. Wann 246 

The Am,erican Physiological Society: Pro- 
fessoe Chas. W. Geeene 248 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to The Bditor of Science, Garrison-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 



SOME ASPECTS OF PHYSICS IN WAR 
AND PEACEi 

PART I. SOME applications OF PHYSICS TO WAR 
PROBLEMS 

A YEAR ago in Baltimore we met with peace 
in prospect. The armistice had been signed. 
But like a strong runner who had just gotten 
under way we found it difficult to stop. We 
continued many of the programs of war. 
Many of us were still in uniform. Our 
thoughts were still largely concerned with 
those problems upon which we had been en- 
gaged. But now most of us are back to our 
normal pursuits, eager as we had been during 
the war to contribute our energies to securing 
the welfare of the nation. The tumult and 
the shouting dies, the captains and the kings 
depart, still stands the ancient and abiding 
sacrifice, the labor of unselfish service which 
we regard as the natural birthright of 
scientific men. 

We are still too near the war to get a clear 
perspective of the extent to which the various 
agencies contributed to its successful prosecu- 
tion. But we can examine it in part and later 
the results of our examination can be gathered 
together. It had been my intention to pass 
in review the many ways in which physics 
had been applied to the problems of war, but 
these had been so numerous and so extensive 
that my time would be given to a mere 
enumeration of the activities. For the war 
was one of many elements and many dimen- 
sions. Leaving aside the human and, I may 
add, the inhuman elements, and considering 
those confined to space, we had warfare in the 
air, on the surface of the earth, under the 
earth, on and under the sea. Applications of 
science were everywhere. Many of the appli- 
cations of physics have been presented else- 

1 Addfl-ess of the vice-presidenit and chairman of 
Section B — Physios — American Association for the 
Advajieement of Science, St. Louis, December, 1919. 



222 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1314 



where and at length. You have been told 
the story of aviation, of the physical labora- 
tory on wing; the story of wireless between 
stations on the surface of the earth, -under 
water and high in the air; the story of signal- 
ing through the darkness of night or the 
brightness of day; the story of sound- ranging, 
of spotting enemy guns and the explosions of 
our own projectiles seeking out those guns 
and of the re-directing of our guns until those 
of the enemy had been destroyed; the story 
of submarine detection and of the extremely 
valuable applications which the study of that 
problem brought to us — the ability literally 
to soimd the ocean — ^the ability to guide a 
ship through fog or past shoals. These and 
other stories you know. Indeed, many of you 
contributed to their unfolding. It is my 
desire here to present briefly some develop- 
ments in a branch concerning which little has 
been written, viz., warfare with guns, project- 
iles, bombs. Later I want to turn from the 
contemplation of problems of war to view our 
subject in its relation to peace. 

The English playwright, John Drinkwater, 
represents Abraham Lincoln as saying "the 
appeal to force is the misdeed of an imperfect 
world." Unfortunately the world is still im- 
perfect. In the horrible business of killing 
people in war, guns of all sizes and kinds are 
the effective weapons. Have you reflected on 
the enormous extent to which artillery was 
used in the Great War? According to Sir 
Charles Parsons, on the British Front alone, 
in one day, nearly one million rounds of 
nearly 20,000 tons of projectiles were fired. 
Extend this along both sides of the Eastern 
and Western fronts and you may gain some 
idea of the daily amount of metal fired by 
gtms. 

The actual American contribution of artil- 
lery to the war was very small but at the time 
of the Armistice we were making progress. 
In America we often measure things by 
money. The total amount of money author- 
ized for artillery, including motor equipment, 
was $3,188,000,000, and for machine guns 
was $1,102,600,000. Judged by the money ex- 
pended for them, guns are of importance. 



It is essential that we get as effective gvms as 
possible and that we know how to use them. 
Aircraft, and anti-aircraft warfare, barrage 
firing, long range gims — all of these call for a 
very complete and accurate knowledge con- 
cerning the motion of a projectile and the 
energy required to carry it to a certain place 
and to cause it there to explode at a chosen 
time. Exterior and interior ballistics are 
thus matters of great importance. 

For two hundred years or more the subject 
of exterior ballistics has been regarded as 
belonging to' pure mathematics. But into 
this realm physicists at times intruded. To 
Newton we ascribe the law that the resistance 
which a body experiences in passing through 
the air varies as the square of the velocity. 
But that great scientist made it clear that 
that might not be the only law. Euler, one 
hundred and fifty years ago, proved various 
mathematical results. Assmning the air re- 
sistance to vary as the square of the velocity 
and that the density of the air did not change 
with altitude, he showed that the coordinates 
X, y, and the time can be computed by quad- 
ratures. His method of taking the angle of 
slope of the trajectory as the independent 
variable has been followed by most of his 
successors in ballistics. 

Even in Euler's method the variation of the 
density of the air with altitude can be allowed 
for by using small arcs and by changing the 
constant of proportionality in the law of air 
resistance to accord with the new density. 
His method can in general be followed where 
the law of air resistance is that given by 
Mayevski, viz., 

where 

71 = 2 for F between and 790 f.s. 

= 3 790 970 

■=5 970 1,230 

= 3 1,230 1,370 

c=2 1,370 1,800 

== 1.7 1,800 2,600 

= 1.55 2,600 3,600 

Siacci, with his elusive pseudo-velocity, has 
been the chief contributor along this line. Hia 



March 5, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



223 



metliod as elaborated by Ingalls and Hamilton 
has been the standard in American works on 
ballistics. 

In Mayevski's law as given in American 
texts 

'' c • 



R 



C is called the ballistic coefficient. Being the 
reciprocal of a resistance it represents the 
penetrating power or ability of a projectile to 
continue in motion. It is assumed to be con- 
stant for any definite projectile. But it was 
found that when the angle of elevation was 
changed, or even the muzzle velocity, in gen- 
eral had to be changed to allow for the new 
range. Attempts have repeatedly been made 
to find a functional relation between and 
these variables. At certain proving grounds 
in the United States a relation was supposed 
to have been established but we find that the 
law adopted does not agree with data which 
we have secured from Aberdeen. It follows 
that, though the mathematical computations 
have been carried through with great rigor 
and accuracy, actual firings for various eleva- 
tions have to be made in order, from the 
ranges observed, to compute the ballistic co- 
efficient for those elevations. In other words, 
the ballistic coefficient always contains in it 
a factor which represents the amount by 
which the theoretical range has to be multi- 
plied in order to obtain the actual range. If 
range and time be the only quantities required 
these can be found by actual firings and al- 
most any approximate law of air resistance 
will satisfy. But it costs money to range-fire 
guns. For example, this cost for a 12-inch 
gun is of the order of $12,000 and for a 14- 
inch naval gun $20,000. These amounts are 
apt to be exceeded. 

It would be a very great saving in time and 
money if the range and trajectory of a 
projectile could be determined with a known 
powder charge without range firing. This 
can only be done when the complete law of 
air resistance is known. The modern prob- 
lems connected with antiaircraft warfare and 
with accurate barrage firing absolutely re- 
quire such a law. 



ISTotwithstanding the fact that the law of 
air resistance for modem projectiles is un- 
known and that the ballistic coefficient merely 
represents an approximate relation between 
the theoretical and actual ranges, great con- 
fidence has been placed in so-called experi- 
mental determinations of this quantity. For 
example, in the official manual for the U. S. 
Eifle the value of the ballistic coefficient of 
the ordinary service rifle bullet (.30-inch 
caliber) is given as 0.3894075 " as determined 
experimentally at the Frankford Arsenal." 
The experimental skill which can determine 
to an accuracy indicated by seven places of 
decimals a quantity as highly capricious as 
the so-called ballistic coefficient, is of rather 
questionable value. 

Going back to the law of air resistance, it 
is evident that Mayevski's law is not satis- 
factory either to mathematicians or to phys- 
icists. There are abrupt changes when the 
index n is changed. The mathematician can 
not differentiate at these corners, the physicist 
can not see the necessity for their existence. 
The law as laid down by the Gavre Com- 
mission which is ordinarily written in the 
form It = cv-Ti(v), where B{v) is a function 
of t), is satisfactory in that it has no discon- 
tinuities. But though it is satisfactory in 
this respect it may still be incomplete. 

The Gavre law or any other smooth law 
lends itself to numerical integration by the 
method of Gauss, who developed it one hun- 
dred years ago. He used this method in the 
problem of special perturbations in celestial 
mechanics. It has since been presented in 
some text-books in theoretical astronomy. An 
early application to physics curiously enough 
was made by an astronomer, John Couch 
Adams, in the integration of an equation 
occurring in the theory of capillarity. But 
though Adams was thoroughly acquainted 
with this method he apparently did not feel 
that it was as satisfactory for computing a 
trajectory as that of Euler. For in an article 
on " Certain Approximate Solutions for Cal- 
culating the Trajectory of a Shot" (Collected 
Works), he refers the motion to the angle 
that the tangent to the trajectory makes with 



224 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1314 




METERS PER 3£C0NO 

Fig. 1. 



the horizontal and uses as a resistance law 
B = AnV"; the constants being taken from 
BasMorth's experimental results. 

The method of Gauss, i. e., of using rectan- 
gular coordinates, has been used by physicists, 
to first order differences at any rate, for vari- 
ous computations. In the case of a projec- 
tile, if the retardation follows the square law 
B = hv-, the equations of motion take the 
well-known form 

6^ _ _ ds dx 
dp ~ di ' at ' 



ds dy 



X = — kvi, 
y = —g - kvy. 
If we take as the law of retardation 



R = cv^B{vy) = vF(v-y) where F = 



G{v)H{y) 
C 



the equations take the form 

X = — xF(v-y), 

y= —9 -Wiv, y). 
The change in the retardation due to change 
in density of the air with height y can be 
taken account of in the function H{y). As a 
result of many meteorological observations 
niy) may be written 

H{y) = 10-<»««"', 
J/ being measured in meters. 



In the notation introduced by Professor 
Moulton G (v), = vB{v), is computed directly 
from the French tables giving B(v) as a 
function of v. The form of the function 
B(v) plotted against v is shown in Fig. 1, and 
will be called the B curve. 

IvTow if C the ballistic coefficient or pene- 
tration coefficient, and the velocity and alti- 
tude are known at any time, then x and y are 
known. If these x and y retardations are 
constant or nearly so, then the values of the 
X and y velocities at any later time are known 
if the time intervals be short. But the retar- 
dation depends on the velocity, hence its value 
for any interval will in general lie between the 
retardations computed for the velocities at 
the beginning and end of an interval. One is 
soon able to approximate to the average — con- 
sequently the values of the x and y velocities 
at the end of the. first, and beginning of the 
second, interval are known. Integration can 
be performed to find the new x and y and the 
process can be repeated for the next interval. 

After X and y and their first and second 
derivatives are tabulated for the first four or 
five short intervals (of i or i second), first 
and second differences are tabulated and the 
computation can proceed in longer time inter- 
vals, usually one or two seconds. The for- 
mulas for extrapolation are made use of for 
extending the computation, and the results 



March 5, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



225 



are checked. Hence a trajectory can be com- 
puted taking account of variations of air 
density with height, and satisfying at all 
points the assumed law of retardation. 

Since the retardation depends on the rela- 
tive velocity of air and projectile, winds can 
be allowed for by considering the motion 
relative to the air at every point. This in- 
volves the principal of moving axes. It im- 
plies however, that the projectile is a sphere 
or that the retardation is independent of the 
angle which the projectile presents to the air, 
or else that the projectile always turns nose 
on to meet the air. We know, however, 
definitely that an air stream of a few miles 
per hour at right angles to the axis of a 
projectile may have several times as great 
a force as the same stream would exert 
along the axis, and that a spinning projectile 
can not turn quickly to meet every wind that 
blows, even though the wind may have but 
small influence upon the angle at which the 
air meets the projectile. 

It was this method of short arc computa- 
tion which Professor Moulton applied to the 
problem of exterior ballistics when he was 
made head of that branch in the Ordnance 
Department. For his courage in setting aside 
the long-established, revered but rather em- 
pirical method in use in the War Department, 
and in introducing a logical, simple method 
of computing trajectories, and for his energy 
in initiating and pushing through certain ex- 
perimental projects, he deserves great com- 
mendation. Valuable contributions to the 
method were made by his associates, notably 
Bennett, Milne, Eitt. Professor Bennett de- 
vised a method which has a number of points 
of merit. It is the one now used at the 
Aberdeen Proving Groimd. Professor Bliss 
gave an inclusive method of computing varia- 
tions in range, altitude and time due to 
changes in air density, winds, muzzle velocity. 
Dr. Gronwall greatly simplified and extended 
the work by Bliss, and made other important 
contributions. In short, leaving out of ac- 
count the question as to the correctness of the 
law of air resistance, the variation of that 
resistance with the angle of attack of air and 



projectile, leaving out the motion of pre- 
cession and nutation which are dependent 
upon the transverse and longitudinal moments 
of inertia of the projectile and its rate of 
spin — ^leaving out these factors the mathe- 
matical basis for finding the trajectory of a 
projectile is secure. 

But the system of forces tmder which a 
projectile moves is not the simple one implied 
by the equations just given. Por a projectile 
is a body spinning rapidly about an axis prob- 
ably nearly identical with its geometrical 
axis. It emerges from the gun either with a 
small yaw, or with a rate of change of yaw, 
or both. (By yaw is meant the angle between 
the axis and the direction of motion of the 
center of gravity.) As in the case of a top, 
processional motion results. If the motion is 
stable, precession accompanied by nutation 
continues. If unstable, the axis is driven 
farther from its original direction imtil the 
projectile is " side on " to the air, or " base 
on " to the air. In short, the projectile tum- 
bles. Loss of range and great dispersion are 
the results. 

The condition for stability may be taken 
the same as that for a top spinning about an 
axis nearly vertical, viz., 

where 

A =■ moment of inertia about the axis 

of spin 
£ = moment of inertia about an axis at 

right angles 

iV^ = frequency of spin in radians per sec. 

M sin ^ = moment of force about an axis 

through the C.G. at right angles 

to the axis of spin, where Q is the 

yaw %. e., the angle between the 

axis of the shell and the direction 

of motion of the center of gravity. 

The rate of orientation of the yaw or the 

processional velocity is given by 

i> ^ AN -^ B{\ + cos6). 

The relation given for stability, viz., that 

4Bm 



>1, 



226 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1314 



^ Screen B Screen C ScrcetN: .D s>-o^e,, r 

r««,, \ 7? I Type i-i 



'Screen F 
Type /-/ 



■Screen G 
Type /-/ 




5CREEN H Screen I 
T^PE l-l Type HI 




Fig. 2. 



is based on the assiimption that the torque 
due to the air is proportional to sin 0. Our 
air stream experiments throw doubt upon this 
assumption but the English experimenters, 
who have made the most complete studies of 
the rotational motions of projectiles that we 
know of, seem to confirm it. 

These motions of precession and nutation 
of a projectile can be studied by firing 
through a number of cardboard screens spaced 
at equal distances along the line of fire. As 
has been said, the English have been the fore- 
most investigators in the work. At Aberdeen, 
under the immediate supervision of Mr. R. H. 
Kent, a very extended study, following in 
general the English method, is being made 
of the stability of projectiles. Cardboard 
screens are placed at distances of 20 feet from 
one another for some distance from the gun, 
then at 100 feet, then at 20 feet again towards 
the end of the path. A careful study was 
made of cardboard so as to obtain a kind 
which would give a clean cut hole. The 



lantern slide (Fig. 2) shows the variation of 
the major axis of the hole for eight con- 
secutive 20-foot screens. 

It wiU be seen from Fig. 2 that the major 
axis of the hole in screens B and made by 
the 3.3 inch projectile is about 3.6 inches, and 
between those screens the angle of the major 
axis has turned through about 60°. At screens 
D, E, F, the major axis is about 3.5 inches 
and it turns rapidly. Here the yaw is a 
minimum and the rapid motion of the axis is 
in accord with the theory governing nutation. 

If the projectile were moving in a vacuum 
or if the air forces did not influence the 
motion, the precessional velocity ip' (considered 
imiform) woidd be given by 



AN 



B(l +.C0S ( 



AN 
2B ■ 



For the projectile in question iV = 
per second. 



220 turns 



1 = 1/6. 



Hence </>'= 220/12 = 18.3 turns per second. 



March 5, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



227 



Since the muzzle velocity is 2,300 feet per 
second and the screens are 20 feet apart, this 
frequency is nearly equal to that of the pre- 
cessional motion at maximimi yaw. 

The discussion just given shows what a 
difficult matter it is to measure the retarda- 
tion of a projectile by firing through screens. 
For the retardation must be not only a fimc- 
tion of the velocity but also of the yaw. As 
the latter is periodic there will be a periodic 
term superimposed on the general term. 
While the ordinary law may lead one to sup- 
pose that the retardation would continually 
decrease as the velocity dies down it may 
actually go through the cycle of decrease, in- 
crease. For the same reason we may find that 
the retardation for a shell fired from a gun 
rifled 1 in 25 may differ from that for the 
Bame shell and velocity when the rifling is 
1 in 50. 

It has been indicated that previous to the 
introduction of the method of short arc com- 
putation by Moulton there had been little 
change in the field of exterior ballistics in 
America for several years. In experimental 
work there had been rather slow progress. 
That the progress was slow was not so much 
the fault of the Army as it was due to the 
non-military policy of the coimtry. When no 
importance is attached to military affairs by 
the people we can not expect our army officers 
to place their service in a position of world 
prominence. 

Recently my attention was called to a letter 
which may throw light upon one reason for 
the fact that experimental work was very 
limited. This letter was written in 1907 from 
the Ordnance Board to the Chief of Ord- 
nance, requesting that $40 be allowed for ex- 
periments in determining the effect on range 
produced by changing the points or ogives of 
50 three-inch projectiles. The experiments 
were authorized and the money allowed. 
Trials with only 15 of the 50 projectiles 
showed that the range was increased from 
5,042 to 5,728 yards. It was reported that 
the coefficient (jSc) had been changed from 
.97272 to .68705. (Note again the extra- 



ordinary accuracy in measuring this quan- 
tity!) The colonel in charge of the experi- 
ment deemed further work unnecessary, for 
he writes (9th indorsement) : 

Having established the probable form of the 
field projeetUe the board reeommends that the re- 
maining 35 experimental shells be made to con- 
form to this design. 

However, the Office of the Chief of Ord- 
nance considered that the last word had not 
yet been said concerning the best form of 
projectile, and ordered certain other varia- 
tions to be made in 10 of the remaining 35 
projectiles. To provide for this further test 
it was stated that " a sum of $25 . . . has this 
day been set aside on the books of this office 
as a special allotment." (And this was only 
seven years before the World War started.) 

It may be further stated that to this letter 
authorizing $65 for experimental tests of shells 
there were 15 indorsements. Those of you 
who have been in the service will appreciate 
what this must have meant in the time of 
stenographers, messengers, filing clerks, and 
high-salaried officers. 

That perfection in the form of projectiles 
had not been secured was made evident by a 
series of experiments, rather crude as judged 
by physical standards, begun at Sandy Hook 
in 1917, and continued at Aberdeen in 1918. 
It had been noticed that there was very large 
dispersion of the shells of the 6-inch gun and 
the 8-inch howitzer. Various book theories 
were advanced to account for these disper- 
sions, but finally upon an examination of some 
recovered shells and as a result of the in- 
formation obtained by firing through card- 
board screens, the true explanation suggested 
itself. The rotating band on these shells had 
a raised portion, called a lip, at the rear of 
the band (Fig. 3). The purpose which this 
lip was supposed to serve was to act as a 
choking ring to prevent the escape of the 
powder blast past the projectile and to seat 
the projectile at a definite place in the gun. 
It was seen in the case of the recovered 
projectiles, and it was evident by the hole 
formed in the cardboard screen through which 
the projectile had passed, that these lips were 



228 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1314 




partly torn off in the passage of the projectile 
through the gun. Experiments were then 
begun in modifying the band. These modifi- 
cations consisted of machining off the lip as in 
Fig. 3. The results were very gratifying. 
The 8-inch howitzer projectile had its range 
increased by 700 meters and its dispersion 



decreased in the ratio of 4 to 1, while the 
6-inch shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,600 feet 
per second and elevation of 45° had its range 
increased from about 12,000 to about 16,000 
yards, and its dispersion was divided by four. 
A number of experiments of this kind were 
carried on at Aberdeen, chiefly by Major 



APPROXIMATE TRAJECTORIES fOR 
M. V. - 3000 FT/ SZC. 


6" 


CUM 


^^^^^ r\^ iN. m\ ^\ 


\ 


\ 


8 10.6 1? 




le MILES 


I. ORIGINAL PROJECTILE UNMODIHED BAND t - 45 " 
E. ■> " MOOiriED . » » 
nr. NCW PROJECTILE BOAT-TAILED 
■ NEW BAND AND OGIVE ♦= 45° 

12- LATEST MARK Wit PROJECTILE +=.35° 







Pig. 4. 



March 5, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



229 




Veblen and Lieutenant Alger. In France, 
similar work was done by Captain E. H. 
Kent. It is seen that these experiments added 
greatly to the effectiveness and therefore to 
the value of the guns in question. The work 
belongs to physics, notwithstanding the fact 
that one of these civilian officers was and is 
a professor of mathematics of the purest 
quality. That he was able to bring himself 
temporarily to neglect the fundamental con- 
cepts of geometry, in which realm he is one 
of our foremost thinkers, to enter into the 
problems of the war with an eagerness for 
close observation of actualities and a readi- 
ness to try out new methods, is very greatly 
to his credit. He is evidently a physicist by 
intuition and a mathematician by profession. 
It is to be noted (Fig. 4) that between the 
summers of 1918 and 1919 the range of the 6- 
inch seacoast gun had been increased from 
about 14,000 yards to 28,000 yards^ for a 

2 The range of 14,000 yards for the 6-iiieh gun is 
computed for a muzzle velocity of 3,000 feet per 
second at 45° elevation, basing the computation on 
the range obtained wi*h a muzzle velocity of 2600 
f .8. It ought to be pointed out that the Army had 



muzzle velocity of 3,000 feet per second, by 
variations in the form of the projectile sug- 
gested by crude experiments. In the case of 
the last projectile (Mark VIII.) there was 
rather large dispersion. Had the cardboard 
test been made it could have been foreseen that 
there would be this dispersion, for the projec- 
tile is evidently not sufficiently stable. In 
Fig. 5 it is seen that one projectile (6-inch 
Mark VIII.) has acquired a large yaw not far 
from the gun. This accounts for the fact 
that the dispersion for this projectile was 
large, of the order of 3,000 yards in 28,000. 
It may be contended that some of the ex- 
periments and tests here recorded are too 
crude to be classed as belonging to the domain 
of physics. But let me remind you that 
Galileo, who may be regarded as the father 
of our science, climbed the tower of Pisa and 
let fall two weights, one large and one small, 
to show that they fell in the same way. We 

a 6-inch shell -which for a muzzle velocity of 2,600 
feet per second bad a range of 15,000 yards at 15° 
elevation, but this was a heavy projectile — 108 lbs. 
— ^whUe that of the projectile experimented upon 
was 90 lbs. 



230 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1314 



have made some progress since Galileo's time. 
We know that bodies are retarded by the air 
but we have assumed, on some experimental 
evidence, in the case of projectiles at any 
rate except for a constant of proportionality, 
that they are retarded in the same way. It 
is evident that in the matter of the laws of 
air resistance we are not far from the condi- 
tion that the scientists of Galileo's time were 
in regard to gravitation. 

It is evident from the results of these ex- 
periments at Aberdeen that a very slight 
change in the form of the projectile may , 
make a considerable change in the range ob- 
tained. And it is equally clear that those 
experiments merely touched the matter. The 
entire subject is still open. 

A number of years ago the Ordnance 
Department made inquiries concerning the 
possibility of using air streams of high 
velocity in tests on projectiles. During the 
war the project was submitted to the National 
Research Council. It was found that air 
streams one foot in diameter, with speed of 
1,500 feet per second, requiring for their pro- 
duction 5,000 kw., could be furnished by the 
General Electric Company at their plant at 
Lynn, Massachusetts. There, with the most 
loyal support of the Bureau of Standards, and 
with the effective collaboration of Dr. L. J. 
Briggs of the bureau the Ordnance Depart- 
mient has conducted experiments^ which have 
for their object the determination of the 
forces of such air streams on projectiles of 
various forms. Velocities of the air have, so 
far, varied from 600 up to 1,200 feet per 
second and temperatures from 0° to 130° C. 
In these air streams, which are vertical, pro- 
jectiles of various shapes can be held nose 
down, and the forces on them and pressures 
at various points on their surfaces, can be 
measured. A number of important results 
have been secured. First, for head-on resist- 
ance there is no one curve similar to the 
French B curve which gives the law of air 

3 Wiitkout a knowledge on his part of other in- 
quiries, negortuations for these experiments were 
carried on and pushed to a conclusion by Major 
Moulton. 



resistance for all projectiles. For example, in 
that law it will be seen by inspection (Fig. 1) 
that F/v^ is multiplied by the factor 3 when 
the velocity changes from 200 to 380 meters 
per second. In our curves the corresponding 
factor varies from 1.3 to 4 for the various 
forms of projectiles. In other words the 
force exerted on one projectile may be less at 
one velocity and more at another than the 
force for the corresponding velocity in the 
case of another projectile. It follows that 
there is no " best form " of projectile unless 
we specify the approximate velocity with 
which we are dealing. 

Second, the results obtained indicate the 
resistance introduced by the rotating band 
and show where this band should be placed 
to produce the least increase of resistance. 

Third, it appears that the rapid rise of the 
B curve in the neighborhood of V = 340 
meters per second is not entirely determined 
by the velocity of the compressional wave, i. e., 
by the velocity of sound in the air. In some 
cases the force of air streams at 130° C. are 
identical with those at 30° C. (It is understood 
that the density of the air is standardized, i. e., 
that the forces plotted are those which an air 
stream of equal speed and of density 0.001206 
gms./em.' would have exerted.) In other 
cases, however, the results indicate that the 
velocity of the compressional wave is one of 
the factors determining the resistance. The 
temperature relation seems to be a compli- 
cated one and our results are not at all com- 
plete on this point. 

Fourth, thoTigh we have not made quantita- 
tive measurements of the variation of force 
with the angle of attack of air and projectile, 
we have had some experimental evidence of 
the large forces which are called into play 
when this angle changes from " nose on " to 
oblique. In one case, the force of the air on 
a fifty pound 4-inch projectile was of the 
order of 44 pounds, so that there was still 
about six pounds of down force. When the 
projectile was being removed from the air 
stream it was accidently tipped slightly. The 
air stream forced it farther from the vertical, 
bent off the steel rod holding it to the balance 



March 5, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



231 



arm and blew the projectile up several feet 
over a railing into the yard. In another case, 
•when the up force due to the air on a two- 
inch projectile was only about one third of 
the weight, i. e., about 1.5 pounds, an oblique 
action at a slight angle drove the projectile 
farther from the vertical, finally turned its 
nose up, bending the steel spindle in the 
process. It is evident that the oblique forces 
of air streams on projectiles may be many 
times the " nose-on " force for corresponding 
velocities. It is clear then that unless a pro- 
jectile turns " nose-on " to a wind the method 
now in use for finding wind corrections are 
greatly in error. 

Enough has been said to show that the 
fundamental problem of the projectile is not 
one of mathematics. There are various 
mathematical methods of handling the prob- 
lem. The English have a method highly 
analytical and complete. The French have 
a method rather tedious for computation but 
they excel in the graphic representation of 
results. The Italians still cling to the Siacci 
method. There are at least three methods in 
use in America, each one claiming points of 
merit. The problem is one of experimental 
science. We must first determine the com- 
plete law of air resistance for every probable 
form of projectile, then we must determine 
the variation of force as the axis of the pro- 
jectile changes in direction; the torque about 
the center of gravity; the precessional and 
nutational motions luider these forces, and 
the consequent effective lift and drag, as these 
terms are used in aerodynamics. Mathe- 
maticians may then find it necessary, using 
these known facts, to formulate the differ- 
ential equations of a twisted trajectory and 
to evolve methods of integration. But it is 
quite probable that simple physical methods 
of integration may be devised. 

It is evident even from a superficial study 
of the matter that a gun is an inefficient 
engine. An appreciable part of the energy of 
the powder takes the form of heat and kinetic 
energy of the gas developed. Of the initial 
energy of the projectile a large part is used 
in overcoming the resistance of the air. Per- 



haps in the warfare of the future we shall not 
need guns, on land at any rate. Rather we 
may hoist a carload of projectiles on a 
dirigible, carry them over the enemy's cities 
or lines and drop them on carefully selected 
spots. But if we are to drop projectiles or 
bombs accurately we must know the laws 
governing the motion of such bodies. 

During the war, Drs. A. W. Duff and L. P. 
Seig carried on a series of experiments at 
Langley Field, in which the object was to 
find by photography the path of a bomb 
dropped from an airplane. By placing an 
intense light in a bomb they were able to pho- 
tograph its path, to measure its velocity at 
any point, to obtain the speed of the airplane, 
and the wind velocity. These important re- 
sults were contributed to the Americal Phys- 
ical Society at the April meeting. 

At Aberdeen, Dr. F. C. Brown, then captain 
later major in the Ordnance Department, 
while flying over a shallow body of still water 
observed the image of the airplane in the 
water. To a casual observer this would have 
excited no special interest. But, being a 
physicist, knowing the meaning of a level 
surface and a line of force. Dr. Brown saw 
that he had with him a visible vertical line. 
However the airplane tossed and pitched the 
vertical direction could be identified. He 
made use of this fact in a very skillful way. 
Attaching to the airplane a motion picture 
camera he was able to photograph a bomb 
released from the plane at a height of about 
3,000 feet during the whole course of the 
projectile to the earth. Time can be obtained 
either from the rate of motion of the camera 
or from the photograph of a watch placed so 
that its image also falls on the film. The 
distance that the bomb has fallen and its 
orientation in space can be determined from 
the dimensions of its image. Its angle of lag 
or its distance behind the vertical line from 
the plane can be found by measuring the dis- 
tance between the image of the bomb and that 
of the airplane. Hence not only the complete 
trajectory can be found but also the relation 
of the trajectory at any point with the varia- 
tion in direction of the axis of the bomb. 



232 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1314 



It is assumed here that the motion of the air- 
plane has been kept constant. The motion 
picture film which I shall show, which was 
kindly loaned to us by the Aircraft Arma- 
ment Section of the Ordnance Department, 
will bring out clearly the tossing, pitching 
motion of the bomb in its course to the earth. 

INTERIOR BALLISTICS 

In interior ballistics, there are a number 
of unsolved problems. The fi.rst is concerned 
with the pressure produced in a gun by the 
exploding charge and its time rate of change. 

The ordinary method which has been in use 
has been to measure the so-called maximum 
pressure by the shortening produced in a cop- 
per cylinder. But experiments have shown 
that the amount which a cylinder of copper is 
compressed by an applied pressure depends on 
the amount of the pressure, the time of appli- 
cation, the previous history as regards temper- 
ing, annealing, compression, etc. It is known 
for example that an application of a pressure 
of say 36,000 pounds per square inch will give 
an extra shortening to a cylinder previously 
compressed to 40,000 pounds per square inch. 
But the ordinary procedure has been to place 
in the gun a copper cylinder which had been 
precompressed to an amount nearly that to be 
expected. Obviously such a cylinder may in- 
dicate a pressure in the gun in excess of 
40,000 pounds when in reality it was less. 
Moreover, the copper cylinder need not indi- 
cate the maximum. Rather it indicates a 
simmaation of the total efFect of the gases 
upon it. A smaller pressiu-e applied for some 
time may produce a shortening equal to that 
due to a larger pressure for a shorter time. 
Notwithstanding this uncertainty in the be- 
havior of a copper cylinder, that is the kind 
of gage which has been used to standardize all 
the powder used in guns. It is clear that we 
may doubt whether these powders have been 
standardized at all. What is wanted evidently 
is a gage which will register the pressure 
accurately at a certain instant and therefore 
which will give the complete variation of the 
pressure with time. 

Several gages have been devised which have 



points of excellence as well as defects. In the 
Petavel gage the compression of a steel 
spring was registered on a revolving drum by 
a light pointer. But the mechanical processes 
were not well worked out. Colonel Somers 
improved on Petavel's design in the mechan- 
ical details but neglected the optical. For 
small arms, both mechanical and optical de- 
tails have been worked out by Professor A. G. 
Webster. In the gage the spring is a single 
bar of steel about 5 mm. square and 20 mm. 
long, which is bent by a plimger fitting into 
a cylindrical opening through the wall of the 
gun. Its moving parts have small mass and 
high elasticity, and it seems capable of giving 
an accTorate record of the changes in pressure 
even when the whole time is of the order of 
a few thousandths of a second. But its use 
api)ear8 to be limited to the cases of guns 
which can be rigidly clamped during the 
explosion. 

In the Bureau of Standards, Drs. Curtis 
and Duncan have been perfecting a gage 
which has been used in the large naval guns. 
Here a steel cylinder compresses a steel 
spring. During the compression a metal 
point makes electrical contact with conduc- 
tors equally spaced. Consequently electrical 
signals can be indicated by an oscillograph 
for these equal steps. The time pressure 
curve is then given if the spring can be 
properly calibrated. There is however some 
doubt on this point and there is also uncer- 
tainty in electrical contacts and in the fric- 
tion of the system. 

What is needed is a method of calibrating 
accurately any gage by means of a known 
rapidly changing high pressure. Such a 
method has been worked out by the technical 
stafi of the Ordnance Department, but the 
mechanical and experimental work still has 
to be done. 

I have given you here some applications of 
the older physics to old and new problems of 
war. The list even in this limited field might 
be easily increased. By means of the photo- 
graphy of sound waves from a projectile we 
may determine many facts concerning its 
motion, the frequency of its processional and 



Maech 5, 1920] 



SCIENCE 



233 



nutational motions, the nature of its stability 
or instability. By means of motion pictures 
taken from an airplane we may determine 
facts of importance concerning the motion of 
a rapidly rotating projectile dropped from the 
plane. The recoil, jump and other motions of 
guns may be studied by photographic methods. 
By similar methods the times and positions 
of high angle shell bursts may be obtained 
from observational balloons. Gyro stabilizers, 
microphones, string galvanometers, oscillo- 
graphs, piezo-electric apparatus, vacuum am- 
plifying tubes, Kenetrons, old and new devices 
in physics — they all may be used to reduce 
the problems which I have been discussing to 
those of an exact science. 

Gordon F. Hull 
Daetmouth College 



BOARD OF SURVEYS AND MAPS OF 
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 

On December 30, 1919, the President of the 
United States by executive order created a 
Board of Surveys and Maps to be composed of 
one representative of each of the following or- 
ganizations of the government: 

1. Corps of Engineers, TJ. 8. Army. 

2. TJ. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department 

of Commerce. 

3. TJ. S. Geological Survey, Department of In- 

terior. 

4. General Land Office, Department of Interior. 

5. Topography Branch, Post Office Department. 

6. Bureau of Soils, Department of Agriculture. 

7. U. S. Eeclamation Service, Department of In- 

terior, 

8. Bureau of Public Eoads, Department of Agri- 

culture. 

9. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of In- 

terior. 

10. Mississippi Eiver Commission, War Depart- 

ment. 

11. TJ. S. Lake Survey, War Department. 

12. Internatienal (Canadian) Boundary Commis- 

sion, Department of State. 

13. Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. 

14. TJ. S. Hydrographie Office, Navy Department. 

The individual members of the board were 
appointed by the chiefs of the several organi- 
zations named. The board is directed, by the 



executive order, to make recommendations to 
the several departments of the government or 
to the President for the purpose of coordina- 
ting the map-making and surveying activities 
of the government and to settle all questions at 
issue between executive departments relating 
to surveys and maps, in so far as their decis- 
ions do mot conflict with existing law. The 
board is also directed to establish a central in- 
formation office in the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey for the purpose of coltecting, classifying 
and furnishing to the public information con- 
cerning aill m.apping and surveying data avail- 
able in the several government departments 
and from other sources. The executive order 
further directs that the board shall hold meet- 
ings at staited intervals to which shall be in- 
vited representatives of the map-using public 
for the purpose of conference and advice. 

All government departments, according to 
the executive ordetr, will make full use of the 
board as an advisory body and will furnish all 
available information and data called for by 
the board. 

The order of the President rescinds the ad- 
visory powers granted to the U. S. Geographic 
Board by the executive order of August 10, 
1906, and transfers those powers to the Board 
of Surveys and Maps. The executive order of 
August 10, 1906, reads as follows : 

EXECUTIVE ORDER * 

The official title of the United States Board on 
Geographic Names is changed to United States 
Geographic Board. 

In addition to its present duties, advisory pow- 
ers are hereby granted to this board concerning 
the preparation of maps compiled, or to be com- 
piled, in the various bureaus and offices of the 
government, with a special view to the avoidance 
of unnecessary duplications of work; and for 
the unification and improvement of the scales of 
maps, of the symbols and conventions used upon 
them and of the methods representing relief. 
Hereafter, all such projects as are of importance 
shall be submitted to this board for advice before 
being undertaken. 

Theodore Roosevelt 

The White House, 
August 10, 1906 



234 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. LI. No. 1314 



The representatives of the federal organiza- 
tions mentioned in the executive order of De- 
cember 30, 1919, met on Januaa-y 16, 1920, and 
perfected the organization hy the enactment 
of by-laws for the government of the Board of 
Surveys and Maps. 

The officers of the board are : Chairman, Mr. 
C. O. MerriU, chief engineer of the Forest 
Service; vice-chairman. Dr. William Eoiwie, 
chief of the Division of Geodesy of the TJ. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey; secretary, Mr. C. 
H. Birdseye, chief geographer of the U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

Standing committees have been appointed to 
care for the various phases of surveying and 
mapping. Those committees are: 

1. On ooordimation of work among the federal 

bureaua. 

2. On cooperation between federal and other 

map-making and map-using organizations 
and agencies. 

3. On teolmioal standards. 

4. On topographic maps. 

5. On highway maps. 

6. On general maps. 

7. On hydrographie charts. 

8. On control surveys. 

9. On photographic surveys. 
10. On information. 

In addition to these committees there was 
also organized the Map Information Office, 
with headquarters at the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, which was directed by the Executive 
Order. 

On all except a few of the standing commit- 
tees of the Board of Surveys and Maps, repre- 
sentatives of outside organizations will also 
be appointed. 

The public meetings of the board will be 
held in "Wiashington, D. C, on the second Tues- 
day of January, March, May, Septemiber and 
November of eiach year and there will be execu- 
tive meetings held immediately after those 
public meetings and also on the second Tues- 
day of February, April, October and De- 
cember. 

It is interesting to know the steps by which 
the Board of Surveys and Maps came into ex- 
istence. The National Research Council had 



its attention called to the desirability of hav- 
ing an organization that would prevent dupli- 
cation and provide for cooperation among the 
federal miap-onaking organizations. The mat- 
ter was discussed by the National Research 
Council and was then submitted to the Engi- 
neering Council for consideration. On July 
1, 1919, the chairman of the Engineering 
Council, Mr. J. Parke Channing, wrote a 
letter to the President of the United States 
in which he called attention to the necessity 
for the completion of the topographic map 
of the TJnited States at an early date to 
meet the needs of the country in its com- 
merce, indiistries, etc. The Engiineering 
Council recommended the creation of a Board 
of Surveys and Maps to consider the whole 
quesition of coordination of the work of the 
government in those branches of engineering. 

On July 27, 1919, the President of the 
United States directed the Secretary of War 
to call a conference of representatives of the 
surveying and map-naaking organizations of 
the government for the purpose of considering 
the recommendation of the Engiineering 
Council. 

This conference held a number of meetings 
in September, 1919, and on the last of that 
month sent a report to the President, recom- 
mending, lamong other things, that the Board 
of Surveys and Maps be created. Added to 
the report of