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N.L., D.Sc, LL.D., M.D., F.R.C.S. 


D. ORSON WOOD, M.Sc, A.R.C.Sc, and 

1920 — 1921 







INDEX TO VOL. XV (1920— 1921) 




Anthropology. A. G. Tnacker . . . . 43, 209, 387, 569 

Archagology in Egypt, British School of. W. M. Flinders Petrie . . 465 

Astronomy. H. Spencer Jones . . . . . 7, 177, 356, 531 

Awards for Medical Discovery. R. R. . . . . . 113,285 

Bose's Remarkable Work, Professor. . . . . . .114 

Botany. E. J. Salisbury ..... 31, 197, 380, 550 

British Association, Report on the Proceedings of Section A. A. O. 

Rankine .......... 461 

British Committee for aiding Men of Letters and Science in Russia . 645 
British Microscopes and Microtomes and other Notes .... 458 

British Science Guild, The ........ 278 

Chemistry, Organic. P. Haas. .... 22, 192, 377, 544 

Chemistry, Physical. W. E. Garner .... 188, 373, 541 

Chemistry, Physical. W. C. McC. Lewis ...... 19 

Coincidence or Confirmation ? A Discovery Relating to Drayson's 

Centre of Polar Motion. A. H. Barley ..... 266 

Colloid Theory, A Short Review of. H. D. Murray .... 234 

Cooking and Vitamines. E. M. Delf . . . . . .601 

Crystallography. A. Scott ....... 194, 

Cycles and Super-cycles of Nature, The. W. E. Reynolds . . . 250 

Cy tological Problems arising from the Study of Artificial Parthenogenesis 

The. D. W. Cutler 

De Moivre's Theorem. Sir R. Ross. ..... 

Dead Darwinism ......... 

Deputation to the Air Ministry ...... 

Dikinz drops iz Eitchiz. R. R. 
Do English People read ? O. A. C. . 
Ductless Glands upon Amphibian Metamorphosis, Recent Work on the 
Influence of the ........ 

Education. A. E. Heath ....... 

Education, The Triumph bf ...... . 

Eels ........... 

Electrons in Atoms and Molecules, Langmuir's Theory of the Arrange 
ment of. S. C. Bradford ....... 

Enzyme Action, A Review of Recent Work on. R. J. S. McDowall 
Evolution of Man and his Mind, The. T. Cherry 

Facial Beauty, The Significance of. C. F. Badcock . 

Geology. G. W. Tyrrell. ....... 

Geometry, A Psychological. F. R. Hoare .... 

Germany, Impressions of the New ...... 

Ghost Hypothesis, The. C. A. Richardson .... 

Gorgas, William Crawford. Sir R. Ross ..... 

Great Default, A. A. E. H. HUls 

Highways and Byways in the Theory of Numbers. L. J. Mordell 
Holiday System, Our .....••• 

Ice Age, The Date of the. R. A. Marriott .... 

Ice-Age Question, The. A. H. Barley 



















E. W. MacBride 
J. S. Huxley 

A. C. 

O. L. Brady 

Ice-Age Question, The. G. W. Tyrrell 

Inheritance of Acquired Characters, The. 

Inheritance of Acquired Characters, The. 

Innovation, An ..... 

Language, An International. M. C. Butler 

Language, An International. A. J. Smith 

Latin or Ido. H. W. Unthank 

Learned Societies — A Plea for Reform. O 

Leplay House, Formal Opening of . 

Liars, The Percentage of. 

Lord Rayleigh, the Completion of the Publication 

Papers of the late. A. W. Porter . 
Lossky's Epistemology, Causality and Memory in. J 
Mass-spectra and the Atomic Weights of the Elements. 
Mathematical Philosophy. B. Russell 
Mathematics, Applied. S. Brodetsky 
Mathematics, Pure. D. M. Wrinch . 
Mather, Sir William .... 

Medical and AlUed Societies, The Federation of 
Medical Congress Resolution in Brisbane . 
Medicine. R. M. Wilson . . . 

Mediumistic Phenomena, Evidences of 
Meteorology. E. V. Newnham 
Middle Ages, The . 
Mineralogy. A. Scott 
Modem Literary Criticism. R. R. 
Mount Everest 

National Physical Laboratory . 
National Research Council, American 
National Union of Scientific Workers 
Nobel Prizes, The ..... 
Notes and News ..... 
Nucleolus in the Life of the Animal Cell, The 

Gatenby. ..... 

Osier, Sir WilUam, Bart. .... 

Palaeobotany. M. C. Stopes . 

Palaeolithic Flint Instruments, the Geological Age of. 
Palaeolithic Flint Instruments, the Geological Age of. 
Palaeontology. W. P. Pycraft 

Philosophy. H. Elliot 

Phrenology, Cornish. F. H. and H. M. M. Perry coste 

Physics. L. F. Bates 

Physics. F. I. Peirce 

Physics. D. O. Wood . 

Plant Physiology. R. C. Knight 

Plant Physiology. W. Stiles . 

Plant Physiology. C. West . 

Poet and the Phoneticians, The. 

Pubhcations, Some Miscellaneous 

Pure Science Again ..... 

Research Defence Society, The Quarterly Report of 
Science and Poetry ..... 

Science Masters' Association, The. G. H. J. Adlam 
Science, The Encouragement of . 
Scientific Lover, The. C. Brereton . 


of the Collected 

C. Gregory 
F. W. Aston 

124, 289, 47 
Function of the. J. B 

J. R. Moir 
A. G. Thacker 

Sir R, Ross 






1. 345, 517 

389, 572 







2. 634 









387. 557 





Scorbutic Cooking. R. Ross ...... 

Sex Heredity. A. S. Parkes ...... 

Sister of Science, The. R. R. . 

Sociological Society •••.... 

Soil, The Physical Investigation of. B. A. Keen 
Soya-Bean Problem, The. D. M. Adkins .... 

Square Root of Minus One : A Protest, The. Amateur 
Stars, New. A. L. Cortie ...... 

Starvation Pay of Brain- workers. F. H. Perrycoste . 

Surface Tension, The Measurement of. W. N. Rae and J. Reilly 

Such is Fame ••...... 

Thyroid Gland. R. K. S. Lim ..... 

Unknown Warrior, The ....... 

University of Science and Technology, The Proposed . 
Verifiable Knowledge. G. Shann ..... 

Weather Telegraphy, Dinner to the International Commission for 
Word of Appreciation, A ...... 

Zoology. C. H. O'Donoghue ...... 

Adkins, D. M. 
Adlam, G. H. J. 
Aston, F. W. . 
Badcock, C. F. 
Barley, A. H. 
Bates, L. F. . 
Bradford, S. C. 
Brady, O. L. 
Brereton, C. . 
Brodetsky, S. 
Butler, M. C. . 
Cherry, T. 
Cortie, A. L. . 
Cutler, D. W. 

Delf, E. M. . 
Elliot, H. 
Garner, W. E. 
Gatenby, J. B. 
Gregory, J. C. 
Haas, P. 
Heath, A. E. 
Hills, E. H. . 
Hoare, F. R. 
Hogben, L. T. 
Huxley, J. S. 
Jones, H. 
Keen, B. A. . 
Knight, R. C. 
Lewis, W. C. McC 
Lim, R. K. S. 
MacBride, E. W. 
McDowall, R. J. S. 
Marriott, R. A. 



• 445 

. 456 



loi, 266 

• 537 


• 483 

• 455 
. 522 



• 613 

• 435 

• 173 
188, 373, 541 


24, 192, 377, 544 



. 131 

• 303 

7. 177. 356, 531 

• 574 


. 392 


. 270 


Moir J. R. . 
Mordell, L. J. 
Murray, H. D. 

Newnham, E. V. . 

O. A. C. 

O'Donoghue, C. H. 
Parkes, A. S. . 
Peirce, F. J. . 
Perrycoste, F. H. . 
Perrycoste, H. M. M. 
Petrie, W. M. Flinders 
Porter, A. W. 
Pycraft. W. P. 

Rae, W. N. . 
Rankine, A. O. 
Reilly, J. 
Reynolds, W. E. 
Richardson, C. A. 
R. R. . 113, 

Ross, Sir R. . 
Russell, B. 
Salisbury, E. J. 
Scott, A. 
Shann, G. 
Smith, A. J. . 
Stiles, W. 
Stopes, M. C. . 
Thacker, A. G. 43, 
Tyrrell, G. W. 
Unthank, H. W. 

West, C. 
Wilson, R. M. 
Wood, D. O. . 
Wrinch, D. M. 

119, 280, 

31. 197. 

209, 387, 








285, 470 

39, 561 

. 644 
. 647 
• 234 
14, 362 
285, 287 

39, 561 

• 590 

• 367 
60, 478 


• 465 

• 652 

. 223 

. 461 

. 223 

. 250 


285, 632 

452, 627 


380, 550 

194. 547 
. 306 

• 265 
383, 557 

• 553 

569, 645 
24, lOI 

. 112 

. 34 

389. 572 

. 184 

345. 517 




Andrews, S. G. T., " Aeroplane Design " . 

Arber, A., " Water Plants " 

Bainbridge, F. A., " The Physiology of Muscular Exercise " 
Bairstow, L., " Applied Aerodynamics " . 
Barnett, E. de B., " Textbook of Organic Chemistry " 
Barren, J., " The Evolution of the Earth and its Inhabitants " 
Bertrand, G., and P. Thomas, " Practical Biological Chemistry " 

Be vis, J. F., " British Plants " 

Bigourdan, G., " Petit Atlas Celeste " . . . . 

Black, N. H., and J. B. Conant, " Practical Chemistry " 
Bower, F. O., and Others, " Lectures on Sex and Heredity " 
Brenchley, W. and E., " Weeds on Farm Land " 
Brook, A., " The Buzzard at Home " . 

Brown, N. C, " Forest Products : their Manufacture and Use " 
Buchanan, A., " Wild Life in Canada " . 
Butler, G. M., "A Handbook of Mineralogy, Blowpipe Analysis, and 
Geometrical Crystallography " . 

Cajori, F., "A History of the Conceptions of Limits and Fluxions in 

Great Britain from Newton to Woodhouse " 
Carmina, B. M., " Aviation " . 
Chalmers, T. W., " The Gyroscopic Compass " . 
Chapman, F. M., " What Bird is that ? " . 

Church, A. H., " On the Interpretation of Phenomena of Phyllotaxis 
Classen, A., and H. Cloeren, " Quantitative Analysis by Electrolysis ' 
Clay ton, W. ," Margarine " ..... 
Clibbens, B. A., " The Principles of the Phase Theory " 
Cockayne, L., " New Zealand Plants and their Story " 
Cohen, O. B., " A Class-book of Organic Chemistry '*. 
Cole, S. W., " Practical Physiological Chemistry " 
Collins, S. H., " Chemical Fertilisers and Parasiticides " 
Comstock, G. C, " The Summer Line " . 
Comstock, J. H., " An Introduction to Entomology " 
Crowther, J. A., " Ions, Electrons, and Ionising Radiations 
Culpin, M., " Psycho-neuroses of War and Peace " 
Darwin, F., " Springtime and other Essays " 
Davies, A. M., " An Introduction to Palaeontology " . 
Delacre, M., " Histoire de la Chimie " . 

Densmore, H. D., " General Botany for Universities and Colleges " 
Dodgson, J. W., and J. A. Murray, " A Foundation Course in Chemistry ' 
Down, M. T., and J. D. Jameson, " Food : its Composition and Preparation" 
Duby, J. S., " The Natural Wealth of Britain "... 
Dymes. T. A., " The Nature Study of Plants " . 
East, E. M., and D. E. Jones, " Inbreeding and Outbreeding " . 
Eddington, A. S., " Space, Time, and Gravitation " . 
Edridge-Green, F. W., " Physiology of Vision ". 

Einstein, A., " Relativity " 

Ewing, J. Q., " Thermodynamics for Engineers " . 

Feldman, W. M., " Ante-natal and Post-natal Child Physiology " 

Ferry, E. S., " Handbook of Physics Measurement " . 

Fleming, J. A., "Propagation of Electric Currents in Telegraph and 

Telephone Conductors " . 
Fletcher, C, and H. McLean, "Link between the Practitioner and the 


Forcrand. R. de, " Cours de Chimie "... 













66 1 










Chemistry ' 

Freundlich, E., " The Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation ' 

Fritch, F. E., "An Introduction to the Structure and Reproduction of 

Plants" ........ 

Gager, C. S., " Heredity and Evolution in Plants " . 

Ganguli, S., " The Theory of Plane Curves " 

Geddes, P., " The Life and Work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose " 

Gehrs, J. H., " Productive Agriculture " . 

Gibson, W., " Coal in Great Britain " 

Gould, H. P., " Peach-growing " .... 

Greenwood, H. C, " Industrial Gases " . 
GuilUermond, A., " The Yeasts " . 

Halhburton, H., " Physiology and National Needs " . 

Harker, A., "Petrology for Students" 

Harrow, B., " From Newton to Einstein ". 

Hatschek, E., " Laboratory Manual of Elementary Colloid 

Hedrik, U. P., " Manual of American Grape-growing " 

Hendrick, E., " Chemistry in Everyday Life " . 

Henry, A., " Forests, Woods, and Trees in Relation to Hygiene " 

Heriot, T. H. P.. " The Manufacture of Sugar from the Cane and Beet ' 

Hiley, W. E., " The Fungal Diseases of the Common Larch ' 

Hill, J. G., " Telephonic Transmission " . 

Holmes, B., " Dementia Praecox Studies ". 

Hosmer, G. L., " Geodesy "....,. 

Howard, A. L., " A Manual of the Timbers of the World " . 

Hyman, L. H., "A Laboratory Manual for Elements of Zoology " 

Ibbotson, F., " The Chemical Analysis of Steel Works Materials " 

Ives, H. E., " Airplane Photography " . 

James, E. O., " An Introduction to Anthropology " 

Jenkins, J. T., " The Sea Fisheries " 

Jones, E. G., " Chemistry for Pubhc Health Students 

Jones, W., " Nucleic Acids " . 

Jones, W. N., " A Textbook of Plant Biology " 

Knapp, A. W., " Cocoa and Chocolate " . 

Leach, A. E., " Food Inspection and Analysis ' 

Lillie, F. R., " Problems of Fertihsation " 

LilUe, F. R., and C. R. Moore, " A Laboratory Outline of Embryology" 

Love, A. E. H., " A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity " 

Low, B., " Psycho- Analysis " . 

McAdie, A., " Principles of Aerography " , 

Macbeth, A. K., " Organic Chemistry " . 

McCabe, J.. " The End of the World " . 

MacDougal, D. T., " Hydration and Growth " 

McDowall, S. A., " Beauty and the Beast " 

MacMahon, P. A., " An Introduction to Combinatory Analysis " 

Matisse, G., " Action de la Chaleur et du Froid sur I'Activite des fitres 

Vivants " 

Maxwell, J. C, " Matter and Motion" 

Miller, H. C, " Functional Nerve Disease " . 

Milne, W. P., and G. J. P. Wescott, " A First Course in the Calculus 

Moir, J. R., " Pre-Palaeolithic Man " 

Morgan, T. H., " The Physical Basis of Heredity " . . . 

Moureu, C, " Notions Fondamentales de Chimie Organique " 
Miiller-Lyer, F., " The History of Social Development " 

Murray, John, " John Murray III " 

Neville, H. A. B., and L. F. Newman, " A Course of Practical Chemistry 

for Agricultural Students " 



























and Practice' 

Newman, H. H., " Vertebrate Zoology " 

Newman, L. F., "A Course of Practical Chemistry for Agricultural 
Students "...... 

Nilsson, N. P., " Primitive Time-reckoning " 
Onslow, M. W., " Practical Plant Biochemistry " 

Perrett, W., " Peetickay " . 

Piaggio, H. T. H., " Differential Equations " . 

Poynting, J. H., " Collected Scientific Papers ". 

Pycraft, W. P., " The Sea-shore " . 

Rau, P. and N., " Wasp Studies Afield " . 

Read, C. S., " Mihtary Psychiatry in Peace and War 

Rees, A. W., " The Heron of Castle Creek " 

Reinheimer, H., " Symbiosis " 

Rew, R. H., " Food Supplies in Peace and War " 

Rideal, E. K., " Ozone " .... 

Rideal, S., " The Carbohydrates and Alcohol " . 
Ritchie, J., " The Influence of Man on Animal Life in Scotland" 
Robertson, P. W., " Qualitative Analysis in Theory " "~ 
Robinson, W., " Everyday Chemistry " . 
Rogeri, F., " Secretum Secretorum " 
Roget, F. F., " Altitude and Health" 
Roscoe, Sir H. P., " A Treatise on Chemistry" . 
Rose, W. N,, " Mathematics for Engineers " 
St. J., T. R., " The Falkland Islands and Dependencies " . 
Sarfar, B. K., " Hindu Achievement in Exact Science " 
Savage, W. G., " Food Poisoning and Food Infections " 
Schenck, R., " The Physical Chemistry of the Metals " 
Schrenk-Notzing, Baron von, " Phenomena of Materialisation 
Searle, A. B., " The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease " 
Shanahan, E. W., " Animal Foodstuffs " . 
Sheldon, S,, " Physical Laboratory Experiments for Engineering 
Students" ........ 

ShuU, A. F., " Principles of Animal Biology " . 

Silberstein, L., " Report on the Quantum Theory of Spectra " 

Simmonds, C, " Alcohol "...... 

Slosson, E. E., " Easy Lessons in Einstein " . . . 

Smith, A., " An Intermediate Textbook of Chemistry " 
Smith, G. E., " The Evolution of the Dragon ". 
Spaight, J. M.. " Aircraft in Peace " 
Spitta, E. J., " Microscopy" ...... 

Stoddard, L. , " The Rising Tide of Colour against White World-supremacy 
Stokes, A. C, " Aquatic Microscopy " 

Tanner, F. W., " Bacteriology and Mycology of Foods " 

Taylor, G., " Australian Meteorology " . 

Taylor, S. H., " Fuel Production and Utilisation " 

Thomson, J. A., " The System of Animate Nature " . 

Wadia, D. N., " The Geology of India for Students ". 

Watt, H. J., " The Foundations of Music " 

Webber, W. P., " Introductory Mathematical Analysis " 

Whittaker, E. T., and G. N. Watson, " A Course of Modem Analysis " 

Wilmore, A., " The Groundwork of Modem Geography " 

Wimperis, H. E., " Primer of Air Navigation " . 

Wood, T. B., " Physiology of Farm Animals " . 

Woodhead, Sir G., " Industrial Colonies and Village Settlements for 

the Consumptive " . 
Wright. L.. " Optical Projection " . 

























1 » 'i 

A' ' .■ 





FUIIE MATHEMATICS. By Dorothy M. Wrinch, Fellow of Girton 
College, Cambridge, Lecturer at University College, London. 

Prof. Hobson {Proc. Lond. Math. Soc, 2, xviii, part 4, p. 249} 
has made an important contribution to the theory required 
for the further development of integral equations. His paper 
deals with the so-called Hellinger's integral, which arose pri- 
marily in connection with the theory of quadratic forms involv- 
ing an infinite number of variables. Helhnger regarded them 
as a new species of limit, but Hahn reduced them to the ordinary 
integrals associated with Lebesgue. Prof. Hobson makes a 
simpler reduction by a more concise and simple method, and 
extends the whole theory to a wider class of integrals, of which 
these are, in fact, only special cases. 

In order to define the nature of a Hellinger's integral, we 
suppose an interval /3-a to be divided into n parts, a to y^, 
yi to 3/2, and so forth, the last being %_i to /3. If g{y) is a 
continuous monotone function of y defined for the whole in- 
terval, and such that g{y) never decreases as y increases, while 
f{y) is a continuous function defined for the interval, and 
constant in any part of it in which g{y) is constant, then the sum 


giyr) -g{y r-l) 

when it has a finite upper limit, independent of the mode of 
division of the interval, is called a Hellinger's integral. Hel- 
hnger proposed that it be denoted symbolically by 



in his paper in Crelle's Journal, vol. cxxxvi (1909). It is clear 
that a very difficult existence theorem is involved in the 
definition, and the fundamental result in this connection, derived 
by the author, is as follows : 

If r:^: is a variable equal to g{y), and if f{y) = F{x) when 
expressed in terms of this variable^ then the necessary and 


sufficient condition for the existence of the integral {i.e. of the 
limit defined above) is that F{x) should be the indefinite integral 
of a function ^(a;) whose square is summable in the interval {a, b) 
of X, which of course corresponds to the interval (a, /3) of y. 

Moreover, the Lebesgue integral to which the Hellinger limit 
is equivalent is merely 

r [<l>{x)Ydx 

nJ a 

We have somewhat expanded the statement of the theorem 
given by Prof. Hobson himself. 

The author proceeds, after establishing this very important 
result completely, to some generalisations. For example, if 
fi{y), f-i{y) are two functions with the property of f{y) in the 
preceding statement, then the sum 

v-» myr) -/lb.-:)] Ulyr) -Uyr-.)] 
'^' g{yr)~g{yr.i) 

denoted by Hellinger as 

-^ dMy)dMy) 

when the limit exists, is such as to possess the necessary limit 

as a Lebesgue integral if <^i and <^a are summable in the interval 
{a, b), and have Fx and F^ as their indefinite integrals. Much 
more extensive and fundamental generalisations follow, in- 
cluding, for instance, types of Hellinger integrals which converge 
to Lebesgue integrals of the form 


•y a 


where n is any power not restricted to integer values. For 
these we must refer the reader to Prof. Hobson's paper. The 
investigation appears likely to be of considerable utility in 
applied mathematics, where limits of the type defined are of 
not infrequent occurrence. 

Other papers of interest in the same Proceedings (parts 4, 
5, 6) are noticed more briefly below : 

H. J, Priestley, part 4, p. 226, publishes a note on the values 
of n, which make the function 

— 'P-'^ix) 

dx n ^ ' 


vanish at a point x = a. The problem arose in relation to the 
scattering of sound waves by a cone, and is also of interest 
for the pure mathematician. Prof. Carslaw called attention to 
the need for a proof of the fact that all the roots of this equation 
are real and separate. Prof. Priestley now supplies a proof 
derived in a very elegant manner from the theory of a Homo- 
geneous Integral Equation. 

J. Hodgkinson, part 4, p. 268, continues the problem of 
conformal representation of a curvilinear triangle, in some 
aspects previously developed in an incomplete manner. 

W. P. Milne, part 4, p. 274, discusses the determinant sys- 
tems of co-apolar triads on a cubic curve. The configuration 
of these triads had already been determined by a method which 
did not indicate the symmetry of its form, or any convenient 
method of visualising its structure as a geometrical unit. The 
paper now under notice establishes the symmetry of the 

H. S. Carslaw, part 4, p. 291, discusses the diffraction of 
waves by a wedge of any angle, in which the older method of 
Sommerfeld and Carslaw has been superseded by the later 
methods of Macdonald, Bromwich, and others. The author 
shows that the solutions, which are already known, can never- 
theless be obtained readily from the older method, 

W. H. Young, part 4, p. 307, publishes a part of a long 
memoir on non-harmonic Fourier Series, which is concluded in 
part 5. It is related somewhat closely to a memoir which was 
noticed at some length in Science Progress, April 1920, and 
we shall state only the main problem, which is the possibility 
of expanding a function j{x) in a series of the form 

'St-o. ^nCOs{k 4- n)x 

where k is not a whole number. Conditions for the existence 
of such an expansion, together with the equations for deter- 
mining the coefficients, are discussed with some completeness, 
and some important applications to the series of Bessel functions 

W. H. Young, part 5, p. 339, discusses the formula for an 
area, familiar in elementary integral calculus, and submits it 
to an exhaustive examination. It has been usual to suppose 
the curve, whose area is discussed, to be a simple Jordan curve, 
or a curve defined by a continuous (i, i) correspondence with 
a straight fine or circle. It thus possesses an " inside " and an 
" outside," the former being a simply-connected region. The 
area can be defined as the common limit of the areas of two 
sets of polygons, one set inscribed and one set circumscribed, 
whose sides increase in number. This limit is the content of 


the set of points inside the curve, with or without the points 
of the curve itself. 

But the formula 

— / xdy —ydx 

which thus gives the area when it exists, leads, when the in- 
tegral is taken round a looped curve, only to the sum of the 
areas of the loops. Area is, in fact, a directed quantity — positive 
when the point describing it has the inside of the loop on its left. 
The most important matter, in which more attention to 
directed area is needed, arises in the transformation of the 
variables in a multiple integral. In such transformations, as 
ordinarily presented, the variables are regarded as steadily in- 
creasing or decreasing — a supposition which fails in relation 
to functions of bounded variation, which will not usually be 
monotone or of uniform sign. Prof. Young takes up the 
problem of establishing the formula 

ffdxdy =ff%^. dudv 

d{u, v) 

under conditions which have no reference to the sign of the 
Jacobian, or even of the partial derivates, area being suitably 
defined. We may quote the author's suggested definition. 
Inscribe in a curve, supposed to be closed, a set of polygons as 
usual, of which the perimeters approximate to the length when 
the curve is rectifiable. Imagine vectors to be represented in 
magnitude, sense, and line of action by the sides of the polygon, 
supposed described in the sense in which a parameter, u, in- 
creases. Take the moments of these vectors about any point 
Oin the plane. Then their sum is independent of 0, and equal 
to twice the area of the polygon as usual when the polygonal 
line does not cut itself. Moreover, the sum has a unique limit 
2A when the number of sides of the polygon is increased, so 
that the perimeter is the length- of the curve if this be recti- 
fiable. We define A as the area of the curve. 

With this definition, complete precision appears to be 
attained in the statement of all the fundamental results of the 
calculus relating to areas. We shall not, however, quote the 
necessary modifications in their statements. The author has 
done considerable service in this exposition of some of the 
difficulties which even elementary students must have felt in 
regard to this rather neglected subject. 

W. P. Milne and D. G. Taylor (part 5, p. 375) discuss the 
significance of apolar triangles in eUiptic function theory. Much 
work has been done on this subject recently, but apolarity has 
not been applied to a great extent to curves which are not 


rational. Some interesting applications to elliptic function 
theory are given by the authors. 

D. M. Y. Somerville (part 5, p. 385) treats the singularities 
of the algebraic trochoids. He determines the number of fun- 
damental singularities for the various types of curves, and also 
analyses the compound singularities at infinity. 

E. K. Wakeford (part 6, p. 403) writes on canonical forms. 
The paper is posthumous, and formed the second part of a 
dissertation of the author. Being almost complete in itself, 
the Society has published it separately. The writer's object 
was to establish the possibility of reduction to canonical form 
rather than to find the reducing process. 

In the American Journal of Mathematics, xlii, i, p. 11, 
H. D. Frary publishes an interesting note on the Green's func- 
tion for a plane contour. Its object is rather the practical 
than the exact solution of this problem, and a method is de- 
veloped which should be of considerable service to the physicist 
in special cases. The Green's function depends on two points 
and on assigned conditions at a boundary of specified form, 
while satisfying a differential equation — usually, as in this 
instance, that of Laplace. The function G occurring most 
frequently in the applications is zero over the boundary, and 
if this can be found, Dirichlet's problem is soluble for any other 
condition of the boundary within wide limits. For \iw =v {6) 
on the boundary the solution is 

r ^^^ 

2'Trw = / vj--ds 

The ordinary methods of finding this function are of very 
limited application. There is the method of images, which can 
deal with the circle, semicircle, infinite strip, half plane, and 
certain triangles, but for other contours, hyperelliptic integrals 
are usually involved. The Schwarzian method, by the con- 
formal representation of a polygonal boundary on a unit circle, 
has not been extended very effectively beyond the point at 
which Schwarz left it, for it again leads soon to abelian and 
hyperelHptic integrals, though for regular polygons the solution 
is capable of arithmetical evaluation and can be made practical. 

The author follows a new method, with obvious relations 
to that of Fourier and Neumann. An infinite set of functions, 
linearly independent, satisfying the differential equation sever- 
ally, is selected, and the Green's function expanded in a series 
of them with coefficients determined by the boundary conditions. 
To find these coefficients, we have an infinite set of equations 
in an infinity of unknowns, and the solution of these equations 
is possible in a variety of cases. 


The plane contour used by the author means any closed 
plane curve regular in Osgood's sense, or composed of a finite 
number of analytic arcs or straight segments. The polygon is 
a special case. The Green's function in polars is 

G{r, 6) = -logr + u{r, d) 

where u satisfies Laplace's equation and has no singularities in 
the region concerned. The solution of the resulting equations 
can be obtained in a formal manner by integral equations, but 
is only formal, and it is necessary to use the author's method 
of direct solution of the equations, which, however, does not 
often give series with a general coefficient capable of recognition 
— this is not a matter of concern in the applications. The 
square contour is selected as a convenient illustration of the 

W. G. Simon, in the same number, discusses the solution 
of some types of linear diff'erential equations in an infinite 
number of variables, mainly with a view to proving the exist- 
ence of certain forms of solution, chiefly exponential. His 
starting-point is an existence theorem of von Koch, and a 
generalisation of a theorem of Poincare regarding the develop- 
ment of solutions of differential equations in power series of a 
parameter yu,, when the functions appearing in the differential 
equations are themselves power series in /i. Considerable dis- 
cussion of some forms of infinite determinants is included. 

D. Buchanan, in the same Journal, discusses some inter- 
esting cases of Periodic Orbits on surfaces of revolution, the 
orbits being those of a particle under gravity, with the axis of 
the surface vertical. 

F. Riesz {Acta Math., xlii, 3, p. 192) discusses Lebesgue's 
integral. The memoir is a continuation of a note in the Comptes 
Rendus of 191 2, in which the idea of the integral was introduced 
independently of the theory of measure, following a suggestion 
of Borel. The author's point of view is, however, quite different 
from that of Borel. 

P. Levy [Acta Math., xlii, 3, p. 207) deals with Green's and 
Neumann's functions. The main initial problems proposed are : 

(i) If ^3 is one of these functions, to determine 1/^3 in such 

a way that ^3 — i/^^ is a holomorphic function of the points 
A and B. 

(2) To form a function -^^^ such that the difference ^J — ■f'^ 
may be finite, with all its derivatives, to a given order. 

These functions -^ are treated like the Green and Neumann 
functions in the sense that, once obtained, they are capable of 


simple verification. Many interesting general theorems on 
harmonic functions are developed. 

The same Journal contains valuable accounts of the work of 
D. Hilbert and G. Darboux. 

G. Fubini {Rendiconti di Palermo , xliii, i, p. i) discusses the 
fundamentals of projective differential geometry. The funda- 
mental differential equations are deduced in curvilinear co- 
ordinates by a purely projective method. 

C. Bonomi (p. 46), in the same number, describes the theory 
of a special type of hyperelliptic surface. 

F. Gerbaldi (p. 78) treats the continued fractions of Halphen 
in relation with (2,2) correspondences and the Poncelet polygons. 

P. Nalli (p. 105) makes an interesting contribution to the 
theory of integral equations with a symmetrical kernel k{s, t). 

A. Palatini publishes \u Rendiconti di Palermo, xliii, i, p. 192, 
two important contributions. The first, on the fundamentals 
of the absolute differential calculus, in the sense associated 
with the recent Einstein theor}^, discusses invariant and co- 
variant systems, with their addition and multiplication, derives 
the covariants of a mixed system, and an interesting integral 
formula. The second proceeds to the invariantive deduction 
of the gravitational equation from Hamilton's principle. 

A. F. Dufton, Proc. Roy. Soc, A, xc, describes a model 
made for the drawing of conies. The principle used is that the 
conic is the polar reciprocal of a circle. This has not been 
used before, and the author has found a simple mechanism 
which gives a real practical solution of a very old problem. 

J. W. Nicholson, Proc. Roy. Soc, A, xc, 1920, in a paper 
on the lateral vibrations of sharply pointed bars, continues 
his investigations of 191 7. The vibrations of bars of cir- 
cular cross-section formed by the revolution of the curve 
y = Ax"* about the axis of x are now completely discussed 
for values of n between o and i , and for the isolated value n = 2. 
The problem is interesting to the pure mathematician, since 
for its general solution, for all values of n, functions which are 
generalisations of the Bessel functions are needed. The prop- 
erties of these functions are not yet adequately worked out. 

ASTRONOMY. By H. Spencer- Jones, M.A., B.Sc, The Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich. 
The Secular Acceleration of the Moon.— It has long been known 
that, in order to make the theory of the moon's motion agree 
both with the modern observations and with ancient and 
mediaeval observations of ecHpses and occupations, it is neces- 
sary to introduce into the theory certain empirical or quasi- 
empirical terms. These consist of certain periodic terms of 
long period with the addition of a term which indicates that 


the moon has an apparent acceleration of its mean motion 
relative to the sun. The period of the principal periodic term 
is about 240 years ; the length of this period renders it diffi- 
cult to separate the term depending upon the acceleration 
from the periodic term. The problem of determining the 
acceleration is therefore to some extent indeterminate. The 
most probable value has been discussed in some important 
papers recently by Dr. J. K. Fotheringham, which will be 
reviewed in these notes in the next issue of Science Progress. 
From these, it appears that an acceleration of 10" per century 
must be very near the truth. Of this an amount of 6"*i can 
be explained by purely gravitational causes. 

Various explanations of the remainder of the secular 
acceleration have been put forward from time to time, but 
until recently there was no theory which could be regarded as 
wholly satisfactory. In default of any more plausible ex- 
planation, it has generally been accepted, though without 
quantitative evidence, that the balance was due to tidal 
friction. Some recent work by G. I. Taylor has placed this 
theory on a firmer theoretical basis. In a paper entitled 
" Tidal Friction in the Irish Sea " {Phil. Trans., A. 220, 1-33, 
191 9) he has calculated, by two independent methods, the mean 
rate of dissipation of energy by tidal currents in the Irish Sea 
at spring tides. One estimate is derived from an expression 
for the friction between a tidal current and the sea bottom ; 
the other is based upon the rate at which energy enters the 
Irish Sea through the north and south channels, and the rate 
at which lunar attraction does work on the waters of the Irish 
Sea. The respective values derived by these two very different 
methods are 1,300 and 1,530 ergs per sq, cm, per second, an 
agreement which lends support to the validity of the argu- 
ment. From this result Taylor calculates in a paper, "Tidal 
Friction and the Secular Acceleration of the Moon " {M.N., 
R.A.S., 80, 308, 1920), that the mean rate of dissipation of 
energy in the Irish Sea is about 3 x 10^^ ergs per second. Dr. 
H. Jeffreys has discussed the theoretical bearings of this theory 
of tidal friction (" The Chief Cause of the Lunar Secular 
Acceleration," Af.N., R.A.S., 80, 309, 1920), and finds that 
the rate of dissipation of energy necessary to account for the 
unexplained part of the secular acceleration of the moon is 
about 1*4 X 10^' ergs per second. Taylor therefore remarks 
that, on his above estimates, the Irish Sea contributes Ath 
part of the total dissipation. The Irish Sea covers only 
TTT.Vxnjth part of the water area of the globe, but very little 
tidal dissipation occurs in the open ocean ; the amount only 
becomes appreciable in long bays and channels where the 
water is relatively shallow. The number of these is very 


limited, and it therefore appears that the dissipation of energy 
in the tides is of the right order of magnitude to account for 
the unexplained part of the moon's secular acceleration. 

Dr. Jeffreys, in the paper referred to above, proceeds 
further and shows that, on a tidal friction theory, it is pos- 
sible, when a value is assumed for the lunar secular accelera- 
tion, to calculate the value of the secular acceleration of the 
sun. If the value so calculated is found to agree with the 
value derived from observation, it would afford further sup- 
port to the theory. He considers various types of tidal fric- 
tion. Tidal friction might occur in the body of the earth, being 
due to imperfection of elasticity, which latter may be regarded 
as a combination of plasticity and afterworking. Plasticity 
in the outer crust of the earth would damp out the 14-monthly 
variation of latitude, whilst afterworking would render the 
crust impermeable to earthquake waves. It is possible, 
however, that there may be sufficient plasticity near the centre 
to account for the phenomenon, though it is concluded that 
the balance of evidence is against an explanation involving 
bodily friction. It is shown also that atmospheric phenomena 
and tides in mid-ocean are not capable of accounting for 
the secular acceleration. The theory of dissipation in regions 
of strong tidal currents is discussed mathematically, and it is 
shown that, to account for the observed lunar acceleration, a 
secular acceleration of the sun of o"78 per century is neces- 
sary. This value does not differ greatly from the most prob- 
able value of about i" arrived at by Fotheringham. It is 
further proved that this theory does not give rise to difficulties 
due to the existence of the 14-monthly period of latitude- 

It would therefore appear that Taylor's theory gives the 
first satisfactory explanation of the lunar secular acceleration. 

Studies of the Nebulce. — Vol. xiii of the Publications of 
the Lick Observatory contains a detailed account of the ex- 
tensive and important studies of the nebulae which have 
been carried out by the Lick observers during the past several 
years. The volume is in the main a record of the observa- 
tional material which has been gathered together. Although 
much of this material cannot yet be fitted into a theoretical 
framework, an attempt has been made to do so wherever 
possible. Most readers will probably agree, however, that the 
volume raises more problems than it solves. It therefore pos- 
sesses great interest both for the practical and for the theoretical 

Part I contains descriptions of 762 nebulae and clusters 
which have been photographed with the Crossley reflector, by 
H. D. Curtis. In connection with this work a count has been 



rumber of 



Number per 

Number in 



of Spirals. 

Square Degree. 






















made by Curtis of all the small nebulae occurring on his plates, 
and from this count an estimate has been made of the total 
number of spiral nebulae within the reach of modern large 
refractors. Estimates had previously been made by Perrine 
in 1904, who gave a total of 500,000, and by Fath in 191 3, who 
reduced this figure to 162,000 ; both estimates were based 
upon counts in a number of selected regions. Curtis very con- 
siderably increases both of these estimates and places the 
number at 722,000, with the remark that, since the faintest 
and smallest members of the class are, in general, discernible 
only in the central regions of the plate, this figure is an under- 
estimate, and that the total number accessible with the Crossley 
reflector with rapid plates and with exposures of from two to 
three hours may well exceed 1,000,000. A critical discussion 
of the wide divergence between these three estimates supports 
the largest of them. The distribution with reference to the 
Milky Way is of considerable interest, and is summarised as 
follows : 


+ 45° to + 90° 

- 45° to - 90° 
± 30° to ± 45° 

- 30° to + 30° 

The density is greatest in the neighbourhood of the north 
galactic pole ; there is a less marked concentration near the 
south galactic plane. A high value of the density persists to at 
least 60° from the galactic poles, but then shows a remarkable 
diminution in the neighbourhood of the Milky Way itself. 

Part II contains a study of occulting matter in the spiral 
nebulae, also by H. D. Curtis. It is well known that certain 
spiral nebulae, when seen edgewise on, show a dark lane running 
down the length of the spiral, which is generally explained as 
being due to absorption of light by the outer layers of the 
nebulae. Curtis shows that this phenomenon is more common 
than had been supposed, and excellent reproductions are given 
of 'J'] Crossley photographs of spiral nebulae which show the 
dark band. Arguments are brought forward to support the 
view that the appearance is not due to a phase effect. 

The planetary nebulae, which are very few in number and 
have a distribution differing widely from that of the spiral 
nebulae, are considered by Curtis in Part III. A valuable 
feature of this paper is a series of pictures of all the known 
planetary nebulae, 78 in number, which are north of 34° south 
declination. The wide divergence of forms shown by these 
nebulae, including helical and ellipsoidal formations, rings 
with and without nuclei, series of concentric shells, etc., makes 


it difficult to form a rational theory of their structure and life- 
history. When to this difficulty is added the necessity of 
accounting at the same time for the complicated spectrographic 
information, the problern would seem at first sight to be im- 
possible to solve. Curtis classifies the forms shown by these 
objects into seven general types, and proves that some of the 
simpler types can be reasonably explained on the hypothesis 
of oblate spheroidal shells of matter, which in some cases may 
be approximately homogeneous, but which in others must be 
thinner at the equatorial zone than at the poles. A falling in 
of the matter from the polar zones would then give a possible 
explanation of the peculiar S-shaped spectral lines given by 
some of the nebulae. The planetaries are difficult objects to 
fit into the scheme of stellar evolution, and this matter is not 
solved in the present volume. The only statement which can 
definitely be made is that the planetary stage of existence 
must be relatively very brief — otherwise the number of plane- 
taries would be much larger. In this they resemble the Wolf- 
Rayet stars, with which their nuclei show an essential identity. 
It is very improbable that the rarity of the planetary nebulae 
is due to large numbers remaining to be discovered ; the 
Harvard spectrographic survey of the sky has increased the 
number of classified stellar spectra from about 9,000 to over 
200,000, but this increase of over 2,000 per cent, has only 
added one new object with a spectrum of planetary type. 

Part IV, the spectrographic velocities of 125 bright-line 
nebulae, by W. W. Campbell and J. H. Moore, is an important 
contribution to our knowledge of the velocities of nebulae 
and of the complicated structure of various nebular lines. 
Full details are given of the observations of each nebula. 
Several results of interest are obtained. The average velocity 
of the planetary nebulae, after separating the component of 
the solar motion, is found to be about 30 km. per sec. Since 
this is many times larger than the average velocity of the B- 
type stars, it does not seem probable that the latter have evolved 
from planetary nebulae. Seventeen nebulae have been ob- 
served in the Greater Magellanic Cloud, and one in the Lesser 
Cloud. The former give a mean velocity of 363 km. per sec. 
recession, and the latter gives a velocity of 307 km. per sec. 
recession. The velocity of the Greater Magellanic Cloud is 
considered in more detail by R. E. Wilson in the next part. 
The probable masses of three planetary nebulae whose paral- 
laxes have been determined are estimated on reasonable 
assumptions, and found to be much greater than the mass of 
our solar system. The behaviour of the spectral lines taken 
in conjunction with the photographic evidence leads Campbell 
and Moore to conclude that many of the planetaries may be 


approximate ellipsoids of revolution, in general larger than 
they appear to be, especially in their equatorial regions, by 
virtue of invisible cooler strata lying outside the visible struc- 
ture ; the cooler, more slowly rotating strata cause reversals 
in the spectral lines which account for many of the abnor- 

The last part contains determinations of the wave-lengths 
of the nebular lines, with general observations of the spectra 
of the gaseous nebulae, by W. H. Wright. This paper is 
divided into three parts dealing with (i) the measurement of 
wave-lengths and the intensities of nebular lines in 48 nebulse ; 
(2) the study of the nebular nuclei ; (3) the investigation of 
the distribution of nebular radiations throughout the nebulse. 
Definitive wave-lengths of the various nebular lines are adopted 
from the means given by nine nebulse ; many of the lines 
were first observed in these investigations ; when known, the 
probable origins are given. Half of the nuclei were found to 
be of the 0-type, but the exact order of evolution remains 
uncertain. Many interesting subjects are touched upon, in- 
cluding a scheme, based on spectroscopic evidence, for the 
classification of the bright-line nebulse. Lack of space 
prevents adequate reference to these, and the reader must 
refer to the book itself, which is well worth stud}'- by all who 
are interested in Astronomy. 

Gravitational Astronomy. 

Banachiewicz, Th., Sur I'equation de Gauss, Pub. Ast. Obs. Univ. Dorpat, 
24, pt. ii, 1917. 

Buchanan, D., Asymptotic Satellites near the Equilateral Triangle Equili- 
brium Points in the Problem of Three Bodies, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc, 
22, 309, 1919. 

Plummer, H. C, On Professor Howe's Method of Solving Kepler's Equa- 
tion, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 207, 1919. 

Bauschinger, J., Zur Reduction vom mittleren auf den scheinbaren Ort, 
Ast. Nach., 210, No. 5040, 1920. 

Steenwijk, J. E. DE Vos VAN, L'Equinoxe pour 1865-0, Leiden Obs. 
Annalen, 11, pt. iii, 1918. 

Generalised Relativity. 

SiLBERSTEiN, L., The Recent Eclipse Results and Stokes-PIanck's .^ther, 

Phil. Mag., 39, 161, 1920. 
Majorana, Q., Sulla Gravitatione, Atti del R. Accad. dei Lincei, 28, 313, 

416, 1920. 
HoLST, H., Die kausale Relativitatsforderung und Einstein's Relativitats- 

theorie, Det Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selskab., Mat.-fys Meddel., 2, 11, 1919. 
Discussion on the Theory of Relativity, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 96, 1919. 
Larmor, Sir J., The Relativity of the Forces of Nature, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 

118, 1919. 
DuFFiELD, W. G., The Displacement of Spectral Lines and the Equivalence 

Hypothesis, M.N., R.A.S.. 80, 262, 1920. 


EvERSHED, J., Displacement of the Lines in the Solar Spectrum and Ein- 
stein's Prediction, Observatory, 43, 153, 1920. 

St. John, C. E., Displacement of Solar Lines and the Einstein Effect, Obser- 
vatory, 43, 158, 1920. 

Double Biliary and Variable Stars. 

WiRTZ, C, and Schreyer, W., Die Farben der Doppelsterne nach den 

Beobachtungen von Ercole Demboweki, Ast. Nach., 210, Nos. 5034-5, 

Voute, J., Doppelsternmessungen angestellt am Fadenmikrometer des 

io|-Zolligen Refractors von 1910 Aug. bis 1913 June, Leiden Obs. 

Annalen, 10, pt. ii, 1913- 
Harper, W. E., v Geminorum, A Long-period Binary, Pxib. Dam. Obs. 

Ottawa, 4, No. 19, 1919- 
CoMSTocK, G. C, 70 Ophiuchi and Neighbouring Stars, Ast. Journ., 32, 

No. 764, 1920. 
Plaskett, J. S., Spectroscopic Orbits and Dimensions of the Eclipsing 

Variables, U Ophiuchi, RS Vulpeculae, TW Draconis, /oMfw. R.A.S.C., 

14, I, 1920. 
VoGT, H., Zur Theorie der Algol veranderlichen, Veroff. der Grossh. Stern- 

warte Heidelberg, 7, No. 9, 191 9. 
Turner, H. H., On the Suggested Decrease of Period of Stars in Phillips' 

Group II, with Particular Notes on R Hydras, etc., M.N., R.A.S., 80, 

273, 1920. 

Stellar Distributions and Motions. 

Wolf, M., Katalog von 1053 starken bewegten Fixsternen, Veroff. der Grossh. 

Sternwarte Heidelberg, 7, No. 10, 1919. 
Porter, J. G., Catalogue of Proper Motion Stars, Pub. Cincinnati Obs., 

No. 18, pt. 4, 1918. 
ZwiERS, J. H., Untersuchungen fiber die Deklinationen und Eigenbewe- 

gungen von 163 Sternen, Leiden Obs. Annalen, 10, pt. iii, 191 7. 
Halm, J., Statistical Investigation of the Distribution of the Stars and 

their Luminosities, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 162, 1919. 
Reinmuth, K., Photographische Positionsbestimmung von 356 Schultzschen 

Nebelflecken, Veroff. der Grossh. Sternwarte Heidelberg, 7, No. 6, 191 5. 

141 Photographische Nebelpositionen, ibid., 7, No. 8, 1916. 
LuNDMARK, K., The Relations of the Globular Clusters and Spiral Nebulae 

to the Stellar System, Kungl. Svensk. Vetensk. Hand., 60, No. 8, 1919. 
Pickering, E. C, and Kapteyn, J. C, Durchmusterung of Selected Areas 

between S = o and S =+ 90°, Harvard Annals, 101, 1918. 
Schouten, W. J. A., The Distribution of the Absolute Magnitudes among the 

Stars in and about the Milky Way, Konink. Akad. van Wetens. te Am- 
sterdam, 21, Nos. 6 and 7, 1918. 

Nebulae, Photometry, etc. 

Schoenberg, R., Researches on the Photometry of the Heavens: Pt. I, 
On the Illumination of Planets, Pub. Astl. Obs. of Univ. Dorpat, 24, 
pt. iii, 1917. 

Lundmark, K., and Lindblad, B., Photographic Effective Wave-length of 
Nebulae and Clusters, Astroph. Journ., 50, 376, 1919. 

Shapley, H., Studies based on the Colours and Magnitudes of Stellar Clus- 
ters, 15th Paper : A Photometric Analysis of the Globular System 
Messier 68, Astroph. Journ., 51, 49, 1920. 

Hubble, E. P., Photographic Investigations of Faint Nebulae, Yerkes Obs. 
Pubs., 4, pt. ii, 1920. 


WiLsiNG, J., Effektive Temperaturen von 199 helleren Sternen nach Spek- 

tralphotometrischen Messungen, Pub. Astroph. Obs. zu Potsdam, 24, 

No. I, 1919. 
Wolf, M., Der Ringnebel und der Dumbnebel, Sitzmigs. der Heidelbergen 

Akad. der Wissens., i Abhand, 1915. 
Rhijn, p. J. VAN, On the Brightness of the Sky at Night and the Total 

Amount of StarHght, Astroph. Journ., 50, 356, 1919- 


MiCHELSON, A. A., and Gale, H. G., The Rigidity of the Earth, Astroph. 

Journ., 50, 330, 1919. 
Dreyer, J. L. E., On the Original Form of the Alphonsine Tables, M.N., 

R.A.S., 80, 243, 1920. 
Chapman, S., Terrestrial Magnetic Variations and their Connection with 

Solar Emissions which are Absorbed in the Earth's Outer Atmosphere, 

Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc, 22, 341, 1919. 
Kaiser, F., Uber die Interpolationsmethode bei photographischen Himmels- 

aufnalimen, 210, No. 5039, 1920. 
Burns, K., The Solar Spectrum in the Region 9,000 A to 9,900 A, Lick 

Obs. Bull., 10, No. 327, 1920. 
Wolf, M., Cber die Spektren der Wolf-Rayet Sterne, Sitzungs. der Heidel- 
bergen Akad. der Wissens., 14 Abh., 1915. 

METEOROLOGY. By E. V. Newnham, B.Sc, Meteorological Office, 

The Characteristics of the Free Atmosphere (W. H. Dines, F.R.S., 
Geophysical Memoirs, No. 13). — ^This Report summarises much 
of the information concerning the physics of the atmosphere 
up to a height of about 20 km., that had been obtained up 
to 1 91 6 by means of free balloons carrying self-recording 
instruments. Of the observations made in this way, about 
90 per cent, have been obtained in Europe. 

Temperature. — A table is given showing the mean for the 
whole year for every kilometre of height up to 14 km. for a 
number of European stations between the latitudes of Petro- 
grad and Pavia (Italy), and also for about lat. 43° N. in 
Canada. A second table shows the mean vertical gradient 
of temperature for the same places. A very evident feature 
is the lower value of the temperature at the more northern 
stations up to 8 or 10 km., and the higher temperature above 
that height. The maximum gradient or lapse-rate of 7-4° C. 
per km. occurs between 7 and 8 km. Above that height the 
rate falls off to practically nothing above about 12 km., this 
change taking place at a lower level for northern than for 
southern stations. The comparatively scanty information 
from near the equator {Monthly Weather Review, Nov. 191 5) 
shows that the mean temperature does not reach its lowest 
value there until a height of 17 km. is reached. The value 
of 193° A. for this height is far colder than the mean for the 
same height in Europe, which is 219° A. The table for mean 
monthly temperatures shows that the seasonal variation is 


very much the same up to about 10 or 11 km., but becomes 
smaller higher up. The diurnal variation on the other hand 
appears to decrease rapidly with height and probably ceases 
above 2 km. 

Moisture. — Relative humidity generally increases up to 
the level of the lowest clouds, i.e. at about i or 2 km., and 
decreases above, but for great heights the hair hygrometer 
will not give reliable values on account of the low tempera- 
tures encountered. 

The Troposphere and Stratosphere. — Mention has already 
been made of the fact that the mean temperature is the same 
at all levels above 12 km. over Europe. In individual cases 
the lapse-rate generally becomes zero very abruptly, the 
height at which this occurs (H,) varying considerably on 
different days. The region below this point is generally 
known as the troposphere and the region above as the strato- 
sphere. The mean value of H^ varies from 10 km. to 11 km. 
at the different European stations, and shows a marked sea- 
sonal variation with the minimum in February. H,, is about 
13 km. on the average in anticyclones and about 8 km. in 
cyclones. In the concluding pages of the Report mention is 
made of a close connection that is found between H^ and Pg 
(the pressure at 9 km.), and between H^ and T„ (the mean 
temperature of the air column between i km. and 9 km.). By 
the method of Partial Correlation, it is found that if allowance 
is made for the effect of T„, the variations of H„ follow those 
of P9 very closely indeed. There is no obvious reason why 
this should be so. 

Pressure. — ^The mean pressures for the different European 
stations differ by a few millibars at i km., and by rather more 
(about 12 mb.) at 7 km., but above 12 km. the differences 
rapidly diminish, and at 20 km. the pressure is everywhere 
practically the same. Near the equator the mean at 7 km. 
is 430 millibars, as compared with 408 mb. over Europe, but 
the mean at 20 km. differs little from the mean for the same 
height over Europe. 

Wind. — Some information is given by the position of the 
falling place of the registering balloons sent up on the Conti- 
nent, the English ascents being excluded because so many 
balloons fall into the Channel. The mean drift is found to be 
towards S.E. by E. Those balloons which reach great heights 
do not seem to travel farther than those attaining a moderate 
height, so that there is some evidence in support of the theory 
that the wind velocity falls off rapidly with increasing height 
in the stratosphere. 

The Connection between Pressure and Temperature. — Oyer 
Europe, between the levels of i km. and 20 km., the following 


broad rules hold : In high-pressure areas the lower strata 
are warm, the fall of temperature with height continues to 
about 12 km., and the strata above 12 km. are cold. In 
cyclonic areas the lower strata are cold, the vertical tempera- 
ture gradient ceases at a lower level than usual, and above 10 
km. the strata are warm. The temperature of the air depends 
closely upon the pressure and upon the time of year, but except 
quite close to the earth it does not depend upon the direction 
of the wind. 

Since there are strong reasons against supposing that the 
coldness of the lower layers of a cyclone are due to loss of 
heat by radiation, we are driven to ascribe it to dynamical 
cooling. Calculation shows that air at a height of 6 km. in 
an anticyclone would have to rise 2*4 km. on entering a cyclone 
in order to cool dynamically to the temperature of the cyclone. 
On the other hand, air between 12 km. and 14 km. in the 
anticyclone would, on entering the cyclone, have to descend 
I "3 km. in order to warm dynamically to the higher tempera- 
ture of the latter. That a general rise of air does actually 
occur in the .lower parts of a cyclone is proved by the in- 
draught of the surface winds across the isobars. The diffi- 
culty consists in seeing exactly how this upward current is 
induced, how, in fact, cold and heavy air which one would 
expect to be sinking is forced to rise. The solution of this 
problem would constitute a big advance in meteorological theory. 
Atmospheric Stirring measured by Precipitation (L. F. 
Richardson, Roy. Soc. Proc, 96, Aug. 191 9). — Since the aver- 
age water-content of the atmosphere is not increasing, the 
water which descends as precipitation must have been stirred 
up into the atmosphere. Consequently, from a knowledge 
of the mean precipitation at any height taken over the whole 
earth, the mean amount of stirring can be deduced by suitable 
mathematical processes. The heights dealt with are o'5 metre, 
500 metres, and 8,500 metres. Over this range the density 
of the air and the coefficient of stirring cannot be taken as 
being independent of the height, as was done by G. I. Taylor 
Phil. Trans., A, vol. 215, 191 5) in his pioneer work on this sub- 
ject, consequently a more general treatment has been followed. 
In order to measure the stirring, a quantity ^ was used to 
replace the eddy-diffusivity k, of Taylor's equations, | being 
defined by the equation 

?^ _i. ( pbi\ 
hh ~ hp \^ hp) 

where p = pressure 
h — height 
X = mass of water per unit mass of atmosphere. 



It is assumed that in the free air the rainfall at 500 metres does 
not differ materially from that at 0-5 metre, both heights 
being almost always below the level of the rain clouds, so that 
ordinary rainfall statistics can be employed for these heights. 
For the level of 8,500 metres consideration of the mean cloudi- 
ness at that height, together with the size of the ice particles, 
furnishes a rough estimate of the precipitation. From these 
data the following mean values were found for ^ : 


8,500 metres 3 to 180 cm."^ grm.^ sec."^ 
500 ,, 140,000 
0-5 ,, 1,000 or even less. 

The stirring is therefore very much greater at 500 metres than 
at the other levels ; and it is interesting to observe that the 
value found for this height when transformed into its equiva- 
lent value of K, agrees very closely with the mean deduced by 
G. I. Taylor from an analysis of the temperature records at the 
Eiffel Tower. 

Wind Velocity in the Stratosphere (M. J. Rouch, Comptes 
Rendus, June 23, 1919). — ^The notion that the velocity of the 
wind must diminish with increasing altitude on passing from 
the troposphere to the stratosphere, i.e. at a height of about 
1 1 km., is an attractive one from the theoretical point of view, 
and were it found to be true one would be able to determine 
the height of the stratosphere by observations of wind alone. 
During the war a number of pilot-balloon ascents were made at 
coast stations in France, and those which attained to an alti- 
tude of 1 1 km. or more have been tabulated to see whether 
they throw any light upon this question. Taking the velocity 
at 10 km. as a standard of reference, departures from this 
have been calculated to the nearest metre per second, and 
their frequency of occurrence is shown in the following table : 


No.of obs. 



Departures from velocity at lo km. 
—3 —2 —I 1 1 1234 



II km. 




— I 7 




12 „ 




2 — 5 


46 — 4 


13 .. 



— I — 


224 — 


14 .. 




— — — 


2 2 


15 ,. 




— — I 



These figures do not accord with the theory of a falling off of 
the wind, as they tend to show that the wind continues to 
increase with increasing altitude above the base of the strato- 
sphere. It must be borne in mind, however, that such alti- 
tudes are only attained on days specially favourable owing to 


absence of strong winds or cloud. Moreover single theodolites 
were used, and in calculating the height of the balloon it was 
assumed that the rate of ascent was the same at great and at 
moderate altitudes, which has not yet been certainly proved true. 
Rate of Ascent of Pilot Balloons (C. J. P. Cave and J. S. 
Dines, Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc, Oct. 191 9). In a previous paper 
{Q. J. R. Met. Soc, vol. 39, 1913) Dines found, as a result of 
experiments in a balloon shed at Farnborough, the following 
empirical formula connecting the rising velocity in still air 
with the dead weight and free lift of a balloon : 

where V = rising velocity in metres per min. 
L = free lift in grammes. 
W = weight of balloon in grammes, 
and ^ is a constant for a particular balloon. 

It should be noticed that V is directly proportional to this 
quantity q. This formula is now in general use in this country. 
The question of the rate of ascent of a balloon is, however, 
not quite so simple as the above formula implies, and in any 
case the introduction of small lanterns suspended beneath the 
balloon for use in locating its position at night made further 
experiments desirable. These were carried out in the Royal 
Albert Hall. 

A difficulty encountered throughout the work was the 
fluctuation in the speed of the same or similar balloons from 
time to time. A series of observations would yield values of 
q which varied but slightly among themselves, yet which 
differed b}'- as much as 5 per cent, from the mean of a longer 
series. Since no explanation could be found to account for 
this, a large number of observations had to be made when 
investigating any particular point. The first experiments 
were on the effect of loading. By hanging a small weight 
to the neck of a balloon, the rate of ascent was in certain cases 
increased, e.g. with a 30-grm. balloon having 120-grms. lift, 
the variations in q for different loads were as follows : 

Load o 5 10 15 20 30 40 grms. 

q 83-6 87-0 87-4 87-0 84-9 84-7 84-2 

When loaded, the balloon was observed to ascend in a much 
less zigzag course than when in the unloaded state, and it 
was doubtless for this reason that the ascensional velocity 
was greater up to a certain point. 

The next experiments were to determine whether the cotton 
which was normally attached to the balloon to assist in measur- 


ing its rate of ascent had any effect upon the velocity. This 
cotton was unwound by the balloon as it rose, and the interval 
between the times when two small pieces of white paper, 
attached at a measured distance apart, left the ground was 
timed by means of a stop-watch. For balloons whose weight 
varied between 11 gm. and 21 gm., the mean value of q with 
cotton was 8 1*3, and without cotton 83*2, the difference being 
greatest for the smaller balloons. Lastly the effect of hanging 
a small lantern 2 metres below the balloon was studied. The 
weight of the lantern was of course added to the weight of 
the balloon when calculating q. It was found, from a number 
of experiments made on different days, that the mean for q 
without a lantern was 83*5 and with a lantern 83'2, so that the 
lantern had no appreciable effect. The explanation offered 
for this is that the increased air-resistance offered by the 
lantern is practically compensated for by the steadying effect 
of adding this small load, to which allusion has already been 
made. In conclusion, mention should be made of a result 
obtained from many observations, namely, that for balloons 
weighing between 11 gm. and 16 gm. q = 80, and for those 
between 20 and 35 gm. q = 84, on an average. 

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. By Prof. W. C. McC. Lewis, M.A.. D.Sc, 
University, Liverpool. 

Resonance Potentials and lonisation Potentials of Hydrogen. — 
The behaviour of hydrogen molecules and atoms when bom- 
barded by electrons of various velocities, has been investigated 
recently by several independent observers. The importance of 
such investigations hes in the fact that they afford a means of 
obtaining information regarding the structure of the hydrogen 
molecule and atom. The conclusions arrived at may then be 
employed to test the various theories of molecular and atomic 
structure which have been proposed. It is somewhat remark- 
able that, in spite of the care and precautions with which these 
independent investigations have been made, the results are by 
no means wholly concordant. Nevertheless sufficient progress 
has been made in this field to warrant a brief summary of the 
conclusions. Incidentally it may be recalled that a resonance 
potential denotes the energy of an electron which is capable of 
bringing about a change in the molecule of the gas (hydrogen) 
in which, however, no electron is set free, i.e. a change such as 
H2->2H, the dissociation of the molecule into electrically neutral 
atoms. On the other hand, an ionisation potential represents 
the energy which must be imparted to an electron in order 
that, by its collision with an atom or molecule, it may cause 
an electron to be eliminated, i.e. the processes : H2 -^ H2 "^ + 0, 
or H->H+-l-0. 


We shall first of all consider the results obtained by Franck, 
Knipping, and Kruger {Ber. Dentsch. Phys. Ges., 1919, 21, 728). 
As a result of carefully repeated experiments, these investigators 
recognise four distinct stages corresponding to four definite 
changes which the hydrogen molecule can undergo. 

First, there is a weak but appreciable ionisation of the gas 
at 11-5 ± 0-7 volts. This is ascribed to the ionisation of the 
molecule thus: H2->H2'^ + 0, In support of this view 
Franck and his collaborators point out that the ion formed at 
this potential is of molecular, and not atomic, dimensions, thereby 
eliminating the possibility of ascribing the effect to H-^H"*" +0, 
which might be expected to occur at a higher potential. 

Secondly, it has been observed that a resonance potential 
manifests itself (photo-electrically) at 13-6 ± 0-7 volts. This is 
ascribed to a non-electrical process, namely the dissociation of 
the hydrogen molecule into two atoms, one of which is normal, 
the other contains two quanta. This change (reversed) corre- 
sponds to the first line of the Lyman series in the far ultra- 
violet. This potential is written by the authors as (lo-i -{- Q) 
volts, where Q = 3*53 ± 0-25 volts. This term will be con- 
sidered later. 

In the third place, a strong ionisation has been observed 
at 17-1 ± 0-27 volts, which is written as (13-5 + ^) volts. This 
is regarded as the ionisation potential of the hydrogen molecule 
into an atom, a nucleus, and an electron, thus : H2-»H +H"^-f- 0. 

Finally, a new ionisation stage has been observed at the 
very high voltage 30-4 i 0-5, which is written as (2 x 13-5 -f Q) 
volts, and is regarded as corresponding to the most violent change 
of which the neutral hydrogen molecule is capable, namely 
its ionisation into two nuclei and two electrons, thus : 

H2->2H+ + 20. 

The quantity Q (3-53 volts), which seems to occur in at 
least three of the observed stages, is ascribed to the dissociation 
of the hydrogen molecule into neutral atoms. As evidence of 
the general correctness of this view, it is pointed out that 
3*53 volts would correspond to 81,300 cals. per gram-molecule 
of hydrogen, a quantity which agrees fairly well with the heat 
of dissociation of hydrogen, 84,000 cals., as observed by Lang- 
muir. This resonance potential, 3-53 volts, was not observed 
directly, though presumably it was looked for. The photo- 
electric effect produced by it was evidently too weak to manifest 
itself under the experimental conditions employed. It would 
obviously be of the first importance to determine its position 
accurately and directly. 

It may be pointed out that by subtracting stage 3 from 
stage 4 we obtain the value i 3-3 volts as the ionisation potential 
of the hydrogen atom, viz. H -^ H^ + 0. 



Values apparently differing from those of Franck, Knipping, 
and Kruger have been obtained by other workers. Thus Bishop 
as well as Davis and Goucher found, somewhat earlier, that 
ionisation sets in at a potential of about 1 1 volts (already 
discovered by Franck and Hertz), and also that a second ionisa- 
tion potential exists at 15-8 volts. Further, Horton and Miss 
Davies {Proc. Roy. Soc, 1920, 97, A, 23) have recently found 
the following potential stages : 

First, a radiation or resonance potential at a minimum 
electron velocity equivalent to 10-5 volts. This is presumably 
the same as the lo-i volt inferred by Franck and his collabora- 
tors as a possible resonance potential of the molecule. Horton 
ascribes this effect to radiation from the atom, by displacement 
of an electron from one orbit to another. 

Secondly, a further type of radiation resonance is produced 
at 13-9 volts. Horton ascribes this to radiation from the 
molecule. This is presumably the same as the resonance poten- 
tial observed by Franck at 13-6 volts. 

Thirdly, Horton and Miss Davies find that ionisation of the 
gas occurs at 14-4 volts. This value does not appear to have 
any counterpart in the observations of Franck. It may be 
pointed out that 14-4 volts corresponds to the wave length 
84/i/x, which lies fairl3^ close to the accepted value of the dis- 
persional wave length, 86 to Sy/j^/n, obtained from refractive 
index data. Horton ascribes this stage to ionisation of the 
atom, viz. H -> H+ + 0. It will be recalled that the value 
calculated for this process on Franck's data is 13-3 volts. The 
results are discordant. 

Finally, Horton and Miss Davies have observed a second 
type of ionisation at 16-9 volts. It is ascribed to ionisation of 
the molecule, namely H2 -> H + H^ + 0. This is presumably 
the same potential as that observed by Franck and his colla- 
borators at 17-1 volts, to which the same chemical significance 
is attached. Horton and Miss Davies do not appear to have 
observed the 15-8 volt potential of Bishop, Davis and Goucher. 

Although the various values quoted show a rough general 
agreement, the discrepancies seem to be beyond the experi- 
mental error involved in any actual determination. This 
naturally raises the question as regards the interpretation of 
the experimental results. It is impossible at the present time 
to make any definite statement in this connection, but reference 
may be made to a paper by van der Bijl {Physical Rev., 191 7, 
10, 546), who concludes that three causes operate to affect the 
value ascribed to a true ionisation potential. It is evident that 
this aspect of the problem requires further investigation by 
physicists. If reliable and concordant values could be obtained 
for hydrogen and other gases, it would represent a considerable 



advance from the purely chemical point of view, for the energy- 
quantities involved in such submolecular processes must play a 
fundamental part in the " ordinary " chemical changes which 
these substances are known to undergo. '' 


College, London. 

By P. Haas, D.Sc, Ph.D., University 

The generally accepted idea with regard to the action of 
oxidising agents on acetylene is that they break this compound 
down completely to carbon dioxide or else oxalic acid. In 
two recent papers, however, it has been shown that, by care- 
fully regulating the interaction, other products can be isolated. 
Thus it has been shown by Wohl and Braiinig {Chem. Zeit., 
1920, 44, 157) that ozone, suitably diluted with air, acts on 
acetylene in the presence of moisture to produce a mixture of 
glyoxal and formic acid. By spraying water on to the re- 
acting gases, a 2 per cent, solution of glyoxal may be obtained, 
but the concentration may be increased by spraying with the 
glyoxal solution instead of water. The authors suggest a pos- 
sible technical application of this reaction for the preparation 
of indigo by converting the glyoxal into its bisulphite com- 
pound and causing this to react with aniline. The second 
paper referred to is one by Orton and McKie (/. Chem. Soc, 
1920, 117, 283) on the action of nitric acid on acetylene ; by 
varying the conditions of concentration and temperature and 
using metallic salts as catalysts, these authors have been able 
to obtain nitroform and tetranitromethane, the latter in suffi- 
cient yield to make the method a possible source of a high 
explosive from inexpensive materials. 

In the course of a systematic study of the constitution of the 
Disaccharides, Haworth (/. Chem. Soc, 1920, 117, 199) brings 
forward evidence which supports his constitutional formula I — 







— CH— O— C 


O I I O 



I I 









for sucrose as against Fischer's formula II. It will be seen 
that the difference between the two formulse Hes in the fructose 
moiety, which in the case of Fischer's formula is represented 
as having a butylene oxide structure, whereas in formula I it 
contains the ethylene oxide complex. Evidence in favour of 
the latter constitution is furnished by the hydrolysis with 0*4 
per cent, hydrochloric acid of a partially methylated sucrose, 
namely heptamethyl sucrose ; this compound yielded a mix- 
ture of tetramethyi fructose and trimethyl glucose, which two 
compounds could be readily separated by distillation at the 
Gaede pump. 

The tetramethyi fructose has not the butylene oxide struc- 
ture indicated in formula III , and being very unstable towards 
permanganate, it conforms in general to the new type of 
hexoses known as ethylene oxide sugars ; from the fact of its 
giving on oxidation a lactone, formula IV is assigned to the 
new tetramethyi fructose, since this formula readily accounts 
for the formation of an a.-hydroxyacid which must have been 
the precursor of the lactone. 

CH3 • OMe CHaOMe 

I I 


I 0/1 


O I I 

CH • OMe CH • OMe 

I I 

— CH CH • OMe 

I I 



The fact that sucrose itself, on hydrolysis, yields glucose and 
ordinary butylene oxide fructose is explained by the assump- 
tion that the ethylene oxide form of fructose is really formed 
in the first instance, but that it undergoes a molecular trans- 
formation into the butylene oxide form at the moment of 
cleavage ; when, as in heptamethyl sucrose, the hydroxyl 
groups are protected, no such transformation can take place. 
The existence of a fructose of the ethylene oxide type is of con- 
siderable interest in view of the evidence for the existence of 
an ethylene oxide glucose (cf. Irvine, Fyfe, and Hogg, /. Chem. 
Soc, 191 5, 107, 524). 

In a paper entitled, " Lead Triaryl, a Parallel to Triphenyl- 
methyl " Krause and Schmitz {Berichte, 1919, 52, [B], 2165) 
describe a crystalline lead tri-p-2-xylyl, Pb(C6H3Me2)3, in which 


the lead is attached to carbon atoms by fewer than four 
valencies ; the new compound, which is prepared by the addi- 
tion of finely powdered lead chloride to an ethereal solution 
of magnesium p-2-xylyl bromide, gives molecular weight deter- 
minations agreeing with the formula [(C8H9)3Pb]2. It is 
assumed that the lead atoms are united in much the same 
manner as the carbon atoms of the triaryl methyls. The 
substance is readily attacked by bromine, giving lead tri-p-2- 
xylyl bromide ; although in solution it is rapidly and com- 
pletely decomposed on exposure to light, the solid is remark- 
ably stable towards air. 

GEOLOGY. By G. W. Tyrrell, A.R.C.Sc. F.G.S.. University, Glasgow. 

Economic Geology. — During 191 8 the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom was still almost exclusively occupied with 
economic work of military or commercial importance {Sum- 
mary of Progress for 191 8, 191 9, p. 70). In the summary of 
progress the lead- and zinc-mines of Scotland are specially 
treated. There is also an interesting account of the bauxitic 
fireclay of North Ayrshire, which has proved of great value 
as a refractory. This occurs in the Millstone Grit, and over- 
lies a series of decomposed basic lavas. Its intimate associa- 
tion with beds rich in iron and resembling laterite suggests 
that its origin was similar to that of bauxite. The compact, 
non-porous character of the clay may be due to subsequent 
silicification, but it may originally have been deposited in its 
present form. 

An important monograph, by E. C. Harder, on iron-depositing 
bacteria and their geological relations, has been published by 
the United States Geological Survey {Prof. Paper, 113, 191 9, 
p. 89). Harder shows that in addition to the iron bacteria 
proper, it is probable that many of the common bacteria of 
soil and water cause the precipitation of ferric hydroxide from 
solutions containing iron salts of organic acids. The second 
part of the work contains an excellent review of sedimentary 
iron ores and the part played by organic agencies, including 
bacteria, in their deposition. 

Several reports have recently been issued on the iron-ore 
deposits of the United Kingdom (F. H. Hatch, " Recent Iron 
Ore Developments in the United Kingdom," Geol. Mag. 1919, 
pp. 387-97 ; B. Smith, " Iron Ores : Haematites of West Cumber- 
land, Lancashire, and the Lake District," Mem. Geol. Surv., 
Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, 19 19, 
8, p. 182 ; T. F. Sibly, "The Haematites of the Forest of Dean 
and South Wales," ibid., 10, p. 93 ; T. C. Cantrill, et alii, "Sundry 
Unbedded Ores of Durham, East Cumberland, North Wales, 


Derbyshire, etc.," ibid., 9, p. 87 ; M. Macgregor, et alii, "The 
Iron Ores of Scotland," 1920, 11, p. 236). For the Cumberland 
ores Mr. Bernard Smith arrives at the conclusion that the iron 
has been derived by solution from the overlying New Red 
Sandstones, and has been deposited by metasomatic replace- 
ment in the underlying Carboniferous Limestone, the solutions 
travelling along faults and other fissures. A similar view is 
held by Prof. Sibly in regard to the iron ores in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of the Forest of Dean. 

The iron ores of Scotland are classified as follows : i. Bog 
ores of recent origin ; 2. Haematite ores of different ages ; 3. 
Carboniferous clayband ores ; 4. Carboniferous blackband ores ; 
5. Jurassic ores. Of these the most important economically 
are the claybands and blackbands ; but the ironstones of 
the Millstone Grit volcanic rocks in Ayrshire, although not 
likely to be of economic value, are perhaps of the greatest 
scientific interest, as they are probably of lateritic origin. 
This view is supported by their association with the bauxitic 
claj^s above-mentioned. 

Recent developments in the great iron-ore deposits of 
Kiruna (Swedish Lappland) have led to a modification of Dr. 
Per Geijer's well-known views as to their origin {Sver. Geol. 
Undersok, 191 8, Arsbok 12, No. 5, p. 22). He has found con- 
tact metamorphic phenomena in the hanging wall of the ore 
bed that correspond exactly to those hitherto exclusively found 
o-n the footwall side. The ore body is now consequently be- 
lieved to be intrusive rather than extrusive. Dr. Geijer thus 
returns to Stutzer's original view, but regards the ore body as 
a sill rather than a dyke. The enclosing porphyry bodies are 
still believed to be of extrusive origin. 

A useful summary of ore genesis in the Archaean of India 
is presented by Dr. L. L. Fermor in his presidential address to 
the Geological Section of the sixth Indian Science Congress 
{Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1919, 15, pp. 170-95). He deals 
with the syngenetic sedimentary deposits exemplified by iron 
and manganese ores ; syngenetic igneous deposits typified by 
chromite ores in serpentine ; and epigenetic deposits, such as 
lodes of copper, lead, zinc, and gold, due to granitic intrusion 
into the Dharwar (Archaean) sediments. 

According to W. R. Jones {Bull. Inst. Min. and Metal, March 
1920, 186, pp. 1-27) the tin and tungsten deposits of the 
world are to be classified as follows : i . Segregation deposits ; 
2. Contact metamorphic deposits ; 3. Pegmatoid deposits (in 
pegmatites, aplites, quartz-porphyries, andrhyolites) ; 4. Quartz 
vein deposits ; 5. Replacement deposits. From his study 
it appears that cassiterite is a higher temperature mineral than 
wolframite ; and deposits in which wolframite and cassiterite 


occur in intimate association are formed in a lower temperature 
zone than the bulk of tin deposits free from wolfram. 

J. Coggin Brown and A. M. Heron describe the distribution 
of ores of tin and tungsten in Burma {Rec. Geol. Surv. India, 
1919, 50. pt. 2, pp. 101-21). 

In a paper entitled " Notes on Principles of Oil Accumula- 
tion " {Journ. Geol., 1919, 27, pp. 252-62) A. W. McCoy details 
important experiments showing that liquid hydrocarbons form 
in bituminous shales at ordinary temperatures under a pres- 
sure of 5,000-6,000 lbs. per square inch, applied in such a way 
that differential movement can take place. Since shales of 
this character are generally abundant in oil-fields, McCoy 
believes that oil is produced therein by pressure in areas of 
local differential movement. Further experiments show that 
the accumulation of the oil into commercial pools is accom- 
plished by the agency of capillary water. 

W. F. Jones presents evidence that oil-pools in the Penn- 
sylvania and Oklahoma fields have only slight and indirect 
relationships with the tectonic structures of these rocks {Econ. 
Geol., 1920, 15, pp. 81-7). They appear to be aligned parallel to 
the extension of ancient shore lines, the sources of supply 
being lagoonal areas along such coast lines. The present posi- 
tions and shapes of the pools closely conform to these under- 
lying or overlying sources of supply, no wide lateral move- 
ment having taken place. Acceptance of this view has the 
important practical corollary that oil may be found if drilled 
for in areas hitherto considered tectonically unsuitable. 

Sedimentary Rocks. — In an interesting paper on the origin of 
Cretaceous flint W. A. Richardson {Geol. Mag., 1919, pp. 535-47) 
demonstrates a striking inverse relation between the amounts 
of silica disseminated through the chalk and that segregated 
as flint. He further shows that the rhythm of flint deposition 
has a considerable degree of resemblance to the Liesegang 
banding. A study of the distribution of flint strongly sup- 
ports the hypothesis that the substance is due to rhythmic 
precipitation from solutions diffusing through the chalk at the 
time of uplift of that formation. 

The chert of the Wreford and Foraker limestones of Kansas 
and Oklahoma is believed by Twenhofel {Amer. Journ. Sci., 
1919, 47, pp. 407-29) to be due mainly to the replacement of un- 
consolidated limestone, the silica being derived from silica in 
solution which was mingled with the sediments, from silica in 
solution in the sea water, and from solutions of organic or 
other silica, or of silicates, deposited with the sediments. 

Another paper by Twenhofel on Pre-Cambrian and Car- 
boniferous algal deposits in certain American localities (Amer. 
Journ. Sci., 1919, 48, pp- 339-52) again emphasises the significant 


part taken by calcareous algae in limestone formation. Twen- 
hofel introduces the term ccenoplase for the incrusting or 
laminated calcareous structures precipitated by algae. 

In a paper on the gypsum-breccia of Chellaston (Derbyshire), 
Bernard Smith shows that the gypsum was laid down in its 
present position as such, and has suffered no appreciable 
alteration or addition since its original deposition {Quart. Jonrn. 
Geo.Soc, 1919, 74, pt.3, pp.173-203). There is no evidence that 
the rock was ever anhydrous. When anhydrite is present, the 
evidence favours the view that it, too, is an original mineral, 
deposited in the same manner as, and in sequence with, gyp- 
sum. The brecciation of the Chellaston gypsum is due to the 
instability of the cover overlying isolated masses of soft gypsum 
which fill hollows in the Keuper Marl. 

H. A. Baker has studied the petrography of the pebbles of 
quartzite and siliceous flint-conglomerate in the Oldhaven 
pebble-beds of the London Basin {Geol. Mag., 1920, pp. 62-70), 
and has arrived at the conclusion that they are rolled fragments 
of sarsen and pudding-stone derived from the Woolwich and 
Reading beds. 

A study of the pebbles of the Middle Bunter Sandstones of 
the Liverpool district has been made by T. A. Jones {Proc. 
Liverpool Geol. Sac, 1920, 12, pp. 201-308). The varied assem- 
blage has considerable resemblance to that of the Midland beds 
of the same age. A distinctive group of tourmaliniferous rocks 
points to derivation of the material from a southern or south- 
western source. This view is supported by the discovery of a 
pebble with Ordovician fossils within the district. 

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks. — Dr. A. Marker's 
Anniversary Address as President of the Geological Society 
{Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1919, 74, pt. i, pp. Ixiii-lxxx) is an 
illuminating study of the process of metamorphism under the 
title, " Present Position and Outlook of the Study of Meta- 
morphism in Rock Masses." Metamorphism, defined as the 
response in rocks to changed conditions of temperature 
and stress, is treated throughout as a problem in physical 
chemistry, which involves the application of the phase rule and 
the conception of equilibrium. Shearing stress is regarded 
as a factor of importance co-ordinate vv^ith temperature in 
governing mineralogical changes in solid rocks. It favours 
the production of a characteristic suite of minerals, sericite, 
chlorite, albite, the epidote-zoisite group, amphiboles, etc., 
as opposed to such minerals as anorthite, potash felspar, 
augite, olivine, and andalusite, which are products of thermal 
metamorphism, wherein the dynamic element has been sub- 
ordinate or absent. These groups are designated as stress and 
anti-stress minerals respectively. 


A paper by Dr. A. Holmes on the Pre-Cambrian and asso- 
ciated rocks of Mozambique is an important contribution to 
igneous and metamorphic petrology (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
1 91 9, 74, pt. I, pp. 31-98). Certain gneisses of the region are 
believed to be due to concordant injection of granitic magma 
into a series of ancient sediments, of which the argillaceous 
facies became granitised with the production of biotite-gneisses, 
whilst the calcareous and dolomitic facies formed hornblendic 
and garnetiferous gneisses by interaction with the granite. A 
novel feature is the correlation of some of the gneisses and 
granites by means of the lead-uranium ratio in their zircons. 
The Pre-Cambrian age of a majority of the rocks in the 
basal complex of Mozambique is thus demonstrated. 

Dr. A. L. du Toit presents an excellent study of the con- 
tact metamorphism of dolomitic limestone in Natal {Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc, 1920, 75, pt. 2, pp. 119-37). Granitic ema- 
nations have produced more or less regular zones in adjacent 
marbles, of which the innermost is rich in diopside and often 
in scapolite, with forsterite, phlogopite, chondrodite, and spinel 
farther out. Dedolomitisation is usually perfect ; and in 
some areas beyond the silicate zone the dolomite has been 
deprived of the bulk of its magnesia, and has been changed 
into coarsely crystalline calcite. This change, termed calci- 
tisation, has probably been due to the action of carbonated 
waters during the cooling of the plutonic complex. 

F. L. Hess introduces the term tadite as a general name for 
the rocks formed by the contact metamorphism of limestone, 
dolomite, or other soluble rocks, into which foreign matter from 
the intruding magma has been introduced by the agency of 
hot solutions or gases {Amer. Journ. Set., 1919, 48, pp. 377-8). 

Other important references are listed below. 

Economic Geology : 

Holmes, A., Non-German Sources of Potash, Geol. Mag., 1919,251-4, 

pp. 340-50. 
Whitman, A. R., Difiusion in Vein-Genesis at Cobalt, Econ. Geol., 1920, 

15, pp. 136-49. 
Whitehead, W. L., The Veins of Cobalt, Ontario, Ibid., pp. 103-35. 
Wilson, M. E., Geology and Mineral Deposits of a Part of Amherst Town- 
ship, Quebec, Geol. Siirv., Canada, 1919, Mem. 113, p. 54. 
O'Neill, J. J., Preliminary Report on the Economic Geology of Hazelton 

District, British Columbia, Geol. Survey, Canada, 1919, Mem. 110, pp. 51. 
Bateman, A. M., and McLaughlin, D. M., Geology of the Ore Deposits 

of Kennecott, Alaska, Econ. Geol., 1920, 15, pp. 1-80. 
Stuart, M., Galena Deposits of North-Eastern Putao, Rec. Geol. Surv., 

India, 1919, 50, pt. 3, pp. 241-54. 
Stigand, I. A., The Origin of Petroleum, Mining Mag., 1920, 22, pp. 11-22. 
Dowling, D. B., et alia. Investigations in the Gas and Oil Fields of Alberta, 

Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, Geol. Surv., Canada, 1919, Mem. 116, 

p. 89. 


Stratigraphy : 

Knopf, A., A Geologic Reconnaissance of the Inyo Range and the Eastern 
Slope of the Sierra Nevada, Cal., U.S. Geol. Surv., Profess. Paper, 110, 
1919, p. 130. 

Thorpe, M. R., Structural Features of the Abajo Mountains, Utah, Amer. 
Journ. Sci., 1919, 48, pp. 379-89. 

Baker, C. L., Contributions to the Stratigraphy of Eastern New Mexico, 
Amer. Journ. Sci., 1920, 49, pp. 99-126. 

Field, R. M., The Middle Ordovician of Central and South-Central Penn- 
sylvania, Amer. Journ. Sci., 1919, 48, pp. 403-38. 

Savage, T. E., The Devonian Formations of Illinois, Amer. Journ. Sci.. 1920, 
49, pp. 169-82. 

Thomson, J. A., The Geology of the Middle Clarence and Ure Valleys, East 
Marlborough, New Zealand, Trans. New Zealand Inst., 1919, 51, pp. 289- 
• 349. 

MINERALOGY. By Alexander Scott, M.A.. D.Sc. 

Synthetic Mineralogy. — Since this branch of the subject was last 
considered in these reports (Science Progress, 14, 38, 1919), 
several papers of considerable importance have appeared. The 
ternary system CaO— MgO— SiOa has been investigated by J. B. 
Ferguson andH. E. Merwin(^mer./owrM. Sa.,48, 81, 1919). Since 
two of the three binarysystems of the componentoxides are some- 
what complicated, the ternary system, as might be expected, is 
more complex than any of those hitherto investigated in the 
Geophysical Laboratory, In addition to the simple oxides, the 
forms stable in contact with the melt include three calcium 
silicates, one of which is pseudowollastonite, the two magnesium 
silicates, clinoenstatite and forsterite, and four ternary com- 
pounds. Of the last, two correspond to the minerals diopside 
and monticellite, while the other two are compounds which 
have not been prepared hitherto, their composition being 
SCaO . 2MgO . 6Si02 and 2CaO . MgO . 2SiO . The latter com- 
pound is regarded as akermanite, as not only are the optical 
properties in agreement with those of the Italian example of 
this mineral, but the formula does not differ radically from 
that (8CaO .4MgO .9Si02) ascribed to the natural material by 
W. T. Schaller {Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv., 610, 109, 1916). Aker- 
manite was regarded by J. H. L. Vogt [Mineralbildung in 
Schmelzmassen, 96, 1892; Die Silikatschmelzlosungen, 1, 49, 
1903), who considered it an essential constituent of melilite, 
as calcium silicate, in which part of the lime was replaced by 
magnesia. This explanation was negatived by the failure of 
A. L. Day and E. S. Shepherd {Amer. Journ. Sci., 22, 280, 1906) 
to find such a compound in their investigation of the system 
CaO— SiOa, and the problem of the constitution of akermanite 
has hitherto remained unsolved. 

Both monticellite and the compound 5CaO . 2MgO . 6SiO, 
form solid solutions, but these, hke the pure compounds, tend 


to decompose below their melting temperatures. Diopside 
forms solid solutions with clinoenstatite, but not with forsterite 
or pseudowoUastonite. The relationship of wollastonite and 
the ternary compounds is discussed in a further paper by the 
same authors {Amer. Journ. Set., 48, 165, 19 19). From a partial 
investigation of the solidus, it is found that wollastonite can 
take up I 7 per cent, of diopside and over 60 per cent, of aker- 
manite in solid solution, while the high temperature form, 
pseudowoUastonite, is capable of taking up only a trace and 
23 per cent, respectively. 

A detailed examination of the wollastonite solid solutions has 
been made and the inversion and decomposition temperatures 
determined. The appearance of such phases as pseudowoUas- 
tonite at temperatures far below the inversion-point is con- 
sidered to be an example of the operation of Ostwald's rule 
regarding unstable intermediate phases, which are so prominent 
in the case of the silica minerals. 

The systems CaO-MgO-ALA and MgO-AlaO^-SiOa have 
been re-examined by A. Meissner [Zement, 8, 296, 308, 191 9; 
Journ. Chem. Soc, 118, 39, 1920), but, according to the avail- 
able abstracts, the results are not, so far as the latter system 
is concerned, in agreement with the results of G. A. Rankin and 
H. E. Merwin [Amer. Journ. Set., 45, 301, 191 8). The problem 
of the calcium ferrites and aluminates has undergone further 
investigation by E. D. Campbell {Journ. Ind. Eng. Chem., 11, 
116, 1 91 9). His results, which are in agreement with those of 
R. B. Sosman and H. E. Merwin {Journ. Wash. Acad. Set., 6, 
532, 1 91 6), indicate the existence of only two calcium ferrites, 
2CaO . Fe203 and CaO . Fe203, there being no evidence of the 
formation of the other compounds suggested by E. Kohlmeyer 
and S. Hilpert {Ber.,A2, 2581, 1909). Mixed crystals of calcium 
ferrite and aluminate have also been prepared, and it is found 
that these can take up less lime in solid solution than the pure 
aluminates (cf. E. S, Shepherd, G. A. Rankin, and F. E. Wright, 
Zeit. anorg. Chem., 71, 19, 191 1 ; Amer. Journ. Set., 39, i, 191 5). 
The application of recent synthetic work on the system 
CaO — AlijOa — SiOa to the study of slags is discussed by 
B. Neumann {Stahl u. Eisen, 38, 953, 191 8). 

Although several hydrated ferric oxides are usually described 
in books on mineralogy, the nature of these minerals has long 
been in doubt. Despite the opinion of J. M. van Bemmelen 
{Zeit. anorg. Chem., 20, 185, 1899) that the amorphous " hy- 
drates " were merely colloidal mixtures, these have been re- 
garded by O. Ruff {Ber., 34, 3417, 1901) and others as definite 
compounds. The minerals have been subjected to an elaborate 
examination by E. Posnjak and H. E. Merwin {Amer. Journ. 
Set., 47, 311, 1919), and they find that no series of hydrates 


exists, and that the only definite compound is the monohydrate, 
FeaOj . HaO. All the others are amorphous colloidal mixtures, 
but the monohydrate exists in two crystalline forms, goethite 
and lepidocrocite, both of which occur in nature. No crystal- 
line hydrate, however, has been prepared synthetically. The 
fibrous mineral, turgite, whose composition is approximately 
2Fe203.H20, is regarded as a solid solution of goethite and 
haematite, with possibly some absorbed water. L. J. Spencer 
{Min. Mag., 18, 339, 1919), on the other hand, concludes, on 
the basis of its optical properties and dehydration phenomena, 
that turgite should be regarded as a definite mineral species. 

The conclusions of R. B. Sosman and J. C. Hostetter {Journ. 
Amer. Chem. Soc.,28, 807, 1188, 1916), regarding the existence 
of a series of solid solutions of haematite and magnetite, are 
called in question by T. M, Broderick (E'cow. Geo/., 14, 353, 1919). 
The latter admits the possibility of solid solutions, but holds 
that many of the natural intermediate forms show a lack of 
homogeneity when examined microscopically by metallographic 

An interesting note by J. B. Ferguson {Journ. Wash. Acad. 
Set., 9, 539, 1 919) reveals the fact that ferrous oxide in lavas 
is not oxidised to any great extent by steam at high tempera- 
tures, and hence a high content of ferric oxide in a magma is 
not incompatible with the presence of much steam. A theo- 
retical paper on the relations between the lower oxides of iron 
and oxygen, by A. Smits and J, M. Bijvoet {Proc. Akad. Am- 
sterdam, 21, 386, 1 91 9), may also be mentioned. 

The ortho- and meta-silicates of the alkaline earth and 
related metals have been prepared by F. M. Jaeger and H. S. 
van Klooster {Sprechsaal, 62, 256, 1919), and some of the 
optical properties determined. A linear relation between the 
melting-points of the metasilicates and the atomic weights of 
the metals is found to hold in certain groups. In a further 
paper, C. N. Fenner {Journ. Soc. Glass Tech., 3, 116, 1919) 
reiterates his conclusions on the stability of the silica minerals, 
while a revised theoretical explanation of the same system is 
given by A. Smits and K. Endell {Zeit. anorg. Chem., 106, 143, 

BOTANY. By E. J. Salisbury, D.Sc, F.L.S., University College, London. 

The group of the Actinomyces has been the subject of several 
important papers, notably those of Drechsler (5o/. Gaz. 191 8), 
Waksman {Journ. Bacteriology, 191 9, and Soil Science, 19^9), 
and Waksman and Curtis {Soil Science, 191 8). For a long 
time placed with the Bacteria, the group differs in the posses- 
sion of true branching, which is profuse, in the fungal t3^pe of 


the Conidia, and in the terminal growth. The septa are 
sparse and irregular in their distributicm, whilst owing to the 
narrowness of the hyphse (o'5-r2 /i) little is known as to 
the cytology. Metachromatic granules are present in the vege- 
tative parts, and in the spores there are present granules of 
uniform size and with the staining properties of nuclei. 

Actinomycetes occur abundantly in many soils, particularly 
those rich in undecomposed organic matter, in consequence 
of which they tend to attain a maximum frequency in the 
autumn. Of the 25 soils from different localities studied by 
Waksman and Curtis the average number per gram of soil 
was 870,500 as compared with 4,245,000 bacteria. Like the 
latter, there is a decrease with increasing depth, but in rela- 
tion to the bacteria a proportional increase. Waksman (191 9) 
in an extensive paper deals with the features and behaviour 
of a number of species on culture media. This author finds 
that for most species the minimum temperature is below 18- 
20°, and the maximum above 40°. Whilst they will not grow 
under strictly anaerobic conditions, several are semi-anaerobic. 
Most are actively proteolytic, producing ammonia and amino- 
acids as a result of their metabolism. Starch affords one of 
the best sources of carbon, though most species can also 
assimilate dextrose, maltose, lactose, mannite, glycerine and 
inulin. All liquefy gelatin and nearly all reduce nitrates. A 
few species are capable of utilising cellulose. The paper is 
accompanied by a key for the identification of species by 
means of their biochemical reactions. 

Genetics, etc. — According to Dorsey {Genetics, September 
1 9 1 9), the American varieties of Plum are self-sterile, but though 
aborted grains were found in all cases, this is seldom complete 
or the cause of sterility. There are three successive periods at 
which the pistils are shed, viz. {a) immediately after flower- 
ing, {b) two to four weeks after blooming when fertilisation 
has not occurred, (c) four to six weeks after blooming when 
fertilisation has been effected but the embryo development 
has been checked. The cause of sterility is attributed to the 
slow growth of the pollen tubes conditioned by genetic con- 

A race of Fagopyrum tataricum has been studied by Zinn 
{Genetics, November) in which the number of carpels varied from 
3 to 25 with 4 carpels as the mode. The perigones also exhibit 
a varying number of segments (5-18) with 5 as the mode, and 
there was positive correlation between the number of seg- 
ments and the number of carpels. Selection, whether of 
normal or abnormal seeds, appeared to have no effect on the 
type of variability. High temperature and humidity favoured 
the development of abnormal flowers, which also were most 


frequent on the basal regions of the plant and after the second 
week of the flowering period. 

The variation in the different whorls of the flower has 
been studied in further members of the Ranunculaceae by 
Sahsbury (Ann. Bot. January). The two species investigated, 
viz. Anemone apennina and Clematis vitalba, show the periodic 
type of meristic variation " curve " even more strikingly than 
some of the species previously studied. In the former there 
is an obvious correlation between the number of perianth 
segments and the number of stamens. " Branched " carpels 
were observed in several examples of both species. 

M. Ikeno {Rev. Gen. de Bot.) has cultivated a race of Plan- 
tago major termed contracta which is recessive to the so-called 
type. When these recessives were self-fertihsed, however, 
the offspring showed a certain number (0*5-10 per cent.) 
of reversions to the type. On self-fertihsing the reversions 
they proved to be heterozygous and segregated in the normal 
manner into var. typica and var. contracta. 

Yampolski (Amer. Jour. Bot., December) deals with the sex 
intergrades of Mercurialis annua. At the one extreme are 
purely female plants, at the other purely male, whilst in be- 
tween are a series of which, in the author's cultures, some were 
prevailingly male with from i to 47 female flowers, other pre- 
vailingly female with from i to 32 male flowers. The male 
flowers bear normally 8 stamens, and the female a bi- or tri- 
carpellary ovary, but hermaphrodite flowers also occur with 
only I to 6 stamens in which both types of sporophyll appear 
to be functional. 

Of 50 plants raised in Fi from a prevailingly female parent, 
all showed the same sex-tendency, and this was maintained in 
F, and Fi. Similarly the offspring of prevaiHngly male 
plants were prevailingly male, whilst crosses between the two 
strains yielded a sex ratio of approximately 1:1. The results 
indicate that neither the male nor female gamete can be re- 
garded as heterozygous to sex. 

In a further paper {Amer. Jour. Bot. January) deahng with the 
general question the same author suggests that there may be 
graded potencies for both types of gamete. 

The role of the endosperm has been the subject of numerous 
experimental investigations, and those of Van Tieghem and 
Brown and Morris, in particular, have led to the view that 
the endosperm, though an aid, is not essential for germination, 
and that, in grasses at all events, it is a purely passive store- 
house of food. 

Andronescu {Amer. Jour. Bot.), experimenting upon Zea 
mats, confirms the conclusions of earlier workers, but the chief 
interest of his results is due to the fact that the plants were 


grown on to maturity. Those developed from embryos with- 
out endosperms tend to be shorter with fewer and stouter 
internodes, whilst their general development is retarded. 

Taxonomy. — In the Journal of Botany (January. — March) G. A. Boulenger 
describes a new species of Rosa from Dorset, W. J. Hodgetts a new Desmid, 
Roy a anglia, and J. A. Wheldon a new Lichen, Bilimbia cambrica, from 

In the same Journal Colonel Godfrey figures and describes the essential 
floral distinctions between Epipaciis violacea, E. latifolia and E. viridiflora v. 

Additional species are described belonging to the following genera : 
Aspilia, Crassocephalum, Metalasia, Stocbe, and Vernonia (Compositae), 
Hygrophila, Jtisticia, Rhinacanthus (Acanthaceae), Fai</'e/ia (Borraginaceae), 
Solanum (Solanaceae), Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceas), Crotalaria (Legumi- 
noseae), and Dewevrella (Apocynacese). 

Economic. — Read and Smith [Ins. Sci. and Industry, Aus- 
tralia Bull. 14) have investigated the properties of the fibre of 
Posidonia australis. The fibres have a low tensile strength 
and flexibility, but their commercial value can be greatly in- 
creased by treatment with cold, dilute, mineral acids. The 
ultimate fibres are about i mm. in length and consist of ligno- 
cellulose. They exhibit great resistance to dilute alkalis, but are 
readily affected by the halogens and exhibit a great affinity 
for dyes. Apart from the high value as an insulating medium, 
their use is advocated for coarse fabrics where resistance to 
strain is not important but where resistance to chemical and 
bacterial action is a necessity. 

PLANT PHYSIOLOGT. By Cyril West, D.Sc. (Lond.). A.R.C.Sc, 
Botany School, Cambridge (Plant Physiology Committee). 

Dormancy, or Delayed Germination of Seeds. — Although the sub- 
ject of dormancy, or delayed germination of seeds, is of great 
importance from the economic point of view, and consequently 
has attracted the attention of many workers in the past, it is 
only of recent years that much attention has been directed to 
its physiological aspect. Crocker (" Mechanics of Dormancy in 
Seeds," Amer. Journ. of Bat., iii, 191 6, p. 99) has given an 
excellent summary of our knowledge of the physiology of dor- 
mancy in seeds up to, and including, the year 191 5, and has 
pointed out that, broadly speaking, dormancy, or delayed 
germination of seeds, can be attributed to one or more of the 
following causes : (i) incomplete development of the embryo ; 
(2) impermeability of the testa to water : (3) mechanical re- 
straint offered to the expansion of the embryo and other 
seed-contents by the seed-coats ; (4) inhibition or retardation 
of the passage of gases to or from the embryo by the testa, 
resulting in an accumulation of carbon dioxide within the 


tissues of the embryo or an insufficient supply of oxygen for 
germination ; (5) the necessity of the embryo itself to undergo 
certain after-ripening processes before germination and growth 
under ordinary germinating conditions are possible ; or, lastly 
(6) the induction by various means of a condition of dormancy 
in seeds previously capable of immediate germination. To this 
special form of dormancy Crocker has applied the term " second- 
ary dormancy." This author has also emphasised the fact that 
problems in dormancy lend themselves well to mechanistic 

According to Rose (" After-ripening and Germination of 
Seeds of Tilia, Sambucus, and Rubus," Bot. Gaz., Ixvii, 1919, 
p. 281) freshly harvested seeds of Tilia americana with a 
moisture-content of 10 per cent, or less, or seeds kept in warm 
storage for several months fail to germinate when placed on a 
moist substratum at ordinary room temperatures. He has 
shown by numerous experiments that the germination of the 
seeds of this plant can be brought about by a period of after- 
ripening in moist storage at 0° — 2° C. followed by a sojourn of 
2-3 weeks at io°-i2° C, until germination is well under way. 
To obtain vigorous growth of the young seedlings a still higher 
temperature is essential. During the process of after-ripening 
the hydrogen-ion concentration of the seeds increases, as do 
also the oxidase and catalase activities. 

Freshly harvested seeds of Smnbucus canadensis similarly fail 
to germinate when sown at room temperature ; it was found, 
however, that such seeds, after having been kept in moist soil 
out of doors during the winter, showed a high percentage of 
germination ; but the author was unable to determine whether 
this result was due to the low temperatures obtaining during 
the winter months, as previously suggested by Kinzel (" Frost 
und Licht als beeinfliissende Krafte bei der Samenkeimung," 
Stuttgart, 191 3), to certain constituents of the soil, or to a 
combination of these or other factors. In the case of Rubus 
Idcens Rose found that the dormancy of the seeds was prob- 
ably due to the high breaking strength of the endocarp. Ger- 
mination of the seeds of this plant was unaffected by light or 
by darkness. 

Kidd and West (" The Controlling Influence of Carbon 
Dioxide. IV. On the Production of Secondary Dormancy 
in Seeds of Brassica alba, following Treatment wdth Carbon 
Dioxide, and the Relation of this Phenomenon to the Question 
of StimuH in Growth Processes," Ann. of Bot., xxxi, 191 7, p. 
457) have shown that germination of White Mustard seeds, 
sown in the presence of carbon-dioxide under certain condi- 
tions, can be completely inhibited, and that this inhibition of 
germination is often maintained for long periods (twelve 


months in their experiments, during which period the seeds 
lay on moist sihca sand) after the removal of the seeds to air. 
This condition of secondary dormancy in White Mustard seeds 
can generally be terminated by redrying the seed or by remov- 
ing the seed-coats without drying. No evidence was found 
in support of the hypothesis that changes in the seed-coats had 
occurred during the period of primary inhibition ; on the 
other hand, it was shown that if the testa were removed with 
extreme care the naked embryos remained dormant, and it 
was suggested that a more stable condition of the tissues of 
the embryo had become established during the period of 
primary inhibition under the influence of carbon-dioxide. 
Embryos in this stable condition do not respond to the ordi- 
nary environmental factors under which germination of 
normal embryos takes place. A definite stimulus, chemical or 
mechanical, appears to be necessary to initiate growth (by 
cell-division) of the dormant embryo. 

The recent work of Crocker and Harrison {" Catalase and 
Oxidase Content of Seeds in Relation to their Dormancy, Age, 
Vitality and Respiration," Joiirn. Agric. Research, xv, 191 8, 
p. 137) marks an important advance in our knowledge of the 
physiology of dormant seeds, especially with reference to 
changes in respiration and in catalase and oxidase activity. 
Freshly harvested seeds of Johnson grass, if kept in a ger- 
minator at 20° C, will remain dormant for a year or more. 
That this condition of dormancy is imposed by the structures 
enclosing the embryo and that it is not due to a dormant 
condition of the embryo itself is proved by the fact that their 
removal leads to prompt germination. A marked reduction 
in catalase activity takes place while the seeds are kept in the 
germinator at 20° C, a reduction in catalase activity of 50 per 
cent, occurring during the first month under these conditions 
as compared with the catalase activity of similar seeds under 
ordinary dry-storage conditions. This fall in catalase activity 
is accompanied by a fall in respiratory intensity, whereas a 
gradual rise occurs in the respiratory intensity of the seed 
when dry-stored. If a gradual fall in respiratory activity is a 
phenomenon of general occurrence in imbibed dormant seeds, 
and if it is assumed that the death of such seeds depends upon 
the utilisation and destruction of their food-reserves by respira- 
tion, then this result will have an important bearing on the lon- 
gevity of seeds under natural conditions. In this connection the 
conclusion of Brenchley (" Buried Weed Seeds,'' Journ. Agric. 
Science, ix, 191 8, p. i) that the seeds of certain plants may 
survive burial in the soil for at least fifty-eight years is of interest. 

A number of German plant physiologists have directed 
their attention to the problems associated with the germina- 


tion of " light-sensitive " seeds. It has long been known that 
the seeds of some plants do not germinate in light, whilst others 
do not germinate in the absence of light. For instance, Kinzel 
(" Teleologie der Wirkungen von Frost, Dunkelkeit und Licht 
auf die Keimung der Samen," Ber. d. deidsch hot. Gesellsch., 
XXXV, 1 91 7, p. 581) records his experience with seeds oiAqitilegia 
atrata which were kept on moist blotting-paper in the dark for 
ten years (1907-1917). During the first twelve months only 
10 per cent, of the seeds germinated ; the remaining 90 per 
cent, lay dormant in a perfectly healthy condition for the 
whole period of ten years until exposed to light, when about 
60 per cent, of them germinated in fifty days. Experiments 
conducted by E, Lehmann (" Ueber die minimale Belichtungs- 
zeit, welche die Keimung der Samen von Lythrmn Salicaria 
auslost." Ber. d. deidsch bot. Gesellsch., xxxvi, 191 8, p. 157) 
showed that fully imbibed seeds of Lythrum Salicaria, only 
a negligible quantity of which had germinated in darkness, 
gave a germination of 50 per cent, in 24 hours after a very 
brief (tV second) exposure to a light intensity of 730 candle- 
power at a distance of one metre. 

It has been shown that many organic and inorganic sub- 
stances have the power of partially or completely counter- 
acting the retarding effect of light or of darkness upon the 
germination of light-sensitive seeds. Kiihn (" Dunkelkeimer 
und Substrat," Ber. d. deidsch bot. Gesellsch., xxxiv, 1916, p. 369), 
working with seeds of a number of plants, studied the inter- 
relations of various mineral acids and of light and darkness 
as factors influencing germination. With seeds of Phacelia 
tanacetifolia on filter-paper moistened with distilled water he 
obtained 80 per cent, germinations in the dark, but only 18 
per cent, when exposed to light. By substituting weak solu- 
tions of various mineral acids (o-i M) he was able to raise the 
number of germinations in light to 60-80 per cent. In the 
dark, however, the acids appeared to have no effect upon the 
germination of these seeds. Results of a similar nature were 
obtained with seeds of Solanum Lycopersicum and Amaranthus 
atropurpureus . 

Gassner (" Untersuchungen uber die Wirkung des Lichtes 
und des Temperaturwechsels auf die Keimung von Chloris 
ciliata," Jahrb. d. Hamburger Wiss. Anstalten, xxix, 191 1, 
Beih. 3 : " Ueber die keimungsauslosende Wirkung der Stick- 
stoffsalze auf lichtempfindliche Samen," Jahrb. f. Wiss. Bot., 
Iv, 1915, p. 259 ; and " Beitrage zur Frage der Lichtkeimung," 
Zeitschr. f. Bot., vii, 1915, p. 609), who worked with seeds of 
Chloris ciliata, found that at temperatures above 20° C. light 
exercised a favourable effect upon the germination of these 
seeds, whereas at lower temperatures, i.e. below 20° C, it had 


the reverse effect. Weak solutions of potassium nitrate, on 
the other hand, increased the percentage of germination at 
all the temperatures tested. Thus it would appear that at 
the lower temperatures light and nitrogenous substances do 
not act in a similar way upon the germination of Chloris seeds. 
Gassner also found that nitrates did not penetrate the seeds, but 
were held back by a semipermeable layer of the testa. Hence 
we must look for the direct effect of such substances upon the 
germination of these seeds in changes produced in the testa, 
and not in the embryo. 

The results of germination experiments published last year 
by E. Lehmann (" Ueber die keimfordernde Wirkung von 
Nitrat auf lichtgehemmte Samen von Veronica Tournefortii," 
Zeitschr. f. Bot., xi, 191 9, p. 161) show how complex the pro- 
blems ^of light-sensitive seeds may be. Under ordinary con- 
ditions the seeds of Veronica Tournefortii do not germinate in 
light, and at higher temperatures, e.g. 30° C, do not germinate 
in the light or in the dark. Solutions of potassium nitrate act 
favourably upon the germination of these seeds either in light 
or in darkness, but their effect is much more striking in light. 

Treatment with potassium nitrate in light resulted in an 
increase in the number of germinations of about 80-90 per 
cent, as compared with controls in distilled water. It was also 
found that the higher the intensity of light the greater its 
retarding influence upon the germination, and that potassium 
nitrate was unable to counteract the retarding effect of a light ' 
intensity of 440 candle-power at a distance of one metre. At 
30° C. the nitrate had no effect upon germination either in 
light or in darkness. 

Seeds of Viscum album are generally supposed to require 
a definite resting period of about five months before they are 
capable of germination. This is disproved by Heinricher 
(" Ueber den Mangel^einer durch innere Bedingungen bewirkten 
Ruheperiode bei den Samen der Mistel {Viscum album, L.), 
Sitgungsb. d. Kais. Akad. d. Wiss. in IVien, Math.-naturw. 
Kl., cxxv, Abt. I, 191 6, p. 26), who states that, under suitable 
environmental conditions, e.g. high relative humidity and 
light intensity of 1,600 candle-power, mistletoe seeds can be 
forced to germinate at any time during the winter. 

In the course of an ecological investigation on the ger- 
mination of the seeds of various forest trees, Boerker {Univ. 
Studies, Nebraska, xiv, 191 6, pp. 1-90) studied incidentally the 
effects of light and of various other environmental factors. 
Although he came to the conclusion that light plays a distinct 
part in the problem of seed germination under natural con- 
ditions, he was of the opinion that it acted indirectly by affect- 
ing soil-moisture, evaporation, etc. 


For other recent work on the effect of light upon ger- 
mination the reader is referred to : Lehmann, E,, " Licht- 
keimungsfragen," Zeitschr. f. BoL, vii, 191 5, p. 560 : Khng, F. 
(" Beitrag zur Priifung der Graserkeimung," Jonrn. /. Landw., 
xxxiii, 1916, p. 285) ; Honing, J. A. (" De invloed van het Hcht 
op het keimen van de zaden van verschellende varieteiten van 
Nicotiana iabacum," Bull. Deli Proefstat, No. 7, 1916, pp. 1-14). 

ZOOLOGY. By Prof. Chas. H. O'Donoghue, D.Sc. F.Z.S.. University 
of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. 

Protozoa. — Hegner, in " The Effects of Environmental Factors 
upon the Heritable Characters oiArcella dentata and A. poly pora" 
(Journ. Exp. ZooL, vol. xxxix, Nov. 1919), reared the species 
mentioned under various unusual conditions, to see what effect 
these would have upon certain characters in future generations. 
By submitting them to experimental environmental surround- 
ings, such as water containing a solution of sodium silicate or 
ethyl alcohol, various temperatures and different degrees of 
starvation, it was found that the offspring showed a number 
of distinct variations in the diameter of the shell, the number, 
size, and shape of the spines. To eliminate one source of error, 
the initial specimens were chosen from clones of known size 
and spine character. It was found that, when forms modified 
by this treatment were chosen as parents and were restored to a 
normal environment, their offspring resumed normal characters. 
Other papers include : 

Calkins, " UrolepHs mobilis Engelm : III, Renewal of Vitality through 
Conjugation " {ibid., Oct. 1919) ; Dawson, " An Experimental Study of an 
Amicronucleate Oxytrichia : I, Study of the Normal Animal, with an Account 
of Cannibalism " [ibid., Nov. 191 9) ; and CoUett, " The Toxity of Acids to 
Ciliate Infusoria " {ibid., Nov. 19 19). 

Invertebrata. — Hargitt, in "Germ Cells of Coelenterates : 
VI, General Considerations, Discussion, Conclusions " {Journ. 
Morph., vol. xxxiii, Dec. 1919), has brought to an end a series of 
papers dealing with the subject indicated at the beginning of 
the title. The author claims that in Coelenterates the germ 
cells are first differentiated with the approach of sexual maturity, 
and are not segregated at an early stage of ontogeny. In the 
Hydrozoa the germ cells ma}^ arise from either or both layers 
of the body even in the same individual, and in certain cases 
they have been observed to come directly from differentiated 
body cells. In the Scyphozoa the germ cells are probably 
entodermal in origin. It is further claimed that, in view of 
the evidence obtained from a study of the germ cells, regenera- 
tion, budding, etc., the theory of the continuity of the germ 
cells cannot be regarded as applying to the Coelenterata. 


Other papers include : 

Hausman, " The Orange-striped Anemone {Sagariia Iucxcb), an Ecological 
Study " {Biol. Bull., vol. xxxvii, Dec. 19 19) ; and Bourne, " Observations on 
Arachnactis albida, M. Sars " [Quart. Journ. Micro. Set., vol. Ixiv, Oct. 1919). 

A paper " On a New Type of Nephridia found in Indian 
Earthworms of the genus Pheretina " is pubhshed by Bahl 
{ibid., vol. Ixiv, Oct. 1919). The OHgochsetes and Hirudinea 
in general possess what is designated a meganephric type of 
nephridium, i.e. a few large segmental nephridia opening sepa- 
rately to the exterior. Certain members of both groups also 
have plectonephric varieties, i.e. numerous small nephridia 
opening to ducts which generally lead to the exterior. The 
new type, named " enteronephric," found in Pheretinids, con- 
sists of numerous nephridia opening into systems of ducts, 
which in turn lead into the gut. Small integumentary neph- 
ridia also occur, each opening on to the surface of the body. 
It is pointed out in a footnote that such a type of nephridial 
system raises an interesting question as to the origin of these 
structures, since there is a possibility of their not being deriva- 
tives of the ectoderm. 

Other papers include : 

Hyman, " Physiological Studies on Planaria: III, Oxygen Consumption in 
Relation to Age (Size) Differences " {Biol. Bull., vol. xxxvii, Dec. 1919) ; 
Goodrich, " The Pseudopodia of the Leucocytes of Invertebrates " {Quart. 
Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. Ixiv, Oct. 1919) ; Carrey, " The Nature of the Ferti- 
lisation Membrane of Asterias and Arbacia Eggs " {Biol. Bull., vol. xxxvii, 
Nov. 1919) ; Richards and Donnel, " Notes on the Effect of X-radiation on 
the Development of Cumingia Eggs " {ibid., Oct. 19 19) ; Berry, " Light 
Production in Cephalopods : I, An Introductory Survey" {ibid., Dec. 
1919) ; and Barrows, " The Occurrence of a Rock-boring Isopod along the 
Shore of San Francisco Bay, California" {Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool., vol. xix, 
Dec. 1919). 

Arey and Crozier, in " The Sensory Responses of Chiton " 
{Journ. Exp. Zool., vol. xxix, Oct. 1919), and Crozier and Arey 
in " Sensory Reactions of Chromodoris zebra " {ibid.), record the 
results of a series of investigations on the reactions of these 
two molluscs. In both cases quite well differentiated receptive 
mechanisms were discovered that are able to respond to tactile, 
chemical, and photic stimuli. In the former case it is shown 
that certain reactions vary with age. Both species show a 
complex relationship with the varying conditions of the en- 
vironment. In Chromodoris the animal through its eyes is 
positively phototrophic, and in strong currents the rhinophores 
act as directive organs for negative rheotropism. 

Other papers include : 

Minnich, " The Photic Reactions of the Honey-Bee " {Journ. E-vper. Zool., 
vol. xxix, Nov. 1919) ; Seyster, " Eye-facet Number as Influenced by Tem- 
perature in the Bar-eyed Mutant of Drosophila melanogaster (Ampelophora) " 


{Biol. Bull., vol. xxxvii, Oct. 1919) ; Shinji, " Embryology of Coccids, with 
Especial Reference to the Formation of the Ovary, Origin and Differentiation 
of the Germ Cells, Germ Layers, Rudiments of the Midgut, and the Intra- 
cellular Symbiotic Organisms " (Journ. Morph., vol. xxxiii, Dec. 1919) ; 
Strong, " Roughoid, a Mutant Located to the Left of Sepia, in the Third 
Chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster " [Biol. Bull., vol. xxxvii, Dec. 1919) ; 
and Riley, " Some Habitat Responses of the Large Water Strider, Gerri's 
remigis, Say " {Amer. Nat., vol. liii, Dec. 1919). 

Vertebrata. — Tales of the wonderful power of Echeneis, or 
Remora, the sucking-fish, have crept into zoological hterature 
from the earliest times, and in " On the Use of the Sucking-fish 
for Catching Fish and Turtles : Studies in Echeneis, or Remora, 
III " {Amer. Nat., vol. liii, Dec. 1919), Gudger brings to a con- 
clusion a series of inquiries on this subject. The previous parts 
of this work dealt critically with all the known references to 
the subject in reputable writings, and the sub-title, " Are these 
Accounts Credible? " gives a fair indication of the scope of 
the present instalment. The matter is gone into from the 
point of view of the actual performances of the fish, and the 
author's final summary is, " To the present writer, all the 
evidence at hand sustains and confirms the stories of the living 
fish-hook from the time of Columbus to the present day " ; and 
it is good to find one fable of youthful days has some scientific 

Other papers include : 

Hubbs, " A Comparative Study of the Bones forming the Opercular Series 
of Fishes " {Journ. Morph., vol. xxxiii, Dec. 1919) ; Bellamy, " Differential 
Susceptibility as a Basis for Modification and Control of Development in the 
Frog " {Biol. Bull., vol. xxxvii, Nov. 1919) ; Lillie, " The Early Histogenesis 
of the Blood in Bufo halophilus, Baird and Girard " {Am. Journ. Anat., vol. 
xxvi, Nov. 1919) ; Smith, " The Individuality of the Germ-nuclei during 
the Cleavage of the Egg of Cryptohranchns allegheniensis " {Biol. Bull., 
vol. xxxvii, Oct. 1919) ; Parmenter, " Chromosome Number and Pairs in 
the Somatic Mitoses of Amblystoma tigrinum " {Journ. Morph., vol. xxxiii, 
Dec. 1919) ; Rogers, " Experimental Studies on the Brain Stem : III, The 
Efiects on Reflex Activities of Wide Variations in Body Temperature caused 
by Lesions of the Thalamus " {Journ. Comp. Neur., vol. xxxi, Oct. 1919) ; 
Pohlman, " Concerning the Causal Factor in the Hatching of the Chick, with 
Particular Reference to the Musculus Complexus " {Anat. Rec, vol. xvii, 
Oct. 1919) ; Hoshino, " A Study of Brains and Spinal Cords in a Family of 
Ataxic Pigeons " {Journ. Comp. Neur., vol. xxxi, Dec. 1919) ; and Goodrich, 
" Note on the Reptilian Heart " {Journ. Anat., vol. liii, July 1919). 

In " The Morphology of the Pulmonary Artery of the 
Mammalia " {Anat. Rec, vol. xvii, Dec. 1919) Huntington has 
thrown new light on this subject. In studying the development 
of the pulmonary artery in the cat, he has shown that it does 
not arise as an outgrowth from the ventral region of the sixth 
or pulmonary arch, as is usually stated in textbooks. On the 
other hand, it takes origin from a plexus of vessels derived 
from post-branchial derivatives of the dorsal aorta in the lung 


region. These anastomose in the lung rudiment, and give rise 
to a longitudinal vessel, which is the origin of the pulmonary- 
artery. This finding is considered in relation to its phyletic 
significance, and also the general question of the interpretation 
of this portion of the vascular system in a generalised primitive 
Vertebrate circulation. Lastly, its bearing is shown in the case 
of various anomalies and mutations of the pulmonary artery in 
man and lower Vertebrates. To his numerous studies of the 
albino rat Donaldson, with the assistance of Conrow, has now 
added another, entitled "Quantitative Studies in the Growth of 
the Skeleton of the Albino Rat " {Amer. Journ. Anat., vol. xxvi, 
Nov. 19 1 9). In all a series of 106 skeletons of rats from birth 
to 500 days old were investigated. The bones were weighed 
wet and after drying, thus allowing a determination of their 
water content. It was found that " the proportions of the 
mature skeleton tend to become formed at about weaning-time, 
and the weights and lengths of some long bones early attain 
a fixed relation to the weight of the entire body or the skeleton, 
and that these values can be recovered by the use of a single 
bone." The change in the shape of the long bones during 
growth is also noted, and certain comparisons made with the 
data in man. Rasmussen has recorded the results of a study 
on " The Mitochondria in Nerve Cells during Hibernation and 
Inanition in the Woodchuck {Marmota nionax) " (Journ. Comp. 
Neiir., vol. xxxi, Oct. 191 9). It might be expected that such a 
marked physiological change, both in activity and in condition, 
brought about by hibernation, would probably effect profoundly 
the cells of the entire animal. Counts and estimations gave 
the number of mitochondria per cubic millimetre of cytoplasm 
as varying between 186 and 354, with a remarkable constancy 
in the cells of a given nucleus. There was no noticeable differ- 
ence in the number, size, shape, or staining reactions of animals 
examined before, during, and after hibernation. Furthermore, 
several weeks of inanition following hibernation also proved 
to have no effect. 

Other papers include : 

Cooper, " The Hypophysis Cerebri of the Cahfornia Ground Squirrel, 
Citellus beechii (Richardson) " {Amer. Journ. Anat., vol. xxvi, Nov. 1919) ; 
Dixon, " Notes on the Natural History of the Bushy-tailed Wood Rats of 
California " [Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool., vol. xxi, Dec. 1919) ; Hufifmire, " A Case 
of Persistence of the Left Superior Vena Cava in an Aged Adult " {Anat. 
Rec, vol. xvii, Nov. 1919) ; Isaacs, " The Structure and Mechanics of De- 
veloping Connective Tissue " {ibid., Dec. 1919) ; Ivy, " Experimental Studies 
on the Brain Stem : 11, A Comparative Study of the Relation of the Cerebral 
Cortex to Vestibular Nystagmus " {Journ. Comp. Neur., vol. xxxi, Oct. 1919) ; 
Koch and Riddle, " Further Studies on the Chemical Composition of Normal 
and Ataxic Pigeon Brains " {ibid., Dec. 19 19) ; Komine, " Metabolic Activity 
of the Nervous Sj^stem : IV, The Content of Non-protein Nitrogen in the 
Brain of Rats kept in a State of Emotional and Physical Excitement for 


Several Hours " (ibid.) ; " The Innervation of the Gonads in the Dog " and 
" Experimental Degeneration in the Testis of the Dog," both by Kuntz in 
Anal. Rec, vol. xvii, Dec. 1919 ; Reagan, "On the Later Development of 
the Azygos Veins of Swine " {ibid., Nov. 1919) ; Smith, " Description of a 
Case of Persistent Left Duct of Cuvier in Man " [ibid.) ; Stockard and Papani- 
colau, " The Vaginal Closure Membrane, Copulation, and the Vaginal Plug 
in the Guinea-pig, with Further Considerations of the CEstrus Rhythm " 
(Biol. Bull., vol. xxxvii, Oct. 1919) ; Takenouchi, " Studies on the Reputed 
Endocrine Function of the Thymus Gland (Albino Rat) " {Jonrn. Exp. Zool., 
vol. xxix, Oct. 1919) ; Terry. " The Relation of the Facial Nerve and Otic 
Capsule" [Anat. Rec, vol. xvii, Dec. 1919) ; and Whiting, " Inheritance of 
White Spotting and other Colour Characters in Cats." 

General. — It is far from generally recognised that, in spite 
of having performed no direct experiments upon the subject, 
Charles Darwin came very near to the Mendehan explanation 
of certain phenomena in heredity. Roberts, in " Darwin's 
Contribution to the Knowledge of Hybridisation " {Amer. Nat., 
vol. liii, Dec. 191 9), has gone into this widely overlooked point, 
and by means of a carefully selected series of extracts shown 
Darwin's attitude on the subject in a way that will save the 
reader the necessity of going through his various works. In 
one case, for example, it is pointed out, in reference to one 
quotation, that " the above paragraph comes more nearly being 
a statement of the true nature of the hybrid or hetereozygote 
condition, as Mendel's analysis has revealed it, than any other 
account hitherto published." 

Other papers include : 

Baldwin, " The Artificial Production of Monsters Conforming to a Definite 
Type by Means of X-rays" {Anat. Rec, vol. xvii, Nov. 1919) ; Hooker, 
" Behaviour and Assimilation " {Amer. Nat., vol. liii, Dec. 1919) ; and 
Kappers, " The Logetic Character of Growth." 

ANTHHOPOLOGY. By A. G. Thacker, A.R.C.S.. Zoological Laboratory, 

The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute for the first 
six months of 1919 (vol. xlix) is an exceptionally interesting 
number. The first article is the Presidential Address de- 
livered by Sir Hercules Read, and is entitled "Anthropology 
and War." This subject is one which has been discussed at 
some length from time to time in Science Progress, and the 
present reviewer contributed one article on the subject (July 
191 S). It will be remembered that during the war various 
writers declared that, from the eugenic point of view, war 
was certainly a disaster to the race— wars, that is, of the 
modern type, in which the ranks of the fit are decimated and 
the unfit remain safely at home. This somewhat facile con- 
clusion was disputed by the Editor of this journal and others ; 
and one of the points which I endeavoured to make in the 


above-mentioned article was that on the very principle brought 
forward by the pessimistic writers, it was impossible to be 
sure of the racial effect of a war until we knew the quality 
of those who return from the war as compared with those 
who had gone to the conflict. It was necessary to reckon with 
the possibility that the quality of those who returned from a 
war was so much higher than that of the whole army which 
had originally become engaged, that the quality of the sur- 
vivors, as a whole (namely, the returned soldiers and those 
who had never joined the army) was actually superior to the 
quality of the male population as a whole before the war. 
This possibility appeared to me to be of some interest, and in 
his general discussion of the matter. Sir Hercules Read men- 
tions some statistics which bear upon this point and of the 
existence of which I was unaware in 191 5. The figures in 
question relate to the effects of the Franco-German War. 
The existence of conscription in France made it possible to 
judge of the character of the boy-babies born during and 
after the Franco-German War — to judge them, that is, when 
they had grown to military age. And it was found that 
whilst the generation born during the war— the youths who 
appeared as conscripts in 1890 — ^were, indeed, below the 
average of stature and physique, those born immediately 
after the war were much above the average, which seemed to 
prove that they were the sons of exceptionally fine sires. 
Many factors would, of course, have to be considered ; for 
instance, the inferior quality of the men born during the war 
might, and in some cases certainly would, be caused by the 
privations existing in parts of France during the conflict ; 
but in view of the discussion which has taken place the sta- 
tistics are very interesting and deserve to be widely known. 

In connection with this subject, another paper may be 
mentioned, which appears in that excellent journal the 
American Naturalist (vol. liv. No. 630, Jan.-Feb. 1920). This 
paper is by Prof. Raymond Pearl and is entitled " Certain 
Evolutionary Aspects of Human Mortality Rates " ; and it 
will be found as suggestive as papers in the American Natural- 
ist usually are. 

Mr. J. Reid Moir's recent work has been largely directed 
towards a demonstration of the possible evolution of the 
rostro-carinate implements into the ordinary paleolithic imple- 
ments of the so-called river-drift type. Another of his papers 
bearing upon this and cognate questions will be found in the 
above-mentioned number of the Journal of the Royal Anthro- 
pological Institute. The paper in question is under the title : 
" On the Occurrence of Humanly-fashioned Flints, etc., in the 
' Middle Glacial ' Gravel at Ipswich, Suffolk." 


The Italian anthropologists have in the past made more 
elaborate attempts than others to divide mankind into a 
large number of races or subspecies, according to definite 
anatomical criteria. The attempts have often over-reached 
themselves, more particularly as the results obtained have 
often been in no way correlated with the advance of Men- 
delian research. But in connection with this line of investi- 
gation an important paper by Prof. V. Giuffrida-Ruggeri 
should be mentioned. The paper occurs in Archivio per 
I'Antropologia e la Einologia (vol. xlvii), and is entitled, 
" Prime Linee di un' Antropologia Sistematica dell' Asia." 

One of the most remarkable finds of Anglo-Saxon remains 
ever made has recently come to light through the investigations 
of Captain Vaughan Williams, of Manor Lodge, Old Windsor. 
The find was made by Captain Williams in Windsor Park, 
where the park borders on Egham parish. Captain Williams 
had suspected that Edward the Confessor had a palace near 
this spot, and in the result, numerous Anglo-Saxon remains 
were unearthed. It was not only Saxon relics which were 
found, however. The site appears to have been occupied by 
the Romans ; and some of the Saxon relics belong to the 
Pagan period. A perfect example of a Saxon kitchen was 
found. A full and interesting account of these researches will 
be found in the Morning Post for January 13, and the in- 
vestigations are being continued. 

The following papers on social anthropology may be re- 
corded : 

In the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. xlix, Jan.-June 
191 9) : " The AppHcation of Anthropological Methods to Tribal Develop- 
ment in New Guinea," by E. W. P. Chinnery ; " Rain-making among the 
Lango," by J. H. Driberg ; and " Social Organisation in San Cristoval, 
Solomon Islands," by C. E. Fox. In Man: "Mothers and Children at 
Zuni, New Mexico," by Elsie Clews Parsons (November) ; " Relationships 
in Central America," by A. C. Breton (December) ; and " The Kopiravi Cult 
of the Namau, Papua," by A. C. Haddon (December). And in Biometrika 
(vol. xii, pts. 3 and 4, Nov. 1919) : " The Inheritance of Psychical Char- 
acters," by Karl Pearson. 

And the following papers on physical anthropology may 
be recorded : 

In the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (as above) : " Anthro- 
pological Observations on German Prisoners of War," by F. G. Parsons. 
In the Proceedings of the Royal Society (Series B, vol. xci, No. B635 : " A 
Preliminary Study of the Energy Expenditure and Food Requirements of 
Women Workers," by O. Rosenhein ; and " Report on the Metabolism of 
Female Munition Workers," by M. Greenwood, C. Hodson, and A. E. Tebb. 
In Rivista di Antropologia (vol. xxii) : " LTndice Trocanterioco e LTndice 
Pubico," by Prof. V. Giuffrida-Ruggeri. 


And the following papers on prehistoric anthropology may 
also be recorded : 

In the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (as above) : " Early 
Fijians," by A. M. Hocurt. In Man : " An Irish Decorated Socketed 
Axe," by Sir W. Ridgeway (November) ; and " A Piece of Carved Chalk 
from Suffolk," by J. Reid Moir (December). And in Spolia Zeylanica 
(vol. xi, pt. 41, October 1919), " Outlines of the Stone Ages of Ceylon," by 
E. J. Wayland. 

EDUCATION". By A. E. Heath, M.A.. University, Manchester. 

The problem of the relation between educational theory and 
cognate sciences is raised in several recent publications. The 
issue as a whole is complex ; but the matter discussed seems 
to fall into separate sections. 

(i) First of all, it is becoming increasingly clear that there 
are two distinct purposes for which the special sciences can be 
pressed into the service of education. They may be used to 
improve the means for attaining previously decided ends ; or 
they may be used to provide a solid basis for criticism of the 
ends proposed. In his Inaugural Address to the newly con- 
stituted Educational Section of the British Psychological 
Society, Prof. T. P. Nunn expresses this as follows : " Education 
is a biological function more ancient even than man, for it is 
found in a rudimentary form among animals. ... In relation 
to that great vital function, the psychologist must always be 
contented with the position of a critic, whose primarj^ business 
is not to determine the aims of education, but to ensure efficiency 
and economy in the means by which those aims are pursued. 
He is concerned with the aims of education only in a secondary 
way, in so far as his criticism of traditional procedure may lead 
to what is, in effect, a revaluation of accepted ideals " {Brit. 
Journ. of Psy., 1920, 10, 2 and 3, pp. 169-76). These remarks 
clearly apply also to any of the sciences cognate to education. 
They may, however, be supplemented by Dr. R. R. Rusk's 
statement that it is for experimental education to decide whether 
the aims proposed are compatible with the child's nature {Intro- 
duction to Experimental Education, Longmans, 191 2 ed., p. 8). 

(2) Let us, then, accept the view that the end of education 
is, as Prof. James Ward put it long ago, a wider " social and 
ethical problem " {Journ. of Ed., Nov. 1890) ; and let us 
therefore confine ourselves to the application of the special 
sciences to educational method. In this restricted field a steady 
drift of opinion is apparent towards the view that education 
is an autonomous study, with its own special difficulties and 
subject-matter, and not a mere dumping-ground for other 
sciences. The concepts necessary for its ordering should there- 
fore be developed in the field of education itself : they cannot, 


without danger, be lifted bodily from cognate sciences — any- 
more than the concepts of pure mathematics can be transferred 
complete to mechanics, but must rather be used to further the 
development of the special concepts required in the latter 
domain. Prof. H. Bompas Smith puts this point clearly in 
his plea for an educational psychology with interests and special 
methods of its own : " The illegitimate procedure is to take 
over the selection of material and the detailed methods of one 
branch of science, and force them into the service of some 
distinct but kindred interest, without effecting the modifications 
which are required " {Journ. of Exp. Ped., 1919, 5, 2, pp. 57-67). 
This view clearly involves us in educational experiment in the 
school itself. In the interval between the first and second 
editions of Dr. Rusk's Experimental Education— that is, from 
19 1 2 to 1919 — -such experimentation has grown from small and 
tentative beginnings to firmly established foundations for 
future work. Dr. Rusk goes so far as to assert in his later 
edition that " we have now reached a point in educational 
enlightenment where opposition to the scientific method must 
be frankly pronounced a prejudice." One has only to glance 
through the papers published, during the few years of its ex- 
istence, in the Journal of Experimental Pedagogy, to see that 
there is much to justify that assertion. In his lecture 
before the Modern Language Association, to inaugurate the 
Department of Educational Experiment, Mr. E. Alhson Peers 
contends that the day of the mere opinionative pedant has 
passed. " Not only can experiment alone inquire into ques- 
tions of method, but the results of experiment alone can com- 
mand respect," The old heresy that the personality of the 
teacher is a factor which will upset all experiments is, he con- 
tinues, mere nonsense. All experimentalists know what careful 
allowance has to be made for the personal element in this 
science as in others. To the opinion that personality is the 
only thing that matters in teaching, Mr. Peers simply rephes : 
" Personality is, of course, a most important factor in educa- 
tion. . . . But why not have everywhere the best teaching 
obtainable, and the personality where we can, in addition, to 
inspire it?" {Journ. of Exp. Ped., 1920, 5, 4, pp. 179-87)- 
To this we may add that the one in some degree involves the 
other. For we do not mean by personality, in this context, 
mere individual idiosyncrasy, but something which involves 
the same elements of self-control that are reflected in the 
control of subject-matter we call method. 

(3) The ground of criticism of this view, that so far as 
method is concerned education is a science of co-ordinate rank 
with the other sciences, has significantl}" shifted. What in- 
telligent criticism there is does not now consist in the contention 


that this way is sterile, but rather that it is too fruitful. An 
able and witty critique on these lines appeared recently in The 
Times Educational Supplement (April 15, 1920, p. 193). The 
carefully designed devices for stimulating every side of the 
child's activity are so efficient, it is urged, that they lead to 
overstrain. The only possible reply is that if they do so they 
are not carefully designed. For the first essential to a reason- 
able procedure will be a complete realisation of the mental and 
physical needs of the child ; and to be fair we must acknowledge 
that in the best modern work the factor of fatigue is kept 
constantly in view. If any type of schooling interferes with 
growth, that t3^pe must go. But it will fall under the blows 
of rational criticism, and not if we weakly rely on drift and 
incompetence as the sole way out of intolerable situations. 
The following is a selection of references to recent work :. 

Grace A. de Laguna, Psy. Rev., 1919, 26, 6, pp. 409-27, " Emotion and 
Perception from the Behaviorist Standpoint," gives a good impression of the 
general tendency towards a more distinctly biological view of behaviour ; 
R. L. Archer, Joiirn. of Exp. Ped., 1919, 5, i, pp. 7-17, " What is Sugges- 
tion ? "; M. F. Basset and C. J. Warne, Amer. Journ. of Psy., 1919, 30, 4, 
pp. 415-18, " On the Lapse of Verbal Meaning with Repetition," a set of 
experiments with an obvious moral ; T. L. Patterson, Journ. of Educ. Psy., 
1918, 9, pp. 497-510, " Pedagogical Suggestions from Memory Tests." 

C. J. Parsons, Brit. Journ. of Psy., 1917, 9, pp. 74-92, " Children's 
Interpretation of Ink-blots : a Study in Some Characteristics of Children's 
Imagination " ; William Boyd, Journ. of Exp. Ped., 1919, 5, 3, pp. 128-39, 
" A Child's Fears " ; Canon Stuart Blofeld, loc. cit., 1920, 5, 4, pp. 168-74, 
" The Problem of Leisure " : the work and leisure of a man should interact 
the one with the other for the good of each ; so, if our aim is the development 
of the whole human being, we should find a place for the cultivation of the 
resources, both internal and external, that make for a graceful leisure. 

S. S. Brierley, Journ. of Exp. Ped., 1918, 4, 5, pp. 239-54, " Analysis 
of the Spelling Process " ; R. C. Moore, loc. cit., 1918, 4, 5, pp. 221-36, 
" The Psychology of Number " ; G. C. Brandenburg, Journ. of Educ. Psy., 
1918, 9, pp. 632-6, " Psychological Aspects of Language " ; Katherine 
Steinthal, Journ. of Exp. Ped., 1919, 5, 3, pp. 146-9, " An Experiment in 
Teaching Elementary Geometry," an interesting method of engaging the 
free activities of young children in class-work by the introduction of a 
mediaeval " scholastic tournament." Mr. E. A. Craddock's experiment 
referred to in a previous article (Science Progress, April 1920, p. 585) is 
now set out in full in his newly published book, The Classroom Republic 
(Black, 1920). 

These notes would be incomplete without some reference to 
the appearance of Prof. Nunn's volume, Education : Its Data 
and First Principles (Arnold, 1920). It is given to few books 
to bear from the outset the obvious mark of lasting importance. 
That this claim can be made for the volume before us arises 
in the main, I think, from two circumstances. In the first 
place. Prof. Nunn has deliberately levered himself out of the 
current confusion of means and ends, and boldly set himself 
the task of " reasserting the claim of Individuality to be re- 


garded as the supreme educational end, and to protect that 
ideal against both the misprision of its critics and the incautious 
advocacy of some of its friends." The clarity of outlook and 
intellectual honesty, which render it easy for friend and foe 
alike to appreciate or criticise the defence of this thesis, 
are sufficient to raise it above the ordinary level. But 
there is a second reason for seeing in the book something of 
permanent value. The great development of psychological 
science in recent times has almost wholly consisted in advance 
in our knowledge of the non-cognitive aspects of human be- 
haviour. We need only mention Prof. S. Alexander's fruitful 
" Slcetch-Plan " of a conational psychology ; the work of 
Dr. McDougall on instinct and emotion ; and the increased 
insight into normal behaviour which has followed the regarding 
of mental abnormalities, not as wholly unique and incalculable, 
but as expressions of the over-development of factors already 
present in the normal. This replacement of the older, too 
exclusive concern with the cognitive side of human behaviour 
by a psychology based more closely on the biological aspects 
of the living creature has often, however, been seized upon as 
an excuse for an entirely gratuitous irrationalism. It is an 
outstanding merit of Prof. Nunn's book that it sifts the grain 
from the chaff, and embodies the results of modern advances 
cleared of such irrelevant accretions. Moreover, by the use of 
certain new terms Prof. Nunn is able to effect a most convenient 
grouping of those results ; and so to provide the means both 
of bringing out the common characteristics of behaviour at all 
biological levels, and of building his treatment of educational 
questions on firm and wide foundations. 




Science Museum, London. 

The theory propounded by Langmuir, published in the June 
number of the Jouryial of the American Chemical Society , 
explains so wonderfully the properties of elements and com- 
pounds and brings to light such remarkable relationships, 
formerly unsuspected, that it necessarily contains a large 
element of truth. Although, doubtless, it will be subject to 
considerable modification, the power of the theory is so great 
that it must have the widest application. 

Hitherto the problem of atomic structure has usually been 
attacked from the physical point of view, with little considera- 
tion of the vast store of chemical relationships which, in 
Langmuir's opinion, provide a better foundation for a theory 
than the relatively meagre physical data available. Disre- 
garding for the present the physical evidence in favour of their 
rotation, the electrons in atoms are assumed to be stationary, 
or to oscillate about a mean position, in accordance with the 
stereochemical testimony that the primary valence forces 
between atoms act relatively in nearly fixed directions. For 
example, if wood is carbonised under certain conditions, or if 
tungsten trioxide is reduced in very dry h3^drogen, the resulting 
elementary substances occupy about the same volume as the 
original compound. The volumes are about twenty times as great 
as those of the corresponding elements in their crystalline form. 

The whole behaviour of such bodies tends to show that 
their atoms are arranged in fixed branching chains, indicating, 
as Langmuir considers, that the valency electrons are immobile. 

In conformity with this supposition, each atom is conceived 
as comprising a nucleus of positive charges of electricity around 
which the electrons are disposed in a definite configuration. 
The number of unit positive charges in the nucleus is the same 
as the atomic number of the element, which corresponds to its 
position when the elements are arranged in order of increasing 
atomic weight. The equivalent number of electrons or unit 

1 Jour. A mer. Chem. Soc, 1919, 41, 868 ; Hendrick, The Langmuir Postulates, 
Chem. and Metall. Eng., 1919, 21, 73. 




negative charges are allocated in concentric shells of equal 
thickness around the nucleus, each shell being divided into a 
number of equal cells proportional to the area of the shell. The 
first shell has two cells. The second shell, having four times 
the surface, contains eight cells, the third eighteen, and the 
fourth thirty- two cells. Moreover, each cell, except the two 
innermost, may contain either one or two electrons, which are 
usually arranged radially. But before a given cell can contain 
more than one electron, all the cells in the inner shells must be 
completely filled. Consequently the electrons in each shell, 
except the first, are arranged in two layers which may be 
numbered I, lla, lib, Ilia, lllb, IVa and IV^. 

The following table shows the arrangement of the electrons 
in the atoms of each element : 


Number ol 
In kernel. 

Number of electrons in outside iheU. 








































































































M M M n 






























23 24 
Ir Pt 



























■i a a « 










Under the influence of the attraction of the nucleus, and of 
their mutual repulsions, the electrons tend to arrange them- 
selves in definite groups. In the first shell the stable formation 
is the pair, in subsequent layers the octet appears to be the 
most favourable group. In this case the actual arrangement 
of the electrons in space is at the eight corners of a cube. If 
the electrons in a single atom are unable to dispose themselves 
in such a permanent configuration, they tend to associate 
themselves with the electrons in other atoms in such a way 
as to do so. This is the explanation of chemical com- 

The realisation of a stable formation in a single atom results 
in the production of the inert gases of the first group in the 
periodic table. With Helium (N = 2) * the positive charge 
on its nucleus is 2, and it has 2 electrons. These dispose 
themselves symmetrically on either side of the nucleus, each 
in the centre of its shell. The symmetrical distribution results 
in almost complete external compensation of the electric forces 
with little stray field. Helium is therefore the most stable 
element known. Because the electrons are as suitably grouped 
as possible, with little external field of force, there is no tendency 
to associate with atoms either to form molecules or chemical 
compounds. Consequently helium is an inert gas with a 
boiling-point only 4^ degrees above absolute zero. 

The next element in this group is Neon (N = 10), with a 
positive charge of 10, and 10 electrons. The first 2 electrons 
complete the first shell, which corresponds to that of the helium 
atom, and the remaining 8 form an octet in the layer lla. 
Thus a second stable configuration has been attained, and 
Neon is the second most stable element. The following element 
in this group, Argon (N = 18), has a nucleus with 18 positive 
charges and 18 electrons disposed around. Here we have 2 
electrons in the inner shell, 8 in layer lla, corresponding to 
Neon, and another 8 in layer 11^. Argon is, therefore, Neon 
with an extra octet. Since the electrons are again completely 
satisfied, we have another inert gas with low boiling-point and 
no tendency to form molecules. 

In the third shell there can be 18 electrons, 9 in each hemi- 
sphere. One of these electrons will go to the pole, forming a 
pair with the corresponding electron in the other hemisphere, 
and the remaining 16 are distributed symmetrically about them, 
8 in each hemisphere, forming 2 octets. This arrangement 
corresponds to Krypton. Xenon has a further 18 electrons 
in the lllb layer, and Niton follows at the end with 32 electrons 
in the fourth shell, 16 in each hemisphere. These inert elements 
are therefore built up of consecutive layers of electrons 

^ N = Atomic number. 


arranged in the ideal positions about the nucleus, which is the 
reason for their stability and inactivity. 

With Hydrogen (N = i) the first element in the next 
group, the conditions are very different. It has a single positive 
charge and a single electron. Its positive and negative poles 
form an electric doublet of high moment which tends to attract 
all other bodies something like a small magnet. Thus atomic 
hydrogen is very strongly adsorbed on surfaces. By sharing 
their electrons, two hydrogen atoms can hold a stable pair, 
and therefore the atoms form diatomic molecules. These 
have an unusually weak external field, so that hydrogen is a 
gas with a very low boihng-point. For Lithium (N = 3) the 
nucleus has 3 positive charges surrounded b}^ 3 electrons. 
Two of these electrons complete the first shell, forming 
a kernel similar to the Helium atom, but with an extra 
positive charge, which can hold an additional electron in 
the second shell. This extra electron tends to make the 
atom very active chemically. Like those of hydrogen, the 
lithium atoms are electric doublets and attract one another. 
However, owing to the greater size of the kernel compared 
with the hydrogen nucleus, there is still a strong electric 
field around a pair of atoms, so that they can attract a third, 
and so on. Thus, lithium is a solid ; its atoms do not form 
molecules, but the positive kernels and single outside electrons 
arrange themselves in a space lattice in a manner quite similar 
to the sodium and chlorine in a crystal of sodium chloride. 
The single electrons, being surrounded on all sides by positive 
charges, are free to move under an electric force, and metallic 
lithium is a conductor of electricity. 

The chemical properties of lithium, beryllium, and boron, 
are determined largely by their tendency to revert to the stable 
form corresponding to helium. They are said to give up their 
extra electrons to form stable arrangements with the electrons 
of other atoms ; thus they have respectively unit, double, and 
treble valencies. 

With Carbon (N = 6), Nitrogen (N = 7), and Oxygen 
(N = 8), which have respectively 4, 5, and 6 electrons 
in the outside shell, a tendency becomes manifest to take up 
electrons to form stable octets. This opens up new possibilities 
for the formation of compounds, and explains the remarkable 
differences in the properties of these elementsl from those of 
lithium and beryllium. 

With Fluorine (N = 9)''there are 7 so-called '' free " electrons 
in the outer shell, and the octet is nearly complete. The 
properties of fluorine are determined by its intense desire to 
attain to these stable groupings. When brought into contact 
with an atom having a single free electron, e.g. lithium, the 


extra electron is taken up. The outer shell now resembles that 
of the inert atom of neon, with the difference that within there 
are only 7 positive charges instead of 8. Consequently the 
fluorine atom becomes negatively charged, while the lithium 
atom is positively charged, having given up its electron. In 
other words, the fluorine and lithium " ions " are held together 
by electrostatic forces. There will be a free external field, and 
lithium fluoride is a solid body, building up a space lattice like 
metallic lithium. It is a non-conductor because, every octet 
being completed, there are no free electrons. On melting, or 
solution, it becomes a conductor, since the ions can move 
under the action of an electromotive force. 

Alternatively, an atom of fluorine can complete its octet 
by sharing a pair of electrons with another atom of the same 
or another kind. If we think of the electrons in the outer shell 
as occupying the corners of a cube, the molecule of fluorine 
may be pictured as two cubes with an edge in common, two 
electrons doing duty in both cubes. The molecule is again 
very stable, as exemplified by the very low boiling-point of the 

This view of chemical combination as the sharing of electrons 
leads to Langmuir's octet theory of covalence. The covalency 
of an atom is the number of pairs of electrons it shares with 
other atoms. If we represent by e the total number of available 
electrons in the outside shells of the atoms forming a given 
compound, and let w be the number of octets formed, holding 
p pairs of electrons in common, we see that, for every pair 
of electrons shared, there is a saving of 2p in the number of 
electrons needed to form octets. We have, therefore 

g = 8w — 2p, or (i) 

p = ^{8n-e) (ii) 

Of course, electrons held by a hydrogen nucleus in common 
with an octet must not be counted in reckoning the value of p, 
since they do not result in any saving in the numbers of electrons 
required to form octets. 

The use of formula (ii) will be clear if we employ it to 
determine the structures of a few compounds. The internal 
arrangement of water molecules is of great interest from its wide 
application as a solvent. Since the two hydrogen nuclei always 
tend to hold pairs of electrons and never octets, we may take 
n = I for the oxygen atom. There are 6 available electrons 
in the oxygen atom and 2 in the two hydrogen atoms, making 
e = S, whence equation (ii) gives p = o. This means that no 
electrons are held in common between octets, which is obvious 
in this case, since there is only one octet. The two hydrogen 


nuclei are held by electrostatic attraction to two pairs of the 
electrons forming the octet. The water molecule may, 
therefore, be pictured as a cube with two hydrogen nuclei 
hanging on to opposite edges. This structure indicates that 
water forms molecules in which the electrostatic forces are 
almost completely compensated internally. All the electrons 
form an octet, and hence the molecule should have a rather 
weak external field of force. Water should, therefore, be easily 
volatile and should not be a good conductor of electricity. 
But the less symmetry of the molecule, as compared with the 
neon atom, shows that the boiling-point should be much higher. 

For carbon dioxide, CO2, we expect each atom to form an 
octet. Supposing n = 3, we have e =4+2x6 = 16, which 
gives p = 4. This means that four pairs of electrons are 
shared between three octets, leading to a structure resembling 
three cubes arranged side by side in a row with the carbon 
cube between two oxygen cubes. Consequently carbon dioxide 
is a thoroughly saturated non-polar substance, a non-conductor 
of electricity, easily volatile and chemically rather inert. 

This type of union, in which two atoms are joined by sharing 
pairs of electrons, is regarded as the normal mode of chemical 
combination, as distinguished from that which results in the 
formation of salts, such as lithium fluoride, when one or more 
free electrons are " given up." It will be noted that the forces 
holding the atoms together are electrostatic in both cases ; 
but, while the metallic ion has no definite point of attachment, 
in normal compounds the relative positions of the atoms are 

The characteristic distinction between a neutral compound 
such as CO2 and a salt like LiF Hes in the fact that, while the 
molecule of the former is electrically non-polar, with little 
external field of force, the molecule of the latter consists of 
two distinct parts or ions, which are oppositely charged, and, 
though bound together by a strong internal field, are capable 
of separation in solution, or in the fused state, by the action 
of an electromotive force. There is also considerable external 

It will be found that equation (ii) leads to results identical 
with the ordinary theory of valency when applied to most 
inorganic and almost all organic compounds. In addition, 
however, it explains the structures of many substances which 
have hitherto been difficult to account for. 

There is hardly a case where the ordinary theory of valency 
fails so completely as for the compounds of nitrogen. Let us 
see how the octet theory applies to these bodies. For the 
compounds with hydrogen the theory postulates the occurrence 
of NH3 and H2N-NH2 with the properties they possess, while 



the compounds NH, NHa, NH4, and NHg cannot exist, since 
in these cases we find p = i, \,-\ and - i respectively, instead 
of zero, as it must be for a single octet. For the oxides we see 
from (ii) that if p is to be an integer, e must always be even. 
Since nitrogen has 5 available electrons and oxygen 6, 
there must always be an odd number of electrons unless the 
number of nitrogen atoms is even. This gives NjO, as the 
simplest general formula for the nitrogen oxides. 

When X = i the theory indicates the structure N = O = N 
or N = N =0, where each valence link represents the sharing 
of a pair of electrons. The extraordinary fact immediately 
appears that the internal arrangement of such a substance 
should be almost exactly like that of carbon dioxide. Both 
molecules are represented by three cubes side by side in a 
row. CO2 has a carbon atom with a charge on the nucleus of 
4 positive units, while the two oxygen nuclei have 6 positive 
units, making a total positive charge of 16. NjO has two 
nitrogen atoms each with 5 positive charges, and one oxygen 
atom with 6 positive units, the total being 16 as with COj. 
In both cases the nuclei are surrounded by completed octets, 
giving a small external field which must be very similar for 
both molecules. If the theory is correct the physical properties 
of these two gases should be almost identical. The following 
table shows how remarkable is this agreement : 

Critical temperature 
Critical pressure 
SolubHity in H2O at 0° C. 
Solubility in EtOH at 15° C. 
Density of liquid at - 20° C. 
Density of liquid at - 10° C. 
Viscosity at 20° C. . 
Heat conductivity at 100° C. 
Refractive index fXo at 16° C. 
Dielectric constant of liquid at 0° C 
Magnetic susceptibility of gas at 40 
atmos. 16° C. . . . . 



77 atmos. 



148 X IO~' 




0-I2 X ID 



35-4° C. 
75 atmos. 




148 X 10-^ 


I -193 

0-I2 X I0~^ 

Both gases form hydrates with six molecules of water. The 
vapour pre^i^ice of N20-6H20 is 5 atmospheres at 6° C, while 
the other nj^lN^te has the same vapour pressure at 15° lower. 

The surface tension of liquid N2O is 2-9 — — ^ at i2'2°C., while 

CO3 has the same surface tension at 9-0° C. The power of the 
new theory is strikingly illustrated by its indication of such 
extraordinary relationships between compounds the properties 
of which have been known, though uncorrelated, for so many 



Returning to the consideration of the oxides of nitrogen, 
we find that the octet theory accounts for N3O2 as O = N - N = 
O, NaOa as 0=N-0-N=0 or 0=N-N=0, N^O^ as 


= N-N = O, N^Og as O = N-O-N = O. For N^Oe and 


higher values of x, the number of electrons required becomes 
greater than can be formed from the available electrons in the 
atoms, except on the unlikely supposition of the formation of 
rings or strings of oxygen atoms. The formation of NO and 
NO2 is more difficult to account for. Let us first consider the 
structure of the nitrogen molecule. The properties of ele- 
mentary nitrogen are in many ways extraordinary, and the 
contrast between its properties and those of carbon, which is 
adjacent to it in the periodic table, could hardly be more 
striking. Carbon does not melt at 3,700° C, and combines readily 
with oxygen at moderate temperatures. On the other hand, 
nitrogen has a lower boiling-point than any element except 
hydrogen, helium, and neon, and combines with oxygen only 
at exceedingly high temperatures. Moreover, the nitrogen 
molecule is not appreciably dissociated even at 3,900° C. This 
stability of the molecule indicates some unusual kind of struc- 
ture. Supposing the nitrogen molecule contains two octets, 
we have w = 2, e = 10, /> = 3, giving a structure N = N, 
resembling that of acetylene, a substance which is endothermic, 
relatively unstable, and easily forms addition products. Such 
a structure could not account for the nitrogen molecule. 

Many considerations show that the absolute boiling-points 
of substances give a measure of the external field of force of 
their molecules, while the freezing-points appear to be largely 
dependent on the symmetry of the molecules. In many of its 
properties nitrogen resembles argon. Let us compare these 
properties of O2, Ng, and Ar : 

Freezing-point .... 

Boiling-point ..... 
Difference ...... 

Its boiling-point indicates that nitrogen has a weaker field 
than either oxygen or argon, while the difference between the 
freezing-point and boiling-point shows that nitrogen is much 
more symmetrical than oxygen and more like argon. The 
evidence suggests, therefore, that the nitrogen molecule is 
surrounded by a single octet like that in the outer shell of 
argon. Actually two nitrogen atoms have 14 electrons, of 




38° K 










which 2 each go to complete the first shells, leaving lo over. 
In view of the stability of the octet, it seems reasonable to 
suppose that 8 of these electrons arrange themselves in one 
octet around two nuclei, leaving 2 extra electrons imprisoned 
somewhere within, held by the attraction of the 14 positive 
charges. Indeed, there seem to be a number of exceptional 
factors which tend to produce this result. The S free electrons 
in each atom cannot form two octets without sharing 3 
electrons. This does not seem to be a stable grouping in the 
case of nitrogen. Nor can three atoms form a molecule, since 
this would give an odd number of electrons. Actually, there 
are only 2 electrons more than are required to form a single 
octet round two kernels of small volume and large positive 
charges. This structure explains satisfactorily the remarkable 
qualities of nitrogen, the great number of endothermic com- 
pounds it forms, the inertness of the nitrogen molecule, and the 
activity of the element in combination. 

The structure of carbon monoxide has long been a puzzling 
problem. According to the usual view carbon should be 
divalent in this compound and very much unsaturated. On 
the contrary, it is a relatively inactive substance. Its very 
low boiling-point indicates little external field, which is con- 
firmed by its small solubility in water and the few substances 
with which it combines at ordinary temperatures. If we apply 
the octet theory, and suppose w = 2 for the two atoms, we 
have e = 10, which gives p = Z- Again, this result would 
indicate a very unsaturated compound. Here also we have 
a total of 14 electrons in the outer shell, around two nuclei, 
one with 6 positive charges and the other with 8, or 14 positive 
charges in all. This at once suggests that the arrangement 
may be similar to that of the nitrogen molecule. The pro- 
perties of carbon monoxide should therefore be co-ordinate 
with those of nitrogen. These are tabulated for comparison 
below : 

Freezing-point . 
Critical temperature . 
Critical pressure. 
Critical volume . 
SolubUity in H,0 at 0° C. 
Density at boiling-point 
Viscosity at 0° C. 



66° K 

63° K 





35 atmos. 

33 atmos; 







163 X IO~^ 

166 X IO-® 

ndicate an analogous arrangement 

Similar considerations 
for the nitric oxide molecule. It has 1 5 electrons, only one 
more than nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and the remarkable 
paramagnetic properties of nitric oxide may be due to this 
extra electron. 


Substances like CO2 and NaO, or N, and CO, which have 
the same number and arrangement of electrons, Langmuir calls 
" isosteres." If the substances have also equal positive 
charges, their external fields will be very similar, leading to 
almost identical physical properties. If the nuclei differ in 
total charge, one of the isosteres must be electrically charged 
when the other is not, so that the external fields will be very 
different and most of their physical properties will also differ. 
A number of such cases are described in the original paper. 

In conclusion we will consider the structure of hydrofluoric 
acid as an example of an acid. The octet theory indicates 
that the hydrogen atom shares its electron with the fluorine 
atom, thus completing the stable pair in the first shell for the 
hydrogen atom and forming an octet round the fluorine atom. 
The hydrogen nucleus is then held by a pair of electrons forming 
the octet. From its structure the molecule of hydrofluoric 
acid should have a small stray field. Most of its surface 
resembles that of neon, except where the hydrogen nucleus 
is. But lack of symmetry should make the stray field greater 
than that of hydrogen or neon. We thus expect hydrofluoric 
acid to be a gas or liquid not greatly different from water in 
its boiling-point. As a liquid it should be a non-conductor, 
but, because of its polar character, it should become an electro- 
lyte when dissolved in water. 

The properties of a few typical elements and compounds 
have now been considered. To continue the investigation 
would exceed the limits of a short paper and, incidentally, 
both the reader's and the editor's patience. For a fuller 
account reference must be made to the original paper, the 
study of which may be facilitated in some degree by this 
preliminary survey. It will there be seen that the theory 
explains the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic elements 
as well as the peculiar characteristics of the metals of the rare 
earths. In addition, the covalence equation accounts for the 
existence of the class of substances which Werner regards as 
second-order compounds, and shows that they may preferably 
be looked upon as typical primary valence compounds. Un- 
fortunately, the hypothesis is not easily reconciled with Bohr's 
theory of the astronomical atom which has had such marked 
success in explaining spectra, especially those of hydrogen, 
but Langmuir hopes that later developments may show that 
the two theories are not inconsistent. Indeed, it seems as if 
stationary electrons are unnecessary for Langmuir's theory. 
The resultant force holding two atoms is electrostatic, and 
may be fairly constant in direction, while the shared electrons 
continue to revolve in conformity with the electric field. 



There is no need to emphasise the importance of systematised 
phenological records as indices to what one may perhaps call 
resultant cHmate ; or to point out that the nett effect of tem- 
perature, rainfall, latitude, elevation, exposure, etc., is summed 
up in, e.g., the dates of flowering of plants without any ambi- 
guity or possibility of error. 

We understand that recently the Meteorological Society 
has made a special effort to increase the number of its 
phenological stations and to secure additional observers of 
the dates of flowering of a dozen or two plants under fairly 
rigid conditions. The objects of this article are (i) to illus- 
trate the phenology of this part of Cornwall ^ during the last 
eight years by observations made under somewhat different 
conditions ; and (2) to indicate the existence of a considerable 
mass of observations covering some twenty years in all parts 
of the country, and to show that these comprise very valuable 
phenological data which should be secured and worked up 
before they be destroyed — if indeed many have not already 
been destroyed. 

There has existed for many years a certain " Wild Flower 
Society," the members of which, divided into some twenty 
branches, keep diaries of the dates of flowering of all the wild 
flowers they can find, and compete for first place in the branch. 
Since one mark is given for each flower found, but two marks 
for the earliest record (in each branch) of every flower ; and 
since the coveted first place is won, not necessarily by the 
member who finds the largest number of flowers in the year, 
but sometimes by one who has found fewer flowers but has 
earned more "early marks"; the competition among the 
real enthusiasts is very keen : and the sequel will prove that 
this " early marks " system has resulted in the accumulation 
of records which have indubitable phenological value and 
should certainly be utilised. 

The differences in character between the records at present 
demanded by the Meteorological Society and those available 
in the diaries of the Wild Flower Society are these : the 
' I.e. Polperro, 20 miles west of Plymouth. 



former asks for records of about a dozen species (plus certain 
extras if the observer feel inclined to record them), stipulates 
that in successive years the same or a closely adjacent plant 
shall be selected in each species for observation, and bars any 
record (except under a warning proviso) of a plant that may be 
supposed to have been in flower more than four days before 
it have been noted ; whereas the latter affords data concerning 
a far larger number of species, but with no guarantee — or 
even probability in very many cases — that the locale and 
situation are identical in successive years, and no guarantee 
that the plant may not have been in flower for more than 
four days before discovery. It will be shown, however, that, 
if groups of plants be taken according to season, and their 
dates averaged, an obviously reliable result is obtained. 

On the other hand, certain precautions must be observed. 
If the diarist be usually or frequently away from home in any 
given season, the flowers of that season will not be available 
among the records of his or her " station." In a general way, 
such flowers should be chosen as grow near the observer's 
home and are either so common or conspicuous — or so specially 
sought every year on account of their rarity — that there is 
small chance that their flowering will escape speedy observation ; 
whereas plants that can be obtained only at the expense of 
a long walk or a cycle-ride may necessarily have to await the 
observer's leisure or a hohday, and thus may be obtained 
sometimes only appreciably after their first flowering.' Any 
very rare plant found only at a distance is specially unsuitable 
for these records : since, if experience have shown that no 
other member of the branch ever finds this species, even a 
keen competitor may defer a special journey for it until other 
and later-flowering plants can be obtained in the same locality. 

One other proviso remains. No entry can be made in a 
Wild Flower Society diary before March i— a date very 
suitable perhaps for the Northern members, but far too late 
for Southern stations. Here on the coast of South Cornwall, 
in a forward season, from four to five dozen plants are found 
in flower on that date, and some of them — e.g. Snowdrop, 
Primrose, Hellebore, Hazel, Small Celandine, etc.— have been 
in flower for weeks. Hence the absence from the following 
tables of very many common and famihar plants that would 
figure prominently in a Northern record. 

There is, however, some compensation for this unfortunate 
blemish in the records, in that there is annually a keen com- 
petition among the members of the Society — irrespective of 
branches— to find the greatest number of flowers on March i : 

1 These remarks do not apply if the observer be, e.g., a country-doctor, 
or otherwise have daily occasion to wander far. 




No. of 


Name of Species. 

Luzula campestris 
Oxalis acetosella . 
Anemone nemorosa 
Salix viminalis 
Geranium moUe . 
Salix purpurea 


Range in 








Average Date of Flowering. 

March 17 = 17th day 
22 = 22nd 
27 = 27th 
27 = 27th 
27 = 27th 
27 = 27th 


{Oxalis, S. viminalis, and Geranium were in flower on March i in 191 8, 191 8, 
1913, respectively.) 




Myosotis coUina . 
Allium ursinum . 
Potentilla tonmentilla 
Anchusa sempervirens 
Scilla nutans 
Carex precox 
Moenchia erecta . 
Prunus cerasus 
Trifolium subterraneum 







April I = 
3 = 
5 = 

8 = 

9 = 
10 = 
12 = 
12 = 

.. 13 = 

32 nd day 

34th .. 

36th „ 

39th „ 

40th ,, 

41st „ 

43rd „ 

43rci ., 

44th „ 






Parietaria officinalis 
Orchis mascula . 
AUiaria officinalis 
Acer pseudoplatanus 
Narcissus biflora . 
Vicia hirsuta 
Rumex acetosa . 






April 16 = 

17 = 

19 = 

22 = 

„ 22 = 

,. 28 = 

.. 29 = 

47th day 

48th „ 

50th „ 

53rd „ 

53rd „ 

59th „ 

6oth ,, 










Carex flava. 
Carex pendula 
Crataegus oxycanthus 
Nasturtium officinale 
Veronica beccabunga 
Spergularia rubra 
Urtica dioica 
Iris pseudacorus . 







4 = 

5 = 
7 = 
9 = 

15 = 
15 = 
15 = 
15 = 

65th day 

66th ,, 

68th „ 

70th ,, 

76th „ 

76th „ 

76th „ 

76th „ 












Digitalis purpurea 
Bromus sterilis 
Lychnis floscuculi 
Rubus ceesius 
Sambucus nigra . 
Hieracium pilosella 
Aquilegia vulgaris 
Sedum anglicum . 
Euphrasia officinalis 
Solanum dulcamara 
Ranunculus flammula 
Carduus palustris 
Holcus lanatus 
Trifolium procumbens 
Lonicera periclymenum 
Scabiosa arvensis 













78th day 

78th ,; 

78th „ 

78th „ 

78th „ 

78th ,. 

78th „ 

8ist ,, 

8ist ,, 

83rd „ 

84th „ 

85th „ 

86th „ 

88th „ 

92nd „ 

92nd „ 





No. of 













Name of Species; 

Malva sylvestris . 
Rosa canina 
Polygonum aviculare 
Stellaria graminea 
Poa pratensis 
Valerianella auricula 
Festuca ovina 
Poa fluitans 
Vicia cracca 
Mimulus luteus 
Galium mollugo 
Achillea millefolia 
Apium graveolens 
Rosa rubiginosa . 
Ononis arvensis . 
Spiraea ulmaria . 


G 6 




Trifolium arvense 
Teucrium scorodonium . 
Linaria vulgaris . 
Digraphis arundinacea . 
Sambucus ebulus 
Eupatorium cannabiense 
Artemisia vulgaris 
Arctium lappa 



Range in 















Average Date of Flowering. 








16 = 

17 = 

18 = 
20 = 

93rd day 

93rd „ 

94ti^ .. 

95th „ 

95th „ 

96th .. 

97tli .. 

99th „ 

103rd „ 

103rd „ 

104-5 ,. 

io6th ,, 

108th „ 

109th „ 

iioth ,, 

ii2th ,, 


June 25 

„ 28 


July 6 


.. 13 



1 1 7th day 

I20th ,, 

I22th ,, 

128th ,. 

128th „ 

135th „ 

141st ,, 

142nd „ 








Crithmum maritimum 
Mentha aquatica . 
Mentha arvensis . 
Humulus lupulus. 
Spiranthes autumnalis 
Hedera helix 




July 28 
August I 

8 = 

„ 8 

.. 25 

Sept. 6 

150th day 






and the March i records in successive years thus afford a 
valuable phenological index to February or even to January 
and perhaps December as well. 

Now the junior of the present authors has been for over nine 
years a very keen and zealous member of the Wild Flower 
Society ; and the data here utihsed have been carefully 
selected from her diaries ^ from records of over 400 plants 
occurring in this neighbourhood. For reasons just given, all 
species normally or frequently found in flower on March i 

1 As a precaution, the records of her first year — 191 1— have been ignored ; 
as it seemed probable that she was not then so fully acquainted, as afterwards, 
with the habitats of some species, and may therefore have failed to find the 
flowers at their earliest dates. 


are excluded — although the totals of these are dealt with 
separately. Others were rejected because they can be found 
only at a distance which involves a special expedition, and 
notoriously are not usually noted until they have been in 
flower for some time ; whilst others again were rejected because 
one or two records were so aberrant in date as to suggest 
that in one case there had been an abnormally early " sport,", 
and in another some accidental delay in looking for the flower. 
After all such rejections some ninety species were chosen 
and arranged in seasonal groups ; but, since the list still included 
some species with an abnormally large time-range, these were 
critically discussed by us, and several rejected as unreliable ; 
and finally, after the average time-range of each group had been 
determined, any species whose time-range exceeded this average 
by 50 per cent, was struck out. The curves ultimately obtained 
indicate very satisfactorily the reliability of ourthus sifted data. 
In the preceding tables we exhibit the seasonal groups, 
the time-range in days of each species and its average date of 
flowering during the eight years 191 2-19, the average time-range 
of the group, and the average date of flowering— reckoned in 
days after February 28 or 29 — of the group in each year. 
These average group-dates are the data from which the curves 
are constructed. Prefixed to the name of each species also is 
the number of records thereof during the eight years ; for 
owing to occasional absences from home some species were 
sometimes collected elsewhere ; and in such cases there are 
necessarily blanks in the phenological record for this place. ^ 

^ As regards species found in flower on March i, it must be understood 
that these fall into several distinct series, viz. : 

(a) Species always or normally in flower at this date here. 

{b) Two or three species occasionally found in flower in exceptionally 
forward seasons. 

(c) Stragglers, or survivors through a mild winter from the previous 
year. Heracleum spondyllium and Lychnis dioica are characteristic normal 
survivors ; but, since some species are found as survivors in one year and 
others in another, the total number thus unavailable for phenological pur- 
poses — for no species has been selected that is sometimes found as a survivor, 
since no record is made in the Wild Flower Society diary of the first flower 
(in the new season) of such species — is appreciable. 

[d) Occasional obvious sports; e.g. the Ox-eye Daisy has been found on 
March i. 

Now, (a) and (c) are necessarily excluded from the groups. As regards 
(d), in perhaps one or two cases the species has been included for the years of 
normal flowering, and the " sporting " year treated as a blank. The only 
real perplexity has been caused by (6) ; and after consideration these species 
have been included in the groups as well as in the March i tables — but 
in each case a note has been appended to the table. The fact is that, after 
the exclusion of species normally or frequently found on March i, so few 
March flowers were left that we could not afiord to cut out these ; but in 
at least one instance — as we shall have occasion to point out — such inclusion 
of one species appreciably affects a curve. 












No. of 


Let us turn now to the charts of curves. On Chart I are 
depicted graphically the numbers of plants found in flower 
on March i — and on this chart we have included the record 
for 191 1 also and the recent record for 1920. 

The curve speaks 
for itself : its two 
outstanding features 
being the abnormal 
minimumof 1917 — the 
result of the bitterly 
cold winter of 1 9 1 6- 1 7 
• — and the abnormal 
maximum of 1920. 

On Chart II we 
have the curves ' 
from year to year of 
the groups A-H, and 
it seems desirable 
briefly to call atten- 
tion to the leading 
characteristics olf 
these. Curve A is 
generally parallel to 
the March i curve, 
but inverse in 191 5 
and 1916 — thus indi- 
cating that, although 

1915 was behind 
1914 on March i 
{i.e. in February and 
January), it was more 
forward by the end 
of March ; and that 

19 1 6 was more for- 
ward than 191 5 and 
1914 up to March i. 















Chart i. 

but behind both by the end of March. 

1 These were drawn on the vertical scale of i centimetre : 2 days. 

To economise space the curves have been telescoped into one another 
as far as possible, so that, e.g., day 44 on A and B and day 40 on C are at the 
same level ; and in all 165 days have been telescoped into the space that 
would otherwise have accommodated only 83 ; but in each curve the scale 
of one centimetre : 2 days has been preserved. To give one illustration — 
curve A ranges from days lo-ii (March 10 and 11) in 1918 to between 
days 45 and 46 (April 14 and 15) in 1917. 

The process of averaging necessarily yielded in various cases such results 
as 1 03 for a date. 

The alternative dates on A for 19 18 and B for 19 14 — giving rise to the 
alternative dotted curves — indicate the inclusion or exclusion of the species 
specially marked ^ and ^ in the tables of average dates. 







N ( 

m < 

"5 < 

2 < 

n c 


\ 2 

5 • 

0> • 





















\\ 1 






, \ 


i m 

\ m 
\ • 




\ • 
\ • 
I ■ 









I / 










\ 1 























\ i 





\ / i 

1 ^ 

















\ ^ 















So, too, curves A and B are inverse 
for the same years — B here agreeing 
with the March i curve ; and the 
consequent indication is that by 
about mid-April the three years 
1 914- 1 6 were relatively much as they 
had been before March. 

We do not propose to describe 
in detail all the many parallelisms 
and fewer inversions which any 
reader may trace for himself on this 
chart ; but we must call special 
attention to the striking phenomena 
of 191 7 and 1 91 6 — pre-eminently of 
191 7. The effect of the abnormally 
cold winter of 191 6-1 7 is strikingly 
indicated by the curve on Chart I, 
and by curves A,B,C,D,E ; but F 
shows that before mid- June 191 7 
had recovered, and was rather more 
forward than 191 6 in June, while 
G and H show that the year which 
had begun so much in arrear finished 
as only slightly less forward a year 
than the premier summer-years 19 14 
and 191 8. 

On the other hand, 191 6, which 
had been ahead of 191 5 before March 
and in the first half of April, and 
had just managed to keep ahead of 
it until the end of May, fell off in 
June and July and — as we have seen 
—was utterly beaten afterwards by 
191 7, which had started under so 
severe a handicap. We wish to draw 
special attention to the fact that by 
taking averages of seasonal groups, 
as we have done, it is thus possible 
to trace graphically the loss or gain 
of each year, month by month, 
relatively to other years, 

A very little inspection of the 
eight curves on Chart II should 
suggest their combination into a 
smaller number ; and on Chart III 
are exhibited the results of such 
combinations — viz. of A,B,C (March 

Chart 2. 













A • • • 











B . . 





38-8 « 






C . . . 









D . 









E • • . 









F . . . 









G . 









H , . 









1 According as March i records of Oxalis and S. viminalis are included or ex- 

* According as March i record of Potentilla included or not. 

• Only one species recorded at home. 







19 16. 

19 17. 


19 19. 

A+B+C . 
D + E 

F+G+H . 

























and April), D,E (May), A,B,C,D,E (March, April, May) and 
F,G,H (June, July, August). Except for the inversion of 
F,G,H to the other curves in 19 16 and 191 7 — as remarked 
above — for the fall instead of rise of A,B,C from 1913-14, and 
the fall instead of rise of D,E from 191 2-1 3, all the curves 
are approximately parallel ; and we claim this final demon- 
stration of parallelism as a conclusive justification for 
utilisation of Wild Flower Society data according 
method as above described for the construction of 
logical curves. From Chart III we learn that, as 
forwardness or backwardness, the eight years studied 
arranged as follows in descending order : 
For the three spring months — 

to our 
can be 




191 3 

and for the summer months — 









In conclusion, we wish to appeal to phenologists to take 
the necessary steps to utilise — while it is still obtainable — • 
the abundant mass of data existing in the diaries of members 
of the Wild Flower Society. 

For any given phenological district the material may be 

treated as we have treated our material ; and obviously the 

««*o«^.a,ol flowers chosen might and would 

§2222*ii include many excluded by us 

and vice versa ; for instance, 
in the North of England and 
Scotland, where hardly any 
plants can be found in flower 
on March i, nearly all the 
early flowers that we have 
been unable to use (except for 
the purposes of Chart I) would 
fall into the A or B seasonal 
groups. Moreover, notoriously 
the majority of species are 
absent from some or most 
localities ; and there is there- 
fore double reason for basing 
the phenological curves of 
different districts on their own 
specially characteristic com- 
mon species.^ 

Secondly, however, if a 
sufficiently large proportion of 
species common to each of a 
number of districts could be 
agreed upon, it would be 
possible to construct curves 
showing the seasonal differ- 
ences relatively to variation in 
latitude and isotherms, etc. 
This, of course, is what the 
Meteorological Society aims at by the observation of a dozen 
very common species ; but we suggest that the additional 
Wild Flower Society material is well worth the attention of 
the Society, and that the long series of records of flowers 
found on March i in all parts of England should be of especial 
value in this connection. 

We quite realise that the great majority of the members 
of the Wild Flower Society would be utterly disinclined to 
utilise their data as we have utilised ours ; and that, indeed, 

1 Incidentally in many districts the diaries of several members could be 
" pooled " as an extra safeguard. 


Chart 3. 


even if not disinclined, they would probably modestly dis- 
claim any faculty for constructing curves out of dates : and 
we in no wise suggest that they be asked to do anything of 
that sort. Our suggestion is that a few keen phenologists, 
working in unison, should extract and utilise the data. It 
is highly desirable that there should be unity of method and 
that all the data be critically examined ; and these desiderata 
necessitate that the work be done by a few phenologists working 
in common. It should be quite practicable to obtain from the 
President of the Wild Flower Society (who, as we happen to 
know, is anxious to assist phenological inquiry) a list of the 
names and addresses of members who have kept diaries for 
eight or ten years and upwards ; and circular letters might 
be sent to these, or to a selected number of them, requesting 
the loan of their diaries for the extraction of the necessary 
data. We do not underrate the expenditure of time and labour 
involved — for we realise how much have been required for 
the construction of the few curves on our charts ; but we 
suggest that the work may be worth doing. 



Nature is prodigal of objects gratifying to the aesthetic sense, 
but it is universally recognised that such gratification culmin- 
ates in the contemplation of the " human form divine," of 
which the beautiful face is at once the concentration and the 
symbol. In what essentially, we may ask, consists this powerful 
appeal made by personal beauty ? 

Sir Joshua Reynolds defined beauty as " the medium of 
form." E. H. Aitken considered that beauty might be defined 
in terms of motion — that a truly functioning motion, whether 
in mechanical action or natural growth, will result in beautiful 
form. " The designer of a yacht," he says, " studied the 
inexorable laws of dynamics, and produced a form which charms 
the cultured eye." " Geometry," said Rodin, " is at the bottom 
of sentiment." 

Aitken remarks, " We discern beauty — as we discern har- 
mony in music — by sense, the judgments of which are inde- 
pendent of our ability to give a reason for them," Reasons, 
however, there are ; and, just as harmony in music rests upon 
a mathematical basis, so personal beauty should have its 
biological explanation. 

A good torso and good limbs are beautiful as a concrete 
expression of perfect and well co-ordinated movement and 
efficient performance of function. So also with regard to the 
face, the beauty of which depends largely on good features, 
but still more on harmony or balance of features. All the 
featuresfof the face should respectively constitute the outward 
and visible signs of an inward and organic efficiency ; and the 
facial movements, whether expressing the emotions or senti- 
ments, or masticating and insalivating food, must be effectively 
performed and well co-ordinated if the resulting contours of 
the face are to be considered beautiful. 

A good deal of the aesthetic value of the face is based upon 
its faculties of emotional expression and indication of character. 
In his classical work, The Expression of the Emotions, Darwin 
emphasises the role of the respiratory system in emotional 
expression. Its effects are chiefly exhibited by the upper and 



middle portions of the face — forehead, eyes, and nose. The 
lower and lateral, or " alimentary," portion is also of service 
in expressing emotional states ; and on this portion — jaws, 
mouth, cheeks, and chin — we rely perhaps even more for in- 
dication of character. 

In the expression of the higher emotions, the most important 
factors are undoubtedly the eyes and the mouth, or, to be more 
exact, the muscular integuments surrounding these features, 
which, in accordance with the three principles enunciated by 
Darwin, control the size and mould the shape of the ocular 
and oral orifices. 

An important factor in the aesthetic import of the lower 
face is the impressive part played by the mouth in the final 
delivery of the voice. The shape of the jaws, the fitness of 
the muscles, the fulness of the lips and cheeks, and the contour 
of the oral orifice, are all valuable features, and all depend on 
good development of the dental arches. It is when the mouth 
opens, however, that the aesthetic value of the lower face 
becomes most striking. The importance of the teeth in this 
connection is remarkable, and it is during their display that 
the face is most animated and attracts most attention. 

Concerning the part played by the upper and middle face 
in character-indication much has been written and sung. Let 
us consider for a moment how the lower face may be assumed 
to have acquired its significance as an indicator of character. 

Powerful, well-formed organs of nutrition would suggest a 
well-developed, powerful, healthy body, and the mental con- 
templation of such a body involves that of the mens sana in 
corpore sano. Firmness and strength of character are generally 
supposed to be indicated by well-developed jaws and powerful 
mandibular and cheek muscles. Weakness of character and 
mental feebleness are usually associated in people's minds with 
poorly developed jaws, flaccid cheeks and lips, drooping and 
open mouth, and receding chin. That is to say, efficiency of 
the masticatory apparatus indicates efficiency of the nutritive 
system generally, and consequently good development of body 
and mind ; and so leads on to the impression of " character." 

Another direction in which we may seek for the significance 
of the lower face as a character-indicator is in the phylogeny 
of the masticatory apparatus. In the earUer history of the 
race this apparatus was largely used in combat, and the man 
who made most impression on his fellows in those days must 
have been to a considerable extent he who possessed the best 
developed dental armature and the greatest skill in its use. 
The idea engraved on our racial memory by powerful and 
well-developed jaws and teeth, therefore, would be one of 
virility and strength of purpose. The women of those times, 


one supposes, would not require to use their teeth as weapons 
to anything Hke the same extent, and from this distinction 
has possibly grown the admiration of less powerfully developed 
masticatory organs in the " weaker sex." 

We have so far considered facial beauty as the outward 
and visible sign of respiratory, alimentary, and other organic 
efficiency, as an indicator of character, and as a medium of 
worthy expression. 

Beauty of this class, or anatomical beauty, as it may be 
termed, may be as faultless as is possible, and yet fall short 
of many particular instances which will readily occur to any- 
one — is, in fact, on a different plane from the beauty that 
makes a special appeal, the beauty that thrills. 

In considering this higher quality of beauty, or " loveliness," 
we feel that these explanations are inadequate, that even when 
the conditions demanded are fulfilled, the fundamental biological 
significance of such beauty is yet to be sought. As ordinary 
beauty has its significance, so surely there is an even deeper 
meaning in transcendent beauty. 

We may suppose the idea of the handsome or lovely face 
to be arrived at by enhancement of the lines and contours 
suggestive of anatomical perfection or organic efficiency — a 
progressive accentuation of the differences between the face 
with ill-formed and badly balanced features and the well- 
constructed and properly proportioned face : and we may 
imagine this evolution of the ordinarily beautiful face on 
enhanced lines being brought about by sexual selection, and 
helping to mould, as well as being moulded by, the human ideal. 

Darwin has pointed out that the appreciation of ordinary 
female beauty by the men of various races tends to accentuate 
the racial type, but he cites Sir Richard Burton as believing 
that a woman whom Europeans consider exceptionally beautiful 
is admired throughout the world. 

The contemplation of beauty of this kind, involving certain 
intensifications of well-formed and well-balanced features, cer- 
tain delicate modelling and especially graceful contours, strongly 
appealing to both aesthetic and sexual emotions, naturally tends 
to impress one of the opposite sex with the eminent desirableness 
of the being exhibiting it. Entrancing beauty, or " loveliness," 
however, does not often characterise the hypersensual or wanton 
physiognomy. There is always an element of purity, even 
something sacred, in extreme beauty. 

In modern communities the workings of sexual selection 
must necessarily be intricate, and the development of any 
particular type continually swamped. This fact may be held 
to account for the unfortunate rarity of beautiful persons. But 


sexual selection is undoubtedly at work, and here and there 
its operation will be manifest. 

The possession, therefore, of such beauty as we have been 
considering would appear to be evidence of an heredity compris- 
ing the qualities that characterise the most desirable partners 
in life, as well as ability to exercise in each generation the 
selection of the fittest mates. It would consequently imply 
the promise of reproductive success in large measure. Con- 
versely, ugliness or unattractiveness would take what might 
seem its natural office as an indication of but moderate fitness 
for the most eugenic union. 

Evidence as to the facts might be obtainable by Galtonian 

May we not, then, conclude, with regard to the significance 
of this order of beauty, that it should indicate capacity for 
the highest fulfilment of the sexual life ; that, as ordinary 
beauty is an index of a well-formed and well-functioning body, 
so an amplified and exceptional beauty is of the most pro- 
found biological and psychical significance — Nature's symbol 
of perfect parenthood ? 

Rossetti, in one of his wonderful sonnets, gives expression 
to his sense of the profound import of transcendent beauty : 

'' Beauty like hers is genius. Not the call 

Of Homer's or of Dante's heart sublime, — 
Not Michael's hand furrowing the zones of time, — 
Is more with compassed mysteries musical : 

. . . This sovereign face, whose love-spell breathes 
Even from its shadowed contour on the wall." 




By major THOMAS CHERRY, A.A.M.C, M.D.. M.S. 
Formerly Prtftssor of Agriculture, University »f Melbturne 

Speculations in regard to the Origin of Man are always in- 
teresting on account of the personal equation. We all like to 
know as much as we can about the line of one's own ancestry. 
These theories are of increasing importance because with the 
spread of education man's conduct is becoming more and more 
influenced by his thought. Democratic public opinion decides 
the line of action of the nation, and things learnt in youth 
constitute one factor at least in the moulding of public opinion. 
There can be little doubt that the general popular acceptance 
of the crude struggle for existence was one thought which went 
far towards unifying German policy before the war. And this 
simple faith we are now told is not warranted by the facts of 
science. The current doctrine, " extinction of the less fit, and 
survival of the fittest, no longer commands the universal assent 
of zoologists. Indeed it has been seriously undermined by the 
discoveries of recent years." ' In other words, while the con- 
tinuity of the protoplasm and the advance of the type has 
been preserved, the means by which this has been brought 
about are probably more complex than the simple factors put 
forward by Darwin and Wallace. 

In regard to the special case of the evolution of man, my 
object is to show that recent advances in knowledge have 
introduced new difficulties both on the side of structure and 
of function, and have made untenable the current theory of 
the comparatively recent separation of the human and the ape 
stocks. I shall then try to picture the forces and environment 
which seem to be the most probable causes of the evolution 
of progressive man. 

Difficulties of the Current Theory 

I. Taking two examples of structure, the premaxilla and 
the foot, there is no doubt that the problem of the premaxilla 

^ Bourne, in Animal Life and Human Progress, 1919, p. 56. 



is one of the most difficult points in any theory of the descent 
of man, and its significance is probably commensurate with 
its difficulty. The following are the sahent facts. Man differs 
from all the other mammalia in the fact that the upper incisor 
teeth are carried by the maxilla instead of by a separate bone 
named the inter- or premaxilla, lying below or in front of the 
nose. This bone is well marked as a separate entity in all 
the lemurs, monkeys, and apes. In the chimpanzee and orang 
it unites with the maxilla sooner or later in the adult life of 
these apes, and the suture between the bones is obliterated. 
On the bony surface of the human palate a line is usually to 
be found which was formerly taken as indicating a margin of 
the premaxilla, but some authorities now consider it doubtful 
if this line has any such significance. At all events one of the 
earliest centres of ossification in the foetus appears at the sixth 
week in the maxilla near the site of the future canine teeth, 
and from this the portion of the bone which will carry the 
incisor teeth is laid down during the following month apparently 
by direct extension from this original centre. The details of 
the formation of this part of the skull have perhaps not yet 
been completely worked out, but it seems certain that all traces 
of the premaxilla — if such ever existed apart from the maxilla — • 
are very speedily lost. So absolutely unique is this disap- 
pearance of the bone, that it makes the human embryo dis- 
tinguishable from that of all other animals at a time when the 
foot has the shape of the generalised reptilian type ; the five 
digits are arranged like a fan and equally spaced apart, and 
the cartilage of the little toe is quite as large as that of the 
great toe.^ But according to the recapitulation theory, that 
the embryological life of the individual gives a summary of 
his ancestry, the disappearance of the premaxilla so very early 
in fcetal Hfe would indicate {a) that the pre-human stock had 
lost the bone, and therefore had already separated from the apes 
at an immensely distant epoch ; or {b) that man has been able 
in recent times to get rid of inherited structures which he did 
not require ; or (c) that the common ancestor had a small 
premaxilla which has become proportionately more prominent 
in the apes and less so in man since the separation of the two 

Light may be thrown on this problem by the parallel case 
of the mammalian lower jaw. This bone is ossified in mem- 
brane from one centre for each half, any little areas of cartilage 
being probably the remains of Meckel's cartilage. In the 
reptilian ancestors of the mammals each half " ought " to have 
been composed of at least three bones. These, however, have 
become completely fused and interlocked, so that no trace 
1 " Digit " and " toe " are used to include the metatarsals. 


can be found of the separate constituents, which should have 
presumably remained as vestiges of the reptilian type. 
" Meckel's cartilage atrophies in its greater part, but its front 
part, taken into the bone, is ossified, and probably therefore 
represented in the bone between the mental foramen and the 
symphysis, and is possibly responsible for the prominence of 
the chin." * The lower jaw is also instructive, as from it a 
far-reaching principle may be deduced in regard to the late 
evolution of the bones. The Heidelberg and other very early 
human jaws are large, thick, and clumsy. In particular the 
sigmoid notch is nearly absent. But it is not probable that 
the presence of this notch and of a light " elegant " bone would 
of itself be a character of survival-value. We here probably 
meet some force which is present in most surviving mammals, 
but which was not so marked in extinct ones. This force 
makes for economy in the substance of the bone, with the 
distribution of the material in such a way that the maximum 
of strength is attained in any required direction. We shall 
see that in the case of man economy in bony structures has 
been correlated with the special growth of the brain. Absence 
of present-day markings on the jaw for the attachment of 
muscles may be a character of doubtful value, as an indication 
of the absence of the power of speech. 

A similar story is unfolded in the embryological history of 
the tail in man and the apes. The scaffolding for at least six 
separate bones is faithfully laid down in cartilage, such being 
apparently the length of the tail in the primitive ancestor. 
The outline of the first four is seen in the coccyx, but the last 
two are so small that they disappear by being absorbed into 
the fourth segment. On the current theory of vestiges it would 
appear that, as the premaxilla has disappeared more completely 
than the tail, it was the earlier of these two structures to be 
lost by the human stock. 

2. The foot has always been recognised as a special feature 
which played an essential part in establishing the mental 
superiority of man. The older anatomists looked upon the 
upright gait as the indication of a gap sufficient to justify the 
definition of a special Order, Bimana, for man alone. But 
since the death of Owen man has been grudged even a Family 
for himself. Current opinion is thus stated by Pocock : " The 
moment we get to the apes we see a progressive series of 
modifications, beginning with the gibbon, ending with the 
chimpanzee or gorilla, attesting most clearly the stages of the 
evolution of the human foot from the ape type." ^ Here the 
genetic relationship is inferred, and the progressive series is 

* Frazer, Anatomy of the Human Skeleton, 1914, p. 250. 
2 Pocock, in Conquest, February 1920. 



assumed to have begun with an opposable great toe and to 
have ended in the distinctive human great toe, which is the 
corner-stone of the foot. It is possible, however, that the 
opposabihty of the simian great toe may be a secondary 
character, and that the common ancestor may have had a 
clasping foot. 

Pocock proceeds to discuss the monkey hand, foot, and 
method of locomotion in the trees and on the ground, and 
points out the fundamental differences between these and the 
corresponding organs and functions of the gibbon. He con- 
cludes that the arboreal and terrestrial habits have been learnt 

A. Foot of the bipedal arboreal lemur. 

B. Foot. of the quadrupedal arboreal monkey 

•C. Foot of the gorilla, a bipedal, partly arboreal ape 
J!)» Foot of man. 

Fig, I. 

independently by the monkeys and the apes ; that " since 
ancestral traits lost in the adult often persist for a longer or 
shorter time during youth, we may conclude that the orang's 
progenitor was biped before the adjustment of the organisation 
for climbing had reached the pitch exhibited by the existing 
ape " ; and that the short broad foot of the chimpanzee and 
gorilla, " their ability to stand and walk erect, and their peculiar 
way of climbing, all point to the conclusion that they are 
descended not from a truly arboreal ape, but from an ape 
which had already taken to terrestrial life." If the specialised 
monkey foot may thus be ruled out as a stage in the ancestry 
of man, the question arises, What evidence is there as to the 
condition of the great toe in the primitive primate ? 

At the sixth week the human embryo has the fan-shaped 



reptilian foot already mentioned ; a week later the great toe 
has begun to approximate to the line of axis of the middle toe ; 
and in the ninth week this digit has assumed its commanding 
position and lies nearly parallel with the cartilage of the middle 
toe. The characteristic human tarsal arch is apparent a week 
or two later. There is thus no indication of the assumed course 
of evolution from a foot with the great toe at right angles to 
the line of the other toes. The transition from the reptilian 
to the human type proceeds direct without retracing 
any step. 

A feature which has been prominent in the foot since very 
early times is the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal bone. 
This bone is specially associated with the lesser peronei muscles, 


Fig. 2. 

Development of Right Foot at s, 6, and 9 weeks. Length of Embryo — } in., i in., and 2 in. 

From Keibel and Mall. 

the third of which is an exclusive human possession and one 
that appears early in foetal life. The styloid process is 
important in many marsupials, and was of very large size in 
the extinct diprotodon. It is mentioned here as an example 
of the tenacity with which cell-memory holds on to useful 
structures and often exploits them for new uses. In man the 
styloid process sometimes asserts its lineage by having a 
separate centre of ossification for itself. 

We do not know what was the shape of the foot of Ana- 
ptomorphus or other very early primate. Phenacodus primsevus 
of the Lower Eocene was near the ancestral line of all the 
ungulates, and therefore the three middle toes had already 
become far enough specialised to commit its progeny to the 
choice of hoofs. From Cope's figure it will be seen that the 
tarsal bones and the great and little toes are suggestive of 
the origin of the feet of all the lemurs, monkeys, apes, and man 



from such a type. In the one direction the great toe might be 
made movable and opposable as it is in most cases ; or it 
might be lost completely or in part ; or it might grow and keep 
close to the toes, and so assume the human type. But in 
accordance with Dollo's generalisation on the irreversibility of 
the course of evolution it is unlikely that the type should change 
from rigidity in the ancestral ground ape to mobility in the 
gorilla, and back again to rigidity in man. Life on the ground 

Fig. 3. 

Left foot and hand of Phenacodus prlmzvus. 

would be as fatal to a projecting great toe as it is assumed to 
have been to the ancestral tail. 

3. Passing now from structure to function we select instinct 
as a well-marked line of demarcation between man and the 
apes. Its absence in man is correlated with the great brain 
and with the absence of any structures elaborated into weapons 
of attack or defence, such as the teeth of the gorilla or the 
ears of the chimpanzee. By some means the brain of man 
has, during its period of super-growth, been able to jorget the 
impressions which it inherited from the pre-human stage of 
existence. The cells of the embryonic tail and vermiform 
appendix still faithfully appear as they have done for millions 
of years. But the cells of the brain have changed and are 
different from their ancestors' perhaps only a few hundred thou- 
sand years ago. This is another special human phenomenon. 

While it is probable that instinct in birds and mammals 
was not as well marked in the Eocene as it is at the present 


day, it is certain that instinct was developed earlier than in- 
telligence. In the case of the human brain the growth of 
intelligence was incompatible with the persistence of instinct, 
and therefore the cells of the brain which inherited instinct 
have disappeared as completely as those of the premaxilla. 
To take an example. The survival of the mammalia is de- 
pendent upon the mother knowing, as soon as the first emer- 
gency arises, the proper way to dispose of the umbilical cord 
and placenta. A primitive mammalian instinct has been uni- 
versally inherited in regard to this matter. But in the case of 
modern woman this instinctive knowledge has completely 
disappeared, and one is safe in saying that the baby knows 
more about the mother than the mother about the child. In 
this case a few thousand years of tradition and teaching have 
been sufficient to eliminate one of the most fundamental in- 
stincts. The most probable explanation seems to be that the 
type of brain which retained the primitive instinct has died out. 

Instinct appears to be less marked in the great apes than 
it is in the baboon, and none of the primates have the mar- 
vellous instincts of the beaver or the penguin. The chimpanzee 
is terrified by lions, tigers, and bears, but learns to throw biscuits 
into the mouth of the hippo from a safe distance. It has also 
a well-marked building instinct. All the primates except man 
seem to dread the snake. An Indian gibbon {hylobates agilis) 
" sings in perfectly pure and melodious notes up and down 
the scale of an octave, the distance between the notes being 
exactly half a note." ^ This, however, is not a musical faculty 
but camouflage, as all animals in the jungle are instinctively 
afraid of thunder or any loud noise, as they infer that the 
sound is proportional to the size of its author. 

All these examples of instinct represent the inheritance of 
things of survival-value. Man has none of them, and it is 
probable that the gorilla and orang are in the danger-zone 
between instinct and intelligence. The bones of the arms and 
legs of old males often exhibit the signs of former fractures 
in positions which make it probable that they have been caused 
by falling out of trees. These apes are slow and cautious 
climbers, and the orang is said to test a branch before venturing 
upon it. But they appear to make mistakes occasionally. 
Now instinct never makes a mistake. Hence these apes may 
have been too intelligent to acquire new tree-chmbing instincts 
at the time when they took to the trees as the descendants of 
the ground ape. On the other hand, the great air-pouches 
of the orang and his deafening roar, like that of the panther, 
are indications of the inheritance of structure and function 
similar to that of the gibbons. 

* Haeckel, History of Creation, ii. 408. 


4. Our next example of a special human function is that 
of the growth and metabohsm of the body. In 1908 Rubner 
showed that man differs in a remarkable way from all the 
other animals with which he experimented — horses, cattle, 
sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, and guinea-pigs. He arrived 
at the following three conclusions : {a) During the early period 
of growth of an animal the total amount of energy supphed 
by the food is the same per unit of body-weight for all animals 
except man. Each kilogram of weight requires for its pro- 
duction food-energy equal to 4,800 calories. Man requires six 
times as much, or 29,000 calories per kilogram. These results 
are independent of the time taken to double the body-weight. 
(b) In all these mammals the same fractional part of the total 
food-energy, namely 34 per cent., is utihsed for purposes of 
"growth. But in man this fraction is found to be on the average 
only 5 per cent.- (c) The energy-value of the food consumed 
per kilogram of body-weight during the period of maturity and 
old age averages 191,000 calories for all the other animals, and 
72 5 ,000 calories in the case of man. His age-limit was calculated 
as eighty years. That is, man requires more than four times 
the average of these animals per unit of body-weight. 

So far as I know, experiments have not been carried out 
with any of the monkeys to see if they form a series leading 
up to the singular position assigned to man. But in any case 
it would appear that the unique brain and other distinctive 
characters of man have not been achieved by exactly the same 
forces as those of all the other mammalia. In all other animals 
evolution appears to have run a uniform course and to have 
brought forth uniform results, but man's metabolism appears 
to be a special case. 

When did the Man-ape Stock Separate ? 

The current theory as to the later separation of the human 
stock from the large ground apes is untenable for the following 
reasons. A large animal — large for its own order, as the chim- 
panzee among the primates — has always become specialised ; 
special organs imply corresponding instincts, for instinct and 
organ go together. It is always assumed that disuse can lead 
to reduction in size, but as we shall see, it is very questionable 
if a useless organ ever atrophies and disappears unless it is a 
handicap to the survival of the animal. And if the animal 
has acquired the organ and the mechanism and instinct to use 
it, how can he reverse the experience of milHons of years and 
take to a new experiment ? For example, the baboons have 
efficient canine teeth and know how to use them against the 
dogs of the hunters. They also occasionally make use of sticks 


and stones. Is it conceivable that they will ever lose faith in 
their teeth and take to either sticks or stones ? The criterion 
of success in the struggle for existence is survival, and therefore 
unsuccessful experimenters always die out. Hence the advance 
of mammalian life is clearly the triumph of specialisation — the 
generalised forms in the Eocene were all small animals. When 
once a species is committed to any line of evolution — special 
teeth or special legs — it must make a success along that line 
or else it will become extinct. It cannot retrace its steps and 
begin again. Hence Dollo, of Brussels, has propounded his law 
of the irreversibility of the course of evolution. 

The one outstanding feature in the case of man is his brain. 
On the theory that man separated from the chimpanzee and 
gorilla when they were about the size of the smaller of these 
apes, we are faced with this problem. Man has made little 
addition to the body-weight of the common ancestor, while his 
brain has increased threefold and the canines and bones of 
the face have been reduced in size. No cause can be assigned 
for the overgrowth of the brain. In the parallel history of 
the horse the disappearance of the lateral digits has been corre- 
lated with life on the hard stony plains which made a split 
hoof a great handicap. There has been at the same time the 
elaboration of a digestive system suited to hard dry food, and 
the canines have atrophied because they were a handicap in 
preventing the lateral movement of the lower jaw in grinding 
the hard food. During the millions of years — Eocene to Plio- 
cene — occupied in bringing about these changes, the direction 
of the progress of the evolution of the horse has never changed, 
and the weight of the animal has increased fifty-fold since he 
had five toes. 

The chimpanzee falls in line with the horse in the growth 
of the body, of the canine teeth, and probably in the size of 
the ears, as compared with the apes of the Oligo-miocene. These 
characters are all of manifest survival-value, and they have 
all proceeded in the one direction. Both the horse and ape 
illustrate Dollo's law. 

On the theory of the recent separation of man and ape 
the anomaly of the ribs and backbone is another mystery. Man 
has seventeen dorso-lumbar vertebrae and twelve ribs. The 
gibbon, gorilla and chimpanzee have seventeen vertebrae and 
thirteen ribs, the orang sixteen vertebrae and twelve ribs. 
It is probable that the thirteenth rib is a character of direct 
survival-value. Primitive races of mankind are like the apes 
in possessing no waist, but they have only twelve ribs. The 
thirteenth is occasionally found in man, but only as a rare 
curiosity. Presumably then the recent common ancestor had 
thirteen ribs and seventeen dorso-lumbar vertebrae. The rib 


may be a trifling loss, but it is a variation, nevertheless, in 
the wrong direction as regards survival. It is difficult to 
believe that the offspring of Palaeopithecus or of any large ape 
of the Pliocene could have varied in three directions, and yet 
have ever afterwards bred true in regard to such basal parts 
of the skeleton as the ribs and spine ; and to add to the 
enigma. Flower and Lydekker regard the brain of the orang 
as being nearest to that of man. 

Reconstruction — The Lower Eocene 

Starting with a generahsed primate of the Anaptomorphus 
type, we have an animal about as large as a rat. It had a large 
brain and very large eyes. It is inferred that this animal lived 
in the trees and had clasping feet, perhaps with partially 
opposable thumbs. What part of the tree did it frequent and 
what was its object in going to the trees ? An opposable thumb 
as part of a very small hand is seen in some marsupial forms 
not much larger than a rat. These live during the night on 
the small twigs and branches amongst the leaves, where the 
diameter of the part of the plant supporting them is small 
enough to be at least partially encircled by the hand. As the 
large eyes indicate nocturnal habits, this proto-primate may 
have caught and eaten birds roosting in the small branches. 
As it depended on sight and not on scent, the moonlight made 
the difference between full and scanty supplies of food. Hence 
the monthly cycle was established in the female, and this has 
persisted in all the descendants of this proto-primate, including 
the lemurs. The effect of special food has been stamped on 
all these animals. 

Some other inferences become probable. Anaptomorphus 
has small and even teeth and a short face. This type of face 
has persisted in some South American monkeys, and it is easier 
to picture a short nose and muzzle growing long than the 
opposite trend of development. For instance, in the case of 
dogs the breeds with a very short muzzle appear to be rather 
at a disadvantage. The general type of the alimentary canal 
in the primates is another important point. This more re- 
sembles that of the carnivora than that of the herbivora, and 
the size and structure of each type is related to the percentage 
of nitrogen in the food-supply. The proto-primate therefore 
secured a diet rich in nitrogen, almost like a carnivore, and 
the normal pattern of the hand and foot suggest that the diet 
was not insects, spiders, and grubs, for if these were the original 
food of the arboreal primates one should expect to see many 
modifications of the teeth and fingers similar to those found 


in the aye-aye. Still it was probably insects that first attracted 
them into the trees in search of nitrogen. 

As for obtaining nitrogen direct from leaves and nuts it is 
probable that these parts of the plant were not so rich in 
nitrogen in the Eocene as they are at present. Arboreal forms, 
such as squirrels, lemurs, and monkeys, eat birds, mice, and 
eggs, a habit which shows that the protein problem is not 
easily solved on a purely vegetable diet ; and the primate type 
of the alimentary canal combined with the large eye points 
to birds and not to leaves and seeds. It may be that the 
attacks of such small animals brought about the roosting 
instinct of many birds, to which reference will be made at a 
later stage. It is also of interest to note that at the present 
day some of the lemurs are tamed and employed to catch 
birds in the trees at night. 

The Upper Eocene Change 

It was probably during the Eocene that the lemurs, New 
World monkeys, and Old World monkeys separated from one 
another. The profound differences between the three indicate 
that the proto-primates were still very generalised at the time 
when this separation took place. For the most part the descend- 
ants of all three branches have remained small and arboreal. 
They have each developed their own type of teeth, of hands, 
of the feet and of the tail. Concurrent with the evolution of 
these organs each of these branches developed instincts along 
its own special lines. Proto-primate had probably eleven ribs 
and some seven or eight lumbar vertebrae, and hence his descend- 
ants have been able to add to the ribs and to adjust the lumbar 
and sacral vertebras according to the needs of bony protection, 
and of strength or flexibility of the backbone. 

It was probably in the Upper Eocene that the branch of 
the Old World monkeys which gave rise to the apes and man 
came to the ground. Perhaps it had grown too heavy for the 
small branches of the trees, and birds had become too wary 
to be caught as easily as of old. This branch had peculiarities 
which already marked it off from most of the monkeys, and 
had retained many primitive features. It had small conical 
canine teeth, small bones formed the capsule of the olfactory 
nerve, a rounded head perhaps resembling that of the young 
chimpanzee, a vermiform appendix, and probably a very short 
tail. The relative length of the arms and legs was perhaps 
the same as has been retained by the chimpanzee ; let us 
suppose that it had an opposable thumb and a clasping foot, 
the condition of the two extremities being the opposite of that 
found in the American monkeys. 


The five existing genera descended from this common 
ancestor — man and the four apes — have retained many very 
primitive anatomical features. It is impossible to strike a 
balance and say that on the whole the gibbon, because more 
monkey-hke, is more primitive than man. The significance of 
the primitive features cannot be weighed and measured ; we 
cannot say that an ounce of brain is equal to a pound of bone. 
But it appears to be the soundest principle to regard all apparent 
"reversions as sign of survival unless there is clear evidence to 
the contrary. 

The common ancestor is usually supposed to have taken 
to a life on the ground and there acquired a fair approximation 
to a bipedal gait. In this case his diet would probably have 
consisted of lizards, gfubs, and scorpions, and the miscellaneous 
articles collected by baboons. It was evidently of animal 
origin to a great extent, because the digestive organs continued 
to be small, and none of his descendants except man have 
developed the side-to-side movement of the jaw in the act of 
chewing. This is a fairly constant indication of a vegetable 
diet in the case of all mammals. 

The plan of the digestive system seems to be an indicator 
of great importance in tracing out the early history of any 
species of animal. In man the alimentary canal is nine times 
the length of the trunk, in which relation he stands intermediate 
between the carnivora and herbivora. The corresponding ratios 
are : cat four, dog five, horse twelve, ox twenty, and sheep 
twenty-six. Many monkeys and the apes (except the orang) 
have provided for the increased size of their digestive organs 
by securing thirteen ribs. Even with this support they have 
protuberant abdomens, no waist, and in the gorilla the caecum 
and vermiform appendix are pushed deep into the cavity of 
the true pelvis. There is a species of lagothrix monkey on the 
Amazon called " barrel-belly " by the Portuguese on account 
of the immense amount of fruit that it eats. It is not probable 
that nuts and fruit or even seeds and grasses were so rich in 
protein in the Pliocene as they are now, because the evolution 
of nutritious plants has been related to the increasing richness 
of the surface soil, and this has been the joint work of the animal 
and plant. In some parts of Australia the vegetation is com- 
paratively ancient in type and absence of water has restricted 
the marsupial animals. We therefore find very little difference 
in regard to the percentage of plant food in the surface soil as 
compared with the subsoil ; whereas the rule is, in temperate 
regions, for the surface foot of soil to contain from two to three 
times as high a percentage of nitrogen and phosphoric acid as 
is found in the deeper parts. On some of the Australian gold- 
fields the surface soil and the rock four thousand feet below the 


surface contain the same amount of phosphoric acid. Rich 
soil has produced highly nutritious food, and conversely rich 
food produces fertile land. Man's brain was the product of 
concentrated food — without which children are soon in diffi- 

We have to account for the action of forces which made 
steadily in the direction of the human hand and foot, the 
growth of the brain, the non-development of the special senses 
and the obhteration of instinct. Two manifest conditions of 
the environment were abundant nitrogenous food and safety. 
We may further assume that in order to find the food it was 
an advantage to assume the upright position, and that intelli- 
gence was of more value in selecting the food than keen powers 
of smell or great teeth. Pocock has demonstrated the extreme 
probability that the apes had learned to walk fairly well before 
they took to the trees a second time. Their object in attempt- 
ing to perfect the bipedal gait was presumably to set free their 
hands while searching for food. This food was not berries on 
small bushes, or otherwise this diet would have left its mark 
on the teeth and the digestive system. When the common 
ancestor first came down from the trees he would scamper off 
on all-fours the same as the monkeys do, and the search for 
food amongst rocks and under stones seems to have led to 
the baboon type rather than to the anthropoid. That is, this 
animal must have always kept one side of its brain alert for 
possible carnivorous neighbours while it was looking for food. 
As the apes stand between the baboons and man it is probable 
that the forces which produced the ape type with its human 
characteristics continued to act for a longer period on one 
branch of the common stock and so brought about the evolution 
of man. In this sense let us assume that the apes left the 
common ancestral home in succession and began the secondary 
changes which have made them what they are. 

Life on the Seashore 

Now, the conditions of safety from the carnivora and a 
perpetual supply of highly nitrogenous food can only be found 
combined on the seashore. Carnivorous animals track their 
prey chiefly by scent, and herein Hes the safety of the shore, 
for the scent vanishes as soon as the sand has been washed 
by the next wave. Generally speaking, there is a stretch of 
dry sand between the water and the grass or trees, so that 
the beach is not frequented by the herbivora. Leopards some- 
times search the sand between the tide-marks for dead fish, 
but they do not find much because the birds and crabs are 
always waiting for anything that may come ashore. Marsupial 


carnivora also visit the sands, and the kangaroo has been known 
to swim across an arm of the sea two miles in width. Monkeys 
in Sierra Leone sometimes visit the shore and eat the oysters/ 
and baboons make use of sticks as levers to raise stones in 
their search for food, and of stones wherewith to crack nuts. 
The ease with which the apes are taught to use knives and 
simple tools, and the readiness with which they learn to master 
the secret of the lock in order to let themselves out of their 
cages, bespeak their knowledge of external things. It is there- 
fore in no way improbable that one family of the Late Eocene 
primates may have chanced on some part of the beach where 
shellfish are plentiful and there begun a course of evolution 
different from all their former associates in the trees. The 
epoch-making difference was the fact that they could live in 
safety and plenty on the sand and not trouble about going 
back to the trees at night. The necessary quota of carbo- 
hydrates in the diet might have been obtained from seakale 
and other plants which grow close to the beach. 

On such a beach as that at Port Said or Alexandria there 
would be no difficulty in a man finding sufficient to eat. The 
sand-crabs are very numerous, but they are not easy to catch 
because they are so quick-sighted. Still, it may have been 
their movements which first attracted the attention of our 
hypothetical monkey. These crabs are on good terms with 
the small sea-birds with whom they dispute for the possession 
of anything that is eatable. A monkey would perhaps frighten 
both away and pick up the morsel. At all events he might 
have found sustenance on the beach without even using a stone 
to crack a shellfish. On this hypothesis an improvement in 
the powers of observation and imitation would be of greater 
survival-value than a lengthening of the nose or of the canine 
teeth. In other words, as soon as a monkey began to live 
on the sandy shore, survival would depend on the growth and 
elaboration of the brain. The cranial nerves were all already 
sufficient for their new uses, but new centres were required in 
the brain for functions which lead direct to the brain of man. 

Next we have to account for the improvement of the hand, 
the broadening of the sole of the monkey foot and the gradual 
approximation to the upright posture. These are all provided 
for by the extension of the food-producing area to a rocky 
beach. The power to identify stranded mussels on the sand 
would lead to the recognition of living specimens attached 
to the rocks. Oysters and other shellfish would soon be added 
to the list. Stones would be used for cracking the shells and 
sticks for levering them off the rocks. In this way the use of 
tools began. We need not therefore be surprised if the 
^ Scott Elliot, Prehistoric Man, 1915, p. 28. 


Oligocene eoliths found in Belgium prove to be manufactured 
articles. A small animal seeking its food amongst the rocks 
between the tide-lines would be compelled to try to stand on 
its hind legs in order to use a pebble at first with both its hands. 
As it grew larger and firmer on its feet, one hand became strong 
enough to do the work. As the upright position gradually- 
asserted itself, it was an advantage in searching the sides of 
the rocks to have the axis of the eyes at right angles to the 
perpendicular trunk. Hence the occipital foramen gradually 
reached the centre of the base of the skull, and its plane became 
nearly horizontal. The most successful of these dwellers on 
the beach were those that learnt to walk upright. Provided 
the little animals were not hunted by enemies, they had no need 
to scamper away on all-fours, and the type of body gradually 
changed until they became bipeds. Balancing the body and 
the new uses of the hand and foot were muscular functions 
that advanced the type of brain. The smaller the animal that 
began this series of changes the easier it is to account for the 
results, and it is clear that such a life was more varied and 
complicated than the old one in the trees. 

At whatever point therefore in such a history the ancestors 
of the apes left the seaside and went back to the forest, they 
were at once exposed more fully to the stress of the ordinary 
struggle for existence. The earlier they went back the less they 
resembled the human type in the matter of the foot and head 
AsPropliopithecus and other apes of the Egyptian Late Oligocene 
appear to be early gibbons, and as tree-living gibbons are found 
in the Miocene, this genus seems to have been the first to 
return to the trees. The large canines, long fingers and arms, 
long toes, and great toe at right angles to the foot are modifi- 
cations that have been elaborated since the Oligocene, for the 
Egyptian fossils have comparatively small teeth. The next 
emigrant was the orang. Some of the families that left at 
that time may have been slim creatures that have died out, 
but one of them was prepotent in regard to immense strength 
combined with a short spinal column, and these two features 
have survived. Last of the surviving apes was the common 
ancestor of the gorilla and chimpanzee. As we have already 
pointed out, he carried away the human spine, and the need 
of protection has modified his ribs in two ways : they are 
broader and stronger than those of man, and the thirteenth 
has become a permanent addition to the chest. 

Concerning the Teeth 

The orang and gorilla make great use of their canine teeth 
in obtaining their food. These teeth are not so specialised as 


those of the baboon, macaque, or gibbon, but they are very 
formidable weapons. They seem to have been developed as im- 
plements for obtaining food. The gorilla eats the kernel of nuts 
with very hard shells, and gnaws great pieces out of the trunks 
of trees in order to get access to the pith. " Here is probably 
one purpose of that enormous strength of jaw which long 
seemed to me to be thrown away on a non-carnivorous animal. 
These habits account for the great canines becoming worn, as 
they are in almost all adult gorillas." Hence the great bony 
ridges on the skull, the early closing of the sutures, and the 
large spinous processes of the vertebrae of the neck. In order 
to wrench off the pieces of wood the immense muscles have 
been developed and lead to " the almost total absence of the 
neck which gives the head the appearance of being set into 
the shoulders." ^ The older the fossil of the ape the smaller 
are the teeth and bony ridges in proportion to the size of the 
animal, Propliopithecus having small teeth of uniform height 
approaching in appearance the human series. Moreover, the 
permanent canines of the great apes are guided into their 
position by the milk canines, whereas the human canines do 
not appear until the eleventh or twelfth year. In the meantime 
our permanent incisors and bicuspids have long been in position, 
and the canine is often crowded out of its proper place and 
forced to fall out of line. " Back teeth " are therefore not 
evidence of our simian ancestry, but on the contrary quite the 

The junction of the premaxillary bone and the maxilla has 
been the favourite site for the appearance of great teeth ever 
since the theriodont reptiles lived in the Permian period. The 
growing and ossifying tissues along the edges of the two bones 
are the parts most richly supplied with blood. This fact, in 
conjunction with the intermittent pressure caused by biting, 
appears to be the explanation of the commanding size of the 
teeth which grow next the suture. These are the canines in 
most cases, but the lateral incisor forms the tusks of the elephant, 
mammoth, and rhinoceros. With the exception of man, all the 
primates have specialised in the canines, and the greatest of 
all is the gorilla. 

These considerations enable us to offer a probable solution 
of the history of the premaxilla. In the early primate, when 
he first came from the trees, it was a small bone, perhaps less 
than half an inch across. The structure which was of service 
to the gibbon, orang, and gorilla was not this bone, but the 
suture with its special blood-supply, which separated it from the 
maxilla. Those apes survived which had the largest canine 
teeth, and the line of the suture was essential to the increase 
^ Du Chaillu, Equatorial Africa, 1890, pp. 272 et seq. 


in size of these teeth. Hence the premaxilla enlarged with 
the growth of these teeth because it held in trust the necessary 
blood-supply to ensure their growth. On the other hand, in 
the case of man the bone remained at its original size because 
man's canines have never been very large. In the chimpanzee 
the canines are much smaller than those of the gorilla, and 
the suture, having served its purpose, disappears as this animal 
becomes adult. 

The apes have not made the same success of their canines 
as the baboon has done, perhaps because they began to specialise 
too late in the history of the species. A broken orang tooth 
has been found in the Pliocene, and many large orangs and 
gorillas break their teeth. This is not done by fighting, but 
by honest hard work to obtain their means of subsistence from 
the nuts and trunks of trees. Man has become lord of all 
because he never had great canines. The apes are rapidly 
becoming extinct because they developed theirs too late. 

After the migration of the gorilla it would appear that no 
other emigrant was able to make good his footing in the forest 
or on the plains until the evolution of Homo sapius. Some of 
them tried to do so, and it is probable that many remains 
corresponding to Pithecanthropus will gradually be found. 
Such failures are not steps in the evolution of modern man, 
but races which left the seashore too late to develop specialised 
organs of attack and defence, and too early to survive through 
their superior brain-power alone. Eoanthropus and Neandertal 
man also wandered away from the safety of the shore too 
early. Such races may have each been struggling against the 
wild beasts and climatic conditions for an average of a hundred 
thousand years before they became extinct. It is clear that 
many modifications of structure may have resulted, and on 
the whole these modifications would be in the direction of the 
chimpanzee— the youngest of their cousins which successfully 
trod the same path. It follows that no stage in the ancestry 
of man may have been very like either one or other of these 
extinct races. 

As the essential part of this theory is the evolution of man 
in safety at the seaside, we shall now give the evidence — negative 
and positive — in favour of this view. 

Evidence for a Seaside Life 

The negative evidence is the improbability of man's success 
anywhere else. When the common ancestor left the trees and 
became a ground ape he had only three types of locality open : 
the plains amongst the rocks, for there was little grass until 
the Oligocene ; the scrub or jungle at the foot of the forest 


trees ; and the seashore. The rocks appear to have impressed 
their conditions on the baboon and the Gibraltar monkey, and 
these are not steps in the evolution of the apes. Wallace 
thought the steppes were the scene, believing that " the seeds 
of indigenous cereals were present, and the numerous herbivora 
and game-birds would develop his skill as a hunter, trapper, 
and fisherman." * But as I have tried to show in a recent 
Paper contributed to the Manchester Philosophical Society, the 
first that we know about the cereals is the discovery of wild 
barley and millet by the proto-Egyptians in the Nile Valley less 
than six thousand years ago. Further, because the little 
primate had been able to catch birds asleep in the trees is no 
evidence that he could do so on the ground. To do so he 
would by analogy have been compelled to develop his sense 
of smell as well as canine teeth after the manner of the fox. 
As for fishing, nets and hooks or even traps are indications of 
the work of a brain higher than that found in any mammal 
except man, and the instinct of insects does not help us to 
solve the puzzle, for instinct is not the beginning of wisdom. 

Next, the jungle where the gorilla lives to-day can hardly 
have been the environment in which the apes and man were 
evolved, and this for two reasons. First, the absence of nitro- 
genous food was more marked in the Oligocene than now, and 
even in the Australian scrub there is remarkably little to eat. 
The Tasmanian and Australian blacks seldom went into the 
heavy rainfall forests ; the Brazilian forest supports a human 
population only in selected localities. Presumably the end 
products, the orang, gorilla, and man, are better able to find 
food than their ancestor was millions of years ago. Secondly, 
the scrub country is unsafe. The three end products are com- 
pelled to defend themselves, and in particular all primates 
except man have developed an instinct against snakes, which 
first appear in the Miocene. As the common ancestor did not 
climb trees he would probably sleep in hollow logs at the foot 
of the trees. The recession of the sense of smell is against 
this hypothesis. Finally, if man was evolved in jungle country 
he would have had an age-long struggle against mosquitoes 
and similar forms, and therefore he would have become 
immune to malaria, trypanosomes, dysentery, and many 
allied diseases. 

Returning now to the seashore, we have seen that it is 
marked by the two essentials, safety and abundant food. The 
sands have been exploited by no mammal, an anomalous fact, 
of which the probable explanation is the absence of movement 
and scent in shellfish. Their recognition as food therefore 
demanded some intelligence, and the way a primate, well 

^ Darwinism, 1889, p. 459. 


developed by arboreal life, might have extended his knowledge 
from dead molluscs to the living ones has already been pointed 
out. This function, together with the new uses for the hand 
and foot, would further develop the brain, and thus the brain 
became the organ of survival-value. As the shellfish could not 
fight or run away, there was no call to develop great teeth, 
swift legs, or any other organs of attack and defence. The 
sands are clean, soft, and free from insects, so that the new 
primate did not evolve callosities, nor did he become immune 
to disease in the way that the lemurs and monkeys have done, 
Protoman may have cracked shells with a stone instead of 
using his teeth. Seashore food is nitrogenous, soft, nutritious, 
and requires little mastication, Man's third molar is decadent ; 
human babies can digest oysters, but not bananas, coconuts 
or the cereals. All these are facts, and there may be a causal 
relationship between them. 

Life on the seashore will also explain the loss of the hair. 
Man's skin is not a monkey's skin minus the hair. It is far 
better supplied with sweat glands, and man can thus survive 
a degree of exposure to the sun which is speedily fatal to a 
monkey. Man's naked skin is a conspicuous contrast to the 
condition of all the other primates. Darwin and Haeckel more 
or less cautiously attributed the change to sexual selection ; 
other speculators, who wish to emphasise the ferocious beast 
theory, have assigned the change to natural selection in order 
to get rid of vermin. This is an unnecessary calumny, as no 
healthy ape or monkey harbours lice or fleas — their regular 
toilet is performed in order to pick out little flakes of dead 
epithelium. Among the most primitive races, the Tasmanian 
women used to wade and dive for shellfish, wrenching the 
oysters off the rocks under water by means of a short wooden 
chisel, and the shells were broken with a stone. The Fuegians 
use much the same methods. If we suppose that as protoman 
increased in stature, and so required more food, he did the 
same, the loss of the hair is easily explained. When a hairy 
animal comes out of the water the evaporation from the surface 
chills the body, especially in the wind ; a naked animal dries 
much more quickly and is less affected by the cold. The cold 
body requires more food and is more liable to lung diseases. 
Hence in times of scarcity this selective action would act rapidly. 
The apes have a good coat of hair on their backs and heads, 
but much less on the front and inner aspects. This is no 
evidence against the theory of the seaside selective action, 
because two other allied animals diverged in a similar way — the 
elephant went naked and the mammoth developed a shaggy 

The primates are very subject to lung diseases. Most 


monkeys in captivity, and some in the wild state/ die of 
broncho-pneumonia, which is often tuberculous. They seem 
to have failed to adjust the heart to the increased strain involved 
by the erect attitude, and the right side of that organ gives 
way. The same diseases are depopulating some of the South 
Sea Islands, where the natives, formerly naked, now wear linen, 
which chills them after it has been drenched by the tropical 
rains. The primates usually live in hollow trees, and some of 
them build shelters from the rain. Man lost his hair at a very 
early period, for the hair varies profoundly in the three great 
varieties of man. The hairy parts of the body are well supplied 
with sebaceous glands, and many races believe that the liberal 
use of grease prevents any further loss of hair. 

A very long period at the seaside, during which our ancestors 
were slowly changing from protoman to man, is the best ex- 
planation of the accentuation of the monthly cycle in woman. 
This cycle probably began with the ancestral primate, but in 
some monkeys it is obscured by the fact that they have a 
definite breeding-season, usually twice a year. This longer 
cycle is a secondary phenomenon related to the annual food 
variations at the time of the rains. On a tidal shore similar 
variations occur every fortnight. As the rise and fall of 
" spring " tides is about three times as great as the difference 
between high and low water at " neap " tide, a far greater 
extent of rock and sand can then be searched for food. More- 
over, the harvest from below the mean level of low water is 
much richer than that from the shallow depths exposed at 
neap tide. For instance, oysters are usually found below the 
two-fathom line, and are therefore more readily obtained at 
spring tide. The knowledge that they were there may have 
induced our ancestors to dive like the Tasmanian women. 
One week there may have been little to eat except plants ; the 
following week there was a superabundance of food rich in 
protein. Turtles also lay their eggs by moonlight, and these 
may have increased the lunar feastings. Hence the new feasting 
reinforced a tradition which had been growing all through the 
Eocene. Dr. Marie Stopes believes that most women have a 
fortnightly rhythm, marked among other things by a special 
feeling of bien etre. If this is so, the cause can hardly be referred 
to anything except the ebb and flow of the tides. 

Another possible result of such a life at the seaside is the 
human shoulder-joint, which, from the point of view of the 
" fittest," is evolved beyond the proper limits. Movements 
are extremely free, the capsule is very loose, and consequently 
dislocation of the shoulder is several times more common than 
that of all the other joints taken together. After such an 

^ Darwin, Descent of Man, p. 7. 


injury there may be a slight thickening of the lower part of 
the capsule. This limits the movements, especially in the effort 
to raise the elbow to a right angle with the body. The shoulder 
adds very greatly to the usefulness of the hand, but this joint 
was not produced by swinging clubs or throwing spears. The 
gibbon, which perhaps comes next to man in regard to the 
range of movement, has produced its joint by swinging by the 
hands from branch to branch. This is the regular mode of 
locomotion of this ape. Man may have produced his joint by 
swimming and diving, and if the seaside theory is accepted, 
these new movements were carried out in the search for food. 
Food-supply from the sea thus makes the brain of survival- 
value, establishes the upright posture, and causes the evolution 
of the foot and leg, the hand and arm. A correlated series of 
structures are thus evolved which became capable of carrying 
out the behests of the brain when that organ had grown great 
enough to think out other problems beyond those of mere 

The objection may be taken that this seaside theory should 
have made the human child able to swim by instinct. The 
reply is that human instincts have not developed since the 
period when the brain became the organ of survival-value. 
Nevertheless, in races which have kept up the habit of being 
much in the water, the children appear to swim without any 
special training. It is also true that the orang cannot swim, 
a fact that may be accounted for by supposing that he left 
the sands for the forest before swimming had become general. 

The number of years covered by each of the tertiary periods 
is so great in comparison with the number of generations of 
each species of animal that the time-limit is long enough to 
account for the necessary structural changes. For instance, 
in a million years there would be far more than a hundred 
thousand generations. Suppose the height of the animal had 
increased in that time by fifty inches, the advance would be 
quite inappreciable, being only one two-thousandth of an inch 
in each generation. The problem is to find a set of factors 
which would account for a steady advance in the one direction. 
This problem seems to be easier of solution if the advance was 
begun when the animal was still comparatively small. The 
improbable thing to happen is the change of plan. If the 
needs of survival have produced great canines it is not likely 
that these can be surrendered and the instinct to use them 
forgotten. The animal then carries his own implements with 
him as part of his body. When such organs have become fully 
specialised the progress of the brain is stopped, because the 
animal has become a self-contained and self-sufficient organism. 

So strongly did this idea appeal to the philosophic biologist 


that Darwin remarks upon the advantages of man beginning 
as a weak animal, because it would compel him to remain social. 
Schoetensack claims that the necessary conditions of safety- 
point to Australia as being the place of man's evolution ; and 
Klaatsch goes so far as to hold that the apes are degenerate 
branches of the pre-human stock, the way upward being cut 
off in particular by the reduction of the thumb. We have 
remarked that the gibbons have become best adapted for their 
new life because they left the sands while they were still small 
animals in the Oligocene. The other species have a precarious 
hold on continued survival because they faced the new con- 
ditions after their feet were too specialised to turn into first-class 
tree-climbing organs, and their teeth were too large to acquire 
the sharp posterior edge of the canines of the baboon. 

Man Evolved in Safety 

The evidence that man was evolved in conditions of com- 
parative safety, so that the struggle was less severe than in 
the case of other animals, may be deduced from many points 
of structure and function. First of all, the removal of the 
need for continuous watchfulness may have set free the growing 
brain, allowing of the development of intelligence instead of 
instinct. The more rigorous the conditions of life the more 
rigid the instincts. Amongst vertebrates we may instance the 
penguin and the beaver. The wariness of birds is well known. 
Thus in Australia the white cockatoo lives in large flocks and 
always stations a picquet in the trees while the flock is feeding 
on the ground. Similar care is taken in selecting a tree upon 
which to roost at night. This instinct is carried a stage farther 
by the antarctic penguins, which are safe on the ice, but are 
eaten by a large " shark " in the water. The flock marches 
down from the rookery to the ice edge, where they line up 
and try to push one another into the water. The photographs 
of the birds watching over the edge to see the fate of the 
unwilling scout are well known. If he begins fishing, they 
know that all is safe, and drop into the water also. If he 
disappears, they go back to the rookery and wait for a more 
auspicious omen. Their absence of fear on the ice is seen in 
the nesting instincts. The male " proposes " to the female 
by placing a stone in front of her as the first step towards 
building a nest. If she accepts it, they regard each other as 
man and wife. But a bachelor bird will propose in the same 
way to a sailor if he stand quiet for a few minutes. The dam 
of the beaver, the modification of the tail wherewith to smooth 
the outside of the mud house before it is frozen, and the canals 
which are made to keep the pond full, are some of the instincts 


that look most like intelligence. But the beaver begins to 
build a dam in his house from any kind of unsuitable objects, 
such as boots or brushes, and this although there is no water 
in the place. 

Secondly, the metabolic scheme investigated by Rubner, 
and already referred to, is an indication of abundant food and 
the leisurely evolution of man. He had both food and, easy 
conditions of life, and perhaps in consequence his reason is 
the precise antithesis of the instincts of the beaver and the 
penguin, for reason must be correlated with freedom. 

The absence of organs of attack and defence, the non- 
development of the special senses, the non-growth (that is the 
apparent retrogression) of the bones of the face, and the great 
toe of the female foot, all indicate safety. This toe is relatively 
as well as actually smaller in woman. As this toe may be 
called the chief organ of running, one would have expected 
this method of escape to have been very highly developed in 
those who were less able to fight. 

In addition, as old age approaches, all the bones become 
thinner, lighter, and more fragile. The skull alone loses about 
two-fifths of its weight. Female skulls are thinner and lighter 
than male, but heavier in proportion to the weight of the rest 
of the skeleton (i :6 as compared with i : 8). The brain grows 
very rapidly in the early years of life, and attains its maximum 
weight before the age of twenty, that is before the bones are 
complete. All these facts may be taken to indicate safe sur- 
roundings. For as the brain became more important as regards 
survival, it has been thrown more and more upon its own 
resources for safety, instead of being protected by a case like 
that of the gorilla. 

How THE Brain took Command 

For the past six thousand years there is evidence that the 
brain of the Mediterranean race has altered remarkably little, 
just as the bones of the little toe were as atrophic then as now. 
But there has been a remarkable change in the mind of man. 
Certain facts are known which show that the normal brain is 
acting perhaps more definitely than ever as the chief selective 
organ. Mentally defective children have small heads, usually 
much below the average size for the age. In one form of 
idiotcy the child of European parents has the Mongolian head 
and features. The normal child exhibits the desire to talk 
very early in life ; that is, speech seems to have become almost 

To review the successive stages by which the human brain 
has acquired the power to command : When the little insecti- 


vores first left the ground and took to the trees, the new co- 
ordinated muscular actions and the use of sight as well as of 
smell to recognise the food marked the first stage of progress. 
This may have been continued by the catching of birds at 
night with little assistance from the sense of smell, and by 
the use of the four extremities independently of each other. 
The sands present conditions for further progress. By watching 
the crabs and sea-birds — trying to catch them perhaps — new 
food might have been recognised by the sight alone, even if 
it had no feathers and did not move. Touch may have been 
used to examine the mollusc, and a small stone used to crack 
the shell. The animal learnt that some shells were empt}'- and 
others full. Much later curiosity was rewarded by the epoch- 
making discovery that shells similar to those on the beach 
were attached to the rocks, and that these were always worth 
cracking with a stone. The hand and foot were then steadily 
advanced towards perfection by the needs of the new food- 
supply, and the skull was gradually poised on the condyles. 
The new food-supply was handed on from father to son by 
tradition, not by instinct, and the growth of the brain was 
assured as soon as it had reached the point of thinking of 
things that were out of sight. The instinct of the squirrel has 
taught it to bore a small hole in a nut to see if it is worth while 
going farther in the matter, and I am told that the baboons 
steal tins of bully beef as readily as fruit or loaves of bread. 

If we suppose that protoman was social and had as good 
a language as the baboons, the tradition would soon lead to 
the elements of speech. It has recently been suggested that 
sign language arose before speech, chiefly from the fact that 
the same signs were common to all the North American Indians, 
although their speech was quite different.^ Of course very 
early human skulls have the bony markings for the muscles 
of the tongue of a primitive type, and the view is widely held 
that speechless man was quite a large animal. But when speech 
began, the human race had not yet separated into the three 
great divisions, and yet man was already right-handed, for the 
speech centre is always on the left side of the brain. Thereafter 
brain growth was accelerated and knowledge in a new sense 
began. The consciousness that thoughts can be expressed by 
words must have been a continuous stimulus to evolution along 
the new path. The dawn of this consciousness forms the 
turning-point in the education of the blind deaf-mutes. It was 
very marked in the classical case of Laura Bridgeman. The 
changes which ensued all appear to be very ancient, and they 
are characteristic of all existing races as compared with the 
apes. The head of the foetus was enlarged, the period of 
^ Evans, Anthropology and the Classics. 


gestation prolonged, and correlated changes took place in the 
skeleton of the mother. The internal carotid overtook the 
external in regard to size, and the face did not grow at the 
same rate as the brain. It is easier to explain all these sequences 
if we hold that incipient speech marked the little protoman, 
and that it was a triumph of peace. A parrot has not the 
human organs, but it can " articulate " very distinctly, and it 
seems more probable that the American picture-language drifted 
round the world from the Nile, rather than a gorilla-man began 
to think and talk on his own initiative. 

Objections to this Theory 

In conclusion, the way must be briefly indicated by which 
a number of obvious objections may be met. 

In favour of the recent separation of man and ape the baby 
is cited. He sometimes is clever at hanging by his hands soon 
after birth, and he walks at first on the outside of the foot, 
the head of the astragalus being directed more inwards, and 
its neck is longer than in the adult. The lower races of mankind 
are more ape-like in having shorter thighs, no waist, ridges on 
the bones of the skull, and other points less marked in Euro- 
peans. Similarity in mentality is also seen between the orang 
and the Mongolian, and so forth. 

The reply seems to be that descent from a common ancestor 
is undoubted, but the genetic relationship need not be recent. 
Mere increase of size from a small animal to man may have 
occupied only a few hundred thousand years. Hence if there 
were large apes in the Miocene these were not necessarily in 
the direct line of the human race. For the structural pattern 
and similarity of function are essentially conservative and slow 
of change. No biologist would claim that the ox is the lineal 
descendant of a codfish, even though the internal secretions 
of the pituitary bodies appear to be very much alike. Con- 
tinuity looms more largely in nature's plan than variation 
appears to do. 

Blood relationship and liability to the same diseases is a 
new " proof " which has been exploited a good deal of recent 
years. Nuttall's results, on which our knowledge is based, 
showed that the lemurs and American monkeys are far away 
from the apes and man ; the Old World monkeys come next, 
and the simiidce are nearest related to man, but the orang, 
chimpanzee, and gorilla appear to be equally human in this 
aspect.^ This work was carried out at a time when modern 
laboratory methods were in their infancy. If the application 
of recent refinements in technique should confirm the position 
^ Blood Immunity and Relationship, 1904, pp. 2, 222. 


that the three apes are equidistant from man, this result would 
make it certain that the common ancestor lived before the 
appearance of the large apes in the Miocene, for no one would 
look upon the orang as being the parent of the gorilla, or vice 
versa. As to the common susceptibility to malaria, syphilis, 
bilharziosis, and similar diseases, it is too soon to make any 
dogmatic statement as to the degree of kinship implied. The 
experts who know most about the Wassermann test are cautious 
in accepting any theory of the action of complement and 
amboceptors as being final. At present it may be asked if 
any known facts about men and monkeys are more suggestive 
than the relationship which is demonstrated by vaccination 
between the child and the calf. We do not even know why 
red-haired people should be specially subject to rheumatism. 

Lastly, it is always assumed that disease alone can cause 
atrophy — the use of weapons for fighting and killing by early 
man led to the disuse of the canine teeth, and the consequent 
reduction in the size of the teeth led to a decrease in the size 
of the jaws, " as we may feel almost sure from innumerable 
analogous cases. In a future chapter we shall meet with a 
closely parallel case in the reduction or complete disappearance 
of the canine teeth in male ruminants apparently in relation 
with the development of their horns ; and in horses in relation 
to their fighting with the incisor teeth and hoofs." ^ In all 
herbivora the large canines are a handicap because they prevent 
any side-to-side play between the upper and lower molar teeth. 
The original canines of the Condylarthra have disappeared in 
order to allow the herbivora full use of the molars ; that is, 
horns were acquired because the canines were lost, not vice 
versa. In rumination the lower jaw is swung as much as two 
inches from side to side. The survival-value of good molars 
in such animals is seen in the case of some breeds of dairy cows 
in which the lower jaw has become so narrow that many of 
them have become " bad doers," that is, they cannot masticate 
the food sufficiently to maintain the highest condition of health. 
The large canines of the musk deer, pig, and hippo form a 
separate problem, as they grow from persistent pulps. 

Other examples of handicap are seen in the lost tail and 
projecting great toe of some monkeys, the legs of snakes, wings 
of apteryx and ostrich, and the legs of the whale. The small 
eyes of the mole and cave-dwellers are to be explained by the 
fact that a large eye offers a very easy way of severe injury, 
and that it is therefore only justified by its utility. The loss 
of the lateral toes in hoofed animals is obviously useful. The 
disappearance of the body of the scale insect, of the organs of 
many parasites, the atrophy of unused muscles, and the loss 

^ Darwin, Descent of Man, p. 53. 


of weight of the bones in old age, are all examples of the 
organism using these structures for purposes of food, just as 
the fat and the reserve material in the liver are continually 
being used for food. In the same way most of the tissues are 
used to conserve the life of an animal suffering from starvation. 
On the other hand, examples of apparently useless parts which 
do not disappear are seen in the human vermiform appendix 
and in the mammary gland in the male. 

The true position seems to be that the needs of survival 
will account for large specialised organs, such as the teeth of 
the baboon. A part not required for survival purposes is dealt 
with in different ways, and is often tolerated for countless 
generations. But there has been some force tending towards 
economy, especially in the hard parts. Since the Eocene this 
has reduced the size of all bones to the minimum weight con- 
sistent with due strength. It has modernised the teeth, given 
the female small bones, and reduced them all in old age. It 
has converted the inside of the bones into secret laboratories. 
The brain is conserved at all costs both in development and in 
times of starvation. The fat is cheap and stored up for hard 
times. We know that part of this regulation is done by the 
pituitary and thyroid. It seems that full mental and sexual 
development cannot be correlated with massive bones, and a 
very large man has often too weak a heart to carry him through 
an attack of pneumonia. Hence giants and the Neanderthalers 
have all died out. This regulating mechanism has only quite 
recently (that is six thousand years ago) brought forth pro- 
gressive man in the proto-Egyptians. The apparent atrophy 
of the Heidelberg jaw and the Talgai palate is not due to 
disuse, but to the action of these correlating forces, which 
have in the meantime found the Mediterranean race far more 
plastic than the Australian aborigine or the Eskimo. 


To THE Editor of " Science Progress " 



Sir, — The review of my Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy by the late 
P. E. B. Jourdain, in the April number of Science Progress, contains some 
statements which I cannot pass by in silence. 

In the first paragraph, on p. 673, Mr. Jourdain repeats his complaint 
that I ignored his attempted proof of the multiplicative axiom. In actual 
fact, I took endless pains over it. At first, I told him where I thought it 
faulty ; he then sent me a new version, altering other parts, but leaving 
the vital point unchanged. This process occurred repeatedly. I consulted 
all competent people whom I could get hold of, and they all agreed with 
me in thinking the proof invalid. I have read his proof with minute care 
in its various successive forms ; I have written to him over and over again 
explaining where I thought it faulty ; but on this point it has not changed. 
Mr. Jourdain was a friend of many years' standing, for whom I had both 
affection and respect, and I was reluctant to enter into public controversy 
with him. Therefore when I did not think well of his work I did not mention 
it. Neither in connection with the multiplicative axiom, nor in any other 
connection, had I any other motive for not referring to him. This applies 
in particular to the matter mentioned in the second paragraph of p. 673. 

In conclusion, I must entirely repudiate the statement at the top of 
p. 672 : " Mr. Russell acknowledged the justice of the present writer's stric- 
tures in the Cambridge Review on a crop of similar errors, but said they were 
all due to Dr. Whitehead." This odious accusation must be based upon 
some conversation of ten years ago, and I can only base my denial upon the 
certainty that that is not the sort of thing I should do. 

Yours, etc., 
Bertrand Russell. 
April 20, 1920. 

To THE Editor of " Science Progress " 



From A. H. BARLEY 

Dear Sir, — I am looking forward to the answer of astronomers to the 
question propounded in Major Marriott's very temperate reply to Mr. H. 
Spencer Jones's letter in the July number. It seems hardly likely I am alone 
in this, for the present period is one in which " authority " is viewed with 
disfavour except in so far as it justifies its position through the appeal to 



reason : this is markedly so in matters social and political, and still more 
should it be so in matters scientific. Therefore it is to be hoped that either 
Mr. Jones or some other representative of Greenwich has been prevailed upon 
to explain why Drayson's discovery — no inverted commas, please — has been 
left uninvestigated by official astronomy for close on half a century. 

The geological facts and arguments adduced by Major Marriott are not, 
it would seem, contested by geologists and therefore stand. Yet official 
astronomy, while offering no explanation itself, rejects that which he gives ; 
assigns no grounds for so doing ; and seems content to reflect that the two 
sciences are at variance on another point. This is unsatisfactory, and 
indeed unreasonable. However, by their rejection of Drayson's problem 
astronomers have involved themselves in a very singular dilemma, as I will 
briefly explain. 

There is a point in the heavens from which all the stars appear to be 
separating, those on the one side increasing their right ascensions and those 
on the other decreasing them. This spot is known as the Apex of Solar 
Motion, since it is thought to be the direction taken by the solar system in 
its motion through space. Its exact location is not definitely known, and 
many different determinations have been made during the last hundred 
years or so. Just about fifty years ago Drayson demonstrated that this 
spot was in 

R. A. 265.1 N. Dec. 31.1 
The latest determination by Weersma in 1908 assigns it to 

R. A. 268.0 N. Dec. 31.4 

It will be seen that these positions are almost identical. They are at any 
rate vastly more accordant than any two that can be picked out of the list 
of thirty-six different determinations given by Campbell in his Stellar Motions. 

Weersma's result is derived from all the *' proper motions " that were 
available to him in 1908 and is presumably to be preferred above any of the 
earlier ones cited by Campbell. Yet fifty years earlier Drayson secured an 
almost identical result — not by guessing, but by calculation — and without 
having recourse to the " proper motion " of one single star ! 

Essentially, both these determinations rest upon certain definitely ascer- 
tained facts, namely the recorded observations of stars and the discrepancy 
existing between the observed positions and the predicted positions as de- 
rived by calculation from the orthodox precession theory. But whereas in 
finding an explanation to fit the facts orthodox astronomy throws the efl[ect 
upon the stars generally, and on the solar system as a whole, predicating 
heterogeneous motions in many vast and distant bodies, Drayson on the other 
hand explains the same phenomena — and, be it noted, reaches the same 
numerical result — by throwing the effect upon one homogeneous movement 
of a single small and near body, the earth. 

The first of Newton's three regulcs philosophandi requires that no more 
causes are to be admitted than are sufficient to explain the phenomena. 
Official astronomy is consequently confronted with this dilemma : that she 
must either admit Drayson's explanation, or palpably fly in the face of the 
First Rule in Philosophy. 

I trust you may be able to publish this letter, for the matter is too im- 
portant to be let drop, and should be threshed out. Other points might have 
been enumerated, but the one given is that which I personally consider the 
most striking as prima facie evidence on the astronomical side of the 

Yours faithfully, 

Alfred H. Barley, 



From G. W. TYRRELL, A.R.C.Sc, F.G.S. 

Dear Sir, — The intervention of the physicists and the astronomers in 
geological problems has frequently been unfortunate for geological science, 
and Major Marriott's irruption into the glacial problem does not seem likely 
to effect a change in this respect. In spite of the confident title of his recent 
paper, " The Ice-Age Question Solved," I fear that this problem will occupy 
the patient attention of glacialists for many weary years yet. A study of 
the most recent textbooks indicates that astronomical theories of glaciation 
are at present greatly discredited by geologists. Pirsson and Schuchert 
[Textbook of Geology, 1915) devote one short paragraph in small type to only 
one of the astronomical theories (polar wandering) in their discussion of the 
causes of glacial climates, and remark that (p. 953) " As yet there is no 
accepted explanation of why the earth from time to time undergoes glacial 
climates, but it is becoming clearer that they are due rather to a combination 
of causes than to a single cause. Perhaps the greatest single factor is high 
altitude of the continents, with great chains of new mountains (the hypso- 
metric causes) which disturb the general direction and constitution of the air 
currents (the atmospheric causes) and the ocean currents as well." Chamber- 
lin and Salisbury [Geology, vol. iii, 1906, pp. 433 et seq.) devote considerably 
more space to hypsometric than to astronomical hypotheses. 

Glacial periods appear to be associated in geological time with the relatively 
short periods of crustal unrest, characterised by broad and high continents, 
shrunken oceans, and climatic extremes ; which alternated with vastly 
longer periods of crustal quiescence, characterised by relatively small, low 
continents, wide-spreading shallow seas, and climatic equability. This is a 
well-established geological fact : hence it is no wonder that for the explana- 
tion of past climatic variations, of which glaciation is only one aspect, 
geologists are turning to purely terrestrial and geological causes, especially 
diastrophism or crustal movements. 

Major Marriott is apparently chiefly concerned to establish the hypothesis 
of glaciation as due to change in the obliquity of the ecliptic, based on 
Drayson's cycle of 31,756 years instead of the orthodox astronomical cycle of 
25,868 years. This leads to the view that the last minor glaciation (not the 
"boulder-clay" glaciation; see R. A. Marriott, Changes of Climate, pp. 17 
et seq.) ended about 7,000 years ago and culminated about 15,000 or 16,000 
years ago. Major Marriott cites figures by Hoist and others, based on De 
Geer's method of counting seasonal bands in glacial and post-glacial deposits, 
which lend some support to this view. But it would be easy to cite figures, 
equally reliable (or unreliable), which support the orthodox cycle, or which 
are at variance with both. 

The differences between the figures for the two cycles are insignificant 
from the geological point of view, for geologists cannot as yet provide such 
exactitudes from their side of the question as can the astronomers. They have 
Huxley's mathematical mill too much in mind to place much reliance upon 
actual time estimates. Hence, even if astronomical hypotheses of glaci- 
ation were entertained, geologists would be not at all concerned to choose 
between the orthodox astronomical Tweedledum and the Draysonian 

One difficulty with these astronomical cycles of glaciation is their regu- 
larity. From anything to the contrary in Major Marriott's papers they may 
be presumed to extend back, cycle on cycle, into the remote past. Where do 
they begin, and why ? The American evidence, according to Chamberlin 
and Salisbury, is strongly in favour of the view that not only were the separate 
glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch of different lengths and intensities, but 
that the intervals between them were also variable. Is the succession of the 


minor cycles of glaciation (orthodox or Draysonian) begun and ended with 
the superimposition of a greater rhythm ? Major Marriott himself {Changes 
of Clhnate, p. i8) has to admit that the recurrent glacial conditions worked 
up to a maximum of intensity (in the " boulder-clay " glaciation) and then 
again decreased, and has to introduce an irregular rhythm of alteration in 
the shape of the earth's orbit with varying periods of hundreds of thousands 
of years to explain this. Furthermore, how do these superimposed cycles 
link on to the great Permian equatorial and other glaciations of the geological 
past ? 

A further objection to the astronomical cycles is their short period, which, 
under the most favourable conditions, would not allow the known spread of 
the Pleistocene ice sheets, their oscillation about their extreme limits, and 
their final retreat and extinction, within the time limits proposed. For 
example, Chamberlin and Salisbury state that the Labrador and Keewatin 
ice sheets appear to have pushed out from their centres about i,6oo and 1,500 
miles respectively ; but allowing only 1,000 miles of advance at the rate of 
one foot per day (an estimate much beyond the probabilities) and not including 
halting and retreating stages, it would take more than 14,000 years for the 
ice margin to reach its observed limit of extension. If the safety factor of 
500 miles be included, a corresponding increase in time must be allowed. 
Similar figures must obtain for the European Pleistocene glaciation. Even 
within the limits of the augmented Draysonian cycle it is difficult to find 
time for the spread of the ice sheets, for the known oscillations of their margins 
about extreme positions, and for their final retreat and disappearance. 

Finally, is it at all certain that an increase in the obliquity of the ecliptic 
is competent to bring about glacial conditions ? Major Marriott dismisses 
this question very inconclusively in a paragraph {Changes of Climate, p. xi), 
and states that the question has never been subjected to discussion among 
physicists. This, however, is incorrect, as reference to chapters xiii and xiv 
in W. B. Wright's Quaternary Ice Age (1914) will show. In reference to the 
hypothesis of glaciation by change in the obliquity of the ecliptic, Wright 
tabulates (p. 300) the calculations of Meech regarding the amount of heat 
received on each 10 degrees of latitude when the obliquity of the ecliptic 
was near its maximum value 10,000 years before 1800, and remarks, " It is 
considered that these figures demonstrate that no marked climatic changes 
can be produced in this way." 

Geologists are coming to believe that the great climatic variations of the 
past are based upon an intricate compound rhythm into which several com- 
ponents enter (see Barrell, "Rhythms and the Measurements of Geologic Time," 
Bull. Geol. Sac. America, vol. xxviii, 1917), of which perhaps the chief is the 
diastrophic deformation of the earth's crust. There may be a minor astro- 
nomical component contributing to the rhythm of climatic change, but we 
are as yet far from disentangling its effects from those of the more domi- 
nant factors. 

I am. Sir, 

Yours truly, 
April 16, 1920. G. W. Tyrrell. 

To THE Editor of "Science Progress" 


From Brig.-Gen. E. H. HILLS, C.M.G., R.E., F.R.S. 

Sir, — The essay by Sir Ronald Ross in your April number, entitled ' A 
Great Default,' exhibits in a clear light the very small amount of scientific 
thought that our administrative services bring to their task of government. 


I do not intend to labour this point. I wish only to emphasise one aspect 
of the question. Sir R. Ross explains that for the most part he received no 
payment for his work ; presumably he asked none. I suggest that this was 
a wrong policy on his part, and that he would have been far more likely to 
impress ignorant officials with its value if he had insisted on proper remuner- 
ation, and failing that had refused to proceed. To many people the value 
of a thing is what it costs, and when they find that scientific men are ready 
to give advice for nothing, they attach just about that value to it. An 
engineer employed as consultant by the Suez Canal Company or the Panama 
Canal Commission would ask and receive, as a matter of course, a substantial 
fee, plus all his expenses. Why should a medical expert attach a lower value 
to his services ? and does he not, by setting this lower value, help to depreciate 
the estimation in which his services are held ? During the war the exploiting 
of scientific men by government departments was carried to a point never 
before attempted, but was viillingly accepted by many as the form in which 
they could best help forward a great national cause. Even in wartime it is 
doubtful if they were altogether wise in submitting so completely to the 
predatory official instincts ; in ordinary times it is certain they are unwise. 
Science would gain, both in popular estimation and in its real influence upon 
the nation, if its followers would discontinue this misplaced generosity and 
would cease to give skilled and highly technical advice gratis — if, in short, 
they would estimate their work on a similar basis to that set by engineers, 
doctors, or lawyers. 

I am, Sir, 
April 4, 1920. E. H. Hills. 

I entirely agree with the principles laid down by General Hills, but 
my case was not similar to the cases which he evidently has in mind. I was 
dealing wdth an entirely new method, which had been hitherto untried, whereas 
engineers and others who obtain fees for their advice are generally called 
upon to deal with perfectly definite and known questions. If I had ventured 
to charge any fee to the Suez Canal people or to the Panama Canal people, 
they would possibly have refused me, and a great opportunity for testing 
my new suggestions would have been lost. In fact, I carefully considered 
the point exactly in the light laid down by General Hills, and determined 
that it was my duty to the world to abandon personal remuneration for the 
sake of perfecting a new life-saving instrument. Later, when I was asked 
to advise the Government of Mauritius, my method had already proved itself, 
and I therefore asked the Government to give me a fee of one thousand pounds 
for five months' work, but added that, if the colony was not able to find this 
money, I would go there without payment. In this case I was honourably 
dealt with ; but I cannot say the same of those other Governments and 
Companies which have sunk to the level of using a professional man's ex- 
periences without making any attempt to pay for them. We must remember 
that payment to all medical men is legalty (I believe) placed upon this volun- 
tary basis. A patient cannot be forced to pay his physician's fee ; but if 
he does not do so he is a dishonourable person. As already frequently stated 
in Science Progress, I am now suggesting this very point to the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer. Some years ago, however, Mr. Lloyd George did not 
appreciate the little obligation. 

R. Ross. 

P.S. — A case exactly apropos has occurred since the above was printed. 
The Commonwealth Government asked me to go to Australia as its guest 
in order to discuss the matter of the Northern Territory at a congress. As 
this involved expert medical advice, I suggested and named a fee. It was 
refused. — R. R. 


To THE Editor of "Science Progress" 



Dear Sir, — I read with interest Mr. Gilbert Richardson's letter on this 
matter in your current issue, and agree with all he says. His omissions, 
however, are important. Certainly, as a solution of the problem, Latin 
cannot compete with a language scientifically constructed for the purpose. 
But I do not follow Mr. Richardson in his advocacy of a scheme called Ido, 
for though Ido would be better than Latin, it is in my opinion much inferior 
to Esperanto, of which it is only a poor imitation. True, in the main Ido is 
excellent, being pure Esperanto. It is indeed advertised as being Esperanto, 
but " simplified " and " reformed." An examination of the improvements 
is interesting. 

Esperanto is phonetic. Ido is not, having various letters for one sound, 
and various sounds for one letter. It is to the insufficiency of its alphabet 
that we owe curiosities like jermo, jinjero (germ, ginger). Esperanto obeys 
a regular and natural system of word-derivation. The system of derivation 
on which Ido is professedly based (that of " reversibility ") is so arbitrary and 
contrary to linguistic instinct, that it is not and cannot be carried out in 
practice. In Esperanto the accent is invariably on the last vowel but one. 
In Ido it is usually on the last but one, but sometimes on the last, and some- 
times on the last but two. Esperanto shows the objective case by an accusa- 
tive termination regularly and invariably used. In Ido the accusative is 
sometimes obligatory, sometimes optional, and sometimes omitted. Esper- 
anto is marvellously flexible, with a free word-order, hence it is unrivalled 
as a medium for translation. In Ido the contrary is the case, and an Ido 
translation of the ^neid, for example, comparable to that existing in 
Esperanto, is an impossibility. In Esperanto words internationally related, 
as when, then : where, there, here, are regularly formed in a similar manner, 
and easily learned and remembered. In Ido these words are an unrelated 
chaos. Esperanto forms the plural invariably by the addition of a plural 
ending to the singular form. The Ido plural is formed in several ways, and 
bears no relation to the singular. Esperanto has one infinitive. Ido has 
three, all irregularly stressed and difficult to pronounce. The hiatuses 
caused by these forms, and the accented monotony of their frequent occur- 
rence, are distressing in the extreme to a musical ear. Esperanto is inter- 
national in its elements, Ido is a pidgin-French. Esperanto is " a living 
language of a living people." It has been put to the severest practical tests 
and not found wanting, and is in constant use by an ever-increasing number 
of persons all over the world. It is not possible to give precise figures, but 
half a million is a conservative estimate of the number of Esperantists. Ido 
has comparatively a mere handful of partisans, while many of its former 
supporters have launched other and equally futile schemes of their own or 
have become Esperantists. Esperanto has grown steadily on a firm basis, 
so that texts written thirty years ago are as intelligible now as then. Ido has 
not yet passed the project stage, being subject to continual change, so that 
the scheme at its inception resembles its present form as little as Chaucer's 
English resembles that of our own time.^ This helps to explain how it is, 
that while Esperanto has a very large and growing literature, both of original 
and of translated works, Ido, in thirteen years, has produced only a few 

^ We are promised, however, that further changes will not be made till 


leaflets.^ No one who has read Dr. Zamenhof s Old Testament, Dr. Bein's 
Faraono, or other similar masterpieces, can doubt that Esperanto is a hterary 
language in the highest sense of the word. It is not claimed for Ido that it 
is more than a convenient code, without pretension to literary merit or 
beauty. Esperanto uses a small dictionary of root-words, which it enlarges 
by regularly used affixes. Ido labours under a very large dictionary, and a 
much greater number of affixes ; which however are not regularly used, 
and are often used to no useful purpose. 

In Esperanto the feminine is regularly formed from the masculine by the 
suffix -in : Jozefo, Jozefino, patro {isithei) , pafrino (mother). In Ido, " father " 
is patro, or patrulo ; " mother " is patro, or patrino, or matro. In such cases 
as " I hammered the nail, I addressed the letter, I gilded the picture, my 
finger bled," Esperanto, like other languages, prefers a simple verb-form : 
martelis, adresis, oris, sangis {is being the ending of the past tense), though 
a more precise form is available when desirable. Ido by an arbitrary rule 
petrifies these words into martelagis, adresizis, surorizis, sangifis. "The January 
number " of this magazine would in Esperanto be la Januara mimero ; 
in Ido la Januarala nttmero (this is to prevent the reader from supposing 
that the number of the magazine is identical with the month of January !). 

The Esperanto mt7 okcent dudek fn (one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
three) is in Ido simplified to mil-e-oha-cent-e-dna-dek-e-tri ! ! Similar improve- 
ments adorn every page of an Ido text. 

The reader who is interested will find a detailed study of the question 
in Historio kaj Teorio de Ido by B. Kotzin, Moscow ; A utour de I' Esperanto, 
and Histoire d'une Delegation by Prof. C. Aymonier, Paris ; and various 
monographs on word-derivation and other works obtainable from this office. 
Their criticisms, which remain unanswered, may be verified by personal 

To sum up : If Ido is ever sufficiently finished and stable to be capable 
of a literature, it will be more fitted for the role of an international language 
than Latin. But this conclusion is of a theoretical interest only, for unless 
it is radically reformed, Ido itself will not bear serious comparision with 
Esperanto. It is in the main a re-hash of proposals fully discussed and 
twice rejected by an overwhelming majority 25 years ago. Esperanto holds 
the field, in theory and in practice, and except for the historian and the col- 
lector of curiosities there is little inducement to spend time on an unscientific 
and discredited plagiary. 

Montagu C. Butler, 
Secretary, British Esperanto Association Inc. 
17 Hart Street, London, W.C.i. 
February 26, 1920. 

To the Editor of " Science Progress " 



Dear Sir, — I have read with much interest the energetic (if a trifle dogmatic) 
reply of your correspondent (" The Writer of the Essay-Review ") to my 
letter published in the January number of Science Progress. I very much 
fear, however, that he has subtly avoided a definite answer to the most 

^ A number of technical terminologies and scientific works have been 
published in Esperanto. The pages of La Scienca Revuo and other similar 
magazines have further den^onstrated its suitability for scientific purposes. 


crucial points in the objections I raised, and has been tempted instead into 
a torrential polemic which is little more than a reiteration in somewhat 
expanded form of the opinions expressed in his original essay-review. 

Let us first consider what appears to me a comparatively minor issue, 
although a large part of your correspondent's reply consists in the elaboration 
of it. This is the statement that spiritualistic phenomena can be successfully 
imitated by professional conjurors. Now, as I said in my first letter, I am 
quite willing to admit that this may be so in all, or nearly all, cases, and I 
do not think that any spiritualist would deny it. But what puzzles me 
completel}'- is the precise weight attached to this argument by your corre- 
spondent. As he says, the spiritualist's reply to it is that, in spite of certain 
cases of trickery, " The manifestations of the conjuror and the medium 
may be of the same class, but this does not necessarily prove that they are 
always produced by the same agencies." Exactly — although I do not think 
that any reasonable spiritualist would draw from this the conclusion your 
correspondent supposes him to — namely, " You must therefore admit that 
some of the manifestations are genuine" — but rather the more cautious one, 
" You must therefore admit that the imitations of conjurors do not disprove 
the genuineness of some of the manifestations." And surely such a con- 
clusion is justified ; for conjurors can equally well imitate ordinary natural 
phenomena, as in the well-known mango-tree trick. I pointed out in my 
previous letter that your correspondent's argument would lead to such con- 
clusions as that all rabbits are produced out of hats. This objection he 
entirely ignores in his reply. Yet the whole matter hinges on it. Imitation 
by conjurors cannot possibly establish a proof that none of the manifestations 
is genuine ; the whole argument from it is quite beside the point. Accord- 
ingly, I do not see how we are to avoid the conclusion that the large portions 
of your correspondent's two communications which deal with this particular 
aspect of the matter are merely a beating of the air. 

I am accused by your correspondent of mentioning four important sup- 
porters of spiritualism, while omitting to refer to " the hundreds or thousands 
of men of science who laugh at them." Such laughter may induce in those 
who indulge in it a comfortable feeling of superiority, but its value as scientific 
argument is not great. Any omission of mine was simply due to the fact 
that I do not know of any eminent scientist who has impartially investigated 
the alleged facts with the painstaking care and thoroughnesss employed by 
the four I mentioned (they are few of many), and has returned from his 
investigation with nothing but derision and utter disbelief in the genuineness 
of any of the manifestations. In spite of this, your correspondent may 
find it easier to believe that trickery is always employed, but in that case let 
him refrain from ridiculing those who prefer to go more deeply into the 

But this part of the argument is of comparatively small importance. 
The real crux is the combat between materialism and metaphysical spiritua- 
lism. And here I am happy to note an advance (albeit small) in the direction 
of philosophic clearness in that your correspondent now describes mind as 
the " product of Body," and not (as before) as " the secretion of the brain." 
But what arguments has he in favour of materiahsm ? None that I can 
discover — only statements, mainly dogmatic. He speaks of " a vast mass 
of observations, experiments, and thoughts connecting psychological pro- 
cesses with the nervous system." Everyone will admit the existence of 
such. But he goes on to say that they all lead " to the cumulative judgment 
that mind is the product of Body." This is pure dogma. Many acknow- 
ledged leaders of thought, both scientific and philosophic, are convinced that 
they do not lead to any such judgment at all. And again he says, " While 
the literature of [metaphysical spiritualism] may often be astute, clever, or 
even occasionally instructive, it really does not weigh a straw against the 


mass of evidence (referred to above) — and most men of science, especially 
the biologists, will agree." In view of current tendencies in thought, it is 
nothing less than amazing that such a statement can be made in all con- 
fidence ; for not only is it merely absurd to say that the literature of meta- 
physical spiritualism does not weigh a straw, it is also far from being a 
necessary conclusion that the evidence referred to is incompatible with the 
theories advanced in that literature. Moreover, are the men of science, 
especially the biologists, so wholeheartedly in favour of materialism ? What 
of Driesch and Haldane ? What of the conflict (and no one-sided battle at 
that) which is raging round the discussion of Mechanism and Vitalism ? 
The wise man will truly refrain from dogmatising about the philosophic 
beliefs of scientists. And what of modern philosophy itself, which has out- 
grown Berkeley's fallacies and Kant's faulty psychology ? For, after all, the 
issue between Materialism and Spiritualism is a philosophic one. Consider 
a list of the most representative exponents of recent philosophic theories : 
William James, Henri Bergson, Bertrand Russell, R. B. Perry, James Ward, 
Benedetto Croce, F. H. Bradley — these represent nearly every shade of 
modern opinion. But their works reveal in no uncertain accents how very, 
very little there is to be said for the crass and pitiful materialism into which 
your correspondent would apparently have us relapse, and how very, very 
much is to be urged against it. I know of no modern philosopher of im- 
portance who could be described as a ma.terialist, unless it were Haeckel — and 
it is very doubtful whether he could be accurately described as a philo- 
sopher at all. 

And now as to my " tremendous admission ! " hailed by your corre- 
spondent with such delighted relief, that apparitions may be telepathically 
originated. Certainly this origin may sometimes be, and probably often is, 
an earthly one. But in very many other cases the details and accompanying 
circumstances of the apparition strain to breaking-point the hypothesis that 
it is due to telepathy from the living, while, if it is due to those no longer 
on earth (even if telepathy be the means employed), the spiritualist theory 
holds. As to the many other phenomena observed, your correspondent urges 
that the}'' also may all be due to some " evil-disposed telepathist." The answer 
to this is obvious : Judged by any criterion that the observers (or any other 
possible percipient) can employ, these phenomena have precisely the same 
status as those more ordinary groups of sense-data which constitute the hap- 
penings of everyday life. We have no more reason for regarding the former 
as collective hallucinations induced by an " evil-disposed telepathist " than 
we have for regarding the latter as so induced. Your correspondent appears 
entirely to overlook the fact that the actualities are the observed sense-data, 
and that we know just as much or just as little about the ground of these 
data when their sequence is familiar as when it is unfamiliar ; but in both 
cases the data are objective in the only valid sense of that term. Psychical 
research is simply the investigation, with a view to subsequent unification, 
of certain comparatively unusual sequences of phenomena. 

In your correspondent's letter, then, when the wrappings are discarded, 
I can find but two arguments, one maintained on particular, the other on 
general, grounds. The one is concerned with imitation by conjurors, the 
other with the truth of materialism. In conclusion, therefore, and by way 
of crystallising the issues involved, I would like to ask him two questions : 
(i) Does he, in spite of the objections I have drawn attention to, and of the 
ridiculous consequences to which his view must equally lead if pressed to its 
logical conclusion, yet consider that imitation by conjurors has any logically 
important bearing on the truth of spiritualism, and, if so, why ? (2) Does 
he regard the modern philosophers mentioned in the above list as the 
"pseudo-philosophers" referred to in his essay-review ; and if not, how 
does he propose to refute them ? In particular, how would he answer the 


argument (which he has ignored) to which I drew attention in my first letter, 
namely : "... We know about brains through perception alone. So far 
as we are concerned, a brain is simply a group of sense-data, and the 
perception of it presupposes the existence of a perceiving mind. Materialism 
is thus a gigantic va-repov Trporepov " ? 

Yours faithfully, 

C. A. Richardson. 
January 20, 1920. 



Dear Sir, — In his first paragraph your correspondent indulges in a familiar 
dialectical device when he states that my previous communication is a 
" torrential polemic " in reply to his former letter. It was nothing of the 
kind. As indicated by its title, it was a general Plain Statement of the. case 
against the ghost-hypothesis, and it referred to him only incidentally. I 
did not discuss his " crucial points " because I could find none, and was 
content to leave most of his other points to the intelligence of your readers. 
On the other hand, his letters are professedly criticisms of mine, and yet he 
ignores nearly all my points and reiterates his own — which are neither new 
nor sound. 

I quite agree with the first part of his second paragraph. The question 
involved is an elementary actuarial one. By well-known rules, if out of 
X seances y seances are shown to be frauds, then the chances that the remainder 
are frauds increase greatly as y increases. And this presumption is vastly 
increased if the unconvicted seances are of the same type as the convicted 
ones, as they evidently are ; and is further increased if a conjuror can do 
all the tricks shown in both classes— of which I think Mr. Nevil Maskel5me's 
letter in your issue for January last will satisfy most ordinary people. Lastly, 
the presumption is still further increased by the inherent absurdity — even 
the ridiculous absurdity — of the whole ghost-hypothesis when examined in 
the light of the ordinary facts around us (as I showed in my previous letter) ; 
and I conclude that the chances against any seance being genuine are, let 
us say, millions to one (" actuarial certainty " is put only at 49,999 to i). 
This is my whole case. The spiritualist retorts that even such odds do not 
amount to absolute proof. He is there quite right ; but then he generally 
adds that, as we cannot absolutely prove that some stances are not genuine, 
therefore some seances are genuine ! — in fact, nearly all his case rests on this 
argument — a monstrous infringement of the elementary laws of reasoning 
and a typical case of the sit-ergo-est fallacy. 

But if he is not so ignorant as to make such a mistake, he says merely, 
" As you cannot prove that all seances are not genuine, why don't you in- 
vestigate them ? " This is really almost as foolish a position as the other. 
If the chances are n to i against the truth of an hypothesis, then the 
chances are n to i that we shall waste our time in investigating it. If w 
is very large, as in the case of the ghost-hypothesis, then the chances are 
that many men might waste all their lives investigating it. Even if a man 
takes the risk, what then ? If he succeeds in exposing a number of seances, 
the spiritualist merely repeats his parrot cry and maintains that the seances 
which were not exposed were genuine ; and if he fails in exposing others, 
the doubt always remains that the medium was too clever for him. And 
yet these people have the assurance to ask him to waste his life over the 
foolish enterprise, and the impudence to assert that he cannot form any 
conclusions on the matter unless he consents to do so. That is the whole 


of your correspondent's case in his second paragraph. He appears to have 
the vaguest notions on quantitative reasoning, and even on the meaning of 
the word " proof." 

His thesis about rabbits is : conjurors can produce ghosts out of boxes 
and rabbits out of hats ; it is as absurd to suppose that therefore all ghosts 
come out of conjurors' boxes as it would be to suppose that all rabbits come 
out of conjurors' hats. What an argument ! My thesis was : just as con- 
jurors can produce ghosts out of boxes, so can any clever charlatan do so at 
seances — even in the presence of a score of " impartial " scientists and pseudo- 
philosophers, all of whom wish to believe in ghosts, and none of whom knows 
anything about the conjuror's art. There is this essential difference between 
rabbits and ghosts : we have all seen rabbits which were not produced from 
conjurors' hats, but few of us even profess to have seen ghosts which were 
not produced by conjurors or spiritualists. The world therefore refuses to 
believe that rabbits are generated by conjurors ; but does beheve that 
ghosts are. 

In his third paragraph your correspondent excuses himself for having 
omitted the names of incredulous scientists when citing the names of four — 
shall we say — credulous scientists, by averring that he knows of none of the 
former who have carried out sufficient investigations. I have just exposed 
this clever expedient for rigging the jury. He ignores my argument that 
only those people who wish to believe in ghosts are ever likely to waste their 
time in investigating them. 

In his next paragraph he is able to cite no less than two biologists who, 
he says, are in favour of his views. He admits " Berkeley's fallacies and 
Kant's faulty psychology," and then brings up seven modern philosophers 
in support. Perhaps the day will come when these also will be convicted 
of fallacies and faulty psychology — not to mention faulty reasoning. On 
the other hand, he doubts whether Haeckel is a philosopher at all, and does 
not mention Comte, Spencer, Huxley, etc. Those who are on his side are 
philosophers ; those who are against him are not. My view is that the 
former are pseudo-philosophers, and that the latter are men of science. He 
himself has recently written a book called Spiritual Pluralism, in which he 
defends the theory that ' ' the texture of the Universe is through-and-through 
spiritual " ; but it appears to me to be a characteristic work of pseudo- 
philosophy, full of long and vague words and of sit-ergo-est arguments. Of 
course my own philosophy is in general agreement with another recent 
book, Mr. Hugh Elliot's admirable Modern Science and Materialism — except 
that the last word does not accurately focus my conclusions. Mr. Richardson 
talks of " crass and pitiful materialism." The very use of these adjectives 
shows that he has not yet grasped even the fundamental principle of correct 
reasoning, impartiality. It is the characteristic delusion of the spiritualists 
that truth should appear hideous to them while they rave over the beauty 
of their own obi. 

In his penultimate paragraph he tries to explain away his previous fatal 
admission that, after all, the appearance of ghosts to certain people may 
be due only to telepathic suggestion from without. The scientific reader 
will enjoy the skilful verbiage by means of which he tries to wriggle away 
from the pin. We cannot deny that his explanations may just possibly or 
conceivably be true ; but he evidently thinks that because they may be true, 
therefore they are true — sit-ergo-est again. At the same time he seems to 
be quite unaware of the fact that there is a very simple and much more 
natural explanation of the alleged manifestations both of ghosts and of 
telepathy — that they are due merely to lying. 

With regard to his two final questions, I think that he must be an ex- 
ceptionally ingenuous person to imagine that I or anyone else would frank 
with our signatures two such statements containing implications with which 


we do not agree. They remind us oi questions asked in the House of Com- 
mons by well-meaning but uneducated Members who wish to ventilate a 
grievance. What he puts down as facts in the conclusion of his paper are 
really only conjectures, and, I think, extremely improbable ones. 

Mr. Richardson, having written a long and wordy book without proving 
anything, ought to know that there are some matters which cannot be any 
more definitively discussed in the correspondence columns of a magazine ; and 
I can only wonder that he should have insisted on wasting so much of your 
space and of my leisure on discussions which are notoriously always futile. 
At the same time I sympathise with him. He and those who agree with him 
wish to persuade themselves that they are above the order of nature and the 
risk of death, and employ every possible dialectical artifice in order to do so. 
But the facts are against them. Whether there is any hope in the unknown 
will not be ascertained in our life-time ; but, so far as I can perceive, there 
is none to be got from that form of superstition which he and others support. 

Yours faithfully, 
The Writer of the Essay-Review. 
May loth, 1920. 

*** The Editor can afford no more space for this discussion. 

To THE Editor of "Science Progress" 


From H. W. Unthank, B.A., B.Sc. 

Dear Sir, — In Mr. G. H. Richardson's interesting letter on " Latin or Ido ? " 
he expresses the wish to know what educational experts would say of Ido 
as a means of mind-training. 

I send you herewith some expert views on Esperanto — a far more widely 
known language than Ido. 

Would it not be possible to get together a body of scientific men to 
investigate this question of an international language, which is becoming 
more pressing every day ? 

Yours faithfully, 

H. W. Unthank. 

March 3, 1920. 


Awards for Medical Discovery (R.R.) 

Our previous number contained a full account of the report of the Con- 
joint Committee of the British Medical Association and the British Science 
Guild in connection with this subject. These bodies asked the Government to 
receive a Deputation on the subject ; and finally Mr. Balfour, Lord President 
of the Council, interviewed the Deputation, consisting of the members of 
the said Conjoint Committee named in our last issue, together with several 
medical and other Members of Parliament, on March 2. The Deputation 
was introduced by Sir Watson Cheyne ; and Sir Clifford Allbutt and Sir 
Richard Gregory also spoke. A good account of the proceedings will be 
found in the British Medical Journal for March 6. Sir Watson Cheyne 
pointed out that scientific workers were assisted by scholarships, etc., while 
doing their work, but that after it was done there was at present no provision 
for them, although, excited by the interest of their investigations, they had 
often neglected to make any provision for themselves. Sir Clifford Allbutt 
described particularly the conditions under which medical scientific work ia 
done. He himself had been chairman for some years of the Scientific Relief 
Committee of the Royal Society, and knew how often even very distinguished • 
scientists are in need of help. It was desirable to attract a great many more 
potential workers, but, if the Treasury adopted the proposed scheme, he 
feared that the expenditure which it would have to meet would not be large, 
j as the kind of intellectual research which would be benefited by it was 
scarce. Sir Richard Gregory said that there should be a fund for some time 
for making suitable awards to be considered as payments for results achieved 
and not as grants for favours to come. The scientific worker, unlike the 
worker in literature or art, may not dispose of his achievement to the public 
for profit. In reply, Mr. Balfour admitted his interest in the matter, and 
promised to lay the proposal of the Deputation before the Prime Minister. 
At the same time he suggested that there might be considerable difficulties 
in selecting for the proposed awards the men who had actually made a given 
discovery. He made a very good suggestion that wealthy men in this country 
might do more to meet the point raised at the Deputation. After Mr. Balfour 
had spoken, I was allowed to say, with regard to the difficulty of selecting 
men for the proposed prizes, that our suggestion was to give a number of 
pensions of five hundred pounds or a thousand pounds each, so that men 
who had done really definite work were not very likely to be left out in the 
cold. The selection of candidates was simply a matter of thorough exam- 
ination of details, by the methods used by the Royal Society and the Nobel 
Committee. Mr. Balfour said that he thought what was proposed was in 
the nature of an addition to the Civil List Pension Fund. Any such action 
taken with regard to the medical profession must also be extended to the 
other branches of scientific research. 

Since then we have not heard further from Mr. Balfour as to what has 
been decided, but the two bodies concerned have asked him not to allow 
the matter to drop. 

It is not advisable to go further into details at present ; but I should 

8 113 


add that I am taking further action in another direction in the hope of getting 
some final result. It appears to me that the Council of Medical Research 
is likely to be the chief opponent of the scheme because, very naturally, 
they want to get as much money as possible in order to pay for current 
researches. I should not quarrel with them for that at all ; but, as I have 
said before frequently, it would be honest in the nation to pay for benefits 
received before asking medical men for benefits to come. I am not in favour 
of too much money being granted for current researches because I fear that 
many of such lead to very trifling work. 

Professor Bose's Remarkable Work. 

Many of our readers will have followed the recent controversy which has 
revolved around the work of a distinguished Indian scientist. Professor 
Sir J. C. Bose, F.R.S. By a most ingenious apparatus the Professor has 
contrived to magnify enormously the slow growth, movements, etc., of 
plants ; such slow movements are of course invisible in nature, but Professor 
Bose has shown that it is possible by means of his apparatus — the cresco- 
graph — to follow carefully the growth movements of plants. 

Some doubt as to the reliability of Professor Bose's work was expressed 
by Professor Waller, of the Imperial Institute, at a meeting of the Royal 
Society of Medicine, which had been previously addressed by Professor Bose. 

Subsequently Professor Waller took the regrettable step of writing a letter 
about this subject to The Times. Professor Bayliss, of University College, 
London, then wrote a letter to The Times inviting Professor Sir J. C. Bose to 
bring his apparatus to the University College Laboratory, and there demon- 
strate it before a committee. The latter examined the crescograph and saw 
it recording, and the members of the committee wrote the following reply 
in The Times of May 4 : 

Sir, — Sir J. C. Bose kindly agreed to demonstrate to us his " cresco- 
graph " on Friday afternoon, April 23, in the physiological laboratory of 
University College, London. 

In accordance with the results given by the application of various tests, 
we are satisfied that the growth of plant tissues is correctly recorded by this 
instrument, and at a magnification of from one to ten million times. We 
saw in particular that a flower-bud in active growth, if treated by immersion 
in a solution of potassium cyanide for some hours, no longer gave a movement 
of the recording spot of light. We conclude that such movement, when 
shown by a similar bud in the active state, is not due to accidental stretching 
or to undetected effects of currents of air, radiant heat, etc. We agree that 
the instrument correctly records changes of length in the growing tissue, or, 
indeed, of any substance attached to the lever of the instrument, however 
such changes may be produced. Naturally, under the conditions of the 
experiments, it was impossible for us to analyse completely the complex 
effects produced by the passage of an electrical current. 

We are, etc., 
W. M. Bayliss (Professor of General Physiology in University College, 

London) . 
V. H. Blackman (Professor of PJant Physiology in the Imperial College 

of Science). 
A. J. Clark (Professor of Pharmacology in University College, London). 
W. C. Clinton (Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering in Uni- 
versity College, London). 
F. G. DoNNAN (Professor of General Chemistry in University College, 

London) . 
Ravleigh (Professor of Physics in the Imperial College of Science), 

NOTES 115 

To the Editor of " The Times " 

Sir, — Although we were unfortunately prevented from being present at 
the demonstration on April 23, we have seen elsewhere similar demonstrations 
by Sir J. C. Bose, and agree that the growth of plant tissues is recorded by 
the crescograph, and that changes in the indications of the instrument record 
when the plant is treated in such a way that its growth would naturally be 

We are, etc., 
W. H. Bragg (Professor of Physics in University College, London). 
F. W. Oliver (Professor of Botany in University College, London). 

Subsequently, at a meeting of the Royal Society, Professor Waller gave 
an exhibition of " growth " movements in a wet violin string. Professor Sir 
J. C. Bose was present and replied to Professor Waller's criticisms. Professor 
Vines, of Oxford, Professor Farmer, of London, and Professors Bayliss and 
Donnan spoke on behalf of Professor J. C. Bose. The meeting was somewhat 
unsatisfactory and inconclusive, but the weight of evidence seemed to 
favour Professor Bose. 

We sincerely hope that Professor Bose will continue his interesting re- 
searches. As the President of the Royal Society remarked, apart from the 
question of plant growth, the making of an instrument capable of magnifying 
movements up to several million times is no mean achievement. We do 
not know how to regard Professor Waller's interest in this discussion. While 
we recognise clearly that new discoveries must be put to crucial tests, it will 
be admitted by most of those who have followed the whole matter of the 
crescograph that Professor Waller has unwittingly placed himself in a some- 
what trying position. To clear away the obscurities surrounding this subject 
will need further work on the interesting material unearthed by Professor 

The Poet and the Phoneticians (Sir R. Ross) 

That excellent body the Society for Pure English, of which I have the 
honour to be a member, has issued as its Tract No. II an essay on English 
Homophones by the Poet Laureate (Clarendon Press). Homophones are 
different words which have the same sound, such as air, ere, e'er, and heir, and 
Mr. Bridges gives a list of them and some pertinent remarks about them. He 
thinks that the frequency of them is a sign of degeneracy in the language ; 
but, in my opinion, this fear is rather exaggerated. They really cause little 
confusion in the spoken language, because, even if the context does not 
enlighten us, we are always at hand to explain ourselves — as in the case 
of the good lady who got a little sun and air at Brighton. Bufthey are a 
plague in the written language ; and even Mr. Bridges does not seem to 
have fully grasped the fact that they are the chief cause of the extremely 
irregular spelling of our monosyllables, and therefore of the agonies of millions 
of children from London to San Francisco and farther. For the constructors 
of our curious orthography — which is really much more efficient than our 
spelling-reformers would have us believe — rightly held that in script, where 
there is no one at hand to explain, much error might be caused by spelling 
homophones in the same way. For example, how would Shelley have written 
the verse about Ivlilton — 

. . . but his clear sprite 
Yet reigns o'er earth ; the third among the sons of light ; 

or Dryden the line describing the Trojan fleet 

Entering with cheerful shouts the watery reign, 


if sofis and suns, and reign and rain had been spelt alike, as our reformers 
desire ? Hail, Holey Light and Cease, O clamorous Mews are other monstrous 
puns which the said ingenious gentlemen would foist upon us. As a reformer 
myself, I find it difficult to deal with homophones without modifying our 
principle of one sound one sign — yet these are only a few examples which 
occur to me curretite calanio. But while I agree that air, ere, and heir should 
be distinguished, I see no reason why all of them should have been spelt 
wrong, as they are. 

I think that Mr. Bridges is not concerned so much with collecting the 
homophone carrots in his back-garden as in throwing remarks over the paling 
at those enemies of the human race who live in the adjoining premises — 
the fonertishnz. He is aghast at the horrors of English prernunsieishn, 
as disclosed in the Phonetic Dictionary of the English Language by Herr 
Hermann Michaelis of Briebrich and Mr. Daniel Jones, Lecturer on Phonetics 
at University College, London (Hachette & Co., 191 3.) This work seems 
to have been designed to teach German commercial travellers how to pass 
in England for natives and even for members of English Universities, not 
to mention of our aristocracy ; and it is a good book because it succeeds in its 
object— of showing foreigners, by means of the International Phonetic 
Association's alphabet, how exactly slipshod English may be mumbled in 
familiar conversation. But nevertheless it reminds me of the Chinese 
tailor who, when told to copy a pair of trousers, put in the patches as well ; 
or, more expressly, of the German who before the war aspired to teach his 
countrymen the art of fashionable golf, and therefore showed them, not how 
to play well, but how to press, slice, and adopt the correct stance ! 

The Poet Laureate admits the competence of the book for its project, 
but quarrels with the authors because of their delusion that their pronunci- 
ation is the ideal one ; and he has fully established his point. The language 
is certainly often spoken as they indicate ; but also in many other ways, 
depending upon locality, class, race, individuality, and even momentary 
occasion. Thus, I myself am conscious that I use different pronunciations 
over the table, through a telephone, and to a large audience. Which of all these 
dialects, or shades of dialect, is the correct one, even — let us say — at Oxford ? 
I have been interested in the subject for forty years, and have indeed fre- 
quently tried to solve the great problem of " the average pronunciation " 
by a means which I have not seen mentioned in books on Phonetics — 
by going (wickedly enough) to church in order to hear the massed pronunci- 
ation of the congregation in responses or singing. It has been a revelation. 
Persons who employed the worst Michaelis- J ones speech in conversation 
were now heard to space their unstressed vowels in a way which would 
have shocked the lexicogrerferz extrordnrly. Yet the change was evidently 
unconscious. The truth is that, as Mr. Bridges emphasises, the pronunci- 
ation indicated in the written language is the standard pronunciation 
(when the spelling is normal), and the Michaelis- Jones language is merely 
the result of hurried verbalisation. He gives us a useful analogy in the 
case of handwriting — which we know too well varies from a beautiful 
calligraphy to utter scrawl : one might as well argue that the scribble is 
the correct way of writing because it is the most common — and in fact 
there is actually a type of fool who writes badly on purpose, in order to show 
his own " character," just as other people drawl or drivel their speech. 

This alleged scientific establishment of the despotism of a degraded 
pronunciation by means of phonographs and phonetic type is now a very 
old pose, and was, I think, started by Henry Sweet and R. J. Lloyd at the end 
of last century. I knew the latter and discussed the question with him often ; 
and though he died in Switzerland early this century his views persist in 
the Dictionary. I for one agree with few of the doctrines laid down in the 
preface of that book. The authors say that the spoken language is far more 


NOTES 117 

important than the written language, and is the true language. Is it ? 
The written language is the crystal, the spoken dialects are merely a series 
of impure solutions. The written language is the vertebral column without 
which speech melts away like a jelly-fish on the beach. Lloyd used to argue 
that everyone should write in the I. P. A. alphabet and in his own pronunci- 
ation ; but this would mean the breaking up of the language into innumerable 
dialects — which is not to the interest of humanity. We do not wish the 
Tower of Babel to be restored ; and the Poet Laureate has done a service 
in calling attention to the mischievous disintegrative tendencies of some 
of these wild theories of phoneticians. Proper pronunciation ought to 
be taught in the schools, rather than the writing of bad pronunciation-; 
and when the authors of the Dictionary actually find fault with modern 
teachers for inculcating the former I think (and Mr. Bridges decides) 
that their argument is pernicious. The authors say, "It is a regrettable 
fact that most pronouncing dictionaries definitely encourage many of the 
modern spelling-pronunciations. We feel that such artificialities cannot 
but impair the beauty of the language." And they would have us say 
iksept, ikstrawdnri, awfn, and seprit ! There is no accounting for tastes — 
or arguments. 

But the breaking-up of our far-flung language owing to the inadequacy 
of our spelling is a real danger. The pronunciation of most of our words of 
southern origin can generally be gathered from the spelling by those who 
know the rules — which are, I believe, never taught in the schools ; but our 
words of northern origin, especially the monosyllables, are so badly spelt 
that no one can pronounce them at sight. Reform would be easy ; but 
unfortunately there is so little intellectual life in this country that the 
inertia of stupidity remains unconquerable. I have before me as I write 
the Poet Laureate's excellent tract on English Pronunciation ; and I wish 
he could be induced to lead a movement towards amendment. The Simpli- 
fied Spelling Society has worked hard ; but it has tried to force on the 
public a system which is, in my opinion, by no means the best possible. I 
myself would advise quite another line of action — chiefly the return to some 
old styles of spelling which have been superseded by worse ones of to-day. 
See also my article in Science Progress, October 1913. But this is a seprit 

Modern Literary Criticism (R.R.) 

Some two years ago I ventured to criticise modern critics for some of 
their dogmas,^ and I was glad to see lately that Mr. Alfred Noyes took up 
the same task in his lecture at the Royal Institution on January 24th. One 
must be careful because we observe that some of these gentlemen are quite 
supreme in their art. Thus the Aiheiiisum admitted that Lord Fisher is a 
great man, but not so great as itself when the judgment of poetry is con- 
cerned ; and apparently the modern literary critics are the best who have 
ever existed. As I pointed out, and as Mr. Noyes complains, their task at 
present is to lash the Victorian Age. Almost every review pours scorn on 
the wretched writers of that time — chiefly because they showed evidence of 
rhythm, design, object, and even such a shameful thing as knowledge. Thus 
one of the heaven-born declared a few months ago that " the last word on 
the mannered subtleties of the late Victorian poets was said by Charles Sorley, 
whose style he [Sorley] thus compliments and condemns : ' It teems with 
sharp saws and rich sentiment ; it is a marvel of delicate technique ; it pleases, 
it flatters, it charms, it soothes ; it is a living lie.' " Mr. Noyes mentions 

^ Science Progress, July 1917. 


another author who cannot write grammatical English, but who wipes out 
the reputation of Tennyson. A third celestial says about George Elliot that, 
" of all the major Victorian reputations, hers is the most faded. . . . We, 
who have learned that art has nothing to do with ethics, and have acquired 
a subtlety in the dissection of the human heart beyond the wildest dreams 
of the Victorians, do well quietly to depose her." So, then, poetry need not 
contain sharp saws, rich sentiment, or delicate technique ; it need not please, 
flatter, charm, or soothe ; and it must have no moral teaching. It must in 
short be modern. But why depose the Victorians only ? For if these things 
be true, poetry began only a few years ago — and will end a few years hence. 
Yet another critic says that " the last five years have produced a body 
of poetry to match whose volume and merit we must go back to the first ten 

years of the seventeenth century." We admit the volume, but Well, 

very few people read these great works ; but I have had to read some of 
them, and must confess to certain qualms. Certainly there are numerous 
pretty little fiowtrs of verse peeping out here and there among the barren 
rocks of politics, of which our journals are mostly composed ; and books of 
verse (evidently issued at the expense of the authors) are poured forth in- 
cessantly. What is the quality of them ? The pieces are almost entirely 
lyrical — or not even that, because many of them possess no rhythm. For 
example : 

" But what satisfaction do you think there is 

In a black printed word ? 

I tell you, we envy the painters and carvers." 

Apparently, in order to write poetry, all we have to do is to place successive 
groups of words on different lines, each beginning with a capital. Our poets 
are so democratic that they hate the discipline of rhythm just as many of 
our working men seem to hate the discipline of work. But they abandon 
not only rhythm, but every other supposed rule of verse ; and the more 
" natural " they show themselves to be, the more do the critics seated on 
Parnassus clap their jewelled hands at them. We must be " novel," 
" natural," and " sincere " — that is all. How curious ; because some of the 
greatest poems in literature show none of these qualities. 

We admit that many modern poems contain a pretty or fine phrase, or 
even a fine figure ; but the beauty of the phrase or line seldom extends to 
the whole stanza, much less to the whole piece ; and it is only an occasional 
glimpse of beauty. It is that very naturalness, that very want of constructive 
art, which ruins them. The other day I lent Prof. G. H. Clarke's Treasury 
of War Poetry (Houghton MifBin Company, 1919) to a friend. He said he was 
sorry to see that the only verse it contained with invention in it was my 
" Apocalypse " — in which I had represented Humanity before the war as a 
heroic figure defying the Ocean of Fate until a gigantic hand emerges and draws 
him down ! I admit that from the modern point of view this is a shameful 
poem, because nothing of the kind ever really happened, and it is a living 
lie. " But," my friend added, " oddly enough, I still remember your out-of- 
date poem, while I have forgotten all the others ! " That is precisely the 
point. We remember inventions, we forget natural things. Nature is 
beautiful, but manifold. The flowers are beautiful, but innumerable. Art 
is not nature. Art is beautiful too — but unique. And the uniqueness gener- 
ally lies in the invention — which is the stamp of the human spirit impressed 
upon the formless metal of nature. Art seeks the beauty, not of nature, 
but of the spirit. The vision lives, the reality dies. The defect of most of 
the verses lauded by our modern critics is precisely that they are not living 
lies. They are dead truths — like the pebbles at our feet. 

As for the critic who can see no relation between art and ethics, surely 
be is thinking, not of art, but of journalese art. Real art is only philosophy 

NOTES 119 

teaching us by means of images instead of s^^llogisms ; but, under the rule 
of the critics, art is becoming a voice crying in tlie wilderness — about nothing. 
Another critic writes, " The strongest thing in our contemporary verse, 
both English and American [is] its power to find poetry in the commonest 
doings of ordinary life " ; and he praises — 

" Drowsily come the sheep. 
And they pass through the sheepfold door : 

After one comes two, 

After one comes two. 
Comes two and then three and four. 

First one, then two, by the paths of sleep. 

Drowsily come the sheep." 

Grammar also is of no consequence. Really, has the British Brain softened 
altogether in a kind of second childhood ? 

I am glad, too, that Sir Reginald Blomfield, R.A., spoke to the same effect 
before the British Academy on May 5th last regarding art critics, whom he 
rightly accused of creating the Impressionist and Cubist humbugs. The 
poets praised by the literary critics are precisely of the same order — literary 
Impressionists and Cubists. The motive of both is to attract dull people 
by novelty, regardless as to whether the novelty is associated with beauty 
or ugliness ; and the critics praise them for the same reason. Mr. Frank 
Swinnerton and Sir Henry Newbolt have also recently criticised critics. On 
the whole, I wonder whether criticism has ever fallen to^a lower level than it 
has reached now in England, 

The Proposed University of Science and Technology. 

We have received the following Note from the Imperial College Students' 
Committee : 

A movement is on foot to secure for the Imperial College of Science 
and Teclxnology the status of a university with the power to confer degrees 
in its own subjects or faculties. The proposal has been the subject of a 
Deputation to Mr. Balfour, as Lord President of the Council, and to Mr. 
Fisher, as President of the Board of Education, from the Governing Body 
of the College, and it has the unanimous support of the Rector and Pro- 
fessors of the Imperial College. It is also supported, as far as can be ascer- 
tained in any organised way, by the overwhelming, majority of the past and 
present students of the Imperial College, and by a large and influential body 
of leaders of industry, vitally interested in the welfare and development 
of science and technology upon a national scale. 

The present position of the Imperial College is somewhat anomalous. 
It was constituted, in 1907, of the existing Royal College of Science (itself 
the successor of the Royal College of Chemistry founded in 1845), the Royal 
School of Mines, and the City and Guilds (Engineering) College, all situated 
within a stone's throw of each other at South Kensington. These three 
institutions (while retaining certain autonomous powers) are the constituent 
colleges of the Imperial College of Science and Technology. By the terms 
of its charter the main purpose of the Imperial College is defined to be " to 
give the highest specialised instruction and to provide the fullest equip- 
ment for the most advanced training and research in various branches of 
science, especially in its application to industry." It is important to bear 
in mind these two features of the design, that the College was to be " imperial " 
and to be based on science, " especially in its application to industry." But 


the Imperial College, being merely a college and not a university, has no 
power to grant university degrees in science. The Imperial College and its 
constituent colleges have each its diploma, of deservedly high repute, but 
they are merely diplomas, and not degrees. In view of the increasing demand 
for professional men possessing university degrees, and of the facts that 
the university degree is recognised as a hallmark and has a commercial value 
in the industrial and professional worlds, a very large number of the students 
of the Imperial College are driven to add a university degree to their college 
diploma, notwithstanding that, in the views of many competent judges, the 
diploma may represent at least as high, if not a higher, standard of scien- 
tific attainment. The university degree most accessible to them is that of 
the University of London, either the " external " degree or the " internal " 
degree ; and the Imperial College is recognised as a " school," but is not a 
constituent college, of the University of London, so that students of the 
Imperial College may be recognised as " internal " students of the univer- 
sity for the purpose of taking the " internal " degree of that university. 
The drawbacks of such an irregular relationship between the Imperial 
College and the University of London will be dealt with later. Here it is 
only necessary to draw attention to the fact that the Imperial College, 
though a " school " of the University of London, is not and never has been 
under the control of the university. The College is " recognised " by the 
university, but is not of it. 

The proposal, then, as was stated at the outset, is to give to the Imperial 
College the status of a university with powers to confer degrees in its own 
faculties. It is not advocated that such an academic innovation should be 
more than tentative or not strictly limited. The normal type of university, 
embracing a great number of faculties, would still remain and ought to be 
the predominant and prevalent type. All that is claimed is that it would 
be of national and, as will be shown, imperial benefit to introduce variety 
in the university world by the establishment in London of one institution 
granting degrees in science and technology, not to supersede but to supple- 
ment the normal type. 

To some educationists this seems a startling innovation, but it is not 
without precedent. Ziirich, Freiburg, Leipzig, Delft (Holland), and some 
American cities have all technological institutes granting degrees. London, 
as the centre of the Empire, for reasons which will appear presently, is in 
urgent need of a scientific and technological institution having the power 
to grant degrees. Such an institution would be the natural crown and 
centre of scientific and technological education for the whole Empire. More- 
over, a great national effort is being made to promote scientific and industrial 
research throughout a wide range of British industries. The Committee of 
the Privy Council for the Promotion of Scientific and Industrial Research, 
now a definite Government department, is fathering and fostering the estab- 
lishment of co-operative research associations for definite industries or 
groups of allied industries. The creation of a university of science and 
technology of the highest type and widest scope, such as the Imperial College 
would be, must exercise an important and beneficial influence on this industrial 
research movement, by pouring out a stream of the most highly trained 
technologists and researchers to carry out the detailed work of the research 
associations, and by raising the standard and status of scientific and tech- 
nological education and research in the country. 

As to the question whether the character and standing of the Imperial 
College of Science and Technology qualify it to receive university rank, if 
it be granted that it is desirable to establish a university of science and 
technology, there can scarcely be any doubt. The Imperial College was 
styled " imperial," with deliberate intention, from the first. By its charter 
it is charged " to give the highest specialised instruction and to provide the 

NOTES 121 

fullest equipment of the most advanced training and research in \-arious 
branches of science, especially in its application to industry." Its responsi- 
bilities, growing from day to day, to the industries of the Empire are manifest 
in its title. From its charter it is clear that it is set to perform real university 
work of the highest order in science and technology, and, as has been well 
said, the proposal to raise it to the rank of a university with power to confer 
degrees in its own subjects is merely a proposal to recognise de jure the 
status that exists de facto. On the basis only of the pre-war annual expendi- 
ture, the Imperial College is as large as Manchester University, larger than 
Liverpool University, much larger than Birmingham and Leeds Universities, 
half as large again as Sheffield University, and twice as large as Bristol Univer- 
sity or Durham with Newcastle University. Its claims in science and 
technology, whether viewed from the range and standard of its subjects 
or from its equipment, are at least as good as those of any existing univer- 
sity in Great Britain. 

Not only so, but there is a definite need which the Imperial College is 
peculiarly marked out to fill, but which it cannot do adequately unless it 
has the status of a university with the power to confer degrees. A large and 
increasing number of students from the Colonies and from the Overseas 
Dominions, after completing their courses in the Colonial or Dominion 
universities and technical colleges, go to Europe or America to take up what 
is essentially post-graduate scientific work, especially in its application to 
industry. The courses of the Imperial College completely satisfy their needs 
in this direction, better probably than those of any university in the United 
Kingdom ; but the College, in its present status, cannot give to such Colonial 
graduates who go through the full post-graduate courses anything more than 
the College diploma. On the other hand, as has been said, Zurich and some 
American and German cities have institutes of technology granting degrees. 
It has already been pointed out that, in the industrial and professional 
worlds, the university degree is recognised as a hallmark and has a com- 
mercial value. The consequence is that there is a growing tendency among 
these Colonial graduates and scientific students to go to America instead of 
to England, so that they may have a veritable and recognised technological 
degree, and not a mere diploma, to show for the work they do ; and the 
Imperial College is thus being starved of a type of student it was deliberately 
charged, at its foundation, to receive and train. The loss and even the 
danger to the Empire of such a tendency is obvious. As the Imperial College 
Overseas Students' Committee say, " The establishment of the Imperial 
College as a degree-conferring centre of higher technological education would 
result in the influx of a great number of students from overseas universities, 
and would thus be the means of developing 9, vast brotherhood of technical 
men, of immeasurable value to the Empire." On the Imperial College has 
been cast a special duty to consider imperial, as well as metropolitan, needs. 
It is obviously hindered in the performance of this duty if the highest award 
it can give for work of the most advanced character, equivalent to Honours 
standard in the universities, is a diploma, whereas technological institutes 
in America, Switzerland, and Germany can grant degrees. 

The objection that it is undesirable to have more than one university 
in London, will hardly bear strict examination. Greater London, with a 
population which may be taken as from 7,000,000 to 8,000,000, is rather a 
nation than a city, a nation as large as Canada, twice as large as Switzer- 
land, half as large again as Scotland. Is it seriously put forward as an 
unquestionable axiom that the needs for higher education of such a popu- 
lation can adequately and best be met by a single university ? New York 
and Chicago have each two universities, Washington has three, not including 
the Catholic university ; the West Riding of Yorkshire, with a population 
of 3,000,000, has two universities, namely those of Leeds and Sheffield; 


and Manchester and Liverpool, serving a combined population of 5,000,000, 
have each a university. Professor Perry, in his presidential address to 
the Educational Section at the Australian meeting of the British Associa- 
tion in 1914, boldly expressed the view that a number of separate univer- 
sities would be better for London than a single university consisting of 
federated colleges. To propound, in view of all these facts, as a sort of 
sacrosanct dogma, that for London there must be one and only one univer- 
sity, savours rather of an academic megalomania than of a balanced educa- 
tional perspective. 

The Imperial College and the University of London should be set free to 
work out each its own future independently of the other. They have diver- 
gent aims and interests, each worthy in its own way, and it is an injurious 
mistake to force them into an unworkable mesalliance. The argument 
against the control of the Imperial College by the University of London was 
well stated in the report of the Departmental Committee of 1906 : 

" Industrial and commercial conditions are constantly altering ; the 
character and relative importance of manufacturing processes, and even of 
entire sections of national activity, are subject to unforeseen variation. An 
institution which is to keep in touch ■ these interests must be corre- 
spondingly elastic. Its organisation must be free from all impeding trammels 
founded upon experience of the well-tried and comparatively little- changing 
track of an education regulated and rightly regulated by other aims. . . , 
Its governors must be in a position to govern with a single eye to the fitness 
of the institution for its proper function. ... A system of control and organ- 
isation common to the new institution (i.e. the Imperial College) and the 
University could not be formulated without such compromise as would 
seriously imperil the ef&ciency of both." 

National Union of Scientific Workers. 

Report of meeting of London Branch, held at Imperial College Union, 
Tuesday, May 11, 1920. 

At a meeting of the London Branch of the National Union of Scientific 
Workers, held at the Imperial College Union on May 11, Dr. Atkinson, 
who presided, said that the continued progress of the nation depended upon 
the attention paid to scientific work, and the attention paid by scientific 
workers to the conduct of affairs of the nation. 

Dr. Evans, in his address, reminded his audience that Newton, as master 
of the Mint, had contributed in no small measure to the prosperity of his 
country by standardising our coinage, thus brilliantly disproving the assertion 
that the eminent scientist could not be a practical man, and that though 
high scientific ability might be wasted in a purely administrative post, there 
were many which were fundamentally scientific as well, and these must be 
held by men who understood and could trust science. 

The country must assist Research in the right way. So far the Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Research had over-encouraged the com- 
mercial side, and had given such powers to the Industrial Research Associa- 
tions that they declared themselves unable to interfere in the notorious 
Frink case, where the Glass Research Association, receiving, as a key industry, 
75 per cent, of its funds from the Government, appointed an unqualified 
Director of Research. The constitution of the Department must be re- 
formed, and more power given to the Advisory Council, which should be 
elected by energetic and democratic bodies such as the N.U.S.W., which 
aimed at embracing every genuine scientific worker throughout the length 
and breadth of the country. 

Major Church, Secretary of the N.U.S.W., who took the place of Professor 

NOTES 123 

Farmer at short notice, dealt with the economic question, and the way in 
which the Union could act. He spoke of the scandalously low salaries being 
paid at the present time to scientific workers, both in Government estab- 
lishments and by private firms, giving actual figures. These salaries would 
be paid as long as people would take them. There must be organised protest 
and where this failed action should be taken, not by strikes, but by the 
professional method of the boycott of firms which underpaid their staffs. 
This was legal only for a Trade Union, and accounted for the Union having 
registered as such. The N.U.S.W. had considered a scale of minimum salaries 
which they believed to be fair, and which they were attempting to establish. 
He believed that such a policy loyally carried out would be successful ; but 
it needed funds, a large membership, and an understanding with all sectional 
bodies that there would be no undercutting. The Union had now members 
all over the Empire, and its recent activities in connection with Income Tax 
abatement had aroused widespread interests. It was not the only Union, 
but the only " National Union " of workers in all branches of pure and 
applied science, and it was anxious to establish relations with all bodies 
representing sectional interests. 

Mr. Lobb, in moving a vote of thanks, said it was the object of the Union 
to get representation on every body that controlled scientific work or workers, 
and that the economic position would then achieve itself. 

Mr. Coates, seconding, emphasised the non-use of the strike by the Union, 
and its approval of the boycott as the proper professional attitude for the 
scientific worker where the employer was obdurate. (See also p. 127.) 

A Deputation to the Air Ministry 

We have only just been told that a private deputation, headed by Mr. 
Bernard Shaw, and consisting of the Presidents of many learned Societies, 
of the Mayors of watering-places, and members of the general public, waited 
last year on Mr. Winston Churchill in his capacity as Air Minister. Mr. 
Churchill was supported by the two Archbishops, the President of the Pub- 
licans' Association, and others. Mr. Shaw pointed out that from the time 
of Shakespeare, who declared that the rain rains every day, the British 
weather had been bad ; but why, just during the years of the German air- 
raids, had it been allowed to clear up so beautifully ? Then, shortly after 
our gallant airmen had put a stop to the raids in May 191 8, it immediately 
thickened again, so that for six months after October 191S the people of 
London literally scarcely saw the sun a dozen times, and really lived under 
an incessant and oppressive pall of gloom. If the sky ever cleared, it was 
only at night, and next morning the old hideous procession of dripping 
vapours was sure to begin again. The ancient tag that — 

" The Briton's mind, you'll often find. 
Is, like his climate, groggy ; 
For when it's dull it's very very dull. 
And when it's fine it's foggy " — 

was justified, for when the barometer rose for a day or two a mist would 
immediately spring up from the earth. The old religious exclamation," By'r 
Lady ! " was the only one which in his opinion covered the situation. The 
Archbishop said he was glad that Mr. Shaw could quote Scripture, but that 
he felt sure his etymology was faulty ; and Mr. ChurchUl assured them 
that Mr. McLeod Foggarty, the clerk in charge of that department, had 
always done his best. That gentleman then explained with diagrams how 


it was due to delay in telephone messages to the Water Board that the clear- 
ances ordered by him for the mornings always occurred at night. He pro- 
tested against the insinuations regarding air-raids. In fact the dull weather 
had been expressly ordered early in 191 6 in order to prevent the raids, but, 
owing to strikes and delays in the Ministry of Munitions, had not been 
delivered until after the Armistice. The President of the Publicans' Asso- 
ciation claimed that the English climate was the best in the world ; and Mr. 
Churchill was understood to sum up by remarking that, of all the deputations 
which had ever waited upon him, this one was ; and the meeting then broke up. 

Notes and News 

The final list of appointments to the Order of the British Empire issued 
on March 30 contained the following names, which will be of interest here : 

G.B.E. — Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S., Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge Uni- 

K.B.E.—Proi. I. Bayley Balfour, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. H. Bragg, F.R.S. ; 
Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S. ; and Dr. J. E. Petavel, F.R.S. 

C.B.E.—Vxoi. H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. ; Dr. C. C. Carpenter ; Mr. F. H. 
Carr (Chief Chemist, Messrs. Boots & Co.) ; Prof. F. G. Donnan, F.R.S. ; 
Mr. W. P. Elderton ; Mr. A. P. M. Fleming ; Prof. P. F. Franldand, F.R.S. ; 
Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green ; Sir W. H. Hadow (Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Sheffield) ; Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. ; Mr. A. R. Hinks, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. J. C. Irvine, F.R.S. ; Prof. T. M. Lowry, F.R.S. ; Mr. W. Macnab ; 
Dr. R. A. O'Brien (Director, Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratory) ; 
Mr. J. E. Sears, Mr. F. J. Selby, and Dr. T. E. Stanton, F.R.S. (of the National 
Physical Laboratory) ; Mr. G. Stubbs (Government Laboratory). 

O.B.E.— Miss W. C. Cullis, D.Sc. ; C. V. Drysdale, D.Sc. (Chief Research 
Assistant, Admiralty Experimental Station, Parkstown) ; J. J. Fox, D.Sc. 
(First-class Analyst, Department of Government Chemist) ; R. W. Whytlaw- 
Gray, Ph.D. (Chemical Warfare Dept., Ministry of Munitions) ; F. C. Lea, 
D.Sc. (Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham) ; C. C. Mason 
(Managing Director, Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co.) ; G. T. Morgan, 
F.R.S. (Professor of Chemistry, Finsbury Technical College) ; J. E. Myers, D.Sc. 
(Lecturer in Chemistry, Manchester University) ; R. B. Pilcher (Secretary, 
Institute of Chemistry) ; H. Stephen (Lecturer in Chemistry, University of 
Manchester) ; W. M. Thornton, D.Sc. (Professor of Electrical Engineering, 
Armstrong College) ; S. H. Trimen (Chief Chemist, Egyptian Government 

M.B.E.— C. W. Bailey (Chief Chemist, H.M. Factory, Langwith) ; D. 
Burton (Chemist, High Explosives Dept., Ministry of Munitions) ; H. T. 
Calvert, D.Sc. (Explosives Supply Dept., Ministry of Munitions) ; W. B. 
Edwards (Principal Assistant Chemist, Chemical Inspection Dept., Ministry 
of Munitions) ; A. T. Etheridge (Research Chemist, Woolwich) ; A. Forster 
(Research Chemist, Woolwich) ; A. E. Garland (Principal Assistant Chemist, 
Inspection Department, Ministry of Munitions) ; R. Genders (Research 
Chemist, Woolwich) ; W. P. Paddison (Research Chemist, Woolwich) ; C. J. 
Peddle (Chemist, Derby Crown Glass Co.) ; F. H. Rolt (National Physical 
Laboratory) ; W. L. Turner (Research Chemist, Woolwich) ; H. E. Watts, 
Ph.D. (Explosives Supply Dept., Ministry of Munitions). 

The French Academy of Science has elected Prof. A. A. Michelson, of 
Chicago, foreign associate member in succession to the late Lord Rayleigh ; 
Sir J. Dewar and Prof. A. Fowler corresponding members in succession to 
Prof. P. Blaserna and Prof. E. Weiss ; and Sir J. Larmor corresponding 
member in the section of geometry. 

NOTES 125 

Sir E. Rutherford, Sir J. J. Thomson, and Prof. T. W. Richards of Har- 
vard have been elected members of the Royal Danish Academy of Science. 

The following appointments have been made by certain of the scientific 
societies during the last quarter : 

Royal Astronomical Society. — President, Prof. A. Fowler ; Secretaries, 
Dr. A. C. D. Crommehn and the Rev. T. E. R. Phillips. 

Physical Society. — President, Sir W. H. Bragg. Secretaries, Dr. D. Owen 
and Mr. F. E. Smith, F.R.S. 

Institute of Chemistry. — President, Sir. H. Jackson. 

Chemical Society. — Dr. H. R. Le Sueur succeeds Prof. S. Smiles as one of 
the honorary secretaries. 

Geological Society. — President, R. D. Oldham. Secretaries, Dr. H. H. 
Thomas and Dr. H. Lapworth. 

Marine Biological Society. — President, Sir E. Ray-Lankester. Chairman 
of Council, Sir A. Shipley. 

Optical Society. — President, Mr. R. S. Whipple. 

Malacological Society. — President, G. K. Guide. Secretary, A. E. Salis- 

Society of Antiquaries. — President, Sir. C. Hercules Read. 

Institution of Civil Engineers. — President, M. J. A. Brodie. 

Mr. F. E. Smith, F.R.S. , has been appointed Director of the Scientific 
Research and Experimental Department of the Admiralty, under the control 
of the Third Sea Lord. It is intended that this department should keep the 
Navy in touch with outside scientific establishments, and, by working in 
close association with the Naval Staff, ensure that the work of the various 
naval experim.ental stations should proceed with full knowledge of the latest 
scientific methods and discoveries. 

The Founder's medal of the Royal Geographical Society has been awarded 
to Mr. H. St. John B. Philby for his two journeys in South-central Arabia 
during the years 19 17-18. The Patron's medal goes to Prof. Jovan Cvijic, 
Rector of the University of Belgrade, for his studies of the geography of the 

We regret to note that the deaths of the following scientific men have 
been announced during the past quarter : Dr. J. G. Bartholomew, the 
cartographer ; Capt. E. W. Creak, C.B., F.R.S., Superintendent of the Ad- 
miralty compass department ; Dr. G. E. Fisher, Professor of Mathematics, 
University of Pennsylvania ; Prof. A. K. Huntingdon, lately Professor of 
Metallurgy at King's CoUege, London ; Prof. Charles Lapworth, Professor 
of Geology in the University of Birmingham ; Mr. J. S. MacArthur, 
industrial chemist ; Prof. J. A. McClelland, Professor of Experimental 
Physics in University College, Dublin ; Dr. Rudolph Messel, F.R.S., 
President of the Society of Chemical Industry ; Prof. W. Pfeffer, For. Mem. 
R.S., the plant physiologist, famous for his work on Osmotic Pressure ; Lucien 
Poincare, Vice-rector of the University of Paris ; Dr. J. E. Reynolds, one-time 
Professor of Chemistry in the University of Dublin ; Dr. P. A. Saccardo, the 
distinguished mycologist and professor emeritus of Royal University of Padua ; 
L. T. O'Shea, Professor of Applied Chemistry in the University of Sheffield ; 
Mr. H. C. Stewardson, chief clerk and assistant treasurer of the B.A. ; Sir 
A. Stuart, Professor of Physiology in the University of Sheffield ; Prof. 
Waldemar Voigt, of Gottingen, well known for his work on Magneto Optics. 

A fund is in course of collection for the erection of a memorial in West- 
minster Abbey to the late Lord Rayleigh. Donations should be sent to the 
Hon. Treasurers, Sir R. T. Glazebrook and Sir A. Schuster, at 63 Grange 
Road, Cambridge. 

The fund for the rebuilding of the Laval University of Montreal, which 
was recently destroyed by fire, now amounts to $3,500,000. 

The Carnegie Corporation of New York has allotted $5,000,000 for the use 


of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council 
of the United States. Part of this sum is to be used for the erection of a 
suitable building to house these two organisations in Washington. The 
National Research Council, unlike the corresponding departments in England, 
Australia, and Canada, is not supported or controlled by the Government. 

Mr. A. G. Webster, in a letter to Science (April 9), refers to the very excellent 
manner in which the French are organising the University of Strasbourg, 
where, he states. Prof. P. Weiss will have the best facilities in the world for 
the study of magnetism. 

Convocation at Oxford, on March 2, decided that Greek should no longer 
be compulsory at Responsions for candidates in any pass or honours school. 

Nature (May 6) discusses the bearing of the increased cost of printing 
and paper on the publication of Society Proceedings and Scientific Journals. 
It is quite obvious that the very limited funds which are available will not 
stand the strain much longer, while it is even more obvious that the members 
of these societies cannot afford to pay increased subscriptions. Nature itself 
has been forced to double its price, while Science Progress, with its modest 
increase of one-fifth, has long ceased to be a commercial proposition. In 
the same number Prof. Bayliss deals with the restrictions on the import 
of scientific apparatus from abroad. This forces scientific workers in many 
cases to purchase high-priced and less satisfactory appliances of home manu- 
facture. Mr. A. E. Miall writes also concerning the impossible cost of the 
laboratory equipment, which is so badly needed now that science teaching 
Is becoming of more importance in the school curriculum. The Government 
seems quite able to realise that a pound is worth about eight shillings when 
it goes into the pockets of a coal-miner ; but seems to expect its purchasing 
value to be three times as great when it is to be employed for scientific pur- 
poses, either for equipment or for the salary of the unfortunate teacher, who 
remains more than ever the only cheap item in the science laboratory. 

Every zoologist who has had to teach zoology will have met with the 
amoeba difficulty. The older earth culture methods at best produce rather 
small amoebas, which failed to satisfy the critical first year medical. Sister 
Monica Taylor, of Glasgow University, has put all zoologists under a debt 
to herself, for she has invented a culture method whereby one can produce 
enormous quantities of large amoeba proteus, and keep the cultures going 
steadily for months, or even years. To pots or flat jars of rain-water one 
adds a few grains of boiled wheat. The latter soon grows moulds, which 
bring in their train many micro-organisms. Such jars are inoculated with 
individuals of A. proteus, which must be found in ditches or ponds. After 
a few weeks it will generally be found that the scum at the bottom of the 
vessel is swarming with amoebae. From time to time a few more boiled wheat- 
seeds are added. It is also well to place a small piece of green water- weed 
in each jar. 

We find all kinds of London water will produce positive results, though 
the tap-water is not very good and should be boiled. References to Sister 
Monica's papers are: Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., xx, and Nature, April 22, 1920, 

Dr. J. Bronte Gatenby has been entrusted with the task of bringing out 
a new edition of the Microtomists' Vade-mecum. Collaborating with him 
in this task, and in cases writing special sections, are Prof. W. Bayliss, Dr. 
Drew, of the Imperial Cancer Research Review, Dr. Da Fano, of King's 
College, London, and Mr. H. M. Carleton, of the Histology Laboratory, 
Oxford. It has been planned to have new sections on the theory of staining, 
on Protistology, on tissue culture and cell, manipulation apparatus, such as 
that of Bridges, etc. There will be special treatment of the techniques of 
mitochondria, fat, Golgi apparatus, and also a new treatment of the neurology 
section, by Dr. Da Fano. Workers in all branches of zoology, botany, and 

NOTES 127 

histology are requested to communicate to any of the above-mentioned 
collaborators such new techniques as they may have invented, and such 
older techniques as are not included in the 1913 edition, but which they 
consider shovild be printed in the coming edition. 

The National Union of Scientific Workers, 19, Tothill Street, S.W.i, held 
a pubhc meeting at Birkbeck College on April 28, under the chairmanship 
of Mr. H. G. Wells. Professor F. Soddy, of Oxford, gave an address on 
" The Public Support of Scientific Research." 

Mr. Wells gave a characteristic speech of somewhat revolutionary type. 
He deplored the neglect of science under the present political system, and 
said that unless some change took place everyone should hope and work for 
revolution, which could not do harm to the present status of scientific men. 
He drew attention to the great debt the world owed to science, and pointed 
out that scientific workers had never had any reward — they had established 
neither great families nor country seats. He declared that politicians of to-day 
were wasting the money provided by science. Mr. Wells bitterly attacked 
the present system of endowments, and said that politicians had their own 
friends to look after before they could attend to such matters as scientific 

Professor Soddy, who received a great welcome from the audience of 
scientific men and students, gave a fine address, pointing out the far-reaching 
and beneficial changes introduced by science. During the war the ignorant 
politicians squealed to be saved by sciences. He pointed out that one great 
discovery might change human destiny. Without pure science a nation 
must decline. Professor Soddy condemned the short-sighted policy which 
believed that everything in science should be delegated to economic and 
money-making purposes — one could not have fruit without the tree. He 
mentioned, among several of the great debts owed by the world to science, 
the work of Ross on malaria : in a detailed manner he explained the im- 
perfections of the present system of Research Endowments and the manner 
of their dispensation. He mentioned the peculiar circumstance of the 
appointment of an unqualified foreigner as head of the Glass Research 

He stated that the ordinary scientific worker was less well organised than 
the land-labourer. To make the world safe for democracy scientific men 
should make themselves master in their own house. 

Folio-wing this speaker there were several addresses by members of the 
audience. Professor Sir William Bragg advocated a cautious policy, and took 
exception to some of Professor Soddy 's remarks on the Research Association. 

We feel sure that by far the majority of scientific workers, while not 
hoping for a change in our present constitution, will agree that there is room 
for a great deal of improvement in the status of the scientific research man, 
whether he be in a Government Medical Service or in a University. We 
would like to see proper recognition and rewards for discovery, and adequate 
remuneration for the scientific workers of this country. 

We regret to record the death of a well-known parasitologist and 
authority on tropical diseases. Ever^'one who has worked on any branch 
of tropical medicine is acquainted with Castellani and Chalmers's Textbook 
on Tropical Medicine. Dr. Albert J. Chalmers was a very assiduous and 
successful student of tropical medicine ; he became Director of the Patho- 
logical Laboratory at Khartoum, wliich has become famous for the splendid 
work which has emanated from that source. 

Dr. Chalmers died at Calcutta at the age of fifty years. He formed one 
of a band of Englishmen, many of whom are still with us, who worked en- 
thusiastically without adequate remuneration and recognition, and whose 
observations have brought great benefit to mankind. 


The Journal of the British Science Guild publishes the report of the 
Microscope Committee of the B.S.G. They give the specifications of three 
types of microscope supposed to cost, one sometliing under ;/^io, the second 
li^-l^o, and a more costly research worker's outfit at £2$-£-iS- The 
Committee notes especially that : 

" It is only by specialising on a few models that the above prices can be 
made profitable, and even then only by securing a very large output of high 
and uniform quality. 

" All available information would seem to indicate that the day of the 
small maker of either stands or lenses has passed. The high standard of 
excellence now insisted upon, together with the low prices to which buyers 
of microscopes have become accustomed as a direct result of foreign com- 
petition, would seem to show that the successful manufacturers of the future 
must be corporations of sufficient size to make it possible for them to utilise 
scientific guidance to the full, and to avail themselves to the greatest possible 
extent of special and labour-saving machinery for their work." 

Now, in the case of the second type of microscope price, £i$-£zo, there 
are three objectives — 16 mm., 4 mm., and a 3 or 2 mm. oil immersion. The 
writer lately found that second-hand medium size stands with only a 16 mm. 
and a 4 mm. objective were selling at from £i-z-£x^. The latest American 
instruments of Type 2 are now quoted at /15-/23, without an " oil " ; but 
these still seem to be of better workmanship than those we produce here. 
The Committee strike the right note when they declare that mass pro- 
duction of a few types is the only hope for our manufacturers. 

Sir William Osier, Eart., M.D., F.R.S. 

In the death of Sir "William Osier, Medical Science has lost one of her 
greatest sons, and the Oxford University School of Medicine, one who was 
possibly the greatest of its heads. To all medical men Osier was familiar 
through his book. Principles and Practice, and his editorship, with Dr. Mac- 
Crae, of the well-known System of Medicine. 

William Osier was born at Bondhead, Ontario, the sixth son of the Rev. 
Featherston Osier, a Cornish clergyman who had gone to Canada as a mis- 
sionary ; young Osier began his medical studies at the University of Toronto, 
and proceeded thence to McGill University, where he took the M.D. degree. 
His first European experience was at University College, London, from 
which he took the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians. After- 
wards he studied in the hospitals of Berlin, Leipsic, and Vienna, returning 
to his native Canada as Professor of the Institutes of Medicine at McGill. 
In 1889 he became Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore. 
America enjoyed the benefits of Osier's genius for fifteen years ; here he 
wrote his Principles and Practice, and it was also at Baltimore that he first 
introduced the unit system which is just now being adopted by several 
London hospitals. 

In 1905 Prof. William Osier came to Oxford as Regius Professor of 
Medicine, subsequently being made a Baronet. Had he been a brewer, or a 
backstairs political jobber, one feels sure that he would have been made a 
Baron. At Oxford Sir William Osier came as a fresh breeze ; the good 
but often narrow-minded Dons could not understand how a man who used 
the terms " to make things hum," or " to get busy," could really be intel- 
lectual ! However, many of them soon learnt that he was their master 
not only in his own subject, but in their own. Osier was a literary as well 
as a scientific genius — he loved all books, and he seemed to know a great 
deal about every subject. 

To the younger men in the scientific departments at Oxford, Sir William 
was a well-known figure. At any odd moment he would appear and say. 


NOTES 129 

'' Show me something " ; the much flattered recipient of this order would 
then demonstrate a new preparation, or a new instrument, or tell some 
new fact. Osier would commend or criticise, but always with a humorous 
twinkle in his eye. Once he stopped the writer of this article, and in the 
middle of the street informed him that he considered that " all cytologists 
had well-developed imaginations." 

Those who know his Principles and Practice will have noted how his 
gentle wit appears here and there between the lines. Soon after his appear- 
ance at Oxford, there were many good stories of his witty sayings whilst he 
took his students round the wards. 

Osier's activities went beyond the pale of literature and medicine. He 
was wont to address religious meetings for men, and during the time the 
cadet corps were in existence, he did a great deal in this way at Oxford. A 
lecture by Osier on the History of Medicine was a special event looked 
forward to by many ; he had a splendid collection of historical, scientific 
and medical works which were brought out at each lecture. His publications, 
covering a wide field in medicine, literature, and religion, ran to several 
hundreds in number. 

Called to a consultation at Glasgow at about the time of the railway 
strike, he was finally stranded at Newcastle, and caught a chill on his motor 
journey back to Oxford. Complications set in, and on the evening of 
December 29 this great man passed away. Our sympathy is with his 
widow. Lady Osier, who has proved such a worthy mate to her distinguished 
and much-beloved husband. 

An Innovation 

A thing almost unheard of hitherto in Britain happened on June 8, 
when a number of private gentlemen gave a complimentary dinner to the 
" Royal Army Medical Department, and the eminent civilians attached to 
it during the war," in appreciation of their services to the country, Lieut. - 
General Sir Alfred Keogh, G.C.B., being the guest of the evening. Medical 
science and practice labour, as we know, generally with very little recog- 
nition from the country — though plenty of it from our Sovereign ; and a 
tribute such as this one has been very much appreciated, not only by the 
medical profession, but by men of science. We should, therefore, like to 
record here a full list of the hosts who gave us this fine banquet, and this 
still finer compliment. They were : The Viscount Burnham, the Earl of 
Derby, the Earl of Donoughmore, the Viscount St. Davids, Lord Desborough, 
Sir John Ellerman, the Earl Fitzwilliam, Sir Alan Hutchings, Sir Heath 
Harrison, Vesey C. M. Holt, Esq., Lord Harris, Lord Inchcape, the Viscount 
Knutsford, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Sir Walter Lawrence, Lord Lee of 
Fareham, the Earl of Midleton, Sir Wm. B. Peat, Sir Ivor Phillips, Lord 
Queenborough, Sir Samuel Scott, the Marquess of Salisbury, Lord Somerley- 
ton, Major-General the Rt. Hon. J. E. B. Seely, the Earl of Scarborough, 
Sir Arthur Stanley, the Rt. Hon. H. J. Tennant, Lord Edmund Talbot, 
Sir Edward Ward, Lord Wavertree. The Earl of Midleton, K.P., presided, 
and made a very eloquent and appreciative and appreciated speech, and 
was supported by Mr. Winston Churchill and Earl Haig. Sir Alfred Keogh, 
Sir John Goodwin, and Sir George Makins replied. Probably few dinners 
during the season have been more thoroughly enjoyed by everyone. The 
occasion opens certain vistas to the vision. Would it not be good if, instead 
of the eternal political banquet, our aristocracy would sometimes follow the 
example set by the members of it mentioned above, and show to the people 
of Britain that som.e of them at least remember the existence of those humble 
things the Sciences and the Arts ? 


Science and Poetry 

On June 4, Colonel Sir Ronald Ross delivered a Friday evening discourse 
at the Royal Institution on Science and Poetry. He deprecated the notion 
that " would fasten the blight of Indian caste upon us ; that would make 
us either literary men or scientific men, either business men or professional 
men, either tinkers or tailors." He reminded the members of the Institu- 
tion that it has always been interested both in science and art, that it has 
listened to Coleridge and Campbell on poetry, that Tennyson and Browning 
attended lectures there, and that it is " not only the right but the duty of 
the spirit to explore every direction, if only to learn the limits of things." 
He did not agree with " the dictum that every great poet must be the pro- 
fessional poet, that is a literary man ; and that every man of science should 
concern himself only with test-tubes and microscopes." Still more did he 
abhor the superstition that every branch in every kind of science should be 
further subdivided. This was not the teaching of history. Michelangelo 
and Leonardo da Vinci combined many pursuits. When Peter Paul Rubens 
was Ambassador in England, an English courtier called upon him and found 
him seated at his" easel. " So His Excellency the Ambassador plays at 
being a painter," exclaimed the courtier. " No," replied Rubens, " His 
Excellency the Painter plays at being an Ambassador." Goethe commenced 
not only a literature, but the theory of evolution. He wondered in what 
witch's cauldron of folly the absurdity was brewed that poetry and 
science are enemies. Shelley tasted several sciences ; the poems of Cole- 
ridge were flowers that peeped out from among the rocks of his philosophy ; 
and Keats had already nearly summed up the matter in his apothegm, 
" Beauty is Truth, Truth Beauty." Nearly all our great modern poets, 
especially Arnold, followed science more or less closely. " Indeed, it is 
never among the greater poets that we notice any antipathy to science. It 
is the lower type of what may be called literary poetry which, like much 
of our purely literary philosophy, endeavours to attack science." 

Conversely, he said, many men of science have written verses, and some- 
times very good verses. Francis Darwin, Edward Jenner, and Sir Humphrey 
Davy were poets ; and the lecturer quoted some fine verses from the last 
named. He then went on to describe " the encyclopaedic course of study " 
which Davy had undertaken, and referred to his own excursions in similar 
lines during youth. He attributed these divagations, not to the pursuit 
of knowledge, nor to vanity, but to the " fury of youth," which makes every 
young man climb the first mountain he sees, which makes the explorer, the 
inventor, and the philosopher ; which has been implanted in us by the 
evolution of ages in order to perfect the human race. " It is the force which 
leads us step by step out of the jungles, ever towards the final godhood of 
man." He then proceeded to show the connection between science and art, 
and traced that connection through great literature. " These forces are 
to the mind what the great Calculus is to Mathematics : Science, the Differ- 
ential Calculus, which separates, subdivides, and analyses ; and Poetry, the 
Integral Calculus, which sums up." 

He had been asked to give some of his own essays ; and he proceeded 
to read various poems from his Fables and his Philosophies, and traced the 
evolution of his ideals in literature, science, and philosophy. The last " is 
derived from Epicurus, through Lucretius, Comte, and Spencer, culminating 
in the high and pure philosophy of the science of to-day." Regarding his 
work in medicine, he said. " Personally I much prefer literature, mathe- 
matics, and other studies, and am not a biologist, much less a medical man, 
by any natural proclivity." The lecture will appear in the English Review. 



It is at first sight somewhat strange that the quantitative and statistical 
methods from which so much was lioped in biology a generation ago should 
so far have proved more fruitful and suggestive when applied to the appar- 
ently much less measurable phenomena of the mind. Yet the hopes that 
the early biometricians rested on them have certainly not been realised and 
their present exponents in biology have had to make practically a fresh 
start with new groups of phenomena and different objectives. In psy- 
chology, on the other hand, their recent developments derive in unbroken 
succession from the work of such pioneers as Binet, who first employed 
systematic mental tests and measured the results. 

One of the most purely mathematical of these developments was origin- 
ated by Professor Spearman in a paper published in 1904 in the Atnerican 
Journal of Psychology. Its latest and most curious extensions are described 
in two papers by Mr. Maxwell Garnett published in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society (A, 96, 1919) and the British Journal of Psychology (May 1919) 
respectively. What follows Is largely an account in non-mathematical 
language of as much of Mr. Garnett's description as can be so expressed. 

It is necessary to note the preliminary mathematical assumptions. In 
the first place, any mathematical analysis of the numerical values obtained 
by the measurement of mental phenomena must start by expressing any such 
series of values in terms of a system of factors. These factors may, if we 
please, be taken to represent mental qualities underlying and accounting 
for the values. In the absence of further evidence, at least as many factors 
must be allowed for as there are values measured, and allowance must also 
be made for the possibility that each value is influenced to some extent by 
every factor. 

A definite test of interdependence is given by the mathematical concept 
of correlation. Two factors (or qualities) are said to be correlated when 
their numerical values vary in some sort of relationship with each other 
(for example, that of simple proportion, though it is commonly a much 
more complex one) ; moreover, their degree of correlation can be measured. 
The aim of mathematical analysis is to find the irreducible minimum of 
independent factors (factors whose correlation is zero) in terms of which 
all the values can be expressed. These factors, if they are not by nature 
or definition constant in value, are called independent variables. 

It was argued by Spearman in the paper referred to that, if a series of 
values fulfils certain mathematical conditions, a first step towards reducing 
the number of factors can be taken by expressing each value in terms of one 
special factor (representing a quality contributing to that value and to that 
alone) and an independent factor (representing some quality of the indi- 
vidual that contributes to all the values). It is said that measurements 
previously recorded and others specially made {e.g. by Burt and Webb) 
do, in fact, fulfil these conditions, and Dr. Webb is quoted as asserting that, 
on the basis of a vast mass of material, the existence of the " general factor " 



has been established with an exactitude " such as to rival the niceties which 
physical measurements reveal." This factor has been named " general 
ability " and is referred to as g. 

It should be noted here that in handling the numerical element in all 
these calculations, allowance has to be made (systematically) for the inevit- 
able margin of inaccuracy in the observations on which they are based, 
and, when a result is said to be exact, it is meant that by the usual statis- 
tical calculus it has been shown to fall within an assigned limit of probable 

To obtain these results a considerable variety of tests is required, for if 
the tests are confined to a group of similar qualities a discrepancy appears 
and it becomes clear that some tertium quid has ceased to be negligible. It 
is said that by combining suitable qualities (choosing those whose inter- 
dependence is shown by their " high correlations "), and analysing the 
resulting discrepancy, it is possible to isolate and define the discrepant 
element. This proves to be a second independent factor, a " group-factor," 
important within the group but without appreciable effect on other groups 
of values. 

Now, it has been shown that, if certain mathematical conditions are ful- 
filled, any three values can be expressed in terms of two independent factors 
and two only. Thus, if within a group of mental qualities three could be 
found whose values fulfilled these conditions, they could be expressed in 
terms of the general factor and the group factor alone, without any specific 
quality entering as a factor into any of them. This provides a more rigorous 
test for membership of the group. Qualities can be taken and tested in 
threes in this way until all qualities suspected of belonging to the group 
have been subjected to the test. 

So far it has been possible to speak only in the most general terms of the 
mathematical side of the discussion. At this point, however, the argu- 
ment, in Mr. Garnett's hands, receives geometrical treatment, exceedingly 
interesting and to some extent capable of verbal description. By adopting 
a certain mathematical artifice (the conversion of measure of correlation 
into direction cosines) it is possible to represent geometrically both the 
correlations of qualities and the conditions for the dependence of three 
qualities on two factors (or qualities) only. Thus, the correlation between 
two qualities can be represented by the angle between two radii drawn 
from a point, two qualities with no correlation being represented by radii 
at right angles to each other. A third quality can be represented by a 
third radius drawn from the same point but not necessarily in the same 
plane. It most conveniently happens, however, that the geometrical equiva- 
lent of the conditions for three qualities depending on two factors only is 
that the three radii representing them shall lie in one plane ; in this case 
the correlations between the three qualities taken in pairs are represented 
by the angles between the first and second, the second and third, and the 
first and third respectively. 

Thus, let us take three correlated qualities, two being specific qualities 
within a group and one being g. Let us suppose that we know mathe- 
matically that they depend on two independent factors only, the general 
factor, or g, being one of them and the group-factor being the other, 
and we wish to find out the nature of the group-factor. If we represent 
the general factor by one radius we can represent the unknown group-factor 
by a radius at right angles to it, since by hypothesis they are independent 
(that is to say, their correlation is zero). We can represent the two specific 
qualities by two other radii whose angles with the g radius will repre- 
sent their correlations with g. Then, if one of these radii lie close to the 
unnamed radius, there is a strong presumption that the quality it represents 
is akin to the unknown factor. Such a diagram has been drawn, and on 


it a group-factor is found to lie between " Originality " and " Sense of 
Humour " and to be nearer the latter. On this account it has been named 
" Cleverness " — not, perhaps, a very happy choice. All qualities within this 
group are therefore to be regarded as made up in varying proportions of 
" general ability " and " Cleverness " and of these alone. 

A further step can be taken if the radii are drawn with definite lengths, 
corresponding to the values of the qualities as measured on a uniform scale. 
It will then be found, pleasingly enough, that lines drawn at right angles 
from the ends of the radii will all intersect at a point. It should therefore 
be possible to represent the whole mentality of an individual, so far as it is 
contained in one group of qualities, by a single point whose position can 
readily be defined by measuring its distance from the two co-ordinates, 
that is, from the radii at right angles that represent the general and group- 
factors respectively. Conversely, if this point be known, it should be pos- 
sible to ascertain the value of any specific quality in the group by drawing 
a perpendicular from this point to a radius whose angles with the co-ordin- 
ates represent the known and presumably universal correlations of that 
quality with the general and group-factors. 

In other words, we could predict the proportions that different qualities 
will bear to one another in any given case. Thus, in Mr. Garnett's words, 
when " Cleverness " (that is, the unfortunately named group-factor) "is at 
a maximum . . . Sense of Humour is nearly at a maximum. . . . Originality 
and Quickness are much above the average ; but Ability (g) is only 
equal to the average." When Sense of Humour is " the most exceptional 
quality . . . Cleverness, Originality and Quickness are all much above the 
average, but Ability is slightly below the average. This does not of course 
mean that very able men (men with very high g) may not have a great 
Sense of Humour ; but only that, the greater their Ability (g) the greater 
must be their Cleverness to produce a given degree of Sense of Humour." 
Moreover the strength of the group-factor may be estimated from the 
values of the more measurable specific qualities closely related to it ; thus 
" Cleverness may be recognised in practice — as, for example, when interview- 
ing a candidate for an appointment, to whose general Ability {g) testi- 
monials or examination results bear witness — by noting his sense of humour, 
general tendency to cheerfulness ... or quickness of apprehension." 

It is asserted that two well-marked types of mind are represented by 
the preponderance of g and " Cleverness " respectively. The distinc- 
tion is equated with William James's division of men of genius into the 
thinkers, or analysts, on the one hand, and the poets and artists, or men of 
intuitions, on the other, and is illustrated by Schiller's phrase : " The con- 
straint which your intelligence imposes on your imagination." Other 
writers also are invoked to confirm the reality of this distinction. Mercier, 
for example, in an essay on " Cleverness and Capacity," has distinguished 
between these qualities and argued that, unlike cleverness, capacity can be 
educated. (Mr. Burt, however, has contended that g is innate.) Mc- 
Dougall, in his Physiological Psychology, has argued that the mental differ- 
ences between these types, especially in respect of their methods of reason- 
ing and of associating ideas, are due to differences in the constitution of the 
brain and of the neural systems. 

Dr. Webb has isolated another group-factor, independent of " Clever- 
ness " and general ability. It is said by him to mean " consistency of action 
resulting from deliberate volition or will," and has been named " Purpose " 
by Mr. Garnett. Since it is a third " independent variable " we can repre- 
sent it by a radius perpendicular to the other two co-ordinates, thus con- 
structing a three-dimensional figure. In this figure, by proceeding as 
before, we can obtain a point in space, measured from the three co-ordinates, 
that represents the mentality of an individual in respect of two groups of 


qualities. This point will lie nearest to the group-axis that represents the 
group-factor predominating in the person concerned. Two well-marked 
types of character are said to be denoted by its nearness to the one or the 
other axis. For example, the type in which " Cleverness " predominates is 
said not only to possess less " Purpose " (as is shown by lack of thrift, of 
logic, of conscientiousness, and so on), but in actual fact to be at the same 
time more witty, cheerful and artistic. 

These three independent variables are not likely to be all the factors 
concerned in the determination of an individual mentality, but it is con- 
tended that when they are known the mentality can be defined with very 
considerable completeness. It is certainly true that to assent to this is not 
necessarily to underestimate the variety of mental types, for an enormous 
diversity both qualitative and quantitative can be obtained by combining 
three independent factors of this kind even when the range of variation 
of each is small. It is of course irrelevant that three is the largest number 
of independent variables that can be graphically represented as co-ordinates. 

It is not intended to enter here upon a discussion of the validity of these 
results, but it may throw some light on the possibilities they contain to 
consider for a moment the lines of speculation that would be opened up if it 
were assumed that these independent variables had more than a mathe- 
matical or mythological existence. In the first place, if they were regarded 
as psychical entities it is quite certain that it would not be long before 
attempts were made to identify them with the units of other sciences. The 
physiologists, assuming them to be hereditary, would give them a footing 
as full-fledged Mendelian " characters," or in the chromosomes, or perhaps 
in the secretions of the ductless glands. The sociologists would rediscover 
them as factors in social evolution, as the causes (or perhaps the effects) of 
modes of life and types of society. In the second place, the possibility 
they afforded of immensely simplifying psychological description would 
inake them invaluable for the purpose of classification. It would almost 
certainly be found that the points in space representing different individuals 
were not distributed evenly over the diagram but tended to congregate in 
patches. Thus " types " would become sharply distinguished, each defin- 
able in three terms only ; it would need but one more assumption to make 
the classification genetic, and then " hereditary strains " would emerge, 
out of which " races " would be created just in time to save anthropology 
from the confusion in store for it when the cephalic index shall have been 
thoroughly discredited. We should then have the pleasure of seeing the 
mythical " Aryan race " or the " Iberian " rehabilitated as the race " x = •], 
y = 6, z = 5." And, of course, experts on criminals, idiots and children 
would find their " types " fall into line. Indeed, only the psycho-analysts 
would be left out of the fun. 


Collected Scientific Papers. By J. H. Poynting, Sc.D., F.R.S. [Pp. 
xxxii4- 768.] (Cambridge: at the University Press, 1920. Price 
375. 6d. net.) 

The collected papers of the late John Henry Poynting, Mason Professor of 
Physics in the University of Birmingham, have been published in book form 
with a view to perpetuate his memory, a committee formed in 1914 to 
consider how best to establish a suitable memorial having decided that this 
was the best form which it could take. A fund was opened for this purpose, 
and the volume under review, produced with the customary excellence of 
the Cambridge University Press, is the result. 

The work has been edited by two of Prof. Poynting's colleagues, G. A. 
Shakespear and Guy Barlow, who have corrected a few arithmetical and 
other mistakes. All the important corrections are indicated in footnotes. 
The papers have been arranged in groups, so as to bring together all the 
papers on kindred subjects ; within each group the papers have been 
arranged in chronological order. The popular presentations of subjects 
previously treated strictly scientifically have, however, been collected to- 
gether with various addresses and other articles of a popular nature, in the 
last section of the volume. The papers have been preceded by biographical 
and critical notices by Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir Joseph Larmor, Sir J.J. Thom- 
son and G. A. Shakespear. 

In Part I are collected the papers dealing with the balance and gravita- 
tion, of which the most important is the Phil. Trans, paper of 1892, " On a 
Determination of the Mean Density of the Earth and the Gravitation Con- 
stant by means of a Common Balance." Poynting's method of determining 
the mean density was to measure the attraction between two known masses 
by finding the increase in the weight of one of them when the other was 
brought underneath it. Merely regarded as a development of the technique 
of accurate weighing, this work was of great importance. The manner in 
which disturbing causes were successively tracked down and eliminated 
should prove very instructive to students of physics. Although the experi- 
ments were commenced in 1878, it was not until the end of twelve years' 
work that Poynting obtained a result with which he was satisfied. By that 
time, however, he tacitly admitted that the compact torsion-balance 
apparatus designed by C. V. Boys was more suitable for the purpose. His 
final determination of the mean density, 5 '49, is nevertheless entitled to a 
relatively high weight in any discussion of the most probable value to be 
deduced from the various determinations which have been made. 

Part II contains the papers on electricity, and of these the two Phil. 
Trans, papers of 1884 and 1885, " On the Transfer of Energy in the 
Electromagnetic Field " and " On the Connection between Electric Current 
and the Electric and Magnetic Inductions in the Surrounding Field " are the 
most important. They form, in fact, Poynting's most valuable contribution 
to physical science. "Their importance is very succinctly summarised by Sir 
Joseph Larmor : " Nobody before Poynting seems to have thought of 
tracing the flux of energy in a medium elastically transmitting it, and where 
the whole process is therefore exposed to view. The line of flow is a ray in 



optics ; thus it includes a dynamical aspect of that conception added on 
to and of course consistent with the Huygenian or rather Young-Fresnelian 
one. The electric and optical ray is implicitly in Maxwell's equations and 
is only a corollary to them. But in any other kind of elastic transmission, 
e.g. waves in an elastic-solid medium, a corresponding theory can be worked 
out. I take it this idea is Poynting's main contribution, and it clarified 
many things, especially electrical." Poynting appears not to have noticed 
that the energy vector is indeterminate theoretically, yet although other 
forms have been proposed, the balance of evidence seems to be in favour 
of Poynting's vector, which is generally accepted as correct and has assumed 
fundamental importance in electrical and optical theory. 

The third important series of papers by Poynting were concerned with 
radiation, the pressure of light and related subjects. These papers are 
collected together in Part III. Here again, Poynting's delicate manipulative 
skill, which had been so well shown in his work on the mean density of the 
earth, proved invaluable. In conjunction with Dr. Guy Barlow he suc- 
ceeded in establishing the existence of the tangential force produced when 
light is reflected from a surface on which there is some absorption. They 
also proved the existence of a torque when light passes through a prism, 
and further demonstrated the existence of the recoil from light of a surface 
giving out radiation. Other papers were concerned with certain theoretical 
aspects of radiation. The most important of these is a Phil. Trans, paper 
of 1903 on " Radiation in the Solar System : its Effect on Temperature and 
its Pressure on Small Bodies." In the first part of this paper the tem- 
peratures of the planets are determined, assuming the fourth-power law of 
radiation ; as regards Mars, Poynting arrived at the conclusion that the tem- 
perature of Mars was so low that life as we know it was not possible on its 
surface. This conclusion was contested by the late Prof. Lowell ; Poynting, 
however, replied to the criticisms (as the present writer considers, success- 
fully) in a later paper, in which he confirmed his previous results. In the 
second part of the same paper he considers the effect produced by radiation 
on the orbits of small bodies round the sun and shows that they will be 
retarded in their motion by the reaction of their exchanges of radiation so 
that they will ultimately fall into the sun. He also shows that the effect 
of radiation on the particles of Saturn's rings might make them — if of suit- 
able size — repel instead of attract one another. 

The succeeding parts of the volume, dealing with Light, Miscellaneous 
Papers, Statistics, and Addresses and General Articles, are of lesser value 
from the permanent scientific view-point, although several of the addresses 
and general articles contain well-written and interesting accounts not only 
of those branches of physics in which Poynting had particularly specialised, 
but also of several related subjects. That there is a certain amount of repe- 
tition and overlapping in these is, of course, inevitable. The editors gener- 
ally decided, however, when in doubt as to whether or not to include a 
paper, that it was wiser to include it. 

Poynting's writings were always clear, simple and lucid. Their publica- 
tion in book form will be found of great value by students of the science of 
physics, to which Poynting contributed so much that is of permanent value. 

H. S. J. 


Mathematics for Engineers : Part II. By W. N. Rose, B.Sc. (The Directly- 
Useful Technical Series.) [Pp. xiv-f 419, with 142 figures.] (Lon- 
don : Chapman & Hall, 1920. Price 13s. 6d. net.) 

The problem before the author of a text-book on the Calculus for engineers 
is to reconcile the two necessities of a logical treatment of the subject and 
the elimination of such purely theoretical matter as is unnecessary for the 


practical student. In this respect Mr. Rose, in the second part of his 
Mathematics for Engineers, has been more successful than most of his pre- 

This second part, with the exception of two chapters on Spherical 
Trigonometry and Mathematical Probability, is devoted entirely to the 
Differential and Integral Calculus. Though the volume is complete in itself 
it assumes a knowledge of certain principles, such as the properties of the 
Exponential and Hyperbolic Functions, dealt with in the first volume, 
which are usually comprised in any textbook on the Calculus. This allows 
the thread of the argument to be better maintained, but prevents the book 
being so readily comprehended by a student not possessing such previous 

The author claims that the treatment is based upon algebraic principles, 
graphical proofs or constructions being utilised for amplification or explana- 
tion of the subject. This may have been the author's intention, but we do 
not feel that the object has been attained. The introduction of the ideas 
of differentiation and integration is based very largely upon graphical methods 
— and, as far as that goes, the exposition is clear and adequate — one simple 
and little-known method of graphical differentiation being given. On the 
other hand, the development of analytical rules is treated with considerably 
less care and is not free from error. For instance, in obtaining the rule for 
differentiating a power of x, the proof given, though valid only when the 
index of the power is a positive integer, is not qualified in any way, and the 
result is in fact tacitly assumed for any index. Although allowing that for 
practical purposes elaborate demonstrations are not necessary or advisable, 
we believe that the passing over of such points is not to the advantage 
of even the practical student. 

A short treatment of the simpler forms of Differential Equations and 
of Harmonic Analysis is a useful adjunct. 

The most valuable feature of the book is the field covered by the ex- 
amples, which are chosen from all branches of engineering. A very large 
number of these are worked out in full, and, besides serving as illustrations, 
provide a useful training in the application of the Calculus in practice. 

The book should prove of considerable value not only to the student 
of engineering, but also to the practising engineer, as a work of reference. 
It supplies a need for a treatise on Mathematics from a practical standpoint, 
comprehensive in its range, whilst omitting the less essential and more 
academic parts with which the average technical student need not be 


Bevan B. Baker. 

A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. By A. E. H. Love, 

M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the 

University of Oxford. Third Edition. [Pp. xviii-l-624, with 75 

figures in text.] (Cambridge : at the University Press, 1920. Price 

37s. ^d. net.) 

The second edition of this standard treatise on the theory of elasticity was 

published in 1906 : the first edition was then so substantially altered that 

practically a new book was the result. No such extensive alterations have 

been deemed necessary in preparing the present edition, which is essentially 

the second edition revised where necessary to bring it up-to-date by the 

incorporation of new researches. The most important of the additions are 

an appendix to Chapters VIII and IX, which deals with Volterra's theory 

of dislocations and a new chapter at the end of the book, following the 

chapter on the general theory of thin plates and shells, dealing with the 

equilibrium of thin shells. The numbering of the articles in the second 

edition has been retained, the new articles being specially numbered. This 


plan will be found advantageous in classes where various students may 
have the two editions in use at the same time. 

Prof. Love's treatise is so well known that detailed comment on its con- 
tents is not necessary. The science of elasticity has so many applications, 
both in physics and in engineering, that so complete an account of it as is 
given by Prof. Love is invaluable, not merely as a textbook, but as a stan- 
dard work of reference. Detailed references to the original authorities are 
given throughout which will enable students who may desire to pursue any 
particular matter further to find the relevant literature. Standard works, 
to retain fully their value, must be kept up-to-date, and it is a matter for 
general satisfaction that Prof. Love has found it possible to bring out the 
present third edition. 

H. S. J. 


The Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation. By Erwin Freund- 
LiCH. Authorised English Translation by Henry L. Brose, M.A. 
Preface by Albert Einstein. Introduction by H. H. Turner, 
D.Sc, F.R.S. [Pp. xvi + 62.] (Cambridge : at the University 
Press, 1920. Price 5s. net.) 

Mr. Brose became interested in Einstein's Theory of Gravitation whilst 
interned in Germany as a civilian prisoner of war, and there made his trans- 
lation of Dr. Freundlich's booklet dealing with the foundations of the 
theory. Dr. Freundlich, of the Berlin Observatory, was the first scientist 
to endeavour to put the theory to the test : he had planned to take photo- 
graphs during the total solar eclipse of August 1914, with a view to deter- 
mining the amount, if any, of the deflections of light rays by the sun's 
gravitational field. The outbreak of war prevented him carrying out his 
plans. It is evident, therefore, that he has been interested in the theory 
from its inception. 

His exposition of the fundamental ideas underlying the theory is the 
best that we have yet seen. He has explained in a very clear manner the 
two fundamental postulates of continuity and of causal relationship between 
such things as lie within the realm of observation, and has shown that the 
principles of classical mechanics cannot be brought into accord with these 
postulates. It is then shown how Einstein built his theory around this 
framework. The relationship of the theory to the ideas of Riemann is 
particularly well brought out. The mathematical development of the 
theory is sketched but without introducing analysis, so that the volume 
will be found intelhgible to all who are conversant with the methods of 
reasoning of the exact sciences. 

The principal criticism of the work as an exposition of Einstein's theory 
is that the exact meaning of the interpretation of the fundamental prin- 
ciple of equivalence and of the assumptions involved in it is only very briefly 
dealt with. It is a difficult matter, however, to discuss the limitations of 
the principle without introducing the mathematics of the theory. 

The present translation has been perused by Dr. Freundlich himself, so 
that its accuracy can be admitted. Mr. Brose deserves the thanks of scien- 
■ tists in general for making this exposition accessible to English readers. 

H. S. J. 


Alcohol : Its Production, Properties, Chemistry, and Industrial Applications. 

By C. Simmonds, B.Sc. [Pp. xx -f 574, with numerous illustrations 
and diagrams.] (London: Macmillan & Co., 1919. Price 21s. net.) 

Mr. Simmonds's excellent volume on Alcohol has appeared at a very oppor- 
tune moment, for not only is the eternal controversy between " The Trade " 


and Prohibitionists being fought with renewed vigour, but the question of 
using alcohol as a source of motive power to replace or supplement petrol is 
one of great and growing importance, and, lastly, the use of methyl and 
ethyl alcohols in the organic chemical industries is one which demands much 
attention just now. 

The subject is discussed from many points of view, historical, chemical, 
commercial, and physiological, so that the book should without doubt form 
a standard work of reference on all matters connected with alcohol. 

That Mr. Simmonds has determined to keep right up to date is shown 
by the fact that a special section is included on methods of production of 
alcohol from acetylene, though some figures as to yields and costs would 
have been of value, and it is of interest to note that the Swiss Federal Govern- 
ment are interested in the erection of a plant for the synthesis of about 
28,000,000 gallons per annum of ethyl alcohol from calcium carbide. This 
affords a somewhat striking example of the manner in which modern organic 
chemistry is capable of revolutionising an age-old industry, and we may 
yet see the fermentation industries of the world put out of business by the 
advent of synthetic alcohol, just as the natural indigo and madder industries 
have been driven out of the world's markets by the synthetic products. 

The author has, very wisely, inserted a chapter on the preparation and 
properties of methyl alcohol which will be of considerable value to those 
who have to deal with the subject. Chapter VI also, on the analytical 
chemistry of methyl and ethyl alcohols, will repay study. 

The printing and general arrangements are clear and concise, and the 
text is reasonably free from printer's errors (" diethyl-aniline " on p. 366, 
line 13, is obviously a misprint for diethyl-amine). The book should be 
assured of a place in all chemical libraries. 

F. A. Mason. 

Industrial Gases. By H. C. Greenwood, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.I.C. [Pp. 
xvii -f 371, with 23 illustrations.] (London : Bailliere, Tindall & 
Cox, 1920. Price 12s. td. net.) 
Dr. S. Rideal could not have made a happier choice, in his selection of 
an authority on the above, than the late Dr. Greenwood ; and no better 
memorial to the author could be desired than his treatise on the manu- 
facture and technical manipulation of gases. 

Published in November 19 19, Industrial Gases comes at a peculiarly 
appropriate time. Great Britain, France, Italy, and America are thinking 
seriously of their combined nitrogen supplies, and it behoves the future 
workers of the embryo industry to make themselves au fait with the thermo- 
dynamic principles forming the basis of technical gas reactions. 

Perhaps the most important part of the book is its introduction. This 
chapter clears up considerably the fog which hovers over one's ideas as to 
the " specifications " to which a perfect gas should conform. One begins 
to understand why many important natural gases satisfy only approxi- 
mately our definitions of a perfect gas ; and due account is taken of the 
corrections to be introduced in our handling of the gases of commerce. The 
energy requirements for the compression of a gas both isothermally and 
adiabatically (Boyle's Law is assumed to apply) come up for discussion ; 
while in the sub-section on Heat-Interchange reference is made to the work 
of Porter, Stanton, and Josse, important inferences being tabulated. 

The section on air naturally includes an account of the Joule-Thomson 
effect, and its application in the Linde process to the liquefaction of air. 
One cannot help thinking, however, that in the statement of Joule's experi- 
ment, the conditions under which the experiment is carried out should be 
specified. We can obviously make the final temperature very different 


from the initial, by giving heat to the gas or taking heat from it. The 
system during the experiment must be thermally isolated. 

Nitrogen, free and combined, is given its due consideration. The rela- 
tive costs of nitric acid, produced from Chili nitrate, by the arc process, by 
the cyanamide process, and by the method of Haber, are found to be £10, 
£i2, £17., and £j per ton respectively. If the last figure were increased by 
£=)0 per cent, it would be a much more valuable estimate. The author's 
low figure for nitric acid via Haber and ammonia oxidation may be ac- 
counted for by the fact that in his section on Hydrogen he takes the price 
of this gas at is. gd. per 1,000 cubic feet. This figure is believed to be too 
low, and 2s. 6d. per thousand would be a nearer approximation. It is to be 
remembered that the cost of production of hydrogen is a vital factor, and 
every increase, or reduction, of 6d. per 1,000 cubic feet in the cost of the 
gas affects the cost of synthetic ammonia to the extent of nearly £2 per 
ton ; with a corresponding increase in the nitric acid derived therefrom. 

Sections are devoted to oxygen, argon and its allies, and ozone. The 
oxides of carbon, sulphur dioxide, and nitrous oxide all form interesting 
sections. The subject of asphyxiating gases is somewhat out of place in a 
book of this nature ; and while all the sections are authoritative, this does 
not apply when the author enters, to the extent of four pages, the domain 
of organic chemistry. 

While much has been written in recent times on the subject of fuel 
generally, the concise survey of the manufacture and applications of gaseous 
fuels will amply repay attention. Nowadays we hear much of nationalisa- 
tion ; and its advocates point to the uneconomic utilisation of our source of 
power — coal. The author of Industrial Gases quotes facts and figures which 
undoubtedly incline pne to the miner's point of view. Our sources of power 
are not being developed ; particularly does this apply to coal-gas ; and 
Industrial Gases quotes the work of Hocking as to the gain in efficiency, in 
furnace operations, in changing from coke to a gas-fired system. 

The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is no longer a problem, and Dr. 
Greenwood has contributed largely to its solution. In Industrial Gases he 
has placed much of his expert knowledge at the disposal of industry. 

G. J. Jones. 

The Use oJ Colloids in Health and Disease. By Alfred B. Searle. [Pp. 
vii+ 120.] (London : Constable & Co., 1920. Price 85. net.) 

While there is much in this monograph that may be read with profit, it 
is obvious that the physiological knowledge of the author is not up to the 
standard of his chemical and physical knowledge. Those parts of the work 
which deal with the properties and modes of preparation of colloidal solu- 
tions of various kinds are well done. But the numerous errors with regard 
to biological phenomena suggest that the author is insufficiently equipped 
to arouse the reader's confidence in the correctness of his interpretations 
of the effects of colloidal preparations on the living organism. He would 
be well advised to study an elementary textbook of physiology before pub- 
lishing a second edition. This being so, his conclusions must be received 
with caution. Many instances might be quoted, but two or three will serve 
to illustrate the point. The use of the word " isotonic " in several places is 
not that universally understood and is indeed unintelligible. The process 
of digestion as described on p. 42 conveys the impression that the products 
are in the colloidal state, whereas in fact colloidal food materials are con- 
verted into the diffusible crystalloidal form and their passage into the 
blood-stream made easy. There is only very meagre reference to those 
phenomena in which colloidal properties as such play an important part, 
such as the formation of lymph, the secretion of urine, and the maintenance 


of the normal volume of the blood. On the other hand, we find such things 
as the electrical charge of particles, their oxidising and reducing properties 
indicated as of great importance, although there is at present no satis- 
factory evidence that this is the case. 

It is remarkable that the author appears to be so obsessed with the 
importance of the colloidal state in itself that he overlooks one unquestion- 
able characteristic of matter in this state, which makes the use of powerful 
drugs like arsenic, iodine, etc. in colloidal solution of value. This is the 
comparative slowness of reaction, due to action from the surface only. Thus 
a small effect may be produced, although exerted for a prolonged time. The 
fact suggests that what is really active is the very small amount of sub- 
stance in true solution gradually dissolved by the tissue fluids from the 
colloidal particles. A more exact account of the work of the late Henry 
Crookes would have been welcome, especially as the toxic properties of 
metals were described by Naegeli in 1893. If it were true, as stated on 
p. 75, that colloidal metal sols are rapidly fatal to bacterial parasites with- 
out any action on the host, an immense advance in therapeutics would have 
been made. The author can scarcely expect the colloidal state to be re- 
garded as the ideal one for administration of alkaloids (p. 105) in view of 
Dale's work on cocaine, of which he appears to be unaware. Mr. Searle 
propounds the view that a drug must be converted into the colloidal state 
before it is efhcient, and makes the extraordinary statement that this hap- 
pens more rapidly by intramuscular than by intravenous injection. More- 
over, in this connection, although it is undoubtedly true that all cellular 
reactions occur in heterogeneous systems, it must not be forgotten that 
the most powerful actions are exerted on these systems by electrolytes and 
other substances in true solution. 

There are some minor slips which might be corrected in a future edition, 
such as the attribution to Tyndall of Faraday's discovery of the scattering 
of light by suspended particles in colloidal solution. 

The work on the whole contains much that is of interest, but would 
be greatly improved by a more critical treatment of the evidence of alleged 
physiological actions, and especially of the clinical cases, most of which 
have no value as evidence. It is to be feared that the author accepted 
without question what he was told. -^y^ -^i ^ 

Laboratory Manual of Elementary Colloid Chemistry. By Emil Hatschek. 
[Pp. viii + 135, with 20 illustrations.] (London : J. and A. Churchill, 
1920. Price 65. 6d. net.) 

The appearance of this little book is significant. It shows that colloid 
chemistry has at last arrived at that stage in its development in which it is 
no longer regarded as an exceedingly specialised branch of chemistry, but is 
in fact to be included in the normal advanced chemical curriculum. The 
manual is admirably adapted to the purpose which its writer has had in 
view, namely, " to supply accurate and very detailed directions for carrying 
out the fundamental operations " of colloid chemistry. 

Since the book is the first of its kind, and has been written by one who 
is himself an authority on the subject, it may be well to indicate its general 
scope by enumerating the subjects dealt with. These are : Dialysis, ultra- 
filtration, optical examination, suspensoid sols and suspensions, emulsoid 
sols and gels, emulsions, cataphoresis, coagulation, protection, viscosity, 
adsorption, capillary analysis, and the Liesegang phenomenon. 

In general only laboratory glass apparatus is required, stress being 
rightly laid on the necessity of employing resistance glass. The greater 
part of the course can therefore be given with ordinary laboratory equip- 


ment. The larger and more specialised pieces of apparatus are practically 
confined to the centrifuge, the ultrafilter, and of course the microscope, 
preferably with an ultracondenser in addition. 

No doubt as time goes on practical work in colloid chemistry will go 
beyond the limits set by the present form of Mr. Hatschek's manual. It 
would add considerably to its value if the second edition were to contain 
some directions for carrying out in as quantitative a manner as possible a 
determination of the rate of coagulation (a subject still very undeveloped), 
some comparative experiments to demonstrate the use of ultrafilters, some- 
thing on endosmose, and a few additional notes on cataphoresis, e.g. the 
necessity of using a medium of the same conductivity as that of the sol or 
emulsion, to maintain constant potential gradient, and the meaning of the 
iso-electric point and its determination. 

The book can be warmly recommended. W. C. McC. Lewis. 

A Course of Practical Chemistry for Agricultural Students. Volume II, Part I. 

By H. A. D. Neville, M.A., F.I.C., and L. F. Newman, M.A., F.I.C.. 
School of Agriculture, Cambridge University. [Pp. 122,] (Cam- 
bridge : at the University Press, 1919. Price ^s. net.) 

The exercises presented in this volume form part of a work which when 
complete will cover the whole of the practical course in agricultural chem- 
istry for students taking the degree in agricultural science at Cambridge. 
This whole work will be complete in three volumes. Volume I will deal 
with the chemistry and physics of the soil, and will cover the first year's 
course. The second year's course on the chemistry of foods is provided for 
by Volume II. This is to be issued in two parts: the first part, that here 
considered, deals with the qualitative aspect of pure organic chemistry as 
far as it is essential for agricultural students ; while the second part, not yet 
issued, will deal more closely with quantitative determinations and analyses 
of foods. Volume III will deal with more specialised matter, such as the 
chemistry of fungicides and insecticides, and food preservatives. 

The chemistry in the volume under review here is entirely qualitative. 
The subject-matter includes exercises on the simpler organic groups of sub- 
stances : alcohols, with phenols ; aldehydes, ketones and acids ; esters, amides 
and amines ; and carbohydrates and proteins. There are also sections 
devoted to the questions of purification of organic compounds, enzyme action 
and the determination of the class to which an organic substance belongs. 

After the exercises given in each section of the book a number of notes 
are added in order to make clear the experiments described in the exercises. 

About one-third of the book consists of blank leaves on which the 
student can add additional exercises or notes. The value of this provision 
is obvious to anyone who has had experience of practical classes. 

There can be no doubt of the value of this book to classes in agricul- 
tural chemistry, and the complete work will obviously become the standard 
laboratory manual in this subject of ever-increasing importance. 

W. S. 

Practical Physiological Chemistry. By Sidney W. Cole, M.A. [Pp. 
xvi-H4oi.] Fifth Edition, completely revised and enlarged. (Cam- 
bridge : W. Heffer & Sons, 1919. Price 15s. net.) 

The fifth edition of this well-known book has been so completely revised and 
enlarged as to be almost a new book. Three fresh chapters have been added 
to the earlier portion of the book, so that instead of starting with the pro- 
teins, the first chapter is now devoted to the properties of solutions ; follow- 
ing on a description of the general properties of colloids comes the only 


reasonable account of the subject of " the concentration of hydrogen ions " 
to be found in any English textbook known to the reviewer. The subject 
is treated with admirable lucidity both from the theoretical and practical 
points of view, and descriptions are given of the apparatus and methods 
employed in measuring hydrogen on concentration by means of indicators ; 
throughout the subsequent chapters this subject is kept before the reader 
in such a manner as to make him realise its practical bearing in problems of 
physiological chemistry and biochemistry. Chapter 1 1 , entitled ' ' The Proteins, ' ' 
contains substantially the same as the first chapter of the old edition with 
the exception of the nucleoproteins, which are dealt with in the third chapter 
together with nucleins and nucleic acid. Chapter IV, which is the only other 
new one, is entitled " The Preparation and Properties of Certain Amino 
Acids " ; here will be found valuable and in many cases first-hand informa- 
tion concerning the preparation of the more important amino acids set 
forth with all essential practical details. The arrangement of the remain- 
ing ten chapters and appendix more or less follows that of the previous 
edition, but throughout a number of improved methods have been 
introduced to replace older ones which have become obsolete ; new and 
valuable features are also sections on bacterial decompositions in the intes- 
tine, on autolysis, and on oxidases and peroxidases. While written primarily 
for medical students, the author has not lost sight of the interests of other 
workers in biochemistry, and to all of these the book can be confidently 
recommended as a most valuable laboratory manual and adjunct to their 
library. P. H. 

Notions Fondamentales de Chimie organique. Par Charles Moureu, 
Membre de ITnstitut et de 1' Academic de Medecine. [Pp. viii -f 552.] 
Sixth Edition. (Paris: Gauthier-Villars et Cie, 1920. Price 16 frs.) 

In the preface to the first edition published in 1902 the author stated that 
his object in writing this book was to set forth the principal theories of 
organic chemistry and to introduce the student step by step to the more 
important transformations of matter as a preparation for the study of the 
larger textbooks. It must be acknowledged that the author has been most 
successful in carrying out the task he has set himself. The book contains 
a remarkable amount of information for its size and is replete with novel 
methods of interpreting the mechanism of reactions ; the style throughout 
is simple and the method of presentation is clear, and a perusal of the pages 
of the book will repay many a teacher. While it cannot be denied that 
many branches of the subject have been treated somewhat briefly, sound 
judgment has on the whole been exercised in the selection of the material. 

The book is divided into seven chapters deaUng with general theories, 
hydrocarbons, oxygen compounds, nitrogenous compounds, organo-metallic 
compounds, heterocyclic compounds and dyes respectively, but a mere recital 
of these conveys a very imperfect idea of the amount of information con- 
tained in them. The practice of quoting the names of authors without 
dates or references is regrettable, but this may, of course, have been necessi- 
tated by considerations of space. p, jj. 


Petrology for Students. An Introduction to the Study of Rocks under the 

Microscope. By Alfred Harker, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. Fifth 

Edition. [Pp. viii + 300, with 99 figures.] (Cambridge : at the 

University Press, 1919. Price 8s. 6d. net.) 

For more than twenty years this textbook has been widely used in this 

country, and the part which it has played in the training of so many British 


petrologists ensures for this revised edition a hearty welcome. In the eleven 
years which have elapsed since the last edition appeared, a considerable 
volume of work on the petrography of the British Islands has appeared, and 
most of this is incorporated in the edition under review. The increasing 
importance which is attached to the alkaline rocks has led the author to 
allot separate chapters to the nepheline-syenites and the phonolites, which 
formerly were included with the syenites and trachytes respectively. A 
minor change which will be received with less favour is the transference of 
the teschenites from the dolerite chapter to the section on gabbros. 

So many of the rarer rock-types have been found in this country in 
recent years that few of them are now unrepresented by British rocks ; 
this has enabled the author to omit many of the descriptions of foreign 
occurrences, and to replace these by illustrations drawn from local sources. 
It is a question whether the former has not been carried too far ; for example, 
in the section on diorites, no mention is made of the Cortlandt rocks, some 
of which have practically attained specific rank. Those parts of the book 
which are included under the heading " Leading Types," however, form a 
very complete and concise account of the petrography of these islands. 

The section dealing with sedimentary rocks has not undergone such 
alteration, but the chapters on metamorphism have been to a great extent 
rewritten. The former gives the reader some impression of the lack of petro- 
graphical knowledge concerning sedimentary rocks, especially with reference 
to the argillaceous types. In this latter connection, more emphasis might 
have been laid on the occurrence of kaolinitic minerals in fireclays and similar 
rocks, for there is abundant chemical and microscopical evidence against 
the view that Hutchings' results are generally applicable. 

The illustrations of microstructures, which formed such a useful feature 
in previous editions, are supplemented by many additional drawings. While 
the book fulfils adequately its function as " a guide to the study of rocks in 
thin slices," its utility would be greatly increased by the introduction of 
chemical analyses of the more important types. Petrology, in the modern 
sense of the word, includes much more than the mere description of rock 
sections, and a proper understanding of the relations of the various rock 
species must be based, as much as possible, on quantitative data, both 
chemical and mineralogical. A future edition might well contain such data, 
together with an account of the quantitative microscopical methods which 
are now coming into vogue. A. S. 

A Handbook of Mineralogy, Blowpipe Analysis, and Geometrical Crystallo- 
graphy. By G. Montague Butler, E.M. [Pp. x + 311, vi -|- 80, 
viii + 155, with 89 + 107 figures.] (New York : John Wiley & Sons, 
1918. Price i6s. 6d.) 

Tpis book is a reissue, in one volume, of three previously published books 
on mineralogy, blowpipe analysis, and crystallography respectively. As the 
last of these was reviewed in this journal recently (Science Progress, 14, 
163, 1919) it need not be further considered at present. In the first part, a 
brief account of the various mineral species is given in a somewhat tabular 
form, the details being arranged under the usual headings, such as hardness, 
colour, fracture, crystal form, and so forth. Only such information as is 
likely to be useful in the field identification of minerals is included, but the 
photographs of specimens and the drawings of crystals which accompany 
many of the descriptions are so small and indistinct as to be quite useless. 
The author's evident attempt to standardise the nomenclature suggests that, 
for the sake of consistency, " topaz " and " turquoise " should be translated 




into "topazite" and " turquoisite " respectively, especially as such forms 
as " galenite " are adopted. 

In the second part of the book, an account of the methods of blowpipe 
analysis is given. While this follows the usual lines, the descriptions, despite 
their brevity, are clear, and form a useful introduction to the subject. The 
only obvious omission is the general test for silicates ; the one which is 
given in the book is applicable only to those silicates soluble in nitric acid. 

In order to be logical, the second and third sections should have preceded 
the first, as it would be futile for a student to attempt to utilise the data 
in the latter without, at least, a partial knowledge of the former. As a whole, 
the book is curiously unequal, the first two sections being much better than 
the third, which contains far more detail than is required, or is likely to be 
attained, by the class of student for whom the book is intended. 

Misprints are rather numerous, while the errata slip which is inserted at 
the beginning of the first part refers to the section on Crystallography. 

A. S. 


Forests, Woods, and Trees in Relation to Hygiene. By Augustine Henry, 
M.A., F.L.S. [Pp. xii + 314 with 28 photographic illustrations, 21 
maps and plans, and i other figure in the text.] (London : Constable 
& Co., 1919. Price 18s. net.) 

A LESS ambiguous title for this book would have been " The Afforestation 
of Water-catchment Areas," for it is this subject that forms the writer's 
main theme and occupies about three-quarters of the text. 

It is the introductory chapters which are more especially concerned 
with the hygienic influences of forests, and these embrace an interesting 
account of the afforestation of pit mounds, in which due credit is given 
to the admirable work of the Midland Reafforesting Association, and a 
rather too brief summary of the influence of forests on climate. 

Prof. Henry emphasises the importance of trees in affording shelter 
from cold wet winds which reduce the vitality of plants and animals alike. 
Quite rightly, too, the author lays stress on the psychical influence of trees, 
an aspect too frequently lost sight of in estimating the value of different 
environments in relation to health. The beneficial effect of trees in towns 
is probably due much more to this cause than to either their shelter effect 
or their action as a dust screen. 

In reference to the chief subject of these pages, the author has amassed 
a large amount of statistical and other data, respecting the water-catch- 
ment areas of Great Britain, which is set forth in detail. These gathering- 
grounds number 266 and represent a total area of over 928,000 acres, of which 
rather less than a fifth is actually owned by the towns concerned or public 
companies. The universal acquisition, by the respective authorities, of 
the entire catchment ground is strongly urged as a necessary preliminary 
to the abolition of all habitations from such areas and their afforestation. 

A number of arguments are brought forward in support of this pohcy, 
as, for example, the absence of pathogenic bacteria from woodland soils, 
the reduced chances of pollution by flood water, and the diminution of 
silting up of the reservoirs. It is also pointed out that the rainfall over 
woodlands is higher than that over open country. In this connection, 
however, it must be noted that the local augmenting effect of forest on 
precipitation diminishes with the altitude, and, as Prof. Henry admits, only 
the lower parts of the gathering-grounds could be profitably planted up. 

The area available for afforestation is estimated at from 10 per cent, to 
70 per cent. , so that a combination of forestry and grazing would in most 
cases be necessitated. 



With regard to pollution, the forest litter and humus would doubtless 
serve as a filter for the flood water from the higher ground, but with 30- 
90 per cent, of the latter devoted to grazing we fail to see how the presence 
of the woodland belt would in any way mitigate the not infrequent pollution 
to which the author refers, viz. the presence of the dead bodies of sheep 
in the streams feeding the reservoirs. With respect to the financial aspect, 
very little data is given, but from such as is available it would appear that 
the pre-war cost of planting was from £B>-£i2 per acre, figures which would 
need to be more than doubled at the present day. The accumulated debt 
on this expenditure and the capitalised value of the lost grazing rentals would 
represent a considerable sum, and even assuming that the present high 
prices of timber are maintained, it is open to doubt whether Scots pine 
would show a cash profit, though Douglas fir might well do so, but its 
growth would be restricted to sheltered spots. 

The author's statement that " there is one means by which water-catch- 
ment areas can be effectually guarded against pollution and at the same 
time be put to a profitable use, and that is afiorestation," may then perhaps 
be regarded as rather optimistic. 

But the argument for such afforestation rests on the general soundness 
of the policy and cannot be gauged entirely in terms of the cash return. 
A national reserve of home-grown timber is undoubtedly necessary, and its 
location here, as the author shows, would bring with it advantages the actual 
monetary value of which it is not easy to estimate. E. J. S. 

The Fungal Diseases of the Common Larch. By W. E. Hiley, M.A. [Pp. 
xi-f 204 with 73 plates and diagrams.] (Oxford : at the Clarendon 
Press, 1919. Price 12s. 6d. net.) 

This work, emanating from the Oxford School of Forestry, deals historically 
and critically with all the undoubted fungal diseases of the common larch, 
and incorporates the results of investigations, on some of the commoner of 
these diseases, undertaken by the author, at the instigation of Sir William 
Schlich, and with the assistance of grants from the Development Com- 
missioners and the Interim Forestry Authority. 

The introduction deals with the structure of the normal plant; the 
larger portion of the book is concerned with the individual diseases, their 
symptoms, the method of attack of the causative fungus, and also with 
the special means of preventive action. 

Reasons are given for the view that large larch-cankers are caused by 
infection passing to the main trunk from a dead branch on which the canker 
fungus is growing saprophytically, and it is suggested that dead branches 
and branches that are likely to die should be cut off from young trees. Only 
experience can show whether this is an economical proceeding. 

In view of the prevalent idea that calcareous soils increase the liability 
to canker, one is disappointed at finding no mention of this theory, especially 
as the author advocates growing larch mixed with beech. 

The experiments on pp. no and in do not seem to prove that bacteria 
are responsible for the suppression of the heart-rot fungus in unsterilised 
soil cultures, and it is difficult to understand the ground on which it is 
stated that soils f. and g. both arable (see pp. 109 and in) contain no 
organised remains. 

The views, here expressed, that the heart-rot fungus {Fames annosus) 
and the honey fungus are unable to enter uninjured roots seems well 
founded, and the discussion as to methods of treatment helpful. In the 
case of the honey fungus, however, treating stumps with sulphuric acid 
seems rather drastic, and some evidence of the efficacy, in actual practice, 
of infecting healthy stumps with harmless fungi would have been welcome. 


Leaf diseases are regarded as considerably less harmful than is the case 
in other conifers because of the deciduous nature of the larch. 

The illustrations are numerous and excellent, and the book is written 
in a clear and interesting manner, but the writer shows a tendency to make 
too facile interpretations. jg ^ Cutting. 

Peach-Growing. By H. P. Gould, Pomologist in Charge of Fruit Investi- 
gations, Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
(Rural Science Series.) [Pp. xxi + 426.] (New York: The Mac- 
millan Company, 19 18. Price $2.00 net.) 

It will come as a surprise to many to learn that the peach is the most im- 
portant of the stone fruits cultivated in the United States, far surpassing 
in its annual yield the plum and cherry, which are the next in order of im- 
portance. Thus in 1909 the value of the peach crop was nearly $29,000,000, 
while the plum and prune crop for the same year was worth little more 
than one-third of this, and the cherry crop only about one-quarter. A large 
proportion of the peach crop is preserved by drying and canning, and it 
is in either the dried or canned condition that most of the American peaches 
that reach this country are brought here. 

The works in the Rural Science Series usually reach a high standard, 
but this work appears particularly well done. After an introductory chapter 
dealing with the history of the peach and its introduction into America, 
the extent of the peach industry throughout the world is dealt with. In 
the third chapter are considered the various factors, environmental and 
economic, which determine the location of peach orchards, and in the next 
seven chapters the aspects of peach growing which are more particularly 
horticultural are discussed in considerable detail. The topics dealt with 
include propagation, planting, fertility of the soil, tillage, pruning, and the 
interplanting of crop plants between the fruit trees. A later chapter deals 
with thinning the fruit. 

The chapter concerned with the control of insect and plant pests is a 
long oije, for the peach is attacked by a large number of both animal and 
plant parasites. Thus the author describes nineteen peach insects and the 
same number of diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. After a considera- 
tion of irrigation, adverse temperatures, the cost of growing peaches and 
peach varieties, the book concludes with two chapters dealing respectively 
with picking and packing the fruit and with transportation, storage and 

From what has been said it will be clear that the ground has been well 
covered, and the book presents the principles and methods of peach-growing 
both comprehensively and successfully. Y/. S. 

Manual oJ American Grape-Growing. By U. P. Hedrik, Horticulturist of 

the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. (The Rural Manuals. ) 
[Pp. xiii -f 458.] (New York : The Macmillan Company, 1919. 
Price $2.50 net.) 
The growing of grapes forms now a very important industry in North 
America, and in some States large tracts of country are occupied by vine- 
yards. As the title indicates, this work is particularly designed for readers 
in America, where the conditions of grape culture are in general very dif- 
ferent from those which obtain in this country. The varieties cultivated 
in North America are for the most part derived from native American 
species of grape, and are grown in vineyards out of doors. The cultivation 
of the European grape under glass is, however, discussed, and the chapters 


on the " European Grape in Eastern America " and on " Grapes under 
Glass " will repay careful perusal by those interested in the cultivation of 
grapes under glass in this country. 

The work deals with the cultivation of the grape in North America in 
all its aspects. After an interesting chapter on the history of the domestica- 
tion of the grape, the environmental factors determining the distribution 
of grape-growing regions are considered. The various horticultural questions 
of propagation, pruning, training and fertilisers are next adequately 
dealt with ; while further chapters are devoted to pests of grape vines, 
marketing, products of the grape and grape-breeding. The volume 
concludes with a long chapter of Ii8 pages devoted to a description of dif- 
ferent varieties of the grape. 

The book thus forms a complete manual of grape-growing in America, 
and constitutes a useful addition to the literature of fruit-growing. 

W. S. 

On the Interpretation o! Phenomena of Phyllotaxis. By A. H. Church 
M.A. [Pp. 57, with i8 figures.] (Oxford: University Press, 1920. 
Price 3s. 6d. net.) 

This work constitutes the sixth number of the Oxford Botanical Memoirs 
edited by Dr. Church. It consists of an exposition of the author's Equi- 
potential Theory of Phyllotaxis, which, as he truly says, " should be capable 
of transference to the theory of the construction of all lateral growths included 
in living organisms under the term ' appendages.' " 

A summary of the theory is made from the sources in which Dr. Church 
has more fully stated them, the points in favour of the theory are placed 
before us, and also the difficulties in the way of its acceptance. A widening 
of the base of its applicability is also attempted in a short review of the 
position and formation of the appendages in the Lower Plants, e.g. the Algae, 
and also by a consideration of certain features in the organisation of some 
of the Foraminifera. Attention to these was first drawn by Van Iterson, 
and the author claims them as falling into line with his general thesis. 

The whole forms a very stimulating presentation of phenomena of basal 
importance in hving organisms, and is a valuable addition to this admirable 

^^"^^' E. M. Cutting. 

Productive Agriculture. By John H. Gehrs, B.S., M.S., Associate Professor 
of Agriculture of the Warrensburg State Normal School, Warrens- 
burg, Mo. [Pp. xii+ 444.] (New York : The Macmillan Company, 

The author has set out to write a book suitable for elementary students 
which shall treat of agriculture from the point of view of production, so 
that special stress is laid on such questions as the use of more prolific 
varieties, the improvement of the soil, the use of pure-bred stock, farm 
management and economical feeding of stock. The contents are divided 
into five sections : farm crops, animal husbandry, soils, horticulture and 
farm management. These questions are dealt with particularly from the 
point of view of the north-central region of the United States. The book 
is thus not specially fitted for use in this country ; nevertheless, the author 
has succeeded in including so much fundamental information into a small 
compass, that the greater part of the book may be read with profit by 
students of any northern temperate region. The absence of any reference 
to barley, except in the preface, will probably be regarded as the most 
serious deficiency from the English point of view. 

The book is well and brightly written ; there is scarcely a superfluous 
word in it. W. S. 



The Evolution of the Dragon. By G. Elliot Smith, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 
[Pp. XX -}- 234 with 26 plates.] (Manchester: at the University 
Press. Price los. 6d. net.) 

The introduction by Dr. W. H. R. Rivers of a new method which increased 
enormously the objectivity of the information which can be elicited from 
primitive people, and its application to Melanesia, established for the first 
time the complexity of the history of culture in the Pacific arKl showed how 
the introduction of a group of customs into an island may be due to small 
bands of conquerors,, sailing about and imposing themselves as a ruling 
class on the people already there. At the same period Prof. Elliot Smith, 
during his residence in Cairo, enjoyed a remarkable opportunity of becoming 
personally acquainted with all the details of the process of mummification 
throughout the history of that strange custom in Egypt, and was able to 
study at first hand the associated funeral customs. 

Subsequently Elliot Smith was able to show that degraded copies of 
the characteristic mastaba tomb of the early dynastic Egypt were widely 
spread round the Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean, and were connected 
with the dolmens and chambered tombs of Western Europe and India. 
The more magnificent royal tombs, the Pyramids, are represented in similar 
forms in Mesopotamia, India, Cambodia, Polynesia, Peru and Mexico. Sub- 
sequent investigations showed that the distribution of these and analogous 
stone monuments was in reality much wider, covering all those districts 
where an ancient civilisation is found. 

Prof. Elliot Smith was then able to show that the remarkable mummies 
made in the Torres Straits reproduced exactly the practices of a definite 
late period, but whereas in Egypt these details had a functional meaning, 
being necessary for the preservation of a lifelike appearance, in the Torres 
Straits they are entirely meaningless, because the accidents which they 
were intended to avoid in Egypt could not occur under the different condi- 
tions in Australasia. An example, somewhat gruesome perhaps, but strik- 
ing, is that in Egypt the embalmers, to restore the shrunken mummy to its 
lifelike form, stuffed it with mud through slits made in definite positions, 
the Torres Straits practitioners cut the slits in the skin in the same places, 
but made no attempt at stuffing. Elliot Smith urged that the great series 
of parallels between the mummies of Ancient Egypt and modern Torres 
Straits — all of which in Egypt had a functional explanation, whereas in the 
East they were useless — was only to be explained by a spread of culture 
across the globe from Egypt to Australia. This case illustrates the char- 
acter of Elliot Smith's argument and is of great importance from the stand- 
point of method. 

A few years ago it was believed by all British and American ethnologists 
that many customs had developed independently to identical form in separ- 
ated regions. This " evolution of culture attributed to the similarity of 
the human mind " was supposed to be analogous to biological evolution. 
We now know that in the evolution of animals very similar forms may 
evolve independently, but it is characteristic of such homeomorphs that, 
although the general effect may be similar, the details always differ in the 
forms of independent origin. In allied animals the details agree, although 
the forms viewed as a whole may be very different. 

Applying this well-established biological principle to culture, we should 
expect to find that widespread customs, were they of multiple origin, would 
vary greatly in detail, whilst presenting a uniform appearance. In actual 
fact we find a diverse appearance built up of detail which is identical from 
Egypt to Mexico. 

In the book under review Elliot Smith shows the absolute identity in 


detail of the customs and beliefs associated with a life-giving elixir all over 
the world, in the Ancient East, in China and India, and in the ancient 
civilisation of Central America, an identity masked by local differences of 
artistic expression. 

The Chinese Dragon, a great synthetic wonder-beast, built up from a 
reptile and a bird, with deer's antlers and spots, holding a pearl, living in 
a rain-cloud and controlling the weather, is shown to have been concocted 
by syncretism, and by misunderstandings of a whole series of beliefs, all of 
which separately can be traced back to Western Asia, where their origin 
can in some part be explained. 

The same dragon with the same artistic form associated with the same 
stories occurs in Central America. 

Thus the occurrence all over the world of a vast series of beliefs and 
customs identical in detail, however much they may appear to differ in 
general effect, implies a spread of culture from an evolutionary centre in the 
Ancient East, undergoing changes and acquiring local characteristics in 
other places and finally distributed practically throughout the world. 

This spread can only be brought about by migrations of men, similar 
to the piratical raids which established Malay kingdoms over the East 
Indies, and it remained only to discover an adequate motive for these voyages 
of discovery. That outburst of exploration from Western Europe which 
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries led to the discovery of America 
and the East Indies, was inspired by a search for spice, for precious stones 
and for gold, as well as by a love for adventure. Mr. W. J. Perry has, «by 
a most ingenious method, shown that the much earlier voyages which spread 
civilisation round the world had the same end. He has shown that through- 
out the continents the old centres of civilisation are on the sites of old gold 
workings or of washings for precious stones. In those cases where evidence 
of ancient mining are missing we find that the colony was on the site of a 
pearl or jade fishery. Primarily these jewels were valued, not for their 
own beauty, but because they were supposed to contain in abundance that 
elixir vitse, without which neither man nor god can live. 

Thus the love of gold and precious stones which originated in Egypt or 
in the Ancient East, and was there founded on their magical uses as carriers 
of fertilit)^ and life, led to their acceptance as currency and provided the 
material basis on which all civilisations have been built up. 

D. M. S. W. 

The Physical Basis of Heredity. By Prof. T. H. Morgan. [Pp. 305, with 
117 figures. Monographs on Experimental Biology.] (Philadelphia 
and London : J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1919. Price I2.50 net.) 

One of the most fascinating fields of modern biological work is undoubtedly 
that dealing with the subjects of heredity, particularly from the cytological 
aspect. Not merely does it possess intrinsic interest, but it is also a branch 
of investigation that has made enormous strides during the last two decades. 
The rediscovery of Mendelism in igoo led to a fresh outburst of experimental 
breeding and genetics. After a few years it became inevitable that investi- 
gators should turn to study the nuclear mechanism for an explanation of the 
phenomena they were obtaining from their breeding experiments. This line 
of inquiry yielded results probably far beyond the expectations of its founders, 
and of the many workers on such problems Professor Morgan and his co- 
investigators stand in a pre-eminent position. The work has gone on at such 
a pace and in such diverse places and directions that it has been impossible 
for the general biologist or student to keep up with it, unless he happens 
to be working along similar lines, and naturally it will be years before the work 
is assimilated into ordinary textbooks. Much of it is of fundamental im- 


portance to our conceptions of the process of heredity, and no person more 
fitted than Professor Morgan could have been found to deal with the subject. 
The zoologists and botanists of the English-speaking world are under a debt 
of gratitude to the author for the successful way in which he has performed 
his task of condensing this mass of material and presenting it in a compre- 
hensive way within reasonable limits. 

The book, as the reader is informed on the cover is intended as " A college 
text for use in courses in genetics presenting the fundamental aspects of 
heredity from the latest developments in the field of biology." Few biologists 
could be found competent to criticise the subject-matter of this volume, and 
for ourselves we are content to express our gratitude for having such a multi- 
tude of facts presented within so small a compass and with such a wealth of 
illustration . On the other hand, however, its very catholicity has necessitated 
a briefness of treatment and terseness of statement that makes it difficult to 
read. For persons like the general reader and the student, who are not 
thoroughly conversant with the complex terminology employed, it is hard 
work to follow the arguments presented. Technical terms are used freely, 
sometimes with inadequate explanation and sometimes with none at all, 
and again when, in the opinion of the reviewer, they are unnecessary since 
they are irrelevant to matter in hand. Again, we find statements of deduc- 
tions put in brief form as if they were obvious truisms, whereas they are only 
obvious to those familiar with the work. It must indeed be difi&cult for the 
specialist to realise the ignorance of the ordinary reader on details of his own 
particular line of work, and we fear that Professor Morgan has not taken this 
factor sufficiently into account in his treatment of the subject. 

On p. 63 about two- thirds of the way down in an annoying printer's error — 
the duplication of a line to the exclusion of another ; and in the second line of 
the table given at the bottom of p. 76 the figures in the end column appear 
to have been reversed. We also note that in the literature list O is placed 
after P and that several recent papers referred to in the text are omitted. 

These are comparatively trivial matters, however, and we wish to empha- 
sise the excellence of this book and its indispensability to all who wish to make 
themselves acquainted with the striking advances that have been made in 
the cytological study of heredity during the past few years. 

C. H. O'D. 

Inbreeding and Outbreeding. Their Genetic and Sociological Significance. 

By E. M. East, Ph.D., and D. E. Jones, Sc.D. [Pp. 285 with 46 
figures. Monographs on Experimental Biology.] (Philadelphia and 
London : J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1919. Price $2.50 net.) 

This volume deals with the question of Inbreeding and Outbreeding mainly 
from the point of view of the horticulturist, although certain examples are 
chosen from the animal kingdom and the general bearing of these interesting 
problems discussed. The last chapter, about 20 pages, treats briefly of certain 
aspects of the matter as it is or may be applied to man, more especially in 
connection with the mixture of races. The book is particularly useful where 
it deals with the application of pure line selection to the breeding of Indian 
corn and the increasing vigour that results from heterosis, subjects in which 
the authors have done a great deal of research. 

When we read such statements as " Galton measured the inheritance of 
groups of individuals to their progenitors and failed [sic] because his method 
could not take into account the true relationship between the germinal 
constitution and the body characters of an individual," we feel that the 
outlook of the work is somewhat limited. Indeed the authors' own attitude 
could almost be summed up in a phrase used in connection with the vari- 
ability in sexual and asexual reproduction, " He is left with only one reasonable 


hypophysis to account for everything, Mendelian segregation and recomhina- 
tion." The book is marred in places by clumsily worded sentences, e.g. 
" There is no question but that animals behave the same as plants in heredity." 
It is, however, a useful work, especially from the point of view of plant 
breeding and in setting forth the experimental results of the subjects it 
handles. C. H. O'D. 

A Laboratory Outline of Embryology, with Special Reference to the Chick 
and the Pig. By Prof. F. R. Lillie and C. R. Moore. [Pp. 66.] 
(Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1919. Price 35 cents.) 
This little book has already proved its value and needs no introduction to 
embryological laboratories. The present is a revised edition giving direc- 
tions and a provisional time-table mapping the work out so as to make it 
cover about sixty hours. It is assured of a continued support. 

C. H. O'D. 

A Laboratory Manual for Elementary Zoology. By L. H. Hyman. [Pp. 
149.] (The University of Chicago Press, 1919. Price $1.50 net.) 

This is a manual for use in the practical classes in elementary zoology in the 
University of Chicago. The course commences with a study of the frog 
in some detail and then passes on to the lower forms, because, the author 
says, this method has been found more successful from the point of view of 
teaching than starting with the lower forms first, and with this we are in 
entire agreement. It contains full instructions and a number of useful 
hints. While expressly intended for the work in Chicago, it is not without 
interest in other colleges where a similar course is carried out. 

C. H. O'D. 

Problems of Fertilisation. By Prof. F. R. Lillie. [Pp. xii -f 278 with 

10 figures.] (Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1919. 

Price $1.75.) 
This little book is, to use the author's own modest phraseology, a discussion 
of the problems of fertilisation, and is a result of his own studies in this field. 
It is a tlioroughly interesting and stimulating piece of reading. The past 
history of the various problems treated is given together with a lucid and criti- 
cal exposition of our present knowledge on them. As the author points out, 
it is not possible to treat of these subjects in an ordinary textbook manner, 
and the book gains much by not attempting to do so. A very just balance 
is held between what may be termed the biological and physicochemical 
explanations that have been put forward, and both are subjected to careful 
examination and criticism. The value of the work is not alone in the actual 
facts and theories with which it deals, but also in the manner in which it leads 
up to the problems awaiting solution. 

It is unnecessary to call attention to the biological importance of the 
phenomenon of fertilisation or to the writer's eminence in this field of work, 
for both are well known. Suffice it to add that this excellent book should 
be in the hands of all biologists who wish to learn the present position of the 
investigations along these lines, and also it should be read by all students for 
the inspiration and suggestions that it contains. . C. H. O'D. 

Lectures on Sex and Heredity. By F. O. Bower, J. Graham Kerr, and 
W. E. Agar. [Pp. vi + 119.] (London: Macmillan & Co., 1919. 
Price 5s. net.) 
This little book contains six lectures delivered by the authors at Glasgow 
University in the years 1917-18. It contains no new facts, but aims 
at a simple and lucid exposition of certain of the aspects of Sex and Here- 


dity. In both plants and animals the origination of sex is carefully traced 
from such forms as Euglena or Copromonas to the highest examples. This 
part of the essays, while merely being a re-presentation of old facts, is skil- 
fully written and is well worth reading. The zoologist will be certain to 
enjoy the section on the growth of pollen grains. The lecture on " Some 
Modifications of the Reproductive Process as Adaptations to Life upon 
Land " embodies Professor Graham Kerr's essay previously printed in his 
volume on Embryology, Pari II, Vertebrates, and need not be commented 
upon here. The section on " Heredity in Man " contains the well-known 
facts about the " Brachydactylous Family," the " Insane Father," and 
the " Pairs of Brothers." This book will prove of value to the student of 
zoology as well as to the layman who would like to read about the origin 
of sex in both plants and animals. J. B. G. 

The Buzzard at Home. By Arthur Brook (" British Birds " Photographic 
Series). [Pp. 15, with 12 plates.] (London: Wither by & Co. Price 
3s. ()d. net.) 

This book is apparently the first of a new series of photographic books to 
be brought out by Messrs. Witherby. The text is much shorter and the 
illustrations fewer than is the case in the beautiful " Home Life " series by 
the same publishers, but like these it is very readable and admirably produced. 

The book is one of a photographic series, and therefore one must assume 
that the photos are the main feature. If the success of the volume is depen- 
dent on these, there can be no doubt as to its achievement. They are excel- 
lent, every one of the dozen. The Buzzard must be considered one of our 
rare birds, and as such, these pictures of the species, male, female, and young, 
will have a strong appeal to all bird-lovers. The nesting sites chosen are 
usually of the most inaccessible kind, and Mr. Brook is to be congratulated 
on having successfully overcome the many difficulties involved. 

The text, to be frank, is disappointing. It is pleasingly written, but it 
adds little to our knowledge of the habits of this interesting bird. The 
securing of photographs is, of course, an interesting hobby, and the resulting 
pictures have their appeal to a large circle of bird- lovers and artists; but 
it seems such a great pity that the collectors of these photographs, after 
they have taken all the trouble of erecting a hide and surmounting in many 
cases extraordinary difficulties (the present is an example), are content 
with this very limited result. There is but a single allusion in the volume 
to the cries and calls of the species. Notes on the behaviour of the young 
are very scanty. There is no attempt at a description of the changes of 
plumage as the birds mature, the rate of growth and so on. The author 
spent a few hours at the hide one day and a few on another, but of course, 
like the vast majority of bird photographers, was there only in fine weather. 
Rain makes good photos impossible, but in many cases it makes the birds 
themselves more interesting. A night was never spent on the spot, yet 
the early morning and the late evening are the most instructive hours at 
the nest. These remarks are, unfortunately, applicable to about 90 per cent, 
of this type of book. That serious observation can be combined with good 
photography, and to great advantage, is shown by such notes as those on 
the Sparrow Hawk by Mr. J. H. Owen, that have from time to time appeared 
in British Birds. The notes are the best of their kind, the photos unsur- 
passed for beauty and technique. It is only in the exceptional cases such as 
this that the bird photographer can be said seriously to further our know- 
ledge of ornithology. 

That there is a large circle of book-lovers who delight in good photographs 
and want nothing more is proved by the fact that there are so many books 
catering to their special taste on the market. To these the present volume 
can be heartily recommended. Wm. Rowan. 


Aquatic Microscopy. Dr. Alfred C. Stokes. Fourth Edition, revised 
and enlarged. [Pp. ix + 324 and 198 illustrations.] (New York : 
John Wiley & Sons, 1918. Price los. 6d. net.) 

This is a delightful book which every biologist will read with pleasure. 
The author aims at providing the young American microscopist with a 
means of identifying and studying the animals he finds in ponds and pools. 
Dr. Stokes pleads guilty to " leaping scientific hedges and trampling on 
scientific classification in a manner that will dismay the learned botanist 
and zoologist," but the reviewer wishes that more beginners' books were 
written in such an interesting manner as Aquatic Microscopy. Inclined 
at times perhaps to be discursive and anecdotical, the author gives a good 
account of the microscope and its parts. He then proceeds to describe 
some of the aquatic plants, which, from his own experience, serve as haunts 
for certain desirable aquatic animals. His account of the classificatory 
differences between desmids and diatoms is rather mixed and obscure. 

Throughout the book we find " Keys to Classes and Genera " of various 
forms : for instance, the author's " Key to Classes and Genera of Aquatic 
Worms " cheerfully groups together Chironomus larva, Chaetonotus, Tur- 
bellaria, and Oligochaeta. After all, to the beginner the Chironomus larva 
is as much a worm as Chsetonotus. On p. 195 we find an example of the 
greatest imperfection in this book : the author figures the larva of 
Chironomus and also the form Chaetonotus ; he describes the figure of 
Chironomus larva as "greatly enlarged " (really x 4 or 5), while no clue is 
given as to the size of the figure of Chaetonotus. We recommend that the 
author rectify this in his new edition. At the end of the volume is a useful 
glossary. Although this book is written for the American student, it will 
assuredly commend itself to English microscopists. The illustrations are 
new and cleverly executed. 

J. B. G. 


An Introduction to Anthropology. A General Survey of the Early History 
of the Human Race. By the Rev. E. O. James, B.Litt. [Pp. iii + 
259] (London : Macmillan & Co. Price 7s. td. net.) 

It has been remarked that the conflict between " Religion and Science," 
that is, between many theologians and many scientists, which charac- 
terised the latter half of the nineteenth century, has been succeeded by a 
singular aloofness and indifference on the part of each group of the erst- 
while protagonists towards the activities of the other. The clergy continue 
their good work in their parishes, and the scientists push forward their re- 
searches in their laboratories ; but neither know much of the doings of the 
other, and both have lost interest in fundamentals. 

Most of the clergy, moreover, have proceeded as though nothing of im- 
portance happened in the nineteenth century. It has merely become the 
fashion quietly to ignore the first chapters of Genesis. This condition of 
indifference is certainly more deleterious than the worst bitterness of the 
old controversies. And hence one turns with interest to a work on general 
anthropology of which the author is a clergyman. And one finds that here 
is an author who at least does not ignore the issues. " The Old Testament," 
he remarks, " begins with the time when man became a herdsman, no 
longer dependent on the chase for his existence. But inasmuch as later 
cultures can only be rightly understood when viewed in the light of that 
which has produced them, civilisation being a product of evolution, the 
theologian as well as the scientist should commence his investigations with 
a survey of prehistoric man." This is refreshing. And, furthermore, Mr. 


James devotes several pages of his long chapter on the " Religion of Primeval 
Man " to a discussion of the relation between the cruder religions and that 
in which he believes. Apart from this, the book has the merit that the 
author displays but little bias, except perhaps in his discussion of mono- 
gamy, and unlike many works on anthropology it is not marred by any 
feverish anxiety to prove a special theory. 

The author therefore has the right frame of mind ; but unfortunately 
his knowledge of the principles of zoology and geology is gravely deficient. 
The introduction deals with the history of the theory of evolution, and 
the six chapters relate respectively to the origin and antiquity of man, the 
culture of primeval man, the manners and customs of primeval man, the 
rehgion of primeval man, the beginning of civilisation, and the distribution 
of races. The work thus covers a wide field, both in social anthropology 
and in physical anthropology and human palaeontology. The author de- 
signed the work for serious students working for a diploma in anthropology, 
and the publishers describe it as a " manual for students." In accuracy of 
information it falls seriously below the standard required by students. The 
social and archaeological sections are superior to those touching upon zoology 
and geology. In the latter subjects the author blunders badly. He does 
not understand zoological terminology, and uses such words as species, 
genus, race, variety, etc., indiscriminately, quite oblivious of the fact that 
these words have definite and well-understood meanings. Tliis may be the 
explanation of the glaring and fundamental misstatement on page 215 that 
it is " the generally accepted view among anthropologists that Pleistocene 
man was specifically one." Very few anthropologists now hold that view. 
In geology, too, he fails to grasp elementary facts and principles. He does 
not seem to understand that the supposed proof of the early Pleistocene date 
of the Galley Hill skeleton is upset by the supposition that it was a burial ; 
and he quietly raises a long-sunken continent (in the Indian Ocean) to facili- 
tate the migrations of human races. This feat is worthy of the Theosophical 
Society. There are numerous lesser mistakes. 

Mr. James is also unable to write grammatical English. He constantly 
writes sentences with the subject in the plural and the verb in the singular, 
and makes other mistakes which a schoolboy should recognise. It is sur- 
prising to meet such plural forms as " Rhinoceri " and " Hippopotamuses " 
(p. 28). Lastly, the carelessness with which the proofs were corrected — or 
left uncorrected — is execrable. 

It is most unfortunate and disappointing that an author who started 
with such good intentions and such admirable candour did not equip 
himself with an adequate preliminary knowledge of zoology, of geology, and 
of the English language. 

A. G. T, 


Dementia Praecox Studies. A Journal of Psychiatry of Adolescence. Pub- 
lished by the Society for the Promotion of the Study of Dementia 
Praecox, 30 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. President 
of the Society, H. C. Stevens, M.D. ; Vice-President, George Mitchell, 
M.D. Edited by Bayard Holmes, M.D. In one volume, with 
photographs, charts, and tables. [Pp. 272.] Price $5. 

There is no disease more painfully interesting than insanit3^ no disease 
is older, and there are Biblical records of it from Babylonian to early Chris- 
tian times. No disease is more transmissible in some of its forms, and no 
disease is more curable in its earlier stages, as statistics prove in regard 
to those who promptly come under treatment. Short of actual death there 
is no disease that throws more consternation and terror into the heart of 


a family than insanity, and no disease is more costly in its treatment or in 
its custodial care. 

The great waste of mental and nervous energy implied by its incidence 
and the loss of productive power as well as the enormous expense in its main- 
tenance in this and other countries have set teachers of the young, social 
economists, and other thinkers, to sound notes of warning as to its prevalence, 
and our own press has recently urged the establishment of special institu- 
tions for its study and the provision of modern means to cure it in its early 
stages. The fact that there are nearly 130,000 certified insane persons in 
this country and over 220,000 in the United States of America, of whom 
about one-fifth are young people between the ages of twenty and twenty-five 
years — and this proportion appears to be increasing — has created consider- 
able anxiety and alarm. In consequence a Society for the special study of 
this form of mental disorder has been started in America, and Dementia 
Praecox, the distinctive term applied to this type, has of late received very 
definite recognition and attention, particularly as it is a variety that tends 
to become incurable and chronic, unless diagnosed in its earliest stages and 
before the symptoms have become confirmed. 

It is becoming realised more and more that health rather than material 
wealth is a people's greatest asset, as upon its health, its sanity, and its 
vigour depend its progress, its prosperity, and its destiny. Indeed, health 
and not wealth is the basis of a people's ambitions, aspirations, and achieve- 

Griesinger knew of this disease, and Esquirol described it as "acquired 
imbecility," but it was known as far back as 1672 in this country, when 
Willis, the anatomist, described its symptoms, and later, in 1772, Sydenham 
referred to cases presenting definitely diagnostic features of dementia 
praecox. Nevertheless it was not known to be a recognised entity until 
Kraepelin gave it the name by which it is now most commonly known. The 
Medico-Psychological Association in its nomenclature, which is accepted 
throughout the mental hospitals of Great Britain, refers to it as Primary 
Dementia, and this term accords better with the onset of the disease, which 
is a dementia originating and beginning as a first and characteristic illness 
rather than a dementia occurring in young persons as implied in dementia 
praecox, for no age is immune to its incidence. Certain symptoms, such as 
reserve, silence, and depression, occurring in young people and foreshadowing 
dementia praecox have doubtless been regarded as adolescent melancholia, 
and certain other symptoms of this disease, such as catatonic stupor and 
mutism, have been included in the description of catalepsy, whilst the 
impulsive excitement and automatic violence occasionally met with in these 
cases have caused the disease to be described as mania, and so it has been 
mistaken frequently for other conditions, each with a different prognosis. 

Thus it is a comprehensive disease. It is believed that not less than 
one-fifth of all the admissions into American mental hospitals suffers from 
it. We think that the proportion of one in ten would more accurately 
represent its general incidence in this country ; and yet one-third of the 
youth of this country certified as insane between twenty and thirty years of 
age suffers from it ; and one in every 100 families has a sufferer from it also. 
Dementia praecox is thus seen to be a most crippling disease, and one of 
the first importance. Although the clinical term applied to the disease indi- 
cates no etiological or pathological factor, it is nevertheless ascertained to be 
distinctly inherited, an ancestry of insanity, alcoholism, nervous diseases, 
or these combined being found to occur in a large proportion of the cases 
investigated. The Society formed in America for this purpose has been 
impressed by the fact that 15,000 youths suffer from it annually, and it has 
therefore endeavoured to encompass three objects : (i) to make a diagnosis 
possible before mental deterioration appears, which is the only chance of 


recovery ; (2) to make the treatment for this reason effective ; and (3) to 
make prevention of the disease possible. / 

Problems of the Mind are always alluring, but they are also elusive. 
We have had them explained to us in a strange and weird vocabulary from 
Vienna. The emotions are to-day " ab-reacted," they may become " sub- 
limated " or "converted," and the "affect" is "suppressed" or disso- 
ciated. A mysterious endo-psychic censor exercises a constant domination, 
even during sleep, over the thoughts and emotions, which are sometimes 
expelled as by a " cathartic." Our mental processes are said to be so in- 
timately connected with the reproductive system that an invariable corre- 
lation is believed to exist between sex disturbances and mental disorders, 
a view which is certainly not within the experience of most British observers. 
It is maintained by this same group of continental workers and those who 
support them in this country that even dementia prsecox is due to inci- 
dents which have been actively forgotten by repression after conflict, and 
that these memories dominate the unconscious mind and cause a dissocia- 
tion of the normal " complexes " — a complex being a group of ideas with 
its emotional tone. The strong desire to realise the natural physiological 
relation between the mind and the body has been the reason for collecting 
and publishing the material incorporated in this volume. The Editor 
points out that in the 400 mental hospitals of the United States, dementia 
praecox implies an annual expenditure of ;^5, 000,000, that each year con- 
tributes a total of 20,000 crippled youths permanently damaged, and that 
their total number in mental hospitals or asylums is approximately 130,000, 
each patient being maintained for an average period of fifteen years after 
his or her admission. The present volume is the first outcome of this serious 
effort to study one form of mental disease with thoroughness, and prob- 
ably with one exception — viz. our own study of cancer as an Imperial in- 
vestigation — the work of this society stands alone, and the volume presented 
is unique. 

Dementia praecox may now claim to be a mental disease responding to 
a definite clinical picture. It attacks youths, broadly speaking, between 
the ages of fifteen and thirty years, and these emerge from families whose 
members belong to all grades of society and who would appear to be other- 
wise mentally well-endowed. Its characteristic mental symptom is " un- 
emotionalism," and the group is described as a silent armj^ of insane ado- 
lescents filing into homes which harbour the hopeless, all the boys and 
girls passing from apparent mental health into confirmed mental decay. 

The volume under review is a faithful record of work done in the chemi- 
cal, physiological, and psychometric laboratory as well as at the bedside 
and in the wider fields of morphology and biology ; in fact every means of 
investigation which can throw any light upon the nature of the disease 
has been employed, not only with the object of relieving the sufferer, but 
also in the hope of kindling an interest in others and encouraging social 
workers, scientific explorers in other branches, and inquirers into human 
welfare also to help and to contribute to the relief of this class, which is 
believed to swell the list of juvenile suicides, of young delinquents, of much 
of the nervous breakdown among young people as well as of much mal- 
adjustment and human wastage. 

It has been already foreshadowed and may now be stated definitely that 
there are two opposite views as to the cause of dementia praecox. One school 
holds that all abnormal mental states and disturbed mental conditions are 
due to some disturbances of the subconscious complexes, that there has 
been a repression of the natural tendencies and the instincts, giving rise 
to a conflict of ideas on a group of ideas with their emotions, which has 
caused a dissociation of the personality resulting in the mental breakdown. 
The opposing school regards this disturbance as primarily caused by some 


organic or structural change within the organ of the mind, viz. the cerebral 
cortex. The war has tended to the former view and to favour the psycho- 
genic origin of mental disorders, the horrible sights, for instance, and the 
awful sounds and the terrifying personal experiences having proved too 
great a mental stress ; and the effort to disregard personal danger, to con- 
trol the will and to neglect and to suppress the natural tendency to self- 
preservation being eventually outbalanced. Those who take this view assert 
that mental states such as anxiety and worry are the cause of epilepsy, of 
recurrent insanity as well as the condition of dementia praecox, but the 
editors of this Journal do not accept the psycho-genetic origin of mental 
diseases. They hold strongly to the belief that diseases of the mind are 
primarily the result of organic disease of the body, and their society has 
undertaken to support this view by propaganda and the publication of 
research work embodied in a number of scientific papers which all tend 
to show that dementia prsecox is based upon some organic changes in the 
nervous tissue. 

The Editor, Dr. Bayard Holmes, who is the Director of the Psycho- 
pathological Research Laboratory in the Cook County Hospital, is the chief 
contributor. He asserts that dementia prsecox is responsible for 25 per 
cent, of the total admissions into mental hospitals in America, and for 60 
per cent, of the total under care, that there is one case in every fifty families, 
and that many adolescent prisoners in reformatories and penitentiaries suffer 
from it ; also that many vicious, erratic persons and prostitutes are similarly 

Dr. Holmes considers the diagnosis may be made from the " mummy " 
attitude, cyanotic cold hands, dilated veins in the upper eyelids and behind 
the ears, that in these cases adrenalin injected intravenously does not cause 
a rise of blood-pressure, that the tongue may be increased in size as also 
the thyroid, that there is a rise of pressure in the cerebro-spinal fluid to 
150-300 (from 60-125 normal) millimetres of water, that the automatic 
excitability shown in association with the spasmo-philic tendency are, with 
the mental inertia, the mutism, mannerisms and the intellectual decline, 
pathognomonic symptoms. He agrees as to its hereditary origin, and he 
points out there is intestinal stasis especially near the ca^cum, for which 
removal of the appendix and intestinal lavage have effected definite relief. 
There is no mention made by the Editor of a very important chemical 
analysis of the brain in cases of dementia praecox made by the late W. 
Koch. Compared with the normal brain there is, according to this observer, 
a condition of marked metabolic deficiency in this disease which is ex- 
pressed in a definite variation in the neutral sulphur fraction, i.e., as sulphur 
in non-colloidal water-soluble combinations not precipitated by barium 
chloride direct. Special mention is made of two other papers contributed 
by Laura Forster and M. Kojima, working in the Clay bury Laboratory and 
based upon some cases among others under the reviewer's care clinically. 
These authors have both shown that the ovaries and the testes in cases of 
dementia praecox suffered from parenchymatous degeneration, but whether 
primary or secondary is uncertain ; the possibility is that their physiological 
insufficiency reacted upon a nervous system already prone to decay. 

J. Retinger, employing the method of Abderhalden, which is based upon 
the discovery of specific defensive ferments in the body ; e.g. when foreign 
proteins are introduced into the body, they cause the development of 
ferments which destroy them. These ferments can be identified by chemical 
tests ; and it is argued similarlj'^, by analogy, that altered functions may 
also cause the appearance of defensive ferments whose presence can be 
ascertained by chemical research. In this way a katabolism of the cerebral 
cortex and of the sex and other glands has given rise to the appearance of 
defensive ferments within the body. 


A joint paper by S. C. Fuller and R. M. Chambers insists that a helpful 
clinico-diagnostic test of dropping adrenalin into the eye and causing 
mydriasis enables a distinction to be made between dementia prsecox and 
other forms of insanity, notably from manic depressive insanity. 

G. B. Hassin endeavours to correlate physical and mental states, which 
is in opposition to the teaching of Brodmann, the anatomist. 

C. T. La Moure states that a recovery of 2 per cent, occurs in this disease, 
but Holmes gives the proportion as 10 per cent., which we venture to submit 
is too sanguine a calculation. La Moure points out that most cases of 
dementia prsecox come from the towns and not from rural districts, and 
that the average duration in hospital is about sixteen years. Mental tests 
upon the Rossolimo formula of testing nine central mental faculties, and 
carried out by H. C. Stevens, show the Will-power to be deficient and 
that there is an increased suggestibility, a diminished constructiveness, and 
a weakened power of observation in all cases of this disease. J. R. Ernst 
suggests Appendicostomy and "colonic" irrigation as a successful surgical 
treatment, and B. Holmes agrees, but amplifies the treatment by suggesting 
normal saline intravenously and glucose also, as well as enemata and baths 
to aid elimination. He also suggests calcium lactate in gr. x doses. 
He asserts that cases of the stuporose kind recover completely after 
repeated lumbar punctures, because it relieves the increased pressure of 
the cerebro-spinal fluid ; also the venous engorgement and lumbar puncture 
helps to re-establish the normal arterial circulation. The treatment men- 
tioned is further supplemented by personal attention to industrial training, 
so as to kindle an interest and thus neutralise the tendency to mental stag- 
nation and chronicity. There are many valuable suggestions conveyed in 
the papers collected in the studies. The volume deserves to be read by 
all who are interested in scientific medicine and to be studied by those 
whose duty it is to care for and relieve this most hopeless and depressing 
illness that can afflict the youth and the adolescent. 

Robert Armstrong-Jones. 

The Physiology of Muscular Exercise. By F. A. Bainbridge, M.A., M.D., 
D.Sc, F.R.C.P., F.R.S., Professor of Physiology, University of London. 
[Pp. 215, with 22 diagrams.] (London : Longmans, Green & Co. Price 
los. 6d. net.) 

Prof. Bainbridge's Physiology of Muscular Exercise is a well-balanced 
account of the adaptations of the animal body to increased muscular activity. 

It deals with the muscles themselves as well as with the associated and 
co-ordinated circulatory, and respiratory, changes which accompany the 
inception, and continuance, of exercise, and follow the return of the organism 
to the state of rest. 

The twelve chapters, each of which is concisely and clearly summarised, 
are followed by an extensive bibliography. 

The book will be attractive to clinicians, and to athletes, who are inter- 
ested in the physiology of exercise, and may be cordially recommended to 
such as a clear exposition of the author's views on the subject. 

L. S. 

Food Poisoning and Food Infections. By William G. Savage, B.Sc, 
M.D., D.P.H. Cambridge Public Health Series. [Pp. viii -|- 247.] 
(Cambridge : University Press. Price 155. net.) 

That food may be the vehicle of poisoning and infection is very well known, 
but there is, even amongst medical men, much misconception of the real 


causes of diseases due to food. Too frequently the investigation of out- 
breaks is not carried beyond the identification of the offending article of 
food. This is unfortunate. It is only upon the foundation of a mass of 
exact evidence as to the actual toxic agents concerned that sound eco- 
nomical methods of prevention of contamination can be built. Dr. W. G. 
Savage contributes to the Cambridge Public Health Series a monograph 
on Food Poisoning and Food Infections which is an authoritative treatment 
of this subject, based upon a critical analysis of about 112 outbreaks in 
this country investigated by the author, and supplemented by the reports 
of some Continental workers. 

Food poisoning is largely bacterial in origin. Dr. Savage finds that the 
bacteria responsible are almost exclusively of the Gaertner group, though 
an exception is found in B. Botulinus, the organism of Botulism. The author 
examines the popular belief that poisoning is due to putrefactive changes 
in food, but finds no clear evidence to incriminate either the degradation 
products of protein or the specific toxins of the putrefactive bacteria them- 
selves. Whereas tainted food is possibly quite justifiably suspect, the cause 
of its harmfulness has not yet been put upon a scientific basis. The popular 
phrase " ptomaine poisoning " is grossly misleading. 

The responsibilities of public health administration are emphasised 
in chapters dealing with food preservatives, with sources of contamination 
— both chemical and bacterial — and with methods of investigating outbreaks. 
Food as a means of transmitting infectious diseases is considered, whilst 
anaphylaxis is suggested as an explanation of food idiosyncrasy. 

The work is written in an attractive way and can be recommended as 
a clear authoritative guide to this important subject. 

R. K. C. 



Bacteriology and Mycology of Foods. By Fred Wilbur Tanner, M.S., 
Ph.D., Associate in Bacteriology, University of Illinois. [Pp. vi + 
592.] (New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London : Chapman & Hall, 
1919. Price 27s. 6d. net.) 

This work contains a great deal of information useful to those who have 
to do with the scientific investigation of food problems, and it is undoubtedly 
a valuable work, but it should be made clear at the outset that there is a 
great deal more in it about bacteriology than about food. The first ten 
chapters deal very largely with bacteriological technique, some of the sub- 
ject-matter being very well presented. The last chapter, the fifteenth, deals 
with epidemics. Out of the whole of the book there are thus only four 
chapters actually concerned with the bacteriology of food, and these four 
chapters occupy less than one-third of the whole book. Milk is fairly ade- 
quately dealt with, and between twenty and thirty pages are devoted to 
eggs. Out of this book of 592 pages, however, less than five pages are devoted 
directly to meat and meat products, although there are, of course, inci- 
dental references to meat elsewhere in the book. Information on the 
bacteriology and mycology of plant products is confined to the chapter on 
food preservation in general. 

The book will thus be useful to those who have to undertake the exam- 
ination of food from the bacteriological or mycological point of view. The 
chief criticism to be levelled at the book is in regard to its title, which appears 
to be too comprehensive. As it stands, workers on meat, fish, fruit, and 
vegetables are likely to be disappointed with the contents. 

W. S. 


Food, its Composition and Preparation. A Textbook for Classes in House- 
hold Science. By Mary T. Dowd and Jean D. Jameson, Teachers 
of Household Science, Washington Irving High School, New York City. 
[Pp. viii+ 173.] (New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London : Chap- 
man & Hall, 1918. Price 65. net.) 

It is stated by the authors in the preface to this book that it is designed to 
supplement laboratory work and to give students a clearer conception of 
the relation between the cost of foods and their nutritive value. It is, 
however, rather difficult to find evidence in the text of the second of these 
stated aims of the authors, for what is said on the question of cost of foods 
does not account for i per cent, of the book. 

The title of the book would indicate that two subjects are dealt with : 
the composition of food and the preparation of food. As regards com- 
position of food there is a fair amount of information of the sort exemplified 
by the following quotation (p. 85) : " Butter contains 84 per cent, of 
fat, about 12 per cent, to 13 per cent, of water, a little curd, and nearly 2 
per cent, of salt." The following quotation is still more typical (p. 124) : 
" Lobster is highly prized for its sweet flavor which is due to the large 
amount of glycogen that it contains. It is very expensive, as about 50 per 
cent, of it is refuse, and is considered indigestible mainly on account of the 
coarseness and density of its fibres." 

As regards preparation of food, it is definitely stated in the preface that 
no recipes are given, which means that details in reference to the prepara- 
tion of food for the table are purposely omitted. This is to be regretted, 
as the information that is given on the preparation of food is rather general 
in character, as, for example (p. 95) : " Cheese is made from the curd of 
milk which undergoes processes of ' ripening,' coagulating, removing whey, , 
salting and pressing." 

The accuracy and depth of some of the pieces of scientific information 
presented in this work may be judged from the following citations. " There 
is very little difference chemically between sugar made from the sugar cane 
and that made from the sugar beet " (p. 15) ; " Starch is formed in all 
plants " (p. 18) ; " Hot water at first merely causes the starch grains to 
swell, thereby stretching the cellulose covering until so thin that the water 
will pass through " (p. 20) ; " It is desirable that the cell walls of the starch 
grains be softened . . ." (p. 29). 

The two following statements do not appear completely consistent with 
one another : "In the light of the latest scientific investigations there is no 
difference in the nutritive value of boiled and unboiled milk " (p. 93) ; " Such 
processes as canning, drying, boiling (in some cases, as for example milk), 
as well as long keeping and too great refining diminish the vitamines " (p. 
128). And again compare : " Egg yolk also contains a number of different 
proteins, including a large percentage of vitellin and lecithin . . ." (p. 97) 
with " In the roe is found lecithin which is a phosphorized fat " (p. 122). 

It is difficult to understand why the authors presume a difference be- 
tween refrigeration and freezing. Apparently by the former they mean 
coohng to a temperature just above the freezing-point, the process known 
in the meat industry as " chilling." In another place a distinction is 
drawn between cold storage and freezing as methods of food preservation. 
Presumably frozen mutton is not to be regarded as held in cold 

In many places the language might be improved. " It may be soaked 
over night and baked the same as the navy bean " would stand some modi- 
fication, nor can one approve of " what is commonly known as vegetables 
are the plant products that have a very high water content." On p. 150 
we have the inevitable " back of " ; " Back of each of these natural food 
choices is a principle." 



One wishes that the authors had decided to write a book actually deal- 
ing with the preparation of food and had left the scientific treatment of 
the principles of the study of food to the physiologist and biochemist. 

W. S. 

Food Supplies in Peace and War. By Sir R. Henry Rew, K.C.B. 
[Pp. vi + 183.] (London : Longmans, Green & Co., 1920. Price 
6s. 6d. net.) 

This little book gives an interesting and concise account of the principles 
which govern the food supply of nations, mainly illustrated in the light of the 
experiences during the recent World War. It is to be hoped that these 
pages will be read even more widely by the man in the street than by political 
economists, for it is particularly the former who will derive the maximum 
benefit from the study. 

Sir Henry Rew is firm in his opinion that British agriculture before the 
war stood in no need of apology ; unfortunately, the prevalent view was that 
farming in Great Britain was decadent, and only a comparatively few experts 
shared the author's opinion that the British farmer was more skilful and 
successful than the foreign farmer, with whom he was sometimes unfavourably 
compared. The public should be taught such facts, and by reading this 
volume they will learn to appreciate the magnificent response which the 
farmers of this country made to the call for increased production. 

The whole evolution of the system of Government food control, from its 
simple beginnings to the final complex machine governing production, dis- 
tribution, sales, and rationing, is clearly and simply described. 

Those who have compared the efficiency of the rationing systems adopted 
by the various European nations will realise the truth of the author's state- 
ment that the compulsory rationing of food in this country was accomplished 
without serious difficulty owing largely to the good sense and public spirit 
displayed by the people generally. 

From a scientific point of view, many parts of the book are of interest. 
The fallacy of the assumption that if a supply of wheat is assured all will be 
well is pointed out, and it is shown that the experience of the Central Empires 
has taught us that comparatively small deficiencies, such as shortage of 
dairy products, may seriously aft'ect the health and morale of a nation. 

The need for further research on these questions is obvious, and scientists 
will welcome another voice helping to sound a warning against the neglect 
of scientific investigations by the State. 

J. C. D. 

Animal Foodstuffs. Their Production and Consumption, with Special Refer- 
ence to the British Empire. By E. W. Shanahan, M.A., D.Sc. 
iPp. viii + 331.] (London: George Routledge & Sons, 1920. Price 
los. 6d. net.) 

This volume represents a valuable addition to the series of monographs by 
writers connected with the London School of Economics and Political Science, 
and is a skilful and very extensive analysis of an important subject. Apart 
from a short introduction and historical survey, the book is divided into 
three parts, which deal with production, consumption, and production and 
consumption within the British Empire. A great deal of labour has ben spent 
in comjiiling the mass of data which the author presents, and he is to be 
congratulated on having, by means of a careful classification of his material, 
produced a readable work on a statistical question. 

Naturally, it is mainly from the statistical aspect that the subject is 
viewed, but the book will be a storehouse of information for many who are 


interested from other points of view. The author's review of the general 
economic condition leads him to believe that the comparative lack of un- 
developed fertile regions, the increase in white meat-eating population, and 
the general tendency for the consumption of meat per head to rise, will lead 
to there being a shortage of animal foodstuffs and a rise in their cost in the 
near future. He points out, however, that this shortage may be met in part 
by an increased consumption of fish and dairy produce, and that it may be 
followed within a decade by a period of comparative abundance, provided 
favourable conditions present themselves. Turning to the conditions within 
the British Empire, he shows that the deficiency tends to be even more 
marked than when the world generally is considered, and that it can only 
be remedied by a great increase in the labour and capital devoted to agri- 
cultural production. Otherwise, we will inevitably become increasingly 
dependent on foreign sources. 

This monograph is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of a most 
important subject. 

J. C. D. 

Telephonic Transmission, Theoretical and Applied. By J. G. Hill, Assis- 
tant Staff Engineer, General Post Office, London. [Pp. xvi -f- 398, 
with 196 diagrams and illustrations.] (London : Longmans, Green & 
Co., 1920. Price 21s. net.) 

The erection of a telephone circuit between any two places at the present 
day resolves itself into much more than the mere provision of a pair of 
connecting wires between the two instruments : it requires extensive pre- 
liminary calculations to determine not only the sizes of wire and the form 
of the circuit, but also to predetermine its speaking qualities. 

This book by Mr. J. G Hill, Assistant Staff Engineer, General Post Office, 
London, treats of such design, not merely from the purely theoretical stand- 
point of the propagation of the telephonic currents along the lines, but also 
from the practical point of view which involves considerations of cost and 
economy, and of the elements of standardisation which are so essential in a 
large system, but which necessarily often introduce modifications into the 
theoretically best solution of any given problem. The book therefore differs 
considerably from others dealing with the theory of such transmission, and 
its arrangement is consequently somewhat unusual. 

For instance, the author first deals with the case of direct current trans- 
mission along an infinite line, and it is not until Chapter V that the essential 
features of telephonic transmission — depending as it does upon the use of 
alternating currents of many frequencies— are introduced. 

The author has endeavoured to dispense as far as possible with the use 
of " higher mathematics " in the treatment of his subject, and thus to over- 
come some of the mysteries of differential equations and similar functions, 
and to substitute in their place a simpler treatment. This treatment, together 
with the more classical method of developing the transmission formulae, the 
author has relegated to appendices — an arrangement which, in the reviewer's 
opinion, does not tend to enhance the clarity of the book, since one at least 
of these appendices must be read in its place in the opening paragraphs of 
Chapter II in order to obtain a connected account of the subject. 

In Chapters VI to IX the formulas particularly applicable to telephone 
lines are developed in detail, and the method of calculating the various trans- 
mission constants of such lines is given, while in Chapter IX some fifty-five 
pages are devoted to the problems of loaded telephone lines particularly 
with reference to British Post Office practice. Chapters X and XI cover 
very important ground in describing various methods of measurement of 
the constants of telephone lines, and the uses of Standard Cable in such 


measurements. As regards the measuring apparatus described, it is perhaps 
a pity that so little attention is given to the triode valve in this connection. 
The description of these valves is left to the last chapter of the book, and 
there their many applications in the laboratory and test-room are barely 
touched upon. 

From the point of view of the practical engineer. Chapter XII is perhaps 
the most important one in the whole book, as there the effect of " cost 
problems " upon the construction of telephone lines is treated extensively. 
Apart from its other good points, this chapter alone would make the book 

The development of a satisfactory telephone repeater has long taxed the 
ingenuity of telephone engineers, and the modern development of the triode 
valve bids fair to provide a satisfactory solution. This aspect of the subject 
of telephonic transmission is dealt with in the last chapter, but here the 
author seems to be treading on less familiar ground. For instance, the 
statement at the foot of p. 345 would rather imply that any negative voltage 
greater than three or four volts could be used on the grid of a triode amplifier 
for telephone work. With a large negative voltage, however, it would seem 
that the repeater could scarcely be distorionless. It would also be interesting 
to know the author's authority for the statement on p. 356, that the " ther- 
mionic relay does not transmit such low frequency signals [17 periods per 
second]." It is usually understood that a triode will amplify currents of 
any frequency from zero upwards. 

The diagrams throughout the book are clear, and a number of useful 
half-tone plates are also included, while the general appearance of the book 
is good, although the formulae would look better if they had been printed 
throughout in a uniform fount of type. The volume is the first of a series 
of similar handbooks which are in course of preparation, and if the whole 
of the series maintains the standard set by this one, it will indeed be a 
valuable one. 

Philip R. Coursey. 

The Foundations of Music. By H. J. Watt, D.Phil. [Pp. xvi-f- 239, with 
10 illustrations.] (Cambridge : at the University Press, 19 19. Price 
i8s. net.) 

In this book the author's treatment is fullest when dealing with concords. 
Thus, octaves, fifths, consecutive fifths and their prohibition, common 
chords, etc., occupy over half the entire work. 

In discussing any controversial matters the various authorities on the 
subject, ancient and modern, from Aristotle to Tschaikovsky, are carefully 
cited. Although no entire solution is propounded for some of the age-long 
problems here surveyed, the facts of the case are marshalled with care and 
fullness and accordingly a noteworthy step is taken towards grappling with 
their difficulties. 

Near the beginning of the book occurs a somewhat striking feature. 
This is what the author terms his " volumic " theory of tone. Thus we 
find the following passages. 

P. 6 : " Volume is properly used to distinguish that difference between 
tones of different pitch that makes the low tone great, massive, all-per- 
vasive, and the high tone small, thin, and light." 

P. 8 : " The attributes of tones thus far enumerated are : quality, 
intensity, volume and pitch. The relations between these four are an im- 
portant problem." 

P. 9 : " We may assume that pitch holds a central position in volume. 
And, as pitch is ordinal, while volume suggests a volume of parts or 
particles, we may go on to assume that pitch is constituted by a specially 


prominent or noticeable part of the volume of sound that makes up a 

On p. 10 occurs fig. i, which represents by a series of horizontal lines 
the volumes of the tones in an ascending series. The left end of each line 
is called the lower end of volume, the right end the upper end of volume. 
In all the lines the right or upper ends are perpendicularly over one another. 
The long lines representing the large volumes (or lower tones) are below and 
the shorter lines representing the smaller volumes (or higher tones) are 
above in order. Each line has a large dot (or pitch point) at its middle point 
to indicate the pitch of the tone in question. 

If, on the above principle, a diagram is made for tones an octave apart, 
it is pointed out that the lower end of the line for the volume of one tone 
lies just above the pitch point of the tone an octave below. 

In this way it is sought to explain the degree of consonance of various 

Taken in a fanciful or metaphorical sense these notions may prove attrac- 
tive and suggestive to readers of a certain type, and so possibly serve the 
chief end for which they were advanced. But it cannot be admitted that 
this volumic theory of tone, taken literally as stated, shows any corre- 
spondence with the crucial facts of the case, with which indeed it is in direct 
conflict. Hence, whatever merit this theory may possess on the imagina- 
tive side of the question, it can scarcely be said to form any contribution 
to the science of music. 

The book closes with three chapters on outlines of instruction, the objec- 
tivity of beauty and aesthetics as a pure science. At the end, in addition to 
the usual indices of subjects and authors, there is a list of the eighty-three 
works cited. r 

E. H. B. 


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FHILOSOFHT. By Hugh Elliot. 

The most interesting event of the last six months, from the 
purely personal point of view, is the centenary of Herbert 
Spencer, who was born at Derby on April 27, 1820. Of all 
philosophers who have ever lived, he is perhaps the one who 
has most appealed to men of science : and perhaps also the 
one who has least appealed to the professional metaphysician. 
The latter class did not admit him as a philosopher at all, until 
public appreciation compelled his recognition ; and it is 
characteristic that his centenary has been passed over in 
silence by most of the philosophic journals, while a public 
newspaper such as the Times devoted a leading article to the 
celebraHon of the event. The neglect of Spencer by philo- 
sophic specialists is not at all surprising. He took every oppor- 
tunity of condemning the methods of metaphysics : he ridiculed 
their results, and ignored their writings : he would not even 
read Kant. He insisted that the conclusions of science were 
the subject-matter of philosophy, which could be effectively 
studied only by the methods of science : all his interests, all 
his serious reading, was in science, and on the basis of science 
alone he started to construct a fresh system of philosophy 
totally independent of anything that had gone before. It is 
true that he did not wholly escape metaphysical infection. His 
doctrine of the Unknowable, and his attempted reconciliation 
of science and religion, were very weak, and no serious student 
now attaches the least importance to them. The metaphysical 
portions of his Principles of Psychology have similarly passed 
into total oblivion. He adopted, as the final test of truth of 
any proposition, " the inconceivability of its negation " : and 
if he had lived into the days of relativity, he would probably 
have denied that doctrine on the grounds of a priori impos- 
sibility. Criticism of Spencer is easy but unprofitable : the 
real value of his work is apt to be lost sight of, for the simple 
reason that it has been thoroughly incorporated into all our 
modes of thought, and no longer strikes us as novel or unusual. 
He is the founder of scientific psychology. Every psychologist 

12 »73 


now assumes evolution as his starting-point. Spencer was 
the first to point out the fact of mental evolution : and he 
did so several years before the publication of the Origin of 
Species. His work at that time appeared so novel and revo- 
lutionary that it was almost universally ignored. And it is 
now nearly as much ignored, because the particular kind of 
evolution which he suggested is not that favoured by the 
present generation of biologists. We forget that the whole 
basis of modern psychology was provided by Spencer ; we 
remember only the comparatively trivial points in which we 
now think he was wrong. In short, Spencer is not read now, 
because his scientific work is done : his most revolutionary 
doctrines have become the tamest of platitudes. But his 
influence has been enormous. He was one of the three or four 
Victorians who stood out as the great protagonists of science, 
and induced a degree of public respect for science which before 
had never been dreamt of. He only did one piece of actual 
experimental work : it dealt with the " Circulation and the 
Formation of Wood in Plants," and formed the subject of a 
paper read before the Linnean Society on March i, 1866. 
With this exception, the whole of his work was in the sphere 
of thought and literature. He was offered the Fellowship of 
the Royal Society in 1874, but refused it, as he did nearly 
every other honour proposed to him. His reputation by that 
time was made, and he undoubtedly felt hurt that recognition 
did not come to him from learned bodies until he had estab- 
lished himself with the public, and no longer suffered from the 
absence of academic distinctions. His will provides that, after 
the execution of certain literary work (still in preparation), 
his property shall pass absolutely to several of the leading 
scientific societies. The time for carrying out this provision 
should now be drawing near. 

The past six months have witnessed the publication of a 
number of works on Relativity, the interest in which continues 
unabated. The most important of these, from the popular 
standpoint, are Relativity : the Special and the General 
Theory, by Albert Einstein, translated by Robert W. Lawson 
(Methuen & Co., Ltd.) ; and Space, Time, and Gravitation, by 
Prof. Eddington, published by the Cambridge University 
Press. The latter book branches into Philosophy, with a 
chapter " On the Nature of Things," from which we infer with 
regret that the Nature of Things is only destined to be under- 
stood by mathematicians. Another important work from the 
Cambridge University Press is The Concept oj Nature, by Prof. 
A. N. Whitehead, containing his Tarner Lectures delivered at 
Trinity College in November 191 9. It forms a compan on 
book to his Enquiry Concerning the Principles oj Natural Know- 


ledge. Prof. Whitehead, as is well known, favours a different 
form of the Principle of Relativity from that propounded by 
Einstein, who, according to Prof. Whitehead, " has cramped 
the development of his brilliant mathematical method in the 
narrow bounds of a very doubtful philosophy." Notwith- 
standing Prof. Whitehead's extremely lucid exposition, it is 
hardly possible for anyone but a mathematician to form an 
opinion of the relative merits of the rival theories. 

Prof. W. R. Sorley has published A History of English 
Philosophy (Cambridge University Press), which should take 
its place at once as a standard textbook. He deals with the 
History of Philosophy in Great Britain from the time when it 
began to be written in the English language {i.e. with Francis 
Bacon) down to the end of the Victorian Era. He has aban- 
doned the usual method of writing histories of philosophy, to 
illustrate and emphasise the author's own opinions, and has 
adopted the comparatively impersonal method of taking up 
the point of view of each philosopher in turn. The result is 
an eminently readable and informing work, though it is true 
that his own view is usually visible in the background. It is 
curious that, in his Retrospect on the General Characteristics 
of English Philosophy, he makes no reference to the marked 
tendency towards Materialism, which has characterised English 
philosophy as against all others. This fact, originally pointed 
out by Lange, has so far as we know never been denied : and 
it is too abundantly illustrated in Prof. Sorley's History for 
us to suppose that he would wish to repudiate it. 

Another historical work on Philosophy is Prof. J. A. Leigh- 
ton's The Field of Philosophy (Columbus, Ohio : R. G. Adams 
& Co.), which has now reached a second edition. It intro- 
duces the reader to the underlying ideas of the main systems 
of philosophy of all periods, but is more of the schoolbook type 
than Prof. Sorley's History, and less generally interesting. 

In the sphere of Psychology, several books of importance 
have been issued. The complete revolution of ideas caused 
by the writings of Freud, Janet, and others has given rise 
almost to a new science, most admirably described in The New 
Psychology, by A. G. Tansley (George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.). 
Mr. Tansley avoids the chief paradoxes of the Freudian theory, 
and presents a bird's-eye view of the present position, which 
is certainly the best that we have yet seen. In Social Psy- 
chology, Dr. McDougall has published a sequel to his earlier 
work, entitled The Group Mind (Cambridge University Press), 
carrying a step farther the investigations for which he is already 
well known. 

An interesting philosophical side-line is opened up by 
Prof. J. B. Bury in his Idea of Progress (Macmillan & Co., Ltd.). 


We now all look upon progress as an object naturally to be 
aimed at, and it is difficult to conceive a time when society 
was regarded as fixed permanently in structure, and progress 
was not an ideal aimed at by rational people. Their guiding 
principle was rather the welfare of their souls in a future 
world, than advancement of mankind in the present. The 
introduction of the new idea is very ably described by Prof. 
Bury ; and we learn with surprise how very recent are some 
conceptions which we might have supposed fundamental to 
the human mind. Relativity is at least as true in Psychology 
as in Physics. 

We may perhaps note the publication of Causeries Philo- 
sophiques, by A. Badoureau (Paris, Gauthier-Villars et Cie), a 
sequel to Les Sciences Experimentales. Though not published 
till the present year, it is entirely pre-relativity in conception : 
and far more literary than scientific. The author holds that 
three-dimensional space is an objective fact, that force is also 
objective, and that atoms are ether vortices. There are no 
conceptions of novelty in the book, which for the most part 
is based on a shallow philosophy. 

As regards Ethics, Prof. Mair has edited and published The 
Historical Method in Ethics, by John Handyside (Liverpool 
University Press), consisting of three essays by a young author 
who was killed in the war. A biographical note is provided by 
Prof. A. S. Pringle-Pattison. The essays are of considerable 
interest, though naturally somewhat fragmentary. Sir Charles 
Walston has published a lecture delivered at Cambridge in 191 9 
on Eugenics, Civics, and Ethics (Cambridge University Press), 
in which he advocates more attention on the part of Eugenists 
to the ethical standpoint, desiring that they should form a 
clear idea as to what type of mankind they desire to cultivate. 
Sir Charles usually adopts the ethical outlook on philosophical 
problems : a view natural enough to an ex-professor of Fine 
Art : for, as we have often insisted. Ethics is not a science, 
but an art. Sir Charles well insists, however, that it should, 
like other arts, be based upon science — the science of human 
character, otherwise called Ethology. 

The British Journal of Psychology has published its No. VI 
Monograph Supplement on " Pleasure — Unpleasure," by A. 
Wohlgemuth (Cambridge University Press) : an important 
investigation into the nature of " feeling," the results of which 
are summed up in eighty-eight separate propositions. Prob- 
ably the most important of these conclusions is, that " there 
are only two qualities of feeling-elements, viz. Pleasure and 
Unpleasure." All other apparent differences belong in reality 
to sensation, or other cognitive or conative processes. 

The Revue Philosophique has had no articles of outstanding 


importance, but continues to maintain its position as one of 
the most readable of the philosophic reviews. 

The philosophical congress at Oxford in the latter half of 
September comes, unfortunately, too late to be referred to in 
the present notice. 

ASTBONOMY. By H. Spencer-Jones, M.A., B.Sc, Royal Observatory, 

Brown's " Tables of the Motion of the Moon."^ — No record of the 
progress of astronomy would be complete which omitted a 
reference to the publication of the new Tables of the Motion 
of the Moon, with the preparation of which Prof. Brown has 
been occupied during the past thirty years, and the value of 
which is attested by the honours conferred upon him by the 
Royal Society, the Royal Astronomical Society, Cambridge 
University, the Paris Academy of Sciences, and the Astro- 
nomical Society of the Pacific. 

To a first approximation the " theory " of the motion of 
the Moon is a particular case of the problem of three bodies, 
complicated by the fact that neither the Earth nor the Moon is 
spherical ; but, further, the attractions of the planets Mercury, 
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have to be taken into account. 
Differential equations expressing the laws of motion and the 
law of gravitation are formed and solved for the longitude, 
latitude, and parallax in terms of a single variable quantity — 
the time. The results are expressed as the sum of many hun- 
dreds of periodic terms, each of which has portions which come 
from several different parts of the calculations. Prof. Brown 
has stated that in this work " the number of figures written 
mounted to four or five millions, not counting algebraic 
symbols or the figures which passed through the mind while 
doing the calculations. ... In the final results, about 1,500 
terms were left which seemed large enough to be recorded as 
having an effect to be included when obtaining the position of 
the Moon at any time." 

To calculate the values of these 1,500 terms every time the 
position of the Moon was required would prove an enormous 
task : hence the need for the construction of tables which 
perform the separate calculations once for all time. The num- 

* Tables of the Motion of the Moon. By E. W. Brown, Professor of 
Mathematics in Yale University, with the assistance of H. B. Hedrick, Chief 
Computer. [Vol. i. Sections I and II, pp. xiv + 140 + 39. Vol. ii. Section 

III, pp. 223. Vol. iii, Sections IV, V, and VI, pp. 99 + 56 + 102. 
Section I, Explanation of the Tables ; Section II, Tables of the Arguments 
and Mean Longitudes ; Section III, Tables of the True Longitude ; Section 

IV, Tables of the Latitude ; Section V, Tables of the Parallax ; Section 
VI, Tables of the Planetary and other Perturbations and Auxiliary Tables.] 
(New Haven : Yale University Press, 1919.) 


ber of tables must be reduced to the smallest possible, and the 
interpolation between successive entries made to involve as 
little labour as possible. With such skill and careful organisa- 
tion have the new tables been prepared that, although they 
include nearly five times as many terms as are contained in 
Hansen's tables (from which the positions of the Moon given 
in the Nautical Almanac are at present computed), the time 
taken to obtain the annual ephemeris of the Moon will not be 
greater than is at present involved in the use of Hansen's tables. 

There is one feature of the work which deserves mention : 
there are certain constants involved in the theory, such as 
the average time of revolution and the mean distance of the 
Moon, which can only be determined from observation. The 
basis of these determinations is the long series of observations 
of the Moon made at Greenwich during the past 150 years, 
and it is entirely due to this long-continued series of observa- 
tions that these constants can be determined with such accuracy. 

Every possible gravitational term which can influence the 
position of the Moon has been taken into account. It is 
known, however, that the Newtonian theory of gravitation 
will not fully explain the motion. (It is, perhaps, desirable 
to add that neither will Einstein's theory.) It has been cus- 
tomary, in the preparation of lunar tables, to introduce several 
empirical terms, so chosen as to represent past observations 
with sufficient accuracy. But such terms failed, after a few 
years, to represent subsequent observations. Prof. Brown 
decided to exclude all such empirical terms except Newcomb's 
long period term. A comparison of observation with pure 
gravitational theory therefore becomes very simple with the 
aid of the tables. It follows, however, that the tables will 
fail from the beginning accurately to represent the Moon's 
motion : for purposes for which very accurate positions are 
required, as in computations of eclipses of the Sun, a correc- 
tion will need to be applied which must be based upon the 
latest observations. In course of time, from the comparison 
between Brown's theory and observation, it may be possible 
to determine the empirical terms with greater accuracy than 
has hitherto been possible. In order that the work may not 
be invalidated by any subsequent change which may be 
found necessary in any of the adopted constants, data are 
given by means of which the resulting changes in the Moon's 
place may be calculated. 

The new tables will be used in the computations for the 
national ephemerides from 1923 onwards. Prof. Brown is to 
be congratulated on the successful completion of his thirty 
years' work on the Moon's motion. 

The Secular Accelerations of the Sun and Moon. — ^The most 


probable values of the secular accelerations of the Sun and 
Moon have been discussed by Dr. J. K. Fotheringham in a 
recent paper {M.N., R.A.S., 80, 578, 1920). The various 
lines of evidence have been brought under review, and the 
previous work of Newcomb, Cowell, and Fotheringham has 
been critically examined and supplemented by some fresh 
material. Five sources of evidence are available for such a 
discussion, (i) The times of ancient lunar eclipses give the 
difference between the lunar and solar accelerations. The 
difficulty in utilising the material is due to the inaccuracy or 
indefiniteness of the recorded times and places at which the 
eclipses were visible. For various reasons {M.N., 76, 395) 
Fotheringham rejects the Babylonian eclipses. Several of the 
Greek eclipses are also rejected owing to unsatisfactory material. 
From the remaining eclipses a value of|+ 7''-9 i i^'S is found 
for the difference between the secular accelerations of the 
Moon and Sun. (2) The magnitudes of lunar eclipses give a 
value for the secular acceleration of the Sun. The data have 
been discussed by Fotheringham {M.N., 69, 666 ; 78, 422), and 
give a mean solar acceleration of + i^-yS ± o''*45. (3) Re- 
cords of ancient solar eclipses provide material for determining 
the secular accelerations of both Sun and Moon. Fotheringham 
finds that the eclipses of Hipparchus and Plutarch are critical 
eclipses, and that the records of these cannot be satisfied if the 
acceleration of the Sun is greater than about i ". With this 
value for the Sun and a value of + io"-5 for the Moon, the 
most reliable of the ancient solar eclipses are satisfied, and it 
is concluded that these are the most probable values to be 
deduced from the whole series. (4) From the records of 
occupations of stars by the Moon, the lunar accelerations can 
be found. Dr. Fotheringham and Miss Longbottom have 
previously discussed these {M.N., 75, 393), and found a value 
of -f io"-8 ± o"*7o. (5) A value for the solar! acceleration can 
also be found from equinox observations if it is assumed that 
Hipparchus used a fixed equator in his earlier series of equinox 
observations, but that in his later series he used the same equator 
as in his observations of the declinations of stars. In this way 
a value of -f i"'93 dz o"*2 7 is found for the solar acceleration. 

Summarising, Fotheringham finds that the most probable 
values furnished by the various lines of evidence are : 

Secular acceleration of 
Moon. Sun. Difference. 

1. Lunar Eclipse Times + 7''"9 ± i"'3 

2. Lunar Eclipse Magni- 

tudes ... + I'jS ± o''-45 

3. Solar Eclipses . . + lo'-s + I'-o + g'-s 

4. Occultations . . + lo'S ± o^'-yo 

5. Equinoxes . . + i''93 ± o''"27 


The evidence seems to point very definitely to a value 
of about + io"'5 for the lunar acceleration, and to a value 
for the solar acceleration lying between + i'' and +2", but 
which is probably closer to the latter figure. 

Interference Methods in Astronomy. — The application of 
interference methods to observations with the loo-inch Hooker 
telescope of the Mount Wilson Observatory has recently 
directed attention to the advantages of this method, which, 
although not new, has not received much attention from 
astronomers. The method, however, has for some purposes 
such marked advantages that it seems desirable to summarise 
here the principles which underlie it, and the results which have 
already been obtained at Mount Wilson. It may be recalled 
that the image of a distant star (point-source) formed in the 
focal plane of a telescope is not a point of light, as would be 
inferred from the geometrical theory, but consists, in the 
normal case, of a circular aperture of a bright central disc sur- 
rounded by a series of circular diffraction rings whose angular 
diameters can be calculated. The angular diameter of the 
first ring is, for instance, given by 1-22 X/D, D being the dia- 
meter of the aperture and X the wave-length of the light. If 
two close distant stars are observed, their diffraction patterns 
will be superposed. If the central image of one falls on the 
first diffraction ring of the other, a diminution in the intensity 
between the two nuclei will be observed, and the star will 
be recognised as double : if the nuclei are closer still together, 
then a variation in intensity cannot be definitely asserted, 
though the star-image may be perceived to be elongated. 
Lord Rayleigh proposed that this limiting case should be 
considered as the limit of resolution of the telescope, i.e. stars 
at an angular distance of less than 1-22 X/D cannot be con- 
sidered as separated by the telescope. This gives a theoretical 
resolving power of a telescope of aperture D (expressed in 
inches) of about 57^. Thus, properly to resolve a double 
star of separation o"-2 5 would require a 20-inch telescope. 

In the case of the image of a planet or planetary satellite, 
geometrical theory would indicate an image with a perfectly 
sharp edge. Diffraction, however, produces a more or less 
general falling off of intensity at the theoretical circumference 
instead of the abrupt transition. For a given magnification, 
the greater the aperture of the telescope the more rapid is the 
falling off in intensity. As a result, the determination of the 
angular diameters of small satellites, etc., is a very delicate 
matter, and the values obtained in general depend upon the 
size of the aperture, the magnification employed, and also on 
the brightness of the object ; the smaller the telescope, the 
larger will the measured diameter be. 


If, now, a narrow slit be placed over the objective, the 
diffraction phenomena are entirely modified and a series of 
diffraction fringes parallel to the edges of the slit are formed. 
By using two parallel slits, the diffraction pattern is modified 
according to the distance apart of the slits, and it is this fact 
which proves to be of value in astronomical observation. 
The theory of the phenomena which then result has been dis- 
cussed by Michelson and also by Hamy. We need consider 
only the two most important cases : 

(i) If a circular object of uniform brightness with a finite, 
but small, angular diameter is observed, a series of fringes is 
obtained; but if the separation of the slits is gradually in- 
creased, the contrast between the fringes becomes less until a 
certain stage is reached at which their visibility becomes a 
minimum. The angular diameter of the object (a) is then 
connected with the distance apart, d, of the slits by the rela- 
tionship a = 1-22 \/d. The distance apart of the slits corre- 
sponding to minimum visibility can be determined with great 
accuracy, the phenomenon being very sharply marked. A 
method of determining the angular diameters of satellites, etc., is 
thus obtained which does not suffer from the causes of error 
incidental to the method of direct observation. It has been 
utilised to measure the diameters of the larger satellites of 
Jupiter by Hamy, using a 12-inch equatorial at the Paris 
Observatory, and by Michelson, using an equatorial at the Lick 
Observatory, in each case in the year 1891 and with very 
concordant results. It is not necessary that the slits should 
be placed over the object glass : they can be anywhere in the 
cone of rays, the corresponding separation being proportional 
to their distance from the focal plane. 

Michelson has shown how, by using an interferometer to 
increase by a known amount the relative retardation between 
the rays from the two sHts, the effective aperture of the tele- 
scope can be considerably increased. It does not seem beyond 
the bounds of probability that by this means, with the 100- 
inch telescope at Mount Wilson, it will be possible to measure 
the angular diameters of the nearer stars. It is not improb- 
able that some of these stars have angular diameter of o^-oi, 
which quantity should be measurable. 

The disadvantage of this method is that the amount of 
light utilised is only a small fraction of that transmitted by 
the object glass. Hamy has considered how this defect may 
be avoided. The method is still vahd if, instead of narrow 
slits, openings having two perpendicular axes of symmetry 
are used, one of which coincides with the line joining their 
centres, and provided that the width of the openings is small 
compared with their distance apart. Hamy proved that the 


latter restriction may be removed, and widths up to one-third 
of the distance between the centres utiUsed provided that the 
formula a = 1*22 \/d is modified thus : 

a =.-22 ^{.+0-765(1)'} 

where a is the width of each opening and d the distance between 
their centres. 

It is possible that the results obtained may be inaccurate 
owing to the supposition having been made that the object 
is of uniform brightness. It is more probable that the bright- 
ness falls off towards the limb as in the case of the Sun. The 
correction, corresponding to any proposed law of illumination, 
is easily deduced and is not, in general, very large. 

(2) If the object consists of two circular objects whose 
distance apart is at least several times the diameter of either, 
then, if the slits be placed at right angles to the line joining 
their centres, the fringes will disappear when the angle (a) 
subtended by the two stars is given by a = \/2d, it being 
supposed that the two stars are of equal brightness. If not, 
and provided the disparity in brightness is not too great, a 
minimum visibility will be found to correspond to the separa- 
tion of the slits given by this equation. If, then, for a given 
double star the position and distance apart of the slits for 
which the fringes disappear be determined, the position angle 
and angular separation of the components can be at once 
obtained. Since the greatest separation of the slits is the full 
aperture of the telescope (D), the angular separations of all 
double stars which are not less than | X/D can be determined. 
It was shown above that, by the ordinary method of observa- 
tion, the least angular separation measurable was 1*22 VD, so 
that the interference method at least doubles the theoretical 
resolving power of the telescope, a matter of supreme impor- 
tance which, for this type of observation, is equivalent to in- 
creasing the aperture of the 100-inch to over 200 inches. 
Using this method, with the 100-inch telescope, the separation 
of double stars which are as close as o"-02 can be determined. 
The method also possesses several very important advantages 
when compared with the ordinary methods of double-star 
observation — viz., both distance and position angle are deter- 
mined with the same order of accuracy, whatever the separa- 
tion, and for the successful application of the method, very 
good observing conditions are not necessary. 

The results obtained in the case of Capella (Hale, Nature, 
105, 268, 1920) may be mentioned. Capella was known, from 
spectroscopic observations, to be a binary, but had never been 
visually separated, though examined with the largest refractors. 



Slits I inch in length and \ inch wide, placed 47 inches from 
the focus, were used. The cone of light in that position had 
a section of 2-9 inches. The focal length of the telescope is 
1,600 inches. The fringes were found to disappear for a 
certain separation and position angle of the slits, showing that 
the two components are of approximately equal brightness. 
The following values of distance and position angle were 
obtained : 

Position Angle. 


1919, December 30 . 

. I48°-0 


1920, February 13 -, . 



14 . 



15 • 

• 356-4 


March 15 



showing rapid orbital motion, in agreement with spectro- 
scopic evidence. 

The following is a selection of recent papers of importance : 

GuiLLAUME, E., Les Bases de la Theorie de la Relativite, Rev. GSn. des 
Sciences, 31, 200, 1920. ■ 

Rankine, a. D., andSiLBERSTEiN, L., The Propagation of Light in a Gravi- 
tational Field, Phil. Mag., Sixth Ser., 39, 586, 1920. 

Majorana, Q., On Gravitation : Theoretical and Experimental Researches, 
Phil. Mag., Sixth Ser., 39, 488, 1920. 

Dyson, Sir F. W., Eddington, A. S., and Davidson, C, A Determination 
of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field from Obser- 
vations made at the Total Eclipse of May 29, 1919, Trans. R.S., 220A, 
291, 1920. 

Crommelin, a. C. D., Comets with Small Perihelion Distance and the Re- 
sisting Medium, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 475, 1920. 

Evershed, J., Displacement of the Lines in the Solar Spectrum and Ein- 
stein's Prediction, Observatory, 43, 153, 1920. 

St. John, C. E., Displacement of Solar Lines and the Einstein Effect, Obser- 
vatory, 43, 158, 1920. 

Vegard, L., and Krogness, O., The Position in Space of the Aurora Polaris, 

from Observations made at the Halode Observatory, 1913-14, Geofysike 

Pub., 1, No. I, utgit uv den Geofys .-Kommission (Kristiania : A. W. 

Brogger, 1920. Pp. ix + 172). 
Jeffries, H., On Turbulence in the Ocean, Phil. Mag., Sixth Ser. 39, 578, 

Przybyllok, E., Die Nutationskonstante abgeleitet aus den Beobachtungen 

des Internationalen Breitendienstes, Zentralbureau der Infernationalen 

Erdmessung, Neue folge der Veroff., No. 36, 1920. 
Sanders, C, and Jones, H. S., Latitude Variation Observations at Matuba, 

Cabinda (Portuguese Congo), M.N., R.A.S., 80, 455, 1920. 
Hills, E. H., On the Suspended Zenith Telescope of Durham Observatory, 

Part I, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 564, 1920. 

KusTNER, F., Der Kugelformige Stemhaufen, Messier 6, Veroff. der Univ. 

Sternwarte zu Bonn., No. 14, 1920. 
LuDENDORFF, H., Weitere Untersuchungen iiber die Massen der spektro- 

skopischen Doppelsterne, Ast. Nach., 211, No. 5046. 
Stebbins, J., The Eclipsing Variable Star, X Tauri, Astroph. Journ., 51, 193. 

1920. The Ellipsoidal Variable Star, n^ Orionis, ibid., p. 218. 


Young, R. K., The Spectroscopic Binary, 12 Lacertae, Pub. Dom. Astroph. 

Obs., 1, No. 2. Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary, Boss 4669, ibid., 1, 

No. 6. 
Harper, W. E., Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary, Boss 4507, ibid., 1, No. 5. 

Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary, t Delphini, ibid., 1, No. 8. 
Plaskett, J. S., Description of Building and Equipment, ibid., 1, No. i. The 

Spectroscopic Binary, H. R. 8170, ibid., 1, No. 3. 
Turner, H. H., On the Suggested Increase in Period of Variable Stars in 

Phillips' Group, i M.N., R.A.S., 80, 481, 1920. 
Plummer, H. C, On the Nature of Short-Period Variables, M.N., R.A.S., 

80, 496, 1920. 
Shapley, H., and Davis, Helen M., Studies Based on the Colours and Mag- 
nitudes in Stellar Clusters : XVI, Photometric Catalogue of 848 Stars 

in Messier 3, Astroph, Journ., 51, 140, 1920. 
Jackson, J., The Orbits of Twenty Double Stars, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 543, 

Becker, L., The Capture Hypothesis of Binary Stars, M.N., R.A.S., 80, 

598, 1920. 

Oppenheim, S., Uber die Eigenbewegungen der Fixsterne : 

I. Kritik der Zweischwarmhypothese, 191 1. 
II. Entwicklung nach Kugelfunctionen, 19 15. 

III, Kritik der Ellipsoidhypothese, 1916. 

IV. Das Verteilungsgesetz der Eigenbewegungen, 1919 (A. Holder, 
Vienna) . 

Statistike Untersuchungen fiber die bewegungen der kleinen Planeten, 
1919 (A. Holder, Vienna). 

Malmquist, K. G., a Study of the Stars of Spectral Type A, Medd. Lunds 
Ast. Obs., Ser. II, No. 22, 1920. 

Sampson, R. A., Determination of Longitude by Wireless Telegraphy, M.N., 

R.A.S.^%0, 659, 1920. 
Ferri^ (General), Note sur les Proc6d6s actuels d'Emploi de la T.S.F. 

dans la Determination des Longitudes, M.N., R.A .S., 80, 669, 1920. 

Nagaoka, H., Diffraction of a Telescope Objective in the Case of a Circulair 

Source of Light, Astroph. Journ., 51, 73, 1920. 
Ingersoll, L. R., Polarisation of Radiation by Gratings, Astroph. Journ., 

51, 129, 1920. 
Hamy, M., Sur un cas de diffraction des images des astres circulaires, C.R., 

169, 822, 1919 ; Sur un cas particulier de diffraction des images des 

astres circulaires de grands diam^tres, C.R., 170, 1143, 1920. 
MiCHELSON, A. A., Sur I'application des m^thodes interf^rentielles aux 

m6sures astronomiques, C.R., 171, 15. 1920. 

PHYSICS. By D. Orson Wood, M.Sc, University College, London. 

The Bakerian Lecture this year was delivered by Sir Ernest 
Rutherford, who, speaking on " The Nuclear Constitution of 
Atoms," gave an account of the latest developments of his work 
on the intense bombardment of light atoms by swift a-rays 
{Proc. Roy. Soc, 1920, A97, 374-401 ; an account of the earlier 
work appeared in the Phil. Mag., 191 9, 37, 538, and was dealt 
with in Science Progress, 1919, 54, 206-11). It will be 
remembered that, when a-rays from radium C are allowed to 
pass through nitrogen, swift particles are obtained which. 


from their range of penetration and from the brilliancy of the 
scintillations they produce on a zinc sulphide screen, seem to 
be hydrogen atoms. The proof of this fact was not complete 
in 1 91 9, for the crucial test provided by the deflection which 
the particles undergo in a strong magnetic field had failed to 
give definite results. However, during the past year the very 
serious difficulties presented by this experiment have been 
overcome, and the identity of these particles with hydrogen 
atoms has been definitely established. 

Success has been attained by viewing the zinc sulphide 
screen with objectives of wide aperture (whereby the brilliancy 
of the scintillations is increased and counting made less difficult), 
and by passing the stream of a-particles through wide slits, 
so that the number of scintillations due to the gas, as compared 
with the number due to particles originating at the source, is 
much increased. By comparing the deflexion of the particles 
derived from nitrogen with that of hydrogen atoms set in 
motion by the impact of a-rays travelling through a mixture 
of hydrogen and carbon dioxide having the same stopping 
power as nitrogen, it has been shown that the mass of the par- 
ticles is certainly less than 2 and, within the limits of experi- 
mental error, equal to i. Thus it is to be inferred that the 
positively charged atom of hydrogen is one of the components 
of which the nitrogen nucleus is composed. 

This method of preparing hydrogen is not, of course, likely 
to form the basis of a manufacturing process, for Rutherford 
estimates that, if the whole of the a-radiation from i gram 
of radium was absorbed in nitrogen gas, only about a two- 
millionth of a cubic centimetre of hydrogen would be pro- 
duced per year. 

Since the liberation of these particles from nitrogen is a 
purely atomic phenomenon, similar particles should be emitted 
from nitrogen compounds in number proportional to the amount 
of nitrogen present. This has been verified by bombarding 
a number of compounds rich in nitrogen which had been 
carefully prepared so as to exclude the presence of hydrogen 
in any form. The nitrides of boron, sodium, and titanium 
were used for the experiments, and also para-cyanogen. Of 
these sodium and titanium nitrides gave the estimated results ; 
but boron nitride and para-cyanogen gave 1-5-2 times the 
number of long-range (hydrogen) particles expected. This, 
of course, might have been due to the presence of hydrogen in the 
specimens employed, in spite of the care taken to exclude it ; 
but there is also the possibility that boron itself may emit 
hydrogen atoms. 

In addition to the long-range hydrogen atoms liberated from 
nitrogen, the passage of a-particles through oxygen as well as 


through nitrogen gives rise to other and much more 
numerous swift atoms which have a range in air of about 
9 cm, — i.e., much smaller than that of the hydrogen atoms we 
have hitherto been considering, but larger than that of the 
original a-particles (7 cm,). It was at first assumed that these 
were atoms of oxygen or nitrogen carrying a single charge which 
were set into rapid motion by close collisions with the a-particles; 
but if this assumption was correct, it was difficult to explain 
why the range (9 cm,) should be the same for both gases. 
There remained the alternative and more fascinating possibility 
that the particles might be fragments of disintegrated atoms. 
Further experiments, using the magnetic deflexion apparatus, 
have shown this to be the case, for the mass of the particles 
is greater than i (thus excluding the possibility of their 
being hydrogen) and less than . 4 (thus likewise excluding 
helium). In all probability their mass lies between 3 and 
3 X roo8. Thus we have obtained a third constituent of 
the atomic nucleus, and this time one common both to oxygen 
and nitrogen. 

It would seem that the nucleus of a nitrogen atom does not 
break down into its constituents of mass i and mass 3 simul- 
taneously, for the latter component is produced 5 to 10 times 
more frequently than the former. Considering, too, the relative 
infrequency of collisions between a-particles and atoms, it 
is very improbable that a single atom suffers both types of 
disintegration. The mass 3 atom carries a double charge, 
and, when associated with the two electrons required to neutra- 
lise this charge, should have properties and spectrum very much 
resembling helium. It is in fact, in all probability, an isotope 
of that element. 

It is most natural to assume that the nuclei of all 
atoms are built up of hydrogen nuclei and electrons ; e.g., 
that the helium nucleus is composed of four hydrogen 
nuclei and two electrons, giving it a resultant charge + 2 which 
is neutralised by the two external (or ring) electrons associated 
with it. The fact that the atomic weight of helium (3*997 
in terms of = i6) is less than that of four hydrogen atoms 
(4*032) may be explained as being due to the close interaction 
of the fields in the nucleus resulting in a smaller electro-magnetic 
mass than the sum of the masses of the individual components. 
As Sommerfeld has pointed out, this would make helium (and 
also its isotope) extremely stable, and here, perhaps, is the 
explanation of its appearance as a secondary unit in the 
nuclear structure of the heavy atoms {e.g. those emitting 

If the nuclei are built up on this plan, then it is possible 
that hydrogen has an isotope of nuclear mass 2 and charge i. 


There may also be an atom whose nucleus has mass i and zero 
charge, i.e. one formed by the close union of a hydrogen nucleus 
and an electron. Such an atom would have very novel pro- 
perties ; it would, for example, have no external field except 
at very short distances, and would therefore pass freely through 
ordinary matter. 

Since the number and arrangement of the external electrons 
which determine most of the chemical and physical properties 
of an atom are fixed by the nuclear charge, it is to be expected 
that, as long as this charge remains the same, the properties 
also would be the same. This explains the existence of 
isotopes having different atomic weights but the same 
nuclear charge. It will thus be seen that a positive knowledge 
of the nuclear charge is a matter of fundamental importance. 
It is probably equal to the atomic number. Further in- 
formation can be obtained by means of experiments on the 
scattering of swift a- and yS-rays. Such experiments are at 
present in progress, and preliminary results obtained by Mr. 
Chadwick, who is working with a-rays, indicate that the number 
of free unit positive charges in the nucleus does not differ 
from the atomic number of the corresponding atom by more 
than I %, i.e. by more than the experimental error. 

In the course of the lecture Sir Ernest indicated some 
other lines along which the problem of atomic structure is 
being attacked at the Cavendish laboratory. It is possible 
that the impact of rapidly moving electrons may suffice to 
cause the disintegration of oxygen, nitrogen, or other ele- 
ments. This can be tested by observing the spectrum given 
by one of these gases in a vacuum tube after an intense 
bombardment of a suitable substance by cathode rays, and 
experiments on these lines are being carried out by Dr. Ishida. 

Dr. Shimizu has devised a modification of C. T. R. Wilson's 
expansion apparatus whereby several expansions can be pro- 
duced in one second. By studying photographic records of 
the tracks of the a-particles in these expansions, it is hoped to 
obtain information as to the conditions which determine the 
disintegration of the atoms, and also something about the 
relative energies in the a-particle, the escaping atom, and the 
residual nucleus. 

Prof. D. C. Miller, of Cleveland, U.S.A., has published several 
papers containing the results of experiments on explosive 
sounds carried out during the war. Using the standard ap- 
paratus employed for sound-ranging, he finds {Science, June 18, 
1920, pp. 619-20) that the velocity of sound at a distance of 
100 ft. in front of a 10 in. gun is about 1,240 ft. per sec, or 
22 % above the normal value ; at a distance of 200 ft. the ex- 


cess is only s %, and for all distances above 500 ft. the velocity 
of the explosive sound from the largest gun is practically 
normal. Careful observations of temperature, barometric 
height, humidity, and wind velocity were taken over a maxi- 
mum range of 21,000 ft. in order to obtain a value for the 
velocity of sound under standard conditions. The final calcu- 
lations of the corrections for this determination are not com- 
plete, but a preliminary value of 1,089 ft. per sec. has been 
worked out. Prof. Miller has also obtained photographs 
of the wave form of sounds from large guns {Phys. Rev., 1920, 
15, 230). It is found that in all cases the characteristics are 
the same. There is no true vibratory form, but a single com- 
pression pulse rising abruptly to a maximum, and then fall- 
ing to a rarefaction of much smaller amplitude but longer 
duration ; the whole disturbance passing any fixed point in 
something of the order of a fiftieth of a second. Photographs of 
air waves round a rifle bullet {Phys. Rev., 1920, 15, 518) show 
that the bow and stern waves behind the bullet are quite 
straight and parallel, and are propagated in the direction cor- 
responding to the relative velocities of the projectile (2,720 ft. 
per sec.) and of sound (1,123 ft. per sec. at the temperature 
of the experiment). Near the projectile the bow wave increases 
in velocity, probably owing to the heat developed by the pro- 
jectile and by compression, until its velocity equals that of 
the projectile itself. The stern wave, immediately behind 
the projectile, has a diminished velocity, probably due to the 
cooling produced by the rarefaction of the air ; this velocity 
increases rapidly up to the normal velocity of sound when the 
stern wave becomes parallel to the bow wave. The wake is 
a very strongly developed and well defined turbulence which, 
ten bullet-lengths behind the bullet, is about twice the diameter 
of the bullet in cross-section. In the same number of the 
Phys. Rev. (p. 516), A. T. Jones discusses the production of the 
characteristic whine due to a shell. It is attributed to vortices 
in the wake of the shell, and the author attempts to apply 
Strouhal's laws for the seolian tones produced by wires to 
calculate the variation in the pitch of the sound heard by an 
observer standing in the plane of the trajectory. The results 
obtained show no indication of any possibility of detecting 
by ear whether the observer is nearly underneath the vertex 
of the path, but in the case of an elevation of 45 '^ indicate 
a rise of pitch followed by a fall. 

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. By W. E. Garner, M.Sc, University College, 

The Reaction Limits of Mixed Crystals. — The investigation of 
the chemical and galvanic properties of mixed crystals by 


Tammann {Zeit. Anor. Chem., 1919, 107, 1-239) marks a con- 
siderable advance in the study of isomorphism. Tammann 
has examined the resistance to chemical reagents of a large 
number of mixed crystals, and finds that, whereas their phy- 
sical properties vary continuously with the composition, this 
is not the case for the galvanic and chemical properties. 
Those reagents which attack only one of the components, such 
as nitric acid on the Au-Cu alloys, are shown to be without any 
action on the mixed crystal when the unattackable component 
exceeds a definite concentration. A series of mixed crystals 
can be divided into (i) the series containing 100 to gx per cent, 
of attackable component, which is completely disintegrated by 
the action of the reagent ; (2) the series ^1 to ^a, which is 
partly attacked ; and (3) the series g^ to o per cent., which, 
except for the molecules on the surface layer, is unattackable. 
The resistance limits of normal mixed crystals, i.e. those which 
have been well tempered, lie at molecular fractions which are 
multiples of |. Thus boiling nitric acid removes the whole 
of the copper from a gold alloy if the gold content is less than 
f mol ; if the composition lies between | and | mol of gold, 
the material is unattackable. 

These reaction limits can occur only at temperatures where 
there is no appreciable diffusion of the atoms in the crystal 
{i.e. in the Au-Cu series of mixed crystals the copper and gold 
atoms are not interchangeable) ; if the temperature be raised 
and the diffusion of the atoms becomes appreciable, then the 
protective action of the noble metal disappears, and the chemi- 
cal properties vary continuously with the composition. The 
sharpness of the limits of protective action depends on the 
previous history of the alloy ; crystals which are prepared at 
ordinary temperatures by electrical deposition or by precipita- 
tion from solution are more reactive and give less sharp 
reaction limits than those prepared by fusion of the components 
and tempered at temperatures not far below the melting- 
point. Thus alloys with the same molar composition, pre- 
pared in different ways, may behave differently to chemical 
reagents. Tammann ascribes these differences to the manner 
in which the atoms are distributed in the space lattice. He 
concludes that the arrangement of the atoms in those mixed 
crystals which are prepared at ordinary temperatures, though 
fulfilling the requirements of symmetry, is irregular, whereas 
in the well-tempered material there is a uniform distribution of 
the atoms. During the process of tempering the " unsym- 
metrical " mixed crystals are converted into the " symmetri- 
cal " variety. 

The work has been extended to non-metallic mixed crystals, 
and provided that these have been well tempered, they yield 



similar reaction limits to those of the alloys. Sodium chloride 
and silver chloride are completely miscible ; crystals with i 
to 0-75 mol of AgCl scarcely yield any sodium chloride to 
water, while from 0*75 to 0-625 the series yield part of the 
sodium chloride, and from 0-625 to o the whole of the salt is 

Galvanic resistance limits are also observed ; thus mixed 
crystals between ^2 and o per cent, give the same polarisation 
potential and possess the same precipitating ability as the 
more noble metal. The thermodynamical theory of the depen- 
dence of polarisation potential on the composition of an alloy 
evidently stands in opposition to the existence of galvanic 
resistance limits. This theory can only be employed when the 
interchange of atoms in the crystals proceeds sufficiently 
rapidly to enable the metallic phase to be in equilibrium with 
the liquid. These conditions are not fulfilled at ordinary 
temperatures in the case of the Au-Cu and the Au-Ag alloys, 
so that galvanic resistance limits corresponding to the chemi- 
cal limits could have been predicted. The polarisation poten- 
tial of .the Au-Cu series of alloys in the element 

Cu-Au Alloy 

■o'5 mol 
CUSO4 or yCu 

has a constant value of i -40 volt for mixed crystals containing 
I -00 to 0-50 mol of gold, while below this concentration of gold 
the voltage falls off rapidly, and at 0-25 mol the voltage has 
fallen almost to zero. Measurements of the polarisation 
potentials at higher temperatures show no discontinuity at 
0*50 mol gold, but vary continuously for the whole series of 
alloys. At these temperatures the atoms in the metallic 
phase are in equilibrium with the liquid. 

Working the metal either by rolling or hammering imparts 
increased chemical activity to the metal ; the uniform arrange- 
ment of the atoms in the space lattice is destroyed, and the 
crystals more readily admit the attack of the reagent. 

Tammann develops a theory of the distribution of the 
atoms in the mixed crystals from the results of this work. 

Isotopes of Chlorine. — According to the work of Aston 
{Nature, 1919, 104, 393; Phil. Mag., 1920, 39, 620), who apphes 
the positive-ray spectrograph to the analysis of the elements, 
the mass spectra obtained with chlorine appear to prove that 
this element consists of two isotopes of atomic weight 35 and 
37. This is confirmed by W. D. Harkins {Science, 1920, 51, 
289-91), who has carried out preliminary experiments on the 
separation of hydrochloric acid by diffusion. His analyses 


indicate that the density of the fraction which remains in the 
diffusion tubes is increasing at the rate which is predicted by 
the Raleigh theory of diffusion, if the two atomic weights of 
chlorine are 35 and 37. 

Triatomic Hydrogen. — Previous reference has been made 
to the preparation of triatomic hydrogen (Science Progress, 
1919, 53, 34). Wendt and Landauer {J.A.C.S., 1920, 42, 930- 
46) have published a further paper, in which several methods 
of preparation are given. The production of triatomic hydro- 
gen is possible by three methods, the actions of a-rays, the 
alternating discharge at low pressure, and passage through an 
ozoniser at atmospheric pressure. Schumann light is without 
action. The activated hydrogen does not resemble the atomic 
hydrogen of Langmuir {J.A.C.S., 191 5, 37, 417) in its general, 
physical, and chemical properties. 

Its activity is not due to ions or atoms, and the contraction 
in volume under the action of an electric discharge indicates 
a triatomic form. It is not yet clear that the atom of atomic 
weight 3, observed by J. J. Thompson {Proc. Roy. Soc, 191 3, 
A, 89, i) and by Rutherford {Proc. Roy. Soc, 1920, A, 97, 374), 
is the same substance, for the form prepared by Wendt appears 
to be more reactive. 

The chief theoretical interest in this work lies in the 
fact that no hydrogen molecule larger than H3 is pos- 
sible on the older conception of valency. One suggestion 
put forward by the authors is that of a triatomic ring of 
monovalent atoms with the alternation of the atom and the 
electron in a six-membered ring. Bohr, however, regards the 
structure of this molecule as a system of three electrons rotat- 
ing at equal angular distances in a circular orbit, the three 
nuclei being placed respectively at the centre of the orbit 
and at two points on its axis equidistant from the centre. 

The Specific Heats of Gases by the Explosion Method. — ^The 
radiation from the explosion of gases reaches very high values 
in the case of coal-gas and air and of hydrogen and air (David, 
Phil. Mag., 1920,39,66-95, 551-3); 26-1 and i6'i per cent, 
of the total chemical energy respectively being emitted as 
radiation in the two cases. It is concluded that part of the 
radiation is due to chemical action, and part due to a purely 
thermal emission from the hot gases during the period of 
heating and cooling. It is suggested that the specific heat 
of a gas is the greater, the greater the mean free path of the 
molecules, and that the specific heats of the gases at 2,000° C. 
and over depend to a large extent on the density and the 
volume. If this suggestion be correct, the values of the specific 
heats of gases determined by Pier, Bjerrum, and others would 
require serious modification. 


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. By P. Haas, D.Sc. Ph.D., University 
College, London. 

Under the general heading of " Catalytic Actions at Solid Sur- 
faces," Armstrong & Hilditch {Proc. Roy. Soc, 191 9, A, 96, 
137 and 322) have been studying the hydrogenation of un- 
saturated fatty oils by finely divided nickel. By measuring 
the volume of hydrogen entering and leaving the system by 
means of water-meters and plotting time-absorption curves, 
it was found that these were not of the logarithmic type re- 
quired for a monomolecular reaction, but were composed of 
two linear portions, representing changes in which the active 
mass is constant, and it is concluded that this is evidence of 
the interaction between the catalyst and the unsaturated 
compound, similar to the combination between enzyme and 
substrate observed in enzyme hydrolysis. In the second of 
the two papers the question is raised whether this catalytic 
action, like that of enzymes, is not reversible ; evidence in 
support of such reversibility is offered by the observation that, 
when equimolecular proportions of cyclohexanol and methyl 
cinnamate are heated with nickel at 180° C, 10 per cent, of 
the latter compound is reduced to methyl-phenylpropionate, 
while the former is oxidised to cyclohexanone, which 
implies a transference of hydrogen from a saturated to an 
unsaturated compound. While this change may be due to 
the production of hydrides of nickel, the authors prefer to 
regard it as a case of catalytic equilibria represented by the 
following scheme : 

Saturated compound + Ni ;t [Saturated compound, Ni] ^ 
[Unsaturated compound, Ni, Ha] ^ Unsaturated compound + Ni + Ha. 

The reversibility of this catalytic hydrogenation is called 
upon to explain the observation of Moore (/. Soc. Chem. Ind., 

1 91 9, 38, 320, T), that during the hydrogenation of ethyl oleate 
to ethyl stearate some isomerisation to oleate is produced ; the 
latter compound is, according to Armstrong and Hilditch, 
formed by dehydrogenation of some of the freshly produced 
ethyl stearate. 

In an earlier review (Science Progress, 191 8, No. 48, 564), 
mention was made of a paper by Woker on the diastatic pro- 
perties of formaldehyde ; since that time a considerable 
amount of controversy has arisen over this question. Accord- 
ing to Jacoby, von Kaufmann, Lewite and Sallinger [Berichte, 

1920, 53, 681), the supposed diastatic property of formaldehyde 
may be explained by the fact that this compound forms a loose 
addition compound with starch, whereby the physical pro- 
perties of the latter are much altered, and it no longer gives 
a blue colour with iodine ; the starch does not thereby undergo 



degradation, since it may be precipitated from the solution 
unchanged by the addition of alcohol or electrolytes. 

In a paper entitled " New Theory of Carbon Dioxide 
Assimilation," Kogel {Zeitschr. wiss. Photochem., 1920, 19, 215) 
suggests that the action of light is to cause the carbon dioxide 
to combine with the hydrogen of water to form tetrahydroxy- 
ethylene (I) as under : 

o = c = o 



O = C = O H,0 

HO— C— OH 

HO— ^C— OH 



the tetrahydroxyethylene undergoes tautomeric change into the 
ketonic modification (II), 

HO-C— O 

I ( 
HO-C— O 



from which the common plant acids formic and oxalic could 
be easily produced by simple fission, or the removal of two 
atoms of hydrogen respectively. On the other hand, three 
molecules of carbon dioxide would by this method produce 
the compound (III), which by losing three oxygen atoms would, 
after rearrangement, yield a molecule of glyceric aldehyde 

H C = 














The obvious criticism of this theory is the readiness with which 
oxygen or hydrogen atoms are dispensed with at will in order 
to produce any compound desired by the propounder of the 

Langdon and Gailey (/. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1920, 42, 641) 
reaffirm the observation previously made (loc. cit., 191 7, 39, 
149) to the effect that the gas contained in the floaters of the 
giant Pacific coast kelp Nereocystis leutkeana contains carbon 


monoxide ; the gas is not produced by enzymatic decomposi- 
tion, since it is only formed in the hving plant, and, moreover, 
finely divided kelp in contact with sea-water gives only carbon 
dioxide and hydrogen. The gas is considered to be a respira- 
tion product of the plant, and not an intermediate product of 

In spite of the considerable time that has elapsed since 
" Salvarsan " was first put on the market, conflicting views 
have, from time to time, been expressed concerning the com- 
position of the commercial product ; as the result of a re- 
investigation of this question by Fargher and Pyman {J. Chem. 
Soc, 1920, 117, 370), there appears to be no doubt that the 
substance contains two molecules of water of crystallisation, 
but is free from methyl alcohol, which had been stated by some 
authors to be present ; its composition is therefore repre- 
sented by the formula QaHiaOaNaAsa, 2HCI, 2HaO. Both the 
British and German products contain from i to 2 per cent, 
of sulphur, as an impurity, combined, most probably, in the 
form of a sulphaminic acid or possibly merely physically ab- 

The view expressed by Blount {J. Chem. Soc, 1919, 115, 705), 
that the colour of " Blue John " fluorite is of organic origin, is 
confirmed by Garnett {ibid., 1920, 117, 620), who has shown 
that the finely powdered substance on combustion gave a 
carbon content of 0-27 per cent., while on subjecting the 
material to distillation, a yellowish-brown oil collected in the 
cool parts of the vessel, together with a mirror-like coating of 
carbon, while a residue of colourless fluorite was left behind. 

In a paper dealing with the constitution of Cholesterol, 
Windaus {Chem. Zentr., 1920, [i], 82) gives a possible formula 
for this substance ; considerations of space preclude the print- 
ing of this formula, but attention is drawn to it here as it is 
more complete than any previously published formula for this 

CB.TSTALLOGB.AFHY. By Alexander Scott, M.A., D.Sc. 
Crystal Structure. — In the section on Crystallography in the 
Reports on the Progress of Chemistry, T. V. Barker {Ann. Rep. 
Chem. Soc, 16, 197, 1920) gives a critical summary of recent work 
on the elucidation of crystal structure by means of X-rays. The 
various modifications of the original methods are discussed, and 
the results obtained up to the present are summarised. The 
view that the chemical molecule persists in the solid state is 
upheld, but the argument that the fusion of crystals of, say, 
an ortho-compound should result in the formation of a mixture 
of ortho- and meta-molecules in the liquid state is scarcely 
convincing. It is conceivable that, even if ** solid " molecules 


analogous to chemical ones do not exist, the configuration of 
the atoms in the crystals of an ortho-compound may be such 
that, on fusion, the rearrangement involving the minimum 
energy change may be such as to give the ortho-compound in 
the liquid state as well. A general account of the X-ray 
methods of exploring crystal structure is given by R. Gross 
{Jahrb. Radioakt. Eledr., 15, 305, 191 8), while papers on the 
utility of the Laue radiogram, especially as a supplement to the 
results obtained by Bragg's method, by H. Seeman {Phys. 
Zeitsch., 20, 169, 19 19) and P. NiggH {ibid., 19, 225, 191 8), have 
also appeared. 

The investigations in this direction are now tending to go 
beyond the mere determination of the relative location of the 
atoms, and in several recent papers the question of the structure 
of the atoms is taken into account. P. Debye and P. Scherrer 
have discussed, both from the mathematical and the physical 
points of view, the possibihty of the electron rings acting as 
bonds in such a case as the diamond {ibid., 19, 474, 191 8). If 
such a possibility exists, the presence of these bonds ought to 
be detectable by means of X-radiograms, but the fact that the 
results were negative is in favour of Bragg's original structure. 
On the basis of the theory that the diffracting power of atoms 
should vary as the Moseley number, the same authors have 
endeavoured to determine whether there is ionisation in crystals 
or not, by calculating the number of electrons connected with 
each atom. In the case of sodium fluoride, the derivation of 
the number of electrons from measurements of the intensity of 
reflection from planes composed of a single type of atom suggests 
that such ionisation exists (cf. D. Coster, Proc. Akad. Amsterdam, 
22, 536, 1920; H. Thirring, Phys. Zeit., 21, 281, 1920). The 
suggestion that the influence of the electrons must be taken 
into account in considering the ultimate structure of crystals 
has already been made, on theoretical grounds, by F. Rinne 
{Neues Jahrb. Min., ii, 47, igi6). 

The influence of the electrons is also discussed in a series of 
papers by M. Born and A. Lande. In the first paper (M. Born, 
Verh. deut. phys. Ges., 20, 224, 191 8), the absolute crystal 
dimensions are calculated mathematically on the assumption 
that the lattice is composed of electronic ring systems such as 
those postulated by Bohr. In this way the lattice constants 
of cubic crystals of the sodium chloride type are derived (cf. 
M. Born and A. Lande, Ber. preuss. Akad. Wiss., 45, 1048, 191 8). 
From these constants the same authors {Verh. deut. phys. Ges., 
20, 202, 210, 191 8) calculate the compressibility of the crystal, 
and find the theoretical value to be twice the observed value. 
Hence they conclude that atomic structures are three-dimen- 
sional, and that the plane electronic system is not satisfactory. 


To get over the difficulty, A. Lande {ibid., 20, 217, 1918; 21, 
2, 644, 1919 ; Ber. preuss. Akad. Wiss., loi, 1919 ) cf. M. 
Born, Verh. deut. phys. Ges., 20, 230, 191 8 ; 21, 13, 1919) 
assumes that the electronic orbits are symmetrically placed, and 
that, in the examples considered, the symmetry of the orbits 
is cubic. Some criticisms of the theory by L. Vegard {ibid., 21, 
383, 1919) are replied to by Born and Lande {ibid., 21, 385, 1919)- 
W. Voigt {Ann. Phys., [4], 60, 638, 1919) gives an exhaustive dis- 
cussion of the same work, especially with reference to Land^'s 
view that the forces of cohesion are due to ionic electrical 
attractions. In connection with the relation between force and 
deformation, he points out that the difficulty in anticipating 
the rupture-point may possibly be explained by the symmetrical 
arrangement of the orbits. The theory has been further tested 
by M. Born and E. Bormann {Verh. deut. phys. Ges., 21, 733, 
191 9), using zinc blende as an example; and although the 
calculated and observed results do not agree very closely, yet 
they are of the same order of magnitude (cf. M. Born, Ann. 
Phys., [4], 61, 87, 1920). 

In a paper on a " Kineto-electro-magnetic Theory of Crys- 
tals," J. Beckenkamp {Verh. phys. Ges. Wurzburg, 45, 135, 
191 8, Abs. in Journ. Chem. Soc, 116, 273, 1919) extends Bohr's 
theory and applies it to cubic crystals. In a lecture to the 
Royal Institution, W. L. Bragg {Nature, 105, 646, 1920) sum- 
marises the work which has been done on the relation between 
the structure of the atoms and that of the crystal. On the basis 
of X-ray work and glide-plane experiments, A. Johnsen {Cent. 
Min., 385, 1 9 1 6) discusses the deformation of crystals of bismuth, 
in which the molecules are considered to be diatomic and to 
have the same symmetry as the crystals. In a further paper, 
A. Johnsen and A. Gruhn {ibid., 366, 433, 191 7) conclude that, 
in deformation, the atoms tend to move in groups or " com- 
plexes " (cf. A. Gruhn, ibid., 85, 191 8). F. Rinne {ibid., 
161, 172, 191 9), on the basis of the absolute atomic volumes, 
calculated from the crystal structural units of such metals as 
aluminium, silver and gold, of the rhombohedral carbonates 
and the alkali haloids, comes to the conclusion that the chemical 
nature and the valency of the atoms are more important than the 
atomic volume. For example, the atomic volumes of the three 
metals named are approximately equal, but while silver and 
gold form solid solutions, aluminium does not do so with the 
others. Mixed crystals are supposed to be intermediate 
between compounds and physical mixtures. According to 
A. Johnsen {ibid., 97, 1919), zircon is probably hemimorphous, 
and hence not in the same symmetry class as rutile, xenotime, 
etc., which are holohedral (cf. L. Vegard, Phil. Mag., [6], 32, 
65, 505, 1916). 


In a discussion with A. E. H. Tutton (Journ. Wash. Acad. 
Sci., 9, 94, 1 91 9), E. T. Wherry {ibid., 8, 840, 191 8 ; 9, 94, 
191 9) maintains that the symmetry of the " crystal-molecule " 
(the unit of the lattice) must be considered as well as the sym- 
metry of the lattice as a whole in determining the crystal class, 
and that crystals may belong to different classes according to 
the basis which is adopted. Tutton controverts the statement 
that on the basis of one property a crystal may belong to one 
class, and on the basis of another, to another class. 

In the past year the structure of a number of crystals has 
been determined. A. J. Bijl and N. H. Kolkmeijer {Chem. 
Weekbl., 15, 1264, 191 8 ; Proc. Akad. Amsterdam, 21, 405, 494, 
501, 1 919) have investigated the structure of white and grey tin. 
The former is regarded as divalent and tetragonal, and the latter 
as tetravalent and octahedral. C. L. Burdick and E. A. Owen 
{Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., 40, 1749, 191 8) find carborundum to 
be composed of two interpenetrating face-centred rhombohedral 
lattices, the angle being almost 90 degrees, and each being 
displaced along the hexagonal axis a distance equal to 0-36 of 
the basal edge (cf. T. V. Barker, loc. cit.). This structure is 
similar to that of the diamond if half of the carbon atoms be 
assumed to be replaced by silicon, which, however, are not in 
the centre of the carbon tetrahedra. A. W. Hull {Phys. Rev., 13, 
292, 1919), on the other hand, maintains the exact equivalence 
of the diamond and carborundum structures. 

By a modification of Debye's method, H. Bohlen {Ann. 
Phys. [4], 61, 421, 1920) finds thorium and nickel to be composed 
of face-centred cube lattices, and magnesium of two interpene- 
trating simple hexagonal lattices. According to P. Scherrer 
{Phys. Zeit., 19, 23, 191 8), aluminium is similar to copper, etc., 
and has a face-centred lattice whose edge measures 4-07 X 10"* 
cm. F. Rinne {Cent. Min., 129, 1919) has determined nephe- 
line to belong to the hexagonal pyramidal class, and ice {Ber. 
Sachs. Ges. Wiss., 69, 57, 191 7 ; Neues Jahrb. Min., 25, 1919) 
to the dihexagonal bipyramidal class, the structure resembling 
that of magnesium (cf. Cent. Min., 137, 191 8). 

BOTANY. By E. J. Salisbury, D.Sc, F.L.S., University College, London. 
Phytogeny and Morphology. — Several of the papers, read at the 
joint session of American Botanists at St. Louis in December 
last, dealing with the Phylogeny of Seed Plants, have recently 
appeared in the Amer. Jour. Bot. Bucholz reviews the 
details of the embryology of the Coniferse and emphasises their 
phylogenetic importance. Pifius is regarded as very primi- 
tive in this respect, stress being laid upon its cleavage poly- 
embryony, with eight potential embryos derived from the four 
initials and the four rosette cells. The development of a cap 


as in Agathis and Podocarpus and simple polyembryony result- 
ing from the fertilisation of several eggs, as in Cycads, are 
considered to be advanced features. Grouped in respect to 
the pro-embryo structure, the assumed line of progressive 
specialisation and advance is also that of numerical decrease 
of the Cotyledons, whilst the presumably primitive genera are 
those with dwarf shoots. 

Chamberlain, in considering the hving Cycads, upholds the 
view that the Cycadophyta have been derived from the Ferns 
by way of Cycadofilices, directly, or as a branch from the 
Bennettitales, and that this Hne of evolution is distinct from 
that of the Coniferophyta, to which probably the Gnetales and 
Angiosperms are connected by way of supposed extinct her- 
baceous ancestors. 

In a third paper by Wieland, the distribution of the 
Cycadeoids is considered and their affinity to other groups 
of seed plants. Of these latter the Gnetales, Angiosperms, and 
Conifers are regarded as the most remote, whilst the Cycads, 
Cycadofilices, and Cordaitales are held to be the most nearly 
allied in the order named. 

In this connection a recent paper by Scott is of interest 
{Brit. Ass. Rep.). This author suggests that the Pteridosperms 
and Angiosperms have always been distinct from any known 
Phyla of Vascular Cryptogams, and regards the fern-like 
features of the Cycadofilices as no evidence of affinity. 

Yampolsky {Amer. Jour. Bot.) describes and figures various 
types of hermaphrodite flowers of Mercurialis annua. In place 
of the two carpels or 8-20 stamens of the normal flowers, 
these showed in some cases only one carpel with a group of 
stamens replacing the second. In other flowers three carpels 
were present accompanied by 1-6 stamens, or structures which 
were intermediate between stamens and carpels. 

Anatomy. — Experimental work carried out by Snow {Bot. 
Gas.) indicated that the intervals between the successive 
diaphragms of a water plant {Scirpus validus) increased with a 
decrease in the rate of growth, and the increased intervals 
observed under low pressures was attributed to this cause. 
Diminished pressure appeared to have no effect either on the 
number or size of the air-chambers, and the conclusion is 
drawn that the occurrence of air-spaces bears no relation to 
low oxygen-pressure. 

Barrat and Browne both contribute papers on the anatomy 
of Equisetum {Ann. Bot.). The former finds that the sporeling 
of E. arvense is at first protostelic, later becoming siphonosteHc. 
The existence of secondary thickening at the nodes of E. 
arvense and E. maximum is denied, whilst the sporangiophores 
are regarded as organs sui generis, and not as fertile leaves. 


Browne finds that the cones show progressive reduction, with 
respect to the xylem, which is least in E. arvense and most 
pronounced in E. limosum. 

Ecology. — Several interesting papers dealing with the 
relation of plant growth to acidity have recently appeared. 
Latter and Mcllvaine find that the hydroxyl ion is more 
harmful than the hydrogen ion in equivalent concentration, 
and that for germination a slightly acid reaction appears to 
be most favourable. The plants studied were Wheat, 
Glycine, Zea, Medicago saliva, and Trifolium. Of these the 
maximum growth was obtained at Ph 5*94, a reaction of approxi- 
mate neutrality being slightly less favourable for Medicago, 
and markedly so for Wheat, Zea, and Glycine {J. Agric. Res., 
1920). Hoagland had previously noted that the absorption 
of NO3, Ca, and P04, was greater under slightly acid conditions 
(Ph 5-5' 5) than when the solution was nearly neutral. The 
Lime factor in permanent soil improvement is the subject 
of two papers by Lipman and Blair {Soil Science, 1920). These 
authors found that, on arable land without Leguminous plants, 
in rotation, there was a loss of Nitrogen from the limed plots 
as compared with the unlimed. They suggest a slightly acid 
reaction on light and medium soils may be desirable to prevent 
too rapid oxidation of organic matter. In the second paper, 
treating of rotations with Leguminous crops, it is suggested 
that the marked value of lime is to render the conditions 
favourable for nitrogen-fixing organisms, since when Leguminous 
plants are present, the gain from liming is pronounced. 

Brenchley {Ann. Applied Biol.) finds that the effect of 
crowding on Barley plants, grown separately in water-culture 
solutions, is at first beneficial, but subsequently deleterious, 
tending to lower the amount of dry matter formed, and to en- 
courage shoot development at the expense of the growth of 
the root. Moreover, the consumption of nitrogen per unit 
of dry matter is greater than in widely spaced plants. 

Cryptogams. — A useful summary of the recent literature 
dealing with the sexuality of the Mucorineae is contributed by 
Namyslowski to the Revue gmerale de Botanique. The con- 
clusion is arrived at that external conditions greatly influence 
the mode of reproduction, carbohydrates favouring the pro- 
duction of zygospores, whilst organic nitrogenous materials 
favour vegetative reproduction. Although normally monoe- 
cious or dioecious, the latter is not a constant character, but 
monoecious (homothallic) forms have been observed to arise 
from dioecious (heterothallic), and in addition partially monoe- 
cious or partially dioecious types have been recognised. 

The Mycoplasm Theory of Eriksson as applied to Puccinia 
malvacearum has been the subject of experimental investiga- 


tion by Bailey {Ann. Bot.). The hypothesis brought forward 
by Eriksson for the persistence of this disease as naked proto- 
plasm within the cells of the host was largely based on the 
recurrence of the disease year after year, although he found 
no trace of mycelium either in the seeds or young plants. 
Bailey finds that the two types of germination of the teleuto- 
spore are dependent on external conditions, and not on dimor- 
phism of the spores. Two experiments were carried out : in 
the first sterihsed seeds from diseased plants were sown in 
conditions which prevented all infection except from internal 
mycoplasm, whilst the controls were exposed to infection. 
No rust appeared on any of the protected plants, whilst the 
controls were infected. The second series of experiments, 
lasting over ten months, likewise supported the view that 
infection was not due to persistent mycoplasm. 

Bristol contributes a review of the Genus Chlorochytrium 
to the Jour. Linn. Soc. in which thirteen species are recognised, 
including those formerly placed in the genera Chlorocystis, 
Stomatochytrium, Endosphcera, Scotinosphcera, and Centro- 

Taxonomy. — In the Journal of Botany, Baker and Salmon 
deal with some of the segregates of Erodiiim cicutarium and 
describe E. neglectum. A revised arrangement of British Roses 
is compiled by Wooley-Dod. In the same journal, T. and 
T. A. Stevenson describe a British Orchis allied to 0. incarnata 
under the name of O. purpurella, and Lad brook describes a 
new species of Couponi. 

The Hawaiian species of Plantago are dealt with by Rock 
{Amer. Jour. Bot.), of which two are endemic, viz. the shrubby 
P. princeps and P. pachyphylla. Of both these a number of 
varieties and formae are recognised. 

An extensive paper on Mesembryanthemum by Brown is 
contributed to Jour. Linn. Soc, and contains diagnoses of 
more than fifty new species. 

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. By R. C. Knight, D.Sc, Imperial College 
of Science and Teclinology, London. (Plant Physiology Committee.) 

Storage and Translocation. — The storage of reserve food materials 
in plants presents a diffuse problem, which by virtue of its 
widespread ramifications can hardly be considered alone. At 
the outset one is confronted with the fact that storage involves 
two processes of translocation, the first by which the nutritive 
materials are conveyed from the manufacturing tissues to the 
storage region, and the second, following the rest period, by 
which the store is transferred to the growing organs. Thus, 
in addition to the actual process of accumulation of the pro- 
ducts of assimilation in stem, root, or fruit, we have to con- 


sider the passage through the stem of the materials which 
constitute the food reserve. Moreover, throughout the grow- 
ing season the stem is also a channel for the continual upward 
flow of the " transpiration stream," and the importance of 
this in relation to storage and translocation, essentially pro- 
cesses of solution and deposition from solution, is self-evident. 
Nor is the work of investigation simplified by the recurrence 
of annual, as well as diurnal, rhythmic changes in transpiration 
rate, food manufacture and utilisation, superposed one upon 
another. Consequently it is to be expected that progress 
towards an understanding of these processes will be slow and 

The significance of the role played by osmotic pressure in 
the movement and storage of water and nutritive substances 
compels attention to the osmotic properties of cell sap. N. A, 
Maximov and I. A. Krasnoselskaia-Maximova {Piibl. Tiflis 
Bot. Gard.y 191 6, 19, 10), in the course of extensive researches 
on transpiration, made determinations also of fluctuations of 
the osmotic pressure and of the sugar content of the cell sap 
of evergreen leaves. They found that the osmotic concentra- 
tion of the leaf cell-sap was greater in winter than in summer, 
and this difference they were able to correlate with changes 
in the quantities of sugars and glucosides present. The winter 
accumulation of these substances, with the resulting concentra- 
tion of the sap, is regarded as a protection against freezing and 
consequent injury. Another aspect of the question of changes 
of osmotic pressure of the sap at different stages of growth 
has been discussed by B. F. Lutman {Amer. Journ. Bot., 1919, 
6, 181-202) in the course of investigations of potatoes. He 
arrived at some interesting conclusions with regard to trans- 
location of stored food reserves, but in common with most 
workers in this field, he is confronted with cases of movements 
of nutritive materials which at present cannot be reconciled 
with known osmotic phenomena. Young shoots growing from 
a potato tuber yielded a sap which exhibited a shghtly higher 
osmotic pressure than that obtained from the tissue of the 
parent tuber, and further, the leaves of the young plant gave 
a sap more concentrated than the stem sap. Later in the 
growing season this relation was found to be reversed, the 
stems then developing the higher pressure. As in the inves- 
tigation first quoted, these changes were correlated with the 
local accumulation of sugars, more especially sucrose. The 
rather remarkable conclusion arrived at is that nutritive sub- 
stances reach the growing parts of the plant from storage 
regions by passing along a simple concentration gradient, but 
the problem of the passage of assimilation products to storage 
organs and fruits is not amenable to such a simple explanation ; 


in consequence of which the author is compelled to consider 
Haberlandt's " pumping sieve-tube " theory. The conclusion 
recorded in the paper previously referred to prompts the sug- 
gestion that the seasonal changes in the nature and quantity 
of the cell-sap solutes may be related to the need for retention 
of water in drought or rest periods. In the same connection 
may be noted the work of W. G. Craib {Notes jrom Bot. Card., 
Edinburgh, 191 8, 11, 1-18) on the winter water storage in 
deciduous trees. He found that during the period immediately 
following leaf-fall the water in the trunk concentrates towards 
the centre, beginning at the base of the tree. Later in the 
winter, however, the reverse process takes place and the water 
content of the peripheral layers increases at the expense of 
the central portion, which eventually becomes the driest 
region. In consideration, however, of the rather variable 
relationship existing between heart-wood and sap-wood in 
different trees, it appears unlikely that the course of water 
movement here outlined can be a general phenomenon. It 
would nevertheless be instructive to trace any changes in the 
distribution of reserve substances in the trunk which might 
accompany the translocation of water during the rest period. 
W. H. Chandler {Univ. Missouri Agr. Exp. Station Research 
Bull., 14, 1914, 491-552) obtained some noteworthy results in 
his work concerning the competition for water by different 
parts of the plant, and the part played therein by osmotic 
phenomena, under arid conditions. He found that the osmotic 
concentration of the sap of leaves and stem cortex was due 
chiefly to non-electrolytes, except in the rather particular case 
of succulents. The work of Lutman referred to earlier also 
finds confirmation in Chandler's observation that there exists 
a gradient of sap concentration in the cells of the cortex, 
increasing from the roots to the topmost twigs. The question 
of fruits is dealt with also in this paper, and it is noted that 
the sap concentration in the leaves of common fruit-trees is 
higher than that of the fruits themselves. This observation 
explains the fact that fruits wither before the leaves during a 
dry period, when the higher osmotic pressure of the leaf sap 
constitutes a distinct advantage in the competition for water. 
Moreover, it is shown that water will actually pass from fruits 
to leaves under excessively arid conditions. In this connec- 
tion the writer urges the necessity of adequate summer prun- 
ing, which, whilst limiting root formation, nevertheless reduces 
the risk of loss of fruit through withering. Ringing experi- 
ments were also undertaken, and, in accordance with expecta- 
tion, it was found that the removal of a ring of phloem resulted 
in a lowering of the concentration of the sap in the region 
below the ring, especially in the sap of the roots. 


Atkins (Some Recent Researches in Plant Physiology, 191 6, 
chap, xi) advanced a coherent theory of winter storage and 
translocation of carbohydrates, in which he suggested that 
starch stored in the wood parenchyma is transformed into 
sugars — sucrose being the chief sugar of translocation — in the 
spring, and passes into the vessels where a high osmotic con- 
centration is developed. With the opening of the leaves and 
the rapid increase in transpiration rate, the quantity of water 
traversing the vessels is greatly increased, and this results in 
a corresponding decrease in the osmotic concentration of the 
carbohydrate solution, which, in fact, is found to be the case. 
Atkins considers that the carbohydrates manufactured in the 
leaves reach the vessels by way of the bark, medullary rays, 
and wood parenchyma. 

Extensive ringing experiments have been carried out by 
O. F. Curtis {Amer. Journ. Bat., 1920, 7, 101-24), who 
dealt with a variety of plants, chiefly cut shoots growing 
in water culture. He set out to investigate the fundamental 
problem of the path taken by organic food materials in their 
upward passage through the stem during the spring season of 
active growth. Atkins considers that the carbohydrates pass 
through the xylem, an opinion he shares with earlier workers ; 
but, as this conclusion is based mainly on the continued pre- 
sence of these substances in the wood, Curtis is inclined to 
require more direct evidence of actual translocation through 
the xylem tissue. He lays emphasis on the possibility that 
these soluble substances may quite easily remain stationary 
in a tissue in spite of a current of water flowing through the cells 
containing them, and argues accordingly that the mere pre- 
sence of sugars in the vessels is not evidence of their habitual 
conduction through those elements. Curtis found that growth 
practically ceases in a shoot if a ring of phloem is removed 
below it, unless the leaves are allowed to remain. On the 
other hand, if the leaves are detached and no phloem removed, 
growth, although retarded, is not completely stopped. Inci- 
dentally it is interesting to note that in some of the " ringed " 
shoots a strip of phloem was accidentally left intact. These 
shoots showed considerable growth, thus providing a valuable 
control showing that the check in growth observed in other 
cases could not be due to injury. Similar experiments were 
carried out on dormant shoots just previous to the period of 
bud-opening. Adequate control experiments were introduced, 
such as injuring the xylem whilst allowing some phloem to 
remain, and the results obtained were exactly comparable with 
those in the previous experiment. Experiments were also 
conducted with fruiting stems, in which a ring of phloem was 
removed from the stem below the fruit, and no leaves were 


allowed to remain on the section of stem above the ring. The 
results obtained were identical with those recorded by Hanstein 
in i860 — namely, cessation of growth in the fruits above the 
ring. Moreover, Curtis was able to show, by dry weight and 
volume measurements, that the fruit gained nothing but water 
from the date of ringing. The author concludes that either 
the xylem carried no essential food material, or alternatively, 
whilst the xylem may carry some, the phloem carries the im- 
portant constituents, e.g. possibly nitrogenous compounds. 

In the cases where leaves are allowed to remain on a ringed 
shoot, their photosynthetic activity in some degree compensates 
for the loss of food material normally carried by the phloem ; 
as is shown by the considerable growth of the shoot under 
these conditions. In addition, the osmotic concentration above 
the ring is found to be greater in the presence than in the 
absence of these leaves, additional evidence of the part they 
play. Curtis completed his case by employing several different 
methods to extract and estimate the carboh^^drates of his 
ringed shoots, and was able to supplement the results of his 
growth measurements by showing that carbohydrates could 
not pass a gap in the phloem of the stem, either upwards or 
downwards. Perhaps the most striking result obtained is in 
the case of the sugar maple, Acer saccharuni, which bleeds sugar 
solution when it is tapped, yet does not remove its carbo- 
hydrates from the xylem of a length of stem when the path 
through the phloem has been interrupted. 

Winter storage of nutrient materials has been studied by 
E. W. Sinnott {Botanical Gazette, 191 8, 16, 162-75) from the 
anatomical standpoint. Previous investigations on the rela- 
tion of anatomical structure to the nature of the stored food 
materials have resulted in the broad classification of trees into 
starch-storing and fat-storing, the former retaining starch in 
wood and pith throughout the winter, and the latter replacing 
starch by fat in all its tissues in the autumn. From examina- 
tion of a large number of species, Sinnott is able to confirm in 
general the results obtained by other workers, but finds that 
the line of distinction between " starch trees " and " fat trees " 
is not well defined, many types storing both starch and fat in 
large quantities. A study of these cases convinced the author 
that the character associated with starch storage was a thick 
or unpitted cell wall, whilst fat was accumulated in cells with 
thin or much pitted walls. This fact, together with the posi- 
tion of " fat cells " in close proximity to water channels, led 
to the suggestion that it is a question of the conversion of 
starch into fatty materials, a process which appears to be 
dependent upon easy access to the water, or possibly to 
enzymes in the water of the vessels. Some co-ordination of 


this work with the observations of Craib appears desirable, 
although, in view of the relatively small seasonal changes of 
water content of sap wood, and the high permeability of the 
wood to water, it may be doubted whether there is anything 
of the nature of competition for water by the tissues. 

Some experiments with reference to the winter storage of 
starch and fat have been carried out upon herbaceous plants 
growing under the severe conditions of Western Canada. 
Gwynethe M. Tuttle {Annals of Botany, 191 9, 33, 201-10) has 
found it possible to influence the starch fat ratio in evergreens. 
Normally, starch disappears in autumn and oil takes its place as 
a food reserve, starch reappearing with the advent of the grow- 
ing season. It was found that these changes could be induced 
at will in the case of Linncea by exposure to suitable tempera- 
ture conditions. Starch reappeared in oil-containing cells 
within two days of their removal from the outside cold to the 
laboratory temperature of 20° C. Reappearance of oil and 
loss of starch can then be induced by exposure to moderately 
low temperatures (about freezing-point), but subjecting the 
plants at once to the winter temperature of 15° to 30° C. below 
zero results in death. This work emphasises the point pre- 
viously noted — namely, the protection against freezing derived 
by the plant from this capacity to vary the nature of its food 
reserves. The question of the formation of starch from oil, 
and vice versa, is also discussed in this paper, and on the basis 
of the localisation of starch at its first appearance (as if sur- 
rounding an oil globule), and of the occurrence of lipase and 
oxidase in the leaf, the author inclines to the view that direct 
transformation takes place. The records of this investigation 
are continued by F. J. Lewis and Gwynethe M. Tuttle {Annals 
of Botany, 1920, 34, 405-16), who carried out serial determina- 
tions of osmotic pressure, electrical conductivity, and amounts 
of sucrose, maltose, and glucose in leaf tissues of both woody 
and herbaceous evergreens. They hesitate to record any 
correlation between these values and the temperature records 
on the results of the work of one season only, but they note 
the occurrences of maximum osmotic concentration either in 
December or in March. They found, as Chandler did, that 
the osmotic pressure was due chiefly to non-electrolytes, the 
concentration of electrolytes changing but little throughout 
the season. Sugars disappear progressively from winter to 
summer, glucose being the last to be removed. An important 
fact in relation to resistance to frost-injury is revealed by 
supercooling experiments. Whereas the sap extracted from 
leaves of Pyrola froze at about -3° C, the leaves themselves 
could be cooled to -32° C. before freezing. A significant 
observation is also recorded regarding the chloroplast, which 



was seen to become disorganised during the winter months, 
the chlorophyll distributing itself around the nucleus, coalescing 
to form plastids again in April. 

PALEONTOLOGY. By W. P. Pycraft. F.Z.S., A.L.S.. F.R.I. B.A., 

British Museum (Natural History), London. 

But little freshly garnered material seems to have come into 
the hands of the Palaeontologists during the last few months, 
since most of the published work which has been achieved is 
concerned with the harvest of pre-war days. This, however, is 
not a matter for surprise. 

Dr. Jacob L. Wortman contributes an extremely important 
paper on some hitherto unrecognised reptilian characters in 
the skull of the Insectivora and other mammals, to the Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. Ivii, 1920, which must be very carefully 
studied by palaeontologists and students of recent mammals 
alike, for his discoveries will have far-reaching importance. 
Among other things, he suggests that we should regard the 
"malar foramen" of Tupaia of certain primates, and possibly 
of the fruit-eating bats, as the remains of the lateral temporal 
vacuity of the reptilian skull ; and he insists that the mam- 
malian auditory chain originally arose from a chain of elements 
similar, in all respects, to that now found in the Anourous 
Batrachia. The long-cherished hypothesis of the intercalation 
of the quadrate and articular into the mammalian auditory 
chain he regards as " monstrously improbable if not alto- 
gether impossible." Finally, he contends that the Cynodonts 
can no longer be regarded as the long-sought ancestors of the 
mammalia. They belong, on the contrary, to the Sauropsida. 

Messrs. Gerrit Miller and James Gidley describe a new rodent 
from the Upper Oligocene of France {Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. xli). The fragment of a skull on which this description 
is based was found by Porrier, nearly sixty years ago, in a 
calcareous butte at Peu-Blanc, Commune of Sorbier, and soon 
after seems to have passed into the Cope Collection. Till now 
it has never been carefully examined. The authors have 
named it Rhizospalax porrieri. While its exact position can- 
not be determined, owing to its fragmentary character, it 
seems clear that it shows a combination of peculiarities found 
in the living Spalax, Myospalax, and Tachyoryctes, though it 
cannot be regarded as ancestral to any of its living relatives. 

Renewed exploration of the Huerfano Basin of Colorado, 
under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, has resulted in very important additions to our know- 
ledge of the Titanotheres of the Lower Eocene, and of the 
relations thereto to the little-known fauna of the base of the 
Bridger Formation, Wyoming, known as Bridger A. Com- 


plete reports of this survey are in course of preparation. Mean- 
while Prof. H. F. Osborn describes {Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. xli, 1 91 9), three new species of Titanotheres, and makes 
some important additions to our knowledge of the Huerfano 
beds, which are now shown to attain a thickness of 3,500 feet. 

Palaeontologists have, till now, failed to recognise the 
marked differences between the peccaries and the true pigs. 
Mr. James Gidley, in an important paper on Pleistocene pec- 
caries from the Cumberland Cave deposit, Maryland, sets the 
matter finally at rest {Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. Ivii). In a 
series of carefully compiled tables he compares the several 
fossil species which have already been described, and supple- 
ments these with descriptions of four new species. A number 
of excellent illustrations adds much to the value of his work. 

That the Great Auk {A lea impennis) ranged much farther 
south than has hitherto been supposed has been demonstrated 
by Dr. C. W. Andrews, who describes [Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 
vol. V, July 1920) the upper end of a humerus from a cave in 
St. Brelade's Bay, Jersey : and further adds that the figure of 
a bird, supposed to represent the Great Auk, has recently been 
found in a recess of the Cavern of Gargas (Hautes Pyr^n^es). 

Dr. C. W. Andrews also describes {Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist., vol. V, Jan. 1920) two new species of fossil Tortoises which 
are of considerable interest. The first of these was derived 
some years ago from the upper Greensand of Melbury Down, 
near Shaftesbury, Dorset ; and for years was used for block- 
ing a gate open. As a consequence the carapace has been 
much damaged, but the plastron is beautifully preserved. 
This specimen, which belongs apparently to the Pleurodira, 
has been named Trachydermochelys ruiteri, in honour of Mr. 
Clarence Rutter, who has presented it to the British Museum. 
It measures 18^ inches in length, and represents the third 
specimen of this genus found in Great Britain. The second 
specimen is represented by part of a carapace from the 
Barton Clay at the foot of Highcliff, near Christchurch, Hants. 
When complete it must have measured about 28 inches in 
length. It apparently belongs to the family Emydae, and 
represents a new genus and species — Patanemys bartonensis — ■ 
and is now in the collection of the Museum of Practical 
Geology, Jermyn Street, London. 

Many years ago, Dr. John Ryder, under the direction of 
Prof. Cope, attempted a restoration of the Sauropod dinosaur 
Camerosaurus. It was a far from convincing piece of work, 
and contained one or two rather curious errors of judgment. 
Prof. H. F. Osborn, assisted by Mr. C. C. Mook, has made a 
fresh attempt to restore this skeleton and the appearance of 
the living animal {Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. Iviii, 191 9).. 


Though he points out that the result, in some particulars, is 
based on conjecture, a careful study of the facts submitted 
will show that in all essentials this restoration will stand. It 
is certainly a vast improvement on that which it has replaced. 

Our knowledge of Lysorophus, the most remarkable land 
vertebrate which has been discovered for many years, has 
been extensively enlarged by Prof. W. J. Sollas {Phil. Trans. 
Roy. Soc, Ser. B, vol. ccix). The nodule containing the re- 
mains was cut into a series of sections, at intervals of 0'2 mm. ; 
each of which was photographed under an enlargement of five 
diameters. The photographs were then traced on to glass 
plates, and then reconstructed in plaster. This method 
enabled him to build up the skull and other parts of the skele- 
ton, so that the restoration can be examined as easily as if it 
were a recently macerated and articulated skeleton. This is 
without doubt a laborious process, but, in the hands of Prof. 
Sollas, it yields most wonderful results. 

Till now Lysorophus has been regarded by some as a rep- 
tile, by others as an amphibian. Prof. Sollas is now able to 
show definitely that it is a veritable but primitive Amphibian, 
and a member of the primitive ancestral Urodeles. The rela- 
tionship of the Gymnophiona to the Urodeles is but one of 
many new facts which has been brought to light, and recorded 
here as a result of this investigation. 

We do not, as yet, know how the Portage Sea of the Mac- 
kenzie-Yukon region was connected with the synchronous 
marine basin which occupied the Upper Mississippi, Wabash, 
and New York area. But a considerable advance in this 
direction has resulted from the Canadian Geological Survey 
expedition to the Mackenzie River in 191 7, when a Portage fauna 
was discovered in the Devonian shales of the Upper Mackenzie 
Valley. Mr. E. M. Kindle, who directed this expedition, gives 
the results thereof {Canadian Geol. Survey, Mus. Bull., No. 29, 
Geol. Series, No. 36) in a brief but well illustrated memoir, 
which is likely to lead to very important results. 

Some extremely valuable data have been derived by Mr. 
R. Bullen Newton {Ann, & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. v. No. 27) 
from a study of some obscure fossils from Matabeleland. These 
remains, representing freshwater mollusca resembling Vivi- 
parus and Paludestrina, and plants of the genus Chara, were 
embedded in a chalcedonised rock, occurring in a peneplain of 
Upper Karoo Beds, and at the base of the Pleistocene deposits 
known as the Kalahari Sands, which, in this region of Africa, 
mostly cover the basalts and the other underlying formations. 
This formation, it would seem, extending from the Zambesi 
country to Cape Colony, may be older than Eocene, and from 
the assemblage of the contained organisms, may be associated 


in time with the land platform which united Africa with India 
during Cretaceous times. 

British Eocene insects, in the collections of the British 
Museum of Natural History, are described by Dr. T. D. A. 
Cockerell, of the University of Colorado. " The most remark- 
able find," we are told {Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. v, No. 27), 
" is a large wing belonging to the Mesozoic family Pseudosiricidae. 
Its discovery is almost as startling as that of a Tertiary dinosaur. 

Finally, mention must be made of a small volume on 
Invertebrate Palceontology, by Mr. Herbert Leader Hawkins, 
(Methuen & Co.). In the first part of the book the author endea- 
vours to " show something of what is meant by ' Palaeon- 
tology.' " The second part is designed to give an epitome of 
the sequence of evolution as it has been unfolded in geological 
time. The result is admirable. 

ANTHBOFOLOGT. By A. G. Thacker, A.R.C.S., Zoological Laboratory, 


The Journal 0} the Royal Anthropological Institute for the second 
half of 1 91 9 (vol. xlix, pt. 2) is now to hand. The journal con- 
tains an extraordinary number of articles dealing with Indonesia, 
but the first article is concerned with a problem nearer home. 
This is by Harold Peake, and is entitled " The Finnic Question 
and Some Baltic Problems." As all readers' will be aware, it 
was universally held, until quite recent years, that the true Finns 
were rightly classed as an Asiatic and Mongoloid race, compar- 
able to the Lapps and Samoyeds. Recently, however, an 
entirely different view has been put forward, and has gained 
some acceptance. Ripley, Giuffrida-Ruggeri, and others con- 
tend that the true Finns are represented by the typical Nordic 
inhabitants of the country ; and that the language, and the 
very special Finnish folk-lore and culture, have been only 
secondarily imposed upon the Mongoloid people of the district. 
It will be remembered that, on the old theory, the Nordic element 
(which undoubtedly exists in Finland) was merely considered 
to be due to a Scandinavian, particularly, of course, a Swedish, 
infusion. Peake argues the whole question at length. He 
shows that the great bulk of the population of Finland is short 
and brachycephalic, and that in districts where the tall dolicho- 
cephalic element exists in considerable numbers, the Swedish 
language is also significantly prevalent. And the author con- 
tinues : " Now the tall, blonde, long-headed Finns seem, as a 
rule, to be indistinguishable from a similar type in Courland, 
from the Letts, Lithuanians, Swedes, and the tall fair type of 
Englishman. AH those west of Finland and south of the Livs 
speak Aryan languages, nearly all of them Teutonic dialects. 
On the other hand, we find the Finnic tongue spoken in the 


east, from Nijni Novgorod to the Urals, and from Samara nearly 
to the Arctic Ocean. The Finnic dialects belong to a group of 
languages known as Ugrian, spoken over large tracts of Western 
Siberia, and the Ugrian languages are thought by some to be 
part of a greater group, formerly called Turanian, but now 
termed Ural-Altaic, which stretch in an almost complete belt 
from Lapland to Korea — some would say to Japan." Peake 
comes to the conclusion that the old view is correct — that the 
Finn properly so called is a Mongolian. It is difficult to doubt 
that he is right. The alternative is to suppose that a part of 
the Nordic race, speaking an utterly different language from 
its kindred of the West, imposed its language and culture on 
Mongolian peoples, spread all over Eastern Europe and Western 
Asia, without leaving any serious trace, physical or otherwise, 
of this extensive conquest. It is, I think, much more natural 
to infer that the few Nordics of Finland are Teutons who have 
lost their language and culture. In the later part of the article 
Peake discusses other Baltic questions, including the important 
problem as to the earliest inhabitants of Scandinavia. The 
author quotes Prof. Montelius as saying that the first race 
gaining entry to Scandinavia after the last ice age was dolicho- 
cephalic, and was directly ancestral to the present inhabitants 
of the country. Peake deals with the early migrations very 
fully, and puts forward an hypothesis that, before the Nordic 
incursion into Scandinavia, the country had already been 
occupied by a Lapponic people. 

In the new issue of the American Journal of Physical 
Anthropology (vol. iii, No. i, January-March, 1920), the first 
article is by Philip Newton, and is entitled, " Observations on 
the Negritos of the Philippine Islands." The paper embodies 
the results of an expedition to the chief subdivisions of the 
Negritos which the author carried out in the summer of 191 2, 
the research being directed by Dr. A. Hrdlicka, and being sup- 
ported by the Smithsonian Institution and by the Pan-American 
Exposition of San Diego. The observations were limited as far 
as possible to pure-blooded Negritos. According to the latest 
Government census, there were estimated to be 25,000 Negritos 
in the islands, but Dr. Newton considers that the great majority 
of these were of mixed blood. He estimates that, aside from 
the population of an unexplored district in Luzon, the number 
of pure Negritos falls short of 5,000. In a letter transmitting 
his report to Dr. Hrdlicka, Dr. Newton says : " The Negritos 
answered freely all questions they could understand. No 
information as to their number, births, and deaths, etc., could 
be obtained from the Philippine Government, for the simple 
reason that they had none. The Negrito has no unit of time, 
so knew nothing of his age ; all ages, therefore, are approximate 


only." The Negritos live in the hill districts, whither they 
have evidently taken refuge from the more powerful native 
tribes who arrived more recently in the Philippines. In regard 
to their occupations, the author says that the Negrito, in his 
truly natural state, " has no occupation other than hunting 
game and gathering wild fruit and roots for his subsistence. 
The men construct shelters and make their bows and arrows." 
A curious physiological character is the slow rate of reproduction 
observed. In ninety-three families from which particulars were 
collected, the average number of children was only 2*27. 

Turning to a different subject, I may mention that in Man 
for July 1920, E. G. Fenton returns to the subject of the alleged 
ancient " cart-ruts " of Malta, about which there was a con- 
siderable controversy in 191 8, and to which reference was made 
in Science Progress. Two photographs of these ruts are 
published in Man. 

The now familiar eugenic argument relating to the racial 
desirability of the upper classes has been reiterated recently by 
more than one writer, notably by Wilham McDougall in An- 
thropology and History (H. Milford), which was the Twenty- 
Second Robert Boyle Lecture, delivered at Oxford in June ; 
and also by Warren S. Thompson, in " Race Suicide in the 
United States," an article in the above-mentioned number of 
the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. The former 
article is written with force and originality, but the latter is, for 
the most part, singularly trite. 

The following articles on physical anthropology may be 
mentioned : 

In the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. iii, No. i : " The 
Indian Brain " [i.e. American Indian), by J. J. Keegan ; "A New Cranio- 
metric Method, including a Description of a Specially Designed Indexometer 
for Estimating it," by John Cameron ; " Aspects of the Skull ; how shall 
they be Represented ? " by G. G. Maccurdy ; and " Multiple Births among 
the Chinese," by B. Laufer. And in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute, vol. xUx (July to December 1919) : " Some Observations on the 
Physical Characters of the Mende Nation " (Sierra Leone), by F. W. H. 

And the following articles on social anthropology may be 
mentioned : 

In the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. xlix (July to 
December 1919) : " Some Personal Experiences in British New Guinea," by 
Dr. W. M. Strong ; " Stone-work and Gold-fields in British New Guinea," by 
E. W. P. Chinnery ; " String Figures from New Caledonia and the Loyalty 
Islands," by R. H. Compton ; and " The Languages of Northern Papua," 
by S. H. Ray. And in Man : " The Stoney Indians," by A. C. Breton (May) ; 
and " The Mackie Ethnological Expedition to Central Africa," by Sir James 
G. Frazer. 



By F. W. Aston, M.A., D.Sc. A.I.C., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Some ten years ago two widely different sets of experiments 
were in progress the results of which were to shake, and in the 
end destroy, one of the best established articles of scientific 
faith : Dalton's postulate that the atoms of an element were 
equal to each other in weight. One of these was the work of 
Sir Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues on radio-active disinte- 
gration, the other was Sir J. J. Thomson's analysis of Positive 


The results of the first of these researches led inevitably 
to the conclusion that it was possible to obtain quite a number 
of elements whose chemical properties were identical with 
those of lead, but whose atomic weights not only differed from 
each other in a measurable degree, but also from the accepted 
atomic weight of lead. Other branches of radio-active trans- 
formation proved the same remarkable result in the case of 
thorium. The theory that elements of different atomic weight 
could still be chemically identical and occupy the same posi- 
tion in the periodic table was largely developed by Prof. Soddy, 
who, in view of the latter property, called them " isotopes." 
As far as lead is concerned, the existence of its isotopes has 
recently been triumphantly vindicated by the production, in 
quantities ample for chemical determination, of varieties 
chemically indistinguishable but yielding atomic weights differ- 
ing by quite unmistakable amounts. As the present article 
is concerned with the constitution of the lighter and non- 
radio-active elements, it will be sufficient to state that the 
possibility of the existence of isotopes among the group of 
elements studied in radio-active change is now no longer in 

The first suggestion of the existence of isotopes among the 
lighter elements was afforded by the anomalous behaviour of 
the monatomic gas neon when subjected to positive-ray analysis 
by Sir J. J. Thomson. The method of analysis then used has 



already been the subject of an article in Science Progress 
of July 191 2 ; it consists briefly in subjecting the rays to electric 
and magnetic fields applied simultaneously and in such a 
manner that their deflections are at right angles to each other. 
Under these conditions particles having the same mass but 
variable velocity will appear on the photographic record 
obtained as a parabolic streak. The atoms of the ordinary 
elements tried all gave single, or at least apparently single, 
parabolas, but whenever neon was present in the discharge 
tube, two parabolas appeared instead of the one expected. 

The position of these two parabolas showed that the atomic 
weights of the atoms causing them were, roughly, 20 and 22 
respectively. The latter was always about one-tenth the 
brightness of the former, but otherwise similar in all respects. 
The details of this similarity and other lines of reasoning made 
it appear highly probable that the parabolas were caused by 
two elements of exceedingly similar properties, and that it was 
very unlikely that the 22 parabola could be explained away 
by a hypothetical NeHg or, e.g., CO2 with a double charge. The 
idea that neon was a mixture of two isotopes, and that the 
parabolas were due to these, naturally arose, and the author 
undertook a systematic investigation to throw light on this 
important point. 

Attempts to Separate the Isotopes of Neon. — At the time 
(191 3) when this was started, one had no idea of the amazing 
degree of similarity between the isotopes of an element. The 
constituents of neon were regarded as two distinct monatomic 
elements occurring in the atmosphere, and for convenience 
the hypothetical constituent was called " metaneon." The 
accuracy of positive-ray analysis then available was not suffi- 
cient to distinguish between the atomic weight of the element 
causing the lighter parabola and the accepted atomic weight 
(20*20) of atmospheric neon, so that the most hopeful line of 
attack seemed that of separation. The first method tried was 
fractional distillation. The vapour pressure of neon over char- 
coal cooled in liquid air is of a convenient order, and a pure 
specimen of the gas was carefully fractionated over this sub- 
stance in a specially designed apparatus. At the same time 
a quartz microbalance was devised to determine the densities 
of the fractions with rapidity and with an accuracy of -^ per 
cent. The result of a laborious series of several thousand 
operations was completely negative within the error of experi- 
ment ; it is, however, of some satisfaction to the operator to 
know now that this result was probably inevitable, as has 
been recently shown by Prof. Lindemann from theoretical con- 

The second attempt at separation was made by means of 


fractional diffusion through pipeclay. If molecules of different 
masses exist in a gas, they must be separable, at least partially, 
by this method ; but unless the masses are very different, it is 
extremely slow. The two neons only differ by lo per cent., 
and it was only after many months of tedious work that a 
positive result was obtained, and a difference of o-y per cent, 
measured between the two extreme fractions. Further diffu- 
sion experiments were in progress when the war interrupted 
the work, for although evidence as to the existence of the 
isotopes of neon was then available from several different lines 
of reasoning, and a positive result had been obtained of their 
partial separation, the latter was considered too small to settle 
such an important point in a satisfactory manner. 

By the time work was recommenced in 191 9, the " isotope " 
theory was generally accepted as regards the radio-active ele- 
ments, and a good deal of interesting theoretical speculation 
had been made as to the possibility of it applying to the elements 
in general ; it was therefore very desirable that the case of 
neon should be put beyond dispute. As diffusion experiments 
were at the best extremely slow and laborious, attention was 
once more turned to the possibilities of positive rays. Thom- 
son's method of analysis, as previously used in the work, was 
not capable of very great resolution ; it could separate masses 
such as the two isotopes of neon, but, as has been already 
stated, was incapable of distinguishing between 20*0 and 20*2 
with certainty. If a method could be found of sufficient pre- 
cision, and it could be demonstrated that the accepted atomic 
weight of neon lay between the two values given by positive 
rays, the question would be settled ; this it was found possible 
to do as follows : 

The " Mass-Spedrograph." — The principle of this instru- 
ment is indicated in Fig. i. The positive rays, which are 
charged atoms and molecules of matter moving with high 
velocities, are generated in the usual manner in a large discharge 
tube similar to an X-ray bulb, and are allowed to pass through 
an aperture in the cathode. In Thomson's apparatus the 
aperture consisted of a long fine tube giving a narrow circular 
beam or string of rays ; in the new arrangement, two very fine 
slits Si, S2 are employed, giving a thin ribbon of rays. These 
slits are made of aluminium by a special method. In the 
present apparatus they are i mm. long by -05 mm. wide, and 
mounted about 100 mm. apart, so that the beam produced is 
exceedingly narrow and would, if undeflected, make a fine 
sharp line on the recording plate. The space between the slits 
is exhausted as highly as possible, as also is the " camera " in 
which the analysis takes place. 

The beam of rays produced then passes between the two 


charged plates Pi, P2. As the charged particles pass through 
the electric field, they are each deflected and so spread out 
into an " electric spectrum," the deflections being inversely- 
proportional to the energy of the particles. The rays now 
behave as though radiating from a virtual source, z, and a 
group of them is selected by the diaphragm d, and allowed to 
pass between the poles of a powerful electromagnet. These 
poles are circular, and as a magnetic field deflects the particles 
inversely as their momentum, it can be shown that if the angle 
through which they are bent in this case is more than double 
the foregoing electric deflection, and in the opposite direction, 

Fig. I. — Positive-ray spectrograph. 

Reproduced by kind permission of the Philosophical Magazine. 

rays of constant mass will come to a focus f as indicated in the 
diagram. Also, if a photographic plate^is placed at gf in 
the line passing through z, it will be approximately in focus 
for all rays whatever their masses. The position of the focal 
points along such a plate depends only upon the masses-— or, 
to be precise, the ratios of mass to charge — of the particles 
causing them, so the result obtained is called a " mass-spec- 
trum." Just as in the ordinary spectrum of a gas the image 
of the slit is deflected according to the wave-lengths of the 
light, giving the familiar appearance of bright lines, so in 
the mass-spectrum the image caused by one of the slits col- 
limated by the other will appear at different points, each point 
representing a definite mass. 

The exact mathematical relation between the positions of 
the focal points or lines on the mass-spectrum and the masses 
causing them is by no means simple. But, fortunately, it is not 



necessary to evaluate it, as there are so many lines whose masses 
are known which can be therefore taken as standards. What 
is actually done is to take a fixed point called the register spot, 
which is photographed as a circular dot on each spectrum (see 
Fig. 2), and measure the relative distances of known and 
unknown lines from this. By altering the magnetic field, 
a chosen group of known lines can be photographed in various 
positions. In this way the plate can be fully calibrated, a 
process which is assisted materially by the fact that at the 

1 1 1 1 



a 8 

1 1 










1 1 

1 I 





53 s 3 e 
7 1 ( 1 










1 1 1 1 



















1 1 





1 1 1 



5 8 3" 

r 1 1 

IV 1 

1 1 1 



/ i 1 


T ( , 1 





V d 

1 /; / 











VI in 










n n n 
1.1 I 



H H n 
t 1 1 



n n n 

. i I 

/ II 



._ CO 00 00 


I / 




I I I 






Fig. 2. — Typical mass-spectra. 

Reproduced by kind permission of the Philosophical Magazine. 

end corresponding to greatest deflection — the left-hand end in 
the illustrations, — ^the relation between position and mass 
happens to be nearly linear. 

An excellent gas for calibration is a mixture of carbon 
dioxide and methane. Taking the brighter lines given by this 
mixture in order (omitting the hydrogen atom and molecule), 
we have first a very well marked and easily recognised group 
called the Ci group : this consists of 12 — C, 13 — CH, 14 — CH,, 
15 — CHs, 16 — CH4 or O. After a gap this is followed by 
the C2 group 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, starting with what 


appears to be a diatomic carbon molecule, and going on with 
successive additions of hydrogen atoms. This group contains 
the very strong reference line 28 due to C2H4 or CO. The next 
line is 32, the oxygen molecule, usually faint ; and finally we 
have 44, due to CO2. The Ci group is well illustrated in Spec- 
trum V, and the Cg group in Spectra II and III. In calcu- 
lating masses, the " Oxygen " scale is used — that is to say, the 
oxygen atom is taken as of mass 16 units. We have no evi- 
dence whatever of the presence of isotopes in oxygen or carbon ; 
indeed, from the extremely close whole-number relation of 
their chemical atomic weights, none was expected. Hence 
carbon may safely be taken as 12-00 to the accuracy of experi- 
ment, giving us at once a direct scale of reference for masses 
up to 44. 

Lines due to Multiply Charged Particles. — ^As has been pointed 
out, what one really measures is not mass, but the ratio of mass 
to charge. When the latter is the unit e itself (the funda- 
mental unit of negative electricity : 477 10"^'' C.G.S.), the 
lines give a measure of the masses themselves, and are called 
lines of the first order. If, however, a particle carries a charge 
2e, it will behave exactly as if it had half its normal mass ; with 
a charge 3^, as if it had one-third its normal mass, and so on. 
Lines formed in this way are called lines of the second, third, 
and higher orders. Positive rays carrying multiple charges 
have been fully investigated by Sir J. J. Thomson. The atoms 
of most of the elements employed, with the exception of 
hydrogen, seem capable of carrying two charges ; some, such as 
argon, krypton, and xenon, appear with three or more ; while 
mercury can carry no less than eight. First order lines are 
always brighter, generally much brighter, than the corre- 
sponding ones of the second order ; the second than the third, 
and so on in decreasing strength. 

The mechanical details of the actual apparatus used to 
obtain the following results have been given elsewhere {Phil. 
Mag., vol. xxxix. May 1920, p. 611). It was somewhat diffi- 
cult to construct and adjust, but even before the most advan- 
tageous position of the plate had been fixed, it was realised 
that the resolution was ample to settle the question of neon. 
The results obtained with this and a few of the other more 
important elements will now be considered in order. 

Neon {At. Wt. 20-20). — On introducing a little of this gas 
into the mixture of CO2 and CH4 used for calibration, the new 
lines expected were at once recognised. These were first order 
lines at 20 and 22, and second order lines at 10 and 11. All 
four of these were well placed for comparison, the first two 
between the Ci and Cg groups, the second two between the 
Ci group and the second order oxygen line 8. Several sets of 


careful measurements showed the masses of the two isotopic 
constituents of neon to be 20-00 and 22-00 to an accuracy of 
tV per cent, on the oxygen scale. In order to give the accepted 
density, the relative quantities required are 90 per cent, and 
10 per cent., which is in good agreement with the estimated 
intensity of the lines. 

It is as well to state here that the photographic intensity 
of the line is not, in general, to be regarded as a measure of 
the quantity of the substance present. With two isotopes of 
the same element, however, the chemical identity makes it 
practically certain that the intensity is a reliable criterion — ^this, 
of course, only refers to the intensity of lines on the original 
negative, not to reproductions. 

The two first order lines of neon can be seen on Spectrum I 
between the two carbon groups. The above results obtained 
for their masses prove the complex nature of atmospheric 
neon beyond dispute. Faint indications of a third constituent 
of mass 21 were obtained, but this can only be regarded as 
doubtful, and in any case only present in the minutest propor- 

Chlorine {At. Wt. 35-46). — The very marked fractional 
atomic weight of chlorine has been the subject of much in- 
terest and discussion in the past. It was naturally the next 
element to be investigated. The question whether its accepted 
atomic weight represented the true mass of its individual atonis 
or was merely a statistical mean possessed a far deeper chemi- 
cal significance than that at issue in the case of neon, which 
is inactive chemically. It was not long in doubt, for the 
photographs obtained showed that the introduction of chlorine 
into the discharge tube gave rise to a group of strong lines 
corresponding to masses 35, 36, 37, and 38, all of which were 
whole numbers to the accuracy of experiment. There was no 
indication whatever of a line corresponding to a mass 35*46. 
Spectra II, III, IV were obtained with chlorine ; on the first, 
which was taken with the smallest magnetic field, two faint 
lines can be seen at lys and 18-5. These are the second order 
lines of 35 and 37, and are strong testimony that the latter are 
elementary, for it is extremely rare for compounds to give 
second order lines at all. Further evidence on the same point 
is given by the two fines 63, 65, Spectrum IV, which are doubt- 
less due to two compounds, COCl. 

These figures leave no escape from the conclusion that the 
element chlorine is complex, and two of its constituents have 
atomic weights 35 and 36. It might be argued that 36 and 38 
are elementary lines, and at present there is no evidence to 
deny this ; it is much more likely that they are due to the two 
hydrochloric acids. In all spectra taken with chlorine present, 


a faint line is distinguishable corresponding to 39. It is just 
possible that this is a third isotope. 

At first sight it may seem incredible that chlorine, whose 
chemical combining weight has been determined more often 
and with greater accuracy than almost any other element, 
should not have given evidence of its isotopic nature in the 
past. But it must be remembered that, in all probability, 
every one of these determinations has been performed with 
chlorine originally derived from the sea in which the isotopes, 
if ever separate, must have been perfectly mixed from the most 
remote ages. Chlorine from some other source, if such can 
be found, may well give a different result, as did radio-lead 
when examined. 

Argon {At. Wt. 39*88). — The spectra obtained from this 
element show its main constituent to be of mass 40, with 
second order line 20 and third order line i3'33 (Spectra V and 
VI). The last is very well placed for measurement, and from 
it the mass of the singly charged atom is found to be 40-00 
± -02. At first this was thought to be the only constituent, 
but later a faint companion was seen at 36, which further 
spectra showed to bear a very definite intensity relation to the 
40 line. This is probably an isotope the presence of which to 
the extent of about 3 per cent, would account for the fractional 
atomic weight. 

Hydrogen {At. Wt. i-oo8) and Helium {At. Wt. ygg). — ^The 
determination of masses so far removed from the reference 
lines as these offered peculiar difficulties ; but as the lines 
were expected to approximate to the terms of the progression 
I, 2, 4, 8, etc., the higher terms of which are known, a special 
method was adopted by which a 2 to i relation could be 
tested. From the dynamics of the instrument it can be 
shown that, if an exposure is made and then the potential 
applied to the electric plates exactly doubled, and another 
exposure given, the magnetic field being kept constant, all 
masses having a 2 to i relation will be brought into coin- 
cidence on the plate. Such coincidences cannot be detected 
on the same spectrum photographically ; but if we first add 
and then subtract a small potential from one of the above 
potentials, two lines will be obtained which will closely bracket 
the third. Thus the hydrogen molecule line was found sym- 
metrically bracketed by a pair of atomic lines (Spectrum VII, 
a and c), showing that the mass of the atom is exactly half the 
mass of the molecule. When the same procedure was applied 
to the helium line and that of the hydrogen molecule, the 
bracket was no longer symmetrical (Spectrum VII, b), nor was 
it when the hydrogen molecule was bracketed by two helium 
lines {d). Both results show in an unmistakable manner that 



the mass of He is less than twice that of H2. On carrying on 
the ratio in the same way to the second order Hne of oxygen, 
it is found that heHum is exactly 4, but that hydrogen gives 
a value the same as that obtained by chemists, namely i-oo8. 

Krypton {At. Wt. 82-92) and Xenon {At. Wt. 130-2). — The 
results with these elements were particularly interesting, as 
they proved to have a quite unexpected complexity. Also, 
as they are inactive gases, there is no question of confusion of 
the evidence due to possible hydrogen compounds. Krypton 
gives a remarkable group of five strong lines at 80, 82, 83, 84, 
86, and a faint sixth at 78. This group or cluster of isotopes 
is beautifully reproduced, with the same relative intensities in 
the second, and fainter still in the third order. These multiply- 
charged clusters give most reliable values of mass, as the second 
order can be compared with A (40) and the third with CO (28) 
with the highest accuracy. The singly and doubly charged 
krypton clusters can be seen to the right and left of Spec- 
trum VIII. 

Only the minutest trace of Xenon was available to deter- 
mine its constitution. The five lines to the right of Spec- 
trum IX indicate that provisionally it may be said to be a 
mixture of five isotopes of masses 128, 130, 131, 133, 135. 

Mercury {At. Wt. 200-6). — ^Owing to the presence of mer- || 
cury vapour (which is generally beneficial to the smooth M 
running of the discharge), the lines of this element appear on fl 
nearly all the plates taken. They do so as a series of blurred 
clusters of decreasing intensity around points corresponding 
to 200, 100, 66-6, 50, etc., some of which are indicated in 
the spectra reproduced. It may be stated provisionally that 
they indicate a strong component 202, a weak one 204, and a 
strong band from 197 to 200 containing three or four more, M 
unresolvable at present. ^ 

It is not proposed to discuss in detail all the other elements 
analysed, particularly as the evidence in many cases is by no 
means simple ; a table of the results so far obtained is given 
at the end of the article. The case of the element bromine 
is of some special interest, for, in spite of the fact that its 
chemical combining weight is almost exactly a whole number 
(80), it actually consists of approximately equal parts of 79 
and 81. Boron is the lightest element found to consist of 

The Whole-Number Rule. — 'The most important generali- 
sation yielded by these experiments is the remarkable fact 
that all masses — atomic or molecular, element or compound — 
so far measured are whole numbers on the oxygen scale within 
about 0-05 or less. It is perhaps premature to state that this 
relation is true of all elements, but the number and variety of 


those already exhibiting it makes the probabihty of this ex- 
tremely high. The idea put forward by Prout, that all ele- 
ments were built of atoms of a common substance which he 
called " Protyle," is therefore to a certain extent substanti- 
ated. The atom of protyle regarded according to modern 
views is a neutral pair of oppositely charged atoms of elec- 
tricity closely combined, as in the nucleus of helium or that 
of oxygen, not comparatively widely separated as in the atom 
of hydrogen. The fact that the positively charged atom of 
hydrogen — which must be the positive atom of electricity 
itself — differs from unity to a measurable extent is probably 
the result of its not being associated with a negative charge, 
but free to exercise its maximum mass effect. 

General Considerations and Conclusions. — The Rutherford- 
Bohr atom model consists of a central nucleus around which 
rotate planetary electrons. The mass of an electron is 0-00054 
on our scale, so that the whole mass of the atom can be re- 
garded as residing in the nucleus. The number of planetary 
electrons on a neutral atom must, of course, be equal to the 
number of excess positive charges on the nucleus, which is 
most probably Moseley's atomic " number." All the chemical 
and spectroscopic properties of the atom seem to depend on 
these planetary electrons, and therefore on the charge on the 
nucleus, and only to an insignificant extent on its mass. Iso- 
topes are elements having the same nuclear charge but different 
nuclear mass. Thus one may now suppose that an elementary 
atom of mass m may be changed to one of mass m -}- i by the 
addition of a positive particle and an electron. If both enter 
the nucleus an isotope results, for the nuclear charge is un- 
altered. It the positive particle only enters the nucleus, an 
element of next higher atomic number is formed. In cases 
where both forms of addition give a stable configuration, the 
two elements will be " isobares " — that is, elements of equal 
atomic weight but different chemical properties. 

The only fact which appears to limit the number of isotopes 
of one element is that, given any number of positive and nega- 
tive charges with which to build a nucleus having the ne- 
cessary excess positive charge, only a few of the possible 
configurations will be stable enough to exist at all. Partially 
stable arrangements would correspond to radio-active elements. 
These considerations lead one to expect that the greater the 
total number of positive and negative charges, the greater the 
number of stable or partially stable configurations which can 
be built with them. So that the higher the atomic weight of 
an element, the more isotopes it may have, and the greater the 
chance of some of these being radio-active. Both these conclu- 
sions are in accordance with experience. 




The fact that many, probably the majority, of the elements 
are mixtures of isotopes renders the chemistry of their com- 
pounds, theoretically, excessively complicated. On the other 
hand, it must be remembered that, so far as one can tell, the 
separation of the isotopes is so extremely difficult that prac- 
tically this matter is unimportant, while the whole theoretical 
aspect of mass is most advantageously simplified by the whole 
number relation. 

Table of Elements and Isotopes 


H . 
He . 
B . 
C . 
N . 
O . 
F . 
Ne . 
Si . 
P , 
S , 











Masses of Isotopes in Order of 






I -008 










II, 10 




















20, 22, [21] 




28, 29, [30] 












35. 37. [39] 




40. [36] 












84, 86, 82, 83, 80, 78 








[197-200], 202, 204 

(Numbers in brackets provisional only.) 



By WILLIAM N. RAE, M.A. (Cantab.), and JOSEPH REILLY. M.A., 

D.Sc. (N.U.I.). F.R.C.Sc.I. 

Of the many methods which have been devised for the measure- 
ment of surface tension, two only have been used to any extent 
in physico-chemical work. This is largely due to the fact that 
most of the methods which are otherwise satisfactory do not 
lend themselves to accurate temperature control {e.g. the method 
of the wave length of ripples), and since the temperature effect 
is of the order of 0*2 per cent, per degree, accurate temperature 
control is necessary. The two which have been most largely 
used are the capillary rise method and the falling drop method. 
The former depends upon the fact that, when a capillary tube is 
dipped into a liquid, the liquid rises to a height {h) in the tube 
given by the relation 

2 T cos CO = rg{p — a) {h —x ) 

where T is the surface tension in dynes per sq. cm. 

0) is the angle of contact of the liquid with the walls of 

the tube. 
r is the radius of the capillary tube in cm. 
g is the acceleration due to gravity in cm, per sec. per 

p is the density of the liquid, and a that of the vapour 

or gas with which it is in contact. 
X IS 2i correction factor for the liquid above the 

level of the bottom of the meniscus of. the liquid 

in the tube. 

The data given in Landolt-Bornstein's tables show that the 
values obtained by different experimenters for the surface 
tension of water at 20° C. by the capillary rise method vary 
between 70-6 and 727, while the values by all methods vary 
between 70-6 and 78. Thus, although a single experimenter gets 



values which agree very well among themselves, they may differ 
by 3 per cent, from those of other workers. It is also note- 
worthy that the capillary rise results are generally lower than 
those obtained by other methods. 

Before describing the method of measurement, it will be 
well to consider the causes of the discrepancies pointed out 
above. Willard Gibbs has shown that, in order to keep the 
potential energy of the system at a minimum, a solute which 
diminishes the surface tension will be concentrated in the surface 
layer, while a solute which raises the surface tension will have a 
lower concentration in the surface layer than in the main bulk of 
the liquid. Now the surface layer in a capillary tube has very 
small dimensions, and thus a very minute trace of impurity, 
which lowers the surface tension, is capable of giving a high 
concentration in this very small surface, and in consequence 
may produce a lowering of the surface tension altogether out of 
proportion to its mass. 

The angle of contact has been generally assumed to be zero 
in the case of liquids which wet glass, and cos « is then equal to 
I ; since cos 2°3o' is 0-999 and cos 8° is 0-990, the errors which 
would be introduced by taking these angles as zero would be 
O'l and I per cent, respectively. In the case of a liquid such 
as water, there seems to be an element of doubt as to whether 
we are justified in taking the angle of contact to be zero. Some 
writers, e.g. Ferguson (Science Progress, No. 35, 1915) and 
Matthews (/. Phys. Chem., vol. xx, p. 554) think not ; while 
others, e.g. Lord Rayleigh {Science Papers, vol. iii, p. 393)) 
Bancroft (/. Phys. Chem., vol. xxi, p. 407), and Richards 
and Coombs (/. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. xxxvii, p. 1656) 
either definitely consider the angle to be zero, or to be too small 
to be of any practical importance. While the weight of the 
evidence seems to be in favour of the latter view, further 
experimental investigation of the point is undoubtedly 

The height h given in the formula represents the distance 
of the meniscus in the tube above the flat surface in the outer 
vessel. It is probable that one of the chief reasons for the 
variations between the results of different observers lies in the 
fact that they have assumed the surface in the outer tube to 
be flat, which is not the case. The question has been con- 
sidered by Richards and Coombs {loc. cit.) ; they showed that 
in a tube 2 cm. in diameter, with a thin rod in the centre, water 
rose 0*31 mm. higher than in tubes on either side without the 
central rod ; they found experimentally that a tube 3-8 cm. 
in diameter gave a flat surface at its centre, all the capillary rise 
taking place at the edges. Lord Rayleigh (Proc. Roy. Soc, 191 5) 
calculated that the minimum diameter for a flat surface would 


be 47 cm. It should be noted that these values refer to 
tubes without a capillary tube in the centre, such as there 
is in the ordinary arrangement of, say, Ramsay and Shields* 
apparatus ; with this arrangement a still wider tube would be 

In calculating the height to which the liquid is raised, a 
correction has to be employed for the liquid contained in the 
meniscus above the lowest point (where the measurement is 
made). In very narrow tubes the surface of the liquid is 
practically hemispherical, and the volume of the liquid is then 
the difference between the volume of a cylinder of height r 
and that of a hemisphere of radius r {i.e., Trr^— §7rr' = ^7rr'), 
so that the correction is made by adding one-third of the radius 
of the tube to the observed height h. A more exact relation has 
been worked out by Poisson for tubes of small radius, who found 

h = h^ -\- r/3 -o-i288rV/fo- 

This result has been confirmed and extended by Lord Rayleigh, 
who gives 

2TJgpr = h -\- r/2 — o-i2SSryh + o'i2,i2r*lh'. 

Richards and Coombs measure the height h„, of the 
meniscus and use the expression k = kg -\- n.h„, where n 
varies from \ in tubes 2 mm. in diameter to f in tubes 30 mm. 

The first step in setting up an apparatus for the measurement 
of surface tension by the capillary rise method consists in the 
preparation of a capillary tube of uniform bore. A piece of 
glass tubing about i cm. in diameter and fairly thick walled is 
chosen : this is heated to redness at the centre until it softens. 
An assistant holding one end then walks rapidly away until the 
tube is pulled out to a length of ten or twelve feet. The central 
part of the capillary is cut into lengths of about 10 cm., and these 
are examined for uniformity. The capillary tubes can be 
cleaned by making a pin-hole in a piece of rubber tubing, one end 
of which is closed by a piece of glass rod and the other is attached 
to the water pump ; one end of the capillary is pushed into the 
pin-hole, and the other is placed in a beaker containing the clean- 
ing liquid, which is thus sucked through the tube, the usual 
liquids — chromic acid, distilled water, alcohol, and ether — being 
used. A thread of clean mercury is then drawn into the tube, 
and its length is measured at various points in the tube by laying 
it alongside a standard scale on a measuring microscope giving 
good magnification. A tube should be rejected which shows a 
variation in the length of the thread of more than i in 1,000. 


When a satisfactory tube has been found, the length of the thread 
is recorded for the position nearest to which the meniscus will 
be formed, and the mercury is run out and weighed. The radius 
of the tube can then be calculated from the equation r = ■\/mf7rpl, 
where m is the mass of the mercury, p its density at the room 
temperature, and / the length of the thread corrected for the 
meniscus at each end by a quantity which can be obtained from 
a table. By means of a very fine sharp file, a small ring is then 
cut off the end of the capillary and is placed on the stage of a 
microscope with a micrometer eyepiece, and the diameter is 
measured in four directions at 45 degrees to find if it is truly 
circular, the same standard as before being required. If the 
cross-section is found to be satisfactory, a divided millimetre is 
placed on the stage, and the micrometer readings are reduced 
to millimetres. The diameter thus found can be compared with 
that found by weighing the mercury, the preference being given 
to the direct measurement in case there is any slight difference. 
Ramsay and Shields {J.C.S., 1893, T. 1089) then proceeded as 
follows : A short tube of thin-walled glass containing a spiral 
of iron wire was sealed on to a short piece of glass rod i mm. in 
diameter. The capillary was dipped in ether, inclined so as to 
fill it with the liquid, and one end was sealed ; the open end was 
then held so as to touch the glass rod, and a very small pointed 
flame was directed on to the junction ; the glass was then sealed 
on, and the vapour pressure of the ether blew a small bulb at 
the bottom of the capillary and a minute hole in the side of the 
bulb. The sealed end was then cut off, and a thin ring of glass 
cut off for the determination of the radius. The capillary was 
then placed in the wider tube and the liquid was added. The 
wider tube was constricted at the top, and attached to the pump 
in order to boil out all the air ; it was then sealed off at the 
narrow portion. Thus Ramsay and Shields' determinations 
were all made with the liquid in contact with its own vapour. 
Renault and Guye (/. Chim. Phys., 1907, vol. v, p. 81), used the 
same method, but carried out their determinations in the pre- 
sence of air as being much simpler — the difference in the values 
obtained was about 0*5 per cent. In carrying out a determina- 
tion, a scale was attached to the front of the wider tube and this 
was placed in a vapour-bath. The capillary could now be 
lowered by means of the attraction of the electromagnet on the 
iron wire spiral attached to its lower end. It was lowered so 
as to allow the liquid to flow over the top, thus renewing the 
surface before each reading and ensuring the wetting of the 
glass above the meniscus ; the capillary tube was allowed 
to rise until the meniscus came to a point 2 mm. below the 
end of the tube, and the height was then read by means of a 
cathetometer and the scale in front of the glass. As an example 


of their results, with carbon disulphide as the liquid and 
r =0-0129 cm., they obtained : 

At / = 19-4° C. at / =46-i°C. 

,, h = 4'2i cm. „ h = 3-80 cm. 

h = 4-20 cm. ,, h = 3*795 cm. 

h = 4-20 cm. ,, h = 3'8o cm. 

mean h = 4-203 cm. mean h = 3798 cm. 

,, d ^ 1-264 cm. ,, d = I "223 cm. 

T = i grdh. 

T = 33-6 dynes per sq. cm. Ta = 29-4 dynes per sq. cm. 

They then used these values to calculate dT (MvY 

Ti {Mldi)i = 33-6 (76/1 -264)* = 515 ergs. 
r, (A/"/(f,)« = 29-4 (76/1-223)5= 461 ergs. 

then *i^' = 5-5 " 46i ^ ^ ^ ,.„,. 
at 46-1 — 19-4 26*7 

The defect of the apparatus consists in the fact that the outer 
tube is not sufficiently wide to ensure that there is no capillary 
rise there, thus making the result too low. More theoretically 
perfect is the apparatus used by Richards and Coombs. The 
capillaries were carefully selected according to the method al- 
ready described : in one form the diameters of the narrow and 
wide tubes were 0-20198 and 3-8 cm. respectively, and in the 
second 0-01936 and 3-8 cm. ; the volume of liquid required for the 
first tube was 36 c.c, but this was reduced to 12 c.c. in another 
form by means of the sinker. A reference mark was etched 
near the centre of the capillary. Particular care should be 
taken, when using apparatus containing stopcocks, to make 
certain that these are thoroughly clean ; they can only be 
lubricated with the liquid in the tube, and, so as to prevent the 
entrance of water, the outside of the tap is covered with a film 
of paraffin before the apparatus is placed in the bath. The 
method used to observe the position of the meniscus with accu- 
racy was to set the apparatus vertical with a plumb-line in the 
thermostat (which had parallel plate-glass sides). A black 
metal screen having a rectangular hole in it, with the horizontal 
edge quite straight, was lowered into the thermostat so as to 
lie just behind the apparatus, and was then adjusted so that the 
straight edge was just horizontal, and when viewed through the 
cathetometer, appeared to make a tangent with the lowest point 
of the meniscus. The upper edge of the meniscus could also 
be determined when desired by gradually raising the plate, 
whereby the line of the straight edge at first appears broken, 


but when it reaches the top of the meniscus again appears to be 
straight. Before using the apparatus, it was carefully calibrated 
with water in the following way : The apparatus was first 
thoroughly cleaned, and was then filled with water so that it 
reached a position below the reference mark. The water was then 
run up and down the capillary several times, and the apparatus 
was set vertical with the plumb-line and the height read ; the 
tube was again wetted, turned through i8o degrees, and the 
height again read (always allowing for the liquid to drain and 
reading with a faUing thread) ; next the tube was inverted and 
the two readings were repeated. More water was added and 
the readings were taken, and so on. To show the kind of values 
obtained, the following figures represent the mean of five read- 
ings in each position: 1-4378, 1*4422, 1-4384, 1-4391 cm. The 
mean of these is i -4394, with a probable error of 0-03 per cent. 
By proceeding in this way, it was found, for example, with 
one tube, that the most constant results were obtained within 
the region 0-4 to 1-3 mm. of the reference mark, and this part of 
the capillary was therefore used in the actual determinations. 
The surface tension of benzene was obtained at 20° C. in both 
tubes, with the following results : tube i, T == 28-94 ; tube 2, 
T == 28-88 ; and the value for the surface tension of water at 
the same temperature was found to be 72-62. The results 
generally are higher than those obtained by other observers 
using the capillary tube method, as might be expected owing to 
the use of the wider tubes. 

Tate made experiments upon the weight of a drop of water 
falling from the end of a glass tube. He used tubes from o-i 
to 0-7 inch in diameter, and made of thin glass ground to a 
sharp edge. He came to the conclusion that the weight of the 
drop is proportional to (i) the diameter of the tube ; (2) the 
weight of the liquid which would be raised up in the tube owing 
to the capillary ; and he found that the weight decreased with 
rise of temperature. His first two conclusions may be stated 
in the form mg = k.rT. 

Many textbooks and research workers describe methods 
using capillary tubes without any references to the sharp edges, 
and using the equation mg = 2'7rrT, i.e. making Tate's constant 
k equal to 27r. Poynting and Thomson {Properties of Matter) 
point out that the forces acting on the drop include the excess 
pressure over the external pressure which is developed in the 
drop owing to surface tension ; if the drop is cylindrical at the 
top, the value of this excess pressure is T/r, and we then have 
2'7rrT = mg + irrT — i.e., mg = irrTy or exactly half the previous 
value. Rayleigh finds {Phil. Mag., vol. xlviii, p. 321) that the 
equation mg = ySrT is sufficiently accurate for most purposes, 
while J. L. R. Morgan (see below) finds mg = yg^rT. There is 


thus some doubt as to the exact value of the constant to be used, 
but this difficulty is overcome by Morgan by using the falling drop 
method to give values of the surface tension relative to that of 
benzene as determined by the capillary rise method. As a 
general method, Morgan's has the advantage over the capillary 
rise method that the surface of the drop is a large one, and, 
moreover, is constantly renewed, so that the effect of small 
quantities of impurities is much reduced. Morgan's apparatus 
can be used for all temperatures up to 90" C, and errors due to 
evaporation are avoided. He has established, by a very careful 
series of experiments, that for a given dropping tip the ratio of 
the surface tension to the weight of the falling drop at the same 
temperature is equal to a constant, i.e., 

^CeUe.t ^HaO.r ^i.f 

= C. 

wherefore Tj^f = Cm^i l* for any given tip. Each tip has to 
be standardised by means of benzene or water using the values 

^CeHs.i^ 30-514 - 0-1321 / + 0-000082 t' 
^H^O.i = 75-872 - 0-154 t -{- 0-00022 t' 

The equation for benzene is derived from the average of all the 
results of all accurate workers using the capillary rise method : 
that for water was obtained by comparison with benzene using 
the drop method. Another equation which Morgan finds to 
hold rigidly is 

^ _ (288-5- j?-6) 

^CeHe./ -2-II5 (78M)^ 

where the density of the liquid is given by dt = 0-9002 — 
0-001066 i. In using the method, there is one condition which 
is essential, i.e. the drop must have a normal outline ; this is a 
bag-like form with the sides parallel for a part of their length. 
If the tip is too small, the drop bulges at the bottom, so that the 
maximum diameter of the drop is greater than that of the tip, 
the results being too high. If the tip is too large, there is a loss 
of control over the formation of the drop, and the latter converges 
at the bottom and breaks away at a different point to the 
" normal " drop, and again gives too high results. It is found 
that the conditions are satisfactory with tips having diameters 
from 4-5 mm., giving drops with volumes greater than 0-0196 c.c. 
to 5-5 mm., giving drops with volumes greater than 0-0239 c.c. 
for all but one out of two hundred liquids studied ; the 
exception is carbon tetrachloride, having T = 24-9 and d = 
J -576, so that with a 4-5 mm. tip the volume of the drop is 


0-OI43 c.c. The accuracy of Morgan's method is exempUfied 
by his results with six different hquids : using the equations 

TlMJdY = K{t, -t-6) 

and mgt = TJC 

we get mgt{M/d) *= K/C {t, - t - 6) 

where mgt is the weight of a drop at the temperature /. 

Tt is the surface tension at the same temperature, 
M is the molecular weight and d the density of the liquid. 

and tc its critical temperature. 

The value of K should be constant in the surface tension equation, 
and that of KjC in the weight of a drop equation if the same tip 
be used with all the liquids : for the six liquids Morgan found 
KjC = 2-5694 ± 0-0013, i.e. 0-05 per cent, variation from the 
average; while Renault and Guye, using the capillaryrise method, 
found for the same six liquids K— 2-116 i 0-0965, i.e. a varia- 
tion of 4-6 per cent, from the mean. The laboratory form of 
Morgan's apparatus is made entirely of glass, the various parts 
fitting together by means of ground-glass joints. It consists 
essentially of two stoppered straight-sided weighing bottles 
2 cm. diameter connected by an inverted capillary U-tube, one 
limb being slightly shorter (i cm.) than the other. The weigh- 
ing bottles, by means of their stoppers, fit into a perforated disc, 
which in its turn fits into a larger weighing bottle, the latter 
serving as an air-bath. The two weighing bottles and the outer 
air-bath are all supplied with a ventilation tube, and a ther- 
mometer is attached having its bulb close to the U-tube. The 
inverted tube is the " capillary " drop tube, and has the shorter 
end ground accurately cylindrical for a length of i cm. to 
take the tip : the bore of this tube is 0-2 mm. Tips of various 
sizes can be fitted ; the bottom of the tips is made plane and 
perpendicular to the sides, a clean sharp edge being very im- 
portant. When the apparatus is fitted with a fresh tip, great 
care should be taken to get the bottom of the tip exactly parallel 
to the cover of the apparatus, so that the tip can afterwards be 
set exactly level by levelling the cover. Before using, the 
apparatus is very thoroughly cleaned with the usual liquids. 
A rubber bulb is connected to the ventilation tube, which fits 
into the weighing bottle on the tip side ; the compression of the 
bulb can be accurately controlled by means of a screw. The 
empty weighing bottle on the tip side is put on first, and then 
that containing the liquid is fitted in position on the supply 
side, and the outer vessel is attached : the whole apparatus is 
placed in the thermostat and allowed to remain for twenty to 
forty minutes to attain thermal equilibrium, the capillary being 



kept free from liquid the whole time by means of the compression 
bulb. The tip is then carefully levelled by getting the cover of 
the apparatus level (parallelism between the two having been 
carefully attended to in the original assembling of the parts). 
The liquid is now sucked slowly through the capillary, and a drop 
of nearly the maximum size is allowed to form ; this drop is left 
hanging for five minutes, so that any evaporation effects which 
are going to occur may be completed : the drop is then allowed 
to fall and twenty- nine other drops are collected, each being 
allowed about one minute to form, and its shape being observed 
during its formation by means of a lens to ensure that the drops 
are " normal," great care being taken that the drops fall of 
their own weight, by making the rate of formation very slow 
towards the end of the formation of each drop. The liquid in 
the capillary is then forced back, and the weighing bottle on the 
supply side is removed ; any liquid adhering to the capillary is 
taken up with filter-paper. The weighing bottle on the tip side 
is dipped in cold water to condense any vapour, and the outside 
having been dried, the bottle is disconnected, stoppered, and 
weighed. The weight so obtained is that of a bottle together 
with thirty drops of liquid and a certain amount of vapour. 
The weighing bottle on the tip side is dried, and the parts of the 
apparatus are assembled in the same order as before and the 
whole is placed in the thermostat and left for the same time as 
in the first part of the experiment ; a single drop is formed and 
allowed to hang for five minutes ; five drops are then allowed to 
fall, and the sixth is kept hanging at the end of the tip until the 
total time is the same as in the first experiment ; the sixth drop 
is then forced back into the supply vessel, and the weighing 
bottle containing the five drops is removed with the same pre- 
cautions as at first and is weighed. This gives the weight of 
the bottle together with five drops and a certain amount of 
vapour which, owing to the conditions of the experiment, cannot 
be very different from that in the first experiment. Thus, if the 
second weight is subtracted from the first, the weight of twenty- 
five drops is obtained. The example now given shows results 
obtained with benzene, M.W. 78 and t^ 288-5° C. 


Weight of.B 
-f 25 drops. 

Weight of B 
+ 5 drops. 

Weight of 
20 drops. 

Weight of I 





40-7° c. 








The mean value of K from surface tension results being 2*115, 
that of C becomes 2-1 15/2-291, and since T = Cmg, the surface 
tension can be calculated ; in this way we get Tio = 29-20 


and TiQ'^ = 25-26, the values calculated from the formula 
given on p. 229 being 29-20 and 25-27. Once the drop weight 
of benzene has been obtained at a given temperature with a tip, 
the calculation of the surface tension of a second liquid whose 
drop weight has been determined with the same tip at the same 
temperature is simple, e.g. with a tip 4-51 mm. in diameter, the 
weight of a drop of benzene was found to be 0-024269 gram, 
and that of a drop of quinoline 0-038487, both determined at 
27-8° C. ; since the surface tension of benzene at this temperature 
is 26-75, the surface tension of quinoline is 

0-038487 X 26-75 

■« 0> 27*8= 7 = 42-4. 

^' 0-024269 ^ ^ 

Morgan's drop weight apparatus is made by Eimer and Amend, 
of New York. 

A method depending on the formation of bubbles of air in the 
liquid is that described by Jager {Wein. Akad. Berichte, 100, 
245). The pressure inside a spherical air-bubble in a liquid 
exceeds that outside by an amount p given by the equation 
p = 2 Tjr ; at constant temperature the product pr is constant. 
Now, if a glass tube is placed vertically in the liquid and is 
attached to an air vessel fitted with a manometer, on gradually 
increasing the pressure, the air will pass down the tube and a 
bubble will form at the end. If the pressure is then slightly 
increased, since pr is to remain constant, the radius of curvature 
of the drop must diminish as the volume of the drop increases ; 
the drop thus continues to grow until it becomes hemispherical. 
The excess pressure p above that of the atmosphere shown by 
the manometer is then equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus 
the pressure due to the curvature of the drop : 

i.e., p = dgh + ^Tjr 

where d is the density of the liquid. 

h is the depth of the end of the tube below the surface. 
T is the surface tension. 
and r is the radius of the tube. 

If the pressure is again slightly raised, since the radius 
of curvature of the drop cannot be less than the radius of the 
tube, the radius of the drop must increase as the volume in- 
creases and the capillary counterpressure is reduced {pr being 
fixed) ; thus a very slight increase in the pressure above the 
value given in the equation causes the drop to continue to 
increase in size until it detaches itself. The experiment there- 
fore consists in finding the minimum pressure at which bubbles 
will continue to form and detach themselves from the tube. 


Capillary tubes having very sharp edges are used, and two tubes 
of different radii are attached to vertical rods so that they can 
be moved up and down a vertical scale. The two tubes are 
attached to the same air reservoir, and the heights are adjusted 
until bubbles slowly detach themselves from both tubes simul- 
taneously ; then 

r —r 

and the actual value of the pressure is not required. Since 

TjT" = d'h'ld''h" 

the method is very convenient for determining relative sur- 
face tensions. 

References to Surface Tension Methods 

Morgan (/. Amer. Chem. Soc, vols, xxx, xxxiii, xxxv, xxxvii). 

Ferguson {Phil. Mag., 1912-14), Pull on Disc, etc. 

Langmuir (/. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. xxxiii, No. 9), Films on the Surface of 

Lenard {Wied. Ann., vol. xxx, p. 209), Oscillations of Drops. 
WoRTHiNGTON {Phil. Mag., p. 43, 1885), Pull on a Vertical Plate (Wilhelmy). 
Rayleigh {Phil. Mag., vol. xxx, p. 386), Ripples. 
Magie {Phil. Mag., 1888), Height of Bubbles and Drops. 
Bohr {Phil. Trans., A, p. 209, 1909), Waves on a Jet. 
TiMBERG {Weid. Ann., vol. xxx, p. 545), Pull on a Ring. 
Cantor {Weid. Ann., vol. xlvii, p. 399), Pull on a Ring. 
Hall {Phil. Mag., 1893), Tension in a Film. 
Ramsay and Shields {Phil. Trans., A, p. 647), Capillary Rise. 
Sentis {Jour, de Phys., 1887-97), Combined Capillary Tube and Radius of 
Drop Method. 


Exhibitioner of Christ Church, Oxford. 

To Thomas Graham is due the credit of first studying, in 
1862, the properties of the colloid state. Although he drew 
a sharp distinction between solutions of colloids and crystal- 
loids, it has, since that time, become increasingly more difficult 
to do so. Possibly the simplest definition of colloidal solu- 
tions, which we can at present give, is that they differ from 
true solutions in not being homogeneous, and they contain, 
therefore, more than one phase. This is due to the aggrega- 
tion of the " dissolved " substance into masses which are large 
compared with molecular magnitudes. Of the physical pro- 
perties which indicate such heterogeneity, that which gives 
rise to what is known as the Tyndall effect is probably most 
reliable. If a lateral beam of intense light is thrown across 
any solution, when viewed under a microscope, the presence 
of particles above a certain size is shown by moving specks 
of light. These are due to diffraction of the light by the par- 
ticles which, by transmitted light, would be invisible. With 
such an arrangement the transition between true and colloidal 
solutions may readily be seen, as, for example, with cane 
sugar. Dilute solutions of this substance show no turbidity, 
but, on gradually increasing the concentration, specks begin 
to appear, until eventually they fill the field of view. 

Graham, as we have said, drew a sharp distinction between 
colloids and crystalloids, based upon their rate of diffusion 
in solution through membranes. It now seems certain that 
such a distinction is purely artificial, and that we ought rather 
to speak of the colloid state than of colloid substances. This 
recognition of the universality of the colloid state is one of 
the great advances of recent years which has made possible 
the formulation of a general theory of colloids ; but such a 
theory has still to be brought forward. Wo. Ostwald ' and 
Von Weimarn,* amongst others, have done much to emphasise 
the fact that we must now admit the possibility of preparing 

1 Grundriss der Kolloidchemie. 

* Grundzuge der Dispersoidchemie, 1910. 



any substance in the colloid state. This being so, we are 
justified in comparing it with other states of matter. Tradi- 
tionally it has been contrasted with the crystalline form, 
but Von Weimarn * has recently shown the probability of 
some colloidal salts having a crystalline structure. It would, 
however, be unjustifiable to apply his results generally, even 
to suspensoids — that is, to those systems in which the disperse 
phase before dispersion is solid. The question also arises as 
to what we are to understand by " crystalline," when the 
surface energy is as large as that certainly present in colloid 
systems. One of the most essential properties of the latter 
is, in fact, the relative magnitude of surface energy as com- 
pared with internal energy. As an immediate effect of this 
large surface energy, we might expect adsorption phenomena 
to play a large part in the chemistry of colloids, and recent 
work has tended largely to confirm this view. Adsorption 
effects are, however, modified to a certain extent by other forces 
acting upon the colloid particle, which we will shortly consider. 
Dispersion, — Before proceeding, it is of interest to consider 
the methods of dispersion, or actual passage from the homo- 
geneous, or coarsely heterogeneous, state of matter to the 
more finely divided state which exists in all colloid systems. 
It is convenient to consider the disperse phase in such systems 
as being potentially a transitional stage between the homo- 
geneous substance and a true solution. Viewed in this light, 
colloidal solutions might theoretically be prepared in two 
ways. We might either suspend the disperse phase in a suit- 
able medium, and, by some means, increase the degree of 
dispersion to the required extent ; or, starting with a true 
solution, we might bring about aggregation of the molecules, 
causing it to cease when it had reached a certain stage. The 
actual methods of dispersion are, however, not so simple as 
this, and vary in different cases. Some substances are met 
with ordinarily in the colloid state, as, for example, gelatin 
and albumin ; but with most substances we have to adopt 
methods — chemical, electrical, or mechanical — suited to their 
conversion to this state. In any case, it is necessary not only 
to produce a system in which dispersion is of a certain order, 
but also to prevent aggregation of the particles by some means. 
Our knowledge of this second factor is very far from complete, 
but stabilisation is usually ascribed to molecular forces at 
the interface. We can recognise three classes of colloid solu- 
tions, in which stability is due to adsorbed Uquid, to adsorbed 
non-electrolyte, or to adsorbed ion." Of these three, more is 
known of the last case than of the other two. 

^ Loc. cit., and Zur Lehre der Zustdnden der Materie, 19 14. 
=» Bancroft, Second Brit. Ass. Rep, on Coll. Chem., 1919. 


The work of Beans and Eastlake/ on the preparation of 
colloidal metals in pure water by sparking, tends to show 
that they owe their stability to certain ions formed at the 
same time. The presence of ionic complexes was deduced 
from the conductivity of the resulting solutions. Beans and 
Eastlake found, moreover, that stability in such solutions was 
increased, in some cases, by addition of very small quantities 
of electrolytes. These results also confirm the current hypo- 
thesis that the charge upon the colloid particle is due to adsorp- 
tion of ions. Hardy,* as long ago as 1899, had shown that 
albumin in acid solution was positively, and in alkaline solu- 
tion negatively, charged. Recently, Powis ' has demonstrated 
that ferric hydroxide, which is usually obtained positively 
charged (as, for instance, by the dialysis of ferric chloride solu- 
tion in the presence of positively charged ferric ions), may be 
obtained negatively charged by running ferric chloride solution 
into an alkaline hydroxide solution. It seems . possible that 
this may be due in part, if not entirely, to the great mobility 
of the H" and OH' ions, which would lead to more numerous 
encounters between the colloid particles and these ions than 
any others. 

Brownian Movement. — The kinetic forces of the solvent 
molecules, the effects of which are visible in the Brownian 
movement, seem largely responsible for maintaining the dis- 
persoid particles in suspension. Perrin's estimation of the 
Avrogadro constant makes use of the Brownian movement 
in suspensions of gamboge and mastic. By extending the 
principle of the equipartition of energy, deduced from the 
gaseous state, to solutions, and finally to colloidal solutions, 
he concludes that ^ " we are led to render the theory precise 
by saying, not only that each particle owes its movement to 
the impacts of the molecules of the liquid, but, further, that 
the energy maintained by the impacts is on the average equal 
to that of any one of the molecules. ..." Bancroft^ con- 
siders that, when the size of the colloid particles is such that 
they are sensibly affected, this energy tends to cause stability. 
" Any substance may be brought into colloidal solution, pro- 
vided we make the particles of that phase so small that the 
Brownian movement will keep the particles suspended, and 
provided that we prevent coagulation by a suitable surface 
film." This is also another argument in favour of the uni- 
versality of the colloid state. There seems to be an opinion 

^ Jonrn. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. xxxvii, p. 2667, I9I5- 

^ Jonrn. Physiol., vol. xxiv, p. 288, 1899. 

^ Journ. Chem. Soc, vol. cvii, p. 818, 1915. 

* Brownian Movement and Molecular Reality, trans. Soddy, 1910. 

^ Journ. Amer. Electrochem. Soc, vol. xxvii, p. 175, 1915- 


that the Brownian movement ceases immediately before 
coagulation. The Svedberg ^ has shown that the Brownian 
movement is unaffected by the presence of electrolytes in solu- 
tion, and there seems no reason why it should so stop. We 
have, however, to distinguish between absolute cessation and 
the rapid falling off of the movement owing to increasing size 
of the particles, so soon as coagulation has started. It has 
been stated that the Brownian movement is the manifestation 
of forces tending to keep the colloid particles in suspension, 
but it may be pointed out that they may also assist coagula- 
tion, other conditions being suitable, by bringing the particles 
into close contact with one another. 

Electrostatic Forces. — In the case of charged particles, electro- 
static forces will tend to keep them apart, thus aiding the 
kinetic forces of the solvent molecules. We have seen that 
the charge is probably due to specific adsorption of ions. A 
charge on a particle will set up a definite potential difference 
at its surface, and, assuming the existence of a Helmholtz double 
layer, we may calculate this in terms of the charge and the 
size of the particle. If we consider the charge as extending 
to a depth d on the surface of a sphere, where d is small com- 
pared with r, the radius of the sphere, we may write for the 
capacity of the particle, 


Where s is the surface area of the particle, and K is the 
di-electric constant of the medium between the layers. This 
may possibly be regarded as that of the disperson medium 

Then, if the potential difference be V volts, we can write, 

e =CV 


Burton ^ has used this formula to calculate V by combin- 
ing it with the expression deduced by Lamb ^ for the velocity 
z; of a charged particle through a liquid under an electric force, 


Xe = 47rr' "q • j 

^ Die Existenz der Molekule, 1915. 

3 Phil. Mag., vol. xi, p. 425, 1906. ^ 

» Ibid., p; 60, 1888. 



where X is the gradient of electric potential in liquid. 

/ is a linear magnitude measuring the " facility 
of slipping " of the particle against the mole- 
cules of the medium. 
7) is the coefficient of viscosity of the liquid. 
e, r, and d as above. 

Whence we may write, 


" ■•' - E 5 

Lamb gives reasons for considering that / and d are of 
the same order of magnitude, and they do not probably differ 
by much. Burton found that the numerical value of V was 
of the same order of magnitude for each substance investi- 
gated, and in different media. For platinum in water he found 

V = — 0*031 volt. 

It was generally assumed that, the colloid particles being 
charged either by friction or adsorption, the opposite charge 
was borne by the molecules of the solvent. Recently, McBain, 
Laing, and Titley,^ working on colloidal soap solutions, have 
attempted to apply an ionic theory to all charged colloids, 
which seems to have certain experimental grounds for its adop- 
tion. " The current assumption that the other charge is 
carried by the solvent is replaced by the hypothesis that free 
ions of charge equal and opposite to that of the charged colloid 
are present in sol or gel." In this connection Wilson's electri- 
cal theory of the colloid state is of interest. Wilson,* working 
on the assumption that " the colloidal state in sols owes its 
stability to the formation of a complex between the particles 
of the disperse phase and certain substances present, or formed 
in the medium during preparation of the colloid,"^ has derived 
a relation between the potential difference and the difference 
in concentration between the ions at the surface layer and in 
the bulk of the solution. He first deduces, by thermodynamical 
methods, that " the products of concentration of any pair of 
diffusible and oppositely charged ions will be equal in surface 
layer and bulk of solution." He adopts the following nota- 
tion. Suppose the colloid negatively charged. 

^ Journ. Chem. Soc, vol. cxv, p. 1279, 1919. 

2 Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, vol. xxxviii, p. 1982, 1916. 

3 Cf. above, and Beans and Eastlake, lac. cit. 


In bulk of solutions, let 

X = concentration of positive or negative ions. 
In surface layer, let 

y = concentration of negatively charged diffusible ions. 

8 = concentration of positively charged ions bound by 
electrochemical attractions. 
/. y ^z == concentration of positively charged ions. 

From the relation just derived, 

X^ = y{y + z). 

The formula given by Donnan * for the potential difference 
due to inequality in concentration of ions in surface layer and 
bulk of solution is 

But m this case \ =— — — 

PC ^X 

RT 2x 

We may therefore write V = -^ ^^^ ^TiPvTJF+T) 

where z is either constant or has a limiting maximum value. 

limit ^ J 2x 

Hence ^=., ^^ =^ ^^^ V(4^) ^ ""' 

proving that the potential difference will diminish as the 
concentration of electrolytes is increased, a result of con- 
siderable theoretical importance. 

Surface Energies — A. Positive Surface Energy. — Surface 
tension is due to intermolecular forces within the colloid par- 
ticle. These are, however, dependent to a certain extent upon 
the solvent with which the particle is in contact. In support 
of this, it may be stated that the solution obtained by dis- 
solving soap in water is colloidal, while under similar conditions 
it forms a true solution in alcohol. Bredig has observed that 
the surface tension of mercury in contact with dilute solutions 
of its own salts is lessened by a potential difference across the 
interface. It is a generally accepted statement that the ex- 
istence of a potential difference lowers the surface tension of 
the disperse phase, and experience seems to show that this is 
true. Surface tension may also be lowered in the presence of 
certain substances in the dispersion medium, but we will 
return to this when dealing with coagulation. Donnan ^ has 
developed an important theory of colloid state founded upon 

1 Zeit. Elektrochem., vol. xvii, p. 572, 191 1. 

2 Phil. Mag., vol. i, p. 647, 1901. 


capillary effects alone, the basis of his theory being that the 
range of molecular attraction varies with different substances. 
It would, however, seem impossible to formulate any theory 
of colloid state of general application which neglected elec- 
trical phenomena. As a result of his theory, particles of the 
same colloid appear to be acted upon by two effective forces — 
positive and negative surface energy — tending respectively to 
increase and decrease the surface area. The particles would 
then have, within limits, a critical size. 

B. Negative Surface Energy. — ^The idea of an effective 
negative surface tension has recently been developed by Wo. 
Ostwald.^ Reasoning from analogy to liquids and gases, he 
would suspect a form of surface energy to exist in dispersoid 
systems, of which the intensity factor might be called expan- 
sive or negative surface tension. The increases in surface 
which occur in strictly diphasic systems can only be explained 
by assuming the existence of such a surface energy. Such in- 
creases in surface have been observed by Traube, Mengarini, 
and Scala,* and Amann,' when apparently no electric energy 
is available. It can be shown that negative surface energy 
should increase with the existence of a potential difference at 
the surface. In the homogeneous state of matter, the increase 
of positive surface energy is equivalent to the decrease of 
expansive surface energy. Ostwald considers that excessive 
development of absolute surface is accompanied by liberation 
of positive surface energy, and this characterises the act of 
dispersion. This view is by no means new — we have seen 
that Donnan recognised an effective negative surface tension 
— but Ostwald has laid upon it considerable stress. 

Osmotic Forces. — Osmotic forces are due to a difference in 
concentration of the ions at the interface of two phases, and in 
the bulk of solution. Little experimental work is possible on 
this subject, for we are unable to examine directly the consti- 
tution of the dispersoid phase. Work on the swelling of gels f 
would seem to show that the dispersoid was permeable by 
the solvent molecules, but generally, when we consider the 
magnitude of the surface tension, this seems improbable to 
any extent. The subject of osmotic forces and capillary 
chemical effects in general may best be approached by a study 
of Gibbs' adsorption equation * : 

So- _ 8P 

hv ~ hS 

That is, if the surface tension o- at an interface alters with 

^ Loc. cit. ^ Koll. Zeit., vol. vi, p. 65, 1910. 

" Ibid., vol. vi, p. 235, iQio- ^ Scientific Papers, vol. ii. 


the volume of solution, i.e. with the concentration of the solute, 
then the osmotic pressure alters with the surface area of the 
interface. This can only be so if the concentration of the 
solute in the bulk of the solution depends upon the surface 
area — i.e., if the concentration in the surface area is greater 
or less than in the bulk of the solution. It can also be shown 
that, if the difference at the surface layer of the solute per unit 
area be T, then, 

^ ~ RT 8c 

where c is the concentration of the solution. That is, if ^ is 

negative (the substance lowers the interfacial tension), then 
r is positive, and positive adsorption occurs. This equation 
has been verified experimentally by Lewis ^ with fairly good 
results. We have already seen the expression given by Wilson 
for the potential difference which results from adsorption in 
the case of ions. 

Coagulation. — The greater part of our knowledge of dis- 
persoids has been derived from a study of their coagulation, 
though the exact method, and also the rate of coagulation, seem 
to have been neglected. Linder and Picton have observed 
microscopically the coagulation of suspensions to be an aggre- 
gation of the particles, and the gradual growth in size of the 
masses so formed. This would result in the increase of in- 
ternal energy at the expense of surface energy, and at the 
same time the Brownian movement would cease. Attractive 
forces between two colloid particles seem to fall off more 
rapidly than repulsive forces, since close contact of the two 
particles appears necessary for coagulation. We have seen 
that the repulsive force should vary directly with some func- 
tion of the charge on the particles. Hence neutralisation of 
this charge will permit of closer contact. At the same time we 
have also seen that a decrease of potential difference, due to 
the charge on a particle, leads to an increase in the surface 
tension. This would favour coagulation, by which the abso- 
lute surface would be reduced. We may, therefore, expect 
that the neutralisation of the charge upon the dispersoid phase 
would be one effective cause of coagulation. Neutralisation 
may most readily be brought about by adsorption of ions 
carrying a charge of opposite sign. That this causes coagula- 
tion is a well-known experimental observation. An interesting 
fact, due to the work of Powis ^ on hydrocarbon oil emulsions, 
has recently been brought to light. Powis showed that 

* Phil, Mag., vol. xv, p. 499, igo8 ; vol. xvii, p. 466, 1909. 
2 Zeit. Phys. Chem., vol. Ixxxix, pp. 91, 179, 186, 1914. 


coagulation does not take place at the iso-electric point, when 
the potential difference between particle and medium is nil, 
as might have been expected, but there is a critical value of 
potential difference, dbo'os volt, above which the emulsion 
is stable. He has more recently shown ^ that this is also true 
of colloidal AS2S3. If these results are of general application, 
it is an observation of considerable importance. 

It has been found that the adsorption of oppositely charged 
ions is specific, both for the ions and different colloids. The 
present writer has, however, obtained an indication that for 
the same colloid the coagulative power of the ions is propor- 
tional to their atomic number, but this observation requires 
verification. It is possible that the kinetic energy of the ion 
plays a part in coagulation. 

A close contact between particles of the dispersoid phase 
being effected, a large positive surface tension will cause 
coagulation. It has, however, been noticed that coagulation 
may be brought about in some cases by substances which lower 
the interfacial tension. This would apparently tend to the 
production of an opposite effect, i.e. passage of the dispersoid 
into the molecular disperse state. This action has not been 
discussed, and its meaning at present remains obscure. In 
connection with the type of adsorption effected by coagula- 
tive ions, it has been suggested that a loose chemical union takes 
place. This hypothesis is based on the fact that the coagu- 
lating electrolyte is very difficult to wash out of the coagulated 
substance, and it has some experimental grounds for belief. 

Conclusion. — The chemistry of colloids is a comparatively 
new branch of science, but, owing to its importance, a con- 
siderable amount of work has been done upon it. In an article 
of this length, it is impossible to touch upon all its points of 
attack — the phenomena of peptisation, of viscosity changes, 
and so on — but it is hoped that the more important theoretical 
considerations have been presented as fully as space would 
permit. As has been mentioned, the phenomena of coagula- 
tion have provided us with our deepest insight into dispersoid 
systems, and it is from this direction that our future knowledge 
will probably come. 

1 Journ. Chem. Soc, vol. cix, 734, 1916. 


By R. K. S. LIM, M.B., Ch.B., 

Lecturer in Histology, University, Edinburgh. 

The thyroid is one of the few secreting glands which are 
devoid of ducts, and which are consequently unable to pour 
their secretion on the surface in the manner of such glands 
as the salivary. Glands of this type are known as " internally 
secreting " (Claude Bernard) or " endocrine " (Schafer), since 
the secretion elaborated is passed into interior channels or 

Structure. — ^Arising in the first instance from a pharyngeal 
outgrowth, the thyroid ultimately loses its original connection 
and develops into a gland composed of closed rounded vesicles. 
The vesicles, however (and the cells which line them), vary in 
shape and size according to functional conditions. They 
almost always contain a viscid fluid (colloid) which is the 
product of their secretion. This, as explained above, is ab- 
sorbed into the numerous blood-vessels supplied to the gland. 
In addition to blood-vessels, the thyroid receives branches 
from the autonomic (sympathetic and vagus) nerves. The 
structure varies slightly in different animals, and accessory 
thyroids are not uncommon. 

Lying behind each lobe of the thyroid, and even embedded 
within its substance, are two or more small bodies, composed 
of a compact mass of cells, known as the parathyroids. These 
were first described by Sandstrom (1880), although the in- 
ternal (embedded) parathyroids were unknown until they were 
recognised by Kohn in 1895. 

Early History. — ^The function of the thyroid remained 
obscure from the time of Galen (a.d. i 31-201) down to about 
a hundred years ago. Galen taught that its secretion lubri- 
cated the larynx ! His teaching was perpetuated by his suc- 
cessors until the eighteenth century, when Haller (1776), recog- 
nising the ductless nature of the gland, reasoned (after Ruysch) 
that its secretion was carried away by the venous blood. 
Simon (1884) made no advance on Haller when he suggested 
that, as the thyroid was extremely vascular, it served as a 
reservoir to regulate the flow of blood in the cranial cavity. 



In 1*48, Claude Bernard demonstrated the possibilities of 
internal secretion in the case of the liver, but he applied the 
term " internal secretion " in a wider sense than it is held 
to-day. The modern conception owes its origin to Brown 
S^quard (1891), who limited the term to the secretion of specific 
substances whose influence was necessary to the well-being of 
the organism. Although nothing new was learnt regarding 
the thyroid, this doctrine inspired and guided the experiments 
which were subsequently undertaken to elucidate its function. 
The earlier experiments, however, were largely prompted by 
observations on individuals suffering from disease of the gland. 

The first serious attempt at experimentation was under- 
taken by Schiff (1856). He removed the thyroids of various 
animals, but, as his observations were incomplete, little atten- 
tion was paid to them. At a later date (1884) he was encour- 
aged by the work of the Reverdins (1883), on the removal of 
goitres in human beings, to renew his former experiments on 
a larger scale. He found that dogs and cats died shortly 
after the operation, but that rabbits and rats survived. These 
results drew the attention of physiologists to the importance 
of the thyroid, and stimulated research in this direction. 

Since 1884, not only have numerous investigators con- 
firmed and added to Schiff's work, but a vast literature, re- 
quiring an encyclopaedic compilation, has come into being. 
A brief sketch of the more important results is all that may 
be attempted here, and for clearness the subject will be de- 
scribed under the headings given below. 

The Effects of Diminished Secretion : Hypothyroidism. — ^This 
condition may be brought about either by disease of the gland 
or by operative interference. 

In the condition in children known as Cretinism, the gland 
is atrophied or perhaps has never properly developed since 
birth. Symptoms do not appear until the child is weaned, 
presumably because sufficient thyroid material can be obtained 
from the mother in suckling. The signs appear slowly, for 
they are not new phenomena, but the non-appearance of 
changes which one expects to find in a growing child. Years 
may pass, and the cretin — for such it is by this time — has still 
the appearance and bearing of an infant. It is short in stature 
and stodgy, with podgy hands and feet and a pendulous belly. 
Ossification remains incomplete, and the fontanelles persist. 
The skin (likewise mucous membranes) is dry and almost hair- 
less, especially the scalp, the muscles are flabby, and the ex- 
ternal genitals are undeveloped. Want of intelligence portrays 
the non-development of the nervous system, the cretin often 
being a deaf-mute, imbecile, or idiot. The condition is, in short, 
one of complete arrested development, and almost the same 


picture is presented at whatever age the cretin may live to 
be. On feeding with thyroid substance, development may be 
induced to proceed normally, and the quiescence of months 
or even years rectified in a short space of time. The treat- 
ment, however, must be continued throughout life. Some 
cretins are known to exhibit nervous symptoms collectively 
described as " tetany." These cases McGarrison (1908) attri- 
butes to involvement of the parathyroids. He showed that 
cretinism may result from deficient thyroid secretion in the 
mother, the maternal condition being produced by the action 
of bacterial toxins absorbed from the intestinal tract. He 
traced the infection to contaminated water-supplies^ and in 
doing so, explained the endemic nature of cretinism. 

In the adult, toxins acting on the thyroid may also give 
rise to hypothyroidism, or the causal condition may be a 
tumour. The symptoms are not unlike those seen in cretinism, 
but differ in that they supervene after the body is fully de- 
veloped. Thus the integument is thickened and pseudo- 
cedematous, especially that covering the face, hands and feet. 
Increased deposition of fat adds to the appearance of thicken- 
ing and stolidity. The surface is dry, and becomes rapidly 
denuded of hair, baldness being usual, while perspiration is 
much diminished. The body temperature is lowered on 
account of diminished metabolic activity, less oxygen being 
consumed and less nitrogen broken down and excreted. Sugar, 
instead of being utilised, is largely stored as fat, and greater 
quantities can be taken without causing glycosuria. Sexual 
functions are in abeyance. Mentally, similar changes are pre- 
sent. The sufferer is apathetic, and less able to exercise her 
or his senses. In brief, hypothyroidism in the adult leads to 
a lowering of all the body functions, with its attendant 

This condition was first described by Gull (1873) as a 
" Cretinoid State supervening in Women." Some years later 
Ord (1877) labelled it Myxoedema, and correlated it with the 
thyroid ; and in 1 886, Hadden pointed out the atrophied state 
of the gland. As in cretinism, the symptoms vary in severity 
according to the degree of hypothyroidism present. This in 
turn largely depends upon the condition of the gland. In 
many cases there is a complete absence of thyroid tissue, 
which would indicate an entire absence of secretion (athyroi- 

The treatment of hypothyroidism with thyroid juice was 
first attempted by Murray (1891) in a case of myxoedema, and 
with what success may be judged from the notes of the case, 
which he has recently published. The patient recovered and 
continued in good health for twenty-eight years, during which 


time she was regularly treated with thyroid. She died even- 
tually from heart failure. Murray's results have been amply 

Complete removal of the thyroid for tumours was per- 
formed by Kocher and the Reverdins (1883) with unhappy 
results, for the patients ultimately developed myxoedema, 
treatment by thyroid medication being then unknown. Kocher 
found, however, that, if a portion of the gland was left, symp- 
toms were obviated. 

There can be no doubt that cretinism and myxcedema are 
the results of diminished thyroid secretion, for both conditions 
are alleviated by thyroid feeding, the differences between the 
two depending entirely upon the age of onset. 

Let us now turn to the results of removal (thyroidectomy) 
in animals. Schiff's important work in 1884 has already been 
cited. His results are now of little value as records of thyroi- 
dectomy, for he unwittingly removed the parathyroids in the 
course of his operations. This mistake was repeated by those 
who confirmed his results, and was not rectified until Gley 
had preached the separate function of the parathyroids and 
Kohn had described the internal glandules. The fatahty and 
nervous symptoms recorded were largely attributable to this 
error. Schiff, however, showed that some animals (rabbits 
and rats) do not suffer from thyroid deprivation. According 
to Gley, the immunity was only apparent, as in these animals 
the accessory glandules had not been removed. Schiff was also 
the first to point out that symptoms could be allayed by graft- 
ing a portion of the thyroid into the abdominal cavity. 

A host of workers subsequently carried out thyroidectomies 
— and all with such results as Schiff's. Horsley (1884), who 
was the first to investigate the effect on the monkey, described 
typical myxoedema, accompanied by nervous symptoms refer- 
able to parathyroid deprivation. Additional species were 
discovered to be insusceptible— birds by Allara (1885), and 
herbivora by Sanguirica and Orrechia (1887). According to 
Briesacher (1890), the immunity was merely a question of diet, 
for all the immune animals were vegetarians. 

Later and more careful work by Gley, Horsley, Vincent 
and Jolly, and others showed that the general effect of thyroi- 
dectomy alone, in the young, was arrested development, in the 
adult, a lowered state of function, with or without a myxoe- 
dematous condition of the skin. Further, the older the animals, 
the less were they affected. The following symptoms were 
observed : Thickening and dryness of the integument, loss 
of hair, wasting followed by adiposity, general weakness, 
lowered temperature, sexlessness, nervous depression result- 
ing in dullness and apathy, and lowered metabolism, including 


a high sugar tolerance. The condition was essentially chronic, 
and death usually supervened as the result of intercurrent in- 
fection. Exceptions to the above may be found in the records 
of most observers, e.g. cats and dogs have occasionally showed 
no discomfort after thyroidectomy, or merely transient symp- 
toms. Nevertheless, despite the discrepancies which have 
been recorded, there is no doubt that the general effects of 
thyroid deprivation, whether produced by disease or excision, 
are strikingly similar, and may be observed in all mammals 
with few exceptions. These exceptions may be explained as 
the result of anatomical peculiarities such as the presence of 
remote accessory thyroids (Gley) or the vicarious functioning 
of other glands, e.g. parathyroids (Vincent and Jolly) or the 
pituitary [Rogowitsch (1886) found this gland to be hyper- 
trophied after thyroidectomy]. 

The Effects of Increased Secretion : Hyperthyroidism. — Here, 
as in hypothyroidism, the effects may be produced either ex- 
perimentally or as the result of disease. Hyperthyroidism may 
be artificially induced by injecting a liquid extract of the 
gland substance or by feeding with the gland itself. The 
former method was first employed by Oliver and Schafer (1895). 
They showed that the only immediate result of injecting was 
a temporary lowering .of blood-pressure due to dilatation of 
the blood-vessels. Whether this is a specific effect is doubt- 
ful, since a similar result may be obtained with most tissue 
extracts. On prolonged administration, a characteristic train 
of symptoms develops. The skin becomes lax, hot and moist 
from increased perspiration. Weight is lost, and fat disappears 
from regions where it is normally abundantly present, e.g. sub- 
cutaneous tissues, bone-marrow, etc. [Leichtenstern (1893)]. 
Metabolism is accelerated, and there is an increased consump- 
tion of food [Ord, White, Mendel (1893)], of oxygen [Magnus- 
Levy (1895)], and hence a greater excretion of nitrogen and 
carbon dioxide. The liver is emptied of its glycogen [Krause 
and Crammer (19 13)], and the pancreas (rat) exhibits extensive 
mitoses within a week of feeding [Kojima (191 7)]. Sugar 
tolerance is lowered and glycosuria readily provoked. The 
heart hypertrophies [Herring (1916)] and beats at a faster 
rate (tachycardia), and the blood-pressure is persistently 
raised. Nervous activity is also enhanced, tremors, mental 
excitement, protrusion of the eyeballs (or exophthalmos), and 
dilatation of the pupils being commonly observed. Some of 
the above symptoms, e.g. those pertaining to the heart, blood- 
pressure, and eye, are the same as those produced by stimula- 
tion of the sympathetic, and are probably effected by the 
internal secretion of the suprarenal gland (adrenalin). Evidence 
of an increased secretion of adrenalin is supplied by Fraenkel 


(1909), and more recently by E. R. Hoskins and by Herring 

As might be expected, the symptoms of hyperthjToidism 
are the opposite of those of hypothyroidism, and result from 
increased functional activity of the tissues generally. 

The same changes occur in man in the disease known as 
Exophthalmic Goitre, first described by Parry (1825), and 
later by Graves (1835) and Basedow (1840). Tremors, exoph- 
thalmos, tachycardia, high blood-pressure, a high metabolic 
rate, and nervousness are typically present, and, in addition, 
there is usually a marked swelling of the thyroid gland in the 
neck. The similarity with the symptoms produced by exces- 
sivejthyroid feeding is too close to avoid the conclusion that 
the ' mechanism is the same in both cases. Moreover, the 
enlargement of the gland and the histological picture of hyper- 
secretion adds to the probability, even although no definite 
proof of an increase of thyroid secretion in the circulating 
blood is available. 

Lastly, it is of interest that both myxoedema and exoph- 
thalmic goitre occur more commonly in women, in whom the 
thyroid normally enlarges during menstruation and especially 
during pregnancy. 

The Function of the Thyroid in the Lower Vertebrates. — 
Most work has been done on amphibians, and according to 
Gudernatsch (19 12), who initiated these experiments, feeding 
tadpoles with thyroid caused them " to metamorphose . . . 
weeks before the control animals did so." Miniature frogs, 
with well-formed limbs and abdominal and other organs, could 
be produced in less than three weeks in this way. Thyroi- 
dectomy, on the contrary, arrests differentiation [Hoskins and 
Morris (191 6)], the tadpoles remaining larval although the 
gonads continue to develop [Allen (191 7)]. The above results 
are strictly comparable with those obtained in mammals, and 
have been repeatedly confirmed. Gudernatsch 's discovery is 
of importance in that it furnishes a reliable method of detect- 
ing and estimating thyroid. 

The Nature of the Thyroid Secretion. — ^Although the actual 
secretion of the thyroid has never been obtained, an extract of 
the gland is believed to contain it. At any rate, Baumann 
(1875) was able to prepare an organic compound of iodine from 
the gland, which acts in the same way as the extracts. Iodine 
is present in nearly all normal thyroids, and it was shown by 
Reid Hunt (1904) that the activity of the gland varies directly 
with its iodine content. Lenhart (191 5), employing tadpoles, 
arrives at the same conclusion. The iodine, however, may 
be combined either in an active or an inactive form [Kendal 
(191 6), Marine and Rogoff (1916)], hence the iodine content, as 


such, is not the true criterion of activity. The active com- 
bination (Thyroxin, or CnHioOsNIa) has recently been isolated 
by Kendall (191 8), who states that it has all the physiological 
properties of thyroid itself. 

The Parathyroids. — It has already been noted that the 
earliest thyroidectomies invariably included the parathyroids, 
and hence the results were always accompanied by nervous 
manifestations (tetany). Further, these cases were rapidly 
fatal, but, as with the thyroid, exceptions occurred. There has 
been much speculation as to the function of these small glan- 
dules, some holding that the thyroid and parathyroids are 
mutually antagonistic (Rudinger), others that they are mutually 
dependent (Vincent). Macallum and Voegtlin (1909) believe 
that the latter regulates calcium metabolism, for the adminis- 
tration of calcium salts relieves tetany. There seems little 
doubt, however, that the parathyroid secretion controls the 
detoxication of guanidine, which is normally produced by the 
muscles of the body. In parathyroidectomised animals, there 
is an increase of guanidine in the blood, and after injection of 
guanidine into a normal animal, the symptom complex of tetany 
is produced [Noel Paton (19 16)]. An increase of guanidine 
is also found in the blood of children suffering from tetany 
and rickets. 

Conclusions. — ^The function of the th5rroid varies according 
to age. In the young it hastens development, in the adult it 
maintains the working of the body processes at a normal rate, 
and in the aged it probably ceases to function. The active 
principle of the thyroid is an organic compound of iodine whose 
constitution may perhaps be represented by the formula 





The philosophy of the last century regarded Evolution chiefly 
as relative to Matter. The two Primaries, Force and Matter, 
though recognised as two different entities, were found to be 
so associated with each other that Evolution was mostly referred 
to the more concrete entity, and the endeavours of scientific 
inquiry were based upon this belief. This was the unavoidable 
result ; for the material is the only aspect that is directly 
apparent to our senses. The part played by Force, the more 
important entity, was studied, but its Evolution — or " Assort- 
ment," as we shall call the change here to obviate confusion — 
was only suspected and almost overlooked. Thus it is that 
Herbert Spencer, in his Synthetical Philosophy , tells us that, along 
with the redistribution of matter composing any material 
aggregate undergoing evolution or change to complication, there 
goes on as well a redistribution of the retained motion of its 
components in relation to one another ; and this redistribution of 
motion also becomes, step by step, more definitely heterogeneous. 
This is the summary of the cardinal principles of his doctrine 
as Spencer himself prepared in his letter to Prof. Youmans.' 
There was here an attempted segregation of the two concep- 
tions, but it was not seen then that security was only to be 
found in the more abstract foundation of the two, nor does it 
seem fully appreciated now that all evolutionary changes are due 
to this assortment of Force, that the complicating process is 
directly one in Force, but only referable by our senses to the 
less abstract entity. 

In Spencer's statement, however, is to be found the beginning 
of the development of Thought that is bringing a truer knowledge 
of Nature, though in this beginning we naturally find little 
more than a subconscious recognition of important facts which 
need amplification. 

It has long been known that the impact of solidity — say of a 
^ Athencsum, July 22, 1882. 


block of ice — is produced by certain assorted forces inherent in 
the matter ; that the other physical manifestations, known as 
weight, colour, etc., are also caused by inherent forces ; that the 
other properties of this substance in the liquid state are due to 
certain liberated forms of Energy which now manifest themselves 
in the " work " characteristic of this state ; that the change 
from the liquid to the gaseous forms of matter, in turn, is due 
to a further liberation of energy ; and that the change from the 
molecular form to the simpler atomic one is conditioned by a 
further liberation of energy, such as we bring about by electro- 
13'^ses. These deductions are only such as concern the physical 
change in the same atomic structures, but our knowledge of 
Force has been further enlarged by the study of radio-activity, 
for here we become acquainted with a change that reveals the 
construction of the atom itself, now actually resolvable, in part 
at least into electronic activity, theoretically into nothing but 
electronic activity. Further, here the disintegration of the 
radio-active atom has been found to be no pure disintegration, 
but one occurring pari passu with the necessary accompaniment 
of a change from an unstable substance to a more stable one 
— no true retrogression in the complexity of the original sub- 
stance, for the uranium atom or the thorium atom, losing its 
electrones, becomes also transmuted through a gradual series 
of substances until some final products, in each case, of greater 
stability and of high atomic complexity or heterogeny as well, 
are produced, i.e. the change from heterogeny to homogeneity 
represents only the cycle taken by the emanation and the re- 
sultant simplex of the helium atom ; the necessary accompani- 
ment — the change from uranium to probably lead, from thorium 
to probably bismuth; — being still one retaining its heterogeny ,^ 
a change from one complex into another complex and no true 
simplification. It is a natural truth that simplification does 
not occur here, without complication there. 

Spencer assumed that, with the complication or Evolution 
of Matter, matter became more integrated, and in this integration 
stored up a greater quantity of Force than it dissipated ; but 
when Matter underwent simplification or dissolution, it became 
disintegrated, and in this disintegration it dissipated more Force 
than it stored in itself. He further assumed that these two 
changes were going on simultaneously and incessantly in Nature, 
and that the alternating disequilibrium between the two changes 
was rhythmical. 

This is the truth, but only the partial truth, for as a result of 

these universal rhythms — to which we are now attributing even 

all chemical change ^ — there are other concurrent cycles produced 

in the storing up of Force, represented, only in a simpler form, 

^ Cf. Science Progress, January 1920, p. 376. 


by the dual transmutation in radio-activity, and we see now 
how, in this rhythmical action. Force itself is becoming more 
and more complicated or " assorted " by the formation of 
more stable association. The " Ultimate Equilibration "formu- 
lated by Spencer, the final rest in Matter, is thus an impossi- 
bility, or at least further postponed by a factor unknown in his 
day, for this dual action must necessarily be regarded as leaving 
a simplex capable of continuing the complication, not as leaving 
a complex capable of continuing the simplification. 

The rhythms of Nature are manifested in all changes. They 
have recently been referred to/ and considered to be the direct 
result of Cosmic influences, showing themselves, as well in animal 
and vegetable cells, as if the protoplasm itself had, as it were, 
absorbed and retained these rhythmical properties from Cosmic 
sources. This " assimilation " is not confined to protoplasm 
alone, but is being gradually discovered to be a property of all 
Matter. The fundamental rhythms obviously serve the uni- 
versal purpose of storing up more and more Force in an assorted 
form within the unit with each cyclic change undergone by the 
unit. It is in such repetition of these actions that the increasing 
quantities of Force absorbed and complicated has resolved itself 
into atomic energy within an atom so created, and that the 
molecule has been produced by the further assortment of this 
atomic energy into molecular energy. Similarly, colloidal, 
enzymic, biotic, and psychic energies can be considered the 
successive steps in this assortment of Force. This " Evolution 
of Matter " can only be accounted for and explained by 
assuming that the assorted rhythms of Force were capable of 
creating, by interaction among themselves, other rhythms as 
the result of assorted Forces ; that the, interaction of these 
newer rhythms were capable of producing still other rhythms 
or vibrations, and so on until a state of high complexity is 
attained. This is what Spencer was conscious of when he says 
that Force becomes step by step more heterogeneous. 

It is the development of this conception that concerns us 
here, for in the light of modern knowledge we are in a better 
position to elaborate this idea than Spencer ; we are beginning 
to realise that the basis of Matter itself is the expression of the 
assortment of Forces. We will apply ourselves to endeavour 
to show that the formation of these ultra-rhythms is as much a 
reality as any change we see in the laboratory. A digression 
into elementary physics is here necessary, for the interaction is 
more accessible to our understanding in the more primitive and 
simpler forms of rhythmic motion. 

Let us consider the periodic rhythm responsible for sound. 

If two simultaneous note-vibrations of the same frequency 
^ Science Progress, January 1920, p. 418; 


meet, there is no interference between the two notes, no addi- 
tional vibration ; but if their frequencies are different — say one 
possessing A vibrations per second, the other A+2 vibrations — 
it is obvious that in half a second the second note makes one 
vibration more than the first ; each would therefore be in 
exactly the same phase of the wave in each half-second. A 
particle under the influence of the two vibrations will therefore, 
once every half-second, be subjected to a maximum one, due to 
the combined waves ; it is obvious that this maximum displace- 
ment represents an additional vibration or rhythm of two per 
second. The number of these " beats " or additional vibrations 
per second corresponds to the numerical difference in the fre- 
quencies of the two notes, which as far as we know remain 
themselves unaltered. Such interference between two waves, 
if insufficient to produce destruction of the fundamental notes, 
will unavoidably produce reinforcement : this is what we mean 
by an assortment of Forces in its simplest aspect. Another 
example in sound vibration of a superadded rhythm is the over- 
tone, which has probably an origin in analogous interference. 

The interaction between wave lengths of all sorts is ubiquitous 
in nature, and obeys the same laws of interference. In a suitable 
medium, when the rays of white light pass through a prism, 
dispersion reveals vibrations of other wave lengths in the colours 
of the spectrum ; wave lengths that in a repassage through another 
prism produce again white light. White light is thus an " over- 
tone " ^ produced by the suitable adjustment of vibrations of the 
fundamental colours of the spectrum. That the fundamental 
vibrations of colours is not seen in white light in the same way that 
the fundamental notes are audible along with the superadded 
vibrations is, of course, not opposed to this assumption. That 
these two types of vibration obey the same laws of interference 
is shown by the fact that complete interference between two 
waves will in either case cause destruction. Another example 
of the creation of an overtone is shown in the magnetic action of 
an electric current : it is known that, if a small single electric 
cell be floated in water and a loop of insulated copper wire be 
connected to its poles, the cell will in every way behave like a 
magnet. We know certain wave vibrations are emitted from 
a current conveying wire even though insulated, for these are 
shown to deviate a magnetic needle. Magnetism can thus be 
considered as much the overtone of electric vibration as a 
superadded vibration is of two discordant notes. It must be 
noted that an induced current is not an overtone of magnetism, 
but an overtone of an interrupted magnetic induction only. 

^ This term, for the sake of simpUcity, will be used to signify a super- 
cycle of vibration, irrespective of the nature of the fundamental waves, unless 
otherwise specified. 



That the assortment of Force itself is in cycles or periods, and 
brought about primarily by Cosmic influences, is shown by the 
periodic changes in Terrestrial Magnetism synchronous with the 
periodic activity of the Sun as seen by the presence of spots on 
the solar disc ; an activity which itself is due to the periodic 
concentration of gravitational forces, from the fact that the 
planets are placed at certain periods in such a position that they 
act together on one part of the solar disc. Incidentally we may 
mention how, as the result of this solar activity, the quantity of 
Terrestrial Magnetism is increasing in definite periods, and how its 
distribution and intensity vary geographically in definite waves. 
In the chemical laboratory, any coloured precipitate shows 
that, besides the chemical reaction, there are also other insepar- 
able physical changes — thermo-chromic or electro-magnetic — 
which are due to the assortment of certain forces in action, and 
which are necessarily " overtones " of the operating forces. 

It is in the more abstract and more highly developed forms 
of natural activity that these changes are more pronounced 
though more complex. The study of Ethics affords a good 
example. According to Fichte,^ the basis of morality is 
reduced to a " moral Fatalism," presumably worked by Fear 
— a something which we prefer to call an " instinct," in the 
generic meaning of the term, inasmuch as it comprises all those 
psychic powers which lead to a conscious performance of actions 
that are adaptive in character according to the economic require- 
ments of Nature relative to the unit ; actions that are pursued 
by the unit at the command of Nature's pre-knowledge, but 
without the necessary knowledge, on the part of the unit, of the 
means employed or the ends attained. Such an instinct is 
created and developed by the interaction, Hke any other over- 
tone, between certain forces : the activity of the human mind, 
or psychic energy, on the one hand, and contact with the dangers 
threatening the Human Herd on the other in the case of the 
Human Race. Thus did this instinct arise, and its active 
manifestation is represented in the protective Law of the Herd. 
The controversy raised between Fichte and Schopenhauer will 
be recalled. Schopenhauer realised that Fear was only capable 
of generating an order analogous to that of an animal community : 
the fuller development of Civilisation, as we know it to-day, 
being only possible by the quickening of Compassion,* what we 
would call another Instinct or assorted form of psychic energy, 
rising directly by the interaction between demonstrating the 
natural importance of the well-being of the individual on the one 
hand, and the Law of the State or of the Human Herd on the 

* System der Sittenlehre and Die Wissenschaftslehre in ihrem Allgem. 
Umrisse Dargestellt. 

* The Basis of Morality, -part in, cha.Tp.v,a,ndpa,Ttvv. 


other — a Law which was made for the protection of the com- 
munity as a whole only, and not developed enough to consider 
any of the units individually comprising that community. This 
is a point that Fichte, in his myopia, overlooked to explain the 
genesis of morality, for the fact remains that the Instinct of 
Compassion, as developed by the Doctrine of Christianity, inter- 
acted with the Law of the Human Herd and created the overtone 
of Civilisation as we see it developed to-day in a Christian 

These deductions, though in the realms of abstract thought, 
are indisputable, the interactions concerned being fundamentally 
the same as the more primitive ones between physical forces, 
for rhythmical action is the method of all physiological and 
psychological motion. The age periods, sleep, and other 
diurnal cycles, the monthly cycles and the periods in vegetable 
life, in innumerable variety, are well known, to mention but a 
few physiological periods. Of the pathological periods, we have 
certain periodic diseases and the periodic insanities : Folie 
Circulaire, Psychorhythm, Folie k Double Forme, Circular 
Insanity, Periodic Mania, Katatonia, etc. The impossibility 
is to find any true exception in both normal and abnormal 

Thus it is that rhythmical vibrations, inherent in the Sun on 
the one hand, and in our planet on the other, have been able 
to produce overtones, which have ever complicated themselves 
into the various forms of energy responsible for these organised 
changes. It is the assortment of these forces that takes us 
from the more primitive to the more complex forces, until we 
get to the level of the Psyche. The physiology of the living 
body and the psychology of the mind are rich in examples of 
this periodic action and its superimposed overtones. Let us 
consider this assortment of Force from (i) the Cosmic, (2) the 
Physical, and (3) the Biological aspects. 

The Cosmic aspect of the Assortment of Force naturally takes 
us to its very foundations. Bode's Law of the relative distances 
of the planets is only explicable as the result of rhythmical action 
conditioned by the antagonism between gravitational and 
electro-magnetic forces ; for it is here a general law that all 
opposing forces react against each other in rhythms. While 
the gravitational forces are dependent only upon the masses of, 
and the distances between, the bodies, and vary rhythmically 
according to the periodic alteration in distance : the electro- 
magnetic forces are dependent upon radiation, which is in itself 
rhythmical in nature. If we accept the Nebular Hypothesis as 
assuming the formation of the first ring in a Primaeval Nebula, 
we see that the gravitational forces of the ring would be dimin- 
ished, compared to those in the centre, by the centrifugal element, 


and we must also suppose that'the electro-magnetic forces of the 
ring would, at one time, be less than those in the centre ; hence 
we have a flow of electro-magnetic forces — one form of which is 
light radiation — from the centre of the ring, and directly the 
electro-magnetic content of this ring approaches an equilibrium 
with the electro-magnetic force of the centre, repulsion is the 
result, i.e. the distance must be adjusted to meet the require- 
ments between the respective quantities of the two forces. It 
is this rhythmical action or equilibrium that probably accounts 
for the repulsion of each subsequent ring, and ultimately for 
the relative distances specified in Bode's Law : the regular 
order of which can be due to nothing but the result of forces in 
rhythmical disequilibrium and equihbrium : the regular increase 
of distance of each subsequent planet being dependent on the 
diminution of gravitational forces due in part to the increased 
distance, together .with the repulsion, not so much altered by 
distance, and having therefore an increasing effect in each 
successive ring. 

Here we have a series of cycles with a common central focus, 
and as a result of this action tending to equilibrium, and depen- 
dent upon it, we have a supercycle with the secondary focus in 
the centre of the primary. This supercycle is the rotation of 
the planets upon their own axes ; the cycle of their satelhtes 
originating in, and being part of, this rotational movement. 
How this arises does not concern us here, except that it is 
sufficient to realise that this superadded cycle is a rhythmical 
cycle analogous in origin to an overtone. The fact that these 
are separate schemes of rotation, though indirectly dependent 
upon the main cycle, is shown in the discrepancies that have 
developed in the order of motion : one of which is the Martian 
satelhte Phobos rotating in a lesser time than its primary — a 
condition which can only be possible if the dissipation of energy 
were greater in the primary than in the satellite, probably 
conditioned by a more retaining atmospheric envelope in the 
latter. Another aberration from the general arrangement in 
motion in the System is in the movement perpendicular to the 
elliptic, instead of from east to west, of the satellites of Uranus 
and Neptune, and probably of the rotation of these two primaries 
as well. The other discrepancy has resulted in the saturnian 
satelhte, and two jovian ones, in going even farther than this 
and rotating in a different direction, aberrations that meet the 
analogy of overtone action ; for they are, in every way, forms of 
motion originally caused by the same forces, but which com- 
plicated themselves independently from the original forces as 
the result of interference. 

In the Systems, as everywhere else, this complication of Forces 
is the order. A retrogression or simplification has a doubtful 


possibility. These rhythms are fundamental, and it cannot be 
doubted that a rhythm dependent upon the alternating reactions 
between two forces can only be destroyed by complete interfer- 
ence between the two waves ; and if this destruction were to 
extend to all the forces in opposition in order to make a Final 
or Ultimate Equilibration possible, we would possibly arrive 
at a Cosmos with nothing, not even Matter, for Matter itself 
is but a manifestation of Force, ^ a conception that is 

Considering Bode's Law in relation to the Law of the Con- 
servation of the Moment of Momentum, and the Theory of 
Dynamic Stability, we find how forces, most probably electro- 
magnetic, are gradually causing each planet to recede from the 
Sun : the visible effect of this force is seen in the outward 
deflection of light during an eclipse due to the Sun's gravitational 
field. The beginning of the fundamental cycle of these forces 
being possibly as we have considered above, the end being only 
possible by an end to this rhythmical antagonism — a complete 
disequilibrium between the gravitational and electro-magnetic 
forces ; and since the first is getting less as the distances increase 
from a planet to the centre, and the second is getting greater 
with time, it is possible that the general scheme will alter by 
the outer planet Neptune getting so far beyond gravitational 
influences that a change will be inevitable. 

That our planets are being slowly repelled from the Sun is 
an established fact, as it is also that our quantity of Terrestrial 
Magnetism is gradually getting greater. The Law of the Con- 
servation of Momentum in our System holds good now ; but 
we do not know that it will hold good for all Eternity. Neither 
can we consider that this repulsion would result finally in leaving 
nothing but the Sun as the remnants of our System ; for the 
Sun itself, and the whole System, has a cycle of its own, of 
which we are at present utterly ignorant. This much we know, 
however, that our whole System is moving en masse towards the 
constellation of Lyra, and this movement is probably part of an 
unknown, undetermined cycle, for we know of no other kind of 
movement in the scheme of Nature. 

Bearing this last fact in mind, a Final Equilibration, as 
imagined by Herbert Spencer in the Synthetical Philosophy, 
seems beyond all possibility. 

There are other periodic movements, such as deviations from 
the orbital and rotational plane, and probably cometal move- 
ments, that contribute to the fundamental rhythm in the 
assortment of Forces. 

Let us consider the matter from a nearer physical aspect. 

If we accept Cox's hypothesis ^ of the Evolution of the 
* Cf. Cox, Beyond the Atom, p. 145. - Ibid. 


Atom, we must either agree with Thomson and Helmholtz 
in attributing the formation of Matter to possibilities that 
no longer exist to-day in our System, or to another possibility 
that cannot be overlooked — namely, that the formation of Matter 
as an overtone or integration of Forces — " knots in the Ether," 
as Maxwell and Thomson conceived the beginning — is still 
going on around us to-day, but so very slowly that we have 
as yet no means of estimating its increase, and therefore, as far 
as our senses are capable of instructing us, the corollary to the 
Law of the Conservation of Energy and Matter ; that matter 
cannot be created still remains apparent. Yet in the physical 
world we are acquainted with other Laws that support the 
hypothesis that Forces are assorting themselves into hetero- 
geneous complexities, manifested to our senses as new creations. 
Newland's Law of Octaves, Mendeleeff's Periodic Law, and 
Moseley's tables ^ have in themselves no direct connection with 
rhythmical action such as we are considering in " periods " ; but 
these Laws concern us, inasmuch as they represent, as it were, 
an artificial tabulation of certain recurring properties among the 
elements that point to their creation as the result of rhythmical 
action ' — ^fitful analogies to Bode's Law. This particular rhythm 
is beginning to be known now to us in our newer ideas of chemical 

Further, our knowledge of physical chemistry tells us, not 
only of the probabilities of a new creation or assortment, but 
of the certainty that rhj^thmical action is the basis of all Nature ; 
as we have seen, radio-activity supports our ideas of new 
rhythms or overtones developing from the interactions of the 
main cycles, as does the fact that the stability of a chemical 
substance is conditioned by the assortment of forces — an over- 
tone within itself, dependent on the fundamental Cosmic rhythm ; 
for example, gaseous carbon is rendered more stable by the 
manifestation of certain forces and the latency of others within 
itself, as it changes its physical state from the gaseous to the 
solid crystalline form. 

Spectroscopic analyses give us a further insight into rhyth- 
mical action. A fitful analogy to the rhythm of sound, where 
a string of a piano will take up the same sound wave it would 
'emit itself when vibrated, is shown by the fact that the vapour 
of an element absorbs the same portion of the spectrum as it 
would emit if incandescent. The relation between the absorp- 
tion spectra and the emission spectra of the same element is 
obviously due to the fact that in the former the assorted forces 
in the element, together with the vibrating forces in artificial light, 

1 Cf. Introduction to Physical Chemistry, James Walker. 

2 Cf. The Radio-Elements and the Periodic Law, F. Soddy, F.R.S. 

3 Science Progress, January 1920, p, 376. 


have resulted in absorption or wave interference * in one place 
and not in the rest of the spectrum, which still vibrates with arti- 
ficial light, while in the latter, combustion shows only the vibra- 
tions, the same vibrations that in the latter case were invisible 
owing to interference — ^vibrations proper to the element itself, 
and not that of artificial light. The absorption, then, though 
it represents destruction from interference as we apply it experi- 
mentally, is actually due to a construction in the assortment of 
forces in the element itself, forces manifested to us only in its 
emission spectrum. The more highly assorted these forces are 
in the element, the greater is the absorption spectrum ; the 
simpler the element, the more continuous is its spectrum. If we 
look at a red object through blue glasses, we see it black, like 
the absorption band of an element ; if we view it as it is, we see 
it red, for it emits only the red rays, like the emission spectrum 
of our standard element ; the rest it has absorbed. This inter- 
ference in radiation has only one possible explanation — namely, 
that the object itself possesses the inherent vibrations that 
enable it to destroy some of the applied light vibrations ; that 
is, a black object possesses certain inherent vibrations in its 
assorted natural structure that are capable of causing complete 
interference or absorption of all the vibrations of white light. 
Such an assortment of forces in the element is naturally per- 
manent — as permanent as the atomic construction of the element 
and as indestructible. Were a gradual retrogression to the 
primitive continuous spectrum theoretically possible, it would 
necessarily be only towards a fresh beginning to the rhythm of 
a complicated cycle. 

Our further examination of Light reveals certain other 
qualities in its nature that confirm its analogy with electric 
phenomena : as magnetism represents an overtone of electricity, 
so does the polariscope tell us that there are some vibrations 
in white light executed in other planes than that of polarised 
light, the simplest form of light vibration. This is another 
aspect of light vibration — a super-overtone independent of, and 
relative to, colour vibration : an overtone relative to white light. 

In considering this quality relative to substances, we must 
bear in mind that the more highly developed the substance, the 
less primitive light phenomena it possesses, in a sense that, here 
as elsewhere, complexity seems to be the aim of Nature ; that 
is, that the properties of a molecular substance which is said to 
be " optically active," when both aspects of the substance's 

* The analogy between Sound and Light vibrations is more complete as 
we realise that two sound wave lengths, reaching the ear by two different 
paths, will cause complete destruction or silence, if the paths of the two 
vibrations differ in length by half a wave length ; similarly complete mutual 
interference between two rays of light will cause destruction or darkness. 


primitive nature are still apparent, " dextro-rotatory " or " laevo- 
rotatory," when only one aspect is present, are due to the relative 
assortment of forces within their molecular structures, properties 
that do not vary with the physical state of the molecule, so long 
as the molecular integrity remains, but only vary with the nature 
of the particular substance. 

When this particular assortment has attained its highest 
complexity, there is an absence of polariscopic phenomena. 
That the molecular integrity is also capable of colour pheno- 
mena is naturally admitted. Here a crystal of copper sulphate 
absorbs all but the greenish-blue vibration ; if emission were 
possible without molecular disintegration, it would theoretically 
emit all vibrations but the greenish-blue ; indeed, we see the 
momentary evidence of this in the first stages of the emission 
spectrum of a molecular substance. 

The biological aspect of overtones is even more apparent, and 
the development of Life, considered in this light, is more readily 
understood from our views on Immunity, possibly because here 
they are an aspect of Nature with which we are better acquainted. 

Here it is proved, on very good evidence, that certain sub- 
stances overproduced by the cells of an organism for its defence 
— lysins of all sorts — have the same origin and mechanism as 
certain substances overproduced by the ingestion of foodstuffs 
into the economy of the cell. It follows, from this and other 
equally supportive evidence, that a substance ingested either as an 
unaccustomed food or a poison will, by its degree of toxicity or 
dissimilarity to the cell, cause the cell to produce a substance to 
neutralise the harmful effects, and at the same time will cause 
the cell itself to become so altered in its molecular complexity 
that these harmful effects are no longer possible. MetchnikofF, 
in his Theory of Phagocytosis, deals more with the retention 
of these newly formed substances within the cell that alter 
its molecular structure than Ehrlich does, who pays more 
attention to the mechanism of production in his Theory of Im- 
munity ; but the fact remains that the construction of the cell 
is altered by moderately adverse nutrition ; and, up to a point, 
the more gradual and reasonable, for the economic survival of 
the cell, be the application of the harmful effect, the greater will 
be the reaction produced by the cell towards its survival. This 
is essentially the basis of Wright's vaccine treatment : to regu- 
late the amount of poison administered to the cell, in order to 
promote its greatest reactive recovery. These curious inter- 
actions are in every way analogous to our conception of over- 
tones, only that here the cell itself is altered, and in the case 
of a more primitive overtone, the fundamental rhythms seem to 
remain the same : it is probable that the higher in the ladder of 
complexity be the assortment of force, the more is the effect on 


the fundamental cycle ; in such an organised system of Forces as 
our Solar System, the super-cycles or overtones of the Satellites 
are capable of exerting an appreciable action upon the 
fundamental cycle, contributing as they do to the Moment of 
Momentum of the System. 

With our knowledge of Immunity, then, we can see what was 
probably the beginning and development of Biotic Energy : a 
primitive enzyme existing in an unsuitable medium — for every 
medium must necessarily be unsuitable in some degree, the 
converse being only possible with an ultimate equilibrium — 
must produce a something to render the medium less harmful, 
and at the same time the enzyme must alter its own complexity 
to promote its survival ; for though no complete equilibration 
is possible. Nature is nevertheless working in this direction. 
A slow repetition of these processes will account for the 
" genesis " and development of Biotic Energy to its present 

That these overtones or super-rhythms are more permanent 
than the overtones of sound vibration is clearly shown by certain 
indisputable facts : the latter are only possible in the medium 
of our atmosphere ; but as Helmholtz, in his vortex theory, 
proved, were it possible to start such rhythms in an atmosphere 
of no density, their permanency would be ensured. Again, 
even in our atmosphere, the more complex these overtones, the 
more permanent is their nature ; it seems as if, in their com- 
plexity, they have made provisions to avoid natural resistance. 
We see this provision and persistence in such overtones as those 
responsible for Natural Immunity, and in the Laws of Heredity 
we also meet with a superabundance of similar evidence. A 
tree imported to the Northern from the Southern Hemisphere, 
such as the Eucalyptus, will show the persistence of an overtone 
in manifesting its natural partial autumnal change out of time 
with the new climate, and independently from the rhythms of 
the fundamental forces of the Sun as it lives in the new climate. 
Again, in heredity, we see that only the transmission of certain 
overtones from the parent to the offspring can explain the law 
that like begets like and the transmission of acquired characters. 
Further, the rhythmical nature of the operating forces is clearly 
demonstrated in the obedience to the Mendelian Law. All these 
facts support the views expressed elsewhere, that the living 
protoplasm retains some of the periodic forces from Cosmic 
sources.^ These two branches of science almost raise the theory 
under discussion to the dignity of established facts. 

In this light, the " pangenetic particles " of matter that con- 
vey certain complexes of matter to the organs of reproduction, 
as assumed by Darwin's theory of Pangenesis, can be considered 
^ Science Progress, January 1920, p. 418. 


to exercise this virtue by conveying in their material selves the 
necessary assorted forces for their function. This is the only 
reasonable conclusion we can come to, for no mere particle of 
matter can become so endowed by absorbing more inert matter 
only : it is only the absorption of the necessary forces that can 
possibly give this endowment. The same vein of argument 
apphes to Weismann's theory of the Continuity of the Germ- 
plasm. The germplasm can only be considered to possess its 
virtue because of an assorted form of energy within itself ; it 
therefore deserves the more embracing term " germ-energy." 
Here the assumed mechanism of Weismann's theory shows the 
characterisitc superimposition of overtones : the assortment of 
forces capable of building up the organismal entity or pattern 
are capable as well of building up another potential pattern, 
which is manifested to us later in the offspring. The mysteries 
of " variation," " mutation," " reversion," show the mani- 
festation of these potential portions of the whole assorted 
complex. Further, in the Mendelian Law itself we have the 
periodic character of this superimposition — the responsible 
forces being in every way analogous to rhythmic action and 
its dependent overtones. 

The next assortment of forces from Biotic to Psychic com- 
plexity is the logical outcome of this rising assortment. Here, 
again, the conception of " Bioplasm" and " Psychoplasm " is 
liable to confusion — for its ambiguity almost presupposes that 
Force is but a part or attribute of Matter. Here the periodic 
cycles of the activities of the body, dependent upon the action 
of the Psychic batteries, is well known to every physiologist. 
Apart from such primitive rhythms as the vaso-motor functions, 
the circulatory and respiratory cycles with their accelerator and 
inhibitory nervous mechanism, we have the higher development 
of rhythms in the Complex ; the diurnal cycle is represented by 
the rhythmical variations in the pulse-rate, temperature, and 
general resistance — the cyclic variations of this last is seen as 
the daily variation in the " Opsonic Index." The menstrual 
cycle is another example of a longer cycle. The well-known 
" periodic or alternating insanities " are examples of the 
exaggeration of imperfectly understood rhythmical changes. 
The phenomena of Hypnotism are clearly the result of an over- 
tone between the operator and the subject, with whom the latter 
is en rapport. Even the division in psychology between Sub- 
jective and Objective is slowly giving way before a deeper insight 
into the workings of the human mind : we are beginning to 
realise that our conception of an object is the result of an inter- 
action between the forces in the receiving brain and the impres- 
sions originated by certain qualities of the forces in and from 
the object, and transmitted to that brain by its apparatus of 


sensation. The concept is thus nothing but a registered over- 

There are good reasons for assuming that all nerve impulses 
are rhythmical in nature, and that the Psychic functions are 
no exception to the production of overtones. Hence new 
Psychic overtones are ever in the process of formation. The 
more our powers of mental assimilation are perfected, the more 
the properties and complexities of that concept belong to the 
causative object ; if a person learns a language indifferently, 
his attempts to speak in this language reveal characteristics 
that are peculiar to himself. When he has mastered that 
language, some of his eloquence may still belong to himself, but 
his personal errors or aberration from the conventionalities of 
that language have diminished, and his exposition belongs 
more to the language than to himself. So it is with all know- 
ledge : in its imperfection it contains the errors belonging to 
the Human Race ; as it becomes more perfected it necessarily 
belongs more and more to the object — Nature. 

A physician can see this truth well in a case of aphasia. 
Take, for instance, such a case where the motor speech centres of 
the brain have been partially destroyed by disease ; the patient 
cannot produce speech ; he can write to dictation, though not 
spontaneously ; his attempts at reading, pronouncing, and 
spontaneous writing, faulty and laborious, are due to his faulty 
self ; but when these faults and incapacities have been corrected, 
when the adjacent parts of the brain have been educated to 
meet the requirements, he can more faithfully pronounce and 
write the thoughts emanating from his higher centres, and more 
accurately read what is written before him. A condition known 
as syringomyelia, where an individual is born without the 
nerve-channels capable of conveying thermal impressions to 
the brain, will render overtones relative to the temperature of 
an object impossible of formation : a block of ice and a hot- 
water bottle fail to produce the normal impression in the 
patient's mental complex, where the knowledge of the natural 
phenomena of heat is so wanting as to render the unconscious 
self-infliction of burning of frequent occurrence in such cases. 
The assortment of certain forces in the mental complex has here 
been impossible owing to the lack of the material channels. 

Similarly, in the treatment of a case of cretinism, where the 
development of the potential mental complex has not taken 
place on account of the absence of the requisite molecularly 

^ Cf. Science Progress, January 1920, p. 475 : " The combination of the 
movement of thought, so that the successive conditions may be produced, 
depends on an extraordinarily compUcated underlying mechanism, the 
physical correlative to the mental state ; and the successive impacts giving 
rise to new mental states." 


assorted forces which we know by the name of Thyroid Extract, 
the molecular energy given in the form of this extract is capable, 
in part at least, of bringing about the development of the com- 
plex. No physician can possibly attribute the improvement 
to the Matter itself : were the elements comprising the extract 
separated from their molecular integrity and administered in 
their proper proportions, but not in molecular combination ; 
not only is no improvement possible then, but the patient 
would be found in time to be suffering from iodine poisoning ! 
It follows that this improvement is not due to the material 
extract, but is solely due to the assorted forces present in the 
material integrity of the molecular complex of the extract. 
Similarly, any increase in knowledge will be essentially due to 
the further assortment of Psychic Forces. 

We have reached a stage in the development of Knowledge 
where Evolution, Heredity, and all other changes are being 
referred to the hidden springs of Forces, and not to an inherent 
part of Matter. The fallacies of the philosophy of the last 
century, when Herbert Spencer, almost as an afterthought, 
conceived the idea of considering the heterogeneous complication 
of Force along with the Evolution of Matter as two separate 
processes working towards an equilibrium eventually to be 
realised, must necessarily give way before the greater truth : 
that it is the Forces of Nature that are becoming more complex 
and assorted, and it is through Matter alone that we are able to 
sense this development. The Ultimate Equilibration imagined 
between Force and Matter has been attributed a reality it does 
not possess. It is seen that in the unit undergoing dissolution 
only some of its assorted forces are dissipated ; certain overtones 
responsible for Civilisation, Evolution, and Heredity necessarily 
survive. The Main Cycle in the complexity of Force is still on 
the upward grade, and whether this cycle possesses an actual 
downward course — a trough after its crest — towards simplifi- 
cation is open to doubt ; for in nature, as we see it to-day, we 
do not find any evidence, other than by analogy to other 
cycles, of this simplification. The formation of overtones 
from Nature's rhythms seems the only hypothesis capable of 
explaining the chief methods of Nature. The development of 
this conception may be fruitful in its results. All material 
development must be referred to the right entity, for it is the 
abstract entity Force that is undergoing steady development 
towards heterogeny, and we are only conscious of this " relative " 
to its material counterpart, the counterpart that is more acces- 
sible to our older and more developed senses, by which we are 
beginning to see the fact that, throughout each successive period 
of simplification. Force retains more and more of its hetero- 
geneous complexities or assortments. 


To THE Editor of " Science Progress " 


From Alexander J. Smith 

Dear Sir, — The letter by the Secretary of the British Esperanto Society 
purporting to prove the superiority of Esperanto over Ido is not altogether 
convincing. In my opinion Ido is greatly superior to Esperanto as a neutral 
international language for the following reasons : 

(i) Ido is not a one-man creation, but was evolved from Esperanto by 
an International Committee of eminent scientists and linguists, who rejected 
Esperanto as unsuitable, and whose object was to give the world a perfect 
and final International Language, retaining the good points of Esperanto 
and eliminating its defects. 

(2) In Ido the special circumflexed letters, which constitute one of the 
chief defects of Esperanto, have been done away with, and Ido can there- 
fore be printed, type-written, or telegraphed anywhere. 

(3) In Ido certain useless grammatical rules found in Esperanto are 
suppressed, such as agreement of the adjective, and accusative, except 
where the accusative is required to avoid ambiguity. Even English is 
superior to Esperanto in these details of grammar. 

(4) In Ido all combinations of consonants difficult for some nations to 
pronounce, though perhaps easy enough for a Russian or Pole Uke Dr. 
Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, have been eliminated, and another 
serious defect of Esperanto removed. 

(5) In Ido the ugly a priori words and phrases which Zamenhof simply 
invented, and which make an Esperanto text look so barbaric, have been 
replaced by international expressions. To take one example, the phrase 
" all those who " is rendered in Esperanto by " chiuj tiuj kiuj." In Ido 
it is rendered by " omna ti qui." 

(6) Another ocular defect of Esperanto, the ever-recurring " aj " and 
" oj " endings of plural adjectives and nouns, has been suppressed in Ido, 
for plural nouns in Ido end in " i " and there is no agreement of the adjective. 

(7) In Ido the derivation is made regular and logical throughout. This 
is necessary for preventing idioms, and for providing a foundation for a 
complete scientific and technical vocabulary ; because a perfect inter- 
national language must meet the requirements of science and philosophy, 
as well as of commerce and ordinary life. 

(8) In Ido the roots are chosen according to the principle of maximum 
internationality. Such a formidable task could only be accomplished 
internationally by eminent linguists, and consequently Ido is more inter- 
national than Esperanto, and is already known by every educated European. 
Further, as Ido has no useless rules, no exceptions, and no idioms, it is far 
easier to learn than any national language. 

In a word, Ido is the fruit of evolution and the final solution of the inter- 
national language problem, for in addition to its other excellences it is as 
harmonious as Italian. 

The one drawback of Ido is that it is a comparative new-comer, and 




not so well known yet to the outside public as its parent Esperanto, but 
I, for one, feel convinced that, as time goes on, Ido must increase, while 
Esperanto must decrease. 

I am. Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
July 24, 1920. Alexr. J. Smith. 

To THE Editor of " Science Progress " 


A Discovery relating to Drayson's Centre of Polar Motion 

From Alfred H. Barley 

Dear Sir, — A letter appeared in the July number of Science Progress 
pointing out the fact that Drayson calculated, half a century ago, a position 
for the Apex of Solar Motion which agrees more closely with the latest 
determination (igo8) than the latter does with any other ; and the infer- 
ence was drawn, that this coincidence was due to sound astronomy and not 
to chance. 

Since that letter was in type another coincidence has been brought to 
light, quite accidentally, in the course of calculations made more or less 
out of curiosity. Before relating how the discovery came about, it may 
be useful to point out that in questions of evidence — circumstantial evidence 
that is, — (and all vital matters concerning geological or archaeological ques- 
tions really do rest on circumstantial evidence) ; — in all questions of circum- 
stantial evidence where a number of items are brought forward any one of 
which is liable to dismissal as mere coincidence not causally connected with 
the point at issue, it is not enough for Opposing Counsel to depreciate, 
seriatim, each separate item on this ground and then claim a judgment in 
his favour because of the " poverty " of the evidence. The coexistence oj 
the coincidences is itself a piece of evidence, one that requires proper examina- 
tion and should be given due weight. The presence of a small boy in a 
pantry may be a coincidence, his chin being smeared with jam may be another 
coincidence, the parchment of the jampot being broken may be a third, 
but no housekeeper would be blind to their collective significance ; and in like 
manner the cumulative value of " side-lights " of evidence (severally of small 
importance perhaps) gathers both mass and momentum from each addition. 

Now to the subject of the present letter. According to Drayson, the 
Pole of the Heavens, P, traces a circle in the sky round a point C, the 
radius of this circle being 29° 25' 47' and the period of revolution 31,756 
years. The point C is situated 6° o' o' from E, the Pole of the Ecliptic, 
and P, E, and C will be in alignment in a.d. 2295. These are the essential 
details of his discovery. 

On pondering this brief statement it will be seen that the cycle of 31,756 
years reproduces on a grand scale the main features of the common year ; 
it has a ' summer ' and a ' winter,' a ' spring ' and an ' autumn ' — ' summer ' 
in A.D. 2295 when the distance PE representing the obliquity is least 
(23°-4), and ' winter ' a.d. 18172 (or 13583 B.C.) when PE is 35°-4, twelve 
degrees greater. The four quarters of this Great Year may be shown 
graphically thus : — 



(* Spring ') 


(' Slimmer ') 


(* Autumn ') 



{•Winter ') 



the distance between P and C remaining constant, while PE varies between 

23° 25' 47' and 35° 25' 47". 

The conditions which may be presumed to have prevailed during the ' winter ' 
have been ably described by Major R. A. Marriott in his article " The Ice 
Age Question Solved " (Science Progress for April 1919), while those 
of the ' summer ' must be very like those of the present era. It occurred to 
the present writer that it would be interesting to examine the ' spring ' 
conditions, and he therefore calculated the obliquity at that epoch when PC 
and EC are at right angles to each other. (This is a simple problem ; PC 
and CE being given, in a right-angled spherical triangle, to find PE ; cos 
PC X cos CE = cos PE.) 

What was his amazement on finding it worked out to 29° 58' 53''o 1 I 

The reason for this amazement may not be obvious to the reader, unless 
he happens to remember that the Great Pyramid of Egypt, the most stupen- 
dous astronomical monument of antiquity, is situated in North Latitude 

29° 58' 51' (Piazzi Smyth). 
From which it follows that, at this epoch (5644 B.C.), the Midsummer Sun 
must have culminated exactly over the centre of the Great Pyramid. The 
exactness of this accordance will be appreciated when it is remembered 
that the whole discrepancy, viz. two seconds of arc, when reduced to linear 
measure, is only 202 feet, whereas the side of the Pyramid itself is about 
750 feet, or nearly four times as great. 

It is difficult to attribute this coincidence to chance. It looks uncom- 
monly like design ; for if the ancient architect of the Pyramid wished to 
erect a gnomon by which to determine the chronometry of the Great Year, 
he surely would relate it to one of the cardinal points of the cycle. ' spring,' 
'summer,' 'autumn,' or 'winter'; and of these points in the common 
year, spring is usually that upon which the thoughts of mankind — of poets 
and idealists at any rate — are focussed. This assumption of course pre- 
supposes on the part of the architect a knowledge of the length and other 
details of the cycle. Yet it also affords criteria by which the feasibility of such 
an assumption may be tested ; for surely, in that case, the gnomon should be 
so constructed as to indicate not spring only, but other crucial points in the 
grand cycle or Great Year. And the question may be asked. Can it do this ? 

Let us see. In the common year, March 21st is referred to as the ' com- 
mencement ' of Spring ; but June 21st is referred to as mid-summer, not 
as the ' commencement ' of summer : from which it would seem that 
March 21st would more fitly be termed mid-spring, and that February 4th 
when the Sun is half-way between winter and spring should be regarded as 
the " commencing " of spring. Certainly in the Great Year whose pheno- 
mena we are considering, the ' commencement,' in this sense, of ' spring ' — 
that is to say, the point in the cycle at which the angle PCE is 135° — must 
have been an era anticipated by prehistoric (not preintellectual) mankind 
only less eagerly than spring itself. And the question arises. Could the 
Pyramid say when this point had been reached ? 

When the angle PCE is 135° the distance PE, or in other words the 
Obliquity of the Ecliptic or the Sun's extreme declination in winter, would be 

33° 24' I's 
and calculating its altitude on December 21st we have : — 
Altitude of the pole in lat, 29° 58' 51* 

Polar distance of sun ..... 

Gives for angular distance from N. point of horizon 

take from 

Gives altitude of Sun at midday Dec. 21st 



1 33 













Now there are three long passages in the Great Pyramid, of which one 
points northward and two southward ; the inchnation of these passages is 
approximately equal, and Piazzi Smyth concludes the angle of inclination 
originally to have been, in all cases, 

26° 18' Io^ 

However, as Colonel Howard Vyse in his earlier measurements gave 
26° 41' for the northern passage, it would seem (assuming all three had 
originally the same inclination) that 

26° 37' r-1 

is not extravagantly wide of the mark. In any case, the accordance is 
near enough to be striking, and more than near enough to be practicable. 
For in spite of its length of 109 -(- 156 feet the southward-pointing passage, 
having a height of 47 inches, permits of a variation of ± 2° 3' in the direc- 
tion of vision when using the passage as an instrument of astronomical 
observation. That is to say, altitudes ranging between 

24° 15' 

28° 21' 

could be taken by using suitable " sights "; and this, too, even if we accept 
the smaller value of 26° 18' 10" (Piazzi Smyth). 

The last sentence prompts the reflection that the ' mid-winter ' point 
could likewise be observed ; for the Sun's south declination on December 21st 
would then be 35° 25' 47", whence altitude = 24" 35' 22*, which is within 
the range given. 

To summarise briefly : It has been shown that, assuming Drayson's 
cycle to be a fact in nature : — 

(i) The Great Pyramid is so situated as to have the Sun exactly — exactly — 
in its zenith at the epochs of 'spring ' and ' autumn ' in the Great Year. 

(ii) A southward-pointing passage, of great length, exists in the Pyramid, 
and is inclined at such an angle as to render possible a minutely accurate 
observation of the Sun's altitude, sufficient to determine just when those 
points in the cycle corresponding in the common year to December 21st 
(mid-winter) and February 4th (' commencement ' of spring) had been 

(iii) These facts, if not mere coincidences, certainly appear co-related. 
And i/ they are only coincidences, then, as the reader has been reminded in 
the first paragraph of this letter, they are not isolated coincidences ; for 
there is another, independent of them, which also demands explanation. 

It is true that all this implies an antiquity for the Great Pyramid greatly 
exceeding that usually attributed to it. But does not Herodotus state that 
the Egyptian priests claimed that their archives recorded astronomical 
observations extending over more than three cycles of precession ; and 
are we altogether justified in an a ■priori disbelief in such a claim ? 

One more point may be mentioned. The north-pointing ^-psissage in the 
Pyramid, as has been stated, is given an inclination of 26° 41' by Colonel 
Howard Vyse ^ ; and since the point of the heavens thus exposed to view 
is 3° 18' below the pole, it has been argued with great confidence by various 
writers on the archaeology of the Pyramid, that it dates from the time 
when — by the orthodox motion of the pole — the fixed star Alpha Draconis 

^ This value would appear to be accepted if not endorsed by Sir John 
Herschel, according to the note on p. 771, vol. vii, Encycl. Britt. (ninth 
edition), article " Egypt." Writing away from books of reference, I cannot 
look up sources. — ^A. H. B. 


(mag. 3-5) was at this distance from the pole : and a choice of two dates 
is possible, (i) when this star is approaching, and (ii) when it is receding 
from the pole. Obviously this theory requires the compound assumption 
that (a) this inclination of the passage was casual and not intentional on 
the part of the architect, and [b) that the motion of the pole was not known 
in those days (otherwise how account for their erecting a piece of archi- 
tecture of such astonishing quality of endurance, when a few centuries would 
suffice to make it astronomically out-of -truth, or at least out-of-date?). 

But if we assume the Drayson movement to be that of Nature, the argu- 
ment for design and knowledge, as against ignorance and chance, becomes 
much stronger. For on calculating the minimuin distance of Alpha Draconis 
from the pole according to this motion, one finds it to be just 3° 18', the 
quantity required ! Furthermore, the angle PCE is found to be 59° 45', 
which is sufficiently near 60° to be remarkable, as we shall see (indeed, 
if we make it exactly 60° the change in the polar distance aP thereby occa- 
sioned is imperceptible, and the difference in time is only 22 years). 

We see, then, that the Great Pyramid, with its south- and north-pointing 
passages, furnishes mankind with an enduring astronomical transit-instru- 
ment whereby the stages of the cycle represented by PCE assuming suc- 
cessively the angles, 

180°. 135°, 90°. 60" 

can be determined by solar and stellar observations with great precision. 
These positions in the cycle or Great Year correspond, it will be remem- 
bered, to the dates 

Dec. 21 Feb. 4 March 21 April 21 

Mid-winter Commencement 0} Mid-spring May-time 


in the ordinary year, and their significance as seasonal points is obvious. 
May not the Great Year, perhaps, have a similar significance as regards 
the flowering of that hardy perennial. Mankind ? 

Alfred H. Barley. 
July I, 1920. 

P.S. — A propos the last sentence, since writing this letter I have come 
across this curious passage in a work dealing with the Evolution of Symbolism : 
— ' ' They (the builders of the Pyramid) had it [that is, astronomical know- 
ledge] assuredly ; and it is on this knowledge that the programme of the 
Mysteries and of the series of Initiations was based ; hence, the construction 
of the Pyramid, the everlasting record and indestructible symbol of these 
Mysteries and Initiations on Earth, as the courses of the stars are in Heaven. 
The cycle of Initiation was a reproduction in miniature of that great series of 
cosmic changes to which astronomers have given the name of the Tropical or 
Sidereal Year [i.e. the precession cycle]. . , . Moses, an Initiate into the 
Egyptian Mystagogy, based the religious mysteries of the new nation which 
he created upon the same abstract formulae derived from this Sidereal 
Cycle. . . ." 

Note. — The " south-pointing " passage in the Pyramid, whose inclination 
I give as 26° 18', is evidently that known as the Grand Gallery ; but this does 
not extend upwards to the south face. A south-pointing passage which does 
so extend, and is often represented in Pyramid diagrams as parallel with the 
Grand Gallery, must have misled me into thinking the whole passage practic- 
ally continuous. The conclusions in (ii) of my summary must therefore be 
maintained with reserve until further details of this passage are available. 
But they could be abandoned altogether without impeaching the main points 
referred to in (i) and (iii). — A. H. B. 



To THE Editor of " Science Progress " 


From Major R. A. Marriott, D.S.O. 

Dear Sir, — Before replying to Mr. Tyrrell's letter in the July number of 
Science Progress, I have something to say about the improved prospect 
of solving this question geologically. 

It seems that the time has arrived when so much evidence has been 
collected bearing on the recency of the last glaciation that the question may 
be now treated primarily on geological lines of evidence, showing that on 
the geological side alone we are in possession of facts which enable us, quite 
as much as in any other ordinary geological assumption, to deduce an accep- 
table scheme of successive cosmical events in late earth-history. 

Adopting the truism that the obliquity of the ecliptic (O.E.) entirely 
rules the character of the seasons in these higher latitudes, surely, if opinions 
all over the world, based on the character of rock surfaces, and of morainic 
and sedimentary deposits, favour the occurrence of a greater obliquity in 
the near past, while observation records for the last 3,000 years also show a 
progressive increase in the obliquity, as we go back in time, there is an inherent 
probability, possessed by no other competing theory, that we are in touch 
with the real cause of glacial epochs. In addition, it can be shown that 
astronomical opposition to the acceptance of a marked increase of the O.E, 
is based on a paradox, which, after being tenaciously held for several genera- 
tions as a dogma, has become so unsatisfactory that it has had to be now 
reconstructed by astronomers on the lines of a theory (Drayson's) which 
dots the i's of geological inferences, and gives a full explanation of the cause 
of a recent glaciation. Thus, the inherent probability that such geological 
deductions are sound becomes greatly, and in geometrical ratio, increased. 

With one exception, that of the submerged forests, it is only plain rock- 
script that has to be read, and yet these forests furnish in themselves sufficient 
evidence on which to build a working theory of the date and duration of the 
last glacial period, inasmuch as such evidence explains fully the diagnosis 
made by Clement Reid as to the date and phases of the forests' submergence. A 
recognition of this by British geologists is the only link in the chain of a world- 
wide evidence as to a recent glaciation that is still awaiting authoritative 
acceptance ; and if judged on the evidence, without prejudice, will be found 
to fully respond to the requirements of the case, as phenomena which must 
have accompanied the process of ice accumulation at the poles, and the 
subsequent process of a steady and continuous refilling of the ocean reservoirs 
accompanying the final melting of the ice. (See The Submerged Forests and 
the Last Glaciation, Torquay Nat. Hist. Soc.) 

The controversial underlying astronomical question need not stand in 
the way of a decision, but may be left to astronomers to work out at their 
leisure, since geologists can now form their own judgment independently. 
In pursuance of this method of handling the question, geologists have a further 
justification from consideration of the following. 

The astronomers say that the cycle of precession lasts about 26,000 
years ; but it also appears that in the last century or so, during a time of 
presumably much more accurate observations, the rate of decrease of O.E., 
as one goes back in time, increases ; and since in the nature of things this in- 
crease of rate and the before-mentioned increase of the obliquity cannot go on 
indefinitely, but must change on going back in time to the opposite condition 
of decrease, to enable the whole cycle to be compassed within 26,000 years, 
there must be a culminating point beyond which the O.E. cannot go. But 
whatever this point may have been, from the geological evidence it is clear 


that it was sufi&cient to cause an extensive glaciation, and the privilege of 
finding the exact extent of change comes within the scope of astronomy. 

This view of the subject was primarily written to be translated into 
French in the interests of M. Marcel Baudouin — a convert of my first convert 
Dr. Allen Sturge — whose studies of the dolmens and menhirs of Brittany 
and their orientations impressed him so much with the need of an astro- 
nomical interpreter that he informed me that he would have had to invent 
an explanation on these lines, had Dr. Sturge not brought Drayson to his 
notice. Again, Mr. Hadrian Allcroft has lately, in the April number of the 
Nineteenth Century, argued that the astronomical date given for Stonehenge is 
on other considerations far too distant in time, and that the date is really some- 
where about 500 B.C., and not 1680 b.c, as given by Sir N. Lockyer, who 
bases his calculations on the orientation of the Hele stone, which he states 
to be 23° 54' 30". If de Horsey's curve is consulted for this obliquity, it 
will be seen that this cuts the date-line at about Mr. Allcroft's figure. 

This is far from exhausting the surprising results in the department of 
archaeology accruing from a study of the Drayson polar movement. Mr. 
Barley, whose letter to Science Progress of July 1920 provides extraordinary 
strong evidence for Drayson based on his figures for the solar apex, has 
lately discovered that the Great Pyramid, from its geographical position and 
from the orientation of its passages, constitutes a gnomon by which to 
measure the epochs of a great cycle of Precession ; and that the outcome of 
this interpretation is an almost exact agreement with the cardinal points 
of Drayson's cycle. These facts should act as a spur to geologists to assure 
them that with further endeavour the same light will guide them into all truth 
regarding the glacial periods. 

Whatever astronomers may now say, or certain geologists may imagine, 
there are now sufficient grounds for asserting that an ice period occurred 
geologically lately, and was still holding sway in the temperate zones con- 
temporaneously with times of which we have fragmentary historical records, 
as found in the seats of the ancient civilisations of Assyria and Egypt. 

We need only consider what is merely a truism that it is the tilt of the 
earth to its orbit round the sun which alone produces the phenomena of 
summer and winter. If the obliquity becomes greater, the contrast between 
them is more marked ; ice margins would be extended during the winter, while 
the summer, though hotter, would not suffice to melt the whole of the winter 
accumulation ; glaciers would thus creep further and further down the valleys, 
and the process continuing would give rise to permanent ice-sheets oblit- 
erating regions once supporting abundant life. 

The present signs denote that the same factors are in operation, but in 
the converse direction. The obliquity is decreasing ; the ice is retreating 
rapidly at both poles, and seemingly a critical point in the process has been 
reached which enables us to observe a general decrease of severity in the 
winters of temperate latitudes over large areas, emphasising, as will be shown, 
the fact that we are stiU in process of emerging from a glacial period. 

Now it is a fact, not a theory, that the obliquity has been decreasing, 
certainly for 3,000 years, i.e. since iioo b.c. It is also a fact, in accordance 
with the above, that the fringes of the polar ice-caps have been retreating of 
late ^ to the extent of thirty-six miles in forty years in the South Arctic, with 
a corresponding melting of the confines of polar ice in Alaska, and elsewhere 
in the north. There is probably some cumulative effect of various factors 
which makes itself felt intermittently, because for many years the Swiss 
glaciers, with the exception of two unimportant ones, have been steadily 
shrinking .2 This quick retreat of glaciers began about 1850, so that it seems 

^ And not only lately, as will be shown further on. 

* The recent advance of the Grindelwald glacier, I think, must be due to 
some new affluent diverted from its original course. 


as if various factors making for change obtain an increased effect from time 
to time. This also is shown by the formation of the moraines which marked 
the stages of ice-retreat in prehistoric times. 

Steenstrup shows that within the last 6,000 years the climate in Denmark 
has favoured the pine, the oak, and the beech in turn. Briickner and various 
meteorologists have been at pains to show that there has been no change of 
climate for 2,000 years. Their statements will be seen to be fairly justified 
by consideration of de Horsey's curve, which has scarcely altered for 2,000 
years, but has altered sufficiently in 6,000 years to be favourable to these 
three kinds of vegetation in turn. A recent pronouncement on our present 
mild winter by an eminent meteorologist is based on the assumption that the 
circulation of winds and waves are the main causes. These do affect the 
weather, but the world's climate is undoubtedly dominated by its degree of 
tilt to its orbit, though even this has been disputed by individuals, who 
ought to know better. In the April number of Science Progress 1920, 
I have already recounted the various evidences of a recent glaciation from 
all parts of the world, though I omitted to add the evidence from Scotland 
and Norway, and the full evidence of the very striking corroboration supplied 
by the submerged forests. If this last evidence stood alone, it should 
compel attention. It is sufficient here to say that they represent the effect 
of a rise of sea-level caused by an enormous melting of the ice, in the spring, 
as it were, of the cycle, which was returned to the sea in repayment of the 
over-draft accumulated at the poles during 15,000 years of cold. 

All these facts cannot, without reproach, continue to be ignored by science. 
Indeed, without regarding Drayson's discovery at all, there is quite sufficient 
evidence on which to postulate a recent glaciation, and to show that we have 
now entered a " genial period," reducing the extent of the polar ice, and 
heralding, in consequence, an amelioration in the severity of our winters, by 
slow but certain degrees, for very many years to come. 

Geologists are quite unprepared with any solid opinion wherewith to 
confront the evidences all over the world which I have before summarised 
in their entirety for the first time, and which ought to convince the most 
resolute sceptic that there has been a glaciation geologically recently, and 
therefore only to be explained by some compelling cosmical cause, exerting 
its effects slowly but surely through the ages, causing recurrent glaciations 
with periods long enough to completely alter the fauna and flora of certain 
latitudes over and over again. 

In the science of anthropology it is established that in the study of many 
flint implement cultures there is geological evidence to show that the period in 
question terminated in cold conditions supervening after a period of temperate 
climate. Thus, to quote from my previous work. The Change in the Climate 
and its Cause ^ : " In reviewing the history of mankind, one sees in the 
evidence of caves and ' drift,' and accompanying fossil deposits of the tem- 
perate zone, an alternating pageant, in the same area, of sub-tropical and 
cold conditions ; of man and the mammoth and woolly rhinoceros in close 
relationship, followed by the horse and early type of ox ; then, perhaps, a 
period of reindeer and Arctic animals succeeded by a more temperate fauna ; 
with evidence, here and there in caves, of a sterile deposit, when the same 
area was for long untrodden by man or beast of any kind. The alterations 
of obliquity are alone responsible for these changing views, and it is only 
through Drayson that we can obtain an understanding of the cause of these 
periods and a measure of their duration." 

In view of such researches, it seems useless to contend that there has been 
only one glaciation ; but it is a contention that has been made by more than 
one geologist of note, and illustrates the chaos of present opinions. It is the 

* E. Marlborough & Co. 


ignorance of science on this subject which, more than on any other, forms a 
bar to progress in geology and in other kindred questions. 

When all the evidences, supported by the elements of de Horsey 's diagram 
of the curve, are summarised, they constitute a convincing list.' Thus, by 
the light of Drayson we have revealed — 

1. A reason for the retreat of the ice-caps at both poles. 

2. A reason for the traditions of the Deluge. 

3. A reason for the lake pile dwellings of 7,000 years ago. 

4. A reason for the recent submergence of forests round the coasts of 
England, and those of the Continent for the same and lower latitudes. 

5. A reason for the remains of pine forests in St. Patrick's and other 
islands within 15° of the North Pole, and for the remains of forests of cedars 
buried by ice in Alaska (Croll in Climate and Time, and Wright's Ice Age in 
North America). 

6. A reason for pronounced climatic changes as shown by the vegetation 
of Denmark previous to a.d., while very little change, comparatively, has 
taken place since the Christian Era. 

7. A reason for marks of ice striation on flints of Neolithic culture, and of 
Neolithic flints being found in the submerged forests. 

8. A reason for the fact that in the sequence of the various cultures of 
flint implements the changes of culture are generally accompanied by very 
marked changes in climate intervening. 

9. A reason for the noticeable change of climate on which we have entered, 
during the last sixty years or so, in England and in the southern latitudes 
of the temperate zone, which has reduced very rapidly the size of Alpine 
glaciers, made the winters milder and the summers cooler than formerly, 
and is causing the ice fringing the Arctic regions to retreat measurably year 
by year. 

10. Finally, proof positive, from the general consensus of opinion among 
geologists abroad, and notably from the close agreement between Dr. Hoist's 
estimate and de Horsey's curve for the dates of the oncoming and the passing 
away of glaciation in Southern Sweden, that there has been extended from 
both poles a glaciation from which the earth has not completely emerged — 
a universal and geologically recent glaciation which cannot be accounted 
for by any of the current theories, nor by all of them combined, but which 
is fully explained by Drayson's polar motion round another centre, not for a 
" few centuries " only, but during the whole cycle of 31,756 years. 

These arguments show that the world has been subjected to glacial 
conditions which only passed away under 10,000 years ago. It is also 
evident that there have been several glaciations. Now, all the geological 
and physical theories either fail to respond to so recent a date, or fail to 
account for a recurrence of glaciations in the post-tertiary period at such 
comparatively short intervals, except the one theory, both rational and 
logical, that glaciations are due to a periodical increase of the obliquity of 
the ecliptic. 

The only reason that might make geologists hesitate before endorsing 
the evidence herein given of a recent glaciation is that astronomers have for 
so long opposed any suggestion that the obliquity may alter considerably 
within ascertainable time-limits, that it would seem an outrage or a trespass 
on a sister science to fly in the face of its teachings. But let us see if the 
statements put forward by astronomers from time to time are consistent 
and coherent, or are such as to furnish any real barrier to the acceptance 
of the principle of the Drayson glacial theory, and it will become plain that 
certain established facts and statements indicate that this principle has now 
become interwoven with ideas that are professedly orthodox. 

I will here quote some cosmical facts, and summarise the diverse astro- 
nomical fancies regarding them. 


The main facts are : 

1. The continuous decrease of the obliquity of the ecliptic during the 
last 3,000 years. 

2. The steady reduction of the O.E. by half a degree during that period, 
and the increasing rate of secular change as we go back in time. 

3. The past and present retreat of the polar ice-caps accompanying the 
diminishing obliquity. 

The diverse statements made regarding the O.E. from time to time by 
astronomers are : — 

(a) The O.E. is constant at 23° 28', though it varies some 48" per century 
(Herschel's Outlines of A stronomy) . 

(6) That only a change of O.E. to the extent of 1° 41' on either side of the 
" invariable plane " is possible (Laplace). 

(c) Some years after Laplace's researches, Leverrier found that the 
possible change on either side of the " invariable plane " must be increased 
to 4° 52' (Leverrier). 

(d) It has since been found that Laplace and Leverrier are both wrong, 
and that there are no limits to changes in the obliquity (Encyclopedia Brit- 
annica, igo6). 

(e) But the above authority says that to bring about a change of two or 
three degrees would take a million years of our epoch. (See fact (2) above.) 

(/) That to accept Drayson, i.e . not to accept the pole of the ecliptic as the 
centre of the polar movement, was equivalent to throwing overboard the 
laws of gravity (Astronomer Royal and others). 

(g) But in order to explain why there is a decrease in O.E. which, if the 
text-books are right, should not occur, astronomers have to admit, in spite 
of gravity laws, that " for a few centuries " the ecliptic pole is not the centre 
of the circle made by the pole of the heavens. Now to make all these state- 
ments appear to agree, we want primarily an explanation, not of the " few 
centuries," but of the at least thirty centuries during which the O.E. is 
known by the records to have been decreasing. (See fact (i) above.) 

The geological deduction to be drawn from all that I have written is as 
sound as any other geological fact which has been accepted as conclusive 
in geology, and it is my hope that geologists will see the force of all the evidence 
in favour of a recent glaciation and will accept the deduction as a working 
theory without waiting for a mandate from astronomers, who, as is made 
very evident by the above tabulated statements, are groping amongst diffi- 
culties, which have only been created by their own adhesion to paradox, 
difficulties which will entirely disappear when the question is openly handled 
on Drayson's lines. 

That astronomers are unconsciously drifting into the Drayson position 
is apparent from the quotation referred to under {g) from Sir Oliver Lodge's 
Pioneers of Science, in which he says that the path of the pole " for a few 
centuries may without error be regarded as a conical revolution about a 
different axis with a different period," and adds that " Lieut .-Col. Drayson 
writes books emphasising this simple fact under the impression that it is a 
discovery" ! 

The dilemma of orthodoxy is sufficiently obvious. 

In this letter I have endeavoured to keep the geological evidences apart 
from the more technical astronomical data as far as possible. I maintain 
that the former establish a reasoned and reasonable conviction quite as 
worthy of forming part of the geological structure as the assumption of the 
gradual evolution of organic existence in the fossils of the rocks ; while the 
latter invite attack by the paradox involved by a changing length of radius, 
during a long period, to a movement which is regarded by astronomers as 
describing a circle. 

Convinced that in the material universe paradox should have no place. 


I have lately propounded another simple theory explaining the cause of the 
various phenomena of comets' tails other than by an enormous force of 
repulsion residing in the sun ; and apart from the proofs of my theory, have 
shown that the behaviour of certain comets establishes, beyond doubt, the 
truth of J. H. J cans' s recent tidal theory of the formation of the solar system 
{Journal of the Torquay Nat. Hist. Soc, 1920). 

This, like Drayson's theory, is an apt illustration of a remark of Herschel's, 
in his Discourse on Natural Philosophy, that any occurrence which, according 
to theory, should not happen (i.e. which appears paradoxical) often serves as a 
clue to new discoveries. 

Now that I have established the independence of geologists, permitting 
orthodox astronomers to retire from the controversy, which has become more 
purely geological, I have a few remarks to make in reply to the letter of Mr. 
Tyrrell. It is rather typical of the confusion of ideas regarding the Glacial 
Epoch. The one controlling factor for ice periods having been disallowed 
by astronomers, geologists have hitherto run wild, assimilating ideas, now 
from one theorist and then from another, in fruitless attempts to pierce the 
mists surrounding this question, while they fail to recognise facts lying at 
their very feet. 

Owing to this tangle of opinions I purposely confined myself to bringing 
to light the great fact of a geologically recent, I might say historic, ^ glaciation, 
and though I have definite ideas about other glaciations in the post-tertiary 
period and about other glacial epochs, I am not prepared to be cross-examined 
on all points, say such as the cause of the Permian glacial epoch, or the 
presence of coal at Spitzbergen, as if my credit was imperilled by my 
inability to answer. I might as well be asked to describe why mammoth are 
found in such vast numbers in Siberia and remains of hippopotamus in great 
quantities in some caves of Southern Europe, which is probably due to a glacia- 
tion, but is not directly material to the main question of a recent glaciation. 
I have not space to fully traverse every statement made, but Mr. Tyrrell 
speaks as if " crustal unrest " was the precursor of glacial epochs. On the 
contrary, it is the immense weight of piled-up ice which depresses the crust 
in one place and elevates it in another. This subject has been fully studied 
in North America, and accounts for many of the raised beaches round our 
coast. That is the real reason why crustal unrest is associated in time with 
glacial periods. I admit, however, that but for Greenland our northern 
glaciations would have been much less severe. It is difficult to imagine a 
continent nearly as large as Europe without Russia, covered all over with 
mountains as high as the Bernese Oberland : this condition must be almost 
unique in the world's history. Its gradual uplift (it is now falling, so far as 
is known) would account for the severity of glaciations working up to a maxi- 
mum, but these matters can best be left for discussion in the years to come. 
Until we establish the last and recent glaciation as a working theory, we shall 
never make progress. 

Nor are we yet in a position to object to the " regularity of astronomical 
cycles" which, moreover, has not been established, nor does it necessarily 
follow. Slight differences in the centre of gravity of the earth might in 
time greatly affect the centre of polar movement,^ and therefore the intensity 

1 According to Aristotle, the Chaldeans had records of the conditions of 
the seasons of this period, which were distinguished by alternating "ekpy- 
rosis " and " kataclysmos." 

2 If the true centre were to be 6° nearer than the ecliptic pole, the O.E. 
would only attain 23° at its maximum, instead of 35° as now. Again, there 
is thought to be a probability, from a gyrodynamic point of view, of this 
movement being a spiral decreasing to nothing of obliquity, and then in- 
creasing (Crabtree). 


of the cold cycles ; in fact, for all we know, it might not involve a tilt 
great enough to cause a pronounced glaciation at all during several cycles 

I am sorry to see the objection put forward again that an increased 
obliquity does not ipso facto cause the extension of polar ice. Persons holding 
this view must have very crude notions about this substance, and probably 
judge from their home experience of ice, which never attains a low temperature 
in our winters. Ice can store cold to any degree, and resists melting to an 
extraordinary extent. One might ask why, with our present obliquity, we 
have any polar ice in the Arctic regions at all with nearly six months of con- 
tinuous sun, or why glaciers do not melt right away in the valleys. Scott 
says the temperature of surface snow in Lat. 77 South never was above 0° F. 
during midsummer, and Nansen records a similar experience. It is not a 
question of heat distribution, pace Mr. W. B. Wright, but of ice temperatures, 
which is quite another thing. With an increase of obliquity the " Arctic 
circles " must encroach on the temperate zone with an enlarged ice area, 
or this term would have no place or meaning. The very word " climate " 
is in origin " inclination," be it observed.^ 

Again, Messrs. Chamberlain and Salisbury have not it all their own way 
about the rate of advance of the polar ice. American and Swedish geologists 
estimate that it spread much more rapidly — 700 miles in less than 8,000 
years 2 — and we have the testimony of Mr. Ponting, a member of the Antarctic 
Expedition, who stated that the ice had receded thirty-six miles in the last 
forty years. The rate of the retreat of the Muir glacier in Alaska has been 
almost as rapid. Captain Scott also gives a picture of a valley from which 
3,000 feet depth of ice had disappeared, showing that this process was by no 
means a temporary change of climatic conditions {The Voyage oj the "Dis- 
covery," vol. ii, p. 293). 

One might think, also, from this correspondence that the conclusions of 
Swedish geologists stood alone, and that they were based on very hypothetical 
data, instead of being fully endorsed by opinions in North America, India, 
Australia, and New Zealand, which remove all possibility of regarding their 
agreement with Drayson as a coincidence. Mr. G. F. Wright, of Ohio, writes 
in Origin and Antiquity oj Man as follows : 

" The combined efiect of all this evidence is irresistible. Large areas in 
Europe and North America which are now principal centres of civilisation 
were buried under glacial ice thousands of feet thick while the civilisation 
of Babylonia was in its heyday. The glib manner in which many writers, as 
well as many observers of limited range, speak of the Glacial Epoch as far 
distant in geological time is due to ignorance of facts, which would seem to 
be so clear that he who runs must read them." 

I am glad to infer that my critic has not yet read the evidence of the 
submerged forests, as given by me, which seems to me wholly convincing, 
though a sometime president of the Geological Society said that he had studied 
these forests and saw none of the signs of glaciation. Did he expect to find 
glacial moraines or striated beach pebbles ? ^ Another geologist, equally 
eminent, said he agreed with the conclusions of Swedish geologists regarding 
a recent glaciation in Sweden ; * but it seemed to be of limited importance to 

1 Greek " klinein." 

2 Estimate based on the rate of advance of ice at present. Doubtless the 
rate was more rapid during the abnormal conditions of the ice phase. 

^ The late Mr. Clement Reid, the author of Submerged Forests (Cambridge 
University Press), told me he was quite ready to accept the fact of a recent 

* The region of glaciation extends to the province of Skania quite in the 
south of Sweden, in 57° lat., corresponding to that of Aberdeen, 


him, since he added that " these conditions of cold had no application to 
our islands " ! 

Everything, without exception, that has any bearing on, or is in connection 
with, glaciations points in one direction. It is useless, and obscures the 
iss ue , to talk of " diastrophic deformation " and " intricate compound rhythms . 
We have had too much of word-coining and too little progress made in geology 
during the last half century ; " the multitude of words has been the grave 
of knowledge," and as regards this question, in a lecture given at the Society's 
rooms on " The Relation of Man to the Ice Age," no hint as to its date was 
hazarded, though the Drayson solution of the mystery was known to the 
lecturer. It is time to relinquish this attitude now that I have shown geolo- 
gists that they are independent of astronomers. There seems to be a tacit 
understanding that Drayson must be " taboo." For instance, a foreign 
geologist, after having written me a letter saying, "Your theory is correct and 
most welcome," was persuaded, I presume, to ignore Drayson, for, in a work 
published two years afterwards, he professed inability to obtain any aid 
from astronomy : showing how all-powerful a factor conventionality is in 

The two cycles of astronomy, the orthodox and that of Drayson, are 
facetiously alluded to as if there was not much for geologists to choose between 
them ; but of course the former gives no clue to a pronounced change of 
obliquity, while with Drayson it is shown to increase fifty per cent. To cap 
the allusion : the one should be styled Tweedle-dumb, and the other Tweedle- 

According to Mr. Tyrrell, it is " unfortunate " that such as I should butt 
in, irrupt he would call it. into a question which I have no right to discuss ; 
but I have studied geology on and off for fifty-five years, though I have not 
taken what appears to be a pledge of orthodoxy by subscribing to the Geo- 
logical Society. I am jealous for the reputation of my country as the doyen 
of geological science, and do not like to contemplate the possibility of this 
question being resolved elsewhere. It is vital to all progress. 

Referring back to Mr. Spencer-Jones's letter in the Correspondence of 
October 19 19, instead of " widely different conclusions " we can see established 
a perfect harmony between the two sciences, which could hardly exist were 
the data not true. In the case cited by him— the age of the earth — the 
astronomers were in the wrong, and their " incomplete knowledge " in this 
question also is by inference admitted by them. 

Geologists may now fearlessly accept Drayson's conclusions without 
danger to their reputation. Once adopted, the clearness of vision regarding 
a subject, which has taxed the ingenuity of theorists for over a hundred years, 
will lead to many valuable results in other departments of science, and 
instead of an outlook of " many weary years yet," the future will be full of 

I am, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
August 6, 1920. R. A. Marriott. 


The British Science Guild 

The British Science Guild held its last Annual Meeting in the Goldsmiths' 
Hall on June 8, during which much information was given to the mem- 
bers through the medium of the speeches of Lord Sydenham and the Rt. 
Hon. Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. The Address of the former on " Science 
and the Nation" reviewed the post-war conditions of this country, with 
special reference to the greatest factor of present-day unrest — the strike. 
Lord Sydenham dwelt largely on the " psychology of the manual workers," 
upon whom, he said, " the reign of the machine exercised a profound in- 
fluence," and traced the bad efiect of that machine on the mind of the 
worker, showing afterwards how this bad effect might be overcome by 
science. To quote his own words, " Can the reign of the machine be ren- 
dered beneficent to all alike ? Can science, which has been the creator of 
conditions which have favoured the spread of revolutionary ideas, help to pro- 
vide the antidote ? It is a remarkable fact that, while scientific discovery 
was transforming the national life, there was no corresponding develop- 
ment of science-training in circles entrusted with government and adminis- 
tration. When foreign competition began to be felt, it was quickly realised 
that some of our industries had fallen behind in utilising the gifts which 
our leaders of science offered them, and that the Germans had passed 
us — in the great domain of chemistry especially. If this neglect showed 
itself in quarters where there were strong inducements to turn science to 
the fullest account, it was certain to prevail in Government departments with 
far more serious consequences to the nation. In a lecture delivered nearly 
seventy years ago. Prof. Tyndall said : ' I state nothing visionary when 
I say that in a country like ours, whose greatness depends so much upon 
the applications of physical science, it would be a wholesome and natural 
test to make admission to the House of Commons contingent on a know- 
ledge of the principles of Natural Philosophy.' And he went on to make 
a powerful plea for the study of physics among the manual workers, ' not 
only as a means of mental culture, but also as a moral influence.' Science 
has immensely extended its dominion since that day, and has become far 
more closely connected with the welfare of the nation, and, therefore, more 
urgently needed in every branch of Government. Yet in Cabinets, in Par- 
liament, and among our representatives abroad. Governors, Ambassadors, and 
Consuls, training in science is conspicuously absent. ... As the result of 
the stern lessons of the war, we have set up much useful machinery for co- 
ordinating scientific progress, and for providing expert advice. Research 
has received a new impetus, both from Government and from industrial 
leaders. These are undoubted gains ; but they will not suf&ce unless the 
application of what can best be described as the scientific spirit to the solu- 
tion of national problems is secured, which is the main object of the British 
Science Guild. We believe that our objects can be attained only by radical 
changes in our system of education. . . . The British Science Guild holds 
that it is vital to ordered progress that trained specialists should wield ade- 
quate authority in the national councils, and that it is essential and possible 


NOTES 279 

to impart such a scientific trend to national education, from the bottom 
to the top, as will affect the psychology of all classes and help to remedy 
many patent evils." Lord Sydenham concluded by saying, " Upon Parlia- 
ment and the Departments of State will devolve increasingly heavy respon- 
sibilities. Here, also, a new mental attitude is sorely needed in order that 
the gifts of science may be brought to bear without stint upon the national 
welfare. We want in Parliament a group of Members with sufficient know- 
ledge to submit legislation and all public questions to the test of scientific 
examination as a corrective to the political and opportunist considerations 
which have led to grievous mistakes in the past." 

Lord Montagu, in his address " On Some National Aspects of Transport," 
discussed its existing difficulties and suggested some remedies. He said, 
" The time has now arrived, therefore, when we should consider whether 
special roads for mechanical road traffic, from which all other traffic should 
be excluded, should not be provided, both from the point of view of allevia- 
ting the unfair burden borne by the present roads — which, except in respect 
of about half the main road mileage, are unfitted to bear this traffic — and 
because only at very great expense can they be made suitable for carrying 
heavy mechanical traffic. ... I see no reason why overhead road traffic 
should not exceed the speeds of the ordinary suburban train services. I 
have always been convinced of the possibility and desirability of roads 
specially built and reserved for mechanical vehicles, and I am of opinion 
that to-day it is probably the best immediate solution of our increasing 
suburban traffic difiiculties, and possibly of many other transport problems 
concerned with greater distances. In a brief paper such as this, it is impos- 
sible to discuss every national aspect of transport. But there is one sug- 
gestion as to how increased transport facilities should be assisted on which 
a word might be said. In the case of the extension, by private or public 
capital, of tramways, railways, or roadways, either outside large towns or 
into the areas which certainly benefit from better transport facilities, it 
may be asked whether the increased local values due to such construction 
should not contribute to the cost. To take a concrete instance, when the 
tube railway was extended to Golder's Green, a rise of between 300 and 400 
per cent, took place in local values within the next two or three years. 
Towards this increase in land and house values the investor in the railway 
largely contributed, but the owners of the local property reaped the advan- 
tage without risking or paying anything themselves. No one will accuse 
me of being prejudiced in favour of the undue rating of property or the 
undue taxation of land, and hardly anyone is now an advocate of the kind 
of land taxes brought in under the famous and now defunct Budget of 1909. 
But it is quite conceivable that what might be called a local transport bene- 
fit tax might be levied on those who become richer by the extension of 
traffic facilities in their areas. The method of assessment and manner of 
collecting such a tax requires a great deal of consideration, and I am not 
prepared to go into details to-day. But there can be no doubt as to the 
inherent justice of asking that property of any kind, benefited by the em- 
ployment of public or private money, should pay something for the benefit 
conferred. The revenue thus raised could be used in at least three direc- 
tions: (i) To cheapen the rate at which the capital could be raised to carry 
out these services ; (2) to diminish the amount of capital employed, for 
instance, by the land required for the line being secured free or at a low 
rate ; or (3) to enable passengers' fares and goods rates to be fixed on a 
cheaper basis owing to the annual or other kind of contribution made by the 
surrounding property." But at the same time Lord Montagu recognised 
that in some instances, such as Clapham Junction and Willesden, the advent 
of the railway depreciated rather than enhanced the value of the adjacent 
property. He suggested also the advisability of endowing a " Chair of 


Transport at Oxford or Cambridge or one of the newer Universities, in 
order that the science of transport might be studied apart from the un- 
scientific and disturbing influences of poUtics and the clamour of trade dis- 

National Physical Laboratory 

The Stationery Office, Westminster, S.W.i, issues a circular calling 
attention to the Report of the National Physical Laboratory for the year 1919, 
which has recently been published. " It contains the usual account of the 
activities of the Laboratory during the year, and on this occasion, in addition, 
a brief account is given of the assistance rendered to the various War Depart- 
ments of the Government during the war. The description of the methods 
employed, and the apparatus devised for the testing, for the Ministry of 
Munitions, of the gauges required in the manufacture of shells and other 
munitions of war, will be found of special interest. Practically all Departments 
of the Laboratory were mainly occupied with war work. In the Heat Depart- 
ment, attention was given during 191 9 to refrigeration problems, especially 
the heat-insulating properties of various materials. The heat losses in 
furnaces were also studied. The Optical Department was much occupied 
with calculation and design of optical systems. Improvements were made 
in the methods of determining the optical constants of glass. New methods 
were employed for the measurement of the radium content of radium samples, 
and equipment Wcis provided for the investigation of protective materials 
used in X-ray work. The Electricity Department carried out investigations 
with regard to a number of wireless problems. Methods devised during the 
war for measuring the velocities of gun projectiles and gun recoil were further 
investigated. Research on the heating of buried cables, and on resistance 
materials (manganin, etc.), made good progress. The Metrology Department 
resumed its normal work in the verification of length standards, gauges, etc. 
Arrangements were made for the testing of volumetric glassware. The report 
of the Engineering Department describes much interesting research work, 
including experiments on the lubricating efficiency of oils, the transmission 
of heat from surfaces to fluids flowing over them, friction between fluids and 
surfaces with which they are in contact, methods of hardness testing and 
notched bar intact testing, the photography of projectiles in flight, etc. 
An account is given of experiments made during the war on the location of 
sounds. A short account is given of the advances made in Aeronautics 
research carried out for the Air Ministry. The researches carried out in the 
Metallurgy Department, described in the Report, include much work on light 
alloys both cast and wrought, investigations during the war as to substitute 
alloys, the causes of failure of materials, methods of hardening and case 
hardening, etc. The work on pots for the melting of optical glass made good 
progress. An interesting account is given of experiments in the William 
Froude National Tank during the war on mines, nets for defence against 
submarines, and for catching enemy submarines, the firing of torpedoes, 
seaplane floats and flying-boat hulls. A very complete investigation was 
carried out of the forms of ships with straight frames. The Report forms a 
volume of 150 pages, 10 J in. x 7I in., and is published at 55. net (post free 

The Sister o£ Science (R. R.) 

Like Hippocrene, the spring of English poetry runs on for ever, though 
there be none beside it to mark its beauty or to drink of its waters. Men 
of Science should, however, always endeavour to visit the fountain from 
time to time ; and we may therefore say a few words about some good verse 
which has recently appeared and which others may like to taste. 

NOTES 281 

In his Anniversaries and Other Poems (Murray), Mr. Leonard Huxley 
presents a form of art which is the commonest among to-day's poets — a 
series of beautiful word-pictures of natural sights or of simple sentiments, 
without many attempts at invention, constructive design, or philosophic 
teaching. It is a kind of corpuscular poetry, rich in particles and bright in 
the granule, to which selection of words and euphony of successive syllables 
give their distinction. English countryside and Alpine heights yield most 
of the pictures, many of which are drawn for young people. Especially good 
are A Midwinter Birthday and Sylvester Eve ; but in his fine rhetorical piece 
Enceladus, the author figures the war — the escape of Enceladus from beneath 
Etna, his defeat by the gods, his return to imprisonment, and his appeal to 
Chaos (let us say, Bolshevism) — a short but elemental apologue. 

Mr. Cloudesley Brereton's Mystica et Lyrica (Elkin Matthews) has an 
equally beautiful granular texture, but appears to be devoted to a spiritual, 
or at least a dualist, philosophy. Two of the pieces appeared in Science 
Progress ; and the description of the Norwegian fjords at sunset in The 
Mystical Union of Earth and Heaven is a most lovely thing, evidently a classic 
of pure beauty which must find a place in every anthology. The passages 
dealing with old age and the lyrics addressed to France have almost equal 
uniqueness; but scientific men are scarcely likely to accept the philosophy 
— which seems to be of the kind that Dr. Craggs calls sit ergo est. Thus when 
the poet exclaims in his verses called After Reading Bergson — 

From the grey and grim bethels of Science, 

Squat, ugly, and meanly designed. 
With its triple unholy alliance 

Of Logic, Mechanics, and Mind, 
That pretends with a ruler and compass 

To plot out the soul of mankind—. 
From such arabesques, dodecahedral. 

Sham symbols of Life and its lore, 
I return to the old-world cathedral 

That a new race of prophets restore. 
Where the starved soul may wonder and worship 

The visions it harboured of yore — 

most people will see, as in the alleged philosophy of M. Bergson himself, 
nothing but illusion. After all, truth, and not the feeding of starved 
souls, is the first concern of real philosophy. What Dr. Leonard Huxley 
says so beautifully of childhood may be applied bodily to such strains of 
thought : 

Childhood lives in a fairy world 

Where fancy mints the sterling gold. 
And thought's free charter grants for truth 

The strangest tales by the senses told. 
'Tis a little world with a crystal roof 

Where the world without comes shining through 
In tangled pictures oddly bent 

Like a bather's limbs in the stream askew. 

Dr. Ronald Campbell MacFie's War (Murray — already reviewed in 
Science Progress for 1918-19) is a fine single massive structure designed 
as a monument of recent events. It is only a short poem, divided into four 
parts with subsections ; beginning with the formation of the earth and 
the appearance of life ; describing human wars in the past and the recent 
one in detail ; and ending with some large philosophies on the subject. 


We have all known Dr. MacFie as a brilliant poet, and this work is full of 
good things. The construction is simple ; but the isolated passages are 
often perfect of their kind, the descriptions brief but complete, and the 
wording various and euphonic. The author sees the immense effect of war 
in evolution : 

Bodies and souls from a furnace came, and lo in a furnace still 
War is moulding the human heart, smelting the human will. 


These are the throes 

That make the rose. 

These are the precious pangs of birth. 

These are the woes 

Whence ever grows 

The myriad Beauty of the Earth. 

The poem is written mostly in (rhymed) vers libre — which Swinburne rightly 
detested. Lines of all possible lengths, sometimes truncated even to a single 
syllable, are not consistent with any real rhythm, and jog and jar the reader 
like a jazz band. The line in verse is equivalent to the bar in music ; and 
without rhythm we simply return to prose — 


Of a monstrous dawn 

suits the modem drawing-room elocutionist only ; and the rhymes do but 
make the jogging more painful. I should have preferred, in a poem of 
this serious nature, more august measures. In all these books, moreover — 
not so much by defect of the authors as of the fashion of the day — there 
is very little invention ; which to me is the chief thing lacking in modem 
English poetry. 

This is not a fault, however, in Mr. Masefield's Reynard the Fox (Heine- 
mann). The title is inadequate ; for the book may almost be called the 
characteristic English epic — not of war but of the fox-hunt — bound to re- 
main as a picture of our life of to-day. In the beginning it contains much 
of Chaucer ; in the course of it, most of the sporting novelists ; and in the 
end, pure Masefield. We commence with the Meet at the Cock and Pie — 
a series of wonderful pictures, with vignettes of all the sportsmen of the 
countryside, faces, figures, dress, characters, histories, touched one after the 
other with consummate pencil — like the gathering of Xerxes' armies in 
Herodotus ; but this is England, and the poet has pictured English men 
and women at their best as perhaps they have never been quite drawn before 
in so few words. Then he introduces the hero in Hilcote Copse ; then the 
find, and then the run. The reader runs with the fox and becomes that 
animal himself ! The excitement, the fear, " the red heart of the beast," 
the cunning, the desperation, the exhaustion, and finally the hope of earth, 
and then — the earth is stopped ! But the hero is not done yet ; he makes 
for another earth ; it is stopped again ! What happens in the end ? — well, 
the reader must find out. 

The poem is written throughout in brisk four-foot couplets, often split 
between paragraphs in order to provide continuity — which I see a critic, 
who has not studied technique, condemns. The design is perfect ; and 
every episode is full of observation, knowledge, humour, and invention. The 
Master of one of our Hunts told me that he could not detect a flaw in the 
book except some detail regarding grooming — ^which I have forgotten. To 
a scientific man the description of the psychology of the fox is wonderful 
and obviously true. Yet animals have no souls ! 

NOTES 283 

Formal Opening of Leplay House 

The formal opening of the new home of the Sociological Society, Leplay 
House, at 65 Belgrave Road, S.W.i, was participated in on June 29 by 
more than threescore guests. The work of the Society has been carried 
on under a serious financial handicap since the outbreak of the war, and 
it is hoped that this new venture in providing it with suitable quarters 
will attract the support which is necessary in order to establish firmly the 
position of British scholarship in Sociology. The generation which at the 
inception of the Society in 1904 gave it generous support, has tended during 
the last decade to drop into the background, and therefore the situation de- 
mands that a younger generation should be given the opportunity to take up 
the work of sociological research and discussion, and give it a fresh impetus. 
Through its organ, the Sociological Review, the Society aims to offer a common 
ground for bringing together various sociological schools and traditions, 
while in Leplay House it is now ready to provide a common meeting-place 
for workers in every field that is concerned with social phenomena. 

The opening meeting was held in the Council Room of the Society, and 
the address of the Chairman of the Council, Mr. Victor V. Branford, was 
an explanation and an interpretation of the decorative frieze which borders 
the walls of this room. Mr. Branford pointed out first of all that the purpose 
of calling the new home of the Society " Leplay House " was to emphasise 
the importance of the somewhat neglected work of the great French sociolo- 
gist, Frederic Le Play, who had introduced into sociology the tradition of 
naturalist observation. The prime contribution of Le Play was his con- 
ception of the valley section, and his detailed examination of physical 
and spiritual life of each of the great rustic types which are developed by 
the work of the mine, the forest, the pasture, the field, and the ocean. The 
rustic formula of the valley section was complemented, Mr. Branford ex- 
plained, by the civic formula of Auguste Comte, the analysis of the social 
order into chiefs and people, emotionals and intellectuals. Both these 
formulas were symbolised in the frieze. One of the conditions that had 
kept sociology in the stage of abstraction was that it had been insufficiently 
oriented in time and place: the " Society" it had dealt with had existed 
too often in the imagination of the thinker who was attempting to analyse 
it. That was why other sections of the frieze definitely located Leplay 
House with respect to the environment outside on one hand, and to periods, 
both past and incipient, on the other. The sciences that treated specially 
the spiritual and the temporal aspects of society were, respectively, geo- 
graphy and history. More and more geography tended to be a synthesis 
of the natural sciences, whilst history gathered together the humanities ; and 
accordingly the school of sociology that took over the resources of these 
two sciences was on its way to effecting a synthesis of the various specialisms 
which had hitherto lost some of their efiectiveness in both thought and 
action by their isolation. This task of synthesis, this reconcilement of hereto- 
fore aloof or antagonistic schools of thought, with a renewed application of 
sociological methods to social life in definite cities and regions, was one 
of the main contributions which the Sociological Society might hope to make. 


The Proportional Representation Society has issued the thirty-seventh 
number of its Journal (August 1920) . We are glad to see that this method of 
representation is coming more and more to the front. In every country or pro- 
vince where it has been tried, the result has nearly always been successful, 
and has been warmly applauded. The most notable instance in Canada was in 
the province of Winnipeg, and the Journal quotes extracts from daily papers 
of that State as follows : " ' P.R. is a success. That is the consensus of 


opinion to-day as a result of Winnipeg's first experience with the new election 
system ' {Toronto Daily Star, ]une 30, 1920) . ' Winnipeg has put Proportional 
Representation upon the Canadian political map. Its extension to the 
rural constituencies in Manitoba is assured, and its ultimate adoption for all 
elections — civic, provincial, and federal — may now be looked on as inevitable. 
In Winnipeg the test was classic, and Proportional Representation came 
through with flying colours. Proportional Representation eliminated the 
excitement and bitterness from the election campaign ; the knowledge that 
each party could only get its fair proportion, and no more, of the valuable 
seats made the old-time strategy and electioneering useless ' {Manitoba Free 
Press, July 5, 1920)." In the United States, the best disinterested political 
opinion " is alive to the merits of Proportional Representation. It is the 
subject of an increasing degree of favourable comment in the organs of 
political and municipal science. A few cities and a large number of private 
organisations have already put the system in practice in their elections. At 
the present time, favourable opportunities for the adoption of P.R. in State 
constitutions are afforded in New Jersey and in Pennsylvania, and on these, 
the American P.R. League proposes to concentrate its efforts in the immediate 
future. New Jersey Legislature has had under consideration a Bill providing 
the Hare system of P.R. {i.e. the single transferrable vote) for the election of 
members of the State Assembly in counties returning three or more members. 
The Bill was favourably reported on by the Committee on Elections, passed 
the second reading unopposed, and will be reintroduced next session. The 
P.R. Committee of New Jersey has done excellent educational work in support 
of the Bill." Progress also has been made with the scheme in New South 
Wales, Malta, and Holland. " The last issue of this Journal described the 
application of P.R. to the Irish municipal elections of January 1920. Some 
126 separate councils were elected ; there were few uncontested seats ; the 
persons voting were 69-79 per cent, of the whole ; the spoiled papers were 
2-79 per cent. ; the machinery for counting votes worked without a hitch. 
There was a chorus of praise from the Irish Press, the Belfast Unionist Journals 
excepted. " In not one of the divisions of Belfast was a solid party return 
achieved " ; P.R. in Belfast, as elswhere, had done justice to minorities. 
Labour and Nationalist citizens residing in Unionist wards. Unionist citizens 
residing in the Nationalist ward, all secured their full share of representation. 
Additional local government elections took place in May and June. These 
were for county councils, rural district councils, and, in county boroughs and 
in urban districts, for poor law guardians. All were held under the P.R. 

" P.R. is now firmly established in Germany. The main principles of 
the Reichstag law, including P.R., were applied to the municipal elections 
for Greater Berlin on June 20, 1920." One of the chief aims of the 
Society, however, is to get P.R. firmly established in this country, and already 
many Members of Parliament are greatly in favour of its trial. " ' We want 
a fully representative House of Commons ' was the keynote of a large and 
enthusiastic gathering — numbering over a thousand — held at the Central Hall, 
Westminister, on May 13, 1920. It was an excellent tribute to the educational 
work of the Society, and recognition of the important fact that, even after 
equality has been gained in the matter of the franchise, the House of Commons 
will not possess a fully national authority until a method of election is adopted 
which will give every vote an equal value, and an equal share of influence 
in the legislation of the nation." The meeting carried unanimously the 
following resolution, which was moved by Lord Robert Cecil: " That this 
meeting, convinced of the necessity for making the House of Commons 
completely and fairly representative of the nation, calls upon His Majesty's 
Government to introduce the necessary legislation in order that the principle 
of Proportional Representation may be applied at the next General Election." 

NOTES 285 

Awards for Medical Discovery (R. B.) 

I have nothing much further to report on this matter since our last issue. 
At the deputation to the Lord President of the Council on March 2, he raised 
various difficulties as to the scheme which we had proposed ; and when we 
asked him for a final decision, he rephed that he could not adopt the scheme 
owing to the said difficulties. Personally, as I have said, I cannot attach 
much weight to them. It is difficult to see why pensions cannot be given for 
medical discoveries in consequence of trouble which may occur in selecting the 
men who have actually made them. The same trouble occurs whenever any 
awards are made ; but Fellows of the Royal Society continue to be elected, 
and prizes are given, and numbers of persons are honoured in various ways 
by Governments and learned bodies. Why cannot more solid rewards be 
allotted in the same way ? We also wrote again to the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer asking him why exactly he had refused to allow petitions on the 
precedent of Jenner to proceed to the House of Commons, and he has replied 
simply with the old formula that this is no longer ^he custom. Personally, 
I cannot see that this is any definite reason for his refusal. We have, how- 
ever, loyally accepted the objections both by Mr. Balfour and Mr. Chamberlain, 
and have now asked the Prime Minister whether he will be so good as to allow 
some other means by which medical men can receive remuneration, or at 
least compensation, for their discoveries and inventions, just as inventors and 
those who serve the State in other lines receive them. The mills of Govern- 
ment grind slowly, but I hope that they will finally produce a little flour ! 

A Word of Appreciation 

It is always agreeable to be appreciated, and we are glad to quote the 
following passage from the Japan Advertiser, Tokio : "Science Progress, 
the remarkable and unique review of scientific work, thought, and affairs, 
which Sir Ronald Ross edits, needs no introduction. No periodical publica- 
tion covers so wide a field or serves so useful a purpose in its own field. It 
is not ' popular ' as the word is used, yet one is glad to think that there 
is a widening circle of readers, not all of them scientists, who find its pages 
invaluable as an essay and chronicle of scientific progress. At this time, 
when the language problem of Japan is arousing interest in Esperanto, a 
contribution in the current number of Science Progress on Ido as a 
universal scientific language, ' the highest common factor of the modem 
languages of Europe,' is of special interest." Scientific publications, hke 
prophets, seem to be appreciated anywhere except in their own country. 

Learned Societies— A Plea for Reform (0. A. C.) 

Temples and monasteries played a distinguished part in the early history 
of civilisation, for the familiar reason that in the old times they formed islands 
of culture in the midst of a sea of barbarism. The temples of ancient Egypt 
and Greece seem to have been hospitals, and even universities, as well as 
fanes for the worship of the gods ; and Buddhist monasteries perform somewhat 
the same function to-day. But as civilisation spread outwards from them, 
they tended to lose their influence for good, and indeed ultimately to become 
negative foci of bigotry and corruption in the middle of a more enUghtened 
populace — especially when they were divorced from the pursuit of the sciences 
and arts. The abolition of the monasteries by the virile Enghsh people of the 
sixteenth century was evidently due to recognition of this fact. 

In latter days, learned societies have played a precisely similar part. 
Originally they were certainly invaluable. Thus when it was founded, the 
Royal Society must have been indispensable for the discussion of themes 
which could not easily be dealt with on paper when printing was difficult 
and when articles were written in Latin. And learned societies have always 



given the additional opportunity for social intercourse between different 
persons interested in the same subject. 

It is possible, however, that learned societies are now beginning to hear 
the footsteps of the fate which overtook the monasteries. An immense 
specialised Press has recently grown up, in which papers cannot only be 
published more easily and quickly than by reading at societies, but may also 
be studied more carefully and quickly than by attendance at meetings — 
while the same Press gives ample opportunities for written discussions which 
are usually much better, because more precise, than oral discussions by per- 
sons who are often little practised at public speaking. And it is a common 
complaint that both readings and discussions at societies are prolix, or dull, 
or — sometimes — too heated ; and the attendance is often or generally very 
small. The same is frequently said of the meetings regarded merely as social 

Quite recently, however, the societies have received a new impetus from 
the fact that, being looked upon as the ultimate authorities on their special 
branches of knowledge, they are often consulted by Governments and other 
bodies . It is precisely this fact which has led to the present discussion . Have 
they indeed the right to be considered as the ultimate authorities on their 
subjects ? If not, the administration of the country may suffer seriously 
from the error, especially during war. 

Here we observe that by no means all the leading men of science or learn- 
ing necessarily belong to societies at all — witness Darwin, Carlyle, or Tenny- 
son ; while others who do belong to them cannot find time or inclination to 
take much interest in their proceedings. In fact, it is quite arguable that, 
with occasional exceptions, the best men tend to ignore them considerably — 
which narrows their authority. Then, again, when we talk of the opinion of 
a society, we seldom mean that of the whole body of members, but almost 
always that of the ofl&cers and council for the time being, and perhaps a few 
members whom these have nominated to assist — ^which narrows the authority 
of the society still further. Lastly, the methods of election of of&cers, coun- 
cillors, and even of members, are by no means always beyond criticism. 

Apparently, in most societies, all such elections are made upon the re- 
commendation of the council. This almost invariably means that the 
recommendation of the council is accepted at the elections — because, the 
members of the society being drawn from all parts of the country, they seldom 
have an opportunity to consider the council's nominations beforehand with 
such care as will enable them to collect a sufficient majority at the election to 
upset a given nomination if it be a bad one. Practically, therefore, the 
council possesses an almost autocratic power ; and, as it nominates new 
members of itself, its power continues in its hands indefinitely, the large body 
of members remaining mere passive subscribers with little or no influence 
within it. Still further, the council generally consists of members from 
different parts of the country, who remain under a similar disability as com- 
pared with the officers ; so that the power is still further limited, practically, 
to the of&cers. Now this method has often worked quite satisfactorily, and 
may do so still ; but it is obviously open to grave abuses. Certain individuals, 
who have little else to do, who live on the spot, and who are often men without 
much distinction in the subject dealt with by the society, may gradually 
acquire power which they do not deserve and have no capacity to use. Re- 
cently, moreover, there is a tendency for State honours to be given very largely 
to officers of learned societies — so that, ultimately, it comes to this, that 
schemers may sometimes (let us hope, seldom) obtain rewards which they 
scarcely deserve, but which are really meant by the nation, not for successful 
wire-pulling, but for distinguished work. 

Many feel that learned societies which are countenanced, subsidised, or 
consulted by Governments should be reorganised upon a more democratic 

NOTES 287 

basis, by which all the members shall have equal powers as regards the 
election of officers, councillors, and new members, and officers and councils 
will be deprived of rights of previous nomination. Of course, a mere private 
society may organise itself as it pleases ; but it is another matter when a 
society receives public funds or confidence ; and we may therefore urge that 
the time has come when the latter class of societies shall be reorganised as 
indicated. For obvious reasons, this will never be done if the matter is left 
to the societies themselves ; and a Government commission to inquire into 
the matter may therefore be suggested. 

In minor matters also, many learned societies seem to be very behind- 
hand. Thus the selection of papers for reading is often done by antiquated 
methods. The papers are usually subjected to the criticism of secret referees, 
who may quite possibly be rivals of the author, and may even (so, at least, it 
is often thought) reject his article and at the same time absorb much of the 
matter contained in it. An altogether excessive and indeed pharasaical 
attitude seems generally to be adopted by societies as regards the merit of 
papers. It really does not much matter to science or learning if a given 
paper is somewhat below par, because such a paper will be soon forgotten in 
consequence of its own demerits ; but it does matter very much if a good 
paper is rejected, especially after long delay, since authors may thus lose both 
priority and time. 

Moreover, few learned societies seem ever to trouble themselves about the 
interests of the workers in art, science, or literature. Yet, really, the work 
depends upon the interests of the workers. 

If learned societies are considered to be only vehicles for publication and 
discussion, they are almost useless, since these can be much more easily ob- 
tained without them. If they become (which we hope is seldom) mere centres 
for the advancement of individual members, they are injurious. They will be 
really useful only if they are placed upon a new footing, and become not only 
genuine depositories of special branches of knowledge, but also organisations 
for the betterment of such branches of knowledge and of the workers. And 
if they are to be subsidised and consulted by the State, the State should see 
that they are properly constituted and conducted . 

Another course is possible. A thing which requires reformation is seldom 
worth it ; and it may be better, in place of attempting to reform old societies, 
to construct new ones upon a better basis, leaving the old ones to die a natural 
death, and to remain, what they now often are, antique ornaments — on the 

Do English People Read ? (0. A. C.) 

Mr. H. G. Wells, owing to his knowledge of facts and to his powers of 
invention, is certainly the leading British author of to-day ; and in that 
remarkable work. The Time Machine, in which he pictures the final decadence 
of the human race at, let us hope, a very far future, he gives as a proof of that 
decadence that the Eloi, though they possessed ancient museums and Ubraries, 
never entered them, but spent the day in eating delicate banquets of fruit and 
playing childish games with each other. Is it possible that we are already 
beginning to fall to this stage ? I myself have entered museums in which 
there was no one except the caretaker, and perhaps a tutor or an uncle taking 
out a little boy for a treat, and in our libraries silence is always enjoined— 
and ensues because there is seldom anyone in them. We are the heirs of all 
the ages, but what do we do with the riches bequeathed to us by our ancestors ? 
Liberated for a moment from my abstruser studies, I betook myself the other 
day to a seaside resort, where, mirabile dictu, there is a hbrary close to the 
bathing-machines. This library was evidently put there fifty years ago, 
because it is full of books of that period. True, most of the books are the 


novels of Miss Braddon, White Melville, Anthony TroUope, and so on ; but 
there are also shelves stocked with musty old volumes containing translations 
or biographies of great men of the musty old past. I asked the caretaker 
whether there are many readers. He said that the novels are now out of 
fashion, and that no one ever calls for one of the other books. Yet 9t this 
seaside resort there are hundreds of idle people sitting about on the sands 
with nothing to do. One can glance down at such of them as are engaged in 
reading, and one will find only newspapers, shilling magazines, and ninepenny 
novels in their hands ; and when one talks with them, only newspapers, shilling 
magazines, and ninepenny novels in their heads. Yet everyone nowadays 
asks for more education, for larger sums for universities and for scientific 
laboratories. I am tempted to ask. Cut bono ? In the England of to-day the 
most prosperous men are often the fools — and sometimes the rogues. Why, 
then, trouble to be anything else ? 

Some Miscellaneous Publications 

The Sociological Review (Spring 1920, vol. xii. No. i) quotes a large part 
of Sir Ronald Ross's essay called " A Great Default " in Science Progress 
of April last, and comments on the whole story from the sociological point 
of view. The comment is called " A Study in the Third Alternative." 

The Addresses of the President and the Presidents of Sections of the British 
Association at its Cardiff meeting in August 1920 have been published by Mr. 
Murray in book form (price 6s.) under the title The Advancement of Science : 

The Research Defence Society (11 Chandos Street, W.i) publishes Major- 
General Sir David Bruce's paper on The Prevention of Tetanus during the Great 
War by the Use of Anti-tetanic Serum. Like all Sir David Bruce's work, this 
one is very short, but reaches definite results ; and it is a pleasure to see that 
this dreadful disease may be prevented by such a simple process as inocula- 
tion. It is due to a bacillus which lives very largely in the soil, and which can 
enter our tissues through a mere scratch of the skin to which soil has gained 
access. In the tropics, tetanus follows such wounds very commonly, and we 
all remember the dreadful case occurring many years ago, in which a number 
of people died because the instrument used for inoculating anti-cholera vac- 
cine was polluted with dust or mud. Such cases are much rarer in England ; 
but almost at the same time as Sir David Bruce's paper appeared, there 
appeared the reports of two cases in The Times. Both were fatal, and no 
preventative inoculation seems to have been used when the wounds were first 
inflicted. In many respects military medical practice is far ahead of civilian 
medical practice. 

The Royal Statistical Society (9 Adelphi Terrace, W.C.2) publishes in 
its Journal an important paper by Major Greenwood and G. Udny Yule on 
the Nature of Frequency Distributions Representative of Multiple Happenings, 
with particular reference to the occurrence of multiple attacks of disease or of 
repeated accidents. The mathematics of all epidemiological matter should 
be considered much more than it is ; and it is singular that scientific researches 
on subjects concerned with the life and death of large numbers of people receive 
much less attention than their importance would indicate. The Annual Report 
of the County Medical Ofi&cer of Health, London County Council, for 191 9, 
pp. 86 et seq., discusses recent theories of epidemics advanced by Dr. 
Brownlie and by Sir R. Ross, whose conclusions appear to be somewhat in 

The Journal of Philosophy , Psychology, and Scientific Methods for July 31, 
1919, contains two articles on Dr. Strong's Panpsychic Theory of Consciousness 
and Perception. We fancy that few scientific men, especially if they are also 
biologists, are likely to accept this kind of alleged philosophy ; and most of 

NOTES 289 

the arguments appear to be of the kind which confounds hypothesis with fact. 
Many people seem to think that theories are true simply because they happen 
to "flash" into their own minds, and then proceed to expound them in 
essays tricked out in the most extraordinary " philosophical " vocabulary. 

We have received an entirely undated paper by Andrew Norman Meldrum, 
I.E.S., published by Humphrey Milford, principally discussing the origin of 
the atomic theory, and maintaining that John Dalton was anticipated by 
William Higgins. The author also shows how much Newton's work on a 
" simple elastic fluid " inspired both writers. 

Dr. Charles Singer, of Oxford, the well-known specialist on Medical History, 
read a very interesting address before the British Academy on January 28, 
1920, on "Early English Magic and Medicine," containing many amusing Anglo- 
Saxon superstitions. It is singular how the Anglo-Saxon mind continues to 
indulge in this kind of thing, but nowadays, instead of white, blue, yellow, 
and green venoms, we deal with ghosts, clairvoyance, telepathy, and similar 

Towards the end of 191 9 the War Office published Observations on Malaria 
by Medical Officers of the A rmy and Others, edited by Colonel Sir Ronald Ross, 
Consultant in Malaria, War Office. This valuable book gives the results 
of the treatment of large numbers of men by various methods advocated 
by doctors for many years past, and mostly shows that, while almost any form 
of quinine treatment can cure attacks of malaria temporarily, scarcely any 
of the vaunted methods can cure it permanently. Apparently the best 
method depends upon the continuation of small doses of quinine for several 
months. The book also contains important papers on quinine, on the out- 
breaks of indigenous malaria in England during 19 17 and 1918, and the 
prevention of malaria at Taranto in 191 8. There is also a paper showing that 
two divisions which were heavily infected in Salonika were brought into 
France, and sent into the firing-line, completely cured, after three months' 
quinine treatment. 

In the House of Lords, March 3, 1920, Lord Sudeley called attention to 
the considerable waste of money and resources now incurred at museums, 
galleries, and other similar public institutions, owing to the neglect to utilise 
them to their fullest extent in aid of education and general national interests. 
The discussion will be found in the Parliamentary Debates, vol. xxxix. No. 9, 

Notes and News 

The Honours list published on the King's Birthday contained only the 
following names of interest here : — Baronet : Mr. P. J. Mackie, who financed 
the Mackie Anthropological Expedition to Uganda ; Knight : Mr. W. B. M. 
Bird, founder of the Salter's Institute of Industrial Chemistry ; Dr. H. H. 
Hayden, Director of the Geological Survey of India; and Prof. J. B. Henderson. 
Professor of Applied Mechanics at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 

Sir Douglas Mawson, Dr.T. M.Lowry, F.R.S., and Prof . P. F. Frankland, 
F.R.S., have been made Officers of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus by 
the King of Italy; while the King of the Belgians has conferred the following 
honours : — Order of the Crown: Commander, Prof. W. Sommerville ; Officer, 
Dr. E. J. Russell, F.R.S. ; Chevalier, Mr. C. E. Fagan, Mr. A. R. Hinks, F.R.S., 
and Mr. T. McRow. Order of Leopold II : Commander, Dr. W. R. Dunstan, 
F.R.S. , and Prof. G. H. F. Nuttall, F.R.S. 

The Rt. Hon. H. A. L. Fisher and Sir James G. Frazer have been elected 
Fellows of the Royal Society on the ground that they have rendered " con- 
spicuous service to the cause of science." 

The Rumford Premium of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
has been awarded to Dr. Irvine Langmuir, of the General Electric Company, 
for his work on thermionic and allied phenomena. The Barnard Medal of 
Columbia University goes, this year, to Dr. Albert Einstein. 


Prof. H. A. Bumstead, professor of physics at Yale, has been elected 
Chairman of the National Research Council of the United States. Dr. J. R. 
Angell, the retiring chairman, has been made President of the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York. 

SirW. J.Pope, F.R.S., whohas just been elected an Associate of the section 
for mathematical and physical sciences of the Acad6mie Royale de Belgique, 
will be President of the Society of Chemical Industry for the year 1920-21. 
The gold medal of the society has been presented to M. Paul Kestner, Pre- 
sident of the Society of Chemical Industry of France. 

The Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts for 1920 has been awarded 
to Prof. A. A. Michelson, For. Mem. R.S., professor of physics in the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. Mr. Alan A. Campbell Swinton has been elected Chairman 
of the Council of the Society for the session 1920-21. 

Sir Ray Lankester was awarded the Linnean Medal by the Linnean 
Society this year, and Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan the Trail award and 
medal. Dr. A. Smith-Woodward will be President of the Society next 

Dr. Simon Flexner, director of the laboratories of the Rockefeller Institute 
for Medical Research, has had the Hon. LL.D. degree conferred on him by the 
University of Cambridge. 

Sir J. Cadman, Mr. W. B. Hardy, and Prof. S. Young have been appointed 
members of the Advisory Council to the Committee of the Privy Council 
for Scientific and Industrial Research. 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, F.R.S., Meteorologist to the Government of India, has 
been appointed to succeed Sir Napier Shaw as Director of the Meteorological 
Ofiice. Dr. Simpson was meteorologist and physicist to the British 
Antarctic Expedition 1910-13. 

Dr. J. S. Flett succeeds Sir Aubrey Strahan as Director of the Geo- 
logical Survey and Museum. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter has been appointed to succeed the late Prof. 
J. A. McClelland as secretary of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Prof. K. Rontgen has retired from the chair of Experimental Physics 
at the University of Munich and from the control of the Physikalisches 

Dr. T. M. Lowry, C.B.E., has been appointed first occupant of the new 
chair of Physical Chemistry at the University of Cambridge. 

Dr. L. V. King has been appointed Macdonald Professor of Physics at 
McGill University; Prof. J. Wemyss Anderson to the John WilUam Hughes 
Chair of Refrigerating Engineering at Liverpool University; and Dr. W. J. 
Dakin, professor of biology in the University of Western Australia, to the 
Derby Chair of Zoology in succession to the late Prof. Leonard Doncaster. 

The following appointments have been made by the Council of University 
College, Swansea : — Professor of Metallurgy, Prof. C. A. Edwards ; of Chem- 
istry, Dr. J. E. Coates ; of Physics, Dr. E. A. Evans ; of Mathematics, 
Lt.-Col. A. R. Richardson, D.S.O. ; Lecturer in Geology, Dr. A. E. Trueman. 

The Council of the University of Leeds has appointed Mr. G. C. Steward, 
M.Sc, B.A., of Caius College, Cambridge, and the University of London, 
assistant lecturer in applied mathematics, and Mr. W. B. Grist, B.Sc, secretary 
of the newly formed Appointments Board. 

The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has now established 
four Sub-Committees to assist the Radio Research Board in the investigation 
of certain problems which have arisen in the course of its work. The first 
Sub-Committee is to deal with the propagation of wireless waves ; it consists 
of Dr. E. H. Rayner (Chairman), Prof. Barton, Major Erskine-Murray, 
Prof. H. M. MacDonald, and Prof. Nicholson. Sub-Committee B, on Atmo- 
spherics, has Col. H. G. Lyons as Chairman, the other members being Mr. A. A. 
Campbell Swinton, Prof. S. Chapman, Major H. P. T. Lefroy, Mr. G. I. 

NOTES 291 

Taylor, Mr. R. A. Watson Watt, and Mr. C. T. R. Wilson. Sub-Committee C, 
on Directional Wireless, consists of Mr, F. E. Smith (Chairman), Mr. N. P. 
Hinton, and representatives of the R.E. and R.A.F. The fourth Sub- 
Committee, on Thermionic Valves, is a very large one, the scientific members 
being Prof. Richardson (Chairman) ; Mr. E. V. Appleton, Mr. B. Hodgson, 
Prof. Horton, Mr. H. Morris Airey, and Prof. R. Whiddington. The Radio 
Research Board itself is at present made up as follows : — Sir Henry B. 
Jackson (Chairman) ; Commander Salmond (Admiralty) ; Lt.-Col. A. G. T. 
Cusins (War Office) ; Wing-Com. A. D. Warrington Morris (Air Ministry) ; 
Mr. E. H. Shaughnessey (Post Office) ; Sir J. E, Petavel (N.P.L.); Prof. 
Rutherford and Prof. Townsend. 

We note with great regret the announcement of the death of the following 
scientific men during the past quarter : — M. Adolphe Carnot, the French 
chemist ; Prof. Leonard Doncaster, F.R.S., Derby Professor of Zoology 
in the University of Liverpool; Maj.-Gen. W. C. Gorgas, K.C.M.G., 
Surgeon-General of the United States Army and President of the American 
Medical Association ; Dr. Wheelton Hind, geologist and surgeon ; Mr. A. H. 
Hiorns, at one time Head of the metallurgical department of Birmingham 
Municipal Technical College: Sir Norman Lockyer ; Dr. G. E. Morrison, " of 
Peking " ; Dr. R. Munro, the well-known Scotch archaeologist ; Prof. John 
Perry, F.R.S., emeritus professor of mechanics at the Royal College of 
Science, and general treasurer of the British Association ; Prof. A. Righi, 
For. Mem. R.S., of the University of Bologna; Prof. J. R. Rydberg, For. 
Mem. R.S., professor of physics at the University of Lund, Sweden ; Prof. 
S. Ramanujan, F.R.S., the first Indian Fellow of the Royal Society ; 
Dr. F. A. Tarleton, of Trinity College, Dublin ; Prof. C. A. Timiriazefi, 
For. Mem. R.S., emeritus professor of botany in the University of Moscow. 

The memorial to the late Lord Rayleigh in Westminster Abbey is to take 
the form of a mural tablet which will be executed by Mr. Derwent Wood 
and erected near the memorials to Sir Humphry Davy and Dr. Thomas 
Young. The balance remaining after the expenses of this memorial have been 
met will be used to establish a library fund at the Cavendish Laboratory, 

Among the many donations to the cause of science last quarter, we must 
note first the magnificent gift of 6,000,000 dollars from the Rockefeller 
Institute to the Medical School at University College, London, and to Univer- 
sity College Hospital. From the same source the Medical Research Foundation 
of Elizabeth, Queen of the Belgians, Brussels, receives 1,000,000 francs for 
the general purposes of medical research. Medical education in the United 
States has, however, received even larger gifts, for Mr. George Eastman and 
the General Education Board of the U.S.A. (which is financed by Mr. Rocke- 
feller) have together given 9,000,000 dollars to the University of Rochester 
for a school of medicine, surgery, and dentistry; and the medical departments 
of Columbia, Harvard, and Johns Hopkins Universities receive between them 
about 5,500,000 dollars from the estate of the late Capt. J. R. de Lamar. 
The trustees of the late Sir William Dunn have ofiered ;^i65,ooo to the 
University of Cambridge to found a school of Biochemistry, and Mr. Edward 
Whitley has offered ;^io,ooo to the University of Oxford as a contribution 
towards the endowment of a professorship in the same subj ect . Oxford has also 
received ;^5,ooo from the British Dye Stufis Corporation towards the cost of 
extending the organic chemistry laboratory. The shareholders of Messrs. 
Brunner Mond & Co. have consented to the directors' proposal that ;^ioo,ooo 
shall be distributed among the various Universities for the benefit of their 
chemical departments . Sir Jesse Boot has given ;^5o, 000 to University College, 
Nottingham, in aid of a scheme to form a University in that town : ;^3o,ooo 
to go to the building fund, and ;^20,ooo for the chair of chemistry. Messrs. 
Alfred Holt & Co. have contributed ;^i5,ooo to the Liverpool University 


Appeal Fund, and merchants interested in the African trade have promised 
;^i2,ooo for a chair of colonial commerce, administration, and history, and 
to increase the endowment of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. 
Dr. Rudolf Messel, among other bequests, left;^5,ooo to the Royal Institution, 
and ;^i,ooo to the Chemical Society. The residue of his estate goes as to 
four parts to the Royal Society, and as to the other, to the Society of Chemical 
Industry, the income in each case to be devoted to scientific research. 

At the time of writing, the decision of the Senate of the University of 
London concerning the Government offer of a site in Bloomsbury for the 
central offices of the University and the new buildings for King's College hangs 
still in the balance. The question is a dif&cult one in itself, and it is compli- 
cated by the refusal of the Government to bear the very heavy cost entailed 
by the construction of new buildings on the land they offer. It is clear 
that a University already too impoverished to pay its staff decently cannot 
lightly accept the responsibility for so huge a burden . On grounds of sentiment 
and, perhaps, of prestige, it would be a fine thing to establish a definite 
University quarter in a central position in the County of London ; it is by no 
means certain, however, that the wealthy citizen would show his appreciation 
of that fact by adequate contribution to the Building Fund. Further, 
sentiment should not be the controlling factor in a matter of this kind, nor, 
indeed, the convenience of members of the Faculties or even of the Senate. 
A University exists for the benefit of its students, and there seems little doubt 
that, in so large an area as London, these are best served by a wise distribution 
of the constituent colleges of the University. King's and University Colleges 
are each large enough to produce an atmosphere of learning; and, placed 
within a few hundred yards of each other, their organisations and individu- 
alities would inevitably, in time, merge into one : the science faculties being 
concentrated in the one set of buildings, and the Arts in the other, instead 
of mingling as they do now, to the undoubted advantage of both. 

Apparently, however, certain persons are considering favourably the possi- 
bility of transferring King's College and the University Headquarters to 
Kenwood. It is difficult to believe that this suggestion is a serious one, and 
not merely a means of opposing the Government scheme, for Kenwood is a 
rather inaccessible locality even to dwellers in the North of London ; attend- 
ance from other parts of the county would be out of the question. Part would 
no doubt find excellent use as a Residential College ; but the University as a 
whole cannot be residential, and to suggest that the main University activities 
of the county should be concentrated in so remote a position is simply 
ludicrous. There is a third aspect of the matter — that of possibility. "The 
Government can offer the land at Bloomsbury, and has no land to offer in 
any other reasonably central position. London certainly should have a 
University quarter, and the surroundings at Bloomsbury are quite suitable 
for the purpose. If the Senate finds itself unable to accept the offer, it is to 
be hoped that it will be on the ground of inadequate means, and not with the 
idea of a remote and inaccessible suburb as alternative. 

The views of the London Graduates' Association on this question are 
expressed by the following resolution, passed unanimously at a recent 
m.eeting of the Council : — 

" That the University of London Graduates' Association, recalling the 
undertaking of His Majesty's Government of the removal, at their instance, 
of the Headquarters of the University from Burlington Gardens to the 
present buildings at South Kensington, to continue to provide site and build- 
ings rate- and tax-free with maintenance and upkeep, and also to make 
provision for the full extension and development of the University as 
reconstituted under the Act of 1898, is of opinion that the renewed ofier of 
land on the Duke of Bedford's estate, accompanied by an undefined main- 
tenance grant, now made by the Government, is in no sense an equivalent 

NOTES 293 

for the accommodation as at present guaranteed by the Government, and does 
not comply with the stipulations laid down by the Senate, after full considera- 
tion of this and other sites, in their resolution of June 17, 1914" ; namely : 

" That the Vice-Chancellor be requested to inform His Majesty's Govern- 
ment that the Senate, having considered various sites which have been 
suggested for the Headquarters of the University, are of opinion that it is 
undesirable to proceed further with such consideration unless and until 
His Majesty's Treasury intimate their willingness to provide accommodation 
more suitable in situation, more convenient in character, and on terms not 
less advantageous as regards tenure, etc., than those attaching to the present 
occupation at South Kensington." 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer proposes to ask Parliament to increase 
the Treasury Grant in aid of the Universities from ;^i, 000,000 to /i, 500,000 
in the Estimates for 1921-22, i.e. to make the extra non-current sum of 
;{5oo,ooo given this year recurrent. In addition to this absurdly inadequate 
provision, we understand that a certain amount of money is to be provided 
to supplement the pensions of the older teachers who, by reason of their 
early retirement, can benefit but little from the Universities Superannuation 
scheme. Nothing, apparently, is to be done to make the pensions received 
by the teachers as a whole more comparable with those received by school 

An inevitable result of the depreciation of money and the insuflSciency 
of Government assistance has been the raising of University fees. The new 
scales will, in most cases, come into operation next session {i.e. in October). 
They have been agreed upon after consultation among the Universities 
themselves and the Board of Education, and show an extremely modest 
increase, e.g. at the University of Leeds the change is in no case greater than 
17^ per cent. Necessary as this alteration is from the point of view of the 
University teacher and administrator, it is to be regretted as a definite 
retrogression from the democratic ideal — no fees at all, but an entrance 
examination of high standard and a ruthless weeding out of those who sub- 
sequently prove themselves unfit for college training. 

Finsbury Technical College is to be closed at the end of the session 

The American Presbyterian Board has decided to establish a University 
at Cairo, and has purchased a site for the building. It will include five 
faculties: Arts, Oriental Languages, Teachers, Commerce, and Agriculture. 

The Rubber Growers' Association is offering a sum of ;/^5,ooo in prizes for 
ideas and suggestions for extending the present uses or for encouraging new 
uses of Rubber. The conditions of the competition (which closes on Decem- 
ber 31 ) state that special value will be attached to suggestions of a thoroughly 
practical nature accompanied by working details (including diagrams and 
designs) which would enable the suggestions to be adopted by a manu- 
facturer. Further, it is desirable that the ideas should involve the use 
of large quantities of Rubber. The designs may not be patented in any 
country, and the Association reserves itself " the right at anytime to publish, 
test, and otherwise deal " with proposals put forward by any competitor 
whether he receives a prize or not. Frankly this looks like using a sprat to 
catch a whale. It is unlikely that anyone, having worked out a really feasible 
idea, would surrender all rights in it for a reward which presumably would 
not exceed j^ 1,000, and very possibly might amount to nothing at all. 

The Report of the Advisory Committee on Civil Aviation states that, in 
the opinion of the Committee, the indirect assistance hitherto given to 
commercial flying is insufficient, and recommends that a sum not exceeding 
£250,000 should be given, during the next two years, to aviation companies 
working on approved routes ; the subsidy awarded being equal to 25 per cent. 



of the total revenue of the companies irrespective of the character of the load 
they carry. 

Vol. xiii of the Contributions from the Jefferson Physical Laboratory 
(Harvard University) contains an account of Dr. P. W. Bridgman's work on 
the effects of pressure on the resistance and thermo-electric properties of 
metals. He finds that, under a pressure of 10,000 kilograms weight per sq. 
cm., the resistance of cobalt and tungsten wires is i per cent, less than at 
atmospheric pressure, while for lead, tin, and cadmium the decrease is no less 
than 10 per cent. The law connecting the resistance and pressure is linear, 
and the temperature coefficient of the resistance between 0° and 100° C. 
appears to remain unaltered. The effective of increase of pressure on the 
thermo-electric e.m.f. varies a good deal with diilerent metals, but as a rule 
the thermo-electric power increases, both Peltier and Kelvin effects becoming 
greater with larger pressures. 

In an article in Science (June 18, 1920), Langmuir puts forward arguments 
favouring quite a new type of structure for the helium atom. He suggests 
that the two electrons oscillate along arcs of the same ellipse (?) having the 
positive nucleus as centre, the path of each electron extending 77° 58' each 
way from the mid-point, and being so curved that the radius vector at the 
end of an arc is 1-138 times the radius at the centre. According to his 
calculations (to be published in the Physical Review) , this structure gives a 
value for the ionising potential of helium which accords with the results of 
recent experiments made by Franck and Knipping, namely 25-5 volts as 
against the 28-8 volts demanded by Bohr's 1913 model. 

Prof. Raymond Pearl, of the Johns Hopkins University, contributed an 
interesting article on the efiect of the war on the populations of France, 
Prussia, Bavaria, and England and Wales to Science (June 4, 1920). During 
the war there was no migration of the population of these countries, so that 
the ratio of the deaths to the births serves as an indication of the change of 
population. If this ratio, expressed as a percentage, exceeds 100, the 
population is, of course, diminishing. Using data obtained from the quarterly 
returns of the Registrar- General in the case of England and Wales, and from 
the Journal of the Statistical Society of Paris for the others, he obtains the 
following results : 


77 Non-invaded De- 
partments of France. 



England and 




Per Cent. 




Per Cent. 


Per Cent.' 




Per Cent. 


* Based on returns for first nine months of year only. 

It will be noticed that the proportionate change of the death-birth ratio is 
approximately the same for France, Prussia, and Bavaria, in spite of the very 
different pre-war values and the equally difierent psychological condition of 
the peoples during the greater part of the war. The change in the index for 
England and Wales shows the same general tendency, though to a much 
smaller extent ; and while the index does not show any marked rise as a result 
of the influenza epidemics of 19 18 in any one of the countries considered, 
though such effect as is shown is greater for England than for any other. 
Data for the post-war period is not yet available except for England and 

NOTES 295 

Wales, whose 1919 ratio has the value 73 per cent. — a pronounced drop, 
but still well above the pre-war level. 

Mr. John Murray has published, for the Imperial Institute, a Monograph 
by Mr. R. H. Rastall, M.A., F.G.S., and Mr. W. H. Wilcockson, M.A., F.G.S., 
on the world's resources of Tungsten Ores with special reference to the British 
Empire (price 3s. 6d. net). From this it appears that the chief producing 
countries are the United States and Burma, which between them accounted 
for more than 50 per cent, of the world's supply in 1917. The British Empire 
as a whole has very large resources — more than enough to supply its own 
needs ; and in other parts of the world, for example in China, there still appear 
to be vast supplies, sufficient to meet all demands for many years to come. 
The chief ores are iron tungstate (ferberite), manganese tungstate (hiibnerite), 
wolframite, which commonly contains a mixture of the first two and calcium 
tungstate known as scheelite, which usually shows, on analysis, 2 or 3 per cent. 
of molybdenum . During the war the price was fixed by the British Government 
at about ;^I40 per ton — roughly twice the pre-war value. In the United 
States it was not controlled and rose to ten times this figure. The metal 
is used for the manufacture of high speed steels (which contain from 13 to 
30 per cent, of tungsten), for electric lamps and X-ray bulbs, and as substitute 
for platinum — for example, in spark coil contacts and the manufacture of 
acid-resisting alloys. The output from the United Kingdom is quite small — 
about 300 tons per annum ; and that from Germany and Austria combined is 
estimated to be even less. The chief producing countries, in addition to Burma 
(4,500 tons) and the United States (5,000), are Portugal (1,600), Japan 
(1,500), China (1,200), Argentine (1,000), Bolivia (1,600), and Peru (1,000), 
the figures referring to the estimated output in 191 7. In England tungsten 
ores are mined in various parts of Devon and Cornwall, and at Carrock Fell in 

We have received a most interesting paper on " The Nature, Scope, and 
Dlf&culties of Industrial Research," prepared for the Tenth International 
Cotton Congress, at Zurich (June 1920), by Dr. W. Lawrence Balls, Chairman 
of the Joint Standing Committee of the British Cotton Research Association 
and the Eqipire Cotton Growing Committee. Discussing the need for research 
in the qptton industry, the author remarks that no new appliance has been 
invented for handling cotton, during the spinning process, for over a century, 
excepting only Heilmann'sComber, which was devised nearly seventy years ago. 
While there is no doubt much forgotten knowledge buried under conventional 
practice, yet the business of the cotton-spinner is a thing in itself ; scarcely 
related to general physical knowledge at all. In fact. Dr. Balls considers the 
present position such that the first ten years of scientific work will have to 
be spent merely in defining what the spinner knows I He says: " We begin 
an attempt to connect the properties of raw cotton with the properties of yarn, 
only to find that no one possesses any definable knowledge of the properties 
of yam, except its breaking strain in the lea test ; and when we take this as 
a more modest starting-point, we find that no one knows what the lea-break 
means." The whole industry seems to be permeated with " last-my-timers " 
content to leave improvement to posterity. This is fatal to successful 
scientific work, and in order that benefit may be obtained from the research 
now commencing, it will be necessary for all classes to develop a faculty of 
curiosity, to exercise imagination, and to take up a critical attitude towards 
supposed perfection of things as they happen to be. 

The most interesting part of the paper deals with the question of publi- 
cation. How to reconcile the publicity without which research can make but 
slow progress with the secrecy which the business man considers an essential 
factor for his success. As a compromise, it is suggested that the publication 
of any discoveries should be deferred for five years. One thing is quite certain : 
if industrial research involves scientific obscurity, a very valuable stimulus 


will be lost, and only an inferior type of man will be attracted to industrial 

Bulletin No. 4 of the Department of Scientific Industrial Research deals 
with Solid Lubricants. Of these graphite is by far the most important, used 
either dry or in colloidal solution with water or a neutral oil. It possesses 
in a marked degree ability to adhere to metallic surfaces, and there to produce 
a smooth unctuous surface. The other solid lubricants — talc and mica — 
are not so good in either of these respects, and are, moreover, not nearly as soft, 
the best quality talc excepted. The most important artificial graphites are 
those produced by Dr. Acheson in the U.S.A., and by the Graphite Products 
Ltd., of Battersea. Acheson No. 1,340 contains over 99 per cent, pure carbon, 
98 per cent, of which is in the form of particles less than ^Is inch in diameter. 
When converted into colloidal form by suitable means, it is sold as Aquadag 
(with water, containing 98-7 per cent, graphite) and Oildag (with oil, containing 
97-6 per cent, graphite). Foliac Flake Graphite No. loi (Graphite Products 
Ltd.) contains 9995 per cent, graphite, but is comparatively coarse. When 
ground finer, it is known as Foliac No. 100 and contains 99*6 per cent, graphite, 
the chief impurity being silica. 

The great advantage of graphite as a lubricant arises from the fact that 
it fills up pits, etc., in the metal surfaces, and by coating and impregnating 
them makes it diflScult for them to seize. Dry it is used, for example, in 
lace-making machines and chocolate machinery, to avoid the spoiling of the 
material by ordinary oil, and in bottle-making machines, where the temperature 
is so high that the oil would burn away. Colloidal graphite mixed with neutral 
oil finds wide uses, especially with heavy bearings, worm gear, chain drives, 
and under suitable conditions with steam-engines. The chief disadvantage 
is the tendency of the graphite to flocculate in the presence of electrolytes ; 
this makes it undesirable for use with internal combustion engines having an 
oil-circulation system, unless, indeed, it is mixed with highly purified neutral 
oils, on account of the danger of the choking up of oil- pipes, oil-grooves, etc., 
with the precipitated graphite. With splash-oiling systems this danger does 
not arise, the precipitated graphite merely accumulating in the bottom of the 
engine. Aquadag is used in wire-drawing metal filaments for electric lamps, 
and is apparently the only non-oily lubricant which has given satisfaction 
for the purpose. The whole of this Bulletin (which can be obtained through 
any bookseller, price 6^^.) is most interesting, and it is recommended to the 
notice of all who have occasion to use lubricating materials. 

The world-wide scarcity of fuel and the great and apparently permanent 
increase in the cost of coal have once more revived interest in the possibilities 
of peat as a fuel. In order that some of the fundamental facts concerning 
this matter might be brought before the public, the Fuel Research Board 
has issued, as a separate report, a lecture on " The Peat Resources of Ireland," 
delivered to the Royal Dublin Society by Prof. Pierce F. Purcell, Assoc. 
M.Inst.C.E., on March 5 . It appears that the chief obstacle preventing the use 
of peat on a large scale is its watery character in the natural state. To drain 
a bog properly requires from three to five years, and even then it contains 
less solid matter than cow's milk 1 The figures are : — undrained down to 
5 per cent, solid, drained 9-12 per cent., cow's milk 12-15 per cent. To obtain 
one ton of normal air-dried peat (which contains 25 per cent, of water), 
it is thus necessary to remove and dry from 6 J to 15 tons of the raw material, 
the exact weight depending on the thoroughness with which the bog has been 
drained. The drying problem is a very serious one. To use heat is most 
uneconomical, because so large a proportion of the final product is required 
to evaporate the water. Thus to obtain 100 lb. of 33J per cent, wet peat 
from 70 per cent, wet peat requires no less than 41 lb. of the final product — 
even supposing the drying apparatus to have an efi&ciency as great as 60 
per cent. Pressure alone, in the absence of heat, will only reduce the moisture 

NOTES 297 

content to 70 percent. — i.e., will only remove three-quarters of the water 
associated with a given mass of anhydrous peat, the remaining part being 
held very firmly by the colloidal matter present. Air-drying thus remains 
at present the only commercially successful method. It is cheap but very 
slow, and limits the peat-winning period to the five or six months of the year 
during which climatic conditions are favourable. For the manufacture of pro- 
duced gas 33^ per cent, water content is desirable, while for domestic purposes 
or for use in a steam boiler the content must be reduced to 25 per cent. It 
is in any case useless to reduce the moisture below 16 per cent., since anhydrous 
peat rapidly absorbs this amount when exposed to the air. The successful 
development of mechanical cutters and spreaders is an essential factor 
in the large-scale use of peat fuel. In Ireland each worker per day will cut 
and spread the raw material for only one ton of standard air-dried peat ; 
in Holland the figure is three tons instead of one, but with the best 
mechanical cutters now available, this becomes 15 tons per worker per 
day, a figure which could no doubt be much improved. The Irish output 
for the whole of the year 1913 was as follows : 130 tons of 25 per cent, wet 
peat per worker with hand-cutting, and 230 tons by machine. The calorific 
value of this peat is only half that of average coal, so that the 230 tons are 
only equivalent to 115 tons of coal — a figure which compares badly with the 
259 tons of coal won per man in Great Britain (in 1913 I) and the 681 tons 
similarly obtained in the U.S.A. 

It is interesting to note that the largest user of peat fuel in Ireland is 
the Marconi Co., which burns 5,000 to 6,000 tons per annum for steam- 
raising purposes at the Clifden wireless station. In Germany, however, the 
large Central Power Station at Wiesmoor Friesland consumed 30,000 tons 
in 1913 for the generation of the electric current used to operate the Ems- 
Jade Canal, and the naval yards at Emden and Wilhelmshaven. However, 
even this consumption was exceeded by Bogerodzk Power Station, near 
Moscow, where plant having a capacity of 10,000 kilowatts has been laid down 
to supply the weaving factories in the neighbourhood, the surplus being 
transmitted to Moscow, forty-three miles away. 

We have received the first few numbers of a new Indian fortnightly journal, 
the Scientific World, published at Lahore by L. Chaman Lai, B.Sc, from 
March i, 1920, and give a warm welcome to the venture, which appears to 
be the first of its kind in India. Under British inspiration, education there 
has hitherto been almost entirely of a literary character, and journalism has 
therefore been mostly devoted to the usual futile and unproductive politics. 
We wish success to the new effort. 


(Joshua C. Gregory, B.Sc.) 

The root of scepticism, wrote Berkeley, Is in supposing a twofold existence 
of objects of sense — one intelligible or in the mind, the other real and with- 
out it.^ Hylas was in one stage of the journey to final scepticism when he 
deduced, from the original assumption, a distinction between real things or 
external objects and immediately perceived ideas, which are their images 
or representations .2 He soon took the final step : "I tell you that colour, 
figure, and hardness, which you perceive, are not the real natures of these 
things, or in the least like them." Yellowness, weight, etc., he adds, are 
only relative to the senses, and we are ignorant of things — knowing neither 
their true nature nor even their existence.^ 

Hylas prefigured the course to be run by thought on its way from Des- 
cartes to Hume. About 200 years after Berkeley, Lossky again complains 
that " most epistemologists are inclined to maintain that immediate ex- 
perience consists entirely of the individual mental states of the knowing 
subject." * A perceived object is still assigned a " twofold existence," in 
the outer world and in conscious representation. Thought still blunders in 
and out of scepticism, misled by the notion of mental copies of things or 
of ideas symbolising reality. 

Berkeley dealt summarily with this " twofold existence " by conferring 
upon sensible objects the status of " ideas." '' To me it is evident, for the 
reasons you allow of, that sensible things cannot exist otherwise than in a 
mind or spirit." " The ordinary distinction between things and thoughts 
was not completely annulled by Berkeley when he thus converted their 
separate modes of existence into a single one as " idea." He recognised 
that some form of duality was required to account for the invasive quality of 
the " ideas " which were his equivalents for the physical objects of common 
thought. " Whence I conclude," Philonous adds when he has referred 
" sensible things " to existence in a mind, " not that they have no real 
existence, but that, seeing they depend not on my thought, and have an 
existence distinct from being perceived by me, there must be some other 
mind wherein they exist." ^ This transference of duality from a distinction 
between physical things independent of minds and mental things, to a dis- 
tinction between " ideas " originating in a superhuman mind and " ideas " 
originating in human minds, involved a limitation on the realm of causality. 
" There is nothing of power or agency included " in " all our ideas, sensa- 
tions, notions, or the things which we perceive." Incorporeal active sub- 
stance or spirit is the cause of all ideas. Here, as elsewhere, and often more 
explicitly, Berkeley extracts causality completely from the physical world 
(regarded by him as " idea " in a superhuman mind) and confines it to the 


Principles of Human Knowledge, § 86. 
First Dialogue between Hylas and Philonous. 
Third Dialogue between Hylas and Philonous. 
The Intuitive Basis of Knowledge (Duddington's trans.), p. 76. 
Second Dialogue between Hylas and Philonous. ® Ibid. 



realm of spiritual substance. The causal link between the sensible object 
and the idea aroused by it in the human mind is thus severed or annulled : 
extension, figure or motion, he declares, cannot cause sensations.* 

This causal connection between perceived objects and mental percep- 
tions of them frequently presents itself as the neck of representationalism 
to its opponents. Sever it, deny that the mind responds to causal influ- 
ences from outer reality by producing mental copies or symbolic represen- 
tations of things, and the representationalistic plunge towards scepticism, 
promoted by its insistence on the duality implied in the independent exis- 
tence of physical things outside the mind and their representative exis- 
tence within it, ceases to trouble thought. Lossky redistributes causality 
differently from Berkeley : he does not, by banishing it from the external 
world, support the opinion that one " idea " cannot be the cause of another ,2 
which is the Berkleyan equivalent for a non-causal physical world. He 
affirms that " every part of reality is so constituted that, if some aspects are 
given, other aspects are necessarily conjoined therewith in organic connec- 
tion " ; that " the explanation of the necessity involved in judgment will 
be found in the necessity involved in reality itself, in the organic functional 
relation between the various aspects of reality"; that there are necessary 
connections between the elements of the world which are causal in form.^ 
But, like Berkeley, he so conceives, or attempts to conceive, the process of per- 
ception or knowing as to expel causal connection between known and knower. 
" Relations of causality . . . are already given in each separate act of 
perception," but " the subject's knowledge of an object is a fact that differs 
profoundly from other facts . . ." ; and it is epistemologically disastrous to 
refer experience to the " causal action of the not-self upon the self." * 

The causal nexus between perceived objects and percipient minds cannot 
be peremptorily severed without any other efifect on their plexus of rela- 
tions. A sharp separation between the self and the not-self, Lossky r^- 
marks, is naturally associated with their causal interaction, and contributes 
to epistemological disaster .^ The not-self stands in outemess from the 
self, in a relation to it of transcendence, to direct its causal action upon it. 
The causal nexus breaks away and dissolves as Berkeley extracts outemess 
from objects by transforming them into " ideas." A reduced outemess 
still remains : " the things perceived by sense may be termed external, 
with regard to their origin — in that they are not generated from within 
the mind itself, but imprinted by a spirit distinct from that which 
perceives them." ^ The transcendent relation has, however, become a 
more immanent relation as the physical outemess is exchanged for the 
innemess of " idea." " I am not for changing things into ideas," says 
Philonous, " but rather for ideas into things — immediate objects of per- 
ception, not appearances but the real things themselves." ' The same 
conjunction of annulment of causal connection between self and not-self 
with a drawing of the sensible object within the knowing process, is repeated, 
though it is repeated differently, in Lossky. There is the same motive — 
to substitute real apprehension for knowledge confined to appearances ; 
there is the same method — to bring the object from the outemess of tran- 
scendency within the range of intuition by its immanency in knowledge. 

" Identity of knowledge and the object known is only possible if the 
known object, in all the completeness of its reality, is present in the process 

1 Principles of Human Knowledge, §§ 25, 26. 

2 The Theory of Vision or Visual Language, § 13. 

' The Intuitive Basis of Knowledge (Duddington's trans.), pp. 263-4. 

* Ibid., pp. 18, 20, 104. ^ Ibid., p. 20. 

« Principles of Human Knowledge, § 90. 

' Third Dialogue between Hylas and Philonous. 


of knowing, if it is immanent in that process." ^ Does Lossky, when he 
thus revises the representationahstic conception of an object transcendently 
acting on a subject, really revise away the causal connection ? Berkeley, 
observing the immanency of the " idea " in knowledge, secured it also for 
objects of sense by conferring upon them an ideational status. Similarly, 
Lossky, observing that " the processes of so-called inner perception shows 
that they are characterised by the presence of the object in knowledge ..." 
and that " the structure of such knowledge is entirely determined by this 
condition," concludes that " our perceptions of the external world must 
possess the same character, and that here, too, the object apprehended 
must be immanent in the knowing process." 2 A remnant of outerness re- 
mained with Berkeley's " ideas " which were " imprinted on the senses," ^ since 
they originated in a superhuman mind ; a remnant of outerness also seems 
to remain in Lossky 's " objects," which, though immanent in the knowing 
process, are still objects. It seems, at least, doubtful whether they do not 
retain their causal agency with their residual transcendency or outerness. 

If knowledge is more complex than its object,* if the object apprehended 
is an experience which is compared, ^ if the knowing subject obtains material 
from the object and elaborates it into knowledge,* if the " objects of know- 
ledge become differentiated," ^ if knowledge " is a process of differentiating 
the real world by means of comparison," ^ the subject still seems to respond 
to a call from the outer world. The range of causal action has, so to speak, 
been shortened : the object enters to stir a differentiating process instead 
of arousing it from afar. The activity of comparing belonging to the know- 
ing subject, if its results are determined by the nature of the objects,® 
seems to be causally related to the reality it compares. If the " law of 
causality amounts ex hypothesi merely to the conviction that any given 
event necessarily follows upon a complex of certain other events," i" if 
causality, descriptively stated, is events succeeding other events within 
a system, the comparing, difierentiating process which results in know- 
ledge when the object becomes " immanent " appears to be causally related 
to it. The greater intimacy between self and not-self obtaining through 
the latter's immanency in knowledge does not appear to annul their causal 
relation ; reconciling subject and object by co-ordination instead of by 
subordination, and retaining their independence in an indissoluble unity, ^^ 
does not sever their causal bond, nor does it necessarily even reduce it. 

Lossky seems to open himself to a suspicion that he has carefully de- 
scribed an alternative method of mental copying. Uncompared reality flows 
before us, he writes, dark, formless, and unrecognised. When attention is 
attracted, " the intellectual process of discriminating begins " ; 12 form 
succeeds to formlessness, and the vague becomes definite. Reality, through 
" a process of diflEerentiating the real world by means of comparison " and 
retaining its real character, " becomes a known reality, a presentation or 
an idea." ^^ The final " differentiated appearance," which never exhausts 
the richness of the reality, " composed entirely of elements present in the 
object itself,"^* strongly suggests an impression made by a seal, or, to keep 
the metaphor close to the metaphored, a seal imbedded in its impression 
upon wax. Reality striking in upon attention, discriminating processes 

* The Intuitive Basis of Knowledge (Duddington's trans.), p. 31. 
2 Ibid., pp. 75-6. 

^ Principles of Human Knowledge, § i . 

* The Intuitive Basis of Knowledge (Duddington's trans.), p. 76. 
s Ibid., p. 82. « Ibid., p. loi. ' Ibid., p. 105. 
^ Ibid., p. 226. 8 Ibid., p. 262. ^^ Ibid., p. 39. 
" Ibid., p. 69. 12 75,-^^ p^ 225. " Ibid., p. 226. 
" Ibid., p. 227. 


stirred in the knower, these discriminating processes guided by the constitu- 
tion of the reahty discriminated, truth acquired by the moulding of differ- 
entiating discrimination on the object : there seems to be causal interaction, 
and there seems to be something very like a " copy " of reality made at close 
quarters instead of at a distance. If a draughtsman drawing a distant 
house on his paper represent " copying " through causal action by a " tran- 
scendent " not-self upon a self, an engraving stamped from a plate by close 
contact would seem to represent " copying " in the theory of intuitive 
knowledge through the immanence of the object in knowing. 

Copies are surely causally affected by the copied. False copying indi- 
cates a co-operation between copied and copier which is surely causal in 
character. If the copier introduces error at the instance of the copied, if 
he is stirred, as his false copy seems to show he is stirred, by the presence 
of his object, there is causal action. " But since, in the process of knowing 
the only agent is the knowing subject who makes the comparison, it is only 
he who can introduce into the object elements foreign to it. In this sense 
it may be said that truth is the objective and falsity the subjective appear- 
ance of the object." ^ Lossky is compelled to admit the efi&ciency of the 
knower when he makes mistakes ; since his mistaken versions are responses 
to the reality he falsifies, for it would be irrational to suppose in him a pure 
spontaneity which is regardless of it, does he not also implicitly admit causal 
influence of known upon knower ? If it is perplexing to deprive the reality 
immanent in knowledge of its causal bond with the discriminating process 
which differentiates it, it is still more perplexing to discover that there may 
be lapses into such causality which provoke error in knowing. It would be 
hypercritical to pick out the causal terms which constantly appear in 
Lossky's description of the knowing process, for language is saturated with 
such causal terms, and he is compelled to use this common instrument of 
expression ; but that description, taken as a whole, seems to require an 
essential causal action between immanent object and differentiating knower 
which in no way annuls the causal bond between self and not-self. 

The causal relation between known and knower involved in misrepre- 
sentative knowing seems to carry the a fortiori implication of a similar 
causal relation when the knower truly knows his object. Theories of knov/- 
ledge often disclose their weaknesses in their estimates of error, and Lossky 
seems, in his explanation of falsity, to confess the causal link which he sys- 
tematically denies in his exposition. This causal link seems to be as im- 
manent in his version of knowledge as he supposes the object to be in the 
process of knowing, and, imperfectly concealed in his estimate of truth, to 
be laid bare in his estimate of error. If its estimation of error probes a 
theory of knowledge, its relations to memory probe it even deeper still. 
The cumulative effect of experience upon percipiency, the undoubted fact 
that " experiences differentiated in the past do facilitate the differentiation 
of present experiences, and also that the process of indirect perception is 
accompanied by memories ' ' 2 with all the familiar detail of memory, seem 
to scatter doubts on Lossky's epistemological path. Comparison with 
memory images suggests, for perceived objects, a looseness of attachment 
to the knowing process which appears to be curiously incompatible with 
their immanency in it. With a turn of the heel the eye exchanges a per- 
ception of a tree for a perception of a pig ; objects pop in and out of per- 
ception in agreement with our movements ; darkness deprives vision of 
its objects, and light admits them to it. Memory images, allowing for 
obliviscence, neither disappear in darkness nor depend in an essential way 
upon time and place. It may be true that " crude arguments," like the 

1 The Intuitive Basis of Knowledge (Duddington's trans.), p. 227. 

2 Ibid., p. 338. 



removing of " all extra-organic objects from the field of consciousness " 
by " the shutting of the eyes and the stopping of ears, " do not " at once 
decide in favour of all experiences being internal," but it does seem uncon- 
vincing merely to suggest that " the object thus detached from the knowing 
subject's body becomes less interesting ; it no longer attracts attention, 
nor does it ofier a sufficient number of habitual starting-points for the 
activity of discriminating and comparing to be directed upon it." ^ Evan- 
escent perpetual objects, like sparks from a fire or coloured stars from a 
rocket, seem to capture attention, strike in upon the mind and leave upon 
it, in the form of memory images, effects of their influence. Our own move- 
ments, or movements in things themselves, perpetually seem to alter our 
perceptual fields, and to leave the effects of these perceptual fields on memory 
because they compel all physical objects to be evanescent for perception. 
Memory images seem to insist upon causality in perception, because they 
seem to be obvious effects of the object upon the subject. They also, because 
they seem more fitted for the role of immanent objects than physical things, 
throw doubts upon the percept's claim to immanency. Lossky is compelled 
to HOMOGENISE percept and memory image, and this homogenising is cer- 
tainly violently opposed to the obvious difference between our mental 
reactions towards them. He suggests that association by contiguity may 
rest " upon a relation which holds throughout reality between the past 
and the present — a relation of ground and consequent which implies that, 
whenever some elements of a whole are found, its other elements must also 
really be present in one form or another. In that case, the memories engen- 
dered by association would themselves be simply a species of indirect 
perception, a sort of clairvoyance of the past." ^ The phrase " indirect 
perception " plainly indicates the homogenising of memory and present per- 
ception which is completed when he writes : " Every element of reality, 
even a fleeting event in the far-ofi past, remains eternally one and the same, 
identical with itself," ^ The flight of a shooting star, with its beginning 
and end, has a continued existence, according to this doctrine, in the memories 
of observers ; it seems also to multiply that continued existence if there 
be more observers than one. These observers must be placed appropriately 
both in space and time to see the original event, they can refer to it in their 
memories virtually at any subsequent time and in any subsequent place. 
This latter independence of place and time is most simply, as it is most 
usually, explained by the permanent " immanence " of memory images in 
their containing minds : these images are methods of reference to the 
original event impressed by it upon the mind of the knower. If an eagle 
soars in the air, the event may be immanent in the knowing processes of a 
hundred knowers : this plurality of immanence lies perplexingly at the 
very basis of Lossky 's theory of perception. Each observer must be suit- 
ably placed to see the eagle, and must observe it at the moment of flight. 
Ten years after, when these hundred knowers meet together in a place far 
removed from the original site of the event, they may remember their common 
experience. They may remember it singly in difierent places and at different 
times. If the original event is present in each remembrance and in judg- 
ments based upon them, Lossky is obviously compelled, since " it seems 
impossible for an event separated from the knowing subject by an interval 
of space and time to be present in his acts of judgment," to af&rm that 
" ontology must therefore construct such a theory of space and time as 
would dissipate the seeming impossibility." * Even if ontology does suc- 
ceed in harmonising the call made by the original event upon the observer 
to be appropriately placed in time and space, with its subsequent indepen- 
dence of them, there still remain further difficulties. 

^ The Intuitive Basis of Knowledge (Duddington's trans.), pp. 99-100. 
2 Ibid., p. 339. * Ibid., p. 272. * Ibid., p. 274. 


Lossky's appeal to ontology for help admits the seriousness of his episte- 
mological trouble. If his difficulty with time and space is resolved for 
him, he has still to explain one very important difference between remem- 
bering a perceived object and reperceiving it. The memory image cannot 
be further differentiated ; the object can be further differentiated if the 
knower again becomes its percipient. An observer casually perceives a 
wayside cross without noticing a small red mark at its foot. Repeated 
inspection of the memory image leaves the mark still unobserved and un- 
differentiated. Another look at the cross may instantly reveal it. " Re- 
iterated differentiation of objects," to which Lossky ascribes the " clearing 
away of falsity," ^ is possible in perceiving and reperceiving objects in a 
way in which it is not possible by reference in memory. 

Our general mental reaction in actual perception is too different from 
our general mental reaction in memory to allow of Lossky's homogenisation 
of percept and memory image. Memory images impressed upon minds by 
objects external to the knower explain, far more simply and consistently 
than Lossky's intuitive apprehension of immanent objects, the familiar 
phenomena of perception and memory. One object or event may affect 
many knowers, as one candle can shine on many mirrors. One object 
unified with many subjects is a much less intelligible conception : many 
percipients, it should be remembered, can perceive the same object without 
any awareness of one another's percipience. The requirement of appro- 
priate situation for percipience is intelligible without requiring Lossky's 
drastic ontological revision of space and time. The memory image dis- 
credits the perceptual object's claim to immanence in knowledge by its own 
greater claim on that role. As a mental method of reference to the original 
event or object, the memory image impressed by the original perception is 
naturally independent of locality or time. As a register of differentiation 
achieved during perception of the object, the memory image is also naturally 
unpermissive of further differentiation that can only be secured by a reper- 
cipience, subject, like the original percipience, to strict conditions for the 
situation of the knower. 

T. Hogben, M.A., B.Sc.) 

While research in many fields has been necessarily curtailed by the events 
of the past six years, considerable progress has been made in the study of 
the endocrine organs. One noteworthy advance is due to Kendall (igi8), 
who has isolated thyroxin, the physiologically active iodine compound 
present in the thyroid gland ; and has established its constitution as trihy- 
droxy-triodo-oxy ^-indole propionic acid. On the experimental side, several 
new lines of inquiry have been opened up by the discovery of Gudernatsch 
(191 4) that it is possible to accelerate metamorphosis in tadpoles by means 
of a diet of mammalian thyroid. The peculiarly favourable conditions of 
experimentation afforded by the study of amphibian metamorphosis have 
naturally given an impetus to the investigation of the influence of the ductless 
glands along these lines. 

Gudernatsch's method of inducing a precocious transition from thelarval 
to the adult condition in the case of frog and toad tadpoles has been abun- 
dantly confirmed by the work of Morse, West, Barthelemez, Lenhart, and 
Swingle. In Swingle's experiments the metamorphosis of tadpoles of Rana 
cateshiana, a species which normally reouires two or three seasons to attain 
the adult state, was accomplished, by means of a thyroid diet, within a single 

^ The Intuitive Basis of Knowledge (Duddington's trans.), p. 230. 


month. Subsequent investigation by the same worker estabhshed that 
similar results could be obtained by the use of iodine free of organic com- 
bination, and that, administered in dilute solution added to the culture or 
in elemental form mixed with the food, iodine itself is more effective for 
this purpose than any of its compounds. 

Such experiments, although suggestive, do not of themselves yield 
critical data respecting the functional activity of the thyroid gland in the 
organism to which it belongs. A basis for more extensive inquiry was 
afforded by Bennet Allen's success (1918) in perfecting the technique of 
thyroidectomy in very young tadpoles, followed by similar work on the 
part of Terry and E. R. and M. M. Hoskins. These investigators have 
demonstrated the complete inhibition of metamorphosis consequent upon 
the removal of the gland. And it appears that, while total absence of the 
thyroid results in a cessation of somatic differentiation, it is not found to 
hinder continued growth in size or to retard the development of the gonads. 
Swingle has made use of Allen's material to obtain further knowledge of the 
modus operandi of the thyroid diet method of enforcing metamorphosis 
prematurely. By feeding thyroidless tadpoles of Bufo with a diet contain- 
ing iodine crystals, he finds that they are capable of completing the process 
of somatic differentiation. Histological examination, moreover, according 
to Swingle, reveals that in normal tadpoles fed with iodine the glands are 
of greater size and the follicular colloidal masses enlarged. 

It is possible to distinguish at least two types of endocrine organs : in 
the first place, such an organ may function by simply setting free hormones 
secreted by its own activity, as in the case of the suprarenal medulla ; 
secondly, in considering the controlling influence of the gonads on secondary 
sex characters, Geoffrey Smith's work indicates that there is another type 
of hormone-producing organ, one which exercises its influence in a less 
direct and autonomous manner by causing, through its own metabolic 
activities, the production elsewhere of those substances which supply the 
characteristic stimulus. In the first case, feeding with the gland or its 
active principle proves an effective antidote for absence or removal ; and 
it is usually assumed that the thyroid conforms to this category. Swingle's 
experiments lead to the conclusion that, as far as the thyroid is concerned 
with Amphibian metamorphosis, it does not function strictly in either of the 
senses defined above. The relevant facts are — (i) that the thyroid normally 
contains iodine, and that its iodine content can be increased by including 
iodine or its compounds in the diet ; (ii) that the administration of iodine 
produces a precocious metamorphosis in normal larvae ; and (iii) that with- 
out the administration of iodine thyroidless larvae are incapable of under- 
going a normal metamorphosis. These data, considered collectively, point 
very strongly to Swingle's conclusion that, in relation to metamorphosis, the 
thyroid functions as a storage organ, extracting iodine from the blood and 
retaining it for future use. 

§ 2 
In accepting this view, it is essential to appreciate clearly that the term 
"metamorphosis " is used by these authors in a more restricted sense than its 
customary connotation, to apply specifically to the loss of such larval fea- 
tures as the gills, tail or tail fin. Swingle, at an early stage in his experi- 
ments, realised that the development of all the larval organs is not accelerated 
to the same extent by the methods he employed ; in particular, the gonads 
are unaffected by the procedure of thyroid or iodine feeding. Entirely in 
unison with his observations are those of Bennet Allen (1918) and of E. R. 
and M. M. Hoskins (19 19), who were able to rear abnormally large and 
neotenous (i.e. with sexually mature gonads) tadpoles in their thyroidec- 
tomised cultures. Swingle has also recorded the relatively shorter length 
of the gut in his precocious frogs ; and he advocates the hypothesis that 


Amphibian metamorphosis is due to the interaction of different environ- 
mental agencies, such as the iodine content of the medium, with the genetic 
factors controlling growth. This opinion has been warmly supported by 
Uhlenhuth, whose work has dealt chiefly with salamanders. Uhlenhuth 
(19 19) finds that the shedding of gills and larval skin are synchronous, and 
depend upon the presence of iodine : by varying conditions of temperature, 
the assumption of adult coloration and the onset of sexual maturity can 
be produced before or after the actual metamorphosis, while the develop- 
ment of tongue and palatal teeth may be checked altogether. He deduces 
inconclusively that different chemical factors are involved in the develop- 
ment of different series of larval organs ; indeed, both Swingle and Uhlenhuth 
appear to entertain the idea that such factors are independently related 
to the environment, and not directly co-ordinated by the organism as a 
whole. But the evidence does not necessarily imply either : adopting the 
hypothesis of specific activators in somatic differentiation, it is plausible to 
think of them as individual products of a continuous chain of processes : 
the amount of any one available at a given moment, and the effect produced 
in consequence, depend on mass action conditioned by the efiect of tempera- 
ture, among other things, upon the relative velocities of the component 
reactions. How far such factors are interrelated or independently derived 
from the environment or the activities of internal organs cannot at present 
be decided without exceeding the limits of legitimate inference. 

In this connection it is instructive to note that apparently similar and 
normal metamorphic changes can be induced by methods which are not 
easy at present to correlate with Swingle's results. D. I. Macht (1919) 
has recently claimed that frogs undergo metamorphosis precociously with 
prostate feeding. Possibly, in this case, the effect is produced by causing 
the thyroid to discharge its contents into the vascular system. However 
that may be, more serious difficulties are raised by the case of the normally 
neotenous Mexican salamander. Marie de Chauvin and Boulenger's ex- 
periments clearly demonstrate that metamorphosis can be enforced in 
Axolotls, that would not otherwise have transformed, if they are forced to 
breathe air. That this has any direct connection with thyroid function 
there is no evidence whatever. Laufberger (1913) and Jensen (1917) suc- 
ceeded in enforcing the metamorphosis of large Axolotls by thyroid feeding, 
and this result has been recently confirmed by Huxley (1920) and Hogben, 
who have found iodine also instrumental in producing metamorphic changes. 
In such animals no deviation from the normal type of metamorphosis has 
been observed as the result of thyroid feeding. 

Side by side with such investigations as those referred to, attention 
has naturally been directed to the influence of other ductless glands upon 
metamorphosis in the Amphibia. Concerning the pituitary, there is little 
matter of interest to record. On the other hand, the researches of Bennet 
Allen and Uhlenhuth into the activities of the thymus and parathyroids are 
interesting, and reopen the question of the reputed endocrine function of the 
former. The author first named confirms Hammar's earlier work, denying 
that the Cixtirpation of the thymus affects metamorphosis or has any influ- 
ence on growth and internal differentiation of Bufo larvae. In accordance 
with this work, Uhlenhuth submits evidence that the inhibitory efiects de- 
scribed by other authors as accompanying thymus feeding are due to a 
deficiency of diet, which, appropriately balanced, can be rectified so as to 
give completely negative results. Such larvae, fed on thymus, frequently 
exhibit tetanic symptoms, when they reach the stage at which that organ 
is fully developed : addition of sufficient ordinary diet to induce meta- 
morphosis does not remove the symptoms ; but they cease to appear at the 


time when the parathyroids attain their functional condition. Since tetany 
can only be produced by thymus feeding in larvae, of which the parathyroids 
are still rudimentary, Uhlenhuth advances the suggestion that there is a 
reciprocal relation between the parathyroids and thymus activities : that 
the former absorb a tetany toxin manufactured by the latter. This would 
explain the tetanic consequences of parathyroid removal in Mammals ; but 
the considerations adduced are not as yet adequate. 

Several workers studying Amphibian metamorphosis have supplied minor 
data dealing with the interrelationship of the endocrine organs. Both 
hyperpituitarism (Hoskins) and hypertrophy of the parathyroids (Allen) 
appear to result from thyroidectomy of the larva. One further contribution 
merits reference in conclusion, that of McCurd and F. Allen, who studied 
the effect of feeding with pineal gland on the metamorphosis of tadpoles. 
They supply evidence that the administration of the gland or its extract 
is accompanied by striking temporary changes in coloration by influencing 
the melanophores to contract. There is reason to believe that the reaction 
of the melanophores is partly under the control of stimuli received by the 
organs of vision ; and bearing in mind the archaic function of the pineal as 
an eye structure, as also the close connection between the physiological 
effects of the suprarenal cortex and medulla respectively on the organs in 
association with which they arise in autogeny, it will be exceedingly inter- 
esting if this result is confirmed by subsequent work. 


The ultimate function of verifiable knowledge is to afford guidance in 
action ; for which end forecasts of the future must be framed on the basis 
of knowledge drawn from experience of the past. Such forecasts can be 
made only on the supposition that certain sequences of change which have 
occurred previously will recur again in the same order as before. 

It is possible to make forecasts about the course of a sequence even 
when its elements are looked upon as isolated events, without other mental 
association than the remembrance that they have occurred in a certain 
order. In the present day, however, such empirical knowledge is felt to be 
insufficient, and forecasts are hardly considered to be more than probabilities 
until the sequences from which they are drawn have been hypothetically 
arranged in a continuous series, or process. Moreover, a prime desideratum 
of any such mental arrangement is that it should resemble other processes 
already imagined to be the connections underlying more familiar series of 
changes, and hence regarded as known processes. When these conditions 
are fulfilled, forecasts can be made that, if the newly observed sequence 
does, throughout its course, follow the lines of the known process, then cer- 
tain events, not hitherto associated with the sequence, may be expected. 
The verification of a new hypothesis depends upon the success or failure 
of such forecasts. 

Among all processes known to us, the most familiar are change of place 
(motion) and change of motion (acceleration). Sequences of change which 
can be satisfactorily arranged in terms of these are held to be thoroughly 
understood ; not because one series is more intelligible than another, but 
because the analogous series are such as are frequently met with and can 
be continuously observed, so that very accurate forecasts can be drawn 
from them. The successive appearances of the planets have been compared 
with the motion of a heavy body toward the earth, and are therefore said to 
be explained, although there is no explaining of this latter motion. 

So far as verifiable knowledge has been systematised, it consists entirely 

1 A short paper on the subject appeared in the April number of this 


of hypotheses framed and tested in the manner described ; it is therefore a 
knowledge concerned solely with processes of change. Can we, then, be said 
to know the nature of things ? The answer is, that we know this in the 
same sense as we know the processes ; for we are unable to form ideas of 
change sufficiently definite to serve as a basis of forecast, without presup- 
posing some thing which undergoes the change, and we are thus constrained 
to include this as an accessory to our hypothesis of the process of change. 
To every such thing we attribute properties adapting it to the conditions of 
the hypothesis, and these attributed properties constitute what we know of 
its nature. Thus our knowledge of things is bound up with the same hypo- 
theses as our knowledge of processes ; the one is essential to the other, and 
both are equally certain, or equally uncertain. A logical priority attaches 
to things because their existence is supposed as a condition precedent to 
their changes ; but it should be remembered, that in relation to knowledge 
the order is reversed, since it is experience of changes which gives rise to 
ideas of something undergoing change. 

Now, knowing is in itself a process, and here, as in other cases, if definite 
forecasts are to be made, a basis must be provided for calculation by sup- 
posing something which undergoes the changes in that process. Tradition- 
ally this has been regarded as something entirely distinct from matter ; 
it was called the " Mind," and was credited with any properties or 
" faculties " which would serve for the classification of such changes as 
were considered to be purely mental. 

This hypothesis has, however, two great disadvantages ; in the first 
place, although the mind cannot be supposed to be entirely independent of 
the functions performed by the body in sensation, yet no satisfactory theory 
was ever found for the connection between the material body and the non- 
material Mind ; and secondly, since the processes of a non-material entity 
could not be paralleled with any previously known process, the hypotheses 
concerning them could not be subjected to verification by the method 
applicable to other systematised knowledge. These difficulties vanish if 
we regard both sensation and the other changes involved in the process of 
knowing as being equally functions of the nervous system ; a view which 
seems to accord with all that I have been able to learn of modern advances 
in nervous physiology. 

Taking, then, the nervous system as the thing which undergoes the phy- 
sical changes whose subjective, or mental, aspect is knowing, the following 
theory may be framed. 

The general function of the system is to respond to stimulus by a dis- 
turbance of equilibrium and a liberation of energy which affects the whole 
organism in some degree, but discharges itself mainly along definite lines 
of least resistance. For the most part these lines follow the paths of pre- 
vious discharges, since each discharge records its passage by leaving its 
nerve-track in a condition of reduced resistance. The reduction is a maxi- 
mum during the actual passage of the discharge ; afterwards there is some 
return toward the original resistance, though this is not always completely 
reinstated during life. 

A nervous track, once marked out, will naturally have its resistance further 
reduced if the discharges along it be repeated, and this is one way in which 
tracks become permanent ; but the same condition may result from a single 
strong discharge, especially in the case of immature organisms, since these 
take the impress of a discharge more deeply than others. 

When two stimuli act simultaneously, each liberates energy along its 
own track, and in so doing must lessen the resistance of the track and thus 
open a path for energy liberated by the other stimulus. The consequence 
is that the two become blended in consciousness and are perceived as parts 


of a single whole. The result of the connection is that, while its traces last, 
a repetition of one of the stimuli will liberate energy along the paths of both 
reactions, and the mental association will be preserved ; in other words, the 
reaction to the stimulus which is repeated will include the memory of the 
unrepcated stimulus by which it was previously accompanied. The oftener 
the two stimuli occur together, the more intimate will be the mental associa- 
tion ; thus the sight of a familiar surface at once brings to mind the idea 
of what it feels like. 

Again, the response to a stimulus occupies an appreciable interval of 
time, during the whole of which the maximum reduction of resistance in its 
track is maintained. If, then, a second stimulus should act before the re- 
action to the former one is completed, the reduction of resistance due to 
the first stimulus may allow energy liberated by the second to accompany 
the uncompleted discharge, making thereby a connection in consciousness 
between the two reactions. After the connection has been made, a repeated 
discharge along the track of the first reaction might again carry with it 
some discharge from the track of the second, and thus the former would 
revive the memory of the latter. A repetition of the second discharge does 
not so easily bring back the memory of the first ; for instance, it is much 
easier to recall the spelling of a word than to remember how the letters come 
in the reverse order. 

Since nervous connections are part of, and persist together with, the 
tracks connected, any one track may be linked up with any other ; for if 
track A be connected on one occasion with track B, and B on another 
occasion with C, then a link is made between A and C ; apparently the 
association between them may afterwards cease to be dependent on B. As 
experience widens, the choice among the possible linesof mental association thus 
becomes practically unlimited ; in thought that is concerned with knowing, 
the selection of a particular line takes the form of framing an hypothesis. 

A sensory nerve is directly connected with two distinct parts of the 
brain, the thalamus and the cortex. There is reason to think that the 
mental associations here attributed to connections among the different 
nerve-tracks are effected mainly, if not solely, through the cortex, while 
the thalamus does little else than receive the immediate sense impressions 
from the stimuli. The simultaneous reactions of these two parts of the 
brain are intimately blended in consciousness, but may be mentally dis- 
criminated by analysis. 

This points to the solution of the dilemma stated by Hume as follows : 
" There are two principles which I cannot render consistent, neither is it in 
my power to renounce either of them, viz. : that all our distinct perceptions 
are distinct existences, and that the mind never perceives any real relation 
among distinct existences." (Essay 39, § 7.) 

Here the " distinct existences " are evidently the immediate sensory 
impressions — the reactions of the thalamus to stimuli — analytically distin- 
guished from the concomitant response of the rest of the system. The 
" real connection " is therefore that supplied by the nature of the nervous 
system, through which the ideas arising from stimuli are presented, not in 
isolation, but combined with reactions to other simultaneous stimuli and 
with memories of previous experiences, all blended into an integral whole. 
On meeting a friend, how little attention do we pay to the sensuous impres- 
sions — the response to the visual stimuli of his appearance — in comparison 
with the complex of sensation and memory which is recognition ! The analysis 
by which the elements originally blended in consciousness are mentally 
separated is effected by selecting for attention first one, and then another, 
feature of the complex reaction. 

Experience of the capacity for attention suggests that the resistances 
determining the course of the discharge of energy along particular nerve- 


tracks must be more or less subject to voluntary control. Apparently the 
resistance along any one or two tracks can be temporarily reduced, but, 
since we are unable to attend to many things at once, it would seem that the 
resistance of all other tracks must, for the time, be automatically increased. 

Everyone is aware that sensuous impressions usually continue to be 
received even while the attention is engrossed with other idea^ ; an experi- 
ence which might be expected if the reactions of the thalamus are not com- 
pletely controlled by those of the cortex. Their independence would also be 
a reason for sensations, however faint, being felt to differ in kind from 
the most vivid recollections ; the thalamus co-operating with the cortex 
only in direct sensation. 

It has already been shown that reactions may be almost as intimately 
blended when the stimuli follow one another closely, as when they are simul- 
taneous. In consequence of this blending of consecutive reactions, changes 
are not felt as isolated events, but are presented in consciousness as stages 
in continuous processes ; the change from one observed state to the next 
being supposed to pass through every intervening state. Thus, if a body 
be observed first in one position and immediately afterwards in another, it 
is supposed to have occupied successively all the intermediate positions. 

The idea of continuity can be extended by means of appropriate hypo- 
theses, and thus applied to sequences of change in which the stimuli are not 
all closely consecutive ; it is then very helpful in the making of forecasts. 
The method of extension is to suppose that the discontinuously observed 
sequence exhibits stages in a series which, if its whole course were traced, 
would be found to follow the same lines as some continuous process already 
familiar. Astronomy gives the classic example of this method, the inter- 
mittent observations of the motions of the heavenly bodies having been 
paralleled with the more continuously observed motions of terrestrial bodies, 
and successful forecasts having been framed upon the hypothesis of their 
similarity. The whole system of science depends on applications of the 
same method ; each newly observed sequence being hypothetically paral- 
leled with some series already regarded as a known process, and the hypo- 
thesis being verified by means of forecasts. 

In the present theory, comparison is made with more than one known 
process. The distribution of the discharges of energy is likened to that of 
discharges of electricity through a system of conductors, where the current 
is inversely proportional to the resistance of the path. The discharges 
themselves are supposed to be comparable with those in a pyrotechnic set- 
piece, where communication is made between the different parts by tubes 
filled with gunpowder, and the firework is activated by the successive 
liberation of potential energy at one point after another in a tube. The 
parallel, however, is not exact, since the single discharge of the firework 
brings the whole of the gunpowder to a condition of chemical stability, 
without further power of action ; whereas a disturbance of nervous equili- 
brium, while reducing part of the material along its track to a stable 
condition, yet renders the equilibrium of the remaining material even less 
resistant to disturbance than before, and thus facilitates the passage of 
subsequent discharges of energy. Nevertheless the reserve store of energy 
is not unlimited ; it may be exhausted by a number of rapidly repeated 
discharges, and the particular track of these discharges, being thus tired 
out, needs time for recuperation before its activity can be renewed. 

The foregoing theory leaves no impassable gap between thought and 
sensation, between mind and matter ; while, by reason of its analogies with 
known physical processes, the hypotheses involved can be subjected to the 
usual tests of scientific verification. In both these respects it contrasts 
favourably with theories constructed on traditional lines. 



The Theory of Plane Curves: Parts I and II. By Surendramohan 
Ganguli, M.Sc, Lecturer in Pure Mathematics, University of Cal- 
cutta. [Part I, pp. X + 138 ; Part II. pp. xiii + 350 ; with dia- 
grams.] (Calcutta : University Press, 1919.) 

These two small books comprise a set of lectures on the " Theory of Plane 
Curves," delivered to post-graduate students in the University of Calcutta. 
They are intended as an introductory course simply, and consequently little 
beyond the general theorems of the Calculus and the simpler results in 
analytical geometry are assumed. Much use has been made of the stan- 
dard works of Salmon and Scott, but the interesting novelty of the present 
treatment of plane curves is the introduction of geometrical methods in 
many cases where those of analysis have formerly been generally used. 
The author states that this scheme has been introduced to avoid otherwise 
tedious and lengthy investigations. Various criticisms of this procedure 
might be made. These books are expressly designed to follow on an ele- 
mentary course on the theory of plane curves. But even an elementary 
course must necessarily introduce the fundamental ideas involved in the 
subject. In general it seems to be better to allow familiarity with the rough 
outline of a notion to prompt students to a further inquiry into its logical 
ancestry and relations when interest has been aroused by interesting appli- 
cations, rather than to endeavour to introduce each logical conception such 
as the length of a curve or the circular points in a logically unobjectionable 
way. If the notions are to be intelligently investigated — and this is obviously 
a different kind of inquiry from the study of the properties of the notion — 
this must be done at some stage after the introductory one. A book, there- 
fore, which is designed to follow on an elementary course should make some 
attempt to deal with this aspect, or give good reason why it is to be further 
postponed. In these lectures no attempt is made, and it is clear, from 
the mSlange of geometrical methods and analytical methods, that it was not 
considered necessary by the author to make such an attempt. As the book 
is designed for post-graduate students of mathematics, this, on the whole, 
seems a mistake. But, important as this side is, it is only one part of any 
branch of mathematics, and it would be a great error to overestimate its 
value. At some point or other concepts must be used which we cannot 
further analyse. 

The second volume applies the general treatment of curves in vol. i 
to cubics and quartics. An exhaustive treatise was obviously impossible 
in the limits of a small book, and the author has singled out various pro- 
minent characteristics of the curves to discuss. 

Dorothy Wrinch. 

Differential Equations. By H. T. H. Piaggio, M.A., D.Sc, Professor of 

Mathematics, University College, Nottingham. [Pp. xvi -f- 216 -}- 

xxv.] (London : G. Bell & Sons, 1920. Price 12s. net.) 

This book on Differential Equations will be very welcome for teaching 

purposes. It assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, and covers a 



large field. In the introductory chapter use is made of Brodetsky's graphical 
method, which was expounded last year at the January meeting of the 
Mathematical Association. In the chapter dealing with linear equations 
with constant coefiicients, the use of operators is explained in a clear and 
interesting way. 

In the chapter on partial differential equations, Fourier's sines and cosines 
series are introduced to show how certain initial and boundary conditions 
may be satisfied. The conditions under which the expansion of a function 
into a set of sines, and into a set of cosines, is valid within the range (o, n) 
are stated. In the chapter dealing with Lagrange's linear partial differential 
equations, itwo examples are given from a recent paper of Prof. M. J. M. Hill 
to illustrate his methods in obtaining special integrals. The method of 
Frobenius is given great prominence. It is first exhibited in use : then the 
assumptions involved are investigated. There are a large number of ex- 
amples in the book, and in many cases notes are appended to the differential 
equations, mentioning the physical problems in which they occur. 

Dorothy Wrinch. 

Introductory Mathematical Analysis. By W. P. Webber, Ph.D., Assistant 
Professor of Mathematics in the University of Pittsburgh, and L. C. 
Plant, M.Sc, Professor of Mathematics in Michigan Agricultural 
College. [Pp. V + 300.] (New York : John Wiley & Sons. Price 
9s. 6d. net.) 

This book is another of the 19 19 harvest of American primers for the use 
of pass students of mathematics. It deals with elementary algebra and 
trigonometry, and gives as well a certain amount of the theory of conic 
sections and calculus. It is not to be differentiated in any important respect 
from the other primers, since it retains that view of complex numbers which 
relies upon an undiscriminating mixture of geometry and algebra, and is 
without distinction in its treatment of other topics. 

Dorothy Wrinch, 


Report on the Quantum Theory of Spectra. By L. Silberstein, Ph.D. 
[Pp. iv + 42.] (London: Adam Hilger, 1920. Price 5s. net.) 

The quantum theory of spectra was first put forward by Niels Bohr in 
191 3, and at once attracted considerable attention owing to the facility 
with which it led to the formula giving the wave-lengths of the lines in the 
Balmer series of hydrogen, and to a value of the Rydberg constant occurring 
in that formula which agreed very closely with the value obtained experi- 
mentally. The simple theory advanced by Bohr in his first paper has 
since been considerably elaborated in a series of papers by Bohr, Epstein, 
Paschen, Sommerfeld, and others. These developments have provided 
further triumphs for the theory ; in particular, they have enabled an ex- 
planation of the fine structure of spectral lines to be given and results to be 
predicted which subsequently experiment has verified. The papers of Bohr 
himself have appeared in the Phil. Mag., but the majority of the other 
papers are contained in the Annalen der Physik, and have not been readily 
accessible to readers in this country. Dr. Silberstein's concise report will 
therefore be found of great value by spectroscopists and others interested 
in the theory, presenting as it does a clear and readable account of its pre- 
sent state. The various assumptions which underlie it are plainly stated, 
and it is carefully pointed out that their only justification at present is to 
be found in the remarkable agreement with experiment. 

The report was written originally for the private use of the optical firm 
of Messrs. Adam Hilger, Ltd., of 75A, Camden Road, N.W.i, in whose re- 


search department Dr. Silberstein has been working. They are the pubUshers 
of the present volume. To both author and pubUshers the thanks of the 
scientific world are due, and it is to be hoped that this interesting innova- 
tion in publishing will meet with success. The quantum theory of spectra 
is still being rapidly developed, and it is inevitable that before long this 
report will be out of date. It will remain, however, as a guide to the early 
development of the theory. We venture to express the hope that it will 
be found possible, at some subsequent date, to bring out a second edition 
in which further developments of the theory will be summarised. 

H. S. J. 

Petit Atlas Celeste. Par G. Bigourdan, Membre du Bureau des Longitudes. 
[Pp. 54, with 5 star-maps in two colours.] (Paris : Gauthier-Villars 
& Cie, 1920. Price 2 fr. net 4- 50 per cent.) 

This small volume contains five star-maps, covering the whole sky and 
showing all stars down to and including the 5th magnitude, and a propor- 
tion of those fainter than 5" but brighter than 5^5, where the inclusion of 
these does not produce confusion. The two polar caps down to declivations 
± 50° are presented in two of the maps, whilst the equatorial zone between 
declinations ± 50° is presented in three maps, each covering 8 hours of 
right ascension. They thus contain the brighter naked-eye stars. Un- 
fortunately the maps, which are reprinted from the Annuaire of the Bureau 
des Longitudes, are anything but clear, and are on too small a scale to prove 
of much value. The figures representing the names of the constellations 
could have been omitted with some gain in clearness, and, apart from this, 
they are by no means artistic. 

The maps are preceded by a brief but useful introduction, giving a list 
of the constellations, with their Latin names and French equivalents, and 
of those whose names are no longer in use ; the positions and brightness of 
the brighter stars in each constellation ; and other matter. If better maps 
were provided, the volume would prove a useful and compact reference- 
book for beginners in the study of the heavens. H. S. J. 

The Sumner Line or Line of Position as an Aid to Navigation. By G. C. 

CoMSTOCK. [Pp. vi -f 70, with 6 figures and 2 charts.] (New 
York : John Wiley & Sons. London : Chapman & Hall, 1919. 
Price 6s. net.) 

Blank Reduction Forms for Line of Position Observations, Marcq St. Hilaire 
Method, with Explanations of Use. By G. C. Comstock. (New 
York : John Wiley & Sons. London : Chapman & Hall. Price 
2s. 6d. net.) 

This small volume is intended to explain the Sumner line method of fixing 
the position of a ship at sea to readers who already possess some knowledge 
of navigation. The Sumner line method possesses such great advantages 
over the older methods that it is surprising that it has not as yet com- 
pletely displaced them. We believe, in fact, that its use is far from being 
general. Any volume which will help further to popularise the method 
is therefore to be welcomed. But we are doubtful whether the present 
volume will serve this purpose, at any rate on this side of the Atlantic. 

The author has not, as might have been inferred from the title, dealt 
with the general problem of the line of position, but only with the particular 
method due to Marcq St. Hilaire. Inasmuch, however, as the St. Hilaire 
method is the best and the one most generally adopted, this cannot be con- 
sidered a disadvantage. The treatment is straightforward, but is not the 
simplest that we have seen. Moreover, from the point of view of English 


readers, it suffers from two disadvantages. Frequent reference is made 
throughout to Bowditch {American Practical Navigator, pubhshed by the 
U.S. Hydrographic Office) ; and, although this is doubtless an advantage to 
American readers, it is the reverse for English readers. Further, the 
symbols used are not those which have been generally adopted in this 
country, and their unfamiliarity will undoubtedly be found a drawback. 

For these reasons the book can hardly be recommended to students 
in this country. In addition, a price of 6s. net for a book containing only 
about 70 small pages seems unduly high. 

Those readers who decide to follow the author's methods and notation 
will find the book of blank reduction forms, which is published as a com- 
panion to it, of use. The calculations are performed on the front of a 
printed form, which is adapted for use with either logarithms or spherical 
traverse table, whilst on the back is a diagram for plotting the position of 
the Sumner line. 

H. S. J. 

Space, Time, and Gravitation : an Outline of the General Relativity Theory. 
By A. S. Eddington, M.A., M.Sc, F.R.S., Plumian Professor of 
Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, Cambridge. [Pp. vii + 
218. with frontispiece and 18 figures in text.] (Cambridge : at the 
University Press, 1920. Price 15s. net.) 

The generaUsed relativity theory of Einstein has been objected to by its 
opponents because of the radical revolution which it necessitates in our 
conceptions of space and time, and in other physical ideas, and because of 
the difficulty of comprehending the nature of the new " law of gravitation." 
The advocates of the theory have been challenged to come out into the 
open and, instead of taking refuge behind a maze of difierential invariants, 
to explain, in a manner which the man in the street can understand, what 
is involved in the theory. This may not have been the reason which in- 
duced Prof. Eddington to write this book, but he has, at any rate, provided 
an admirable answer to the challenge. If the opponents of generaUsed 
relativity will but read the volume with an open mind, it is difficult to 
believe that they will not be convinced. 

The book commences with a prologue entitled " What is Geometry ? " 
which takes the form of a conversation between an experimental physicist, 
a pure mathematician, and a relativist : the dependence of the bases of 
geometry upon physical ideas is made clear, as well as the possibility of 
conceiving a space with properties differing from those of a Euclidean space. 
The first four chapters then deal with the foundations of the special rela- 
tivity theory, the relative significance of the terms "space " and " time," and 
the simplicity which results from considering time as a fourth dimension. 
The following three chapters deal with the newer modifications and expound 
the principles of Einstein's argument without introducing mathematics. 
Then follow two chapters devoted to the tests of the theory ; a careful 
discussion is given of the evidence afforded by the displacement of the sun's 
spectral lines, and possible ways of escape, should experiment definitely dis- 
prove the displacement, are indicated. Chapter IX deals with the questions 
of momentum and energy, and it is shown how the principles of conservation 
of energy and momentum follow from the theory. 

The remaining chapters deal with some of the more speculative develop- 
ments of the theory : such as the significance of absolute rotation, the nature 
of infinity, and the relationship between electricity and gravitation. The 
theory of the latter is not yet in a final state, but it holds out remarkable 
promise of including electrical fields also in the natural geometry in which 
gravitation finds its explanation. 


It may be mentioned that the author does not consider it necessary to 
abandon the conception of the existence of an aether, although it is diffi- 
cult to ascertain what role is now left for the aether to perform. This 
attitude may afford some comfort to those to whom the necessity of 
abandoning the aether is a bar to acceptance of Einstein's theory. 

The book is excellently written, and although primarily intended for 
readers without technical knowledge, it will also be of value to those who 
are able to go into the mathematics of the subject. To them, Prof. Edding- 
ton's commentary on the argument cannot fail to prove illuminating. The 
style is admirable throughout, except for the final paragraph in the book. 
(" We have found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We 
have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origin. 
At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the 
footprint. And lo ! it is our own.") We hope that this last sentence will 
be altered in a future edition. 

H. S. J. 


A Handbook of Physics Measurements. By Ervin S. Ferry, in collabora- 
tion with O. W. SiLVEY, G. W. Sherman jr., and D. C. Duncan. 
[Vol. i, pp. xi + 251, with 146 figures. Vol. ii, pp. x + 233, with 
128 figures.] (New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London : Chapman 
& Hall, 1 91 8. Price 9s. 6d. net each volume.) 

Of these two volumes, the first deals with fundamental measurements, 
properties of matter, and optics ; and the second with vibratory motion, 
sound, heat, electricity, and magnetism ; and in the two volumes 108 experi- 
ments in all are described. 

There are several features of value. The work is self-contained ; each 
section commences with a general account of the instruments and methods 
utilised in the subsequent experiments, and each individual experiment 
consists of an explanation of its theory followed by an account of the method 
of performing the experiment. This insures the student thoroughly under- 
standing from the beginning what the experiment is designed to prove, and 
how it does so. The most important sources of error are pointed out, and 
means are indicated by which the errors can be eliminated, reduced to a 
minimum, or allowed for. It is very necessary that students should realise 
why, e.g., Joule's determination of the mechanical equivalence of heat must 
possess a much greater weight than their own. 

The experiments have been well selected on the whole : both in the 
selection and the method of treatment, the authors' extensive teaching ex- 
perience is evidenced. Apparatus of standard type has, in general, been 
described, and where improvised apparatus is used, it will be good for the 
student to construct it himself. More can be learnt from self-constructed 
rough apparatus, which can necessarily only give a relatively inaccurate 
result, than from expensive and delicate apparatus the facility of using 
which to its full advantage the student has not acquired. 

The two volumes should prove very valuable to those responsible for 
preparing courses in practical physics. 

H. S. J. 

Relativity : The Special and the General Theory. A Popular Exposition. 
By Albert Einstein, Ph.D., Professor of Physics in the University of 
Berlin. Authorised translation by R. W. Lawson, D.Sc. [Pp. xiii 
-f 138, with 5 diagrams and a portrait of the author.] (London : 
Methuen & Co., 1920. Price 5s. net.) 

This account of the special and general theories of relativity by Prof. Einstein 
himself can be recommended, particularly to those who, whilst not having had 


a mathematical or scientific training, are desirous of obtaining an insight into 
the principles upon which the theory is based, and of understanding its bear- 
ings in the realms of science and philosophy. The book has been written for 
the average reader, and the author has spared no pains to put the ideas into 
a simple form, many homely illustrations being used to make the point of an 
argument clear. 

About one-half of the book is occupied with the special theory, and the 
modifications which it necessitated in our ideas of space and time. Then 
follows an account of the general theory, involving as a consequence the solu- 
tion of the problem of gravitation. A brief account is also given of the bearing 
of the theory on the general question of the structure of space. 

Prof. Einstein is careful to point out in his preface that the "work presumes 
... a fair amount of patience and force of will on the part of the reader." 
The average reader must be prepared to find some of the conceptions difficult 
to grasp at first, and will be advised to reread the book in order thoroughly 
to understand it. There is certainly no other work available covering the 
same extent of ground in such an elementary manner. Dr. Lawson is to be 
congratulated on the service he has rendered by making Prof. Einstein's 
account available in English in this excellent translation. 

H. S. J. 


Cours de Chimie. Par R. de Forcrand, Professeur de la Faculte des 
Sciences ; Directeur de I'lnstitut de Chimie de I'Universite de Mont- 
pelier, [Vol. i, pp. viii + 437 ; vol. ii, pp. 527.] (Paris : Gauthiers- 
Villars & Cie, 1918-19.) 
In its scope and general arrangement, this textbook of chemistry for stu- 
dents difiers considerably from the more usual type of textbook with which 
we are familiar on this side of the Channel. 

Vol. i is divided into two main sections, " Generalites " and " Chimie 
Min^rale," whilst vol. ii deals with " Chimie Organique," " Chimie Analy- 
tique," and " Applications Num^riques," so that a student who has been 
through the entire course will have a very considerable knowledge of the 
fundamental principles of the subject. It is, of course, somewhat unusual 
to include both the theoretical and practical sides of Chemistry within the 
limits of the same book, but it has the advantage of compactness. 

The arrangement also of the section on Organic Chemistry does not 
follow the usual plan of dividing the subject into the aliphatic and the aro- 
matic divisions and so on, but the whole section is split up into some nine- 
teen chapters divided according to the " Fonctions " dealt with ; thus the 
" Septieme fonction, C^tones," deals with acetone, camphor, sugars, anthra- 
quinone, cellulose, and alizarin, a fairly mixed batch ! 

This method has, of course, certain obvious advantages, but probably 
English readers will prefer the more usual arrangement of dividing into 
aliphatic and aromatic groups, and then further subdividing according to 
the number of carbon atoms. 

The textbook sufiers from the usual failing of French works in having 
no index other than the " Table des Matieres " at the end, but is worth ex- 
amination as a variant from the usual run of books on chemistry. 

F. A. M. 

Histoire de la Chimie. Par Maurice Delacre, Membre de I'Acaddmie 
Royale de Belgique, Professeur a I'Universite de Gand. Ouvrage 
couronne par I'lnstitut de France. (Prix Binoux.) [Pp. xvi -{- 632.] 
(Paris : Gauthier-Villars & Cie, 1920.) 

We have not a few histories of chemistry from Thomson's History to Kopp's 
Geschichte and onwards, but Prof. Delacre has written a book which pos- 


sesses certain very definite features of its own which distinguishes it from 
most of its predecessors. In passing, it may be noted that the work was com- 
pleted at Ghent in October 191 6, during the German occupation, and only 
the good services of Cardinal Mercier, which are duly acknowledged, enabled 
the manuscript to find its way to Paris, where in due course it was awarded 
the Prix Binoux of the Institut de France. 

The object aimed at by the author has been to write a more or less 
objective history of Chemistry — or, as he terms it, " Histoire de la Chimie 
positiv " — not dealing so much with a mere chronological statement of 
chemists, discoveries, and the rise and fall of theories, as endeavouring to 
trace the historical development of various matters which may now be 
regarded as more or less definitely settled ; in particular our present table 
of atomic weights and the constitution of organic compounds. 

For this reason the work may appear to be rather one-sided in certain 
respects, and the zeal of the author is reflected in the copious — perhaps 
too copious — extracts from original documents which fill the pages of the 

One has the feeling, whilst reading, that one is perusing some technical 
legal work requiring documentary proof at every step, and there is also the 
suspicion that Prof. Delacre has sometimes overwhelmed himself in a flood 
of extracts and quotations, so that at the end it is not always clear just 
what conclusions he has drawn from his evidence, or whether, indeed, he has 
reached any definite conclusions at all. 

In drawing attention to this obvious defect due to the general treat- 
ment adopted, it is not intended to minimise in any way the value of what 
is obviously a careful and painstaking work, which should prove a most 
valuable source of information for those chemists who may desire to study 
in detail the historical development of their science, though the absence of 
a subject index diminishes somewhat its value as a book of reference. 

F. A. M. 

Chemistry in Everyday Life (Opportunities in Chemistry). By Ellwood 
Hendrick. [Pp. xii + 102.] (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1919. 
Price 3s. 6d. net.) 

Chemistry is fortunate enough in having so delightful an interpreter as Mr. 
Ellwood Hendrick, who, besides being the author of Everyman's Chemistry, 
is President of the American Chemists' Club amongst his other activities, 
and is thus in the centre of things, and able to keep his eye both on the latest 
developments of chemical science and on the trend of popular interest. 

In his earlier book he leapt into fame largely owing to the fresh, un- 
trammelled view he took of Chemistry in its relation to everyday life, and 
in the present little work he endeavours to show how closely chemistry 
touches all our human activities at a hundred points. A glance through 
the book makes even a hardened chemist look at things from a new point 
of view. Whilst Mr. Hendrick does his best to show the man in the street 
how much he owes to chemistry, he does not place the chemist on a pedestal ; 
for instance, at the end of Chapter IV, on " The Great Cycle of Nature," 
dealing with fuel and plant growth, he writes : " Whenever we get to fancy- 
ing that we are as clever, able, or as wise as anybody need be, it is worth 
while to take a glance at a tree, at any old tree, even the scraggly backyard 
runt with the wash hung out on it to dry, and say to ourselves that, when 
we can turn the little trick that that tree does daily, it will be plenty of 
time to perk up and grow chesty ! " 

There is such a cheerful fresh atmosphere about Mr. Hendrick's writing 
that one thinks of him as a young man of an inquiring turn of mind rather 
than as " grey-headed and fat," as he describes himself. Anyway, a man 


is as young as he feels, and certainly the author of Chemistry in Everyday 
Life must feel somewhere in the early twenties. The book shows some signs 
of similarity to Everyman's Chemistry, but is none the worse for that. 

F. A. M. 

A Textbook of Organic Chemistry. By E. de Barry Barnett, B.Sc, 
A. I.e. [Pp. xii + 380, with 15 illustrations.] (London: J. and 
A. Churchill, 1920. Price 15s. net.) 

Yet another short textbook on organic chemistry following more or less 
the lines of most other similar books on the subject. The chief claim to 
originality appears to be the inclusion of a " short account of the Richter 
system of indexing, and a very brief mention of a few of the standard works 
of reference," with a view to providing chemists with " the knowledge of 
where to find information," since, in the author's experience, " many chemists 
are woefully ignorant of the literature of their science." 

In the ten pages devoted to carbohydrates, we look in vain for any men- 
tion of the lactone formula for glucose, or of the a and )3 modifications of 
this substance ; similarly, the subject of mutarotation is not mentioned, and 
glucosides likewise are omitted from the book. The short chapter devoted 
to Purins and Alkaloids is also disappointing. 

P. H. 


The Life and Work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose, M.A., P.R.S. By Patrick Geddes. 
[Pp. xii + 259, with portraits and illustrations.] (London : Long- 
mans, Green & Co. Price 165. net.) 

Professor Bose was born in Eastern Bengal and educated at St. Xavier's 
College, Calcutta. From there he came to London, with the intention of 
entering the medical profession. His health not allowing of the fulfilment 
of the scheme, he went on to Cambridge, and was trained there in natural 
science. He began teaching Physics in an Indian University, and his first 
researches, very interesting and important ones, are in connection with this 

The last of these investigations led him to note certain peculiarities 
of inanimate objects, such as the metals, which suggested comparisons 
with the behaviour of living beings on stimulation. The intrinsic interest 
of these discoveries, and probably partly the difficulty which Bose found in 
getting a ready acceptance for the explanations which he put forward, 
gradually brought his studies more and more from the physical to the phy- 
siological. His physical training, and the fact that he was accustomed 
to measuring various constants with accuracy, showed him the need, as 
indeed it had showed others, of tackling physiological phenomena with more 
delicate instruments than had hitherto been the case, instruments not subject 
to such gross limitations as the human senses, that were so commonly used 
as recorders. Sir Jagadis not only perceived this need, but he possessed 
what is indeed a rare gift, the inventive powers necessary to produce such 
instruments, and the infinite patience which enabled him to wait, for years 
in some cases, until the inspiration necessary for the completion of some 
particular instrument, or part of an instrument, came to him. 

Professor Geddes describes shortly these products of inventive genius, 
the optical lever, the resonant recorder, and the various crescographs. 
He shows that their uses are not necessarily limited to the particular fields 
of activity in which Bose works, that the principle of the optical lever, for 
example, has been used in the Cambridge Botanical Laboratory for the 
elucidation of quite a difierent problem. 



A general account is given of the researches on movement and growth, 
and the author succeeds in doing what he had intended, namely, effectively, 
but not exhaustively, covering all the ground. He gives an accurate and 
clear account of the results achieved, but does not seem so happy in his 
attempts to connect these interpretations with those of other workers in 
the field. For example, the results of observations on the " Praying Palm " 
are given, and we are told that similar movements have been observed by 
Professor Bose " in all trees and their branches and leaves " ; but no reference 
is made to the large amount of scattered literature, dating from about 1842, 
on the subject of the connection between temperature and the movements 
of branches ; and on p. 176 there is confusion of thought between perception 
and response, both in the case of gravity and of light. 

The importance of Sir Jagadis Bose's work is now generally admitted, 
and as recently as May of this year he was elected to a Fellowship of the 
Royal Society. In 1917 he saw the dream of his life realised on the opening 
of the Bose Institute. Two important volumes of botanical researches have 
already been published, and we are told that in the near future other branches 
of learning will receive attention from the workers in the institute. The 
biography, if not a great one, is at least very competent and reliable. 

E. M. C. 

New Zealand Plants and Their Story. By Prof. L. Cockayne, Ph.D., F.L.S., 
F.R.S. New Zealand Board of Science and Art Manual, No. i. 
[Pp. XV + 248, with 99 photographic illustrations and 14 text-figures.] 
(Wellington, 1919.) 

The Flora of New Zealand is one of the most interesting of the island Floras 
of the world, of which no one is more competent to tell the story than Prof. 
Cockayne. Like all areas isolated by natural barriers, that prevent or 
retard the gradual process of dispersal, New Zealand possesses a large pro- 
portion of endemic species, some of which — as, for example, Pittosporuni 
obcordatum — are amongst the world's rarest plants. Of the vascular plants, 
the endemics comprise 74 per cent., whilst amongst the Dicotyledons and 
Conifers together their proportion rises to 85 per cent. 

Much has been said and written with regard to the success of the intro- 
duced species, of which no less than 520 have become securely established. 
But the author strongly emphasises the fact that it is only where the inter- 
ference of man has modified the conditions of the habitat that there is any 
evidence of the success in competition with the native Flora to which so 
much prominence has been given. " With but one trifling exception, no 
truly primitive plant-formation is desecrated by a single foreign invader." 

It is the human factor which has been responsible for so much change, 
and in particular for the deterioration of the mountain pasture, which now 
only supports one sheep for every four acres. 

The successive chapters describe the various types of vegetation in an 
attractive manner, unusually free from the assumption of any but the most 
elementary technical knowledge. Much of the information thus conveyed 
is of a general character, and equally applicable to our antipodean Flora. 
The Dune Vegetation, for instance, is essentially similar to our own in its 
physiognomic character, and even in the specific identity of some of its con- 
stituents. Spinifea serves as the New Zealand Psamma, whilst Convolvulus 
soldanella plays the same role as with us. So too Zostera nana covers the 
mud of shallow estuaries along the edge of which occurs the tidal scrub 
dominated by Avicennia officinalis, and salt marshes with Scirpus ameri- 
canus, Leptocarpus simplex, Juncus maritimus, V. australiensis, Salicomia 
aiistralis, etc. 

The forests contain a large number of diverse trees, but nevertheless 


belong to two main types, viz. : the Nothofagiis forests of the South with/ 
often pure, stands of one or other species of Evergreen Beech, whilst the 
Rain forest of the North exhibits a vast assemblage of mostly evergreen 
trees, in which Agathis australis, Beilschmiedia spp., Dacrydium spp., and 
Podocarpus spp. are prominent. But though so different in composition 
from our own, they exhibit much the same architecture, built up of trees, 
shrubs, herbs, climbers, and epiphytes, and the individual species mostly 
possess dull-coloured and inconspicuous flowers. 

Each type of vegetation is made to tell its story, from each there is 
much of interest to be learnt, and we cannot too highly commend the action 
of the Minister of Internal Affairs in publishing this volume as a manual 
of the New Zealand Board of Science and Art at a price within the means 
of all. E. J. Salisbury. 

Hydration and Growth. By D. T. MacDougal, Ph.D., LL.D. [Pp. vi + 176, 
with 52 figures and 124 tables.] (Washington : Carnegie Institution, 

Increase in size, the visible component of growth, is mainly the outcome of 
absorption and adsorption of water consequent upon the osmotic and im- 
bibitional capacity of the cell units of the organism. As the author of these 
pages justly observes, our knowledge of the imbibition of colloidal substances 
is largely based on the behaviour of gelatin, which, being a nitrogenous sub- 
stance, is comparable rather to the protoplasm of animals rich in nitrogen 
than to that of plants in which, normally, colloidal carbohydrates prepon- 

Bearing these facts in mind, the author utilised the carbohydrate Agar 
for the purpose of many of his experiments either alone or with a small 
proportion of added protein, salts, etc., so as to simulate as far as possible 
the conditions in a phytocolloid. 

The results show that, whereas the maximum imbibition of gelatin and 
colloids rich in nitrogen is attained in an acid medium, that of colloids in 
which the proportion of carbohydrates is relatively high is attained in a 
neutral relatively salt- free condition. 

The effect of dilute monobasic amino-compounds was to increase the hydra- 
tion capacity of pentosan colloids, although, in higher concentrations than those 
encountered in plants, they produce the reverse effect. 

Prepared colloidal plates and plant sections, alike, showed a marked 
decrease of imbibitional capacity in swamp-water, whilst in bog- water with 
a higher acidity but lower proportion of salts the swelling was nearly equal 
to that in distilled water. With colloidal plates containing a high proportion 
of nitrogen, the swelling in the swamp-water was greater even than in distilled 
water, and it is suggested that possibly variation, in the relative proportions 
of carbohydrate and protein colloids, may be one means adopted by plants 
to meet the specialised conditions of particular types of habitat. 

Not the least interesting sections are those in which the author treats 
of the varying imbibition capacity of sections of Opuntia under different 
conditions of growth and at different times of the day, changes ascribed to 
the variations in acidity, protein content, the proportion of mineral salts 
and pentosans. Experiments are described on Opuntia, Mesemhryanthemum, 
Helianthus, and Phaseolus, from which the author concludes that the fluctua- 
tions in growth bear a direct relation to the varying hydration capacity of 
the growing cells. 

These pages provide a valuable addition to our knowledge of imbibition, 
none the less important even if we feel that the author somewhat over- 
emphasises the role of this factor in relation to growth. 

E. J. Salisbury 


Forest Products, their Manufacture and Use. By Nelson Courtlandt 
Brown, B.A., M.F., Professor of Forest Utilisation, The New York 
State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York ; 
Trade Commissioner, United States Lumber Trade Commission to 
Europe, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. [Pp. xix + 471 .] 
(New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London : Chapman & Hall, 1919- 
Price 2 IS. net.) 
This book gives an introductory account of the principles and practice under- 
lying a number of industries dependent on the use of timber and other products 
of forest trees. As it was found necessary to limit the scope of the work, 
certain industries, such as furniture, shipbuilding, and allied industries, are 
omitted, as they belong to a distinctly different category from those con- 
sidered. These latter are as follows : wood pulp and paper, tanning materials, 
veneers, cooperage, and naval stores, the distillation of hardwood and 
softwood, charcoal, such industries as pole and post and shingle making, 
maple syrup and sugar, rubber, dye woods, cork, etc. 

Although this work deals chiefly with industries in America, where, in spite 
of much depletion, the forests available for timber are still very large, and 
where the consumption of timber per head of the population is about fourteen 
times as much as that consumed per head in this country, yet the book will 
be read with appreciation by all in this country interested in forestry and 
economic botany, and the application of science to industry. It is clear that 
the forests of the world in general, and of this country in particular, are 
rapidly diminishing, while more and more industries are dependent upon them. 
That the time cannot be far distant when the importance of forest production 
will force itself into recognition becomes clear from the large number of 
industries, described by Prof. Brown, which are dependent on the main- 
tenance of forests. 

In spite of its somewhat encyclopaedic character, the book retains its in- 
terest from the beginning to the end. W. S. 

The Nature Study of Plants in Theory and Practice for the Hobby-Botanist. 

By Thomas Alfred Dymes, F.L.S., with an Introduction by Prof. 

F. E. Weiss, F.R.S. [Pp. xviii-f 173, with frontispiece and 53 

illustrations (21 photographs).] (London: Society for Promoting 

Christian Knowledge, 1920. Price 6s. net.) 
This is an admirable little book, written, as the title-page informs us, for 
the hobby-botanist, and probably also for teachers of nature study, and 
children. In the first portion of the book the general facts of Nature Study 
are reviewed ; in the second, special part, a much more detailed account is 
given of the Ufe-history of the Herb Robert, of which the author has made 
an intensive study. This is followed by a description of the relatives of 
this plant and by a comparison with the Storksbill. As Prof. Weiss says, in 
his introduction, such a detailed study will no doubt prove to many " an 
incentive to make a personal investigation of the fascinating processes 
which make for the preservation of the individual and the race." Our know- 
ledge of such facts in regard to even the commoner British plants is all too 
meagre ; the illustrations are almost invariably good, and the style clear 
and simple. E. M. C. 

Cocoa and Chocolate : their History from Plantation to Consumer. By