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SCIENCE AND THE FUTURE 
OF MANKIND 

Edited by Hugo Boyko 



Twenty-one of the world's foremost sci- 
entists and humanists, among them, Nobel 
Laureate geneticist Hermann J. Muller; 
physicist Robert Oppenheimer; Harold D. 
Lasswell, Professor of Law at Yale Univer- 
sity; zoologist Theodore Andre Monod; so- 
ciologist Henrik F. Infield; Nobel Laureate 
physiologist Lord John Boyd Orr; Lyle K. 
Bush, Professor of Fine Arts at Simmons 
College; philosopher Bertrand Russell; and 
the late Albert Einstein, have contributed 
articles to this volume which explore the 
vital problems of mankind in the face of in- 
creasing technological and scientific ad- 
vancement. 

Among the many issues treated are ''Sci- 
ence and Our Times/' "Prospects in the 
Arts and Sciences," "Science and Our Fu- 
ture," "The Prospects of Genetic Progress," 
"Science, Scientists and World Policy," 
"The Human Significance of Natural Re- 
sources," "Food Supply and Increase of 
Population," "Practical Notes on Politics 
and Poesy," "War or Peace a Biological 
Problem," and "Science and Modern Civili- 
zation." 

The authors of these articles fully ac- 
knowledge the tremendous responsibility 
they must bear, with statesmen and political 
leaders, for the predicament of modern man. 
Throughout history scientists have revolu- 
tionized human existence by increasing con- 
trol over the forces of nature, and science 
and technology have now made all too pos- 

(Continued on back flap) 






3 1 




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SCIENCE 

AND 
THE FUTURE OF MANKIND 



WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND SCIENCE 



SCIENCE 

AND 
THE FUTURE OF MANKIND 



edited by 
HUGO BOYKO 



INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS 

BLOOMINGTON 



COPYRIGHT 1961 BY UITGEVERY DR. W. JUNK, THE HAGUE 
ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED BY DR. W. JUNK IN THE NETHERLANDS 

FIRST PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES 1964 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 64-63014 

MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



Contents 



Foreword by Lord BOYD ORR i 

Introduction 3 

The Need 

A. EINSTEIN : Die Internationale der Wissenschaft ... 13 

H. BOYKO, Rehovot: The Need of a World Academy of 

Art and Science 15 

R. OPPENHEIMER, Princeton, N.J. : Thoughts on Art and 

Science: 

1. Science and Our Times 29 

2. Prospects in the Arts and Sciences 37 

W. F. G. SWANN, Swarthmore, Pa.: Science and Our 

Future . 49 

The Means (a few examples by a few scientists) 

H. J. MULLER, Bloomington, Ind.: The Prospects of 
Genetic Progress 59 

H. D. LASSWELL, New Haven, Conn. : Science, Scientists 
and World Policy 77 

S. W. TROMP, Leiden: The Significance of Border 
Sciences for the Future of Mankind 83 

R. M. FIELD, South Duxbury, Mass. : The Human Signi- 
ficance of Natural Resources (with Special Reference 
to Man's Cultural Resources) 121 



CONTENTS 

P. DANSEREAU, Montreal: Resource Planning: A Pro- 
blem in Communication 131 

M. J. SIRKS, Groningen: Food Supply and Increase of 
Population 141 

P. CHOUARD, Paris: Quelques voies probables de develop- 
pement des nouvelles techniques en agronomic ... 159 

}. PHILLIPS, Accra: Science in the Service of Man in Africa 
South of the Sahara 185 

TH. MONOD, Paris: La Science et Phomme au seuil du 
desert 197 

H. F. INFIELD, Jerusalem: Human Needs and the Need 
for Ultimate Orientation 203 

L. K. BUSH, Duxbury, Mass. : Practical Notes on Politics 
and Poesy 231 

The Goal 

W. TAYLOR THOM Jr., Princeton, N. J.: Science and Engi- 
neering and the Future of Man . 247 

EUROPAEUS: War or Peace - a Biological Problem. . . . 301 

L BERENBLUM, Rehovot: Science and Modern Civili- 
zation 317 

W. C. DE LEEUW, Leiden: New Ways with Science as 
Leader 333 

B. RUSSELL, Merioneth, Wales: Per aspera ad astra. ... 339 

The Authors 355 

World Academy of Art and Science 

Manifesto. 367 

Charter-Members 375 

Informatory Notes 379 



VI 



On December 24, 1960, the appeal of the International Con- 
ference on Science and Human Welfare (Oct. 1956) was real- 
ized by the constitution of the WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND 
SCIENCE, which will function as an informal "World Univer- 
sity" of the highest scientific and ethical level. The structure 
of the Academy and its aims are laid down in the Statutes 
which, in their final form, will be included as an Appendix 
in the next volume. 
The two main purposes of the Academy are : 

1. Gradually to build up a TRANSNATIONAL FORUM, in which 
the vital problems of mankind can be responsibly dis- 
cussed and thoroughly studied by the best brains of our 
generation and of the following ones, from an objective, 
scientific and global point of view. 

2. To act as an impartial advisory body in the service of 
Human Welfare, OUTSIDE OF ALL GROUP-INTERESTS. 

This book is the Academy's first small step in this direction. 

Further details concerning the organization and the ac- 
tivities of the World Academy will be found in the Appen- 
dices to this and to the following volumes. 



VII 



PLATO 1 : 

"Until philosophers are kings, or the lings and 
princes of this world have the spirit and power 
of science, and political greatness and wisdom 
met in one, neither states nor the human race 
itself will ever have rest from their evils." 



Remark: The great Greek belongs to that small group of congenial giants in Asia, 
Africa and Europe, who saw the "Need" a few thousand years earlier than we, 
although the "Means" which they considered may differ greatly from those at our 
disposal. 

PLATO was also the founder of an Academy with a similar "Goal" in mind as ours. 
This Academy proceeded with its work through nine centuries (!) namely from 
387 B.C. until 529 A.D., when it was closed by religious intolerance. Its main aim was 
the scientific and philosophical training of potential political leaders. 

THE EDITOR 

1 , From the 7th letter to Dion and his family at Syracuse. 

VIII 



Foreword 

by 
LORD BOYD ORR 

Civilization has evolved by the stimulus of new knowledge 
which gave man increased power over the forces of nature. 
In the last few decades science has advanced more than in 
the previous 2,000 years. This impact of modern science on 
human society is bringing about great changes. The ad- 
justment of the structure of human society to these chan- 
ges has raised grave political and economic problems. 
If these problems cannot be solved by harnessing the 
new powers of science to serve mankind our civilization 
will be destroyed by the tremendous new forces science 
has let loose. 

All nations and races have made some contribution to the 
growth of knowledge and, in this now small world, all 
nations will ultimately share the same fate. It is a matter of 
urgency that scientists and men of learning of all countries 
who should recognize no political boundaries get together 
in an International Council to consider the problems science 
has raised, and in view of the impending further advance of 
science to suggest what political and economic changes 
might be made to ensure that our civilization might evolve 
to a wonderful new era of permanent peace, economic 
prosperity, and a higher level of culture than has yet been 
attained, which modern science has made possible. 



This is the great objective of this new movement 1 which 
will have the support of all people of vision and goodwill 
who think of the kind of world we would like to pass on to 
our children and grandchildren. 



Seepage 367. 



Introduction 



This book is a new beginning in our world. Basically speaking, 
the twenty scientists who wrote it are not the sole authors. 
The whole of these essays, however original each of them may 
be in its line of thought, reflects the thinking of hundreds of 
thousands of scientists as well as the more or less vague feeling 
of countless others working in all branches of human activity. 

This book is like the first step a child takes in the upright 
position in surroundings still new to him - in a world into 
which man now steps as creator or as destructor, without 
having yet fully grasped this fact. 

This book has been written to express this common 
thinking and feeling and to try to find a way leading to 
creation and not to destruction. All the essayists are ac- 
knowledged leaders in their spheres of work, and the names 
of most of them are known to intellectuals the world over. 
Some of them have become symbols of spiritual life in our 
times. But together with these authors stand many of the 
best and noblest men of our times, firmly resolved to work 
actively in spreading the thought of this group. 

What is this leading thought? It is very simple. Many 
scientists feel that they are partly responsible for the paths 
that mankind has been treading in the last decades, and they 
feel obliged to shoulder this responsibility not only in theory, 
but in practice. 



INTRODUCTION 

This feeling is shared by most thinking men and women, 
including many of the political leaders, for the most 
outstanding and most cultured among them know that 
according to the tendency of their education they are not 
capable by themselves to evaluate the true magnitude of the 
responsibility which is weighing them down. Together with 
the great statesmen of our time we have to look for the way 
to make possible "Life with the bomb" - as C. F. VON WEIZSAC- 
KER has formulated it. 

Just as every species, confronted with surrounding factors 
which endanger its existence, must either adapt itself to them 
or perish, so mankind in its whole organizational structure 
must adapt itself to the wholly new conditions created by 
science and technology in the last decades. 

Our time is not only the period filled with threats of 
destruction by atom bomb, bacterial warfare, death rays, 
brain-washing and the Lord knows what more future 
discoveries. It is also the time - if we will it, and who does 
not? - of new creation offerees only dimly perceived as yet, 
forces which are able to intensify the joy of living for every- 
body everywhere, without at the same time taking away 
from the joy of living of any group anywhere. 

Atomic energy, bacteria, the different rays, the entirely 
new ways of education towards mutual understanding, and 
last not least the huge increase in the potential of the earth's 
productivity through genetics, irrigation with sea-water, 
making the deserts productive - all this and much more 
means that we have powers to our hand which can in a far 
simpler and far more economical way be used for good than 
for evil. But for this purpose the will, existent already with 
nearly all individuals, must be forged into a common will 
usable only in this one direction, inflexible against If and But. 

The forum to be created for this purpose will construct 
the way. Now, that I am writing these words the World 
Academy of Art and Science is in process of being founded. 

And this book is the first concrete and preparatory step. 



INTRODUCTION 

This Academy is meant as a "transnational Forum" 
(transnational was coined for us by ROBERT OPPENHEIMER) of 
the highest scientific and ethical level for our and thefollowing 
generations, to discuss objectively and scientifically the vital 
problems of mankind beyond all group interests and from a 
global point of view. It is meant as an advisory body for UNO, 
governments and peoples, in this decisive transitional 
period of our development, and it is meant as a body whose 
advice will be heard, and that soon. 

Outsiders will consider many of the preceding words to be 
those of a dreamer. They are not. They have a most realistic 
back-ground. EINSTEIN'S view expressed thirty years ago, 
"Scientists of the World must unite" - an appeal which has 
the same object in view that we have, has today entered into 
the phase of realization. 

The special agencies of UNO are everywhere in the 
vanguard to demand global common work of science. Many 
international conferences have already milled through the 
organizational problems. Scientific Unions have already 
worked in these lines for many years, even though so far on 
the basis of national representation. The conferences of the 
last few years have made every effort to free themselves of 
national shackles, and their great value lies in that they have 
made clear, even to such as live far from the centres of 
politics and science, how immense are the dangers that 
mankind is threatened with in consequence of its organi- 
zational structure in small and large groups - suddenly 
grown obsolete. 

Such conferences were official ones like those of UNESCO, 
and also unofficial ones, such as the famous Pugwash Confer- 
ence called by BERTRAND RUSSELL and CYRUS EATON (from 6 to 
ii July 1957), which had the RUSSELL-EINSTEIN appeal of the 
year 1955 for its basis. All these conferences saw as their great 
task in shaking world publicity out of its lethargy again and 
again, and to hold against the fatalism of the many and the 
satanism of the few - the warning of those who know. 



INTRODUCTION 

All these conferences had temporary success. They were 
only meant to be temporary. With one exception: The 
"International Conference on Science and Human Welfare," 
held in Washington in October, 1956. 

Under the leadership of JOHN A. FLEMING and RICHARD M. 
FIELD a resolution was tabled which for the first time decided 
on creating something permanent as the result of all these 
conferences and individual strivings; an overall inventory on 
the natural resources at our command, and a permanent 
forum where the deepest thought, the greatest knowledge, 
and the best know-how of our and the following generations 
should freely and constructively discuss the vital problems 
of mankind : this very transnational forum which we have 
missed so sorely up to now and which is to show the way 
towards using the vast achievements of our time for con- 
struction and not for destruction, for the happiness of all and 
not for the suffering of all. 

Understandably, of the many outstanding scientists of our 
time only a very few could make their voices heard between 
these covers. It is also a matter of course, that even on this 
narrow basis the mosaic of the book is composed of many 
colours. Genetics, political science, engineering, and so on, 
elucidate our problems from very different angles. Some of us 
will be delighted at the variety of knowledge, others may 
possibly miss the one common scientific subject, but all of us 
see the common direction, "the striving of the best minds for 
a harmonic solution to the conflicts existing today: the 
conflicts within our own minds - the conflicts between man 
and man and between nation and nation - the contrast 
between our education of yesterday and the demands of 
tomorrow- the contrasts between centrifugal group interests 
and mutual, unifying work for the common object: Our 
future on this very tiny planet." 

Our earth has grown so small. And man so great. The 
Earth knows nothing of its smallness - nor does Man of his 
Greatness. 



INTRODUCTION 

Our form of organization, traditionally only a few 
thousand years old, is divided into national states and 
groups of states, trying unsuccessfully to shut each other out 
by impossible border lines. The smallness and narrowness of 
our stateborders become clear when we apply the only 
objective measure, that of speed. 

A table at the end of this introduction is meant to show this 
development graphically, giving comparative times for 
circling the world. 

Thus for instance the whole of our earth would be a far 
smaller state than was Israel 3,000 years ago; for it took 
fourteen days to get from the northern border to Elath, and 
for HOMER'S Odysseus the Aegaean Islands were a world of 
greater space than to-morrow our whole planetary system 
will be. 

This table shows the gradual historical shift in the potential 
borders of a great Power, and we leave it to the reader to 
decide whether the most recent expansions still be under- 
stood under the traditional concept of the state as an organi- 
zational structure. 

But this is already one of the vital problems to be discussed 
by the World Academy or by a group of experts. The Academy 
will never profess to be allknowing. But it will further mutual 
work of all those who know, with every means at its disposal. 

We must work together to safeguard our future - the 
future of mankind. To find the way for a common work for a 
common goal there is no need for a revolution. There is 
need merely of deep knowledge, of objective thought, of 
constructive discussion, and of willingness for understanding. 

These will lead to such foundations in science, in philoso- 
phy, in psychology, in technology, in the arts, as will form 
the suitable bases for gradually building up a commonwealth 
aiming at the truly ideal state - the ideal organizational form 
for mankind as a whole. 

The need for such a common political organization in the 
near future is today clear to everybody. What we cannot 



INTRODUCTION 

know is whether it will be formed peacefully or by violence. 
Will the trial be made by force, it will in all probability 
destroy whatever will have been achieved until then, in- 
cluding our progeny. 

How different is the vision of a peaceful solution for which 
this book and the World Academy as a whole is meant as a 
pathfinder. 

We believe, we still believe in spite of all threats from both 
sides, that we shall increase our greatness and that it is not 
yet too late to do so by peaceful means. The desire and the 
will of all has become so strong, it is ever increasing - it will 
surely vanquish all opposition. 

Statesmen and scientists, philosophers and artists, and 
every worker among us, from the unskilled Chinese coolie 
and the illiterate shepherd of the poorest steppes, up to the 
chief engineer of the greatest industrial works and the leader 
in industry - they will all help pave the way. 

Jerusalem, October 1960 THE EDITOR 



Shrinking of our planet by man's speed to travel round the globe 



YEAR 


TIME NEEDED 


MEANS 


AIM 


POTENTIAI 
STATE SIZE 


500,000 B.C. 


a few hundred 
thousand 
years 


on foot (over 
land, ice- 
bridges) 


by chance 


none 


20,000 B.C. 


a few thousand 
years 


on foot and by 
canoe 


by chance 


a small valley, 
vicinity of a 
small lake, etc. 


3,000 B.C. 


a few hundred 

years 


small sails and 
paddles, relays 
of runners 


partly by chan- 
ce, (storms 
etc.) partly in- 
tentional for 
big distances 
(hundreds of 
kilometers) 


small part of 
continent 


500 B.C. 


a few tens of 

years 


big sail ships 
with paddles, 
horses, relays 
of runners, 
cars, camels 
and riders 


partly by chan- 
ce, partly in- 
tentional for 
big distances, 
thousands of 
kilometers 


big parts of a 
continent with 
coastal colo- 
nies 


1,500 A.D. 


a few years 


big sailing 
ships with 
compass 


intentional 


big parts of 
continents 
with transocea- 
nic colonies 


1900 A.D. 


a few months 


steamboat, rail- 
way (Suez- 
Canal, Pana- 
ma-Camj/) 


intentional 


big parts of 
continents 
with transocea- 
nic colonies 


1925 A.D. 


a few weeks 


steamboat, 
transcontinen- 
tal railways, 
auto, airplanes 


intentional 


whole conti- 
nents and 
transoceanic 
common- 
wealth 


1950 A.D. 


a few days 


steamboat, 
transcontinen- 
tal railways, 
auto, jet planes 


intentional 


the globe 


1960 A.D. 


a few hours 2 


steamboat, 
transcontinen- 
tal railways, 
auto, 
space rockets 


intentional 


the globe and 
more 1 



1. The actual development of state size according to communication possibilities 
securing law, order and economic development is today about 30-500 years behind. 

2. From a UPI, Reuter telegramme in the Press of August 5th, 1960 : "The rocket- 
powered X-i5 carried test pilot Joe Walker over the Californian desert at more than 
three times the speed of sound yesterday to establish a world's air speed record of 
2,150 miles an hour" (= 3460 km). 

This is more than twice as much as the speed of earth rotation at the equator, and 
means - if continued - a mere air-flight round the globe in less than 12 hours at the 
equator, and in higher latitudes, of course, much less. The speed of Space-vehicles 
circling the globe is many times higher even than that. (Huco BOYKO). 



The Need 



Die Internationale der Wissenschaft 1 



von 



ALBERT EINSTEIN 



i) Als wahrend des I. Weltkrieges die nationale und politische 
Verblendung ihren Hohepunkt erreicht hatte, pragte EMIL 
FISCHER in einer Akademiesitzung mit Nachdruck den Satz: 
"Sie konnen nichts machen, meine Herren, die Wissenschaft 
ist und bleibt international." Das haben die Grossen unter 
den Forschern stets gewusst und leidenschaftlich gefuhlt, 
obschon sie in Zeiten politischer Verwicklungen unter ihren 
Genossen kleineren Formats isoliert blieben. 

2) Die Entdeckung der atomistischen Kettenreaktionen 
braucht den Menschen so wenig Vernichtung zu bringen 
wie die Erfindung der Ziindholzer. Wir mlissen nur all das 
tun, was den Missbrauch der Mittel beseitigt. Beim heutigen 
Stand der technischen Mittel kann uns nur eine tibernatio- 
nale Organisation schiitzen, verbunden mit einer hinreichend 
starken Exekutivgewalt. Wenn wir dies eingesehen haben, 
werden wir auch die Kraft finden, die fur die Sicherung des 
Menschengeschlechts notigen Opfer zu bringen. Jeder ein- 
zelne von uns ware Schuld daran, wenn das Ziel nicht recht- 
zeitig erreicht wiirde. Die Gefahr ist, dass jeder untatig 
darauf wartet, dass andere fur ihn handeln. 

3) Den in unserem Jahrhundert erzielten Fortschritten 
der Wissenschaft wird jeder Mensch Respekt zollen, der 

1. Quotations from: ALBERT EINSTEIN: Mein "Weltbild. (Herausgegeben von Carl 
Seelig). Reprinted by kind permission of Europa Verlag Zurich. 

13 



ALBERT EINSTEIN 

einigen Einblick hat, ja selbst der oberflachliche Beobachter, 
der nur technische Anwendungen zu sehen bekommt. Man 
wird aber die Leistungen der letzten Zeit nicht uberschatzen, 
wenn man die Probleme der Wissenschaft im grossen nicht 
aus dem Auge verliert. Es ist wie beim Eisenbahnfahren: 
achtet man nur auf die nachste Umgebung, so scheint man 
im Plug fortzukommen. Achtet man aber auf grosse Formen, 
wie auf hohe Gebirge, so andert sich die Situation nur ganz 
langsam. Ahnlich ist es, wenn man die grossen Probleme der 
Wissenschaft im Auge hat. 

4) Es ist meiner Meinung nach nicht vernunftig, von "our 
way of life" oder dem der Russen iiberhaupt zu sprechen. In 
beiden Fallen handelt es sich um eine Sammlung von Tradi- 
tionen und Gewohnheiten, die kein organisches Ganzes 
bilden. Es ist gewiss besser, sich zu fragen, was fur Einrichtun- 
gen und Traditionen fur die Menschen schadlich und wel- 
che nlitzlich sind, welche das Leben gliicklicher, welche es 
schmerzlicher machen, Man muss dann das als besser Er- 
kannte einzufuhren versuchen, unabhangig davon, ob es 
gegenwartig bei uns oder sonstwo realisiert ist. 

5) Wenn ich bezliglich des Fortschreitens der allgemeinen 
internationalen Organisation voll zuversichtlicher Hoffnung 
bin, so beruht dies weniger auf dem Vertrauen auf die Ein- 
sicht und die Noblesse der Gesinnung als vielmehr auf dem 
gebieterischen Druck der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Da 
diese in so hohem Masse auf der Gedankenarbeit selbst der 
ruckschrittlich gesinnten Wissenschaftler ruht, werden auch 
diese gegen ihren Willen die internationale Organisation der 
Wissenschaft schaffen helfen. 



14 



The Need of a World Academy 
of Art and Science 

by 
HUGO BOYKO 



In October 1956 an International Conference on Science and 
Human Welfare was convened at Washington, D.C 
Two main tasks filled its program: 

1) To organize a global working team in order to create an 
inventarium of all natural resources known already to us 
or to be expected with great probability, and 

2) The creation of a World Academy of Art and Science. 
There is nothing exceptional nowadays in an international 

conference of Scientists. In the course of the last 50 years 
many such conferences and congresses have been convened 
in a growing succession in the framework of the various 
branches of science. 

With this task however this Conference leaped far ahead, 
going beyond the frame of a regular scientific conference, in 
its former sense. This conference is the logical outcome of a 
development to which human way of thinking and physical 
achievements have led in the course of a few thousand years, 
bursting wide open our limits as accepted up to now. 

However, each of us feels also that something about the 
aims and the nature of this conference is yet vague, but this is 
easily comprehensible if we realize that the main subject of 
the Conference was the future of man. 

What was intended to achieve there was merely to seek a 
way for, as smooth as possible, a further development of all 

!. See also p. 367. 

15 



HUGO BOYKO 

peoples and in all countries, the way to a future in which all 
mankind will be able to enjoy the immense achievements of 
the human brain; and to seek for a forum in which this way 
may be discussed on an unpolitical, objective, scientific and 
highly ethical basis. The time of our own generation and the 
time of the two or three following ones form the threshold 
of a period when history has ceased to be the history of single 
peoples, states or groups. From now on the history of every 
single state, even the smallest, is linked firmly with that of all 
others. Mankind has become a whole and undividable unit, 
struggling as yet against such a realization. If we desire it or 
not we have all become neighbours and even the remotest of 
them, our geographical antipodes, have moved into calling 
distance; quite apart from the fact that through the speed of 
our planes today, and more so of those of tomorrow, we are 
able to grasp one anothers hand virtually in a few hours time. 

We are starting to trespass the accepted borders of earth, 
space, matter and even of energy, and - if we are not mis- 
taken - even the threshold of Life and Death. In quick 
succession ever new vistas keep opening up the unknown 
territories; already we see in a virus a being which does not 
permit any more a distinct limit; it can at one moment 
appear as a lifeless crystall, in the next as a living being of 
extra-ordinary vitality. 

If already these decisive dividing lines of nature seem to 
disappear before our very eyes and in our comprehension, 
howsmallandinsignificantandnegligible seem the dimensions 
of the political frontiers. Frontiers which are needed still for 
the sake of our smaller or larger groupings either for de- 
fence or for a better economic development. 

The principles however of these limitations and borders 
seem to be proved nonsensical by the development of modern 
technique. This again is an example of how the tempestuous 
technical development tends to throw mankind off its 
psychological equilibrium and possibly even to destroy it 
physically. 

16 



THE NEED OF A WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND SCIENCE 

Only farseeing statemanship in cooperation with the 
leading scientists in all branches of science will be able to 
regain the equilibrium. 

It will be one of the main tasks to bring such a cooperation 
into being. This task will remain a necessity until a new form 
of organizational structure of mankind may develop, a 
structure adequate not only to mankind's weakness but also 
to its greatness. 

It will not be an easy task to find a way by which such an 
ideal forum can be erected, which is meant to include the 
most farseeing brains of science, philosophy and statesman- 
ship and probably for the benefit of mankind, also the most 
prominent poets and artists. 

It is of secondary importance whether we should call such 
a forum an International Academy of Art and Science or 
any other adequate name. But it is of imminent importance 
to recognize the urgency of its creation and, after its creation, 
to see to it that such a body be trusted in its objectivity with 
worldwide confidence. If we succeed in promoting this 
confidence then such a body may act as an advisory influence 
with the various developments of peoples and governments, 
and this may well be equivalent to a new era in history. 

But before we go into the various approaches to the aim, 
that is before we discuss the various organizational set-ups 
which such a forum should have, we must discuss once more 
the problems which indicate the necessity of such an organi- 
zation. We want to do this because we want to be certain of 
our own judgment in order to be able to implant our own 
convictions and certainty on others. 

Quite some part of what I shall have to mention here has 
been common knowledge amongst broad minded people 
for some time already. Nevertheless it seems necessary to 
mention these points too as they form the basis of our 
deductions. 

It has taken thousands of years for man to reach the existing 
stage of his development. The field of our knowledge is being 

17 



HUGO BOYKO 

steadily enlarged and we cannot yet guess where the limi- 
tations of our potential comprehension may be lying. We 
know, however, that we are steadily widening the borders, 
given us by nature, widening them with increasing rapidity 
by intensifying the capacity of our sensitive organs or by 
even producing additional ones. The microscope, the 
electroscope and radar with all their potentialities are 
suitable examples of this kind. As a parallel we have the 
enhancing of our physical qualities, starting with the lifting 
of weights of many tons with the pressure of one single 
finger on an electric button, up to flying through space. 

The achievements of crossing such natural borders in the 
course of our one own generation has no parallel since man 
tamed and produced fire for the first time. 

The number of men, however, who are leading mankind 
on such new ways, or who have original creative minds in 
any one field is very small indeed. As yet nobody has written 
the whole story of the eminent historical role played by the 
scientists, the philosophers, the inventors, and the artists. 
The importance of this small group of people for the higher 
values of living is as yet not recognized as it should be. The 
technician alone is valued more than all the other creators 
for his achievements, because his achievements are the 
easiest understood and can be employed in everyday life. 

On the whole there are very few people who realize that 
only the creative mental powers of this small group have 
been responsible for all the upward trends in the develop- 
ment of men and it is they who are lifting the entity on to 
higher levels in the art of living. Satisfaction can naturally 
also be reached by frugality of needs. But let us not forget 
that uncounted generations of research were essential even 
for the manufacturing of DIOGENES' famous empty barrel. 
He himself did neither seek the right wood for it nor did he 
bend it with the help of heat, nor did he smelt the metal and 
invent the bands around the sections of wood; he only 
settled himself in the ready barrel. 

IB 



THE NEED OF A WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND SCIENCE 

Every scientific and technical progress is but the result of a 
long chain of researches prepared and done by countless 
generations of Scientists. How quickly is a paper taken in 
hand to write some notes on it. Who stops to think of the many 
scientists - botanists, physicists, engineers, chemists - who 
made the manufacture of this little strip of paper possible. 

Would there still be a living specimen of man if not for the 
few who were ever ahead of their times; scientists of prehis- 
toric periods who invented the methods to make fire, to use 
stone tools, to sow grains for survival? 

We have lived to see enormous social upheavals and 
developments in the course of the last few generations. 

Now is the time ripe that the main call should be: Scientists 
of all countries, unite! Create a forum which can be looked 
upon by mankind with trust, and which is able and willing to 
give advice, in all the most vital questions with objectivity and 
from the highest ethical level. 

It is evident that we ourselves shall here have to recognize 
the necessity of such a unification and of such an extra- 
national and extra-political forum, and to see its far-reaching 
consequences, before we can try to convince others of its 
necessity. 

Nevertheless we can see already that our small group, 
which has seen, recognized and advocated this need for the 
last 10, 15, 20 years, is rapidly growing, so that it represents 
nowadays already a general urge, even if not generally 
recognized as such. The seed of this thought started during 
the first world war, but it needed a second world war to make 
it grow to its strength and size of today. 

Immediately after the last world war this trend of thought 
produced the formation of the U.N. and its Economic and 
Social Council, of U.N.E.S.C.O., F.A.O., W.M.O., W.H.O., 
and others. It has been expressed inside and outside the 
International Unions of Science frequently and with lucidity. 
Quite a number of prominent brains have been working in 
the same direction, independent of one another. 

19 



HUGO BOYKO 



A host of various great names present themselves before 
our inner eye in this respect. The greatest scientist of our 
times, EINSTEIN, also belonged to the representatives of this 
trend of thought. 

Soon these thoughts were expressed similarly by states- 
men of high standing in open public discussions; still 
up to now we are alone each of us, even if each one represents 
the focal center and hope of many thousands. 

There exists a number of physical laws which are applicable 
equally in the era of mental and spiritual trends. I am deeply 
convinced that we may achieve by the combined effort 
of strong single forces, which are all of them pulling in the 
same direction, a resultant multiplied force of great effect 
and most valuable consequence. We are only starting today 
to realize this for ourselves but already we are spreading and 
influencing a large and wide community. The time is near, 
when the leading statesmen - even perhaps of our own 
generation - will willingly get in closest contact with the 
representatives of this strongest creative element of mankind, 
as soon as these represent an organized body for this purpose. 
And both together they will then try to find the right ways 
of development for mankind and the true progress on a 
global scale and on scientific premises. 

The first reason for building such an organization as we 
have in mind lies in the recognition that such a forum would 
constitute a very positive step forward, based on thoroughly 
peaceful methods. This aspect is of the utmost importance 
and significance for all groups of mankind and for all 
countries: the highly developed ones as well as the under- 
developed. 

But there are quite a number of other reasons beyond this 
one: As by our own efforts our planet has shrunk to such 
small dimensions we have to draw several consequences 
therefrom. First of all, there must be from now on in history 
a somehow centralized handling of the mutual affairs of 
mankind as an inevitable necessity. 



20 



THE NEED OF A WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND SCIENCE 

This is recognized and accepted already and the U.N. and 
her Special Agencies are the best proof of this fact. There are, 
however, as we know, psychological differences between 
races and peoples, language difficulties and economic group 
interests and various other obstacles still in the way of this 
natural development. These differences and difficulties have to 
be thoroughly investigated and this brings us again to the 
result, that it seems one of the most important things to 
make scientific research of these differences and obstacles. 

A thorough research on the various and very different 
human environments, climate, vegetation, food, etc. is a 
necessity, how they influence the behaviour and even the 
way of thinking of the various populations. 

Some years ago (August 1956) the first Bio-clirnatological 
Congress was convened in Paris at U.N.E.S.CO.-House. 
There a new biological approach even to the geo-physical 
concept of climate has been accepted, and an International 
Committee has been set up to elaborate biological climate 
standards among living things, mostly plants, and this new 
branch of science, called ecological climatography seems to 
become also of decisive value for evaluating the need of man, 
so different in different climates. 

In its widest sense all this may be named human ecology. 

We should not forget that the peace - or war - problem is 
fundamentally a scientific problem and in the first line a 
biological problem. So, for instance, if we know the psycho- 
logical difference between the big groups of mankind and 
also their causes, a big step forward would have been made. 

If we know how to enlarge the food-potential of our earth 
and also the potential of all the other natural resources, 
another big step has been made. 

But in this last example we see how complicated these 
problems are. The higher the standard of living, the more 
differentiated will be the wants of the population, and this is 
not only a question of production but rather more of 
distribution of these goods. Here again the conflicting 

21 



HUGO BOYKO 

interests of single countries manifest themselves and can only 
be overcome by cooperation and common planning. 

However, common planning does not mean total planning 
because total planning is inconceivable as long as there is no 
complete knowledge, and such a thing does not and will 
never exist. 

Only the uneducated individual or the semi-educated one 
can see the solution in total planning, or, on the other hand 
somebody who wants to achieve total power. One thing is 
sure: the final result will be coercion and terror. 

It is of course quite easy to convince a public assembly of 
the fact that such a total planning would be the desired aim 
of mankind. But to try to carry this out, and necessarily by 
sheer force and terror, can only bring utter disaster. There 
against a partial planning as based on our acquired knowledge 
is conceivable and to be advocated. 

Much is already being done in this direction. But re- 
grettably many of these plans are still closely linked with 
political motives and only partly based on objective scientific 
considerations. Here too the lack of such a non-political 
extra-national, purely scientific institution, if only as an 
advisory council, is being felt. 

This present state of affairs may be traced back to the 
leadership principle, evolved almost 3000 years ago and at that 
time truly a great achievement. This was expressed in a 
bulletin of the American Institute of Geonomy and Natural 
Resources as follows: "Our generation having made the first 
step into the Atomic Age, has also to make a further step in 
the development of leadership principles; from the pre- 
historic muscle-magician stage to the stage of orators and 
politicians, first developed in ancient Greece, now to the 
leadership of the best and broadest-minded brains among 
statesmen and scientists, and this step has to be made now, 
before it is too late." 

What we need is an institution of the highest scientific 
authority held in the highest esteem by all peoples as a 



22 



THE NEED OF A WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND SCIENCE 

strictly objective advisory body for countries and peoples, 
and gradually growing into an influential position in all 
questions decisive for the future of mankind. 

Only in such a forum can new principles of leadership be 
studied without being suspected of being in the service of any 
power-politics. Only in such a forum can such advice be 
found which may give the highest possible source of life- 
values for a specific generation or for certain specified 
regions. 

I am quite optimistic in regard to the question whether we 
may conceivably satisfy the demands of an increasing world- 
population. From my own ecological knowledge I venture to 
prophecy that we shall be able to overcome the discrepancy 
between potential food production and size of population. 
The population-potential of the globe depends less on the 
increased square-miles of soil available than on the creative 
power of our brains. 

The lack of a right balance in most countries at present is 
due primarily to the two world wars and secondly to the 
fact that farreaching measures have been taken without 
necessary scientific foundations. 

The great efforts of U.N.E.S.C.O. and of F.A.O., for instance 
in India must necessarily take far longer to produce effects 
according to their nature in respect to increased production 
of food, than will many of the quicker acting measures of 
modern hygiene. 

Japanese cultivation-methods for rice as introduced by 
F.A.O., have raised rice production in many Indian areas 
fourfold already; but it still will take years before the dis- 
crepancy between the number of the population and availa- 
ble quantities of foodstuffs will be eradicated. 

It is the task of scientists to uncover such causes and to seek 
solutions of such vast problems, untouched by any suspicion 
ofpowerpolitics. 

The tasks of those, however, who are meant to lead 
humanity into a brighter future, are far more extensive and 

23 



HUGO BOYKO 

far-reaching. They will have to foster all those matters which 
are apt to unite all human beings, be it a common language - 
to name one example of importance - a language for scien- 
tists, or be it by the means of expression which are at our 
disposal to an extent never before attained and much too 
little exploited - the film, the radio, poetry, and creative art, 
and last but not least the elite of the press. 

As far as a common language in science is concerned, it 
is quite obvious and understandable that each group of the 
same language wants to see its own language accepted. But 
he who deals with this question objectively and outside of all 
national and political points of view must admit that every 
additional language which is added to the admitted language 
for scientific use, is liable to decrease the value of all scientific 
publications, and in consequence thereof, also the value of 
science itself. 

Let us take up another example from the vast schedule of 
tasks which have to be dealt with by such an extra-national 
forum. The establishment of new branches of science is often 
hampered by many obstacles. Every official bureau is con- 
servative according to its very nature. This is the case even 
in the most developed and advanced countries. The history 
of science and of technique is full of researches, inventions, 
discoveries, which have only been brought to light by some 
chance, and very often long after the death of the person 
responsible for the discovery or piece of research. There are 
many cases when a national forum would not be the place to 
offer constructive criticism or active help out of subjective 
causes. Very often also, the path to an international meeting 
is closed to a person because the expense of travelling does 
not allow more than a few to take part in such assemblies. 
Only a fighter might be able to overcome these handicaps, 
but only then at the cost of years or decades, or overwhelming 
material sacrifices. Unfortunately we find that among many 
serious scientists the fighting spirit is not strongly developed. 

It is therefore one of the tasks of such an extra-national 

24 



THE NEED OF A WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND SCIENCE 

Academy of Art and Science to support and foster morally 
such new branches of research, and to recommend their 
material support if they promise valuable results in a desired 
direction. 

We should also most emphatically support the border- 
sciences and all work in synthesis in science, as both are of 
great importance today and are frequently badly treated by 
official authorities. 

However, it will not be only a matter of supporting 
science as such but also its representatives - the scientists - by 
emphasizing the value of them and of science in general 
within the framework of the general organizational structure 
of mankind; a fact which is not yet recognized by the great 
majority. And the same applies to Art. 

The intellectual resources of many countries are often 
wasted and even sometimes suppressed by too low salaries and 
standards of living. In many countries one is apt to forget 
that though a tractorist is able to raise production in com- 
parison to the primitive ploughman, this does not therefore 
mean a principal difference of achievement. The really 
significant achievement lies in the creative thought, in the 
invention of the physical principles; it lies with the geologist, 
the metallurgist who produces the chemical premises, with 
the ecologist who carries out research on the need of plants 
and finally with the engineer who could build the tractor 
with the basic knowledge at hand. 

As a rule one is apt to see but the last member of the chain 
and the other members of it remain largely anonymus. 

Another important point is, that we must also find the 
right balance of the sciences against one another and their 
integration in our educational system, a problem of the 
utmost significance. 

The biological branches of science, for instance, rate far 
behind those which deal with the easier accessible physical, 
chemical and technical problems, and this both in moral as 
in material renumeration. 

25 



HUGO BOYKO 

Such a pooling center of science as a world advisory body 
must embrace the brightest and freest minds in all branches of 
science, but will have to be subdivided into different teams 
and working groups. 

In nearly all of them the biological point of view will have 
to be dealt with to a much higher degree than was the case 
up to now. 

It is one of the most crucial mistakes in the history of 
mankind that this has not been done with the necessary 
intensity up to now. The history of science itself gives us the 
cause of this mistake. 

Since prehistoric times - many thousands of years ago - 
mathematics, physics, and a little later also chemistry, have 
been developed. Gradually we are unveiling the secrets of 
matter and energy. We conquer the depths of the oceans, 
the air, and are even beginning to conquer space outside our 
own planet. 

But just now, with the brightest outlook before us which 
mankind ever had , we are faced with the possibility of 
destroying ourselves. Why? Because Biology, the knowledge 
of life in general : plants, animals, and men because of its 
more complicated nature, has been the stepchild of science 
until the last hundred years, except for the very superficial 
medical knowledge we had before. Until the last few decades 
biology was in fact confined to a descriptive science only. 

Physiology is not older than about 100 years and ecology 
not older than 50 years. We are only now beginning to see the 
wonders of life a bit more clearly. 

In physics we are overwhelmed, and rightly so, by the 
greatness of the discoveries of Atoms, their structure and 
movements. 

But yet how simple is the movement of an atom, or of a sun 
system, compared with the smallest movement of our little 
finger. How many millions of different atoms and molecules 
have to be coordinated for it! What a complex of physical 
and chemical processes has to be completed in this short 

26 



THE NEED OF A WORLD ACADEMY OF ART AND SCIENCE 

.second from the time the idea creates the will in the brain 
cells, leads to the nerve cells and on to the muscle cells, and 
then stops it. 

Most of the basic problems of mankind are of a biological 
nature: overproduction and underproduction of food- 
stuffs and organic rawmaterials, overpopulation and un- 
derpopulation, economic prosperity and depression, mass- 
apathy and mass-emotion, and finally war and peace are 
fundamentally biological problems. As soon as this will be 
understood and as soon as the leading statesmen will be 
willing to contemplate it on this scientific level, in cooper- 
ation with such an objective scientific Institution representing 
all branches of science, we shall have found the way to the 
highest art of living. 

For the discussion of such and similar objects and for 
adequate recommendation we are in need of such an extra- 
national and objective forum. 

Now, as the first nucleus of the " World Academy of Art 
and Science" has started already with its activities, the next 
task will be to achieve the unshakable confidence in its 
scientific and ethical authority and objectivity. This may 
require several years and, apart of a sound and controlled 
financial basis, a most careful selection and way of election 
of members. In this task hundreds of top scientists and other 
personalities esteemed by the world for their high intellectual 
and ethical standard, further the Special Agencies of U.N.O., 
the International Scientific Unions and Societies, and the 
national Academies will be of great assistance. 

The Needs will dictate the priority of the main problems. 
In these first years they will have to be discussed and decided 
upon; the working groups, as the principal Means to carry 
out the scientific work, will have to be organized; the fi- 
nancial basis will have to be secured, and the organizational 
structure to be brought into that balance ordained by its 
Goal. 

May I repeat: The great and new task of this Institution lies 

27 



HUGO BOYKO 

in that it is supposed to be an extra-national, a transnational, 
and truly objective forum for the vitally important problems 
of mankind. The problems today will be less in the foreground 
of discussion than the problems of tomorrow? and in our 
opinion this future is outlined already in distinguishable 
contours. 

We do not know yet when the political unification of 
mankind will become a fact, but we know with certainty 
that this unification is imminent in the course of the next 
few generations. 

We do not know which way will bring this about, a 
peaceful or a forceful one. Independent of the possibility of a 
third or fourth World War it must be the task of the World 
Academy to lead the way to a worldwide and peaceful 
co-operation. 

In these last few decades science has created new and 
unforeseen ways for the development of mankind. However, 
we are as yet overshadowed by the clouds of foregone 
millennia and our best inventions are used more for the 
destruction than for obstruction. 

It is up to us scientists to lead on the path that will make 
these new inventions enrich our life and that of coming 
generations, not destroy it. 

Scientists of all parts of the world! 

Let us create the scientific basis which is necessary to 
enable us to live and work together peacefully! Let us use all 
our imagination to make an art of living. 

Non-Scientists and Scientists alike! Let us all help to make 
this forum a true "Agency for Human Welfare" irradiating 
hope and belief, and let us work together for a brighter 
future, a future truly adequate to "Homo sapiens." 



28 



Thoughts on Art and Science 

by 
ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

SCIENCE AND OUR TIMES 

Our times have been deeply marked by science. What we 
think of it will shape the future. It is a great testament to 
man's power and his reason; it is equally a testament to their 
limits. 

No one can have had the experience of new discovery, can 
have witnessed the transmutation of mystery to under- 
standing and order and then to greater mystery, without 
learning both of our helplessness and our great strength. 
Science sustains a view of man, piteously and even comically 
impotent, yet with a dignity and hope quite special to him. 
This is the view of man of the days of the Enlightenment, and 
of the founding of this Republic. It seems quite in harmony 
with the teachings and spirit of the Stoics, with the blend of 
stoic tradition and Christian sensibility that characterized the 
emergence of the modern world. A sunny, hopeful view of 
science prevailed even in the early years of this century, 
during our childhood, though a few anxious observers had 
found the seeds of misgiving. Think, for instance, of HENRY 
ADAMS, and his related concern for the rise of the specialist, 
and of the machine. 

Among the founders of the United States it is natural for us 
to remember FRANKLIN and JEFFERSON; they were both in 
some real sense men of science as well as statesmen. They 
looked to science as an essential part of this country's heri- 

29 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

tage. They saw first that in practical terms it was a strong tool 
against misery and poverty and squalor. They rightly under- 
stood that science would contribute to the well-being and 
the civility of life. They saw it in intellectual terms as a guard 
against ignorance and superstition. They saw it in political 
terms as a guard against tyranny, barbarism, repression and 
bigotry, that they associated with centuries past, with their 
religious wars, the inquisition, and what they thought of as 
the dark ages. For them it was incompatible only with an 
authoritarianism, by which, they were determined, this 
country should never be darkened. 

The nearly two centuries that have elapsed since then have 
more than fulfilled the promise they saw. In the last years 
we have moved, through discoveries in chemistry, biochemis- 
try, and genetics, by great steps nearer to an understanding 
of the origin of life, and its characteristic stability, variety, 
mutability, and form. We understand how, under the 
conditions prevailing on earth very long ago, organic materi- 
als characteristic of life would almost necessarily be formed 
from inorganic matter. In the coding, information bearing 
and information transmitting characteristics of some nucleic 
acids, we have a beginning of an understanding of how 
living matter instructs its progeny to be a mould, an elephant, 
a tulip, or a man. We understand stars and galaxies today 
better than we understood the minerals of this earth a 
century ago. We even understand much of the evolution and 
history of stars, as they brighten and darken, fade, explode, 
and form again from dust. We are in the midst of finding an 
answer to the ancient questions of the constitution of matter. 
In this field we are today so beset by novelty, paradox, and 
puzzlement that we cannot escape the sense of a vast, 
strange new order waiting to be discovered. For the first time, 
we are beginning to learn some of the subtleties of perception 
and of memory. We know that the very maintenance of the 
rational faculties - the ability, for instance, to add and to 



30 



SCIENCE AND OUR TIMES 

subtract - and of memory itself, requires the constant flow of 
unnoticed sensory stimuli. 

The practical consequences of the application of science 
are everywhere about us; they have contributed to the 
largely new world in which we live. Some of these conse- 
quences are profoundly troublesome, of part of that I shall 
speak. Many appear today as mixed blessings : the automobile, 
the television tube, the antibiotics, call perhaps for somewhat 
greater wisdom than we have shown. But characteristically 
and overwhelmingly the applications of science have allevi- 
ated man's sufferings, moderated his harshest limitations, 
and responded to his long-sustained aspirations. We live 
longer, labor less brutally, more seldom suffer starvation, 
find frequent comfort and relief in illness, travel, communi- 
cate, and learn with undreamed of ease; and we need no 
slave or peon. 

It is a mark of our time that these changes must spread 
throughout the world; the world cannot endure half- 
darkness and half-light. This is of course not all that we see 
stirring the peoples of Asia and Africa today; but surely it is a 
great part and a most enduring part, of the need and the 
reality of change. What we have learned will not easily be 
lost; knowledge once given will not easily be lost in world- 
wide darkness as long as man endures; the powers that it 
gives offer too much to mankind for the sciences to desist or 
regress. It is true that there once were what we call the dark 
ages. They touched only one of the world's civilizations; the 
knowledge they ignored for the most part survived elsewhere 
and the sciences that languished had, in Greek and Hellenis- 
tic times, only the frailest of beginnings, had not begun to 
attain the instruments, the power, the success, the appli- 
cation, nor the explosively cumulative character that mark 
them today. In this one limited sense, man's course cannot 
now be retrograde; in this one sense progress is inevitable. 

It is my purpose here to identify two among many of the 
ways in which the great growth of science has created new 

31 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

problems for us. Both problems seem grave to me. They do 
not appear to me to be very directly related, except that it is 
we, in our time, who must learn to live with them. One has 
to do with the powers that knowledge makes possible, and 
one with the effect of this explosive growth of knowledge on 
the nature of our culture. What is troublesome in the new 
situation may not be easy to alter. We must start by trying to 
understand it. 

It is not new that knowledge brings power, and that among 
the powers may be the power to do evil. In modern science 
there is much such knowledge. It cannot be lost; it leads to 
powers the exercise of which spells disaster. The most familiar, 
though not the deepest example is the discovery of nuclear 
weapons, and the associated machinery of war. These have 
brought to a large part of mankind an appalling prospect of 
devastation and death, an apocalyptic vision of what would 
be terrible reality. Much has been said of the prospect that 
man, along with many other forms of life, might lose his 
genetic inheritance, would disappear as a species. In time, 
not a long time, that may come to be possible. What is more 
certain and more immediate is that we lost much of our 
human inheritance, much that has made our civilization and 
our humanity, very much of our life. 

In the great strides in the biological sciences, and far more 
still in the early beginnings of an understanding of man's 
psyche, of his beliefs, the learning, his memory, and his 
probable action, one can see the origin of still graver problems 
of good and evil. Today we know very little of these matters. 
We have little patches of illumination and understanding, 
unrelated to any assured corpus of reasonably certain 
knowledge. If today we have technical means for better 
predicting man's behaviour, the improvement is at best 
marginal. How shall we meet with wisdom the greater and 
more certain knowledge of how to make people think and 
do? Foreshadowing of this time we see both in brainwashing, 
and in propaganda, that unhallowed marriage of crude 

32 



SCIENCE AND OUR TIMES 

psychological lore with the advanced technology of com- 
munication. 

The problem of these great powers is not made easier by 
the autonomy of the three-score governments that make up 
the world, nor by the little understood and intricate dispersal 
of power that characterizes some of the best of them, nor by 
the absence of any common code of conduct or common 
view of men between them. The problem is not made easier 
by the Communist powers, by their denial of any essential 
community with other societies, their long tradition of 
hostility, and their extreme, morbid preoccupation with 
power. It is not made easier by the experience of vast conti- 
nents, where history of European rule has induced a passion 
for national enhancement, and a low and bitter appraisal 
of the Western heritage. In any real or immediate sense, it 
does not appear to be a soluble problem. The threat of the 
apocalypse will be with us for a long time; the apocalypse 
may come. 

We can see perhaps only the dimmest outline of a course 
that, in the long term, may be hopeful: the creation of 
honest and viable international communities with increasing 
common knowledge and understanding. Of all such com- 
munities, those dealing with the sciences and their appli- 
cations, those in which hope and danger are most intimately 
mixed, seem, if the most difficult to create, the most hopeful 
for our future. Such were indeed the hopes entertained at 
the War's end by many who had worked on the atomic 
project. They were in large part embodied in the ACHESON- 
LILIENTHAL report, early in 1946, on how - in the words of 
that time - "cooperation might replace rivalry" in the 
development of atomic energy. Perhaps the world was not 
ripe nor ready. Perhaps we were not fully ready. Certainly 
the Soviet government was not ready. 

Shall we find other opportunities? We may. Looking at 
the broad ranges of science, with all its portents of benefit 
and misery, I should think that the answer was "yes." 

33 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

The second element of novelty that science has brought to 
us, like the first, is a change in scale; it is not something 
wholly new; and like the first, it is an inherent, necessary 
accompaniment of the great success of the sciences. It is not 
new that what has been learned in the recent past is more 
than was learned in all of man's earlier history. Men said that 
in the eighteenth century, and they were right. It continues 
to be true. 

Positive knowledge, what is recorded in the technical books 
and learned journals, all of it that is new and true and not 
trivial, is of course not wisdom; it can on occasion almost 
appear incompatible with wisdom. I think that such positive 
knowledge doubles in less than a generation, perhaps in a 
decade. This means that most of what there is to know about 
the world of nature was not discovered when a man went to 
school ; it means that universal knowledge, always, even in 
LEONARDO'S day, a dream, but not an irrelevant dream, has 
become a mockery; it means that the specialized sciences, 
genetics, for instance, or astrophysics, or mathematics, are 
like the fingers of a hand; they all arise from the common 
matrix of common sense, from man's daily experience, his 
history, his tradition, and his words. Each is now developing a 
life, an experience, and a language of its own, and between 
the tips of the fingers there is rare contact. For many cen- 
turies mathematics and physics grew in each other's company 
in happy symbiosis. Today at their growing tips they hardly 
touch. Logic, psychology, philosophy were long studies in 
the same rooms, and often by the same men. Today, they 
rarely speak to each other, and are more rarely understood or 
even heard. The deep, detailed, intimate, almost loving 
knowledge of a specialized science is lost in synoptic views of 
science as a whole. These changes mean that ignorance is a 
universal, pervasive feature of our time. It is clear that they 
have an essential relevance to the problems of education. 

In a free world, if it is to remain free, we must maintain, 
with our lives if need be, but surely by our lives, the oppor- 

34 



SCIENCE AND OUR TIMES 

tunity for a man to learn anything. We need to do more: we 
need to cherish man's curiosity, his understanding, his love, 
so that he may indeed learn what is new and hard and deep. 
We need to do this in a world in which the changes wrought 
by the applications of science, and the din of communi- 
cation from remote and different places, complement the 
unhinging, unmooring effects of the explosive growth in 
knowledge itself. For the un~understood rumours of change 
from the frontiers of physics or from psychology, can be 
more deeply disturbing than that what we heard in the last 15 
years of China or Kenya: they lead to despair of man's 
reason. The rumoured uncertainties of an endless quest 
for knowledge make, for the bewildered, as inhuman a 
view of man's frailty as the rumoured magic of science 
makes of his triumphs. 

Such a culture can hardly be architectonic in structure. 
The world that we study is an orderly world, and this order 
illuminates and organizes our understanding ; but it is not an 
hierarchical nor an architectonic order. It has no central 
chamber of man's common understanding, a common 
repository of all essential knowledge. It has instead the 
structure of a vast, manifold, many-dimensional network of 
bonds. We deceive ourselves, if we attempt to model our 
culture on Athens in the fifth century (B.C.) or the thirteenth 
century (A.D.) in Europe. 

The bonds of understanding reflect the order and define 
the structure of our world. The man who bears in himself 
more than one passion for knowledge creates such a bond. 
Men who, working in separate rooms of the house of science, 
find common understanding, create another. Occasionally 
between the sciences, and more rarely between a science 
and other parts of our experience and knowledge, there is a 
correspondence, an analogy, a partial mapping of two sets of 
ideas and words. We learn then to translate from one 
language into another. Ours is thus a united world, united by 
countless bonds. Everything can be related to anything, 

35 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER, 



everything cannot be related to everything. It may perhaps 
then be a beginning of wisdom to learn of the virtues, of the 
restraint and tolerance, and of the sense of fraternity that 
will be asked of us, if, in this largely new world, we are to 
live, not in chaos, but in community. 1 



l . This contribution was originally the Address held by the author at the Roosevelt 
University Founders and Friends Dinner in Chicago, III, May 22, 1956. 

36 



PROSPECTS IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 



The words "prospects in the arts and sciences'" mean two quite 
different things to me. One is prophecy: What will the scien- 
tists discover and the painters paint, what new forms will 
alter music, what parts of experience will newly yield to ob- 
jective description? The other meaning is that of a view: 
What do we see when we look at the world today and com- 
pare it with the past? I am not a prophet; and I cannot very 
well speak to the first subject, though in many ways I should 
like to. I shall try to speak to the second, because there are 
some features of this view which seem to me so remarkable, 
so new and so arresting, that it may be worth turning our 
eyes to them; it may even help us to create and shape the 
future better, though we cannot foretell it. 

In the arts and in the sciences, it would be good to be a 
prophet. It would be a delight to know the future, I had 
thought for a while of my own field of physics and of those 
nearest to it in the natural sciences. It would not be too hard 
to outline the questions which natural scientists today are 
asking themselves and trying to answer.^ What, we ask in 
physics, is matter what is it made of, how does it behave when 
it is more and more violently atomized, when we try to pound 
out of the stuff around us the ingredients which only vio- 
lence creates and makes manifest? What, the chemists ask, 
are those special features of nucleic acids and proteins which 

37 



ROBERT OPPENHEIME& 



make life possible and give it its characteristic endurance and 
mutability? What subtle chemistry, what arrangements, 
what reactions and controls make the cells of living organ- 
isms differentiate so that they may perform functions as 
oddly diverse as transmitting information throughout our 
nervous systems or covering our heads with hair? What 
happens in the brain to make a record of the past, to hide it 
from consciousness, to make it accessible to recall? What 
are the physical features which make consciousness possible? 

All history teaches us that these questions that we think 
the pressing ones, will be transmuted before they are 
answered, that they will be replaced by others, and that the 
very process of discovery will shatter the concepts that we 
today use to describe our puzzlement. 

It is true that there are some who profess to see in matters 
of culture, in matters precisely of the arts and sciences, a 
certain macro-historical pattern, a grand system of laws which 
determines the course of civilization and gives a kind of 
inevitable quality to the unfolding of the future. They 
would, for instance, see the radical, formal experimentation 
which characterized the music of the last half-century as an 
inevitable consequence of the immense flowering and en- 
richment of natural science; they would see a necessary 
order in the fact that innovation in music precedes that in 
painting and that in turn in poetry, and point to this 
sequence in older cultures. They would attribute the formal 
experimentation of the arts to the dissolution, in an in- 
dustrial and technical society, of authority, of secular, politi- 
cal authority, and of the catholic authority of the church. 
They are thus armed to predict the future. But this, I fear, 
is not my dish. 

If a prospect is not prophecy, it is a view. What does the 
world of the arts and sciences look like? 

There are two ways of looking at it: the world of arts and 
sciences. One is the view of the traveller, going by horse or 
foot, from village to village to town, staying in each to talk 

38 



PROSPECTS IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

with those who live there and to gather something of the 
quality of its life. This is the intimate view, partial, somewhat 
accidental, limited by the limited life and strength and 
curiosity of the traveller, but intimate and human, in a 
human compass. The other is the vast view, showing the 
earth with its fields and towns and valleys as they appear to a 
camera carried in a high altitude rocket. In one sense this 
prospect will be more complete; one will see all branches 
of knowledge, one will see all the arts, one will see them as 
part of the vastness and complication of the whole of human 
life on earth. But one will miss a great deal; the beauty and 
warmth of human life will largely be gone from that prospect. 
It is in this vast high altitude survey that one sees the 
general surprising quantitative features that distinguish our 
time. This is where the listings of science and endowments 
and laboratories and books published show up; this is where 
we learn that more people are engaged in scientific research 
today than ever before, that the Soviet world and the free 
world are running neck and neck in the training of scientists, 
that more books are published per capita in England than in 
the United States, that the social sciences are pursued actively 
in America, Scandinavia, and England, that there are more 
people who hear the great music of the past, and more 
music composed and more paintings painted. This is where 
we learn that the arts and sciences are flourishing. This great 
map, showing the world from afar and almost as to a stranger, 
would show more; it would show the immense diversity of 
culture and life, diversity in place and tradition for the first 
time clearly manifest on a world-wide scale, diversity in 
techniques and language, separating science from science 
and art from art, and all of one from all of the other. This 
great map, world-wide, culturewide, remote, has some odd 
features. There are innumerable villages. Between the 
villages there appear to be almost no paths discernible from 
this high altitude. Here and there passing near a village, 
sometimes through its heart, there will be a superhighway, 

39 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

along which windy traffic moves at enormous speed. The 
superhighways seem to have little connection with villages, 
starting anywhere, ending anywhere, and sometimes ap- 
pearing almost by design to disrupt the quiet of the village. 
This view gives us no sense of order or of unity. To find these 
we must visit the villages, the quiet, busy places, the labora- 
tories and studies and studios. We must see the paths that 
are barely discernible; we must understand the superhigh- 
ways, and their dangers. 

In the natural sciences there are and have been and are 
likely to continue to be heroic days. Discovery follows dis- 
covery, each both raising and answering questions, each 
ending a long search, and each providing the new instru- 
ments for a new search. There are radical ways of thinking 
unfamiliar to common sense and connected with it by 
decades or centuries of increasingly specialized and unfa- 
miliar experience. There are lessons of how limited, for all 
its variety, the common experience of man has been with 
regard to natural phenomena, and hints and analogies as to 
how limited may be his experience with man. Every new 
finding is a part of the instrument kit of the sciences for 
further investigation and for penetrating into new fields. 
Discoveries of knowledge fructify technology and the practi- 
cal arts, and these in turn pay back refined techniques, new 
possibilities of observation and experiment. 

In any science there is harmony between practitioners. A 
man may work as an individual, learning of what his 
colleagues do through reading or conservation; he may be 
working as a member of a group on problems where techni- 
cal equipment is too massive for individual effort. But 
whether he is a part of a team or solitary in his own study, he, 
as a professional, is a member of a community. His 
colleagues in his own branch of science will be grateful to 
him for the inventive or creative thoughts he has, will 
welcome his criticism. His world and work will be objective- 
ly communicable; and he will be quite sure that if there is 

40 



PROSPECTS IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

error in it, that error will not long be undetected. In his own 
line of work he lives in a community where common 
understanding combines with common purpose and interest 
to bind men together both in freedom and in co-operation. 

This experience will make him acutely aware of how 
limited, how inadequate, how precious is this condition of 
his life; for in his relations with a wider society, there will be 
neither the sense of community nor of objective under- 
standing. He will sometimes find, in returning to practical 
undertakings, some sense of community with men who are 
not expert in his sciences, with other scientists whose work 
is remote from his, and with men of action and men of art. 
The frontiers of sciences are separated now by long years of 
study, by specialized vocabularies, arts, techniques, and 
knowledge from the common heritage even of a most 
civilized society; and anyone working at the frontier of such 
science is in that sense a very long way from home, a long 
way too from the practical arts that were its matrix and 
origin, as indeed they were of what we today call art. 

The specialization of science is an inevitable accompani- 
ment of progress; yet is it full of dangers, and it is cruelly 
wasteful, since so much, that is beautiful and enlightening is 
cut off from most of the world. Thus it is proper to the role 
of the scientist that he not merely find new truth and 
communicate it to his fellows, but that he teach, that he try 
to bring the most honest and intelligible account of new 
knowledge to all who will try to learn. This is one reason - it 
is the decisive organic reason - why scientists belong in 
universities. It is one reason why the patronage of science 
by and through universities is its most proper form; for it is 
here, in teaching, in the association of scholars, and in the 
friendships of teachers and taught, of men who by pro- 
fession must themselves be both teachers and taught, that 
the narrowness of scientific life can best be moderated, and 
that the analogies, insights, and harmonies of scientific 
discovery can find their way into the wider life of man. 

4i 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

In the situation of the artist today there are both analogies 
to and differences from that of the scientist; but it is the 
differences which are the most striking, and which raise the 
problems that touch most on the evil of our day. For the 
artist it is not enough that he communicate with others 
who are expert in his own art. Their fellowship, their under- 
standing, and their appreciation may encourage him; but 
that is not the end of his work, not its nature. The artist 
depends on a common sensibility and culture, on a common 
meaning of symbols, on a community of experience and 
common ways of describing and interpreting it. He need not 
write for everyone or paint or play for everyone. But his 
audience must be man ; it must be man, and not a specialized 
set of experts among his fellows. Today, that is very difficult. 
Often the artist has an aching sense of great loneliness, for 
the community to which he addresses himself is largely not 
there; the traditions and the culture, the symbols and the 
history, the myths and the common experience, which it is 
his function to illuminate, to harmonize, and to portray, 
have been dissolved in a changing world. 

There is, it is true, an artificial audience maintained to 
moderate between the artist and the world for which he 
works : the audience of the professional critics, popularizers, 
and advertisers of art. But though, as does the popularizer 
and promoter of science, the critic fulfills a necessary 
present function and introduces some order and some 
communication between the artist and the world, he can- 
not add to the intimacy and the directness and the depth 
with which the artist addresses his fellow men. 

To the artist's loneliness there is a complementary great 
and terrible barrenness in the lives of men. They are deprived 
of the illumination, the light and tenderness and insight of an 
intelligible interpretation, in contemporary terms, of the 
sorrows and wonders and gaieties and follies of man's life. 
This may be in part offset, and is, by the great growth of 
technical means for making the art of the past available. But 

42 



PROSPECTS IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

these provide a record of past intimacies between art and life; 
even when they are applied to the writing and painting and 
composing of the day, they do not bridge the gulf between 
a society, too vast and too disordered, and the artist trying 
to give meaning and beauty to its parts. 

In an important sense this world of ours is a new world, 
in which the unity of knowledge, the nature of human 
communities, the order of society, the order of ideas, the very 
notions of society and culture have changed and will not 
return to what they have been in the past. What is new is 
new not because it has never been there before, but because 
it has changed in quality. One thing that is new is the preva- 
lence of newness, the changing scale and scope of change 
itself, so that the world alters as we walk in it, so that the 
years of man's life measure not some small growth or rear- 
rangement or moderation of what he learned in childhood, 
but a great upheaval. What is new is that in one generation 
our knowledge of the natural world engulfs, upsets, and 
complements all knowledge of the natural world before. 
The techniques, among which and by which we live, multi- 
ply and ramify, so that the whole world is bound together 
by communication, blocked here and there by the immense 
synopses of political tyranny. The global quality of the world 
is new: our knowledge of and sympathy with remote and 
diverse peoples, our involvement with them in practical 
terms, and our commitment to them in terms of brother- 
hood. What is new in the world is the massive character of 
the dissolution and corruption of authority, in belief, in 
ritual, and in temporal order. Yet this is the world that we 
have come to live in. The very difficulties which it presents 
derive from growth in understanding, in skill, in power. To 
assail the changes that have unmoored us from the past is 
futile, and in a deep sense, I think, it is wicked. We need 
to recognize the change and learn what resources we 
have. 

Again I will turn to the schools and, as their end and as 

43 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

their center, the universities. For the problem of the scientist 
is in this respect not different from that of the artist or of the 
historian. He needs to be a part of the community, and the 
community can only with loss and peril be without him. 
Thus it is with a sense of interest and hope that we see a 
growing recognition that the creative artist is a proper 
charge on the university, and the university a proper home 
for him; that a composer or a poet or a playwright or painter 
needs the toleration, understanding, the rather local and 
parochial patronage that a university can give; and that this 
will protect him from the tyranny of man's communication 
and professional promotion. For here there is an honest 
chance that what the artist has of insight and of beauty will 
take root in the community, and that some intimacy and 
some human bonds can mark his relations with his patrons. 
For a university rightly and inherently is a place where the 
individual man can form new syntheses, where the accidents 
of friendship and association can open a man's eyes to a part 
of science or art which he had not known before, where parts 
of human life, remote and perhaps superficially incompati- 
ble, can find in men their harmony and their synthesis. 

These then, in rough and far too general words, are some 
of the things we see as we walk through the villages of the 
arts and of the sciences and notice how thin are the paths that 
lead from one to another, and how little in terms of 
human understanding and pleasure the work of the villages 
comes to be shared outside. 

The superhighways do not help. They are the mass media - 
from the loudspeakers in the deserts of Asia Minor and the 
cities of Communist China to the organized professional 
theatre of Broadway. They are the purveyors of art and 
science and culture for the millions upon millions - the 
promoters who represent the arts and sciences to humanity 
and who represent humanity to the arts and sciences; they 
are the means by which we are reminded of the famine in 
remote places or of war or trouble or change; they are the 

44 



PROSPECTS IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

means by which this great earth and its peoples have become 
one to one another, the means by which news of discovery 
or honor and the stories and songs of today travel and 
resound throughout the world. But they are also the means 
by which the true human community, the man knowing 
man, the neighbor understanding neighbor, the school boy 
learning a poem, the women dancing, the individual curi- 
osity, the individual sense of beauty are being blown dry and 
issueless, the means by which the passivity of the disengaged 
spectator presents to the man of art and science the bleak 
face of inhumanity. 

For the truth is that this is indeed, inevitably and in- 
creasingly, an open and, inevitably and increasingly, an 
eclectic world. We know too much for one rr^an to know 
much, we live too variously to live as one. Our histories and 
traditions - the very means of interpreting life - are both 
bonds and barriers among us. Our knowledge separates as well 
as it unites; our order disintegrates as well as binds; our art 
brings us together and sets us apart. The artist's loneliness, 
the scholar despairing, because no one will any longer 
trouble to learn what he can teach, the narrowness of the 
scientist - these are not unnatural insignia in this great time 
of change. 

For what is asked of us is not easy. The openness of this 
world derives its character from the irreversibility of 
learning; what is once learned is part of human life. We 
cannot close our minds to discovery, we cannot stop our 
ears so that the voices of far-off and strange people can no 
longer reach them. The great cultures of the East cannot be 
walled off from ours by impassable seas and defects of under- 
standing based on ignorance and unfamiliarity. Neither our 
integrity as men of learning nor our humanity allows that. 
In this open world, what is there any man may try to learn. 

This is no new problem. There has always been more to 
know than one man could know; there have always been 
modes of feeling that could not move the same heart; there 

45 



ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 

have always been deeply held beliefs, that could not be 
composed into a synthetic union. Yet never before today has 
the diversity, the complexity, the richness so clearly defied 
hierarchical order and simplification. Never before have we 
had to understand the complementary, mutually not 
compatible ways of life and recognize choice between them 
as the only course of freedom. Never before today has the 
integrity of the intimate, the detailed, the true art, the 
integrity of craftsmanship and preservation of the familiar, of 
the humourous and the beautiful stood in more massive 
contrast to the vastness of life, the greatness of the globe, the 
otherness of ways and the all-encompassing dark. 

This is a world in which each of us, knowing his limi- 
tations, knowing the evils of superficiality and the terrors of 
fatigue, will have to cling to what is close to him, to what he 
knows, to what he can d^ to his friends and his tradition and 
his love, lest he will be dissolved in a universal confusion and 
know nothing and love nothing. It is at the same time a 
world in which none of us can find hieratic prescription or 
general sanction for any ignorance, any insensitivity, any 
indifference. When a friend tells us of a new discovery we 
may not understand, we may not be able to listen without 
jeopardizing the work that is ours and closer to us; but we 
cannot find in a book or canon - and we should not seek - 
grounds for hallowing our ignorance. If a man tells us that 
he sees differently than we or that he finds beautiful what we 
find ugly, we may have to leave the room, from fatigue or 
trouble; but that is our weakness and our default. If we must 
live with a perpetual sense that the world and the men in it 
are greater than we and too much for us, let it be the measure 
of our virtue that we know this and seek no comfort. Above 
all let us not proclaim that the limits of our powers corre- 
spond to some special wisdom in our choice of life, of 
learning, or of beauty. 

This balance, this perpetual, precarious impossible balance 
between the infinitely open and the intimate, this time - our 

46 



PROSPECTS IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

twentieth century - has been long in coming; but is has 
come. It is, I think, for us and our children our only way. 

This is for all men. For the artist and for the scientist there 
is a special problem and a special hope, for in their extraordi- 
narily different ways, in their lives that have increasingly 
divergent character, there is still a sensed bond, a sensed 
analogy. Both the man of science and the man of art live 
always at the edge of mystery, surrounded by it, both always, 
as the measure of their creation, have had to do with harmo- 
nization of what is new with what is familiar, with the 
balance between novelty and synthesis, with the struggle to 
make partial order in total chaos. They can, in their work 
and in their lives, help themselves, help one another, and 
help all men. They can make the paths that connect the 
villages of arts and sciences with each other and with the 
world at large the multiple, varied, precious bonds of a true 
and world- wide community. 

This cannot be an easy life. We shall have a rugged time of 
it to keep our minds open and to keep them deep, to keep 
our sense of beauty and our ability to make it, and our 
occasional ability to see it in places remote and strange and 
in our villages, in keeping open the manifold, intricate, 
casual paths, to keep these flourishing in a great open, 
windy world; but this, as I see it, is the condition of men; and 
in this condition we can help, because we can love, one 
another. 1 



!. This essay was originally the author's concluding Address in the Columbia 
University Bicentennial Broadcast, December 26, 1954. 

47 



Science and our Future 



by 
W.F. G. SWANN 



In the past, the life of nearly all mankind was spent in a 
struggle for existence. Mother Earth demanded much tribute 
in the form of labour as payment for the fruits which she 
yielded. Labour was the necessary payment of man to nature 
for his existence, and in turn, the potentiality of man for 
giving labour represented a natural element of his wealth and 
so a guarantee for his existence. From the dawn of history 
almost until the present day he lived by what the earth gave 
him spontaneously, and in the sweat of his brow he toiled 
from morn to night to collect the gift; for the gift was made 
in meager amount and he sought no means to expedite it. 
Such ingenuity as he possessed was engaged in segregating 
to himself as much of the gift as he could at the expense 
of the greater majority of his fellows who, since there was not 
plenty for everyone, must spend all strength in the struggle 
for mere existence, with little of what we call happiness, and 
with little apparent reason for the labour other than the 
perpetuation of a monotonous existence from one generation 
to another. What little there was in the way of scientific 
discovery was housed in large part in the dens of the charla- 
tans and sought close companionship in the black arts. 
1 And then/barely more than a century ago, a new page 
in the drama of history opened. The power of steam was 
harnessed and the time and burden of travel shrank. Soon 

49 



W. K G. SWANN 

came the era of electricity, an era in which each successive 
discovery added further to the comfort of mankind. More 
and more of the world's work was done by the forces of 
inanimate things rather than by the toil of the arm and hand./ 
The seeker after truth had tasted the blood of conquest and 
was encouraged to enter new domains. Science spread its 
wings over all nature, and the search for new things was no 
longer a dubious occupation, a companion to witchcraft, 
but a legitimate and recognized ambition of the curiosity of 
man. As if in reward for such recognition of pure idealistic 
research, it turned out that investigations, started with no 
immediate utilitarian purpose, and without the hint of a 
promise of future service to mankind, yielded, in actuality, 
ifruits in such service far beyond the wildest dreams of the 
investigator. 

I Today, we stand heirs to all this wealth of nature's re- 
sources. The labourer of today has at his disposal conveniences 
which no king possessed a hundred years agoi I think it would 
be safe to say that if King Solomon could suddenly have had 
installed in his house an oil furnace, a cooling system, electric 
light, and a telephone with the other end at the residence of 
the Queen of Sheba-if he could have gone careering through 
the streets of Jerusalem at fifty miles an hour in an automo- 
bile - he would probably have been renowned in his time 
for possessions to an extent far beyond even the renown 
recorded to his credit in Holy Writ. Today, even the humblest 
artisan is possessed of conveniences which, seemingly, would 
have outshone all the luxuries of the world of ancient times. 
Yet, he who possesses these things today is often an unhappy 
and disgruntled person, with a grievance against something 
or somebody as his main source of mental exhilaration. 

And if in the midst of all this potentiality for happiness 
man is still unhappy, what is the reason for his state. What 
does he seek for his goal of happiness and why can he not 
attain it? Man is an active animal. Through the thousands of 
years of his history he has become accustomed to count the 

50 



SCIENCE AND OUR FUTURE 

gains of his labour, and the gains have, for the most part, 
consisted in the past of accumulation of the means of 
existence to succour him when he could no longer labour, 
or better still, a means of existence without the necessity of 
the enforced labour of the slave. Now, as more and more of 
the world's work is being done by machines, we are reaching 
a stage in which not only is the amount of toil necessary for 
existence reduced, but in which the perpetuation of toil, 
with the greatly enhanced efficiency which the machine age 
has brought to it, has produced a new realm of strife, a strife 
between the machines, whereby the equilibrium of life 
becomes upset to a degree in which the little that man needs 
for his existence fails to reach its proper goal of distribution 
on account of the turmoil of activity created by the oper- 
ations of inanimate things. 

In the last analysis of the trend towards perpetual increase 
of so-called utilitarian activity beyond a certain limit, my 
mind turns to the thought of some great Mogul who, 
having gained control of the running of the affairs of the 
world, looks down upon our civilization and, whipping up 
the speed of things, while egged on by the increasing efficien- 
cy of the appliances which man has designed, comes to the 
conclusion that in comparison with these appliances man 
himself is a very inefficient animal and ought to be abolished. 
If I ask this Mogul what the purpose of this marvellous 
organization would be without man in it, I can imagine from 
him no reply other than one to the effect that it constitutes 
a beautiful, smooth-running machine which, like a picture 
or a symphony, is an end in itself, and that he likes to see it run. 
But, with man gone, there is nobody but the Mogul to enjoy 
it. To the fundamentally and fatalistically morbid 1 present 
this Mogul as, in all verity, a deity guaranteed to keep them 
lusciously miserable for the lifetime remaining to them. 
Under another chapter I might signify the aim of this being in 
the title "The Devil in Control. 35 

If I plead with this devil to let man live, I surmise that he 

51 



W. F. G. SWANN 

may object on the grounds that man may tamper with the 
machinery which is now in perfect running order. Here I have 
some sympathy with this devil. And so I make a bargain with 
him to the effect that man may be allowed to live provided 
that he will guarantee never to do anything which, in the 
sense of the old meaning of things, can be called useful. Man 
shall not be deprived of the inspiration of continuing his 
researches in science. He shall be allowed to continue the 
enrichment of the arts. He shall be kept as a kind of domestic 
pet of this devil, with no duties other than those concerned 
with amusing himself. 

And so I suggest to this devil that since man has, as it were, 
worked himself out of a job, so that his potentiality for 
labour no longer guarantees his right to exist, he be pension- 
ed off, and allowed to pursue the rest of his existence in play, 
confining what were formerly his utilitarian efforts to oiling 
the machinery. 

Now, of course, I do not wish to imply that we have yet 
reached the stage at which the ideal I have cited is a practical 
one. And yet I do envisage this ideal as a limiting one to which 
the machine age should naturally tend. It is what the mathe- 
matician would call an "asymptotic ideal' 5 ; something which 
is continually approached but never actually realized. The 
point which I wish to emphasize, however, is that even today 
it may be true that many of the troubles of our economic 
existence lie in failure to recognize the trend toward this 
ideal and the necessity of a continual sensitivity to it. In the 
attainment of such an ideal, wealth no longer has meaning 
for the aims for which it exists are already attained. 

However, if I take to mankind this treaty in which this 
devil-like potentate has acquiesced, I surmise that there will 
be many who will be unhappy in the thought that their 
future activities will lie outside of the realm of that which 
they have been accustomed to regard as useful. In an attempt 
to appraise the ultimate value of things, perhaps I may be 
pardoned for citing here an illustration which I have given 

52 



SCIENCE AND OUR FUTURE 

elsewhere concerning a supposed conversation between a 
pure utilitarianist and an artist of the "art for art's sake" type. 
The conversation concerns the pictures which Michelangelo 
painted in the Vatican. 

"Of what use are those pictures?" asks the utilitarianist. 
"They do nobody any good and only wasted the time of 
Michelangelo, who painted them." 

"And what kind of creative work would you regard as of 
use?" asks the artist. 

"Well, the development of the steam engine or the auto- 
mobile," says the utilitarianist. 

"But why are these of use?" asks the artist. 

"Because they enable one to move about faster and get 
more done," says the utilitarianist. 

"But why move about faster and get more done?" 

"Because by doing so you create wealth for yourself and 
others; you save time and are enabled to enjoy more leisure," 
is the rejoinder. 

"And what is the use of money and leisure?" asks the 
artist. "Is it not rather boresome to have nothing to do?" 

"Oh, it is not necessary to do nothing," is the reply. "You 
can travel and enlarge your mind." 

"But," says the artist,"what is the good of travelling? You 
only get seasick and very tired." 

"Oh," replies the utilitarianist, "it is a wonderful experience 
to travel. You can go, for instance, to the Old World and visit 
all those places of classic renown: Paris, Venice, London." 

"But," says the artist, "is that not very disturbing? I hear that 
many of these places are unsanitary. The food is not what you 
are accustomed to, and sometimes the people are not over- 
friendly." 

"Those are but small matters," says the utilitarianist, "they 
are far outweighed by all of the other riches you fall heir to. 
You can bask in the exhilarating sun of the Alps. You can 
drink in the beauties of the Mediterranean. You can visit 
ancient Rome; and by the way, when you are there, do not 

53 



W. F. G. SWANN 

fail to see those marvellous pictures which Michelangelo 
has painted in the Vatican." 

And so I have wondered if we should be far from the truth 
if we should maintain the thesis that the only ultimate 
excuse for the existence of the things utilitarian is that they 
provide the means whereby we may enjoy the things non- 
utilitarian. 

And so in the life of mankind one recognizes two types of 
activities, types which may crudely be described as utilitarian 
and those which are non-utilitarian. In the ages whith have 
passed there has been, for the most part, no danger of satura- 
tion as regards the former. Nature claimed all the effort that 
man could give as the price of his existence, and the second 
category of effort- the non-utilitarian - was reserved for the 
favoured few who, by the chances of fate, had managed to 
acquire an exceptionally large proportion of the fruits of the 
labours of their fellows. As the discoveries of science have 
revolutionized the plans of the world's work, we have reached 
the stage in which the very continued effort of man in the 
utilitarian field can bring about lack of equilibrium of such a 
kind that the residue available for the individual needs, either 
through faulty distribution or a lack of appropriate planning, 
is less than it would have been if the world had been less active 
and if man had worked less hard. A condition, however, in 
which people are idle because, if they worked more, they 
would upset the equilibrium, is not a healthy one for the race. 
He who is forced to work that he may survive feels a grievance 
against nature, but he who is condemned to inaction lest his 
efforts cause trouble has an even greater grievance. 

The solution of the difficulty is, I think, to be found in a 
proper organization of utilitarian effort to the maximum 
degree of efficiency in such manner that the amount of it is 
just sufficient and no more than sufficient for the needs of 
healthy existence. We must then turn the spare time of man 
into a non-saturable domain, a domain in which the effort of 
one section does not render abortive the effort of another. 

54 



SCIENCE AND OUR FUTURE 

We must, in fact, turn this surplus effort into the non-utili- 
tarian field. If, in the utilitarian domain, I improve my 
organization in the sense that I can create a product with less 
and less of the utilization of manual effort, I may do somebody 
harm unless the increase of my efficiency is accompanied by 
a corresponding economic adjustment. If, however, in my 
spare time I play the violin and I continue to improve, it does 
not follow from my improvement that my neighbour, who 
plays the piano, will deteriorate in his performance. 

In the past, we have been too accustomed to assume that 
support of science is justified only because of the utilitarian 
advantages to be expected of it. Today we are approaching the 
other extreme, where man is invited to keep his hands off 
the machinery; but if this extreme is to be accompanied by 
lack of provision of the means for the continuation of effort 
which is not accompanied by utilitarian ends, then there is 
much to be said for the decree of that devil to whom I 
introduced you earlier and who sought the complete 
abolition of man as an inefficient parasite upon the workings 
of the universe. In the old days the cry of "art for art's sake" 
or Science for the sake of science" was supposedly the cry of 
the fanatic. In the future this cry, or the cry of "something 
for something's sake," will be the cry of all mankind as a 
reason for his existence, and as an end in itself. For if, relieved 
of effort directed towards utilitarian ends, man becomes 
ashamed to do anything because of a suspicion as to its lack of 
usefulness, then he becomes, in all verity, the most collosal 
bore in the universe, and my good devil will do well to 
abolish him. 

In the last analysis, is not happiness, in the broadest sense, 
the goal of mankind? It is the promised land to which science 
has brought us and which the future invites us to cultivate. 

One trouble concerned with our existing civilization lies 
in the fact that we have invented so many things for our en- 
joyment and entertainment, and we have invented so many 
labour-saving devices, that the mere operation of all these 

55 



W. F. G. SWANN 

devices seems to leave less time than was available to a person 
150 years ago to enjoy in life the things which really give 
permanent enjoyment. It is a wonderful thing to listen to 
the radio the first time we hear it. After a time it becomes a 
habit, so that the machine is left to exercise its noise-making 
potentialities when nobody is present in the room. 

All of these devices give, for the most part, only superficial 
pleasure and by that very token give a pleasure which 
soon wears out and leaves the subject with a feeling of 
discontent. I would suggest that lasting pleasure is only 
obtained when the mind is active, or when there is conscious- 
ness of development of some kind in the subject. 

Earlier in these lines I have lamented the fact that man, the 
inheritor of wealth beyond the dreams of the kings of olden 
times, is often an unhappy individual, and often he is un- 
happy when his state is such that he is among the favoured 
group whom the economic battles of our times have left 
unscathed. Happiness itself is a strange thing. I do not believe 
that it is determined by the status quo of the individual, no 
matter how high the level of that status quo. It is determined 
rather by the progress of the individual from one state to 
another. He who, while playing the violin in the capacity of 
an amateur, has succeeded by his effort in surmounting some 
difficulty which had previously baffled him, is happier at 
the moment as a violinist than is Kreisler, for in this, as in all 
things, there is more happiness in the consciousness of 
improvement than in the finality of attainment. Never will 
there be an age in which a being of the state of development 
of man can expect happiness except as the result of progress 
through effort expended on something; and those who ex- 
pect happiness from idleness in the status quo I commend to 
the company of their spiritual relative, the cat, whose 
maximum of contentment seems to be reached in a state 
only sufficiently different from that of slumber to admit 
recognition of the outside world by the maintenance of a 
purring sound. 

56 



The Means 

(a few examples lay a few scientists) 



The Prospects of Genetic Progress 1 

by 

HERMANN J. MULLER 



Our present generation has been brought to realize more 
vividly than any previous one the paltry dimensions of our 
earth and everything upon it, in comparison with the 
awesome reaches of the universe at large. To many persons 
this perspective has seemed a forbidding one, as though a 
great pall had arisen to overshadow and belittle the cherished 
world of familiar things that our forefathers hav taught us to 
believe in. 

However, these pessimists have failed to take sufficiently 
into their view one all-important aspect of the picture, that 
serves to illuminate and transfigure it. This lies in the con- 
clusion, supported by many modern studies, that the natu- 
ral processes of genetics have in the course of ages enabled 
primitive organic matter gradually to struggle upward and 
blossom out into the wondrous forms of us human beings 
and all the other living things around us. Equally significant, 
moreover, is the proposition, following as a corollary to the 
one just stated, that we humans - and we alone among all 
earthly creatures - have through these processes of genetic 
change gained the capacity rapidly to add a mighty cultural 
evolution on top of the stupendous biological endowment 
that we are heir to. 

This essay, originally written for this book, was published earlier in 'The Ameri- 
m Scientist", Vol. 47, 551-561, in 1959, since 
time than was expected. It is reprinted he 



can Scientist", Vol. 47, 551-561, in 1959, since publication of this book required longer 

ited here with kind permission of the Editor. 



59 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

In terms of geological time, that is, of the time necessary 
for appreciable natural evolution of a genetic kind, this 
cultural evolution is only just beginning. Yet in this biologi- 
cal moment we have risen from the mastery of fire to the 
governance of the atom, and from expletives through 
speech to electronic computors. At the same time, our 
cultural progress has become increasingly self-enhancing. 
Moreover, in addition to promoting its own operations it has 
even reached back into the course of biological evolution 
itself. That is, it has acted upon the genetic processes of other 
organisms so as eventually to reshape these organisms 
drastically in adaptation to human needs. 



EMPIRICALLY CONTROLLED BREEDING 

True, the biological reshaping of earlier times was for the 
most part accomplished by means of a crude empiricism, 
ignorant of genetic principles, and acting one small step at a 
time without any realization of the magnitude of the ac- 
cumulated series of steps. Yet, even so, the changes brought 
about within this period, most of them in less than 10,000 
years, have proved to be far greater than any known to have 
taken place in natural evolution in an equal interval. More- 
over, they have been so extraordinarily serviceable as to 
result in profound reorientations in the ways of life of the 
human groups involved. 

Thus, the primitive hunting economy was raised to a much 
higher level not only by the development of weapons but 
perhaps equally by the making over of the nature of dogs so 
as to lead them to complement human efforts more ef- 
fectively. Next, the success of an agricultural existence was 
enormously augmented by the remolding of primitive 
grains, tubers, beans, cucurbits, fiber-bearing plants, and so 
on, into those numerous high-yielding cultivated types that 
we today classify as species in their own right. And the 

60 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC PROGRESS 

genetic reconstruction of poultry, sheep, cattle, swine, 
horses, the camel family, and even carps, bees, and silkworms, 
has made possible further great advances, both quantitative 
and qualitative, in human living. In fact, cultures are often 
most aptly distinguished in terms of the type of remodelled 
organism, such as maize, wheat, rice, sheep, etc., upon which 
the livelihood of their peoples, their standards of living, and 
the size of their populations, chiefly depend. 

It is evident that, if these revolutionary changes could have 
been wrought by such crude methods and with so little 
awareness of routes and goals, even though at the cost of 
centuries of effort, it should now be possible, with our 
understanding of the principles of genetic mutation, combi- 
nation, and selection, to telescope into a relatively few years 
much more comprehensive transformations. Recent suc- 
cesses with the development of hybrid corn and poultry and 
of disease-resistant strains of many crops, give a substantial 
foretaste of such possibilities. These have already reduced 
greatly the acreage of cultivation that is necessary to support 
a given population. Yet in this field of conscious genetic 
engineering we have so far only scratched the surface. 



THE METHODS NOW AVAILABLE 

As the great VAVILOV demonstrated, the centers of origin of 
cultivated species constitute vast reservoirs of genes already 
selected by both nature and man for very diverse conditions 
and purposes. The rational exploitation of these reservoirs 
requires the reestablishment, in assorted situations, of 
copious genetic "banks" of multitudinous strains and sub- 
strains, like those VAVILOV founded but on a still more ex- 
tensive scale. The potentialities of the types thus made 
available must then be tested out under varied conditions of 
climate and cultivation, both in their present forms and in 
many of the innumerable combinations obtainable by 

61 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

intercrossing and selection. This is an enormous, global task, 
that calls for widespread cooperation of international scope. 

It should be recognized from the start that this kind of 
work is long-term and ever-continuing. It seldom yields the 
quick and easy results falsely promised by the devotees of the 
naive doctrine of inheritance of acquired characters, who 
after gaining power allowed much of the fruit of the work of 
geneticists to be lost. As in the far more protracted experi- 
ments of nature, although in lesser degree, the great majority 
of the genetic trials can give only negative results. Neverthe- 
less, the relatively few successes can open up permanent 
and expanding opportunities. They thereby yield immeasu- 
rable recompense in return for the expenditures. 

While this work of making the most of what is already to 
be had is going on, there is also much to be gained by seeking 
out the individual variations that are continually arising 
within the strains presently in use, by testing them out and 
incorporating those that prove useful into ever more service- 
able combinations. Beyond this, there is the actual induction of 
new mutations by means of radiation and chemical mutagens. 

In considering the induction of mutations, it should be 
borne in mind that the great majority (ordinarily, well over 
99%) of induced mutations, as of spontaneous ones, are of a 
detrimental kind, but that mutations which have already 
existed in a population for a long time represent a more or 
less selected residue from which the detrimental types have 
tended, in proportion to their degree of detriment and the 
time elapsed, to be eliminated. Moreover, it would be un- 
realistic to bank on the dim and distant hope, unsupported 
by critical analysis of the situation, that it may, even if some 
centuries hence, be found possible to induce mutations of 
diverse desired types at will by specific treatments. We must, 
for practical purposes, therefore assume that among induced 
mutations an even smaller proportion will usually prove 
useful than among mutations already present in populations. 
This being the case, the profitability of inducing mutations, 

62 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC PROGRESS 

in comparison with that of discovering suitable spontaneous 
ones, varies directly with the expendability of the individual 
organisms of the given species, with the ease of breeding them, 
with the difficulty of culling already existing populations for 
mutations contained in them, and with the difficulty of 
transferring specified genes from their stock of origin into the 
strain in which it is desired to have them. By all these criteria 
smaller organisms, and more especially microorganisms, 
constitute the material in which the induction of mutations 
can most advantageously be practiced. 



OBJECTIVES TO BE AIMED AT 

The job of remodelling the genetic constitution of organisms 
is a never ending one as needs and conditions change and as 
the innovations in the organisms themselves open new 
routes to their progress. So, for example, the use of more 
effective insecticides, fungicides, and fertilizers allows more 
of the metabolic effort of the plant to be concentrated upon 
growth itself. Similarly, artificial aids and protection allow an 
increasing fraction of that growth to be concentrated in that 
portion - whether it be seed, fiber, tuber, fruit or sap - which 
in the given organism is of special use to man. Thus, as our 
non-genetic techniques of raising and tending our organisms 
evolve, correlative genetic changes become not superfluous 
but advantageous. It therefore seems likely, in view both of 
our own inventiveness and of the almost unlimited genetic 
plasticity of organisms, that as their artificially directed 
evolution continues they will depart ever further from their 
present norms until they become quite unrecognizable, even 
as happened in their natural evolution but inordinately 
faster. 

When such work becomes more advanced, it should 
become feasible to make blue prints for an ever larger 
number of generations ahead, just as in some of the fruit fly 

63 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

experiments of as long as two decades ago designs for genetic 
synthesis covering more than forty successive generations 
of precisely ordered crossings were successfully carried 
through. At present, however, we are in the stage of little 
more than feeling our way along in the improvement of 
types of economic importance and it would be rash to predict 
what only 10 years might hold in store for such work on 
annual forms. 

It should also be remembered that, although primitive 
man brought so many species under cultivation and must 
have tried out far more than those that he finally succeeded 
with, we with our longer-range breeding methods and our 
more analytical techniques for testing and utilizing organisms 
may find many still wild species to be promising candidates 
for conversion into cultivated forms. Some of these will be 
useful for the food, drugs or industrial products they can 
yield. Others will be valuable for services of a less direct kind, 
such as promoting the fertility of the soil, preventing erosion 
or drought, facilitating the turnover of materials for the 
organisms of more direct importance, combatting pests and 
parasites, and, in general, assisting in the maintenance of 
ecological conditions favorable for the immediately useful 
types or (as in the case of shade trees) favorable for man 
himself. Here a rational union of the ecological and genetic 
attacks appears to present rich possibilities. Such develop- 
ments call for the pooling of much detailed familiarity with 
local types, conditions, and problems along with knowledge 
of general principles and advanced techniques. In this field it 
is evident that the most effective efforts involve international 
collaboration. 

Among the most promising of the organisms for future 
exploitation by man with the aid of genetics are those of 
microscopic dimensions. Yeasts and bacteria have been 
unwittingly employed by man for many thousands of years 
but only recently have these and other microorganisms been 
knowingly cultivated and improved upon. The five or more 

64 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC PROGRESS 

fold stepping up of the yield of penicillin by the judicious 
application of radiation to the mold Penicillium for the in- 
duction of successive mutations having this effect is a case 
in point. Not only laboratory, factory, and hydroponically 
bred organisms but also those bred at large, in soils, in fresh 
water situations and even in marine waters, present oppor- 
tunities here, for the production of food, food accessories and 
drugs, and industrially useful materials, such as oils. 

In this connection, nearly everyone nowadays has heard of 
the experiments with green algae, notably Chlorella, which 
seem to afford the possibility of supplying many times the 
yield of food per acre that higher plants, with their excess of 
inedible structural material, can offer us. It is not so generally 
known, that, as DEAN BURK has recently shown, a special 
"thermal" strain of Chlorella, adapted to growth at relatively 
high temperatures, gives several times the yield that ordinary 
Chlorella is capable of. With the application of genetic methods 
to such organisms they could be molded to fit our re- 
quirements still better under the special artificially contrived 
conditions that we could make available to them, and 
diverse strains could be adapted for different purposes and for 
different situations. By such means wide stretches of our 
planet now unproductive may be increasingly subjugated to 
supply human needs. 

Some advocates of the chemical approach might interrupt 
at this point to say that long before any such union of ge- 
netics, ecology, industry and food processing as is here in 
question has come about, photosynthetic and chemosynthe- 
tic reactions will have been mastered in the laboratory, and 
put into mass operation, that will free men from their 
dependence on living organisms. This may well be true. 
Certainly, our present means of transportation and haulage 
by inanimate machines is already for most purposes superior 
to that by draft animals. Similarly, in the making of special 
organic substances, such as many drugs, hormones, and 
antibiotics, that form but a small part of the organisms 

65 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

containing them or that have evolved relatively recently in 
special groups of organisms, it is likely that organic chemis- 
try, by the conversion of lessspecialized organic compounds, 
will soon prove more effective for us than biosynthesis and 
extraction. 

However, the production of foodstuffs in general from 
inorganic materials involves an incomparably more intricate 
series of operations than has either transportation or the 
production of a given end-product by the conversion of 
organic precursors. For aeons natural selection has been 
working to increase the efficiency of organisms in carrying 
out this great series of syntheses. As a part of this work they 
manufacture, maintain and multiply their own superb 
organizations, in endless cycles, and only a minimum of 
tending on our part is needed, as compared with the services 
required of us for the replacement and repair of wholly 
artificial mechanisms. It therefore seems unlikely that men 
will in the "foreseeable future, 55 that is, for some hundreds of 
years to come, at least, be able to surpass in large scale opera- 
tions the potential efficiency of biological growth. At any 
rate, we must for a long time to come be prepared to exploit 
all available possibilities for supplying our material needs. 
In doing so we shall find that the world of living things, 
judiciously dealt with by a combination of genetic methods 
and artificial appliances, offers us enormous opportunities of 
the kind we are seeking. 

GENETIC CHANGE IN EARLY MAN 

It would be a strange incongruity if mankind instituted 
extensive alterations in the genetic constitution of his 
companion organisms in the interests of an ampler and 
better life for himself, while leaving his own biological basis 
entirely to the mercy of natural forces or of whatever 
genetic currents his present artificial ways of living unin- 
tentionally subjected him to. Surely his paramount obli- 

66 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC PROGRESS 

gation, as regards applications of genetics, is to himself; not 
however under the delusion that he is already perfect in any 
respect but in the knowledge that he too has plenty of room 
for further progress. However, before undertaking to move 
forward consciously it is necessary for him to realize what 
direction was taken by his genetic evolution in the past, 
what factors decided that direction, and to what extent his pre- 
sent situation may have entailed changes in the direction or in 
the factors. It is also imperative for him to reach a solid conclu- 
sion concerning what direction he should consider "forward." 

Studies of the remains of early men have made it increasing- 
ly evident that their most distinctive characteristic, that 
which enabled them so far to outdistance all other animals, 
was their capacity for cultural evolution. This is a complex 
capacity, requiring not only a modicum of intelligence (not 
necessarily much higher at its inception than that possessed 
by present apes) but also a social disposition that takes delight 
in cooperating and communicating. Important accessories 
were manipulating proclivities, that led to the use of fire, 
tools, etc., and vocalizing and symbolizing proclivities, that 
facilitated communication. 

We need not here attempt to trace the development in 
apes of the preparatory stages of these faculties. Nor can we 
detail how men's transition to an erect ground-dwelling life, 
surrounded by both predators and potential victims, was 
conducive to an intensification of both defensive and ag- 
gressive group behavior, mediated by their hands, and thus 
forced human beings to act increasingly in concert both to 
protect themselves and to overcome their prey. This situation 
resulted in a natural selection that put a premium on intelli- 
gence both of the manual, thing-conscious type and of the 
type involving understanding of and communication with 
other persons. This selection favored at the same time the 
innate drives that led to the exercise of these faculties, and 
the disposition that derived satisfaction from exercising them 
in the service of others of the immediate group. 

67 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

As these selective pressures resulted in the multiplication 
of the mutant genes that happened to be conducive to 
intelligence and cooperative behavior an ever better genetic 
groundwork was laid for the acquirement, dissemination, 
handing down, and consequent accummulation of the 
lessons learned through the experience of many men in 
many generations, and of the innovations in techniques 
and mores based upon these lessons: in other words, for 
cultural evolution. Reciprocally, as cultural evolution 
developed, the conditions must for a long time have under- 
gone an intensification that favored the survival of the 
individuals and groups who were more intelligent, more 
skillful, more cooperative, and better at communication. 
That is, genetic evolution and cultural evolution must have 
reenforced one another in a kind of zig-zagging fashion. 
Thereby, along with the progress of techniques and mores, 
the genetic bases of intelligence, of the communicative 
propensities, and of the social impulses generally, became 
rapidly enhanced, so as to give that appearance of a discon- 
tinuity in evolution which is so striking a feature of man's 
emergence. 

The genetic bases even of some features of men's physical 
structure became changed by natural selection as a result of 
the new conditions resulting from their social evolution. For 
example, the socially evolved use of weapons in hunting and 
fighting, and of fire, knives, scrapers and pounders in the 
preparation of food, replaced the earlier natural selection for 
powerful jaws and teeth with conditions that allowed and 
probably even favored their reduction. And the adoption 
of clothing and other artificial protection from cold and rain 
allowed the advantages of relative hairlessness (greater 
opportunity for cleanliness and for eradication of ecto- 
parasites) to take precedence, in selection, over the ad- 
vantages of a native coat of hair. Again, when men's ad- 
vancing cultures made it possible for them to live in colder 
climates, a number of other bodily and physiological changes 

68 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC PROGRESS 

were favored by the types of natural selection thereupon 
ensuing. Thus, in varied ways men's present genetically 
determined constitution bears the unconscious imprint of 
the artificial ways of life that he himself developed. 



GENETIC PROCESSES IN MODERN MAN 

With the further progress of culture, however, along the 
lines laid down by men's advancing techniques and group 
coordination in coping with their inanimate, human, and 
other biological environment, the conditions governing the 
natural selection of genetic traits among men have changed 
greatly. With the growth and the progressive merging of 
social groups and the concomitant reduction in the numbers 
of groups, there has been an inevitable reduction in the 
efficacy of that mter-group selection which, by favoring the 
more cooperative and more skillful groups had tended to 
enhance genetically based social traits as well as intelligence. 
At the same time, the heightened efficacy of infra-group 
cooperation has lessened the competition for survival 
and reproduction among individuals and among families of 
the same group. Those who through physical, intellectual or 
character defects are less well able to fend for themselves or 
to raise a family are increasingly supported by means of 
social aids to a degree that may even allow them, if they will, 
to leave more children than the others. Inevitably, then, the 
increases of the last several centuries in the size of human 
populations and in men's successes in their contests with 
outer nature must have been accompanied by a slackening of 
their genetic advancement and perhaps even by a genetic 
decline in some important respects. 

The advanced technologies of the present day and the 
greater efficiency of social organization in ministering to 
need must be having the effect of making these anti-evo- 
lutionary tendencies much stronger. Genetic studies make it 

69 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

very probable that in technically advanced countries far 
more mutations, the great majority of them detrimental to 
health, mentality, or character, are arising in each generation 
than the number of genetically handicapped persons who 
are failing to survive or to reproduce. This situation spells a 
genetic retrogression that, if continued through a per- 
sistance of the same conditions, could not ultimately be 
compensated for by any conceivable advances in medicine, 
education, automation, or other cultural methods. Thus we 
are at present allowing our very successes to dig away 
the foundations from under everything most valuable in our 
own natures. The more advanced the peoples, the more is 
this the case. 

Another circumstance affecting the genetics of modern 
man that merits our objective attention here is the recent 
reversal of the tendency of human groups to become ge- 
netically differentiated from one another. In earlier times the 
differences in conditions of life between different regions and 
the difficulties in travelling from one of these regions to 
another undoubtedly led to the selection of some special 
characteristics peculiar to and helpful specifically in the 
given regions. Examples are the darker skin that serves for 
protection against stronger ultraviolet, the narrowed eyes 
that reduce the threat of snowblindness, and the small 
stature that facilitates penetration through jungles. There is 
no reason to think that these essentially superficial charac- 
teristics connoted any parallel differences in the more basic 
human faculties previously discussed, that were developed as 
a result of the advantages accruing from intelligent cooper- 
ation against the forces of nature in general, but they did 
lead people of each group to emphasize their distinctive- 
nesses. 

Now, however, these special characteristics are losing their 
value, with the development of man-made expedients for 
meeting the special situations. These expedients are in effect 
replacing the natural environments with ever more artificial 

70 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC PROGRESS 

ones. At the same time, our generalized modern culture is 
diffusing ever more widely, rapidly and deeply, and is in- 
creasingly bringing to all peoples alike not only its techniques 
but its ways of thinking, mores, ideals, and standards of 
appreciation. It is also promoting political mergers and 
economic cooperation between peoples. And along with all 
this cultural homogenization there is also an increasing 
physical movement and interbreeding that is progressively, 
as yet mainly at the edges, blurring out the lines between the 
age-old genetic pools. With the accentuation of all these 
factors by the progress of technology and education 
mankind, barring a return to barbarism, will undoubtedly 
come to form one world community within which local 
differences of a genetic nature have largely lost whatever 
importance they may once have had. 

This course of events is a very different one from that 
usually obtaining for successful species, which tend to split 
and split again into divergent groups, among which selection 
operates. Similarly, within each group, there has in man, 
unlike the successful groups of the past, been a tendency to 
obliterate the lines between the small semi-isolated sub- 
groups that provided useful experiments in natural selection. 
We cannot say that this tendency to merge is bad, for it is a 
condition of human progress as we must think of progress. 
However, it as well as the other peculiarities of the genetic 
processes of modern man, previously cited, must be taken 
seriously into account in the consideration of future policies 
affecting human genetics. For when trial and error are re- 
moved, foresight must be substituted. 



PROSPECTS OF FUTURE GENETIC PROGRESS IN MAN 

In any such consideration of policies and prospects there is 
one not strictly genetic fact regarding human reproduction 
today that must not be overlooked. This is the fact that 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

modern medicine combined with all our other artificial aids 
to living is so reducing the death rate as to result - unless 
there is a compensatory reduction in birth-rate much more 
drastic than any now occurring - in serious global over- 
population very soon. By no advances that we could con- 
ceivably make in the next 500 years in the production of food 
and other materials could we decently provide for the world 
population of some 15 trillion (more than 5000 times the 
present world population) that would theoretically be in 
existence if only the present rate of increase of a doubling 
every 40 years - an increase that applies to the present United 
States population and is not so very much higher than that in 
the world as a whole today - were maintained. 

The slowing down of population growth that will un- 
doubtedly prevent the attainment of this calculated plethora 
of people can come about only by the resumption of an 
increased death rate, brought about by the failure of civi- 
lization to achieve human betterment, or else by an adequate 
voluntary restriction of births. In the past such voluntary 
restriction has only developed among peoples who at- 
tained a high standard of living. There are some reckless 
optimists who think that this will happen again. However, it 
is very doubtful whether such a living standard can be 
attained by the populations that are at a low level of tech- 
nology and grossly overcrowded already, unless the means 
and motivations for planned parenthood are brought to 
them with little delay. In other words, birth restriction 
should be initiated even while the standard of living is low, 
or it may never be able to achieve an adequate and stable 
rise. At the same time, enormous efforts should be put forth 
to effect the rise as rapidly as possible. 

The voluntary restriction of births that will have to be 
adopted if civilization is to succeed implies a recognition of 
men's responsibility toward their children and descendants. 
It constitutes a break with the hoary tradition of having as 
many children as possible to honor oneself and one's ances- 

72 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC PROGRESS 

tors. It opens the door to the recognition by modern men 
and women everywhere of their obligation to bequeath to 
the next generation the best conditions possible. With the 
spread of education, men will come to realize that not least 
in their ultimate importance, among such conditions, are 
the genetic ones. They will therefore develop the desire to do 
their bit in leaving humanity somewhat better off, even 
genetically, than it was in their own day. 

The growing social conscience of men, developing along 
with their cultural progress in cooperation and under- 
standing, will cause increasing numbers to regard the having 
of children as a service to mankind, not to be undertaken for 
purely personal vainglory. This reorientation can lead them 
to look upon the production of children who are likely to 
suffer from more than the average share of genetic defects as 
an act to be avoided while, on the contrary, it should be felt a 
special honor to produce children who are likely to be 
especially fortunate in their genetic endowment. This 
redirection of motivation can in itself turn the scales from 
genetic decline to genetic progress. It involves a way of 
looking at things that must not be imposed, but must 
represent an outgrowth of men's natural seeking for better- 
ment. But it can be materially aided by wise policies in 
education, economics, and law, that facilitate the course of 
action that would follow from such motivation. 

It is, however, naive to use such words as "betterment" 
unless one has some concept of what one means by "good." 
Yet, despite minor diversities in the ideals of different major 
cultures, they are in fundamental agreement in attaching 
especially high value to service to one's fellows, that is, to 
cooperative behavior, and to wisdom. As we have seen, these 
are the very qualities that are genetically as well as culturally 
most characteristic of man, and it is they above all others that 
have brought him to his present high estate as compared 
with other animals. At the same time it is universally recog- 
nized that even in man the degree of their development still 

73 



HERMANN J. MULLER 

leaves much to be desired. So far as the genetic side of this 
development is concerned, grounds have been cited above 
for inferring that, after human groups became larger and 
fewer, progress in these directions must have slackened, so 
that men were left inwardly stunted. But it is still in the 
power of civilized men to remedy this situation, if only they 
will recognize it and act realistically upon it. 

The task here confronting humanity is that of guiding our 
progress in genetic respects so as to allow it once again to 
parallel our cultural progress. Here the word "our" implies a 
feeling of unity of the individual with the species as a whole. 
This attitude of responsibility to all humanity is the very 
antithesis of that of the racists who not so long ago brought 
the world to the brink of ruin by their monstrous perversions 
of both genetic and cultural perspectives. Concentrating 
upon the fundamental human values regarding which all 
peoples can agree, men of modern outlook will seek to 
strengthen these values in every way possible, and to reduce 
the stress too often laid on superficialities. Given a peaceful 
world, joined in a universal cultural cross-fertilization, this is 
a logical development. 

Acting on the same principle, good parents today seek to 
strengthen these same values by cultural means, in the 
process of educating their children. The same standards are 
needed in their attitude toward genetic matters. 

As in all human activities, the rise of techniques can often 
act as a lever to implement a change in social practices and 
attitudes. So, for example, in the control of population the 
working out of substances that would readily and safely 
prevent overpopulation might be decisive. Similarly, in the 
sphere of positively planned parenthood, there is still much 
room for finding practicable ways for controlling the pro- 
duction of reproductive cells, for storing them, and for 
transferring them, that may bring radical possibilities within 
the reach of those who take these matters seriously. 

Despite the progress that man makes, he finds many 

74 



THE PROSPECTS OF GENETIC P ROGRESS 

phases of his transitions painful, and is often reluctant to 
move. Yet he does move eventually. And as he learns to 
control more powerful forces, no matter what their nature, 
he must also learn to apply them wisely in the light of his 
newer, wider knowledge. In this way he may at times proceed 
beyond the horizon, but he will be enabled to rise to heights 
hitherto undreamed of. 

Men would indeed be ignoble if they, Narcissus-like, 
worshipped their present selves as the acmes of perfection, 
and reserved their efforts to bring about genetic betterment 
for their cattle, their corn, and the yeast that gives them beer. 
But not all men will continue to maintain such smugness of 
attitude. And those who look higher will find that, increasing- 
ly, they can put their ideals into corporeal form, and help to 
create men worthy of the great new material opportunities 
that they have opened up. And for such men, in their turn, 
.still further advancement, cultural and genetic, will always 
be the major aims. 



75 



Science, Scientists and World Policy 

by 
HAROLD D. LASSWELL 



An unavoidable consequence of innovation in science and 
technology is the rearranging of power relations. The 
balancing process sometimes operates so smoothly that no 
crises of coercion occur as Nation-States change their re- 
lations to one another or the whole structure of the world 
arena undergoes extensive modification. It is, however, too 
much to assume that the dynamic equilibrium of world 
affairs is set up to avoid friction at all times. 

Great waves of war and revolution have sometimes follow- 
ed in the wake of innovations in the technology of warfare. 
We can relate some of the invasions from Inner Asia with 
innovations in the bow and arrow, or in cavalry tactics. 

We know what happened when European civilization 
eventually welded gunpowder, metallurgy, and the internal 
combustion engine into a lethal combination. 

But political structures are tough and have been capable of 
withstanding and even dominating the applications of 
science. Consider the enormous growth of population that 
has occurred in modern Europe, and the cumulative curve 
of invention that helped launch and sustain the industrial 
revolution. It is noteworthy that despite tremendous 
innovations of production (and destruction) the Nation- 
State system of Western Europe became an identifiable 
structure as soon as England, France, Spain, Austria, Sweden, 

77 



HAROLD D. LASSWELL 

Russia, Prussia and the Low Countries grew to be among the 
principal entities in the world arena. Despite the vast scientific 
and technological efflorescence of recent centuries it was not 
until after World War II that the Great Power system began to 
give way with some rapidity to a bipolar pattern. 

The tenacity of the Great Power system is not, however, the 
most significant evidence of the durability of political insti- 
tutions. The crucial factor is the expectation of violence itself, the 
assumption that whether we like it or not, many conflicts 
are going to be settled by recourse to large-scale and organ- 
ized violence. Even today the political elites of the world do not expect to 
be as well off by making the sacrifices required to change the situation as they 
are by allowing it to continue. The key probleni of political 
science in this domain is to discover the factors, short of 
physical conquest, that will alter these expectations. The 
problem of statecraft is to devise and execute policies that 
realize upon all available potentials for voluntary unification. 

I shall not present a thorough analysis of the factors that 
conjoin to keep a divided world alive despite the impressive 
potentials of modern science and technology for destruction 
on a global scale. It may be enough to recall the fact that the 
officials of every independent Nation-State keep in power 
because it is expected that they will maintain the "security" of 
their State by the use of organized violence if necessary. As an 
indication of how deep-rooted the expectation of violence has 
become one may cite the fact that no one seriously challenges 
the legal "right of self-defense." There are doctrines, of 
course, that forbid "aggression" and impose an obligation to 
come to the assistance of a Nation-State that is deemed (by an 
appropriate authority) to be a target of aggression. But all this 
is further confirmation of the ubiquity of the expectation of 
violence and the acceptance of organized coercion. 1 

1. Concerning the present plight of the world community as a legal entity the 
following treaties are especially outspoken: WALTER SCHIFFER, The Legal Communi- 
ty of Mankind, New York, Columbia University Press, 1954; CHARLES DEVISSCHER, 
Theory and Reality in Public International Law, tr. by P. E. Corbett, Princeton, 
Princeton University Press, 1957; MYRES S. McDouGAL and Associates. Studies in 
World Public Order, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1960. 

78 



SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS AND WORLD POLICY 

What factors explain why scientists and engineers, despite 
the world view that frequently prevails among them, 
continue to act as the servants of the politics of a devided 
globe? It is evident that the generalizations of science are 
universal. It is equally evident that the applications of science 
are, in principle, universal. But in fact every application is 
localized at first. Hence the "paradox," if you will: The 
universal is introduced parochially. If after a long series of develop- 
ments the patterns initiated at a point of origin diffuse and 
multiply until they nearly succeed in covering the globe, 
we can properly speak of universality. When we examine the 
process in detail we find that the moment-by-moment, 
locality-by-locality sequence of introduction enables an 
innovation to be absorbed with minimum damage to the structure 
of interests that prevails at the centers of origin. This almost 
surely carries the further implication that minimum damage 
is done elsewhere to the alignment of vested and sentimental 
interests as the innovation diffuses. 

The latter point - the occurrence of minimum damage 
during further spread - follows from the automatic sequence 
by which a threat is defended against. Consider the classical 
analysis of power balancing: Assume that State A gets bigger, 
richer and better armed than its neighbors; neighbor B joins 
neighbor C in order to deter neighbor A from attacking them 
and enlarging its domain further as a result. This analysis is 
unobjectionable as far as it goes, but it fails to describe the 
situation as a whole, and ignores important responses that 
are likely to be made by and C concurrently with the 
diplomatic acts that are mentioned. The ruling elites of B 
and C will, in all probability, focus attention upon A to 
discover why A has become a potent threat. A typical dis- 
covery is, for example, that A is employing new weapons, or 
that A is encouraging the growth of a native steel industry 
by means of subsidies and tariffs. The typical response of jB or 
C is to do the same thing. We speak of this as restriction of Power 
A by partial incorporation of the patterns that are expected by 

79 



HAROLD D. LASSWELL 



others to account for A *s strength (Total incorporation would be 
the amalgamation of B with A). The outcome of the tactic of 
partial incorporation is that the positions of the ruling elites 
in B and C are kept intact while scientific and technological 
innovations - in this case new weapons and industrialization - 
are encouraged. 

It would take us too far afield to examine the compli- 
cations that appear when these relations are subjected to 
further examination. The principal point that concerns us 
here is that the spread of science and technology does not 
necessarily - or typically - bring scientists or technologists 
into power. They may, of course, contribute more indivi- 
duals with scientific training to the White House or the 
Senate (or to equivalent top decision spots in other nations). 
But the individuals who get these posts are ex-scientists and 
ex-engineers. Anyone who makes a transition from the 
career of a specialist in science to become a politician must 
rise or fall according to the usual criteria that register 
success or failure in politics. For instance, he must continue 
to carry conviction that he is devoted to national security. 
Hence he will find it necessary to keep alive the expectation 
of violence in the world by fortifying the position that his 
Nation-State is able to play in the world power process. 

As indicated before, we recognize the fact that the practice 
of science produces more than a few men and women who 
long to use the methods and results of science for the uni- 
versal benefit of mankind. They think in all-inclusive terms 
and recoil from any exploitation of knowledge for the benefit 
of those who apply it first, and who perpetuate the dangerous 
cleavages that divide the globe. They are imaginative enough 
to see the remarkable opportunities that are now within the 
reach of mankind. 

Under today's conditions these universal minds feel 
remarkably ineffectual. How can they possibly move the 
Nations toward a cooperative world of knowledge, friendship 
and abundance? A disturbing insight is that the customary 

80 



SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS AND WORLD POLICY 

tactic of enlightenment - outspoken disclosure of universal 
propositions - does not promise to be politically effective. 
To utter a universal principle is not to perform a universal 
act; on the contrary, it is parochial, limited in time and space. 
It is a particular case of the general statement formulated 
above in saying that in politics at least all innovations have 
parochial points of origin. 

What, if anything, can be done by men of universal vision 
and good will under these circumstances? The question can 
receive an intelligible answer, and one that provides at least a 
modicum of policy guidance. The problem is to de~paro- 
chialize the impact of desirable innovations. The reply would 
appear to be that a special strategy is required. The challenge 
is to cultivate a strategy of parallel action at representative places over the 
globe. All nations and all cultures are necessarily included 
within the scope of such a program. 

On reflection it is apparent that during the early phases at 
least the strategy requires tactics at the centers and sub- 
centers of introduction that evoke the support, not the 
hostility, of local elites. This implies that local elites must be 
led to accept the probability of net gain rather than net loss 
for themselves by joining the movement. 

An inference is that the agenda of the operation should be 
composed of long-term undertakings of common concern to 
mankind until an institution wins enough acceptance to 
enable it to turn to the clarification of more immediate 
problems. There is no dearth of long-range issues. Experi- 
mental embryologists are bringing us close to the time when 
it will be practical politics to consider the treatment to be 
given to intelligent forms which are different and in some 
ways, no doubt, superior to man. Specialists on machines are 
engaged in planning and constructing automata whose 
functions are ever closer to those of living systems. 2 

2. Elsewhere I have raised the question when we should extend the provisions of 
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to these non-human forms. "The 
Political Science of Science: An Inquiry into the Possible Reconciliation of Mastery 
and Freedom," Amer. Political ScL Rev., I (1956) 961-979- Reprinted in The Sci. Monthly, 84 
(1957) 34-44- 

81 



HAROLD D, LASSWELL 

In an era of space travel we can look forward to the oppor- 
tunity of experimenting with new biological and institution- 
al models in habitats isolated from one another in the 
galaxies. 

If the intelligence function of governmental and private 
organizations is to become more effectively attuned to the 
tempo of the epoch of science and technology, new agencies 
must be brought into existence which enable a sample of the 
ablest minds of the Earth to devote themselves intensively 
and often to the consideration of problems that touch upon 
the destiny of man. As I have hinted, not the least of these 
challenges is that of mobilizing all our knowledge, experi- 
ence, judgement and imagination to accomplish the rational 
planning and preparation of man's successor. It may be that this will 
prove to be the noblest work of human history. 



82 



The Significance of Border Sciences 
for the Future of Mankind 

by 
S. W. TROMP 

PREFACE 

In September 1957 the author was invited by Dr. HUGO BOYKO 
to prepare an essay for the book "Science and the Future of 
Man," to be published as a first step towards the creation of 
a "Universal Academy of Art and Science." This Inter- 
national Academy would transcend national frontiers, both 
spiritual and geographical, and act as a forum of humanity. 
Despite the great honour bestowed upon him by this request, 
the author was most reluctant to accept because in his 
opinion far more competent scientists with longer experience 
in research and teaching might have been asked instead. 

However, after careful consideration he accepted the invi- 
tation on account of the very specific subject he was asked 
to discuss: "The Significance of Border Sciences for the 
Future of Mankind." 

An explorer by profession I have always been attracted 
more to the unknown realms of science, which require 
careful balancing along the steep ravines of human 
knowledge, than to well trodden paths, which ensure a 
feeling of safety for those adhering to them. However, it is 
my personal conviction that progress in the development 
of mankind has been achieved not so much along those es- 
tablished roads of scientific knowledge as along more hazard- 

83 



S. W. TROMP 

ous trails. Still, it should be realized that the consolidation 
of the newly acquired knowledge requires a team of men 
specially interested in the levelling and cultivation of the 
newly discovered mountains of promise. 

The idea of a Universal Academy of Sciences appealed to 
me because "as one .who has lived as a geologist with the 
people of other lands, his affection for his own country and 
his own science undergoes a change in perspective. Instead 
of admiring the accomplishments as selfish things to be 
confined within its borders they are viewed in the light of 
the advantages they may offer to those outside, who are not 
so fortunately situated. This is true internationalism, the 
political philosophy which stresses the solidarity and mutual 
dependence of all nations and offers a foundation for inter- 
national peace." i 

Geology as a border science has affected humanity so 
much, both in its fundamental concepts and its material 
welfare, that I always felt an urge to spread its concepts to 
other scientific disciplines. 

Geology, like astronomy, leads us to the borderland of 
the unlimited precipices of time, as PIERRE TERMIER, the 
famous French geologist, used to say. But it gives us more 
than astronomy, because it teaches us that nothing on 
earth is eternal, that everything changes, both matter and 
mind. We geologists feel daily the instability of the best 
organized systems in nature, the fragility of the most solid 
concepts of human mind. In other words, we are continu- 
ously aware that the universe in all its appearances is a 
function of time and no barriers of development, however 
strong and unconquerable they may seem at this moment 
can resist the pressure of human mind if the will prevails 
to overcome these barriers. 

YOUNG 2 in his book "The Medici" wrote the following 

1. LINN M. PARISH, geologist, in "The true Strength of America", N. Dakota, 17 
June 1941. 

2. Col. G. F. YOUNG: The Medici. London, John Murray, 1911. 

84 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

warning to the present generation: "In the fifth century 
storm upon storm out of the dark swept away in a great 
deluge of barbarism all the civilisation of the western half 
of the Roman Empire. From the Atlantic to Constantinople, 
and from the Rhine and Danube to the deserts of Africa, 
all that learned and cultivated, all that was artistic and 
beautiful, was overwhelmed in an avalanche of ruin in which 
the triumphs of architecture, literature, arts and sciences 
were involved in one general destruction. After a night of 
thick darkness, at length in the nth, i3th and i4th century 
the re-civilisation of the west began in Italy with men like 
NICCOLO PISANO, the father of modern art, DANTE ALLEGHIERI, 
the immortal poet, GIOTTO DI BONDONE, the father of modern 
painting and PETRARCH, the father of modern learning. But 
as yet there was none w^ith power to make these efforts 
produce their full fruit and to spread the knowledge of them 
throughout the world. And then, in the city which had 
produced three of these men, arose a family, who with the 
power of wealth and with a great love for these things, lifted 
learning from its grave and gave art the encouragement to 
advance to its highest achievements. 33 

In the 2oth century, when new attacks are threatening to 
destroy the fundamental concepts of mankind, we see among 
a group of scientists the growth of a love for, and a desire to 
preserve the knowledge obtained in the past, and with it a 
desire to spread this knowledge for the welfare of mankind. 
This group is trying to build a Universal Academy of Sciences 
where the vital problems of mankind can be discussed ob- 
jectively and scientifically and plans for exploration in the 
future can be reviewed. 

Just as the grandeur of the concepts of the human mind 
is not due to the individual cells of the brain, but to the inter- 
action of groups of cells, so the greatest achievements in the 
future of science will result from the interaction of existing 
and recently developed branches of science. It is this inter- 
action which creates the true border sciences, one of the 

85 



S. W. TROMP 

most recent being Bioclimatology and Biometeorology. But 
before we can enter deeper into their significance a more 
distinct definition is required of what we actually mean by 
border sciences, a term barely defined even in the largest 
encyclopaedia, 

I. INTRODUCTION 

A. DEFINITION OF BORDER SCIENCES 

The word science in its broadest sense means learning or 
knowledge, from the latin word "scientia" (latin scire - to 
learn or to know). Therefore, in principle, it can be used in 
connection with any qualifying adjective which indicates 
a certain branch of learning. In general usage, however, a 
more restricted meaning has been adopted. As a result, 
science is usually defined as "purposefully acquired, system- 
atically ordered knowledge of natural phenomena and of 
the relations between them." 

At the time of ARISTOTLE (350 B.C.) only knowledge based 
on stingent proof and a small number of axioms, as in 
mathematics, was considered to be pure science. Gradually, 
through the ages a wider concept developed, particularly 
after the French philosopher AUGUSTE COMTE (abt. 1800) had 
developed his philosophical concept of "positivism." Ac- 
cording to COMTE the task of science is mainly the discovery 
of statistical laws and rules, irrespective of the explanation 
of observed facts. 

When Paleolithic man was faced with the apparent irregu- 
larity of sequence and connection between observed phe- 
nomena, he may have been inclined to believe that these 
apparently capricious events were due to the intervention 
of some unseen being of a nature essentially similar to his 
own. 

In view of the fact that in younger prehistoric periods 

86 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

certain monuments were oriented in such a way as to suggest 
a certain amount of astronomical observation, it is probable 
that the purely mythological view of primitive man formed 
the basis of one of the oldest sciences : Astronomy. 

Whereas primitive man considered disease to be caused 
by some malignant demon, in Greek times a more rational 
thought developed and later formed the basis of Biological and 
medical sciences. 

During much of the first half of the i9th century it was 
generally believed, that the known forces on earth, in the 
atmosphere and the earth's crust, were insufficient to ex- 
plain observed geological processes of the past. It was mainly 
due to Sir CHARLES LYELL (1797-1875), an outstanding English 
geologist, that the Concept of actualism (previously expressed 
by JAMES HUTTON in 1785) was introduced about 1830. This 
formed the basis of all succeeding geological sciences. Al- 
though it is not denied that certain geological processes may 
have taken place with greater intensity in earlier periods of 
earth's history, considerable evidence has been collected, 
indicating that for at least 2000 million years no fundamental 
differences have existed between the type of forces acting 
and shaping the earth today and those in the past. 

Another important concept in geology was the recog- 
nition that fossils were remnants of animals and plants 
which had been living on earth millions of years previously. 
LEONARDO DA VINCI and the Veronesian doctor FRACASTORC 
assumed, as long ago as 1517, that fossil prints represented 
organisms. But even in 1726, when SCHEUCHZER discovered 
near the Lake of Constanz the skeleton of a salamander, 
almost a meter in length, he assumed that it had belonged 
to a man who had been a witness of the deluge ("Homo diluvii 
tristis testis"). It was by CAMPER and CUVIER that this skeleton 
was first recognized as that of a giant salamander. 

The development of the various concepts which furthered 
the growth of geological science gave sufficient support to 
Paleontology and General Biology for the Theory of evolution, 

87 



S. W. TROMP 

another outstanding concept of human knowledge mainly 
developed by CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882), to be generally 
accepted as a fundamental pillar of human knowledge. 

During the i9th and 2oth centuries several branches of 
science grew from this group of concepts, which have been 
classified differently, according either to subject of research, 
or to problems, methods applied, etc. 

These sciences are sometimes classified into four main 
groups: the Norm - or Standard-Sciences (arithmetic, ge- 
ometry, etc.), Natural-Sciences (Physics, mechanics, chemis- 
try, astronomy etc.), Vital-Sciences (biology, medicine, etc.) 
and Mental-Sciences (Sociology, Jurisprudence, etc.). Where- 
as the Natural Sciences are objective in their basic concept 
but subjective in the interpretation and validity of their 
conclusions, the Norm-Sciences are subjective in their basic 
concept, but objective in the validity of their conclusions. 
For example, a straight line without dimensions (an object 
of geometry) does not exist in reality, it exists only in our 
subjective mind. 

Sciences have also been classified into Exact Sciences, De- 
scriptive Sciences, Theoretical and Applied Sciences, etc. It 
was mainly in the later years of the first half of the 20th 
century that a new group of sciences developed, the so-called 
Border Sciences, one of the oldest being the Geological 
Sciences as indicated above. 

Border Sciences comprise those branches of science which 
interconnect the fringes of well-established basic sciences 
(either norm-, natural-, vital- or mental sciences) forming 
new independent sciences. They also comprise those types 
of fundamental research which penetrate into completely 
unknown realms of human knowledge, until recently con- 
sidered the domain of vague, unrealistic quasi-scientists and 
unfortunately often the hunting-ground of unscientific 
charlatans. 



88 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

B. TENTATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF THE PRINCIPAL 
BORDER SCIENCES 

Some of the most important border sciences can be classified 
as follows: 

1. Established Border Sciences 

A) Geological Sciences 

B) Psycho-physics 

(1) Physical embryology 

(2) Physical neurology 

(3) Geo-ecology 

(a) General Geo-ecology 

(b) Medical Geography and Geographical Pa- 
thology 

(c) Bioclimatology and Biometeorology 

(4) Biorhythmics 

C) Cybernetics 

2. Non-established Border Sciences 

A) Astronautics 

B) Supersensorics 

(1) In Man 

(a) Paragnosy (telepathy, clairvoyance) 

(b) Stigmatization 

(c) Hypnosis, trance conditions and yogi phe- 
nomena 

(2) In animals 

(a) Direction finding of birds 

(b) Homing instinct of salmon, eel and shad 
Each of these branches of Border Sciences can be defined 

as follows : 

Whereas Geological sciences are concerned particularly with 
the study of the history and development of both the inor- 
ganic and organic part of the earth (and of the earth's crust 
in particular), psycho-physics is a modern concept for a group 

89 



S. W. TROMP 

of border sciences which study the fundamental psycho- 
chemical properties of the web of life and its interre- 
lationships with the inorganic and organic world sur- 
rounding it. 

Psychophysics comprises several branches of border 
sciences: 

Physical embryology, the study of the physico-chemical, but 
particularly the purely physical aspects of the fundamental 
problems of life in its embryonic stages; Physical neurology, the 
study of the physical mechanism of nerve conduction and 
brain processes in general; and Geo-ecology, comprising the 
study of the interaction between environment and living 
organism. This interaction determines for a considerable 
part the conditions of life, behaviour and geographical distri- 
bution of plants, animals and man (General geo-ecology), and 
also the geographical distribution of diseases (Medical geo- 
graphy) and the differences in clinical symptoms, severity and 
development of these diseases in different parts of the world 
(Geographical pathology). 

The environmental factors affecting the living organism 
are determined by four principal groups of inorganic forces : 
the lithosphere (earthcrust), the hydrosphere (rivers, lakes, 
oceans and underground water), the atmosphere and the 
extraterrestrial or cosmic sphere, particularly those parts of 
it which lie in the neighbourhood of the earth. This depends 
greatly on the physical conditions of the sun and the changes 
in its activity. 

These four domains of the inorganic world have de- 
termined the type and distribution of living organisms both 
in the past and in the present. They comprise the so-called 
biosphere which, in itself, forms a -fifth group of forces af- 
fecting the individual living organism. 

Whereas the forces of the lithosphere and hydrosphere 
are studied in the geological sciences and those of the bio- 
sphere in biological and medical sciences, the effect of the 
atmosphere and nearby cosmic events on the living organ- 

90 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

ism are mainly studied in a relatively new border science, 
Bioclimatology and Biometeorology, which will be described later 
extensively in the following sections. 

The study of the living processes in plants, animals and 
man have shown us the existence of certain fundamental 
rhythmical phenomena in nature, the study of which has 
grown in recent years into another independent border 
science: Biorhythmics. 

Another fascinating border science of recent years -is 
called Cybernetics (from the Greek cubernetes = steersman), 
the study of the direction and control of certain distance 
mechanism in the inorganic and living world. It comprises 
the "Control and Communication Theories" and the study 
of the so-called Feed-back mechanisms 3 and the processes in- 
volved in "Memory" both in the mechanical and living 
world. 

Although the general idea of Cybernetics was developed 
in principle by C. MAXWELL (1868) it has been formulated more 
specifically about 1943 by N. WIENER (Prof, of Mathematics 
at the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology at Cambridge, 
U.S.A.) and Dr. A. ROSENBLUETH (Institute Nacional de Car- 
diologia, Mexico), assisted by a large number of scientists 
from various disciplines of science: physiology, sociology, 
anthropology, biology, etc. 

Dr. ROSENBLUETH always insisted that "a proper explo- 
ration of the blank spaces on the map of science could be 
made only by a team of scientists." He had dreamed for 
years of an "Institution of independent scientists, working 
together in one of these backwoods of sciences, not as sub- 
ordinates of some great executive officer, but joined by the 
desire, indeed by the spiritual necessity, to understand the 
region as a whole, and to lend one another the strength of 
that understanding." 

3. "Feed-Bad" is the mechanism in which the result of a certain process is auto- 
matically signalled back and therefore has a regulating effect on this mechanism 
'(e.g. thermostat in an oven, certain muscular movements, etc.). 

91 



S. W. TROMP 

Whereas the previous review of border sciences deals with 
"Established Border Sciences" there are a number of less 
established or even non-established Border Sciences which 
in my opinion may, in a not too far distant future, develop 
into new independent branches of Border Sciences, e.g. 
Astronautics and Supersensorics. 

Astronautics studies the problems involved in the transport 
both of living and of non-living objects from the earth's 
crust into the universe (i.e. to other planets or satellites) and 
the study of conditions under which living organisms could 
live in the outside space. 

This science is extremely young and inexperienced. The 
first milestone was passed on October 4, 1957, when scientists 
of the USSR launched the first 84 kg artifical moon, "Sputnik 
I" to a height of 900 km. This was followed on January 1958 
by the 13 kg "Explorer", launched by U.S.A. scientists to an 
elevation of 1700 km. These artifical celestial bodies, moving 
around the earth at the immense speed of almost 30,000 
km/hr, represent the first victory of the human mind in 
conquest of outer space. 

Supersensorics (by others defined as extra-sensorics) represent 
the study of certain phenomena shown by living organisms, 
the registration of which seems to take place by means of 
physiological or other mechanisms, unknown at present in 
human physiology. Part of these phenomena are only 
observed in animals and, although apparently missing in 
man, they can be explained at least partly, by the known 
laws of physics. However, other supersensory phenomena 
have been carefully studied in animals the explanation of 
which is entirely lacking. 

The study of this group of phenomena was primarily the 
work of charlatans until recently, when these problems 
began to be studied by scientists of good repute. The problem 
of Supersensorics has now reached a stage at which extensive 
scientific research seems to be warranted. 



92 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

C. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE AND UNIVERSAL 
CHARACTER OF BORDER-SCIENCES 

In chapter II four promising new Border-Sciences will be 
discussed in greater detail. This discussion will demonstrate 
more clearly the significance of Border-Sciences in general. 

The fact that a Border-Science, by definition, represents 
the interconnection of the fringes of well-established basic 
sciences (see p. 88) into new independent sciences, clearly 
demonstrates their universal character. It is also evident 
that such extremely complex branches of human knowledge 
as these Border-Sciences can only be developed by a great 
many experts in various disciplines of science, and unless a 
truly universal team spirit can be developed no results can 
be expected. 

In chapter II we have briefly indicated the significance of 
these Border-Sciences for the future of mankind. Parts of 
these sciences are not sufficiently established yet, for their 
real significance remains to be demonstrated. It is for this 
reason that we review in this section the significance of one 
of the oldest and best established of the Border-Sciences for 
the development and future of mankind, i.e. the Geological 
Sciences. 

Geological Sciences have been applied to different problems 
of mankind, of which the most important ones can be tenta- 
tively classified into four main groups : 

i. PROBLEMS ARISING FROM NATURAL CATASTROPHES; such as 
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, etc. 
It is well-known that certain places on earth have been 
devastated again and again over many centuries as a result 
of heavy earthquakes originating along the same regional 
faultlines in the earthcrust. For example, the city of Erzincan 
in Turkey has been destroyed 26 times during the last 900 
years, causing thousands of casualties. Similar examples 
could be given from Japan and other seismic areas. 

93 



S. W. TROMP 

In recent years the frequencies and causes of earthquakes 
have been studied more scientifically. In many instances the 
geologist has been able to suggest better locations for re- 
building destroyed villages. New types of building con- 
struction have been discovered which can resist even big 
earthquakes. By scientifically studying the history of vol- 
canoes it is often possible to predict approaching eruptions 
and the prevailing direction of the devastating lava and mud- 
streams ejected. In certain areas too, energy from volcanic 
steam has been utilized for industrial purposes. 

2. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE STRUGGLE OF MAN FOR HIS 
PRIMARY NECESSITIES OF LIVING: For his modern way of life 
man needs a great variety of raw materials, both biological 
(food, textiles, etc.) and geological (various metals, precious 
stones, radioactive minerals, etc.). The distribution of bio- 
logical raw materials is determined both by climate and the 
geological conditions of the soil. Geological raw materials 
are needed for the construction and decoration of living 
quarters of man. Problems due to underproduction or lack 
of water in arid regions can only be solved with the as- 
sistance of hydrologists and geologically trained engineers. 
Modern electrical methods enable us to determine the lo- 
cation of underground reservoirs of water in desert regions. 
Dam constructions or the building of underground reser- 
voirs in arid regions enable us to store water during the 
rainy season and to irrigate and cultivate large areas, which 
would otherwise support a much smaller population. 

3. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ACTIVITIES OF MAN FOR THE 
IMPROVEMENT OF LIVING CONDITIONS AND FOR THE INCREASE OF 
His POWER: Geological studies are required for large tunnel 
projects through mountains and under rivers and seas, to 
foresee the technical problems likely to be encountered. 
Railroad constructions, harbour works and many other 

94 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

engineering problems often need the assistance of the ge- 
ologist to prevent the subsoil from sliding, to estimate the 
reserves of construction materials, etc. 

Man needs, above all, large quantities of energy both for 
transport of himself and of his industrial and agricultural 
products, and for heating and lighting purposes. The dis- 
covery of enormous oil and coal reserves on earth faciliated 
the development of airtransport which has changed com- 
pletely intercommunication between far-distant population 
groups. This is largely a result of the development of the 
Border Science of Geology. In recent years the discovery of 
large quantities of radioactive minerals has enabled the 
development of atomic energy, another powerful tool of 
modern man. 

4. PROBLEMS RELATED TO RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL 
PROBLEMS OF LIFE: On pp. 84 and 87 we indicated that the de- 
velopment of geology, and especially of its subscience Palae- 
ontology, has given an important impetus to the under- 
standing of the concept of time and the continuous evo- 
lution of the universe. Geology and Astronomy have 
probably contributed more to the understanding of the 
fundamental problems of life than have any other sciences. 

D. CAUSES OF SLOW PROGRESS 

In chapter II various reasons for the slow progress in the 
Border Sciences will be discussed in greater detail. As an 
introduction some general remarks can be made. 

As mentioned in the previous section, Border Sciences 
require both the National and International cooperation of 
many experts in the various disciplines of science. Apart 
from personal factors cooperation is often hampered by 
national differences. Although international cooperation 
is making rapid progress, particularly in science, consider- 

95 



S. W. TROMP 

ably more is required in these extremely complex and 
difficult border sciences. 

Another important problem is the fact that each science 
has its own language which often makes it difficult for a 
research worker in one discipline to grasp the problems of 
others. In addition, lack of mental flexibility often prevents 
scientific compromise in definition and nomenclature. 

Furthermore, each individual working in a particular field 
of science, has his own "pet-projects." Unless he has a very 
broad field of interest, he dislikes being forced to scatter his 
energy by cooperating in complex team-projects which 
require great adaptation and flexibility both in mind and 
character. It is not only unwillingness to cooperate, but 
more often inability resulting from his psychological pattern 
which prevents him from becoming a good Border-Scientist. 

Although innate character to a great extent determines 
the working field of a scientist, in my opinion a drastic change 
in educational systems is required to overcome this problem. 
By teaching children the details of several specific sciences 
and by stressing the interwoven relationships between them, 
future scientists' may be trained who, despite problems of 
personality, may be valuable tools in the future development 
of the Border-Sciences. 



II. REVIEW OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL 
BORDER-SCIENCES 

On p. 89ff a brief review was given of a number of important 
Border-Sciences, four of which will be discussed more ex- 
tensively: Biorhythmics, Supersensorics, Medical Geography 
and Bioclimatology and Biometeorology. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 
A. BIORHYTHMICS 

The scientific study of biological rhythms, which in this 
essay has been called briefly Biorhythmics, is a comparatively 
new branch of science, which received a major impulse after 
the creation of the International Society for the Investigation 
of Biological Rhythms 4 about 20 years ago, the first inter- 
national conference being held in 1937 in Ronneby, Sweden. 

As all living substance, either the body as a whole or its 
components are constantly moving and as external or 
internal resistances usually prevent unlimited movements, 
most biological movements, after reaching a certain limit, 
have to be reversed. When this process repeats itself with 
more or less constant time intervals, the phenomenon is 
described as Biological rhythm, either endogenous or exogenous. 

Endogenous biological rhythms can be observed only if organisms 
are cut off completely from all external stimuli. The frequen- 
cy and amplitude of the various observed endogenous 
biological rhythms differ greatly. Considerable changes in 
these rhythms may occur due to the interaction of external 
physical rhythms, such as rhythmic variations in light, 
temperature and humidity of the air, rhythmic fluctuations 
of the barometric pressure, fluctuations in the electric field 
of the atmosphere, etc. 

In view of the great variety in periodicities, both in the 
inorganic and organic world, many scientists in various 
basic sciences are deeply interested in the mechanism and 
fundamental causes of biological rhythms, for biorhythmics 
touches many branches of sciences: biology, physiology, 
chemistry, geophysics, mathematics, etc. It is therefore a 
Border-Science in the true sense. 

Despite a vast amount of research carried out during the 
last 20 years and the introduction of modern methods of 
statistical analysis, neither the exact location nor the ana- 

4. Its present, very active, Secretary-General is Mr. A. SOLLBERGER, Solnavagen i, 
Stockholm 60, Sweden. 



97 



S. W. TROMP 

tomical and physiological composition of the biological 
rhythm centres in the living organisms are known. As these 
rhythms are closely connected with the fundamental nature 
of life, biorhythmics is a promising Border-Science of the 
future. 

It has been shown by GERRITZEN (the Netherlands), MEN- 
ZEL (Germany) and others that human diuresis has a 24 hour 
rhythm with maximum excretion around 2 p.m. and mini- 
mum around 2 a.m. This rhythm applies both to the ex- 
cretion of water and to chloride and urea excretion by the 
human body. When the experiment is carried out in various 
parts of the world, this rhythm is found to be determined 
by local sun-time. Artificial changes in the daily light and 
dark rhythm of the environment can cause a reversal of the 
original rhythm. 

Rapid airtravel over large distances is responsible for 
serious disturbances in this natural rhythm, and may even 
lead to disease. After the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra 
travelled to Tokyo by air it took the members four days to 
become fully adapted. Similar experience were learned from 
European athletes at the Melbourne Olympic Games. Even 
more serious consequences can be expected in interspatial 
travel as planned by "Astronautics." 

MOLLERSTROM (Sweden) and DENNEMARK (Germany) were 
able to demonstrate, independently, that the hour of the 
day at which various drugs are administered greatly effects 
the results of the therapy depending on the time-phase of 
the endogenous rhythm. 

Several psychiatrists assume that external stimulation 
during inhibitory phases of the human nervous system may 
be responsible for many of the contemporary psychosomatic 
disorders. Disturbances of the day-night rhythms of the 
autonomous nervous system may be responsible, according 
to various scientists, for peculiar experiences during sleep. 
Many of the so-called Weather-sensitivity phenomena, to be dis- 
cussed later, may depend on similar disturbances in the 

98 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

endogenous adaptation rhythm or other physiological 
rhythms. 

KLEITMANN, ENGELMANN, GIFFORD and other psychologists 
in the U.S.A. could demonstrate that the adaptation of the 
infant's autonomous endogenous rhythm to the 24 hour 
activity pattern of the mother creates a sleep-wakefulness 
rhythm in children long before the 3rd month of life. GIF- 
FORD (Boston) stated in 1957 during the congress of Biological 
Rhythm that "although the highest functions of time- 
perception are established in later childhood, it is possible 
that the quality of these early experiences (rhythm adap- 
tations) with time and external reality influences the adult's 
attitude toward time, his capacity to estimate duration and 
orientation, his tolerance for frustration and delay, his need 
for punctuality or freedom from restriction and his ability 
to adapt or depart from fixed schedules of activity." 

Important rhythms have also been reported from both 
the plant and animal world, the occurrence of endogenous 
rhythms in plants having been known for a very long time. 
Sir NIGEL BALL (London) recently has demonstrated a 24 hour 
rhythm in the growth of coleoptiles of seedlings of the Oat 
(Avena Saliva) due to lightdark cycles in the environment. 
This rhythm could be retarded by lack of oxygen. He also 
demonstrated that the time-keeping mechanism is not con- 
fined to the tip of the coleoptiles. 

CLOUDSLEY-THOMPSON (London) has pointed out that in 
most animals there is a rhythmic alternation of activity, 
during which feeding, mating and dispersal takes place, with 
periods of physiological recuperation, the activity usually 
being linked with rhythm of daylight and darkness. Rhythms 
of diurnal and nocturnal activity are common and, in the case 
of terrestrial arthropods, often related to fluctuating light 
intensity or variations in temperature and humidity and 
affected by the water-balance of the animals. 

In the case of insects a close parallel has been observed 
between the rhythm of biting activity of certain East African 

99 



S. W. TROMP 

mosquitoes and the bimodal flight activity of the Trichoptera. 

STEPHENS (Minneapolis) has shown the influence of temper- 
ature on the 24 hour rhythm of the movement of the melano- 
phore pigment in the fiddler Crab, Uca pugnax, a light- 
controlled rhythm previously established by KALMUS (Lon- 
don), The phases of induced rhythms could be shifted by 
sudden changes in temperature, provided these exceeded 
certain threshold values. 

General problems like the daily or seasonal time concept, 
very marked both in plants and in animals, and the 
observation that many people are able to wake up at pre- 
fixed hours, are also probably related to certain endogenous 
and exogenous biological rhythms. 

The above examples, a spectrum of the various impli- 
cations of the theory of biological rhythm, clearly demon- 
strate the importance of this new Border Science for the 
future of mankind. The problems involved are extremely 
complicated and unless scientists of various disciplines of 
science join hands, we shall never be able to penetrate into 
the deeper causes of the rhythmic activity of the living 
organism. 



B. SUPERSENSORICS 

Supersensory phenomena, as defined on p. 92, have been 
observed both in animals and in man. Of the many reported 
observations a few can stand critical scientific tests despite 
the fact that these observations have been made many times 
by a large number of observers. The processes involved and 
the conditions under which they have to be observed facili- 
tate fraud. Furthermore, even in well-controlled experi- 
ments it is difficult to collect sufficient evidence for a sta- 
tistical analysis or to reproduce the results at any given time 
for a group of unbiased observers. It is for this reason that 
we have selected a number of phenomena in which the 

100 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

available evidence seems to warrant extensive future re- 
search by a team of scientists consisting of physiologists, 
neurologists, psychologists, geophysicists, etc. 

Of the various reported Supersensoric phenomena in man which 
seem to be worth studying I should like to mention the 
following ones : Paragnostic phenomena (from the Greek para - 
next and gnosis - insight, i.e. observations made without the 
aid of the well-known human sense organs) and in particu- 
lar the reported studies in telepathy and clairvoyance; 
Summarization phenomena (i.e. appearance in males and females 
of usually non-infectious bleeding wounds on hands, feet or 
breast, little affected by medicine, appearing often with 
regular intervals on certain religious days, and mainly 
occurring in very religious Roman .Catholics; after the 
bleeding has stopped no scars can be found); Hypnosis and 
Trance conditions (peculiar sleep conditions as a result of certain 
external psychic influences, during which the person does 
not wake up to noises, the whole condition being character- 
ized by reflexes different from ordinary sleep; and according 
to various research workers also differing in encephalo- 
graphic pattern); Yogi phenomena (comprising methods, re- 
quiring intensive mental training, developed in India proba- 
bly around 1500 B.C., enabling a person to control extreme 
physiological conditions, such as cold, hunger, thirst, and 
purposely lowering the whole metabolic process of the body, 
and apparently facilitating paragnostic observations). 

Of the Supersensory phenomena in animals the following seem to 
be of particular interest for future research: direction finding 
of birds and the homing instinct of salmon, eel and shad. 5 



5. Other supersensory phenomena in animals, recently explained by physics, are 
the sensitivity of bees to polarized light and the sensitivity of bees and other insects 
to supersonic waves. 

101 



S. W. TROMP 



(i) The study of par agnostic phenomena 

For thousands of years man has believed in the existence of 
unknown forces in the world surrounding him. This has 
been based partly on mystical belief and various religious 
concepts, partly on spontaneous experiences and, in more 
recent times, on scientific experimental research. This ex- 
perimental work has arisen from a vast hinterland of spon- 
taneous events which have been described as "paranormal 
phenomena" or "extra-sensory phenomena" (RHINE). The 
term extra-sensory phenomena more or less implies that 
all these observations take place without the aid of our 
sensory organs, whereas no evidence for this assumption 
exists. However, since these experiences may be related to 
other physiological mechanisms, unknown to us at present, 
it seems better to speak of Supersensory phenomena, i.e. sensory 
registration with a sensitivity surpassing that of the known 
sense organs in man. The study of most of the so-called 
paragnostic phenomena can be described as investigations 
into the apparent transference of ideas, sensations and 
mental images from one mind to another in the present, 
past or future. 

Two important groups of phenomena have been described : 
Telepathy (a name introduced in 1882 by F. W. H. MYERS, a 
famous classical scholar and inspector of schools) and Clair- 
voyance. Both terms have a very poor reputation amongst 
scientists because they have been so often connected with 
charlatans and parapsychological "cranks." 

SOAI, Senior Lecturer in pure mathematics at Queen Mary 
College of the University of London, one of the leading 
experimental workers in this field in W. Europe, gave the 
following definitions of these phenomena: "If a present 
mental pattern of a person wholly or in part corresponds 
to a past, present or future mental pattern of another person 
(who may be dead or living) and the correspondence cannot 



102 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

be accounted for by ordinary physiological sense-perception 
or by inference based on sense-perception or by chance 
coincidence, the phenomenon is called Telepathy. However, 
if a person experiences a present mental pattern which corre- 
sponds wholly or in part with sensory aspects of a past, 
present or future physical object or event, in such a way 
that the observed correspondence cannot be accounted for 
by sense-perception or inference based on normal sense- 
perception or by chance coincidence, we are used to describe 
this phenomenon as Clairvoyance." 

Around 1930 it was felt more and more that unless rigidly 
controlled experiments could confirm the reality, or the 
great probability of various reported phenomena, no pro- 
gress in this new field of research would be possible. The 
great resistance of orthodox science however prevented and 
still prevents the necessary scientific studies from being 
carried out by large research teams, as in the case for example 
in modern atomic research. 

What have been the reasons for the resistance? 

i. Orthodox scientists are often less unbiased and less open- 
minded than one would expect. ALEXIS CARREL ("Man the 
Unknown," 1935) rightly pointed out that "our mind has a 
natural tendency to reject the things that do not fit into the 
frame of the scientific and philosophical beliefs of our time. 
After all scientists are only men. They are saturated with 
the prejudices of their environment and of their epoch. They 
willingly believe that facts that cannot be explained by 
current theories do not exist." "Evident facts having an 
unorthodox appearance are suppressed. By reason of these 
difficulties the inventory of the things which could lead us 
to a better understanding of the human being has been left 
incomplete." In other words it is the mental condition of 
man which is usually more important for the infiltration of 
new ideas than the facts themselves. 

2. The interest shown by charlatans and ' * cranks' ' in these sub- 
jects makes a scientist reluctant to enter this field of research. 

103 



S. W. TROMP 

3. The acceptance of the phenomenon of clairvoyance of 
future events, so-called "precognition," requires a funda- 
mental and revolutionary change in the basic concepts of 
natural sciences, physics in particular, overthrowing several 
fundamental pillars of knowledge and creating a feeling of 
mental unrest and instability which most scientists cannot 
endure. 

4. It has been very difficult to supply sufficient evidence 
to satisfy most present day scientists. In other words, facts 
should be made highly probable with mathematical sta- 
tistics, a concept greatly neglected in the past, although in 
recent years highly overrated. 

SOAL rightly pointed out that "cases of apparent thought- 
transference, of a presumed observation of future events in 
dreams or in a physical state of high nervous tension and 
awareness of what is happening to friends or relatives at a 
distance, without the normal means of communication, 
have been reported in ancient as well as in modern times, 
among primitive and civilised peoples, both religious and 
non-religious groups of mankind. To attempt to apply 
modern statistics to such spontaneous cases usually fails for 
lack of precise figures giving the expected probability." 

In July 1955 a symposium was organized by the Society for 
Psychical Research in London, together with the Parapsy- 
chology Foundation of New York City, at Newnham College, 
University of Cambridge (England). This provided an oppor- 
tunity for an exchange of views between scientists interested 
in Supersensorics. Prof. MURPHY, well-known American 
psychologist and Director of Research of the Menninger 
Foundation (Topeka, Kansas), Prof. STRATTON (Cambridge), 
Prof. BROAD (Cambridge), Prof. PRICE (Oxford), Prof. HART 
(Dept. of Sociology, Duke Univ., U.S.A.), Dr. HENRY MAR- 
GENAU (Sloans Physics Lab., Yale Univ.) and several other 
leading European and American scientists were able to meet 
and discuss fundamental problems of supersensorics and 
the reasons for slow progress. During this conference MAR- 

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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

GENAU pointed out correctly that scientists working in this 
field may be inclined to overrate the competence of wholly 
empirical material as a means for convincing, heaping fact 
upon fact without theoretical concepts to explain these 
observations. "Full credibility involves i) immediate experi- 
ences or reports of them, 2) certain well-connected theo- 
retical concepts, and 3) rules of correspondence between 
them. The two latter points must be provided before the 
need for accepting experiences as real will be universally 
felt," which does not mean that the observations are not 
true if these points cannot be provided. 

Considerable statistical evidence for the existence of para- 
gnostic phenomena has been gathered during the last 30 years 
particularly through the work of Prof. RHINE and his co- 
workers at Duke University (USA), Prof. SOAL (London Uni- 
versity), Prof. HEYMANS (Prof, of Psychology at Groningen, 
the Netherlands) and VAN BUSSCHBACH (School Inspector in 
the Netherlands). These four types of research were carried 
out independently in different parts of the world and con- 
firmed, with a high degree of probability, the existence of 
paragnostic phenomena. However, due to reasons given 
above, various scientists have tried to belittle the results 
obtained and have not hesitated to accuse them of fraud. 
However, a sufficiently large number of well-known scien- 
tists have been able to check their work and none of them 
seems to doubt the truthfulness of the observations re- 
ported. 

In most of these experiments the so-called Card calling test 
is used. This was developed about 1928 by Prof. FISCHER and 
Miss INA JEPHSON in London.* The test employs so-called 
Zemr cards, a pack of 25 cards of five groups of symbols: crosses, 
squares, stars, circles and waves, five cards of each symbol. 
By pure chance-guessing in a series of 25 trials one has an 
average chance of five hits only. Mathematical statistics 
permits us to determine, provided any form of fraud or 

6. For details see BETTY M. HUMPHREY: Handbook of tests in Parapsychology. 

105 



S. W. TROMP 

ordinary psychological sense perception is excluded? , the 
degree of probability that such card guesses (surpassing the 
chance figure 5) are due to pure chance only. 

RHINE, PRATT and WOODRUFF demonstrated in 1939 by a 
series of 96700 card tests, carried out under rigidly controlled 
conditions at Duke University with 66 different percipients, 
that a surplus in guesses was obtained representing a critical 
ratio of 7.8, in other words a possibility that this result could 
be obtained by chance only in i to io 14 cases. A comparison 
between those 96700 cards and a group of cards turned at 
random, without using a percipient, gave a critical ratio of 
o.s only. Similar experiments by SOAL in London and by 
HEYMANS in Groningen (the Netherlands) 8 indicated proba- 
bilities of even more than i to io 3 <>. In other words it seems 
difficult to explain these results by pure chance only. 

A recent series of scientific experiments has been carried 
out since 1951 in Dutch schools by VAN BusscHBACH. 9 Using 
modified Zener cards and the class teacher (who could not 

7. For example by placing the Agent, who is presumed to initiate a telepathic trans- 
mission, and the Percipient, the person who endeavours to receive the mental 
message, in different rooms far apart. 

8. SOAL and GOLDNEY carried out similar experiments during 1941 and 1942, at Queen 
Mary College, University of London, using pictures of animals. In a series of 3946 
pictures with the percipient Shackleton a critical ratio for surplus guessing was 
obtained of 13.2. In other words a result to be obtained by chance only in i to io 35 
cases. A series of 17000 guesses with the percipient Mrs. Stewart even gave a critical 
ratio of 52. 

About 1921, at the Psychological Institute of the University of Groningen (Nether- 
lands) HEYMANS, assisted by BRUGMANS and WEINBERG, carried out carefully con- 
trolled draught-board guessing experiments, in which the percipient, van Dam 
(a student in Physics), obtained a surplus in "good" guesses which can be explained 
by chance only in i to io 80 . 

9. The first series of experiments made in Amsterdam with pupils of 10-12 years of 
age and the teacher as agent consisted of 20,190 trials. A significant critical ratio of 
good guesses was obtained of 2.79. Similar experiments in the city of Utrecht con- 
sisting of 26,880 trials gave a critical ratio of 2.73. Both series together give a critical 
ratio of 4.07. The most interesting result was, however, that similar extensive tests 
with older pupils, or tests with young pupils but a stranger as agent, gave only 
chance results. In 1956 VAN BUSSCHBACH received an invitation from the Parapsy- 
chology Lab. at Duke Univ. to conduct similar investigations in American schools. 
After 36,160 trials with 5th and 6th grade pupils a positive deviation was found with 
a critical ratio of 2.70, a result almost identical to that obtained in Holland. Again 
20,160 trials with 7th and 8th grade pupils or a stranger as agent produced results 
almost according to chance. 

106 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

be seen by his pupils) as agent, VAN BUSSCHBACH tested the 
success with which pupils in a class could acquire knowledge 
from their teacher by supersensory means. It was found that 
only young children (10-12 years of age) produced statisti- 
cally significant results. In the case of older children no 
positive results were obtained, nor if a child or stranger were 
used as agent with a group of young children. His experi- 
ments were repeated in the USA and his results con- 
firmed. 

During 1956 similar experiments were carried out in the 
USA by ANDERSON and WHITE on the influence of the teacher- 
pupil attitude. These experiments (and similar tests carried 
out by BETTY HUMPHREY and others in previous years) seem 
to suggest that the positive attitude of percipient and agent 
improves the results, whereas a negative attitude causes 
considerable negative critical ratios. If these observations are 
confirmed they will clearly show the enormous difficulties 
to be encountered in this type of research because the ob- 
server may affect the results obtained in a way similar to a 
thermal experiment in Physics in which the observer is 
getting too close to the measured object. 

The results obtained by these various research workers in 
different parts of the world make it difficult to deny the 
existence of some kind of supersensory communication be- 
tween men. Unless we assume, as some critics do, that all 
these scientists have been practising fraud systematically, we 
have to accept the existence of a group of unknown phe- 
nomena, whose existence is supported by a vast number of 
spontaneous cases described in recent years by various serious 
research workers. 

The greatest stumbling block for disbelievers in super- 
sensorics is the phenomenon of f recognition. SOAL and others 
were able to demonstrate statistically, that the percipient 
often guesses not the card at which the agent is looking but 
the succeeding one, at that moment unknown to the agent. 
Well-established spontaneous cases reported in recent years 

107 



S. W. TROMP 

also suggest in certain people the existence of a supersensory 
faculty, i.e. the capacity to experience events before they have 
taken place. 

If future events are accessible to us, it implies that the 
future is already predetermined. In a similar way, a passenger 
in a train can watch the scenery of the present and remember 
what has passed before. But he lacks the capacity to look 
ahead, although the future scenery is already in existence. 

It seems that the philosophical consequence of precog- 
nition, in other words the doctrine of predestination, forms 
one of the greatest mental obstacles both for certain religious 
groups and for people who believe in absolute free will and 
in freedom of choice for the human mind. 

Another difficulty in the acceptance of precognition is the 
consequence that the effect can precede the cause. In card- 
calling experiments the percipient is apparently guided by 
events in the future. Something in the future is governing 
the percipient's behaviour in the present. Many theories, 
like those of the British philosopher BROAD and of the Dutch 
scientist KOOY, have been proposed in an attempt to explain 
those difficulties. They involve modern space-time theories 
using various dimensions. Recent developments in nuclear 
physics may help to shed light on these hypotheses which 
are still unsatisfactory. 

(2) Supersensorics in animals 

It is surprising that the same scientists, who deny the ex- 
istence of any supersensory capacity in man, accept biologi- 
cal observations on animals suggesting e.g. a peculiar gift 
in birds to find their home thousands of miles away, even if 
they have to cross the ocean without any landmarks. Despite 
the many theories advanced in the last fifty years to explain 
this direction-finding capacity in birds, no satisfactory expla- 
nation has been given yet. 

108 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

Even less comprehensible is the homing instinct of the 
Salmon, Eel and Shad. NIERSTRASZ (1916) demonstrated by 
tagging salmons (Salmo solar), which live in small brooks in 
the centre of the Netherlands, that after spending three 
years in the Atlantic Ocean they returned to the same spots 
in those brooks in the Netherlands. Similar experiments 
were carried out in the USA (SHEER and others, 1939) where 
newly born hatched salmons were removed from their 
birthplace to other rivers. After few years they returned, not 
to these latter rivers but to the original brooks in which they 
were hatched. SCHMIDT, Director of the Royal Danish Com- 
mission for Sea Research, was able to demonstrate (between 
1903 and 1922) that the full-grown eel (Anguilla anguitta) of 
approx. i m length, migrates in autumn from the rivers of 
Scandinavia, W. Europe and the Mediterranean area to the 
Saragossa Sea, N. of Puerto Rico and S. of the Bermudas 
(3000-4000 miles from <their home) and breed there at a great 
depth. The females drop their eggs which are fertilized by 
males who die afterwards. From the eggs the young eels, the 
leptocephali, develop. After three years they reach the coasts 
of Europe again. The same happens to eels living in the 
southern part of the USA, but the European type of lepto- 
cephalus never migrates to the American coast or vice 
versa. 

Extensive studies in the USA by LEIM, BORODIN, BARNEY 
and GREYLEYin 1948, and by HOLLIS and HAMMER in 1951 have de- 
monstrated similar almost unbelievable migrations amongst 
shads. The young shad, which spends the first few months 
of its life in fresh water basins of N. America hear the Atlantic 
Ocean, moves in autumn to unknown parts of the Atlantic 
Ocean. Experiments with tagged fishes have shown that the 
shads return, usually after 5-7 years, to the same fresh water 
basins in which they spent the first months of their lives. 

These examples of very astonishing migrations, which 
could easily be extended by others, are difficult to under- 
stand without accepting certain supersensory sensitivities 

109 



S. W. TROMP 

in the animal world, which may comply with the laws of a 
future branch of physics, "Psycho-physics." 

In this chapter more facts are given than in other parts of 
the essay, because most scientists seem to be ignorant of 
them; and without this knowledge the study of supersensory 
phenomena does not seem to be a very realistic science. 

Although the study of supersensory phenomena still be- 
longs to the non-established Border Sciences, there seems 
to be little doubt that this new branch may one day grow 
into a vast new science opening vistas of knowledge not 
even dreamt of in the present atomic age. 

C. GEO-ECOLOGY 

(i) Medical geography: 

Medical Geography involves the study of the geographical 
distribution of diseases and the fundamental causes of the 
interaction between the environment and living organisms 
and their conditions of health in the different parts of the 
world. 

The differences observed in the structure and external 
appearances of living organisms seem to be entirely, or at 
least largely, determined by the influence of the Lithosphere, 
Hydrosphere, Atmosphere and Cosmic (extra-terrestrial) 
sphere. This influence could be a direct one, but may also 
be indirect through food (animal - or plant food) consumed. 
Differences in food or climate (determined either geographi- 
cally or topographically) may change even the anatomical 
and physiological characteristics of populations, both ani- 
mal and human. Differences in climate and soil and in useful 
raw materials available in or on the earth crust may affect 
social habits, such as differences in housing, hygienic con- 
ditions, clothing, etc. Complex groups of such factors affect 
marital habits, and so on. Similar environmental differences 
have affected, particularly in previous centuries, methods 

no 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

of heating, lighting, road construction and means of transpor- 
tation. 

In recent years the discovery of so-called trace-elements 
in the soil has taught us the far-reaching effects of slight 
deficiencies or surplusses on plants, and indirectly on man 
and animals consuming them. Cattle in one region may he 
strong, healthy and active; the same breed in another area 
having a certain trace-element deficiency in the soil, but 
with the same climatic conditions, may be weak or slow. 
Thus the agricultural methods and food conditions of 
peasants living in such an area are affected. The same may 
apply to the mental capacity of people of the same race 
living in different parts of the world. 

Complex environmental factors, affected by the geological 
history of a particular region during hundreds of million 
of years, may even determine the origin of beliefs or religions 
in some parts of the world. 

The study of this complex geo-ecological web of life has 
become a very important tool in recent years in the study 
of the diseases of man. 

Diseases can be studied in laboratories or clinics, but more 
and more it is realized that several complex diseases, such as 
cancer, must be also approached in a different way. "We 
should start with a field study and try to establish beyond 
doubt whether two areas really differ in mortality or mor- 
bidity from a certain disease. Age group corrections should 
naturally be made. In addition medical and hospital facilities 
and training of physicians should be comparable, before it 
is decided that observed differences are real. In other words, 
we should be certain that differences in degree of accuracy 
of diagnosis are not alone responsible for the observed 
differences. 

Once such regional differences have been established 
beyond doubt, a field team composed of experts should 
study these different deathrates in order to discover the 
actual reasons for the observed differences. This empirical 



in 



S. W. TROMP 

approach can be of inestimable value, in the study of disease. 
Results can only be obtained, however, if a true team-spirit 
exists amongst scientists; and this may explain the relatively 
small progress made in this new Border Science: Medical 
geography. 

The significance of Medical Geography for the future of 
mankind is gradually being realized. In fifty years or perhaps 
even sooner it may play an important part alongside the 
orthodox sciences. 

(2) Bioclimatology and Biometeorology 

The fourth Border Science that I should like to discuss more 
in detail is the science of Bioclimatology and Biometeorology. 
This was defined in 1956 by the "International Society of Bio- 
climatology and Biometeorology" as "the study of the direct 
and indirect interrelations between the geo-physical and 
geo-chemical environment of the atmosphere and living 
organisms, plants, animals and man, the term "environ- 
ment" being broadly conceived and including micro-, macro- 
and cosmic environments and the diverse physical and 
chemical factors comprising these environments." 

The great influence of the atmospheric environment on 
man is known to everybody who has been forced to be active 
on a hot summer day and to those who have lived in tropical 
climates. People living in the Swiss Alps, Austria or Bavaria 
are well acquainted with a group of peculiar symptoms 
described as "foehn-disease," which seem to be related to 
specific weather conditions, known as "foehn." 

Despite a great number of subjective observations, it is 
extremely difficult to prove in many instances that such 
experiences are really due to specific weather conditions and 
not merely to coincidence. In those cases in which a weather- 
disease relationship has been established it is often not 
known through which physiological processes these weather 
conditions are reflected in the body. In some instances the 



112 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

influences seem to involve a direct cause- and effect re- 
lationship; in others a more complicated indirect relation- 
ship seems to exist. This is common in the case of animals 
where the indirect influences of climate and weather on 
soil and plants may affect physiological processes of animals 
living on those plants. 

Two kinds of studies are being made in the field of Bio- 
climatology: so-called "empirical" and "experimental 
studies." Empirical studies (from the Greek empeiria - experi- 
ences) comprise observations of facts or events and the 
knowledge resulting from them without a preconceived 
idea or theory, whereas in the case of Experimental studies (from 
the Latin experiri - to try) observations of facts or events are 
made during a trial with the purpose of testing a special 
hypothesis, theory or assumption. 

Bioclimatology can be classified therefore into two main 
groups depending on the methods of Research. 

i. EMPIRICAL BIOCLIMATOLOGY: 

In this type of approach observations on certain physiolo- 
gical or pathological phenomena in man, animals or plants, 
caused or triggered by atmospheric agents, are collected on 
a statistical basis, without any preconceived idea or theory. 
Usually there are no clear-cut, quantitative relations between 
the atmospheric agent and the observed biological effect. 

In one group of such studies the effect of more or less 
known atmospheric agents is being studied. These are either 
specific meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) 
or groups of such factors, air pollutants or aerosols. In such 
studies the effects are often basically reproduceable. 

Other studies involve the effects of either little known or 
unsuspected atmospheric agents on certain biological phe- 
nomena, the results being based on statistical data and often 
difficult to reproduce. 

In recent years new methods have developed from this 



113 



S. W. TROMP 

group of studies which are described as Experimental Bio- 
climatology. 

2. EXPERIMENTAL BIOCLIMATOLOGY: 

In this type of research observations on exactly measurable 
changes in man, animals or plants are collected under repro- 
duceable, controlled experimental conditions, both in the 
laboratory and in the field. Such conditions are the result 
of measurable environmental factors, the effect of which is 
understandable from the physical, chemical and (or) bio- 
logical viewpoint and usually enables us to predict the 
qualitative and quantitative aspects of responses to those 
particular environmental conditions. The purpose of these 
observations is usually to test a special theory, hypothesis or 
assumption. 

In order to understand the wide scope of bioclimatology 
as a Border Science and its significance to living organisms, 
man in particular, we must consider not the different 
methods of research but the various branches of Bioclima- 
tology and their significance for various aspects of life. 

In the case of Phytological bioclimatology the influence of 
climate and of various meteorological factors on the de- 
velopment and distribution of plants is being studied for 
general phytological, agricultural and forestry purposes. In 
experimental laboratories artificial climates, which enable us 
to study the effect of specific meteorological factors on 
certain plants, are created. 

These studies enable the bioclimatologist to determine the 
best periods for sowing and harvesting and the species which 
is best adapted to a specific regional climate. 

A special aspect of Phytological Bioclimatology is Bioclima- 
tological phenology (founded by LINNAEUS in 1751 in his "Philo- 
sophia Botanica"). It is the study of periodic phenomena in 
the development of organisms. In the case of plants, the 
periodicity is caused by seasonal variations. In practice in 

114 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

various parts of an area dates are collected on which a certain 
type of plant or tree reaches a specific stage of development, 
e.g. first budding, first appearance of flowers or of certain 
pollen or spores, first ripening of wheat, etc. Such data are 
plotted on a map and then connected by curves, indicating 
regions with equal development. This may give us infor- 
mation about the best areas for growing certain plants in a 
country, expected dates of harvesting, etc. 

A new branch of Phytological Bio climatology has been 
developed in recent years by BOYKO (Israel). It is known as 
Ecological dimatography. The ecological climatologist defines 
climate on the basis of plant and animal associations of a 
region, a valuable tool for underdeveloped areas where there 
is a lack or shortage of accurate meteorological data. 

Another important branch of Bioclimatology is Zoological 
biodimatology with its two main sections, Entomological and 
Veterinary biodimatology. The entomological bioclimatologist 
studies the influence of climate and weather on insects and 
other terrestrial Arthropoda, the effect on their physiolo- 
gical processes, development, diseases and geographical distri- 
bution. It is evident that the study of this branch of bioclima- 
tology has far-reaching practical applications if we only 
think of the yearly damage caused by locust swarms. Veter- 
inary Bioclimatology is a more recent branch of Zoological 
Bioclimatology which studies both quantitatively and quali- 
tatively the effect of climate and weather on the anatomical 
and physiological characteristics of domestic and farm ani- 
mals and birds, and on animal products such as eggs, wool, 
milk, etc. 

The oldest and probably most extensively studied branch 
of Bioclimatology, even known to the ancient Greeks, is 
Human biodimatology. Four main sections of this subject have 
been developed in recent years: 

Physiological human biodimatology comprises the study of the 
influence of specific single or groups of meteorological 
components and of different climates (mountain-, marine-, 

115 



S. W. TROMP 

forest-, tropical climates, etc.) and of their seasonal vari- 
ations, on the various physiological processes of normal 
healthy man. It also involves investigation of their effect on 
race and body structure of man, his capacity to become 
adapted to extreme climatic conditions, etc. The methods 
applied belong mainly to Experimental Bioclimatology, 
using special climatic chambers in which various conditions 
of temperature, humidity, etc. can be changed at will. 

A second section of Human Bioclimatology is known as 
Social bioclimatolofty. In this branch the influence of climate and 
weather on the social habits of man in general is studied. In 
a more specific way the use of favourable climatological 
factors for the treatment of large population groups as pre- 
ventive or curative measures, and the various social impli- 
cations in the field of organization of climatic health stations, 
social insurance, etc. are studied. The Social Bioclimatologist 
also studies the influence of climate and weather on the 
mental processes of man (Psychological bioclimatology) and on 
his aesthetic expression (Aestheto-biodimatology). He is also 
interested in the deeper climatic causes (either direct or 
indirect) of the origin, distribution and disappearance of past 
civilizations (Archaeological bioclimatology). 

A third section of Human Bioclimatology is known as 
Pathological biodimatology. Here the influence of climate and 
weather on the various physiological and pathological phe- 
nomena associated with the diseases of man, both their 
frequency, intensity and geographical distribution are studied. 
The effect of air pollution, either organic (pollen and spores) 
or inorganic particles or chemical substances, the latter 
notorious for their devastating effects during "smog," are 
also investigated. In recent years the great importance of 
Aerosols 10 in biological processes has also been realized. 
Finally, various therapeutic effects of climates are being 

10. Aerosols are gaseous, liquid or solid aggregates, with diameters of i/iooo toiopt 
and often with either positive or negative electrical charges, which float in the air 
and are able to penetrate deeply into the lungs of man and animals. 

116 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

studied. These branches of the subject are more specifically 
known as Thalassotherapy (sea climate therapy), Helio- 
therapy, Aerosol- and lonotherapy, etc. Man is gradually 
beginning to realize that he is not living as an independent 
subject, unaffected by his environment, but that he is continu- 
ously influenced by the atmosphere surrounding him, both 
by its favourable and by its detrimental influences. 

The fourth main section of Human Bioclimatology is 
Urban bioclimatology. This is the study of micro-climates in 
houses and cities and their influence on the health of man. 
Methods are being developed for eliminating unfavourable 
influences and for increasing favourable biological effects in 
certain types of architectural construction and in town 
planning. It is often not sufficiently realized that in the 
regional planning of a city, the spaces between buildings, 
their height and the creation of large parks whose vegetation 
affects the amount of solar energy and ionization of the air, 
etc. present important biometeorological problems. In ad- 
dition the type of heating and chimneys used and the location 
of industries in relation to the prevailing direction of wind 
govern the local micro-climates and the health of large 
population groups. Closely related to this problem is the 
study of the best locations and construction methods for 
sanatoria from the point of view of climato-therapy. 

Another interesting branch of Bioclimatology is known 
as Cosmic bioclimatology. This is the study of the effect of extra- 
terrestrial influences on biological processes. It is well-known 
that variations in the activity of the sun affect the meteoro- 
logical conditions of the outer parts of the atmosphere. 
These in turn influence weather conditions at the lower 
levels in which we are living. Such long-range indirect effects 
may seriously influence economic conditions in an area 
through abnormal rainfall, snow, heat, cold, or drought 
spoiling harvests and often killing animals in the open fields. 

Recent studies by PICCARDI (Professor of Physical Chemis- 
try in Florence, Italy) suggest a possible direct effect by 

117 



S. W. TROMP 

unknown cosmic agents on physico-chemical processes, 
both inorganic and organic. If these studies can be confirmed 
an important new field of research will be opened up. 

The fifth main branch of bioclirnatology is Palaeo-biodima- 
tology. It involves the study of the influence of climatic con- 
ditions in the past on the development, evolution and geo- 
graphical distribution of living organisms. Recent develop- 
ments in the border Science Geology, the improvement of 
methods of dating geological periods (in particular those 
using various radioactive methods), the introduction of 
Palynology and other related sciences have enabled us to 
analyse the type of climate prevailing during the different 
geological periods in various parts of the world. In many 
instances the flora and fauna during these periods are also 
known so it has been possible to draw some interesting bio- 
climatological conclusions, often with far-reaching philo- 
sophical consequences. 

These various aspects of Bioclimatology and Biometeoro- 
logy, originally studied by individual research workers in 
different countries have been coordinated recently through 
the creation of the "International Society of Bioclimatology 
and Riometeorology," n comprising 500 members from 44 
countries. The members represent many scientific disciplines 
and come from countries with widely differing political 
systems. The friendly relations between the members of this 
organization clearly demonstrate how a border science, 
perhaps more than any basic science, is able to unite people 
of good will all over the world, irrespective of race, creed or 
political conviction. 



ii. Founded i January 1956. Secretariate Hofbrouckerlaan 54, Oegstgeest (Leiden), 
The Netherlands. 

118 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BORDER SCIENCES 

III. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE CREATION OF A 
UNIVERSAL ACADEMY OF BORDER SCIENCES 

In the previous chapters a review has been given of the vari- 
ous problems studied in four new Border Sciences. The 
solution of these requires the cooperation of many scientists 
trained in different disciplines. Although by correspondence 
and regular international contacts the necessary cooperation 
between scientists can be furthered, it is doubtful whether 
real progress can be made in a complex Border Science 
unless an international team of scientists actually works 
together in the same research institute. In the field of atomic 
research we have a good example of international cooper- 
ation in International Research Institutes. Similar Institutes 
should be created in future for the Border Sciences. 

Of the various Border Sciences the international team 
spirit seems to be most strongly developed in the field of 
Bioclimatology. Therefore, if funds could be raised for a 
Universal Academy of Border Sciences, a Universal Centre 
for the Study of Bioclimatology and Biometeorology in its 
various aspects should first be created as a Faculty of bioclima- 
tology and biometeorology in the future Academy. The experience 
obtained in such a truly International Centre could be 
applied to the creation of other Universal Centres for the 
Study of Border Sciences. Although it seems preferable that 
the different 'Faculties" of a Universal Academy of Border 
Sciences should be located in the same area, this does not 
seem to be an essential requirement. 

In the previous chapters I have tried to review the signifi- 
cance of a number of Border Sciences, both established and 
non-established, for the future of mankind. I fully realize 
that there is a long way to go before the ideas expressed can 
be realized. On the other hand, it is the first time in the 
history of mankind that many scientists in the world have 
become fully aware of the urgent need for universal cooper- 

119 



S. W, TROMP 

ation. Let us therefore be confident and believe in the creed 
of the geologists that "the Universe in all its appearances is 
a function of time and no barriers of development, however 
strong and unconquerable they may seem at this moment, 
can resist the pressure of human mind if the will prevails to 
overcome these barriers." 



120 



The Human Significance of 
Natural Resources 

(with special reference to man's cultural resources) 
by 

RICHARD M. FIELD 



All human beings are animals and therefore depend on the 
material, natural resources which constitute their environ- 
ment. Human beings should not try to conquer their environ- 
ment but learn to live in harmony with it. Whether the earth 
was created for man or with man, they are inter-dependent 
correlated expressions of life, and it is either man's God-given 
or man's inevitable responsibility to explore, develop and 
distribute the earth's material, natural resources for the 
benefit rather than the ultimate impoverishment of himself 
and his fellow-men. 

Probably most organized warfare since the dawn of civili- 
zation has been because of the unequal geographic distri- 
bution of material, natural resources, beginning with the 
areas for food collecting or hunting by the smallest groups 
of humanlike beings hundreds of thousands of years ago. 

Because history is cyclic, as well as progressive, we are now 
in one of the most tempestuous cycles in the history of 
mankind. This is due to that particular branch of man's 
activities which we call science, and its powers for war as well 
as for peace. If man wishes to avoid the most devastating war 
of all time scientists and statesmen must cooperate so that 
the future role of science will be increasingly social in that 
science and human affairs have become inseparable. 

Popular science may no longer be defined only in terms of 



121 



RICHARD M. FIELD 

the marvels of inventions and new gadgets; popular science 
must also include the relation of science to society, and the 
sincere attempt by scientists to see that this information is 
available not only to a few favored individuals or groups, but 
also to all elements of society through whose cooperative 
efforts their developed environments have been created. As 
HUGO BOYKO says in one of his communications (July, 1957); 
"So we shall have to find ways to stabilize the equilibrium of 
our Society, and the ways to this aim cannot be sought 
through egotism or through terrorism. The sole power lies in 
our own (the scientists) hands and has to be brought about 
by trying to amalgamate science with humanitarism. There- 
fore new ways of teaching have to be found in all and every 
ways and branches of science; teaching not only of knowled- 
ge but also of responsibility." 

All living things have their responsibilities, chief of which is 
re-creation (reproduction of species). This is just as true of 
plants and animals as it is of man; but man's responsibility is 
greater than that of all other living things because of his 
greater mind, thought, reason and conscience. A consci- 
entious person may be defined as one whose moral sense 
within himself determines whether he considers his own 
conduct right or wrong. This constitutes the spirit and soul 
of man. Consequently, for thousands of years, man has pray- 
ed for a mysterious, extraneous power to help him live with 
the least trouble and the most happiness. All the great 
philosophers and prophets have advised man that he cannot 
be happy without trouble. That he cannot have a clear 
conscience and consequent peace of mind without some 
suffering. Therefore, I believe that each man's religion is his 
greatest natural resource; and that although it is super- 
physical it is not super-natural. How can any man claim to be 
an atheist unless he is so conceited that he believes only in 
himself? To quote from Sir RICHARD TUTE in his essay "The 
Loom of a Plan": "Every thing is super-physical, and remains 
super-physical after it has acquired the additional attribute 



122 



THE HUMAN SIGNIFICANCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

of being perceptible. You and I are super-physical here and 
now. When death supervenes we will continue to be what 
we are, while disappearing from the physical stage. What we 
will encounter when we come face to face with the naked 
forces of four dimensional reality is unknown to us, except 
in mystic reports" ... This statement should appeal to all 
scientists, no matter what their theology, because it was 
written by a lawer, scientist, and devout Anglican. 

Because human beings are the greatest of all natural 
resources, all the factors which constitute the complex 
interrelation of the material, cultural and spiritual activities 
of human beings should be considered as natural resources; 
and because no human being lives only to survive, we must 
assume that the joy of living must overcome the fear of living. The mere 
act of living depends on the fundamental physical factors 
which affect all human beings, such as climate, topography, 
water, plants, animals, and minerals, including air and soils. 

Therefore, the physical welfare of all human beings requires 
the exploration, development and distribution of the world's 
geographically varied material resources. The joy of living requires 
the exploration, development and distribution of the world's 
geographically varied cultural and spiritual resources. 

It would be a very useful step forward in mutual under- 
standing of peoples, if we could achieve a thorough survey of 
all natural resources, namely not only of the material 
resources but also of the cultural and spiritual resources of 
all peoples. 

In this sense the following classification of Natural re- 
sources was used at the International Conference on Science 
and Human Welfare, Washington, D.C., 1956. 

MATERIAL RESOURCES 

I. ORGANISMS, 
la. Plants: 

1. Food plants (cereals, vegetables, fruits, sugar plants, spices, 
beverage plants, etc.) 

123 



RICHARD M. FIELD 

2. Fodder. plants (grasses, leaves, fruits etc.) 

3. Fibers (textile plants, paper plants, etc.) 

4. Forest products (for Wood, Cork, Tanning materials, etc.) 

5. Latex plants (for Rubber, Gums, Resins, etc.) 

6. Plants for Essential oils (perfume plants) 

7. Fats and Waxes. 

8. Medicinal plants. 

9. Plants for Fumitories (Tobacco, etc.) 

Masticatories, (Cola, etc.), Narcotics (Opium, Hemp, etc.) 
10. Various plant raw materials (e.g. vegetable ivory for buttons, 
palm leaves for roofs, starch for industry, lichens for Agar 
agar, fungi and bacteria for inoculation, fermentation, and 
so on). 
Ib. Animals : Many raw materials are to be found in the animal world. 

1. from food to hormones used in medicine. 

2. from furs and leather to ivory and pearls, strings for musical 
instruments, hairs for the brushes for the painter or for 
hygrometers for the Meteorologist, etc., etc. 

II. FUELS: 

Such as peat, coal, natural gas and petroleum. It should also be 
noted, however, that power resources include wind, water and 
solar radiation, as well as fuels. Although atomic power depends, to 
a certain extent, on several types of minerals this source of power 
should not be considered except as a special problem from the 
destructive as well as the constructive point of view. 

III. USEFUL MINERALS: 

1. Soils (Complex sediments composed of minerals and mineral 
salts, and certain amounts of living and decayed organisms). 

2. Ceramics (Aluminium silicates which are used in the manufacture 
of china, tiles, bricks, etc). 

3. Fertilizers (Rock phosphates, Chile saltpetre, etc.) 

4. Refractories and Insulators (Asbestos, Graphite, Mica etc.) 

5. Chemical Compounds (Numerous mineral salts used in the 
chemical industries.) 

6. Abrasives (Diamond, Corundum, Garnet, etc.) 

7. Structural (base) Metals (Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, etc.) 

8. Ferro-alloys (Manganese, Tungsten, Chromium, Lead, Zinc, etc.) 

9. Precious (noble) Metals (Gold, Silver, Platinum, etc. These are 
also termed the monetary metals). 

IV. STRUCTURAL (MINERAL) MATERIALS: 

1. Building Stones (Such as Granite, Sandstone, Limestone, Gyp- 
sum, Marble, Slate, etc.) 

124 



THE HUMAN SIGNIFICANCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

2. Sands and Gravels (Detrital and fragmental aggregates, naturally 
derived from various types of rocks.) 

3. Natural Cements. 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 
I. RHYTHMIC. 

1. Music. Instrumental and vocal. 3. Historical, 
a. Individual, b. Group 4. National. 

2. Dance. 5. International 
a. Individual b. Group. 

II. GRAPHIC 

1. Pictures. Picture-writing, Symbols. 5. Historical. 

2. Sculpture. Mobile, architectural 6. National. 

3. Etching and Engraving. 7. International. 

4. Printing and Lithography. 

III. ARCHITECTURE 

1. Religious structures 4. Historical. 

2. Domestic structures. 5. National. 

3. Business structures. 6. International. 

IV. DRAMA 

1. Folklore. 3. Historical. 

2. Theatre. 4. National. 

5. International. 

V. REPRODUCTIVE. 

1. Cinema and Television. 3. Historical. 

2. Phonographic and Telephonic 4. National. 

5. International. 

TECHNICAL RESOURCES 
I. SCIENTIFIC 

1. Literature 4. Field work. 7. Historical. 

2. Organizations. 5. Schools. 8. National. 

3. Laboratories. 6. Societies. 9. International. 

II. ENGINEERING. 

1. Mapping. Topographic : 3. Historical. 
a. ground, b. aerial. 4. National. 

c. geological, d. geophysical. 5. International. 

2. Construction. 

a. Roads, Railroads, b. Airfields. 

c. Bridges, Tunnels, Aqueducts. 

d. Vehicles, e. Airplanes. 

125 



RICHARD M. FIELD 

W. F. G. SWANN correlates the experience of the scientist and 
the artist. He recognizes the awe with which all scientists and 
artists view the "cleverness" of the Universe, the "potentiality" 
for "happiness" in "living things as part of the experience of 
beauty as the whole worth-while purpose of living beings." 
Although his essay concerns music, he points out three truths 
for all the arts: 1 ) As one seeks for the stimuli which are re- 
sponsible for exaltation, he finds great simplicity ... as the 
forbear of grandeur. 2) In general, beauty may be divided into 
two types, that which represents an immediate appeal to him 
that beholds it, and which emerges only in the light of under- 
standing ... sometimes it embraces both. 3) In seeking 
perfection in such an art as music ... the goal must be divided 
into two categories; perfection of concept, and perfection of 
realization on the instrument or instruments on which the 
music is played. 

JOAN FIELD, Chairman of the A.I.G.N.R. Dramatic Council 
sums up these thoughts with evidence of theatre and 
folklore as experience, thereby having "happiness potential" 
for a majority of- not all - people at all times in history. The 
analysis of any classic play or folk-story reveals a simple basis 
character-situation which has universal appeal. This situation 
inevitably concerns one of the "moments of exaltation" in 
which a human being has a positive realization of beauty in 
his relationship to others, thereby giving the viewer or 
listener, whether in a group or "solo" experience, a sense of 
being "part of the structure." In other words he finds enter- 
tainment in being drawn into the universal experience of the 
story's character; he escapes into a larger world and finds a 
larger self. 

Folklore, being close to nature and based on elementary 
values, can be successfully presented through any of the 
handicrafts or the performed or graphic arts, but perhaps 
the theatre is the most challenging of media for the presen- 
tation of folklore, for it offers the interpretive play wright, 
composer, director, designer or choreographer the widest 

126 



THE HUMAN SIGNIFICANCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

possible combination of effects in the complexity of the 
selection required to eliminate non-essentials and point up 
the main line of action and related elements. 

In our day, the Japanese Kabuki theatre, American musical 
plays such as "South Pacific" or "Fanny," JOHN GIRAUDOUX'S 
fantasy "Ondine," are all examples of complex theatrical 
production based on simple fables or folk stories. Any style 
can be used to reach out and touch the heart of the onlooker, 
making him one with all. "And so, if we pray for anything, 
pray that ye may find senses to which all nature's beauties 
bring response, for then shall ye be angels. Then shall ye 
have attained the pinnacle of what may have been the intent 
of the Universe, the creation of the realm in which happiness 
may grow to full maturity." 

The theatre's primary purpose is recreation for groups of 
people, whether through creative participation or as 
members of the audience. It is the common sharing of 
experience which makes the theatre especially rewarding, 
therefore the primary "natural resources" necessary for 
theatrical production are people. Any group is potential 
"theatre-material." Specialists such as playwrights, talented 
performers, composers or designers, develop in certain 
places individually for reasons which seem to be beyond 
control, but the finished theatrical product usually flowers 
and finds recognition and wide usefulness in centers of 
concentrated population and relatively advanced culture: 
the great cities of the world. 

A survey of the "theatrical wealth" of the countries of the 
world should have two branches : i) The listing of production 
groups or centers of each nationality which offer the finest 
entertainment for its own people as for people of other 
nations. 2) The listing of all known groups or centers in each 
nation which emphasizes creative theatre work of any kind: 
a) commercial, b) educational, c) community, and d) social 
welfare and therapeutic. Of particular interest because of 
their universal appeal are the four fields of the theatre: i) The 

127 



RICHARD M. FIELD 

use and development of theatre methods. 2) The growth 
of the creative individual through improvisation. 3) 
Children's theatre, and 4) Folk-drama. Through existing 
organizations such as ANTA or other national theatres and 
regional groups throughout the countries of the world, a 
survey might be made of the resources already developed in 
these fields, and any special contributions which these 
groups are making. 

Needless to say the desire for theatre (although painfully 
unencouraged in some places) is common to all people, and 
the potential resources of theatre are world-wide. Children 
do not need to be encouraged to "play house," they only 
need to be discouraged from stopping when they think the 
child in them is childish. 

The border between imaginative play and art in general, 
poetic vision and science is not as sharp as many people 
believe. They all are ways to the joy of life and many bridges 
bring them together. 

A short poem and a few additional lines may serve as 
example: 

Ode to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River 

What makes the lingering night so ding to thee? 
Thou vast, profound, primeval hiding-place. 
Of ancient secrets, - gray and ghostly gulf 
Cleft in the green of this high forest land, 
And crowded in the dark with giant forms. 

Now, far beyond all language and all art 
In thy mid splendor, Canyon marvellous, 
The secret of the stillness lies unveiled 
In wordless worship: This is holy ground; 
Thou art no grave, no prison, but a shrine, 
Garden of Temples filed with Silent Praise 
If God were blind thy beauty could not be. 

128 



THE HUMAN SIGNIFICANCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

Thus sang the poet HENRY VAN DYKE as he watched the 
many splendors of this great canyon gradually develop 
under the rays of the rising sun. Here are line-color marvel- 
lously compounded in grand structural simplicity, which 
delights the eye of the engineer and the architect as well as 
that of the poet and the painter. Probably in no other region 
of the world is the structure of so vast a scene so clearly 
displayed. Even those who have had no geological training 
cannot fail to notice that this great canyon, a mile deep and 
ten miles wide, has exposed to view a great series of hori- 
zontal formations which, on each side of the narrow inner 
gorge, have been still further dissected into spires and 
castellated blocks of many sizes and shapes. To the geologist, 
the canyon looses nothing of its beauty under his analytical 
attack. To his trained eye, the architectural splendor has a 
glorious history, which he traces by the most delicate use of 
line and color, combined with the techniques of petrology 
and structure. He too paints a picture, both scientific and 
spiritual, which rivals the Semitic conception in Genesis, or 
the later emotional and artistic song of the poet. If the 
canyon is the work of God, then it is through His agents that 
it has been wrought. Surely there can be no better place for 
the wedding of science and religion than before such a 
splendid spectacle as this chasm, which exposes the history 
of the earth down to the oldest known rocks. So might a 
geologist add two more lines to the final hymn of praise: 

If God were blind thy beauty might not be 

So to compel the searching eyes of man 

And thus reveal the history of His work 

Summarizing we may say that science and art are 
functioning, or should function, as parallel ways to the same 
goal, to achieve joy in living for all, and that means, to real 
progress in human welfare. Organizational links of these 
two roads can be and should therefore be found. 

It was for this reason that apart from all other Institutions, 
Organizations, and Personalities also the International 

129 



RICHARD M. FIELD 



Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, through its committees 
on the social Value of the Earth Sciences, during the Xlth 
Assembly of the I.U.G.G., held at Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 
September 3-14, 1957, unanimously approved the suggestion 
for a "World Academy of Arts and Sciences, as P. B. SEARS 
expressed it: 

"On behalf of free and cordial collaboration 

among scientific men of all nations 

at a time when the power of modern technology 

is being employed out of all proportion 

to the exploitation, rather than to the nurture 

of man's environment" 



130 



Resource Planning: 
A Problem in Communication* 



by 
PIERRE DANSEREAU 



The leading authorities on gamesmanship recommend that 
scientists who find themselves intimidated l?y confreres in 
another field of knowledge extend an immediate invitation 
to visit their own bailiwick. By no devious route that is what 
I intend to do: my area of investigation is ecology, and where 
it emerges on the social plane it has some bearing on resource 
utilization, an area of human activity now potentially 
dominated by physicists. Furthermore, in alluding to com- 
munication in my title, I do not have in mind the transport 
of iron ore from the Ungava or long-distance telephone calls, 
but the difficulties of exchanging information and achieving 
verbal and working co-ordination. The incentives and the 
duties of the academic community are very great in this 
respect. 

Before I venture the opinion that the universities do not 
show enough awareness of the problems of resource plan- 
ning, I feel I must draw a brief historical sketch of the sciences 
that are involved therein and outline some of the pioneering 
plans that have been put into effect in the past ten years in a 
few institutions. 



1. Yale Conservation Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 3-6 (1957). Reprinted by kind per- 
mission of the Editor. 



131 



PIERRE DANSEREAU 
THE MEANING OF CONSERVATION 

A key word, at this point, is conservation. Much has been 
said about the conservative mind by royalists, republicans, 
liberals, socialists, progressives, reactionaries and revo- 
lutionaries. It is not inappropriate, in fact, that scientific 
conservation received some of its early impetus from politi- 
cal conservatives who are traditionally dedicated to a cult of 
the national patrimony. But it is hardly less in keeping with 
the liberal and the socialist doctrines to have stressed the 
pre-eminence of public ownership where resources are 
concerned. In other words, the good state of the land has 
long been everybody's business, from the right to the left, 
and back, 

Lest the scope of my topic be obscured by this statement, 
let me define conservation as a wise utilization of natural resources. 
Such a definition poses three questions : 

(1) What is a natural resourced It is a mineral, plant, or animal 
which occurs in the spontaneous state, such as water, 
soil, iron, coal, lumber, fish. 

(2) How can it be utilized} It may be used indirectly for power 
or irrigation (water), nutrition of crops (soil), recreation 
(water, forest), or directly for industry (copper, timber) 
or food (blueberries, ducks). 

(3) What is wisdom in this case? Surely this is more difficult to 
answer. The only reasonable reply is that good steward- 
ship is proportionate to enlightened planning for the 
future. This suggests the further question of immediate 
objectives, inasmuch as natural resources are not all 
renewable and that some justification must be made for 
exhaustive tapping. 

It seems to me, that public opinion and the recommen- 
dations of scientists who have variously led and followed it 
have undergone four phases, which I would call: legislative, 
biological, ecological, and sociological. 

Legislative phase. At the beginning of the century protection 

132 



RESOURCE PLANNING: A PROBLEM IN COMMUNICATION 

afforded to wild plants and animals was largely decreed by 
law and was focussed almost entirely on rare species. Birds of 
paradise were saved but not the Arctic penguin or the dodo 
bird. Such rulings did not concern themselves with soil and 
water, for instance. 

Biological phase. As detailed inventories of flora and fauna 
were made, a more scientific approach was initiated. Natural- 
ists demanded freedom of certain areas from disturbance so 
that individual plants and animals could be studied. Others 
requested protection of large populations of trees and birds, 
as a sort of capital investment. This did not save the passenger 
pigeon, although it halted the decline of the buffalo and the 
caribou. 

Ecological phase. Presently, however, with the extinction of 
many beautiful or valuable plants and animals, and because 
of a rising consciousness of the interrelatedness of living 
beings, the claim was made that no efficient protection of 
individual species was possible if the habitat as a whole were 
not free from interference, direct or indirect. For instance, 
the continued integrity of the landscape became expedient 
when it was realized that forested banks maintained high 
water levels and cool temperatures in Canadian streams and 
allowed the salmon to spawn: spruce and fir protection was 
the condition for a normal cycle in the fish. 

Sociological phase. The far-reaching effects of flooding, fires, 
the introduction of pests soon made it evident that a scien- 
tific approach was not enough. It did not always provide a 
satisfactory answer, and it did not begin to meet the social, 
political, economic, and occasionally religious aspects of the 
utilization of natural resources. It was not possible to quaran- 
tine the chestnut blight and the Dutch elm disease. The 
antagonisms of hydraulic power and agriculture, of lum- 
bering and game management came into the open, and 
conservationists began to strike at the social and economic 
systems. But reactionary politicians were long reluctant to 
impose burning of corn stalks that harbored the dreaded 

133 



PIERRE DANSEREAU 

corn-borer, and relict stands of timber were ruthlessly 
lumbered. The complicity of the ignorant and the mighty 
resulted in indiscriminate farming off of resources without 
concern for the upsets of natural balances. 

Conservation has meant various things at various times, 
and has involved many kinds of thinking and campaigning 
in the course of its development. Some of the classic 
figures are THEODORE ROOSEVELT, his heroic mustaches 
aquiver, bringing peace to the African and Brazilian wilder- 
ness, and that group of determined ladies brandishing their 
umbrellas on Trafalgar Square to prevent the murder of 
offending pigeons. Even sturdier battles were fought in 
varous legislatures to stop irresponsible licensing of streams 
and forests to private interests. Above all, the press and the 
universities, especially in their departments of forestry, have 
carried the torch and have finally destroyed the myth of 
inexhaustibility. As a result, great works of conservation 
like those in the Tennessee or the Fraser Valleys in North 
America have been a concentration ground for the testing 
and application of a new-found knowledge. 



RESOURCE UTILIZATION PROBLEMS 

The harnessing of the natural resources of the world is now 
being viewed in a new light and a joint attack is being made 
upon the question as a whole, which is nothing less than 
man's survival. The conflicting forces are: increasing human 
populations and decreasing resources. The favored so- 
lutions are: limitation of births, technological increase of 
renewable resources, halting of waste, and economic read- 
justment of distribution. On all counts, at this time, there are 
apparent deadlocks: religious and cultural opposition of 
birth control, resistance to industrialization of production, 
and disparity in standard of living. In the minds of many who 
have written on this subject, the hope of making progress on 

134 



RESOURCE PLANNING: A PROBLEM IN COMMUNICATION 

all fronts is so dim that humanity is doomed to a terrible 
regression, unless generalized atomic bombing be indeed 
considered a feature in the self-regulating process of popu- 
lation-resource balance. 

We must therefore ask ourselves what we actually know 
about population, about resources, and about the management of 
human societies. Do we really know enough to point to a 
scientific solution? Furthermore, what use are we making of 
the knowledge that we do possess? And finally, are these 
different kinds of knowledge being co-ordinated as they must 
in order to fit the problem at hand? 

I would like to give an optimistic answer to these three 
questions, and I am somewhat encouraged to do so by the 
fact that a small number of our fellow scientists now seem 
able to read the problem in its full complexity and no longer 
incline to a single solution. 

Population. We know much less about humans than we do 
about the fruit fly and the corn plant. But our knowledge of 
the interplay of heredity and environment, as it affects man 
in health and disease is now considerable. The mapping of 
anatomical and physiological features has progressed a great 
deal, and many valuable statistical analyses of birth and death 
rates in different environments are available. The causes of 
fertility and sterility are now better known, and so are means 
of increasing and decreasing them. Although no valid 
understanding of these biological functions can be achieved 
without a thorough grounding in physiology and genetics, it 
does not follow that a pertinent social interpretation can be 
drawn by the methods of natural science alone. Life cycle 
figures do not speak for themselves outside the ethnical, 
cultural, religious and economic context of human societies. 

Resources. The world inventory of water, minerals, soils, 
plants and animals is, or course, not complete, not even 
qualitatively. And where quantitative surveys have been 
made, our grasp of the complex interrelationships that 
permit renewal (at certain rates and times) is not yet very 

135 



PIERRE DANSEREAU 

firm. Although, on the one hand, one may be impatient with 
the optimistic technologists who predict indefinite progress 
in harnessing new or untapped resources, on the other hand, 
it is hard for some of us to go along with the negative pro- 
nouncements of those who say that saturation is in view. 
There is cause for alarm in the large-scale ravages of soil 
erosion, the apparently irreversible destruction of many 
forests, the drying up of water courses and lowering of water 
tables, the virtual extinction of valuable trees and animals, 
and the complete exhaustion locally of coal or oil. For all of 
these, technology may or may not produce adequate substi- 
tutes, and our future way of life may or may not make the 
same demands. Much more ecological research is needed 
which should be focussed on natural balance in the landscape. 
All existing ecosystems 2 can be exploited and even harnessed 
much more efficiently when we have measured the forces 
that hold them together. 

Society. If our knowledge of population and resources is 
incomplete and insecure in many ways, how much narrower 
is our view of human societies. The precision which bears on 
the mechanics of hereditary transmission, or on the life- 
cycles of domesticated plants and animals has been usefully 
carried over to anthropology, and much has been learned 
which has dispelled some time-honored beliefs of man about 
himself. But social psychology, history, economics, and 
political science must of all necessity handle more delicate 
tools. So many of the "facts" in the sciences of man are 
values that cannot be tested to provide truly experimental 
answers. 

I cannot pretend, with the means at my command, to 
delineate in its entirety the population-resource problem. I 
can only outline the requisites to a proper understanding, the 

2. Ecologists have coined this term which deserves recognition in every man's 
vocabulary: it refers to the interacting whole which comprises the substratum 
together with the living population which it supports: thus, a lake, a bog, a dune, a 
forest. 

136 



RESOURCE PLANNING: A PROBLEM IN COMMUNICATION 

lines of a valid perspective. I would like to follow this by 
pointing to the functions in the university which can best 
serve the interest of such a concern. 



EDUCATION FOR RESOURCE PLANNING 

Whether the scope is local or world-wide, resource-planning 
must draw from many sources. And since it is impossible for 
one man to be equally well-versed in genetics, forestry, 
pedology, anthropology and economics, some kind of team- 
work has to be undertaken. And yet the mere addition of 
specialties does not engender a synthesis. The latter has two 
basic requirements, in my mind : a solid grounding in at least 
one field and an early awareness and general understanding 
of the principles and basic facts in other fields. A plea for 
"generalists" instead of specialists should not lead us so far 
astray as to renounce technical competence in at least one 
discipline for each worker. There probably is no such thing 
as "general culture", unless it is an aggregation of various 
kinds of knowledge around a solid nucleus in one field. 

It would seem to me, therefore, that a programme of 
education for conservation practices, for land-use planning, 
and for natural resource utilization should of all necessity 
have its point of departure in somewhat specialized training. 
In the past, this initial step has almost always been taken in 
forestry, agronomy, engineering, zoology or botany. At 
present, it seems just as valid to begin in geography, eco- 
nomics, or political science. In either case, it is expedient not 
only to rise above the initial field of concentration and to 
apply its data and principles to the problems of resource 
utilization, but also to dig right back into other fields, at the 
elementary level if necessary. For instance, a student who has 
come up from economics can be required to take forestry or 
hydrology courses, to attend a regional geography or an eco- 
logy seminar. A good deal of such preliminary acquisition of 

137 



PIERRE DANSEREAU 

knowledge will provide an ample background for the specific 
attack upon problems of resource utilization. 

Such plans have been in effect since 1950 in two American 
universities, Michigan and Yale. It is not as important to look 
into the administrative structure that supports these studies, 
as to note the pre-eminence of a programme system over a 
rigid departmental curriculum. Guidance of students in the 
early stages of their development and orientation towards a 
well-integrated course can give a totally different meaning 
even to their undergraduate years. 



COMMUNICATION TROUBLES 

The problems of natural resource utilization can neither be 
posed nor solved by one discipline alone. Therefore an ef- 
ficient understanding of them awaits a better communication 
between the natural scientists and the social scientists and the 
emergence of a larger number of men capable of encompas- 
sing both aspects and of acting upon this improved 
knowledge. Maybe this can be done by mature men in 
prominent places in government, public administration, 
industry, business, and the liberal professions. But I should 
have more hope of its being achieved in the microcosm of the 
university campus, where representatives of all fields are 
available to each other, if they will just learn to take advantage 
of their opportunities. 

Communication trouble does not stop here, in the inner 
circle of our academic milieu. No matter how rationally we 
organize our data and map out our knowledge, no matter 
how well agreed we are on ways and means, we still face the 
task of providing the people with an intelligible and relevant 
plan. The campus must be an open forum where adult 
education groups as well as youth organizations feel at home. 
The natural and social scientists who have together elabo- 
rated these plans are also bound to go out into the economic 

138 



RESOURCE PLANNING: A PROBLEM IN COMMUNICATION 

and social world and make their views known. Let us destroy 
no ivory towers; in fact we need more of them, for the 
peculiar alchemy of creative thinking is a secret process that 
does not function well in the open. But let us not be so vul- 
nerable to difficulties of social reality as to shrink before the 
task of fighting for a more enlightened planning of natural 
resource utilization, if we are convinced that we bear some of 
the light in our own hands. 

This thrusts great responsibilities upon us as educators. On 
this subject, more than on many others, our capacity for 
objective thinking will be strongly tested. We are committed 
to teaching the truth. We are supposed to be living examples 
of lucid thinking. As free men we may subscribe to some 
religious or political dogma, but as teachers we may do no 
violence to fact. A Catholic historian is not bound to justify 
the Inquisition, a fundamentalist geologist is not bound to 
deny the accuracy of Carbon-i4 datings. 

With respect to the dynamics of human population, the 
test is a severe one: there are few topics upon which doctrinal 
issues impinge more strongly, few which invite more academic 
evasions and rationalizations of one kind or another. It is all 
too easy to invoke a commodious ignorance of the actual 
level or potential of resources and to trust blindly in tech- 
nological progress. This is the worst way in which our true 
mission can be by-passed, and eventually also the least efficient 
way of serving the very dogmas which we adhere to as 
individuals: a breach with one truth is a breach with all and 
every one of them. If our religious and political orthodoxies 
are aspects of truth or compendia of human wisdom, they 
should welcome the confrontation. 

I can draw no simple conclusion and I am sure you expect 
none. In blueprinting a plan for natural resource adminis- 
tration, many difficulties are involved. Some are semantic 
and some are technical but most of them can be overcome. 
The main area of the contest is in the now broadly overlap- 
ping fields of the natural and social sciences. It seems to me 



139 



PIERRE DANSEREAU 



that we, on university campuses, would be well advised to 
direct much of our energy to the development of mutual 
understanding and to the elaboration of joint programmes 
that would instill new life and a new hope for the solution of 
problems that require an open mind and a dedicated effort. 



LA PLANIFICATION DES RESSOURCES: UN PROBLEMS 
DE COMMUNICATION 

par 

PIERRE DANSEREAU 

Le mot conservation a connu une evolution qui reflete la preoccupation 
croissante de la societe au sujet de ses ressources naturelles, et particu- 
lierement au sujet de celles qui ne sont pas renouvelables. On peut dire 
qu'une premiere phase (biologique) s'est accomplie par des inventaires 
detailles de plantes et d'animaux, et surtout de ceux qui etaient mena- 
ces; qu'une seconde (ecologique) a cherche a placer ces etres vivants dans 
leur cadre naturel, Phabitat qu'il fallait alors proteger tout entier; et 
que nous sommes entres depuis peu dans une troisieme (socioloftiquey 
qui tient compte davantage des structures sociales, economiques, poli- 
tiques et religieuses et de leurs exigences. 

Pour bien poser les problemes d'utilisation de nos ressources nous 
devons puiser dans nos connaissances concernant la population, les res- 
sources elles-memes et la societe. Ces trois termes nous sont inegalement 
connus. Les donnees de Panthropologie et de la sociologie ne se pre- 
sentent pas a nous avec la meme precision que celles de Phydrologie, 
de la botanique ou de la physiologic. Nous disposons encore moins 
d'un personnel qualifie pour faire la synthese de deux ou plusieurs de 
ces disciplines. Quelques pas ont toutefois ete faits par des universites 
ou Ton a mis au point des programmes d'etudes auxquels on accede 
desormais aussi bien a partir de la sociologie ou de Peconomique que de 
la foresterie, de Pecologie ou de la zoologie, voies traditionnelles. Ce 
curriculum nouveau exige d'ailleurs que les economistes se plient a la 
biologie et a la geologic et que les naturalistes s'instruisent en sociologie. 

Ainsi Parmee montante de ces "conservateurs" nouveau-genre, de 
ces administrateurs des ressources humaines et naturelles, nous aide 
presentement a rompre certaines barrieres : les difficultes de communi- 
cation entre les disciplines scientifiques et sociologiques d'une part et 
entre les diverses classes sociales d'autre part. 

140 



Food Supply and 
Increase of Population 

by 

M. J. SlRKS 



The statement, that in many countries there is a large excess 
of food-production and food-supply, while in other parts of 
the world the great masses of the people suffer from an 
almost permanent scarcity of food, periodically leading to 
starvation, looks like carrying coals to Newcastle, or like we 
in this country say, like carrying water to the sea. There is no 
doubt whatever that a regular and sufficient supply of food 
is one of the primary conditions of life, not to say the most 
fundamental one. There is no doubt whatever that starvation 
is one of the most cruel and merciless processes, by which 
life is menaced, that death by starvation is the hardest fate 
human beings can meet. Those of us who live in one of the 
privileged countries, look upon a good breakfast, a loaded 
table at lunch or dinner as phenomena of the same 
regularity as sunrise or sunset, they not only consider a 
quantitatively and qualitatively good feeding one of the 
claims to which every-one is entitled, but they accept a well 
stocked pantry as a matter of course. In quite exceptional 
cases, our Western populations are put up against a serious 
food-shortage, or even against starvation: the last months of 
World War II have taught the urban population in the 
Western part of this country the gravity of a situation in 
which foodsupply has been decreased to the extremely low 
level of 600 calories a day. But we all know that this situation 

141 



M. }. SIRKS 

in other parts of the world is not an exception at all, we all 
know it and we all shall be conscious of the fact that in many 
other countries a large majority of people do not receive the 
amount of food, which is taken for the minimum necessary 
for a worthy living of human beings. And for those who are 
not yet fully aware of this extremely alarming fact, a study of 
books like that of the WOYTINSKI'S and that of Sir JOHN RUSSELL 
may serve as an eye-opener. 

We all have to face this very big problem squarely; not only 
because those who suffer from under-nourishment are 
human beings, our fellow-men and by this it is our moral 
duty to help as much as we can, but also because there is a 
serious danger in this situation that hunger fetches the wolf 
out of the wood, that hunger demoralizes the people, sets 
going the unreasonable elements within a population, and by 
that causes an explosion of the large masses, which by their 
state of mind destroy by sheer force what has been achieved 
and acquired during long years for the profit of the people's 
welfare. 

To all appearance this situation of a shortage of food in 
large parts of the world has taken a turn for the worse since 
the last World War. I may quote two conclusions from RUS- 
SELL'S alarming book: "The quantities of food produced 
during the last ten or fifteen years have changed but little 
while the population has been steadily increasing" (p. 329). 
And : u The net result of all these changes is that the countries 
of Asia, already ill-fed before the war, are on a still lower 
dietary now, but while in the aggregate they used to produce 
the whole of their food supply and even have margins for 
export they now no longer do so but have become dependent 
on America and Australia for the reduced amount of food 
they are getting" (p. 352). 

The urgency of this very big problem of food supply has 
not decreased in the least; this problem is a problem for today, 
for tomorrow, for the near or a more remote future. 

The problem for today is one for the economist: to find a 

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FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

better way of international exchange of food materials for 
other merchandise available for export in the food-lacking 
countries. Such an exchange, however, demands that in these 
countries where deficiency of food continuously threatens 
the peoples welfare, materials for exchange shall be available 
and as long as this requirement is not satisfied, a real exchange 
remains a wishful day-dream, which like most dreams, is 
empty. A remedy for the present situation can be obtained 
only by a one-sided relief-action on an extensive and large 
scale, and therefore asks for so much understanding from 
both sides that I am afraid that the most competent and the 
most altruistic economist will be unable to find an efficient 
and immediate solution for this lack of equilibrium between 
different parts of the world. 

The problem for tomorrow belongs to the domain of the 
biologist, more especially to that of the plantbreeder and the 
animal breeder. In many of the Western countries varieties 
and strains of cultivated plants, of cattle, of fowl are available 
which are much better producing than the rather primitive 
races in the food-lacking countries. These improved races 
have been obtained by a long year program of hybridization 
and selection and they are available now for immediate use. 
It seems to be a task for the biologist to pick out those strains 
which are suited to be grown and raised in those destitute 
countries and to introduce them there for further cultivation 
and for improving the production rate of the indigenous 
agriculture. It is a difficult problem which needs some time 
of experiment, but which in my opinion can be solved before 
long by international cooperation. 

There are various problems for the near future which aim 
at developing agriculture and agricultural methods all over 
the world, most especially in the socalled less developed 
countries. 

The first and most obvious one is a subject of technical 
education. In many of those countries methods and 
equipment for agricultural practice are still primitive and 

143 



M. J. SIRKS 

not at all efficient. Modern technics has been developed 
since a number of years and by that it is a task for educational 
technicians to teach the agricultural labourer in those 
countries how to handle these modern machinery and to 
adapt these tools to the needs of the native farmers. This task 
shall be performed with the greatest care : it is quite easy to 
import large stocks of modern implements into these 
countries, but it takes much time and patience to teach the 
farmers how to use them and how to keep them in repairs. 
Education is a matter of time and forbearance, a very simple 
thesis, which by advanced people, even in highest politics, is 
too frequently forgotten, which rouses the teachers indig- 
nation and disappointment, the pupils unconcern and 
apathy. 

The second problem for the near future is that of extension 
of agricultural areas. This problem shall be committed to the 
charge of a cooperative team of soil scientists and biologists. 
It has a bearing in all opportunities of extension of foodpro- 
ducing areas, of opening up those large parts of the world, 
which still are out of cultivation, which still do not produce 
any foodsubstances at all, though they are well qualified to 
do so. This is not only a question for less developed regions, 
but for the most advanced countries as well. I should like to 
mention one or two special cases only: those who have seen 
the province of Drenthe in this country fourty years ago and 
now again, or the new polders, reclaimed from the former 
Zuiderzee, will understand how even in prosperous countries 
still many possibilities are present like sleeping beauties, to be 
wakened by an enterprising conqueror. 

A counterpart to this opening up new and thus far 
untapped resources of foodproduction is becoming more 
and more important in recent years: the prevention of 
erosion and as its results barrenness of large areas which for 
long years have contributed a great deal to the worlds 
foodsupply. This problem also belongs to soilstudies in its 
widest sense; it speaks in favour of modern agricultural 

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FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

science that not only extension of agricultural areas shall be 
tried, but that also intensification and preservation of 
agricultural standards is considered a factor of utmost 
importance. 

A third way in which the near future may contribute to the 
worlds foodproduction is that of breeding and selecting 
indigenous plants and animals and raising their yield and 
productivity. In those less developed countries races of 
cultivated plants and of farmanimals mostly are as primitive 
as agricultural technics; plantbreeding and animal breeding 
are sciences which for these primitive crops and live-stock 
promise to be of as much value as they have proven in 
countries of Western Europe and the United States. But this 
plantbreeding and animal breeding again takes some time 
for development and so its results cannot be expected 
tomorrow, but after a lapse of years only. 

All this looks promising and hopeful for the near or more 
remote future; those masses of people who are suffering 
from undernourishment may find some comfort in the 
knowledge that the present scientists are aware of their duty 
to do as much as possible for a change for the better in the 
worlds foodsituation. However, the extremely serious and 
continual warning by Sir JOHN RUSSELL in his book, shall be 
permanently kept in mind: "No scheme, however attractive, 
should be attempted until the basic knowledge has been 
acquired by properly conducted experiments" (p. 130) and: 
"The general rule is that planning easily outruns achieve- 
ment in agriculture" (p. 315) and so on. 

There is more: modern science of nutrition has learned to 
admit the value of foodquality. We know now that not so 
much quantity of food is a matter that counts, but that 
before all quality in its scientific meaning, like digestibility, 
caloric values and contents of vitamins, are of the greatest 
importance for human wellbeing. Years ago, in the middle of 
the twenties, when visiting the United States, I had my 
breakfast in one of New Yorks Childs Lunchrooms and I was 

145 



M. J. SIRKS 

quite astonished to see, in what part at that time already, 
science took a place on the menu-card. For each dish the 
contents of vitamins was mentioned in three grades: a large 
V for many vitamins, a small one for little contents of this 
valuable substance and no v at all when the food did not 
contain any vitamins at all. Two numbers were added: one 
for the total value of calories of the dish, and one for the 
number of protein calories. One may doubt if the general 
guest of such a lunchroom will be impressed with the real 
drift of this information, but for those who are inclined to a 
scientific outlook, such an advice probably is not quite 
useless. And for those visitors, who prefer a more philosophi- 
cal contemplation of life, the same firm gave this lesson: 
"Everything springs from the egg; it is the world's cradle" 
runs a Hindoo legend. On the measureless waters Brahm 
placed a great golden egg, in which were locked Wisdom and 
Power and of these the world was made. Advice on the 
menucard: "To those in search of wisdom and power the 
egg is still recommended, for it is rich in food iron which 
now enriches the brain and strengthens the body."Once again : 
the great majority of the customers of such a lunchroom 
will leave the matters there, while they are not to be bothered 
by that, but the attempt to give some advice in the choice of 
food, in dietetics, certainly deserved our appreciation. 

There is still more: in the modern world one of the slogans, 
most in use, is the cry for industrialization. We have reached 
the point already, that in every drugstore you can obtain a 
few cents tablets containing the type of vitamin or a combi- 
nation of vitamins you think to need on behalf of your 
metabolism, of your good health. Nutrition is a chemical 
process: the human body needs a number of chemical 
substances by which it is enabled to perform its physiological 
functions. In this line it seems quite conceivable that our 
foodproducers some day will succeed in preparing a tablet in 
which all elements, necessary for one man for one day, are 
present; the right contents of foodsubstances, of vitamins, 

146 



FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

the right production of calories. Theoretically there is no 
limit to foodproduction for everybody in the world, provided 
that science develops methods for an artificial making-up of 
the right mixture of the foodstuffs we want. 

In this way the scientific needs of nurture are fully satis- 
fied. But quality is more than a scientifically calculated 
mixture of elements ; there are qualities of taste, qualities of 
individual choice, qualities of religious precepts. By that the 
constitution of our food is not only a scientific problem of 
metabolism; it has become a problem of psychology as well. 
Equalization of foodsupply in a scientific way is a serious 
mistake; though there is some truth in the statement of the 
nineteenth century german philosophers, like JEUERBACH, 
who said "Der Mensch ist was er isst," "Man is what he eats," 
there is also a good deal of psychological fallacy in this 
superficial and purely materialistic view. Certainly, hunger is 
the best sauce, or like we in this country say "hunger sweetens 
raw beans," but the problem of foodsupply reaches more 
than taking off the edge of hunger; foodsupply shall not 
lower the demands of a truly human life. Human beings are 
no robots; they have a body which is composed of chemical 
substances, but they have something more; they possess a 
spiritual character of no less importance. It is true, this side 
of human life may be latent and undeveloped in numbers of 
human beings, but nobody will deny that the aborigines of 
Australia and the pygmies of Africa do belong to the bio- 
logical species, which we still call Homo sapiens, the wise 
man, anid because of that they are entitled to be considered 
human beings in the full sense of the word. It is one of the 
mistakes of our present time, that we make a pretence of 
considering human psychology one of the most important 
sciences, but that we omit its conclusions in problems of 
foodsupply. Foodsupply is not only a problem for economy 
or physiology, it is also a problem with many psychological 
faces. 

There is no end to industrial developments. It requires no 

147 



M. J. SIRKS 

stretch of imagination to picture a future in which almost 
every side of human life wili be favoured by new tools, new 
machinery, new inventions. If we believe what is told to us all 
about the possible prospects of industrialization, we can 
fancy a future in which so to say every square metre of the 
worlds surface, not in use for industrial purposes, will be 
available as a shelter for one human being, who receives his 
food in the form of an all-containing pill and the water he 
needs in a measured bottle. 

And so it would appear that there is an effective solution 
for the problem of foodsupply, not only for the near or more 
remote future, but also for years and centuries to come. 
Increase of the worlds population seems no longer matter of 
concern. There will be room for everybody, there will be a 
sufficient foodproduction to feed every individual no matter 
where, in what country. Our technicians will see to that, and 
the economists will find the suitable ways of a fair distri- 
bution. 

However, when we consider the problem of food supply 
and the increase of population not only from the one-sided 
and limited viewpoint of the technician and of the economist 
but with the broader outlook of a human being in the full 
sense of the word, we are seized with fear of this industrial 
way of thinking. 

It is true, we all are impressed by the many ways in which 
modern industry has contributed to human welfare. We 
all are thankful for her numerous gifts. We all enjoy the 
comfort of our homes with its many tools produced by 
industrial technics. We greatly appreciate the variety of 
conveniences for our daily life, born from industrial activi- 
ties. We all accept gratefully the services of railways and 
airplanes. In our so-called civilized countries we all hope 
that these blessings in a not too remote future will be availa- 
ble for everyone all over the world. But notwithstanding that 
we keep modern industry in high esteem, we shall not shut 
our eyes to the dangers of its development. Wise men have 

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FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

warned frequently against the levelling down of man as a 
human being caused by the recent developments of the 
industrial way of thinking, I may quote here a few lines from 
the Nobel prize winner ALEXIS CARREL in his admirable book 
"Man, the unknown." He says: "Man should be the standard 
of everything. In fact, he is a stranger in the world he has 
created. He has been unable to organize this world for the 
good of himself, because he did not understand his own 
nature. The enormous progress of the sciences of the inani- 
mate things as compared to the advance of those of the 
living beings is one of the most tragic events in the history of 
humanity. The environment we have constructed by means 
of our intellect and our inventions is not adjusted to our 
size, not to our shape. It fits us badly. We feel unhappy in its 
surroundings. We degenerate morally and mentally. The 
very groups and nations, where the industrial developments 
have reached the pinnacle, become most weakened. They 
return to barbarism with a fatal speed." 

We all, who have lived for five years in the prison of a 
country, occupied by enemy forces, have gained some 
experience of the effects of this barbarism. And all those who 
have passed through the hell of war, have learned the same 
tragic lesson. But this barbarism not only expresses itself in 
wartime. I may remind of the fatal accidents which occurred 
in recent years in various countries, where crazy demon- 
strations of the speed of cars before a public in search of 
sensation, led to the death of numerous people. Such 
demonstrations are the symptom of a mentality, poisoned by 
a diseased worship of technical power; they are not only 
crazy, but they come very near to crime. 

This holds good not only for industrial developments in 
engineering; the same danger of levelling down threatens 
the production of foodsubstances as well. Human beings are 
no automatons, no robots. They need more than nourish- 
ment alone. The more technical our food, the more mechani- 
cal man will become. 

149 



M. J. SIRKS 

But even if we accept such a change in our way of nutrition, 
if we allow our technicians to deprive us from a part of our 
joy of living, if we submit to the worlds crazy adoration for 
industrialization, even then a second danger comes to the 
fore. The scheme propagandized by our food industrialists 
engenders the thought that an unlimited increase of popu- 
lation all over the world should be considered a blessing for 
mankind. Here again: human beings are no robots, they 
cannot be packed like herrings in a barrel. 

We have the disposal of a rich collection of statistical data 
concerning the increase of the worlds population. I do not 
intend to discuss these data in detail. A few figures will show 
the far reaching facts. 

The worlds population in millions three hundred years 
ago was about 540, two hundred years ago 730, one hundred 
years ago 1170 and now more than 2600 millions. The annual 
increase in these three centuries in percentages of the popu- 
lation was 0.29, 0.51 and 1.20. 

The population of a so-called well-developed country with a 
high standard of living, like the Netherlands, has increased from 
3 millions in 1850 to 5 millions in 1900 and to n millions in 1956. 

The population of a less developed country like China has 
increased in the last fifty years from 360 millions to 460 
millions, that of India from 235 to 357 millions, that of Japan 
from 44 to 85 millions. 

Those are bare facts. Statisticians have snowed us under 
with collections of data, and with studies of the background 
of this population-pressure. There is a great diversity of 
demographic causes of this enormous increase, different for 
different countries. Large birthrate, decrease of deathrate, 
improved hygiene have all contributed to this almost 
morbid growth. The most spectacular phenomenon in 
figures is perhaps the increase of life expectation; in this 
country one hundred years ago 40% of new born reached the 
age of 50 years and 5% the age of 80 years; now these figures 
are 90 and 35. 

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FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

There are numberless people who consider these facts 
symptoms of a healthy and robust existence. Quantity 
should be the ideal to be pursued. There is however a reverse. 

We have respected with warmest admiration the strenuous 
efforts by the United States to improve the conditions of 
living for the crowded population of Porto Rico, to further 
hygienic measures, to apply modern medicine, to advance 
public health, to raise the level of education, to put science 
into service of the people. We may rejoice the results obtained, 
the fact that mortality has been reduced half, that the 
population of one million in 1900 has increased to two 
millions in 1943. But with a heavy heart we state that this 
population is growing three percent every year, that in 1960 
the population has surpassed 3 millions, in 1970 possibly 
4 millions. For this means that the density of population, 
now already 245 per square kilometer, within twenty years 
will rise to 500, that the area of cultivable ground, at present 
only 1300 square meters will be dwindled to 650. A number 
which tells its own tale by comparison with the extensive 
agriculture in the United States, where 10.000 square metres 
of cultivated land is available for one man, or with our own 
country with its dense population and its very intensive 
agriculture, where 2500 square metres of agricultural fields is 
available a head. Compare these numbers with Porto Rico 
with its careless and unkempt agriculture, where only 1300 
square metres are available. 

In the American periodical Journal of Heredity in 1947 
attention has been drawn to this terrifying situation. Since 
1934 committee after committee has studied the conse- 
quences of this population growth and proposed radical 
measures. Harrowing descriptions of the situation told the 
truth, but no improvement has been obtained. Stimulation 
of emigration since 1946 was undone by the overspill of 
birthfrequency over mortality. Porto Rico is a small island, 
but its situation may be considered a lesson for all those who 



151 



M. J. SIRKS 

think the quantity of a population the standard of well- 
being. A hard and serious lesson. 

For such an increase is observed not only in Porto Rico, 
but also in many States of Central America and Asia and in a 
few countries of Europe. An annual increase of more than 
two per cent leads to a population density which becomes 
fatal for the population itself and for the human race as well. 
A population of one million with a growth rate of 3 percent 
annually after fifty years will have reached the size of 4 
millions, after hundred years 16 millions. An increase of only 
two per cent rises the population from one million today to 
3 millions within 50 years, to 7 millions one hundred years 
hence. 

Three ways may lead out of this deathly strangling laby- 
rinth: 

Common opinion tells us that the problem is rather easy 
to solve. The quantitative character of the worlds population, 
as well for its various countries, is generally considered one 
of the most important problems for the economist. Food- 
supply is regarded its central question. Technical, industrializ- 
ed food production and distribution indeed may seem to be 
the determining weapon in the fight against hunger for 
everyone on the earths surface. It is true, for the time being 
we have not yet reached this equilibrium between foodsupply 
and population growth, but if we believe what we are told by 
many industrial economists, we are on the right way. Many 
agricultural projects have been set up for improving foodpro- 
duction in so-called less developed countries, but as soon as 
these projects, successful as they may be, will have resulted 
into doubling the foodsupply, the population has grown 
threefold. I quote from an interesting article by KARL SAX on 
population problems of Central America (p. 163): "The 
experience of the Rockefeller Foundation indicates the need 
of a completely balanced program. For many years a public 
health program had been conducted in Mexico. The public 
health program was very effective and the population grew 

152 



FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

rapidly, even though dietary standards were low. The 
Foundation saw little virtues in preventing death from 
disease if the people were to die more slowly from starvation 
and malnutrition. In 1943, the Foundation established an 
agricultural project, in cooperation with the Mexican 
government, to increase food production. This project, too, 
was very successful, but the population grew faster." 

Besides, it should not be our only aim to save the popu- 
lation of these less developed countries from starvation, but 
also to improve their living standards and the number of 
calories they receive. Here again SAX may be quoted con- 
cerning Mexico: "During the past ten years, beginning in 
1943 when the agricultural program was initiated, the popu- 
lation increased about 30 per cent. As a result the advances in 
agriculture have been absorbed by rapid population growth 
and the diet of the common man has shown little im- 
provement." 

Population problems, complex as they are, have three 
different aspects. One is that of the quantity of the worlds 
population, the second one that of the conditions to which 
these populations are subjected, their way of living, their 
standards, and the third problem lies in the quality of the 
population itself. 

The first problem, that of the quantity may possibly be 
solved by our technical economists, but even if they reach 
their aim, the population problem is not solved at all. The 
present trend of considering food supply the only medicine 
for the world miseries is a monstrum, a quack medicine, a 
stunning substance, not a remedy at all. This is clearly 
recognised by the Indian Health Survey, as stated in its 
report published in 1946 : "We feel, however, that such measu- 
res can constitute only a temporary expedient, because a 
limit to economic productivity will be reached sooner or 
later, and uncontrolled growth of population must, as far as 
we can see, outstrip the production capacity of the country/ 3 

The first way out, food supply alone, either by improving 

153 



M. J. SIRKS 

agricultural production as such, or even by preparing a 
fantastic concentrated industrial foodsubstance in pills, 
takes into account only the quantitative side of the popu- 
lation. It will never lead to improvement of the conditions 
of living for all human beings. It will lock in the entire 
mankind in one large prison, without any possibility for 
recreation or free exercise. It will lead to a population 
pressure, to a density of population, which is rightly charac- 
terized by KARL SAX, professor at Harvard University, in the 
title of his fascinating, but alarming book "Standing room 
only." The economists view in my opinion is an extremely 
narrow one; the solution presented very dangerous and 
fatal for the human race. 

The second way which is thought to prevent overpopu- 
lation is that of emigration. Many people consider emigration 
an efficacious remedy of all troubles caused by a too high 
population density. Many and ponderous doubts however 
may be advanced against this optimistic suggestion. One 
hundred seventy years ago BENJAMIN FRANKLIN has said this: 
"In my piece on population, I have proved, I think, that 
emigration does not dimmish but multiplies a nation. You 
will not have fewer at home for those that go abroad." The 
experience of our own nation since the last war has led to the 
same conclusion: in ten years about 250,000 individuals from 
the Netherlands have emigrated, while the normal increase 
of the population in this period has been six times this number. 

In his clever book "Hungry people and empty lands," Dr. 
CHANDRASEKHAR, the Director of the Indian Institute for 
Population Studies, defends the thesis that the population of 
Southern and Eastern Asia cannot be confined to its present 
geographical limits, as long as there are empty spaces around 
the world. It is true, there are countries in which the popu- 
lation is far too large for an existence worthy of human 
beings, and there are countries where empty spaces are 
available which by reasonable opening up could give room 
to large numbers of people, but I think Dr. CHANDRASEKHAR 

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FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

overrates these possibilities, certainly in the long run. In his 
foreword to this book WILLIAM VOGT gives a serious warning : 
"Much of the "Empty 55 land Dr. CHANDRASEKHAR would use 
as a home for surplus people is as undependable as a pair of 
paper shoes: expose it to the rain and it melts away. As other 
students of the tropics have also pointed out, we simply do 
not know to use most tropical soils without destroying 
them. The empty lands are not nearly so empty as some of 
us wish they were.' 5 

Besides, emigration has two important drawbacks for the 
people staying at home; it harms the quality of the remaining 
population in a serious way. Those who are willing to 
emigrate belong to a type of character, which is of great 
value for the nations prosperity; they are energetic and 
enterprising, they have got the nerve to accept the diffi- 
culties, presented by a change of environment, to adapt to 
new conditions of life. They certainly belong to the better 
part of the population. And secondly they are young, 
anyhow under a certain age, and by their leaving the re- 
maining population is ageing artificially. It seems to me that 
this danger for a nations existence is generally overlooked by 
those who propagate emigration as an effective way out from 
the maze of overpopulation. Emigration counteracts the 
increase of population in a small scale temporarily only, not 
for years to come, while it also is injurious to the populations 
quality. 

The third way, which may lead to a solution of the problem 
of overpopulation is that of birth control. In our Western 
countries this process is regarded as most delicate and sensi- 
tive, out of reach of governments measure. Limitation of the 
family number is left entirely to the desire and the sense of 
responsibility of the individual. On the contrary, in many 
countries government-measures by means of family-al- 
lowances stimulate the number of children and by that an 
uncontrolled increase of population. Clerical parties support 
these governmental efforts and the clergy propagates the 

155 



M. J. SIRKS 

cult of large families. These government-measures however 
involve a great danger. For birth control is applied mainly by 
those who have enough mental ability to see and to value 
the impending dangers of overpopulation. This means that 
on the whole those families with a larger intellectual capaci- 
ty and more social responsibility have a smaller number of 
children than have those who are less intelligent and more 
careless. Here we meet the very serious problem of the 
differential birth-rate, which is strongly linked to that of the 
increase of population in so-called civilized countries. 
Already in 1934 LORIMER and OSBORN in their Dynamics of 
Population have pointed to a decrease of national intelligence 
caused by this differential birth-rate. And in 1946 the Presi- 
dent of the Royal Commission on Population in Great 
Britain, Sir CYRIL RURT has said : "In a little over fifty years the 
number of pupils of "scholarship" ability would be approxi- 
mately halved and the number of feeble-minded doubled.' 3 
This danger of "genetical erosion" threatens all countries 
withahigh standard of development when thefamily numbers 
are stimulated without any attention to the inherited quality 
of the members of these families. 

For the less-developed countries the danger of stimulating 
family numbers lies in a somewhat different direction. I may 
quote here one of the best friends of the Chinese people, 
GERALD WINHELD: "All the proposed steps toward industri- 
alisation and increased agricultural productivity, all the 
processes necessary to enable China to play her logical role 
in a world community, all plans for her progress, are and 
will be futile unless her population growth can be controlled. 
Existing misery and poverty can be permanently eliminated 
only when there are fewer, healthier people, with longer life 
expectancy and greater economic security. The future 
welfare of the Chinese people is more dependent on the 
prevention of births than on the prevention of deaths." Or a 
quotation from an article by A. A. BUZZATTI-TRAVERSO 
(Science and Freedom, N. 2, April 1955, p. 24): "The obvious 

156 



FOOD SUPPLY AND INCREASE OF POPULATION 

facts of the case were actually admitted at the September 
meeting of the National People's Congress of Red China, 
when the Deputy SHAO Li-TzE declared: "It is a good thing 
to have a large population but in an environment beset with 
difficulties it appears that there should be a limit set". I will 
not say more on this extremely difficult, but also extremely 
grave and serious subject. I may only say that blindly stimu- 
lating family numbers all over the world on grounds of 
national or party political motives is an unsound procedure. 
Here again I may ask attention for the book by KARL SAX, 
"Standing room only." 

To sum up : 

Promoting foodproduction and foodsupply is highly neces- 
sary for today and the near future, but this method is quite 
unsatisfactory to prevent all troubles of population increase 
in the long run. 

Emigration is a temporary means of relief for overpopu- 
lated countries but its results will never lead to reducing the 
population of such a country to its desirable size. 

Stimulating family sizes under present world conditions is 
a grave mistake; the counterpart, reasonable birth control 
the only way out on behalf of the well-being of mankind. 

Increase of population asks for action, for radical measures, 
but these measures shall be supported by well-founded and 
sober reason, not by sentimental bias. 



LITERATURE 

BURT, CYRIL, 1946. Intelligence and fertility; the effect of the differential 
birth rate on inborn mental characteristics. London Cassel and Com- 
pany. Occas. Papers on Eugenics 2, 1946, Sec. ed. 1952: 44pp. 

CARREL, A., 1935. L'homme, cetinconnu. Paris, Plon, 1935: 400 pp. 

CHANDRASEKHAR, S., 1954. Hungry people and empty lands. London, 
Allen and Unwin, 1954: 306 pp. 

LORIMER, F. and F. OSBORN, 1934. Dynamics of population. New York, 
Mac Millan, 1934. 

157 



M. J. SIRKS 

OSBORN, F., 1951. Preface to eugenics. Rev. Ed., New York, Harper Bros. 

1951: 333 pp. 
RUSSELL, E. }., 1954. World population and world food supplies. London, 

Allen and Unwin, 1954 : 513 pp. 
SAX, K. 3 1954. Population problems of Central America. Ceiba, a scientific 

journal issued by the Escuela agricola panamericana, 4: 153-164, 1954. 
SAX, K., 1955. Standing Room Only, the Challenge of Overpopulation. 

Boston, Beacon Press, 1955: 206 pp. 
WINFIELD, G., 1950. China: the Land and the people. Rev. ed., New York, 

Sloane, 1950. 
WOYTINSKI, W. S., and E. S., 1953- World Population and production. 

Trends and outlook. New York, The twentieth Century fund, 1953: 

1268 pp. 



158 



Quelques voies probables 
de developpement des nouvelles 

techniques en agronomie 1 



par 
P. CHOUARD 



Avec tous les risques d'erreur que comporte fatalement une 
telle initiative, je voudrais essay er de degager les tendances 
actuelles du progres technique en agronomic, de decrire, 
par anticipation, quelques unes des techniques qui entreront 
d'ici cinq a vingt ans dans la pratique. Par la, je me propose 
d'attirer ^attention des techniciens agronomes sur certains 
aspects de la Recherche Scientifique, et de les porter a s'en 
tenir informes pour en assurer le plus tot possible la trans- 
position agricole ou horticole. 



RESISTANCE A LA SECHERESSE 

L'eau etant le premier des facteurs limitants la croissance 
des plantes, son utilisation presente une importance capitale, 
et nous pouvons nous attendre ici a de nouveaux progres. 
Par exemple, nous comment; ons a savoir ou a soup^onner 
qu'un emploi judicieux d'oligo-elements tels que le cuivre, 
ou des traitements infliges aux graines avant le semis, peuvent 

i. Get article contient la substance d'une conference faite au Comite parlemen- 
taire pour les Sciences et les Techniques (Bull. No. 2, 24 fevrier 1955) et a la Confe- 
deration Internationale des Ingenieurs et Techniciens de FAgriculture. A cet 
article 1'auteur a ajoute mention des decouvertes recentes et des tendances nou- 
velles, en vue du rapide progres dans ces dernieres annees en nombre des branches 
scientifiques liees a I'agriculture. 

159 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

peut-etre ameliorer la resistance ulterieure des plantes a la 
secheresse. Si de telles decouvertes se confirment et se pre- 
cisent, il sera possible de faire reculer plus ou moins la limite 
des terres arides; les plantes cultivees pourront gagner sur 
les territoires ou, jusqu'ici, la pluviosite etait insuffisante; ou 
bien le rendement de 1'eau disponible dans les terres deja 
cultivees sera ameliore et la production accrue. 

On peut citer ici les perspectives d'emploi plus economique 
de 1'eau (par exemple par des cultures sur le sable des deserts 
irrigue par dessous en solutions nutritives), et d'approvision- 
nement des deserts en eaux dessalees par divers precedes, 
etc. 2 

FUMURE FOLIAIRE 

La fumure foliaire nous offre des perspectives peut-etre plus 
immediates. On sait en effet depuis longtemps que les plantes 
peuvent absorber les matieres fertilisantes, non seulement 
par la voie normale des racines, mais, dans une certaine 
mesure, par la voie anormale des surfaces foliaires et meme 
des ecorces. Mais cette connaissance physiologique n'a fait 
que depuis peu Fob jet de recherches systeniatiques et de 
tentatives d'application. Cependant, les experiences faites 

2. Note de PEditeur : A ce propos on peut peut-etre signaler les resultats des re- 
cherches suivantes, a cause de leur probable importance mondiale: 

Depuis 1949, en Israel, H. et E. BOYKO ont prouve avec succes qu'il est possible 
d'irriguer des plantes economiquement importantes par des eaux tres saumatres 
et meme avec de Teau de mer a concentration oceanique. 

II y a plus: Cette methode est particulierement indiquee pour rendre productives 
les vastes zones sablonneuses des bords de la mer et des deserts, ainsi que les terrains 
graveleux. 

Ces experiences ont combine 1'approche geophysique avec celui de 1'ecologie 
vegetale, et elles ont ete recemment verifiees par 'des experiences semblables en 
Suede et en Espagne. 

Cette methode s'est ainsi montree valable pour le profil climatique tout entier, 
depuis le chaud desert d'Eilat et la semi-aride plaine mediterraneenne d'Israel et 
la chaleur temperee d'Espagne jusqu'a la Suede fraiche et humide. En Suede on a 
me'me pu utiliser des terrains argileux, grace aux pluies plus frequentes et aux 
temperatures plus basses. 

Ces experiences ouvrent des nouvelles lignes de recherche en plusieures direc- 
tions, et nous montrent comme on pourra peut-etre un jour ajouter aux terrains 
actuellement cultives d'autres grandes extensions comparables a un vaste continent 

160 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

dans divers pays commencent a montrer qu'il est possible, 
d'une maniere economique et efficace, de suppleer par cette 
voie a certaines insuffisances de la penetration des engrais 
par les ratines, notamment dans les cas de certains sols trop 
pauvres ou trop difficilement fertilisables. Ainsi, le phosphore 
si souvent immobilise par le calcaire dans le sol, peut, de la 
sorte, penetrer plus facilement chez les plantes ; Pazote peut 
etre introduit sous forme de sels mineraux ou, souvent 
mieux, d'uree; dans un tel cas, ou dans Pemploi de carbona- 
tes ou de bicarbonates, c'est meme un peu Pequivalent d'une 
fuinure carbonique, non point gazeuse mais soluble, que 
Ton distribue de la sorte sur les plantes. Des ameliorations 
sensibles de rendement ont deja ete observees dans quelques 
cas. Et si 1'experience se generalise et aboutit a une mise au 
point, il sera, sans doute, possible de Tappliquer dans les 
cultures en sols squelettiques, en combinaison avec 1'apport 
d'eau ce qui constituerait une sorte de renovation des prin- 
cipes de la culture "sans sol" et peut-etre permettrait de doter 
d'une fertilite reelle des territoires reputes incultivables 
comme ceux de certaines zones au pourtour du Sahara. Je 
tiens a souligner la marge d'incertitude qui cerne une telle 
perspective, mais aussi ^importance qui s'attache aux essais 
qui pourraient etre entrepris dans ce sens. 



En ce qui concerne les applications de la genetique, nous 
avons encore devant nous des progres importants et dont on 
peut deja deceler Torientation: 



RACES RESISTANTES AUX MALADIES 

La production de races genetiquement resistantes aux 
maladies ne cesse de progresses chaque annee on decouvre, 
par recherches dans les pays d'origine des plantes cultivees 

161 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

ou Ton cree par hybridation, des races nouvelles resistantes 
a 1'une ou 1'autre des maladies ou des parasites. Par exemple, 
il n'est pas exclus de penser qu'un jour nous disposerions 
de pommes de terre sur lesquelles le Doryphore ne saurait 
pas se multiplier, ni le Mildiou s'etablir, ou meme qui seraient 
resistantes a certains types de virus. 



HYBRIDES HETEROSIS 

D'autre part, le succes enregistre chez les mais dans 1'accrois- 
sement de la production par Femploi d'hybrides de premiere 
generation, autrement dit par "heterosis," se retrouve peu a 
peu chez d'autres plantes: il y a peu d'annees, les Americains 
ont decouvert une race d'oignons chez laquel le pollen est 
incapable d'assurer Pauto-fecondation; ils ont pu trans- 
mettre cette auto-sterilite a n'importe quelle race ou espece 
d'oignons. A partir de ces races auto-steriles il est facile 
d'assurer la fecondation par une autre race ou variete nor- 
male et d'obtenir de la sorte, a Pechelle commerciale, des 
graines hybrides de premiere generation qui sont capables de 
redonner le type d'oignon qu'on desire, mais avec une 
vigueur accrue et une productivite augmentee de Tordre de 
30%, Recemment il vient d'etre fait de meme pour le ricin et 
1'etude de tels hybrides est actuellement en cours. On peut 
penser qu'une telle methode d' amelioration pourra s'etendre 
a bon nombre d'especes et qu'une marge importante d'ac- 
croissement de production est contenue en puissance dans 
un tel processus. 

MUTATIONS PROVOQUEES 

On doit mentionner aussi lafaf on de plus en plus precise avec 
laquelle nous savons maintenant appliquer sur les plantes 
des rayonnements divers, depuis les rayons X jusqu'aux flux 
de neutrons. Par de tels moyens, nous creons dans la plante 

162 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

des accidents genetiques d'ou il nait un grand nombre de 
mutations, c'est-a-dire de races ou de varietes nouvelles. La 
plupart ne sont que des monstruosites. Mais Fanalyse syste- 
matique des effets de tels agents mutagenes a permis de 
montrer que certaines mutations utiles pour nos besoins 
peuvent etre obtenues de temps en temps et isolees par un 
effort attentif et methodique de selection; de sorte que, la 
encore, un champ certainement important et imprevisible 
d'amelioration nous est ouvert. L'eniploi des agents chimi- 
ques mutagenes se developpera au moins autant que celui 
des rayonnements mutagenes. 

PLANTES INDEMNES DE VIRUS 

Dans la voie de la phyto-pathologie, les progres possibles sont 
considerables et on peut indiquer quelques-uns des chemins 
par lesquels ils parviennent. Par exemple, dans Fetude des 
virus, nous commenjons a savoir que des applications 
menagees de temperature chaude permettent, dans certains 
cas, de detruire le virus dans Finterieur de la plante sans tuer 
celle-ci. Ou bien, grace a une decouverte franfaise faite a 
FInstitut National de la Recherche Agronomique, il a ete 
montre que les points vegetatifs de beaucoup de plantes ne 
contiennent pas le virus qui a envahi tous les autres organes 
du vegetal; et grace a une technique delicate de prelevement 
et de culture des extremites des tiges, il a ete possible de 
regenerer, dans Fetat absolument exempt de virus des varie- 
tes de pommes de terre ou de dahlias, que Fon croyait tota- 
lement perdues parce que entierement contaminees par les 
virus. Cette methode pourra sans doute s'etendre. 

CHIMIOTHERAPIE CONTRE LES PARASITES 

Mais c'est surtout dans le domaine de la chimiotherapie que 
des decouvertes imprevisibles vont se faire dans des delais les 

163 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

plus proches; chaque annee, chaque semaine meme, apporte 
Pannonce de la decouverte de produits nouveaux, qui 
jouissent de proprietes extremement pulssantes dans la 
destruction des parasites: bacteries, champignons, insectes, 
etc. Comme je Fai dit plus haut ces produits, a cote de leurs 
vertus, presentent souvent des dangers graves, soit parce 
qu'ils sont toxiques pour Phomme, soit parce qu'ils detrui- 
sent, en meme temps que les parasites, certains des facteurs 
de Pequilibre faunistique et floristique. Mais si ce sont des 
armes a double tranchant, cependant il est hautement 
probable que leur connaissance approfondie, leur emploi 
judicieux, menage et convenablement diversifies, permettra 
une lutte de plus en plus spectaculaire contre les parasites 
qui detruisent encore une fraction si importante de beaucoup 
de nos recoltes. 



NOUVEAUX EMPLOIS DES HORMONES 

La physiologie moderne nous ouvre enfin les perspectives les 
plus surprenantes, celles sur lesquelles portent a la fois le 
doutequis'attachea toute anticipation, et Fenthousiasme qui 
s'allie a toute suggestion nouvelle. 

On peut indiquer, par exemple, qu'en matiere d'emploi 
des hormones vegetales, notamment des auxines, a cote des 
decouvertes classiques, d'autres peut-etre interviendront 
dans Fagriculture: Je viens de lire, dans un periodique 
agronomique de Californie, deux resultats experimentaux 
assez significatifs: dans Fun une pulverisation a 33 parties par 
million de 2, 4, 5 - T, substance connue comme un puissant 
debroussaillant est capable, a une telle dilution, de provoquer 
une precocite considerable et une regularite remarquable de 
fructification chez certains arbres fruitiers a noyaux; ce qui 
peut notamment modifier les conditions d'ecoulement de 
ces fruits a faible duree de conservation. D'autre part une 
application a 15 parties par milliard de 2, 4 - D> le celebre 

164 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

agent herbicide, s'est montree capable de stimuler puissam- 
ment la croissance de boutures d'Avocatier avec une sensi- 
bilite telle que 5 parties par milliard en plus se montrent deja 
toxiques, 5 parties par milliard en moms ne donnent qu'un 
resultat tres faiblement ameliore par rapport au temoin. De 
telles indications signifient que les progres dans la connais- 
sance de ces substances stimulantes capables d'agir a des 
doses aussi petites, peuvent apporter d'un jour a Pautre des 
bouleversements importants dans les techniques agricoles de 
production, mais en exigeant des precautions de plus en plus 
delicates dans leur emploi. 

LE PHYTOTRON ET LES PROGRES DE LA PHYSIOLOGIE 
DE LA CROISSANCE ET D*J DEVELOPPEMENT 

La physiologie de la croissance et du developpement est 
encore dans ses premiers balbutiements. Par elle, nous 
savons deja P existence d'un certain nombre de mecanismes 
regulateurs de la croissance et du developpement, tels que la 
vernalisation et le photoperiodisme: autrement dit nous 
savons que certaines plantes sont dotees d'un systeme 
physico-chimique par lequel elles se trouvent empechees 
indefiniment de fleurir tant qu'elle n'ont pas subi une 
periode appropriee de temperature froide: c'est la vernalisa- 
tion. D'autres sont dotees d'un autre mecanisme physico- 
chimique par lequel elles se trouvent indefiniment empe- 
chees de fleurir, ou au contraire immediatement poussees a 
fleurir, selon que la duree quotidienne d'eclairfement qu'elles 
ref oivent est augmentee ou reduite de quelques minutes en 
plus ou en moins; ce sont les mecanismes du photo-perio- 
disme. Chez d'autres ce sont les alternances quotidiennes de 
quelques degres de temperature qui constituent une condi- 
tion absolue de survie, tandis qu'une temperature constante 
entraine soit la mort, soit la chute rapide des boutons floraux 
ou des fruits; et ce sont la des mecanismes qui relevent du 
thermoperiodisme a rythme quotidien. 

165 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

Pour etudier ces mecanismes regulateurs, il a ete institue 
un appareillage complique auquel le nom de "phytotron" a 
ete donne, par analogic avec le cyclotron bien connu des 
physiciens et de tous les lecteurs de la grande presse: de me- 
me que le cyclotron permet, en accelerant des particules 
atomiques, d'analyser Pintimite de la mecanique de Tatome, 
de meme le phytotron, en accelerant ou en ralentissant 
certains des processus de la vie de la plante, permet d'analyser 
les mecanismes intimes qui controlent sa croissance et son 
developpement De meme que le cyclotron est un appareil 
couteux mais qui permet des decouvertes hautement renta- 
bles dans le domaine atomique, de meme le phytotron est 
un appareil couteux qui a deja permis des decouvertes im- 
portantes dans les applications et qui en procurera certaine- 
ment beaucoup d'autres dans 1'avenir. 

Ce dispositif n'est en realite autre chose qu'un en- 
semble complexe de serres et de locaux completement 
conditionnes, ou Ton est entierement maitre de tous les 
facteurs physiques et chimiques de Tambiance, soit pour les 
maintenir constants, soit pour les faire varier a tous moments 
et a volonte. Dans de telles enceintes, des plantes ou meme 
des animaux de toutes' sortes, peuvent etre eleves de faf on 
prolongee, Tintimite des mecanismes qui se manifestent peut 
etre analysee par les techniques modernes de Femploi des 
isotopes, de la chromatographie, ou autres. II n'existe a 
Theure actuelle qu*un seul phytotron complet et important, 
celui que le Dr. F. WENT a realise, apres une qulnzaine d'an- 
nees d'etudes, au California Institute of Technology, a 
Pasadena. Un grand equipement analogue existe a Moscou. 
D'autres sont en projet a Madison, a Canberra, etc. 

Un appareil plus reduit existe a TUniversite de Liege chez 
le professeur BOUILLENNE. Un autre, le premier en Europe du 
type complet, est actuellement en cours de construction a 
Gif-sur-Yvette, sous ma direction et a rinitiative du Centre 
National Franf ais de la Recherche Scientifique. 

Par les etudes qui se developpent, et se developperont avec 

166 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

de tels dispositifs, non settlement les mecanisrnes regulateurs 
que je citais plus haut ont deja ete decouverts et analyses, non 
seulement les proprietes des diverses especes et varietes de 
plantes, vis-a-vis de ces mecanisrnes, ont ete determinees 
experimentalement, et les aptitudes culturales de ces plantes 
definies tres rapidement, de telle sorte que Fexperience 
agronomique se trouve considerablement abregee. Mais 
encore, nous pouvons esperer acquerir une mattrise plus ou 
moins complete de la precocite du developpement, de son 
orientation, du maintien des fleurs ou des fruits sur les 
plantes, de leur maturation, de la rapidite de germination, 
etc..., autrement dit acquerir la maitrise des facteurs les plus 
importants pour la conduite des operations culturales. 
Certes, ce n'est pas pour demain que nous possederons la 
totalite de ces connaissances ; mais, piece par piece, elles 
tombent deja entre nos mains; le progres dans cette voie 
peut etre augure de la maniere la plus favorable. 



RECHERCHES SUR LA PHOTOSYNTHESE ET 
CONSIDERATIONS SUR LA PORTEE DES EMPLOIS DE 
L'ENERGIE SOLAIRE 

Enfin je ne puis manquer de mettre ici en place les importan- 
tes perspectives que nous donne Fetude de la photosynthese, 
le procede naturel par lequel les plantes vertes sont capables 
de retenir Tenergie lumineuse venue du soleil, sous forme de 
lumiere et de la transformer pour aboutir a la synthese des 
matieres organiques, sucres, proteines, etc... a partir des ele- 
ments mineraux, le gaz carbonique de Fatmosphere et les 
aliments mineraux dissous dans les liquides du sol. A elle 
seule, Petude de la photosynthese meriterait tout un expose, 
et Ton peut trouver dans les publications recentes tous les 
eclaircissements necessaires sur ce point. 

Ce qu'il importe de souligner, c'est que Fenergie ref ue de 
la lumiere solaire presente des particularites que Fon neglige 

167 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

souvent de considerer; d'une part, c'est une energie extra- 
ordinairement dispersee, nous pourrions dire "a bas poten- 
tiel," c'est-a-dire tout le contraire des sources d'energie for- 
tement concentree, a haut potentiel, qui sont d'ordinaire 
utilisees dans 1'industrie. La lumiere regue du soleil a la 
surface delaterre represente, en effet, approximativement, 1,4 
petite calorie par cm 2 et par minute, autrement dit c'est a 
peu pres 1'equivalent d'une puissance d'un kilowatt par m 2 . 
Ce chiffre est deja appreciable, mais il parait bien petit au 
regard des centaines de mille de kilowatts qui sont couram- 
ment produits par les grandes chutes captees pour 1'energie 
hydro-electrique ou par les grandes centrales thermiques. 
Mais par contre 1'energie radiante emise par le soleil est regue 
sur toute la surface de la terre; et sur des surfaces aussi 
iminenses, elle represente un total prodigieux, a cote duquel 
les autres sources d'energie sont insignifiantes. C'est ainsi 
que si Ton exprime en calories 1'energie reg ue du soleil sur 
Fensemble de la surface de la France, on pent calculer qu'elle 
represente environ 500 a i.ooo fois 1'equivalent energetique du 
total du charbon, du petrole, et des sources hydro-electri- 
ques qui sont actuellement utilisees en France. 

La plus grande partie de cette energie ref ue du soleil est 
dissipee sous forme de chaleur; une fraction infime est 
retenue par le tapis vert des plantes sauvages et cultivees; 
en Europe on pent estimer a environ i pour i.ooo lamoyenne 
generale de ce qui est ainsi retenu par ? action photosynthe- 
tique des plantes. Cette fraction est cependant elle-meme 
d'une grandeur considerable puisqu'elle est, en energie, 
equivalente, pour la France, aux 70 millions de tonnes de 
charbon qui y sont consommees par an. 

Depuis un siecle et demi que le processus de la photosyn- 
these a ete decouvert, son analyse detaillee progresse pas a 
pas; mais c'est seulement au cours des quinze dernieres 
annees que les decouvertes dans ce domaine ont soudain subi 
une grande acceleration; grace a la combinaison de Tanalyse 
chromatographique et de Temploi des elements marques, il a 

168 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

ete possible de determiner les premiers produits de la photo- 
synthese et d'analyser de mieux en mieux le mecanisme in- 
time de cet extraordinaire enchainement de reactions, les 
conditions de realisation de la photosynthese, quelles sent les 
modifications subies par les pigments, le role capital de la 
teneur en gaz carbonique, de la temperature, de Thydra- 
tation, de Tetat du cytoplasme et des elements mineraux qui 
sont presents dans la cellule vivante. Les journaux ont 
annonce recemment les derniers progres accomplis en 
Amerique dans Pisolement de la photosynthese hors du 
complexe de la cellule vegetale: 1'anglais ROBIN HILL, avait 
deja reussi, en 1937, a faire fonctionner une partie de la photo- 
synthese c'est-a-dire la photolyse de 1'eau, sa decomposition 
en oxygene et hydrogene utilisables pour d'autres reactions, 
par des grains isoles de la matiere verte des plantes, les 
chloroplastes. L'americain ARNON a reussi a pousser plus loin 
Pactivite des chloroplastes isoles qui se sont montre capables 
de reduire le gaz carbonique et de faire ainsi la synthese de 
1'amidon et des sucres. Cela ne signifie pas encore que nous 
soyons capables de realiser a volonte la photosynthese 
"comme dans un bocal," mais nous pouvons de mieux en 
mieux en etudier le mecanisme, et deja nous savons les 
grandes lignes de ce qull faut faire pour exalter Factivite 
photosynthetique des cellules des plantes. 

Si le rendement moyen reste encore si bas (de Tordre de i 
pour i.ooo pour la moyenne d'un an, et sur Tensemble d'un 
territoire aussi varie que la France), deja Tamelioration des 
procedes culturaux permet d'atteindre des rendements de 
Tordre de i a 2% pendant la periode la plus favorable de cultu- 
re, et pour les meilleures sortes de plantes cultivees. Mais 
dans une ambiance plus favorablement elaboree pour se 
rapprocher de Foptimum du rendement de la photoynthese, 
et notamment par un enrichissement de 1 'atmosphere en 
gaz carbonique, et par une repartition plus judicieuse de 
1'intensite lumineuse totale generalement trop grande, il est 
possible d'atteindre des rendements de 1'ordre de 5 a 10% on 

169 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

meme davantage, De tels resultats ne sont actuellement 
obtenus que dans des conditions de laboratoire, non transpo- 
sables dans la pratique d'une maniere rentable en ce moment. 
Mais on sait trop combien il est rapidement possible de 
passer d'une decouverte de laboratoire a une utilisation 
technique, lorque Fenjeu en vaut la peine, pour estimer avec 
beaucoup de vraisemblance que I'utilisation de Tenergie 
solaire avec un haut rendement, par la photosynthese, 
s'etendra a la pratique agricole ou industrielle dans un delai 
relativement court de quelques generations, quelques 
dizaines d'annees peut-etre. 



PERSPECTIVES DE LA CHEMIURGIE: 
CULTURES DE MICROORGANISMES; CULTURES D'ALGUES 

Nous rejoignons ici des perspectives d'un autre ordre, celles 
que Fon reunit souvent sous le nom de chemiurgie, c'est-a- 
dire 1'approvisionnement des industries en matieres premie- 
res plus ou moins elaborees grace a une culture de plantes 
appropriees. 

On peut citer tous les degres de realisation actuelle ou 
d'anticipation plus ou moins romanesque dans les concep- 
tions de la chemiurgie: par exemple c'est une utilisation 
actuelle, deja possible dans la pratique, que celle de la culture 
du ricin pour fournir la matiere premiere a Pindustrie des 
plastiques et des textiles artificiels. C'est une perspective 
moins immediate mais cependant facile a realiser et qui a ete 
deja mise en oeuvre dans certains pays, que celle de la culture 
de micro-organismes, tels que les levures pour transformer 
rapidement des mixtures a bon marche (formees de sucre et 
de composes mineraux de Tazote) en matieres alimentaires 
pour Phomme ou les animaux, en proteines d'une haute 
valeur nutritive. II est probable que les excedents de bettera- 
ves sucrieres auraient pu, si Ton avait fait Tetude technologi- 
que en temps voulu, etre utilisees sous cette forme par une 

170 



NO.UVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

facile reconversion de certaines distilleries, et contribuer ainsi 
a reduire les besoins en importation de graines fourrageres 
pour ralimentation du betail. L'utilisation des eaux resi- 
duaires des papeteries ail sulfite pour la preparation de la 
penicilline est a signaler de meme. 

Une autre perspective de la chemiurgie est celle qui 
re joint les perspectives de developpement des recherches sur 
la photosynthese, la culture des algues et, notamment, 
celles des algues uni-cellulaires, les chlorelles et autres 
analogues. Ces algues microscopiques sontformees depetites 
cellules isolees dotees de chlorophylle, et capables de se 
multiplier rapidement dans des milieux de culture syntheti- 
ques (faciles a fabriquer avec quelques sels mineraux dissous 
dans Peau). Par insufflation d'air enrichi en gaz carbonique, 
on eleve la teneur du liquide en gaz carbonique dissous, et 
Pagitation des chlorelles amene chacune d'entre elles a se 
presenter a la surface du liquide, directement exposee a 
la lumiere du soleil intense, pendant un temps suffisamment 
court, pour profiter pleinement de cette lumiere, puis 
ensuite a continuer les reactions de la photosynthese a la 
demi-obscurite, a Pabri dans les profondeurs. Une telle 
culture peut etre menee d'une maniere quasi-industrielle, 
presque continue; elle a ete effectivement realisee, non seule- 
ment aux dimensions du laboratoire, mais a Pechelle de 
quelques dizaines de m 2 notamment aux Etats-Unis, au 
Japon, en Allemagne, et recemment en France. 

La matiere ainsi produite est celle de la substance meme 
des cellules des Chlorelles: elle se compose d'une quantite 
importante de proteines et de quantites plus petites de sucres 
et de matieres grasses ainsi que de vitamines et autres princi- 
pes utiles. 

La fraction alimentaire est petite; on peut penser que la 
matiere des Chlorelles, convenablement separee du ^liquide 
de culture par centrifugation, puis dessechee et traitee pour 
perdre ses proprietes hygroscopiques, pourrait constituer 



171 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

une ressource importante pour P alimentation du be tail; 
certains m ernes y ont pense pour Palimentation humaine. 

Grace aux perfectionnements que la culture des Chlorelles 
a deja atteints, le rendement de la photosynthese y est eleve 
et des productions de 1'ordre de 12 gr. de matiere seche par 
jour et par m 2 ont deja ete obtenus sur la moyenne d'une 
annee complete. On a meme obtenu, pour des durees plus 
courtes, des productions 4 a 6 fois superieures. De tels ren- 
dements en matiere seche sont 5 a 10 fois plus grands que 
ceux de la plupart des meilleures cultures agricoles. Dans ces 
essais en demi-grand, des prix de revient ont deja pu etre 
calcules : ils varient, selon les estimations, de 55 a 140 fr. le kg. 
de matiere seche, c'est-a-dire qu'ils ne sont deja plus tres loin 
d'une possibilite pratique de rentabilite. 

Comme de telles cultures n'exigent par rapport a la pro- 
duction finale, qu'une quantite relativement petite d'eau, 
on voit aussitot les perspectives que Ton peut imager pour 
F utilisation des regions fortement ensoleillees et pauvres en 
eau, telles que les confins du Sahara. 

Mais les algues en culture serviront sans doute a bien d'au- 
tres jfins que les usages alimentaires : si Ton songe a la diversite 
des especes de ce groupe de plantes, jusqu'ici totalement 
ignorees de I'agriculture, on peut penser a la diversite des 
substances qui pourront en etre tirees, dont certaines pour- 
ront peut-etre servir de matieres premieres pour Tindustrie. 



VALEUR DES NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES DE L'AGRONOMIE 

II me reste a porter un jugement de valeur sur les perspec- 
tives que nous ouvrent les developpements probables des 
techniques de Fagronomie. Trois points principaux doivent 
etre soulignes : 

-i) Le progres technique en Agronomic est en plein essor, et> 

172 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

par lui, la revolution agricole du monde est a peine 
commencee; 

2) Ses caracteristiques essentielles et originales proviennent 
de ce qu'il met en jeu 1'utilisation de 1'immense energie 
solaire, et par des moyens biologiques; 

3) II se developpe a la fois en vue de pourvoir a la nourriture 
des hommes en nombre croissant et en vue de satisfaire de 
plus en plus les besoins industriels, et ces deux buts sont de 
plus en plus associes. Examinons brievement ces trois 
points. 

i. Les techniques en a^ronomie out devant elks line enorme 
marge de progres possibles 

Pour etre plus lente que la revolution industrielle, la revolu- 
tion agricole n'est pas moins reelle ni profonde: jusqu'a la 
Renaissance inclusivement, PAgriculture etait plus un mode 
de vie qu'une technique ; elle perpetuait par la tradition, un 
long acquit empirique et suffisait tout juste aux besoins d'un 
monde en croissance demographique lente. Depuis 150 ans, 
F Agriculture sefonde sur des techniques en pleine evolution 
et sa propre revolution a ete la condition primaire du change- 
ment rapide qui bouleverse la face de la terre: la population 
du monde vient de tripler et pourtant, grace aux progres des 
techniques agricoles, les famines aigues de jadis ont prati- 
quement disparu (sauf en cas de guerre). II demeure la famine 
endemique des pays dont Tagriculture est insuffisamment 
developpee. 

La capacite d'evolution de FAgriculture est pourtant loin 
d'etre parvenue a son terme; quand on note que le rende- 
ment moyen des plantes, ces "machines vegetales," est 
d'utiliser en moyenne i% de Tenergie solaire, et que nous 
savons qu'elles peuvent, au laboratoire, fournir des rende- 
ments de 5 a 10% sinon davantage, quand on rapproche cette 
capacite potentielle de progres avec la valeur actuelle (au 

173 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

rendement de i a 2 pour mille) de la production agricole 
qui est pourtant de Pordre du tiers de la production 
industrielle dans les pays evolues, on eprouve le senti- 
ment profond que la puissance des techniques agronomiques 
est largement comparable, sinon superieure, a celles des 
techniques industrielles. Quand on considere les bases 
scientifiques des prochaines techniques agronomiques (telles 
que P analyse chromatographique et Pemploi des elements 
appliques a la Physiologic vegetale, les notions nouvelles 
d'horinones et de mecanismes regulateurs de la croissance 
et du developpement, la physiochimie des macromolecules 
appliquee au support des proprietes hereditaires), on peut 
raisonnablement penser que les decouvertes scientifiques 
changeront aussi profondement P agriculture du siecle qui 
vient qu'elles Pont modifiee deja durant le siecle qui 
s'acheve. 

A court terme, par tranches de quelques mois, ces progres 
semblent des utopies et la science ne semble fournir qu'un 
amas confus de nouveaux details. Mais Fexperience du passe 
recent nous apprend qu'a long terme, de nouveaux progres, 
toujours plus eclatants, ne cessent de sortir de la multitude 
des petites decouvertes, de sorte que, au-dela des soucis 
fastidieux de leur tache quotidienne, savants et techniciens 
attaches a FAgronomie peuvent avoir foi dans Pinteret et la 
portee immense de leurs travaux. 



2. Vaflronomie tient sa puissance et sa valeur de ^utilisation de Venergie 
solaire par des machines vivantes 

L'ampleur des perspectives d'avenir est encore accrue 
maintenant, lorsque nous considerons mieux la situation de 
1'agriculture par rapport aux problemes generaux de la 
matiere et de Penergie. 

En ce moment, le monde, dote de la civilisation technique, 
vit, d'une part pour Papprovisionnement en vivres, sur les 

174 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

ressources de P agriculture, renouvelables chaque annee, et 
d'autre part, pour ses besoins en energie et matieres industriel- 
les, sur les ressources des mines de houille, de petrole et des 
mines metalliques et autres (inclus les minerals atomiques). 
Ces ressources minieres sont fatalement destinees a Pepuise- 
ment. Get epuisement n'est evidemment pas pour demain: 
mais dans certains pays cornme PEurope, il surviendra, 
notamment pour le charbon et le petrole, dans le delai d'un 
nombre relativement petit de generations. Seule Penergie 
solaire est indefiniment renouvelable, pour des temps aussi 
considerables que 1'ordre du milliard d'annees, et si Phuma- 
nite doit subsister assez longtemps, seule Penergie solaire (qui 
est d'ailleurs une forme de Penergie atomique) permettra a 
Phumanite une survie prolongee. 

On conf oit done Pimportance presente et surtout future 
des etudes qui s'attachent a la captation et a Putilisation de 
Penergie solaire. Les unes sont fondees sur des precedes 
physiques tels que la concentration de la chaleur pour le 
fonctionnement des fours solaires. Les autres concernent 
Putilisation notable de Penergie lumineuse en courant elec- 
trique; deja, de la sorte, des productions de Pordre de 40 a 100 
watts au metre carre ont ete envisagees. On peut done prevoir 
pour Pavenir que la production de Penergie d'origine miniere 
sera relayee, pour une part, par la production d'energie 
thermique et electrique a partir des centrales atomiques 
concentrees en installations puissantes sur de petites surfaces 
et, d'autre part grace a la production d'energie principale- 
ment electrique obtenue a partir du rayonnement solaire, 
par des installations reparties sur de grandes surfaces. Ces 
dernieres installations pourraient meme eventuellement 
remplacer toutes les autres sources d'energie, si elles venaient 
a manquer. 

Mais la production des matieres organiques, soit pour 
Palimentation, soit comme matieres premieres pour Pindus- 
trie, telles qu'elements textiles et matieres plastiques, ne 
pourra etre assuree dans Pavenir que par des syntheses tirees 

175 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

de Fenergie solaire par un processus analogue a celui qu'em- 
ploient les plantes sinon par les plantes elles-memes. Cest la 
que s'attache Finteret fondamental des recherches sur la 
photo-synthese et sur la stimulation des vegetaux par tous 
les moyens capables d'utiliser leurs proprietes physiologiques. 
De plus rutilisation de Fenergie solaire par voie photo-elec- 
trique ou par la photo-synthese, offre Favantage de n'accu- 
muler aucun produit toxique de caractere permanent con- 
trairement au risque qui est presente par certaines des 
utilisations de Fenergie atomique. 

La Physique, la Chimie, et Findustrie pure ont done devant 
elles une large part des possibilites de capter Fenergie radiante 
du soleil pour livrer des formes plus utilisables d'energie, 
electrique par exemple, Mais la Biologie et FAgriculture 
detiennent le quasi-monopole de la production indefinie de 
matiere a partir de Fenergie solaire. Les machines vivantes 
qui assument cette transformation se reproduisent d'elles- 
memes par des processus genetiques, avec les proprietes 
ameliorees que nous parvenons a leur conferer. Ce sont la 
des traits originaux et irremplacables de FAgronomie. Efface 
un moment par le spectacle eblouissant de la revolution 
industrielle, le prestige de FAgriculture reparait, avec la 
disparition maintenant certaine, quoiqu'encore lointaine, 
des ressources minieres de matieres premieres et avec la prise 
de conscience des richesses reelles -qui sont celles que nous 
fournit Fenergie solaire. 

Dans cette perspective, la face future du monde nous 
apparait bientot comme changee. Si les mines glacees de fer et 
de petrole du Canada sont maintenant en vedette, ce sont les 
deserts ensoleilles comme le Sahara vers lesquels se tournent 
nos regards pour demain et il nous faut songer serieusement 
a une future Industrie et une future agriculture des deserts. 
Ainsi, pour le vieux monde, la notion d'Eurafrique est en 
train de reprendre un sens puissant; elle constitue, de ce 
cote de la terre, la grande unite economique d'un futur qui 
n'est plus tres lointain. 

176 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

3. Les huts du progres technique en Agronomie 

Nourrir lemonde etfournir les matieres premieres a V Industrie. L J agricul- 
ture etant seule capable defournir aux hommes la satisfaction 
de leur besoin primaire, les vivres, il est clair que le but initial 
et capital de 1' Agronomic est d'abord de "nourrir ceux qui ont 
faim." Sur ce point essentiel, la croissance recente et rapide 
de la population du monde jette le trouble et provoque de 
legitimes inquietudes. 

Cependant, ce que nous venons de voir de la puissance et de 
la capacite du progres des techniques agronomiques leve le 
doute, du moins pour le moment: si nous nous efforcions 
d'accroitre la production des vivres sans preoccupation 
economique, avec la meme energie que celle que Ton 
deploie pour les productions d'armes en temps de guerre, 
nous serions capables de procurer a la population du monde 
entier la quantite de vivres necessaires pour apaiser sa faim. 
II est vraisemblable que s'il en etait ainsi, les dangers memes 
que la surpopulation fait encourir au monde s'estomperaient 
peu a peu, car avec le relevement des conditions economiques 
et de la situation sociale, les zones de croissance demographi- 
que desordonnee pourraient recevoir Teducation et limi- 
teraient d'elles-memes leur croissance aun taux raisonnable, 
comme il est constamment arrive dans les pays de civilisation 
technique avancee. 

Mais en regard de ces possibilites theoriques, nous pouvons 
etre profondement def us par la lenteur des progres actuels 
de Fagriculture et par le fait que la ou les progres ont penetre, 
ils sont aussitot accompagnes d'un contingentement de la 
production, comme la lef on de la canne a sucre nous en a 
donne Fexemple. On pourrait ainsi considerer, au contraire, 
avec pessimisme les possibilites de progres techniques que la 
science offre a Tagriculture. Je crois qu'il ne faut pas en rendre 
responsable ni les savants, ni les agriculteurs, mais dans une 
large part le systeme economique dans lequel nous sommes 
installes et qui, precisement, ne tient pas compte suffisam- 



177 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

ment de la puissance des moyens techniques qui sont main- 
tenant a notre disposition. 

En effet, a cote du progres de la science, il faut envisager 
1'importance des moyens a prendre pour la penetration du 
progres technique dans P agriculture; il s'agit la d'une autre 
forme d'investissement, ce que Ton pourrait appeler un 
investissement dans les cerveaux, qui consiste a fair connaitre 
les nouveautes deja techniquement acquises et a promouvoir 
la volonte de les appliquer sainement 

Sans meme envisager les progres lointains que nous 
pouvons concevoir par anticipation, il est frappant de remar- 
quer combien est faible la proportion des agriculteurs, 
pourtant eclaires, qui ont mis en oeuvre les procedes deja 
bien au point d'amelioration de la ponte des volailles, de la 
production du lait, de la haute fertilite des luzernieres, des 
amenagements pastoraux, etc... Cette lenteur dans la pene- 
tration du progres technique provient d'abord de rinsuffi- 
sance en nombre des agents de cette penetration. Mais 
fussent-ils plus nombreux, mieux prepares, cela ne suffirait 
pas encore: chaque fois, en effet, que les agriculteurs des pays 
6volues appliquent le progres technique, produisent mieux 
et plus abondamment, ils risquent aussitot de fournir des 
excedents de production qui alourdissent les cours et le 
resultat final est qu'ils gagnent moins. 

Pour parer a cet obstacle, tout le monde est d'accord pour 
favoriser les exportations. Cette intention est louable, mais 
les exportations, dans le regime commercial et economique 
actuel, s'etendent a peu pres exclusivement aux pays solva- 
bles, c'est-a-dire aux pays deja riches et techniquement 
evolues et chez lesquels precisement la surproduction est 
egalement menajante. Par la voie des exportations classiques, 
la difficulte peut etre un peu reculee, elle n'est pas resolue. 

II me semble qu'il faudrait aller plus loin et cela dans deux 
voies distinctes: la premiere consisterait a consacrer des 
efforts beaucoup plus grands a la recherche des debouches 
industriels pour les matieres d'origine agricole. C'est pour- 

178 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

quoi F exemple du ricin que j 'ai cite plus haut me parait si hau t e- 
ment demonstratif. Toutes les fois ou les recherches scientifi- 
ques, dans le domaine que Ton appelle un peu pompeusement 
celui de la "chemiurgie," ajouteront une plante de plus a 
celles qui produisent des matieres premieres utilisables pour 
Findustrie et transformables en biens de consommation 
autres qu'alimentaires (que Fon appelle souvent des biens 
secondaires ou tertiaires), la consommation de tels biens peut 
croitre dans d'immenses proportions en meme temps que se 
developpe Fexpansion economique. On n'est plus lirnite dans 
Fecoulement de tels biens par le plafonnement rapide qui 
resulte de la satiete des vivres. Dans toute la mesure ou de 
tels debouches s'ajouteront a ceux de Fexportation, Fagricul- 
teur pourra envisager avec plus d'interet les pregres techni- 
ques qu'on lui propose, car il saura qu'en cas de surproduc- 
tion, il lui est possible de jouer sur un clavier etendu de re- 
conversions culturales dont les debouches industriels tou- 
jours croissants se trouveront assures. 

Mais sur un autre plan, il faut aussi considerer combien il 
serait absurde d'avoir a conseiller a Fhumanite le malthusia- 
nisme des naissances, quand les pays riches pratiquent deja la 
restriction de la production agricole, ouvertement par les 
contingentements et pratiquement par les prix. Or, le fait est 
la: dans sa majorite, Fhumanite a faim, elle grandit et il est 
utopique de penser qu'elle limitera immediatement sa 
croissance demographique. A moins de la decimer volontai- 
rement, ce qui est impensable, il faut tout faire pour la nour- 
rir. II faut qu'elle vive d'abord, pour s'eduquer ensuite, au 
dela des applications rudimentaires de Fhygiene, pour 
atteindre le niveau de connaissance ou, d'elle-meme, elle 
temperera sa croissance desordonnee. Si nous ne faisons rien 
pour nourrir ceux qui ont faim, leur masse ravagera les pays 
riches et tous periront, nous comme eux. 

Pour un probleme aussi vaste, la science nous ouvre des 
techniques nouvelles. Mais elle ne suffit pas seule; car seule 
elle serait utopique. En meme temps que la science, la 

179 



PIERRE CHOUARD 

penetration du progres technique doit etre developpee. En 
meme temps que les vivres, et meme pour les produire plus 
liberalement, F agriculture devra produire de plus en plus de 
matieres premieres pour Pindustrie. En meme temps que le 
progres technique, le systeme economique doit etre amende: 
nous ne pourrons pas subsister longtemps si Pabondance 
continue a tuer le riche sans etre d'aucun secours pour le 
pauvre. La est la monstruosite dont nous pouvons perk, 
alors que nous avons techniquement tous les remedes pour 
survivre. 



CONCLUSION 

L 'agriculture future continuera a contribuer an developpement des vertus 
fondamentales de la personne humaine 

Laissez-moi terminer par une derniere remarque: Pagricul- 
ture, transformee par la Recherche scientifique appliquee a 
ses progres techniques restera encore Fagriculture, car son 
trait caracteristique est d'etre fondee sur la transformation 
biologique de 1'energie solaire a bas potentiel, dispersee sur 
d'immenses surfaces. Dans Favenir, quelles que soient les 
transformations, c'est la une donnee permanente de la natu- 
re en vertu de laquelle la revolution agricole est plus une 
evolution continue qu'une explosion brutale. II s'ensuit que 
les hommes qui seront appliques a la marche des machines a 
energie solaire, que ce soient des piles photo-electriques ou, 
mieux, des cultures d j algues, ou des cultures agricoles ame- 
liorees, auront sous leur dependance une assez vaste surface 
de machines electriques ou de machines vivantes a controler. 
Ces dernieres, surtout, exigent a chaque instant un controle 
intelligent et personnel. 

Loin d'etre rassembles comme des automates dans une 
usine etroite, les agriculteurs de demain, comme et mieux que 
ceux d'aujourd'hui, auront sans cesse a developper leurs 

180 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

qualites personnelles d'observation, d'independance, d'initla- 
tive et de responsabilite. La science et la technique appliquees 
a P agriculture ne nous conduisent pas a une ere de robots, 
mais elles contribueront au developpement des vertus fon- 
damentales de la personne humaine. 



SUMMARY 

Probable trends in the development of new techniques in agriculture 

Viewing areas of scientific studies which seem to be most 
fruitful for future agricultural techniques, the author 
indicates a number of new lines of research which merit 
attention of studious technicians for adaptation and use in 
the moment when they can be of practical value. 

He cites various ways to achieve a higher drought resistance 
e.g., by seed preparation, subirrigation of sand culture of deserts, 
desalination of brackish or seawater. (A remark of the Editor 
cites in this connection for their global significance the 
successful experiments of direct application of highly brackish 
water and even seawater up to oceanic concentration on 
coastal and inland sands and gravel areas. These experiments, 
carried out first in Israel, since 1949, proved to be likewise 
successful in Spain and in Sweden. Thus they already cover 
a climatic profile from the hot desert climate of Eilat, over 
the mediterranean coastal plain, in Israel, and the warm 
temperate climate of Spain, to the cool and humid climate 
of Eastern Sweden). 

Other important results in raising the agricultural poten- 
tial of our globe can be expected to be achieved by: 

- Leaf -manuring ; 

- Genetical improvement of physiological resistance to pests; 

- Increase of productivity by heterosis; 

- Promoted mutations by radiations of mutagenic substances; 

- New systems of production of virus free crops; 

181 



PIERRE CHOUARD 



- Chemiotherapy against pests; 

- Refined uses of growth hormones; 

- Many uses of Phytotwns for pure and applied knowledge of 
growth and development, and for shortening of agronomic experiments 
on quality and adaptation of new crops; 

- Improvement of knowledge of photosynthetic processes ; 

- Chemiurgy, the prospects and potential of which are very 
wide indeed for the production of new plant raw ma- 
terials for industry. Several examples are given (Ricinus, 
Algae, etc.). 

We are reminded that the technical revolution in agri- 
culture, begun and carried out during the last one and a half 
centuries, is now in full development and still has the 
potential for much more progress. The importance, and 
the originality, of agricultural techniques which renew 
themselves permanently through living biological machines 
driven by the inexhaustible energy source, the sun, is also 
indicated. At this time, when the mineral resources of the 
globe which have brought such prosperity to industry are 
about to be exhausted (not immediately but in the foresee- 
able future - only a few generations away), the utilization 
of solar energy will then take on all its importance and will 
be able to insure an extended high standard of life in the 
future. 

Agriculture, provided thus with all her potentialities, is 
technically at least, able to meet for a long time to come 
the rising needs of men. The difficulties now are psycho- 
logical and economic rather than technical. It is a slow 
process to make the millions of growers aware of this techni- 
cal progress and this is one of our most urgent tasks. 

The expansion of the economy of underdeveloped coun- 
tries is of great urgency, it exceeds, however, the object 
of this essay. But a trend of world importance would be 
extending the production of plant-raw-materials for in- 
dustrial use. This development would free agriculture of 
the worry of excess production (which throttles the use 



182 



NOUVELLES TECHNIQUES EN AGRONOMIE 

of technical discoveries), and could thus contribute, indi- 
rectly, to a larger and more economic production, also, 
of food itself. 

The meaning of the technical progress of agriculture can, 
therefore, be expressed roughly as follows: 

1) The potential ability to progress in agriculture is enormous 
in respect to industry. 

2) The peculiar characteristics of agriculture are its use of 
solar energy by living machines (plants), exploiting the natural 
plant physiological process of photosynthesis. 

3) The aim of agriculture is at first the production of raw 
material fox food as well as for industry, thus permitting the 
increase of human population and welfare. 

Conditions of the agricultural way of life should always be 
in accordance with the development of fundamental characteristics 
of human beings. 

In summing up, the essay reminds us that no matter 
how revolutionary future agricultural techniques may and 
can be, they must always conform to the fundamental 
development of human qualities and oppose man's degra- 
dation into a robot. In fact, founded on the use of solar 
energy, vast but dispersed, and on the play of living ma- 
chines which demand a permanent control, agriculture of 
tomorrow, much more than that of today, will be able to 
contribute to the development of the spirit of man's initi- 
ative and freedom. 



183 



Science in the Service of Man in 
Africa South of the Sahara 



by 
JOHN PHILLIPS 



THE CONSEQUENCES OF FAILING 
TO PLAN ECOLOGICALLY 



Even as science may be applied to the service of man, its not 
being so employed in a sound, integrated and carefully 
planned manner retards progress and indeed does much 
harm to the welfare and happiness of all concerned. 

The ecological approach - that is the seeing of the communi- 
ty of life and its stage, the habitat, in proper relation and 
perspective - is capable of so much good in the service of the 
indigenous and other peoples in Africa South of the Sahara, 
that a failure to think along ecological lines is in the nature of 
a very serious disservice. 

To convey what is likely to happen in the event of man's 
failure to plan and prosecute the agricultural and related 
development of Africa South of the Sahara according to 
certain ecological principles is the object of this essay. 

This is no attempt to paint merely a Job's picture of what 
would happen should development continue to be casual, 
but rather to convey some impression of what might be 
averted were the holistic approach to be adopted more widely 
and with wider and deeper knowledge of ecological detail. 
Some examples illustrating the risks incurred in not thinking 
ecologically are summarized. 



185 



JOHN PHILLIPS 
NATURAL VEGETATION 

Due to absence of an understanding of the biotic nature, 
habitat characteristics and ecological development of natural 
vegetation this is often seriously impoverished by agricultural 
and related activity. 

Failure to relate the bioclimatic possibilities to the demand 
made by nomadic, transitional and settled African pastor- 
alists and by Europeans permanently occupying land ulti- 
mately spells the deterioration of natural pasturage and 
browse, livestock and the soil itself. Open grassland is reduced 
in the number and volume of the more valuable fodder 
species at the expense of others less palatable to or rejected by 
livestock. Again, contiguous with a more xerophytic vege- 
tation such as the Karoo in South Africa, grassland is invaded 
by useless species from the neighbouring subdesert. Again, 
subdesert Karoo is converted from palatable browse to a 
wilderness of relatively useless species in which sheep and 
goats find little sustenance. Wooded savanna - be this sub- 
desert or arid, subarid or subhumid - through a combination 
of heavy stocking and withholding of fire, rapidly develops 
into thickets of woody species, the grass diminishing and often 
altering in species and pastoral quality. 

Today, when water for man and beast can be supplied 
where this never previously existed, there is even greater 
danger of the disturbing of the ecological balance, and the 
consequent accelerated ruination of the vegetation. Ex- 
amples occur in Southern and East Africa and if the preva- 
lent well intentioned but unplanned provision of water to 
dry subregions is intensified, there will be ere long examples 
in arid and subdesert Somalia and in the drier parts of West 
Africa. 

Even mangrove communities are liable to maltreatment, 
with related alteration in the effects of tidal water on the 
coastline. Fixed littoral sand dunes steadily are being sub- 
jected to excessive pressure from livestock and in places are 

186 



SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF MAN IN AFRICA 

being deprived of their woody cover for the sake of fuel: the 
outcome is the advance inland of the sand. Where overgrazed 
by sheep and goats fixed inland dunes once again become 
mobile. 

Through the influences of uncontrolled shifting culti- 
vation and fire, forest steadily yields to grass and wooded 
savanna, with accompanying impoverishment in the pro- 
ductive capacity of the soil and, if the area be extensive, of 
water supplies for the country at lower levels. 

It is common practice to use fire in the driving of game, 
the stimulation of the growth of young grass and browse 
shrubs, and the conversion of forest, scrub, thicket, woodland 
and other vegetation to open land for cultivation. Equally 
general is the tendency of many pastoralists, agriculturists 
and botanists to decry this practice. Ecologically there is 
much to commend discriminative burning, based on a 
knowledge of the ecology of the area. Indeed failure to burn 
grazing and browse at suitable seasons and intervals, in 
relation to previous or intended utilization of the area by 
livestock, spells deterioration of the nutritive value and 
palatability of the vegetation. 

Much of the continent already shows the effects of casual 
or feckless treatment of the natural vegetation - the African 
and European often being equally destructive. 

CROPS AND CULTIVATION 

Marginal and thus often subeconomic production of crops is 
a widespread feature, springing from a lack of realization of 
the local moisture and temperature conditions. European 
settlers as well as African tribesmen, for instance, tend to 
grow maize in areas at the limits of adequate distribution 
and amount of rain - examples exist from Southern to North- 
eastern and West Africa in the non-humid regions. Cotton, 

187 



JOHN PHILLIPS 

tobacco, sunflower, groundnuts, sorghum and other crops 
are often tried beyond their economic range. 

In recent years there has been wishful thinking of de- 
veloping oil palm in parts of West Africa marginal in both 
the annual total and the monthly distribution of rainfall. 
Irrigated banana plantations have been established under 
subarid to arid conditions in Somalia, and run at high cost 
in proportion to yield and in comparison with rain-fed 
plantations elsewhere in Africa. Production of sunflower has 
failed in Tanganyika where attempted under subarid con- 
ditions and on a scale rendering satisfactory pollination 
impossible. Large-scale production of groundnuts in subarid 
Tanganyika and parts of subhumid Ghana has failed; in the 
first instance, because of drought and severe soil com- 
paction; and in the second, inter alia because of high humidity 
and a rainfall prolonged into the harvesting period. 

Shifting cultivation induces loss of fertility where the return 
use of a given area is too rapid. Unless applied with 
understanding and care modern mechanized clearing of 
vegetation and soil preparation do much damage physically, 
through loss in fertility and by the disturbance of micro-or- 
ganisms. 

Serious inversion of the soil and subsoil follows the deep 
ploughing of certain types. In some very heavy clays of mont- 
morillonitic nature a failure to leave the soil rough, that is 
not worked into a fine tilth, before the onset of the rains, 
creates a veritable quagmire of slushy-like consistency. 
Conversely, where normal soil conservation contour banks 
are provided, lighter soils such as sandy loams accumulate 
water which converts them almost to quick-sand. These 
soils become useless for crops such as tobacco, maize, cassava,, 
yams and others sensitive to prolonged wetness. 

An appropriate cycle supported by improved hus- 
bandry, as well as the use of mixed cultures of cereals, 
gourds, rootcrops and legumes not always rigorously 
weeded, have been insufficiently appreciated for too long by 

188 



SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF MAN IN AFRICA 

too many European agricultural officers and farmers. 
Failure on the part of so many Europeans to understand the 
ecological common sense of some of the traditional culti- 
vation methods, spells loss of opportunity for raising the 
productivity of many parts of Africa. 



DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION OF WATER 

Outside of the humid regions water is one of the commodities 
most prized in Africa. Its development spells so much good 
to man and beast that it will appear strange not to praise all 
efforts to provide water more abundantly. 

Water poses deeply seated questions in the planning and 
the management of pastoral areas and the irrigation of 
certain soils. As noted under natural vegetation, the casual or 
ill-planned distribution of watering points in country by 
nature poorly supplied accelerates, in woodland and open 
woodland, either degradation of the soil or the intensi- 
fication of thicket. The application of water to soils with 
alkaline reaction normally induces "brack" or "black alkali" 
so as to retard plant growth. In siting dams and setting out of 
irrigation schemes below them error in assessment of the 
reactions of the soils to irrigation is all too common. A 
further error is not to take sufficiently into account the 
heavy losses - up to half their content - from dams of 
shallower depth by evaporation. Ecological forethought 
could readily estimate the loss due to this cause and make 
provision accordingly. 

The otherwise excellent practice of establishing soil and 
water-conserving hydraulic structures on arable land of 
certain soil types results in excessive accumulation of water, 
detrimental to most subsistence and cash crops other than 
rice and other hygrophilous species. 

Efforts to utilize drainage lines and flood plains, where 
vegetation normally conserves groundwater at no great 

189 



JOHN PHILLIPS 

depth, give excellent return, provided flooding is preventable. 
But experience especially in Southern Africa and elsewhere 
reveals the devastating losses in soil following this misuse of 
bottom lands. 

If inadequate attention be paid to the ecological phenome- 
na associated with the local geomorphology, the surface 
wash and erosion, the loss of soil from the uppermost 
horizon, the change in depth of the water table, the habitat 
factors both soil and microclimatic, the succession and 
development of vegetation and the animals associated 
therewith, the failure of an irrigated project cannot be 
averted. 

As atomic and solar radiation power are developed it is 
likely that more and more water will be made available from 
the oceans for irrigation and other purposes. 



TSETSE AND TRYPANOSOMIASIS 

A wealth of knowledge, scientific and practical, is available 
for the control of one of the greatest scourges to man and 
beast in tropical Africa, and one of the most powerful brakes 
on the planned development of wooded savanna country, 
from the subhumid to the arid regions, the "fly." No single 
method is in itself either wholly practicable or all-sufficient, 
but a combination of techniques properly planned and 
applied could work wonders over large areas. Up to the 
present the failure to implement concerted attacks on the 
"fly", followed by phased settlement and the provision of 
sufficient suitably distributed watering points, animal health 
and husbandry services, livestock culling, castration and 
general control is notorious. Disappointment and frustration 
hence are inevitable. Ecological awareness is fundamental to 
the successful combat of the "guardian" of Africa's potential 
pasturage soils, the "fly". 



190 



SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF MAN IN AFRICA 
LIVESTOCK 

But slight study has been paid to the interrelations of live- 
stock responses - physiological, ecological and in terms of 
behaviour. Breed, strain, pigmentation, resistance to drought 
and heat and to pests and disease, and the capacity of the 
animals to forage in severe physical and biotic conditions 
must be examined for the successful selection of cattle for a 
wide range of bioclimatic conditions. Casual introduction 
of exotic cattle, sheep and poultry into the humid and the 
dry tropics is creating many problems in health, efficiency 
of function, growth and conformation. 

Though more successful over a greater amplitude of 
humidity, sunshine, and radiation than other exotic animals, 
pigs 1 do present their own special problems. Protection 
from excessive radiation and, in "fly" areas, from Tsetse, and 
an assured balanced yet economic diet, are among the 
conditions all too rare. 

Humidity and temperature control is essential to satis- 
factory incubation of chickens. If livestock is to be farmed 
successfully in the humid forest region it will prove neces- 
sary to select suitable strains of high economic promise in 
sheep, goats and poultry. Although cattle are more difficult 
to adjust to climatic and nutritional conditions in the forest, 
success cannot be expected until there is a well concerted 
approach. 



CONSERVATION AND CONTROL OF GAME 

Game - especially antelope, buffalo, elephant, leopard, lion 
and smaller but abundant carnivores - although much less 
widespread than a quarter of a century ago, is still abundant to 
frequent in parts of East Africa and elsewhere. 

1. The naturalized "razor-back" pig is probably the offspring of Portuguese "long- 
snouts" introduced in the i5th century. 

191 



JOHN PHILLIPS 

In the interest of cultivators and the health of livestock, 
the control of game is an accepted tenet of policy. How best 
this can be implemented, so as to prevent the spread of game 
and therewith associated pests and disease injurious to 
livestock, is a conundrum for the administrator and the 
veterinarian. The relationship of game, tsetse and trypanoso- 
miasis in man and beast is among the most significant of the 
problems confronting vast areas in Africa. Attempts at a 
solution - not appreciating the ecological network of re- 
lations - so far have failed and will continue so to do. Control 
must be based upon a knowledge of the ecological relations 
with the vegetation, and their capacity for utilizing the 
sparse and far scattered water supplies in the dry season. 2 

Conservation of game for aesthetic and scientific purposes 
is now a practice supported by many governments. Unfortu- 
nately in most instances there is still no effort to approach 
preservation along ecological lines. These would involve 
selective shooting of some super-abundant species and the 
encouragement of the rarer kinds. Hence undue proportions 
of some species - zebra, wildebeest (gnu), impala, and hearte- 
beest (kongoni) being examples - appear comparatively soon. 
If, because of competition or any other reason there be a 
scarcity of graze, browse and water in the reserves, the 
impulse is to move beyond their borders and thus into country 
cultivated or used for livestock. 



LAND USE AND TENURE 

The widespread change in economic and social patterns is 

2. Representatives of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature 
(LU.C.N.), the Food and Agricultural Organisation (F.A.O.) and the Scientific 
Council for Africa South of the Sahara (C.S.A.) are to meet in 1961 to discuss further 
the possibilities of management of game and other wild animals. 

Economic production of game products together with practical control of 
natural pasturage and browse thus migth be found feasible. To "farm" game migth 
be a better land use than to "farm" domesticated livestock in areas that are marginal 
ecologically. 

192 



SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF MAN IN AFRICA 

causing much thought to be focussed on the traditional 
patterns of tenure. A consideration of the inherent issues 
stresses the necessity for careful investigation before deciding 
on legal and other changes. Unless granted in some appropri- 
ate form and with suitable conditions and controls, individual 
ownership can cause as many problems in land use, wastage 
of soil and economic depression as it purports to solve. 
Legal, administrative, land use and economic aspects all 
must be examined in their bearing one on the other. A failure 
to think and plan holistically is liable to perpetuate many of 
the existing evils in communal ownership and to perpetrate 
yet others. The more knowledge of local conditions, availa- 
ble from ecological-economic land use survey and from a 
study of the changing social pattern of the people, is weighed 
by the jurists and administrators, the less likely are serious 
errors of judgment. If ever subjects, fundamental to the 
prevention of soil and vegetation deterioration and to the 
assurance of human well-being, demand a co-ordinated 
solution they are the use and tenure of arable land, the 
responsibility for the usage and maintenance of pastoral areas 
and the conservation of an adequate proportion of forest, 
for the production of timber and the regulation of water. 



ROADS AND RAILWAYS 

Road and railway alignment and the associated drainage, to 
be efficient, demand an ecological approach. Where road and 
rail have been established without adequate reference to 
master climatic factors, topography, soil types and vege- 
tation, there follows, on the land in their proximity, serious 
sheet and donga erosion. Furthermore, too often are lines 
of communication established in country ecologically 
incapable of yielding crops or livestock justifying this ex- 
penditure on evacuating comparatively limited production. 
Vegetation usually indicates the physical and occasionally - 

193 



JOHN PHILLIPS 

as in highly arid, calcareous and gypseous country - the 
chemical characteristics of soils. To fail to draw upon the 
experience of the ecologists, skilled in the interpretation of 
aerial photographs for soil and vegetation survey, when 
planning the course of roads and railways, is to neglect a 
remarkably effective means of avoiding error. 



HUMAN ECOLOGY 

Ecologically there is a relation between indigenous human 
life and the environment in Africa. Were this otherwise the 
number, the physical and mental capacity and the actual 
output by Africans would be far less impressive. 

There are, however, further adjustments within the 
grasp of the peoples living intimately with Nature outside of 
the larger settlements. This is especially true of health, 
sanitation, housing, nutrition and water supply for primary 
needs and for livestock and supplementary irrigation in 
drought periods during the rains. But this also applies to the 
care of the soil, crop husbandry, and the health and manage- 
ment of livestook through the striking of a balance between 
the aims of the stockman, the multifarious pests and diseases 
and the existence of a great game fauna. 

The habitat factors and their variation are severe: high 
humidity to extreme aridity, torrential rain to lengthy 
drought, monotonous heat to acute cold, intense and 
prolonged sunshine to many weeks with little or no direct 
sunlight. Inured as they may be to either monotony or to 
wide oscillations of climate, Africans leading a simple ex- 
istence in the wildernesses are, none-the-less, influenced by 
the interplay of climatic factors. To the more privileged 
Africans and to members of Overseas races these conditions 
are even more severe when encountered away from modern 
conveniences. For Europeans the impress of radiation and 
humidity, for example, is more serious than for Africans. 

194 



SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF MAN IN AFRICA 

Moreover, the presently unexplained, because not yet 
measurable, tension in the atmosphere toward the end of the 
dry season and during drought periods in the rains makes 
the European in the African tropics far less efficient in mental 
reaction and physical response than in temperate and sub- 
tropical environments. Whether or not this will be explicable 
later, on the grounds of specific features of atmospheric 
ionization, remains to be proved. 

Apart from a solution along ecological lines of the problems 
in health, nutrition and other basic matters already noted, 
there is also wanted a more realistic approach to clothing, 
physical excercise and mental stimulus in the several social 
groupings in their natural milieu. 

A failure to plan and labour ecologically for an ameliora- 
tion of the rigours of the habitat will postpone indefinitely 
the striking of an equilibrium between man and his environ- 
ment. Till that day will be withheld a measure of additional 
happiness for the African people. 

It should be remembered that Africans and the people of 
Overseas origin - especially those of European ancestry - do 
not easily understand each other. Tradition, moral attitudes 
and so forth are markedly different - hence it is unwise for 
either racial groups to be ultra-critical of the other. 

An ecological assessment of environment, background, 
sociology, religion and group ethics would ease the present 
ready tendency for group criticism. Africans and others 
have to learn to understand each other far better if they are 
to live and labour together for the best development of the 
continent. 



SUBSISTENCE AND ECONOMY 

Unless the practice of production is based on ecologically 
sound systems and methods, a struggling existence or 



195 



JOHN PHILLIPS 

permanent poverty is inevitable, instead of a slow but none- 
the-less real amelioration. 

In many parts Africa is very poor; in others she is blessed in 
mediocre degree only; in yet others she is moderately fertile. 
She will be poorer throughout unless her people are more 
successful in relating her natural potentialities to appropriate 
practices and in realizing the relentless association of cause 
and effect, no matter how often the forgiveness of Nature 
tends to hide the mistakes of man. In the educating of his 
African brother to plan ecologically, the Overseas guide, 
philosopher and friend is heir to a truly weighty responsi- 
bility. 



CONCLUSION 

Applied to the physical, biotic, racial and economic problems 
of this ancient continent, the ecological viewpoint and 
approach could serve as an operative force both realistic 
and idealistic. It should enable man - black and white - to 
see life and living as a whole. A South African of several gener- 
ations, who happily endeavoured to serve the Sovereign State 
Ghana for eight years, pays personal tribute to the holistic 
creative force of the ecological approach to human under- 
standing. 3 



3. An effort to apply tlie ecological approach to the sounder development of 
agriculture in Africa South of the Sahara has been attempted in book form: "Agri- 
culture and Ecology in Africa." (J. F. V. PHILLIPS, 1959, Faber and Faber, London). 

196 



La science et I'homme 
an seuil du desert 

par 
THEODORE MONOD 



Au sens populaire du mot, le "desert" est un pays inhabite: 
a ce titre, bien des forets primaires, bien des montagnes, 
d'immenses surfaces polaires, comme tous les oceans, sont 
aussi des deserts. 

Nous n'envisagerons ici le mot qu'en son sens restreint 
de region ou le developpement de la biosphere trouve dans 
la secheresse un facteur toujours limitant, et, parfois, lethal. 

Ces immensites desolees, et assoiffees: un Namib, un Ataca- 
ma, un Takla-Makan, un Simpson Desert, une Tanezrouft, 
comme elles sont un lieu propice, et predestine, a une medi- 
tation sur la Science et Pavenir de Fhomme. 

Non certes qu'il s'agisse necessairement de terres "vierges" : 
il n'est sans doute pas dans tout le Sahara un metre carre qui 
n'ait ete foule par I'homme - celui du biface, celui de la 
ceramique, celui de la lance ou celui du fusil - et par des 
animaux: le boeuf, le cheval, la chevre ou le chameau. Mais 
ces espaces demesures - il m'a fallu parcourir au Sahara 
occidental, entre deux points d'eau et en ligne droite, pres de 
900 km en 22 jours - appartiennent encore a des aspects singu- 
lierement marginaux de Toecoumene: Thomme, meme 
nomade, y reste rare, le paysage demeure a peu pres intouche, 
en dehors des tlots, punctiformes, de vie sedentaire et des 
pej orations du surpaturage, la technique, reine ailleurs, 
s'arrete encore, hesitante, au seuil du vrai desert, et s'interroge. 

197 



THEODORE MONOD 

La vie traditionelle continue de siecle au siecle, et depuis 
des millenaires sans doute, le miracle du nomadisme deserti- 
que, atteignant avec 1'elevage camelin des "grands nomades" 
un equilibre ecologique et une adaptation au milieu qui en 
fait une reussite humaine a coup sur aussi remarquable et, on 
peut le penser, aussi "respectable", que celle des Eskimos les 
plus septentrionaux. 

Que ce style de vie ait a cote de ses lumieres ses ombres, qui 
le nierait? Mais qui, aussi, oserait oublier, s'il etait tente par la 
vaine stupidite d'un "palmares", les turpitudes des civilisa- 
tions orgueilleuses qui se sont arroge le monopole du C 
majuscule? 

Mais ces dernieres, qui ont pour elles la force materielle, 
font tache d'huile (ou de petrole ,..): les voici aux portes du 
desert, pretes a mener Passaut de leur machinerie contre le 
scandale des taches blanches de la carte economique. Les 
appetits s'eveillent: auri sacra fames, comme d'habitude, meme 
s'il s'agit, en fait, de fer, de cuivre ou de ce produits noirs" ... 
mirages de rentabilite et de puissance, espoirs aussi, bien sur, 
de substantiels dividendes ... Le desert renferme-t-il quelque 
richesse desirable? Pourquoi les forts et les habiles hesite- 
raient-ils a le a sucer", fut-ce au benefice de lointains con- 
sommateurs, et de quelques non moins lointains actionnai- 
res? 

Bientot la geopolitique et la strategic s'en melent et voici 
les deserts precipites, de gre ou de force, dans le cercle 
infernal des querelles des "civilises". Meritaient-ils semblable 
promotion? Et que devient, dans ce fievreux branlebas des 
mecaniques, Thomme local, 1'homme desertique, celui qui 
est ici chez lui, et le plus souvent depuis fort longtemps? 
Quel avenir lui reserve-t-on? Quel part recevra-t-il, et sous 
quelle forme, du benefice des investissements industriels? 
Se pourrait-il qu'on Toublie? Et que Fon s'apprete a boule- 
verser sans lui, et comme a son insu, le cadre de sa vie tra- 
ditionelle? 

Contrepartie necessaire et juste des profits que les puissan- 

198 



IA SCIENCE ET I/HOMME AU SEUIL DU DESERT 

ces materielles s'appretent a prelever sur les deserts, des 
devoirs, de toute evidence, s'imposent, que certaines entre- 
prises, d'ailleurs, ont la sagesse deja de reconnaitre. Si la 
technique doit permettre, dans le domaine miniere, Fexploi- 
tation de richesses souterraines souvent sans interet direct 
pour le nomade, elle ne sera pas moms capable de procurer a 
ce dernier le seul mineral qui lui soit imniediatement profi- 
table, 1'eau. Et, par consequent, d'ameliorer ses conditions 
d'existence. 

En meme temps que le recours, desormais possible, a 
des nappes profondes inaccessibles a la technique tradition- 
nelle, une politique resolue de conservation des ressources 
naturelles s'efforcerait de rechercher un equilibre raisonne, 
fonde sur F observation et Fexperimentation biologiques, 
entre le pouvoir regenerateur de la plante et les exigences du 
troupeau. 1 

On sait en effet le role de Phomme dans Pentretien et 
P aggravation des conditions desertiques par les contraintes 
qu'il exerce, avec ses animaux, sur la vegetation naturelle. 
Mais il n'est pas douteux que dans certaines regions du 
Sahara, comme sont en train de le prouver les experiences de 
mise en defends de parcelles protegees dans PAdrar mauri- 
tanien, le type normal, climatique d'une couverture vege- 
tale soustraite aux actions anthropiques, se montrera beau- 
coup plus dense qu'on eut pu Fimaginer. II en sera de meme, 
a fortiori, des semi-deserts marginaux, a vegetation steppique, 
dans des zones ou deja se posera Feternel probleme de la 
coexistence nomades/sedentaires, partout complexe et plus 
encore en Afrique sahelienne ou a F opposition des genres de 
vie se superpose celle des races et ou Involution socio- 

1. On a parfois qualifie, pour les ridiculiser, ceux qu'inquietent les menaces que font 
peser sur les etres vivants au Sahara: flore, faune, humanites, de "conservateurs du 
desert": comme si ce dernier n'etait pas de taille a se defendre tout seul et comme si 
nos technocrates etaient deja capables de modifier les climats ... L'homme moderne 
pent certes beaucoup, et ses capacites de destruction s'amplifient magnifiquement: 
il aurait peut-etre tort de se considerer prematurement comme omnipotent, car il 
s j en faut de beaucoup, comme Tocean, les seismes, les volcans, les deserts ou les 
poles le lui repetent pourtant assez clairement. 

199 



THEODORE MONOD 

economique et politique actuelle tend a modifier des struc- 
tures traditionelles de type feodal, avec une aristocratie de 
pasteurs blancs nomades maintenant en etat de servage ou 
de demi-servage des agriculteurs sedentaires de race noire. 

On se gardera done d'imaginer que le probleme de la mise 
en valeur des deserts ou semi-deserts soit seulement une 
affaire de technique et qu'il puisse jamais suffire d'ingenieurs 
ou de machine pour le resoudre. Cela peut etre vrai locale- 
ment, dans des deserts inhabites, s'il en est, mais dans la plupart 
des cas, il faudra decouvrir le moyen d'assurer aux humanites 
desertiques une part legitime des profits des exploitations in- 
dustrielles et, dans certains semi-deserts, agricoles, envisagees. 

Non certes qu'il s'agisse de contraindre le berger touareg 
ou bedouin a se transformer obligatoirement en salarie ou en 
client, et a aventurer sa liberte aux perils de la cite ou de 
1'usine. Mais si la science accepte de prendre au serieux, par 
dela les calculs du profit ou de la puissance, son pouvoir de 
liberation et le soulagement qu'elle peut apporter a la secu- 
laire peine des 'hommes, elle trouvera au desert ample occa- 
sion d'exercer cette haute mission. 

Mettre genereusement au service de 1'homme, ffrt-il le 
plus humble, le plus "attarde," le plus attache au style de 
vie le plus different de notre comportement occidental, les 
ressources de la technique moderne, voila le devoir d'une 
science digne de ce nom, capable de se faire enfin Pefficace 
auxiliaire du labeur des etres, de regir les choses pour affran- 
chir des personnes, et, en soulageant travaux et soucis de 
Yhomo oeconomicus, de favoriser le developpement d'un homo 
cogitans, d'un homo aestheticus, d'un homo orans. 

Au seuil du desert, la science s'interroge. Elle s'apprete a 
livrer bataille et a vaincre une nature hostile. Mais quel sera 
Tenjeu de la lutte? Le profit, la puissance, le prestige, 1'or- 
gueil, une economic destructrice, la Raubwirischafi, comme 
d'habitude, ou, desormais, le fraternel service des hommes, 
dans le respect de ces differences qui constituent, dans la 
symphonie planetaire, leur irremplaf able richesse? 

200 



LA SCIENCE ET L HOMME AU SEUIL DU DESERT 
SUMMARY 

Science and the Man in the Heart of the Desert 

The author stresses the responsibility of science and of 
technical power in the deserts. These come increasingly in 
the foreground for various reasons (mining or oil interests, 
geopolitics, a.s.o.): but what of the inhabitants? What benefit 
- if any - will they derive from the industrial exploitation of 
their country? If man, with his tremendous material abilities 
is really what he claims, a sapiens Primate, what will be his 
aim: profit, power, prestige, pride or, henceforth, the 
brotherly service of men, respectful of those differences 
which constitute in fact, in the planetary symphony, irre- 
placeable riches? 



201 



Human Needs and the Need for 
Ultimate Orientation 



by 
H. F. INFIELD 



What we witness today is a change in orientation from one 
looking towards origins to one turning towards aim and 
purpose. This is probably the most significant characteristic 
of the "crisis of our times." This is the great change, of which 
every thinking person today is aware, and to which the 
different leaders of thought give different names. There is no 
reason to assume, as many of these leaders do, that this 
change is necessarily for the worse or that there are simply 
no ways and means of controlling and steering it in a desira- 
ble direction. It is true that, impressed with the advance of 
our technology, we may be inclined to overrate our control 
over our natural environment and to believe that there is 
nothing which, given the necessary means and time, we 
cannot accomplish. It is also true that it needs only a sub- 
stantial earthquake, a hurricane, a flood or a dust storm, to 
make us aware again of our essential helplessness in the face 
of natural powers. But the change of which we are speaking 
is not a geological or atmospheric but a social one; and in 
this respect our position and possibilities are quite different. 

Interestingly enough, it is only now that we become aware 
of our capacity to shape our social environment. It is a 
curious feature of mankind's development that it took it all 
this time to realize this fact. The explanation, probably, is that 
being fully involved in the process that we call society, we 

203 



H. F. INFIELD 

find it extremely difficult to attain the necessary attitude of 
detachment and objectivity. Possibly also, because of the 
genetic orientation, the tribe, the state was viewed as part of a 
plan preordained by the Creator. Now, however, with our 
predominant attitude becoming more and more ontological 
and operational, we begin to realize that as much as our 
natural environment is given, just as much our social 
environment is man-made. We can at best modify nature, 
and only to a relatively very limited degree at that; but the 
social environment, if we really want to, we actually can 
shape wholly to our own devices. 

This opens possibilities - wholesome as well as noxious - of 
which we only now become aware. Social engineering is a 
growing discipline - but it can be beneficial only if it remains 
conscious of its limitations. In this sense, it can play a useful 
role only when and so long it is guided by and remains 
oriented towards the needs - and all the needs - of man. 

In a paper on "Recent Developments in Personality 
Studies" (American Sociological Review, October 1948) 
already a number of years ago H. GOLDHAMMER observed that 
the "re-emergence of a strong emphasis on what are vari- 
ously called drives, impulses or needs," is largely responsible 
for the fact that "intentionality or purposiveness has won 
back its place in the analysis of human conduct," that 
behaviour is again viewed as "goal-directed" (p. 555). Concern 
with these factors, however, is not new. Thus, for instance, 
the rediscovery of universal drives - or "invariants" - as 
ANATAL RAPPAPORT puts it in his Operational Philosophy (N.Y. 
1954, Harpers) - such as the need for survival, for belonging 
or for "self-extension," for order, and for security (p. 94ff) > 
can be shown to be actually only a newer version of the old 
four "fundamental wishes" - the desire for new experience, 
for security, response and recognition - (of THOMAS and ZNA- 
NIECKIS The Polish Peasant), which had dominated the discussion 
for so long. The shortcoming of all such classifications is that 
they reify what is only a modus agendi. This procedure goes 

204 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

back to the old philosophical distinction between noumena and 
phenomena. It is present in KANT'S distinction between pure and 
practical reason, between the Ding-an-sich and experience. 
It has reappeared, in more recent times, in the so-called 
"instinct theory" of McDouGAix, where 'Instinct 53 is the 
a priori substratum of behaviour. This question of needs is 
important because any genuinely "goal-directed " chartering 
of the next step in human development depends on it. We 
shall try, therefore, to sum up here in some detail our own 
thinking on the subject. 

A FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF NEEDS 

To approach the matter in the light of modern scientific 
method, it seems that needs cannot be viewed as "substances" 
but rather - to use REICHENBACH'S term - as illata or "inferred 
things 5 ' such as "internal states' 5 that can be inferred from 
certain "reactions of the body." 1 These reactions themselves 
can be understood fully only in the context of certain 
functional relations. In connection with an attempt to arrive 
at a sociological definition of culture this context was de- 
scribed as follows: "Culture is an acquired aggregate of 
meanings attached to and implemented in material and non- 
material objects which decisively influence the manner in 
which human beings tend to interact in order to satisfy their 
needs." 2 And it was added that "like any true functional 
interrelation, the one presented in our definition can be 
analysed by starting from any one of its terms." If we start 
with meanings (the old material and non-material "values" 
of the anthropologist) we can show how they, by way of the 
mode of social interaction which they determine, affect the 
nature of the needs. Similarly, if we start with the mode of 
social interaction, we can show how it serves, so to speak, as a 

1. HANS REICHENBACH: "The Rise of Scientific Philosophy." Univ. of California 

Press. 1951- p- 263 . , . 

2. See this writer's: "The. Concept of Jewish Culture and the State ot Israel, m 
Amer. Sociol. Rev., August 1951- 



205 



H. F. INFIELD 

relay system between meanings and needs, and vice versa, 
which are both affected by it. And taking the needs first we 
can show how they actuate the mode of social interaction 
which in turn affects the "selection, acceptance and culti- 
vation of specific meanings attached to material and non 
material objects." As in any truly functional relation, prima- 
cy can be assigned to any given term only by arbitrary 
postulation. When man's mind reaches that state of lucidity 
which enables him to conceive of these terms and to reflect 
on them, they are already "in function." As is the case with 
regard to dialectics - which offer only a limited and simplified 
application of the functional view - it does not make sense to 
argue in this context who was first, the egg or the chicken; 
both are given when we begin to reflect on the fact that they 
exist. The difficulty consists rather in being able to keep in 
mind simultaneously the different terms of a multiple 
functional relation, or, in other words, the difficulty is one 
of being able to think functionally. Any particular term may 
become of special interest, given a specific issue. If what 
happens to interest us is the meaning of meaning - the 
"decision-criteria" of modern communication and organi- 
zation theory - we would concentrate on the implications of 
this term; and so with the mode of social interaction, or with 
needs. Different disciplines, philosophy, sociology, and 
social psychology, specialize in such considerations. But they 
all fall short of offering real understanding of any of these 
terms because, or at least in so far as, they fail to view each 
of the terms in its functional context, which is its relation to 
the other terms. Thus it might be said that philosophy falls 
short because and in so far as it neglects the sociological and 
socio-psychological aspects of meaning, while sociology and 
socio-psychology do so because and in so far as they lack 
philosophical orientation. 

In starting with the needs we do so not because we assign 
to them any primacy, but because of all three terms this is the 
one that is of special interest to the issues of our present 

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HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

discussion. In dealing with them, we should keep in mind 
that we do so in the light of the functional view. For it is this 
view, we believe, that can help us to find a viable solution to 
one of the most vexing issues of the theory of needs, which is 
classification. Attempts at the classification of needs, in the 
modern sense, can be traced back as far as the end of the 
eighteenth century; they continue to be made to this very 
day. A useful survey of the more noteworthy of such 
"systems of basic motives," made by BERNARD NOTCUTT, 
covers a period from 1788 to 1947 and reproduces lists con- 
structed by authors such as THOMAS REID, the first who, 
using the term "active power," treated motivation in a way 
"similar to that used by modern authors"; of WILLIAM JAMES 
and W. McDouGALL; of F. H. ALLPORT, H. A. MURRAY, and 
A. H. MASLOW, to name only the better-known ones. There is 
neither the place nor the need to go here into a detailed 
discussion of these lists. As of special interest to us we may 
mention perhaps the list of MASLOW who, finding it "impossi- 
ble as well as useless to make a list of fundamental physiolo- 
gical needs," insists that no need exists independent of other 
needs and that the relation between them is a hierarchical 
one. This in the sense that certain needs have to be satisfied 
first before others can assert themselves. In his view this 
hierarchy shows the following order: "i) physiological needs 
2) safety needs; 3) love needs (for affection and belongingness) 
4) esteem needs; 5) need for self-actualization." 

Examining the different lists, NOTCUTT concludes that there 
is "a large measure of agreement" between several of them, 
"and only minor points of disagreement." However, what he 
finds missing is a "clear-cut criterion," on the strength of 
which it would be possible to decide which of the lists is the 
correct one. All that can be said, he suggests, is that they all 
can be more or less convenient, depending on the use to 
which they are put. 3 

3. All the above quotations are from: BERNARD NOTCUTT, The Psychology of 
Personality. Philos. Library, New York, 1953. ch. VI. pp. 88-115. 

207 



H. F. INFIELD 

In our own view, a survey of this kind raises several inter- 
esting points. Firstly, it appears that all the lists presented, 
although they may prove to be convenient in one respect or 
the other, lack an adequate principle of division. A mere 
inventory of needs, however, can never be exhaustive, 
simply because the nature of needs is essentially dynamic 
and their range infinite. The issue resembles that of the 
closed systems in philosophy. Any attempt at finality is 
doomed to failure in the face of the continuous - sponta- 
neous or, as in our society, deliberately induced - emergence 
of new needs. 

Another point worth stressing is the fact that none of the 
lists contains any reference to the spiritual or religious need. 
The justification for this omission, it would seem, can be 
traced to McDouGALL who, like E. L. THORNDIKE - to quote 
another writer on the subject - "rejected the religious 
instinct" because, he argued, "religious emotion is no single 
and specific expression of one instinct. It is too complex and 
diversified to be the product of a single motive but develops 
in various ways from multiple causes/ 5 4 We may suspect, 
however, that the real reason was not so much fear of over- 
simplification as the materialistic bias of the times which 
kept shy of anything that smacked of idealism and trans- 
cendence. "Need" still for many means chiefly or even 
exclusively material needs. 

Finally, a word or two might be said about MASLOW'S hierar- 
chical order. His basic principle - which, and because it 
accords with the dynamic nature of needs - undoubtedly is 
sound. Needs, it is true, vary in their strength, but not in a 
way that would justify their ordering into higher and lower. 
Such ordering would presuppose that the strength of each 
need is constant, which contradicts the basic dynamic 
principle. The nature of needs being dynamic, implies rather 
that the strength of each need varies in itself, and will be 

4. See: PAUL E. JOHNSON: Psychology of Religion, N.Y.-Nashville. 1959. Abingdon 
Press, p. 59. 

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HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

greater or smaller, depending on circumstances. In this sense, 
a need ranked as higher by MASLOW may become potent 
before any of the lower needs have been satisfied. As we shall 
see later on, there exists a functional interrelation between 
needs, obstacles, and the "aggregate of meanings" called 
culture. Where a specific need meets with an obstruction 
that proves to be insuperable, it will be either abandoned, or 
the energy that activated it will be deflected into another 
field or context. 

It might be convenient to distinguish between the different 
"fields 53 or contexts of human needs in the traditional terms 
of material, emotional, intellectual, social and spiritual. 
This distinction, however, by no means intends to represent 
a classification of needs. When subsequently we use ex- 
pressions like "material" or "intellectual needs 53 , it should be 
remembered, therefore, that we do so in this conventional 
sense which refers rather to the different fields or contexts as 
here indicated. 

An actual classification of needs, in order to be consistent, 
will have to be based on criteria that are in accord with their 
nature. Since we found that this nature is dynamic, the 
criteria of classification themselves will have to be dynamic. 
A criterion of this kind, we believe, can be found in what 
sociology would call the mode of social interaction. Two 
such basic modes can be distinguished: one that implies 
doing things chiefly by and for oneself; and the other that 
implies doing things with and for others, and sharing the 
results equitably. To avoid those somewhat loose and 
unprecise terms, competition and cooperation, we may call 
the first the "disjunctive," and the second the "conjunctive 3 ' 
mode of social interaction. It is this distinction which offers 
us the necessary principle of division. It enables us to divide 
all the needs, the manifest and the potential, into two 
mutually exclusive classes. All needs, we can say, are either 
disjunctive or conjunctive, dependent on what kind of social 
interaction they require for the sake of their satisfaction. 

209 



H. F. INFIELD 

As can be seen, this classification is dynamic and "open". 
Although it helps to order needs systematically, it does so in 
a way that takes into account their potentially infinite range. 
Its effectiveness asserted itself in the construction of a Test of 
Needs, or the "Cooperative Potential Test", as it came to be 
known. 5 This self-rating test was designed so as to yield a 
quantitative estimate of the relative potency of the two kind 
of needs, the conjunctive and the disjunctive, felt by a given 
individual. There was actually only one, but two-pronged, 
question asked by the test: to what degree are your needs of 
the one or the other kind. However, in order to counter any 
attempt at "beating" the test, the needs to be rated by the 
individual were divided into the five conventional contexts 
mentioned above, and arranged according to an underlying 
key, by means of which the answers could be ranked from 
extremely and fairly conjunctive to fairly and extremely 
disjunctive. In this manner the test asked five times the same 
question, concealed by the arrangement of the needs, and 
produced a five-fold self-rating with respect to the cooper- 
ative potential. 



THE DYNAMICS OF NEEDS 

The classification of needs just described is based, we said, on 
their dynamic nature. It might be well, therefore, to consider 
this nature somewhat more closely. We may begin with the 
observation that there are certain dynamic aspects of needs 
which are inherent partly in their own nature and partly in 
the nature of the factors inhibiting their satisfaction. 

As inherent in the nature of needs can be considered 
chiefly what we might call their conspicuity or manifestness, 
and their valence or intensity. 

The manifestness of needs can be graphically represented 

5. Cf. this author's The Sociological Study of Cooperation. An Outline. 
Loughborough, 1956. p. 39 , and p. 67 

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HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

as a continuum ranging from below zero to infinity. Below 
zero we can place "unfelt" needs, or needs that are only 
potential in the sense that one is not aware of them at a 
given time. They can be activated by a change of circum- 
stances, or by deliberate manipulation, as through advertising 
campaigns. The range of such activation appears to be a 
continuum to which no limit can be set. This refers particu- 
larly to material needs. Many of those we consider as acute 
today were "unfelt" not so long ago and are still so in most 
of the "undeveloped" areas of the world. The other needs in 
principle are probably no less malleable and can be just as 
infinitely activated given the right approach. It is the extreme 
malleability and fecundity of probably all needs that militates 
against any attempt at their conclusive inventorization. 

Valence, or intensity, is an aspect that has sensible refe- 
rence only to "felt" needs. It is an index, or a rate, of the 
reciprocal relation between such needs and the factors 
inhibiting their satisfaction, or obstacles. This relation is not 
uniform. Strong needs that meet with strong obstacles may 
be either intensified or frustrated, dependent on the relative, 
objective, or subjectively experienced insuperability of the 
given obstacle. The manner of coping with such obstacles 
will depend largely on the individual temperament. It may 
lead either to a stimulation of inventiveness, or resignation. 
Paradise is a nostalgic conception of a human condition in 
which there are no obstacles to the satisfaction of all needs. 
There is reason to assume that, contrary to common belief, 
such a truly Utopian condition would produce not bliss but 
rather apathy and stultification. 

The malleability of needs, finally, may be seen as related to 
the persistence of achieved satisfactions. These can be more or 
less lasting or more or less temporary or passing. More or 
less lasting satisfactions prevail only where the total human 
condition is subject to small and hardly perceivable changes, 
as in relatively stationary societies. Where technological and 
social conditions change as rapidly as in modern society, 



211 



H. R INFIELD 

new needs, especially of the material kind, constantly arise 
and have to be activated, chiefly because of the commanding 
requirements of an "expanding economy." As a consequence, 
all satisfactions become transitory. They serve as mere 
stepping stones to new needs. This, in spite of an unpre- 
cedented abundance of achieved satisfactions, cannot but 
result in a pervading sense of frustration or dissatisfaction. 

The intensity and malleability of needs as just described 
makes it possible to formulate a general rule of human 
behaviour based on the dynamic aspect of what we called 
"factors inhibiting their satisfaction." We may say that 
between all needs and their satisfaction human beings will 
find interposed some obstacles. The resulting effect will vary 
depending on three factors: the relative intensity of the 
given need; the size of the obstacle; and the means available 
for overcoming it. 

The important fact to keep in mind is the functional 
interconnection between these three factors. They are 
correlated in the sense that the manifestness and range of 
each factor is determined by, and in turn determines, the 
manifestness and range of the other two factors. Thus the 
nature and intensity of a given need cannot be viewed 
correctly without taking into consideration the nature and 
intensity of the obstacle which it will have to overcome on its 
way to satisfaction. In addition, there will also be the question 
of the ways and means available and needed in order to 
overcome it. In the simplest case, a material need will be up 
against obstacles that are material and will aim at material 
satisfaction. If the obstacle is too great, the result may be 
either resignation and frustration, or deflection. Resignation 
and frustration means abandoning the need, temporarily 
or permanently, and thus admitting defeat. Deflection 
may lead to stimulation of other types of needs. For 
instance, deflection from a material need may lead to 
activation of intellectual needs. This may express itself in 
inventiveness that may be applied to the overcoming of the 



212 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

material obstacle; or to substitution of intellectual satis- 
factions for the material ones. Intellectual frustration may 
activate material, emotional or spiritual needs, etc. The 
question is whether and to what degree such deflection is 
possible between the five types of needs. The stronger a need, 
the larger the obstacle with which it can cope. The more 
desirable a satisfaction, the more intensive will be the need, 
and so on. But even the most intensive need may be stymied 
if the obstacle to its satisfaction proves insurmountable with 
the available means. 

As observed before, frustration in one context can prompt 
a shift to another context. Perhaps a theory could be formed 
based on the assumption that each person is endowed with a 
certain vital energy which enables him to secure the satis- 
factions he considers as desirable. Such desirability will be 
largely determined by two factors: the meanings dominant 
in a given culture, and what for want of a better term we may 
call temperament. 

As to the meanings, they will influence, and will be influ- 
enced by, the development of means to their realization and 
thus tend to put at the disposal of the individual certain 
techniques effective in achieving the satisfaction. Where, as 
in our culture, material satisfactions are deemed to be the 
most desirable, the technology developed makes their 
achievement appear so easy as to virtually obliterate awareness 
of the existence of any obstacles. Still there are even in our 
society people whose temperament makes them pursue 
other than material satisfactions. This, for instance, is, at 
least temporarily, the case in adolescence, when emotional 
needs become dominant; or in people who devote them- 
selves to intellectual pursuits (scientists) or to the search of 
spiritual values. The prevalence of such needs will tend to 
reduce the intensity of the other needs. People in pursuit of 
emotional needs, e.g. love, may lose desire for food; and 
people who experience conversion may lose interest in all 
other human needs but the spiritual ones. In our culture 

213 



H. F. INFIELD 

such needs are taken to be marginal; in other cultures they 
may, at least theoretically, be dominant. Even physical 
survival may then - as in the case of cultures in which 
religious or for that matter political values predominate - 
be subordinated to the satisfaction of such needs. There is, 
though, this difference. Spiritual or emotional needs in 
extreme cases may make saints or martyrs, heroes or victims; 
material needs only profiteers or paupers. 

Though no priority can be assigned to any need in its 
functional relation with obstacles and satisfactions, a ranking 
appears to be possible among the different kinds of needs. 
Such ranking, as mentioned before, will be determined by 
the "aggregate of acquired meanings," or by a given culture. 
Thus, in our predominantly materialistic culture, we are 
inclined to accept as pertinent the consideration that though 
man does not live by bread alone, he certainly cannot live 
without it. This implies a primacy of the material needs. 
Without their satisfaction no other satisfactions appear 
possible. This, however, is by no means as self-evident as it 
appears to be. Thus, for instance, even on the level of plant 
existence, satisfaction of the bare physical needs seems to be 
not always sufficient. Some people find that "loving care" 
makes plants grow that would otherwise wither. This would 
seem to imply that even plants have emotional needs, the 
satisfaction of which may make the difference between death 
and survival. This may be the reason for the effectiveness of 
the Chinese intensive agriculture - in which wheat is planted 
instead of sown- each seed, so to speak, being given individual 
attention. We know of the stories of dogs who starve to 
death on the graves of their masters. They cannot survive the 
deprivation of the specific emotional satisfaction derived 
from their master's affection. Man, too, could not survive if 
he were incapable of pursuing any but purely material needs. 
Their very pursuit would be impossible without attention 
to his intellectual, emotional, spiritual and above all social 
needs. In this sense, the priority assigned to any need will not 

214 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

depend upon its intrinsic potency, but rather on the scale of 
values implicitly or explicitly accepted by a given culture in 
general, and by any given sub-culture - be it that of business, 
science or art - in particular. 



THE EXTENSION AND REFINEMENT OF NEEDS AND 
THEIR SATISFACTION 

This brief outline of the dynamic nature of needs is still 
evidently only an outline and in obvious need of further 
refinement, if it is to serve as the basis for our program of 
action. 

Since the kind of action we have in mind is one that 
proceeds from and remains oriented toward man's needs, 
their fullest possible understanding is indispensable for such 
an undertaking. There are quite a few aspects that a complete 
theory of needs would yet have to elucidate. One is the 
problem of their relation to what we call "instincts" and the 
other, to what we call "interests." Both seem to share a 
certain paradoxical tendency for being elusive. The bane of 
all high minded leaders and teachers of mankind is its 
capacity for disregarding its own real needs and best interests 
and of pursuing, instead, those that cause all the trouble of 
which human history offers such a disastrous record. This 
tendency appears to be so pronounced as to make it possible 
to speak, as FREUD does, of an instinct for self-destruction, or 
Todeswunsch. 

This would bring up the problem of whether it may not be 
just as important to know what needs not to pursue. The 
decalogue seems to be conceived in this spirit. Of the ten 
commandments only two, the third and fourth, refer to 
what man ought to do, the rest are rather interdictions. Is 
this an ingenious indication of a pessimistic, or shall we say 
realistic, view of human nature? 

A related problem would be what we call inhibitions. Some 

215 



H. F. INFIELD 

of these are "internalized "taboos of our culture; but there 
are also those that are self-created. These are the ones that 
arise from shyness, "inferiority complex," a sense of inferi- 
ority that has no objective justification, and all the other 
"complexes" with which man in our civilization tends to 
torture himself and to block his chance for the satisfaction 
especially of some of his basic emotional needs but, as a 
consequence, also of his material and social needs. 

An interesting undertaking would be to try also to visu- 
alize the refinement of means available for overcoming 
obstacles to the satisfaction especially of the emotional, 
intellectual and spiritual needs. The greater urgency of the 
material and, to a much lesser degree, of the social needs, has 
forced mankind to concentrate all its energies on the con- 
quest of the natural obstacles to their satisfaction. This has 
spurred an advance in technology, which, since the design 
and refinement of the experimental method, has led, at 
least in one country, the U.S.A., to a state where the "venom 
of want," which still poisons the lives of most of the human 
race, has become virtually obsolete and has been replaced by 
the "perils of plenty." It is possible that a similar advance in 
the techniques that serve to cope with the obstacles that 
inhibit the satisfaction of social needs will follow the appli- 
cation of the experimental method to social innovation, such 
as suggested by the experimental cooperative communities. 6 

As to the other needs, however, we seem to be satisfied to 
abide by the standards accepted by our ancestors at the very 
onset of human civilization. This lag becomes startling when 
compared with the diversity and complexity of our material 
satisfactions. Love, friendship, enjoyment of beauty in art 
and nature, and our other emotional satisfactions are all 
essentially not different in kind from those known in An- 
tiquity. Virtually no progress has since been made in Western 
Civilization, and in the Orient the stagnation is of much 

6. See this writer's: A Prototype of Sociological Experiment-The Modern Cooper- 
ative Community. In: Int. Arch, of Sociology of Cooperation, Vol. I, No. 1. 1957. 

216 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

longer duration. The same can be said about spiritual satis- 
factions. Essentially they are the same as established by the 
founders and first followers of the Great Religions, of which 
the most recent one, Islam, dates back to the ;th Century. It 
is true, that certain variations have been introduced, for 
example in Protestantism, in respect to some of dogmas of 
the Catholic Church. 

But the basic form of faith in JESUS, as the Son of God and 
Saviour of humanity still is essentially the same. The situation 
is very similar, if not identical, in all other Great Religions, 
the only difference being the loss of adherents, as in Parsism, 
or their growth in numbers, as in the Christian faith. 

In contrast, it would seem as if we had made considerable 
progress in our intellectual proficiency. The estimate here 
will depend on the standards by which we judge intellectual 
progress. There can be no doubt that what we know today, 
and the way we know it, is a far cry from what was known, 
for example, to the ancient Greeks. T his knowledge, however, 
refers chiefly to knowledge derived from the observation of a 
very limited area of our universe, the physical environment. 
There seems to be only very little advance in our thinking 
about all the other contexts of human existence, the social, 
emotional, spiritual, and yes, the intellectual itself. Despite 
all the efforts of the giants of philosophy in the last two 
thousand years, our epistemology and logic have made hardly 
any progress. We know of course, or we think we do, more 
about psychology; and symbolic logic constitutes an inter- 
esting attempt to break with Aristotelian logic; which, 
however, still provides the rules that dominate most of our 
present-day thinking. 

We seem to be ready today to question this state of affairs. 
We begin to feel, prompted probably by the unprecedented 
extension and refinement of our material satisfactions, that 
the satisfactions of our other needs are similarly extendable 
and refinable. One interesting symptom of this feeling is the 
popularity of the so-called science fiction. I have in mind not 

217 



H. F. INFIELD 

so much the attempts to imagine and depict mechanical 
inventions of the future, but the attempts to anticipate 
probable future ways of thinking, of feeling, of living to- 
gether, and in general to conceive new cosmogenies. In a less 
fictitious vein, signs of such exploration of new and more 
subtle ways of satisfying our emotional, intellectual and 
spiritual needs, and of opening the way to their refinement, 
can be found at the margin of the disciplines that deal with 
the context of these needs. The distrust of the, essentially 
conservative, majority of people for such attempts expresses 
itself in a generally derogatory attitude. The poets who 
experiment with new and more subtle possibilities of the 
aesthetic, as the Neo-Romanticists at the end of the last 
century, will be called "decadent 55 ; any spiritistic medium 
who is caught cheating, will gloatingly be taken as proof 
that the whole business of extrasensory perception is a hoax; 
any scheme, literary or activistic, to explore the feasibility of 
a better society, will be dismissed as futile or "utopian 55 ; 
"mystic 35 becomes an invective levelled against even the 
most serious search for more rarefied spiritual satisfaction. 

Viewed more dispassionately, such reaching out on the 
part of a relatively few into areas of human experience as yet 
beyond the reach of the many, is probably nothing else than a 
sign that those few are already sensitive to needs as yet unfelt 
by the others. Once these needs become accepted as legiti- 
mate, and once the techniques for their satisfaction approxi- 
mate the effectiveness of those available today for the satis- 
faction of material needs, man may well become transformed 
into a kind of human being as far ahead of man as we know 
him today as he himself is of the cave dweller. 

These considerations should not be taken as flights of 
fancy, as vain daydreams of glory. Rather, they follow 
naturally from a theory of needs that is functional and not 
genetic, that instead of concerning itself with the origins of 
the drives responsible for human development, about which 
we can only guess, tries to comprehend them in a way that 

218 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

can be confirmed by direct observation and that at the same 
time helps us to trace their extension into the immediate 
future. It is on the basis of a theory of this kind that the 
operations can be suggested which, when carried out, will 
produce certain effects that, if nothing else, will help man in 
what probably is his most ambitious task as man, the reali- 
zation of all his potentialities. The formulation of the ways 
and means leading to such realization may well be the 
fulfillment of what WELLS had in mind when he spoke of 
the Bible of Civilization and what might well come to be 
called the Bible of the Future. 

MAN'S POTENTIALITIES, AND WAYS AND MEANS 
TO THEIR REALIZATION 

It may sound presumptuous, if not preposterous, to contem- 
plate such an undertaking; but the task is actually less 
awesome than appears to be. The new "dispensation" can be 
new only if it differs in kind from the old ones. It will be new 
in the sense that it does not claim to have its source in divine 
revelation, but in the social experimentation prompted by 
the search for the satisfaction of certain human needs. The 
commandments of the new "Bible" can derive their strength 
not from an alleged and inscrutable divine authority, but 
from a validation in terms of human performance. In other 
words, the commandments of the new Bible have to be 
operational. It is not enough - and it has never been enough - 
to decree "thou shalt not steal" or "thou shalt not kill" and 
to expect people to obey because God is supposed to have 
said so. In order to enforce such obedience, we seem to de- 
pend today rather on two means: police and prisons. Both, 
as our increasing rate of crime and delinquency shows, prove 
to be quite ineffective. The commandment of the future will 
not be a decree, but a design of ways and means that will 
create conditions in which unwanted behaviour will have 
only an irreducible minimum chance of occurring. 

219 



H. F. INFIELD 

That such conditions are practicable is shown by the 
experience of cooperative communities, those of the past, 
such as the Hutterites, as well as those of the present, such 
as the Kibbutzim. In those groups stealing, for example, 
hardly ever occurs. And this not because of an abundance of 
material goods. Frugal as are the conditions under which these 
groups exist, the fact that they hold "all things in common" 
deprives of any sense the very idea of stealing. Since every 
one de jure and de facto owns and is entitled to use according 
to his needs everything that belongs to the group, theft 
would mean stealing from oneself. Such infractions as may 
happen can be due only to momentary attacks of greed or to 
psychopathological impulse. 

In a similar way, the question is one of designing ways and 
means for the fullest realization of man's potentialities. Since 
we start from the present state of affairs, seen from the 
vantage point of a country with the most advanced material 
standards man has ever known, we may disconsider the issue 
of material needs. The American economy of today proves 
that we already possess the know-how necessary not merely 
for their satisfaction but even over-saturation. As to emotion- 
al and intellectual needs, our awareness of their possible 
range is so spotty that even the most complete inventory of 
available knowledge on the subject could at best be more 
suggestive than enlightening. It should be attempted, by all 
means, even though it may yield not much more than first 
leads. A real advance, however, will depend on opportunities 
to explore actively the unfathomed ranges of our emotion- 
ality and thought, and to exercise, systematically and in- 
tensively, any uncovered faculties. Research and training of 
this novel kind obviously will require an institution for 
"advanced studies." These studies will be "advanced" in more 
than one sense. They will aim at advancing the range of our 
emotional and intellectual needs and satisfactions; and they 
will be oriented by the, for the time being, tentative as- 
sumption of an unlimited perfectibility of man's faculties.. 



220 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

An experiment of this kind cannot fail to be useful either 
way: in positively enhancing man's development to the very 
limits of his possibilities; and negatively, by determining in an 
objective, verifiable manner the real limits beyond which 
man cannot go, at least for the time being. It should throw 
light also on the interesting problem of the actual relation 
between man's potentialities and their realization. In this 
respect man, generally speaking, may act in four different 
ways. He may: 

1) Want to do what he can do ; 

2) Not want to do what he cannot do; 

3) Not want to do what he can do; 

4) Want to do what he cannot do. 

The first and the second case offer no problem; the be- 
haviour they imply is simply reasonable. More of a problem 
is the third case. The reason for such behaviour may be lack 
of awareness, emotional inhibition, simple laziness, etc. In 
the relation to an "ever-expanding" economy, these mental 
blocks are of crucial importance and are intensively explored 
by so-called c 'motivational research." Some of the findings 
indicate that more generally oriented research in this area 
would produce valuable insight into factors determining 
choice and decision making. Most intriguing is our fourth 
and last case. It would be simple, if we knew with any degree 
of finality, what we can or cannot do. In one field, that of 
technological development, the experience of our lifetime 
tends to make us perhaps over-sanguine in this respect. The 
things we knew in childhood as fairy tale stuff have become 
today articles of daily use: the horseless carriage, the magic 
glass mirroring events taking place in the far distance, the 
flying carpet, and so on. There is much in the mental climate 
of today that makes us inclined to believe that if only we can 
imagine a thing we can also make it. The only things it would 
seem, we cannot do are those that we just did not yet happen 
to think of. This is what SANTAYANA calls, "The indomitable 



221 



H. F. INFIELD 

freedom of life to be more, to be new, to be what it has not 
entered into the heart of man as yet to conceive ..." 7 

However, this virtually unlimited optimism with regard to 
the possibilities of material development - somewhat 
dampened just now by the adverse aspects of the release of 
atomic energy - turns to diffidence when it comes to man's 
other faculties. Our folk- as well as religious-lore is replete 
with the dire forebodings about the pitfalls sown in the path 
of any uncommon intellect. From the stories of Adam and 
Eve, who lost Paradise for us all because they would not keep 
away from the Tree of Knowledge, and the men of Babel, 
who were smitten with confusion when they raised their 
sights too high, to the wet nurse apprehension about the 
child who cannot be "long of this world" because it is too 
bright, the American glorification of the low brow and the 
equation of "controversial" with "subversive," there is one 
persistent long line of anti-intellectual bias. No wonder that 
the results are what they must be: intellectual timidity, if 
not outright stultification. Thus timid thought and timid 
emotions create a mental climate in which the real faculties 
of man remain unexplored and, because not exercised, 
shrink far below their actual and potential range. 

On the other hand, it might be said, in view of the damage 
done to mankind by "supermen" such as Alexander "the 
Great," Nero, Napoleon and their more recent emulators, 
the Hitlers, Mussolinis and Stalins, apprehension about all 
God-like ambition of man might not be quite unjustified. 
All that these monstrous criminals - who escaped the law 
only because, and so long as they made it - in fact did ac- 
complish was disaster for themselves and for all those whom, 
willingly or unwillingly, they were able to drag down along 
with themselves. Intellect, it seems if carried away by the 
obsession with power, is capable of destruction of truly 



7. GEORGE SANTA YANA: Three Philosophical Poets. Anchor Books, New York 1953. 
(First published 1910) p. 181 ff. 

222 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

megatonic proportions. It looks even on the cobalt bomb as 
just another handy tool of its ambitions. 

The issue seems to boil down to a basic dilemma: if man 
accepts the so-called dictates of God and is meek and humble 
before him, he forsakes his chance of a full realization of his 
potentialities; if, on the other hand, he disregards the 
dictates of God and overreaches himself, he invites disaster 
for himself and others with him. However, like all such 
"either or" dichotomies this, too, is misleading. For the 
question is not necessarily one of either obeying or disobeying 
the dictates of God, nor is it one of being either meek and 
retarded or ambitious and malignant. Presupposing, as most 
of us do, that we need some vision, some signification of a 
supreme idea, of an ultimate meaning, of a Value of Values, 
in order to derive from life its fullest and noblest satisfactions, 
the question is one rather of whether the commandment to 
realize our potentialities to the utmost is not the truest ex- 
pression of such vision. 8 

Put in this way, the question we will want to answer will 
call for two things; an open-minded, matter-of-fact, precise 
determination of the actual range of our potentialities and 
faculties, and an imaginary point of spiritual reference set 
high enough to serve as the apex of all our aspirations or, 
in other words, a concept of God that would satisfy our own 
present-day need for such a spiritual perspective. 

The first will require a prolonged and painstaking experi- 
mental investigation concerning the nature, the range and 
the limitations of our intellectual and emotional capacities 
as well as the testing of techniques conducive to their fullest 
exercise. 

This kind of research requires a setting in which explo- 
ration can be closely combined with implementation. It 
requires a group of people highly intelligent, highly sensitive, 
highly inquisitive and highly articulate, who are capable of 

8. This, of course, presupposes that our potentialities are healthy. But if not, whose 
responsibility is it"? 

223 



H. F. INFIELD 

initiating the necessary experimentation and who, at the 
same time, are willing to serve as its substance. What is needed 
in short, is an experimental group akin to the cooperative 
community but distinct in its concentration on emotional, 
intellectual and spiritual rather than material and social 
needs. 



THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

What interests us here is the fact that fruitful, and indispen- 
sable, as we believe that such experimentation might be, 
there is no overlooking the fact that it |s beset with grave 
dangers. To push to the very limits of possible experience is a 
natural tendency in a man of free spirit. He will yield to this 
tendency even if in the process he has to brave customs and 
mores, which frown upon such daring, and orthodox 
religion, which condemns it as sin. To us, such daring 
appears as the very essence of material progress. That beyond 
a certain point it may turn into a serious threat to such 
progress is the lesson forced upon us by the advance of 
atomic physics. Succeeding in smashing the atom which, 
not so long ago, was looked upon as the last indivisible 
particle of matter, the physicist was stunned by the cata- 
strophic consequences of his success. The bottled-up energy, 
which had seemed to be only begging for release, once freed, 
not unlike one of the evil jinn, has turned into a monster 
that stuns its "liberator" with the threat of total annihilation. 
In their first shock the atomic scientists, or at least the more 
sensitive among them, would have been glad to put nuclear 
energy back where it came from. Since this proved to be 
impossible, they formed the well known Emergency Com- 
mittee of Atomic Scientists. Grown out of concern over the 
results of their doing, it set itself the task of mitigating its 
consequences. Among the palliatives proposed, most con- 
summate probably is that recommended by ALBERT EINSTEIN 

224 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

himself. What we need, he feels, is nothing less than a com- 
plete overhauling not only of our ways of thinking but of 
our ways of living together. "The Atomic Bomb, 53 he ob- 
serves, a has altered profoundly the nature of the world as 
we know it, and the human race consequently finds itself in 
a new habitat to which it must adapt its thinking/ 5 9 And as 
to the corresponding form of the social existence he remarks, 
more laconically: "Today we must abandon competition 
and secure cooperation/ 5 All this, if we are not mistaken, is 
indicative of the unfortunately belated realization that 
experimentation if not guided by some ethical principle may 
overreach itself and thus defeat its own purpose. Instead of 
extending man's mastery over his environment it may 
create, as this experience shows, a real threat to his very 
survival. 

Thus, if we do not want to end up with an emergency 
similar to that in which the atomic scientists find themselves 
today, we would do well, it would seem, to equip ourselves 
with some guiding and controlling principle before we 
embark on the project of exploring to the limit our potenti- 
alities. The most effective of orientations that saves man from 
overreaching himself- which is the ''original sin 55 - is what 
KIERKEGAARD calls "the absolute relation to the absolute, 55 
with all that it implies in terms of "good faith 3 ' and com- 
mitment to a Summum Bonum. 

This concept immediately brings us face to face with a 
dilemma, which the issue of religion presents to the sensitive 
person of today. Realizing the urgency of the need for an 
"absolute" commitment to some form of the "absolute/ 5 he 
finds all the traditional forms of such commitment unac- 
ceptable to his present day experience and sensitivity. The 
taste for myths has changed today and, as SANTAYANA says, 
"those of us who still dream do so today in a different key/ 5 
The religions as we know them have, for us, become myths 

g. ALBERT EINSTEIN: Only Then Shall We Find Courage. E.C.A.S. pamphlet, 
undated. 

225 



H. F. INFIELD 

that are obsolete. Does this mean that we have to abandon 
the idea of religion? For those who see the question as 
dichotomic, or two-valued, as a question either of religion 
as we know it or no religion at all, the answer will be simple. 
They will call, as so many whose thinking on this subject is 
obsolete or reactionary, for return to "old-time" religion. 
Others, sensing the sham of such return, will resign them- 
selves to agnosticism. Those, however, who feel the need for 
and the indispensability of a transcendent, even if imaginary, 
point of ultimate reference, will see this dichotomy as a 
false one. For them, who feel just as strongly about the 
spiritual as about all other needs, the question will not be 
one of either "old-time" religion or none at all, but rather one 
of whether it is possible today to conceive of a religion, which 
would satisfy their spiritual needs; and if so, what should be 
the nature of such a religion. This way of putting the question 
seems to be the way of all those who, like SANTA YANA, recog- 
nize the need for a "new religion." Such recognition, how- 
ever, is too general and abstract to represent more than a 
necessary first step. It leaves open all possibilities, even the 
possibility that this "new religion," for all we know, may be 
of a kind so different as to require a different name. This is 
suggested by the manner in which SANTAYANA, perhaps the 
most discerning contemporary thinker on this subject, 
formulates the issue. What we need, he says, is "to establish a 
new religion and a new art, based on moral liberty and on 
moral courage." 10 The passage that follows in the text from 
which this quotation was taken shows that the kind of 
religion SANTAYANA anticipates is not so much a new religion 
as a new art. It is the poet rather than the prophet to whom 
he looks for that "double insight" into art and religion which, 
he feels, is needed in order to "reconstitute the shattered 
picture of the world." And he hails him "from afar" as the 
"ultissimo poeta," "the highest possible poet." 
The "supreme poet" who "is in limbo still" may or may 

10. SANTAYANA, op.cit. 
226 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

not put in his appearance one of these days. Instead of 
passively waiting for this to happen, it might be more appro- 
priate for an experimental group of the kind envisaged above 
to attack the task independently. 

SANTAYANA describes the qualifications of the "genius" 
capable of performing it as follows: "he should live in the 
continual presence of all experience, and respect it; he should 
at the same time understand nature, the ground of that 
experience; and he should also have a delicate sense for the 
ideal echoes of his own passions, and for all the colours of his 
possible happiness." n These, no doubt, are qualities that are 
exceptional in an individual; and even if potentially present, 
only a very rare combination of personal development and 
external circumstance can bring them to fruition. In order to 
cultivate them purposely and consistently it needs, it would 
seem, not one individual alone, but a group of individuals 
united by the interest in such cultivation. As the history of 
the Kvutza shows, such a group, though its minds may be 
hardly above average, can, by putting them together, develop 
powers of divination equal to, if not surpassing, those of a 
creative genius. 

In approaching the task of determining the actual scope of 
man's spiritual potentialities, and taking themselves as the 
substance of such experimentation, a set of interconnected 
assumptions will suggest itself to the participants of the 
group. The primary of these has already been mentioned. It 
is the assumption that the satisfaction of spiritual needs is just 
as vital to man as is that of the other needs, and that this 
claim in certain respects, especially in respect to personal 
integrity, antecedes, and lends meaning to, that of all other 
needs. In this sense, dissatisfaction with traditional religion 
would signify that it is religion as we know it that is obsolete 
and not the need for it. If this is so, the exploration of spiritual 
potentialities becomes oriented to a proximate aim, which is 
the search for a more satisfactory religion. The acceptance of 

ii. SANTAYANA, op.cit. 

22J 



H. F. INFIELD 

these assumptions will naturally lead to the consideration 
that there can be no true and universally valid religion, but 
that each reflects certain ways and means of coping with the 
exigencies of living, characteristic of given periods of 
mankind's existence. Each culture and each epoch, we might 
say, produces and accepts its specific concept of religion 
and of God. The question, then, that our exploration will 
want to answer is : what concept of religion and what image 
of God corresponds to our own epoch and to our own 
culture? 

There is reason to believe that such an exploration of the 
nature and scope of our intellectual, emotional and spiritual 
potentialities can produce invaluable insights and open new 
and unsuspected vistas of human possibilities. In order to do 
so, it will have to be open-minded, relatively free of bias and 
preconceived notions, and as uncontaminated as possible by 
wishful anticipation of the results. It will have to be objective 
and rigorous, not in the sense of the tautological truth- value 
of a science so pure that it becomes irrelevant to human 
actuality, but in the sense of critical control, validation and 
interpretation of every step in the conduct of the experiment. 
That, and in what way such criteria are applicable to experi- 
ments of this kind, in which the people concerned serve at 
the same time as their initiators and their substance, has been 
demonstrated by the experimental groups known as modern 
cooperative communities. These communities are part of 
the Cooperative Movement, of which they form the most 
advanced stage, characterized by a practice of cooperation 
thatis comprehensive or communitarian. Like the Movement 
itself, these groups owe their origin to spirited people who 
refused to resign themselves to frustration which competi- 
tive economy imposed on them. When other action failed, 
they resorted to cooperation. In the process they discovered 
ways and means of securing material satisfactions otherwise 
unattainable to them. Being comprehensive in scope, these 
groups seek to apply the cooperative principles to other than 

228 



HUMAN NEEDS AND THE NEED FOR ULTIMATE ORIENTATION 

purely material aspects of social existence. In doing so, their 
cooperative ingenuity is mapping out a pattern of social 
innovation comparable to the method of physical science 
experiment, but modified so as to accord with the nature of 
social phenomena. This ingenious application of the experi- 
mental method to other than purely physical matters is a 
momentous pioneering feat. It constitutes not only the most 
significant contribution made by the modern cooperative 
communities to the advance of social science, but it sets a 
precedent and a model for the exploration of all the other 
human potentialities referred to above. 



229 



Practical Notes on Politics 
and Poesy 

by 
LYLE K. BUSH 



"Have you ever seen an inchworm crawl lip a leaf, cling to 
the very end, revolve in the air ... reaching for something? " 

The immediate response to this chance retinal pre- 
sentment is merely visual; but the cognitive mind goes to 
work on it. First, it becomes a dissatisfied worm, wriggling for a 
fresh satisfaction. The spectacle then becomes slightly 
amusing, ludicrous, evocative of whimsicality; initiates 
botanical or zoological conjecture, enlists momentarily the 
gambler's fascination with fortune. Will he get it? Launched 
from an ocular pad, this larva of a geometrid moth has 
become a projectile of the mind, passing through a sequence 
of firings, each of them releasing a meaning until the final 
stage resolves into the release of a spirit of reckless imaginative 
daring. This new condition of orbitual suspension achieved, 
the measuring worm commands an amazingly expanded 
view. What has happened to the inch of the inchworm? 

The thought makes no pretense of originality. In the worm 
as a constant and in the mind's expanding view as a variable, 
it is hoped that one will catch the echo of WHITEHEAD'S "Ex- 
actness is not enough," and OPPENHEIMER'S world of "changing 
views". Scientist, poet, philosopher, and artist have revealed 
their awareness of the inchworm analogy, but many others 
have not, and like the fleet companions of the desert wind 
have hidden their heads in the Saharan sands. What is the 

231 



LYLE K. BUSH 

germinal source of the malady which has rendered mankind 
myopic to the wealth before him? What accounts for the 
distortion in his view? 

It was the painter-poet ALBERT PINKHAM RYDER who thrust 
the inchworm into our vision as a homely symbol of the 
wriggling and the reach of a creature that is, and always has 
been, and ever will be ourselves. He can be discerned in the 
dull-witted troglodyte directing his gutteral murmurs from 
squatted position at the mouth of a bone-strewn cavern 
toward the magnificent but discomfiting mystery of a borealic 
splendor. And one of his more cogitative descendants must 
have become even more baffled by the mystery of Time's 
disintegrative influence on human handiwork as he sat atop 
one pyramid and viewed the crumbling masonry about him. 
A more sensitized but still perceptibly vermian Crusader 
must certainly have sipped a fresh elixir of mystery in a land 
where milady was veiled so tantalizingly in the traditional 
obscurity of the East. And generation after generation of 
inchworms have revolved at the ends of generations of leaves 
and reached ... why? There are inchworms and inchworms. 
Life is acquisition, but of what? The ill-nurtured RYDER 
ignored uncashed checks because of a great hunger ... a 
hunger of the active imagination. His was the reach of 
wonder, as MALRAUX was to describe it: "The sacrifice to a 
cause beyond comprension that restores richness to man. 55 

And as the prodigal inchworm of today has devoured 
sufficiently of his resources to begin wriggling at the tip of his 
leaf... reaching ... there occurs a freshly mystifying anomaly. 
The fruits of a magnificent automation are about to pull the 
stars together and to reveal secrets of the universe, but the 
precious store of invigorating wonder that characterized our 
ancestors has diminished perceptibly as automation has 
brought dreamless sedation to our bed, packaged nutrition 
to our board, and has piped pleasurable indulgence to every 
centre of our recreative desire. A diversion of the benefits of 
this automation toward indulgence in a gluttonous con- 

232 



PRACTICAL NOTES ON POLITICS AND POESY 

sumption seems to have left us in a sun-soaked apathy, 
stranded on the shoals of meaningless boredom by the 
receding tide of time. A few create the die, a few others pour 
the mould, and the rest of us consume the product without 
necessity for curiosity or reach of imagination. There is much 
pith and little wood in NIETZSCHE'S words that "He who 
knows a Why of living surmounts almost every How." 

Traditionally, the humanist has accepted responsibility for 
viewing the ebb and flow of major currents in the broader 
areas of human activity. The instability of his position in the 
cloud echelons has raised the question of his competence. 
The physical scientist has adjusted his microscope to each 
topographic detail in its turn, until the revelation of universe 
within universe appears to have resolved what was once a 
divorcement between schismatic spheres of enlightenment 
into fleeting glimpses of a truth whose validity can be attested 
only through envisionment of the specific, and the general 
embraced by a reality of constantly changing views ... a 
world that is existential in terms of change. Such a world was 
suggested by WILLIAM JAMES, "unfolded by thought ... always 
more than any of its unfoldings." It was a prophetic awareness 
of its unfolding that prompted EINSTEIN'S plea for "a new 
kind of thinking in order that we may survive." And it is the 
unfolding itself that is the world of OPPENHEIMER with its 
"open mind" and "changing views." 

The role of the inchworm in its reach for fresh securities 
within changed realities was played quaintly by ALBERT 
PINKHAM RYDER, the painter, in a curiosity-driven quest for 
the unfolding world of JAMES, the wishful survival of EIN- 
STEIN, and the changed views of OPPENHEIMER. The artist's 
reach was an intuitive one, but RYDER had this explanation 
for it: "I went into the fields determined to serve nature as 
faithfully as I had served. In my desire to be accurate, I 
became lost in a mass of detail ... The scene presented itself 
one day ... framed in an opening between two trees ... As I 
worked, I saw that it was good and clear and strong. I saw 

233 



LYLE K, BUSH 

nature spring to life on my dead canvas/ 3 RYDER began with 
an exactness which WHITEHEAD has suggested is not enough. 
The painter attained a view that his friend MARSDEN HARTLEY 
has described as a "music of some faraway world which was 
his laughter." Like BEAUDELAIRE, he presumed to have 
attained a view which enabled him to "see only the Infinite 
through every window." 

Brief for this intuitively generalized and transitory reality 
has been held rarely with firm conviction in the occidental 
world, but the oriental ancients have clung to it tenaciously 
for nearly thirty centuries, not without observable material 
losses but with discernible spiritual gains. The Indian Vedas 
initiate the concept of "being" and of "not being." The world 
of drista, the seen, and of adrista, the unseen, are united by a 
mystically golden shaft, Vishvakarma, the Creative Principle. 
RABINDRANATH TAGORE attunes the concept with the nine- 
teenth-century kinetics, with the convertibility of mass into 
energy, and with the resolution of a previously conceived 
static existence into one of dynamic metamorphosis. Indian 
ontology has always subscribed to a Universal Consciousness 
as the essence ... the stuff ... which precedes, modifies, and 
qualifies the impression of environment on the ego, even as 
PLATO may have received nurture from it. TAGORE poetizes 
the conception in the Gitanjali with "The same stream of 
consciousness that runs through my veins night and day 
runs through the world and dances in rhythmic measures." 

And now we have drifted precariously across the no-man's- 
land that lies between the objectively existent fact and the 
subjective response to it. Yet when THUCIDIDES cited man as 
the "measure of all things," the Greek acknowledged human 
attitude as a qualitative, as well as a quantitative factor in the 
measurement of fact. This would explain, and we hope 
would justify an apparently presumptuous exploration of 
matters that are more psychological than they are philo- 
sophical or scientific. It is quite admittedly a resort to OPPEN- 
HEIMER'S view from highland dubiously secure altitudes in 

234 



PRACTICAL NOTES ON POLITICS AND POESY 

order to discern the directions and their possible effects upon 
all people. 

In the delicate exploratory surgeries of the mind in the 
quest of "wills-to-" something, the most highly revered and 
widely known is that of SIGMUND FREUD. His discoveries have 
been reminiscently Cyrenaic, but are doubtless far more 
intricate than most of his interpreters have viewed them. 
And the will-to-pleasure is mirrored unmistakably in each 
facet of a darkly mutable splendor. Recent historical events 
and ADLER have supplemented it with a will-to-power. But 
ADLER'S will-to-power can acquire an approximate coinci- 
dence with FREUD'S will-to-pleasure. As one man's pleasure 
can be another's pain, and as another's power can become 
pleasure or pain to himself or to others, we must retreat 
mildly discomfitted into CONFUCIUS'S semantic complaint 
known as "The Rectification of the Names." We can accept 
two wills to somewhat indeterminate ends. Power and 
pleasure are certainly major desirables. They can be worth all 
the strategic planning and tactical maneuvery necessary to 
obtaining fulfillment and they should be preserved as jewels 
of the Crown, but as the terminology is employed within the 
profession, they are subject to a conditioning that can 
greatly enhance or completely nullify the embodied values. 

The work of Dr. VICTOR E. FRANKL of the Medical Faculty 
at the University of Vienna is most pertinent to pleasure and 
power as integrative variables. Dr. FRANKL describes in his 
recent work, The Psychology of Meaning, his opportunity to 
observe the phenomena of Weltschmerz at work during four 
years of imprisonment at Auschwitz. He noticed that the 
typical question voiced by his unfortunate associates was, 
"Will we survive? If not, life has no meaning." He gave the 
question much thought and became convinced of its incon- 
sistency. He rephrased the question until it expressed to him 
not a life of meaning dependent upon survival, but a survival 
warranted only by meaningful living. "Has life meaning? If 
not, why survived " 

235 



LYLE K. BUSH 

The utterly disarming logic of this different approach as 
the result of a changing view is first grasped with a chuckle. 
It is then followed by the cleanly cutting edge that severs 
civilized man from the beast in the field. Pleasure and power, 
as values to humanity, are conditioned by meaning. One 
reflects anew on the since-fatuous, but really surcharged and 
now psychologically practical Goethean view that "The 
highest happiness of man as a thinking being is to have 
probed what is knowable and to revere what is unknowable." 
The thing, for instance, called "love" is that thing on the 
terms and in the existence of, and in the perpetually re- 
freshing change of its "view." It probes what is knowable and 
reaches reverently into the unknowable. Love without 
curiosity is monotony; love in the spirit of inquiry is reve- 
lation. Love is a habit and a nothing, or it is a state of wonder. 
There is a will-to-understanding which sublimates our 
exercise of power and which renders our pleasure trans- 
cendent. 

ARCHIBALD MACLEISH has expressed the view that a dis- 
tinguishable time in history is created not by the event ... the 
battle ... but by the response to the event ... the heroic or 
craven reaction to it of the generation which experiences the 
event. When this thought is lifted from the context of his 
Commencement address at Smith College in June of 1956, it 
appears at first to suspend the world of the actual in a most 
precariously pendulous fashion. Facts are dethroned by 
human attitudes. Philosophies of history become involved, 
and series of consecutive, interdependent events become 
warped in the weft of revisions of attitudes in distances of 
time. Battles are fought under the motivations of wills-to~ 
power. The meaning of that power is the by-product of 
changes in view. Had the meaning of an Anschluss been clear 
to all who were involved in 1938, understanding would have 
changed the course of history. And a comparable will-to- 
meaning today could be expected to dispel some of the 
prevailing delusion that the United States, to use MAC- 

236 



PRACTICAL NOTES ON POLITICS AND POESY 

LEISH'S phrasing, "can deal with the enormous forces now 
at play in the world merely by resisting one of their more 
disturbed manifestations." 

With this and each passing hour there must be ac- 
knowledged the existence of an impending impasse from the 
lack of a will-to-meaningful understanding that can, as the 
poet SEAN O'CASEY suggests, "frighten hope from the human 
heart, 35 or on the other hand it can inspire the conviction 
that the world really "has grandeur and life has hope," and 
that it is man's heroic spirit that will save him. For O'CASEY 
the poet, "The Harp of the Air Still Sings." This soaring 
minstrelsy carries the indomitable faith of the distinguished 
physicist PERCY BRIDGMAN in the "feeling in our bones that we 
know what we are doing," and that we can be expected to 
carry it through. "It is the nature of knowledge," declares 
Dr. BRIDGMAN reassuringly, "to be subject to uncertainty." 

Of this uncertainty, one can be certain. But of the 
knowledge with which to meet the uncertainties to which 
a lack of knowledge can render LIS subject, one is still un- 
certain. Bard and scientist have both composed passages of 
melodic sweetness, but the composition is subject to the 
interpretation of the performer. The performing artist of the 
moment is the statesman in the government of peoples. His 
performance may be accompanied by tenor saxophone, 
slide-trombone, or drum. And what of the statesman ... the 
politician ... the purity of his tone, the adequacy of his 
techniques, the accuracy of his tempo, the meaningfulness 
of his artistry? An extended but searching view of our 
political world, of "politics," SLiggests the strong possibility 
that within this bland culture of ours, the poet, the composer, 
the artist, and yes, the scientist have lived too long and are 
still living, alone. 

One should pause sufficiently at this point to note that 
SEAN O'CASEY as poet, and PERCY BRIDGMAN as scientist would 
seem to have been cited rather arbitrarily as presenting a 
strongly optimistic view. A pessimistic one would of course 

237 



LYLE K. BUSH 

involve the negation of hope, and would serve no purpose 
whatever. Such a view would be a denial of FRANKL'S will-to- 
meaning as a preface to survival. But when an optimism is the 
result of critical discrimination, it becomes an active, and 
therefore a meaningful idealism. The optimism of the poet 
has been, traditionally at least, contingent upon the intui- 
tive response of the internal life to an external environment. 
We accept this optimism as an active idealism in terms of its 
subjective validity. The optimism of the scientists has been, 
again traditionally at least, contingent upon the facts which 
are rendered, as effectively as possible, independent of 
internal life and viewed in the light of externally apparent 
validities. We accept this optimism in the terms of its ob- 
jective validity. 

The search for a comparable political optimist and idealist 
with whom to complete a triumvirate in estimates with that 
of scientist and poet is not to be made without considerable 
effort today. We are confident, however, that there are those 
who are searching for an optimism out of which there can 
emerge an actively workable idealism. There is courageous 
statement, and wishful thinking as well in the conclusion of 
Mr. ADLAI STEVENSON, speaking in the February 7, 1959 issue of 
the Saturday Review of Literature. To quote Mr. STEVENSON: "All 
politics is made up of many things - economic pressures, 
personal ambitions, the desire to exercise power, the over- 
riding issues of national need and aspiration. But if it is 
nothing more, it is without roots. It is built on shifting sands 
of emotion and interest. When challenged, it can give no 
account of itself. When threatened, it is in danger of col- 
lapse." 

A courageously stated truth can be a hard but a heartening 
thing, and we would expect it to come from Mr. STEVENSON. 
But his conclusion is followed in the February 21, 1959 issue of 
the same publication by an equally disillusioning one. In this 
instance, Dr. ROBERT M. HUTCHINS speaks of a political 
configuration which has been established on principles 

238 



PRACTICAL NOTES ON POLITICS AND POESY 

including the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happi- 
ness through the instrumentation of government of, by, 
and for the people, but which has lent itself to restatement 
in later decades and has resulted in a "pressure group state, 
which cares for the welfare of those who are well enough 
organized to put on the pressure.'* 

Dr. HUTCHINS is one whose activities we have associated 
primarily with the academic world, but whose view lends 
further support to an indictment of matters political from 
the externality of his position if not from detachment. Mr. 
STEVENSON cites a phrase of the late A. POWELL DA VIES as of 
critical pertinence to a situation that could be expected to 
inspire heroism only at the cost of disheartening disillusion- 
ment. 'The world," once declared Mr. DAVIES, "is now too 
dangerous for anything but the truth, too small for anything 
but brotherhood. 55 

If this were to become recognized as a "truth of truth," it 
would become far easier to realize the value of a discovery 
that humanity is humanly and naturally addicted to wills to 
pleasure and to power to the point of an unimaginative 
resort to immediate expediences and that panaceas are not to 
be found by fixing upon them as constants and by approving 
them in many of our institutions of higher learning. If there 
is a discipline involved, it is not to be applied so much in 
terms of curbs or pressures or legislative mandates; it is a 
"discipline" more suitably administered through exercise of 
the mind in the attainment of levels in resourcefulness and 
imagination which can lead to basic and toward "ultimate 55 
meanings in the sense of the Aristotelian concept that the 
major importances to mankind are to be discovered in the 
discriminations between what is enduringly good or bad for 
man. It is prefaced with new promise in FRANKL'S mll-to- 
meaning. Like OPPENHEIMER'S changing view, it is to become a 
search toward apparent constants that are among, and subject 
to the ultimate influence of variables. 

To face the "variable-constant 55 whether or not it may be 

239 



LYLE K. BUSH 

fraught with danger is to become permeated with imagina- 
tively creative fire. Not to face it imaginatively is to deterio- 
rate inevitably from flaccidity into morbidity. When con- 
fronted with a choice of alternatives between destruction 
without comprehension and preservation through imagi- 
native insight, one choice involves a denial of meaningful 
creativity, but the other is to direct the imagination toward, 
for instance, an almost untouched Gargantuan wealth of 
natural resources hidden beneath the oceans. It may well be 
that such a diversion of human interest and resourcefulness 
as a tremendous under-sea release of natural resources would 
involve is the only remaining alternative to the slash of major 
areas of population, with but faint hope for a maimed 
residuum. Such a diversion of human energy into creative 
productivity could be expected to initiate an era of invigo- 
rative purposefulness such as history has not previously 
shown. And in the rush of wonder that would attend it, 
differences of race, color, party, ideology, or ethos could also 
be expected to wane. Cocks know not why they fight, but it is 
hoped that man has attained and can maintain a condition of 
reaching toward the envisionment of human perfectibility 
that nurtures his existence with the meaning of each changing 
view. 

The rhythmic flight of the imagination is not the landed 
estate of a poetic gentry. Nor is poetic exercise, strangely 
believed by many, merely a fanciful form of catharsis. The 
approach and the attitude of poetry, one can humorously, 
seriously, but always genially insist, is valuable in all human 
activity. Suppose one were to select Mr. STEVENSON'S cou- 
rageous allusion to a political operation so appallingly 
impoverished of meaning as to invite challenge to render 
account of itself. This is, both in whimsical and serious 
substance, a plea for the stuff of poesy in the sphere of 
politics. The rhythms and the imageries of poetry, without 
the necessity for formal versification, comprise the stuff of 
which great men are made. The poetic consciousness traffics 

240 



PRACTICAL NOTES ON POLITICS AND POESY 

in imagery in order to. see facts and ideas clearly in terms of 
their meanings. The poet's incomparable gift of character 
portrayal dispels the umbrage of causal human under- 
standing. To poetize is to intensify and to sensitize human 
emotion. It is an antidote to boredom. A high majority of the 
sins of the world are committed in boredom. Poetry often 
vies with the sciences in the prophecy of truths that would 
otherwise escape us ... Its procedure is rhythmic, like the 
flow of rivers and the laving of waves upon the shore and the 
gently measured metamorphosis of ideas in the minds of 
people. Above all, it is imbued with effortless emotive power. 
It is sublimely nuclear, cordially intercontinental, and sus- 
pends itself in caressive orbitry through infinitudes of space 
and eons of time. And it has a way of becoming so incisively 
and disarmingly truthful that scientists can live it through- 
out their daily lives in the crystalline world of galaxy, 
snowflake, and atom. Scientist and poet respond to and 
attune themselves with these universal laws of form. Man, in 
the honesty of his innateness, wants to. We should become 
entranced, along with the rest of the world, to see a member of 
the Congress imbued with an unmistakable will-to-the- 
discovery-of~the-meaning-within-a-sense~of-wonder. In the 
face of this highly unusual thing, the ideologies of the 
peoples of the earth might take at least one step toward a 
global ethos. 

It is in the spirit of an enforcedly restrained desperation 
that one reflects upon five milleniums of richly cumulative 
devotion to the arts and sciences, and still admits that one 
must carry DIOGENES' flashlight to discover the night- 
chilled spirits of those who retain the key to an ever-en- 
lightening human happiness. Quite clearly today that key is 
not in the hands of those politicians who now can and do 
openly paternalize helpless populations of spoiled boredom. 
And clearly the key must be transferred to the hands of those 
who have reached into wonder, have created for all because 
they cared for all and were able to do so because they first 

241 



LYLE K. BUSH 

cared enough to wonder. These creative ones now stand 
benumbed at the spectacle of growing panic that stampedes 
countless unmeaningful selves toward the brink of an already 
dangerously comforting emptiness. 

There was once a tired Swiss painter named KLEE. In the 
China that once was, he would have been called both painter 
and poet for they were considered the same, even as there 
was a scientia in the West. He explored wills to pleasure, 
ignored wills to power, and in the disillusionment that can 
occur in an apparently rotting world, he ascertained his will- 
to-meaning: "What artist would not like to dwell where the 
central organism of all temporal and spacial change - call it 
what you will, the brain and heart of creation - is ordering 
all the functions? " 

In spirit, PAUL KLEE was artist, philosopher, and scientist. 
His was the spirit of AQUINAS' Theologia: "Delicate and not 
exclusive, he will yet be of our day; his heart, for all its 
contemplation, will yet know the works of men." And it 
was the spirit of LEONARDO: "The love of anything is the fruit 
of our knowledge of it, and grows as our knowledge becomes 
more certain." This LEONARDO DA VINCI was GEORGE SARTON'S 
hero, and in defining LEONARDO'S indomitable will-to- 
meaning, SARTON imparted a spirit in his phrase that was also 
SARTON'S own: "His outstanding merit is to have shown by 
his own example that the pursuit of beauty and the pursuit 
of truth are not incompatible. He is the patron of those men, 
few in number, who love art and science with equal fervor. 
One might add that without love there can be no real 
knowledge." And finally, KXEE'S question conveys between its 
lines the infinitely ponderable conclusion of the one man 
who could phrase it more simply and more satisfyingly than 
has any other. This was ALBERT EINSTEIN, who dissolved the 
question and answer into one with a startlingly anachronous 
humility: "The greatest thing in the world is a sense of 
wonder." 

CHESTERTON'S fastidiously disdainful witticism that "The 

242 



PRACTICAL NOTES ON POLITICS AND POESY 

world will never starve for want of wonders, but only for 
want of wonder," leaves the scientist and poet unscathed. 
But with deadly aim it finds and pierces the targets of pre- 
vailing ennui on the part of peoples and the political activi- 
ties that this ennui condones. It is an ennui for want of will- 
to-meaning ... the thing that prompts a sense of wonder. 

Somewhere along the way humanity appears to have lost 
what inspired the Greek euphoria-, or the "stream of conscious- 
ness" of TAGORE a that runs through the world and dances in 
rhythmic measures;" or the "Why" of NIETZSCHE. We try 
without that why to find the practically expedient how. We 
proceed to manipulate without identifying with the Platonic 
Good. 

The meaningful life is but a search, of course; a directive, 
with symbolic markers along the way. Our quandary is not 
new, but simply more cosmic to us in its malignity. WALT 
WHITMAN met this quandary in his New Themes Entered Upon, 
"After you have exhausted what there is in business, politics, 
conviviality ... Nature remains." 

There was a poet-Emperor of China who crept to the end 
of his leaf of bamboo and reached with a sense of wonder as 
he composed the lines, 

"The whispering pines are living harps, 
And fairy hands were there ..." 

This was CH'IEN LUNG'S meaningful if not entirely conclusive 
answer to the question that HAEKEL addressed to his universe: 
"Are you friendly?" And this reach for meaningful attune- 
ment with his world may have helped him appreciably in 
ruling his body politic with statesmanlike distinction. His 
was the spirit of the scientist and the poet But of course 
there were then still in a reverent state of conservation the 
natural resources that are necessary even for the antics of an 
inchworm. 



243 



The Goal 



Science and Engineering 
and the Future of Man 

by 
W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 



INTRODUCTION 

Through the Ages past Man has toiled upward from savagery 
and barbarism along an ascending road, until he now 
stands poised at the summit of The Great Divide - where he 
can either turn toward the Right, and enter a World of 
Justice and of Peace - or he can continue straight ahead, and 
downward, along the old way of Imperialism, of Injustice 
and of War - a course which leads inescapably to the de- 
struction of civilization and probably to the destruction of all 
Humanity as well. Man is free to make his own clear choice - 
whether he mil consciously, and intelligently, seek the road 
to peaceful progress, or whether he will stupidly continue on 
into World War III. 

In this situation the scientist and the engineer bear particu- 
lar responsibilities for giving such aid as they can toward the 
definition, and solution, of the world's current problems. 
For Science is concerned with the discovery of "that Truth 
which sets Men free" and Engineering is concerned with 
discovering how to make proper and effective use of Natural 
Law; of natural forces; and of the world's material and 
tangible resources - in order that "the World which is" may 
be transformed into "the World which should be." 

Science and Engineering tell us that the Creator who 

247 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

established the ordered and changing Universe also gave 
Man the opportunity, the ability, and the responsibility, for 
choosing his own destiny and for building his own future. 
To this end the Creator not only established Natural Law, for 
the guidance and control of the processes of the Universe, 
but also established Moral Law, for the guidance of human 
choice; of human action, and of human participation in the 
work of Creation, in so far as this involves the development 
of Life upon the Planet Earth. "Justice", "Opportunity", 
"Responsibility", and "human choice" are the key words 
which relate to the Future of Man. For Man is capable of 
choosing whether he will be active, or inactive; whether he 
will be progressive, or retrogressive; whether he will seek 
Good, or Evil; whether he will seek to exploit and oppress 
his weaker fellows, or whether he will strive to work with 
them in building a peaceful world - and in creating a genuine 
world-wide "Brotherhood of Man." 

History has given convincing scientific proof that human 
progress has depended upon the acceptance of proper 
spiritual motivations; upon a wise choice of human ob- 
jectives; and upon well-planned and effective practical 
action. It has been obviously true that no individual has been 
forced to be diligent, rather than slothful; that no individual 
has been forced to be wise, rather than foolish; and that no 
individual has been forced to heed the guidance of the Spirit 
within, rather than worldly wisdom, and the counsel of 
selfishness. Every human being has been free to choose 
whether to do that which is right and sensible, or to do that 
which is wrong and foolish. Moreover, experience has shown 
that Man is not justified in expecting that "God" will do for 
him those things which he could, and should, have done 
for himself. These things are axiomatic. That is to say that 
they are self-evident truths - to those who are willing to 
accept the Truth. 

The sum total of History has demonstrated three things : 
First, that every human individual is potentially capable of 

248 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

making unique and important contributions to the 

progress of Mankind. (This despite the fact that many 

persons fail to realize their potentialities); 
Second, that the basic needs of men can be best served by the 

cooperative effort of all ; 
Third, that in the building of an orderly and peaceful world 

"Force is objectionable" for "it destroys that which it 

seeks to preserve." 

In developing his story of "Science and Engineering - And 
the Future of Man" the writer will take up, successively, the 
following seven topics : 

1) The role which has been played by basic human aspi- 
rations and motivations in the production of many, 
successive, civilizations - within a frame-of-reference 
which has been established by Cosmic Trend coupled 
with the Limiting Dimensions of Space and Time. 

2) The controlling influences that natural-resource con- 
ditions and geographic factors have exerted upon particu- 
lar civilizations - with a discussion of the ways in which 
environmental conditions have determined the forms, 
durability and energylevels of particular civilizations. 

3) The prime causes responsible for the psychological and 
political crises now afflicting our modern civilization. 

4) A diagnosis of the nature of this current world-malady. 

5) The kinds of action that must be had - if the prescriptions 
called for under (4) are to be effectively implemented and 
successfully applied. 

6) Summary. 

7) Conclusion. 



HUMAN MOTIVATIONS AND THE ORIGIN OF 
"CIVILIZATION" 

Certain basic emotional and mental motivations and spiritual 
aspirations have given rise to civilizations, at many times and 

249 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

in many parts of the world. Human affection, within the 
family, and group-loyalty, within the general community, 
have provided the invisible but real foundations upon which 
all civilizations have been built. Also mental curiosity, and 
reason, have again and again provided imaginative and intelli- 
gent leadership, capable of evoking enthusiastic and coordina- 
ted action on the part of major population groups. Likewise 
natural (and largely sub-conscious) spiritual aspirations have 
been of ultimate importance in determining the choice of the 
group-policies which have resulted in the building of civili- 
zations. For Man does aspire to be a worthy and a self- 
respecting individual. He does aspire to be a worthy, and 
respected, member of his community and nation. And he 
does aspire to be a worthy servant of that Creator who has 
established Life-on-Earth, within an orderly and infinite 
Universe. Civilizations have, then, arisen as natural, practical, 
expressions of particular impulses which continuously arise 
within the hearts and minds and souls of human individuals 
and of human groups. Consequently, in order to understand 
why and how "The Future of Man" should be developed, in 
proper and satisfying fashion, we need to consider carefully 
Man's nature, and his basic aspirations. 



The Nature - and Aspirations of Man 

Man's true nature manifests itself only within the Silence - 
for in Silence the souls of all men become as one in the 
presence of the Creator. For whether savage or saint; whether 
humble shepherd or Imperial Ruler, it has been Man's 
nature - since the Beginning - to gaze with reverence and 
awe upon the wonders of Creation. 

Mountain solitudes; the vast expanse of the ocean; the 
overwhelming fury of the storm; the beauty of spring 
flowers - in desert, in meadow, and in grove; and the silence 
and majesty of starlit nights in the desert - all have spoken 

250 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

to his soul of the Power and Glory of God the Creator. 
Man has also instinctively sought to know, and to conform 
to, the will and purpose of the Creator. Priests, Prophets, Wise 
Men and Saints have prayed to receive revelations direct 
from God. Philosophers have sought understanding and 
wisdom, through orderly and logical consideration of all 
information relating to Natural and Moral Law. And scien- 
tists have sought to learn, indirectly, about the nature and 
purposes of the Creator through their discovery (and 
verification) of the Natural Laws which have been established 
by the Creator, for the guidance and control of all parts of 
the Moving Universe - whether these parts be animate or 
inanimate, whether material or mental or spiritual. 

The Shaping of History by Cosmic Trend, and by the Dimensions of 
Cosmic Space and Time. It is a basic Natural Law that all things 
and all situations change and progress, and that this change, 
and this progress, go forward systematically by means of 
cyclic and rhythmic or recurrent movements, according to 
the Creator's established Cosmic Trend (or the Direction of 
Movement of the Universe). Day follows night. The lunar 
phases and the seasons follow each other in due course. 
Living Creation grows and reproduces and passes on - to 
make room for dn-coming generations. Scientists thus have 
learned much about how the progressions of Life, and of the 
Universe, go forward - but as to why, they can only echo the 
answer given by the Prophets "It is the Will and Plan of God, 
the Creator." 

The existence of this Cosmic Trend or of the "Causative 
Directional Dimension", both in Earth History and in 
Human History, becomes clearly apparent if one considers 
the sequence of events on Earth, as these have taken place in 
Space and Time. 

The Cosmic and Human Significance of Space and Time. Space and 
Time are matters which are of little interest and concern to 

251 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

Stone Age savages but are ones which have become more and 
more important to human beings as their ability to observe, 
and to reason, has increased. Consequently Man has, from 
time to time, developed better and better hypotheses as to 
how Cosmic processes are related to human history, although 
all who have developed and set forth such hypotheses have 
been handicapped in two ways. First, because finite human 
minds are not able to grasp the fullness of Infinite Truth, and 
second, because of the inability of one person to communica- 
te to others, exactly and accurately, his thoughts and the 
Revelations he has received - because the same words have 
different meanings for different people. Hence, as all scientists 
know, the results of a developing inquiry can advantageously 
be recompiled and reanalyzed from time to time, but always 
with the corollary proviso that preliminary understandings 
are not to be accepted as proven and final until they have 
been adequately checked, tested and confirmed. 

Unfortunately all past seekers after Truth have not ap- 
preciated that preliminary findings should be regarded as 
tentative only, until they have been fully corroborated - 
with the result that many theologians have not even yet 
comprehended two facts: i) That the Dimensions of Cosmic 
Trend and Space and Time have always applied, and still 
apply, both in the Realm of the Spirit, and in the material 
world. And 2) that the Story of Creation, as set forth in the 
First Chapter of Genesis, was qualitatively correct, but was 
quantitatively inaccurate with respect to its statements 
regarding the Space and Time Dimensions involved. In 
consequence, because of these dimensional inaccuracies, 
various theological confusions and erroneous interpretations 
and doctrines have arisen, and have continued to beset and 
be-devil multitudes of people, for many centuries. Regarding 
this matter it has been said: "Men concerned with Religion, 
Philosophy and Science long ago developed the Story of 
Creation, as it is recorded in the First Chapter of Genesis - a 
story which, considering the remoteness of its period, was 

252 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OP MAN 

amazingly accurate qualitatively, but one which was dis- 
torted - because the Space and Time dimensions included in 
the story were not correctly comprehended - as has since 
been demonstrated." 

The Space-Dimension in the Story of Creation. The Space-Dimension 
is highly important in the Story of Creation. But at the time 
when Genesis was being recorded the Planet Earth was 
believed to be the central feature of all Creation and it - and 
Man - were regarded as objects of the Creator's principal 
interest and solicitude. Whereas we now know that the 
Earth is only one small planet within one solar system, that 
our Sun is a relatively small star among many millions of stars 
and that some of the galaxies and nebulae, visible through 
modern telescopes, are many billions of billions of miles 
distant. Therefore, whereas it still remains true that Man had, 
and has, a special significance in the realm of Creation - it is 
nevertheless also true that Man, and our planet, obviously 
do not occupy nearly such prominent places in the Creator's 
Universal Plan and scheme of things as was postulated by the 
authors of Genesis. 

The Time-Dimension of the Story of Creation. Because the authors 
of Genesis had no effective means for measuring the length 
of past spans of time they spoke, in their statement, of the 4 'Six 
Days" of Creation, if the translations are correct. Or they may 
actually have used a more general expression which was 
equivalent to "six periods of time" - these being later trans- 
lated, freely, as "six days." However that may have been, 
modern scientific studies have transformed the terms of the 
Time-dimension in the Story of Creation just as drastically 
as they have the Space-dimension. For now, with modern 
studies of intra-atomic structure, and of the rates at which 
radio-active decay proceeds in minerals, it is possible to de- 
termine with approximate accuracy the time which has 
elapsed since the world was formed; since Life appeared on 

253 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

Earth; and since the different plants and animals began to 
develop. Such studies now indicate that the Earth is about 
4,000,000,000 years old and that the first recognizable traces 
of Life-on-Earth date from about 2 billion years ago, whereas 
Primitive Man appeared on Earth only about i million years 
ago. Nor is this the only important modification of the Time- 
element in the Biblical story which needs to be made, in the 
light of wellverified scientific information now in hand. For 
the Process of Creation did not cease to operate at some given 
time in the past, just after Man was created. Instead, change 
and progressive Creation have not only gone on throughout 
the 4 billion years of Earth History, as is proven by the 
geologic record, but they are still in operation and reason- 
ably will continue on until such time as the Creator's 
purpose has been finally and completely fulfilled, and 
"Perfection" has been finally attained. As to the continuing 
operation of the Creative process we can assure ourselves, by 
our own observations, since new episodes of Creation take 
place in Nature during every Spring season, while each new- 
born infant is likewise a miracle of new Creation. For within 
each tiny body there resides a new Soul and a new Life, 
created and placed there by God Himself. 

The combined influence of the Space, Time and Universal- 
Trend dimensions upon the course of events in Geologic and 
Human History can be most easily comprehended if we 
construct for ourselves a Pictorial History which shows in 
proper Space - and - Time perspective the times of arrival 
upon the Earth of the different forms of Life - Plants, fishes, 
"creeping things," "beasts of the field," and "fowls of the 
air" and, lastly Man. For such a pictorial History, when 
viewed from a distance, would confirm the belief that the 
general sequence of Creative events was reported with sub- 
stantial accuracy in the First Chapter of Genesis. But when 
examined more closely this Pictorial History would also 
show a cyclic or rhythmic recurrence of events within the 
broader terms of thfe total story. For as each new Life-group 

254 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

appeared its members, in turn, went through an essentially 
similar developmental process. For at the outset the members 
of each such group progressed in numbers; in physical size; 
and in the complexity of their bodily structures, until they 
reached a stage where one of three things happened : Some 
members of the group might cease to progress further - 
whereupon they would begin to lapse into greater and greater 
obscurity and unimportance; Or some members of the 
group might become dominant in worldly affairs - by 
developing monstrous size and terrifying appearances - after 
which they would, almost immediately, become extinct; Or 
some members of the group would progress onward and 
upward, quietly step by step, until they had passed around 
one loop of the Spiral Path of Life, and had given rise to a new 
Life-form, which occupied a next-higher position upon 
God's scale of living creatures. That Living Creation has 
moved forward and upward along a spiral path is obvious if 
both the distant and the close-range views of the Pictorial 
History are considered. For the several new Life-forms 
created - fishes, reptiles, mammals and Man - have appeared 
at successively higher and higher positions upon this spiral 
Path-of-Life. 

This pattern of creative progress, so clearly illustrated by 
the histories of the lower forms of Life, is perhaps even more 
evident in the total History of Man. For as the Earth-record 
shows the first primitive Man-brute, though he possessed a 
"sense of right and wrong" (that is to say a sub-conscious 
awareness of the direction in which the Universal Trend of 
events is supposed to flow) - he was nevertheless still chiefly 
a brute withal. Then families of Stone Age savages appeared. 
Then came dans and tribes of New Stone Age cannibals. Then 
rudely-organized primitive Communities of Bronze- Age barbari- 
ans came into being. Then pastoral and agricultural civili- 
zations developed and with them came the Great Prophets - 
and civilizations concerned with Beauty, with Truth and 
with Natural and Moral Law - civilizations which were 

255 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 



( g ajnBuj aas 

6uidoiaA3<] 



3= *fl 

If 



O 
I 



256 




SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

advised by one more of those Messengers of the Creator - the 
Prophets - as to Man's responsibilities with respect both to 
God and to all of his fellow human-beings. (The admonitions 
which have been thus received are, as of this moment, more 
than ever important, because it is only by a conformance 
with the instructions thus provided that we can be able to 
create - and enter - that World of Tomorrow which we so 
desire). 

In order to convey somewhat more specifically how the 
Universal Trend-direction (or direction in which the whole 
Universe is moving) and Space and Time relate to the de- 
velopment of Life and of Man upon the Planet Earth, the 
writer has constructed a diagram (Figure i) which seeks to 
give a graphic description of these relationships - a descrip- 
tion which is subject to at least one drastic criticism, in that 
the duration of the human portion of the story has been 
exaggerated by about 4,000 times - in order that it could be 
easily observable. 



THE CONTROLS WHICH HAVE BEEN EXERTED BY 

ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES UPON THE FORMS, 

HISTORIES AND ENERGY LEVELS OF OLDER CIVILIZATIONS 

Natural-Resource and Geographic Dimensions have exerted, 
and will continue to exert, decisive influences upon the 
forms, life-histories and energy-levels of particular civili- 
zations. It is therefore important for us to consider how and 
why these "dimensions" have thus been determinants of the 
size, growth-characteristics, energy-levels and life-histories 
of four types of civilization, these including, respectively, 
ones which have developed in the Pastoral Lands of the Near 
and Middle East; in the well-watered lowlands of the Near, 
Middle and Far East; in Ancient Greece and in the Occident. 

Environmental and "physical-state" characteristics of the Ancient 
Pastoral Civilizations. The civilizations which arose long ago in 

257 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

the Pastoral Lands of the Near and Middle East were ones 
which developed within an environment that had only two 
obvious dimensions - those of Earth and Sky - and only one 
mental and spiritual dimension - that of Religion. It was 
therefore natural that a Psalmist, living in such a region, 
should have written that 

"The Heavens declare the Glory of God 

And the Firmament showeth His handiwork. 

Day unto day uttereth speech 

And night unto night showeth knowledge. 

There is no place nor language 

Where their voice is not heard." 

Water, and grass were, to be sure, vital matters. And the 
grazing lands were dotted with oases and were bordered by 
well-watered lowlands. But the Pastoral Peoples were never, 
in any sense, hemmed in. For they could move across the 
desert, or along its semi-arid borders, at will, as a thinly- 
spread, highly-fluid, and highly-energetic patriarchal civili- 
zation, which continually lived and moved in The Presence 
of a Creator who had made not only Heaven and Earth, but 
also Life, and Man. 

It was to these peoples that Great Prophets came - those 
Messengers of the Creator who brought the revealed Will of 
God, as expressed in words which indicated Man's duty both 
to his Creator and to his fellow human beings. Likewise these 
Pastoral Peoples worshipped the Creator directly, without 
the intervention of priests or the employment of symbolic 
rituals - other than such as were provided in and by Nature. 
The whole of their lives was spent in The Presence, and it 
was therefore their firm belief that if they lived according to 
the Creator's (Natural) Law then, indeed would "all things 
needful" be added unto them. 



258 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

Forms and Energy-Levels Characteristics of the "Lands of the Fixed 
Horizon." 

The civilizations which arose on the fertile alluvial plains 
of Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China differed 
amazingly from those which originated within the Pastoral 
Lands. For the Pastoral regions were essentially limitless in 
their extent and their peoples were therefore almost as free 
as the winds of Heaven, whereas the dwellers on the arable 
lowlands occupied by the ancient agricultural civilizations 
were surrounded by all-but-impassable mountain barriers 
and deserts. Consequently the agricultural peoples, as their 
numbers increased, became ever-more-tightly compressed 
within their fixed and immovable limiting barrier-bounda- 
ries. And hence these "fixed-horizon" civilizations became 
essentially crystalline in their formal structures, attitudes of 
mind, political and social systems, and mass energy-levels - 
since by assuming frozen, crystalline, structures and forms 
the impacts and frictions between the crowded component 
human individuals would be held to a minimum, and the 
orderly life and economic stability induced would make it 
possible for a maximum number of people to subsist in 
orderly and peaceful fashion within fixed limits and bounding 
horizons which had been established by Nature. 

Thus the ancient Agricultural Civilizations rested upon 
broad bases, composed of unfree agricultural workers and 
slaves, augmented, when necessary, by forced-labor levies. 
And from these u mud-sills of Society" the pyramid or 
tiered temple or pagoda rose in orderly and symbolic fashion 
toward the "fortunate few" near the top of the social structu- 
re, and to the "God-Emperor" who sat at the summit - his 
position assured not only by the convergent self-interests of 
those below him, but also by the cementing influence of 
that "Power Behind the Throne" - the ecclesiastical 
hierarchy. For this hierarchy not only provided the scholars 
and civil servants who could write out (and preserve) the 
needed legal documents and property records - and diplo- 

259 



V. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

matic and business messages - but it was also the duty of this 
hierarchical group to advise the people comprising the 
lower courses of the pyramid that it was their duty to support 
the God-Emperor at the top without question and without 
complaint. And it was even more particularly the responsi- 
bility of the members of this priestly system to advise those 
in bondage, at the base of the social order, that their hopes for 
freedom and happiness were ones which could be realized in 
the Next World - a world which they would be allowed to 
enter only if they were sufficiently meek and uncomplaining 
in this one. 

Social and political order were thus maintainable (despite 
birth-rates which were limited only by natural biological 
potential) because there was a constant "draining-off" of 
those born in excess of the natural carrying-power of the 
land - this surplus population being recurrently eliminated 
by flood or famine; by disease or war; or by over- work, 
coupled with a gradual downward movement among the 
poorer people near the bottom of the social structure - where 
unfortunate persons passed successively from poverty to 
destitution; from destitution to beggary; and from beggary 
to oblivion. 

Thus did environmental limitations, imposed by Geo- 
graphic and Natural-Resource Dimensions lead to the 
typical development and flowering of civilizations which 
were at once, massive, orderly, static (and therefore 
"peaceful") and relatively devoid of those energies which 
are prerequisite both for aggressive expansion and for 
effective self-defense - when conquering hordes pour in. 

These ancient and long-enduring civilizations also pro- 
duced great Prophets and rare and beautiful flowerings of the 
mind and spirit - flowerings which were brought to pass by 
fortunate individuals living near the summit of the cultural 
pyramid - who were therefore in position to enjoy that 
quietness which is indispensably necessary for thought, 
for meditation and for creative effort. But these great civili- 

260 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

zations were essentially tree-like in their slow and continuing 
growth, and in their demonstrated lack of interest in the 
sufferings, frustrations and deprivations of the vast unfree 
masses of people at the base of the total, crystalline social 
structures. Hence such civilizations have been almost power- 
less either to improve the living-standards of their peoples, 
or to resist attacks from abroad, when attacks have come. 

The Mineral-Resource Dimension - and, the Rise, and Collapse, of 
Athenian Culture. The decisive influence which may be exerted 
by mineral natural resources upon the growth and decline 
of human cultures has been made evident in most spec- 
tacular fashion by the rise, and collapse, of the Athenian (and 
Grecian) culture of the so-called "Golden Age. 55 For the 
enormously large and rich silver mines at Laurium, near 
Athens, provided directly the material foundations upon 
which Athenian culture was based, besides being, indirectly, 
a principal source of support for cultural developments 
throughout all of ancient Greece. 

The wonderful capacities of the Greek mind and temper- 
ament; the favorable climate of Greece; and the inspiring 
Grecian landscape - blending and contrasting mountain 
and plain; and shore and sea - all contributed to Grecian 
greatness. However the ancient Athenian culture was, in 
essence, like the mythical giant Antaeus. For Antaeus was 
reputedly able to maintain and increase his strength only as 
long as he was in effective contact with the life-giving quali- 
ties of his parent, Mother Earth. And so it was with Athenian 
culture. 

For centuries the huge Athenian mines poured out silver 
in millions and millions - with the result that Athens was a 
tax-free city - where labor was done by slaves purchased with 
silver from the mines at Laurium; where the safety of the 
state depended upon mercenaries hired with silver from the 
mines - or upon the subsidized armies of the other Grecian 
states making up the Pan-Hellenic League. Athens was, 

261 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

therefore, a city where men of ability and genius could spend 
their time in scientific investigation; in logical, mathe- 
matical and philosophical study and discussion; in creative 
art; and in athletic sports, including "Olympic Games." It 
was, indeed, an ideal and idyllic state of affairs - until the 
silver mines became exhausted. Economic and political 
collapse, of course, then ensued, practically at once - as it has, 
on a lesser scale, at so many times and in so many mining 
regions. And the defenseless remnants of the ancient Grecian 
culture were largely carried abroad by Greek scholars, 
artists, scientists and engineers who had been taken captive 
by the Romans. Sic transit gloria mundi! 

Perhaps it should be reported at this point that a mining 
engineer - who had been in contact with tKe situation at 
Laurium after the old lead-silver mines had been redeveloped 
for zinc - has stated that in the course of these modern re- 
developments more than 2,000 ancient mine-shafts were 
found and more than 100 linear miles of underground 
workings. More recently another eminent geologist has 
estimated that the silver which had been taken from Laurium, 
over the centuries, had had a purchasing power equivalent 
to that which would have been provided by 36 billions of 
(1946) U.S. dollars. No wonder that the Athenians could 
afford magnificent public buildings and works of art. And, 
having heard that Xerxes, the Persian had become interested 
in securing the Laurium mines, it is no wonder that the 
Athenians felt that they needed to build that fleet with which 
they defeated the Persians at Salamis. 

Environmental influences in the Occidental "Lands of the Expanding 
Horizon." 

The cultural developments, social attitudes, patterns of 
thought and "energy-levels" which are characteristic of the 
Occident are almost exactly antithetical to those which 
persisted for so long within the "Fixed- Horizon" civilizations 
of the Orient. For the peoples who moved westward and 

262 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

northwestward into Europe - as the glacial ice-cap melted 
back - knew no limiting horizon - geographic, intellectual or 
spiritual They were fierce, strong and adventurous peoples 
who aspired to personal freedom in all phases of human life - 
mental, economic, political and spiritual. It was their attitude 
from the beginning, that adventure and discovery were the 
breath of life; that men discovered what they could - and 
held by force, if they could, that which they had discovered. 
Consequently the human tides advancing toward the 
northwest did not pause long at the North Sea's rim, but 
pressed on, - spreading laterally along the Atlantic Coasts, 
and westward to Iceland; to Greenland; to the East Coast of 
the Americas; and ultimately on to the Pacific. Nor was this 
westward progression all. 

For the westward, and ultimately global, explorations of 
the Occidental peoples were paralelled by similar extensions 
and expansions of their interests within intellectual, scientific 
and technological fields of endeavor. Scientific and mechani- 
cal principles which had long been known among the 
Oriental and Mediterranean peoples were either learned 
about or were re-discovered, and extended - particularly 
after the onset of "The Industrial Revolution" - which was 
actually expressive of the World's Third Technologic Revo- 
lution - the two earlier ones having been related, respectively, 
to the discovery and use of the wheel; and to the discovery of 
methods for smelting ores and for making alloys and forged 
tools and weapons. 



The First Industrial Revolution 

The so-called "Industrial Revolution 55 was born of 
gunpowder and of the invention of the steam engine. For 
when gunpowder - long known, but not highly regarded in 
the Orient - became known in Europe, its military-and- 
political importance was soon recognized, and guns and 

263 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

cannon thereupon became important. Consequently more 
iron ore had to be dug and more iron and steel had to be 
forged. Charcoal fuel ceased to be readily available for 
smelting and forging - so coal began to be of prime im- 
portance, both for metallurgical work and for corollary 
purposes. And as mines ware dug deeper it became impera- 
tive to invent some mechanical contrivance which could 
pump water from coal mines and ore pits. And so the steam- 
powered pumping engine was invented and with gunpowder 
and iron (and steel) available, and with the supra-human 
energies and power of the steam-engine at command - the 
(First) Industrial Revolution moved on toward its maturity, 
with two profoundly important consequences. First, because 
it became unprofitable to use slave labor to do work which 
could be done more cheaply, or better, by steam-powered 
machines, and secondly (in the political realm), because a 
few little Western European nations, despite their small size 
and minor human populations, were able to establish 
world-empires, through their ability to apply irresistible 
naval and military pressures to vastly larger populations, 
which had long been so organized as to be incapable of 
resisting concentrated military - and - political force. 

However, the general history, and manifold consequences 
of this (First) Industrial Revolution are so widely known 
that they require no further exposition here. That this 
"Revolution" provided the power-basis upon which the 
early-modern worldempires were built, is obvious. That it 
was also a necessary pre-requisite to the abolition of slavery 
and serfdom, and to the establishment of high standards of 
living, is less frequently remembered, and seldom mentioned. 
Nor does it seem to be generally realized that the economic- 
and-political needs of the growing populations of North- 
western Europe, and of America, continued to foster and 
accelerate scientific exploration and discovery, coupled with 
the development of inventions and procedures which made 
possible the effective technological-and-engineering appli- 

264 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

cation and employment of known scientific facts and princi- 
ples. In this manner were the seeds of new technological 
revolutions planted, in the Occident, long before the national 
leaders concerned realized that new conditions were de- 
veloping which would, again and again, tend to transform 
the world's social, economic and political situations or that 
repeated crises would result if these impending transfor- 
mations were not foreseen, and were not prepared for in 
time. 

The Coming of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Technological Revolutions. 
Three more Technologic Revolutions have been going on 
more or less simultaneously during the past so years - ones 
which have been based, respectively, upon developments in 
the Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Electrical and 
Electronic, and Automotive fields. 

The one related to Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 
may be regarded as dating from the end of the Franco- 
Prussian war, when the union of Ruhr coal and of Lorraine 
iron ore, plus the development of the byproduct coke oven, 
began to make it possible to transform and transmute a few 
basic natural-resource raw materials into all manner of new 
products and new ersatz or synthetic materials, thus building 
up that industrial - and - military power which was dis- 
played with such telling effect during World War I. 

The Electrical Transmission and Telecommunications Re- 
volution resulted in the invention of the telegraph, telephone, 
electric light, radio, radar and television (and related 
appliances, techniques and arts) and has, of course, made 
world-wide communication essentially instantaneous, be- 
sides making long-distance transmission of electric power a 
standard modern practice. 

The Sixth or Transportation Revolution has resulted from 
the development of the internal-combustion motor, where- 
by the energies of petroleum have been made effective 
through the use of automobiles, airplanes and trucks; also 

265 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

of Diesel-powered tractors, earth-movers, locomotives, 
farm machinery and ships. 

The Onset of the Seventh Technologic Revolution. The Beginning of the 
"Limitless Age." The discovery of processes for bringing about 
controllable atomic fission, and the prospective harnessing 
of the limitless energies that can be had from thermo- 
nuclear fusion have confronted Man with the necessity 
for deciding whether these discoveries are to cause an early 
annihilation of the whole human race - or whether they 
are, indeed, to become the heralds of a "Limitless Age." For 
we, the peoples of the whole world do now either face, 
together, a future world of Hope, and Justice and Peace and 
Freedom-from-war, or we face no "Future" at all, beyond 
a few months or perhaps a year or so. 

Atomic fission, thermo-nuclear fusion and recent de- 
velopments in rocketry and in the region of interplanetary 
space have, indeed, brought us to the threshold of a "limit- 
less" future, depending upon the outcome of the currently- 
developing Sociological World Revolution - a revolution 
that has been sired by the belief that "All men have been 
created free and equal/ 5 and that was quickened when it 
became possible to substitute machine-power for the labor 
of serfs and slaves. 

The Beginnings of the Sociological World-Revolution. The Sociolo- 
gical World-Revolution is being born amid economic, 
political, social and spiritual crises of the most profound 
importance. And if Man is to survive he can do so only if this 
new World-Revolution leads to suitable action within the 
United Nations Organization, and under the guidance of 
three vitally important concepts : 
First, that in the Realm of the Spirit "all men have been created 

free and equal," since they are all children of the same 

Creator. 
Second, that Equal Justice for all persons must be the Rock upon 



266 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

which a World of Peace and Progress can be founded. 
And 

Third, that "Government of the People, for the People and by 
the People" must provide the method by which equal 
justice is to be assured, if, indeed, itis to be had. Under this 
kind of government real justice can be established - for 
society and government are thereby joined in seeking to 
provide a real equality of opportunity for every adult 
person and, particularly, for every child. 
Also, since all persons will not accept their responsibili- 
ties fully, and in equal measure, real Justice will also 
require that rewards be made proportionate to per- 
formances, and that earnings be received in proportion to 
the value and quantity of useful work done (due pro- 
vision also being made for persons suffering from illness 
or disability). 

That the guiding principles just set out can be applied 
successfully has already been indicated, by the experience of 
, some peoples, and also of some corporations, which have 
been wise enough to comprehend that Fair Competition, 
properly enforced, is a key to Justice, to Progress and to 
Peace. Whereas monopoly, whether economic or industrial 
or political, is retrogressive, is evil and has always given rise to 
Revolution, to Cold War and to Red War. 



THE NATURE AND PRIME CAUSES OF THE 
CURRENT WORLD-MALADY 

The world is afflicted by a malady having characteristic 
symptoms and particular causes. The nature of this complex 
disease is such that it goes through prolonged Cold Wai- 
incubation periods characterized by mounting economic - 
and - political tensions, which, in due course, give rise to 
outbreaks of (military) World War. (Relative to which it may 
be commented that those who actually trigger the next 

267 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

World War outbreak will also be destroyed by it - as will all 
other persons.) 

Therefore, for the sake of all concerned, let us now con- 
sider how a knowledge of scientific principles and conditions; 
an understanding of Technology; and an acquaintance with 
Engineering Science and Art may provide us with both such 
diagnoses, and with such corollary prescriptions, as can guide 
us to the cure of that world-malady which currently 
threatens the Future of Man. 



Causes of the Present World-Crisis 

The existing world-crisis has been brought on by acute 
maladjustments in all three of the fields which have basic 
human importance: the material, the intellectual and the 
spiritual. 

Maladjustments in the material world. Basic maladjustments exist 
in the material world, as is made evident, graphically, by 
Figure 2, shown below - since this Figure compares and con- 
trasts the standards of living which now prevail in different 
world-regions. The mere existence of such inequalities, 
within a world closely linked by radio, by television and by 
air-post, has naturally excited great dissatisfactions and 
certainly calls for strenuous efforts, in all quarters, to find a 
remedy. 

Maladjustments in the mental realm. It is Man's nature to wish to 
make proper, full and effective use of his mind and of his 
creative capacities - and with respect to such aspirations many 
peoples are as yet desperately frustrated, for they have been 
prevented from developing and operating their own govern- 
ments; have been, by contrast, prisoners of foreign political 
powers and economic imperialisms, and have been mani- 
pulated, for profit, by industrial monopolies and cartels, 

268 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 




0' 

Verticaf 
scale 

ManpowerYears 
of work- Potential 
per Capita 

Population Scale 

.13' 




This Area Represents 25,000,000 people 

Figurei Diagram Indicating Potentials and Populations 
of Various National and Regional Areas 

some privately-owned and some owned by totalitarian and 
despotic governments. Such conditions have become in- 
creasingly intolerable, so the important question is "How 
can the needed national and international transformations 
be accomplished, with justice and fair compensation to all 
concerned, and without bloodshed?" 

Maladjustments in the spiritual realm. The writer believes that the 
members of different civilizations have operated according 
to one or the other of three differing religious points of view, 



269 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

expressive of contrasting interpretations of how Divine 
Revelations, reported to us by the Great Prophets, relate to 
the practical affairs of everyday life. (With respect to this 
matter is to be noted that no one of the three, religious 
points of view, as thus far interpreted, has as yet provided 
a generally-satisfactory and workable correlation between 
revealed Creative Purpose and the practical direction of daily 
human activities.) 

For some of the Great Religions have been primarily 
quietist and contemplative and many of the peoples who 
have held those faiths are in danger of perishing, as of the 
present, because under this type of spiritual approach to 
Earthly problems the peoples concerned have been left 
inadequately supplied with even the absolute minima of 
food and other material necessities needed to support 
existing populations - whereas the populations are still 
growing - and the "surplus" people have now refused to 
continue to solve their problem by merely dying quietly. 

The adherents of another Great Religion have lived 
constantly in the Presence - and the members of this Faith 
were not only at one time a Great Political Power but were 
also, educationally speaking "The Light of the World" - at 
least in so far as the Occident was concerned. But then they 
lost the spark of scientific inquiry; their educational systems 
became formal and static; and "education," apparently 
became regarded as a process of learning by rote Truths 
which had been inherited from centuries past - without 
effective appreciation of the fact that change goes on 
constantly, and that education should prepare the 
oncoming generations to use their minds, and their imagi- 
nations, to meet new conditions and solve new problems - 
but without forgetting that it is Man's duty to serve God. 

Crisis likewise prevails among the allegedly "Christian" 
Occidental peoples, because they have, in the main, not 
regarded Christianity as a Religion - to practice at all times and 
live by, but rather as a salve for troubled consciences and as a 

270 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

means for escaping punishments (in a Next World) which 
have been more than earned by improper and inhuman 
conduct in this one. 

Past Occidental economic and political actions have 
seldom been guided by ethical or religious considerations - 
up to about 30 years ago - and normally have been guided by 
secular attitudes and by exclusively worldly and ' 'practical" 
considerations. Consequently, under these conditions con- 
flicts of selfish interest have been frequent and acute in the 
international area and a complex of world-crises has been 
built up, by long-continued Occidental provocations. (For it 
is only recently and, as yet a limited degree, that conscience 
and religious motivation have - belatedly - begun to have 
significant impact upon Occidental affairs, and have begun 
to create a genuine, though as yet embryonic "soul" within 
the gigantic mass of secular western materialism.) 

If the foregoing opinions are wellfounded, and the writer is 
convinced that they are, then how can the World proceed 
to aid The United Nations Organization to establish such a 
"Unity of Difference" that the collective efforts of the World 
can accomplish three things - without War: 

1) Enable the needy to earn a decent living? 

2) Make freedom obtainable by those who now are either 
economically, industrially or politically unfree? 

3) Enable the adherents of the World's various Religions 
to prove the special merits of their particular Faiths - by 
proper demonstrations of their desire - and ability - to be 
of aid and comfort to their less-fortunate fellow beings? 
For truly it is by their fruits that they shall be judged. 



Anatomical Relationships and Physiological Functions of Civilizations - 
and Derangements Which Have Been Induced by Foregoing Causes and 

Maladjustments 

The existing world-crisis has given rise to clearly-evident 

271 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

symptoms of disease, symptoms which have arisen as natural 
consequences of the several causes of illness just enumerated. 
Our effort should be to relate, and analyze, these causes and 
symptoms in such a way that we may be led to appropriate 
prescriptions and to proper curative measures. But before we 
can write suitable prescriptions and devise proper treatments 



Level of Faith 



SPIRITUAL and ETHICAL RESOURCES 



"University" Level or 
Level of Ideas 



MENTAL RESOURCES 

(INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVE, CURIOSITY, CREATIVE IMAGINATION) 



PUBLIC-WELFARE RESOURCES 
GOVERNMENTAL LEVEL (GOVERNMENT. JUSTICE, POLICE PROTECTION, SCHOOLS, 

POST OFFICE, DEFENSE, ETC.) 



HOME- BUILDING LEVEL 




Abundant, low-priced consumer goods depend upon willing 
workers operoting Power -machinery provided with obundont fuels, 
lubricants and raw materials 





PROVEN 
RESERVE 
STORAGE 



LEVEL 



CO) 



GE INDUSTRIAL & 
HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS (SALT. SULPHUR, ELECTRONIC S PRECISION- 



CLOTHING a rnnn A 
TEXTILE FOOD ft 



rmmiirn? ouiUUinu IC.AIIUC, CCDTII I7CDC IU/ITCD enoni ice 

MATERIALS MATERIALS MATERIALS FERTILIZERS WATER-SUPPLIES 



CHEMICAL- INDUSTRY 
TERIALS (SALT. SULH 
IE, FATS, OIL, ETC.) 



MATERIALS FOR 
ELECTRONIC 8 PRE 
INSTRUMENT M'F'G. 




UNDERGROUND 
WATER - SUPPLIES 



PRECIOUS METALS 



(O) 



TIN, ZINC, TUNGSTEN, MANGANESE, CHROMIUM 



LEAD, COPPER VANADIUM. NICKEL, MOLYBDENUM, ETC. 



IRON (a STEEL) | < 



(FJT) 
ENERGY 



ENERGY- CONSERVERS 
8 



fCOAL WATER POWER WIND POWER URANIUM & THERMO-I 
JOIL NATURAL STEAM OIL SHALE ... _, -. r-n/-v, ' 
RESOURCES1.GAS SOLAR ENERGY TAR SANDS, ETC. NUCLEAR ENERGY^g | yEFFlCENCY- IMPROVERS 

1 



SPECIAL PURPOSE 
METALS S MUNITION 



LATENT & POTENTIAL 
RESOURCES 




Fig. 3 World Natural - Resources 



272 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

we need to have clearly in mind the nature of the anatomical 
structures and the nature of the physiological processes with 
which we are called upon to deal. For beyond all reasonable 
doubt various types of civilization do have characteristically 
differing anatomical and physiological features and processes. 

Two figures of speech are believed to be descriptive, 
respectively, of the older Oriental and Occidental types of 
civilization. Thus the ancient agricultural civilizations of the 
East have been essentially tree-like in their morphology and 
mode of growth. (See Figure 3). Whereas Western civilization 
has been characterized by a mobility, a physiological circu- 
latory system, and a stage-by-stage pattern of growth of the 
sort which is made visibly evident by the life-processes of 
the creature which we know as the Chambered Nautilus. 
(See Figures 4 and 5). 

Anatomically-speaking the material phases of the life of a 
modern civilization proceed at Levels i to 5 of Figure 3 - the 
activities taking place at these five levels corresponding to 
those which occur in Nature in the root-zone, trunk, bark 
and vascular system, reproductive system and bough-and- 
leaf zone of a tree. Moreover, just as the life of a tree depends 
not only upon the soil, but also upon the atmosphere within 
which it grows and upon the life-giving light of the Sun, so 
also the life of a civilization is similarly dependent upon 
activities in the realm of the mind (Level 6 of Figure 3) and in 
the realm of (Spiritual) Enlightenment and Faith at Level 7 of 
Figure 3 - thus relating us to Cosmic Purpose and Trend. So 
let us consider briefly the essential matters pertaining to the 
anatomy and physiology of a simple civilization - as these 
are diagrammed in Figure 3. 

In detail the story to be gotten from Figure 3 is one of fairly 
simple and fairly obvious interrelationships - for the safety of 
a civilization depends upon wise and sound operation at the 
"governmental level" (Level 5). But such operation at Level 5 
depends upon the existence of an intelligent and reasonably 
prosperous voting population living on the "Homebuilding 

273 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

Level" (Level 4). And in order that there may be satisfactory 
standards of living on Level 4 the operations on the "In- 
dustrial Production Level" (Level 3) must go forward, with 
general satisfaction to all so involved. Also, if farms and 
factories are to operate satisfactorily at Level 3, it is necessary 
that there be available, at reasonable prices, adequate supplies 
of all of the essential fuels and fertilizers and ores and miner- 
als, obtainable from the "Proven-Reserve Storage Level" 
(Level 2). And to keep the reservoirs of proven-resource 
reserves on Level 2 from running dry (which would induce a 
collapse of civilization) it is imperative that adequate ex- 
ploratory and research-and-development work be arranged 
for and be carried on at the "Potential and Undiscovered 
Resource Level" (Level i). Which interestingly enough, brings 
us back again to Level 5 - because adequate discoveries of new 
essential-resource supplies will continue if, and as long as, 
the operations of industry, on a basis of fair competition, is 
guaranteed by impartial enforcement of Justice under Law - 
a condition which prevails where a "Government of the 
People, by the People and for the People" makes the laws, 
and provides for law enforcement. For under popular self- 
government the citizens try to pass just laws - such as assure 
each individual and eachgrowp of citizen-workers (or "compa- 
ny") of a fair opportunity to use individual imagination, 
individual skill and individual energies on a basis of fair 
competition, - so that the greatest rewards will go to those 
who have earned and deserved most - by rendering greatest 
service to society. 

In countries where "Fair Competition" is thus encouraged 
(and enforced) new and better ways of doing things are 
continually being invented within the Realm of Mind, which 
is situated at Level 6 of the foregoing diagram. Such invention 
can take place because it is true that "to the .Free Mind all 
things are possible" - and it is true that "Pioneer Research is 
the key which can unlock those greatest energy-resources 
of all the God-given powers of the human individual; 

274 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

and the assembled and integrated powers and capacities of an 
ideal modern civilization, a civilization which operates 
under spiritual guidance (from Level 7) and therefore organ- 
izes and directs its activities according to what is right and 
reasonable - and according to "Justice under Law." 

Changing our figure of speech now let us consider, first, 
how the internal circulation proceeds, at any one time, 
within the body of a Nautilus-like Western industrial (i.e., 
non-agricultural) type of civilization (see Fig. 5-A), and 

/Educational Expenditures 
//Public works, Highways, etc. 



Tax Money Collected by j/ 
(National, State a Local)-*, 
Government L \ 

.*& 

Venture Capital - 



Money for 

Capital 

Expenditure 

on New ^ 

Factories 

and 

Equipment 



Raw Materials 
Sent to Factories 



Raw - 
Material 
/Agricult.eh 
^Mineral ) 

Exploration, 

Develop- 
ment 

a 

Production 
Activities 



"""" """""w^ Military Costs a ..-i,,, 
| Debt Service ' * 


*> 

-^s 


**% Tax 

*\S*** 

*| Goc 

Vl-s 


Money paid out 
jovernment for 
ds ond Services 

ey paid by 
sumers for goods 
and services 


^ r* 


NATIONAL GENERATING STATION 

Generated Energy = 
combined purchasing power 
available from the General 
Public, Industry and 
Government 


11 CONSUMPTION AND USE 


Use 
of M'f'd 
Goods 

a 

Utility 
Service 
by 
Public 
at 
Large 




Manufacturing 
Material or Transformation 
Activities converting Raw 
Materials into Usable 
Products 


/A|.. Consumer Goods 
^f ond Utility Services 



CONVERSION 

Figure A Functional Relationships and Flows of Goods and Capital Characteristic 
of an Autarchic or Wholly - Independent (National or Regional) Economy 

second, how the continuing growth of the creature re- 
currently forces an almost complete reconstruction of its 
bodily mass within a new and larger living-chamber, coupled 
with an almost complete re-development of the creature's 



275 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

circulatory system - these changes being forced partly by the 
mere increase of bodily mass, and even more particularly 
because changes in the animal's metabolism call for (steadily 
increasing) supplies of a constant growing variety of vital 
nutrient substances (see Level 2 of Figure 3) - and this in a 
world in which vital natural-resources are of very unequal 
and irregular geographic occurrence. 

Within a wholly self-contained, and therefore independent 
or "autarchic" political-and-economic circulatory system, 
such as is shown in Figure 4, human need or "consumer 
demand" can generate an adequate equivalent supply, 
providing: 

1) That the economy can operate under conditions which 
assure the creature's capacity for self-defense; 

2) That the animal's new living-space is of large enough 
geographic size to include adequate sources of all es- 
sential nutrients - both old and new - which are currently 
indispensable to the creature's continued growth. And 
also providing that this living space is large enough to 
include all necessary capacities for the manufacturing, 
distribution and marketing of consumer goods, and for 
the generation of adequate "venture" and constructional 
capital and of adequate tax revenues. And 

3) That the animal can develop under conditions such that 
its bodily growth (i.e., population increase) will proceed 
in reasonable balance with the rates of increase of available 
supplies of energy; and of raw materials; of manufacturing 
capacity, and of available scientific, technologic and engi- 
neering capacities. 

However, because healthy life does induce healthy growth, 
an industrialized civilization, like a Nautilus, does gradually 
outgrow its former living-chamber, and so, in time it must 
again re-develop itself within new and yet larger living- 
spaces. To meet this kind of need - for a recurrent re-de- 
velopment of its body and of an (unimpeded") circulatory 
system -the Nautilus continuously builds its (political) shell 

276 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 



FIGURE 5-A 




DIAGRAM SHOWING GROWTH STAGES 

IN DEVELOPMENT OF A NAUTILOID CIVILIZATION 



forward - in order to be prepared to house its growing bulk 
(See Figure 5-A). Then, in order to maintain the structural 
strength of its shell, it inserts new cross-septa from time to 
time, whereupon it must, each time, move almost the whole 
of its body out of its former living chamber and into the new 
and larger one just created. Human cultures and social 
organizations have grown in like manner and have 
undergone recurrent political re-developments and inte- 
grations, as per the Stages shown in the Table opposite 
Figure 5-B. In terms of the Stages listed in this Table Western 
industrial civilization has outgrown both Stage 7, the 'sover- 
eign-state" Stage and also the (composite) ''national 3 ' Stage 
(Stage 8) and should, ere this, have proceeded to the ninth 
Stage - that of Regional Economic Union - moving all the 
while toward the Tenth, and ultimate Stage, wherein the 
present United Nations Organization can (and will) become 
an effective World-Economic Union, created through a 
voluntary (Constitutional) union of Regional Constitutional 
Federations. 

Man's cultural and social development has followed a 
forward-and-upward trend, as is shown by both Figures i and 
5-B. Growth taking place (according to this trend) has 
naturally called for a corresponding and continuous en- 

277 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 



Figure 5-B Diagramatic Representation of Growth Stages of Nautilus 
(of Figure 5-A) Plus Diagram Indicating Relation of 
Economic and Political Development to Rise in Man's 
Social and Cultural Status. 



Direction of Man's (Rising) Social and 
Cultural Development 



Direction of 
Political Growth 



10 



Direction of Economic Development 




278 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 



Stage 


Characteristic 
(Most Advanced) 
Organizational 
Form of Human 
Society 


Characteristic 
Type of Culture 


Type of Political 

Structure 


Type (or Title) 
of Leader 


Characteristic 
Pattern of Economic 

Activity 


1 


Human individual 


Brute 


None 


None 


None 


2 


Human Family 


Semi-Brute 


Embryonic 


Head-of-Family 


Hunting and 












Scavenging 


3 


Clan 


Old Stone Age 


Patriarchal 


Patriarchal 


Hunting, Herding, 












Handicraft Work 












& Barter 


4 


Tribe 


New Stone Age 


Tribal 


Chief 


Hunting, Herding, 












Handicraft Work 












& Barter 


5 


City-State 


Barbarism 


Local Despotism 


Tyrant 


Farming, Mining, 












Primitive Handi- 












craft Mfg. Ship 












and Caravan 












Trade 


6 


Lordly Domain 


Embryonic Civili- 


Feudal 


Lord, Earl, Duke 


Agriculture, Mining 




(County) 


zation 




etc. 


Guild Mfg. 












Organized Trade 


7 


Princely (Sover- 


Local Civilization 


Absolute Monarchy 


Prince 


Agriculture, Special- 




reign) State 








ized Mfg. Organ- 












ized Hemispheric 












Trade 


8 


Nation 


Regional 


Constitutional 


President, Prime 


Power Mfg., -f (Im- 








Monarchy, or 


Minister, Pre- 


perial) Colonial 








! of Province 


mier, etc. 


Exploitation and 








of Soviets 




impoverishment 








of States 




of Raw Materials 








Outdated 


Outdated 


and Market Areas 


9 


Regional- 




Constitutional 


President 


Rise of Constructive 




Grouping of 


World- 


Regional 


(Elected) 


and Creative 




Peoples 


Civilization 


Federation of Self- 




(= Welfare) Capi- 








Governing 




talism, Strong 








Nations 




Unions, Machine- 












Power Mass-Pro- 












duction, and High 












Standard of Living 


10 


World-Grouping 




Constitutional 


President 


World-wide use of 




of Peoples 




Federation of 


(Elected) 


methods of Cre- 








Self-Governing 




ative (= Welfare) 








Regional Feder- 




Capitalism. 








ations 




Aboliton of Nation- 












al or Regional 












Military establish- 












ments. Use of 












revenues for the 












raising and equal- 












izing of living 












standards. 



279 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

largement of the supporting economic or material base, 
upon which the growing civilization rests (Figure 5-B). And 
this growth, as in the case of the Nautilus, recurrently makes 
it necessary for the developing creature to move forward 
into a new living-chamber - with the major difference that 
the new living-space for the civilization is not produced by 
a simple extension and enlargement of the old one, but is 
produced by a fusion and welding together of the living- 
chambers of a number of formerly separate and independent 
creatures, (Such a fusion may take place temporarily and 
abortively because of imperialistic pressures or may take place 
properly and naturally through voluntary, constitutional, 
economic and political federation. 

Once the development of a genuine community of legiti- 
mate self-interests has induced such an Economic Union as 
that of the Benelux countries, then a new, unified bodily 
circulation can develop as a replacement for the several, 
previously-existing circulatory systems - this unification 
being accomplished by a unification of currencies; by an 
abolition of intra-union tariffs (with proper indemnification 
to those injured by such abolition); by free intra-union 
movement of persons; and by the creation of an adequate 
and uniform intra-union system for proper legal contract- 
enforcement. 

Once we understand why such economic-and-political 
integrations and transformations become necessary, re- 
currently, as a civilization develops, then one main reason 
for the existence of current world-tension becomes obvious. 
For modern industrial civilizations simply cannot function, 
successfully and prosperously, within the "sovereign-state" 
or national boundaries of even the most extensive countries 
(such as the Soviet Union, China, Brazil and the United 
States) for the simple reason that no single nation national area can 
now, alone, provide all of the essential natural resource 
materials upon which modern life directly depends. Either 
(voluntary) union or (involuntary) imperial combination 

280 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE. FUTURE OF MAN 

has been made inevitable by modern scientific, technologic 
and engineering developments - and that the imperial 
method is both wrong and self-defeating should, by now, 
have become axiomatic. Pending the improvement and 
equalization of regional living-standards, voluntary eco- 
nomic and political federations can be developed suc- 
cessfully on a regional basis only - though as soon as "popu- 
lation pressures" on the opposite sides of regional govern- 
mental boundaries (see Figure 2) have been equalized, then 
these boundaries can be, in effect, wiped out, and an Eco- 
nomic World-Union (and economic circulation) will become 
possible, as well as necessary. 



A DIAGNOSIS OF THE CURRENT WORLD-MALADY 

To diagnose the existing world-malady one must really make 
three sets of diagnoses, relating, respectively, to the material, 
mental and spiritual phases of the total problem. These may 
be stated, in turn, as follows : 

" -Diagnoses relating to material and natural-resource problems: Three 
principal causes of social illness exist in this "area:" 

1) Human populations continue to c^tgrow their material 
means of support, partly because u^^^inced applications 
of Biological and Medical Science provided means 
for reducing human death-rates without having dis- 
covered and made available proper and equally effective 
methods for keeping birthrates at a materially-supportable 
level. 

2) The standards-of-living in the various world-regions are 
very unequal and are, in general, very unsatisfactory - due 
partly to the too rapid increase of populations. 

3) The scientific, technologic and engineering exploratory 
capacities, now available as factors capable of offsetting 

281 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

mineral-resource depletion, are almost unknown in many 
parts of the world and have nowhere been adequately 
developed and employed. 

Diagnoses relating to the world's mental and intellectual-resource 
problems. 

4) Human economies have long since outgrown national 
boundaries, despite which the needed, corrollary, politi- 
cal growths (by voluntary unions and integration) have 
not taken place, except within the Benelux and, in a 
preliminary way, in India. Elsewhere either disintegration 
rather than integration has taken place - or efforts have 
been made to solve the problem by a re-employment of 
the old Imperial Great Power-plus-(colony or)-satellite 
pattern. 

5) There has not yet been a proper development of Regional 
Constitution Federations at Stage 9 of Figure 5-B such 
as are permissible under The United Nations Charter. 
Consequently it has not yet been possible to compell a 
substitution of Fair Competition Capitalism for old-style, 
exploitationist Monopoly Capitalism (either privately- 
owned or State-owned). 

6) As the World is now set up economically and politically, 
Science and Engineering and Fair-Competition Industry 
are not now able, and will not be able, to conduct the 
mineral-resource explorations and developments which 
must be carried out, if world standards of living are to 
be either maintained or improved. 

Diagnoses relating to the World's spiritual problems: 

7) A disunited World has refused to admit the validity of the 
old proverb that "as ye sow so shall ye reap." But a 
continuation of this attitude, within a world which has 
been made one by technologic invention, can only mean 
that a further employment of violent methods will lead 
to renewed World War and to oblivion. 

s) It is all too little realized that proper loyalty is indispens- 

282 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

able to continued human survival. But unless there be 
proper loyalty within the family; within the nation; and 
within the Brotherhood of Man, then we shall have 
proved our disloyalty to the Revelations of the Divine Will, 
and we shall be like "the flower of the field" - "for the 
wind shall pass over it, and the place thereof shall know 
it no more." 

9) The world, as yet, despite the existence of the United 
Nations, has developed no sure means for controlling 
Injustice and Tyranny. People still profess to believe that 
Peace can be "won" by war. People still try to settle both 
spiritual and political problems by force - despite the 
validity of BURKE'S dictum "Force is objectionable. It 
destroys that which it seeks to preserve." People still 
refuse to admit to themselves that they who practice 
injustice will surely reap injustice. People still seem to 
believe that Freedom - both spiritual and political - can be 
gained by a voluntary acceptance of spiritual slavery - and 
of political and economic subjugation instead of being 
earned by effort and suffering. For they have not, in 
general, as yet accepted in practice that "Truth which 
sets Man free." 



SPECIFIC ACTIONS NEEDED FOR THE CURING OF 
THE WORLD-MALADY 

Certain specific actions are needed if the diagnoses of the 
world-ills, just made, are to form the basis for proper pre- 
scription and for proper treatment. The paragraphs to follow 
will therefore suggest how these several diagnoses can (it is 
hoped) lead to effective cure, through particular action. 

Problem (i). The problem of population increase: The world's 
populations, for the most part, have been reproducing 
practically up to the limits of their biological potentials. 

283 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

Besides which the praiseworthy efforts of Biological and 
Medical Science to save human lives have contributed 
notably to the production of a situation in which human 
numbers are increasing more rapidly than are the available 
material resources upon which the support of human life 
depends. It therefore seems to be the clear responsibility of 
Biological and Medical research workers to learn more about 
the natural laws which relate particularly to the biological 
factors involved in the process of human reproduction - for 
there seems to be no reason to doubt that answers can be 
had to the "population problem 55 - which are not only right 
and proper but also effective. For proper answers must 
either be thus provided - or improper ones will be had, 
through the further use of mass-genocide. 

Problem (2). The problem of unequal regional standards of living. The 
problem of unequal regional standards of living can be solved 
- if the problem of <?ver~rapid growth of population can be 
properly solved. And to show how and why this can be true 
let us again consider Figure 2. 

As Figure 2 shows, almost half of the world's people now 
live at barest subsistence levels - a condition which grows 
ever more critical as populations continue to increase faster 
than do supporting material resources. But if one considers 
the relationships shown by Figure 2 - in the light of scien- 
tific understanding and engineering experience - then a 
solution of the problem presents itself. So in order that the 
nature of this solution may become clear let us consider 
Figure 2 again in the light of four postulates, which run as 
follows: 

1) That the all-inclusive, rectangular outline of Figure 2 
corresponds to the outline of a box-like Ark, and that all 
of the World's people are aboard this Ark. 

2) That the members of particular nations or groups of 
nations have all gathered together in particular parts of 
the Ark's hold - with each person being allocated an 

284 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

equal amount of floor-space (with the result that such 
"national areas" are proportional to the size of national 
populations). 

3) That the national floor areas, so occupied, have been 
walled about by vertical bulkheads, such as subdivide the 
hold of an ocean-going ship, and that these bulkheads 
have been fitted with watertight doors, such as can be 
closed tightly, or can be left partly or wholly open, at 
option. And 

4) That the populations within the several compartments, 
thus established, are, figuratively, living upon the surfaces 
of rafts which are floating at different levels, as shown in 
Figure 2 - according to the relative per capita productive 
capacities (or standards of living) prevailing within the 
several compartments. 

With reference to the disparities between national living 
standards, indicated by Figure 2, various well-intentioned 
persons have proposed that the world's ills be cured by 
generous action on the part of the more prosperous nations - 
so that the needy peoples can be cared for out of the 
abundance of the less needy. This should of course be done, 
in so far as it is practicable, but a single glance at Figure 2 
shows how completely inadequate, volumetrically speaking, 
such proposals are. For if all of the bulkhead doors were 
opened wide, simultaneously, a consequent sudden read- 
justment and equalization of levels would occur - with 
catastrophic declines of standards of living taking place in 
all high-standard countries, but without more than minor 
and ephemeral improvements of living conditions in the 
other, larger, areas occupied by the more impoverished 
populations. And the word "ephemeral" has been used 
advisedly, for under present mores and patterns of thinking 
such temporary ameliorations of living conditions as would 
occur within the low-standard countries would be almost 
immediately cancelled by an almost explosive growth of 
populations within those countries. So that within a short 

285 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

time the same tragic poverties would again be prevalent - 
only they would be suffered by many, many more people. 
One basic problem of Man is, then, to devise a way by which 
living standards can be raised, differentially, until all have 
become substantially equal, whereupon all bulkhead doors 
can be opened wide without causing any serious disturbance 
of equilibrium in any quarter. From what has just been said, 
it is obvious that the problems flowing from present un- 
equalities in standards of living cannot be solved or resolved 
by mere charity, or by the use of mere arithmetical sub- 
traction and addition. But they can be solved by an intelli- 
gent and constructive use of the "technologic processes of 
multiplication." And this is where Science and Engineering 
and Technology can provide the answers needed. 

For the rafts supporting the populations within the several 
compartments are not held up by water but are supported by 
a mobile material of a very different nature - a material 
which is essentially like brea^-dough. Furthermore, if we 
review, mentally, how the bread-making process proceeds, 
we shall see the answer to our problem. For we will recall 
that flour and salt are mixed with a liquid (with nothing 
more than a mere addition of volumes) and then yeast is 
added and is given time to leaven the lump of dough - with 
the result that the volume of the dough increases and 
increases until the bread is ready to be baked (and eaten). 
And so it is in the international process. In order to keep the 
raft-borne populations supported, new supplies of "dough" 
must be continuously developed beneath the rafts, as the 
finished product is drawn off and used. And in the inter- 
national dough-making process the "flour" is composed of a 
suitable blend of all the many essential-resource materials 
which have been listed at Level 2 of Figure 3. Whereas the 
liquid to be added consists of "liquid capital" or, in other 
words, of the machines, the manufacturing plants and the 
agricultural, mining, constructional and transportational 
equipment required for modern industrial production. And 

286 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

the 'yeast" is made up of scientific knowledge, of technologic 
methods and appliances, and of engineering planning, 
administration and "knowhow." Moreover this yeast of 
civilization, like the yeast familiar to breadmakers, can, if 
wisely handled, be shared practically without limit - without 
causing decrease in the supplies which remain available to 
the donor. So the three practical problems remaining to be 
solved, if world standards of living are to be improved and 
equalized, relate to the reduction of human birthrates; to the 
availability of adequate supplies of suitable natural-resource 
"flour"; and to the availability of adequate volumes of 
productive liquid capital. Solution of the first of these three 
problems must rest with the workers in Biological and 
Medical Science. The second problem can be solved through 
cooperative action within regional groupings of nations 
which, among them, possess adequate sources from which 
to draw a full suite of essential-resource materials. And the 
third can be cared for either by a direct barter of surplus 
natural-resource raw material for needed capital-equipment, 
or by means of loans obtained from or through the World 
Bank - with the assistance of one or the other of the agencies 
of the United Nations Organization. 

Problem (3). The problem of the exhaustibility of essential natural 
resources. Human thought, and public policy, relative to the 
development of essential natural resources, have been, and 
are being, continually de-railed by the general incompleteness 
of human understandings of the world's natural-resource 
problem. For non-scientists and non-engineers have definitely 
failed to appreciate that we are here dealing with Time, 
Space and Energy problems to which "relativity-theory" 
definitely applies. Or, stated in another way, they have 
failed to appreciate the validity of a thought expressed by an 
eminent scientist (who is also a great industrial executive) 
who wrote, substantially, as follows: "Creative imagination, 
controlled and applied is the wand which can reveal the 

287 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 

AND 
OTHER ENGINEERING 







AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING 








ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 








MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 






4 


t - * 


t t 






I 


1 


I 


1 1 




CHEMICAL 


METAL- 


CIVIL ENGINEERS 






LURGICAL 








ENGINEERING 


ENGINEER 

INIfi 


Develope 


Design Construct Buildings, -Bridges, Dams, 




4 


f t 




Tunnels, Reservoirs, Highways, e 


re. 


PETROLEUM 


MINING 


and 






ENGINEERS 


ENGINEERS 


Produce 


1 J2 2 


w 


Develope and Produce Dev 
Discovered 


elope and Produce 
Discovered 


Discovered 


| | yrs 1 1 


I 1 










_^ f^TT&^'X ^ 


X < 


OIL a GAS OR 


nnmiirnimra | 

E a MINERAL 


1 """^ 
UNDERGROUND 


l^^^W^^^y^^^ 








KY^vY BED ROCK Y.Y^Y.Y.Y.', . 


DEPOSITS 


DEPOSITS 


WATER 




SURFACE 










ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF 














GEOLOGY 




[ 


4 


4 




and 






1 i 










BEDROCK 


GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERS tUPIan large scale, low cost exploratory programs. 


GEOLOGY 






(z] Use geophysical 


and geological methods and instruments; 


To discover hidden natural-resource deposits, 


To map concealed bed rock surfaces and conditions. 


(31 Carry forward basic research regarding geometry, 


mechanics~of-origin and patterns-of-occurrence of 


commercially significant crustal structures in order 


that improvement of discovery methods may more than 


offset increasing costs and hazard of natural -resource 






exploration. 






Figure 6 



invisible; transform the useless into the useful; waste into 
raw material of great value; exhaustible resources into 
inexhaustible resources." For if the capacities of Exploratory 
Engineers (see Figure 6) to discover new deposits (of many 
degrees of richness) continue to be increased progressively, 
by new advances in geo-exploratory science and technology, 



288 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

then other engineers, employing newer and better methods 
and equipment, can produce and transform mineral raw 
materials more and more cheaply; thus converting larger 
and larger lower-grade deposits from submarginal to com- 
mercially-valuable resources. Wherefore, even though each 
single deposit will be exhaustible - ultimately - yet the totals of 
the deposits presently available will continue to increase, as 
more and cheaper energy becomes available (from intra- 
atomic and thermo-nuclear sources) as Technology advances. 
If one assumes, as the writer does, that the unlimited 
energies of thermo-nuclear fusion can soon be made con- 
trollable and usable for constructive purposes, then Man 
should never lack for the material necessities of Life, provided 
that his planning for the Future is done cooperatively; on an 
engineering (and "engineered") basis; and according to what 
is kind, what is proper and what is reasonable. For providing 
that a suitable growth-rate can, indeed, be maintained by 
Exploratory Engineering (Figure 6) within the "root-zone" 
of civilization (Level i of Figure 3) then the activities postu- 
lated for Levels 2, 3, 4 and 5 of Figure 3 can proceed in a 
satisfactory manner. And proper developments can be assured 
at Level i of Figure 3 if suitable intellectual and spiritual 
guidance can be had from Levels 6 and 7 of Figure 3. So now 
let us turn to: 

Problems 4, 5 and 6: the problems of proper and effective international 
integration in the economic and political realms. The essence of these 
problems can be summed up in one single question "How 
can human knowledge, intelligence and experience be so 
employed as to provide Man with the practical means for 
"Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness?" And the answer 
is believed to be "through that guidance of constructive 
engineering activities which can be provided by the combined 
advice of the several scholarly and professional groupings 
which, added together, constitute "a university" in the full 
sense of the term. (See Diagram i). 

289 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 



As Diagram i indicates, Religion, History and the other 
Humanistic subjects can provide understandings regarding 
those basic human aspirations and motivations which have 
led to the growth of human cultures and to the rise of many 
civilizations. Likewise the Social Sciences can demonstrate, 
and are demonstrating, the nature of the economic and 
political procedures which have been found to be successfully 
applicable to the short-term hour-by-hour and day-by-day 
direction and management of business and government. So, 
also the Natural Sciences, in general, can give advance 
warnings, when newly-made (or impending) scientific 
discoveries are about to alter the whole course of history (as 



DIAGRAM i 

A University includes 



Religion 
History 
Philosophy 
Other Humanities 



Psychology 
Social Sciences and 
Law 
Geography 



! Which 
provide 



Which 
| provide 



Biological and 
Medical Science 
Earth Sciences 
Natural Science and 
Mathematics 



Which 
provide 



Insights into Man's 
spiritual nature and 
moral and social re- 
sponsibilities 

and 

Into basic human mo- 
tivations - and normal 
responses thereto. 

Insights into the ob- 
jectives, methods and 
patterns of short-term, 
constructive, social and 
political action. 



Insights into the basic 
principles of Natural 
Law; Into the world- 
geography of essential 
natural-resource oc- 
currence; Into the pro- 
spective and long-term 
human significance of 
recent scientific dis- 
coveries; and into the 
probability of yet 
further revolutionary 
scientific discovery and 
invention. 



Engineering 
Which employs that 
combination of Art, 
Technology and Scien- 
ce, under guidance 
contributed by all 
other University 
scholarly and pro- 
fessional groupings, 
whereby creative im- 
agination, natural re- 
sources, human ca- 
pacities, and intel- 
lectual and spiritual 
wisdom can be so inte- 
grated and supported 
as to serve con- 
structively, the needs 
and worthy purposes 
of Mankind. 



290 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

is happening today, through the discovery of the feasibility 
of obtaining prodigious energies from atomic fission and 
thermo-nuclear fusion). In other words the Natural Sciences 
can, in relation to the long-term problems of civilization, 
function as do the headlights of an automobile, being driven 
at high speed, along an unfamiliar road, and after nightfall. 
For they can tell us, well in advance, that drastic changes in 
policy-direction must be planned (and prepared) for, if a fatal 
crash is to be avoided. And, lastly, the Earth Sciences can 
contribute, in a similarly constructive fashion, to the ad- 
vance shaping of national and international policy - for they 
can tell us how the irregularity in world-occurrence of 
essential mineral-resource deposits (see Figure i, Level 2) will, 
perforce, limit and control the inter-relations between 
nations and national groupings, when economic survival 
and military security are at stake. For it is only on the basis of 
such adequate advice (from a whole "university") - as to 
objectives, methods and limiting circumstances that Engi- 
neering can so build - effectively and expeditiously - that 
human beings may be able to earn their right to survive. And 
that Civilization may be able to continue to advance - in all 
three of the realms in which Humanity lives - these three 
being, respectively, material, intellectual and spiritual. 

What, then, does "university-type" knowledge and ex- 
perience tell us about the steps which should, and should 
not be, taken - if we are to be able to relieve worldtensions, 
and are to give rise to an orderly, just, peaceful and satis- 
factory world? The answers needed can, it is believed, be 
gotten from Figure 7. 

Figure 7 tells us, among other things, that the use of 
monopoly and of (imperialist) exploitation - at any level and 
under any circumstances - is self-defeating - though it is, 
temporarily, advantageous to the strong. Whereas the hopes 
of all Humanity can be realized, in the ultimate, only by the 
conversion of the United Nations Organization into a World 
Economic Union and then into a (voluntarily-formed) 

291 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 





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4. 












T 

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T 


T 






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L 1 




N A 


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s 


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Fig. 7. 

1. A Princely State, or Local Kingdom, or "Sovereign State." 

2. A Nation, or United Kingdom, or Union of "Sovereign States" formed for 
mutual Economic and Security Advantage. 

$. Developed Empires, consisting of a Great Power Nation (= GP), surrounded by 
forcibly-held "Satellites" or "Colonial Areas" (= S). 

4. A partly disintegrated Empire, plus (economically non-viable and theoretically) 
"Independent Nations" or "Sovereign States." 

5. (Now Needed) Regional Economic Unions, including both "National Areas" 
(== NA), already Selfgoverning, and also "Territorial Areas" (= T), which are 
being assisted to improve their living-standards, while they are preparing them- 
selves for local self-government, within the framework of the larger "Economic 
Union." 

Constitutional Federation of Self-governing Peoples - a 
Federation which will be capable of assuring and enforcing 
Peace, and also "}ustice-under-Law" - on a world-wide basis. 
In reaching this ultimate situation certain preliminary 
steps must be taken by the "colonial" peoples, and by the 
citizens of "princely" or "sovereign" states. For if the legiti- 
mate desires of such peoples (for national self-government) 
are to be realized then they must be realized in a fair and 
reasonable manner, and in a fashion which not only provides 
for their automony (or "independence") in the management 
of their internal (national) affairs -but also solves the problems 



292 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

arising from wider vital natural-resource interdependences - 
through voluntary (regional) Economic Union with other, 
similar, governments - all powers being reserved to the 
national governments which have not been specifically 
granted to the Region Grouping concerned by the terms of 
its Constitution, or Charter, as ratified. That such double 
objectives can be satisfactorily and effectively realized has been 
recently demonstrated by the peoples of Belgium, The 
Netherlands and Luxembourg, who have retained their 
national governments but have done so under a now supra- 
national Economic Union, whereby the three economic 
circulations involved (see Figure 4) have been fused into a 
single economic circulation, with the result that their com- 
bined domestic trade has been trebled in ten years, and their 
foreign trade has been doubled. Because of the success of the 
Benelux experiment a larger Economic (and political) Union 
is now in the making, including West Germany, France and 
Italy, in addition to the Benelux countries. 

This process of federation (for mutual benefit) has, of 
course, been used in India and is now in progress in Africa 
and in the Near and Middle East and elsewhere, and should 
proceed until the vital natural-resource requirements of all 
nations have been safely provided for, through the establish- 
ment of about five or six (voluntary) Regional Unions or 
Groupings - as is permissible under The United Nations 
Charter. Within such regional unions the several national 
currencies concerned would be replaced by a single currency; 
the same system of law and j ustice would apply throughout the 
region; and all intra-regional tariffs would be abolished (with 
fair indemnification to those injured by such abrogation). 

That seeming economic miracles can be brought about by- 
such unions has already been proven by the Benelux Eco- 
nomic Union experiment. For under such a union, properly 
developed: 

i) Tax-rates can be greatly reduced, even while annual 
taxyields are being simultaneously increased ; 

293 



TAYLOR THOM, JR. 




Fig. 8. Map showing nuclei of Prospective Regional "Economic Union" Govern- 
ments. As defined by geologic (and geographic) occurrence of essential natural- 
resource materials. 

2) Because, under such unions Annual incomes from goods 
and services rapidly become doubled and trebled; 

3) Raw material production, manufacturing and marketing 
can be carried forward with confidence; with increasing 
employment; and with increased earnings in all quarters - 
due to the absense of currency, tariff and legal uncertain- 
ties and obstacles. And 

4) Adequate volumes of both venture and developmental 
capital can be generated - both for internal purposes and 
needs and for sound foreign loans - these latter to be 
made, presumably, through United Nation agencies. 

With suitable and natural integrations of inter-regional 
activities (to be accomplished through the UNO), the 
enormous sums now being tragically diverted to only 



294 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 




partly-productive (military) purposes could be used for the 
improvement of world living-conditions. They could also be 
used for education; for the construction of urgently-needed 
highway systems; for the enlargement of water-supply and 
irrigation systems ; and for a variety of other public- works 
and community purposes. 

One more matter, fraught with utmost immediate im- 
portance, needs to be considered now - a matter which has to 
do with devising of proper arrangements for ending the 
Cold War - before it has plunged us into World War III. In 
this connection we need to realize that existing (vital) natural- 
resource inter-dependencies will continue to make necessary 
a regional economic-and-governmental grouping of the Cen- 
tral European and Soviet peoples, even if the Soviets grant 
these peoples full selfgovernment subject to the condition 
that they do continue on as member-nations within a Re- 
gional Economic Union, patterned on the Benelux Union 



295 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

Let us also realize that the Soviet leaders are almost 
certainly unaware of the fact that the recent enormous 
industrial progress of the United States has been the result of a 
progressive development (within the United States) of "Fair- 
Competition Industry" and of "Welfare Capitalism/' which 
are exact opposites of the kind of monopoly, or cartel or 
imperialist-exploitationist capitalism which was known to 
KARL MARX and which has been so familiar to so many 
European peoples - to their sorrow. Furthermore let us 
realize that it will certainly be impossible for the Soviet 
leaders to believe in the sincerity, honesty and peaceful intent 
of the United States, so long as "foreign aid/' granted by the 
United States for the promotion of common safety, is 
continuously, flagrantly, dishonestly and cynically employed 
by some beneficiaries, who seek to continue to impose upon 
their colonial peoples a denial of rights to autonomy in local 
governmental affairs which we, the people of the United 
States, also fought to gain - in the course of our own Re- 
volution. 

Perhaps the several misunderstandings and uncertainties 
involved could be most easily removed if responsible Soviet 
leaders could come to America as guests of American Labor - 
in order that they might both satisfy themselves as to our 
peaceful intentions and might also come to see that the 
legitimate self-interests of the Soviet peoples, and of all 
peoples, could be better solved by a peaceful "competitive 
cooperation" or "cooperative competition," rather than by 
mutual extermination, through a new World War. 

The people of Japan, of China, of "Southeast Asia," of 
India, of the Muslim world, of Germany, of the USSR, of 
Britain, of Brazil, of North America, and of many lands, - all 
are capable of making uniquely-important contributions to 
the progress and welfare of the world. So let us at least 
tentatively give the Soviet leaders credit for being sincerely 
interested in the promotion of the welfare of the Common 
Man - and in bringing local self-government, coupled with 

296 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

Region Union, to the world's colonial peoples. And let us 
hope, too, that we can convince the Soviet peoples that we 
are similarly interested. For the only hope of human survival 
lies in that direction. 

In saying this the writer is not proposing that broad 
assertions or unsupported assumptions be taken at face 
value by anyone. For if we pause to think we shall realize that 
the world's peoples are not stupid, and that if professions of 
peaceful intention are but transparent cloaks for new or old 
imperialisms, then the whole world will soon recognize 
that fact and will unite solidly against such imperialism (or 
imperialisms). What we need now is a focussing of attention 
upon the constructive steps which need to be taken for the 
benefit of all peoples. The actions about to be taken in the 
UN Assembly will plainly show which governments really 
are in favor of Peace and human progress, and which, if any, 
are old-fashioned "wolves in sheep's clothing." 

SUMMARY 

Dedicated scientific search for Truth has led Man from 
knowledge to understanding and may, by now, even be 
leading him from understanding to wisdom. For thanks to 
scientific search and discovery four things have become clear. 

First. Astronomy has shown that the Heavenly bodies have 
been moving forward through infinite Space in orderly 
fashion during eons and eons of Time. 

Second. Nuclear physics, and the study of decay-rates of 
radio-active minerals, have now also shown that the Time- 
Dimension in the History of the Earth is measurable in 
billions of years. 

Third. Geological and geophysical studies (of Earth Pro- 
cesses and of Earth History) now give us quantitatively- 
correct perspectives upon the history of development of Life, 
and of Man, upon the Earth - thereby transforming con- 
ventional "History 3 'from a factual and descriptive narrative 

297 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

into a study which has profound human significance and 
scientific importance. 

Fourth. Scientific studies, in total, show that the whole of 
the Universe has, since the Beginning, moved forward in 
orderly fashion toward the ultimate fulfillment of the 
Creator's underlying Plan and Purpose. And therefore Man, 
being spiritually perceptive of this fact, has possessed (and 
does possess) an innate ability to distinguish between that 
which is properly progressive and accordant with the Trend 
of Universal Motion, and that which is retrogressive and 
directed counter to the Creator's Cosmic Intention. Or, as 
the matter has usually been stated, "Man possesses an innate 
ability to discriminate between that which is (properly Pro- 
gressive or) "Good" and that which is (retrogressive or) "Evil." 

Adding these conclusions together it can be stated that 
Science has now provided essentially correct "Space" and 
"Time" perspectives upon World-History. And geographic 
and geologic studies now can tell us about the environmen- 
tal conditions (and environmental changes) which have led 
to the rise, and to the decline, of past civilizations - thereby 
making it possible for us to gain understandings regarding 
the anatomical structure and physiological processes which 
have been characteristic of those invisible organisms which 
we term "civilizations." Moreover it is now similarly possible 
for us to distinguish between three types of civilizations. 
Some have been rooted and tree-like in their form and 
manner of growth. Others have been mobile and animal- 
like in their nature and have lived according to the "Law of 
the Jungle" - with the physically stronger dominating and 
preying upon the weaker. And a third type of civilization 
(still embryonic, rather than fully formed) is one which is 
essentially "human" in its attributes, possessing not only 
intelligence but a sense of social responsibility and a "sense of 
Right and Wrong." This latter type of civilization, in its 
developing form, resembles a great river, wherein waters 
from many sources will gather, successively, to form rills, 

298 



SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - AND THE FUTURE OF MAN 

and streams and larger tributaries - until they all ultimately 
join and mingle, as they move harmoniously toward that 
Infinite Ocean in which the Creator has set Man's Destiny. 



CONCLUSION 

The World of Man, as it has existed, up until the present, is 
dying. Moreover its death may come suddenly, as the result 
of human {savagery, selfishness and willfulness - since atomic 
and thermo-nuclear weapons now make it possible for a 
modern Samson to destroy himself and all people, by 
starting a Third World War. Several dictators have stated 
repeatedly that according to their gospel a Third World War 
is necessary and inevitable. And that such a war Mill, conse- 
quently, happen soon, is probable rather than being merely 
possible. 

But however that may be, a new kind of civilization is 
struggling to be born - a civilization which, if born, will be 
vastly different from all of those which have gone before it. 
For if and when it has been safely born we shall have entered a 
world which is animated by a Psychology of Cooperation and 
of Peace - differing thereby exactly from the older civilizations 
which have been ruled by a Psychology of Monopolistic 
Imperialism, Violence and Oppression, and War. Man's fate 
will, of necessity, soon be sealed by his own conscious choice 
and by his own decisive action - a choice arrived at within 
and proclaimed through, the Assembly of the United Nations 
Organization. For this Assembly represents the collective will 
and conscience of all Humanity. 

If, in making their fateful decisions, the delegates to the 
United Nations are merely guided by "the backward look" - 
and by the many bitter hatreds which have been bred by past 
oppressions and injustices -then, indeed, the World of Man 
will perish amid flames, as did Sodom and Gomorrah and the 
"Cities of the Plain."But if, on the other hand, these delegates 

299 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. 

feel that they are trustees responsible for the safety, and 
heritage, of all of the "World's children - the children of Today 
and of Tomorrow - then they can, through wise, proper 
and generous decision, make it possible for Science and Engi- 
neering to transform the world - so that "all things needful' > 
can, indeed, be provided for the Future of Man. The choice 
will be between Cooperation and Contention; between 
Justice and Injustice; between Good and Evil; between Peace 
and War; and between Life and Death. But if the final and 
fatal choice is, indeed, guided by smallness of spirit, by stu- 
pidity and by selfishness, then will the bodies of men, women 
and children lie strewn amid ruins charred and blackened by 
nuclear holocaust. The "handwriting is on the wall/ 5 where 
all may read. 



300 



War or Peace - a Biological Problem 

by 



EUROPAEUS 



What I am going to say here does not claim to be exact 
science. It is a stringing together of thoughts, some of which 
have, for their complexity, even not been quite thought out, 
all of which, however, are meant to lead to one objective: 
Better relations between the different groups of nations and 
people, as the premise for content and peace within these 
groups. 

In part they are thoughts which will probably need decades 
to mature, each within itself, or which demand the con- 
current rethinking of many people who are at one with the 
author. In these days, when the most terribles of all wars 
are potentially a possibility, if not a probability, such a 
rethinking by many people has already become reality, and 
that is why these lines are written. 

The suggestive force of the proverb which has brought 
about so much murder on a national scale "Si vis pacem, 
para bellum" - still retains its power. But slowly, the dawn of 
a new comprehension is rising - the comprehension that the 
problem "War or Peace" is basically a biological one, and 
that it must be regarded as such if it is to be solved. 

This comprehension is spreading not only in a small 
circle, within the uppermost tops of science, but at long last 
also among statesmen - and naturally first among the 
greatest. 

301 



EUROPAEUS 

For thousands of years this murderous proverb, in one 
form or another has been hammered into the human brain, 
and now we must begin to erase it or, better still, put another 
in its place, as suggestive as the old one : Si vis pacem - para 
pacem! And this problem is biological in nature, both 
regarded from within and from without : 

Both instincts and conscious volition pull in both directions, the negative 
one towards war, and the positive one towards peace. But 
only that conscious volition which leads in the negative 
direction lies - at least for the greater part - outside the 
problem seen biologically. 

It is that most energetic volition which we find accompa- 
nying business interests or power-political strivings of 
individuals and groups everywhere. These strivings, however, 
are from the first doomed to failure if they cannot gain 
control over the three other fields - and these lie plumb in 
the centre of biological science. 

Both the negative instincts in man, to deny which would 
merely mean closing one's eyes before the fact of disease, and 
the positive instincts, but above all the congregated and ever 
increasing conscious volition which makes use of the other 
three fields in a planned manner so as to reach the goal in 
the positive way - all these lie within the sphere of biology in 
its wider meaning, comprising also psychology and sociolo- 
gy; and it is of decisive importance that first of all the biolo- 
gists themselves should be clear on this point. 

Let us try and marshal these power groups against each 
other. 

The relevant negative instincts - a fact which in our day has 
almost become universally acknowledged - can probably be 
changed into positive instincts, and certainly into positive 
achievements, by the right education both of children and 
adults. 

To take one example : We know how easy it is to change the 
combative spirit by competition into the spirit of sport - and 
also, as we readily concede, even more easily back again into 

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WAR OR PEACE -A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 

the combative spirit. In the last analysis the creative instinct is 
surely something very positive - and yet closely related to 
the combative spirit. We can fight FOR something too, and 
this combat can just as well be for something spiritual or 
against something material, just as against other natural 
resistance, without seeing your neighbour as your main 
opponent. 

What I see as far more difficult is the taming of the "Grup- 
pen abwehr-Instinkt" (repelling group instinct), a phenomenon 
seen with animals as well as with humans. With men it can 
take the form of subconscious passive resistance or of 
conscious active opposition against the foreign and strange 
per se - with all grades in between these two extremes. 
Trying to understand this instinct or urge, we shall find that 
it belongs to the whole complex of instincts which have to 
do with the preservation of the species. 

This dangerous primitive instinct, far more dangerous than 
the combative spirit, to which most distinguished men have 
often become a prey, can in my opinion be tamed only if we 
use all our powers of organizing and educating for the 
purpose of changing the psychically foreign and strange into 
something well known, and also to extend the natural 
egocentric small group as far as its maximum up to the species 
itself- that is all humanity. 

In consequence of the unimaginable progress in technolo- 
gy we stand today at the beginning of an era in which what 
has so far been extremely foreign and strange can be brought 
near very quickly both psychically and physically. In fact, the 
beginnings of such an approach are already being made. 

Airplane, Radio and cinema are already typical bearers of such an 
international mission. An international language for the purpose 
of international understanding should be the next step, to be 
taken as soon as may be. 

But the central guiding hand is still missing, especially as 
regards the Radio and cinema. That air traffic will become a 
network of international understanding and union among 

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EUROPAEUS 

nations, with or without or even against the War Offices of 
the different countries concerned, can be assumed with some 
certainty already. 

Possibly the airplane more than anything else makes the 
existing political borders of states and groups of states be- 
come more and more constricted. In the last analysis traffic 
speed is the most important human standard for distance on 
earth, just as the speed of light is for space. 

Seen from this angle, even most of the dwarf states of the 
Middle Ages were far larger than is today the whole of our 
earth, for from one border to the other it took longer to 
travel than today does flying to the antipodes. 

The cinema, seen from our viewpoint, is still far behind the 
airplane. In fact, it often instigates instincts leading in the 
opposite direction to our conscious or unconscious goal. 
And yet the screen might have extraordinary possibilities for 
contributing to the vital goal, bringing the different groups of 
people near to each other, making them appear less strange 
one to the other. Here UNESCO has an immense field of 
activity which may well be of decisive importance. Thus they 
might, f.i. organize committees to investigate the educative 
value of films, in order to connect positive ones with material 
advantages and conversely, what is almost as important, 
disadvantages for negative films. 

The third unifying item, and perhaps the most important 
in the fight against the repelling group instinct is a truly 
international language. Here we touch on a sore point in the 
history of mankind, a complex of questions which has ever 
since prehistoric times occupied the best minds. The biblical 
legend about the tower of Babel has lost nothing of its urgent 
topicality in our days. 

Different experiments have been made, partly with region- 
al success, to make some existing and widespread language 
into the international means of communication; in our 
times, even artificial languages have been constructed for the 
purpose. In Babylonian times, to take an ancient instance, 

304 



WAR OR PEACE -A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 

Aramaic was such a unifying language for the whole of 
Western Asia, Greek in Hellenistic times joined all the 
educated of the Mediterranean world at the time when 
actually the Romans were the Imperial Power; Latin became 
an international language only because of the Vulgate (the 
Latin version of the Bible of the 4th century) and remained 
supreme all through the Middle Ages and Modern times, for 
the European Cultural world, until the nineteenth century. 

We have a similar development as Latin gained by means of 
the Vulgate, becoming an international language, for 
Arabic, which in consequence of the Koran united the 
different Moslem peoples from the Atlantic Ocean to India. 
A third example is the prevalence of German by means of 
LUTHER'S translation of the Bible, for Central Europe. In 
science and research Latin remained the predominent 
language long after Louis XIV of France, when the inter- 
national language of diplomacy and the upper crust of 
society had become French. 

With the splitting of science into national units, the chaos 
in language began, actually becoming the strongest brake on 
scientific development - in the second half of the nineteenth 
century. It has only been since the Second World War that it 
has become quite unbearable, in many cases ruinous. The 
reason is that national consciousness as regards most Euro- 
pean nations, on a scale unknown before, drove all other 
considerations into the background. One consequence was 
that there was a strong urge to put their own language in the 
foreground even as regards science, often enough at the 
price of publicity and sometimes even of comprehen- 
sibility. 

The so-called purificators of the German language who 
might in one sense be called the precursors of the National- 
Socialist movement, have found slavish imitators among 
many nations. As this tendency towards isolation, often 
enough an unconscious one, still exists in strong measure 
today, and as it is a concealed and therefore all the more 

305 



EUROPAEUS 

dangerous fact for humanity in general and for science 
especially, I think a few remarks on the subject may not 
come amiss. 

There are endeavours at work with many peoples, aiming 
at the replacement of words, even internationally and quite 
regularly used words, by national expressions, often enough 
even at the cost of achieving the correct shading which 
alone makes for the wealth of a language. 

We are here faced with an essential error. This error 
consists in the widespread belief that by exchanging such a 
"foreign word," which is in reality very well known, with a 
new word in the national language, this own language is 
being enriched. A language can be enriched only by widening 
its scope of expression by new concepts or shadings of 
concepts, but not by the purely phonetic exchange of one 
word for another. Let us try and understand the real effect of 
such an exchange quite clearly. 

Actually, the result of such changes is merely that the 
relevant language is not in the least enriched, but the nation 
most essentially impoverished by having once more lost 
part of a means of communication with other peoples - in 
every case with the far, far greater part of humanity outside 
the special narrow national limits. 

Isolation is thus increased, and the natural repelling group 
instinct is strengthened on both sides by this socalled "puri- 
fication" of the language. 

I think it right to express this once for all, even if it brings 
the danger of being called an enemy by the diverse enthusi- 
astic defenders of linguistic purity among diverse nations, 
enthusiasts or fanatics who in every other respect may be 
quite excellent men or women. 

As such words as I refer to are generally known, the term 
"foreign" word is wrong, they are in truth "loan-words" or 
borrowed words, and this type of borrowing is probably the 
only one in the world which brings substantial interest to 
both giver and taker, loaner and borrower. 

306 



WAR OR PEACE -A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 

It is to be hoped that humanity will find its way through all 
these thickets to achieve a united and unifying language, 
existing, at least in the beginning, beside the national 
languages. It would indeed be an irreparable loss if the 
countless specific concepts existing in the individual 
languages, and which often enough are not even trans- 
latable by circumlocution, should be lost. 

But surely it is not too much to hope that such a second 
unifying language, supported by the growing contact 
between nations, should in time absorb the specific concepts 
of the individual languages and use adequate expressions 
for them, so that in the course of several or many generations 
for all civilized peoples with a high cultural level this second 
language may become the main one. 

We have already seen such examples if only on a small 
scale. The Scots and the English are two ethnically very 
dilfferent peoples who have a common mothertongue, 
certainly to the advantage of both. I do not believe that the 
Scots think otherwise. That the original popular language 
can go on being cherished, either from historical, sentimental 
or whatever reasons, is proved by the Gaelic Speech Circles. 

But what I wish to stress with all possible emphasis is that 
the first and decisive step in this direction towards a common 
language can and should originate with science. Every other 
way is impassable. 

Within biological science these endeavours have in the 
last two decades led to quite concrete attempts. In the first 
analysis they were not suggested by highflying and partly 
still utopistic thoughts about the development of mankind, 
the impulse for these attempts was and is the iron necessity, 
increasing every day to face the terrible threat to the single 
branches of science, inherent in their unlimited specialization. 

The urge towards synthesis in the biological sciences, the 
development of border sciences, and the urge towards a 
uniform language are all parallel functions of the fear of 
disaster, common to all far-seeing scientists. Today we have 

307 



EUROPAEUS 

learned that each single branch of science can also be split 
into its atoms - and this is the moment when we must do 
everything in our power to learn how to build up a new and 
better world by means of the vast forces at our disposal, for 
the good of humankind, and taking the constructive path of 
evolution. 

The knowledge that only devoted common work towards 
this goal gives any hope has already entered the minds of 
very many scientists in great measure; that the most im- 
portant tool for achieving this goal would be a common 
language is clear to all - but here we have many obstacles in 
our path still. 

Let us try and tackle the ungrateful task of seeing this 
complex of problems objectively. 

What we need is not so much an international language as 
a common intercontinental language. We have quite a 
number of international languages, that is such as are being 
spoken by different peoples (racially different peoples also) as 
their mothertongue. English, German, Russian, Spanish are 
some examples. On the other hand there are some conti- 
nental languages which are the mothertongues of a very 
much greater number of individuals than some of the 
international languages just mentioned, such as Russian or 
Chinese. 

From the viewpoint of scientific publications English, 
Russian, German and French probably head the list by far. 

If we try and balance all the necessary viewpoints one 
against the others objectively, we must approach the view 
that just at this moment the time has come to introduce the 
one language as a common international and inter-conti- 
nental one which we are used to call English. (See the Note 
at the end). The name is rather misleading, as the English 
People form only a tiny minority among the peoples 
speaking English as their mothertongue. 

Furthermore, this language is the mothertongue or at 
least the speech of about 250 million people - but that is of 

308 



WAR OR PEACE -A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 

less importance. What gives weight to the proposal to 
make use of this tongue is the fact, that already it is the means 
of scientific and political communication between the most 
diverse nations in all continents. It is significant, for instance, 
that the first Panasiatic Conference, mostly covered by 
delegates of anti-British peoples, had to choose English as 
the only possible language of the meeting. 

It is true that imponderables no less than certain power- 
political interests from different sides weigh in the balance 
against this solution. I am not thinking merely of the Russian 
sphere of power. The great endeavours and achievements of 
the Russianspeaking nations in all fields including the one 
which for us is objectively the decisive one - that of scientific 
literature - make it imperative that Russian together with 
French and German should be used as the objectively justi- 
fied languages beside English, as far as science is concerned. 

I am convinced that it will be possible to find, at least for 
a certain time of transition, a compromise, arrived at in a 
general discussion, of a kind that will obviate any possible 
Russian umbrage. When we enter these discussions, let us 
always remember: there can scarcely be anything more con- 
ductive to peace than having such a common tongue as a means 
of understanding each other. And itis in thissphere thatscience 
more than anything else is fit to become the vanguard. 

At all the coming congresses and meetings, not only 
within but also beyond UNESCO, the problem of a common 
language must be brought to a solution as soon as may be. 

It is the greatest service that science can do to mankind, and no discovery 
or invention, be it what it may, can come near this step in its importance. 

At the beginning of these remarks we set up a sort of plan, 
a parallelogram of four psychological groups of forces, two 
of which are pulling mankind in a negative direction, two in 
a positive one. 

The negative forces were : 

a) The negative instincts (f.i. atavistic sadism, or the fighting 
instinct of the male, or the repelling group instinct 

309 



EUROPAEUS 

common to all creatures, etc. etc.). Once these urges are 
realized to be biologic in nature, it is not very difficult to 
defeat or to change them. 

b) The negatively directed conscious volition, finding its ex- 
pression in certain power-political endeavours, or in 
business vested interests. - It needs to control the three 
other groups, before it can achieve its aims. 
The positive forces mentioned were: 

a) The positive instincts such as the self-preservative group 
instinct which comprises within itself many good instincts, 
f.i. the mother instinct, the urge to help and the satis- 
faction gained from such help. - The thirst for knowledge 
which must be guided in the right direction and others. 

b) The positively directed conscious volition, which after 
the First World War led to the setting-up of the League of 
Nations and after the second to the foundation of UNO 
and its Specialized Agencies. 

This volition, as far as an outsider can judge, seems to be 
the basic concept of the great statesmen of the West as of the 
East, even if single factors some times seem to contradict this; 
and it is also the foundation for the different planning 
schemes on a vast scale which are approaching concrete 
realization. 

This parallelogram of forces can only be changed so that its 
resultant leads to the positive goal with certainty, if we, that 
is the scientists and especially the biologists, are filled with 
this urgent volition in the positive direction. 

It is we who have the duty of knowing these instincts for 
what they are, it is we who must show the way to master 
them, and above all it is we who must in common endeavour, 
as a sort of giant symposion, try to seek and to find the way 
to such productivity on earth that all men of today - and of 
tomorrow even more - should be warranted a life of con- 
tentment: Free to think, free to believe, free of need, and free 
of fear. 

The politicians can do no more than aid by providing the 

310 



WAR OR PEACE -A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 

means for reaching this goal. It is the biological problem of the 
present and of the future, to create the foundations for 
making this possible. 

It is our guilt that in the past it was not so. 

And here I must refer to the wonderful manifesto of VER- 
DOORN'S (Scientific Fiasco, Chron. Bot. V: 325), written at the 
time when the war began, in 1939 (!), a trumpet call which 
sparked in so many of us the understanding that we, the 
biologists, bear so great a part of the guilt - the guilt that such 
a war could begin at such a time. 

We kept well away from all key positions, leaving the 
solution of biological problems to the politicians. And our 
guilt is not lessened by the fact that we failed to make the 
politicians understand how the problems before them were 
biological, simply because we ourselves did not see this clearly. 

That a politician can solve a biological problem only in an 
amateurish way is a matter of course, and nobody can 
reproach him with it. The tragic moment lies in the fact that 
these problems involved the fate of nations, and that they 
hold within themselves the development towards war or 
peace. 

In a little article written during the Second War (Chron. 
Bot. IX: 86) the attempt was made by H. BOYKO to show a 
passable way for realizing the thoughts contained in VER- 
DOORN'S manifesto in sober fact. The article suggested that by 
slow stages an international organization for a certain 
biological purpose (The International Network of Plant- 
sociological (= ecological) Stations) should gradually be 
changed into an organization of all the scientists of all the 
world. Its leading motive should be work on world-wide 
biological problems, problems which could only be solved 
by the common work of all, which would prove to be a means 
joining and uniting the peoples of the world, and which 
would be furthered and aided by the emotional and tense 
interest of all members of civilized nations. It would mean the 
creation of a symposium on a world-wide scale. 



311 



EUROPAEUS 

What at the time was supposed to take many decades to 
mature, is now in process of becoming reality through the 
conscious volition of many people thinking as one. 

BOYKO himself began to organize the cooperative work on 
such a problem: Arid Zone Research with the aim of pro- 
ductivizing the deserts. (General Assembly of IUBS, Amster- 
dam 1947). The result was a symposium on these problems in 
the framework of IUBS and a proposal of the Indian Govern- 
ment to Unesco, to erect a Central Institute for this line of 
research. The proposals led gradually to the great "Arid 
Zone Project" of UNESCO, now carried out in close cooper- 
ation with the other Specialized Agencies of UNO and many 
of the adhering countries. 

A few years after these proposals the big plan of a global 
"Geo-physical Year" was proposed and carried out with 
great devotion of many hundreds of scientists from West 
and East as well. The possibility of a wholehearted global 
cooperation in the fields of science to the advantage of all 
humanity has been proved by this beyond any doubt. 

However, we should do wrong to underestimate the 
forces ranged against us. Still today there already exist 
statesmen who see with the eye of the biologist, and biolo- 
gists with statesmanlike qualities, and when the words 
scientific planning are pronounced, even such statesmen will 
support it as are in other respects still far removed from 
regarding things with the biologist's eye. 

Our task today is the education - including the education 
of statesmen - of the world towards this understanding, and 
above all - the example. 

Let us create as swiftly as possible the organizatory carrying 
out of certain biological tasks of great importance and 
general interest. Let us see to it that the world takes part in 
our work, sharing not only our successes but also our 
failures, which also will be of educational value. Not in terror 
of its result - as was the case with the atombomb - but in 
hopes of a better future. Many of us are deeply concerned 

312 



WAR OR PEACE -A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 

with problems of vital importance for all planned develop- 
ment, or of interest for all. The great majority of men is most 
sensitive to our scientific researchwork and eager for 
scientific knowledge in general, most of all for natural 
science. 

I am convinced - and I am not the first to give utterance to 
this conviction - that for instance the problem of cancer 
would have been solved long ago if as much centralized 
energy and means could have been used for it as has been put 
at the disposal of the atombomb problem. Other examples 
are the problems of the function of brain cells, produc- 
tivizing the deserts, control of the treasures in the oceans 
(including breeding instead of mere fishing), irrigation with 
Seawater, and so on. 

Each of us will readily have other examples of the kind at 
disposal. Let us begin and work! Let us give the example! 

First of all let us create the common language, at the be- 
ginning for the use of science. Having achieved this, we shall 
see that the speed of air traffic and its increasing density will 
make it the common language for all civilized peoples, as 
their second tongue in use beside the mothertongue. 

Let us comprehend, ourselves, first of all, the decisive im- 
portance of biology for the development of mankind, in the 
positive direction, in the direction towards peace, in the 
direction away from war, and we shall, working together, 
have the strength to transmit this comprehension to the 
others. 

Let us subordinate ourselves voluntarily to an objective, 
global organizational instrument which has this object in 
view, as an universal World Academy of Science. 

Let us do this and we shall reach our goal more quickly 
than we ever dreamed of. 

It is the goal recognized by all the great religions, by all the 
great philosophers, by all the great statesmen as the only one 
truly worth striving for. 

It is for us scientists, and especially us, the biologists, to 

313 



EUROPAEUS 



point the way. That it has taken us so long to see the scientific 
possibilities for it, is our paltriness ; that we can see them today, 
our greatness. 



APPENDIX 

I have tried to achieve as objective a scale of priorities as is 
possible, by evaluating the most important criteria of such a 
common scientific language in points. The result is given 
in the following table. Some people may wonder at my 
including the Bantu language. At this moment in time such 
a wonder may still have its justification, but we should not 
disregard the extremely swift development taking place in 
Africa. 

It might be a good beginning, if every scientist would 
write down such a table, trying to be as objective as is human- 
ly possible. 

The author would be grateful to compare many such 
tables with his own, in order to diminish its natural subjec- 
tive weakness. 

Letters to the author should be sent c/o Dr. W. Junk 
Publishers, 13, van Stolkweg, The Hague, The Netherlands. 

314 



WAR OR PEACE -A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 





"oS 


n> 


u 

s 


"8 

*TJ 
Jit 


WSUII, 


^ ti 


1 


a 


! 


X 


S 






& 


1 




<JJ 


d(-d 
c/5 fl 


U 


1 


L 


1 




International 


(1-5) 


5 


5 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


Inter-continental 


(1-5) 


5 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


Inter-racial 


(1-5) 


5 


4 


3 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Mothertongue (each 
























100 million and part 
























of one hundred = 
























i point) 




4 


1 


3 


2 


2 


6 


1 


2 


2 


2 


Highly developed as 
























scientific language 


(1-5) 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


1 


1 


Highly developed as 
























script 


(1-5) 


3 


5 


4 


5 


5 


2 


5 


2 


2 


1 


Scientific publications 


(1-5) 


5 


3 


4 


4 


3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


Scientific abstracts 


(1-5) 


5 


4 


5 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


Tradition as scientific 














x 










language 


(1-5) 


5 


5 


3 


4 


4 


5 


4 


3 


1 


1 






42 


36 


32 


30 


30 


27 


24 


20 


14 


12 



The priority list thus shows the result: - 



English 

French 

Russian 

German 

.Spanish 



42 points 

36 

32 

30 

30 



Chinese 

Italian 

Japanese 

Malay 

Bantu 



27 points 

24 

20 

14 

12 



According to this list we should, during the time of trans- 
ition, teach -apart of the mothertongue- English and French 
and maybe later only one of them, for the full time of study 
(fifteen years), and use them as the only authoritative 
language(s). Summaries in one of the two international 
languages should be added even to those scientific papers 
which are only of limited local significance, and therefore 
written in the respective national language. 

i. I tried also to evaluate Latin by this point-method and came to the rather high 
figure of 30 (5, 5, 5, o, 3, 5, 2, i, 4). I did, however, not include it in the table, because, 
during the last hundred years Latin has lagged far behind the development of 
science and even more so of technology. It could, however, be included for more 
or less political reasons as a completely neutral language; but in this case a much 
longer transition period will have to be allowed in order to achieve a better lin- 
guistic adaptation to modern science, and modern civilization and culture in 
general. 



315 



Science and Modem Civilization 



by 

I. BERENBLUM 



Unlike the slow biological evolution of animal species, 
measured in terms of millions of years, the phenomenal 
progress of human civilization, from primitive society to 
modern times, covers little more than six thousand years. 
This is all the more impressive when one remembers how 
erratic the course of human progress has been, with centuries 
of almost imperceptible change punctuated by intermittent 
periods of violent social upheavals. 

Yet, to imagine each upheaval as an unfortunate set-back 
in an otherwise progressive trend, would be too superficial 
an interpretation of history. More often than not, such an 
upheaval was the climax of a fundamental conflict between 
the old and the new - a conflict that arose from the impact of 
a revolutionary idea upon a previously stable society. 
Whether the ' 'revolutionary idea" took the form of a change 
in man's mode of life (e.g. from the nomadic to the settled 
state through the introduction of land cultivation), or a new 
foundation for religious belief (such as the Jewish concept 
of monotheism or the advent of Christianity), a new method 
of disseminating knowledge (with the discovery of written 
language or, later, of the printing press), or a new standard 
of human values (as in the formulation of the equality of 
human rights), it usually led to a new level of civilization, 
however disturbing its effects may have been at the time. The 

317 



I. BEHENBLUM 

emergence of twentieth century civilization owes more to 
the catalytic effects of these rare germinal ideas than to any 
sustained efforts at improving human society. 

In the light of this, how is one to interpret the instability of 
our present civilization? Is it another example of "a conflict 
between the old and the new," and, therefore, a necessary 
step in the forward march of civilization, with science 
acting this time as the catalyst or revolutionary idea? Or is the 
world actually on the verge of a catastrophic retrogression 
which humanity may not be able to survive? 

Whatever the answer to this question may be, there seems 
little doubt that the rapid growth of science is closely con- 
nected with the problem. A dispassionate assessment of its 
scope and influence should, therefore, help us to understand 
what is happening to our civilization. 

Based on ancient principles of logic, and fostered for 
centuries in the restricted fields of mathematics and as- 
tronomy, the "scientific method" received its first effective 
opportunity at about the time of the Italian Renaissance. 
Since then, the waning influence of medieval mysticism, the 
rapid diffusion of knowledge through the introduction of 
printing, and the social and political changes associated with 
the French Revolution, all contributed towards its coming of 
age. Not until a century ago, however, did science really 
begin to impose itself on the varied aspects of human activity, 
the Industrial Revolution being but the outward manifes- 
tation of man's acceptance of science as a guiding force in 
human affairs. 

Being in the midst of this period of phenomenal progress of 
scientific achievement, we are rather apt to make a distorted 
evaluation of the advances, and perhaps to lay undue 
emphasis on the practical applications of science. 

We see the amazing speed and efficiency of travel by land, 
sea and air, the intricate mechanization of industry, with the 
harnessing of various forms of energy for elaborate systems of 
heating, lighting, and power; the improved utilization of 

318 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

mineral and vegetable resources of the soil, with advances in 
breeding of livestock, perfection in methods of cultivating 
the land, and exploitation of the chemical riches of the earth, 
the prevention and cure of diseases previously responsible 
for untold suffering, and the control of epidemics which, in 
the past, used to ravage the world, and a thousand and one 
other examples by which the hardship of life has been 
overcome, and nature's wealth brought to the service of 
man. 

But the wonders of science are by no means restricted to 
these practical applications. Behind the facade of hydro- 
electric plants and ocean liners, of airoplanes and submarines, 
of films and television, of penicillin and D.D.T., lies the realm 
of fundamental research, inspired, partly at least, by the 
disinterested search for knowledge. This basic kind of scien- 
tific pursuit has led to a prodigious expansion of our 
knowledge of inanimate matter and a growing understanding 
of the intricate functioning of life itself. 

To be able to estimate the weight of a planet millions of 
miles away, or measure the infinitesimally small distances 
between the invisible atoms in a molecule, to have the 
means of analysing the chemical composition of a distant 
star, or mapping out the positions of the genes within the 
chromosomes of a microscopic living cell, to "see" in total 
darkness, and to "hear" across oceans, to determine the age 
of a fossil millions of years old, or to predict the existence of a 
new chemical element prior to its discovery, to be able to 
count single electrons, or to comprehend the laws governing 
heredity, these are indeed achievements which our 
forefathers would have deemed miraculous. And with it all 
has now come the discovery of nuclear energy, making 
available for man's use tremendous sources of power which, 
for billions of years, have remained confined within the 
atom. 

The conquest of nature, once an idle dream, has now 
become almost an understatement. 

319 



L BERENBLUM 

Few people take the trouble to ask themselves how it is 
that after thousands of years of futile endeavour to gain 
control over our surroundings, success should suddenly 
have become so readily available, and that the rate of progress 
should have become so rapid. There is, after all, no evidence 
to suggest that the capacity of the human mind has increased 
in the last few centuries, or that individuals of genius are 
being bred in greater numbers now than in the past. Yet man 
now performs acts and acquires knowledge altogether 
debarred from previous generations. 

The truth of the matter is that the perfection, as mani- 
fested by modern scientific achievements, lies not in any 
change in man himself, but in the new technique he has 
adopted - the scientific method of approach. Without its use, men of 
even outstanding ability found themselves incapable of 
solving the most elementary problems concerning the 
material universe; but with the aid of the scientific method 
of approach, .progress is possible for all who care to make 
the effort, while in the hands of a genius, the scientific 
method acquires almost the properties of a magic wand. 

In short, the "scientific method" is nothing more nor less 
than a mental tool of exceptional efficiency. 

But is efficiency enough? Does it necessarily follow that 
the ever-increasing rate at which discoveries are being made 
must inevitably increase human happiness, or enable man to 
live a fuller life, or lead to a commensurate advancement in 
human civilization? On this point, opinion is divided. 

There are those who blame science for all the evils of 
modern society and fear that the exploitation of the 
knowledge thus acquired must inevitably lead to disaster. 
They believe that science carries the germ of its own de- 
struction, and that the material comforts and benefits it 
provides are obtained at the expense of all the finer qualities 
of our past civilization, tending to destroy the spiritual and 
religious heritage of man, arrest his aesthetic achievements, 
and undermine his morality. How, they argue, can science 

320 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

be identified with human progress if, in mastering and 
dominating the world, it destroys humanity itself? Those 
who hold this pessimistic view look back nostalgically to the 
more leisurely way of life which, with all its faults, was able to 
satisfy man for thousands of years, and to provide a measure 
of spiritual peace altogether lacking in contemporary 
civilization. 

There are others, however, who take the opposite view. 
Science is, to them, neither good nor evil, but merely a 
method of approach that can be used for either purpose 
according to man's desire. To blame science for the evils of 
modern society is, to their way of thinking, reminiscent of the 
child's urge to smack the table against which he has hurt 
himself. They see in the continued application of science 
great possibilities for constructive effort, with undreamt of 
benefits to mankind. They are fully aware of the disturbing 
influence science is having at the present time, but they 
interpret this as a transition phase in the gradual establish- 
ment of the truly scientific age. They have faith in man's 
ability to weather the storm inherent in the present conflict, 
and foresee the time when man will emerge triumphant, 
with the creation of a new civilization that will be as far 
ahead of the pre-scientific era of a few centuries ago as the 
latter was ahead of the primitive society of our cave-dwelling 
ancestors. 

When two diametrically opposite views are presented for 
dispassionate appraisal, each supported by, what appears to 
be, quite convincing arguments, one is tempted to conclude 
that some essential factor has been missed, or intentionally 
ignored, by both sides. 

What, in fact, is the potential limit of scientific 
achievement? To answer this requires an understanding of 
the nature and scope of the technique employed: - the 
scientific method. 

In essence, the scientific method is very simple: - It is, first, 
to ask one question at a time, for only then can the answer 

321 



I. BERENBLUM 

be free from ambiguity ; secondly, to rely on precise data, and 
where these cannot be acquired by simple observation, to 
devise experiments for eliciting the information; and thirdly, 
since the human mind finds it difficult to assess shades of 
inferences, to insist on quantitative rather than qualitative 
values, obtained, if possible, by objective recordings. (The 
simplicity of the scientific method is, in a way, deceptive, 
since it requires great self-discipline to frame problems in 
such a way that only one question is asked at a time; it calls 
for considerable ingenuity to plan appropriate experiments 
for eliciting reliable data; and it needs long training and 
experience to obtain accurately recorded quantitative data. 
Nevertheless, in essence, the scientific method is remarkably 
simple,) 

This is the whole secret of the efficiency of science as a 
tool for the search for knowledge. But herein also lies its 
limitations: - For, clearly, not all human problems lend 
themselves to quantitative treatment, nor can they all be 
resolved into single questions. Indeed, the division of human 
preoccupations into material and spiritual spheres, roughly 
correspond to the human problems that can, and those that 
cannot, be readily solved by the application of the scientific 
method. 

Such spiritual values as ethics and morality, the constant 
striving for intellectual and aesthetic achievement, the 
passionate desire to fathom the purpose of man's existence, 
and the elusive search for lasting happiness have always 
served as the corner-stones of human endeavour in the 
progress of civilization. For thousands of years, man has been 
grappling with these spiritual problems; and though 
progress in this search has been slow, it has at least kept pace 
with progress in the material sphere, that is to say, in the 
fight for physical survival against the forces of nature, and 
the attempt to husband these forces for man's particular 
needs. 

The situation has now changed. With the application of the 

322 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

scientific method for the solution of man's material problems, 
his mastery over the elements has developed with prodigious 
speed, leaving his spiritual values more or less where they 
were. His power over the universe has outstripped his under- 
standing of himself. 

Here lies one of the major causes of conflict, or disharmony 
of contemporary civilization for which a solution is so 
feverishly being sought. The fault of the disharmony is not 
with the scientific method, which has contributed all that 
could be expected of it, but with the fact that the human 
mind has so far failed to devise a "mental tool" of comparable 
efficiency, suitable for the solution of man's spiritual 
problems. 

Having reached this disquieting conclusion, the first 
inclination might be to call a halt to scientific progress - a 
moratorium for, say, a century, by which time man may 
have discovered the means of solving some of his other 
problems, so that the fruits of science could then be inte- 
grated in harmony with his inner, spiritual life, in the true 
march of progress. 

Little attention need be paid to this proposition, for it is a 
counsel of despair, as impractical as it is illogical. It would be 
a denial of freedom of thought and the negation of progress - 
the blaming of what is potentially good, for the stupidity of 
those who prostitute it to base purposes. It presupposes that 
man, having once savoured perfection in the method of 
searching for the truth, would willingly abandon it in the 
interest of an abstraction of dubious value. 

Finally, since restrictive measures of this sort would only be 
obeyed by honest men (whose use of science is calculated 
to be for the benefit of mankind), while the more unscrupu- 
lous and dishonest would secretly continue to exploit its use 
for evil purposes, the policy would actually increase the very 
instability which the measure seeks to eradicate. 

An alternative approach would be to look towards science 
itself for a solution. If the scientific method is indeed so 

323 



I. BERENBLUM 

efficient a mental tool for the solution of material problems, 
could it not be adapted in some way for the solution of 
spiritual problems ? Are there not, in fact, examples of the 
successful application of scientific principles to problems 
that are too complex to be resolved into single questions, or 
which do not lend themselves to quantitative treatment? 

The answer to this is partly in the affirmative, and this 
might, at first sight, offer a ray of hope. The study of the 
mechanism of mental activity is just such a problem, and it 
must be admitted that the application of scientific methods 
to this problem has met with at least partial success, from 
two different directions. 

PAVLOV made a serious attempt to apply the scientific 
method to the study of mental processes. Realizing the need 
for a quantitative approach, he sought for the unit of mental 
activity, and this he achieved in his brilliant discovery of the 
"conditioned reflex." From simple mental processes in dogs, 
involving single conditioned reflexes, he passed on to 
somewhat more complicated mental processes in dogs, and 
hoped finally to probe into the elaborate workings of the 
human mind. However, the success of his experiments is 
destined, in all probability, to remain a tour de force, with no 
prospect of extension to the realm of complicated thought. 
The reason for this is that, in insisting on the use of rigid 
scientific principles, he was aiming at the impossible; for 
while succeeding in bringing mental activity down to a 
quantitative level, he was unable to achieve the other es- 
sential of scientific study, namely, of reducing every problem 
to the level where there is only one variable to be investi- 
gated at a time. 

FREUD'S approach was different. He accepted the fact that 
the human mind was far too complex and dynamic to be 
approached by exacting scientific principles; and instead of 
trying to simplify the mind in order that the scientific method 
could be rigidly applied to it, he modified the scientific 
approach itself. If PAVLOV'S was the synthetic approach (ie. 

324 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

starting from the simplest unit of mental activity, and 
working upwards), FREUD'S, on the contrary, was the ana- 
lytical approach (i.e. starting from the most complex - the 
behaviour and emotions of the adult who has failed to fit 
into his elaborate surroundings - and working downwards.) 
The "science" in FREUD'S approach consisted simply of the 
recognition and use of observation for the acquisition of data, 
freed from the thoughts and feelings of the observer. It 
had, surprisingly enough, never before occurred to anyone 
that this could only be achieved if the observer succeeded in 
ridding himself of the role of judge or moralist, of healer or 
confessor. 

Naturally, FREUD'S method lacked precision. It dealt with 
intricate complexities in apparent confusion, not amenable 
to quantitative treatment. All the same, his method proved 
more successful in analysing mental activity than anything 
previously attempted, and led to the momentous discovery 
of the existence and significance of the subconscious mind - 
that mental process, determined by forgotten experiences, 
which unconsciously influenced most of our irrational, and 
even of some of our rational, behaviour. 

Two lines of criticism might be levelled against Freudian 
psychology, in so far as it affects the subject under discussion: 
- first that psychoanalysis achieves, at best, the eradication 
of a subconscious conflict, without any attempt at putting 
anything positive in its place and secondly, that psychology 
is essentially a study of the isolated individual, while the 
major problems of contemporary civilization are concerned 
with integrated society as a whole. 

As regards the first criticism, it must be admitted, that, as 
a therapeutic measure, psychoanalysis has this negative function 
of eradicating undesirable conflicts. However, the knowledge 
thus acquired ultimately makes it possible to avoid some of 
these conflicts from ever arising, through sounder principles 
of parental care and educational upbringing of children, and 
through a more sympathetic awareness of the causes and 

325 



I. BERENBLUM 

origins of troubles in adult human relationships. In this sense, 
at least, psychology should, in time, be able to contribute 
towards the creation of a more stable society. 

As for the second criticism - that psychology is essentially a 
study of isolated individuals - one must remember that the 
same semi-scientific principles that proved so effective in the 
psychoanalysis of the individual, can be, and are being, 
applied to integrated groups and whole societies as well. 
Social anthropology is to the community what psychology 
is to the individual. It, too, is based on dispassionate analysis 
and observation, aiming to discover the deeply rooted, 
subconscious motives that determine the collective behaviour 
patterns of integrated societies. 

It is, perhaps, too early to assess the efficacy of these new 
methods of study, or to judge the full scope of the impact 
of the knowledge thus acquired in the reshaping of the 
collective character of a society. Social anthropology is, as 
yet, a very young subject, and still suffers from many of the 
crudities of an immature science. However, there are already 
sufficient indications to show what far-reaching results may 
be obtained from a scientific study of the habits, customs, 
religious observances, methods of education, etc., of past and 
present civilizations. If this were, indeed, to provide a deeper 
understanding of the origins and developments of specific 
patterns of collective behaviour (and that is, after all, what 
we niean by "civilizations") it should theoretically enable 
future societies to reshape their own civilizations at will into 
any desired mould. 

Whether such a society would, in fact, make the necessary 
effort to reshape its collective pattern of living, is another 
matter. This brings us to the core of the problem. While a 
correct evaluation of history may provide an understanding 
of the developmental errors of an unstable society, and while 
the fruits of psychology, anthropology and other social 
sciences, may show the way to alter the existing pattern of 
society, it does not necessarily follow that mankind would be 

326 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

ready to execute the changes called-for and accept all the 
consequences involved. Science may be able to show the way, 
but other human attributes and qualities must serve as 
motives. 

Earlier, in dealing with the limitations of the scientific 
method, it was pointed out that, broadly speaking, the 
division between material and spiritual spheres of human 
preoccupations roughly correspond to the human problems 
that can, and those that cannot, be readily solved by the 
application of the scientific method. We now perceive 
another, and more fundamental, limitation: science can only 
serve as a method, not as a motive or inspiration of human 
activity. The fruits of science may serve as a stimulus for 
further endeavour; the habit of scientific thinking may seep 
into our daily lives and influence our thinking in other 
spheres; but even the best of methods is useless if misapplied, 
or not applied at all. 

What, then, should serve as the motive force? A return to 
religion? Or some political philosophy? Or, perhaps, a new 
ethical principle that may emerge spontaneously as a conse- 
quence of the continued spread of culture? 

Before even attempting to answer this important question, 
one must try (i) to understand why it is that religion is no 
longer a dominant influence in human affairs today, and (2) 
to evaluate the function and limitations of political philoso- 
phy as an inspirational force. 

Faith is the basis of religion; reason is the underlying 
principle of science. When faith is artificially bolstered by 
false reasoning, or when reason is irrationally circumscribed 
by faith, chaos and confusion is the inevitable consequence. 

To people who have become accustomed to dispassionate 
appraisal of evidence and to the habit of scientific thought, 
the rigid dogmas and creeds of established religions must 
inevitably lose their hold, especially if they obliterate, in 
time, the underlying ethical principles on which such 
religions were initially founded. Moreover, the biblical 

327 



I. BERENBLUM 

account of the Creation, the succession of miracles that defy 
the normal laws of nature, and the anthropomorphic 
conception of God and his ministering angels, however 
attractive they may be as poetry or allegory, cannot much 
longer be expected to serve as the foundation of man's belief. 

That is not to say that there is necessarily a conflict between 
science, and a belief in a divinity that can serve as an inspi- 
ration to higher ethical ideals. On the contrary, in helping to 
dispose of the artificial encumbrances of existing religions, 
science may even contribute towards a reawakening of a 
pure religious belief. SPINOZA saw this clearly enough three 
hundred years ago. But meanwhile, there is little evidence of 
the emergence of a worldwide religious revival which could 
serve as a powerful force in directing the future progress of 
civilization. 

Without wishing to draw too close a parallel, it may be 
said that, in a sense, political movements play the part today 
that established religions did in former times. Political theory 
calls for selfless devotion to the betterment of mankind in the 
name of justice and ethical idealism; but it can, in time, also 
become an object of blind worship, divorced from its initial 
moral values, impervious to logical reasoning, and tyranni- 
cal in its demands. Indeed, in the course of time, as the moral 
principles underlying a political philosophy become for- 
gotten by its adherents, or wilfully abused by its leaders, 
rational thought becomes replaced by fears and hatreds in a 
spirit of prejudice. 

One must not, however, fall into the error of condemning 
political philosophy on the grounds that it lends itself to 
abuse, any more than one is prepared to deny the benefits of 
science because of its potential misapplication for evil and 
destruction, or to condemn sincere religious belief because 
it has so often been debased in the past. Political theory, as a 
potential force in directing civilization, must be judged on its 
merits. 

We are, of course, not dealing here with political phi- 

328 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

losophy in general, but only with the contemporary patterns 
and even here, we are not so much concerned with the po- 
litical creeds of the opposing systems, as with the features they 
have in common, as an index of man's political aims in contempo- 
rary society. 

The existence of such a common denominator is apparent 
from the extent to which Marxian principles intrude in the 
political thinking of even the most conservative upholders of 
capitalistic societies and conversely, from the degree to which 
socialistic and even communistic societies accept some of the 
most cherished principles of capitalism as necessary tech- 
niques in the government of a modern State. 

This common denominator stems from a blend of 
eighteenth century liberalism and the Marxian materialistic 
concept which equates human happiness with freedom from 
hunger and want. The principle of eighteenth century 
liberalism, aiming at individual freedom and suffrage, has 
become so deeply ingrained in contemporary society that 
even a modern dictator finds himself obliged to pay lip 
service to it, while attempting, in fact, to destroy it. The 
Marxian emphasis on freedom from hunger and want as 
almost the sole function of human striving, is also becoming accepted 
as if it were an axiomatic truth. 

No rational person would deny that hunger and want 
must be eradicated, and that the individual in a civilized 
society must be given as much freedom as possible to ex- 
press his thoughts and desires in shaping its affairs. But that 
is no more a recipe for a civilized society than to say that an 
adequate supply of air is the means for maintaining the com- 
plete health of an individual. Man may live in luxury and 
exercise his voting rights at elections, and yet be acutely 
unhappy. 

All the same, serious attention must be given to the 
practical question of the physical needs of mankind. History 
has ceased to be an account of Machiavellian rulers and of 
battles. We know, for instance, that more casualties have 

329 



I. BERENBLUM 

been suffered through typhus and other epidemics than by 
actual warfare; and that the results of victorious wars have 
more often been determined by failures of food crops than 
by decisions at Peace Conferences. It needs but-a slight change 
in the statistical ratio between birth-rate and death-rate to 
cause, in less than a century, a complete change in the face 
of a whole continent, regardless of political movements or 
national aspirations. 

While birth-rates and death-rates, food supplies and 
epidemics, have, in the past, been left to chance and the Will 
of God, these are now factors amenable to scientific controL 
The population of the world is increasing at quite an 
alarming rate; but given the chance, science could cope with 
the resulting increased demand for food supply. The inequi- 
table distribution of the available food throughout the world 
has led to mass starvation in some areas and overabundance 
in others. The solution of this fantastic situation could also 
be achieved by science, if it were not complicated by political 
issues. The population can itself be checked by birth-control. 

One is, in fact, confronted again and again with the propo- 
sition, mentioned above, that while most of the formidable 
problems of contemporary civilization are potentially 
soluble by the application of science, the motive that would 
drive society to achieve the desired objectives lies within man 
himself. 

It is, perhaps, in this direction that contemporary civili- 
zation is most in need of salvation. The spread of education 
has eradicated illiteracy in western society, but has, so far, 
failed to show how people can use their newly-acquired 
literacy to appraise their knowledge in a logical and 
unemotional fashion. The failure of education lies in the 
sacrifice of quality and content for quantity. We pride 
ourselves that the percentage of illiteracy is continually 
falling, that the proportion of university graduates is con- 
tinually rising, and that the tonnage of printed matter read 
by the public is increasing at a prodigious rate. Yet learning is 

330 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

less and less respected for its own sake; the teaching pro- 
fession, in whosehands thesubsequentgenerationis moulded, 
stands low in the social hierarchy; and the average man is 
far more bewildered than his illiterate forefathers. The fault 
lies not with religion, politics, or science; it stems from a dis- 
torted sense of values. 

We have developed a thirst for facts and figures, but not an 
appreciation of their value and significance. We no longer 
prize creative achievement; we only worship success. The art 
of memorizing and the quoting of statistics have become a 
lazy substitute for thinking: arguments are pigeonholed and 
people are branded by the use of catch-phrases ("bourgeois/ 5 
"decadent," "reds") instead of being judged on their merits. 
While the practical fruits of man's achievements are becoming 
more and more abundant, human relationships continue to 
deteriorate. Race-hatred and other forms of intolerance 
continue, despite our progress in civilization, and though the 
targets change from time to time, the evil grows in intensity. 
People are learning to get on with one another individually, 
but more and more to hate, each other collectively. 

This is the sorry state of contemporary civilization in its 
spiritual spheres, and the blame must be laid on the edu- 
cational system we have chosen, using "education" in its 
widest sense as the model of society we encourage our next generation to 
adopt. It is here that science may, after all, save civilization - 
not science as a profession, nor scientists as individuals, nor 
even the fruits of science, with the material benefits they 
may provide for mankind, but the scientific method, applied to all 
walks of life. 

The world is torn by opposing ideologies of socialism and 
capitalism, each claiming that it can bring peace, happiness 
and prosperity to mankind. Assessing the relative merits of 
these two rival claims is surely a matter for scientific analysis, 
-and not for decision by threat of warfare. Either of these two 
opposing ideologies may be maintained by authoritarian or 
democratic means. These are essentially techniques (as 



331 



SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 

distinct from the ideologies they happen to sponsor), and as 
techniques, they can also be evaluated by an analysis of the 
evidence, free from preconceived notions. 

In the past, man was very conscious of the enormity of the 
universe and of his own relative insignificance in relation to 
it. He, therefore, held on to tradition for his stability; and 
when faced with problems that were beyond him, he turned 
to a supernatural source for inspiration and guidance. In 
more recent times, with all the scientific achievements 
affecting the material universe, man acquired a certain 
degree of emancipation and self-reliance: he no longer felt 
the need to propitiate an angry deity when confronted with 
calamities that were now explicable by scientific laws of 
nature. Yet his uncertainty persisted, as manifested, at 
moments of stress, by worship of human instead of super- 
human leadership and demagogy. The next stage in the 
development of civilization will have to be towards a more 
assured sense of collective self-reliance, man's destiny being 
controlled by his understanding of the problems that face 
him - freed from prejudice and hysteria, and from the ever- 
growing power of the propaganda machine. 

How will the change come about? No one can tell yet. 

With the growing disharmony of contemporary civili- 
zation, the collective will for survival will presumably play a 
part in stirring humanity out of its traditional grooves. But 
the spiritual "message" that will act as the motive force may 
prove as remote from religion or politics (as we understand 
them today) as the latter are from the tribal taboos of primi- 
tive societies. Until then, science will supposedly continue to 
add to the material comforts of man, while continuing to 
widen the gap between his growing prosperity and his 
diminishing peace of mind. 



332 



New Ways with Science as Leader 

by 
WILLEM CAREL DE LEEUW 



The interrelations which face terrestrial mankind today are 
chaotic: morally, sociologically, politically. No sincere 
thinker will deny this. Thousands of people in this fear- 
ridden world are trying today to find a way out, in order to 
provide happier conditions along many different lines, 
proposing many explanations and remedies - more or less 
strongly objectively coloured. The latter - in so far as mate- 
rialistic or emotional - by far the most - will bring only 
incidental, no lasting relief. However, they all concur herein, 
that man's environment is considered as not conducive to 
his well-being and that it demands fundamental im- 
provement; whereas it is now at least unsatisfactory, not to 
say fraught with danger and is threatening human existence. 

Where lies the cause of all this? Certainly not with Man's 
environment. It was the present and earlier generations, that 
brought it into being and the fault must lie with the creator, 
Man himself. His inner attitude has been wrong, being 
ignorant of his origin, his place and his task in the cosmic 
conditions in which he finds himself. The basis of all his 
activity on his habitat needs complete reformation or 
remoulding. 

The Universe in which terrestrial Man and his Globe have 
their place - and a very modest one at that - is one of integral 
Law and Order. No Law of Nature is autonomous or self- 

333 



ILLEM CAREL BE LEEUW 

sufficient. If this were the case, the Universe would not be a 
Kosmos, but a Chaos, or might at any moment become so. 
Man is part of this grand Whole. It is his duty to live in 
harmony with the gradual unfolding, the Evolution of it. 
This means submission to the lines of that Evolution, laid 
down at the beginning of every new manifestation of the 
Unique Unknown and Unknowable Reality, of which Law 
and Order are but the reflections on the phenomenal plane in 
each successive Universe. 

Now the great majority of men have not the slightest idea 
of such submission. They live egotistically, if not egocentri- 
cally, or extremely selfishly. They see themselves, not as 
humble cogs in the great cosmic machinery, but they place 
themselves autonomously or even antagonistically opposite 
of Nature. They consider it their right to subdue and exploit 
her to his needs (as "authorized" by Genesis i, 28). They 
thus create disturbance in the unfolding of the cosmic 
scheme. This has been going on on this Earth for countless 
ages, since manlike animal became a thinking, planning tyro, 
however stumbling. And the present global conditions are 
the accumulated outcome of this long-protracted mal- 
treatment of Nature and the violation of her Laws. Viewed 
from a spiritual point of view her resources have been wasted 
lately in a terrific, and accelerated tempo. 

If ever there should dawn improvement, this must start 
with Man's mutual relations, as well as those of Man with 
Nature, in the way of generating a profound change of human 
attitude. Man needs knowledge to bring about this change. 
Being of an intellectual nature his knowledge belongs to the 
realm of Science. It is to her, that we must look for help. The 
present Religion and Philosophy of the West are contem- 
plative and can not help directly in his remoulding of 
attitude; but they can do it indirectly, be it that they may 
benefit or even inspire Man's search after the causes of 
Man's present moral decline. It is ratiocinative intellect that 
rules this era and it appeals particularly to the modern man. 

334 



NEW WAYS WITH SCIENCE AS LEADER 

This is not contemplative, but in the first place extrovert. 
And this extroversion, followed by gestation and recon- 
sideration of present values is what man thinks he needs now. 

The omnipresent validity of Law and Order and their 
harmonious interrelation point to a final cosmic Unity of 
intellectual nature. This intellectuality is not of a shifting 
nature, progressive like human knowledge, but is established 
and its field laid down once and forever for every new 
cosmic manifestation. Hence there is Coherence, Unity in 
Nature. Only Man, with his unripe intellect, can disturb it, 
but only temporarily. If he continues his mistakes long 
enough, the evolutionary trend towards Unity will sweep 
him, individually or groupwise, away. Nations have gone out 
like a torch dipped in water. 

Lack of awareness of this Unity and its ethical conse- 
quences is the main cause of the present bewilderment. In 
our era of ratiocinative intellect it is, as said above, Science 
that is best capable of reaching the masses. The way of the 
mystic which leads as well to a realization of the Unity, is not 
effective for the average man of our time. Yet in millions of 
people, even in those who are not particularly religiously 
inclined, Unity is felt vaguely as an intuition - religious 
instinct, that lies at the root of all ethics. In this intuition lies 
the hope for salvation. 

It would mean a formidable step forward towards im- 
provement if the reality of Unity and its implications would 
gradually dawn on the inner life of Man. It would mean a 
deep change in the moral attitude of the many and bring 
about an outlook on life diametrically opposed to the 
present general way of life. Such men would view themselves 
as part of a great whole and feel their responsibilities towards 
their own Inner Life, toward Mankind and all Nature. 
Altruism need no longer be based on commandments, fear 
or emotions, however good, but would become to be viewed 
as a cosmic necessity. Having attained to this as a firm con- 
viction, Man's consciousness will then enable him to realize 

335 



WILLEM CAE.EL DE LEEUW 

and to live up to the bond which holds together all Nature 
and binds him to all, which compells to exercise his duty as a 
helper at the frontline of Evolution and assist in the ex- 
pression of its universal trend. 

By broadening and deepening its correlations to such extent, 
that Unity becomes manifest in all her departments, thus 
furnishing a final correlation, Science can give to the "World a 
coherent, intellectual expression to the prevailing intuition 
of Universal Unity. Science herself will also benefit greatly 
from that: from compartmental it will become unified. 
Scientists progress on the borderline of the human field of 
consciousness and in a unified science they will be compelled 
to keep, in postulating correlations, their inner views always 
directed towards the Centrum, from which Unity emanates. 
By combining induction and analysis with deduction and 
synthesis they will be able to detect and establish the validity of 
the Law of Unity throughout the Kosmos. No longer relying 
on the pseudo-reality of sensorial observation Science will 
become a whole: knowledge wedded to universal Philosophy 
and Ethics. Now the former is neglected; the latter com- 
pletely ignored. 

In the way in which more and more individuals realize the 
existence of Unity, as unveiled by Science, they will see the 
necessity not merely to value it as a mental conception, but 
to assimilate it in their inner life and then to turn outward and 
apply it in their behaviour. This then will be the initial effort 
towards Spiritual Evolution by trying to adopt altruistic 
standards. This means inner conflicts and they constitute 
the greatest of all wars, waged within Man's breast: two 
souls, as it were, in constant conflict, as GOETHE said. That 
evolution has become complete only in rare indivi- 
duals. 

It is Science, if well directed, that can call forth the initial 
effort towards it: a grand task indeed ! Its outcome will go far 
beyond the present certainly wonderful achievements of 
Science. It will provide a remodelling of the general way of 

336 



NEW WAYS WITH SCIENCE AS LEADER 

life. Many thinkers, revolting against mere lip-confession of 
ethics have tried in vain to establish the beginnings of a 
better world along emotional lines. Would Science try it in 

her way? 



337 



Per Aspera ad Astra l 

by 
BERTRAND RUSSELL 

CURRENT PERPLEXITIES 

The present time is one in which the prevailing mood is a 
feeling of impotent perplexity. We see ourselves drifting 
towards a war that hardly anyone desires - a war that, as we 
all know, must bring disaster to the great majority of 
mankind. But like a rabbit fascinated by a snake, we stare at 
the peril without knowing what to do to avert it We tell 
each other horror stories of atom bombs and hydrogen 
bombs, of cities exterminated, of Russian hordes, of famine 
and ferocity everywhere. But although our reason tells 
us we ought to shudder at such a prospect, there is another 
part of us that enjoys it, and so we have no firm will to avert 
misfortune, and there is a deep division in our souls between 
the sane and the insane parts. In quiet times the insane parts 
can slumber throughout the day and wake only at night. But 
in times like ours they invade our waking time as well, and 
all rational thinking becomes pale and divorced from the 

1. This article represents the main lines of the author's book: "New Hopes for a 
Changing World." 

The text has been put at our disposal by the author with the kind permission of 
the publishers George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London and Simon and Schuster Inc., 
New York. 

Earl BERTRAND R.USSELL is one of the first Chartermembers of the World Academy 
of Art and Science. 

339 



BERTRAND RUSSELL 

will. Our lives become balanced on a sharp edge of hypothe- 
sis - if there is to be a war one way of life is reasonable; if not, 
another. To the great majority of mankind such a hypo- 
thetical existence is intolerably uncomfortable, and in 
practice they adopt one hypothesis or the other, but without 
complete conviction. A youth who finds scholastic education 
boring will say to himself: "Why bother? I shall be killed in 
battle before long." A young woman who might live con- 
structively thinks to herself that she had better have a good 
time while she can since presently she will be raped by Rus- 
sian soldiery until she dies. Parents wonder whether the 
sacrifices called for by their children's upbringing are worth 
while since they are likely to prove futile. Those who are 
lucky enough to possess capital are apt to spend it on riotous 
living, since they foresee a catastrophic depreciation in which 
it would become worthless. In this way uncertainty baulks 
the impulse to every irksome effort, and generates a tone of 
frivolous misery mistakenly thought to be pleasure, which 
turns outward and becomes hatred of those who are felt to be 
its cause. Through this hatred it brings daily nearer the 
catastrophe which it dreads. The nations seem caught in a 
tragic fate, as though, like characters in a Greek drama, they 
were blinded by some offended god. Bewildered by mental 
fog, they march towards the precipice while they imagine 
that they are marching away from it. 

It must be said that the purely intellectual problems 
presented by the world of our day are exceedingly difficult. 
There is not only the great problem: can we defend our 
Western world without actual war? There are also problems 
in Asia and problems in Africa and problems in tropical 
America which cannot be solved within the framework of 
the traditional political ideas. There are those, it is true, who 
are quite certain that they can solve these problems by 
ancient methods. One of the painful things about our time is 
that those who feel certainty are stupid, and those with any 
imagination and understanding are filled with doubt and 

340 



PER ASPERA AD ASTRA 

indecision. I do not think this is necessary. I think there is a 
view of man and his destiny and his present troubles which 
can give certainty and hope together with the completest 
understanding of the moods, the despairs and the maddening 
doubts that beset modern men. It is my hope to set forth 
such an outlook in the following pages in a way that shall be 
convincing and overwhelmingly encouraging, that shall 
enable men of goodwil, to work with the same vigour which 
of late has been the monopoly of cruel bigots; to take away 
from our Western mentality the reproach that we have 
nothing to offer inspiring the same firm conviction and the 
same solid body of belief as is offered by the disciples of the 
Kremlin. But I anticipate. And after this digression into hope 
I must return to the causes of its opposite, which have all too 
much sway in the reflections of thoughtful men. If we 
forget MAC ARTHUR, what are we to think about Asia? From 
the time of VASCO DA GAMA until the Russo-Japanese war, 
the Western world did not think seriously about Asia. No 
doubt, it was a picturesque continent, and amid our pro- 
gressive schemes we enjoyed talking about the unchanging 
East. Philosophers with kindly contempt, and missionaries 
with reforming zeal, studied what we were pleased to call 
their superstitions. We enjoyed their military incompetence, 
and their incapacity to extract high wages. For all these 
reasons we rather like them. We realized, of course, that the 
inhabitants of Asia did not all form one community. There 
were Mohammedans and Hindus and Buddhists, and it was 
our hope that they would continue to hate each other for 
ever. And on this ground the more enlightened among 
administrators deprecated the work of missionaries for fear 
lest it should diminish the virulence of "superstition." 

The first country of Asia to cause misgivings in Europeans 
was Japan. At first, after Commodore PERRY had opened the 
country to our curiosity, we admired the cherry blossom, 
Bushido, and the chivalrous virtues of the Samurai. We like 
the temples and the art, and our aesthetes imagined the Japa- 

341 



BERTRAND RUSSELL 

nese to be kindred souls. But gradually a change came over 
the spirit of our dream. It may be seen in the works of 
LAFCADIO HEARN. At first he was enthusiastic about the 
Japanese, but his last book, Japan, an Interpretation, has 
begun to be aware of things slightly more serious than 
cherry blossom. The Japanese refused to stay put. They set 
to work to imitate the West, and in the measure in which 
they succeeded they inspired hatred in Western minds. 

The Japanese for the moment encountered disaster; they 
mastered our brutalities, but not our suppleness. But they 
left to the rest of Asia a legacy of war-like rebellion against 
Western insolence. Western men of liberal outlook cannot 
but sympathize with the wish of Asia to be independent, but 
it would be a pity if this sympathy were to blind Western 
thought to certain matters of the gravest import. The 
Western world has achieved, not completely but to a con- 
siderable extent, a way of life having certain merits that are 
new in human history. It has nearly eliminated poverty. It 
has cut down illness and death to a degree that a hundred 
years ago would have seemed fantastic. It has spread edu- 
cation throughout the population, and it has achieved a 
quite new degree of harmony between freedom and order. 
These are not things which Asia, if it becomes quickly 
independent, can hope to achieve. We, in the West, aware of 
the appalling poverty of South-East Asia, and convinced that 
this poverty is a propaganda weapon in the hands of the 
Russians, have begun to think for the first time that some 
thing ought to be done to raise the standard of life in these 
regions. But their habits and our beliefs between them make 
the task, for the present, a hopeless one. Every increase of 
production, instead of raising the standard of life, is quickly 
swallowed up by an increase in population. Eastern popu- 
lations do not know how to prevent this, and Western 
bigots prevent those who understand the problem from 
spreading the necessary information. What is bad in the West 
is easily spread: our restlessness, our militarism, our fanati- 

342 



PER ASPERA AD ASTRA 



cism, and our ruthless belief in mechanism. But what is best 
in the West - the spirit of free inquiry, the understanding of 
the conditions of general prosperity, and emancipation from 
superstition - these things powerful forces in the West 
prevent the East from acquiring. So long as this continues, 
Eastern populations will remain on the verge of destitution 
and in proportion as they become powerful, they will 
become destructive through envy. In this they will, of course, 
have the help of Russia, unless and until Russia is either 
defeated or liberalized. For these reasons, a wise policy 
towards Asia is still to seek. 

In Africa the same problems exist, though for the present 
they are less menacing. 2 Everything done by European 
administrators to improve the lot of Africans is, at present, 
totally and utterly futile because of the growth of population. 
The Africans, not unnaturally, though now mistakenly, 
attribute their destitution to their exploitation by the white 
man. If they achieve freedom suddenly before they have men 
trained in administration and a habit of responsibility, such 
civilization as white men have brought to Africa will quickly 
disappear. It is no use for doctrinaire liberals to deny this; 
there is a standing proof in the island of Haiti. 

It must not be supposed that there is any essential stability 
in a civilized way of life. Consider the regions overrun by the 
Turks and contrast their condition under the Turks with 
what they were in Roman days. Over great parts of the 
earth's surface, similar misfortunes are not impossible in the 
near future. On the other hand it must be admitted that 
until we include birth-control in our African policies every 
increase in efficiency and honesty and scientific skill on the 
part of European administrators will only increase the sum 
of human misery. 

The population problem is similar in Central and South 
America, but it does not there have the same political 
importance. 

2. Remark: this was written in 1951. 



343 



BERTRAND RUSSELL 

I have been speaking hitherto of public perplexities, but it is 
not these alone which trouble the Western mind. Traditional 
systems of dogma and traditional codes of conduct have not 
the hold that they formerly had. Men and women are often 
in genuine doubts as to what is right and what is wrong, and 
even as to whether right and wrong are anything more than 
ancient superstitions. When they try to decide such questions 
for themselves they find them too difficult. They cannot 
discover any clear purpose that they ought to pursue or any 
clear principle by which they should be guided. Stable 
societies may have principles, that, to the outsider, seem 
absurd. But so long as the societies remain stable their 
principles are subjectively adequate. That is to say they are 
accepted by almost everybody unquestioningly, and they 
make the rules of conduct as clear and precise as those of 
the minuet or the heroic couplet. Modern life, in the West, 
is not at all like a minuet or a heroic couplet. It is like free 
verse which only the poet can distinguish from prose. Two 
great systems of dogma lie in wait for the modern man when 
his spirit is weary: I mean the system of Rome and the 
system of Moscow. Neither of these gives scope for free mind, 
which is at once the glory and the torment of Western man. 
It is the torment only because of growing pains. The free 
man, full grown, shall be full of joy and vigour and mental 
health, but in the meantime he suffers. 

Not only publicly, but privately also, the world has need of 
ways of thinking and feeling which are adapted to what we 
know, to what we can believe, and what we feel ourselves 
compelled to disbelieve. There are ways of feeling that are 
traditional and that have all the prestige of the past and 
weighty authority, and that yet are not adapted to the world 
in which we live, where now techniques have made some 
new virtues necessary and some old virtues unnecessary. The 
Hebrew prophets, surrounded by hostile nations, and de- 
termined that their race should not be assimilated by Gentile 
conquerors, developed a fierce doctrine in which the leading 

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conception was sin. The Gentiles sinned always and in all 
their ways, but the Jews, alas, were only too apt to fall into 
sin themselves. When they did so they were defeated in 
battle and had to weep by the waters of Babylon. It is this 
pattern which has inspired moralists ever since. The virtuous 
man has been conceived as one who, though continually 
surrounded by temptation, though passionately prompted to 
sin, nevertheless, by almost superhuman strength of will, 
succeeds in walking along the straight and narrow path, 
looking meanwhile disdainfully to the right and left at those 
inferior beings who have loitered to pluck flowers by the way. 
In this conception, virtue is difficult, negative, and arid. It is 
constrictive and suspicious of happiness. It is persuaded that 
our natural impulses are bad and that society can only be 
held together by means of rigid prohibitions. I do not wish 
to pretend that society can hold together if people murder 
and steal. What I do say is, that the kind of man whom I 
should wish to see in the world is one who will have no 
impulse to murder, who will abstain from murder not 
because it is prohibited but because his thoughts and feelings 
carry him away from impulses of destruction. The whole 
conception of sin has, as it were, gone dead, so far, at least, as 
conscious thought and feeling are concerned. Most people 
have not thought out any other system of ethics, and have 
not, perhaps, theoretically rejected the old system. But it has 
lost its hold on them. They do not murder or steal as a rule, 
because it would not be to their interest to do so, but one 
cannot say as much for their obedience to the Seventh 
Commandment. They have, in fact, no wish to conform to 
the ancient pattern. The Publican thanks God that he is not 
as this Pharisee, and imagines that in so doing he has caught 
the point of the parable. It does not occur to him that 
feeling superior is what is reprehended, and that whether it 
is the Publican or the Pharisee who feels superior is an 
unimportant detail. 
I should wish to persuade those to whom traditional 

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BERTRAND RUSSELL 

morals have gone dead, and who yet feel the need of some 
serious purpose over and above momentary pleasure, that 
there is a way of thinking and feeling which is not difficult 
for those who have not been trained in its opposite, and 
which is not one of self-restraint, negation and condem- 
nation. The good life, as I conceive it, is a happy life. I do 
not mean that if you are good you will be happy; I mean 
that if you are happy you will be good. Unhappiness is 
deeply implanted in the souls of most of us. How many 
people we all know who go through life apparently gay, and 
who yet are perpetually in search of intoxication whether of 
the Bacchic kind or some other. The happy man does not 
desire intoxication. Nor does he envy his neighbour and 
therefore hate him. He can live the life of impulse like a child, 
because happiness makes his impulses fruitful and not 
destructive. There are many men and women who imagine 
themselves emancipated from the shackles of ancient codes 
but who, in fact, are emancipated only in the upper layers of 
their minds. Below these layers lies the sense of guilt 
crouching like a wild beast waiting for moments of weakness 
or inattention, and growling venomous angers which rise to 
the surface in strange distorted forms. Such people have the 
worst of both worlds. The feeling of guilt makes real happi- 
ness impossible for them, but the conscious rejection of old 
codes of behaviour makes them act perpetually in ways that 
feed the maw of the ancient beast beneath. A way of life 
cannot be successful so long as it is a mere intellectual 
conviction. It must be deeply felt, deeply believed, dominant 
even in dreams. I do not think that the best kind of life is 
possible in our day for those who, below the level of 
consciousness, are still obsessed by the load of sin. It is obvious 
that there are things that had better not be done, but I do not 
think the best way to avoid the doing of such things is to 
label them sin and represent them as almost irresistibly 
attractive. And so I should wish to offer to the world 
something scarcely to be called an ethic, at any rate in the 

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old acceptation of that word, but something which 
nonetheless, will save men from moral perplexity and from 
remorse and from condemnation of others. What I should 
put in the place of an ethic in the old sense is encouragement 
and opportunity for all the impulses that are creative and 
expansive. I should do everything possible to liberate men 
from fear, not only conscious fears, but the old imprisoned 
primeval terrors that we brought with us out of the jungle. 
I should make it clear, not merely an as intellectual propo- 
sition, but as something that the heart spontaneously believes, 
that it is not by making others suffer that we shall achieve 
our own happiness, but that happiness and the means to 
happiness depend upon harmony with other men. When all 
this is not only understood but deeply felt, it will be easy to 
live in a way that brings happiness equally to ourselves and to 
others. If men could think and feel in this way, not only their 
personal problems, but all the problems of world politics, 
even the most abstruse and difficult, would melt away. 
Suddenly, as when the mist dissolves from a mountain top, 
the landscape would be visible and the way would be clear. It 
is only necessary to open the doors of our hearts and minds 
to let the imprisoned demons escape and the beauty of the 
world take possession. 



THE HAPPY WORLD 



I have been concerned in my book "New Hopes for a 
Changing World," to set forth certain facts, and certain 
hopes which these facts render rational. The facts concern 
the unification of mankind through modern technique, and 
the liberation of mankind from bondage to excessive toil 
which the inadequate technique of the past rendered 
unavoidable. The hopes that are based upon these facts are 
hopes as to the general well-being that may be realised if 
mankind learned to practice the cooperation which modern 



347 



BERTRAND RUSSELL 

techniques demand. There are, it is true, correlative fears, for 
which there is perhaps as good basis in the present state of the 
world as for the hopes that I have been setting forth. The 
technical unification of the world not only makes possible 
much greater general well-being than at any former time, if 
it is accompanied by economic and political unification; it 
also makes possible greater disasters than any known to even 
the worst of former times, if our technical skill continues to 
be devoted to disunity rather than unity. I have not, however y 
in this book dwelt much upon the reasons for fear, since I do 
not think that it is through fear that we shall avoid the 
dangers that threaten us. Our world has too much of fear, 
and emphasis upon dangers is apt to lead to apathetic despair. 
What our world needs is the opposite; it needs rational 
creative hope; it needs something positive to live for. It 
needs "yes" feelings rather than "no" feelings. If the "yes" 
feelings are as strong as a purely rational consideration allows 
them to be, the "no" feelings will melt away and become 
unnecessary. But if we dwell upon "no" feelings too much, 
we shall never emerge from despair. 

I shall assume in what follows that mankind, whether 
through the lessons of a third world war or through some 
less painful process, will have come to understand the 
community of interest which unites the human family. And 
I shall try to portray the kind of world that will result from 
this understanding. I shall consider that public institutions 
can do to bring about a happy issue in the three age-long 
conflicts of men: with nature, with each other, and with 
themselves. 

Let us begin with the conflict with nature. 

There will have to be an international authority con- 
trolling the production and distribution of food and raw 
materials. This authority must have power to prevent such 
wasteful agricultural methods as have produced the deserts 
in North Africa and the Dust Bowl in the United States. The 
present cultivators of the soil must not be allowed to enrich 

348 



PER ASPERA AD ASTRA 



themselves by using up wastefully the natural capital upon 
which future generations will have to subsist. It must come 
to be realized that whoever destroys the fertility of the soil in 
any region is doing an injury to mankind as a whole, and that 
this is not the sort of injury that private persons, or even 
whole nations, have a right to inflict. The agricultural 
authority, in addition to insisting upon soil conservation, will 
have to give advice on scientific agriculture and to make all 
knowledge on this subject easily available to every cultivator. 
But I do not think that cultivators need be compelled to 
adopt the latest scientific methods, except in cases where the 
old methods are permanently destructive to fertility. 

Somewhat similar considerations apply to raw materials. 
As I write a dangerous dispute is in progress concerning 
Iranian Oil. The Persians say that it belongs to them, the 
British and Americans say that it belongs to them, the 
Russians, in the background, are hoping that it will soon 
belong to them. But by what right should it belong to any 
of these contending parties ? It was not they who put it there, 
and it is not they alone who will use it. It should be viewed 
as the common property of all nations. Socialists have 
become aware of the evils of private property in land, when 
the private landowner is a citizen whose interests may be 
opposed to those of other citizens of his state, but they have 
not yet become aware of the evils of national private property 
- I mean property vested in one nation to the exclusion of 
others. With the unification of world economy, this kind of 
private property becomes increasingly harmful, and is a 
constant incentive to war. It is because of this kind of private 
property that Czechoslovakia has to have a Communist 
Government, since otherwise Russia would not be able to 
use its uranium in the manufacture of atom-bombs. For such 
reasons it is not enough that raw materials should be nation- 
alized; they must be internationalised, and rationed to 
possible users on some system that has international sanction. 

As we have seen, the problem of adequately nourishing the 



349 



BERTRAND RUSSELL 

human family cannot be solved while the population 
continues to increase rapidly. Rapid increase has been 
checked in the past by famine and pestilence, but these are 
painful methods. Moreover, their effectiveness is diminishing; 
medicine is coping with pestilence, and philanthropy is 
causing famine to be a less localized phenomenon than it 
used to be. The population problem, therefore, if the world 
is to flourish in spite of scientific medicine and economic 
justice must be dealt with by means of universal birth- 
control. Whatever this may involve in the way of education, 
industrialization and increase of prosperity in the poorer 
regions of the world must be undertaken at no matter what 
cost, if a scientifically unified world is to be stable, and is not 
to sink to continually lower levels of subsistence. 

I come now to the conflicts of man with man. Here the 
first thing to be coped with is war. While mankind are subject 
to the threat of war, especially by the deadly methods which 
science is perfecting, nothing good can be secure. There is 
only one way of making the world safe against war, and that 
is to have only one armed force in the world. There might 
be local police forces with minor weapons such as could cope 
with unarmed civilians, but all the really serious weapons of 
war must be concentrated in the hands of one single authori- 
ty. When this has been achieved, there will no longer be 
danger of serious wars, unless they were to take the form 
of civil wars between different parts of the international 
force. To prevent this, measures which are not purely 
military will be required. There will need to be control over 
education, in the sense that no country must be allowed in 
its schools to teach a predatory nationalism. The teaching of 
history everywhere should lay more stress upon the progress 
of man than upon national victories of defeats in contests 
with other nations. The books used in the teaching of 
history should everywhere be such as have been sanctioned 
by the international authority, and have been certified to be 
free from nationalistic falsehoods. There should also be a 

350 



PER ASPERA AD ASTRA 

very widely diffused teaching of sound economics - the 
economics, I mean, which emphasizes the much greater part 
played by co-operation than by competition in an intelligent 
modern technique. There should be a gradual approach to 
universal free trade. There should be complete freedom of 
travel, as there was in most countries before 1914. There 
should be interchanges of students, so that many people, 
while still young enough to be not hardened in habits and 
prejudices, should become intimate with people of other 
countries and with their ways of thought and behaviour. The 
edifice of internationalism in education should have at its 
apex an international university, open to able students from all 
countries, containing professors to whom the international 
ideal appeared important, and affording a refuge to able men 
who, like EINSTEIN, were found displeasing to their com- 
patriots. One might hope that in such a university a free 
community might grow up of men capable, not only of 
overcoming nationalism in their thoughts by deliberate 
effort, but of genuinely feeling the unity of man and of the 
common tasks to which a wise humanity should devote 
itself. 

I come last to the protection of the individual, both against 
the hostility of the herd and against his own fear. These two 
are more closely connected than is sometimes thought, for 
herd hostility is usually the result of fear, and the fear that it 
expresses though nominally directed outwards, has, as a rule, 
its root in a fear which the intolerant individuals feel of a 
part of themselves. I have spoken in previous chapters of 
what education in the very early years can do to prevent the 
growth of underground terrors, such as psycho-analysis lays 
bare. Affection and security are what is mainly needed in the 
early years. A population wisely handled in youth will be less 
liable to herd hostilities than is now common in most parts 
of the world. Nevertheless, it must be expected that herd 
hostilities will be sometimes aroused in cases in which to the 
outsider there seems no just ground for such hostilities. The 

35i 



BERTRAND RUSSELL 

best way of dealing with such cases would be to provide 
places of sanctuary, as was done in the Middle Ages ; those 
who had fled to such places should be examined by a neutral 
authority and should be protected if that authority pro- 
nounced them blameless. 

Regimentation and uniformity are dangers that an 
organized industrial world will have to fear, and against 
which it should take deliberate measures. There should be 
opportunities for exceptional individuals, such as poets and 
artists, who would be like to fail in any attempt to win the 
approval of elderly bureaucrats. I should have academies for 
such men, not as a reward for achieved eminence, for then 
it is too late, but as expressing the favourable opinion of 
young men engaged in similar pursuits. I would have election 
to such academies only possible for men under twenty-five, 
and I would confine the voting for election to members of 
the Academy concerned who were still under thirty-five. 
Such regulations might make it possible for the academy not 
to become an ossified collection of old fogies, as academies 
too often are. 

There would still be some whose work would be too 
anarchic or too much opposed to the fashion to win the 
approval even of the young. BLAKE, for example, would not 
have secured the suffrages of contemporary poets or painters. 
Such men would have to make their living by work that left 
them a certain amount of leisure, and if they were content to 
live simply this should be possible. There should be for 
everybody considerably shorter hours of work then are now 
customary, and much longer holidays than are now enjoyed 
by anybody except university professors. Some people are 
afraid that in such a community life would be too tame and 
unadventurous, but this need not be the case. There are 
innumerable forms of adventure which could be open to 
everybody who desired them, if holidays were as long as they 
easily might be. For those who wish at all times to live 
strenuously, and to whom a soft life feels disgusting, it 

352 



PER ASPERA AD ASTRA 

should be possible to find a quite sufficient outlet in some 
really difficult work, whether of artistic creation or of 
scientific research. Such work stretches men's powers to the 
very utmost, as much in its way as an attempt to climb 
Everest; but for those who do not find it adequate, Everest 
still remains to be conquired. 

Unusual individuals whom subsequent ages, but not their 
contemporaries, have regarded as meritorious, have been 
possible in the past if they had the good fortune to inherit 
money. MILTON, BYRON, SHELLEY and DARWIN were all 
rendered possible by this piece of good fortune. But there is 
no social system imaginable which will enable everybody to 
inherit a fortune, and in the society of the future, if ex- 
ceptional individuals whose merit is not recognized while 
they are young are to be enabled to do their work, there 
must be definite institutions designed for this purpose. If this 
is not done, fundamental progress will cease, and men will 
tend to look back to the intellectual or artistic giants of 
former times as something beyond the capacity of the 
present age. 

No society can be great without great individuals, and I 
should not think much of a world which had secured 
universal safety at the price of universal mediocrity. I think, 
however, that universal security, if it were attained by the 
kind of means that I have spoken of, would so much di- 
minish envy and fear of eccentricity that the recognition, 
even in the young, of possible exceptional merit would not 
encounter the psychological resistance which it now has to 
meet in the great majority of mankind. If this is indeed the 
case, and if such institutions as I have spoken of can be 
established, the happy world that I am envisaging can be not 
only happy but glorious. I cannot believe that what is dark 
and dreadful and destructive in the souls of men is essential 
to the production of great works of imagination. I believe, on 
the contrary, that it lies within the power of man to create 
edifices of shining splendour, from which the glory and 

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BERTRAND RUSSELL 

greatness of which human thought and feeling are capable 
shall spread a light unmixed with darkness, filling men's 
hearts with joy and their thoughts with clarity. Such a world 
is possible. It rests with men to choose whether they will 
create it, or allow the human race to perish in anger and 
sordid hate. 

Man, in the long ages since he descended from the trees, 
has passed arduously and perilously through a vast dusty 
desert, surrounded by the whitening bones of those who have 
perished by the way, maddened by hunger and thirst, by 
fear of wild beasts, by dread of enemies, not only living 
enemies, but spectres of dead rivals projected on to the 
dangerous world by the intensity of his own fears. At last he 
has emerged from the desert into a smiling land, but in the 
long night he has forgotten how to smile. We cannot believe 
in the brightness of the morning. We think it trivial and 
deceptive; we cling to old myths that allow us to go on living 
with fear and hate - above all, hate of ourselves, miserable 
sinners. This is folly. Man now needs for his salvation only 
one thing: to open his heart to joy, and leave fear to gibber 
through the glimmering darkness of a forgotten past. He 
must lift up his eyes and say: "No, I am not a miserable 
sinner; I am a being who, by a long and arduous road, have 
discovered how to make intelligence master natural obstacles, 
how to live in freedom and joy, at peace with myself and 
therefore with all mankind." This will happen if men will 
choose joy rather than sorrow. If not, eternal death will bury 
man in deserved oblivion. 



354 



The Authors 



Lord JOHN BOYD ORR, F.R.S., F.R.S.E., LLD., D.Sc., M.D.; 
Physiologist. Apart of his extensive research and organisatory 
work in animal and human nutrition in the service of the 
British Commonwealth, he taught as Professor of Agricul- 
ture at the University of Aberdeen. He is the founder and 
former Director General of the United Nations' Food and 
Agricultural Organization. For his fight against hunger on a 
global scale he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1949. 

Lord BOYD ORR is one of the Charter Members and the 
first President of the World Academy of Art and Science, 
(see the Manifesto on page 367). 

Adress: Newton of Stracathro, Brechin, Scotland. 

ALBERT EINSTEIN, 1879-1955. The visionary words quoted here, 
are words of his early life as scientist. During his whole life, 
however, his thoughts and his work were directed to a global 
cooperation - and not only in science. He inspired the idea 
of the World Academy of Art and Science, but died to early 
to witness its materialization. 

HUGO N. BOYKO, Ph.D., born in Vienna, Austria, where he 
introduced plant sociology at that University. At present he 
is Ecological Advisor to the National Research Council of 

355 



Israel, Prime Minister's Office. His numerous publications 
contain several new lines of research, three natural laws, and 
about fifty new methods in plant ecology. His main scientific 
activities are at present in the field of ecological climato- 
graphy and of fundamental research for productivizing 
deserts and waste lands, continuing also his and his wife's 
successful experiments of direct irrigation with sea water. 

He holds several leading positions in international organ- 
izations of science and is Secretary General of the World 
Academy of Art and Science. 

Address: i Ruppin Street, Rehovot, Israel 

ROBERT OPPENHEIMER, D. Sc. ; formerly Professor of Physics 
at the University of California and at the Californian In- 
stitute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J. As Chairman 
of the Atomic Energy Commission (1946-1952) he organized 
the research work in this field in the United States of America. 
He achieved world fame as scientist and teacher, as well 
as for his striving for peaceful use of atomic energy. A close 
co-worker of EINSTEIN, ROBERT OPPENHEIMER is one of the 
outstanding educationists of international influence teaching 
the humanitarian obligations of science, wherever the op- 
portunity is given. 

Address: Institute for Advanced Study - Princeton, N.J. 
U.S.A. 



W. F. G. SWANN, M.A., D.Sc., A.R.C.S.; Physicist and Philo- 
sopher, worked first at the Carnegie Institute of Washington 
(1913). Then in succession he became Professor of Physics at 
the University of Minnesota, the University of Chicago and 
Yale University, where he was Director of the Sloane 
Laboratory. In 1927 he became Director of the Bartol Research 
Foundation of the Franklin Institute, from which position 
he retired in 1959 to become Director Emeritus. 

356 



He is a member of numerous scientific societies and was 
President of the American Physical Society in 1931-1932. Profes- 
sor SWANN is the author of some 250 scientific publications, and 
his outstanding contributions to science as well as his sti- 
mulating efforts towards progress in research during the 
last decades have won him many honorary degrees and 
awards in America and abroad. 

Address: Bartol Research Foundation, Whittier Place, 
Swarthmore, Pa., U.S.A. 

HERMANN JOSEPH MUIXER, M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc.; Leading 
Geneticist; Professor of Zoology at the Indiana University, 
Bloomington, U.S.A.; Distinguished Service Professor since 
1953; his international fame is based not only on his outstand- 
ing scientific work but also on his humanitarian activities. 
In his own field of research he won many international 
honours, among them (in 1946) the Nobel Prize in Physiology 
and Medicine for the "discovery of the production of mu- 
tations by means of X-rays." 

He is Charter Member of the World Academy of Art and 
Science, and Vice President of its first Presidium. 

Address: Department of Zoology, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Ind., U.S.A. 

HAROLD D. LASSWELL. Ph.D.; Professor of Law and of Political 
Science, Yale University. He taught his new lines of research 
at various Universities in the East and in the West of the 
U.S.A., as well as in China and Japan. 

He is one of the co-founders of Political Science and Past 
President of the American Political Science Association. 
Professor LASSWELL is particularly known internationally for 
his leading research in the field of political sociology and 
psychology. 

Address: Yale University, Law School, New Haven, Conn., 
U.S.A. 

357 



SOLCO W. TROMP, Ph.D.; Formerly Professor of Geology at 
Fouad I University, Cairo, Egypt; Geological Consultant of 
the United Nations Technical Assistance Program. At present 
he is Head of the Bioclimatological Research Centre, Uni- 
versity Medical Centre at Leiden, the Netherlands, and 
Secretary of the Netherlands Society of Medical Geography. 
Apart from his work in foreign countries and particularly 
from his exploration work in Afghanistan, which represents 
an important basis for the development of that country, 
he is - in the international teamwork of science - Secretary 
General of the International Society of Bioclimatology and 
Biometeorology. 

Address: Hofbrouckerlaan 54, Oegstgeest, the Netherlands. 

RICHARD MONTGOMERY FIELD, Ph.D. (Harvard); Professor 
Emeritus of Geology, Princeton University; Past President, 
American Geophysical Union; President-Director, Ameri- 
can Institute of Geonomy and Natural Resources; etc. 

An internationally acknowledged leading geologist, he 
worked many years in the framework of the International 
Union of Geodesy and Geophysics as Chairman of the 
International Committee for the Social Value of Natural 
Sciences. In this capacity he organized, together with the 
late JOHN A. FLEMING, the International Conference on Science 
and Human Welfare, Washington, D.C, 1956, which led to 
the election of the International Preparatory Committee 
for the World Academy of Art and Science. 

Address: American Institute for Geonomy and Natural 
Resources, South Duxbury, Mass., U.S.A. 

PIERRE DANSEREAU, Ph.D.; Born in Montreal, he received his 
doctorate in Europe (Geneva) and taught - until his ap- 
pointment as Professor of Botany at his birthplace in 1955 - 
as Lecturer and as Professor in many countries (Canada, 



358 



Brazil, U.S.A., Spain, France, Portugal, New Zealand, etc.). 
He now works at the New York Botanical Garden. 

His research work in all these countries has won him a 
leading position as plant geographer and - based on his 
worldwide experience - as ecologist 

Address: New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New 
York 58, N.Y., U.S.A. 

M. }. SIRKS, Ph.D., (Leiden); Professor of Genetics, Groningen 
University (1937-1960). (Since September 1960, Professor Emeri- 
tus). 

A leading Botanist and Organizer of international cooper- 
ation in science, he was elected Secretary General of the 
International Union of Biological Sciences (1935-1947) and 
then its President (1947-1950). Since 1935, Member of the World 
Council of Botany. Honorary President of two International 
Botanical Congresses (Stockholm, 1950, and Paris, 1954). 

Address: Genetisch Instituut, Haren (Gron.), the Nether- 
lands. 

PIERRE CHOUARD, D.es Sc. ; Professor of Plant Physiology at 
the Sorbonne University, Paris, he is one of the foremost 
leaders in Botany. As Director of the French Phytotron and 
Member of the French Academy of Agriculture, he is also 
closely connected with agricultural problems. 

In the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS), 
he is President of the Division of Botany and Vice-President 
of the Union itself. For his activities in Desert Research, he 
was appointed by UNESCO as one of the nine members of the 
International Advisory Committee for Arid Zone Research. 

Address : Laboratoire de Physiologic Vegetale, i Rue Victor 
Cousin, Paris, France. 

JOHN F. V. PHILLIPS, D.Sc., F.R.S.E., F.R.S.S.Afr. ; Ecologist, 
Conservationist and Agriculturist; Formerly Professor of 

359 



Botany, University of Johannesburg; Professor of Ecology 
and Agriculture, University of Ghana; Consultant to FAO 
(Food and Agriculture Organization) and to the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development of the United 
Nations Organization. At present Chairman, Advisory Com- 
mittee on African Agricultural Development, Southern 
Rhodesia. 

His books on Africa's Ecology and Agriculture are acclaim- 
ed as basis for land use and agricultural development of 
Africa, South of the Sahara. 

Address: 16 Fourth Avenue, P.O. Mabelreign, Salesbury, 
Southern Rhodesia. 

THEODORE ANDRE MONOD, D.es Sc. ; Corresponding Member 
of the French Academy of Sciences, Professor at the National 
Museum of Natural History in Paris, and Director of the 
Institut Franf ais d'Afrique Noire in Dakar. THEODORE MONOD 
is internationally acclaimed as one of the few encyclopedists 
of our time. Although his main field is Zoology, he is a 
leading scientist also in several other fields, as Geography, 
Geology, Archeology and Botany. 

His famous recent journey through the length (!) of the 
Sahara from West to East on camelback, with two Beduins 
only as companions, enriched significantly our knowledge 
of deserts and desert life in many directions. 

Address: Institut Franjais d'Afrique Noire, Dakar, Senegal, 
West Africa. 

HENRIK F. INFIELD, Ph.D. (Vienna); He taught Sociology at 
several Universities in Central Europe and in the U.S.A. 
and is at present Visiting Professor at the Hebrew University 
in Jerusalem. 

His special field is Sociology of Cooperation, and his ex- 
tensive publications in this branch of science have appeared 
in many languages. He is a member of the Board of Editors 

360 



of the International Archives of the Sociology of Cooper- 
ation, and was in 1953 elected President of the International 
Council of this Research. 

Address: The Eliezer Kaplan School, Hebrew University, 
Jerusalem, Israel. 

LYLE K. BUSH, Professor of Fine Arts, Simmons College, 
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

Internationally known for his teaching philosophy, voiced 
particularly in his papers in the Harvard Educational Review 
and in the Simmons Review, where he regards current schisms 
between cultural and scientific criteria to be a major handi- 
cap to meaningful survival. 

His active participation in the foundation of the World 
Academy has as its particular aim to help in building the 
necessary bridge. 

Address: King Arthur Way, Duxbury, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A. 

W. TAYLOR THOM, Jr., D.Sc; Professor of Geology, Emeritus, 
and Chairman, Emeritus, Department of Geological En- 
gineering, Princeton University, U.S.A. Born of an old 
Quaker family, he developed, already as a young geologist, 
how the matters of mineral-resources discovery, develop- 
ment and political geography have influenced the rise and 
decline of nations, of empires and of civilizations through- 
out historic times. During 1920 and 1921 he was charged 
with preparing an estimate of available American oil reserves, 
and soon achieved international fame by his work on 
mineral resources. 

With RICHARD M. FIELD he is co-founder of the out-of- 
door summertime University, and organizer and co-worker 
of many important national and international teamworks 
in his scientific field. For his outstanding achievements he 
received the John Fleming Medal in 1957. 

Address: 272 Snowden Lane, Princeton, N.J., U.S.A. 

361 



EUROPAEUS: As the language problem is closely connected 
with political problems, the author is of the opinion, that 
it may be of more advantage for an objective and scientific 
consideration of the subject if he remains anonymous. 

ISAAC BERENBLUM, M.D., M.Sc; At present Head of the De- 
partment of Experimental Biology at the Weizmann In- 
stitute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Formerly on the staff 
of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at Oxford 
University. 

His field is experimental cancer research with special refer- 
ence to the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Professor 
BERENBLUM -besides his numerous scientific publications and 
invited lectures in all continents - is author of the book 
"Man Against Cancer", and his leading position in this 
field of research has won him many international honours 
and awards. But - as this essay also proves, and like most of 
the leading scientists - he does not confine himself to his 
specialized research only. 

Address : Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. 

WIIXEM CAREL DE LEEUW, has been for many decades a leading 
scientist in Botany, without being connected with a scien- 
tific institution. 

His work is widely acknowledged internationally. He is 
Doctor honoris causa of the University of Amsterdam, and 
President of the International Society for Plantgeography 
and Ecology. 

Address: Roodenburgerstraat 35, Leiden, the Netherlands. 

EARL BERTRAND A. W. RUSSELL, O.M., M.A., RR.S.; Philoso- 
pher, mathematician and educationist, the dynamic nona- 
genarian is one of the foremost spiritual leaders of our times, 
and a keen co-worker of the World Academy of Art and 
Science. 

362 



His idea of a World University (first published in 1951) 
is one of the major aims of the World Academy. The name 
BERTRAND RUSSELL has long become a symbol of man's 
struggle for real freedom and peace. 

Among the visible acknowledgements are the Nobel Prize 
for Literature (1950) and the UNESCO Kalinga Prize (1957). 

Address: Plas Penrhyn, Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, 
U.K. 



363 



World Academy 



Art and Science 



Manifesto 

In the Name of Science and the Future of Mankind. 



The appeal of the International Conference on Science and 
Human Welfare has been realised - THE WORLD ACADEMY OF 
ART AND SCIENCE has been established. 

This urgently needed forum has been created for dis- 
tinguished scientists and scholars to discuss the vital problems 
of mankind, independent of political boundaries or limits - 
whether spiritual or physical; a forum where these problems 
will be discussed objectively, scientifically, globally and free 
from vested interests or regional attachments. 

The World Academy of Art and Science will function as an 
informal "world university" at the highest scientific and 
ethical level, in which deep human understanding and the 
fullest sense of responsibility will meet. 

The structure of the Academy and its goal are laid down 
in the first volume of its publications, "Science and the 
Future of Mankind," now in press. 

The basic idea which led to the founding of the Academy 
stems from the following considerations: 

All existing international organisations which decide on 
vital problems of mankind are constructed on the principle 
of national or group representation. This forum is inter- 
national, or more truly trans-national. 

From the dawn of mankind people have worked together 
to build the tower of knowledge, and no nation has failed 

367 



to contribute to this marvellous building. The creative power 
of the human spirit is to be found in the first prehistoric 
digging stick for agriculture as in the motorised plough of 
our time. The first canoe is no less original in concept than 
the Archimedian principle; the first wheel no less than the 
first aeroplane - perhaps even more so. 

The true object of all these achievements of the human 
spirit is to lighten the burden of life, to enrich it - and 
certainly not to make it more difficult or to destroy it. In 
the words of EINSTEIN who is one of the spiritual fathers 
of this trans-national forum: 'The creations of our mind 
shall be a blessing and not a curse to mankind." 

This is the fundamental aim of the World Academy: to 
rediscover the language of mutual understanding. It will 
work in close collaboration with the institutions of the 
United Nations. It will look for the true enemies of peace, 
and try to fight them : 

These enemies are hunger and sickness, waste and de- 
struction; the archenemies intolerance and ignorance, 
resignation and fear. 

In International meetings and conferences, represented 
by group or nation, the intrinsic merits of the questions 
discussed have too often to be subordinated to considerations 
of national prestige or group-interests. The World Academy 
has no pre-established tasks to fulfil and no vested interests 
to serve. It is free to attack problems in the broad interests 
of mankind, and to seek solutions leading to hope, happiness 
and peace. 

With the help of science and the support of all cultural 
and constructive forces of mankind, the World Academy 
will be able to dedicate itself to its objective - the aim of 
serving as an impartial and unpolitical adviser, comple- 
menting other organisations, in this difficult transition 
period, and contributing in leading mankind to an era of 
true progress, true human welfare, and true happiness. 

Supported by the confidence and trust of a great number 

368 



of spiritual leaders of mankind, we herewith declare the 
World Academy of Art and Science founded. 



For the Charter Members: 
The President - Lord JOHN BOYD ORR 

(Brechin, Scotland, U.K.) 
The Vice Presidents - HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER 

(Bloomington, Ind. s U.S.A.) 
HUGO OSVALD 

(Uppsala, Sweden) 
The Secretary General - HUGO BOYKO 

(Jerusalem-Rehovoth, Israel). 

24th December, 1960. 



369 



Manifeste 

Au nom de la Science et de Tavenir de FHumanite, 



L'appel de la Conference Internationale sur la Science et le 
Bien-etre humain a ete entendu. L' Academic Mondiale de 
1'Art et de la Science a ete constitute. 

Ainsi, ce forum dont le besoin se faisait sentir de faf on 
pressante a ete cree; des hommes de science et des savants 
de reputation international y delibereront ensemble, hors 
de toute restriction ou frontiere politique, des problemes 
vitaux de I'humanite, qu'ils soient spirituels ou physiques; 
un forum ou ces problemes pourront etre discutes objective- 
ment, scientifiquement, dans leur ensemble et par dela 
tous interets acquis ou interets de groupes. 

L' Academic Mondiale de 1 s Art et de la Science fonctionnera 
comme une "universite mondiale" non formelle, d'un tres 
haut degre scientifique et moral, ou regneront une profonde 
comprehension humaine et un sens parfait des responsa- 
bilites. 

La structure de FAcademie et son but sont exposes dans 
le premier volume de ses publications, "Science and the 
Future of Mankind" [Science et 1'avenir de THumanite], 
actuellement sous presse. 

Quelle est Tidee fondamentale qui a conduit a la fondation 
de I'Academie? 

Elle provient des considerations suivantes: les organisa- 
tions Internationales qui, aujourd'hui, conferent sur les pro- 

371 



blemes vitaux de Phumanite et les tranchent sont toutes 
baties sur le prlncipe d'une representation nationale ou de 
groupe. 

Ce forum-ci est vraiment international. II est meme plus : 
il est trans-national. 

Depuis Paube de Phumanite, nous autres etres humains 
avons travaille tous ensemble a batir la tour de nos con- 
naissances. II n'y a pas de peuple sur notre planete qui n'ait 
participe de faf on constructive a ce merveilleux edifice. 

Le pouvoir createur de Pesprit humain se retrouve aussi 
bien dans le morceau de bois qui servait a piocher la ter- 
re aux temps prehistoriques que dans la charrue motorisee 
de notre epoque. La premiere pirogue n'est pas moins ori- 
ginale dans sa conception que le principe d'Archimede, 
la premiere roue que le premier avion; peut-etre meme 
Pest-elle davantage. 

Le veritable objet de tous ces succes de Pesprit humain 
est d'alleger le poids de la vie, de Penricbir-et certes non pas 
de la rendre plus difficile ou de la supprimer. Ou bien, pour 
reprendre les paroles d'EiNSTEiN qui est Pun des peres 
spirituels de ce forum transnational: "Les creations de notre 
esprit doivent etre une benediction et non pas un fleau pour 
Phumanite". 

Ceci est le but fondamental de PAcademie Mondiale: 
essayer de trouver de nouveau le langage de la compre- 
hension mutuelle. 

Elle travaillera en etroite cooperation avec les institutions 
des Nations Unies. 

Elle reconnaitra quels sont les veritables ennemis, le cartel 
des ennemis de la paix, et montrera comment les combattre. 

Ces ennemis sont la faim et la maladie, le gaspillage et la 
destruction, et avant tout: Pintolerance et Pignorance, la 
resignation et la peur. 

Dans les reunions ou conferences internationales dont la 
representation est soit de groupe soit nationale, les merites 

372 



intrinseques des questions discutees sont trop souvent 
subordonnes a des considerations de prestige national ou 
aux interets des groupes. 

L 3 Academic Mondiale n'a pas de taches pre-etablies a 
remplir ni d'interets acquis a servir. Elle est plus libre pour 
attaquer les problemes dans le plein interet de Fhumanite 
et pour chercher des solutions conduisant a Fespoir, a la 
joie et a la paix. 

Avec Faide de la Science et Fappui de toutes les forces 
culturelles et constructives de Fhumanite, F Academic Mon- 
diale pourra se consacrer pleinement a son objectify le but 
de servir de conseiller impartial et a-politique, suppleant 
ainsi d'autres organisations dans cette difficile periode de 
transition, et contribuant a conduire Fhumanite vers une 
ere de progres veritable, de vrai bien-etre de Tetre humain 
et de veritable joie de vivre. 

Soutenus par la confiance et Fespoir d'un grand nombre 
de chefs spirituels de Fhumanite, nous declarons fondee, 
par la presente, FACADEMIE MONDIALE DE L S ART ET DE LA SCIENCE. 



Pour les membres de la Charter 

Le President - Lord JOHN BOYD ORR 

(Brechin, Scotland, U.K.) 

Les Vice-Presidents - HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER 

(Bloomington, Ind., U.S.A.) 

HUGO OSVALD 
(Uppsala, Suede) 

Le Secretaire General - HUGO BOYKO 

(Jerusalem-Rehovot, Israel) 

Le 24 Decembre 1960. 



373 



List of Co-Workers in the Preparatory Steps and of 

Charter Members of the 
World Academy of Art and Science 



PIERRE CHOUARD 
RITCHIE CALDER 



Paris 
Aberdeen 



H. MUNRO Fox London 

JOSEPH NEEDHAM Cambridge, 

U.K. 

GEORGE LACIAVE'RE Paris 
G. LE LIONNAISE Paris 

ROBERT OPPENHEIMER Princeton 



Main International 
Organization 
(activities) 

Ecologist President, Division of Bota- 
ny, LU.B.S. 

Science President, Int. Association 

Writer of Science Writers 

Zoologist Past-President of LU.B.S. 
Biochemist, Co-Founder of UNESCO 
Historian, and first Director of its 
Orientalist Dept. of Natural Sciences 
Geophysicist Secretary-General of 

LU.G.G. 

Science Chairman, Round Table 

Writer Conference of UNESCO 

Physicist 



The following scientists have already sent their agreement to sign as charter mem- 
bers: - 



PIERRE AUGER 



I. BERENBLUM 



Paris 



Rehovot 



LORD J. BOYD-ORR Brechin 



Physicist 



Biologist, 
(Cancer- 
Research) 
Nutritionist 



Advisor and former Direc- 
tor of UNESCO, Dept. of 
Natural Sciences 



H. BOYKO 
LYLEK.BUSH 
G. BROCK CHISHOIM 
MAURICE EWING 



Rehovot 

Boston 

Victoria 

New York 



Founder and first Director 
General of FAO, Nobel Pri- 
ze Laureate 

Ecologist President, ICE; Vice-Presi- 
dent, ISBB 

Prof, of Art Member, Int. Preparatory 
Commission of WAAS 

Medicine Founder and first Director 
General of WHO 

Geophysicist President, Geophysical 
Union of America 



375 



PAUL FALLOT 


Paris 


Geologist 


R. M. FIELD 


South Duxbury 


Geologist 


F. R. FOSBERG 


Washington, 


Ecologist 




D.C. 




}. HEIMANNS 


Amsterdam 


Botanist 


A. KATCHALSKY 


Rehovot 


Physico- 






Chemist 


HAROLD D. LASSWELL 


New Haven 


Political 






Science 


W. C. DE LEEOT 


Leyden 


Plant socio- 






logist and 






philosopher 


P. MAHESHVARI 


Delhi 


Botanist 


]. VAN MlEGHEM 


Bruxelles 


Meteorologist 


THEODORE MONOD 


Dakar-Paris 


Zoologist 


STUART MUDD 


Philadelphia 


Microbio- 






logist 


HERMANN JOSEPH 


Bloomington 


Geneticist 


MULLER 






HUGO OSVALD 


Uppsala 


Agriculturist 


P. VAN OYE 


Ghent 


Hydrobiolo- 






gist 


FRANCIS PERRIN 


Paris 


Physicist 


A. DE PHILIPPIS 


Firence 


Forest 






Scientist 


JOHN F. V. PHILLIPS 


Southern 


Agricultural 




Rhodesia 


Ecologist 


CHRISTIAN POULSEN 


Kopenhagen 


Mineralogist 


B. PREGEL 


New York 


Physicist 


J. ROTBLAT 


London 


Physicist 


EARL BERTRAND 


U.K. 


Philosopher 


RUSSELL 






ARTHUR WILLIAM 


Calif. 


Forest 


SAMPSON 




Scientist 


M. J. SIRKS 


Wageningen 


Geneticist 


HARLAN T. STETSON 


Fort Landerdale, 


Astronomer 




Florida 




W.EG.SWANN 


Philadelphia 


Physicist 



(died shortly after signing 
as Charter Member) 
Past President, Geophysical 
Union of Amerika, Presi- 
dent, American Institute 
for Geonomy and Natural 
Resources 

Co-founder and Vice-Pre- 
sident, Int. Association for 
Tropical Ecology 

Vice-President, Israel 
Academy of Science 



President, Int. Association 
of Plantgeogr. and Ecology 



President, Royal Flemish 
Academy of Sciences; Vice- 
President, Int. Commission 
of Aerology, WMO 

President, Int. Association 
of Microbiological Societies 
Nobel Prize Laureate 



Vice-President, Int. Asso- 
ciation of Limnology 

Vice-President, Int. Union 
of Forest Research Stations 
Advisor of World-bank in 
African Problems 
President, Int. Union of Pa- 
leontology and Stratigraphy 
Past President, and Chair- 
man, Board, New York 
Academy of Science 
Hon. Secretary of, and Liai- 
son officer to Pugwash Con 
ferences 
Nobel Prize Laureate 



Past President, I.U.B.S. 



Director Emeritus, Bartold 
Research Foundation of the 
Franklin Institute 



376 



W. TAYLOR THOM, JR. Princeton 
SOLCO W. TROMP Oegstgeest 



HARLD C. UREY 
FRANS VERDOORN 



Calif. 
Utrecht 



WALTER W. WEISBACH The Hague 



Geologist 

Bioclimato- 
logist 
Chemist 
Botanist 

Physician 
(Hygiene and 
National 
Economy) 



Member, Preparatory Com- 
mission of WAAS 
Founder and Seer. General 
ISBB 

Nobel Prize Laureate 
President, Int. Commission 
for Biohistorical Science 



We miss the signatures of four great men who worked in this direction until their 

death: 

Sir IAN CLUNIES Ross, the famous Australian Biologist and Organisator of scientific 
research, who - full of enthusiasm - had just started to write his essay for our 
book "Science and the Future of Mankind", when sudden death ended his 
work 

JOHN A. FLEMING, the former President of the International Council of Scientific 
Unions, who organized, together with R. M. FIELD, the First Internat. Confe- 
rence on Science and Human Welfare in 1956, where the decision of this foun- 
dation was made 

HOMER LE ROY SHANTZ, the great Ecologist, who encouraged the plan by word and 
letter through the 3 years 1955-1958, and last but not least 

ALBERT EINSTEIN, the spiritual father of the idea. 

All four we can call - Charter members "posthumus". 



ABBREVIATIONS 

FAO Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations Organization 

ICE International Commission of Ecology of International Union of Bio- 
logical Sciences 

Int. International 

ISBB International Society of Bioclimatology and Biometeorology 

IUBS International Union of Biological Sciences 

IUGG International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy 

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 

UNO United Nations Organization 

WAAS World Academy of Art and Science 

WHO World Health Organization of United Nations Organization 

WMO World Meteorological Organization of United Nations Organization 



377 



Informatory Notes 



1. GENERAL REMARKS: 

The World Academy of Art and Science intends to publish 
periodically the results of its official investigations and dis- 
cussions on vital problems of mankind. These volumes 
will also contain general information about organiza- 
tional developments of the Academy (member lists, 
working groups, etc.) as an Appendix. 

2. CONTENTS OF THE NEXT VOLUME (VOL. II): 

Academy members and others have been approached by 
Circular letter for their opinion regarding priorities out 
of a list of vital problems. As a result of this "voting" by 
correspondence the next volume will deal with the global 
population problem and related problems (e.g. birth 
control, etc.), and with recommendations for their so- 
lution. In accordance with this decision the Secretary 
General has invited leading experts to join an appropriate 
working group of the World Academy and to contribute 
to the forthcoming Volume II. 

In connection with these preparatory steps the Secretary- 
General has also been approached by leading personalities 
of "The International Conference on the World Popu- 
lation Crisis" and has been asked to include the pro- 
ceedings of this important meeting into the forthcoming 

379 



volume. This Conference took place in New York City,. 
May, 1961, under the Chairmanship of Sir Julian Huxley 
with participants and lecturers from five continents, 
among them official representatives from various over- 
populated countries (Ceylon, China, India, Japan, Paki- 
stan, etc.). 

3. OFFICIAL NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE CENTRAL SECRETARIATE ; 
World Academy of Art and Science 
(An Agency for Human Welfare), 
i Ruppin Street, Rehovot, Israel. P.O. Box 534. 
Telephone: 951533 
Bank Account No. 211588 

Jacob Japhet and Co. Ltd., Bankers, 

Jerusalem, Israel. 



380 



(Continued from front flap) 

sible the total destruction of life as we know 
it. Recent breakthroughs have also placed 
man in a position where he may possess 
unique and hitherto undreamed-of control 
over his well-being. He could, the contribu- 
tors emphatically state, become the creator 
of the "good life," but whether he will or 
not depends on how realistically and crea- 
tively he can approach the obstacles in his 
way and handle the ''double-edged sword 
of knowledge/ 7 

Science and the Future of Mankind is the 
first volume to be published under the spon- 
sorship of the World Academy of Art and 
Science. Founded in 1960, this Academy 
was encouraged by the late Albert Einstein, 
who recognized the great social responsi- 
bility of men of creative genius, and issued 
a fervent plea for "a new kind of thinking in 
order that we may survive/ 7 As explicitly 
stated in Science and the Future of Man- 
kind, the World Academy of Art and 
Science aims to function as an extra-na- 
tional and extra-political forum in which 
the outstanding men of science and art of 
our time can objectively, from a "global 
point of view/ 7 discuss vital contemporary 
problems, and offer proposals for their 
solution. 



Jacket Design by Peter Oldenburg 

INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS 

BLOOMINGTON 




C 2 
CD < 



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