(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The science of nutrition"

UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

LIBRARY 




Book number 



389el 

At5S 



502981 

e»o 8—7671 



Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices 






THE 

SCIENCE OF NUTRITION, 

IN THREE PARTS. 



PART h 

TREATISE UPON THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

BY EDWARD ATKINSON, LL. D., PH. D. 



THE ALADDIN OVEN. 

INVENTED BY EDWfllD ATKINSON. 

WHAT IT IS. WHAT IT DOES. HOW IT DOES IT. 



PART 41! ? 

DIETARIES CAREFULLY COMPUTED 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF MRS. ELLEN H. RICHARDS. 

TESTS OF THE SLOW METHODS OF COOKING 
IN THE ALADDIN OVEN, 

BY MRS. MARY H. ABEL AND MISS MARIA DANEILL, 
With Instructions and Recipes. 

FOOD VALUE OF MATERIAL 

COMPUTED BY PROF. WM. O. ATWATER. 



APPENDIX: 

LETTERS AND REPORTS. 



Springfield, Mass., U. S. A. 

CLARK W. BRYAN & COMPANY. 

1891. 



THE ALADDIN OVEN. 




)8i 



INTRODUCTION. 



It had been my intention to adopt a m t n ime for this compendium 

of my experiments, and I am warranted only by the approval and advice of my 
scientific friends and co-laborers in a field that has yet been only partially explored 
in a lopting the form of my title. W ir aid and counsel I should have 

been able to give only a few ennle hints for others to work out. 

I have adopted a somewhat novel method of publication in order to make this 

treatise attractive to those who might be repelled by cold science, but who are not 

1 by the cold, or worse than cold ill tli sy are som stimes obliged 

nine. If my scientific readers are offended by the light touches and illustra- 

hev will observe that the latter are not paged and can be removed, perhaps 

tve a picture book for children. Better leave them in to attract children and 

them take an interest in the art of cooking, of which the writer learned the first 

nles when pounding tie' spice and cutting up the loaf sugar in the old family 

l, where all the work was done in the old-fashioned brick oven or in front of 

the open wood fire, before any emissary from the regions below had introduced the 

iron stove. 

In one of my earlier treatises upon the " Art of Cooking" I ventured to bring 
out the importance of this subject in the following terms: 

[Popular Science Monthly, November, 1889.] 

I will challenge attention and discussion by first submitting some very positive 
and dogmatic statements, subsequently sustaining them by such proofs as I have to 
offer: 

1. Special apparatus for broiling and frying has been adequately and suitably 
developed for the use of those who can afford these somewhat wasteful methods of 
preparing food, yet excellent when skillfully practiced. 

:l. The ordinary methods of frying are utterly bad and wasteful. 

3. Bread may be baked suitably in a brick oven and also economically when 
the work is done upon a large scale. 



4 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

4. It is very difficult to bake bread in a suitable way in the common iron stove 
or range; for this, among other reasons, most of the bread consumed in this country 
is very bad, although we have the greatest abundance of the best material. 

5. Meats may be well roasted, in a costly manner, before an open fire. 

6. Aside from the exceptional apparatus or methods named, substantially all 
the modern cooking stoves and ranges are wasteful and more or less unsuitable for 
use. All the ordinary methods of quick baking, roasting and boiling are bad; and, 
finally, almost the whole of the coal or oil used in cooking is wasted. 

7. The smell of cooking in the ordinary way gives evidence of waste of flavor 
as well as a waste of nutritious properties; in most cases the unpleasant smell also 
gives evidence that the food is being converted into an unwholesome condition, 
conducive to indigestion and dyspepsia. 

8. Nine-tenths of the time devoted to watching the process of cooking is 
wasted; the heat and discomfort of the room in which the cooking is done are 
evidence of worse than waste. 

9. The warming of the room or house with the apparatus used for cooking is 
inconsistent with the best method of cooking and might be compassed at much less 
cost if the process of cooking were separated from the process of warming the 
room or dwelling. 

10. ISTo fuel which cannot be wholly consumed is really fit to use in the process 
of cooking. 

The true science of cooking consists in the regulated and controlled application 
of heat, by which flavors are developed and the work of converting raw and 
indigestible material into nutritious food is accomplished. 

For this purpose the quantity of fuel required is almost absurdly small com- 
pared to the quantity commonly used. 

In establishing the standard of heat for different processes or different kinds 
of food I have found it rather difficult to measure the temperature of the oven in 
its everyday work, and I have also broken a good many high-grade thermometers in 
experimenting. I have one very useful cooking thermometer, which is made by 
Joseph Davis & Co., Fitzroy Works, London, S. E., but I can find nothing corre- 
sponding to it in this country. 

A simple method in experimenting is to place a small vessel containing lard oil 
on the same shelf with the food which is in process. Take the heat, on the comple- 
tion of the work, by immersing the bulb of the thermometer in the hot fat. 

I have also procured a large number of alloys or metals possessing different melt- 
ing points, of which I place small pieces alongside or inside the cooking vessels in 
small saucers, and in this way I can make a close approximation to the maximum 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 5 

heat. Once fairly established, the matter becomes simple by gauging the size of 
the burner to the size of the oven. 

I was led into my recent experiments in the art of cooking by dealing with the 
statistics of the cost of food to the multitude. It comes to one-half the cost of 
living or more, to at least nine-tenths of the people of this country and of every 
other country. The less the income the greater the proportion spent for food. 

My immediate incentivein trying to solve the practical problem was my happen- 
ing to be present, on a cold day. when a number of workmen in a mill which they 
were building were about to take their dinner. When they opened their dinner 
pails a mess of cold victuals "-a- disclosed, which seemed to me must require the 
digestive power of an ostrich to dispose of. This led me to take up again a line of 
experiments upon which I had begun many years before, hut had dropped. I had 
tried to make a cooking-pail which could be carried in the hand, and in which the 
workman could cook his dinner without any attention being required while he was 
at work. I have now accomplished this, but the way has been long, devious, waste- 
ful and costly and the device is uol yet in a commercial form. 

It may be observed that th ?s of almost all invention is from the simple, 

rude and laborious ways of the untaught, — through very complex and costly de- 
vice-, ending at last in the sine Is of the most effective and least arduous 
kinds. So it has been in the making of conking utensils and in the art of cooking. 
So it has been with my own efforts upon these lines. 

The final conclusions in which I have summed up the results of my experience 
may be laid down in the following very simple propositions, which any one can 
apply who knows how or who is willing to be taught. It is oftener the will than 
the capacity that is lacking. 

1st. The simple rule for making a cooking apparatus is as follows : 

Take a paper box, then take some heat from a lamp, put it into the box and 
keep it there. When you have enough heat in the box, having first put the food 
which is to be cooked into suitable pots or pans, put them into the box with the 
heat; keep them there until the heat and the food are combined; keep up the 
supply of heat from the lamp. (Aladdin Oven Patent 524,949.) 

2nd. The simple rule for learning how to prepare and how to cook food, is as 
follows : 

Take one part of gumption and one part of food ; combine them together in a 
dish in which the food may be cooked ; put that dish, as directed by rule No. 1, 
into the box where the heat is ; keep it in there long enough to cook the food. 

There is no mystery and no difficulty about either of these matters. Any boy 
or girl can be taught in one lesson how to master certain simple principles so as to 



6 THE SCIENCE OF NUTEITION". 

become a good plain cook, after sufficient practice — provided each already possesses 
the one part of gumption which must be combined with the food. All the cookery 
books and all the recipe books that I have ever read 'wholly omit this necessary 
ingredient. Those who do not yet know how to apply these two rules, may read 
this pamphlet ; some may perhaps profit by it. 

In order to make this description of the Aladdin Oven more attractive, I have 
ventured to illustrate it with some pen-and-ink drawings, accompanied by verses that 
are taken from a manuscript volume prepared by Miss Susan Hale, for the Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Fair, many years ago. I had the good fortune to draw this prize in a 
raffle. I have made some very slight adaptations in the rhymes, or have changed 
them in one or two cases, so that they may be suitable for my present purpose. 

When correcting the proofs of this text, the rules which I have laid down for 
making an oven and educating a cook suddenly took on an appearance of grotesque 
absurdity. Then I bethought me that any reader might say to himself, " What 
does this man mean? Does he himself more than half believe what he says? " And 
to that question my answer might be, ci /doubt if lie does." 

When we recall the fact that men of the highest scientific attainments have 
tried to solve this problem at various times, and have not found out the way, it 
really does seem rather absurd that my two rules should suffice. For instance, we 
may recall the work of the French inventor Papin, w T ho, more than two hundred 
3*ears ago, while engaged in the apparently more important work of laying the 
foundation for the modern steam-engine and while improving the air-pump, yet 
found time to invent the Papin soup-digester. That utensil remains in use under 
the inventor's name, down to the present day, a most durable monument. It is a 
most excellent utensil, but it is adapted only to the single purpose of utilizing soup 
stock, leaving nothing but the bones. It does not suffice for common use with us, 
because a great many of our working people declare that they do not want " bone soup/' 
and they stigmatize simmered food of the best kind under the name of "pig wash." 

Passing down over a century, the next name which at once comes up is that of 
Benjamin Thompson — Count Eumford. He devoted a lifetime to the study of 
heat, and he believed that by the invention of the Eumford oven he had solved the 
very problem on which we are still engaged. Yet the Eumford oven has gone 
almost wholly out of use, and Count Eumford did not accomplish his purpose, be- 
cause he had not a cheap fuel which could be regulated and completely consumed 
in the process of heating the oven. Mineral oil had not been discovered and even 
coal was not much in household use. In other words, the true science of cooking 
waited for the invention of methods of making gas, for the discovery of kerosene 
oil and for the conversion of wood into wood pulp or " indurated fibre." 



THE SCIENCE 01 N UTRITION. 7 

Again, consider the constant effort of inventors in the improvement of the iron 
cooking range and the iron cooking stove. Witness their mis- directed efforts to 
ventilate ovens and draw off the vapor generated in the oven from the food ; which 
is precisely what ought not to be done when the heat is under proper regulation. 
Witness their efforts to enable every one to cook food quickly, which is ab- 
solutely the wrong way in nine times out of ten. Witness all the other devices 
which have been applied to the perfection of the iron stove : yet the common iron 
stove remains an infernal machine, almost unfit t be used, even by the intelligent, 
in any t rue mel hod o' cooking, and incapable of being applied to any really scientific 
process of cooking 

When we recall all tie and efforts, it really does seem absurd that 

any one should claim to have found out a way by which a boy or girl, in whose 
training a little gumpl ion has been developed and who never cooked anything before, 
can be taughl in one hour the simple principles, which after sufficient practice will 
enable them to take sonic heat from the top of a lamp, to put it into a box and then 
to subject all kinds oi meat, game, poultry, fish, fruit, grain and vegetables to this 
beat in such a way, that the most skillful ''Chef" or " Cordon Blue" will fail by 
parison in developing the finest natural flavor of each distinct variety of food. 
It in.< absurd : nevertheless, it seems to be a fact. 

I can only explain this case by taking over to myself a story which is told 
about the invention of what is called the California pump; one of the simplest 
devices for the rough work of draining. It consists of a slanting trough in which 
revolves a leather belt, across which belt strips of wood are nailed. When the man 
who first adapted this pump to draining a ditch showed it to one of his neighbors, 
never thinking that there was anything very wonderful about it, his neighbor's 
comment was this: ''Why, Jim, that is so simple that nobody but a fool would 
ever have thought of it." That is about the aspect in which the Aladdin Oven and 
the Workman's Pail are presented to my alter ego. When my double takes himself 
a little way off, so as to be able to look back on what the other fellow is trying to 
do ; or in order to comprehend what his practical representative is occupied about 
in the material work of mundane existence; he sometimes puts the question to me, 

[From the Nation, No. 1361.] 
* " If we consider that wonderful work of human hands, tLe kitchen range, under the management of the 
regular cook, who knows how to put on all the draught at once and keep it on, what a devourer of fuel it is ! We 
need a cup of tea or a chop in summer, and a fire is kindled that would generate steam enough to drive an ocean 
racer a mile upon her course, the kitchen is turned into a Tophet, the miserable servants swelter in the apart- 
ments which their own stupidity and that of mankind have rendered uninhabitable, and their employers are 
rendered uncomfortable above. The extravagance of the Chinese, who, as related by Charles Lamb, at first 
thought it necessary to burn down a house whenever they wanted to i - nothing to ours. In place of 

all these trials, heating gas is now supplied to those who have the wit to use it and the enterprise to supply them- 
selves with gas ranges, which can be lighted and extinguished in a moment." 



8 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

or I put it to him, or we put it to both of us : " Do you really suppose that you 
have accomplished the work which Count Rumford undertook, and ih not bring 
into practical form?" It remains for others and not for me or my double to answer 
this question. 

It has taken me a long time to put myself in a position to have the question 
asked, but it has lately been answered by a cloud of witnesses. 

In dealing with the preparation of food I have been led to give some considera- 
tion to the possible increase in the variety and in the quantity of our food supply. 

I will treat only one or two points in this connection — it opens a broad field. 

To the uninstructed mind it hardly seems as if our scientists bad given suffi- 
cient attention to the nutrition either of the animal or the plant in the utilization 
of the leguminous plants classed as pulse, i.e., pease and beans in great variety. In 
a recent investigation (in 1888) of the wheat supply of the world, I was much 
struck with the statement made by Dr. George Watts, Reporter on Economic Prod- 
ucts to the Government of India, that the limit of exports of wheat from India 
had probably been reached, because no more land within easy reach of railways or 
waterways could be spared from the cultivation of rice and pulse. Rice alone, con- 
sisting too much of starch, would not give vigor; the pulse furnishes the necessary 
nitrogen. The farmers of the Southern states, who cannot produce ripened corn 
for milling in competition with the West, can yet produce corn stalks for the silo in 
excessive abundance. In their cottonseed meal they have a fat-producing food also 
full of phosphates, and in the cow-pea vine they have a plant of almost unequalled 
power in renovating the soil when plowed under; also of the utmost value when 
mixed with corn stalks in the silo, making a complete food, even for working cattle 
and mules. 

I also infer from this report of Dr. Watts that we yet know but little in this 
country about many varieties of rice and of pulse. Prof. Church states that "rice is 
more largely grown and consumed as food than any other cereal. Alone, however, it 
is not a perfect food, being deficient in albuminoids and in mineral matters." In 
speaking, however, of the food of the Japanese, he remarks that " both swamp rice 
and mountain rice, when grown in Japan, contain a higher percentage of albumin- 
oids than is usual with this grain." What is mountain rice? 

In respect to one variety of pulse, the Soy or Soja bean, Prof. Church remarks: 
"The Soy bean is entitled to the highest place, even amongst the pulses, as a food 
capable of supplementing the deficiencies of rice or other starchy grains. Very 
few vegetable products are so rich as this bean, at once in albuminoids and in fat 
and oil, the former constituent averaging 35 per cent, and the latter 18 or 19." 

At the time of the Cotton Exposition, in Atlanta, 1881, I imported from China 



HIM AND HIS DOUBLE. 



One said it couldn't be, 
Then t'other said it could; 

One said, " You only wait and see' 
Then t'other said he would. 



They waited hours five or more 

For an ancient fowl to cook; 
Then served it with some butter sauce, 

And each his knife uptook. 

At first they ate the dark meat, 

And then they ate the light; 
And then they picked clean all the bones 

And took the last, last bite. 

Six pounds that ancient fowl did weigh, 

But, when they had got through, 
Each one unto the other said: 

"'Twas quite enough for one, indeed, 
but not enough for two/' 




THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 9 

two or three bushels of Soy beans, which were distributed from there. I have lately 
seen several references to their cultivation in Southern agricultural journals. The 
sugar planters of Louisiana have only within very recent years discovered the fer- 
tilizing properties of cottonseed meal; the Chinese have used bean meal as a fertilizer 
for centuries. 

Dr. Watts remarks in the report to which I have referred: " There are rices 
that can be cultivated on comparatively dry soils, rices that occupy the ground more 
than half the year, rices that grow in perate climates, and rices that can 

tli rive only in tropical swamps." 

Speaking of pulse, he says: " The pulses alone occupy more ground than either 
wheat or rice. " He also gives a list of the principal varieties, as follows: S( Gram 
or Chicken pea, Dal or Thur, Mung, Urad, Moth, Shim, Poput, Kulthi." "The 
Dal is a large woody shrub sown around the n of the fields, or in rows through 

wheat and cotton. It does not, therefore, interfere with wheat cultivation. All 
the other pulses or leguminous crops are procumbent herbs." 

If another great crop of cotton should so reduce the price as to force a variation 
in Southern farming with a little more rapidity, it might prove to be a blessing in 
ill-', uise. Would it not be judicious to procure the seed of mountain rice from 
Japan, of upland rice from India, and might it not be judicious to add to the Soja 
of China the Dal, Poput and Gram from the northwestern or temperate sections of 
India? 

The last time I was at Columbia, S. C, I was told that the Pea Ridge farmers, 
were thriving, who had learned to nourish the poor soil of the ridges, from which 
the original fertility of the land had been washed down into the bottom lands, by 
turning under the Cow-pea vines, while the planters on the bottoms, whose life in 
old times used to be so easy, were no longer prospering. Would it not be judicious 
for Governor Tillman to send to India for some " Dal," and would it not be pru- 
dent for the Southern Farmers' Alliance to let our silver go to India in exchange 
for some " Poput " and " Gram," instead of keeping it here to debase our credit? 

Prof. Atwater tells us that nitrogen is the most important and most costly 
element in the nutrition of man, as it also is in the nutrition of the soil. 

Here is a great class of nitrogenous pulses waiting to be imported. Perhaps 
they are no better than our native cow-pea vines, but who knows? What do we 
know about English horse-beans or Indian pulse? Why should Englishmen enjoy 
" Stachys Tubifera " from Japan while we have it not? A new tuber might give 
as pleasant a sensation as a new lily. 

The science of nutrition leads one very far afield, and unless I stop here on this 
subject the introduction may become longer than the main treatise. 



10 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

CONCLUSION. 

I have not hesitated to take the somewhat unusual methods which I have 
adopted in preparing and publishing this pamphlet, in order to assure the wide 
circulation of the theories, the facts and the figures which are printed herein. A 
true economy in the use of food and the attention which is demanded by the art of 
nutrition have failed until very lately to receive the attention that is due to their 
importance. 

Unless one is prepared to spend a small fortune in the ordinary modes of 
advertisement, or unless one invents some new method of securing public attention 
by exciting curiosity, as I have attempted to do in this pamphlet, the spread of 
information on any given subject is about as slow and difficult as it is to accomplish 
the object aimed at in the processes about which the information is sought to bo 
given. I have known most useful and valuable inventions to be delayed for many 
years for want of the means, the capacity or push necessary to force them into 
public notice ; some have been delayed so long that the inventors have died poor ; 
one known to me even committed suicide in despair. I doubt not many valuable 
devices have been wholly lost for the time being, both to the inventor and to the 
public, on this account. 

How to avoid the ways of the vendors of quack medicines, and at the same 
time to secure public attention, is a difficult problem ; yet more difficult when the 
subject of notice is one of which the vendor desires to promote the sale for other 
purposes than personal profit, or to which he cannot give the time or attention 
which would be necessary in order to make a sufficient profit corresponding to his 
effort. It is not my purpose to go into an extensive manufacture of ovens on my 
own account, unless I am obliged to do it lest the possible benefit of my work should 
be lost. If my ovens are justified in use, they may soon be taken up by those who are 
more conversant with the business than I am ; then my own profit or royalty on the 
patent, if any, may be devoted to the further development of the science of 
nutrition, 

Edward Atkinson. 




Old Father Longtime 

Was so very tall, 
He looked over bouses, 

Chimney and all. 
When the church clock wanted winding 

He stood on the ground, 
And reached out his hand 

To turn the key round. 

(X. B. — He grew up before the Aladdin 
Oven was invented.) 



PART 1. 

TREATISE UPON 

THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



SUBSTANCE OF A LECTURE DELIVERED IN" THE LAAV LECTURE ROOM OF COLUM- 
BIA College, New York, at the Instance of Prof. Thomas Egleston 
— Subsequently Amended and Completed. 

xtctdies and Gentlemen: 

Before presenting my subject, permit me to say that what I have written is not 
intended for publication as a conclusive statement. It is wholly tentative and is 
incomplete. 

If this treatise should be printed in its present form I must append to it the 
caveat to which I was accustomed when I earned my living as an accountant : 
"E. & 0. E."— "Errors and Omissions Excepted." 

You may be learning the alphabet while I have got as far as words of three 
letters in the study of the subject which is to be dealt with to-day. 

What I shall exhibit to you in the product of these ovens and cooking pails 
will speak for itself,, and may be" fully reported according to the facts. 

I understand these meetings to have been arranged by Prof. Egleston in order 
that I might bring before you some evidences of the progress that I have made in 
applying scientific methods to practice in the most necessary of all the arts, this art 
of nutrition. Yet I am not a scientist, therefore all my own work is empirical, 
tentative and crude. It merely opens the way in # to a field where true science needs 
to be applied, but which is as yet almost unoccupied. 

Since I have ventured almost alone to work in this field upon an entirely new 
method, you will pardon me if I am obliged to speak in the first person singular. 

At first I found it very difficult to overcome the sense of its being quite unfit 
for -me to speak to women about the art of cooking, or to physicians upon the 
science of nutrition. I have, however, put aside that feeling since I have dis- 
covered what my mission in the world is. I suppose every one has a mission, 
whether conscious or unconscious of it. My own mission appears to be to overcome 
the inertia of woman ; a very hard piece of work. 

Five or six years since the namps of proteids, albuminoids and carbo-hydrates 
conveyed no meaning to my mind except as having something to do with raising fat 
cattle and feeding pigs. 



12 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

I have, however, a propensity for statistics, although no one values figures less 
or distrusts them more than I do, unless I can wrest from them their true meaning. 
In some of my social studies the figures disclosed to me the rather appalling fact, 
namely, — that the price of life to about nine-tenths of the people of this land of 
abundance comes to one-half or more of their incomes; the supply of food being 
the source of material life. In other words, half the cost of living or more is spent 
for food material by the vast majority of the people of this and every other land. 
When I fully comprehended what these figures meant, my interest in the victualling 
department became aroused. 

At about the time, some five years since, when these figures had interested me, 
after a long rest from any practical work in the food question, I happened to be 
passing over a new factory then in process of construction, which was to be insured 
in the Factory Mutual Insurance Company, Of which I am president. It was the 
noon hour and the workmen were optning their dinner pails. When I saw what 
was in them my interest in the victualling department took on a practical direction. 
I made up my mind that I would invent a cooking pail in which a workman might 
carry his food to the place of his work, cook it after he got there, and have a hot 
and nutritious dinner at 12 o'clock. Incomplete and somewhat clumsy as these 
pails which are before you may be, I am very far on toward the accomplishment of 
my purpose. All inventions help each other. I shall soon be in possession of a new 
"burner, which is already invented for a kerosene lamp, by means of which such per- 
fect combustion of kerosene oil may be assured as perhaps to require no glass 
chimney. It will need only a perforated plate for a wind guard. I shall then 
be able to attach a platform to the bottom of my pail on which I may place a small 
lamp which will do the cooking in the two cooking boxes, which can be put inside 
the pail, each containing one pound of food ; one day a meat stew in one of the 
boxes, oatmeal in the other ; another day, a fish chowder in one, and an apple 
dumpling in the other. 

In the use of these pails the question is no longer with me, " What can I do ? " 
but " What can I not do?" The work is almost incredible that may be done in 
this simple device. When the lamp and pail are all in one piece, that can be carried 
in one hand, less cumbrous than even this one, my mission to the workman will 
have been accomplished. He may find a suitable place, either in doors or out of 
doors, to hang up the pail, where it will be out of the way of sharp winds ; light the 
lamp, and at noon have his hot, nutritious and perfectly digestible meal ready for 
him to partake of.' 

In my progress toward this objective point I have, according to the common 
custom, worked by devious ways. I have wasted a good deal of money and a good 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 13 

deal of time, mainl T because I am not a master of any science and because my prac- 
tice is wholly empirical. In my profession I am, however, obliged to take note of 
the progress of almost all the sciences, and the rule is about the same ; through 
devious and complex methods to ultimate simplicity. Yet more : I am very often 
called upon to take note of the many things which* science has not yet accomplished, 
or has only partly accomplished. In the little lamp in which the complete com- 
bustion of a small quantity of liquid fuel may be accomplished without a chimney, 
I may find evidence that I have not been far wrong in a remark that I have often 
made about the combustion of fuel under boilers for the purpose of making steam, 
to wit : that even when we have applied all the knowledge that science has yet im- 
parted to us, our ignorance of the true method of converting coal into power may 
be measured by the height of our chimneys and by the strength of the draught or 
blast that we must apply in order to keep up the combustion of the coal. I think 
gaseous fuel mnst soon come into almost universal use, for smelting, generating 
steam, and for cooking also. 

If that remark has any approach to being true in respect to the combustion of 
fuel under the modern boiler, how much greater our ignorance must be in the 
application of coal to the processes of cookiug. If a small part of the paper upon 
which this treatise is written were compressed and made use of in the way that coal 
is now consumed in the modern marine boiler to drive the engine of the steamship, 
this paper would serve to generate force enough to drive much more than a ton of 
food and its proportion of a freight steamer two miles upon the sea, and yet in the 
best marine boilers and engines I believe less than twelve per cent, of the potential 
of the fuel consumed is converted into work. Yet such is our ignorance of the 
right methods of applying heat to the cooking of food in our common iron stoves 
or ranges, that we burn more pounds of coal than the. number of pounds of food to 
which the heat is to be applied. If the common range or stove now in position in 
your dwellings were used only for heating the kitchen, boiling water, boiling 
potatoes and heating water for circulation through the house, the saving of the 
mere excess of coal which is now burned in order to force the oven to a heat suitable 
for quick cooking would weigh more than the food to which that heat is applied. 
I think, but I am not sure on this point, that one-half or more of the coal which is 
now used to do the cooking, as well as to warm the kitchen and heat water, may be 
saved by the adoption of my apparatus for the cooking, while only depending on the 
ordinary range or stove for the rest of the service. That is the testimony of my 
cook in my own winter house, where my kitchen is very large and is on the north 
side, on the top of a hill in the country. At my summer place by the sea-side I 
have not had a pound of coal on the premises for three years. We burn a little 



14 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

wood in the "cooking stove for special purposes, but the greater part of our worK is 
done in my ovens. 

Yet thjs saving of fuel is the matter of the very least relative importance, if I 
may safely accept the conclusions which others have reached en the testimony of 
now nearly two hundred witnesses. It almost required this great mass of testimony 
to convince myself of the facts in this case, and to give me the necessary confidence 
to appear before you and others. 

It is the waste of food and the conversion of good food into bad feeding that is 
the motive of my work and of this address. 

I may perhaps venture to name this treatise a ie Sermon upon the Potato 
Gospel/' borrowing that phrase from Carlyle. If it is a sermon of serious purport, 
as I think it may be entitled to be called, I may divide it into the customary three 
parts of a discourse : 

1st. The Selection of Food. 

2nd. The Preparation of Food. 

3rd. The Application of Heat to its Chemical Conversion. 

As to the last title, one may perhaps ask, Why use three long words and five 
short ones? Why not say "cooking" at once, and have done with it? I will 
presently give yon good reasons for my choice of this phrase. 

In regard to the selection of food. If it were a question of feeding horses, cows 
or pigs, all the necessary information conld be found in almost innumerable pop- 
ular treatises, magazines and agricultural papers. Any one can learn in a day how 
much and what to give to a trotting horse ; how much and what to feed to a work- 
ing horse ; how much and what to put before a milch cow or a pair of oxen ; but if 
one of yon had asked, only a little while since, how to select the right ingredients 
and proportions of food for the nutrition of men and women, y.ou could only be 
referred to some abstruse and scientific treatises. Even yet the more popular 
treatises of Prof. Atwater, of Prof. Church, of Sir Henry Thompson, of Miu Ellen 
H. Kicharcls and others, are apparently but little known ; while Mrs. Abel's " Lomb 
prize essay" upon cooking is the only American cookery book known to me in which 
any exact instructions are given for working with a measured heat. If there are 
any cookery books except French, known to any one among my hearers, in which 
the heat that is to be applied is defined in anything but general terms, — such as a 
slow oven or a quick oven, — I should be glad to have the title of the work. 

Again, every one who has anything to do with horses or cows knows the differ- 
ence between oats and corn; between horse hay and rowen. He may even know 
that the proteids or nitrogenous elements of the oats are required to maintain the 
muscular energy of the horse. He may know that the fat in Indian corn, cracked, 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 15 

can be assimilated by the working horse, generating greater but slower force. He 
may know that the fall proportion of starch (carbo-hydrates) must go either with 
the nitrogen or fat in due proportion. To how many has it ever occurred that 
there should be as definite instructions for feeding men and women as there now 
are for feeding horses and cows? The food of men must be suitable to the kind of 
work and to the intensity of the work — so that it may be assimilated. Each 
human being must have the true proportion of proteid, of fat and of star alt, with 
lesser proportions of the mineral salts ; else, even with an abundance, he may not be 
well nourished. True, that through a process of natural selection, and by way of 
experience without scientific knowledge, each race and each nation has found out 
the kind of food or the combinations that will give the right proportions of nutri- 
ents at the least cost. But as a rule the food of men and women is served without 
the slightest attention to proportions or to waste, following only, under the pressure 
of necessity, a sort of blind instinct. I do not propose to bring each man or each 
woman to a measured quantity every day. That would be very foolish to undertake ; 
but may there not be certain broad and general rules, which, when once laid down, 
may serve to give direction to the purchase of food material, thereby assuring full 
nutrition with the saving of that vast waste which is almost a disgrace to this 
nation? 

The chemical standards of nutrition which have been established by Professor 
Yoit and others in Germany, by Sir Lyon Playfair in England, by Dr. Pavey, and 
other competent authorities, vary in some measure from the American standard. 
What I name the American standard is that which has been elaborated mainly 
through the investigations of Professor William 0. At water, Mrs. Ellen H. Eich- 
ards, and others. It contains a somewhat larger proportion of fat than the Euro- 
pean dietaries ; perhaps thereby becoming more suitable to the colder and more 
changeable conditions of the climate of the northern section of the United States, 
and to the more energetic life of our people. 

Prof. Atwater has converted the chemical units of nutrition in all these various 
dietaries into units of heat or Calories. At this standard they are all substantially 
alike even though they vary in some measure in their chemical elements. It is pos- 
sible that the prof essor has builded better than he knew. 

We may now adopt the Calory as the unit of nutrition. It may then become 
a very simple matter to prepare rules and tables that shall be a true guide to intel- 
ligent persons in the purchase and in the consumption of food; not day by day, but 
by the adoption of standards corresponding in every way to the chemical elements 
and to the units of heat, say for thirty days. I think we may even put the whole 
art of nutrition by and by, into the common school arithmetics, in the form of 



16 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

examples of addition, multiplication and the like; it seems to me that they would 
be very much better lessons for children than many of the logical puzzles in figures 
which I have found in the school arithmetics that are wholly unfit to be there; per- 
plexing children instead of teaching them. 

I have made some progress in this matter, and I will hereafter submit some of 
the results in the form of tables. They have not yet been revised by competent 
authorities to the full extent, but are in a broad and general way consistent with 
the true standards of nutrition. 

The Calory or mechanical unit of heat may well be adopted as the unit of 
capacity for work either mental or manual — either with hand or brain. In its 
application to food material it works its conversion into nutritious food, and in the 
further conversion of the food by assimilation to the sustenance of the body it is 
the synonym for healthy existence, strength and activity. To the direction of this 
force, and to the end that it may make and not mar wholesome living, attention is 
now being given. 

The exact standard of nutrition for a man at active but not excessive work is 
700 grams of actual nutritive and digestible material free of water; 450 of carbo- 
hydrates or starch; 150 of fats; 150 of protein; with such mineral ingredients as 
will be found in any miscellaneous dietary in sufficient measure. These element? 
will yield 3,520 Calories or mechanical units of heat, the Calory being the amount or 
heat necessary to raise one kilo or 1,000 grams of water one degree centigrade. 0/ 
course persons vary in the quantity of food which can be assimilated, according to 
many varying conditions of life. 

In order to make allowance for unavoidable waste we may safely adopt -1.000 
Calories as the average units of nutrition for a man at active but not excessive work 
for one day. 

On this unit we may make variations by percentage in ratio to the kind of 
work done, the sex and the weight of the consumer. 

In about the ordinary proportions of grain, meat and vegetables in which food 
is purchased, I find that one pound containing the proportions of starch, fat and 
nitrogen required by the American standard yields about 1,200 Calories. 

A day's ration of 4,000 Calories therefore calls for three and one-third to threb 
and a half pounds of food material of the ordinary kinds. Tea, coffee and the 
sugar and cream used therein, water or other liquids consumed as beverages, not 
being included in this computation. Beverages, except cocoa, possess but little 
food value. 

Now, while it might be unreasonable to expect an exact measure or unit of 
nutrition to be adopted and put in practice day by day, it becomes a very simple 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 17 

matter to establish a rule for the purchase of 100 pounds of food per mouth, or 
thirty days' rations at three and one-third to three and a half pounds each. 

As a tentative measure yet to be more accurately computed, I have made the 
following table consistently with those general rules. 

It is not a fancy table. In order to get a true basis for the retail prices of the 
cheaper kinds of food in Boston, some of which, notably the prices of potatoes and 
of course hominy or samp, are very high, I employed a lady who is much interested 
in this matter to get prices in Boston at the South End, the superintendent of a 
branch of the New England Kitchen at the North End, the colored cook who is 
employed in my office kitchen at the West End, and my office boy, a bright lad, to 
get prices in the neighborhood of our largest market — Quincy Market. I averaged 
these four returns in making this table, and I have printed them all in one of my 
circulars. 

My first table is made on the basis of the cheaper kinds of meat and fish and 
the best kinds of flour, grain and vegetables, all bought at retail. There is a con- 
siderable margin for reduction if these articles were bought in large quantities. If 
bread is bought rather than baked at home on my methods, the price of bread 
taken at two and a half cents a pound must be doubled in Boston. In New York 
you can buy better bread at three cents a pound cash at Mr. Samuel Howe's National 
Bakeries than we can get in Boston at six cents. 

In reducing the pounds of food to nutrients and Calories I have assumed that 
the meat and vegetables will be purchased in variety and I have therefore taken 
the average of each class of foods in my computation. 

Thirty days' rations, yielding substantially 1,200 Calories per pound, in the 
proportion of three elements of starch to one of protein and one of fat. 

Milk may be substituted for some of the meat fat or pork, but of course in much 
larger measure by weight. 

See subsequent tables given in Part II, which have been carefully corrected 
since this lecture was given. 

Table No. 1 is now given as an example. This is given in place of a less accu- 
rate dietary which was given in the original lecture. 



18 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION 



Dietary No. 1, for 30 Days. 

Suitable in nutrients (protein, starch and fats) and in Calories or mechanical 
equivalents of heat, to the full nutrition of an adult, occupied in work which gives 
moderate exercise. Price of flour by the sack or barrel — all other prices for small 
quantities at retail. 

CONSTANTS SUITABLE TO DIETARIES 1 TO 12, INCLUSIVE. 



22 lbs. Flour at 2^ cts. 

3 " Oatmeal, at 4 ets. 

3 " Cornmeal, at 3 cts. 

6 " Hominy, at 4^ cts. 

2 " Butter, at 28 cts. 

2 " Suet, at 6 cts. 

10 " Potatoes, at 2^ cts. 

2 ' ' Sugar, at 5 cts. 

3 l £ Cabbage, at 3 cts. 
2 " Carrots, at 2% cts. 
2 " Onions, at 5j£ cts. 



.55 
.12 
.09 
.27 
.56 
.12 
.25 
.10 
.09 
.05 
.11 



57 



2.31 



CONSTANTS IN QUANTITY, VARIABLE IN PRICE ACCORDING TO KIND AND QUALITY. 



ovv priced. 






12 ibs. Beef, neck or shin, 


at 6 cts. . 


.72 


5 ' ' Mutton, neck, at 8 cts. 


.30 


4 " Bacon, at 12 cts. 


, 


.48 


2 ' ' Beef liver, at 6 cts. 


. . 


.12 


1 '* Veal, at 8 cts. . 


. . 


.08 


1 l ' Pork, at 8 cts. . 


. 


.08 



25 

82 lbs. total, 30 days, . 
2 73-100 lbs. for one day, 
Cost per week, 



1.78 Calories, 24,256 

$4.09 104,026 

.136 3,467 
.952 



With less meat and fat and more vegetables and milk the weight will be greater. 

The exact standards of American nutrition are much higher than those of 
Europe, as they may well be in order that the much higher rates of wages which 
our people earn may be fully justified and sustained by the greater amount of 
potential energy which our abundant product of food enables us to supply at low 
cost. They are as follows: 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



19 





With Waste 


Exact. 


Added. 


4,060 


Calories, 4,600 


3,520 


" 4,000 


2,815 


" 3,200 


2,300 


" 2,600 



No. 1. Man at hard work, .... 

" 2. Man at moderate work, .... 

" 3. Man at light exercise or woman at moderate work, 

11 4. Woman at light exercise, 

On this basis, on the cost of the foregoing standard, Class 1 would require 
daily: 

3 7-8, say 4 lbs. food, about 1,200 Calories per lb., at 5 cents per lb., . . 20 cts. 
Class 2. 

3 3-8, say 3 1-2 lbs. food, about 1,200 Calories per lb., at 5 cents per lb., . 17 1-2 cts. 
Class 3. 

2 5-8, say 2 3-4 lbs. food, about 1,200 Calories per lb., at 5 cents per lb., . 13 3-4 cts. 
Class 4. 

2 1-8, say 2 1-4 lbs. food, about 1,200 Calories per lb., at 5 cents per lb., . 12 1-2 cts. 

On a minimum basis, therefore, yet one which may be readily adopted, the 
nutritive material which is necessary for a man at hard work in Boston can be pur- 
chased in small quantities at retail prices at 20 cents a day or $1.40 per week. 

For a man at moderate work, at 17-J cents a day or $1.22-§- per week. 

For a man at light exercise or a woman at moderate work, at 13f cents a day 
or .96 \ per week. 

For a woman at light exercise, at 12£ cents a day or .87£ per week. 

As these purchases would be made in pounds, and as in every element a suitable 
addition has been made for what may be called reasonable waste, the common 
measure would be substantially as follows: 



PER DAY 



Meats,. 

Suet or Fat, 

Salt Pork, 

Butter, 

Fish, . 

Bread, 

Hominy, Oat and Corn Meal, 

Beans or Pease, 

Sugar, 

Roots and other Vegetables, 



about 10 ( 
1 
1 

1 1-2 
3 
14 



3 
12 1-2 



54 ounces. 



That does not sound like a very meagre diet. 



20 THE SCIEXCE OF NUTRITION. 

If eggs are added at four per week at 3 cents each (city prices for fresh eggs), .12 cts. 

With fruit at per week, . . . . . . . . .09 " 

Tea and Coffee, ......... .07 " 

Four cents per day, ........ .28 cts. 

the unit of nutrition at the low priced standard would be as follows: 

PER DAY. 

Class 1, Required Food, 20 Add Eggs, Fruit and Beverage at 4 cts., .24 

" 2, " " 17 1-2 " " " " " at 4 '• .211-2 

" 3, " " 13 3-4 " " " " " at 4 " .17 3-4 

u 4> 4 < « 12 i_2 " « « " « at 4 " .16 1-2 

PER WEEK. 

Class 1, $1.88 including Eggs, Fruit and Beverages. 

" 2, 1.50 1-2 " " " " 

" 3, 1.24 1-2 

" 4, 1.15 1-2 " " " " 

I am not yet prepared to say how much this ration No. 1 would weigh with the 
water added in the processes of cooking. 

The bread is computed with the water in it which the flour takes up at 40 per 
cent, on the weight of flour. 

Meats and fish may be combined with water in different portions. As the 
coarse or tough parts are better in soups, stews and hashes, the water added would 
be in large proportion. 

Hominy and meal take up several times their weight in water, while vegetables 
shrink both in the preparation and in cooking. I should think this unit of nutri- 
tion at three and one-third pounds would weigh about five pounds after cooking. 
I am too much of a sedentary man, and I find that my average ration of cooked 
food with water taken up in the process, aside from beverages, is about three and a 
half pounds, and on the basis of the dietary submitted I could live well at 81 per 
week. 

In anticipation of this meeting I devoted Fast Day, April 2d, to some experi- 
ments. I caused one of my ovens to be substantially filled with food, in eight 
combinations. This experiment is repeated in one of these ovens to-night, which 
we will presently open. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



21 



The food purchased was as follows, at Brookline prices: 



2 lbs 


. Shin Beef, without 


2 " 


Veal, 


2 l> 


tWf Liver, 


12 " 


Bacon, 


2 


Mutton flank, 


1 i i 


S et, 


2 


Halibut Nape, 


1-2 " 


Salt Pork, 



MEAT AND FISH, 



o cents, 



12 lbs. Meat Fat and Fish, 

1 lb. Hominy, 

3-4 " Oatmeal, 
1 " Corn Meal, 

1-4 k ' Rice, 



3 1b= 



4 lbs. Potatoes, 

1 " Turnips, ouions, etc., 

5 lbs. 

4 lbs., 2 quarts, Skimmed milk, 
Salt, Spice, etc., say 



GRAIN. 



VEGETABLES. 



.14 
.10 
.16 
.07 
.10 
.05 
.10 
.06 



.04 
.03 
.03 
,02 



.10 

.05 



.78 



.12 



.15 

.16 
.04 



$1.25 



20 lbs. solid, ....... 

4 ' ' liquid, 
12 u water, 

36 lbs. Put into the oven at 9.30 a. m. 
Removed from oven at 2 p. m. 
Weight of cooked food, 32 lbs. 
Loss by evaporation of water, 4 lbs. 

I have not computed the Calories or nutrients in this quantity. It is intended 
to show what can be done in one oven at one time. It took somewhat less than one 
hour to prepare the eight combinations, namely one dish each: Beef and hominy 
hash; veal, hominy and tomato; mutton stew; liver and bacon with corn meal; 
halibut nape and potato, baked; oatmeal, plain; poor man's pudding; baked Indian 
pudding. 



22 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

Yon may presently test the quality of these combinations. We have put in 
forty pounds this time and may take out thirty-five to thirty-six. 

With such a lot of food, strong in fat and nitrogen, theie should be at least 
twelve pounds of bread and twelve pounds of vegetables, say twenty-four pounds 
at two and a half cents=. 60. 

24 lbs. added, . . . . . . . . .60 

36 lbs. cooked as recited, ...... 1.25 

Add for dried apple sauce or some cheap kind of fruit, . . .15 

Total, 60 lbs., at a cost of $2.00 

You don't half believe it. Nor did I until I had proved it more than once. 
Presently you shall have an object lesson when this oven is opened. 

Now, if my methods of combining nutrition and arithmetic by the standard of 
Calories and nutrients has no other result, it may lead to as much attention being 
given to the nutrition of the human beings in city institutions as is given to feeding 
the horses in the city stables. From some communications that have been made to 
me I am inclined to think that right at this point is a place for scientific charity. 

I gave a seven-course dinner party at my house a few days since to my whist 
club and friends, including oranges and coffee, which cost thirteen cents each for 
food material. Each cigar consumed after dinner cost more than the dinner. 

I lately gave a dinner of four courses, soup, fish, meat and vegetables, and 
mush with molasses for dessert, to nine of the poorer students at Harvard who 
want to economize, and there were three others. Each had a pound and a half of 
strong food. The cost for the twelve was sixty-one cents. 

The quantity of oil of 150 degree flash test that will be consumed on this forty 
pounds of food will be one and a half pints at one and a half cents per pint, two and 
a quarter cents. 

There may be some variations to be made on the American standard. 

In the judgment of Sir Henry Thompson, with whom I consulted personally, 
we concentrate our food a great deal too much in this country; we fine down our 
flour and lose in nutrition as well as in bulk; we also eat too much meat and fat. 
Moreover, the ration of meat and fat which may serve us well in winter may serve 
us ill in summer. 

In order to meet these variations we may change the thirty day dietary. 
When we substitute more grain and vegetable food, we reduce the Calories per 
pound, and we therefore require more pounds a day. 

We may also change the nutrients from 3 starch to 1 protein and 1 fat to four 
starch, 1.1 protein and 1 fat. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 23 

In Part II tables one to twelve, inclusive, will serve as a true guide in this 
matter, but the proportions must be subject to variation by personal experience, 
for all. (See revisions in subsequent tables.) There is no hard and fast rule. 

It will be observed that in these low-priced dietaries we have not included eggs. 
In our factory boarding-houses iti Massachusetts, the consumption of eggs per adult 
is one every other day. One egg every other day, at 16| cents a dozen, comes to $3 a 
year per adult. We may compute our present population as being equal to 50,000,- 
000 adults; 50,000,000 adults, at $3 each, would spend 8150,000,000 a year for eggs. 

The factory boarding-house standard cannot be declared a very extravagant 
one, as " the Mealers, " who come from a distance to their work, are supplied and 
served with twenty-one meals per week, at $1.60 to $1.75 for women ; $2.00 to $2.25 
for men. 

I know of no other place where such fairly w^ell-cooked meals are furnished at 
so small a charge. Of course there is no rent charged to this account. 

This is a sketch of the elements of the science or art of nutrition which may 
perhaps be perfected and may possibly be taught in the common school arithmetics. 

I have thus presented a theory of nutrition at a minimum cost. But it could 
only be attained in practice under our existing conditions by people of more than 
common intelligence. It would be almost impossible to attain with the use of the 
cooking apparatus now in common use; yet at this standard, witness to what incom- 
prehensible figures we are led when dealing with the whole mass of our population. 

Whoever is right as to the enumeration of the census year, we now number about 
65,000,000 in 1891. If we make the utmost reduction for children of ten or under, 
keeping in consideration the larger need of growing children from ten to seventeen; 
also bearing in mind the great proportion of all who get their living by "the sweat 
of their brow" and who must have ample nutrition, we cannot estimate the con- 
sumption of food at less than what would be required by 50,000,000 adult men at 
active or moderate work or women at active work, corresponding in their require- 
ments to a standard of nutrition somewhat under Class 2 and little over Class 3, 
or 14£ cents a day, which comes to one dollar a week for food; to which we may 
add a quarter of a dollar a week for eggs or milk, tea, coffee and fruit. 

At $52 per year the food necessary to sustain 50,000,000 adults comes to $2,600,000,000 

At $13 per year, the eggs or milk, tea, coffee and fruit come to . . 650,000,000 



Food and wholesome beverages, ...... $3,250,000,000 

The most conservative estimate of the cost of beer, wine and spirits to 

the consumers is ...... 750,000,000 



Total, $4,000,000,000 



24 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

The problem with which we are dealing to-night in the mere alphabet, we are 
at the mere beginning of an attempt to apply the same science to the nutrition of 
man, that we haye so long been attempting to apply to the nutrition of the soil, 
the plant and the beast of the field; our problem is how to cook not less than 

Three Billion Dollars' Worth of Meat, Fish, Grain and Vegetables 

a Year. 

I think you will admit, ladies and gentlemen, that it was quite time to apply 
science in the kitchen and to develop a true and simple art of cooking. 

At what price will you measure the waste of labor, the waste of fuel, the waste 
of heat, the waste of comfort, the waste of temper, the waste of health, the waste 
of morality and sobriety due to the waste upon whisky which is again due to lack 
of well-cooked food? Is this waste a billion dollars' worth of potential energy a 
year? Is it not a great deal more? 

Perhaps you will come to the conclusion that the potato gospel will bear a great 
deal of preaching. 

Ought there not to be a cooking laboratory attached to every agricultural 
experiment station? Would one be out of place even in Columbia College? 

But, ladies and gentlemen, there is another aspect of this case. True economy 
does not consist in living on shin of beef or halibut nape. Very few people can 
afford to waste the time that would be required to live at a cost of a dollar a week, 
or at fourteen cents a day, unless obliged to do so. There is a certain horse-sense in 
the reply of the workman to some of these suggestions when he says, "We don't 
want yon r bone-soup" and "We won't have your pig-wash. G-ive us something 
better than what we are used to, or better cooked than we now get it." 

Suppose we double the price, put up the prices of the animal food to rates 
which would be paid for good solid meat free of bone and of good quality; add a 
pint of milk, an excess of butter and one egg every day. I think this ration cor- 
responds closely to the average consumption and expenditure in the families of 
well-to-do people; if we add to this food ten cents a day for tea, coffee, condiments 
and fruit, we make the total equal to fifty cents a day for each inmate of the 
household. 

It is probable that much more than half a pound of clear meat free of bone is 
brought into the kitchen of well-to-do people who are not extravagant, for each 
adult every day. I have made a few inquiries at some of the very best hotels — and 
am satisfied that there are many in which the price paid for food per day is one 
dollar per inmate or two dollars per guest, counting one person in the service of 
the house to each guest. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



25 



Table 2, Computed at Fifty Cents per head Including: Extras. 
Four pounds food at about 1,200 Calories per pound == 4,800 Calories, one 
pound milk added, 310 Calories, making five pounds = 5,110 Calories. 

1-2 lb. Clear Meat, at an average of 20 cts. per lb., . . . .10 



1-4 
1-4 

1 
1 

1-4 
1 1-4 

1-2 



Fish, 
Butter, 



16 
36 
36 



perdoz., 



1 Pmt Milk, 

Bread, .... 

Oatmeal, rice, hominy or corn meal, 

Vegetables, 

Sugar, .... 



.04 
.09 
.03 
.04 
.03 
.01 
.03 
.03 



5 lbs. .40 cts. 

Tea, Coffee, Fruit and Spices extra. .10 " 

This would be an excessive allowance for a man at very hard work, if it were all 
cooked in such a way that it could be assimilated; with water added it would weigh 
as much as seven pounds. 

You will find that fifty cents' worth a day per inmate comes into your houses, 
even if you think you live rather simply. It cannot be consumed. How much is 
wasted? 

I myself eat about three and a half pounds a day, including soup, but not 
including fruit or beverages. 

At my standard about three-fifths of that ration, at forty cents, or twenty-four 
cents' worth, suffices. 

If proper methods of cooking were adopted and right methods of utilizing 
what is now wasted in the ordinary method of buying and preparing this food 
material, all the potential energy in this dietary could be enjoyed by the average 
adult, at twenty-eight cents a day or in round figures at two dollars per week. 

At two dollars a week the food bill of 50,000,000 adults comes to $5,200,000,000 
a year. 

By statistical analysis of our crops and food products, projected from the gross 
valuations and wholesale data to their points of ultimate consumption, I am fully 
satisfied that the food bill of this country is in fact as much as five billions of dol- 
lars and is probably more. 

I am also satisfied that one-fifth part of this huge volume of good material is 
converted into lad feeding. In other words, for lack of science in the economy 
of the kitchen $1,000,000,000 worth a year of potential energy is wasted. How 
shall we save it? 



26 • THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 

Life is but a conversion of force which takes the form of clothing, food and 
shelter. That is all that any of us get out of the material products by which .we 
are sustained, sheltered and clothed. 

If this misdirection of force of one billion dollars' worth were converted by the 
saving of that part of the potential energy in the food consumed which is now 
wasted — or if this force were given a new direction into the work that would be 
required to provide house-room — nearly twice the shelter now enjoyed would ensue. 
The worst problem with which we are called to deal would then be solved — the 
housing of the masses. 

The family now in one room could have two; the destruction of the poor is 
their poverty, and the worst waste of food is among them. The family now in 
three rooms, if once taught the art of nutrition, might have five, and those who 
now have as many rooms as are required could direct the force now wasted to greater 
comfort and to the higher plane which only in the long ran makes life worth living. 

Have my figures led you away into visionary conceptions, such as any one may 
find in the dry columns of statistical science if only he has the eye to see what is 
written between the lines or is inscribed behind the columns? 

Let us then get back at once to ovens and to the practical problem of food and 
feeding. I have expended as much money as I can afford in my own empirical but 
somewhat practical methods of developing this oven. My good friends, Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie, his partner Mr. Phipps, and several of my Boston friends have furnished 
a part of the means by which Mrs. Eichards has been enabled to work out the 
scientific application of right methods of applying heat to some of the processes of 
cooking. A very benevolent lady, whose life is full of good works, has furnished 
the capital for establishing the New England Kitchen, through which the products 
of "my process as well as of other processes of plain, wholesome cooking are being 
distributed on a commercial basis, in the shape of wholesome, nutritious and well- 
cooked food at moderate prices which yield a reasonable profit. 

I have now engaged a competent teacher of cooking, who, under the general 
direction of Mrs. Eichards, will work out the beginning of the problem of a cook- 
ing laboratory. As I have stated, it is in this matter that I may move faster the 
better I am sustained. I shall devote my own profits in the oven business to the 
oven development as far as they may go. I do not desire any assistance from any 
one in that part of my undertaking, but the development of a cooking laboratory 
opens a much wider field and it is beyond me.* 



* Subsequently to this lecture Mr. Theodore A. Havemeyer placed $1,000 at my disposal for further research 
and $6,000 at the disposal of Professor Egleston for the establishment in New York of a kitchen correspond- 
ing to the New England Kitchen of Boston. 



THE SCIENCE OF £ U TUITION. 27 

We will now come to the second part of my discourse — the preparation of food. 
After having filled a shelf in my library full of cookery books, to which I have given 
careful attention, adding treatises on nutrition and physiological essays on alimen- 
tation, 1 have come to a very simple conclusion covering the whole ground. The 
tw T o simple rules for qualifying any one after a little practice to become a good plain 
cook and first-rate bread maker may be repeated. 

Take a little heat off the top of a small lamp; put it into a wooden box with a 
little water in order to raise your bread;- take some heat off the top of a large lamp, 
put it into a wood-pulp or paper box, and keep it there to bake your bread or to 
cook your food. That is the first rule. 

In the preparation of food the single rule is this : Take one part of gumption 
and one part of food; mix them together in a dish or pan, then put the compound 
into the oven and keep it there long enough for the heat to do the work. Practice 
will soon tell each one how long. 

It is not a very difficult matter, for instance, to make bread. I thought it had 
been until I tried. Then I found that bread-making in the common way, kneading 
by hand, took a good deal of muscle and not much mind; but I do not fancy paws 
and perspiration in my bread; the idea is unpleasant even to speak of. After my 
first lesson I therefore taught my cook how to mix the dough with a stout wooden 
spoon. There is nothing new in the method. I now find that a few people had 
learned this secret before, but not many. The work can be done just as well and 
more quickly. My objection to the ordinary method was well expressed in a story 
lately told me by an old gentleman who took his little grandson to the bakery. The 
next day the boy wanted to go again, and gave this reason: "I want to see that 
fat man who was washing his hands in the brown bread. He gave me a cooky." 
We now use the Stanyan bread-kneader, which is a sort of mechanical spoon and 
knife combined; it is much easier to work than the wooden spoon. 

I then found that there was apt to be a good deal of trouble, delay and uncer- 
tainty in raising the dough. I therefore bought a Case Bread-Raiser, which assures 
the exact measure of fermentation in three and a half to four hours. With these 
three bits of apparatus, the kneader, the raiser and the oven, any one who can read 
can learn to make good bread in half an hour so as never to miss it. Baking takes 
two hours in the Aladdin Oven already heated, or a longer period if you like a 
thick, tender crust and tawny color, with nutty flavor all through the loaf, due to 
the partial change of the starch into dextrine or grape sugar. Here are examples 
of bread which no human hand has touched even from the time the wheat was 
planted until it was taken from the pan in which the loaf was baked. 

But suppose we lay out a dinner. (See subsequent instructions.) 



28 THE SCIENCE vF NUTRITION. 

I told my office boy one day to prepare just a dinner of five courses for ten 
people. He had never cooked anything before. He went and did it. Every one 
said it was a good dinner, and I thought so myself. That kind of a dinner is in 
one of these ovens. 

If the true object in cooking is to develop and retain all the fine natural flavor 
of meat, fish, vegetable, fruit and grain; if the right method is one that will pre- 
vent the more volatile portions of the fats and juices being carried off in bad smells; 
if you desire that the food after it is cooked shall be in a perfectly nutritious and 
digestible condition, the oven indicates the way to attain all these objects. There 
is no constant watching, no stirring the materials over a hot stove to prevent scorch- 
ing or burning. If you desire sauces or gravy they can be prepared over another 
lamp or in a chafing dish. There are no heavy hods of coal to be lifted. There is 
no dust. There are no ashes to be removed. One quart of oil burning eight hours 
in one of these lamps gives off heat enough from the top of the chimney to cook 
fifty or sixty pounds of bread, meat and vegetables, in three separate charges. In 
one of these ovens now before you there are forty pounds, of eight different kinds 
of food, which, when served, will have had expended upon them one pint and a half 
of oil valued at about two cents. 

I have observed that in nearly all the cookery books or recipe books the chief 
part of the rules laid down are for making combinations of food material; rules for 
the proportions of each; the quantity of meat and other material; the pounds of 
flour; the dozens of eggs; the ounces of sugar and spice and the way to mix them. 

Of course, any person of common intelligence can follow these printed rules for 
such combinations. 

I next observe that almost all the other instructions in the books are mainly 
directed to overcoming the defects in the common stoves and ranges. You are told 
how to stir the compounds in order to prevent scorching or burning; how the pan 
must first be placed at a given point and just brought to a simmer without being 
allowed to boil, and then moved to another part of the stove where the material 
will only simmer. You are told that for some things you must have a hot oven or 
a quick oven; for others a slow oven; but no accurate definition is given as to what 
" quick " or " slow " may happen to be. 

All these variations in the directions and in the processes may be attributed to 
the irregularity and to the constant high heat which is due to the continuous blast 
and to the method of combustion that is necessary to keep up any roasting or 
baking heat in the oven of the iron range or stove. You are told that you must 
not accumulate vapors in the oven, because they may be noxious. This is all non- 
sense. If the oven is subjected to the right method of heat the vapor of the food 



THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 29 

itself is the best surrounding that you can give it. But when you crack or disso- 
ciate fats, then it is necessary to remove the vapor in order to avoid the unpleasant 
flavor which burnt fat may give to what is being cooked. I can place and have 
often placed meat, fish, cauliflower, onions, tomatoes and custard pudding in the 
same oven at the same time. Neither imparts any flavor to the other, because I 
only evaporate a little water from either kind, without distilling or dissociating the 
juices or the fats. How many times I have heard ladies exclaim, " How I wish I 
could teach my cook how to simmer anything. Why will they always keep such a 
roaring fire ? " 

My first invention was what might have been called a hot-water oven; an 
apparatus in which one could only simmer and stew. I tried to introduce it first 
among those who need instruction most, but I have come to the conclusion that the 
only way to help the ignorant poor is first to ameliorate the condition of the rich. 

To speak seriously, the true method of developing this subject is to deal 
neither with rich nor poor, but with those who possess intelligence and who desire 
to avoid waste, I have lent out twelve or more cooking-pails; some of them to 
ladies who are teachers, who have been in the habit of getting their own breakfast 
and dining at restaurants; some of them to students in Harvard University who 
are under the necessity of working through at the least C03t; some of them to 
ladies of my acquaintance who are eager to try experiments for the benefit of others, 
and so on. 

The next question which I propose to solve in my present series of experiments 
and in my cooking laboratory, under the direction of an experienced teacher of cook- 
ing, will be the making of sauces and flavors that may correspond to or bring out yet 
more fully the natural flavors of the solid food with which they are served. I think that 
the greater part of the complexity of the customary rules and methods for working 
in this department may be done away with. I think that where one has a sure and 
certain control over the source of heat, the making of fine sauces, which is one of 
the secrets of the professed cooks, may become as simple as the cooking of the food 
itself. This is not fancy work. It is a true part of the science of nutrition. In 
spite of the gross waste of the multitude there is reason to believe that many per- 
sons, especially among the more cultivated classes of the community, are not suf- 
ficiently nourished because they try to live too simply, or do not choose the right 
kinds of food. We may also find women, especially those who serve in shops, who 
live on very poor food and drink any quantity of tea because they do not know how 
to prepare good food or how to tempt the palate by making it appetizing. I think 
it is an important element in the science of nutrition to overcome these depraved 
tastes by tempting the palate with appetizing sauces that can induce these classes of 



30 THE SCIENCE OP NUTRITION. 

people to eat more nutritious food. These are merely impressions which I have 
gained from my empirical studies. Probably many of you among my hearers are 
more competent to pass upon this point than I am myself. 

If, then, the absolute control of the source and the measure of heat is so 
important, are we not led directly to the question, "In what does good cooking- 
consist?" And that question brings me to the third part of my discourse. It con- 
sists in the application of heat to the chemical conversion of food material into 
nutritious and appetizing food. It is a somewhat difficult scientific problem to 
bring into the form of rules, but I am convinced that when these rules are estab- 
lished the art may be made very simple, and may be readily taught to any one of 
ordinary comprehension and aptitude. 

What is the function of heat in its application to food? My scientific friends 
must give the chemical statement of the work. In its practical result is it not to 
convert the hard grain into nutritious bread? — the raw, sapid, tough and tasteless 
fibers of meat into tender and appetizing dishes? — to render it possible to get the 
infusion of coffee from the roasted berry? 

Now, when you bear in mind the messes that are so often put before you — the 
bad bread, the hard, indigestible and offensive products of the American frying-pan 
and all the other abominations that come out of the kitchen — you may begin to 
appreciate the importance of holding complete control over the source of the heat 
so that it can be regulated. 

What intelligent control can any one exert over the heat derived from anthra- 
cite coal in an iron stove or range? What does the average cook know about what 
is going on in the oven? 

Is not by far the greater part of the heat derived from the fuel which is either 
forced by the strong draft up the chimney or else radiated into the room? I 
wonder what part of the potential of the coal is converted into actual work in our 
common processes of cooking? 

When we put instruments which are scarcely fit to be used by the most skillful 
cooks into the hands of untrained and uninstructed persons and demand of them a 
fine process of chemical conversion, what right have we to expect any better results 
than what we get? 

It seems to me most strange that it should have remained for myself to devise an 
oven made of non-metallic and non-heat conducting material in which heat may be en- 
cased at any established degree. Why have not ovens always been made in this way ? 

I have kept heat for a long time at over 400° F., in a small oven of which the 
paper or wood-pulp wall was only five-eighths of an inch thick, yet I could bear my 
hand anywhere upon the outer case. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 31 

May I not then claim the following results in my processes of conversion? 

1st. Digestibility. The long application of a very moderate degree of heat 
makes all tough meats tender. 

2nd. Although I add nothing to the nutrients which are in the food, I avoid 
much evaporation of the contained water. Is not the food more digestible as well 
as more appetizing in consequence of this retention of all its natural juices and 
nearly all the water that is in it when in the uncooked condition? 

3rd. By keeping the heat below the dissociating or " cracking" point of the 
animal fats, do I not keep the fat in a condition to be assimilated in the process of 
digestion? Whereas, is it not true that a high heat which drives off the volatile 
portion of the fat leaves the remainder in an indigestible condition? 

4th. That my processes do most fully preserve and develop the fine, natural 
flavors of grain, fruit, meat, fish and vegetables is now so fully proved by the testi- 
mony of very many witnesses that this point may no longer be put in the form 
of a question. 

For a long time I t suspected my own imagination of misleading me: but one 
lady has written me that last summer she tasted for the first time many vegetables 
which she had been eating all her life. 

Neither is it any longer necessary for me to put questions about the relief from 
care, attention and discomfort, or from dust and ashes; here is the testimony, not 
yet of a thousand, but of more than a hundred witnesses on these points. 

There is one aspect of this question which gives me great satisfaction. 

It opens the way to the re-establishment of the unit of the, family as the unit 
of society and of civilization. 

Our success in adopting the collective method in our great factories and work- 
shops, in which after all only about ten per cent, of our working population are oc- 
cupied: our success in solving the problem of moving a year's supply of meat and 
bread a thousand miles at a cost to the common laborer of a day's wages: our suc- 
cess in diminishing the margin of profit on the railway service to so low a point that 
if the JSTew York Central could get the present value of the empty barrel at the end 
of the haul of a barrel of flour a thousand miles it would pay ten per cent, in place 
of five, has put a glamour over a great many otherwise sensible people. 

Even some who claim to be economists want to adopt the collective method or 
to extend it over all the conditions of society. Hence the rush to the legislature 
and to Congress to remedy all the ills of life by legislation. One man would abolish 
poverty by piling all the taxes on land; another by nationalizing industry, whatever 
that may mean; another by stopping importations and making more work with less 
product; another by destroying all the tenement houses, as if no house at all were 



32 



THE SCIENCE OF XUTRITION. 



better than some kind of a house when it is overcrowded and dirty, and so on 
throughout the gamut. 

It seems to me that we shall never elevate humanity until we teach men and 
women how to live. We shall never make homes happy except we work on the 
unit of the family. 

If I can show how a family of five can be nourished as well and as cheaply as 
a phalanstery of five hundred then I may claim that in developing the simple art of 
nutrition and in doing away with what one of my correspondents calls "the slavery 
of stove " I may deserve a pleasant remembrance in the homes of the future. 

I am now prepared to present my object lessons and to answer any questions if 
they are not too scientific. 

(Subsequently to the delivery of the lecture, the contents of the five ovens and 
four pails were served to about two hundred people.) 




ft[ jt]Z exx^ao^di^ai^/ pander if< Whk/v 

THIS SI//1PTU0US R.E.PA5T Wty OBTAINED 
\ht PRINCE.^ COULD ^JOX CONCEAL 
HER, ASTONISHMENT.' 

ALADDIN AMD THE. WONDERFUL LAMP/ 



FOOD POWER. 



-We may regard food as the element of life upon which the power of man to 
sustain himself wholly depends. Anything else can be spared, food cannot be. 
Again, if the measure or quantity of food is not sufficient and is not rightly adjusted 
to the conditions of complete nutrition, both the manual and mental efficiency of 
man will be impaired. If the force which is generated by the assimilation of food 
is not adequate to the complete support of the workman, he will become incapable 
of making % the product out of which his wages are paid in sufficient measure to re- 
supply himself for the subsequent efforts necessary for the maintenance of his 
productive power. Life is a conversion of force, and if the force or food power 
supplied to the man is inadequate or incomplete, the right conversion of force can- 
not go on. 

It will be found thafc the rates of wages in different countries vary as the supply 
of food is abundant or scanty. As a matter of fact we find that the rate of wages 
is highest, or in other words the effective earning or productive power of man is 
greatest in the United States, where the supply of food is most abundant. Austra- 
lia and New Zealand may also be named as places where a small population is able 
to produce for itself the most abundant supply of food and where the wages or 
earnings are very high. 

Next in the abundance of the food supply comes Great Britain, and in Great 
Britain again we find the highest rate of wages outside of the United States and the 
British Colonies already named. 

Next in order follow Holland, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Austria, and 
Russia in Europe. In each of these countries, in the order named, the supply of 
food lessens as compared to the other; either because the land is poor or is cultivated 
without the best mechanism, or because a very large share of the product is 
diverted for the support of great armies so that the remainder becomes insufficient. 

Finally, when we pass into Asia we find the supply of food only equal to a 
bare subsistence and correspondingly very low rates of wages prevail. How far one 
factor may be taken as an antecedent or consequent of the other will not be discussed 
in this treatise. 

This reference to the very far-reaching nature of the food question with which 
we are dealing, is made only as an introduction to the following tables and statements 



34 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 

which have been prepared and selected by Mrs. Ellen H. Bichards in order to show: 
First, why food is required; Second, how much is needed; Third, of what it should 
consist; Fourth, at what cost it can be procured; and Fifth, how to tell when 
enough food of the right varieties has been consumed. 

Mrs. Richards deals with the subject in the following terms, incorporating tables 
from different sources: 

The animal body is a living machine, capable of doing work, — raising weights, 
pulling loads, and the like. The work of this kind which it does can be measured 
by the same standard as the work of any machine, i. e. by the mechanical unit of 
energy — the foot- ton. The power to do mechanical work comes from the consump- 
tion of fuel, the burning of wood, coal or gas; and this potential energy of fuel is 
often expressed in units of heat or Calories,* a Calorie being nearly the amount of heat 
required to raise two quarts of water one degree Fahrenheit. The animal body 
also requires its fuel, namely food, in order to do its work or its thinking or even 
its worrying. 

But the animal body is more than a machine, it requires not only fuel to enable 
it to work, but to live even without working. About one-third of the food eaten 
goes to maintain its life, for while the inanimate machine is* sent periodically to the 
repair-shop, the living machine must do its own repairing day by day and minute 
by minute. Hence it is that the estimations of the fuel and repair-material needed 
to keep the living animal body in good working and thinking condition are, in the 
present state of our knowledge somewhat empirical, but it is believed that within 
certain wide limits useful calculations can be made by any one willing to give a little 
time and thought to the subject. Our knowledge may be rapidly increased if such 
study is made in many localities and under many varying circumstances. 

To afford a stimulus to such study the following tables are given as illustrations 
only of what may be found in the various works on the chemistry of food and 
nutrition. The student is especially referred to the articles by Professor W. 0. At- 
water in the Century Magazine for May, June, July and September, 1887, and 
January and May, 1888. By the courtesy of the publishers with the consent of the 
author several of the subsequent tables have been copied from these articles. 

*A Calorie is equivalent to about 1.53 foot-tons. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION, 



QUANTITY OF FOOD NEEDED DAILY IN ORDER THAT THE HUMAN 
BODY MAY KEEP ITSELF IN GOOD WORKING CONDITION. 

(Computed by Prof. Atwater.) 
WAYS IN WHICH MATERIALS ARE USED IN THE BODY. 

Protein forms tissue (muscle, tendon, etc., and fat) and serves as fuel, j ie enei SJ m 

form of heat 

and muscular 



Fats form fatty tissue (not muscle, etc.) and serve as fuel, V 

Carbohydrates are transformed into fat and serve as fuel, ctuu mus 

J strength. 

Alcohol does not form tissue, but does serve as fuel, 1 Have various ac- 

Tea and coffee (thein, caffein) do not form tissue, do not serve as fuel, -tions upon 

Extractives (meat-extract, beef-tea) do not form tissue, do not serve t brain and 
as fuel, J nerves. 

In being themselves burned to yield energy the nutrients protect each otner 
from being consumed. The protein and fats of body-tissue are used like those of 
food. An important use of carbohydrates and fats is to protect protein (muscle, 
etc.) from consumption. 

STANDARDS FOR DAILY DIETARIES FOR PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT CLASSES. 

The demands of different people for nutrients in the daily food vary with age, 
sex, occupation, and other conditions, including especially the widely-differing 
characteristics of individuals. The standards in table IV., herewith, are intended 
to represent, roughly, the needs of average individuals of the classes named. Nos. 
1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are as proposed by Voit and his followers of the Munich school of 
physiologists, and are based upon observations of quantities actually consumed in a 
considerable number of cases. Nos. 7 and 8 are by Voit, and based both upon 
quantities consumed by individuals under experiment and upon observed dietaries 
of a much larger number of persons in Germany. Nos. 9, 10, and 11 are by Play- 
fair, and are based mainly upon observations of actual dietaries in England. No. 
2 is calculated by the writer from the data and results used in Nos. 1 and 3. In 
Nos. 12, 13, 14, and 15, by the writer, the data of Voit, Playfair, and other European 
observers are taken into account, but the conclusions are modified by the results of 
studies of a considerable number of dietaries in the United States, where people, 
wage-workers especially, are better fed, do more work, and receive higher wages. 



36 



THE SCIENCE OF XUTKITION. 



Table IV.* 

STANDARDS FOE DAILY DIETARIES FOE PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT CLASSES. 







NUTRIENTS. 




Potential 




Protein. 


Fats. 


Carbohydrates. 


Total 


energy. 






grams . 


grams. 


grams. 


grams. 


calories. 


1 


Children to 1% years 


28 (20 to 36) 


37 (30 to 45) 


75 (60 to 90) 


140 


765 


2 


Children 2 to 6 years 


55 (36 to 70) 


40 (35 to 48) 


200(100to250) 


295 


1420 


•-> 


Children 6 to 15 years 


75 (70 to 80) 


43 (37 to 50) 


3*5 (250 to 400) 


4J3 


2040 


4 


Aged woman 


80 


50 


260 


390 


1860 




Aoed man 


100 

92 


68 
44 


350 
400 


51S 
536 


2475 


6 Woman at moderate work, German . 


2425 


7 Man at moderate work, German . . 


118 


156 


500 


674 


3055 


8 Man at hard work, German . , 


145 


100 


450 


695 


3370 


9 Man with moderate exercise, English 


119 


51 


531 


701 


3140 


lOJActive laborer. English 


156 


71 


568 


795 


<I630 


11 Hard-worked laborer, English . . . 


185 


71 


568 


824 


3750 


12 Women with light exercise, American. 


80 


80 


300 


460 


2300 


1.3 Man with light exercise,! American . 


!00 


100 


360 


560 


2815 


14 Man at moderate work, American . . 


25 


125 


450 


700 


3520 


15 Man at hard work, American . . . 


50 


150 


500 


800 


4060 



One pound avoirdupois=453.6 grams. One ounce=28.3 grams. 



Table V. 

COMPARISON OF DIETARIES FOR CORPULENCE WITH ORDINARY DIETARIES. 





NUTRIENTS. 


Potential 


Dietaries. 


Protein. 


KaU Carbo- 
* ats ' hydrates. 


Total. 


energy in 

nutrients. 


Banting system . . , , . 


grams. 
171 
102 

57 
119 
118 
100 
125 

53 
100 
128 
127 
138 
104 


grams. 
8 

85 

14 

51 

56 
100 
125 

33 
100 
177 
186 
184 
136 


grams. 

75 

47 
341 
531 
500 
360 
450 
316 
240 
466 
531 
622 
421 


grams. 
254 
234 
412 
701 
674 
560 
700 
402 
440 
771 
844 
944 
661 


calories. 
10,-5 
1400 


Playf air's standard for " subsistence diet " ......... 

Playf airs standard for adults with moderate exercise . . . 
Voit's standard for laboring-man at moderate work. . ." . . 
Writer's standard for man with light exercise ....... 

Writer's standard for laboring-man at moderate work . . . 
Poor sewing-girl, London; diet barely sufficient for subsistence. 

University professor. Germany, very little exercise 

Well to do family. Conn.; food actually eaten 

Mechanics and factory operatives, Mass.; food purchased . . 
College students, from northern and eastern IT. S.; food (I. 
actually eaten 1 II. 


1760 
3140 
3050 
2815 
8520 
1820 
2325 
4080 
4430 
4825 
3415 



* Several of the Century tables are omitted, but the same numbers are retained. 
t Or woman with moderate work. 



the sciE>;ci-: , . ., ji iiiiioN. :j-< 

ACTUAL DIETARIES OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF PEOPLE. 

Table VI. gives the quantities of nutrients and potential energy in a number 
of observed dietaries. The figures for European dietaries are mostly by Voitand his 
followers in Germany, and by Playfair in England. The American figures are by 
the writer; those for the army and navy rations are based upon the United States 
Regulations, the rest upon observations of actual dietaries.* 

Table VI. 

NUTRIENTS AND POTENTIAL ENERGY IN DIETARIES OF DIFFERENT PEOPLE. 



European and Japanese dietaries: 

1. Sewing-girl, London— wages 93 cts. (3s 9d.) per week .... 

2. Factory-girl, Leipsic, Germany— wages $1 21 per week .... 

3 Weaver, England— time of scarcity 

4. Under-fed laborers, Lombardy, Italy— diet mostly vegetables . 
5 Trappist monk in cloister; very little exercise — vegetable diet . 

6. Students Japan 

7. University professor, Munich, Germany; very little exercise . . 

8. Lawyer, Munich 

9. Physicians. Munich 

10. Painter. Leipsic. Germany 

11 Cabinetmaker, Leipsic, Germany 

12. "Fully-fed" tailors, England 

13. " Well-paid " mechanic, Munich, Germany 

14. Carpenter. Munich, Germany 

15. ' Hard- worked " weaver, England ..." 

16. Blacksmith, England 

17. Miners at very severe work, Germany 

18. Brickmakers .(Italians at contract- work), Munich ....... 

19. Brewery laborer. Munich; very severe work— exceptional diet . , 

20. German sol iiers, peace-footing 

21. German soldiers, war-footing 

22 German soldiers, Franco-German War; extraordinary ration . . 
United States and Canadian dietaries: 

23 French Canadians, working people, in Canada ......... 

21. French Canadians, factory operatives, mechanics, etc., in Mass. . 

25 Other factory operatives, mechanics, etc., Mass • 

26. Glassblowers. East Cambridge , 

27 Factory operatives, dressmakers, clerks etc.. b'rd'g-house. Mass, 



28a 1 
286. | 
29a. I 



Well-to-do private family I BSf 11 



30,7 

306 



College students from northern and I Y Food eaten '. 

eastern States; boarding-club, two f- j Food purchased 
! dietaries of the same club ... I t Food eaten . . '. 

31. College foot-ball team, food eaten 

32. Machinist. Boston. Mass 

33. Brickmakers, Middletown, Conn 

34 Teamsters, marble-workers, etc., with hard work; Boston, Mass. . 

35. Brickmakers, Mass , 

36. U. S. army ration 

37. U s. navy ration 





Nutrients. 














Potential 










energy of 


Protein. 


Fats. 


Carbo- 
hydrates. 


Total. 


nutrients. 


grams. 


grams. 


grams. 


grams. 


calories. 


53 


33 


316 


402 


1820 


52 


53 


301 


406 


1940 


60 


28 


398 


486 


2138 


82 


40 


362 


484 


2192 


68 


11 


469 


548 


2304 


97 


16 


438 


551 


2343 


100 


100 


240 


440 


2324 


80 


125 


222 


427 


2401 


131 


95 


327 


553 


2762 


87 


69 


366 


522 


2500 


77 


57 


466 


600 


2757 


131 


39 


525 


625 


3053 


151 


54 


479 


684 


3085 


131 


68 


494 


693 


3194 


151 


43 


622 


816 


3569 


176 


71 


667 


914 


4117 


133 


113 


634 


880 


4195 


187 


117 


675 


959 


4641 


223 


113 


909 


1245 


5692 


114 


39 


480 


633 


2798 


134 


58 


489 


681 


3093 


157 


285 


331 


773 


4652 


109 


109 


527 


745 


3622 


118 


204 


549 


871 


4632 


127 


186 


531 


844 


4428 


95 


132 


481 


708 


3590 


114 


150 


522 


786 


4002 


129 


183 


467 


779 


4146 


128 


177 


466 


771 


4082 


"161 


204 


680 


1045 


5345 


138 


184 


622 


944 


4827 


115 


163 


460 ' 


738 


3874 


104 


136 


421 


661 


3417 


181 


292 


557 


1030 


5742 


182 


254 


617 


1053 


5638 


222 


263 


758 


1243 


6464 


254 


363 


826 


1443 


7804 


180 


365 


1150 


1695 


8848 


120 


161 


454 


735 


3851 


143 


184 


520 


847 


4998 



^Comparison of the data of tables IV., V., and VI. Implies that the food of people in this country is apt to be 
considerably in excess of the demands for nourishment. The excess is made up largely of meats. especiaUy of 
the fatter kinds, and of sweatmeats, including sugar. 



Standards for Daily Dietaries and Actus! Dietaries of People of Different Classes. 

WEIGHTS OF NUTRIENTS AND CALORIES OF ENERGY IN NUTRIENTS IN FOOD PER DAY, 



Lean of meat, casein of 
milk, white of egg, 
gluten of wheat, etc. 



Fatty and Oily 
Matters. 



CARBOHYDRATES. 
Sugar. Starch, etc. 



POTENTIAL ENERGY 
F' el Value. 



Nutrients, Grams. 



Potential Energy Calories. 



DIETARY STANDARDS. 

Subsistence diet (Playfair) 



Man at moderate work (Voit) 

Man at hard work (Voit) 

Man with moderate exercise (Playfair). 

Man with light exercise (Atwater) 

Man at moderate work (Atwater) 

Man at hard work (Atwater) 



ACTUAL DIETARIES. 

Under-fed laborers, Lombardy, Italy 

Students, Japan 



Lawyer, Munich, Germany 

Physician, Munich, German}" 

Well-paid Mechanic, Munich, Germany 

Carpenter, Munich, Germany 

Weil-fed Blacksmith, England 

German soldiers, peace footing 

German soldiers, war footing 

French-Canadian families, Canada 

Mechanics and factory operatives. Mass 

Well-to-do family, Conn 

College students, Northern and Eastern States., 

Machinist. Boston, Mass 

Hard worked teamsters, etc., Boston, Mass 

U. S. Army Ration 

U. S. Navy Ratio < 



00 WiOQ 



00 80 00 




Wm. O. Atwater. 



ational Medical Dictionary. 
Reprinted by consent. 



THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 39 

COMPOSITION OF SOME FOOD MATERIALS FROM WHICH THIS 

SUPPLY IS DERIVED. 

By Professor W. 0. Atwater. 

COMPOSITION", DIGESTIBILITY, AND POTENTIAL ENERGY (FUEL-VALUE) OF FOOD- 
MATERIALS, FUNCTIONS OF NUTRIENTS, DIETARY STANDARD AND ACTUAL 
DIETARIES. 

The following tables and explanatory statements are an attempt to epitomize 
some results of late research, a considerable portion of which have not yet become 
current in treatises in English.* Those regarding digestibility, potential energy, 
and functions in nutrients are based upon experimental inquiry in Europe, espe- 
cially in Germany. The data employed for the Tables of dietary standards and 
actual dietaries are mainly European, but include a considerable number of results 
of observations in the United States. The figures for the composition of food- 
materials are taken from American analyses. The larger number of the latter were 
executed in connection with investigations in behalf of the Smithsonian Institution 
and the United States Fish Commission, but still await detailed publication. 

INGREDIENTS OF FOOD-MATERIALS — NUTRIENTS AND NON-NUTRIENTS. 

Our ordinary food-materials such as meat, fish, eggs, potatoes, wheat, etc. 
consists of — 

Refuse, as the bones of meat and fish, shells of eggs, skins of potatoes, and 
bran of wheat. 

Edible portion, as the flesh of meat and fish, white and yolk of eggs, wheat 
flour. 

The edible substance consists of — 
Water, 
Nutritive inqredients or nutrients. 

The principal kinds of nutrient are — 

1. Protein; 

2. Fats; 

3. Carbohydrates; 

4. Mineral matters. 



*See articles on the Chemistry of Foods and Nutrition in the Century Magazine for 1887 and 18S8. 



40 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION 



Water, refuse, and the salt of salted meat and fish are called non-nutrients. 
The water contained in foods and beverages has the same composition and prop- 
erties as other water; it is,, of course, indispensable for nourishment, but is not a 
nutrient in the sense in which the term is here used. In comparing the values of 
different food-materials for nourishment, the refuse and water are left out of account. 



CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS. 



The following are familiar examples of compounds of each of the four prin- 
cipal classes of nutrients: 



Protein. 



Fats. . . 

Carlo- 
hydrates. 
Mineral 
matters. 



a. Albuminoids: e. g. albumen (white of eggs); casein (curd) of 
milk; myosin, the basis of muscle (lean meat); gluten of 
wheat, etc. 

I. G-elatinoids: e. g. collagen of tendons; ossein of bones, which 
yield gelatin or glue. 

(Meats and fish contain very small quantities of so-called 
"extractives." They include kreatin and allied compounds, 
and are the chief ingredients of beef-tea and meat-extract. 
They contain nitrogen, and hence are commonly classed with 
protein. 

e. g. fat of meat; fat (butter) of milk; olive oil; oil of corn, wheat, 
etc. 

e. g. sugar, starch, cellulose (woody fiber). 

e. g. calcium phosphate or phosphate of lime; sodium chloride (com- 
mon salt). 



It is to be especially noted that the protein compounds contain nitrogen, while 
the fat and carbohydrates have none. The albuminoids and gelatinoids are fre- 
quently classed together as proteids. The term "proteids" is also used to include 
all the nitrogenous ingredients — i. e. synonymous with protein. The average com- 
position of these compounds is about as follows: 



Carbon, 
Hydrogen, 
Oxygen, 
Nitrogen, 



Protein. 


Fats. 


Carbohydrates. 


53 per cent. 


76.5 per cent. 


44 per cent. 


7 " 


12.0 " 


6 " 


24 " 


11.5 " 


50 " 


16 " 


None. 


None. 


100 per cent. 


100.0 per cent. 


100 per cent. 



THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 41 

POTENTIAL ENERGY OE FOOD. 

In being consumed in the body as fuel to furnish heat and muscular energy the 
nutrients appear to replace one another in proportion to their potential energy, 
which is accordingly taken as a measure of their fuel-value. The energy is esti- 
mated in Calories. The Calorie is the heat which would raise a kilogram of water 
one degree centigrade (or one pound of water about four degrees Fahrenheit). A 
foot-ton is the energy (power) which would lift one ton one foot. One Calorie cor- 
responds to 1.53 foot-tons. A gram of protein or a gram of carbohydrates is 
assumed to yield 4.1, and a gram of fats 9.3 Calories. A given weight of fats is 
thus taken to be equivalent in fuel-value, on the average, to a little over twice the 
same weight of protein or carbohydrates. The figures for potential energy in Table 
I. are calculated for each food-material by multiplying the number of grains of 
protein and of carbohydrates in one pound (1 lb. equals 453.6 grams) by 4.1, and 
the number of grams of fat by 9.3, and taking the sum of these three products as 
the number of Calories of potential energy in a pound of the material. 

COMPOSITION OF FOOD-MATERIALS. 

Different specimens of the same kind of food-material differ widely in compo- 
sition. The figures in Table I., herewith represent the averages of analyses, of 
which those of fruits and beverages are European and the rest Americano 



42 



SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 



Table I. 

PERCENTAGES OF NUTRIENTS (NUTRITIVE INGREDIENTS), WATER, ETC., AND ESTIMATED 
POTENTIAL ENERGY (FUEL-VALUE) IN SPECIMENS OF FOOD-MATERIALS. 









Refuse: 


Edible Portion. 










Nutrients. 


Calories of 


Food-Materials. 


bones, 
skin, 










potential 














energy in 




shells, etc. 


Water. 












one pound 








Total. 


Protein. 


Fats. 


Carbo- 
hydrates. 


Mineral 
matters. 


of each 
material. 


JLnimal foods as purchased, in- 


















cluding edible portion and 


















refuse: 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 




Beef, side 1 


19.7 


44.0 


36.3 


13.8 


21.7 




0.8 


1170 


Beef, round 1 . . 






10.0 


60.0 


30.0 


20.7 


8.1 








1.2 


725 


Beef, neck 1 . . 






19.9 


49.6 


30.5 


15.4 


14.3 








0.8 


890 


Beef, sirloin 1 . . 






25.0 


45.0 


30.0 


15.0 


14.3 








0.7 


885 


Beef, flank 1 . . 






11.7 


24.2 


64.1 


10.6 


52.9 








0.6 


2430 


Mutton, side 1 






20.0 


42.9 


37.1 


13.2 


23.2 








0.7 


1225 


Mutton, leg 1 . . 






18.4 


50.4 


31.2 


15.0 


15.5 








0.7 


935 


Mutton, shoulder 1 






16.8 


48.7 


34.5 


15.0 


18.7 








0.8 


1070 


Mutton, loin (chops 


J 1 




16.3 


41.3 


42.4 


12.5 


29.3 








0.6 


1470 


Smoked ham, 






14.0 


36.3 


49.7 


14.6 


34.2 








0.9 


1715 


Pork, very fat . 






10.4 


9.5 


80.1 


2.8 


76.5 








0.8 


32-0 


Chicken' 2 . . . 






41.6 


42.2 


16.2 


14.2 


1.2 








0.8 


315 


Turkey .... 






35.4 


42.8 


21.8 


15.4 


5.6 








0.8 


525 


Flounder, whole 






66.8 


27.2 


6.0 


5.2 


0.3 








0.5 


110 


Haddock, dressed 






51.0 


40.0 


9.0 


8.2 


0.2 








0.6 


160 


Bluerish. dressed 






48.6 


40.3 


11.1 


9.8 


0.6 








0.7 


210 


Brook trout, whole 






4S.1 


40.4 


11.5 


9.8 


1.1 








0.6 


230 


Codfish, dressed 






29.9 


58.5 


11.6 


10.6 


0.2 








0.8 


205 


Whitefish, whole 






53.5 


32.5 


14.0 


10.3 


3.0 








0.7 


320 


Shad, whole . . 






50.1 


35.2 


14.7 


9.2 


4.8 








0.7 


375 


Turbot, whole . 






47.7 


37.3 


15.0 


6.8 


7.5 








0.7 


445 


Mackerel, fat, whole, 




33.8 


42.4 


23.8 


12.1 


10.7 








1.0 


675 


Mackerel, lean, whole 


38.3 


48.5 


13.2 


11.2 


1.4 








0.6 


265 


Mackerel, average, whole 


44.6 


40.4 


15.0 


10.0 


4.3 








0.7 


365 


Halibut, dressed . . 


17.7 


61.9 


20.4 


15.1 


4.4 








0.9 


465 


Salmon, whole . . . 


35.3 


40.6 


24.1 


14.3 


8.8 








1.0 


635 


Eel 




36.0 
42.1 


33.8 
40.3 


30.2 
17.6 


8.6 
16.0 


21.0 
0.4 








0.6 
1.2 


1045 


Salt codfish . . . 


315 


Smoked herring . . . 


50.9 


19.2 


29.9 


20.2 


8.8 








0.9 


745 


Salt mackerel . . . 


40.4 


28.1 


31.5 


14.7 


15.1 








1.7 


910 


Canned salmon . . . 


4.9 


59.3 


35.8 


19.3 


15.3 








1.2 


1005 


Canned sardines . . 


5.0 


53.6 


41.4 


24.0 


12.1 








5.3 


955 


Lobsters .... 




62.1 
82.3 


31.0 
15.4 


6.9 
2.3 


5.5 
1.1 


0.7 
0.2 


0.1 
0.6 


0.6 
0.4 


135 


Oysters in shell . . 


40 


Hens' eggs .... 


13.7 


63.1 


23.2 


11.8 


10.2 


0.4 


0.8 


655 


Animal foods, edible portion: 
Beef, side 1 




54.7 


45.3 


17.2 


27.1 




1.0 


1465 


Beef, round 1 .... 




66.7 


33.3 


23.0 


9.0 








1.3 


805 


Beef, sirloin 1 .... 




60.0 


40.0 


20.0 


19.0 








1.0 


1175 


Mutton, side 1 .... 




45.9 


54.1 


14.7 


38.7 








0.7 


1905 


Mutton, leg 1 .... 




61.8 


38.2 


18.3 


19.0 








0.9 


1140 


Mutton, loin (chops) 1 . 




49.3 


50.7 


15.0 


35.0 








0.7 


1755 




il 


"n 


)m well-fa 


ttened an 


imals. 


2] 


Rather les 


n. 











TH ! 



SCI EX OS OF XUTRLTloX 



43 



Table I. — Concluded. 



Food-aIatekials 



Rkft.se: 
bones, 

skin, 
shells, etc. 



Animal foods, edible portion ■ 

Flounder .«.-.. 

Codfish .....' 

Mackerel, fat . ! . . 

Mackerel, lean . 

Mackerel, average . . 

Salmon 

Oysters, fat . . . . 

Oysters, lean . . . . 
Oysters, average . . 
Hens' eggs . . . . 
Cows 1 milk . . . . 
Cows' milk . . . . 
Cheese, whole milk 
Cheese, skimmed milk 

Butter 

Oleomargarine . . . 
Lard 



per cent. 



Edible Portiox. 



Water. 



Beverages: 
Wheat bread . . 
"Wheat flour . . 
Graham flour 
Rye flour . . . 
Buckwheat flour 
Beans .... 
Oatmeal . . . 
Corn (maize) meal 

Rice 

Sugar .... 
Potatoes 1 . . . 
Potatoes . . . 
Sweet potatoes .• 
Turnips .... 
Carrots .... 
Cabbage . . . 
Melons .... 
Apples .... 
Pears .... 
Bananas . . . 



Vegetable foods : 
Lager beer . . . 
Porter and ale . . 
Rhine wine, white . 
Rhine wine, red . . 
French wine, claret 
Sherry wine . . . 



10.0 



per cent 
84.2 
82 6 
64.0 
78.7 
71.6 
63.6 
81.7 
90.9 
87.1 
73.1 
87.4 
90.7 
31.2 
41.3 
10.0 

10.0 
1.0 

32.7 
11.6 

13.0 
13.1 
13.5 

13.7 

7.7 
14.5 
12.4 

2.2 
68.0 
75.5 
75.8 
91.2 
87.9 
90.0 
95.2 
84.8 
83.0 
73.1 

90.3 

88.1 
86.3 
86.9 
88.3 
79.5 



Total. 



Fats. 



per cent, 
15.8 
17.4 
36.0 
21.3 
28.4 
36.4 
18.3 
9.1 
12.9 
26.9 
12.6 
9.3 
68.8 
58.7 
90.0 
90.0 
99.0 

67.3 
88.4 
87.0 
86.9 
86.5 
86.3 
92.3 
85.5 
87.6 
97.8 
22.0 
24.5 
24.2 

8.8 
12.1 
10.0 

4.8 
15.2 
17.0 
26.9 



per cent 
13.8 
15.8 
18.2 
18.1 
18.8 
21.6 

8.0 

4.2 

6.0 
13.7 

3.4 

3.1 
27.1 
38.4 

1.0 

0.6 



8.9 
11.1 
11.7 
6.7 
6.5 
23.2 
15.1 
9.1 
7.4 
0.3 
1.8 
2.0 
1.5 
1.0 
1.0 
1.9 
1.1 
0.4 
0.4 
1.9 



0.4 
0.6 



per cent 
0.7 
0.4 
16.3 
2.2 
8.2 

13.4 
1.7 
0.6 
1.2 

11.7 
3.7 
0.7 

35.5 
6.8 

85.0 

84.5 

99.0 

1.9 
1.1 

1.7 
6.7 
1.3 
2.1 
7.1 
3.8 
0.4 

0.2 
0.2 

0.4 
0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.6 



0.6 

Alcohol. 
2.0 
5.1 
9.3 
8.1 
8.0 
17.0 



Carbo- 
hydrates. 



6.7 
1.8 
3.7 

0.4 
4.8 
4.8 
2.3 
8.9 
0.5 
0.4 



55.5 
75.6 
71.8 
78.7 
77.6 
57.4 
68.1 
71.0 
79.4 
96,7 
19.1 
21.3 
21.1 
6.9 
10.1 
6.2 
2.5 
14.3 
16 3 
23.3 

5.8 
6.8 
2.3 
3.0 
23 
3.2 



aI ineral 
matters. 



per cent, 
1.3 
1.2 
1.5 
1.0 
1.4 
1.4 
1.9 
2.5 

2.0 
1.0 

0.7 

0.7 

3.9 

4.5 

3.5 

4.5 



1.0 

0.6 



0.7 
1.1 
3.6 
2.0 
1.6 
0.4 
0.8 
0.9 
1.0 
1.2 
0.7 
0.8 
1.2 
0.6 
0.5 
0.3 
1.1 

0.2 
0.4 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
0.3 



Calories of 
potential 
energy in 
one pound 
of each 
material. 



285 

310 

1025 

430 

695 

965 

345 

135 

230 

760 

310 

175 

2045 

1165 

3615 

3585 

4180 

1280 
1660 
1625 
1620 
1620 
)585 
1845 
1650 
1630 
1800 
395 
440 
435 
155 
215 
170 
90 
275 
310 
495 



iAs purchased, including refuse, skin, etc. 



44 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



DIGESTIBILITY OF FOODS. 

Table II. epitomizes the results of some sixty experiments, mostly with men, 
but a few with ehildren, in which the proportions of the ingredients of food- 
mat.er.als actually digested have have been found by comparison of — and 
composition of the food eaten with those of the undigested excreta. lab e 111. s 
compuSby applying the data obtained by these experiments to some of those for 
the composition of food-materials in Table I. 



Table II. 
Digestibility of nutrients of food-materials. 



In the Food-Materials Below. 



Meats and fish 
Eggs . 
Milk . 
Butter . 
Oleomargarine 
Wheat bread 
Corn (maize) meal 
"Kice 
Pease . 
Potatoes 
Beets . 



Of the total amounts of protein, fats, and 
carbohydrates, the following percentages 
were digested. 



Practically all. 
88 to 100 



81 to 100 
89 
84 
86 
74 
72 



Fats. 



Carbo- 
hydrates. 



79 to 92 

96 

93 to 98 

98 

96 

? 

? 

? 
? 

? 

9 



99 
97 
99 
96 
92 
82 



'HE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



45 



Table III. 

fKOPOKTIONS OF NUTRIENTS DIGESTED AND NOT DIGESTED FROM FOOD-MATERIALS BY 

HEALTHY MEN. 



Beef, round . . 
Beef, sirloin . . 
Pork, very fat . 
Haddock . . . 
Mackerel . . . 
Hens' eggs . . 
Cows' milk . . 
Cheese, whole milk 
Butter .... 
Oleomargarine . 
Sugar .... 
T „, , ( very fine 
W £ eat ) medium . 

nom ( coarse, whole wh 
Wheat, bread average 
Black bread . . 
Pease .... 
Corn (maize) meal 

Rice 

Potatoes . . . 
Turnips . . . 



per ct. 
23.0 
20.0 

3.0 
17.1 
18.8 
13.4 

3.4 
27.1 

1.0 



0.4 
0.3 
7.6 
9.5 
8.2 
7.7 
4.5 
19.7 
7.9 
6.2 
1.5 
0.7 



per ct. 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 



1.3 
2.1 
2.7 
1.2 
1.6 
3.2 
1.2 
1.2 
0.5 
0.3 



per ct, 
23.0 
20.0 

3.0 
17.1 
18.8 
13.4 

3.4 
27.1 

1.0 

0.4 ! 

0.3 

8.9 
11.6 ; 
10.9 

8.9 

61 
22.9 

9.1 

7.4 | 

2.0 

1.0 I 



per ct. 

8.1 

17.1 

74.5 

0.3 

7.4 

9.4 

3.6 

34.6 

85.8 

83.9 

1.0 

0.8 
1.8 
1.9 

1.8 
3.8 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 



per ct. 
0.9 
1.9 
6.0 

0.8 
2.4 
0.1 
0.9 
1.7 
3.3 



per ct. 

9.0 
19.0 
80.5 

0.3 

8.2 
11.8 

3.7 
35.5 
87.5 
87.2 

1.0 

0.8 
1.8 
1.9 

1.8 
3.8 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 



Carbohydrates. 



per ct. 
0.0 
0.0 



0.0 

0.0 

0.7 

4.8 

2.3 

0.5 

0.0 

96.7 

74.4 

70.4 

66.4 

54.9 

43.3 

55.7 

68.7 

78.7 

19.7 

5.6 



per ct. 
0.0 
0.0 



0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 



0.0 
0.8 
1.8 
5.3 
0.6 
5.3 
2.1 
2.3 
0.7 
1.6 
1.3 



per ct. 
0.0 
0.0 



0.0 

0.0 

0.7 

4.8 

2.3 

0.5 

0.0 

96.7 

75.2 

72.2 

71.7 

55.5 

48.6 

57.8 

71.0 

79.4 

21.3 

6.9 



per ct. 

1.3 

1.0 
6.5 
1.2 
1.4 
1.0 
0.7 
3.9 
2.0 
2.1 
0.8 
0.3 
0.4 
1.2 
1.0 
1.5 
2.5 
1.6 
0.4 
1.0 
0.7 



per ct. 

66.7 
60.0 
10.0 
81.4 
71.6 
73.1 
87.4 
31.2 

9.0 
10.3 

2.2 
14.6 
15.0 
14.4 
32.7 
43.8 
15.0 
14.5 
12.4 
75.5 
91.2 



USES OF FOOD IN THE BODY. 



Food supplies the wants of the body in several ways. It either— 

1. Is used to form the tissues and fluids of the body; 

2. Is used to repair the wastes of tissue; 

3. Is stored in the body for future consumption; 

4. Is consumed as fuel, its potential energy being transformed into heat- or 
muscular energy or other forms of energy required by the body; or 

5. In being consumed protects tissue or other food from consumption. 

One can hardly present the elements of this case in too many aspects and as the 
purpose of this treatise is to promote further work on the same line, various tables 



46 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

will be given at the risk of repetition, each one dealing with the matter under a 
different aspect. 

In dealing with the Pecuniary Economy of food in No. V of the Century Arti- 
cles, Prof. Atwater makes the following quotation and then proceeds to show what 
true economy may be: 

" No one can say that I do not give my family the best of flour, the finest sugar, the very best quality of meat.'* 

The above is the boast of a coal laborer earning seven dollars a week. It illus- 
trates a phenomenon which I would commend to the consideration of either psychol- 
ogists or students of social science, or both. I refer to the conceit, let us call it, 
that there is some mysterious virtue in those kinds of foods that have the most 
delicate appearance and flavor and the highest price; that whatever else one has or 
does not have he must, if possible, have this sort of food; and that to economize by 
using anything inferior would be a sacrifice of both dignity and principle. 

The quotation, from a description of the life of factory operatives in New Eng- 
land, in an article by Mr. Lee Meriwether, in "Harper's Magazine" for April, 
1887, illustrates what I mean. 

The cheapest food is that which supplies the most nutriment for the least 
money. The most economical food is that which is cheapest and best adapted to 
the wants of the user. But the maxim that "the best is the cheapest" does not 
apply to food. The best food, in the sense of that which has the finest appearance 
and flavor and is sold at the highest price, is not generally the cheapest nor the 
most economical, nor is it always the most healthful. The coal laborer who made 
it so much an article of faith to give his family "the best of flour, the finest sugar, 
the very best quality of meat; " who, as Mr. Meriwether tells us, at a time when 
excellent butter was selling at 25 cents a pound paid 29 cents for an extra quality; 
who spent $156 a year for the nicest cuts of meat, which his wife had to cook before 
six in the morning or after half-past six at night because she worked all day in the 
factory; who spent only $108 for clothing for his family of nine, and only 872 a 
year for rent in a crowded tenement-house where they slept in rooms without win- 
dows or closets; who indulged in this extravagance in food when much cheaper 
meat and in all probability much less of it, cheaper butter, cheaper flour, and other 
less costly materials such as come regularly upon the table of many a man of wealth 
would have been just as wholesome, just as nutritious, and in every way just as 
good save in its gratification to pride and palate, — this man was innocently commit- 
ting an immense economical and hygienic blunder. He was doing this because, like 
the very large class of people of whom he is a type, he was laboring under this con- 
ceit of which I speak. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



47 



One great difficulty here is the lack of information. Even those who wish and 
try to economize in the purchase and use of food very often do not understand how. 
They consult carefully the prices they pay, but have in general very vague ideas 
about the nutritive values. It is an interesting fact that although the cost of food 
is the principal item of the living expenses of the large majority of people, — of all, 
indeed, but a few of the especially well-to-do,* — and although the health and 
strength of all are so intimately dependent upon their diet, yet even the most intel- 
ligent know less of the actual uses and value of their food for fulfilling its purposes 
than of those of almost any other of the staple necessities of life. 

PERCENTAGE OF INCOME EXPENDED FOR SUBSISTENCE. 



Families of 
GERMANY. 

Workingmen, 

Intermediate class, " Mittelstand," 


Annual Income. 

$225 to $300 
450 to 600 


Per cent, expended 
for food. 

62 
55 


In easy circumstances, " Wohlstand," 


750 to 1100 


50 


GREAT BRITAIN. 






Workingmen, 


500 


51 


MASSACHUSETTS. 






Workingmen, 

u 


350 to 400 
450 to 600 


64 
63 


u 


600 to 750 


60 


it 


750 to 1200 


56 


tc 


above 1200 


51 



RATIOS OF NUTRITIVE VALUES TO COST. 

The large majority of the families in this country have, I understand, not over 
$500 a year to live upon. More than half of this goes, and must go, for food. 
Rent, clothing, the cost of preparing the food for the table, and all other expenses 
must be provided from the rest. Perhaps these statements apply less accurately to 
farmers, but of wage- workers in towns statisticians tell me they are correct. 

To the man with an income of $5,000 a year, it may seem to make little differ- 

*In his Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor of Massachusetts for 1884, Mr. Carroll D. Wright summa- 
rizes the results of investigations into the cost of living of people with different incomes, especially of working- 
men's families, in Massachusetts and in Great Britain, and quotes similar results obtained by Dr. Engel in Germany. 
Dividing expenses into those for subsistence (food), clothing, rent, fuel, and sundries, the peroentage of the 
whole income expended for subsistence averages as in the tabular statement herewith. As incomes increase the 
relative percentage of outlay for food becomes less and that for " sundries " greater. In the Massachusetts and 
Great Britain figures (I do not know how it is with the German, but presume that the case is the same,) no outlay 
for intoxicating liquors is included in the allowance for subsistence. 



48 THE SCIENCE OP NUTRITION". 

ence whether he pays 20 cents or $2 a pound for the protein of his food; but to the 
one who can earn only $500 or less a year for the support of his family, the differ- 
ence is an important one. His wife goes to the dry goods store to buy a dress for 
her daughter, and hesitates between a piece of cloth at 40 cents a yard that would 
please her better and one at 35 that is not so pretty but just as durable, and is very 
apt to take the cheaper one because she feels that she must. She does not fall into 
the error of getting more cloth than is needed and using part of the excess for 
lining and throwing the rest away, nor, if she is wise, does she try to economize by 
getting poor trimmings and cheap thread. But when she goes to the grocer or to 
the butcher or to the fish market for food to build up her children's bodies and give 
her husband and herself strength to work, she often pays one or two dollars a pound 
for protein to make muscle when she might obtain it in forms equally wholesome 
and nutritious for from 15 to 50 cents. The food she buys is apt to supply some of 
the nutrients in excessive amount as well as at needlessly high cost, while it fur- 
nishes others in insufficient quantity or in unfiitting forms and in uneconomical 
ways; and only too often a part of it finds its way into the drain or the garbage 
barrel instead of being utilized for nourishment. 

Of course the good wife and mother does not understand about protein and po- 
tential energy and the connection between the nutritive value of food and the price 
she pays for it, and doubtless she never will. But if the knowledge is obtained and 
put in print, and diffused among those who have the time and training to get hold 
of it, the main facts will gradually work their way to the masses, who most need its 
benefit. 

A subject that has received but little attention in this country, though it is one 
of the many special problems that are being carefully considered by students of 
social economy in Europe, is the relation of the nutritive value of food to its cost. 
We purchase our food by gross weight or measure. Part of it consists of nutritive 
substances, the rest is made up of water and various materials which serve only as 
ballast. In comparing different food-materials with respect to their cheapness or 
dearness we are apt to judge them by the prices per pound, quart, or bushel, with- 
out much regard to the amounts or kinds of actual nutrients which they contain. 
Of the different food-materials which the market affords and which are palatable, 
nutritious, and otherwise fit for nourishment, what ones are pecuniarily the most 
economical? 

In a series of studies, undertaken at the instance of the Smithsonian Institution, 
I have had occasion to examine into some of these problems. A few of the results 
of the inquiry are summarized in Diagrams YI. and VII. 

There are various ways of comparing food-materials with respect to the relative 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTMTKXN". 49 

cheapness or dearness of their nutritive ingredients. The best, perhaps, consists in 
simply comparing the quantities of nutrients obtained for a given sum, 25 cents for 
instance, in the food when purchased at market prices. Diagram VI. gives a series 
of such comparisons. They are based upon the analysis of materials, obtained 
mostly in markets in New York City and in M^ddletown, Conn., and upon the 
retail prices paid for them. Along with the quantities of nutrients which 25 cents 
will buy are shown the quantities estimated to be appropriate for a day's diet for an 
ordinary man doing a moderate amount of muscular labor. Two such standards 
are given — one proposed by Professor Voit in Germany, and based mainly upon ex- 
periments and observations in that country; the other proposed by myself. The 
diagram shows the quantities of different food-materials which one would get for a 
quarter of a dollar; the quantities of protein and fats and carbohydrates contained 
in them; and how these amounts of nutrients compare with what an average man, 
engaged in moderately hard muscular work, might be expected to need to maintain 
his body in vigorous condition and supply strength for the work he has to do. 
Another way of comparing the nutritive value of the food-materials with the cost 
is by the quantities of potential energy they contain. Diagram VII, shows the 
estimated quantities of energy in the nutritive ingredients of the materials in Dia- 
gram VI., — that is, the amount which. 25 cents would pay for. Still another method 
of comparing the actual expensiveness of different foods at the prices at which people 
buy them consists in comparing the cost of the same nutrient in different food- 
materials. Of the different nutrients, protein is physiologically the most impor- 
tant, as it is pecuniarily the most expensive. For these reasons the cost of protein 
in different food-materials may be used as a means of comparing their relative 
cheapness or dearness, as is done in Diagram VII. The figures represent the ordi- 
nary prices per pound and the corresponding costs of protein, due allowance being 
made for the carbohydrates and fats, the estimated costs of which are, for the sake 
of brevity, omitted from the table.* 



* As explained in previous articles, the actually nutritive ingredients of food may be divided into four classes: 
Protein, Fats, Carbohydrates, and Mineral Matters. Leaving water out of account, lean meat, white of eggs, 
casein (curd) of milk, and gluten of wheat consist mainly of protein compounds. Butter and lard are mostly fats. 
Sugar and starch are carbohydrates. The nutrients of meat, fish, and other animal foods consist mainly of pro- 
tein and fats; those of the vegetable foods are largely carbohydrates. 

In serving as nutriment, the protein compounds which contain nitrogen form the basis of blood, muscle, 
tendon, etc.. and are transformed into fat, and also serve as fuel to supply the body with heat and muscular 
strength. The fats of the food are stored as fat in the body and serve as fuel. The carbohydrates are trans- 
formed into fats and serve as fuel. The potential enery in Calories (calorie is the equivalent of heat which would 
warm about four pounds of w^ter one degree Fahrenheit) is taken as the measure of the fuel- value of the food. 
One part by weight of fat is equivalent, in this respect, to about two parts of either protein or carbohydrates. 
The demands of different people for nourishment vary with age, sex, occupation, and other conditions of life. 
Health and pecuniary economy alike require that the diet should contain nutrients proportionate to the wants of 
the user. Of course the difference in the composition of different specimens of the same kind of food-material, and 



50 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



EXPENSIVE VS. ECONOMICAL FOODS. 



Taking the diagrams and tabular statements together, the first thing that strikes 
one is the cheapness of the vegetable as compared with the animal foods. Note, for 
instance, Diagram VI. and the accompanying figures, which show how much 
actually nutritive material one may have for 25 cents in different foods at ordinary 
prices. The quarter of a dollar invested in flour, meal, or potatoes brings several 
times the quantity of nutrients that it does if spent for meats, fish, or milk. But 
it is to be remembered that the animal foods contain more of the protein and fats, 
which are the most valuable food constituents, while the excess of material obtained 
in the vegetable foods consists mainly or entirely of sugar, starch, and other car- 
bohydrates, which, though very important for nourishment, are far less valuable, 
weight for weight, than the protein and fats. Furthermore, the protein of the an- 
imal foods is more easily and completely digestible than that of the vegetable foods. 

The greater expensiveness of animal foods is brought out with even greater 
clearness in Diagram VII. and in the accompanying figures. The quantities of po 
tential energy in the nutritive material obtained for 25 cents range, in the animal 
foods, from 160 Calories, in the salmon at a dollar a pound, to 6,800, in salt pork at 
13 cents a pound ; while in the vegetable foods in the tables the range is from about 
500, in rice at 8 cents a pound, to 1,200, in corn meal at 2 cents a pound. The 
standards for the diets of an ordinary workingman call for from 3,000 to 3,600 
Calories in one day's food. 

Estimating the expensiveness by the cost of the protein, we find this to range 
from 8 to 34 cents a pound in the vegetable, and from 18 cents to a little over one 
dollar in ordinary animal foods — meats, fish, milk, eggs, etc. — while in some it is 
much higher, thus showing the greater expensiveness of animal foods in another 
way. The reason for this higher cost is, of course, simple enough. Animal foods 
are made from vegetable, and by a more or less expensive process. The manufacture 
of beef or milk from grass and grain involves considerable outlay for labor and in- 
cidental expenses, and the product is, of course, much less in quantity than the 
raw material. 

If the reader is interested in such statistics he will find considerable food for 
reflection in the diagrams and figures. He will observe that among animal foods 

in the nutritive effect of the same substance with different persons, is such that these calculations are not correct 
for every case. Furthermore, there are other things besides the proportions of nutrients that affect the nutritive 
action of food. This topic I hope to discuss later. Meanwhile it will suffice to say that for the staple food-mate- 
rials these calculations are probably close approximations to the real nutritive values as compared with the costs. 
The methods by which they are made are too complex to be explained here, but may be found in an article on 
" Food Consumption " in the Report of the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor for 1886, p. 251. 



Diagram VI.— COMPARATIVE EXPENSIVENESS OF FOODS. 

Amounts of Actual Nutrients 'Nutritive Ingredients) Obtained for Twenty-five Cents in Different 
Food-Materials at Ordinary Prices, with Amounts Appropriate for a Day's Ration. 



Food- Ma teria Is. 



Beef, sirloin 

Beef, sirloin, at lower price 

Beef, round 

Beef, neck 

Mutton, leg 

Smoked Ham 

Salt Pork, very fat 

Salmon, early in season 

Salmon, at lower price 

Mackerel 

Codfish 

Salt Mackerel 

Salt Codfish 

Oysters, at 40 cents per quart 

Hens 1 eggs, at 30 cents per dozen. 

Milk, at 7 cents per quart 

Cheese, whole milk 

Cheese, skimmed milk 

Butter 

Oleomargarine 

Sugar 



Wheat flour. 



Wheat bread 

Corn (maize) meal 



Oatmeal 



B, 



Potatoes, at 75 cents per bushel 



1^ 



Cts. 

25 



Quantities obtained for 25 cents. 



Nutrients in the Food-Materials. 
Quantities in pounds and hundredths of a pound indicated by shaded bands . 
PROTEIN. FATS. CARBOHYDRATES. 

" Lean' 1 ' 1 of meat, Fatty and oily Sugar, starch, 
gluten of wheat, etc. substances. etc. 



41bs. 



Standards for daily diet for ( Voit's, 
laboring man at moderate^ 
work Writer' 



03^ 
15 

08 
3° 
iS 

03 

07M 

03 

05 

08 
05 



German .... 
s, American 




Wm. O. Atwater. 



Century Magazine. 

Reprinted by consent. 



Diagram VII.-COMPARATIVE EXPENSIVENESS OF FOODS. 



Costs of a Pound of Protein and Amounts of Potential Energy Obtained for Twenty-flve Cents 
in Different Food-Materials at Current Market Prices. 



Kinds of Food-Materials 



Beef, sirloin 

Beef, sirloin, at lower price 

Beef, round 

Beef, neck 

Mutton, leg 

Smoked Ham 

Salt Pork, very fat 

Salmon, early in season 

Salmon, at lower price 

Mackerel 

Codfish 

Salt mackerel 

Salt codfish 

Oysters, at 43 cents per quart . . . 

Hens' eggs, at 30 cents per dozen 

Milk, at 7 cents per quart 

Cheese, whole milk 

Cheese, skimmed milk 

Butter 

Oleomargarine 

Sugar 

Wheat flour 

Wheat bread 

Corn (maize) meal 

Oatmeal 

Rice 

Beans • 

Potatoes, at 75 cents per bushel. 



Assumed 
prices of 
Food-ma- 
terials per 
pozend in 
cents. 



.16 
.08 
.22 
• 14 



.30 
.10 
.08 

.07 



■o 3 Vz 



• 15 
.08 



•03 

■o 7 Vz 



■oiM 



•The estimated cost (in cents) of one pound of protein in each 
Food-material, when the latter is bought at the market prices as- 
sumed, is expressed by the lengths of the light parallel lines, 

The estimated number of calories of potential energy in the 
nutrients (actually nutritive ingredientsi contained in the quantity 
of each Food-material which 25 cents would pay for if the ma- 
terial were bought a t the market p rices assumed, is expressed by 
dark l.n^s, thus: 



f ic6 cents... 
\ 870 calories 
f 85 cents... 
{ 1114 calories 
c 63 cents... 
I 1145 calories 
33 cents... 
I 27^3 carries 
$ 91 cents... 
) 1076 calories 
f 40 cents... 
\ 3000 calories 
I 23 cents... 
\ 6325 calories 
f =;n cents. . . 
\ i^8 calories 
( 15 j cents... 
\ 519 calories 
f 79 cents... 
■\ 929 calories 
f 75 cents... 
\ 656 calories 
( r 2 cents... 
I zooy calories 
I 4? cents... 
\ 1103 caloiies 
I 253 cents... 
"| 520 calories 
1 121 cents... 
I 763 calories 
J 53 cents... 
\ 2178 calories 
J 31 cents... 
\ 3403 calories 
I 18 cents .. 
\ 3642 calories 
f no protein. 
\ 3c?2 calories 
( no protein. 
I 6164 calories 
f r.o protein. 
"\ 6292 calories 
f n cents... 
\ 13782 caloiies 
( 35 cents... 
I 4255 calories 
I 12 cents .. 
\ 134&3 calorics 
( 15 cents... 
\ 9189 calorics 
I 34 cents .. 
■\ 5063 calories 
f 14 cents... 
\ 7630 calories 
f 22 cents... 
"i 7689 calories 



Wm. O. Atwate^. 




Century Magazine. 

Reprinted by consent. 



THr-: BCIE2>TCE OF NL'i'iilTIOX. 53 

those which rank as delicacies are the cos'liest. If lie uses the protein of oysters 
to make blood, muscle, and brain, it will cost him from two to three dollars a pound. 
In salmon, if he is enough of a gormand to buy it at the beginning of the season 
at $1 a pound, he will pay at the rate of $5 a pound for his protein. In beef, 
mutton and pork the cost of the protein ranges from a little over a dollar to about 
40 cents a pound. (Salt pork, m which its cost is estimated at 25 cents, contains 
extremely little protein.) In such fish as shad, bluefish, and halibut (which are not 
mentioned in the dragrams), when they are cheap, say from 8 to 12 cents a pound, 
the protein costs about the same as in beef and mutton ; but when the price is 
from 15 to 25 cents, the cost of the protein is from one to two dollars a pound. In 
cod and mackeral, fresh and salted, the protein varies from 30 to 80 cents a pound. 
Salt cod and salt mackerel are generally, fresh cod and fresh mackerel often, and 
even the choice fish, as bluefish and shad, when abundant, cheaper sources of pro- 
tein that any but the cheapest kinds of meat. Among meats, pork is the cheapest ; 
but salt pork or bacon has but very little protein and consists mostly of fat, which, 
though rich in potential energy, and very useful for people who have had hard work 
to do or are exposed to severe cold, is not so appropriate in warm weather or for 
those whose time is spent within doors and whose muscular labor is light. The 
comparative cheapness of cheese is well worth noting, and the great economy of 
oleomargarine as compared with butter deserves of more than a passing remark. 

The comparison between wheat flour and potatoes is especially interesting. 
The protein in the wheat flour, at $6 a barrel or 3 cents a pound comes to 11 cents, 
while in potatoes at 50 cents a bushel it costs 15 cents a pound. Estimated in terms 
of potential energy, 25 cents pays for about 14,000 Calories in wheat flour at $6 
a barrel, and 12,000 in potatoes at 50 cents a bushel. The potatoes would have to 
be reduced to 40 cents a bushel to make their nutrients as cheap as those of wheat 
flour at $6 per barrel. Adding to this the fact that the protein of wheat is the more 
valuable, weight for weight, because that in the potatoes is apparently less digestible 
and certainly of inferior chemical constitution, the showing against potatoes, even 
at this price, is very decided. But in the eastern portion of the United States, at 
any rate, people are very apt to pay 75 cents or $1 a bushel for their potatoes, while 
the finest wheat flour now sells at $6 a barrel ; and if they are contented with flour 
of the coarser grades, they can have it for less.* 



* At first thought this cheapness of wheat flour as compared with potatoes is a little surprising. The natural 
law of supply and demand of such staple materials, in the long run, shapes the price more or less closely to the act- 
ual value for use, and we should expect that the price of potatoes and flour would naturally gravitate to points 
which would make them more nearly equal in actual cheapness. At $10 a barrel, the price of wheat flour a few 
years ago, its protein would cost not far from 13 cents a pound, which would correspond to potatoes at about 60 
cents a bushel. If the price of flour should remain where it now is, we may perhaps, expect that of potatoes to 



54 THE SCIENCE OF SLIRITIOI*. 

In the United States the tendency to extravagance, combined with the mistaken 
notion as to the nutritive value of costly food, causes exception to the rule. Takiug 
the world through, however, the poorer communities and classes of people almost 
universally select those foods which chemical analysis shows to supply the actual 
nutrients at the lowest cost. But, unfortunately, the proper proportions of the nu- 
trients in their dietaries are often very defective. Thus in portions of India and 
China rice, in northern Italy maize-meal, in certain districts of Germany and in 
some regions and seasons in Ireland potatoes, and among the poor whites of the 
southern United States maize-meal and bacon, make a large part of the sustenance 
of the people. These foods supply the nutrients in the cheapest forms, but they 
are all deficient in protein. The people who live upon them are ill-nourished, and 
suffer physically, intellectually, and morally thereby. 

Finally Prof. Atwater remarks that the Scotchman, as shrewd in his diet 
as in his dealings, finds a most economical supply of protein in oatmeal, had- 
dock, and herring ; and the thrifty inhabitants of New England supplement 
the fat of their pork with the protein of beans and the carbohydrates of potatoes, 
and supplement maize and wheat flour with the protein of codfish and mack- 
erel; and while subsisting largely upon such frugal but rational diets, are well 
nourished, physically strong, and distinguished for their intellectual and moral 
force. 

Mrs. Eichards gives another way of stating the relative cost of some foods which 
is as follows : ' 

Children and delicate women require food per day sufficient to furnish heat or 
equivalent energy equal to 2,500 to 3,000 Calories. 

Sedentary men and more vigorous women require food per day sufficient to fur- 
nish heat or equivalent energy equal to 3,000 to 3,500 Calories. 



come down gradually to a point where the actual expensiveness of the two will be more nearly the same. Of 
course this is a matter outside of chemistry, but the little study I have given it leaves me with the decided im- 
pression that the prices of such staple food-materials tend to adjust themselves to the nutritive values 

This statement is apparently in direct contradiction with a fact which these computations brin? out most 
forcibly, to wit. tbe wide difference between the prices of foods and their values. But these differences have, 
really, a very simple explanation. The prices we pay for many of our food materials are regulated rather by 
their agreeableness to our palates than their values for nourishing our bodies. The sirloin of beef which we 
buy for 25 or 30 cents a pound is really no more nourishing than the shoulder which we get for 10 cents, or the 
neck at 8 cents a pound. In general, only a part, and often a small part, of what we spend for m-ats and sweet- 
meats goes for the nutriment they contain. The rest is the price of flavor, tenderness, and other things that 
make them toothsome. Nor does the disparity between animal and vegetable foods conflict with the principle I 
have ventured to lay down. Meats, fish, and the like gratify the palate in ways which most vegetable foods do 
not, and, what is perhaps of still greater weight in regulating the actual usage of commuiuties by whose de 
mand the prices are regulated, they satisfy a real need by supplying protein and fats, which vegetable foods lack. 
People who can afford it. the world over, will have animal foods and will compete with one another in the pi ices 
they give for them. These facts put the choicer animal foods outside the action of the law. if it be a law, that 
price and nutritive value tend to run parallel. 



Diagram IV.— POTENTIAL ENERGY OF FOOD. 



CALORIES IN THE NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND OF EACH FOOD-MATERIAL. 



Beef, round, rather lean 807 

Beef, neck 1108 

Beef, sirloin, rather fat , 1173 

Beef, flank, very fat 2750 

Beef, side, well fattened 1463 

Mutton, leg 1142 

Mutton, shoulder 1281 

Mutton, loin (chops) 1755 

Mutton, side, well fattened 1906 

Smoked ham i960 

Pork, very fat 3452 

Flounder 286 

Cod 310 

Haddock » 331 

Bluefish 404 

Mackerel, rather lean 430 

Mackerel, very fat 1036 

Mackerel, average 696 

Shad 750 

Salmon 967 

Salt cod 416 

Salt mackerel 1364 

Smoked herring 1343 

Canned salmon 1036 

Oysters 229 

Hens' eggs 760 

Cows' milk 308 

Cows' milk, skimmed 176 

Cheese, whole milk 2044 

Cheese, skimmed milk 1 166 

Butter 3691 

Oleomargarine 3679 

Wheat flour 1655 

Wheat bread 1278 

Rye flour 1614 

Beans 1519 

Pease 1476 

Oatmeal 1830 

Corn (maize) meal 1616 

Rice 1627 

Sugar i 79 8 

Potatoes 427 

Sweet Potatoes 416 

Turnips I39 





The potential energy represents simply the fuel value of the food, and hence is only an 
incomplete measure of its whole nutritive value. Besides serving as fuel, our food has other 
uses, one of which is, if possible, still more important, namely, that of forming and repairing the 
tissues of the body, the parts of the machine. 



Wm. O. Atwater. 



Century Magazine. 

Reprinted by consent. 



5G THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

Hard-working robust men require food per day sufficient to furnish heat or 
equivalent energy equal to 3,500 to 4,000 Calories. 

The average family, per person, probably requires food per day sufficient to fur- 
nish heat or equivalent energy equal to 3,000 Calories. 

But foods differ not only in their power of furnishing heat or equivalent energy, 
but also in their cost, and since in general half the average earnings of the working 
man are spent for food it is extremely desirable to know what foods furnish the 
most heat or equivalent energy for the least money. The following table shows the 
cost of an amount of different food material sufficient to furnish heat or equivalent 
energy enough for the average member of a family per day. The amount of food 
required is assumed to be sufficient to furnish 3,000 Calories of heat or equiva- 
lent energy per day. Of course if the prices change the cost per day will change 
proportionately : 

TABLE II. 

Showing the Cost of 3,000 Calories obtained from Different Food Materials. 

food materials. cost in cents. 

Suet at 6 cents a pound, 4.40 

Potatoes at 30 cents a bushel, x / 2 cent a pound, 5.00 

Corn Meal at 3 cents a pound, 5.43 

Flour at 4 cents a pound, or $7.50 a barrel, 7.26 

Flour at 5 cents a pound, or $1.50 a bag, 9.09 

Potatoes at 50 cents a bushel or 1 cent a pound, 10.00 

Sugar at 6 cents a pound, 10.41 

Beef, from shin and flank, 4 cents a pound, 12.00 

Sausage, Bacon and Ham, at 12 or 12^ cents a pound, 12.78 

Beans and Pease at 8 to 10 cents a quart, 13.86 

Sugar at 8 cents a pound, 13.92 

Rice at 8 cents a pound, 15.69 

Skimmed Milk at 2 cents a quart, 17.31 

Parts of Beef, Mutton or Pork, pretty fat, 8 to 10 cents a pound, 20. 00 

Potatoes at $1.25 a bushel, 20.60 

Skimmed Milk at 3 cents a quart, 25.62 

Apples at 45 cents a peck, 27.30 

Butter at 35 cents a pound, 30.74 

Milk at 7 cents a quart, 34.74 

Cheese at 14 cents a pound, 36.33 

Green Vegetables at 5 cents a pound, 61.50 

Beef, medium fat, with 15 per cent, bone, at 15j£ cents a pound, 100.00 

Eiras at 18 cents a dozen, 106.50 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 57 

From the above table it is clearly evident that suet, corn meal and flour, are at 
present prices, the cheapest kinds of food, but it must not be supposed that the 
above table teaches that we could live on single articles of food, suet alone for ex- 
ample, notwithstanding it would furnish the necessary energy and is cheap. With 
the exception of wheat, milk, eggs, and possibly one or two other articles, no single 
food contains all the elements in the right proportion. We need what are called 
nitrogenous foods, among which may be mentioned wheat, lean meats, pease and 
beans. We also need energy-producing foods, among which maybe mentioned suet, 
butter, flour, corn meal, potatoes, sugar, etc. We also need mineral matter which 
is usually obtained in proper amount from the meats and vegetables. We also need 
water and air as well as flavors which make things taste good. The flavors are com- 
monly developed during the cooking of the food, but we also often add flavors, such 
as vanilla, lemon, banana, etc. The air and water are from the common supply. 

Lists or statements showing the proper combinations of different articles of 
food are called Bills of Fare, or more properly Dietaries, and much study is now 
being put on this subject. 

For the most exhaustive study of nutrition in relation to cost and quantity 
and working power produced, see the pamphlet "Die Ernabrung der Handweber 
im Zittan," von Dr. Carl von Rechenberg, Leipzig, 1890. 



58 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

Table I. 

AMOUNTS OF NUTRIENTS FURNISHED FOR TWENTY-FIVE CENTS IN FOOD-MATERIALS 

AT ORDINARY PRICES. 





<x> 

3 


25 CENTS WILL PAT FOR :— 


FOOD-MATERIALS. 


"3.8 


NUTRIENTS, POUNDS. 




Totals. 


Protein. 


Fats. 


Carbohy- 
drates. 


Salmon, 


cts. 
100 
25 
17.5 
30 
10 
25 
12 
08 
22 
10 
20 
20 
18 
20 
08 
06 
20 
15 
07 
12.5 
05 
30 
04 
05 
03.5 
18 
08 
15 
06 
16 
12 
08 
08 
06 
01.7 
05 

01.25 
04 
05 
04.5 
04 

.85 
03 


lbs. 

.25 
1.00 
1.42 

.83 
2.50 
1.00 
2.08 
3.13 
1.14 
2.50 
1.25 
1.25 
1.39 
1.25 
3.13 
4.17 
1.25 
1.67 
3.57 
2.00 
5.00 

.83 
6.25 
5.00 
7.14 
1.39 
3.13 
1.67 
4.17 
1.56 
2.08 
3.13 
3.13 
4.17 
3.24 
5.00 
18.00 
6.25 
5.00 
5.55 
6.25 
26.47 
8.33 


.06 

.12 

.17 

.19 

.27 

.29 

.29 

.34 

.34 

.35 

.37 

.38 

.40 

.44 

.44 

.45 

.46 

.49 

.58 

.60 

.71 

.73 

.74 

.82 

.84 

.90 

.92 

1.08 

1.21 

1.23 

1.65 

1.69 

2.08 

2.75 

3.04 

3.96 

4.13 

4.15 

4.48 

4.83 

5.44 

6.06 

6.90 


.04 
.06 
.09 
.12 
.25 
.15 
.19 
.33 
.17 
.25 
.19 
.19 
.29 
.25 
.29 
.44 
.17 
.35 
.57 
.30 
.51 

.21 
.80 
.24 

.38 
.48 
.45 
.84 
.04 
.06 

1.20 
.28 
.37 
.27 

1.16 
.36 
.56 
.76 
.62 
.69 
.53 
.70 


.02 
.02 
.02 
.07 
.02 
.14 
.10 
.01 
.17 
.10 
.18 
.19 
.11 
.19 
.15 
.01 
.29 
.14 
.01 
.30 
.20 
.73 
.23 
.02 
.26 
.49 
.44 
.59 
.37 
1.19 
1.59 
.21 
.06 
.07 
.03 
.11 
.04 
.12 
.36 
.06 
.04 
.05 
.29 




Oysters, 50 cents per quart, 

Oysters, 35 cents per quart, 

Salmon, 


.04 
.06 


Bluefish, 


__ 


Beef, sirloin, 





Shad, 





Cod, 





Mutton, leg, 

Mackerel 

Beef, sirloin, 

Mutton, leg, 

Beef, round, 


— 


Canned salmon, 





Shad, 

Cod 


— 


Mutton, side, 

Beef, round, 


— 


Salt cod, 


— 


Salt mackerel, 


— 


Mackerel, 


— 


Butter, 


— 


Salt cod, , . 


.30 


Milk, 7 cents per quart, 

Cheese, whole milk, 

Beef, neck, whole, 

Cheese, whole milk, 


.34 
.03 

.04 


Pork, salted, fat, 










Cheese, skim milk, 


.28 
1.74 


Wheat bread, 


2.31 


Beans, 10 cents per quart, 

Wheat bread, 


2.74 
2.69 
3.73 
3.47 




3.36 


Wheat flour, 


4.15 




4.71 


Potatoes, 50 cents per bushel, .... 
Indian meal, 


5.48 
5.91 








THE SCTENCK OF NUTRITION. 



59 



In the compilation of the twelve dietaries for thirty days which have been pre- 
viously given with directions for their preparation, the following food values were 
the basis of the computation. 

In this table the value is kept under rather than over the limit, and is intended 
to be available for any part of the country. 









Per cent. 


| 








Per cent. 






Per 


Per 


Carbohydrate. 


Calories 




Per 


Per 


Carbohydrate. 


Calories 


Article of Food. 


cent. 
Proteid. 


cent. 
Fat. 




per 

Pound. 


Article of Food. 


cent. 
Proteid. 


cent. 
Fat. 




per 










Pound. 






70.00 


Starch. 


Sugar. 










Starch. 


Sugar. 




Bacon 


10.00 






2960 


Ham 


24 00 


30.60 






1656 


Beans ..... 


24.40 


1.50 


51. 


50 


1650 


Hominy . . 








9 50 


4.00 


69. 


00 


1650 


Bt-ef. shin and sh'ld'r 


20 00 


4 00 






520 


Birer . . . 








20 00 


500 






560 


Beets .... 


1.26 




0.10 


8.00 


160 


Maccaroni . 








8.50 


0.3 


75. 


00 


1650 


1- utter 


1.00 


86.50 






3615 


Milk, whole 








3.20 


3.90 




4.30 


298 


I read 


7 00 


0.50 


52 50 


4.00 


1150 


Milk, skim . 








4.00 


0.90 




4.70 


201 


< abbage 


2.00 


0.50 


6. 


50 


190 


Mutton, neck 








15.50 


8.50 






619 


Cheese 


30 00 


31.00 






1780 


Oatmeal . . 








14.00 


700 


63. 


50 


1650 


torn Meal .... 


9 50 


4.00 


69. 


00 


1650 


Pork . . . 








2.60 


77.80 






3160 


Codfish, salt . . . 


22.08 


2.20 






1488 


Potatoes 








2 00 




21. 


00 


430 


Corned Beef . . . 


2140 


18 00 






1105 


Pease . . . 








23.00 


2.00 


53. 


00 


1650 


Corned Beef . . . 


2 60 


77.80 






2960 


Rice . . . 








7.40 


0.40 


79. 


00 


1870 


Crushed Wheat . . 


1164 


1.26 






1650 


Sausage . . 








13.00 


40.00 






1834 


Fresh Fish .... 


12.00 


0.30 






230 


Squash . . 








0.39 


06 


4. 


00 


160 


Egrgs 


12.50 


12.00 


0. 


55 


705 


Suet . . . 










89.00 






3600 


Flour, white . . . 


12.00 


2.00 


69. 


00 


1660 


Sugar . . . 














96.50 


1800 


Flour, whole . . . 


11.65 


1.30 


71. 


00 


1650 


Turnips . . 
Veal . . . 








1.50 
19.00 


0.14 
3.00 


1.24 


8.00 


160 
462 



Illustrative of this study of diet is given below the actual amount and variety 
of food eaten by a man and a woman on a certain day, with calculations of the 
amount of energy (expressed in Calories) contained in the food, together with the 
relative amounts of the different nutrients: 



MAN. 
Ounces. 
4 

% 

X 

3 
10 

% 
11# 



Sunday, February 22, 1890. 

BREAKFAST. 

Milk, 

Flour Griddle Cakes, 

Syrup, 

Butter, 

Cheese, 

Cream, 

Coffee, 

Sugar, 

Oatmeal, 



WOMAN. 

Ounces. 

6 
4 

% 

% 

% 
8 

taste 
5 



60 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



MAN. 








DINNEB 






WOMAN. 


Ounces 














Ounces. 


3 




Cold Corned Beef, 






IK 


Vz 




Fat B-ef, 











5/ 2 




Vegetables, Parsnip, 


Beet, 


Turnip, 


5 


11 \yi oz 


. waste 


Baked Potato 


t 






11 Yz Z/4, oz. waste 


2 




Bread, 













I 




Butter, 










1^ 


Apple 3*4 >£ oz 


waste 


Fruit, 








Orange 4 yi oz. waste. 


1 




Nuts, 










% 







Raisins, 










X 


59^ 














48^ 








SUPPER. 








5 1 oz. sugar 


Pear sauce, 








5 1 oz. sugar. 


i* 




Bread, 










w 


^ M oz. 


sugar 


Cookie, 
Butter, 













1 




Crackers at bedtime 


► 












Water, 










12 


34 




Milk, 










6 


101# 














73^ 


5 




Loss Waste, 








5 


96^ 














68^ 


Calculation of the above 






















MAN. 








Grms. Albumen. 


Fats. 




Sugar. 


Starch. 


Grms. Total. 




4.5 


3.9 




4.5 






112. 


Milk 


2.5 


10.1 
37. 




2.5 






84. 
37. 


Cream. 
Butter. 


2.1 


2.3 










7. 


Cheese. 


7.3 


4.6 








45.5 


91. 


Bread. 


28.6 


6.3 




56. 






84. 
56. 


Beef. 
Sugar. 


2. 










53.0 


252. 


Potato. 


2.3 






15. 






150. 


Vegetables. 




14. 










14 


Fat in Beef. 


10.5 










35.0 


70. 


Griddle Cakes. 


11.6 


4.8 








52.0 


322. 
80. 


Oatmeal. 
Dry. 


4.5 


15. 










28. 


Nutf. 




98. 




17. 






196. 
1,583. 


**{%£ 


75.9 




280.5 




Calories 2,343. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 61 







WOMAN. 






Grms. Albumen- 


Fats. 


Sugar. 


Starch 


Grms. Total. 




13.4 


11.8 


13.4 




336. 


Milk. 


0.4 


1.7 


0.4 




14. 


Cream. 




56. 






56. 


Butter. 


2.1 


2.3 






7. 


Cheese. 


8.4 


5.3 




52.5 


105. 


Bread. 


14.3 


3.2 






42. 


Beef. 






35. 




35. 


Sugar. 


2.0 






53.0 


252. 


Potato. 


2.1 




14. 




140. 


Vegetables. 
Fat Beef. 


16.8 






56.0 


112. 


Griddle Cakes. 


5.1 


2.1 




22.8 


140. 
35. 


Oatmeal. 
Dry. 


1.1 


4. 






7. 


Nuts. 






17. 




196. 


Fruit \ Pears * 
±rmt } Oranges, 


65.7 


86.4 


264.1 


1,477. 


Calories 2,130. 



Since our American Standard dietary calls for 100 grams Albumen, 100 grams 
Fats, 450 grams Sugar and Starch, it will be seen that the amount was insufficient 
although the ratio of the weights 186 to 145 was about right: 1 pound of food 
for each 35 pounds of body weight. 

The raison d' etre of all this modern talk on cooking is that we may have better 
health ; our civilization is being the death of us. 

THE EVIDENCES OF GOOD HEALTH. 

How shall we know if we are in our best condition ? 

First, we shall not be thinking about it at all. We shall not mind about the 
quality of our food very much. Life will hold other pleasures for us. 

Mere motion, action, work, that is, use of muscular power, brings a delightful 
sense of life and force. The healthy workman goes to his day's work with vigor in 
his step, the schoolboy to his desk with eagerness. 

If we find ourselves sluggish and tired in the morning it is because something 
is wrong. The standard of good health is for all alike the consciousness of power. 
We ask, How much power of work is there in the food we eat? — how much food do 
we need for a day's work? We call this power, ENERGY, and we reckon the force 
in Calories, that is in the mechanical equivalent of heat. This is the starting point 
of all our modern work in dietetics. 

The modern standard, then, of good health is energy, power to do work; and by 
work we mean thinking, inventing, painting, writing, just as much as swinging a 
sledge hammer. 



62 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 

It is no longer a sin to be well and strong as it was in the days of the monas- 
teries find hermits ; man's ambition is no longer to be dyspeptic enough to see visions 
and dream dreams. 

THE ESSENTIALS OF GOOD HEALTH. 

What then is necessary to maintain this standard of physical strength ? Good 
digestion waits on appetite. Exercise is the best sauce. 

A sound firm has credit at the bank. A little pinch for money does not seriously 
disturb it ; if one customer does not pay another does. 

When a business house has to call on all it possesses day by day it is on the verge 

of bankruptcy. A sound man has a store of health, as it were, to fall back upon. 

He can bear cold and wet and hunger for a day or two, readily. When a little 

change in diet, a change in temperature ofc humidity seriously disturbs a man's 

health he is nearly or quite bankrupt. 

E. H» R 



THE WHOLESALE PREPARATION OF FOOD. 



So much has been done within a few years in the way of canning food that it 
would seem superfluous to consider any other method of preparation in the large 
way, but certain disadvantages inhere in these methods which render the question 
still an open one. 

I. At present, canned food has been subjected, in order to kill all the agents of 
decomposition (the microscopic plants and their spores) to a temperature far too 
high or for too long a time, if the best flavor of the food is to be retained. Hence 
one tires of canned food. 

II. The contact with metal injures the flavor of some things; glass may be 
too expensive. 

III. The presence of solder in the can is a source of danger. 

IV. The can once opened, the contents should be eaten at once, since such food 
is more liable to decay than that which is fresh. 

V. The above requirements place most canned goods beyond the reach of per- 
sons of small means, and small packages have all the above mentioned evils inten- 
sified, beside the inevitable waste of material clinging to the dish. 

In every city and town there is a mass of good food material practically going 
to waste because it costs too much time or too much knowledge to make it into 
wholesome or palatable dishes. To utilize it, some central station or kitchen should 
be established in which it can be prepared on well- proved principles and distributed 
by sale — daily, as bread, meat and milk are <!- ' ,f ed. 

In several foreign countries, notably U> • leoples' Kitchens" (VolJces- 

Jcueche) have been established. In 1890 there u ~. . ; oar teen Volkeskueche in Berlin, 
in which were served 2,187,804 meals at noon, an average of 6,000 per day for 365 
days, or 428 in each kitchen. Eighty per cent, of the meals cost 6J cents each and 
14 per cent, cost 1\ cents; the remaining 6 per cent, cost 3J cents each. The 
cost of running each kitchen was about $6,500 a year, but the oversight is done by 
volunteers. 

The 6J cents portion contains the proper nutrition in the right proportions, and 
consists of a pint and a half of soup and three pieces of meat or fish wegh.ing 6J 
ounces. 



64 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

The dishes prepared are chiefly beans, pease and cabbage, with meats of differ- 
ent kinds. 

The aim and results of these establishments are ably set forth in the account of 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the starting of those in Berlin, just published. The 
following extracts are taken from Frau Morgenstern's paper: 

" The greatest task before the civilized world of our time is the solution of the 
social question. The secret lies in the equalization of the different conditions of 
life by every possible elevation of the destitute and poorer classes, especially that of 
the day laborer. Advancing their material well-being improves the possibilities of 
their social and spiritual development. 

" Before one can attempt to develop higher ideals for the advancement and 
happiness of the people, the food problem must be solved, then that of shelter. 
Only when the animal is satisfied can the spiritual man be reached. The hungry, 
the homeless man is unhappier among his fellow-beings than the wild animal of the 
woods who finds his home and food anywhere. Is it not a natural consequence when 
the hungry and the homeless become like wild animals, break through the laws of 
society and possess themselves through crime of what they want? 

" Jacob Moleschott, the famous physiologist, in speaking of the moral effect of 
' enough to eat ' says ' Courage, good- will, and love of work depend in the highest 
degree on healthful, sufficient food — hunger lays waste the head and the heart/ 

' ' For the working man only the best and most concentrated food is good enough." 

But, as in many other things, while we may learn much from other lands, we 
should modify and adapt to suit our American conditions and to suit the spirit of 
our people and ways. Home and family life are our strongholds, the cafe living of 
Paris and the Volkeskueche of Berlin are alike foreign to our best ideas. We have even 
clung to the home manufacture of bread as no other nation on earth has done. We 
are slow to adopt any principle of cooperative living. The free American likes to 
be free in his selection of food, and preserves his individuality at the expense of his 
stomach as well as of his purse. This is the real reason why cooperative kitchens 
have hitherto failed; no two families like the same food or the same flavors. The 
problem, then, with us is a somewhat difficult one. The food must go to the families 
and not the people to the food, and only such dishes must be attempted as can have 
a somewhat cosmopolitan flavor, and such as can be easily prepared and will not 
suffer by being kept two or three hours, or will bear reheating. 

The attempt to test the feasibility of such wholesale preparation of food was 
made in Boston, beginning in January, 1890, under the direction of Mrs. Mary 
Hinman Abel, and was made possible only by the generous financial support of Mrs. 
Quincy A. Shaw, to whom the scientific side of the question, as well as the far- 



AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMON FOODS. 



Nitrogenous. 



Proteids. 



Water, 



Ash, etc. 



Carbohydrates. 



Starch. 



Sugar. 



Fats. 



Apples 

Butter 

Cabbage 

Potatoes 

Bacon 

Milk 

Bread (rye) 

Bread (white) 

Rice 

Clams 

Crackers (Boston) 

Wheat 

Eggs 

Indian Meal 

Beef, Average.... 

Oatmeal 

Mutton 

Ham 

Mackerel 

Bluefish 

Tripe 

Fowl 

Beans 

Peas 

Cheese 



100 

Proteids 40 lbs. 

Starch, etc.. .. 1.00 " 
Fats 40 " 

Salts - IO " ffjjll 

Total.... 1.90 lbs. 




Computed and Drawn by Mrs. Ellen H. Richards. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 65 

reaching philanthropy, appealed most strongly. "The Story of the New England 
Kitchen," has been most ably and entertainingly told by Mrs. Abel in her report to 
Mrs. Shaw at the end of the first six months; now, at nearly the end of the second 
year under the able management of Miss S. E. Wentworth the success of the 
Kitchen is still more apparent. Branches have been established at 173 Salem street, 
Boston, and in Providence, R. I., in charge of Miss M. B. Gould, who will also open 
the one in New York city in October. It is expected that work at these branches 
will aid materially in solving some of the most perplexing social problems of the day. 

The scientific aspects of the question of nutrition have been studied in connec- 
tion with the daily work of the kitchen, for it is in such connection that the full 
value and significance of the results of scientific research can be best appreciated. 
For this research, a grant was received from the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund, 
and also generous aid from Mr. Andrew Carnegie, his partner Mr. Phipps, and from 
Mr. Henry L. Pierce and others. 

The results of this study are being slowly worked out. Much of the scientific 
thought embodied in this treatise, imperfect though it is, is the direct outcome of 
this work. Much material is still in hand. 

It has been thought best to give the public the benefit of the knowledge, both 
in respect to success and failure so far obtained, rather than to wait for final con- 
clusions, since it is only by combined effort under differing conditions that fixed 
principles can be established. 

In no way can money be better made to serve the people than by securing to 
them good food and by teaching them to like it, so that they will be willing to learn 
to prepare it. 

E. H. R. 



THE ALADDIN OVEN, 

WHAT IT IS. 

It occurred to me one day that heat could be put into a box, kept there, and 
converted into work — the work of cooking. 

What sort of a box? — an iron box? -no, iron will not hold the heat, it wastes it, 
and seems to cook the cook and not the victuals. The ovens of stoves and ranges, 
are iron boxes and •• e therefore not fit to be used. 

Why should i he iron boxes which make the ovens of iron stoves and ranges 
be ventilated? Because in order to cook food in them at all, such an excess of heat 
must be applied that they become fat boilers, or fat-rendering machines ; th < foul 
smells generated in this process are not wanted in any house. 

What is the effect of this process on the food ? This boiling or rendering is a 
process of partial distillation or dissociation; the fats are '" cracked v as the 
chemists term it — the finer volatile parts and flavors are thrown off, generating un- 
pleasant smells in the process, while the residue of the fat is left in a gross and in- 
digestible condition with the other tissues which are deprived of their tine flavor. 

That is the reason why it does not much matter what one calls for at many 
hotels and restaurants, all the meat tastes alike or is tasteless alike. 

Why not. then, apply heat directly to the food in an oven like the common kero- 
sene stove oven ? 

For many reasons : If the lamp smokes or smells the food is tainted ; the direct 
heat scorches or burns without the slow penetration which is needed in fine cooking; 
the direct heat also dessicates the food and drives off the fine volatile flavors. 

Conclusion. — All metal ovens, — all ventilated ovens — and all ovens in which 
excessive heat is applied to food, are more or less unsuitable to fine cooking. To 
that radical conclusion my observations have led me. 

Having cleared away the obstructions by condemning almost every kind of ap 
paratus now in use except, of course, a well-devised broiler to be used over char 
coal — or an old-fashioned brick oven — or a tin kitchen before an open fire — the next 
question was : 

What can be done about it ? 

Men have no right to scold their wives, or use swear words about the rook, mm 
find fault with their meals in a constant and promiscuous way, if they only supph 



Til:: SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 17 

them with apparatus to cook with that is not fit to be used ; or which is so infernal 
in the heat that it generates, as to make it no wonder that those who have i.een of 
an angelic type and temper before beginning to keep house, should exhibit a capacity 
of another kind afterwards which may vex a patient man but ought not to cause 
him to complain. 

The way out of this dilemma is for every boy to' be put in the way of learning 
how to mike first-rate bread, and to do all kinds of plain cooking, in one lesson of 
one hour by a little teaching in the simple principles. Girls may be taught at 
well, if they can spare the time from more important duties. 

In the Aladdin Oven, the heat is put into an outer oven made of non-metallic 
and non-heat conducting material, which is, in fact, a form of stiff paper, made 
from wood pulp combined with other substances. Inside is a food receptacle 
nearly as large as the outer oven, made of sheet metal. 

The heat passes around the thin iron wall of the inner oven through which it 
penetrates in even measure. This inner oven is closed so that the products of com- 
bustion and the direct drying heat of the lamp cannot enter it. It is provided with 
a ventilator which is used only in special cases. 

THE ALADDIN OVEN. 

WHAT IT DOES. 

It cooks any and all kinds of food-material by processes corresponding to 
Eoasting, Baking, Simmering, Stewing, Braising, Sauteing, Broiling, Grilling. It 
can be applied to making omelets or griddle cakes, and with a lamp or gas burner 
of high-heating power frying by immersion in very hot fat can be accomplished 
(but had better be omitted), both doors of the oven being kept open in order to give 
suitable attention to the process. 

Breakfasts, for a family of eight or ten, can be prepared more quickly in all 
usual forms in this oven, by the use of a single lamp, than it can be when it is 
necessary to light a fire in the common stove or range. 

The cooking of oatmeal, cracked wheat, hominy, soups, meat stews, and many 
kinds of fruit can all be done safely and thoroughly at night. 

GENEEAL INSTRUCTIONS FOE USE OF THE ALADDIN OVEN. 

In adjusting the oven for use, care should be taken that the tube in the top 
through which a ventilating tube passes to the inner oven, is adjusted upon the 
nipple which is upon the top of the inner oven. This tube when properly adjusted 



68 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

rests flat upon the top of the outer oven and does not project, as in the first ovens 
made. 

The lamp which is furnished with the Oven may be readily adjusted to heating 
the Oven by placing it underneath and resting it upon a block of wood or on a 
plate or saucer reversed, of such height as to carry the top of the chimney even 
with the under side of the outer oven. With this adjustment the maximum of 
heat will be conducted into the Oven and there will be no tendency to smoke from 
too close a contact of the top of the chimney with the metal. The lamp should not 
be put at the full height at which it may be expected to burn, for ten or fifteen 
minutes after it is lighted, lest it should smoke. 

The oven will not become fully seasoned and will not do its work with full 
effect until about two weeks after it is first put into use. Usually the iron movable 
shelf which rests upon the bottom of the inner oven, keeping pans and dishes aboui 
half an inch away from absolute contact with the bottom of the oven, should be 
kept there in all processes of roasting, baking or simmering. When it is desired to 
broil, this shelf should be taken out. In a process corresponding to broiling, the 
large pan with the wire drainer in it should be put in. The slices of meat, chops 
or chicken should be laid upon this wire drainer, where they will be cooked in a 
manner closely corresponding to broiling. 

For sauteing the pan should be put, with a little butter in it, directly upon the 
bottom of the oven. The cold Indian pudding, the fish, or whatever subject may 
be in process of sauteing, should then be laid in the pan and watched until 
it is done. 

In order to toast bread, remove both the shelf and the pan ; place the wire 
frame directly upon the bottom of the oven, lay the slices of toast upon the w T ire. 

THE STAND AED ALADDIN OVEN has an inside space 18 inches in width, 
12 inches in depth, and 14 inches in height ; it is fitted with movable shelves so as 
to divide it horizontally into not over four compartments. An oven of extra size 
with a cooking space 21 by 13 by 15 inches is made on special orders. Cylindrical 
Ovens suitable for cooking for two to six persons are in progress, but the exact 
dimensions and prices cannot yet be determined. ■ 

LAMPS. 

The lamp to be used with this oven may be either the Kochester, made by 
Edward Miller & Co., Meriden, Conn. ; the Gladstone, made by the Gladstone 
Lamp Company, 10 East 14th street, New York ; the Daylight, made by the 
Craighead & Kintz Manufacturing Company ; the Banner Lamp, made by the 
Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Company; the lamps made by the Bradley. & 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 69 

Hubbard Manufacturing Company ; the Belgian American Lamp, made by the 
company of that name, 31 Barclay street, New York, the Pittsburgh lamp, or any 
other lamp of similar kind which has a circular wick about one and a half inches 
in diameter, with a central duct to convey air from below to the wick. In these 
lamps a practically perfect combustion is assured provided they are kept in good 
order. When carefully managed they may be worked either at full height or less, 
without smell or smoke. 

If desired, the lamps will be furnished at cost to them by the makers of the 
oven, and will be packed in the oven ; the oven is packed inside the table, from 
which it should be removed with care ; the table should then be either on a stand, 
step, box, or table, from 12 to 18 inches in height. 

When the "full equipment" is ordered the second table is furnished with the 
oven and the metallic table. If a lamp is used which is too high to be put under 
the oven, then the metallic table can be set up higher upon some blocks. If the 
lamp is too low for the top of the chimney to be about even with the bottom of the 
outer oven, then the lamp must set up on some blocks. 

Inside the oven will be found one iron shelf with the edges turned down and 
without any holes in it ; this shelf should be placed upon the bottom of the inner 
oven to keep the dishes a little off from actual contact with the bottom, so as to 
prevent burning at the point where the heat strikes. The other perforated shelves 
may be used or not, according to the number and height of the vessels in which 
food is to be cooked. 

When many kinds of food are to be cooked at one time in the same oven, some 
of which may give off a good deal of water by evaporation, it will be expedient 
to have a dish or pan for the roast with feet to it about half an inch high, so as to 
keep the bottom of the pan from direct contact with the bottom of the oven. In this 
pan place the meat that is to be roasted, or any other kind of food to which it is desira- 
ble to give a brown or crusted appearance, then remove the close sheet of iron from 
the bottom and place these pans on the actual bottom of the oven itself ; then put 
the close sheet of iron which has no holes in it on the middle bearings above the 
roast, and put the watery dishes on the upper spaces and if necessary open the ven- 
lator a little so that the vapor can escape through the orifice. 

By this arrangement a comparatively dry and browning heat will be attained in 
the lower space, while the moisture from the watery dishes will be wholly in the 
upper spaces. 

Under these conditions, give about a third to a half as much more time as would 
be required in a common stove ; with some kinds of food, twice as long. A little 
experience will be needed with each oven. Each oven will require a few days' 



70 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

seasoning in order to bring it to its normal condition and to overcome a little odor 
which is given off by the material with which the wood pulp is prepared. 

If it is desirable to boil anything in a pot or jar, all the shelves may be removed 
and the vessel may be placed directly on the bottom of the oven, over the lamp ; in 
this case the ventilator should be opened to let oh* the steam, but for ordinary work 
it is not necessary to open the ventilator. 

The heat of this oven may be raised to about 300 to 400 degrees with the lamps 
described ; it will be a little hotter at the bottom than at the top ; but under this 
arrangement and at this degree of heat, fish, meat, custard, cauliflower and onion 
may all be cooked together without any flavor being imparted from one to the other; 
because there will be no distillation of the fats or juices of the food, only a little 
evaporation of water. At a much higher degree of heat there would be danger of 
the flavors passing over, and also danger that the smell of cooking might pervade the 
room, hence if a lamp of larger capacity and power is used it must be used with care. 

A great deal of cooking may be done very slowly by night, by substituting a 
common flat-wicked lamp, of moderate power, for the kind previously named — 
wick one and a quarter inches to two inches wide — or a duplex burner. This 
lamp, if placed in position, will not raise the heat of the oven above 200° Fahr., 
at which degree of heat grain, meat and fish may be very slowly and tenderly 
cooked if left to take care of themselves throughout the night. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR HEATING THE ALADDIN OVEN WITH GAS. 

There are many persons to whom the use of kerosene oil and the care of lamps 
is objectionable. 

The oven can be worked with gas burned in a Bunsen burner as well as with 
the lamp, but it will require a little experience in order not to overheat, or to scorch 
or burn the food. One of my correspondents in Pittsburgh applies the natural gas 
with entire success and at a merely nominal cost. (See Appendix.) With the in- 
troduction of low priced gas for heating purposes, the economy of fuel applied to 
cooking may become as great as when oil is used. 

If the common illuminating gas is used, apply the Bunsen burner, capable of 
consuming not over five feet an hour at the highest pressure to which the gas con- 
sumed on the premises can be subjected at night when the pressure is greatest. 
This will assure safety when the oven is worked by night. 

The measure of gas required for ordinary work by day will be readily ascer- 
tained after a little practice. 

BUNSEN GAS BURNER. 

The best form of Bunsen burner is one which has a circular top with small per- 
forations around the edges, each yielding a little tip of flame. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 71 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

WARMING WATER. 

Remove the tin tube in which the ventilator is, place a pan or kettle of water 
over the orifice and the heat from the oven will warm it sufficiently for many pur- 
poses ; notably for washing cooking vessels, plates and dishes. 

For this purpose it is not necessary or expedient to use hot water and soap. 
Put into a pan of tepid water a teaspoonf al of kerosene oil. This oil has a great 
affinity for grease with which it combines in an emulsion. This process takes the 
grease from the pan or crockeryware without leaving any taint of either grease or oil. 

Any one who is prejudiced against such use of kerosene oil may first try this 
process on greasy dishtowels : Pat a little kerosene oil into a pan of tepid water; 
soak the towels in that emulsion, then pour it off and rinse out in clear cold water. 
No scouring required. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

Bread. — In baking bread which has been kneaded in the usual way, it is better 
to make the loaves so as to weigh from one and one-quarter to one and one-half 
pounds each ; bake them two hours or longer according to taste, but change the 
position of the loaves when about half baked, placing those on the top shelf below, 
and those below on the top shelf. If it is desired to give the nutty flavor of crust 
to the whole loaf, the baking may be continued for a much longer period. 

The Case bread-raiser is a most useful appliance ; it consists of a wooden box 
with an opening in the bottom, into which slides a tin pan, which may contain 
water half an inch deep ; the box has a glass front ; about two inches above the pan 
is a perforated wooden shelf on which the pan of dough is placed to be raised ; a 
little more than half way above is another similar shelf ; a very small kerosene lamp 
with a flame about as big as a thumb-nail or a little larger, is placed under the 
bottom of the tin pan ; this develops a moist heat by which the dough is raised ready 
for the baking pans in three and one-half to four hours, without regard to any outside 
conditions ; it may then be removed from the raising pan to the baking pans, put 
back again into the bread-raiser for thirty minutes, and it is then ready for the 
oven. The advantage in the^use of this bread-raiser is that the time can be estab- 
lished with certainty at which the loaves will be ready for the oven. The bread 
being made in the morning can be baked in the afternoon, or after the dinner has 
been removed from the Aladdin Oven. Orders for this bread-raiser may be sent to 
Mr. Daniel Dudley, 91 Carver street, Boston. 

In order to make most excellent bread with the least work, knead with a spoon 
in proportion of one quart white flour, or whole wheat flour, or rye meal, with one 



72 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

pint or a little less warm water, salt to taste, and one-third of a cake of Fleisch- 
mann's compressed yeast (fresh) dissolved in half a teacup of warm water ; stir 
ten minutes or more so as to mix the yeast thoroughly into a very thick batter like 
common dough, put in the pans and raise in bread-raiser about three hours, then 
move to the oven already heated and bake two, three or four hours, according to 
taste. (See subsequent reference to a bread-kneader.) 

Roasting. — Place the joint or poultry in a pan, baste with butter and bread 
crumbs when put in, and place for the quickest work upon the tight shelf which 
rests upon the bottom of the oven, but not directly upon the bottom ; for slower 
work, upon the next shelf. 

Baking or Cooking Fish. — Baste with a little butter and crumbs of bread or 
cracker ; place in a pan or crockery dish, and cook slowly upon the top shelf, or 
else cook slowly in a white sauce. 

Imitation Broiling. — Have a broiling pan made containing a grill or perforated 
plate about half an inch from the bottom — such as is furnished with the oven when 
the order is given for a full equipment ; put the meat upon this, and if you desire 
to work in the quickest way put the pan directly upon the bottom of the oven ; if 
more slowly, upon the tight shelf. Cut the steak two inches thick if you want to 
have the most satisfactory results. Cook sausages in this way. 

Braising. — Place the materials in a covered vessel ; put on the cover, and put 
the dish as near the top of the oven as possible. 

Simmering. — Use a flat- wick lamp of low power, and take all the time required. 

Vegetables. — Nearly all vegetables, especially roots, require a higher degree of 
heat than meat or grain. Potatoes may be baked on the bottom of the oven, with 
the shelf interposed to keep them from scorching. Squash, cauliflower, onion, and 
cabbage, may be cooked in a satisfactory way, but it takes time, which each one 
must determine by experience. Asparagus, pease and beans may be cooked in the 
dishes in which they are served ; in fact, all the work of the oven can be done in 
crockery or stoneware dishes, but for meats and large poultry it may be better to 
use ordinary baking pans. A separate table and separate lamp are recommended 
for boiling potatoes and for boiling water for service, when the cooking stove is not 
heated for warming the kitchen. 

Soup Stock.— -Put the materials in a cheese-pot and simmer all day or all night 
over a flat-wick lamp with wick one inch or one and a quarter to two inches wide. 

Pastry and (Jake. — If the tight bottom shelf will not hold all that is desired 
to bake, put a part there and a part above, and change about midway in the baking. 
Apple pies require two hours. Lemon pies, which are especially good, bake one 
hour and a half. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. Yd 

Game. — Venison may be treated like any other meat. Ducks, grouse, and the 
larger birds, may be basted with butter and bread crumbs, and roasted slowly mid 
uniformly according to taste. Partridge and quail need no basting, but may be 
cooked in bread sauce, smothered in apples, or in any other way, at a moderate slow 
heat. Wild luck, grouse, partridge, and quail, placed in porcelain pots, with a 
white sauce and some French mushrooms added and cooked slowly, may give a new 
sensation even to a gourmand. 

Tough meat and poultry may be rendered very tender, without being dried or 
scorched, by slow simmering for a long time ; when tender, baste and roast for half 
an hour with the full lamp power. 

Brown Bread, Pan Dowdy, and Beans, may be slowly cooked for a long time, 
and will be found to possess the flavors which are familiar only to those who can 
recall these New England dainties as they tasted when baked in the old-fashioned 
brick ovens, before anthracite coal and iron stoves had perverted all the old ways of 
preparing food. 

I beg to add one more recipe for making bread which has been given me by a 
baker of very great experience : 

" In answer to your questions as to the best yeast of domestic make for house- 
hold use, I would say that the Vienna Compressed Yeast is most reliable. 

" Suppose you try it thus : Take one ounce of yeast ; dissolve in three quarts of 
water, warm as new milk ; mix in flour until as stiff as thick batter ; cover over top 
with sifted flour ; allow it to rise and fall flat once. Then add two quarts of water, 
cool as drawn from a well ; dissolve in it five ounces of salt ; add flour to make 
suitable dough ; allow it to remain only long enough to become fairly light. 
Sponge requires about four hours ; dough requires about two hours. Make up into 
loaves and put into pans, giving them about thirty minutes, more or less, as you see 
they require, before putting them into the oven. 

"I think that if this method is followed and close attention given to it for a 
few times, it will be adopted hereafter. Of course, I assume that the yeast used 
shall be fresh. " 

INSTRUCTIONS OF A GENERAL KIND. 

Dinner. — Place the sheet of iron that has no holes in it on the bottom of the 
oven so as to keep the dishes from absolutely touching the hot bottom itself ; 
remove the next shelf, leaving the middle and upper shelves in their places. The 
dinner is to consist of four courses : First, soup ; second, fish ; third, roast ; 
fourth, pudding. White or yellow ware dishes, common stoneware, or crockery 
vegetable dishes may be used. Two dishes or pans may be put on the lower shelf 



74 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

of the oven ; two or three on the middle shelf ; two or four on the upper shelf. 
(Jet dishes which fit well under these conditions. 

The following dinner will call for a yellow or white ware dish, about two to 
two and one-half inches deep, for the meat; an oblong one with round corners is 
best. A tin pan. can be used but it is not so easy to keep clean. The soup may 
be re-heated in a vegetable dish not too high to be set in upon the middle or upper 
shelf. Better heat it over another lamp on an iron table. A shallow dish will be 
required for the fish— one-half to two inches deep ; two vegetable dishes for beans 
and pease, or for squash, tomatoes or onions, either two of which may be chosen. 
Lasth a pudding dish. 

All the articles having been properly prepared, place either a sirloin of beef 
weighing six or seven pounds, a leg of mutton or lamb weighing six or seven pounds, 
or a pair of chickens of good size, in the meat pan. If chickens are chosen, stuff 
with soaked bread crumbs, seasoned with sweet marjoram, pepper and salt ; baste 
the chickens with a little softened butter, and sprinkle with bread crumbs. If veal 
is selected, be sure to cook it long enough ; give a little more time to white meat 
than to brown. Put three or four pounds of fish in the shallower dish, score it 
crossway, lay a few strips of pork on the scores, or else omit the pork and use a little 
soft butter and sprinkle with bread crumbs. 

Put the soup made the day before, according to directions given elsewhere, into 
the soup dish, and season it to taste. A little catsup or celery seed in addition to 
the pepper and salt already in it, may suffice. 

Place the potatoes ready to be baked in the tin pan. Put the string beans in 
one dish, pease in another, with a little water, just sufficient to cover them ; add a 
little salt. If squash is selected, put it in a dish without any water. If tomatoes 
are selected, scald them and remove the outer skin ; put them in a dish, add butter, 
salt and pepper, and sprinkle with cracker crumbs. If onions are chosen, put them 
in a dish with a little milk, salt and pepper. Be sure to give onions a long time. 

Pudding. — Break up some stale bread into a soft mush with milk ; add a l: +f Ie 
salt ; grate in one-half a nutmeg, perhaps a little lemon juice, three or four great 
spoonfuls of sugar, one teacupful of seedless raisins or dried currants — raisins are 
the best ; a little orange marmalade may be added. If you choose, omit the sugar 
and make a cold sauce of sugar, butter and a little spice mashed together. Do not 
be afraid of cooking the onions alongside the pudding. Old onions should be put in 
at the time the meat is put in. Young and tender onions require one and a 
quarter hours. 

Suppose the dinner is to be served at 2.30 p. m. Put the meat or poultry in on 
the lower shelf at 12.30, so that it may cook two hours. Potatoes at same time if 



THE SCTENCE OF NUTRITION. 75 

large ; if very large, even earlier. All the rest may go in at 1.15 p. m.; then each 
dish will be taken out at about the right time. 

Put the fish on the middle shelf, the tomatoes on the upper shelf, and cook 
them an hour to an hour and a quarter. The fish will be served first. Put the po- 
tatoes, if small, on the lower shelf, at 1.15 p. ni., or much earlier if they are of 
large size ; beans, pease, or squash on the middle or upper shelf at 1.15 p. m. ; the 
pudding on the upper shelf at 1.15 p. m. ; the soup anywhere to be reheated. 
Better heat it outside over another lamp. If heated in the oven it may be put in 
when the other articles are put in, or later. A little time will be taken up in placing 
the dishes, and they will come out in about the right order, the pudding being left 
in the oven while the rest of the dinner is being served. 

It will be observed that the meat and potatoes take longer than the rest of the 
dinner, therefore they may be prepared first and put in as above. After the meat is 
in the oven, the rest of the dishes can be prepared and put in according to the above 
rules. When everything is in the oven, shut it up, see that your lamp is burning 
brightly and not smoking ; set the dinner table, take off your apron and get ready 
to enjoy your dinner. If you do not want to be bothered, place the oven in the 
dining-room, serve from the oven to the table, and change the plates as may be re- 
quired, placing the dishes and plates on a side-table behind a screen until they can 
be removed to the kitchen to be washed. Keep a very little fire in the kitchen 
stove to warm water if you do not use a kerosene stove of the common type for that 
purpose. In washing dishes use warm (not hot) water and a teaspoonful of kerosene 
oil to one pan of water. 

If you want to make fine sauces learn how to make them from the books, in a 
blazer or chafing-dish, on the table. If you do not care to light the stove in summer, 
buy a common kerosene stove-lamp, and an iron table with a hole in it, upon which 
you may heat water, boil potatoes, and do other work of that kind. 

This is the first lesson in plain cooking, and is in fact the only one required. 
In subsequent practice read some of the recipes in cookery books and reject nearly 
all the very complex ones ; then apply common sense to those that you choose to 
try. It is not consistent with good cooking to disguise the fine natural flavors of 
meat, fish and fruit, with strong spices or other condiments ; very strong flavors 
may be useful in order to disguise the poor quality of the food itself. 

One of the great merits of this process of cooking slowly by moderate heat 
which does not distill the juice or dissociate the fats is, that the food when reheated 
or served the second time has no unpleasant flavor or greasy tang to it. In fact 
some kinds of food, such as veal or other white meats, seem to develop more flavor 
in the second process than in the first. It is a useful practice to cook such material 



7b THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

for a second time in a blazer or chafing-dish, at the same time adding moderate 
quantities of Nepaul pepper, cayenne pepper, black pepper, tobasco or some other 
kind of sauce, curry powder, caramel, onion juice, bay leaves, sherry wine, etc., in 
order to comprehend the art of giving variety to the customary fare. 

Very Slow Cooking. — Place oatmeal or cornmeal in porcelain jars, with sufficient 
salt, and somewhat less milk or water than would be commonly used. 

Place meat scraps, bones, carcasses of chicken or turkey, corned beef, or smoked 
ham in earthen pots of sufficient size, with a very moderate amount of water ac- 
cording to what is wanted — whether stewed meat or soup. Salt and season accord- 
ing to taste ; place in the oven at nine or ten o'clock p. m. Make use of a common 
lamp with a flat wick one and a quarter to two inches, or a low gas flame. In the 
morning the food will be found thoroughly cooked and the evaporation will have 
been very small. I have prepared twenty-four pounds of fresh meat, fish, oatmeal 
and cornmeal, with water and milk, in this way, and have found twenty-three and 
one-fourth pounds in the vessels the next morning. Ham, cooked in this way, 
should be afterward baked with a basting of bread crumbs, or may be cooked wholly 
by baking. 

The method adopted in the New England Kitchen for making beef broth, for 
the sick or for the well, is as follows : (Samples may be found at 142 Pleasant 
street, where many useful ideas may be gathered.) A large tin vessel has been pre- 
pared which fills the inside of the oven. Into this twenty pounds of coarse beef 
bones broken up and twenty pounds of neck or shin cut in moderate-sized pieces 
are placed ; to this material is added fifteen quarts of water, sufficient to cover well. 
This is placed in the oven at four o'clock p. m., and the lamp is then lighted. At 
seven o'clock p. m., the lamp is refilled, lighted, and left to burn itself out during 
the night, or in about eight hours. At six a. m., the broth will be found still 
nearly at the boiling point, about 204° F. The soup is then strained and cooled, 
and is ready to be put into jars for sale or seasoned for use. This broth is a nutritious 
and easily-digested food, differing from the ordinary beef tea which is mainly a stimu- 
lant rather than a food. The meat in very tender condition still contains much 
nourishment ; it is chopped and seasoned so as to be eaten after or with the soup. 

Each oven should be heated for about an hour before it is used, and each one 
may require a little experience in order to determine the time to which the various 
kinds of food must be subjected in it. 

I have been asked how this apparatus might be applied in the best way to cook- 
ing or baking on a large scale. In my own judgment a Standard oven of the size 
described in this pamphlet, which can be worked with one lamp of the Eochester 
type and of the size in common use, may be adopted as the unit. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 77 

I can see no reason why these ovens might not be made in series, say of four or 
five, in one combination ; each interior oven cut off from the next by a non-conduct- 
ing wall, and each served with a separate lamp or gas burner. Each oven might 
then be heated according to the kind of food to be put into it; and there is no 
common cut of meat, and very rarely any turkey or other kind of poultry which 
this oven will not hold, together with some other dishes on the upper shelf. The 
extra oven may be worked with two lamps, and will hold very large poultry or joints. 

I have a very large oven worked with three lamps, but I think it is cumbrous 
and inconvenient. Eating each Standard oven at about twenty pounds of fish, 
meat and vegetables at one time for one operation, a set of five would convert one 
hundred pounds in two or three hours ; or if used for bread, ten to twelve pounds 
of bread to each, oven ; fifty to sixty pounds to the set of five ovens. 

Tin or iron or other metal ware may be used to cook in, or, if preferred, 
stoneware and common chinaware may be safely used to cook in, as the heat of the 
oven is not sufficient to harm them. 

Food when cooked in stone, china or agate ware, may be served upon the table 
in the same dishes. 

Persons who feel any uneasiness about using kerosene oil, which is the cheapest 
source of heat, may obtain gas burners made on the Bunsen principle, which can be 
applied with a rubber connecting tube, at E. H. Tarbell's, No. Ill Washington 
street. The use of the burner calls for some practice lest the oven should be over- 
heated and the food scorched or burned. I purchase my kerosene oil of the 150° 
F. standard, from Allen, Bradley & Co., Central Wharf, Boston, about 30 gallons 
at a time. 

Since the foregoing was written the oven of extra size has been perfected, in 
which large joints or poultry and other dishes for a dinner for a large family may 
be dealt with by the use of two lamps. Whether or not it will be expedient to go 
beyond this extra size remains to be determined by future experiments. 

Cylindrical ovens of two sizes — one suitable for three or four persons, and one 
for five or six — have been substantially perfected. Litigation — which has prevented 
the use of the burner most suitable to the proposed workman's pail — has been set- 
tled, and I may soon hope to complete that appliance, which has been the objective 
point of all my work. 



ALADDIN, MISSUS AND BIDDY. 

A POEM IN FIVE VERSES. 
COMPOSED AND ILLUSTRATED BY HERBERT D. HALE. 




Aladdin happened 'round the other day, 
And, though I begged and urged that he should stay, 
He only smiled and gravely shook his head, 
Leaving an oven and a lamp instead. 




II. 



I seized them both and, quick with eager hand, 
Threw wide the door and placed them where they stand; 
Lighted the lamp and filled the oven with food; 
Waited a while, then ate it. It was good. 




III. 



But, while I watched my oven with curious gaze, 
Biddy expressed her wrath in divers ways 
And murmured, "Sure, Aladdin was a scamp, 
To cheat ye with this haythen oven and lamp/' 




IV. 



I scolded Biddy in a quiet way, 

And took a dollar from her weekly psv; 

TV hich well rebuked and left her none the worse. 

While I kept one more dollar in my purse. 




V. 



And now the kitchen stove's been sent away — 
And Biddy too, I'm somewhat glad to say; 
And, truth be told, Fll always bless the "scamp" 
Who brought around that "haythen oven and lamp,' 




Miss Barlotti she sate on a stool; 

She did not like to go to school; 
" But/' said Miss Barlotti, " I am no fool. 

I can't spin, and I can't sew; 

But I can do the cooking, though! 

And I declare I am no tool/' 
Said Miss Barlotti, sitting on her stool. 



THE ALADDIN OVEN. 

HOW IT DOES IT. 

Since my first general instructions were given, I have been asked many times 
" When my cookery book would be published ?" 

Even now I can only give the results of observation and of partial study with 
the recipes which have been prepared at my own suggestion, coupled with others 
that have been sent me. For more systematic rules and recipes see Part II. 

Since the first edition of these instructions was issued, much experience has 
been gained and the work which can be done in the Aladdin Oven has been very 
much extended. I have made arrangements to heat the kitchen in my winter house 
mainly from the furnace. Since it is no longer necessary to get up a fire in the 
early morning, my cook finds that the breakfast can be prepared more quickly and 
with less work in the Aladdin Oven than upon the range. Even if the range or 
stove must be lighted for other purposes, the Aladdin Oven is ready for the work 
before the oven in the range is in suitable condition for cooking. Moreover, since 
it is no longer necessary to force the range, a great waste of fuel is saved, espe- 
cially if a little coke is used either by itself or in starting the hard coal fire. 

I can hardly doubt, however, on the basis of my own experience and that of 
many others, that the use of the iron stove or range will almost wholly give place 
to the oven. There is no question that the fine flavors of meat, fruit, grain and 
vegetables are developed by the application of heat at the right temperature. These 
flavors are very subtle and very volatile and are doubtless due to chemical changes. 
A high heat dissipates these fine flavors about as fast as they are formed, especially 
when the cooking is done in open vessels, while a moderate heat which only evap- 
orates some of the water in the material develops the flavor without sending it off 
in vapor, especially when the work is done in closed vessels. A high heat converts 
fat into a fatty acid which is noxious — a low heat prepares the fat for ready assimi- 
lation in the process of nutrition in due proportion. 

True food is not prepared by merely making a cook's mixture commonly 
called a recipe — it is a fine process of the chemical conversion of crude food material 
under the controlled and regulated application of heat. 

In preparation for breakfast, prepare 

Coffee, Southern Method. — Grind the roasted coffee very fine ; put it into a pitcher at 
night, pour cold water upon it equal to the quantity of coffee expected to be made ; let it 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 79 

steep all night. In the morning strain it, and, if desired, clear it with the white of an egg ; 
then heat to the desirable point for serving. It can be heated in the oven, or over another 
lamp, or on tie stove. 

Having lighted the lamp at once on coming down in the morning, so as to heat 
the bottom of the oven while the food is being prepared, a process corresponding 
to the work of frying in a spider by the use of a little fat or butter, without the 
complete immersion of the food in the hot fat, may be applied to a great many 
kinds of food. The method is as follows, scientifically called 

Sauteing. — Place a tin or metal dish immediately apon the actual bottom of the oven, 
directly over the lamp. Put a little butter or lard into it. Having some cold mush made of 
cornrneal or of oatmeal already very thoroughly cooked, cut in thin slices, put them into 
the pan, leave until brown on one side, then turn and brown on the other side ; serve very 
hot. Pan fish may be cooked in the same way. Try almost anything in this way. Crisp 
soda biscuit may be salted and cooked in butter in this way; they make a delicious side dish. 

Gems. — Mix Graham, rye, or whole wheat flour with water and salt into a thick batter, 
using neither yeast nor baking powder. Having placed a metal biscuit pan in the oven so 
that it is already well heated, put in a little butter, merely enough to keep the gems from 
adhering to the metal ; bake quickly on the bottom of the oven. 

The term " whole " or "entire wheat " has been misapplied to the flour which 
is called by that name. This flour is made from grains of wheat from which the 
outer cuticle has been removed. Graham flour is made from the whole grain, 
including the outer covering. Preference is given by many persons to the Graham 
flour. Care should be taken to secure a special brand of Graham flour made from 
sound wheat, as the common grades bear the ill repute of being a compound of the 
rubbish of the flour mill with the poor wheat. These common grades may, there- 
fore, contain more bran than anything else. 

(See Appendix — Letter from Mr. Louis H. Hyde.) 

I will first give a few of our own recipes, mainly for dishes suitable for 
breakfast. 

BROILED CHICKENS OR BIRDS. t 

Place in a tin pan slices of cold toasted bread, place upon them a little butter, put over 
the toast a drainer, that is, a wire frame or a tin plate pierced like a colander, half to three 
quarters of an inch high. Upon this drainer place the chicken quartered or the birds split 
for broiling. Very thin slices of pork may be laid over them, or else smear with a little soft 
butter and sprinkle with bread crumbs. 

BEEF STEAK AND MUTTON CHOPS. 

Place the drainer, the one made of wire being the best, in a tin pan. Put a little butter 
into the pan, place the meat upon the frame, thick slices preferred ; cook according to the 

thickness of the meat. 



80 THE SCIENCE OF NUTEITION. 

SAUSAGES. 

Proceed in the same way, omitting the butter. Put the lard oil which is drained out of 
the sausages into the grease pot, then eat the sausages. 

FISH. 

Proceed in the same manner, addle g pepper and salt according to taste. Put a little 
butter upon the fish and sprinkle with bread crumbs, or cut the fish cross- way and lay in thin 
strips of salt pork, then sprinkle with bread crumbs. 

HAM OH BACON AND EGGS. 

Cover the wire or tin drainer all over with thin slices of ham or bacon, place in the oven 
and cook fifteen to twenty minutes, the oven having been already heated. Then break the 
eggs upon the meat, return to the oven and cook five to ten minutes according to taste. 

When very quick work is necessary, all the dishes above named may be put 
directly upon the bottom of the oven over the lamp. They must however be 
watched, as it is possible to scorch food which is cooked under these conditions 
without the intervening shelf that keeps the bottom of the pans from the direct 
contact with the bottom of the oven. 

When very quick work is not required, leave the close iron shelf which has no 
holes in it upon the bottom of the oven, and place all the dishes upon that, except 
the imitation fry. Sauteing and grilling must be done on the actual bottom of the 
oven. Slow work is the safest. The longer meats are subjected to a moderate heat 
without burning or drying up the juices, the more tender and digestible they will 
become. 

BISCUITS. 

Biscuits made of any kind of meal may be baked in biscuit pans upon the shelf next above 
the bottom of the oven. They may be baked while meats and fish are being cooked below. 
Heat the biscuit pans first. 

GRIDDLE CAKES. 

Take out the close iron shelf, place the griddle in the oven on the bottom as soon as the 
lamp is lighted, so as to heat it with the oven ; put the lamp, well trimmed at full power and 
proceed. in the usual manner to cook griddle cakes, pan-cakes or flap-jacks. 

MUSH OR PORRIDGE. 

Made of cornmeal, oatmeal, cracked wheat or hominy; place either in porcelain vessels ; 
add salt, moisten sufficiently, but not quite as much as if the work were to be done on the 
top of the stove where the water would greatly evaporate; cover the pot and put it into the 
oven for many hours ; all night if you please. 

This slow cooking at moderate heat will not injure but will develop the fine 
flavor of the grain. This mush or porridge may be eaten in the usual way or 
may be allowed to become cold; then cut in thin slices and cook in the pan in 
imitation of frying, according to the instructions previously given. 



THE SCIEXCK OF NUTRITION. 81 

ROASThD WHEAT CAKES. 

If grains of whea 1 ", are roasted a> ofe* berries are roasted, they can be ground in 
a French coffee in 11 which should not be used for any other purpose. This brown flour can 
then be made inro biscuits or into gridd e cak^s that possess a peculiar flavor which many 
pe pie like. It must be very digestible. Coffee berries or wheat grains may be roamed in 
the Ala din Oven. It Takes a loog time, but requires very little attention. 

It therefore appears that almost all the customary breakfast dishes, except those 
which require frying by immersion in hot fat, can be prepared in the Aladdin Oven. 
The ovens stop short at the doughnut stage. 

PAN-CAKES. 

One pint of milk, four eggs, a little salt, two heaping tablespoonfuls of flour. - Beat the 
eggs and stir the milk and flour together. Heat the pan on the bottom of the oven ten 
minutes ; then butter the pan, pour the pan-cakes in, cook for twenty minutes, turning once 
midway. 

OMELET. 

Heat a tin pan upon the actual bottom of the oven, put a small piece of butter therein ; 
beat up the eggs and stir into the pan, place it upon the bottom of the oven for about four 
minutes, closing the door ; then turn over and serve at once. 

The next directions apply to the preparation of the more substantial dishes. 

ROASTING. 

Give more time than in the common oven and do not be tempted to try to roast quickly. 

BROWNING MEAT AND POULTRY. 

Some complaints have been made and exceptions have been taken for the lack of an 
aesthetic appearance in the roasts. Bread crumbs and butter are turned brown by heat at a 
much lower degree than the fats of the meat itself. Therefore smear the joint or sirloin 
with soft sweet butter ; sprinkle with bread crumbs when the dish is put into the oven. This 
will give an aesthetic appearance that will be wholly satisfactory. 

BROWNING HALIBUT AND CUSK A LA CREME. 

Having prepared the fish in the usual way, well seasoned, with sauce, wholly omitting 
the customary boiling by which the fine flavor of the fish is commonly destroyed, cook the 
fish a sufficient time according to the quantity ; about half an hour before serving beat the 
white of an egg into a froth and spread it over the fish. The result will please the critical 
eye and it will not hurt the fish. 

TOASTING BREAD. 

Take out the lower shelf, place a wire grid directly upon the bottom of the oven ; then 
lay the slices of bread thereon. 

BAKED BEANS, BROWN BREAD, INDIAN PUDDING. 

Many of the younger generation never really tasted either of these pre-historic 
dishes. The following recipes are therefore given: 



82 THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION". 

BAKED BEANS. 

Soak one quart of beans in water all night ; turn off that water if you don't want too 
much of the bean flavor and add fresh water. If you are a true beau eater, do < ot turn off 
the water, but put the pot in a heated oven and leave it there one hour ; then draw off the 
loose water. Place half a pound of salt pork on the top; add a teaspoonful of salt ; put 
hick into the oven and cook the beans all day and all night if you want to. Add a little 
ni' .lasses if you want a little sweetening. Beans can hardly be overcooked. 

BROWN BREAD. 

Two cups of Indian, that is, maize meal ; two cups of rye meal ; one and one-half tea- 
spoonful of baling pow ler. One-half teaspoonful of salt ; one small cup of molasses 
(t'eacle). A little over a pint of skim-milk. When baked in the Aladdin Oven, the dish 
should be put on the shelf next above the bottom of the oven, where it should bake three 
hours with the lamp at its full capacity. 

INDIAN PUDDING. 

Two quarts of milk; one-half cup of molasses, one cup of Indian meal. One-half tea- 
spoonful of salt : piece of butter. Bake in the Aladdin Oven four hours on the top shelf 
with the lamp low, in rather a flat dish. 

Note.— Cornmeal, " country ground." so-called, that is, cornmeal which has been ground by slow processes, 
and which has not been subjected to drying in kilns, is much better and possesses a much higher flavor than the 
common cornmeal, such as we find in the shops. I attribute this difference to the fact that the meal has not been 
heated ; therefore its fine flavor has not been driven away. Meal of this description, both of the Rhode Island 
white variety and the common yellow meal can be purchased of Messrs. John B. Chace & Son, 42 South Main 
street, Providence, R. I. 

FISH AND CLAMS, SEASIDE FASHION. 

Take out the shelves from the oven ; make use of a tin box of sufficient size and depth ; 
in the bottom put some wet rock-weed or sea-weed ; put in the clams ; add another layer of 
rock weed ; put in the fish ; cover with rock-weed ; put the cover on the box, if you have a 
cover ; put into the oven and subject to heat for a sufficient time. This method corresponds 
to a clam-bake. 

SAM WELLER HASH. 

Chop into pieces of a rather large size, one pound of ham and two pounds of veal ; add 
cold water and seasoning ; and, if you like it, thicken with a little bread-crumb or flour ; 
simmer slowly a very long time. After being sufficiently simmered, this compound may be 
put into a baking-pan, covered with a light crust, and converted into a " weal and ham " pie. 

FISH CHOWDER. 

This dish can be made in perfection in the following way : Cut the pork in thin slices, 
place in the dish which is fitted with a drainer, put this upon the bottom of the oven, try 
out the fat, and then make use of pork in the usual way in making the chowder, combined 
with fish, milk, potatoes, crackers, onions, etc., according to the customary method. Sinn - r 
slowly with moderate heat. 

It will be observed with respect to chowder and many other kinds of food which 



THE SCIENCE OF N I TUITION. 83 

when cooked at a high heat are not appetizing if heated over again, that when 
cooked at a' moderate degree of heat they may be warmed over the next day and 
will prove to be quite as appetizing, and in some cases more so than when first 
prepared. 

SALT FISH. 

Any one fond of this dish may prepare it in the best way by moderate cooking in a dish 
with a little water added, preparing the pork scraps in the same way that is directed for try- 
ing out the fat of the pork for making chowder. Cook the beets thoroughly. 

COOKING WHOLE HAMS. 

Soak the ham first. Use a lamp of moderate power ; put the ham in a cheese-pot, add 
half a bottle of cider or red wine; fill up the interstices with sweet meadow hay ; very little 
water to be used ; put on the cover and cook very slowly for a long time according to the size 
of the ham. Remove from the pot, take off the skin, baste with bread crumbs ; do not use 
cloves unless you like them ; place a high-power lamp under the oven and roast on the lower 
shelf half an hour. 

CHEESE. 

Reference may be made to the chapter in Dr. Mattieu Williams' Chemistry of Cookery on 
the nutritive value of cheese provided it is thoroughly cooked. An excellent pudding may 
be made in the following way : Two parts stale bread ; two parts skim milk ; one part skim- 
mi k cheese broken up into fragments ; season as for a Welsh rarebit ; add a very little 
bi-carbonate of soda, according to the instructions given in Dr. Williams' book. Cook for a 
long time at a moderate heat. To those who are fond of cheese this dish will prove to be 
appetizing and digestible. The proper cooking of cheese converts it from an indigestible 
substance into a very nutritious one. 

Persons who have preferred very rare meat or game may find the flavors more 
fully developed if the process of cooking is continued so that the color is more 
brown than that of the rare part of the joint cooked in the ordinary method, while 
at the same time the. outside will not be dried or scorched. 

A NEW METHOD OF PREPARING "HOG AND HOMINY." 

It is well known that the favorite dish of the Southern black man is ' ' hog and hominy." 
The combination appears to be readily digested. It is said that bacon and wheat meal may 
not be easily digested, or beef and cornmeal. The "hog and hominy " is a very strong food. 
There is probably no body of workmen subsisted at so low a cost, regard being given to the 
force generated in the food, as the black men who work on a ration of bacon and corn meal. 
The customary allowance in the South is, I believe, three and one-half pounds of baeon and 
one peck of corn meal for each week's supply. A very delicious compound may be made by 
placing in a pot one cupful of meal previously moistened with water sufficient to swell it 
w iho nt softening it too much. Upon the top lay a few sausages ; put in the oven ard 
w-ok at a low heat for five hours. Bacon may be cooked in the same way, but the m nl 
rt quires more water. This is one of the dishes that I propose to put into the workman's 



bl THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 

pail, with a view to the lamp being lighted when the work begins ; the dinner to be ready 
five hours later at noon. 

SALT CODFISH AND CREAM. 

Break the fish into slivers ; put it into a porcelain or earthern pot with cream, if you have 
it — or with milk or a little butter added ; cover the vessel and cook at a moderate heat for 
one hour or more ; the longer the more tender. 

PASTRY. 

Pes may be baked in the most perfect manner in the Aladdin Oven. The use of tin 
rings with separate circular plates pierced with many small holes for the bottom, is recom- 
mended iu place of the common tin plates. The bottom crust will then be as absolutely and 
as thoroughly baked as the top crust. " Pale pie" may thus be banished from the customary 
bill of fare. 

By permission of Mr. James F. Case, I give a recipe for what is named 

"CASE'S HEALTH BREAD." 

For five loaves of one and one-half pounds each, two pints of oatmeal gruel pre- 
viously cooked very thoroughly; three and one-half pounds of "whole or entire wheat 
flour"; one-half piut of milk; one tablespoonful of sugar or two teaspoonfuls of New 
Orleans molasses ; one teaspoonf ul of salt ; one cake of fresh Fleischmann's Yeast. Use the 
oatmeal gruel and milk for wetting the flour. Knead thoroughly. Keep in the bread-raiser 
in til the ba""c ! i has about doubled itself in bulk ; then form into loaves ; put back* into the 
bread-raiser for thirty to forty minutes. Then bake in the Aladdin Oven, previously heated, 
for about one hour and a half. 

In my own household and office practice we have made use of even a larger 
portion of oatmeal, and have also mixed Graham flour with it in place of the whole 
wheat flour. A very delicious kind of bread may also be made in the Case Bread - 
Raiser and the Aladdin Oven almost wholly of rye meal ; only enough wheat flour 
being dusted upon the hands, if people will persist in kneading bread by hand, or 
upon the spoon, to overcome the stickiness of the rye. Even hand kneading with 
a spoon may be displaced by a very simple mechanical spoon or Bread-Knead er sold 
by Edwin Prescott, 21 Hamilton street, Boston. 

Any one who never cooked anything before may begin in the following way : 
first, by making some bread, which is commonly considered a great mystery but is 
really a very simple matter. Let it be assumed that the oven has been brought into 
a seasoned condition by being heated a few hours each day for a week 

A beginner may well learn how to make bread as a first lesson, I therefore give 
the following definite instructions : 

BREAD. 

Mix in a bowl one quart of flour, either white, whole wheat or rye meal, with a little less 
than a pint of water at blood heat— 90 Q F. Add one half a (level) teaspoonful of salt ; mix one- 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 85 

third of a cake of Fleischmann's compressed yeast in one-half teacupful of warm water ; be 
sure that the yeast is fresh. Add this dissolved yeast to the flour and salt ; stir with a spoon 
into homogenous dough. The whole object of kneading with the hand, the spoon or the 
mechanical kneader is to diffuse the yeast evenly in the dough. I have found it a very simple 
matter— easily mastered after one or two trials. Batter the bread pans and put in the 
dough to rise. If you have a Case Bread-Raiser, use it for the raising of the bread accord- 
ing to the instructions given with it, for about three hours. 

Time the work so that the pans may be transferred to the oven when it is well heated, 
perhaps after the dinner has been removed from it. Then bake two hours ; a little less or 
a good deal more, according to the taste. If you have no bread-raiser place a pan of warm 
water on the lower shelf of the oven ; place the dough in the bread pans on the middle and 
upper shelves. Light the lamp, and keep the flame as 1 w as possible, yet burning:. Close 
the oven, and in about three hours the dough will be raised. The important point is to 
keep the dough in a humid atmosphere at 90° F. for a certain time — about three hours. 
Open the oven, quickly remove the pan of water, place the bread pan upon shelf which rests 
upon the bottom of the oven, turn the lamp up to its full height, and bake about three 
hours. It may be safer to knead the bread in the usual way. Ask the cook how to do it ; 
then raise it and bake it according to the foregoing rules. 

By the kindness of Sir Henry Thompson, M. D., I may add two recipes which 
he prepared for London bakers many years ago, for bread which he recommends in 
his little work on " Food and Feeding": 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING WHOLE-MEAL BREAD. (IN FLAT CAKES.) 

With Baking Powder. — Take two pounds of coarsely- ground whole wheat meal, and 
half a pound of fine flour, or, better still, the same weight of fine Scotch oatmeal. Mix 
thoroughly with a sufficient quantity of baking powder and a little salt ; then rub in two 
ounces of butter and make into dough — using a wooden spoon — with cold skimmed milk or 
milk and water, soft in consistence, so that it can almost be poured into the tin ring, which 
gives it form when baked. In this manner it is to be quickly made into flat cakes (like tea 
cakes), and baked on a tin, the rings used being about an inch high and seven or eight inches 
in diameter, each inclosing a cake. Put them without delay into a quick oven at the outset, 
letting them be finished thoroughly, at a lower temperature. 

With Yeast. — When good German or other yeast can be obtained, add the necessary 
quantity to the dough, made as above directed with the two meals, butter, salt, and warm milk 
and water ; make the cakes and put them on the tin with their rings, and set near the fire to 
rise, which they will do in an hour or little under. Then bake in a medium oven in the same 
way as for any other fermented bread. When yeast is used and not baking powder, a 
medium coarse oatmeal may be added to the wheat meal. 

The object of making this bread in flat cakes or in scones, is to insure a light 
and well-cooked product. It is difficult to insure these two qualities in the form of 



86 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

loaves except of the smallest size. A larger proportion of oatmeal, if preferred, 
can be adopted by either method. H. T. 

Sir Henry Thompson adds in his note to myself the following : 

"One reason for using oatmeal also, is, that not only is a more nutritious combination 
made, but a less soft and spongy mass when baked, i. e., in the interior of the bread ; but 
the mixture is much better when cooked in flat cakes one and one- fourth inches to one and 
one-half inches thick ; about seven or eight inches in diameter. The flavor, too, is excellent. 
On my own table I use one-third oat and two-thirds wheat meal." 

PORK CHOPS SMOTHERED IN APPLES. 

Place sliced apples in a dish ; lay the chops upon them ; sprinkle with a little salt ; cover 
again with sliced apple ; put a cover upon the dish, and cook thoroughly, more or less time 
according to the quantity. 

Chicken, quail and some other kinds of meat, mainly white meat, may be 
cooked in the same way with very appetizing results. 

CHICKEN, QUAIL AND PARTRIDGE, FRENCH MUSHROOM OR CELERY SAUCE. 

Cut up the chickens, halve the partridges, cook the quail whole. Place in dishes which 
may be covered ; make a white sauce of bread crumbs ; season it to taste, but mainly de- 
pending for flavor either upon French mushrooms and the liquor which comes with them, or 
upon the root or hock of celery previously simmered so long that it can be reduced to a puree; 
make a sufficient quantity of sauce, to fairly fill the dish when the birds are put in, and sim- 
mer slowly with the cover on, for such a length of time as may correspond to the quantity. 

MINCED GANDER ON TOAST. 

Order the toughest old gander that can be found in the market ; prepare him in the 
usual way ; stuff with onion stuffing, or if preferred, in European fashion with prunes and 
chestnuts. Place in a large vessel with a moderate amount of water, the vessel being covered ; 
place in the oven ; light the lamp at about half power, and simmer slowly all night ; test with 
a fork in the morning, and if not tender, add a little more water if more is needed, and, 
simmer all day. In about eighteen hours the work will be done. The meat will then be so 
tender that it cannot be carved ; mince and serve on toast with plenty of gravy, of which 
there will be an abundance. 

FOWLS. 

Select a pan about an inch and a half deep that will hold two or three fowls. Put the 
fowls in the pan, stuffing them if you like. Lay thin slices of pork over the fowls. Fill the 
pan up to the lip with water. Put in the middle of the oven and simmer four or five hours 
according to the age and size of the fowls. 

The fowls m -.y then be removed from the first pan ; may be basted with bread crumbs 
and butter, and served as a roast ; or may be served as boiled fowl, to which they are far 
superior, with a butter and egg sauce. The water in the pan should be saved, allowed to 
cool ; remove the grease, and use it the next day with the carcasses to make broth or soup. 



THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION". 87 

MACARONI. 

Macaroni may be cooked without being previously boiled, with any kind of sauce that 
may be preferred. The dish which is very popular with my own friends, consists of mac- 
aroni moistened with liquor from the can of French mushrooms, the mushrooms being also 
cooked m h tho macaroni ; no cheese. For appearance add a little butter and bread crumbs, 
sprinkled over the top. 

DUCK AND GROUSE. 

When a distinguished purveyor was asked what to do with the carcass of the duck after 
the breast had been removed, he replied, "Better give it to the poor." This is not wholly 
true. The leg ot the duck when tender is very good, but there may be a better use for the 
legs and wings either of duck or grouse, which are apt to be wasted when cooked on the bird. 

Remove them before cooking, place. them in a pan with a little water and seasoning. 
Simmer them along time until all the flesh can be taken from the bone, then the lean part 
may be forced through a co':ander, or else mince very fine and use with the giblets in a gravy 
or sauce. Roast the rest of the duck, more or less according to taste, in the usual manner 
The abundance of sauce made in this way will be appreciated. 

A Washington method is to cook coarse hominy and place it with the duck so as to absorb 
the juices. Hominy should first be cooked separately ; it would probably be better to simmer 
it very slowly and for a long time ; then use it. Cooking hominy is claimed to be a fine art, 
but it is done in perfection in the Aladdin Oven. 

WASHINGTON DUCK. (WITH ADDENDA.) 

Place in a granite-ware or crockery dish, heating it first in the oven, a layer of very 
coarse hominy, rice or macaroni, with as little water as will serve to soften it in the process 
of cooking ; place upon the bottom shelf and cook until it is about half done. 

Make a thin batter by beating a little butter, bread crumb and egg together ; split 
chicken, grouse or partridge as if for broiling (legs and wings may be left on or may be re- 
moved to be simmered separately), small birds whole — roll in the batter, add a little butter 
and salt to the hominy, rice or macaroni, place the birds thereon ; return to the oven on one 
of the middle or upper shelves and leave until done. 

For variation, add to the hominy, rice or macaroni, a few fresh mushrooms, or canned 
mushrooms and liquor — with chicken add some curry — with duck a suspicion of cayenne and 
onion — a little jelly sauce — or chop some celery and cook it from the start with the other 
base. With chicken a couple of sausages may be added. 

The gravy and fat will be absorbed either on the hominy, rice or macaroni, and the dish 
will be most appetizing. 

Another way is to put the hominy, rice or macaroni and the bird into a dish which has a 
close cover, cook thoroughly before removing the cover ; then beat up a little bread crumb 
and butter with the white of an egg, spread this over the surface, remove the cover and put 
the dish upon the upper shelf where it will be well browned. If the birds are preferred rare, 
-keep them out until half or three-quarters of an hour before serving. Use gumption. 

If the legs and wings with the giblets are to be simmered, start cold so as to draw all the 



88 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

juices, in order to make gravy— the meat may be very finely-chopped and added — or if sim- 
mered long enough, converted into pulp or puree. 

CRISPY CAKE. 

Most of the labor which is expended in rolling thin gingerbread and other kinds 
of cake, is wasted. The common idea that the crisp quality of thin cake depends 
upon a very hot oven, is a blunder. The proper method for cooking thin and crisp 
kinds of cake is as follows : 

Use either a large tin baking pan wrong side up ; or, what is better, a sheet of Russia 
iron which it is better to have prepared with the edges turned over all around so that it may 
not spring in service. Spread what may be called the dough or mixture that is to be cooked, 
very thin, smoothing and spreading it with a knife without previously rolling it. Leave the 
tight shelf upon the bottom of the oven, and place the pan wrong side up on the sheet with 
the cake spread upon the bottom, on this lower shelf. Bake, as a rule, about forty five 
minutes. But every one will want some more. Enough of such cake is always a little more. 
The area of the bottom shelf of the oven is limited. I have had some large sheets of iron 
prepared ; four to lay flat directly upon each shelf ; four others with the edges turned down 
about an inch and a half, so that I can get eight sheets into the oven. These may be put in, 
and the bake may begin while they are all in the original positions, one above another, but 
they must be changed in succession so as to get each sheet upon the bottom for a little while, 
if it is thought expedient to give all a uniform brown color. If the whole number of sheets 
is made use of, the product will be about twelve square feet, which may possibly be enough, 
although a little more will soon be called for. 

The recipes are as follows : 

THIN SUGAR GINGERBREAD. 

One cup of flour, one cup of sugar, half a cup of butter, one teaspoonful of ginger, 
one egg, three tablespoonf uls of milk. Beat the eggs and milk together ; add the other in- 
gredients. This is the unit for a small quantity. 

THIN MOLASSES GINGERBREAD. 

One cup of flour, half a cup of butter, half a cup of sugar, half a cup of molasses, one tea- 
spoonful of ginger, one egg. Beat the eggs and milk together and proceed as in the pre- 
vious recipe. 

BROWN PUDDING. 

One cup of flour, one-half cup raisins, a little nutmeg, a little cinnamon, a little all- 
spice, one teaspoonful baking powder, one teaspoonful butter, three tablespoonfuls molasses, 
a little salt. Bake four hours. 

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS. 

One quart skimmed milk, one egg, butter the size of an egg, flour sufficient to make a 
smooth dough, one-half cake of yeast. Raise five hours. Bake three-quarters of an hour 
at full heat of oven. 



THE SCIENCE OF XL'TKITION. 89 

OMELET. 

Three eggs, one-ha'f cup of miik, two teaspoonfuls of cracker crumbs, a little salt, small 
.piece of butter. Beat the whits s to a froth, and beat the yolks up with a fork. Heat a pau 
in the oven and then butter it. Put the omelet in the pan and cover it. C ^ok fifteen minutes. 

VEAL CUTLETS. 

Cut the veal in round piece.-, dip them into fine bread crumbs and sautei' them a light 
brown in a little pork. Then put them into a saucepan with a piece of raw veal at the 
bottom, oue half pint of water, the rind of one lemon, half a carrot, one half a turnip, one- 
half an onion cut very fine. A teaspoonful of walnut catsup, a little salt, a shake of cayenne 
and one teaspoonful of capers. Simmer slowly three and one-half hours or more. When 
dished chop the yolk of a hard-boiled egg very fine, and sprinkle over with capers. Strain 
the gravy and pour over. 

In the Aladdin oven in order to "sauter" remove the lower tight shelf, place a 
metal pan on the bottom; lay in the pork and veal, add a little lard, butter or olive 
oil; when browned on one side turn over. A little practice will fix the time. When 
first practicing, the oven doors may be kept open. This process when clone in a 
spider on a stove is commonly called frying and is, when clone at a high heat, as bad 
a method as could be devised. When well done at a suitable heat the product is 
most appetizing. 

In this connection I will again point out that in very many recipes which are 
to be found in the cookery books, directions are given, first to fry some onions or 
something else to a light-brown, and then to go on using this material in combina- 
tion with others in the final process of cooking. 

In many cases the writers do not mean frying by immersion in very hot fat, but 
what they really mean is sauteing or frying in a spider, in a thin film of fat, olive 
oil or butter. Therefore, if any one wishes to try such recipes taken from the 
books, proceed in the manner laid down above. 

Cook onions, meat, apples, sippets of toast for soup, etc., etc., in a pan on the 
bottom of the oven with a little fat of any suitable kind — butter, oil, beef dripping; 
and if you must you may use lard, I wouldn't. 

SHREWSBURY CAKES. 

One cup of flour, one cup of sugar, half a cup of butter, two eggs, a little mace. 
Beat together and spread as before directed for thin cake. 

BOX PUDDINGS. 

Slow cooking in vessels which are fitted rather closely with covers so as not to 
permit evaporation, yields the finest flavor, especially in respect to fruit. A recipe 
which proved to be very delicious when cooked in the Workman's Pail in one box, 
was made in the following proportions: 



90 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

Half a pint of milk, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, one egg, a little pineapple syrup 
flavoring, two apples pared with the core taken out. Other flavors may be used if preferred. 

Hardly any combination of fruit, marmalade, jam with other ingredients 
cooked in this way ever fails to yield very delicious results. 

ANOTHER BOX PUDDING. 

Half a cup of crumbs of stale bread, one cup of milk, two spoonfuls of sugar, half a 
cup of stoneless raisins, one egg, pineapple or lemon flavoring. Cook three or four hours in 
a pail in tight boxes. Serve with or without cold sauce. 

BREAD AND RAISIN CAKE. 

Mix in a bowl one quart of white flour with a little less than one pint of water ; one- 
half level spoonful of salt ; one-half teacupful of sugar or more according to taste ; one-half 
teacupful of butter softened a little by heat so that it will mix well, but not melted ; grate in 
half a nutmeg, or add a little cinnamon or albp : ce ; add a full teacupful of stooeless raisins 
or of dried currants, or of chopped dried apples. Mix one third of a cake of Fleisuhmaim's 
yeast with warm wafer, add that, stir the whole thoroughly together into a stiff batter. Be 
car, ful not to make the batter too thin by using too much water. Raise about three hours, 
and bake about three hours. In order to get the most thorough bake, and to make the cake 
as tender as it can be, after it is thoroughly baked and well browned set it on the upper shelf 
of the oven, place a pan of warm water underneath, lower the flame of the lamp to .the 
lowest point, and keep the cake in the oven for several hours. 

The foregoing specific directions may suffice by analogy to enable any one who 
possesses the required one part of gumption to apply the simple principles which 
have been laid down, to other specific recipes. 

In dealing with the materials of which our food consists, it may be remarked 
that they may be divided in a broad and general way into certain classes : First, 
meats ; second, fish ; third, grains ; and fourth, vegetables. 

Reversing the order, roots and tubers may preferably be boiled. They are not 
injured by it ; the expansion of the steam in the cells renders the potato mealy and 
more palatable, while boiling does not injure beets, carrots or parsnips, because 
there is enough flavor and to spare, in either. Green vegetables, like asparagus, 
pease and beans, to which squash may be added, are better and of finer flavor when 
simmered, either in their own juice or with a little water added, than if they are 
boiled. 

All the grains whether converted into the form of bread, or whether cooked in 
the form of oatmeal, mush, cracked wheat, etc., retain their flavor and are much 
better, if cooked long at a very moderate degree of heat. Those which are to be 
eaten in the form of porridge or mush, are much better when cooked for a long time 
at less than the boiling point, than when cooked in any other way. 




Down in the field 
The corn I blow; 

I bend the ears 
To and fro; 

The slender maize 

So gently sways, 

For I am the wind; 
I blow — I blow. 

The very same corn 
I grind, I grind; 
I blow before, 

I blow behind, 
And turn with my gales 
The outspread sails 
Of the tall windmill 
That stands on the hill; 
For I am the wind— 
I blow, I blow. 




THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 91 

Iti respect to meats, it may be remarked that to boil meat is to spoil meat. 
While " meat may be boiled to rags," as it is sometimes put, the boiling toughens 
each separate fibre, while the process takes all the flavor and juice of the meat into 
the water. All other methods, roasting, imitating a broil, etc., applied to meat, 
should be done at such a moderate degree of heat as will not distil or dissociate the 
fats, and not at the high heat of the common stove. 

The chafing dish or blazer is a valuable auxiliary to the oven in making 
sauces or preparing cold meat upon a table. A very excellent recipe for serving 
cold mutton or venison in a delicious hot form is as follows : 

Put the gravy into a chafing dish or blazer, add a saltspoonful of Nepaul pepper, a 
suspicion of cayenne pepper, a wine glass of sherry or white wine, a dessertspoonful of 
walnut catsup, two teaspoonfuls or a little more according to taste, of currant jelly. Stir 
while the ingredients are mixing. Put in the cold meat and warm it, or cook it a little if it is 
very rare. In dealing with cold beef omit the jelly. 

ALL SORTS OF THINGS. 

Take any receipt out of any book. Bear in mind that beating up materials or 
mixing them together, is a different matter from stirring them when they are upon 
the stove. The stirring process over the fire, which leads to so much discomfort, is 
merely a corrective of the bad methods of hot iron-stove cooking. It simply keeps 
the mixture in the pan from scorching or burning under the excessive heat. Stir- 
ring upon a stove is in fact a process of cooling which may be wholly dispensed with 
when the same materials are subjected to a moderate heat in the Aladdin Oven. 
Acting upon this hint, almost every recipe that is given in any of the books, can 
be worked out successfully with the Aladdin Oven or in the chafing dish, much 
better than it can be upon the hot iron stove or range. 

FRYING. 

I have not attempted true frying in the Aladdin Oven, although I doubt not 
that if a powerful lamp were used and the frying pan were placed on the bottom of 
the oven it could be done, but it were better done on an open stove. 

The abominable process commonly called frying as practiced in this country, 
consists in a very bad method of sauteing and is not frying at all. What true 
frying is is most fully explained by Sir Henry Thompson, M. D., in his most 
valuable treatise on Food and Feeding, pp. 86, 87, 88, 89, which I venture 
to copy : 



92 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

" The process of frying is rarely understood, and is generally very imperfectly 
practised by the ordinary English cook. The products of our frying pan are often 
greasy, and, therefore, for many persons indigestible, the shallow form of the pan 
being unsuited for the process of cooking at a high temperature in oil, that is, at a 
heat of about 360 degrees to 390 degrees Fahr., that of boiling water being 212 
degrees. This high temperature produces results, which are equivalent, indeed, to 
quick roasting, when the article to be cooked is immersed in the nearly boiling fat. 
Frying, as generally conducted, is rather a combination of broiling and toasting or 
scorching ; and the use of the deep pan of heated oil or dripping, which is essential to 
the right performance of the process, and especially in order to prevent greasiness, is a 
rare exception, and not the rule in ordinary kitchens. A few words of explanation 
are necessary in relation to the temperature of the fat which forms the frying bath, 
a matter of importance to ensure satisfactory results. When a bath of melting fat 
is placed on the fire and the temperature has risen to 212 degrees, some bubbles 
come to the surface with a hissing sound ; these are due to a small portion of water, 
which being converted into steam, rise until all is got rid of. This is not the 
boiling of the fat, which is now tranquil, and when the temperature has advanced 
much higher, to something like 340 degrees, a slight vapour is given off. If the 
fat is permitted to become much hotter, smoke appears, indicating a degree of heat 
to be avoided, and that the fat has reached what is called the boiling point; when it 
decomposes and spoils. Before this is reached, the heat should be tested by putting 
in a slip of bread, which if browned in a few seconds, a sufficient temperature has 
been attained, and the bath is ready for use. The above remarks apply equally to 
the temperature of any oil used for the same purpose. The principle on which 
success depends is, that at the moment of contact with the almost boiling fat or 
oil, a thin film of every part of the surface of the fish or other object to be fried is 
coagulated, so that the juices with their flavors, etc., are at once locked up within, 
and nothing can escape. The bath should, therefore, contain quantity sufficient, 
and also be hot enough, to effect this result in an instant, after which, and during 
the few seconds or minutes requisite to cook the interior, the heat is often slightly 
lowered with advantage. The fish or other material employed emerges, when done, 
with a surface to which a little oil adheres, but this will drain off, owing to its 
extreme fluidity when hot, if left on a napkin slanting a minute or two before the 
fire ; better still on white blotting paper ; and thus it may be served absolutely free 
from grease. The film of egg often applied to the surface of an object to be fried, 
is in the same manner instantly coagulated and forms an impermeable case ; while 
the fine bread crumbs adhering to it take a fine yellow color, being slightly charred 
or toasted by the high temperature they are exposed to. In order to be free from 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 93 

grease the bread or biscuit crumbs should be very fine, adhering by means of a thin 
layer of egg previously applied by the brush. If they are coarse and too abundantly 
used, grease will adhere to the surface or be absorbed by it. 

" Excellent and fresh olive oil, which need not be so perfect in tint and flavor 
as the choicest kinds reserved for the salad bowl, is the best available form of fat for 
frying, and is sold at a moderate price by the gallon for this purpose at the best 
Italian warehouses. Nothing, perhaps, is better than well-clarified beef dripping, 
such as is produced, often abundantly, in every English kitchen ; but the time- 
honored traditions of our perquisite system enable any English cook to sell this 
for herself, at small price, to a little trader round the corner, while she buys, at her 
employer's cost, a quantity of pork lard for frying material, at double the price 
obtained for the dripping. Unfortunately, however, lard is the worst menstruum 
for the purpose, the most difficult to work in so as to free the matters fried in it 
from grease ; and we might be glad to buy back our own dripping from the 
aforesaid little trader, at a profit to him of cent, per cent., if only the purchase 
could be diplomatically negotiated. But so sweet is acquisition by way of per- 
quisite, that none of the present race of cooks appear disposed to part with this 
particular one for any consideration which can be offered. They are, doubtless, 
after their fashion, true to their order, and regard in the light of sacrilege any 
interference with these principles and traditions/' 

The following rules and specific recipes give the results of an experience of about 
three years in my own family averaging eight to ten in number, the oven in use being 
the standard oven under the control of an intelligent cook who has greatly aided me 
in the development of this system. 

I think it better to give the rules and recipes which have been established in 
household practice in this place, to be followed subsequently by others derived from 
the practice of Miss Daniell and Mrs. Abel, which will be more accurate. Our own 
practice has been of the experimental sort, and the record will only give some gen- 
eral ideas of what we have done. 

SOUPS. 

For soups take any bones or scraps of meat and vegetables that are in a sound condition, 
cover with water and cook over night, with the lamp low. Set aside to cool, remove the fat, 
and treat the stock according to taste. After a very little experience the best results will be 
secured. 

SHIN-OF-BEEF SOUP. 

Four pounds shin of beef, one carrot, one onion, a few whole cloves stuck in the onion. 
Cook over night with water to cover. Lamp low. 



94 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

MUTTON CHOPS. 

Set chops in a tin or on a drainer on the bottom shelf of the oven. Sprinkle with pepper 
and salt. Cook half an hour. Full lamp power. 

BEEFSTEAK — TWO POUNDS. 

Set in tin on either shelf — the bottom best. Sprinkle with pepper and salt. Cook half 
an hour. Full lamp power. 

ROAST BEEF AND POTATOES. 

The oven being already heated, put the sirloin in, timed according to size. One and a 
half hours before the beef is to be served, having peeled potatoes of moderate size, put them 
into the pan around the beef ; if of large size, divide lengthwise. 

VEAL. 

Four pounds of veal, two slices of salt pork. Put pork on top of veal. Baste with a 
little flour and salt. Cook two hours on lower shelf. Full lamp power. 
Cook beef, mutton and lamb the same way, omitting the pork. 

CORNED BEEF. 

Put six pounds of corned beef in a porcelain kettle. Cover with water. Put cover on 
and cook five hours on lower shelf. Lamp low. 

CHICKEN. 

Cut ciiicken to broil. Take off skin and lay in a dish. Cover with bread crumbs and 
small pieces of butter. Sprinkle a little pepper and salt. Cook two hours on bottom shelf. 
Full lamp power. 

BAKED CHICKEN. 

Cut chicken in pieces and skin it. Put in a baking dish and cover with cream sauce ; 
cover with bread crumbs and a little piece of butter. Season with pepper and salt. Cook 
two chickens two and one-half hours. 

CREAM SAUCE. 

One tablespoonful of flour and one of butter ; one pint of milk. 

PORK SMOTHERED IN APPLES. 

Cut all the fat off the pork chops and lay in a braising dish ; take one and one-half cups 
meat stock and thicken with a tablespoonful browned flour and a small piece of butter. 
Cover and cook one and one-half hours. 

GROUSE. 

Two grouse roast half to one hour, lower shelf. 

Gravy — One-half pint of milk put in a saucepan over teakettle, two tablespoons bread 
crumbs, a little onion juice, and pepper and salt to season. Pour over grouse when done. 



Cook one hour. Take three pounds solid beef and pour the following gravy over it : 
Gravy — One tablespoonful of browned flour, one and one-half cups French canned 
mushrooms, one-half cup boiling water. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION- >5 

QD UL 

Cook one and one half hours. Make pauce i be same as for the grouse and pour over the 
quail when tbey are done. 

SPICED BEEF. 

Put into a large crock a strong pied — two-thirds table salt, one-third saltpetre— add 
two great spoonfuls of brown sugar, one flat tablespoonful of allspice, one flat tpaspoonful 
of cloves a? d one of mace, a dozen pickled onions, half a teacupful of juniper berries, 
pepper to taste. In this liquor put ten to fifteen pounds, without bone, of the bottom of the 
round of beef ; leave it in five or six days : draw off the liquor, put in a little hot water, place 
in the oven with cover on, and cook five or six hours. 

The spices can be varied, juniper berries omitted, tarragon vinegar added, or any other 
variation. To be eaten cold. Keep the beef wholly in the pickle, with a clean paving stone 
on the top. 

HALIBUT A LA CREME. 

Three pounds of halibut. 

Sauce— One pint of milk, one teaspoonful of onion juice, butter half the size of an egg. 
Season with pepper and salt. Break the fish into small pieces, put a layer of fish in the dish, 
then pour some sauce over it ; then put another layer of fish, and so on till the dish is full. 
Sprinkle the top with bread crumbs. Cook one and one-quarter hours. High wick, 
either shelf. 

Baked macaroni, one and one-quarter hours, either shelf, high wick. Scalloped tomato, 
one and one-quarter hours, either shelf, high wick. Baked potatoes, two hours. 

STEWED CELERY 

Take two heads of celery and cover with a sauce ; cook on the bottom shelf from one to 
two hours. Full lamp power. 

Sauce — One pint of milk, thickened with flour, small piece of butter. Pour this over the 
celery and sprinkle with bread crumbs. 

OYSTER PLANT. 

Take two oyster plants and cook in the same way as the celery. 

ASPARAGUS. 

Two bunches of asparagus ; wash and cut off the roots ; toast some bread, and butter the 
slices ; put the toast in a dish and the asparagus on the toast ; put little piece of butter on the 
asparagus and sprinkle with salt. Cover and cook two hours on either shelf. Full lamp 
power. 

APPLE PUDDING. 

Crust — Almost one pint of flour, one and one -half teaspoonfuls of baking powder, butter 
one half the size of an egg, one cup of milk. Roll thin like pie crust. 

Slice five apples and season with a little grated nutmeg and two tablespoonfuls of sugar; 
put in a dish and cover with crust. Bake one and one-half hours, lower shelf is best. 
Full lamp power. 



96 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

CRACKER PUDDING. 

Take a quart dish and put in it a layer of common crackers. On the crackers put a 
layer of raisins, and so on till the dish is full. Take three eggs and beat them up ; add one- 
half pint of milk and vanilla to flavor. Pour over the pudding. Cook one hour, either shelf. 
May add sugar or serve with sauce. 

POP OVERS. 

Five eggs, one cup of flour, one quart of milk, a little salt ; beat eggs very light, mix 
other ingredients with egg. Put in little tins or cups and bake one hour, lower shelf. 
Full lamp power. 

COTTAGE PUDDING. 

One cup of butter, one cup of sugar, two cups of flour, one cup of milk, two eggs, one 
and one-half teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Beat up eggs with sugar and butter, add the 
other things and bake one hour on either shelf. 

BROWN PUDDING. 

Three cups of flour, one cup of raisins, one-half cup of suet, one and one-half teaspoon- 
fuls of baking powder, one cap of molasses, one and one-half cups of milk, little salt, one-half 
teaspoonful grated nutmeg, one- half teaspoonful allspice, one-half teaspoonful cloves. Mix 
and bake three hours. 

INDIAN PUDDING. 

Two quarts of milk, one cup of Indian meal, one cup of molasses, small piece of butter. 
Mix and bake four hours with a low wick — either shelf, bottom best. 

buid's-nest pudding. 
Eight apples pared and cored, one pint of milk, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, one tea- 
spoonful of lemon juice, little salt, grated peel of one lemon. Put the apple in dish, mix 
the other ingredients and pour over the apples. Bake one hour. 

BATTER PUDDING. 

Five eggs, one quart of milk, a little salt ; beat up eggs ; dissolve five tablespoonfuls of 
flour in the milk, mix and add one-half teaspoonful of vanilla. Bake three-quarters of an 
hour on either shelf. 

GROUND RICE PUDDING. 

One quart of milk, heated ; stir in one-half cup ground rice ; cook on range fifteen 
minutes ; let it cool ; beat three eggs very light, mix with the rice and milk ; add a small 
tablespoonful of butter and the juice of half a lemon. Bake one hour. 

poor man's pudding. 
Two quarts of milk, one tablespoonful of sugar, one-half cup of rice, a little salt. Bake 
four hours with a low wick. 

HASTY PUDDING. 

One and one-half cups of yellow corn-meal, two quarts of water ; cover. Cook four 
hours on second shelf with the wick high, or all night with the wick low. 





ISfeSr^* 



Big berry pudding, piping hot; 
All the cooks couldn't get it out of the pot. 
Strong Tom came in, and soon was able 
To send the pudding up to the table. 




THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 97 

To Fry. — Put a pan on the lower shelf of the oven and put butter in it. Out the 
pudding in thin slices and fry in the pan. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Six eggs, one-half cup of boiling water, two cups of flour ; beat whites of eggs stiff ; 
beat up yojks with two cups of sugar. Mix other ingredients in and bake three-quarters of 
an hour on lower shelf. 

SPICE CAKE. 

One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup of milk, four eggs, four cups of flour, one- 
half teaspoonf ul ground nutmeg, one-half teaspoonful cloves, one-half teaspoonful allspice, 
less than one-half teaspoonful of cinnamon, one cup of raisins ; beat up eggs. Mix and bake 
one hour on bottom shelf. 

GINGERBREAD. 

One cap of molasses, one-half cup of boiling water, one teaspoonful of butter, one and 
one half cups of flour, one egg, a little salt ; beat up egg ; add other ingredients, the flour 
last. Bake one and one- quarter hours. 

RYE BISCUITS. 

One and one-half cups rye meal, one and one-half cups of white flour, one and one-half 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one pint of milk, one egg ; beat 
up egg and mix in other things. Bake one and one- quarter hours, either shelf, full lamp 
power. 

BROWN BREAD. 

Two cups of rye meal, two cups of Indian meal, one cup of molasses, one teaspoonful of 
salt, one and one-half teaspoonfuls of baking powder, about one quart of milk, enough to 
make a stiff batter. Bake three and one-half hours. 

WHITE BREAD. 

Four quarts of flour; take an equal quantity of milk and water, enough to make a 
batter ; take a little sugar, salt and butter, stir with a bread-mixer or a spoon for ten 
minutes. Raise five hours in a bread-raiser. Bake two hours with a high wick, or four 
hours with the lamp low. 

Bake white biscuits one hour and a quarter. 

GRAHAM BREAD. 

Two quarts of Graham flour, one quart of white flour ; one-half milk and one-half water 
to make a batter ; one-half cup of molasses, a little salt ; stir the same as the white bread. 
Raise five hours in bread-raiser and bake two hours, wick high. Biscuits one hour. 

CORN BREAD. 

One cup of white meal, one cup of flour, one and one-half cups of milk, two table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, one tablespoonful of melted butter, a little salt. Mix and pour in a pan, 
having the mixture about one inch thick. Bake one hour. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



THIN INDIAN CAKE. 



One cup of Indian meal ; hot water to make it stiff enough to spread ; one teaspoonful 
of sugar and a little butter and salt. Spread very thin on tins and bake one hour. 



HOMINY. 



One cup of the coarsest hominy, two quarts of water ; put the hominy in a pot, pour the 
water in and season with a little salt. Cover and cook five hours. Low wick. 

COFFEE. 

Soak a cup of coffee over night in a quart of water. In the morning set in the oven on 
the bottom shelf and heat it twenty minutes. Strain or clean with white of an egg before 
heating. 

POULTRY AND BIRDS. ALADDIN FASHION. CHICKENS. 

Cut up the chickens as if for fricassee. Lay slices of cold toasted bread in the bottom 
of the baking pan. Place the chicken upon that, fill up the interstices with sausages, sliced 
apples and potatoes cut into halves lengthwise, then sprinkle with bread crumbs. Put some 
pats of butter with the bread crumbs. Bake about three hours. 

In place of the cold toast use coarse hominy samp, which has been cooked all night 
slowly, with canned tomato or tomato sauce; or put rice upon the bottom of a pan pre- 
viously soaked so as to have become soft, and use any seasoning you like, either curry powder, 
or celery salt, or canned mushrooms, or tomato catsup. Fowls may be dealt with in the same 
way, but should have been previously cooked so as to have become tender; time, according to 
their size. Cook in tight boxes and use juices to soften the hominy or the rice, making a gravy. 

Another way: Cut chickens into small pieces, making cream sauce of one pint of milk, a 
piece of butter the size of a small egg, a tablespoonful of flour and a little salt. Put together 
into a crockery jar with cover and bake three hours; fowls, cook five hours. Vary by adding 
celery seed, celery salt, mushrooms, or other flavoring. 

POTTED CHICKEN, GROUSE, OR OTHER BIRDS. 

Cut up into small pieces if the birds are large, otherwise cook birds whole, in a brown 
sauce made with a little onion, salt and pepper and a little brown flour and some water. Put 
all into a jar and cook slowly until very tender. When preparing the chicken it is better to 
saute or fry it in a pan to a light brown before putting into the jar. *Another way is to 
cut off the wings and legs, make sauce, and cook in a jar; then roast the rest of the bird, 
rare or well done at will; serve together. The wings and legs of ducks and grouse which 
are apt to be wasted when the birds have been roasted whole, may be potted with the 
remainder of the carcass. When the meat used in potting has been previously cooked, the 
preparation should be cooked in the jar from two hours to two and one-half hours; when 
cooked raw, four hours. 

Many persons will be surprised with the results that can be attained with almost 
any kind of meat in dealing with it by methods corresponding to the above. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 99 

PIE CRUST FOR FOUR TEN-INCH PIES. 

Take one quart of flour, one cup and a half either of butter, — or half butter and half 
lard, — or three-quarters butter and one-quarter lard; combine the dry flour with this material 
as thoroughly as possible ; then moisten with a very little water; then spread in a sheet about 
one inch thick, ten to twelve inches wide. 

Upon the surface of this sheet spread a half cup of the butter, or of the butter and lard; 
on the surface du^t flour from a dredging box, and roll into a roll of about four inches diam- 
eter; then cut this roll cross way into eight pieces— four tops and four bottoms; turn these 
pieces upon their sides, and then roll each out to the size and shape of the plate. 

The whole secret of making flaky pi^ crust consists in turning these sections of the roll 
upon their sides so that the rolling will be across the section. An examination of the condi- 
tion of the dough when thus rolled, will show why the crust bakes in a flaky condition. 



BOILED DISH. 



Cabbage and Sausage. — Complete success has been attained in cooking 
corned beef, salt pork, turnips, beets, and cabbage, and also in cooking cabbage and 
sausage, a very popular French dish under the name of saucisse aux choux, in 
tight tin vessels, subjected to moderate heat for five hours. No perceptible smell 
was given off in the room, and the cabbage was cooked in a most tender and 
appetizing manner. 

Liver, Bacon and Cabbage may be cooked in the same way, practically 
without any smell to which objection could be taken. 

A very excellent preparation of liver, the cheaper parts of veal, and other 
somewhat tasteless kinds of meat, is to put them for a day in a hot summer, or 
longer in winter, in a strong pickle, made with salt, saltpetre and brown sugar, 
seasoned to taste, either with spice, peppersauce, onions or any other seasoning, 
then cook with cabbage as above, either with or without bacon or pork. This 
makes about as strong a food for the least proportionate amount of money that can 
be devised. Not suitable for people in very sedentary occupations. 

PRESERVING FRUIT WITH AND WITHOUT SUGAR. 

During the present summer (1891) I have tried some experiments in saving 
summer fruits, the results of which may not be fully decided before the first edition 
of this treatise is issued. 

I have dealt with Cherries, Strawberries, Gooseberries, Currants, Blueberries 
and Pineapple. 



100 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

Method. — I have two square tinned copper vessels, each of half the size of the 
oven, with handles at the front and sides for easy handling. 

One is placed upon the close bottom shelf — not directly upon the bottom of the 
oven. The other is placed upon the middle shelf. 
Into each pour cold water about one inch deep. 

In glass jars of any suitable kind place the fruit — cherries or currants stemmed, 
gooseberries, strawberries and blueberries carefully picked. To the gooseberries I 
added a large quantity of sugar, to the strawberries and cherries a very little, to the 
currants and blueberries none. I filled up even with cold water ; placed in the 
tinned copper vessels, with covers on loosely ; placed them in the oven, cooked all 
night with a duplex burner, each wick one and one-half inches wide. The heat did 
not reach the boiling point, but was at about 200° F. in the morning, with the lamp 
still burning. Gooseberries overcooked and shrivelled, but the syrup very fine. 
The fruit had all shrunk a little. I filled each jar even full with water just off the 
boiling point and closed at once, placing the jars again in the hot water in the pans 
and cooling off gradually without cracking a single glass jar. 

The pineapple was peeled and cut into small pieces, which I forced into open 
jars of tumbler shape with a marble pestle, without sugar. The skins and butts 
were placed in a tureen with some water. The fruit in the jars cooked all night in 
one oven in the manner previously described. The juice extracted from the skins 
and butts having been strained was reheated to the boiling point, and the jars filled 
even with Miis liquid and then closed. 

In each case the specific flavor of the fruit seems to be developed to the very 
highest point. At this date the cherries have been consumed, r,nd all the other 
varieties seem to be in sound condition and likely to keep indefinitely. 

The same processes applied to meats and soup stock did not prove a success. I 
succeeded, however, perfectly in cooking tough meat and converting it into a most 
tender condition in the glass jars, but it did not keep after sealing. 

If this method of saving summer fruit without sugar should prove a success it 
may be applied in the tropics to some kinds of fruit that are very perishable and 
cannot be transported in their natural condition. 

The surest course seems to be to ripen the fruit and develop the flavor by 
subjecting it to a low heat, 140° to 150° during the night, forcing it in the 
morning to about 200°, and then sealing while at that temperature. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 101 

FAT PORK COOKED. 

A SUBSTITUTE FOR CODLIVER OIL. 

A physician, who has been making experiments in the use of the Aladdin oven 
with a view to nutrition as a method to cure in disease, has called my attention to 
certain paragraphs in Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet's treatise upon gynaecology, page 
07. This paragraph is as follows : 

"An excellent substitute for Cod Liver Oil, and one of ten better tolerated, is fat 
pork properly prepared. I direct a thick portion of a rib piece, free from lean, to 
be selected and allowed to remain in soak for thirty-six hours before being boiled, 
the water being frequently changed to get rid of the salt. It should be boiled 
slowly and thoroughly cooked, and while boiling the water must be changed several 
times by pouring it olT and fresh water, nearly boiling, substituted. It is to be eaten 
cold in the form of a sandwich from stale bread, and both should be cut as thin as 
possible. It is very nutritious, but it should be given in small quantities until a 
taste for it has been acquired. It may be made palatable by the addition of a little 
table salt. May be rubbed up in a mortar. 

"I some years ago. saved the lives of two of my children, who, on different 
occasions, were suffering from cholera infantum, by feeding them entirely on the fat 
of pork prepared in this way, and while nothing else would be retained on their 
stomachs, not only was it retained but it also had a, beneficial effect on the 
diarrhoea." 

I have treated fat pork by washing out the salt according to the instructions, 
then cooking it very long and very slowly in a tight box, the pork resting upon a 
drainer. It is reduced to the condition in which it seems to be exactly adapted to 
the purpose named by Dr. Emmet, and when re-salted and made into a sandwich 
with two slices of dry toast it is indeed very appetizing. 

This substitute for codliver oil may serve a useful purpose in dealing with 
patients who cannot overcome their repugnance to the oil. 



ADDENDA. 



Since I first tried to put the Aladdin Oven into the market in a tentative 
manner, after having spent two or three years and a good deal of money in convincing 
myself that it represented a fact and not a fad, I have had a very interesting 
experience in partially overcoming inertia, especially the inertia of woman. If I 
were anything but a man of facts and figures, I might write a very amusing article 
upon " Great Expectations," as illustrated by the demands of those who are not 
satisfied when I propose to roast in perfection a twenty-eight-pound sirloin of beef 
or a thirty-pound saddle of venison,* over a single Pittsburgh lamp of the 
common type. 

In addition to what I promise I have been asked if I could not warm the 
kitchen, heat all the bath water, and run an incubator so as to hatch the broilers as 
well as co<»k them, and do a great deal of other work with the lamp ! In fact, when 
I have declined to undertake anything more than to do pretty much all the cooking 
for a family of eight or ten people with one lamp, some of my correspondents have 
responded as if they thought I had raised false expectations by naming the Oven 
"Aladdin/ 5 

About 400 people have risked twenty-five dollars each on the experiment in the 
purchase of an Aladdin Oven. I have yet to hear of the first real failure, although 
there have been some difficulties in overcoming the prejudices of the cooks. About 
every other cook takes to the oven at once, and finds in it great satisfaction and 
saving of labor. The others object more or less to its adoption in the family and 
fail in making any satisfactory use of it except upon compulsion. 

One very cultivated woman who prefers to do the work of her small family 
herself, has written to me that " it adds much to the enjoyment of her life to be able 
to give little dinners or suppers to her few chosen friends, without being obliged to 
serve roasted mistress as the first course." 

From the sale of ovens thus far made, I might have already recovered the cost of 
my experiments, had it not been for the contribution of a number of ovens for 

*Note.— One of my friends in England who dwells in a great ancestral hall, in which the roasting for many 
generations has been done before an open wood fire, in an open tin kitchen in which a historic turnspit keeps the 
roast turning round and round all the time until it is done, now roasts his own pheasants, venison and four- 
year-old grass-fed mutton, in the Aladdin Oven in preference to the old method. 




A fish jumped out of the pan on the fire. 
Jumped again, a great deal higher. 
Out he came at the chimney-top 
And into the water fell with a POP! 




THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 103 

charitable purposes. One of the privileges which I find to be connected with such 
a common-place invention as this, is that one is expected to give an oven to all the 
chant} 7 hospitals and the like. Yet I have made a profit corresponding to the lesser 
half, if I may use the expression, of what I have spent, and I am now expending 
this profit in experiments on the Workman's Cooking Pail or Shop Girl's Oven. I 
beg pardon, I mean an oven for the use of Sales Ladies. 

I feel now assured that I shall be able to perfect the Workman's Cooking Pail 
with a lamp attached, all in one piece. This pail may be charged with about two 
pounds of food of two kinds at one time, and is so constructed that it may be easily 
carried by the bail in the hands of the workman to the place of his work. The. 
little lamp may then be lighted so that a hot dinner will be ready at noon with a hot 
pot of coffee. 

I have already succeeded in making a cylinder oven to be placed upon a tin table, 
which can be charged with three to five varieties of food, amounting to about eight 
to ten pounds at one time. In this I have also succeeded in baking good bread. 
In this pail a breakfast for several people can be cooked during the night. A mid-day 
meal can be in process of cooking while the sewing women or sales ladies are absent 
at their work. The supper can be warmed over, and the water boiled for the pot of 
tea in the evening. Bread can also be baked in the evening. 

HEATING WATER FOR HOUSEHOLD USE, ETC. 

The oven is intended to be used for cooking, but directions have been given for 
warming water on the top. An apparatus for heating water with a second lamp, or 
for making tea and coffee, or for washing dishes, can be purchased at a low price at 
any of the shops where common kerosene oil stoves are kept for sale. Water for 
circulation throughout a house, must be heated from the water-back of the 
cooking stove, range, or furnace. If I were to build another house, I should attach 
the apparatus for heating water to my furnace for winter use, and I should place a 
small water-heater alongside for summer use, as before stated. The kitchen stove 
which might then be required for warming the kitchen, would be a very small affair, 
of which the top could be fitted for frying, for boiling water in the tea-kettle 
and for some other purposes. 

The merit of the Aladdin Oven — if any it possesses — as a substitute for about 
nine-tenths or more of the work of the range or stove, is: 

1st. In the saving of food rather than of fuel. 

2nd. In saving excess of heat and half the work. 

3d. In saving the fine, natural flavors : food cooked a second or even a third 



104 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION - . 

time being generally as appetizing as when first served, and in some instances even 
more so. 

The Oven may be offered as a very complete substitute for a cooking stove in 
snmmer houses when hot water for circulation through the house may not be re- 
quired. 

The best measure of the expenditure of oil which. I have been able to make, was 
during the summer of 1889, at my summer place on Buzzard's Bay. We have used no 
coal for two or three years. A little wood from my wood-lot was burned a part of the 
day in the cooking stove for laundry purposes and the like. The cooking and the 
lighting of the household for one hundred days were both done in 1889 with seven 
dollars' worth of kerosene oil, bought in parcels of five gallons each, at fifteen cents 
a gallon. I computed the average number of persons, ten ; number of meals, 3,000 ; 
cost of fuel per meal, about a quarter of a cent or less. I do not, however, consider 
the economy of fuel as of any importance compared to the economy in the use of 
the food- material, and the quality of the result of the application of heat under abso- 
lute control, in yielding appetizing, nutritious and wholesome conditions. 

CARE OF LAMPS. 

The great trouble with many of the kerosene lamps is, that in the effort to 
make them at a low cost, they are slightly or badly made ; therefore they are apt to 
get out of order. If the demand for these Ovens should increase, special lamps may 
be made to meet the special conditions of their use. 

Lamps should be kept clean — the burners and wick-holder especially — else they 
will not develop their full power and the food will not be sufficiently cooked in the 
allotted time. I may name the Pittsburgh lamp as one which can be easily kept 
clean and in good order. 

There is a new burner and also a new wick about to be put into the market 
which will probably obviate almost all the trouble and difficulty in the use of 
the lamp. 

A stove lamp or heater to be used as an auxiliary may now be found on sale at 
the stores of the Central Oil Stove Company in New York, Chicago, and in Boston, 
at 78 and 80 Washington street, which is made like the lamps for illumination, 
having a central duct, with a circular wick, assuring a practically perfect com- 
bustion. The smallest lamp of this type has a wick about eight inches in circum- 
ference ; it is fitted with an iron chimney, upon the top of which a considerable 
quantity of water can be kept hot or made to boil ; frying by immersion in hot fat 
can be done upon it, and other work which it is not expedient to put into the Oven. 



THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 105 

The Central Oil Stove Company now represents a combination of nearly all the 
makers of the common kerosene oil and gas stoves. These stoves maybe very useful 
auxiliaries where the main dependence is put upon the Aladdin Oven. They may 
do their kind of work in their way extremely well. They are, however, subject to 
the passage of the heat and the products of combustion of the lamps directly into 
the receptacles where the food is placed, which receptacles are ventilated. They 
may, therefore, taint, scorch or dry the food, in the same way that it may be 
affected in the ordinary iron stove, unless the work is closely watched. 

The point of distinction in the Aladdin Oven as compared to all others, is that 
the heat may not be raised by the common lamp which is used with the oven of the 
Standard size, to any point which will be likely to scorch the food, if ordinary care 
and common sense are applied in putting the food into the oven. The heat will 
not then be sufficient to distill the fine flavors and send them off in bad smells, while 
the oven is not ventilated, except when it is used for boiling, because the humidity 
derived from the food itself make the very best atmosphere in which it can be 
suitably cooked. 

Much larger stove lamps of the type named may enable me to make Aladdin 
Ovens of larger sizes, on which experiment I am now engaged. The Standard size 
is, however, quite large enough for the average family. 

Any intelligent women who can put into this oven the requisite one part of 
gumption and one part of food, may nourish themselves adequately, changing the 
bill of fare every day, at not over one dollar a week for the cost of the food and fuel, 
including the tea and coffee. 

With the aid of Mrs. E. H. Kichards, bills of fare for seven days, twenty-one 
meals, have been computed which contain all the requisite elements of nutrition in 
due proportion, to cost from one dollar to one dollar and a half per week. These 
dietaries have been given elsewhere. 

In Part II will be found a report made by Mrs. Mary H. Abel, the successful com- 
petitor for the Lomb prize of $500, offered by the American Public Health Associa- 
tion, whose treatise may be ordered from N. D. C. Hodges, No. 874 Broadway, 
New York. 

Also a report made by Miss Maria Daniell, an experienced teacher of cooking, 
whose w r ork was more specifically directed to the invention of recipes and methods 
of seasoning for box cooking in the oven or pail, which may be adjusted to the 
period of five hours without requiring any attention in the interval ; that being the 
customary period of a morning's work between the hour of beginning and the 
dinner hour. 



106 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



THE ALADDIN KITCHEN. 



The ideal cooking laboratory which I contemplate adding to my house on the 
north side, next the present kitchen, will perhaps be built in the following manner: 
Excavate for basement six feet below surface, lay drains inside and outside the wall, 
fill up one foot with broken stone covered with asphalt concrete. Lay stone wall 
to surface in cement,, and four feet above with brick laid in cement, inside course of 
fire brick. On this wall lay hard pine timbers (vulcanized) five feet on centers, which 
may be painted at once without danger of dry-rot. Lay floor of three-inch spruce, 
grooved and splined. Finish ceiling between the timbers with plaster board with skin 
coat of King's Winslow cement. In this basement place a water furnace for heating 
the house in winter, a water heater to heat water for circulation in summer and for 
laundry purposes, and fit up for laundry. One window to be fitted for the escape 
of flies. 

THE KITCHEN OR LABORATORY. 

Upon the cellar or basement wall as described build a superstructure of three- 
inch vulcanized spruce plank, grooved and splined. Cover in with roof of the same, 
resting on vulcanized timbers five feet on centers, covered outside with shingles laid 
over mortar. Inside finish : Between the roof timbers lay plaster board one inch 
thick finished with cement plaster ; on the inside of the plank lay on porcelain 
tiles or lay up vitrified brick ; lay floor of tiles laid in cement very slightly pitched 
toward one corner where there will be a scupper for the escape of water. All 
corners rounded so that there may be no right angles in the room. 

This structure will be constructed on the principle of slow burning construction 
of heavy timber and solid wooden walls and roof, in the study of which the first 
conception of the Aladdin Oven arose. Solid wood or thick slabs of incombustible 
wood pulp are the best available non-heat conductors for use in building cook- 
ing laboratories or ovens. By avoiding the ordinary cellular construction which 
is set up by the masters of the art of combustible architecture we avoid the hidden 
spaces in which rats, mice, cockroaches and fire have free way, and by using thick 
wood and shingles laid over mortar we are free from the dampness and chill which 
are generated by walls of brick or stone. In the thick solid plank roof we avoid the 
customary attic, which serves as an oven in summer and a refrigerator in winter. 
We also keep our pepper and mustard pots on the sideboard instead of using them 
as models for the decoration of a crazy roof in the " Queen Anne Style/' 

The advantage of this method of construction and finishing is that the cleaning 
may be done with warm water containing a little kerosene oil forced through a hand 
pump to every part of the room, then wash down with cold water. 



Tin: ::;::;:;::. cf n nuiTiox. 107 

Windows : All of customary type ^ave one. The window on the east to be a 
iiy escape. 

THE FLY ESCAPE. 

This window consists of two sashes placed in reverse of the customary method, 
the top sash inside, the inner sash so made of wood nearly flush with the glass and 
bevelled to an even point so that the flies which always walk upward on a vertical wall 
or window may walk out without obstruction. In order to promote the escape of 
flies especially in the early morning when the rising sun attracts them, lower the 
upper sash to nearly the middle of the glass in the lower sash; which- should be a 
single plate — of course there would then be an open space between the two plates; 
draw down and fasten a dark green curtain to the same point, held so close that the 
flies cannot get behind the curtain ; close the blinds at all the other windows. Flies 
are early risers and always desire to pay their libations to the morning sun ; it is 
a work of charity to give them an opportunity. They are also very intelligent; 
they will go to the lighted, window pane, walk upwards to the open way between 
the two sashes and then depart. A few perverse ones may remain, and for them a 
breakfast of fly paper may be laid in front of the window. 

LABORATORY FITTINGS. 

On the north side, next the outer door opening into a porch, place a Chase 
Eef rigerator, so arranged that the ice can be washed on a platform outside and put 
into the ice receptacle from without. The refrigerator will be in the northeast 
corner, next the fly-escape window. In the southeast corner will be the door 
opening into the pantry, which is now connected with the present kitchen. In fly 
time the pantry door will be left open at night so as to open the way for flies to go 
to the fly escape. At the left of the outer door on the north side will be a large 
marble table or wide shelf with one marble shelf above. On this table all food will 
be prepared. It will be very slightly pitched to the rear and toward one end, and 
will be protected at the back by a concave strip of marble attached with cement. 
At one end will be a water-tap, at the other a scupper hole of large size, through 
which all refuse may be washed into an open removable bucket. 

At the westerly end will be open shelves of vulcanized hard wood for dishes 
and other apparatus, beneath and a little above the floor level a platform for metal 
ware protected with sheet copper. No doors and no cupboards will be placed against 
the inside or south wall. A small iron heater with four holes for cooking vessels on 
the top and a place for a hooded grill ventilated into the chimney, to be heated with 
charcoal or coke if gas is not available. Next, a tin-lined copper boiler with hooded 



108 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

escape for steam above it, to be heated by gas. Next, a Case Bread Raiser. Next, 
a suitable gas or kerosene stove. Finally as many Aladdin Ovens and Cooking Pails 
as may be required for use in Laboratory practice. One for roasting meats. One 
for cooking vegetables, stewing or simmering. One for baking bread. 

At this point ends the first lesson in the Science of Nutrition which has been 
developed in a purely empirical manner by the undersigned, 

EDWARD ATKINSON. 

Brookline, Massachusetts, U. S. A., August 1891. 




\Vhen the rain raineth 
Then the goose winketh, 

And the little goose wotteth not 
What the great goose thinketh. 



PART II. 

THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



The scientific part of this work will now be presented. In the first part my 
own experience has been given. I first recognized the profound relation of the 
food question to all the processes of industry as the most important element in 
social science when dealing with it many years since in a very practical way. It 
became incumbent on me to make life easier for a very large number of factory 
operatives who were employed in a large but isolated factory which was under my 
charge, on whom a population of about 2500 depended at a time when we were 
forced by the high and variable prices of cotton, and by the fluctuations of 
depreciated paper money to run only four days a week. In this way I was gradually 
led from theoretic and mainly statistical observations to attempt to give a practical 
direction to this work. 

It may have been observed that at the beginning of my study of cooking it was 
somewhat difficult to overcome a certain grotesque aspect which was presented by 
the gray-haired manager of factory and insurance company when converted into 
a cook, fully equipped with an apron and white cap presented by the children, to 
whom also it was in some senses grotesque; but when the chuck-end of beef that hadn't 
been cooked long enough to become tender and appetizing, was served for dinner, it 
did not seem so funny. The same grotesque aspect became more apparent when my 
friends whom I invited to dinners or suppers, somewhat unconsciously exposed their 
incredulity, effusively remarking that they had either eaten very heartily and had 
spoiled their appetites during the day, or else had wholly omitted to lunch so as to be 
in possession of such a good appetite as would enable them to devour the victuals. 

Yet more amusing and sometimes very grotesque have been the interviews with 
many most excellent and utterly incredulous ladies, who have come to my office in 
the apparent expectation of meeting some one who would be a sort of combination of 
Quack Doctor and Head Steward of a hotel. In such interviews it has sometimes 
been very difficult to maintain a demeanor of dignified courtesy and attention at 
the risk of very undue hilarity. I have often been reminded of a remark of 



110 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

Artemus Ward, or one of his type, that " there is a great deal of human nature in 
men, likewise in some women." 

The time of semi-apology on the part of a man who had thus rashly invaded 
the domain of woman has passed and it gives me the greatest satisfaction to 
introduce the truly scientific work of the women who have come to my support. 

If any one can name another important lino of investigation in which any 
elderly gentleman of an inquisitive disposition, whose early education in 
" Amusement considered as a force in Christian Training," (See Four Discourses 
by Eev. Marvin R. Vincent; Troy, William H. Young, 9 First street, 1867,) had been 
very much neglected, may get as much actual fun as I have in the development of 
this oven and in the correspondence and interviews connected with it, it may be 
an aid to digestion to indicate the line on which some one else may work. I have 
not yet found the other end of this line on which I am working. 

In order that those who will take the pains may have the means to carry on this 
undertaking, certain tables are subsequently given which may be considered 
approximately correct, but the student will find them suggestive only until a well- 
equipped 

COOKING LABORATORY 

shall be established, in which the positive rules of the Science of Nutrition may be 
more fully established. 

The reports of Mrs. Abel, Miss Daniell and Mrs. Eichards are based on most 
valuable tables, prepared by themselves or by Prof. William 0. Atwater to whose 
courtesy I am indebted for permission to reprint his work. The reader may be referred 
to the articles in the Century Magazine for a most valuable and complete treatment 
of matters which lie at the very foundation of this science. 

DIETARIES FOR THIRTY DAYS. 

In order that the greatest economy consistent with sufficient nutrition may be 
secured without spending more time in saving a few cents a day than the money is 
worth, the following tables have been prepared on the basis of the retail prices of 
food purchased in the Boston market in small quantities in the spring of 1891. In 
consequence of a very short crop of domestic potatoes and the heavy duty or tax 
imposed upon Canadian potatoes the price of that most important vegetable was 
excessive at the date of this compilation. 

Eetail prices of the tougher portions of meat and of the best kinds of grain and 
vegetables in Boston in the spring of 1891. Vegetables rated at a higher price than 
usual on account of a great scarcity of potatoes. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 



Ill 





Per lb. 






Per lb. 


Beef — average of nack, 




Halibut Nape, 




5 cents 


shin, flank, and some 




Whole milk, . 




8 


" 


of the better portions, 




Skimmed milk, 




4 


(< 


omitting expensive 




A good quality of cheese, 




16 


u 


UUt-', .... 


6 cents. 


A fair quality of butter, 


28 to 32 


i i 


B ef sue:, selected, 


5 to 6 " 


Corn meal, 


2% to 


o 
O 


a 


Beef, corned. 


6 lk 


Oatmeal, 


4 to 


5 


a 


Beef liver, 


6 " 


Crack d wheat, 




5 


1 i 


Tbe cheaper parts of 




Split pease and dried 








mutton, 


6 " 


whole pease, 


7 to 


9 


" 


Corned pork, 


8 " 


White beans, . 


7 to 


8 


i( 


Salt pork, varying in 




Rice, .... 


6 to 10 


Cl 


different years, now, . 


8 " 


Hominy, 




4 


a 


Smoked ham, 


12 " 


Potatoes, very scarce, 




2% 


a 


Bacon, .... 


12 " 


Turnips, 




2/ 2 


u 


Sausage of good quality, 


16 " 


Onions, scarce, ' . 




5 


u 


Veal, the cheaper parts, 


8 " 


Beets, . . . 




5 


<< 


The cheaper kinds of 




Carrots, .... 


2% to 3 


(( 


frestufish, . 


6 to 8 " 


Squash, 




3 


(( 


Salt cod, 


8 " 


Cabbage, 


■» 


2% 


a 



What can be bought in Brookline, Mass., at retail prices for half a dollar in 

July, 1891. 

1 pound of flour, 2% cents. 

1 pound shin of beef or mutton flank, 5>£ " 

y pound suet, \% " 

y 2 pound salt codfish, 4 " 

l / 2 pound oatmeal, ,2 " 

y z pound hominy, 2 " 

y. pound corn meal, lyi " 

1 pound potatoes, 2% " 

X pound onions, . 1% " 

y 2 pound beets, . 2% " 

y 2 pound carrots, 2 " 

y 2 pound split pease, 4 " 

y 2 pound butter (fair,) 14 " 

y 2 pound dried currants, &% " 

8 pourds, 50 " 



112 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



What can be bought for a quarter of a dollar 
12 oz. flour, 
12 ' Deck beef, 

2 " beef suet, 

3 " salt c^d, 
8 " oatmeal, 
8 " hominy, 

potatoes,! 
onions, j 
sugar, 
butter, 
1 pint milk, 1 



D. 2 c. 
5 


per lb. 


6 


<{ 


8 


u 


4 


n 


4 


It 


1 2^ 
5 




6 


u 


' 32 


u 


8 c. 


quart, 



Tea or coffee 2 cups, or one cup each, 



\y 2 cents. 


3^ 


k 


Ya 


<< 


2 


(( 


2 


It 


2 


u 


2 


(( 


IK 


(C 


4 


C( 


4 


(( 


23 


u 


2 


u 



Enough for two women at moderate work. 



25 



In making up the subsequent tables, Flour Grain, Roots and other vegetables, 
sugar and a moderate quantity of butter or suet are considered Constants hi each 
table. It is assumed that these will invariably be purchased of sound and good 
quality. 

A sufficient quantity of these constants is assigned to each dietary, containing 
the right proportions of protein, starch and fat, and a sufficient number of Calories 
to sustain the life of an adult without the addition of the Variables which yield 
working power. 

The term ' ' Constants " is used in a two-fold significance. This part of the dietary 
may be constant in the relative quantity of each element named, but these elements 
will also be substantially constant in price in any given year, varying a little in 
one year as compared to another mainly in ratio to the abundance or scarcity of 
wheat or potatoes in each respective year. 

On this basis of a sufficient quantity of cereals, fat and vegetable food to 
sustain the life of an adult is dealt with, to which meat, fish, eggs, other vegetables 
and flavorings may be added to the end that working power may be developed in 
proportion to the effort which is required in each pursuit. These elements may be 
added in variable quantities and prices according to their kind. 

The following dietaries have been made up to meet the requirements of persons 
who are occupied in work requiring a moderate amount of physical exertion or of 
persons who are engaged in sedentary pursuits who take moderate exercise. 

Each dietary consists of the two divisions named Constants and Variables. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 



113 



In No. 1, Meat only is added to the Constants. 

No. 2, Meat and substitutes, eggs, beans, pease and milk. 

No. 3, Fish and cheese. 

No. 4, More grain is added, giving an excess of starch at a lower cost, but 
higher in Calories, be anse grains are less digestible. 

Nos. 5, 6 and 7 are a little richer and more varied. 

No. 8 gives a purely vegetarian diet, higher in Calories because less digestible; 
and higher in cost because animal food is cheaper in cost than vegetables when 
consumed at a given standard of nutrition. 

Nos. 9, 10 and 11 are rich and varied, but are so assorted that they may be 
adopted by any family at a very moderate cost. 



DIETAKIES. 



Table showing the computation of the elements of Dietary No. 1. 
method has been applied to all. 



The same 



Constants which enter into the Subsequent Dietaries, Nos. 1 to 12 inclusive. 



ARTICLE. POUNDS. 


PROTEID. 


fat. a 


1RBOHYDB 


Flour, 


22 


2.64 


.44 


15.18 


Grain, 


12 


1.68 


.84 


7.60 


Butter, 


2 


.02 


1.73 




Suet, 


2 




1.78 




Sugar, 


2 






1.93 


Potatoes, 


10 


.20 




2.10 


Beets, 










Carrots, 










Onions, 










Squash, 


• 7 


.13 


.03 


.50 


Cabbage, 










Parsnips, 










For 30 days, 


57 


4.67 


4.82 


27.31 


For 1 day, 


1.90 


.155 


.160 


.910 



CALORIES. 

36,520 
19,800 
7,230 
7,200 
3,600 
4,300 



1,120 



2,659 



COST AT BOSTON 
PRICES, 1891. 
$0.55 
.48 
.56 
.12 
.10 
.25 



.25 



$2.31 

.077 



114 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



VARIABLES IN TABLE NO. 1. SHOWING METHOD OF ANALYSIS APPLIED TO EACH TABLE. 



Beef, utck 

or .shin, 
Mutton, neck, 
Bacon, 
Bet f liver, 
Veal, 
Salt Pork, 



12 (including 

5 
4 

2 
1 
1 



For 30 days, 25 

Total, 82 

For 1 day, 2.73 



2.00 


.40 




5,200 


.62 


.34 




2,476 


.40 


2.80 




11,840 


.40 


.10 




1,120 


.19 


.03 




460 


.03 


.78 
4.45 
9.27 


27.31 


3,160 


3.64 


24,256 


8.31 


104,026 


.277 


.309 


.910 


3,467.5 



.72 
.30 
.48 
.12 

.08 

.08 

1.78 



.136 



The food material contained in the following table of Constants wonld suffice 
to sustain the life of an adult without the addition of the Variables which are given 
in this and in each subsequent dietary. The Constants may be named Tlie Life 
Ration. The Variables added may be named The Work Ration. The price of 
flour is given at what it would have cost by the sack .or barrel in the spring of 
1891. . All other prices are for small quantities bought at retail. At the time 
of correcting proofs (September), the price of flour is somewhat higher, and of 
potatoes considerably lower — the average of all the elements of the dietary about 
the same. 







Dietary, No 


. 1. 






CONSTANTS. 








OALORIBS. 


22 pound; 


s Flour, 


at 


$0.02 >£ 


$0.55 




3 


Oatmeal, 


at 


.04 


.12 




3 " 


Cornmeal, 


at 


.03 


.09 




6 " 


Hominy, 


at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 " 


Butter, 


at 


.28 


.56 




2 " 


Suet, 


at 


.06 


.12 




10 " 


Potatoes, 


at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 " 


Cabbages, 


at 


.03 


.09 




2 " 


Carrots, 


at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 " 


Onions, 


at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 " 


Sugar, 


at 


.05 


.10 





57 



$2.31 79,770 




Kicklety, Kacklety, my little hen 
Has hatched out chickens, nine and ten; 
Nine and ten; — and oh! good luck! 
Among the chickens is one little duck! 



THE SCIENCE OF KUTKITION". 



115 





VARIABLES. 










12 pounds Beef, neck or shin, 


at 


.06 


.72 




5 " 


Neck of Mutton, 


at 


.06 


.30 




4 " 


Bacon, 


at 


.12 


.48 




2 " 


Beef liver, 


at 


.06 


.12 




1 " 


Veal, 


at 


.08 


.08 




1 " 


Pork, 


at 


.08 


.08 




25 


pounds, for 30 days, 






$1.78 

$4.09 


24,256 


82 


104,026 


2.73 pounds for 1 day, 






.136 


3,467.5 



Co3t per week, 95 T 2 o cents. 









Dietary, No 


. 2. 






CONSTANTS. 








CALORIES. 


22 pounds 


5 Flour, 


at 


$0.02^ 


$0.55 




3 ' 




Oatmeal, 


at 


.04 


.12 




3 ' 




Cornmeal, 


at 


.03 


.09 




6 ' 




Hominy, 


at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 ' 




Butter, 


at 


.28 


.56 




2 ' 




Suet, 


at 


.06 


.12 




10 ' 




Potatoes, 


at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 ' 




Cabbages, 


at 


.03 


.09 




2 ' 




Carrots, 


at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 ' 




Onions, 


at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 ' 




Sugar, 


at 


.05 


.10 





57 



$2.31 79,770 



VARIABLES. 



10 pounds Beef or Mutton, 


at 


$0.06 






$0.60 




2 " \% doz. Eggs, 


at 


.18 


per 


doz. 


.27 




8 " Beans and Pease, 


at 


.07 






.56 




15 " Skimmed Milked, 


at 


.02 






.30 




2 " Suet, 


at 


.06 






.12 




37 


ays, 








$1.85 

$4.16 


29,925 


94 pounds, total for 30 d 


109,695 


3.1 " " " 1 d 


ay, 








.139 


3,656.5 



Cost per week, 97^ cents. 



116 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 







Dietary, Nc 


). 3. 






CONSTANTS. 








( 


3ALORIES. 


22 pounds Flour, 




at 


$0.02>£ 


$0.55 




3 " 


Oatmeal, 




at 


.04 


.12 




3 " 


Cornmeal, 




at 


.03 


.09 




6 " 


Hominy, 




at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 " 


Butter, 




at 


.28 


.56 




2 " 


Suet, 




at 


.06 


.12 




10 " 


Potatoes, 




at 


• 02K 


.25 




3 " 


Cabbages, 




at 


.03 


.09 




2 " 


Carrots, 




at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 " 


Onions, 




at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 " 


Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.10 




57 










$2.31 


79,770 


VARIABLES. 












10 pound; 


s Beef or Mutton, 




at 


$0.06 


$0.60 




2 " 


Salt Codfish, 




at 


.08 


.16 




6 " 


Fresh Fish, 




at 


.05 


.30 




2 " 


Cheese, 




at 


.16 


.32 




2 " 


Salt Pork, 




at 


.08 


.16 




2 " 


Suet, 




at 


.06 


.12 




24 


pounds, total for 30 days, 






$1.66 

$3.97 


27,448 


81 


107,218 


2.7 


<( (< (i 


1 day, 






.132 


3,574.0 



Cost per week, 93^ cents. 







Dietary, No 


K 4. 






CONSTANTS. 








CALORIES. 


22 pounds Flour, 


at 


$0.02^ 


$0.55 




3 " 


Oatmeal, 


at 


.04 


.12 




3 " 


Cornmeal, 


at 


.03 


.09 




6 " 


Hominy, 


at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 " 


Butter, 


at 


.28 


.56 




2 " 


Suet, 


at 


.06 


.12 




10 " 


Potatoes, 


at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 " 


Cabbages, 


at 


.03 


.09 




2 " 


Carrots, 


at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 " 


Onions, 


at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 " 


Sugar, 


at 


.05 


.10 





57 



$2.31 79,770 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION-. 



117 



VARIABLES. 

5 pounds Le m Beef, 
2 " Bacon, 

1 " Salt Pork, 
5 " Flour, 

2 " E*ce, 

1 " Barley, 

2 " Rye, 

1 " Lentils, 

3 " WholeWheat, 
1 " Butter, 

— 23 



80 pounds, total for 30 days, 
2.7 " " " 1 day, 

Cost per week, 88 cents 



at 


$0.06 


$0.30 




at 


.12 


.24 




at 


.08 


.08 




at 


.02^ 


.13 




at 


.06 


.12 




at 


.05 


.05 




at 


.03 


.06 . 




at 


.10 


.10 




at 


.04 


.12 




at 


.28 


.28 








$1.48 


38,885 






$3.79 


118,655 






.126 


3,955 







Dietary, No. 5. 






CONSTANTS. 








CALORIES. 


22 pounds 


i Flour, 


at 


$0.02^ 


$0.55 




3 " 


Oatmeal, 


at 


.04 


.12 




3 " 


Cornmeal, 


at 


.03 


.09 




6 " 


Hominy, 


at 


• 04K 


.27 




2 » 


Butter, 


at 


.28 


.56 




2 " 


Suet, 


at 


.06 


.12 




10 " 


Potatoes, 


at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 " 


Cabbages, 


at 


.03 


.09 




2 " 


Carrots, 


at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 " 


Onions, 


at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 " 


Sugar, 


at 


.05 


.10 




57 








$2.31 


79,770 


VARIABLES. 










6 pounds 


5 shin of Beef, 


at 


$0.06 


$0.36 




2 " 


round of Beef, 


at 


.18 


.36 




6 " 


neck of Mutton, 


at 


.06 


.36 




2 " 


Eggs, 


at 


.18 doz. 


.27 




1 " 


Cheese, 


at 


.16 


.16 




30 " 


Skimmed Milk, 


at 


.02 


.60 




1 " 


White Beans, 


at 


.07 


.07 




1 " 


Pease, 


at 


.07 


.07 




4 " 


Halibut, nape, 


at 


.05 


.20 




2 " 


Haddock, 


at 


.08 


.16 





118 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



3 pounds Salt Cod, 



1 ' 


' Oleomargarine, 


2 ' 


' Macaroni, 


1 * 


1 Oatmeal, 


2 ' 


1 Cornmeal, 


1 ' 


' Rice, 


1 ' 


' Hominy, 



66 



123 pounds, total for 30 days, 
4.1 " " " lday, 

Cost per week, $1.35 



at 


.08 


.24 




at 


.16 


.16 




at 


.15 


.30 




at 


.04 


.04 




at 


.03 


.06 




at 


.06 


.06 




at 


.04 


.04 








$3.51 


41,051 






$5.82 


120,821 






.194 


4,027. 



Dietary, No. 6. 



CONSTANTS. 

22 pounds Flour, 

Oatmeal, 



CALORIES. 



3 
3 
6 
2 
2 
10 
3 
2 
2 
2 



57 



Cornmeal, 

Hominy, 

Butter, 

Suet, 

Potatoes, 

Cabbages, 

Carrots, 

Onions, 

Sugar, 



VARIABLES. 

2 pounds Beef, shin, 

3 " Beef, round, 

1 " Beef, tripe, 

3 " Calves' hearts, 

2 " Pigs' feet, 
2 " Eggs, 

1 " Cheese, 

15 " Skimmed Milk, 

\% " Beans, 

1}£ " Pease, 

4 " Fresh Fish, 

2 " Salt Cod, 
2 u Bacon, 

1 " Butter, 



at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 



at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 
at 



$0.02^ 
.04 
.03 
.04^ 
.28 
.06 
.02J£ 
.03 
.02^ 
.05j£ 
.05 



at $0.06 
at .18 



.10 

.06 

.05 

.18 doz. 

.16 

.02 

.07 

.07 

.08 

.08 

.12 

.28 



.55 
.12 
.09 
.27 
.56 
.12 
.25 
.09 
.05 
.11 
.10 



$2.31 79,770. 



,12 
.54 
.10 
.18 
.10 
,27 
,16 
.30 
.11 
.11 
.32 
.16 
.24 
.28 



THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 



119 



pounds Macaroni, 
u Oatmeal, 
]/ 2 " Rice, 
y 2 " Hominy, 
Sugar, 



47 

104 
3.5 



at 


.15 


at 


.04 


at 


.06 


at 


.04 


at 


.05 



pounds, total for 30 days, 
" " 1 day, 

Cost per week, $1.28. 



30 

.08 
,03 
.02 
.05 



$3.47 34,746 



$5.78 
.193 



114.516 
3,817.0 





Dietary, Nc 


). 7. 








CONSTANTS. 








CALORIES, 


22 pound; 


3 Flour, 


at 


$0.02^ 


$0.55 




3 " 


O itmeal, 


at 


.04 


.12 




3 " 


Cornmeal, 


at 


.03 


.09 




6 " 


Hominy, 


at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 " ' 


Butter, 


at 


.28 


.56 




2 " 


Suet, 


at 


.06 


.12 




10 " 


Potatoes, 


at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 " 


Cabbages, 


at 


.03 


.09 




2 " 


Carrots, 


at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 " 


Onions, 


at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 " 


Sugar, 


at 


.05 


.10 




57 


VARIABLES. 






$2.31 


79,770 


5 pound 


3 Beef, shin, 


at 


$0.06 


$0.30 




4 " 


Beef, round, 


at 


.15 


.60 




2 " 


Mutton, forequarter, 


at 


.10 


.20 




2 " 


Mutton, neck, 


at 


.06 


.12 




2 " 


Calves' hearts, 


at 


.05 


.10 




2 " 


Eggs, 


at 


.18 doz. 


.27 




1 " 


Cheese, 


at 


.16 


.16 




15 " 


Skimmed Milk, 


at 


.02 


.30 




1 " 


Beans, 


at 


.07 


.07 




Yz " 


Pease, 


at 


.07 


.04 




2 " 


Halibut, nape, 


at 


.05 


.10 




3 " 


Haddock, 


at 


.08 


.24 




2 " 


Salt Pork, 


at 


.08 


.16 




2 " 


Bacon, 


at 


.12 


.24 




1 " 


Macaroni, 


at 


.15 


.15 





120 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



2 pounds Cornmeal, 
2 ' ' Hominy, 
2 " Sugar, 
-50.5 



107.5 pounds, total for 30 days, 
3.6 " " " 1 day, 

Cost per week, $1.30. 



at 


.04 


.08 




at 


.04 


.08 




at 


.05 


.10 








$3.31 

$5.62 


42,312 




122,082 






.187 


4,069.4 



Dietary, No. 8. (Vegetable Diet.) 





CONSTANTS. 


22 poi 
3 ' 


inds Flour, 
' Oat- meal, 


3 4 


1 Cornmeal, 


6 l 

2 ' 


' Hominy, 
' Butter, 


2 ' 


Suet, 


10 • 


' Potatoes, 


3 ' 
2 k 

2 ' 


' Cabbages, 
4 Carrots, 
' Onions, 


2 ' 


' Sugar, 









CALORIES. 


at 


$0.02^ 


$0.55 




at 


.04 


.12 




at 


.03 


.09 




at 


.04^ 


.27 




at 


.28 


.56 




at 


.06 


.12 




at 


.02^ 


.25 




at 


.03 


.09 




at 


• 02K 


.05 




at 


.05^ 


.11 




at 


.05 


.10 





57 

With butter in place of suet, adding 44 cents to cost. 



$2.31 79,770 

44 



$2.75 





VARIABLES. 






4 pounds Pease, 


at 


$0.07 $0.28 


4 ' 


4 Beans, 


at 


.07 .28 


2 ' 


Eggs, 


at 


.18doz. .27 


30 ' 


< Whole Milk, 


at 


.03 .90 


2 ' 


' Lentils, 


at 


.10 .20 


3 ' 


' Oatmeal, 


at 


.04 .12 


1 


' Cheese, 


at 


.16 .16 


1 < 


' Barley, 


at 


.05 .05 


1 


' Buckwheat, 


at 


.05 .05 


2 ' 


' Macaroni, 


at 


.15 .30 


3 ' 


1 Cornmeal, 


at 


.03 .09 


2 ' 


1 Hominy, 


at 


.04 .08 


1 


1 Rye Meal, 


at 


.03 .03 


1 ' 


' Hulled Corn, 


at 


.07 .07 





Three geese sate in the barley-straw, 
Sate and hissed at all they saw. 

A boy came by 

And said "Hi! hi!" 
To the geese that sate in the barley-straw. 



THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 



121 



4 pounds Cabbage, at .03 .12 

2 " Dried Apples or other fruit, at .12 .24 

- 63 



120 pounds, total for 30 days, 
4 " . " ' " 1 day, 

Cost per week, $1.40. 



-$3.24 53,310 



$5.99 133,080 
2..00 4,439.3 









Dietary, No. 9. 








CONSTANTS. 










CALORIES. 


Less the 2 lbs. of Suet, since 


this meat will 


give fat enough. 




22 pound 


s Flour, 




at 


$0.02^ 


$0.55 




3 ' 




Oatmeal, 




at 


04 


.12 




3 ' 




Cornmeal, 




at 


.03 


.09 




6 « 




Hominy, 




at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 ' 




Butter, 




at 


.28 


.56 




2 4 




Suet, 




at 


.06 


.12 




10 ' 




Potatoes, 




at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 « 




Cabbages, 




at 


.03 


.09 




2 < 




Carrots, 




at 


.02/ 2 


.05 




2 ' 




Onions, 




at 


■ 05/ 2 


.11 




2 ' 




Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.10 




57 


VARIABLES. 






$2.31 


— 12=$2.19 


79,770 


2 pounds Beef, shin, 




at 


$0.06 


$0.12 




5 ' 




Beef, rump, 




at 


.18 


.90 




5 ' 




Mutton leg and chops, 


at 


.20 


1.00 




3 ' 




Fowl, 




at 


.18 


.54 




1 ' 




Bacon, 




at 


.12 


.12 




1 ' 




Salt Pork, 




at 


.08 


.08 




2 ' 




Eggs, 




at 




.30 




15 « 




Whole Milk, 




at 


.03 


.45 




2 « 




Macaroni, 




at 


.15 


.30 




1 ' 




Cheese, 




at 


.16 


.16 




10 « 




Potatoes, 




at 


.02^ 


.25 




2 ' 




Tomatoes, 




at 


.05 


.10 




2 ' 




Turnips, 




at 


.03 


.06 




3 ' 




Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.15 




1 ' 




Butter, 




at 


.38 


.28 




55 










$4.81 


38,429 


112 


pounds, total for 30 days, 






$7.00 


138,199 




3.7 


« « it 


lday, 






.233 


4,606.6 



Cost per week, $1.63. 



122 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 







Dietary, No 


. 10. 








CONSTANTS. 










CALORIES. 


22 pound 


s Flour, 




at 


$0.02j£ 


$0.55 




3 " 


Oatmeal, 




at 


.04 


.12 




3 " 


Cornmeal, 




at 


.03 


.09 




6 " 


Hominy, 




at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 " 


Butter, 




at 


.28 


.56 




2 " 


Suet, 




at 


.06 


.12 




10 " 


Potatoes, 




at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 " 


Cabbages, 




at 


.03 


.09 




2 " 


Carrots, 




at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 " 


Onions, 




at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 " 


Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.10 




57 


VARIABLES. 








$2.31 


79,77a 


3 pound: 


3 Beef, rump, 




at 


$0.22 


$0.66 




1 " 


Beef liver, 




at 


.10 


.10 




2 " 


Calves' hearts, 


i 


at 


.05 


.10 




4 " 


Mutton, loin or 


f orequarter, at 


.20 


.80 




2 " 


Tripe, 




at 


.10 


.20 




2 " 


Pork Chops, 




at 


• 12K 


.25 




1 " 


Salt Pork, 




at 


.08 


.08 




2 " 


Eggs, 




at 


.18 doz. 


.27 




2 " 


Pease, 




at 


.07 


.14 




2 " 


Beans, 




at 


.07 


.14 




15 " 


Whole Milk, 




at 


.03 


.45 




6 " 


Fresh Fish, 




at 


.12^ 


.75 




1 " 


Kice, 




at 


.06 


.06 




1 " 


Tapioca, 




at 


.09 


.09 




% " 


Farina, 




at 


.06 


.03 




1 " 


Butter, 




at 


.28 


.28 




3 " 


Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.15 




— 48^ 










$4.55 


39,088 


105 >£ 


pounds, total for 30 days 


t 




$6.86 


118,858 


3.5 


; « u 


" 1 day, 






.228 


3,961.9 






Cost per n 


week, $1.60 










Dietary, No 


.11. 








CONSTANTS. 










CALORIES. 


22 pounds Flour, 




at 


$0.02j£ 


$0.55 




3 " 


Oatmeal, 




at 


.04 


.12 




3 " 


Cornmeal, 




at 


.03 


.09 





THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 123 



6 pou 


nds Hominy, 




at 


.04 J* 


.27 




2 ' 


' Batter, 




at 


.28 


.56 




2 < 


Suet, 




at 


.06 


.12 




10 ' 


' Potatoes, 




at 


: oa# 


.25 




3 ' 


4 Cabbages, 




at 


.03 


.09 




2 ' 


' Carrots, 




at 


• 02^ 


.05 




2 ' 


' Onions, 




at 


• 05^ 


.11 




2 ' 


' Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.10 




5 r 


r 

VARIABLES. 








$2.31 


79,770 


2 pou 


nds Beef, sirloin, 




at 


$0.25 


$0.50 




3 ' 


4 Beef, rump, 




at 


.18 


.54 




3 ' 


' Corned Beef, 




at 


.12X 


.38 




2 ' 


4 Ham, 




at 


.12 


.24 




3 ' 


' Fowl, 




at 


.18 


.54 




2K ' 


' Eggs, 


x 


at 


.18 doz. 


.30 




30 ' 


4 Whole Milk, 




at 


.03 


.90 




2 ' 


4 Salt Cod, 




at 


.08 


.16 




3 < 


4 Cracked Wheat, 


at 


.05 


.15 




2 ' 


1 Cornmeal, 




at 


.03 


.06 




1 ' 


' Macaroni, 




at 


.15 


.15 




1 ' 


' Butter, 




at 


.28 


.28 




3 ' 


' Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.15 




— 57. 


5 








$4.35 


43,480.5 


114. 


5 pounds, total for 30 days, 






$6.66 


123,250.5 


3 


.8 " " 


" lday, 






.222 


4,108.0 






Cost per week, $1.55. 










Dietary, No 


. 12. 








CONSTANTS. 










CALORIES. 


22 pou 


mds Flour, 




at 


$0.02^ 


$0.55 




3 ' 


4 Oatmeal, 




at 


.04 


.12 




3 ' 


4 Cornmeal, 




at 


.03 


.09 




6 < 


' Hominy, 




at 


.04^ 


.27 




2 ' 


4 Butter, 




at 


.28 


.56 




2 * 


4 Suet, 




at 


.06 


.12 




10 ' 


' Potatoes, 




at 


.02^ 


.25 




3 ' 


4 Cabbages, 




at 


.03 


.09 




2 ' 


1 Carrots, 




at 


.02^ 


.05 




2 ' 


1 Onions, 




at 


.05^ 


.11 




2 ' 


1 Sugar, 




at 


.05 


.10 





57 $2.31 79,770 



124 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 



VARIABLES. 

6 pounds Beef, sirloin, 



4 ' 


' Leg Mutton, 


4 ' 


' Lamb or Veal, 


6 ' 


' Fresh Fish, 


8 ' 


' Eggs, 2% doz., 


2 ' 


' Butter, 


15 ' 


' Whole Milk, 


2 « 


' Beans, 


2 ' 


' Pease, 


2 ' 


' Rice, 


1 ' 


1 Tapioca, 


3 ' 


' Farina, 


6 ' 


' Sugar, 



113 pounds, total for 30 days, 
3.70 " " " 1 day, 

Cost per week, 



at 


$0.25 


$1.50 




at 


.20 


.80 




at 


.15 


.60 




at 


.15 


.90 




at 


.24 doz. 


.54 




at 


.30 


.60 




at 


.03 


.45 




at 


.07 


.14 




at 


.07 


.14 




at 


.06 


.12 




at 


.09 


.09 




at 


.03 


.09 




at 


.05 


.30 








—$6.27 


50,320 






$8.58 


130,090 






.286 


4,336.3 



J.00. 



This Dietary contains a customary but unwholesome quantity of sugar. 



RECAPITULATION. 



POUNDS AND TENTHS PER DAY. 





PROTEID. 


FAT. 


CARBOHYDRATES. 


CALORIES. 


COST. 


Dietary 1, 


.277 


.309 


0.91 


3,467 


$0,136 


2, 


.311 


.250 


1.07 


3,656 


.138 


3, 


.279 


.309 


0.91 


3,544 


.133 


4, 


.248 


.276 


1.29 


3,955 


.126 


" 5, 


.371 


.250 


1.16 


4,027 


.194 


6, 


.307 


.311 


1.20 


3,817 


.192 


7, 


.337 


.313 


1.11 


4,069 


.187 


8, 


.330 


.243 


1.50 


4,439 


.200 


9, 


.311 


.294 


1.16 


3,940 


.233 


10, 


.323 


.278 


1.17 


3,962 


.228 


11, 


.328 


.291 


1.14 


4,108 


.222 


12, 


.319 


.324 


1.36 


4,336 


.286 



THE SCIEXCE OF NUTRITION 



125 







COST PER 


WEEK 








Omitt 


ing 


fractions of 


a cent. 




ro. 1, 


$0.95 








No. 7, 


$1.30 


" 2, 


.97 








11 8, 


1.40 


" 3, 


.93 








" 9, 


1.63 


11 4, 


.88 








" 10, 


1.60 


" 5, 


1.35 








" 11, 


1.56 


" 6, 


1.28 








" 12, 


2.00 



Note.— Nearly all the m«-at included in these dietaries, consists of the tougher portions, which require a long 
time for their suitable preparation, whether subjected to a roasting, baking, simmering or stewing process. 

It will be observed that the quantities given in the foregoing tables are at the 
weight of the food-material in the condition in which it is bought and sold — the 
water added in the process of preparation and cooking would vary with each com- 
bination. The cost of salt, spice and other accessories will vary with the taste and 
condition of each consumer. These computations are intended to cover only the 
necessary elements of customary nutrition. 

Note.— Copies of these dietaries have been sent by the writer to members of the International Statistical 
Society and of the Hygienic A ssociation in Europe, and to many correspondents in this country, with blank cards 
to be filled out and returned. The purpose is to get the prices of the same or corresponding kinds of food in 
different places, and then to be able to compute the relative cost of complete nutrition in this and other countries. 

The results of this investigation may be given in subsequent editions of this treatise.— E. A. 



The following ration is computed by Prof. A. "W. Church (Vide Food, South 
Kensington Museum Science Handbook, 2d Edition, London, Chapman & Hall, 
1889), as being sufficient for an adult man of customary height, five feet eight 
inches, weighing 154 pounds, who is engaged in work which provides sufficient 
exercise : 



1. 


Bread, 


18 ounces 




2. 


Butter, 


1 


c< 




3. 


Milk, 


4 


u 




4. 


Bacon, 


2 


it 


• 


5. 


Potatoes, 


8 


u 




6. 


Cabbage, 


6 


CI 




7. 


Cheese, 


3^ 


(i 




8. 


Sugar, 


1 


(( 




9. 


Salt, 


u 


Ci 




10. 


Water alone, or 






2 pounds 10j£ ounces. 




in tea, coffee or beer, 


MX 


(< 


4 " 2% «« 



Totals, 



12# 



126 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



If the bread be made at home in the Aladdin Oven, it will cost two and one- 
half cents a pound. If other articles are purchased at Boston prices in July, 1891, 
the price of this ration will be as follows : 



1. 


Bread, 


18 


ounces 


@ 2)4 cents 


per 


pound, 2.88 


2. 


Butter, 


1 






@ 32 


u 


2.00 


3. 


Milk, 


4 






@ 8 


( ( 


quart, 1.00 


4. 


Bacon, 


2 






@ 12 


u 


pound, 1.50 


5. 


Potatoes, 


8 






@ 2% » 


" 


1 25 


6. 


Cabbage, 


6 






@ 2/ 2 " 


(( 


" .95 


7. 


Cheese, 


3^ 






@ 16 


if 


"' 3.50 


8. 


Sugar, 


1 






@ 6 


a 


.37 


9. 


Salt, 


u 






@ say 


c 


.05 




2 lbs. 10^ 


oz. 


ents, 13.50 



If the bread were bought at London prices, where home-made bread is almost 
unknown, but where bakers' bread is much cheaper than it is in Boston, the cost of 
this ration, which is without meat except the small quantum of bacon, would come 
to what fifteen cents would buy here. It would be interesting to price this ration 
in London and in other cities of Europe and also in other cities of this country. 

In order that the unlearned may know what the chemistry of the oven and of 
the digestive organs do with this material, reference may be made to Prof. Church's, 
most interesting and scientific, and, at the same time, very practical treatise. 

The subsequent recipes have been tested in a cooking pail which is not yet 
perfected but may soon be made for sale. The same results may, however, be at- 
tained by placing the materials in porcelain or earthen pots or jars with covers — 
placing them in the Aladdin Oven over a moderate lamp for the time prescribed, 
or if the cook can be trusted place the cooking boxes on the back of the stove in 
such a place that the contents cannot be subjected to a high heat. 

It will be observed that the time named in most of these recipes is five hours. 
According to my own experience a great many compounds which are cooked in two 
or three hours may remain in the oven in closed vessels for five hours or even more 
without the least injury. 

E. A. 




Down I run from the top of the hill, 
Stop on my way to turn the mill, 
Water a garden and fill a well; 
All my pranks I cannot tell. 
At last I come to the ocean's side 
And pour my water to meet the tide. 



SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



EE POETS. 



Miss Maria Daniell, an experienced teacher of cooking, of Boston, has been es- 
pecially charged with the work of developing methods of five-hour cooking, with a 
view to practice by those who can give no attention to the process while absent or 
occupied in other work. Miss Daniell has also computed twelve dietaries for thirty 
days, in due proportion, which have been verified by Mrs. Kichards, and are 
given elsewhere. 

EEPORT OF MISS MARIA DANIELL. 

When I was first asked to undertake the work of experimenting with the work- 
man's dinner pail, and to make up dishes that might be cooked five hours without 
detriment, I felt that my field would be a very small one, especially as I must use 
only the very cheapest kinds of food. I accordingly began with shin and shoulder of 
beef, and neck and flank of mutton, and by making for the former a nice brown 
sauce, using the marrow in place of butter, and such seasoning as Worcestershire 
sauce and tomato catsup, I succeeded in making a very nice dish, which I placed 
before the members of my family for breakfast, and which they pronounced deli- 
cious. For the mutton I made a white sauce, this time using butter and only 
pepper and salt as seasoning, with a small piece of onion. This, also, was very much 
liked. But now came the question, would not the people who would be most likely 
to use the pail oven, think it too much work to make the sauces, and would they, 
many of them, have the time? It was evident to my mind that I must try putting 
the meat, flour and seasoning, all into the little crock together, cover it with boil- 
ing water, and let the sauce take care of itself. This was so contrary to all estab- 
lished rules of cookery that I did it with some doubt, but I must confess I was 
surprised at the result. The butter or dripping came to the top, as is always the 
case in long cooking, but when that was removed with a spoon, a most appetizing 
dish was presented. In the pail oven having the four triangular dishes and one 
round one, a whole dinner was cooked, with the most gratifying result. In one of 



128 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

the small dishes was placed some split pease, which had been soaked over night, 
with just enough water to make a pease pudding; in a second, some coarse hominy, 
also soaked over night ; in a third, some tomato, bread crumbs and seasoning, (scal- 
loped tomato), and in a fourth, some oatmeal for dessert. In the round dish was 
placed some flank of mutton, with onion, tomato, and a spoonful of Worcestershire 
sauce, salt and pepper, and a little butter and flour mixed together and mixed 
with boiling water ; then over the whole was poured boiling water, enough to about 
half fill the tin. The pail oven had been heated for about an hour. The small 
tins were placed at the bottom, and the one with the stew on top, and left for about 
three hours. Then the dishes were changed, the stew put on the bottom, and the 
little dishes on top, and it was left two hours longer, at the end of which time the 
dinner was dished. The grains were well cooked, and the stew exceedingly nice, 
and pronounced by a rather fastidious young man, "good enough for anyone." 
After this I tried every kind of meat and fish that could be bought at a low price, 
and was surprised to find 'how many things were within my reach. Besides shin 
and shoulder of beef, neck and flank of mutton, there are such things as calf's 
heart, lamb's heart and liver, calf's head, pig's head and feet, tripe, beef skirt, beef 
flank, beef liver, beef heart, salt fish, fresh haddock, halibut nape, and all the dif- 
ferent kinds of grains, bacon sausage, kidneys, skim milk and cheese; nearly, if not 
all, of which have been considered in my thirty days' dietaries, and recipes for the 
cooking of which I will now proceed to give. With regard to the size of pail oven, 
I think the size of the one that I have at my house, in which the dinner I have 
mentioned was cooked, works to better advantage than the larger ones. 

I have always cooked in it with the same lamp that I use with the Workman's 
dinner pail ; and the dishes ought always to be changed, when they have been cook- 
ing about half the time required for the completion of the work ; then everything 
will come out perfect. 

Note.— These cylindrical ovens have since been somewhat changed in form, and are now for sale. 

E.A. 

In my work with the " Aladdin Oven," I have not confined myself to cheap 
food, as the work done in the pail ovens could any of it be as well-cooked in 
the Aladdin. So I have proved the oven with the more expensive foods, such 
as fillet of beef, roast and braised chicken, soups and stews of all kinds, puddings 
and cake, and in every case the result has been simply perfect. I have never before 
been able to bake cake or bread in such perfection as I do now in the Aladdin Oven, 
and with such perfect confidence as to the result ; indeed, I feel that I cannot say 
enough in its praise, and I would not part with the one I have, if I could help it, 
for more than twice its cost. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION". 129 

The tough pieces of meat are rendered tender and delicious by the slow cooking, 
and soup made in the oven is superior to an}' I have ever tasted. 

I also value, very highly, the Stanyan Bread Kneader, and the Case Bread Raiser. 
I think they should be included in the furnishings of every kitchen. 

I prefer heavy tin dishes for box cooking of meats and soups in the Aladdin 
Oven, as the stoneware is apt to become crackled and absorbs the fat, and, after a 
time, becomes rancid. 

For the pail oven I like the agate ware best, though the heavy yellow stoneware, 
being cheaper, does very well, is much better than the brown ware, which I found 
too thin and apt to burn on the bottom. 

Bread, kneaded fifteen minutes in the Stanyan Bread Kneader, raised three 
hours in the Case Bread Raiser, then just handled enough to make into loaves, and 
put back in the Raiser for half an hour, will be found in the most perfect condition 
to bake, having taken less than four hours to prepare. One of the best of bread 
makers has said: "The ideal bread-pan should be made four inches wide and four 
inches deep, and any length you wish — ten inches makes a very good-sized loaf/' 

Miss Parloa says: 

GOOD TESTS OF OVEN HEAT WHEN BAKING. 

For sponge cake and pound cake, have heat that will in five minutes turn a piece of white 
paper light yellow. 

For alt other kinds of cup cake, use an oven that will in five minutes turn a piece of white 
paper dark yellow. 

For bread and pastry, have an oven that will in five minutes turn a piece of paper dark 
brown. 

I think there should be an oil stove, with at least two covers, for heating water 
and doing such things as cannot well be done in the oven. Such a stove can be 
procured at the Central Oil Stove Company, 78 Washington street, Boston, for about 
six dollars. 

For the work of a large family, I would prefer a large oil stove made by the 
Smith & Anthony Stove Company, on Union street, Boston. 

With regard to time of cooking in the Aladdin Oven, I allow about one-third 
longer than in the oven of the coal stove. 

It requires fully two weeks of constant use to get the oven seasoned; then this 
list can be relied upon, we think, as to time: 

I find the time given in Mrs. Sterling's letter agrees so well with my own ex- 
periments for the cooking of the various dishes that I have had it copied and added 
to these papers. 



130 



THE SCIENCE OP NUTRITION. 



Roast Beef (over 8 lbs.), 

" (under 8 lbs.), 
Hindquarter Spring Lamb, 
Smothered Chicken, 
Roast Chicken, . 
Chicken Pot-Pie, 
Irish Stew (breast and shoulder), 
Cauliflower (put in boiling water), 
Asparagus, 
Sliced raw Potai »es stewed in Milk, 

(Seasoned, wnen put in, with salt, 
Baked Apples, . 
Stewed Prunes, . 
Graham Bread (8 in. x 3K in.), 
White Bread, 
Layer Cake, 
Corn Meal Muffins, 



pepper and butter, very nice.) 



25 minutes to lb 


20 


u u 


2X hours. 


3 


(( 


3^ 


«( 


3 


(( 


3 


M 


IK 


it 


IK 


M 


3K 


(C 


) 




2 


(C 


2 


(( 


4K 


« 


3^ 


(( 


1 


« 


IK 


u 



MISS DANIELLE EECIPES. 

BEEF, OATMEAL AND TOMATO. 

1. Cut one pound of shin of beef into small pieces. Season with pepper and salt. Cut 
up two sausages into inch pieces, roll in flour and put into an earthen dish. Add one cupful 
of canned tomato, one-third cupful of oatmeal and one teaspoonful Worcestershire sauce, 
and cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 1 1 cents. Weight, with water added, two and 
one-fourth pounds.* 

PIGS , FEET A LA VINAIGRETTE. 

2. Cut up one pound of pickled pigs' feet in small pieces. Put into an earthen dish. Pour 
over them one and one-half cupfuls of boiling water. Mix one tablespoonful of butter with 
one large tablespoonful of flour and add to the water. Salt and pepper to taste, and add 
one teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Cook two hours in Aladdin Pail. 

TRIPE A LA VINAIGRETTE. 

3. Take one pound of pickled tripe, cut into small pieces. Put it into earthen dish. Mix 
one tablespoonful of butter with one tablespoonful of flour and add one cupful of boiling 
water, one teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, and salt and pepper to taste. Pour this 
over the tripe and cook two hours in the Aladdin Pail. 

TRIPE A LA CREME. 

4. One pound of fresh tripe cut into small pieces. Sprinkle over it pepper and salt. 
Mix one tablespoonful of flour, one tablespoonful of butter, a small slice of onion and one 



* All these preparations may be cooked in covered boxes or dishes in the standard Aladdin Oven, as well as 
in the pail or cylinder oven. E. A. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTKITIOX. 131 

cupful of milk. Pour this over the tripe. Taste to see if salt enough, and cook two hours 
in Aladdin Pail. 

BEEF STEW. 

5. Cut one pound of shin of beef into small pieces. Pepper, salt and dredge thickly 
with flour. Add one small onion cut into slices, three or four slices of carrot, and the same 
of turnip. One teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, one tablespoonful of tomato catsup. 
Cover with boiling water and cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. 

BEEF BOLL. 

6. Take ten ounces of lean beef from shoulder or shin. Take two ounces of sausage meat 
and mix with an equal quantity of stale bread crumbs. Cut the meat into slices one half inch 
thick and spread with the sausage. Roll up and tie firmly. SaH, pepper and dredge thickly 
with flour. Put into an earthen dish with one small slice of onion, one-half teaspoonful of 
Worcestershire sauce and two teaspoonfuls of tomato catsup. Cover with boiling water and 
cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 10 cents. Weight, one and ono-fourth pounds. 

BEEF ROLL, NO. 2. 

Take ten ounces of lean beef from shoulder or shin. Take two ounces of sausage meat 
with an equal amount of stale bread crumbs. Cut meat into slices one-half inch thick. Mix 
(rumbs and sausage meat and spread on the beef. Roll up and tie firmly. Try out two 
ounces of fat salt pork and brown the meat in it. Take from the fat and T'lacein earthen dish. 
Add to the fat one tablespoonful of flour, and brown ; then add one-half pint of boiling water. 
Boil five minutes. Season with one-half teaspoonful of salt, one-half teaspoonful of Worcester- 
shire sauce and two teaspoonfuls of tomato catsup. Pour over the meat and cook five hours 
in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 10 cents. Weight, one pound and six ounces. 

BEEF A LA MODE. 

7. Take one pound of the shoulder of beef and two slices of bacon. Salt, pepper and flour 
the meat. Put in earthen dish and add three whole cloves, one-half dozen whole allspice, 
one slice of onion, one teaspoonful of powdered thyme, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar and 
one-half pint of hot water. If liked turnips and carrots may be added. Cook five hours in 
Aladdin Pail. 

BEEF SKIRT STEAK. 

8. Take one pound of beef skirt. Pepper, salt and dredge with flour. Put in earthen 
dish, and add just enough water to partly cover. Mix one teaspoonful of butter with one 
teaspoonful of flour and add to water. Cook two hours in Aladdin Pail. 

STEWED SAUSAGE WITH POTATO. 

9. Put into earthen dish one-half pound of sausage cut in pieces, with one pound of pota- 
toes cut in thick pieces, peppered and salted, one slice of onion, one teaspoonful of flour 
mixed with a little water. Cover with one-half pint of hot water and cook two hours in 
Aladdin Pail. 



132 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

STEAK PUDDING. 

10. One capful of flour, one-fourth pound of suet chopped fine, one-fourth feaspoon'ul of 
salt, and cold water to make stiff as for pie crust. Roll out one-half inch ttrek. Have one 
pound of beef or mutton from shin or neck, well seasoned with pepper and salt. Put in 
earthen d:sh with one cupful of water. Cover with paste and cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. 

A SHEEP OR CALF'S HEART. 

11. Stuff with sausage and bread crumbs. Season with salt and pepper and dredge with 
flour. Put it into earthen dish and add one tablespoonful of tomato catsup and one small 
slice of onion. Cover with boiling water and cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 16 cents. 
Weight, one and one-half pounds. 

FRESH HADDOCK IN TOMATO. 

12. Take one pound of Haddock, salt, pepper and flour it well. Put it into earthen dish, 
and add one small slice of onion. Cover with strained tomato and co< k two hours in 
Aladdin Pail. 

SALT CODFISH IN MILK. 

13. Tc'ke one-half pound of salt fish, after soaking over night in water, put it into earthen 
dish and cover with milk. Add two tablespoonfuls of wheat germ meal and cook five hours 
iu Aladdin Pail. Cost. 6 cents. Weight, three-fourths pound. 

MUTTON AND TOMATO. 

14. Cut up one pound of neck of mutton into small pieces. Salt and pepper and dredge 
thickly with flour. Put this into earthen dish and cover with strained tomato. Add one 
tablespoonful of butter, one teaspoonf ul of Worcestershire sauce and a small piece of onion, 
and cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 17 cents. Weight, two pounds. 

MUTTON STEW. 

15. Cut up one pound of flank of mutton into small pieces. Season with pepper and salt 
and put into earthen dish. Add one small onion cut into slices, three or four slices of carrot 
and the same of turnip. Mix one tablespoonful of butter with two tablespoonfuls of fl ur. 
Mix with warm water and pour over meat. Cover with boiling water, add salt to taste, and 
cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 14 cents. Weight, two pounds. 

STEWED BEANS WITH CORNED SHOULDER OF PORK. 

16. Soak, over night, two-thirds of a cupful of small white beans. Put one half pound of 
corned shoulder into earthen dish, add the soaked beans, one small slice of onion and 
a pinch of pepper. Cover with water and cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. 

PEASE PUDDING. 

17. Soak one-half pint of split pease over night. Put into earthen dish. Cover with hot 
w T ater. Add one teaspoonf ul of butter, one-half teaspoonful of salt, and cook five hours in 
Aladdin Pall. 



K 




Horatio went to school one day; 
The pig came after to lead the way. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 133 

INDIAN PUDDING. 

18. Scald one pint of skimmed milk and stir into it, while hot, one-half cupful of Indian 
meal. Add one-half cupful of molasses, one-half teaspoonful of salt and one-half teaspoonful 
of ginger or cinnamon. Put in earthen dish and add one-half cupful of cold milk, but do 
Dot stir. Cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. Butter the dish before turning in the pudding. 

PLUM PUDDING WITHOUT EGGS. 

19. B Litter earthen dish. Take one- fourth cupful of bread crumbs, one-half cupful of 
flour, one-fourth cupful of suet (chopped fine), one- fourth cupful of raisins, one-fourth cupful 
of molasses, one-fourth cupful of sweet milk, one-half teaspoonful of soda, one-fourth tea- 
spoonful of salt, one-fourth teaspoonful of cloves and one-fourth teaspoonful of cinnamon. 
Cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. 

BROWN FRICASSEE OF BEEF. 

20. Cut one pound shin of beef into small pieces. Dredge with flour, season with salt and 
pepper, and brown in two ounces of fat salt pork. Remove and add to the fat two table- 
spoonfuls of flour, and brown. Add one pint of boiling water, one tablespoonful of Worces- 
tershire sauce, one tablespoonful of tomato catsup and one small slice of onion. Pour over 
the meat which has been placed in an earthen dish, and cook five hours in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 
11 cents. Weight, two pounds two ounces, when ready to cook. 

HADDOCK IN TOMATO SAUCE. 

21. Melt one tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan. Brown in it one tablespoonful of 
flour. Add, gradually, one-half pint of cooked strained tomato. Cook five minutes. Add 
one teaspoonful of salt, one-half saltspoonful of pepper and one small slice of onion. Add 
one pound of haddock and cook two hours in Aladdin Pail. Cost, 15 cents. Weight, one and 
one-balf pounds. 

THANKSGIVING PLUM PUDDING. 

22. Boil one pound of raisins in two quarts of milk. Take out the raisins and add to the 
boiled milk ten eggs well beaten, considerable sugar, and a little salt. Season with spices 
cr vanilla. Cut a stale brick-loaf of baker's bread into thin slices, butter and soak them 
in the custard. Butter a deep pudding pan and put in alternate layers of the soaked bread 
and the raisins till the pan is full. Let this stand over night and in the morning fill up with 
milk. Bake two and one-half hours in a slow oven. Eat with cold sauce. 

OATMEAL PUDDING. 

23. One and one-half cupfuls of cold-boiled oatmeal. Add one cupful of sliced apples, 
or one-half cupful of seedless raisins, and one-half teaspoonful of salt. Cook five hours 
in Aladdin Pail and eat with sugar and milk, or butter, for sauce. 

In cooking the grains I used a little less water than is needed when they are 
cooked at a higher degree of heat, as the evaporation is less in the pail oven. To 
all grains, except hominy, I allow three times their bulk of water. To hominy, fine 
or coarse, twice its bulk of water. 



134 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

BREAD. 

One pint of milk and one pint of water (lukewarm), with two tablespoonfuls of butter or 
dripping melted in it. One yeast cake dissolved in part of this wetting, and flour to make a 
soft dough, with one tablespoonful of salt sifted into it before adding it to the wetting. 

It will take about two and one-half quarts of the best flour. Knead the dough half an 
hour by hand, or fifteen minutes with Stanyan Kneader, and raise three hours in Case Bread 
Kaiser. Make into loaves, let rise again about one-half hour, and bake in Aladdin Oven one 
and one-half hours. The time given is for loaves baked in pans four inches wide, four inches 
deep and ten inches long. 

TO MAKE STOCK. 

Six pounds of lean beef from the leg, or a knuckle of veal and beef to make six pounds. 
Cut this in pieces two inches square or less ; do the same with half a pound of lean ham, free 
from rind or smoky outside, and which has been scalded five minutes. 

Put the meat into a two-gallon pot with three medium-sized onions, with two cloves in 
each, a turnip, a carrot and a small head of celery. Pour over them five quarts of cold 
water, let it come slowly to the boiling point, when skim, and draw to a spot where it will 
gently simmer for six hours. This stock as it is will be an excellent foundation for all kinds 
of clear soups or gravies, with the addition of salt, which must on no account be added 
for glaze. — (From Catherine Owen's Choice Cookery.) 

GLAZE. 

To reduce this stock to glaze do as follows : Strain the stock first through a colander, 
and return meat and vegetables to the pot ; put to them four quarts of hot water and let it 
boil four hours longer. 

The importance of this second boiling, which may at first sight appear useless economy, 
will be seen if you let the two stocks get cold ; the first will be of delightful flavor, but prob- 
ably quite liquid ; the last will be flavorless, but if the boiling process has been slow enough 
it will be a jelly, the second boiling having been necessary to extract the gelatine from the 
bones, which is indispensable for the formation of glaze. 

Strain both these stocks through a scalded cloth. (Tf they have been allowed to get cool, 
heat them in order to strain.) Put both stocks together into one large pot, and let it boil as 
fast as possible, with the cover off, leaving a large spoon in it to prevent it boiling over, also 
to stir occasionally ; when it is reduced to three pints put it into a small saucepan, and let it 
boil more slowly. Stir frequently with a wooden spoon until it begins to thicken and has a 
fine yellowish brown color, which will be when it is reduced to a quart or rather less. At 
this point watch closely, as it quickly burns. When there is only a pint and a half it will be 
fit to pour into small cups or jars. It must not be covered until all moisture has evaporated 
and the glaze shrinks from the sides of the jar. This may take a month. 

Of course any strong meat and bone soup can be boiled down in the same way, and where 
there is meat on hand in danger of spoiling, from sudden change of weather, it can be turned 
into glaze, and kept indefinitely. I have found glaze five years old as good as the first week, 
— (From Catherine Owen's Choice Cookery.) 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 135 

BEEF A LA MODE 

Take three pounds of fresh beef, trim off the fat ; cut half a pound of bacon into long, 
slender strips, and lard the beef with it. Mix a few cloves, mace, allspice, peppers, cayenne, 
a tablespoonf ul of powdered thyme and two cloves of garlic, with half a pint of malt vinegar. 
Pat the meat into an earthen crock, with a thin slice of bacon under it, add the seasoning 
and a pint of soup st°ck, cover the cr ck, and simmer six hours. When preferred, vegeta- 
bles may be added, but it is more satisfactory to cook them separately.— (From Thomas J. 
Murray's Book of Entrees.) 

CONSOMME OF FRESH VEGETABLE ROOTS. 

Cut in slices two and one-fourth pounds oi carrots and the same weight of onions ; put 
them in a stewpan with some parsley, thyme, shalot and celery, and also one pound two 
ounces of butter. Try gently to a red color, add eight and three-fourths pints of water, let 
it boil and skim it ; next put into it a pint and three-quarters of pease and a couple of let- 
tuces ; then add one and one-fourth ounces of salt, one-third ounce of whole pepper, one 
pinch of nutmeg, three cloves, one and three-fourths pints of dried pease, one and three-fourths 
pints of white haricots. Let it simmer for three hours in the Aladdin Oven, skim off the 
grease and strain through a cloth ; then put aside for use. — (Extract from Sir Henry Thomp- 
son's Food and Feeding.) 



Note.— box or pail cooking, or cooking in jars. 

In the course of my experiments in perfecting the workman's pail it has become neces- 
sary to adjust the materials and methods to a process of treatment that may be completed in 
less than five hours, but which may also cover five hours or more without injury to the food. 
It is assumed that a workman may charge his pail when he leaves home, reach his work at 
7 a. m., when he lights the lamp, at 12 m. he is to find his dinner ready; or a woman leaves 
her room at 8 a. m., returning at 1 p. m. to find her dinner ready. 

Nearly all the foregoing recipes have been dealt with in this way in my office dining- 
room, with most acceptable and appetizing results. Many of the members of the Office Lunch 
Club give a great preference to the box or pail cooking in closed vessels, as compared to the 
same food cooked in open vessels in the oven. E. A. 



130 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 



REPORT BY MRS. MARY HITMAN ABEL, 

Author of the Treatise on Cooking, for which the Lomb prize of $500 was awarded 
by the American Public Health Association in 1888. Published by the association. 

THE ALADDIN OYEN FOR FAMILY COOKING. 

The writer has for six months made use of an Aladdin Oven as an adjunct to a gas 
stove in her kitchen ; has done with it all the baking and at least three-quarters of the other 
cooking for the family, the gas stove being used chiefly for roasting, broiling and frying, and 
where speedy boiling of water was necessary, as for tea and coffee. 

As the result of this experience, the following directions and suggestions are offered for 
the use of those who wish to make trial of the oven. 

If we are interested in the advance of this neglected art of cookery, we shall welcome 
an invention constructed on scientific principles and calling attention to methods of applying 
heat or the conversion of food materials into food for the stomach. We cannot agree with 
the inventor of the oven that any method of applying heat will ever make cookery "auto- 
matic," but we must own that this part of the process has received far too little attention, 
the art of cookery having been held to be too nearly synonymous with the art of mixing. 

The real acceptability of the oven in the average kitchen is only to be settled by trial 
It seems to have some drawbacks, as the smallness of the space on which actual boiling and 
roasting can be done (that is the oven bcttom). as this requires some planning for the suc- 
cessful cooking of an entire dinner without help from another stove. But all that is neces- 
sary is for the person that buys an oven to take it as the inventor now offers it, as an auxiliary 
to the range, and then let it make its own way on its merits.* According to the view of 
those interested in improvements in cooking, this invention ranks high, as it is a distinct 
advance in the requirament that heat should be fully controllable in amount, and that we 
should be able to direct it where it is wanted, and prevent it from going where it is not 
wanted. This latter requirement we may say is met by the non-conducting covering of the 
stove, and to a degree the controllability of the heat is attained; we could say fully so if the 
cooking temperature for an oven full of food or for any given dish could be more quickly 
reached. This the inventor promises us by the use of a more powerful lamp. 

Slow Cooking. — It is for this that the oven is of the greatest value, and we have by its 
use an opportunity to prove or disprove what has so long been asserted, that a long application 
of heat at a temperature lower than has been in general use is neccessary to develop the full 
digestibility and best flavor of many kinds of food, as the coarsely ground grains, the 
tougher cuts of meat, fruits, dried pease and beans, and also of many dishes like Indian pud- 
ding, famous in the days of the old brick oven, but almost unknown in their best estate to 
this generation. This slow cooking has little chance of trial in the ordinary stove, although 

* The inventor is now making experiments on larger sizes and more powerful lamps, but he is at present of 
opinion that two of the present standard ovens will be more convenient and useful than one large one. E. A. 



THK SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 13? 

the oven of a gas or gasolene stove has been used successfully by the writer in this way, a low 
degree of heat being possible and steadily applied from the sides as well as the bottom. 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE OVEN. 

Every housekeeper knows that a gas or kerosene stove has enough points of difference 
from the ordinary coal range so that she must give it a little study before she can be uniformly 
successful in cooking with it. In the same way, the Aladdin Oven has some points peculiar 
to iself which should be carefully noted to begin with. Notice its construction: 

It is a simple iron box, closed in front by a door, and having an opening in the top that 
communicates with a tube to let off any superfluous steam. This box is surrounded by 
another whose top and sides are made of non-conducting material for the purpose of holding 
the heat. A standard, on which this box is set, and a lamp underneath completes the 
apparatus. 

Now it is quite evident that this oven is to cook by heat that is slowly accumulated and 
then held to its work by the non-conducting character of the oven walls, and it will be of 
first importance, therefore, to k*eep it closed as far as possible. 

Second, we shall expect the cooking to be done more slowly than in the ordinary stove, 
at least in the beginning of the process and that more time must be allowed for any given dish. 

Third, we shall doubtless find the bottom of the oven hotter than the top, and the different 
dishes of which the meal is composed must be arranged in the oven accordingly. These 
limitations must be kept in mind that we may know just what we can reasonably expect of a 
cooking apparatus constructed as is the Aladdin Oven. 

The Lamp. — It should be also noted that the condition of the lamp is of great import- 
ance. It must burn evenly and to its full height, unless purposely turned down for slow 
cooking. When the lamp is new it seems to take care of itself, and these conditions are met 
without trouble, but with use the air passages, of course, become clogged and the wick may 
not push up and down easily. If then taken apart and the working parts boiled in soda 
it will again be satisfactory. 

Although the lamp will burn for eight hours after filling, the flame will decrease in 
height after the first few hours, and this, if not noticed, will lead to disappointment. We 
have simply to refill the lamp. 

Again, do not continue to use a chimney that has been broken at the top, though the 
break may not seem to interfere with the draft. The heat of the oven will be best econ- 
omized if it is so placed that it is not exposed to strong drafts, which must also be avoided as 
making the lamp smote. 

temperature of oven. 

The empty oven after being heated for two hours has been found on the average at 360° 
F. This in the spring, in a kitchen not otherwise heated and the oven placed in a somewhat 
draft y position between two doors. Under more favorable circumstances the heat was found 
to be 10° to 20° greater. This point is of importance, since it shows the maximum heat of 
the oven and the degree that can be communicated in time to the contents. 

To learn at what rate the heat of the oven was lost to the surrounding air the lamp was 



THE SCIKXCE OF XUTRITIOX. 

■ x»inguished after the oven was fully heated, and after an hour the reading on the ther- 
mome'p'r aiaiu taken. It was 150°. How much heat was still held in the walls of the oven 
was sh wn bv agun lighting the lamp and testing at intervals. After fifteen minuses the 
oven was found to have again reached its average of 360°. 

Otber records with the thermometer show how the temperature is affected by what is 
pit! in the oven to be cooked. Into the oven as heated above were put four cookers, contain- 
n g mx q tarts f wa^er aud vegetables, at a temperature of 70°. This brought the ther- 
mometer d <wn to 150°. Tn one and one-half hours after it registered 270°, and in another 
ha'f-hour ir bad risen to 325°. 

A two-pound roast of beef was then put in, causing another fall in the reading, and it 
was i ot till one and one-half hours later that 310° was reached. The cookers in this case 
were covered, allowing very little escape of steam. These and similar observations lead us 
to a few g-neral rules »s to the use of the oven : 

1. Since it does not reach its full heat for an hour or somewhat more, that time must 
he allowed before it is attempted to bake or roast or to cook in any way requiring a high heat 
at the beginning. Dishes that do not require this high degree of heat maybe put in at 
convenience. 

2. The time necrssary for cooking any given dish will depend on the size of the dish, 
where it is placed in the ov^n (whether top or bottom), and on how much other cooking the 
oven is expected to do at the same time. The greater the quantity of food to be raised to a 
certain temperature, the longer it will take. 

3. The boiling or the baking temperature once reached, it is evenly held (unless the 
oven is temporarily cooled by other additions), and the time for cooking a dish may be 
accurately reckoned from that point, according to rules familiar to us in using other stoves. 

Food to be c )oked in the Aladdin Oven may, of course, be prepared according to any 
recipe preferred, only slight changes being necessary to adapt to the oven. The main thing 
to be remembered is that evaporation is but slight, and little allowance is to be made for 
'' boiling away." 

In general it may be concluded from what has been said of the character of the oven 
that the only dishes that require special attention are those that require a high degree of 
heat at the beginning, as roast beef, or those that should have a continuous application of 
heat at the boiling point, as grains and vegetables containing a large proportion of starch. 
Bice, for instance, may be thoroughly softened at a temperature considerably below the boil- 
ing point, but the raw taste reveals the fact that the starch grains have not been fully rup- 
tured. But the oven cooks easily, on both top and bottom shelves, all kinds of meats on any 
but the roasting principle, eggs in their many combinations, fruits, and most grains and 
vegetables. 

BREAD BAKING. 

It will be found most convenient to so time the making of the bread that it will be ready 
to go into the oven when the dinner comes out. Otherwise, heat the oven for an hour before- 
hand. Use the oblong or brick loaf pans, the loaves baked in which will weigh about one 
and one- quarter pounds ; the oven will accommodate six of these at once. Do not allow the 




Solomon Skurry 
/ Lived in a hurry ; 
All that he did was done in a flurry. 

Kicked his heels 

Eating his meals; 
Even his bed was set upon wheels. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 139 

bread to become quite as light as if to be baked in the ordinary oven, where its rising is so 
soon checked. Place half of the bread on the lower shelf and half on the middle, and 
exchange them midway in the time of baking. See that the lamp is burning perfectly, as its 
full heat is required. 

Time. — Bake rolls, rusks, etc., on the lower shelf, with one grate below, and allow three- 
quarters of an hour, or, if very thin, one-half hour. Bake four loaves of size above 
described, one and one-half hours. For six loaves allow one-quarter to one-half hour more, 
decreasing the heat a little at the last. 

Stirred bread, which can lose more water without becoming dried, may be baked three 
hours or longer, and this time is necessary for bread in which other grains are used, as corn 
and rye. 

Unless this baking time is much exceeded, hardness or dryness in the bread is not to be 
charged to the baking, but rather to an undue proportion of flour in the mixing. The writer 
has carefully compared bread baked in the Aladdin Oven and bread baked in a gas oven, 
weighing the loaves before and after baking. The result showed almost exactly the same loss 
in weight, whether the loaves were baked in the Aladdin Oven one and one-half hours at a 
temperature that started at 360° F., or in the gas oven three-quarters of an hour at 400° F. 

This six months' use of the oven for bread baking may be considered a fair test. It is 
greatly liked in the writer's family, and the ordinary quickly baked bread is no longer 
satisfactory. 

SODA BISCUITS, GEMS, ETC. 

Doughs of this character bake on the bottom with one shelf under in one-half to three- 
quarters of an hour. Short cakes are baked in the same length of time and afterward split 
ana filled. The thinner or drop mixtures made of wheat, rye, or corn, are baked in three- 
quarters to one hour in gem pans, which it is better to heat in the oven while the dough is 
being made. All breads mixed with water have been found to require a somewhat longer 
application of heat than those mixed with milk. 

GRAINS. 

In cooking mushes made from the coarsely ground grains, the oven will be found very 
valuable. The long, slow cooking needed for oatmeal, cracked wheat and corn in all its 
grades, from flour to hulled corn, is here easily performed without watching, or such an outlay 
for fuel as amounts to more than the food material is worth. 

Mix any of these grains with the same proportion of water, cold or hot, that would be 
used in the double boiler. Put into a covered cooker and keep on the oven bottom until the 
boiling point is reached, whea it may be removed to the upper shelf to finish cooking. For 
the " granulated " varieties an hour will be enough, for other kinds two hours or longer. 

Various trials have failed to show any difference in the taste of these mushes, whether 
they are put into hot or cold water. The only requisite seems to be that they be cooked long 
enough, and at some time in the process be brought to the boiling point. 

Kice. — A number of experiments in the cooking of rice in the Aladdin Oven has led to 
the conclusion that rice in order to be perfectly cooked must be put into boiling water, three 



140 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION 

parts of water to one of rice, and placed in the already heated oven to remain half an hour, 
or, if the quantity is large, somewhat longer. 

SOUP STOCK. 

The cook-books unite in prescribing a " gentle simmer" as the proper thing in making 
soup stock, but the question how to maintain it for a number of hours on an open range 
has puzzled many a housekeeper. The water in the pot will too often be found either at a 
mad boil or entirely still, and the much peeping into the pot to see how matters are progress- 
ing dissipates the fine aroma that should be kept in the soup. Even an adjustable flame 
beneath the pot does not solve the difficulty, as the air is constantly cooling the sides and 
the top. Only in a steam bath or by the oven heat before referred to can the ideal result be 
obtained, and only small quantities can be conveniently so made. But the Aladdin Oven 
seems to meet all the requirements for soup making, and may be considered a great success in 
this line. It has been used in the New England Kitchen for a year and a half in making 
daily many gallons of beef Jsroth of the best quality, and it is no less successful in making 
stock for the family soup. 

The meat and bones are put into cold water as usual, and the flavors may be added at 
the same time, as they will not be dissipated with this method of cooking. It is irore con- 
venient to make soup when no other cooking is going on, as over night. If the quantity is 
large, the flame of the lamp should be kept at full height ; if small, turn the flame partly 
down, or use a smaller lamp. Time, six, eight or ten hours. When the stock has cooled 
and the fat been removed, it is an easy matter to season and re-heat the needed quantity each 
day in the oven. 

VEGETABLE AND FISH SOUPS. 

Requiring less time, and having no fat to be removed, these do not need to be cooked 
the day beforehand, unless in the case of pease, and beans, that require five hours' cooking, 
and are improved by still more. The various chowders are all well cooked in the oven. They 
may be mixed according to any recipe, very little allowance being needed for boiling away. 

FISH. 

Sir Henry Thompson, in his lectures before the British Fish Commission some years ago, 
recommended baking as the best method for cooking all varieties of fish, and, since the heat 
in this case should be moderate, the Aladdin Oven has been found well adapted to this kind 
of cookery. 

The fish may be stuffed or not, but in any ease should be well seasoned. Thin slices of 
pork should be laid over the fish to baste it, or it may be baked in a sauce. It has been 
found best to bake fish on the platter from which it is to be served, to retain all the juices, 
and it is better to bake on the middle shelf than on the oven bottom. In an already heated 
oven one hour will be sufficient unless the fish are very large. 

SCOLLOPED, CREAMED AND CURRIED FISH. 

These various dishes, made of fish already cooked, are to be mixed in the dishes from 
which they are to be served, and placed in the oven until thoroughly hot. 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 141 

MEATS. 

Roasting. — So far the writer has not succeeded in producing a roast of beef that is satis- 
factory to those who demand the rare and juicy interior ; for this a very high degree of heat 
at the beginning of the process seems to be necessary. But a tolerable roast may be obtained 
by placing the piece of meat in a pan already heaten and containing a little fat, and putting 
this directly on the oven bottom .* The upper surface must be spread with butter or fat to 
keep it from drying, and the meat must be turned over midway in the time. One hour and 
a half has been found sufficient for a small roast of two to three pounds ; two hours or more 
must be allowed for a large one. It is best to devote the entire heat of the oven to it and to 
first heat the pan before putting in the meat, using only enough fat to prevent the meat 
from sticking. 

In roasting veal or pork, where the rare interior is not desired, the result is very satis- 
factory. Chickens and small birds are apt to become dried by the longer application of heat 
and less opportunity to baste. To avoid this they may be larded, and if the flavor of pork 
is disliked, it is the better way to steam them closely covered in a very little water, or to cook 
them in a well-flavored sauce, t 

BRAISING, STEWING, POT ROAST, 

are all well adapted to the oven, as also the cooking of corned and smoked meats, requiring, 
as they all do, a long application of heat somewhat under the boiling point. Reckoning 
from the time this is reached, it is only necessary to allow the number of hours required in 
the ordinary stove, but it is well to remember that none of these meats are easily over-cooked. 
In all cases the cooker should be tightly closed. 

RE- COOKED MEATS. 

There are a great number of dishes whose basis is meat already cooked, to which other 
ingredients and flavors are added in a sauce. The success of the dish depends on the slow 
heating that shall mingle the flavors without really raising the meat to the boiling point 
(which is also the toughening point for many kinds that have been once cooked), and for 
such work the heat of the ordinary stove is often too great. These dishes can be cooked on 
the bottom of the oven, with the tight shelf underneath, in three-quarters of an hour, or 
better above, allowing twice as much time. 

EGGS. 

It is now very generally understood that eggs should be cooked considerably below the 
boiling point to keep the white from becoming horny and indigestible. This temperature is 
170° to 180° F. As a little more or less time in the process is of no consequence if this tem- 
perature is not passed, a little practice will make the Aladdin Oven of great use in this 
branch of cookery. 

Boiled Eggs.— Put the eggs in cold water and place in the oven until the water reaches 
180° F. Or, if inconvenient to test this, let the water first come to the boiling point, a half 

* Some slight changes made in the oven since these tests were applied have enabled simple rules to be made 
which have been given by the writer elsewhere, which may give a preference to this oven for roasting over any 
other appliance. Such has been the experience of very many persons in practice. 

|- S?e instructions given elsewhere for box cooking. E. A. 



142 THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 

pint for each egg, put in the eggs and remove the cooker from the oven, letting it stand for 
fire minutes. Or the proportion of water may be less and the cooker be left in the oven five 
or ten minutes, anyway to communicate the desired degree of heat to the interior of the eggs. 

Baked Eggs.— Break each egg into a butter, d cup a'cd set the cups into a pan of water, 
which place in the oven till the whites become slightly opaque. These can be served on thin 
slices of ham that have meanwhile been frying in a pan on the oven bottom. Or the eggs 
mry be baked on a stoneware plattsr previously covered with a layer of heated hash, rice, 
macaroni, asparagus, or whatever else may be desired. Make dents in this mound with the 
bowl of a spoon for the reception of each egg. 

Omelet. — Prepare as usual and cook for about five minutes in a pan on the bottom of 
the oven. Fold and serve. 

CHEESE DISHES. 

The various mixtures of milk, eggs, bread, etc., with grated cheese, as fondue, fondamin, 
and ramokins, are easily baked in the Aladdin Oven. The time must be suited to the size of 
each dish. 

VEGETABLES. 

Young and tender vegetables, spinach, asparagus, pease and beans, corn, tomatoes, 
summer squash, and half -grown beets should be steamed in a very little water rather than 
boiled. If the water in the cooker is first heated to the boiling point they will require, on 
the oven bottom, but little more time than ordinarily allowed. Or they can be put at once 
into the water to avoid again opening the oven. When they have once reached the boiling 
point they will finish cooking on the upper shelf in a somewhat longer time. 

Winter squash should be baked in its rind until tender, when the inside can be scraped 
out and seasoned. 

Beets, if full grown, will require two to four hours. 

Potatoes and macaroni, in which the starch constituent is large, should be kept for some 
time at the full boiling heat ; but it seems to make no difference with the result whether they 
are put into cold or hot water, or how long they are in coming to the boiling point. It is 
important, towever, that they be taken out and drained when tender. They may then fee 
kept hot in the oven for a considerable time without injury. If put into boiling water and 
kept on the lower shelf," the time is one-half to three quarters of an hour, as on the ordinary 
stove. If then transferred to the upper shelf, more time must be given. 

It is important to know how to treat a vegetable so much used as is the potato ; by this 
method the result has always been good, and by no other way of cooking known to the 
writer will macaroni be so tender and increase so in size while remaining entirely unbroken. 
Potatoes may also be baked on the oven bottom in one to two and one-half hours, but the 
writer has not found this method always satisfactory in producing mealy potatoes. If placed 
directly on the bottom, they must be turned in order that they may bake evenly. 

CAKE. 

Cake has been successfully baked only on the lower part of the oven, with two shelves 
interposed between it and the bottom. Patty pans and layer cakes bake in one-half to three- 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 143 

quarters of an hour, cookies in less time, loaves require one and one-halt to two houi s. If small 
forms are used for baking the ordinary cake mixtures, and with the full heat of the oven, 
the result is satisfactory, but loaves are so long in rising that the cake has been found to bd 
coarse-grained as compared with the same mixture baked in a gas oven a shorter time. For 
fruit cake and others requiring long, slow baking, the oven has been found to be well adapted. 

PUDDINGS. 

With puddings of all kinds the work of the oven has been very satisfactory; many kinds 
have been tried and without anything like failure. Especially good have been those puddings 
having a custard foundation, because the delicate curdling point is not so easily passed as in 
the ordinary oven; excellent also are all fruit and suet puddings and Indian puddings ; for 
these four to six hours must be allowed on the middle or top shelf. A custard pudding of 
medium size bakes in an hour. 

PIES. 

With pie crust, especially puff paste, the results have not been as good, as it seems to 
require high heat to make it light and reasonably wholesome. Not many experiments, how- 
ever, were mode in this line, a baking powder crust baked as a short cake or rolled as in roly 
poly pudding being found so much more satisfactory to use with fruit or even with the ordi- 
nary lemon pie filling. 

FRUIT. 

Any fruit, fresh or dried, may be cooked slowly in the oven, the longer the better, it 
would almost seem, from the surprisingly fine flavor gained by some kinds, as apples and 
pears when cooked till they turn red. In all cases cook the sugar with the fruit. This effect 
has suggested that perhaps fruit is ordinarily not cooked enough. A longer application of 
heat may have a ripening effect, so to speak, that improves digestibility as well as flavor. It 
is also an advantage that fruit can be thus thoroughly cooked and yet keep its form perfectly. 
Cranberries, two parts of water and one part sugar to four parts of fruit, cooked for two 
hours in a covered vessel, are very attractive in appearanee and perfect in flavor. 

Entire dinners cooked in the oven have required some planning, and a few specimen 
dinners will show how they may be managed. Oblong cooking vessels will best economize 
the oven space, but two of the ordinary round cookers, holding enough for a family of six 
or eight, can be placed on the bottom of the oven and two on the middle shelf for slower 
cooking, while the spaces between may be used for quart or pint cups, in which fruit, etc., 
can be cooked, or for patty pans filled with cake, tarts or puddings. The estimated time for 
cooking is for covered vessels. 

Dinner No. 1. 
Tomato Soup. Beef Stew, with Potatoes and Dumplings. 
Macaroni. Gingerbread. Stewed Fruit. 

The lamp was lighted at nine o'clock for a dinner to be served at one, and at the same 
time on the middle shelf were placed materials for a tomato soup and the fruit to be stewed, 



14-1 THE SCIENCE OE NUTRITION. 

while on the lower shelf was put a cooker, half filled with water, for the macaron and 
another containing the beef stew. This dish was prepared as usual, little water being 
all >wtd for boiling away, and each piece of meat was floured to give the right consistency to 
tbe gravy. The potatoes, being old, were first scalded to remove the strong taste, and they 
were then laid upon the meat. This stew was put in an iron pot with a cl s< -fitting cover. 
The oven was then closed until twelve o'clock. When the macaroni was put into the cooker 
oil the lower shelf, in which the water was found to be boiling, and the spaces between the 
cookers were fil'ed with patty pans of ginger cake. A little before one o'clock the oven was 
opened to remove the soup, to drain and season the macaroni, which was then returned to 
the upper shelf to keep warm, and also to drop, in spoonfuls, on the stew the dumplings (a 
simple baking powder mixture); this was allowed to steam close covered for twelve nrnutes. 
Tnis dinner required, besides the putting together of materials, which is the same in any 
case, only slight attention once between lighting the lamp and beginning to serve the dinner. 
Tai« dinner was varied by using different meats for the stew, and by substituting for the 
macaroni any tender vegetables that were in season. Soup stock made the day before was 
heated on the upper shelf. 

Dinner No. 2. 

Pea Soup. Boiled Tongue. 

Boiled Beets. Winter Squash. 

Baked Apples. Suet Pudding. 

As all these dishes required long cooking, they were prepared as far as possible the night 
before and put all together into the oven at seven or half-pa-t, when the lamp was lighted. 
The tongue and the pease (already soaked over night) were placed on the bottom with no 
shelf intervening, the other dishes above. The beets are supposed to be reasonably tender 
to begin with, not the withered variety of the late winter, which no amount of cooking will 
make really edible. . 

This dinner was found very convenient when the entire forenoon was wanted for other 
work than cooking. It was varied by other dishes requiring the same long cooking, a half 
hour more or less making no difference in the result. Such dishes were: Boiled ham, hulled 
corn, hominy and other coarse cereals, pork and beans, bean soup, etc. 

It may here be added that this preparation of the dinner as far as possible the night 
before, though the housekeeper may consider it a great innovation, often changes a hurried 
morning into a leisurely one and rescues the dinner from failure. 

Dinner No. 3. 

In dinners one and two the food was cooked at the temperature of boiling water or that 
slight degree above it due to the presence of various soluble constituents of food ; some of 
the food was even cooked below the boiling point. But if too much cooking is not attempted 
at once, the temperature of the oven may be brought to considerably over 300°, and even 300° 



THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION. 145 

has been found to give to roast beef much of its characteristic flavor. The lamp was lighted 
at nine o'clock for a one o'clock dinner to consist of 

Tapioca Soup. Roast Beef (21b. to 81b.), with Yorkshire Pudding. 

Baked Potatoes. Stewed Parsnips. 

Cranberries. Bread Pudding. 

The oven was allowed to heat for an hour and then the pudding and cranberries were 
put in on the oven bottom. At eleven o'clock the potatoes were put in also on the oven 
bottom, but with a tin under to keep from burning, and the cranberries and pudding were 
transferred to the upper shelf to finish. At the same time a pan containing some fat was 
put in to heat for the beef. The beef was put in at 11.30 below, as also the Yorkshire pud- 
ding above, in patty pans. The potatoes were turned, and the parsnips in a very little water 
were put on the lower shelf. The stock was set on the upper shelf to heat, and the tapioca 
put to cook in a cup. In three-quarters of an hour the meat was turned, the cranberries 
taken out, the parsnips put on the upper shelf in their place to finish cooking, thus making 
ro:m below for the Yorkshire puddings, which need some of the bottom heat to make them 
brown. At one o'clock all was found cooked and ready. 

OTHER USES FOR THE OVEN. 

As a Water Heater.- — In a family where the Aladdin Oven is used for cooking, the 
necessary heating of water for dish-washing, etc. , can be done by filling the oven with pots 
of water as soon as the dinner is removed. It is better, however, to have a copper-bottomed 
tin boiler made to fit the entire oven space. Such a one will hold about eight gallons, and 
will be made by a tinsmith for $1.50. It should have a ring on the front side and one at 
each end to assist when it is drawn in or out. Have made, also, a wooden bench of the 
exact height of the oven bottom, and this placed in front of the opened door will make the 
removal of the boiler full of hot water, safe and easy even for one person. If properly man- 
aged, this boiler will heat enough water to do the washing for a small family. It can be 
heated over night for use early in the morning, and will be found nearly at the boiling point, 
though the lamp may have gone out some time before. Another boilerful can be heated and 
removed in time to cook the dinner. 

This quantity of hot water will also bring the bath water for one person to the required 
temperature, and this method is certainly to be preferred in summer to heating the whole 
house with the kitchen range when the heat is not otherwise needed. 

It may be mentioned that it has been found to be an excellent plan in houses heated by 
a furnace to run a pipe from the water tank through the furnace, obtaining in this way an 
unlimited supply of hot water, day and night, during the winter. In summer a judicious 
use of the Aladdin Oven during the hours when it is not needed for cooking will go far 
toward supplying this want. 

As a Fruit Canner. — The boiler above described is to be put to a use that will make it 
welcomed by any housekeeper in summer. Put a layer of straw in the bottom to prevent 



146 THE SC1EXCE OF NUTRITION. 

"bumping " and pack it full of glass fruit jars previously filled with fruit and hot syrup. It 
will hold e i: ght of the quart size. Partly fill the boiler with water and let it remain in the 
oven till its contents have reached the boiling point, when the jars are removed and sealed in 
the usual manner.* 

In the case of corn, pease and other vegetables requiring long cooking or re-cooking at 
intervals, tfee advantage is obvious, as the long-continued heat necessary for killing fermenta- 
tive germs and their spores can here be well maintained. 

Housekeepers often have opportunity to buy toward night perishable fruit very cheap, 
and would oftener do so did it not necessitate sitting up half the night to can the fruit. 
It would seem that this method could easily be used ; it would only be necessary to refill the 
lamp in the morning and bring the fruit again to the full boiling point before sealing. 

The oven may be used in fruit canning without this boiler, the fruit and sugar being put 
into a porcelain kettle and kept there until thoroughly cooked. As there is no danger of 
burning, no water need be added. All fruit tried by the writer was perfectly cooked without 
beiDg broken, only in the case of black raspberries the juice seemed to be too much drawn 
out of the berries, leaving them somewhat dry. 

Following the suggestion found in an old cook-book for preserving cherries : "Put them 
with the sugar into close-covered crocks in an ' afternoon ' oven (that is a gradually cooling 
oven), and keep them there for several hours," a fine result was reached as to flavor and ten- 
derness, though the syrup required still further evaporation to reduce it to the jellying point. 

For Drying Fruit. — If the tube in the top be raised to allow the free escape of steam 
the oven can be turned into a fruit dryer, the shelves being filled with plates of sliced fruit. 

Various other uses as a warming oven will be suggested to any housekeeper. It is better 
than a bain marie for keeping food warm after it is cooked, and the top of the oven gives 
exactly the right temperature for raising bread, a tin pot lid being placed beneath to prevent 
direct contact. Mary Hinman Abel. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., September, 1891. 



* The writer has two tinned copper vessels which fill the oven, one above another. In each of these, eight glass 
jars, of the type known as butter-jar, may be placed— making sixteen at one charge. This method of saving 
tomatoes without subjecting them to a heat above 200° P. is especially recommended. E. A. 




Here is a man in spatterdashes. 
He wears a coat of a thousand patches. 
His face is horny — pray excuse it — 
And he has a comb, but doesn't use it. 




Down in the bottom of the sea 
A sculpin asked his friends to tea. 
The jelly-fishes 
Were served in dishes; 
A lamprey lighted the company. 
Just as the lobster rang the bell, 
Just as the oyster opened his shell, 
Down in the dark 
Came a great shark 
And swallowed all the company.