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SCIENCE 



A WEEKLY JOURNAL 

DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Editorial Committee : S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; K. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, 

Astronomy ; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics ; E. H. Thurstos", Engineering ; Ira Remsen, Chemistry ; 

J. Le Conte, Geology ; W. M. Davis, Physiography ; Henry F. Osborn, Paleontology ; W. K. 

Brooks, C. Hart Meeriam, Zoology ; S. H. Scudder, Entomology ; C. E. Bessey, N. L. 

Beitton, Botany ; C. S. Minot, Embryology, Histology ; H. P. Bowditch, Physiology ; 

J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, Psychology ; Daniel G. Brin- 

ton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



NEW SERIES. VOLUME IX. 



JANUARY -JUNE, 1899. 




NEW YORK 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

1899 



THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY, 

41 North Qceen Street, 

Lancaster, Pa. 



CONTEI<[TS AND INDEX. 

N. S. VOL. IX.— JANUARY TO JUNE, 1899. 



The Names of Contributors are Printed in Small Capitalt 



Abbe, Cleveland, Catalogue for Meteorology, 871 

Abler, Cykus, The International Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Literature 761, 799 

Age of the Earth, Lord Kelvin, 665, 704 ; T. C. 
Chambeelin, 889 

Allen, Alfred H., Commercial Organic Analysis, W. 
A. NOYES, 63, 818 

Allen, J. A., Birds, A. H. Evans, 647 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
28, 628, 881 

Amerind — A Designation for the Ahoriginal Trihes 
of the American Hemisphere, 795 

Ames, J. S., Text-hook of Physics, Charles S. Hast- 
ings and F. E. Beach, 545 ; Catalogue for Physics, 
864 

Anatomists, American, Association, D. S. Lamb, 320 

Angot, Alfred, M^t^orologie, Frank Waldo, 743 

Ansehiitz, R., Organic Chemistry, E. Renouf, 749 

Anthropological, Section of the American Association, 
145 ; Society of Washington, J. H. McCoemick, 
218, 590 

Anthropology, Current Notes on, D. G. Brinton, 
37, 117, 156, 185, 227, 266, 299, 338 ; Advances 
in Methods of Teaching, Feanz Boas, 93 

Arc of Peru, Remeasurement of, 916 

Astronomical Notes, Winslow Upton, 36, 224 ; E. 
C. Pickering, 417, 456 

Atomic Weights, Ferdinand G. Wiechmann, 23 ; 
Quarter Century's Progress, F. P. Venable, 477 

B., H. C, The Statistical Method in Zoology, 74 

Bailey, L. H., The Principles of Agriculture, Elisha 
Wilson Morse, 328 

Bailey, Solon I., Peruvian Meteorology, R. DeC. 
Ward, 715 

Barrows, Franklin W., New York State Science 
Teachers Association, 811 

Baeus, Cael, The Ohjeotive Presentation of Har- 
monic Motion. 385 

Bather, F. A., Zoological Bihliography, 154 ; The 
Storage of Pamphlets, 720 ; Some Smithsonian 
Publications, 775 

Badee, L. a., Trowhridge's Theory of the Earth's 
Magnetism, 264 

Bean, Tarleton H., Fishes of the South Shore of 
Long Island, 52 ; Identity of Common and Lah- 
rador White Fish, 416 

Beddard, F. E., Structure and Classification of Birds, 
F. A. Lucas, 212 ; Elementary Zoology, Chas. 
Weight Dodge, 329 

Bell, Alexander Graham, on the Development by Se- 
lection of Supernumerary Mammae in Sheep, 637 

Beekey, Chaeles p., Minnesota Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, 623 



Berry, Arthur, A Short History of Astronomy, David 
P. Todd, 682 

Bessey, Chaeles E., 74, 226, 555, 689, 880 ; The 
North American Potentilleae, per Axel Rydberg, 
548 ; The Evolution of Plants, D. Campbell, 618 

Binet, A., L'Annc'e psychologique, 292 

Biological, Stations of Brittany, John H. Gee- 
ould, 165 ; Society of Washington, O. F. Cook, 
257, 486, 847 ; Fresh Water Stations of the 
World, Henry B. Waed, 497 ; Text-Books and 
Teachers, O. F. Cook, 541 ; Bulletin, 652 

Biology, Section of the N. Y. Acad, of Soi., Gary N. 
Calkins, 718 ; Francis E. Lloyd, 912 ; of the 
Great Lakes, Jacob Reighaed, 906 

Blackford, Eugene G., Note on the Spawning 
Season of the Eel, 740 

Bliss, C. B., Section of Psychology and Anthropology, 
New York Academy of Sciences, 219, 376 

Boas, Feanz, Teaching of Anthropology, 93 

Bolton, H. Caeeington, and W. P. Cutter, Cata- 
logue for Chemistry, 867 

Boston Society of Natural History, Samuel Hen- 
SHAW, 624 

Botanical Club, Torrey, E. S. Burgess, 33, 295, 520, 
591, 819, 876 ; of Washington, Charles Louis 
POLLAED, 291, 914 ; of the University of Chi- 
cago, 413 ; Notes, Charles E. Bessey, 74, 226, 
555, 689, 880 ; Gazette, 376, 589, 620 

Boutwell, J. M., Geological Conference and Stu- 
dents' Club of Harvard University, 33, 113, 335, 
519, 591, 719,752, 786 

Brigham, a. p., Physical Geography, W. M. Davis 
and H. W. Snyder, 410 

Beinton, D. G., Current Notes on Anthropology, 37, 
76, 117, 156, 185, 227, 266, 299, 338 

Beitcher, H. W., Onondaga Academy, 114, 376 

Beooks, W. K., Truth and Error, 121 ; The Wonder- 
ful Century, A. R. Wallace, 511 

Brnnissure of the Vine, Albert F. Woods, 508 

BUMPUS, H. C, Marine Biological Laboratory, 228 

Burgess, E. S., Torrey Botanical Club, 33, 295, 520, 
591, 819, 876 

Burnside, W., Theory of Groups of Finite Order, F. 
N. Cole, 106 

Butler, A. W., Birds of Indiana, F. M. C, 66 

C, C. G., Practical Astronomy, W. W. Campbell, 842 
C, F. C, Physical Notes, 116, 378, 493, 555 
C, F. M., Birds of Indiana, A. W. Butler, 66 
C, H. W., Bacteriology, Ferdinand Hueppe, 513 
Cajoei, Florian, Carl Friedrich Gauss and his 

Children, 697 
Calkins, Gary N., Biological Section of the New 

York Academy of Sciences, 718 



SCIENCE. 



Chamberlin, T. C, Lord Kelvin's Address on the 

Age of the Earth as an Abode fitted for Life, 889 

Campbell, D. H., The Evolution of Plants, Chaeles 

E. Bessey, 618 

Campbell, W. W., Astronomy, G. C. C, 842 

Card, Fred. W., Bush Fruits, B. D. Halsted, 109 

Catalogue, International of Scientific Literature, 187 ; 

Cyrus Adlee, 761, 799 ; J. Victor Carus, 825, 

Physics, J. S. Ames, 864, Chemistry, H. Car- 

EINGTON BOLTOiSr, W. P. CUTTEE, 867 ; CLEVE- 
LAND Abbe, 871 ; N. S. Shalee, 907 ; Jacques 
LOEB, 908 

Cattell, J. McKeen, Degrees in Science in Harvard 
University, 522 

Cayley, Arthur, Collected Mathematical Papers, 
Geoege Bruce Halsted, 59 

Chemical, Society of Washington, William H. Keug, 
33, 517, 622, 751 ; Society, American, Dueand 
WoODJiAN, General Meeting, 58 ; N. Y. Section 
of, 258, 487, 654, 820, 913 ; Journal American, 
151, 257, 451, 620, 718, 712 

Chemistry, Notes on Inorganic, J. L. H., 71, 155, 185, 
266, 297, 337, 457, 595, 623, 652, 656, 688 ; Phys- 
ical, Journal of, 151, 293 ; Organic, The Eevival 
of, H. N. Stokes, 601 

Clark, William Bullock, Geology, James D. 
Dana, 147 ; Report of Official State Bureaus, 162 

Clement, Frederic E., Pflanzengeographie, A. F. 
W. Sehimper, 747 

Climatological Ass. Amer., Guy Hinsdale, 774 

CocKERELL, T. D. A., The Chinch Bug, F. M. Web- 
ster, 175 ; North American Rhopalocera, Henry 
Skinner, 373 ; A Date-palm Scale Insect, 417 ; 
Color in Nature, Marion J. Newbiggin, 448 

CoE, W. R., The Time of Breeding of some Common 
New England Nemerteans, 167 

Cole, F. N., The American Mathematical Society, 
57, 322, 684 ; Theory of Groups of Finite Order, 
W. Burnside, 106 

Cole, R. S., Photographic Optics, Frank Waldo, 
874 

Collins, Joseph, Faculty of Speech, E. W. F., 745 

Congdon, Ernest, A Qualitative Analysis, W. A. 
NOYES, 26 

Conklin, Edwin G., Advances in Methods of Teach- 
ing Zoology, 81 

Cook, O. F., Biological Society of Washington, 257, 
332, 468, 647; Biological Text-books and Teachers, 
541 

Ceandall, Charles S., Storing Pamphlets, 115 

Ceeighton, J. E., The Groundwork of Science, St. 
George Mivart, 147 

Creighton, J. E., Logic, George Rebec, 779 

Cummings John, Wm. H. Niles, 24 

Cutter, W. P., and H. Caerington Bolton, Cata- 
logue for Chemistry, 867 

D., A. St. C, Notes on Physics, 225, 419, 655, 687 
D., T., The Choice of Elements, 418 
Dall, Wm. H., Zoological Nomenclature, 221 
Dana, James D., Revised Text-book of Geology, W. 

B. Clark. 147 
Davenport, Chas. B., Specific Place Modes, 415 
Davenport, Charles B., Experimental Morphology, 

T. H. Morgan, 648 
Davis, W. M., and H. W. Snyder, Physical Geogra- 
phy, Albert Perry' Brigham, 410 
Dawson, George M., Duplication of Geologic For- 
mation Names, 592 



Day', Wm. S., Section of Astronomy and Physics of 
the New York Academy of Sciences, 653, 850 

Dean, Bashfoed, Amer. Morphological Soc, 311, 
364 ; Lamprey Macrophthalmia Chilensis, 740 

Dearborn, G. V. N., The Origin of Nightmare, 455 

DeGarmo, Charles, Talks to Teachers on Psychol- 
ogy, William James, 909 

Delage, Ives, L'Annee biologique, 292 

Derventer, Ch. van. Physical Chemistry for Beginners, 
Harry C. Jones, 750 

Dewar, on Liquid Hydrogen, 914 

DiLLEE, J. S., Stalactites of Sand, 371 ; Latest Vol- 
canic Eruptions of the Pacific Coast, 639 

Discussion and Correspondence, 34, 70, 114, 154, 184, 
221, 259, 297, 376, 415, 455, 488, 520, 553, 592, 
624, 686, 720, 7,52, 787, 820, 850, 877 

Dodge, Charles Weight, Elementary Zoology, 
Frank E. Beddard, 329 

Dodge, Richard E., Rivers of North America, 
Israel C. Russell, 214 ; New York Academy of 
Sciences, 452 ; Suggestions for Scientific Semin- 
ars, 520 

Doolittle, C. L., National Observatory, 471 

Durand, J. P., Taxonomie gcn^rale, F. A. L., 150 

DwiGHT, Thomas, Human Anatomy, Henry Morris, 
27 

Eastman, C. R., Plastiline, 211 ; Some New Amer- 
ican Fossil Fishes, 642 

Eel, Spawning Season of the, Eugene G. Blackford, 
740 ; Larval Stage of the Theo. Gill, 820 

Eigenmann, Carl H., A Case of Convergence, 280 

Elkin, W. L., National Observatory, 475 

Embouchure, N. A. Indian Flageolets, E. H. Haw- 
ley, 742 

Entomological Society of Washington, L. O. Howard, 
181, 413 

Evans, A. H., Birds, J. A. Allen, 647 

Explosions caused by commonly occurring Substan- 
ces, Charles E. Munroe, 345 

F., W. H., Indnstrial Electricity, Henry de Graffig- 

ny, 374 
F., W. S , Notes on Physics, 336, 378, 418, 457 
Faerand, Livingston, American Psychological As- 
sociation, 249 ; Indians of Western Washington, 
533 
Farrington, Oliver C, Moon Model, 35 
Fatigue, Mental, Edward Thoendike, 712 
Flint, A. S., Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 179 
Folwell, A. P., Sewerage, M. M.,'64 
Food Adulteration, Senatorial Investigation of, 793 
FowKE, Gerard, Archteological Investigations on 

the Amoor River, 539 

Franklin, W. S. , The Sensation of Motion and its 

Reversal, 70 ; Etherion, 297 ; Fundamental Law 

of Temperature for Gaseous Celestial Bodies, 594 

Fuertes, E. a.. National Observatory, 475 

Fuller, M. L., Rapidity of Sand-plain Growth, 643 

G., J. E., Freezing-point, Boiling-point and Conduct- 
ivity Methods, Harry C. Jones, 150 

Galloway, B. T., Enzymes as Remedies in Infec- 
tious Diseases, 379 

Ganong, W. F., Methods of Teaching Botany, 96; 
Columbia Meeting of the Society for Plant Mor- 
phology and Physiology, 169 

Gardiner, Edw. G., Plymouth, England, and its 
Marine Biological Laboratory, 488 



■'\\ 



.SCIENCE. 



Gauss, Carl F iedrich and his Children, Floeian 
Cajoki, G97 

Geological, Conference and Student's Club of Harvard 
University, J. M. BoUTWELL, 33, 113, 335, 519, 
591, 719, 752, 786 ; Soo. of Amer. , J. F. Kemp, 
100, 138 ; Soc, of Washington, Wm. F. Moesell, 
152, 454, 551, 622 ; Survey, Publications, 177 ; 
of Maryland, Bailey Willis, 252; In Alaska, 
W. F. M., 628 ; Club, University of Minnesota, 
F. W. Sardeson, 412 ; Expedition to the Philip- 
pines, W. F. M., 722 

Geologist, American, 111, 517. 

Geology, Journal of, 375, 783, 911 ; and Mineralogy, 
Section of the N. Y. Acad, of Sci., Alexis A. 
JULIEN, 719, 818. 

Gekould, John H., The Biological Stations of Brit- 
tany, 165 

GiDDiNGS, Franklin H., The Psychology of So- 
ciety, 16 

Gill, Theo., Larval Stage of the Eel, 820 

Gordon, Reginald, Section of Astronomy and 
Physics of the N. Y. Acad, of Sci., 219, 488 

Gkaffigny, Henry db. Industrial Electricity, W. 
H. F., 374 

Groos, Karl, Die Spiele der Menschen, Hiram M. 
Stanley, 619 

GuYER, Michael F., Ovarian Structure in an Ab- 
normal Pigeon, 876 

H. J. L., Notes on Inorganic Chemistry, 71, 155, 
185, 266, 297, 337, 457, 59', 623, 652, 656, 688 

Hagen, J. G., Atlas of Variable Stars, 29 

Hague, Arnold, The Early Tertiary Volcanoes of 
the Absaroka Range, 425 

Hall, Asaph, National Observatory, 468 

Hallock, William, Kirchoff's Principle, 210 ; Re- 
ception and Exhibition of the N. Y. Acad, of 
Sci., 616 

Halsted, B. D., Bush Fruits, Fred. W. Card, 109 

Halsted, George Bruce, Mathematical Papers, 59 ; 
La vie sur les hauts plateaux, A. L. Herrera and 
D. V. Lope, 255 ; Sophus Lie, 447 ; N. I. Lobat- 
schefski, 813 

Harshberger, John W., Transmitted Characteris- 
tics in a AVhite Angora Cat, 554 

Hastings, Charles, S.. and F. E. Beach, Text-Book of 
General Physics, J. S. Ames, 545 

Hawley, E. H., Embouchure in N. A. Indian Flageo- 
lets, 742 

Hay, 0. P., Fossil Vertebrates, 593 

Hellmann G., Wetter Prognosen, A. L. RoTCii, 910 

Helmholtz, Hermann von. Brain of, 557 

Henshaw, Samuel, Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory, 624 

Herrera, A. L., and D. V. Lope, La vie sur les hauts 
plateaux, George Bruce Halstead, 255 

Hill, Robert T., Cuba and Porto Rico, W J M., 65 ; 
and T. W., Vaughan, The Lower Cretaceous 
Gryphfcas of the Texas Region, F. W. Simonds, 
110 ; Geology of the Edwards Plateau and Rio 
Grande Plain, Frederic W. Simonds, 481 

Hinsdale, Guy, Medical Climatology, S. Edwin 
Solly, 485 ; Amer. Climatological Association, 774 

HoBBS, Wm. H., Science Club of the University of 
Wisconsin, 875 

Holland, W. J , The Butterfly Book, Samuel H. 
Scudder, 66 

HoLMAN, Silas W., Matter, Energy, Force and 
Work, 154 



Holman, Silas W., Matter, Energy, Force and Work, 
T. C. M., 24 

Howard, L. O., Entomological Soc. of Washing- 
ton, 181, 413 ; Economic Status of Insects, 233 

Hueppe, Ferdinand, Principles of Bacteriology, H. 
W. C, 513 

Huntington, Geo. S., Teaching of Anatomy, 85 

James, William, Lehmann and Hansen on Tele- 
pathy. 654 ; Telepathy Once More, 752 

James, William, Talks to Teachers on Psychology, 
Charles DeGarmo, 909 

Jesup, North Pacific Expedition, L. Faeeand, 533; 
Harlan L Smith, 535 ; Gkraed Fowke, 539, 
732 

Johnson, Roswell, H., Two-headed snakes, 625 

Jones, Haery C, Physical Chemistry, J. L. R. 
Morgan, 717 ; Physical Chemistry Ch. van Der- 
venter, 750 

Jones, Harry C, Freezing Point, Boiling Point and 
Conductivity Methods, J. E. G., 150 

JoED.iN, David Stark, A Sage in Science, 529 ; 
A Posthora Phantom, a Study in the Spontan- 
eous Activity of Shadows, 674 

Jordan, Edwin O., Examination of Water, William 
P. Mason, 548 

Judd, Chas. H., Snb-Section of Anthropology and 
Psychology of the N. Y. Acad, of Sci , 553, 685 

Judd, Sylvester D., Birds as Weed Destroyers, 905 

JULIEN, Alexis A., Section of Geology and Miner- 
alogy of the N. Y. Acad, of Sci., 719, 818 

Keeler, James E., National Observatory, 476 
Kelvin, Lord, The Age of the Earth, 665, 704 
Kelvin, Lord, Address on the Age of the Earth, Pro- 
fessor T. C. Chamberlin, 889 
Kemp, J. F., Geological Society of America. IQO, 138 
Keyser, C. J., Infinitesimal Analysis, W. B. Smith, 

844 
Kroeber, a. L., Anthropological Section of the 

American Association, 145 
Krug, William H., Chemical Society of Washing- 
ton, 32, 333, 517, 622, 751 

L., F. a., TheNew York Zoological Park, 73 ; Taxo- 

nomie, J. P. Durand, 150; Neomylodon Listai, 4.59 
Lamb, D. S., Association of Amer. Anatomists, 320 
Lawrence, Ralph E., Mercury Pump, 510 
Lee, Frederic S., Amer. Physiological Society, 

286 ; Laboratory Exercises in Anatomy and 

Physiolo;iy, J. E. Peabody, 331 
Leland Stanford Jr. University, 916 
Leroux, Ernest, Codex Borbonicus, M. H. Savillb, 

746 
Lie, Sophus, George Bruce Halsted, 447 
Littlehales, G. W., The Prospective Place of the 

Solar Azimuth Tables in the Problem of Ac- 
celerating Ocean Transit, 641) 
Lloyd, Francis E., Section of Biology of the N. 

Y.Acad, of Sci., 913 
Lobatschefski, Nikolai Ivanovitsch, George Bruce 

Halsted, 813 
LocKwooD, M. H., and E. B. Wheeler, On the 

Action of the Coherer, 624 
Locy, Wm. a.. Northwestern University Science 

Club, 31 
LoEB, Jacques, Catalogue for Physiology, 908 
Loew, Oscak, What is the Cause of the so-called' 

Tobacco Fermentation, 376 



SCIENCE. 



C Contents and 
Index, 



Loew, Oscar, Die chemische Energie der Lebenden 

Zellen, Albert F. Woods, 409 
LoRiNG, J. Alden, Virginia Opossum, 71 
Lucas, F. A., Structure aud Classificatiou of Birds, 

F. E. Beddard, 212 ; Nomenclature of tlie 

Hyoid in Birds, 323 ; Biological Society of Wasli- 

ington, 785 
LusK, Graham, Physiology, E. A. Schiifer, 291 

M., F., Sanitary Engineering, Mansfield Merriman, 
109 

M. 51., Sewerage, A. V. Folwell, 64 

M., T. C, Metric System, 377 ; Matter, Energy, Force 
and Work, Silas W. Holman, 24 

M., W. F., Geological, Survey Work in Alaska, 628 ; 
Expedition to the Philippines, 722 

M., W J, Cuba and Porto Kico, Robert T. Hill, 65 

MacDougal, D. T., Physiology, Max Verworn, 650 

MacFari.ane, Alexander, Algebra, A. N. White- 
head , 324 

Macloskie, George, Physiological Osmosis, 206 ; 
Osmotic Solutions, 554 

Marine Biological Laboratory, H. C. Bumpus, 
228; of Plymouth, Eng., Edw. G. Gardiner, 
488 ; A New, Hugh M Smith, 658 ; Wood's 
Holl, 721 

Marlatt, 0. L., Some Common Sources of Error in 
recent Work on Coccidie, 835 

Marr, J. E., Stratigraphical Geology, Henry S. Wil- 
liams, 547 

Mars, the Planet, G. Scilf aparelli, 633 

Marsh, Othniel Charles, J. L. Wortman, 561 

Mason, William P., The Examination of Water, 
Edwin O Jordan, 548 

Mathematical Society, The American, F. N. Cole, 
57, 322 ; Transactions of, 375 : Bulletin, 412, 
450, 751 

McClenahan, Howard, On the Wehnelt Current 
Breaker, 753 

MoCoRMiCK, J. H., Anthropological Society of 
Washington, 218, 590 

Mendenhall, T. C, National Observatory, 469 

Mercer, Henry C, Men of Science and Anti-Vivi- 
section, 221 

Mercury Pump, Ralph R. Lawrence, 510 

Merriam, C. Hart, Zone Temperatures, 116 

Merriman, Mansfield, Sanitary Engineering, M., 109 

Merkitt, Ernest The Discharge of Electricity 
through Gases, J. J. Tliomson, 289 

Meteorology, Current Notes on, R. De C. Ward, 72, 
116, 298, 458, 627, 657, 787, 878 ; Catalogue of, 
Cleveland Abbe, 871 

Minnesota Academy, Charles P. Berkey, 623 

MiNOT, Charles S., Anatomy and Histology of the 
Mouth and Teeth, J. Norman Broomall, 216 

Mivart, St. George, The Groundwork of Science, J. 
E. Creighton, 147 

Morgan, J. L. R., Elements of Physical Chemistry, 
Harry C. Jones, 717 

Morgan, T. H., Experimental Morphology, Charles 
B. Davenport, 648 

Morris, Henry, Human Anatomy, Thomas Dwight, 
27 

Morse, Elisha Wilson, The Principles of Agricul- 
ture, L. H. Bailey, 328 

Morsell, W. F., Geological Society of Washington, 
152, 454, 551, 622 

MuNEoE, Charles E., Explosions Caused by Com- 
monly Occurring Substances, 345 



Munsterberg, Hugo, Methods of Teaching Psychol- 
ogy, 91 ; Physiological Basis of Mental Life, 442 
Myers, G. W., National Observatory, 474 

National Academy of Sciences, 621 

Newbiggin, Marion J., Color in Nature, T. D. A. 

COCKERELL, 448 

Newcomb, Simon, National Observatory, 467 

Newcomb, Professor Simon, 851 

Newell, W. W., American Folk-lore Society, 173 

Newth, G. S., Quantitative and Qualitative Chemical 
Analysis, Henry Fay, 176 

New York Acad, of Sci., Section of Astronomy 
and Physics, W. S. Day, 653, 850 ; R. Gordon, 
219, 488 ; of Psychology and Anthropology, 
C. B. Bliss, 219, 376 ; C. H. Judd. 553, 685 ; 
of Biology, G. N. Calkins, 718 ; Francis E. 
Lloyd, 912 ; of Geology and Mineralogy, A. 
A. JULIEN, 719, 818 ; Annual Meeting R. E. 
Dodge, 452 ; Reception and Exhibition, Wil- 
liam Hallock, 616 

NiLES, Wm. H., John Cumraings, 24 

Nolan, Edward J., Philadelphia Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, 68, 181, 336 

Norris, James F., The Spirit of Organic Chemistry, 
Arthur Lachman, 817 

Noyes, W. a.. Qualitative Analysis, Ernest A. Cong- 
don, 26 ; Commercial Organic Analysis, Alfred 
H. Allen, 63, 818 ; Industrial Chemistry, 160 

O., C. A., Defective Eyesight, St. John Roosa, 846 
O., H. F., The Removal of Dr. Wortman to the Car- 
negie Museum, 755 
Observatory, The United States Na%'al, A. N. Skin- 
ner, 1, 857; A National, 465; Discussion of a, 467; 
Simon Newcomb, 468; Asaph Hall, 468 ; C. A. 
Young, 468 ; T. C. Mendenhall, 469 ; R. S. 
Woodward, 470 ; C. L. Doolittle, 471 ; W. H. 
Pickering, 472 ; Arthur Searle, 472 ; Frank 
W. Very, 473 ; David P. Todd, 473 ; G. W. 
Myers, 474 ; E. A. Fuertes, 475 ; W. L. 
Elkin, 475 ; James E. Keeler, 476 
Opossum, Virginia, J. Alden Loring, 71 
OsBORN, Henry F., Frontal Horn on Aceratherium 

Incisivum, 161 
Osborn, H. L., a Remarkable Sun-dog, 521 
OsBURN, R. C, Ohio Academy of Science, 180 

P., T. S., Wild Animals I have known, Ernest Setou 

Thompson, 26 
Patrick, G. T. W., Degeneracy, Eugene S. Talbot, 

372 
Patten, Simon N., The Development of English 

Thought, R. M. Wenley, 713 
Pearson, Karl, Reproductive Selection, 283 
Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences, Edward 

J. Nolan, 68 ; Exposition of 1900, 659 
Philosophical Society of Washington, E. D. Preston, 

218, 296. 454, 621, 652, 686, 846 
Physical Society, American, A. G. Webster, 784 
Phy.sics, Notes on, 116, 225, 336, 377, 378, 418, 456, 

493, 555, 655, 687 ; Club of New York, A. T. 

Seymour, 553 ; Catalogue for, J. S. Ames, 864 
Physiological, Society, American, The N. Y. Meeting 

of, Frederic S. Lee, 286 ; Basis of Mental Life, 

Hugo Mun.sterbero, 442 
Pickering, E. C, Astronomical Notes, 417, 456 
Pickering, W. H., National Observatory, 47 



SCIENCE. 



PiKEPONT, James, Analytic Functions, J. Harkness 
and F. Morley, 586 

Plant Morphology, and Physiology, The Society of, 
W. F. Ganoxg, 169 

POLLAKD, Charles Louis, Botanical Club of Wash- 
ington, 294, 487, 652, 914 

Porter, Wm. T., Methods of Teaching Physiology, 
87 

Powell, J. W., Reply to Critics, 259 

Powell, J. W., Truth and Error, W. K. Brooks, 
121 ; Lester F. Ward, 126 

Preston, E. D., Philosophical Society of Washing- 
ton, 218, 621, 296, 454, 652, 686, 846 ; Geodetic 
Operations in the United States, 305 

Pritchett, Henky S., Magnetic Survey of the 
United States by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
729 

Pumas of Western United States, Witmer Stone, 34 

Eamaley, Francis, Scientific Society of the Uni- 
versity of Colorado, 720 
Ramsay, William, The Recently Discovered Gases 

and their Relation to the Periodic Law, 273 
Rauh, F., La psychologie des sentiments, H. M. Stan- 
ley, 683 
Rebec, George, Introductory Logic, 779 
Reighard, Jacob, Biology of the Great Lakes, 906 
Renouf, E., Organic Chemistry, R. Anschiitz, 749 
RoosA, St. John, Defective Eyesight, C. A. O., 846 
ROTCH, A. L., Wetterproguosen und Wetterberichte, 

G. Hellmann, 910 
Russell, Israel C, Elvers of North America, Richard 
E. Dodge, 214 

Safford, Truman Henry, On the Total Solar 

Eclipse of May 28, 1900, 115 
Saedeson, F. W., Geological Club of the University 

of Minnesota, 412 
Saville, M. H., Codex Borbonicus, Ernest Leroux, 

746 
Schafer, E. A., Physiology, Graham Lusk, 291 
ScHlAPARELLi, G., Observations of Planet Mars, 633 
Schimper, A. F. W., Pflanzengeographie, Frederic 

E. Clements, 747 
Schnabel, Carl, Metallurgy, J. Steuthees, 588 
Science, Nebraska Academy of, 29 ; Club of North- 
western University, Wm. A. Locy, 31 ; and poli- 
tics, S. W. WiLLISTON, 114 ; Academy of St. 
Louis, William Trelease, 114, 220, 415, 488, 
624, 720, 786 ; Onondaga Academy of, H. AV. 
Britchee, 114 ; Work, 152 ; Natural, 152 ; Ohio 
Academy of, R. C. Osburn, 180 ; American 
Journal of, 517, 652 ; Degrees in, at Harvard 
University, J. McKeen Caitell, 522 ; A Sage 
in, David Starr Jordan, 529 ; American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of, 628 : Ab- 
stracts, 784 ; Teachers Association of N. Y. State, 
Franklin W. Barrows, 811 ; Club of the 
University of Wisconsin. Wm. H. Hobbs, 875. 
Sciences, Natural, Philadelphia Academy of, Edward 
J. Nolan, 68 ; Minnesota Academy of, Charles 
P. Berkey, 623 ; Arts and Letters, Wisconsin 
Academy of, A. S. Flint, 179 ; Texas Academy 
of, Frederic W. Simonds, 217 ; National Acad- 
emy of, 621 ; New York Academy of ; Section of 
Astronomy and Physics, R. Gordon, 219, 488 ; 
W. S. Day, 653, 850 ; of Psychology and Anthro- 
pology, C. B. Bliss, 219, 376 ; C. H. Judd, 553, 
685 ; of Geology and Mineralogy, A. A. Julien, 



719, 818 ; of Biology, G. N. Calkins, 718 ; An- 
nual Meeting, Richard E. Dodge, 452 ; Recep- 
tion and Exhibition, William Hallock, 616 

Scientific, Books, 24, 59, 106, 147, 174, 212, 252, 289, 
324, 372, 409, 448, 481, 511, 545, 586, 618, (.82, 
713, 743, 755, 813, 842, 872, 909 ; Journals and 
Articles, 29, 67, 111, 151, 178, 217, 257, 293, 375, 
450, 485, 517, 549, 589, 620, 718, 750, 783, 911 ; 
Notes and News, 38, 76, 118, 157, 188, 267, 300, 
339, 379, 420, 460, 494, 524, 557, 597, 628, 692, 
724, 755, 788, 820, 851, 883, 917 ; Seminars and 
Conferences, Richard E. Dodge, 520 ; Appoint- 
ments under the Government, 523; Alliance of 
New York, 550, 629 ; Society of the University 
of Colorado, Francis Ramaley, 720 

Scripture, E W., The Anajsthetic Effects of a 
Sinusoidal Current of High Frequency, 377 ; 
Color-Weakness and Color-BIindness, 771 ; Cere- 
bral Light, 850 ; Arousal of Instinct by Taste, 878 

Scuddke, Samuel H., The Butterfly Book, W. J. 
Holland, 66 

Searle, Arthur, National Observatory, 472 

See, T. J. J., An Extension of Helmholtz's Theory 
of the Heat of the Sun, 737 

Seymour, A. T., Physics Club of New York, 553 

Shales, N. S., Geology and Geography in the Inter- 
national Catalogue of Scientific Literature, 907 

Sharpe, B. F., a Double Instrument and a Doubla 
Method for the Measurement of Sound, 808 

Simonds, F. W., The Lower Cretaceous Gryphceas 
of the Texas Region, 110 ; Texas Academy of 
Sciences, 217 ; Geology of the Edwards Plateau 
and Rio Grande Plain, Robt. T. Hill and W. T. 
Vaughan, 481 

Skinner, A. N., The U. S. Naval Observatory, 1 

Smith, Eugene A., Alabama Industrial and Scien- 
tific Society, 296 

Smith, Harlan I,, Collections of the Provincial 
Museum of Victoiia, British Columbia, 156 ; 
Archaeological Investigations on the North 
Pacific Coast of America, 535 

Smith, Hugh M., A New Marine Biological Labora- 
tory, 658 ; Exploring Expedition to the M d- 
Pacific Ocean, 796 

Smith, W. B., Infinitesimal Analysis, C. J. Keysek, 
844 

Societies and Academies, 29, 68, 112, 152, 179, 217, 
257, 294, 332, 376, 412, 452, 486, 517, 550, 590, 
621, 684, 718, 751, 784, 818, 847, 875, 912 

Solly, S. Edwin, Medical Climatology, Guy Hins- 
dale, 485 

Solutions, M. A. Willcox, 455 ; Osmotic, G. MAt 
CLOSKIE, 554 

Sound, A Double Instrument and a Double Method 
for the Measurement of, B. F. Shaepe, 8U8 

Specific Place Modes, Charles B. Davenport, 415 

Stanley, Hibam M., Artificial Dreams, 263 ; Evo- 
lution of Modesty, 553 ; Die Spiele der Men- 
sehen, 619 ; La psychologie des sentiments, 683 ; 
Totemism, 877 

Steam-Engine, Theory of the, R. H. Thurston, 659 

'Steam-gas,' E. H. Thurston, 753 

Stevens, W. Le Conte, Physics— Sound, J. H. 
Poynting and J. J. Thomson, 872 

Stevenson, J. J., Our Society, 41 

Stiles, Ch. Wardell, Tuberculosis Conference, 491 

St. Louis Academy of Science, William Trelease, 
114, 220, 415, 488, 624, 720, 786 

Stokes, H. N., Revival of Inorganic Chemistry, 601 



SCIENCE. 



Stone, Witmek, Pumas of the Western United 

States, 34 
Steuthers, J., Handbook of Metallurgy, Carl 

Schnabel, 588 

T., E. W., Faculty of Speech, Joseph Collins, 745 
T., K. H., Anti-Friction Alloys, 247 ; Automatic 

Ship Propulsion, 915 
Talbot, Eugene S., Degeneracy, G. T. W. Patrick, 

Thompson, Ernest Seton, Wild Animals I have 
Known, T. S. P., 26 

Thompson, M. T., Breeding of Animals at Wood's 
Hole during the Month of September, 1898, 581 

Thomson, J. J., The Dis harge of Electricity through 
Gases, Ernest Merritt, 289 

Thorndike, Edward, The Dawn of Reason, James 
Weir, 450 ; Mental Fatigue, 712 ; The Mental 
Fatigue due to School Work, 862 

Tliorp, Frank, Industrial Chemistry, W. A. NoYES, 
150 

Thurston, E. H., The Suppression of Smoke, 55 ; 

. . Professional Schools vs. Business, 207; Engineer- 
ing and the Professions in Education, 407 ; Agri- 
cultural Electro-technics, 480 ; Economics in 
.; Manufactures, 583; Theory of the Steam Engine, 
659; Thermodynamic Action of Steam Gas, 753 

TiTCHENER, E. B., Lehmann and Hansen on 'the T 1- 
epathic Problem,' 36 ; Professor James on Tele- 
; pathy, 686 ; The Telepathic question, 787 

Todd, David P., Discussion of a National Observa- 
tory, 473 ; A Short History of Astronomy, Ar- 
thur Berry, 682 

Torrey Botanical Club, E. S. Burgess, 33, 295, 520, 
591, 819, 876 

Teelease, William, Academy of Science of St. 
Louis, 114, 220, 415, 488, 624, 720, 786 

Trowbridge's Theory of the Earth's Magnetism, L. 
A. Bauer, 264 ; .Iohn Trowbridge, 265 

True, a. C, Agricultural Experiment Stations, 199 ; 
The Scientific Study of Irrigation, 798 

University and Educational News, 40, 80, 120, 160, 
192, 271, 304, 341, 383, 424, 464, 496, 528, 559, 
600, 631, 695, 728, 759, 791, 824, 856, 887 

Upton, Winslow, Astronomical Notes, 36, 224, 492; 
The Storing of Pamphlets, 184 

Venable, F. P., Atomic Weights, A Quarter Cen- 
tury's Progress, 477 

Verworn, Max, General Physiology, D. T. Mac- 
Dougal, 650 

Very, Frank, W., National Observatory, 473 

Waldo, Frank, Metcorologie, Alfred Angot, 743 ; 

Photographic Optics, R. S. Cole, 874 
Wallace, A. E., The Wonderful Century, W. K. 

Brooks, 511 



Waed, Henry B., The Fresh-water Biological Sta- 
tions of the World, 497 

Ward, Lester F., Truth and Error, 126 

Ward, R. DeC, Current Notes on Meteorology, 72, 
1 16, 298, 458, 627, 657, 787, 878 ; Peruvian 
Meteorology. Solon I. Bailey, 715 

Washburn, F. L., Hermaphroditism in Ostrea 
Lurida, 478 

Webster, F. M., The Chinch Bug, T. D. A. CocK- 
erell, 175 

Weeks, F. B., Duplication of Geologic Formation 
names, 490, 625 

Weir, James, The Dawn of Reason, Edward Thorn- 
dike, 450 

Wknley, R. M., The Development of English 
Thought, Simon N. Patten, 713 

Whitehead, A. N., A Treatise on Universal Algebra, 
Alexander Macfarlane, 324 

Whitman, Frank P., On the Brightness of. Pigments 
by Oblique Vision, 734 

Wiechmann, Ferdinand, G., Atomic Weights, 23 

Wilder, Burt G., Some Misapprehensions as to the 
simplified Nomenclature of Anatomy, 566 ; 
Two Corrections, 655 

Willcox, M. A., The Making of Solutions, 455 

Williams, Talcott, The Primitive Savage, 37 

Williams, Henry S., Stratigraphical Geology, J. 
E. Marr, 547 

Willis, Bailey', Geological Survey of Maryland, 
252 

WiLLisToN, S. W., Science and Politics, 114 ; Red- 
Beds of Kansas, 221 

WiLLSON, Fred'k N., The Elements of Graphic 
Statics, 515 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, A. S. Flint, 179 

Wood, R. W., The Diffraction Process of Color Pho- 
tography, 859 

Woodman, Durand, The American Chemical So- 
ciety, 58 ; N. Y. Section of the American Chem- 
ical Society, 2,58, 487, 6.54, 820, 913 

Woods, Albert F., DiechemischeEnergiederleben- 
den Zellen, Oscar Loew, 409 ; Brunissure of the 
Vine and other Plants, 508 

Woodward, R. S., National Observatory, 470 

WooDWORTH, J. B., Kalendar fiir Geologen, K. Keil- 
hack, 174 

WoRTMAN, J. L., Othniel Charles Marsh, 561 

Wortman, Dr., H. F. O., 755 

Young, C. A., National Observatory, 468 

Zone Temperatures, C. Hart Merriam, 116 
Zoological, Notes, F. A. L., 73 ; H. C. B., 73, 156, 

266, 459 ; Bibliography, F. A. Batheb, 154 ; 

Club, University of Chicago, Mary M. Sturges, 

183 ; R. S. Lillie, 183 ; Michael F. Guyer, 

876 ; Station at Naples, 596 
Zoo'ogy, Methods of Teaching, Edwin G. Conklin,81 



SCIENCE 



Editobial Cojimittee : S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; K. S. Woodward, Meohamcs ; E. C. Pickeeing, 

Astronomy; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics; E. H. Thueston, Eugineering; lEA Remsen, Chemistry; 

J. Le Conte, Geology; AV. M. Davis, Physiography; 0. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 

C. Haet Meeeiam, Zoology; S. H. Scuddee, Entomology; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Beitton^, 

Botany; Heney F. Osboen, General Biology; C. S. Mikot, Embryology, Histology; 

H. P. BowDiTCH, Physiology; J. S. Billings, Hygiene; J. McKeen Cattell, 

Psychology; Daniel G. Brinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, January 6, 1899. 



CONTENTS: 

The United States Naval Observatory: Professor 

A. N. Skinnee 1 

T!ie Psychology of Society : Professor Franklin 

H. GiDDINGS. 16 

Atomic WtigMs: De. FERDINAND G. WlECH- 
mann 23 

Jolm Cummings: Peofessor Wm. H. Niles 24 

Scientific Books :— 

Holman on Matter, Energy, Force and Work : T. 
C. M. Congdon's Qualitative Analysis; 3£uter's 
Manual of Analytical Chemistry : Peofessoe W. 
A. Noy'ES. Thompson's Wild Animals I have 
known : T. S. P. Morris's Human Anatomy : 
Professor Thomas D WIGHT. General 24 

Scientific Journals and Articles : 29 

Societies and Academies : — 

The Nebraska Academy of Sciences ; Science Cluh 
of Northwestern University : Peofessoe W. A. 
Looy. The Chemical Society of Washington : 
"William A. Keug. Students' Geological Club 
and Conference of Harvard University: J. M. 
Boutwell. Torrey Botanical Club : E. S. BUE- 
gess 29 

Disctission and Correspondence : — 

The Pumas of the Western United Slates : WlT- 
MEE Stone. The Schmidt-Dickert Moon Model : 
Oliver C. Faerington. Lehmann and Hansen 
on 'the Telepathic Problem': PROFESSOR E. B. 
Titchener 34 

Astronomical Notes: — 

The November Meteors ; Chase's Comet (J. 1898) ; 
Stellar Motions : PROFESSOR WlNSLOW UPTON... 36 

Current Notes on Anthropology : — 

The American Hero-Myth ; The Primitive Savage ; 
A Booklet on Ethnology: PROFESSOR D. G. 
BrintoN 37 

Sdentific Notes and News 38 

University and Elucational News 40 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review stiould be sent to the responsible editor, Profes- 
sor J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison-on-Hudson N. Y. 



THE UNITED STATES^ NAVAL OBSEBVATOBY. 
Although much interest was shown by 
individuals in the science of astronomy in 
the early history of our country, this in- 
terest did not culminate in the founding 
of any astronomical observatories until 
the third and fourth decades of the present 
century. About 1835 Professors Olmsted 
and Loomis observed Halley's comet with 
a five- inch telescope placed in the steeple 
of one of the buildings of Yale College at 
New Haven, Connecticut, but the observa- 
tory erected by Professor Albert Hopkins 
of Williams College, in 1836, was probably 
the earliest establishment of the kind in the 
United States. It was 48 feet long by 20 
in breadth, and'consisted of a central apart- 
ment surmounted by a revolving dome and 
flanked by two wings. The dome con- 
tained an equatorially mounted Herschelian 
telescope of 10- feet focus, and a 3.5-inch 
transit instrument was set up in one of the 
wings. Only two years later Professor 
Loomis built a small observatory at Hud- 
son, Ohio, and furnished it with a 4-inch 
equatorial telescope and a 2.7- inch transit 
circle. The longitude and latitude of this 
observatory was determined by Professor 
Loomis, and he observed five comets and 
sixteen occultations in the brief intervals of 
leisure left from his regular class work in 
the Western Reserve College. Another 
indication of the zeal of individuals in the 
advancement of science by actual astro- 



2 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



nomical observation is shown by a paper 
published in the ' Transactions ' of the 
American Philosophical Societj', New Series, 
Vol. VII., pp. 1(55-213, detailing observa- 
tions of nebulffi made by H. L. Smith and E. 
P. Mason at New Haven, Connecticut, with 
a 12 inch reflector. This memoir contains 
carefully executed plates of several nebulfe, 
on which the stars are accurately plotted. 

Among those in our country who re- 
peatedly urged the foundation of an astro- 
nomical observatory in the United States 
was John Quincy Adams. While Secre- 
tary of State, as early as 1823, he offered 
personally to contribute $1,000 towards the 
establishment of an astronomical observa- 
tory in connection with Harvard College, 
provided the requisite amount for complet- 
ing the work should be raised within two 
years, but this effort failed. In 1825, in his 
first message to Congress after becoroing 
President of the United States, he made 
recommendations for the establishment of 
a national observatory, a uniform standard 
of weights and measures, a naval academy, 
a nautical almanac and a national univer- 
sity. Party rancor prevented the carrying- 
out of any of these far-reaching plans at 
that time, but all of them, except that of a 
national university, were executed by our 
government at a later date. It was some 
j^ears after this notable message of Presi- 
dent Adams before Emperor Nicholas, of 
Russia, entered upon the preliminary steps 
which culminated in the creation of the 
celebrated Pulkowa Observatory. 

Even after leaving the Presidential chair. 
President Adams never once relaxed his 
efforts towards the founding of a national 
observatory. In 1838 our Minister to. 
England announced that he had received 
the money bequeathed to the American peo- 
ple by James Smithson for the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge among men. Mr. 
Adams immediately urged that this fund 
should be devoted to the founding of an 



astronomical observatory and a nautical 
almanac, and, as chairman of the select com- 
mittee on the Smithson fund, he advocated 
that plan on three different occasions be- 
tween 1838 and 1842. It is interesting to 
note that Senator Preston, of South Caro- 
lina, violently opposed these recommenda- 
tions of Mr. Adams, but that in 1842 Mr. 
Preston gave the weight of his influence in 
favor of the bill which finally created a 
national observatory under the name of ' A 
Depot of Charts and Instruments of the 
Navy of the United States.' Let us trace 
the circumstances leading up to this event. 
In 1830, under orders from the Navy De- 
partment, Lieutenant Goldsborough estab- 
lished a depot of charts and instruments in 
the western part of the City of Washington, 
in the squai-e bounded by 24th and 25th 
Streets, Pennsylvania Avenue and K Street 
Northwest. Here, in a small circular build- 
ing, on a brick pier with a foundation 20 
feet below the surface, he mounted a 30- 
inch transit instrument made by R. Patten, 
of New York Citj'. Goldsborough was suc- 
ceeded in 1833 by Lieutenant Wilkes, who 
removed the depot to a si-te on Capitol Hill, 
on the west side of North Capitol Street, 
between B and C Streets north, about 1,200 
feet, north, 5° west, from the center of the 
Capitol. The dimensions of the small ob- 
servatory erected by Lieutenant Wilkes 
were 14 feet by 13 feet, and 10 feet from 
the fioor to the eaves, and its outfit was 
as follows : A transit instrument of 3f 
inches' aperture and 63 inches' focal length, 
made by Troughton under Hassler's direc- 
tion for the U. S. Coast Survey in 1815, 
which was loaned to the Navy Department 
and mounted on massive piers. A Borda's 
circle presented by Troughton to Mr. 
Hassler in 1815; a 3|-foot achromatic 
portable telescope by Jones ; a portable 
transit instrument made by Richard Pat- 
ten, and a sidereal clock. The Patten 
transit instrument had previously been 



Januaey 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



mounted by Lieutenant Goldsborougb in tbe 
depot of charts and instruments established 
by him, and was now mounted near the 
south door of the observatory for the use of 
the assistants. The sidereal clock was 
bolted to the western pier of the Troughton 
transit instrument, but it never performed 
satisfactorily. 

On assuming command of the United 
States Exploring Fxpedition, in 1838, 
Lieutenant Wilkes turned over the di- 
rection of this observatory to Lieutenant 
J. M. Gilliss. To perfect and complete the 
instrumental outfit Gilliss was permitted 
by the Navy Department to order the fol- 
lowing instruments : From Parkinson and 
Frodsham, of London, a sidereal clock and 
a meantime clock; from Ertel and Son, of 
Munich, a meridian circle of 4.5 inches' 
aperture, furnished with circles 30 inches' 
in diameter, one of which was graduated to 
three minutes; from William Simms a 
portable achromatic telescope of 3J inches' 
aperture and 42 inches' focal length. On 
the parapet of the Capitol building a 
south meridian mark was made, which was 
viewed by reducing the aperture of the 
transit instrument to 0.9 inch, and at a 
distance of 2,302 yards a north mark was 
erected, which could be viewed with the 
full aperture of the transit instrument. 
The north mark consisted of an obelisk of 
sandstone 18 feet high and 14 inches square 
at the top, having painted on its south face 
five black lines, three inches apart. 

Up to 1838 the work at the ' Depot of 
Charts and Instruments ' consisted of such 
astronomical observations as were needed 
for the rating of chronometers. In the be- 
ginning of that year instructions, prepared 
by Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, were trans- 
mitted through the Navy Department to 
Lieutenant Gilliss, directing him to coop- 
erate with the United States Exploring 
Expedition during the years 1838 to 1842 
by systematically observing the following 



named objects : (1) The Moon and moon- 
culminating stars. (2) Falling stars, par- 
ticularly the periodic ones in November. 
(3) All eclipses of the San and Moon. (4) 
Eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. (.5) Occul- 
tations of the larger stars. In addition to 
the work required by these instructions 
Lieutenant Gilliss determined the right as- 
censions of 1,248 stars, which were reduced 
to the epoch January 1, 1840, compared 
with the right ascensions of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue and published in 1846 
in an 8vo. volume of astronomical observa- 
tions containing xxv-f671 pages. Dur- 
ing the years 1840 to 1842 Gilliss also 
made at the ' Depot of Charts and Instru- 
ments,' a fine series of magnetic observa- 
tions, which were published in 184.5 in an 
8vo. volume of xxviii+648 pages. 

The facilities for scientific work at the 
little observatory on Capitol Hill were very 
limited, but Gilliss used them most assid- 
uously. He endeavored by actual achieve- 
ment to demonstrate to the Navy Depart- 
ment and to Congress the desirability 
of providing an observatory especially 
equipped for executing the most refined 
astronomical work, and in this he was suc- 
cessful. On the 15th ot March, 1842, the 
House Committee on Naval Affairs reported 
to the House of Kepresentatives a bill ' to 
authorize the construction of a Depot for 
Charts and Instruments of the Navy of the 
United States,' together with a written re- 
port which stated at some length that the 
present ' Depot ' and its observatory are in- 
adequate for the purposes intended, and are 
unsafe for the protection of the valuable in- 
struments ; that we are indebted to other 
nations for the data which enable our ves- 
sels to cross the ocean ; that an observatory 
is absolutely essential to the performance of 
the duties which devolve upon the ' Depot ;' 
that the existing observatory was erected at 
private expense, and that facilities should 
be provided for the execution of magnetic 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



observations. The wordiug of the bill 
which accompanied the report and became 
a law August 31, 1842, was as follows : 

" Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in Congress 
assembled : That tlie Secretary of the Navy be and lie 
is hereby authorized to contract for the building of a 
suitable house for a depot of charts and instruments 
of the Navy of the United States on a plan not exceed- 
ing in cost the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars. 

"And be it further enacted : That the sum of ten 
thousand dollars be and is hereby appropriated of any 
money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated 
towards carrying this law into effect. 

"And be it further enacted: That the said estab- 
lishment may be located on any portion of the public 
land in the District of Columbia which the President 
of the United States may deem suited to the purpose. ' ' 

The Secretary of the ISTavy immediately 
placed the preparation of the plans for the 
new observatory in the hands of Lieuten- 
ant Gilliss, who, after consulting with as- 
tronomers in America, visited Europe to 
obtain the views of those competent to 
advise in these matters. In March, 1843 
he returned home, having ordered the 
instruments under authority from the Sec- 
retary of the Navy. Only eighteen months 
were consumed in the erection of the 
buildings, the mounting of the instruments 
and the procuring of a library, and on the 
7th of February, 1845, Gilliss presented a 
detailed report of his labors (Senate Docu- 
ment, No. 114, 28th Congress, 2d session. 
Vol. VII.) which contains a careful de- 
scription of the buildings and instruments, 
illustrated by accurate drawings. The site 
selected for the building was a reservation 
between 23d and 25th Streets west, extend- 
ing from E Street north to the Potomac 
river. The area of the plot was 17.85 
acres. The elevation of the ground on the 
building site was about 100 feet above the 
Potomac. Gilliss stated that the new 
equipment was as follows : 1st, an achro- 
matic equatorial telescope by Merz and 
Mahler, Munich, of 9.6 inches' aperture. 
2d, a meridian transit instrument of 6^ 



inches' aperture by Ertel, of Munich. 3d, 
a prime vertical transit instrument of 4.9 
inches' aperture by Pistor and Martins, 
Berlin. 4th, a mural circle by Troughton 
and Simms, London, with a telescope of 
4.1 inches' aperture, and a circle 5 feet in 
diameter divided to 5' and read by six 
micrometer microscopes. 5th, a comet 
seeker of 4 inches' aperture by Utzschneider 
and Fraunhofer, Munich. 6th, magnetic 
instruments. 7th, meteorological instru- 
ments. 8th, books. In addition to those 
items purchased, there belonged to the 
' Dej)ot of Charts and Instruments ' a port- 
able transit and two clocks, purchased by 
Lieutenant Wilkes for the Exploring Expe- 
dition, and a 30-inch transit circle and two 
clocks ordered by Gilliss for the ' Depot.' 

At the close of September, 1844, Gilliss 
reported the observatory completed, with 
the instruments mounted and ready for use. 
On the 1st of October, 1844, Lieutenant M. 
F. Maury was ordered to take charge of 
the institution, and directed to remove to it 
all the nautical books, charts and instru- 
ments of the then-existing depot. 

In reviewing the history of the Naval Ob- 
servatory during Maury's administration, 
we shall first notice the instrumental equip- 
ment, in the selection of which it is probable 
that Gilliss was principally influenced by 
English advisers. Instrumental construc- 
tion was just then passing through a crit- 
ical period. The Observatory of Pulkowa, 
which was completed in 1838, following the 
German school of construction, rejected the 
mural circle, and supplied its place with 
the celebrated Ertel vertical circle. An 
Ertel transit instrument and a Repsold 
meridian circle completed the outfit of Pul- 
kowa for meridian work, and these instru- 
ments were amply provided with horizontal 
collimators and azimuth marks distant 550 
feet, which were rendered visible by the in- 
terposition of lenses of corresponding foca 
length. In contrast with this, the Naval 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



5 



Observatory followed Euglisli precedent, 
and was supplied with a mural circle which 
remained its principal declination instru- 
ment until 1865. The remaining equipment 
was the Ertel transit instrument, of first- 
class construction, but without horizontal 
collimators and azimuth marks ; the small 
Ertel meridian circle, which had been 
ordered by Gilliss for the Observatory on 
Capitol Hill ; the Pistor and Martins prime- 
vertical transit instrument, identical in de- 
sign with the similar instrument at Pulkowa; 
and the Merz and Mahler equatoi-ial refract- 
,ing telescope. The Ertel meridian circle 
showed such serious defects of construction 
that it was subsequently sold, and the Merz 
and Mahler equatorial was much smaller 
than the refractors at Pulkowa and Harvard 
College Observatories, one of which was 
erected a little before and the other a little 
after that at the ISTaval Observatory. It 
may also be mentioned that instead of mak- 
ing the walls of its observing rooms of 
brick, the Naval Observatory might advan- 
tageously have followed the example of Pul- 
kowa by making them of wood, the use of 
sheet metal for such purposes being then 
unknown. 

ISTow, for a passing glance at the person- 
nel of the astronomical corps, which was 
composed of three more or less distinct 
classes, namely, line officers and staff ofB- 
cers of the United States ISTavy and civilians. 
After years of persistent labor, Gilliss had 
created an astronomical observatory only 
to have it snatched from his grasp when it 
was ready for work. Lieutenant Matthew 
F. Maury, who was ordered to take charge 
of the new ' Depot of Charts and Instru- 
ments ' as its Superintendent on October 1 
1844, was then thirty- eight years old. He 
was possessed of great energy, together 
with a high degree of native ability, and 
was well versed in naval affairs, but was 
very scantily informed in regard to the 
great advances in astronomical science 



which had recently been made in Europe. 
From the line of the navy three lieutenants 
and six midshipmen were detailed as his 
assistants. These gentlemen entered upon 
their work with energy, but their tour of 
duty was so limited by the rules of the 
Navy Department that they were obliged 
to return to their nautical work when they 
had barely familiarized themselves with 
their astronomical duties. Among their 
names will be recognized many who at a 
later date attained distinction during the 
Civil War. To these line oflicers were 
added Professors of Mathematics CoiSn, 
Keith and Hubbard, who were staff offi- 
cers in the Navy. The corps of Professors 
of Mathematics in the United States Navy 
was originally created to supply instructors 
for midshipmen afloat and ashore, and all 
of them served in that capacity, until the 
founding of the Naval Academy in 1845 
closed their seafaring career and gave the 
Navy Department an opportunity to utilize 
a part of the corps in other duties. Pro- 
fessor Coffin had instructed midshipmen on 
shipboard for some half dozen years before 
he was ordered to assist Lieutenant Gilliss 
in 1843 in fitting up the new Observatorj'. 
Hubbard, a recent graduate of Yale Col- 
lege, was appointed Professor of Mathe- 
matics, U. S. N., in 1845, and was im- 
mediately ordered to the Observatory. 
Keith, who had just graduated from Mid- 
dlebury College, Vt.,- received his ap- 
pointment as Professor of Mathematics, 
U. S. N., in 1847. These gentlemen were 
each possessed of a high degree of mathe- 
matical ability and wei-e destined to leave 
a lasting impress on the work of the 
Observatory. At that time the only civil 
appointee attached to the Observatory was 
Mr. Sears Cook Walker, who was em- 
ployed as a computer and observer. He 
was one of the ablest, and certainly the 
most experienced, of the corps of astrono- 
mers, but unfortunate differences with 



6 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



Lieutenant Maury led to his resignation 
after a service of only fourteen months. In 
1848 Mr. James Ferguson received the ci- 
vilian appointment of Assistant Observer, 
and later that of Assistant Astronomer. He 
proved an indefatigable observer, and the 
records of the Observatory show a vast 
amount of valuable and painstaking work 
with the equatorial by him. In 1851 Pro- 
fessor Yarnall, U.S.IST. , was ordered to the 
Observatory, and in the most untiring and 
conscientious manner he made substantially 
all the observations obtained with the 
mural circle and the Ertel transit instru- 
ment during the decade from 1850 to 1S60. 
Professor Keith withdrew from the Obser- 
vatory in 1853, and Professor Coffin was 
obliged to give up astronomical observing in 
1850 on account of an affection of his eyes. 

The work of the Observatory as published 
during Maury's administration is contained 
in the following volumes : The Observa- 
tions for 1815, published in 1 846 ; the Obser- 
vations for 1846, published in 1851 ; the 
observations for 1847, published in 1853 ; 
the observations for 1848, published in 1856; 
the observations for 1849-1850 (one vol- 
ume), published in 1859. It is worth noting 
that in the published volumes from 1845 to 
1848 inclusive the institution is designated 
as the National Observatory, but on Decem- 
ber 12, 1854, the Hon. J. C. Dobbins, Sec- 
retarj' of the Navj', directed that its official 
designation should be ' The United States 
Naval Observatory and Hydrographical 
Office,'- and accordingly all subsequent vol- 
umes have been issued as the work of the 
United States Naval Observatory. 

The scheme of work arranged by Maury 
was as follows : To observe regularly in the 
meridian the positions of the Sun, Moon, 
planets and moon-culminating stars ; to ob- 
serve a Lyrse regularly with the prime ver- 
tical transit, to determine with that instru- 
ment the declinations of a catalogue of 
zenith stars, and to review the Dorpat 



Catalogue of double stars with the equato- 
rial telescope. 

The meridian observations of the Sun, 
Moon and planets were commenced in 1845 
with some degree of ardor, and kept up 
with decreasing persistency for several 
years, but after 1850 only a few scattering 
observations occur in the published records. 
The prime vertical transit was also em- 
ployed for a few years, but soon after 1850 
it fell into disuse. 

The equatorial was used continuously 
during the entire period from 1845 to 1861. 
Assistant Astronomer Ferguson had charge 
of it during a large portion of this time, and 
the records show an unbroken series of care- 
fully executed observations of comets, minor 
planets and occultations of stars by the 
Moon. The assiduity of Ferguson is at- 
tested by his discovery of three minor 
planets, viz: Euphrosj'he, No. 31, on Sep- 
tember 1, 1854; Virginia, No. 50, on Octo- 
ber 4, 1857 ; Echo, No. 60, on September 14, 
1860. 

It would be an act of injustice to pass by 
uumentioned the numerous items of per- 
sonal work which enrich the published 
records. In them we find Coffin's refrac- 
tion tables founded on Bessel ; tables for 
aiding in the reduction of the apparent 
places of stars to mean places, by Coffin, 
Keith and Hubbard ; an investigation of the 
latitude of the observatory and a discussion 
of the errors of standard thermometers, by 
S. C. Walker ; and last, but not least, we 
must mention S. C. Walker's discovery, on 
February 4, 1847, that certain stars observed 
by Lalande at Paris on May 8 and 10, 
1795, were the recently discovered planet 
Neptune ; thus extending the observations 
of that planet over an interval of fifty years, 
and thereby making the determination of 
its elements much more precise. 

By far the most ambitious task which 
Maury set for the new observatory was de- 
tailed in his letter to Geoi'ge Bancroft, Sec- 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



retary of the Navy, July 28, 1846. Speak- 
ing of the regular work upon the Sun, Moon 
and planets, he adds : " A regular series of 
observations is continued on these objects 
and the time which is not occupied in the 
round with them has, vi^ith your approval, 
been devoted to cataloguing ; to this end a 
regular and sj'stematic exploration of the 
whole heavens from 45° south has been 
commenced, with the intention of penetra- 
ting with the telescope every point of space 
from that parallel of declination up to the 
north pole, and of assigning position to every 
star, down to the 10th magnitude, that shall 
pass through the field of view." The amount 
of labor involved in this colossal under- 
taking was entirely beyond the capacity of 
anj' one observatory to accomplish in a 
generation. Maur}- would never have un- 
dertaken it if he had possessed an intimate 
knowledge of the herculean labor in respect 
to observation and computation which its 
execution demanded. The result was that 
the observation of the zones was continued 
with some degree of energy through the 
years 1846, '47, '48 and '49 with the transit 
instrument, the mural circle and the merid- 
ian circle, by some eleven different observ- 
ers, two of whom were experienced, and the 
remainder quite inexperienced. The num- 
ber of observations accumulated unreduced 
in these four years was fully 38,000. 
Maury did not publish any results until 
1860, when he issued the meridian circle 
zones observed in 1846, containing about 
4,000 observations. The publication of the 
remaining zone work was delayed until 
1873, when it was printed under the super- 
vision of Professor Asaph Hall, who re- 
marks : " On account of the inexperience of 
some of the observers and the lack of good 
organization these observations contain 
many errors, and the whole woi'k needs a 
careful revision." To furnish material for 
this revision, four hundred and fifteen zero 
stars were selected by Professor Hall from 



the zones, and their places have since been 
determined, but as yet the revision has not 
been accomplished. In contrast with this 
we may recall that during the decade 1850 
to 1860 Argelander, of the Bonn Observa- 
tory, in accordance with a carefully con- 
ceived plan, observed and published the 
approximate positions of moi-e than 450,000 
stars of the first nine magnitudes between 
23° of south declination and the north pole 
of the heavens. Maury failed because his 
scheme was entirely too herculean to be ac- 
complished with the means at his command, 
while Argelander achieved success by bring- 
ing the scope and precision of his work 
within the limits possible of execution. 

A review of this period would be incom- 
plete without a reference to the invention 
of the chronographic method of registering 
star transits and the general application of 
electro-magnetism to the transmission of 
time signals for the determination of differ- 
ences of longitude. Soon after the inven- 
tion of the telegraph several persons at 
about the same time conceived the idea of 
applying its fundamental principles to the 
transmission of clock signals and the regis- 
tering of star transits. Among them were 
Walker, Bache, Bond, Mitchell, Saxton and 
Locke. Lieutenant Maury became inter- 
ested in the labors of the last-named gentle- 
man, and induced Congress to appropriate 
$10,000 on March 3, 1849, to pay Dr. Locke, 
of Cincinnati, for the construction and use 
at the National Observatory of a magnetic 
clock, a fillet chronograph and a cylinder 
chronograph. These instruments, although 
not perfect in details, embraced the essential 
features of the chronographs in actual use 
at the present time. 

We come now to the third period of the 
history of the Observatory — namely, from 
Maury's resignation to the removal to the 
new site. On April 20, 1861, Maury sud- 
denly resigned his commission and went 
south to join the Kebellion, and on April 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



23 Commander J. M. Gilliss, who liad 
built the Observatory some sixteen years 
before, was ordered to assume charge. For 
ten years previous to his withdrawal Maury 
had ceased to have an active interest in 
astronomical work, and had been wholly 
absorbed in hydrographic studies. Upon 
the accession of Gilliss new life was im- 
mediately infused into the institution. He 
resumed meridian observations of the Sun, 
Moon and planets, which had been prac- 
tically suspended, and made it one of his 
first tasks to press the completion of all the 
imfinished work, which had been accumu- 
lating since 1852. At the same time he car- 
ried on with equal zeal the nautical work of 
the Observatory, which the Civil "War, then 
jast beginning, had very largely increased. 

Until June 21, 1866, when the Hydro- 
graphic Office was ci-eated, an important 
part of the duties of the Naval Observatory 
had been to care for and issue to the liavy 
all charts, sailing directions, compasses, 
chronometers, sextants, spy-glasses and 
other nautical instruments. At the date 
above mentioned the care of all this ma- 
terial, except chronometers, was transferred 
from the Observatory, but most of it was 
returned in 1883, and since then the Ob- 
servatory has had charge of all nautical in- 
struments of the Navy, except charts and 
compasses. Since January 1, 1884, all 
chronometers have been regularly subjected 
to a temperature test ranging from 45° to 
95° Fahrenheit. 

During the Civil War, from 1861 to 1865, 
the duties devolving on the Observatory, in 
connection with the inspection and issue of 
all varieties of nautical instruments, were 
especially arduous, and the constant atten- 
tion of a number of officers was required to 
supply each of our several hundred war 
vessels with their needed outfits. 

Since August, 1865, in accordance with a 
plan originated by Px'ofessor Harkness, the 
Naval Observatory has transmitted time 



signals daily, except Sundays and holidays, 
over the telegraph lines running into the 
chronometer room. Up to the latter part 
of the year 1879 these signals were t]-ans- 
mitted by hand, but since that date they 
have been sent by an automatic apparatus 
in connection with the transmitting clock 
devised by Professor J. E. Eastman. Time 
balls in a large number of the principal cities 
of the country are dropped by them. 

In 1862 Congress authorized the appoint- 
ment of three civilians, called aids, to assist 
in meeting the increased demands on the 
Observatory on account of the war. Some 
of the changes in the personnel during Ibis 
period were as follows : 

Simon Newcomb was appointed Professor 
of Mathematics, U. S. N., in 1861 ; Asaph 
Hall, William Harkness and J. E. Eastman 
received appointments as aids in 1862. Hall 
and Harkness were promoted in 1863, and 
Eastman in 1865, to be Professors of Mathe- 
matics, U. S. N. In 1863 the Observatory 
lost by death the gifted Professor Hubbard, 
whose labors had been restricted for years 
by a frail body. 

The later additions to the personnel were 
as follows : Edgar Frisby was appointed 
Assistant Astronomer in 1868 ; A. N. Skin- 
ner in 1870 and H. M. Paul in 1875. 
Frisby was promoted to be Professor of 
Mathematics, U. S. N., in 1878, on the re- 
tirement of Professor Yarnall. 

Soon after Gilliss' accession to the super- 
intendency it became apparent that in order 
to meet the demands of science the Observa- 
tory needed a first-class meridian circle, 
and he took steps to remedy this defect in 
its equipment. The result was the sale 
of the small Ertel meridian circle, and the 
mounting in 1865 of a Pistor and Martins 
meridian circle 8.52 inches' aperture. The 
Ertel ti'ansit instrument was moved to the 
east wing and the new meridian circle took 
its place in the west wing. 

In 1873 the Observatory received the 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



9 



great 26- inch eqtatorial refractor by Alvan 
Clark & Sons, which was then the largest 
telescope in the world. 

A continuous series of Sun, Moon and 
planet meridian observations was carried 
on from 1861 to 1865 with the mural circle 
and the transit instrument. In the begin- 
ning of 1866 the new Pistor and Martins 
meridian circle was put in service, and ob- 
servations were made with it in the old 
west transit room until 1869, June 5. It 
was then removed to the new transit room, 
where it was used from February 2 to 
August 15, 1870, when observations were 
suspended for some repairs on the instru- 
ment. They were resumed in 1871, August 
1, and then continued until 1891, June 28, 
when the instrument was dismounted for 
removal to the new Observatorj'. In con- 
nection with the Sun, Moon and planet ob- 
servations, there were made on this instru- 
ment extensive determinations of the posi- 
tions of the Ephemeris stars and of large 
numbers of miscellaneous stars. When the 
mural circle and transit instrument were 
relieved of the planet work. Professor Yar- 
nall devoted them to the completion of the 
determination of the positions of all miscel- 
laneous stars which had been observed with 
them since 1845. These collected observa- 
tions form Yarnall's catalogue, which was 
published later. The equatorials were as- 
siduously employed on the observation of 
asteroids, comets, occultations, double stars, 
satellites, and other work for which they 
were especially adapted. 

The annual volumes of observations were 
published regularly from 1861 to 1890, and 
the principal memoirs and researches of 
greater or less extent appearing in them 
during this period are as follows : 

The solar parallax ; from equatorial observations 
of Mars, 8.8415" by Professor Hall, Washington Ob- 
servatory 1863, p. XI ; from meridian observations 
of Mars, 8.83 lu" by Assistant Astronomer Ferguson, 
Washington Observations, 1863, p. XI. 



Discussion of the solar parallax by all known 
methods, 8.848" by Professor Newcomb, Washington 
Observations, 1865, App. II. 

A catalogue of the positions of 151 stars in Prtesepe 
by Professor Hall, Washington Observations, 1867, 
App. IV. 

Reports on the solar eclipse of 1869, August 7 
Washington Observations, 1867, App. I. 

Reports on the solar eclipse of 1870, December 22 
Washington Observations, 1869, App. I. 

Reports on the solar eclipse of 1873, July 29 
Washington Observations, 1876, App. III. 

Reports on the solar eclipse of 1880, January 11 
Washington Observations, 1876, App III. 

The following embrace all of Hall's double-star 
work with the 26-inch equatorial ; Washington Ob- 
servations, 1876, App IV., and Washington Observa- 
tions, 1888, App. I. 

The time of rotation of Saturn on its axis was de- 
termined by Professor Hall by means of an equatorial 
spot which was visible from 1876, December 7, to 
1877, January 2. The period deduced was 10''14"" 
23.8^^ mean solar time. The paper may be found in 
the Astronomische Naolirichien No. 2146. 

On the right ascensions of the equatorial funda- 
mental stars, by Professor Newcomb, Washington 
Observations, 1870, App. III. 

Researches on the motion of the Moon, by Professor 
Newcomb, Washington Observations, 1875, App. II. 

The Uranian and Neptunian systems, Professor 
Newcomb, Washington Observations, 1873, App. I. 

The central parts of the nebula of Orion, Professor 
Hoklen, Washington Observations, 1878, App. I. 

A catalogue of 10,964 stars from observations on 
the mural circle and transit instrument, by Professor 
Yarnall, revised edition by Professor Frisby, AVash- 
ington Observations, 1884, Ai)p. I. 

A catalogue of 1963 stars observed by Gilliss, at 
Santiago, Chili, edited by Professor Harkness, 1868, 
App. I. 

Observations and orbits of the satellites of Mars, 
Washington 1878. This memoir is bound with some 
copies of Washington Observations, 1875. 

The two satellites of Mars were discovered by 
Professor Hall in August, 1877, with the 26-inch 
equatorial. 

The six inner satellites of Saturn, by Professor 
Hall, Washington Observations, 1883, App. I. 

Saturn and its rings, by Professor Hall, Washington 
Observations, 1885, App. I. 

Observations for stellar parallax, by Professor Hall, 
Washington Observations, 1883, App. II. 

The solar parallax and its related constants, by 
Professor Harkness, Washington Observations, 1885, 
App. III. 



10 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



Eeports on the observations of Encke's comet dur- 
ing its return in 1871, by Professors Hall and Hark- 
ness, Washington Observations, 1870, App. II. 

Chronometer rates as eftected by changes of tem- 
perature and other causes, by Commander C. H. Davis, 
Jr., Washington Observations, 1875, App. III. 

The following differences of Longitude 
have been determined between Washington 
and 

Havana, Cuba, Professor Harkness, Washington 
Observations, 1867, App. I. 

St. Louis, Professor Harkness, Washington Obser- 
vations, 1870, App. I. 

Detroit, Mich. 1 pj.ofgggor Eastman, Washington 

Larlin, xsev. > Observations, 1872, App. II. 

Austin, Nev. J . > t-i- 

Ogden, Utah, Professor Eastman, Washington Ob- 
servations, 1874, App. II. 

Sayre Observatory, South Bethlehem, Pa.; Profes- 
sor Eastman, Wa.shington Observations, 1875, App. I. 

Cincinnati Observatory, Professor Eastman ; Wash- 
ington Observations, 1876, App. IV. 

Morrison Observatory, Glasgow, Mo.; Professor 
Eastman, Washington Observations, 1876, App. V. 

Observatory Princeton, N. J. ; Assistant Astronomer 
Paul, Washington Observations, 1878, App. II. 

The zone observations made in 1846-1849 were pub- 
lished as follows : 

Meridian circle zones observed in 1846 (a separate 
publication) contains 4,054 stars, 1860. 

Mural circle zones 14,804 stars, Washington Ob- 
servations, 1869, App. II. 

Transit zones, 12,033 stars, Washington Observa- 
tions, 1870, App. IV. 

Meridian circle zones observed in 1847, '48, '49, 
7,390 stars, Washington Observations, 1871, App. I. 

Results of observations made with the transit in- 
trument and mural circle, 1853 to 1860 inclusive, 
Washington Observations, 1871, App. II. 

Report of Lieut. A. G. Winterhalter as delegate of 
the United States Naval Observatory to the Astrophoto- 
graphic Congress held in Paris 1887 ; with a report on 
European observatories, Washington Observations, 
1885, App. I. 

Announcement of the discovery in April 1888, and 
the subsequent determination of the elements, of a 
new short-period variable star, S Antlise =: No. 3407 
of Chandler's catalogue ; by Assistant Astronomer H. 
M. Paul, Astronomical Journal No. 215. 

A magnetic observatory was arranged by 
Maury in 1845, but its construction was so 
faulty and inadequate that its use was soon 
discontinued. Nothing further was done 



in reference to magnetic observations un- 
til 1887, when the Bureau of Navigation 
erected on the grounds of the Naval Ob- 
servatory a complete magnetic outfit which 
was provided with facilities for obtaining 
continuous photographic records of declina- 
tion, inclination and horizontal force. In- 
struments were also provided for the neces- 
sary absolute determinations of the magnetic 
elements. This magnetic outfit was turned 
over to the Observatory in July, 1887. Ob- 
servations were commenced soon after that 
date, and continued until September, 1892, 
when the instruments were removed to the 
new site. 

The preparations for the observations of 
the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882, by 
the United States Transit of Venus Com- 
mission, were made at the Naval Observa- 
tory as the headquarters of the operations 
of the Commission, but although this work 
was done principally by Professors New- 
comb and Harkness, it was entirely distinct 
from the work of the Observatory. 

During the years 1885, 1886 and 1887 
Professor S. J. Brown, U. S. N., was per- 
mitted by courtesy of the Superintendent 
of the Naval Academy to use its 4 -inch 
Eepsold meridian circle as an adjunct of 
the Naval Observatory in making a series 
of determinations of the positions of the 
303 stars which had been selected to serve 
as the basis of the German Astronomical 
Society's southern zones. 

When it became known that the work of 
the Naval Observatory would be inter- 
rupted by its removal to a new site the 
trustees of the Washburn Observatory, of 
Madison, Wis., very considerately offered 
the free use of the instruments of the Wash- 
burn Observatory to the staff of the Naval 
Observatory during that period. In ac- 
ceptance of this invitation Professor S. J. 
Brown went to Madison on the conclusion 
of his Annapolis work, and from October, 
1887, to October, 1890, conducted a series of 



Janciaey 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



11 



observations with the 4.8-inch Eepsold 
meridian circle on the ' zusatz ' stars Nos. 
337 to 539 of the Berlin Jahrbuch. 

Principally through the exertions of Rear 
Admiral John Eodgers, during his superin- 
teudency, Congress purchased a new site 
for the Naval Observatory on Georgetown 
Heights in 1881. Appropriations for the 
construction of new buildings on this site 
were made by Congress in 1886, plans for 
them were prepared by the celebrated JSTew 
York architect, R. M. Hunt, and in the be- 
ginning of 1893 they were sufficiently com- 
plete to warrant the transfer of the establish- 
ment to the new site. 

We come now to the fourth period in the 
history of the Observatory, namely, from 
its change of location to the present time. 

The new site is distant about two miles 
in a northwesterly direction from the old 
Observatory, and occupies 69.78 acres on 
Georgetown Heights, the buildings being 
situated on ground elevated from 260 to 280 
feet above the Potomac River. The shape 
of the tract is so irregular that its reentrant 
angles occasionally approach the buildings 
more closely than is desirable, and, to rem- 
edy this. Congress has enacted a law au- 
thorizing the laying out of a circle having 
a radius of one thousand feet about the 
center of the clock room, and the acquiring 
for the Observatory of all the land included 
therein which is not now owned by the gov- 
ernment. This consists principally of two 
tracts, one of 1.70 acres and the other of 
7.87 acres, and the area included in the 
proposed circle will closely equal that of the 
original irregular tract. The plans adopted 
for the new Observatory involved the erec- 
tion of one building principally for offices, 
and a separate cluster of isolated buildings 
for the principal instruments. The main 
building has the library on its eastern end, 
and a tower for the smaller equatorial on 
its western end, with an adjoining meridian 
room still further west. About 410 feet 



northwest of the center of the main build- 
ing is the clock room, which occupies the 
center of the cluster of instrument build- 
ings. It is flanked on the east and on the 
west by connecting observers' rooms, which 
the observers occupy in the intervals be- 
tween observations ; the chronographs be- 
ing installed therein, and the rooms being 
heated by steam. Twenty-five feet to the 
east of the east observers' room is the en- 
tirely isolated East Transit House, and at 
the same distance west of the west ob^ 
servers' room is the similarly isolated West 
Transit House. 

Fifty feet to the north of the center of 
the clock room is the entirely isolated Prime 
Vertical Transit House ; and 175 feet to the 
south of the clock room is the dome of the 
26- inch equatorial, with two connecting 
rooms for the use of the astronomer in 
charge. About 275 feet northwest of the 
center of the clock room is a circular 
wooden building 11.5 feet in diameter, sur- 
mounted by a revolving dome, for the alt- 
azimuth instrument. Four hundred feet to 
the southeast of the clock room is mounted 
the horizontal photoheliograph, and 250 
feet south of this is the magnetic observa- 
tory. Six hundred and fifty feet north of 
the main building is the Superintendent's 
residence, and 250 feet southeast of the li- 
brary are quarters occupied respectively by 
the professors of mathematics in charge of 
the 26-inch equatorial and the 9-inch me- 
ridian circle. About 200 feet northeast of 
the library is the boiler house, where steam 
is generated for heating most of the build- 
ings on the grounds. The main building 
and the 26- inch equatorial building are 
constructed of white marble, but the four 
transit houses are built entirely of metal, 
having iron frames, with double walls and 
roofs of corrugated metallic plates, which 
have proved very effective in preserving an 
equality between the outside and inside 
temperatures. The carefully constructed 



12 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



foundations for supporting the piers of the 
instruments are unusually massive and give 
unsurpassed stability. All the revolving 
domes and the shutter machinery of the 
transit houses were made by Warner and 
Swasey, of Cleveland, Ohio, and operate in 
the most satisfactory manner. 

Passing now to the instrumental equip- 
ment, the 9.6-inch equatorial refractor is 
replaced by a telescope having a 12-inch 
object-glass made by Clark and equatorially 
mounted by Saegmiiller. This instrument 
occupies a 26-foot dome on the tower at the 
west end of the main building. The 26-inch 
equatorial is provided with a new mounting 
by Warner and Swasey, and a powerful 
spectroscope by Brashear. Its dome is forty- 
five feet in diameter, and is provided with 
an hydraulic elevating floor having a range 
of motion of twelve feet. The Ertel transit 
instrument is remounted without change in 
the meridian room at the west end of the 
main building. The Pistor and Martins 
meridian circle has received the following 
modifications : The 8.5-inch object-glass of 
12- feet focal length has been rei^laced by a 
9.14-inch Clark object-glass of 107 inches 
focal length, and the tube has been short- 
ened accordingly ; the arms for supporting 
the microscopes have been replaced by a 
brass alidade, on the edge of which the 
microscopes may be clamped in any posi- 
tion ; the old collimators of 2^ inches aper- 
ture have been replaced by new ones of 4 
inches aperture, for which new mountings 
have been provided, and the apertures in 
the cube of the instrument have been corre- 
spondingly enlarged. The shortening of 
the telescope made it necessary to reduce 
the height of the piers, and new marble 
piers have been provided for the collima- 
tors. A vertical collimator has also been 
added, together with a north meridian mark 
erected at a distance of 380 feet, which is 
viewed by means of a lens of the same focal 
length, having an aperture of six inches, 



and mounted on the north collimator pier 
immediately below the collimator. 

Two new instruments have been provided 
which were designed solely by Professor 
William Harkness, aad built by Warner 
and Swasey, viz.: 1. A meridian circle, con- 
structed entirely of steel, which is mounted 
in the west transit house. The object-glass 
has a clear aperture of six inches, and the 
instrument has two circles each 26 inches 
in diameter and each graduated to two 
minutes. It is provided with two horizontal 
collimators 3.5 inches in aperture, a vertical 
collimator, and a north meridian mark dis- 
tant 380 feet. The latter is viewed through 
a lens of corresponding focal length, which 
is mounted on the north collimator pier 
immediately below the collimator. 2. The 
other new instrument designed by Professor 
Harkness, and built by Warner and Swasey, 
is the alt-azimuth. This, like the new six- 
inch meridian circle, is constructed entirely 
of steel. The aperture of its object-glass is 
five inches, and the diameters of its vertical 
and horizontal circles are 26 inches, each 
being graduated to two minutes. 

One of the Transit of Venus 40- foot hori- 
zontal photoheliographs is mounted with all 
its accessories in the location previously in- 
dicated, and to the south of it a well designed 
magnetic observatory has been built, as 
mentioned above. 

From its inception until July 22, 1863, 
the Naval Observatory was under the 
Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography ; 
from July 22, 1863, to July 1, 1889, it was 
under the Bureau of Navigation ; from 
July 1, 1889, to the present time, it has 
been under the Bureau of Equipment and 
Recruiting, whose name was changed July 
1, 1890, to the Bureau of Equipment. 

Before considering the present organiza- 
tion of the Naval Observatory it will be con- 
venient to give the following list of those 
who have held the office of Superintend- 
ent : 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



13 



Lieutenant, later Commander, M. F. Maury, Oc- 
tober 1, 1844, to his resignation April 20, 1861. 

Commander, later Captain, J. M. Gilliss, April 23, 
1861, to his death February 9, 1865. 

Rear Admiral C. H. Davis, April 28, 1865, to May 
8, 1867. 

Commodore, later Rear Admiral, B. F. Sands, May 
8, 1867, to his retirement February 11, 1874. 

Rear Admiral C. H. Davis, February 16, 1874, to 
his death, February 18, 1877. 

Rear Admiral John Rodgers, May 1, 1877, to his 
death May 5, 1882. 

Vice Admiral S. C. Rowan, July 1, 1882, to May 1, 
1883. 

Rear Admiral R. W. Shufeldt, May 1, 1883, to 
February 21, 1884. 

Commodore S. R. Franklin, February 21, 1884, to 
March 31, 1885. 

Commodore George E. Belknap, June 1, 1885, to 
June 7, 1886. 

Captain R. L. Phythian, November 15, 1886, to 
June 28, 1890. 

Captain F. V. MoNair, June 28, 1890, to Novem- 
ber 21, 1894. 

Commodore R. L. Phythian, November 21, 1894, to 
July 19, 1897. 

Commander, later Captain, C. H. Davis, from July 
19, 1897, the present incumbent. 

From its foundation until 1894 the Super- 
intendent was the sole head of the Observa- 
tory. On March 3, 1847, Congress enacted 
that he must be either a captain, a com- 
mander or a lieutenant in the Navy, but 
on March 3, 1865, that restriction was re- 
pealed, and it was enacted that: " The offi- 
cer of the Navy employed as Superintend- 
ent shall receive as salary only the shore- 
duty pay of his grade." 

The work of the Observatory is distrib- 
uted under the following Heads of Depart- 
ments : The Astronomical Director, the 
Heads of the Departments of Nautical In- 
struments, of Chi-onometers and Time Ser- 
vice, and of Magnetism and Meteorology. 
The duties of these Heads of Departments 
are as follows : 

The Astronomical Director. This ofSce 
was created by an order of the Secretar-y 
of the Navy, September 20, 1894, which de- 
fined the duties of the incumbent as fol- 



lows: The Astronomical Director has charge 
of and is responsible for the direction, scope, 
character, quantity and preparation for 
publication of all work purely astronomical 
which is performed at the Naval Observa- 
tory. He has charge of the 26-inch and 12- 
inch equatorial telescopes, the 6- inch and 
9 inch transit circles, the prime-vertical in- 
strument, the photoheliograph, and all other 
instruments and accessories used in his de- 
partment, together with the construction, 
remounting and repairing of all astronom- 
ical instruments placed in his charge. He 
personally inspects, both day and night, the 
methods of observation and computation in 
all the astronomical departments. 

The Head of the Department of Nautica 
Instruments sees that all nautical instru- 
ments issued from the Observatory, except 
chronometers, are thoroughly inspected and 
tested before issue. 

The Head of the Department of Chro- 
nometers and Time Service has charge of 
the chronometers deposited at the Naval 
Observatory ; he inspects, tests, rates and 
prepares them for issue ; he has charge of 
the transmission of the daily time signals 
and the apparatus pertaining to them ; 
finally he makes all necessary determina- 
tions of local time for use in his depart- 
ment, and for this purpose has the use of 
the 5-inch Ertel transit instrument, which 
is mounted in the meridian room at the 
west end of the main building. 

The Head of the Department of Magnet- 
ism and Meteorology has charge of all the 
magnetic and meteorological apparatus and 
observations. 

The Superintendent as commanding offi- 
cer is charged with the general superin- 
tendence and government of the Observa- 
tory. The heads of departments, naval 
ofBcers, assistant astronomers, computers 
and employes performing duty at the Ob- 
servatory are subject to him, and he is re- 
sponsible for the disbursement of all moneys 



14 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



appropriated by Congress to sustain the 
Observatory. 

The present personnel is as follows : Su- 
perintendent, Captain C. H. Davis, U. S. N.; 
Lieutenant A. N. Mayer, U. S. N., in charge 
of the chronometers and time service, and 
also general storekeeper and inspector of 
nautical instruments ; Professor H. M. Paul, 
U. S. ]N'., in charge of magnetic and mete- 
orological observations; Computer M. E. 
Porter ; Instrument - maker William F. 
Gardner. 

The Astronomical Director is Professor 
William Harkness, U. S. IST., and imme- 
diately under him are Professor Edgar 
Frisby, U. S. N"., in charge of the 12-inch 
equatorial refractor ; Professor S. J. Brown, 
U. S. IST., in charge of the 26-inch equatorial 
refractor ; Professor A. N. Skinner, U. S. IST., 
in charge of the 9-inch meridian circle ; 
Assistant Astronomer G. A. Hill, in charge 
of the prime-vertical transit and the alt- 
azimuth ; Assistant Astronomers T. I. King 
and F. B. Littell ; Computers E. A. Boeger, 
G. K. Lawton, William M. Brown and F. 
H. Parsons; Photographer George H. Peters. 

The 6-inch transit circle is not yet ready 
for use. 

The work of the Observatory since its re- 
moval to the new site, in the beginning of 
1893, has been as follows : 

In 1888 the management of the Naval 
Observatory acceded to a request from the 
German Astronomical Society to determine, 
in accordance with its general program, 
the positions of the stars in the zone— 13° 
50' to —18° 10' of declination. Various 
difficulties prevented the execution of this 
work at the old Observatory, but as soon 
as the 9-inch transit circle was got into 
working order at the new site the Superin- 
tendent, Captain F. V. McNair, directed 
Assistant Astronomer A. IST. Skinner to 
proceed with the observations, and gave 
him the assistance of Computers T. I. King 
and F. B. Littell for that purpose. The 



first zone was observed January 13, 1894, 
and with the exception of a few scattering 
stars, the entire work was completed in 
182 zones, the last of which was observed 
on May 26, 1897. The program involved 
the determination of the position of 8,689 
stars, with at least two observations of each. 
The number of observations actually made 
was 19,762, of which 18,062 were zone stars 
and 1,700 were zero stars. The i-eduction 
of these observations is about three-fourths 
completed. In the course of the zone ob- 
servations Assistant Astronomer Skinner 
discovered the variability of the following 
stars : 

X Hydrse, announced in the Astronomical Journal, 
No. 332. 

W Ceti, announced in the Astronomical Journal, 
No. 342. 

RT Librae, announced in the Astronomical Journal, 
No. 353. 

Z Capricorni, announced in the Astronomical Jour- 
nal, No. 358. 

The meridian observations of the Sun, 
Moon and planets were necessarily inter- 
rupted by the removal to the new site. As 
stated above, these observations were sus- 
pended June 29, 1891, and it was not found 
expedient to resume them until after the 
appointment of the Astronomical Director 
in September, 1894. During the progress 
of the observations of the German zone, 
other meridian observations could not be 
pushed energetically, and until the zone 
reductions are completed they will be lim- 
ited to the Sun, Moon and planets, the 
necessary ephemeris stars, and a few mis- 
cellaneous stars. The Sun and major plan- 
ets are now observed on the meridian every 
day, except Sundays and holidays, and the 
Moon is observed at every visible transit. 
The reductions of these observations are 
nearly completed to within a few months of 
date. 

The 12-inch equatorial has been continu- 
ously employed by Professor Frisby on ob- 
servations of asteroids, comets, occultations 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



15 



of stars by the Moon, and eclipses of Jupi- 
ter's satellites. Much of the current work 
of this instrument may be found in the 
Astronomical Journal. 

The 26- inch equatorial has been continu- 
ously emploj'ed by Professor Brown on ob- 
servations of the more difficult asteroids, 
on double stars, and on the satellites of 
Mars, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In 
recent months some spectroscopic work has 
been done. 

Assistant Astronomer George A. Hill has 
charge of the Prime Vertical transit instru- 
ment and the alt-azimuth. With the Prime 
Vertical transit from July 24, 1S93, to No- 
vember 20, 1898, he has made 1,140 obser- 
vations of a Lyrse, Aurigse, a Canum 
Venaticorum, p. Andromedse and y Bootis. 
"With the alt-azimuth instrument from Feb- 
ruary 24, 1898, to November 20, 1898, he 
has made 425 vertical-circle observations of 
American Ephemerisstars, and from Novem- 
ber 22, 1894, to November 20, 1898, he has 
also made 599 zenith telescope observations 
of pairs of stars selected in groups as sug- 
gested by Kiistner. 

As at the old Observatory, meteorological 
observations are taken every three hours 
by the watchman on duty. After removal 
to the new site magnetic observations were 
resumed, but it was soon found that the 
influence of the suburban electric roads in 
the vicinity entirely vitiated the photo- 
graphic records, and they were discontinued 
in the summer of 1898. 

The annual volume of Observations for 
the year 1889 was published in 1893, and 
that for 1890 was published in 1895. The 
latter contained an important appendix en- 
titled 'A catalogue of 16,748 stars, deduced 
by the Naval Observatory from zone obser- 
vations made at Santiago de Chili by the 
United States Naval Astronomical Expedi- 
tion to the Southern Hemisphere during the 
years 1849, '50, '51, '52, Lieut. J. M. Gil- 
liss, U.S.N. , Superintendent.' Advantage 



was taken of the interruption of the work 
of the Observatory by reason of its removal 
to a new site, to complete the reduction of 
these zone observations. Among the many 
persons who have shared in the computa- 
tions Professors Harkness, Frisby and 
Brown have performed the most important 
part. 

In November, 1898, was published Ap- 
pendix I to the Washington Observations 
for 1892, entitled ' The Second Washington 
Catalogue of Stars, together with the an- 
nual results upon which it is based ; the 
whole derived from observations made at 
the United States Naval Observatory with 
the 8. 5- inch Transit Circle during the years 
1866 to 1891 and reduced to the epoch 
1875.0, pi-epared under the direction of 
John R. Eastman, Professor of Mathemat- 
ics, U.S.N.' This catalogue contains the 
positions of 5,151 stars which have been 
derived from 72,941 observations, being the 
entire series made while the Pistor and 
Martins transit circle was located at the old 
Observatory. 

It will be noted that the Naval Observa- 
tory owes its existence primarily to an at- 
tempt on the part of naval officers to pro- 
vide a depot for the care and issue of charts 
and nautical instruments. This naturally 
involved the equipment of the Depot with 
such astronomical instruments as are neces- 
sary for rating chronometers, but the needs 
of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition of 1838 
to 1842, and the inception of the American 
Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac ten years 
later, soon showed the necessity for an in- 
strumental equipment sufficient to cope with 
all astronomical problems, and that followed 
in due time. The principal aim of the Na- 
val Observatory has always been to carry 
forward a continuous series of Meridian ob- 
servations on the Sun, Moon and planets, 
such as can only be undertaken by great 
government observatories, like those of 
Greenwich and Paris. Since 1861 this work 



16 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



has been kept up assiduously, and in recent 
yeS,rs the number of meridian observations 
of the Moon has largely surpassed those 
made anywhere else. 

In spite of this limitation in the scope of 
its operations, the N'aval Observatory has 
not been unmindful of other lines of work. 
As instances of this may be cited the brill- 
iant discovery of the moons of Mars by 
Professor Hall ; the extensive work upon 
the satellites of the outer planets by Profes- 
sors Hall, ISTewcomb and Brown ; and 
finally the star catalogues of Professors 
Yarnall and Eastman and the contribution 
to the great star catalogue of the German 
Astronomical Society in the observation of 
the zone of stars from 13° 50' to 18° 10' of 

south declinations. a ^t o 

A. N. Skinner. 

U. S. Naval Observatory. 



THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SOCIETY. 

The attempt to construct a science of 
society by means of biological analogies has 
been abandoned by all serious investigators 
of social phenomena. It was one of those 
misdirected efforts that must be looked 
upon as inevitable in the development of 
any branch of knowledge. The notion of a 
universal evolution compelled those who 
accepted it to tr}^ to find some other expla- 
nation of our social relations than that 
dogma of an original covenant which had 
come down to us from Hobbes and Locke. 
Biology supplied most of the facts and ideas 
of which the evolutionary thought was con- 
structed ; and naturally, therefore, biolog- 
ical conceptions were first made use of in 
formal Sociology. At present, however, all 
serious work in Sociology starts from psy- 
chological data, and proceeds by a combina- 
tion of ps3'chological with statistical and 
historical methods. 

Psychology has had a development some- 
what similar. Beginning with purely meta- 
physical terms and reasonings, it became a 
natural science with the advent of evolu- 



tionary thought, and for a long time drew 
its best materials and its most fruitful 
hypotheses from physiological data. Phys- 
iological Psychology was the only psy- 
chology very well worth attention. George 
Henry Lewes was one of the first writers 
to argue, as he did with great force and 
brilliancy in the ' Problems of Life and 
Mind,' that the physiological explanations 
of mind must be supplemented by explana- 
tions drawn from the study of society. At 
the present time the social interpretation 
of mental development is an important part 
of psychological activity. 

Psychological and sociological investiga- 
tions have thus converged upon certain 
common problems, namely: The problem of 
the social nature of the individual mind, 
and the problem of the psychical nature of 
social relations. Any new contribution to 
either Psj'chology or Sociology is likely to 
be found also a contribution to the other, 
and we may look in the near future for a 
number of books of which it will be difficult 
to say whether they are primarily works 
on Psychology or on Sociology. 

This is eminently true of Professor Bald- 
win's ' Social and Ethical Interpretations,' 
the second volume of his work on ' Mental 
Development.' The first volume, on ' Meth- 
ods and Processes,' was definitely a study 
in Psychology. The problem dealt with 
was that of mental development through 
the interaction of physical and social causes, 
and the importance of social factors was 
emphasized throughout. In the volume on 
' Social and Ethical Interpretations ' we 
again find the same problem. The develop- 
ment of the individnal mind through its 
social relations and activities is further con- 
sidered. In this volume, however, the 
opposite problem also is introduced. The 
development of social relations and activi- 
ties throvigh the outgoing of the individual 
is discussed, and the nature of society is 
sulijected to a critical examination. 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



17 



A division of the volume into two books 
corresponds to the above distinction of the 
problems dealt with. Book I. is a study of 
the person, public and private; Book II. is 
a study of societj\ The four formal parts 
of Book I. deal respectively with the imi- 
tative person, the inventive person, the 
person's equipment and the person's sanc- 
tions. The three formal parts of Book 
II. deal respectively with the person in 
action, social organization and practical con- 
clusions. 

I shall not attempt in the present article 
to review Professor Baldwin's treatment of 
all these subjects, or even to summarize his 
conclusions. I shall examine only the two 
conceptions that are of chief interest to the 
sociologist. These, of course, are the con- 
ception of the social nature of the self, or 
individual personality, and the conception 
of the psychic nature of society. 

Psychology, some time ago, got beyond 
the conundrum 

" Should I be I or should I be 
One-tenth another and nine- tenths me" 
if my great-grandmother had married an- 
other suitor V It seems to be agreed on all 
hands that in any case the ego is nine-tenths 
or more somebody else. That is to say, his 
individual personality is for the most part 
a product of his intercourse with other per- 
sonalities. Professor Baldwin, as readers 
of his earlier works are aware, goes even 
beyond writers like Eibot and James in his 
account of the composite origin of the self. 
He holds that not only does the self incor- 
porate elements from other personalities, so 
that, at any given time, it includes thoughts 
and feelings derived from others, and acts 
in imitation of the conduct of others, but 
also that its very thought of itself is merely 
one pole of a consciousness ' of a sense of 
personality generally,' the other pole of 
which is the thought of some other pei'son 
or alter. 

This comprehensive sense of personality 



at first is merely projective — to use Pro- 
fessor Baldwin's term ; it is a mass of more 
or less vague impressions received from 
persons who are encountered and observed. 
It is secondly subjective ; the ego, by its 
imitations of observed persons, incorpo- 
rates their peculiarities to some extent in 
itself. It is thirdly ejective; the self in- 
terprets observed persons in terms of its 
own feelings, thoughts and habits. This 
give and take between the individual and 
his fellows Professor Baldwin calls ' the dia- 
lectic of personal growth ;' and he says it 
may be read thus : " My thought of self is 
in the main, as to its character as a personal 
self, filled up with my thought of others, 
distributed variously as individuals ; and 
my thought of others, as persons, is mainly 
filled up with myself. In other words, but 
for certain minor distinctions in the filling, 
and for certain compelling distinctions be- 
tween that which is immediate and that 
which is objective, the ego and the alter are 
to our thought one and the same thing." 
Thus the individual is always a socius, and 
not merely because, after reaching adult 
life, the necessity of cooperating with his 
fellow-men compels him to adapt himself to 
them and to modify an original egoism by 
the cultivation of social habits, but because, 
from his earliest infancy, his own develop- 
ment as a self-conscious person has been 
incorporating social elements and creating 
within himself a social no less than an in- 
dividual point of view. 

When adult life is reached, however, the 
process does not cease. The dialectic of 
personal growth continues to determine all 
our thinking, our social no less than our 
individual judgments ; that is to say, in ar- 
riving at any judgment, we incorporate in 
our thought the judgments of other men; 
and we interpret the judgments of other 
men by our own. 

It follows that all of those social rela- 
tions and policies which are products of 



18 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



reflection no less than of feeling are deter- 
mined by the ' dialectic of personal growth,' 
and that, like judgments of things in gen- 
eral, they are, in the thought of indi- 
viduals, highly composite products of sub- 
jective and ejective views of the same 
phenomena. 

Approaching the study of society in this 
way, Professor Baldwin is naturally led to 
discriminate between the substance, con- 
tent, stuff, or material of society, and the 
functional method or process of organiza- 
tion of the social material. He criticises 
the sociologists for not having definitely 
enough discriminated these two problems. 
Consistently with his conception of our 
social judgments, he describes the matter 
of social organization as follows: "The 
matter of social organization consists of 
thoughts ; by which is meant all sorts of 
intellectual states, such as imagination, 
knowledges and informations." This 'mat- 
ter,' he thinks, is found only in human 
groups, which only, therefore, can be called 
societies. Animal communities he would 
call ' companies.' The functional method 
or process of organization of the social 
material he is satisfied to find in the process 
of imitation as subjectively contained in 
the ' dialectic of personal growth,' and ob- 
jectively described, in sociological terms, 
by M. Tarde. Social evolution results from 
the interaction of the individual as a par- 
ticularizing force and society as a general- 
izing force. All solidarity and conservation 
are due to the generalizing force ; all varia- 
tion to the particularizing force. Progress 
is a dialectic of give and take between these 
two elements. 

In examining these conceptions I shall 
admit their general or substantial truth, 
and inquire only whether they need modifi- 
cation, limitation or expansion. Do they 
suflBciently and precisely express the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth? 

Is the thought of self quite so largely a 



product of the social relation as Professor 
Baldwin represents ? Is it accurate to say 
that •' my thought of self is, in the main, 
filled up with my thought of others," even 
if we admit ' minor distinctions in the fill- 
ing' and "certain compelling distinctions 
between that which is immediate and that 
which is objective ? " What are these com- 
pelling distinctions of the immediate ? Ob- 
viously, they are those presentations in 
consciousness which arise from organic con- 
ditions rather than from social relations. 
Hunger is a state of consciousness which 
can subvert the entire product of the ' dia- 
lectic of personal growth ;' and the sociolo- 
gist is unable to lose sight of the fact that 
when men who have been developed by that 
dialectic into socii are confronted by star- 
vation they are liable to have thoughts of 
self which can hardly be construed as filled 
up mainly with thoughts of others, unless 
he is prepared to accept a cannibal's defini- 
tion of others. The sociologist, then, must 
continue to think of the individual as being 
both an ego and a socius, and yet as be- 
ing at all times more ego than socius. 

The importance of this modification of 
Professor Baldwin's formula is chiefly for 
purposes of economic theory. Xo econo- 
mist will be able to accept Professor Bald- 
win's contention (bottom of page 13) that 
it is illegitimate to ' endeavor to reach a 
theory of value based on a calculus of the 
desire of one individual to gratify his indi- 
vidual wants, multiplied into the number 
of such individuals.' The truth is that, for 
most purposes of economic theory, this pro- 
cedure is not only legitimate, but is the 
only one psychologically possible. The 
compelling wants that political economy 
has chiefly to consider are those which arise 
from the organic nature and which, there- 
fore, magnify the ego at the expense of the 
socius. 

The modification is necessary also for 
purposes of ethical theory. Professor Bald- 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



19 



win, if I riglitljr understand him, derives 
all ethical phenomena from social relations. 
This I believe to be an error. Economic 
motives are specific cravings of particular 
organs or groups of organs. Complete 
satisfaction of economic wants may deprive 
other organs of their due satisfaction. The 
protest of the neglected organs and the 
hunger of the entire organism for integral 
satisfaction is, I believe, the original source 
of all ethical motive, which, therefore, is in- 
definitely developed by, but not initiated 
in, the ' dialectic of personal growth.' * 

It seems probable, then, that in ' the dia- 
lectic of personal growth,' the original ego 
with which the dialectic starts, plays 
throughout a controlling part ; and that, 
after all, the process of developing a socius 
is one which consists essentially in modify- 
ing, by means of social relations and activi- 
ties, an originally independent self. 

The modification, however, is undoubt- 
edly produced by the process of give and 
take between ego and alter. The question, 
then, that I wish next to raise is: Is the give 
and take, in which the ego engages, carried 
on indiscriminately with any alter, or is 
there, from the very beginning of conscious 
life, a tendency to discriminate between one 
and another alter, and to limit the condi- 
tions of personal growth by that state of 
consciousness which may be described as a 
consciousness of similars or of kind ? Scat- 
tered throughout Professor Baldwin's writ- 
ings are many intimations that he has 
suspected, or perhaps even been definitely 
aware of, such limitations. I do not find, 
however, that he has anywhere endeavored 
to formulate them or to bring them system- 
atically within the formulas of his dialectic. 

What, then, are some of the inquiries 
which should be made in regard to these 
limitations ? 

* I have considered this subject at greater length in 
an article on ' The Ethical Motive,' in the International 
Journal of Ethics, April, 1898. 



First, I think that we should inquire 
whether, long before any discriminations of 
kind have become possible, a preparation 
for them and a tendency toward them is 
made in conscious experience. Of the sen- 
sations which first arise in consciousness 
some are received from the bodily organism 
which the self inhabits ; some are received 
from similar bodily organisms, and some 
are received from wholly unlike objects in 
the external world. ISTow, we know that 
many sensations received from self are so 
nearly like sensations received from like- 
selves that, merely as sensations, they can 
be distinguished only with difficulty. If, 
for example, I strike with my voice a cer- 
tain note of the musical scale, and another 
person a moment after strikes the same note 
with his voice, my auditory sensations in 
the two cases will be very neai-ly alike. If 
I cry out in pain, and then hear another 
man like myself cry out in pain, my audi- 
tory sensations will be nearly alike. If, 
however, I hear a dog bark the sensation 
will be different from that which I have re- 
ceived from my own voice. If I walk with 
my friend down the street, and happen to 
notice the motion of my feet as I take suc- 
cessive steps, and then to notice the motion 
of my friend's feet, the visual sensations 
will, in these two cases, be closely alike. 
If, however, I happen to notice the trotting 
of a horse that is being driven by me the 
visual sensation will be different from that 
which I have received in observing my own 
steps. If I stroke the back of my hand, and 
then stroke the back of my friend's hand, I 
shall receive tactual sensations that are 
closely alike. If, then, I stroke the fur of a 
cat or the mane of a horse, or touch the paw 
of a cat or the hoof of a horse, I shall re- 
ceive sensations ver}' different from those 
received from the back of my hand. It ap- 
pears, then, that before there is any power 
to make discriminations of anj' kind, even 
to think of differences of sensation, sensa- 



20 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



tions themselves fall into difiPerent group- 
ings. At the very beginning of conscious 
life certain elements which are to enter into 
a consciousness of kind begin to appear in 
experience. They consist of like sensations 
received from self and from others who re- 
semble self. 

On the basis of these experiences there 
are developed others that call for investiga- 
tion from the same point of view. When 
suggestion begins to play an important part 
in mental life are suggestions from persons 
very unlike self equally efficacious with 
suggestions from persons nearly like self? 
There is here a great field for investigation. 
A thousand familiar observations strongly 
indicate the superiority of suggestions that 
come from those whose neural organiza- 
tion resembles that of the person affected. 
Why, for example, does Maudsley venture 
to say, without oS"ering the slightest proof, 
that, while men are as liable as silly sheep 
to fall into panic when they see panic among 
their fellows, they are not similarly liable 
when they perceive panic among sheep ? 
Obviously, because facts of this general 
character are so familiar that no one would 
think of questioning them. In like man- 
ner, a child who objects to performing a 
certain task which his father asks him to 
do will do it without hesitation if he sees 
other boys in the street engaged in the same- 
work. Phenomena like these, of course, 
have their origin in a like responsiveness 
of like organisms to the same stimulus. 

A third class of experiences and activi- 
ties, which are ultimately to enter into a 
consciousness of kind, and that are already 
very probably dominating ' the dialectic of 
personal growth,' are imitations. Here, 
also, there is room for exact investigation ; 
but we may predict at the outset that in- 
vestigation will verify the common opinion 
that we chiefly imitate our similars. The 
equally familiar fact that we do not always 
do so is of immense importance for the the- 



ory of variation, invention and originality. 
And this theory, I believe, is not to be con- 
structed without referring back to the truth 
mentioned above, that the ego is at all times 
the original and dominant element in the 
' dialectic of personal growth.' I am not 
at present prepared to give my reasons, but 
I expect that it will be shown that in the 
same reaction of the organism upon the or- 
gan which is the source of ethical motive 
will be found the source of originality, vari- 
ation and the occasional imitation of those 
who difi^r from, rather than resemble, our- 
selves. 

The factors thus far considered, namely, 
like responsiveness of like organisms to 
the same stimulus, like sensations received 
from self and from others who resemble 
self, a greater responsiveness to suggestions 
from like selves than from not-like selves, 
and a greater readiness to imitate like 
selves than to imitate not-like selves, to- 
gether make up the organic sympathy that 
is a bond of union in those groups of animals 
that Professor Baldwin calls companies, and 
the bond of union of men who act together 
impulsively rather than reflectively— the 
bond, in short, of the mob. It is certain 
that organic sympathy depends on organic 
likeness, and the phenomena that have 
been named above are the psychological 
correlatives of organic likeness. 

How is organic sympathy converted into 
a higher or reflective sympathy ? The true 
answer, I think, is : Through the mediation 
of that perception of resemblance which 
is the initial stage in the conversion of a 
mere sensational experience or likeness into 
a reflective consciousness of kind. When 
the power to perceive relations and to make 
discriminations arises, the perception of 
resemblances and dififerences among one's 
fellow-beings becomes an all-important fac- 
tor in the further development of social 
relations and in the ' dialectic of personal 
growth.' From that moment organic sym- 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



21 



pathy becomes a function of the perception 
of resemblance ; and sympathy becomes, to 
a certain extent, reflective. Even in mob 
action the reaction of the perception of 
kind may be seen with the utmost clear- 
ness. When, for example, a mass of men 
simultaneously respond to a party^ cry or 
symbol the action for the moment is merely 
a like responsiveness to the same stimulus. 
An instant later, when each man perceives 
that his fellow-beings are, in this respect, 
resembling himself in feeling and in action, 
his own emotion is enormously intensified. 
It is this which gives to all symbols and 
shibboleths their tremendous social impor- 
tance. The phenomenon has been very well 
described in the concluding pages of Dr. 
Boris Sidis's ' Psychology of Suggestion.' 

Let us pass, now, to the conception of the 
psj'chical stuff or substance of society. 

Professor Baldwin's thesis, as we have 
seen, is that " the matter of social organiza- 
tion consists of thoughts, all kinds of knowl- 
edges and informations." He thus places 
himself in definite opposition to those writers 
who have made sympathy, or any kind of 
emotitm, the psychological stuff of society. 
It is for this reason that he makes a sharp 
distinction between animal ' companies ' and 
human societies. Criticism of this thesis 
may be made from two points of view : one, 
the historical, supported by observations 
from animal communities ; the other, the 
psychological, supported by those analyses 
of the relations of sympathy and perception 
which I have sketched above. From the 
standpoint of the observer of animal and 
primitive human societies it is difficult, if 
not impossible, to establish a line of demar- 
cation between the more highly organized 
bands of animals, like troops of monkeys, or 
herds of elephants, or bands of wild horses, 
and the simplest hordes of human beings, 
like Bushmen or Australian Blackfellows. 
No one can say when, in the development 
of man from brute, sympathy ceased to be 



the chief stuff or substance of the social re- 
lationship, and thoughts in the form of in- 
ventions and knowledges began to assume 
that important place. In like manner, when 
modern human society is looked at from the 
psychological view-point, it is often, indeed 
usually, impossible to say whether sympathy 
or thought predominates in the intercerebral 
action of the associating individuals. Pro- 
fessor Baldwin's thesis would compel him 
to maintain that the same individuals are a 
' society ' one day and merely a ' company ' 
another. At one time they are thoughtful 
and self-controlled ; at another time they are 
an audience swept by emotion, or a mob 
given over to fury. Shall we, then, say that 
the stuff of society is thought merely, or feel- 
ing merely, or some combination of the two ? 
Surely the last of these possibilities is the 
one that is most consistent both with evolu- 
tionary hypotheses and with psychological 
conclusions. The substance of society at 
first is sympathy and instinct mainly. At 
its best estate society may rise to a level 
where thought has for the moment com- 
pletely subordinated feeling. But usually, 
and throughout the greater part of its career, 
society is sj'mpathy and instinct more or 
less organized, more or less directed, more 
or less controlled, by thought. When the 
thought element appears society has become 
reflective, and a better way to mark the dis- 
tinction between the lowest and the highest 
societies than that which restricts the word 
' society ' to the latter and calls the former 
' companies ' is one which indicates this ele- 
ment of reflection. Animal and primitive 
human communities are, for the most part, 
sympathetic or non-reflective societies ; pro- 
gressive human communities in general are 
reflective societies. The reflective stage cor- 
responds to the appearance of the perception 
of kind and to reflective sympathy. 

But even if we were to accept the thesis 
that the social stuff is exclusively intellec- 
tual we could not possibly admit that it 



22 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



consists of all sorts of thoughts and knowl- 
edges indiscriminately. It undoubtedly in- 
cludes all sorts of thoughts and knowledges, 
but not all sorts of thoughts and knowledges 
in and of themselves make society or the 
social stnlf. The social stuff, so far as it is 
intellectual, is one kind of knowledge in 
particular, namelj% knowledge of resem- 
blances, knowledge of those modes of like- 
mindedness that make cooperation possible. 
The same logic that leads Professor Baldwin 
to try to separate the social stuff from other 
kinds of stuff should lead him further to 
distinguish the thought that is essentially 
social and capable of organizing all other 
thoughts and knowledges into social ma- 
terial from the thought and knowledge that 
have no such inherent power. 

Perhaps, however, it is in his few remarks 
about the social process that Professor Bald- 
win has been most unjust to himself, and 
has missed an opportunity to make a really 
important contribution to social science. 
He is willing to grant that the social pro- 
cess consists in imitation. Yet, if the earlier 
chapters of ' Social and Ethical Interpreta- 
tions ' prove anything at all, they prove 
that imitations are progressively controlled, 
as individual development proceeds, by the 
process of ejective interpretation. To carry 
this thought into sociological interpretation 
it is necessary to bear in mind the function 
of resemblance, especially of mental and 
moral resemblance, in controlling relation- 
ships. In the ejective processes of the 
' dialectic of personal growth ' not all of 
our acquaintances are indiscriminate! jr util- 
ized. We detect the difference between 
those who, in ways important to oui'selves, 
resemble us and those who, in waj's im- 
portant to ourselves, differ from us. Our 
ejective interpretations, therefore, are ac- 
companied at every step by a process of 
ejective selection. These ejective selections 
are the psychological basis of all social 
groupings, not only of those of the more 



intimate sort, such as personal friendships, 
but those also of the purely utilitarian sort, 
like business partnerships. In a word, while 
imitation is a process that penetrates so- 
ciety thi'ough and through, it is not a dis- 
tinctively social process. It is wider than 
the social process, just as thought is more 
comprehensive than the social stuff. The 
distinctive social process is an ejective in- 
terpretation and selection. In its widest 
form it includes imitation controlled by or 
made a function of ejective selection. 

I may now very briefly indicate the fur- 
ther criticisms which, in pursuance of this 
thought, must be made upon Professor 
Baldwin's views — criticisms, namely, that 
apply to his treatment of social policy. ISTo 
exception is to be taken to the analysis 
which describes the individual as the par- 
ticularizing social force, and society in its 
entirety as the generalizing social force. 
But I fail to discover in Professor Baldwin's 
account of the subject any adequate recogni- 
tion of the social causation of individuality. 
That causation must be sought in the phe- 
noma of unlikeness in the social population. 
Throughout human history individuality 
and the possibility of social variation have 
been due to the commingling of ethnic ele- 
ments, or, within the same nationality, to 
the commingling of elements long exposed 
to dilferent local environments. The com- 
mingling itself is brought about by emigra- 
tion and immigration. If the biological 
phenomenon of panmixia is all that Weis- 
mann. Gallon and other investigators have 
represented to be, its levelling eifects are 
countei-acted and social progress is made 
possible only by continual groupings and 
regroupings in the population under the in- 
fluence of ejective selection. 

Finally, there is no possible explanation 
of social policy which leaves out of account 
the facts of mental and moral resemblance 
and the consciousness of kind. AVitbout 
like-mindedness there can be neither spon- 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



23 



taneous nor reflective cooperation. Not 
only must there be an agreement of 
thought, but for most, if not for all, public 
cooperation there must be a vast mass of 
sympathies and agreeing emotions. Men 
must have like sensations, be similarly sen- 
sitive to suggestion from resembling fellows, 
and enter subtly into like judgments with- 
out always being fully conscious of the pro- 
cess by which their conclusions are reached. 
The greater part of all public action must 
be described as a consequence of sympa- 
thetic and half-reflective agreement in plans 
and purposes, rather than as a consequence 
of systematic deliberation Moreover, it 
must not be forgotten that all public policy 
is a means to an end, proximate or ulti- 
mate ; and that the ultimate end in every 
case is the maintenance and development 
of a certain type of man. That type itself 
is a mode of resemblance ; and the recogni- 
tion of it, which directs and controls all 
policies, is a mode of the consciousness of 
kind. Feanklin H. Giddings. 



AT03IIC WEIGHTS. 
The following table of values is recom- 
mended for general adoption in analytical 



practice by a commission appointed by the 
German Chemical Society consisting of H. 
Landolt, W. Ostwald and K. Seubert. (Ber. 
d. D. Chem. Ges. 1S9S, 31, 2761.) 
The commission recommends that : 

1. The atomic weight of oxygen be taken 
as 16.000, and that the atomic weights of 
the other elements be calculated on the 
basis of their combining ratios with oxygen, 
directly or indirectly determined. 

2. The following atomic weights of the 
elements be adopted in practice, as they are 
probably the most correct values known at 
the present time. 

These numbers are, as a rule, given only 
with so many decimals that even the last 
one may be regarded as accurate. In con- 
sequence, the atomic weights determined 
by Stas, in which the errors amount to from 
3 to 6 units in the third decimal, are 
given with two decimals ; the other atomic 
weights which have been more accurately 
determined are given with one decimal, 
and those less accurately determined are 
given without decimals. Exceptions to this 
rule have been made only in the cases of 
nickel, bismuth and tin, marked with an 
asterisk in the table. 



Name. Symbol. 

Alumiriium Al 

Antimony Sb 

Argon (?) A 

Arsenic As 

Barium Ba 

Bismuth Bi 

Boron B 

Bromine Br 

Cadmium Cd 

Ceesium Cs 

Calcium Ca 

Carbon C 

Cerium Ce 

Chlorine CI 

Chromium Cr 

Cobalt Co 

Columbium Cb 

Copper Cu 

Erbium (?) Er 

Fluorine F 

Gallium Ga 

Germanium Ge 

Glucinum Gl 

Gold All 



Weiglit. Name. 

27.1 Helium (?) He 

120. Hydrogen H 

40. Indium In 

75. Iodine I 

137.4 Iridium Ir 

208.5* Iron Fe 

11. Lanthanum La 

79.96 Lead Pb 

112. Lithium Li 

133. Magnesium Mg 

40. Manganese Mn 

12.00 Mercury Hg 

140. Molybdenum Mo 

35.45 Neodymium(?) Nd 

52.1 Nickel Ni 

59. Nitrogen N 

94. Osmium Os 

63.6 Oxygen O 

166. Palladium Pd 

19. Phosphorus P 

70. Platinum Pt 

72. Potassium K 

9.1 PriBsodymium (?) .. Pr 

197.2 Rhodium Rh 



Name. 



Symbol. 



4. Rubidium Rb 85.4 

1.01 Ruthenium Ru 101.7 

114. Samarium (?) Sa 150. 

126.85 Scandium Sc 44.1 

193.0 Selenium Se 79.1 

56.0 Silicon Si 28.4 

138. Silver Ag 107.93 

206.9 Sodium Na 23.05 

7.03 Strontium Sr 87.6 

24.36 Sulphur S 32.06 

55.0 Tantalum Ta 183. 

200.3 Tellurium Te 127. 

96.0 Thallium Tl 204.1 

144. Thorium Th 232. 

58.7* Tin Sn 118.5* 

14.04 Titannium Ti 48.1 

191. Tungsten W 184. 

16.00 Uranium U 239.5 

106. Vanadinum V 51.2 

31.0 Ytterbium Yh 173. 

194.8 Yttrium Y 89. 

39.15 Zinc Zn 65.4 

140. Zirconium Zr 90.6 

103.0 



24 



SCIENCE, 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



In the case of nickel this was done in 
order to emphasize the difference between 
the atomic weights of cobalt and nickel, 
although in both values there may be 
possible deviations of ± 0.2. The true 
atomic weights of bismuth and tin are not 
correct to a certainty, to within 0.1. The 
value of hydrogen is 1.008, correct to witliin 
0.001, but the approximation of 1.01 has 
been regarded as permissible for the re- 
quirements of practice, as it involves an 
error of only one-fifth of one per cent. The 
values given for the elements marked in 
tlie table with interrogation points are not 
necessarily exact within whole units of the 
atomic weights assigned. 

Ferdinand G. Wiechmann. 



JOHN CUMMIKGS. 
In the decease of Hon. John Cummings, 
of Woburn, Mass., on the 21st of December, 
there terminated a life whicli has been note- 
worthy for the encouragement it has given 
to the study and teacliing of science. In 
the early part of his manhood days Mr. 
Cummings acquired a reputation for honor- 
able dealing and for his success in the 
manufacture of leather in his native town 
of Woburn. To that town he was always 
loyal and generous, but his intelligence and 
his activity led him into larger circles until 
he became favorably known and his influ- 
ence was felt in a large and populous com- 
munity. He became acquainted with the 
late William B. Eogers, for whom he al- 
ways cherished an admiration and a pro- 
found regard. He also knew Louis Agassiz, 
Jeffries Wyman, Asa Gray and others, and 
he soon became a student as well as a lover 
of nature. The ofBces of trust and of busi- 
ness responsibility which he filled make a 
long and notable list, but his large affairs 
did not prevent him from cultivating a love 
for science, and they aided him in multi- 
plying his gifts to the cause of education. 
Through his attachment for William B. 



Eogers he was interested in the founding of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
and he became one of its most substantial 
supporters, contributing to its financial 
needs and serving as its Treasurer for 17 
years. It was through his generosity that 
the Boston Society of Natural History 
started its ' Teachers' School of Science,' 
and it was through his liberality that its 
botanical collection was developed and that 
it has i-eceived special care to the present 
day. He was actively and generously in- 
terested in the work of public instruction, 
and he extended his aid to the South after 
the close of the Civil War. In one instance 
he purchased a building and supplied teach- 
ers, urging them to work for the estab- 
lishment of free public schools, and when 
this was about to be accomplished he do- 
nated the building to the cause. His gifts 
and his efforts were never calculated to at- 
tract attention to himself, and many of his 
good deeds were scarcely known even by 
his friends. He was one of a class of honor- 
able and broad-minded business men who 
have been magnanimous in their support of 
science education, and who have found time 
to participate in the acquisition of knowl- 
edge, while aiding others to means for the 
prosecution of their studies or investiga- 
tions. 

Wm. H. Niles. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Matter, Energy, Force and Work. By SiLAS 
W. HoLMAN, Professor (Emeritus) Massa- 
chusetts lustitute of Technology. New 
York, The Macmillau Company. 
Lovers of exact science are already indebted 
to Professor Holman for numerous important 
contributions to our knowledge of physics and 
especially for valuable suggestions as to the 
best treatment of the experimental solution of 
physical problems. His most pretentious work 
thus far is that on ' Precision of Measurements, ' 
which is everywhere recognized as a standard 
and which ought to be in the hands of every 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



25 



one who is preparing to do something in the 
way of experimental research. In the vol- 
ume now under consideration he has entered 
a different field, and with such success as 
to deserve and, I have no doubt, to wiu the 
approval of all interested in the fundamental 
principles and concepts of physical science. In 
addition to an excellent review of current 
theories of the nature of matter, energy, force, 
etc., in which the vortex theory and Le Sage's 
theory of gravitation are exceptionally well 
presented, the work includes much that is new 
and original, a few proposed additions to the 
nomenclature of science and many extremely 
suggestive discussions. 

Professor Holman departs from the usual 
practice in the very beginning when he defines 
matter as ' the inert constituent of substance.' 
By ' substance' he means ' that which is inferred 
as existing in space, and as endued with powers 
to affect portions of itself,' and it is made out 
of matter by the addition of something. ' Con- 
tinuous, uniform and permanent occupancy of 
space' is the ultimate and sole property of 
matter. ' Mass' is defined as ' quantity of 
matter,' and as matter has really no signifi- 
cance until it becomes ' substance' the word 
' mass' is practically banished. 

Atoms are ' permanent aggregations of matter 
differentiated from matter by some mode of 
motion' (vortex motion), and they combine to 
make ' substance.' ' Bodies' are limited por- 
tions of 'substance.' The 'something' which 
distinguishes substance from matter is energy. 
"A designated quantity of substance consists 
of a definite quantity of matter in permanent 
association with a definite quantity of energy 
or motion." The two words ' or motion' 
render this statement somewhat obscui'e. 
What is meant by a ' definite quantity of 
motion ?' Professor Holman's definition of 
' motion' is that of nearly all writers, namely, 
' change of relative position.' It is a curious 
but common practice to define it in this way 
and then to define its ' quantity' by associating 
with it something (matter, mass) absolutely 
unlike it in every respect. It is certainly not 
in this sense that he means to use it in the phrase 
above quoted. 

To all ' substance' he attributes a ' capacity 



for kinetic energy' and to this capacity he ap- 
plies the term ' kinergety,^ of which much use is 
made in all subsequent discussions. Mass is 
assumed to be proportional to kinergety and the 
latter thus affords a means of measuring the 
former or rather of comparing different quanti- 
ties of it. 

Quantities of substance may also be com- 
pared by means of the force called 'weight,' 
and a quantity thus determined by means of 
the equal-arm balance is called weiglital. 

The ' International Kilogramme' and the ' Im- 
perial Pound ' are spoken of as standards of 
' Kinergety ' and weigMal is shown to be pro- 
portional to 'Kinergety.' What is commonly 
known as 'the ether,' the medium by which 
radiant energy is transmitted, is regarded as a 
kind of substance, and hence not the continuous 
uniform substratum of ' matter ' from which all 
substance is evolved. 

It is impossible in a brief notice to make ex- 
tensive quotations, but especial attention ought 
to be invited to the author's remarks on the 
various forms of energy. They are extremely 
interesting and suggestive, and particularly so 
in the exhibit which is made of the importance 
of the energy of elasticity as an intermediate 
stage of all energy transformations. The defi- 
nition of ' force ' as related to energy will not 
fail to attract attention and possibly enable 
many readers to possess a reasonably satisfying 
concept of that much-abused word. Reference 
has already been made to the very full presen- 
tation of the vortex theory of matter, in the 
possibilities of which the author evidently has 
great confidence. The principal results of the 
splendid work of Professor J. J. Thomson in 
the application of this theory to chemical phe- 
nomena are here given in clear and simple lan- 
guage, without the mathematical backing upon 
which it leans. The singularly clear and satis- 
factory discussion of Le Sage's theory of gravi- 
tation as affected by the vortex theory of 
atoms would alone put the volume on the 
shelves'of every physical library, but the more 
distinctly original portions of it, the nature of 
which has only been hinted at in this notice, 
will fully justify its careful perusal by students 
of physical science. 

I think there can be no impropriety in a brief 



26 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



word in reference to the circumstances under 
wliicla this book was written. It is well known 
among his many friends that Professor Hol- 
man's active participation in the work of the 
Rogers Laboratory of Physics was arrested two 
or three years ago by the development of an 
illness from which, unfortunately, he has not 
yet recovered. During this time he has been 
confined to a reclining chair, and, in his own 
characteristic words, ' even the familiar utili- 
zation of the convenient gamut of ether waves' 
has been denied. Although unable to move 
and unable to see, his courage has never fal- 
tered. There has been no loss in his power of 
thought, and he has gone on thinking the many 
fine tilings which he has put into this book, for 
which, even if it had not been prepared under 
conditions that would have defeated most men, 
all physicists, friends and strangers alike, will 
ever be his debtor. 

T. C. M. 

A Brief Course in Qualitative Analysis. By Er- 
nest A. CONGDON, Ph.B., Professor of Chem- 
istry in the Drexel Institute. New York, 
Henry Holt & Co. 1898. 
The method of treatment adopted in this 
book consists in giving, first, a clear, concise 
statement of the most important reaction for 
each metal and acid, and then tables giving one 
or more schemes of analysis for each group. 
The tables are supplemented by explanatory 
notes. At the end of the book a series of ques- 
tions, well designed to test the student's grasp 
of the subject, are given. While the tabular 
form always has the advantage of presenting 
the scheme for analysis very clearly, in the 
opinion of the writer, the same object is better 
attained by a tabular record prepared by the 
student. Because of their concise form, tables 
necessarily omit many details which are essen- 
tial for the successful execution of an analysis, 
and the notes which follow do not entirely over- 
come this difiiculty. 

The selection of reactions and of schemes for 
analysis is excellent, and in the hands of good 
teachers the book will prove a useful one. 

A Short Manual of Analytical Chemistry, Quali- 
tative and Quantitative, Inorganic and Organic, 
following the Course of Instruction given in 



the Laboratories of the South London School of 
Pharmacy. By John Muter, Ph.D. Second 
American Edition. Illustrated. Adapted 
from the Eighth British Edition. Philadel- 
phia, P. Blakiston's Sons & Co. 1898. Pp. 
xiii+ 228. Price, $1.25. 

As the title implies, a very large amount of 
information is compressed into comparatively 
little space in this volume. In the qualitative 
portion the statements giving the deportment of 
metals and of acids toward reagents are given 
consecutively and are followed by tables of 
schemes for analysis. Then follow directions 
for the identification of alkaloids and of a num- 
ber of common organic compounds. The quan- 
titative portion includes volumetric and gravi- 
metric analysis, ultimate organic analysis, and 
directions for the examination of air, water, food, 
alcoholic liquors, etc. It is in this portion that 
American chemists will find most to criticise ; 
Gooch crucibles are nowhere described, not 
even for the cases where they should be used 
in place of weighed filters. Directions for the 
determination of ' citrate soluble phosphoric 
acid ' are not given under the analysis of ' ma- 
nures, ' and no reference is made to the ' offi- 
cial methods.' The old uranium acetate 
method is given for the volumetric estimation 
of phosphoric acid instead of the more satis- 
factory methods with a reductor or with a 
standard alkali. Metaphenylene diamine is 
recommended for the detection of nitrites in 
water analysis, although the reagent is not suffi- 
ciently sensitive to be of any practical use in 
many cases. But, while the authors do not 
appear to be conversant with the best Ameri- 
can practice in these and some other cases, and 
while some of the directions appear to be too 
much abbreviated for the satisfactory use of a 
beginner, it would be difficult to find another 
book which compresses so much information 
about analysis into so small a space and for so 
moderate a price. W. A. Noyes. 

W^ild Animals I have known. By Ernest 
Seton Thompson. New York, Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 1898. Square 12mo. Pp. 359. 
200 illustration?. Price, $2.00. 
Rarely are the qualities of naturalist, writer 

and artist combined in one person, but Mr. 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



27 



Ernest Seton Thompson has won distinction in 
all three roles. As a naturalist he has enjoyed 
opportunities for study and observation both in 
Canada and the United States, chiefly in On- 
tario, Manitoba and New Mexico. As a writer 
he is known as the author of ' Birds of Mani- 
toba,' ' Mammals of Manitoba,' and numerous 
articles contributed to magazines and scientific 
journals. As an artist he is perhaps still more 
widely known through his 'Art of Taxidermy,' 
and work in illustrating several popular books 
on natural history, more especially on birds. 

His latest book is original in conception and 
execution. Here he has brought together some 
of his most interesting adventures and field ex- 
periences, woven them into entertaining and 
instructive stories, and illustrated them in a 
manner entirely unique. Under the title of 
' Wild Animals I have known ' Mr. Thompson 
has departed from the beaten path of natural 
history description, and given us an insight 
into the habits and daily lives of some of the 
lower animals with which he has been on more 
or less familiar terms. He describes his friends 
from what might be termed the human stand- 
point, i. e., not as mere objects, but as individ- 
uals endowed with personality and reason. 
" What satisfaction," he asks in the prefatory 
note, "would be derived from a ten-page sketch 
of the habits and customs of Man '? How much 
more profitable it would be to devote that 
space to the life of some one great man. This 
is the principle I have endeavored to apply to 
my animals." 

The book consists of eight stories detailing 
the adventures of Lobo, King of Currumpaw ; 
Silverspot, a crow ; Raggylug, a rabbit ; Bingo 
and Wuily, two dogs ; The Springfield fox ; the 
pacing mustang ; and Redrulf, a partridge. 
Lobo was a large wolf well known to the cat- 
tlemen of northern New Mexico who suffered 
from his depredations ; Silverspot, an old crow, 
has received his name on account of a con- 
spicuous white spot on the side of his head ; 
Raggylug, a rabbit with a ragged ear. Each 
animal and bird had some peculiarity by which 
it could be readily distinguished and thus kept 
under observation, sometimes for several years. 
The stories are told in a delightfully interesting 
style and contain many new facts and observa- 



tions. Nearly all end tragically, for, as the 
author explains, the end of a wild animal is usu- 
ally tragic. The book is not, and is not intended 
to be, a scientific treatise on mammals. The 
reader is assured that the stories are true, but 
this does not necessarily imply that every de- 
tail was based on actual observation. In fact, 
it would be practically impossible to observe 
some of the scenes depicted in the biographies 
of the rabbit and the fox. In describing the 
habits of a particular animal there is little more 
than a skeleton of fact on which to build. The 
record is so fragmentary that an author is com- 
pelled to fill in the gaps from his general 
knowledge of the species and to represent the 
characters as he conceives them to be. Such 
descriptions are of necessity composite and 
subject to personal equation and imagination. 
The book is copiously illustrated with 29 half- 
tone plates and a large number of marginal 
sketches. The type bed is narrow and the mar- 
gins are utilized for sketches which are some- 
times mere outlines or suggestions, but so skill- 
fully executed as to make it possible to follow 
certain parts of the story merely by the illus- 
trations. No one can fail to notice the author's 
careful attention to details and his skill in 
woodcraft. The student of natural history will 
find many things of interest in the descriptions 
and illustrations, and the general reader will 
not regret an introduction to some of the ani- 
mals Mr. Thompson has known. 

T. S. P. 

Human Anatomy. Edited by Heney Moeeis, 
M.A. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Sons & 
Co. 1898. Second Edition. 
The appearance of a revised and enlarged 
second edition of this work within less than six 
years from its original entry into the arena is in 
itself a sign of success. The well-known text- 
books of human anatomy which have held 
almost undisputed sway since the memory of 
the oldest teacher, continually enlarging their 
field with the lapse of years, are so strongly in- 
trenched that the prospects of a new rival at 
first can hardly have appeared hopeful. Not 
only have they done their work very well, but 
their methods have become so familiar to teach- 
ers, and the latter have got so habituated , to 



28 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



them, that a new text-book is like a new pair 
of shoes, which have to be broken in before they 
can be called a comfort to their owners. There 
can be no question that this process is likely not 
to be a very rapid one. It is clear that this 
book has stood this preliminary test. It is writ- 
ten by several authors, but is fairly homogene- 
ous. The aim is to disregard microscopic anat- 
omy and to offer a text book which shall present 
the facts of gross anatomy both iu a practical 
and in a scientific way. It is needless to say 
that the latter requires references both to em- 
bryology and to comparative anatomy. The 
section on the bones by Sutton is remarkably 
well done. When we say that the joints are the 
work of the editor we have said enough to 
vouch for excellence — to all, at least, who know 
his earlier monograph (now unhappily out of 
print) on that subject. The peritoneum is the 
work of Treeves, which, again, is saying enough. 
We mean no slight to the other able writers 
whom we do not more particularly mention. 
The first edition concluded with a section on 
surgical and topographical anatomy which can- 
not but be welcome. In the present edition this 
is followed by a too short chapter on vestigial 
and abnormal structures. Variations of the 
muscles, of the vessels, and some of those of 
bones are considered in their respective sec- 
tions. The book is a very good one. We could, 
perhaps, find flaws here and there, but a search 
for them is uncalled for, as most of our readers 
are not professed anatomists. We have but one 
serious criticism to make, namely, that in the 
section on the nervous system the most recent 
(but generally accepted) fundamental doctrines 
of the structure of that system have not re- 
ceived due recognition. 

The illustrations are a most important part of 
a text-book on anatomy. We are happy to give 
these very high praise. We were on the point 
of making special mention of those of certain 
sections, but they are so good as a whole that 
we refrain. 

To what extent this book will displace old 
and established favorites the future will show. 
It is a matter eminently unsafe to prophesy 
about, but the success already attained is, no 
doubt, an earnest of future progress. 

Thomas Dwight. 



GENERAL. 

The proceedings of the forty-seventh meet- 
ing and fiftieth anniversary of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science 
have been sent to members by the Permanent 
Secretary, Dr. L. O. Howard. The volume, 
which contains introductory matter extending 
to 83 pages and 658 pages of text, appears very 
promptlj', the address of President Eliot given 
before the Association on ' Destructive and 
Constructive Energies of our Government com- 
pared,' being here printed before the January 
issue of the Atlantic Monthly, which also con- 
tains it. 

Lady Welby has printed for private circula- 
tion a pamphlet extending to 61 pages, entitled 
' The Witness of Science to Linguistic Anarchy.' 
The introduction opens with the statement : 
"The following collection of extracts, chiefly 
from Nature, Science and Natural Science have 
been selected from a much larger number, with 
the object of bringing together, in convenient 
form, evidence of an almost incredible state of 
things in the scientific world." We find an in- 
teresting collection of quotations on scientific 
nomenclature, showing a certain amount of 
diversity and conflict. Still they scarcely bear 
witness to a ' paralyzing nightmare of impo- 
tence,' and it does not follow as suggested by 
Professor Foster that an international tribunal 
should ' stamp the coin of science ' by defining 
every new name. New words must come and 
language must be flexible if science is to grow. 
Certainly men of science should realize their 
responsibility and be careful in their use of 
terms, but words were made for science and not 
science for words. Those interested can prob- 
ably obtain a copy of Lady Welby's pamphlet 
by addressing her at Denton Manor, Grantham, 
England. 

We have received for review a copy of ' Life's 
Comedy,' Third Series (Charles Scribner's Sons). 
Life, from the issues of which this Christmas 
book is a reprint, does not hesitate to leave its 
own field and display ignorance by attacking 
men of science who practice vivisection, which 
should warn us against tresspassing on foreign 
territory. As Punch treats the anti-vivisection- 
ists from the point of view that commends itself 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



29 



to men of science, we may be prejudiced, 
but it does seem tliat ' Mr. Punch ' is always a 
gentleman, whereas Life is on occasion distinctly 
vulgar. 

The Eev. J. G. Hagen, of the Georgetown 
College Observatory, announces that the first 
series of charts of his Atlas of Variable Stars is 
nearly printed and will be issued in a few 
weeks. The cost of engraving and printing 
the whole Atlas will be about $7,000 and, though 
one-fpurth of this sum has been given by Bliss 
Catherine Bruce, it is necessary that one hun- 
dred subscribers to the entire series be obtained 
in order that expenses of engraving and print- 
ing can be guaranteed and its completion se- 
cm-ed. The present series contains twenty-four 
charts and is sold to subscribers to the whole 
series at one Mark per chart. The work is 
published by Herr. F. L. Dames, of Berlin, but 
subscriptions may be sent through the Harvard 
College Observatory or through the George- 
town College Observatory. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 

Terrestrial Magnetism for December, 1898, 
contains the following articles : ' Eeport of the 
Permanent Committee on Terrestrial Magnet- 
ism and Atmospheric Electricity to the Inter- 
national Meteorological Conference ;' ' The To- 
ronto Magnetic Observatory,' R. F. Stupart ; 
' The Attitude of the Aurora above the Earth's 
Surface' (concluded), C. Abbe; 'Bigelow's 
Solar and Terrestrial Magnetism,' reviewed by 
Arthur Schuster ; ' Notes on the Magnetic 
Storm of November 21st-22d, and on the Secular 
Motion of a Free Magnetic Needle,' by L. A. 
Bauer. Mr. Stupart in his article describes the 
new Toronto Magnetic Observatory, situated at 
Agincourt, nine miles northeast of the old and 
disturbed site. Beginning with March, 1899, the 
name of the journal is to be changed to Terres- 
trial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. It 
has been found necessary to enlarge the period- 
ical somewhat, and, in consequence, the sub- 
scription price has been increased from $2 to 
$2.50. It will be conducted, as heretofore, by 
L. A. Bauer and Thomas French, Jr., both of 
the University of Cincinnati. The editors will 
be asssisted by Messrs. Eschenhagen (Pots- 



dam), Moureaux (Paris), Littlehales (Washing- 
ton), Schuster (Manchester), Elster and Geitel 
(Wolfenbiittel), McAdie (New Orleans), and by 
an international council consisting of Riicker 
(England), von Bezold (Germany), Mascart 
(France), Eykatschew (Russia), Mendenhall and 
Schott (America). 

The American Journal of Science for January 
contains the following articles : 

'Thermodynamic Relations of Hydrated Glass,' 
by C. Barus ; ' Platinum and Iridium in Meteoric 
Iron,' by J. M. Davison ; 'Studies in the Cyperacefc, ' 
by T. Holm ; ' Eegnault's Calorie and our Knowl- 
edge of the Specific Volumes of Steam,' by G. P. 
Starkweather ; ' Estimation of Boric Acid,' by F. A. 
Gooch and L. C. Jones ; ' Descriptions of imperfectly 
known and new Actinians,' with critical notes and 
other species, II.; by A. E. Verrill ; ' Miueralogical 
Notes,' by W. F. Hillebrand; 'What is the Loess?' 
by F. W. Sardesou ; 'Absorption of Gases in a High 
Vacuum,' by C. C- Hutchius. 

Appleton^s Popular Science Monthly for Janu- 
ary gives as a frontispiece a portrait of August 
Kekule and a sketch of his life and contribu- 
tions to science follows. Among the other arti- 
cles in the number are ' The Mind's Eye,' by 
Professor Joseph Jastrow, illustrating the part 
played by mental processes in visual percep- 
tion ; an argument by Professor G. T. W. Pat- 
rick, maintaining that children under ten should 
not be taught to read and write; and nature 
study in the Philadelphia Normal School, by 
Mrs. L. L. W. Wilson. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
THE NEBRASKA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The ninth annual meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences was held at Lincoln, No- 
vember 25 and 26, 1898. 

The address of the retiring President, Dr. 
H. B. Ward, was upon the ' Fresh-water Bio- 
logical Stations of the World.' 

These were divided into individual resorts for 
independent investigation, periodical resorts 
where groups of scientists go for a portion of 
the year, and permanent stations where work 
is carried on throughout the year by resident 
investigators. The best results can only be ex- 
pected in the latter class, which are necessarily 
under government protection. 



30 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



On the evening of November 25th, after a 
banquet tendered to members of the Academy 
and their wives by the Lincoln members, an 
address was given before the Academy by Pro- 
fessor Lawrence Bruner, on the ' Flora and 
Fauna of Argentina, S. A.,' where he has spent 
the past year investigating a grasshopper plague. 

Professor Bruner first gave a few facts regard- 
ing the location and shape of Argentina, its 
climate and the effect of the climate on plant 
and animal life. A very large portion of Argen- 
tina has an average of less than eight inches of 
rainfall per annum ; another portion has an 
average rainfall of from eight to twenty-four 
inches, while another has from twenty-four 
inches to sixty. Still all this territory is inhab- 
ited and is well supplied with plant and animal 
life. Here evolution in plant and animal life is 
most noticeable, every form of vegetation and all 
kinds of animal life changing as the climate 
changes in traveling from one portion of the 
country to the other. Argentina was a country 
where everything protected itself and was fitted 
by nature to do so. The trees had thorns, the 
grasses and weeds were provided with thorns, 
and pointed, sharp blades and herbaceous plants 
were shielded with burrs. In the dry est parts of 
Argentina Professor Bruner said he had found 
plant and animal life abundant. Forests of large 
trees could be found where rain was scarcest, and 
he had been told that when heavy rains fell the 
trees would die from too much moisture. Many 
forms of animal life thrived best where there 
was no moisture. Plants were found without 
leaves, and birds of the same order as our 
water fowl that avoided water. In no other 
country on the earth, excepting perhaps Aus- 
tralia, could forms of animal life be found that 
compared with what was to be found there. 
Many kinds of birds were provided with spurs 
on tlieir wings, and to illustrate some of these 
wonders the stereopticon was introduced and a 
number of views of strange animal life shown. 
Other papers on the program were as fol- 
lows : ' Methods of Collecting and Preserving 
Water-Mites,' by Dr. Robert H. Wolcott, with 
exhibition of new forms of collecting apparatus. 
' The Discovery of the Southern Maidenhair 
Fern in the Black Hills,' by Dr. Charles E. 
Bessey. It had been reported to him that it 



grew there in profusion, but as its northern 
limit was about 36 degrees, or the southern 
line of Missouri, he took a thousand-mile jour- 
ney that he might be able to state scientifically 
that it was there. He found it growing in pro- 
fusion on the banks of a stream fed by warm 
springs, beside the buffalo berry of the north. 
C. J. Elmore read the second chapter of his 
serial, begun last year, on 'The Second Year's 
Flora of a Dried-up Millpond,' and was re- 
quested to continue the subject next year. 

'One to One Correspondence,' by Dr. 'Ellery 
Davis. 'A Determination of the Latitude of 
the Observatory,' by Professor G. D. Swezey. 
The reduction of fifty-nine observations for the 
latitude of the observatory on the University 
grounds, made with a small universal instru- 
ment, gave as a result 40° 49' 9.''9±0."4. 
Over a hundred additional observations have 
been taken which have not yet been reduced. 
A joint paper by Abel A. Hunter and G. E. 
Hedgecock on 'Thorea,' a seaweed found by 
Mr. Hunter in the northeastern part of Lan- 
caster county the past summer, was submitted. 
This very rare and exceedingly interesting sea- 
weed is now found for the first time in Ne- 
braska and the second time with certainty in 
North America. 

, 'What is Phytogeography,' by Dr. Roscoe 
Pound. A discussion of the province of phy- 
togeography and of the various names that 
have been used to designate this and other 
closely related lines of investigation. 

' The Growth of Children,' by Dr. William 
W. Hastings. Observations made in European 
cities and in the larger cities of this country, 
with the results of experience in the University 
and public schools of Lincoln. From two to 
sixteeH years the growth of children is very 
regular, but from sixteen to seventeen it is re- 
tarded. The full growth of man does notecase 
until after he is twenty-five. Athletics extend 
the growing period to thirty years. Affluence 
increases and deprivation and hard work de- 
creases the growth. Size diminishes between 
the age of fifty and sixty. The speaker men- 
tioned the phenomenal increase of five and 
seven-eighths inches chest measure in a 15-year- 
old boy, but the discussion brought out the fact 
that his grade marks were only seventy-five. 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



31 



Ernest A. Bessey, ia ' How some Pistils close 
up,' gave a study of the pistils of the buttercup 
and larkspur. 

' Observations on the Leonid Meteors of 
1898,' by Professor G. D. Swezey. Observations 
made simultaneously at Lincoln, Crete and Bea- 
trice, from which the heights and actual paths 
of a number of the meteors was determined. 

A. B. Lewis read a paper on 'The Occur- 
rence of a Fresh-water Nemertine in Nebraska,' 
■which described a marine animal which has been 
discovered in fresh water near the round house. 

Miss Carrie Barbour showed geodes from the 
Bad Lands, formations which are called by the 
cowboys blossom- stones. 

Notes on the ' Falling of Leaves from a Cot- 
tonwood Tree,' by C. J. Elmore, described a 
tree sixteen inches in diameter and forty-five 
feet high. The Cottonwood was shown to 
adapt itself to climates and conditions and to 
be unaffected by the change of seasons. 

Dr. R. H. Wolcott, of the zoological depart- 
ment, read a paper on ' The Hydrachnidas of 
Nebraska.' He had already found sixteen new 
species and one new genus. 

The geology of Lincoln's surroundings, as de- 
scribed last year by C. A. Fisher, was illus- 
trated by charts and outlines by Miss Barbour. 

The following papers were read by title only: 
' Botanical Notes for the Year 1898,' by Dr. C. 
E. Bessey. 'Fossil Bryozoans of Nebraska,' 
by Mr. G. E. Condra. ' Some new Grasshop- 
pers and other related Insects from Argentina,' 
by Professor Lawrence Bruner. ' A new Bird 
Tape Worm,' by Mr. Geo. E. Condra. ' On the 
Poisonousness of Pure Water,' by Dr. A. S. 
von Mansfelde.' ' Obituary of Professor Wells 
H. Skinner;' by Mr. A. T. Bell. 

The following persons were elected to honor- 
ary membership in the Academy : Alexander 
Agassiz, LL.D.; John M. Coulter, LL.D.; Pro- 
fessor Samuel H. Scudder ; Joseph Le Conte, 
LL.D.; Simon Newcomb, LL.D.; Dr. Otto 
Kunze ; Professor Victor Hensen. 

The election for officers resulted as follows : 
President, Professor G. D. Swezey, of Lincoln ; 
Vice-President, Dr. H. Gifford, of Omaha ; Sec- 
retary and Custodian, Professor Lawrence 
Bruner, of Lincoln ; Treasurer, G. A. Loveland ; 
Directors, Professor Charles Fordyce, of Univer- 



sity Place, and Professor J. H. Powers, of Crete ; 
Professor H. Brownell, of Peru. 

SCIENCE CLUB OF NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, 
EVANSTON, ILLINOIS. 

At the December meeting of the Science 
Club, of Northwestern University, Professor A. 
R. Crook, of the department of mineralogy, 
read a paper on ' Notes on Russian Geology.' 

Until within recent years the number of Rus- 
sians working in geology has been insignificant. 
The results of their work have for the most 
part been published in a language inacces.sible 
to non-Russians. The police barrier erected by 
the government against travelers has kept out 
foreign geologists. Hence our knowledge of 
Russian geology has been meagre. The meet- 
ing of the International Geological Congress in 
St. Petersburg was an event of great impor- 
tance. A hundred workers from other lands 
visited mines and formations from one part of 
the country to the other, and thus gained a per- 
sonal knowledge of Russian geology, an ac- 
quaintance with the tasks and methods of work 
of Russian geologists, and an inclination to 
learn the Russian language. Russian geology 
offers interesting material in paleontology, 
mineralogy and general geology. The first 
contains less of importance than the last two. 

The topaz, turmaline, emerald, alexandrite, 
phenacite, amethyst, rhodonite, malachite, 
platinum, gold and a hundred other less valu- 
able minerals found in the Urals shed light 
upon the association, occurrence and genesis of 
minerals, while exhibiting the species in most 
perfect form. 

The crystallines and eruptives of Finland and 
the Urals, the question of the Silurian in the 
Urals, the development of the Permian, the 
Carboniferous of South Russia, the igneous 
rocks of the Caucasus, together with their pres- 
ent glaciers, and the glacial deposits which 
cover the larger part of Russia, court investiga- 
tion and attract the petrologist, the glaciologist, 
the stratigrapher, the physiographer, the pale- 
ontologist. 

Natural and cut gems, maps and lantern 
slides were used in illustration. 

Wm. a. Locy, 

Secretary. 



32 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

The regular meeting was held ou November 
10, 1898. 

The first paper of the evening was read by Mr. 
F. K. Cameron, and was entitled ' Some Boiling- 
point Curves for Mixtures of Miscible Liquids. ' 
The general properties and significance of 
pressure-concentration and temperature-con- 
centration curves for pairs of perfectly miscible 
liquids were indicated, and the researches 
of Konowaloflf, Nernst and others briefly cited. 
All the possible types now known were illus- 
trated by some as-yet-unpublished data from a 
preliminary investigation by Cameron and 
Thayer. A significant fact brought out by cer- 
tain of these curves, notably the one for alco- 
hol-chloroform mixtures, is that they possess 
not only a maximum and minimum point, but 
there is a decided sag in the opposite direction 
at another portion of the curve. So far no 
such curve is known which has both a maximum 
and minimum point, and the possibility of such 
a case has been denied by some authorities. 
But the fact just cited shows an indubitable 
tendency towards such a case and indicates 
that by a suitable choice of the constant factor 
(temperature or pressure) for some pair of 
liquids such a curve may yet be found. The 
great desirability of further experimental work 
in this field, both for theoretical and practical 
reasons, was indicated. 

The second paper was by Mr. F. K. Cam- 
eron, and was entitled ' A Ternary Mix- 
ture.' Given a mixture of two perfectly 
miscible liquids, A and B, and a third sub- 
stance, C, soluble in one constituent of the 
pair, at a definite temperature there will be 
a separation of the liquid mixture into its con- 
stituents, this definite temperature being de- 
pendent on the relative concentrations of the 
solution. By keeping C in excess of the amount 
soluble the problem is somewhat simplified. 
The results of a preliminary Investigation on 
the curve for temperature of separation-con- 
centration, presence of a third substance solu- 
ble in only one constituent, were presented. 
Further, the third substance, C, was varied for 
certain concentrations. And, finally, mixtures 
of the substances which had been used as C 
were tried. The results were interesting, but 



no causal connection could be detected. It is 
essential that more experimental evidence shall 
be in our possession before a satisfactory theory 
of the phenomena will be possible. 

The third paper was read by Dr. T. M. 
Chatard and was entitled ' Note on the Kate 
of Loss in Cyanide Solutions.' Dr. Chatard ex- 
hibited a sheet of curves representing the rate 
of loss of cyanide in solutions used for the ex- 
traction of gold in the electrolytic sluice. There 
is always a certain loss due to oxidation of the 
cyanide through agitation of the solution dur- 
ing the operation of the apparatus. Another 
loss results from the action of the ore on the 
solution. An electric current of about 0.2 amp. 
per sq. ft. of cathode plate and of about 2 volts 
is employed, and it is desirable to know what 
effect such a current has upon the solutions 
which usually contain from 0.20 to 0.25 per 
cent. KCN at the start. Samples of the solu- 
tion were taken at regular intervals during 
each run, the percentage of cyanide giving 
points of the curve. When ore is treated, the 
curves usually show a rapid loss of cyanide dur- 
ing the first period of fifteen minutes, due to the 
action of the ore, the rate of loss then deci'eas- 
ing so that the final result is often a fairly reg- 
ular curve. When the solution is run with 
neither ore nor current the fall in strength is 
usually regular, so that the line connecting any 
three consecutive points is practically straight. 
Using the customary current but no ore, other 
conditions being alike, the results indicate that 
the cyanide losses are lessened even though the 
tests are, as yet, too few for positive evidence. 
It may, however, be stated with confidence that 
the use of electricity, so important for the ex- 
traction of precious metals from ores and solu- 
tions, is not attended by any increased loss of 
the expensive cyanide. 

The last paper was read by Dr. C. E. Munroe 
and was entitled ' The Examination of Acid 
for Use in the Manufacture of Gun-cotton.' 
Dr. Munroe's paper contained a summary of 
work done by his assistants, Mr. G. W. Patter- 
son and Mr. J. J. Tobin, and by him. The 
specifications for the acids given were accom- 
panied by descriptions of the analytical methods 
and methods of calculation to be followed in 
the inspection of the acids supplied, and a com- 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



33 



parisoa was made between these methods and 
others that have been proposed. Attention was 
called to the necessity of defining the sub- 
stances present by the methods by which they 
are to be determined and reckoned, as it not in- 
frequently happens that there are differences of 
opinion as to the form in which they occur and 
the methods for determining them, and a dis- 
pute is most easily avoided by a prior technical 
convention. Thus there is a difference of opin- 
ion as to the form in which a portion of the 
nitrogen present in these acids occurs, some re- 
garding it as in the form of hyponitrous acid, 
others as nitrosulphuric acid, but without ex- 
pressing any opinion on this point the specifica- 
tions simply required that it should be deter- 
mined in a carefully prescribed manner and 
reckoned as N.O^, and that as thus determined 
and reckoned it should uot exceed a certain 
percentage of the mixture. The data of a con- 
siderable number of analyses showing the per- 
centage composition and specific gravities of 
both original acids and spent acids from the gun- 
cotton manufacture was given, and the differ- 
ences between the amounts of sulphuric acid in 
the different operations was seen to be remark- 
ably constant, showing the mixture to be well 
proportioned for this purpose. Observations 
were made on the permanency of composition 
of the mixed acids stored in darkness and in 
sunlight ; on the color of the acids as a criterion 
of the amount of nitrogen oxides present ; on 
the change of color produced by heating them ; 
on the freezing of the acids and the rate of ex- 
pansion of different mixtures. The specific- 
gravity bottle used, which was devised by Pro- 
fessor Barker, and which was particularly 
adapted to this work, was exhibited. 

William H. Krug, 

Secretary. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY : STUDENTS' GEOLOGICAL 
CLUB, DECEMBER 6, 189S. 

Mr. p. S. Smith described ' An Occurrence of 
Corundum in Kyanite.' This paper will be 
published soon in full. Mr. J. M. Boutwell 
spoke on 'Tides : Their Character and Cause.' 
After reviewing our incomplete knowledge of 
tides in the open ocean, he explained a method 
of expressing, with plotted curves, certain facts 



obtained from observations on tides, as they 
traverse continental shelves and estuaries. 
These curves show a perfect homology between 
wind waves and true tidal waves in form, range, • 
length (better termed breadth) and velocity. 
Under the cause of tides, the main points of the 
explanation advocated by Hagen, Airy, Dar- 
win and others were presented. 

Geological Conference, December 13, 1S9S. — In 
a communication entitled 'Dikes and Veins,' 
Professor Shaler considered the origin of fissures 
occupied by these bodies. Field observation 
near the Spokane Placer, Montana, shows that 
intrusives part rocks along bedding planes more 
readily than transverse to them. Professor 
Shaler suggests that water, mechanically in- 
cluded in beds at the time of their deposition, 
becomes heated by an approaching, intrusive 
mass ; and that by expanding it opens the way 
for the intrusion along previously existing, 
structural planes. According to this theory, in 
a region where the intrusives are of different 
age, the earliest intrusive should show evidence 
of its easy entrance along fissures opened by 
expanded water ; and subsequent intrusives 
should exhibit signs of more difficult entrance, 
owing to the exhaustion of assisting waters. 

Mr. Robert DeC. Ward presented ' Some Ob- 
servations on the Medanos of Peru,' which will 
be published in a future issue of this Journal. 
J. M. Boutwell, 
Recording Secretary. 

TOREEY BOTANICAL CLUB, NOVEMBER 30, 1898. 

On discussion of enlargement of the program 
for excursions, it was arranged that field meet- 
ings be provided on Saturdays after the first of 
January, for the purpose of studies of crypto- 
gams and of winter stages of higher plants. 

The first paper was by Mr. Marshall A. 
Howe, ' Remarks on some Undescribed Califor- 
nian Hepaticse,' and consisted of the description 
of three new species, soon to be published. 
Beautiful plates illustrating these species were 
exhibited, the work of Mr. Howe, to form part 
of the forthcoming volume of the Memoirs of 
the Torrey Club. 

The second paper was by Professor Francis. 
E. Lloyd, on ' The Nucleus in Certain^ Myxo- 



34 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



mycetes and Schizophycefe.' Mr. Lloyd re- 
marked that the work of Strasburger (1884), and 
later of Lister, gives evidence that the nucleus 
of the Myxomycetes is a definite organ possessed 
of a nuclear membrane and containing chroma- 
tin. During cell-division the chromatin is seg- 
regated into rounded masses lying in the nu- 
clear plate. A spindle is formed. After the 
formation of a fine nuclear membrane the 
spindle fibres gradually disappear. The small 
number of these parallel fibres and absence of a 
cell plate led Strasburger to compare the nu- 
cleus to the animal rather than the plant type. 
Precisely similar conditions are, however, found 
in some plant cells. 

The presence of a nucleus in the Schizophyta 
has been a point of controversy. Biitschli as- 
serts the nuclear character of the central body, 
and regards the red granules as chromatin. A. 
Fischer denies the accuracy of the former's con- 
clusions, the question remaining an open one. 
When our knowledge is complete it is highly 
probable that the nucleus will be found to be of 
the distributed type, of a type, therefore, com- 
parable to that of the simpler protozoa. In any 
case the nucleus of the lowly plants is much 
more primitive than that of the Myxomycetes. 
"We are led, therefore, to regard these curious, 
much-debated forms, the Myxomycetes, as 
either plants of a higher type than the Schizo- 
phyta, which have degenerated, or as animals 
related probably to the sporozoa. For the for- 
mer view there is now little evidence. 

The Secretary addressed the Club briefly re- 
garding the discarded species Aster gracilentua, 
T. & G., and exhibited its type specimen, which 
formed a sheet of the herbarium of M. A. Cur- 
tis, now at Princeton, and was exhibited 
through the courtesy of Professor George Mac- 
loskie, of that University. 

Mr. Howe exhibited a number of examples of 
WolflBa, discovered floating in Van Cortlandt 
Lake, constituting the third recorded collection 
within New York State of this minutest of 
flowering plants. 

Dr. Rusby exhibited a Paulownia blossom in 
which half an anther had grown on the outside 
of the corolla. Dr. Britton reported two inter- 
esting additions to the collections of the New 
York Botanic Garden : 1st, a valuable collec- 



tion of photographs illustrating the cultivation 
of the poppy in Asia Minor ; and 2d, a gift to 
the Garden from Mr. Peter Barr, the English 
horticulturist, of a collection of Narcissus and 
Pieonia for planting in the Botanic Garden. 
The claim of free entry as museum material 
was at first refused by the New York custom 
house ; but, after five different appeals, the final 
decision was that the material was proper to an 
outdoor museum, and free entry was granted. 
Edwaed S. Burgess, 

Secreta7-y. 

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE PUMAS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. 

A RECENT examination of Eafinesque's de- 
scription of Felis Oregonensis {Atlantic Journal, 
Vol. 1, No. 2, page 62, summer of 1832) brings 
up an interesting question as to the relationship 
of this name and those recently proposed by Dr. 
C. Hart Merriam for the Pumas of our Western 
States. 

Eafinesque in the above article describes two 
species. The second of these is Felis macroura, 
based on an account in Leraye's Travels, of an 
animal resembling the Conguar of the Alle- 
ghanies, but not larger than a cat, ' with tail as 
long as the body, which is from one to two feet 
long only.' The source of this information is 
unreliable and the probability is that no such 
animal existed. 

The first species described is, however, of 
more importance. Rafinesque's description is 
as follows : 

" I. Var. Oregonensis. Dark brown, nearly 
black on the back, belly white ; body six feet 
long, three high, tail two or three feet long. A 
large and ferocious animal of the mountains. 
Is it not a peculiar species? Felix [sic] orego- 
nensis. ' ' 

In the introductory paragraph of the article 
he says: "In addition to the article on our 
Couguars, page 19, I have to state that several 
other varieties of tygers are found in the west- 
ern wilds of the Oregon mountains, or east and 
west of them, which deserve to be noticed. I 
find in my notes that two other varieties of Cou- 
guar have been seen there east of the moun- 
tains." 

The Felis macroura, he states distinctly, 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



35 



dwells ou the plains east of the Oregon moun- 
tains, but uo definite locality is given under the 
description of F. oregonensis. 

The indefiniteness of the opening paragraph 
whei'e the forms are stated to occur, both east 
and west of the mountains, makes this name 
apparently applicable to either the Puma of the 
Rocky Mountains or the Northwest coast re- 
gion. However, the fact that the other species 
(macroura) is said to occur east of the mountains, 
gives this form the benefit of whatever the use 
of the word ' west ' was intended to imply, and, 
furthermore, the dark color which is distinctly 
pointed out would seem to fix the name orego- 
nensis on the Northwest coast form.* 

Dr. Merriam, in Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington, July 15, 1897, p. 219- 
220, proposed the name Felis hippolestes for the 
Puma of the Koeky Mountains, and Felis hippo- 
lestes Olympus for the Northwest coast form, ap- 
parently overlooking the paper by Rafiuesque. 

In view of the evidence here set forth, it 
seems that Rafinesque's name must be recog- 
nized, and I would, therefore, suggest that the 
proper names for the two animals should be 

Felis oregonensis (Raf.) Northwest Coast 
Puma. 

Felis oregonensis hippolestes (Merr.) Rocky 
Mountain Puma. 

Wither Stone. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, December 9, 1898. 

THE SCHMIDT- DICKERT MOON MODEL. 

The installation of the Schmidt- Dickert relief 
model of the moon in a scientific institution de- 
serves, perhaps, a passing notice. This seems 
the more desirable since in so generally accu- 
rate a work as' Webb's Celestial Objects for Com- 
mon Telescopes,' edition of 1896, the statement 
is made that this model is in Bonn. It has not 
been in Bonn for fully twenty years, and for 
most of that time has been in this country. 

While occasionally exhibitions have been made 
of the model during this time they have been of 
short duration and in different cities, so that, 
for this time at least, it has been practically 
lost to the world. Through the generosity of 

*' Oregon ' of this date, of course, included the pres- 
ent State of Washington and much of British Colum- 
bia. 



Mr. Lewis Reese, a citizen of Chicago, the 
model has now come into the possession of the 
Field Columbian Museum and has lately been 
installed in this institution. It is now, there- 
fore, freely available for purposes of study and 
instruction. Since it has been so long lost from 
view some facts regarding the model may be of 
interest. It was constructed in 1854 by Th. 
Dickert, Curator of the National History Mu- 
seum in Bonn, under the direction and with 
the cooperation of Dr. J. F. Julius Schmidt. 
The name of the latter is of itself sufficient 
guarantee of the accuracy and perfection of de- 
tail exhibited by the model, especially as Dr. 
Schmidt states that he tested with his own hand 
the accuracy of nearly all the measurements. 
So much labor was necessary in order to insure 
accuracy in the details that the work of model- 
ling and construction occupied five years. The 
model is in the form of a hemisphere, 18 Paris 
feet (19.2 English feet), in diameter. Its hor- 
izontal scale bears the ratio to that of the moon 
of 1:600,000, the vertical 1:200,000. It is made 
up of 116 sections, each 15 degrees in length by 
15 degrees in breadth. The consecutively joined 
edges of these sections serve to mark upon the 
surface of the model, parallels and meridians. 
The different colors exhibited by different parts 
of the moon are also depicted upon the model, 
the prevailing color being a dull yellow, broken 
by gray-green where the ' seas ' occur, and by 
representations in lighter yellow of the bright 
streaks which radiate so prominently from some 
of the craters. The orientation which has been 
adopted for the model is the normal one of the 
moon, not inverted as it is when seen through 
an astronomical telescope. The north pole 
of the hemisphere is therefore above, the 
south pole below ; east is to the left, and 
west to the right. The surface details of 
relief shown upon the model are based upon 
the charts of Beer and Madler, but many new 
localities were added from the observations of 
Dr. Schmidt himself. In all over 20,000 dis- 
tinct localities are represented, modelled pro- 
portionally according to the relief which they 
present upon the moon. One may, therefore, 
study the relief with the greatest confidence 
that the actual topography of the moon is rep- 
resented, and is spared the confusion arising 



36 



SCIENGE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



from the varyingefFectsof shadows which make 
the study of the moon itself possible only to 
specialists. With the advance which has taken 
place in the interpretation of topographic forms 
in the last twenty years, it seems not too much 
to hope, now that this model has been made ac- 
cessible to students of science, that its study 
will bring to light new facts regarding the 
nature and history of our satellite.. 

Oliver C. Faeeington. 
Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 

LEHMANN and HANSEN ON ' THE TELEPATHIC 
PROBLEM.' 

To THE Editoe of SCIENCE : I Can assure 
Professor James that I do not knowingly leave 
unread anything that he or Professor Sidgwick 
writes. I carefully considered the two papers 
to which he refers, at the time of their appear- 
ance, and have recently turned to them again. 
I am afraid, however7 that I cannot make the 
admission that Professor James expects. Even 
if I granted all the contentions of criticism and 
report I should still see no reason to change 
the wording of my reference to Lehmann and 
Hansen. But there is a great deal that I can- 
not grant. While, like Stevenson's Silver, ' I 
wouldn't set no limits to what a virtuous char- 
acter might consider argument,' I must confess 
that, in the present instance, the grounds for 
such consideration have not seldom escaped me. 

Professor James rules that the Fhil. Studien 
article is 'exploded.' I have tried to take up 
the position of an impartial onlooker; and, 
from that position, I have seen Professor James 
and Professor Sidgwick and Herr Parish hand- 
ling the fuse, but I have not yet heard the 
detonation. 

E. B. Titchenek. 



ASTRONOMICAL NOTES. 
THE NOVEMBEE METEOES. 

Eepoets of meteor observations made this 
year between the 11th and 16th have been 
published from England, France and the United 
States. These are sufficient to show the char- 
acteristics of the display and to furnish hints 
as to the methods which should be followed 
in future years. The greatest number of 
meteors was noted on the morning of the 



15th (civil reckoning), when the rate reached 
two each minute at some stations in the United 
States. A single observer could count forty or 
more per hour. It is probable that the max- 
imum had alreadj' passed, as more meteors 
were noted on the preceding than on the fol- 
lowing night at the few stations where the skies 
were clear on those nights. On the 14th a 
single observer at Lyons, France, noted 134 
between 1:04 a. m. and 4:05 a. m. On account 
of the cloudy weather at Paris M. Janssen 
made a balloon ascension and observed above 
the clouds. We are told that this plan of se- 
curing clear skies will be used more extensively 
next year. The number observed this year is 
fully ten times as great as those observed in 
1897 and is about the same as that noted at 
Grenwich in 1865, the year preceding the great 
shower of 1866. This augurs well for the year 
1899. 

Observers report several interesting facts : 
(1) Many meteors with the characteristics of 
the Leonids did not proceed from the radiant 
area within the 'Sickle of Leo.' The discrep- 
ancies in locating the radiant point are not to 
be wholly explained by the errors to which all 
eye estimates of meteor tracks are liable, but 
are in part real. (2) The radiant area has for 
its center a point which is farther south than 
that calculated from the observations of 1866, 
which was R A. 10 h. min., Decl. + 22°. 9. 
The records this year, as far as known, range 
between 9 h. 50 min. and 10 h. 20 min. in R. A. 
and + 18° to 22° in Decl. A preliminary de- 
termination from the photographed trails of 
four meteors made at Harvard Observatory 
gives 10 h. 6.8 min., Decl. + 22°16'. (3) There 
were very few brilliant meteors compared with 
the total number. At Providence fourteen only 
out of nearly five hundred were brighter than 
the first magnitude. 

The practicability of the photographic method 
of studying meteors needed no demonstration, 
but its possibilities are greater than was sup- 
posed. An ordinary camera, such as those in 
use by amateurs, will photograph the brighter 
meteors. Thus one with an aperture of only 
one inch and focal length of nine inches, if care- 
fully focussed, will give trails of meteors as 
bright as the magnitude. The camera need 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



37 



not be driven by clockwork if the time of the 
appearance of the brightest meteors in the region 
towards which the camera is directed is noted. 
For then the exact positions of the comparison 
stars iu their curved trails while the plate is 
exposed is known. Amateur assistance in me- 
teor photography is, therefore, valuable. ' Of 
still greater value is the photographic record by 
the larger instruments. Not only can the paths 
of the meteors be located with accuracy and the 
position of the radiant points determined, but 
special characteristics of the trails may be 
studied. Thus the Harvard Circular, No. 35, 
mentions that the light attained a maximum 
and then diminished as rapidly as it increased ; 
that sudden changes due to explosions are well 
shown ; that the trail is sometimes surrounded 
by a sheath of light, and that in one case the 
trail remained after the meteor had passed. 
That these characteristics, which have been 
noted visually heretofore, should now submit 
to a permanent photographic record shows that 
photography will have a large place in this 
branch of astronomical study. 

chase's comet (J. 1S9S). 

The discovery of this comet on the plates 
exposed at New Haven, on the radiant region 
of the Leonids, is the most interesting episode 
of the meteor observations. The photographic 
brightness was estimated to be equal to a star 
of the 11th magnitude, but it was much fainter 
in a visual telescope. It was hoped that it 
might be connected with the meteor stream, 
but its orbit shows that it simply chanced to be 
in that direction when observed. The pre- 
liminary orbits thus far published are unusually 
discordant, perhaps due to the combiuation of 
the photographic and visual determinations of 
position. 

STELLAR MOTIONS. 

Professor W. W. Campbell, of the Lick Ob- 
servatory, in the publications of the Astronom- 
ical Society of the Pacific, announces the rapid 
movement towards us of two stars, ?? Cephei and 
C Herculis. From four photographs of their 
spectra he determines a relative velocity of 53.9 
miles per second for the former and 43.7 for the 
latter. Allowing for the motion of the solar 
system, these figures are reduced to 46.0 miles 



per second and 33.5 miles per second respec- 
tively. 

Winslow Upton. 
Brown University, 

December 16, 1898. 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THE AMERICAN HERO-MYTH. 

Two studies have lately appeared on the 
widely diffused myth of the ' culture-hero ' in 
America. The one is by the Count de Charen- 
cey, on the legend of Huitzilopochtli, printed 
in the Proceedings of the French Association for 
the Advancement of Science, 1897 ; the other is 
by Dr. Franz Boas, reprinted from the Memoirs 
of the American Folk-lore Society, Vol. VI., 
and treats of the Salish Raven Myth and others 
from the Northwestern tribes. 

All these myths are strikingly alike in many 
details, and botli these writers agree that ' it is 
inconceivable that they originated independ- 
ently.' Hence Dr. Boas claims that the various 
raven and coyote tales have a common source ; 
and with precisely the same and equally strong 
arguments M. de Charencey shows that the 
myths of the Mayas and Nahuas originated in 
eastern Asia. 

To my thinking, not the similarities (for 
these we should expect from the constitution of 
the human mind), but the differences in such 
myths are what should command our chief 
attention. 

THE PRIMITIA'E SAVAGE. 

'Was primitive man a modern savage?' is 
the question asked by Dr. Talcott Williams in 
the Smithsonian Report, just issued, and an- 
swered by him in a constructive negative. To 
Dr. Williams, primitive man was a peaceful, 
happy creature, knowing not war or cannibal- 
ism, with a 'surprising primitive development, ' 
which later on degenerated into civilization. 
This early man enjoyed ' a juster conception of 
the divine ' than his descendants. His gods 
were peaceful, communication free, hospitality 
open. " The earth was still empty and happy 
and young." 

If Dr. Williams intends this as a pleasant, 
humorous sketch, it \'?'ill pass; if a serious in- 
ference from the ascertained facts of prehistoric 



38 



SCIENGE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



investigation, its author is about a century be- 
hind time, as every student of the actual re- 
mains of earliest man knows the painful but 
irrefutable evidence of his worse than barbar- 
ous, his really brutal, condition, apart from all 
comparisons with modern savages. 

A BOOKLET ON ETHNOLOGY. 

De. Michael Haberlandt is a ' Privatdo- 
cent ' in the University of Vienna and also 
Curator of the Ethnographic Collection in the 
Eoyal Museum of that city. A few months 
ago there appeared from his pen a duodecimo 
treatise on Ethnography which offers much the 
best summary of the science which I have any- 
where seen. Of its 200 pages half are devoted 
to general principles, those which belong to 
' Ethnology ;' and the remainder to descriptive 
ethnography. Both are characterized by thor- 
ough familiarity with the facts, and careful, in- 
dependent reflection on them. The introduc- 
tion discusses, with remarkable clearness, the 
principles of social degeneration and evolution. 

Just such brief, clear, up-to-date books as 
this are what we need in anthropology in this 
country. It is better to write them thau to 
translate them, and it is unfortunate that we 
still lack them. {Volkerkunde, G. F. Goschen, 
Leipzig. 1898.) 

D. G. Brinton, 
University of Pennsylvania. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

In the present issue of Science — which opens 
a new volume — the short notes are placed at 
the end, in the part of the number which is the 
last to be printed. These notes should contain 
reliable, prompt and full information, and men 
of science in America and abroad are requested 
to contribute items of news whose publication 
will forward the objects of this Journal. 

The Paris Academy of Sciences has awarded 
its Lalande prize to Dr. S. C. Chandler, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and the Damoiseau prize to Dr. 
George W. Hill, of Columbia University. 

Professor G. W. Farlow, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, has been elected President of the Amer- 
ican Society of Naturalists. Professor H. C. 
Bumpus, of Brown University, to whom the 
recent growth and successful meetings of the 



Society have been in large measure due, has 
resigned the Secretaryship and is succeeded by 
Professor T. H. Morgan, of Bryn Mawr Col- 
lege. 

Professor K. S. Woodward, of Columbia 
University, has been elected President of the 
American Mathematical Society in succession to 
Professor Simon Newcomb. 

Professor John Dewey, of the University 
of Chicago, has been elected President of the 
A:i,erican Psychological Association. 

The ofBce of Mr. W. T. Hornaday, Director 
of the New York Zoological Park, has been 
moved from 69 Wall Street to the Park, South- 
ern Boulevard and 183d Street, and communi- 
cations should now be sent to this address. The 
offices are temporarily established in the Elk 
House, near the southwest corner of the Park. 

The Eev. Dr. Bartholomew Price, Master 
of Pembroke College, Oxford, and until last 
year Sedleian professor of natural philosophy, 
died on December 29th in his 81st year. He 
was the author of works on dj'namics and on 
the calculus. 

Dr. John B. Hamilton, formerly Surgeon- 
General of the U. S. Marine Hospital Service, 
editor of the Journal of the American Medical 
Association and professor of surgery at the Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, died at Elgin, 111., 
on December 2-lth. 

Dr. William Munk, the well-known London 
physician, died on December 20th, aged 73. 
He was formerly Librarian of the Harveian Li- 
brary of the Royal College of Physicians and 
author of the Roll of the College and other 
works, both of a biographical character and on 
medical subjects. 

The New York Section of the American 
Chemical Society was able to receive the So- 
ciety at its recent New York meeting in the 
Chemists' Club, newly established in the build- 
ing at 108 West 55th Street. The club-house 
contains a large assembly room for meetings, 
smaller rooms and accommodation for the li- 
brary, which it is expected will be deposited 
there. The President of the Club is Professor 
Charles F. Chandler, of Columbia University. 

The Royal Institution, London, was founded 



January 6, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



39 



in 1799 and will tliis year celebrate its cente- 
nary by special exercises, the character of which 
has not j'et been announced. 

The Boston Medical Committee has awarded 
its prize to Dr. Guy Hinsdale, of Philadelphia, 
for an essay on Acromegaly, which has just 
been published. For 1900 two prizes are of- 
fered by the Committee : (1) A prize of one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars for the best dissertation 
on 'The Results of Original Work in Anatomy, 
Physiology or Pathology,' the subject to be 
chosen by the writer. (2) A prize of one hun- 
dred and fiftj' dollars for the best dissertation 
on ' The Method of Origin of Serpentine Ar- 
teries and the Structural Changes to be found 
in them ; Their Relation to Arteria-capillary 
Fibrosis, Obliterating Endarteritis and to En- 
darteritis Deformans.' Dissertations on these 
subjects must be sent on or before Januarj^ 1, 
1900, to the Secretary of the Committee, Dr. 
W. F. Whitney, Harvard Medical School, Bos- 
ton, Blass. 

The Paris Academy of Medicine has held its 
annual public meeting for 1898 and awarded 
the large number of prizes at its disposal. No 
less than forty prizes were given, not including 
a large number of medals. 

Dr. Nolan has presented to the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences, as a memorial of 
the late Dr. Joseph Leidy, five volumes of 
biographical notices, portraits, autograph let- 
ters and original drawings. The first volume 
contains several addresses and articles prepared 
on the occasion of Dr. Leidy 's death and other 
interesting biographical material. The second 
volume contains botanical drawings and notes 
and the remaining three volumes zoological 
drawings and notes. The volumes are care- 
fully indexed. 

At the next meeting of the British Medical 
Association, which will be held at Portsmouth 
'from the 1st to the 4th of August, the address 
in medicine will be given by Sir Richard Powell 
and the address in surgery by Professor Alex- 
ander Ogston. 

Among those who will give Friday evening 
discourses before the Royal Institution, London, 
during the present season are Lord Rayleigh, 
Professor H. L. Callaudar, Mr. Victor Horsley, 



Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw and Professor Dewar, 
who will give the first lecture on January 20th, 
on Liquid Hydrogen. 

The English papers contain details of the 
meeting to further the objects of the National 
Association for the Prevention of Consumption, 
held at Marlborough House on December 20th. 
The Prince of Wales presided, and addresses 
were made by Sir William Broadbent, Sir 
Granger Stewart, President of the British Med- 
ical Association, Dr. Moore, President of the 
Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, Sir 
James Sawyer, Dr. Andrew, President of the 
Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and 
Professor McFadyean. The Marquis of Salis- 
bury moved the following resolution]: "This 
meeting desires to express its approval of the 
effort which is being made by ' The National 
Association for the Prevention of Consumption 
and other Forms of Tuberculosis ' to check the 
spread of the diseases due to tubercle, and to 
promote the recovery of those suffering from 
consumption and tuberculous disease generally. 
It also commends the method adopted by the 
Association of instructing public opinion and 
stimulating public interest rather than the ad- 
vocacy of measures of compulsion." This reso- 
lution was seconded by Sir Samuel Wilkes, 
President of the Royal College of Physicians, 
and carried unanimously. Remarks were made 
by Lord Rosebery, Mr. Walter Long, M. P., 
and the Prince of Wales. It was announced 
that the London partners of Werner, Beit &Co. 
had contributed £20,000 for the erection of a 
sanitarium to be administered by the Associa- 
tion. 

AccoEDiNG to cablegrams to the London 
Times, Colonel Lawrie, Plague Commissioner in 
Haidarabad, gave evidence on December 19th 
before the Plague Commission. He stated that 
the first indigenous case occurred in January, 
1897. The measures adopted were evacuation, 
disinfection, and the burning of floors and walls 
in kilns. Haffkine's fluid was not a serum, but a 
putrescent organic liquid containing micrococci 
of putrefaction and occasionally pathogenic or- 
ganisms. It was, therefore, directly against 
modern medicine and antiseptic surgery to 
inject the fluid. Inoculation had not been 



40 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 210. 



adopted. The burning process was found sat- 
isfactory as a means of destroying the plague. 
Mr. Stevens, Deputy-Commissioner, said that 
68 villages in Haidarabad territory had been 
attacked during 1898. Disinfection by burning 
in kilns had absolutely destroyed all germs. 
No bacteria were found in the ashes ; the 
plague never reappeared, and the villages were 
completely disinfected by the kilns. The 
plague fugitives were sent back in charge of the 
police. The classes most affected were low- 
caste Hindus. Mohammedans were not so liable 
to infection, nor were the herdsmen, who lived 
in the open air. Age and sex made no apparent 
difference. Captain Johnson, on December 20th, 
described experiments which had been made to 
determine whether living organisms were found 
in Haflfkine's fluid. Out of six bottles five 
showed a distinct growth; the other was doubt- 
ful. Mazhar Husain, a native practitioner, 
stated that in the villages in the Naldrug dis- 
trict corpses and theil' appendages were burnt 
where such a course was not forbidden by re- 
ligion ; in other cases the dead bodies were 
buried eight feet deep. The kiln process was 
adopted with all houses irrespective of individ- 
ual infection. After the evacuation the fall in 
mortality was striking. The villages were re- 
occupied two mouths after the cessation of 
deaths. No case occurred among infants. Fair 
success was obtained by treatment with red 
iodide of mercury pills. Colonel Lawrle, re- 
called, expressed his willingness to use Haff- 
kine's fluid if it were rendered sterile, provided 
it was proved to retain its prophylactic power 
under those conditions. He admitted that the 
fluid as now used afforded considerable protec- 
tion, but denied that it gave immunity. Sterili- 
zation, he thought, might render it useless. 
The plague returns for the second week in De- 
cember showed a further rise for Bombay city 
and district, and also for Madras and the Cen- 
tral Provinces. There was a considerable fall 
in the returns from Mysore. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

In addition to the million dollars given by 
Lord Strathcona for the endowment of the 
Eoyal Victoria College for "Women, McGill Uni- 



versity and the endowment of a chair of history 
by Sir William MacDonald, already announced 
in this Journal, we are informed that at the 
same time Lady Strathcona and the Hon. Mrs. 
Howard each gave $50,000 for the Faculty of 
Medicine and that the Board of Governors of the 
University gave $200,000 for general endow- 
ment. 

At a recent conference on secondary educa- 
tion convened by Victoria University at Owens 
College, Manchester, on December 3d, a resolu- 
tion was passed recommending that the educa- 
tion department should be represented by a 
Minister of Education of Cabinet rank. 

GovEENOE Roosevelt will, it is understood, 
serve actively on the Board of Regents of the 
University of the State of New York, of which 
he is ex- officio a member, and will accept the 
Chairmanship of the Committee on the State 
Library. Recent Governors of the State have 
neglected this duty. 

At Trinity College, Cambridge, the Coutts 
Trotter studentship of the value of £250 for 
the promotion of original research in natural 
science, open to graduates of the College not 
being Fellows, has been divided between H. H. 
Dale, B.A. (zoology and physiology), and the 
Hon. R. J. Strutt, B.A. (physics), both scholars 
of the College. 

De. Eugen Dubois has been called to a pro- 
fessorship in geology in the University of Am- 
sterdam. Dr. Kippenberger has been ap- 
pointed professor of chemistry in the University 
of Breslau. Dr. Wagner has qualified as do- 
cent in physical chemistry in the University of 
Leipzig and Dr. Weiuschenk in mineralogy 
and geology in the Polytechnic Institute at 
Munich. In the University of Paris, M. Vidal 
de la Blache has been appointed professor of 
geography and M. Seailles has been made pro- 
fessor of philosophy. M. Lacour has been made 
associate professor in the Faculty of Science at 
Nancy. In University College, London, Mr. 
W. G. Savage has huen appointed as assistant 
in the department of bacteriology and Mr. G. 
Bertram Hunt, M.D., has been appointed as- 
sistant in the department of pathological his- 
tology. 



SCIENCE 



Editorial Committee : S. Nkwcomb, Mathematics ; E. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, 

Astronomy; T. C. Mendknhall, Physics; R. H. Thurston, Engineering; Ira Eemsen, Chemistry; 

J. Le Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; 0. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 

C. Hart Mekriam, Zoology; S. H. Scuddee, Entomology; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Britton, 

Botany; Henrx F. Osborn, General Biology; C. S. Minot, Embryology, Histology; 

H. P. Bowditch, Physiology; J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, 

Psychology; Daniel G. Brinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, January 13, 1899. 



CONTENTS: 

Our Society : Professor J. J. Stevenson 41 

Fishes of the South Shore of Long Island : Dr. 
Tarleton H. Bean 52 

Suppression of Smolce : PROFESSOR E. H. Thurs- 
ton 55 

American Mathematical Society : PROFESSOR F. N. 
Cole 57 

General Meeting of the American Chemical Society : 
Dr. Durand Woodman 58 

Scientific Books : — 

Cayley's Collected Matliematical Papers : Profes- 
sor George Bruce Halsted. Allen's Commer- 
cial Organic Analysis : PROFESSOR W. A. NoYES. 
Folwell on Seicerage : M. M. Hill on Ciila and 
Porto Pico : W J M. Butler on the Birds of In- 
diana : F. M. C. Holland's Butterfly Book : 
Professor S. H. Scudder. Books received 59 

Scientific Journals and Articles ; 67 

Societies and Academies : — 

The Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences : 
Dr. Edw. J. Nolan 68 

Dlfcitssion and Correspondence : — 

The Sensation of Motion and its Eeversal : PRO- 
FESSOR W. S. Franklin. Occurrence of the 
Virginia Oposst(m in Southern Central New York: 
J. Alden Loring 70 

Notes on Inorganic Chemistry: J. L. H 71 

Current Notes on Meteorology : — 

Climate and Hygiene of the Congo Free State ; A 
Neio Mountain Aneroid Barometer : E. DeC. 
Ward 72 

Zoological Notes: — 

The New York Zoological Park: F. A. L. The 
Statistical 3Iethod in Zoology: H. C. B 73 

Botanical Notes: — 

A Botanii-al Almanac; Check List of Forest 
Trees; Cretaceous and Tertiary Plants; Laris 
and Clark's Plants: Professor Charles E. 
Bessey 74 

Current Notes on Anthropology : — 
Arrow Feathering in South America; A Study of 
the Lips ; Physiology of Criminals : PROFESSOR 
D. G. Brinton 76 

Scientific Notes and News : — 

Ihe Endowment of the Jenner Institute. General 76 

University and Educational News 80 



CUB SOCIETY* 

Several travellers of the eighteenth 
century, among them especially Guettard, 
Alexander and Schoepf, gave more or less 
important information respecting the geo- 
logical structure and mineral resources of 
our country ; but geological work, properly 
so-called, began only with Maclure's studies 
in 1806. Born in Scotland, Maclure came 
to this country in early youth and, embark- 
ing in business, acquired a fortune long be- 
fore reaching middle age. He returned to 
Europe to spend several years in the study 
of natural science, but came again to Amer- 
ica in 1806 to take up his geological work, 
which continued until 1S08. 

The publication of his results, presented 
to the American Philosophical Society on 
January 20, 1809, led others to make stud- 
ies and soon afterwards there appeared 
numerous papers dealing with geological 
subjects. Professor Samuel L. Mitchell, a 
devoted follower of Werner, infused much 
of his enthusiasm into a group of youthful 
students in New York and induced Profes- 
sor Archibald Bruce to establish the Amer- 
ican Journal of Minerahgy, which, beginning 
in 1810, reached its fourth and last num- 
ber in February, ISl-t. Though small and 
short-lived, this journal served a useful 
purpose ; it contained good papers by 

* Presidential address delivered at the annual 
meeting of the Geological Society of America, New 
York, December 28, 1898. 



42 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



Akerly, Gibbs, Godon, Mitchell, Silliman 
and others ; it did much to nurse the scien- 
tific tendency which led to founding the 
New York Lyceum of Natural History iu 
1817, and some have thought that it aided 
in like manner the founding of the Phila- 
delphia Academy in 1812. Bruce'B Journal 
was succeeded in 1818 by Silliman''s Amer- 
ican Journal of Science, which from the be- 
ginning exerted a notable influence upon 
the development of geological thought and 
work in our country. 

By 1820 students of geology had become 
so numerous that the American Geological 
Society was organized in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, where meetings were held certainly 
until the end of 1828. The last survivor 
of this Society died in New Haven only a 
few weeks before the formal organization of 
our Society in 1888. The prominent men 
in 1820 were Ackerly, Bruce, Cornelius, 
Cleveland, the two Danas, Dewey, Eaton, 
Gibbs, Godon, Hitchcook, Maclure, Mitch- 
ell, Eafinesque, Schoolcraft, Silliman and 
Steinhauer, but there were some young 
men who began to publish within two or 
three years afterwards and who were des- 
tined to occupy prominent places in geolog- 
ical literature ; of these, Emmons, Harlan, 
Lea, Morton, Troost and Vanuxem were 
already engaged in investigation. 

Before another decade had passed there 
were groups of geologists in New England, 
New York and Pennsylvania, while 01m- 
stead and Vanuxem had made preliminary 
surveys in North Carolina and South Caro- 
lina, Troost had begun the survey of Ten- 
nessee and Hitchcock that of Massachu- 
setts. 

In 1832 the Pennsylvania geologists, 
feeling much in need of an official survey 
of their State, organized the Geological So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania, to arouse public in- 
terest and so to bring about the survey. 
The volume of publications contains papers 
which attack geological and economic prob- 



lems of the first order. The investigations 
were not confined to Pennsylvania, but 
committees were appointed to examine im- 
portant matters in other States, that the 
worth of geological work might be made ob- 
vious. Beyond doubt, the efforts of this So- 
ciety had much to do with securing the First 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, though 
no member of the Society was appointed on 
on the staif. It is the fashion now and 
then to laugh at these old papers. True 
enough, in the light of our present knowl- 
edge, many of the statements respecting 
Appalachian structure are absurd, but they 
were made by men who, without State aid, 
without instruments and without maps, 
laid a foundation upon which the keen-eyed 
men of the First Pennsylvania Survey built 
the superstructure, which endured close 
re-examination by the second survey and 
proved the honesty and ability with which 
the work had been performed. 

But geology was becoming too broad in 
scope and its workers too numerous to be 
embraced in a merely local society, even 
though the list of correspondents was as 
large as that of the active members. The 
work in Massachusetts was approaching 
completion ; that in New Jersey had been 
completed ; the Surveys of Maine, Connecti- 
cut, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
Delaware, Virginia, Ohio, Michigan and 
Indiana had been begun, and before 1840 
New Brunswick, Rhode Lsland and Ken- 
tucky were added to the list. Several of 
these Surveys had large corps of workers, 
pushing their studies with all the enthu- 
siasm of a new calling. In the Appalachian 
region of Massachusetts, New York, Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia serious problems 
were encountered which could not be solved 
within the compass of a single State. A 
right understanding of the work done in 
one State was necessary to a right under- 
standing of the work done in the adjoining 
State. Correspondence proved a failure ; 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



43 



incidental or casual talks led to misunder- 
standings ; sj'Stematic conference was neces- 
sary with generous contribution by each of 
his knowledge to the other. 

On April 2, 18-10, as the result of a con- 
ference held at Albany in 1839, eighteen 
geologists met at the Franklin Institute, 
Philadelphia, and organized the Association 
of American Geologists, with Professor Ed- 
ward Hitchcock as the first Chairman ; 
among these were the State Geologist of 
Massachusetts, six geologists of the New 
York Survey, six of the Pennsylvania Sur- 
vey, two of the Michigan and three not con- 
nected with any public work. Mr. Martin 
H. Boye is the only survivor of the eighteen. 
The succeeding meetings in Philadelphia 
and Boston were attended by many geolo- 
gists, of whom only Boye, O. P. Hubbard 
and J. P. Lesley remain. A volume pub- 
lished in 1843 contains several papers which 
made a deep impress on American geology ; 
here are the five great memoirs on Appala- 
chian conditions by the Eogers brothers; 
Hall's noteworthy discussion of the Missis- 
sippi basin section ; Hitchcock's elaborate 
discussion of the ' Drift ; ' as well as num- 
erous contributions by other members. 

Professor Hall said on one occasion that 
the inspiriting effect of these meetings could 
not be overestimated. As one of the young- 
est members, he was impressed by the 
mental power of those great men, all un- 
trained in geology, except Taylor, whose 
training under William Smith proved ad- 
vantageous in many ways but very disad- 
vantageous in others, as it had provided 
him with a generous stock of well-set opin- 
ions. Though wholly self-taught, working 
in a country sparsely settled, without ba- 
rometers, without railroad cuts, oil borings, 
mine shafts or any of the advantages so 
necessary for us, those men had elaborated 
systems, had made broad generalizations, 
had learned much respecting the succession 
of life and had discovered the keys which, 



in later years, were to open mysterious re- 
cesses in European geology. 

But the geologists were not permitted to 
flock by themselves. The advantages of 
contact were so manifest that the natural- 
ists asserted their claims to relationship 
with sufficient energy to secure admission 
in 1841, and the name Association of 
American Geologists and Naturalists ap- 
peared in the constitution adopted at the 
1842 meeting. The number of scientific 
men was still comparatively small, and in 
most of the colleges the several branches of 
natural science were embraced in one 
chair, so that there were many professors 
who could lay claim to the title of geologist, 
physicist, naturalist or chemist, as they 
pleased. Men of this type, as well as 
phj^sicists, chemists and mathematicians, 
constantly urged the propriety of broaden- 
ing the scope of the Association so as to ad- 
mit workers in all branches of science. 

In 1842 the first series of surveys practic- 
ally came to an end, and the geologists 
were scattered, many of the younger men 
being compelled to enter other callings. 
The Association held its meetings regularly, 
but its strength diminished, and in 1848 it 
yielded to the outside pi-essure, becoming 
merged into the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, which threw 
its doors wide open to all entertaining an 
interest in any branch of science. The 
first meeting of the new organization had a 
roll of 461 members. 

Comparatively little was done in geolog- 
ical work between 1842 and the close of the 
Civil War. Professor Hall maintained the 
New York Survey, after a fashion, but at 
very considerable pecuniary cost to him- 
self; surveys were carried on in a number 
of States, but, except in Illinois and Cal- 
ifornia, they were mostly reconnaissances 
by small corps ; the annual appropriations 
in several instances were little more than 
enough to pay travelling expenses, so that 



44 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



the work and the reports were practically 
gifts to the States. The Federal Govern- 
ment sent topographic expeditions into the 
Western country, most of them accompanied 
by a surgeon who had more or less knowl- 
edge of geology. Under such conditions 
the number of geologists did not increase, 
and when the American Association was 
divided into sections, in 1875, the geologists 
and naturalists became not Section A, but 
Section B. 

The rapid development of the country's 
Internal resources during the war and the 
attendant growth in manufacturing inter- 
ests made necessary increased efficiency in 
scientific training, and enormous gifts were 
made to our leading institutions for that 
purpose. The importance of geological 
knowledge had become very evident during 
the development of iron, coal and oil re- 
sources, and the geologist found himself ele- 
vated suddenly from a place surrounded by 
suspicion to a post of honor. As an out- 
growth of the restless activity due to the 
war came anxiety to learn more accurately 
the resources of our Western domain be- 
yond the 100th meridian. The AVar De- 
partment, through its Engineer Corps, or- 
ganized the Fortieth Parallel Survey, in 
charge of Clarence King, and two years 
afterwards authoi'ized Lieutenant (now 
Major) George M. Wheeler to undertake 
what afterwards became the United States 
Geographical Surveys West of the 100th 
Meridian. Mr. King's survey was pri- 
marily for geological work, that of Lieu- 
tenant Wheeler primarily for topographical 
work, but each in its own field did all the 
work, geological or topographical, necessary 
to the accomplishment of the allotted task. 
The Interior Department had charge of Dr. 
F. V. Hayden's surveys, beginning iu 1867, 
as well as of the work prosecuted by Major 
J. W. Powell after 1870. The consolida- 
tion, in 1879, of all the organizations then 
existing put an end to useless rivalries 



and made possible the formation and exe- 
cution of broad plans requiring a high 
grade of preparation in those engaged upon 
the work. But while these surveys were 
advancing in the Far West great activity 
prevailed in the older area. Within a de- 
cade after the war ended State Surveys 
were undertaken in New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa, Missouri and other States, while the 
Canadian Survey, which had gone on unin- 
terruptedly from the early forties, was made 
more extended in character. Several of 
the State Surveys, being well supported by 
generous appropriations, employed large 
corps of assistants, paid and volunteer, and 
were prosecuted with great energy. Under 
these conditions Section E, that of Geology 
and Geography, grew rapidly and soon be- 
came one of the strongest portions of the 
American Association. 

The conditions which rendered impera- 
tive an association of geologists in 1840 
were the present conditions in 1880, but 
more oppressive. The problems of 1840 
were chiefly those of a narrow strip within 
the Appalachian area ; those of 1880 con- 
cerned the whole continent. Geologists 
were increasing in numbers, but opportuni- 
ties for making personal acquaintance were 
few ; meetings of societies in midsummer 
could be attended only by those who were 
not connected with official surveys or were 
detached for oflice work. Workers were 
gathering into little groups on geographical 
lines, and there was danger that our geology 
would become provincialized. Members of 
one group regarded those of another with a 
feeling not altogether unrelated to suspicion; 
letter- writing took the place of personal 
communication, with too often the not- un- 
usual result of complete misunderstanding, 
with the attendant personal irritation or 
worse. 

In 1881 the tension was such that several 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



45 



geologists couuected with official surveys 
urged the formation of a geological society 
to bring about closer bonds among geol- 
ogists ; and they succeeded, at the meeting 
of the American Association, in securing 
the appointment of a committee to consider 
the matter. The geologists of the country 
were consulted, and a report, showing that 
the consensus of the replies favored the or- 
ganization of such a society, was presented 
in 1882 as well as in 1883, but without any 
result. The Association's Committee on 
the Internatioaal Geological Congress con- 
sidered the question in 1887 and announced 
approval. Professoi'S N. H. Winchell and 
C. H. Hitchcock, as Chairman and Secre- 
tary of the 1881 Committee, issued a call 
asking geologists to assemble at Cleveland, 
Ohio, on August 1 4, 1888, to form a Geolog- 
ical Society. 

A large number of geologists and other 
members of Section E assembled on the af- 
ternoon of that day. Professor Alex. Win- 
chell presided and Dr. Julius Pohlman was 
Secretary. An earnest discussion respect- 
ing the type of society to be founded occu- 
pied most of the afternoon. The plan 
suggested in the call looked only to an 
expansion of Section E of the American 
Association by holding meetings at times 
better suited than summer to the conven- 
ience of geologists. But a difference of 
opinion quickly developed, for some knew 
that no such expedient would suffice, that 
the conditions called for something more 
definite. Loyalty to the American Associa- 
tion, which for forty years had been the 
bond between scientific men, held many 
back from an extreme position. Yet every 
one recognized that little injury could come 
to the Association, as, at best, only a few 
geologists could attend summer meetings. 
In any event, it was clear that the interests 
of geology required the formation of a so- 
ciety with severe restrictions upon mem- 
bership and with publications which would 



be a credit to American science. A com- 
promise prevailed, whereby the Original 
members, entitled to take part in organiza- 
tion, must be members of Section E of the 
American Association, and that all mem- 
bers of Section E might enroll prior to the 
first meeting if they so desired. This last 
provision caused not a little anxiety, as 
membership in any section of the Associa- 
tion predicates nothing more than a friendly 
feeling for science — whatever that may 
mean. 

A committee* was appointed to prepare 
a plan of organization with a provisional 
constitution. The committee's report, on 
the morning of the 15th, provoked debate, 
as the provisional constitution placed a 
positive limit upon the membership by per- 
mitting, after the organization, only work- 
ing geologists and teachers of geology to 
become members and by requiring a three- 
fourths vote for election. The organization 
was to be effected when the list of Original 
members contained one hundred names. 
The provisional constitution, with a few un- 
important amendments, was agreed to 
unanimously and a committee continued as 
a committee of organization. The details 
of arrangements were placed in the hands 
of Professors A. Winchell and Stevenson. 

Happily the high dues and general belief 
that no society could be formed on the pro- 
posed basis kept the list of Original Fel- 
lows from being swollen by those whose 
relation to geology began and ended with 
attendance upon the American Associa- 
tion's meetings. The committee was en- 
abled from the very outset practically to 
choose the men who should make the so- 
ciety. The required number having been 
obtained by the 1st of December, a meet- 
ing was held at Ithaca, New York, on De- 
cember 27, 1888. Only thirteen were pres- 

*This committee consisted of Alexander Wincliell, 
J. J. Stevenson, C. H. Hitchcock, John R. Procter 
and Edward Orton. 



46 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



ent, but ballots of preference had been 
received from seventy-two Fellows, in ac- 
cordance with which the organization was 
completed by the election of President, 
James Hall ; Vice-Presidents, James D. 
Dana and Alexander Winchell ; Secretary, 
John J. Stevenson ; Treasurer, Henry S. 
"Williams; Councillors, John S. Newberry, 
John W. Powell and Charles H. Hitchcock. 

The matter of publication was discussed 
at great length, but no definite decision 
could be reached, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to consider the whole question, with 
instructions to present a report at the sum- 
mer meeting. Another committee was ap- 
pointed to prepare a permanent consti- 
tution, to be presented at the next meeting. 

The Advisory Committee on Publication, 
another name for Professor W J McGee, 
madean elaborate investigation of the whole 
question of publication and, in August at To- 
ronto, presented the report, accompanied by 
a printed exarapleof the form recommended. 
This report was adopted and, at the close 
of the following meeting. Dr. ilcGee was 
chosen as first Editor that the recommend- 
ations might be carried out faithfullj'. Our 
Bulletin, which marked a new stage in 
scientific publications, owes its excellence 
of form and accuracy of method to his in- 
defatigable persistence. His determination 
to secure exactness in all respects proved 
not wholly satisfactory to many of us, but, 
before he demitted his charge, the justice 
of his requirements was conceded on all 
sides. The discipline to which the Fellows 
of this Society were subjected by the first 
Editor has served its purpose, and editors 
of other scientific publications have found 
their labors lightened and their hands 
strengthened in efforts to produce similar 
reforms elsewhere. 

Fears and misgivings abounded when it 
was discovered that this Society was a suc- 
cess from the start. The American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science had 



been the one society for so many years that 
attempts at differentiation seemed to be 
efforts to cut away the pillars of scientific 
order. But the fears were merely night- 
mare. Our Society has proved itself an 
efficient ally of the Association. 

Our net membership at the close of the 
first j'ear was 187. The new constitution 
placed severer restrictions upon member- 
ship by i-equiring a nine-tenths vote for 
election, the ballot being by correspondence 
and shared in by all the Fellows. This has 
kept the number within reasonable limits, 
and we now have 237 Fellows, our roll in- 
cluding almost all of those, who, by strict 
construction of our constitution, are quali- 
fied for membership. Owing to the rigid ad- 
ministration of our affairs by Professor 
Fairchild and Dr. White, who have piloted 
us for eight years, our financial condition is 
satisfactory, and the income from the perma- 
nent fund now goes far toward covering the 
cost of administration. 

Throughout, the Society has held closely 
to investigation ; the recondite problems, 
those of little interest to many, of no inter- 
est to most, are those which have held the 
attention of our Fellows — work in pure 
rather than in applied sciences ; there has 
been no trenching upon the field of the 
mining engineer. As a storehouse of fact 
and of broad, just generalization the vol- 
umes of our Bulletin are excelled by those 
of no similar publication. 

We close our first decade justly gratified 
by success and full of hope for the future. 
Some of those who led us and gave us rep- 
utation at the beginning are no longer with 
us; Hall, Dana and Winchell, the first 
three Presidents, passed away in reverse 
order ; Cope, Cook, Sterry-Hunt, Newberry 
and a few others have gone from us, but the 
Society retains its membership with changes 
unusually small, showing no ordinarj' de- 
gree of physical force and esprit du corps 
on the part of its Fellows. As we look back 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



we recognize how far this Society has been 
of service to us as men ; in not a few in- 
stances misunderstandings have been re- 
moved and coldness or suspicion has been 
replaced bj' personal friendship. American 
geologists are no longer a disorderly lot of 
irregulars marching in awkward squads, 
but form a reasonably compact body, 
though as individuals they may owe allegi- 
ance to Canada, the United States, Mexico 
or Brazil. Every one of us has felt the in- 
spiriting influence of personal contact. 

But our Society has to do with the world 
outside of itself and outside of its immedi- 
ate line of thought. It must have more to 
do with that world in the future if the out- 
come for science is to be what it should be, 
for the time is appi'oaching rapidly when 
we must seek large sums for aid in prose- 
cuting our work. To retain the respect of 
the community and to retain influence for 
good we must be able to justify the exist- 
ence of a society devoted to investigation 
as distinguished from application. The 
question Cm bono ? will be asked, and the 
answer cannot be avoided. 

This is a utilitarian age — not utilitarian 
as understood by those who bemoan the 
decay of esthetic taste ; or of those who feel 
that in the passing of Aristotle and Seneca 
there has come the loss of intellectual re- 
finement ; or of those others who bewail the 
degeneracy of a generation which has not 
produced a Kant, a Newton, an Aristotle, 
a Laplace, a Humboldt or an Agassiz ; all 
regarding the decadence as due to the de- 
grading influence of material development 
and overpowering commercial interests. 

These pessimists stand at a poor point of 
view, where the angle of vision is narrowed 
bj' many lateral projections. One may say, 
without fear of successful contradiction, 
that, in so far as actual knowledge is con- 
cerned, students of our day receiving grad- 
uate degrees in the more advanced univer- 
sities stand on a somewhat higher plane, 



each in his own group, than did the cele- 
brated men just named. The student now 
reaches beyond where they ended, and still 
is at only the threshold ; for, in most in- 
stances, j'ears of labor are required of him 
before he can receive recognition as an effi- 
cient co-worker. Men towering far above 
their fellows and covering the whole field 
of knowledge will never be known again. 
Kant, Newton, Humboldt stand out from 
their fellows as sharply as lighthouses on 
a level shore ; bu.t there are many Kants, 
Newtons and Humboldts to-day. Prior to 
the last seventy-five years the field of 
actual knowledge was insignificant and a 
man possessing large powers of observation 
grasped the whole. Seventy-five years ago 
one man was expected to cover the whole 
field of natural science in an American col- 
lege. Should any man pretend to- day to 
possess such ability he would expose him- 
self to ridicule. 

It may be true that this century has 
given to the world no great philosopher — 
that is, no great philosopher after the old 
pattern. But one must not forget that 
philosophy has to face a difficulty which 
was unknown in the last century. The 
unrestrained soaring of philosophers into 
the far-away regions of mysticism is no 
longer possible, for facts abound and the 
knowledge which is abroad in the land 
must be considered in any well constructed 
system. Some have maintained, if not in 
direct statement, certainly in effect, that 
study of material things unfits one for 
metaphysical investigation. Undoubtedly 
it would hamper him in some kinds of 
metaphysical research, as it would fetter 
him with a respect for actualities, but it 
would fit him well for other kinds. Aris- 
totle, Kant and, in our own time, McCosh 
and Spencer attained to high position as 
philosophers and in each case possessed re- 
markable knowledge in respect to material 
things. 



48 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



The assertion of lost intellectual refine- 
ment and of depraved aesthetic taste is but 
the wail for an abandoned cult. It is but 
a variation of the familiar song which has 
sounded down the generations. The world 
was going to destruction when copper ceased 
to be legal tender, as well as when Latin 
ceased to be the language of university 
lectures ; art disappeared when men ceased 
idealizing and began to paint nature as it 
is ; religion was doomed to contempt when 
the Bible was translated into the vulgar 
tongue ; and the pillars of the earth were 
removed when the American Republic was 
established. 

But in a proper sense this is a utilitarian 
age. Everywhere the feeling grows that 
the earth is for man, for the rich and for the 
poor alike ; that those things only are good 
which benefit mankind by elevating the 
mental or physical conditions. Until the 
present century the importance of the 
purely intellectual side of man was overes- 
timated by scholars, and matters connected 
with his material side were contemned. 
With our century the reaction was too 
great, for even educated men sneered at ab- 
stract studies as absurdities, while they 
thought material things alone worthy of in- 
vestigation. But the balance is steadying 
itself, and at each oscillation the index 
approaches more closely to the mean be- 
tween the so-called intellectual and material 
sides. Devotees of pure science no longer 
regard devotees of applied science as rather 
distant relations who have taken up w'ith 
low-born associates. 

There appears, at first glance, to be very 
little connection between great manufactu- 
ring interests, on one hand, and stone peek- 
ing at the roadsideor the counting of strise on 
a fossil, on the other. Yet a geologist rarely 
publishes the results of a vacation study 
without enabling somebody else to improve 
his condition. About twenty years ago one 
of our Fellows began to give the results of 



reconnaissance studies made during vaca- 
tions. These concerned certain fault lines, 
and the notes included studies upon coal 
beds and other matters of economic interest 
involved in the faults. The coal beds were 
all bought up ; railroads were constructed ; 
mines were operated ; towns were built ; a 
great population was supplied with work at 
good wages, and manj^ men were enriched. 
But according to the latest information no 
one has offered to re-imburse the geologist 
his expenses, nor ' has any paper in the 
whole region suggested that the geologist 
had anything to do with bringing about 
the development. 

Geological work in this as in other lands 
was originally vacation work, but eventu- 
ally the investigations became too extensive 
and the problems too broad for the usually' 
limited means of the students. Meanwhile, 
it became manifest, as in the case just re- 
ferred to, that important economic results 
were almost certain to follow publication 
of matters discovered by geologists, so that 
men interested in economics were ready to 
assist in securing State aid to advance geo- 
logical work. As one of our Fellows re- 
marked the other day, economic geology 
has been the breastwerk behind which 
scientific geology has been developed by 
State aid. 

Ducatel's reconnaissance proved the im- 
portance of Maryland's coal field and the 
survey was ordered ; the Pennsylvania 
Geological Society discussed coal fields until 
the Legislature gave the State a survey ; 
the geologists of New York promised to 
settle, finally, the question of the occur- 
rence of coal within the State ; and so in 
many other States. 

The United States Geological Survey had 
a somewhat different origin, for the eco- 
nomic side did not attain importance until 
a late period. Soon after the annexation 
of California the necessity for railroad com- 
munication with the Pacific became appar- 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



49 



ent, aud Congress oi'dered exploration of 
several lines across the Eocky Mountain 
region. At that time, the early 'fifties, the 
perplexities of American geologists had 
reached a maximum. Most of the old State 
surveys had come to a close, rich in eco- 
nomic results and still richer in problems 
to be solved only by elaborate investigation, 
too extended and too costly for those days. 
The observations made by Wislezenus and 
army officers in !N"ew Mexico, by Fremont 
aud Stansbury farther north in the Rocky 
Mountain and Plateau regions, as well as 
by Culbertson and Norwood in the Dakota 
country, had stirred the curiositj' and awak- 
ened the interest of geologists everywhere. 
Strong pressure was brought to bear on the 
Secretary of War for the appointment of 
geologists to positions on the several parties. 
The efforts were successful and the appoint- 
ments were made, though in most instances 
the geologists were physicians and ap- 
pointed as acting surgeons in the army. 
This was an important advance in scien- 
tific work, for, almost without exception, 
exploring parties under the "War Depart- 
ment from that time were accompanied by 
naturalists. The Civil War brought the 
Western work to a close, but when peace i"e- 
turned it was taken up again and geology 
was recognized as a necessary part of it, 
until at last the fragmentary works were 
placed in one organization and the Survey 
established as it now exists. 

In all of the later geological surveys the 
element of economics entered more largely 
into consideration and was emphasized in 
the legislative enactments. Men recognized 
that geological investigation had led to the 
discovery of laws, most important frotn the 
economic standpoint, and they were anxious 
to have the knowledge utilized in a broad 
way. 

Looking over the history of the old sur- 
veys one sees clearly that their origin was 
due solely to a desire for solution of prob- 



lems in pure science. The credit for the 
economic outcome of the scientific work is 
due to the geologist alone, to whom the ap- 
propriations were given, practically as a gift. 
The Legislators soothed their consciences by 
lofty speeches respecting the duty of the 
Commonwealth to foster the study of Na- 
ture, but they generally had an aside to be 
utilized as a justification before their con- 
stituents — " especially when there is a very 
reasonable chance that something of value 
will be discovered to the advantage of our 
Commonwealth." 

The New York survey had for its possible 
outcome the determination of the coal area. 
The work was completed with great exact- 
ness, for it proved that the State contains 
no coal area whatever. Though only nega- 
tive in results for the State, this survey has 
proved of incalculable service to the coun- 
try at large, for it first elaborated the lower 
aud middle Paleozoic sections; the scientific 
work, continued along the biological line, 
defined accurately the vertical limits of fos- 
sils and provided means for removal of dif- 
ficulties where the succession is incomplete 
and for tentative correlatiou iu widely sep- 
arated localities, an apparatus whose use- 
fulness cannot be overestimated from an 
economic standpoint. 

If the man who makes two blades of 
grass grow where only one grew before be a 
public benefactor, what shall be said of the 
geologist who turns a desert into a garden ? 
This was done by the first survey of New 
Jersey, which differentiated and mapped the 
marls of that State, giving a complete dis- 
cussion of their nature and value. Great 
areas of the ' whites and barrens ' have been 
converted not into mere farm lands, but into 
richly productive garden spots. In later 
years the second survey, now almost forty 
years old, did, as it is still doing, admirable 
work along the same lines ; the study of 
structural geology gave a clue to the causes 
of restrained drainage, and in not a few in- 



50 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



stances showed that relief from malaria 
could be obtained with unsuspected ease, 
and that many miles of noxious swamp 
could be converted into lands well fitted for 
residence. 

The first survey of Pennsylvania was 
purely scientific in inception and execution. 
Economic questions had little of interest 
for its head, and in the work their place was 
very subordinate to those in pure science ; 
yet the outcome was inevitable. The study 
of the Appalachian folds and the discovery 
of the steeper northwesterly dif) revealed 
the structure of the anthracite region and 
made it possible to determine the relations 
of the anthracite beds ; the vast extent 
of the bituminous area and the importance 
of the Pittsburg coal bed were ascertained 
during the search for facts to explain the 
origin of the coal measures ; the ores of the 
central part of the State were studied with 
rigorous attention to detail that the prob- 
lem of their origin might be solved. But 
these and other scientific studies brought 
out a mass of facts which were seen at once 
to possess immense importance, and the re- 
ports were published broadcast. New in- 
dustries were established ; old ones, pre- 
viously uncertain, became certain and de- 
veloped prodigiously; the coal and iron 
interests moved at once to the front, so that, 
within two or three years after the survey 
ended, 'Tariff' became the burning polit- 
ical question throughout the State. The 
results of the second survey were even 
more remarkable in their influence upon 
the development of the Commonwealth and 
the increased comfort of the population. 

Among the earliest results of the first 
survey of Michigan was the determination 
of the value of the salt lands and the an- 
nouncement of iron ore in the Upper Penin- 
sula. The successors to this survey, but 
under the United States supervision, made 
studies of numerovia localities and de- 
termined the excellence of the ores. Un- 



questionabl}', the importance of the deposit 
became known to capitalists very largely 
through the reports of this survey, though 
at that time economic geology had no 
charms for its head. Much of the enor- 
mous development of the Lake Superior 
iron region was due to the influence of the 
later survey between 1869 and 1873. 

The first Ohio survey, made sixty years 
ago, was at greater disadvantage than the 
Pennsylvania survey, yet in the first year 
the coal area was defined and during the 
second the geologists determined the distri- 
bution of the several limestones and sand- 
stones which, as building stones, have be- 
come so important. The second survey 
was made effective at once by the tracing 
and identification of the Hocking Valley 
coal, which brought into the State a vast 
amount of new capital and changed the 
face of a great district. The third survey 
determined the distribution of oil and gas, 
the relations of the coal beds and the char- 
acteristics of the clay deposits in such fash- 
ion as to remake the rnanufacturing in- 
terests of the State. 

The Mesabi and Vermilion ranges of 
Minnesota contain deposits of iron ore 
which, for the present at least, appear to 
be even more important than those of north- 
ern Michigan. Almost fifty years ago J. 
G. Norwood, while studying the easterly 
end of the region, discovered the Mesabi 
ores ; a few years later Whittlese}-, after a 
detailed examination farther west, pre- 
dicted the discovery of similar ores, a dis- 
covery actually made in 1866 by Eames, 
who was then State Geologist and engaged 
in studying the Vermilion range. Though 
not utilized at once, these announcements 
were not forgotten and systematic explora- 
tion was begun in 1875, when the need of 
high-grade ores at low prices made neces- 
sary the opening of new areas. Almost at 
once, the State Geological Survey deter- 
mined the extent of the ore-bearing region. 



jA>fUAEY 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



51 



differentiated tlie deposits and removed 
erroneous impressions respecting the extent 
and distribution of the ores. The effect of 
discussion and of the positive fixing of areas 
has been to increase development and to 
cheapen ores of the best quality so far that 
Bessemer steel can be manufactured more 
cheaply in the United States than elsewhere, 
in spite of the fact that wages are still 
higher, not simplj' numericallj'. but in pur- 
chasing power, than in any other iron-pro- 
ducing countrj'. An examination of the 
reports which have brought about this re- 
sult compels one to say that the anxiety for 
economic results does not appear to have 
been an impelling motive during the work. 
There were perplexing geological problems 
to be worked out, and the solutions could 
be discovered only bj' the most painstaking 
work. This investigation led to the eco- 
nomic results. 

The United States Survey retained its 
original character for a number of years, 
the studies being devoted almost wholly to 
pure science. There were those who looked 
upon the elaborate pictrographical work as 
merely an elaborate waste of public funds ; 
who, like tlie member of the Ohio Legisla- 
ture, regarded fossils only as ' clams and 
salamanders ' and considered the diagrams 
of sections as merely bewildering humbug, 
while they asserted that attention ought to 
be given to other matters, which, however, 
tliey were not always ready to designate. 
But the outcome of these studies was the 
inevitable ; petrography has its applications 
now in the investigation of building stones, 
and it has proved of service in aiding to de- 
termine the source of precious metals at 
more than one important locality. The de- 
termination of fossils has led to the proper 
definition of the great coal horizons of the 
Upper Cretaceous ; the close study of strati- 
graphical relations made possible a wide 
development of artesian well systems in 
the Dakotas, just as similar work in Eng- 



land led to the game practical result ; while 
the study of climatic and structural condi- 
tions was brought to bear on the great 
problem of our arid lands with no mean 
results. 

But these illustrations must suffice, not 
because they exhaust the material — for 
every official survey on the continent affords 
illustrations — but because this is an ad- 
dress, not a history, and already the time 
allotted has been exceeded. 

It is the old story — the same in geology 
as in other branches. The kind of work 
for which this Society stands lies more 
closely to the welfare of the community 
than is supposed even by men in high posi- 
tion and of far more than average intelli- 
gence. This work is responsible in large 
part for the industrial progress of our con- 
tinent, which we must regard, in spite of 
protests from those who lament the domi- 
nance of commercialism, as the force which 
has made possible our great advance in 
physical comfort as well as the equally 
great advance in literary culture and ses- 
thetic taste. Coal, iron and oil, chief 
among our products, have been so much 
the objects of minute study by closet inves- 
tigators that improvement in processes of 
manufacture has not been a growth, but 
rather a series of leaps. 

We give all honor to applied science, yet 
we cannot foi-get that it is but a follower of 
pure science. The worker in pure science 
discovers ; his fellow in applied science 
utilizes ; the former receives little credit 
outside of a narrow circle; pecuniary reward 
is not his object and rarely falls to his lot ; 
the latter has a double possibility as an 
incentive, large pecuniary reward and popu- 
lar reputation in case of noteworthy suc- 
cess. The two conditions are well repre- 
sented by Henry, the investigator, and 
Morse, the inventor and promoter. 

Men are ignorant of their debt to closet 
workers because the facts have never been 



52 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S, Vol. IX. No. 211. 



presented. As geologists aud as citizeus of 
no mean countries we ought to present tliis 
matter clearly to men whose fortunes have 
come through application of principles dis- 
covered by obscure workers. Such men 
are quick to perceive the justice of the 
claim and usually are ready to pay a rea- 
sonable interest on the debt. 

The world must advance or retrograde; 
it cannot stand still. Continued advance 
in physical comfort and intellectual power 
can come only through intenser application 
to investigation along the lines of pure 
science, which can be made possible only 
by affording increased opportunities for re- 
search in our colleges and by the expansion 
of research funds held by societies such as 
this. 

John J. Stevenson. 

New York University. 



FISHES OF TEE SOUTH SHORE OF LONG 
ISLAND. 

Invkstigations carried on by the New 
York State Museum from July to Septem- 
ber and continued by the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission until near the close of October, 
1898, in the waters of the southern part of 
Long Island resulted in the collection of 
eighty-four species of fishes belonging to the 
region. 

The work of collecting began July 2l8t, 
at Southampton, from which place excur- 
sions were made to Shiunecock, Mecox and 
Peconic Bays and to the ocean beach. The 
writer was assisted by Mr. Barton A. Bean, 
on behalf of the U. S. National Museum, 
during the first month of the explorations. 
Great South Bay was the scene of opera- 
tions from August 12th until October 19th. 

Fine-meshed seines, agill net of two-inch 
stretch-mesh and a trawl line with about 
200 hooks were the principal means of cap- 
turing the fishes, and a few interesting 
species were obtained from the haul seines 
and set nets of fishermen on the ocean 



beach and the pound nets in Great South 
Bay. 

A noteworthy feature was the absence of 
many fishes which had been taken during 
the summer and fall months in previous 
years. Among them are : Albula vulpes, 
Etrumeus sadina, Clupea harengus, Pomolobus 
(EStlvalis, StolephoriiS argyrophanus, Fistularia 
tabacaria, Sphyrcena borealis, Decapterus punc- 
tatus, Vomer setipinnis, Trachlnoius falcahis, 
Trachinotus argenteus, Lagodon rhomboides, Lei- 
ostomus xanthurus, Acanthocottus ceneus, Hemi- 
tripterits americamis and Platophrys ocellatus. 
Two things contributed to this condition, 
the prevalence of southerly winds, causing 
rough seas on the ocean beaches, and high 
water temperature which kept the migra- 
tory fishes well to the north of Long Island 
until late in October. A very serious hin- 
drance to seining in most parts of the bays 
was the abundance of living and dead sea 
weeds near the shores, and another great 
obstacle was found in the sunken stakes 
scattered by ice and storms from the fences 
used as sea-weed collectors. 

The sand shark ( Carcharias littoralis) was 
abundant on the grassy shallows south of 
Toby's Flat until the middle of September, 
when it migrated westward. It preyed 
upon mullet, eels and flatfish, and, on ac- 
count of its habit of swimming slowly near 
the surface, was easily captured by spears 
from a row boat. A young mackerel shark 
(^Lamna cornubiea), about three feet long, 
was caught in a gill net set in the ocean ofl^ 
Southampton. Other sharks secured were 
the dusky shark ( Carcharhinus olscurus), the 
smooth dogfish (Miistelus eanis) and the 
horned dogfish {Squalus acanthias) . 

The skates represented three species, 
Eaja erinacea, ocellata and eglanteria, all of 
which were sufficiently common. They 
were often found feeding in shallow water 
near the shores, especially in the evening 
and night. A large male was taken by the 
hands, on the night of October 17th, in a 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



53 



small dug-out creek emptying into Clam 
Pond Cove. It was at the edge of the shore 
and partly out of water, having followed 
the channel to the head of the creek and 
then failed to discover a way out. 

A large menhaden (Brevoortia tijrannus) 
was captured by an osprey in Great South 
Bay and carried through the air fully two 
miles. The osprey was struck by a charge 
of shot and dropped its prey, which was 
then found to be alive. The young of the 
menhaden were migrating westward in 
large schools, swimming near the surface of 
the bay, on October 1st. 

The lizard fish {Synodus fcetens), which 
was obtained almost everywhere in Great 
South Bay in 1890, was almost entirely 
absent, only a single example having been 
secured. 

The half-beak {Hyporhamplms roberti^v/as 
found in small numbers and was occasion- 
ally seen swimming in the water. Its 
movements are closely similar to those of 
the silver gar {Tylosunis marinus'). This is 
one of the species captured at night by the 
use of a large reflector lantern. The light 
apparently dazes the fish so that it can 
easily be taken out of the water with a dip- 
net. 

The small silverside (Menidia beryUina) 
occurs abundantly in fresh and brackish 
waters throughout the region explored and 
was once seined in salt water near Fire 
Island. On September 24th a young indi- 
vidual from Swan River measured one and 
one-sixteenth inches in length. The rough 
silverside (Kirtlandia Icwiniata) was added 
to the New York fauna by the capture of 
an adult example in Mecox Bay, August 
1st. This has the following characters : 
D. V, I, 7 ; A, I, 20 ; P. 14 ; V, I, 5 ; scales 
7 — 47. It was associated with tho common 
silverside (Menidia notata). 

The red mullet {Midlus auratus) was ob- 
tained, October 17th, from a fish pound near 
Clam Pond Cove. Although the species 



occurs occasionally as far north as Cape 
Cod, it seems to be recorded now for the 
first time from Long Island. It was seined 
by the writer at Sandy Hook, October 8, 
1897, and was reported by fishermen to 
have been abundant there in September and 
October of that year. 

The saurel ( Traclmrus trachurus) was se- 
cured in a gill net, October 16th, in Clam 
Pond Cove, along with young bluefish and 
menhaden. Young horse- crevalle {Caranx 
hi2rpos) were obtained at several localities 
in Great South Bay, and the common cre- 
valle ( Caranx crysos) was brought from a 
pound near Clam Pond Cove late in October. 
The thread-fish (Alectis ciliaris) is repre- 
sented by two individuals from a pound near 
Islip. The look-down (Selene vomer) was 
seined at Duncan's Creek, August 29th. 
The common compano ( Trachinotiis carolinus) 
made its appearance in October in the 
vicinity of Fire Island Inlet. Only the 
young were obtained. 

The black rudder fish (PaUnitriehthys perci- 
formis), usually occurring off shore under 
floating logs and boxes, made its way into 
Great South Bay, and one example was 
caught in Clam Pond Cove, October 11th, 
bj' Captain George Yarrington. Eucinos- 
tomus gida, formerly so abundant in north- 
ern waters in mid-summer, is represented 
in the collection by a single, very small in- 
dividual, seined in Clam Pond Cove, Au- 
gust 22d. 

The yellow tail or silver perch (Bairdiella 
chrysura), which was plentiful in all parts of 
Great South Bay in 1890, proved to be 
scarce everywhere except at Nichols' Point, 
where the young were collected in moder- 
ate numbers, September 1st. 

A single Chatodon ( C. ocellatus) was ob- 
tained from a pound near Clam Pond Cove, 
October 17th. This is conspicuously beauti- 
ful on account of the orange color of its fins 
contrasting sharply with the dark bands on 
the head and body. The species was taken 



54 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



also in Gravesend Bay in October, by Mr. 
W. I. De Nyse, who informs me that the 
roundish black spot in the soft dorsal re- 
mains fixed under all conditions, while the 
baud extending from it to the anal fin 
sometimes disappears. The whole body of 
the fish at times appears to have an orange 
tinge, but at other times it is gray. 

The rabbit-fish {Lagocephalus Icevigatus) 
was not seen until October 14th, when a 
large individual was received from a pound 
near Clam Pond Cove. This was the only 
one obtained during the season. 

The small- mouthed flounder {Citharich- 
thys microstomus) -vfus found in and near Fire 
Island Inlet on September 30th and Octo- 
ber 11th. Ten individuals were taken, of 
which the largest is about four inches long. 
In 1890 this species was more abundant 
and occurred as far west as the Blue Point 
Life-Saviug Station. In 1898 all but one 
of the recorded specimens were collected in 
a single haul of the seine. 

The following record will serve as, an il- 
lustration of the sudden changes occurring 
during the fall migrations : On October 11th, 
with southerly winds shifting to southwest- 
erly and strong, two hauls were made with 
the gill net and three with the twenty- 
fathom seine ; the fishes obtained were 
M'ugil cephalus, Mugil eurema, Alutera schcepfii, 
Prionotus earolinus, Prionotus strigatus, Me- 
nidia notata, Fundulus majalis, Fundulus het- 
eroolitus, Tautoga onitis young, Tylosurus 
marinus, Spheroides maeidatus, Siphostoina fus- 
cum, Hippocampus hudsonius, OitharicJithys 
microstomus, Pseudopleiironedes americanus, 
Bothus maculatus, Stenotonius chrysops young, 
Synodus fcctens, Menticirrhus saxatilk, Centro- 
pristes striatus young. To these were added, 
on the same day, at Clam Pond Cove, several 
miles farther east, Palinuriehthys pereiformis, 
Pomatomus saltatrix, Opsanus tau, Brevoortia 
tyrannus young, and Bairdiella chrysura. 
On October 17th we worked over the 
same ground, the wind blowing from the 



northeast, but gradually moderating. The 
gill net was hauled, but caught nothing. 
An orange filefish (Alutera schcepfii) was 
speared. We then looked around east and 
west along tlie shore and saw no fish ex- 
cept Fundulus majalis and Menidia notata. 
It should be noted, however, that on the 
same date a pound near Clam Pond Cove 
furnished us with Chcetodon ocellatus, Midlus 
auratus, Flops saurus, Caranx crysos, Raia 
oceUata, Raia erinacea, Alutera sehoepfii, 
' Mustelus caiiis and Stenotovms chrysops, 'whil& 
the saurel ( Trachurus trachurus) was pres- 
ent in Clam Pond Cove on the preceding 
day. 

A large reflector lantern used for ' fire- 
lighting ' eels at night was found useful for 
the capture of other fishes and for studying 
their attitudes and movements in the water. 
On the night of September 16th the lantern 
was held over the side of our sloop in Clam 
Pond Cove, and it attracted to us silver gar 
( Tylosurus marinus) , killifish ( Fundulus maja- 
lis and F. heterocUtus) , silverside {Menidia 
notata), half beak {Hyporhamphus roberti), 
annelids {Nereis sp.), crabs, shrimp, beetles 
and moths. By means of a dip net it was 
easy to take any of the species. On the 
night of October 13th we were on the south 
shore of Great South Bay near Horsefoot 
Creek, spearing eels with the help of the 
lantern. 

We took about twenty pounds of large 
eels, and nearly all of them were in very 
shallow water, close to the shore, hiding 
in the grass or on the sand bottom. One 
large eel, at the mouth of Horsefoot Creek, 
was standing on its head, boring for worms 
when it was speared. The silver gars and 
silvers! des played around the light, follow- 
ing it persistently in a semi-dazed fashion. 
Killifish, toadfish and many crabs were seen 
resting on the bottom, the toadfish some- 
times lying on its side, with its tail curled 
toward its head. Young bluefish were seen 
darting out of the way occasionally. Sev- 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



55 



eral qnawks were fascinated by the lantern, 
and we pushed up close to them before they 
started off with owl-like motion and dis- 
cordant cries. 

The writer is now able, from personal 
studies, to report 163 species of fishes in 
waters extending from Gravesend Bay east- 
ward to Mecox bay, and refers to his ar- 
ticles published in the Nineteenth Annual 
Eeport of the New York Fish Commission 
(1890) and the Bulletin for 1897 of the 
American Museum of Natural History, 
New York City. 

The marine fishes now certainly known 
in the New York fauna represent 200 spe- 
cies. The fresh waters contain 116 species, 
and there are, besides, 13 anadromous 
forms. The list might be further increased 
by the addition of the following fishes con- 
cerning whoso pertinence to the fauna there 
is more or less doubt : Lucius vermiculatus, 
Seriola lalandi, Coryphoina equisetis, Boleosoma 
nigrum, Polyprion americanus, JEpinephelus 
niveatus, Dules auriga, Zenopsis ocellatus, Sphe- 
roides trichocephcdus, Aspidophoroides monop- 
terygius, Ulvaria subbifurcata, Stichceus piwic- 
tatus, Leptoblennius serpentiniis, Cryptacan- 
thodes maculatus, Anarhichas lupus, Trigla 
cucidus, Brosmius brosme, Hippoglossoides pla- 
tessoides, Ogcocephalus vespertilio .'^ 

Thus, a catalogue of the New York 
fishes, based upon our present knowledge 
and including the foregoing 19 forms doubt- 
fully assigned to the fauna, will contain 348 
species. It should be remembei-ed that no 
systematic account of the fishes has been 
published since 1842, and many large re- 
gions of the State are almost, or altogether, 
unknown to the ichthyologist. 

Tarleton H. Bean. 

* The bat-fish must be transferred to the list of 
species known to occur in New York. Dr. Theodore 
Gill, in the mid-summer of ]854 or 1855, saw a re- 
cently-caught example of it at a whaif at the foot of 
27th Street, East River, New York. No record of its 
occurrence was published. 



SUPPRESSION OF S3I0KE. 

The devising of practicable methods of 
reduction of the ' smoke nuisance ' has be- 
come one of the most important problems 
in applied science for our time, and has 
been a subject of experiment and of legis- 
lation for many years past. Of late, some 
success has been met with on both sides the 
Atlantic. In St. Louis, perhaps, as great 
success has been attained as in any city in 
the United States, through the public-spir- 
ited cooperation of the city government, 
the Board of Trade and the scientific men 
and leading engineers of the place ; but 
there remains much to be done and inves- 
tigations are still in progress, some of which 
are important. Recent discussions at Phil- 
adelphia, under the auspices of the Frank- 
lin Institute,* have thrown much light upon 
the subject and have afforded many valu- 
able facts and data. 

We have now the published results of 
another and formal investigation by a com- 
mission, organized at Paris, composed of 
MM. Huet, Brull, Hirsch, Humblot, Lam- 
ouroux, Michel-Levy and DeTavernier, all 
holding important positions in the municipal 
administration, or in the great schools of 
mines and engineering, or as leading mem- 
bers of the Society of Civil Engineers. The 
commission was in session, at intervals, 
from June, 1894, to October, 1897. It made 
a study of reports and documents bearing 
upon the subject, conducted important ex- 
periments, reduced them to order and stud- 
ied out definite conclusions, and also inves- 
tigated the origin, state and the progress of 
the art, completing its report at the last- 
named date. This document of over 150 
pages, large 8vo, with 25 plates, is now in 
process of distribution. f 

Although more or less attention had been 

* Journal Franklin Institute, June, 1897. 

t " Coneours pour la suppression des fumees pro- 
duites par les foyers de chaudicires a vapeur. Rapport 
de la Commission technique. Prefecture du Depart- 



56 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



given the subject by the muuicipal govern- 
ment for years, nothing had been accom- 
plislied, and it was, in this instance, proposed 
to organize a technical commission to con- 
duct competitive tests of various methods 
and apparatus having for tlieir object the 
suppression of smoke from boiler-furnaces. 
The above-named commission was accord- 
ingly formed and was assigned a credit of 
8,050 francs for expenses. The commission 
was to select acceptable forms of furnace 
and report to the city government for their 
license and use. One hundred and ten 
competitors appeared, their schemes includ- 
ing the following : 

GENERAL PLAN OF PROCEDURE. 

(1) Mechanical feed and methodical combustion. 16 

(2) Supplementary injection of air, hot or cold. . 20 

(3) Injection of steam, with or without air 5 

(4) Stirring the gases 7 

(5) Gas producers and heating the gases 7 

(6) Combustion of dust fuel 2 

(7) Washing the smoke 16 

( 8) Various other systems 37 

110 

Of the total, three-fourths were French 
devices, one-fifth English, 3 American, and 
the others of various European nation- 
alities. A preliminary study led to the 
careful test of ten. These were tested to 
ascertain whether th-ey were capable of 
burning ordinary fuels without smoke and 
whether they were suitable for use in steam- 
making. 

They were tested with rapid and with 
slow combustion, with operatives supplied 
by the makers and with firemen furnished 
by the commission, under the direction of 
first the one and then the other. The in- 
tensity of the smoke was observed and 
noted on a scale of five points. The usual 
standard methods of determining the effi- 
ciency of the apparatus were employed. 
The corps of observation was detailed from 

ment de la Seine, Ville de Paris, Rcpublique Fran- 
jaise — Liberty, Egalitu, Fraternitu." n. d. 



the offices of the city administration, or- 
ganized and directed by the commission. 

The history of legislation, as given, traces 
the progress of the subject in England from 
the time of Charles II., who, two hundred 
years ago, inaugurated repressive measures. 
In France this form of legislation began 
with an imperial decree in 1810. Both 
countries now have well-considered laws 
for suppression of smoke in cities. The 
technical history, curiously enough, begins 
with plans by Denis Papin. The next in- 
ventor to follow this illustrious man of 
science was James "Watt, with his inverted 
draught and later arrangement of ' dead- 
plate.' The ' automatic stokers,' ' tresusites 
en Amerique, ' are referred to and their inci- 
dental but none the less efiective, smoke 
reductions are described. Legislation now 
exists in all civilized countries, and many 
more or less effective devices and methods 
are in use for suppression of smoke. 

A commission of distinguished engineers 
and scientific men was organized by the 
German government, in 1892, which, after 
prolonged experimental investigation, con- 
cluded that success had not been attained, 
but that the way to success was clearly in- 
dicated. This commission, in computing 
the heating power of combustibles from 
analyses, adopted the formula ; 8000 C + 
29000 (^"-0/8)4- 2500 /S- 600 W; where 
IF is moisture. 

The outcome of the work of the French 
Commission was the refusal to assign a first 
prize, the awarding of two second prizes, of 
two first mentions and of one second men- 
tion. The conclusions formulated indicate 
that the Commission is not satisfied that a 
real success has been achieved, but never- 
theless the researches were not without 
value. Like the German Commission of 
1892-4, it is concluded that "The work of 
the Commission should be considered only 
as a contribution to the study of ' fumivo- 
rite,' and it is to be hoped that these re- 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



57 



searches may continue. There remains much 
to be done and a part of this collection of 
exhibits has very nearly attained the object 
proposed." 

Among the specific conclusions are these: 

Smoke cannot be suppressed without considerable 
excess of cost. 

Special fuels, as anthracite, coke, fuel-gas and 
mineral oils, may be resorted to, and with success, 
where cost is not objectionable. 

The chimney-top should be visible to the man at 
the furnace. 

Prolonged trials should supplement such investiga- 
tions as those prosecuted by this Commission, to as- 
certain the durability of the apparatus and of its effi- 
ciency. 

Existing legislation, well enforced, is advised, 
rather than any specific new legislation. 

The appendix to the report is an elaborate 
presentation of the logs, tables and draw- 
ings of the apparatus of the trials described 
in the text. The whole constitutes a very 
valuable contribution to the literature of 
the subject, in the department of applied 
science, and deserves to be permanently 
preserved in every library of applied science, 
beside the reports of the Franklin Institute 
discussion. 

R. H. Thueston. 



A3IERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY. 
The fifth annual meeting of the American 
Mathematical Society was held in Fayer- 
weather Hall of Columbia University, on 
AVednesday, December 28, 1898. On the 
two following days the Chicago Section of 
the Society held its fourth regular meeting 
in the Ryerson Physical Labratory of the 
University of Chicago. At the election 
held at the annual meeting the following 
officers and members of the Council were 
chosen : President, R. S. Woodward ; First 
Vice-President, E. H. Moore ; Second Vice- 
President, T. S. Fiske; Secretary, F. N. 
Cole ; Treasurer, Harold Jacoby ; Librarian, 
Pomeroy Ladue ; Committee of Publication, 
T. S. Fiske, F. IST. Cole, Alexander Ziwet ; 



members of the Council to serve for three 
years, Maxime Bocher, James Pierpont, 
Charlotte Angas Scott. 

The Society has now completed its tenth 
year of continuous existence, having been 
organized as the New York Mathematical 
Society in November, 1888, and reorganized 
under its present title in July, 1894. The 
Bulletin is now in its eighth annual volume ; 
the first number appeared in October, 1891. 
The present membership of the Society is 315. 
About ninety papers have been presented at 
its meetings during the past year. The 
Chicago Section was organized in April, 
1897, and has proved from the beginning a 
valued addition to the Society's strength. 

At the annual meeting the following 
papers were read : 

(1) Peofessoe M. I. PuPiN : 'On multiple reso- 
nance. ' 

(2) De. a. S. CnESSiN" : ' On the development of the 
perturbative function in terms of the eccentric 
anomalies.' 

(3) De. a. S. Chessin : 'On some points of the the- 
ory of functions.' 

(4) Peofessoe E. 0. Lovett : 'On the transforma- 
tion of straight lines into spheres.' 

(5) Dk. E. J. WiLCZYNSKi : ' A generalization of 
Appell's factorial functions.' 

(6) Peofessoe Oemond Stone : 'On the solution 
of Delaunay's canonical system of equations.' 

(7) De. Viegil Snydee : 'Asymptotic lines on 
ruled surfaces having two rectilinear generators.' 

(8) Dr. G. A. MiLLEE : 'On a memoir on the sub- 
stitution groups whose degree is less than nine.' 

(9) De. W. Schulz : 'On the partial differential 
equation 

3% 3'it . „ 

and its connection with Diriohlet's principle.' 

The following is a list of the papers read 
before the Chicago Section : 

(1) De. L. E. Dickson: 'The determination of the 
structure of all linear homogeneous groups in a 
Galoi.s field which possess a quadratic invariant, 
with the announcement of two new systems of 
simple groups.' 

(2) Mr. Gael C. Engbeeg : 'The Cartesian oval 
and the auxiliary parabola. ' 



58 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



(3) Professor Aeihue S. Hathaway: 'A new 
■way of presenting the priDciples of the calculus.' 

(4) Professor H. Masciike : 'Some general the- 
orems concerning linear substitution-groups of 
finite order.' 

(5) Professor E.H.Moore: 'Concerning Klein's 
groups of n! (n — l)-ary collineations.' 

(6) Professor E.H.Moore: ' The decomposition 
of a modular system connected with the doubly 
generalized Fermat theorem.' 

(7) Professor H. B. Newson : 'Normal forms of 
projective transformation (second communica- 
tion).' 

(8) Professor H. B. Newson : 'A new solution 
of the Riemann-Helmholtz problem.' 

(9) Professor H. B. Newson : 'What constitutes 
a continuous group ?' 

(10) Professor James B. Shaw: 'Some quater- 
nion integrals and their related classes of func- 
tions.' 

(11) De. H. F. Stecker : 'Non-Euclidean images 
of plane cuhics on rotation surfaces of constant 
negative curvature.' 

(12) Professor Henry S. White: 'Note on cer- 
tain relations among fundamental covariants of 
a ternary cubic' 

(13) Professor J. W. A. Young : 'The teaching 
of mathematics in the higher schools of Prussia. ' 

F. N. Cole, 

Secretary. 
Columbia University. 



GENERAL 3IEETING OF THE AMERICAN 
CHEillCAL SOCIETY. 

The eigliteenth general meeting of the 
American Chemical Society was held in 
New York on the 27th and 2Sth of Decem- 
ber, and was in every respect a most suc- 
cessful and notable gathering. 

The opening session was held at the rooms 
of the Chemists' Club, 108 West 55th Street, 
with an attendance of about one hundred 
and fifty members and visitors. 

Dr. McMurtrie welcomed the visitors and 
then introduced Mr. Randolph Guggen- 
heimer. President of the Council, who wel- 
comed the Society to the city. Professor 
Alexander S. Webb, of the College of the 
City of New York, welcomed the Society to 
the educational and scientific institutions 
of the city. President C. E. Munroe re- 



sponded in behalf of the Society, after which 
the following papers were read : 

' A New Method for the Separation of 
Arsenic, Antimony, Selenium and Tellu- 
rium from one another and from other 
Metals,' A. E. Kuorr ; ' Separation of Im- 
purities in the Electrolytic Eefining of Cop- 
per,' by P. de P. Eicketts ; ' The Prepara- 
tion of Metallic Tellurium,' Victor Lehner. 

The meeting was then adjourned to take 
a special train to the New Jersey Zinc and 
Iron Company's works at Newark, N. J., 
where a luncheon was served, and the pro- 
cess of manufacture of zinc oxide was 
shown. Parties were also made up to visit 
the Wetherill Concentrator Works, Murphy 
Varnish Company, Lister's Agricultural 
Chemical Works and others. 

In the evening a business session was 
held at the club rooms, at which reports 
were received from standing committees 
and the retiring President made his ad- 
dress. M. Raoul Pictet gave an interesting 
discourse on the ' Retardation of Chemical 
Activities at Low Temperatures.' His sub- 
ject was illustrated by a lantern projection 
showing a piece of metallic sodium held on 
a steel needle and both immersed in hydro- 
chloric acid which had been cooled to the 
lowest temperature obtainable by means of 
solidified caibon dioxide. There was no 
reaction between acid and sodium or the 
iron until a considerable rise of temper- 
ature had taken place. 

The second day's session was held at 
Havemeyer Hall, Columbia University, at 
which the following papers were read : 

' Measurement of Turbidity in Water,' 
AV. P. Mason ; ' Tiie Assay of Nux Vomica,' 

E. R. Squibb ; ' The Potato and Cassava 
Starch Industries in the United States,' H. 
W. Wiley; 'Notes on the Estimation of Car- 
bohydrates,' Traphagen and Cobleigh ; ' The 
Action of Iodine on the Fatty Amines,' J. 

F. Norris ; ' On the Constitution of Some 
Canadian Baryto-Celestites, C. W. Volney ; 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



Laboratory Notes,' A. C. LaEgmuir ; 
' Flame Colorations by Bromides and 
Chlorides of Nickel and Cobalt,' A. S. 
Cushman ; ' Classen's Reaction as an 
Aid to Determination of Constitution of 
Terpene Ketones,' M. C. Burt; ' Sixth An- 
nual Report of Committee on Atomic 
Weight,' F. W. Clarke. 

A luncheon was provided by the New 
York Section, wliich was served in the 
Industrial Laboratory, after which visits 
to various manufacturing establishments 
and a demonstration of the properties of 
liquid air at the College of the City of 
New York occupied the rest of the day, 
and a dinner at the Waldorf-Astoria in 
the evening closed the official program of a 
meeting which had been successful beyond 
the expectations of the most sanguine of 
those who had woi-ked for it. 

The attendance was not less than one 

hundred and fifty at any of the sessions, 

and among them a number of ladies, who 

also graced the dinner with their presence. 

DuRAND Woodman. 

Secretary 

SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
The Collected Mathematical Papers of Arthur 
Cayley. 4to. 13 Vols., each $6.25. Supple- 
mentary Vol., containing Titles of Papers 
andlndex. New York, Macmillan Co. $2.50. 
This republication by the Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press of Cayley 's papers, in collected form, 
is the most fitting monument of his splendid 
fame. 

He must ever rank as one of the greatest 
mathematicians of all time. Cayley exceedingly 
appreciated this action of the Syndics of the 
Press, and seven of the large quarto volumes 
appeared under his own editorship. 

As to what these thirteen volumes contain it 
seems vain to attempt even a summary. They 
cover the whole range of pure mathematics, 
algebra, analysis, mathematical astronomy, dy- 
namics, and in particular groups, quadratic 
forms, quan tics, etc. , etc. 

Though abreast of Sylve,ster as an analyst, he 



was, what Sylvester was not, also a geometer. 
Again and again we find the pure geometric 
methods of Poncelet and Chasles, though, per- 
haps, not full assimilation of that greater one 
than they who has now absorbed them — von 
Staudt. 

Cayley not only made additions to every im- 
portant subject of pure mathematics, but whole 
new subjects, now of the most importance, owe 
their existence to him. It is said that he is 
actually now the author most frequently quoted 
in the living world of mathematicians. His 
name is, perhaps, most closely linked with the 
word invariant, due to his great brother- in- arms, 
Sylvester. 

Boole, in 1841, had shown the invariance of 
all discriminants and given a method of deduc- 
ing some other such functions. This paper of 
Boole's suggested to Cayley the more general 
question, to find ' all the derivatives of any 
number of functions which have the property of 
preserving their form unaltered after any linear 
transformation of the variables.' His first re- 
sults, relating to what we now call invariants, 
he published in 1845. A second set of results, 
relating to what Sylvester called covariants, he 
published in 1846. Not until four or five years 
later did Sylvester take up this matter, but 
then came such a burst of genius that after his 
series of publications, in 1851-4, the giant theory 
of Invariants and Covariants was in the world 
completely equipped. 

The check came when Cayley, in his second 
Memoir on Quantics, came to the erroneous 
conclusion that the number of the asyzygetic 
invariants of binary quantics beyond the sixth 
order was infinite, ' thereby,' as Sylvester says, 
'arresting for many years the progress of the 
triumphal car wliich he had played a principal 
part in setting in motion.' 

The passages supposed to prove this are 
marked ' incorrect ' in the Collected Mathemat- 
ical Papers. But this error was not corrected 
until 1869 [Crelle, Vol. 69, pp. 323-354] by 
Gordan in his Memoir [dated 8th June, 1868] : 
" Beweis dass jede Covariante und Invariaute 
einer binaeren Form eine ganze Function mit 
numerischen Coefiicienten einer endbchen Au- 
zabl solcber Formen ist." 

Cayley at once returned to the question , found 



60 



SCIENGE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



the source of his mistake, the unsuspected and 
so neglected interdependence of certain syzygies, 
and devoted his Ninth Memoir on Quantics (7th 
April, 1870) to the correction of his error and 
a further development of the theory iu the light 
of Gordan's results. 

The whole of this primal theory of invariants 
may now be regarded as a natural and elegant 
application of Lie's theory of continuous groups. 
The differential parameters, which in the or- 
dinary theory of binary forms enable us to cal- 
culate new invariants from known ones, appear 
in a simple way as differential invariants of 
certain linear groups. The Lie theory may be 
illustrated by a simple example. 

Consider the binary quadratic form 

/ = ao.x-2 + 2ai.T?/ -\-a.,y^-. 
Applying to/ the linear transformation 

( 1 ) x = axi + Py', y = yx' + Sy', 

we obtain the quadratic form 

/' = a\x'' -\- 2a\x'y' + a'^y'"', 
where the coefllcients are readily found to be 

(2) a\=a(ia, + {a6 + py)a,+yia,, 

We may easily verify the following identity : 
a\a\ — o'^i ^ [ad — /'3}')'Hao''z — «'i)- 

Hence a^a^ — a^j is an invariant of the form 
f. In the group theory it is an invariant of the 
group of linear homogeneous transformations 
(2) on the three parameters «„, «„ a.,. 

The only covariant of/ is known to be / itself. 
Iu the Lie theory it appears as the invariant of a 
linear homogeneovis group on five variables, x, 
y, a^, a,, a,, the transformations being defined 
by the equations (2), together with (1) when in- 
verted. 

In general, the invariants of a binary form of 
degree n are defined by a linear homogeneous 
group on its n -r 1 coefficients, its covariants by 
a group on n -\- S variables. 

As iu all problems in continuous groups, the 
detailed developments are greatly simplified by 
employing the infinitesimal transformations of 
the groups concerned. 

It is readily proven by the group theory that 
all invariants and covariants are expressible in 
terms of a finite number of them. 



This result is, however, not equivalent to the 
algebraic result that all rational integral in- 
variants (including covariants) are expressible 
rationally and integrally iu terms of a finite 
number of such invariants. 

Twenty years ago, in my ' Bibliography of 
Hyper Space and Non-Euclidean Geometry' 
(American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. I., Nos. 
2 and 3, 1878), I cited seven of Cayley's 
papers written before 1873 : 

I. Chapters in the Analytical Geometry of 
(}i) Dimensions. Camb. Math. Jour., Vol. IV., 
1845, pp. 119-127. 

II. Sixth Memoir on Quantics. Phil. Trans., 
Vol. 149, pp. 61-90 (1859). 

III. Note on Lobatchevsky's Imaginary 
Geometry. Phil. Mag. XXIX., pp. 231-233 
(1865). 

IV. On the rational transformation between 
two spaces. Lond. Math. Soc. Proc. III., pp. 
127-180 (1869-71). 

V. A Memoir on Abstract Geometry. Phil. 
Trans. CLX., pp. 51-63 (1870). 

VI. On the superlines of a quadric surface in 
five dimensional space. Quar. Jour., Vol. XII., 
pp. 176-180 (1871-72). 

VII. On the Non-Euclidean Geometry. 
Clebsch Math. Ann. V., pp. 630-634 (1872). 

Four of these pertain to Hyper-Space, and in 
that Bibliography I quoted Cayley as to its 
geometry as follows : 

"The science presents itself in two ways — - 
as a legitimate extension of the ordinary two,- 
and i^ree-dimensional geometries, and as a need 
in these geometries and in analysis gener- 
allj'. In fact, whenever we are concerned with 
quantities connected together iu any manner, 
and which are or are considered as variable or 
determinable, then the nature of the relation 
between the quantities is frequently rendered 
more intelligible by regarding them (if only two 
or three in number) as the coordinates of a 
point in a plane or in space : for more than 
three quantities there is, from the greater com- 
plexity of the case, the greater need of such a 
representation ; but this can only be obtained 
by means of the notion of a space of the proper 
dimensionality ; and to use such a representa- 
tion we require the geometry of such space. 

An important instance in plane geometry has 



Januaey 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



61 



actually presented itself in the question of the 
determination of the number of curves which 
satisfy given conditions ; the conditions imply 
relations between the coefficients in the equa- 
tion of the curve ; and for the better under- 
standing of these relations it was expedient to ■ 
consider the coeflficients as the coordinates of a 
point in a space of the proper dimensionality." 

For a dozen years after it was written the 
Sixth Memoir on Quantics would not have been 
enumerated in a Bibliography of non-Euclidean 
geometry, for its author did not see that it gave 
a generalization which was identifiable with 
that initiated by Bolyai and Lobach^vski, though 
afterwards, in his address to the British Asso- 
ciation, in 1883, he attributes the fundamental 
idea involved to Riemann, whose paper was 
written in 1854. 

Says Cayley : "In regarding the physical 
space of our experience as possibly non-Euclid- 
ean, Riemann's idea seems to be that of modify- 
ing the notion of distance, not that of treating 
it as a locus in four-dimensional space." 

What the Sixth Memoir was meant to do was 
to base a generalized theory of metrical geome- 
try on a generalized definition of distance. 

As Cayley himself says: " * -» * the 
theory in effect is that the metrical properties 
of a figure are not the properties of the figure 
considered per se apart from everything else, 
but its properties when considered in connection 
with another figure, viz., the conic termed the 
absolute." 

The fundamental idea that a metrical property 
could be looked at as a projective property of 
an extended system had occurred in the French 
school of geometers. Thus Laguerre (1853) so 
expresses an angle. Cayley generalized this 
French idea, expressing all metrical properties 
as projective relations to a fundamental config- 
uration. 

We may illustrate by tracing how Cayley 
arrives at his projective definition of distance. 
Two projective primal figures of the same kind 
of elements and both on the same bearer are 
called conjective. When in two conjective 
primal figures one particular element has the 
same mate to whichever figure it be regarded 
as belonging, then every element has this 
property. 



Two conjective figures, such that the elements 
are mutually paired (coupled), form an involu- 
tion. If two figures forming an involution have 
self-correlated elements these are called the 
double elements of the involution. 

An involution has at most two double ele- 
ments, for were three self-correlated all would 
be self-correlated. If an involution has two 
double elements these separate harmonically 
any two coupled elements. An involution is 
completely determined by two couples. 

From all this it follows that two point-pairs A, 
B and A^, i?, define an involution whose double 
points D, Z>j are determined as that point-pair 
which is harmonically related to the two given 
point-pairs. 

Let the pair A, B ha fixed and called the 
Absolute. Two new points A^, B^ are said (by 
definition) to be equidistant from a double point 
D defined as above. D is said to be the ' center ' 
of the pair A^, i?,. Inversely, if A^ and D be 
given, i?j is uniquely determined. 

Thus, starting from two points P and Pj, we 
determine P.^ such that Pj is the center of P and 
Pj, then determine P3 so that P^ is the center of 
Pi and P3, etc. ; also in the opposite direction 
we determine an analogous series of points 
P — 1, P — 2, .... We have, therefore, a series 
of points 

....,P— , P-i, P, P„P„P3 

at ' equal intervals of distance.' Taking the 
points P, Pi to be indefinitely near to each other, 
the entire line will be divided into a series of 
equal infinitesimal elements. 

In determining an analytic expression for the 
distance of two points Cayley introduced the 
inverse cosine of a certain function of the coor- 
dinates, but in the Note which he added in the 
Collected Papers he recognizes the improve- 
ment gained by adopting Klein's assumed defi- 
nition for the distance of any two points P, Q : 

, AP.BQ 
dist. (P® = clog^^^^^, 

where A, B are the two fixed points giving the 
Absolute. 

This definition preserves the fundamental re- 
lation 

dist. (P® + dist. {QR) = dist. (PP). 

In this note (Col. Math. Papers, Vol. 2, p. 



62 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



604) Cayley discusses the question whether the 
new definitions of distance depend upon that of 
distance in the ordinary sense, since it is obvi- 
ously unsatisfactory to use one conception of 
distance in defining a more general conception 
of distance. 

His earlier view was to regard coordinates 
' not as distances or ratios of distances, but as 
an assumed fundamental notion, not requiring 
or admitting of explanation.' Later he re- 
garded them as ' mere numerical values, at- 
tached arbitrarily to the point, in such wise 
that for any given point the ratio x : y has a de" 
terminate numerical value,' and inversely. 

But in 1871 Klein had explicitly recognized 
this difficulty and indicated its solution. He 
says : " The cross ratios (the sole fixed ele- 
ments of projective geometry) naturally must 
not here be defined, as ordinarily happens, as 
ratios of sects, since this would assume the 
knowledge of a measurement. In von Staudt's 
Beitriigen zur Geometric der Lage (§ 27. n. 
393), however, the necessary materials are given 
for defining a cross ratio as a pure number. 
Then from cross ratios we may pass to homo- 
geneous point- and plane-coordinates, which, in- 
deed, are nothing else than the relative values 
of certain cross ratios, as von Staudt has like- 
wise shown (Beitraege, § 29. n. 411)." 

This solution was not satisfactory to Cayley, 
who did not think the difficulty removed by the 
observations of von Staudt that the cross ratio 
{A, B, P, Q) has "independently of any notion 
of distance the fundamental properties of a 
numerical magnitude, viz. : any two such ratios 
have a sum and also a product, such sum and 
product being each of them a like ratio of four 
points determinable by purely descriptive con- 
structions." 

Consider, for example, the product of the 
ratios (A, S, P, Q) and {A/ B/ P/ Q'). We 
can construct a point B such that (A/ B/ P/ 
Q') = {A,B, Q, B). The product of (^, B, P, Q) 
and {A, B, Q, B) is said to be {A, B, P, B). 
This last definition of a product of two cross 
ratios, Cayley remarks, is in effect equivalent 
to the assumption of the relation dist. (PQ) 
+ dist. {QB) = dist. (PB). 

The original importance of this memoir to 
Cayley lay entirely in its exhibiting metric as a 



branch of descriptive geometry. That this gen- 
eralization of distance gave pangeometry was 
first pointed out by Klein in 1871. 

Klein showed that if Cayley's Absolute be 
real we get Bolyai's system ; if it be imaginary 
we get either spheric or a new system called by 
Klein single elliptic ; if the Absolute be an im- 
aginary point pair we get parabolic geometry ; 
and if, in particular, the point pair be the cir- 
cular points we get ordinary Euclid. 

It is maintained by B. A. W. Russell, in his 
powerful essay on the Foundations of Geometry 
(Cambridge, 1897), "that the reduction of met- 
rical to projective properties, even when, as in 
hyperbolic geometry, the Absolute is real, is 
only apparent, and has merely a technical 
validity. ' ' 

Cayley first gave evidence of acquaintance 
with non-Euclidean geometry in 1865 in the 
paper in the Philosophical Magazine, above-men- 
tioned. 

Though this is six years after the Sixth Me- 
moir, and though another six was to elapse 
before the two were connected, yet this is, I 
think, the very first appreciation of Lobachev- 
sky in any mathematical journal. 

Baltzer has received deserved honor for in 
1866 calling the attention of Holiel to Lobachev- 
sky's ' GeometrischeUntersuchungen,' and from 
the spring thus opened actually flowed the flood 
of ever-broadening °non-Euclidean research. 

But whether or not Cayley's path to these 
gold-fields was ever followed by any one else, 
still he had therein marked out a claim for 
himself a whole year before the others. 

In 1872, after the connection with the Sixth 
Memoir had been set up, Cayley takes up the 
matter in his paper, in the Mathemaiische An- 
nalen,' On the Non-Euclidean Geometry,' which 
begins as follows: "The theory of the non- 
Euclidean geometry, as developed in Dr. Klein's 
paper ' Ueber die Nicht-Euclidische Geometrie,' 
may be illustrated by showing how in such a 
system we actually measure a distance and an 
angle, and by establishing the trigonometry of 
such a system." 

I confine myself to the ' hyperbolic ' case of 
plane geometry : viz., the Absolute is here a real 
conic, which for simplicity I take to be a circle ; 
and I attend to the points within the circle. 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



63 



I use the simple letters, a, A, . . to denote 
(linear or angular) distances measured in the 
ordinary manner ; and the same letters with a 
superscript stroke (i, ^, . . to denote the same 
distances measured according to the theory. 
The radius of the Absolute is for convenience 
taken to be = 1 ; the distance of any point from 
the center can, therefore, be represented as the 
sine of an angle. 

The distance BC, or say a, of any two points 
B,C is by definition as follows : 

BICJ 
BJ^I 



:*] 



(where I, J" are the intersections of the line BC 
with the circle). 

As for the trigonometry " the formulas are, in 
fact, similar to those of spherical trigonometry 
with only cosh a, sinh a, etc., instead of cos a, 
sin a, etc." 

Cayley returned again to this matter in his 
celebrated Presidential Address to the British 
Association (1883), saying there: "It is well 
known that Euclid's twelfth axiom, even in 
Play fair's form of it, has been considered as 
needing demonstration ; and that Lobatsch^v- 
sky constructed a perfectly consistent theory, 
whei'ein this axiom was assumed not to hold 
good, or say a system of non-Euclidean plane 
geometry. There is a like system of non- 
Euclidean solid geometry." 

"But suppose the physical space of our ex- 
perience to be thus only approximately Euclid- 
ean space, what is the consequence which fol- 
lows?" 

The very next year this ever-interesting sub- 
ject recurs in the paper (May 27, 1884) ' On the 
Non-Euclidean Plane Geometry.' "Thus the 
geometry of the pseudo-sphere, using the ex- 
pression straight line to denote a geodesic of 
the surface, is the Lobatschevskian geometry; 
or, rather, I would say this in regard to the 
metrical geometry, or trigonometry, of the sur- 
face; for in regard to the descriptive geometry 
the statement requires some qualification * * * 
this is not identical with the Lobatschevskian 
geometry, but corresponds to it in a manner such 
as that in which the geometry of the surface of 
the circular cylinder corresponds to that of the 
plane. I would remark that this realization of. 



the Lobatschevskian geometry sustains the 
opinion that Euclid's twelfth axiom is un- 
demoustrable." 

But here this necessarily brief notice must 
abruptly stop. Cayley, in addition to his won- 
drous originality, was assuredly the most learned 
and erudite of mathematicians. Of him in his 
science it might be said he knew everything, 
and he was the very last man who ever will 
know everything. His was a very gentle, 
sweet character. Sylvester told me he never 
saw him angry but once, and that was (both 
were practicing law !) when a messenger broke 
in on one of their interviews with a mass of 
legal documents — new business for Cayley. In 
an access of disgust, Cayley dashed the docu- 
ments upon the floor. 

George Bruce Halsted. 

Austin, Texas. 

Commercial Organic Analysis. A treatise on the 
properties, proximate analytical examina- 
tion, and modes of assaying the various or- 
ganic chemicals and products employed in 
the arts, manufactures, medicine, with concise 
methods for the detection and determination 
of their impurities, adulterations and prod- 
ucts of decomposition. By Alfred H. Allen, 
F. I. C, F. C. S. Third Edition. Illustrated. 
With revisions and addenda by the author 
and Henry Leffmann, M.A., M.D. Phila- 
delphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1898. 
Volume I., Introductions, alcohols, neutral 
alcoholic derivatives, sugars, starch and its 
isomers, vegetable acids, etc. ; pp. xii+557; 
- Price, $4.-50. Volume IV., The proteids 
and albuminous principles; Second Edition; 
pp. xi+584; Price, $4.50. 
The immediate reason for the present publi- 
cation of the first volume of the third edition of 
this well-known work has been the appearance 
of an unauthorized reprint of the second edition. 
As the second edition was printed in 1885 it is 
out of date on some points, and many desirable 
additions and corrections have been made, 
partly by Mr. Allen, partly by Dr. Leffmann. 
The plan of the book not only includes careful 
directions for the analysis of commercial organic 
substances, and in many cases a discussion of 
various methods which have been proposed. 



64 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



but it also gives very many illustrations of 
actual cases of adulteration, and of diflBcult 
problems in analysis which have come under 
the observation of the author and of others. 
These features of the worli make it almost in- 
dispensable for any chemist who has occasion 
to make analyses in this field. Any one inter- 
ested in organic chemistry, indeed, will find 
very many things in the work which are valu- 
able and useful. 

In a work of such extent, and especially in 
one which has grown to its present form during 
many years under the hands of a busy ana- 
lyst, it would be impossible that there should 
not be some things which do not correspond to 
the best present knowledge. Thus, the same 
principle which led the author to give Victor 
Meyer's air-displacement method for the deter- 
mination of molecular weights should have been 
the occasion for giving the freezing-point and 
boiling-point methods, which would be much 
more generally useful for analytical purposes. 
On p. 210 arsenic (from the red phosphorus 
used in its preparation) should have been given 
as an impurity to be looked for in ethyl bro- 
mide. On p. 247 arabinose is incorrectly given 
as a hexose. On p. 342 ' alumina cream ' is 
given as a reagent with a reference to p. 357, 
but directions for its preparation cannot be 
found on that page or by means of the index. 
Some other criticisms of a similar sort might be 
made, but it would be a thankless task for a 
reviewer to select, among thousands of state- 
ments which are correct and valuable, a few 
which might be improved. 

The fourth volume is the last of the second 
edition. It discusses the analysis of proteids 
and albuminous principles. The first portion 
of the book gives the classification and general 
analytical reactions of the proteids. Then fol- 
low directions for the analytical examination 
of the proteids of eggs, blood plasma, urine, 
plants, milk, meat, of digestion ( pepsin, pep- 
tones, etc.) and of blood. Under the head of 
proteoids or albuminoids, such substances as 
gelatine, glue, silk, hair and wool are consid- 
ered. The following statement from the preface 
is especially significant: "I may here repeat 
that I am fully conscious that much of the mat- 
ter of Volume IV. is scarcely such as might be 



expected to be contained in a work purporting 
to treat of Commercial Analysis, but I have 
thought it better to include all facts possessing 
for me an analytical or practical interest, be- 
lieving that what I find useful myself will also 
be of value or interest to others." It is just 
because Mr. Allen has made these books in- 
clusive rather than exclusive that they prove so 
useful to the experienced chemist. 

W. A. NOYES. 

Sewerage: The Designing, Consiniciion and 
Maintenance of Seiverage Systems. By A. 
Peescott Folwell. New York, John Wiley 
&Sons. 1898. 8vo. Pp. x+372. Price, $3.00. 
The whole subject of sewerage is naturally 
divided into three parts: first, the plumbing and 
drainage of houses ; second, the street con- 
duits and their appurtenances ; third, the dis- 
posal and purification of the sewage. This 
volume deals with the second part of the sub- 
ject almost exclusively, only seven pages being 
devoted to the first and sixteen pages to the 
third. The facts and discussions are hence 
mainly from the point of view of the construct- 
ing engineer rather than from the sanitary side, 
and the object is to give directions for building 
an efiicient plant for the removal of sewage 
from a town and maintaining it in proper re- 
pair and cleanliness. This object is accom- 
plished in a very satisfactory manner. 

The use of cesspools as a receptacle for the 
refuse of houses is severely condemned ; the 
author has found the soil of a city street col- 
ored black by the liquid from a cesspool 75 feet 
distant, which must have passed under or 
around the cellar of a house. The pail sys- 
tems of removal, used somewhat in France and 
England, as also the earth-closet system, are re- 
garded as vastly preferable to the cesspool and 
privy methods which are so generally used in 
villages, and it is recommended that towns 
without a water suj)ply should introduce them 
as a temporary measure. Towns having a good 
supply of water should introduce a water-car- 
riage system in preference to all other methods 
on account of its great sanitary advantages. 

The two water-carriage systems in common 
use, called the combined system and the sep- 
arate system, are described and compared, and 



Januaey 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



65 



the methods for designing and constructing 
sewers for each are presented in full detail. 
The combined system carries both the house 
sewage and the storm water, while the separate 
system carries only the former, with a small ad- 
ditional amount of water for flushing. The 
first system may be the more advantageous 
when the conditions require an underground sys- 
tem of conduits to dispose of the flood water, 
and the second may be better when the storm 
water can be easily carried away through the 
street gutters. In general, the separate system 
has been found lower in cost than the combined 
one for small towns, and hence its extensive use 
during recent years. 

The author's treatment of methods of flush- 
ing and cleaning sewers is full and thorough. 
With respect to ventilation he concludes that 
chimneys, fans and other devices have been un- 
successful and that no method better than al- 
lowing free egress and ingress of air through 
manholes, street basins and house-roof pipes, 
has yet been found. Analyses of sewer air 
have failed to show greater impurity than that 
in the air of a crowded city street, whether car- 
bon dioxide or number of bacteria be taken as 
the basis of comparison, and hence no objection 
except that due to sentiment can be made to 
this method of ventilation. The methods of 
cleaning street basins and sewers and of remov- 
ing obstructions are explained at length ; for 
the small pipe sewers wooden balls called 
' pills ' are run through with the current, each 
successive one being greater in size than the 
preceding ; for those larger than one foot in 
diameter a cylindrical carriage traveling on 
wheels is employed. The annual cost of clean- 
ing such pipe sewers is said to range from $4 to 
$15 per mile. 

The book is carefully written, well illustrated, 
and contains many tables for facilitating com- 
putations. It is the only American work which 
deals in detail with the construction of the 
sewers of both the combined and separate sys- 
tems. This is the correct plan of treatment, for 
there is no inherent reason why one is prefer- 
able to the other, and the engineer, in each 
particular case, must determine from the local 
conditions the most economic and efficient sys- 
tem. M. M. 



Cuba and Porto Rico, with the other Islands of the 
West Indies : Their Topography, Climate, Flora, 
Products, Industries, Cities, People, Political 
Conditions, etc. By Robert T. Hill, of the 
United States Geological Survey. New York, 
The Century Company. 1898. 8vo. Pp. 
xxviii + 429. 2 maps. 79 plates. 
Although popular in treatment, this book 
contains much information of value to specialists 
in geology and anthropology. Based primarily 
on personal observation during several ex- 
tended journeys through the West Indies, it is 
enriched by large acquaintance with the litera- 
ture of the West Indies covering the centuries 
since the discovery of the New W^orld and the 
planting of the first European colony on the 
Island of Martinique. In his first chapter 
(' The Geographic Relations of the West In- 
dies ') the author emphasizes his own general- 
ization as to the genetic independence of the 
three great regions of the western hemisphere, 
North America, Central America with its An- 
tillean extension, and South America ; in the 
next three chapters (' The West Indian Waters,' 
'The Classification of the West Indian Islands,' 
and 'The Great Antilles') the subject is ex- 
panded and illustrated by details ; while the 
thirty-sixth chapter ('Geological Features of 
the West Indies') is the most convenient sum- 
mary extant of the geologic history, struc- 
ture and mineral resources of this half-sub- 
merged portion of the mid-American continent. 
Additional facts concerning the geology of the 
islands are scattered through many of the chap- 
ters, with significant details concerning the 
flora, fauna and climate. In the eleventh 
chapter (' The People of Cuba'), the eighteenth 
chapter ('The People of Porto Rico'), the 
twenty-second chapter (' Cities and People of 
Jamaica') the description of the Republic of 
Haiti, and the thirty-seventh chapter (' Race 
Problems in the West Indies'), as well as in 
other portions of the book, the population is 
described in a notably appreciative way, the 
mythology and industries I'eceiving especial 
attention. Throughout, the volume gives 
evidence of careful observation and mature 
thought, as well as a strong grasp of the scien- 
tific and social problems of the region ; it gives 
promise of becoming not merely the most 



66 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



useful current haud-book on the West Indies, 
but a contribution of permanent value to the 
literature of that part of the western hemi- 
sphere. It is admirably printed, artistically 
bound, amply illustrated, satisfactorily indexed, 
and well arranged for reference, as well as for 
consecutive reading. 

W J M. 

The Birds of Indiana. By Amos W. Butler. 

22d Report of the Department of Geology 

and Natural Resources of Indiana. 1897. 

8vo. Pp. 515-1187. 5 plates and numerous 

cuts in the text. 

Commissions for the preparation of State Nat- 
ural History Reports so often fall into incom- 
petent hands that all ornithologists, and par- 
ticularly those students of birds residing in the 
State of Indiana, may congratulate themselves 
that a person so well qualified as Mr. Butler 
was selected to write the work under consider- 
ation. 

The matter relating to the birds known to 
occur in Indiana is preceded by sections on the 
'Indiana Bird Law,' the physiography of 
the State (from Dryer's ' Studies in Indiana 
Geography'), ' Peculiarities affecting Bird Dis- 
tribution,' 'Changes in Bird- Life,' 'Destruction 
of Birds,' 'Zoological Areas' and 'Bird Migra- 
tion.' There is also a bibliography giving some 
212 titles. 

This is followed by keys to the orders, fam- 
ilies, genera and speties, and biographies of the 
321 species recorded from Indiana, including 
descriptions of their plumages, general and 
local ranges, nests, eggs, times and manner of 
occurrences and habits. The rej^ort, in fact, is 
a complete ornithology of Indiana. 

Mr. Butler has followed the excellent plan of 
securing the best available material, for the use 
of which he makes ample acknowledgment. 
Thus his keys are taken from Bidgway's and 
Jordan's 'Manuals,' his illustrations from the 
publications of the U. S. Biological Survey and 
Coues's 'Key,' while the number of local ob- 
servers quoted assures us that the work con- 
tains all existing and desired information and 
that it will long remain the standard authority 
on Indiana birds. We trust, therefore, that a 
sufiiciently large edition has been printed to 



prevent its early classification with other State 
lists, which become ' out-of-print ' before those 
who could make the best use of them learn of 
their existence. 

F. M. C. 

The Butterfly Book. A Popular Guide to a Knowl- 
edge of the Butterflies of North America. By 
W. J. Holland. New York, Doubleday & 
McClure Co. 1898. Imp. 8vo. Pp. xx + 
382. 48 colored plates. 183 figures in the 
text. Price, $3.00. 

As the secondary title indicates, this work 
was prepared to meet a popular need. The pref- 
ace says : " It is essentially popular in its char- 
acter. Those who seek a more technical treat- 
ment must resort to the writings of others.." 
Nevertheless, it will ' have utility also for the 
scientific student,' since ' the successful develop- 
ment in recent months of the process of repro- 
ducing in colors photographic representations of 
objects has been, to a certain degree, the argu- 
ment for the publication ' of the work. The 
forty- eight plates have been reproduced by the 
new process known popularly as ' three-color 
printing,' and this is its first application so far 
as we know — certainly on such a scale — to but- 
terflies. It is, however, an unquestionable and 
surprising success, destined — if the extraordi- 
narily low price at which the book is sold be any 
guide — to come into very general use. The rep- 
resentation of the colors as well as of the pattern 
outstrips all that can be done by chromolithog- 
raphy, and has the added value of an accuracy 
unattainable except at the high cost of the very 
best workmanship. As the photographic method 
employed requires the use of a screen, as in so- 
called 'half-tone ' work, there is a certain loss 
of vividness, but it appears to be even less than 
is ordinarily the case with half-tones from a 
photographic print. This may be seen by an 
examination of the five plates of caterpillars 
and chrysalids copied from my ' Butterflies of the 
Eastern United States,' where direct comparison 
is available. There are, it is true, a few, but 
very few, unaccountable and generally very 
slight changes in tint (as in PL 2, Fig. 20 ; PI. 
3, Fig. 18, and PL 5, Fig. 3), and occasionally a 
blurring, or at least a loss of sharpness, due to 
imperfect registering, but such mishaps would 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



67 



ordinarily be noticed only by an expert, so that 
we must welcome this new process as a great 
boon. How diflferent copies agree we have not 
tested. 

We have spoken thus in detail regarding the 
plates, not only from our hope regarding this 
new process, but because of their special value 
from a scientific point of view; a large number 
of the figures being. Chancellor Holland states, 
photographic reproductions from the types of 
the butterflies described. Strange to say, it is 
only in a very few instances that the author 
has specified which these are, and so he has lost 
an easy opportunity of adding greatly to their 
value. 

Not all the North American species are de- 
scribed or figured in the work, the author quail- 
ing before the numerous and rather insignificant 
Hesperidae, of which but little more than one- 
half are treated, and omitting many others 
found in our lists, but either of doubtful specific 
validity or differing from their allies by distinc- 
tions too fine for any but the expert. This is 
in the interest of the popular audience to which 
the work appeals. It is, in fact, an iconography 
of all the forms interesting an amateur, and 
more. The only really desirable addition would 
have been to give more figures of the under- 
surface where this is characteristic, but one 
should not quarrel with the generosity here 
displayed; none can possibly complain that he 
does not get his money's worth, at least. 

As to the text of the work, the first fifth of 
the book is given up to introductory matter on 
structure, collecting, etc., and the remainder 
(except a few interspersed essays) to a systematic 
but very general account of the insects figured, 
with very many text illustrations, principally 
of neuration. The different groups are de- 
scribed as well as the species — a desirable fea- 
ture, but one not altogether common in popular 
works; and the classification used is more 
modern than in most of such books. The au- 
thor's use of genera is not equal, and is 'con- 
servative' — that is, there are many magazine 
genera here and there, but with a tendency to 
the discrimination of later times. The descrip- 
tions of the species are short — often very short; 
and attention is paid to the early stages, but 
almost absolutely none at all to life- histories, 



which should be one of the principal aims in a 
popular treatise. 

The work will surely command a large sale 
and prove a great stimulus to the study of but- 
terflies. Certainly we have never before had 
such a generous aid to those wishing to cover 
the whole field. Why should the publishers 
stamp the cover 'The Butter-Fly Book?' The 
author surely is not responsible for this, for the 
proofs have been well read. The publishers have, 
otherwise, done their part well; the topography 
is clear and careful, and there is a good index. 
Samuel H. Scuddee. 

books received. 
3Iichael Faraday, his Life and Works. Sylvanus P. 

TH03IPS0N. New York, The Macmillan Co. 1898. 

Pp. X + 308. 
The Elements of Physics. Edward L. Nichols and 

William S Franklin. Vol. I., Mechanics 

and Heat. Kew edition, revised with additions. 

New York, The Macmillan Co. 18S>8. Pp. xiii -|- 

219. $1.50. 
Principles of Plant Culture. E. S. GoFF. Madison, 

The Author. 1899. Pp. 287. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 
The Psychological Review for January opens 
with Professor Miinsterberg's presidential ad- 
dress before the American Psychological Asso- 
ciation, the subject being ' Psychology and 
History.' This address, together with other 
articles that Professor Miinsterberg has recently 
published in the Atlantic Monthly and elsewhere 
on the subject-matter of psychology and its re- 
lations to other sciences and to philosophj', will 
shortly be issued in book form by Messrs. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. Professor J. E. Angell and 
MissH. B. Thompson contribute from the labora- 
tory of the University of Chicago a study of the 
relations between certain organic processes and 
consciousness, elaborately illustrated with trac- 
ings of pulse and breathing. Mrs. C. Ladd 
Franklin publishes her paper on Professor Miil- 
ler's 'Theory of the Light-sense,' read before 
the recent meeting of the American Associa- 
tion. There are other articles on 'Theories of 
Play,' by Mr. H. M. Stanley; on ' Eucken's 
Struggle for a Spiritual Content of Life,' by 
Professor Francis Kennedy, and on ' The Effects 
of Ether.' 



6 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



The Educational Review for January, which 
is tlie first number of the seventeenth volume, 
opens with an article by Dr. W. T. Harris on 
the future of the normal school, reviewing ' the 
five stages ' in education. Dr. Harris quotes 
for edification the anecdotes of Newton and the 
apple and Cuvier reconstructing an extinct ani- 
mal from a single bone. Professor Thurston con- 
tributes the paper on professional and academic 
schools read by him at the Association of Col- 
leges and Preparatory Schools of the Middle 
States and Maryland, and Dr. E. L. Thorndike 
points out the sentimentality of nature study, 
which interferes with the teaching of science. 

The Macmillan Company announces the pub- 
lication, in February, under the editorship of 
Mr. Frank BI. Chapman, of the first number of 
a popular bi monthly magazine, addressed to 
observers rather than to collectors of birds. 
The contributors will include John Burroughs, 
Dr. Henry Van Dyke, Bradford Torrey, Olive 
Thorne Miller, Mabel Osgood Wright, Annie 
Trumbull Slosson, Florence A. Merriam, J. A. 
Allen, William Brewster, Henry Nehrling, Ern- 
est Seton'Thompson, Otto Widmann and numer- 
ous other writers. 

A Yearbook of Neurology and Psychiatry 
is announced by S. Karger, Berlin, edited by 
Drs. Flatau and Jacobsohn, under the direction 
of Professor Mendel. The work is prepared 
with the cooperation of a large number of lead- 
ing German neurologists, and will perform a 
useful function, owing to the wide dispersion in 
many journals of publications on the subjects 
included. It will give not only a bibliography 
of some thirty-five hundred titles of the litera- 
ture of 1897, but also short reviews of their 
contents. 

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILA- 
DELPHIA. 

October 4. Mr. Louis Woolman, reporting on 
a specimen of the earth said to be eaten in the 
South, received through Mr. Wilfred H. 
Harned from Davidson county, N. C, stated 
that the substance is not diatomaceous. It had 
been found, on examination by Mr. S. H. 
Hamilton, to be composed of twenty per cent. 



silica and eighty per cent, of kaolin, with a trace 
of alum. 

Mr. Edw. Goldsmith spoke of the igneous 
origin of the rocks on the Massachusetts coast. 
He suggested that they are of the same age as 
the Pennsylvania traps and may, therefore, 
furnish evidence of the existence of craters. 

October 11. Mr. Philip P. Calvert, in con- 
nection with the meeting of the Entomological 
Section, presented a statement on recent study 
of neuroptera, reviewing the work of the last 
three years, or since 1895, when a synopsis of 
the natural history of the dragon-flies was given 
before the International Congress of Zoology by 
Dr. De Selys Longchamp, whose work on these 
insects extends over a period of sixty-seven 
years. He has described at least one-half of 
the two thousand recognized species. The im- 
portant papers published since the date given 
were reviewed and their scope commented on. 

Mr. Charles S. Welles described a vast 
swarm of the larvse of Daremma Catalpss ob- 
served during the summer at Media. The de- 
velopment and distribution of the insect were 
described and illustrated by specimens. 

Dr. Henry Skinner further commented on 
the life-history of the species. 

Mr. Wither Stone spoke of the distribution 
and relationship oi Neotoma pennsylvanica and its 
separation from the fossil Neotoma magister, de- 
scribed by Baird from the caves of Pennsylvania. 

October IS. Dr. Edw. J. Nolan presented to 
the Academy five volumes prepared as a me- 
morial of the late Dr. Joseph Leidy. They con- 
sist of a collection of biographical notices, 
portraits, autograph letters, manuscripts, ori- 
ginal drawings of botanical and zoological sub- 
jects and notes, the latter having been con- 
tributed for the most part by Mrs. Leidy. After 
describing the contents of the volumes, Dr. 
Nolan commented on the attainments and per- 
sonal character of the distinguished naturalist 
out of loving regard for whom they had been 
prepared. 

Mr. John A. Shulze called attention to 
specimens of Isthmia nervosa from Hudson's 
Strait. The species was formerly supposed to 
be confined to the western coast. Its georaph- 
ical distribution was further considered by Mr. 
Lewis Woolman and BIr. Frank J. Keeley. 



Januaky 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



69 



Mr. N. H. Haened and Dr. J. C. Morris 
spoke of the effect of a plentiful supply of water 
on the growth of trees. 

October 25. Dr. Daniel G. Brinton made a 
communication, illustrated by specimens from 
the Academy's collections, on the ethnography 
and resources of the Philippine Islands. 

Professor J. Wharton James, by invita- 
tion, spoke of the Enchanted Meza and con- 
sidered the statements of Professors Libbey and 
Hodge on the subject. He believed that, while 
there was evidence of the former presence of 
man on the Meza, the weight of testimony was 
entirely opposed to his ever having had perma- 
nent places of abode there. 

Professor Libbey, who was present, being 
called on by the President, recounted his ex- 
perience in exploring the Meza and dwelt on 
the care with which he had reached his results. 
He declared that the cairn described by Hodge 
and Lummis has been built by himself. He 
agreed with Professor James that the top might 
have been temporarily occupied, but he was 
sure it never was a place of residence. 

November 1. Me. Stewardson Brown de- 
scribed the results of a recent botanical explora- 
tion of the South Mountain region of Somerset 
County, Pa., a district curiously distinct in its 
vegetation. The characteristic plants were 
enumerated. 

Mr. Joseph Willcox spoke of the use of 
fresh-water mussels in the manufacture of pearl 
buttons. 

November S. Mr. H. A. Pilsbry described 
the physical characters of the Koan Mountain 
region of North Carolina, and dwelt in detail 
on the mollusca collected there. Even when 
the species are widely distributed they are here 
remarkable as presenting mountain modifica- 
tions varying from racial characters to those 
of distinct species. The carinated forms of 
Polygyra, for instance, are extremely character- 
istic and found nowhere else. The district, 
in fact, has more peculiar species than any other 
outside the tropics. He was at a loss to account 
for this individuality. 

Mr. Arthur Erwin Brown called attention 
to the specific characters of the Ourang, his 
observations being based on specimens in the 
Zoological Garden of Philadelphia and the 



museum of the Academy. He believed in the 
existence of two well-marked species, the 
Simla Satyris of Liunajus and the Simia Wurmbii 
of Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 

November 15. BIr. S. D. Holman communi- 
cated the life-history of Pleuromonas as observed 
in covered life-slides. 

Mr. Philip P. Calvert and Dr. Benjamin 
Sharp spoke on the subject of cutaneous respira- 
tion. 

November S3. Dr. A. F. Witmer, under the 
auspices of the Anthropological Section, made a 
communication on involution and the diseases 
of senility, dwelling on the atavistic tendency 
to certain diseases with special reference to 
forms of neurasthenia and their pathological 
conditions. 

Dr. Henry C. Chapman spoke of the modern 
theory of the neuron, placing himself on record 
as believing that it rests on no foundation 
whatever. 

November S9. A symposium was held on the 
natural history of the Philippines illustrated by 
specimens from the Academy's collections. Mr. 
Pilsbry spoke of the distribution and characters 
of the mollusca; Mr. Witmer Stone of the birds 
and mammals ; Mr. Stewardson Brown of the 
plants; Dr. Henry Skinner of the lepidoptera, 
and Mr. P. P. Calvert of the dragon-flies. 

Mr. Stone placed on record the recent finding 
of a small rodent, Oryzimiis palustria, in New 
Jersey. It had been discovered in 1816 by 
Bachman in South Carolina, and the specimen 
belonging to the Academy, described by Harlan, 
had been regarded as incorrectly labelled, re- 
peated search having failed to find the form in 
New Jersey until a week ago, when a number 
were collected in the southern part of the State 
by Mr. Henry W. Warrington. 

December 6. Dr. Florence Bascom called 
the attention of the meeting to the determina- 
tion of rock constituents with special reference 
to optical methods, the application of polarized 
light to the work being particularly dwelt on 
and illustrated. 

December 13. Dr. J. C. Morris presented, in 
connection with the meeting of the Biological 
and Microscopical Section, a history of micro- 
scopic study and the develoiDment of microscopes 
and microscopic preparations during the last 



70 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



fifty years, dwelling particularly on the work 
accomplished by Leidy, Goddard, Neill, Hyrtl 
and Gibbons Hunt before the recent improve- 
ments in methods and instruments were heard 
of. The communication was illustrated by a 
large number of instruments and slides and was 
fully discussed by Messrs. Goldsmith, Keeley, 
Calvert and Dixon. 

Papers under the following titles have re- 
cently been presented for publication: 

Some Cuban Species of Cerion. By H. A. 
Pilsbry and E. G. Vauatta. 

Notes ou the Growth of the Hobble-bush, 
Viburnum lantanoides. By Ida A. Keller. 

The Occurrence of Marcasite in the Karitan 
Formation. By S. H. Hamilton. 

Margarita Sharpii, a new Alaskan Gastropod. 
By H. A. Pilsbry. 

The Bone-Cave at Port Kennedy, Pennsyl- 
vania, and its partial examination in 1894, 
1895 and 1896. By Henry C. Mercer. 

Observations on the Classification of Birds. 
By Dr. K. W. Shufeldt. 

A Study of the Type Specimens of Birds in 
the Collection of the Academy, with a brief 
history of the Collection. By Witmer Stone. 

Mr. Mercer's paper will be published in the 
Journal of the Academy, the others in the Pro- 
ceedings. 

E. J. Nolan, 

Secretary. 

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE SENSATION OF MOTION AND ITS EEVEESAL. 

To THE Editor of Science : The writer 
has for a number of years noticed, during rail- 
way journeys, a very peculiar reversal of sensa- 
tions of motion received through the eye, of 
which he has never seen any description or ex- 
planation. The following description and ex- 
planation may, therefore, interest the readers of 
Science. A sensation of reversed motion of 
stationary points in the field of vision is per- 
ceived by the writer after gazing fixedly out of 
a car window at a moving landscape. This 
sensation is quite intense when the eyes are 
first turned away from the window, dies away 
gradually, and is greatly weakened by atten- 
tive vision. For example, when looking out of 
the rear door of the train the various objects in 



the visual field appear to move towards the 
center of the field, and upon turning the eyes 
upon an object in the car everything seems to 
move away from the center of the visual field ; 
if the train comes to a quick stop while the 
eyes gaze steadily out at a window the motion 
of the landscape and the inferred motion 
of the train appears to be momentarily reversed 
at stopping, etc. 

The existence of this sensation of motion of 
stationary objects seems to indicate that neither 
the succession of stimuli nor the stimulation of 
successive nerve elements is the fundamental 
fact in the sensation of motion, but rather 
that the sensation of motion, like other 
specific sensations, depends upon a state of 
nervous commotion, a state which has, of course, 
resulted from and is the integral effect of a suc- 
cession of stimuli. A concrete notion of the 
character of this state of nervous commotion is 
as follows : 

End organs. 
A 




_ _ 'V- 
Cx X X X X X 

Cells of central organ 



X D 



Let the dots A B represent the end organs of 
sight — rods and cones — and the crosses C D the 
nerve cells of the central organ. We may im- 
agine each end organ to be connected, either 
directly or through ganglion cells, with a num- 
ber of the cells of the central organ. Let us 
consider the connections indicated by the diag- 
onal full lines and dotted lines. A succession 
of stimuli of the end organs from A to B and 
a succession from B to A would result in radi- 
cally different states of nervous commotion, 
especially if the cross connections are not en- 
tirely symmetrical or if the connecting nerve 
fibers are loaded with ganglion cells. Also 
during a succession of stimuli from A to B the 
fibers represented by the full lines might be fa- 
tigued, while the ones indicated by the dotted 
lines might be saved by inhibition due to the 
(outgoing) commotion to which they are sub- 
jected in advance of the moving stimulus, so 
that the effects of this moving stimulus reach 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



71 



the central organs mainly through the full-line 
connections. A simultaneous stimulus of all the 
end organ from A to B would then reach the 
central organ mainly through the dotted con- 
nections just as would a stimulus moving from 
B to A. 

W. S. Feanklin. 

OCCURRENCE OF THE VIEGINIA OPOSSUM IN 
SOUTHERN CENTRAL NEW YORK. 

During the present year several Virginia 
o\)oss,xxYas {Didelphisvirgimana)'ha,\e been killed 
near Owego, Tioga Co., N.Y. Some twelve years 
ago a farmer residing near here told me he had 
killed one. Last fall a large female was killed 
on a mountain side two miles east of this vil- 
lage, and while myself hunting a mile farther 
east, on December 3d, I met a hunter who had 
just caught two. He had tracked them a mile 
or so through the snow, and finally dug them 
out of a woodchuck's hole. They were both 
dead when found, probably having starved, as 
their stomachs were empty. Their skulls are 
in my possession. Several days later he secured 
another, an old one, the sex I do not know. It 
was taken four miles west of where the two 
young ones were captured. The animal is 
alive and in his possession. This man is an old- 
time hunter and trapper, and considered truth- 
ful. He told me he had seen their tracks sev- 
eral times before. I have failed to learn of any- 
one who has liberated a pair of these animals 
or even had a pair in captivity. The capture 
of two, early in the fall, has come to me, but I 
cannot say if it is authentic. 

I wish particularly to note that this record 
comes from Owego, N. Y., not Oswego, two 
widely separated places. 

J. Alden Loring. 

Owego, N. Y. 



NOTES ON INORGANIC CBEIIISTEY. 
The December number of the Journal of the 
American Chemical Society contains an extended 
review of the year's progress in applied chem- 
istry by Dr. Wm. McMurtrie. Development 
along these lines is going on more rapidly 
than ever before, and it is encouraging to note 
that this country is taking its place as an im- 
portant factor in chemical technology. While 



Germany will long hold the first place in 
those industries in which chemistry plays an 
important part, America has already become 
an important factor, especially in the field of 
electro-chemistry, and it requires little effort of 
the imagination to see, in the not-far-distant 
future, the supremacy crossing the water. Dr. 
McMurtrie' s review is well worth careful perusal 
by the economist as well as the chemist. Only 
a few points can be noticed in this column. In 
Germany, at the close of 1896, 96 chemical 
works, with $64,000,000 capital, gave a return 
of nearly $8,000,000, an average of 12.3 /o as 
against 8.9fc for 1897. Of these the coal tar 
industries gave the highest returns, 24/^, while 
the fertilizer industries gave the lowest. An 
interesting announcement has been made by 
Dupre that gold can be extracted from ores 
by an inexpensive solution containing sodium 
thiosulfate, ferric halids, with an acetate. The 
solution extracts fifteen to twenty times as much 
gold as a cyanid solution in the same time, and 
does not attack sulfids ; hence, if the success of 
the process is confirmed, it may be expected to 
replace the cyanid and chlorination processes 
for low grade and sulfid ores. Great progress 
has been made in the metallurgy of zinc, and 
there is every reason to believe that within a 
few years the old and unsatisfactory process 
will be entirely displaced, except for very pure 
ores. The use of the electric furnace is revo- 
lutionizing the preparation of phosphorus, and 
with the increased production in France and 
Russia, and prospective developments in Ger- 
many and at Niagara Falls, the English mo- 
nopoly is seriously threatened. The advantage.^ 
of the new processes are both the reduction of 
price and the increased protection of the health 
of the operatives. The electrolytic alkali in- 
dustry is still in an experimental stage, but 
with the certainty of future success, indeed, it 
may be said that the great question to-day is 
the selection and development of the best elec- 
trolytic method. Already in the manufacture 
of potassium chlorate the electrolytic methods 
have taken the lead, with a consequent marked 
fall in price. The commercial production of 
liquid air and of oxygen on a large scale will 
render possible many new developments along 
many lines. The production of calcium carbid 



72 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



aiul acetylene continues to attract much atten- 
tion. Ten French factories are now making cal- 
cium earbid and four more are being built, and it 
is said two French villages are lighted wholly by 
acetylene gas, at a cost of 50 per cent, less than 
coal gas. On the other hand, Welsbach is mak- 
ing improvements in his burner, and Nernst 
gives hope of a yet more brilliant and econom- 
ical source of light, as has already been de- 
scribed in the columns of Science. In conclu- 
sion. Dr. McMurtrie says: "In every direction 
industrial progress is suggestive, and we may 
expect advancement in all directions with in- 
creasing intensity. Commercial artificial indigo, 
commercial artificial silk, commercial mercer- 
ized cotton in its various forms, the new colors 
and medicinal substances from carbon com- 
pounds, new concentrated nutritive substances, 
synthetic albumen, the various toxins and ex- 
tracts of animal matters of therapeutic value, all 
claim a large share of attention ; and so do 
hundreds of other substances and processes in 
which the principles of chemistry find applica- 
tion to human needs." 

In the Italian Oazetta RebufFat contributes an 
exhaustive study of hydraulic cements. These 
he divides into two classes : (1) amorphous, 
compact cements, which consist of lime, calci- 
um orthosilicate and calcium aluminate, in 
which, however, the free lime may be wanting ; 
this class contains the hydraulic limes and quick 
settling cements. (2) Crystalline cements, con- 
sisting of a crystalline compound of calcium 
orthosilicate and lime, with a varying quantity 
of calcium aluminate ; this class contains Port- 
land cements and those rich in silica. After 
hardening, however, all these cements have the 
same qualitative composition, consisting of a 
mixture of calcium hydrate, hydrated calcium 
silicate of the formula 2(SiO^, 2CaO),H,0, and 
hydrated calcium aluminate, with a small 
amount of inert matter. In cements rich in 
silica a small amount of a double silicate of 
calcium and aluminum is present, which ac- 
counts for the resistance of these cements to 
sea water. The hardening of cements is chiefly 
due to the hydrating of the calcium silicate, 
and to a lesser degree to the hydrating of the 
calcium aluminate. 



In a recent English patent Weil and Levy 
claim to electroplate aluminum in baths to 
which various organic substances are added. 
Thus for the deposition of silver, hydroquinol 
is added to an ammoniacal cyanid solution ; for 
copper, ammonium gallate or pyrogallate is 
used; for nickel, milk sugar, and the same for 
gold. 

J. L. H. 



CUBBENT NOTES ON METEOBOLOGY. 

CLIMATE AND HYGIENE OF THE CONGO FEBE 
STATE. 

An important volume on the climate, soil and 
hygiene of the Congo Free State has been issued 
as the second part of the Proceedings of the Con- 
gres National d'Hygiine et de CUmatologie MSdi- 
cale de la Belgiqiie et du Congo, held in Brussels, 
August 9-14, 1897. The investigation, of which 
the results are embodied in this report, was 
undertaken by a commission of the Societe royale 
de Medicine puMique et de Topographie medicate 
de Belgiqiie. On this commission meteorology 
was represented by M. Lancaster, Director of 
the Meteorological Service of Belgium, which is 
equivalent to saying that whatever concerns 
meteorology and climatology in this report is 
admirably done. As a whole, this volume gives 
us the most complete and most scientific account 
of the meteorology and medical climatology of 
this interesting district that has yet appeared. 
The first chapter, of 404 pages, is devoted to 
the meteorology,' and presents a careful sum- 
mary of what is known concerning the at- 
mospheric conditions and phenomena of the re 
gion, including many tables and diagrams. 
This portion of Africa is one of great interest 
to meteorologists on account of the seasonal 
migration of the belt of equatorial rains, and 
the data concerning the rainfall at Vivl and 
other stations are, therefore, especially wel- 
come. Chapter II., of twenty pages, is de- 
voted to the geology and soil conditions. Over 
400 pages are concerned with the naedical cli- 
matology and hygiene of the region in general 
and of the different stations in particular. This 
last chapter is an extremely valuable one. Of 
especial interest at the present time is the evi- 
dence afforded (p. 464-5) by the result of 
European colonization in the Congo Free State 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



73 



that, contrary to the general rule, northern 
Europeans have succeeded there better than 
southern Europeans. Italian laborers on the 
railroad are reported as having suffered more 
from the climate than many Scandinavians em- 
ployed on the river. It must be remembered, 
however, that, of the two occupations, railroad 
construction and steamboat service, the latter 
is usually far more healthy, especially in a 
tropical climate, aud a higher disease and death 
rate are naturally to be expected among per- 
sons engaged in the former occupation. 

A NEW MOUNTAIN ANEROID BAROMETER. 

Whymper, in the London 2'imes of December 
17, 1898, describes a new mountain aneroid 
which gives results of astonishing accuracy. 
The ordinary aneroid is well known as being a 
•^ery inaccurate instrument at high altitudes. 
In Appendix C ('Comparisons of the Aneroid 
against the Mercurial Barometer'), in his ' Trav- 
els amongst the Great Andes of the Equator,' 
Whymper himself says that " with aneroids of 
the present construction it is unlikely that de- 
cent approximations to the truth will be ob- 
tained at low pressures, even when employing 
a large number of instruments." The errors 
in Whymper's whole sei'ies of observations 
amounted in the worst cases to as much as two 
inches, as compared with the mercurial barom- 
eter. The new barometer is the invention of 
Col. H. Watkin, C.B., Chief Inspector of Po- 
sition-Finding in the (British) War Department. 
It is so constructed that it can be thrown out 
of action when not in use, and put in action 
when required. When out of action no varia- 
tions in atmospheric pressure, however large, 
produce any effect on it. This adjustment is 
effected by having the lower portion of the 
vacuum box so arranged that it can rise, instead 
of having it fixed, as is usually the case. A 
screw arrangement is attached to the lower 
portion of the vacuum chamber, and under 
ordinary conditions this screw is released and 
the chamber put out of strain. When a reading 
is to be made, the screw is turned as far as it 
will go, thus bringing the instrument into the 
normal condition in which it was graduated. 
Whymper has made a large number of readings 
with the new aneroid and finds the error, in 



the mean of 65 observations, below dzO.O in. 
He feels confident that, "in the hand of those 
who will give the requisite attention, extra- 
ordinary results may be obtained fjom Watkin's 
Mountain Aneroid in observations made for 
altitude and in determining differences of 
level." The instrument is made by J. J. Hicks, 
8 Hatton Garden, London. 

E. DeC. Ward. 
Haevaed Univeesity. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES. 

THE NEW YOKK ZOOLOGICAL PAE.K. 

Bulletin 3 of the New York Zoological 
Society bears testimony to the rapid progress 
that has been made since July 1, 1898, as may 
be seen by the following statement of work 
completed up to December 1, 1898. The Elk 
House has been practically finished. The Bird 
House is ready to receive its roof. The founda- 
tion walls of the Reptile House have been com- 
pleted, and the steel floor-beams put in place. 
All excavating for the first series of Bear 
Dens has been completed, also all plumbing for 
drainage and water-supply. The brick walls 
of the bathing-pools have been built, and stone 
walls to carry the iron work. The excavation 
of ponds for the Ducks' Aviary and the con- 
struction of three islands have been completed. 
On the south island twelve enclosures have 
been laid out, with suitable shelter-houses, and 
about one hundred native shrubs have been 
planted. A stone wall, going down to bed rock, 
has been constructed around the Prairie Dogs' 
Knoll (eighty feet in diameter), and capped 
with cut stone. Excavations have been made 
for the walls and stone work of eight Wolf 
and Fox Dens, and the walls have been laid 
ready for the cage work. One sleeping den 
for wolves has been constructed. About five 
hundred cubic yards of sandy earth has been 
hauled to the Pheasant's Aviary, to make dry 
ground for the runways. This was removed by 
necessity from the Bear Dens, at no cost to Ihe 
Aviary. The excavation for the Beaver Pond 
has been completed, and all the grading ne- 
cessary thereto. The excavation necessary 
for the Buffalo House has been made. A 
trench nine hundred and sixty three feet 
in length, has been dug for the stone walls to 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



support the iron fence for the Beaver Pond. 
The Society is in urgent need of an antelope 
house and a monkey house, and it is hoped that 
these will come as gifts from individuals, as 
the provision hitherto made is for the accommo- 
dation of American quadrupeds and birds, and 
this will exhaust the $106,000 at the disposal of 
the Society. 

The most elaborate of the structures com- 
menced is, by all odds, the Reptile House ; 
this will have a length of 146 feet and a width 
of 100. . It is being constructed of buff mottled 
brick, combined with granite and terra-cotta. 
It will be roofed with slate, heated by hot water, 
and its cost, with cages, will be about $40,000. 
It is beautifully situated on the edge of a forest 
of great oaks, very near the geographical center 
of the park. Close to the southeastern corner 
of the building is a natural pool in a wide out- 
crop of granite rock, which will speedily be 
converted into a summer home for saurians. 

It is hoped that the Reptile House can be 
completed by April, 1899, in time to receive its 
cages and collections for the opening of the 
park in May. 

The Director has found it necessary to give a 
chapter ' concerning the purchase of wild ani- 
mals,' which deserves to be widely read, since 
with the proper changes it may be made to ap- 
ply to collectors in various branches of history. 
The gist of it is contained in the following 
paragraphs : 

" Not unfrequently it happens that a hunter 
who captures an animal that to him is strange 
imagines that it is worth double its real value, 
and feels indignant when a zoological garden 
offers him what is really a fair price. In about 
nineteen cases out of every twenty the man 
who captures a wild animal thinks it is worth 
far more than it really is. For example, if we 
were to offer a farmer's boy $2.50 for a wild 
goose that he had caught and cooped, the 
chances are he would be highly indignant ; but 
at this moment we know of thirty-two wild 
geese for sale, property crated, at that price. 

If we were asked to name the greatest small 
annoyance that comes in the daily mail of a 
zoological park we would reply : The letters 
which say, ' ' What will you give me for it ? " 
Vei-y often not the slightest clue is given to the 



size, age, sex or condition of the captive ani- 
mal. All these are left to be divined by the 
man who is asked to submit an offer." 

F. A. L. 

THE STATISTICAL METHOD IN ZOOLOGY. 

The statistical method of biographical inves- 
tigation has recently been used by Walter Gar- 
stang, the naturalist in charge of the fishery 
investigation of the Plymouth Laboratory, with 
great success. He claims that it is possible to 
identify the different schools of fish which ap- 
proach the shore, even when these schools are 
made up of individuals which appear to be 
quite alike. He shows that the mackerel of 
the American coast are really different from the 
animals of the same name found along the 
European coast, and he further shows that the 
mackerel which frequent the shores of the Brit- 
ish Isles may be sub-divided into two principal 
races, an Irish race and a race frequenting the 
English Channel and the North Sea. It thus 
seems that a species heretofore supposed to be 
widely distributed and given to migrating over 
long distances of the ocean is really cut up into 
a number of races, which probably do not in- 
termingle and which may have very limited 
ranges. If it can be proved — and it now ap- 
pears to be proved — that the local representa- 
tives of each species of animals are branded 
with indices of consanguinity, which indices 
may be detected through the plotting of curves 
of frequency, a new and most fascinating line 
of investigation is opened to the zoologist, the 
comparative anatomist and the student of geo- 
eranhical distribution. 

H. C. B. 



BOTANICAL NOTES. 
A BOTANICAL ALMANAC. 

A HANDY little book, bearing the title of 
' Deutscher BotanikerKalender fiir 1899,' has 
been prepared by Paul Sydow, of Berlin. It is 
modeled after the well-known ' Chemiker Kal- 
ender' of Dr. Biedermann, which for twenty 
years has been well-nigh indispensable to the 
chemists and physicists. This botanical alma- 
nac includes a diary (in which notable events, 
as the births and deaths of great botanists, are 
recorded), a money table, tables of weights and 



Janhaey 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



75 



measures, the 'Berlin Rules,' catalogue of ex- 
siccati, catalogues of botanic gardens, botanical 
museums, botanical collections and places where 
deposited. The publishers (Borntraeger, Ber- 
lin) have done their part well, both in printing 
and binding. The light-colored linen cover and 
its conventionalized water-lily ornamentation 
are in most excellent taste. 

CHECK LIST OF FOBEST TREES. 

. A VERY convenient, revised and condensed 
edition of Sud worth's ' Arborescent Flora of the 
United States ' has recently been issued by the 
Division of Forestry, under the title ' Check 
List of the Forest Trees of the United States.' 
It makes use of the modern nomenclature, 
gives listsof common names, and includes notes 
as to the range of each species. The following 
corrections should be made in a later edition : 

Finns ponderosa scopulorum Engelm., add in Ne- 
braslia eastward along the Niobrara River to the 99th 
meridian, and to the 103d meridian on the North 
Platte and Lodge Pole Elvers. 

Hicoria orata (Mill.) Britt., change to southeastern 
instead of northeastern Nebraska. 

ffkoria laciniosa (Michx. f. ) Sarg., add south- 
eastern Nebraska. 

Hicoria alba (Linn.) Britt., add southeastern Ne- 
braska. 

Populus tremuloides Michx., change from south- 
ern to western Nebraska. 

Qiiercus I'tiufiim Lam., add southeastern Nebraska. 

Asimina triloha (Linn.) Dunal., add southeastern 
Nebraska. 

Pyrus coronaria Linn. This species is recorded in 
local catalogues as occurring in eastern Nebraska, but 
it is P. iocnsis (Wood) Bailey, if this is to be regarded 
as a distinct species. 

Pnaius deinissa (Nutt.) Walp., add from central 
Nebraska westward. 

Cercis canadensis Linn. , add southeastern Nebraska. 

Rhus copaUina Linn., add southeastern Nebraska. 

Acer saccharum Marsh., strike out eastern Ne- 
braska, as this species does not occur in this region 
in the wild state, although freely planted. 

Acer ruhrum Linn., strike out eastern Nebraslia, 
as this species does not ooonr in this region in the 
wild state, nor is it often planted. 

JEsculus gJabia Willd., add southeastern Nebraska. 

This check list will render a good service not 
only to botany, but still more to forestry and 
horticulture, In giving currency to the revised 
nomenclature of our forest trees. 



CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY PLANTS. 

F. H. Knowlton, phytopaleontologist of the 
United States Geological Survey, publishes, in 
Bulletin 152 of the Department of the Interior, 
a most valuable catalogue of the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary plants of North America. In Lesquer- 
eux's catalogue of twenty years ago but seven 
hundred and six species were included, of which 
one hundred and fifty seven are from the Cre- 
taceous, and five hundred and forty-nine from 
the Tertiary. In the list before us about twenty- 
five hundred species are included. The list is 
strictly alphabetical and is not divided so as to 
enable one to easily estimate the number from 
each period. The date and place of publica- 
tion of each genus and species are given with 
much care. The modern nomenclature is used, 
even to trinomials and the double citation 
of authors. Much attention is given to syn- 
onymy, and to the citation of the more impor- 
tant references, especially to such as include 
descriptions and figures. 

LEWIS AND CLARK'S PLANTS. 

Thomas Mbehan was fortunate enough to 
discover, some time ago, in the custody of the 
American Philosophical Society, some packages 
of dried plants which, on examination, turn out 
to be the long-lost collection made by Lewis 
and Clark, in 1803 to 1806, during their expedi- 
tion across the Western country from St. Louis 
to the mouth of the Columbia River. They 
were examined by Dr. B. L. Robinson and J. M. 
Greenman, of the Herbarium of Harvard Uni- 
versity, and compared with Pursh's treatment 
of this collection, in his Flora Americae Septentrio- 
nalis in 1814, and the results have been published 
in the Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences 
of Philadelphia (January, 1898). Mr. Meehan 
notes that ' this collection contains all but six- 
teen of Lewis's plants as described by Pursh in 
his Flora,' and of the missing numbers seven 
are represented in the herbarium of the Academy 
by authentic specimens from Lambert's herba- 
rium. Mr. Meehan says further that ' only a 
few of these seven missing ones are of material 
importance,' and that 'for all practical pur- 
poses all the plants of Lewis and Clark's expe- 
dition are now deposited in the Academy.' 

Charles E. Bessey. 

The University of Nebraska. 



76 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. 

ARROW FEATHERING IN SOUTH AMERICA. 

An excellent study of this subject by Herman 
Meyer has been translated and published in the 
Smithsonian Report for 1896 (just issued). Dif- 
ferent methods of feathering, seven in number, 
are shown to have prevailed among the native 
tribes, each occupying its own area and gener- 
ally embracing tribes of contrasted affinities in 
other respects. A map is added indicating 
these areas. The explanation of this is that 
many tribes first learned the use of the bow 
from their neighbors, but that there were as 
many centers of its invention as there were 
modes of feathering. At least, this is the sim- 
plest explanation, and it is one supported by 
language, as we find, in the Catoquina, for in- 
stance, the words for bow and arrow are both 
Tupi, and their people have the Tupi plan of 
feathering. The paper is valuable for other 
suggestions on native culture. 

A BTUDY OF THE LIPS. 

We are all familiar with the teaching of the 
physiognomists that thick lips indicate a sen- 
sual disposition, and delicate, finely formed lips 
coincide with a certain spirituality, firmness 
and elevation of character. Dr. A. Bloch, in a 
thorough study of the lips from an anthropo- 
logical point of view, believes that all such in- 
dications are imaginary. The form, size and 
color of these organs belong to race distinctions 
quite as much as the shape and dimensions of the 
nose. In fact, they are often in correlation. The 
pigmentation is notably different in the various 
sub-species of man, varying from a delicate rose 
to a dark brown. In hybridity, like many other 
traits, the lips of one or the other parent may 
reappear in full character in the child. Really 
thick lips never occur, except as an anomaly, 
in the white race. (Bull. Soc. Anthropologie de 
Paris, 1898 ; Fasc. 3.) 

PHYSIOLOGY OF CRIMINALS. 

An eminent criminal lawyer once told me 
that the criminals, as a rule, were better look- 
ing men than the 'gentlemen of the jury.' The 
assertion seemed jocose, but now comes the 
proof of it. Dr. J. Marty, a French criminolo- 
gist, reports his examination of 4,000 delin- 



quents in the French army. His results are 
curious. In height, in weight, in breast meas- 
ure, in muscular power and in general condi- 
tion these rascals averaged decidedly better 
than the well-behaved soldiers of the army ! 

But Dr. Marty is ready with an ingenious 
suggestion. Not that criminals are ' by nature ' 
a finer lot physically than non-criminals, but 
the condition of criminal families is so much 
more wretched than respectable ones that only 
the uncommonly strong survive ! Ingenious, 
but not quite satisfying. (Centralblatt fur An- 
thropologie, Heft. 4.) 

D. G. Brinton. 

University of Pennsylvania. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

ENDOWMENT OF THE JENNER INSTITUTE. 

We announced in a recent issue a gift by 
Lord Iveagh of £250,000 for the endowment of 
the Jenner Institute of Preventive Medicine. 
Further details of this important gift are given 
by Lord Lister, Chairman of the Council, and 
Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Treasurer, in the follow- 
ing letter to the press : 

We ask permission to announce in your colnmns a 
splendid offer in aid of scientifio research which lias 
been placed in our hands. 

British and Irish men of science have long deplored 
the fact that the opportunities in this country for re- 
search directed to the prevention of disease are not 
equal to those possessed by foreign nations. 

Lord Iveagh wishes to help in removing this re- 
proach to our country, and, on the conditions named 
below, has offered the sum of £250,000 (two hundred 
and fifty thousand pounds) for the purposes of the 
highest research in bacteriology and other forms of 
biology as bearing upon the causes, nature, preven- 
tion and treatment of disease. 

He has proposed to the Council of the Jenner Insti- 
tute (lately the British Institute) of Preventive 
Medicine — a body which includes leading men in 
medicine and allied sciences in the British Isles — 
that the donation shall be handed over to the Insti- 
tute on condition that in future the control and man- 
agement of the ailairs of the Institute shall be placed 
in the hands of a new board of seven trustees — three 
of the seven to be chosen by the Council of the Insti- 
tute, three by the donor, and one by the Council of 
the Royal Society. 

The ofier has been cordially accepted at a meeting 
of the Council. 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



11 



The douor further proposes that part of the new 
fuud shall he appropriated to the enlargement of the 
buildings of the Institute at Chelsea, part to increas- 
ing the at present sadly inadequate salaries of the Di- 
rector and other members of the scientific staff, part 
to the expenses of administration and maintenance, 
and the remainder chiefly to founding valuable 
fellowships and studentships, tenable for limited 
periods, for research either in the laboratories of the 
Institute or in centers of outbreaks of disease, -whether 
at home or abroad. 

The conditions on which these fellowships and 
studentships may be held are not yet determined 
upon, but it is hoped to open them to all classes of 
her Majesty's subjects. 

Lord Iveagb, in our opinion, deserves the gratitude 
of the nation for thus munificently providing for the 
cultivation, in the British dominions, of biology and 
allied sciences for the good of mankind in an institu- 
tion which henceforth will compare favorably with 
any similar establishment in other parts of the world. 

It will be remembered that the British Insti- 
tute of Preventive Medicine received from the 
Jenner Memorial Committee the funds that it 
had collected and altered its name in honor of 
Jenner. It has recently taken possession of 
new buildings on the Chelsea Embankment. 
Dr. Allan Macfadyen is the Director. 

Lord Iveagh has at the same time under- 
taken to rebuild the most unhygienic district 
of Dublin, erecting upon it model workmen's 
dwellings, recreation halls, etc. The cost of 
the improvements are estimated at over £250,- 
000. 

GENERAL. 

Peofessoe B. K. Emerson, of Amherst Col- 
lege, has been elected President of the American 
Geological Society in succession to Professor J. 
J. Stevenson, whose address on ' Our Society ' 
is published in the present number of Science. 

The American Society of Naturalists at its 
recent meeting appropriated $50 towards the 
support of the American University Table at 
Naples, and $50 towards the support of the 
Naturalists' Table at the Marine Biological 
Laboratory at Woods Holl. It was voted that 
the place of the next meeting be left with the 
Secretaries of the several societies, who will 
probably select New Haven. The following is 
a full list of the officers for the ensuing year : 
President, W. G. Farlow ; Vice-Presidents, H. 



C. Bumpus, W. H. Howell, F. H. Gerrish '■> 
Secretary, T. H. Blorgan ; Treasurer, John B. 
Smith ; Members of the Executive Committee 
elected from the Society-at-large, Bashford 
Dean, F. H. Herrick. 

At the annual public meeting of the Paris 
Academy of Sciences, on December 19th, the 
Permanent Secretary, M. Berthelot, read a me- 
morial notice of Brown-Sequard, the eminent 
physiologist, who, it will be remembered, was 
the son of a citizen of Philadelphia. Brown- 
Sequard led a life full of vicissitudes, crossing 
the Atlantic more than sixty times, until in 
1878 he was elected Professor in the University 
of Paris and was naturalized as a citizen of 
France. The President of the Academy, M. 
Wolf, called attention to the approaching bi- 
centennial of the Academy and paid tributes to 
the members who had died during the year : 
MM. Aim6 Girard, Souillard, Pomel andCohn, 
of Breslau. 

At the same meeting of the Academy the 
prizes for the current year were awarded. 
Three of these, as we have already announced, 
were given to Americans — the Lalande prize to 
Dr. Seth C. Chandler, the Damoiseau prize to Dr. 
George W. Hill and the Henry Wilde prize to 
Mr. Charles A. Schott. Another prize, the 
Lallemand prize, was divided, and one half 
given to Mr. Edward P. Allis, of Milwaukee, 
Wis., for his memoir on 'The cranial muscles 
and cranial first spinal nerves of Amia calva.^ 
In addition to these four prizes coming to Amer- 
ica, apparently only two other prizes were given 
outside of France — the Janssen medal to A. 
Belopolsky, of the Observatory at Pulkova, for 
his contributions to astronomy, and the Des- 
maziere prize to Professor de Toni, of Padua, 
for his Sylloge Algarum. 

The Academy offered in all about fifty prizes, 
the largest of these, the Breant prize, of 100,000 
fr., was in part given to M. Phisalux for bis re- 
searches on chemical vaccines. The LeConte 
prize, of 50,000 fr., for an important scientific 
discovery, was not awarded. The grand mathe- 
matical prize (6,000 fr.) was awarded to M. 
Morel, and the Poncelet prize (2,000 fr.), also 
in mathematics, to M. Hadam. The Jecker 
prize in organic chemistry (10,000 fr.) was di- 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



vided among MM. Bertrand, Buisine and D. 
Berthelot. The Vaillant prize in geology (4,000 
fr.) was given to M. Cayeux, and the Estrade- 
Delcros prize (8,000 fr.) to M. Munier Chalmas 
for his worli on paleontology and geology. 

Professor William Ramsay gave an ad- 
dress before the German Chemical Society, 
Berlin, on December 20th, describing the newly 
discovered gases and their relation to the peri- 
odic law. He also gave a popular lecture on 
the subject. 

Mb. Sydney Rowland has been appointed 
Assistant Bacteriologist at the Jenner Institute 
of Preventive Medicine. 

M. Teoost has received an anonymous gift 
of 4,000 fr. for researches on the liquefaction of 
air. 

The Honorable R. J. Strutt, who, as we re- 
corded last week, has been awarded the Coutts- 
Trotter Studentship in Science at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, is a son of Lord Rayleigh, the 
eminent physicist, formerly professor at Cam- 
bridge University. 

Dr. Alfred A. Kanthack, professor of pa- 
thology in the University of Cambridge and 
Fellow of King's College, died at Cambridge, 
on December 21st, at the early age of thirty- five 
years. Dr. Kanthack was elected to the profes- 
sorship in Cambridge a little more than a year 
ago, succeeding the late Professor Roy. He is the 
author of a ' Manual of Morbid Anatomy ' and 
of a ' Handbook of Bacteriology ' and of numer- 
ous and important original contributions to 
these sciences. 

We regret also to record the death at Phila- 
delphia, on January 5th, of Dr. E. Otis Ken- 
dall, in his eighty-first year. He had been for 
more than fifty years professor of mathematics 
in the University of Pennsylvania, though re- 
cently he had relinquished active duties. He 
had also held the chair of astronomy in the Uni- 
versity, was long dean of the scientific depart- 
ment, and was in 1883 elected vice-provost, be- 
ing honorary vice-provost at the time of his 
death. Dr. Kendall was for twenty-eight years 
one of the Secretaries of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, and for the following twenty- 
one years one of its Vice-Presidents. He was 
the author of a text-book of astronomy and of 



various contributions to mathematics, as well as 
of computations for the U. S. Nautical Alma- 
nac and the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Dr. Kendall will, however, be best remem- 
bered as a teacher, being greatly honored and 
beloved by many generations of college stu- 
dents. 

The death is also announced, at the age of 
sixty-four years, of Professor H. W. Vogel, of 
the Institute of Technology at Berlin, known 
for his researches in photography and spectros- 
copy. 

Ground for the Horticultural Hall of the 
New York Botanical Gardens was broken on 
January 3d. The building will be 512 feet long, 
60 feet wide, with a dome 90 feet high. 

The following lectures will be given during 
the present season at the American Museum of 
Natural History at three o'clock on Saturday 
afternoon. 

Jan. 7. — An Exploration for Dinosaurs in the Eocky 
Mountain Plateau Region. .De. J. L. Woetman. 

Jan. 14. — A Hunt for Fossil Camels and Horses in 
Kansas and Colorado De. W. D. Matthew. 

Jan. 21.— The Bird Eocks of the Gulf ot St. Law- 
rence Me. Frank M. Chapman. 

Jan. 28. — Exploration ot Zapotecan Tombs ot South- 
ern Mexico Me. M. H. Saville. 

Feb. 4. — The Jesup North Pacific Expedition : Ar- 
cbxological Exploration in British Columbia, 

Mr. Haelan I. Smith. 

Feb. 11.— The Jesup North Pacific Expedition : The 
Indian Tribes of the State of Washington, 

De. L. Faeeand. 

Feb. 18.— Eocks of the State of New York as illus- 
trated in the Museum Me. L. P. Geatacap. 

Feb. 25. — A Collecting Trip in Europe, 

De. E. O. Hovey. 

Mar. 4. — The Squirrels of North America, 

Dr. J. A. Allen. 

Mar. 11. -The Life Histories of Butterfliesand Moths 
of the Vicinity of New York, 

Me. WM. BEDTENMiJLLER. 

Mar. 18. — The Hyde Expedition : Exploration of the 
Kuins of the Pueblo ot Bonito, New Mexico, 

Me. George H. Pepper. 

Mar. 2.5.— Peoples of Asia— The Philippines to Japan, 

Professor albert S. Bickmore. 

On Thursday evening at eight o'clock lec- 
tures will be given as follows : 

The New York Zoological Society. 

Jan. 12.— The Zoological Parks of Europe and The 
New Zoological Park of New York City 

Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn. 



January 13, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



79 



Linnwnn Society of Xew York City. 

Jan. 19. — A Naturalist iu Florida 

Feank M. Chapman. 
Jan. 26. — A Naturalist in Labrador 

Dr. Robert T. Morris. 
Feb. 2. — A Naturalist on the Pacific Coast 

Dr. Bashford Dean. 
Feb. 9. — A Naturalist in Wyoming; 

Ernest Seton Thompson. 

New Yorlc Botanical Garden. 
April 6 and 13. — Subjects and lecturers to be an- 
nounced later. 

Blemhers^ Course — 1S99. 
Professor Albert S. Bickmore, Curator of the De- 
partment of Public Instruction. 
Feb. 16 — Newfoundland and Labrador. 
Feb. 23.— Gulf and River of St. Lawrence. 
Mar. 2.— The Great Lakes. 
Mar. 9. — Central California — San Francisco 
and Yosemite Valley. 

Professor A. C. Haddon writes to Nature 
that the members of the Cambridge Anthro- 
pological Expedition to Torres Straits have 
now completed their investigations in the 
Straits. Dr. Rivers and Mr. Wilkin have left 
for England, while the other members of the 
expedition have proceeded to Borneo to study 
the anthropology of the Baram district of Sara- 
wak. The health of the party has been excel- 
lent. The natives of Murray Island were studied 
with most detail, as, owing to their isolation, 
they have been less modified by contact with 
alien races. Some of the party stayed about 
four months on the island, while others had 
only a couple of months, owing to a trip 
having been made to the mainland of New 
Guinea. The New Guinea contingent visited 
the coast tribes between Kerepunu and the 
Mekeo district, and several excursions were 
made for short distances inland. There was 
not enough time spent at any spot for a thorough 
investigation of the natives, but a considerable 
amount of information was obtained iu most of 
the branches of anthropology with which the 
expedition is concerned, which will prove of 
value for purposes of comparison. The re- 
searches on the Murray islanders were fairly 
thorough and will form a basis for comparison 
with the other islanders and allied peoples. 
Over a month was spent in Mabuiag (Jervis 



Island) by all the party, with the exception of 
Messrs. Myers and MacDougall, who had 
previously started for Borneo. Although the 
time spent in Mabuiag was sliort, a satisfactory 
amount of work was accomplished owing to 
the conditions being favorable. Observations 
were also made on several other islands in 
Torres Straits and Kiwai, which is situated iu 
the mouth of the Fly River. A large number 
of photographs have been taken, and consider- 
able collections have been made, which are now 
on their way to Cambridge. 

In a recent address before the British Orni- 
thologists' Club Mr. Sclater, after referriug to 
the expedition to Socotra and southern Arabia, 
with Dr. Forbes and Mr. Ogilvie Grant as its 
leaders, referred to other expeditions of British 
ornithologists. Captain Boyd Alexander, who 
has worked in the Cape Verde Islands, is strug- 
gling through the middle of Africa from the 
Cape to Cairo. Under present circumstances 
he seems likely to come out successfully, and 
will, no doubt, bring information on birds, if 
not specimens, with him. Mr. Lort Phillips 
hopes to return to his favorite c|uarters in 
Somaliland during the course of the present 
winter, and expects to get together the supple- 
mentary materials still required for the prepara- 
tion of his proposed work on the birds of that 
most interesting country. Mr. John White- 
head, who has added so much to our knowledge 
of the zoology of the Philippines, proposes to 
return to the same country very shortly, in 
order to continue his researches in a field which 
he knows so well and in which he takes such 
great interest. Mr. Alfred Sharpe, C.B., who 
is shortly returning to his post in Nyassaland, 
promises to continue the employment of col- 
lectors in different parts of that Protectorate, 
the zoology of which he, following iu the foot- 
steps of Sir Harry Johnston, has already done 
so much to investigate. 

We learn from the British Medical Journal 
that an International Congress on Tuberculosis 
and the methods for combating it will be 
held in Berlin from May 23d to 27th next year. 
The Imperior Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe, 
will preside, and will be supported by an in- 
fluential committee, headed by the Duke of 



80 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 211. 



Ratibon and Professor von Leydon. Five di- 
visions of the subject have been agreed on : 
(1) Propagation, (2) Etiology, (3) Prophylaxis, 
(4) Therapeutics, (5) Sanatoria. Each of these 
questions will be introduced by a short and 
concise address, so as to leave ample time for 
free discussion and debate. Membership of the 
Congress is not to be confined to any particular 
class ; any person interested in that terrible 
scourge of all nations, tuberculosis, can become 
a member by simply taking a ticket at the ofiice 
of the Central Committee for Lung Sanatoria. 
As in the case of the Leprosj'' Conference a 
couple of years ago, foreign governments will 
be oflScially informed of the proposed Congress 
and requested to send delegates. 

The Berlin correspondent of the London 
Times states that the official organ of the Prus- 
sian Ministry of the Interior gives some accovint 
of the work accomplished since its constitution , 
three years ago by the German Central Com- 
mittee for the establishment of sanatoria for 
consumptives under the protection of the Ger- 
man Empress and the presidency of the Imperial 
Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe. The great ob- 
ject of the Central Committee was to promote 
the establishment of a sufficient number of 
sanatoria throughout the German Empire. 
Their efiforts have been most successful, owing 
to the cooperation of wide circles of the public, 
and more particularly owing to the measures 
taken by the Imperial German Working People's 
Insurance Office in providing hospitals and con- 
valescent homes for those of the insured who 
are attacked by illness and prevented from 
earning their living. A large number of sana- 
toria which are already receiving patients have 
demonstrated that Germans who suffer from 
tuberculous diseases do not require to go abroad 
in search of health, but can secure the best 
medical treatment in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the place where they have to live and 
work. There will presently be some 50 sana- 
toria in Germany for persons in straightened 
circumstances. The Central Committee has co- 
operated in various degrees in the development 
of these institutions by placing at their disposal 
Information and, where it was requisite, by 
making grants for their support. It has thus 
been found possible, while consulting in every 



case the special nature of local necessities, to 
establish the institution of sanatoria for con- 
sumptives in Germany on a sound and perma- 
nent basis. A meeting of the Central Committee, 
at which Her Majesty, the Empress, will be 
present, will be held on January 9th. President 
Gabel, of the Imperial Insurance Office, will 
make a report on the new rules to be adopted, 
the object of which is to extend the sphere of 
the Committee's operations on the lines which 
they have hitherto followed. 



VNIVEESITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

At the twenty-seventh convocation of the 
University of Chicago, on January 4th, Presi- 
dent Harper announced two gifts of land, one 
by Mr. N. A. Ryerson, valued at $34,000, and 
one by Marshall Field, valued at $135,000. A 
gymnasium will be erected on the latter site. 
The enrollment of the University is 1,621, an 
increase of 450 over last year. 

Me. H. O. Armour has given $20,000 to 
Whitworth College, a Presbyterian institution 
at Sumner, Wash. The sum of $75,000 has 
been collected for Arcadia University, a Baptist 
institution at Wolfeville, N. S., $15,000 having 
been given by Mr. John D. Rockefeller. 

The alumni of Harvard College, by a vote of 
2,782 to 1,481, have reversed their previous 
vote extending the franchise in voting for over- 
seers of the University to the graduates of all 
the schools. President Eliot and most members 
of the faculty who are alumni voted with the 
minority. 

The annual catalogue of Harvard University 
records 411 officers and 4,660 students, an in- 
crease of 7 officers and 84 students over last 
year. These figures include the summer school, 
but not Radcliffe College, the enrollment of 
which is 411 students. There are 1,851 students 
in the College and 560 in the medical school. 

The new catalogue of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, about to be issued, will show that 
there are 258 officers and 2,790 students, of 
whom 1,337 are in the departments of medicine 
and dentistry. There are in the School of Arts 
365, in the Towne Scientific School 284 and in 
the Department of Philosophy 158 students. 



SCIENCE 



Editorial Committee: S. Newcomb, Mathematics; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics; E. C. Pickeeing, 

Astronomy; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics; E. H. Thurston, Engineering; Ira Remsen, Chemistry; 

J. Le Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 

C. Hart Merriam, Zoology; S. H. Scudder, Entomology; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Britton, 

Botany; Henry F. Osboen, General Biology; C. S. Mikot, Embryology, Histology; 

H. P. BowDiTCH, Physiology; J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, 

Psychology; Daniel G. Brinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, Jaitoart 20, 1899. 



CONTENTS: 

AiUmnees in Meiliods of Teaching : — 

Zoology: PROFESSOR EDWIN G. CONKLIN 81 

Anatomy: PROFESSOR Geo. S. Huntington.... 85 

Physiology: PROFESSOR Wm. T. Porter 87 

Psychology : PROFESSOR Hugo Munsterberg 91 

Anthropology: Dr. Franz Boas 93 

Botany: PROFESSOR W. F. Ganong 96 

Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of 

• America (I.): Professor J. F. Kebip 100 

Scientific BooJcs : — 

Burnside's Theory of Groups of Finite Order: 
Professor F. N. Cole. 3Terriman's Elements 
of Sanitary Engineering : M. Card on Bnsh 
Fruits : Professor Byron D. Halsted. Hill 
and Vaughan on the Lower Cretaceous Gryphasus 
of the Texas Regions: Professor Frederic 
W. Simonds. Books Received 106 

Scientific Journals and Articles : Ill 

Societies and Academies : — 

The National Geographic Society ; Harvard Uni- 
versity, Students' Geological Club : J. M. BoUT- 
WELL. Onondaga Academy of Sciences : H. W. 
BriICHER. The Academy of Science of St. Louis: 
Professor William Trelease 112 

Discussion and Correspondence : — 
Science and Politics: Professor S. W. Wil- 
LISTON. The Storing of Pamphlets: Profes- 
sor Charles S. Crandall. Zone Temper- 
atures: Dr. C. Hart Merriam 114 

Physical Notes : F. C. C 116 

Current Notes on 3Ieteorology : — 

The Windward Islands Hurricane of September, 
1898; Probable State oftJie Sky along the Path of 
the Eclipse, May S8, 1900; Notes: R. DeC. 
Ward 116 

Current Notes on Anthropology : — 

The Oldest Skull-form in Europe ; The Supposed 
' Otter Trap ;' Anthropological Study of Feeble- 
minded Children: Professor D. G. Brinton.. 117 

Scientific Notes and Nems 118 

University and Educational News 120 

MSS. Intended for publicatiou and books, etc., intended 
f'lr review siiould be sent to the responsible editor, Profes- 
sor J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison-on-Hudson N. Y. 



ADVANCES IN METHODS OF TEACHING.'' 
ZOOLOGY. 

By advances in teaching I understand the 
use of desirable methods not now generally 
employed, for while the common methods 
of this generation are advances over those 
of a preceding one a discussion of this fact 
could have no possible value and only an 
historical interest to us. 

I take it that the common method of 
teaching zoology is by means of laboratory 
work supplemented by lectures or recita- 
tions, and, further, that both teacher and 
institution are well equipped for this work ; 
these are prerequisites, the need of which 
need not be emphasized here. Beyond and 
in addition to these common provisions 
what advances in teaching zoology are both 
possible and desirable? Many minor fea- 
tures might be considered, such as certain 
improvements in laboratory and museum 
methods, the best sequence of subjects, the 
relations of lectures to laboratory work, etc.; 
but I prefer to emphasize two, and only two, 
main features, viz.: (1) the relations of re- 
search to teaching, and (2) the study of the 
whole of zoology. 

I. One of the greatest possible advances 
in teaching zoology would be the promotion 
of research work in all institutions of col- 
lege or university grade and the establish- 
ment of the closest possible relations be- 

* Discussion before the New York meeting of the 
American Naturalists and AiBliated Societies, Decem- 
ber, 1898. 



82 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



tween teaching and research. Advances in 
teaching must be, in the main, founded up- 
on advances in research. Objects which 
every beginner in zoology sees and studies 
to-day were known to only a few investiga- 
tors ten years ago. Methods which are 
common property now were then being 
worked out for the first time. The interest 
and value of teaching is directly propor- 
tional to the teacher's acquaintance with 
original sources of knowledge. The all too 
common method of leaning — or rather rid- 
ing — upon a text-book violates the whole 
laboratory idea, and the more advanced 
custom of relying upon original papers with- 
out making any attempt to see the things 
described is but little better. Every teacher 
should endeavor to see and know for him- 
self, and to give his students opportunity to 
see and know the classical objects upon 
which important doctrines of zoology rest. 
But the relation of the teacher to re- 
search should not be merely that of a hearer 
of the word, but of a doer also. Research 
work on the part of the teacher and, if pos- 
sible, by at least a few advanced students 
should be a part of the teaching equipment of 
every college and university. Too frequently 
and indiscriminately has it been maintained 
that the qualities which make a man a good 
investigator ruin him as a teacher. The 
examples of Agassiz, Huxley, Leuckart and 
many others, both here and abroad, show 
how erroneous is such a view. Great ability 
as an investigator may be united with quali- 
ties which are ruinous to the teacher, but 
these are not qualities essential to research. 
On the other hand, a good teacher must be, 
at least to a certain extent, an investigator 
also. The ability to make a subject plain 
is not the first nor, indeed, the most impor- 
tant function of a college or university 
teacher ; his first duty is to arouse interest 
in his subject, to direct students to reliable 
sources of information and to encourage 
them in independent work. For all of these 



purposes research is of the utmost value- 
A new fact discovered in a laboratory is a 
stimulus to faithful and independent work, 
such as nothing else in the world can be ; 
whatever other requirements colleges and 
universities may make upon their teachers, 
they might safely require that they be con- 
tributors to knowledge. The greatest mis- 
take which a college or university teacher 
can make is to talk and act as if his science 
were a closed and finished one. A subject 
which seems old and stale to the teacher will 
seem uninteresting and unimportant to the 
learner. To the teacher who has only a text- 
book knowledge of things all subjects soon 
seem finished, fixed, bottled and labelled ; 
once a year, perhaps, he wearily exhibits 
these dead and changeless things before 
his sufi'ering class. But the teacher who real- 
izes how little we kno,w about any subject 
and how much remains to be learned — who, 
while accurately presenting what is known, 
can by both precept and example help to 
extend the bounds of knowledge — will never 
find his subject stale nor his class uninter- 
ested. 

It will be objected that in many subjects 
and in most institutions such a course is 
impossible. Undoubtedly if. is more dif- 
ficult to make discoveries in some fields 
than in others, but it is one of the particu- 
lar charms of the biological sciences that 
the opportunities for research here are 
greater than in most other subjects. The 
great amount of teaching and of adminis- 
trative work which is required of many 
teachers is the greatest obstacle to this plan; 
and yet I know persons who teach from 
twenty-five to thirty hours a week and who 
yet find time to do research work, if in 
no other way, at least by keeping their 
eyes open for new points in the material 
used in their classes. 

It is sometimes maintained that there is 
a fundamental difference in kind between 
graduate and undergraduate teaching, and 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



83 



that the former alone can have any rela- 
tions to independent work or research, 
while the latter must consist of information 
courses merelj'. But whatever may be true 
of other subjects, it is certain that biological 
studies encourage and develop independ- 
ence in observations and reflections from 
the beginning. I maintain, even at the 
risk of being charged with holding low 
ideals of graduate work, that the distinction 
between graduate and undergraduade work 
in biology is one of degree and not of kind. 
Of course, elementary students cannot do 
research work of any great value, and yet 
they may catch the spirit of research and 
assist in carrying out work of importance. 
Some valuable work of the last few years 
has grown out of the careful and independ- 
ent study, in undergraduate classes, of the 
structure, development and variations of 
well-known animals. The knowledge that 
new facts may be discovered even in ele- 
mentary work is an inspiration to both stu- 
dent and teacher. I pity the man who has 
to teach a finished science ; I wonder how 
either he or his students stand it. The 
zoologist has here an advantage which he 
cannot afford to throw away. If it is fur- 
ther objected that this method would induce 
students to neglect well-known facts in 
ridiculous attempts to find new ones, or 
that it would assist an ignorant or lazy 
teacher to fill up gaps in his information 
by ingenious speculations, I can only reply 
that such an abuse should be credited to 
the teacher and not to the system. The 
thesis which I defend is simply and com- 
prehensively this : The spirit of zoological 
teaching should be the inquiring, independ- 
ent, alert spirit of research. 

II. Another advance not less important 
than the one just emphasized would be found 
in increased facilities for studying the whole 
of zoology. The time was when zoology 
meant merely classification ; at present it 
means little more than morphology ; a great 



advance will have been made we all realize, 
and succeed in getting our institutions to 
realize, that these subjects, however im- 
portant, are but a part of zoology and that 
a large and important field is still almost 
unoccupied. The usual laboratory work in 
zoology, viz. : the anatomy of a few alcoholic 
specimens, is less than one-half of the sci- 
ence and in all respects the least interest- 
ing and important half. Research to-day 
is tending more and more to the study of 
living things, and in this respect, as in so 
many others, research points out the way 
for advances in teaching. The study of liv- 
ing animals ; of their actual development 
under normal and experimentally altered 
conditions; of their food and the manner of 
getting it ; their enemies and friends, para- 
sites and messmates; their mating, breeding 
and care of young ; the effects of isolation, 
crossing and close breeding on structure 
and habits ; the effects of varying light, 
color, temperature, density of medium, etc., 
on color, size and structure of every part ; 
the daily and nightlj' activities of animals ; 
the origin and nature of peculiar habits and 
instincts — in short, the study of all the 
varied ways in which animals live and 
adapt themselves to their environment is 
an integral part of zoology ; and who can 
doubt that together these things form its 
most important part, and yet there are few 
if any places where any systematic attempt 
is made to give instruction in these sub- 
jects. 

Practically the only attempt which is 
made in most institutions to meet these 
needs is by means of field work. The value 
of such work cannot be overestimated and 
it must always remain an indispensable 
part of any broad zoological training, but it 
is not in itself sufficient. In large cities 
and during the colder part of the year it is 
especially difficult to carry on field work, 
and in no case is it possible to have animals 
under observation for considerable periods 



84 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



of time or to carry on experiments with 
them in the field. Field work must consist 
largely of collection, classification and scat- 
tered observations ; more serious work must 
be transferred to the laboratory. 

A most useful and important adjunct to 
zoological teaching is an animal house, or 
vivarium, in which may be found fresh and 
salt-water aquaria ; terraria for small land 
forms ; hives for bees, ants and other in- 
sects ; rooms for various amphibia, reptiles, 
birds and small mammals ; hatcheries for 
the eggs of various vertebrates and inverte- 
brates, and various appliances for the ex- 
perimental study of living animals. Such 
a vivarium might contain a synoptic col- 
lection of living animals, worth vastlj' 
more for teaching purjjoses than the or- 
dinary museum or laboratory. Botanists 
have long recognized the necessity of green- 
houses for teaching purposes, aud the need 
of having living material for study is quite 
as great in zoology as in botany. Some 
such vivarium is a necessity if zoology is 
to be studied in any broad way. It is usual 
in building laboratories to provide an ani- 
mal room in some small, dark corner of the 
cellar,while the whole of the building proper 
is devoted to lecture rooms, laboratories 
and museums. It is sad to think that such 
a disposition of space represents the popu- 
lar view of the importance of the study of 
living animals. In a very important sense 
a vivarium is the most essential part of any 
laboratory of zoology, representing that for 
which all the rest exists. In cases where it 
is not possible to have a separate building 
or large, well-lighted rooms for this purpose 
a greenhouse and animal house could be 
combined ; and in all cases a few well- 
stocked ponds in the immediate vicinity of 
the laboratory can usually be provided 
without ti-ouble or expense, which will fur- 
nish a never-failing supply of living ma- 
terial. 

But under the most favorable circumstan- 



ces the number of living animals which can 
be kept in or near the laboratory is not large; 
for making extensive studies on large num- 
bers of animals, recourse must be had to ex- 
perimental farms and to marine and fresh- 
water stations. Little has yet been done in 
the way of establishing experimental farms 
for purposes of pui-e science, though I believe 
they are destined to play a very important 
part in the development of our science in 
the future, but the establishment of biolog- 
ical stations has done more to advance the 
study of zoology than any other one thing 
in this generation. While the laboratory, 
the vivarium and perhaps also the experi- 
mental farm are things which each uni- 
versity must provide for itself, the marine 
and fresh-water stations can reach their 
greatest usefulness through the cooperation 
of many institutions. Without in any way 
disparaging the work done by other stations 
of a similar kind, I think it may truthfully 
and modestly be said that the Woods Holl 
Station, in the measure of cooperation which 
it represents; in the close relations which 
there exist between teaching and research, 
and in the fullness with which the whole of 
zoology is represented, has done more to ad- 
vance the teaching of zoology in this country 
than has any other institution or factor. 
The professor of anatomy in one of our best 
medical schools said to me a few days ago: 
" In all my teaching I try to follow the 
general methods employed in the classes at 
the Woods Holl Laboratory ; those methods 
are models of good teaching." If this can 
be said for the teaching of human anatomy 
how much more is it true of the studies 
which are there directly represented. Some 
of the greatest possible advances in teach- 
ing zoology will be found in realizing in 
every college and university the Woods 
Holl ideal. 

Edwin G. Conklin. 

DsriVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



85 



ANATOMY. 

It is not too broad a statement to say that 
the modern methods of teaching anatomy 
reflect the general progress of that science 
during the past decade. In the limited 
time at my disposal I am only able to ac- 
centuate some of the main facts as they 
pertain to instruction in human anatomy. 
In this branch the revolution in the spirit 
and method of our teaching is primarily 
based on the recognition of man's scientific 
position in the vertebrate series. We have 
ceased, as teachers, to regard the human 
body as a thing apart and by itself, and the 
study of its structure and of the functions 
of its parts is no longer attempted without 
the aid which comparative anatomj' and 
embryology so abundantly offer. The truths 
embodied in the doctrine of evolution have 
long furnished the quickening spirit of scien- 
tific morphological study and research, but 
their full utilization by the teacher of hu- 
man anatomy as his most valuable guides 
is of so comparatively recent date that I 
feel justified in citing their pedagogic adop- 
tion as the most important and funda- 
mental advance in late years in the methods 
of anatomical instruction. 

It is so evident that every complete or- 
ganism is only fully comprehended in all its 
relations when the method of its production 
and development is known, and the fact 
that the simplest conditions offer the logical 
starting point in learning or teaching compli- 
cated structural details is so in accord with 
our daily experience, that the disregard of 
phylogeny and embryology by teachers of 
human anatomy seems little short of incom- 
prehensible. And yet in my own experience 
as a teacher of human anatomy I remember 
grave academic deliberations as to the pro- 
priety of placing the study on the scientific 
basis which we occupy to-day, and some 
doubtful queries as to whether after all it 
would not be more advisable to uphold the 
traditional method, somewhat as the Mos- 



lem Kadis have continued to teach the 
Koran since the day of Mahomet. Human 
anatomy, considered from the standpoint of 
the instructor, has coursed through a curi- 
ous cycle since Vesalius in the 14th century 
raised it to the dignity of a science. 

From the point where he left it the 
knowledge of man's structure continued to 
develop during the succeeding centuries. 
The details of human gross anatomy were 
elaborated until every minute portion of 
the human frame received its complete de- 
scription, and at least one more or less ap- 
propriate and length}' name. The teach- 
ing of the science progressed along the same 
lines, and the increase in the details of 
descriptive anatomy found its response in 
the anatomical text-book. Edition suc- 
ceeded edition, each containing somewhat 
more erudite and minute information than 
its predecessor, and this accumulated mass 
of facts confronted the student at the out- 
set of his course. It is not remarkable that 
under these conditions the important funda- 
mental structural lines of the subject were 
obscured and overshadowed by the quantity 
of detail, nor that the study of anatomy 
appeared to resolve itself into a more or 
less successful effort at memorizing the 
largest possible quantity of facts without 
special regard to their quality or impor- 
tance. 

I well remember in my own student days 
that every man with any pretensions to 
anatomical prowess could glibly and ac- 
curately describe the five surfaces of the 
orbital process of the palate bone and give 
their boundaries, but I doubt if many of us 
realized that said process was extremely 
lucky if it attained the size of a respectable 
pea, and a still smaller minority would 
have passed with credit through a practical 
demonstration on the skull. In the same 
way the knowledge that the artei-y of the 
vas deferens arises from the superior vesical 
was a never- failing source of satisfaction to 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



its possessor, while a student wlio faced west 
on Madison Square had no occasion to strain 
his descriptive faculties in the least in order 
to enumerate the Fifth Avenue Hotel in its 
correct position among the structures re- 
lated to his common carotid artery. But 
the morphological connection and the mu- 
tual relation existing between prosenceph- 
alon and diencephalon, the principles gov- 
erning the development and structure of 
the lung and vascular system, the disposi- 
tion of the peritoneal membrane, and many 
like problems, were regarded in much the 
same light. 

What knowledge of these structures the 
student obtained he gained in the most dif- 
ficult manner, by a pure eflfort of memory. 
He had no constructive details at his com- 
mand, no series of stages which, while dem- 
onstrating the road by which a complicated 
human structure reached its highest degree 
of development or regression, enabled him 
at the same time to grasp and hold the de- 
tails of that structvire as a permanent and 
lasting addition to his knowledge, not as 
facts memorized and hence to be forgotten. 
In this sense teaching by comparison and 
development marks our most important 
and fundamental advance in methods of in- 
struction. That this advance will be pro- 
gressive lies in the very essence of its char- 
acter. We all recognize the practical 
importance of careful descriptive detail in 
teaching human anatomy. But in striving 
after the necessary accuracy and elabora- 
tion the minutiaj should not be permitted 
to obscure and hide the broad morpholog- 
ical and functional pi-inciples which under- 
lie the construction of the animal body. 

They, after all, form the fundamental 
lines upon which the student must build 
his anatomical knowledge if the same is to 
be enduring, and these lines, if once firmly 
established, readily and logically permit 
the addition of the necessary details. The 
function of comparative anatomy and em- 



bryology, as aids in the teaching of human 
anatomy, is to define clearly and demon- 
strate, beyond question or doubt, the cardi- 
nal morphological principles upon which 
the structure of the vertebrate body is 
reared. I can merely refer in passing to 
the development of the equipment neces- 
sary to the A'itality and success of the 
method. Perhaps no other single fact ac- 
centuates the advances in morphological 
education more than the change which is 
to be observed in the spirit and purpose of 
the anatomical museum. It has ceased to 
be a storehouse for a heterogeneous associa- 
tion of curios, and has assumed its proper 
place as an important factor in scientific 
education, presenting the cardinal struc- 
tural and functional principles of the verte- 
brate body in concrete serial form. From 
a collection it has become a library in which 
he who runs may read. 

While we are justified in characterizing 
this fundamental change in the spirit and 
conception of anatomical instruction as our 
most pronounced methodical advance in re- 
cent years, a number of other improvements 
are entitled to j'our consideration. Hardly 
secondary in importance to the principle of 
the comparative and developmental method 
of teaching is the application of the pi'inci- 
ple in practice. I need not detain this au- 
dience with illustrative examples, which 
will suggest themselves, but I may be per- 
mitted to emphasize the fact that we have 
advanced materially in substituting true 
object-teaching for theoretical instruction. 
Perhaps nowhere more than in anatomy is 
lasting and valuable knowledge gained only 
by direct and personal examination of the 
object of the study. 

ISTot only have our courses in practical 
anatomy increased in the time and material 
required and improved in the application of 
a thoi'ough test bj' practical examination, 
but we have carried the same cardinal prin- 
ciple of sound anatomical instruction into 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



87 



the details of the didactic course. It is 
probabl}' true that, under proper conditious 
of environment, a parrot could be taught a 
h^'mn, for we have proof of his power in 
acquiring a secular vocabulary. In the 
same way, undoubtedly, a student can be 
taught a certain kind of anatomy by lecture, 
diagrams and models. But I question 
whether he will find this knowledge much 
more useful than the parrot his hymn. As- 
similation of anatomical knowledge requires 
demonstration of the actual structures, to a 
limited number of students, for the purpose 
of enabling each to see and examine the 
objects themselves with which he is to be- 
come familiar, not models or diagrams. "I 
asked for bread and they gave me a stone" 
— or a model — is a saying which no student 
of anatomy should have occasion to apply 
to his own case. 

This reason has led to the replacement of 
the didactic lecture by the section demon- 
stration. I still concede to the lecture, 
modified and supplemented by demonstra- 
tion, an important function in furnishing 
the orderly, logical and systematic presen- 
tation of the subject which is to serve as 
the guiding thread in the student's individ- 
ual examination of the structures. It is the 
proper place for the elaboration of the broad 
morphological principles of vertebrate struc- 
ture, but these should be illustrated and 
emphasized by the direct examination of 
the structures involved. The lecture should 
indicate clearly the main facts of which the 
student is to satisfy himself by personal 
observation in the demonstration. Both 
conducted side by side are mutual supple- 
ments. 

Such, in brief, I conceive to be the main 
factors in the advance of anatomical teach- 
ing. Many secondary aids, such as the 
complete pedagogic separation of elemen- 
tary and advanced students, the modern 
methods of preservation of material, the im- 
proved technique of preparations, the intro- 



duction of elective and optional courses in 
general morphology and others would de- 
mand consideration if more time were at 
our disposal. 

But, however brief and insufficient my 
presentation of the subject may appear, 
teachers of anatomical science feel that the 
advance along the lines indicated is a ma- 
teria,l gain and that, under the broad spirit 
of our universities, it will be progressive. 
Geo. S. Huntington. 

physiology in medical schools. 

The paper which I have had the honor 
of preparing for this occasion consists of 
three parts ; the first gives a critical review 
of the present unsatisfactory methods of 
teaching physiology in medical schools (in 
which institutions most of the physiological 
teaching is done) ; the second presents a 
detailed proposal for instruction in accord- 
ance with what are believed to be correct 
pedagogical principles ; and the third dis- 
cusses ways and means, and demonstrates 
that the proposed changes are within the 
present means of any successful school. 
The time allotted to each speaker requires 
the omission of the critical account of 
present methods and the discussion of ways 
and means. Only the second part of the 
paper can be given here.* 

The picture I have drawn of the instruc- 
tion in physiology in medical schools will 
not be challenged by teachers of that science. 
The sense that our methods of instruction 
neither develop nor much inform the mind 
is general. It is time that discussion of the 
difficulties and the way to remedy them 
should also be general. Physiology is the 
most highly developed rational discipline in 
medicine — not a merely descriptive science 
like anatomy and is well adapted to train 
the mind in scientific procedure, in the 
setting of problems for research, in the 

* The full paper is printed in the Boston Medical 
and Surgical Journal, December 29, 1898. 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



criticism of methods and results, and in the 
tests which lay bare shallowness— matters 
of great moment to men who shall practice 
an applied experimental science in the 
midst of quackery, illusion and pretence. 
Careful inquiry should therefore be made 
to determine how far defects of instruction 
can be remedied with the means at our dis- 
posal. The problem is : How far can the 
correct theory be realized in practice? To 
what extent can medical students of physi- 
ology be taught in the manner in which men 
are trained to be professional physiologists? 
Evidently physiologists are likely to studj^ 
their own subject in the most profitable and 
labor-saving way. 

Much can be done to reconcile theory to 
practice, but not everything. The size of 
physiologjr has broken it into specialties. 
Even professional physiologists can no 
longer have personal acquaintance with the 
whole suliject or even a relatively large part 
of it. The truth of this will be obvious 
when it is remembered that since January 
1, 1894, more than three hundred researches 
have been published on the physiology of 
the heart alone. To a considerable degree 
the physiologist himself must acquire his 
information from reading the work of 
others. It would therefore be idle to ex- 
pect the student of medicine to get a pei-- 
sonal exj)erimental knowledge of the whole 
subject. He has but a year for physiology 
and must share that time with anatomy. 
Grave economic laws demand this time 
shall not be lengthened, and the day of 
self-support postponed. The time which 
he now has must be used chiefly for train- 
ing and not chiefly for the acquisition of 
facts, as at present, and this training must 
follow the lines laid down by phj'siologists 
for their own development. 

The way of the physiologist is not pe- 
culiar. The method of getting a real educa- 
tion is the same from the kindergarten to 
the specialist. The principle is to train ' for 



power,' to use President Eliot's phrase, and 
not primarily for information. , Deal so far 
as possible with the phenomena themselves 
and not with descriptions of them. Use as 
the basis of professional instruction the facts 
and methods which shall be used by the 
student in earning his living. Teach the 
elements by practical work. Associate facts 
which the student can observe for himself 
with the facts which he cannot observe. Con- 
trol the progress of the student, remove his 
difSculties, and stimulate him to collateral 
reading by personal intercourse in the labo- 
ratory, by occasional glimpses of the re- 
searches in progress in the laboratory, and 
by daily conferences or seminaries. Give 
the student careful descriptions of the 
method of performing his experiments, but 
requii-e him to set down the results for him- 
self in a laboratory notebook, which, to- 
gether with the graphic records of his 
experiment, is to form a requirement for 
the Doctorate. Choose one sufficiently 
limited field in which experimental work 
shall be thorough and comprehensive, afford- 
ing a strong grasp of that special subject. 
Add to this the typical, fundamental ex- 
periments in other fields. 

When the student has come thus far, let 
him choose one of several electives affording 
advanced training in the physiology of the 
medical specialities, such as opthalmology, 
lai-yngology, the digestive tract, the nervous 
system, etc. These courses should be thor- 
ough, should contain the physiology re- 
quired of the best specialists, and above all 
should deal with nature directly. For ex- 
ample, in studying the physiology of the 
stomach, the gastric juice should be taken 
with the stomach-tube directly from the 
human object, and not obtained merely by 
adding hydrochloric acid to scrapings of 
the mucous membrane of swine. This spe- 
cial instruction should be directed by dis- 
tinguished specialists. Thus the student will 
be brought into contact with that which will 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



89 



interest liim most, the every-day methods 
of the best f)hysicians, and the specialist 
will keep his own foundations in repair. 
It is in connection with these courses that 
didactic lectures should be given. Up to 
this point in his work the student is not 
ripe. Let there be one to four lectures of 
not more than forty-five minutes, the sub- 
ject very limited, so that each set shall 
present all the existing knowledge on the 
subject. The purpose of these lectures is 
to show the student the historical develop- 
ment of scientific problems, the nature of 
scientific evidence, and the canons of criti- 
cism that shall help him to sift the wheat 
from the chaff of controversy. Lectures of 
this kind cannot profitably be given by men 
who have not made experimental investiga- 
tions in the subject of the lecture; so far as 
practicable they should be given by the 
specialists who advise the physiological 
staff concerning the special courses. 

Each student should be required to pre- 
sent one written discussion of some very 
small and sufficiently isolated thesis, giving 
the work of the original investigators, to- 
gether with any observations the student 
has made for himself. The way of dealing 
with the sources at first hand will thus be 
learned. 

The student's reading should be corre- 
lated strictlj' with his practical work and 
should be done in the laboratory in connec- 
tion with that work. It should not be 
memorizing, as at present, but the study 
of graphic records, physiological-anatomical 
preparations and other physiological mate- 
rial, with the aid of the text-book. The cor- 
rections necessary to bring the book up to 
date and to correlate it with the practical 
work can be furnished in printed or mimeo- 
graphed notes. 

Such are the lines along which sound 
theory directs that the teaching of physi- 
ology in medical schools should proceed. 
With such a training the student can safely 



find his way through the constantly aug- 
menting horde of facts and draw vicarious 
profit from those who are face to face with 
the mysteries of nature. Such instruction 
meets also the needs of men intending to 
make a profession of biological . sciences 
other than medicine. It will be observed 
that the course offers: (1) thorough ex- 
perimental acquaintance with one field, say 
the physiology of nerve and muscle, giving 
the point of view, the general physiological 
method, training in technique, a basis of 
analog}', adequate knowledge of one living 
tissue and thus the elements of all ; (2) the 
fundamental elementary experiments in tlie 
remaining fields ; with the key which the 
first course gives, these will unlock much ; 
(3) thorough experimental acquaintance 
with one special subject ; (4) various cora- 
plementarj' gains, of which may be men- 
tioned experience in reaching the original 
sources and in marshalling facts, a certain 
degree of skill in the methods used by 
practitioners, direct correlation between 
physiology and practical medicine. Much 
might be said of the value of this group, 
particularly of the correlation just men- 
tioned, but we must hasten on to the 
demonstration of how these ends are to be 
attained practically. 

The first problem to be solved in plan- 
ning instruction is whether the student's 
time is to be given wholly or only in part 
to the subject taught. Men in training for 
professional physiology commonly concen- 
trate their energies for a sufficient period 
on this one subject, and this is regarded 
as the most economical way of mastering 
any science, for the ground gained by one 
day's work is still fresh in the mind when 
the next day's work begins, and continuity 
of thought is not disturbed. The plea that 
the instruction in one subject should be 
broken by the injection of other subjects in 
order that the instruction iu each may have 
' time to sink in ' need not be entertained ; 



90 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



experience shows that much of it sinks in 
so far that it cannot be got up again with- 
out the loss of valuable energy. A more 
serious objection is that the method of con- 
tinuous application is highly fruitful in the 
case of men of exceptional powers, who are 
keen in spite of protracted effort, but is 
wasteful for the average brain, which is 
fatigued and unreceptive after some hours 
of unremitting labor. The truth of this 
must be allowed, but the objection does not 
apply to wide-ranging sciences, such as anat- 
omy and physiology, which are not narrow, 
hedged-in areas, but which consist rather 
of broad and diversified domains composed 
of many contiguous fields, the vai'ied nature 
of which is a perpetual refreshment. In 
practice the student of anatomy may divide 
his time between general anatomy, descrip- 
tive human anatomy, histology and embry- 
ology, all of which are now taught in the 
medical curriculum, and the student of 
physiology may pass from general and 
special physiology to physiological chem- 
istry, thus resting the mind without inter- 
rupting the continuity of effort essential to 
instruction that must be both rich and 
frugal. 

I would propose, then, that the first year 
in medical schools be divided equally be- 
tween anatomy and physiology, the first 
four months being given to general anat- 
omjf, descriptive human anatomy, histology 
and embryology ; the second four to physi- 
ology and physiological chemistrj^, studies 
which cannot be pursued without a knowl- 
edge of an atom J'. 

In accordance with the principles already 
outlined, the instruction in physiology 
should be divided into three parts. Part I, 
of five weeks' duration, should consist of a 
thorough drill in the physiology of nerve 
and muscle, the hours from 9 to 11 being 
devoted to experiments, the hour from 11 
to 12 to study of materia phj'siologica 
(physiological preparations, graphic rec- 



ords, etc.), and the time from 12 to 12:45 to 
a conference or seminary, which should be 
part lecture, part recitation. In the con- 
ference the beaz'ing of the experimental 
work just done should be developed by 
systematic progressive questioning accom- 
panied by running comments, to clear up 
any possible fog. A brief account of other 
experimects which add to the truth estab- 
lished by those which the student has done 
for himself, but which are too complex or 
too protracted to lie within the student's 
powers, should be brought in here. 

Part II, of seven weeks' duration, should 
comprise carefully- arrauged fundamental 
experiments giving in turn the elements of 
each field in physiology excejDt that of nerve 
and muscle, which has just been studied. 
As before, the whole class works from 9 to 
11 upon experiments, from 11 to 12 studies 
all possible means of illustrating the subject 
of the day, and from 12 to 12:45 attends the 
conference or seminary. In the forty-two 
days covering this part of the coui'se in- 
structors who find the mixture of lecture 
and Socratic method unsj'mpathetic may 
abandon their questioning and fill the time 
with their own remarks ; even such instruc- 
tion would be far more fruitful than the 
present lectures, for the student would have 
had experience in anatomy and would be 
well grounded in experimental physiology, 
through his work on nerve and muscle, be- 
fore the talk began ; but the seminary is 
much more effective than the lecture. 

In Part III, covering the remaining four 
weeks of the term, the instruction is di- 
vided into special' courses on the physiology 
of the eye, ear, larynx, digestion, the spinal 
cord, the innervation of the heart, etc. 
Each course should consist of experimental 
work from 9 to 11, the study of prepara- 
tions and other aids from 11 to 12, and a 
conference from 12 to 12:45. Each course 
should be long enough to include all the 
practicable experiments that should find a 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



91 



place in a systematic, thorougli study of the 
subject. The number of such experiments, 
and hence the length of the special courses, 
will naturally be very different in the 
various instances ; thus experimental physi- 
ology of the eye will occupy more time than 
the phj^siology of the larynx. As many 
courses should be given at one time as there 
are instructors in the department. The 
student may elect the subjects that most 
interest him, but must choose a sufficient 
number to occupj^ him during the entire 
four weeks of instruction. 

The afternoons of the days on which 
physiology is taught are devoted to physio- 
logical chemistry. 

Wm. T. Portee. ° 

Haevakd Medical School. 

psychology. 

The invitation to talk about the methods 
of teaching psychology was to me in one 
way very welcome. All the year long I 
have done nothing with fuller conviction 
than to tell the psj'chologists that they 
ought not to meddle with methods of teach- 
ing, as they can hardly offer any aid. But 
there is one exception, and here I have at 
last a welcome chance to make the neces- 
sary appendix to vay year's sermon; the 
psychologists ought not to trouble them- 
selves with the methods of teaching which 
the other men appl}', but they ought, in the 
highest degree, look out for the methods 
which they use themselves, as there is per- 
haps no science in which bad methods are 
so confusing and dangerous. 

But the invitation came also as an em- 
barrassment. The methods of psychology, 
on account of the manj^ changes in recent 
years, have so far not had the time to crys- 
tallize ; they have not reached the stage of 
an objective form about which the psj'chol- 
ogists themselves agree, and it is a hopeless 
task to seek there anything which is more 
than a reflex of personal experiences. I 



felt this difficulty strongly and cannot offer, 
therefore, anything but an expression of 
my subjective convictions, which can claim 
in their favor nothing but the fact that they 
are based on observations in a university 
where the rather vincritical rush towards 
psychology has reached unexpected propor- 
tions. 

The time is too short to demonstrate here, 
what even every outsider ought to know, 
that a scientific psychology is to- day in first 
line experimental psychology and that col- 
lections of instruments are thus the neces- 
sary, full laboratories the desirable back- 
ground of teaching psychology. The audi- 
ence, on the other hand, is here too various 
to allow a description of special important 
pieces of appai'atus. I want, therefore, to 
emphasize merely questions of principle. 

Such a question of principle it is to ask 
which place this experimental psychology 
ought to have in the lecture courses of the 
university. To say the experimental work 
ought to be the whole is absurd ; that is 
possible for physics or physiology, but it is 
impossible for psychology. The physical 
sciences start with fundamental conceptions 
and presuppositions which are acknowl- 
edged without difficulty, while in psychology 
just the basal conceptions like conscious- 
ness, psychical causality, psychical elements, 
psychophysical parallelism are full of dif- 
ficulties and certainly not open to experi- 
mental treatment. The usual waj' now is 
that the elementary treatment of mental 
life deals with this general theoretical book- 
psychology, while the more advanced lec- 
ture courses go forward to an exact experi- 
mental study of the special facts. 

This seems to me a methodological blun- 
der; the order ought to be just the op- 
posite. I think, firstly, that the treatment 
of the theoretical questions in psychology is 
of no value whatever if it is given in an 
elementary way; every f)roblem leads here 
to epistemological discussions which go far 



92 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



beyond a sophomoric mind, and wliich are 
not simplified by avoiding the difficulties, 
but trivialized and falsified. Theoretical 
psychology is an advanced course for seniors 
and graduates. On the other hand, I think 
that experimental psychology can never be 
the object of a really advanced treatment 
in a lecture course. In physics or physiology 
the lecturer can reach the most advanced 
points because he can follow up the most 
difficult problems under scientiiic discussion 
with his experiments ; not so in psychology. 
We must not forget that a psychological ex- 
periment is nothing but self- observation 
under artificial conditions. The lecture 
room cannot produce the conditions for any 
careful self-observation of every student be- 
yond the most elementary questions. We 
can produce tone-sensations or color-sensa- 
tions, or associations and space judgments, 
in a rough way for the whole class. If we 
try more we can do two things. Either we 
make demonstrations on one subject — for 
instance, reactions; then the whole class 
may see the person on whom the experiment 
is made, but the one person is really the 
only one who goes through the experience 
of the experiment ; it is an illusion to think 
that the others get the advantage of the ex- 
periment too because they are in the same 
room. Or we choose experiments which every 
one can make individually at the same time 
— for instance, touch sensations ; but it is 
clear that here only the most elementary 
problems are in question. Thus, wherever 
we come to a more complicated experimen- 
tal question, the possibilities of the lecture 
room are at an end, and we have either to 
talk about experiments without making 
them — certainly a very bad scheme — or we 
have to shift them over to the laboratory 
courses, the only correct way. JSTo other 
experimental science can come into this 
troublesome situation, because no other 
deals with self- observation, but we psychol- 
ogists ought to confess that the experimental 



work of the lecture room cannot go beyond 
the first elements of psychology, and is of a 
simplicity that every high school boy can un- 
derstand. We must give up the pose that our 
psychological work becomes difficult on the 
introduction of a chronoscope and a kymo- 
graph and a color wheel. It is logically 
endlessly simpler than even the -slightest 
serious discussion of theoretical psychology. 

Of course, I am speaking of experimental 
psychology, which must not be confused 
with physiological psychology. The latter, 
in its narrower sense dealing with mind 
and brain, is either a theoretical discussion 
of the psycho physical parallelism, and as 
such fully dependent upon philosophical 
arguments and independent of empirical 
observations, or it is a study of the special 
localizations and functions of the brain 
parts. The first belongs to advanced theo- 
retical psychology ; the second does not be- 
long to a student's course on psychology at 
all, but to physiology. It is mere coquetry 
if we decorate our real psychological courses 
with physiological bric-a-brac. 

My method of teaching psychology in 
Harvard is as follows : I give a large ele- 
mentary course in psychology which hardly 
mentions the brain, but which is from the 
beginning to the end an experimental 
course, and it is our special aim to con- 
struct instruments on a large scale, allow- 
ing every student in the audience to go 
through the self-observational experience 
of the simjjle experiments. Theoretical 
problems are there not discussed, but only 
touched. Those who have passed this ele- 
mentary course have now no opportunity 
to cover the same experimental ground 
once more in advanced lecture courses, 
hearing three decimals where at first only 
one was given. No, they have two alterna- 
tives before them. They either enter the 
laboratory or they go on with lectures 
called ' advanced psychology,' hearing there 
hardly a single word about experiments, 



Januaey 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



93 



and certaiulj' never seeing an instrument 
in the lecture room. The advanced course 
is a theoretical discussion of the funda- 
mental conceptions in psycholgy. The 
course is verj^ difficult, but the fact that 
about one hundred advanced students take 
the course this year shows sufficiently how 
earnestly thej' feel the need, in our time— in 
which a thoughtless playing with psy- 
chology has become the fad of society — of 
discussing the principles of that science 
from a higher standpoint, and not only as 
a superficial introduction into expei'imental 
psychology. 

Those who are interested in the details 
of the experimental work and want to fol- 
low it beyond the first elements which the 
lectures offered enter the training course in 
the laboratory, performing a prescribed set 
of individual experiments, working in 
groups of two. The question how far this 
training course ought to lead offers again 
methodological difficulties. We tried dif- 
ferent schemes. My assistants gave last 
year two courses, the first training merely 
in well-known experiments, the second 
training in the scholarly attitude of the 
psj'chological investigator by carrying out' 
some small investigations from which no 
gain for science was expected. This year 
we have dropped the second course and 
welcome every one, already after a-half 
year's elementary training course, to the 
regular original research work of the lab- 
oratorj', in which, of course, everything is 
adapted to the effort to work towards the 
progress of science. We have come to this 
shorter circuit because with regard to the 
pedagogical value of original research work 
psychology has again quite an exceptional 
position ; the self-observation factor, which 
stands in the way of the experimental work 
in the lecture room, becomes the greatest 
advantage for the psychological education 
in the research work. In physics or 
physiology you take the part of the in- 



vestigator or you are outside ; in psychology 
you can take a different part — you may be the 
investigator or the self-observing subject. 
And this subject part is, as every experi- 
ment is self-observation, in no way a less 
important and less scientific factor of the 
research, and yet it is still free fi-om the 
administrative responsibilities of the in- 
vestigator who carries on the experiment. 
To work for a time as subject in different 
investigations — every student of my labora- 
tory takes part in at least three different 
investigations of different fields — is thus 
the very best bridge between the simple 
training course and the work which points 
towards publication and the Ph. D. My ad- 
vice is thus to open the doors of the research 
laboratory rather earlier than the other ex- 
act sciences would wish to do ; to work un- 
der constant supervision some time as sub- 
ject seems to me even a better preparation 
than any special training course. The 
psychological seminary finally has to ac- 
company this highest stage by advanced 
debates and papers ; this work, in Professor 
James' hand, alternates in Harvard be- 
tween more general questions and problems 
of abnormal psychology. The only defect 
which I must regret in this scheme is that 
we have so far no specialists for animal, 
child and social psychologj\ Child psy- 
chology finds a refuge in the department of 
pedagogy, social psychology in the depart- 
ment of sociology. They find in many uni- 
versities to-day a very large amount of 
good will in both departments, but — and 
tliat is the last methodological principle 
which I wish to lay down — good will alone 
is also for psj'chological studies not always 
sufficient. ' 

Hugo Mxjnsteebeeg. 
Haevabd University. 

antheopology. 
Antheopology is one of the subjects that 
have been added to the universitj' curricu- 



94 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



lum quite recentl}^ For this reason I will 
devote my remarks to a consideration of the 
field that anthropological instruction is in- 
tended to cover and of its relations to al- 
lied sciences rather than to a discussion of 
methods of instruction. 

According to purely theoretical defini- 
tions, anthropology is the science of man 
and might be understood to cover a vast 
range of subjects. The physical as well as 
the mental characters of man may be con- 
sidered in a certain way as the proper field 
of anthi-opology. But sciences do not grow 
up according to definitions. They are the 
result of historical development. The sub- 
ject-matter of anthropology has been ac- 
cumulated principally by travellers who 
have made us acquainted with the people 
inhabiting distant countries. Another part 
of the subject-matter of anthropology is 
due to the investigation of prehistoric re- 
mains found in civilized countries. Only 
after certain methods had developed which 
were based largely on the information thus 
collected was the white race made the sub- 
ject of investigation. 

For this reason the aim of anthropology 
has been largely to explain the phenomena 
observed among tribes of foreign culture. 
These phenomena are naturally divided 
into three groups : (1) thej)hysical appear- 
ance of man ; (2) the language of man, 
and (3) the customs and beliefs of man. 
In this manner three branches of anthro- 
pology have developed : (1) somatology, or 
physical anthropology ; (2) linguistics, and 
(.3) ethnology. Up to this time anthropo- 
logical investigation has dealt almost ex- 
clusively with subjects that may be classed 
under these three headings. These subjects 
are not taken up by any other branch of 
science, and in developing them anthro- 
pology fills a vacant place in the system of 
sciences. 

The treatment of these three subjects re- 
quires close cooperation between anthro- 



jjolog}' and a number of sciences. The in- 
vestigation of the physical characteristics 
of man has also been taken up by anato- 
mists, but the point of view of the an- 
atomist and that of the anthropologist are 
quite different. "While the former is pri- 
martly interested in the occurrence of cer- 
tain modifications of the hurflan form and 
in their genetic interpretation, the anthro- 
pologist is interested in the geographical 
distribution of varieties of form, in the 
variability of the human species in differ- 
ent areas and in their interpretation. The 
thorough study of physical anthropology, 
or somatology, requires the combined train- 
ing of the anatomist and of the anthropol- 
ogist. 

In the study of linguistics the anthropol- 
ogist deals with a subject that has been 
partially taken up by the student of special 
linguistic stocks. The study of the struc- 
ture of the Aryan languages, of the Semitic 
languages and of the Mongol languages has 
been carried on with great success by phil- 
ologists ; but the anthropological problem 
is a wider one — it deals with the general 
question of human language. 

In the study of ethnology the field of 
investigation of the anthropologist adjoins 
that of the field of research of the psychol- 
ogist and of the sociologist. The develop- 
ment of a truly empirical psj'chology makes 
it necessary to draw largely upon material 
furnished \>y anthropological studies. On 
the other hand, sociologists have found that 
the analysis of the culture of civilized so- 
ciety cannot be carried out successfully 
without a comparative study of primitive 
societj', which is the subject-matter of an- 
thropological research. 

The method of anthropology is an in- 
ductive method, and the science must be 
placed side by side with the other inductive 
sciences. Our conclusions are based on 
comparisons between the foi-ms of develop- 
ment of the human body, of human Ian- 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



95 



guage, of human activities, and must be as 
truly inductive as those of any other s<;i- 
ence. By including psychology and an- 
thropology in the present discussion on the 
methods of teaching science, we have given 
expression to the conviction that the method 
of investigation of mental phenomena must 
be no less an inductive method than that of 
physical phenomena. 

The teaching of anthropology may be 
made to supplement in many ways the 
teaching of allied subjects, and I will 
briefly outline its functions in the uni- 
versity curriculum. 

Physical anthropology has come to be 
primarily a studj' of the varieties of man. 
The differences between different tj'pes of 
man, defined either geographically or so- 
cially, are slight — so slight, indeed, that the 
biologist, until quite recent times, would 
have disregarded them entirely. Slight 
differences in type have been of importance 
to the student of anthropology at an earlier 
time than to the student of zoology, be- 
cause we are more deeply interested in the 
slight differences that occur in our own 
species than among animals. This has led 
to the result that in anthropologj' sooner 
than in zoology the insufficiency of descrip- 
tion was felt. Anthropology was the first 
of the biological sciences to substitute meas- 
urement for description and the exact num- 
ber for the vague word. The method of 
measuring variable phenomena — in the case 
of anthropology, of the variations compos- 
ing a type — had to be developed. It is 
only natural that in the course of this de- 
velopment mistakes were committed which 
had to be rectified, and that the sound 
method of metric description developed 
slowly. It would seem that at present we 
have reached the stage where the methods 
of metric description may be clearly recog- 
nized, and we maj', therefore, expect confi- 
dently a rapid and wholesome development 
of physical anthropology. A glance at 



recent biological literature shows very 
clearly that descriptive zoology and descrip- 
tive botany are passing at present to the 
substitution of metric description for ver- 
bal description that took place in anthro- 
pology some time ago. The study of ^ 
anthropological methods may prevent biol- 
ogists from repeating the same errors that 
were committed in the early days of an- 
thropology. Anthropological subjects will, 
for a long time to come, remain the most 
available material for metrical studies of 
variations in the higher forms of life, be- 
cause the material can be obtained in 
greater numbers and with greater ease than 
in studies of most of the higher animal 
forms. The metric method, which is at 
present principally an anthropological 
method, will, in a very short time, become 
of great importance to the student of 
biologj', who ought, for this reason, to profit 
by the experiences of the anthropologist. 

The fuller development of physical an- 
thropology will lead to a study of the 
physiology and experimental psychology of 
the races of man. But in these lines of 
work YiQ have hardly made a beginning. 
The relation of these inquiries to physiology 
and to psychology will be the same as that 
of physical anthropology to anatomy. 

I may be allowed to pass by briefly the 
relations of the linguistic method of an- 
thropology to other sciences. You will 
recognize at once that this subject, as well 
as its methods, must have a stimulating 
effect upon the teaching of philology, be- 
cause its conclusions are based upon the 
broad grounds of human language ; not on 
the studies of a single family of languages. 
The science of linguistics is growing slowly 
on account of its intrinsic difficulties. These 
difficulties are based as well on the lack of 
satisfactory material as on the amount of 
labor involved in the acquisition of knowl- 
edge in its particular line of research. 
Work in this field is most urgently needed, 



96 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 913. 



because the languages of primitive man 
are disappearing rapidlj', thvis depriving us 
of valuable material for comparative studj'. 

Ethnology, the last division of an thro- 
pologj'^, covers a vast field. Its main ob- 
ject may be briefly described as the dis- 
covery of the laws governing the activities 
of the human mind, and also the recon- 
struction of the history of human culture 
and civilization. The methods applied by 
ethnologists are twofold. The investiga- 
tion of the history of the culture of definite 
areas is carried on by means of geographical 
and of archajological methods. The methods 
are geographical in so far as the tj'pes 
inhabiting a country, their languages and 
their customs, are compared to those of 
neighboring tribes. They are archiieological 
in so far as they deal with the prehistoric 
remains found in the country in question. 
In this case we apply inductive methods for 
the solution of historical questions. The 
investigation of the laws governing the 
growth of human culture is carried out by 
means of comparative methods, and is 
based on the results of the historical analy- 
sis referred to before. These laws are 
largely of a psychological nature. Their 
great value for the study of the human mind 
lies in the fact that the forms of thought 
which are the subject of investigation have 
grown up entirely outside of the conditions 
whice govern our own thoughts. They 
furnish, therefore, material for a truly com- 
parative psychology. The results of the 
study of comparative linguistics form an 
important portion of this material, because 
the forms of thought find their clearest ex- 
pressions in the forms of language. 

It appears, from these brief statements of 
the scope and methods of anthropological 
research, that an acquaintance with the 
whole field is indispensable for the sociolo- 
gist ; that a knowledge of results and meth- 
ods will be of advantage to the psycholo- 
gist, and that the statistical method de- 



veloped in physical anthropology will be 
very helpful to the student of biology. In 
a general way, a knowledge of the outlines 
of anthropology seems to be of educational 
value, particularly in so far as it broadens 
the historical views of the student, because 
it extends his view over cultures and civ- 
ilizations that have grown up uninfluenced 
by our own. The advances made by our 
own race will appear to him in a trUer light 
when he is able to compare them with the 
work done by other races, and if he under- 
stands how much our own civilization owes 
to the achievements of people whoappear to 
be at present on a low level of culture. The 
methodological value of the teaching of 
anthropology lies in the fact that it shows 
the possibility of applying inductive meth- 
ods to the study of social phenomena. 

Fbanz Boas. 

BOTANY. 

There are some phases of botanical 
teaching that do not belong in the present 
discussion. University teaching, where se- 
lected, well-trained, devoted students pur- 
sue original investigation under the criti- 
cism and advice of great specialists, is 
excluded, for there is here no question of 
methods, but only of men. It represents 
the ideal relation of teacher to student, the 
true ideal for all botanical teaching. We 
have in this country some, but far too little 
of it. Again, college work proper, consist- 
ing in advanced thorough courses upon the 
practicum plan and in the investigation 
spirit, hardly belongs here. Such work has 
been stimulated by university example to a 
high degree of excellence, and in botany 
much of it is being done to-day in our col- 
leges, a fact with an important bearing upon 
our present subject, for thus are being 
trained the teachers of the near future who 
are to elevate the teaching of the schools. 
But in the teaching of systematic elemen- 
tary courses in botany, where these are not 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



97 



under the direct control of teachers educa- 
ted thoroughly and in the modern spirit, 
that is, in the elementary courses in many 
of the smaller colleges and in most high 
schools, there are questions and problems 
enough. Just here lies the center of dis- 
cussion, effort and advance in methods of 
botanical teaching at the present time. Be- 
low the high schools, in primary and gi-am- 
mar grades, where systematic courses in the 
sciences are wisely not attempted, but a 
foundation is laid for them in continuous 
and thorough courses of ' Nature Study,' 
there are problems, too, but of a simpler 
sort, whose solution will follow upon the 
solution of those of the high school. Just 
as university teaching has elevated col- 
lege teaching, both through example and 
through training teachers for it, just as in 
the same manner it is college teaching to- 
day that is elevating high-school teaching, 
so in the future will good high-school teach- 
ing improve that of the lower grades. 

In describing the qualitj' of most elemen- 
tai'y botanical teaching I would not call it 
bad, but simply insufficient. It is not true 
that it commonly teaches error, or is useless 
as training, but it is true that it is far be- 
hind and unrepresentative of the present 
state of the science. This backwardness is 
illustrated in many ways, of which I shall 
mention but two. First, it is, as a stud}', 
low in public opinion, good public opinion, 
which regards it as sj'nonymous with the 
study of the names of flowers, and hence as 
a discipline peculiarly fitted to the minds of 
school girls, or as an appropriate hobby for 
elderly persons of leisure. Second, it has 
stood low in the estimation of many univer- 
sity and college authorities, as shown by 
their frequent neglect to provide for its 
proper teaching, while amply providing for 
the sister science zoology, and some of the 
leading universities have not considered it 
as of particular value as an element in 
training in biology. It must be confessed 



that these opinions are in the main just. 
Botany, as tauglit, has been too much the 
study of the names of flowers, and it has 
had very little to contribute of value for 
biological training. The reason for this 
backwardness is plain enough and most in- 
structive — it is the result of an almost ex- 
clusive cultivation of a single phase of the 
science, entailing an abortion of other phases 
and an inability of the whole to respond 
elastically to the science as it broadens. 
This one phase has been classification of the 
higher plants, a phase determined bj' ihe 
overpowering influence of Dr. Gray, who for 
two generations towered so far above all 
other leaders of botany in America as to set 
his work as the standard, both for investiga- 
tors and teachers. Systematic work in- 
volves an extreme attention to terminology 
and a concentration upon the statical as- 
pects of plant structure. In the hands of 
poorly trained or overworked teachers it 
has run much to the filling-out of blanks, 
collection of herbaria and memorizing of 
lists of terms, thus becoming educationally 
little better than a sj'stem of mnemonics, 
or the working-out of mechanical puzzles. 
This sort of thing is not necessarilj' bad, 
but it is woefully uneconomical, one-sided, 
and neglectful of those other phases of the 
science that are attractive, useful and illumi- 
nating as knowledge, and rich in breadth 
and sympathy as training. 

But these conditions have recent)}' begun 
to change, and to-day are improving with 
a rapidity not realized outside of a few 
centers. The movement is with the ex- 
panding science, especially towards the 
study of the plant alive and in action. Its 
best evidence is to be found in the most re- 
cent elementary text-books, of which a 
large number, of increasing excellence, have 
appeared in the past two or three years. A 
comparison of the works, but a few weeks 
old, of Barnes or of Atkinson, with the best 
works of five years ago will show how rapid, 



98 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 312. 



liow great and in what direction the change 
is. Chief of the several causes of the ad- 
vance is this : University and college teach- 
ers, imbued with the newer and broader 
spirit, are taking an interest in the ele- 
mentary teaching of their subject not only 
in their own colleges, but also in the schools. 
If we consider the elementary text-books of 
approved standing and widest use in this 
country that have appeared within the past 
three years, those by Spalding, Bergen, 
Strasburger, Vines, Setchell, Curtis, L. H. 
Bailey, Barnes and Atkinson, we find that 
with but one exception, they are by uni- 
versity or college teachers. It is, of course, 
but presumption for anj' college teacher to 
attempt to instruct a school teacher in 
methods of imparting knowledge to school 
children ; but the college teacher, with his 
broader horizon, larger command of the 
sources of knowledge, and better facilities 
for experiment, can best set forth what the 
science has to offer to education, and the 
most useful proportioning and ti'eatment of 
topics. The new school teacher can be 
trusted to take care of his own methods. 
This is the spirit of the newer books ; they 
do not seek to impose any system upon 
teacher or student, but are storehouses of 
knowledge and advice to be drawn upon by 
all according to their needs. 

We turn next to a summary of advances 
actually being made in elementary botan- 
ical teaching, and of tendencies likelj' to be 
of importance in the near future. I need 
hardly speak of the continuous spread of 
laboratory and decline of rote instruction ; 
happily this is now a matter of course. Aside 
from this, the first and greatest of current 
advances is the shifting of the point of view 
from the static to the dynamic side of the 
plant, entailing a great increase of attention 
to phj'siology and ecology. We are ceasing 
to look upon the plant as, first of all, a drue- 
ture to whose parts certain functions attach, 
and are beginning to see it as a living thing 



whose functions determine its structure, 
a working, struggling organism, plastic, 
though with an hereditary stiffness, to out- 
side influences, not striving to realize some 
ideal plan, but simply to fit itself to the 
conditions that exist. Thus the leaf, from 
one point of view a structure of such a 
shape, size, venation, cellular composition, 
etc., carrying on the work of photosynthe- 
sis, is from another a mechanism so built 
as to expose a large amount of green tissue 
to light and to protect, support, supply and 
aerate it, and any given leaf is a resultant 
of the working of all these factors upon it, 
and as any one of them varies with the 
external influences so does the leaf var}-. 
N"ow the clue to this view of the leaf lies in 
the necessity for light in the formation of 
starch, the food and sole source of energy 
of the plant, and this can be appreciated by 
a student only after experiment upon the 
relation of light to starch formation, ex- 
periment that happily is very easy and 
every where practicable. Thus approached, 
leaf-structure becomes luminous. In the 
same way it is absorption of liquids by 
osmosis that explains the root, and the re- 
sultant between the physical requirements 
of this osmosis and the varying external 
conditions under which roots are forced to 
grow, explains why a given root is the form, 
size and texture it is. Again, it is observa- 
tion of modes of locomotion of pollen in 
eifecting cross-fertilization, and secondary 
conditions connected therewith that explain 
the flower, and so on. Experience is show- 
ing that the only road to an objective un- 
derstanding of anatomy and morphology 
lies through physiology and ecology. And 
this conception of the plant, as a living, 
working, struggling, plastic being is not 
only the truest, the most objective concep- 
tion of it, but is, as well, the one that ex- 
cites the greatest human sympathy and in- 
terest, and, therefore, is in itself the best 
' method ' the science has to offer. 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



99 



It is sometimes objected that practical 
diificulties in thus teaching the science are 
too great to be overcome, for teachers are 
untrained, experiment is difficult and appli- 
ances are expensive. All this is in great 
measure true, but raj)id]y coming to be less 
so, and no one expects, nor is it desirable, 
that changes should come too rapidly. Many 
colleges are now training teachers in this 
knowledge and spii'it, and simpler, less ex- 
pensive and more logically conclusive ex- 
periments for demonstrating the funda- 
mental principles of physiology are being 
invented. There is, however, one diflBculty 
which must be admitted to be very real, 
namely, the present unorganized state of 
ecology. At present this division of the 
science is little better than a series of huge 
guesses ; verj' little really conclusive work 
has been done in it, and no distinct methods 
of ecological experiment nor princiijles of 
ecological evidence have been formulated. 
Just here lies one of the most attractive 
fields open to botanists to-day, one whose 
returns will be of priceless value to botan- 
ical teaching. 

A second advance is towards a more nat- 
ural morphology. Next after classification 
the phase of botany most taught in elemen- 
tary courses is morphology. But morphol- 
ogy as taught in our schools is dominated 
by a rigid formalism based on the idealistic 
system introduced into botany by Goethe, a 
system easy to teach and one that appeals 
to a certain stage of culture in both race 
and individual, but one objectively un- 
true, and one that, if allowed to dominate 
and direct morphological conceptions, is 
actually pernicious and sterilizing. It is 
only through an approach to structure 
from its statical or systematic side that 
one can be satisfied with the conception of 
plant morphology which views the higher 
plant as a combination of elements so im- 
mutable as to retain their nature through 
the most extreme changes and combinations, 



even to the point of being present wlien in- 
visible, that can find carpel and calyx in 
all inferior ovaries, can homologize the 
parts of a stamen with the parts of a green 
leaf, or ovules with something on the leafy 
shoot. From this formalism the newer 
books have broken away ; their morphology 
conforms to the observed facts of plant de- 
velopment, which show adaptation not to a 
plan, but to conditions as they have existed. 

Among minor advances may be men- 
tioned a wider use of the inductive inves- 
tigating spirit showing itself in the growing 
custom of placing new matter before the 
student in the form of problems so arranged 
that their solution comes just within the 
scope of his own powers. Another is a 
greater flexibility in laboratory methods. 
The day of published laboratory guides to 
be put into the hands of students is, I be- 
lieve, passing ; they will be replaced by out- 
lines made by the teacher for each exercise 
to fit his particular mode of instruction and 
the material in hand. There is greater 
nicety and exactness, too, in the laboratory 
work; the 'rough sketch' is less heard of, 
and drawings whatever else they may be, 
must be diagrammatically accurate. An- 
other is a better proportioning of laboratory 
and text-book work. There is a reaction 
from the tendency to make laboratory work 
everything and to scorn the text-book, and 
the latter, for supplementary reading after 
the laboratory work, is again in favor, and 
it is for this purpose the newer and better 
books are written. All of these advances 
and tendencies are most healthful and in 
the line of real advance. 

I shall close this subject by pointing out 
three marked tendencies, not of botany 
alone, but of education in general, which, 
in my opinion, are most rich in promise for 
the advancement of botanical teaching, and 
which, therefore, all botanists should unite 
to promote. The first is the tendency to 
pay less attention to methods and more to 



100 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212.. 



men; to obtain better material for the mak- 
ing of teachers; to educate them thoroughly 
ia the spirit and matter of some one 
subject or limited group of subjects, and to 
leave them free to develop their own meth- 
ods, judging them only by their results. 
This is what the universities have done with 
such signal success, what the colleges are 
now doing and what the schools must do if 
they are to advance. It is nob methods 
that teach, but men and women. The second 
is toward the establishment of thorough and 
continuous courses in Nature Study through 
all gi-ades from the kindergarten to the 
high school. There are two reasons for 
this from our present point of view. Tlius 
only can students acquire a knowledge of 
the more obvious facts and phenomena of 
Animal and Plant life. Physical Geography, 
Physics and Chemistry so valuable as a 
basis for the systematic study of some one 
of the sciences in the high school. But, 
far more important than this is the use of 
Nature Study to preserve the natural in- 
ductive facilities of children unimpaired 
through school life, not to speak of improv- 
ing these facuties tlirough training. No 
fact about our later and better courses of 
elementary botanical study is more striking 
than the unanimity with which they begin 
with exercises adapted to train observation, 
comparison, etc. — in a word, induction. 
Now, these are powers that children possess 
naturally, the most universal of human 
faculties, those by which new knowledge is 
won; those by which self-made men succeed; 
those which surely above everj'thing educa- 
tion ought to cherish and develop. But, as 
a matter of fact, these faculties somewhere 
between the primary and high school are 
so eiiectually throttled out of nine-tenths of 
our students that the first need of the high- 
school or college teacher is to redevelop 
them. This suppression is, of course, the 
result of excessive text-book and deductive 
work, which always tends to make students 



distrustful of their own powers and leads 
them to regard as the only real sources of 
knowledge the thoughts of others properly 
recorded in printed books. Thorough and 
properly taught Nature Study is, in my opin- 
ion, the first need in all education to-day. 

Third of the tendencies I have mentioned 
is this : The movement among the colleges 
to require, or at least accept, some one thor- 
oughly-taught science for entrance, amongst 
which botany is always included. This will 
compel preparatory schools to improve their 
teachiug, for the science offered must be 
'enough in quantity and quality to allow stu- 
dents to omit the elementary course in the 
college and enter upon second courses. More- 
over, this movement will allow college teach- 
ers to exert more influence than ever upon 
school teaching, for, controlling admission, 
they can state which topics are to be stud- 
ied and what general methods are to be 
followed. A great part of the value to 
botanical teaching of this movement will, 
however, be lost, unless, in the very near 
future, the colleges, through their proper 
representatives, agree upon approximately- 
equivalent requirements, so that the pre- 
paratory schools may not be distracted and 
weakened by widely-differing demands. 

Though botanists are thus eagerly striv- 
ing to promote the interests of their science, 
it is not their desire unduly to magnify its 
importance, but only to give it its proper 
place in education and among the sciences. 
Their aim, I believe, may be thus expressed: 
Let education advance; let science ad- 
vance ; let botany advance. 

W. F. Ganong. 

Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF TEE GEO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, DECEM- 
BER SSTH, '29TH AND SOril, NEW YORK. 

I. 
The Geological Society of America com- 
pleted the first year of its second decade with 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



101 



the eleventh annual meeting at Columbia 
Uuiversit}', December 2Sth. Just nine years 
had elapsed since its last session in New 
York, which was held at the American 
Museum of Natural History. The Society 
assembled this year at 10 a. m., on Wed- 
nesday, the 2Sth, in the large lecture room 
of Schermerhorn Hall ; Professor J. J. Ste- 
venson, the retiring President, in the chair. 
President Low was introduced and in a few 
happily chosen remarks welcomed the So- 
ciety to Columbia. After the usual routine 
business, President Stevenson read a me- 
morial of the late Professor James Hall, so 
long State Geologist of New York and the 
first President of the Society. At the con- 
clusion of the memorial Professor Steven- 
son delivered his presidential address upon 
the subject ' Our Society.' He sketched the 
rise and development of geological organiza- 
tions in North America and discussed the 
important influence that they have exercised 
in the material progress of the country. 
The address appeared in full in the last 
number of Science. 

The reading of papers was at once begun, 
as a list of fifty titles had accumulated. 

The Archcean- Potsdam Contact in the Vicinity 
of Manitou, Colorado. W. O. Crosby, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

The speaker described the remarkably 
plane character of the contact of the Ar- 
chsean granite and Potsdam sandstone, 
which is in striking contrast with the exist- 
ing topography of the granite even in 
coastal regions. He distinguished and de- 
scribed in detail, with numerous illustra- 
tions, the original and secondary irregular- 
ities, the latter including a few flexures 
and numerous small faults which throw 
important light upon the origin of the sand- 
stone dikes of the Manitou district. The 
original irregularities of the contact are all 
small, and, as a rule, are evident! j' related 
to tlie existence in the Archajan granite of 



a coarse concentric or spheroidal structure- 
The plane type of erosion-unconformity, 
although probably of rather widespread and 
common occurrence, appears to liave at- 
tracted less attention than it merits. It 
suggests interesting possibilities as regards 
the development of peneplain surfaces in 
early times and invites a renewed com- 
parison of the relative efficiency in base- 
leveling of subaerial and marine agencies. 
These more theoretical aspects of the sub- 
ject were embraced within the scope of the 
paper, and the general conclusion was that 
the Archtean land surface must have passed 
with extreme slowness beneath the waves 
of the Potsdam sea. 

The paper was illustrated with maps and 
lantern slides and excited great interest, but 
did not arouse discussion. 

Outline of the Geology of Hudson's Bay and 
Strait. Robert Bell, Ottawa, Canada. 
The author described the general nature 
of the depression of Hudson's Bay ; the 
contrasted characters of the opposite shores; 
the Huronian areas on both sides ; the In- 
termediate Formation ; the Animikie and 
Nipigon series ; the Trenton gi-oup in Hud- 
son's Bay and Strait ; the middle Silurian 
rocks on the east, west and north sides 
of the Bay and in Baifinland ; the large 
Devonian area southwest of James Baj' ; 
the Devonian rocks on Southampton Is- 
land ; and the geology of the islands in the 
Bay. He gave a general geological descrip- 
tion of Hudson's Strait and of the rocks of 
its north shore, or southern Baffinlaud. He 
also took up the Laurentiau and older 
Cambrian strata of the Ungava district. 
Under the head of the economic minerals 
of the regions described, some details of the 
rich iron-ore deposits, involving carbonates, 
hematites and magnetites, were presented. 
In connection with the glacial geology of 
Hudson's Bay and Strait he sought to show 
the source of the ice that had yielded the 



102 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



scratches and its direction of movement. 
The Qoaternarj' deposits and the question 
as to the rate of elevation of the land re- 
ceived somewhat extended discussion. The 
author believes in the recognizable elevation 
within the historic period and brietij' ad- 
duced the phenomena on which he based 
his conclusion. 

In discussion B. K. Emerson stated that 
he was somewhat familiar with the rocks 
of the region from the collections of the 
Hall and Kane expeditions which are de- 
posited at Amherst, and from others gath- 
ered years ago by English officers. In the 
latter were fossils of the Utlca epoch. J. 
B. Tyrrell opposed the idea of the recent rise 
in the west shore of Hudson's Bay, basing 
his argument upon an old map of the region 
about Fort Churchill which showed rela- 
tions like the present ones. David White 
inquired about the presence of lower Silurian 
rocks about Frobisher's Bay, and mentioned 
fossils of the Trenton period which had been 
identified by Schuchert. H. S. Williams 
asked if no strata above the Devonian were 
known. In reply, Dr. Bell again upheld 
the view that the land was rising and men- 
tioned many arguments in support of it. 
The Trenton fossils, he said, had come from 
the northwest in the drift, and that no 
Carboniferous or later rocks, except Pleisto- 
cene, were known. 

The Society then adjourned for lunch, 
and at the afternoon session begun at once 
the reading and discussion of papers. 

The Faunas of the UpiKr Ordovician in the 
Lake Champlain Valley. Theodore G. 
White, New York City. 
The results of a detailed study of the con- 
secutive faunas contained in each stratum 
at numerous localities throughout the length 
of the valley were presented after a prelim- 
inary description of the general geology. 
A complete section is afforded from the 
base of the Black River formation through 



the Trenton and terminating in the Utica. 
Species hitherto reported only from Cana- 
dian localities are found associated with 
those characteristic of the Trenton Falls 
type-province, showing the Champlain con- 
nection with Ordovician seas. Several zones 
characterized by restricted species are lo- 
cated, and also ' Conglomeratic zones.' The 
fauna is very abuudant and supplies a basis 
of comparison for similar detailed study 
from other provinces. The occurrence of 
the Hudson River and Oneida groups in 
the region is questioned. 

In discussion H. M. Seely spoke of the 
attractiveness of the region and of its in- 
teresting problems and of the need of close 
paleontological study of the faunas. H. 
P. Cushing spoke in the same strain, and 
H. M. Ami remarked the close relationships 
of the faunas with those of Canada. C. S. 
Prosser remarked the resemblances and the 
contrasts with those of the Mohawk Valley. 

The Neivarh System in Neru York and New 
Jersey. Henry B. Kummel, Chicago, 111. 
The paper presented a general summary 
of the petrology, stratigraphy and condi- 
tions of origin of the Newark rocks in New 
York and New Jersey. The rocks form a 
northwestward dipping monocline, inter- 
rupted by gentle folds and many faults, two 
of which have a throw of several thousand 
feet. The lithological character varies 
great]}', so that sub- divisions established in 
one area do not hold for the entire field, and 
yet sub-divisions based on lithological char- 
acteristics are the only ones possible. The 
author classified them into the Stockton, the 
Lockatong and the Brunswick formations, 
together with the traps. Both extrusive 
and intrusive trap sheets occur and their 
relations to the sedimentarj' beds are in- 
structive. The question of thickness is com- 
plicated by the faulting. Estimates vary 
from 12,000 to 15,000 feet. The strata were 
probably accumulated under estuarine con- 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



103 



ditious in sballow water. Tlie surround- 
iug land areas seem to liavo been reduced 
nearly to base-level and deeplj' covered with 
residuary materials immediately preceding 
the deposition of these beds, but during 
their deposition subsidence of the estuary 
and elevation of the surrounding areas was 
in progress. The paper was illustrated by 
lantern slides. 

In discussion B. K. Emerson brought out 
many points of resemblance with the Jura- 
trias strata of the Connecticut Valley and 
N. S. Shaler compared them with those of 
the Richmond, Va., basin. He argued 
against their marine origin and in favor 
of lakes either salt or fresh. A. Heilprin 
spoke of the fishes which were considered 
as probably marine by Cope, but N. S. 
Shaler stated in reply that near Eichmond 
the fish were found in association with vege- 
table remains. No definite view was reached 
on this point, although B. K. Emerson re- 
marked that the casts of salt crystals were 
often seen in the shales in ISTew England. 
I. C. Eussell raised the point of the former 
extension of the Newark strata of New 
Jersey to the eastward, but the author had 
no light to throw on the question. J. E. 
Wolff and J. F. Kemp discussed the distri- 
bution of the boulders from the trap and its 
contacts over New York City and Long Is- 
land. 

Discovery of Fossil Fish in the Jurassic of the 
Black Sills. N. H. Daeton, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

The speaker exhibited several specimens 
of the recently discovered fossil fish and 
described their occurrence in the Jurassic 
beds on the confines of the Black Hills. 
The fish are now being investigated by 
specialists. The paper was immediately 
followed by the next one. 

Mesozoic Stratigraphy in the Southeastern Black 
Hills. N. H. Darton, Washington, D. C. 
The author exhibited a diagram of details 



of stratigraphy determined in 1898. The 
investigation resulted iu the discovery of 
marine Jurassic in the southern Black Hills, 
and of an horizon of large vertebrates in 
the lower Cretaceous. The pajDer was beau- 
tifully illustrated by lantern slides, and on 
its conclusion the Society adjourned un- 
til the following day. 

In the evening the Fellows attended the 
reception, which was most hospitably ex- 
tended to the visiting scientific societies by 
the authorities of the American Museum, 
and listened with great interest to the ad- 
dresses of Mr. Morris K. Jesup and Pro- 
fessor Henry F. Osboru. They also at- 
tended the reception given by Professor 
Osborn, at his residence, at the close of the 
lecture. 

On reassembling Thursday morning the 
reading of papers was at once resumed, 
the following two contributions being pre- 
sented together : 

Relations of Tertiary Formations in the Western 
Nebraska Begions. N. H. Dabton, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

This paper presented the results of sev- 
eral seasons' investigations of the White 
Eiver and the Loup Fork formations, ex- 
tending from the South Platte Eiver into 
the Bad Lands of South Dakota. 

Shorelines of Tertiary Lakes on the Slopes of the 

Black Hills. N. H. Darton, Washington, 

D. C. 

During the season of 1898 the author dis- 
covered extensive and beautiful shorelines 
and deposits of the Tertiary lakes far up 
the slopes of the Black Hills. They throw 
interesting light on certain stages of physio- 
graphic development of the Black Hills and 
the origin and condition of deposition of 
some of the White River sediments. 

No discussion resulted. 

General Geology of the Cascade Mountains in 
Northern Washington. Israel C. Russell, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 



104 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212, 



The region under discussion covers an 
area from the Northern Pacific Railroad to 
the Canadian boundary, sixty miles east 
and west by one hundred and twenty north 
and south. The following topics were taken 
up : Terranes — A. Eruptive, general ab- 
sence of basalt, the schists, granites and 
gneisses, greenstones, andesite of Glacier 
Peak, volcanic tuff and dust, acid and basic 
.dikes, the source of the Columbia lava. B. 
Sedimentary, Pretertiary, i. e., Carboniferous 
and Triassic strata, including the Similka- 
meen system and the Ventura system. C. 
Tertiary strata, including Snoqualame slate, 
Winthrop sandstone, Camus sandstone, 
Swank sandstone, Roslyn sandstone, Ellens- 
burg sandstone. Abundance of fossil leaves. 
D. Pleistocene strata, moraines and valley 
gravels. 

Structural Geology. — Domes, includ- 
ing the Cascade dome, the Wenatchee 
dome. Folds and faults. Physiography: The 
Cascade peneplain, the Cascade plateau, 
dissection of the Cascade plateau. Mature 
topography. Low-grade valleys. 

Ancient Glaciers. — On the east side of 
the Cascades : Yakima glacier, Wenatchee 
mountain glacier, Icicle glacier, Wenatchee, 
Chelan, Methow, Okanogan glaciers. On the 
west side of the Cascades : Sauk glacier, 
Skagit glacier, confluent ice sheet. Absence 
of northern drift. Gravel deposits. 

Terraces. — Great terraces of the Colum- 
bia, the Snake and Spokane, due to climatic 
changes. No evidence of recent submerg- 
ence ; absence of white silt. 

Existing Glaciers of the Wenatchee 
mountains and the Cascades. 

Climate. — The rainy western slope with 
dense forests and the drj'er eastern slope 
with open forests and grass. 

Economic Geology. — Coal, gold, copper, 
iron, building stone, clays, etc. 

In discussion Bailey Willis expressed 
doubts as to the divisibility of the Tertiary 
sandstones into so many distinct members, 



believing that combination would be neces- 
sarj^ He also argued that the domes were 
due to cross-folding rather than to lacco- 
lithic uplift, as ui-ged by Russell. S. F. 
Emmons suggested lava dams as the cause 
of the terraces rather than submergence or 
change of climate. G. M. Dawson said 
that the white silt was not to be expected 
in the region under discussion and favored 
submergence and glacial ice as the causes 
of the terraces. In reply I. C. Russell 
stated that the lava flows were older than 
the terraces, as the terrace gravels were 
present in cafions cut in the lava. He ad- 
mitted that Willis's views regarding the 
sandstones and the uplifts might prove cor- 
rect and that the causes of the terraces was 
obscure. 

The Society then adjourned for lunch. On 
reassembling the subject-matter of W J 
McGee's paper was introduced by W. H. 
Holmes. Holmes described the discovery 
of bones and artefacts on the surface in the 
vicinity of the California gravels that had 
yielded buried skulls and implements, and 
detailed the stories of old residents regard- 
ing the large part that practical jokes 
played in the discovery of the remains. He 
illustrated the geology of the Table Moun- 
tain region by sections, and developed the 
general argument that the relics were those 
of Digger Indians, who are still in resi- 
dence, or were within the period of the gold 
miners. He was followed by W J McGee 
before discussion opened. 

Geology and Archceology of the California Gold 
Belt. W J McGee, Washington, D. C. 
In continuing the paper of Holmes the 
speaker sketched the geological history of 
the Western Sierras, emphasizing the Ter- 
tiary age of the gravels, the ancient drain- 
age ; the inflow of tuffs and lavas ; tlie sub- 
sequent erosion of the present steep river 
caflons to a depth of 2,000 feet. He stated 
that in this time the fauna and flora had 



January 20, 1899.] 



/SCIENCE. 



105 



entirely changed, no species, and, so far as 
he knew, no genus lasting through to the 
present except that most variable of all 
genera. Homo, and the species most sensi- 
tive of all, to phj^sical changes, sapiens. Not 
only this, but the relics were those of the 
men, the Digger Indians, living there to- 
day, and when not bones the objects were 
those connected with the acorn industry of 
the present tribes. From all these consid- 
erations a sweeping argument supporting 
the general improbability of the geological 
antiquitj^ of the remains was adduced. 

In discussion W. H. Brewer spoke of the 
circumstances under which the discovery of 
the Calaveras skull was made, he hav- 
ing been at the time on the California Geo- 
logical Survey. He described its fossilized 
condition and its contained cemented grav- 
els and stated his belief in its very consid- 
erable age even if not Tertiary. He also 
gave an interesting account of the great 
theological and ecclesiastical opposition to 
Professor Whitney that the announcement 
of the geological age of the skull aroused, 
amounting almost to persecution. The dis- 
covery came shortly after the publication of 
Darwin's views on the descent of man and 
in the midst of the excitement that these 
views aroused. 

Major Powell recounted a number of his 
experiences with discovered relics and the 
tendency of collectors to palm off modern 
things as antiquities either in joke or as a 
fraud. He emphasized the need of depend- 
ing absolutely on geologists for all reliable 
testimony as to authentic occurrences in 
sedimentary deposits. J. A. Holmes spoke 
in support of the Major's view and related 
the recently recorded discovery of imple- 
ments in marl pits and Eocene limestone in 
North Carolina, the same being attested by 
affidavits of reputable citizens. 

Geology of the Lake Region of Central America. 
C. WiLLAED Hayes, Washington, D. C. 



The speaker discussed the following topics, 
illustrating his remarks by a fine map. His 
data had been accumulated while in the 
service of the Nicaragua Canal Commission 
and especially from test borings: Introduc- 
tion : general relations of the country under 
discussion. Toiwgraphy : the coastal plain ; 
the Chontales hills; the Tola hills; the 
Costa Eican volcanic range; the Nicaraguan 
volcanic range; the Jinotepe plateau; the 
lake basin ; the Eivas plain. ^Climate : the 
eastern section of heavy rainfall and dense 
forests ; the western of lighter rainfall and 
savannahs. Rock formations : Tertiai'y sedi- 
ments including the older Brito formation 
and the later Machuca formation ; Tertiary 
igneous rocks, dacites, andesites, basalts, 
volcanic breccias and conglomerates; recent 
sediments, alluvium ; recent igneous rocks, 
trachytes, basalts, tuffs and pumice. The 
Regolith : the conditions favor rock decay; 
the great depth of weathering; red and blue 
residual clays ; concerning weathering in ig- 
neous and sedimentary rocks. Recent geologic 
history of the region: early Tertiary deposition; 
Tertiary erosion; late Tertiary and post-Ter- 
tiary uplift and dissection of uplands; recent 
submergence and alluviation; recent vol- 
canic activity; formation of lakes and shift 
of divide to westward. Characteristics of San 
Juan Valley: the upperflood-plain; the Cas- 
tillo-Ochoa gorge ; the lower flood-plain. 

The paper aronsed the liveliest interest 
from the great importance of the project of 
the international canal. J. E. Wolff asked 
about the nature of the rock decay and 
whether silica, the alkaline bases and iron 
were removed, leaving beauxite, or whether 
hydrated silicates resulted. Mr. Hayes re- 
plied that he thought the latter, but that 
no analyses had yet been made of his many 
samples. Inquiries were raised about the 
recency of the volcanic outbreaks and the 
nature of the lava. The reply was that 
the lava was basalt and the last outbreak 
about fifteen years ago. 



106 



SCIENGE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



An Unrecognized Process in Glacial Erosion. 

WiLLARD D. Johnson, Washiugton, D. 

C. 

The glacial topography of mouBtains was 
analyzed, and the more distinctive forms 
discriminated from those of aqueous erosion. 
The recognized process, that of scour, its 
action downward and forward with the 
glacial advance, was described. Glacial 
scour and aqueous erosion were regarded 
as alike incompetent to bring about the re- 
sults and as a rule inimical to the produc- 
tion of known forms. An unrecognized 
process was set forth, that of sapping, whose 
action is horizontal and backward. The 
tendency of glacial scour is to produce 
sweeping curves and eventually a graded 
slope. The tendency of the sapping process 
is to produce benches and cliffs. Sapping 
is altogether dominant over scour. Under 
varying conditions, however, its developing 
forms become obsolescent ; their modifica- 
tion, then, by rounding off of angles, puts 
them seemingly into the category of scour 
forms. An hypothesis was advanced as to 
the cause of glacial sapping. The ultimate 
effect is truncation at the lower level of 
glacial generation. A second analysis and 
a more appreciative classification of transi- 
tion types terminated the paper. 

Before discussion the next paper was read 
because it dealt with allied phenomena. 
The hour, however, being late, the discus- 
sion went over till the next day. 

Geology of the Yosemite National Park. H. 

W. TuENEB, Washington, D. C. 

By means of lantern slides the author 
illustrated the topography of the granite 
areas in the higli Sierras and the Yosemite 
and other allied gorges. He developed the 
view that joints had chiefly caused the 
precipitous cliffs, and concentric shelling 
off, the domes. Minor forms were also ex- 
plained. He opposed the view that fault- 
ing had caused the gorges. 



Gold Mining in the Klondike District. J. B. 

Tyrrell, Ottawa, Ont. 

By means of a fine series of lantern 
slides the author illustrated the geograph- 
ical situation and the geology of the Klon- 
dike gold-bearing gravels. The stream 
gravels are the usual type of placers, but 
the bench gravels are small lateral mo- 
raines left by glaciers. The gold has not 
been derived from any distance. 

TJie Nashua Valley Glacial Lake. W. 0, 

Crosby, Boston, Mass. 

By means of lantern slides from photo- 
graphs and from maps and profiles based 
on bore-holes made by the ofiBcials of 
the Boston department of municipal water 
supply, the speaker described the bed-rock 
surface, the overlying gravels on the 
Nashua Eiver, and the characters of the old 
glacial lake of whose former existence they 
gave evidence. 

On the conclusion of the paper, at 5:45 
p. m., the Society adjourned until the fol- 
lowing day. In the evening about one 
hundred Fellows, many with their wives, 
gathered at the Hotel Logerot for the an- 
nual dinner. Under the presiding oversight 
of Professor B. K. Emerson, the past grand 
master of all the toastmasters, another en- 
joyable gathering was added to the list of 
those previously held. 



J. F. Kemp. 



Columbia Univeesity. 

( To he Concluded. ) 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Theory of Ch-oups of Finite Order. By W. Burn- 
side, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics 
at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 
Cambridge, The University Press. 1897. 8vo. 
Pp. xvi + 38S. Price, S3. 75. 
If, assuming a single but elevated point of 
view, we describe mathematics as the science of 
formal law, then the theory of operations easily 
commands the field, for it is the quintessence 
of mathematical form, the comparative anatomy. 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



107 



so to speak, of the mathematical sciences. Orig- 
inally appearing under the special guise of the 
theory of substitutions and developed iu this 
form by the labors of Galois, Cauchy, Serret 
and Jordan with reference chiefly to its applica- 
tion to the theory of equations, it has of more 
recent years overleaped at once its soientiflc 
and its national limitations and, receiving new 
impulse at the hands of Kronecker and Caylej', 
has been developed largely by Klein and Lie 
into one of the chief general instruments of 
mathematical research. In every branch of 
mathematics the point of view of the theory of 
operations is now predominant ; it is employed 
in almost every form of mathematical investiga- 
tion, and by the reaction the science is in turn 
constantly enriched. Conspicuous instances are 
Klein's theory of the modular equations and 
Lie's theory of differential equations. 

The number of separate works devoted wholly 
or in part to the theory of operations is com- 
pai-atively very small. Serret's Algebra held 
the field alone down to the appearance in 1S70 
of Jordan's classical Traite. Netto's Theory of 
Substitutions, published in 1882, was the first 
German book on the subject and represents, as 
regards its special subject, the German (Kro- 
necker) standpoint down to that date. The 
American translation (1892) of Netto's book 
was the first separate work in English to touch 
the field ; in fact, it was almost the first presenta- 
tion of the subject in any form in English. In 
1895-96 appeared the: two volumes of Weber's 
Algebra, a work the value of which as a sys- 
tematic and modern treatment of the various 
branches of algebraic science cannot be over- 
stated. To this work, rich in other treasures, 
belongs the distinction of being the first treatise 
to present the theory of operations in general 
form independent of the particular content to 
which the operation might be applied. Closely 
following the work of Weber, comes now the 
second English book on the algebra of opera- 
tions, Burnside's Theory of Groups of Finite 
Order. Professor Burnside's work is a doubly 
welcome contribution to the literature of the 
subject. It not only opens up to the English 
reader a great and hitherto almost foreign 
field, but it presents iu a form often original 
and always valuable the most recent develop- 



ments in that field, to which the author him- 
self has, in fact, made no insignificant additions. 
Many portions of the subject, otherwise only to 
be gathered piecemeal from the journals, are 
here brought together for the fii'St time in 
orderly sequence. Proofs have been recast and 
simplified or extended, and the book contains 
an abundance of those special 'details and ex- 
amples, perhaps too familiar in English mathe- 
matical works, but very acceptable here in the 
midst of a highly abstract theory. 

To the reader whose vocation or avocations 
have not lead him into this remote region of 
serene thought a short excursion among the 
groups may be instructive and more or less 
agreeable. Let him, then, first become familiar 
with the idea of the ' product ' of two opera- 
tions. This is simply the single operation which 
alone produces the same effect as the successive 
performance of the two given operations. If it 
be asked: "What sort of operations do you 
mean?" I reply with unction: "Any kind 
you please, and the more general the concep- 
tion the better." Algebraic, geometric, phys- 
ical, chemical, even metaphysical or ' socio- 
logical ' operations, if nothing better offers, all 
are taken in one net. But to condescend from 
this lofty altitude, let us take for an example 
the rotations of a sphere about its diameters. 
Choosing any two of them, and applying them 
successively to the sphere, regarded as a rigid 
body, the resulting, or resultant, displacement 
of the sphere is equivalent to a third rotation 
about a proper diameter. This third rotation 
is, then, the product of the two given ones. 
The rotations of the sphere, taken all together 
as a system, serve also to exemplify the next 
important notion, that of a 'group.' When a 
system of operations is so constituted that the 
product of any two of them is itself an opera- 
tion of the system, so that the system is a closed 
one with respect to the process of forming prod- 
ucts, then if a couple of minor conditions are 
also satisfied, the system forms a group. And 
now the theory of operations in its present 
form concerns itself not with all kinds of opera- 
tions, but with these groups. Examples of groups 
are not far to seek, after the idea is grasped. 
No science is exempt from them ; in mathematics 
they simply tumble over each other. Transfer- 



108 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



matious of coordinates in geometry form a group; 
so do the projections of a plane or of space; the 
motions of space as a rigid body form the Eu- 
clidean group of motions ; the n ! permutations 
of n letters form a group ; the eight permuta- 
tions of Ki, .T2, .T3, Xi which leave the function 
Xi a,-2 + Xs Xi unchanged in form, form a group ; 
the multiplication table, the operations of the 
post office, the theory of the tides, psychological 
phenomena, all embody characteristic groups. 
A specially important class of groups, which 
may serve to close the list, is that of the linear 
transformations (which are formally identical 
with geometric projections and with various 
other operations). Thus the equation 



may be looked upon as defining an operation by 
which any number z is connected into a corre- 
sponding number z'. If we have two of these 
operations, and if, having applied the one to z, 
getting z' as a result, we apply the other to z', 
getting z'^ as a result, then an examination will 
show that z" is itself a linear function of 2, i. e. , 
the product of two linear transformations is a 
linear transformation. 

Prepare now for a step into the abstract. In 
expressing ourselves in terms of 'operations' 
we have been walking on the crutches of the 
concrete. But if we designate the operations 
of a group hy A, B, C, . . . , their products ^4 B, 
BC, . . . have a definite mode of formation, 
constituting an algebra, and we will now throw 
away the ' operations ' and keep the symbols 
and their algebra. The symbols are now ' ele- 
ments,' and if these elements form a group 
the product ^i? is identified by the algebra with 
some element C of the same group. Two other 
properties have to be added to make the defini- 
tion of a group precise : (1) the algebra must be 
associative, i. e., (AB).C= A.{BC), and (2) if 
AB = AC then B=C and if AB = CB then A 
= G. Algebras can, of course, be constructed 
which omit these conditions, but they are not 
algebras of groups. 

The order of a group is the number of its ele- 
ments. A group may be of finite or Infinite 
order, e. g., all the rotations of a sphere about 
its diameter form a,u infinite group ; those of 



them which turn into itself a regular polyhedron 
inscribed in the sphere form a finite group. In- 
finite groups are only touched on in Burnside's 
book. Access to their theory is most readily 
had through Lie's works. Burnside's opening 
chapter on abstract groups (ChaiJter 2) is not so 
happily executed as Weber's treatment (Vol. II., 
Chapter 1), which is a masterpiece {Cf. also 
Frobenius's ' Ueber endlicheGruppen,' Berliner 
Sitzungsberichte, 1895, p. 163). Buruside re- 
tains the operations and makes use of their con- 
crete qualities in discussing properties which 
are better treated in the pure abstract. 

From the mere definition of a group it is pos- 
sible to raise a considerable crop of properties 
without any artificial fertilizer. Add the ideas 
of isomorphism and transformation, and con- 
sider the groups whose elements are commuta- 
tive (Chapter 3), and those whose orders are 
powers of single prime numbers (Chapter 4), 
and the wilderness fairly blooms. Even the 
non -specialist may rapidly make his way 
through the easy roads and add valuable ideas 
to his stock as he goes. He can hardly do bet- 
ter than to read this book, which gives a very 
clear and straightforward treatment of these 
general matters. But this is mere surface pro- 
duction. Underneath is gold, but only the 
Frobenius brand of dynamite will reach that. 
More than twenty-five years ago a solitary pros- 
pector, Sylow, found the lode and worked it 
with good results as far as he could follow it. 
Others have tried new leads, but none have 
accomplished anything remarkable until the 
work of Frobenius, who in the past ten years 
or so, and more particularly in his articles pub- 
lished in the Berliner Sitzungsberichte for 1895-6 
has opened up a vast wealth of new relations, 
at the same time revising and enriching the ear- 
lier methods, nomenclature, and general point of 
view. Some of the most prominent of Frobeni- 
us's results are discussed in Chapter 6. Another 
line of ideas, which, however, dates back in its 
beginning as far as Galois, and has been im- 
proved especially by Holder, the theory of com- 
position of a group, is discussed in Chapter 7. 
The three following chapters are devoted to an 
extensive discussion of substitution groups, 
whose theory has also been considerably ex- 
tended of recent j'ears. The theory of isomor- 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



109' 



phism of a group witli itself, also a very recent 
notion, is given a full chapter. The scene then 
shifts to the graphical representation of groups, 
exploited by Klein in his treatment of the auto- 
morphic functions, and treated separately by 
Dyck, whose methods are here employed. 
Cayley's color groups also receive attention. 
A chapter follows on the linear group, following 
Jordan's classical discussion. Finally, Sylow's 
theorem and its derivatives are applied to the 
determination of the composition of groups 
whose order are resolved into prime factors. 

The book concludes with a useful trilingual 
table of equivalent technical terms and a still 
more useful Index. The publishers have done 
their full duty ; the type is large and clear, and 
the paper gives a good impression. The text 
would have been improved by the introduction 
of descriptive section headings, and frequently 
the reader is not kept comfortably informed of 
what the author has in view, and must suspend 
judgment for a too lengthy interval. 

The small public to which such a work ap- 
peals makes it unlikely that books on the theory 
of groups should ever become very numerous. 
It is fortunate, therefore, that in Professor Burn- 
side's treatise we have a work of genuine and 
permanent value from which many a future 
student may draw wholesome inspiration. 

F. N. Cole. 

Elements of Sanitary Engineering. By Mans- 
field Merriman. John Wiley & Sons. 
1898. 

The book opens with an interesting and, for a 
student, instructive series of historical notes. 
This is followed by a section dealing with ' clas- 
sification of disease,' wherein maybe found the 
novel proposition that ' disease is normal aud 
health ideal — ' a view that will call forth much 
opposition. 

The illustrations distinguishing between con- 
tagion and infection are good, but the sugges- 
tion that goitre is probably due to the use of 
limestone water is hardly warranted ; for, were 
it a fact, the hard waters of southern England 
should produce the disease abundantly. 

An excellent and timely statement is given 
in the table on page 17, showing how much 
more serious is consumption than sundry other 



diseases against which we take far greater pains 
to guard. 

The relation of filth to disease is well put, 
and the illustrations are striking. The chapter 
on ' drinking water and disease ' is in terse 
form, suitable for class-room work, but the re- 
marks concerning the Hamburg cholera epi- 
demic need to be supplemented by a map of 
the city, in order to grasp fully what may be 
learned from that instructive outbreak. 

The book is evidently intended for use as a 
student's text-book, and excellent questions are 
inserted at frequent intervals, which require the 
student to make use of a reference library. 
This is a very valuable feature, aud one but 
rarely found. There is, unfortunately, no 
index. M. 

Bash Fruits : A Horticultural Monograph of Rasp- 
berries, Blackberries, Dewberries, Currants, 
Oooseberries and other Shrub-like Fruits. By 
Feed. W. Card, Professor of Horticulture, 
Rhode Island College of Agriculture. The 
Macmillan Company. 1898. Pp. xii + 537- 
Price, $1.50. 

Under this concise and somewhat descrip- 
tive title another book is added to the list 
upon small fruits, from which, in this instance, 
are excluded the grapes, strawberries and cran- 
berries. 

The contents are divided into three parts, 
namely, (I.) General Considerations, (II.) The 
Brambles aud (III.) The Groselles. The last 
name is adopted from the French, includes both 
the currants and gooseberries, and is a con- 
venient term as a heading for a book division, 
but will scarcely be of much service elsewhere. 
Under brambles, of course, the red rasp- 
berries, black raspberries, blackberries and 
dewberries are considered each with its sepa- 
rate chapter. 

Part I. deals with the consideration of loca- 
tion, fertilizers, planting, tillage tools, pruning, 
propagation, thinning, spraying, picking, 
packing and marketing of fruit, with a few 
closing pages upon the methods of crossing 
and the results of such blending of the varieties 
and species. 

Many of the above-mentioned points are 
again more specifically treated under the chap- 



110 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



ters devoted to the separate groups of bush 
fruits, and the whole book is so planned that 
the practical grower may quickly reach replies 
to the questions in hand by means of a full in- 
dex even to the varieties of each sort of fruit 
embraced by the work. 

The more scientific portions of the volume 
are kept as far as possible by themselves, set 
in smaller type and include histories of the 
various sorts of fruits, their insect enemies and 
fungous diseases. This separation is a wise pro- 
vision for the convenience of the grower, for 
whom the book is especially written and who is 
more interested in the art of producing a profit- 
able crop than the underlying principles of bot- 
any upon which the art securely rests. For ex- 
ample, there ai-e nearly fifty pages of descrip- 
tive text of species of Kibes set under the 
chapter title of 'The Botany of the Groselles,' 
and many of the species are figured. Such 
portions of the work as this are of much value 
to all who desire to advance American horti- 
culture by introducing new species to cultiva- 
tion or extending the range of hybridization. 

In the more practical part it may be noted 
that special stress is placed upon the evapora- 
tion of the fruit, and several illustrations are 
given of the apparatus employed in this grow- 
ing industry. In the preface, by the editor of 
' The Rural Science Series,' of which the ' Bush 
Fruits ' is the sixth volume. Professor Bailey 
states that ' the aim has been to treat general 
truths and principles rather than mere details of 
practice. ' 

The book is written by one who has both an 
experience with bush fruits and a knowledge of 
the best things that have been thought and said 
along the lines he has followed out to a success- 
ful issue in the volume in hand. 

Byron D. Halsted. 

The Lower Crelaceoxis Gryphseas of the Texas Re- 
gion. By Robert Thomas Hill and Thomas 
Wayland Vaughan. Bulletin of the United 
States Geological Survey, No. 151. Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office. 1898. 
Pp. 66. PL XXXV. 

The main object of the authors in publishing 
this brochure is to set aright the confusion that 
has long existed regarding the classification and 



stratigraphic position of a series of fossil oysters 
commonly assigned to a single species, Orijphsea 
pitcheri, Morton. They occur in especial abun- 
dance in the Lower Cretaceous formations of 
Texas, and when properly classified are found 
to be of great value in determining the position 
of strata. From forms heretofore known as O. 
pitcheri at least eight species are here recog- 
nized (Table, pp. 45-46), viz. . G. vesicularis, 
Lam., 1806; G. newhen-yi, Stanton, 1893; G. 
mucronata, Gabb, 1869 ; G. washitaensis, Hill, 
1889 ; G. navia, Hall, 1856 ; G. corrugata, Say, 
1823 ; G. marcoid, Hill and Vaughan, 1898 ; 
G. wardi, H & V, 1898. It is found, further- 
more, that even Morton's species (so long con- 
sidered the type) must be abandoned in favor of 
Say's G. corrugata. 

The introduction, dealing historically with 
the controversy of many years' duration con- 
cerning G. pitcheri and the formations in which 
it occurs, is not without a moral, inasmuch as 
it plainly shows that an iuadecjuate description, 
with a poor figure, may become a fruitful source 
of error, which, as in the case of the species 
under consideration, may be greatly augmented 
by the want of proper stratigraphical knowl- 
edge on the part of collectors. 

An account of the fossil oysters of the Texas 
region and a classification of the Ostreidee fol- 
lows. The difficulties encountered by the au- 
thors are not underestimated: " In undertaking 
the study of the Ostreidte one is soon confronted 
with the question: What constitutes species and 
genera in this group ? The variation of species 
is much greater in the Ostreidis than in other 
moUuscan genera. No other group presents 
such unsatisfactory criteria for specific differen- 
tiation. These forms, judging from their strati- 
graphic occurrence as well as their habits, seem 
to adopt new variations of shape with every 
change in physical condition of habitat, as is 
illustrated in the variations of our living spe- 
cies. Changes similar to those occurring at the 
present time have occurred in the past, and no 
doubt many species have arisen by some of these 
local variations becoming fixed and persistent. 
Large suites of specimens often show that two 
species usually considered very distinct may 
grade into each other. The intergradations 
are of such a kind that frequently it can easily 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



Ill 



be shown that the two species have been de- 
rived from a common ancestor ; in other cases 
one species is evidently derived from another 
occurring stratigraphically below it. ' ' 

Contrary to the prevailing opinion that fossil 
oysters, on account of their great variation, are 
of little value in the recognition of strata, our 
authors are led by their observations to conclude 
"that certain forms of the Ostreidffl possess 
very distinct specific characters, have definite 
geologic horizons, and are of the greatest value 
in stratigraphic work." They recognize the 
fact, also, that no scheme of classification can 
be entirely satisfactory until both fossil and 
recent oysters have been " the subject of thor- 
ough investigation from a phylogenetic and 
morphologic standpoint, according to the lines 
of research followed out by Hyatt in the cepha- 
lopods, Jackson in the pelecypods, Beecher and 
Schuchert in the brachiopods and Von Koch in 
the stony corals." 

Sixty-one accepted species and varieties of 
fossil oysters are listed as occurring in the 
Texas Cretaceous, and twenty-three indefinite 
and abandoned species. Of the former forty- 
seven are tabulated as characteristic of definite 
horizons (p. 31). 

Under the caption ' Historical Statement of 
the Discovery in the Texan Region of the Forms 
referred to Oryphsea pitcheri, Morton,' the con- 
fusion of various authors concerning this famous 
fossil is clearly presented and the sources of 
error pointed out. The following topics of more 
than ordinary interest are also discussed : ' Dif- 
ferentiation,' 'Geographic and Stratigraphic 
Distribution of the Lower Cretaceous Gry phaeas, ' 
'Specific Classification and Evolution of the 
Lower Cretaceous Gryphseas,' and the bulletin 
closes with careful descriptions of six species, 
characteristic of the Lower Cretaceous, which 
the authors believe to merit recognition, sup- 
plemented by a brief statement of their rela- 
tionship. The excellent and copious illustra- 
tions which accompany this paper deserve 
especial commendation. Of thirty-five plates, 
thirty, including copies of figures from Hall, 
Marcou and Eoemer, are devoted to Gryphjeas ; 
of the remainder, one is a view of a living 
oyster bed, showing the profusion of molluscan 
growth, the others sections showing the strati- 



graphic occurreuce of the Texas Cretaceous 
Ostreidse. 

Frederic W. Simonds. 
University of Texas. 

books received. 
Calml de gencralisalion. G. Oltramare. Paris, 

Hermann. 1899. Pp. viii-figi. 
BepoH of the Commissioner of Education for the year 

1S96-97. Washington, Government Printing Office. 

1898. Vol. II. Pp. 1137-2390. 
The Human Body. H. Newell Martin. Fifth 

Edition, revised by George Wells Fitz. New 

York, Henry Holt & Co. 1898. Pp. xiv-f 408. 
Elements of Graphic Statics. PROFESSOR L. M. Hos- 

KINS. New York and London, The Macmillan 

Company. 1899. Pp. viii-1-199, and eight plates. 

$2.25. 

SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 
The American Naturalist for January opens 
with an article by Dr. Arthur Hollick discuss- 
ing the relation between forestry and geology 
in New Jersej'. Professor W. M. Wheeler 
gives a biographical sketch of the late George 
Baur, which is accompanied by a biographical 
sketch containing 144 titles. Articles follow by 
Miss Julia B. Piatt, describing certain phe- 
nomena of geotaxis ; by Professor Cockerell, on 
'Vernal Phenomena in the Arid Regions,' and 
by Professor E. W. MacBride, reviewing Seitaro 
Goto's work on the development of Asterias 
pallida. 

The American Geologist for January opens its 
twenty-third volume with a notice of Edward 
Drinker Cope, by Miss Helen Dean King, with 
a portrait and a bibliography containing 815 
titles. There follow articles by Dr. N. H. 
Winchell, on ' Thalite and Boliugite from the 
North Shore of Lake Superior,' and by Mr. 
Marsden Monson, on ' The Loss of Climatic 
Evolution.' 

The Journal of the Boston Society of the 
Medical Sciences for December, 1898, contains 
an abstract of an interesting paper by Dr. 
Morton Prince entitled ' An Experimental Study 
of Visions,' also an important paper by Dr. 
Franklin W. White upon ' the Germicidal 
Properties of Blood Serum.' Among the con- 
clusions reached are these : Human blood 
serum differs greatly in its germicidal action 



112 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S, Vol. IX. No. 212. 



upon various bacteria ; in fatal diseases it some- 
times loses part of its germicidal j^ower for the 
colon bacillus shortly before death, but more 
frequently retains this power for several hours 
after death ; human blood serum does not lose its 
germicidal power for typhoid and colon bacilli, 
even in the late stages of chronic wasting disease. 
The Philadelphia Medical Journal, which dur- 
ing its first year has secured a high position 
among medical journals, will hereafter publish 
a monthly supplement of 60 pages containing 
original articles. 

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, JANUARY 
6, 1809. 

Abstract. 

' The Work of Glaciers in High Mountains : ' 
By Willard D. Johnson. The greater number 
of the imposing forms in the summit regions of 
nearly all high mountains are of unknown 
origin. They are, however, strictly confined to 
tracts which either have in the recent past been 
glaciated or are glaciated now. Presumably, 
therefore, they are of glacial origin. But the 
difficulty is that, according to the known laws 
of glacial erosion, they are unintelligible. 

The recognized process in glacial erosion is 
scour. This process, like aqueous corrasiou, 
must always tend — in uniformly resistant and 
unfractured material — to produce graded slopes. 
But in glaciated summit regions, especially in 
granite and in tracts of that rock which answer 
most nearly to ideal condition^ of uniform hard- 
ness, the topography is essentially that of flat 
valley floors and of upright cliffs, transverse as 
well as longitudinal to the direction of flow. 
In sound rock both glacial scour and aqueous 
corrasion will be not only incompetent but in- 
imical to the production of such forms. 

An unrecognized process appears to be that 
of sapping. The transverse, and therefore 
buried, cliffs in the glacier's pathway, as well 
as the amphitheatral cliff at its head, are 
cliffs of recession. The action of scour is 
downward and outward with the glacial ad- 
vance, but the action of sapping is horizontal 
and backward. It is seldom lateral, and then 
only for a brief space. The flat valley bottom, 
as well as the parallel valley walls (where sub- 



sequent scour has not dulled their upright 
profiles), are by-products of recession of the 
transverse cliff. 

So long as, along any advancing line, it con- 
tinues active, sapping will be altogether domi- 
nant over scour, accomplishing large results in 
excavation ; but its action, apparently, is by 
successive attacks, from point to point, and has 
relatively brief duration. Its forms, thereafter, 
arrested in development, become obsolescent 
under the contiuous action of scour, and the 
rounding-off of angles puts them seemingly into 
the category of scour forms. 

The following hypothesis is advanced as to 
the cause of glacial sapping : The glacier pro- 
tects its bed against the sharp variations of 
temperature which, by mechanical disintegra- 
tion, waste exposed slopes. At the same time 
the covered rock surface is maintained close to 
zero, Centigrade — a critical temperature. By 
tearing away at its head from the mountain 
slope, and by reason of initial irregularities of 
bed along its line of flow, the glacier is broken 
across. Jf the depth of ice be not too great 
these breaks, or crevasses, will penetrate to the 
bottom. Along the narrow transverse line of 
bed, or floor, thus exposed — during summer, 
while the crevasse is open — there will be oscil- 
lations of temperature, between day and night 
perhaps, accomplishing an alternation of freez- 
ing and thawing. This alternation across the 
freezing point, at the crevasse foot, will be 
much more frequent than upon the exposed 
slopes without — a diurnal, rather than a 
seasonal, change. The crevasse foot will thus 
be a line of sharply localized and abnormally 
vigorous weathering, by coarse mechanical dis- 
integration. The glacier is an agent here, 
directly, only in the removal of waste products. 
Frost- fracturing acts vei'tically downward, as 
well as horizontally backward, into the cliff, 
which it thus undercuts ; but the products of its 
downward work are much less readily removed, 
and failure to remove operates to defeat down- 
ward action. Thus the cliff recedes, leaving in 
its trail an approximately flat and horizontal 
floor. In the slight unevennesses of this floor, 
after glacial conditions have passed and the 
caiion has become emptied, rock-basin lakes 
accumulate. 



Januaey 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



113 



Bj' recession at the amphitheatre head — and 
the glacier malvcs the amphitheatre, rather than 
merely occupies it — the amphitheatral wall 
is carried backward, and divides are cut through. 
A summit region, upon either slope of which 
glacial streams are extended, will be trenched 
by streams heading thus in opposition. A iirst 
effect of the meeting of an opposing pair will be 
the arete, or thiu comb — the most evanescent of 
mountain forms ; the final elFect will be the col 
— a low-level pass between walls. The ulti- 
mate result of continued glaciation must be 
truncation of the crest region, close to the lower 
level of the glacial generation. Transitional 
forms will be not only the arete and the col, but 
the aiguille, or minaret, the residual table, the 
caiion of diverted discharge, the canon of 
Yosemite type, and the towering peak of Mat- 
terhorn type, against which divergent streams 
will burrow at their heads, scalloping its base, 
and maintaining its sinking summit as the sharp 
apex of a slender and fluted pyramid. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY : STUDENTS' GEOLOGICAL 
CLUB, DECEMBER 19, 1898. 

Under the general title, ' Geological Results 
of the Recent Storm upon the Massachusetts 
Coast,' five members reported observations. 
Mr. R. B. Earle described results noted on the 
Winthrop and Beachmont shores. Winthrop 
Beach, usually sandy and of gentle slope, bore 
a series of gravel cusps, terminated on the sea- 
ward side by spits that pointed toward^ the 
southeast. Whenever these cusps were com- 
posed of coarse gravel they were high and near 
together ; when of fine material they were low 
and far apart. In the Beachmont Bluff, at 
similar intervals, was a series of cavern-like 
undercuttings. A portion of the beach, be- 
low the Bluff, was covered with heaps of sea- 
weed shaped into cuspate forms, but another 
portion was degraded to a depth of three feet. 

Mr. A. W. G. Wilson visited the south shore 
from Windmill Point to Cohasset Harbor. At 
the former locality sand and gravel were thrown 
inland thirty feet. The railroad track that ran 
close to high-tide level, along the front of the 
drumlin upon which the town of Hull is located, 
was protected by a breakwater of granite and 
diorite blocks. From this breakwater, some 



blocks, which weigh approximately a ton or 
more, were moved back ten feet and raised be- 
tween one and two feet. Nantasket Beach, in 
front of Strawberry Hill, was cut down four 
feet, and back in places twenty feet, for a dis- 
tance along the beach of five hundred yards. 
Sections of sewer pipe thus revealed afforded a 
basis for measurement. At the southern end of 
Nantasket, where most of the wrecks were 
washed up, large quantities of thoroughly 
rounded, soft coal were imbedded in the beach 
sand to a depth of at least ten inches. A short 
distance east of Gun Rock, half a mile from Nan- 
tasket, some houses stand one hundred yards 
inland and from six to ten feet above normal 
high water level. Coarse gravel accumulated 
against these houses in heaps three feet high 
and buried a neighboring road between two and 
three feet deep. At Hull and in the region of 
Gun Rock, where a salt marsh and a pond, i-e- 
spectively, lay back of the beach, new, storm- 
built beaches have encroached upon the marsh 
and pond, in the form of well-marked series of 
gravel spits from one to five feet in height. 

Mr. J. M. Boutwell offered three records of 
height of water. At Lynn Beach the position 
of pebbles and debris indicates the submergence 
of its Nahant end. At its Lynn end, according 
to the statement of an eye witness, the water 
rose over the road to a depth of three feet and 
swept completely across the beach. At Milton, 
in the Neponset River, a rod has been so placed 
that its top marks the height reached by the 
high tide of 1851. One eye witness states that 
during the recent storm the water rose to within 
three inches of the top of this rod ; another 
affirms that he saw it rise over the top. At the 
Boston end of the West Boston bridge the 
water in the Charles River rose to within one 
inch of the street level. The tide predicted for 
November 27th was the normal high-tide, ten 
feet two inches at Boston. Had the storm 
passed at the time of spring-tide, about two 
days later, the water would have risen fully a 
foot higher. As it was, the concomitant effect 
of an imminent spring-tide, a strong, low pres- 
sure area and an onshore wind was to raise the 
water higher, at some points, than it was during 
the high tide of 1851. J.M. Boutwell, 

Chairman. 



114 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



ONONDAGA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. 

At the November meeting of the Academy 
Professor P. F. Schneider read a paper on 
' Onondaga Whetstones,' giving a short history 
of the use of whetstones and comparing the 
various commercial stones. The Labrador stone 
is found at the southern border of the county 
and is manufactured in a nearby town. It 
makes an excellent ' table stone.' The Arkan- 
sas stone is also manufactured by the same com- 
pany, the 60,000 pounds annually shipped here 
yielding about 20,000 pounds of the finished 
product. 

At the December meeting of the Academy 
Professor Schneider spoke on ' Palseobotany of 
Onondaga County,' illustrating his remarks by 
about a dozen plant remains from the local Si- 
lurian and Devonian rocks. 

Mrs. L. L. Goodrich spoke on'/ Variations in 
TrilUums,^ and exhibited specimens ranging 
from the typical Trillium grandiflorum through 
gradations of petioled leaved forms to extreme 
forms with purely radical leaves. In nearlj' all 
cases the petals were more or less marked with 
green, and various degrees of reduplication 
and suppression, of floral parts were noted as 
common occurrences. 

Dr. A. A. Tyler spoke on 'The Origin of 
Species Through , Variations,' after which the 
topics of the evening were discussed by Dr. W. 
M. Beauchamp and Dr. Hargitt. 

H. W. Beitchee, 
Corresponding Secretary. 

THE academy of SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS. 

At the meeting of the Academy of Science 
of St. Louis, of January 9, 1899, the following 
officers were declared elected for the current 
year : President, Edmund A. Engler ; Vice- 
Presidents, Robert Moore, D. S. H. Smith ; Ee- 
cording Secretary, William Trelease ; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Joseph Grindon ; Treasurer, 
Enno Sander; Librarian, G. Hambach ; Cura- 
tors, G. Hambach, Julius Hurter, Hermann von 
Schrenk ; Directors, M. H. Post, AmandRavold. 

Ml-. Hermann von Schrenk presented infor- 
mally the results of a study of a sclerotium di- 
sease of beech roots which he had observed in 
southeastern New York during the past summer. 



The sclerotia, which were formed by the web- 
bing together of rootlets by sterile mycelial 
threads, were stated by the speaker to have ap- 
parently no connection with the mycorrhiza of 
the beech. Mr. von Schrenck's remarks were 
illustrated by drawings and alcoholic and sec- 
tioned specimens. 

William Trelease, 
Recording Secretary. 



DISCUSSION AND COBBESPONDENCE. 
SCIENCE AND POLITICS. 

At the last biennial session of the Legislature 
of Kansas there was passed what is known as 
the State uniform text-book law. A commis- 
sion was appointed whose duty it was to select 
the text-books of all grades used in the public 
schools of the State, which were to be furnished 
at a stipulated price to all pupils. No other 
texts than the one selected may be used by any 
school under pain of severe penalties. The law 
has now been in force for two years and these 
books are being used by several hundred thous- 
and pupils. So far as I can learn, specialists 
or experts were not consulted in the choice of 
the texts. Wide latitude was given to the 
commission, the one important stipulation be- 
ing that the books should be cheap ! Protests 
have been made, but in vain — the books must 
be used in every case where prior contracts are 
not in force. Let us examine the wisdom of 
the Kansas Solons in one case ; I am told that 
others are like it. 

The text in Physiology used in all grammar 
grades is one by a C. L. Hoxie, whoever he 
may be. As he is the author of text-books in 
Physics, doubtless his name will be familiar to 
the physicists of the country ! The work had 
the benefit of revision by two high-school teach- 
ers of St. Louis. The part they took in the re- 
vision ought certainly to elevate them from 
obscurity. 

We can sympathize strongly in the introduc- 
tory statement by the author that the " value 
of a thorough knowledge of physiology in all of 
its departments can scarcely be estimated. If 
one be well a knowledge of physiology will 
keep him so. If one be sick the same knowl- 
edge will enable him to regain that priceless 
treasure — good health." One must suspect 



January 30, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



115 



that the author is a confirmed invalid ! His 
definition of physiology is certainly unique : 

"Physiology proper naturally divides itself 
into three departments, Anatomy, Phj'siology 
and Hygiene." " Bones, like all other organic 
structures, consist of cells ; the cells are more 
or less of a hexagonal form." He seems es- 
pecially hazy about the lymphatic system : 
"The lymphatics perform the office of absorp- 
tion, chiefly in the skin." At one time he has 
the lymph ' poured into the blood through the 
thoracic duct into the vana cava in the neck,' 
but farther on he modifies this by saying that 
the lacteals ' terminate in two ducts, which 
open into the large veins, and finally into the 
heart,' one on the right side and the other on 
the left side of the chest ! " The liver performs 
the double office of separating impurities from 
the blood and secreting bile." The ' bile acts 
as a solvent of the fatty portions of food,' while 
we are informed that ' fat is an oily concrete 
substance, composed of stearine and elaine !' 
One of the chief functions of the saliva is to 
'quench thirst,' and the 'epiglottis serves to 
deaden sound ! ' Among other ' important facts' 
the author says that the ' heart of quadrupeds 
lies in the middle line, and not to the left, as in 
man.' " All reptiles have two auricles and one 
ventricle." From the fact 'that coagulation 
is greater in the lower animals' he derives the 
very interesting conclusion that ' this seems to 
be a wise provision, since these animals can 
not stop a flow of blood from a wound by arti- 
ficial means.' 

But enough. These few examples are chosen 
almost at random. The book contains more 
poor English, wild and loose statements of fact, 
errors and absurdities than I ever saw before 
in a text-book of modern times. One might be 
amused at such stuflT, published as ' science' 
were it not that tens of thousands of children 
in this State are compelled to learn it, usually 
taught by teachers whose ignorance of the sub- 
ject is greater than that shown by the author 
himself. 

Everywhere that a moral can be lugged in 
bj' the ears or tail the baneful effects of the 
poison alcohol are urged. Can such a book be 
expected to serve any useful purpose in teach- 
ing the principles of temperance ? 



And this is what politics may do for science 
in the public schools ! 

S. "W. WiLLISTON. 

University of Kansas, Lawrence. 



THE STORING OF PAMPHLETS. 

On reading Professor Minot's explanation of 
his method of storing pamphlets as given in the 
issue of December 30th I feel inclined to add a 
word in commendation of the method. I began 
using these boxes six or seven years ago and 
now have 1.52 upon my shelves. About one- 
half are devoted to Experiment Station bulle- 
tins, the boxes being labeled by States and 
arranged alphabetically. The other half is used 
for miscellaneous pamphlets on subjects pertain- 
ing to my line of work. The boxes have proved 
perfectly satisfactory in every way, and as a 
simple time-saving device they are worth many 
times the cost. My system of pamphlet arrange- 
ment differs in some ways from that adopted 
by Professor Minot and has been adopted only 
after trial of several other methods. 

Each case is labeled and is also given a num- 
ber. The pamphlets are numbered consecu- 
tively and arranged in the cases, as far as pos- 
sible, by subjects, and each one is stamped with 
the number of the case in which it belongs. 
The location of each is, therefore, permanent. 
It is always returned to the same case and the 
same relative position as regards others in the 
case. 

In a convenient drawer of my desk is a card 
index where all papers are recorded by author 
and by title. Each card carries the pamphlet 
number and the case number, thus indicating 
the exact location of the pamphlet desired. 
Often a dozen or more pamphlets may be in 
use, scattered over my work table for several 
days ; when ready to be returned, the numbers 
direct to the case and to the correct position 
within the case. If each pamphlet contained 
but a single article the alphabetical arrange- 
ment would be the most simple ; but many 
contain more than one title, often several, and 
not infrequently by different authors. These 
were a sourse of annoyance until the present 
system was adopted. I do not find the system 
cumbersome, and the time employed in keep- 



116 



iOIENGE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



ing it up is saved mauy times over by the 
facility witli which reference is made. 

Chaeles S. Ceandall. 
The State Ageicultueal College, 
FoET Collins, Coloeado. 

ZONE TEMPEEATUEES. 

My attention has been recently called by Dr. 
Walter H. Evans, of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, to an error in the temper- 
ature tables accompanying my paper on the 
' Laws of Temperature Control of the Geo- 
graphic Distribution of Animals and Plants, ' an 
' abstract of which was printed in my recent 
bulletin on ' Life Zones and Crop Zones.' The 
error in question relates to the effective temper- 
ature or ' sum of normal mean daily tempera- 
ture above 6°C.' In the tables bearing the 
a,bove heading the quantities actually given are 
the sums of normal mean daily temperatures 
{without deducting the 6°C. each day) for the 
period during which the mean daily tempera- 
ture exceeds 6°(^. 

The temperature data, as stated on the first 
page of my original paper, were furnished by 
the Weather Bureau. Not being of a mathemat- 
ical turn of mind, I did not detect the error 
until my attention was called to it by Dr. 
Evans. Corrected tables will be given in the 
next edition of ' Life Zones and Crop Zones.' 
C. Haet Meeeiam. 



PHYSICAL NOTES. 
De. Olivee Lodge, in a recent paper before 
the Institution of Electrical Engineers, speaks 
of the probable importance of leakage currents 
in the usual methods of telegraphing by mag- 
netic inductance through space. This form of 
wireless telegraphy has usually been accom- 
plished with long parallel wires on poles and 
ground returns. In some experiments made 
by Stephenson near Edinburgh horizontal coils 
of wire were used and signals transmitted half 
a mile with a morse key in one coil and a tele- 
phone receiver in the other. Mr. Lodge used 
similar coils covering areas of about 4,500 
square yards and transmitted signals about 
two miles. The characteristics of his method 
are the use of an alternating current of a rather 
high frequency, about 380, and the tuning of 
the line to this frequency by the use of con- 



densers, that is, the balancing of the inductance 
so that the current becomes equal to the induced 
E. M. F. divided by the ohmic resistance. As 
a result, he gets much greater effects than where 
the current is principally determined by the 
inductance of the circuits. This he shows by 
mathematical determination will be the case, 
the value of 2- x the frequency, coming in one 
instance in the denominator, while in the other 
it comes in the numerator of the expression 
giving the ratio between the secondary current 
and the impressed primary E. M. F. 

F. C. C. 



CURRENT NOTES ON METEOROLOGY. 

THE WINDWAED ISLANDS HUEEICANE OF 8EP- 
TEMBEE, 189S. 

The practical advantages gained by the es- 
tablishment of the new West Indian Service of 
our Weather Bureau are forcibly illustrated in 
the account of the hurricane of September 10th 
and 11th last, published in the September num- 
ber of the Monthly Weather Beview. The Weather 
Bureau Observer at Bridgetown, Barbados, 
sent a special cable to Washington at 12:40 p. 
m., September 10th, announcing the approach 
of a hurricane. Warnings were immediately 
cabled to Weather Bureau stations in the Lesser 
Antilles, and the officials in charge were di- 
rected to give the widest possible distribution 
to the warnings. Advisory messages were sent 
to other islands, as far west as Jamaica and 
eastern Cuba, to points on the South American 
coast of the Caribbean Sea, and to Admiral 
Watson's fleet, lying in the harbor of Caimanera, 
Cuba. The careful reports of the Weather 
Bureau Observers at Kingston, Jamaica, at 
St. Kitts and other stations also made possible 
an early and complete record of the hurricane. 

In this connection another paper, in the same 
number of the Beview, is of interest. It con- 
cerns the telegraph service of the Weather 
Bureau with the West Indies, and is illustrated 
by a chart showing the routes of the submarine 
cables over which reports are transmitted and 
the points at which the cables connect with the 
land lines. 

At the December meeting of the Royal 
Meteorological Society (London) Captain A. 
Carpenter, R. N., gave an account of this dis- 
asti'ous hurricane. 



January 20, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



117 



Its diameter was 80 miles as it approached 
Barbados, and 170 miles after leaving St. Vin- 
cent. The actual storm center, in which the 
force of the wind greatly increased, was only 
35 miles in diameter until St. Vincent was 
passed, but after that the strength of the wind 
extended to 170 miles from the center. The 
diameter of the calm vortex was not less than 
four miles. The storm was accompanied by 
very heavy rainfall, the amount at St. Vincent 
being about 14 inches in 24 hours. In Barbados 
11,400 houses were swept away or blown down 
and 115 lives were lost, and in St. Vincent 6,000 
houses were blown down or damaged beyond 
repair, and 200 lives were lost. 

PROBABLE STATE OF SKY ALONG THE PATH OF 
THE ECLIPSE, MAY 28, 1900. 

Pkofessoe F. H. Bigelow, in the Monthly 
Weather Review for September, considers the 
probable state of the sky along the path of the 
total eclipse of the sun. May 2S, 1900. His 
conclusion is as follows: "It would be much 
safer for the eclipse expeditions to locate their 
stations in the northern portions of Georgia and 
Alabama, upon the southern end of the Appa- 
lachian Mountains, where the track crosses ele- 
vated areas, than nearer the coast line in either 
direction northeastward toward the Atlantic 
coast, or southwestward toward the Gulf coast ; 
on the coast itself the weather is more unfavor- 
able than in any other portion of the track." 
Professor Bigelow's paper is illustrated by means 
of a chart. 

notes. 

The November number of Climate and Crops, 
Illinois Section, in commenting upon the statis- 
tics of losses by lightning in Illinois during 
1898, says : "A survey of the reports shows a 
very marked increase in the loss of stock due 
to the wire fence, and the urgent need of fre- 
quent ground wires in those in use.'' (See 
note in this connection in Science, Dec. 2, 
1898, p. 785.) K. DeC. Ward. 

Haevaed TJniveesity. 



CUBBENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THE OLDEST SKULL-FOEM IN EUROPE. 

In the Centralblatt fiir Anthropologie (Heft. 4, 
1898) are some abstracts touching the skull- 



form which is believed to be the oldest in 
Europe. It is represented most perfectly by 
the remains found at Spy. The characteristics 
are : uncommon length, moderate width, very 
limited height, retreating forehead, prominent 
but depressed supra-orbital ridges and narrowed 
post-orbital diameter. Dr. Fraipout argues 
sharjjly for the genuine ancient character of the 
Neanderthall skull, and Dr. Schwalbe does not 
regard that found at Egisheim as a good type. 
As for modern examples simulating the Nean- 
derthal skull the latter asserts that, while they 
may resemble it in one or another point, they 
never present the group of inferior criteria 
which characterize its measurements. 

THE SUPPOSED ' OTTEE. TRAP. ' 

Dr. Eobeet Muneo in his excellent work. 
Prehistoric Problems, has a chapter on a curious 
object found in the peat bogs of Europe, from 
Italy to Scotland and North Germany. He has 
recently supplemented that chapter by an article 
describing further examples. {Jour. Boy. Soc. 
Antiquaries of Ireland, September, 1898.) 

The object is a thick board or plank, two to 
three feet long, in the center of which is an 
oblong aperture four to six inches wide, closed 
by one or two valvular doors. The purpose of 
this arrangement is obscure Dr. Munro argues 
that it is an otter or beaver trap, while others 
have explained it as a boat-model, a sluice-box, 
a float for lines, etc. 

The suggestion which I would offer for its use 
differs from any I have seen. It is doubtful 
that the valves could hold firmly an otter or 
any such animal. The purpose for which it 
would be entirely suited would be that of the 
inlet to a fish-weir. The valves, opening in- 
ward, would allow the fish to enter and would 
prevent their exit. Similar, though not iden- 
tical, devices are in common use. 

ANTHEOPOLOGICAL STUDY OF FEEBLE-MINDED 
CHILDEEN. 

In a supplement of the 48th annual report 
of the managers of the Syracuse State Institu- 
tion for feeble-minded Children, Dr. Alex. Hrd- 
licka presents an anthropological study of a 
long series of these unfortunates. It includes 
their family conditions, the supposed etiolog- 



118 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212 



ical factors of the deficiency, and the physical 
examination of the subjects. 

While the report is very instructive on many 
individual features, it admits of few general 
conclusions other than that we need much more 
extended investigations than have heretofore 
been prosecuted, in order to reach positive 
opinions as to the causation and the status of 
the feeble-minded ; and this is Dr. Hrdlicka's 
own decision (p. 95). 

D. G. Brinton. 

TJniveksity of Pennsylvania. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

M. Van Tieghem, the eminent botanist, 
succeeds M. Wolf as President of the Paris 
Academy of Science, while M. Levy has been 
elected Vice-President. 

At its meeting on January 11th the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences elected 
Charles Doolittle Walcott, of Washington, an 
Associate Fellow iu place of the late Professor 
James Hall, and Oliver Heaviside, of Newton 
Abbot, England, a Foreign Honorary Member. 

It is proposed to erect a monument in mem- 
ory of Felix Tisserand, Member of the Institute 
of France, and of the Bureau of Longitude, and 
Director of the Observatory of Paris, at Nuits 
Saint-Georges (Cote-d'Or), his native place. 
Subscriptions will be received at Nuits-Saint- 
Georges, by M. Desmazures, Receveur Munici- 
pal ; at the Observatory of Paris, by M. Frais- 
sinet, and at Dijon, by M. Ragot (rue Colsou). 

Surgeon-General Sternberg is at present 
in Cuba inspecting the hospitals and arranging 
for a new yellow fever hospital and a depot for 
medical supplies in Havana. 

The Permanent Secretary of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Dr. L. O. Howard, would be glad to learn of 
the address of Jose de Riviera, who was elected 
a life member of the Association at the Boston' 
meeting of 1880. 

The Chemical Society of Washington, at the 
annual meeting held on Thursday, January 12, 
1899, elected the following officers for the en- 
suing year : President, Dr. H. N. Stokes ; 
Vice-Presidents, Dr. P. Fireman, Dr. H. C. 
Bolton ; Secretary, Mr. William H. Krug ; 



Treasurer, Mr. W. P. Cutter ; Executive Com 
niittee, the above officers and Dr. 0. E. Munroe 
Dr. E. A. de Schweinitz, Mr. Wirt Tassin and 
Dr. F. W. Hillebrand, ex-officio. 

Professors von Kupfer, of Munich ; F, 
Klein, of Gottingen, and E. Fischer, of Berlin 
have been made members of the Bavarian 
Maximilian Order of Science and Ai-t. 

Professor M. E. Cooley, of the engineer- 
ing department of the University of Michigan, 
who has been Chief Engineer on the United 
States auxiliary steamer Yosemite since the 
outbreak of the Spanish-American war, will re- 
turn to the University in time to begin work 
with the second semester. He was detached 
from the Yosemite December 23d, since which 
date he has been doing temporary work at the 
League Island Navy Yard. He expects to be 
relieved from duty by the first of next month. 

Mr. Wm. T. Hornaday, Director of the 
New York Zoological Park, has been elected a 
corresponding member of the London Zoolog- 
ical Society. 

Nature states that Mr. Frederick G. Jackson, 
the leader of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedi- 
tion, has been presented with a first class of 
the Royal Order of St. Olaf by King Oscar of 
Sweden and Norway. 

The Paris Academy of Sciences has nominated 
for the chair of chemistry in the Conservatoire 
des Arts et Metiers as first choice M. Florent, 
and as second choice M. Joannis. 

Mr. John B.^rrow, F.R.S., the author of 
works on travel and physiography, has died at 
the advanced age of 91 years. 

Professor Joseph Baldwin, who held the 
chair of pedagogy in the University of Texas, 
died on January 14th, aged 70 years. 

At the annual meeting of the Indiana Acad- 
emy of Science held at Indianapolis during 
Christmas week, Blr.W. W. Woollen announced 
that he had set aside forty-four acres of land 
situated nine miles from the center of Indianap- 
olis, for a garden of birds and botany. He pro- 
poses to develop the garden and present it to 
the city of Indianapolis, to be placed under the 
control of the Superintendent of Schools, the 
President of Butler College, and the President 



January 20, 189'J.] 



SCIENCE, 



119 



of the Academy of Science, for the use of the 
bodies represented by them. 

The Association for maintaining the Ameri- 
can women's table at the zoological station at 
Naples announces that it is prepared to receive 
applications for use of the table, which should 
be addressed to the Secretary, Miss Ida H. 
Hyde, 1 Berkeley St., Cambridge. The Execu- 
tive Board has at its disposal a small fund for the 
aid of scholars of the Association who may need 
assistance to meet the expenses of travel and of 
residence in Naples. The first two scholars of 
the Association were Professor Mary Alice Wil- 
cox, of Wellesley College, and Miss Florence 
Peebles, European Fellow of Bryn Mawr College. 

The late Baron Ferdinand Rothschild has 
bequeathed to the British Museum art collec- 
tions valued at $1,500,000. 

The French Society for the encouragement 
of national industry has been presented with a 
sum of 20,000 fr. by M. Gilbert. 

Judge John Handlby, of Scranton, Pa., 
left $250,000 for a public library at Winchester, 
Va., and made the city his residuary legatee. 
It has been decided in the Courts that the latter 
bequest is valid, and the city will receive about 
$250,000 additional to the public library. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie has offered to give 
$250,000 for the construction of a building for 
the Washington Public Library if Congress will 
furnish a suitable site and provide for the main- 
tenance of the library. 

The Imperial Academy of Military Medicine, 
St. Petersburg, celebrated on December 30th the 
centenary of its foundation, in the presence of 
oificial delegates from Germany, France and 
other nations. The Director of the Academy, 
Professor Ponchatine, made an address, giving 
a brief history of the institution and an account 
of the work that it had accomplished. 

The Proceedings of the second annual meet- 
ing of the Association of Experiment Station 
Veterinarians, held at Omaha, Neb., September 
8, 1898, have recently been published by the 
TJ. S. Department of Agricultui'e (Bureau of 
Animal Industry, Bui. No. 22). Among the 
papers are those on ' Growing Tubercle Bacilli 
for Tuberculin,' by C. A. Gary ; 'Feeding Wild 



Plants to Sheep,' by S. B. Nelson, and 'Lab- 
oratory Eecords for Veterinarians,' by A. W. 
Bitting. 

The meeting of teachers of chemistry held at 
the University of Michigan on December 27 and 
28, 1898, proved to be of great interest. A con- 
siderable number of high schools in Michigan 
were represented in the meeting. Among the 
institutions sending teachers were the Univer- 
sitj' of Wisconsin ; Lake Forest University ; Chi- 
cago University ; Notre Dame, Ind. ; Ohio State 
University ; Kenyon College, Ohio ; Otterbein 
University, Ohio ; Olivet College, and Lewis 
Institute, Chicago. There were also reports 
and papers from the University of Chicago. 
The discussions were limited to the subjects and 
methods of teaching chemistry in high schools 
and colleges. 

An International Conference on Child Study 
will be held in Buda-Pesth next September. 

It is reported from Sydney that the private 
yacht Lady St. Aubyn has discovered some 
relics of the French navigator La Perouse at 
Vauikoro Islands. The objects found include 
flint-lock muskets and Spanish and French 
coins. 

The Russian Imperial Geographical Society 
announces that neither the expedition of Strad- 
ling nor of Brede has been able to find in 
Siberia traces of Andree. In the meanwhile an 
expedition has been organized at Copenhagen, 
under the direction of Dr. Daniel Brunn, to 
search for traces of Andree in eastern Green- 
land 

The Division of Statistics of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture reports that the acre- 
age devoted to cotton in the United States in 
1897 was 24,319,584, an increase of 1,046,375 
over that for 1896. The number of bales pro- 
duced was in 1897 10,897,857, an increase of 
2,365,152 bales. There was an increase in al- 
most every State, being especially noticeable in 
Arkansas and Indian Territory. The investiga- 
tion of the amount of cotton purchased by mills 
located in the cotton-growing States shows that 
1,277,674 bales were taken from the current 
crop. This is 295,683 bales, or 30.1 per cent, 
more than was purchased by these mills in 
1896-97. Without an exception every State 



120 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 212. 



shows increased purchases, the per cent, of in- 
crease ranging from 7.7 in Louisiana to 65.2 in 
Missouri. In the States of greatest consump- 
tion the increase is especially marked, that in 
Alabama being 41.9, in Georgia 25.2, North 
Carolina 36.6, and South Carolina 33.8 per cent. 
During the year there were 425 mills in opera- 
tion, as compared with 402 in 1896-97. 

The Board of Health of New York City has 
obtained a conviction in the Courts for violating 
the law forbidding the burning of soft coal, a 
fine of $25.00 being imposed. 

A COEEESPONDENT writes to the London Times: 
" As it is just 100 years since Pestalozzi began at 
Stanz, on the Lake of Lucerne, the work among 
the orphan children which so deeply influenced 
the aims and methods of elementary education 
in German -speaking Europe and indirectly in 
Great Britain and America, it is intended to cele- 
brate the centenary by a public meeting, which 
will be held, by permission of the Council, in the 
large hall of the College of Preceptors, Blooms- 
bury-sqnare, on Wednesday, January 4th, at 8 
p. m. Though many of Pestalozzi's hopes have 
been unfulfilled and modern psychology is far 
from confirming some of his attempted general- 
izations, his labors at Stanz will always form one 
of the most inspiring chapters in educational his- 
tory. His work there emphasized the fact that 
religious influences are essential to all educa- 
tion which aims at strengthening the will and 
at elevating character, and that no educational 
instrument is so powerful as the self-devotion 
of the teacher. Sir Joshua Fitch will preside 
at the meeting, at which short addresses will 
be given by Professor Wilhelm Rein, of the 
University of Jena ; Lady Isabel Margesson ; 
Miss Herford (Manchester), and Messrs. A. 
Sonnenschein, R. L. Morant, E. Cooke and 
others." 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

The sum of £115,000 has been subscribed 
towards establishing a university at Birming- 
ham. 

The late Henry Clark Warren, of Boston, an 
accomplished Oriental scholar, has left to Har- 
vard University a large sum principally for the 
Sanscrit department, but including $10,000 for 
the Peabody Museum of American archaeology 



and ethnology and $10,000 for the Dental 
School. The Sanscrit department is to have 
$15,000 for the endowment of the Harvard 
Oriental Series, and the balance, which is said 
to be large, is to be used for the benefit of the 
department. 

Haevard University receives $5,000 by the 
will of the late Susan B. Lyman, Dedham, 
Mass., and $10,000 by the will of the late Mrs. 
Mary Ann P. Weld, of Boston, the latter sum 
being for the purpose of founding a Christopher 
Minot Weld Scholarship, which is to be awarded 
each year to some worthy student. 

The Teachers College of Columbia University 
has received an anonymous gift of $10,000. 

Columbia University has established sixty- 
three benefactors' scholarships and twenty-two 
faculty scholarships, in order to place the re- 
mission of tuition fees hitherto made on a more 
permanent basis. 

The appropriation of the State for the Uni- 
versity of Georgia has this year been reduced 
by $14,000. The appropriation for the schools 
has also been greatly reduced. 

Wb have received the calendar of the Tokyo 
Imperial University for 1897-98, which is 
printed in English. There were 2,239 students 
in the University, distributed as follows : Uni- 
versity, 177 ; the College of Law, 744 ; College 
of Medicine, 313 ; College of Engineering, 386 ; 
College of Literature, 279 ; College of Science, 
105 ; College of Agriculture, 235. There are 
90 professors and 41 assistant professors. The 
library now contains about 223,000 volumes. 
The Journal of the College of Science, estab- 
lished in 1887 and now in its tenth volume, has 
published many important contributions, which 
are written in English or in German. 

At Harvard University, Dr. R. W. Willson has 
been appointed assistant professor of astronomy, 
and Dr. C. R. Sanger, assistant professor of 
chemistry. 

Me. L. B. Wilson has been appointed 
demonstrator in pathology and bacteriology in 
the University of Minnesota. 

Dr. Wilhelm Thieemann, of the Technical 
Institute at Hanover, has been made professor. 



SCIENCE 



Editorial Committee : S. Newcomb, Matbematics ; E. S. Woodwaed, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, 

Astronomy; T. C. Mkndenhall, Physics; E. H. Thurston, Engineering; Ira Remsen, Chemistry; 

J. Le Conte, Geology; "W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 

C. Hart Merriam, Zoology; S. H. Scudder, Entomology; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Britton, 

Botany; Henry F. Osborn, General Biology; C. S. Minot, Embryology, Histology; 

H. P. BowDiTCH, Physiology; J. S. Billings, Hygiene; J. McKeen Cattell, 

Psychology; Daniel G. Brinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, January 27, 1899. 



CONTENTS: 

Truth and Error : — 

Professor W. K. Brooks 121 

Professor Lester F. Ward 126 

Inconsiderate Legislation on Birds 137 

Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of 
America (II.): Professor J. F. Kemp 138 

Tlie Winter Meeting of the Antliropological Section 
of the Amenrican Association : A. L. Kroeber.... 145 

Scientific Books :^ 

Dana's Text-Boole of Geology: Professor W. 
B. Clark. Mivart on the Groundwork of Science : 
Profkssor J. E. Creighton. Jones on Freez- 
ing-point, Boiling-point and Conductivity Meth- 
ods: J. E. G. Thorp's Outlines of Industrial 
Chemistry: PROFESSOR W. A. NOYES. Du- 
rand's AperQus de taxonomie generate: F. A. 
Lucas. Books Received 147 

Scientific Journals and Articles 151 

Societies and Academies : — 

Geological Society of Washington : Dr. W. F. 

Morsell 152 

Discussioyi and Correspondence : — 

Matter, Energy, Force and Work : PROFESSOR 
Silas W. Holman. Zoological Bibliography : 
F. A. Bather 154 

Notes on Inorganic Chemistry : J. L. H 155 

Zoological Notes 156 

Current Notes on Anthropology : — 
Another Mexican Codex; The Progressive Wo- 
man; The Seat of the Soul : Peofessok D. G. 
Brinton 156 

Collections of the Provincial Museum of Victoria, 
British Columbia: Dr. Harlan I. Smith 156 

Scientific Notes and Neics 157 

land Educational News 100 

M9S. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review stiould be sent to the responsible editor. Profes- 
sor J. JrlcKeen Cattell. Garrison-on-Hudson N. Y. 



TRUTH AND ERROR* 

"If to do were as easy as to know what 
were good to do, chapels had been churches, 
and poor men's cottages princes' palaces. 
It is a good divine that follows his own in- 
struction. I can easier teach twenty what 
were good to be done than be one of the 
twenty to, follow mine own teaching." 

"Science," says Powell, "deals with re- 
alities. These are bodies and their proper- 
ties. Known realities are those about which 
mankind have knowledge ; scientific re- 
search is the endeavor to increase knowl- 
edge, and its methods are experience, ob- 
servation and verification." 

While most men of science admit all this 
as good precept, history warns them that 
thej' must be on their guard, lest they fall 
unknowingly into the dream-land of the 
' philosophers ; ' for our author tells us that 
" The dream of intellectual intoxication 
seems to some to be more real and more 
worthy of the human mind than the simple 
truths discovered by science." 

While rebuking the metaphysicians, our 
author does not spare those men of science 
who assert that while science deals with 
the properties of matter the real nature of 
matter — what it is in itself — is quite un- 
known : ''As though its properties did not 
constitute its essential nature." 

" Would a sane person," he asks, " speak 

*■ By J. W. Powell. Chicago, The Open Court Pub- 
lishing Co., 1898. 



122 



SCIENCE. 



[N. P. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



of the horse and head, the horse and body, 
the horse and legs, the horse and tail, and 
then consider the horse as one thing, the 
head, body, legs and tail as other things? 
Yet this is the error of those who consider 
matter as one thing and properties as other 
things." 

"As it is of matter, so it is of space : One 
man sees the disc of the moon when it is 
riding high as having the size of the top of 
a teacup, another as large as a cartwheel. 
But the moon will be seen larger than a 
barn if it is seen behind a distant barn, or 
it may seem to be as large as a great moun- 
tain when it rises behind such a mountain. 
As the moon rides the heavens it seems to 
be this side of the surface of the sky, al- 
though we know that there is"no such sur- 
face. Such habitual judgments of space 
and time seem to contradict each other. 
By a natural process of fallacious judg- 
ment the idea of space as void is developed 
as an existing thing or body. This is the 
ghost of space — the creation of an entity 
out of nothing. The space of which we 
speak is occupied. We can by no possibil- 
ity consider true space or void as a term of 
realitJ^ If we reason about it|mathemat- 
ically, and call it x, the meaning of x in 
the equation is finally resolved^by express- 
ing it in terms of body as they are repre- 
sented by surface. This non-space has no 
number ; it is not one or many in one — 
it is nothing. It is not extension as figure 
or structure — it is nothing. The fallacy 
concerning space is born of careless reason- 
ing. ISTo harm is done by this popular mis- 
cqnception of space until we use it in rea- 
soning as a term of reality ; then the attri- 
butes of space may be anything because 
they are nothing." 

" The universe is a concourse of related 
factors composed of related particles. A 
relation cannot exist independent of terms 
"We may consider a relation abstractly, but 
it cannot exist abstractly. To affirm a re- 



lation the terms must be implied. When 
an abstract is reified, that is supposed to 
exist by itself independent of other essen- 
tials, and the illusion is entertained that 
there is something independent of the es- 
sentials which supports them, a mythology 
is created so subtle as to simulate reality. 
So when relations are reified and supposed 
to exist independent of terms the mind is 
astraj' in the realm of fallacies." 

All this seems to me to be so important 
and significant that it cannot be said too 
often, for it is all so essential to clear think- 
ing upon the significance of science that I 
believe the author has done good service in 
repeating it, although it was all said long 
ago in still simpler and clearer words. 

Berkeley tells us that " what seems to 
have had a chief part in rendering specula- 
tion intricate and perplexed, and to have 
occasioned innumerable errors and diffi- 
culties in almost all parts of knowledge; 
is the opinion that the mind hath a power 
of framing abstract ideas or notions of things. 
He who is not a perfect stranger to the 
writings and disputes of the philosophers 
most needs acknowledge that no small part 
of them are spent about abstract ideas. 
These are in a more especial manner 
thought to be the object of those exercises 
which go by the name of Logic and Meta- 
physics, and of all that which passes under 
the notion of the most abstract and sublime 
learning. Whether others have this won- 
derful faculty of abstracting their ideas 
they can best tell ; as for myself I dare be 
confident I have it not." (' Human Knowl- 
edge,' Introduction, 6-10.) 

" I am tempted to think nobody else can 
form these ideas any more than I can. Pray, 
Alciphron, which are those things you would 
call absolutely impossible?" 

" Such as include a contradiction." 

" Can you form an idea of what includes 
a contradiction?" 

" I can not." 



January 27, 1899.] 



iSCIENCE. 



123 



"Consequently, whatever is absolutely- 
impossible you cannot form an idea of?" 

" This I grant." 

" But can a color or a triangle, such as 
you describe these abstract general ideas, 
really exist?" 

"It is absolutely impossible such things 
exist in nature." 

" Should it not follow, then, that they can 
not exist in your mind, or, in other words, 
that you cannot conceive or frame an idea 
of them ? I do not perceive that I can, by 
any facultj', whether intellect or imagina- 
tion, conceive or form an idea of that which 
is impossible and includes a contradiction." 
(Alciphron VII.,6.) 

" I am of a vulgar cast, simple enough to 
believe my senses and to leave things as I 
find them. To be plain, it is my opinion 
that' the real things are the very things I 
see and feel and perceive by my senses. 
These I know and, finding they answer all 
the necessities and purposes of life, have no 
reason to be solicitous about any other un- 
known beings. A piece of sensible bread, 
for instance, would stay my stomach better 
than ten thousand times as much of that 
insensible, unintelligible real bread you 
speak of. It is likewise my opinion that 
colors and other sensible qualities are in the 
objects. I cannot, for my life, help thinking 
that snow is white and fire hot. Away, then, 
with all that skepticism, all those ridicu- 
lous philosophical doubts. I might as well 
doubt my own being as the being of those 
things I actually see and feel." (Three 
Dialogues, III.) 

While we are unable to doubt the being 
of those things we see and feel, we do con- 
tinually doubt or question the evidence of 
our senses, for error and illusion and hal- 
lucination are, unfortunately, as real as 
truth ; and the part of Powell's book 
which deals with illusions is that which the 
reader will find most attractive and sug- 
gestive. 



' ' When a youth, as I was breaking prairie 
with an ox team, my labor was interrupted 
by a rattlesnake, and, during the day, I 
saw and killed several of these serpents. 
At one time the lash of my whip flew oif. 
In trying to pick it up I grasped a stick. 
The fear of being bitten by a snake, and the 
degree of expectant attention to which I 
was wrought, caused me to interpret the 
sense impression of touch as caused by a 
rattlesnake. At the same time I distinctly 
heard the rattle of the snake." 

"A soldier in the suspense which precedes 
the battle, when sharpshooters are now and 
then picking off a man, may have his gun 
or his clothing touched by a rifle ball and 
in the suspense of the occasion may imagine 
that he has received a serious, perhaps a 
deadly wound, and may shi'iek with pain. 
A mustard plaster on the head may cause 
a man to dream of an Indian conflict in 
which he is scalped, as I have observed." 

All savages believe that hallucinations are 
a means of divination, and, as many intox- 
icants produce hallucinations, all of the 
North American tribes make use of these, 
supplemented with many rites, such as 
dancing, singing, ululation, the beating of 
drums, and the tormenting of the body by 
various painful operations, all designed to 
produce ecstatic states and the consequent 
hallucinations. 

If the Society for Psychical Eesearch 
were to make a census of those who believe 
that hallucinations often reveal the un- 
known past or future, Powell tells us that 
they would find among the North American 
Indians one hundred per cent, ready to 
testify to the truth of this opinion. 

Erroneous judgments once made may be 
repeated in perpetuating fallacies, and myths 
are invented to explain them. Then the 
myths become sacred, and the moral nature 
is enlisted in their defense. 

" The stars were seen to move along the 
firmament, or the surface of a solid, from 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



east to west, as men run along the surface 
of the earth at will. But the heavenly 
bodies move by constantly repeated paths, 
and so primitive man invents myths to ex- 
plain these repeated paths." 

" Fallacies are," as our author clearly 
points out, " erroneous inferences in relation 
to things known. If there were no realities 
about which inferences are made, fallacies 
would not be possible. The history of sci- 
ence is the discovery of the simple and the 
true ; in its progress fallacies are dispelled 
and certitude remains." 

These extracts from Powell's book will 
show how much that is valuable and 
suggestive and instructive is to be found 
in it. I regret that I am forced to form 
a very different estimate of the construc- 
tive part of the book, for, as the author 
expounds his own system of philosophy, he 
seems to me to be one of those ungracious 
pastors who, while pointing out to others the 
steep and thorny way, themselves the 
primrose path of dalliance tread, and reck 
not their own read. 

The book begins with a delightful and 
instructive anecdote of a party of Indians 
throwing stones across a caiion. The dis- 
tance from the brink to the opposite wall 
did not seem very great, yet no man could 
throw a stone across the chasm, though 
Chuar, the Indian Chief, could strike the 
opposite wall very near its brink. The 
stones thrown by others fell into the depths 
of the canon. " I discussed these feats 
with Chuar, leading him to an explanation 
of gravity. Now Chuar believed that he 
could throw a stone much farther along the 
level of the plateau than over the caiion. 
His first illusion was thus one ver}' common 
among mountain travelers — -an underesti- 
mate of the distance of towering and mas- 
sive rocks when the ej'e has no intervening 
object to divide space into parts as measure 
of the whole." 

" I did not venture,' ' says our author, " to 



correct Chuar's judgment, but simply sought 
to discuss his method of reasoning. " 

He explained that the stone could not go 
far over the caiion, because the empty 
space pulled it down, and, interpreting 
subjective fear of falling as an objective 
pull, he pointed out how strongly the empty 
void pulls upon the man who stands on the 
brink of a lofty cliff. 

" ISTow, in the language of Chuar's people, 
a wise man is said to be a traveler, for such 
is the metaphor by which they express great 
wisdom, as they suppose that a man must 
learn by journeying much. So in the moon- 
light of the last evening's sojourn in the 
camp on the brink of the caiion, I told 
Chuar that he was a great traveler, and 
that I knew of two other great travelers 
among the seers of the East, one by the 
name of Hegel, and another by the name of 
Spencer, and that I should ever remember 
these three wise men, who spoke like words 
of wisdom, for it passed through my mind 
that all three of these philosophers had rei- 
fied void and founded a philosophy thereon. " 

The system of philosophy which it is the 
aim of this book to expound is, so far as I 
can gather it from a single reading, about 
as follows : 

"It was more than chance," our author 
tells us, " that produced the decimal system, 
for the universe is pentalogic, as all of the 
fundamental series discovered in nature are 
pentalogic by reason of the five concomitant 
properties. The origin of the decimal sj'S- 
tem was the recognition by primitive man 
of the reciprocal pentalogic system involved 
in the two hands of the human body." P. 
112. 

"Thus, in geonomy, p. 43, we deal with an 
earth comj)osed of five encapsulated globes 
enclosing a nucleus, and presenting: (1) the 
centrosphere, (2) the lithosphere, (3) the 
hydrosphere, (4) the atmosphere, (5) the 
etherosphere." 

" In the human mind, again, we have the 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



125 



five psychic faculties: (1) sensation, (2) 
perception, (3) apprehension, (4) reflec- 
tion and (5) ideation." P. 418. 

' ' These five psj'chic faculties arise in the 
mind through the cognition of the five 
properties of the ultimate particles of 
matter. Every body, whether it be a 
stellar system or an atom of hydrogen, has 
certain fundamental characteristics found 
in all. These are number, space, motion, 
time (p. 13), and (p. 14) the fifth property 
here called judgment." 

"All particles of plants, soils and stars 
have judgment as consciousness and 
choice ; but having no organization for the 
psychical functions, they have not recollec- 
tion or inference ; thej', therefore, do not 
have intellections or emotions. Only ani- 
mal beings liave these psychical functions. 
Molecules, stars, stones and plants do 
not think ; that which we have attributed 
to them as consciousness and choice is only 
the judgment of particles, but it is the 
ground, the foundation, the substrate of 
that which appears in animals when they 
are organized for conception." P. 413. 

"These things are necessary to a primitive 
judgment : First, a sense impression ; sec- 
ond, a consciousness of that impression ; 
third, a desire to know its cause ; fourth, a 
choice of a cause; fifth, a consciousness of 
the concept of that cause ; sixth, a com- 
parison of one conscious term with the 
other; and seventh, a judgment of likeness 
or of unlikeness." 

For all I know, that which chemists call 
afiinity may be the ' choice of particles to 
associate in bodies.' All the chemist tells 
us of the matter is that the word ' afiinity ' 
is a sign or symbol to generalize his obser- 
vations and experiments, and it is clear 
that this is no reason why he who finds 
reason to do so may not regard it as evi- 
dence of consciousness and choice. The 
question the chemist is likely to ask is 
whether Major Powell can so play on the 



emotions of an atom of hydrogen as to per- 
suade it to do anything which we have 
not every reason to expect in course of na- 
ture. If he cannot do this his hypothesis is 
worthless, not because we can disprove it, 
but because we find no evidence of its truth 
and no value in its practical application. 
In fact, it seems to me to be one of the 
' reified voids ' of which he has warned 
us. 

" The Utes say that the Sun could once 
go where he pleased, but when he came 
near the people he burned them. Tevots, 
the Eabbit-god, fought with the Sun and 
compelled him to travel by an appointed 
path along the surface of the sky, so that 
there might be night and day." 

Truly, " It is a good divine that follows 
his own instruction. If to do were as easy 
as to know what were good to do, chapels 
had been chui'ches, and poor men's cottages 
princes' palaces. I can easier teach twenty 
what were good to be done than be one of 
the twenty to follow mine own teach- 
ing." 

Powell tells us that he has been robbed 
of his ' beautiful world ' by Bishop Berkelej', 
but his attempt to neutralize the evils of 
' idealism ' by a new philosophy seems to 
me to be anything but a happy one, for the 
application of his own principles to his 
system of philosophy seems to carry ideal- 
ism to dizzy heights where even Berkeley 
never dared to soar. 

If every particle of matter has conscious 
judgment of number, space, motion and 
time, as he tells us that it has, what be- 
comes of these concomitant properties? 
Why may not an ultimate particle assert 
that, while it cannot doubt the reality of 
the number, space, motion and time of 
which it is conscious, belief in these proper- 
ties, as distinct from the judgment of par- 
ticles, ' reifies a void ' and carries us into the 
realm of ' ghosts,' since the essence of these 
properties is to be perceived or known, in- 



126 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



asmuch as every particle knows them, and 
it is only as known that they exist. 

According to our author's own principles 
and assumptions, space or time, or number 
or motion, which are not the consciousness 
of particles are but the ghosts of judgment, 
the creation of entities out of nothing, for 
if he is right the esse of these properties 
must be percipi. 

It must not be inferred that I am myself 
an idealist, for nothing could be farther 
from the truth. I seek to be neither an 
idealist nor a materialist, nor a realist nor 
a nionist, but a naturalist, believing that it 
will be time to have an opinion as to the 
relation between mind and matter after we 
have found out. 

For all I know to the contrary, Powell 
may be right, and every particle of matter 
may have judgment as consciousness and 
choice ; but the test of truth is evidence, 
and not the absence of disproof, and belief 
in the judgment of particles does not con- 
cern me. 

Our author's belief that all mind is mat- 
ter in motion, and all matter in motion 
mind, or, at least, the raw material of mind, 
is not new. In fact, it seems to be the most 
characteristic ' philosophy ' of our day. 

" All systems of philosophy are vanity," 
say the students of science ; but to Sam 
"Weller's question : " What is your particu- 
lar vanity ?" they all, with one accord, be- 
gin to cry ' Monism !' 

If I seem to some to have devoted more 
space to this new book on ' philosophy ' 
than it deserves ; if I sit patiently among 
the audience, listening attentively as the 
philosophers play out their little plays ; it is 
because of my hope that they may destroy 
each other like Kilkenny cats before the 
curtain drops, and that, in the last act, 
they who are no philosophers, but simple 
honest folks, may come by their own and 
live at ease. 

Because of this hope I study the philoso- 



phers as well as I can that I may be the 
better able to do my part in bringing the 
desired end about. 

W. K. Beooks. 

Johns Hopkins University. 



TRUTH AND ERROR* 

Whatevkr else may be thought or said, 
all will probably agree that this is a unique 
and remarkable book. It is intensely orig- 
inal. The author is omniscient and dis- 
cusses the universe. He treats, like Scal- 
iger of old, de omni re scibili et quibusdam 
aliis. As a specimen of what Kant called 
' architectonic symmetry ' it probably has 
never been excelled. It is essentially a 
philosophic or scientific terminology, but 
all the terms are new, for even where old 
terms are used they are invariably given 
new meanings. The whole book is, there- 
fore, like a foi'eign language, and the read- 
er's first task is to learn the language. 
Everything that has been said or done by 
man is rejected as unsatisfactory and the 
temple of philosophy is entirely rebuilt 
out of new bricks cast in new molds. The 
friction thus caused in reading the book 
will, therefore, probably deter many from 
making so great an effort, and one of the 
objects of a sympathetic treatment should 
be to point out that the effort will be re- 
paid. 

Notwithstanding, however, this ' archi- 
tectonic symmetry,' the reader has a right 
justly to complain that his path has not 
been made as easy as it might have been. 
The terms are generally defined, it is true, 
but the definitions are scattered through 
the text and have to be hunted up many 
times, as they cannot be remembered on 
once reading. They should have been all 
collected together in one place and arranged 
in alphabetical order as a complete glossary. 

* Truth and Error, or the Science of Intellection. 
By J. W. Powell. Chicago, The Open Court Pub- 
lishing Company. 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



127 



As it is, even the index is absolutely 
worthless. But this is not the worst fault 
of method. The terms are all interrelated 
and these interrelations are set forth in 
divers ways and places in the text, but 
there are no tabular exhibits of the rela- 
tions, no graphic or diagrammatic repre- 
sentations. The reader is compelled to 
carry in his mind all these never-before- 
heard-of correlations among ideas expressed 
in wholly unaccustomed language. Whether 
the author wrote his book from such a con- 
densed scheme or not, he should have drawn 
it up for the use of others who have never 
di-eamed of these things before. There are 
indications, however, that he worked en- 
tirelj' from a system evolved in his own 
mind, and certain passages show that he 
would have written it better if he had first 
worked it out in schedules, tables and 
diagrams. 

It is, of course, no part of our duty to 
undertake the task of tabulating the con- 
tents of a book, and few would probably 
be capable of doing this in the present 
case, but some attempt or stagger at this 
seems to be the only way of condensing the 
enormous mass of matter that the book 
contains into the compass of a reasonable 
summary. All the manifold terms em- 
ployed stand for principles, laws, relations, 
facts, or phenomena, and these are of widely 
different character, making it very diffi- 
cult to find any one term that will embrace 
them all. For want of a better one, and 
because little used by the author, let us 
call them all principles. In the second place, 
all these diiferent kinds of principles are ar- 
ranged in series, or groups, or classes, each 
series, group, or class being distinct from 
any other. In the third place, each series, 
group or class consists of exactly five terms, 
standing for five principles, which have a 
definite and invariable order in the series. 
The universe is found to be quinary, or, as 
he calls it, pentalogic. Each principle in any 



series is related to the ones standing before 
and after it, but if it has any relation to 
those of other series it must be to those oc- 
cupying the same place in the series, and 
not to any others. There are, therefore, 
vertical and horizontal relationships, but 
there can be no diagonal or obliqvie ones. 
There are, at least, twenty of these pen- 
talogic series, each of five terms, which 
alone would raise the number of terms to 
one hundred, but there are, of course, many 
other terms employed in defining and dis- 
cussing these primary ones. The author 
nowhere tells us the order in which the nu- 
merous pentalogic series should stand, and 
every one must arrange them as seems most 
logical. The following attempt in this di- 
rection makes no claim to infallibility. 

I. It seems clear that the first series must 
be that which relates to the constitution of 
matter. The five principles here involved 
are what he calls the constituents of matter, 
but which he quite as frequently denomi- 
nates concomitants, because, as he explains, 
they always go together and cannot be sepa- 
rated. These five constituents are : (1) 
number ; (2) space ; (3) motion ; (4) time; 
(5) judgment. 

II. Without stopping to discuss the first 
series we may pass to another, the terms of 
which are correlated, i. e., horizontally re- 
lated, to the fii'st. It embraces what he 
calls essentials or manifestations, and which, 
be says, are absolute. They are : (1) unity ; 
(2) extension ; (3) speed; (4) persistence ; 
(5) consciousness. 

III. Corresponding to these five essen- 
tials, which are absolute, there are five 
variables, which are relative, and stand as 
follows: (1) plurality; (2) position; (3) 
path ; (4) change ; (5) choice. 

IV. ISText in order seem to come what he 
calls the five categories, to which everything 
in the universe must be referred. These 
are: (1) kinds; (2) forms; (3) forces; (4) 
causations; (5) concepts. They also corre- 



128 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



spond to the five constituents, the five essen- 
tials, and the five variables, number by 
number. 

V. Thus far the order of the series seems 
tolerably clear, but from this point on there 
may be room for difference. We will re- 
gard as tbe nest and fifth series what he 
calls particles, and, without apologizing for 
the word, proceed to enumerate them as 
follows : (1) ethereal; (2) stellar; (3) ter- 
restrial (geonomic); (4) vegetal ; (5) ani- 
mal. 

VI. He has also a series of what he calls 
natural bodies, which are not precisely par- 
allel with the series of particles. These are : 
(1) celestial ; (2) terrestrial; (3) vegetal; 
(4) animal ; (5) social. The first term here 
corresponds to the second in the last series, 
and so on through to the last term, which is 
not represented in series V. 

VII. To the five particles (series V) 
there are five corresponding states, as fol- 
lows : (1) ethereal ; (2) fluid ; (3) solid ; 
(4) vital; (5) motile. 

VIII. Several series could probably be 
worked out, representing principles inher- 
ing in ethereal, stellar and terrestrial par- 
ticles, but to find clear statements of them 
in the book would be a difficult task. The 
author was anxious to reach the higher, 
psychological aspects of the subject, and 
hastened to deal with animal particles. In 
these he finds five processes, or operations, 
which he calls animal principles. These are: 
(1) metabolism ; (2) reconstruction ; (3) 
motility ; (4) reproduction ; (5) conception. 

IX. These might have been called func- 
tions, and for cai-rying them on there are 
five corresponding systems of organs, as fol- 
lows : (1) digestive; (2) circulatory; (3) 
motor; (4j generative ; (5) cogitative (not 
his word). 

X. Adhering to the psychic elements, 
the five senses maj'' be next considered. 
These vary slightly from the traditional five 
senses in very properly grouping taste and 



smell together as one and recognizing the 
muscular sense: (1) taste and smell ; (2) 
touch; (3) the muscular sense ; (4) hear- 
ing ; (5) sight. 

XI. Parallel to these are the five modes of 
appeal to the senses, the senses representing 
subjective states, modes of appeal objective 
properties: (1) savors; (2) odors; (3) 
pressures; (4) sounds ; (5) colors. 

XII. Major Powell distinguishes between 
sensations and feelings. The former term 
he confines to the subjective states residing 
in the end organs of sense (of course re- 
ferred to the brain), while the other he re- 
stricts to internal states, such as most psy- 
chologists recognize as emotional states in 
a broad sense. Without stopping to show 
that such a classification is illogical, we 
may enumerate here what he calls feeling 
impressions, of which there are, of course, ex- 
actly five. Expressed adjectively, they are: 

(1) metabolic; (2) circulator}'; (3) mo- 
tor; (4) reproductive ; (5) cognitional. The 
reader cannot fail to note the close resem- 
blance of these terms to those describing the 
five systems of animal organs. 

XIII. The twelve series of principles 
thus far enumerated, though falling far 
short of the whole number that a closer 
analj'sis of the book would probably reveal, 
only bring us up abreast of the subject of 
mind in its intellectual manifestation, i. e., 
intellection. The first series to be consid- 
ered here is that of the faculties. Of these 
there are also five, viz.: (1) sensation; 

(2) perception; (3) apprehension; (4) re- 
flection ; (5) ideation. 

XIV. Each faculty probably has five ele- 
ments or factors, but only three of them 
seem to be treated from this point of view. 
In harmony with the fifth and last primary 
constituent of matter, judgment, all opera- 
tions of the mind, including sensations, are 
judgments, and the five elements of a judg- 
ment of sensation are : (1) choice of a past 
concept; (2) the consciousness of this 



January 'J7, 1«99.] 



SCIENCE. 



129 



choice; (3) the choice of another concept '. 
(4) a consciousness of this; (5) the com- 
parison of the one with the other. 

XV. The five elements of a judgment oj per- 
ception, which he saj's are the same as for 
apprehension, are these : (1) conscious- 
ness of a concept ; (2) choice or recollection 
of another concept ; (3) consciousness of 
the second concept ; (4) comparison of the 
two concepts ; (5) the final judgment. 

XVI. In addition to these there are 
enumerated the five elements of a judgment 
proper (for he does not always use the word 
judgment in the same sense). They are : 

(1) consciousness of a sense impression; 

(2) desire to know its cause ; (3) guess or 
choice as to its cause, reviving the con- 
sciousness of the concept of the object 
chosen; (4) comparison of this second con- 
sciousness with the first; (5) judgment of 
the likeness or unlikeness of the terms com- 
pared. 

Sixteen cosmic series have now been 
enumerated, each consisting of five princi- 
ples expressed by five terms or phrases, the 
whole forming a kind of diapason rising 
from the primary constituents of matter 
and culminating in an act of mind, or in- 
tellection. These sixteen series may now 
for clearer comprehension, be re-enumerated 
without the pentalogic terms : 

1. Constituents of matter. 

2. Essentials or manifestations (absolute). 

3. Variables (relative). 

4. Categories. 

5. Particles. 

6. Natural bodies. 

7. States of the natural bodies. 

8. Animal principles. 

9. Systems of organs. 

10. Senses. 

11. Modes of appeal to the senses. 

12. Feeling impressions. 
13 Faculties. 

14. Elements of a judgment of sensation. 

15. " " " " perception. 

16. " " " " intellection. 

As already remarked, there are many in- 



terrelations among the series, and it may 
be next inquired what are some of the most 
important of these. All after the first are 
connected in one way or another with that 
as the basis of the entire system, but the 
exact hierarchical dependence of the several 
series is not worked out. The constituents 
of mattei' — number, space, motion, time, and 
judgment — all belong to everything and are 
always concomitant in the sense that noth- 
ing can lack any of them and have exist- 
ence. [This is many times repeated, and 
yet there are passages, as near the bottom 
of page 13, from which it may be inferred 
that judgment only inheres in animate 
bodies.] The essentials, however — unity, 
extension, speed, persistence, and conscious- 
ness — are simply the manifestations of 
things and constitute the substrates of the 
next series, viz., the variables — plurality, 
position, path, change and choice. That 
is, unity is the substrate of plurality, exten- 
sion is the substrate of position, and so on 
through the series. 

The categories, or classific properties — 
kinds, forms, forces, causations, and con- 
cepts — also correspond, term for term, with 
the constituents, and several attempts are 
made to show their interrelations with the 
other series, but these can best be discussed 
a little later. The five species of particles — 
ethereal, stellar, terrestrial, vegetal and ani- 
mal — are arranged in an ascending series, 
such that each term after the first contains 
all that is contained in the preceding term 
and something in addition, a differentia of its 
own. This differentia in every case is re- 
lated to the corresponding term of the pri- 
mary series, i. e., the constituents. Par- 
ticles are organized, and each class is more 
highly organized than the preceding class 
in that the next higher constituent is em- 
braced in the organization. In ethereal 
particles, which, he says, are probably ulti- 
mate, numbers alone are organized. In 
the stars numbers and spaces are organized. 



130 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



In geonoinic bodies numbers, spaces, and mo- 
tions are organized. In plants numbers, 
spaces, motions, and times are organized. In 
animals numbers, spaces, motions, times, 
and judgments are organized. All this 
seems to a layman to contradict the defini- 
tion of the five constituents as necessary 
concomitants of one another, which would 
predicate them all even of the first term, or 
ethereal particles, but the author could prob- 
ably explain the apparent disci-epancy. He 
has not done so in his book. 

He sometimes distinguishes between par- 
ticles and bodies, and when he does so the 
bodies are composed of particles, but in his 
discussion of the natural bodies he ex- 
pressly excludes the first term of the series 
of particles, the ethereal, and begins with 
the second, giving us celestial, terrestrial, 
vegetal, animal, and social bodies, this last 
being added apparent!}' to make the neces- 
sary five. These bodies are what he calls 
'incorporated,' and the order of the terms 
is an ascending order in the mode or degree 
of incorporation. This depends upon the 
character of the respective particles. The 
terms used describe this as follows : 

1. Celestial bodies have molecular particles. 

' 2. Terrestrial bodies have petrologic particles. 

3. Vegetal bodies have inorganic particles. 

4. Animal bodies have vegetal particles. 

5. Social bodies have ideal particles. 

He does not use these words in all cases 
and his terminology is here mixed and 
more or less confusing, but the above seems 
to be a fair statement of his meaning. 

If we continue to neglect the first class, 
ethereal bodies, and to begin with the 
second, celestial bodies, the corresponding 
states will be: (1) fluid; (2) solid; (3) 
vital ; (4) motile ; (5) social. Major Powel, 
never uses the word social nor the word col- 
lective, although he clearly understands this 
stage of development. His classification of 
the sciences, or scientific hierarchy, is as 
follows: (1) etheronomy ; (2) astronomy; 



(3) geonomy ; (4) phytonomy ; (5) zo' 
onomy ; (6) demonomy.* "Why he did not 
reduce this to five by combining phytonomy 
and zoonomy under the term hionomy (since 
from the standpoint of biology there is no 
distinction between them) is rather sur- 
prising, but explainable. We are here 
concerned only with the last term, demon- 
omy, which he prefers to socionomy, and 
throughout expresses the conception of col- 
lectivity by derivatives from the Greek 
word (5-v/-'."9, using the adjective demotic, and 
even extending it to animal societies, colo- 
nies, etc., to which it obviously does not 
apply. 

Passing over the animal principles, or 
functions, and their respective organs, 
whose bare enumeration above must suf- 
fice, we come to the senses. Here it is im- 
portant to point out that the senses are 
simply the organs of the categories in their 
numerical oi'der, thus : 

1. Taste (including smell) is the organ of kind. 

2. Touch is the organ of form. 

3. The muscular sense is the organ of force. 

4. Hearing is the organ of causation. 

5. Sight is the organ of conception. 

Major Powell does not say quite all of 
this in terms, but it can be safely inferred 
from the discission on page 279. 

When we come to the facidties we have 
another example of architectonic symmetry. 
We perceive that the faculties are simply 
cognitions of the categories, term for term: 

1. Sensation is cognition of kind. 

2. Perception is cognition of form. 

3. Apprehension is cognition of force. 

4. Reflection is cognition of causation. 

5. Ideation is cognition of conception. 

The special treatment of the cosmic series 
need not be carried farther, but it is of 
interest to note a few of the more general 
correlations that may be, with sufficient 
pains and efi'ort, worked out of different 

* Compare the proposed classification given in the 
American Journal of Sociology for July, 1896, Vol. II., 
p. 82. 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



131 



passages in the book. In the chapter on 
Intellections, after all the faculties have 
been dealt with, the author makes a number 
of wide sweeps across the whole iield to 
show the numerous and complicated asso- 
ciations that arise among the various series. 
No tabular exhibits are offered, and the 
reader is asked to carry in his mind all 
that has gone before and to put things to- 
gether for himself. There are many gaps 
in the terminology which he must supply, 
and several new series come out that appear 
not to have been dealt with before. A care- 
ful digest of this chapter, and especially of 
the matter on pages 302 and 303, seem to 
justify the following table of correlations. 
The five points of view are: (1) classifica- 
tion ; (2) moi-phology ; (3) dynamics ; (4) 
evolution ; (5) intellection. If by mor- 
phology he means about the same as Iw- 
mology, these correspond to five of his chap- 
ters, viz., Chapters IX, X, XI, XIII and 
XVIII. The pentalogies are as follows : 



Some of the terms have been dealt with in 
previous chapters. The last terms of these 
series are the two highest faculties, reflec- 
tion and ideation. Metamorphosis and 
metagenesis are treated in Chapter V as 
processes or properties of geonomic bodies, 
along with other apparently coordinate pro- 
cesses, such as metalogisis (an etymologically 
impossible word) and metaphysisis (for which 
mefaphysis would have done as well and been 
correct); but these do not appear in the 
present connection. Cooperation is the 
subject of Chapter XII, and development 
does not so greatly differ from evolution, 
which is the thing with which it is said to 
be associated, and is the subject of Chapter 
XIII. These two new series seem to be- 
long immediately after the categories. The 
first maybe called processes.- (1) series ; (2) 
metamorphoses; (3) energies or powers; 
(4) metageneses ; (5) reflections. The sec- 
ond may, perhaps, be called products or re- 
sultant conditions : (1) classes; (2) organ- 





Associatioiis 


I. 


11. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 




considered in 


Essentials. 


Constituents. 


Categories. 


Processes. 


Products. 


1. 


Classification : 


Units. 


Numbers. 


Kinds. 


Series. 


Classes. 


2. 


Morphology : 


Extensions. 


Spaces. 


Forms 


Metamorphoses. 


Organisms. 


3. 


Dynamics : 


'Speeds. 


Motions. 


Forces. 


Energies or Powers. 


Cooperations. 


4. 


Evolution : 


Persistences. 


Times. 


Causations. 


Metageneses. 


Developments. 


5. 


Intellection : 


Sensations. 


Perceptions. 


Apprehensions, 


, Reflections. 


Ideations. 



It will be perceived that the first three of 
these columns of associations correspond to 
series 2, 1 and 3, respectively, viz., essen- 
tialSjConstituents, and categories, except the 
fifth and last term in each case, where sen- 
sation is substituted for consciousness, per- 
ception for judgment, and apprehensions 
for concepts. It will be further observed 
that the five associations considered in in- 
tellection are neither more nor less than 
the five faculties of intellection. We have, 
however, in this presentation, two series of 
principles that have not been previously 
considered among the pentalogic properties. 
These are seen in the two last columns. 



isms ; (3) cooperations ; (4) developments ; 
(5) ideations. 

In his final svimmary (p. 413) the au- 
thor throws some further light upon his 
general conception of these interrelated 
principles. He says that the constituents 
' develop into ' the categories, and that in 
so doing both the essentials and the vari- 
ables ' become ' something else, which gives 
rise to two other new series, here intro- 
duced for the first time in any systematic 
way, although, as in the cases last consid- 
ered, many of the terms have been dis- 
cussed, and several of them are the same 
in form at least as the terms of other series, 



132 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



but seem here to have entirely different does not correetly represent the scheme it 

connotations. From his language at this shows at least that the scheme cannot be 

point the following tabular arrangement understood in its present form. Even 

seems justified : should this presentation be accepted in its 



Constituents. Categories, Essentials. 

1. As number develops into class unity 

2. As space " " form extension 

3. As motion " " force speed 

4. As time " " causation persistence 



becomes kind 
" figure 
" velocity 
' ' state 



Varieties. 
and plurality series 
" position structure 
' ' path inertia 

event 



5. As judgment 



conception consciousness 



choice inference. 



No names are given to the series 
represented by the fourth and sixth col- 
umns of this table. The first, third and 
fifth columns are those respectively of the 
constituents, the essentials and the vari- 
ables. The second column would corre- 
spond to the categories had he not trans- 
ferred the first term, kind, to the fourth 
column, and put ' class ' in its place. Per- 
haps the reverse was intended, and this 
would seem every way more logical. Mak- 
ing this change we would have as one of the 
new series : (1) class ; (2) figure ; (3) veloc- 
ity j (4) state ; (5) recollection, and as the 
other: (1) series ; (2) structure ; (3) inertia ; 
(4) event; (5) inference. 

Twenty of these cosmic series of philo- 
sophic principles have now been enumer- 
ated. Others could probably be worked 
out of the text even as it stands, and the 
author is doubtless conscious of many more. 
It may be well to repeat that all these cor- 
relations are stated in the form of simple 
discussions and the tabulation has been 
made from these. Gaps are often left that 
must be supplied from remote parts of the 
book, and in a few cases terms are wanting 
and have had to be selected from the obvious 
meaning of the context. The author will, 
therefore, probably criticise these condensa- 
tions or perhaps repudiate many of them 
altogether. The only apology that can be 
made is that this seemed the only way of 
putting the contents of the book into a form 
which could be readily grasped, and if it 



main aspects it seems doubtful whether it 
will convey a clear idea to all minds. The 
terminology is so different from anj' hitherto 
employed that attention is constantly ar- 
rested on the words at the expense of the 
meaning. The practice of neoterism has 
been aptly compared to putting cannon 
balls inside of bales of cotton whereby their 
force and eflectiveness are destroyed. The 
strongest writers are not those who use the 
greatest number of new words, and such a 
style as Huxley's abundantly proves that 
the English language, clumsy genetic pi'od- 
uct as it is, is capable of conveying the 
deepest scientific and philosophic truth and 
of expressing the highest and finest shades 
of thought. The golden rule is never to 
introduce a new w^ord when an old one will 
serve the purpose. Major Powell's method 
reverses this, and he seems never to use a 
word that has a popular acceptance if he 
can find a synonym, however rare, or can 
coin a new term. His use of demotic for 
social, already pointed out, is simply one 
example in a hundred that might be named. 
More confusing still, perhaps, is his employ- 
ment of old words in new senses, as, for 
example, his use of aj>p7-ehension as a mental 
faculty, Yfith its opposite misapiwehension, 
both of which are in common use with 
definite though highly derivative significa- 
tions. His category hind, in place of the 
Kantian quality, conveys to the average 
mind scarcely any idea at all. 

We know what his answer to all this 



Januaey 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



133 



would be, as be never tires of repeating it, 
viz., tbattlie bane ofall thinking is the use of 
the same word in different senses, whereby 
the ideas are confused by the sounds of the 
words. But must we make a new language 
to obviate this? Is it not due to the mud- 
dle-headedness of those who use the words? 
And will not order come out of this chaos 
when people learn to think clearly irrre- 
spective of words ? It may be compared to 
the agitation about phonetics. Our lan- 
guage has only 26 letters, but over 40 
sovinds, and j'et many of these letters have 
several sounds. The spelling reformers say 
this is illogical. There should be just as 
many letters as sounds, and each letter 
should have one sound and one only. All 
this is true, and no one disputes it. But it 
is a condition and not a theory that con- 
fronts us, and it is found that our alphabet, 
with all its admitted defects, is capable of 
forming all the words of the language. Both 
the forms and the meanings of words are 
products of evolution and have Lad their 
history and genesis, and this evolution is 
constantly going on far more rapidly than 
the radical reformers suspect in the direc- 
tion of rationality and logicality. It is, in- 
deed, observed that attempts at hasty re- 
form in orthography tend to arrest natural 
development and fossilize language, as wit- 
ness the practice of dropping the syllable al in 
all adjectives in ical, which interferes with 
an obvious natural diiferentiation in the 
meaning of the short and long forms, clearly 
seen in the diiierence already acquired be- 
tween such words as historic and historical, 
2}olitic and jjolitical, microscojnc and microscop- 
ical (what, for example, would a microscopic 
society be?). 

The natural impulse is to ignore the de- 
ficiencies that one sees in a work of this 
nature and take up the enumeration of the 
many sterling qualities that it so manifestly 
possesses, but aside from the fact that this 
would be quite useless to the reader, since 



he will see them for himself, one is here 
confronted with so many actual difficulties 
in the way of the comprehension of the 
scheme that it seems necessary to devote 
whatever space may be left after this at- 
tempt at exposition to the consideration of 
a few at least of these difficulties. There 
is certainly one salient feature of the work 
that demands a passing notice. It claims 
to be ' the Philosophy of Science,' as op- 
posed to ' Idealism,' on the one hand, and 
' Materialism,' on the other, and a large part 
of it is devoted to soundly belaboring both 
these spurious systems, but especially what 
the author calls vietaphysics, which rests upon 
idealism. The arch-enemy of Truth and 
chief source of Error is the philosophy which 
reduces the universe to a subjective state of 
the thinking or knowing mind. What is 
elsewhere called ' epistemology,' and is de- 
fined as ' the theory of knowledge,' proves 
uniformly to be a theory of no-knowledge, 
or a proof that the mind can know nothing 
but its own states. Major Powell calls this 
book a treatise on epistemology (which is 
always written ' epistomology,' as if it had 
to do with the digestive rather than the 
cogitative apparatus). But, unlike the cur- 
rent epistemology, its aim is to show that 
there is an objective, knowable world, the 
world with which science so effectively 
deals. All this is well, and no scientific 
man can object to it. But how does he suc- 
ceed in this? When, as at the thresh- 
old, he approaches the nature of mat- 
ter he is baffied as completely as the 
school boy, or as the other savants who 
have grappled with this problem. He 
seems to think, however, that he has found 
a way out of the difficulty. Between the 
thesis and the antithesis of the second 
Kantian antinomy he thinks he has found 
a Hegelian synthesis. This compromise or 
reconciliation consists in maintaining, as 
the term implies, that the five ' constituents ' 
constitute matter. These constituents, as 



134 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



we have seen, are number, space, motion, 
time and judgment. They miist all exist 
in every particle, but besides and beyond 
them there is nothing. They are matter. 
Sometimes (e. g., on p. 119) he calls these 
the ' properties of matter. ' At other times 
lie seems to talk as though it were rather 
the five ' essentials ' or ' manifestations ' 
(unity, extension, speed, persistence, con- 
sciousness) that really ' constitute the par- 
ticle ' (p. 183). But at any rate there is 
nothing but these properties or manifesta- 
tions, and when he sj)eaks of ' substrates ' 
he calls the essentials the substrates of the 
corresponding variables (plurality, position, 
path, change, choice), and does not mean 
any real substrate of which any one or all 
of these attributes can be predicated. Now, 
to the ordinary mind, or naive intellect, 
such things as space, time, motion, or as 
extension and speed (rate of motion), seem 
to be wholly immaterial. Some of them, as 
space and time, are mere conditions under 
which things exist. Motion we must agree 
with him in regarding as a state in which 
all matter always exists. Extension is a 
property that matter possesses. But when 
Major Powell refers to space he says he 
does not mean ' void space,' which he says 
is a pseud-idea. Yet most persons can 
clearly conceive of void space. He must 
refer to the matter that is in space. This 
is simply a question of language. When 
he speaks of time he says he does not mean 
' void time, but the time of states and 
events' (p. 253). But any one can ' think 
away ' the whole universe of matter and 
both space and time will remain. He says 
there is no such thing as void space, and 
many passages indicate that he accepts the 
plenum. Although this is inconsistent with 
motion, and even with number, except 
unity, it will seem to many that if matter is 
made up of such intangible constituents as 
space, time, extension, speed, and judgment 
it makes very little difference whether the 



universe is full of them or not. Like the 
deathless Shades of AValhalla, hack and 
hew them as you may, they will instantly 
regain their forms and return to the combat. 
By thus constructing the material uni- 
verse out of five immaterial elements Major 
Powell seems to think that he has made 
his peace with the idealists and won the 
right to turn upon the materialists. It can- 
not be denied that he has evolved a system 
as thoroughly ideal as that of Berkeley, and 
about the only difference between it and 
the Berkeleyan idealism is that it consists 
of five nothings instead of one. For the 
last of the Powellian nothings, judgment, 
consciousness, etc., is the whole of the 
Berkeleyan nothing, mind, and the Hegelian 
Nichts, thought. But are not consciousness, 
mind, thought, real things and important 
things? Undoubtedly, and so are justice, 
honor, truth, freedom, yet no one thinks of 
making these the constituents of matter 
and the contents of the material universe. 
All these numberless terms of elevated and 
refined thought and sentiment stand for 
relations subsisting among material things, 
but which are themselves necessarily im- 
material, as much so as distance or direc- 
tion. The number and kinds of relations 
are innumerable. By a little convenient 
expansion the term may be made to include 
space, time, motion, extension, velocity, 
persistence, resistance, judgment, conscious- 
ness, feeling, thought, mind, love, sympathy, 
virtue, justice, truth, liberty, peace, ambi- 
tion, character — all the higher and more 
evolved conseptions of intellectual and 
emotional beings. But if any one prefers 
to call them properties, attributes, or even 
qualities, there need be no objection ; they 
may be any of these things, but they are 
not matter nor the constituents of matter. 
Major Powell says that the metaphysicians 
' reify ' mere properties or attributes. He 
has reified abstract relations and constructed 
a phantom world out of nothing. 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



135 



There is one other favorite idea in this 
book which it is difficult to resist touching 
upon, however lightlJ^ It is the doctrine 
of hylozoism, which the author approaches 
at first haltingly and doubtinglj^, but which 
before the close assumes the form of a full- 
fledged dogma without the acceptance of 
which it is almost admitted the whole struc- 
ture falls to the ground. Eeally there was 
no occasion for the initial timidity, as the 
doctrine is backed up by a long line of the 
best thinkers of all ages. In fact, it is one 
of those conceptions which cannot be es- 
caped by the mind if only it goes on to the 
logical term in its reasoning, and it has 
never been gainsaid in any legitimate argu- 
mentation. There need, therefore, be no 
quarrel as to the notion itself that the high- 
est attribute of nature, call it mind, soul, 
spirit, thought, or what you may, resides 
also in the lowest and simplest form of ex- 
istence. No true philosopher will or can 
deny this proposition. The ' fallacies,' to 
use Major Powell's regular word for the er- 
rors of human reasoning, all occur in the 
mode of approaching this great truth. It 
is so in the present case. His fallacy lurks 
at the outset in the fifth and last term of 
the first three or four series of cosmic prin- 
ciples — in the terms judgment, conscious- 
ness, concept, choice, etc. — terms which 
connote psychic processes not introduced in 
the course of evolution until the cosmic 
stage had been passed and the organic stage 
had been ushered in. The fallacy is most 
manifest in the discussion of the terms ' affin- 
ity ' and 'choice.' Here our author becomes 
thoroughly metaphysical. On pages 40 and 
41 he says : " We have now discovered that 
there is an additional property of the inani- 
mate particle when it is incorporated, and 
that this is affinity. All we know of affinity 
is that it is the choice of one particle for an- 
other as its associate or as their mutual 
choice. Here we are introduced to the 
multitudinous phenomena of affinity which 



can be explained only as choice." On 
pages 1S8 and 189 he further says : "The pri- 
mal law of evolution seems to be psychic. 
We shall call it the law of affinity and de- 
fine it as choice of particles to associate in 
bodies." Finally, on page 267, he asserts 
that " the ultimate particles of inanimate 
bodies have self- activity in so far as they 
manifest choice or affinity." Now this is 
not ' reification,' which belongs to the meta- 
physical stage of thought in Comte's cele- 
brated trois Hats; it is 'imputation,' which 
belongs to the first or fetishistic phase of 
the theological stage, which, as Major 
Powell has elsewhere so ably shown, char- 
acterizes the thinking of the primordial 
savage. To the glorious company of Chuar, 
Spencer and Hegel, Powell must surely be 
added ! 

The whole idea of choice or affinity is 
anthropomorphic. It is to be compared 
with the popular idea of attraction, or 
gravitation as produced by one body draw- 
ing another through void space ; an idea, by 
the way, which Major Powell justly assails 
as essentially metaphysical, involving the 
actio in distans, and demanding a belief in 
some sort of magic. There is no difference 
between the attraction of bodies and the 
affinities of atoms, so far as this principle 
is concerned. To call it ' psychic ' is an 
anachronism. To say that the action of a 
magnet or an attracting body, or the be- 
havior of chemical substances toward one 
another, is judgment, or consciousness, or 
choice, except metaphorically, is to ignore 
the vast series of steps in evolution which 
separate the chemical atom from protoplasm 
and span the chasm between the inorganic 
and the organic worlds. Hylozoism simply 
asserts that the elements and raw materials 
are there, even at the bottom of the scale, 
but it does not say that a bank of clay is a 
house of brick, or that a block of marble is 
a Venus of Milo. The worst feature of 
this doctrine, which pervades the work and 



136 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



affects the whole scheme, is that it is quite 
unnecessary and superfluous. If, as the 
law of the conservation of energy demon- 
strates, all matter exists in a state of mo- 
tion which is as unchangeable and inde- 
structible as matter itself, is its one essen- 
tial attribute, what more is required? Is 
not this the true ' self-activity,' the true 
hylozoism? Everything else follows from 
this. Every higher manifestation is the re- 
sult of aggregation, of compounding and re- 
compounding — in a word, of organization, 
first chemical, then biotic, then psychic. 
All differences are diiferences of degree, and 
the universe is one. 

The last question to be asked is : Why 
pentalogic? Is the universe really a quin- 
cunx ? Or has it been forced to take this 
form ? We all know how strong the love 
of symmetry is in man, and too great sym- 
metry in a treatise claiming to be scientific 
stamps it as artificial if nothing more. It 
has been said that nature makes only in- 
dividuals and man make species, genera, 
families. The real world will not fit into 
our square or round or oval frames. The 
mind strains to make it fit. The search 
for analogies has been universal. The 
old cosmologies largely go by numbers — by 
threes, or fours, or fives, or sevens, or 
twelves. Eeasons for this are always at 
hand — the number of fates, of points to the 
compass, of fingers on the hand, of days in 
the week, of tribes of Israel, of apostles, 
etc. There has never been any difficulty 
in making a philosophical system conform 
to any of these charmed numbers. Instead, 
therefore, of strengthening his argument 
by referring (p. 112) to the well-known 
origin of the decimal system in the number 
of digits, and declaring that ' the universe 
is pentalogic,' Major Powell has therebj' 
greatly weakened it by an analogy devoid 
of the least causal connection. Every 
biologist knows that it was an accident that 
in the phylogenetic development of the 



higher animals, from the many-boned fins 
of fishes through the multidigitate Dijmeusta 
to the five-toed Batrachians, the reduction 
of digits happened to be arrested at this 
stage. Eeally, though, it never was ar- 
i-ested, but went on through the cloven- 
footed ungulates, until iu the horse the 
number was reduced to one ; so that the 
horse is the most highly developed animal, 
as Professor Cope and Dean Swift agreed 
in asserting. But this theological argu- 
ment is further demolished by the superi- 
ority of other than pentalogic systems, the 
duodecimal, and especially the octonal. If 
four instead of five had been the magic 
number no one can calculate the economy 
it would have wrought in human affairs. 

The direct study of nature reveals every- 
where irregularity, heterogeneity, amor- 
phism, chaos ; and however laudable the 
effort to reduce this anarchy to law and 
this chaos to cosmos, any attempt in this 
direction which goes beyoud the limit set 
by concrete facts is, by minds trained to 
the scientific habit, dismissed at once as not 
science, whatever else it may be. 

It seems a pity that a book which is ob- 
viously the product of such prolonged and 
profound philosophical meditation by a 
mind so well stored with scientific knowl- 
edge and direct experience with the real 
world should be handicapped in the manner 
here pointed out. The above specifications 
in this regard are not meant for criticisms. 
They are made rather to prepare the reader 
for what he may expect in the hope that he 
may ignore them as far a^ possible and 
persevere to the end, assuring him that, 
read in the right spirit, this book will 
furnish food for reflection and new views of 
science and philosophy. Meanwhile we 
commend to the author the two following 
passages from his book : 

" For some purposes of discussion a 
schematization may be of more or less 
value, but it easily degenerates into illogical 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



137 



classification, especially when it becomes 
the foundation of a philosophy." (Pp. 
119-120.) 

" The true method of classification is not 
by invention, but bj^ discovery." (P. 113.) 
Lester F. Ward. 



INCONSIDERATE LEGISLATION ON BIRDS. 
The following bill has passed the House, 
and, as amended by Senator Hoar, has met 
with the approval of the Senate. If the 
amended bill meets with the approval of 
the House Conferees it will probably be- 
come a law : 

An Act to Extend the Powers and Duties of the 

Commission of Fish and Fisheries to Include 

Game Birds and Other Wild Birds Useful to 

Man : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of America 
in Congress assembled, that the United States 
Commission of Fish and Fisheries shall here- 
after be known and designated as the United 
States Commission of Fish, Fisheries and Birds. 
The duties and powers of said commission are 
hereby enlarged so as to include the propaga- 
tion, distribution, transportation, introduction 
and restoration of game birds and other wild 
birds useful to man. For such purposes they 
may purchase, or cause to be captured, such 
game birds and other wild birds as they may 
require therefor, subject, however, to the 
laws of the various States and Territories in 
which they may conduct such operations. 

The object and purpose of this Act is to aid 
in the restoration of such birds in those parts of 
the United States adapted thereto where the 
same have become scarce or extinct, and also 
to aid in the introduction of new and valuable 
varieties or species of American or foreign birds 
in localities where they have not heretofore 
existed. 

Said Commission shall from time to time col- 
lect and publish useful information as to the 
propagation, uses and preservation of such 
birds. 

And the said Commission shall make and 
publish all needful rules and regulations for 



carrying out the purjjoses of this Act, and shall 
expend for said purposes such sums as Congress 
may appropriate therefor. 

The Amendments are as follows : 

That the importation into the United States 
of birds, feathers or parts of birds for orna- 
mental purposes be and the same is hereby 
prohibited : Provided, however, That nothing 
herein contained shall be construed as prohibit- 
ing the importation of birds for museums, 
zoological gardens, or scientific collections, or 
the importation of living birds or of feathers 
taken from living birds without injury to the 
bird. The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby 
authorized to make regulations for carrying 
into effect the provisions of this section. 

That the transportation of birds, feathers or 
parts of birds, to be used or sold from any State 
or Territory of the United States is hereby pro- 
hibited. Whoever shall violate the provisions 
of this section shall, upon conviction in the 
district where the offense shall have been com- 
mitted, be punislied for each such offense by a 
fine of $50. 

That the sale, keeping or offering for sale, 
within any Territory of the United States, or 
within the District of Columbia, of birds, 
feathers or parts of birds for ornamental pur- 
poses, except such as are excepted in the first 
section of this Act, be and the same is hereby 
prohibited. Whoever shall violate the pro- 
visions of this section shall, upon conviction, be 
punished for such offeDse by a fine of $50. 

In view of the high grade of ornitliological 
work which the Department of Agriculture 
has already performed, and of the eminently 
scientific character of its personnel, it seems 
a great pity that work so clearly of an agri- 
cultural nature should be given to the Fish 
Commission, a department wdiich has 
neither the experiment stations, the men 
nor the means to effectively undertake such 
duties, and whose hatcheries are in locali- 
ties so remote from sources of supply that 
the work can only be done, if at all, at a 
great sacrifice of time, money and energy. 

The introduction of new species into a 
country is, in any case, a dangerous ex- 



138 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



periment — as witness the English Sparrow 
■ — and if undertaken at all should be done 
only under that branch of the govern- 
ment service which for many years has 
been charged by Congress with investiga- 
tions of the economic status of birds 
and mammals. While we should gladly 
see feathers and parts of birds obtained by 
killing the birds no longer used for orna- 
mental purposes, it is probable that legisla- 
tion would accomplish nothing. On the 
whole, the bill appears useless, and the new 
functions given to the Fish Commission are 
extremely ill-advised. Such bills should be 
referred to a committee of the National 
Academjr of Sciences for an opinion. 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE GEO- 
LOGICAL SOCIEIY OF AMERICA, BE- 
CE3IBER gSTH, S9TH AND SOTS, 
NEW YORK. 
II. 
Origin of the Grahamite in Ritchie Co., W. 

Va. I. C. White, Morgantown, W. Va. 

This mineral, resembling coal in physical 
aspect, and extending, in a vertical fissure 
two to three feet wide, downward to an un- 
known depth, was shown to be a residual 
product derived from the evaporation of 
petroleum. Its location is near the ' Oil- 
break ' anticline of Andrews, and it prob- 
ably tapped off oil from the ' Saltwater 
Sandstone ' of the drillers. This sandstone 
is now the source of productive wells lo- 
cated near the Grahamite vein. 

The paper led to the discussion of asphal- 
tic deposits in fissures and to the source of 
graphite and other hydro-carbons in peg- 
matite veins. A. P. Coleman cited the an- 
thraxolite of the Sudbury region, an ultra- 
anthracitic material in fissures. J. S. Diller 
mentioned the pitch-coal of the Coos Bay- 
lignite mines, Oregon, which cuts the lignite 
in veins. J. F. Kemp brought up the gra- 
phitic pegmatites of the Adirondacks, the 
presence of small amounts of carbon in 



the gabbros and the tarry material in the 
Branchville, Conn., quartz. M. E. Wads- 
worth referred to carbon in meteorites. 

Structure of the Tola Gas Field, Allen Co., 

Ka7isas. Edward Orton, Columbus, O. 

Eead by I. C. White, iu the absence of the 

author. 

Natural gas is more widely distributed, 
geologically and geographically, and exists 
in larger quantity than any one would 
have claimed 20 or even 10 yeai's ago. Its 
productive horizons cover the entire Pale- 
ozoic column of the country. Cities sup- 
plied, at least partially, with natural gas 
for fuel and light are no longer uncommon. 
Two distinct divisions can be made of its 
accumulations, viz.: That which is stored in 
impervious rocks as shales, most limestones, 
etc., and that which is found in j^orons rocks. 
These divisions may be provisionally styled 
Shale gas and Reservoir gag, each having 
characteristics of its own. Shale gas occurs 
in comparatively small wells. Its wells 
lack uniformity of rock pressure. It does 
not occupy definite horizons ; it exists in- 
dependently of petroleum in many cases, 
has staying properties, does not depend on 
the structural arrangement of the strata 
that contain it. Reservoir gas is found in 
great wells, approaches uniformity of rock 
pressure in each subdivision of territory, 
occupies definite horizons, is accompanied 
by oil, its wells generally come to a sudden 
end, is entirely controlled by the structure 
of the rocks in which it is accumulated. 
Two structural phases of rocks are specially 
important in this connection, the anticline 
and the terrace. The time has come for the 
acknowledgment of structure in reservoir gas 
fields even in advance of measurements. 
The lola gas field is one of great promise. 
Its source is in a sandstone of the Cherokee 
shales, or near the bottom of the coal meas- 
ures. It proves to bea torace of well-marked 
character. For seven miles the top of the 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



139 



gas rock has an elevation of 131 feet above 
tide, rising at no point more than 45 feet 
above this. At this summit the largest 
well of the field is located. The relations 
were sliowu by a geological cross-section. 
The importance of the fuel to the local zinc 
industry was described. 

There was no important discussion. 

Tlie ConsJwhochen Plastic Clays. T. C. Hop- 
kins, State College, Pa. 
The plastic clays near Conshohocken, Pa., 
form an isolated deposit. The resemblances 
to the ISTew Jersey and Gay Head clays in 
colors, texture and structural features sug- 
gest clays of the same age. The location 
and character of the deposits were briefly 
described. There was no discussion. 

A Bemarkable Landslip on the Riviere Blanche, 
Portneuf County, Quebec. Geoege M. 
Dawson, Ottawa, Out. 
In this paper a brief account was given 
of the landslip that occurred on May 7th, 
last. It affected the thick deposit of Leda 
clay that floors this part of the St. Law- 
rence plain and serves to indicate that 
a clay of this character may, under 
certain circumstances, for a short time, be- 
have almost as a liquid. The paper was 
illustrated by the lantern and threw light 
on disturbed glacial or post-glacial deposits 
elsewhere. 

Bipple-Marks and Cross- Bedding. G. K.Gil- 
beet, "Washington, D. C. 
The general theory of ripple-marks, as 
developed by Darwin and others, was out- 
lined and the relation of ripple-mark dimen- 
sions to dimensions of water oscillation was 
set forth. In general the distance between 
the crests of the ripple-marks is half the 
height of the wave that causes them. At 
the surface the particles sharing in the wave 
describe circles. In depths the circles flat- 
ten to ellipses and at last to forward and 
backward oscillations, which develop the 
ripple-marks. Giant ripple-marks of Me- 



dina sandstones were described, with crests 
up to 30 feet apart. The physical condi- 
tions in which they were developed were 
inferred, and waves up to 60 feet high were 
indicated. When ordinary wind waves are 
complicated by currents, compound and 
complex cross-bedding is caused by deposi- 
tion on rippled surface. The tops of the rip- 
ple-marks are cut off and deposited on the 
flanks of the ridges and lead to cross-bed- 
ding of variable dip and strike, which in 
this way differs from the cross-bedding of 
deltas and currents. The paper was illus- 
trated by the lantern. 

Volcanoes of Southeastern Russia. Harry 
Fielding Reid, Baltimore, Md. 
During the Russian excursion of 1897 
the author visited the three very high vol- 
canic mountains, Elbruz and Kazbek, in 
the Caucasus, and Ararat, farther south. 
This paper gives a brief description of these 
mountains and was illustrated by lantern 
views. The physiography of the region 
traversed, its lake basins and glaciers were 
all described. Special attention was given 
to Mt. Ararat. The supposed thawing of 
its snow fields by the heat developed from 
oxididizing pyrites was set before the So- 
ciety and discussion asked, and the question 
of the abundance of fulgurites on one peak 
of Ararat and their scarcity elsewhere was 
proposed to the Society for explanation. 

L. V. Pirsson and others dismissed the 
pyrites as a source of heat on account of 
its manifest and absurd inefficiency, despite 
the fact that it had been seriously advanced 
abroad. Experience in the Sierras led C. 
D. Walcott to attribute the absence of snow 
in certain spots to the action of wind. E. 
0. Hovey spoke of the occurx-ence of the 
fulgurites oh Little Arai-at, and A. Heilprin 
remarked their independence of the kind of 
rock and cited the unusually large ones he 
had met in the desert of Sahara. He also 
spoke of the similarity of the profile of 



140 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



Ararat to that of Shasta, and others said 
the same of Shishaldio. 

The Society then adjourned for lunch. 

PETROGRAPHIC SECTION. 

On reassembling for the afternoon session 
the Society divided into two sections, in 
order to finish the program. The petro- 
graphic section listened to the following 
papers : 
Differences in Batliolitlc Granites According to 

Deiith of Erosion. B. K. Emerson, Am- 
herst, Mass. 

The speaker reviewed the distribution of 
granitic rocks in Massachusetts, illustrating 
his remarks with a sketch map of it and of 
the neighboring States to the south. He 
commented on the tonalite near Northamp- 
ton, the Cape Ann area, the Quincy area 
and the extension of quartz porphyries and 
felsites to the southwest of the last. He 
outlined another belt of igneous rocks that 
passes near Worcester. He then developed 
the idea regarding the tonalite that it had 
fused its way upward, involving in itself 
the overlying schists to such a degree that 
zones can be traced around the granite 
proper that mark the various stages of ab- 
sorption or metamorphism of the schists. 
From the granite outward there is a fibro- 
litic zone, then a chiastolitic, next an an- 
dalusitic and lastly the schists. Given one 
of these zones, such as the chiastolitic at 
Lancaster, the presence of the granite may 
be confidently predicted in depth, although 
not actually visible. The demarcation of 
the zones is sharp enough to admit of 
mapping. 

The next two papers followed before dis- 
cussion. 
Metamorphosed Basic Dikes hi the Manhattan 

Schists, New Yorh City. J. F. Kemp, ISTew 

York City. 

Hornblende schists in narrow belts have 
long been known in the j^revailing mica- 
schists of Manhattan Island. This paper 



describes one special occurrence on Morn- 
ingside Park, between 118th and 119th 
Streets, near the Columbia University Cam- 
pus. A small detailed map was shown, 
together with analyses and petrographic 
details of the amphibolite and of the mica- 
schists. The speaker stated that the am- 
phibolite must be referred to an igneous in- 
trusion or to limey bands in the schists. 
The most reasonable interpretation seemed 
to him to be the igneous. The rocks were 
illustrated by projecting thin sections with 
a polarizing microscopic lantern. 

The Granites on the North Shore of Long 
Island Sound, with some Observations on the 
Granites of the Atlantic Coast in General. 
J. F. Kemp, New York City. 
The general character of the crystalline 
rocks along the sound from New Haven to 
Narragansett Bay was outlined, and it was 
shown that they are chiefly granitic gneisses, 
with pronounced foliation, but with some 
augen-gneiss and considerable basic horn- 
bleudic and biotitic schist. The granites 
at Niantic and Westerly, E. I., and at 
New London, Millstone Point, Stony Creek 
and some minor localities in Connecticut 
were discussed. They were shown to be 
biotite-granites of several varieties. Al- 
though they have nearly or quite the same 
mineralogy as the prevailing gneiss of the 
region, their intrusive character was shown 
by their relations to the wall- rocks and by 
their peculiar inclusions of the basic horn- 
blendic and biotitic schists. The supposed 
Carboniferous age of the Connecticut gran- 
ite, as advanced by Pirsson,was mentioned as 
perhaps indicating a fairly late age for those 
in the gneissic areas. Slides of the rocks dis- 
cussed were afterwards thrown on the screen 
with the polarizing microscope. The remark- 
able development of pegmatites that every- 
where characterize the region was also dis- 
cussed, both as regards mineralogy and 
geological relations. They vary from coarse 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



141 



aggregates of pink microcline, natron-ortho- 
clase, quartz, biotite and ilmenite to prac- 
tically pure quartz, intermediate varieties 
being present. The paper concluded with 
a general review of the granites of the At- 
lantic sea-board and stated that they are 
with few exceptions biotite granites. Such 
analyses as are available were used in il- 
lustration. 

In discussion of the last three papers M. 
E. Wadsworth remarked with regard to 
the amphibolites of the second paper the 
similar changes in peridotite dikes on Lake 
Superior and their clear igneous character. 
In reply J. F. Kemp mentioned the serpen- 
tines near New York, which have lately 
been shown by D. H. Newland to contain 
recognizable olivine, and which are prob- 
ably altered basic, igneous rocks. Whit- 
man Cross stated that the Colorado granites 
with which he was familiar had sharp con- 
tacts with the wall rocks and showed no 
such infusion as described by Professor 
Emerson. They resembled rather the gran- 
ites of the Long Island Sound region. M. 
E. Wadsworth remarked that he had al- 
ways been able to find evidence of the in- 
trusive nature of massive granites wherever 
he had searched for it and he controverted 
the idea that metamorphism was respon- 
sible for them. Referring to the supposed 
post-Carboniferous age of the Conanicut 
granite J. E. Wolff stated that he and his 
associates at Cambridge had reached the 
conclusion that the granite intruded Cam- 
brian and not Carboniferous strata. In re- 
ply to the remarks of AVhitman Cross, B. 
K. Emerson again reviewed his interpreta- 
tion of the Massachusetts phenomena. 

Augite-syenite near Loon Lake, N. Y. H. P. 

CusHiNG, Cleveland, O. 

An interesting section exposed in a rail- 
road cut near Loon Lake shows an intru- 
sive rock which has caught up fragments 
of the Grenville series. The rock is related 



to the augite-sj'enites but the chemical, 
analj'sis shows some unusual features. A 
large area of anorthosite mapped in Frank- 
lin county, N. Y. , the past summer, was 
found to grade into similar rocks on all 
sides, and they are, therefore, regarded as 
variants of the gabbro magma. They present 
a range from rocks of the acidity of granite 
to basic gabbros. The analysis quoted was 
by E. W. Morley and was as follows : 

SiO, 63.45, TiO, 0.07, Al.O, 18.31, Fe^O, 
0.42, FeO 3.56, MnO none, CaO 2.93, BaO 
0.13, MgO 0.35, K,0 5.15, Hafi 5.06. Loss, 
0.30. Total, 99.73. The rock is composed 
of microperthite, quartz, hyperstheme, a 
pyroxene near diallage and a little plagio- 
clase. It was compared with Cape Ann 
and Norwegian relatives. 

In discussion J. F. Kemp remarked the 
presence of related rocks in the Adirondack 
region south of Professor Cushing's area 
and the possibility of others having been 
pinched into the gneisses and disguised by 
metamorphism. H. S. Washington empha- 
sized their close parallelism with the Cape 
Ann varieties described by him. M. E. 
Wadsworth discussed the passage of Min- 
nesota gabbros into rocks of this type, and 
N. H. Winchell gave a most interesting re- 
view of recent results in the study of the 
Minnesota gabbros and their relatives. Be- 
ginning with anorthosites be showed their 
passage into gabbros and their occurrence 
both as inclusions and as segregations in 
diabases. The gabbros grade into the 
' muscovadites ' of the Minnesota geologists 
and the muscovadites into greenstones and 
perhaps into jaspilite and iron ore. R. A. 
Daly remarked the presence of the same 
rocks as those described by Cushing in Mt. 
Ascutney, Vt., and quoted an analysis that 
was very much like Cushing's. He outlined 
the curious change in color that the rock 
undergoes when quarried. He stated that 
it also occurs at Cuttingsville in the Kil- 
lingly Peaks, Vt. 



142 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



On the Phenocrysts of Intrusive Igneous Rocks. 

L. V. PiEssoN, New Haven, Conn. 

The speaker argued for the formation of 
phenoprj'sts at or near tbe places where 
they are found in rocks, and against the 
necessity of the generally accepted idea 
that they are deep-seated and older crystal- 
lizations brought up by the magma, i. e., 
against the necessary ' intratelluric ' nature 
of them. He distinguished the 'single' 
type which does not occur as a mineral of 
the ground mass and the ' recurrent ' type 
which does. As incompatible with an in- 
tratelluric origin, he advanced the follow- 
ing well-known phenomena : (1) Absence 
of phenocrysts from contact zones. (2) Ab- 
sence from dikes and sheets whose parent 
laccolite is richly provided with them. (3) 
The throngs of small rod-like crystals that 
surround phenocrysts and are not flow- 
phenomena, but due to crowding back, by 
growth of phenocrysts ; further tabular 
phenocrysts which occur in all orienta- 
tions in a rock. (4) Phenocrysts of pro- 
phyritic granites may or may not be intra- 
telluric, according as we view porphy- 
ritic rocks as differing from granitoid in 
kind or in degree. (5) Micro-structure, 
both internal as regards inclusions and ex- 
ternal as regai-ds surrounding crystals, may 
be explained by formation near the surface. 
The arguments for an intratelluric origin, 
viz.: (1) Large size, and (2) flow-arrange- 
ment and resorption-phenomena, were dis- 
cussed. As opposed to the views of the 
French petrographers, that there are two 
distinct periods in the crystallization of 
every igneous rock, and of the Germans, 
that there are two for the porphyritic and 
one for the granitoid, Pirsson argued for 
only one for each, and emphasized the vis- 
cosity of the magma as an important fiictor 
in conditioning the epoch of crystallization, 
and the rate of cooling as of great influence 
on the result. With a long time, i. e., slow 
cooling, the granitoid texture results; with 



a short period, the porphyritic or felsitic. 
The presence of water-vapor is also impor- 
tant. With a quick fall in temperature the 
earliest minerals to begin have the best 
chance to develop; the later ones are hurried 
or are cut off. Hence, single phenocrysts 
result. Mass action is also important. The 
most abundant minerals have a predominant 
tendency to develop. Too great regularity 
is not, however, to be expected in Nature. 
The speaker closed with a statement that 
he had no hopes of the Section agreeing 
with him, but he courted discussion. He 
was mildly thunder-struck to find very 
general agreement and approval as evinced 
in remarks by J. P. Iddings and Whitman 
Cross, although, the hour being late, the 
paper could not receive the attention that 
its importance and interest merited. 

The last paper of the Section was the 
following : 

The Mica Deposits of the United States. J. 

A. Holmes, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

The speaker stated that to-day all the 
commercial mica produced in the United 
States is derived from North Carolina. It 
is universally obtained from pegmatite 
dikes, in which as a maximum not or over 
1 or li per cent, of the dike is mica, and 
about 0.1 per cent, is the rule. About 5 per 
cent, of this mica or less is merchantable as 
sheets; the rest, if utilized, is ground. The 
chief defects are the crushing and warping 
due to dynamic processes, and the so-called 
' ruling ' or cleavage which runs across the 
leaves and is probably due to pressure. 
The speaker described in particular the 
mica deposits of New Mexico, where the 
pegmatites are associated with granites at 
the base of the Grand Caiion series and are 
older than the Algonkian. They are dam- 
aged by folding and pressure, which, how- 
ever, largely fail in the Appalachian belt. 
The hour being late, no discussion followed, 
and after a vote of thanks to the authori- 



January 27, 1399.] 



SCIENCE. 



143 



ties of Columbia University the section ad- 
journed. 

GENERAL SECTION. 

In the other section, before which papers 
bearing on glacial geology and some more 
general topics were read, the following pro- 
gram was presented. The notes of the 
section on which the following account is 
chiefly based were kept by Arthur Ilollick, 
but by a misunderstanding they are less 
complete than those for the previous papers: 

Jr're- Cambrian Fossiliferoits Formations. Chas. 

D. Walcott, Washington, D. C. 

A DESCRIPTION was given of the pre-Cam- 
brian formations which have yielded traces 
of life, including the announcement of the 
discovery of fossils indicating highly organ- 
ized life in the pre -Cambrian belt terrane 
of Montana. The fossils occur in a fissile 
black shale or slate called the Empire shales 
and are of eurypteroid forms. The paper 
was illustrated by geological sections and 
by photographs and specimens of the fossils. 
It was discussed by J. A. Holmes, H. S. 
Williams, Bailey Willis and H. M. Ami. 

After the reading of the paper oppor- 
tunity was given for the discussion of the 
papers presented the day before by W. D. 
Johnson and H. W. Turner. The discus- 
sion was participated in by I. C. Eussell, 
H. F. Eeid, G. K. Gilbert and W. D. 
Johnson. 

Ice Sculpture in Western Neiu York. G. K. 

Gilbert, Washington, D. C. 

Careful study of the Niagara escarp- 
ment in Niagai-a county shows that its 
greater features are pre- glacial, but glacial 
erosion has wrought important modification. 
The Medina shale has been so deeply sculp- 
tured as to obliterate its pre-glacial relief 
and substitute a broad iiuting in the direc- 
tion of ice movement. At Thirty Mile 
Point a mass of strata several hundred feet 
broad has been moved by the ice. The paper 



was illustrated by charts and was discussed 
H. F. Reid and Robert Bell. 

The Wind Deposits of Eastern Minnesota. C 
W. Hall and F. W. Sardeson, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 

The paper treated of the character, origin 
and age of the lag gravels and dune sands 
so frequently seen in eastern Minnesota — 
more particularly in the district between 
the Mississippi and St. Croix Elvers. These 
deposits in the vicinity of Minneapolis have 
been more particularly studied and their 
relations to some fossiliferous post-glacial 
water deposits were considered. The paper 
was illustrated by photographs and was 
discussed by Arthur Hollick and J. B. 
Wood worth. 

The Iroquois Beach at Toronto and its Fossils. 

A. P. Coleman, Toronto, Canada. 

The Iroquois beach north of Lake On- 
tario was long ago mapped in outline by 
Spencer, but many details in this shoreline 
remain to be filled in. Near Toronto two 
bays are found, one near Carlton on the 
west, the other near York on the east. 
Each has an area of several square miles 
and is cut off from the main lake by a 
gravel bar like the present Toronto Island. 
Horns of caribou are common in the Carl- 
ton bar, and teeth of the mammoth have 
been found in the bar near York. Fresh- 
water shells of four species — Campeloma 
decisa the most common — are found in beach 
gravels of Iroquois age near Eeservoir 
Park, Toronto. These are the fresh-water 
fossils found without doubt in the Iroquois 
beach deposits. As the main Pleistocene 
beaches from Agassiz to Iroquois contain 
fresh-water shells, they must have been 
formed in lakes and not arms of the sea. 
The numerous marine shell-bearing de- 
posits of the east of Canada cease before 
Lake Ontario is reached. The paper was 
illustrated by diagrams and by fossil shells. 



144 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



It was discussed by G. K. Gilbert, Kobert 
Bell and J. B. Woodworth. 

Thames River Terraces. F. P. Gulliver, 

Southboro', Mass. 

Cuts have recently been made for a new 
line of railway on the east bank of the 
Thames river between New London and 
Norwich. They expose the structure of 
many terraces which were regarded as 
Champlain deposits by the late Professor 
J. D. Dana, and which were referred to the 
post-glacial, flooded rivers. The presence 
of eskers at lower levels has, however, al- 
ways been a fact difficult of explanation on 
this hypothesis. The railway cuts expose 
many delta lobes of fine sand which point 
down stream and toward the sides of the 
old vallejr and rest upon its covering of 
till. In instances their axes point up side 
valleys and away from the central axis of the 
main valley. The fine sand is covered by 
coarse boulders, such as are found in front 
of Alaska glaciers. The speaker explained 
them as due to a retreating glacier which 
filled the center of the main valley and dis- 
charged its waters and sediment laterally 
as well as longitudinally. This raised the 
question of possible side-ponds to the glacier, 
at one or several altitudes and of the cor- 
I'esponding new interpretation of the ter- 
races that would follow as a result of the 
suggestion. 

The Gold-hearing Veins of Bag Bay, Western 
Ontario. Petee McKellar, Fort Wil- 
liam, Ont. 

The object of this paper is to show the 
peculiarities of the gold-bearing veins in the 
granite area at Bag Bay, Shoal Lake, west 
of the Lake of the Woods, Ontario. These 
veins are characterized by the smallness of 
the quartz fissures compared with the quan- 
tity of valuable ore they yield under devel- 
opment. The paper was read by Robert 
Bell in the absence of the author. At its 
conclusion the following were read by title : 



Stratigraphy of the PottsviUe Series in Kentucky. 
Marius E. Campbell, Washington, D. C. 

American Homotaxial Equivalents of the Orig- 
inal Permian. Charles E. Keyes, Des 
Moines, Iowa. 

Geology and Physiograj)hy of the West Indies. 
Robert T. Hill, Washington, D. C. 

Surface Features of Northern Kentucky. Ma- 
rius R. Campbell, Washington, D. C. 

Conditions of Formation of Dykes and Vein 
Fissures. N". S. Shaler, Cambridge, Mass. 

Geology of the Crystalline Rocks of Manhattan 
Island and Vicinity. Frederick J. H. 
Merrill, Albany, N. Y. 

Origin of the Highland Gorge of the Hudson 
River. Frederick J. H. Merrill, Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

The lowan Drift. Samuel Calvin, Iowa 
City, Iowa. 

Loess Deposits of Montana. jST. S. Shaler, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Spacing of Rivers with Reference to the Hypoth- 
esis of Baseleveling. N. S. Shaler, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Glacial Phenomena of the Yukon Valley. J. 
B. Tyrrell, Ottawa, Canada. 

The section then adjourned, after a vote 
of thanks to the authorities of Columbia 
University. 

The meeting proved a very successful 
one, 75 Fellows of the 230 of the Society 
being present. 

The following officers were announced as 
elected for the ensuing year : President, B. 
K. Emerson, of Amherst College; First Vice- 
President, G. M. Dawson, Canadian Geolog- 
ical Survey ; Second Vice-President, C. D. 
Walcott, United States Geological Survey ; 
Secretary, H. L. Fairchild, Rochester Uni- 
versity ; Treasurer, I. C. White, West Vir- 
ginia Geological Survey ; Editor, J. Stanley 
Brown, Washington, D. C. ; Librarian, H. 
P. Gushing, Western Reserve University ; 
Councillors, J. S. Diller, J. M. Safibrd, W. 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



145 



B. Scott, M. E. Wadsworth, W. S. Davis, 
J. A. Holmes. 

The following nominees were elected Fel- 
lows : A. E. Crook, Evanston, 111. ; N. F. 
Drake, Tientsin, China ; A. H. Elftman, 
Grand Marais, Minn. ; M. L. Fuller, Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; A. W. Grabau, Cambridge, 
Mass. ; J. H. Pratt, Chapel Hill, N. C. ; 
F. C. Smith, Deadwood, S. D. ; F. B. Van 
Horn, Cleveland, Ohio ; T. G. White, New 
York; S. W. Williston, Lawrence, Kansas. 
J. F. Kemp. 

Columbia University. 



WINTER MEETING OF THE ANTHROPOLOG- 
ICAL SECTION OF THE A3IERICAN 
ASSOCIATION. 

The third winter meeting of the Anthro- 
pological Section of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science was 
held in ISTew York on December 27th and 
2Sth. The sessions, which were three in 
number, and were immediately followed by 
the meeting of the American Folk-lore So- 
ciety, took place in the buildings of Colum- 
bia University. The attendance was ma- 
terially greater than at Ithaca last winter, 
and in general the meeting was successful 
and enjoyable. The chairman. Professor 
Cattell, presided, and Dr. M. H. Saville was 
Secretary. 

Eleven papers were presented, two read 
in abstract, and several read by title. A 
commendable feature of the program was 
its grouping of related papers. Thus the 
first session was devoted to physical anthro- 
pology, the second to archaeology and the 
third was generally ethnological. It was 
found impracticable to follow this scheme 
rigidly, but it was observed sufficiently to 
give the discussions more distinct tenden- 
cies and greater coherence. 

The first paper read — one of more than 
ordinary value and interest on account of its 
dealing with aims and methods rather than 
material — was by Dr. Franz Boas, and was 



entitled 'Some Recent Criticisms of Physical 
Anthropology.' The first objection consid- 
ered was the assertion that any classifica- 
tion of mankind by physical anthropology 
must be valueless because it has been found 
impossible to identify positively an indi- 
vidual, at least from his skeleton, as belong- 
ing to a group. The answer to this criti- 
cism was found in the fact that the physical 
anthropologist studies not individuals, but 
geographical or social groups. He does not 
concern himself with assigning individuals 
to groups, but with marking the differences 
and relationships of groups as such. That 
is to say, physical anthropology deals with 
types, not persons, and the types can be 
clearly distinguished and classified. Of 
course, the significance of the type or group 
depends largely on its stability, and whether 
there is such stability depends upon the 
question whether heredity or environment 
influences anatomical changes to a greater 
degree, and this question can be finally 
solved only by an exhaustive statistical 
study of several generations. Meanwhile, 
however, heredity would seem to be the 
more potent, as various evidence instanced 
appears to show. Hence it is concluded 
that the types studied by the physical an- 
thropologist are permanent and not fortu- 
itovis or meaningless, and, therefore, allow 
of classification. The rest of the paper was 
devoted to a consideration of objections to 
the metrical method. The values of this 
method, especially in giving information 
obtainable in no other way, were insisted 
upon. But the necessity of all measure- 
ments made having some biological signifi- 
cance was strenuously urged. Especially 
useless, even harmful, were sweeping classi- 
fications by merely one arbitrarily-chosen 
measurement, such as those based upon the 
cephalic index alone. 

Dr. Ales Hrdlicka followed with a paper 
upon the ' Negro Problem.' Dr. Hrdlicka 
analyzed and refuted the common belief 



146 



"iCIENGE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



that, relatively to the white, the negro is 
decreasing. The greater increase among 
whites is due in large part to immigration. 
Without this factor, which has generally 
been overlooked, white increase is smaller 
than negro. This is borne out by the 
higher birth-rate among negroes. The 
present compensation of a higher infant 
mortality will tend to disappear as the 
negro is raised. Consequently we shall 
soon be confronted with the circumstance 
of an ever greater proportion of negro 
population. The author reviewed various 
methods of dealing with the negro problem, 
finally advocating that of dispersion. 

Dr. Thomas Wilson presented a paper 
upon modes of lighting museums, embody- 
ing the results of investigations made by 
him upon the transparency of kinds of 
glass, illustrated by photographs. A paper 
by Mr. Eoland B. Dixon upon ' Color Sym- 
bolism of the Cardinal Points ' concluded 
the morning's session. The paper was de- 
voted largely to a discussion of the various 
bases of association of colors with direc- 
tions, such as light, climate, geographical 
position, religion ; with the conclusion, 
reached also in the ensuing discussion, that 
there is no such principle of association that 
is universal. 

The afternoon session was devoted to 
archffiology, and it is perhaps a significant 
fact that all the j)apers dealt with the ex- 
treme western portion of the continent. 
Dr. M. H. Saville presented a brief paper 
upon the ' Mexican Stone Yoke,' which he 
concluded to be a sj'mbol of death. The 
other papers on the program were : ' Con- 
tents of a Room Excavated in the Euins 
of Pueblo Bonito, showing a Specialized 
Form of Pottery,' by Mr. J. H. Pepper ; 
' Archaeological Investigations on the North 
Pacific Coast of America,' by Mr. H. I. 
Smith ; ' The California Indians,' by Profes- 
sor McGee ; and ' Archisological Problems of 
California,' by Professor Holmes, the last 



mentioned being postponed to the following 
session. Professor McGee's extremely in- 
teresting paper opened a discussion as to 
the causes of the linguistic diversity of 
certain regions, such as California ; and 
Professor Holmes demonstrated very clearly 
the great improbability of the remains in 
California auriferous gravels, including the 
Calaveras skull, dating back, as has been 
claimed, to Middle Tertiary times. Owing to 
the specialized and generally miscellaneous 
character of all these papers, it is impossi- 
ble even to attempt a summary of them. 
But one point which they all made and 
emphasized in common seems to deserve 
mention : the complete, or at least great, re- 
semblance of the archaeological finds to 
articles of culture of the present time in the 
same localities. 

The second day's session, at which Pro- 
fessor McGee presided, was opened by 
Major Powell, with a paper on the' Science 
of Estheology. ' Major Powell's entire paper 
was schematic, as well as exhaustive, and 
this, together with the fact that the system 
he presented is but part of a larger system- 
atization, renders it impossible to do it 
justice by reference to one or two of its 
points. Mr. James Mooney discussed the 
Indian Congress at Omaha. He spoke of 
the growing recognition which this method 
of ethnologic exhibition was gaining, and 
dwelt upon the especial opportunities at ex- 
positions. The Omaha Congress deserved 
high praise for the general arrangement 
of the, exhibits and the ingenuity of many 
of the plans. The unrepresentativeness of 
the tribes collected, however, was a serious, 
and on the whole, avoidable defect. 

Papers by Miss Cornelia Horsford, on 
' Cairus in Southwestern Norway,' which 
reveal great likeness to those found on the 
Massachusetts coast, and by A. S. Gatchet, 
devoted to showing the radical identity, in 
various American languages, of the terms 
for real and true, and male, were read in 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



147 



abstract. The following papers were read 
by title : ' Tiie Structural Peculiarities of 
the Eskimo of Suiith Sound,' by Dr. G. S. 
Huntington ; ' On the Names Glooscap and 
Ilia Tichi Uira Cocha,' by Mr. Stansbury 
Hagar ; and ' Belief in Will-Power Among 
the Pawnees,' by Miss Alice C. Fletcher. 
Dr. Boas represented the anthropologists in 
the discussion before the Society of Nat- 
uralists, and the Section took part in the 
other exercises and entertainments provided 
for the affiliated societies. 

A. L. Keoebee. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Remsed Text-Book of Geology. By James D. 
Dana. Edited by Wm. Noeth Rice. Amer- 
ican Book Company. 

It is now more than sixty years since the late 
Professor Dana produced, in 1837, his first im- 
portant work, a System of Mineralogy. Dur- 
ing subsequent years, down almost to the day 
of his death, in 1895, he was engaged at fre- 
quent intervals in writing or revising the sev- 
eral important text-books of geology and min- 
eralogy that have done so much during the last 
half century to arouse among English-speaking 
students an intelligent interest in those subjects. 
The first edition of 'A Manual of Geology' 
was published in 1862, the more elementary 
work, 'The Text-Book of Geology,' following 
in 1864. So great has been the popularity of 
the briefer work that extensive revisions were 
made by the author in 1874 and 1883, while the 
final revision, begun by him just before his 
death, has been admirably carried to comple- 
tion, in the spirit of his old master, by Professor 
Wm. North Eice, of Wesleyan University. 

Professor Rice started out with the plan of re- 
taining the distinctive characteristics of the 
book, bringing it down to the present time as 
regards its facts, but still expressing Professor 
Dana's well-known opinions. Although the 
general plan of arrangement has been kept un- 
altered in the main, some radical changes have 
been made in the interpretation of geological 
phenomena. Especially is this shown in the 
treatment of the subject of metamorphism, 



where the editor takes a very different view 
from that held by Professor Dana, and one in 
harmony with modern thought, when he states 
that the crystalline schists are ' undoubtedly 
derived in some cases from granites and other 
plutonic rocks, a schistose structure being de- 
veloped bj' pressure and shearing.' 

Another change less radical in its character, 
but aflecting the whole work, is the fuller rec- 
ognition given to evolution as a factor in geo- 
logical history. The editor states that from 
this standpoint he has entirely rewritten the 
closing chapter, in which the general bearing of 
paleontology upon evolution is discussed. 

The zoological and botanical classifications 
are much modernized, although the anglicized 
terminology used by Professor Dana in earlier 
editions is for the most part followed. Professor 
Dana's plan of terminating names of rocks in 
yte in distinction from the names of minerals 
which terminate in ite is abandoned on the 
ground that the innovation in nomenclature 
has not been adopted by other writers. 

In general, however. Professor Rice has 
faithfully reproduced the well-known opinions 
of Professor Dana in his revision, but has in- 
troduced enough in the way of modern views 
to make the book a most acceptable addition to 
our list of elementary text-books of geology. 
It is not an easy task to revise the work of an- 
other, and it often involves much more labor 
than writing the entire book anew. Professor 
Rice is to be congratulated on the success of 
his labor of love in revising ' The Text-Book of 
Geology,' which, from the earlier relations of 
teacher and student, he states was entered upon 
with something like a feeling of filial obligation. 
W. B. Claek. 

Johns Hopkins University. 

The Groimdivorh of Science. A Study of Episte- 
mology. By St. Geoege Mivaet, M.D., 
Ph.D., F. R. S. New York, G. P. Putnam's 
Sons ; London, Bliss, Sands & Co. 1898. 
Pp. xviii + 328. 

This book forms the second volume of ' The 
Science Series,' which is now appearing under 
the editorial supervision of Professor Cattell 
and Mr. F. E. Beddard. "Each volume of 
this series," the prospectus sets forth, "will 



148 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213 



treat some department of science with refer- 
ence to the most recent advances, and will be 
contributed by an author of acknowledged 
authority." The book before us represents 
epistemology, or the science of knowledge, in 
this series. It does not, as one might perhaps 
expect from the title, treat primarily of the 
methods of science, or of the fundamental 
conceptions which science employs, but deals 
with the essential nature of knowledge, or 
' science ' in the broader sense, as developed by 
the human mind, in its relation to a world of 
real objects. , 

The table of contents shows the following 
list of chapters : (I.) Introductory; (II.) An 
Enumeration of the Sciences ; (III.) The Ob- 
jects of Science ; (IV.) The Methods of Science; 
(V.) The Physical Antecedents of Science ; 
(VI.) The Psychical Antecedents of Science ; 
(VII.) Language and Science ; (VIII.) Intel- 
lectual Antecedents of Science ; (IX.) Causes 
of Scientific Knowledge; (X.) The Nature of 
the Groundwork of Science. The author re- 
gards as futile all attempts to furnish either a 
systematic or a historical classification of the 
sciences. He, therefore, contents himself with 
an enumeration of tliem, indicating briefly at 
the same time some of their more general log- 
ical relations. 

It will be of advantage to state at once the 
principal results of the book, and thus to show 
the main theses which the author defends 
against what he regards as certain more or less 
widely prevalent tendencies of the present age. 
These are as follows : (1) The continuous exist- 
ence of the Self or Ego; (2) the existence of a real 
world of extended things in themselves; (3) the 
necessity of assuming as intuitively known cer- 
tain propositions which cannot be proved ; (4\ 
the possibility of absolute scientific certainty 
about some things ; (5) the existence of breaches 
of continuity at certain points in the world-pro- 
cess, as, for example, between the organic and 
the inorganic, between insentient and sentient 
organisms, and especially betvi'een merely sensu- 
ous and emotional states of consciousness and 
the intellectual or rational life ; (6) the inad- 
equacy of a purely mechanical or naturalistic 
theory of evolution, and especially the impos- 
sibility of explaining in this way the various 



forms of life, and the intellectual and moral 
nature of man. 

We may now look a little more closely at one 
or two of these propositions. The long chap- 
ter, 'The Objects of Science ' (pp. 34-88), is 
occupied almost wholly with a refutation of 
idealism. The author feels "that if idealism 
were true, the authority and certainty of other 
self-evident truths would be gravely compro- 
mised, especially if a truth so self-evident as the 
existence of our own body (as we and most men 
understand that body to exist) were but an illu- 
sion and self-deception of the mind"(p. viii). Un- 
fortunately, Mr. Mivart is here fighting a prod- 
uct of his own imagination. He regards ideal- 
ism as the doctrine which denies the existence 
of au external world, and which can be summed 
up in Berkeley's somewhat unfortunate phrase, 
' the esse of things is their percipi.' His own ar- 
guments consist mainly in an oft-repeated decla- 
ration that ' ' we have an intuitive knowledge of 
the external world as extended. "This, of 
course, is as obvious an example of ignoratio 
elenchi as were the appeals of the Scottish philos- 
ophers to ' Common Sense ' in behalf of what 
neither Berkeley nor anyone else has ever 
dreamed of denying. Moreover, the assertion 
in this chapter that there is a world of things in 
themselves, existing apart, and not dependent 
upon any mind, is sufficiently refuted by the 
passage with which the book closes. There we 
are told that "the action of an all-pervading 
but unimaginable intelligence alone affords us 
any satisfactory conception of the universe as a 
whole, or of any single portion of the cosmos 
which may be selected for exclusive study ' ' 
(p. 321). In spite of the author's protestations, 
then, we shall have to regard him as an idealist, 
in exactly the same sense as we regard Aristotle 
and Hegel as idealists. 

Numerous discussions are devoted to the 
question of intuitively certain or self-evident 
truths. The author's position seems to be that 
all inference rests upon the existence of certain 
indemonstrable propositions, which have to be 
accepted as intuitively self-evident (pp. vi, 103 
flf, 240 f , 309). These truths are of an entirely 
different order from the facts known to us by 
perception or by inference. Each is known as 
certain and necessary in itself, and this cer- 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



149 



tainty and necessity are not derived from its 
relation to anything else. Moreover, these 
truths are directly apprehended by our power 
of intellectual intuition (p. 104). It is those 
fundamental certainties which constitute ' the 
groundwork of science,' and the author enu- 
merates the list several times with what appears 
to be slight variations (pp. 106, 241 ff., 310 flf). 
In this list are found : (1) the possibility of ab- 
solute certainty ; (2) the existence of an ex- 
ternal world of real objects ; (3) our own sub- 
stantial and continuous personal existence ; (4) 
the possibility of drawing conclusions from 
premises ; (5) the existence of self-evident 
truths ; (6) the law of contradiction ; (7) self- 
evident axioms ; (8) the principle of causality ; 
(9) the principle of uniformity ; (10) the fact 
that some things are contingent and some 
necessary. 

It is well-known that Aristotle maintained 
that all knowledge presupposes the existence 
of certain self-evident propositions which 
neither require nor are capable of proof. The 
earlier Scottish philosophers, also, adopting the 
same position, made several attempts to furnish 
lists of self-evident truths. But this doctrine 
no more belongs to the philosophical thought 
of to-day than does ' phlogiston ' to modern 
chemistry, or ' vital force ' to biology. In the 
first place, experience has shown that each 
thinker who defends intuitive truths is likely 
to have certain propositions of his own which 
seem to him specially sacred, and which he is 
anxious to place beyond the pale of examina- 
tion and criticism. Secondly, what we believe 
to be a truer conception of the nature of mind, 
has led us to see that all knowledge is organic 
— that all of the facts of our experience are in- 
terrelated and mutually dependent. There 
are no truths, then, which are isolated and 
self-sufficient ; every fact is known to be true 
and necessary only through its connection 
with other facts. The so-called self-evident 
propositions must be proved and justified in 
exactly the same way in which scientific hy- 
pothesis are shown to be true. Thus, for ex- 
ample, when I say that it is self-evident that 
an external world exists, or that nature is uni- 
form, I mean that these propositions are ob- 
viously true because in no other way can I 



account for the facts of my experience. The 
proof in these cases may be easier and more 
convincing than the demonstration of the natu- 
ral-selection hypothesis, but the former are no 
more s«//- evident than the latter. 

If space permitted, I should like to examine 
in some detail the doctrine of new beginnings, 
'breaches of continuity,' at certain points in 
the world process. Here, again, it seems to me 
that the conclusions reached by Mr. Mivart 
are not in accord with the results of modern 
scientific and philosophical thought. The 
modern defender of teleology does not, it seems 
to me, rest his case upon breaches of continuity 
in natural law, or upon new beginnings at this 
point or that. He rather insists that no part 
of the world — not even the inorganic — can be 
completely understood without regarding it as 
the manifestation of an energy in some way 
analogous, at least, to his own intelligence. If 
Mr. Mivart had made use of the idealistic prin- 
ciple which he so clearly expresses at the end 
of his book, and to which I have already re- 
ferred, he would have found a surer defence 
against materialism, and would have avoided 
what must seem to many scientists an attempt 
to introduce final causes into the field of natural 
science. 

In conclusion, I can not refrain from saying 
that it seems to me unfortunate that this book 
should represent Epistemology in a series which 
undertakes to deal 'with the most recent advances 
in the various sciences. The volume doubtless 
contains a good deal that is interesting and sug- 
gestive ; but, at the same time, it is at once evi- 
dent that the writer's special work has been in 
a different field from that of Epistemology. It 
seems to me that it is suflSciently clear, from 
what has been already said, that the author 
has not followed at all the epistemological dis- 
cussions of the last twenty years. I add two or 
three illustrations of very serious confusions 
with regard to the facts and problems of mod- 
ern philosophical systems which are not un- 
common in the book. " The whole philos- 
ophy of Germany and Holland," we are in- 
formed, "from Spinoza to Hartmann, has been 
the result of the mental seed first sown in men's 
minds by Berkeley, who explicitly produced 
what was implicitly contained in I'jocke " (pp. 



150 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213 



40-41). This is truly wouderful in view of the 
fact that Spinoza was dead eight years before 
Berkeley was born ! But even with regard to 
the later philosophers, the statement is thor- 
oughly misleading. Again, the author might 
have learned from any standard history of phi- 
losophy, without even looking inside Fichte's 
works, that the statement that ' Solipsism was 
first developed and upheld by Fichte, though 
he ultimately abandoned it ' (p. 83), is wholly 
unwarranted. Finally, Mr. Mivart in denounc- 
ing the futility of the question : ' How is ex- 
perience possible ?' supposes that Kant and 
others who have formulated the epistemolog- 
ical problem in this form raised an absurd ques- 
tion as to whether knowledge does or does not 
exist, aud apparently does not at all understand 
that they were inquiring what conditions its 
actual existence implies (pp. 56, 275). 

Why should one write on a philosophical 
subject without special knowledge, any more 
than on biology or physics ? 

J. E. Creighton. 

Cornell University. 

The Freezing-point, Boiling-point and Conduc- 
tivity Methods. By Harry C. Jones, In- 
structor in Physical Chemistry in Johns Hop- 
kins University. Easton, Pa., Chemical 
Publishing Co. Pp. 64. Price, 75 cents. 
lu this book, which is intended as a labora- 
tory guide, the author has not only included 
the mechanical processes, but has discussed 
briefly the principles upou which these methods 
are based. The subject is treated under three 
heads. In the first part the historical develop- 
ment and applications of the freezing-point 
method are discussed, as is the boiling-point 
method in a similar manner in the second part. 
In the third part the method used to determine 
the conductivity of solutions and the applica- 
tions of this method are described. An ap- 
paratus for use in the boiling-point method is 
described by the author which is much simpler 
thau the Beckmanu apparatus and very rapid 
and accurate in its results. The methods de- 
scribed in tl;iis book can be carried out in a 
short time and should be tried by every student 
of chemistry who is interested in the methods 
which have done so much to advance our Ideas 
of the nature of solutions. J. E. G. 



Outlines of Industrial Chemistry. A Text- book 
for Students. By Frank Thorp, Ph.D., In- 
structor in Industrial Chemistry in the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. New York, 
The Macmillan Co. 1898. Pp. xx+543. 
This book aims to furnish an elementary 
course in Industrial Chemistry suitable for stu- 
dents in the schools of technology. The sub- 
jects treated are broadly classified under the 
heads, 'Inorganic Industries' and 'Organic In- 
dustries,' about one-half of the book being de- 
voted to each. Metallurgy has been entirely 
omitted. Otherwise the topics selected for dis- 
cussion are essentially the same as in other sim- 
ilar works. The descriptions of processes, 
while necessarily concise, are clear and inter- 
esting. The author has evidently made a care- 
ful study of recent methods of manufacture as 
well as of older, standard processes. The fre- 
quent reference to American practice is an im- 
portant feature which distinguishes the book 
from other works on chemical technology. A 
select bibliography follows each subject, and 
will be found very useful to those wishing to 
study any topic in greater detail. 

W. A. NOY'ES. 

Apergus de taxinomie generate. Par J. P. 

DURAND (de Gros). Paris, Felix Alcan, 

Editeur. 1899. 

The title of this book leaves .one somewhat 
in the dark as to the nature of its contents, but 
a brief perusal shows that its mission is not so 
much to tell us how to classify as how not to 
classify. Not that the author does not believe 
in classification ; on the contrary, he considers 
that everything should be classified and may be 
classified, provided we adopt the proper meth- 
ods. What these methods are we are not told; 
for, after exhorting us to set about fashioning 
the general science of classification without de- 
lay, M. Durand hastens to add that he himself 
proposes to take no hand in so important an 
undertaking, preferring rather to stand by and 
criticise the efforts of others. Towards all 
existing schemes the attitude of the author is 
very much like that of the ship-wrecked Irish- 
man who, as he crawled up the beach of the 
desert island, waved a piece of driftwood about 
his head, exclaiming : " Whatever form of gov- 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



151 



ernmenti'm under I object to it!" This general 
dissatisfaction witli the present order of things 
is evinced even in the title, where we find 
taxiuomy instead of taxonomy, this latter 
word being rejected on the ground that its for- 
mation is vicious, a view that should meet 
with the approval of sticklers for uomencla- 
torial purity. 

Nevertheless, four chapters are devoted to as 
many orders, or categories, of classification, 
namely, those of resemblance, structure, degree, 
{hierarchie) and phylogeny (evolution), all of 
which are treated as if they were new discover- 
ies. These chapters contain numerous familiar 
examples of tJlxonomic methods as well as sun- 
dry ingenious diagrams, all very good in their 
way, but all more or less familiar to everyone 
who has hat do explain the principles of zoolog- 
ical classification. We are, then, given a dis- 
course on ' the ternary correlation of the four 
taxonomic orders,' after which M. Durand pro- 
ceeds to pour the vials of his wrath upon taxon- 
omists and taxonomic systems in general and 
Haeckel and his genealogical tree in particular. 
After this we are told that genealogical classifi- 
cation is the only natural method, those founded 
upon remembrances all being artificial, since 
they are based upon arbitrarily chosen charac- 
ters. It is hardly worth while to pursue the 
subject further, but it may safely be predicted 
that few will share the author's conviction that 
his statements are definite and firmly-established 
facts upon which we may confidently build. 

F. A. L. 

BOOKS EECEIVED. 

ilinerva, JaJirbuch der gelehrten Welt. Edited by K. 
TEtJBNER and F. Mentz. Strassburg, Karl .T. 
Triibner; New York, Lemcke and Buechner. 1899. 
Eighth year, 1898-1899. Pp. xxiv+1139. 

Traiisadioiis of the American Climaiological Association 
for the year 1S98. Philadelphia, Printed for the 
Association. 1898. Pp. sxxiii-|-243. 

The Second Washington Catalogue of Stars, together with 
the anmial results upon which it is based. Prepared 
under the direction of John R. Eastman. Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office. 1898. Pp. 
lxi+287. 

The Last Link, Our Present Knowledge of the Descent of 
Man. Eenst Haeckel. With notes and bio- 
graphical sketches by Hans Gadow. London, 



Adam and Charles Black; New York, The Macmil- 
lan Company. 1898. Pp.158. $1.00. 
The Principles of Agricnlture. L. H. BAILEY. New 
York, The Macmillan Company. 1898. Pp. xx-|- 
300. 

The History of Manldnd . Friedrich Ratzel. Trans- 
lated from the second German edition by A. J. 
Butler. With introduction by E. B. Tylor. Lon- 
don and New York, The Macmillan Company. 
1898. Vol. III. Pp. xiii+599. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 

The Journal of Physical Chemistry, November. 
'Potassium Chlorid in Aqueous Acetone,' by 
J. F. Snell ; a study of what the author calls, 
at Professor E. B . Titchener's suggestion, the 
dineric surface for the system potassium chlorid, 
acetone, and water. ' On the Heat of Solution 
of Liquid Hydriodic Acid,' by F. G. Cottrell ; 
liquid hydi'iodic acid proves to be an eudother- 
mic compound with reference to gaseous hydro- 
gen and solid iodine, but its heat of decompo- 
sition is only a little more than a quarter of 
that of the acid in the form of gas. ' Note on 
the Transference Number of Hydrogen,' by 
Wilder D. Bancroft. 'Alcohol, Water, and 
Potassium Nitrate,' by Norman Dodge and L. 
C. Graton ; a study of the concentration-curve. 

December. ' The Conversion of Ammonium 
Thiocyanate into Thiourea and of Thiourea 
into Thiocyanate,' by John Waddell ; the con- 
version of thiocyanate into thiourea takes place 
very slowly, if atall, below 110°, but above 150° 
is rapid and equilibrium is reached, whether 
starting from the thiocyanate or from thiourea, 
when the product contains a little more than 
20 per cent, of thiourea. ' Solution Densities,' 
by H. T. Barnes and A. P. Scott ; a study of 
the density curves for different concentrations 
of solutions of zinc, magnesium, cadmium, po- 
tassium and sodium sulfates, magnesium, zinc, 
potassium and sodium nitrates, potassium and 
sodium chlorids, hydrochloric and sulfuric 
acids. ' Electromotive Force between Amal- 
gams,' by Hamilton P. Cady. 

American Chemical Journal, January. ' Meta- 
thetic Relations between certain Salts in Solu- 
tion in Liquid Ammonia : ' By E. C. Franklin 
and C. A. Kraus. ' Some Properties of Liquid 
Ammonia :' By E. C. Fi'anklin and C. A. Kraus. 



152 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



The great similarity of liquid ammonia and 
water in their dissociating power has led to a 
thorough study of the properties of liquid am- 
monia. It was found that in a considerable 
number of cases the nitrates of the metals were 
acted upon, when in solution in liquid am- 
monia, by the ammonium salts and a salt pre- 
cipitated as a result of the metathetic reactions, 
if the salt formed was insoluble in ammonia. 
It was also found that many of the physical 
constants, which in the case of water are so en- 
tirely different from those of all other liquids, 
are almost as strongly characterized in the 
case of ammonia as in that of water. ' On 
the Constitution of the Phenylhydragoues : ' 
By P. C. Freer. ' Note on the Action of 
Liquid Hydriodic Acidon Ethylether : ' By 
F. G. Cottrell and E. R. Eogers. In this case 
there was a partial conversion of the ether 
into ethyliodide. ' Contributions to our Knowl- 
edge of the Oil of Lemon- Grass : ' By W. Stiehl. 
Isolation of the three aldehydes : Citriodoric 
aldehyde, Geranial and Allo-lemonal. The 
American Chemical Journal will hereafter ap- 
pear monthly, and two volumes will be issued 
yearly. J. Elliott Gilpin. 

We have received the first issue of Science 
Work, a Monthly Review of Scientific Literature, 
edited by Mr. Waller Jeffs and published at 
Manchester by Messrs. Robert Aiken & Com- 
pany. It is stated in the introduction that the 
Journal ' will aim to give a general review of the 
world of science and present the reader as it were 
with the cream of the scientific press,' but we 
fear that it will be diflicult to do this withiu the 
limits of eight pages published twelve times 
a year. 

Natural Science, now published by Mr. Henry 
J. Pentland at Edinburgh, and still edited anon- 
ymously, but under new auspices, opens with 
the issue for January its fourteenth volume. 
The general character of the contents, which 
has always made Natural Science interesting 
and profitable, is well maintained. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

At the regular meeting of this Society held in 
Washington, D. C, January 11, 1899, Mr. Wil- 
lard D. Johnson, U. S. G. S., read a paper on 



' Subsidence Basis of the High Plains,' and Dr.C. 
Willard Hayes, U. S. G. S., one on the 'Lake Re- 
gion in Central America.' Dr. Hayes' paper was 
based upon observations made recently in Cen- 
tral America while working under detail as 
geologist to the Nicaraguan Canal Commission. 
Abstracts of both papers follow. 

Subsidence Basins of the Eigh Plains. — The 
Great Plains structural slope has been super- 
ficially modified by streams from the Rocky 
Mountains, in three stages of gradation — a first 
stage, in which a hard-rock topography was de- 
veloped by degradation ; a second, in which 
this topography, by aggradation, became buried 
under an alluvial waste sheet to depths within 
its valleys as great as 300 feet ; the third and 
present stage, in which the mountain streams 
are again engaged in cutting and have trenched 
the aggradation plain with parallel valleys, 
wide apart. But left thus above grade, this 
flat surface, in the greater part, has been eroded 
also by the drainage from its local precipita- 
tion. In notable excejjtion is a transverse, mid- 
slope belt. Here the flat surface suffers no 
erosion from its local precipitation and has vir- 
tually no local drainage. It therefore stands 
in light relief Transected by the mountain 
streams into broad plateaus of faint elevation, it 
forms a belt of residual tables or upland flats of 
survival. The Staked Plains plateau, of north- 
western Texas, constitutes the best individual 
example. These are the High Plains — to some 
extent locally so-called. The Great Plains slope 
has a graduated climate — from humid to arid, 
east to west. The High Plains correspond in 
position to its ' subhumid ' belt. 

In the arid belt to the westward the vegeta- 
tion — of grass and brush — grows in tufts. It 
affords but slight protection against the feeble 
precipitation, and the surface is conspicuously 
eroded. Upon the High Plains, within the sub- 
humid belt, however, vegetation is wholly of 
grass, which forms a universal, close-knit sod. 
This vegetal cover affords complete protection 
against the considerable local precipitation. 
The High Plains are distinctively the ' short- 
grass country.' As a residual topographic belt, 
within the climatic belt, they are held by their 
sod. The local precipitation — so much of it as 
does not evaporate — is absorbed. 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



153 



These uneroded tables, however, have a faint 
topography due to subsidence. The flat surface 
is extensively pitted with saucer-form depres- 
sions. Their dimensions vary from a foot or 
two in depth and a breadth of 100 feet to 75 
feet in depth and a breadth of two or three 
miles. Wind action is plainly to be excluded. 
Occasionally they are surrounded, upon the 
hard, sod flats, by concentric cracks, deep 
enough to cause injury to cattle and to entrap 
calves. 

These forms, large and small, without differ- 
ences in type, are attributed to the operation of 
two distinct and unrelated processes : (1) set- 
tlement and compacting within the deep and 
unconsolidated mass of silt sand and gravel, 
through instrumentality of the ground-water ; 
and (2) solution of salt and gypsum, and conse- 
quent caving, within the rocks of the floor, 
where those rocks are the Red Beds. 

The concurrence of two unusual causes, to 
produce, alike, within a limited area, a result 
so unusual, appears, however, to be intelligible 
on this assumption, viz.: These processes are, 
in fact, of universal operation ; they are at the 
same time of too light effect to stand a chance 
in competition with erosive agency ; but the 
sod-covered, subhumid plains, remarkable in 
that they retain a flat surface unscored by 
erosion, aiford exceptional opportunity for the 
preservation of their delicate record. 

The Lake Region in Central America. — The 
region described includes southern Nicaragua 
and northern Costa Rica, extending from 10 
degrees and 30 minutes to 12 degrees and 30 
minutes north latitude, and from the Carribean 
to the Pacific. It includes the route of the pro- 
jected Nicaragua Canal and the largest lakes of 
the western hemisphere south of the glaciated 
region of North America. The region is char- 
acterized by two types of topography, viz. : (1) 
the recent volcanic ranges and plateaus in which 
the original constructional forms are more or 
less perfectly preserved ; and (2) the areas of 
Tertiary, igneous and sedimentary rocks in 
which the drainage is mature and the forms are 
due to long continued subaerial erosion. A note- 
worthy feature is the absence of any continuous 
mountain range or chain of dominant peaks 
through this portion of the isthmus. A shallow 



depression occupies the western portion of the 
region, its longer axis being nearly parallel with 
the Pacific coast. This contains Lakes Nica- 
ragua and Managua. The former is 110 miles 
in length, with an area of 3,000 square miles 
and a mean altitude of 106 feet. Its greatest 
depth is 200 feet. 

The climate of the region is tropical and in- 
sular, the annual range of temperature being 
small. The rainfall is greatest on the east coast, 
nearly 300 inches at Greytown, and decreases 
somewhat uniformly westward, being less than 
80 inches on the west coast. Connected with 
the decrease in the rainfall there is a striking 
change in the character of the vegetation, the 
dense tropical jungle of the east coast giving 
place to open forests and savannahs in the west. 

No rocks older than the Tertiary are formed 
along the line of the canal. They consist of 
eruptive and sedimentary formations, the former 
including basalt, andesite and dacite, and the 
latter calcarious sandstones and shales. In ad- 
dition to these Tertiary rocks there are exten- 
sive recent alluvial deposits and the tuffs and 
lavas of the modern volcanoes. The conditions 
throughout the region, 'hnt particularly in its 
eastern portion, are favorable for rock decay, 
and the regolith is unusually extensive. 

The late geologic history of the region is 
briefly as follows : In early Tertiary time this 
portion of the isthmus may have been wholly 
submerged. At any rate, marine sediments 
were deposited throughout a considerable part 
of its extent, and this was accompanied by 
intense volcanic activity. In middle Tertiary 
time there was an uplift and long continued 
erosion, the constructional volcanic topography 
being obliterated, and the region, at least 
toward the south, being reduced to one of low 
relief. The present basin of Lake Nicaragua 
was then occupied in part by a gulf connected 
with the Pacific to the northwest and in part by 
the valleys of tributary streams. The conti- 
nental divide then occupied the hilly or moun- 
tainous region east of the lake, crossing the 
present San Juan valley near Castillo. In late 
Tertiary or post-Tertiary time the isthmus was 
elevated at least 300 feet and deeply dissected. 
Following the elevation was a renewal of vol- 
canic activity. A series of vents opened on the 



154 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213 



Pacific side and their ejecta built a dam across 
the outlet of the gulf, thereby forming the lake 
basin. As this dam increased in height the 
waters behind it were raised until they over- 
topped the continental divide and escaped to 
the Atlantic, forming the present San Juan. 
The region has suffered a recent depression by 
which thQ rivers were drowned, and their estu- 
aries thus formed have since been silted up. 
Wm. F. Morsell. 



DISCUSSION AND COBBESPONDENCE. 
MATTEE, ENERGY, FORCE AND WORK. 

To THE Editor of Science : In the generous 
and appreciative review by Professor Menden- 
hall (in Science, p. 24, January 6) of my book 
on ' Matter, Energy, Force and Work ' there 
occurs a line to which I would like to advert 
briefly. "'The something' which distin- 
guishes substance from matter is energy. ' A 
designated quantity of substance consists of a 
definite quantity of matter in permanent as- 
sociation with a definite quantity of energy or 
motion.' The two words 'or motion' render 
this statement somewhat obscure. What is 
meant by a ' definite quantity of motion? ' Pro- 
fessor Holman's definition of motion is that of 
nearly all writers, namely, ' change of relative 
position.' It is a curious but common practice 
to define it in this way and then to define its 
' quantity ' by associating with it something 
(matter, mass) absolutely unlike it in every re- 
spect. It is certainly not in this sense that he 
means to use it in the phrase above quoted." 

I desire to express my assent to this comment 
and to reply to the query therein contained, or 
rather to remove, if I may, the obscurity. 
This result will, I think, be effected if for the 
words ' of motion ' in the description of sub- 
stance be substituted the phrase : or permanently 
endued with some definite mode of motion. 

May I also add, to preclude possible misap- 
prehension, that the proposition ' Continuous, 
uniform, and permanent occupancy of space,' 
quoted at page 25, is one which I do not ad- 
vance as a definition of matter, or as a logical 
deduction from known premises, but only as a 
possible view of matter if the improved hy- 
pothesis of the kinetic nature of all energy be 
adopted as a step in the inference. 



With sincere thanks for your courtesy in pre- 
senting this review, I am 

Yours truly, 
Silas W. Holman. 
Brookline, Mass., January 17, 1899. 

zoological bibliography. 

To THE Editor of Science : Dr. Ball's ' tol- 
erably active and rather long experience' has 
been singularly blessed if he has never met with 
an advance copy of a paper issued at an uncer- 
tain date, not offered for sale, and conflicting 
in its contents with some other paper offered 
for sale at a known date about the same period; 
if he or the libraries he frequents have always 
been able to purchase without a delay of more 
than one year the new books or pamphlets that 
he wanted to see ; if he has always had so much 
as a printed postcard in reply from authors 
whose works he has sought in exchange for his 
own ; and if he has always been able to find 
the address of every writer with whom he 
wished to communicate. A restricted and short 
experience has acquainted me ftir too thoroughly 
with all these difliculties, but, as this is not an 
autobiography, the details need not be inflicted 
on your readers. Dr. Dall shall have them if 
he wishes. 

Apart from his scepticism. Dr. Dall appears to 
agree, at least in spirit, with the proposal that 
he has now twice criticised. But two remarks 
of his seem to call for reply. 

My committee has not yet definitely pro- 
nounced on the question : What constitutes 
publication ? But it is safe to say that it does 
not regard printing as publication, and therefore 
sees no great value in placing ' the actual date 
of printing' on every signature. This, too, may 
be said : That a British Association Committtee 
would never recommend an author to sell his 
papers without an express agreement with the 
society that has been at the expense of setting 
up the type, and perhaps of drawing the plates. 
In our country this may be done, but it is not 
regarded as particularly creditable to the au- 
thor that does it. Customs are, no doubt, dif- 
ferent elsewhere ; but our proposal was an 
attempt to render the speediest possible 
publication compatible with commercial mo- 
rality as recognized here. Perhaps it is this 



Januaey 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



155 



difference in the point of view that has made 
our report (as i-epriuted, not 'abstracted,' in 
Science), so unintelligible to Dr. Dall. Another 
argument for due recognition of the publishing 
society may be found in such facts as this : A 
scientific library recently purchased three sep- 
arate papers, which had been advertised as in- 
dependent publications and enquired for by 
readers ; all these have since arrived in the 
regular manner in the report of a society, and 
the library has as good as thrown away seven 
shillings through no fault of the librarian. The 
constant recurrence of this kind of thing ren- 
ders the authorities very chary of purchasing 
separately-issued pamphlets, and the workers, 
few of whom can afford to buy for themselves, 
have to suffer. Surely any proposal to remedy 
this should meet with support. 

F. A. Bather. 
Beitish Museum (Nat. Hisi. ), 
January 10, 1899. 



NOTES ON INORGANIC CBEMISTRY. 
A PAPER was read by Dr. Morris W. Travers 
before the Royal Society, November 24th, on 
the origin of the gases evolved in heating 
mineral substances, meteorites, etc. According 
to the theory of Professor Tilden these gases 
are enclosed in minute cavities at high pres- 
sure. It is known that some minerals, as 
quartz, contain liquid hydro-carbons and 
carbon dioxid, enclosed in cavities, but from a 
series of exhaustive experiments Dr. Travers 
concludes that this cannot be the case with the 
more permanent gases, such as hydrogen, 
carbon monoxid, nitrogen, helium and argon. 
He proposes the theory that in the majority 
of cases where a mineral substance evolves gas 
under the influence of heat the gas is the 
product of the decomposition or interaction of 
its non-gaseous constituents at the moment of 
the experiment. In oleveite and other min- 
erals which contain helium only about one- 
half this gas is evolved by heat, and hence it 
would seem that it exists in the form of a com- 
pound which is only partially decomposable by 
heat. 

In a series of analyses of atmospheric air from 
different sources Armand Gautier, in the Coinp- 
tes Bendus, finds that combustible gases con- 



taining carbon are present to a variable degree ; 
on high mountains and over the ocean only 
traces are found, but a decided quantity in the 
air of cities. More remarkable, and contrary 
to previous observers, Gautier finds hydrogen 
as a constant constituent. The amount he 
gives is 1.5 volumes in 10,000, or half as great 
as that of carbon dioxid. Fuller particulars 
are promised in a later article, which will be 
looked forward to with no little interest. 

The confusion which attends the use of the 
sign </o for both jier cent, of weight and per cent, 
of volume is patent to all chemists as well as 
others. At the Congress of Applied Chemistry 
at Vienna it was proposed by Otto Bleier to 
confine the use of the sign fc to per cent, by 
weight and to use % for volume per cent. 
This was opposed in the discussion by Wein- 
stein. In a recent Chemiker-Zeitung Bleier 
makes a number of proposals, some one of 
which he hopes will so commend itself to chem- 
ists that uniformity may be secured. The pro- 
posals, in addition to his original one, are as 
follows : a. O/,, or % (or -[g or -/p) for weight 
per cent., and "/„ (or "/.) for volume per cent.; 
b. SJQ or PJQ (or »/. or p/o) for weight percent., 
and "/o (or ^7.) for volume per cent. ; c. s jg or 
Pjp for weight per cent., and ^|u for volume per 
cent. ; d. fo for weight per cent., and •/■ for 
volume per cent., or vice versa; e. o/t, orO/p 
for weight per cent., and fe for volume per 
cent. Since the sign fii is used so much more 
frequently to indicate per cent, by weight, it 
would seem that Bleier's original proposal, 
which is to confine the use of J^c to weight and 
to adopt ^Iv for volume, would be most simple 
and would speedily reduce the present con- 
fusion to a minimum. 

The bacteriological test for the presence of 
arsenic proposed by Gosio has been further in- 
vestigated by F. Abba and the results published 
in the November number of the Centralblatt fur 
Bahteriologie unci Farasitenkunde. The method 
consists in growing Penicillium hrevicaule close 
to the substance to be examined for arsenic, 
arsenic is present a strong garlic odor is devel- 
oped. The method was found to be successful 
in testing a series of over a hundred dried 
hides. As regards its delicacy it was found far 
superior to Marsh's test, as was shown in one 



156 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



case when a piece of hide one centimeter square 
gave a distinct test by the bacteriological test, 
while five times the quantity failed to respond 
to Marsh's test. It would be interesting to com- 
pare this test with that of Reinsch, which has 
been found by me decidedly sharper and more 
to be depended on than that of Marsh. 

J. L. H. 

ZOOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Dr. Caklos Berg notes several occurrences of 
the Antarctic seal, Lobodon carcinophaga, well to 
the northward of its visual habitat, one example 
having been taken in the La Plata, near Puerto 
de Ensenada, and another to the northward of 
Buenos Ayres in lat. 34° 28' S. This latter was 
a male captured in June, 1898, and must, from 
its size, 2.65 meters long, have been an adult 
animal. 

The Zoological Record, Vol. 34, containing a 
list of the zoological papers which appeared in 
1897, has just been issued. Amid the rumors 
of the many good things that the working zool- 
ogist is soon to enjoy, it is a great satisfaction 
to continue to receive this valuable publication 
of the Zoological Society of London. Surely, 
' A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.' 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTSROPOLOGY. 

ANOTHER MEXICAN CODEX. 

From a personal letter I learn that Dr. Nico- 
las Leon, well known for his many contribu- 
tions to Mexican archajology and history, has 
discovered a hitherto unknown Mexican Codex 
in hieroglyphic characters, of which he will soon 
publish a photo-lithographic reproduction. It 
dates from the year 1545, and relates to the 
tributes paid by the town of Tepeai. The proper 
names of places are written in the usual rebus, 
or ' ikonomatic ' method. They present com- 
binations not found in any of the other known 
documents of the kind, and some of them are 
quite puzzling. This discovery will make a 
welcome addition to the comparatively few 
specimens of the Mexican graphic method at 
that date. 

THE PROGRESSIVE WOMAN. 

A LITTLE book, ' Le Feminisme,' published 
lately in Paris (Colin et Cie, 1898), has some in- 



terest to the student of sociology. Its author, 
Mile. Kaethe Schirmacher, gives an accurate 
sketch of the advance of womankind in social 
position throughout the world of civilization, 
beginning with the United States and passing to 
France, Great Britain, Sweden and Russia. Of 
our own country she says in her preface that 
she speaks from personal knowledge. We are 
gratified, therefore, to know that the character- 
istics of American women are courage (hardi- 
esse), the spirit of initiative and capacity for or- 
ganization. In France ' feminism ' has been 
principally cultivated by the men, not the 
women ; in Sweden very few women are inter- 
ested in it, though the King favors it ; in Eng- 
land it is opposed by the learned institutions, 
while in Russia they all favor it. On the 
whole, the outlook for full and equal rights and 
opportunities for her sex the author considers 
cheering. 

THE SEAT OF THE SOUL. 

Understanding by ' soul ' the highest intel- 
lectual faculties, it is worth considerable trouble 
to find out where these functions are located. 
Savages believe that it is in the liver or the 
heart ; cynics suggest that it is in the stomach ; 
phrenologists place them in the front part of 
the brain ; but the most advanced physiologists 
are now inclined to teach that the posterior 
cerebral lobes have the highest intellectual 
value. Dr. C. Clapham's arguments to this ef- 
fect are quoted with approval in the Central- 
Matt fur Anthropologie (1898, Heft 4). These 
arguments are that man has the most highly 
developed posterior lobes, and this is conspicu- 
ous in men of marked ability and in the highest 
races. In idiots the lobes are imperfectly de- 
veloped, and in chronic dementia these portions 
of the brain reveal frequent lesions. Numerous 
authorities are quoted in support of these and 
allied statements. 

D. G. Brinton. 

University of Pennsylania. 



COLLECTIONS OF TEE PROVINCIAL 3IITSEUM 
OF VICTORIA, BRITISH COLUMBA. 
A Preliminary Catalogue of the Collections 
of Natural History and Ethnology in the Pro- 
vincial Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, 196 



January 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



157 



pages, 1898, is now being issued. As it deals 
only witli the Britisli Columbian specimens of 
the exhibition series, the value of the entire col- 
lection is much greater than is suggested by the 
Catalogue. 

The list of mammals includes information as 
to the source of each specimen and the distribu- 
tion of the species. The catalogue and index of 
birds, including 339 species and sub-species, is 
of all those in British Columbia, while the spe- 
cies not represented in the Museum collection 
are specially indicated by a check mark. It is 
this mark which will enable the friends of the 
institution to devote their energies to securing 
the desired lacking specimens. Very little is 
known of the birds of the northeastern part of 
the province. It thus presents an attractive 
field for research. There are seven cases of 
bird groups. The catalogue of the study series 
of 740 bird skins is not published, but it is avail- 
able to students. The eggs are listed. 

Eeptilia, Batrachia, Tunicata, Lepidoptera, 
Beterocera, Coleoptera, Crustacea, Echinoder- 
mata, Mollusca are all catalogued. The lists of 
fish, trees and plants, algte and the paleonto- 
logical specimens are extensive. 

The ethnological collection is classified in the 
list under ceremony, dress, amusement, crani- 
ology, houses, monuments, fishing, war, travel, 
domestic utensils and industries. In the intro- 
duction to the list of ethnological specimens the 
visitor is cautioned against assuming that the 
Indians of British Columbia resemble the 
Japanese or were influenced by foreigners prior 
to European contact. Their difference from the 
Indians of the Plains is mentioned. 

It is gratifying to have accessible so complete 
a list of the natural history and ethnological 
specimens of the whole province of British 
Columbia and to know where most of the speci- 
mens listed are available. 

Haelan I. Smith. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 
President McKinley has appointed as civil- 
ian members of a commission to report on the 
condition of the Philippine Islands : President 
Schurman, of Cornell University ; Professor 
Dean C. Worcester, associate professor of zool- 
ogy in the University of Michigan, and Colonel 



Denby, for many years United States Minister 
to China. President Schurman, who is chairman 
of the commission, has been granted leave of 
absence until the end of the present year, and 
Professor T. F. Crane will during the year per- 
form the duties of President. 

The sculptor Herr Ernst Herter has com- 
pleted the statue of von Helmholtz, which is 
to be erected in the court of the University of 
Berlin, between the statues of the two Hum- 
boldts. The monument will be unveiled in the 
spring. 

Senator Platt, of Connecticut, has been 
appointed a Regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion in the room of the late Senator Morrill, of 
Vermont. 

Father Roderigues de Prada has been 
made Director of the Observatory of the Vati- 
can. 

M. Panas has been installed as President of 
the Paris Academy of Medicine, while M. 
Marey, the physiologist, becomes Vice-Presi- 
dent. 

The following oflScers have been nominated 
by the French government for its ' Bureau des 
longitudes :' President, M. Poincare; Vice-Presi- 
dent, M. Faye ; Secretary, M. Lippmann. 

Professor A. A. Miohelson, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, will give, during March, at Bos- 
ton, a course of Lowell lectures on ' Light 
Waves and their Uses.' 

Nature states that the recent retirement of 
Sir John Evans from the Treasurership of the 
Royal Society, after a period of service of 
twenty years, has given an opportunity for 
Fellows of the Society to show their apprecia- 
tion of the efficient manner in which he dis- 
charged the duties of his office. It is proposed 
to have his portrait painted in oil colors, and 
to hang it on the walls of the Society's apart- 
ments at Burlington House. 

The honors annually conferred on New Year's 
Day in Great Britain include a K.C.B. on Pro- 
fessor W. C. Roberts- Austin, professor of metal- 
lurgy in the Royal College of Science, and a 
K.C.M.G. on Mr. W. T. Thistleton-Dyer, Di- 
rector of the Kew Botanic Gardens. Sir Henry 
Thompson, a surgeon, who has also painted 



158 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



pictures and written novels, has been given a 
baronetcy, and Dr. Herman Weber, known for 
hisworli on the prevention of consumption, has 
been knighted. Sir Charles Cameron, Medical 
Officer of Health of Dublin, has been made C.B. 

Professor Henry Alleyne Nicholson, 
regius professor of natural history at the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, died on January 19th, aged 
fifty-four years. He was in 1871 called to the 
chair of natural history in the University of 
Toronto, and afterwards to Aberdeen. He was 
the author of important contributions to paleon- 
tology. 

Major Jed. Hotchkiss, who in 189-5 was 
Vice-President forGeology of the American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, and 
who was the author of contributions to eco- 
nomic geology and engineering, died on January 
18th, aged 71 years. 

Dr. Wilhelm Dames, professor of geology 
and paleontology in the University of Berlin, 
died on December 22d, aged 55 years. 

Sir James Mouat, K. C. B., a distinguished 
army surgeon, formerly Inspector-General of 
Hospitals in Great Britain, died in Loudon on 
January 4th, aged 84 years. 

The death is announced of Dr. Eugen P. A. 
Obach, at the age of 46 years. He had made 
important contributions to electrical engineer- 
ing and had made a thorough study of the 
chemistry of gutta percha. 

Dr. Giuseppe Bosso, of the Turin University, 
died on January 17th, from infection contracted 
while cultivating bacilli in his laboratory. 

Drs. Ehlert and Monnich have lost their 
lives by an Alpine accident on the Susten Pass. 
Dr. Ehlert had made valuable contributions to 
seismology, working at the University of Stras- 
burg. Dr. Monnich was Assistant to the Ba- 
varian Meteorological Central Station. 

The directors of the Benjamin Apthorp Gould 
fund, which, it will be remembered. Miss Alice 
Bache Gould gave somewhat more than a year 
ago to the National Academy of Sciences, an- 
nounce that they are now prepared to receive 
applications for appropriations from the income 
of the fund, which will amount to about $1,000 



annually. Preference will be given to investi- 
gators working in America or to Americans 
working abroad, and to work in the astronomy 
of precision rather than in astrophysics. The 
directors of the fund, to one of whom applica- 
tions should be addressed, are Messrs. Lewis 
Boss, Seth C. Chandler and Asaph Hall. 

The Cartwright prize of the Alumni of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Med- 
ical Department of Columbia University, will 
be awarded for an essay received not later than 
April 1st, of the present year. The essay must 
contain original investigations made by the 
writer. The value of the prize is $500 and is 
open to universal competition. 

The Swiss Society of Chemical Industry of- 
fers a prize of 2,000 fr. for an essay that will 
promote electro-chemical interests in Switzer- 
land. Essays must be sent by May 1, 1900, 
to the President of the Society, Mitlodi, Swit- 
zerland. 

The Washington Botanical Club was organ- 
ized by a gathering of botanists held at the 
residence of one of its members November 11, 
1898. The limit of membership was fixed at 
20, and it was determined that the meetings 
should be, for the present at least, of a dis- 
tinctly social and informal nature, with free 
scope for discussion and the general interchange 
of ideas. At a subsequent meeting, held De- 
cember 14th, the organization was perfected by 
the election of Professor Edward L. Greene as 
President and Mr. Charles L. Pollard as Secre- 
tary. The Club is to hold monthly sessions, 
devoting itself chiefly to systematic and eco- 
logical work, the field of plant physiology and 
pathology being covered by the already existing 
Botanical Seminar. 

At the annual meeting of the American 
Geographical Society, on January 16th, Judge 
Charles P. Daly, whose services to the Society 
have been so important, was re-elected President. 
The other officers elected are : Vice-President, 
the Rev. C. C. Tiffany ; Treasurer, Walter T. 
Jones ; Secretary, Chandler Roberts ; Council- 
ors, Rear-Admiral Bancroft Gherardi, William 
Hamilton, Henry Holt, Clarence King and 
Charles A. Peabody. 

At the annual meeting of the Philadelphia 



Jai^^uaky 27, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



159 



Academy of Natural Sciences the following 
officers, Councillors and members of the Finance 
Committee, to serve during 1899, were elected : 

President, Samuel G. Dixon, M.D. ; Vice Presidents, 
Thomas Meehan, Eev. Henry C. McCook, D.D.; Ee- 
cording Secretary, Edward J. Nolan, M.D. ; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Benjamin Sharp, M.D. ; Treas- 
urer, George Vaux, Jr.; Librarian, Edward J. Nolan, 
M.D. ; Curators, Henry A. Pilsbry, Henry C. Chap- 
man, M.D., Arthur Erwin Brown, Samuel G. Dixon, 
M.D. ; Councillors to serve three years, Charles E. 
Smith, Uselma C. Smith, John Cadwalder, William 
Sellers ; Finance Committee, Charles Morris, Chas. 
E. Smith, Uselma C. Smith, William Sellers, Charles 
Roberts ; Councillor for unexpired term of two years, 
Charles Schaffer, M.D. 

The following standing committees were ap- 
pointed for the year : 

Publications : Thomas Jleehan, Charles E. Smith, 
Henry A. Pilsbry, Henry Skinner, M. D., Edward J. 
Nolan, M. D. 

Library : Arthur Erwin Brown, Thomas A. Robin- 
son, Henry C. Chapman, JL D., Dr. C. Newlin Peirce 
and Charles Schaffer, M. D. 

Instruction and Lectures : Uselma C. Smith, Eenj. 
Smith Lymann, Samuel G. Dixon, M. D., Philip P. 
Calvert and Charles Morris. 

Committee of Council on By-Laws : Isaac J. Wis- 
tar, Theodore D. Rand, Arthur Erwin Brown and 
Benjamin Sharp, M. D. 

The Ninth International Congress of Oph- 
thalmology will be held at Utrecht from August 
14 to 18, 1899. The scientific work of the 
Congress will be divided among three sections, 
as follows : (1) Anatomy, Pathological Anatomy 
and Bacteriology ; (2) Optics and Physiology ; 
(3) Clinical and Operative Methods. 

The annual meeting of the Board of Man- 
agers of the New York Zoological Society was 
held on January 17th, with the Hon. Levi P. 
Morton, the President of the Society, in the 
chair. The Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee, Professor Henry F. Osborn, reported 
the important progress in the construction of 
buildings and other installations, to which we 
recently called attention. It was announced 
at the meeting that Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt 
had contributed $5,000 toward the building fund. 

The Finance Committee of the Philadelphia 
City Council has reported favorably upon a 
proposed loan of $200,000 by the city for 



the buildings and equipments of the Phila- 
delphia Museums. The bill will probably 
be passed by the Council, and this insures the 
raising of the $300,000 required under the Act 
of Congress appropriating $300,000 towards the 
aid of the exposition of manufactured products 
of the United States to be held in Philadelphia 
next autumn. $50,000 has been appropriated 
by the State Legislature and $50,000 has been 
collected by private subscription. The United 
States government has also appropriated a 
further sum of $50,000 for the purchase of sam- 
ples of foreign goods to show the kind of goods 
that should be exported. Dr. W. P. Wilson, 
Director of the Museums, will be Director-Gen- 
eral of the Exposition. 

A chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory 
has been opened in Rajkote, in western India. 
30,000 rupees have been given for the con- 
struction of the building by Azam Laxmon 
Meran. The equipment is paid for by the state. 
Mr. H. L. Lee has been appointed director of 
the laboratory. 

M. Emilb Dubois has introduced into the 
French Chamber of Deputies a bill providing 
for the creation in each department of France 
of one or more bacteriological laboratories, with 
a view to the repression and prevention of con- 
tagious diseases, particularly tuberculosis. 

E. C. Simmons, ex-Mayor of Kenosha, Wis. , 
has offered to build and present to that city a 
library building and to purchase 25,000 vol- 
umes for it. The estimated cost of the gift is 
$100,000. 

The Amesbury (Mass.) public library will 
receive $10,000 by the will of the late Mary 
A. Barnard. 

The corner stone of the School of Practical 
Horticulture was laid at Hyeres on January 
8th, in the presence of M. Viger, the French 
Minister of Agriculture. 

The Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, has 
secured, through the generosity of Mr. Stanley 
E. McCormick, a valuable collection of articles 
from the Moqui tribes of the Pueblo Indians. 
It was made by a missionary and represents the 
arts of the tribes from their earliest association 
with the pioneers up to the present time. 

A telegram from Sydney has been received 



160 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 213. 



at the Royal Society stating that the boring into 
the coral atoll of Funafuti had been discon- 
tinued on reaching adepth of 1,114 feet. Cores 
had been obtained, and the material traversed 
is desciibed as 'coral reef rock. 

The English papers state that arrangements 
are being made, under the direction of Signer 
Marconi, at the South Foreland lighthouse and 
on board the South Goodwin lightship for a 
series of experiments in wireless telegraphy. 
If the experiments are considered satisfactory, 
it is stated that the wireless system will be 
adopted forthwith as a means of communica- 
tion between the South Foreland lighthouse and 
the South Sands Head lightship. The points 
of communication are about three miles apart. 

The British Medical Journal reports that M. 
Cruppi recently laid before the French Cham- 
ber of Deputies a bill for reforming medical ex- 
pert evidence. M. Cruppi proposes that a list 
of medical experts should be drawn up every 
year. None hut men of undoubted scientific 
ability should be on the list ; the accused person 
should have the right to name his or her own 
expert, who should work in cooperation with 
the expert named by the Judge. In cases where 
the two experts do not agree the matter should 
be decided by a committee composed of emi- 
ment scientific men. The Commission of Judi- 
cial Reform is considering the question. 

Men of science will not be surprised to learn 
that an examination of the late John W. 
Keeley's exhibition room has brought to light 
tubes and other arrangements by which com- 
pressed air could have been used to run his 
motor. Wheels went round without doing any 
work and could have been readily turned by 
compressed air or in other ways, in the exhibi- 
tion made some years ago to the present writer. 
It was at the time indicated that he would be 
given $5,000 if he would state over his signa- 
ture that the operations could not be accounted 
for by known natural forces. 

It is stated in the daily papers that Mr. Elmer 
Gates, Washington, wishes to form a commercial 
company to obtain money to enable him to pro- 
ceed with the invention of his microscope, 
which he is said to say magnifies 3,000,000 di- 
ameters. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

We regret to learn that the California Courts 
have decided that the trust clause in the will of 
the late Adolph Sutro, giving Sutro Heights as 
a public park to the city of San Francisco, and 
San Miguel Ranch to support a scientific school, 
is invalid, and the property will now go into 
the residuary estate and be divided among six 
children. Perhaps these children will set the 
Courts an example by fulfilling the wishes of 
their father. 

The late Miss Rebecca Flower Squiers, of 
London, has bequeathed £2,000 for scholarships 
for students at Oxford or Cambridge, and the 
residue of her estate, the amount of which is 
not stated, for the benefit of these universi- 
ties. 

Professor Cleveland Abbe has given to 
the Johns Hopkins University his valuable col- 
lection of books, journals and pamphlets rela- 
ting to meteorology. The library has also re- 
ceived an anonymous gift of $5,000 for the pur- 
chase of books. 

Rev. Dr. George E. Merrill, of Newton, 
Mass., has accepted the call to the presidency 
of Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Professor J. B. Johnson, who holds the 
the chair of engineering in Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis, has been called to the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, where he will be made 
Dean of the College of Engineering. 

Mr. G. F. Stout, Anderson lecturer on com- 
parative psychology at Aberdeen and formerly 
lecturer on psychology at Cambridge, has been 
appointed to the newly established Wilde lec- 
tureship of mental philosophy at Oxford. 

The professorship of physics in the University 
of Sydney, New South Wales, is vacant. In ac- 
cordance with the British custom, applications 
for the position, with eight copies of all testi- 
monials, must be received not later than Febru- 
ad'y 18th by Sir Daniel Cooper, acting agent- 
general for New South Wales, 9 Victoria St., 
London, S. W. The salary of the professorship 
is £900 per annum, with a conditional pension of 
£400. Candidates must be under 35 years of 
age. We presume that citizens of the United 
States are eligible. 



SCIENCE 



Editobial Committee : S. Nkwcomb, Mathematics ; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, 

Astronomy; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics; R. H. Thurston, Engineering; Ira Ekmsen, Chemistry; 

J. Le Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 

C. Hart Merriam, Zoology; S. H. Scudder, Entomology; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Britton, 

Botany; Henry F. Osborn, General Biology; C. S. Minot, Embryology, Histology; 

H. P. Bowditch, Physiology; J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, 

Psychology; Daniel G. Beinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, Fbbexjaey 3, 1899. 



CONTENTS: 

Frontal Horn on Aceralherium incisivum (with 
Platel) : Professor Henry F. Osborn 161 

Report concerning the Official Stale Bureaus con- 
nected with the Johns Hopkins University: PRO- 
FESSOR William Bullock Clark 162 

The Biological Stations of Brittanjj : Dr. John H. 
Gerould 165 

Notes on the Times of Breeding of some Common 
Neio England Nemerteans : Dr. W. E. Coe 167 

The Columbia ileeting of the Society for Plant Mor- 
phology and Physiology : Professor W. F. 
Ganong 169 

Eleventh Annual Meeting of the American Folk-lore 
Society: W. W. Newell 173 

Scientific Books : — 

Keilhack's Kalender fiir Geologen, Palaontologen 
und Mineralogen : J. B. Woodworth. Webster 
on the Chinch Bug: Professor T. D. A. 
COCKERELL. Newth's Mlanual of Chemical Anal- 
ysis : Dr. Henry Fay. Recent Publications of 
the U. S. Geological Survey. Books Receied 174 

Scientific Journals and Articles 178 

Societies and Academies : — 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters: 
Dr. a. S. Flint, the Ohio Academy of Science: 
Professor R. C. Osburn. Entomological So- 
ciety of Washington: Dr. L. O. Howard. 
The Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia : Dr. 
Edw. J. Nolan. Zoological Club of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago: MARY M. StuRGES, Pro- 
fessorE. S. Lillie 179 

Discussion and Correspondence : — 

Tlie Storing of Pamphlets: PROFESSOR WiNSLOW 
Upton 184 

Notes on Inorganic Chemistry : J. L. H 185 

Current Notes on A nihropology : — 

Bad Form in Anthropological Writings ; The 
Mangyans of Mindoro ; The Jew and the Gypsy : 
Professor D. G. Brinton 185 

Agricultural Education in Russia 186 

2he International Catalogue of Scientific Literature.. 187 

Scientific Notes and News 188 

University and Educational News 192 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., Intended 
for review siiould be sent to the responsible editor, Profes- 
eor J. MoKeen Cattell. Garrison-on-Hudson N. Y. 



FRONTAL HORN ON ACERATHERIUM IN- 
CISIVUM. 
RELATION OF THIS TYPE TO ELASMOTHEEIUM. 

In the classical collection of the Museum 
of Darmstadt there are the two type skulls 
of Aceratherium incisivum, Kaup, which have 
hardly been disturbed since the death of that 
distinguished paleontologist. Through the 
kindness of Professor G. Richard Lepsius, 
the writer was recently enabled to carefully 
examine these skulls, which are in a fragile 
condition. A slight rugosity was observed 
upon the frontal bones just behind their 
junction with the nasals, and a very careful 
examination demonstrated to both Professor 
Lepsius and the writer the undoubted pres- 
ence of a rudimentary frontal horn in this 
typical hornless type. Even more distinct- 
ive proof of the existence of a horn is afforded 
bj' the characteristic convergence towards 
the center of the rugosity of a number of 
small grooves which indicate the course of 
the blood vessels which supplied the horn. 
The support of a horn is further indicated 
by a distinct swelling of the skull above the 
orbits which is observed with especial dis- 
tinctness in the profile view. This swelling 
will probably be found to consist of a thick- 
ening of the frontals at this point. 

This discovery is of the very greatest in- 
terest. In the first place it practically 
removes this tj'pical Acerathere from the 
group to which it has given its name and 
places it among the Rhinoceroses. Second, 



162 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



the precocious development of the frontal 
horn, and the marked reduction of the 
nasals, at once suggested to the writer that 
this animal may possibly represent an an- 
cestor of Elasmotherium, which, as is well 
known, was distinguished from all other 
Rhinoceroses by the smooth, narrow nasals 
and enormously developed frontal horns, as 
shown in the accompauing figures. It is 
true that in A. incisivum the horns are small, 
the rugosity, or horn core, being rudimen- 
tary ; but in paleontology a rudiment is 
almost invariably prophetic of a fully de- 
veloped or^an in a later horizon. The 
question whether this type actually marks 
the first branching-off of the Elasmotheres 
from the Aceratheres turns, therefore, upon 
a detailed comparison of the skull and 
skeleton of the two types. Both skulls are 
dolichocephalic with high occiputs. A 
marked difference is seen in the very narrow 
space between the orbit and narial opening 
in A. incisivum, as compared with the broad 
space in Elasmotherium. These and other 
difl'erences may be due to profound changes 
which occurred during the Pliocene period, 
for Elasmotherium is a well-advanced Pleis- 
tocene type. Other profound changes which 
would be involved in such a transformation 
are in the loss of old cutting teeth and the 
folding of the enamel in themolar teeth, so 
characteristic of the Pleistocene form. 

Taken altogether, the evidence that A. 
incisivum is an ancestral Elasmothere is, 
however, decidedly slender at present, and 
we must probably await the discovery of 
intermediate stages in the Pliocene of Eu- 
rope or Asia. Henry F. Osborn. 



REPORT CONCERNING THE OFFICIAL STATE 
BUREAUS CONNECTED WITH THE JOHNS 

HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.* 
I SUBMIT for your information the follow- 
ing report concerning the Maryland Geo- 

* A report presented to the President of the Johns 
Hopkins University. 



logical Survey and the Maryland Weather 
Service during the past year. Much of the 
work of these bureaus is carried on in co- 
operation with the Geological Department, 
and the offices are provided by the Univer- 
sity free of all charges to the State. 

THE MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURA^EY. 

The Maryland Geological Survey, which 
was established by an act of the General 
Assembly of 1896, began operations upon 
March 25th of that year, when, by the ac- 
tion of the Commission designated by the 
act, the organization of the Survey was for- 
mally effected. The General Assembly of 
1898 passed two additional acts which 
added largely to the powers of the State 
Survey Commission by providing for the 
construction of topographic maps and the 
investigation of the question of proper 
highways for the State. By the first act an 
additional appropriation of §5,000 annually 
was granted, while the second act appropri- 
ated $10,000 annually, the original appro- 
priation of $10,000 annually by the As- 
sembly of 1896 still remaining in force. By 
these acts the Survey received the very gen- 
erous appropriation of $25,000 annuallj'. 

During the two and a-half years that the 
Survey has been in operation several lines 
of investigation have been taken up, some 
of which have already been followed to a 
conclusion. The preliminary survey of the 
State, in which general information in re- 
gard to the geology and economic resources 
was secured, placed the Survey in a position 
to inaugurate those lines of investigation 
which would prove most beneficial to the 
people of the State and at the same time 
would contribute most largely to the sum 
of knowledge regarding the stratigraphy 
and structure of Maryland. In connection 
with this general survey there has been 
maintained a system of collection of statis- 
tical data regarding the output of each in- 
dustry that has to do with the mineral 



February 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



163 



wealth of the State. Forms are annually 
placed in the hands of the producers of 
mineral products, which upon their return 
are filed at the ofBce of the Survey. In this 
manner an accurate account is kept of the 
mineral products of the State, which aggre- 
gate in value from six to seven million dol- 
lars annually. 

The work of the Survey has been system- 
aticallj' divided and a competent man 
placed in charge of each one of the divi- 
sions. Dr. E. B. Mathews, in addition to 
his duties as Assistant State Geologist, is 
Chief of the Division of Geology of the 
Piedmont Plateau ; Professor Charles S. 
Prosser is in charge of the Division of Ge- 
ology of the Appalachian Region, and Dr. 
George B. Shattuck is in charge of the 
Division of the Coastal Plain. The work 
of the Survey embraces many subjects re- 
lated to geology, among which is the in- 
vestigation of our highways. Dr. H. F. Eeid 
being Chief of the important Division of 
Highways. Dr. L. A. Bauer is in charge 
of the Division of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Several special assistants in charge of in- 
dependent lines of work are also employed : 
Mr. A. ]Sr. Johnson in Highway Engineer- 
ing ; Dr. Cleveland Abbe, Jr., in Physiog- 
raphy, and Messrs. Basil Sollers and B. W. 
Barton in Botany. 

At the same time active cooperation is 
maintained with several of the Washington 
bureaus, especially with the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey and the bureaus and divisions 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
The aid which has been rendered by the 
Washington scientific departments has been 
of great importance to the successful prose- 
cution of the State work. 

The topographic work of the Survey has 
been much extended during the past year, 
an area of several hundred square miles 
having been surveyed upon a scale of one 
mile to an inch in western Allegany and 
Garrett counties. The surveying force is 



provided by the U. S. Geological Survey 
through a plan of cooperation between the 
national bureau and the Maryland Geolog- 
ical Survey. 

The magnetic work under the charge of 
Dr. Bauer was continued in the western 
part of Maryland. Dr. Bauer completed 
his work on the western boundary of the 
State during 1897, and was able to be of 
great service to the Attorney-General of 
Maryland, who had the matter in charge. 
All the magnetic and astronomical work 
was placed in charge of Dr. Bauer, and he 
was throughout recognized as the scientific 
authority upon the State force. During the 
summer of 1898 a part of Dr. Bauer's time 
was taken up in the survey of the boundary 
line between Allegany and Garrett coun- 
ties, which had been authorized by a spe- 
cial act of the last General Assembly. This 
work, which had been many times unsuc- 
cessfully attempted, was satisfactorily ac- 
complished, and a report published in Sep- 
tember. 

The more strictly geological work of the 
Survey was carried on by the instructors 
and students of the Geological Department 
of the University, with such cooperation as 
was deemed necessary along special lines. 
Professor George P. Merrill, of the United 
States ISTational Museum, rendered the Sur- 
vey a very important service in the conduct 
of the investigations upon the building and 
decorative stones of the State. Extensive 
areal and economic work was conducted 
both in the western and central counties of 
the State. Surveys of Allegany and Gar- 
rett counties were completed and a large 
amount of data collected for the special 
economic reports which will appear later. 

The highwaj' investigations have occu- 
pied the attention of the Survey since the 
spring of the present year, and a consider- 
able force was employed under the direction 
of Dr. Eeid and his associate, Mr. Johnson, 
in the study of the highway conditions of 



164 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



Maryland. The distribution of those rocks 
which are adapted for highway construction 
has been carefully surveyed and points for 
the subsequent locations of quarries of road 
metals indicated. 

The agricultural conditions of the State 
have also been considered and a study made 
of many of the relations of the geological 
formations to the soils derived from them. 
This classification of the soils has been con- 
ducted under a plan of cooperation with 
Professor Milton Whitney, of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture and the Maryland 
Experiment Station, and, outside of its 
scientific interest, will prove of much prac- 
tical benefit to the agricultural interests of 
the State. 

The distribution of plant and animal life 
is so closely connected with the soils and 
geology that the Survey plans a study of 
the fauna and flora from this standpoint. 
Already some work has been done under 
the direction of Messrs. Sollers and Barton 
upon the botany of Maryland, more partic- 
ularly in the western counties. It is planned 
in the future to carry on this work in co- 
operation with the newly organized State 
Horticultural Bureau. 

Much advance was made during the year 
in the preparation of the manuscript for 
subsequent volumes. Professor Merrill 
■completed his work upon the Building and 
Decorative Stones of Maryland, and Mr. 
Henry Gannett, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, furnished an elaborate treatise upon 
the Aims and Methods of Topographic 
Work for the report upon the cartography 
of the State. These and other reports by 
the regular staff of the Survey are now be- 
ing collected for the second volume, which 
will be brought out during the autumn of 
1898. 

THE MARYLAND WEATHER SERVICE. 

The Maryland Weather Service was es- 
tablished in May, 1891, under the joint 



auspices of the Johns Hopkins University, 
the Maryland Agricultural College and the 
United States Weather Bureau, and became 
an official organization by an act of the 
General Assembly approved by the Gover- 
nor April 6, 1892. Under authority granted 
by this act the Maryland Weather Service 
was permanentlj' established at the Johns 
Hopkins University, under the direction of 
a Board of Control nominated by the heads 
of the institutions above mentioned and 
commissioned by the Governor. 

During the first five years of the exist- 
ence of the Service the investigations were 
confined largely to a study of the general 
meteorological conditions of the State. 
Numerous stations were established in the 
different counties, volunteer observers hav- 
ing been obtained at a sufficient number of 
points to render it possible to determine the 
more important features of the climate of the 
State. Throughout the same time monthly 
Meteorological Eeports, extending through 
the year, and weekly Crop Bulletins, cover- 
ing the growing and harvesting seasons, 
were published. Two biennial reports to the 
General Assemblies of 1891 and 1896 were 
also prepared and subsequently printed with 
the necessary maps, diagrams and tables. A 
series of large Climatic Charts was also 
published and placed on exhibition in the 
Marj'land Building in Chicago at the time 
of the Columbian Exposition, and copies of 
the same were subsequently distributed. 

Somewhat over a year ago an entire 
reorganization of the work of the Maryland 
Weather Service was effected. It seemed 
desirable to transfer the accumulation of 
the general climatic data to the Climate and 
Crop Service of the Weather Bureau, which 
is much more fully equipped for carrying 
on that phase of the work, and to devote 
the money and energies of the Maryland 
Weather Service to the study of special 
problems connected with the climatology of 
the State. It was thought possible, by con- 



Febeuaky 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



165 



ductiDg the work in close cooperation with 
the State Geological Survey", the State agri- 
cultural institutions and the United States 
Department of Agriculture, to take uplines 
of research that ■would be of much perma- 
nent value to the people of the State. Ar- 
rangements were made for the publication 
of these investigation»in a uew series of re- 
ports which should conform in all particu- 
lars to those already adopted for the State 
Geological Survey. These volumes, for 
which arrangements have now been per- 
fected, will contain the results of investiga- 
tions upon the climate of the State and will 
include reports upon the physiography, 
meteorology, medical climatology, agricul- 
tural soils, forestry, hydrography, crop con- 
ditions, botany and zoology of Maryland. 

The reports upon physiography and me- 
teorologj' are alreadj' largely prepared and 
will coustitute the first volume of the series. 
Dr. Cleveland Abbe, Jr., has prepared a 
report upon the physiography, while the 
longer and more elaborate statement re- 
garding the meteorology of the State is di- 
vided into three parts, the general treat- 
ment of the subject being from the pen of 
the distinguished Professor Cleveland Abbe, 
of the U. S. Weather Bureau. Mr. F. J. 
Waltz, the Local Forecast Official of the U. 
S. Weather Bureau in Baltimore and the 
Meteorologist of the State Weather Service, 
will contribute the part relating to the me- 
teorology of the State ; while Mr. O. L. 
Fassig, his associate, will prepare those 
chapters which relate to the history of me- 
teorological investigations in Maryland 
since early colonial days. The cordial sup- 
port of Professor Willis L. Moore, Chief of 
the U. S. Weather Bureau, has been secured 
in this work, as well as in many of the 
lines of special investigations which will be 
later pursued. 

The investigation of the agricultural 
soils of the State, already referred to in 
connection with the State Geological Sur- 



vej', are closely related to many of the 
climatological problems which will be con- 
sidered in the future, and the active coop- 
eration of Professor Whitney along these 
lines will add much to the effectiveness of 
the State work. Mr. C. W. Dorsey, of the 
State Agricultural Experiment Station, has 
been carrying on investigations in this field 
under the supervision of Professor Whitney, 
and the results of their combined work will 
be later brought out in the reports of the 
State Weather Service. 

The questions of hydrographj' are closely 
related to those of climatology, and already 
considerable progress has been made in the 
study of the drainage basins of Maryland 
through the cooperation secured from Pro- 
fessor Newell, in charge of the Division of 
Hydrography of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey', and special reports upon this subject 
will be incorjiorated in a later volume of 
the State Weather Service. 

The other lines of investigation above 
referred to have been projected, but little 
work has been done upon them thus far. 
They will occupy the attention of the local 
Service during the coming and subsequent 
years. 

Wm. Bullock Clark, 
State Geologist and Director State Weather 

Service. 



THE BIOLOGICAL STATIONS OF BRITTANY. 

The marine laboratories of the coasts of 
France and England can be reached with 
so little loss of time by students of zoology 
and botany who live near the Atlantic sea- 
board in America that a knowledge of the 
facilities for work at these stations and of 
their accessibility is of great importance to 
Americans. 

Aside from the hygienic advantages of 
the ocean voyage and a complete change of 
scene to a hai-d-working naturalist who de- 
votes his summer vacations to scientific re- 
search, one will in many cases find at some 



166 



'.GIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



of the marine laboratories of France or of 
Great Britain such favorable conditions for 
his work as cannot be obtained in connec- 
tion with our own excellent laboratories. 

It is with this thought in mind that I call 
the attention of the readers of Science to 
two of the stations for the study of marine 
biology which are situated in Brittany. 

Theia6orato?'re de Zoologie Experimentale B,t 
Koscoff, in Finistere, is under the direction 
of its founder, Monsieur le professeur de 
Lacaze-Duthiers, of the Sorbonne, whose 
hospitality to foreigners is most generous. 

Eoscoff may be quicklj'^ reached from 
Southampton by the boat to St. Malo, a 
Breton seaport, or from Harve via Paris. 
It is a quaint old town, with a port devoted 
to the export of vegetables to England ; its 
narrow streets, among the ancient buildings 
of the village, are busy with the activities 
of the honest, sturdy Breton peasantry. 
The picturesque surrounding country, with 
its dolmens and menhirs, medieval chateaux 
and churches, attracts during the summer 
large numbers of tourists. 

The laboratory at Roscoif is a building 
of the 16th century which faces, on the 
east, the principal public square. Ivj' cov- 
ered gables and round towers project be- 
hind into an enclosed garden. Between the 
garden and the sea, at the north, is a large 
grass-roofed aquarium room, with two spa- 
cious stone basins in the middle and numer- 
ous tanks along the north and south sides 
of the building. These are supplied with 
running seawater, which is pvimped from a 
large stone vivarium situated between the 
aquarium and the sea. 

Opening into the aquarium room is the 
main laboratory for investigators, with eight 
tables, in addition to which four private 
work rooms are at the disposal of the Di- 
rector, besides those of himself and of his 
staff. The laboratory, which, like the other 
marine laboratories in France, is supported 
by the State, is well equipped with reagents, 



stains, glassware, etc., and a dark room is 
provided for photographic work. 

As regards the fauna, the fact is to 
be emphasized that for plankton studies 
Roscoff is badly situated, whereas for 
shore collecting its position is admirable. 
The invertebrate fauna, especially, is very 
rich. The coast is diversified with numer- 
ous rocky islands and with bays which 
have a bottom of mud, sand or shingle. 
The spring tides at Roscoff rise and fall, at 
their maximum, about nine meters, so that 
a very large area is exposed at low tide. 

Thirty-one investigators and elementary 
students during the summer of 1898 availed 
themselves of the advantages of this excel- 
lent laboratory. The venerable Director of 
the station made a brief visit in August. 
The following were engaged with special 
studies : 

Monsieur L. Bontan, the Embryology of 
Acmea, Haliotis and Scallaria ; Professor 
Y. Delage, Experiments upon Fertilization 
of the Egg of Echinus ; Doctor Dominici, 
Hematopoesis in the Chordata (Selachians 
and Amphioxus) ; Professor P. Francotte, 
of Brussels, Maturation and Fertilization 
of the Egg in Turbellaria ; Dr. J. George- 
vitsch, of Belgrade, Embryology of Den- 
talium ; Dr. N. Koltzoff, of St. Petersburg, 
Embryology of the Head of Elasmobranchs; 
Monsieur A. Rober t,Embry clog}' of Trochus; 
Monsieur P. Yignon, Excretion in the Crus- 
tacea. 

The present writer was occupied with the 
Embryology of Phascolosoma. 

Professor Chalon, of Brussels, studied 
and made collections of the Algse. 

The Laboratoire de Zoologie et de Physiologie 
maritimes at Concarneau is under the charge 
of Professor Fabre-Domergue, of the College 
de France. Founded in 1859 by Monsieur 
Coste, it is said to be the oldest marine 
laboratory in existence. 

Concarneau is a village of southern Brit- 
tany, near the picturesque and beautiful 



February 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



167 



town of Quimper. Like Roscoff, it can be 
easil}- reached by the way of Southampton 
and St. Malo or from Havre via Paris. 
Fishing aud sardine packing are the prin- 
cipal industries of the place. The port 
and the surrounding country are so pictur- 
esquely beautiful that many artists make 
their permanent residence in the vicinity. 

The laboratory is chieiiy devoted to fish 
culture and the study of fishes, although 
vpork at the station is by no means restricted 
to this group. The building has two floors ; 
the first story is devoted to the scientific 
apparatus, to spacious private rooms for a 
small number of investigators, a library 
and a dark room for photography ; and the 
basement contains large stone tanks and 
other aquaria, provided with running sea- 
water. Large vivaria, designed for hold- 
ing fish, lobsters, etc., for scientific purposes 
and for the use of fishermen, adjoin the 
laboratory and extend out into the sea. 
The station is well equipped for scientific 
research. Here Selenka and other eminent 
zoologists have done much of their best 
work. 

The plankton at Concarneau is said to be 
very rich, and certain forms of invertebrates 
which inhabit a sandy shore and which do 
not occur at Roscoff are found in abundance 
at Concarneau. 

Finally, it should be said that the Direc- 
tors of these and of other marine stations 
in France which it has been the good for- 
tune of the present writer to visit are most 
hospitable and generous to American zo- 
ologists. One may be assured that if he 
goes to the coast of France to study he will 
receive a hearty welcome. 

John H. Geeould. 

Stazione Zoologica, 

Naples, December 8, 1898. 



NOTES ON THE TIMES OF BREEDING OF SOME 
COMMON NEW ENGLAND NEMEBTEANS. 
Several papers by Professor Bumpus 

have appeared in this Journal on the 



times of breeding of invertebrates at Woods 
Holl, Mass. In connection with these the 
following notes on the nemerteans may 
prove of interest to some who may desire 
to carry on researches on the embryology 
of this neglected group of worms. 

It does not seem to be generally known 
that the eggs of some of our nemerteans 
can be obtained in abundance at almost any 
season of the year ; that those of many 
species can be artificially fertilized, and 
that they will develop readily in confine- 
ment. Even in the case of those which 
undergo an indirect course of development 
the embryos can readily be reared to the 
early pilidium-stage. The eggs of some of 
the common species, moreover, are so very 
transparent that many of the phenomena 
involved in maturation, fertilization and 
cleavage can be followed in the living ovum 
without the use of stains. For these rea- 
sons they afibrd most promising objects for 
embryoiogical and cytological investigation. 

1. The eggs of Amjjhijwms ochraceus Verr. 
are laid during the months of May and 
June (or sometimes earlier) in the vicinity 
of New Haven. "Worms which are kept in 
captivity sometimes deposit their ova in 
clusters of forty or more imbedded in a 
common mass of mucus. They develop 
readily in confinement, and the young 
worms may be kept alive until they attain 
a considerable size. As in most other 
Hoplonemerteans the development is di- 
rect. 

2. Amphiporus virescens Verr. Eggs ma- 
ture at "Woods Holl in July and August. 
They develop readily when laid in captivity, 
although the number of eggs produced by a 
single worm is small. 

3. Tetrastemma candidum Oersted. Ma- 
ture in July and August at "Woods Holl 
and New Haven. 

4. Tetrastemma vermieulm (Quatr.) Stimp. 
Common on piles at "Woods Holl with ripe 
ova in August. 



168 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



Several other species of Tetrastemma and 
AmpJdporus have been found mature in mid- 
summer. 

5. Emplectonema giganteum Verr. has been 
found by Professor Verrill with large eggs 
in August. 

6. Lineus viridis Johnson = L. gesserensis 
Miiller = Nemertes obscura Desor = Lineus 
obscurus Barrois. On the Coast of Maine 
Verrill* has found the eggs of this species 
very abundant iiuder stones at low-water 
mark. These were imbedded in mucus and 
were deposited in mid-summer. At Woods 
HoU during three summers I have exam- 
ined thousands of specimens but have found 
no eggs. On the northern coast of Eui'ope 
the eggs are mature from March to 
May. The development of this species 
was studied by Desorf as early as 1848 
from material which he collected near Bos- 
ton in February. BarroisJ and, later, 
Hubrecht§ have published detailed descrip- 
tions of its embrj'ology. 

7. Lineus soeialis (Leidy) Verr. The 
eggs mature in mid- winter at New Haven, 
and are sometimes deposited in captivitj^ in 
masses of mucus. They develop readily at 
least to the stage of swimming gastrula?. 

8. Lineus bieolor Verr. Specimens dredged 
in Vineyard Sound in July, 1898, contained 
mature genital products. 

9. Mierura affinis'Verr. Specimens taken 
off Salem by Professor Verrill contained 
fully developed eggs and spermatozoa in 
mid-summer. 

10. Micnira ececa Yerr. Matures its geni- 
tal products at Woods Holl during August. 
The eggs of this species are beautifully 
clear and transparent and develop readily 
when artificially fertilized. The cleavage 

* Trans. Connecticut Acad., Vol. 8, 1893. 

f Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., Vol. 6, 1848. 

JEeelierches snr I'embryologie des Nemertes. 
Lille, 1877. 

§ Proeve eener Ontwikkelingsgesohiedenis van 
Lineus obscurus. Utrecht, 1885. 



is of the regular spiral type, of which these 
eggs furnish an almost ideal illustration. 
The pilidium which results will live two 
weeks or more in confinement. 

11. Cerebratulus lacieus Verr. The eggs 
are ripe at New Haven during February, 
March and April. On the coast of Maine 
the species is said to breed in early summer. 
I have never observed that the eggs are de- 
posited in captivity. Specimens filled with 
eggs have been kept alive in the laboratory 
for more than two months after the time 
of full maturity of the sexual products 
without discharging their eggs. Whether 
they would be capable of normal develop- 
ment after this length of time I was unable 
to determine, because all the males which 
could be obtained had long since discharged 
their spermatozoa. The worms attain an 
enormous size (up to 22 feet in length and 
an inch in breadth, according to Verrill) 
and consequently produce an immense 
number of ova. I should estimate the 
number to be obtained from a fair-sized 
worm — say, 5 feet long — to lie between 
fifty thousand and a quarter of a million. 
A single individual, or even a small frag- 
ment, will thus furnish all the material 
required for an elaborate investigation. The 
eggs are easily fertilized artificially, and 
will develop into the pilidium-stage without 
difficulty. 

12. Cerebratulus Leidyi Verr. Breeds 
commonly at Woods Holl in July and 
early in August. In 1898 the majority of 
the individuals which I found at Woods 
Holl had discharged their genital products 
earlier than July, and in 1894 a few speci- 
mens at New Haven retained their ova as 
late as October. Among the nemerteans 
that I know, the eggs of this species are 
equalled in beautj' and regularity of de- 
velopment onlj' by those of Micrura cceca. 
The first division occurs about one hour 
and ten minutes after fertilization, or in .55 
minutes if the eggs have been allowed to 



February 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



.169 



remain in the water until the formation of 
the first polar spindle, before being fertilized. 
The second cleavage takes place about 24 
minutes later ; the third cleavage occurs af- 
ter SO minutesmore; the fourth after another 
o5 or 40 minutes; and after a further lapse of 
about 50 minutes, or in a little less than 3i 
hours after fertilization, the fifth division, 
with its resulting 32 cells, is completed. A 
very symmetrical blastula appears about 7^ 
hours after the eggs are fertilized, and in 
\}j; hours more the embryos begin to swim. 
The third cleavage, which is distinctly right- 
handed, shows the first differentiation of 
the cells in regard to size ; the upper four, or 
those next to the polar bodies, being slightly, 
though perceptibly, larger than the lower 
four. The cleavage is typically spiral and 
almost perfectly regular. There are only 
the slightest indications of a vitelline mem- 
brane, so that the polar bodies are lost at 
an early stage. The near equality in the 
size of the blastomeres also tends to in- 
crease the difficulties encountered in follow- 
ing out the details of the cell-lineage. The 
pilidium with peculiarly short side-lobes, 
which develops from these eggs, will live for 
two weeks or more in the laboratory, al- 
though I have never seen the young nemer- 
tean develop within it. 

13. Cerebratulus luridus Verr. Specimens 
collected in Cape Cod Bay by Professor 
Verrill contained apparently ripe eggs in 
August. 

14. Carinella pelluelda Coe ripens its sex- 
ual elements in July at New Haven and 
Woods Holl. 

15. Parapolia aurantiaea Coe. Genital 
products mature in August at "Woods Holl. 

16. Valencinia ruhens Coe. A single 
specimen found at Woods Holl in August 
1894 was filled with ripe spermatozoa. 

17. Gephalothrix linearis Oersted. At 
Woods Holl this species commonly ma- 
tures its genital products in August. The 
eggs may be artificially fertilized. The 



development is direct and may be readily 
followed. Mcintosh* has published figures 
of the embryos of this species. 

The above includes merely those dates 
at which genital products have been found 
mature, and should by no means give the 
impression that they may not be found in 
some of the species at other times, both 
earlier and later than is here indicated. 
The times when the eggs are normally de- 
posited is certainly liable to considerable 
variation. Amfhipor^is ochraceus, for exam- 
ple, has on one occasion been found mature 
as early as Januarj', although the eggs are 
produced more abundantly four or five 
months later. In this respect the nemer- 
teans agree with many other invertebrates. 
In some others, as Cerebratulus lacteus, the 
time during which the eggs can be fertilized 
lasts for a few weeks at the most, and this 
period, at New Haven, varies from Feb- 
ruary to April according to some undeter- 
mined peculiarity of the season. 

It will be seen that of the common species 
recorded here nearly all become sexually 
mature on the southern coast of New Eng- 
land during the summer months. Only 
one lays its eggs in mid-winter and only 
two in the very early spring. 

W. R. CoE. 
Yale University. 



THE COLUMBIA MEETING OF THE SOCIETY 
FOB PLANT 3I0BPH0L0GY AND PHYSI- 
OLOGY. 
The second annual meeting of this So- 
ciety was held in conjunction with the 
meetings of the American Society of Natu- 
ralists and the Affiliated Societies at Colum- 
bia University, December 27 to 30, 1898. 
On the evening of December 27th a reception 
was tendered to the members of the Society 
and visiting botanists by the Torrey Botan- 
ical Club of New York, and the Society 

* British Annelids ; Part I., Nemerteans. Eay So- 
ciety, 1873. 



170, 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



joined with the AfiBiliated Societies in the 
entertainments of Wednesday and Thurs- 
day evenings, and in the annual discussion 
on Thursday afternoon. On Friday a visit 
was made to the ISTew York Botanical 
Garden, where the grounds and buildings 
were shown and explained by the Director, 
Dr. N. L. Britton. At the business meet- 
ing the following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year : President, Dr. J. M. 
Macfarlane ; Vice-Presidents, Professor G. 
F. Atkinson and Professor D. P. Penhallow; 
Secretary, Dr. W. F. Ganong. The following 
new members were elected : Messrs. F. C. 
Stewart, C. O. Townsend, F. C. JSTewcombe, 
B. D. Halsted, J. B. Pollock, D. S. John- 
son, L. M. Underwood, M. B. Waite. The 
President, Dr. W. G. Farlow, presided over 
the sessions, at which the following papers 
were read. Detailed abstracts of these will 
appear in the February number of the 
Botanical Gazette: 

Some Peculiar Morphological Features of Pau- 
lownia imperialis : Dr. J. W. Harshbeeger, 
I University of Pennsj-lvania. — This paper 
contained a discussion of noteworthy ana- 
tomical, ecological and morphological fsa- 
tures in this introduced tree, particularly in 
buds, flowers, fruits and petioles. 

Tlie Life-history of Leuchtenbergia principis 
(abstract) : Dr. W. F. Ganong, Smith 
College. — This paper is an attempt at a 
complete life-history of this rare and highly 
specialized species of Cactaceae, whose de- 
velopment has hitherto been quite unknown. 
This contribution is offered as the first of 
a series of life- histories in this family in- 
tended to supply data for a better under- 
standing of phylogeny and of principles of 
morphology and ecology. 

Observations upon Root-tubercles : Profes- 
sor B. D. Halsted, New Jersey Agricultural 
College. — The author's observations showed 
that the root tubercles on spring-grown 
beans of a certain variety are much more 
abundant than upon autumn-grown plants 



of the same variety grown in the same soil. 
He discusses the reasons for this, finding 
that of temperature, directly or indirectly, 
most important, and points out the bearing 
of his facts upon some others which have 
puzzled students of the subject. 

Further Notes on the Embryology of the Eitbi- 
acew : Mr. F. E. Lloyd, Teachers' College. 
— The author described very peculiar fea- 
tures in the development of the ovule and 
seed in several members of this family, in- 
cluding the development of as many as 
eight or ten macrospores in one ovule, vei-y 
large antipodal cells, and the development 
of haustoria from the suspensor which 
absorb the endosperm. 

The Inflorescences and Flowers of Polygala 
piolygama : Mr. Charles H. Shaw, University 
of Pennsylvania. — In this paper it is pointed 
out that in this well-known species there 
are, in addition to the commonly recognized 
aerial and subterranean cleistogamic blos- 
soms, other green cleistogamic blossoms 
borne above ground, the characters of which 
are remarkably intermediate between those 
of the other two kinds. A full comparison 
of characters makes this plain. 

Observations on some Monocotyledonous Em- 
bryo-sacs : Mr. R. E. B. McKenney, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. — The author de- 
scribed an unusual method of development 
of the embryo-sac in two species of Scilla, 
and discussed its significance. Incidentally 
he gave attention to the centrosome ques- 
tion, and was unable to find them in any 
of the stages studied, thus confirming the 
work of Mottier and others who doubt their 
occurrence in the higher plants. 

The Structure and Relation of the Crystal Cells 
in Sensitive Plants : Mr. R. E. B. McKen- 
ney, University of Pennsylvania. — It is 
here pointed out that the crystals in cells 
sheathing the phloem in sensitive plants 
are insoluble in the ordinary reagents and 
possibly are made of insoluble silicates. 
They are also more abundant in the more 



February 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



171 



sensitive species, and peculiar features are 
found in the cells containing them. The 
author thinks it probable they are con- 
nected with the transmission of stimuli, 
the real place and nature of which are not 
yet known. 

The Structure and Parctsitism of Aphyllon 
uniflorum: Miss Amelia B. Smith, Univer- 
sity of Penns3dvania. — This paper, prelimi- 
narj' in character, described the anatomy 
of this species and its characters of degen- 
eration due to its parasitism upon a species 
of Aster. 

On the Occurrence of Tubers in the Hepati- 
ccb: De. M. a. Howe, Columbia Univer- 
sity. — -The author calls attention to the few 
known cases of tuber formation in Hepati- 
cse, and gives a detailed account of the anat- 
omy of the tubers in Anthocercs phymatodes, 
a California species. He interprets these 
tubers as structures adapted to carry the 
life of the plant over a season of drought 
and also as playing a part in vegetative 
propagation. 

Morphology of the Genus Viola : Dr. Henry 
Kraemer, Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. — The author has made a detailed 
microscopical examination of selected char- 
acters, particularly in the flower, in several 
species of the genus Viola as a basis for the 
determination of the phylogeny of those spe- 
cies, and he gives a preliminary classification 
of those investigated. The work is the con- 
tinuation of earlier published studies, and 
is part of a detailed investigation the author 
expects to make of the entire genus. 

Influence of Electricity itpon Plants : Dr. 
G. E. Stone, Massachusetts Agricultural 
College. — The paper contains the results of 
experiments upon some 20,000 germinating 
plants to which electrical stimuli were ap- 
plied by various methods and in different 
intensities. The author shows, by careful 
quantitative methods, that, within certain 
limits, germination is accelerated by the 
application of electricity ; that there is a 



latent period and a minimum, optimum and 
maximum response, and that the relation 
between perception and stimulus follows 
"Weber's Law. 

Notes on the Germination of Spjores : Dr. 
C. O. TowNSEND, Maryland Experiment Sta- 
tion. — The author describes results of ex- 
periments made to determine the effect 
upon their germination of exposure of 
spores in distilled water to different ex- 
ternal conditions. Such exposure, as shown 
by comparison with control experiments, 
produced no appreciable effect upon the 
power of the spores to germinate, except' 
when they were frozen, in which case they 
failed to germinate at all. 

Sensitiveness of certain Parasites to the Acid 
Juices of the Host Plants : Dr. Erwin F. 
Smith, Department of Agriculture. — This 
paper describes the author's experiments 
made to determine whether his hypothe- 
sis, based upon observation, is correct, that 
the slow progress of some bacterial diseases 
of plants is due to the restraining influence 
of the acid juices of the host plants. By 
comparison with the results of cultures in 
solutions of known acidity, he was able to 
confirm this belief. 

Further Observations on the Relations of 
Turgor to Growth : Dr. Carleton C. Cur- 
tis, Columbia University. — The author de- 
scribed the results of experiments in alter- 
ing the strength of solutions in which 
certain fungi were being cultivated, and the 
effects of the transfer upon growth and 
turgor force. 

Symbiosis and Saprophytism : Professor D. 
T. MacDougal, University of Minnesota.— 
The author points out that the term sapro- 
phyte, or holosaprophyte, should be applied 
only to those forms that obtain organic prod- 
ucts without the aid of mycorrhiza, etc., 
and that hitherto but a single seed-forming 
plant has been placed in this category. To 
this, however, the author now adds Cepha- 
lanthera as result of his researches. 



172 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



Influence of Inversions of Temperature and 
Vertical Currents of Air upon the Distribution 
of Plants: Peofessoe D. T. MacDougal, 
University of Minnesota. — As a result of 
observations made at Flagstaff, Arizona, 
the author concludes that inversions of 
temperature through diurnal changes and 
resultant air currents are more important 
in affecting plant distribution than has 
hitherto been supposed. Such changes 
tend to give minor highlands a more equa- 
ble temperature than adjoining hills and 
canons; to deflect zonal boundaries on great 
level plains and among minor topographical 
features, and to favor the growth of mois- 
ture-loving species along the margins of 
table-lands bordering on valleys. 

Peculiarities of the Distribution of Marine 
AlgcB in North America: Presidential Ad- 
dress, De. W. G. Faelow, Harvard Uni- 
versity. — This address, illustrated by maps, 
discussed the distribution of North American 
Marine Algse with particular reference to 
the factors, temperature, direction of ocean 
currents, character of coasts, etc., deter- 
mining it. It is expected that it will later 
foe published in full. 

Some Appliances for the Elementary Study of 
Plant Physiology : De. W. F. Ganong, Smith 
College. — The author exhibited and de- 
scribed some simple and inexpensive ap- 
pliances invented by him for illustrating 
some of the more fundamental physiological 
facts and phenomena of plants. These in- 
cluded a temperature stage,a clinostat, a self- 
recording auxanometer, an osmometer, a 
way of demonstrating the exchange of gases 
in respiration, a germination box, a useful 
way of preparing plants for transpiration 
weighings, and au efficient way of gradua- 
ting growing roots, etc. 

Some Notes on the Repiroduction and Develop- 
ment of Nereocystk : Peofessoe Conway 
MacMillan, University of Minnesota. — 
The author described his observations upon 
the life-history of this species, giving par- 



ticular attention to the ecological aspects 
of the subject. 

The Formation and Structure of the Dissepi- 
ment in Porothelium: De. E. A. Buet, Mid- 
dlebury College.^ — -The author traced the 
development of the fructifications oi Porothe- 
lium fimbriatxmi from their origin to the tube 
stage, and contrasted the structure of the 
dissepiment in different cases. 

Gelatin Cidture Media : De. Eewin F. 
Smith, Department of Agriculture. — The 
author spoke of the value of gelatin cul- 
ture-media and pointed out certain precau- 
tions to be observed in its use, particularly 
with reference to the fixing of the melting- 
point, the occurrence in it of sugar and of 
acid salts, and how the influence of these 
may be overcome. 

Notes on the Relative Infrequence of Fungi 
upon the Trans-Missouri Plains and the Adja- 
cent Foothills of the Rocky Mountain Region : 
Dr. Chaeles E. Bessey, University of 
Nebraska. — An abstract of this paper, given 
by Dr. Erwin F. Smith, showed that the 
author had noted, in the course of his four- 
teen years' collecting of fungi in the region 
named, that the number of species of fungi 
is large while the number of individuals is 
small, exactly the opposite of what is true 
in the same region for the flowering plants. 

Different Types of Plant Diseases Due to a 
Common Rhizoctonia : Messes. B. M. Duggae, 
Cornell University, and F. C. Stewaet, 
New York Experiment Station. — The stud- 
ies of the authors have shown that a stem 
rot of the carnation is due to a fungus 
agreeing precisely with Rhizoctonia Betce, 
which has caused a serious rot of sugar 
beets in New York during the past year. 
The fungus is described and suggestions 
given for its treatment. 

The Stem Rot Diseases of the Carnation : Me. 
F. C. Stewaet, New York Experiment 
Station. — The author points out that two 
distinct diseases of carnations have been 
confused. One is that described by him- 



Febeuaey 3, 1899.] 



SCIENC.E. 



173 



self and Mr. Duggar (in the preceding 
paper), and another is due to a Fusarium. 
The differences in the effects of the two are 
described. 

W. F. Ganong, 

Secretary. 
Sjuth College, Noethampton, Mass. 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMER- 
ICAN FOLK-LOBE SOCIETY. 

This meeting, held in connection with 
the affiliated societies, at Columbia College, 
on December 2Sth and 29th, was indica- 
tive of progress. According to the report 
of the Council the number of members 
had remained about constant, amounting 
to about five hundred. The report of the 
Treasurer showed that annual receipts and 
expenses were about equal. As the next 
volume of the series of Memoirs of the So- 
ciety was announced a second part of ' Cur- 
rent Superstitions,' by Mrs. Fanny D. Ber- 
gen, including those relating to animals 
and plants; the first part of this work forms 
the fourth volume of the Memoirs, of which 
six volumes have now appeared. 

As officers for 1 899 were elected Professor 
C L. Edwards, of the University of Cin- 
cinnati, President ; Miss Alice C. Fletcher, 
Washington, First Vice-President ; Mr. C. 
F. Lummis, Los Angeles, Cal., Second Vice- 
President. The Secretary and Treasurer 
hold over. 

A committee was appointed to take into 
consideration the subject of the collection 
and record of folk-music, and to propose 
plans for the more adequate collection of 
negro folk-music in America. 

The address of the retiring President, Dr. 
Henry Wood, of Johns Hopkins University, 
dealt with ' Folk-lore and metaphor in lit- 
erary style.' The object of the speaker was 
to exhibit the dependence of the consciously 
artistic metaphor of literature to the tradi- 
tional metaphor which forms its underlying 
basis. 



Among papers read may be mentioned 
observations on ' The study of ethics among 
the lower races,' contributed by Dr. Wash- 
ington Matthews. The writer considered 
the study of myths and traditions to be the 
safest guide ia this field, which as yet has 
scarcely been traversed ; but in the use of 
such material it is necessary to proceed 
with caution and employ the critical meth- 
ods of modern science. If the gods of the 
tribe are considered as approving any ac- 
tion, or if the author of the tale appears to 
look for the approbation of his audience, it 
may be concluded that the act is regarded 
as possessing a moral quality, however, 
repulsive it may appear according to our 
ideas. That there exists a strong sense of 
the morality of conduct is obvious from the 
security of life; thus the Navahoes live in 
entire peace withouts courts or punish- 
ments. With this people there exists no 
penalty for theft ; the thief is merely re- 
quired to restore the stolen property. Ac- 
cording to the myths incest is presumed 
to be confined to witches and cannibals. 
Truthfulness is not inculcated as a dut}', 
yet Dr. Matthews had found the veracity 
of the people to be about equal to that of 
the whites. Expectation of reward in a 
future life does not exist. Conscience forms 
an effective power. The tales attest the 
frequency of active benevolence. 

Mr. W. W. -Newell offered some observa- 
tions on the relation, in sun- myths, of the 
visual impression to the sj'mbolic concep- 
tion. He pointed out the antiquity and 
universality of the radiant disk as a solar 
symbol, arguing that the effect on the sight 
must have been constant. He considered 
the variety of the myths to be the result of 
causal explanations, the orb being consid- 
ered as an object somehow to be got through 
the sky, treating of the Indian mj'ths re- 
garding the sun-bearer, who is often con- 
founded with the orb he carries. Dr. Boas 
observed that among the Kooteuay, for 



174 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



example, the sun is regarded as an animal; 
but perhaps it was conceived that the light 
emanated from a certain part of the crea- 
ture, just as in the numerous myths where 
the luminous disk is regarded as part of 
the decoration of a sun-bearer. 

Mr. A. L. Kroeber presented a collection 
of animal tales of Eskimo, in part as made 
by himself from Smith Sound Eskimo. In 
these tales there is a contrast between 
Indian and Eskimo conceptions. Among 
Indians animals play an important part 
and are conceived as human in character. 
With Eskimo, on the contrary, animal 
stories are few ; they belong chiefly to two 
classes, the first describing a marriage be- 
tween a human being and an animal, the 
second answering to European beast fables. 
The paucity and brevity of the latter differ- 
entiate them from the Indian narratives. 
Dr. Kroeber subjoined a list of recorded 
Eskimo animal tales. 

Dr. Livingston Farrand read a paper on 
the ' Mythology of the Chilcotin,' in which 
the relations of the tales of this people with 
those of their neighbors was disscussed, 
with a view to obtaining a criterion in re- 
gard to the vexed question of difl'usiou or 
independent origination of similar myths. 
Dr. Farrand concluded that identity of 
theme was of minor importance as proof 
of borrowing, while agreement in details, 
among races contiguous or in cummunica- 
tion, could be explained only on the hy- 
pothesis of diffusion. 

Notes on American Indian names of 
white men and women were presented by 
Dr. A. F. Chamberlain, of Clark University, 
and ' Contributions toward a bibliography 
of folk-lore relating to women,' by Mrs. 
Isabel Cushman Chamberlain. 

Miss Cornelia Horsford communicated 
information in regard to traditions con- 
nected with an apparent footprint on a 
rock of Shelter Island. 

Other papers were offered by Dr. Eobert 



Bell, Professor Thomas Wilson and Mrs. 
F. D. Bergen. Demonstrations were made 
of phonographic records of Indian song. 
W. W. Newell. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
Kalender fur Geologen, Paldontologen iind Miner- 
alogen. Herausgegeben von Dr. K. Keil- 
HACK. 2d annual edition, 1899, with a por- 
trait of Professor C. W. v. Giimbel. Leipzig, 
1899, published by Max Weg. Pp. 288, with 
blank pages for notes. Price, 3 Marks. 
A handbook for geologists comparable to the 
numerous pocket aids, edited for the use of en- 
gineers, has never been issued. Dr. Keilhack 
began in 1898 the work, which is here described, 
in such a way as to fill some of the needs for 
such a book of reference. The list of contents 
of the present edition will serve as a sufficient 
notice of the booklet. The work gives a list 
of the official geological surveys of all coun- 
tries, including the American States, with their 
officers, the maps published, the prices of the 
maps and information concerning the other 
publications of the surveys. Where possible, 
the annual money allotment is stated. Sec- 
ondly, a list of the professors and instructors 
in geology, paleontology and mineralogy in 
the colleges and high schools of the world, 
alphabetically arranged by towns. It is to be 
noted that the American high schools do not 
rank as ' high schools' of European grade. 
Hence American high-school teachers are not 
here named. Thirdly, a list of geological, 
paleontological and mineralogical societies, 
with a brief account of their publications and 
membership. Fourth, the addresses of geolo- 
gists, etc., of Germany, Holland, Australia, 
Switzerland and Hungary. Fifth, the public 
and private geological, mineral and paleonto- 
logical collections of the countries just named. 
Sixth, the subdivisions of the greater geological 
formations in Europe. Seventh, a tabular view 
of the massive rocks, after Zirkel. Eighth, 
the characteristics of common minerals, giving 
their system of crystallization, specific gravity, 
hardness, chemical composition, streak color 
and the crystallographic position of their leaf 
cleavage. Ninth, a comparative table of the 



February 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



175 



crytallographic systems of Naumann, Weiss 
and Miller, with formulas for converting the 
symbols of one system into those of another. 
Tenth, atomic weights of the elements. 
Eleventh, an essay on the history of the 
names of geologic formations, by J. Walther. 
Twelfth, rules for the termination of proper 
names in scientific literature. Thirteenth, a 
brief notice of the advance of geology for the 
year. Fourteenth, list of geologists who have 
died since October 1, 1897. Fifteenth, table of 
the commonly-used measures of length. Six- 
teenth, isogonic chart of Europe for 1899. 
Seventeenth, lists of periodicals now published. 
Eighteenth, a list of geological, paleontological 
and mineralogical literature for 1898. (Very 
incomplete, particularly as regards America, 
and frequently useless because name of period- 
ical is not given.) Following is a chart of map 
scales, a daily calendar, a few blank pages for 
accounts, and blank and cross-section pages for 
geologic notes. Then come 26 pages of adver- 
tisements of German materials for use in geologic 
investigation and teaching. Worthy of notice 
among these advertisements is Professor Dames' 
Geological Globe, of 34 cm. diameter, which 
will be useful in every geological laboratory. 

The writer found the first edition of this 
book an invaluable vade mecum in a European 
trip. At home the book serves as a valuable 
check-list for the sending of separates, for in- 
formation concerning geologic maps, and while 
it is not particularly adapted to the American 
geologist it is a welcome addition to the refer- 
ence books one keeps about his desk. A hand- 
book for the field geologist has yet to be writ- 
ten. Just what such a book should contain is 
probably difficult to ascertain. 

J. B. WOODWORTH. 

The Chinch Bug. By F. M. WEBSTER. Bull. 

No. 15, N. S., Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. 

of Agriculture. [November] 1898. Pp. 82_ 

This excellent bulletin deals with a subject of 

perennial interest to fai-mers and entomologists ; 

and although the literature of the chinch bug is 

already large, Professor Webster has found 

plenty of new and interesting things to say 

about it. In the most interesting and convincing 

way, he shows how the insect may have origi- 



nated in Central America, and spread northward 
in three columns, one along the Pacific coast, 
the second over the prairie region east of the 
Eocky Mountains, and the third along the 
shores of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic ocean. 
On p. 72 a map is given illustrating these mi- 
grations. The Pacific column appears to be 
weak, and is little known, but the other two 
are strong in numbers. In the course of these 
migrations the insects have become modified, 
and it is clearly shown that the Atlantic and 
prairie hordes differ both in habits and struc- 
ture. Just at this point the present writer is 
inclined to disagree with Professor Webster's 
opinion, that there is only one species of -BKssms 
in North America. There are reasons for be- 
lieving that we have at least three species, and 
Montandon (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXVII., 
1893) has described as new B. hirtiis from North 
America, and B. pulchellus from Central and 
South America. Unfortunately, I have not ac- 
cess to these descriptions, but from the data 
furnished by Professor Webster we may sepa- 
rate the following : 

1. Form of Central America and the West 
Indies : Macropterous, perhaps of larger aver- 
age size than the North American type. This 
may be Montaudon's pulchellus. 

2. Form of the prairie region of North 
America, probably also of California : Macrop- 
terous, more slender and less hairy than the 
coast insect. This is doubtless Le Baron's Bhy- 
parochromus devastator, and will be called Blissus 
devastator (Le Baron). This insect occurs in 
small numbers, and is evidently native, along the 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, in Colo- 
rado and New Mexico. Like the Colorado po- 
tato beetle, it has become destructive when, 
moving eastwards, it found the cultivated fields 
of the central States. Professor Webster shows 
that it is very destructive to wheat and corn, 
but rarely attacks timothy. It has two annual 
broods. 

3. Form of the coast region and northeastern 
States. This is doubtless the true Blissus leu- 
copierus, Say. It has both brachypterous and 
macropterous forms, and is somewhat broader 
and decidedly more hairy than devastator. It 
depredates almost exclusively upon timothy 
grass and is single-brooded. 



176 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



4. Another brachypterous sea- coast form, 
quite hairy and with colorational peculiarities, 
has been found at Lake Worth, Florida, and 
Fortress Monroe, Virginia, as recorded by Dr. 
L. O. Howard. I do not know whether this is 
Montandon's hirtus. 

It seems to the writer that the probability of 
there being at least three species among the 
above insects is great enough to deserve serious 
consideration. If those who have the material 
■will boil up a number of each in caustic potash, 
and examine the structural characters under 
the microscope by transmitted light, it is prob- 
able that new differences will appear, especially 
in the male genitalia. If it can be established 
that the seriously destructive insect of recent 
years is B. devastator, and not B. leucopterus at 
all, and that the former is still migrating east- 
wards, the fact will not only be of scientific but 
of economic importance.* 

t. d. a. cockeeell. 

Mesilla Park, N. M., 

November 24, 1898. 

Postscript, December 9th. Dr. L. O. Howard 
writes me: "The eastern form [leucopterus'] injures 
many plants, including rice. That it is apparently 
more resistant to fungus attack, however, was shown 
in a curious way last summer, when it damaged grass 
lawns in the heart of the City of Brooklyn in an ab- 
normally wet season and in spite of repeated drench- 
ings from the sprinkler hose. " 

A Manual of Chemical Analysis, Qualitative and 
Quantitative. By G. S. Newth, Demonstrator 
in the Eoyal College of Science, London. 
New York, Longmans, Green & Co. 1898. 
Pp. vii + 462. 

This book is a decided departure from the 
usual manuals of qualitative and quantitative 
analysis. The author has endeavored, and 
with much success, to present a book which 
will teach the theoretical as well as the prac- 
tical side of analytical chemistry and to avoid 
as far as possible teaching mechanical opera- 

* On p. 50 Professor Webster notes that few chinch 
bugs died from the parasitic fungus in the timothy 
meadows of northern Ohio. These were the B. leucop- 
terus, which, coming from a relatively damp region, 
may have acquired greater powers of resistance to the 
fungus attack than B. devastator, from the dry 
prairies of the far West. 



tions. He has divided the volume into twa 
parts: Book I., of 136 pages, treating of qualita- 
tive analysis; and Book II. , giving the methods of 
gravimetric and volumetric analysis of inorganic 
substances, including the analysis of the more 
simple gases, of the determination of carbon, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and the halogens 
in organic compounds, and of some simple 
physico-chemical experiments. 

The subject of qalitative analysis is treated 
in a broad way, and the student who follows 
the text conscientiously will obtain a wide 
knowledge of general chemistry. The author 
first shows how the subject can be classified ac- 
cording to the reaction with the group re- 
agents, and then considers the properties of 
the separate elements. The general chemistry 
of each of the more common elements is dis- 
cussed, giving only those properties which are 
useful for the separation and identification of 
the elements in analysis, and after having con- 
sidered the properties of a group of elements 
there is given a summary of the particular 
properties which are utilized in separating the 
members of the group. The general reactions 
taking place, the properties of the substances 
and their compounds are so clearly stated and 
the subject is so logically developed that the 
qualitative separation of the substances fol- 
lows naturally, and the quantitative separation 
is but a step further. This is particularly true 
of that portion of the book which treats of the 
oxidation and reduction of iron, chromium and 
manganese compounds. The reactions of chro- 
mium and the separation in the presence of 
phosphates, which are often difficult points for 
the student to grasp, are fully and satisfactorily 
explained. The separation of iron, chromium 
and aluminium is based upon the oxidation of 
chromium to chromic acid by sodium peroxide 
and the solubility of aluminium hydroxide in 
sodium hydroxide, and should commend itself 
more favorably than the usual methods of 
separation for this group. Another point 
which deserves special mention is the fact that 
after each group follows an appendix in which 
the properties of the rarer elements of that 
group are considered. The concluding chapter 
of the portion of the book devoted to qualita- 
tive analysis is full of sound advice on the in- 



February 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



177 



telligent interpretation of results and on the 
cultivation and development of habits of obser- 
vation. 

There are some points on which the author 
has either not laid enough stress or where a 
better method of procedure might have been 
offered. The difficulties produced by the 
simultaneous presence of chromium and zinc 
are not mentioned, and it would have been 
much better to have given here, as an alterna- 
tive method, the barium carbonate process, not 
only for the separation of zinc from chromium, 
but also for the separation in the presence of 
phosphates. Again the Fresenius method for 
separating small amounts of barium, calcium 
and strontium would prove more accurate than 
the separation by means of potassium chromate 
and acetic acid. The preliminary tests and 
operations necessary to get a substance into so- 
lution are systematically treated, but no men- 
tion is made of fusion with acid potassium sul- 
phate. There are two portions of Book I. which 
reflect on the intelligence of the student, and 
the book would have been much better without 
them, viz.: the tables at the end of each chap- 
ter giving an outline of the process ; and Chap- 
ter I., which treats of filtration, solution, evap- 
oration, fusion, precipitation, ignition and 
neutralization, processes, which properly belong 
to experimental general chemistry. If the stu- 
dent had not already been over the ground 
here given he would not be fitted to begin 
qualitative analysis. 

There will undoubtedly be a difference of 
opinion concerning that portion of the book de- 
voted to quantitative analysis, particularly in 
regard to the selection of the gravimetric 
analyses and to the details necessary to carry 
them out. After the preliminary operations of 
weighing and preparation of pure salts the 
gravimetric determination of the more common 
metals and acids is studied in detail, and then 
follows a chapter on the determination of the 
constituents of silver coin, solder, German 
silver, bronze, dolomite, zinc blende and an in- 
soluble silicate containing the alkalies. The 
well known typical methods of volumetric 
analysis are given. By excluding many de- 
scriptive details and by conciseness and clear- 
ness of expression the author has condensed a 



great deal into this portion of the book, which, 
if followed under the guidance of an instructor, 
should give any student a good general knowl- 
edge of quantitative methods. 

Following the gravimetric and volumetric 
methods, the physico-chemical methods for the 
determination of specific gravity, boiling point, 
melting point and vapor density are given. 
The author could very advantageously, and 
should, have included here the determination 
of molecular weights by boiling- or freezing- 
point methods, and then followed it by a brief 
risiime of the more recent apjilications of theo- 
retical chemistry to quantitative analysis. 
Such a chapter would have been in harmony 
with the rest of the book and would have in- 
creased its value greatly. 

In his preface the author says, " I have care- 
fully avoided the use of those symbolic abbrevi- 
ated expressions, such as H^O (oxalic acid), 
H,T (tartaric acid)," etc., and nevertheless he 
uses the formula ' Cy ' instead of CN, offering 
as an excuse that ' Cy ' is a recognized and con- 
venient symbol for the radical (CN) cyanogen. 
He is further inconsistent in the uses of the 
doubled formula for the hydroxides of iron, 
chromium and aluminium, as Fe,(OH),, etc., 
while perhaps in the same equation he will use 
the single formula for the chloride FCl^. 

The author it seems takes unusual precau- 
tions in igniting filter papers apart from the 
main portion of the precipitate. This tedious 
operation might have been avoided in many 
cases by the use of the Gooch crucible, which 
receives no mention. 

As a whole the book is remarkably free from 
objectionable points, and is a distinct advance 
in the scientific treatment of analytical chemis- 
try. 

Henry Fay. 

recent publications of the u. s. geolog- 
ical stjevby. 

The following bulletins have been recently 
issued by the U. S. Geological Survey : 
Bulletin 89. ' Some Lava Flows of the Western 

Slope of the Sierra Nevada, California,' F. 

L. Ransome. 

The author describes a series of lava sheets, 
one of which forms the celebrated Table Moun- 



178 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



tain, in Tuolumne county, California, and 
which has been usually described as basalt. 
The rocks are intermediate between the tra- 
chytes and andesites and are specially named 
' latites. ' Inasmuch as sis other names have 
already been proposed for rocks of this general 
character, the author had a magnificent oppor- 
tunity to resist the temptation to make a new 
one. 
Bulletin 149. ' Bibliography and Index of North 

American Geology, Paleontology, Petrology 

and Mineralogy for 1896,' F. B. Weeks. 

This bulletin continues the excellent series 
already represented by Nos. 127, 130, 135 and 
146. 
Bulletin 150. ' The Educational Series of Rock 

Specimens, collected and distributed by the 

U. S. Geological Survey,' J. S. Diller. 

The petrography of the series is set forth by 
Mr. Diller and othei's. The work will be more 
fully reviewed elsewhere in Science. 
Bulletin 151. ' The Lower Cretaceous Gryphseaa 

of the Texas Region,' R. T. Hill and T. W. 

Vaughan. 

This Bulletin has been reviewed in Science 
for January 20, 1899 (p. 110), by Professor 
Frederic W. Simonds. 

Bulletin 152. ' Catalogue of the Cretaceous 
Plants of North America,' F. H. Knowlton. 

Bulletin 153. ' Bibliographic Index of North 

American Carboniferous Invertebrates,' 

Stuart Weller. 
Bulletin 154. 'A Gazetteer of Kansas,' Heni'y 

Gannett. 
Bulletin 155. ' Earthquakes in California in 

1896 and 1897,' Charles D. Perrine. 
Bulletin 156. ' Bibliography and Index of North 

American Geology, Paleontology, Petrology 

and Mineralogy for 1897,' Fred. B. Weeks. 

The titles of Nos. 152-156 inclusive indicate 
the contents. 

The Macmillan Company announce the early 
publication of the second part of Dr. Dav- 
enport's ' Experimental Morphology, which 
treats of the effect of chemical and physical 
agents upon growth. They also announce ' A 
History of Physics ; in its Elementary Branches 
Including the Evolution of Physical Labora- 



tories' which has just been completed by 
Florian Cajori, Ph.D., professor of physics in 
Colorado College and author of ' A History of 
Mathematics.' 

The Open Court Publishing Company have 
now in press the ' Principles of Bacteriology,' 
by Professor Ferdinand Hueppe, of the Uni- 
versity of Prague, translated by Professor E. 
O. Jordan, of the University of Chicago. 

BOOKS received. 
Hand-book of Metallurgy. CARL SuHNABEL. Trans- 
lated by Henry Lewis. London and New York, 
The Macmillan Company. 1898. Vol. I., pp. 
xvi + 876. Vol. II., pp. xiv + 732. $10.00. 

A Guide to the Study of the Geological Collections of the 
New York State Museum. FREDERICK J. H. Mer- 
rill. Albany, University of the State of New 
York. 1898. Pp. 207 + 65 plates. 40 cents. 

Earthenware of the New York Aborigines. "WILLIAM 
M. Beauchamp. Albany, University of the State 
of New York. 1898. Pp. 76 + 142. 245 illustra- 
tions. 25 cents. 

Tlie Last Link, our present Knowledge of the Descent of 
Man. Ernest Haeckel. London, Adam and 
Charles Black; New Y'ork, The Macmillan Com- 
pany. 1898. Pp. 156. $1.00 

The Principles of Stratigraphical Geology. J. E. Maer. 
Cambridge, The University Press ; New York, 
The Macmillan Co. 1898. Pp. 304. S1.60. 

Society for tlie Promotion of Engineering Education 
Sixth Annual Meeting, Vol. VI. Edited by T. C. 
Mendenhall, J. B. Johnson and A. Kingsbury. 
Published by the Society. 1898. Pp. xxvii -|-324. 

Traite de zoologie concrete. YvES Delage and Ed- 
UAED Herouaed. Vol. VIII., Les prooordes. 
Paris, Schleicher Freres. 1898. Pp. vii +379. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 
The New England Botanical Club has estab- 
lished a journal to encourage the study of the 
local flora. It has been given the name Rhodora 
and will be published monthly at 740 Exchange 
Building, Boston. The editor-in-chief is Mr. 
B. L. Robinson, with Messrs. F. S. Collins, M. 
L. Fernald and Hollis Webster as associate 
editors. The first number, which contain twenty 
pages and two plates, opens with an editorial 
announcement, followed by a number of inter- 



February 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



179 



■esting articles and notes on the flora of New 
England. 

The initial number of the Bulletin of the 
■Cooper Ornithological Club of California con- 
tains a biographical sketch, with portrait of 
Dr. James C. Cooper, after whom the Club is 
named. Among the other contributions is one 
■on the ' Nesting of the Fulvous Tree-Duck,' 
showing that this species frequently deposits its 
eggs in the nests of other species, and also that 
it is either more prolific than any other duck, or 
that several females lay in one nest, 28 to 32 
eggs being found on sevei-al occasions. 

The publication of the Osprey for December, 
1898, brings this magazine down to date, and 
we are promised that there will be no delays in 
the future. The leading article, by E. W. Nel- 
son, is devoted to a ' Morning with the birds on 
Mount Orizaba,' and there is an interesting ac- 
count of the Sea-birds off the New England 
coast by H. K. Job. A fine plate of blue jays, 
by Fuertes, closes the number, but this, like the 
other illustrations, has suffered in the printing. 

The Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission 
for 1897, Vol. XVII. of the series, is mainly oc- 
cupied with the papers read at the National 
Fisheries Congress, held at Tampa, Fla., in 
January, 1898. Among the other papers are 
accounts of the Salmon Investigation of the Co- 
lumbia River Basin in 1896, and of the Salmon 
Fishery of Penobscot River and Bay in 1895 
and 1896. 

The February number of TVie Open Court con- 
tains an article by Professor R. M. Wenley, of 
the University of Michigan, on the GifFord Lec- 
tureships, established with an endowment of 
$400,000, by the late Lord Giflford, in the four 
Scottish" Universities, for the purpose of en- 
couraging research in natural theology. In his 
will Lord GifFord stated that he wished the lec- 
turers to treat their subject strictly as a natural 
science — as astronomy or chemistry is treated. 
The present incumbents of the lectureships are : 
At St. Andrews, the Hebrew scholar. Profes- 
sor Wellhausen, of Marburg; at Glasgow, the 
physiologist. Professor Foster, of Cambridge ; 
at Aberdeen and Edinburgh, Professors Royce 
and James, respectively, professors of philoso- 
phy and psychology at Harvard University. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

WISCONSIN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, ARTS AND 
LETTERS. 

The 29th annual meeting of the Academy 
was held on December 27th and 28th last, at 
Milwaukee, with the President, Professor C. 
Dwight Marsh, of Ripon College, in the chair. 

Professor E. A. Birge, Director of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, made 
a report on the general progress of the Survey. 
Dr. E. R. Buckley followed with a special re- 
port on Wisconsin building stones and Professor 
D. P. Nicholson on lake investigations. Pro- 
fessor C. R. Van Hise and others urged that the 
recommendation of the Academy for the con- 
tinuation and extension of the Survey be pre- 
sented formally to the Legislature. A com- 
mittee was appointed for this purpose. 

It was voted as the sense of the meeting that 
the library of the Academy should be put in the 
custody of the State Historical Society when 
the latter should remove its own library to the 
new building provided for it by the State. The 
library of the Acadamy has become important, 
especially in the line of transactions of foreign 
societies, and it is expected that suitable rooms 
will be available for it in the new building. 

Mr. Ernest Bruncken, Secretary of the State 
Forestry Commission, reported on the legisla- 
tion which the Commission will endeavor to gain 
the present winter. Three lines of effort will 
be recommended : (1) to establish a complete 
corps of fire wardens and efficient supervision 
thereof; (2) to study conditions of forest 
growth, both in the forest itself and at experi- 
ment stations ; (3) to educate public opinion. 

The program of the meeting contained, to- 
gether with other papers, the following of a 
scientific nature : 

' Lake temperatures. ' E. A. Birge. 

'Contributions from the histological laboratory 
of the University of Wisconsin.' W. S. Miller. 

' Further facts in relation to the succession- 
period of generations.' C. H. Chandler. 

' Lantern Projections of Three Dimensional 
Curves and Surfaces,' and ' Theoretical Investi- 
gation on the Motion of Ground Waters — -III, 
Mutual Interference of two or more Artesian 
Wells.' C. S. Slichter. 



180 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



' The Maximum Gravitational Attraction at 
the Pole of a Spheroid.' E. F. Chandler. 

' Combinations of Pythagorean Triangles as 
giving Exercises in Computation.' T. H. Saf- 
ford. 

' A Study of the Class of Electric and Mag- 
netic Oscillations known as Aphotic' J. E. 
Davies. 

' Some Facts in Regard to the Development of 
Epischura.' C. D wight Marsh. 

' The Block System of Arranging Insect Col- 
lections. ' Harriet B. Merrill. 

'Spines of Trilobites and their Significance.' 
G. L. Collie. 

' TheCrystallography of a Gold Telluride from 
Cripple Creek,' and 'The Crystallography of 
a new Reduction Product of Terpene.' W. H. 
Hobbs. 

' The Volume Relations of Original and Sec- 
ondary Minerals in Rocks.' C. R. Van Hise. 

' The Electrical Properties of Non-Acjueous 
Solutions'. A. T. Lincoln. 

' The Effects of the Presence of pure Metals 
upon Plants.' Louis Kahlenberg and E. B. 
Copeland. 

' Revision of the Pronouns, with Special Con- 
sideration of Relatives and Relative Clauses. ' E. 
T. Owen. 

The number of new members elected was 14. 
The active members of the Academy now num- 
ber 200. 

A. S. Flint, 
Secretary. 

Madison, Wis. 

the ohio academy of science. 
The Ohio Academy of Science held its eighth 
annual meeting at Columbus, Ohio, on Decem- 
ber 29 and 30, 1898, in Orton and Zoological 
Halls of the Ohio State University. Eighteen 
new members were elected. Hon. Emerson 
McMillen, a life member of the society, donated 
the sum of $250 to be applied as the trustees of 
the Society may see fit, for the encouragement 
of investigation. Officers were elected for the 
coming year as follows : President, Professor 
G. Frederick Wright, of Oberlin ; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Chas E. Albright, of Columbus, and A. 
D. Selby, of Wooster ; Secretary, E. L. Mosely, 
of Sandusky ; Treasurer, Professor Herbert Os- 



born, of Columbus ; Executive Committee, E. 
E. Masterman and G. H. Holferty ; Publication 
Committee, F. M. Webster, of Wooster. 

Professor W. G. Tight, of Dennison Univer- 
sity, delivered the retiring President's address 
on the subject ' Geographical Teaching and the 
Geography of Ohio.' 

The following papers were read : ' A Deep 
PreGlacial Channel in Western Ohio and East- 
ern Indiana,' by J. A. Bownocker ; 'The Di- 
vision of the Macrospore Nucleus of Erythro- 
nium,' 'Two Interesting Filamentous Bacteria 
from Columbus' and 'Nutation of the Cultivated 
Sunflower,' by John H. Schafifner ; 'Some Re- 
cently Discovered Pre Glacial Cols in Ohio,' 
'A Galenite Geode from Muskingum Co.' and 
' A Pocket Instrument for the Approximate De- 
termination of Distance by Triangulation,' by 
W. G. Tight ; ' Some Observations on Unio 
subovatus,' by F. L. Landacre ; 'Some Obser- 
vations on the Topography of Athens and Vi- 
cinity,' by H. E. Chapin and C. H. Stearns; 
' The Laboratory and the Field — Their Relative 
Importance,' by H. E. Chapin ; ' A Contribu- 
tion to the Knowledge of the Faunistic Ento- 
mology of Ohio,' 'Some Notes on the Grape 
Cane Gall Maker, Ampeloglypter sesostris,' and 
' Some Apparent Relations of Ants to Peach 
aphis, A. persiceeniger,' by F. M. Webster; 
' Some Observations on the Pre-Glacial Drain- 
age of Wayne and Associate Counties,' by J. 
H. Todd ; ' A Plea for Science Teaching in the 
Public Schools,' by Miss Mary E. Law ; ' Notes 
on Ecological Plant Geography of Summit, 
Wayne and Medina Counties' and ' Field 
Notes,' by A. D. Selby; ' Some Sources of the 
Ohio Flora, '-by A. D. Selby and J. W. T. Du- 
vel ; 'Notes on Fasciation,' 'Some Abnormal 
Plant Specimens' and ' Further Studies in Em- 
bryology,' by Miss L. C. Riddle ; ' Distribution 
of the Microscopic Fungi,' 'Reliability of Spore 
Measurements of the Fleshy Fungi,' ' The Illi- 
nois Biological Station' and ' Occurrence of 
Phalli near Cleveland,' by H. C. Beardsley ; 
'Climate of the Philippine Islands,' ' Life in the 
Philippines' and ' Some Rare Ohio Plants,' by 
E. L. Mosely ; ' Development of the Micro- 
sporangium of Semerocallis fulva,' by E. L. Full- 
mer ; ' Lichens New to Ohio,' ' List of Phseno- 
gams New to Ohio or Rare in and New to Coun- 



Febkuaey 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



181 



ties in Northern Ohio' and ' Lists of Erysiphea3 
and Uredineaj of Cuyalioga and other Counties 
of Northern Ohio,' by Edo Claassen ; ' Studies of 
Ustilago Beiliana,' by W. A. and K. F. Keller- 
man ; ' Plants New to the Ohio Flora' and ' Ob- 
servations on the Ohio Flora,' by W. A. Kel- 
lerman ; ' A Descriptive List of the Fishes of the 
Big Jelloway Creek System,' by J. B. Parker, 
E. B. Williamson and R. C. Osburn ; ' Addi- 
tional Notes on Franklin County Fishes,' by 
E. B. Williamson and R. C. Osburn ; ' Ad- 
ditional Notes on the Crayfish of Ohio,' by 
E. B. Williamson ; ' Additions to the Ohio 
List of Dragonflies,' ' Additions to the Ohio 
List of Butterflies' and ' Twenty-five Species 
of Syrphidse not Previously Reported for Ohio,' 
by J. S. Hine ; ' Remarks on the Hemipterous 
Fauna of Ohio, with a Preliminary Record of 
Species,' by Herbert Osborn ; ' A Bat New to 
Ohio,' by J. F. Cunningham ; ' A Female of the 
Purslain Sawfly, Schizocerus Sp f, with a Male 
Antenna,' by 0. W. Mally ; ' The Waste or Re- 
fuse in Fruit and Nuts,' by W. R. Lazenby ; 
' On the Occurrence of the Black-Capped Petrel, 
jSstrelatehasitata, at Cincinnati, Ohio,' by Joshua 
LindahL 

R. C. Osburn. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

January 12, 1899. — Under the head of exhibi- 
tion of specimens Mr. Schwarz showed a true 
queen of an undescribed species of Termes 
which had been found by Mr. H. G. Hubbard 
in the Madera Caiion of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains, Arizona. This is the first true Termite 
queen which has been found in North America. 

Mr. Heidemann exhibited a species of the 
genus Hoplinus found by Mr. Schwarz in south- 
ern Arizona (Catalina Mountains). This is a 
curious species thickly covered with spines, on 
account of which Mr. Ashmead suggested that, 
as the vegetation of that region is spiny, the 
presence of this armatured bug indicated a case 
of protective resemblance. A long discussion 
ensued on the subject of mimicry and protec- 
tive resemblance among insects, participated in 
by Messrs. Gill, Ashmead, Judd and Howard. 

Dr. Dyar presented some notes on the phyl- 
logeny of the Lasiocampid;e. Apropos of Mr. 
Tutt's recent article on the subject he had gone 



over the group and established a genealogical 
tree based principally upon the larval charac- 
ters and the wing venation. , The discussion of 
this paper took the form of a continuation of 
the subject of protective resemblance suggested 
by Dr. Dyar's remarks about the larvte of this 
group of Lepidoptera, especially in relation to 
the sub-lateral structures developed as a means 
of eliminating the shadow cast by the caterpil- 
lars, consisting in one group of larvae of a longi- 
tudinal white line and in others of lateral pro- 
cesses. Further discussion, by Messrs. Gill, 
Ashmead and Dyar, considered the larval 
characters of the Lepidoptera, Dr. Dyar stat- 
ing that the most generalized larva is tubercu- 
late, tubercules being lost and hairs being de- 
veloped in the process of specialization. 

Mr. Schwarz read a paper by Mr. H. G. 
Hubbard on the luminosity of a larviform Cole- 
opter supposed to be the female of Mastino- 
cerus, and supplemented Mr. Hubbard's note 
by general remarks on the females of Lampyrid 
beetles. Discussion followed, relating espe- 
cially to the question as to whether luminosity 
in the Lampyridas is a specialized condition, Dr. 
Gill taking the stand that from its more or less 
isolated occurrence in several groups of this 
family it is more likely to have been an original 
condition which has been lost perhaps by a ma- 
jority of species in the process of specialization, 
calling attention to the analogy between this 
phenomenon in the Lampyridje and Elateridse 
to the phenomenon of electricity in the fishes, 
occurring as it does here and there in several 
groups. Mr. Schwarz stated that the relation- 
ship between the luminous Lampyridse and the 
Elateridse was closer than perhaps has hitherto 
been suspected and called attention to the fact 
that the larviform female of Phengodes was 
originally described by Le Conte as an Elaterid. 
Mr. Howard considered that from the fact that 
the species which lack this physiological quality 
correspond to the normal coleopterous type and 
that since the larviform females possess what 
may be termed highly degradational characteris- 
tics comparable to those acquired by a life of 
parasitism, for example, the luminosity should 
probably be considered a high specialization of 
comparatively recent origin. 

The final paper of the evening was presented 



182 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



by Mr. Howard who exhibited a series of Aus- 
tralian insects of economic importance and made 
a brief statement of the present condition of 
economic entomology in the Australian colo- 
nies. He called attention to the fact that the 
introduction of agriculture on a large scale in 
this comparatively new region had resulted in 
the attacks of many native species upon culti- 
vated crops. The specimens shown had been 
sent him by Mr, W. W. Froggatt, the Ento- 
mologist of the Department of Agriculture of 
Sydney, New South "Wales, and included a 
number of species of great economic importance. 
He noted the curious habit of the apple root- 
borer (Leptops hopei) in laying its eggs in the 
folded leaf of the apple, the newly hatched 
larvffi dropping to the ground and entering the 
roots ; the damage done by the orange bug 
(Oneosalis sulciventris), the vine moth (Agarista 
glycina) and a number of other species, showing 
among other things that the so-called climbing 
cut- worm named by Mr. Froggatt Plusia verti- 
serrata is apparently nothing but our North 
American Prodenia lineatella. In briefly dis- 
cussing this paper Mr. Schwarz drew a com- 
parison between the large number of native 
species which, by a change of habit, have at- 
tacked cultivated crops in Australia and the 
extremely small number which have similarly 
changed their habits in our own Northwest. 
He recalled no native species in Washington 
and Oregon which have become crop pests. 
L. O. Howard, 

Secretary. 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

Decemher 20, 1S98. Professor Angelo 
Heilprin made a communication on the phys- 
ical geography and geology of the Klondike 
region, with incidents of a summer trip to 
Dawson City. The general features of the 
country traversed were described and profusely 
illustrated by lantern views. 

A paper entitled ' Synopsis of the United 
States species of the Hymenopterous genus 
Centris Fabricius,' by William J. Fox, was pre- 
sented for publication. 

January 10, 1899. PROFESSOR H. A. PiLSBRY 
described a New Mexican Helicoid land shell 



received from Professor Cockerell. A dissec- 
tion showed that the form agreed with the Epi- 
phragmophora in the structure of the genera- 
tive organs and the form of the kidney, while 
the shell closely resembles Polygyra. The 
new genus thus defined was named Ashmun- 
ella in recognition of the services of the col- 
lector. 

Dr. William H. Dall referred to the discus- 
sion at the recent meeting of the Geological 
Society of America of the authenticity of the 
Calveras skull, and described the specimen as 
examined by him immediately after it came into 
the possession of Professor Whitney, of the Geo- 
logical Survey of California. The speaker 
believed that so far no sufficient reason had 
been adduced for doubting the genuine charac- 
ter of the skull and its original situs below the 
lava, though the question of the coexistence of 
man and the extinct mammals whose remains 
have been found in the same gravels is entirely 
distinct and may reasonably be left open. 

The subject was discussed by Mr. Lewis 
Woolman, who also referred to recent ineffec- 
tual attempts to find implements of human 
manufacture in the Trenton gravels. 

A paper entitled ' New and Interesting 
Species in the Isaac Lea Collection of Eocene 
Mollusca,' by Charles W. Johnson, was pre- 
sented for publication. 

January 17, 1899. Mr. Charles S. Boyer 
read a paper on the general study of diatoms 
and on the characters of the forms found in the 
neighborhood of the mouth of Pensauken creek 
and elsewhere near Philadelphia. 

Mr. Louis Woolman dwelt on the geological 
position and characters of the deposits contain- 
ing the forms enumerated by Mr. Boyer and ex- 
hibited microscopic preparations in illustration 
of his remarks. 

Professor Angelo Heilprin, alluding to 
Dr. Dall's communication on the Calaveras 
skull, recounted the arguments for and against 
its authenticity recently presented to the Geo- 
logical Society of America. He regarded the pres- 
ent evidence of the miners as worthless. He had 
calculated the age of the canon to be quite con- 
sistent with the existence of Indians cotem- 
poraneous with the deposit of the skull, al- 
though he agrees with Dr. Dall that, with the 



February 3, 1899.] 



JSCIENCR 



183 



evidence now in our possession, the question 
could not be definitely settled. 

Mr. p. p. Calveet referred to a recently 
published paper on the structure of the gizzard 
of dragon flies and recounted the results of the 
recorded observations. He had been able to 
dissect out the gizzard, in good condition for 
study, from dried specimens, one having been 
obtained from a fly captured in Burmah in 1889. 
The ridges, wiiich form a prominent feature of 
the organ, do not seem to be smoothed away 
by food, their function being probably that of a 
sieve. 

Edw. J. Nolan, 
Recording Secretary. 

ZOOLOGICAL CLUB, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. 
MEETINGS OF THE AUTUMN QUARTER. 

Polymorphic Nuclei in Embryonic Germ-cells. — 
While studying the oogenesis of Loligo pealei 
Les., the squid common at Woods Holl, Mass., 
I noticed that the embrj'onic germ-cells showed 
nuclei much lobed and contorted — a condition 
which has been observed in other germ-cells 
and variously accounted for as due to amitosis ; 
to deterioration with accompanying fragmenta- 
tion, to increase of the assimilating surface, etc. 
I wish here briefly to call attention to this con- 
dition in the squid. An account of the oogene- 
sis will soon be completed. 

Sex first becomes distinct shortly after hatch- 
ing, the embryonic germ-cells being apparently 
indifferent. During and for a short time after 
the embryonic period the genital gland rests 
upon the left tongue of the internal yolk-lobe. 
Nourishment is evidently direct througli the 
yolk-epithelium, the genital blood-vessels de- 
veloping toward the end of this period. During 
this time the nuclei of the germ-cells enlarge 
rapidly and show marked lobes, bays and con- 
tortions, a centrosome occurring in one bay of 
each nucleus. Their descendants, the oo- and 
spermatogonia, also show a polymorphism of 
the nuclei which becomes less striking as the 
number of generations increases and the size of 
the cells decreases. These cells always lie near 
the blood-vessels of the gland, and their chroma- 
tin, like that of the parent cells, is never finely 
divided, but massed in clumps, a large clump 
lying near each bay of the nucleus. A similar 



though less marked polymorphism exists in 
nearly all the somatic nuclei at this embryonic 
period, and is conspicuous in those rapidly pro- 
liferating stroma-cells at the hilum in which 
the blood-vessels form. 

This condition of the nuclei in the germ- 
cells of the squid is due neither to deterioration 
nor to amitosis, for it is shown by all the germ- 
cells, which after attaining a large size divide 
by mitosis, giving rise to the oo- or spermato- 
gonia. It seems probable that it is here caused 
by the rapid growth of the nucleus, together 
with the retention of the centrosome and massed 
condition of the chromatin in these rapidly 
dividing embryonic cells. 

Mary M. Sturges. 

Larvx of Arenicola cristata. — The highly 
resistant organization of these larvse renders 
them remarkably well fitted for artificial 
rearing. They may be reared from the egg 
in sea water kept aerated by Ulva up to a 
stage where the structure and habits of the 
adult are practically complete. Addition of 
carmine powder to the sea water seems to ac- 
celerate development up to a certain point, 
probably on account of the increased food sup- 
ply which is thus furnished to the developing 
larvae. 

They leave the egg-strings as slightly elon- 
gated, strongly heliotropic larvEe with two eye- 
spots and three body segments, each with two 
pairs of setse. Prototroch and paratroch, to- 
gether with a median ventral band of cilia, are 
present, and by their aid the larvae swim about, 
actively rotating on the long axis at the same 
time. After a day or two they settle down and 
begin to form the tubes in the interior of which 
they undergo the remainder of their develop- 
ment. These tubes are of very simple construc- 
tion, being composed of any convenient foreign 
particles united by a glutinous substance se- 
creted apparently by certain large clear cells, 
situated anteriorly, which are to be regarded as 
gland-cells. From now on development pro- 
gresses uniformly and growth proceeds as usual 
by the addition of segments at the posterior 
end. The opacity resulting from the presence 
of the yolk gradually diminishes as the yolk 
becomes absorbed, and when twelve segments 



184 



SOIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



or so are present the larvae have become almost 
perfectly transparent. By this time the mouth 
and anus have appeared and the three divisions 
of the intestine are established, the mid-gut, or 
stomach, which is very early distinguishable, 
being sharply marked off from the fore- and 
hind-guts, the latter of which is ciliated. The 
anterior part of the fore -gut is eversible and 
forms a proboscis, which appears at an early 
stage, and by its activity the neighboring par- 
ticles of debris are taken into the intestine, and 
as they pass through the latter the food mate- 
rial is extracted, just as in the adult. 

The essential habits of the adult are thus as- 
sumed at a very early stage. As the larva 
grows older the uniform segmentation of the 
body undergoes an alteration, and by the time 
thirty segments or so are attained there is per- 
ceptible a division of the body into two quite 
distinct regions, which correspond to a similar 
division in the adult, where the anterior part 
of the body, including the first eighteen seg- 
ments, is of considerably greater diameter than 
the remaining posterior part, which consists of a 
large and inconstant number of very short seg- 
ments of similar structure. This division grad- 
ually becomes more definitely established, and 
at the same time the gills make their appear- 
ance a simple thin-walled outgrowth of the 
body-wall, which gradually become branched in 
a more and more complex manner. There are 
thus formed eleven pairs of these structures, 
situated in segments 8 to 18 inclusive and con- 
taining looped blood-vessels derived from the 
main vascular trunks. The nephridea are al- 
ready visible through the transparent body- 
wall, as six pairs of somewhat elongated sac- 
like structures situated in segments 5 to 10. 
The otocysts are now clearly visible ; the circu- 
lation of the blood, with the contractions of the 
dorsal vessel and of the two 'hearts,' can be 
readily seen, as can also the secondary external 
division of each of the anterior segments into 
five by suiserficial circular grooves. At this stage, 
in fact, apart from this small size (12 to 18 mm.) 
and complete transparency, the larvas are in 
both habits and structure practically identical 
with the adult. E. S. Lillie. 

The following papers were also presented 
during the quarter : ' Caspar Friedrich Wolff 



and the Theoria Generationis,' Dr. W. M. 
Wheeler ; ' Field Work at Turkey Lake and a 
Series of Turtle Embryos from that Locality,' 
Miss E. E. Gregory ; ' Recent Literature on 
Spermatogenesis,' M. F. Guyer ; ' Eisig on the 
Development of the Capitellids,' Dr. C. M. 
Child ; ' Early History of the Optic Vesicles 
and Accessory, Eye-like Vesicles in Verte- 
brates,' Dr. W. A. Locy, of Northwestern Uni- 
versity; ' Characteristic Features of Mitosis and 
Amitosis,' Dr. S. Watase ; 'The Field Colum- 
bian Museum Expedition to Africa in 1896,' 
Dr. D. G. Elliott, Director of the Expedition ; 
' Protective Coloration,' Dr. W. H. Dudley. 



DISCUSSION AND COBBESPONDENCE. 

THE STORING OF PAMPHLETS. 

A CHEAPER grade of pamphlet box than 
those described by Dr. Minot can be obtained, 
made of pasteboard instead of light wood. 
They are strong enough for ordinary service. 
Those which I use were obtained at a local 
bindery, not made to order, but kept in stock, 
and measures 11x7x3 inches. They are open 
at the back ; the front face, 11 x 3, is covered 
with black cloth, to which a label is easily at- 
tached. 

For pamphlets of quarto size, too large to get 
in these boxes, and not taking kindly to a ver- 
tical position, I have procured covers with 
pasteboard sides and a partly flexible back. 
The two sides measure each 12 x 10 inches, and 
the back, attached to 12-inch edges, is 3 inches 
wide. The outside is of black cloth, two thick- 
nesses of which make the flexible part of the 
back. A strip of pasteboard one-inch wide 
gives stiffness to the middle of the back and a 
place for the label. When first put into ser- 
vice a sufficient number of pamphlets must be 
put in each cover to fill one inch in depth. The 
flexible part of the back, one inch on either side 
of the pasteboard strip, will allow an expan- 
sion of two inches before the contents require 
reassorting. The covers may be placed one 
upon another on the shelves, arranged in 
groujjs of subjects. These I find very service- 
able for the larger pamphlets. 

WiNSLOW Upton. 

Beown University, 

January 28, 1899. 



Febkuaky 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



185 



NOTES ON INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 

Seveeal months ago M. and Mme. Curie 
separated from pitch blende a strongly radio- 
active substance for which they proposed 
the name polonium. In the Compies Eendus 
for December 26th, in conjunction with 
M. B6mont, they describe another suppos- 
edly new element in pitch blende for which 
they propose the name radium, while the 
elementary character of polonium is con- 
firmed. Polonium in its chemical nature seems 
to resemble bismuth, while radium is analytic- 
ally indistinguishable from barium. Indeed, it 
would appear, especially as the spectrum of 
the new substance is apparently identical with 
that of barium, except one line, that in their 
samples radium is present only in small pro- 
portion and as an impurity in barium. The 
claim that it is a new element is based upon the 
radio-activity of the substance. Barium is not 
radio-active, while the substance obtained from 
pitch blende is extremely radio-active. By so- 
lution of the chlorid in water and precipitation 
with alcohol the substance may be fractioned 
until the chlorid is 200 times more active than 
uranium. In the spectrum of this substance 
Demarcy finds a line whose wave-length is 
3814.8, and which is not due to any known 
substance. The further the chlorid is frac- 
tioned the stronger this line appears. Au 
atomic weight determination showed a varia- 
tion from that of barium only within the limits 
of experimental error. 

In the January number of the American Chem- 
ical Journal the work of E. C. Franklin and C. 
A. Kraus on liquid ammonia (already noticed 
in this Journal) is continued. Since many in- 
organic salts are soluble in liquid ammonia, 
the probability of metathetic reactions, analo- 
gous to those in water, would be great. Such 
the authors find actually take place. Using 
the nitrates of sixteen metals, and the sulfid, 
chlorid, bromid, iodid, chromate and borate of 
ammonium as precipitant, it is found that those 
salts which are insoluble in ammonia are readily 
precipitated. The reactions with ammonium 
sulfid present the most interest, as the com- 
pounds formed differ in many cases at least 
from those formed in aqueous solution, as is 



evidenced by their color ; for example, that with 
cobalt is pink, with nickel and with cadmium, 
white. The cobalt and the cadmium compound 
assume the normal color of the sulfid on adding 
water. These seem to be complex compounds, 
as the precipitate from magnesium nitrate with 
ammonium sulfld was examined and found to 
correspond best to the formula 2MgS, (NH,)2S, 
xNHg, where x is 9 or 10. 

Considering in a second paper some of the 
properties in liquid ammonia the authors show 
its close relation to water. As a solvent for 
salts it is only surpassed by water ; it closely 
approaches water in its power of dissociating 
electrolytes ; indeed, some salts conduct elec- 
tricity better in ammonia solution than in 
aqueous solution ; in many compounds it plays 
the same part as water of crystallization ; its 
specific heat is as great as that of water and its 
molecular elevation constant is lower than that 
of any other substance yet measured. As a 
solvent it differs from water in not dissolving 
the sulfates and sulfites, the alkaline carbonates, 
phosphates and oxalates, and hydroxids. In its 
solvent power for organic substances it comes 
nearer alcohol than water. The solid ammonia 
is not, like water, specifically lighter than the 
liquid, nor does it exhibit a maximum density 
above its melting point. Altogether, the inves- 
tigations which Professor Franklin is carrying 
out on liquid ammonia promise to enrich our 
chemical knowledge in no small degree. 

J. L. H. 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. 

BAD FORM IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 

In a note to one of his recent articles Dr. S. 
R. Steiumetz criticises, with just severity, two 
faults conspicuous in some writers on anthro- 
pology (though surely not peculiar to works in 
this branch). The one is the appropriation, 
without any or sufficient acknowledgment, of 
the work of others. This rhay arise from inad- 
equate preparation, an ignorance of what others 
have written, or a half- knowledge of it, as well 
as from deliberate intent. 

The second fault is constant self-repetition 
and self- reference. I can name a writer whose 
references to his own writings exceed those to 



186 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



all other authors combined. Whether this is 
vanity, or simply because he does not read the 
works of others, may be left an open question. 
An author who omits references to what his 
predecessors have accomplished should be read 
with constant suspicion and distrust. 

THE MANGYANS OF MINDOEO. 

Those who have read Professor D. C. Wor- 
cester's account of the Mangyans of the Island 
of Mindoro, in the Philippines, which he con- 
tributed to the National OeograpMc Magazine 
(1898, No. 6), must have finished his article 
with the impression that these were about the 
lowest savages belonging to the human species. 

Professor Worcester, however, does not men- 
tion the remarkable and redeeming fact that 
these people are literary ; that they have and 
have had, so long as they have been known, a 
phonetic alj^habet and written records. I have 
a copy of a document in this alphabet before me, 
given in the appendix to Paterno's work, 'Los 
Itas ' (Madrid, 1890) ; and in 1895 Dr. Foy pub- 
lished a study of it, with numerous examples, 
in the ' Abhaudlungen ' of the Ethnographic 
Museum of Dresden. A brief article on the 
subject, by the eminent specialist, Professor 
Blumentritt, may be found in Globus, March, 
1896 (No. 11). We cannot place such a people 
in the status of savagery. 

THE JEW AND THE GYPSY. 

Under the above promising title, Mr. W. H. 
Wilkins edits a volume of the literary remains 
of Sir Richard F. Burton (H. F. Stone & Co., 
Chicago). Nearly 300 pages are devoted to 
these two wandering peoples. The reader who 
expects new and entertaining facts from Bur- 
ton's wide experience will be disappointed. The 
essay on the Jew contains nothing that has not 
appeared elsewhere, and that on the Gypsy is 
largely taken up with an ancient and barren 
controversy. The only portion of the former 
article which contained original observations 
the editor thought fit to suppress. 

Burton's work in ethnology, though varied 
and abundant, was superficial and prejudiced. 
He was not thorough, and his enthusiasm, for 
and against, led him repeatedly to adopt and 
defend untenable opinions. Probably the most 



carefully studied work of his life was that which 
his widow burned immediately after his death. 
D. G. Brinton. 
University of Pennsylvania. 



AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA. 

The forthcoming number of the Experiment 
Station Record describes the plans of the gov- 
ernment of Russia for the establishment of a 
system of agricultural education. At a recent 
meeting of the Agricultural Council, an ad- 
visory body, of which the Minister of Agricul- 
ture is Chairman, an outline presented by the 
Minister was considered at length and a general 
plan of agricultural education was elaborated. 
The introductory to this document states that 
notwithstanding the fundamental importance of 
agriculture to Russia and the great fertility of 
some of the Russian soils, " the crops obtained 
even on the black soil are only one- third to 
one-half as large as those harvested from the 
incomparably inferior soils of western Europe. 
Almost everywhere in Russia the primitive 
processes of farming are persistently followed 
by the farmers, while the number of persons 
who are fitted by education and training to dis- 
seminate information on the rational methods 
of agriculture is comparatively insignificant." 
The scheme is outlined for (1) higher education, 
furnished by independent agricultural institutes 
located in the chief agricultural zones of Russia, 
and by chairs of agriculture and allied sciences 
in the universities; (2) agricultural high schools, 
which are in the nature of technical schools 
and schools with courses in agriculture ; (3) 
lower agricultural schools ; and (4) the diffusion 
of general agricultural information. The schools 
for the so-called lower education include (a) 
secondary agricultural schools, (&) primary 
agricultural schools, (c) agricultural classes, and 
(d) practical agricultural courses. These lower 
.schools are to be under the jurisdiction of the 
Minister of Agricultural and Impei-ial Domains. 
They are to be maintained at the expense of 
municipalities, local communities, associations, 
etc., but may receive a part of their support 
from the government. They are to have the 
franking privilege for ofiicial mail matter and 
packages not exceeding 36 pounds in weight. 
The secondary schools are to be established on 



Febkdaey 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE, 



187 



government laud or land donated for that pur- 
pose. The other lower agricultural schools 
may be established on private estates. The 
secondarj' schools are open to young men of all 
conditions who have completed the course in 
the primary public schools. The course of 
instruction covers four years, and includes 
in addition to the general studies the ele- 
ments of the natural sciences, agricultural 
and rural economy, cattle raising, veterinary, 
agricultural law, horticulture, gardening, etc., 
together with carpentry and blacksmithing in 
their application to agricultural machinery. The 
primary agricultural schools are open to all who 
can read and write and have a knowledge of 
arithmetic as far as fractions. The courses last 
from one to three years. They include, aside 
from general studies, instruction in the ele- 
ments of agriculture, with practical exercises. 
The classes in agriculture are intended for the 
instruction of young men of the peasant class. 
The course does not last longer than two years, 
and consists in the study of the rudimentary 
principles of agriculture and their application to 
the local conditions. The successful comple- 
tion of the course in these three grades of the 
lower agricultural schools carries with it certain 
reductions in the military requirement, depend- 
ent upon the grade. The practical agricultural 
courses are designed to impart popular informa- 
tion in particular branches of agriculture. The 
instruction does not continue for more than a 
year, and consists in demonstrations, talks and 
practical exercises in different branches of agri- 
culture in their application to local conditions, 
and especially to the conditions of the peasants. 
The dilTusion of general agricultural informa- 
tion is to be provided for by : (1) the organization 
•of public readings or lectures on agricultural 
questions for the benefit of diflferent classes of 
the population ; (2) instruction of the teachers 
in the public schools in agriculture, horticulture, 
gardening, apiculture, etc., and providing the 
public schools with small plats of land and 
means for cultivating the same ; (3) the teaching 
of agriculture in the normal schools, and (4) the 
introduction of supplementary courses in agri- 
culture in the village schools. There are now 
in Russia 3 schools for higher agricultural in- 
struction, 9 agricultural high schools, 83 lower 



schools and 69 special courses. Steps have 
already been taken for the establishment of 
about 50 additional agricultural schools. 



TEE INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE OF SCI- 
ENTIFIC LITERATURE. 

Through the courtesy of the Secretaries of the 
Royal Society, we have received a copy of the 
Acta of the Second International Conference on a 
Catalogue of Scientific Literature, together with 
the report of the committee of the Royal So- 
ciety, with schedules of classification, and hope 
to give full consideration to a subject which is 
probably the most important now before men 
of science. It is to be hoped that the verbatim 
report of the proceedings of the second confer- 
ence will be printed promptly and freely dis- 
tributed among men of science and scientific 
journals. This is especially important in view 
of the short time, now less than one year before 
the plans of the Conference are to be put into 
effect. In connection with this subject we 
quote the following editorial note from the last 
number of Natural Science : 

" In our last number we gave a short account 
of the proceedings at the International Confer- 
ence on Scientific Literature convened by the 
Royal Society. We did not think it necessary 
to say that we had abstracted this account from 
our highly valued contemporary Nature, since 
we assumed that the proces-verbaux were public 
property, and that copies would be distributed 
to the press, especially the scientific press, in 
due course. No copy has yet reached us, and 
we gather from Science, as well as from other 
sources, that no attempt has been made by the , 
Royal Society to furnish the scientific public 
with any account of the work carried on by this 
Congress. We now recall the strange fact that 
the elaborate ' Report of the Committee of the 
Royal Society of London, with Schedules of 
Classification,' though bearing date March 30, 
1898, was never heard of by many of those 
most interested until late on in the year (vide 
articles in Science, and by Professor Victor 
Carus in Zoologischer Anzeiger). It seems to us 
that the Royal Society does not realize its re- 
sponsibilities. Why this shrinking from the 
public gaze ? Are the members of the commit- 
tees so afraid of criticism? This is a scheme 



188 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



that appeals to the whole world of science ; it 
will have to be supported by money ; it will re- 
quire the ardent cooperation of numerous in- 
dividuals. To say the very least, it is not wise 
of the Royal Society to put on its usual airs of 
superiority and indifference in a matter of this 
kind. We have excellent reason for believing 
that the eminent and courteous Secretaries of 
the Koyal Society are not responsible for this 
darkness where there should be light. Who, 
then, is the culprit?" 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

Mrs. Esther Herkman has given $10,000 to 
the building fund of the Scientific Alliance of 
New York City. It will be remembered that 
about a year ago we gave an account of the 
plans for erecting a building for the different 
scientific societies of New York. Such a scien- 
tific center is greatly needed, and it is to be 
hoped that Mrs. Esther Herrman's generous 
gift will be followed by others. 

Mr. Edward E. Ayer has resigned the presi- 
dency of the Field Columbian Museum, Chi- 
cago. A successor has not yet been elected. 

Professor A. E. Tornebohm has been 
elected President of the Swedish Geological So- 
ciety for 1899. 

Mr. W. Anderson, of the Geological Survey 
of India, has been appointed director of a sur- 
vey of Natal about to be undertaken by the 
Colony. 

The Academy of Science of St. Petersbui'g 
has elected as honorary members the King of 
Sweden, the Queen of Eoumania, Fridjof Nan- 
sen and M. Emile Seuart, member of the Insti- 
tute of France. 

M.A. LoREAU, President in 1898 of the French 
Society of Civil Engineers, and Count A. de Dax, 
Secretary of the Society, have been made by the 
Emperor of Russia a commander and a knight, 
respectively, of the order of St. Stanislas. 

Mr. E. T. Baker has been made Curator of 
the Technological Museum of Sydney, N. S. W. 

The death is announced of Dr. Dumontpallier, 
an eminent Paris physician and an author of 
contributions to pathology, especially of the 
nervous system, at the age of 74 years ; and of 



Lieut.-Col. Robert Pringle, M.D., of the British 
army, the author of numerous papers on the 
hygiene and diseases of India. 

We learn from the Botanical Gazette of the 
deaths of three foreign botanists, M. F. Gay, of 
the University of Montpellier, at the age of 40 
years, a student of the green algte. Pastor 
Christian Kaurin, of Sande Jarlsberg, Norway, 
at the age of 66, a well-known student of Scan- 
dinavian bryology, and Professor T. Camel, 
professor of botany and director of the botanic 
garden at Florence. 

The London Times gives the following details 
concerning the Rev. Bartholomew Price, F.R.S., 
whose death we recently recorded : Born at 
Cole St. Dennis, Gloucestershire, in 1818, Mr. 
Price was educated privately and at Pembroke 
College, whence he obtained a first class in 
mathematics in 1840. He gained the Univer- 
sity Mathematical Scholarship in 1842, and two 
years later was elected Fellow of his College. 
In 1844 he became tutor and ten years after- 
wards Sedleian professor of natural philosophy. 
In 1852 appeared the first volume of his elabo- 
rate work on the infinitesimal calculus ; the last 
of the four was not published till ten years later. 
This book obtained for him a considerable repu- 
tation in the mathematical world ; but his prin- 
cipal work in life was practical, and he will be 
remembered rather as the active Secretary of 
the Univei'sity Press during the years of its first 
great activities after the death of Dean Gaisford, 
than as a mathematical professor. Bartholo- 
mew Price was a keen yet cautious man of busi- 
ness, and in his best days did much for the in- 
terests of the University both at the Press and 
as member of the Hebdomadal Council. Prob- 
ably nobody of his time filled the latter post 
during so many years as he, or was so often 
called upon to be the spokesman of the Council 
in proposing new statutes and decrees to Con- 
gregation. 

We learn from Natural Science that at a meet- 
ing in Edinburgh, on November 8th, a com- 
mittee was appointed to consider the feasibility 
of establishing a Scottish Zoological Garden. 
' ' The idea of a ' Zoological Society' was mooted, 
but did not, we are pleased to learn, find sup- 
port. There are already three or four societies 



Febkuary 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



189 



in Edinburgh which have to do with Zoology, 
and auy attempt to insinuate another would 
simply alienate the sympathies of those who 
would be glad to see a well-considered Zoolog- 
ical Garden instituted. A committee, includ- 
ing Professor Cossar Ewart, Dr. Ramsay Tra- 
quair. Professor A. E. Mettam, Mr. Fairgrieve, 
Mr. W. S. Bruce, Mr. Hope Findlay and oth- 
ers, was appointed, and we wish them success. 
We venture to predict that a successful site is 
to be found in the direction where holidayers 
do most resort. Proximity to the sea would 
also be a great advantage. We hope the enthu- 
siasts and the capitalists may come to terms, 
and that more may soon be heard of this excel- 
lent scheme." 

At the recent annual meeting of the New 
York Academy of Medicine both the retiring 
President, Dr. E. G. Janeway, and the incom- 
ing President, Dr. William H. Thomson, advo- 
cated the establishment of a research laboratory 
in connection with the Academy. The library 
of the Academy now contains 70,360 books, 
being one of the most extensive medical li- 
braries in the world. 

The Chelsea Physics Garden, established in 
1721 by Sir Hans Sloan, at present forms the 
site of the garden and buildings of the Society 
of Apothecaries, occupied by them at a nominal 
vent of £5, on condition that the garden be 
maintained for the purpose of botanical and 
medicinal study, and supply the Eoyal Society 
with specimens of fresh plants every year. The 
Society wishing to be relieved of the trust, the 
London County Council has drawn up a plan 
for its further maintenance. The scheme pro- 
vides that the City Parochial Foundation, which 
is prepared to made a grant of a capital sum and 
a maximum yearly amount of £800 for main- 
tenance, shall be the trustees. It is proposed 
to provide a museum, a lecture theatre, a bo- 
tanical laboratory and a biological laboratory, 
partly in the existing buildings and partly in 
new buildings, which, it is anticipated, will en- 
croach on the garden to the extent of only one- 
eighth of an acre. The trust is to be adminis- 
tered by the trustees and by a committee of 
management that will include representatives 
from the Royal Society, the Royal College of 



Physicians and other institutions. Provision is 
made for the appointment of a Curator and other 
officers. 

The New England Association of Chemistry 
Teachers held their first annual meeting at 
Boston on January 28th. The following officers 
were elected: President, Dr. Lyman C. Newell; 
Vice-President, Rufus P. Williams, of Boston ; 
Secretary, M. A. Stone, Watertown ; Treasurer, 
E. F. Plolden, Charlestown ; Executive Com- 
mittee, William H. Snyder, Worcester, Miss 
Delia M. Stickney, Cambridge, and Charles R. 
Allen, of New Bedford. The Association now 
numbers 49 members. 

The centennial anniversary of the Medical 
and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland will be cele- 
brated in Baltimore, April 25th, 26th and 27th. 

A NUMBER of cases of bubonic plague have 
occurred on the Island of Mauritius. 

Dr. Carl Peters has left London with a 
well-equipped expedition to explore the Afri- 
can territory south of the Zambesi River with 
a special view to the discovery of gold. 

Natural Science states that Sven Hedin is 
classifying his geological specimens, which he 
will present to the High School of Stockholm, 
and is preparing a detailed account of his jour- 
ney from Kathgar to Khotam for Petermann's 
Mittheilimgen. His archaeological collection and 
manuscripts will be arranged by Professor 
Grunwedel and exhibited in the Berlin Museum, 
whilst Dr. Ekholm is dealing with the meteoro- 
logical notes. The maps and charts, covering 
.552 sheets, have been confided for enlargement 
and reproduction to Justus Perthes, of Gotha. 
Dr. Hediu proposes to start on his next journey 
of Asian exploration about the middle of 1899. 
He intends to cross the Taklamakan desert 
twice, thoroughly explore one of the largest 
rivers of Turkestan, and again study the inter- 
esting Lob Nor problem. The most important 
part of the work will, however, be exploita- 
tions in the north and interior parts of Tibet. 
Dr. Hedin hopes to be able to spend a winter in 
some of the highest alpine regions of Tibet 
at a height of about 15,000 feet. Then he will 
pay a visit to the new Viceroy of India, and 
will return over Himalaya, Karakoram and 
Kashgar. Dr. Hedin will again go alone, and 



190 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



he calculates that his three years' travel will 
cost no more than £2,500. 

It is proposed to establish in University Col- 
lege, Liverpool, a class for students who will de- 
vote themselves to the investigation of tropical 
diseases, to which end a special lecturer will be 
appointed, and the students will have the ad- 
vantage of watching cases and their treatment 
in the Royal Southern Hospital. Mr. A. L. 
Jones, well known in the West African trade, 
has offered to contribute £350 a year towards 
the expenses of the intended special school. A 
general committee has been formed, which, in 
conjunction with a committee of the Royal 
Southern Hospital, will make adequate arrange- 
ments for the work in new buildings to be 
erected for the hospital. 

At a meeting of the central committee for 
establishing sanatoria for consumptives on 
January 9th, says the Loudon Times, it was 
stated in the annual report that there were al- 
ready 20 sanatoria in Germany for consumptive 
patients. Regret was expressed that accommo- 
dation was chiefly provided for male patients, 
and attention was called to the urgent neces- 
sity of establishing sanatoria for women. A 
committee of ladies under the presidency of 
Princess Elizabeth zu Hohenlohe had carried 
on a good work in providing for the families of 
those who, as patients in the sanatoria, were 
debarred from earning their living. A large 
number of towns and also of provincial districts 
throughout the Empire had, through their rep- 
resentatives, given their adhesion to the central 
committee, which now numbered 466 members. 
At the close of the year 1898 the funds 
amounted to 250,000 Marks. A sum of 224,500 
Marks had already been devoted to subsidizing 
new sanatoria, and 70,000 Marks had been 
promised for the same pui'pose. The Duke of 
Ratibor, the nephew of the Chancellor, made a 
statement regarding the congress on tuber- 
culosis, its dangers and its prevention, which 
will meet in Berlin at Whitsuntide under his 
presidency. Invitations to attend this congress 
will be addressed to foreign countries. Profes- 
sor von Ley den spoke on the same subject and 
expressed a hope that the congress would con- 
tribute to make the success of the national 



movement for combating tuberculosis in Ger- 
many more widely known and that it would 
secure fresh supporters for this work of 
humanity. 

Consul- General Gowdy, of Paris, in his 
annual report, says that during the past year 
there has been a marked increase in the adop- 
tion of automobiles, not only as pleasure ve- 
hicles, but for practical application in the way 
of cabs serving the public in the city of Paris, 
and for business purposes in the way of delivery 
wagons, especially those for long distances. It 
is announced that at the beginning of next year 
there are to be 100 motor cars driven by electric 
power running in the streets of Paris, and, if the 
experiment be successful, the cabs will be in- 
creased to 1,000. With this project in view, a 
large plot of ground has been acciuired, where 
the building of works necessary for the housing 
of the cabs and the machinery for the electric 
supply are being rapidly completed. A train- 
ing ground has also been made for the cabmen. 
This is laid out with every possible form of pav- 
ing, wood, asphalt, stone, etc., including two 
steep hills. Here and there are dotted about a 
number of dummy figures, and in and out of 
these the cabmen have to maneuver, under the 
orders of an instructor. As a rule, in four les- 
sons, it is stated, the driver is ready to navigate 
Paris and after ten lessons is considered thor- 
oughly competent. Each cab is supplied with 
sutficient power to be driven 30 miles at about 
S miles an hour. 

The London Times states that Dr. Ferras, 
who has been in practice in Calcutta since 
1853, in his evidence before the Plague Com- 
mission, on January 4th, expressed the opinion 
that there had never been plague cases iu Cal- 
cutta, but simply cases of malignant fever. He 
remembered seeing similar cases when a student 
in Calcutta which were indistinguishable from 
plague except bacteriologically. There had been 
no bacteriological experts in India since the time 
of Dr. Cunningham. Unless Calcutta was im- 
proved structurally and the bustis were cleared 
and the overcrowded areas opened out, there was 
no chance that malignant fever would disappear. 
Captain Bingley, who had been employed on 
plague duty in Bombay, recommended munici- 



Febkuaky 3, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



191 



pal camps as a remedy for overcrowding. 
They bad been tried at Bombay, but were not 
successful, as they were started too late. A 
camp in his own district was very successful. 
The people willingly paid two rupees a month, 
which covered the expenses and paid the in- 
terest. The plague increased after the season 
of the export of grain, because the rats then 
left the bandars and spread through the town 
in their search of food, carrying the infection 
with them. The bandars were the foci of the 
plague. Mr. Griesbach, Director of the Geo- 
logical Survey of India, gave evidence as to the 
formation of the soil in the infected areas which 
pointed to the trap and crystalline area being 
specially adapted to the spread of the disease, 
but the witness explained that Bombay was 
situated near the center of the Deccan trap 
formation. On the alarm of the plague the 
people naturally spread fanlike over the adjoin- 
ing country. There was abundant evidence 
that the tenacitj' with which epidemics clung 
to localities was influenced by the geological 
formation. 

The University of the State of New York an- 
nounces that one of the most important of the 
tWenty-two bulletins issued by the museum is 
sent to the schools this month. This is a large 
octavo of 156 pages, entitled a ' Guide to the 
study of the geologic collections of the New 
York State Museum,' by Dr. Frederick J. H. 
Merrill, Director. In the front pocket is a 
folded relief map showing the boundaries of the 
geologic systems on a, scale of twenty-four miles 
to an inch, and the entire volume is profusely il- 
lustrated with half-tone photographs of geologic 
features. The general plan is such that it will 
serve as a guide to any other geologic collections 
in New York, and will also be useful to teachers 
in New York secondary schools who wish to 
direct the attention of their studentsto localgeol- 
ogy. It gives briefly a digest of the New York 
geologic reports, with much useful introductory 
matter, and is meant, not in any sense to re- 
place the small text-books, but to supplement 
them by giving information found as a rule only 
either in the larger and more expensive books 
which are not accessible to most teachers and 
students, or in a multitude of scientific pa- 
pers. 



From a Blue Book on the Straits Settlements 
Nature learns that the Perak Museum at Tai- 
piug is now overcrowded, and that there is con- 
sequently much difiiculty in arranging the 
collections in their natural sequence, while 
there is practically no room for new specimens. 
The Taiping collections are specially rich in the 
ethnological and mineralogical branches, and 
the zoological specimens have recently been 
greatly improved. The photographic and botan- 
ical branches were extended during the year, 
and the museum now contains a valuable sec- 
tion allotted to economic botany. Investiga- 
tions were carried out, witb satisfactory results, 
on the subject of insects attacking coffee, rice 
and other agricultural products, and some ex- 
periments were made in connection with tap- 
ping i-ubber. Discussion has been going on as 
to constituting the museum at Taiping a central 
museum, supported by all the Federated Malay 
States. The curator at Taiping suggests that 
local museums, of which one has been in ex- 
istence for several years at Selangor, and which, 
it is hoped, will soon be established in the other 
States, might either be affiliated to, or form 
branches of, the Federal Museum. On the 
other hand, the British Resident at Selango 
urges that the existence of a local museum 
creates and sustains in the minds of the com- 
munity an interest in local products, their 
sources and uses, which cannot fail to be bene- 
ficial and deserving of encouragement, and it 
cannot be urged that people in Selangor or the 
Negri Sembalin will obtain any advantage from 
a museum in Perak, however complete, which 
few of them will probably ever see. 

In the museum of the Royal Agriculture and 
Commercial Society of British Guiana at Deme- 
rara, says Natural Science, various changes 
have recently been introduced. The exhibited 
series of birds has been revised according to the 
British Museum catalogue, and over 200 speci- 
mens have been remounted. Other groups 
have been partially revised, so far as is possible 
in the absence of modern literature. It is 
hoped that the issue of a revised edition of the 
British Museum Catalogue of Fishes will enable 
the Curator to work up those animals as com- 
pletely as the birds ; meanwhile a comprehen- 
hensive collection of British Guiana fishes is 



192 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 214. 



being made, and preserved for the most part iu 
formalin. Exhibition space in this museum has 
been extended by the addition of an upper 
gallery. Chief among recent acquisitions is a 
large series of rocks collected in the Northwest 
District by J. B. Harrison and H. I. Perkins, 
to illustrate a government report. The chief 
difficulty in the curatorial work of this museum 
is presented by atmospheric changes and over 
much moisture. It is satisfactory to learn that 
many inquiries are made at the museum, both 
personally and by correspondence, and that it 
is becoming more and more a general educating 
force in the colony. 

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Re- 
gents of the Smithsonian Institution, held in 
Washington on January 25th, an inquiry was 
raised as to the propriety and expediency of 
taking action toward the establishment of a 
national university, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to investigate and report at the next 
meeting. The committee is : John B. Hender- 
son, of Washington ; Alexander Graham Bell, of 
Washington ; William L. Wilson, of Virginia 
(the three members of the Executive Committee 
of the Board of Regents); James B. Angell, of 
Michigan, and Robert R. Hitt, of Illinois. 

Columbia University is making plans to es- 
tablish a summer school during and after the 
summer of 1900. The courses, as is usual in 
summer schools, will be planned with special 
reference to the needs of teachers, and the re- 
sources of the Teachers College will be fully 
utilized. 

The Cornell Medical College proposes to es- 
tablish a summer school of medicine to be given 
in New York hospitals and dispensaries. 

The State University of Iowa announces a 
course of lectures on the Elements of Anthro- 
pology, to be delivered early in March by W 
J McGee, Ethnologist in charge. Bureau of 
American Ethnology. 

Dr. E. B. McGiLVARY, of the University of 
California, has been called to the Sage profes- 
sorship of moral philosophy at Cornell Univer- 
sity, vacant by the removal of Professor Seth 
to the University of Edinburgh. 



Professor C. A. Keffer, of the Division of 
Forestry, Department of Agriculture, has been 
elected professor of agriculture and horticul- 
ture in the New Mexico Agricultural College. 

Mb. J. S. E. TowNSEND, B.A., of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, has been elected to the 
Clerk Maxwell scholarship. 

Dr. G. Meyer, till now first assistant in the 
Physical Institute, has been elected to an assist- 
ant professorship of jihysieal chemistry in the 
University of Freiburg. Dr. Zehinder, assist- 
ant professor of physics at Freiburg, in Br., 
has been called to Wiirzburg as first assistant 
to Professor Rontgen. Dr. Otto Wiedeburg, 
docent in physics in the University at Leipzig, 
has been promoted to an assistant professorship. 
Dr. Sidler, assistant professor of astronomy at 
Berne, has been given an honorary professor- 
ship. In the Faculty of Science at Nancy the 
following changes have been made : M. Flo- 
quet, professor of pure mathematics, has been 
made professor of analytical mathematics ; M. 
Molk, professor of applied mathematics, has 
been made professor of mechanics ; M. Haller, 
professor of chemistry, is professor of organic 
chemistry, and M. Giintz has been appointed 
professor of miueralogical chemistry. 

Two of the more important chairs at Oxford 
are vacant — the Sedleian professorship of 
natural philosophy, so long filled by the late 
Dr. Bartholomew Price, and the Linacre pro- 
fessorship of comparative anatomy, vacant by 
the removal of Professor Ray Lankester to the 
British Museum. Natural Science reports that 
the past students of Professor W.F. R. Weldon, 
of University College, London, are signing a 
testimonial to their former teacher in view of his 
candidature for the latter chair. Among others 
whose names are mentioned as candidates are Mr. 
P. E. Beddard, prosector to the Zoological Society 
of London ; Mr. G. C. Bourne, who for many 
years has been demonstrator and lecturer at 
Oxford ; and Mr. W. Baldwin Spencer, formerly 
demonstrator to Professor Moseley and now 
professor of zoology at Melbourne. The last 
mentioned is now visiting Great Britain. The 
method of filling chairs at Oxford is not above 
criticism. On the board appointing a successor 
to Professor Lankester theology and medicine 
are well represented, but not natural science. 



SCIENCE 



Editorial Committee : S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; E. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickeeing, 

Astronomy; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics; E. H. Thheston, Engineering; Ira Remsen, Chemistry; 

J. Le Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Maesh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 

C. Hart Merriam, Zoology; S. H. Scudder, Entomology; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Britton, 

Botany; Henry F. Osborn, General Biology; C. S. MiNOT, Embryology, Histology; 

H. P. Bowditch, Physiology; J. S. Billings, Hygiene; J. McKeen Cattell, 

Psychology; Daniel G. Brinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, Febrijaey 10, 1899. 

CONTENTS: 

Tlie Smithsonian Institution 193 

Agricultural Experiment Stations : Dr. A. C. TRUE 199 

Physiological Osmosis : Professor George Mac- 
LOSKIE 206 

Prof essional Schools vs. Business: PROFESSOR R. H. 
Thurston 207 

Mechanical Illustration of Kirchoff's Principle: 
Professor William Hallock 210 

Plastiline, a New Modeling Compound : Dr. C. E. 
Eastman 211 

Scientific Books : — 

Beddard on the Structure and Classification of 
Birds:F. A.LVCAS. Bussell on The Sivers of North 
America : Professor R. E. Dodge. Broomell's 
Anatomy and Histology of the Mouth and Teeth: 
Professor Charles S. Minot. Books Received. 212 

Scientific Journals and Articles 217 

Societies and Academies : — 

Tlie Texas Academy of Sciences : Professor 
Frederic W. Simonds. Philosophical Society 
of Washington : E. D. PRESTON. The Anthro- 
pological Society of Washington. Dr. J. H. Mc- 
CORMICK. Tlie New York Academy of Sciences, 
Section of Psychology and Anthropology : Dr. C. 
B. Bliss. Section of Aslromony and Physics : 
Dr. Reginald Gordon. Academy of Science 
of St. Louis : Professor William Trelease 217 

Discussio7i and Correspondence : — 

Zoological Nomenclature: Dr. W. H. Dall. 
The Bed Beds of Kansas: Professor S. W. 
Williston. lien of Science and Anti-vivisec- 
tion: Henry C. Mercer 221 

Astronomical Notes : — 
Reports of Observatories ; The Planet DQ : Pro- 
fessor Winslow Upton 224 

Notes on Physics : 

Some Recent Investigations upon the Becquerel 
Rays: A. St.C. D 225 

Botanical Notes: — 
Sargent's Silva of North America; Commendable 
Free-Seed Distribution; The Study of Iowa Sedges ; 
North American Seaweeds ; Arthur and Holway's 
Busts: Professor Charles E . Bessey 226 

Current Notes on. Anthropology: — 

Courses at the Ecole d' Anthropologic; The Mean- 
ing of Race ; Tlie Extinction of the Polynesian: 
Professor D. G. Brinton 227 



Meeting of the Trustees of the Marine Biological 

Laboratory 228 

Scientific Notes and News 228 

University and Educational News 232 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., Intended 
for review should he sent to the rpspnnsible editor. Profea- 
aor J. McKeen Cattell. Garrison-on-Hudson N. Y. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. * 
finances. 
The permanent funds of the Institution 
are as follows : 

Bequest of Smithson, 1846 $515,169.00 

Residuary legacy of Smitlison, 1867. . 26,210.63 
Deposits from savings of income, 1867 108,620.37 
Bequest of James Hamil- 
ton, 187.5 $1,000.00 

Accumulated interest on 

Hamilton fund, 1895. ... 1,000.00 

2,000.00 

Bequest of Simeon Habel, 1880 500.00 

Deposits from proceeds of sale of 

bonds, 1881 51,500.00 

Gift of Thomas G. Hodgkins, 1891. . . 200,000.00 
Portion of residuary legacy, T. G. 

Hodgkins, 1894 8,000.00 

Total permanent fund . 912,000.00 

The appropriations made by Congress for 
the fiscal year 1899 were as follows : 

International Exchanges, Smithsonian 
Institution, 1899 $21,000 

American Ethnology, Smithsonian In- 
stitution, 1899 50,000 

Astrophysioal Observatory, Smithsonian 
Institution, 1899 10,000 

National Museum, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, 1899 : 

Furniture and fixtures 35,000 

Heating and lighting 14,000 

* From the report of S. P./ Langley, Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution, for the year ending June 
30, 1898. 



194 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



Preservation of collections 165,000 

Postage 500 

Galleries 10,000 

Boolcs 2,000 

Rent of workshops 4,500 

Buildiiis repairs 4,000 

Purchase of library of the late G. 

Brown Goode 5,000 

National Zoological Park, 1899 65,000 

HAMILTON FUND. 

The original amount of $1,000, the be- 
quest of Mr. James Hamilton, of Pennsyl- 
vania, received by the Institution in ISTd:, 
was increased in 1895 to $2,000 by the 
addition of accumulated interest under 
authority given by the Regents in their 
meeting of January 23, 1895, the sum of 
$150 expended from the income of fund in 
1876 for explorations having been re- 
funded. The present income, together 
with interest accumulated since 1895, seems 
to warrant some definite application of the 
interest on the bequest, and I am now con- 
sidering a plan of lectureships in accord- 
ance with the testator's purpose. 

AVERY FUND. 

Concerning the Avery fund I have to re- 
port that by a decision of the Supreme 
Court of the United States the Institution 
has obtained a clear title to the property 
on Capitol Hill claimed by the heirs of 
Mrs. Aver3\ 

It may be recalled that the testator, 
while leaving his property absolutely at the 
disposal of the Eegents, expressed a wish 
that it might be made useful in promoting 
researches on the Ether, after certain math- 
matical and phonetic publications and cer- 
tain researches connected with a special 
form of telescope have been made. The 
moneys received from the estate are as yet 
too small to carry out any part of this pur- 
pose but the last. 

BUILDINGS. 

No alterations were made in the Smith- 



sonian Building during the year except such 
slight repairs as seemed necessary to keep 
it in good condition. The space in the rear 
of the building, however, which for a num- 
ber of years had been occupied by unsightly 
and dangerous storage sheds and workshops, 
has been cleared of these and graded into a 
lawn, thus greatly improving the surround- 
ings. 

In the park south of the building, and at 
a distance sufficient to prevent annoyance, 
there has been erected a temporary wooden 
building of two stories for the use of the 
taxidermists and for other purposes. 

The investigations being prosecuted in 
the Astrophj'sical Observatory requiring 
more space than is available in the old struc- 
ture, plans have been approved and some 
progress made toward the erection of some 
very simple additions authorized by Con- 
gress at its last session by a clause permit- 
ting the expenditure for this purpose of an 
unexpended balance. 

Four additional galleries have be,en 
erected in the Museum building, threes for 
exhibition purposes and one to serve as an 
increase for the quarters for the Library, 
thus adding 6,650 square feet to the floor 
space of the Museum, 6,040 square feet of 
which is available research for exhibition 
purposes. 

The promotion of original research has 
always been one of the principal functions 
of the Institution. Investigations in the 
anthropological, biological and geological 
divisions of science have been extensively 
carried on through the departments of the 
National Museum, and in the Bureau of 
American Ethnology there have also been 
special inquiries into Indian customs and 
languages. These lines of research being 
well represented by its bureaus, it has re- 
mained for the Institution proper to devote 
its energies more especiallj' to some of the 
physical sciences. 

The Secretary himself has carried on re- 



Febeuaey 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



195 



searches in the solar spectrum, which, by 
the active assistance of the aid in charge^ 
have produced results now shortly to be 
published. They are believed to be im- 
portant and are referred to in another por- 
tion of this report. 

The Secretary has not wholly discon- 
tinued the studies which he has made in 
regard to aerodromic experiments, and it is 
perhaps not improper that he should state 
that these have attracted the attention of 
other departments so far that during the 
war with Spain a commission was directed 
by the Secretaries of War and the ISTavy to 
inquire into them with a view of their pos- 
sible utility in war. This is not the place 
to state the results of these inquiries. 

The Secretary desires to repeat, however, 
that his time is almost solely given to ad- 
ministrative work, and that what he has 
been able to do in these directions has been 
done largely in hours which he might con- 
sider his own. 

HODQKINS FUND. 

Although the Hodgkins fund competi- 
tion announced by the Institution in the 
widely distributed circular of March 31, 
1893, was definitely closed so long ago as 
December 31, 1894, a very general interest 
is still expressed in the subject, and spe- 
cialists in our own and other countries 
not infrequently forward copies of their 
original published memoirs as contributions 
to the Hodgkins fund library of the Insti- 
tution. 

Frequent applications for grants are re- 
ceived, and, notwithstanding the fact that 
the limitations on the use of the fund do 
not permit it to be employed for the sup- 
port of an investigation, unless under the 
exceptional conditions of the first published 
announcement, it has still been found prac- 
ticable to approve several awards during 
the past year. 

As noted in my last report, in July, 1897, 



an additional grant of $400 was made 
to Mr. A. Lawrence Eotch, of the Blue 
Hill Meteorological Observatory, Readville, 
Mass., and in the following October a fur- 
ther grant of $250 was approved to Mr. 
Eotch. These sums are to be devoted to 
experiments with automatic kites, for de- 
termining, by means of self-recording in- 
struments, meteorological data in atmos- 
pheric strata inaccessible except by some 
mechanical method of exploring the atmos- 
phere, and it will be of possible interest to 
the Board to learn that during the past 
year, and (to slightly anticipate), shortly 
after its close, experiments of remarkable 
success and interest have been made by 
Mr. Eotch, and, among others, that kites 
have been flown to the unprecedented height 
of 11,086 feet above the station, carrying 
up with them meteorological instruments 
which recorded the height, the pressure of 
the wind, the dew point, and other facts of 
interest at these great altitudes. 

Those who remember the situation at 
Blue Hill, one of the highest landmarks on 
the Atlantic coast north of the southern 
shores of the Gulf, and the aspect of the 
hills, blue with the distance from which 
they take their name, may be struck by the 
certainly notable fact that in these experi- 
ments the kites sent up from Blue Hill, and 
held there at the station, were occasionally 
directly over the distant ocean. 

N"ovember 1, 1897, a grant of $500 was 
made to Professor William Hallock, of 
Columbia University, IS'ew York City, for 
an investigation having for its object the 
complete analysis of a particle of air under 
the influence of articulate sounds, thus 
contributing a study of the atmosphere in 
one of its most important functions, that of 
a conveyer of speech. 

In February, 1898, a final grant of $250 
was made to Drs. Lummer and Pringsheim, 
of the Physical Institute of the University 
of Berlin. The investigation begun by 



196 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



them, in 1893, to determine the ratio of the 
specific heats, at constant pressure and 
volume, for air, oxj'gen, carbon dioxide and 
hydrogen has now so far progressed that 
the memoir submitted by Drs. Lnmmer 
and Pringsheim, noting the results already 
attained by them, has been published by 
the Institution in the Smithsonian Contri- 
butions to Knowledge. 

A German edition of this original me- 
moir, with the consent of the Institution, 
is to be published by the authors, and it is 
understood that, if found desirable, their 
researches will be further prosecuted under 
the direction of the Physikalisch-Tech- 
nische Reichsanstalt, of Berlin, Professor 
Dr. Kohlrausch, the President, having 
courteously signified the readiness of that 
institution to furnish the means necessary 
for the purpose. 

In February, 1898, an additional grant 
was made to Mr. E. C. C. Baly, of Uni- 
versity College, London, to enable him to 
continue his research upon the decomposi- 
tion of the atmosphere by electricity and 
upon the ozonizing of mercury. The report 
of Mr. Baly stating the result of these inves- 
tigations is now awaited by the Institution. 

A grant of $250 to Professor Arthur G. 
Webster, of Clark University, Worcester, 
Mass., was approved in May, 1898, for the 
continuation of a research on the properties 
of air in connection with the propagation of 
sound, special efibrt being directed to the 
securing of data relating to the influence of 
the viscosity of air on expiring or vanishing 
sounds. An instrument devised by Profes- 
sor Webster for use in this investigation 
gives the physical measure of sound, not 
only when constant, but when rapidly vary- 
ing. It is expected that this research will 
furnish results of high practical value in 
connection with the question of the acou- 
stics of auditoriums, and will contribute 
information upon points that have not 
heretofore been satisfactorily investigated. 



A paper embodying the results of the in- 
teresting research, described in the Secre- 
tary's report for 1894, primarily conducted 
under a grant from the Hodgkins fund to 
Dr. J. S. Billings and Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, 
and continued, under their supervision, by 
Dr. D. H. Bergej^ of the Laboratory of 
Hygiene, University of Pennsylvania, has 
been published in the Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections. 

NAPLES TABLE. 

Among the applications for the occu- 
pancy of the Smithsonian seat at the Na- 
ples table during the years 1897-98, the 
following have been favorably acted upon : 

Dr. Bradley M. Martin, of the University 
of Chicago, whose work has been chiefly in 
the field of the algae, and who has pub- 
lished several papers detailing his re- 
searches, was appointed for November, 
1897, his period at Naples to be supple- 
mented by additional investigation in the 
laboratory of Dr. Strasburger, of the Uni- 
versity at Bonn. 

Dr. H. W. Conn, of the department of 
biology, Wesleyan University, received the 
appointment for six weeks early in the year 
1898 ; Dr. Dohrn, the Superintendent of the 
station, kindly arranging for his accommo- 
dation, although the Smithsonian table was 
occupied at that time. The fact that Dr. 
Dohrn finds himself not only willing, but 
able, to provide for two or, as in this case, 
even three students at the Smithsonian 
table during the same period is a courtesy 
much appreciated by the Institution. 

Dr. D. M. Mottier, of the State Univer- 
sity of Indiana, who wished to supplement 
his investigations at Bonn and Leipzig by 
some weeks at Naples, was appointed for 
the months of March and April, 1898. 

Dr. W. T. Swingle, of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, now honorary 
custodian of algse in the United States Na- 
tional Museum, occupied the Smithsonian 



Februaey 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



197 



seat at Naples for an additional month dur- 
ing the spring of 1898. 

Dr. J. H. Gerould, of Dartmouth College, 
who prosecuted his investigations in the 
laboratory of Professor De Lacaze-Du- 
thiers, at Eoscoflf, Finisterre, France, dur- 
ing the summer, was appointed to the 
Smithsonian table at JSTaples for the month 
of November, 1898. 

EXPLOKATIONS. 

In the plan of organization of the Insti- 
tution, among examples of objects for 
which appropriations may be made, are 
cited : 

Explorations in descriptive natural history and 
geological, raagnetical and topographical surveys to 
collect materials for the formation of a Physical Atlas 
of the United States. 

Ethnological researches, particularly with refer- 
ence to the different men in North America ; also ex- 
plorations and accurate surveys of the mounds and 
other remains of the ancient people of our country.* 

The first grant made by the Institution 
for scientific exploration and field research 
was in 1848 to Spencer F. Baird, of Car- 
lisle, for exploration of the bone caves and 
the local natural history of southeastern 
Pennsylvania ; and during the half century 
that has elapsed since the grant to that 
eminent man, who afterwards became the 
Secretary of the Institution, every possible 
encouragement and support has been given 
to natural history and ethnological ex- 
plorations in America and throughout the 
world. The income of the Institution has 
not permitted the expenditure of large 
sums for this purpose, but valuable advice 
and instructions have been freely given to 
explorers connected with Government and 
private expeditions, and agents of the In- 
stitution have in very many cases partici- 
pated in these explorations. In recent 
years a vast amount of such work has been 
carried on by the bureaus under direction 
of the Institution, a work made possible by 

*Smlthsonian Report, 1846, pp. 6. 7- 



Congressional appropriations for this pur- 
pose. 

As soon as there seemed a possibility of 
acquiring new territories as a result of the 
present Spanish-American war I began 
formulating plans for exploring the possible 
new regions, and in my next estimates to 
be sent to Congress I expect to ask defi- 
nitely for appropriations under which ex- 
ploring parties may be sent to them. 

It is hardly necessary to recall the last- 
ing impression that the French Govern- 
ment made throught the researches of the 
corps of savants sent along with the expe- 
dition to Egypt. It would seem incumbent 
upon this Government, not only from prac- 
tical economic purposes, but as a contri- 
bution to the general intelligence of man- 
kind, to institute scientific inquiry as to 
the natural history, geology, geography, 
ethnology, archaeology and scientific utili- 
ties of any new possessions it may acquire. 
These inquiries should be made coherently 
and without clashing on the part of the 
various Government interests involved. 

During the present year investigations 
among the American Indians have been 
conducted by the Bureau of Ethnology, 
and several collaborators of the Institution 
have made natural history explorations. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

Secretary Henry said : " It is chiefly by 
the publications of the Institution that its 
fame is to be spread through the world, 
and the monument most befitting the name 
of Smithson erected to his memory." From 
the beginning of the Institution a consid- 
erable portion of its annual income has 
been expended in publishing the Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Knowledge and 
the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 
Through these series, supplemented by the 
Annual Reports printed at the direct ex- 
pense of the Government, and the publica- 
tions of the National Museum, the Bureau 



198 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



of Ethnology and the American Histor- 
ical Association, issued under the direc- 
tion of the Institution, nearly all branches o 
human knowledge are represented in the 
works published during the last fifty years, 
which form a library of nearly 250 volumes, 
besides several hundred pamphlet reprints 
of the memoirs and articles contained in 
the serial volumes. 

Contributions to Knoivledge. — One new mem- 
oir of this series was unpublished during the 
year, the result of the investigations by 
Drs. Lummer and Pringsheim, of Charlot- 
tenburg, Germany, on the ratio of the 
specific heats at constant pressure and at 
constant volume of air, oxygen, carbon 
dioxide and hydrogen. This research was 
aided by a gi-ant from the Hodgkins fund 
of the Smithsonian Institution. After a 
period of notable advance the kinetic 
theory of gases seems to have fallen into 
temporary abeyance, possibly from a funda- 
mentally imperfect understanding of their 
beliavior. Progress in the knowledge of 
this fundamental nature of gases may rea- 
sonably be looked for from interpretative 
researches on their thermal capacity, and 
this paper may be considered as a step in 
this direction. Aside from its exceptional 
portance in thermodynamics, the heat ratio 
is of interest as affording a clue to the char- 
acter of the molecule, and Drs. Lummer and 
Pringsheim, using a new method, appear to 
have for the first time reached coincident 
results on the incoercible gases examined. 

The original edition of the Secretary's 
memoir on ' The Internal "Work of the 
Wind,' published in 1893, having become 
exhausted, some additional copies have 
been printed from the stereotype plates, in 
which a few minor changes have been made. 

The Secretary now has in preparation for 
this series a review of his investigations in 
aerodynamics, and in particular of experi- 
ments in developing the principles and 
methods of mechanical flight. 



Miscellaneous; Collections. — In this series 
five works have been published since my 
last report. These are a Catalogue of 
Scientific and Technical Periodicals, by Dr. 
PI. C. Bolton ; Catalogue of Pacific Coast 
Earthquakes, by Professor E. S. Holdeu ; 
Eeview and Bibliography of Metallic Car- 
bides, by Professor J. A. Mathews ; Bibli- 
ography of Metals of the Platinum Group, 
by Professor J. L. Howe, and a report by 
Dr. D. H. Bergey on the results of experi- 
ments to determine whether impure atmos- 
phere produces a detrimental influence upon 
the animal organism as shown in greater 
susceptibility to certain diseases. 

There have been also reprinted from the 
stereotype plates new editions of the Smith- 
sonian Meteorological, Geographical and 
Physical Tables. A Supplement to the 
Bibliography of Chemistry, by Dr. H. C. 
Bolton, containing about 4,000 additional 
titles, is in hand, and about half of the 
volume had been printed at the close of the 
year. 

Smithsonian Reports. — The annual reports 
of the Institution for the year 1896 and 
1897 had not been issued at the close of the 
fiscal year, although the volume for 1896 
was in the Government bindery and press- 
work was in progress on the report for 
1897, their completion having been delayed 
by the imperative need of supplying docu- 
ments required by Congress for the military 
departments by reason of the Spanish- 
American war. 

National Museum Publications. — In addi- 
tion to the Museum volume of the Smith- 
sonian report, two series of publications are 
issued directly by the Museum, the Pro- 
ceedings and the Bulletin. Of the first 
series Volume XIX. was completed in 
bound form, the separate papers having 
previously been isssued as pamphlets, and 
seventeen papers comprising Volume XX. 
were distributed in pamphlet form during 
the year. A pamphlet containing instruc- 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



199 



tions for collecting scale insects was pub- 
lished as Part L. of Bulletin 39, and a cir- 
cular was issued relating to the collection 
and preservation of the bones and teeth of 
the Mastodon and Mammoth. 

Bureau of Ethnology reports. — The seven- 
teenth report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 
for the year ending June 30, 1896, was 
sent to the Public Printer on July C, 1897, 
and proof reading was completed before 
June 30, 1898, but actual presswork has 
not begun. The eighteenth report is also 
in the printers' hands, but no progress has 
been made beyond the revision of some first 
proofs. 

Adrophysical Observatory publications. — 
There has been prepared and is now ready 
for publication a full report on the results 
of the researches carried on in the Astro- 
physical Observatory since its establish- 
ment and this work will probably be printed 
in quarto form during the next fiscal year, 
the cost of the publication being charged to 
the appropriation for the Observatory under 
authority of Congress. 



The number of accessions to the library 
has been greater than at any time hereto- 
fore, the total entries of volumes, parts of 
volumes, pamphlets and charts reaching 
40,715, an increase of nearly 5,000 over the 
previous year. The greater part of this 
has been sent to the Library of Congress to 
be placed with the Smithsonian deposit. 

The Museum library shows a greatly in- 
creased use over last year. The limited 
quarters assigned for library purposes in 
the Museum are so greatly crowded that it 
has become necessary to provide additional 
book room, for which purpose a gallery 
directly adjoining the library has been 
erected and fitted with shelves, where space 
is provided for 18,000 volumes. This is 
rendered necessary by the purchase for 
the Museum, by Congressional appro- 



priation, of the scientific library of the 
late Dr. G. Brown Goode. The In- 
stitution is especially fortunate in being 
able to obtain this library and the Museum 
now has the benefit of possessing the collec- 
tions of books both of Professor Baird and 
Dr. Goode. 

TSE AGEICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 
STATIONS.'^ 

This is the fourth annual report on the 
work and expenditures of the agricultural 
experiment stations in the United States, 
made by the Director of the Office of Ex- 
periment Stations, under instructions from 
the Secretary of Agriculture. As hereto- 
fore, the report is based on three sources of 
information, viz, the annual financial state- 
ments of the stations, rendered on the 
schedules prescribed by the Secretary of 
Agriculture, in accordance with the Act of 
Congress ; the printed reports and bulletins 
of the stations, and the reports of personal 
examinations of the work and expenditures 
of the stations made during the past year 
by the Director, Assistant Director and 
one other expert officer of the Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. The stations in all the 
States and Territories were visited since 
the previous report was transmitted to 
Congress. 

During the past year the stations have, 
as a rule, steadily pursued their investiga- 
tions. There have been a smaller number 
of changes in the workers ; the general man- 
agement has been less subject to radical 
and unwise changes ; much useful work has 
been accomplished, and the facilities for in- 
vestigations have been increased. 

RELATIONS OF COLLEGES AND STATIONS. 

There has been much activity during the 
past year in the developing and strength- 
ening of courses of instruction in agricul- 

* From Report to Congress on Work and Expendi- 
tures of Agricultural Experiment Stations for 1898. 



200 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



ture in the land-grant colleges with which 
the stations are connected. This has been 
to the advantage of the stations in a num- 
ber of ways. The buildings and equipment 
of the colleges have been materially in- 
creased, and this has given the stations 
better facilities for their work. The in- 
struction in agriculture has been specialized, 
which has necessitated the emploj^ment of 
a larger number of well-trained officers, 
many of whom have devoted a portion of 
their time to station work. The governing 
boards and general officers of the colleges 
are coming to see more clearly the real sig- 
nificance and importance of experiment 
station work. They have, therefore, been 
more willing to make proper arrangements 
for the efficient conduct of this work and 
to pursue a more liberal policy toward the 
stations. In a number of instances there 
has been a more definite separation of the 
operations on the farms and in the barns, 
creameries, laboratories, etc., so that a 
definite place has been made for original 
investigations in agriculture, and these 
have been clearly difi'erentiated from the 
work and facilities connected with instruc- 
tion. It is coming also to be more clearly 
seen that care must be taken lest the rou- 
tine duties connected with instruction shall 
so exhaust the energies of the officer em- 
ployed in both college and station that he 
will not be able to devote his best energies 
to the more difficult task of originating and 
conducting successful investigations in ag- 
ricultural science. The outlook is, there- 
fore, more hopeful for the building up, in 
connection with these institutions, of strong 
departments of original investigation on 
behalf of agriculture, which shall not only 
accomplish great good by the practical re- 
sults of the investigations disseminated 
among the farmers, but shall also materially 
aid in the proper development of courses of 
instruction in agriculture in the land-grant 
institutions. 



THE ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE 
STATIONS. 

The year past has shown considerable 
progress in the importance and thorough- 
ness of the original investigations pursued 
at our stations. The number of officers 
competent to undertake such investigations 
has been increased. There has been greater 
specialization of the work assigned to these 
officers. There have also been encouraging 
indications that cooperation between the 
officers engaged in different lines of inves- 
tigation is being more efficiently secured. 
More attention is being given to the con- 
sideration of problems which affect in a 
general way important agricultural inter- 
ests in the several States or are of funda- 
mental importance in different branches of 
agriculture wherever pursued. It is be- 
coming more clear that it is much better 
for an individual station to undertake 
thorough original investigations in a few 
lines and hold steadily to these until defi- 
nite results are secured than to scatter the 
work among a variety of small operations. 
If a station can make itself preeminent for 
original work in even one or two lines it 
gains strength in its own State and else- 
where which it could get in no other way ; 
and now, that general information regarding 
the work of all the stations is more widely 
disseminated, there is less reason why any 
one station should attempt very many lines 
of work. The success of those stations 
which have devoted themselves most largely 
to original investigations has, without 
doubt, been a powerful factor in stimulating 
the general adoption of such a policy. The 
wisdom of the framers of the Hatch Act in 
limiting the work of the stations organized 
under that act to original and scientific in- 
vestigations which shall either attack ag- 
ricultural problems in a new way or have 
reference to the application of ascertained 
facts or principles to particular or local 
phases of these problems is more and more 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



201 



apparent. Everj^ dollar of the fund thus 
given from the National Treasury is needed 
for th(jraugli original investigations on be- 
half of the\ast and varied interests of ag- 
riculture in this country and the dissemi- 
nation of the results of such investigations. 
The more strictly this fund is applied to 
these purposes the more rapid development 
will our agriculture have along the lines of 
permanent success. 

DEMONSTRATIO]Sr EXPERIMENTS. 

As the work of the stations develops it is 
seen that more adequate provision should 
be made for the application of the results 
obtained by the stations in actual practice 
in different localities, in order that the best 
methods of local application of these results 
may be worked out, and that the farmers 
may be taught how to make the best use of 
the work of the stations. It is in this direc- 
tion that there is the greatest need for a 
generous policy on the part of the States 
toward the stations. By supplementing the 
Hatch fund for work of this kind the States 
in a number of cases have greatly hastened 
the direct application of the results of orig- 
inal investigations to actual farm practice, 
and have done much toward arousing the 
farmers to a keener sense of the practical 
value of station work. With the aid of 
funds furnished by the States and by this De- 
partment thousands of the more simple ex- 
periments in the growing of different crops, 
such as sugar beets, and the use of fertil- 
izers, have been made by farmers in differ- 
ent parts of the country. It is much to be 
hoped that the States will more fully take 
up this work, and that it will be more thor- 
oughly organized, as is being done, for ex- 
ample, in the State of New York, where 
special appropriations have been made for 
experiments of this character under the di- 
rection of the stations. A great deal of the 
work of the testing of varieties of agricul- 
tural and horticultural plants, to be of any 



practical value, needs to be carried on in a 
number of different localities in each State, 
and this can probably be most economically 
and efliciently done with the cooperation of 
intelligent practical farmers and horticul- 
turists. While cooperative experiments 
may often be of value in connection with 
original investigations, they will most often 
be of use in determining the extent to which 
the results of such investigations may be 
applied in actual pi-actice. 

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION. 

The Hatch Act expressly provides that a 
portion of the funds granted the stations by 
the United States shall be expended for 
printing and distributing reports and bul- 
letins, but limits the scope of the informa- 
tion to be thus published to the ' results' of 
their investigations. The act further grants 
the stations the franking privilege for the 
distribution of their publications. Circum- 
stances have compelled the stations to go 
far beyond the limit set by the Act of Con- 
gress as regards the character of the infor- 
mation which they have disseminated. A 
number of causes have contributed to make 
a very heavy demand upon the stations for 
information regarding every detail of farm 
theory and practice. The successful issue 
of many of the investigations of the stations 
has been a very important factor in creating 
this demand. There has also been the ne- 
cessity of giving the farmers preliminary 
information along the line of many investi- 
gations, in order that they might clearly 
understand the practical application of the 
new results which ^ the stations had ob- 
tained. But beyond this there has been 
during the last decade a remarkable awak- 
ening of our farmers to the desirability of 
haviug more definite information regarding 
all matters connected with their business. 
The result has been that the stations and 
this Department have been led to publish a 
vast amount of information, both old and 



202 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



new, which has been freely distributed to 
farmers in° every county of the Union. 
Toothing like it has ever been seen before. 
No country has ever before attempted so 
systematic and thorough a distribution of 
information to its agricultural population, 
and no masses of farmers have ever so 
eagerly sought for information as have our 
own within the past few years ; and not 
only has the free information furnished by 
the stations and the Department been 
eagerly sought for, but this period has also 
been remarkable for the amount of accurate 
information distributed to the farmers 
through the agricultural press and other 
newspapers and the number of good books 
on farming which have been published. 
Besides this, the agricultural societies, 
granges, farmers' institutes, and other as- 
sociations have been more active than ever 
before in discussing the problems of agri- 
culture and in securing the services of ex- 
perts and successful practical men to lay 
before them the fruits of science and expe- 
rience for the more successful conduct of 
the art of agriculture. Such an intellec- 
tual awakening must have most important 
results, and there is every indication that 
it will go on increasing in volume and force 
until it has thoroughly permeated the entire 
agricultural population of the country. 

To secure the best results such a move- 
ment needs the wisest leadership to guide 
its aspirations in the best directions. For- 
tunately the facilities for agricultural edu- 
cation of a high order have been greatly 
increased within a few years, and there is 
to day a much larger number of well- 
trained men who are competent to give the 
farmers the information which they demand 
than was the case tea years ago. What is 
especially needed now is the more thorough 
organization of the agencies for the diffu- 
sion of information among the farmers. 
Thus far the officers of our agricultural col- 
leges and experiment stations have had to 



bear the heaviest portion of this burden, 
and it is much to be wondered at that they 
have so well discharged the great variety 
of duties imposed upon them ; but the time 
has come when there must be a specializa- 
tion of work in this as in other directions if 
we are to have the most efficient agencies 
for the securing as well as for the dissemi- 
nating of agricultural information. 

Everybody now admits that much may 
be done to advance agriculture by scientific 
investigations, but the absorbing character 
of this work, if it is to be well done, is not 
as yet thoroughly appreciated. The dis- 
covery of new truth is the chief function of 
our experiment stations, but the amount of 
new truth which they will discover will be 
very largely determined by the extent to 
which the investigators are left to pursue 
their investigations without interruption. 
The same is true regarding the teacher in 
our agricultural colleges. He must have 
time to keep pace with the increasing vol- 
ume of new information which is being 
published, and be able to give his best ener- 
gies to the planning of courses of study, 
and come before his pupils with an active 
mind, in order that he may not only im- 
part knowledge to them, but may inspire 
them with something of his own enthusiasm 
regarding the subjects which he teaches. 
The writer of popular bulletins and books 
for farmers must not only have ample 
knowledge, but he must have had time to 
acquire the most complete sympathy with 
his readers and a style of composition 
which is confessedly the most difficult to 
attain. The farmers' institute worker 
should not only have wide familiarity with 
the science and practice of agriculture, but 
he should also have a ready wit and the 
fine art of putting things in a clear light 
and changing his point of view according to 
his audience, which can only come through 
natural aptitude combined with much ex- 
perience in public asking. Many of our 



Fkbeuaey 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



203 



best investigators and teachers have a won- 
derful versatility, so that they succeed pretty 
well in a number of different lines of work, 
but after all there is some one direction in 
which they excel, and one or the other 
feature of their work is almost sure to suffer 
if they attempt a great variety of perform- 
ances. We must in the future leave the 
investigators more fully to their investiga- 
ting, the teachers to their teaching, the 
writers of agricultural publications to their 
writing, and the farmers' institute workers 
to their speaking. 

Already the movement in this direction 
has begun. In our colleges changes are be- 
ing made by which the experiment station 
offices are given more time for their inves- 
tigations, and additional teachers are being 
employed. One of our stations has recently 
employed an officer whose chief business it 
is to edit the station publications and pre- 
pare popular bulletins for the farmers. At 
another institution the superintendent of 
farmers' institutes is a separate officer, and 
in a few States a corps of institute workers, 
exclusive of the college and station officers, 
has been organized. This movement should 
be encouraged, and the governing boards 
should see to it that the officers of stations 
are protected against unreasonable de- 
mands on their time, which would take 
them away from the planning and con- 
ducting of thorough original investiga- 
tions. 

We do not urge this because we wish to 
limit the disseminatian of compiled infor- 
mation to our farmers. We fully recog- 
nize the importance of this, and we would 
have the States and the National Govern- 
ment make ample provision for compiling 
and publishing all the information which 
our farmers ought to have. But we would 
insist more strongly than ever that original 
investigations by our experiment stations 
should be made more thorough and in- 
creased in number, in order that the stream 



of new information may increase in purity 
and volume with every year. 

LIBERALITY OF THE STATES. 

One of the most encouraging things con- 
nected with the progress of our experiment 
stations has been the disposition of the 
State Legislatures to deal more liberally 
with them as the importance of their 
work has become more apparent. This 
liberality has manifested itself in a number 
of ways. There have been large grants of 
money directly for experiment-station pur- 
poses. In the erection of buildings for the 
colleges provision has often been made for 
increasing the facilities for experiment-sta- 
tion work. The printing of station publi- 
cations is regularly done in a number of 
States at the public expense. The laws re- 
lating to inspection of agricultural com- 
modities have been so framed that a con- 
siderable revenue has accrued to the sta- 
tions for purposes of investigation. The 
increased means thus acquired have en- 
abled the stations in a number of States to 
push their work far beyond what could 
have been accomplished with the Hatch 
fund alone. In comparing the work of dif- 
ferent stations this factor should always be 
taken into account, and communities in 
which a more narrow policy has been pur- 
sued must not expect that their stations 
will be able to do as much for their agricul- 
ture as is accomplished by stations receiv- 
ing more liberal treatment. 

We believe that under our American sys- 
tem nothing can be more promotive of the 
highest interests of the stations than that 
the States should take a just pride in 
strengthening and developing their opera- 
tions, and thus prove to the world that 
scientific institutions based upon the sup- 
port of the people can be made as strong and 
efficient as those which are directly main- 
tained under the centralized authority of 
the General Government. 



204 



SCIENCE. 



[N. g. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



POLITICAL INTERFERENCE AND THE INJURY 
TO SOME STATIONS THEREBY. 

While as a rule our stations have been 
free from the baneful influence of the intro- 
duction of political considerations into their 
management, there ai-e still some States and 
Territories in which politics have been a 
disturbing element in the affairs of the sta- 
tions during the past year. This has re- 
sulted in unreasonable changes in the mem- 
bership of the governing boards, the re- 
moval of efficient ofl&cers without cause or 
on inconsequential pretexts, and, in a few 
cases, in the appointment of notoriously in- 
competent men as station officers. This 
Department has consistently held that 
where such an unsettled state of affairs ex- 
ists the real objects of the Hatch Act can 
not be attained, since these involve, first of 
all, a corps of competent specialists working 
under a well-defined policy, outlined to 
cover a series of years of interrupted inves- 
tigation, and having an assuranee that their 
work will be judged on its merits. It was 
not hesitated to protest against the action 
of governing boards wherever there was a 
plain case of violation of the proper princi- 
ples of station management. The communi- 
ties which permit such things, of course, reap 
their reward in the weakness or inefiiciency 
of the operations of the stations. The rem- 
edy lies very largely with the people, and 
every effort should be made to form intelli- 
gent public sentiment on this subject. 

AGRICULTURAL INVESTIGATIONS IN ALASKA. 

For the past two years Congress has in- 
cluded in the appropriation for agricultural 
experiment stations an item for investiga- 
tions regarding the agricultural capabilities 
of Alaska, with the special object of deter- 
mining the desirability and feasibility of 
establishing agricultural experiment sta- 
tions in that Territory. With the first year's 
appropriation a preliminary agricultural 
and botanical survey of Alaska was made, a 



report on which was transmitted to Con- 
gress. The results of this reconnoissance 
were so encouraging that the appropriation 
for this work was doubled, and during the 
present year not only has the survey been 
continued, but reservations of land have 
been made at Sitka, Kadiak and Kenai in 
Cook Inlet, and some successful experi- 
ments in growing and maturing barley, 
oats, flax, potatoes and other vegetables 
have been made, and excellent clover and 
grasses have been grown under cultivation. 
The detailed report of this work will soon 
be transmitted to Congress, and it is hoped 
that hereafter Alaska will receive at least 
the same financial support for experiments 
in agriculture as is given to the other por- 
tions of the United States by the National 
Government. 

EXPERIMENT STATION IN HAWAII. 

The Hawaiian Islands having been an- 
nexed to the United States, the question of 
the development of their agriculture tlirough 
experimental inquiries, conducted on the 
same plan as in other parts of the United 
States, has become an important one. It 
seems proper, therefore, in this connection 
to call attention to the fact that an experi- 
ment station has been in successful opera- 
tion at Houolulu since 1895. This station 
is under the direction of the Hawaiian 
Sugar Planters' Association, which supplies 
the funds for its maintenance. The Direc- 
tor and Chief Chemist is Dr. Walter Max- 
well, formerly an assistant in the Division 
of Chemistry in this Department, and later 
one of the chemists of the Louisiana Exper- 
iment Stations. The other members of the 
staff are two chemists and a field assistant. 
This station has studied especially the 
problems relating to the culture of sugar 
cane and the manufacture of cane sugar, 
but there have also been experiments with 
fertilizers, and a comprehensive investiga- 
tion of the soils of the Islands. The results 



Febeuaby 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



205 



of the station's work have been published 
in the Hawaiian Planters^ Monthly, and in 
bulletin form. The station has been ably 
directed, and its work has been systematic- 
ally and successfully pursued. 

THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

Besides the work done in the supervision 
of expenditures of the stations and in con- 
ferences and correspondence with station 
officers, this oflice has continued to collect 
and disseminate information regarding the 
progress of agricultural investigations 
throughout the world. Not only has this 
feature of its work been made more 
thorough, as regards the review of the 
literature of agricultural science for the 
benefit of our station workers, but the 
preparation of popular resumes of station 
work has been more systematically pur- 
sued. A series of such publications, de- 
nominated Experiment-Station Work, has 
been begun in connection with the Farmers' 
Bulletins issued by the Department. 

During the year the office issued about 
43 documents, aggregating 2,920 pages. 
These include 13 numbers of the Experi- 
ment Station Record, with detailed index, 
12 bulletins, 7 Farmers' Bulletins (includ- 
ing 4 numbers of the subseries entitled 
' Experiment Station Work ' ) , 1 circular, 4 
articles for the Year Book of the Depart- 
ment, the annual report of the Director, a 
report to Congress on the work and ex- 
penditures of the experiment stations, and 
4 special articles published as separates. 

The ninth volume of the Experiment 
Station Record comprises 1,214 pages, and 
contains abstracts of 317 bulletins and 66 
annual reports of 53 experiment stations in 
the United States, 201 publications of the 
Department of Agriculture, and 842 reports 
of foreign investigations. The total num- 
ber of pages in these publications is 56,569. 
The total number of articles abstracted is 
1,810, classified as follows: Chemistry, 



121 ; botany, 86 ; fermentation and bac 
teriology, 28 ; zoology, 31 ; meteorology, 
57 ; water and soils, 72 ; fertilizers, 85 ; 
field crops, 153 ; horticulture, 138 ; fores- 
try, 16; seeds and weeds, 41 ; diseases of 
plants, 107 ; entomologj', 252 ; foods and 
animal production, 186 ; dairy farming and 
dairying, 151 ; veterinary science, 134 ; 
technology, 11 ; agricultural engineering, 
38 ; statistics, 103. Classified lists of arti- 
cles, in some cases with brief abstracts, are 
also given in each number. The aggre- 
gate number of titles thus reported is 
2,471. 

STATISTICS OF THE STATIONS. 

Agricultural experiment stations are now 
in operation, under the Act of Congress of 
March 2, 1887, in all the States and Terri- 
tories. As stated above, agricultural ex- 
periments have been begun in Alaska with 
the aid of national funds, and an experi- 
ment station is in operation in Hawaii 
under private auspices. In each of the 
States of Alabama, Connecticut, New 
Jersey and New York a separate station 
is maintained, wholly or in part, by State 
funds, and in Louisiana a station for sugar 
experiments is maintained, partly by funds 
contributed by sugar planters. Excluding 
the branch stations established in several 
States, the total number of stations in the 
United States is 54. Of these, 52 receive 
the appropriation provided for in the Act of 
Congress above mentioned. The total in- 
come of the stations dui-ing 1898 was $1,- 
210,921.17, of which §720,000.00 was re- 
ceived from the National Government; the 
remainder, $490,921.17, coming from the 
following sources : State governments, 
$341,897.94; individuals and communi- 
ties, $177.20; fees for analyses of fertili- 
zers, $93,677.00 ; sales of farm products, 
$65,358.25; miscellaneous, $20,312.48. In 
addition to this the Ofl&ce of Experiment 
Stations had an appropriation of $35,000 
for the past fiscal year, including $5,000 for 



206 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



the Alaskan investigation. The value of 
additions to equipment of the stations in 
1898 is estimated as follows: Buildings, 
$109,851.65; libraries, $11,700.73; appa- 
ratus, $19,195.43 ; farm implements, $10,- 
800.27; live stock, $13,151.33; miscel- 
laneous, $11,972.97 ; total, $176,469.41. 

The stations employ 669 persons in the 
■work of administration and inquiry. The 
number of ofiBcers engaged in the different 
lines of work is as follows : Directors, 75 ; 
chemists, 148 ; agriculturists, 71 ; experts 
in animal husbandry, 10 ; horticulturists, 
77 ; farm foremen, 29 ; dairymen, 21 ; bot- 
anists, 50 ; entomologists, 46 ; veterina- 
rians, 26; meteorologists, 20 ; biologists, 11 ; 
physicists, 11; geologists, 6; mycologists 
and bacteriologists, 19 ; irrigation engi- 
neers, 7 ; in charge of substations, 15 ; sec- 
retaries and treasurers, 23 ; librarians, 10, 
and clerks, 46. There are also 21 persons 
classified under the head of " miscellan- 
eous," including superintendents of gardens, 
grounds and buildings, apiarists, herdsmen, 
etc. Three hundred and five station officers 
do more or less teaching in the colleges with 
which the stations are connected. 

During 1898 the stations published 406 
annual reports and bulletins. Besides reg- 
ular reports and bulletins, a number of the 
stations issued press bulletins, which were 
widely reproduced in the agricultural and 
county papers. The mailing lists of the 
stations now aggregate half a million 
names. Correspondence with farmers 
steadily increases, and calls upon station 
ofiBcers for public addresses at institutes 
and other meetings of farmers are more 
numerous each year. The station officers 
continue to contribute many articles on 
special topics to agricultural and scientific 
journals. A number of books on agricul- 
tural subjects, written by station officers, 
have been published during the past year. 
A. C. True. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL OSMOSIS. 

In going over this subject I have discov- 
ered a verjr simple method, which I would 
offer as an improvement on that of van't 
Hoff, referred to, and its results given by 
Starling in Schaefer's ' Physiology.' 

All methods as to osmotic pressure are 
an application of the discovery that it is 
the largeness or smallness of the chemical 
molecules of solutes (matters in solution) 
that determines whether they shall be 
estopped by or shall pass through mem- 
branes. Citing common-places of chemis- 
try, we know that a gram- molecule of 
hydrogen gas, with a numerical value of 2, 
has the same volume as a gram-molecule of 
oxygen, weighing 32 per molecule, and as a 
gram-molecule of cane sugar dissolved in 
water, having a molecular weight of 342 and 
when in solution acting like a gas. The 
common volume of a gram-molecule of 
each of these substances, at 0°C. and ordi- 
nary barometric pressure, is 22.32 liters ; 
if the gases be compressed to the volume 
of 1 liter they will exercise a pressure of 

22.32 atmospheres per gram-molecule. This 
is the result with all solutions in water 
when taken according to their molecular 
pressure. But it will not apply to electro- 
lytes, as these are broken up by the water ; 
thus for sodium chlorid the value is 1.6 
times this amount. 

Taking as an example a 1 per cent, solu- 
tion of cane-sugar in water, a gram-mole- 
cule, that is 342 gi-ams, of the sugar are 
dissolved in 34,200 grams of water, or 
\-f-o: of a gram-molecule in a liter of water. 
This will, therefore, exert -Jgf"^ of 22.32 
atmospheres of pressure ; or taking 10.33 
meters of water pressure for an atmos- 
phere, we find from the osmotic pressure 
of the solution at 0°C. p = ^W X 22.32 x 

10.33 = 6.748 meters of water-pressure. 
At the ordinary temperature of the body, 

37°C., this will be increased by -^i^ of 



Febeuaey 10, 1899.] 



SCmNGE. 



207 



itself, giving 7.662 water-meters, or about 
25 feet of water-pressure. 

For any other solute than sugar we have 
only to substitute its molecular weight for 
the denomination 342 in the above work. 
Substituting 2 for it, for hydrogen, the re- 
sult is 1153 water-meters, a forcible token 
of its livelj' difl'usibility. 

The Freezing-Point. — Though this has no 
connection with physiologj', the lowering of 
the freezing-point in solution is cited by 
Starling as a step towards finding osmotic- 
pressure, which we have seen to be de- 
terminable in a less troublesome way. We 
give the converse case ; having found the 
pressure, to ascertain by its aid the freez- 
ing point of a 1 p. c. solution of cane- 
sugar. 

The law of thermodynamics gives this 
proportion : 

Work done _ 
Heat during it 

Lowering (A) of Total Heat 
Total Heat. 

In this case the work done is 6.748 water- 
meters-pressure (as was found above). The 
heat doing it is the latent part of water, 
79.9 calories per gram, which is reduced to 
water-meters-pressure by multiplying by 
427. 

The total heat is the absolute tempera- 
ture at 0°C.; this is 273. Thus the propor- 
tion becomes 

6.748 _ A 
427 (79.9) ~ 273", 

giving A = 0°.054C. This result is substan- 
tially identical with that cited by Starling 
fromvan't Hoff, and signifies that the par- 
ticular solution of sugar in water lowers 
the freezing-point more than one-twentieth 
of a degree. If the solution had repre- 
sented a gram-molecule of sugar in a liter 
of water the depression of the freezing- 
point would be nearly 2°C., a constant 
well-known to physicists. 



Writers on physiology usually state that 
processes of absorption within the body are 
more rapid than can be fully explained by 
experiments on diffusion. A partial ex- 
planation of this peculiarity will, I think, 
be found in the fact that experiments are 
made on dead and comparatively rigid 
membranes, and the living membranes of 
the body are almost fluid in their soft- 
ness. Whether osmosis be by a transitory 
combination or by passing through tem- 
porary pores, it involves in the living body a 
minimum of friction. We know how much 
more rapidly blood can pass through flexi- 
ble, living vessels than through rigid tubes. 

(I am indebted to my colleague Professor 
E. H. Loomis for advice.) 

Geoege Macloskie. 
Princeton" Univeesity. 
January 5, 1899. 



PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS VS. BUSINESS. 

An exceedingly interesting and instruc- 
tive experiment has been in progress dur- 
ing the last few years at Sibley College, 
Cornell University, the outcome of which 
will perhaps have peculiar interest for all 
who are concerned with education and pro- 
fessional training, the data of which experi- 
ment are exhibited in the accompanj'ing 
diagram, showing the growth in numbers 
of that college from its date of reorganiza- 
tion as a professional school, in 1885, to the 
present time. The diagram is taken from 
the paper read before the Association of 
Promotion of Engineering Education, at 
the Boston meeting of 1898, by the writer. 

Up to the year 1885 Sibley College was 
without expert direction, a definite policy, 
a settled curriculum or a systematically 
organized facultj'. It had been established 
as a ' school of the mechanic arts ' for 
many years, but had not graduated a hun- 
dred students in its whole career. In 1885 
the Trustees of the University found them- 
selves in a position to undertake the work 



208 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



of reorganization and reconstruction on 
a higher plane and in a more modern way. 
Mr. H. Sibley had enlarged and improved 
the College buildings and greatly added to 
the outfit of laboratory apparatus and work- 
shops, and it was considered practicable to 
undertake the inauguration of schools of 
undergraduate and post-graduate work in 
the various branches of mechanical engi- 
neering and the mechanic arts. Space was 
available and the apparatus was sufficient 
to meet the needs, as was thought, of as 
many as 200 students in its various depart- 
ments. The institution was placed in the 
hands of a Faculty composed entirely of 
professional experts ; the course was recon- 
structed and made mainly technical ; the 
entrance requirements were made to ac- 
cord, as closely as was thought practicable, 
with those of the most advanced of existing 
schools of a similar class, and the equip- 
ment was made modern in character and 
exceptionally extensive in each of its pro- 
fessional branches. 

Later, special courses were established, 
undergraduate and advanced, in electrical 
engineering, in marine engineering, in rail- 
way machine construction, etc., and the 
College was brought into the form now 
familiar to our professional educators and 
technical men. 

The immediate result of this reconstruc- 
tion of the institution was to bring up the 
attendance from an average, for the earlier 
years, of about a dozen, with an average of 
five in the graduating classes, to about a 
hundred ; while the graduating classes in 
the course of the next four yeai-s ran up to 
30, in ten years to 100, and while the stu- 
dent-list increased to 400 in five years and 
to 634 in less than ten. In two years the 
College had reached its originally estimated 
limit, and the Director was compelled to 
notify the Trustees that some means must 
be found to prevent overcrowding. It was 
attempted to restrict admissions to the 



freshman class ; but this proved inefifective, 
as students would then enter other depart- 
ments of the University, and, later, transfer 
to the upper classes of Sibley College. 
Meantime the numbers increased ; the fac- 
ulty was enlarged, new buildings were 
added and equipment greatly increased, 
without relief from the continual overcrowd- 
ing and pressure in all departments and in 
every phase of work. 

Finally it was concluded to adopt a rad- 
ical and certain method of checking an 
influx of students which threatened to de- 
moralize the institution by flooding all 
departments and overworking the whole 
staff, while, hardly less serious, making 
heavy inroads upon the always hard-pressed 
income of the University, which was 
already overloaded by the enormous de- 
mands of the State of New York for State 
scholarships — now 600 in number — for 
which no compensation was made to the 
University. The immediate outcome was 
the cutting-down of the entering classes 40 
per cent., by demanding of them an addi- 
tional year in mathematics ; permitting the 
freshmen to take up analytical geometry 
and the calculus, and the sophomores to 
give their time for the year, in that branch, 
to applied mechanics, the backbone of every 
technical course. This was done in 1893, 
and classes which would have entered about 
175 strong were pruned down, by this ex- 
clusion of the weakest applicants, to some- 
thing above 100. The ' cream was skimmed ' 
and a magnificent body of students thus 
secured ; but the result, on the other hand, 
was then and later the compelling of hun- 
dreds of young men to go directly into busi- 
ness, who, otherwise, would have secured a 
systematic and scientific preparation for 
their life's work. The facts of this very in- 
teresting case are shown in the accompany- 
ing diagram, originally from the report of 
the Director of Sibley College to the Board 
of Trustees of Cornell University, June, 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



209 



1898. The experiment, in so definite and 
conclusive a form, is so unexampled and 
the results so exceedingly instructive and 
suggestive to faculties, or others proposing 
to deal in a radical manner with so delicate 
a subject, that it has been thought that a 
wide circulation of these facts would prove 
acceptable and useful in many ways. 

In illustration of the sensitiveness of the 
average technical college to changes in 
entrance requirements and consequent 
changes in its relations to the preparatory 
schools as now customarily conducted, 
ignoring demands of any other than aca- 



entrance and of the course itself, meantime. 
Referring to the diagram : Following the 
upper line, A, we observe that the total 
registration began rising instantly upon the 
establishment of an engineering course, 
from about 100, in 18S6, to 200, nearly, in 
1887, 300 in '89, 400 in '90, 500 in '92, and 
to GoS in the year terminating June, 1894. 
At this point the non-professional entrance 
requirements were raised bj^ demanding an 
additional year of higher mathematics, 
thus permitting the freshmen to take up 
analytical geometry and the calculus, and 
the sophomore class to study and complete 

b 



noo 




























/ 




























/ 




























/ 




























^jr 








700 














^ 




« 


o.e-'^ 


V 






















s 




,.»>l 












d 
















< 


J^ 




\ 










,-" 


400 
300 

200 
100 








s 




y 


A 




> 




~~^~.^. c 


--'' 




h, 








'C 


y 


y 


.g 










•» .-■ 


,y 


i 






^/ft 


A 






£ 




(S 


na^' 


^" 




1 


''m 










^3--^ 


utr^Sl.^ 


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Ei_J_— r 


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radu 


ates 


in M 


M.E/. 1 1 


_n 



18S5 86 87 & 89 1890 91 " 92 93 91 95 9S 97 98 99 1900 
STATISTICS OF SIBLEY COLLEGE, 1885-1900. 



demic colleges and universities, it will be 
instructive to study the accompanying dia- 
grammatic representation of the woi'king 
of such a change compelled by the increase 
in numbers of students beyond what was at 
the time thought a limit for good work and 
of suitable equipment and accommodations. 
The accompanying diagram presents 
the statistics of growth of Sibley College 
from 1885, the date of its organization upon 
its present basis, to 1897-8, and the pre- 
sumptive changes to A. D. 1900, assuming 
no further modification of the conditions of 



applied mechanics — a change which proved 
of enormous advantage in improvement of 
the course of studj'. But the registration 
necessarilj' at once dropped oif to lower fig- 
ui-es, until, in the year 1896-7, the registra- 
tion of undergraduates was less than 500. 
On the other hand, the numbers of the 
graduating classes continued to rise until 
this change had its full effect, and num- 
bered 125 in June, '97, but will not exceed, 
probably, 95 in '99 ; after which date it may 
be expected to again resume its upward 
march. Curves B and C show the nuni- 



210 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



bers of these classes at graduation and at 
their entrance into the College. 

The line a h indicates what might have 
been expected had no such radical and un- 
precedented increase of the demands at 
entrance been made. The College would, 
at its then rate of growth, have attained a 
census of 1,000 students in 1898 or 1900, 
possibly 1,200 in the latter year. Numbers 
were then restricted by thus cutting the ex- 
pectant entrance-class in half and its num- 
bers fell as shown, and the dotted line, c d, 
indicates where the figures will probably 
reach, at those dates, as now thus reduced. 
Similarly, the lines / h and g i show what 
numbers were promised, between the speci- 
fied dates, under the one, and what under 
the later, arrangement. The lines j /c and Z m 
show what should have been and what actu- 
ally will probably be the magnitude of the 
graduating classes, in 1898 to 1900, inclusive. 
The line D indicates the number of students 
taking the Master's degree. The peculiar 
' hump' at the date'89, on B, indicates the ef- 
fect of the unsuccessful attempt to restrict 
numbers at that date by limiting the num- 
ber accepted. 

Just what is to be considered the real 
balance between advantage and disadvan- 
tage due the noted elevation of the entrance 
requirements, in '94, is perhaps difficult to 
decide. It has given a vastly better course ; 
but the difference between the lines a h and 
c d shows that the College has lost the op- 
portunity to benefit many hundreds of stu- 
dents who have, as it is, been compelled, in 
most cases, probably, to go into business 
without professional training and who are 
thus placed almost hopelessly in the rear of 
their more fortunate fellows in their strug- 
gle for success through life.* 

R. H. Thurston. 

Sibley College, Cornell 

University, January 2, 1898. 

* Proceedings Society for Promotion ot Engineering 
Education, 1898. 



MECHANICAL ILLUSTRATION OF KIBCHOFF'S 
PRINCIPLE. 

In teaching the reversal of the metallic 
lines in the Fraunhofer spectrum it is often 
difficult for the student to get a concrete 
idea of the principle that a molecule or 
atom will absorb especially radiant energy 
whose period is identical with the inherent 
period of the molecule itself 

A customary method of illustrating this 
point is with two tuning forks upon reso- 
nance boxes, but this requires very careful 
manipulation and is not altogether satisfac- 
tory. The following method has proved 
quite satisfactoiy : 

The suggestion of Lord Kelvin for a me- 
chanical illustration of a molecule having 
inherent periods of vibration is used, re- 
placing his spherical shells by rings. Such 
a molecule with one rate is shown in Fig. I. 

The ring A is about 20 cm. in diameter and 
made of brass rod about 1 cm. in diameter ; 
the ball B is preferably somewhere near the 
same mass as the ring A. The three spiral 
springs jS are wound about 2 cm. diameter 
of about No. 22 hard brass wire. 

Such a molecule has a rate of vibration 
of about 4 or 5 per second when suspended 
on a long string as at D. A close spiral 
spring C, similar to S, but about 50 cm. 
long, is attached to the ring at E, the other 
end being held between the thumb and finger 
at TF. 

While holding this spring slightljr tense 
it can be set into longitudinal stationary 
waves bj^ compressing the part at P toward 
TF and then letting go. The period of 
these vibrations depends upon the length 
TF to F. Commencing with this length 
about 15 to 20 cm. , it will be observed that 
the stationary waves in C do not effect the 
molecule. Taking C longer and longer a 
point is reached where the waves in C are 
taken up and a decided vibration is set up 
between A and B. That is, the molecule 
absorbs the energy from C when its period 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



211 



is the same as its own inherent period. If 
the length of C be now slightly changed, 
the phenomenon of beats is readily apparent. 
An electric arc will throw a sharp shadow 
of this apparatus upon a screen and make 
the experiment visible to a large audience. 
The spring C may be replaced by an electri- 



casts or impressions. The materials com- 
monly used for this purpose are beeswax 
(either pure or mixed with some stiifening 
substance, such as ozocerite or parafl&ne), 
dentists' modeling composition (which must 
first be softened in water heated nearly to 
the boiling point), glue, gelatine, melted 




oally excited tuning fork or other mechan- 
ical appliance. 

The armature of a small electro-magnet 
may be attached to the ring at E and the 
current interrupted by some mechanical 
circuit breaker whose rate can be varied. 

A molecule like Fig. 2 would have several 
inherent rates depending upon the relative 
masses of A, B, C, D and upon their con- 
necting springs. Ingenuity will suggest 
many variations or improvements upon 
these suggestions. 

"William Hallock. 

Physical Labokatoey, 
Columbia XJniveestiy. 



PLASTILINE, A NEW MODELING COMPOUND. 
Paleontologists have constantly to deal 
with organic remains preserved in the 
rock in the form of natural casts, molds 
and impressions, for the proper study of 
which it is indispensable to take reverse 



sulphur, and, of course, the common plaster 
of paris. One writer* has suggested the 
use of tinfoil for taking repousse impres- 
sions, the foil being afterwards coated with 
varnish to insure retention of its shape. 

Each of the above-named substances has 
its own special advantages and applicability 
in certain cases. But a comparatively new 
plastic material which is especially well 
adapted for modeling purposes, and hence 
is of interest to the taxidermist, cartog- 
rapher and others, is that known as plasti- 
line. This is the invention of Professor 
Luighi Giudice, of Genoa, Italy, by whom 
it has recently been perfected, and is, 

* Goodcbild, H. G., How to take Impressions of Fos- 
sils (Geol. Mag. [3], Vol. IX., p. 206), 1892. See 
also, for various hints on modeling : Osborn, H. F., 
Models of extinct Vertebrates (Science, Vol. VII., 
p. 841;, 1897. Davis, W. M., and Curtis, G. C, The 
Harvard Geographical Models (Proo. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., Vol. XXVIII., p. 85), 1897. 



212 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



we believe, exclusively prepared. It was 
brought to tbe writer's attentiou not long 
since through his friend Miss Hyatt, the 
well-known sculptor of Cambridge, who 
states that it has come into general use 
among artists during the past few years. 
It does not appear, however, to have be- 
come known, or at least extensively em- 
ployed in natural history laboratories, as it 
certainly deserves to be. 

The following properties are claimed for 
plastiline in a circular obtained by the 
principal dealers in this country, Messrs. 
L. P. Pastorini & Co., of 1140 Third Ave- 
nue, New York : 

" It is lighter than clay, does not dry nor contract, 
and remains firmly attached where it is placed, what- 
ever be the quantity employed. It will not mildew 
nor produce any other fungus growth ; will preserve 
indefinitely the shape given it, its color, and its ad- 
hesive and plastic properties. Heat or cold, and 
dryness or moisture o£ the atmosphere, have no effect 
upon it, whether exposed or hermetically sealed_ 
Another great advantage is its harmlessness to 
health. 

"Plastiline is used in exactly the same way as 
clay. A layer or two ot painters' glue applied upon 
the wooden framework of the model or base will 
prevent any absorption of plastiline and greatly 
facilitate the latter's adhesion. To take the impres- 
sion of an object and to prevent the composition from 
adhering to the original, powder the plastiline with 
pulverized talcum (glove powder). Plastiline does 
not adhere to the plaster when a cast is made. To 
insure the easy removal of the latter, simply bathe 
with water the outside of the plaster cast, when it 
■will detach readily.* To give a finer finish to certain 
parts of the model, the application of a brush with 
alcohol or spirits of turpentine is recommended." 

Plastiline is supplied in three grades of 
consistency ; No. 1 being the softest, or 
about the same as glazier's putty ; No. 2 
being medium soft, and No. 3 medium hard. 
For taking impressions of fossils we have 
found No. 2 very satisfactory, but to render 
it more plastic one has only to knead it with 
a little vaseline or sweet oil. The best 

* For taking plaster casts directly from natural 
objects no better lubricant can be employed than a 
mixture of vaseline and refined kerosene oil. 



modeling tools are those used by sculptors, 
which consist of fine iron or brass wire 
wound evenly about a stiff wire loop and 
fastened to a short handle. One should 
always make his own tools, however, tak- 
ing care to get the coils fine and even. Box- 
wood spatulas, sand-papered down to a thin 
edge, or even steel ones, such as plasterers 
use, are convenient for shaping in the rough. 
The chief advantages of this compound 
consist in its non-liability to crack or dry 
up — hence it retains the most delicate im- 
pressions indefinitely ; in its durability, as 
the same material can be used over again ; 
in the ease with which plaster casts can be 
taken from it ; and finally in its general con- 
venience, being always ready for use and 
not requiring any care. For these reasons 
we have thought it worth while to bring it 
more prominently before the notice of nat- 
uralists. 

C. E,. Eastman. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 
The Structure and Classification of Birds. By 
Frank E. Beddaed, M.A., F.R.S., Prosec- 
tor and Vice-Secretary of the Zoological 
Society of London. London, New York and 
Bombay, Longmans, Green and Co. 1898. 
Pp. XX + 548, with 252 text figures. Price, 
$6.00. 

Mr. Beddard is to be congratulated upon 
having brought to a successful issue a task 
contemplated, and even commenced, by his 
predecessors, Garrod and Forbes, and as these 
by their labors have done much to further the 
work, and as their note-books have been freely 
drawn upon, they too may be credited with a 
share in the finished product. While we may 
admit that a hand-book on avian anatomy is 
scarcely so much needed now as it was when 
conceived by Garrod, the present volume is none 
the less welcome. The monumental treatise of 
Fuerbriuger and the detailed work of Gadow 
are not at everyone's disposal, and there are 
still ornithologists who, to their sorrow, have 
failed to acquire that knowledge of German 
which is now almost indispensable to the orni- 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



213 



thologist. Hence this book, replete with 
anatomical facts, is one that no working orni- 
thologist can afford to do without. Not only 
does it contain a vast amount of original work, 
but a host of references to that of others, and if, 
as stated in the preface, one bird is occasionally 
described under two names this is of small con- 
sequence. It is a poor bird that does not re- 
joice in at least two names, and there is no 
danger now-a-days that questions of nomen- 
clature will suffer from neglect. 

The first 158 pages are devoted to the struc- 
ture of birds, their more common anatomical 
features being described under such heads as 
pterylosis, alimentary canal, respiratory system, 
etc. Then follow 376 pages on the classifica- 
tion of birds where the structural characters of 
each group are given in detail and the affini- 
ties of each division discussed at some length. 
As Beddard and his immediate predecessors in 
the prosectorial chair have been more deeply in- 
terested in the soft anatomy of birds than in their 
osteology, it is not surprising to find the book 
particularly strong in those portions relating to 
myology and to the detailed structure of the 
syrinx and alimentary canal. The amount of 
original research displayed in these directions 
can but excite the admiration of anyone who 
has tried his hand at the dissection of small 
birds and found how trying it is alike to tem- 
per and eyesight. 

This being the case the occasional slighting of 
osteological characters — for instance, little or 
nothing is said concerning the hypotarsus — 
may be readily forgiven, as well as the rare 
errors, mostly due to generalizations based on 
insufficient data. For example, almost on the 
first page we find the time-worn misstatement 
that in the Swifts all four toes are directed foi-- 
ward when this applies mainly, or wholly, to 
the true Swifts, Micropodinee, since Hemiprocne, 
and probably Macropieryx, cannot, and the com- 
mon species of Chsetura do not, turn the first toe 
forward. Dr. Stejneger and Dr. Coues have 
both stated the case correctly, and it is a pity to 
have this error perpetuated. That the patella 
of the Comorants is perforated by the tendon of 
the ambiens is but partially true ; it is thus per- 
forated in carbo, dilophus and vigua ; it is not in 
urite, penicillatus, punclatus and melanoleucus, 



while the orifice is minute in magellanicua and 
albiventer. 

A slip of another kind is made in describ- 
ing the hyoid, where the text neither agrees 
with the facts nor with the figure on the oppo- 
site page ; this last, however, is hardly to be 
wondered at when scarcely any two writers are 
agreed as to the nomenclature of the parts of a 
bird's hyoid, and the majority seem in some par- 
ticular to be incorrect. These little errors are 
pointed out merely to emphasize the danger of 
generalizations from observations on a few 
members of an apparently homogeneous group, 
and to note that the field of avian anatomy is 
so large that even the most diligent laborer 
therein may overlook some of the distant cor- 
ners. 

Passing to the portion on classification it may 
be said in the main that the groups are those 
adopted by Fuerbringer and Stejneger. Bed- 
dard's divisions (orders?), corresponding, in a 
general way, to the super-families of Stejneger 
as given in the Standard Natural History. 
There is naturally some shifting abovit of de- 
batable forms, for it is not probable that any two 
writers would agree on all points of classifica- 
tion, this largely because birds, as a class, are so 
homogeneous, while their minor modifications 
are so infinite, that their arrangement is a diffi- 
cult matter. To add to the difficulty, the ten- 
dency is for convenience to pitch the divisions 
on too high a key, so that they are not compa- 
rable to those of other vertebrates. 

The two principal divisions are, like those of 
Fuerbringer, Saururie and Ornithurse, the latter 
being sub-divided into Anomalogonatx and Eo- 
malogonafx, although, by a strange oversight, 
the latter group is only incidentally defined 
(p. 95), and is not even mentioned in the con- 
tents, and only by the process of elimination 
can we ascertain what birds belong to it. 

A similar lapse occurs in treating of the Galli, 
where, on page 302, we are told the Alectoro- 
podes may readily be divided into three groups 
and only two groups are given, while, to com- 
plicate matters still further, four families are 
spoken of a little later on. 

Perhaps this may be considered as atoned for 
by the casting overboard of the divisions 
Ratilse and Carinatx and the placing of Tina- 



214 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



mous, next the Ostriches, since the above 
groups have been clung to with a pertinacity 
worthy a better cause, while the breastbone 
of the Tinamous has too often barred them 
from associating with their next of kin. It is 
also gratifying to read that the likeness of 
Hesperornis to the Ratites seems mainly to rest 
upon the degenerate structure of the wings and 
that it cannot be put down definitely as the an- 
cestral form whence both grebes and divers have 
branched off. The author might perhaps have 
gone a little farther and said that the extreme 
specialization of Hesperornis seems to indicate 
that it represents one offshoot from the main 
stem which terminated then and there. The 
gulls are placed among the Limicohe, but the 
auks are omitted, although this may strike 
some as showing undue partiality, while 
the placing of the Flamingo with the Hero- 
diones will be commended by some and con- 
demned by others. The balance of evidence, 
however, including some recent observations 
on the feathers, seems to lean towards the as- 
sociation here given, and this, like many other 
instances, may well serve to illustrate the diffi- 
culties that beset the classification of birds. In 
writing of the skull of woodpeckers the author 
apparently accepts the validity of the ' sau- 
rognathous ' type, but, later on, in discussing 
the Hesperornithes, his allusions to ' the pre- 
sumed vomers of the woodpeckers ' shows that 
he does not feel quite convinced, and for our 
own part we agree with Shufeldt in considering 
the so-called vomers as purely adventitious 
ossifications. It may be here remarked that 
Mr. Beddard is preeminently fair in his discus- 
sion of all matters, the pros and cons of doubt- 
ful questions being impartially considered, the 
book being entirely free from any didactic 
tone. 

It would have been well in defining the groups 
to have followed some uniform plan and, in- 
stead of setting down characters indiscrimi- 
nately, to have, so far as possible, given the 
same characters, osteological, myological or 
ceecal, in the same order. This would have 
facilitated comparison and enabled any one to 
form a better estimate of the value of the vari- 
ous groups. But while we may differ from Mr. 
Beddard in the manner of using facts, we are 



deeply indebted to him for the vast number he 
has placed at our disposal. 

The mechanical execution of the book is ex- 
cellent, the type clear and open, while the use 
of black-faced type for family names and of 
italics for anatomical characters is of great aid 
to the reader. The table of contents, however, 
is faulty, and it could be wished that the index 
was more than an index to species. 

F. A. Lucas. 

Rivers of North America. A Reading Lesson for 
Students of Geography and Geology. By 
Israel C. Russell. New York, G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons; London, John Murray. 1898. 
Pp. xix + 327. 17 plates, 1 table and 23 
figures in the text. 

The third volume in The Science Series, 
edited by Professor J. McK. Cattell, is the very 
welcome monograph by Professor Israel C. Rus- 
sell, the full title of which is quoted above. In 
this, the fourth volume that Professor Russell 
has given us concerning the greater topographic 
forms of North America, we have a treatise that 
has long been needed for every-day use, particu- 
larly by those of us who are teachers. The 
particular serviceableness of the book, however, 
does not lie in the fact that Professor Russell 
has given us a single-volume reference book 
concerning American rivers, but because he first, 
in this country, has here presented a general 
consideration of the work, function and phe- 
nomena of rivers in general. Indeed, this vol- 
ume is the best popular and yet scientific treat- 
ment we know of the origin and development of 
land forms, and we immediately adopted it as 
the best available text-book for a college course 
in physiography. 

The nine chapters treat the many aspects of 
rivers and drainage in a logical, concise, clear 
and appealing manner, and, though in part they 
must be read closely, are very attractive to begin- 
ners because of the very afiparent spirit in which 
the book was written. No beginner in earth sci- 
ence could gather from such a treatment the 
common conception that geography deals with 
' dead things ' only. The book is full of life 
and vigor, and shows the sympathetic touch of 
a man deeply in love with nature. As we ex- 
pected such a naturalist's treatment, we turned 



Fereuaey 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



215 



first in our reading to one of the later chapters, 
entitled ' The Life History of a River,' in 
which Professor Eussell has given lis a de- 
lightful summary of a river history as seen by 
a supposed being sufficiently long-lived to have 
outlived the river. In spite of the imagination 
demanded for the writing or reading, or per- 
haps better, because of the necessary imagina- 
tion, the chapter in question is of exceptional 
value In emphasizing the comparative lives of 
man and earth forms, and the difficulty of gain- 
ing proper ideas of time. It is, however, a 
chapter that should be read as a summary and 
not as an introduction by a beginner ; for a 
body of facts is necessary in order to have such 
& broad view properly understood and appre- 
ciated. 

The plan of the book is very logical and 
practical, the first seven chapters being devoted 
to a careful account of the details of river 
work under the following larger headings : 
The Disintegration and Decay of Rocks, Laws 
■Governing the Streams, Influence of Inequali- 
ties in the Hardness of Rocks on Riverside 
Scenery, Material Carried by Streams in Sus- 
pension and in Solution, Stream Deposits, 
Stream Terraces and Stream Development. 
The last two chapters are devoted to consider- 
ing the more important American rivers, and 
the Life History of a River, in which a summary 
use is made of the principles that have been 
previously developed. 

The first chapter is devoted to a consideration 
of the processes of mechanical and chemical dis- 
integration and the consequences of such work, 
and forms a natural and necessary introduction 
to the especial treatment of rivers, which 
really begins in Chapter II. Here we find a 
good treatment of the processes and results of 
river erosion and transportation, and the impor- 
tant controls of such river work. Especial 
and perhaps a little too emphatic emphasis is 
given to the effect of the rotation of the earth 
upon river cutting, particularly as seen on 
Long Island. From such a forceful exposition 
of this control the beginner might uncon- 
sciously gather an erroneous impression of its 
importance in general. 

The chapter devoted to the loads of rivers is 
very detailed and one of the most important of 



the book. In spite of numerous analyses and 
tables, the text does not lose its interest, and 
the treatment is not above the ability of the 
average reader. The chapter is sufficiently 
inclusive for general needs, and yet free from 
the mathematical difficulties that scare the 
student so frequently in text-book considera- 
tions of this difficult subject. 

In the consideration of river deposits the 
author gives a whole chapter to one group, 
namely, terraces, which, although of great 
interest, are not of such world-wide significance 
as the other greater groups considered together 
in Chapter V. In spite of this seeming divorce 
of related subjects, the arrangement is good, 
because the more normal conditions of river 
deposition can thus be considered in exteuso, 
without too serious modification of the idea of 
a river's life cycle. We are glad to see the 
river deposits treated causally and inclusively. 
The consideration of deltas is particularly help- 
ful and to the point. The classification is good, 
clear and workable, and one to be commended. 
The influences of climate, elevation and de- 
pression are treated at length, and the chapter 
closes with a summary devoted to the cross and 
longitudinal profiles of rivers illustrated with 
a few clear diagranis. 

The most helpful chapter in the book is that 
devoted to stream development. Here we have 
for the first time available for public use the 
theory and the details of the newer classifica- 
tion of land forms. The questions of stream 
development and adjustment, the stages in 
river history and the topographic forms to be 
found in the various instances are considered 
concisely and clearly. The newer terminology 
is used with discretion and success. Only those 
terms that have to a certain extent been estab- 
lished by usage are included, and these are not 
given dogmatically in technical language. The 
author has not written his chapter to explain 
the terms to be found in the literature of his 
subject, as is so often the case, but has given 
each suggested term at the close of a clear ex- 
position of a composite fact as a shorthand 
method 'of indicating the composite. The 
student reader of this chapter would not, we 
think, be led to use any term with quotation 
marks, either oral or written, but would avoid 



216 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215, 



a concise method of expression until his ideas 
were so clear that a short handle appealed to 
him, not as a possible, but as a necessary con- 
venience. The chapter as a whole is a very 
serviceable text-book on modern physiography 
and is of exceptional value to all who have 
previously been embarassed by the inaccessi- 
bility of the literature on this subject. 

The footnote references are many and well 
selected, and, although not complete, give a 
good introduction to the general literature. The 
illustrations are, on the whole, excellent, and 
the form of reproduction has been unusually 
successful. The book could well have been en- 
riched with more illustrations of normal river 
topography, and would then have been much 
more valuable, both to student and teacher. 
The typography is clear and pleasing, and the 
book very attractive in its general form. A 
good index completes the volume. 

We read the book through almost at one sit- 
ting, and laid it down with but two regrets : 
first, that there was not more ; and second, 
that this, the best of the series of four mono- 
graphs by Professor Russell, was not uniform in 
general appearance with its predecessors. It is 
certainly a misfortune that three publishers 
should have issued these four books. Had they 
been uniform in appearance, they would have 
been of greater interest to the general reader, 
especially to those who get pleasure from the 
shelf as well as the hand appearance of a row 
of related books. 

We know of but few books that are so nearly 
what one would desire as this book. Adverse 
criticism can only be directed to details, and 
lamentation over details is out of place when a 
book is so generally pleasing as this. 

RiCHAED E. Dodge. 

Teachers College, Columbia Univeksity. 

Anatomy and Histology of the Mouth and Teeth. 
By J. NoEMAN Beoomell, D. p. S. Phila- 
delphia, P. Blakiston's Sons & Co. 1898. 
With 234 Illustrations. Svo. Pp. viii + 428. 
The book contains the best account of the 
teeth of man, which has yet appeared in the 
English language. It includes the treatment of 
oral anatomy and of dental histology and de- 
velopment. It is illustrated chiefly by original 



photographs engraved in half-tone. The most 
important and most meritorious part of the 
book is comprised in Chapters VIII. -XI. (pages 
131-280), which offer detailed and valuable 
descriptions of the teeth, marred only by a 
fantastic subdivision of the incisors, canines 
and first bicuspids of the upper jaw into four 
types, bilious, nervous, sanguineous and lym- 
phatic, an astonishing revival this of medi- 
ceval pseudo-science in the midst of a work 
otherwise sei-ious and intelligent. The au- 
thor's descriptions are clear and admirable, 
and by their thoroughness meet a real need. 
In fact, it has long seemed singular that there 
should be no adequate detailed account of 
human teeth, but the need seems to be now 
well supplied. 

The chapters on the teeth, above referred to, 
are preceded by the seven which deal with the 
anatomy of the oral region, and are followed 
by six chapters on the development of the teeth, 
the histology of oral structures and the his- 
tology of the teeth. Dr. Broomell's attempt 
to apply photography for histological illustra- 
tions is not encouraging, all of the figures of 
microscopic structure being very far inferior to 
cuts from drawings. The account of the devel- 
opment of the teeth is fairly good, but no:j 
equal to the standard of the anatomical part. 
Some minor errors appear in the embryological 
portions, for example, ' tooth band ' is used in- 
stead of ' dental shelf;' the tooth germ in Fig. 
180 is so distorted that it gives no idea of the 
true relations ; in Fig. 181 the hole between the 
tooth and the shrunken enamel organ is labeled 
enamel. But it is not worth while to dwell 
upon these defects in a work of solid merit. 

The publisher's share has been well executed, 
the general appearance of the volume being 
dignified and attractive, the printing excellent. 
Chaeles S. Minot. 

books received. 
The Foundations of Zoology. WILLIAM KEITH 

Brooks. Colnmbia University Biological Series. 

Vol. V. New Yorl;:, The Maomillan Company. 

1899. 82.50. 
The Native Tribes of Central Australia. Baldwin 

Spencer and F. J. Gilen. London and New 

York, The Maomillan Company. 1899. Pp. 

x + 671. §6.50. 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



217 



Die Spiele der Menschen. Karl Geoos. Jena, 
Gnstav Fischer. 1899. Pp. iv + 538. Mark 10. 

Zoological Results honed on Material from New Britain, 
New Guinea, Loyalty Islands and Elsewhere, collected 
during the Years 1S95-1S97. ARTHUR WiLLEY. 
Cambridge University Press. 1899. Pt. 2. Pp. 
121-206. 12s. 6d. 

Lectures on the Eooluiion of Plants. DoUGLAS Hough- 
ton Campbell. New York and London, The 
Macmillan Company. 1899. Pp. viii + 319. 
$1.25. 

3Iental Arithmetic. J. A. McLellan and A. F. 
Ames. New York and London, The Macmillan 
Company. 1899. Pp.x + 138. 

Neto York State 3Iuse^im. Forty-ninth Annual Re- 
port of the Regents, 1895. Vol. 2, Report of State 
Geologist, Albany. University of the State of 
New York. 1898. Pp.738. 

Physical Chemistry for Beginners. Dr. Ch. Van 
Derventer. With an Introduction by Profes- 
sor J. H Van't Hope. Translated by Bertram 
B. BOTHROW. New York, John Wiley & Sons ; 
London, Chapman & Co. 1899. Pp. x + 154. 
$1.50. 

SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. 
The Auh for January is an unusually large 
number, and consequently is a little late in mak- 
ing its appearance. It commences with Mr. 
Chapman's discussion of the ' Relationships of 
Ainmodramus maritimus and its Allies, ' which is 
followed by Mr. O. B. Warren's ' Chapter in the 
Life History of the Canada Jay.' Mr. Ober- 
holser has a paper on ' The Blue Honey-Creep- 
ers of Tropical America,' for which the new gen- 
eric name Cyanerpes is proposed, and Dr. Gill 
considers the generic names Pediocxtes and Foo- 
esetes, concluding that they must give way to 
Pedioecetes and Pooecetes. Many new species 
and subspecies are described, a New Sylocichla 
by Mr. Oberholser, a number of new forms from 
Mexico by Mr. Nelson, and several new species 
and subspecies of N. A. Fringillidse by Mr. Ridg- 
way. Under the caption ' Truth versus Error,' 
Mr. Elliot and Dr. Allen continue the discussion 
of the propriety of correcting mis-spelled scien- 
tific names. Mr. Witmer Stone presents a 
long report, very encouraging in parts, on 'The 
Protection of North American Birds,' and, 
finally, is the Ninth Supplement to the A. O. 
U. Check List. This contains a long list of 



changes, the most startling of which, perhaps, 
is at the outset, where the generic name for 
the Loons is decided to be Gavia and the family 
name Gaviidx. 

The contents of The American Journal of 
Science for February are as follows : 

'Contribution to the Study of Contact Metamor- 
phism,' by J. M. Clements. 

'Origin of Mammals,' by H. F. Osborn. 

'Chemical Composition of Tourmaline,' by S. L. 
Penfield and H. W. Foote. 

' Littoral MoUusks from Cape Fairweather, Pata- 
gonia, by H. A. Pilsbry. 

' Thermodynamic Relations for Steam, ' by G. P. 
Starkweather. 

' Descriptions of imperfectly known and new 
Aotinians, with critical notes on other species. III,' by 
A. E. Verrill. 

' Volumetric Method for the Estimation of Boric 
Acid,' by L. C. Jones. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
THE TEXAS ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The midwinter meeting of the Texas Acad- 
emy of Science was held in Austin during the 
last week of December. The program was as 
follows : 

Tuesday, December 27th. — (1) ' Do the Reac- 
tions of the Lower Animals due to Injury 
indicate Pain Sensations?' Professor W. W. 
Norman, University of Texas. Numerous ex- 
periments upon living animals were described 
in detail and the conclusion reached that so far 
as the invertebrates and the lower vertebrates 
are concerned the reactions due to injury do not 
necessarily indicate pain. (2) ' Three Recent 
Gifts to the University of Texas,' Dr. W. J. 
Battle. The gifts described in this paper con- 
sisted of, 1st, a storage amphora from the cellar 
of the Courts of Justinian in Constantinople ; 
2d, a stone bearing an inscription recording the 
gift of a crown to one Lysagoras by the people 
of Ilium, and 3d, a twelfth century manuscript 
of the Gosisels from the Island of Prinkipos, 
Sea of Marmora. These interesting objects 
were presented to the University by the Hon. 
Alexander Terrell, late Minister of the United 
States to Turkey. 

Wednesday, December SSth. — (1) ' Some New 
Measurements of Electric Waves,' Regent R. 
S. Hyer, Southwestern University. This valu- 



218 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



able paper is already in the hands of the printer 
and will soon be ready for distribution. (2) 
' Variations of Indian Corn when brought from 
New York to Texas,' Professor H. Ness, Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College of Texas. 
The experiments here described were begun in 
1896 at the suggestion of Professor L. H. 
Bailey, of Cornell University. Corn, of the 
same varieties, was planted at Ithaca, New 
York, and College Station, Texas ; comparative 
notes taken, and the results carefully tabulated. 
(3) ' An Analysis of the Factors determining 
the Geographical Distribution of Plants in 
Texas ' (read by title), Dr. William L. Bray, 
University of Texas. (4) ' Note on the Descent 
of Erythronium Bulbs into the Soil,' Professor 
O. C. Charlton, Baylor University. (5) ' A Re- 
view of Bulletin, No. 151, of the United States 
Geological Survey,' 'The Lower Cretaceous 
Gryphseas of the Texas Region,' by Robert T. 
Hill and T. Wayland Vaughan, Dr. Frederic 
W. Simonds, University of Texas. 

The recent publications of the Academy are : 
'Applications of Non-Euclidean Geometry,' by 
Dr. George Bruce Halsted ; Address before 
the Academy, by President L. S. Ross ; ' The 
Essential Differences between Man and Other 
Animals,' by Dr. S. E. Mezes ; 'Pedagogical 
Notes on Mensuration,' by Arthur Lefevre, 
C.E. ; 'Science and the State,' by the Presi- 
dent of the Academy, Professor T. U. Taylor. 
Feedeeic W. Simonds. 

philosophical society of wrashington. 

The 494th meeting of the Society was held 
January 21st, at 8 p. m. , at the Cosmos Club. An 
informal communication of an exceedingly inter- 
esting character was given by Surgeon- General 
Sternberg on Radiographs, accompanied by the 
exhibition of some remarkable photographs by 
the X-Eays. The lirst regular paper was by Dr. 
L. A. Bauer (read by Mr. J. F. Hayford, of the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey), the subject being 
' The Decomposition of the Earth's Permanent 
Magnetic Field.' This paper was an attempt 
to resolve the Earth's permanent magnetic field 
into component ones physically interpretable 
The normal distribution of the Earth's magnet- 
ism is defined as that which can be regarded 
i^s resulting from a uniform magnetization about 



a diameter inclined to the rotation axis. The 
normal magnetic components (northerly, east- 
erly and vertical) are next computed for 1800 
points on the Earth's surface between parallels 
60° N. and 60° S. These are then subtracted 
from the observed values and thus the residual 
components are obtained. With the aid of 
these is mapped out that portion of the Earth's 
magnetism which cannot be referred to a uni- 
form magnetization (or to equivalent effects) 
about a diameter inclined to the Earth's axis. 
The residual field consists mainly of two trans- 
verse magnetizations, one magnetic system lying 
in the northern hemisphere, the north end at- 
tracting pole being east of the south end at- 
tracting pole, and the second system lying in 
the southern hemisphere, the direction of 
magnetization being the reverse of the former. 
Striking coincidences manifest themselves be- 
tween the characteristics of the residual field 
and those of the diurnal variation field as de- 
termined by Schuster. The foci of both fields 
lie near parallels 40° (N. and S.) As the author 
is conducting other related investigations, he 
refrains from drawing definite conclusions un- 
til these investigations have been completed. 
The second paper was by Mr. C. F. Marvin and 
was a description of the apparatus employed at 
several Weather Bureau stations during the 
past summer for the purpose of making a pre- 
liminary survey of meteorological conditions in 
the upper air. The results obtained from these 
investigations are now being classified and 
worked up. A special form of Hargrave cellu- 
lar kite was employed and controlled in flight 
from a convenient form of hand windlass. The 
automatic records were obtained by means of a 
special kite meteorograph, of the author's de- 
sign, and adapted to record the temperature, 
pressure and humidity of the air and wind 
velocity. The meteorograph was attached 
firmly to the kite. Its weight, complete, was 
2.1 pounds ; that of the kite, about 8 pounds. 
E. D. Peeston, 

Secretary. 

THE ANTHEOPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASH- 
INGTON. 

The 284th regular meeting of the Anthropo- 
logical Society was held Tuesday evening, Jan- 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCmNGE. 



219 



uary 3, 1899. The members of the Woman's 
Anthropological Society were elected to mem- 
bership in the Society, the former Society as a 
body being absorbed by the Anthropological 
Society. Miss Alice Fletcher read a paper on 
'A Pawnee Ritual,' in which she laid stress 
upon the fact that a literal translation of the 
ritual did not convey the true meaning, did not 
express the poetic thoughts or the real phil- 
osophy of the ritual, and these could only be 
obtained by a free translation, based upon an 
intimate knowledge of the Indian's picturesque 
and poetic expression of his thoughts. 

Mr. Francis La Flesche sang a part of the 
ritual, to show the manner in which the Priest 
rendered it. 

Discussed by Mr. Gushing. 

Mr. W. H. Holmes read a paper on ' One 
Step in the Evolution of the Maya Temple.' 
Mr. Holmes described the remarkable edifices 
the ruins of which are found in numerous ancient 
cities of the Maya territory, and dwelt briefly 
upon their origin and development, but the 
chief object of the paper was to indicate the 
very pronounced influence of the corbelled 
arch, sometimes called the Maya arch, on the 
buildings. Without stopping to discuss the 
question as to whether the suggestion of this 
method of spanning chamber spaces came from 
within or without the Maya province, the man- 
ner in which it would probably supplant the 
horizontal beam of wood or the slab of stone 
was pointed out. Ofisetting the upper stones 
of a wall enabled the builder to span the space 
with shorter beams or stones and led finally to 
the exclusive use of stone, a great step in the 
direction of permanency. The effect of the 
arch upon the chambers was to widen them 
considerably and greatly to increase their 
height ; but the most remarkable result was ex- 
terior, as the height was more than doubled. 
The doorways were not changed, however, and 
the original fagade remained the same, being 
limited above by a heavy cornice representing 
the ends of the horizontal beams or eaves of the 
early period. The added upper wall, carried 
up vertically in Yucatan and at a high angle in 
more southern sections, was devoted entirely 
to ornament and became the most remarkable 
feature of the structures, affording the builders 



no end of opportunities for displaying their 
genius for sculpture and their devotion to sym- 
bolism. 

Discussed by Messrs. Gushing and McGee. 
J. H. McCORMICK, 

Secretary. 

THE NEW YOKE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES — SEC- 
TION OF PSYCaOLOGY AND ANTHRO- 
POLOGY, JANUARY 23. 

Theee was an unusually good attendance at 
the regular meeting of the Section. From the 
psychologists there were papers by Chas. H. 
Judd, of New York University, on ' The Visual 
Perception of Linear Distances ;' by B. B. Breese, 
of Golumbia, on ' Some Experiments in the Vol- 
untary Control of Retinal Rivalry,' and by C. B. 
Bliss, on ' A Modification of one of the Psycho- 
physical Methods.' 

On the part of the anthropologists there was 
a brief report by the returning members of the 
expedition sent out by the American Museum 
of Natural History to study the Gilliak tribes 
of eastern Asia. A paper was then read by 
A. Hrdlicka, of the Museum, giving the result 
of a study of the custom of painting bones. 

Two other papers on anthropology contained 
in the program went over to the next meeting 
for lack of time. G. B. Bliss, 

Secretary. 

SECTION OF ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS — JANUARY 
2, 1890. 

The section was called to order by Chairman 
Dudley, 19 persons being present. In the ab- 
sence of the Secretary, Mr. T. G. White was 
elected Secretary pro tern. 

The first paper of the evening was by Pro- 
fessor Wm. Hallock, printed on page 210. 

In the discussion which followed. Professor 
D. W. Hering suggested connecting the string 
or spiral by which impulses are imparted to the 
ring, to a tuning fork, the rate of vibration of 
which could be regulated by weighing and 
which could be operated electrically, for re- 
ciprocating motion of small amplitude and of a 
known rate. 

The second paper was by Dr. F. L. Tufts on 
the ' Absorption and reflection of sound waves 



220 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



by porous materials.' This paper gave the re- 
sults of experiments on the transmission and re- 
flection of sound by such materials as flour, 
sand, sawdust, shot and a few different kinds 
of cloths. It was stated that when sound waves 
strike against materials pervious to air they 
act very much like a pneumatic pressure, and 
that the amount of sand transmitted throvigh 
such materials is inversely proportional to the 
resistance offered by the materials to the pass- 
age of a direct current of air. The results of 
the experiments upon the reflection of sound 
from the same materials showed that those ma- 
terials that transmitted the greatest amount of 
sound reflected the least. The paper also 
contained an account of some experiments in 
which the sound waves had to pass through 
some pervious material, such as the curtains 
upon a wall, and were then reflected back 
through the same by the impervious wall. 

In the discussion that followed the reading of 
the paper Professor Hallock suggested the 
practical application to the improvement of the 
acoustics of rooms which might result from 
these investigations, and the futility of the 
method of string wires in large halls to break 
up echoes, which had been often advised, but 
which was disproved by these experiments. 
Mr. Dudley also spoke of the attempts that 
had been made to obtain materials absorptive 
of sound, to deaden the noise in railroad cars. 

The third paper was by Mr. P. H. Dudley, on 
' Translative curves of counter balance and 
crank pins in running locomotives.' It was 
profusely illustrated by lantern views of loco- 
motives in the various positions described. 
These showed the loci of the center of gravity 
of the counter weights, crank pins and driving 
axles in running locomotives. Some of the 
photographs showed the position of the counter 
weights in the driving wheels of running loco- 
motives in reference to the stremmatograph 
under the rail. The counter weights added to 
the driving wheels to balance the reciprocating 
parts, crank pins, main and side connecting 
rods, when the engine is running, besides ro- 
tating around the axles, move along the rails 
per revolution a distance equal to the circum- 
ference of the drivers. The locus of the center 
of gravity of the counter weights six inches from 



the tread of the tire in a seven feet driving 
wheel travels above the locus of the driving 
axle more than three times as far as it does 
below. The locus of the center of gravity of the 
crank pin for 24-inch stroke of piston in a driv- 
ing wheel of 7-feet diameter travels 44 per cent, 
more above the locus of the driving axle than 
below it. 

The above cited facts show that the relative 
velocities of the center of gravity of the counter 
weights and crank pins are not constant for 
each portion of a revolution as in the stationary 
engine, but are unequal and constantly chang- 
ing. Therefore, the forces generated are un- 
equal, and perfect counter balance does not 
obtain in the locomotive. Part of the unbal- 
anced forces must be absorbed by the locomo- 
tive itself and part by the permanent way. 
The upper portion of the driving wheel moves 
much faster than the lower portion running on 
and in contact with the rail, in striking con- 
trast to the uniform velocity of the rim of the 
fly wheel of a stationary engine. 

Dr. Dudley also showed lantern views of 
running locomotives, in which the lower spokes 
of the driving wheels were sharply defined, 
while the upper ones, running so much faster, 
were not stopped for the same exposure. 
Reginald Gordon, 

Secretary. 

THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS. 

At the meeting of the Academy of Science of 
St. Louis of January 23, 1899, a paper by 
Professor A. S. Hitchcock, entitled ' Studies 
on Subterranean Organs, Part I, Compositse 
of the vicinity of Manhattan, Kansas,' dealing 
with the structure of a number of rootstocks 
with reference to their environment, was pre- 
sented in abstract. Mr. C. H. Thompson also 
spoke of some plants the flowers of which orig- 
inate endogenously. He mentioned several 
species of Rkipsalis in which the much reduced 
leaves grow on triangular or cylindrical very 
succulent stems, their axillary buds originating 
deep down in the soft tissue and sometimes 
having a passage-way extending toward the 
surface. In two species of Rhipsalis {R. para- 
doxa and B. floccosa) there is no such passage- 
way, and the bud, in developing, breaks 



Febeuaey 10, 1S99.] 



SCIENCE. 



221 



through the epidermis. In Mipsalie glaucoaa 
a number of accessory abortive flowers were 
found. Cuscuta glomerata was mentioned as the 
only other plant iu which, so far as the speaker 
knew, subepidermal flowers occur. 

One person was elected to active member- 
®^'P- William Trelease, 

Recording Secretary. 



DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

Editor of Science: I fear that the sub- 
ject may verge on becoming tedious to your 
readers, but will ask the privilege of conclud- 
ing my part in the discussion by a few com- 
ments on two points raised in Mr. Bather's 
communication of January 10th (p. 154). 

It will hardly be denied that the date of 
printing will always be useful to the systema- 
tist in noting a period earlier than which pub- 
lication of a paper cannot be claimed, even if 
we ignore the obvious fatit that in nearly every 
case it will now-a-days closely approach the 
date of distribution or actual publication. 
Hence, the committee should consider well be- 
fore minimizing its value. 

Secondly, it has been held, with some plausi- 
bility, that the distribution by favor alone 
should not constitute publication, but that the 
ability of any one interested to procure a paper 
by purchase is essential to an eflTective publica- 
tion. If now, by a doctrine of ethics which is 
certainly novel to me, the committee decides 
that no paper can be regarded as published 
until the society which prints it is ready to sell 
the complete volume of which it may form a 
part, it is obvious that the committee has it in 
contemplation to put a quietus on the prompt 
publication of separate papers, unless this is 
done commercially by the society in question, 
in the first place To this proposition I believe 
it will be impossible to obtain the assent of 
workers in systematic natural history, and 
justly so. 

The reasons are obvious and need not be 
enlarged upon. I think it is not unfair to add 
that most libraries in this country would rather 
pride themselves on procuring, even at the cost 
of seven shillings, at the earliest practicable 



moment, a paper demanded by their readers ; 
and would consider its belated acquisition in 
the miscellaneous volume of a scientific so- 
ciety, subsequently, as no reflection upon their 
performance of their duties to the public. 

Wm. H. Ball. 



THE RED-BEDS OP KANSAS. 

The correlation of the Red-Beds of Kansas 
has hitherto been impossible to satisfactorily 
settle, as has been stated by Professor Prosser 
in his admirable report upon them in the second 
volume of the University Geological Survey of 
Kansas. Many persons have diligently sought 
for fossils in them, but entirely without success 
until recently. About two years ago Mr. C. N. 
Gould discovered a horizon just south of the 
Kansas line and at the base of the Kansas 
series, containing large numbers of a small 
phyllopod crustacean, examples of which, when 
referred to Professor T. Rupert Jones, through 
Professor Prosser, were determined as Estheria 
minuta with some doubt, as stated in his paper 
in the Geological Magazine (1898, p. 291). 

Associated with these crustacean remains, the 
blocks sent with the skeleton showing numer- 
ous specimens, was a large part of the skeleton 
of an amphibian. This specimen is now in the 
University of Kansas collection, but so far has 
been only partly freed from its matrix, a work 
of much tediousness. The parts already brought 
to light, however, enable me to determine it as 
Eryops megacephalus Cope, a form described 
from the ' Permian ' of Texas. 

This identification settles once for all the 
horizon whence it came as Permian, if the 
Texas beds be really of that age. There are 
several hundred feet of deposits in Kansas above 
this horizon that still possibly may be con- 
sidered as Triassic, but there is no reason for 
so doing. Estheria minuta is a Triassic species, 
but, even if correctly determined, its value is 
slight in comparison with that of the vertebrate 
iu the correlation of the beds. It must be re- 
membered, however, tbut Eryops is by no means 
necessarily characteristic of the Permian. 

S. W. Williston. 
men of science and anti-vivibection. 
If, according to my critic (Science, Dec. 16, 
1898, p. 873), the efforts of the anti-vivisection- 



222 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



ists are to be regarded as antics, or as the idiotic 
spot upon tlie brain of many people, tlie writer 
laclced wisdom in urging that men of science, 
thus far only cognizant at second hand of the 
points at issue, should divest themselves of the 
bias of esprit- de -corps, and, emerging from the 
influences exerted upon them by a sub-division 
of their colleagues, decide, through their own 
investigation, for or against experiments on liv- 
ing animals. 

In the writer's opinion, however, not fully 
expressed in the number of Science referred to, 
the adequate hearing, which has not been, 
should be given to the allegations of the anti- 
vivisectionists, namely : (1) That the experi- 
ments have not helped medical or scientific 
knowledge. (2) That the experiments are not 
properly restrained, and can be pursued in the 
United States not only by scientific men, but 
by tyros, or by others in an undue, excessive 
and superficial manner. (3) That whether to 
the advantage of scientific knowledge or not, 
the practice of painful experiment on unwilling 
living creatures, by a human mind aware of the 
significance of pain upon the higher animals, is 
an act founded on no right and degrading to 
that human mind. 

lu the latter allegation, passing by here the 
two preceding it, the writer sees the real issue. 
Denying such tendency of the experiment on 
the experimenter, seeming willing to leave to 
the latter his present unrestricted latitude, the 
advocate of vivisection, apparently under sanc- 
tion of the National Academy of Sciences, as- 
serts not only an excuse, but a right for the ex- 
periments in their alleged advantage to science 
and the human race. 

This is to fortify the practice in one of the 
strongest ways possible, since the thought trend 
of the human majority makes naturally toward 
a magnification of its own successes, and a jus- 
tification of the latter even when demonstrably 
achieved at the expense of insignificant and un- 
voiced suflTering. The right of communities to 
advantage (amuse) themselves by human pain 
still exists among certain savage and barbarous 
peoples. The right of nations, proceeding, for 
their own alleged advantage, to practice felony 
and murder (according to their rule laid down 
for individuals), to act frequently upon the 



abused precepts of Machiavelli, while proclaim- 
ing Christianity, is not potently questioned 
throughout Christendom, while the notion of 
restraining the alleged rights of civilized com- 
munities and individuals to advantage (amuse) 
themselves by the infliction of great pain on 
lower forms of life has entered the heads of but 
few of those thus advantaged. Nevertheless, 
some ameliorations have been made in certain 
cases towards the alleviation of the pain, which 
has been supposed to confer the benefit upon its 
inflictor, and the attempt of the human friend 
of animals, in this instance, to set limits to the 
gains of humanity is not more unreasonable 
than the existence of certain limits already set 
by humanity itself to its own gains. 

When human public opinion forbids by law 
the practice of forcible vivisection upon a felon 
condemned to death, it limits the advance of 
scientific knowledge by ruling off the dissect- 
ing table a class of fiber and tissue more val- 
uable for medical study, while not demonstrably 
more significant to the community, than the 
fiber and tissue of a dog. If we forbid the 
hypnotist to learn by experiment upon the hu- 
man subject, whether the latter can be mes- 
merically influenced to steal, commit adultery, 
lie, or otherwise yield to inborn passions, we 
again obstruct science. When society denies 
the right of doctors to test theories and modes 
of treatment, or to advance scientific knowledge, 
by occasionally killing or paining moribund hu- 
man patients in hospitals, it retards scientific 
knowledge by limiting a class of experiment 
more valuable to the experimenter than similar 
inflictions by analogy upon animals. At the 
same time the restraint acts upon a principle no 
more logical, no less so, than that which moves 
the anti-vivisectionist. 

But in its deeper sense the late movement in 
defense of animals justifies itself not in logic, 
which has not yet solved the mystery of pain, 
torture and death, but rather in the expansion 
of the very potent principle of love or sym- 
pathy. 

Raising clearly and fully a momentous ques- 
tion which, it is to be regretted. Science did not 
honor herself by raising for them, the defenders 
of animals proclaim that the whole question of 
the ravages of Homo sapiens (who seems to have 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



223 



lost touch with fellow animals somewhere in 
the stone or bonze age, since which time he has 
ceased to domesticate them) upon the lower forms 
of life needs revision ; that many of the ravages 
are unjust, nay cruel and degrading ; that in 
many cases they should be ameliorated through 
human education, while in other indefensible 
instances they should be abolished by human 
law. 

In this agitation the observer of humanity, 
from the widening point of view of anthropo- 
logical science, sees not a fanatical outbust, but 
an extension of one of the potent familiar fac- 
tors of human development, an evolution of the 
ancient and ever-growing protest against the al- 
leged right of exti-eme might, constituting itself 
the judge, whether as populace, or despot, 
priest or tyrant, egotist or felon, science or 
creed, to forcibly inflict pain upon insignificant 
or helpless victims. 

Science, since Darwin at least, admits no such 
chasm as theology formally alleged, between 
animals and man, while, with the wider study 
of nature, the attitude of mind which has pre- 
viously circumscribed the activity of human re- 
dress to human ills fades away. 

It is the effort which affected the abolition of 
gladitorial combats, burnings at the stake, tor- 
ture chambers, the Inquisition, serfdom, the 
abatement of slavery and the persecution of 
Jews, which is now seen to expand. Long 
limited in sympathy to the groans of man, it is 
now led, by the power of expanding knowledge, 
to listen to the cry of man's speechless victim, 
the tortured brute. 

Suddenly and strangely, at the close of the 
nineteenth century, we mark, throughout civil- 
ized peoples, the uprising of societies and indi- 
viduals who, again rejuvenating the thought of 
Buddha, appear unselfishly to strive to extend 
human sympathy beyond the human barrier. 
But the outgrowths are not spontaneous. It is 
because of one of the most potent of the forces 
which has led man from darkness toward civil- 
ization that they exist. It is because of a prin- 
ciple that should be dear to the heart of a man 
of science, and for which Science herself has 
suffered, that the idea of the human being ad- 
vancing his own knowledge by acts so selfish 
as vivisection meets with self condemnation. 



Flint (Text-book of Physiology) frequently 
exposing the nerve roots of dogs in public dem- 
onstrations ; Castex (Archives Oen. de Medicine, 
Jan. and Feb., 1892) clubbing out of joint the 
shoulders of unnarcotized dogs to show how to 
massage them ; B. A. Watson (Experimental 
Study of lesions arising from severe concussion, 
1890) dropping living dogs from heights so as to 
produce and then study on them concussion of the 
spine ; cutting the intestines of living dogs and 
then sewing the ends together with dull needles 
in certain ways, to study circular sutures ; 
Phelps' fixing the joints of living dogs in 
cramped positions for six weeks and five months, 
to see if anchylosis would ensue ; Porter (Jour- 
nal of Physiologists, April 6, 1895) exposing for 
its entire length the cervical cord of a narco- 
tized dog and severing it at the sixth cervical 
vertebra ; seizing the phrenic nerve of thirteen 
lightly narcotized dogs and rabbits and tearing 
it out of the chest ; studying respiration (Report 
Koyal Humane Society, 1865, pp. 31-66) by 
plunging the heads of seventy-six living ani- 
mals in liquid plaster-of-paris until suffocation 
ensued bj^ the hardening of the plaster in the 
bronchial tubes in four minutes ; Chauveau 
(Wilberforce to the Zoologist, London, July, 
1892) studying excitement of spinal marrow 
upon eighty living horses and asses by chiseling 
open the vertebrre and exposing the marrow ; 
washing out parts of the brains of living dogs 
and studying their future action in subsequent 
days or weeks (Pfluger' Archives, 1888, p. 303). 
These are acts which, when known in the light 
of widening sympathy, gradually become intol- 
erable to the human mind. 

Henry C. Mekcer. 

Section of American and Prehis- 
toric Aech/eolooy at the Univer- 
sity OF Pennsylvania, January 9, 1899. 

[It is desii'able for this Journal to admit 
discussion of scientific questions, however little 
the point of view may commend itself to most 
men of scifcnce. Mr. Mercer states that the 
anti-vivisection movement does not justify itself 
in logic, and hence argument seems somewhat 
futile. If any of our readers are influenced by 
Mr. Mercer's remarks we recommend them 



224 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



first to try to verify the references given at the 
end, in which they will fail, and second to read 
' Vivisection : a statement in behalf of Science,' 
published in the issue of this Journal for 
March 20, 1896, and endorsed by President 
Eliot, of Harvard University, and the late 
Francis A. Walker, President of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. — Ed. Science.] 



ASTBONOUICAL NOTES. 
EEPOKTS OF OBSERVATORIES. 

The annual reports of three of the most ac- 
tive observatories of the world are at hand. 

1. Report of Her Majesty''s Astronomer at the 
Cape of Oood Hope for the year 1897. — The 
astrophotographic telescope was used for 
chart plates, catalogue plates, variables, and 
with a 20-degree prism for a spectroscopic 
survey of stars to 3 J magnitude. The tran- 
sit circle was used for stars needed for the 
measurement of plates to complete the Cape 
zones, — 40° to — 52°. 9,000 standard stars 
will be included in this area. The 7-inch 
equatorial has been chiefly used to look 
up discrepancies in the photographic plates 
and in checking missing stars. Among the re- 
sults obtained was the confirmation of the large 
proper motion of 9" in the star which Kapteyn 
had detected on the plates. The heliometer 
was used chiefly in triaugulation of comparison 
stars for observations of planets at opposition. 
Preparations were making for the mounting of 
the new McLean telescope, constructed by 
Grubb, and the new transit circle by Troughton 
and Simms. The computations were chiefly 
upon the meridian observations of former years, 
and upon heliometer observations for parallax. 
Dr. Gill has eleven regular assistants and com- 
puters, with other computers occasionally em- 
ployed. The observatory carries on an exten- 
sive system of time signals, and the geodetic 
survey of South Africa will be under the direc- 
tion of the government astronomer. 

2. Report of the Superintendent of the U. S. 
Naval Observatory for the year ending June SO, 
1898. — The 26-inch equatorial has been used for 
miorometric observations of the faint comets, 
satellites, close doubles and the diameters of 



Venus and Mercury. The 12-inch telescope 
has been similarly used for asteroids and comets. 
The 9-inch transit has been used for sun, moon, 
planets and certain stars. The new 6-inch 
steel transit is in process of erection. The 5- 
inch altazimuth has been used as a zenith tele- 
scope and as a vertical circle. The opinion is 
expressed that declinations can be obtained with 
greater accuracy by this instrument than by a 
meridian circle. The astronomical work has 
been materially lessened by the detachment of 
line officers for active service in the recent war, 
necessitating the care of nautical instruments, 
chronometers and time service by the astro- 
nomical staff". This report goes into minute 
detail regarding the work of the Observatory, 
even mentioning such minor matters as the 
mounting of a new thermometer, and the re- 
pairing of the wooden cases of clocks, the glue 
in which had deteriorated. The Nautical Al- 
manac has been under the care of the Astro 
nomical Director, Professor Harkness. The 
chief publication has been the Catalogue of 
Stars from observations made from 1866-1891, 
prepared by Professor Eastman. 

3. Fifty-third annual report of the Director of 
the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, 
for year ending September 30, 1898. — The 15-inch 
equatorial has been used for photometric obser- 
vations chiefly of variables. The 6-inch equa- 
torial has been used for observations of variables 
by the method of eye estimates. The meridian 
circle has been used to complete the observa- 
tions for the southern zone — 9°50' to — 14°10'. 
The meridian photometer has been devoted to 
the reobservation of the stars in the Harvard 
Photometry and other stars fainter than those 
in that catalogue. The 8-inch and 11-inch 
photographic telescope, working under the 
Henry Draper Memorial, have obtained more 
than 3,000 plates. Their study has resulted in 
various discoveries, such as twelve variables, 
stars of peculiar spectra, one spectroscopic 
binary, one spectrum of a meteor with five 
bright lines, one spectrum of the aurora with 
four bright lines. At Arequipa, Peru, more 
than 2,400 plates have been made with the 
8-inch, 13-inch and 24-inch telescopes. Profes- 
sor Bailey's study of variables in clusters has 
revealed 509 variables in 20 clusters ; the light 



Febeuaky 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



225 



curves of 125 variables in w Centauri have been 
obtained. 

Among other matters discussed by Professor 
Piclcering in his report is the organization of 
the Observatory. The Harvard College Observ- 
atory is not, like many other observatories, 
divided into departments each under an as- 
tronomer of high grade. The Director himself 
is in immediate charge of all the departments, 
in many cases making a daily inspection and 
planning the work in detail. The assistants 
become skilful each in a particular work, and 
three or four times as many can be employed 
at a given expenditure as under the depart- 
mental system. The report mentions the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of each plan and 
advises that the plan in operation at Harvard 
should continue to be followed in one large 
observatory. The corps of assistants at Harvard 
and at the Southern Station, in Peru, includes 
forty persons. 

THJ PLANET DQ. 

This planet has been named Eros. The As' 
ironomical Journal and Circular 36 of the Har- 
vard Observatory contain the gratifying an- 
nouncement that numerous observations of the 
planet have been found on the Harvard plates 
in 1894 and 1896. In 1894 the planet was at 
its most favorable position for observation, and 
of the 7th magnitude when nearest. Observa- 
tions have been found extending for more than 
four months, making it possible to determine an 
accurate orbit for that opposition alone. Dr. 
Chandler has undertaken the rigid discussion 
of all available data, and will bring the calcula- 
tion down to the 1900 opposition, so that the 
observations then to be made will be under the 
best knowledge of the theory of the planet's 
motion. 

This research has justified the policy of Pro- 
fessor Pickering in having the whole sky photo- 
graphed at frequent intervals. That the plates 
thus accumulating contain a vast amount of 
material which the future needs of astronomy 
will utilize is quite evident. That many new 
facts can be obtained from their examination Is 
shown by the discovery during the search for 
the planet Eros of two variables and two stars 
which are not in the Durchmusterung catalogue. 



besides observations of asteroids previously dis- 
covered. 

WiNSLow Upton. 
Brown Univehsity, January 27, 1899. 



NOTES ON PHYSICS. 

SOME RECENT INVESTIGATIONS UPON THE BEC- 
QOEEEL EAYS. 

Rutherford {Phil. Mag., Jan., 1899), in an 
important and interesting paper, shows experi- 
mentally that in a mass of gas exposed to the 
radiation from uranium, thorium or their com- 
pounds the following statements hold good: 

1. Charged carriers produced through the 
volume of gas. 

2. Ionization proportional to the intensity of 
the radiation and the pressure. 

3. Absorption of the radiation proportional 
to pressure. 

4. Existence of a saturation current ; i. e., a 
current passing through the ionized gas, whose 
magnitude is such that all of the carriers pro- 
duced by the radiation reach the electrodes. 

5. Rate of combination of the ions propor- 
tional to the square of the number present. 

6. Partial separation of positive and negative 
ions. 

7. Disturbance of potential gradient under 
certain conditions between two plates exposed 
to the radiation. 

' It is also shown that the radiation given off 
by both uranium and thorium is complex, con- 
sisting of two varieties which the author calls 
a and /3 respectively; /3 being the one of greater 
penetrative power, while a is the one chiefly in- 
strumental in causing ionization in gases. The 
intensity of the a radiation seems to depend 
chiefly upon the amount of surface of the uran- 
ium, while the P radiation depends upon the 
thickness of the layer. 

In Wied. Ann., No. 12, for 1898, Elster and 
Geitel give an account of a research undertaken 
by them to test the validity of two suppositions 
which have been made as to the cause of the 
Becquerel rays. Madame Curie {Comptes Rendus, 
CXVI., p. 1101) has suggested that the con- 
tinuous radiation from uranium, thorium and 
their compounds may be explained by suppos- 
ing all space to be filled with a sort of modified 
Rontgen radiation which possesses the power 



226 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



of penetrating ordinary media to a mucli higher 
degree than the usual X-rays, and that in at- 
tempting to traverse substances having high 
atomic weights, lilce uranium and thorium, a 
portion of the incident energy is transformed 
into radiation having the power of affecting 
photographic plates, ionizing gases, etc. Elster 
and Geitel have tested this by examining the 
intensity of the uranium radiation by both the 
electrical and photographic methods, the ap- 
paratus being placed first upon the surface of 
the earth and then several hundred meters 
underground in a mine, their idea being that 
the intensity of the radiation incident upon the 
uranium would be weakened by passing through 
the overlying mass of earth. No difference was 
found in the intensity of the uranium radiations 
under the two conditions. 

To test the hypothesis of Crookes as to the 
radiation being caused by a transformation by 
the uranium of a portion of the kinetic energy 
of the molecules of air, the intensity of the 
radiation emitted by the uranium when in a 
vacuum was compared with that emitted when 
the metal was in the air. No difference was 
found. 

The results of this work are hence unfavorable 
to either hypothesis. 

M. and Mme. Curie have shown {Comptes 
Mendus, CXXVII., p. 175) that in pitchblende 
there is a substance similar in properties to bis- 
muth, but which is strongly radio-active, and 
for it they have proposed the name Polonium. 
In Comptes Eendus, CXXVII., p. 1255, they give 
an account of their more recent researches in 
which they have been associated with M. G. 
B6mont upon this subject. They are led to the 
conclusion that there is still another new sub- 
stance present, similar in properties to pure 
barium, but whose chloride is about nine hun- 
dred times as active as that of uranium. The 
new substance, provisionally called Radium, is 
distinguished by a hitherto unknown line in its 
spectrum. A.. St.C. D. 



BOTANICAL NOTES. 

SARGENT'S BILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 

The appearance of Volume XII. of this mag- 
nificent work again directs attention to what 



will, for all time, be a monument to both author 
and publishers. Eight years ago the first volume 
appeared, and at more or less regular intervals 
the succeeding volumes, until the present one, 
which was originally designed to be the last. In 
these volumes we have 620 plates, thus more 
than making good the promise of author and 
publishers of fifty plates per volume. We have 
now the pleasant announcement by the pub- 
lishers that, " as it has been found impracticable 
to include in this twelfth volume of Professor 
Sargent's great work the general index to the 
entire work, a thirteenth volume containing this 
index, together with descriptions and illustra- 
tions of recently discovered species, and such 
corrections of the original volumes as recent 
explorations have made necessary will be sent to 
subscribers without change as soon as ready." 
The present volume includes descriptions and 
plates of Larix (3 species), Picea (7 species), 
Tsuga (4 species), Pseudotsuga (2 species) and 
Abies (10 species). We shall look with great 
interest for the appearance of the supplementary 
volume. 

COMMENDABLE FREE-SEED DISTRIBUTION. 

At last the United States Department of 
Agriculture has made a free distribution of 
seeds, which must commend itself to every sci- 
entific botanist or horticulturist in the country. 
We refer to the distribution to colleges of the 
sets of ' Economic Seeds,' prepared in the Seed 
Laboratory of the Division of Botany, by the 
lamented Gilbert H. Hicks, under the direction 
of Frederick V. Coville. The set as issued 
consists of five centuries, each enclosed in a 
shallow tray-like box, which is divided into 
rectangular spaces, each large enough to con- 
tain the seed-tubes. Each tube is numbered 
and labeled, and on the lid of the tray is an al- 
phabetical list of all the species arranged under 
their appropriate families. It is a pleasure to 
note, moreover, that the most scrupulous care 
has been taken to secure accuracy in the no- 
menclature, which is of the strictly modern 
school, including double citation of authors and 
the uniform decapitalization of specific names. 
This distribution is a worthy and commendable 
labor of the National Department of Agricul- 
ture, and it reflects great credit upon the officers 



February 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



^27 



who are responsible for its inception and suc- 
cessful execution. 

THE STUDY OF IOWA SEDGES. 

In a recent bulletin of the Laboratories of 
Natural History of the State University of 
Iowa, Mr. R. I. Cratty contributes a valuable 
paper upon the sedges of Iowa. 

The list includes the results of about thirty 
years of work by Iowa botanists, and brings to- 
gether data relating to ten genera and one hun- 
dred and fourteen species. With regard to the 
nature of the sedge flora of Iowa, the author 
says that it is "characteristically Eastern and 
corresponds quite closely with that of the bor- 
dering States, and, though lying just east of the 
Great Plains, but one species, Carex stenophylla 
Wahl., has yet been found which does not occur 
east of the Mississippi River. The richest por- 
tion of the State in sedges is that bordering on 
this great waterway. This may be accounted 
for partly because of the greater diversity of 
soil, surface, woodland and prairie in that 
region, and partly because the natural agencies 
for the distribution of seeds and the greater 
rainfall combine to favor that portion of the 
State." 

NORTH AMERICAN SEAWEEDS. 

With the distribution of the eleventh fascicle 
of Phyiotheca Boreali-Americana by Messrs. Col- 
lins, Holden and Setchell there comes the an- 
nouncement of a new series, to consist of larger 
specimens, including such plants as Nereocystis, 
Laminaria, Fucus, Agarum, Dictyoneuron, etc. 
The fascicles of this series will be designated by 
letters, A, B, C, etc., and the specimens num- 
bered with Roman numerals, I., II., III., etc., 
so as to avoid confusion with the other series. 
Moreover, the fascicles of the new series will 
contain twenty-five numbers each, instead of 
fifty, as in the old series. There will thus be 
two series running side by side, and the an- 
nouncement is made that either one may be 
subscribed for separately or both may be taken 
simultaneously. 

AETHUR AND HOLWAY'S BUSTS. 
Four years ago Dr. J. C. Arthur and Mr. E. 
W. D. Holway issued fascicle I of a distribution 
of specimens and figures of the Rusts under the 



title ' UrediueEe Exsiccatse et Icones.' A few 
days ago the second fascicle was received, and 
it is so noteworthy as to call for a word here. 
It contains fifty-two packets of specimens, each 
accompanied by enlarged drawings of the 
spores, and in addition thirteen photomicro- 
graphs taken directly from prepared slides. 
When we remember that this fascicle is sent to 
subscribers for three dollars we may realize 
that it is entirely a labor of love. Its value to 
students of the Rusts is incalculable. 

Charles E. Bessey. 
The University of Nebraska. 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. 
oourseb at the ficoLE d'antheopologie. 
The following courses, public and gratuitous, 
are given this winter at the School of Anthro- 
pology, Paris : (1) Prehistoric anthropology : 
its general principles and methods (Professor 
Capitan). (2) Zoological anthroi^ology : Origin 
of man (Professor Mahoudeau). (3) Ethno- 
graphy and Linguistics : French language and 
culture in the 12th and 13th centuries (Profes- 
sor Lefevre). (4) Ethnology : The Basques 
and Aquitanians (Professor Herv6). (5) Bio- 
logical Anthropology : The struggle for life 
(Professor Laborde). (6) Anthropological Geo- 
graphy : America (Professor Schrader). ' (7) 
Physiological Anthropology : The sexes (Pro- 
fessor Manouvrier). (8) Sociology: China (Pro- 
fessor Letourneau). An extra course on North 
Africa will be given by Professor Zaborowski. 
There are two lectures a day on five days of 
the week. 

THE MEANING OF 'RACE.' 

That much abused word, 'race,' has been 
the stumbling-block of many writers. Anthro- 
pologists try to make it a zoological term, con- 
noting certain identical physical features. How 
far this is from general acceptance is illustrated 
in the presidential address of Mr. Alfred Nutt 
before the Folk-lore Society. He says : " Out- 
side the record of history, of literature, of art, 
of systematized thought, the word ' race Ms, for 
me, void of meaning. When I speak of ' race ' 
I have in mind a community which for a definite 
number of centuries has manifested itself in 
clearly defined products of the mind — has set 



228 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



upon the universal human material of specula- 
tion and fancy its special stamp and impress. 
Such a manifestation is by no means necessarily 
conditioned by blood-kinship." 

It is to be regretted that such a divergence of 
opinion as to the proper signification of this 
word exists in two branches of the same science. 
Does it not show the necessity of an improved 
terminology ? 

THE EXTINCTION OF THE POLYNESIAN. 

A HUNDRED years ago the Hawaiian Islands 
were said to have had 400,000 native popula- 
tion ; now 30,000 is a high estimate. The same 
fearful diminution has been going on through 
Polynesia. Dr. Tautain has recently studied its 
causes in the Marquesas Islands U Anthropolo- 
gie, 1898, No. 4). The principal are the follow- 
ing : (1) Leprosy, which leads to impotence 
and sterility ; (2) tuberculosis, which is emi- 
nently contagious and destructive ; (3) syphilis, 
which is less marked than might be supposed ; 
(4) licentiousness, the consequences of which 
are very visible in developing metritis and ster- 
ility or abortion. This last is the most injuri- 
ous of all the causes, and Dr. Tautain places it 
as the principal factor in leading to diminished 
natality. The total absence of sexual morality 
operates in many directions to undermine the 
viability of the race. 

D. G. Brinton. 

University of Pennsylvania. 



MEETING OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE 3IAEINE 
BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 

At a recent meeting of the Board of Trustees 
of the Marine Biological Laboratory, held at 
Columbia University, the report of the Treas. 
urer showed that the funds of the institution 
were in a satisfactory condition. Professor S. 
F. Clarke, of Williams College, very generously 
contributed $400 to defray the expenses of cer- 
tain necessary alterations and repairs in and 
about the laboratory buildings, and a rising 
vote of thanks was given, as an expression of 
the gratitude of the Board for the very accept- 
able gift. 

The following minute relative to the death 
of Professor Peck, the Assistant Director, was 
unanimously adopted : 



" The Trustees of the Marine Biological Laboratory 
have lieard with profound sorrow of the death of their 
colleague. Professor James I. Peck, of Williams Col- 
lege. They wish to record their aj)preoiation of the 
invaluable service which he rendered to the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, and especially to express their 
high regard for the generous and unfailing way in 
which as Assistant Director he devoted himself to the 
maintenance and development of the Laboratory. 
They feel the deepest sympathy with Williams Col- 
lege and with his family in the loss which both have 
sustained." 

Bj' special vote the Board expressed itself as 
favorable to the establishment of more intimate 
relations between the Laboratory and the Zoo- 
logical Bulletin. Circulars explaining these 
relations, and announcements for the forthcom- 
ing season, will be issued to members of the 
Corporation, and to others interested, at an 
early date. 

The election of an Assistant Director was re- 
ferred to a committee with power, and since 
the meeting Dr. Ulric Dahlgren, of Princeton 
University, for three years one of the instruc- 
tors at Woods Holl in the department of in- 
vertebrate zoology, has been appointed to the 
position. H. C. Bumpus, 

Secretary. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 

President J. G. Schurman and Professor 
Dean C. Worcester arrived at Vancouver on Jan- 
uary 30th, and immediately embarked on the 
steamship ' Empress of Japan ' on their way to 
the Philippines. 

Professor D. T. MacDougal, of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, has been appointed to be 
director of the laboratories of the New York 
York Botanical Garden. He will enter upon 
the duties of the new position next July, by 
which time it is believed the new museum 
building will be ready for occupancy. The 
laboratory system occupies the greater por- 
tion of the upper floor, connecting with the 
library rooms and the herbarium. 

Professor G. H. Darwin has been elected 
President of the Eoyal Astronomical Society, 
London. 

Professor Mendelejev, of St. Petersburg, 
has been elected a correspondent in the Section 



Fkbkuaey 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



229 



of Chemistry of the Paris Academy of Sciences, in 
the room of the late Professor Kekule. Professor 
Mendelejev received twenty-eight votes; Pro- 
fessor Fischer, of Berlin, twenty-two, and Sir 
William Crookes, five. 

It is expected that either M. Risler, Direc- 
tor of the Agricultural School, or M. Rous, 
Sub-director of the Pasteur Institute, will be 
elected to the chair in the Section of Agricul- 
ture of the Paris Academy of Sciences, in the 
room of the late M. Aime Girard. 

We learn from Nature that Mr. J. G. Baker, 
F. E. S., has retired from the post of curator of 
the herbarium at Kew, in which he is succeeded 
by Mr. W. Botting Hemsley, F. R. S. 

The Swiney prize has been awarded for the 
present year to Dr. I. Dixon Mann for his book 
on forensic medicine and toxicology. The prize, 
which is awarded every fifth year by the So- 
ciety of Arts and the Royal College of Physi- 
cians, is of the value of £200. 

The Geological Society, London, will this 
year make its awards as follows : The Wollas- 
ton Medal to Professor Charles Lapworth ; the 
Murchison Medal to Mr. B. N. Peach, and a 
second Murchison Medal to Mr. John Home ; 
the Lyell Medal to Lieut. -General C. A. Mc- 
Mahon ; the Bigsby Medal to Professor T. W. 
Edgeworth David ; the Wollaston Fund to 
Professor J. B. Harrison ; the Murchison Fund 
to Mr. James Bennie ; the Lyell Fund is divided 
between Mr. Frederick Chapman and Mr. John 
Ward. 

The annual meeting of the New York Acad- 
emy of Sciences will be held on February 27th. 
The President, Professor H. F. Osborn, will 
make the annual address, the subject being 'The 
Succession of Mammalian Fauna in America 
compared with that in Europe during the Ter- 
tiary Period.' 

Mr. Robert L. Jack, Government Geologist 
of Queensland, has been appointed to supervise 
the collection of exhibits sent by Queensland 
to the forthcoming Greater Britain Exhibition in 
London. Mr. Jack expects to reach England 
this month. 

Mr. S. a. Knapp, a special agent of the 
Department of Agriculture, has arrived at San 



Francisco, returning from an expedition to 
Asia, where he has secured seeds of agricultural 
products that might with advantage be culti- 
vated in the United States. 

The St. Petersburg Academy of Medicine has 
elected as honorary members from Great Britain 
Sir William MacCormac, Sir William Tur- 
ner, Loi'd Rayleigh, Sir William Stokes, Dr. 
MacEwen, Dr. Thompson and Dr. Lauder 
Brunton, and from Germany Professors Walde- 
yer, of Berlin ; Streda, of Konigsberg; Kiihue, 
of Heidelberg, and Schwalba, of Strasburg. 

The death is announced at the age of 53 of 
Dr. Joseph Coats, since 1894 professor of pa- 
thology at the University of Glasgow. He was 
the author of a well-known manual of pathol- 
ogy and of a work on tuberculosis as well as 
of numerous minor contributions. The death 
is also announced of Sir Alfred Roberts, one of 
the most eminent members of the medical pro- 
fession in Australia. 

We also learn with regret of the deaths of 
Dr. Gottlieb Gluge, emeritus professor of phys- 
iology and anatomy in the University of Brus- 
sels, at the age of 86 years, and of Dr. Constan- 
tino Vousakis, professor of physiology in the 
University of Athens. 

News has reached Paris of the death of M. 
Potter, killed while making geographical ex- 
plorations in Central Africa. 

The will of the late M. Louis Pierson, of 
Mircourt, gives 100,000 fr. to the Paris Acad- 
emy of Sciences for a biennial prize to be 
award to the Frenchman who has made the 
most important discovery in physical science. 

By the will of the late C. T. Mitchell, of 
Hillsdale, Mich., that city receives his resi- 
dence and an endowment of $10,000 for a 
public library. 

The Physical Society of Berlin, establi.shed 
in 1845, decided at its meeting of January 5th 
that it would hereafter be known as The Ger- 
man Physical Society. The object of the 
Society is to advance physical science by the 
following means : (1) The publication of pro- 
ceedings especially for the prompt issue of 
short communications. (2) The publication of 
a year-book on the progress of physics. (S) 
Cooperation in the publication of De Annalen 



230 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215. 



der Physik und Chemie. (4) Participation in the 
meetings of the Section of Physics, of the Ger- 
man Society of Men of Science and Physicians. 
(5) Eegular meetings in Berlin, and (6) A jour- 
nal club. 

The Biological Laboi-atory of the Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences, situated at Cold 
Spring, L. I., will open its tenth session on July 
5th. The regular class work will last for six 
weeks, but special work may be begun earlier 
and continued afterwards. Dr. Charles B. Dav- 
enport, of Harvard University, is director of the 
laboratory, and the staff of instructors includes 
Dr. D. S. Johnson, of Johns Hopkins University; 
Professor C. P. Sigerfoos, University of Minne- 
sota ; Professor Henry S. Pratt, Haverford Col- 
lege ; W. H. C. Pynchon, Trinity College ; Nel- 
son F. Davis, Bucknell University ; Mrs. Ger- 
trude Crotty, Davenport ; Stephen R. Williams, 
Harvard University, and Professor Frederick 
O. Grover, Oberlin College. 

At a meeting of the Eoyal Dublin Society on 
January 20th Sir Howard Grubb, F. R. S., Vice- 
President of the Society, described a plan by 
which the Marconi system of wireless telegra- 
phy could be used for controlling public and 
other clocks. 

The Prince of Monaco reported to the Paris 
Academy on January 23d on the scientific re- 
sults of the first expedition of his yacht, the 
Princess Alice II. He left Havre at the end of 
July and returned in the middle of September, 
going as far north as Spitzbergen. The fauna 
both of the sea and the fresh water was care- 
fully studied. Professor Brandt, of Kiel, ac- 
companied the expedition. 

The following lectures are being given under 
the auspices of Columbia University at the 
American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, on Saturday evenings : February 4th, 
'The Transmission of Light in Crystals,' Pro- 
fessor Alfred J. Moses; February 11th, 'Char- 
acters of Minerals in Rock Sections,' Dr. Lea 
McI. Luquer ; February 18th, ' Methods Em- 
ployed in Investigation of Minerals,' Professor 
S. L. Penfield ; February 25th, ' Testing Min- 
erals,' Professor A. J. Moses. 

The British Treasury have approved the use 
of the electric light in the Natural History 



Museum, South Kensington. It will be first 
introduced into the offices and workshops and 
later into the public galleries. 

At a recent meeting of the Council of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, England, it was re- 
ported that fifteen investigators are at present 
carrying on original research in the laboratories 
of the two Royal Colleges. 

Officials of the Treasury Department, cus- 
toms division, have decided that books are the 
only articles subject to duty which can be 
legally imported into the United States in the 
mails. All other dutiable mail matter must be 
seize3". This decision may cause some incon- 
venience to scientific men. 

The Publishers' Circular records 6,008 new 
books published in Great Britain in 1898, 236 
less than in 1897. Under the class called vaguely 
arts, sciences and illustrated works, 263 books 
were published, a decrease of 25 as compared 
with the preceding year. For the United 
States in the year named the total number of 
new books published amounted to 4,886, a total 
smaller than that of any year since 1894. On 
the other hand, there was an increase over 1897 
of about 1,000 books in France, the number for 
1898 being 14,781. As the books published in 
Great Britain and the United States are mostly 
the same it appears that France with not half 
the population of the Anglo-Saxon races pub- 
lishes twice as many books. 

The annual meeting of the New England 
Anti-vivisection Society is thus reported, in 
part, in the Boston Transcript : " Back into the 
room again swarmed the rest of the gentlemen, 
and soon another wrangle was going on in which 
old gentlemen in silk hats talked loudly and vig- 
orously to one another. Threats were beginning 
to be made — threats of violence. Secretary 
Brazier finally secured a hearing : ' As cus- 
todian of all the property in this room, I ask 
every one present to leave,' said he, and sim- 
ultaneously several women arose and started to 
leave the room. But Mr. Greene again had the 
floor. 'Don't go, ladies; he has no right to 
order your departure.' * * * Several per- 
sonal altercations followed, one of which 
seemed about to culminate in violence, when 
the meeting broke up in confusion." 



Febedaey 10, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



231 



The Jamaica correspondent of the London 
Times writes that a conference at Barbados, 
under the auspices of the new Imperial Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in the West Indies was 
called for January 7th and 9th. The chief chem- 
ical and botanical oflScers in the West Indies 
have been invited to take part in it. These in- 
clude the officers in Jamaica, British Guinea, 
Trinidad and Antigua as well as Barbados. 
The object is to devise means for the prosecu- 
tion of a policy of cooperative effort in the eco- 
nomic interests of the various colonies. Dr. 
Morris, the Commissioner of Agriculture, wisely 
holds that the teaching of scientific agriculture 
is a subject that requires very careful consider- 
ation, and has, therefore, extended the invita- 
tion to some of the principals of high schools 
and colleges. The delegates from Jamaica 
are: Mr. W. Fawcett, B.Sc, F.L.S., Direc- 
tor of Public Gardens and Plantations ; Mr. F. 
Watts, Government Analyst, and the Rev. 
W. Simms, M.A., Principal of University Col- 
lege. Among the subjects to be discussed are 
the cultural and chemical experiments to be 
undertaken to improve the saccharine con- 
tents of the sugar cane ; the scientific teach- 
ing of agriculture in colleges and schools ; a 
more skilful treatment of the soil and use of 
manure ; and concerted action to prevent the 
rapid spread of fungoid and insect pests. There 
is no doubt that definite conclusions will be ar- 
rived at on these important points and common 
action determined on which may prove of the 
greatest possible service in developing the re- 
sources of the West Indies. Although the Im- 
perial Department of Agriculture has been estab- 
lished with the specific aim of assisting the Wind- 
ward and Leeward colonies and to enable experi- 
ments in cane cultivation to be carried on in 
continuation of former efforts in British Guiana, 
Barbados and Antigua, the fact that Jamaica 
has been invited to send representatives to the 
conference has been taken here as a justifica- 
tion for assuming that this colony may also 
come within the scope of its operations. It 
is thought that the Imperial Government 
should establish at least an experimental sta- 
tion in this island, seeing that the taxpayers 
already pay so much for the maintenance of a se- 
ries of botanical gardens, a chemical department 



and an agricultural society. Despite the ex- 
istence of these organizations, practically noth- 
ing is known yet regarding the varied character 
and possibilities of the soil. 

Mk. Albert B. Lloyd, a young English- 
man, who has just returned after traversing 
Stanley's great pigmy forest. He is reported 
by Renter's Agency to have said: "I was 20 
days walking through its gloomy shades. I 
saw a great many of the little pigmies, but gen- 
erally speaking, they kept out of the way as 
much as possible. At one little place in the 
middle of the forest, called Holenga, I stayed 
at a village of a few huts occupied by so-called 
Arabs. There I came upon a great number of 
pygmies who came to see me. They told me 
that, unknown to myself, they had been watch- 
ing me for five days, peering through the 
growth of the primeval forest at our caravan. 
They appeared to be very much frightened, and 
even when speaking covered their faces. I 
slept at this village, and in the morning I asked 
the chief to allow me to photograph the dwarfs. 
He brought ten or fifteen of them together, and 
I was enabled to secure a snapshot. I could 
not give a time exposure, as the pygmies would 
not stand still. Then, with great difficulty, I 
tried to measure them, and I found not one of 
them over four feet in height. All were fully 
developed. The women were somewhat 
slighter than the men, but were equally well 
formed. I was amazed at their sturdiness. 
Their arms and chest were splendidly de- 
veloped, as much so as in a good speci- 
men of an Englishman. These men have 
long beards halfway down the chest, which 
imparts to them a strange appearance. They 
are very timid and cannot look a stranger 
in the face. Their eyes are constantly shifting 
as in the case of monkeys. They are fairly in- 
telligent. I had a long talk with the chief, and 
he conversed intelligently about the extent of 
the forest and the number of his tribe. I asked 
him several times about the Belgians, but to 
these questions he made no reply. Except for 
a tiny strip of bark cloth, men and women are 
quite nude. They are armed with bows and 
arrows — ^the latter tipped with deadly poison — 
and carry small spears. They are entirely no- 
madic, sheltering at night in small huts, 2ft. to 



232 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 215, 



3 ft. in height. They never go outside the 
forest. During the whole time I was with them 
they were perfectly friendly." 

The British Medical Journal reports that all 
observations up to the present time tend to 
show that the presence of tubercle bacilli in 
butter is a rare event. Rabinowitsch, whose 
previous work on this subject was published in 
1897, has lately conducted some further experi- 
ments in Berlin with the object of testing pre- 
vious investigations. Fourteen butter manu- 
factories were examined, and 15 experiments 
made. The produce of one factory was thus 
examined twice, and tubercle bacilli were found 
on both occasions in the butter. The remain- 
ing 13 showed no trace of true living tubercle 
bacilli, but in many instances pseudotuber- 
culous bacilli were found. Inoculation experi- 
ments were made in all cases. During June and 
July the daily produce coming from the infected 
factory was examined. The result showed that 
70 per cent, of the butter contained living 
tubercle bacilli. Professor Koch thought this 
result so remarkable that he requested Rabino- 
witsch to inspect another factory. In this sec- 
ond experiment no tubercle bacilli were found, 
but in some instances pseudo-tubercle bacilli had 
to be carefully differentiated from the true 
bacilli. Animals when injected with this 
pseudo-tuberculous material died of peritonitis. 
The ' isolation ' of this butter factory iu Berlin, 
which is a source of danger to the community, 
is certainly a triumph for the scientific method 
of food examination. The question whether 
the pseudo-tuberculous material so often present 
in butter is harmful to human beings will be a 
matter for future investigation. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. 

The sum of $50,000 is given to the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology by the will of the 
late Edward B. Hosmer, of Boston. 

By the will of Mr. David Aicheson £10,000 
is left to the University of Melbourne for the 
foundation of scholarships. 

The convocation of the University of the 
State of New York will be held on June 26th to 
28th. President Harper, of the University of 
Chicago, will deliver the annual address, his 



subject being '"Waste in Education.' Superin- 
tendent Horace S. Tarbell will present a paper 
on the schools of that city, describing their 
methods of dealing with especially bright and 
especially backward students. 

Haevabd University will spend $175,000 
in the erection of a new building for the de- 
partment of engineering of the Lawrence Scien- 
tific School. The building will be situated on 
Holmes Field. 

The number of students matriculated at the 
University of Edinburgh during the past year 
was 2,813, of whom 211 are women. The en- 
rollment in the different Faculties is as fol- 
lows : Arts, 817 ; science, 147 ; divinity, 63 ; 
law, 373; medicine, 1,387; music, 26. 

At a recent meeting of convocation of the 
University of London the following resolution 
was carried: That the value of the B.A. de- 
gree has been distinctly lowered by the recent 
changes in the final examination, which enable 
a candidate to obtain the degree without taking 
any of those subjects («. g., mathematics and 
mental and moral science) which involve a 
discipline in the more abstract kind of thought. 

Harvard University some time since estab- 
lished a class somewhat similar to the docents 
of the German University, though the lecture- 
ships are limited to a period not exceeding four 
months, and the University does not even collect 
such fees as may be charged. The first lectures 
under this system are now announced. They 
are a course on the geology and geography 
of the oceans by Dr. R. A. Daly and a course on 
history of the philosophical tendencies of the 
19th century by Dr. W. P. Montague. 

The resignation of Dr. D. T. MacDougal, to 
accept a position in the New York Botanical 
Garden, leaves a vacancy in the assistant pro- 
fessorship of botany at the University of Min- 
nesota. It will probably be filled at the April 
meeting of the Board of Regents. 

De. J. Tafel has been promoted to an 
assistant professorship of chemistry in the Uni- 
versity at Wiirzberg, and Dr. E. O. Schmidt, 
of Leipzig, has been made professor of chem- 
istry in the medical school at Cairo. Dr. Otto 
Niisse, professor of pharmacology in the Univer- 
sity at Rostock, has retired. 



SCIENCE 



Editobial Committee : S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; E. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, 

Astronomy; T. C. Mendenhall, Physios; R. H. Thurston, Engineering; Ira Eemskn, Chemistry; 

J. Le Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 

C. Hart Merbiabi, Zoology; S. H. Scuddeb, Entomology; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Bbitton, 

Botany; Henry F. Osborn, General Biology; C. S. Minot, Emhryology, Histology; 

H. P. BowDiTCH, Physiology; J. S. Billings, Hygiene; J. McKeen Cattell, 

Psychology; Daniel G. Beinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, Februaet 17, 1899. 

CONTENTS: 
The Economic Stains of Insects as a Class : L. 0. 
Howard 233 

Anti-friction Alloys ; R. H. T 247 

Annual Sleeting of the American Psychological As- 
sodation: De. LIVINGSTON Fabband 249 

Scientific Books : — 

The New Maryland Geological Survey : Bailey 
"Willis. La vie sur les hauls plateaux: Pro- 
fessor George Bruce Halsted. Books Re- 
ceived 252 

Scietitific Journals and Articles 257 

Societies and Academies : — 

The Biological Society of Washington : Dr. O. 
F. Cook. The New York Section of the Amer- 
ican Chemical Society : De. Durand Wood- 
man 257 

Discussion and Correspondence : — 
Reply to Critics: Major J. W. Powell. Ar- 
tificial Dreams: Dr. Hieam M. Stanley. 
Trowhridge'' s Theory of the Earth's Magnetism : 
Pbofessoe L. a. Baxjee, Professor John 

Teowbeidge 259 

Notes on Inorganic Chemistry: J. L. H 266 

Zoological Notes 266 

Current Notes on Anthropology: — 
Ethnography of Liberia; The Significance of 
Skull-masks ; The Svastica in America : Peo- 

tESSOR D. G. Beini'on 267 

Scientific Notes and Netos 267 

University and Educational News 271 

MSB. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review should be sent to the responsible editor. Profes- 
sor J. McKeen Cattell.'fTarrlson-ou-Hudson N. Y. 



THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF INSECTS AS A 
CLASS.* 

The popular conceptiou of insects in gen- 
eral is undoubtedly that they are injurious. 
Many writers, it is true, have pointed out 
the benefits derived from insects, but we 
think of their damage to crops and of their 
annoyance to man and animals, and this as- 
pect of the subject is at once apt to prepon- 
derate in our minds. It is more than 80 
years since Kirby and Spence contrasted 
the injuries caused by insects with the bene- 
fits derived from them, and it has not been 
comprehensively done since. In the mean- 
time, whole groups of important injuries 
have been developed and whole classes of 
beneficial work have been discovered. 
Moreover, the tendency of modern thought 
has not taken this direction. The biologic, 
taxonomic and phylogenetic, and other as- 
pects of large groups of forms of life have 
been considered to the exclusion of the eco- 
nomic aspect, and even where this side has 
attracted attention investigators have con- 
fined themselves to specific problems and 
have not generalized. It may be interest- 
ing, therefore, once more to contrast the in- 
jurious insects with the beneficial ones in aa 
effort to gain a clearer idea of the status of 
the group in its relations with man. 

In abroad way, we may consider the sub- 
ject under the following heads : 

* Address of the retiring President of the Biological 
Society of Washington, delivered January 18, 1899. 



234 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 216. 



Insects are injurious : 

1. As destroyers of crops and other val- 
uable plant life. 

2. As destroyers of stored foods, dwell- 
ings, clothes, books, etc. 

3. As injuring live stock and other useful 
animals. 

4. As annoying man. 

5. As carriers of disease. 
Insects are beneficial : 

1. As destroyers of injurious insects. 

2. As destroyers of noxious plants. 

3. As pollenizers of plants. 

4. As scavengers. 

5. As makers of soil. 

6. As food (botli for man and for poultry, 
song birds and food fishes) and as clothing, 
and as used in the arts. 

DESTEOYBRS OF CEOPS AND OTHER USEFUL 
PLANTS. 

"In the present balance of nature one of 
the chief functions of insect life is to keep 
down superabundant vegetation. Almost 
every kind of plant has its insect enemies, 
and has had such enemies for many thous- 
ands of years. So soon as man began to 
make an effort to upset nature's balance by 
cultivating certain plants at the expense of 
others he encountered nature's opposition 
by means of the increase of insect enemies 
of the particular plant cultivated, and al- 
most as early as there is any record of agri- 
culture in literature there is also mention 
of the destruction to crops caused by insects. 
Witness the writings of the prophet Joel, 
who might almost be termed an agricul- 
tural pessimist. 

At the present time almost every culti- 
vated crop has not only its thousands upon 
thousands of individual insect enemies, but 
it is affected by scores and even hundreds of 
species. A mere tabulation of the insect 
enemies of the apple already recognized in 
this counti'y shows 281 species, of clover 82 
species, and of so new a crop as the sugar 



beet 70 species. The insects of the vine, of 
the orange, of the wheat crop, and, in fact, 
of all of our prominent staples, show equally 
startling figures. 

The actual damage which is done by in- 
sects in this way is difiicult to express. 
Many attempts have been made by writers 
on economic entomology to expi-ess it in 
money values. For example, it was esti- 
mated by the late Professor Riley that the 
average annual damage to cultivated crops 
by injurious insects in the United States 
amounted to three hundred millions of dol- 
lars. The loss from the ravages of one 
species alone, the chinch bug, during one 
year was estimated at sixty millions of 
dollars. While it is true that the combined 
losses of individual growers might reach 
such enormous sums as these, there is an 
element in the total loss which we must 
not fail to take into consideration, and that 
is the enhanced value of the portion of the 
crop which remains. Even in the case of 
an individual a man may lose, for example, 
half of his crop through the work of the 
chinch bug, and yet, through widespread 
damage by this insect, the money value of 
the portion harvested may reach an amount 
almost as great as would have been gained 
through the low prices of a successful year 
of no insect damage. As this applies to an 
individual, it applies much more strongly 
to a State or to the country at large, so that 
even in the year when tlie grain crop of 
the country was said to have been damaged 
to the extent of sixty millions of dollars 
it is safe to say that the total price gained 
for the crop was as great as it would other- 
wise have been. These estimates of dam- 
age, therefore, would much better be ex- 
pressed in terms of bushels, or some other 
measure, than in money value. 

It is this aspect of our subject, the dam- 
age done by injurious insects to agriculture, 
that has given rise to the comparatively 
new branch of applied science which we 



Febeuaky 17, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



235 



now know as economic entomology, and 
which, although originating in Europe, has 
been encouraged to such an extent in our 
own country, owing partly to our greater 
necessities and partly to our practical turn 
of mind, that it is safe to say that at present 
America leads the rest of the world in this 
direction. 

It is undoubtedly true that this enormous 
injury to crops is the chief item in a general 
consideration of the injuries brought about 
by insects. 

AS DESTEOYEES OF STORED FOODS, DWELLINGS, 
CLOTHES, BOOKS, ETC. 

It is safe to say that there is hardly any 
product of man's ingenuity, hardly one of 
the thousands of useful materials upon 
which depend his comfort and happiness, 
which is not damaged, directly or indirectly, 
by insects. The timbers of which his 
dwellings are built, nearly all of his house- 
hold utensils, his garments, practically 
everything which he uses as food, many of 
the liquids used as drink, his books, the 
ornaments with which he surrounds himself, 
the medicines which he takes when sick, 
the very tobacco with which he solaces him- 
self — all are destroyed or injui-iously af- 
fected by insects. There is, perhaps, one 
group of exceptions, and that is those articles 
which are composed wholly of metal, and 
yet even here insects may occasionally play 
an injurious part, since instances are on 
record of the destruction of lead pipes by 
insect larvse, and the perforation of the 
metal linings of water tanks by small 
beetles. 

Such injuries to human products are more 
frequent and serious in tropical regions than 
in temperate zones, but even here insects 
of this nature cause very serious inconven- 
ience and great annual loss. It will answer 
our purpose, perhaps, to list some of the 
varying substances which are damaged in 
this way, to get an idea of their almost uni- 



versal character : Ham, cheese, salted 
fish, butter, lard, dried mushrooms, rye 
bread, sweetmeats and preserves, powdered 
coffee, almonds and other nuts, raisins, 
breakfast foods, chocolate, ginger, rhubarb, 
black pepper, vinegar, sugar, wines, canned 
soups, tobacco, snuff, licorice, peppermint, 
aromatic cardamon, aniseed, aconite, bella- 
donna, musk, opium, ginseng, chamomile, 
boneset, hides, shoes, gloves and other 
leather articles, furniture, carpets, drawings 
and paintings, paint brushes, gun wads, 
combs, etc., made of horn ; haj', oats, straw, 
willow baskets, ax handles, ladders, wheel 
spokes and all sorts of agriculural imple- 
ments with wooden handles, barrels, wine 
casks, corks of wine bottles, sheets of cork, 
natural history collections, including skele- 
tons and mummies, and even Persian insect 
powder ! The mention of this well-known 
insecticide reminds one of the latest discov- 
ery, which is that certain flies in California 
breed in the crude petroleum pools in the 
vicinity of oil wells, a fact which is almost 
paradoxical in view of the extensive use of 
petroleum as an insecticide. 

AS INJURIOUS TO LIVE STOCK AND OTHER 
USEFUL ANIMALS. 

Every species of animal which has be- 
come domesticated and is of value to man 
possesses its insect parasites and enemies. 
These in many cases are the same species 
which affect man and which we will men- 
tion in the next section ; others are specific 
to the animals or groups of animals which 
they affect. Horses, cattle, sheep, all 
possess insect enemies which are not only 
very deleterious to their health, but fre- 
quently cause their death in numbers. 

The disgusting bot fly of the horse, whose 
maggots live in incredible numbers in the 
stomach and intestines of this noble friend 
of the human race ; the bot fly of the ox, 
which causes innumerable sores on the 
backs of cattle and by its perforations ruins 



236 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 216. 



their hides for commercial use ; the bot fly 
of the sheep, -which inhabits the nasal and 
orbital sinuses of the sheep and produces 
insanity and death — will instantly be re- 
called by those who are familiar with stock 
raising, while hundreds of other species, 
some in no less degree, as the horn fly, the 
numerous gad flies, including the Tsetse fly 
of Africa, the screw worm fly of our South- 
western country, unite to make the lives of 
domestic animals a burden to themselves 
and a trial and a loss to their owners. 

An intei'esting attempt was made some 
years ago by a prominent Western agri- 
cultural newspaper, The Farmers^ Review, to 
estimate approximately the pecuniary loss 
from the attacks of a single one of these 
insects — the ox bot fly, or ox warble — on 
the cattle received at the Union Stock 
Yards, of Chicago. It was estimated that 
■50 per cent, of the cattle received each year 
are afi"ected. The number of cattle received 
at the yards during six months of the year 
1889 was 1,335,026 ; the average value of 
the hide was $3.90 ; the usual deduction for 
hides damaged by the ox warble was one- 
third. Estimating at less than one-third, say 
$1.00, the actual loss during six months on 
hides alone was §667,513. When to this 
was added the loss for depreciation in value 
and lessened quantity of beef, the loss for 
each infested animal was put at S5.00, a 
very low estimate, indicating the total loss 
from the animals in the Union Stock Yards, 
of Chicago, for a period of six months of 
$3,336,565. 

AS ANNOYING MAN. 

There are very few regions of the habit- 
able globe where man is not personally 
subject to more or less annoyance by in- 
sects. In this part of the world we natu- 
rally think at once of mosquitoes, house flies, 
fleas, and of a certain other species which 
it will not be necessary to name. 

A susceptible individual some years ago 



wrote to the Department of Agriculture 
and said that he had come over from the 
old country and settled in New Jersey, but 
that the mosquitoes bothered him so greatly 
that on the advice of friends he moved to 
northern New York. Here he found that 
during a certain portion of the year black 
flies made life unendurable; thereupon he 
packed his household efi'ects and moved to 
North Carolina. Here, however, in the 
summer months red bugs, or jiggers, both- 
ered him to such an extent that he feared 
he would go crazy, and in this desperate 
condition he applied to this oifice to learn 
whether there existed in the United States 
a locality where a sensitive individual could 
find peace from attacks of insects. He said 
that he had been told that in the Western 
countrjf the bufi'alo gnat was greatly to be 
feared, while certain other biting flies would 
be sure to keep him in a constant state of 
dermal irritation ; that further south he 
knew that peaceful nights were to be gained 
in the summer time only under the protec- 
tion of mosquito bars. He had thought of 
the newly developing country of Alaska, but 
had recently seen an account in the news- 
paper of the ferocity of the Alaskan mos- 
quitoes, which had practically destroyed his 
last hope. 

Accustomed as most of us are to the mos- 
quitoes of temperate Nortsh America, we 
hardly realize the impression which they 
made upon the early English travellers. A 
story told by Kirby and Spence, to the 
effect that Mr. Weld in his travels relates 
from General Washington that in one place 
the mosquitoes were so powerful as to pierce 
through his boots, has always excited my 
interest and curiosity, and I recently took 
the trouble to consult the original publica- 
tion, which is ' Isaac Weld's Travels through 
North America, 1795-1797,' London, 1799. 
In speaking of Skenesborough, in northern 
New York, Mr. Weld dilates upon the 
number and ferocity of the mosquitoes, and 



Febeuaby 17, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



237 



makes use of the following words : " Gen- 
eral Washington told me that he never was 
so much annoyed by mosquitoes in any 
part of America as in Skenesborough, for 
that they used to bite through the thickest 
boot." Now, knowing that the boots of 
those days were very thick and that the 
mosquitoes of that time must have been 
structurally identical with those of to-day, 
there arises instantly a question of veracity 
between Mr. Weld and General Washing- 
ton ; and as we know from Dr. Weems' 
veracious history that General Washington 
was so constituted that he could not tell a 
lie, it looks very much as though Mr. Weld, 
like many another English traveller who 
has written a book on his retm-n home, has 
been inclined to overstate the truth. 

In these days of comparative personal 
cleanliness some of the most disgusting of 
the insect annoyers of man have dropped out 
of sight. The lice, which in former days 
were common in all classes of society, from 
king to peasant, are now comparatively un- 
known. The itch disease, which carried off 
many a famous character in history, is 
equally rare. That it still persists, how- 
ever, is shown by an occasional case re- 
ported in medical journals. For example, 
Dr. Eobert Hessler, of Indianapolis, re- 
ported in 1892 a case in his own practice 
of typical Norway itch in which the itch 
mites were present in the skin of the patient 
in enormous numbers. A rough estimate 
showed seven million eggs and two million 
mites. 

Those of us who live in a reasonably civil- 
ized way are confined, in our experience of 
annoying insects, largely to the forms men- 
tioned in our opening paragraph, namely, 
mosquitoes and house flies and rarely fleas ; 
but a glance through the medical literature 
reveals the existence of more or less fre- 
quent cases of such a nature that they are 
little less than horrible. Promineut among 
these are the cases of so-called Myasis, and 



especially those resulting from the attacks 
of the screw worm fly, Compsoviyia macel- 
laria. 

Residents of temperate regions are fortu- 
nate as compared with those of tropical 
regions in respect to the personally annoy- 
ing insects. Our troubles from these indi- 
vidually insignificant causes are intensified 
to a degree in warmer countries, where the 
comfort of the individual absolutely depends 
upon the adoption of measures, always dif- 
ficult and frequently impracticable, to ex- 
clude insects from his person and from his 
food. This is so well known in these days 
of numerous books of travel that I will 
close this aspect of our question simply 
with a quotation from a poet of the Indies, 
written many years ago : 

" On every dish the booming beetle falls, 

The cockroach plays, or caterpillar crawls : 

A thousand shapes of variegated hues 

Parade the table and inspect the stews. 

To living walls the swarming hundreds stick. 

Or court, a dainty meal, the oily wick ; 

Heaps over heaps their slimy bodies drench, 

Out go the lamps with suffocating stench. 

When hideous insects every plate defile, 

The laugh how empty, and how forced the smile !" 

AS CAEEIERS OF DISEASE. 

Manson's demonstrated transmission of 
the filaria diseases of the East (elephan- 
tiasis, chyluria and lymph scrotum) by in- 
sects ; the discovery by Salmon and Smith 
of the carriage of the germ of Texas fever 
by the well-known Southern cattle tick ; 
the discovery by Koch of the fact that the 
Tsetse fly of Africa is so destructive to 
animals, not by its bite alone, but by carry- 
ing into the circulation of the animal that 
it attacks the micro-organisms of disease ; 
the demonstration by Howe and others of 
the previously suspected fact that the puru- 
lent conjunctivitis of the Egyptians is spread 
by the house fly ; the partly proven hypoth- 
esis of Manson and Grassi of the relation 
existing between mosquitoes and malaria ; 
the circumstantially proven carriage of the 



238 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 216. 



germs of Asiatic cholera and typhoid fever 
by flies ; the demonstration claimed by 
Finlay of the carriage of a mild type of 
yellow fever by mosquitoes ; the suggestion 
by Hubbard that the ' pink eye ' of the 
South is spread by Hippelates ; the well- 
recognized fact among the Europeans of the 
Fiji Islands that without a veil a serious 
native eye disease will spread through the 
medium of gnats ; the suggestion by Symond 
of the agency of fleas in the spread of 
the bubonic plague ; the demonstration of 
anthrax bacilli in malignant pustules in 
human beings, caused by the bite of Taba- 
nus and Stomoxys — all indicate an impor- 
tant and very injurious function of insects 
practically unsuspected until comparatively 
recent years. It is, in fact, a rapidly in- 
creasing field of investigations, the possi- 
bilities of which cannot be accurately estab- 
lished at the present time. It is, however, 
not a field which should be left entirely to 
the medical bacteriologist ; the entomolo- 
gist should have a share. The life histories 
and habits of the insects concerned in the 
damage should be thoroughly understood, 
since it is not impossible that otherwise the 
medical investigators may find themselves 
arriving at perhaps unwarranted conclu- 
sions. For example, it is a fact probably 
unknown to the medical men who may be 
strongly impressed by the suggested car- 
riage of typhoid germs by flies, that the 
house fly, so common in our dining rooms, 
does not breed in and rarely visits human 
excrement, while those other kinds of flies, 
which do so breed, are rarely attracted to 
articles of food used by human beings. In 
the crowded and unnatural conditions of 
army camps, however, and especially where 
cavalry regiments are stationed, so that 
there are great amounts of horse manure, 
the house fly may breed in such enormous 
numbers as to render of very likely occur- 
rence a departure from the normal food 
habits of the adult. 



Enough has been shown, however, to em- 
phasize the potentiality of this phase of 
insect injury. 

BENEFITS 
AS DESTEOYEES OF INJUEIOUS INSECTS. 

The economic bearings of insect enemies 
of insects are very great, and perhaps this 
is, all things considered, the most important 
of the beneficial function of insects as a 
class. 

In the eternal warfare of organism upon 
organism, in the perpetual strife of species, 
one preying upon another and that upon a 
third, the complications of relations of 
forms which determine the abundance of 
one species and the scarcity of another are 
nowhere more marked than among the in- 
sects. In fact, to the student of insects who 
has followed out even a single chain of these 
inter-relationships the thought must neces- 
sarily come that upon its organic environ- 
ment, and especially upon its relations with 
its living neighbors of the animal kingdom, 
depend the chances of a species not only for 
increase, but for survival almost to no lesser 
degree than upon its inorganic environment. 
Temperature is the great factor which con- 
trols the geographical distribution of life,^ 
and temperature is at the back of all these 
apparent living first causes which control 
the abundance of a species in a given region, 
provided we trace them far enough. Yet 
these living causes, themselves affected by 
other living causes in an almost endless 
chain, sometimes, to all appearance, dwarf 
even temperature as a controlling factor. 

There is not a species of insect that has 
not its natural enemies in the guise of other 
insects ; there is not one of these other in- 
sects which has not its own insect foes. 
From a single species of Bombycid moth, 
the larvse of which fi-equently damage 
forests in Europe to an alarming extent, 
there have been reared no less than sixty 
species of hymenopterous parasites. From a 



Februaky 17, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



239 



single caterpillar of Plusia hramcw have been 
reared 2,528 individuals of a little hj'men- 
opterous parasite, Copidosoma truneatellum.-'' 

Outbreaks of injurious insects are fre- 
quently stopped as though by magic by the 
work of insect enemies of the species. 
Hubbard found, in 1880, that a minute par- 
asite, Triclwcjramma pret'iosa, alone and un- 
aided, almost annihilated the fifth brood of 
the cotton worm in Florida, fully ninety 
per cent, of the eggs of this prolific crop 
enemy being infested by the parasite. I^Tot 
longer ago than 1895, in the city of Wash- 
ington, more than ninetj'-seven per cent, of 
the caterpillars of one of our most important 
shade- tree pests were destroyed by para- 
sitic insects, to the complete relief of the city 
the following year. The Hessian fly, that 
destructive enemy to wheat crops in the 
United States, is practically unconsidered 
by the wheat growers of certain States, for 
the reason that whenever its numbers be- 
gin to be injuriously great its parasites in- 
crease to such a degree as to prevent ap- 
preciable damage. 

The control of a plant-feeding insect by 
its insect enemies is an extremely compli- 
cated matter, since, as we have already 
hinted, the parasites of the parasites play 
an important part. The undue multiplica- 
tion of a vegetable feeder is followed by 
the undue multiplication of parasites, and 
their increase is followed by the increase of 
hyperparasites. Following the very in- 
stance of the multiplication of the shade- 
tree caterpillar just mentioned, the writer 
was able to determine this parasitic chain 
during the nest season down to quaternary 
parasitism. Beyond this point, true internal 
parasitism probably did not exist, but even 

* This observation, which for some years ' held the 
record, ' as the expression is, was made by Mr. Per- 
gande, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Re. 
cently, however. Professor A. Giard, of Paris, has 
more than 3,000 specimens of the same parasite reared 
from a Plusia caterpillar. 



these quaternary parasites were subject to 
bacterial or fungus disease and to the at- 
tacks of predatory insects. 

The prime cause of the abundance or 
scarcity of a leaf-feeding species is, there- 
fore, obscure, since it is hindered by an 
abundance of primary parasites, favored by 
an abundance of secondarjr parasites (since 
these will destroy the primary parasites) , 
hindered again by an abundance of tertiary 
parasites, and favored again by an abun- 
dance of quaternary parasites. 

The subject of practical handling of in- 
sect enemies of insects has come into great 
prominence during the past ten years. The 
suggestion by the Rev. Dr. Bethune, of 
Canada, many years ago, of the desirability 
of importing the European parasite of the 
wheat midge into America was probably 
the first published international suggestion 
of this nature, and, although some subse- 
quent correspondence between English and 
American entomologists ensued, no parasites 
were actually sent over. Later, attempts 
were made by LeBaron in the case of a 
parasite of the oyster-shell bark-louse of 
the apple, and by Professor Riley in the 
case of a parasite of the plum curculio, to 
transport parasites from one section of the 
United States to another, both attempts 
meeting with some slight success. 

In 1873 Planchon and Riley introduced 
an American predatory mite, which feeds 
in this country on the grape vine Phylloxera, 
into France, where it became established, 
but where it accomplished no appreciable 
results in the way of checking the spread of 
this famous vine pest. 

In 1874 efforts were made to send certain 
parasites of plant-lice from England to New 
Zealand, without recorded results of value. 

In 1880, in an article upon the para- 
sites of American scale insects, the writer 
showed that international transportation is 
especially easy, and especially desirable in 
the case of these insects. 



240 



SCIENGE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 216. 



In 1883 Dr. Riley succeeded iu importing 
a common European parasite of the im- 
ported cabbage worm into this country, 
where it establislied itself and has since 
proved to be a valuable addition to our fauna. 

In 1891 the same distinguished entomol- 
ogist brought about the importation of one 
of the European parasites of the Hessian 
fly through the assistance of Mr. Fred. 
Enock, of London. This parasite main- 
tained itself in this country certainly as 
late as 1895, but has accomplished no ap- 
preciable good, so far as has been ascertained, 
in limiting the increase of this destructive 
enemy to wheat. 

All previous experiments of this nature 
were dwarfed into insignificance by the as- 
tounding success of the importation of Novkis 
( Vedalia) cardinalis, a ladybird beetle, from 
Australia into California in 1889. This 
importation was made, as will be remem- 
bered, by Mr. Albert Koebele, an attache 
of the Division of Entomology of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, whose ex- 
penses, however, were paid out of a fund 
appropriated to the Department of State, 
for the purpose of securing a representation 
from this country at the Melbourne Expo- 
sition. A California man, the late Mr. 
Frank McCoppin, happened to be at the 
head of the Exposition Commission ; and, 
while the late Dr. C. V. Eiley was endeav- 
oring in Washington to induce the Depart- 
ment of State to set aside a sum, from the 
Exposition fund, for the expenses of Mr. 
Koebele, representatives of the State Board 
of Horticulture of California were pressing 
the same facts upon Mr. McCoppin, the 
head of the Commission. These efforts 
were being made independently and with- 
out consultation, hence it happened that 
after Mr. Koebele had succeeded in sending 
live Vedalias to California, and after these 
insects, by their rapid multiplication and 
voracious habits, had absolutely destroyed 
the cottony cushion scale in the orange 



groves of the State, a result which prac- 
tically saved millions of dollars to Califor- 
nia, and which attracted the attention of 
everyone interested in science or agricul- 
ture, a most unfortunate controversy en- 
sued between Dr. Eiley and the California 
State Board of Horticulture as to the placing 
of the credit of carrying out this wonder- 
fully successful experiment. This contro- 
versy embittered the last days of both Dr. 
Riley and Mr. McCoppin, and was the cause 
of a disturbance of the formerly pleasant 
relations between the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the State Board of 
Horticulture of California, which has only 
recently been overcome. 

Following this successful experiment, the 
same insect, Novius cardinalis, was sent to 
South Africa, where it exterminated the 
white or fluted scale in that colon j'. The 
next year it was sent to Egypt, where it 
exterminated a congeneric scale insect in 
the gardens of Alexandria. 

The following year Mr. Koebele, still an 
agent of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, was sent with the 'consent of 
the Honorable Jeremiah Rusk, but at the 
expense of the California State Board of 
Horticulture, to Australia, New Zealand 
and the Fiji Islands, for the purpose, of 
securing other valuable beneficial insects 
for importation into California. Thousands 
of such insects, comprising a number of 
different species, nearly all, however, of 
them Coccinellids, or ladybirds, were sent 
over and established in California. Several 
of these species are still living in different 
parts of the State. The overwhelming suc- 
cess of the importation of Novius cardinalis- 
was not repeated, but one of the insects 
brought over at that time, namely, Rhizobius 
ventralis, has unquestionably ridden many 
olive groves of the destructive black scale, 
and is to-day present in many other orchards 
in such numbers that the scale practically 
makes no headway. 



February 17, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 



241 



After this second Oriental trip the rela- 
tions between the Department of Agricul- 
ture and the State Board of Horticulture of 
California became so strained that the Cali- 
fornia agents of the Department were given 
their choice by the Honorable Secretary of 
Agriculture to resign their positions or be 
transferred to Washington. Mr. Koebele 
resigned and was soon after employed by 
the then newly established Hawaiian Re- 
public for the purpose of travelling in dif- 
ferent countries and collecting beneficial 
insects to be introduced into Hawaii for the 
purpose of destroying injurious insects. It 
is difficult at this time to ascertain the 
exact results of the more recent portion of 
this work. Mr. Koebele's own published 
reports have dealt less with results than 
with the details of the introduction of in- 
sects, and anonymous newspaper reports 
are not to be accepted as scientific evidence. 
Fortunately, however, one of the collectors 
of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Mr. E. E. C. Perkins, was 
in Hawaii during 1896 and made a report 
on Mr. Koebele's work to the committee ap- 
pointed by the Royal Society and the Brit- 
ish Association for investigating the fauna 
of the Sandwich Islands, which was pub- 
lished in Nature for March 25, 1897. From 
this report it appears that the introduction 
of Coccinella repanda from Ceylon, Australia 
and China was so successful in the extermi- 
nation of plant-lice upon sugar cane and 
other crops as to obviate all necessity for 
spraying. The introduction of Cryptokemus 
montrouzieri from Australia resulted in the 
entire recovery of the coffee plants and 
other trees which were on the point of be- 
ing totally destroyed by the scale insect 
known as Pidvinaria psidii. Eight other 
introduced species had at the date of writ- 
ing (November, 1896) been entirely natu- 
ralized and were reported as doing good 
V70rk against certain scale insects. A Chal- 
cis fly, Chalcis obscurata, introduced from 



China and Japan, multiplied enormously at 
the expense of an injurious caterpillar 
which had severely attacked banana and 
palm trees. Mr. Koebele, when visiting 
Washington during November, 1898, men- 
tioned a number of other importations of 
beneficial insects into Hawaii, about which 
it is as yet too early to speak. 

A very recent instance of an international 
importation of striking value is the sending 
of Novius cardinalis from this country to 
Portugal, where the white or fluted scale 
has been checked and in many orchards ex- 
terminated in the course of a single year. 
This importation was made by the writer 
with the invaluable assistance of the Cali- 
fornia State Board of Horticulture. 

Other experiments in this line are under 
way. A parasite of certain wax scales, 
which are abundant and injurious in the 
South, has been imported by the writer 
from Italy, with the cooperation of Pro- 
fessor Antonio Berlese, of the Royal Scuola 
di Agricoltura di Portici ; while an effort is 
being made to bring from Europe insects 
which will prey upon the Gipsy moth which 
has been so great a plague about Boston ; 
and other parasites of injurious scale insects 
in foreign countries are being studied with 
the purpose of eventually obtaining their 
introduction into the United States. 

AS DESTROYERS OF NOXIOUS PLANTS. 

Just as we have shown how important is 
the role played by insects in the destruction 
of cultivated and useful plants, it will be 
easy to indicate their importance as de- 
stroyers of weeds and other noxious plants. 
We need only mention the common and 
cosmopolitan thistle butterfly (Pyrameis car- 
dui), the equally common milkweed butter- 
fly {Anosia plexippus'), the purslane cater- 
pillar {Copidryas gloveri), the burdock beetle 
( Gastroidea cyanea) , and the purslane sphinx 
moth (^Deilephila lineata) to recall to the 
mind of the experienced entomologist many 



242 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 216. 



other species which do similar work. They 
are here, as in the former case, perhaps the 
principal agents in preventing the undue 
increase of any one species of plant, but as 
we find here not an effort of man to combat 
Nature, as it were, by increasing the growth 
and spread of one species at the expense of 
the others, but the exact opposite, so, here 
also, to a degree we find Nature arrayed 
against man, and insects thus play by no 
means the same part in the destruction of 
weeds that they do in the destruction of 
cultivated crops. Nevertheless, they have 
an important function in this direction, and 
it is safe to say that the benefit which the 
agriculturist derives from their work iu this 
way is very great. As long ago as the be- 
ginning of the century it was pointed out by 
Sparrman that a region in Africa, which 
had been choked up by shrubs, pei'ennial 
l^lants and hard, half-withered and unpal- 
atable grasses, after being made bare by a 
visitation of destructive grasshoppers, soon 
appeared in a far more beautiful dress, 
clothed. with new herbs, superb lilies and 
fresh annual grasses, affording delicious 
herbage for the wild cattle and game. 

In a similar waj' Eiley has called atten- 
tion to the fact that after the great grass- 
hopper invasions of Colorado and other 
Western States in the years 1874 to 1876 
there were wonderful changes in the char- 
acter of the vegetation, the grasshopper dev- 
astations being followed by a great preva- 
lence of plants which in ordinary seasons 
were scarcely noticed. It is true that some 
of these plants were dangerous weeds, but 
others were most valuable as forage for the 
halfstarved live stock. Moreover, other 
plants, and especially short or recumbent 
grasses, took on a new habit and grew lux- 
uriantly ; one species, for example, Eragrodis 
poceoides, ordinarily recumbent and scarcely 
noted, grew iu profusion to a height of three 
and a-half feet. 

An important, but not generally realized. 



benefit which is derived from the insects 
may be mentioned under this head, though 
not strictly belonging here. Kirby showed, 
75 years ago, that the insects that attacked 
the roots of grasses, such as wireworms, 
white grubs, etc., in ordinary seasons only 
devour so much as is necessary to make 
room for fresh shoots and the product 
of new herbage, in this manner maintain- 
ing a constant succession of young plants 
and causing an annual though partial reno- 
vation of our meadows and pastures, " so 
that, when in moderate numbers, these in- 
sects do no more harm to the grass than 
would the shai'p-toothed harrows which it 
has sometimes beeu obliged to apply to hide- 
bound pastures, and the beneficial operation 
of which in loosening the subsoil these in- 
sect borers closely imitate." 

AS POLLENIZEES OF PLANTS. 

It can no longer be doubted that cross 
fertilization is one of the very most impor- 
tant elements in the progressive develop- 
ment and continued health of the great 
majority of flowering plants, and, indeed, 
that it is with some almost a condition of 
existence. Opposition to this view, at no 
time especially strong since the publication 
of Darwin's great work, has become feebler 
and more feeble until at the present it is 
not worth considering. 

Comparative experimentation with self- 
fertilizing and cross-fertilizing plants, re- 
peated with many species and genera, have 
shown a superior growth and vitality on 
the part of those subjected to cross- fertili- 
zation of such a degree as to leave not a 
semblance of a doubt ; while in individual 
cases self-fertilization has been scientifically 
shown to even result in a deterioration so 
marked that it has been compared to poi- 
soning. 

In this condition of affairs it at once be- 
comes evident that the good offices of in- 
sects in this dii-ection are of incalculable 



Febeuaey 17, 1899.] 



SGIENGE. 



243 



importance, since it must be plain that of 
the natural agencies by which cross-fertili- 
zation of plants is accomplished insects are 
far and away the most prominent. Every 
investigation which has been undertaken 
of recent years, and activity in this field is 
increasing by leaps and bounds, has shown 
the most marvelous adaptations between 
the structure of flowers and the structure 
of their insect visitants, all in the line of 
facilitating or really enforcing the collect- 
ing and carriage of pollen by flower- visiting 
insects from one plant to another. An esti- 
mate of the numbers of the species of insects 
engaged in this work would include the 
forms belonging to whole families and al- 
most orders, and if we could imagine the 
race of flower-visit