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^ounlieli is pttlMte tutoctrytfan. fn 1861. 

Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 


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bbot's Tbe Way out of Af Doetlctem, 192. 
cademy of SclencM, National^ 259. 
damans Hiatorr of the Uulted btates, 97. 
irlca. Pictorial, lis Heroes, Mlcslonarlea and Mar- 
tyre, 363. 

icob Hem, hallucinations in, 48. 
ill^ghany, orthography of. 64. 

eierican archives iu Serllle, 111. 
atomlcal nomenclaturv*, 281. 
Appalachian Mountain Club, 884. 
kro-lamp, a superior, 267. 

lrey'8 Laboratory Manual of Experimental Physios, 

Uiihmetlc, Hindu, 234. 
Isla, 170. 

Lia M Inor, explorations In, 78. 
bsyri&u sculptured group, 126. 
ithletlcfl at tbe University of Pennsylvania, 287. 
kostrallan aborlginee, 219. 
iuto-soggestion, 802. 

Bacteria, counting, 862. 

|acterloIocl<^aI laboratory at Poona, 281. 

Baitrlayan descriptive terms occasion obscurity, 2^4. 

Barnard Coll ge, 246. 

Basin's Ruasla, 889. 

Bee keeping, 203. 

Beer, old, 188. 

Bees, new disease of, 315. 

Beet- sugar iu Calif or!4 la, 56. 

BeHam^ Open, Sesame, 195. 

Blackmar'8 History of btate Aid to Education, 222 ; 

Spanish Colonization, 278. 
Blood in plktblals and cancer, 66. 
Bkiwer, steel pressure, 49. 
Boole's Logic taught by Love, 179. 
Botanic gairden in Montreal. 25. 
Brain localization, 802 ; pre-frontal region of the, 803. 
Brannt's Manufacture of Vinegar, 248. 
BriDton's Bseays of an Americanist, 179, 292. 
Brown's Memual of Assaying, U. 
Barial reform in England, 107. 
Baner, detecting oleo in, 189 ; new kind of, 108. 

Cafleine, action of, 244. 

CsUiog, has every one a natural, 233. 

Cahsrt Pai»er8, 9. 

CampbeU*s Footprints of Chriet, 28. 

Caoadian Royal Society, 342, 878. 

Cusl (rem the Nor* h Sea to the Baltic, 8 ; Nicaragua, 

38, 188 ; PanamajlTS ; Suez, at night, 125 
Cave, Adelsberg, 370. 
Cave-air, experiments with, 290. 
Caves, the Waltomo, 42. 
Cttambers's Bncyclopeedia, 891. 
Cbaracteret, transmission of acquired, 110. 
(^cckley^s Natural Method of Physical Training, 

Cliemlcal element periodic law of the, 126. 

Cbemical Society, 885. 

Cherokees, 296, 328, 388, 365, 379. 

Cbildren, movements in young, 260 ; recognition by 

Chimney, tall factory, 40. 
China, exploration in, 72. 
Chcdwa in Europe, 108. 
Chrysanthemum, Japanese, 38. 
Church, monolithic, 89. 
Clncboua-bark, 145. 
Clncbonap-trees, 25. 
Clark University, 18. 
Gimate of Asia, 2:>7 ; of Canada, 1^8. 
Clatterbock's The bkippe r in Arciic Seas, 180. 
Coast of Finland, upheaval of, 159. 
Coooanut-bntter, 24. 
Coffee inebriety, 374. 
Coin in Mexico, 57. 
Collars and vialon, 286. 
Color-blind engiineers, 144. 
Color-bUndness, 857. 
Coloring metals, 871. 
Cofflsiock^ Least Squares, sa 

Coosomption in Baytl, 158; suppression of, 287, 253. 
Cooke's Human 3Iyste y in Hamlet, 63. 
Cockery of the poor, M8. 

Con for fodder, 315 ; dried, for fodder, 88 ; planting, 
I Ui. 
ComeD and the lost will, 344. 
Cows, feed for, 24. 

Cjtiooes and anticyclones, 882, 374, 888. 
Crpregu, knees of tbe bald, 65. 

Deaf, convention of instructors of, 40. 

Death, hour at which it occurs, 158. 

Deree of bachelor of arts. 104. 

D* liuimps^s Pestalozti, 389. 

Ifletionary, New Boglisn, 12. 

Diet, normal, 56. 

Mgestion, Influence of baking p wder on, 14. 

Dngon-fly, carious doings of, 884. 

Draper Memorial report, 144. 

Drill, electric diamond, 69, 1.39. 

DroQght in tbe Kockles, 181. 

Dry^iock In Brooklyn, 801. 

DQrham*8 Science in Plain Language, 8^. 

Dott In stree t card, 259. 

Dycamo, the Wenstrom, 42. 

DJTisaios f^»r Western Union, 145. 

Earl's Elements of Laboratory Work, 262. 

Ears, boziug of, 45. 

Earthquake in Queen Charlotte Islands, 801. 

Ecker's Anatomy of tbe Frog, 247. 

Eclipse expedition, 843. 

Edison station, Brooklyn, 88 

Education, Chicago lostltute of, 25 ; in the Argen> 
tine Republ c, 260; in Germany, 202; in Spiin, 

Edwards's Butterflies of North America, 129. 

Effigy-mound, 275. 

Electric currents from mental excitation, 72 ; exhi- 
bition at Edinburgh, 78: exhibition at Frankfort. 
78 ; light conventiOD, 139; phenomena, 370; tram- 
way system, 198. 

Electrics, Practical, 247. 

Elevator, electric, 1. 

Ellis s The Criminal, 876. 

Engineer, the sailor as an ama'eur, 204. 

Engineers, Society of Civil, 56. 

English, origin of tbe, 69, 75. 

Epidemics, psychology of, 91. 

Epitomes of Three Sciences : Comparative Philology, 
i*syobology, and Old Testament History, 319. 

Evolution, Popular Lecfures and Discussions before 
the Brooklyn Ethical Association, 61. 

Exercise, excessive, 38- 

Exercises in Wood- Working, 130. 

Exhibition, industrial, at btockholm, 159; Jamaica, 
189, 217, K3. 

Expedition, hydrograph'c. 870. 

Expeditions, geographical, 357. 

Expression of Ideas, motor, 802. 

Fall, a long, 236. 

Fan, steam-d riven J[7. 

Fares, passenger, 273. 

Fast, forty days*, 846. 

Fat, determioation of, 814. 

Ferrers Popular Treatise on the Winds, 142. 

Fever, intermittent, 124 ; origin of, 177. 

Fibre-machinery, 127. 

FUters, sand, 304. 

Fire-proof floor-construction, 137. 

Fires, causes of, 202. 

Fishes, color of, 211. 

Fleh. weirs, aboriginal, 116, 151, 181, 251. 

Fitch's Not^s on American Schools and Training 

Colleges, 247. 
Flash-light, a new. 259. 
Floods from a sanitary standpoint, 107. 
Fl >wer festivals in Japan, 25. 
Fluoroform, 244. 
Foam, 384. 
Fodder crops, 41. 
Food subst tutes, 86. 
Foods and food adulterants, 226. 
Forestry in lodla, 231 ; in Prussia, 343. 
Foul brood, 314. 
France, nationalities in, 188. 
Eraser's Locke, 388. 
Fred6ricq'» The Study of History, 890. 
Friese's bemitic Philosophy, 192. 
Fund, Elizabeth Thompson Science, 357. 

Geological Society, 10. 

Geological Survey of Missouri, 801, 371. 

Geologists, congress of, 362. 

Germlcidf', ganric juice as a, 177. 

Germs, ga<4tric juice and pathogenic, 303. 

Giordano Bruno, 286. 

Glrton, life at, 40. 

Glacier, the Rhone, 384. 

Glass for lens, 273 

Godwin's Railroad Engineers' Field-Book and Ex- 
plorers' Guide, 206. 

Gomme's Village Commu'.ity, 347. 

Gorse or furze, 275, 291. 

Gray. Asa, Scientific Papers of, 11. 

Gray's Absolute Measurements in Electricity and 
Magnetism, 129. 

Gray's Electrical Influence Machines, 348. 

Grippe and cholera, 106. 

Guat* malan plants, 55 

Gulf Stream and the weather, 92. 

Gum acacia, 41. 

Hallucinations, 356 ; census of, 304. 
HalOB, solar, 195. 

Hardy's Elements of the Calculus, 250. 
Heart, electrical phenomena of tbe 107. 
Heat and magnetism, 370 ; and ventilation, 138. 
Heating greenhouses, 314. 
Highways of Europe, 244. 
Him, G. A., death of, 108. 
Historical Asscclatlon meeting, 8. 
Historical prise, 9. 
Home-Heading Union, 125. 
Hopton's Conversation on Mines, 46. 
Horticultural exhibition, 109. 

Howland's I*ractlcal Hints for the Teachers of Pub- 
lic Schools, 78. 
Human faculty, origin of, 90. 

Hurst's Tables and Memoranda for Engineers, 286. 
Hyde's Directional Calculus, 194 
Hypnotism, dangers of, 219; recent studies in, 146. 
Hypotheses, multiple working, 92. 

Ice, southward movement of, 108. 
Icebergs in tbe Atlantic 217. 
Iceland, explorations In, 78. 
Indtgo, synthesizing, 144. 
Industrial farm, 25. 
Influenza, 8 22.48 99,134. 
Iron and Steel Institute, S8I. 

Jade, bowlder of, 16. 

James's Federal Constitution of Switzerland. 250. 
Javary River, 159. 

Jevons's Pure Logic and other Ml or Works, 319. 
Jones's Elements of Logic as a Science of Proposi- 
tions, 178. 
Jungfrau railway, 124. 
Justice and Jurisprudence, 26. 

Kangaroos, 245. 

Kansas Historical Society library. 126. 

Kapp's Electric Transmission of Energy, 806. 

KilimaNjaro, 191, 800. 

Knoflach's Sound- English, 191, 224. 

Kongo, basin of the, 86. 

Labor coTiference, 175 

Laboratory, Marine Biological, 246. 

Lake?, oscillations of, 117. 

Lalang, 72 

Lard, detecting coUonseedoU in, 169. 

Lenox Library, 159. 

Leprosy, 56. 

Liebig and Fohe's Prac leal Electricity in Medldne 

and Surgery, 247. 
Llegois's lie la Suggestion et du Somnambnllsme, 

etc, 113. 
Life, saving of, in Michigan, 177. 
Lightning-discharge, 99, 2:6 
Litchfield's The Nine Worlds, 249. 
Liver, tolerance of operations on the, 56. 
London, health of, in 1889 107. 

Mantegazza's Physiognomy and Expression, 22a 

Manuia training in Philadelphia, 208 ; in Sweden, 

Manure, deterioration of farmyard, 28. 

Map of Massachusetts, 129. 

Marine conference, 24. 109. 

Marocco, agricultural produce of, 188. 

Mason's History of the Veto Power, 222. 

Maycock's Practical Electrical Notes and Defini- 
tions, 285. 

Meat consumption, 1. 

Medical congress, 842 ; profession, dlffi mlUes of, 8. 

Meldola's Chemistry of Photography, 60. 

Memory following cranial injur/, 8. 

Mendenhairs Century of Electricity, S62. 

Mental Impressions, 176 ; processes in insanity, 108; 
trait, a curto s, 108. 

Merriman and Ja»>by's Roofs and Bridget, 178 

Meteorite, 167 ; at MIghenI, 72. 

Meteorites, Kiowa County, 290, 860, 884 ; Ohio, 888 ; 
Winnebago County, 804, 333, 347. 

Meteorologl/al features, 1889, 3S ; observations on 
Pike's Peak 122; pheaomena, pectiliar, 126 ; ser- 
vice in the West Indies, 109 ; topics, 31& 

Meteorology, applications of. 345. - 

Mexican population and trade, 57. 

Microbes, fate of cadaveric, 177. 

Micro- graphophone, 281. 

Microscoplsts, American Society of, 217, 88). 

Midnight Talks at the Club, 319 

Milk, tuberculous, 309 ; value of boiled, 91. 

Mills and Rowan's Fuel and Its Applications, 27. 

Mine, electric locomo:ive for, 6?. 

Minerals in Persia, 286. 

MiniDg engineers. Major Powell's address to, 156. 

Missouri Botanical Garden, 57. 

Mock sun, 133. 

Mocking-birds' phrases, 04. 

Moateflore's Henry M. btanley, 863. 

Moon, temperature of. 106. 

Moorehead's Fort ancient, 205. 

Morse's handwriting, 41. 

Mortality, infant, 177. 

Mouth- breathing and the teeth, 124. 

Movement, sensations of, '.^61. 

Muscular contraction, 245. 

Museum of economic botany, 244. 

Musical flames, 64. 

Natives of French colonies, 202. 

Natural-history garden for Boston, 213. 

Navigation, inlaod, 343. 

Nervous ss stem, dietary for the 219. 

New Zealand fisheries, 140. 

Nicaragua footprints, 80. 

Norton'sHandbook of Florida, 129. 

Nose-bleed, 303. 

Nutrition In aged organisms, 1 i7. 

Oases in the Sahara, 9. 
Oil in New Zealand, X72. 
Olives, 145. 

Orthography, amended, 199. 
Ozone manufacture, 272. 

Pain- joy, 243. 

Pasteur, reward of, 245. 

Patten *s Economic Basis of Protection, 306. 

Digitized by 


Vol. XV.] 


[Jan.-June, 1890 

Pavement, Hale patent, 155. 

Peach-treee, 314. 

Petroleum fields, 9 ; lu Roumania, 169 ; In Sagba- 
llen, 78. 

Pharaoh, An Appeal to, 61. 

Phelps's Marine Surveying, 76. 

Phouetlc?, 5. 

Phonograph in ihe study of Indian languagee, 267 ; 
new use for, 43. 

Phosphate rock in Florida, 301. 

Photography for identification, 7« ; instantaneous, 

PhihiBii in high altitudea, 56 ; treatment of, by car- 
bonic acid, 386. 

Phisical and mental powers, 308 ; fields, 68, 97, 147. 

Pipe from the Susquehanna, 47. 

Plants, natural conditloos for, 159 ; new, 3d. 

Pneumatic railway, 9. 

Pneumonia, contagion?, 1*24. 

Pneumonic infection, 236. 

Poisons, aciion cf liver on, 107. 

Polishing material, 9. 

Po'.ato, varieties of, 189. 

Potatoes, seed, 311. 

Powder, smokeless, r9. 

Powell^s Liberty and Life, 28. 

Preasure-wavee, 99. 

Progress of society, iufluence of learned institutions 
upon, 183. 

Psychical Research Society, 57 ; Proceedings of, 128. 

Psychroxieter, x64. 

Putrefaction in the sea, 158. 

Railroad management in Hungary, 287. 
Railway, a novel, 287 ; across the Sahara, 859 ; Hud- 
son Bay, 259. 
Railways in Japan, 188. 
RalD, cause of, 160. 
Rainbow, triple, 363. 
Range-finder, j^Uke, 58, 80, 134, 151, 182. 
Resemblance of peopl'^, 16, 38. 
Resistance sets, 387. 
Respighl, Lorenz?, death of, 8a 
Ribot's Psychology of Attention, 61. 
Riverside Manual for Teachers, 73. 
Rouiing-machlne speed, 8. 
Rowland, H. A., 843. 
Royal Society members, 9. 
Rust-proof process, 67. 

Salads, 225. 

Salomons' fflectrlc Light Installationa, 178. 

Salt meat and bacteria. 107. 

Sauveur School ot Languages, 202. 

School, a model, at Mannheim, 385; of Finance, 

Wharton, 259. 278 ; summer, at Mount Desert, 259. 
School Issues of the Day, 12. 
Schools, over-pressure in, 40. 
Science In China, 28 ; text-books, 82. 
Scientific missions in France, 201 ; work In Russia, 


Sea, eruption In, 202 ; upon the land, encroachments 

ot the, 383 ; urchins, 370 ; water and the nutrition 

of marine animals, ;i01. 
Seeds, should farmers raise ihelr own, 190. 
Sensenig's Numbers Universalized, 3^36. 
Sessions' In Western Levant, 891. 
Shaffer's How to Remember History, 319. 
Shakespeare, The Baukside, 390. 
Siberian railway, 1-24. 

Slingo and Brooker's Electrical Engineering, ^92. 
Smell, sense of, 44. 

Smith's Emigration and Immigration, 160. 
Smith's Graphics, x77. 
Smokeless explosives, 145. 
Snake and fish, 21. 
Snake-bite, mortality from, 144. 
Snow, F. H., 274. 
Snow-excavator, 124. 
Snow-plough, electric, 155. 
Soap lu India, 245. 
Society and the fad, 282. 
SoUs and alkali, 47, 152. 
Sparrow, the English. 815. 

Spectroscope, determination of parallax by the, 875. 
SpelllLg- reform, U5. 
Sponge banks lu Sicily, 125. 
Sponges, physiology ot, 286. 
Stammering, 216. 
Stamp-cancelling machine, 88. 
Stanley and map of Africa, 50 ; explorations of, 2 ; 

medal. 909. 
Staten laland Natural ScleLce ABSOOiaiion bidld- 

ing, 9. 
Steam-engine, compound, 119. 
Storags-batterles, 209. 
Students in France, 244. 
Summer courses at Harvard, 801. 
Sun, setting of, at sea, 231. 
Sunspo'.s and tornadoes, «76, 291. 
Survey of Massachusetts, 114. 
Sutton's Evolution and Disease. 334. 
Sweet's » rimer of Phonetics, 261. 
Switzerland, Constitution of, 179. 

Talt, P. G., portrait of, 9. 

Taste, physiokgy of, 303. 

Taylor's Origin of the Aryans, 205. 

Tea in Ceylon, 189. 

Telephone Invention, 46. 

Temperature, cUmatologlcal, 190; in storms, 346, 

Temperature", lake and river, 195. 
Tempering in lead, 870. 
Tetanus, bacillus of, 45. 
Textiles, prehistoric, 23. 
Thayer's Elizabethan Play?, II4. 
Thibet, explorations in, 144. 
Thought and reepiration, 177. 
Thunder-storms in Germany, 842 ; on the Sttntls, 78. 
Thurston's Engine and BoUer Trial?, 205. 
Ties, llgnum-vltsB, 175. 

Time-sense, 218. 

Tobacco* plant, 49. 

Toepler-Uoltz machine, 197. 

Tornadoes, x69, 81O. 833, 351, Z^. 

Tramways, wire rope. 101. 

Transfer-table, electric, 169. 

Trlchins in swine, 91. 

Truck for electric cars, 188. 

Tuberculosis, 345. 

Tube with Bottoms and Tubs without, 192. 

Tunoel-dlsease, 304- 

Tunzelmann's Electricity in Modem Life, 884. 

Turfa, 56. 

Type-writer, shorthand, 225. 

Typhoid-fever, etiology of, 106. 

Typhus and ground-water, 308. 

ULlversltles, German, 39. 

Veddahs of Ceylon, 125. 
Venillatlon, 228. 
Vessels at sea, locating of, 207. 
Vtklng Age, Du Challlu on the. 74. 
Visual space measurements, 218. 
Visualized sounds, 302. 
V^oloanlc holes, 159. 

Wagner's Die Entstehung der Arten duroh rSam- 

liche Sonderung, 905. 
Walker's Pclitlcal Economy. 45. 
Walking, unconscious bias in, 14. 
War-baTloonp, 138. 
Ward's Plant Organization, 62. 
Warner's Lectures on the Growth and Meacs 

TralLlng the Mental Faculty, 334. 
Warts, bacillus of, 8; removed by eleotrolyslf, 219. 
Water, sterilizing, 874. 
Water-spouts, 19S. 

Wauter's Stanley's Bmln Paeha Expedition, 291. 
Weather in China, 109. 
Weather-plant, 109. 

Welding, electric, 157. 

Wonders History of Egypt, 822. 

Wheat, insect destructive to, 41, 80. 

Whirlwinds, 275. 

Whlteflsh, 245. 

Whooping-cough, 801. 

Wind, observations of, 203, 850 ; velocities in Russia 

Wolves in Germany, 28. 
Women, higher education o^ 384; studying med 

cine, 871. » # -a 

Wood's Thermodynamics, 27. 

Yellow-fever at Key West, 820; Inoculation for, 328. 
Young's Elements of Navlg&tloii, 202. 

Zinc, strength ot sheet, 180. 

Digitized by 


lEntered at the Post-Office of New York, N.Y.. m Second-Claes Hatter.J 


Eighth Ykar 
Vol. XV. No. 361 



NEW YORK, January 3, 1890. 

SiNGLB Copies, Ten Cents. 
$3.50 Per Year, in Advance. 


We present in this issue a view of a recent model hydraulic ele- 
vator installation made at the building of the United Security, Trust, 
and Safe Deposit Company of Philadelphia by the Otis- Elevator Com- 
pany of Yonkers, N.Y., and Chadbourne, Hazlcton, & Co. of Phila- 
delphia, agents in Pennsylvania for the Sprague Electric Railway 
and Motor Company. 

One of the first things which strikes an observer is the minimum 
of space required for every part of the installation. The pump was* 
manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company specially for this 

proved satisfactory in this capacity, and the Sprague motor was 

This motor is now giving perfect satisfaction, and the plant is 
one of the finest elevator plants in Philadelphia. Our view is made 
from a photograph, and shows all the details of -the installation. 



The average consumption of meat in the world, says a recent 
number of the Journal of the Society of Arts, London, has in- 


plant, and the arrangement for reduction of speed between the 
armature-shaft and the pump is made in the compact manner 
shown ia the illustration. The motor operates the pump against 
a pressure in the tank, there being no overflow ; and when the 
maximum pressure is reached, the motor runs empty, automatically 
cutting down the amount of electric current taken from the line, so 
that only sufficient current is used to supply enough energy to keep 
the motor in revolution. 

Before the installation of the electric motor at this place, a gas- 
engine was used to supply the necessary power ; but gas never 

creased ; but, on the other hand, the world's commerce in meat 
has declined. Germany's imports of meat declined from $94,450,- 
000 in 1878, to $73,700,000 in 1887, while the exports declined from 
$88,300,000 to $33,900,000. In France, between 1879 and 1887, 
imports diminished from $82,300,000 to $53,910,000, while exports 
increased from $35,950,000 to $52,600,000. In England, where ex- 
ports of meat are insignificant, the imports decreased from $240,- 
000,000 in 1880, to $215,000,000 in 1887. On the other hand, the 
British colonies exported largely : for example, from Canada the 
exports increased from $4,430,000 in 1879, to $30,000,000 in 1887. 

Digitized by 



[Vol. XV. No. 361 

Australia exported also large amounts. In Austria-Hungary, im- 
ports diminished from $10,950,000 in 1879, to $8,000,000 in 1887, 
while exports increased from $20,750,000 to $33,900,000. In the 
United States, imports increased from $7,100,000 in 1879, ^^ ti6,- 
650,000 in 1887, while exports decreased from $128,800,000 to 
$r 1 3,600,000. Importations into Belgium decreased from $1 6,400,- 
000 in 1879, to $10,400,000 in 1887 ; in Italy, from $21,200,000 to 
$14,000,000; in Russia, from $18,330,000 to $10400,000. By add- 
ing the above figures, it is found that the entire imports of meat 
into the countries specified have diminished from $490,970,000 to 
$403,120,000, while the entire exports decreased from $278,180,000 
to $244,700,000. In 1875. Germany possessed 24,400,000 neat- 
cattle (four small cattle, such as sheep, hogs, and goats, being 
reckoned as one) ; in 1883, only 23,500,000. Between 1881 and 
1887 there was in France an increase from 19,700,000 to 20,750,- 
000; in Great Britain, from 17,800,000 to 18,600.000; while in 
Austria- Hungary the figures remained the same. The increase in 
population in these countries during this time was as follows : in 
Germany, 3,500,000 ; France, 480,000 ; Great Britain, about 3,000,- 
000 ; and Austria- Hungary, 2,000,000. The ratio in France on ac- 
count of the small increase of population is most favorable. This 
country, therefore, could increase its exports, says the United 
States commercial agent. In Germany the ratio is very bad, the 
number of nc^t-calile having diminished 900,000 head, and the 
population having increased 3.500,000. It is most remarkable in 
the case of • the United States, where imports increased 1 30 per 
cent, and exports diminished I2i per cent, although the number of 
neatH:attle increased from 56,600,000 head in 1880, to 71,200,000 in 
i8SS,and the population increased only from 50,500,000 to 62,- 


I REMEMBER, while Standing on the edge of the plateau which 
overlooks the southern end of Lake Albert, in December, 1887, that 
looking across the lake to the Unyoro plateau, and running my 
eye along its unbroken outline from north to south, I was much 
struck by the gradual but steady uplift of the land to a point near 
the lake's end, where a wide cleft separated the plateau from the 
disjointed mass and higher elevations culminating around Mount 
Ajif. Southward beyond Ajif we could see nothing but dark im- 
penetrable clouds, ominous of a storm ; yet underneath these 
night- black clouds lurked a most interesting mystery, — that of the 
long-lost and wandering Mountains of the Moon. Little did we 
imagine it, but the results of our journey from the Albert Nyanza 
to Unyampaka, where I turned away from the newly discovered 
lake in 1876, establish beyond a doubt that the snowy mountain 
which bears the native name of Ruwenzori or Ruwenjura is identi- 
cal with what the ancients called " Mountains of the Moon." 

Note what Scheaddeddim, an Arab geographer of the fifteenth 
century, writes : " From the Mountains of the Moon the Egyptian 
Nile takes its rise. It cuts horizontally the equator in its course 
north. Many rivers come from this mountain and unite in a great 
lake. From this lake comes the Nile, the most beautiful and 
greatest of the rivers of all the earth." 

If, adopting the quaint style and brevity of the Arab writer, we 
would write of this matter now, we would say, " From Ruwenzori, 
the Snow Mountain, the western branch of the Upper Nile takes 
its rise. Many rivers come from this mountain, and, uniting in the 
Semliki River, empty into a great lake, named by its discoverer the 
Albert Nyanza. From this lake, which also receives the eastern 
branch of the Upper Nile, issues the true Nile, one of the most fa- 
mous of the rivers of all the earth." 

But this is a matter of slight moment compared to the positive 
knowledge that in the least-suspected part of Africa there has shot 
up into view and fact a lofty range of mountains, the central por- 
tion of which is covered with perpetual snow, which supplies a 
lake to the south of the equator, and pours, besides, scores of 
sweet-water streams to the large tributary feeding the Albert Ny- 
anza from the south. 

You will remember that Samuel Baker, in 1864, reported the 

* Letter from Mr. Henry M. Stanley to the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don and to the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, written from Camp at Kizinga 
Uzinya, Aug. 17, 1889. 

Albert Nyanza to stretch " illimitably " in a south-westeriy direc- 
tion from Vacovia ; and that Gessi Pacha, who first circumnavi- 
gated that lake, and Mason Bey, who in 1877 made a more careful 
investigation of it, never even hinted at the existence of a snowy 
mountain in that neighborhood ; nor did the two last travellers pay 
any attention to the Semliki River. I might even add that Emiii 
Pacha, for years resident on or near Lake Albert, or Capt Cas- 
sati, who for some months resided in Unyoro, never heard of any 
such remarkable object as a snowy mountain being in that regkm : 
therefore we may well call it an unsuspected part of Africa. Surely 
it was none of our purpose to discover it It simply thrust itself 
direct in our homeward route, and, as it insisted on our following 
its base-line, we viewed it from all sides but the north-east. Only 
then could we depart from its neighborhood. 

Surrounded as I am by the hourly wants of an expedition like 
this, I cannot command the time to write such a letter on this 
subject as I would wish. I must even content myself with allow- 
ing a few facts to fall into line for your leisurely consideration. 

If you will draw a straight line from the debouchure of the Nile 
from Lake Albert, 230 geographical miles in a direction nearly 
south-west, magnetic, you wilt have measured the length of a broad 
line of subsidence, which is from 20 to 50 miles wide, that exists 
between ^^ north latitude and i^ south latitude in the centre of the 
African continent. On the left of this great trough, looking north- 
ward of course, there is a continuous line of upland, rising from 
1,000 to 3,000 feet above it. Its eastern face drops abruptly into 
the trough : the western side slopes gently to the Ituri and Lomva 
basins. To the right there is another line of upland. The most 
northerly section, 90 miles, rising from 1,000 to 3,000 along the 
trough, is the Unyoro plateau, whose western face almost precipi- 
tously falls into the trough, and whose eastern face slopes almost 
imperceptibly towards the Kafur. The central section, also 90 
miles long, consists of Ruwenzori range, from 4,000 to 15.000 
above the average level of the trough. The remaining section of 
upland, and the most southerly, is from 2,000 to 3,500 feet higher 
than the trough, and consists of the plateaus of Uhaiyana, Unyam- 
paka, and Ankori. 

The most northerly section of the line of subsidence, 90 miles in 
length, is occupied by the Albert Nyanza ; the central section, also 
90 miles, by the Semliki River valley ; the southernmost portion, 
50 miles long, by the plains and New Nyanza, which wc have all 
agreed to name the Albert Edward Nyanza, in honor of the first 
British prince who has shown a decided interest in African geog- 

You will observe, then, that the Semliki valley extends along the 
base of Ruwenzori range ; that the northern and southern extremi- 
ties or flanks of Ruwenzori have each a lake abreast of it ; that the 
Semliki River runs from the upper to the lower lake in a zigzag 

If you were to make a plan m relievo of what has been described 
above, the first thing that would strike you would be, that what 
had been taken out of that abyss or trough had been heaped up in 
the enormous range ; and if along its slope you were to channd 
out sixty-two streams emptying into this trough, and let the sides 
of the trough slope here and there sharply towards the centre, you 
would be impressed with the fact that Ruwenzori was slowly being 
washed into the place whence it came. However, all these are 
matters for geologists. 

For months all Europeans on this expedition, before setting out 
on their journey towards Zanzibar from the Albert Lake, were ex- 
ercised in their minds how Sir Samuel Baker, standing on a hill 
near Vacovia, five or six miles from the extremity of the Nyanza, 
could attach " illimitability " to such a short reach of water ; but 
after rounding the Balegga Mountains, which form a group to the 
south of Kavalli, we suddenly came in view of the beginning of the 
Semliki valley, — a sight which caused officers to ask one another, 
" Have you seen the Nyanza ? " and the female portion of the 
Egyptian following to break out into rapturous " Lu-lu-lus." Yet we 
were only four miles away from the valley, which was nearly white 
with its ripe grass, and which indeed resembled strongly the dis- 
turbed waters of a shallow lake. 

This part of the Semliki valley, which extends from the lake 
south-westerly, is very level : for 30 miles it only attains to an alti- 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 


tude of 50 feet above the lake. All this part can only recently 
have been formed ; say, the last few hundred years. In one of its 
crooked bends nearer the south-eastern range, we stumbled suddenly 
upon the Semliki River, with an impetuous volume, from 80 to 100 
yards wide, and an average depth of 9 feet. • Its continually crum- 
bling banks of sandy loam rose about 6 feet above it. One glance 
at it revealed it to be a river weighted with fine sediment. When 
we experimented, we found a drinking-glass full of water contained 
nearly a teaspoonful of sediment. We need not wonder, then, that 
for miles the south end of Lake Albert is so shallow that it will 
scarcely float a row-boat. 

Beyond the grassy portion of the valley, a few acacias begin to 
stud it, which, as we proceed south-westerly, become detached 
groves, then a continuous thin forest, until it reaches the dense and 
rank tropical forest, with tall trees joined together by giant creep- 
ers, and nourishing in its shade thick undergrowths. Every thing 
now begins to be sloppy wet ; leaves and branches glisten with 
dew ; weeping mosses cover stem, branch, and twig. The ground 
is soaked with moisture : a constant mist rises from the fermenting 
bosom of the forest. In the morning it covers the valley from end 
to end, and during the early hours, stratum after stratum rises, 
and, attracted by the greater drought along the slant of Ruwenzori 
slopes, drifts upwards until the summits of the highest mountains 
are reached, when it is gradually intensified until the white mist 
has become a storm-cloud, and discharges its burden of moisture 
amid bursts of thunder and copious showers. 

The valley sensibly rises faster in the forest region than in the 
grassy part. Knolls and little rounded hills crop out, and the 
ground is much more uneven. Violent streams have ploughed 
deep ravines round about them, and have left long narrow ridges, 
scarcely a stride across at the summit, between two ravines a cou- 
ple of hundred feet deep. At about 75 miles from the Albert Ny- 
anza the valley has attained about 900 feet of altitude above it, and 
at this junction the forest region abruptly ends. The south-west 
angle of Ruwenzori is about east of this, and with the change of 
scene a change of climate occurs. We have left eternal verdure, 
and the ceaseless distillation of mist and humid vapors into rain, 
behind, and we now look upon grass ripe for the annual fire 
and general droughtiness. From this place the valley becomes 
like a level grassy plain until the Albert Edward Nyanza is 

The southernmost stretch of the RuweiTzori range projects like 
a promontory between two broad extents of the ancient bed of the 
Albert Edward. To avoid the long dit<mr, we cross this hilly 
promontory in a south-easterly direction from the Semliki valley, and 
enter eastern Usongora, and are in a land as different from that at 
the north-western base of Ruwenzori as early summer is from mid- 
winter. As we continue easterly, we leave Ruwenzori on our left 
now, and the strangely configured Albert Edward Nyanza on our 
right. The broad plains which extend between were once covered 
by this lake. Indeed, for miles along its border there are breadths 
of far-reaching tongues of swamp penetrating inland. Streams of 
considerable volume pour through these plains toward the Nyanza 
from Ruwenzori, without benefiting the land in the least. Except 
for its covering of grass, — at this season withered and dried, — it 
might well be called a desert ; yet in former times, not very re- 
mote, the plains were thickly peopled. The zeribas of milk-weed, 
and dark circles of Euphorbia, wherein the shepherds herded their 
cattle by night, prove that, as well as the hundreds of cattle-dung 
mounds we come across. The raids of the Waganda and the 
Warasura have depopulated the land of the Wasongora, the former 
occupants, and have left only a miserable remnant, who subsist by 
doing work for the Warasura, their present masters. 

From Usongora we enter Toro, the Albert Edward Nyanza 
being still on our right, and our course being now north-easterly, 
as though our purpose was to march to Lake Albert again. After 
about 20 miles' march, we turn east, leave the plains of the Albert 
Edward, and ascend to the uplands of Uhaiyana, which having 
gained, our course is south until we have passed Unyampaka, 
which I first saw in 1876. 

South of Unyampaka stretches Ankori, a large country, and 
thickly peopled. The plains have an altitude of over 5,000 feet 
above the sea, but the mountains rise to as high as 6400 feet. As 

Ankori extends to the Alexandra Nile, we have the well-known 
land of Karagw6 south of this river. 

Since leaving the Albert Nyanza, between Kavalli and the 
Semliki River, we traversed the lands of the Wavira and Babegga. 
On crossing the Semliki, we entered the territory of the Awamba. 
When we gained the grassy terrace at the base of the Ruwenzori 
range, we travelled on the border-line between the Wakonju, who 
inhabit the lower slopes of Ruwenzori, and the Awamba, who in- 
habit the forest region of the Semliki valley. The Wakonju are 
the only people who dwell upon the mountains. They build their 
villages as high as 8,000 feet above the sea. In time of war — for 
the Warasura have invaded their country also — they retreat up to 
the neighborhood of the snows. They say that once fifty men took 
refuge right in the snow region, but it was so bitterly cold that 
only thirty returned to their homes. Since that time they have a 
dread of the upper regions of their mountains. 

As far as the south-west angle of Ruwenzori, the slopes of the 
front line of hills are extensively cultivated. The fields of sweet- 
potatoes, millet, eleusine, and plantations of bananas, describe all 
kinds of squares, and attract the attention ; while between each 
separate settlement the wild banana thrives luxuriantly, growing 
at as high an altitude as the summits of the highest spurs, where- 
on the Wakonju have constructed their villages. 

Though we were mutually hostile at first, and had several little 
skirmishes, we became at last acquainted with the Wakonju, and 
very firm, close friends. The conomon enemy were the Warasura ; 
and the flight of the Warasura, upon hearing of our advance, re- 
vealed to the Wakonju that they ought to be friends with all those 
who were supposed to be hostile to their oppressors. Hence we 
received goats, bananas, and native beer in abundance. Our loads 
were carried, guides furnished us, and every intelligence of the 
movements of the Wanyoro brought us. In their ardor to engage 
the foe, a band of them accompanied us across Usongora and 
Toro to the frontier of Uhaiyana. 

South-west of Awamba, beyond the forest r^on of the Semliki 
valley, begins Usongora. This country occupies the plains border- 
ing the north-west and north of Lake Albert Edward. The 
people are a fine race, but in no way differing from the finer types 
of men seen in Karagw^ and Ankori, and the Wahuma shepherds 
of Uganda. Their food consists of milk and meat, the latter eaten 
raw or slightly warmed. 

The Toro natives are a mixture of the higher class of Negroes, 
somewhat like the Waganda. They have become so amalgamated 
with the lower Wanyoro that \ve can find nothing distinctive. The 
same may be said of the Wahaiyana. What the royal families of 
these tribes.may be. we can only imagine from having seen the 
rightful prince of Usongora in Ankori, who was as perfect a speci- 
men of a pure Galla as could be found in Shoa. But you need not 
conclude from this that only the royal families possess fine fea- 
tures. These Ethiopic types are thickly spread among the Wa- 
huma of these Central African uplands. Wherever we find a land 
that enjoys periods of peace, we find the Wahuma at home, with 
their herds ; and in looking at them one might fancy one's self 
transported from the midst of Abyssinia. 

Ankori is a land which, because of its numbers and readiness to 
resistance, enjoys long terms of uninterrupted peace ; and here the 
Wahuma are more numerous than elsewhere. The royal family 
are Wahuma: the chiefs, and all the wealthier and more im- 
portant people, are pure Wahuma. Their only occupation, besides 
warring when necessary, is breeding and tending cattle. The 
agricultural class consists of slaves ; at least, such is the term by 
which they are designated. The majority of the Wahuma can 
boast of features quite as regular, fine, and delicate as Europeans. 

The countries to the south of the Albert Edward are still unex- 
plored, and we have not heard much respecting them ; but what we 
have heard differs much from that which you find illustrated by 
that irregular sheet of water called Muta Nzige, in the "Dark 
Continent " map. 

Ruanda bears the name of Unyavingi to the people of Ukonju, 
Usongora, and Ankori. and is a large compact country lying be- 
tween the Alexandra Nile and the Kongo watershed to the west, 
and reaching to within one day's long march of the Albert Edward. 
It also overlaps a portion of the south-west side of that lake. The 

Digitized by 



[Vol. XV. No. 361 

people are described as being very warlike, and that no country, 
not even Uganda, could equal it in numbers or strength. The 
late queen has been succeeded by her son, Kigeri, who now 

. Since the commencement of our march homewards from our 
camp at Kavalli. we have undergone remarkable vicissitudes o^ 
climate. From the temperate and enjoyable climate of the region 
west of Lake Albert, we descended to the hot-house atmosphere of 
the Semliki valley, at nearly 3.000 feet lower level. Night and day 
were equally oppressively warm and close, and one or two of us 
suffered greatly in consequence. The movement from the Semliki 
valley to the plains north of Lake Albert brought us to a dry but a 
hot land. The ground was baked hard ; the grass was scorched ; 
the sun, but for the everlasting thick haze, would have been intol- 
erable; in addition to which, the water — except that from the 
Ruwenzori streams — was atrocious, and charged with nitre and 
organic corruption. The ascent to the eastern plateau was marked 
by an increase of cold and many an evil consequence, — fevers, 
' colds, catarrhs, dysenteries, and paralysis. Several times we as- 
cended to over 6,000 feet above the sea, to be punished with agues, 
which prostrated black and while by scores. In the early morn- 
ings, at this altitude, hoar-frost was common. Blackberries were 
common along the path in North- West Ankori, 5,200 feet above 
the sea- level. 

On entering Uzinya, south-west corner of Lake Victoria, the 
health of all began to improve, and fevers became less common. 

I have jotted these few remarks down very hastily. Whether it 
is from lack of wholesome food or not, I confess to feeling it an 
immense labor to sit down and write upon any subject. I do not 
agree with Shakspeare when he says — 

" Fat paunches have lean pates ; and dainty bits 
Make rich the ribs, but bankrupt quite the wits.'* 

In our case, and I speak for all our officers as well as myself, 
•• dainty bits " just now would brighten up our wits, for we sus- 
pect that our wits have strongly sympathized with the bodies' 

That you may know what the upper regions of Ruwenzori are 
like, I send you Lieut. Stairs's account of his ascent to a height of 
nearly 11,000 feet. 

[Lieut. Stairs's account, written from Expedition Camp, June 8, 1889.] 

I have the honor to present you with the following account of 
an attempt made by me to reach the snow-capped peaks of Ruan- 
zori : — 

Early on the morning of the 6th of June, accompanied by some 
forty Zanzibaris, we made a start from the expedition's camp at 
the foot hills of the range, crossed the stream close to camp, and 
commenced the ascent of the mountain. 

With me I had two aneroids, which together we had previously 
noted and compared with a standard aneroid remaining in camp 
under your immediate observation ; also a Fahrenheit thermome- 

For the first 900 feet above camp the climbing was fairly good, 
and our progress was greatly aided by a native track which led up 
to some huts on the hills. These huts we found to be of the or- 
dinary circular type so common on the plains, but with the differ- 
ence that bamboo was largely used in their interior construction. 
Here we found the food of the natives to be maize, bananas, and 
colocasia roots. On moving away from these huts, we soon left 
behind us the long rank grass, and entered a patch of low scrubby 
bush, intermixed with bracken and thorns, making the journey 
more difficult. 

At 8.30 A.M. we came upon some more huts of the same type, 
and found that the natives had decamped from them some days 
previously. Here the barometer read 23^58 and 22^85 ; the 
thermometer, 75° F. On all sides of us we could see Draccenas, 
and here and there an occasional tree-fern and Mwab palm ; and 
tangled in all shapes, on either side of the track, were masses of 
long bracken. The natives now appeared at different hill-tops and 
points near by, and did their best to frighten us back down the 
mountain by shouting and blowing horns. We, however, kept on 
our way up the slope, and in a short time they disappeared, and 
give us very little further trouble. 

Of the forest plains, stretching far away below us, we could 
see nothing, owing to the thick, haze that then obscured every 
thing. We were thus prevented from seeing the hills to. the west 
and north-west. 

At 10.30 A.M., after* some sharp climbing, we reached the last 
settlement of the natives, which consisted of beans and colocasias, 
but no bananas. Here the barometer read 22^^.36 ; thermometer, 
84^ F. Beyond this settlement was a rough track leading up the 
spur to the forest. This we followed ; but in many places, to get 
along at all, we had to crawl on our hands and knees, ?o steep 
were the slopes. 

At 1 1 A.M. we reached this forest, and found it to be one of 
bamboos, at first open, and then getting denser as we ascended. 
We now noticed a complete and sudden change in the air from 
that we had just passed through. It became much cooler and 
more pure and refreshing, and all went along at a faster rate and 
with lighter hearts. Now that the Zanzibaris had come so far, 
they all appeared anxious to ascend as high as possible, and began 
to chaff each other as to who should bring down the biggest load 
of the *' white stuff " on the top of the mountain. 

At 12.40 P.M. we emerged from the bamboos, and sat down on a 
grassy spot to eat our lunch: barometers, 21^10 and 27^*; 
thermometer, 70^ F. Ahead of us, and rising in one even slope, 
stood a peak, in altitude 1,200 feet higher than we were. This we 
now started to climb, and, after gding up it a short distance, came 
upon the tree heaths. Some of these bushes must have been 20 
feet high ; and, as we had to cut our way foot by foot through 
them, our progress was necessarily slow, and very fatiguing to 
those ahead. 

At 3.15 we halted among the heaths for a few moments to re- 
gain our breath. Here and there were patches of inferior bam- 
boos, almost every stem having holes in it, made by some boring 
insect, and quite destroying its usefulness. Under foot was a 
thick spongy carpet of wet moss, and the heaths on all sides of us 
we noticed were covered with Old Man's Beard. We found great 
numbers of blue violets and lichens, and from this spot I brought 
away some specimens of plants for the Pacha to classify. A gen- 
eral feeling of cold dampness prevailed. In spite of our exertions 
in climbing, we all felt the cold mist very much. It is this contin- 
ual mist clinging to the hill-tops that no doubt causes all the vege- 
tation to be so heavily charged with moisture, and makes the 
ground under foot so wet and sloppy. 

Shortly after 4 p.m. we halted among some high heaths for 
camp. Breaking down the largest bushes, we made rough shelters 
for ourselves, collected what firewood we could pick up, and in 
other ways made ready for the night. Firewood, however, was 
scarce, owing to the wood being so wet that it would not bum. 
In consequence of this, the lightly clad Zanzibaris felt the cold very 
much, though the altitude was only about 8,500 feet. On turning 
in, the thermometer registered 60*^ F. From camp I got a view of 
the peaks ahead, and it was now that I began to fear we should 
not be able to reach the snow. Ahead of us, lying directly in our 
path, were three enormous ravines. At the bottoms of at least 
two of these there was dense bush. Over these we should have to 
travel, and cut our way through the bush. It then would resolve 
itself into a question of time as to whether we could reach the 
summit or not. I determined to go on in the morning, and see 
exactly what difficulties lay before us, and, if these could be 
surmounted in a reasonable time, to go on as far as we possibly 

On the morning of the 7th, selecting some of the best men, and 
sending the others down the mountain, we started off again up- 
wards, the climbing being similar to that we experienced yesterday 
afternoon. The night had been bitterly cold, and some of the men 
complained of fever ; but all were in good spirits, and quite ready 
to go on. About 10 a.m. we were stopped by the first of the 
ravines mentioned above. On looking at this, I saw that it would 
take a long lime to cross, and there were ahead of it still two 
others. We now got our first glimpse of a snow- peak, distant 
about two and a half miles, and I judged it would take us still a 
day and a half to reach this the nearest snow. To attempt it, 
therefore, would only end disastrously, unprovided as we were 
with food, and some better clothing for at least two of the men. 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 


I therefore decided to return, trusting all the time that at some 
future camp a better opportunity for making an ascent would pre- 
sent itself» and the summit be reached. Across this ravine was a 
4)are, rocky peak, very clearly defined, and known to us as the 
south-west of the Twin Cones. The upper part of this was devoid 
-of vegetation, the steep beds of rock only allowing a few grasses 
■and heaths in one or two spots to exist. 

The greatest altitude reached by us, after being worked out and 
all corrections applied, was 10,677 feet above the sea. The alti- 
tude of the snow-peak above this would probably be about 6,000 
feet, making the mountain, say, 16,600 feet high. This, though, is 
4iot the highest peak in the Ruanzori cluster. With the aid of the 
•field-glass, I could make out the form of the mountain-top perfectly. 
The extreme top of the peak is crowned with an irregular mass of 
jagged and precipitous rock, and has a distinct crater-like form. 
I could see, through a gap in the near side, a corresponding rim or 
^gt on the farther, of the same formation and altitude. From this 
•crown of rock, the big peak slopes to the eastward at a slope of 
about 25^, until shut out from view by an intervening peak ; but to ' 
the west the slope is much steeper. Of the snow, the greater mass 
lay on that slope directly nearest us, covering the slope wherever 
its inclination was not too great. (The largest bed of snow would 
•cover a space measuring about 600 by 300 feet, and of such depth 
that in only two spots did the black rock crop out above its sur- 
face. Smaller patches of snow extended well down into the 
ravine.) The height from' the lowest snow to the summit of the 
|)eak would be about 1,200 feet or 1,000 feet. To the east- north- 
east our horizon was bounded by the spur, which, starting directly 
behind our main camp, and mounting abruptly, takes a curve in a 
4iorizontal plane, and centres on to the snow-peak. Again, that 
spur which lay south of us also radiated from the two highest 
peaks. This would s6em to be the general form of the mountain ; 
fiamely, that the large spurs radiate from the snow-peaks as a cen- 
tre, and spread out to the plains below. This formation on the 
west side of the mountain would cause the streams to start from a 
<:entre, and flow on, gradually separating from each other, until 
they reach the plains below. There they turn to the west-north- 
west, or trace their courses along the bottom spurs of the range, 
and run into the Semliki River, and on to the Albert Nyanza. Of 
the second snow- peak which we had seen on former occasions, I 
<:ould see nothing, owing to the Twin Cones intervening. This 
peak is merely the termination, I should think, of the snowy range, 
we saw when at Kavalli's, and* has a greater elevation, if so, than 
the peak we endeavored to ascend. Many things go to show that 
the existence of these peaks is due to volcanic causes. The great- 
est proof that this is so lies in the numbers of conical peaks clus- 
tering round the central mass and on the western side. These 
minor cones have been formed by the central volcano getting 
blocked in its crater, owing to the pressure of its gases not being 
sufficient* to throw out the rock and lava from its interior ; and 
•consequently the gases, seeking for weak spots, had burst through 
the earth's crust, and thus been the means of forming these minor 
•cones that now exist. Of animal life on the mountain, we saw al- 
most nothing'. That game of some sort exists, is plain from the 
number of pitfalls we saw on the road-sides, and from the fact of 
our finding small nooses in the natives' huts, such as those used for 
taking ground game. We heard the cries of an ape in a ravine, 
and saw several dull grayish-brown birds like stonechats ; but be- 
yond these, nothing. 

We have found blueberries and blackberries at an altitude of 
f 0.000 feet and over, and I have been able to hand over to the 
Pacha some specimens for hb collections, the generic names of 
which he has kindly given me, and which are attached below. 
That I could not manage to reach the snow, and bring back some 
as evidence of our work, I regret very much ; but to have pro- 
ceeded onwards to the mountain under the conditions in which we 
were situated, I felt would be worse than useless, and, though all 
of us were keen and ready to go on, I gave the order to return. I 
then read off the large aneroid, and found the hand stood at 19^- 
.900. I set the index-pin directly opposite to the hand, and we 
suncd down hill. At 3 P.M. on the 7th I reached you, it having 
taken four hours and a half of marching from the Twin Cones. 
The following are the generic names of the plants collected by me. 

Emin Pacha has kindly furnished them, i, ClemaUs ; 2. Viola; 
3. Hibiscus: 4. Impaiiens; 5. Tephrosia ; 6. Elycina ; 7. Ru- 
bus ; 8. Begonia; 9. Peucedanum; 10. Gnaphalium ; 11. Heli- 
chrysum; 12. Senecio ; 13. Sonchus ; 14. Vaccinium ; x^. Erica 
arborea; 16. Landolpkia ; 17. Heliotr opium ; 18. Lantana ; 
19. Afoschosma ; 20. Lissochilus ;* 21. Dracana ; 22. Luzula ; 
23. Carex ; 24. Anthesteria ; 25. Adiantum ; 26. Pellaa : 27. 
Pteris aquilina ; 28. Asplenium ; 29. Aspidium ; 30. Polypo- 
dium ; 31. Lycopodium ; 32. Sela^inella ; 33. Marchantia ; 34. 
Parmelia ; 35. Usnea ; 36. Tree fern ; 37. One fern ; 38. One 
Poly podium. The generic names of the last three are unknown. 


I CONGRATULATE the Modem Language Association on the 
establishment of a section which is as indispensable to language as 
the character of the Prince of Denmark is to the play of Hamlet 
Language lives in sound ; and the study of modem languages is 
the study of the spoken tongues. 

I was honored by appointment to the presidency of this section, 
not in virtue of any linguistic attainments, but simply in recogni- 
tion of my long and minute study of practical phonetics. At this 
the first meeting of our Phonetic Section, a few words on that sub- 
ject will not, I trust, be unwelcome. 

We constantly hear of the difficulty in pronouncing a foreign 
language, and especially of the difficulty of our qwn language to 
foreigners ; but the reason of the difficulty has not been sufficiently 
recognized, namely, that learners have no initiatory phonetic train- 
ing. They try to imitate speech in the mass ; and they fail, be- 
cause, after our earliest years, the faculty of imitation is no longer 
an instinct, as it is in childhood. The child unfailingly adjusts its 
organs of speech to the production of whatever sound it is accus- 
tomed to hear, and no difficulty is experienced in the process. The 
youth and the man cannot do so, however, because their organs 
are already set for the pronunciation of one class of sounds, and 
they cannot readily alter the adjustment to suit the production of 
other varieties; that is, they cannot form new sounds in the verbal 
combinations of speech, but (and this is the point I wish to bring 
out) they can, or they can be readily taught to, pri^duce any sound 
by itself. This power is a prerequisite for the certain result of fa- 
cility in combining the new sound with others as fluently as by 
a speaker " to the manner born ; " for what is called combination 
is in reality merely rapid sequence. 

I have known persons who had long been familiar with Welslv 
speakers, utterly unable to pronounce the sound of // in a word, 
but they have been taught in a few seconds to give the element its 
true native effect, by itself, and, after brief exercise, to give it and 
an associated vowel the rapidity of sequence which is called com- 
bination. We all know speakers who cannot pronounce tha Eng- 
lish w in we; but we do not any of us know a single such speaker 
who cannot at once be made to pronounce the element by itself, 
and within a few minutes to give it and the succeeding vowel the 
necessary rapidity of sequence to convert w-e into we. On the 
same principle, the German w, which English imitators pronounce 
V, can be readily acquired as an elementary sound by any person, 
and then syllabically connected with vowels exactly as by native 

The sound of th is another shibboleth to those who do not pos- . 
sess it in their vernacular. Habit and association have fixed the 
false method acquired in early undirected attempts, and the wretched 
mispronunciation is continued year after year. Yet this supposed 
difficult sound can be pronounced as an element almost at the first 
effort by any of these speakers, and its combination in syllables be 
afterwards mastered with certainty. 

The only difficult part of English pronunciation is in the applica- 
tion of what is called " accent," which gives a definiteness and 
stress to some one out of any group of syllables, and a feebleness 
and indefiniteness to all the other syllables in the group. Accent 
(or syllabic light and shade) is the most marked characteristic of 
English utterance, and generally the last to be acquired by a for- 
eigner ; yet there is no real difficulty in mastering even this accen- 

> Address by Dr. A. Melrille Bell before the Modem Language Association, at the 
first session of the Phonetic Section. 

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[Vol. XV. No. 361 

tual habit, by simply practising syllables in unison with taps of the 
fingers.* The broken English of foreigners who have been long 
resident in our midst is due entirely to phonetic neglect, and not to 
any inherent difficulty in the sounds of the language. 

I can foresee that this statement will be called in question, be- 
cause many teachers of languages have to be included among the 
speakers of broken English. Nevertheless, the fact remains, that 
such speakers labor under a disability which might have been pre- 
vented, and which may still be removed, by application of the 
principle that the separate formation of any element, in any given 
way, is feasible by any person, and that elementary combination is 
merely elementary sequence. 

One result of this principle is to show the pre-eminent impor- 
tance of the study of phonetic elements. Another result is to show 
the necessity of some means of indicating these elements independ- 
ently of ordinary letters, because the latter have already, in all 
our minds, fixed associations with certain sounds. We require 
some symbols for pure phonetic qualities, — analogous to the Ara- . 
bic ciphers for numbers, the algebraic signs, and the notation for 
music. We want characters which have an absolute value in the 
mouth — in all mouths — to enable us to teach and discuss the 
sounds of our respective languages, and to express our exact mean- 
ing in regard to them. We do not want to apply such signs in- 
stead of letters and in substijtution for alphabetic writing, but we 
want to use them in interpretation of letters. The attempt to in- 
terpret letters by other letters is never free from ambiguity. 

The symbols which make up what I call " Visible Speech *' are 
precisely such as here described. They constitute a universal 
alphabet, because by means of them the sounds of any language 
are expressed with such directiveness that they can be reproduced 
from the writing by any expert in the system. But the main func- 
tion of the symbols is fulfilled when they have taught the learner 
the phonetic value of ordinary letters. ^Our familiar ABC, the Ger- 
man alphabet, the Greek, the Arabic, and every other system of 
letters, may be preserved unchanged, while the symbols of " Visi- 
ble Speech " are available as a key to them all. 

In one of the early experiments with the system, the professor of 
Oriental languages in the University of Edinburgh dictated some 
peculiar East Indian words which were entirely new to me when I 
wrote them ; and, when they were reproduced by the boys who 
were then the sole interpreters of the system. Professor Reid de- 
clared that he could not get his students to pronounce the same 
words with similar accuracy, after six months' instruction. 

In this case the young readers heard the words for the first time 
when they themselves pronounced them. The explanation is, that 
the symbolic writing exhibited to their initiated eye the organic 
mechanism of the sounds, and they had only to follow this, and the 
original effect was necessarily reproduced without thought of 
sound on their part, or of any thing but the organic positions. 

Some very interesting and crucial tests were applied by Mr. 
Alexander John Ellis, — the one man in England competent to ap- 
ply such tests, as he was the author of the most exact analysis of 
speech-sounds, and the most complete phonetic alphabet that had 
then been published. I quote Mr. Ellis's own description of the 
experiments ; — 

" The mode of procedure was as follows : Mr. Bell sent his sons, 
who were to read the writing, out of the room, — it is interesting 
to know that the one who read all the words in this case had only 
had five weeks' instruction in the use of the alphabet, — and I dic- 
tated slowly and distinctly the words which I wished to be written. 
These consisted of a few words in Latin, pronounced first as at 
Eton, then as in Italy, and then according to some theoretical no- 
tions of how the Latins might have uttered them. Then came 
some English provincialisms and affected pronunciations; the 
words ' how odd ' being given in several distinct ways. Suddenly 
-German provincialisms were introduced; then discriminations of 
sounds often confused, in Polish, German, Dutch, and Swiss words ; 
French and English words, and German and French words ; some 
Arabic, some Cockney English, with an introduced Arabic guttur- 
al, some mispronounced Spanish, and a variety of shades of vowels 
and diphthongs. The result was perfectly satisfactory ; that is, Mr. 
Bell wrote down my queer and purposely exaggerated pronuncia- 
tions and mispronunciations, and delicate distinctions, in such a 

manner that his son, not having heard them, so uttered them as 
to surprise me by the extremely correct echo of my own voice. 
Accent, tone, drawl, brevity, indistinctness, were all reproduced 
with surprising accuracy. Being on the watch, I could, as it were,, 
trace the alphabet in the lips of the reader. I think, then, that 
Mr. Bell is justified in the somewhat bold title which he has as- 
sumed for his mode of writing, — * Visible Speech*.' " 

Mr. Ellis subsequently had the whole phonetic theory of the sys- 
tem, and the plan of symbolization, explained to him, when he had 
the magnanimity to write, — 

" Mr. Melville Bell's scheme will, I believe and hope,* thoroughly 
supersede one. on which I have labored for many years, and ex- 
pended much money." 

I venture to say that the whole history of authorship does not 
exhibit a course of action more altruistic and honorable than that 
of Alexander John Ellis in his reception of " Visible Speech." 

Mr. Ellis, of course, embodied the classifications of "Visible 
Speech " in his subsequent works. His system of " Glossotype "' 
or " Glossic " was designed for the purpose of enabling all the new 
phonetic distinctions to be represented by Roman letters. This it 
accomplished by inversions and other arrangements of the letters,, 
making up an alphabet, complete but arbitrary, and consequently 
difficult to use without constant reference to tables. " Glosso- 
type " is a translation of " Visible Speech " into letters that are to- 
be found in every printing-office. It, of course, entirely lacks the 
grand characteristic of " Visible Speech ; " namely, self-interpreting 
letters, which exhibit in their forms a symbolic record of what the 
mouth must do in order to pronounce their sounds. " Glossotype ** 
may be correctly described as " ' Visible Speech ' without its visi- 

My speaking to you here in Harvard reminds me that when 1 
paid my first visit to America, in 1868, the then president of this 
university. Dr. Thomas Hill, was, I found, much interested in 
" Visible Speech," and in phonetics generally. I had the honor of 
meeting in Dr. Hill's drawing-room a gathering of professors and 
others, whom he had invited to receive some demonstrations of the 
system. To my surprise. Dr. Hill showed himself almost as well 
acquainted with my system as I was myself. I wrote on the 
blackboard for his interpretation, and he wrote for mine. Yet he 
had had no oral instruction in the method, but had studied it en- 
tirely from the written description. 

I mention these facts simply to encourage those of you who may 
not have already entered on the study, to make practical investiga- 
tion for yourselves. In this way you will, at all events, acquire a 
knowledge of the varieties of linguistic sound, and also see the or- 
ganic formation of familiar elements, which you may possibly have 
been forming all your lives without knowing, how you formed 
them ; and the power of analyzing familiar sounds will ultimately 
become a guide to the formation of new and unfamiliar pounds. 

We live in a busy world, and cannot afford to spend much time, 
even in the most interesting studies, unless they involvje also our 
material interests. I may therefore point out, that a knowledge of 
the whole round of speech-actions can be acquired, under proper 
oral instruction, in a period so brief that the busiest student need 
not be deterred from undertaking the work. The study is in itself 
most interesting, and it is, besides, of important material benefit to 
those who master it. In primary schools, in schools for the deaf» 
and in all the fields of teaching, there is an increasing demand for 
skilled phoneticians ; and to you, members of the Modern Lan- 
guage Association, this demand naturally looks for supply. 

I am most desirous, before I leave the world, to see the subject 
of phonetics added to the curriculum in universities and normal 
schools. I may add, that, in furtherance of this object, I have pre- 
sented, through the Bureau of Education, and with the kind co- 
operation of the commissioner of education, a copy of my recent 
work on " Vocal Physiology and Visible Speech." to every univer- 
sity and normal school in the United States. The same presenta- 
tion has also been extended to the universities and normal schools 
in Great Britain and the British Colonies. The opening of this 
Phonetic Section of the Modem Language Association may be 
taken as an indication of the growing interest in the subject, and 
an omen of its future prominence among educational studies. 
You will, of course, have many aspects of phonetics presented to 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.} 


you in the contributions you will receive from year to year, — such 
as historical phonetics, or the order of past changes in pronuncia- 
tion ; national phonetics, or the tendencies of individual languages; 
formal phonetics, or the operation of definite laws ; assimilative 
phonetics, or the influence of sound upon sound ; and doubtless 
other varieties, — but all these should pre-imply a fundamental 
power in practical phonetics. Theorizing on sounds which you 
-cannot illustrate is profitless. 

Sounds have been described as long, short, acute, grave, flat, 
^harp ; heavy, light, dull, obscure, hard, soft ; harsh, smooth, open, 
^hut, thick, thin ; narrow, broad, fat, liquid, etc. ; and organically as 
labial, lingual, palatal, guttural, nasal, dental, head sounds, throat 
sounds, chest sounds, even ventral sounds. The whole nomen- 
clature has been mdefinite and unscientific. Such names must be 
-discarded for a terminology that shall express something which is 
uniformly intelligible to all who use it. 

For example: certain mouth-actions are produced with, and 
•certain others without, accompanying voice : these are clearly dis- 
tinguished as *' vocal " and " non-vocal." Certain actions are per- 
formed by the back of the tongue, others by the top of the tongue, 
others by the front of the tongue, others by the point of the tongue, 
others by the lips ; and the resulting elements are unambiguously 
tiamed " back," " top," " front," " point," " lip." Some sounds are 
formed with the tongue in close approximation to the roof of the 
mouth, others with the tongue removed from it as far as possible, 
and others in an intermediate position : these varieties are clearly 
•distinguished as " high." " low," " mid." Some sounds are formed 
with constriction of the organic aperture, and others with com- 
{>arative looseness and expansion ; and these are distinguished by 
the term " wide " applied to the latter class. Some sounds issue 
through a channel over the centre of the organ concerned, others 
through apertures formed at the sides, and some with the mouth- 
passage entirely closed : the last are descriptively named " shut ; " 
and the side-aperture sounds, " divided." Some sounds are formed 
with the co-operation of two parts of the mouth, and these are 
oalled " mixed ; " and some are emitted wholly or partly through 
the nose. The former are called " nasal ; " the latter, " nasalized." 
Such definite nomenclatures as these are easily learned, readily 
remembered, and unambiguously understood. 

One practical application of phonetics will probably come occa- 
sionally under the consideration of this section ; namely, the re- 
moval of anomalies and irregularities in spelling. This association 
^ may well become the national authority and umpire in questions of 
' what is called " spelling- reform." The established writing of our 
words is only partially phonetic ; and the first point to be de- 
tennined is. Can it be made wholly so ? The answer is both yes 
and no. — no, if the condition be made to admit no new letters, 
and to maintain the present aspect of words ; yes, if new letters be 
allowed, and the aspect of words be free to change, without regard 
to present usage. Written words become pictorial to the eye, and 
any change of the literal picture destroys for a time the identity of 
the word. Thus words are both combinations of sounds and com- 
Innations of letters. The sound is the original, the real word : the 
letters form a conventional pictorial word. Are we to retain both 
in mutual independence* with all the inconvenience which the pres- 
ent arrangement entails, or are we to alter the conventional so as 
to represent the real ? If we agree to disturb the old word-pic- 
ture, let us make the new one perfectly accord with the word- 
sound ; but that would be to give up historical spelling altogether. 
If we decide to retain historical spelling, we should then agree on 
some initiatory scheme, by which the difficulty of learning to read 
may be importantly lessened, for the benefit of children and of the 
nations which are acquiring the English tongue. 

In an extended English alphabet recently published under the 
title of " World-English," a method is shown by which the writing 
of the language is rendered perfectly phonetic, while the aspect of 
words is changed in the least possible degree consistent with that 
result. The alphabet is designed only for initiatory use. and to 
facilitate the learning to read from common letters and common 
spelling. Some critics have failed to see this limitation of the 
scheme, and have looked on the proposition as a new attempt at 
spelling-reform; but, on the contrary, the reason for producing 
*" World English " was to demonstrate, that, so far as learners of 

the language are concerned, present orthography may remain al- 
together untouched ; and that the literature of England and America 
need not be rendered foreign to the eye by any change in spelling. 

Why cannot our l^islatures rise to the importance of regulating 
school and official practice in the representation of our speech ? 
Private efforts have cleared the way, and shown, in a variety of 
modes, what may be done. Official action now would be com- 
paratively easy. 

In the mean time, might not this association with advantage 
formulate some conclusions on the subject? Suppose the follow- 
ing questions to be discussed, and the answers promulgated for 
general information ; — 

1. Should our spelling be altered for the sake of facilitating the 
work of learning to read ? 

2. Can that object be attained without such alteration ? 

3. Can our spelling be partially phoneticized, by dropping silent 
letters and otherwise, without destroying the identity of words to 
the eye ? 

4. Can a purely phonetic method, in place of ordinary spelling, 
be made acceptable to the educated pifblic ? 

5. Should we not recognize two independent forms of our written 
words, — one in common spelling, for use in literature ; the other 
in phonetic spelling, for use in primary schools, and wherever else 
may be desired } 

Definite answers to these or such questions would tend to con- 
centrate effort in the approved direction, and to suspend futile 
effort in other directions. 

The varieties of sound heard in dialectic and district pronuncia- 
tion prove that the necessities of intercourse do not depend on nice 
phonetic distinctions. In fact, one who is familiar with the words 
of a language can understand speech when only one unchanging 
vowel-sound is used ; or writing, when a mere hyphen is substi- 
tuted for all vowel-letters. One system of shorthand is based on 
this principle. The consonants are written small when no vowel- 
sound follows them ; and in this way the relative size of these 
characters informs the eye where vowels do and do not occur; 
with the result, that, except in monosyllables, the writing is suffi- 
ciently free from ambiguity for practical stenography. 

Extended intercourse is assimilating the pronunciation of dis- 
tricts which differed widely in their utterance before the days of 
steamboats and railways. The dialect of my native place is no 
longer what it was in my remembrance. The provinces of a na- 
tion, and the nations of the world, are rising gradually to one 
phonetic standard. But variety comes with refinement ; shades of 
sound become associated with shades of meaning ; and the ear it- 
self becomes more appreciative of slight differences. 

Early English pronunciation was very unlike what we hear now, 
chiefly because it lacked many shades of sound which we dis- 
tinguish. The letter r had always its consonant sound, which is 
now heard only before a vowel. A was alway aA ; at, ah-i ; aw, 
ah'W. W was always pronounced after a vowel, as ew, eh'iv ; 
aw, oh-w, U, as in but and us, was always pronounced oo ; and 
our silent letters gh and /, as in might and would, were always 
sounded. I can fortunately illustrate the effect of the English of 
Shakspeare's time by repeating a short speech, the pronunciation 
of every word in which has been ingeniously recovered by Mr. 
Ellis. This is Portia's speech on mercy, from the " Merchant of 
Venice," as pronounced on the Shakspearian stage [" The quality 
of mercy," etc.]. My object in this brief address has been simply 
to incite you to give increased attention to practical phonetics. 
Mastery of the mouth will give an advantage in all the other de- 
partments, and also in the teaching of modem languages. With- 
out entering further into detail, which would make this a lesson 
instead of an address, I shall conclude by hoping that the delibera- 
tions of this Phonetic Section may advance the study of the art 
.and science of speech, enhance both professional and popular in- 
terest in the subject, and be a continuous credit to the Modem 
Langruage Association. 

The Russian Government has in contemplation a project for 
connecting, by a system of canals, the White Sea with Lake Onega 
and with the principal navigable rivers of Russia. The canals are 
to be of sufficient depth to admit vessels drawing ten feet of water. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV.. No. 361 

The Difficulties of the Medical Profession. 

" An Old Doctor " deplores the visible decadence of the profes- 
sion in a long letter of lamentation in The Lancet, Among other 
things, he says, — 

" In these advertising days, in medicine, as in every thing else, 
people who know little or nothing of a subject, who presume igno- 
rantly to address the public in the daily and weekly press, attract 
more notice than those who have devoted their lives to their par- 
ticular work. It is a misfortune that in this country (i.e., England) 
a very large amount of medical practice (and that the most .easy 
and profitable) is lost to the profession by the fact that almost all 
chemists prescribe largely. This is a great and crying evil. The 
practice is, instead of diminishing, largely increasing. This should 
be stopped. The chemist nearly always prescribes, but generally 
says, to cover, himself, ' If worse, take patient to a medical man.' 
And so the medical man reaps all the hard work (often without 
being paid), and the chemist most of the profits. Then, again, 
hospitals, both special and general, take away largely from the 
proper, legal, and rightful profits of the profession. The public 
have a notion that they get advice and medicine of the highest 
character from the hospitals for nothing, but, if they pay for it to 
the general practitioner, they get a second-rate article. This is a 
bad system. Why not set up legal dispensaries for free legal ad- 
vice, free places to get married in, free clothing establishments, 
free meat-stores, etc., all paid for by subscriptions or rates ? 

" The fact is, the medical profession is gradually and surely 
committing suicide, and its career on the downward path should 
be promptly arrested. If we were true to ourselves (which we are 
not, and never have been), the present increase in the profession 
would be insufficient to supply the needs of the public. But, if 
we go on working on the ' sweating system,' (for who sweats 
more, mentally and physically, than the hard-worked medical prac- 
titioner, night and day doing his best to preserve the health and 
life of the people ?) often indeed without reward, then we shall be 
fools indeed. This idea, that medical services can be had for 
nothing, and so ought to be paid for at that price, is spreading. 
We are doing away with all professional reserve. We ipake every 
thing plain,'and it is valued accordingly. The more a profession 
is lowered in the eyes of the public, the less respect it receives." 

The Bacillus of Warts. — Dr. Kuhnemann has found, says 
The Medical Record^ in sections of warts {^erruca vulgaris) a 
bacillus which is always present in the prickle layer. It has dis- 
tinctive qualities as regards its capacity for color, and is found 
both between and in the cells. Its form is that of exceedingly 
delicate, slender rods, the thickness bearing the proportion to the 
length of one to six. • It is seldom found in the skin surrounding 
the warts, and is found most plentifully when the wart is recent. 

Memory following Cranial Injury. — The following case 
is reported by the patient, a distinguished member of the legal 
profession. The loss of memory has been permanent for certain 
subjects extending over a certain area of time preceding the acci- 
dent. In all other respects, says The Medical Analectic, the 
mental faculties are of a very high order. " When twelve years 
and ten months old, I fell over a cliff at Howth, County Dublin. 
The cause of my accident was a kind of landslip, and I fell and 
rolled about thirty feet, when I caught a bush, which gave way 
with me, and I •fell about thirty feet more on to rocks. I was 
picked up quite insensible. My jaw was broken in four places, 
but no other bones. I am told, however, that my appearance was 
like that of some one who had been beaten into a jelly from head 
to foot. I have no recollection of the accident beyond holding on 
to the bush or bramble which gave way with me. Nor do I re- 
member being picked up, nor any thing which subsequently oc- 
curred, until about ten days after the accident, when I seemed 
to awake out of a long sleep, in great pain, and seeing Surgeon 
Butcher standing over me and setting my jaw, or doing something 
to it which caused me great pain. I was more or less incapable of 
doing any thing for seven or eight months, owing to the shock to my 
system. My father had died about seven months before the acci- 
dent ; and I am told that I used constantly to be with him, and 
that he was very fond of me, but I have not the smallest recollec- 

tion of him, or what he was like, nor can I remember a single inci- 
dent of my life before the accident ; and, in fact, up to the time it 
occurred, every thing is a complete blank in my memory, both as 
regards individuals and events. I am told that I was practically 
insensible for about a week after the accident occurred." 

Influenza. — We are now passing through one of the periodic 
visitations of this annoying disease. For the last four centuries 
these attacks have come at varying intervals, those most pro- 
nounced being at intervals of forty or fifty years, although others 
have occurred at shorter intervals. These last, however, have 
been confined to smaller areas, where for some reason the condi- 
tions were favorable to the spread of the disease. A peculiarity of 
the great attacks has been their universality, spreading as they 
have from the equator to the poles. We are now inclined to con- 
nect some micro-organism with each disordered state of the human 
system. So it may be that this enemy of human comfort has his 
periods of activity, just as the seventeen-year locust has his. In- 
fluenza comes suddenly, and goes as quickly. The cause, whatever 
it may be, descends on a community with the result that the least 
robust, of whatever age, are afflicted most. The outbreak of epi- 
zootic among horses in 1870 has been connected by some with the 
influenza in man. 


The government of Chili has had a committee of engineers 
examining the water-works of the principal European cities, with a 
view to establishing similar works, on a large scale, in some of the 
Chilian cities. 

— Professor R. H. Thurston has received the university decora- 
tion, " Officier de r Instruction Publique de France** 

— The canal to connect the North Sea, at the mouth of theElbev 
with the Gulf of Kiel on the Baltic, which was b^^n two or three 
years ago, is making fair progress. It will be 61 miles long, 85 
feet broad at the bottom, and nearly 200 at the water-level, and of 
sufficient depth to take the largest German war-vessels. It will 
have only two locks, one at each end. 

— The sixth annual meeting of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation was begun in Washington, Dec. 28. Among those present 
were President Charles K. Adams of Cornell University; the Hon. 
John Jay of New York ; John F. King, president of the New York 
Historical Society ; Dr. Justin Winsor of Cambridge, Mass.; Mrs. 
Martha J, Lamb, editor of i^^ Magazine of American History ; 
Gen. James Grant Wilson of New York; Horatio King, Washing- 
ton ; Gen. George W. Cullom, William F. Poole, Chicago ; Senator 
Hoar, President Gallaudet, of Washington ; Judge Chamberlin of 
Boston ; and Gen. Charles Darling of Utica, N.Y. Professor 
George L. Burr of Cornell University delivered an address on the 
literature of witchcraft. Ex-Presideni Andrew D. White of Cornell 
followed in a paper entitled " A Catechism of Revolutk)nary Re- 
action." It calls attention to the fact, that, while there are so many 
histories of the French Revolution, there is as yet no history of the 
re-actions which have followed it. The next paper was on the 
" French Revolution in Sao Domingo," by Herbert Elmer MiUs, 
instructor in history, Cornell University. Clarence Winthrop Bowen, 
Ph.D., read a paper entitled " A Newly Discovered Manuscript : 
Reminiscences of the American War of Independence, by Ludwig, 
Baron von Closen, Aide to Count de Rochambeau." This con- 
tained a description of the movements of the allied armies in the 
neighborhood of Manhattan Island in the summer of 1 781, of the 
meeting of Washington and Rochambeau, and of the scenes fol- 
lowing Cornwallis's surrender. The writer gives many interesting 
personal reminiscences of the Washington family and of early Amer- 
ican society. The subject of President Charles K. Adams's inaugu- 
ral address was " The Recent Advancement of Historical Studies 
in the Colleges and Universities of America and Europe." Mr. 
Talcott Williams of Philadelphia read an interesting paper on 
•* Historical Survivals in Morocco." The full programme has al- 
ready been published. 

— A careful computation of the speed of a routing- machine 
cutter, made recently in Chicago by mechanical experts, showed it 
to be making 23,466 revolutions per minute. This was the regular 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 


working speed* but the machine' is sometimes speeded up to 28»ooo 
revolutions per minute. The magnolia anti-friction metal, men- 
tioned recently in these columns, is used for bearings, which per- 
mits this high speed to be maintained for ten hours a day without 
heating the journals. 

— In a recent pamphlet on petroleum- fields, Mr. Charles Mar- 
vin states that the oil- fields of Canada cover upward of a hundred 
thousand square miles. There are also extensive oil-fields, com- 
paratively undeveloped, in South Africa, New Zealand, South 
Australia, and Burmah. As the South African oil-fields underlie 
the diamond and gold mining districts, it would seem to be assured 
of a speedy development, fuel costing nearly a hundred dollars a 
ton there. 

— Mr. Loubat, a member of the New York Historical Society, 
as we have already noted, has given to the Academie des Inscrip- 
tions et Belles -Lettres of Paris, a fund with an annual income of 
1,000 francs for the giving qi a prize of 3.000 francs every third 
year. This prize is to be given to the best printed work on history, 
geography, archaeology, ethnography, linguistics, or numismatics 
of North America. The academy fixes 1776 as the latest date to 
which the works are to apply. The prize will be awarded in 1892, 
and any work will be open to the prize if published after July i, 
1889. whether in Latin, FrencB, English. Spanish, or Italian. 

— In the manufacture of one or two proprietary articles, Mr. 
James Gresham of Brooklyn has found it necessary, according to 
the OH, Painty and Drug Reporter, to use beeswax, from which 
he extracts the saccharine and gelatine matters, leaving a fine 
powder containing all of the other principles of beeswax. This 
latter substance has always been considered a waste product until 
lately, when experiments demonstrated its value for polishing fine 
surfaces, such as furniture, silver, glass, etc. The discovery is 
considered important, and will no doubt be turned to industrial ac- 
count instead of the by-product being destroyed, as formerly. 

— The Maryland Historical Society has published in a handsome 
volume the first instalment of the "Calvert Papers," recovered 
after years of fruitless search, and acquired by the society some- 
what more than a year ago. These papers consist of about one 
thousand documents relating to the Calvert family and to the prov- 
ince of Maryland ; and they extend chronologically from the 
reign of Elizabeth to about ten years before the American Revolu- 
tion. A large numbtr are of great historical importance and in- 
terest. This volume, besides a selection from these documents, 
gives an account of their recovery and presentation to the society, 
and a complete calendar, carefully prepared by Mr. J. W. M. Lee, 
of all the papers recovered. A handsome blazon, in colors, of the 
arms of Cecilius Calvert, as given in Gwillim, forms the frontis- 

— At a largely attended meeting in Edinburgh on Tuesday, Dec. 
3, it was resolved, we learn from' Nature, that Mr. George Reid, 
R.S.A., should be commissioned to paint a portrait of Professor P. 
G. Tait, to be placed permanently in the rooms of the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh. A committee was appointed to carry out the 
resolution, including, among others, Mr. John Murray ('* Challen- 
ger " expedition), convener ; Mr. Gillies Smith, honorary treasurer ; 
Lord President Inglis ; Lord Kingsburgh ; Lord Maclaren ; Sir 
William Thomson ; Sir Arthur Mitchell ; Professor Robertson 
Smith ; Professor Chiene ; Dr. Alexander Buchan ; Mr. Robert 
Cox; and Mr. William Peddie. It was proposed that an etched 
engraving of the portrait be prepared for distribution among the 
subscribers, the plate to be destroyed after the required number of 
copies have been thrown off. It was further resolved that all the 
fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the professor's old pu- 
pils, and others, be afforded an opportunity of taking part in this 
public recognition of Professor Tait's eminent services to science. 

' — Italy, France, and the United States of America were repre- 
sented in the elections to foreign membership of the Royal Society 
of London on Thursday, Dec. 5, according to Nature, Profes- 
sor Stanislao Cannizzaro of Rome was elected on the ground of 
his researches on molecular and atomic weights ; Professor Chau- 
veau of Paris, for his researches on the mechanism of the circula- 
tion, animal heat, nutrition, and the pathology of infectious diseases ; 

and Professor Rowland of Baltimore, for his determination in abso- 
lute measure of the magnetic susceptibilities of iron, nickel, and 
cobalt, for his accurate measurements of fundamental physical con- 
stants, for the experimental proof of the electro- magnetic effect of 
electric convection, for the theory and construction of curved dif- 
fraction-gratings of very g^eat dispersive power, and for the effec- 
tual aid which he has given to the progress of physics in America 
and other countries. 

— French colonization and development companies are making 
encouraging progress in creating new oases in the Algerian part of 
the Desert of Sahara. One company have sunk nine artesian wells, 
reaching water-bearing strata at a depth of 230 feet, giving a steady 
flow of about five thousand gallons per minute. The water is 
brackish, and unfit for drinking, but it answers very well for irriga- 
tion. This company have about fifty thousand palm-trees under 
cultivation, the date-palm being the principal variety. Henna and 
madder are also cultivated profitably, and experiments are in 
progress with cotton, flax, tobacco, grape-vines, wheat, and barley. 
Rye-grass and lucem grow abundantly, the latter especially flour- 
ishing in the palm-tree plantations. This company began opera- 
tions in 1882, and they now have upwards of nine hundred acres 
of productive land reclaimed from the desert, watered by twenty- 
five miles of irrigating canals. These are very interesting experi- 
ments, and it is to be hoped they will be commercially successful, 
if not extremely profitable. • 

— The committee on building fund of the Natural Science As- 
sociation of Staten Island, appointed to consider the possibility of 
obtaining a fund for a meeting hall, museum, and library, state 
that they have succeeded, by informal personal solicitation, in ob- 
taining a pledged subscription for that purpose of $100 from each 
of the following gentlemen : Capt. A. L. King, Eberhard Faber, 
L. F. Whitin, Dr. N. L. Britton, Aaron Vanderbilt, Henry R. 
Kunhardt, L. P. Gratacap, Arthur Hollick, and K. B. Newell. The 
following active members have agreed to become life members (by 
the payment of $50 each) in order to assist the fund : Dr. Fred- 
erick Hollick, Dr. WUliam C. Walser, W. B. Kunhardt. From the 
above it will be seen that more than $1,000 is definitely pledged at 
the present time. It was thought best to secure some such 
amount, as a guaranty of earnestness and good faith, before mak- 
ing a general appeal to the public. The gratifying success has 
determined the committee to push on with the work, and to 
publish and distribute a general appeal to the public at an early 
date, probably during the first part of next month. The sum esti- 
mated as necessary to be raised is $7,000. 

— A street-railway about a mile and a half in length, on an en- 
tirely new principle, is being constructed in Washington. D.C., by 
the Judson Pneumatic Railway Company of this city. In this sys- 
tem, power is to be transmitted by compressed air from a central 
station to a series of motors placed beneath the track at intervals 
of about fifteen hundred feet. In a conduit between the rails, 
similar in construction to a cable- rail way conduit, revolves a 
smooth cylinder, or series of cylinders coupled together at the ends 
about six inches in diameter. These cylinders are to be kept in 
continuous rotation by the compressed-air motors. An adjustable 
blade or arm projecting from the bottom of the car, and passing 
through the narrow slot into the conduit, carries at its end a group 
of friction-wheels, which may be pressed down forcibly upon the 
upper quarter of the revolving cylinder. The plane of revolution 
of these friction-wheels may be changed by an ingenious device 
controlled by a lever, to be operated by the driver of the car. 
While the friction- wheels revolve in the same plane as the cylinder, 
the fram? supporting them is at rest, but the moment the axes of 
the wheels are thrown out of line with that of the cylinder, by a 
movement of the lever, the frame is driven along the cylinder by 
the diagonal travel of the wheels, which i§ similar to that of the 
travelling ink-distributer on some of the old-fashioned printing- 
presses. The speed of the car is regulated by the angle of inclina- 
tion of the friction- wheel axles, the cylinder revolving continuously 
in one direction at a uniform speed. The feasibility of this system, 
which at first glance would seem doubtful, has been demonstrated 
to the satisfaction of those interested by the successful working of 
a full-size model on a two-hundred- foot track in this city. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 361 





47 Lafayette Place, New York. 

Subscriptions. — United States and Canada $3.50 a yeai. 

Great Britain and Europe 4.50 a year. 

Communications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific papers 
are solicited, and twenty copies of the issue containing such will be mailed the author 

n request in advance. Rejected manuscripts will be returned to the authors only 
when the requisite amount of postage accompanies the manuscript. Whatever is in- 
tended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of the writer ; 
not necessarily for publication, but as a guaranty of good faith. We Ho not hold our- 
selves responsible for any view or opinions expressed in the communications of our 

Attention is called to the ** Wants " column. All are invited to use it in soliciting 
information or seeking new positions. The name and address of applicants should be 
given in full, so that answers will go direct to them. The *' Exchange " column is 
likewise open. 

Vol. XV. 

NEW YORK. January 3, 1890. 

No. 361 


MoDBL Elbctric Elbvator Instal- 
lation I 

Thb World's Mbat Consumption, 

Production, AND Tradb 1 

Stanley's Explorations a 

Phonbtics 5 

Health Matters. 
The Difficulties of the Medical Pro- 
fession 8 

The Bacillus of Warts 8 

Memory following Cranial Injury. . 8 

Influenza 8 

Notbs and News 8 

American Geological Society xo 


Scientific Papers of Asa Gray xx 

Among THB Publishers ix 

Letters to the Editor. 
Unconscious Bias in Walking 

Manly Miltt 14 
The Influence of Baking-Powder 
Residues on Digestion 

R. Taylor Wheeler 14 
Resemblance of People 

W.S.Franlin 16 
A Remarkable Bowlder of Nephrite 
or Jade yame* Terry xjS 


The annual meeting of this society began Dec. 26, in the new 
building of the American Museum of Natural History in this city. 
The result of the election of officers was announced as follows : 
president, James D. Dana ; vice-spresidents, John S. Newberry 
and Alexander Winchell ; secretary, John J. Stevenson ; treasurer, 
Henry S. Williams ; executive council, J. W. Powell, George W. 
Dawson, and Charles H. Hitchcock. 

Fifteen new fellows of the society were announced as having 
been elected, and they are as follows : Frank Dawson Adams, 
lecturer at McGill College, Montreal; Albert Smith Bickmore, 
American Museum of Natural History; Aaron Hodgman Cole, 
Hamilton lecturer on natural history at Madison University; 
Thomas Sterry Hunt of New York City ; R. D. Lacoe of Pittston, 
Penn. ; Alfred Church Lane. Houghton, Mich., assistant on Geologi- 
cal Survey of Michigan ; Alexander Richard Cecil Selwyn, Ottawa, 
Canada, director of the Geological and Natural History Survey of 
Canada ; Bailey Willis, Washington, D.C., United States Geologi- 
cal Survey ; J. E. Wolff, Cambridge, Mass., instructor of petrog- 
raphy at Harvard ; Lorenzo G. Yates, Santa Barbara, Cal. ; Vic- 
tor C. Alderson, Englewood, 111., teacher of geology ; Henry M. 
Ami, Ottawa, Canada, Geological Survey of Canada ; Ezra Brain- 
erd, Middlebury, Vt., president of Middlebury College; Daniel 
Webster Landon, jun., Cincinnati, O., geologist of the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Railway ; George Clinton Swallow, Helena, Mont., in- 
spector of mines of Montana. 

T. C. Chamberlin of Madison, Wis., read a paper upon " Some 
Additional Evidences bearing on the Interval between the Lead- 
ing Glacial Epochs." and W. J. McGee of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey replied briefly; Professor N. S. Shaler of Harvard 
spoke on " The Tertiary Deposits of Eastern Massachusetts." In 
his paper, Mr. Shaler endeavored to show that in that district there 
had been, since the miocene age, a large amount of true mountain- 
building action at Gay Head, on Martha's Vineyard. The evi- 
dence of this had been distinguishable for a long time ; but about a 
year ago it was uncovered, so that it could be better seen than at any 
previous time, by a most violent rain-storm somewhat in the nature 
of a cloud-burst. In two hours* time, five and one half inches of 
water had fallen, and the cliffs at Gay Head had been washed so 
much that opportunities for investigation were better than ever be- 
fore. A remarkable instance o^ dislocations had been exposed, 
and the formation of the cliffs made plainly visible. The evidences 
of mountain- building were plain, and it was of a comparatively 
late period. The same thing could be seen on Block Island. Its 
limit to the north was sharply defined, for the g^eensands of 
Marshfield, Mass., had been examined by Mr. Shaler, and they 
were perfectly horizontal, and not disturbed. To the south and 
west investigations had not been pushed: so the extent of the 
mountain-building in that direction was unknown. Mr. Shaler 
said further that the evidences of glacial action were plain, and 
that it must haye taken place after the upheaval or mountain-build- 
ing age. 

The second day's session was opened with an address by the 
present president. Professor James Hall, geologist of the State of 
New York. Professor Hall's address was a sketch of the earlier 
geologists, and was directed chiefly to the younger members of 
the society present. -He paid tributes, among others, to Agassiz, 
Sir Charles Lyell, Professor Logan, the royal geologist of Canada, 
and William Smith, and closed with a reference to his colleague, 
Professor Dana. 

Professor Edward Orton, State geologist of Ohio, considered the 
"Origin of the Rock-Pressure of Natural Gas in the Trenton 
Limestone of Ohio and Indiana." The gas is the product of ages, 
which has been accumulated in the porous limestone of Ohio and 
Indiana. It has been produced so slowly that when once ex- 
hausted it will take many thousands of years for it to again accu- 
mulate in sufficient quantities to be used, even if the elements 
necessary for its production were present, which he thought was 
not at all probable. The pressure which forces the gas out with 
such tremendous power that it sometimes reaches 1,000 pounds 
pressure per square inch is not due to the pressure of the gas it- 
self, but to the hydrostatic pressure brought to bear by the col- 
umn of salt water that enters the porous stratum of rock contain- 
ing the gas,' at the sea-level, and which by its weight tends to force 
the gas out. To the explanation and elucidation of this phenome- 
non. Professor Orton's paper was more especially devoted. The 
men who are engaged in the practical development of gas and oil 
fields, said he, made gresX account of rock-pressure. It is the first 
fact they inquire after in a new gas-field. They appreciate its im- 
portance, knowing that the distance of the markets they care to 
reach, and the size of the pipes they can employ, are entirely de- 
pendent upon this element. After discussing the theories of its 
origin, he expressed the opinion that the gas-supply could not be 
of very long duration. This fact he regarded as of the greater im- 
portance on account of the vast extent to which natural gas had 
become a factor in Western manufacture and development. He 
said that 400,000 people in north-western Ohio and central Indiana 
alone depended upon it for fuel and illumination, and that a large 
proportion of their manufactures depended upon it. The supplies 
were being wasted in a vandal fashion, and he thought that nine 
years at most would mark its duration in this region. Artificial 
gas he believed preferable. 

The next paper was by Professor William B. Clark of Johns 
Hopkins University, his. subject being " The Tertiary Deposits of 
the Cape Fear River Region." 

Professor Andrew C. Lawson of Ottawa, Canada, next read a 
paper entitled " Note on the Pre- Palaeozoic Surface of the Archaean 
Terranes of Canada." Professor William M. Davis of Cambridge, 
Mass., presented the fourth paper, on " The Structure and Origin 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 



of Glacial Sand Plains." " Glacial Features of Parts of the Yukon 
and Mackenzie Basins " was the tkle of the paper submitted by 
Professor R. G. McConnell of Ottawa, Canada. Professor J. B. 
Tyrrell of Ottawa, Canada, read a paper on the " Post-Tertiary 
Deposits of Manitoba and the Adjoining Territories of Canada." 
Professor G. Frederick White of Oberlin College, Ohio, followed 
with a paper on " Terminal Moraine in Ontario ; " Professor W. J. 
McGee of Washington, one on the '* Southern Extension of the 
Appomattox Formation ; " and Professor Charles D. Walcott of 
Washington defined the value of the term " Hudson River Group " 
in geologic nomenclature. 

At the concluding sessions on Dec. 28 the number of speakers 
was so large that a general curtailment was necessary, and papers 
were withdrawn by the following members : Joseph P. Iddings and 
George H. Eldridge, Washington, D.C. ; C. R. Van Hise, Madi- 
son, Wis. ; Frank L. Nason, New Brunswick, N.J. ; W. O. Crosby ; 
Professor J. E. Wolff of Harvard University;* Professor J. F. 
Kemp, Cornell University ; F. J. H. Merrill, New York ; H. M. 
Crump, Persifor Frazer, E. D. Cope, Philadelphia ; and Peter Mc- 
Kcllar, Ontario. 

The paper which provoked the most discussion was read by Pro- 
fessor Alexander Winchell of Michigan University, Ann Arbor, the 
title of which was " Some Results of Archaean Studies." Those 
who took part in the discussion were Professor C.H. Hitchcock of 
Dartmouth, Professor Emerson of Amherst, Professor A. C. Law- 
son of Ottawa, Canada, and Professor C. R. Van Hise of Madison, 

The first paper of the day was read by Professor H. S. Williams 
of Cornell, who set forth a new method of illustrating the relation 
of the history of different regions by graphic representation of the 
oscillation of sediments, and urged the study of fauna to bring out 
the relation of local fauna to their ancestors. 

Professor G. H. Williams of Johns Hopkins University exhibited, 
and described some specimens highly metamorphosed, but still 
containing fossils, collected in Norway. C. D. White of Washing- 
ton claims to have found fossils showing rock on .Martha's Vine- 
yard to be middle cretaceous in place of middle tertiary, as sup- 
posed. J. S. Diller of Washington projected upon the screen pho- 
tographs of dikes in California. In some cases the dikes were five 
feet wide and twenty feet high. Professor A. S. Richmond then 
projected some Alaskan views, and a diagram of the buildings that 
would be erected on the museum ground for the world's fair of 

Professor C. H. Hitchcock of Dartmouth read an interesting pa- 
per on " Granitoid Oval Areas in the Laurentian," and Professor 
B. K. Emerson of Amherst spoke on " Porphyritic Granite." 
Professor A. C. Lawson of Ottawa read a paper on the " Archaean 
of Central Canada." Then followed papers by Professor Warren 
Upham, President James Hall, and F. J. H. Merrill. 

The next meeting of the society will be in Indianapolis, Ind., 
August, 1890. 


Scientific Papers of Asa Gray, Selected by Charles Sprague 
Sargent. 3 vols. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin. 
& Co. 8*^. $3 per vol. 

The general public will, we are sure, be much surprised to learn 
that Professor Gray was so voluminous a writer as these volumes 
show him to be. Indeed, Mr. Sargent, in his introduction, states 
that his contributions to science were so numerous and varied as to 
astonish those of his associates who were most familiar with his 
intellectual activity, his various attainments, and that surprising 
industry which neither assured position, the weariness of advancing 
years, nor the hopelessness of the task he had imposed upon him- 
self, ever diminished. His first scientific paper was published in 
1834, and his last was written in 1887, but a few weeks before his 
death. During this half-century it may truly be said that his pen 
was never idle. In the selection of Professor Gray's writings for 
republication, Mr. Sargent omits those contributions which are de- 
voted to descriptive botany, and many of which form the best text- 
books in the English language ; nor does he attempt to reproduce 
the philosophical essays which grew out of the discussion of the 

Darwinian theory. Reviews, biographical notices, and a few es- 
says upon subjects of general interest to botanists, all of which 
have long been out of print, form the greater part of the volumes 
before us. It was doubtless a most difficut task to select from so 
much material that which was most desirable to publish. More 
than eleven hundred bibliographical notices and reviews, all of them 
from the hand of such a critic as Asa Gray, must indeed have been 
an embarras de richesses, Mr. Sargent's plan has been to present in 
his selection, as far as possible, a history of the growth of botanical 
science during a period which has been marked by the gradual 
change of ideas among naturalists upon the origin and fixity of the 
species which has broadened the field of all biological investiga- 
tion, by the establishment and systematic arrangement of vast her- 
baria gathered from all parts of the world, by the introduction of 
improved and more philosophical methods of investigation in the 
laboratory, and by the growth of popular appreciation for the value 
of scientific training. The task which Mr. Sargent set out for him- 
self was a most arduous one ; but so well has he performed it, that 
the whole scientific world has been made his debtor. The future 
reputation of Asa Gray will be enhanced by the presentation of his 
writings ; and the editor of them will always have the satisfaction 
of knowing that he has in no inconsiderable degree assisted in pre- 
serving the lustre of the name of Asa Gray. 


Ok Saturday, Feb. i, 1890, the Illustrated American Publish- 
ing Company (New York) will issue the first number of a weekly 
news magazine, which, it is claimed, will " rival the most artistic pe-. 
riodicals of England, France, and Germany, and surpass those 
produced in this country." The illustrations will be the picturesque 
chronicling of contemporaneous history. A colored supplement 
will be the most conspicuous feature of every number. It will be 
a facsimile, in color, of the masterpiece of some celebrated painter, 
in the preparation of which the discoveries in the art of reproduc- 
tion will be employed. The Illustrated American is designed for 
the home. It will be unsectarian, and free from political discussions 
and heavy debates. The serial novel and short stories will be 
illustrated, and other matter will be selected to afford amusement, 
entertainment, and valuable information. 

— St, Nicholas for January is a second Christmas number. 
Walter Camp's foot-ball paper deals with the great games at the 
Polo Grounds, and is re-enforced by a study of ** The Drop -Kick," 
contributed by Yale's famous expert, W. T. Bull, whose kicks won 
Yale a championship. A story of New-Mexican life, by Charles 
F. Lummis, gives the legend of the now inaccessible " Enchanted 
Mesa," upon which, tradition says, there is a deserted village just 
as it was left hundreds of years ago. A photograph of the mesa 
from nature is one of the illustrations. 

— Messrs. Macmillan & Co. will shortly publish the first part of 
Professor Elmer's work on " Organic Evolution as the Result of 
the Inheritance of Acquired Characters according to the 'Laws of 
Organic Growth," translated .by J. T. Cunningham, M.A., 
F.R.S.E,, late fellow of University College, Oxford, England. 

— After Mr. Gladstone, Pope Leo XIII. is the most vigorous 
man of his age of the day, says Edward W. Bok, in the January 
Ladies Home Journal, The routine of his work would kill an 
ordinary man. There is no detail too small for him to pass over ; 
and from daybreak until after midnight he devotes his time to the 
church and literature. Those who surround him know when he is 
particularly tired or worn out, for then he takes down a volume of 
Dante, and reads with the avidity of a school-girl enjoying her first 
novel. Of all the authors, Dante is the Pope's favorite, and it has 
been remarked that in physique he is not unlike the accepted idea 
of that great Italian. He reads Dante for pleasure ; but, for keep- 
ing himself well informed on all that is happening out of the church 
as well as in it, he reads not only American books, but newspapers 
and magazines ; and it may surprise American readers to know 
that he is well informed on all the topics of the day. political, re- 
ligious, and social. He has taken a deep interest in the cause of 
labor in the United States, and reads every thing bearing on that 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 361 

subject which comes to hand. Once a week a well- selected bundle 
of American newspapers is sent to the Vatican ; and the Pope and 
those that surround him know not only what is going on in the 
United States, but they are familiar with the calibre and character 
of the men who make laws and enforce them. It is so in England 
also. In addition to bis correspondence in the British Empire, he 
follows with eager interest the reports in the various newspapers, 
not only of the doings of Parliament, but of royalty as well, the 
progress of the church, and the cause of labor. Much the same 
plan is followed in Germany ; in fact, from every comer of the 
world each week is sent to the Holy Father newspapers, books, 
and magazines containing important discussions. A great many 
of these are filed away for future reference. The books that in- 
terest Leo the most are those of a religious, political, and philosoph- 
ical nature. He cares nothing for fiction, and rardy spends an 
hour in glancing at novels ; but if he should like to read novels, or, 
in fact, books of any kind, he has only to walk into the magnificent 
library attached to the Vatican, for there is not a mail arriving in 
Rome that does not bring books of all sorts of types from all sorts 
of authors and publishers. A great many of these the Pope never 
sees, and many of them are sent to the cardinals who surround him 
for an opinion of their merits or demerits. But it may be said, 
taking it all in all, that the Pope has as wide a field to select from 
as, if not wider than, any man in Europe ; and he resembles Mr. 
Gladstone in this, that he is quite willing to spend an hour or more 
with a magazine or book, if in the end he can find something that 
is worth remembering. He has a wonderful memory, and, although 
his eyes are dimmed and his hand trembles, he is still as vigorous 
mentally as he was when he was elected to succeed Pius IX. 

— Part V. of the "New English Dictionary," edited by Dr. 
Murray, has just appeared from the Clarendon Press. It com- 
prises the words from " cast " to " clivy," and contains, in all, 8,371 
words, of which 5,966 are " main words." It comprises all the 
words begiuning with ck, which, as the editor remarks, " contains 
more words than y, k, or ^, and more than x^y^ and z put to- 
gether." Many of the words here dealt with have an interesting 
form-history, which is treated with the same fulness and accuracy 
that have characterized all previous work of the kind in this dic- 
tionary. The verb " cast " fills five pages, — the largest space re- 
quired by any word yet reached ; and the other strong verbs, of 
which the present instalment contains quite a number, are treated 
with similar fulness. The scientific terms comprise the important 
groups beginning with " cerebro-," " chalco-," " chiro-," " chloro-," 
together with many others. One of the most interesting features 
of this part of the dictionary is the large group of words relating 
to the Christian church, including " Christ " and its derivatives, 
*' church," " catholic," " clergy," " cherub," and many more, all of 
which are treated with gn^^at fulness of detail and wealth of illus- 
tration. It is somewhat singular that the origin of " church '' is 
still uncertain, the derivation from Greek, Kvpiai^, meaning " of 
the Lord," which the editors adopt, being admittedly uncertain. 
The system of spelling and pronunciatiou adopted in the diction- 
ary, though not always such as we should prefer, is in the nuun 
judicious, and remarkably free from hobbies. To criticise such a 
work as this would require almost as great a combination of talents 
and information as has been employed in its preparation, while to 
praise it is superfluous ; and we will therefore commend it anew 
to our readers without further comment. 

— The January Magazine of American History opens its 
twenty-third volume. A portrait of William CuUen Bryant forms 
the frontispiece, and a paper by the editor treats of his place in 
American history. " A Rare Picture of Early New York," painted 
on the panel of an old Dutch war-vessel, a view never before pub- 
lished, is a contribution from the collector Dr. Thomas Addis Em- 
met. " Uncle Tom's Cabin and Mrs. Stowe," an extract from the 
new work of Mrs. McCray, is entertaining, and is also illustrated ; 
then from Hon. J. O. Dykman there is a sketch of " St. Anthony's 
Face " on the Hudson, with a picture of that piece of natural sculp- 
ture. Of interest for every thoughtful reader is the study, by Hon. 
Gerry W. Hazleton of Milwaukee, entitled "Federal and Anti- 
Federal ; " next following, Hon. James W. Gerard shows, in the 
longest paper of the number, " The Impress of Nationalities upon 

the City of New York." A paper, " Ralph Izard, the South Caro- 
lina Statesman," comes from fhe pen of Dr. Manig^ult of Charles- 
ton, which, with " American Republics — Their Differences," by 
George W. Pavey, completes the group of contributions. 

— The January issue of The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 
published for Harvard University, will contain articles by Professor 
Hart of Harvard, on American cities, discussing their rise, the 
causes of their growth, their population, the foreign element ; by 
Professor Hadley of Yale, on the effects of the prohibition of pools 
by the Interstate Commerce Act ; by Professor Giddings of Bryo 
Mawr, on the theory of interest, a solid contribution to economic 
theory ; by E. Cummings, describing the exhibition on social sub- 
jects at the Paris Universal Exposition ; and by A. de Foville of 
Paris, on the economic movement in France, the revival of the pro- 
tectionist feeling, and the legislation on railroads. In addition, 
there will be varied notes and memoranda, and the usual bibliog- 
raphy of recent economic publications. 

— £. & F. N. Spon have just issued a third edition of '* Brown's 
Manual of Assaying Gold, Silver, Copper, and Lead Ores," by 
Walter Lee Brown, B.Sc., thoroughly revised and corrected. This 
manual is a i2mo of 488 pages, with 94 illustrations, colored plate, 
and flexible covers. It is devoted to the assaying of the ores of 
the four metals mentioned, but principally to those of gold and sQ- 
ver. Every step is clearly defined, from the crushing of the rough 
ore to the weighing of the final particle of gold obtained. The 
important features of this, as compared with the first edition, are> 
increase in matter and illustrations ; the expansion of the crucible 
process to almost ninety pages : full charges in the scorificatkm 
process ; detailed notes on the colors of scorifiers (with a colored 
plate) and cupels, after work ; the stating of all charges in assay 
tons, grams, and grains ; and more complete articles on the assay 
of gold and silver bullion, and volumetric analysis of copper ores. 
The book is a practical treatise, free from technicality, and as such 
will be of value to every one interested in mining or assaying, 
whether an expert or an investigator. 

— We have received from C. W. Bardeen of Syracuse, N.Y., a 
series of " Papers on School Issues of the Day," Nos. I.-VII. They 
were originally read at the meeting of the National Educational 
Association at Nashville, Tenn., last July, and contain much inter- 
esting matter. The largest of the pamphlets, and the one most 
likely to attract attention, is that on " Denominational Schools,'^ 
being a discussion by Cardinal Gibbons and Bishop Keane of the 
Roman Catholic Church on the one side, and Edwtn D. Mead and 
John Jay on the other. The ablest part of the discussion, in our opin- 
ion, is the essay by Mr. Mead, who has evidently given the subject a 
good deal of thought and study ; but the Roman Catholic view of 
the subject was ably presented by Bishop Keane, and there are 
many points of interest in Mr. Jay's paper. All persons interested 
in the subject should read this pamphlet. The two next of the pa- 
pers before us are by William T. Harris, on " The Educational 
Value of Manual Training," and on " Art Education the True 
Industrial Education." The former is the report of a conunittee 
appointed at a previous meeting of the Educational Association, 
of which Mr. Harris was chairman. It deals but little with the 
economic aspects of manual training, and treats of its educational 
or disciplinary value only, which it deems of a low order. The 
paper on " Art Education " is the work of Mr. Harris himself, and 
insists on the importance of artistic training of a high order, even 
for industrial purposes. The paper on " Methods of Instruction 
and Courses of Study in Normal Schools," by Thomas J. Gray, is 
largely technical, and therefore of less general interest than some of 
the others ; but it was highly commended by those who listened to 
it. B. A. Hinsdale discussed the subject of '* Pedagogical Chairs 
in Colleges and Universities," maintaining the importance of such 
chairs and their appropriateness in such institutions. The last 
of our pamphlets is by Charles Foster Smith, on " Honorary De- 
grees as conferred in American Colleges." The author shows that 
such degrees are now conferred without regard to merit or achieve- 
ment, and rightly holds this to be a pernicious practice ; but he has 
little that is new to suggest in the way of remedy. All these papers 
give evidence of the recent awakening of thought in this country 
on educational themes. 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 



— "Beneath Two Flags," by Maud B. Booth, just published by 
Funk & Wagnalls, New York, is partly an explanation, and partly 
a vindication, of the Salvation Army. The author is the wife of 
Marshal Booth, who is the son of Gen. William Booth, founder and 
leader of the whole movement. 

— The Sidereal Messenger is devoted wholly to astronomy, and 
is issued monthly except for July and August. It is announced 
that it will hereafter contain articles in each number from" some 
of the best American and English astronomers, with expensive 
illustrations when desirable or necessary." Most of these articles 
will be in popular language, and adapted to the wants of scholars 
in other lines of scientific research. The article in the December, 
1889, number by Professor Asaph Hall, United States Naval Ob- 
servatory, Washington, D.C., entitled " The Resisting Medium in 

Space," though necessarily somewhat mathematical in form, is ai> 
admirable presentation of the present state of knowledge on this- 
important theme. The feature of " Current Celestial Phenomena"" 
will be " kept full, timely, and interesting." The addition of " As- 
tronomical Bibliography " will be " a feature that all scholars wilb 
prize." " The Astronomical News and Notes " will be in the fu- 
ture " more varied and general, aiming to give as complete a his- 
tory of astronomical work and progress as can be secured fronts 
month to month." The attention^ of all interested in astronomical 
science is called to this publication as adapted to the wants of (i> 
those who are teachers or students of astronomy ; (2) those in 
charge of astronomical observatories ; (3) those in charge of read- 
ing-rooms, and of all public and private libraries. It is published 
by William W. Payne, Carleton College Observatory, Northfield^ 



— ON— 

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of Speech — Phonetics — Line 
Writing — World - English, 



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ErtSY one has heard of the butcher who, after a long 
search f<Hr his knife, at last found it in his mouth : so 
speakers of English have been seeking for a universal 
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mist of letters. This is now dispersed by A. Melville 
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which cannot fail to meet with acceptance, and at once 
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IsT. X>. O. ^OIDO-ES, 4T Laf a.;5re1j1je IPlaoe, IS^ght^ '^chc*2sz>^ 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 361 


^m*Corr*t^ndtnts art requuied to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is 
in ail cases required as proof o/ good faith. 

The editor will be giad to publish any queries consonant with the character of 
the JournaL 

On request^ twenty copies of the number containing his communication will be 
furnished free to any correspondent. 

Unconscious Bias in Walking. 

The question is again raised as to tiie cause of the deviations 
from a right line in walking with the eyes closed, or in the dark, in 
the letter to the editor with the caption " Is Man Left- Legged " 
{Science, xiv. p. 412). Several theories have been advanced to ac- 
count for the frequently observed phenomena referred to, which 
may be briefly stated as follows : — 

1. The l^s are not of equal strength, and the strongest outwalks 
the other, making a curve to the opposite side. 

2. The relative dexterity with which the legs are used ; some 
persons being right-legged, and others left-legged, regardless of 
strength or' length. It is probable, however, that there will be the 
greatest dexterity with the strongest limb ; and, if so, this is only 
another form of the first theory. 

3. The legs are not of equal length, and a person will take the 
longest step with the longest leg. 

4. The legs are not of equal length, and a person will take the 
longest sit^from the longest leg. • 

In the last two theories, it will be observed, opposite conclusions 
are reached from the same assumed facts. 

Several years ago I made a careful series of experiments with 
forty-nine young men to test the correctness of these theories. Their 
l^s were accurately measured to determine the length, and a dy- 
namometer was used to ascertain the relative strength. The curves 
representing their bias in walking when blindfolded were accu- 
rately traced and plotted on a diagram, so that they could be 
readily compared and studied. 

The results of these experiments (published in Nature, July 30, 
1885) were as follows : Of five cases in which there was no bias, in 
two the right leg was longest (in one of these the right leg was 
strongest, and in one the strength of the legs was not tested), — one 
presented the greatest difference in length of legs, and the other 
more than the| average of those with right leg longest, — and in 
three the legs were of equal length (in one of these the right leg 
was strongest, and in two the left leg was strongest (a)). Four 
were right-handed : one used right and left with equal dexterity (a). 
In pointing at a distant object with both eyes open, in three the 
right eye was dominant, in one the left eye was dominant, and in 
one both eyes were apparently used to determine the range. Of 
fourteen cases in which the bias was to the right, in five the right 
leg was longest (in two the right leg was strongest, in two the left 
1^ was strongest, and in one the strength of the legs was not 
tested), in four the left leg was longest (in three the right leg was 
strongest {a), and in one the left leg was strongest), and in five the 
l^s were of equal length (in two the right leg was strongest {a), 
and in three the left l^was strongest). All were right-handed. 
In pointing at a distant object with both eyes open, in twelve the 
right eye was dominant, and in two the left eye was dominant, the 
latter in the groups marked (a). Of thirty cases in which the bias 
was to the left, in eight the right leg was longest (in five the right 
1^ was strongest (a) (d), in two the left leg was strongest, and in 
one the legs were of equal strength), in ten the left leg was longest 
(in five the right leg^was strongest (b), in four the left leg was 
strongest {b), and in one the legs were of equal strength), and in 
twelve the legs were of equal length (in five the right leg was 
strongest, in five the left leg was strongest (b), and in two the 
strength of the legs was not tested). One was left-handed (a), 
twenty-five were right-handed, four used right and left with nearly 
equal dexterity {b). In pointing with the finger at a distant object 
with both eyes open, in twenty-two the right eye was dominant, in 
six the left eye was dominant, and in two both eyes were appar- 
ently used to determine the range. 

From the facts here presented, it is evident that the relative 
length or strength of the legs cannot be assigned as the cause of 

the observed bias in walking. The phenomena in question can, 
however, be readily explained by the application of well-established 
physiological principles. 

When walking in a straight line, the muscles of locomotion are 
made to act in orderly correlation through impressions received by 
the senses and conveyed to the nervous centres, and thence trans- 
mitted to the muscles by the motor nerves. 

When a person is blindfolded, or in the dark, or in a mist, the 
senses cannot serve as guides to direction, and the muscles of the 
two sides of the body may not act with the same energy, from dif- 
ferences in nutrition, or from lack of co-ordinating impulses from 
the nervous centres ; that is to say, an exact equilibrium in the 
muscular activity of the two sides of the body can only be secured 
through the co-ordinating influence of the senses acting through 
the nervous system. When this directive agency is not available, a 
divergence from a direct course will, in most cases, follow from a 
lack of bilateral symmetry in the functional activity of the muscles. 

Manly Miles. 

Luuing, Mich., Dec. a6. 

The Influence of Baking-Powder Residues on Digestion. 

There has always been more or less discussion over the ques- 
tion of what a pure baking-powder should consist, and which of 
the constituents of many kinds of baking-powders are most delete- 
rious to the human system. 

The manufacturers of different brands of powders obtain in- 
dorsements from eminent chemists that theirs is the only powder 
on the market which does not exert a harmful effect when taken 
every day in our food. 

What one manufacturer calls an adulteration another claims is 
beneficial to the health, when taken in small quantities. This is 
especially true in the case of the animated discussion in the news- 
papers at the present time between the manufacturers of the vari- 
ous phosphate baking-powders and those who produce a powder 
made of bicarbonate of soda and cream-of-tartar. 

The manufacturers of the latter brands advertise that theirs 
does not contain any calcium phosphate, and look upon this com- 
pound as an adulterant ; while the firms interested in the sale of 
the former brands laud the use of phosphates in food, at the same 
time claiming that the bicarbonate of soda and cream-of-tartar form, 
after baking, a residue of Rochelle salts, the constant introduction 
of which daily into the stomach would prove very deleterious to 
the action of the gastric juice. 

While these claims are made by the different manufacturers 
merely for the purpose of selling their own goods, and conse- 
quently the harmfulness of their rivals* products greatly overdrawn, 
yet in a measure the claims of both are true. 

That all baking-powders have, to a greater or less degree, a re- 
tarding action on digestion by reason of the difficultly soluble salts 
left as residues after the process of baking, no one doubts ; but 
now the question arises, ** Which of the constituents used in the 
manufacture of baking-powders have the least injurious effects ? " 

In order to learn what were the most common adulterants of 
baking-powders, the writer made a tour of many grocery-stores in 
the city of New Haven, and was enabled to purchase thirteen dif- 
ferent brands. In all cases it was found that the cheaper brands, 
and those offering inducements to [the poorer classes by reason of 
their gifts of household articles, etc., with the purchase of their 
powders, were adulterated to by far the greatest extent. 

The adulterations in some of these cases were not of a harmful 
character in themselves; e.g., starch was used in a very liberal 
quantity on account of its being so much cheaper than bicarbonate 
of soda and cream-of-tartar. 

The only ill effect produced by the use of starch is, fhat, the 
strength of the powder being lessened so much by the absence of 
the proper amount of bicarbonate of soda, the housekeeper is forced 
to use a great quantity of the powder in order to cause the libera- 
tion of carbonic-acid gas necessary for the lightness of the bread 
or pastry. Thus the stoAiach gets a greater dose of impurities, 
which generally occur in a powder adulterated with starch, tharf it 
would from a powder not containing the latter ingredient. 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 



Of the thirteen brands of powder examined, eight contained 
large quantities of alum ; and two more, traces. Six contained 
calcium phosphate ; two of which, however, were labelled " phos- 
phate powders," but in the other cases it was used as an adultera- 

One of the phosphate powders contained a great quantity of 
alum, although it claimed to be free from it. All contained more 
or less starch, but the better brands use only a very small 
quantity of it, for the purpose, they claim, of keeping the powder 
from being decomposed by the moisture. Terra alba, or •• white 
earth," was found as a common adulterant of the cheaper powders ; 
and, while it is claimed that it is so insoluble that it passes through 
the body unchanged, yet, accepting that, the same thing may be 
said of it as has been said of the use of a large quantity of starch ; 
viz., that a larger amount of the powder must be used to produce 
the required porosity in the bread, thus increasing the amount of 

It was the object of this investigation not only to find out the in- 
fluence the residues of impure baking-powders have on digestion, 
but also to find out to what extent, if any, the residues of the 
purest made powders retard the digestive action of the gastric 

R^arding the use of alum as an adulterant. Dr. MalMt of the 
University of Virginia has just made a careful investigation, and 
finds that its use is very harmful, as it does not retain its form as 
a sulphate, but, on being subjected to the process of baking, as- 
sumes the highly insoluble form of aluminium hydroxide. 

By quantitative work with this latter compound, and also by 
means of taking a large dose of it after a hearty meal and noting 
the result, he has found that digestion is impaired, and proves that 
this result is due to the fact that the aluminium unites with the 
acid of the gastric juice, thus depreciating the effectiveness of the 
latter secretion ; also that part of the organic matter of the food is 
precipitated in an insoluble form by the presence of the aluminium 

Accepting, then, this well-proved and universal belief that alum 
is deleterious to the human system, a senes of experiments were 
begun to find out what other salts used in the preparation of bak- 
ing-powders exert a harmful effect on the digestive process. 

For these experiments, an artificial gastric juice was prepared 
by dissolving .05 of a gr^^m of scale pepsin in a solution of 4 of one 
per cent hydrochloric acid. 

In the first series, egg-albumen was taken as the material to be 
digested, after freeing it from globulin by precipitating the latter 
with a few drops of hydrochloric acid. 

The first experiment was undertaken to determine what effect 
the purest made baking-powder has on digestion ; the one which 
stood the best tests in the previous analysis being chosen, as it 
contained only the bicarbonate of soda and pure cream-of-tartar. 

Three digestions were carried on at the same time and under the 
same conditions. The first was the control or normal digestion, 
in which 10 cubic centimetres of albumen, 40 of distilled water, 
and 50 of the artificial gastric juice, were used. In the second 

1 gram of the baking-powder was heated with the 40 cubic centi- 
metres of water for a short time at a temperature of 100** C, to 
give it the same conditions it would have in baking bread ; then 
the starchy residue was filtered off, and the same amounts of gas- 
tric juice and albumen added as were used in the control. The 
third was treated in the same manner as the second, except that 

2 grams of the baking-powder were used. 

The three digestions were then carried on in a 40® C. water-bath, 
thus giving the digestion normal temperature. 

After stirring well at different periods, the digestions were 
stopped, after five hours had elapsed, by raising their temperature 
above 70^ C, and killing the ferment. All were neutralized with 
a dilute solution of sodium carbonate, filtered through a weighed 
filter, washed well with hot water, and, after drying in an oven, the 
precipitate was weighed. 

If none of the albumen had been digested in any case, the pre- 
cipitate should weigh i gram, for 10 cubic centimetres of tgg- 
albamen yield (with slight variations) i gram. The following fig- 
ure, however, representing the weight of the precipitates, show 
how izx digestion had proceeded in each case : No. i, or control, 

.3065'; No. 2, I gram of powder, .6495 ; No. 3, 2 grams of powder, 
.7570 : in other words, the amounts digested in grams would be, 
No. I, .6935. or 100 per cent ; No. 2, .3505, or 50J per cent ; No. 3, 
.2324, or 33i per cent. 

Regarding the normal amount digested as 100 per cent, the 
amounts digested in the other cases are thus deduced. 

While the inhibitory action of this residue seems to be very great 
on studying these figures, it must be remembered that only a 
small amount of albumen was used in comparison with the amount 
of baking-powder ; but these results only go to show that even the 
" purest " baking-powder retards digestion in a measure. 

To avoid the trouble with the starchy sediment that occurs with 
the baking-powder, a second series of experiments was under- 
taken with different amounts of the pure Rochelle salts, which is 
the residue formed by the action of cream-of- tartar on bicarbonate 
of soda in baking. The same amount and strength of gastric juice 
were used in this series as in the first, and also the same amount 
of albumen. The following table shows the result obtained after 
digestion had proceeded seventeen hours : — 

Grams of Salt 

Weight of 

Grams digested. 

Per Cent 

No. I 





No. a 





No 3 





No. 4 





No. 5 





Three other series were carried through to verify the result ob- 
tained in this experiment, and the amount digested in any case was 
found to be fairly constant with the amount of salt used. 

A series of digestions was then carried on with the use of am- 
monium alum to show what effect this salt has on digestion in its 
unchanged form of a sulphate, and it is interesting to note that its 
inhibitory action is not very much greater than the Rochelle salts. 

The following table shows the result obtained after digestion had 
been carried on five hours : — 

Grams of Salt 

Weight of 

Grams digested. 

Per Cent 



No. I 





No. 2 





No. 3 





No. 4 





The next residue experimented with was the one which is left in 
the cooked food when a baking-powder adulterated with calcium 
phosphate and alum, or an ordinary phosphatic powder containing 
alum, is used ; i.e., aluminium phosphate. 

The results obtained in this series, when compared with those of 
the Rochelle salts, or even with the alum, show a greater inhibi- 
tory power than either, and go to show that the occurrence of 
alum and calcium phosphate in the same powder forms a residue 
which greatly retards digestion. 

The results after digestion 'had been carried on fifteen hours 
were as follows : — 

Grams of Salt 

Weight of 

Grams digested. 

Per Cent 

No.x ■ 
No. 2 
No. 3 





85. t 

In order to obtain a correct comparison between the inhibitory 
effects of a baking-powder made from- bicarbonate of soda and 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. Na 361 

<ream-of-tartar, and one made by substituting calcium acid phos- 
phate for the crcam-of-tartar, two different amounts of Rochelle 
-salts and calcium acid phosphate were used, and each subjected to 
"the same conditions. 

The difference in the retarding action of these residues is easily 
■seen from the following table (digestion carried on five hours) : — 

Grams of Salt 

Weight of 


Per Ont 





No. I 





No. 2 

O.S (Rochelle) 




No. 3 

i.o (Rochelle) 




No. 4 

o.5(CaH4 (PO4),) 




No. 5 

..o(CaH4 (POi),) 




The superiority of cream- of- tartar over calcium acid phosphate 
■as the acid principle of a baking-powder is shown very well in this 
last experiment ; and, although it is claimed that the latter form of 
powder furnishes the necessary phosphates for building up the 
bone-tissue of the body, yet this benefit is rather overbalanced* by 
the harm done by the retardation of the digestive process. 

In some cases where it was desirable to compare the effects of 
two baking-powders directly, or in cases where insoluble salts were 
•used, time digestions were resorted to, in order to avoid loss in 
neutralizing and filtering. 

For these experiments 20 grams of coagulated albumen, and 200 
•cubic centimetres of artificial gastric juice, were employed. 

The digestions were carried on in a 40® C. water- bath, stirred 
well, and observations made regarding the time of disappearance 
of the coagulated albumen in each digestion. 

In the first series, three amounts of a phosphate baking-powder 
•were used, and, as in previous experiments, a control free from 

Grams of Powder. 

Time (hours) to digest. 




No. 2 



No. 3 



No. 4. 



Having obtained the datum in a previous experiment that a 
phospate powder adulterated with alum had great retarding action 
on digestion, a comparison was made between a pure phosphate 

• powder and one known to contain alum ; and, although the di- 
: gestion was not carried on until all of the coagulated albumen had 

• disappeared, yet it was carried far enough to enable the observer to 

• make a good comparison. No. i contained no salt; No. 2, .5 of 
a gram of pure phosphate powder; No. 3, i gram; No. 4, 1.5 
gram^ ; No. 5, .5 of a gram of impure phosphate powder ; No. 6, 
I gram ; No. 7, 1.5 grams. 

The albumen in No. i was first to disappear, followed closely 
by No. 2, then a little later by No. 5 ; and so on, in every case the 
-one containing the pure phosphate powder digesting before the 
-one containing a similar amount of impure powder. 

Ammonium carbonate has been put down by some as inhibiting 
-digestion, but others claim that on baking it volatilizes and goes 
off as ammonia gas, leaving a harmless residue; but, in fact, only 
a small portion of the whole is driven off in this way, for the 
ammonia forms a compound of ammonium tartrate immediately on 
heating, and this latter salt is not easily decomposed by heat. 

To discover the relative inhibitory action of this residue on di- 
gestion, a series was made, using comparative amounts of alumin- 
ium phosphate, Rochelle salts, and ammonium tartrate. No. i 
contained no salt; No. 2, .5 of a gram of aluminium phosphate; 
No. 3, I gram ; No. 4, .5 of a gram of Rochelle salts ; No. 5, i 
gram ; No. 6, .5 of a gram of ammonium tartrate ; No. 7, i 

No. I was digested in about 45 hours, followed closely by No. 

6, and the remaining ones digested in the following order : Nos. 
4. 7, 5» 2, 3. 

As far as could be seen from this series, there is very little dif- 
ference in the inhibitory powers of the Rochelle salts and the 
ammonium tartrate ; and the latter cannot be considered, therefore, 
to be more harmful than the residue of a pure baking-powder. • 

As a summary of the facts brought out by this investigation, we 
find (i) that the residues of all baking-powders, no matter how 
pure may be their constituents, have a harmful effect on digestion, 
due, in all probability, primarily to the fact that the salts are acted 
upon by the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice with the forma- 
tion of more soluble compounds, and, secondarily, that these salts 
may form organic compounds with albuminous bodies in the 
same manner as many of the metals do ; (2) that calcium phosphate, 
on account of its great inhibitory action on digestion, must be re- 
garded as a poor agent for the manufacture of a baking-powder, 
while ammonium tartrate may be looked upon with more favor ; 
(3) that the presence of alum in a powder made with calciam 
phosphate greatly increases its retarding action ; (4) that the least 
harmful baking-ppwder is one containing only the bicarbonate of 
soda and cream- of-tartar, and that the presence of any other 
chemical substance, however harmless it may be in itself, tends 
only to increase the complexity of the residue and impair the ac- 
tivity of the gastric juice. R. Taylor Wheeler. 

Jersey City, N.J., Dec. 24. 

Resemblance of People. 

While in Chicago during the Republican convention of the 
summer of 1888, it occurred to me to make an estimate of the num- 
ber of people that must be taken, in order that there may be in gen- 
eral two persons who look enough alike for the resemblance to be 
noticed at fifst glance, taking account only of the features, and not 
of characteristics of voice, motion, etc., which of course help us 
very much to distinguish persons. 

Posting myself upon a street-comer so as to face the moving 
crowds of people, and throwing myself into as passive a conditkNi 
as possible, I gazed intently upon the passing faces. Out of 700 
persons tried, 29 brought to mind some acquaintaince. I esti- 
mated the number of available acquaintances at 5,000 at least, for 
among the number suggested some could scarcely be caUed ac- 
quaintances. This would indicate, that, among 120,000 people, 
one will likely be found to resemble any one person enough to be 
noticed at a glance; or among f^ 120,000, i.e., about 400 persons, two 
will probably be found to resemble enough tobe noticed at a glance. 
Of course, the result depends upon one's memory of faces and the 
ease with which faces are distinguished, and undoubtedly upon 
many other things. W. S. Franklin. 

Lawrence, Kan., Dec 23. 

A Remarkable Bowlder of Nephrite or Jade. 

The writer lately obtained in southern Oregon a bowlder of 
jade, which is the largest erratic mass of the mineral yet found on 
this continent. It was found among the auriferous gravel of a 
stream near a small mining hamlet by a gold prospector. Its 
color is of a mottled deep leek green, interspersed with veins of 
light g^een and yellow. It is turtle-back in form,.and weighs 47i 
pounds avoirdupois. To the eye it is semi-translucent, splintery, 
and fibrous in its structure ; but that it is remarkably compact and 
homogeneous in character, is attested by a blow, when it produces 
a clear metallic ring like bell- metal. The specific gravity of three 
sniall chips taken from different parts of the bowlder is 2.949, 3.01, 
3.04, the difference being probably due to the variance of magnetite 
in the pieces. The extremes correspond nearly with those given 
by Dr. Fischer (Nepkrit undjadeit, p. 54, Stuttgart, 1880) and by 
Clarke (Proceedings of the iJniied States National Museum^ p. 
1 16, 1888). This occurrence of nephrite bowlders among the river- 
gravel of our Western coast streams, in connection with Mr. G. M. 
Dawson's {Science, xi. p. 186), tends to confirm the belief that it was 
found by the native races of that coast in sufficient quantities from 
which to manufacture their various implements of jade. 

James Terry. 

New York, Dec. 30. 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 


A New Electrical Testiofi^-Set. 

The great prrogress made in the applications of the electric cur- 
rent to the service of man during the past few years has many 
times multiplied the demand for accurate instruments for electrical 
measurement. This, demand has been readily supplied by the" va- 
rious makers of such instruments, who have kept pace with the 
development in the electrical field in all directions. One result of 
this increased demand has been a striving, on the part of the in- 
strument-makers, to combine in one portable set all the various 
devices needed by the working electrician in making the tests 
called for at every stage of his work. The great economy in time, 
trouble, and expense of such a compact testing- set will readily be 
seen by all whose duty it may be to make electrical measure- 

A new testing-set of this kind has recently been brought out 
by the electrical supply house of £. S. Greeley & Co. of this city. 
It combines in one instrument a rheostat, bridge, galvanometer, 
double contact key, and a dry batter)' of five chloride-of-silver cells. 
The battery furnishes current enough to enable ordinary tests to be 
made up to a resistance of one megohm. The galvanometer- needle, 
which is of peculiar construction, is extremely sensitive, and will, 
tt is claimed, under ordinary circumstances, retain its sensitiveness 
many years. The pointer, which is made of aluminum, is long 
enough to show a clear reading with the slightest movement of the 

The apparatus may be placed for use in any position, regardless 
of the points of the compass, owing to the peculiar construction of 
the galvanometer, which may be readily revolved to the left or 
right for zero without altering the connections. In the bridge 
there are three coils on each side, with a resistance of ten, a hun- 
dred, and a thousand ohms respectively. There are four rows of 
resistance coils in the rheostat, with ten coils in each row, giving 
arange of measurement extending from jijf o\ an ohm to i.iii'ooo 
ohms. These instruments are all carefully adjusted in the labora- 
tory, out of reach of disturbing electrical influences. 

The battery, though contained in the same case, is entirely dis- 
tinct from the testing-set, so that any other battery may be sub- 
stituted when more convenient for workshop or laboratory use. It 

is provided with flexible selecting cords, so that any number of 
cells, from one to the whole battery, may be readily connected 


with or disconnected from the instrument. The set is neat, com- 
pact, and light, weighing only twelve pounds and a half. 


[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 

Addrm N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

Photographs and Stereoscopic views of Aborigines of 
any coantiy, and fine landscapes .etc., wan ted in exchange 
for mineiais and fossils. — L. L. Lewis, Copenhagen, 
New York. . >- 1^ » 

_ Dnmen's A/jfrmf/ntr Hittoricher Hand-atlas (Leip- 
zig, 1886,) for scientific books — tho»e published in the 
IntemtUional Scientific Series preferred.— James H. 
Stoller, Schenectady, N.V. 

AMnmomical works and reports wanted in exchange or 
to bay. Reports of observations on the planet Neptune 
and its satellite specially desired. — Edmund J. Sheri- 
daa, B.A,, 99s Adelphi St., Brooklyn. N. Y. 

I would like to correspond with any person having 
Tryon's '* Structural ana S3rstematic Conchology " to 
dispose of. I wish also to obtain State or U.S. .Reports 
<a Geology. Conchology, and Archaeology. I will ex- 
change classified specimens or pay cash. Also wanted a 
copy of MacFarlan'^'s " Geologists' Traveling Hand- Book 
W^ Geological Railway Guide." — D. E. Willard, Cura- 
tor of Museum, Albion Academy, Albion. Wis. 

Morris's ** British Butterflies," Morris's *' Nests and 
Eos of Bnttsh Birds." Bree's " Birds of Europe" (all 
cowred plates), and other natural history, in exchange 
for Shakiesperiana ; either books, pamphlets, engravings, 
or cuttings. — J. D. Bamett, Box 735, Stratford, Canada. 

I have Anodomta opaltna (Weatherby). and many 
<>iher species of shells from the noted Koshkonong Lake 
and vicinity, also from Western New York, and fossils 
from the Marcellus shale of New York, which I would be 
SJad to exchange for specimens of scientific value of any 
kind. 1 would also like to correspond with persons inter- 
ested in the collection, sale, or exchange of Indian relics.— 
D. E. Wfllard, .Albion Academy, Albion, WU. 

Win exchange " Princetun Review " for 1883, Hugh 
Miller's vorlcs on geology and other scientific works, for 
wck numbers of " The Auk," *' American Naturalist," 
or other scientific periodicals or books. Write.— J. M. 
^^ Chardon, Ohio. 

" I wish to exchange Lepidoptera with parties in the 
eastern and southern states. 1 will send western species 
•or those found in other localities. ''— P. C Truman, 
•olga, Brookings Co., Dakota. 

Shells and curiosities for marine shells, curiosities or 
minerals address W. F. Lerch, No. 308 East Fourth St., 
Davenport, Iowa. 

I want to correspond and exchange with a collector of 
beetles in Texas or Florida. — Wm. D. Richardson, 
P.O. Box 333, Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

, If you have a 

acute or leadlmr to ) 







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A Hew letbod of Treating Disease. 


What are they ? There is a new departure in 
the treatment of disease. It consists in the 
collection of the specifics used by noted special- 
ists of Europe and America, and bringing them 
within the reach of all. For instance, the treat- 
ment pursued by special physicians who treat 
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was obtained and prepared. The treatment of 
other physicians celebrated for curing catarrh 
was procured, and so on till these incomparable 
cures now include disease of the lungs, kidneys, 
female weakness, rheumatism and nervous de- 

This new method of ** one remedy for one 
disease " must appeal to the common sense of 
all sufferers, many of whom have experienced 
the ill effects, and thoroughly realize the ab- 
surdity of the claims of Patent Medicines which 
are guaranteed to cure every ill out of a single 
bottle, and the use of which, as statistics prove, 
has t uined more stomachs than alcohol. A cir- 
cular describing new remedies is sent free 
on receipt of stamp to pay postage by Hospital 
Remedy Company, Toronto, Canada, sole pro- 

{For Chemical Manufacturers,) Sold at 
For Blowpipe Analysis, >- Lowest Pncci 

For Technical Purposes ) By Weight. 
Most raried and complete stock of fine cabinet speci- 
mens in U. S. Recent additions include fine Fluorite, 
Calcite, Bante. Specular Iron, etc., from England : Ber- 
trandite, Phenacite, Descloizite, Brochantite, vanaainite. 
Copper Pseudomorphs after Azurite, etc., from U. S. 
Send for complete catalogue free. 

GEO. L. ENGLISH & CO., Dealen in Minerals. 
1513 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 361 


Biological Society, Washington. 

Dec. 28. — A. F. A. King. On the Flight of 
Young Birds ; M. B. Waite. On the Method 
by which the Seeds are projected in Pilea 
pumila; C. Hart Merrianr), A New Red- 
backed Mouse (Evotomys) from Colorado ; 
Theodore Holm, Generic Characters of Gra- 
mineae and Cypcraceae, taken from the Struc- 
ture of the Leaves. 

Natural Science Association, Staten 

Dec. 12.— Charles W. Leng, The Cara- 
bidae of Staten Island: The Lebiini and Allied 
Forms. The corresponding secretary read by 
title a paper by Mr. William T. Davis, upon 
the homestead graves of the island, which 
will be issued as a special number of the 
Proceedings. Mr. Jos. Thompson showed 
Cecropia cocoons which had been eaten by 
field-mice. Mr. Arthur Hollick showed 
specimens of wheat in which the grains had 
all sprouted while in the ear. The speci- 
mens were from stacks in a field on the Van- 
derbilt farm at New Dorp. The grain in all 
the stacks was in the same condition, due to 
the phenomenal wet season. 

Mineral Lands. 

post of Manganese is for sstle. Apply to H. 
N., care of Science ^ 47 Lafayette Place, New 

Any one wishing to engage in gold mining will 
learn of a newly discovered vein by applying to 
H N., care of Science, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

RED SLATE. — A valuable deposit of red 
slate for sale. Apply to H. N., care of Science^ 
47 Lafayette Place, New York. 


cured in stipulated time. 


Call or send stamp for circular and reference of those 
cured. We have on hand over 300 styles of trusses, from 
$x up, and suspensories of all kinds. Orders filled by 
mail or express to any part of the United States. 

C. A. M. BURNHAM, M.D., 
138 Clinton Place, New York. 

Catarrhal neafnesa— Hay Fever. 


Sufferers are not generally aware that these 
diseases are contagious, or that they are due to 
the presence of living parasites in the lining 
membrane of the nose and eustachian tubes. 
Microscopic research, however, has proved this 
to be a fact, and the result of this discovery is 
that a simple remedy has been formulated where- 
by catarrh, catarrhal deafness and hay fever are 
permanently cured in from one to three simple 
applications made at home by the patient once 
in two weeks. 

N.B. — This treatment is not a snuff or an 
ointment ; both have been discarded by repu- 
table phy>icians as injurious. A pamphlet ex- 
plaining this new treatment is sent free on 
receipt of stamp to pay postage, by A. H. Dix- 
on & Son. 337 and 339 West King Street. 
Toronto, Canada. — Christian Advocate, 

Sufferers from Catarrhal troubles should care- 
fully read the above. 

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Seat by mail prepaid for $1.50, $a.oo, and $3.50 
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These are special prices for the holidays, and this 
offer should be availed of by all who write. 


M^i^gr Statiotier, Steam Printer^ 

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Corresponding or visiting with Adver- 
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ing this paper. 








UFACTURP:S. Edited by 

Charles Edward Groves, F.R.C., 
and William Thorp, B.Sc. 

TOIi. I. NO\)r REABY. 


By E J. Mills, D.Sc, F.R.5., and 
F. J. Rowan, C.E., assisted by- 
others, including Mr. F. P. Dewey, 
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7 Plates and 607 other illustrations. 
Royal octavo pages sex + 802. Half- 

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The. Subject-Matter U LIFE— Life in aU iUforms^ 
plant ana animcU^ from the *^ lowest " to the ** kigk- 
Mt/' recent and extinct. The engravings and Utter- 
press are beautifully produced. 


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PoBt-free for twelve montlis for $1.25, prepaid. 


** Attractlye la form, beaatif ally printed, and rlf- 
orously written."— 2>^»patc^. 

*^ We expect It will iHHSonie one of oar meet Im- 
portant magaslnee."— Aoii/our Courier. 

" We predict a career for Life-Lore worthy of to 
high alnis and the ability It dlsplayB.**— CUuen. 

*'It la handsomely printed; the engrarlnn are weU 
executed, and the matter Is excellent."— ^tondord. 

** A model of what a popalar sclentlflc magaiine 
should be . . . gives signs of vigor and staying 
power."— Literary World. 

'^Exceedingly well got up. The letterpress and 
Illustrations are In the beet style of printer^ sod 
wood engraver's art."— Bo»*on Guardian. 

'^Bears evidence that It means to be sound, as the 
first number undoubtedly Is. . . We wish this con- 
scientious venture success."— Bocoar, Exchange A 

"A decided advance upon the too often unflcleo- 
tlfic popular journals of Its class. ... We bsvo 
nothing but praise for this conscientious attempt." 
—Staffordshire Advertiser. 

"Lite-Lore is the felicitous title of a new monttdy 
magazine of natural history which seems admirably 
calculated to fill up a gap In our serial literatuvi 
. . . . Replete with Int^lglble Instruction."- 
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**The first volume, which Is before us, contains 
excellent papers and Ulustrationa."— (Tropikic 

(* Whilst far eclipsing its one Bngllsh rival in the 
matter of beauty of type, illustration, and paper, and 
popularity of treatment, it Is marked editorially ty 
an unusually strong grip."— ^aysioater Chronidit. 

Readers of Science 

Corresponding with or visiting AdverHsers^ 
will confer a great favor by mentioning this paper. 

Digitized by 


January 3, 1890.] 





We will allow the above discount to any 
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We offer an Atlas of Sensible I«oiir €ost 

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No matter what styl9 of a house yon may Intend to 
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A My person seekimg a position for which he is quali- 
fied bf his scientific attainments^ or any person seeking 
some one to fill a position 0/ this character ^ be it that 
o/a teacher 0/ science^ chemist^ draughtsman^ or what 
not^ may have the * Want ' inserted under this head 
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UNITED STATES.— In view of the 
general impression that leprosy is spreading in 
this country, it is desirable, in the interest of 
the public health, to obtain accurate informa- 
tion on this point. The undersigned is engaged 
in collecting statistics of all cases of leprosy in 
the United States, and he would ask members 
of the profession to aid in this work by sending 
a report of any case or cases under their observa- 
tion, or coming within their knowledge. Please 
give location, age, sex. and nationality of the 
patient, and the form of the disease, — tuber- 
cular or anaesthetic ; also any facts bearing upon 
the question of contagion and heredity. Address 
Dr. Prince A. Morrow, 66 West 4oih Street, 
New York. 

WANTED. —The addresses of makers of 
small Dynamos suitable for a college 
laboratory. Address, T. S., Box 71, Gambier, 

A YOUNG MAN, unacquainted in this city, 
desires to get the address of a teacher in 
mechanical and architectural drawing. K. 
Paulsen, 185 8th St., South Brooklyn. 

GUAGES. — Wanted, a teacher to 
teach Mathematics and Modem Languages. 
Place must be filled before Jan. 8.— Carl A. Har- 
strom, Vineland Preparatory School, Peekskill, 

I WILL ASSIST in photographic or optical 
laboratory in return for experience and con- 
venience of perfecting original appliances. Ad- 
dress £. C. Owen, care of Gibson & Simpson, 
9} Adelaide Street East, Toronto, Canada. 

an engagement in mining, metallurgy^ 
calico-printing, and bleaching, or as research 
chemist in alkali manufacture. Address 
•* Alkali," care of Science. 

CHEMIST. —A young man of twenty- 
three, lately a special student of chemistry 
in the Scientific Department of Rutgers Col- 
lege, desires a position as assistant in some 
chemical works. Address, B. G. D., 526 Cherry 
St., Elizabeth. N.J. 

TEACHING. — A young man desires a posi- 
tion to teach the Natural Sciences, Botany 
in particular, in a High oi* Normal School or 
Institute. Can also teach first Latin and Ger- 
man. Best of references given. Address *' E," 
care of Science. 

KINS UNIVERSITY desires a position as 
teacher of physical science. Specialty, chem- 
istry, for which he refers to Prof. Remsen by 
permission. Address B. H. H., care of Science. 

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with a view to exchange. Many British land, 
fresh water, and marine duplicates ; some for- 
eign. Address Mrs. FALLOON, Long Ash ton 
Vicarage, Bristol, England. 

A young lady desires a position as a 
teacher of Natural Sciences, especially Chem- 
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leges, in the United States and Canada, who 
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ents of both degrees, literary and medical, are 
requested to forward their names at once to Dr. 

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A YOUNG MAN can have lucrative engage- 
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Princes St., Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Fellow of the Mass. Med. Society, Mem- 
ber of the Suffolk District Medical Society, and 
former Assistant Editor of The Annals of 
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Physiology and Hygiene. Address " N, '* 47 
Lafayette Place, N.Y. City. 

MECHANICIAN.— An optician and maker 
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Science, 47 Lafayette Place, New York. 

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science- teaching, physics, chemistry, and 
physiography desires an engagement, preferably 
m a high or a normal school. Is well known as 
an author of several popular text-books. Ad- 
dress X., care of Science. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 361 



T. W. Osborne ifrrote 179 -words in ono 
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the best memoir, in English, on one of the following sub- 
jects : I. On the Adaptive Resemblances of Plants in 
Different Natural Ordei-s. 2. On the Processes Involved 
in the Production of Soils. Memoirs must be handed to 
the Secretary before April 15th, 1890. Prizes will not be 
awarded unless the papers are deemed of adequate merit. 
For further particulars apply to 

J. WALTER FEWKES, Secretary. 

Boston, Mass., Dec. x8th, 1889. 

One Thousand Dollar Prize ! 

of ONE THOUSAND DOLLAftS for the best esBay, 
treatise, or manual, to aid teachers in our Public 
Schools in iustructing children in the purest prin- 
ciples of morality without inculcating religious doc- 
trines. For particulars apply to R. B. WESTBROOE, 

Philadblphia, Nov. 1889. 1707 Oxford St. 

Readers of Science 

Corresponding with or visiting Advertisers 
will confer a great favor by mentioning the paper. 


The sr^ater part of my fees may be paid on altov- 
ance of U. 8. applications undertaken before Marco 
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Seventh St., Washington, D.C. P.O. Box 880. For- 
merly Assistant Examiner in U.8, Patent Ofiee. 
Thirteen year s^ practice. 

Old and Rare Books, 

Catalogue No. 29 nearly ready. Will contain 
many scarce works pertaining to Natural His- 
tory, Americana, out of print books, as a whole, 

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Digitized by 



[Entered at the Post -Office of New York, N.Y., as Second-Class Matter.] 


Eighth Ybar. 
Vol. XV. No. 362. 



NEW YORK, January 10. 1890. 

Single Copies, Ten Cents. 
I3.50 Per Year, in Advance. 


The accompanying illustration shows a new design of fan 
driven direct by a vertical steam engine, making a compact and 
direct-acting piece of machinery. There is no question but that 
the direct attached engine affords far superior advantages in fan 
propulsion, there being no slipping or wearing of belts, the rate of 
speed being easily increased or diminished as occasion requires, 
perfect control of the fan as to starting and stopping instantly be- 

The engine shown is for either high or low pressure steam, and 
runs with very little friction, as it has balanced valves. It is made 
in sizes ranging from two to fifty horse- power where high-pressure 
steam is used. 

By reference to the engraving, it will be noted that while doing 
its work, the engine acts as a brace to the blower, the base of 
which is made of the best angle steel. The amount of bearing 
surface also deserves comment, being one of the engine's strong 
points, considering its compact build. In a one-hundred-inch fan 


ing secured. Where economy of space is an object this combina- 
tion possesses great advantages, as but little more room than that 
taken up by the fan itself is required, which is less than that used 
with a pnU^ and belt. In some makes of fans with direct attached 
engines the engine has been attached so as to leave no space be- 
tween it and the blower, but where perfectly noiseless action is im- 
perati?e, some space should be left. And when the fan is required 
for oonttnuoas use, the latter is the more satisfactory plan. 

the shaft is three inches and a quarter in diameter, and the bear- 
ings are fifteen inches and three-quarters long. 

There can hardly be a doubt that the great variety of uses to 
which blowers may be readily adapted was never realized in the 
earlier periods of their manufacture; but when one reviews the 
substantial growth each year in this one branch of the manufact- 
uring business alone, it is no marvel that neither pains nor expense 
are spared to produce patterns which in design, durability, and 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 362 

construction are abreast of the times, and fully satisfy the rapidly 
increasing demand for them. 

In order to be a complete success, a direct driven fan should 
possess high speed, ability to run continuously, and oft-times in the 
midst of considerable dust, without the engineer's attention at any 
regular time. These qualities seem to be fully secured in the fan 
shown, which is made by the Buffalo Forge Company of Buffalo, 


We are here to mark in a simple way, as befits its dignity, a 
rare event, which we hope and pray may prove not only the most 
important in the history of this favored city, but of forever grow- 
ing significance for our state and nation, for culture and humanity. 

Located, with gre^t forethought, in a city whose culture ensures 
that enlighted public sentiment so needful in maintaining the high- 
est possible academic standards ; in a city whose wealth and good 
will, we trust, are as fair a promise as can anywhere be given or 
asked of that perpetual increase of revenue now required by the 
rapid progress of science ; in a city central among the best colleges 
of the East, whose work we wish not only to supplement but to 
stimulate, whose higher interests we hope to ser\'e. and whose 
good will and active co-operation we invite ; governed by trustees 
of eminence in the nation as well as in the state, who ask no sec- 
tarian and no political questions of their appointees, whose influ- 
ence without and whose counsels within are of inestimable and 
well appreciated value ; consecrating ourselves to the toil of science 
at an hour so peculiarly critical and so opportune in the university 
development of the country, — I must believe that not only every 
intelligent inhabitant of Worcester, but every unbiased friend of 
higher education everywhere, will wish to add to our already un- 
expectedly large endowment of public and private good will at 
home and abroad, his and her hearty, ungrudging, and reiterated 

Just because, instead of the easy and wasteful task of repealing 
what is already well done about us, we strive to take the inevitable 
next step, and to be the first, if we can, upon the higher plane ; 
because we must study not only to utilize all available experience 
wherever we can, but to be wisely bold in innovations wherever we 
must ; because there will be indifference and misconception from 
friends who do not see all the importance of our work at first ; be- 
cause there are difiiculties inherent in the very nature of that work 
itself as great as the work is needed, — we must go slowly and 
surely, establishing but few departments at first, and when they 
are made the best possible, adding new and most related ones as 
fast as we can find the men and money to support them. We 
must prolong the formative period of foundation, and must each 
and every one realize well that we are just entering upon years of 
unremitting toil, in which patience and hope will be tempered with 
trial. But our cause is itself an inspiration, for it is in the current 
of all good tendencies in higher education ; and of the ultimate 
success ot what is this day begun, there is not a shadow of doubt 
or of fear. 

Our history begins more than twenty years ago, in the plans of 
a reticent and sagacious man, whose leave we cannot here await 
to speak of, who in affluence maintains the simple and regular 
mode of life inbred in the plain New England home of his boyhood, 
— plans that have steadily grown with his forture, and that have been 
followed and encouraged with an eager and growing interest, which 
extended to even minor items, by the devoted companion of his life. 
Besides a large fund already placed to our account, he has given 
his experience and unremitting daily care, worth to us large sums 
in economies, and resulting in well-appointed buildings, and a 
solidity of materials and a thoroughness of workmanship which I 
believe are without a parallel of their cost and kind in the country. 
Not only in the multifarious work of the university office, its methods 
of estimates, orders, book-keeping, of individual accountability for 
all books, apparatus, supplies, and furniture, but in the larger ques- 
tions of university polity without and effective administration with- 
in ; in the definition of duty for each officer, the strict subordina- 
tion and the concentration of authority and responsibility sure to 

* Address delivered by President G. Stanley Hall at the opening of Clark Univer- 
sity, Worcester, Mass., on Oct. 9, 1889. 

appeal to all who have the instinct of discipline, and which are ex- 
ceptionally needful where the life of science is to be so free, and 
the policy so independent ; in the express exemption, too, of all in- 
structors who can sustain the ardor of research from excessive 
teaching and examination, in the appointment of assistants in a 
way to keep each member of the staff at his best work and to avoid 
the too common and wasteful practice in American universities of 
letting four-thousand-dollar men do four- hundred-dollar work, in 
the ample equipment of each department, that no force be lost on 
inferior tools. — in all these and many other respects, the ideal of 
our founder has been to make everywhere an independent applica- 
tion of the simplest and severest but also the largest principles of 
business economy. 

As business absorbs more and more of the talent and energy of 
the world, its considerations more and more pervading if not sub- 
ordinating, whether for better or worse, not only the arts, the 
school, the press, but all departments of church and state, making 
peace and war. cities or deserts, so science is slowly pervading and 
profoundly modifying literature, philosophy, education, religion, 
and every domain of culture. Both at their best have dangers, and 
are severe schools of integrity. The directness, simplicity, cer- 
tainly, and absorption in work so characteristic of both, arc setting 
new fashions in manners, and even in morals, and bringing man 
into closer contact with the world as it is. Both are binding the 
universe together into new unities and imposing a discipline ever 
severer for body and mind. When their work, purified of deceit 
and error, is finished, the period of history we now call modem 
will be rounded to completeness, culture will have abandoned 
much useless luggage, the chasm between instruction and educa- 
tion will be less disastrous, and all the highest and most sacred of 
human ideals will not be lost or dimmed, but will become nearer 
and more real. 

When one who has graduated with highest honors from this 
rigorous school of business, after spending eight years of travel 
abroad studying the means by which knowledge and culture— the 
most precious riches of the race — are increased and transmitted, 
and finding no reason why our country, which so excels in busi- 
ness, should be content with the second best in science, devotes to 
its services not only his fortune at the end of his life, but also years 
yet full of exceptional and unabated energy, we see in such a fact 
not only the normal, complete, if you please, post-graduate ethical 
maturity of an individual business life, but also a type and promise 
of what wealth now seems likely to do for higher education in 
America. It is no marvel that our foundation has already been so 
often, so conspicuously, and so favorably noted in authoritative 
ways and places in an European land, where, if monarchy should 
yield to a republic, university culture could not penetrate its peo- 
ple as it now does. It is thus a more typical and vital product of 
the national life at its best than are foundations made by state or 
church in which to train their servants. In thus giving his fortune 
to a single highest end as sagaciously and actively as he has ac- 
quired it, may our founder find a new completeness of life in age, 
which Cicero did not know, and taste " all the joy that lies in a 
full self-sacrifice." 

The very word " science," especially when used in its relation to 
business, is too often degraded by cheap graduates who are just 
fit to look after established industrial processes, but are useless if 
competition finds or needs new and better ones ; who certify to 
analyses of commercial products that good chemists know are im- 
possible ; who, if international competition in manufactures were 
more free, would give place to better trained, perhaps German, ex- 
perts still faster than they are doing ; who in criminal, medical, 
and patent- law suits often have the address to carry judge and 
jury against far belter chemists, but who have no conception of 
the higher quality and more rigorous methods of their own sci- 
ence ; who make chemistry, physics, and geology mercenary, culi- 
nary, the servants instead of the masters of industrial progress 
and the very " life-springs of all the arU of peace or war." This 
evil, although so great and common that even the best men in 
other professions too rarely see the high ideal culture-power of real 
science, is yet only incidental and temporary. 

A good illustration of the high and normal technological value of 
pure science is at hand in dyeing, one of the most scientific among 

Digitized by 


January lo, 189a] 



the many and increasing chemical industries. England furnishes 
nearly ail the raw, formerly valueless, material for coal-tar colors, 
out of which Germany made most of the seventeen and a half mil- 
lion dollars' worth manufactured in 1880. England bought back 
a large fraction of the colored goods, and Germany made the 
profits, because she could furnish the best training in pure chem- 
istry. It is for this reason that she is driving other countries out 
of the field in other leading chemical industries. The great facto- 
ries there employ from two or three to more than a score each of 
good, and often the best, university-trained chemists, at large sala- 
ries, and the best of these spend a good part of their time in origi- 
nal research in the factory laboratories. The prospect of these 
lucrative careers has had very much to do in filling the chemical 
laboratories of the universities with hundreds of students, and the 
German government (best that of Prussia) has met the demand by 
erecting and equipping new and sometimes magnificent laborato- 
ries at nearly all of her universities. New artificial processes of 
making organic products of commerce have freed thousands of 
acres of land where they were formerly grown, and have made new 
industries and often impaired old ones. Many professors of chem- 
istry make large outside incomes. Nearly all are sanguine, some 
even declare, that before very long leading drugs, and even food, 
that will equal if not actually excel nature's products, will be made 
artificially. The leading professor in one of the largest chemical 
laboratories of Germany told me in substance that he no longer 
went after outside technical work, but now made it a virtue to wait 
for it to seek him ; and it has been strongly urged that even the 
government should take steps to prevent the migration of German 
chemists to the universities of other countries, lest Germany lose 
her pre-eminence in chemical industries. 

This remarkable contact of the marvellous new business-life and 
enei^ of Germany, particularly of North Germany (which in both 
suddenness and vigor equals any of the wonderful developments in 
this country), with staid and tranquil academic ways, has had 
some marked reverberations, and given new direction and impetus 
to other studies in some other departments where it is not directly 
felt. It has led to the erection and equipment by the government 
of great technological schools, and has shown to business men and 
employers that no course in the sciences which underlie tech- 
nology can be too advanced, prolonged, or severe to be practical. 
Where ought the value and significance of such a training be bet- 
ter appreciated than here in the land of Fulton, Morse, Bell, and 
Edison ? 

There are, however, eminent chemists in Germany, and many 
more in surrounding European countries, who deplore what they 
call the irruption of the technical* spirit into the universities. They 
fear the proximity of the factory and the patent office to the uni- 
versity laboratory has narrowed the field of view and made meth- 
ods of research relatively less severe ; they complain that in their 
teaching they must hasten over inorganic chemistry, neglecting all 
the other elements for the carbon compounds, and that there 
are almost no inorganic chemists in Germany; that in choosing 
between several substances inviting research, one of which prom- 
ises great commercial value and the other none, strict scientific im- 
partiality is lost ; that in the eagerness for practical results, prob- 
lems are attempted too complex for the present methods of experi- 
menters, who are trying to " eat soup with a fork," as one sadly 
told me, and that thus, while published researches are more nu- 
merous they are less thorough, and have introduced many formulae 
that neither prove nor agree, so that much work now accepted must 
be done over again and far more thoroughly ; that even Liebig set 
a bad example in this respect, and that many new products, of 
whkh university chemists boast, are so inferior to those of nature 
as to be really adulteration. 

What I have tried to illustrate mainly in the field of one science 
is more or less true under changed ways and degrees in the sphere 
of others. The sciences are also at the very heart of modern med- 
ical studies. Biology explores the lawt of life, upon which not 
only these studies but human health, welfare, and modem concep- 
tions of man and his place in nature, so fundamentally rest. The 
law of the specific energy of nerves, e.g., which Helmholtz says 
equals in importance the Newtonian law of gravity, and more than 
anything else made physiology the science which has had so large 

a share in raising the medical profession in Germany to a position 
in the intellectual world such as it never had before, doing for it 
in some degree what chemistry has done for dyeing; and even 
instruments like the ophthalmoscope, which almost created a de- 
partment of medical practice, or the spectroscope, now indispensa- 
ble in the Bessemer process, in sugar refining, in wine and color-dye 
tests, the detection of photographic sensibilators, in the custom- 
house, and in two important forms of medical diagnosis, — all 
these, to cut short a long list of both epoch-making laws and im- 
portant instruments, are the direct products of whole-souled devo- 
tion to unremunerative scientific research. 

It is hard for medical students to realize that they cannot under- 
stand hygiene, forensic medicine, pharmacology, and toxicology 
without a rigorous drill in chemistry ; that they must know physics 
to understand the diagnostic and therapeutic use of electricity, 
ophthalmology, otology, the mechanism of the bones, muscles, cir- 
culation, etc. ; that zoology is needed to teach sound philosophic 
thought, generic facts about the laws of life, health, reproduction, 
and disease. These, and sometimes also sciences like mineralogy, 
anthropology, and psychology, are required in Europe, with much 
more rigor than is common with us, of every medical student. 
Thus doctors, like technologists, cannot know too much pure sci- 
ence. An eminent medical practitioner in Europe compares young 
physicians who slight the basal sciences of their profession and 
pass on to the clinical, therapeutic, and practical parts, to young 
men who grow prematurely old and sterile. The phrase of Hip- 
pocrates, *' God-like is the physician who is also a philosopher," is 
still more true and good in its larger, more modern, and looser 
translation, viz., exalted is the physician who knows not only the 
most approved methods of practice, but also the pure sciences 
which underlie and determine both the dignity and the value of his 

Medical instruction, on the one hand, must select as its founda- 
tion those sciences and those parts of the sciences most useful in 
meeting man's great enemy, disease. It needs far more anat- 
omy than physics, and little mathematics, astronomy, or geology. 
Technical instruction, on the other hand, is and must be so organ- 
ized as to reflect the state of industry. It properly lays more 
stress upon chemistry, with its many applications, than upon biol- 
ogy, which has far fewer ; more upon electricity than upon molec- 
ular physics ; and more upon organic than inorganic chemistry. 
The university, which is entirely distinct from and higher than any 
form of technical or professional instruction can be, should represent 
the state of science per se. It should be strong in those fields 
where science is highly developed, and should pay less attention to 
other departments of knowledge which have not reached the scien- 
tific stage. It should be financially and morally able to disregard 
practical application as well as numbers of students. It should be 
a laboratory of the highest possible human development in those 
lines where educational values are the criterion of what is taught 
or not taught, and the increase of knowledge and its diffusion 
amoi\g the few fit should be its ideal. As another puts it, " The 
more and better books, apparatus, collections, and teachers, and 
the fewer but more promising students, the better the work." In 
Europe, besides its duty to science, the university must not fail of 
its practical duty to furnish to the state good teachers, preachers, 
doctors, advocates, engineers, and technologists of various kinds. 
Here a university can, if it chooses, do still better, and devote itself 
exclusively to the pure sciences. These once understood, their ap- 
plications are relatively easy and quickly learned. The university 
must thus stand above, subordinate, and fructify the practical 
spirit, or the latter will languish for want of science to apply. 

The important facts that are both certain and exact, and the 
completely verified laws, or well ordered, welded cohesion of 
thought that approach such mental continuity as makes firm, com- 
pactly woven intellectual or cerebral tissue, are so precious in our 
distracted and unsettled age, that it is no marvel that impartial 
laymen in all walks of life are coming to regard modem science in 
its pure high form as not only the greatest achievement of the race 
thus far, but also as carrying in it the greatest though not yet well- 
developed culture power of the world, not only for knowledge but 
also for feeling and conduct. It is of this power that universities 
are the peculiar organs ; to them is now committed the highest in- 

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[Vol. XV. No. 362 

terests of man ; from them and from science now come the light 
and advancement of the world. They became and remained the 
asylums of free thought and conviction when Rome and all other 
privileged orders declined, and their germs were brought and pi- 
ously and early planted on these shores by our fathers. The term 
is not only " the noblest in the vocabulary of science," but univer- 
sities are the chief nurseries of talent, where is kept alive the holy 
fervor of investigation that in its passion for truth is fearless of 
consequences, and has never been more truly and loftily ideal than 
now, when its objects of study are often most crassly material. It 
is their quality more than any thing else that determines not only 
the status of the medical and all technological professions, but also 
whether the legal profession is formal, narrow, mercenary, and un- 
learned, as it seems now in danger of becoming in Germany ; be- 
cause even the German universities, despite their great pre-emi- 
nence in all other respects, are by general consent of the most 
competent Germans themselves relatively weak in those depart- 
ments which underlie the practice of law, or broadly based on his- 
tory and social or economic science, informed in administrative ex- 
perience, and culminating in judicial talent and statesmanship. . 
Universities largely determine whether a land is cursed by a fac- 
tious, superstitious, half- cultured clergy, or blessed by ministers of 
divine truth, who understand and believe the doctrines they teach ; 
who attract and enlarge the most learned, and penetrate the life of 
the poor and ignorant, quickening, conriforting. and informing in a 
way worthy the Great Teacher himself, and making their profes- 
sion as it should be— the noblest of human callings. 

Compared with our material progress, we are not only making 
no progress, but are falling behind in higher education. It has 
been estimated that but five per cent of the practising physicians 
of this country have had a liberal education, and that sixty per 
cent of our medical schools require practically no preliminary train- 
ing whatever for admission, while European laws require a uni- 
versity training for every doctor before he can practice. Again, 
we apply science with great skill, but create or advance it very 
little indeed. Should the supply of European science, which now 
so promptly finds its way here and fertilizes and stimulates to more 
or less hopeful reaction our best scholars, and upon which we live 
as upon charity, be cut off by some great war or otherwise, the un- 
balanced and short-sighted utilitarian tendencies now too prevalent 
here would tend toward the same stagnation and routine which 
similar tendencies, unchecked, long ago wrought out in China. 
We all most heartily believe in and respect technical and applied 
science and all grades of industrial education, but these are as 
much out of place in a truly academic university as money-changers 
were in the temple of the Most High. 

But yet the fact that these and other evils and difficulties are now 
so widelv seen and so deeply felt, that endowments for higher 
education seem now the order of the day, that the largest single 
endowment in this country has already so effectively begun so 
many reforms in scarcely more than a decade in Baltimore ; that 
churchmen, statesmen, and business men now need only to see 
their own interests in a way a little larger and broader, as they are 
now tending to do, to co-operate more actively than they ever have 
done in strengthening our best foundations, — such considerations 
sustain the larger and .more hopeful view that our country is al- 
ready beginning to rise above the respectable and complacent 
mediocrity still its curse in- every domain of Culture, and will show 
that democracy can produce — as it must or decline — the very 
highest type of men as its leaders. The university problem seems 
to be fairly upon us. We now need men in our chairs whose 
minds have got into independent motion, who are authorities and 
not echoes, who have the high moral qualities of plain and simple 
living and self-sacrificing devotion to truth, and who show to this 
community and the country the spectacle of men absorbed in and 
living only for pure science and high scholarship, and are not mere 
place-holders or sterileVoutine pedagogues, and all needed material 
support is sure to come. 

A word so characteristic here that it might stand upon our very 
seal, is "concentration." Of this, our founder, in declining to 
scatter his resources among the countless calls from individuals, 
institutions, and causes, from excellent to vicious, and refusing us 
as yet, in the one work he has set out to accomplish, no needed 

thing, sets an example. We have selected a small but closely re- 
lated group of five departments, and shall at first focus all our 
means and care to make these five the best possible. Neither the 
historical origin nor the term •' university " have any thing to do 
with completeness of the field of knowledge. The word originally 
designated simply a corporation with peculiar privileges, and 
peculiarly independent to do what it chose. We choose to assert 
the same privilege of election for ourselves that other institutions 
allow their students, and offer the latter in choosing their subjects 
a larger dption between institutions. The continental habit of 
inter- university migration, also, on the part of students, if once 
adopted here, would no doubt stimulate institutions no less than it 
has stimulated competing departments in the same university. 
Our plan in this respect implies a specialization as imperatively 
needed for the advanced students as it would, we admit, be un- 
fortunate for students still in the disciplinary collegiate stage. If 
our elementary schools are inferior to the best in Europe, and if 
our fitting schools are behind the French Lycee, the German 
gymnasium, and the great English schools, it is our universities 
that are comparatively by far the weakest part of our national sys- 
tem. The best of these best know that fifty or one hundred in- 
structors cannot do the work of three hundred and fifty ; that they 
cannot hope at present to rival European governments which erect 
single university buildings costing nearly four million dollars each, 
as at Berlin and Vienna, nor equal the clinical opportunities of 
large European cities with poorer populations and more concen- 
trated hospital systems. Our strongest universities are far too 
feeble to do justice to all the departments, old and new, whfch they 
undertake. Our institutions are also too uniform ; the small and 
weak ones try to copy every new departure of the stronger ones, 
as the latter copy the far stronger institutions in Europe. If the 
best of them would do work of real university grade, should they 
specialize among the fields of academic culture, doing well what 
they do, but not attempting to do every thing, the American s)s- 
tem might yet come to represent the highest educational needs of 
the country. In contrast with the present ideal of horizontal expan- 
sion and the waste of unnecessary* duplication, we believe our de- 
parture will be as useful as it is new. 

Again, concentration is now the master word of education. In 
no country has the amount of individual information been so great, 
the range of intelligence so wide, the number of studies attempted 
by young men in colleges and universities, so large for the time 
and labor given to each, the plea for liberal and general, as distinct 
from special and exclusive studies, been so strong. This is well. 
for general knowledge is the best soil for any kind of eminence or 
culture to spring from, and because power, though best applied on 
a small surface, is best developed over a large one, and not in 
brains educated, as it were, in spots. More than this, our utilitarian 
ideal of general knowledge is far more akin to that of Hippias,who 
would make his own clothes and shoes, cook his own food, etc., or 
to that of Diderot, who would learn all trades, than to the noble 
Greek ideal of the symmetrical all-sided development of all the 
powers of body and mind. The more general knowledge the 
better ; but every thing must shoot together in the brain. In the 
figure of Ritcher, the sulphur, saltpetre, and charcoal must find 
each other, or the man makes no powder. The brain must be 
trained to bring all that is in it to a sharp focus without dispersive 
fringes. The natural instinct of every ambitious youth is to excel; 
to do, or make, or know something better than any one else, to be 
an authority ; to surpass all others, if only in the most accuminated 
speciality. Learning thus what true mental freedom is, he is more 
docile in all other directions. 

If it be extravagant to say that no minds are so feeble that they 
cannot excel, if they concentrate all their energies upon a point 
sufficiently small, nothing is more true than that the greatest pow- 
ers fail if too much is attempted. This is not only a wise instinct 
that makes for economy, but, in the parliamentary committee- 
rooms, in corporation meetings, in the court room, in business, in 
science, in the sick-chamber, the modem world in nearly every de- 
partment is now really governed by experts, — by men who have 
attained the mastery that comes by concentration. The young 
man who has had the invaluable training of abandoning himself to 
a long experimental research upon some very special but happily- 

Digitized by 


January io, 1890.] 



chosen point was typically illustrated in a man I knew. With the 
•dignity and sense of finality of the American senior year quick 
within him, his first teacher in Germany told him to study experi- 
mentally one of the score of muscles of a frog's leg. He feared 
loss and^limitatipn in trying to focus all his energies upon so small 
and insignificant an object. The mild dissipation of too general 
•culture, the love of freedom and frequent change, aided by a taste 
for breezy philosophic romancing, almost diverted him from the 
frog's leg. But as he 'progressed he found that he must know in a 
more minute and practical way than before — in a way that made 
previous knowledge seem unreal — certain definite points in elec- 
tricity, chemistry, mechanics, physiology, etc., and bring them to 
bear in fruitful relation to each other. As the experiments pro- 
ceeded through the winter, the history of previous views upon the 
subject were studied and understood as never before, and broader 
biological relations gradually seen. The summer, and yet another 
year, were passed upon this tiny muscle, for he had seen that its 
laws and structure are fundamentally the same in frogs and men, 
that just such contractile tissue has done all the work man has ac- 
complished in the world, that muscles are the only organ of the 
will. Thus, as the work went on, many of the mysteries of the 
•universe seemed to centre in his theme ; in fact, in the presence 
and study of this minute object of nature he had passed from the 
attitude of Peter Bell, of whom the poet says, 

** A cowslip by the river's brim 
A yellow cowslip was to him. 
And it was nothing more," 
up to the standpoint of the seer who " plucked a flower from the 
crannied wall," and realized that could he but understand what it 
was, *' root and all, and all in all, he would know what God and 
man is." Even if my friend h^d contributed nothing in the shape 
of discovery to the great temple of science, he had felt the omn€ 
iutitpunctum of nature's organic unity, he had felt the profound 
and religious conviction that the world is lawful to the core ; he 
had experienced what a truly liberal education, in the modem as 
distinct from the mediaeval sense, really is. We may term it non- 
professional specialization. 

Perhaps the most thorough and comprehensive government re- 
ports ever made in any language are those of the English parlia- 
mentary commissioners on endowments. The first of these "Occu- 
pied nearly nineteen years, and fills nearly two* score heavy folio 
volumes. In all, about twenty thousand foundations, new and 
centuries old, large and small, devoted to a vast variety of uses, 
igood and questionable, were reported. The conclusions drawn 
from this field of experience, which is far richer and wider in Eng- 
land than elsewhere, was, that, of all the great popular charities, 
higher education has proven safest, wisest, and best, and that for 
two chief reason : first, because the superior integrity and ability 
of the guardians who consented to administer such funds, the in- 
telligence and grateful appreciation of those aided by them, and 
the strong public interest and resulting publicity, all three com- 
bined to hold them perpetually truest to the purpose and spirit of 
the founders ; and secondly, because in improving higher education, 
all other good causes are most effectively aided. The church can in 
fio other way be more fundamentally served than by providing a 
still better training for her ministers and missionaries. Charity for 
hospitals and almshouses is holy, Christ-like work, but to provide 
a better training for physicians and economists, teaches the world 
to see and shun the causes of sickness and poverty. Sympathy 
must always tenderly help the feeblest and even the defective 
classes, but to help the strongest in the struggle for existence, is to 
help not them alone, but all others within their influence. 

Of all the many ways of supporting the higher education, indi- 
vidual aid to deserving and meritorious students is one of the most 
approved. In the University of Leipzic, e.g., four hundred and 
seven distinct funds can aid eight hundred aud forty-nine students. 
Of these funds, the oldest was established in 1325, and they are 
increasing in number, more new ones having been given between 
1880 and 1885 than in any entire decade before. In size they 
cange from thirty-five thousand to fifty dollars; in Berlin, from one 
hundred and forty thousand to one of less than forty dollars. In 
<ases where conditk>nS are specified, the most frequent limitation is 
to itodents from a certain locality, and next, to those of a certain 

family. By the older founders students of theology were more 
often preferred, but the more recent funds are for medicine, law, 
philology, and pure science; and a fund of over two hundred 
thousand lately given the University of Marburg is for advanced 
students in those sciences which underlie medicine. These funds 
are often given, named for, held, and sometimes awarded by 
churches or their pastors, magistrates, heads of fitting schools, 
boards of education, representatives of prominent families, for stu- 
dents of their name, the donor himself or herself, individual pro- 
fessors, etc., subject of course to satisfying the university exami- 
ners. Many are tenable for one, more for three, and some for ^\t 
and six years. The funds must be invested with pupilary security, 
and with interest commonly less than four per cent. In Cambridge 
and Oxford provision is made for nearly one thousand fellows and 
eight hundred scholars, not to mention the exhibitions at Oxford. 
The fellowships are more lucrative, and are designed for more ad- 
vanced men than are provided for in the German universities, the 
felk>ws aiding the master in internal administration. In England, 
besides the religious and other founders, as in Germany, the great 
historic industrial and mercantile corporations provide many of the 
fellowships and scholarships, particularly those of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries ; and they are granted by bishops, cu- 
rates, heads of business corporations, masters of the great schools, 
heads or fellows of colleges. In France, where these foun- 
dations were swept away by the Revolution, stipends and bursaries 
are provided annually by the government. New appropriations for 
the most advanced students of all was the secret of the remarkable 
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, founded in 1868, of which a 
recent report just printed for the Exposition says, condensing its 
substance, that its purpose has always been to foster scientific zeal 
Arith no shade of temporal interest, that it restored the almost ob- 
literated idea of higher education, gave unity to scientific interests 
* throughout France, and made her feel the scholarly desiderata of 
the age; made young professors not only well instructed, but 
trained in good methods ; that, although its profound researches 
arc not manifest to the public, it has given a more scientific charac- 
ter to all the faculties, and rendered a servke to the state out of all 
proportion to its cost. In France individuals co-operate with the 
state in this work. 

Has there ever been devised a form of memorial to, and bearing 
the names of, husbands, wives, children, or parents, by which even 
the smallest funds could be bestowed in a way more lastingly ex- 
pressive of the individuality, spirit, and the special lines of interest 
of the donor, more worthy the dead and more helpful to the high- 
est ends of life ? Since the first endowment of research in the 
Athenian porch and grove, thousands and thousands of donations 
of this sort have borne tangible witness to the sentiment so often 
and vividly taught by Plato, that, in all the world, there is no ob- 
ject more worthy of reverence, love, and service than eugenic, eu- 
peptic, well-bred, gifted young men, for in them is the hope of the 

The more advanced our standards are to be, the fewer will be 
our students, and the more expensive their needed outfit of books 
and apparatus. If we divide our running expenses only by the 
number of students our present fellowships and scholarships allow 
us to receive out of our two hundred and fifty applicants, the 
amount we spent per student, the first year, will probably be with- 
out a parallel. Besides this, for a number of students with impor- 
tant researches on hand, we are expending hundreds of dollars 
each for their individual needs, and should be glad to do so for 
more as good men. The best students very often graduate with 
empty pockets, but with their zeal and power at its best, and when 
an extra year or two would make a great difference in their entire 
career. Also, as the field of knowledge grows more complex, the 
economy of energy needed for concentration is impossible without 
the leisure secured by comfortable support. 

Connected with all the protection, exemptions, and privileges so 
dearly prized and tenaciously clung to by the mediaeval universi- 
ties, there have always been dangers, sometimes grave and not yet 
entirely obviated. The new charity is often popularly called a sci- 
ence as well as a virtue. Its axiom is that no man has a right to 
gWe doles to beggars without satisfying himself personally or 
through some agency to that end that his gift will do good and not 

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[Vol. XV. No. 362 

harm to the recipient. History, and I may add personal observa- 
tion, shows that the same general law holds true to some extent in 
universities. I believe they should not award fellowships to men 
fresh from college (save in the very rarest cases), unless they were 
able to guide and direct as well as to follow their work in every de- 
tail. A fellow should be encouraged and stimulated by a daily 
and familiar intercourse with the professors. His methods, read- 
ing, and researches should be kept at their best, and the entire re- 
sources of the institution should be a soil for his most rapid and 
helpful growth. Students thus served, even if their gratitudeiloes 
not prompt them, as in some late instances in Germany, to study, 
revive and try to conform with piety to the ideal of ancient and al- 
most forgotten donors, whose provisions they enjoyed, will not be 
lacking in appreciation. To appoint a man to use such funds in 
electing among undergraduate courses, or to take his chances 
among the confusing multifarious subjects offered in foreign insti- 
tutions is, I believe, in most cases of small utility, and in some 
cases that I know, positively harmful. May the methods of exclu- 
sion we are studying be so effective that neither our precious funds 
nor the precious energy of our instructors be wasted upon the idle, 
stupid, or unworthy students, now too often exposed in vain for 
four years to the contagion of knowledge. 

" Education used to be a question for ladies and for schoolmas- 
ters," said a French statesman last spring, but it is now not only 
a question of state, on which the support of all great institu- 
tions depends, but the great question into which all others issue if 
profoundly discussed or studied. So greatly do republics need the 
whole power of education, and so serious is their struggle for ex- 
istence against ignorance and its attendant evils, that it has well 
been said that the problem whether this form of government be 
permanent is at bottom a question of education. But monarchies 
are no less dependent upon the education of their leaders and ser- 
vants. In his famous address declaring that if Germany was ever 
to be free and strong, it must be by becoming the chief educa- 
tional state of Europe, must realize the platonic republic in which 
the education of its youth was the highest care of the rulers, Fichte 
laid down the policy which has been one of .the chief causes of the 
wonderful development of that country. Moreover, evolution, 
which shows that even life itself is but the education of proto- 
plasm, cells, and tissues, that the play-instinct in children and the 
love of culture in adults not only measure the superfluous individ- 
ual energy over and above that required by the processes neces- 
sary to life, but are perhaps largely the same, also makes it plain 
that the hunger for more and larger education of life is but the 
struggle of talent to the full maturity and leadership which is its 

For myself, I have no stronger wish or resolve than that, in the 
peculiarly arduous labors I expect, I may never forget that this in- 
stitution should be a means to these high purposes, and not degen- 
erate to an end in itself : and may it be as true of our graduates 
to remotest time, as it is of us in a unique way and degree to-day, 
that we could not love Clark University so much, loved we not sci- 
ence and education more. 

The Influenza. 

A SINGULAR characteristic of the present epidemic of influenza 
is its delay in visiting the British Isles. It seems to have been 
rampant in Paris and in Germany for some time before it crossed 
the channel, and victims are claimed for Boston even before the 
existence of the disease in England was acknowledged. This 
naturally raises the question whether it is a disease really brought 
from a distance. Is it anything more than the general prevalence 
of catarrhal affections, of colds and coughs, which the time of year, 
and the remarkably unsettled weather we have lately experienced, 
make readily explicable without any foreign importation ? Indeed, 
is influenza, after all, anything more than a severe form of the 
fashionable complaint of the season ? 

To answer the last question first, and so to put it by, there can 
be little doubt that influenza is a distinct, specific affection, and not 
a mere modification of the common cold. 

The symptoms, the history of the disease, and its distributkm, 
all justify us in treating it as a distinct and specific disease, whid ^ 
when it is prevalent will rarely be mistaken, though, with regard to 
isolated and sporadic cases, difficulties of diagnosis may arise. 
About its nature, or its aflinities with other diseases, it is unne- 
cessary to speculate. It will be sufiicient to inquire what its re- 
corded history in the past justifies us in expecting as to its behav- 
ior in the future. There are few cases in which history proves so 
important an element in the scientific conception of a disease as it 
does in that of influenza. For hardly any disease shows a more 
marked tendency to occur in epidemics — that is, in outbreaks 
strictly limited in point of time. After long intervals of inaction or 
apparent death, it springs up again. Its chronology is very re- 
markable. Though probably occurring in Europe from very cariy 
times, it first emerged as a definitely known historical epidemic in 
the year 1510. Since then, more than 100 general European epi- 
demics have been recorded, besides nearly as many more limited to 
certain localities. Many of them have in their origin and progress 
exhibited the type to which that of the present year seems to coo- 
form. We need not go further back than the great epidemic of 
1782, first traceable in Russia, though there believed to have been 
derived from Asia. In St. Petersburg, oi\ January 2, coincidentlj 
with a remarkable rise of temperature from 35*^ F. below freezing 
to 5^ above, 40,000 persons are said to have been simultaneously 
taken ill. Thence the disease spread over the Continent, where 
one-half of the inhabitants were supposed to have been affected, 
and reached England in May. It was a remarkable feature in this 
epidemic that two fleets which left Portsmouth about the same 
time were attacked by influenza at sea about the same day, thougii 
they had no communkation with each other or with the shore. 

There were many epidemics in tjie first half of this century ; and 
the most important of them showed a similar course and geo- 
graphical distribution. In 1830 started a formidable epidemic, the 
origin of which is referred to China, but which at all events by the 
end of the year had invaded Russia, and broke out in Petersburg 
in January, 1831. Germany and France were overrun in the spring, 
and by June it had reached England. Again, two years later, in 
January, 1833, there was an outbreak in Russia, which spread to 
Germany and France successively, and on April 3, the first cases 
of influenza were seen in that metropolis : " all London." in Wat- 
son's words, V being smitten with it on that and the following day." 
On this same fateful day Watson records that a ship approaching 
the Devonshire coast was suddenly smitten with influenza, and 
within half an hour forty men were ill. In 1836 another epidemic 
appeared in Russia ; and in January, 1837, Berlin and London 
were almost simultaneously attacked. Ten years later, in 1847, 
the last great epidemic raged. 

Many interesting points are suggested by this historical retro- 
spect. What is the meaning of the westward spread of influenza, 
of cholera, and other diseases ? Is it a universal law ? To this 
it must be said that it is by no means the universal law, even with 
influenza, which has spread through other parts of the world in 
every kind of direction, but it does seem to hold good for Europe, 
at least in the northern parts. The significance of this law, as of 
the intermittent appearance of influenza, probably is that this is in 
Europe not an indigenous disease, but one imported from Asia. 
Possibly we may some day track it to its original home in the East, 
as the old plague and the modem cholera have been traced. 

As regards, however, the European distribution of influenza, it 
has often been thought to depend upon the prevalence of easterly 
and north-easterly winds. There are many reasons for thinking 
that the contagiwm of this disease is borne through the air by winds 
rather than by human intercourse. One reason for thinking -so is 
that it does not appear to travel along the lines of human com- 
munications, and, as is seen in the infection of ships at sea, is 
capable of making considerable leaps. The mode of transmission, 
too, would explain the remarkable facts noticed above of the sud- 
den outbreak of the disease in certain places, and its attacking so 
many people simultaneously, which could hardly be the case if 
the infection had to be transmitted from one person to another. 

Another important question, and one certain to be often asked, 
is suggested by the last ; namely, whether influenza is contagious. 
During former epidemics great care was taken to collect the ex- 

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January io, 1890.] 



|)erience of the profession on this point, and its difficulty is shown 
by the fact that opinions were much divided. 

The constancy of type of influenza, the mode of its transmission, 
its independence of climatic and seasonal conditions, all suggest 
that its cause is ." specific," — that is, having the properties of 
growth and multiplication which belong to a living thing. 

Whether the disease affects the lower animals fs not absolutely 
certain, but the human epidemic has often been preceded or ac- 
companied by an epidemic among horses of a very similar disease. 
it is pretty well known that such a disease is now prevalent among 
horses in London. 

It is important that there should be observed and recorded dur- 
ing the present outbreak, as carefully as the great demands at such 
a period upon the time and strength of practitioners will permit, 
the cases they are called to. There are some especial points upon 
which more light is needed. Any observations which bear upon 
the accompanying insomnia, or upon the question of contagious- 
ness should be noted with precisi6n. The questions of relapse, of 
recurrence, of remission, of second attacks after complete recovery 
from a first attack, should all receive further elucidation from the 
present outbreak. The duration of the epidemic in different local- 
ities, its behavior with reference to climatic changes, the direction 
and force of the winds, etc., merit close attention. It can scarcely 
be doubted that the poison is a microphyte multiplying in the air, 
and yet there is reason tp believe that it sometimes travels, and 
that not slowly, against the course of the winds. It will be inter- 
esting to learn whether the " influence *' was encountered by our 
European "squadron of evolution " in its voyage across the Atlan- 
tic. We have heard that a month ago cases occurred on a steamer 
<70ssing the Pacific Ocean from Japan to San Francisco. 

There has been a somewhat greater variation in the symptoms 
in different cases than is ordinarily encountered in most acute dis- 
eases dependent upon recognized specific poisons, although very 
possibly it may prove that these may be classified under two heads. 
It is desirable to note how far the present cases of influenza re- 
semble and wherein they differ from dengue. 

It must, of course, be borne in mind that the mild, moist, open, 
variable season which has thus far prevailed, predisposes to ca- 
tarrhal troubles ; and again that a prostrating affection like this " in- 
fluenza " brings as an accompaniment or sequel to the weak, bron- 
chitis and pneumonia. It is, on the other hand, remarkable that in 
not a few of the severest cases of " influenza " lately encountered, 
catarrhal affections of the mucous membranes have been very 


During the past summer, at the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion of Cornell University, investigations have been made on the 
general subject of the deterioration of farm yard manure, in three 
main directions ; namely, (i) What loss does horse-manure suffer 
when thrown out in a pile unsheltered from the weather ? (2) 
What loss does mixed farm-yard manure suffer when piled in a 
close pile so that fermentation is very slow ; but without protection 
from rainfall ? (3) Is there an appreciable loss of valuable matter 
when manure simply dries without fermentation ? The results of 
one season's trial seemed to show that horse-manure thrown in a 
loose pile and subjected to the action of the elements will lose 
neariy one-half of its valuable fertilizing constituents in the course 
of six months ; that mixed horse and cow manure in a compact 
mass, and so placed that all water falling upon it quickly runs 
through and off, is subjected to a considerable, though not so 
great -a loss, and that no appreciable loss takes place when manure 
simply dries. Professor Shelton, from the results of somewhat 
similar experiments carried on at the Kansas Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, concludes as follows : " The moral which the experi- 
ment plainly emphasizes is, that, farm-yard manures must be 
hauled to the field in the spring ; otherwise the loss of manure is 
sure to be very great, the waste in the course of six months 
amounting to fully one-half the gross manure and nearly forty per 
cent of the nitrogen that it contained.*' To show that a large 
number of the farmers in the State are uninformed in this matter, 
or at least not sufficiently alive to its importance to take proper 
care of their manure, Mr. I. P. Roberts and Mr. Henry H. Wing, 

who had charge of the investigation, have had engf^vings made of 
photographs of two actual " farm steadings " as they were found 
to exist, early last spring. These show particularly the watery, 
miry condition of the yards and the heaps of manure under the 
eaves. These are not isolated cases, but are fairly representative 
of a large number of similar views that were taken in one day in 
the course of a not very extended walk in a single locality, and 
that a dairy district. From what they have seen from car windows 
in their journeys through the State, much the same condition of 
things prevails generally. 

— In a recent paper on zoogeography, in Humboldt, as condensed 
in Nature, Dr. Lampert states that a good many wolves are still 
captured in the east and west provinces of Germany, e.g., about 
fifty annually in Lorraine. In France, 701 wolves were destroyed 
in 1887 ; in Norway, only 15. It is estimated that in Russia the 
yearly loss in domestic animals through wolves is over ten million 
dollars, and the loss of game from the same cause, over thirty- five 
million. The German mole swarms apparently, in the neighbor- 
hood of Aschersleben, where 97,519 individuals were taken last 
year, and rewards amounting to nearly five hundred dollars were 
paid. In great part of Germany, however (Upper and Lower 
Bavaria, East and West Prussia), it is not met with. Mecklenberg 
and Pomerania are its northern limits at present. The beaver is 
nearly extinct in Germany, but a new settlement of thirty individu- 
als was recently discovered at Regenwehrsberg, not far from 
Sh5nebeck, on the Elbe. A recent catalogue of diurnal birds of 
prey in Switzerland (by Drs. Studer and Fatio) gives thirty-two 
species. The disappearance of the golden vulture is here notewor- 
thy. Early in this century it was met with in all parts of the Al- 
pine chain ; whereas now, only a very few individuals survive on 
the inaccessible heights of 'the Central Alps. 

— An interesting inquiry into prehistoric textiles has been re- 
cently made by Herr Buschan. As stated in Nature, he examined 
tissues with regard to the raw material used, to their distribution 
in prehistoric Germany, to their mode of production, and to their 
alteration by lying in the ground. With certain chemical re-agents 
he was able to distinguish the various fibres, though much altered. 
The oldest tissues of Germany (as we now know it) come from the 
peat-finds of the northern bronze period. On the other hand, 
some articles of bone found in caves of Bavarian Franks, and evi- 
dently instruments for weaving or netting (bodkins, knitting nee- 
dles, etc.), show that already in the Neolithic period textiles were 
made. The art of felting probably preceded that of weaving. 
Herr Buschan sums up his results as follows : (i) in the prehistoric 
{imes of (Germany, wool (mostly sheep's) and flax were made into 
webs, but no hemp ; (2) the use of wool preceded that of flax ; (3) 
the wool used was always dark ; (4) most of the stuffs were of the 
nature of huckaback (not smooth) ; (5) the textiles have, on the 
whole, changed but little in course of time. The author has 
some interesting observations on the oldest kinds of loom. The 
pile- builders on the Pfaffiker, Niederwyl, and Boden Lakes were 
busy weavers ; and they knew how to work flax fibres not only 
into coarse lace, fish- nets, or mats, but into such finer article as 
fringes, coverlets, embroidery, and hair-nets. 

— A point of great importance for the progress of Western 
science in the Chinese Empire is whether it should be taught in the 
Chinese or in a foreign language. The subject has been frequently 
discussed, and quite recently the opinions of a large number of 
men most prominently engaged in the education of Chinese were 
collected and published in a Shanghai magazine, the Chinese Re- 
corder. The editor says that nine-tenths of these authorities are 
of opinion that the Chinese language is sufficient for all purposes 
in teaching Western science. One gentleman states that Chinese 
students can only be taught science in their own language, and 
that the long time necessary for them to acquire English for this 
purpose is wasted ; another says that " science must be planted in 
the Chinese language in order to its permanent growth and de- 
velopment ; " a third sees no reason why the vernacular should not 
be enough to allow the Chinese student to attain the very highest 
proficiency in Western science, although he admits that there is at 
presei^t' a want of teachers and text-books. Professor Oliver of 
the Imperial University at Pekin says he has never found English 

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[Vol. XV. No. 362 

necessary, but b^ always taught in Chinese. Professor Russell of 
the same institution finds Chinese sufficient for popular astronomy. 
On the other hand, Mr. Tenney says that it can only be for the 
most popular views of science that the vernacular is sufficient "It 
is impossible," he says, "for scholars who are ignorant of any 
European language to attain any such excellence in modem sciences 
as to enable them to bear comparison with the finished mathemati- 
cal and scientific scholars of Europe and America.'* Thus, he con- 
tinues, as a medium of thought, any Western language is incom- 
parably superior to Chinese in precision and clearness ; the student 
acquainted with a foreign language has a vast field of collateral 
thought open to him which does not and never will exist in Chinese, 
and he can keep abreast of th^ times, which the Chinese student 
who must depend on translations cannot do. The relation of the 
Chinese student " to the world of thought is analogous to that of a 
blind and deaf person in the West, whose only sources of knowl- 
edge are the few and slowly increasing volumes of raised-type 
letters which make up the libraries of the blind." As has been 
said, however, the weight of opinion is against Mr. Tenney. 

— The special board of engineers appointed by the Secretary of 
War to examine and report upon the most available point on the 
Gulf coast west of the Mississippi for a deep-water harbor have 
selected Galveston. Their report is now before Congress. The 
expense of improving Galveston harbor so as to fulfil the require- 
ments is estimated at $6,200,000. 

— It is generally recommended that cows at pasture in the sum- 
mer should have a supplementary grain ration, and a large number 
of the more progressive farmers pursue this practice with an evi- 
dent belief that it is profitable. In the absence of data as to the 
value of this practice it was deemed worth while to conduct, as 
carefully as might be, a somewhat extended experiment intended 
to afford, if possible, some light on the point in question. To this 
end a trial was instituted at the Cornell Agricultural Station, and 
conducted by I. P. Roberts and H. H. Wing. The experiment was 
made with six cows, selected from the University herd, making 
two lots mated in pairs, as nearly alike as was possible in age, 
breeding, time since calving, yield of milk, and time to next calv- 
ing. The conclusion reached as the result of the experiment is, 
that, while all the data so far go to show that it did not pay to give * 
cows on good pasture a supplementary grain ration, yet there is 
not as yet sufficient data to warrant recommending those who 
follow this practice to give it up. So far as results in butter are 
concerned, they are so close as to be almost identical. It is quite 
possible that the milk yield may have been more influenced by the 
'* milking habit *' of the cows than by the grain fed. By milking, 
habit is meant the tendency that different cows have to milk for a 
longer or shorter period after calving. All the cows used in the 
experiment had been in milk for a considerable period, four of 
them about five months, and the other two considerably longer. It 
is not only possible but quite probable that these last two were 
more influenced by the individual tendency to " run dry " than by 
the extra grain feed in the ration. Several conditions arose daring 
the course of the experiment that may or may not have influenced 
the results ; and while in a certain sense they might be considered 
as foreign to the real discussion of the result, it seems worth while 
to mention them in this connection, (i) The rain-fall at Ithaca in 
the growing season of 1889 was phenomenal, especially in the 
months of June and July, the amounts in inches being as follows : 
June, 6.74 ; July, 6.73 ; August, 3.32 ; September, 2.57, while the 
average for the past 1 1 years has been June, 3.52 ; July, 3.95 ; 
August, 3.02 ; September, 2.44, and during the time of the experi- 
ment, June 8 to September 21, rain fell on forty-nine days. The 
pastures remained green, fresh, and luxuriant throughout the whole 
season. The grass, almost entirely blue-grass, grew continuously ; 
but, owing to the gravelly character of the soil, the grass did not 
become soft and watery, as often happens in soils that are natu- 
rally more moist. Perhaps had there been the usual midsummer 
drought with its accompaniment of parched pastures, the results 
from the supplementary grain ration would have been more 
marked. (2) A striking feature of the experiment was the large 
increase in the percentage of fat in the milk of lot 2 during the 
period from Aug. 4 to Sept 7 inclusive, and a similar slight in- 

crease in the milk of lot i for the same period. Thb period coin- 
cided almost exactly with the period of least rainfall and highest 
temperature of the whole summer. From Aug. 5 to Sept. 5 in- 
clusive, there was but one rain of any considerable amount with 
some half dozen light showers on various intervening dates. Thus 
in the only time during the whole course of the experiment in 
which the conditions approached those of an ordinary season, there 
seemed to be the greatest effect from the grain ration. (3) An- 
other peculiarity that seems to be traced to climatic conditions 
was seen in the last two weeks of the experiment. Beginning on 
Sept. 6. more or less rain fell on every day but one till the close of 
the experiment on the 21st. During this period the weather was 
almost continually cloudy and what may be expressively termed 
" raw." From Sept. 7 to 21, the percentage of fat in the milk of 
lot I fell from 4.47 to 4.10, or nine per cent, while the fat in the 
milk of lot 2 in the same period, decreased from 5.77 to 4.61, or 
twenty per cent (4) In view of the fact that a citizen of a neigh- 
boring State has been imprisoned«for selling milk that was below 
the legal standard of twelve per cent of solids, it seems worth 
while to state that while, when the average analysis for three days 
is taken into account, the milk in this experiment was far above 
the required standard, yet there was one day when the milk fron» 
one lot fell below the legal requirement of 12 per cent total solids^ 
and several others on which the percentage of total solids came 
dangerously near the " dead line." Had a sample been taken on 
that day by the State authorities the experimenters would have been 
liable to conviction under the law, and to a fine of not more than 
two hundred dollars and to imprisonment for not more than six 
months. It seems that no law can be just that fixes an arbitrary 
standard for the purity of milk which may depend upon the results 
of a single analysis. 

— Cocoa-nut butter is now being made at Mannheim, and, ac- 
cording to the American Consul there, the demand for it is steadily 
increasing. The method of manufacture was discovered by Dr. 
Schlunk, a practical chemist at Ludwigshafen. Liebig and Fre- 
senius knew the value of cocoa-nut oil or fat, but did not succeed 
in producing it as a substitute for butter. The new butter is of a 
clear whitish color, melts at from 26° to 28° C, and contains 
0.0008 per cent water, 0.006 per cent mineral stuffs, and 99.9932 
per cent fat. At present it is chiefly used in hospitals and other 
State institutions, but it is also rapidly finding its way into houses 
or homes where people are too poor to buy butter. The working 
classes are taking to it instead of the oleomargarines, against 
which so much has been said during the last two or three years. 

— In a recent number of Humboldt, as quoted in Nature^ Herr 
Fischer- Sigwart describes the ways of a snake, Tropidonotus tesseU 
latus, which he kept in his terrarium in Zurich. It was fond of 
basking in the sun on the top of a laurel, from which it climbed 
easily to a high cherry-tree fixed against a wall, its night quarters. 
Sometimes, after lying still for hours, it would hasten down into a 
small pond (about four square yards surface) containing gold-fish, 
and hide itself for a long time, quite under water, behind some 
stone, or plants, the tongue constantly playing. When a fish came 
near, the snake would make a dart at its belly. Often missing, it 
would lose patience, and swim after the fishes, driving them into 
some comer, where it at length seized one in the middle of the 
belly, and carried it to land, much as a dog would a piece of wood. 
Curiously, the fish, after being seized, became quite still and stiff,, 
as if dead. If one then liberated it, the skin of the belly was seen 
to be quite uninjured, and the fish readily swam away in the water. 
The author thinks the snake has a hypnotic influence on its prey 
(and he had observed similar effects with a ringed snake). It 
would otherwise be very difficult for the snake to retain hold of a 
wriggling fish. The snake usually carried off the fish some dis- 
tance to a safe comer, to devour it in peace. 

— The Intemational Marine Conference at Washington con> 
eluded its labors with the end of the year. The work it lias done,, 
though not so much as had been anticipated, will be of value to 
the merchant marine of all maritime nations. The chief work of 
the conference related to the rules of the road at sea and the pre- 
vention of collisions. One important reform recommended is uni- 
formity in the buoyage system in all parts of the world, and others 

Digitized by 


January io, 1890.] 



relate to uniformity in surveying laws ; in the reporting, marking, 
and removing of dangerous wrecks, derelicts, and other obstruc- 
tions to nav^ation ; and in the transmission of weather signals and 
storm warnings. This, we trust, is only the first of a series of 
similar conferences. 

— The November meeting of the Chicago Institute of Education 
was quite a lively affair in comparison with the usual solemnity of 
the occasion, as we learn from Intelligence. The paper was by 
Fernando Sanford of the Englewood High School on the " Disci- 
plinary Value of Scientific Study." It was a well-knitted plea for 
the genuine study of science, and for the formation of the habits of 
seeing and stating propositions that the actual study of nature pro- 
duces. It deprecated the usual text-book study of science as un- 
worthy of a place in any respectable school. The paper laid con- 
sklerable stress on the idea that every pupil should interrogate 
nature for himself and find his own answers ; that every subject 
should be taught by investigating it as if nothing had before been 
known about it. The president, Mr. Howland, wanted to put in a few 
words which he thought it possible the audience would not wish to 
remember more than three minutes, and he hoped they would not. 
Nevertheless, he wanted to say, that, while it was a charming paper, 
possibly the best one on the subject he ever heard or read, he did not 
believe in its doctrine at all. He did not believe that it is so neces- 
sary or so advantageous for children to handle the actual objects, 
to make so many experiments, to verify so many statements. The 
proposition that school children should investigate departments of 
science as if nothing had previously been known about them, and 
that the science learned from text-books is worthless, struck him 
as absurd. The other day he visited a school in whi^h the pupils 
were studying a squirrel. He listened to their discovery of the 
number of toes it had, the way its joints bent, etc., etc. After all, 
what good did it do them ? What did they learn about the squir- 
rel that they did not know before? If children had got to study 
science just as if the world had already learned nothing, jvhere is 
the blessing of living in this nineteenth century ? of inheriting the 
accumulated intelligence of the ages ? He didn't believe we should 
throw away all that past generations have discovered; in other 
words, an our books, and start our pupils in the study of nature 
where the human race began. He believed he had as clear and 
complete an idea of a camel before he ever saw one as he had 
afterwards. Talk about pupils proving that a floating body will 
displace its own weight of the fluid ! What for ? He never 
proved it or saw it proved. Yet he knew it. knew it as absolutely 
as if he had performed the experiment a hundred times. He 
didn't believe there ever was a lime when he didn't know it. And 
so of the great mass of facts and principles which the paper would 
require to be taught inductively. Life is too short for us to in- 
dulge so freely in the time-wasting process of induction. He 
dkin't believe in it. Let the pupil have the full benefit of his in- 
heritance, and start with the present instead of with the beginning 
of time. And besides, man himself is the important element in 
this world. He and his institutions are more worth studying than 
all the rest beside. He would much rather study man than the 
rocks or the trees. It would be a misfortune if the advice of the 
paper were followed in our schools. 

— The endeavor to establish a botanic garden in the City of 
Montreal, three years ago. though it met with great opposition at 
the time, says Garden and Forest, is likely to be realized at no dis- 
tant day, though the original plan has been greatly modified. For 
some time past efforts have been directed toward the establish- 
ment of a garden in connection with McGill University, and the 
end has been so far attained that a portion of the grounds, em- 
bracing somewhat mdre than three acres, has been set apart for 
that purpose, the intention being to occupy eventually about six 
acres. During the past season a pond for aquatic plants has been 
constructed, and walks and beds have so far been laid out that 
planting will begin with the opening of spring. There are already 
in the grounds upward of one hundred native and exotic trees and 
shrubs, besides a fair collection of herbaceous plants. These will 
be added to from the native flora. There are also on hand several 
hundred specimens raised from seed received from the Imperial 
Botank Gardens of St. Petersburg, and the Royal Gardens, Kew, 

all of which have been raised and cared for in private grounds and 
conservatories. Active efforts are being made for the construc- 
tion of a conservatory, which it is hoped may be erected soon. It 
is the intention to adapt the garden to the purposes of collegiate 
work and the representation of the native flora, together with such 
exotic species as may be hardy and prove otherwise desirable. 

— According to the San Francisco Examiner, Mr. Adolph Sutro 
is experimenting with cinchona- trees on his estate on the neighbor- 
ing sea-coast. He hopes to acclimatize at least some of the varie- 
ties from which quinine is produced ; and, if so, will doubtless be 
more than repaid for his enterprise. 

. — The " flower festivals " of the Japanese are often referred to 
without clear explanation of their number and character. As ex- 
plained in Garden and Forest, five are annually celebrated. At 
the New Year's feast, on the first day of the first month, the chief 
plants used are bamboos, firs, Prunus Mume and Adonis Amu" 
rensis. The first two are set by the house-door, and the others 
are displayed in the living-room. At the second, or " girls' festi- 
val," which is held on the third day of the third month, Prunus 
Persica is the favorite plant. At the third, or " boys' festival," on 
the fifth day of the fifth month, one sees chiefly the shobu {Iris 
lavigata); while at the fourth, or " ladies' festival," on the seventh 
day of the seventh month, no flowers are favored, but songs are 
written on bits of paper fastened to leafy stalks of bamboo and set 
on high in the garden. The last feast occurs on the ninth day of 
the ninth month, and then the chrysanthemum is honored by old 
and young alike. These various celebrations have always been 
held in accordance with the dates of the old national calendar ; but 
now that the Gregorian calendar has been introduced, it is found 
difficult to procure the proper plants on the proper day. The great 
imperial feast in honor of the crysanthemum has no special time 
set for it, but is held whenever the flowers in the Emperor's gar- 
den are in most perfect condition. 

— Those who have read of the Rauhe Haus at Horn, near Ham- 
burg, Germany, that remarkable and unique institution of Im- 
manuel Wichern, will recognize in it a prototype of that little 
industrial community which more than two years ago was estab- 
lished in Columbia County, New York, under the name, "The 
Bumham Industrial Farm." The two are alike in purpose, in 
spirit, and in the methods of traming employed. Wichern 's exper- 
iment is, however, widely known, and its success has been demon- 
strated in its beneficent results, while Bumham Farm is yet in its 
infancy, unknown even to many of the good people of our own State. 
The Bumham Industrial Farm, as described in The State Char- 
ities Record, was organized to save boys who are tending toward 
the criminal classes. The lack of proper classification or facilities 
therefor in the reformatory institutions of' the State, forcing the 
boys commit teed who have not yet become depraved or incorrigi- 
ble into the companionship of those in whom xrriminal habits are 
fully developed, was the condition which was strongest in urging 
the establishment of a home like this, far removed from the city, 

' on a large farm in healthful surroundings, where these truant and 
vagrant boys not yet incorrigible might be sent, might live under 
good moral influences and have opportunity for the training of 
hand and mind. The farm, formerly an old Shaker settlement, 
comprises 580 acres of land, under a fairly good state of cultivation, 
in a "region of pure air and lovely fields and forests." Lake 
Queechy bounds it on one side and the mountains look down upon 
it. The farm is organized on the family plan. The cottages left 
by the Shakers have become the home each of a group of boys. 
The system of awards and punishments is that of Mettray. There 
is a department of manual training for the boys where those show- 
ing special aptness are taught full trades, and others prepared to 
enter trades as advanced apprentices. Some will be taught farm- 
ing, some gardening, and all, that labor is ennobling. The disci- 
pline is firm yet kind, and each boy has some one interested in him 
individually. There are no walls about the farm ; everything is 
free and open. Though established less than three years ago there 
are already good results to be seen. Fifty- two boys have been at 
the farm, and of those more than twenty have, after a training of a 
year or more, been sent back to their parents or to places found for 
them, cured of bad tendencies. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 362 





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Vol. XV. 

NEW YORK, January io, 1890. 

No. 362 

An Improved Stkam-Drivbn Fan.. 17 

Clark University 18 

Health Matters. 

The Influenza n 

Notes AND News 33 


Justice and Jurisprudence 96 

Thermodynamics, Heat-Motors, 

and Refrigerating Machines 97 


Fuel and its Applications 97 

Among THE Publishers l8 

Letters to the Editor. 

Nicaragua Footprints 30 

Science Text-Books 39 

Industrial Notes. 
New Electro-Medical Apparatus. . . 39 


Justice and Jurisprudence : an Inquiry concerning the Consti^ 
tutional Limitations of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth^ and Fif- 
teenth Amendments. Philadelphia, Lippincott. 8^* $3. 

This book disarms criticbm by its purpose. It is an appeal by 
** The Brotherhood of Liberty" in behalf of the lost civil rights of 
the colored people in the United States. Equal civil rights were 
supposed to have been legally conferred upon our colored citizens 
by the amendments to the Constitution after the war, especially the 
fourteenth, and by Senator Sumner's famous " civil rights bill." 
approved March i, 1875. Shortly after the war there followed a 
general acquiescence, and many decisions by the minor courts, and 
many statutes in the several States, practically enforcing, as far 
as laws could do it, the equal civil rights of all citizens, without 
regard " to color or previous condition of servitude." 

The way these rights were lost, as far as their legal guaranties 
are concerned, is soon told after they reached that "grave of 
liberty," the Supreme Court of the United States. The main 
points are these : The Constitution of Louisiana after the war pro- 
vided that " all persons shall enjoy equal rights and privileges upon 
any conveyance of a public character." A law was passed by that 
State accordingly, similar to Senator Sumner's civil rights bill, mak- 
ing it a fineable offence to exclude a colored person, for that rea- 
son, from public accommodations. Mrs. De Cuir (colored) was 
thus excluded from the white ladies' cabin of a steamboat, and re- 

covered a judgment for $1,000, fine, therefor. The State courts 
affirmed that judgment. But when the case came before the 
Supreme Court of the United Sutes it was reversed — and reversed 
on a ground that has never ceased to be a surprise; to wit. that 
the law was " a regulatk}n of interstate commerce, and. therefore, 
to that extent, unconstitutional and void" {Hall v, De Cuir, 95 U, 
S, Repts., 485, 1877). For the United States only have jurisdktion 
over such commerce, and the States cannot regulate it. 

The colored people and their friends were astounded at this de- 
cision. They insisted that the State Constitution and laws thus 
stricken down as void had nothing to do with commerce or prop- 
erly, but were confined to acts in r^^rd to persons and their 
rights and protection. The two matters are disparate, like trying 
to measure legal rights by pounds or miles. Like, for instance, 
the demands upon Gov. Seward to return fugitive slaves because 
they had carried off the calico on their backs. 

But there is no appeal — but to the people — from a decision of 
the Supreme Court, and so it was legally settled that a State could 
practically do nothing to enforce the equal rights and privileges of 
colored citizens, because commerce was king, and had to go on 
just as it used to do when the Dred Scott decision was in force. 

Still it was hoped that the United States courts would sustain 
the United States civil rights law, and thus enable the general 
government to do what the States could not, — protect all citizens 
in their equal rights and privileges in public assemblies and con- 
veyances. Five cases arising under this United States civil rights 
law came before the United States Supreme Court and were de- 
cided together in 1883. The court held that the Fourteenth 
Amendment " is prohibitory upon the States only," and docs not 
authorize any direct legislation, " but only a correction " of State 
legislation ; *' such as may be necessary and proper for counteract- 
ing and redressing the rffect of State laws or acts." Therefore 
the United States civil rights laws were declared unconstitutional 
and void^. ( The civil rights cases, U, 5. /?., 109, 3). The colored 
people and their friends have never been able to adequately ex- 
press their indignation over this decision. They held many meet- 
ings for that purpose, and the book before us may be regarded as 
their protest in good, solid, bound form. The points they make 
were to a large extent presented most ably and indignantly in a 
dissenting opinion by Mr. Associate Justice Harlan, in which he 
lays aside ordinary judicial reserve, to tell the majority of the court 
that. " The opinion in these cases proceeds, it seems to me, upon 
grounds entirely too narrow and artificial. I cannot resist the 
conclusion that the substance and spirit of the recent amendments 
to the Constitution have been sacrificed by a subtle and ingenious 
verbal criticism. . . . Constitutional provisions, adopted in the in- 
terest of liberty, and for the purpose of securing, through national 
legislation if need be, rights inhering in a state of freedom, and 
belonging to American citizenship, have been so construed as to 
defeat the ends the people desired to accomplish, which they at- 
tempted to accomplish, and which they supposed they had ac- 
complished, by changes in their fundamental law " {same case, p, 

The narrow, ingenious, and subtle criticism by which the Four- 
teenth Amendment was defeated by this decision, is in limiting the 
" provisions " of the amendment, all of which Congress is author- 
ized to enforce, to the single negative and corrective provision over 
the States, whereas the plain purpose and intention of the whole of 
the provisions were to directly secure all citizens in. equal rights ; 
and to that end, and as a necessary incident only, the States are 
also restricted from violating them by their own laws. The ycry 
first one of the provisions places the whole subject within the juris- 
dk:tion of the United States, and then next follows the restraint 
upon States from conflicting action. But the court does not 
even quote in its opinion the first and main sentence and provision 
of the amendment, and so leaves the power of Congress to be 
limited and applied only to the correction of the States. " Never 
was a conclusion more lame, impotent, and absurd ! " was the 
outcry of the friends of liberty everywhere. Had Senator Sum- 
ner been alive, this complete overthrow of the great object of his 
later life would have broken his heart. Under that decision, of 
course, the States will not do any thing, and the United States can- 
not. The colored people ace thus left with the empty name of 

Digitized by 


January io, 1890.] 



*' citizen/* but neither State nor nation can legally do any thing to 
give effective support to that proud title. 

Such is the state of the law, the details of ^hich are presented 
and condemned, with great variety of illustration, in the present 
volume. But the remedy does not seem to be presented with equal 
clearness. The future of the colored race in America is indeed a 
dark cloud. To us the only solution is the scientific one, and that 
is only another name for the highest morality, justice, and human- 
ity. We have said the only appeal from the Supreme Court is to 
the people. To encourage such an appeal seems to be the main 
object and effect of this book. It is sustained by the extraordinary 
fact that every successful political party has had for its main pur- 
pose the reversal of the decisions of that court. The old Republi- 
can party of Jefferson came into power to reverse the decisions of 
the United States courts sustaining the " Alien and Sedition laws." 
The Democracy of Jackson came to, and did, reverse the Supreme 
Court decisions in favor of the United States Bank. The Repub- 
lican party of Lincoln came to reverse, and did reverse, the Dred 
Scott and Fugitive Slave law decisions ; and the Republicans with 
Grant, in imitation of Cromwell, actually took judges off and put 
others on the supreme bench, until the court reversed its own 
••legal tender" decisions. These are surprising instances, and 
they may well encourage the colored people, by such appeals as the 
present, to remind the people that the objects they sought to at- 
tain by the war amendments to the Constitution, as Judge Harlan 
declared, have been defeated by two unfortunate accidents in the 
Supreme Court, which it is their bounden duty to'remedy. It may just 
now seem impossible to get a sufficient number of States to amend 
the amendments. But it will soon become clear that there must 
be some law on these subjects. The late slave States will do 
nothing in their present mood. Both races are thus more and 
more appealing to violence. The result will be that the law-abid- 
ing elements, which placed those amendments in the Constitution, 
must take up the work again and make them effective. Anarchy 
and violence cannot be tolerated in any part of our country, and 
the l^al remedy can come only from the general government. 

Then, again, we are often reminded that the problem of the 
happy and beneficent adjustment and co-operation of the two races 
cannot be solved by statutes only. Most true, but without some 
solid law to fall back upon, the weaker race are practically re- 
manded to slavery, and such is their present condition. The appeal 
Cor justice should be heard, but to insure a favorable hearing, the 
wise, prudent, virtuous, and industrious conduct of the colored 
people themselves is also practically a necessary concomitant. 
Without that, they will not find their old friends at the North 
again, and of those friends they were never in grater need than now. 
They are certainly right in their prayer for legal protection, for 
some law, so plain that the Supreme Court cannot set it aside. 
Unless this prayer is granted, the next appeals will be more and 
more to violence ; and with a result that recalls perhaps the 
darkest blot in Grecian history, which is told as follows : When 
the Spartans were hard pushed in war, they called out the best of 
their Helors to help them. The Helots responded, and were 
promised their liberty for their services, which, it seems, turned 
defeat to victory. They were ordered to repair to the temples [of 
justice ? ] to receive their emancipation. They went, with banners 
and garlands, but they never returned, ** and," says the careful 
historian, •• no one ever knew by what means they were severally 
dbpatched" {Thucydtdes 4, 80). The thought that some such 
passage may be written about the loyal people of America, and 
that it may be substantially true, is not a pleasant, but a probable 
outlook from our present situation. 

That this publication should appear anonymously is a matter to 
be regretted. The plain avowal of a public purpose by every 
American citizen is his prerogative and duty. If he is a member of 
the bar, it is still more a duty to relieve the country from an error 
of the courts affecting grave public interests, by honestly and 
frankly explaining the error, and indicating the remedy, as has been 
attempted in this article. We have entirely too much unhealthy 
private grumbling, and too many secret societies seeking to do 
covertly what no American need to be ashamed of. We believe 
that the colored people back of this movement would do better to 
give their names, and apply to Congress, by proper petition, to 

have the needful amendment to the Constitution submitted to the 
States. That would clear the atmosphere, and bring the issue to 
the front. 

As to style and execution of this rather pretentious work, the 
florid and eloquent language, with pages of interesting but re- 
motely relevant quotations, are indications of the African exuber- 
ance of rhetoric, about which, as a matter of taste, there is no 
disputing. That should not conceal from any one the intense 
earnestness, and the real ability, it often almost hides with the 
flowers which were meant to adorn and attract. In the next 
edition we suggest that the amendments, and the two decisions 
mainly involved, be printed verbatim^ so that the reader can see 
the issues without reference to other books, which few but lawyers 
have at hand. T. B. Wakeman. 

Thermodynamics^ Heat- Motors^ and Refrigerating Machines, 
By De Volson Wood. New York, Wiley. V^, I4. 

The fact that a third edition of this work has been called for 
within a year of its first publication proves that Professor Wood 
possesses the two essential qualifications of a successful text-book 
maker, namely, a thorough knowledge of his subject, and the 
happy faculty of imparting that knowledge to others without caus- 
ing a waste of energy on their part in acquiring it. As Professor 
Wood aptly remarks in the preface to the first edition of this work, 
the " giant-like processes " of Rankine and the other founders of 
the science " are not adapted to the wants of the average student." 
Of course there is no royal road to learning for the student of any 
branch of science, but many unnecessary obstructions have been 
removed from the path of learners, in recent years, by the applica- 
tion of scientific principles to the art of teaching ; and the applica- 
tion of those principles to that art are well exemplified in the work 
under consideration. It does not attempt to bring the subject 
down to the comprehension of the average reader, but we think 
the author has met with a fair share of success in endeavoring to 
lead the student up, " by a more easy and uniformly graded path," 
to a thorough comprehension of the subject, while at the same 
time familiarizing him with the way by a free use of illustrations, 
exercises, historic references, and numerical examples. 

In this revised and enlarged edition the treatment of the theo- 
retical part of thermodynamics, including its application to the 
steam engine, is mainly the same as in previous ones. Additions 
have been made, since the first edition, on the following subjects : 
the vapor engine. Sterling's engine, Ericsson's hot-air engine ; gas, 
naphtha, and ammonia engines ; the steam injector and pulsom- 
eter, compressed air engines, the compressor, the steam turbine* 
refrigerating machines, and the combustion of fuel. There has 
also been added some miscellaneous matter in an addendum, be- 
sides steam, ammonia, and other tables. The ammonia tables are 
new, having been computed from formulas of the author. 

Fuel and its Applications, E. J. Mills and F. J. Rowan (Vol. i 
of Chemical Technology, ed. by C. E. Groves and W. Thorp). 
Philadelphia, Blakiston. %"*, $7.50. 

The fact that any great work must usually be the product of a 
growth, rather than a single effort of however great a mind, is well 
illustrated by the process of evolution which has produced this cy- 
clopedia of chemical technology. Those who remember the earlier 
editions of " Knapp's Technology." and who can compare its bulk 
and its extent, to say nothing of the perfection and accuracy of the 
editor's work, with its latest representative, just coming out under 
the editorship of Messrs. Groves and Thorp, will be amazed at the 
enormous extent to which the development of the chemical and re- 
lated industries here treated of have expanded during the genera- 
tion just past. The edition of Richardson and Ronalds illus- 
trated the progress of a few years ; that of Richardson and Watts 
presented another step in the path of improvement and growth, 
and we now have a substantially new work in which the editors 
have endeavored to give a fair synopsis of the facts and principles 
of science, as applied in the chemical industries, that shall satisfy, 
at least to a reasonable extent, the needs of the working chemist 
and of the chemical engineer, — a new but most important func- 
tionary in all great works, — and to give them a reference cyclo- 
pedia of their respective arts. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 362 

We have here the first part issued, a substantially bound and 
closely printed volume of 800 pages, full of well chosen illustrations, 
devoted entirely to the subject of fuel and its applications. A very 
good table of contents and a remarkably good index, both of es- 
sential importance in a work of this character, make it easy to find 
what is wanted, and to appreciate the magnitude and value of the 
work performed by the editors and writers. This volume is pre- 
pared by Dr. E. J. Mills and Mr. F. J. Rowan, the latter the well 
known engineer. It treats of the fuels, their chemical and physi- 
cal characteristics, their sources, methods of exploiting, of prepa- 
ration for their various applications, and their calorific value. The 
apparatus and methods of use of the several classes of combusti- 
bles, including the modern fuels, the mineral oils, and the gaseous 
combustibles, are exhibited at length and in detail, and the forms 
of apparatus employed in their utilization are illustrated. The 
theory of heat and of the heating efficiency of combustibles is well 
presented, and the methods of computation of heat developed and 
of temperatures attained are illustrated by examples. The princi- 
ples of chimney draught are considered at great length, and the 
prevention of smoke, — a most important subject, especially in lo- 
calities compelled to submit to the use of soft coals, — is well 

The portions in which the heating of houses by hot water and 
steam, and those in which the laws of heat-transmission are 
studied, are perhaps the most satisfactory and valuable in the 
book. These are matters which have rarely been as fully, and very 
seldom if at all, as well treated as we here find them. The book 
is worth its price for this part alone. Thirty pages are devoted to 
the study of furnaces using solid fuels, and as many more to the 
use oLgas as fuel, including the theory and operation of the Sie- 
mens furnace and its many relatives. The work concludes with a 
very valuable examination of the practical effect of fuel, and in- 
cludes very extensive and most admirably arranged tables of the 
American as well as foreign coals, their composition, their heating 
fy>wer, and their practical value as shown by experiment and use 
under ordinary conditions of metallurgical and engineering work. 

Taken as a whole, this is probably the best work on the fuels and 
their use and applications that has ever yet been printed, and it 
possesses the advantage, for American chemists and engineers, 
that its contents are available for use in the United States as well 
as in Europe ; and the special fuels of America are pracHcally 
as fully treated, and in as available a manner, as are those of the 
transatlantic countries. This volume, if it may be taken as the in- 
dex of usefulness for the whole cyclopedia, indicates that we may 
fairly expect the work, as a whole, to become the standard work of 
reference on its subjects, and to remain so for many years to come. 
Cyclopedic works of this character have usually been found to 
command a very large sale in this country, — witness the wonder- 
ful sale of the Encyclopedia Britannica, — and this new cyclopedia, 
if its sale is at all proportioned to its relative value, will find a 
market sufficiently extensive to handsomely repay its proprietors 
and contributors for their most admirable and conscientious labor. 


The Open Court Publishing Company of Chicago announces 
an authorized translation of M. Th. Ribot's " Psychology of Atten- 

— Jefferson Davis's article on Andersonville, which the Confed- 
erate leader is said to have withdrawn from the North American 
Review because its editor insisted on certain changes, will appear 
in Belford's Magazine, The Belford Company will also publish 
Mr. Davis's '* Short History of the Confederate States." 

— D. Appleton & Company have ready the third edition of Da- 
vid A. Wells's " Recent Economic Changes ; " the second edition 
of " The Ice Age of North America," by G. Frederick Wright ; 
and new editions of "California of the South," by Lindley and 
Widney ; " The Florida of To-Day," by J. W. Davidson ; and of 
the •* Handbook of American Winter Resorts." 

— The various aspects of sore throat are considered in an arti- 
cle by Dr. J. M. Mills in the January number of Babyhood^ which 
describes a new apparatus for the treatment of tonsilitis. The di- 

rections for gargling may also be new to many mothers of young 
children. Startling facts are given in Dr. Doming's paper on 
" The Administration of Opiates to Infants," which shows how 
prevalent this pernicious practice is. The comparative advantages 
and disadvantages of early music study for young children are dis- 
cussed in another article, and there are useful hints for busy and 
anxious young mothers in the departments of " Nursery Helps and 
Novelties," " Nursery Problems " and " Mothers' Pariiament." 

— " Mr. Bryce's * American Commonwealth ' is out of print in 
England," writes Mr. Smalley to the New York Tribune, " The 
first edition in its three 6ctavo volumes was of 1,500 copies, and is 
destined to become moderately scarce, for it is not likely to be re- 
printed in its complete form. Messrs. Macmillan are just bringing 
out a new and cheaper edition in two volumes, with the dangerous 
chapter by Mr. Goodnow omitted, or, at least, not fully reprinted. 
Mr. Oakey Hall has chosen to bring his action for libel against Mr. 
Bryce and not against the publishers, but no firm would wish to 
reprint an alleged libel while an action was pending ; nor would 
Mr. Bryce himself care to." 

— Charles H. Kerr & Co. of Chicago have published a discus- 
sion of the religious question by E. P. Powell, entitled " Liberty and 
Life." The author, having been brought up a Calvinist, has been 
led by the spirit of the age and his own investigations to renounce 
his early faith, and now stands, with many others who have passed 
through the same experience, on the ground of agnosticism. A 
large part of his book is occupied with criticisms of the old theology,, 
which are not always in the best spirit, and are ill calculated to 
win converts. The part of the work to which we turned with 
most interest, however, is that in which he undertakes to tell us 
what the religion of the future will be ; but we failed to find any 
thing new or satisfactory. All supernatural beliefs, he thinks, wiU 
be abandoned, and religion will consist mainly in cultivating our 
own characters and promoting the material interests of society. 
The book closes with one of those Utopian visions of what human 
life will be a hundred years hence, which have lately become so 
fashionable, but which, we take leave to say, are neither interest- 
ing nor edifying. 

— We took up the Rev. William M. Campbell's " Footprints of 
Christ," published by Funk & Wagnalls, in the hope of finding 
s6mething fresh in the author's conception of Christ's character 
and work; but in this we were disappointed. Mr. Campbell's 
views are those now held by the mass of Protestant theologians^ 
according to which Christ is to be looked upon chiefly a^ a model 
of moral perfection, absolutely free from sin, and exhibitingf all the 
virtues in their fulness ; while the old theory of the supernatural 
being, or divine Logos, is hardly alluded to. From its own point 
of view the book is fairly good. Mr. Campbell endeavors to trace 
the various shades and lineaments of Christ's character, the spe- 
cial excellences which at different times he exhibited ; and though 
his views are largely traditional and his method uncritical, his 
work is not without merit for moral instruction. We like in par- 
ticular the stress he lays on the stronger and more rugged elements 
in the character of Jesus, which preachers are apt to underestimate^ 
but which are really among his most prominent traits. But a per- 
fect treatment of the subjtet requires a different method from xKkt 
of this book. 

— The announcement is made of the change of title from Build- 
ing to Architecture and Building by that well known weekly. In 
making a change the desire has been to indicate more fuUy the 
character of the paper than is signified by the name of Building, 
Building has, especially of late years, devoted itself to the interest 
of architecture as a profession, and while it has made itself valu- 
able and interesting to builders, this interest has been rather from 
the architectural side than otherwise. Yet the name has led many 
to suppose that it was being published rather as a representative 
of the builders than of the architects, and to overcome every pos- 
sible misapprehension of this character in the future they have 
adopted the present title as better representing the character of 
the journal. Quite a change is made in the make-up. The two 
supplements that have heretofore been regular weekly features will 
be omitted, and departments substituted for them. In place of 

Digitized by 


January io, 1890.] 





A Urgo w<^k of 900 pp. with 85 f oU-pftge illustra- 
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It ta oompiled from a careful aurrey and is correct 

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Fort Ancient consists of 18,718.2 feet of embank- 
ment, and In slae, state of preservation and Impor- 
tance as an aboriginal f orttflcatlon is unequalled in 
this country. 

Price of book. $8 00. 

It will be ready for sale Jan. 10. 1800. 

Illustrated prospectus mailed free to any address. 
Send for one. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 
PuhU^ied by Robt. Clarke A Co , Cincinnati. 

New Books. 

The Anatomy of the 


Professor in the University of 
Freiburg. Translated with nu- 
merous Annotations and Addi- 


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Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 362 

the trade supplement will be given the department of " Industrial 
Progress," which they purpose making a useful feature of future 
issues. Recognizing that architecture, however artistic, is not pure 
•art, and that its practitioners cannot draw solely upon their inner 
-consciousness for the development of their designs, but must re^ 
gard the demands of their clients for the latest improvements both 
in structure and fittings, they propose in this department to place 
1)efore their readers new and valuable inventions, materials, and 
■appliances as they are placed on the market, together with ap- 
propriate notices of those valuable reference books, the trade 
•catalogues, as they appear. The " building news " will also ap- 
pear in a regular department, and two new departments, " Archi- 
tectural Engineering " and " Sanitary Engineering," will be given 
<:areful attention. * 

— The first number of the third volume of The American Jour- 
nal of Psychology (published now by Clark University at Worces- 
ter, Mass.) is now in press, and will appear in January, 1890, and 
succeeding numbers thereafter quarterly. The typography of the 
journal has been changed and improved. A new department of 
minor contributions has been added for briefer records of original 
•observation and research in laboratories and elsewhere, and for 
4ustorical chapters upon various phases of psychological science. 
The digests and critical reviews of European literature, which have 
before formed so important a feature of the journal, will be con- 
tinued, and made as complete as possible. Their scope will also 
•be enlarged so as to include, besides the fields already represented, 
the psychological parts of criminology and anthropology. The 
-editorial staff will be increased, and articles of unusual value and 
interest are promised. The price remains five dollars per year. 
The first and second volumes will also be furnished unbound at 
€ve dollars per volume till further notice. 

— D. Appleton & Co. will publish immediately, " Around and 
About South America," by Frank Vincent, who relates his experi- 
ences of twenty months, made useful with maps and plans and 
fifty- four full-page illustrations ; " An Epitome of Herbert Spencer's 
Syi)thetic Philosophy," by F. Howard Collins, with preface by 
Herbert Spencer ; " James G. Birney and His Times," the genesis 
•of the Republican party, with some account of Abolition move- 
ments in the South before 1828; and "The Religion of the Sem- 
ites," in which the fundamental institutions are treated by Prof. 
Robertson Smith, and the International Scientific Series will re- 
•ceive a new volume on " The Physiology of Bodily Exercise," by 
Fera^nd Lagrange. 

— Ginn & Company have just issued " An Elementary Treatise 
on the Method of Least Squares," by George C. Comstock, pro- 
fessor of astronomy in the University of Wisconsin and director of 
the Washburn Observatory. This treatise has grown out of at- 
tempts by the author to 90 present the subject to students that a 
working knowledge based upon an appreciation of its principles 
might be acquired with a moderate expenditure of time and labor. 
Believing that the ultimate warrant for the legitimacy of the method 
is to be found in the agreement between the observed distribution 
•of residuals and the distribution represented by the error curve. 
Professor Comstock has abandoned altogether the analytical 
•demonstrations of the equation of that curve, and presents it as 
an empirical formula, representing the generalized experience of 
observers. The evidence in support of a formula of this kind is 
cumulative, the few curves presented in illustration being con- 
sidered as samples of the kind of evidence existing. Prominence 
is given to the distinction between accidental and systematic 
errors, and the limitations which result from the difference between 
these two classes of errors is insisted upon. 

— The Ophthalmic Review begins its new volume with an 
American editor, Dr. Edward Jackson of Philadelphia? who suc- 
ceeds Dr. James Anderson of London. It will hereafter contain 
original articles from American as well as English ophthalmic 
surgeons ; with notices of all ophthalmological papers published 
here or abroad, and full reviews of the more important of them. 
The Review is now edited by J. B. Lawford, M.D., London ; Karl 
Orossman, Liverpool ; Priestley Smith, Birmingham ; John B. 
Story, M.D., Dublin, and Edward Jackson, M.D., 215 South Seven- 
teenth Street, Philadelphia, to whom all American communications 

concerning editorial matters, copies of papers, books for review, 
etc., should be addressed. The Review has hitherto devoted its 
space almost entirely to English and foreign contributions. Its 
success in this field has led the editors and publishers to increase 
its scope by including an index of American articles on ophthal- 
mological subjects, reviews of the most important papers, original 
articles by well-known men, and reports of the meetings of the 
American Ophthalmological Society, and the section on ophthal- 
mology of the American Medical Association. 

— Gebbie & Co., Philadelphia, have just published a book on 
the drama, entitled " Players and Playwrights I Have Known : a 
record of the English stage from 1840 to 1880," by John Coleman. 

— Funk & Wagnalls, have published " The Patience of Hope 
and Other Sermons, by the late Rev. Joseph H. Wright, with a 
brief Sketch of his Life," edited by Oliver J. Thatcher, Professor 
in the United Presbyterian Theological Seminary, AU^heny. Pa. 

— The first number of Kate Field's Washington has made its 
appearance. It is a " national independent review," will be pub- 
lished every Wednesday, at Washington, and partakes largely of 
the individuality of its talented editor. Four dollars per year, ten 
cents per copy. 

— The Belford Co. have in preparation " A New Encyclopaedia 
of American Biography," intended to not merely cover the ground 
usually occupied by such publications, but to make special men- 
tion of the men and women who are doing the work and forming 
the thought of our own time. Mr. James R. Gilmore (" Edmund 
Kirke ") is the editor. 

— Mr. Justin Winsor is engaged upon a biographical and his- 
torical work to be entitled " Christopher Columbus : an examina- 
tion of the historical and geographical conditions under which the 
Western Continent was disclosed to Europe, with an inquiry into 
the personal history of Cristoval Colon." Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
will be the publishers. 

— Dr. J. E. Oliver, of Boston, well known as a careful and in- 
telligent student of American history, has edited, says the Boston 
Transcript, ** the diary of William Pynchon, of Salem, and his 
book will be published at an early day. This diary was written 
during the middle and later years of the eighteenth century, and 
gives an accurate picture of Salem's social and political life in that 
interesting period. It will be issued by the Riverside Press." 


*t,*Corret^nd€ntt are requtstedto be a* brief Mpoetible* Tkt writer' $ nsmi it 
in ailctuet required as proof o/ good faith* 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consouaui with the character tf 
the journal* 

On request^ twenty copies of the number containing his communication wiUk 
furnished free to any correspondent. 

What Dr. Flint has to Say about the Nicaragna Footprints.' 

In replying to Dr. D. G. Brinton's article of Nov. 18, 1887, 
issued by the American Philosophical Society, and republished in 
1888 (No. 86) by the Philosophical Society of London, I entirdy 
overlooked Dr. Brinton's quotations of Pablo Levy as authoritative 
for geological reference. I (desire to correct the erroneous impres- 
sions caused by Levy's geological idiosyncrasies. 

The volcanic convulsions that modelled the existing features of 
Nicaragua were acting in remote times only, in its south-western 
part. The lakes occupying the old craters give no indications of 
disturbance, while those of historical times have not changed the 
contour of their surface, except in small effusions of lava. The 
largest volcanoes are between Nindiri and Managua. The ash- 
eruptions of Cosequina, on the north-western confines of Nicaragua, 
have diminished in volume, and may be considered as extinct. 
Monotombo, on the north-western shore of Lake Managua, has 
had various ash-eruptions, but its contour remains about the same 
as when visited by the early Spaniards. Omotepe still keeps its 
cone-like contour. The last eruption in 1883 was not accompanied 
by trembling. Lava was thrown out near the old crater on the 

> Extracu from a letter of Dr. Earl Flint of Revas, Nicaragua, to Hilboiae T. 
Cretton of Philadelphia. 

Digitized by 


January io, 1890.] 



eastern slope, doing but little damage, however, as it was some 
distance from the town on that side. The ashes injured the crops 
on the eastern slope, and also those about Rivas. Smoke con- 
tinued about three years in interrupted emissions, with violent 
rumbling, but no trembling of the earth. Like Monotombo, it is 
out of the axial line of the older and extinct volcanoes which lie 
between them and the primitive Cordilleras. If a line be drawn 
from Omotepe to Tipitapa, and thence to Cosequina, including 
Monotombo, the volcanic region of this district, in remote and 
recent times, is included within it. 

This volcanic district referred to Was the first occupied by early 
man, and even at the present time it is the most thickly populated. 
Strange to say, those who have written about this portion of Ni- 
caragua, either in a historical or scientific sense, have entirely 
ignored it: Especially is this true in regard to its geology. Know- 
ing this to be true, I requested Mr. I. Crawford, who is in the em 7 
ploy of the government, to give me his views in regard to the 
geological formation of this state. His remarks upon the subject 
are as follows. 

" Geology, in the larger part of Nicaragua, promises many in- 
teresting and valuable revelations to scientists searching for evi- 
dences of time and life. It is generally supposed by the world at 
large, that Nicaraguans are rocked to sleep by earthquakes, but 
you know that this is a mistake. So far, I have not been obliged 
to tread in the footprints of scientific predecessors. The geology 
and mineralogy of this region has never been studied before. 
Organic matter in this country is not a kind of infusoria from active 
and extinct volcanoes ; neither has all the organic matter in Ni- 
caragua been incubated in the yet warm craters of extinct, nor 
singed by hot eruptions from active, volcanoes. Having been 
ordered by the commissioners of Granada to make a typical collec- 
tion for exhibition at Paris, I was obliged to hurry over the moun- 
tains and ravines of this country in order to accomplish the work 
in time for shipment to France. The collection of geological and 
mineralog^cal specimens that I formed demonstrates that Nicara- 
gua is not the volcanic region that Spanish gold-hunting and 
Indian- murdering priests declared it to be. This mistake has 
been copied so frequently by careless investigators that at present 
it passes unquestioned by our great European and America scien- 
tific associations. It is well known, that, so far, there never has 
been even a superficial examination of the geology and mineralogy 
of the region we speak of. Levy's history of Nicaragua contains 
so many evidences of its unreliability, that any person upon read- 
ing it is impressed at once with the fact that Levy is not relating 
what he saw, or obtained from reliable sources, in regard to the 
geology of this country : he is simply drawing upon his imagina- 
tion. What a sad example for members of scientific associations 
who hurry into print, copying and publishing as facts things that 
they have not investigated, thus perplexing hardworking searchers 
for truth. I quote here the following paragraphs from one of my 
recent reports to the government of Nicaragua. * On account of 
diversity in the geological formations, and for the sake of easy 
reference, I divide this country (Nicaragua) into three parts, called 
eastern, central, and western. The eastern is bounded on its 
south-western part as follows ; commencing at 87° west longitude, 
from Greenwich, and 30** 30' north latitude, and extending by an 
irregular line to 85** 50" west longitude, and 1 2^ 45^ north latitude, 
thence to 85*^ 9^^ west longitude, and 11^ north latitude. The 
geological formation of the eastern division in the northern part is 
composed of eozoic and lower Silurian rocks, minerals, and metals ; 
some merely horizontal, others at various angles of inclination. 
The Silurian, which rests unconformably on the eozoic, is in places 
covered by alluvium formations. The middle and south-western 
parts of this eastern division are eozoic-Silurian and in some cases 
Devonian, each of the eras, in various places, well defined, but in that 
undisturbed condition in which the primitive upheaval and subse- 
quent contractions left them, resting at various angles of inclination. 
No evidence of earthquakes, no volcanoes, no volcanic craters, are 
to be found in any part of this eastern division.' We call particu- 
lar attention to this fact, and have been so much occupied by field 
work, in the mountains and ravines, that it has been impossible to 
publish a detailed account of it. The specimens collected will, 
however, keep fresh and tell the true story. In reference to glacia- 

tion, and moraines deposited by the glaciers, I found on the mesas 
near Metapa, at Totumbli, rocks and moraines deposited by the 
glaciers, and traced them toward the Pacific Ocean. 

" North-eastward for about 7 leagues there is an elevated plain 
adjoining that part of the valley of Sebaco, in which, at the Rio- 
Viejo, I found a large deposit of petrified bones of quaternary and 
tertiary animals. In my necessarily hurried examination of the 
deposit where the bones were found, I recognized no bones of the 
human body, but several bones of parts of the head.' There were 
also a few teeth of large marsupials. These unexpected discover- 
ies in this hitherto supposed hotbed for volcanoes I have not yet 
carefully examined, but hope that time will soon be given for its 
future study. Particular attention is called to these peculiarities in 
the geological formation of this part of Nicaragua, which are not 
in harmony with, but opposed to. statements and maps of all his- 
torians about the geology and mineralogy of Nicaragua. I was 
too much hurried in my examinations to satisfy myself as to- 
whether the bones were older, or were deposited, or which were 
the older formation, they or the glacier. The nearest moraines 
and glacier- marked rocks that I noticed were about two leagues 
distant, 200 feet higher than where the bones are. The glacier 
rocks may have been strewn over the valley on a surface deposit 
of 200 feet directly over the bones, or, as the valley was — I have 
some reason to believe — once much deeper than at present, most 
probably the moraines and glacier-marked rocks falling in the 
valley were washed down the Rio Viejo by large floods into the 
present Lake Managua, and therefore the deposit of bones would 
have been made subsequent to the glacier period." 

A word about the glacial period and its relation to the fossi) 
remains mentioned in the extracts of parts of Mr. Crawford's let- 
ter as occurring in the cuttings of the Rio Viejo and the great plain 
of Sebaco, emptying into Lake Managua, and his uncertainty about 
them. As they occur some 200 feet lower than the moraines to the 
north-east, requiring another visit to arrive at the truth, we must 
say that those on the large stretches of lowland, north of Lake 
Nicaragua, occur under like circumstances. These plains extend 
back to the base of the old Cordilleras. Their upper surface is 
composed of black alluvium lying along the northern bowlders, 
which were the make-up of an inland sea, or ocean inlet, shut in 
by the upheaval, after which the waters flowed back to the foot- 
hills, from, or due to, an accumulation of rainfalls washing down 
the alluvium. On the plain mentioned, north of the lake, were 
found the bones of what Professor Baird said belonged to Elephas 
prtmqgenitas; while in the river banks to the east, formed of con- 
glomerate detritus, stratified, and volcanic material (shown by 
pebbles of scoria, worn smooth), laborers, while excavating there 
in 1874, encountered a fossil human skeleton, some twenty feet be- 
low the surface. 

Clear demarcations of geological epochs are found in this locali- 
ty ; and the question of ice age here will be decided in the near 
future so clearly that scientists will feel satisfied. It may be inter- 
esting also to mention, that, in 1863, while passing from Tipitapa 
to Talolinga, I noticed glacial deposits ; also, on a hill back of 'San 
Carlos, sharp fragments of quartz rock of large dimensions are of 
glacial deposition. I called the attention of Professors Henry and 
Baird to these facts years ago, and requested the geologist of the 
first canal survey to visit the localities named, but he could not do 
so on account of press of work. In a letter to the American Anti- 
quarian I asserted that the fossils mentioned were above the clay 
formation,' under the ash-eruption that covered the vegetation^ 
whose fossil leaves may determine the geological period of Nicara- 
gua, or the time of its disappearance. The coincidence of the fos- 
sil leaves with those in the sedimentary rocks formed here after the 
uplifted coast range, produced by the cataclysm, goes to show that 
the glacial age here was disappearing. Near by, to the north-east » 
the glaciers crowded on towards the fierce fires from the summits 
of the old Cordilleras, trying to assert a supremacy in that conflict 
of elements, both vieing in their work of desolation. The eternal 

1 A distinction between the bones of the human body and head is evidently here 
intended by Mr. Crawford and Dr. Flint. — H. T. Cresson. 

* The ash-eruption did not extend north of the lakes to where the bones occur 
It was an epoch of repose, of long duration, during which the accumulation of allu-. 
vium was deposited around the lakes and over the glacial deposiu in the location 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 362 

4iills, supporting them, were unmoved ; ashes and ejected scoriae 
were spread upon their declivities, and thus, aided by subsequent 
Tains and a tropical sun, has unburied the hidden bones of various 
animals in the water-ways. While those of the mastodon are also 
•exhumed, their compeers of Siberia await for a distant future to 
regain a tropical sun. Which of the two is the older? That any 
(lived after the disappearance here of the glaciers, proves nothing. 
With proper surroundings, they might exist to-day. 

I desire to state clearly that the Rev. Stephen D. Peet's assertion 
that Dr. Brinton makes out on my own testimony that the foot- 
iprints did not belong to eocene times, is in error, and needlessly 
so, as he had received from me an explicit denial of any con- 
<nection of sand with the shells. The leaves, or dust of leaves, if 
any were with the shells, came from trees growing around the lake. 
No volcanic force has disturbed the location, at least in historic 
'times. The sandal, or some covering to protect the feet, the Rev. 
Mr. Peet knew was ascribed to an impression sent to Harvard, 
'from a location forty miles distant from those at the quarry, to the 
south-west, and on the other side, of the range of extinct volca- 

I never said that the " molten streams of lava found their way 
into Lake Managua." There is nothing of the kind found there on 
the lake border. Layers of tufa, made up of volcanic detritus, is 
the formation of all the district we speak of ; and at Masaya, 
Juotepi, etc., the Tiscapa lava flow spoken of by Levy must have 
occurred to that gentleman in his dreams. If Dr. Brinton had not 
•quoted Levy in connection with my attempt to explain the history 
of the impressions I sent him, no such erroneous data would have 
gone forth in regard to the outbursts of lava that occurred, Xhe 
mountain of Masaya, between Nindri and Managua, is the only nota- 
ble locality. It passed over the old tufa. Monobracho also 
•ejected lava, and it spread over the plain to the south-west of Gra- 
nada. These mountains were in action long subsequent to those 

The Rev. Mr. Peet's assertion that Harvard and the National 
Museum have only slabs with impressions of feet to judge from, is 
also incorrect. If he will re-peruse his own Antiquarian, he will 
find there bitter complaints, on my part, in regard to the lack of 
•care in the examination of fossils found with and separate from 
them, which alone would identify their geological age. His aim is 
•undoubtedly to keep up the controversy. Truth is certainly not 
obtained by making direct denials of phenomenal occurrences that 
Dr. Brinton and Mr. Peet never saw or investigated. The " big- 
toe " argument will not apply to an arched instep. A long os 
calcis and a flat-footed race have the big toe perfect. Let us wait 
until one of the fossil feet are found. Before belittling flnds of the 
•class mentioned they should be compared with similar ones occurring 
under volcanic formations in other countries whose geological exami- 
nation has been determined by competent men. " The great volcanic 
outburst that overran northern and central California," says Dr. L. 
<j. Yates of Santa Barbara, " covered the relics of a race who were 
there, and lived there, previously, whose implements were found 
tinder Table Mountain, a bosaltic formation, two hundred feet in 
thickness. These relics are unique, and were made, and covered by 
lava, so long ago, that the river bed down which the lava ran (and 
where it still lies, forming the summit) is now high above the sur- 
frfounding country, forming the Table Mountain, and where the 
mountains which were on either side of thie old river-bed haVe 
been washed away, and their places now occupied by valleys and 
»Tiver-beds, and since which time the whole surface of the country 
has been changed, with a new surface soil, a new vegetation, and 
•a new fauna." 

Facts of this nature, by men of Dr. Yates's character, should not 
'be ignored. No sceptic can doubt that man existed there in as re- 
'mote times as here in Central America. I have often reported that 
there was a resemblance in the geological flnds of the two. Cali- 
'fornia has no greater variety of minerals ; gold, silver, tin» lead, 
^bismuth, platinum, nickel, zinc, iron, etc., are among the metals. 

I want to call the attention of scientists to this neglected spot in 
Nicaragua, and convince them that man existed here long prior to 
"the glacial era. Will some of the scientists in the United States do 
'tne the favor to look over the few shells sent by me to the National 
.Museum. These specimens will tell the exact time (geologically) 

when man lived here in the caves, and subsisted on the very oys- 
ters (i.e., from the shells). The specimens may be seen among 
those I forwarded a few years ago, and which are now in some 
part of the National Museum. 

Science Text-Books. 

Is there to be found a really good " Physics " for lads of twelve 
to fifteen, as good as Shaler's " Geology " and Packard's " Zoology '? 
Several firms publish and manage to " introduce " a lot of old rub- 
bish as science text-books, ft is a scandal that ought to be ven- 
tilated. I have just opened a " History " sent out by a firm that 
professes to patronize and popularize science, and my boys are 
promptly told, " For the history of the Creation, Deluge, and Dis- 
persion, the reader is referred to the Scriptural narrative." It 
needs some patience to get through this AufklavUng from stuff to 
real science. P. 


New Electro-Medical Apparatus. 

An improved form of Laclanche Faradic battery for the use of 
physicians and surgeons, is shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion. In this battery the exciting fluid is a simple and inexpensive 
solution of sal ammoniac and water, which will last without re- 
newal from six to twelve months. The zinc element is a pencil of 
pure metal, the position of which is never disturbed, whether the 
battery is in action or not. It usually lasts over a year, and is re- 

placed at slight expense. The carbon element does not require 
renewal, as a rule, oftener than once in two years. 

The battery has a handsomely polished hard-wood case, open- 
ing at the top and at the front. It is provided with a metallic han- 
dle, which, together with all the metallic parts of the machine it- 
self, is nickel- plated. The case measures nine and a quarter inches 
high, five inches and a half wide, and seven inches and a half long. 
In the case is ajcommodious electrode pocket containing a pair of 
interchangeable electrode handles, a pair of nickel-plated hand elec- 
trodes, and a sponge electrode. The battery cell is inclosed in an 
inner compartment, which, while it is closed up and completely 
separates the cell from the rest of the apparatus, is arranged with 
a sliding cover to give convenient access to it whenever required. 

A feature of special importance is the fact that the cell and all 
its working parts are mounted on a polished ebonized slide, with 
automatic electrical contacts beneath its surface. The act of pull- 
ing out this slide a short distance serves to start the machine, and 
closing it up cuts out the cell and stops the action. This makes it 
impossible to close the case without cutting out the cell. This 
battery is manufactured by E. S. Greeley & Company of this city. 

Digitized by 


January io, 1890.] 


The New Disk Clutch. 
Among the • many interesting devices shown at the recent 
marine exhibition in Boston was a novel and ingenious disk clutcii» 
the invention of Mr. Walter Hart of this city. This device is in- 
tended primarily as a safety boat- lowering apparatus, though it is • 
equally efficient for hoisting boats or merchandise, by either manual, 
steam, or electric power. The apparatus consists of a pedestal, to 
be fastened to the deck or elsewhere, which supports two disk- 

clutches, one at each end of a horizontal shaft. The ropes or falls 
by which the boat or other article is suspended are placed in these 
disks, by which they are clutched in such a way as to prevent slip- 
ping. The motion of these disks is controlled by a hand- wheel, 
by which the speed of revolution of the shaft and consequent 
lowering or hoisting of the boat is governed. The machine is 
compact and powerful, and attracted much favorable attention 
among men interested in nautical affairs. 


[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 
York.1 ^ 

A ftw duplicates of Afmrex radixy Af. ramatus^ M. 
brandsnst Cassis n»/a, Harpa ventricosa^ Oliva tri- 
atulA^ 0. rtticulariSy Cklorosioma funtbralty CyPreea 
caput serpent is, C. lynxs Lottia giganttay Acmola 
patina, Ckama spinosuy and some thirty other species, 
for exchange for wells not in our collection. List on ap- 
plication. — Curator Museum, Polytechnic Society, Lou- 
isrilk, Ky. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic views of Aborigines of 
any country, and fine landscapes .etc, wan ted in exchange 
for mmeiak and fossils. — L. L. Lewis, Copenhagen, 
New York. 

ThQmtxk'% Aig^meimtr Hisioricker Hand-atlas (Leip- 
»g, 1886,) for scientific books — those published in the 
International Scientific Series preferred.— James H. 
Stoller. Schenectady, N.Y. 

Astronomical works and reports wanted in exchange or 
to buy. Reports of observations on the planet Neptune 
and its satellite specially desired. — Edmund J. Sheri- 
dan, B.A., 195 Adelpbi St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

1 would hke to correspond with any person having 
Tryoo's ** Structural ana Systematic Concholory" to 
dispose of. I wish abo to obtain State or U.S. Reports 
on Geology. Conchology, and Archaeology. I will ex- 
dunge clXttified specimens or pay cash. Also wanted a 
copy of MacFariane's ** Geologists' Traveling Hand-Book 
and Geological Railway Guide." — D- E. WiUard, Cura- 
tor of Mtiseum, Albion Academy, Albion, Wis. 

Morris's ** British Butterflies,*' Morris's ^' Nests and 
EfEgs of British Birds," Bree's *' Birds of Europe" (all 
.cokffcd plates), and other natural history, in exchange 
for Shakesperiana ; either books, pamphlets, engravings, 
or cuttings. — J. D. Bamett, Box 735, Stratford, Canada. 

I have Anodonta opalina (Weatherby), and many 
other species of shells from the noted ' Koshkonong Lake 
and vicinity, also from Western New York, and fossils 
from the Marcellus shale of New York, which I would be 
ebd to exchange for j«peci mens of scientific value of any 
kind. I «rould also like to correspond with persons inter- 
ested in the collection, sale, or exchange of Indian relics.— 
D. E. WUlard, Albion Academy. Albion. Wis. 

Will exchange " Princeton Review " for 1883, Hugh 
Miller's works on geology and other scientific works, for 
hack numbetsof " The Auk," ** American Naturalist," 
•or other scientific periodicals or books. Write.— J. M. 
Keck, Chardon, Ohio. 

** I wish to exchange Lepidoptera with parties in the 
eastern and southern states. I will send western species 
for those found in other localities. " — P. C Truman, 
Volga, Brookings Co., Dakota. 

Shelb and curiosities for marine shells, curiosities or 
ainerals address W. F. Lerch, No. 308 East Fouith St., 
Davenport, Iowa. 

I want to correspond and exchange with a collector of 
beetles in Texas or Florida. — Wm. D. Richardson, 
P.O. Box aa3, Fredericksburg, Yirginia. 

A collection of fifty unclassified shells for the best o£Eer 
in hird skins ; also skins of California birds for thoy of 
birds of other localities. Address Th. £. Slevin, 9413 
Sacramenio St., San t rancisco, Cal. 

I have forty varieties of birds' egss, side blown, first 
cbss, in sets, with full data, which 1 will exchange for 

books, scientific journals, shells, and curios. Write me, 
stating what you have to offer. ~ Dr. W. S. Strodb, 
Bemadotte, Fulton County, 111. 

A Day. | 





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AGAIN. Palatable as milk. En- 


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Mineral Lands. 

post of Manganese is for sale. Apply to H. 
N., care of Science, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

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learn of a newly discovered vein by applying to 
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RED SLATE. — A valuable deposit of red 
slate for sale. Apply to H. N., care of Science^ 
47 Lafayette Place, New York. 



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i Hef lethod of Treating Disease. 


What are they ? There is a new departure in 
the treatment of disease. It consists in the 
collection of the specifics used by noted special- 
isli of Europe and America, and bringing them 
within the reach of all. For instance, the treat- 
ment pursued by special physicians who treat 
indigestion, stomach and liver troubles only, 
was obtained and prepared. The treatment of 
other physicians celebrated for curing catarrh 
was procured, and so on till these incomparable 
cures now include disease of the lungs, kidneys, 
female weakness, rheumatism and nervous de- 

This new method of "one remedy for one 
disease " must appeal to the common sense of 
all sufferers, many of whom have experienced 
the ill effects, and thoroughly realize the ab- 
surdity of the claims of Patent Medicines which 
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bottle, and the use of which, as statistics prove, 
has ruined more stomachs than alcohol. A cir- 
cular describing these new remedies is sent free 
on receipt of stamp to pay postage by Hospital 
Remedy Company, Toronto, Canada, sole pro- 

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Prices Reduced for the Holidays. 

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because It is always ready. Writes freely and 
never gets out of order. 

Sent by mail prepaid for $1.50, $a.oo, and $3.50 
each, according to size selected. 

These are special prices for the holidays, and this 
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M'l'gr stationer. Steam Printer, 

and Dealer in Useful Office Specialties, and 
Labor Saving Devices for Accountants. 
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No. 369 BROADWAY, New York. 

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graved to order.— The very best quality of work 

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the connois&eur, as well as 

Our stock is very complete in 
fine Cabinet specimens for 
as cheaper specimens for the be- 
ginner and the student. We also make a ^cialty of 
minerals by weisht for Blowpipe Analysb. we have re- 
cently received nne specimens of Drusy Quartz on Chrys- 
ocolla, from Globe, Arizona ; Malachite and Azurite, 
Bisbee, Ariz. : Lettsomite, very rare, Ariz.; Millerite, 
Antwerp, N.Y. ; modified Quartz crystals, Alexander 
Co., N.C. ; etc., etc Complete Catalogue free. 

GEO. L. ENGLISH A CO.« Dealen in Minerals, 
rsra Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Readers of Science 

Corresponding or visiting with Adifer- 
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ing this paper. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 362 

Royal Meteorological Society, London. 
Dec. 18. — The following is a list of the 
papers read at the meeting : " Report of 
the Wind Force Committee on the Factor of 
the Kew pattern Robinson Anemometer," 
by Mr. W. H. Dines, who has made a large 
number of experiments with various ane- 
mometers on the whirling machine at Herr- 
ham ; *' On testing Anemometers," by Mr. 
W. H. Dines, B. A ; " On the Rainfall of the 
Riviera," by Mr. G. J. Symons. F.R.S; and 
" Report on the Phenological Observations 
for 1889," by Mr. E. Mawley. This latter 
paper was a discussion of observations on 
the flowering of plants, the appearance of in- 
sects, and the song and nesting of birds, etc. 

Philosophical Society, Washington. 

Jan. 4. — The following Communications 
are expected : H. A. Hazen, Brocken Spectra ; 
W. J. McGee, On the Southern Extension of 
the Columbia Formation. 

Academy of Sciences. New York. 

Jan. 6. —- The Regular Business Meeting 
will be held, after which the following paper 
is announced : — W. Goold Levison, Notes 
on Pyrotechnical Photography (illustrated 
with the lantern). 

Boston Society of Natural History. 
Jan. I. — F. W. Putnam, G. Frederick 
Wright, W. O. Crosby, Warren Upham and 
G. H. Barton, Discussion of the question of 
"The Climatic Conditions of the Glacial 

Catarrltal Deaftaes^-Hay Fever. 


Sufferers are not generally aware that these 
diseases are contagious, jor ihat they are due to 
the presence of living parasites in the lining 
membrane of the no^e and eustachian tubes. 
Microscopic research, however, has proved this 
to be a fact, and the result of this discovery is 
that a simple remedy has been formulated where- 
by catarrh, catarrhal deafness and hay fever are 
pcrnaanenily cured in from one to three simple 
applications made at home by the patient once 
in two weeks. 

K.B. — This treatment is not a snuff or an 
ointment ; both have been discarded by repu- 
table physicians as injurious. A pamphlet ex- 
plaining this new treatment is sent free on 
receipt of stamp to pay postage, by A, H. Dix- 
on & Son. 337 and 339 West King Street. 
Toronto, Canada. — Christian Advocate, 

Sufferers from Catarrhal troubles should care- 
fully read the above. 


cured in stipulated time. 


Call or send stamp for circular and reference of those 
cured. We have on hand over 300 styles of trusses, from 
$1 up, and suspensories of all kinds. Orders filled by 
mail or express to any part of the United States. 

C. A. M. BURNHAVf, M.D., 

X38 Clinton Place, New York. 


for Science is now ready, and will be mailed 
postpaid on receipt of price. 

Half Morocco - 75 cents. 

This binder is strong, durable and 
elegant, has gilt side-title, and allovs 
the opening of the pages perfectly 
fiat. Any number can be taken ooi 
or replaced without disturbing the 
others, and the papers are not inuti» 
lated for subsequent permanent bind 
ing. Filed in this binder. Science is 
always convenient for reference. 


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Corresponding with or visiting Advertisers^ 
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Every one has heard of the butcher who, after a long 
search for his knife, at last found it in his mouth : so 
speakers of Eniglish have been seeking for a universal 
language, when, lo ! it is in their mouths. The intelligi- 
bility of English words has been obscured by a dense 
mist of letters. This is now dispersed by A. Melville 
Bell, who has already won a world-wide reputation 
through his invention of "Visible Speech," the great 
boon to deaf-mutes. Professor Bell calls this new discov- 
ery of his " World- English," and the result is a language 
which cannot fail to meet with acceptance, and at once 
supersede the supposed necessity for ** Volapiik," or any 
other artificial language. No language could be invented 
for international use that would surpass English in gram- 
matical simplicity, and in 'general fitness to become the 
tongue of the world. It is already the mother-tongue of 
increasing millions in both hemispheres, and some knowl- 
edge of the language is demanded by all educated popula- 
tions on the globe. Social and commercial necessities 
require that the acquisition of this knowledge shall be 
facilitated, and it is believed that Professor Bell's inven- 
tion has removed the last impediment to English becom- 
ing the universal language, for which vague desires have 
long been entertained, although hitherto only futile ef- 
forts have been made. 

Ez-President Andrew D. White, of Cornell University, 
ta3r8 : " I believe that the highest interests of Chri<>tian 
civilization and of humanity would be served by its 
adoption. China and Japan would be made English- 
speaking peoples within fifty years, and so brought with- 
in the range of Christianizing and civilizing ideas, in the 
largest sense. All existing missionary work is trivial as 
compared with this. For your system would throw wide 
open those vast countriesi as, indeed, all the countries of 
the world, to the whole current of English and American 

For DllDuioi 01 EngM Qirouglioiit tlie Worll 

This " Haml-Book of World-Englith " It the Complete, Simple, 
and Efficient Medium. 


Will Acquiroi by Means of this Hand-Book, a 

For FriiDiiry Sclool Pnpils and Illiterate Adults 

Wotld-Engliih is a Royal Road to Reading. 

TO Teacliers or EngM ail Moilem Languages 

This Hand-Book will be of Primary Importance 
as a Phonetic Directory. 


Will be Readily Corrected by MeanB of the Artloula- 
tive Directions in this Hand-Book. 


as CENTS. 
The plan of this little book is altogether new. Letten 
and sounds are so associated, in all the exercises, that from 
the mere knowledge 5f letters a learner cannot fail to 
pronounce words with certainty. English reading will 
thus be easily acquired, whether by natives or foreigners, 
children or adults. 

The general resembbuice of World-English to Literary 
English is such that any reader of the latter deciphers 
the former at sight, or, at most, after a few minutes' 
study of the new letters. A like result may be antici- 
pated for those who shall learn to read from World-Eng- 
lish. They will transfer their power of reading to the 
literary form of the language, almost without effort. The 
orthographic aspect of words will, besides, be so fixed in 
the eye, by contrast, that spelling will be remembered as 
— what it really is — a pictorial association with words. 

No special training is required to qualify teachers for 
using this book. The subject can even be successfully in- 
troduced in the kindergarten and the nursery. This 
phonetic mode of initiation in reading cannot be too 
strongly urged on the attention of School Boards on both 
sides of the Atlantic. 

The ordinary orthography of each word is interlined 
with the World-English version throughout the Ezer* 
dies and Readings . 

So set down, our tongue is the best for the world to 
unite xx^n.—Brooktyn Ea^e. • 

The idea of Mr. Bell has much to recommend it, and 
the presentation is charmingly clear. -American^ Phila. 

The result is a language which cannot fail to meet *-ith 
acceptance.— .f<if/<7iB Traveller. 

Has the merit of great xngtnmiy. ^Railway Agg. 

His treatise, as a study of English orthoepy, candenses 
the result of much thought and experience in small com. 
pass.— rAr CriV/r. 

World-English deserves the careful consideration of all 
serious scholars.— .^^dW-w Language Nciet. 

World-English is the English language unburdened of 
us chaotic spelling.— /V*^'' Science Monthly, 

We commend it to 'the attention of teachers.— O^/awa 

" World-Ettgluh " and "Hand-Book of World-EHglish " can be had of all bookselUn, or vnU be sent for 50 cents, postfru, by thepnbUsher, 

3Sr. ID. O, HZOIDO-ES, 4T Lafayeirbe I»laoe, DSTe-w- "yoa-Ifc, 

Digitized by 


January io, 1S90.] 





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Any person seeking a position for which he is quali- 
fied by his scientific attaiHtnen*5y or any person seeking 
some one to fill a position 0/ this character^ be it that 
0/ a teacher 0/ science^chemist. draughtsman^ or what 
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UNITED STATES. — In view of the 
general impression that leprosy is spreading in 
this country, it is desirable, in the interest of 
the public health, to obtain accurate informa- 
tion on this point. The undersigned is engaged 
in collecting statistics of all cases of Icpiosy in 
the United States, and he would ask members 
of the profession to aid in this work by sending 
a report of any case or cases under their observa- 
tion, or coming within their knowledge. Please 
give location, age, sex, and nationality of the 
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cular or anaesthetic ; also any facts bearing upon 
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"Alkali," care of Science. 

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lege, desires a position as assistant in some 
chemical works. Address, B. G. D., 526 Cherry 
St., Elizabeth, N.J. 

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Vicarage, Bristol, England. 

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State whether there was any smoke or dust 
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(Vol. XV. No. 362 

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[Vol. XV. No. 363 

Digitized by 


January 17, 1890.] 

























Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 363 


We illustrate in this issue the central station of the Edison Il- 
luminating Company recently completed in Brooklyn, N.Y. Fig. 
I is a view of the Pearl Street front of the building. Fig. 2 is a 
plan of the engine and boiler room, and Fig. 3 is a vertical section 
of the station. The station is designed for an ultimate capacity of 
36,000 lights of 16 candle-power each. At present only about one- 
third of the plant is installed, that being sufficient to supply the 
immediate demands; The rest will be added as required. 

The building, which is fire-proof throughout, is seventy- four by 
a hundred feet, three stories high, and is located practically in the 
centre of the district to be supplied. Besides the generating plant, 
supply rooms, store rooms, etc., the building has ample room for 
offices, thus enabling the company to centre all departments of its 
business under one roof. 

Under the sidewalk are located large reserve coal vaults, the 
coal for immediate use being in a storage room on the second 
floor, over the boiler room. On the first floor are the engine and 
boiler rooms ; the dynamos and electrical apparatus generally are 
on the second floor, and the third is taken up by store and supply 
rooms and by a suit of handsomely fitted offices. Under the 
engine room is a solid bed of concrete four feet thick, laid entirely 
apart from and independent of the wall foundations. Upon this 
rest the foundations for the twelve engines. In this manner all jar 
from the engines is absorbed or neutralized, none of it being trans- 
mitted to walls or floors. 

The engines are high-speed compound Ball engines, of three 
hundred horse-power each, the high-pressure and low-pressure 
cylinders being respectively thirteen and twenty-five inches in 
diameter and sixteen-inch stroke of piston. These are said to be 
the heaviest and largest engines of their class ever built. The 
general arrangement of engines and boilers is shown in the plan, 
Fig. 2. 

Steam is supplied by eight Babcock & Wilcox sectional boilers 
of the largest type, arranged in two groups or batteries of four 
each. Each boiler has about 2,800 square feet of heating surface 
— between six arid seven square feet for each horse-power de- 
veloped. The boiler room has all necessary arrangements for the 
convenient working of the plant. The ash-pits under the boifers, 
into which the ashes are raked from the furnaces, discharge into a 
car running on a track in the basement, which is then hoisted on 
an elevator, thu^ avoiding all shoveling and handling. The coal 
is elevated to the store-room, whence it is fed down to the boilers 
through chutes, on each of which is a special coal-scale, so that 
every day's supply is known, and the economy of the plant is con- 
stantly recorded. Water meters, in a similar way, record the 
quantity of water used. Two main steam pipes extend from the 
boilers to the engines, each engine and boiler being connected to 
both pipes, so that any boiler or engine may be disconnected with- 
out interfering with the operation of the others. 

The front half of the second story is devoted to the electrical 
plant. The space is arranged for twenty- four Edison dynamos, 
each engine being belted directly to two dynamos. The dynamos 
run at a speed of 650 revolutions per minute, and each has a 
normal capacity of fifteen hundred sixteen-candle power lights. In 
both engine room and dynamo room overhead travelling cranes 
are arranged, for the convenient handling of heavy pieces of ma- 

Through the centre of the dynamo room runs what is called the 
" electrical gallery," to which are brought all the cables from the 
dynamos. In the centre of this gallery, within easy reaching 
distance of one person, are arranged all dynamo swtches, dynamo 
field-boxes, ampere meters, etc., so that one man in this gallery 
has all the electrical apparatus under his immediate control. 

From this gallery seventeen feeders run to different parts of the 
district to be supplied with lights. The three-wire system being 
used, each feeder consists of three cables, a positive, a negative, 
and a neutral. By the arrangement of apparatus in the gallery, 
the man in charge can see at a glance the total load on the 
dynamos, and through what feeders and in what part of the dis- 
trict this load is being distributed. The underground system or 

net-work of wires throughout the district is all united by large 
mains; and the regulation of current is. such that at no time is 
there a difference of potential of more than one volt throughout 
the district. 

The underground system, as at present laid out, is arranged for 
a total of twenty thousand lights, and may be readily extended as 
the demand warrants. It covers an extreme distance of a mile 
from the station in one direction, and about three-quarters of a 
mile in the other, in an excellent business and residential district, 
from an electric lighting point of view. 

The Edison system of underground tubing, which has proved so 
successful, has been introduced here, with many improvements 
and additions. The maximum drop under full load is one per cent 
on the mains, and there are only four sizes of tubes used in the 
mains, ranging respectively from 100,000 to 250,000 circular rails. 
Mains, as here introduced, are in larger-sized tubes than have here- 
tofore been used, allowing more insulation compound to be intro- 
duced into the tube. All three wires in the mains arc of the same 

The Edison system of distribution is too well-known to need 
any extended description. Service connections can be taken off at 
the coupling boxes every twenty feet. At all street crossings arc 
placed main junction boxes with busses, into which all mains at 
each street-crossing are brought, thereby uniting and tying the 
mains together at every corner, to obtain uniform distribution and 
pressure, and to allow more readily of a proper inspection of 
the system. At these boxes each main is protected by an ampere 
safety catch of proper size, except the neutrals, which arc coupled 
with solid copper caiches. Into certain of these junction boxes 
the feeders running direct from the station are connected to the 
system of mains. In case any feeder is disconnected, for any 
cause, it will not in any way affect the system, as the main which 
it is directly feeding will be supplied from the other feeders. In 
case of any accident or short circuit on the main, it does not throw 
off the service from any customer, as the mains are fed out to the 
point of trouble from both directions. Five of the feeders, instead 
of running to only one point of distribution, run to a certain point, 
and from there to two or three other points. This is to obtam 
better control and distribution over the system. This underground 
system, after completion and being thoroughly tested and started 
in operation, showed an insulation resistance on the whole system 
of over 700,000 ohms, said to be the best result in that directkm 
ever achieved in an underground system. 


A GREAT deal of interesting information concerning the Kongo, 
gathered from trustworthy sources, is given in the December num- 
ber of the Scottish Geoj^raphical Magazine, The estuary of the 
river, between Banana Point and Shark Point is eight miles across, 
and soundings have indicated depths of sixty fathoms. The cur- 
rent at the mouth is very rapid, certainly not less than three knots 
an hour, or a little over five feet per second. Taking the vertical 
section at the mouth a triangle, the base of which measures 
eight miles and the altitude sixty fathoms, it will be found that 
about 1,060,000 tons of water are poured into the sea per second. 
The effect of this huge volume is perceptible as far as six degrees 
of latitude northwards from the mouth of the river, or to a dis- 
tance of 360 nautical miles, so that a vessel making for Banana 
feels this formidable resistance after crossing the Equator, and its 
speed is diminished. Sailing-vessels have often to wait for weeks 
for a spring- tide, or a strong wind springs up, and enables them to 
enter the river. 

Another phenomenon is the current caused by the water at the 
edge of the stream losing its onward velocity, and being forced 
back towards the land, where it spreads itself out along the coast. 
The ports along this coa^t, such as Kabinda, Loango, etc., are 
only roadsteads with but little shelter. Vessels have to be loaded 
and unloaded by lighters towed by small tugs. The lighters arc 
sometimes overturned, when their cargo, if it be palm-oil, for in- 
stance, floats, and the owners know where it will be found on the 
shore. For example, any article that falls into the sea off Landana, 

Digitized by 


January 17, 1890.] 



two miles out to sea, will arrive at the shore near Sette Cama. 
This current is not felt beyond Cape Lopez, for its effect is neu- 
tralized by the rivers Gabun and Ogow6. 

When a vessel coming from the north arrives at about thirty 
miles from the mouth of the river, it crosses a clearly marked line 
on the surface of the water. On the side of this line towards the 
Atlantic the water is of the greenish, milky color which announces 
the proximity of land ; on the other, it has the characteristic color 
of the river, a brownish yellow. The ship has now entered the 
waters of the river, though the land is scarcely yet visible. The 
pilot-signals, buoys, and landmarks set up by the Government, 
render it a very easy task to take a ship into the port of Banana. 
After skirting the bank at the point, she enters at once into a mag- 
nificent bay, where a whole fleet could ride at anchor. This port 
far surpasses all others along the coast, and it is astonishing that 
no one thought of occupying a spot so favorably situated at the 
fnouth of one of the mightiest rivers of the globe until some slave- 
traders in the present century took up their quarters at Banana 
Point. Cases of illness are rare, and invalids speedily recover in 
this healthy spot. The heat is rendered supportable by the sea- 
breeze, which blows from ten o'clock in the morning. 

The basin of the Kongo and its affluents has an area of about 
386,000 square miles, more than thirty-three times the area of Bel- 
gium, and nearly as large as Holland, Belgium, France, Switzer- 
land, Italy, and Ireland united. The navigable waters of the basin 
measure together about 7,140 miles in length. The length of both 
banks of the navigable waterways, 14,280 miles, is about that of the 
coast- line of Europe from North Cape to Constantinople. In addi- 
tion to this, the Lower Kongo extends for about 120 miles from the 
mouth to Matadi, where the region of cataracts commences, and 
•consists of two portions differing considerably in character. From 
Matadi to the He des Princes, or thereabouts, wild scenery, steep 
mountains, and torrents falling headlong into the river show that 
the volcanic forces which formed the region of the cataracts ex- 
tended their energy over this district also. Below this island the 
river expands at once to double, and a little lower down to three 
times, its former breadth, and at last measures about twelve miles 
across instead of two miles and a half. It is studded with numer- 
ous islands, larger streams flow into it, its banks and the hills be- 
side it are rounded, and the whole country has a tame appearance. 
Between Boma and Ponta da Lenha the islands are only banks of 
sand covered with grasses and sickly-looking shrubs, but below that 
point they bear a luxuriant vegetation. 

A further diversity in the vegetation and soil is caused by the 
tides. The salt water ascends the river as far as Malella, so that, 
while the islands above arc covered with oil-palms, baobabs, and 
wild cotton, on those towards the mouth of the river the effect of 
the tide may be seen in the increase of bamboos and the diminish- 
ing number of palms, etc. The latter islands are submerged at 
exceptionally high tides, whereas those above Malella have a fairly 
dense population. As soon also as the fresh water is entered, alli- 
gators and hippopotami are met with. 

The navigation of the Lower Kongo is rendered difficult and 
dangerous by the rapid changes that take place in the depths of the 
channels. Some twenty years ago steamers always followed the 
northern bank between Ponta da Lenha and Boma, for the Fetish 
Rock passage was practkable only for crafts drawing less than six 
feet, whereas now this passage has a depth of about 190 feet, while 
opposite Kanga a boat drawing eleven feet of water would cer- 
tainly touch ground. Several other similar cases might be quoted. 
Again, when the tidal waves are urged forwards with more than 
usual violence by the wind, which generally blows from the sea 
from ten o'clock in the morning, the struggle of these waves with 
the waters of the river is so fierce that it is felt as far as Binda, 
ninety-three miles from the mouth. At such times boats are 
obliged to keep close to the banks, or they would be swamped im- 
mediately. Ocean steamers ascend as far as Boma, and small 
steamers belonging to the Kongo State ply along the river up to Ma- 
tadi. From the soundings taken by Captain Boye, however, which 
show that the channel is nowhere less than sixty feet deep, it is 
consklered that large steamers may safely ascend to Matadi at a 
^peed of nine to ten knots. The large quantities of water which 
•arc poured into the river during the rainy season cause great 

changes of level. The water rises gradually through June, July, 
and August, and attains a maximum height between the 13th and 
25th of September, after which it decreases up to the middle of 
February, and attains a second but lower maximum at the end of 

North of the river, between Banana and Ponta da Lenha, lies an 
arid plain. The soil is a compact clay interspersed with lagoons, 
which are flooded at high tide, and are covered with impenetrable 
vegetation, chiefly papyrus. At a distance of from three to twelve 
miles from the river the country entirely changes its aspect : here 
hills, 300 feet high, are separated by broad valleys, and the soil is 
light, and no doubt very fertile. Fifty to fifty-five miles from the 
river, Mayumba — i.e., the land of forests — is entered, which sup- 
plies the greater part of the merchandise shipped from the ports of 
the Lower Kongo, and of the coast between that river and the Ga- 

Four tribes inhabit this country ; the Mussorongos, who dwell 
on both banks of the river and the islands between Ponta da Lenha 
and Banana, the N'Zaadi along the river to the east of the Musso 
rongos, the Kacongos to the north of these tribes, and, beyond the 
Kacongos again, the Mayumbas. The natives have a gentle dis- 
position, and their barbarities are due entirely to the old-estab- 
lished rites of fetichism. They attack a village on slight provoca- 
tion, but disturbances among the inhabitants of the same village 
are very rare. Drunkenness, except perhaps at the great feasts, is 
not a common vice. They are by no means impervious to new 
ideas, and, if the Government can put down the tribal wars, they 
will probably make great progress in civilization. 

Between Matahdi and Stanley Pool merchandise has at present 
to be carried overland at great expense. A railway has therefore 
been projected to connect the upper and lower parts of the river, 
and thus provide a cheaper and more commodious means of trans- 
port from the interior. The distance, as the crow flies, is 174 miles, 
but the railway, in order to take advantage of the formation of the 
ground, and avoid all great engineering difficulties, will be ex- 
tended to a length of 264 miles. The cost is estimated at ;£ 1,000,- 
000 sterling. 

A new edition of three sheets of M. Lannoy de Bissy's map of 
Africa, which embrace the greater part of the Kongo territory, has 
been published. Several important changes may be observed in 
this edition, particularly near the cataract region. The French 
Rouvier Mission has furnished more complete and exact infor- 
mation than has hitherto been attainable regarding the course of 
the Kuilu and the country north of Manyanga ; and the Belgian 
Cambier Mission has supplied details concerning the country on 
the south bank, between Matadi and Leopoldville. The survey for 
the railway has also determined the position of many points more 
exactly. The position of Mboko Songo has been removed about 
20' towards the north, and therefore the sources of the Chiluango, 
in the neighborhood of this place, have undergone a similar dis- 
placement, whereby the basin of the Kongo, and consequently the 
territory of the Kongo State, have been enlarged. The middle 
course of this river has also undergone changes in direction, and 
its affluents, the Luisa and Luali on its right bank, and the Lukula, 
on its left, are represented as the important streams they really 
are. The tributaries also which enter the Kongo in the region 
of the cataracts are put down from their sources to their con- 

Between Stanley Pool and Kwamouth the river runs swiftly be- 
tween mountains often six hundred to one thousand feet high, and 
covered with forests. Only at Msuata is this barrier broken. Here 
the land rises from the shore in terraces, and is inhabited. As far 
as Chumbiri the river widens very gradually, but above it expands 
considerably, and is generally very broad all the way to Stanley 
Falls : it is often fifteen, and sometimes as much as twenty-one, 
miles across. Between Bolobo and Lukokela a marshy tract oc- 
curs, a slight blemish on this beautiful river. 

All along the banks of the Upper Kongo are frequent villages, 
and even towns. Bolobo, for instance, has a population of 30,000 
souls, public squares, and regularly built streets. Considering the 
enormous length of waterways, and the fertility of the soil, the new 
railway, by which all the exports must reach the Lower Kongo, 
should prove a success. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No, 363 


A NEW Stamp-cancelling machine is being tried in the Phila- 
delphia post-office. It is operated by electricity, and is said to 
cancel the stamps on letters at the rate of 25,000 per hour, auto- 
matically registering the number cancelled. 

— The death of Prof. Lorenzo Respighi, Director of the Osser- 
vatorio Campidoglio, Rome, which occurred on Dec. 10, is a great 
loss to science. 

— Mr. Robert T. Hill has resigned the position of assistant pro- 
fessor of geology in the University of Texas, in order to devote his 
attention solely to geological investigations. 

— An attempt is being made to secure the erection of an inter- 
national monument to James Watt at Greenock, his birthplace. It 
is proposed that the memorial shall be a large and thoroughly 
equipped technical school. 

— Th^ Detroit Journal ^esms to receive, by postal card, the 
address of all living male and female descendants of Revolutionary 
officers and soldiers of 1776, and, when possible, the name and 
State of the ancestor. 

— Dr. Sargent, Professor of Physical Culture at Harvard, utters 
a word of caution about over-exercise. He says, according to The 
Medical and Surgical Reporter, that those who have been most 
successful in heavy gymnastics are also subject to nervous com- 

— The "Annual Catalogue" for 1889-90 is sent this year to 
every graduate of Harvard College whose address is known. The 
annual reports of the president and treasurer are sent regularly to 
every graduate who has informed the secretary of the university 
that he desires to receive them. Graduates are requested to advise 
the secretary of changes in their addresses. 

— Test borings recently made on the line of the Nicaragua Ca- 
nal show that the entire divide to be traversed by the deep cut 
consists of solid basalt, at least to a depth of 165 feet, as far as the 
borings extended. This is a most favorable showing for the con- 
struction company, as it settles at once the important question of 
slopes in the greater part of the cut. 

— An article on the new plants introduced into cultivation 
during the year just past appears in Garden and Forest for Jan- 
uary 8th, and in the same number Mr. Geo. Nicholson continues 
his description of the gardens of the Riviera. One phase of the 
national forest problem is discussed editorially, and a novel theory 
of the functk>n of the so-called " knees " of the Bald Cypress is set 
forth in a communication from Dr. Robert H. Lambom. 

— At a recent meeting of the Photographic Society of Geneva, 
Switzerland, Professor H. Fol presented a paper on resemblances in 
married couples. According to the British Journal of Photogra^ 
phy, he stated that, out of seventy-eight young .couples photo- 
graphed for the purpose of his investigations, he found that in 
twenty-four cases the resemblance in the personal appearance of 
the husband and wife was greater than that of brother and sister, 
in thirty cases it was equally great, and in only twenty- four was 
there a total absence of resemblance. 

— The Meteorological Summary for the Year 1889, prepared by 
Professor F. H. Snow, of the University of Kansas, from' observa- 
tions taken at Lawrence, shows that the most notable meteorologi- 
cal features of the year 1889 were the remarkable absence of 
extremes of heat and cold, resulting in a very mild winter and a 
very cool summer; the abundant and well-distributed rainfall, 
making this one of the three wettest years on the twenty-two years 
record ; the phenomenally warm December, whose mean tempera- 
ture was six and one-half degrees above that of November ; the 
low wind velocity ; the small amount of snow ; and the unusual 
number of fogs, averaging a little more than two per month. 

— The attention of graduates of Harvard University is invited to 
the fact that for several years the secretary of the university has 
voluntarily acted as a medium of communication between persons 
seeking to secure educated young men to assist them in teaching, 
professional work, or business, and students or graduates of the 
university desirous of obtaining such employment. For this pur- 
pose the secretary keeps a list of graduates engaged in teaching. 

another of students about to graduate who wish employment im- 
mediately thereafter, and a third of students who desire temporary 
work in summer vacations. The results have been satisfactory, 
except in respect to obtaining advantageous summer empk)yiDent 
for students. From one to two hundred students apply for sum- 
mer work each spring, but a comparatively small number obtain it 
through the secretary's aid. The co-operation of the alumni is in- 
vited in all three branches of this work. 

— Dr. Hadjime Watanabe, an official of the Japanese agricul- 
tural service, delivered an interesting address on the chrysanthemum 
at the recent celebration in Berlin of the centennial of the plant's 
introduction into European cultivation. According to the report 
of his words published in Garden and Forest, the Japanese divide 
chrysanthemums into two groups, " nogiku " or wild single, and 
" niwagiku " or double cultivated flowers; and the latter are sub- 
divided into four kinds — the ordinary autumn-blooming sorts, the 
summer-blooming, the winter-blooming, and those which bear 
flowers at all four seasons. The single flower is not neglected by 
the horticulturist, but is prized for its very simplkity, and is usoaDy 
planted at the foot of rocks, intermingled with grasses, to give a 
landscape design a naturalistic air. In treating the double-flowered 
plant when it is desired to produce individual flowers of the largest 
possible size, then all the branches but one are gradually removed, 
and on this one only an isolated blossom is allowed to mature. 
On the other hand, when as many flowers as possible are sought 
without regard to conspicuous size, the main stem is brought to the 
greatest possible development, and all its branches are preserved 
until the blooming season arrives, when, if some show no buds, 
they are cut away. The sturdiest possible plants are chosen for 
this purpose, and the speaker referred to some upon which mwc 
than three hundred flowers had been counted. Two forms are in 
favor for these many-flowered " kikus," one of which gete its name 
from its resemblance to a thick broom, while the other is a more 
artificial, fan-like shape. A Japanese proverb says " it is easy to 
grow the flowers of the kiku, but difficult to grow its leaves," and 
the speaker declared that the plants are judged from this stand- 
point. The amateur's chrysanthemums arc usually "very poor 
and faulty in foliage, although they may bear fine flowers ; but 
those which one sees at an * art-gardener's* arc dothed from top to 
bottom with leaves regularly disposed and of a beautiful fresh 
color." The most common method of propagating the plant is by 
root- division, but several others are employed. In one, a single 
leaf with a bud at its base is plucked, lightly covered with earth 
and laid in a shady place, where it eventually takes root. Garden- 
ers who own rare varieties therefore forbid the visitor a near ap- 
proach to their plants, as it would be easy to pick a leaf of the 
proper kind and conceal it in the pocket for future planting. 

— The question of the relative food \jlue of dried com fodder 
and of corn silage has been much discussed, and, judging from the 
fact that the discussion still continues, has not yet reached its 
final solution. One important element in determining this ques- 
tion is the relative percentage digestibility of the fodders, that is, 
the proportion of the ingredients of each one which the animal fed 
upon them is able to utilize. Some recent experiments conducted 
by H. P. Armsby and W. H. Caldwell at the Pennsylvania State 
College Agricultural Station are a contribution to this branch of 
the question. The material used in this experiment was ordinary 
field com fed to two Devon steers. The com was prepared in 
three different ways, — as rapid-filled silage, slow-filled silage, and 
field-cured fodder. As a result of the experiment, it was found 
that the dry matter of the field-cured fodder was more digestible 
than that of the rapid-filled silage, and this again was more di- 
gestible than that of the slow-filled silage. The digestibility of the 
albuminoids and of the total protein is very nearly the same in the 
fodder and the silage. These results do not show the effect of the 
process of ensilage upon the digestibility of green fodder, but only 
the difference in the final effects of two processes for preserving 
fodder. The digestibility of the green material was not deter- 
mined, but in all similar investigations the digestibility of thtf freshly 
cut fodder has been invariably found to be greater than that of the 
same fodder after being subjected to the ordinary processes of 
curing. In all probability, therefore, the freshly cut com fodder 

Digitized by 


January 17, 1890.] 



would have proved more digestible than was either the silage or 
the fodder. The experiment shows merely that the process of en- 
silage lowered the digestibility of the material more than the 
process of field-curing. Furthermore, the relative digestibility of 
com fodder and silage is but one element in determining their re- 
lative value. It would be a mistake to condemn silage because it 
appears to be slightly less digestible than the field- cured material. 
In forming a judgment of the comparative value of the two pro- 
cesses, account must be taken not oply of the digestibility of the 
resulting fodder, but of the amount of material lost in the process, 
and of the nutritive value as well as the digestibility of the pro- 
duct ; and also of its influence upon the health of the animals, and 
of the important practical questions of the relative convenience and 
economy of harvesting, storing, and handling. 

— A few years ago some of the leading photographers in Lon- 
don went to the expense of equipping their establishments with 
engines and dynamos, so that, by means of the electric light, they 
might be to some extent independent of the sun in their work. 
The results were satisfactory though the cost of equipment and 
maintenance was high. Most of these photographers have now 
discarded their engines and dynamos, though still adhering to the 
electric light. They find it much less expensive and satisfactory to 
take their current from the street mains of the different electric 
light companies, paying only for the quantity consumed. 

— In a recent lecture by Dr. A. W. Schiiddekopf, on " Univer- 
sities and University Life in Germany," after a short sketch of the 
history of German Universities, showing how they have gradually 
developed from the schools founded by <he Church for the educa- 
tion of persons intending to enter its service, the lecturer explained 
the constitution of German Universities, their officials and teaching 
staff, with a digression illustrating the high social position of a 
German professor, despite the fact that his salary seldom exceeds 
$1,500 or $2,000 a year. The Lecture also explained at some 
length the position of a " privat-docent," a class of teachers pe- 
culiar to German Universities, who receive no salary for their work, 
but render their services gratis in the hope of being some day ap- 
pointed to a professorship. He also reminded his audience of an 
important distinction made in Germany between the "-professor 
ordinarius " who has a seat in the Senate of his University and is 
eligible for all the honorary offices — rectorship, deanship, etc., — 
and the " professor exlraordinarius," who does not enjoy these 
privilqres. Dr. Schuddekopf then proceeded to describe the Ger- 
man Universities as teaching centres. He compared the English 
system of higher education with the German system, stating that 
Universities of an exclusively examining character do not exist in 
Germany ; whereas, on the other hand, the educational feature of 
Oxford and Cambridge life is absent from German Universities. 
The latter are of a teaching and examining character at the same 
time. The lecturer next laid emphasis on the looseness of the 
discipline for the students, compared with that maintained in Eng- 
land, and explained the possibility of such laxness by the greater 
average age of the student — it being necessary for every person 
matriculating at a German University to have pased his " maturi- 
tatsexamen " at his gymnasium, which is rarely tried by persons - 
under nineteen or twenty years of age. The German student is 
much less frequently examined than his English brother ; bul then 
what an ordeal when it comes ! Unlike the English system there 
is little or no paper work, the candidate being examined vivd voce, 
more importance being attached to the grasp he shows of his sub- 
ject, and his manner of manipulating it, then to his knowledge of 
bets. Besides the vrvd voce, candidates have to write one or 
several " dissertations," which may take many months to prepare. 
Dr. Schuddekopf reminded his audience that, in Germany, Univer- 
sity degrees are not considered to qualify candidates for master- 
ships, for a license to practice medicine, and other offices, except 
in the case of candidates for a University professorship ; but that 
candidates for such offices must tiave passed the " staatsexamen," 
which in most cases is much more difficult than the degree ex- 
aminations. Relating his own experiences in passing his *' staats- 
examen," Dr. Schuddekopf caused a tremor to run through a 
sympathetic audience when he told that, after a year passed in 
writing " dissertations " on philological and philosophical subjects. 

he underwent nine hours vivd voce etamination in one day by 
eight German professors in as many different subjects ! The ma- 
jority of German students — except in the faculty of medicine — 
do not take a degree at all, but only pass their " staatsexamen." It 
is the custom in Germany for a student to have been to several 
Universities before settling down at one for examination purposes 
— a system which the lecturer thought a very good one, on account 
of the facility it affords the student for becoming acquainted with 
the leading men in his subject. 

— For the benefit of delegates and others attending the eleventh 
convention of the National Electric Light Association, to be held 
at Kansas City, Feb. 11-14, arragements have been made with the 
Pennsylvania Railroad to provide a vestibule train to be known as 
the " Electric Limited," to be run through without change to Kan- 
sas City, via Chicago and the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy 
Railroad. This train will leave Jersey City on Sunday, Feb. 9, at 945 
A.M., arriving at Chicago, Monday morning, at 9 A.M. Monday 
will be spent in Chicago, the Chicago Electric Club having kindly 
invited the Eastern delegates to enjoy its hospitality during their 
stay in that city. The *' Electric Limited " will leave Chicago on 
Monday evening at 5 o'clock, arriving at Kansas City early Tues- 
day morning. Passengers should be careful to take the ferry at 
foot of Cortlandt or Desbrosses Streets, New York, not later than 
9.30 Sunday morning. No effort has been spared by the transpor- 
tation committee in obtaining the very best equipment, and the 
committee is assured that this train will be the finest ever run out 
of New York. It will be composed of the latest Pullman ves- 
tibule sleeping cars, lighted by electricity, a dining car, composite 
car containing barber shop, bath room, card room, library, writing 
desk, smoking room, etc., and an observation car with a large open 
room luxuriously furnished, as well as an observation platform. 
The train will be supplied throughout with fixed and portable elec- 
tric lamps. Special accommodations will be provided for members 
accompanied by their wives. The rate of fare going, including 
sleeping car accommodations, will be $39.75, and inasmuch as it is 
necessary to guarantee a certain number of people in order to se- 
cure this superb train, it is important that those who propose at- 
tending the Convention notify, with remittance, as promptly as 
possible, C. E. Stump, chairman transportation committee. Times 
Building, New York. Extensive preparations have been made to 
render this one of the most interesting conventions ever held, and 
it is expected that members will do their utmost to induce as large 
an attendance as possible. 

— In the town of St. Emilion, near Bordeaux, France, is a re- 
markable monolithic church, probably one of the most curious of 
its class. According to Mr. J. H. Parker, who describes it in a re- 
cent issue of the American Architect, it is cut entirely out of the 
solid rock, and is of early Romanesque character. The precise date 
is uncertain, but it appears most probable that the work was com- 
menced in the eleventh century, and carried on through the whole 
of the twelfth. A fragment of an inscription remains, the charac- 
ters of which agree with the eleventh century ; but some of the 
French antiquaries attribute it to the ninth. Others consider it as 
merely the crypt of the church above on the top of the rock ; but 
that church is of much later character, and it is much more proba- 
ble that the subterranean church was first made, and the other 
built long afterwards, when the country was in a more settled 
state. This church is one hundred and fifteen feet long by eighty 
feet wide. It consists of three parallel aisles, or rather a nave and 
two aisles, with plain, barrel-shaped vaults, if they can be so called, 
with transverse vaults or openings, and round arches on massive 
square piers. The imposts are of the plain early Norman charac- 
ter, merely a square projection chamfered off on the under side, 
but one of them is enriched with the billet ornament. There are 
recesses for tombs down the sides, and a fourth aisle or passage 
has been cut out on the south side, apparently for tombs only, as it 
has recesses on both sides to receive the stone coffins. Still far- 
ther to the south, but connected by a passage, is a circular cham- 
ber in an unfinished state, with a domical vault, and an opening in 
the centre to a shaft which is carried up to the surface. Whether 
this was intended for a chapter-house, or for a sepulchral chapel in 
imitation of the Holy Sepulchre, is an undecided point. This sub- 

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[Vol. XV. No. 363 

tcrranean church or crypt is necessarily lighted from one end only, 
where it is flush with the face of the rock ; and these openings are 
filled with flamboyant windows, which are very evident insertions. 
On the surface of the hill over this church, but with a large space 
of solid rock intervening, is the tower and spire belonging to it. 
The tower is of late Norman and transitional character surmounted 
by a flamboyant crocketcd spire. There is a kind of well or flue 
cut through the rock under the tower into the church below, appa- 
parentty for the bell-ropes. In the church are remains of early 
painting, and some shallow sculpture, the character of which ap- 
pears to be of the twelfth century. Adjoining the church, on the south 
side, is a detached chapel of transition Norman work, with an apse 
vaulted with good ribs and vaulting shafts. A considerable part 
of the old painting is preserved. Some of the ribs are painted with 
zig-zags. Under this chapel is a crypt or cave cut out of the rock, 
called the Grotto of St. Emilion, with a spring of water in it. The 
work is of the same early character as the other vaults. 

— A factory chimney, said to be the highest in the world, is now 
being erected at the Royal Smelting Works, near Freiburg, in Sax- 
ony. The horizontal flue from the works to the chimney is 1,093 
yards long ; it crosses the river Mulde, and then takes an upward 
course of 197 feet to the top of the hill upon which the chimney is 
being built. The base of the structure is thirty-nine feet square by 
thirty feet in height, on which is placed a short octagonal transi- 
tion, from which the round shaft starts. This is 430 feet high, or 
together with the base, 460 feet high, with an inside diameter of 
twenty-three feet at the bottom, and sixteen feet and six inches at 
the top. It will take 1,500,000 bricks, and the cost is about thirty 
thousand dollars. 

— Complaints of overpressure in schools are as numerous and 
universal in Sweden as in many other Continental countries. Swe- 
den is, in fact, one of the countries where this fact has first roused 
the public interest, as has been proved by Professor Dr. Key several 
years ago, in a pamphlet full of trustworthy statistical information, 
and showing that anaemia, chlorosis, and other diseases are due to, 
or are at least greatly promoted by, the existing overwork in the 
schools. Another weighty charge against the present school-sys- 
tem is that it, to a great extent, promotes the ordinary contempt 
for manual work among the young, and tends to engender disin- 
clination for the practical professions, handicrafts not being suffi- 
ciently-" genteel." Complaints of a too great influx at the univer- 
sities are, therefore, as common in Sweden as in Germany, and the 
other Scandinavian countries. These unhappy results of the sec- 
ondary education are now acknowledged by nearly every body, but 
they were foreseen by some patriotic men, who, thirteen years ago, 
founded a school, which, after its headmaster, got the name of 
" Palmgren's Practical Work-School." However, one must not in- 
infer from the name that it gives instruction solely in manual work. 
It was also intended to give a liberal education, and has now glo- 
riously proved its efficiency in that respect, as some of its pupils 
have, during the last two years, successfully obtained their matric- 
ulation degree. The school-lessons are here somewhat fewer than 
in ordinary schools, and instruction in manual work — Sloyd — is 
obligatory for all pupils. Moreover, children who do not attend 
the school-lessons are admitted to the Sloyd instruction at a very 
moderate fee. Instruction is also given to men and women in 
sewing, embroidering in gold and silver, lace- making, macram6, 
etc. Further in bookbinding, pasteboard-work, joinery and turn- 
ing. There are also courses at the school, of three months each, 
for future male and female Sloyd-teachers. Besides instruction in 
Sloyd-work, these students have lessons in drawing and the peda- 
gogics of Sloyd. They have also to instruct children in Sloyd for 
one to two hours a day, under the superintendence of their teachers. 
During the summer holidays a shorter course is given for ordinary 
teachers. To give the reader an adequate idea of the interest 
which nearly all classes in Sweden take in Sloyd, the Swedish cor- 
respondent of the Journal of Education mentions that Colonel 
Ankarcrona, Commander of the Royal Swedish Lifeguards, has 
ordered that Sloyd-instruction is to be given twice a week to the 
guardsmen, by experienced teachers from Mr. Palmgren's school. 
This step has been taken to give the soldiers some pleasant and 
useful recreation when they are off duty. Apart from the moral 

influence it may exert, it will evidently be a great advantage for the 
soldiers to learn the rudiments of a trade in the barracks, which 
hitherto have not been a school for useful and profitable arts in 
Sweden any more than in other countries. 

— The Standing Executive Committee of the Convention of 
American Instructors of the Deaf, of which Dr. E. M. Gallaudet 
Kendall Green, Washington, D.C., is chairman, have had under 
consideration the suggestions made in many quarters that, in view 
of the probability of a notable national celebration being held in 
1892, in this country, the Convention, which would naturally meet 
in 1890, be postponed until the jubilee year. It is well known that 
an invitation to hold the next Convention at the New York Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb was accepted some time ago, and 
that it was intended, through invitations to professional brethren 
in other countries, to give the Convention an international char- 
acter. Since this plan was decided on it has become practically 
certain that there will be held, in 1892, one or more great exhibi- 
tions calculated to attract visitors even from foreign countries, and 
that, consequently, during that year, low rates of travel to and in 
our country will be offered, all of which would tend to induce a 
larger attendance at such a Convention from abroad, and probably 
from the States, than could be expected at any other time 
within the next decade. The influence of such a Convention, held 
when great numbers of people, both foreign and native, would be 
assembled at the place where the Convention would be likely to 
meet, would give its proceedings an influence and importance they 
could hardly have under other circumstances. The weight of these 
considerations has led the Committee to decide, unanimously, to 
postpone the meeting of the next Convention until 1892. The 
authorities of the New York Institution have kindly renewed their 
offer of hospitality, but the Committee are of opinion that it will 
be wise to defer their decision as to the place of holding the Con- 
vention until the plans for the national celebration are more fully 
developed than they now are. 

—Life at Girton is described in The Women's World in this way : 
An early breakfast, served from eight to nine (some industri- 
ous students begin their day with a private breakfast party at five 
or six, and only partake of the college meal as an afterthought), is 
followed by a morning devoted, almost without exception, to pri- 
vate study, or to attendance at lectures given in college by the resi- 
dent lecturers, or at the numerous courses in Cambridge now 
thrown open to women. The early hours of the afternoon, whk:b 
by common agreement of the students are considered •* noise- 
hours," are usually given to recreation^ tennis being the most popu- 
lar form of outdoor amusement, and pianos, with an occasional 
fiddle, having full swing indoors. After luncheon coffee-parties 
are also a common occurrence, the entertainment being of the 
most informal description, while the hostess seldom scruples to 
dismiss her guests or leave them to entertain themselves if she has 
work or lectures on hand. From three until the six o'clock dinner 
silence reigns again in the college. Many classical and mathe- 
matical lectures are given at this time by Cambridge lecturers, who 
come out to the college for the purpose, and the students wh'o have 
not lectures usually, though not so universally as in the mornings 
devotd a part or the whole of these hours to private study. After 
dinner again informal coffee or tea parties are frequent, and friends 
generally meet in a haphazard kind of way, which, perhaps, may 
be best described as " loafing " into each other's rooms. In the 
May term this " loafing " takes place round the grounds, and an 
interesting study of shawls might be made from the windows over- 
looking the lawn and tennis courts. The formal social duty of 
calling on freshers is performed in this after-dinner hour, most of 
the college business is transacted, meetings are held, and sub- 
scriptions to the various societies paid. In the May term it is the 
favorite hour for tennis, and in all three terms the fire-brigade has 
a fortnightly practice immediately after "hall." Some of the 
poorer specimens of Girtonians think this a little severe, as the 
practice often includes a double-quick march from end to end of 
the long corridors ; but the officers are inexorable, and catalogue 
all who brave their scorn and fight shy of the brigade as " ill or 
lazy." From half-past seven to nine are " silence hours " again,, 
and then, or later in the evening, an hour or two's work is corn- 

Digitized by 


January 17, 1890.] 



monly (|one — freshers with " little-go " on the brain, are reported 
to get in four or five before retiring for the night, but they gener- 
ally learn in a term or two that it does not pay. Nine p.m. is the 
orthodox hour for knocking off work, and for the more elaborate 
forms of social intercourse, club meetings, occasional dances, small 
debates, and so forth — above all, for the regulation formal tea- 
party. There are certain points about this entertainment peculiar 
to college life, if not to Girton, says the Women's World, notably 
the fact that the guests bring, not their own mugs merely, but a 
whole tra>ful of refreshments. The college custom is to send to 
all the rooms a tray, with a roll and butter, and the materials for 
whatever beverage — tea, coffee, cocoa, or plain milk — is preferred 
by each student, and this custom greatly facilitates the discharge 
of the social duty. For it is understood that when a student gives 
a nine-o'clock tea-party all the guests take their own trays, the 
hostess providing only the hot water, and such luxuries as cake and 
jam. Thus, at 9 p.m., in all the corridors, is presented the striking 
spectacle of students hurrying in all directions — sharp corners are 
very dangerous at this time — to their respective entertainments, 
balancing trays in one hand, and in the other, unless they are such 
old hands as to know the college blindfold and avoid all pitfalls of 
boots, water-cans, and unexpected angles, carrying candles in case 
the festivities should outlast the college lights. It is at these 
parties that new students are first initiated into college society, 
and so strong is the instinct of hospitality that the " freshman " 
must be of a remarkably gregarious disposition who does not find 
tea-parties, which she experiences in their most formal tedious as- 
pect, grow decidedly monotonous after a few weeks. 

— The high price of gum acacia has led Trojanowsky to seek 
for a substitute, says an exchange, and this he believes may be 
found in the mucilage of flaxseed. By boiling the seed with water 
and precipitating the strained decoction with twice its volume of 
alcohol, he obtained a substance which, after drying, consisted of 
opaque, yellowish-brown irregular fragments, somewhat brittle, 
but not easily reduced to powder, dissolving in water to a turbid 
mucilaginous solution ; of this, Ave grains were sufficient to emuU 
siontze an ounce of cod liver oil. The large quantity of alcohol, 
however, required for the precipitation, and the difficulty of drying 
the adhesive product being such serious objections, further experi- 
ments were made, and, by still employing flaxseed as the source of 
the mucilage, and treating with sulphuric acid, a gum more closely 
resembling acacia was obtained. His method is to boil one part 
of flaxseed with eight of dilute sulphuric acid and eight parts of 
water, until the mixture, which at flrst thickens, becomes quite 
fluid ; this is then strained through muslin, and to the strained 
fluid is added four times its volume of strong alcohol, the precipi- 
tate being collected on a filter, washed with alcohol, and dried. 
The gum is in the form of translucent, grayish-brown, brittle frag- 
ments, easily pulverized, and without odor or taste, and thirty 
grains will emulsionize an ounce of cod liver oil. 

— An insect destructive to wheat, but previously unknown in 
this country, has appeared in considerable numbers on the Cornell 
University farm at Ithaca. Mr. J. H. Comstock, professor of ento- 
mology at Cornell, who has been making a study of the insett, 
says that he does not know of its occurrence anywhere else in this 
State ; but as it is extremely abundant on the University farm, it 
is doubtless spread over a considerable area. It was first observed 
there two years ago, by one of the students, the late Mr. S. H. 
Crossman, while making an investigation of wheat insects. On 
examining the stalks of wheat at harvest time by splitting them 
tVoughout their length, it was found that some of them had been 
tunnelled by an insect larva. This larva had eaten a passage 
through each of the joints, so that it could pass freely from one 
end of the cavity of the straw to the other. In addition to tunnel- 
ling the joints, they had also fed more or less on the inner surface 
of the straw between the joints. If infested straws be examined 
a week or ten days before the ripening of the wheat, the cause of 
this injury can be found at work within them. It is at that time a 
yellowish, milky-white worm, varying in size from one-fifth of an 
inch to half an inch in length. The smaller ones may not have 
bored through a single joint ; while the larger ones will have tun- 
nelled all of them, except, perhaps, the one next to the ground. 

As the grain becomes ripe the larva works its way toward the 
ground; and at the time of the harvest the greater number of them 
have penetrated to the root. 

— The Boston correspondent of The Book Buyer quotes an 
amusing letter sent by Mr. Aldrich to Professor E. S. Morse, ex- 
president of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. Professor Morse, it should be said, has a handwriting 
quite indescribable in illegibility : " My Dear Mr. Morse : It was 
very pleasant to me to get a letter from you the other day. Per- 
haps I should have found it pleasanter if I had been able to deci- 
pher it. I don't think that I mastered any thing beyond the date 
(which I knew) and the signature (which I guessed at). There's a 
singular and a perpetual charm in a letter of yours ; it never grows 
old, it never loses its novelty. One can say to one's self every 
morning, 'There's that letter of Morse's. I haven't read it yet. I 
think I'll take another shy at it to-day, and maybe I shall be able 
in the course of a few years to make out what he means by those 
t's that look like w's and those i's that haven't any eyebrows.' 
Other letters are read and thrown away and forgotten, but yours 
are kept forever — unread. One of them will last a reasonable 
man a lifetime." 

— No subject can be of more vital importance to the farmers of 
Indiana than the economical utilization of their fodder crops, since 
their success with live stock and in the dairy must be directly pro- 
portional to the economy of this utilization and depend for success 
or failure on the skill exercised in feeding. Careful inquiry and 
observation extending over the entire State, by the State Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, of which Dr. H. E. Stockbridge is the 
director, forces the inevitable conclusion that as much nutriment in 
the form of fodder is wasted every year as actually finds it way 
into the digestive systems of the farm animals of the State. The 
two great fodder crops necessarily considered in this connection 
are hay and corn stover. Though perhaps both are equally worthy 
of consideration, and the utilization of each equally capable of im- 
provement, the December bulletin, by J. Troop, pertains only to 
the former. It is the intention of the station to devote special 
attention to the production, curing, and feeding of hay during the 
coming season. That the results of the work may be most effect- 
ive, however, it seems necessary that a preliminary discussion of 
the grasses of the State is called for, and to meet this demand the 
present bulletin is issued. It does not purpoft to be a scientific 
treatise on the grasses of Indiana ; its sole aim is to offer the 
farmers of the State the briefest possible description of every grass 
known to grow within its borders, together with the chief char- 
acteristics and relative value for feeding purposes of each, in the 
hope of placing the farmers in possession of such information as 
will enable them to determine for themselves the character and 
adaptations of grasses with which their experience may bring them 
in contact. Recognizing the fact that plant determination by mere 
description is necessarily attended by serious difficulties, a large 
number of illustrations have been utilized as conveying the most 
perfect impression possible of the actual aifpearance of the grasses 
discussed. So far as the actual importance of the work thus be- 
gun may become to the agricultural interests of Indiana, the rela- 
tions existing between tilled land and grass land in the State must 
be pertinent. The area of tilled land in Indiana is 56.4 per cent 
of the area of the State, while the g^ass-land area is 1 1.8 per cent, 
the average for the entire United States being respectively 41.6 
per cent and 11.5 per cent. The ratio existing between these two 
varieties of farm land is, for Indiana, as r of grass land to 5.4 of 
tilled land, and for the entire country, i of grass to 3.7 of tilled 
land, — figures showing conclusively that Indiana can lay small 
claims at present to either a grazing, stock, or dairy pre-eminence, 
and that she falls far short of producing her best proportion of the 
grass of the country, and fails in maintaining a just or most profit- 
able relation between these two staple divisions of farm lands. 
Indeed, Indiana ranks in the second series of States in the produc- 
tion of grass, and in the third series in average value of milch cows 
and live stock, facts which must possess a definite relation to the 
proportion existing between grass product and area of tilled lands, 
and enforcing the proverb, *• the more grass the more stock, the 
more stock the more manure, the more manure the more crops." 

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[Vol. XV No. 363 





47 Lafayette Place, New York. 

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Communications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific papers 
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Attention is called to the *' Wants " column. All are invited to use it in soliciting 
information or sedcing new positions. The name and address of applicants should be 
given in full, so that answers will go direct to them. The ** Exchange " column is 
likewise open. 

Vol. XV. 

NEW YORK. January 17, 1890. 

No. 363 


Thb Edison Elbctric Light Sta- 
tion IN Brooklyn — 36 

Thb Basin OF TUB Kongo 36 


Thb Waitomo Cavbs, Nbw Zbal- 

AND 4a 

Thb Wbnstxom Dynamo 43 

A Nbw Use for thb Phonograph 43 
Hbalth Matters. 

Hallucinations in Alcoholism 43 

The Sense of Smell 44 

Neutralization of the Bacillus of 

Tetanus 45 

Boxing the Ears and its Results 45 

Book- Reviews. 

First Lessons in Political Economy 45 


A New Telephone Invention if, 46 
A Peculiar Pipe from the Susque- 
hanna Harvey E, Bashore 47 
Soils and Alkali 

H. E, Stockbridge 47 

Influenza E,W. Greenough 48 

Industrial Notes. 
A New Electric Motor 48 


In a report to the Surveyor- General of New Zealand, Mr. 
Thomas Humphries g^ves an interesting description of a visit 
which he and a small party made in June last to the Waitomo 
caves, King Country, in the North Island of New Zealand. The 
Waitomo River, a tributary of the Waipa, which passes through 
these caves, lies about^ eighty- five miles south of Auckland in a 
direct line, though it is about twenty miles further by rail and road. 
The caves are about ten miles from Otorohanga railway station. 
The country around Ls undulating. A quarter of a mile before the 
caves are reached, the Waitomo, of about twenty feet in width, 
is seen emerging from the side of a hill, under which it has mean- 
dered through limestone caverns of various sizes for about twenty 
chains. A light canoe can be taken along the river through the 
caves to within a few chains of its egress, where further progress 
is barred by the roof coming down to the water. 

At the entrance to the cavern the stream is eight feet deep. The 
natives have never had the courage to enter. The entrance to the 
cave, thirty feet wide and twenty feet high, is in the face of a cliff. 
It is beautifully arched, with numerous moss and lichen-covered 
stalactites. In a canoe the visitor is taken in, ninety feet from the 
entrance, and landed on a silt-covered beach. By the aid of 
candles, for all is now dark, he finds himself among ponderous 
stalactites, three to six feet thick, reaching from the roof, twenty 
feet high, to within a foot of the ground. Everywhere, all over the 
extensive and intricate caverns, are seen stalactites and stalagmites 
of immense size, in vast numbers, with marvellous beauty of form 

and color. At one place the dark vault was studded with thou- 
sands of glow-worms, giving the vault the appearance of a starlit 

Passing down the left bank of the stream for one hundred and 
forty feet, over a large deposit left by floods, the party crossed it 
by means of a foot-bridge. From the entrance to the bridge the 
cavern averages fifty feet broad, and from twenty to thirty feet 
high. After crossing the bridge, a sharp turn to the right is made 
up a steep incline for a distance of seventy feet, to the foot of a 
ten- foot ladder, which leads to a narrow passage four feet wide and 
fifteen feet high, the entrance to the " Grand Cavern." Here is 
the bottom of the " well," a narrow shaft running up to another 
series of caves over the lower ones," where it is again met with in 
the gallery above. The well is four feet across, perfectly true, as 
if made by human hands, and its sides beautifully marked with 
horizontal streaks, formed of laminated lime-stone. In the Grand 
Cavern is an immense mound of material evidently fallen from the 

Beyond the Grand Cavern the roof rises and forms two domes, 
one fifty feet high. High up, forty feet, is the entrance to another 
cavern. Beyond the dome there is a sudden fall, the roof lowering 
so much that the visitor has to stoop. The length of the Grand 
Cavern, at the end of which the stream is again met with, is two 
hundred and fifty feet. It varies in width from fifteen to forty feet, 
and from twenty to fifty feet in height. Up to this point the color 
is a dull brown and a light yellow; but in the upper galleries, thirty 
feet above, there are alabaster and Parian-marble-like scenes of 
unsurpassed loveliness. 

Twenty feet above the Grand Gallery is the " Organ Gallery," 
so-called from the appearance of the great stalagmitic mass one 
hundred and fifty feet from its entrance, rising tier upon tier, like 
the front of an organ with marble pipes. From the Grand Galleiy 
the Main Gallery above is reached by a twenty- five- foot ladder, 
and sixty feet along it the " well " is reached. Here it is twelve 
feet in diameter, with smooth sides of hard limestone, and the 
sound of moving water below. This is forty* five feet above where 
it was first seen. Fifty feet along from the upper well is a "fairy 
grotto," and through an archway thirty feet in length the " Ban- 
quet Chamber " is reached, where the surveyor and hb friends 
found a hot dinner had been provided by the natives who own the 
caves. At the end of this chamber is the White Terrace, a stalag- 
mitic mass rising in a series of terraces. From this the upper 
entrance to the caves is reached, high in a wooded cliff, sixty feet 
above and directly over the lower entrance. Mr. Humphries de- 
scribes in glowing terms other galleries and caves, but this may 
suffice to show, that, notwithstanding the destruction of the Roto- 
mahana Terraces, New Zealand has still plenty of wonders. 


Some months ago a description and illustrations of the Wens- 
trom dynamo were given in these columns. A .dynamo of this 
make was recently sent to the electrical testing bureau of the Johns 
Hopkins University, where it was submitted to a series of tests, 
the results of which are given below, under the signatures of Drs. 
G! a. Liebig, Louis Duncan, and W. F. Hasson. It may be men- 
tioned here that the dynamo tested was designed to give an output 
of 400 amperes, at no volts, running at a speed of 500 revolutions 
per minute; while the speed under which the tests were made was 
only 330 revolutions per minute. 

" The dynamo electric machine sent to us for examination, a 
report of which is contained in the following pages, was described 
by the Qianufacturers as an 8oo- light dynamo, and was stated to 
absorb energy, when doing full duty, at the rate of about sixty- 

"Having our source of motive power and testing apparatus 
already in place for the purpose of conducting some experi- 
ments on other dynamos, the following tests were made (through 
the kindness of Mr. F. Hambleton, who consented to allow the 
bureau the use o( a part of the works under his charge), at the 
plant of the Consolidated Gas Company of this city [Baltimore]. 

" Here we had set up an Armington & Sims engine of about 
seventy-horse power capacity ; belted to which was a Tatham 

Digitized by 


January 17, 189a] 



dynamometer, which in turn was connected by a belt with the 
dynamo under examination. At a convenient distance from the 
dynamo were located the lamps and resistances (resistance coils), 
through which the current furnished by the former was allowed to 
flow, as well as the various instruments employed in the electrical 
measurem^ts. Steam for the engine was furnished by a set of 
boilers located near by, but in a sep>arate building. 

" The source of motive power was, as stated before, an Arming- 
ton & Sims engine, rated, nominally, at about seventy horse-power 
when supplied with steam at about eighty pounds pressure. The 
normal speed of the engine was about 275 revolutions per minute, 
but this could be varied within limits of a considerable range, 
without any serious interference with the action of the governor. 

" For measuring the power supplied to the dynamo, there was 
employed a dynamometer originally designed by W. P. Tat ham of 
Philadelphia. This instrument was the same as that used some 
years ago by the committee appointed by the Franklin Institute o( 
Philadelphia to conduct the competitive tests of dynamos exhibited 
at the Electrical Exhibition held in Philadelphia in 1885. A de- 
scription of the apparatus will be found in the Jonmal of the 
Franklin InstiiuU, November, 1885. 

•'For measuring the current furnished by the machine, there 
were employed two methods, the full-load current being 400 am- 
pere, — too great for any single instrument in our possession, — a 
part of this was measured by a Thomson balance, and part by ob- 
serving the potential difference between, the ends of several heavy 
strips of German silver immersed in oil- The latter method is 
known generally as the method of fixed resistances, and the appa- 
ratus referred to was standardized by observing the difference of 
potential at its terminals, when a current of known value, as meas- 
ured by the Thonnlson balance, was allowed to pass through it. 

" In the measurement of electromotive force there was used a 
Weston voltmeter, received only a few days previously from- the 
laboratory of Mr. Edward Weston, where it had been standardized. 
This, however, as well as the other measuring apparatus, was, after 
the completion of the test, carefully calebrated in the physical lab- 
oratory of this university. 

'* It may be stated that owing to the construction of the measuring 
apparatus employed, and also to the circumstances that a consid- 
erable distance separated the instruments used from the dynamo, 
no magnetic influence could have interfered with the accuracy of 
their indications. Before measuring the power absorbed by the 
dynamo, the dynamometer was run without load, in order to de- 
termine its own friction. This amount of power consumed was, in 
all cases, subtracted from subsequent measurements. The friction 
of the dynamo itself was determined by running it on open circuit, 
and with the brushes removed. 

" The order of making the tests was as follows : first, the dyna- 
mometer was run without load ; second, the dynamo was run on 
open circuit, brushes removed (this measurement gives friction of 
dynamo) ; third, the dynamo brushes were placed in position (this 
measurement represents losses due to friction in bearings, losses 
due to heating of field magnet wires, losses due to reversals of 
magnetism of armatures, core, and losses due to Foucault currents 
in the armature). These losses are, for a given speed, nearly con- 
stant. After this, the dynamo circuit was made, and measure- 
ments of power, current, and electro-motive force at different loads 
were b^un. The following table gives the results of the several 



Horse Power. 

Horse Power. 



8« . 














5. a 







54 5 


3 5 












At a meeting of the Massachussetts Medical Society on Nov. 
20, A. N. Blodgett, M.D., made some interesting remarks on the 
use of the graphophone or phonograph in taking and recording the 
clinical history of ^ patient. As reported in the Boston Medical 
and Surgical Journal, Dr. Blodgett spoke as follows : — 

"Some time ago my attention was called to this instrument, 
about which I had known something, although not in its present 
state of perfection. It occurred to me that this might be of inter- 
est to physicians in various ways, and particularly to those con- 
nected with public institutions. As you have seen, by speaking 
into the mouth-piece a record can be produced upon the yielding 
cylinder of wax, which will remain permanent, and can be repro- 
duced a great many times. 

" Last night Mr. Thomas and I made experiments at the City 
Hospital on a patient just admitted to the accident room. His 
clinical history was taken ; but it was not in all respects a success, 
because he had an injury preventing his speaking with much force, 
it being a fracture of the ribs. But we got a record from an actual 
patient in an actual examination which was reproducible and could 
be understood. Later we got another record from a hypothetical 
patient ; namely, one of the house-officers of the hospital, who was 
questioned in the same way as would be an ordinary patient ad- 
mitted under circumstances which precluded any previous knowl- 
edge of him or his condition. That record was more distinct, 
could be very well understood, and I am sure any one with a little 
practice could use this machine in a way to obtain durable and 
trustworthy records from the lips of the patient. 

" An instrument of this kind might be made portable, and a 
visiting physician in a hospital might give his directions into the 
funnel, when they would be recorded upon. a small cylinder, which 
can be put upon another machine, and the physician's directions as 
to treatment or his description of lesions can thus be accurately 
recorded. This record is got by means of the graphophone, 
which is used a great deal in conjunction with the typewriter. I 
know how difficult it is to get full directions in the wards from the 
visiting physician, and here we have the means of an absolute 
record.* In medico-legal cases I think it would be of great service 
because the utterances of the patient could be reproduced at an in- 
definite period afterward, and I should suppose would be evidence 
in the case.*' 

' Speed of dynamo, 330 revolutions per minute.' 

Hallucinationt in Alcoholism. 

Dr. F. W. Mann, in a paper upon alcoholic hallucination read 
before the Detroit Medical and Library Association, brings to- 
gether some facts and theories which are published in the Physi- 
cian and Surgeon, November, 1889 : — 

" The visual hallucinations of alcoholics are exceedingly varied. 
They may be hideous, grotesque, or awful, or they may be gor- 
geous, splendid, or inspiring. Unpleasant features usually pre- 
dominate, and the patient is puzzled and tormented by the presence 
of rats, mice, beetles, worms, fleas, and other insects. This con- 
dition of zooscopic hallucination is one of the commonest among the 
phenomena of alcohol poisoning. 

*' I do not recall having seen any explanation of the reason why 
animals enter so largely into the composition of the primary illu- 
sions of alcohol. These illusions a little interrogation of the patient 
will usually substantiate as present. A patient only the other day 
declared how he saw a rhinoceros, several huge elephants, and 
strange-looking reptiles browsing in the yard. 

" A word should be said on the snake hallucination. Disorders 
of this kind are associated in the popular imagination with excesses 
in the use of alcohol. ' Seeing snakes ' is in reality not a common 
experience. The two or three cases we have seen convince us, 
however, there is some basis for esteeming this one of the occa- 
sional retributions of excessive zeal in devotion to Bacchus. 

" The snake hallucination is difficult to explain. Disturbances 
in the peripheral organs of vision seem hardly competent to ac- 
count for such aggravated symptoms, although there are facts 
suggesting the plausibility of such an explanation. A patient in a 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 363 

room where the pattern of the wall-paper or the carpet abounds 
in geometrical figures and circles, is apt to find these endowed 
with gyratory movement, and as a result may come to imagine 
snakes about him. But the usual causes of this hallucination seem 
central in origin and due to pre-existing imaginative impulse. Why 
should this impulse assume the snake form ? May not the explana- 
tion lie in the facts of nascent consciousness ? We know that 
stimuli cannot be co-ordinated without some ganglion through 
which they are brought into relation. In effecting this co-ordina- 
tion the ganglion must necessarily be subject to the influences of 
each stimulus and must undergo a succession of changes. This 
action and its re-action implying perpetual experiences of resem- 
blances and differences constitutes, according to psychologists, the 
raw material of consciousness. Therefore, as a corollary of this 
process, Herbert Spencer asserts, that, as ' consciousness is de- 
veloped, some kind of instinct becomes nascent.' That there is a 
nascent instinctive dread of the serpent in man and monkey is ob- 
vious. There is every reason for it. The early history of our 
race abounds with record and tradition of that internecine strife 
between man and the serpent. We find the serpent permeating 
all his mythology, a chief feature of his legends, inscribed on his 
monuments, engraved on his symbols, and worshipped as his God. 

** Even before this period the dread of the serpent may have 
been implanted in our human neuroplasm. Dr. A. E. Brown re- 
cently made some experiments in the Philadelphia Zoological 
Gardens, and found that monkeys, who, bom and reared within 
the gardens, had never seen a reptile, yet exhibited great fear and 
curiosity when a snake was placed in their cage. An alligator or 
turtle caused no surprise whatever. Other animals, like the ox 
and the hog. were either perfectly indifferent, or manifested no 
fear of the snake." 

Dr. Frank W. Brown said : " I cannot altogether agree with the 
Doctor as to the important part taken by nascent consciousness in 
the creation of these hallucinations. I do not think that nascent 
consciousness enters largely into the formation of the most com- 
mon of all forms, primary hallucinations ; that is, into those first, 
simple hallucinations which, if continued (and the majority of them 
are not), may grow to be more elaborate. Nascent consciousness 
does, however, have much to do with the elaboration. In the 
graphic descriptions of the struggles of the legal gentleman it 
would be interesting to know whether he conceived the snakes be- 
fore the sentence of the judge, or whether they grew in his con- 
struction of that sentence ; for in the former case they would be a 
primary hallucination and in the latter an outgrowth of elaboration. 
Primary hallucinations, I think, arise largely from misinterpreted 
perceptions — false cognition. The nerve cells, weakened by con- 
tinued onslaught of alcohol, no longer possess the power of dis- 
crimination : they are content to resolve perceptions in the slightest 
possible way. Just as in that pathological state characterized 
onomatopoiesis, where the patient lapses into that simple language 
which names animals by their sounds, so may the weakened nerve- 
cells of the alcoholic be content to picture living things at the 
behest of a suggestive touch. 

*' Bugs. ants. mice, and rats are common hallucinations, but they 
are generally found first on the body and then afterwards in the 
room and on the furniture. The appearance first on the body can 
be explained on the supposition that the hallucination was created 
by a dermic sensation, or of formication, which would quickly lead, 
through imperfect cognition, to the conception of a bug or an ant, 
and then secondarily manifested as a visual hallucination. When 
seen first on walls or bed. they may be suggested by the so- 
called musca volttanUs, not uncommon in delirium. As a refine- 
ment of this idea, could not the primary hallucination of snakes be 
brought about through misinterpretation of a cutis anserina, 
which sweeps coldly, wave-like, and rhythmically over a portion of 
the body? If this process ^eems complicated, it might explain the 
infrequency of snakes as an hallucination. Other hallucinations 
arising in the way I have indicated can be brought about by the 
red flashes, dust, retinal irritation, which often precedes active 
delirium, and which suggest a fire, or, more elaborated, a hell ; 
ringing in the ears, a cataract, etc. As to the part taken by nas- 
cent consciousness in the creation of the reptiles in the snake case 
given <by the Doctor, I might say that he has been a witness against 

himself, in that he has not exaggerated in his vivid description of 
those miserable forefathers of ours in their sometimes unsuccess- 
ful attempts to avoid their most uncanny if not most horrible 
enemy, and from whom we consequently derive one of our most 
pronounced examples of nascent consciousness. If. then, nascent 
consciousness be a leading factor in the production of hallucina- 
tions, why do snakes so seldom appear as one of their manifesta- 
tions ? 

•* As to the suggestions given by figures on carpets or wall- 
paper, they create illusions, not hallucinations, as their origin deals 
with defective cognition influenced by the imagination, rather than 
with the nascent consciousness." 

The Sense of Smell. 

There is no other cranial nerve which presents so much to puz- 
zle the physicist, the anatomist, and the physiologist as the olfac- 
tory. The course of its fibres, from the nasal mucosa to the cor- 
tex in the temporo- sphenoidal lobe, is devious and obscure, but the 
phenomenon of matter of various kinds imparting the sensation of 
odor by contact with the periphery of the first nerve is still nwrc 
mysterious. With regard to light and color and all the sounds of 
the octave, we have long been able to conceive of their reception 
and differential appreciation by the cortex as due to vibration and 
variation in vibration rates. The wave theory accounts satisfac- 
torily for these visual and auditory phenomena. 

Theie are some well-known facts concerning the olfactory sense 
which have always been matters of daily familiarity, but which we 
have not as yet scientifically interpreted. For instance, as Dr. F. 
Peterson points out in the New York Medical Journal, some 
odors, though mingled together, can still be dissociated and recog- 
nized by the olfactory nerve-ends, whereas others, on the contrary, 
overwhelm one another, so that one only may be perceived, the 
others being completely suppressed. This antogonism has been 
little studied, and has been generally dismissed by the physiologist 
under the assumption of a chemical process occurring in the mix- 
ture. As illustrating this internecine warfare among smells, the 
odor of almonds conquers that of musk ; certain ethereal oils 
destroy the unpleasantness of iodoform ; orris-root is employed 
against bad breath ; sulphuric ether overcomes Peruvian balsam ; 
camphor makes the odors of the oils of lemon and juniper, of pe- 
troleum, of cologne, and of onion disappear ; and coffee and cloves 
have the reputation in our drawing-rooms of being inimical to cer- 
tain spirituous exhalations. 

There seems, then, to be a sort of strife between odors of vari- 
ous kinds, a strife inexplicable upon any simply chemical theory; 
and it is more than probable that the vibratory hypothesis must 
needs be accepted to account for the sensation of smell as well as 
for those of light and of sound. Not long ago Professor Haycroft 
{Brain, July, 1888) mad^ some investigations upon the olfactory 
sense, from which he drew the conclusion that the sense of smell 
as well as that of taste depended upon the rate of vibration of 
gaseous particles ; and he found, moreover, a relation existing be- 
tween the molecular weights and vibrations of bodies and the odors 
which they exhaled. 

More recently Dr. Zwaardemaker, of Utrecht (Fortschriiie der 
Medicin, Oct. i, 1889). has been studying the same subject in a 
manner to throw additional light upon the difficult problem. He 
has constructed an instrument which he calls an olfactometer. It 
consists simply of a glass tube, one end of which curves upward, 
to be inserted into the nostril. A shorter movable cylinder, made 
of the odoriferous substance, fits over the straight end of this glass 
tube. On inhaling, no odor will be perceived so long as the outer 
does not project beyond the inner tube. The further we push for- 
ward the outer cylinder the larger will be the scented surface pre- 
sented to the in-rushing column of air, and the stronger will be the 
odor perceived. 

Should one desire to study the effect of mingling two odors, it 
is only necessary to saturate the cylinder of the olfactometer with 
one scented body, and another cylinder with another. By the jux- 
taposition of the ends of the two cylinders, the lengths being ac- 
curately determined, the air rushing in upon inhalation through 
the tubes must take up and mingle the two odors. Dr. Swaarde- 
maker found by this means that whenever one outweighed the 

Digitized by 


January 17, 1890.] 



Other, he perceived the one or the other smell, but that when both 
were in exact equilibrium, either no odor at all was perceived, or 
at most a very weak and uncertain impression was made, which 
partook of the qualities of neither of the two substances employed. 

But as some sort of union of the gaseous molecules oonkl aot 
be altogether excluded by this method, such as an indifferent 
osmotic or physical combination preventing sensory perception, it 
was deemed expedient to make use of a double olfactometer in 
experiments of this character. The instrument consists merely of 
two of the olfactometers described above, one for each nostril. By 
the use of the double olfactometer one may easily convince him-" 
self that even in this procedure one odor will overwhelm another, 
rubber, for instance, causing the smells of paraffin, wax, and tolu 
to disappear. Even with very strong excitants there is never a 
mingling of sensations. Either the one or the other odor is dis- 
tinguished by one or the other nostril, until, by careful equilibra- 
tion of the two, no sensory effect is at all perceived. Sensibility is 
absolutely eliminated. Each nasal half becomes in this manner 
completely insensible to the odor inhaled through it, although its 
sensitiveness is really the same as before. 

We are constrained to believe that there is something in the 
vibratory theory already applied to sight and hearing, to account 
for these remarkable facts in the domain of smell, and that is the 
interference of molecular waves with each other, producing in the 
former cases darkness and silence, and in the latter temporary 

Neutralization of the Bacillus of Tetanus.— In 
June last Professor Sormani of Milan announced to the Lombard 
Institute of Sciences the results of his experiments on the neutrali- 
zation of the tetanigenous microbe — results which seemed to justify 
his conclusion that iodoform, iodol, and corrosive sublimate are ab- 
solutely destructive to the bacillus in question. To these disinfecting 
agents he has, says the Lancet, as the result of further experiments, 
added three more — namely, chloroform, chloral hydrate, and cam- 
phorated chloral, the latter being, he alleges, in a marked degree 
efficacious ; while camphor and camphorated alcohol he found in- 
ert. On a general review of the whole, however, he gives the pref- 
erence to iodoform. Seven rabbits were inoculated with materials 
charged with the tetanigenous virus. From six of these, after an 
interval of twelve hours, the foreign body was removed during the 
period of incubation ; from the seventh the substance was removed 
only when the first symptoms of local tetanic convulsions had de- 
clared themselves. In all these animals the wound was scraped 
and thereafter freely medicated with iodoform. The seventh rab- 
bit died of tetanus. Of the first six five were saved. From this. 
Dr. Sormani concludes that medication of wounds with iodoform 
ought to be practised before the setting in of the first tetanic symp- 
toms. Nevertheless, even during declared tetanus, the applica- 
tion of iodoform to the wound is capable of disinfecting it and of 
removing from it all trace of virulence. Wounds and sores treated 
with iodoform, especially wounds or sores contaminated with 
earth, yield results highly welcome to the surgeon — such medica- 
cation preventing the access of that fatal tetanic symptom which, 
having once declared itself, leaves but little chance for skilled in- 
terference. Dr. Sormani gave confirmatory proof of his thesis by 
cases of tetanus in hospital, where iodoform opportunely applied 
saved the patients, and where, from its use having been unfortu- 
nately suspended, two lives were sacrificed. 

Boxing the Ears and its Results. — We would fain hope 
that, in deference to repeated warnings from various quarters, the 
injurious practice of boxing the ears, once common in schools, is 
fast and surely becoming obsolete. It is too much to say that this 
desirable end has yet been realized. Certainly the recent observa- 
tions of Mr. W. H. R. Stewart do not give color to any such 
view. In a pamphlet on " Boxing the Ears and its Results," lately 
published, and referred to in the Lancet, Dec. 21, 1889, he briefly 
sumnuuizes his own experience in the matter. Notwithstanding 
the toughness of the aural drum- head, its tense expanse will rup- 
ture only too readily under the sudden impact of air driven inward 
along the meatus, as it is in the act of cuffing ; and Mr. Stewart 
shows that in one instance at least this injury resulted from a very 
slight though sudden blow. Given early and skilled attention the 

wound may heal very kindly, but if the beginning of mischief be 
overlooked, as it often has been, further signs of inflammation soon 
follow, and a deaf and suppurating tympanum is the usual result. 
There is practical wisdom in the statement that this consequence 
most readily follows in the case of the poorly developed and under- 
fed children who abound in every board school In them an ear- 
ache would probably receive no very strict attention, and disease 
might for a time work havoc unimpeded. Where chronic suppu- 
ration exists already, and it is only too common, a random knock 
on the ear may, and has resulted, in fatal brain complications. 
The close connection between ear and brain should never be for- 
gotten, and the reflection that injury to the former organ most eas- 
ily terminates in total deafness, and in suppuration which may any 
day take a fatal course, should assist in the preservation of a some— 
times difficult patience. 


First Lessons in Political Economy, By Francis A. Walker.^ 
New York, Holt. 12°. 

President Walker in this work has undertaken to bring eco- 
nomic science down to the comprehension of a younger class of 
students than have hitherto pursued the subject, those from fif- 
teen to seventeen years of age. To accomplish this task is not 
easy, and the author himself expresses some misgiving as to the- 
success of his undertaking ; for he has not treated his theme in a 
childish, or so-called popular, way, but in a thoroughly scientific 
manner and with the same closeness of reasoning that is employed 
in larger treatises. How far his book is adapted to its purpose 
only actual trial, as he says, can tell ; but if the subject can be 
made comprehensible to such young pupils, we should think this 
work well fitted to do so. It is perhaps as simple in style as a 
treatise on economics can be, and it is in the main free from con- 
troversial matter. It cqntains, however, some things that might 
better have been omitted ; such, for instance, as the discussioiv 
of the multiple standard of deferred payments, which is of no- 
practical importance, and is out of place in an elementary work. 

The book is divided into two parts, the first treating of produc- 
tion and exchange, the second of distribution and consumption, and 
the various subdivisions are in general well made. President 
Walker's views are so well known that we need not state them,. 
and in most cases we find ourselves in accord with them. His 
theory of profits, however, we cannot agree with, and we fail to see 
the cogency of the reasoning by which he endeavors to support it. 
He holds that " prices are determined by the productive capability 
of the lowest class of employers who are actually producing for the 
supply of the market ; and all excess of those prices, over the cost 
of production in the hands of the more capable men of business, 
goes to these latter, individually as profits " (p. 222). But it seems 
to us that prices are determined rather by the higher class of employ- 
ers, who by superior ability or larger command of capital ofteiv 
force prices down so that the lower class of employers are driven 
out of business. Moreover, President Walker, like other econo- 
mists, overlooks the fact that the highest profits, as a rule, are not 
made in production at all, but. in exchange. But though we can- 
not agree with all the author's views, we shall be glad if his work 
should be successful in teaching economics in the high schools. 


The fourth volume of M. Grandeau's "Etudes Agronomiques,*" 
just issued, contains a review of British and American agriculture,, 
as represented at the Paris Exhibition. 

— M. Victor Giraud, the African explorer, has just published the 
narrative of his explorations in the African Lake Region from 1883. 
to 1889. The work contains many illustrations. 

— The fifth part of the second volume of the Internationales 
ArchivfUr Ethnographie has been issued. It maintains in all re- 
spects the high level reached by previous numbers. Among the 
contributions are an article in German, by F. Grabowsky, on death,. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 363 

burial, and the funeral festival among the Dajaks ; and one in 
English, by Prof. H. H. Giglioli, on a singular obsidian scraper 
used at present by some of the Galla tribes in southern Shoa. 

— Mr. Charles Hallock, the founder of American journalism on 
field and water sports, and one of the most eminent writers on 
outdoor life, is now permanently associate^ in the editorial conduct 
of The American Angler, 

— Harper & Brothers have just published Stanley's letters, tell- 
ing the story of £min*s rescue, accompanied by illustrations and a 
map showing the traveller's route from the Kongo to the coast. 
Sir William Mackinnon, chairman of the Em in Pasha Relief Com- 
mittee, adds some interesting material to the volume. It is of 
course understood that this book will not in any way trench upon 
Mr. Stanley's great work, which cannot possibly be published for 
several months. 

— The J. B. Lippincott Company publish this week *' A Conver- 
sation on Mines Between Father and Son," a lecture on the atmos- 
phere and explosive gases by William Hopton, to which are added 
questions and answers to assist candidates to obtain certificates 
for the management of collieries ; and " A Text-Book of Assay- 
ing," by J. J. and C. C. Beringer, for the use of students, mine 
managers, etc. 

— D. Lothrop Company publish this week a little volume ad- 
dressed to all workers with hand and brain, entitled " The Shop," 
devoted to the possibilities and probabilities of social, home, 
church, and political reform, by Albert E. Winship. editor of the 
Journal of Education, 

— The second leport of the committee appointed by the British 
Association to inquire into, and report upon, the present methods 
of teaching chemistry, which was presented at the Newcastle meet- 
ing, and to which attention was called in Nature a short time ago, 
has now been put on sale by the Council. It may be obtained from 
the office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

— A new fortnightly scientific periodical is about to be published 
in Paris. It will be entitled Reime Ginirale des Sciences Pures et 
AppliquSes, and will deal with the mathematical, physical, and natural 
sciences, and with their applications in geodesy, navigation, en- 
gineering, manufactures, agriculture, hygiene, medicine, and sur- 
gery. According to the preliminary statement, the new periodical 
will take as its model the method of exposition adopted in Nature, 
The editor is M. Louis Olivier, and the list of contributors includes 
many of the most eminent French men of science. The first num- 
ber will appear on January 15, 1890. 

— In the article which Herbert Ward will contribute to the 
February Scribner^s, on " Life Among the Congo Savages," there 
will be an account of the human sacrifices which take place on the 
death of an African chief. Mr. Ward's article is to be a descrip- 
tion of the manners and customs which prevail in that r^ion. which 
Stanley has opened to commerce. Colonel W. C. Church, in his 
first article on John Ericsson, in the same number, relates that, as 
the last hour in the life of the great engineer was drawing to its 
close, he called to his bedside his faithful friend and secretary, and, 
looking into his face with a smile,' said : " Taylor, this rest is 
magnificent ; more beautiful than words can tell." William Henry 
Bishop, the American novelist, tells in the February Scribner*5 of 
a recent visit to Gald6s, the author of " Dofla Perfecta." in his 
Madrid home. " He came into the room with a hard-at-work air 
and a cigarette between thumb and finger. He is a dark, slender 
man, of good height, rather loose- jointed, forty-four years old, and 
with a young look." Gald6s, it is said, has had himself elected to 
the Chamber of Deputies in order to have a chance to study l^is- 
lative manners at first hand for literary material. W. H. Mallock, 
author of " Is Life Worth Living ? " who has written for the num- 
ber an article on Hungarian castles — the fruit of a recent visit to 
that country — says: "Hungary still remains a very interesting 
study; and though it may at first disappoint those who expect 
to find in it castles and peasants like the back &cene of an opera, it 
retains enough of the substance, if not of the surface, of the past to 
throw a considerable light on what has really been achieved, in the 

way of changing or bettering the conditions of life generally, by 
that extraordinary movement which we especially associate with 
the present." 

— The article which is likely to attract most attention in the 
January number of the New England Magazine is that on " The 
New England Meeting-House and the Wren Church," by Mr. A. 
R. Willard. Mr. Willard shows how Sir Christopher Wren, who 
was rebuilding the sixty or seventy London churches, after the 
Great Fire in 1666, just as our New England fathers were getting 
able to build meeting-houses with towers and steeples, set his 
stamp upon our entire church architecture, in city and country, 
almost from that time to this. The article is illustrated with pic- 
tures of Wren's steeples and of our own old meeting-houses. The 
other illustrated articles are on Montreal in Winter, and the Boston 
Musical Composers. Professor Jameson of Brown Universi^, in a 
paper entitled " Did the Fathers Vote ? " shows, in a way that b 
gratifying to those who believe in progress, that however n^lectfol 
we are of our political duties, we are in this respect ahead of our 
fathers in the " good old times " that the croakers talk about. Mr. 
William F. Dana writes about the Behring Sea Controversy. Mrs. 
Nina Moore Tiffany begins a series of " Stories of the Fugitive 
Slaves," telling here of the escape of William and Ellen Craft 
Edward Everett Hale, in his '* Tarry at Home Travel," talks this 
month about the Boston Parks and about Concord. Edward 
Everett Hale, jr., contributes a chapter of colonial history, under the 
head of " Edward Bendall and the ' Mary Rose.' " " Candlelight 
in Colonial Times " is another bit of New England history. Brown- 
ing receives notice in two articles, one by Mr. Robert Niven of 
London, on " Browning's Obscurity," the other by Miss H. E. 
Hersey, on " Browning in America," the latter accompanied by a 
portrait from a recent London photograph. There is an "Old 
South Lecture " on " Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana Pur- 
chase,'' by one of the young Old South essayists, Robert Morss 
Lovett, now a student in Harvard College. 


^^^Correspcndentt art requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's nawu i 
in ail cases required as proof of £Ood faith . 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character »/ 
the journal. 

On request^ twenty copies of the number containing his communication will be 
furnished free to any correspondent, 

A New Telephone InTention. 

We see by a late number of the New York Electrical World 
that two Canadian gentlemen have made the important discovery 
that telephone trunk lines may be duplexed the same as tel^^ph 
wires. This has hitherto been considered impossible on account 
of the great dissimilarity between telegraph and telephone currents. 
It is on this account chiefly that long-distance telephony is more 
expensive than telegraphy, as only two persons can use the same 
wires at the same time. By means of the new invention it is 
claimed that four persons .can use the same wires simultaneously 
and without the least interference. Advantage is taken of the 
double wire system now in general use on inter-urban trunk lines. 
Transmitters and receivers are used with double coils, and the ap- 
paratus is connected with both branches of the double-wire trunk 
line. One set of transmitters generates electrical impulses in the 
two wires in opposite directions, while the other set generates im- 
pulses in the two wires in the same direction. By means of these 
reversing coils one set of apparatus will actuate and be actuated by 
a set similarly connected, while, on the other hand, it will not afifect 
nor be affected by apparatus with coils dissimilarly connected. In 
the one case the electrical impulses move only in the metallic cir- 
cuit formed by the two wires of the trunk line. In the other case 
the circuit is completed through the subscriber's ground wires. If 
this invention is found to work as satisfactorily in actual practice as 
it is claimed to work experimentally, it will necessarily very ma- 
terially reduce the working expense of long-distance telephone 
lines. R- 

Toronto, Ont. , Jan. 9. 

Digitized by 


January 17, 1890.] 



A Peculiar Pipe from the Susquehanna. 

I BEG to present the outlines of- an Indian pipe which may be 
interesting as representing the figure of one of the Delaware 
" Totems." The relic is composed of a dark green steatite, carved 
into an admirable image of a turtle. Fig. i represents the back 
of ^e animal, which is well polished and distinctly marked with the 
lines shown in the figure. 

Fig. X. 

Fig. a. 


Fig. 2 represents the under surface, which contains the cavity of 
the pipe and the ornamental (?) markings. The hole for the stem 
is well drilled, of a smooth bore, and inclined at the angle given in 
the sketch. This unique specimen was found some thirty years 
since, by a friend of mine, on the present site of the village of 
Fairview on the Susquehanna, in close proximity to an old Indian 
burying ground. Harvey B. Bashore. 

West Fairview, Pa., Jan. 5. 

SoUt and Alkali. 

The last bulletin of the Colorado State Agricultural Experiment 
Station at Fort Collins published in October and entitled " Soils 
and Alkali " is issued in the name of Prof. D. O'Brine. 

The subject treated is one of acknowledged importance, and for 
this reason and the fact that it is issued under the auspices of an 
institution expressly endowed by Act of Congress for the purpose 
of scientific investigation, renders the fact to which I beg leave to 
call your attention, especially lamentable. 

The first eleven pages of this bulletin are, so far as statement of 
facts arc concerned, practically extracted verbatim from a recent 
work of my own entitled " Rocks and Soils," and published by 
Messrs. Wiley & Sons of New York, little more than a year 

In support of this assertion I enclose extracts from the bulletin 
mentioneid and from my own work, a comparison of which in par- 
alld columns will demonstrate absolutely the truth of my asser- 

tion. I may add further that the specimens extracted embrace 
only a small portion of the subject matter to which the same asser- 
tion would hold true ; they are offered however as specimens and 
specimens only, 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. 159). 

"The quantity of water thus requited and eraporated by different agricultural 
plants during the period of growth has been found to be as follows : 

One acre of wheat exhales 409,833 lbs of water. 
*' ** " clover ** 1,096,3^ '* ** ** 

** *' •* sunflowers ** 12,585,994 ♦» »» ** 
** " ** cabbage ** 5,049,194 ** ** •• 

*• ** *' £rape^ines ** 730.733 *' '* " 

" ** **'hops ** 4,445,031 *' ** *' 

O'BRINE (p. 8). 

*^' The quantity of water required and evaporated by different agricultural plants 
during the period of growth has been found to oe as follows : 

One acre of wheat exhales 40983s lbs of water. 

' clover 
* sunflowers 
' cabbage * 
' grape-vines * 
' hops * 

1,096,334 ' 

1a.585.994 " 

5,049,194 ' 

730,733 * 
4,445.031 ' 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. x6o). 


O'BRINE (p. 8). 

'* Deitrich ei^timates the amount of 1 Dietrich estimates the amount of water 
water thus exhaled by the foliage of plants I exhaled by the foliage of plants to be 
to vary from •50 to 400 times the weight , from 950 to 400 times the weight of dry 
of dry organic matter formed during the organic matter formed during the same 
same time." time. 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. 165). ! 

** Hoffmann concluded that the quan' 
tity of matter dissolved from the soil by 
water varied between 0.34s and 0.0305 
percent of the dry earth." 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. z66). 

The sources of the heat of the soil are 
three ; namely, solar heat, as the sun's 
rajs ; heat of chemical decomposition 
within the soil ; and the original^ or plu- 
tonic heat of the earth. i>roceedinfl: from 
the still molten earth interior. 

The latter source thougK great in itself 
yet is so removed from the surface, and 
the radiation there is so rapid, that this 
heat is of no considerable value to the 
plant. The heat of decomposition, though 
considerable in soils rich in organic mat- 
ter, occurs only in the presence of com- 
paratively hi^h temperatures, and is there- 
fore not manifest except in soils not need- 
ing Its action to influence their behavior 
towards vegetation. The sun, therefore, 
remains the only source of heat of mater- 
ial importance as related to the production 
of plants from the soil." 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. 135). 

** Oats, rye and buckwheat thrive with 
the lowest amount of organic matter, re- 
quiring but from one to two per cent, 
while wheat and tobacco evidently require 
most among common agricultural products 
growing b^t ^ in those soils containing 
from five to eight per cent of dry organic 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. 127). 

The ammonia thus resulting from putrid 
fennentation undergoes a f urther decom- 

fiosition known a5 nitrification, resulting 
ike the original putrefaction from the ac- 
tion of oxidizing microbes . through the 
activity of which ammonia becomes trans- 
formed into nitric acid." 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. 134). 

** Of the entire weight of all plants not 
more than five per cent in any case is of 
soil, or mineral, origin ; the remaining 
ninety-five per cent is wholly of atmos- 
pheric origin; most of which becomes 
added to the soil-mass on the death and 
decomposition of the plants." 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. 154). 

*• And it is a fully accepted fact that, 
other things being equal, that soil is in- 
variably most fertile which exists in the 
finest state of division, whose particles 
are the smallest.*' 

STOCKBRIDGE (p. 157). 

** Liebenberg has shown, however, that 
the action in the soil may be either up- 
wards or downwards according as the 
atmosphere is dry or supplies soU-satu rat- 
ing nun." 

• O'BRINE (p. 9). 

Hoffman has estimated that the quan- 
tity of matter dissolved from the soil by 
water varied from .343 to .0305 per cent 
of the dry earth. 

O'BRINE (p. 9). 

The heat comes from three sources : 
Solar heat, as the sun's rays; heat of 
chemical decomposition within the soU, 
and the original neat of the earth's inter* 
ior. The latter cannot be of any value to 
plants ; the heat of chemical decomposi- 
tion ii not of any value, except in a few 
special cases. '1 he sun, therefore, remains 
the only source of heat of practical im- 
portance in relation to the production of 
crops from the soil. 

O'BRINE (p. 4). 

Oats, rye and buckwheat thrive with 
the lowest amoimt of organic matter, re- 
quiring from one to two per cent. Wheat 
and tobacco seem to require most among 
the common agricultural products, and do 
their best upon soils containing from five 
to eight per cent of organic matter. 

O'BRINE (p. 5). 

This ammonia undergoes a further de- 
composition called nitrification^ resulting, 
like the original putrefaction, from the ac- 
tion of oxidizing microbes^ and changes 
the ammonia into nitric acid. 

O'BRINE (p. 5). 
Of the total weight of the plants, about 
five per cent is of soil or mineral origin ; 
the remaining ninety five per cent is 
wholly of 'atmospheric origin ; most of 
which becomes added to the soil mass On 
the death and decomposition of the plants. 

O'BRINE (p. 7). 

It is a fully accepted fact that, other 
thines being qqual, soil is invariably most 
fertile which exists in the finest state of 
division, whose particles are the smallest. 

O'BRINE (p. 8). 

Liebenbere has^ shown that this move- 
ment may oe either upwards or down- 
wards, according as the atmosphere is dry 
or supplies soil-saturating rain. 

Before deciding to request the publication of this statement of 
facts I requested an explanation of Prof. O'Brine, in response to 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 363 

which request he asserts that the material published over his"]own 
name was furnished him in the form of notes by a late colleague 
who has unfortunately died since the publication of the bullietin in 
question. These notes were furnished, it is claimed, with the as- 
sertion that they were " recent," but that the abstractor had for- 
gotten their source, but supposed that such things were "common 

I desire to offer no opinion as to the probabilities of such an oc- 
currence, and distinctly disavow all intention of publishing any 
aspersion concerning a fellow worker. My only claim is that the 
material published in the October bulletin of the Colorado station 
was originally mine, and that it was utilized without credit either 
to myself or the alleged abstractor of the notes in question. 

Further, that the order in which the statements made occur is 
identical with the order in which they occur in the pages of my 
work alluded to, and that, as is demonstrated in the last extract 
made, even where my own language is not used verbatim without 
■credit, the order followed and the subject matter presented are 
identical with my own. For instance : in discussing the condi- 
tions modifying soil temperatures, paragraphs with topic titles 
were given to " Vegetation," " Condition of Atmosphere," " Angle 
K)f Contact," and " Electricity " in exactly the order followed in the 
last extract made. 

Moreover, that frequently tables are given with the identical 
words of introduction used by myself, although so far as I know the 
original exists only in German, and the translation and the authority 
were originally published by myself, though the bulletin alluded 
to refers to the original in, however, the identical language used 
by myself as translator. 

I desire to make no comments ; indeed, none seem to be re- 
-quired. I simply desire publication of the actual facts as a simple 
-matter of justice to myself and to the numerous scientific workers 
•who must be interested parties. H. E. Stockbridge. 

and armature in these motors is so proportioned that the brashes re- 
quire a minimum of attention, sparking under any condition of load 
being eliminated. A great mechanical advantage in their design 


49. Influenza. — Has epidemic influenza been known to cross 
the equatorial line, in either direction ? E. W. Greenough. 

Sunbury, Pa., Jan. 13. 


A New Electric Motor. 

A NEW electric motor just brought out by the United States 
.Electric Lighting Company is shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tions. It is manufactured in several sizes, from an eighth of a 

FIG. I. 

*horse-power up to twenty horse-power, and wound for any poten- 
tial up to five hundred volts. In designing these motors, the aim 
lias been to give a very low armature resistance combined. with 
^rcat strength of field, thus securing high efficiency in a motor of 
•comparatively small size. The relative magnetic intensity of field 


is that all armature wires and bands are thoroughly protected from 
injury by the arrangement of the pole-pieces. The starting device 
for throwing the motor in or out of circuit is on the motor itsdf, 

FIG. 3. 

resistance boxes being dispensed with. For motors taking a po- 
tential above 220 volts a special starting device is used. Fig. i 
shows the motor with fan attachment ; Fig. 2 is a motor of larger 
size, and Fig. 3 shows a motor adjustably mounted on a base. 

Digitized by 


January 17, 1890.] 


Publications received at Editor's Office, 
Dec. x6-Jan. ix. 

81CELOW, F H. The Solar Corona. WaahinKton, Gov- 
ernment. 22 p. i°. 

Booth, M. B. Bcneaih Two Flags. New York, Funk & 
WagnalU. 2S8 p. Z2<'. $t. 

Bryant, W. C. Ulysses .A.monK the Phseacians (River- 
side Literature Series). Boston, Houghton, Mifflin, 
& Co. Tap. ii°. 15 cents. 

CoMSTOCK, G. C. An elementary Treatise upon the 
Method of Least Squares. Boston. Ginn. 68 p. 8°. 

Denominational Schools. A Discussion by Cardinal 
Gibbons, Bishop Kane, E. D. Mead, and John Jay. 
Syracuse. Bardeen. 71 p. 8". 

ECKSR, A. The Anatomv of the Frog. Tr. by G. Has- 
iam. London and New York, Macmillan. 449 p. 
8«. $525- 

Education, Report of the Commissioner of. 1887-88. 
Washington, Government. 1209 p. 8**. 

Cray. A. Absolute Mea.^urements in Electricity and 
Magnetism. 2d ed. London and New York, Mac- 
millan. 384 p. r6®. fi 25. 

Gray. T. J. Methods of Instruction and Courses of 
Study in Normal Schools. Syracuse, Bardeen. 19 p. 
8*. 15 cents. 

Harris, W. T. Art Education the True Industrial Ed- 
ucation. Syracuse, Kardeen. 9 p. 8**. 15 cents. 

Harris, W. T. The Educational Value of Manual 
Training. Syracuse, Bardeen. 14 p. 8°. 15 cents. 

Hinsdale, B.>A. Pedagogical Chai s in Colleges and 
Universities. Syracuse, Bardeen. ix p. 8°. 15 

Jl'sticb and Jurisprudence: An Inquirv Concerning the 
Constitutional Limitations of the Thirteenth, Four- 
teenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. Anon. Phila- 
delphia. Lippincott. 578 p. 8°. $r 

IIaxinb- Hospital Service of the United States, Annual 
Report of the Supervising Surgeon-General of the, 
for the Fiscal Year 1889. Washington, Government. 
477 P 7". 

Metborologv, Bibliographv of. Part U. — Moisture. 
Ed. by O. L. Fassig. Washington, Government. 4". 

Observer, The. Natural History and Popular Science. 
Vol. I., No. X. m. Portland, Conn., E. F. Bigelow. 
8 p. 50 cents. 

Rainfall in the United States, Charts Showing the 
Normal Monthly. Washington. Government. 4**. ^ 

Smith, C. F. Honorary Degrees as Conferred in Ameri- 
can Colleges. Syracuse, Bardeen. 9 p. 8°. 15 

Thermal Repulsion, The Cosmic I^w of. An Essay 
suggested by a Comeths Tail. Anon. New York, 
Wiley. 60 p. 12®. 75 cents. 

Todd. D. P. Photographs of the Corona taken during 
the Total Eclipse of the Sun, January i, 1889. 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. 1**. 

Pennsylvania State Collece, Report of the, for the Year 
1688. Part II.— Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Harri^burg, State. 24a p. 8^. 

Powell, E. P. Liberty and Life. Chicago, C. H. Ken- 
Co. ao8 p. xa**. 75 cents. 

Ulrich, E. O. Contributions to the Micro- Palzntology 
of the Cambro-Silurian Rocks of Canada. Part 11. 
Montreal, Brown & Co, 50 p. 4^. 

Walker, F. A. First Lessons in Political Economy. 
New York, Holt. 323 p. 12°. 

Chronic Cough Nowi 

J For If you do not It may become con- | 
} samptive. For Consumption, Scrofula, 1 
) OenertU DebUUy and muHtig IHaeaae; 1 

* Ihero Is nothing like ' 



Of Pure Cod Liver Oil and 

Of" Xsixxae Azad. McxIa. 

It Is almost as palatable as milk. Far 
better thiiii other so-called Emulsions. 
A wonderful flesli produoer. 

Scott's Emulsion 

jTh«^re are poor Imitations. Get the genuine,\ 


[Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

I will give zoo good arrow heads for a fine pair of wild 
cattle horns at least two feet long. 1 f you have shorter 
or other horns write me, and also how many arrow heads 
you want for them. I will also exchange shells, minerals 
and arrows. W. F. Lerch, 308 East 4th St , Davenport, 

I wish to purchase Vol. 7 of the A merican Chtmical 
Journal^ either bound or unbound. State price. Ad- 
dress, Wm. L, Dudley, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 

A few duplicates of Murex radix^ Af. ramosus^ M. 
i^andaris. Cassis ru/a^ Har/a ventricosa^ Oliva tri- 
atuiuy O. reticularis^ Chlorostoma /unebralt^ CyPreea 
caput serpent is ^ C. lynx^ Lottia gigantea^ Acmola 
patina^ Chama spinosa^ and some thirty other species, 
for exchange for shells not in our collection. List on ap- 
plic.-ttion. — Curator Museum, Polytechnic Society, Lou- 
isville, Ky. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic views of Aborigines of 
any country, and fine landscapes .etc., wanted in exchange 
for mineials and fossils. — L. L. Lewis, Copenhagen, 
New York. 

Droysen's Alg^meiner Historicher Hand-atlas (Leip- 
zig, 1886,) for scientific books — those published in the 
International Scientific Series preferred.— James H. 
Stoller, Schenecudy, N.Y. 

Astronomical works and reports wanted in exchange or 
to buy. Reports of observations on the planet Neptune 
and its satellite specially desired. — Edmund J. Sheri- 
dan, B.A., 295 Adelphi St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

I would like to correspond with any person having 
Tryon's '* Structural ana Systematic Conchology " to 
dispose of. I wish also to obtain State or U.S. Reports 
on Geology. Conchology, and Archaeology. I will ex- 
change classified specimens or pay cash. Also wanted a 
copy of MacFarlane's " Geologists' Traveling Hand-Book 
and Geological Railway Guide." — D. E. Willard, Cura- 
tor of Museum, Albion Academy, Albion, Wis. 

Morris's '* British Butterflies," Morris's *' Nests and 
Eggs of British Birds." Bree's "Birds of Europe" (all 
colored plates), and other natural history, in exchange 
for Shakesperiana ; either books, pamphlets, engravings, 
or cuttings. — J. D. Bamett, Box 735^ Stratford, Canaaa. 

I have Anodonta opalina (Weatherby), and many 
other species of shells from the noted Kosnkonong Lake 
and vicinity, also from Western New York, and fossils 
from the Marcellus shale of New York, which I would be 
elad to exchange for specimens of scientific value of any 
kind. I would also like to correspond with persons inter- 
ested in the collection, sale, or exchange of Indian relics.— 
D. E. Willard, Albion Academy. Albion, Wis. 

Will exchange " Princeton Review " for 1883, Hugh 
Miller's works on geology and other scientific works, tor 
back numbers of " The Auk," *' American Naturalist," 
or other scientific periodicals or books. Write. — J. M. 
Keck, Chardon, Ohio. 

*' I wish to exchange Lepidoptera with parties in the 
eastern and southern states. I will send western species 
for those found in other localities." — P. C. Truman, 
Volga, Brookings Co., Dakota. 

Shells and curiosities for marine shells, curiosities or 
minerals address W. F. Lerch, No. 308 East Fourth St., 
Davenport, Iowa. 

I want to correspond and exchange with a collector of 
beetles in Texas or_ Florida. — Wm. D. Richardson, 
P.O. Box 223, Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

A collection of fifty unclassified shells for the best o£Fer 
in bird skins ; also skins of California birds for those of 
birds of other localities. Address Th. E. Slevin, 3413 
Sacramento St., San t* rancisco, Cal. 

I have forty varieties of birds' eggs, side blown, first 
class, in sets^ with full data, which I will exchange for 
books, scientific journals, shells, and curios. Write me, 
stating what you have to o£Fer. — Dr. W. S. Strodb, 
Bemadotte, Fulton County, 1)1. 

Lead, zinc, mundic, and calcite. — Lulu Hay, secre^ 
tary Chapter 350, Carthage, Mo. 

A Mew lethod of Treating Disease. 


What are they ? There is a new departure in 
the treatment of disease. It consists in the 
collection of the specifics used by noted special- 
ists of Europe and America, and bringing them 
within the reach of all. For instance, the treat- 
ment pursued by special physicians who treat 
indigestion, stomach and liver troubles only, 
was obtained and prepared. The treatment of 
other physicians celebrated for curing catarrh 
was procured, and so on till these incomparable 
cures now include disease of the lungs, kidneys, 
female weakness, rheumatism and nervous de- 

This new method of ** one remedy for one 
disease" must appeal to the common sense of 
all sufferers, many of whom have experienced 
the ill effects, and thoroughly realize the ab- 
surdity of the claims of Patent Medicines which 
are guaranteed to cure every ill out of a single 
bottle, and the use of which, as statistics prove, 
has ; uined more stomachs than alcohol, A cir- 
cular describing these new remedies is sent free 
on receipt of stamp to pay postage by Hospital 
Remedy Company, Toronto, Canada, sole pro- 

A Useful and Handsome Present. 

Prices Reduced for the Holidays. 


Warranted 14 karat gold and to give perfect 8at)5- 
faction— la pronounced by hundreds of pleased cuft> 
tomers to be the bsst fountain pen in the market 
because it Is always ready. Writes freely and 
never gets out of order. 

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[Vol. XV. No. 36} 

Anthropological Society, Washington. 

Jan. 7. — Capt. John G. Bourke, U.S.A., 
Vesper Hours of the Stone Age ; Major J. 
W. Powell, Remarks on the Archaeology of 
North America ; Dr. W. J. Hoffman, Re- 
marks on Ojibwa Ball-Play; Mr. Walter 
Hough, Prometheus. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
New Haven. 

Jan. 15. — D. C. Eaton, Some notes on 
Lotus ; Wm. H. Brewer. Further notes on 
the Race- Horse. 

/Appalachian Mountain Club, Boston. 

Jan. 8. — Mr. Warren Upham, A Recent 
Visit to Lake Itasca ; Rev. E. F. Merriam, 
A Short Account of his Ascent of Parlin 
Pond Bald Mountain, Maine. 

Boston Society of Natural History. 

Jan. 1 5. — The discussion of the question, 
" What were the Climatic Conditions of the 
Glacial Period ? " The Section of Entomol- 
ogy will meet on Jan. 22. 

Engineers' Club, St. Louis. 

Jan. 8. — The Executive Committee sub- 
mitted the following programme of meetings 
and papers for the year 1890. It has not 
been possible to assign exact dates as pro- 
posed by the members contributing, but the 
arrangement submitted, it is thought, will be 
found satisfactory : Jan. 8, Method for Defi- 
nite Location of Gauge Line on Car Wheels, 
B. F. Crow; Deflection of Framed Struc- 
tures, J. B. Johnson. Jan. 22, Fuel Gas, 
William B. Potter. Feb. 5, Tests of Water 
Works Engines, George W. Dudley ; Spiral 
Springs, Nathan W. Perkins, Jr. Feb. 19, 
The Pemberton Concentrator, Frank Nichol- 
son ; The Substructure of the Cairo Bridge, 
Edward H. Connor. March 5, Elevated 
Railroads, George H. Pegram. March 19, 
The Smoke Problem, William B. Potter. 
April 2, A National Federation of Engineer- 
ing Societies, J. B. Johnson. April 16, Rail- 
way Inclines, Isaac A. Smith ; The Repro- 
duction of Drawings, David C. Humphreys. 
May 7, Compound Locomotives, Arthur T. 
Woods; Granitoid Curb and Gutter, Otto 
Schmitz. May 21, River Pollution in the 
United Slates, Charles C. Brown. June 4, 
Report of Committee on Collection of Local 
Data, S. B. Russell, Chairman. Sept. 17, 
The Telescope: Its Optical Qualities and 
Application to Measurements, O. L. Petitdi- 
dier. Oct. i, History of a Few Railway 
Culverts, Charles I. Brown. Oct. 15, Pump- 
ing Machinery, James M. Sherman. Nov. 5, 
The Graphical Representation of the Output 
of the Steam Engine, F. E. Nipher. Nov. 
19, Selection of Committee on Nomination 
of Officers ; Stripping Coal, Lewis Stockett. 
Dec. 3, Annual Meeting — Nominations of 
officers for the year 1891 ; annual reports of 
officers and committees. Dec. 17, An- 
nouncement of result of election for officers ; 
address of retiring president. Mr. B. F. 
Crow then read a paper on " Method for 
Definite Location of Gauge Line on Car 

Wheels." He discussed the matter princi 
pally with reference to street railway prac- 
tice, showing the lack of uniformity, and the 
difficulty of determining definitely the gauge 
of any street railway or pair of wheels. ' He 
explained a simple method for settling the 
matter, and illustrated it with blackboard 
sketches. Mr. Crow exhibited a number of 
patterns of various forms of street rail and 
wheel. He recommended the proposed 
method for general adoption. Messrs. J. 
B. Johnson, Robert Moore and J. A. Seddon 
took part in the discussion. Professor J. B. 
Johnson then read a paper on *' Deflection of 
Framed Structures,'* to which he had added 
a discussion of the distribution of stresses 
over redundant members. The professor's 
discussion was general in its application, and 
presented a method for determining the 
stresses in those forms of truss which had 
been usually considered indeterminate, and 
consequently to be avoided. The method of 
using the formula was fully explained, and 
illustrated by an example from a Pratt truss. 
The discussion was participated in by Messrs. 
Hubbard, Pegram, Seddon, Nipher, and 
Moore. Mr. Pegram called attention to the 
importance of this question, as it was usually 
given far too little study by engineers. He 
explained a simple method, which he had 
used in determining the camber of a bridge. 
He also called attention to the fact that the 
load was increasing at the rate of one half of 
one per cent per month. 

Catarrhal neaffeies*— Hay FeTer. 


Sufferers are not generally aware that these 
diseases are contagious, or that they are due to 
the presence of living parasites in the lining 
membrane of the nose and eustachian tubes. 
Microscopic research, however, has proved this 
to be a fact, and the result of this discovery is 
that a simple remedy has been formulated where- 
by catarrh, catarrhal deafness and hay fever are 
permanently cured in from one to three simple 
applications made at home by the patient once 
in two weeks. 

N.B. — This treatment is not a snuff or an 
ointment ; both have been discarded by repu- 
table physicians as injurious. A pamphlet ex- 
plaining this new treatment is sent free on 
receipt of stamp to pay postage, by A. H. Dix- 
on & Son. 337 and 339 West King Street. 
Toronto, Canada. — Christian Advocate, 

Sufferers from Catarrhal troubles should care- 
fully read the above. 


cured in stipulated time. 


Call or send stamp for circular and reference of those 
cured. We have on hand over 300 styles of trusses, from 
$x up, and suspensories of all kinds. Orders filled by 
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C. A. M. BURNHAM, M.D., 

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[Vol. XV. No. 363 


SPRING 1890. 



Plain, Stripe, Plaid, Check, 

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We have commenced our January Sale of 
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Fort Ancient consists of 18,712.8 feet of embank- 
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Eighth Year 
Vol. XV. No. 364. 


NEW YORK, January 24, 1890. 

Single Copies, Ten Cents. 
$3.50 Per Year, in Advance. 


The annexed engraving illustrates a steel pressure-blower on a 
recently perfected pattern of adjustable bed with countershaft, de- 
signed and constructed with special reference to high-pressure 
duty, such as supplying blast for cupola furnaces, forge- fires, and 
sand-blast machines, also for forcing air long distances. By means 
of a tightening-screw, the blower may be moved upon the bed 
while running at full speed, taking up any slack, giving both belts 
a uniform tension, which is regulated at the will of the operator. 
This is a very important point in preventing the inconvenience and 
loss incurred by a stoppage during heat when blowers are used for 
cupola purposes. By the use of this adjusting device, a great sav- 
ing^is made in the wear and tear of belts, for a simple turn or two 

stretches with immunity from heat or culling. A distinguishing 
feature of these blowers is the solid case, the peripheral portion of 
the shell being cast in one solid piece, thus dispensing with objec- 
tionable joints. The journals are long and heavy, and have cap- 
bearings secured by bolts held firmly in place by lock-nuts. It is 
made by the Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, N.Y. 


After the cereals, there is perhaps no plant so extensively cul- 
tivated and utilized as the tobacco-plant. It is grown and em- 
ployed as a narcotic in almost every country of the world, and it 
has been calculated that one-fourth of the human family use it. 


of the nut on the adjusting- screw, and a retightening of the hold- 
ing-down bolts, take but a moment, and accomplish the same end 
as rdactng the belts, which usually is put off until the belt will 
run no longer on account of slack. Special attention should be 
directed to pressure-blower belts, on account of the high rate of 
speed at which they must necessarily run ; and absolutely perfect 
alignment of the countershaft with the blower is essential in order 
to secure smooth running and even tracking, as well as to avoid 
undue wear of belts by slipping. 

A telescopic mouth-piece is employed on this blower, in order 
that the piping may not be disarranged in mo\ing the machine on 
the bed, and the countershaft is long enough to carry tight and 
kx)se pulleys for the main driving-belt. A self-oiling device fitted 
to the countershaft enables it to be run at high speeds for long 

At the Colonial Exhibition in London, according to the Journal 
of the Society of Arts, the dried leaf and its preparations were 
shown by India and every one of the British possessions, and the 
Paris Exhibition has supplemented this display by showing its ex- 
tensive production in Europe. North and South America, eastern 
Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the continent of Africa. 

It is somewhat difficult to obtain trustworthy information re- 
garding the world's trade in tobacco, because so much is used up 
locally in different countries. It is probable that the total area un- 
der cultivation is not far short of 6,000,000 acres. For the year 
1886 certain official returns are available, which show that the 
United States, India, and Hungary are the largest producers. 

The area under tobacco in acres was, in the United States, 752,- 
520; India, 641,000; Hungary and Austria, 149.468 ; Germany, 


Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364 

49,312; France, 37,156; Algeria, 20,478; Italy, 12,061 ; Holland, 
3,218, — a total of 2,106,213 acres. 

The consumption of tobacco in the United Kingdom is large 
and progressive, and the revenue derived from it last year was 
nearly $43,750,000. The average consumption is largest in Hol- 
land, — nearly 7 pounds per head ; in the United States, about 4! 
pounds ; in Hungary, Denmark, Belgium, and Germany, from 3 to 
3} pounds. In the Australian colonies it is also high, — 3! pounds ; 
in France it is about 2 pounds ; and in the United Kingdom, under 
1 1 pounds. 

The yearly production of tobacco in Cuba is about 300,000 bales, 
and 181,000.000 cigars are also exported. The Spaniards have 
hitherto monopolized the trade in cigars, alleging that parts of the 
soil of Cuba were alone suited to the production of Havana tobacco. 
This assertion is now disproved, for with good choice of seed, soil, 
and leaf, and skilled manufacture, Jamaica is said now to send into 
the market as excellent a cigar as was ever shipped from Havana, 
and at a far cheaper rate. In the Philippines 100,000 hundred- 
weights of tobacco are produced. The Dutch possessions in the 
Eastern Archipelago ship a large quantity of excellent tobacco, 
which is held in high repute in Europe. The imports of Sumatra 
tobacco in Holland now average 140,000 bales; and of Java to- 
bacco, 1 30,000 bales. 

Although there are about fifty species of the genus Ntcotiana 
known, only three or four are much cultivated for the leaf. The 
two principal commercial forms are by some botanists treated as 
varieties, and not as distinct species. These are A^. tabacum, the 
most extensively cultivated kind of plant, which may be at once 
recognized by its longish pink flowers and tapering oval- lanceolate 
sessile leaves ; and A^. rustica, which has short greenish flowers, 
and stalked ovate, cordate leaves. The leaves are coarser and 
more crumpled than those of the preceding. This is popularly 
known as the Turkish form, but is most probably a native of Mex- 
ico and California. A^. repanda is not very extensively cultivated, 
but is said to yield some of the finest qualities of Cuban tobacco. 
A^. Persica furnishes the Persian or Shiraz tobacco. .V. angusti- 
folta^ a species found in Chili, yields a very strong tobacco. 

The West Indian, Latakia, and American tobaccos are obtained 
from cultivated plants of N, tabacum ; while the Manila, Turk- 
ish, and Hungarian are reported to be derived from N, msitca. 
In India A^. rustica is only cultivated to a very limited extent, and 
chiefly in eastern Bengal and Cachar, and the leaf is never ex- 
ported to Europe. N, tabacum has become an abundant weed 
in many parts of India. The gross annual value of the tobacco 
harvest in Bengal may be roughly estimated at $10,000,000, but the 
quantity exported is small, averaging only $65,000 in value. 

Of the species, N, macrophylla is considered to possess the 
qualities that distinguish a good tobacco in the highest degree. 
Some of the Havana tobaccos belong to this species. Madras, 
where the climate is admirably suited for the growth of tobacco, 
stands first with regard to the development of this industry in In- 
dia, Dinnigul is the great tobacco district, and cheroots are man- 
ufactured at Trichinopoli. The islands in the delta of the Godav- 
ery also yield what is called Lunk tobacco, the climate being suita- 
ble ; and the plants are raised in rather poor light soil, highly 
manured and well watered. No better evidence could be afforded 
of the universal use of this plant than the extensive display which 
was made of it in every section of the Paris Exhibition ; and al- 
though most of the cases were under seal of the customs, yet many 
of the kiosks were privileged to sell, such as the Dutch, Belgian, 
Spanish, Mexican, etc., although the sale and manufacture is a gov- 
ernment monopoly in France, and licenses are only granted to 
privileged people. 


It is nineteen years this month since Stanley first crossed the 
threshold of Central Africa. He entered it as a newspaper corre- 
spondent to find and succor Livingstone, and came out burning 
with the fever of African exploration. While with Livingstone at 
Ujiji he tried his 'prentice hand at a little exploring work, and be- 

* J. Scott Keltic, in Contemporary Review, January, 1890. 

twecn them they did something to settle the geography of the 
north end of Lake Tanganyika. Some three years and a half later 
he was once more on his way to Zanzibar, this time with the de- 
liberate intention of doing something to fill up the great blank that 
still occupied the centre of the continent. A glance at the first of 
the maps which accompany this paper will afford some idea of 
what Central Africa was like when Stanley entered it a second 
time. The ultimate sources of the Nile had yet to be settled. The 
contour and extent of Victoria Nyanza were of the most uncertain 
character. Indeed, so little was known of it beyond what Speke 
told us, that there was some danger of its being swept off the map 
altogether, not a few geographers believing it to be not one lake, 
but several. There was much to do in the region lying to the west 
of the lake, even though it had been traversed by Speke and Grant. 
Between a line drawn from the north end of Lake Tanganyika to 
some distance beyond the Albert Nyanza on one side, and the west 
coast region on the other, the map was almost white, with here 
and there the conjectural course of a river or two. Livingstone's 
latest work, it should be remembered, was then almost unknown, 
and Cameron had not yet returned. Beyond the Yellala Rapids 
there was no Kongo, and Livingstone believed that the Lualaba 
swept northwards to the Nile. He had often g^zed longingly 
at the broad river during his weary sojourn at Nyangw^, and 
yearned to follow it, but felt himself too old and exhausted for the 
task. Stanley was fired with the same ambition as his dead mas- 
ter, and was young and vigorous enough to indulge it. 

What, then, did Stanley do to map out the features of this great 
blank during the two years and nine months which he spent in 
crossing from Bagamoyo to Bom a, at the mouth of the Kongo? 
He determined, with an accuracy which has since necessitated but 
slight modification, the outline of the Victoria Nyanza ; he found 
it to be one of the great lakes of the world, 21,500 square miles in 
extent, with an altitude of over 4,000 feet, and border soundings of 
from 330 to 580 feet. Into the south shore of the lake a river 
flowed, which he traced for some 300 miles, and which he set down 
as the most southerly feeder of the Nile. With his stay at the 
court of the clever and cunning Mtesa of Uganda we need not con- 
cern ourselves; it has had momentous results. Westwards he 
came upon what he conceived to be a part of the Albert Nyanza, 
which he named Beatrice Gulf, but of which more anon. Coming 
southwards to Ujiji, Stanley filled in many features in the region 
he traversed, and saw at a distance a great mountain, which he 
named Gordon Bennett, of which also more anon. A little lake 
to the south he named Alexandra Nyanza ; thence he conjectured 
issued the south-west source of the Nile, but on this point, within 
the last few months, he has seen cause to change his mind. Lake 
Tanganyika he circumnavigated, and gave greater accuracy to its 
outline; while through the Lukuga he found it sent its waters by 
the Lualaba to the Atlantic. Crossing to Nyangw6, where with 
longing eyes Livingstone beheld the mile- wide Lualaba flow- 
ing •* north, north, north," Stanley saw his opportunity, and em- 
braced it. Tippo-Tip failed him then, as he did later ; but the 
mystery of that great river he had made up his mind to solve, and 
solve it he did. The epic of that first recorded journey of a white 
man down this majestic river, which for ages had been sweeping 
its unknown way through the centre of Africa, he and his dusky 
companions running the gauntlet through a thousand miles of hos- 
tile savages, is one of the most memorable things in the literature 
of travel. Leaving Nyangwe on Nov. 5, 1876, in nine months he 
traced the many-islanded Kongo to the Atlantic, and placed on the 
map of Africa one of its most striking features. For the Kongo 
ranks among the greatest rivers of the world. From the remote 
Chambeze that enters Lake Bangweolo to the sea, it is 3,000 miles. 
It has many tributaries, themselves affording hundreds of miles of 
navigable drains ; waters a basin of a million square miles, and 
pours into the Atlantic a volume estimated at 1,800,000 cubic feet 
per second. Thus, then, were the first broad lines drawn towards 
filling up the great blank. But, as we know, Stanley two years 
later was once more on his way to the Kongo, and shortly after, 
within the compass of its great basin, he helped to found the Kongo 
Free State. During the years he was officially connected with the 
river, either directly or through those who served under him, he 
went on filling up the blank by the exploration of other rivers. 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



north and south, which poured their voluminous tribute into the 
main stream ; and the impulse he gave has continued. The blank 
has become a network of dark lines, the interspaces covered with 
the names of tribes and rivers and lakes. 

Such then, briefly, is what Stanley did for the map of Africa dur- 
ing his great and ever-memorable journey across the continent. 
Once more Mr. Stanley has crossed the continent, in the opposite 
direction, and taken just about the same time in which to do so. 
Discovery was not his main object this time, and therefore the re- 
sults in this direction have not been so plentiful. Indeed, they 
could not be ; he had left so comparatively little to be done. But 
the additions that he has made to our knowledge of the great blank 
are considerable, and of high importance in their bearing on the 
hydrography, the physical geography, the climate, and the people 
of Centrai Africa. 

Let us rapidly run over the incidents of this, in some respects, 
the most remarkable expedition that ever entered Africa. Its first 
purpose, as we know, was to relieve, and if necessary bring away, 
Emin Pacha, the governor of the abandoned Equatorial Province 
of the Egyptian Sudan, which spread on each side of the Bahr-el- 
Jcbel, the branch of the Nile that issues from the Albert Nyanza. 
Here it was supposed that he and his Egyptian officers and troops, 
and their wives and children, were beleaguered by the Mahdist 
hordes, and that they were at the end of their supplies. Emin 
Pacha, who as Eduard Schnitzer was bom in Prussian Silesia, and 
educated at Breslau and Berlin as a physician, spent twelve years 
(1864— 1876) in the Turkish service, during which he travelled over 
much of the Asiatic dominions of Turkey, indulging his strong 
tastes for natural history. In 1876 he entered the service of Egypt, 
and was sent up to the Sudan as sui^geon on the staff of Gordon 
Pacha, who at that time governed the Equatorial Province. In 
1878, two years after Gordon had been appointed governor-gen- 
eral of the whole Sudan, Emin Effendi (he had Moslemized him- 
selO was appointed governor of the Equatorial Province, which he 
found completely disorganized and demoralized, the happy hunt- 
ing-ground of the slave-raider. Within a few months Emin had 
restored order, swept out the slavers, got rid of the Egyptian scum 
who pretended to be soldiers, improved the revenue, so that in- 
stead of a large deficit there was a considerable surplus, and 
established industry and legitimate trade. Meantime the Mahdi 
had appeared, and the movement of conquest was gathering 
strength. It was not, however, till 1884 that Emin began to fear 
danger. It was in January of that year that Gordon went out to 
hold Khartoum ; just a year later both he and the city fell before 
the Mahdist host. Emin withdrew with his officers and depend- 
ents, numbering probably about fifteen hundred, to Wadelai, in the 
south of the province, within easy reach of Albert Nyanza. 

Rumors of the events in the Sudan after the fall of Khartoum 
reached this country ; but no one outside of scientific circles 
seemed to take much interest in Emin till 1886. Rapidly, how- 
ever, Europe became aware what a noble stand >his simple savant, 
who had been foisted into the position of governor of a half- savage 
province, was making against the forces of the Mahdi, and how 
he refused to desert his post and his people. Towards the au- 
tumn of 1886 publk: feeling on the subject rose to such a height 
that the British Government, which was held to blame for the 
position in the Sudan, was compelled to take action. Our repre- 
sentative at Zanzibar, as early as August of that year, instituted in- 
quiries as to the possibility of a relief expedition, but in the end, in 
dread of international complications, it was decided that a govern- 
ment exi>edition was impracticable. In this dilemma. Sir (then 
Mr.) William Mackinnon, chairman of the British India Steam 
Navigation Company, whose connection with East Africa is of old 
standing, came forward and offered to undertake the responsibility 
of getting up an expedition. 

The Emin Pacha Relief Committee was formed in December, 
1886, and government did all it could to aid, short of taking the 
actual responsibility. Mr. H. M. Stanley generously offered his 
services as leader, without fee or reward, giving up many lucrative 
engagements for the purpose. No time was lost. The sum of ;£2o,ooo 
had been subscribed, including ;^io,ooo from the Egyptian Govern • 
roent. Mr. Stanley returned from America to England in the end 
of December ; by the end of January he had made all his prepara- 

tions, selecting nine men as his staff, including three English 
officers and two surgeons, and was on his way to Zanzibar, which 
was reached on Feb. 21. On the 25th the expedition was on board 
the " Madura," bound for the mouth of the Kongo, by way of the 
Cape : nine European officers, sixty-one Sudanese, thirteen Soma- 
lis, three interpreters, 620 Zarizibaris, the famous Arab slaver and 
merchant, Tippo-Tip, and 407 of his people. 

The mouth of the Kongo was reached on March 18 ; there the 
expedition was transshipped into small vessels, and landed at Ma- 
tadi, the limit of navigation on the lower river. From Matadi 
there was a march of 200 miles, past the cataracts to Stanley Pool, 
where the navigation was resumed. The troubles of the expedi- 
tion began on the Kongo itself. 

The question of routes was much discussed at the time of or- 
ganizing the expedition, the two that found most favor being that 
from the east coast through Masai-land and round by the north of 
Uganda, and that by the Kongo. Into the comparative merits of 
these two routes we shall not enter here. For reasons which were 
satisfactory to himself, — and no one knows Africa better, — Mr. 
Stanley selected the Kongo route ; though had he foreseen all that 
he and his men would have to undergo he might have hesitated. 
As it was, the expedition, which it was thought would be back in 
England by Christmas, 1887, only reached the coast in November, 
1889. But the difficulties no one could have foreseen, the region 
traversed being completely unknown, and the obstacles encountered 
unprecedented even in Africa. Nor, when the goal was reached, 
was it expected that months would be wasted in persuading Emin 
and his people to quit their exile. Not the keenest-eyed of African 
explorers could have foreseen all this. 

Want of sufficient boat accommodation, and a scarcity of food 
almost amounting to famine, hampered the expedition terribly on 
its way up the Kongo. The mouth of the Aruvimi, the real start- 
ing-point of the expedition, some 1,500 miles from the mouth of 
the Kongo, was not reached by Mr. Stanley and the first contingent 
till the beginning of June, 1887. The distance from here in a 
straight line to the nearest point of the Albert Nyanza is about 450 
miles ; thence it was believed communication with Emin would be 
easy, for he had two steamers available. But it was possible that a 
detour would have to be made towards the north so as to reach 
Wadelai direct, for no one knew the conditions which prevailed in 
the country between the Aruvimi mouth and the Albert Nyanza. 
As it was, Mr. Stanley took the course to the lake direct, but with 
many a circuit and many an obstruction, and at a terrible sacrifice 
of life. An intrenched camp was established on a bluff at Yam- 
buya, about fifty miles up the left bank of the Aruvimi. Major 
Barttelot was left in charge of this, and with him Dr. Bonny, Mr. 
Jameson, Mr. Rose Troup, Mr. Ward, and 257 men ; the rear 
column was to follow as soon as Tippo-Tip provided the contingent 
of five hundred natives which he had solemnly promised. Although 
the whole of the men had not come up, yet every thing seemed in 
satisfactory order ; explicit instructions were issued to the officers 
of the rear column; and on June 28. 1887, Mr. Stanley, with a 
contingent consisting of 389 officers and men, set out to reach 
Emin Pacha. The officers with him were Captain Nelson, Lieu- 
tenant Stairs, Dr. Parke, and Mr. Jephson. 

Five miles after leaving camp the difficulties began. The expe- 
dition was face to face with a dense forest of immense extent, 
choked with bushy undergrowth, and obstructed by a network of 
creepers through which a way had often to be cleaved with the 
axes. Hostile natives harassed them day after day; the paths 
were studded with concealed spikes of wood ; the arrows were 
poisoned ; the natives burned their villages rather than have deal- 
ings with the intruders. Happily the river, when it was again 
struck, afforded relief, and the steel boat proved of service, though 
the weakened men found the portages past the cataracts a great 
trial. It was fondly hoped that here at least the Arab slaver had 
not penetrated ; but on Sept. 16 two hundred miles from Yambuya, 
making 340 miles of actual travel, the slave camp of Ugarowwa 
was reached, and here the treatment was even worse than when 
fighting the savages of the forest. The brutalities practised on 
Stanley's men cost many of them their lives. A month later the 
camp of another Arab slaver was reached, Kilinga Longa, and 
there the treatment was no better. These so-called Arabs, whose 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364 

caravans consist mainly of the merciless Manyuema, from the country 
between Tanganyiica and Nyangwe, had laid waste a great area of 
the region to be traversed by the expedition, so that between Aug. 31 
and Nov. 12 every man was famished ; and when at last the land 
of devastation was left behind, and the native village of Ibwiri en- 
tered, officers and men were reduced to skeletons. Out of the 389 
who started, only 174 entered Ibwiri, the rest dead, or missing, or 
left behind, unable to move, at Ugarowwa's. So weak was every- 
body that seventy tons of goods and the boat had to be left at Ki- 
linga Longa's with Captain Nelson and Surgeon Parke. 

A halt of thirteen days at Ibwiri, with its plenty of fowls, ba- 
nanas, com, yams, beans, restored everybody ; and 173 sleek and 
robust men set out for the Albert Nyanza on Nov. 24. A week 
later the gloomy and dreaded forest suddenly ended ; the open 
country was reached ; the light of day was unobstructed ; it was 
an emergence from darkness to light. But the difficulties were 
not over ; some little fighting with the natives on the populous 
plateau was necessary before the lake could be reached. On the 
1 2th the edge of the long slope from the Kongo to Lake Albert was 

on April 22 the expedition reached the chief Kavalli, who delivered 
to Stanley a letter wrapped in American cloth. The note was 
from Emin, and stated that he had heard rumors of Stanley's 
presence in the district ; it begged Stanley to wait until Emin could 
communicate with him. The boat was launched, and Jephson set 
off to find Emin. On the 29th the " Khedive " steamer came down 
the lake with Emin, the Italian Casati, and Jephson on board. 
The great object of the expedition seemed at last to be all but ful- 

But the end was not yet. There was the party at Fort Bodo ; 
there were the sick further back with whom Lieutenant Stairs had 
not returned when Stanley left the fort ; and, above all, there was 
the rear column left at Yambuya with Major Barttelot. It would 
take some time for Emin to bring down all his people from Wade* 
lai and other stations. So after spending over three weeks with 
the vacillating Emin, Stanley, on May 25. was once more on the 
march back to Fort Bodo to bring up all hands. He left Jephson, 
three Sudanese, and two Zanzibaris with Emin, who gave him 102 
natives as porters, and three irregulars to accompany him back. 

10* ImM, 

« .S"'^iio""S&"-t?9 ^ 


attained, and suddenly the eyes of all were gladdened by the sight 
of the lake lying some three thousand feet almost sheer below. 
The expedition itself stood at an altitude of 5,200 feet above the 
sea. But the end was not yet. Down the expedition marched to 
the south-west corner of the lake, where the Kakongo natives were 
unfriendly. No Emin Pacha had been heard of ; there was no sign 
even that he knew of Stanley's coming, or that the messenger from 
Zanzibar had reached him. The only boat of the expedition was 
at Kilinga Longa's, 190 miles away. Of the men, 94 were behind 
sick at Ugarowwa's and Kilinga Longa's; only 173 were with 
Stanley ; 74 of the original 341 were dead or missing ; and, more- 
over, there was anxiety about the rear column. 

Stanley's resolution was soon taken. Moving to the village of 
Kavalli, some distance up the steep slope from the lake, the party 
began a night m^rch on Dec. 15, and by Jan. 7 they were back at 
Ibwiri. Here Fort Bodo, famous in the records of the expedition, 
was built. The men were brought up from the rear, and on April 
7 Stanley, with Jephson and Parke, once more led the expedition 
to Lake Albert, this time with the boat and fresh stores. Mean- 
time, Stanley himself was on the sick-list for a month. This time 
all the natives along the route were friendly and even generous, and 

Fort Bodo was reached on June 8, and was found in a flourishing 
state, surrounded by acres of cultivated fields. But of the fifty- six 
mei left at Ugarowwa's only sixteen were alive for Lieutenant 
Stairs to bring to Fort Bodo. As there was no sign of the rear 
column nor of the twenty messengers sent off in March with let- 
lers for Major Barttelot, Stanley felt bound to retrace his steps 
through the terrible forest. This time he was better provisioned* 
and his people (212) escaped the horrors of the wilderness. 

Fort Bodo was left on June 16, Stanley letting all his white com- 
panions remain behind. Ugarowwa's camp was deserted, and he 
himself, with a flotilla of fifty-seven canoes, was overtaken far down 
the river on Aug. 10, and with him seventeen of the carriers sent 
off to Major Barttelot in March ; three of their number had been 
killed. On the 17th the rear column was met with at Bonalya, 
eighty miles above Yambuya, and then for the first time Stanley 
learned of the terrible disaster that had befallen it — Barttelot shot 
by the Manyuema, Jameson gone down the Kongo (only to die). 
Ward away, and Troup invalided home. No one but Dr. Bonny : 
of the 257 men only seventy-two remaining, and of these only fifty- 
two fit for service. No wonder- Mr. Stanley felt too sick to write 
the details ; and until we have the whole of the evidence it would 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



be unfair to pronounce judgment. One thing we may say : we 
know, from Mr. Werner's recently published ** River Life on the 
Congo," that before Major Barttelot left Yambuya to follow Stan- 
ley it was known to Mr. Werner, to more than one Belgian officer, 
to several natives, and to the Manyuema people with Barttelot, 
that instructions had been given by Tippo-Tip to these last to 
shoot Major Barttelot if he did not treat them well. Yet no one- 
cared to warn the major, and he was allowed to depart to his al- 
most certain fate. The thing is too sickening to dwell upon. It 
was at this stage that Stanley sent home his first letters, which 
reached England on April i, 1889, twenty months after he started 
from the Aruvimi, and over two years after he left England. The 
relief was intense ; all sorts of sinister rumors had been floated, 
and most people had given up the expedition for lost. 
•Once more back through the weary forest, with the expedition 
re-organized. A new route was taken to the north of the river 
through a region devastated by the Arab slavers ; and here the 
expedition came near to starvation, but once more Fort Bodo was 
reached, on Dec. 20. Here things were practically as Stanley had 

homeward march was comparatively free from trouble, and full of 
interest ; and on Dec. 6 Mr. Stanley once more entered Zanzibar, 
which he had left two years and ten months before. Such briefly 
are some of the incidents of the rescue expedition ; let us now as 
briefly sum up the geographical results. 

When Stanley left for Africa in January. 1887, there remained 
one of the great problems of African hydrography still unsolved, 
what is known as the problem of the Welle. Schweinfurth and 
Junker had come upon a river at some points which seemed to 
rise in the neighborhood of the Albert Nyanza, and appeared to 
flow in a north-west direction. The favorite theory at the time 
was that the river Welle was really the upper course of the Shari, 
which runs into Lake Chad far away to the north-west. But as 
the Kongo and its great feeders on the north, and the lay of the 
land in that direction, became better known, it began to be conjec- 
tured that after all the Welle might send its waters to swell the 
mighty volume of the great river. Stanley, I know, hoped that, 
among other geographical work, he might be able to throw some 
light on the course of this puzzling river. But, as we see now, the 


left them ; there was no sign of Emin, though he had promised to 
come to the fort The combined expedition march^ onwards, 
and Mr. Stanley, pushing on with a contingent, reached the lake 
ior the third time, on Jan. 18, only to learn that Emin and Jephson 
liad been made prisoners by Emin's own men ; the Mahdists had 
attacked the station and created a panic, ^d all was disorganiza- 
tion and vacillation. At last, however, the chief actors in this 
strange drama were together again : and Mr. Stanley's account of 
Emin's unstable purpose ; the long arguments with- the Pacha to 
persuade him to come to a decision ; the ingratitude and treachery 
of the Egyptians ; the gathering of the people and their burden- 
some goods and chattels preparatory to quitting the lake, — these 
and many other details are fresh in our memories from Stanley's 
own letters. But the main purpose of the expedition was accom- 
plished, at however terrible a cost, and however disappointing it 
was to find that after all Emin was reluctant to be " rescued." 
When the start was made from Kavalli's, on April 10 last, fifteen hun- 
<lred people in all were mustered. An ahnost mortal illness laid 
Stanley low for a month shortly after the start, and it was May 8 
before the huge caravan was fairly under way. Some fighting had 
io be doae witii the raiders from Unyoro, but on the whole the 

cares and troubles that fell upon him prevented him going much 
out of the way to do geographical work. While, however, Stanley 
was cleaving his way through the tangled forest. Lieutenant 
Van G61e, one of . the Free State officers, proved conclusively 
that the Well6 was really the upper course of the Mobangi, one of 
the largest northern tributaries of the Kongo. But another and 
kindred problem Stanley was able to solve. Before his journey, 
the mouth of the river Aruvimi was known ; the great naval bat- 
■ tie which he fought there on his first descent of the river is one of 
the most striking of the many striking pictures in the narrative of 
that famous journey. But beyond Yambuya its course was a blank. 
The river, under various names, " Ituri " being the best known, led 
him almost to the brink of the Albert Nyanza. One of its upper 
contributories is only ten minutes' walk from the brink of the es- 
carpment that looks down upon the lake. With many rapids, it is 
for a g^eat part of its course over five hundred yards wide, with 
groups of islands here and there. For a considerable stretch it is 
navigable, and its entire length, taking all its windings into account, 
from its source to the Kongo, is eight hundred miles. One of its 
tributaries turns out to be another river which Junker met farther 
north, and whose destination was a puzzle, the Nepoko. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364 

Thus this expedition has enabled us to form clearer notions of 
the hydrography of this remarkable region of rivers. We see that 
the sources of the Kongo and the Nile lie almost within a few 
yards of each other. Indeed* so difficult is it to determine to which 
river the various waters in this region send their tribute, that Mr. 
Stanley himself, in his first letter, was confident that the southern 
Lake Albert belonged to the Kongo, and not to the Nile system ; 
it was only actual inspection that convinced him he was mistaken. 
How it is that the Ituri or the Aruvimi and other rivers in the 
same region are attracted to the Kongo and not to the Nile is easi- 
ly seen froip Mr. Stanley's graphic description of the lay of the 
country between the Kongo and the Albert Nyanza. It is, he 
says, like the glacis of a fort, some 350 miles long, sloping gradu- 
ally up from the margin of the Kongo (itself at the Aruvimi mouth 
1,400 feet above the sea), until ten minutes beyond one of the Ituri 
feeders it reaches a height of 5,200 feet, to descend almost perpen- 
dicularly 2,900 feet to the surface of the lake, which forms the great 
western reservoir of the Nile. 

But when the term "glacis " is used, it must not be inferred that 
the ascent from the kongo to Lake Albert is smooth and unob- 
structed. The fact is that Mr. Stanley found himself involved in 
the northern section of what is probably the most extensive and 
densest forest region in Africa. Livingstone spent many a weary 
day trudging its gloomy recesses away south at Nyangw6 on the 
Lualaba. It stretches for many miles' north to the Monbuttu 
country. Stanley entered it at Yambuya, and tunnelled his way 
through it to within fifty miles of the Albert Nyanza, when it all of 
a sudden ceased and gave way to grassy plains and the unob- 
structed light of day. How far west it may extend beyond the 
Aruvimi he cannot say; but it was probably another section o( 
this same forest region that Mr. Paul du Chaillu struck some thirty 
years ago, when gorilla-hunting in the Gaboon. Mr. Stanley esti- 
mates the area of this great forest region at about three hundred 
thousand square miles, which is more likely to be under than over 
the mark. The typical African forest, as Mr. Drummond shows 
in his charming book on " Tropical Africa," is not of the kind 
found on the Aruvimi, which is much more South American than 
African. Not even in the " great sponge " from which the Zam- 
besi and the Kongo draw their remote supplies do we meet with 
such impenetrable density. Trees scattered about as in an English 
park in small open clumps form, as a rule, the type of " forest " 
common in Africa ; the physical causes which led to the dense 
packing of trees over the immense area between the Kongo and 
Nile lakes will form an interesting investigation. Mr. Stanley's 
description of the great forest region, in his letter to Mr. Bruce, 
is well worth quoting : — 

" Take a thick Scottish copse, dripping with rain ; imagine this 
copse to be a mere undergrowth, nourished under the impene- 
trable shade of ancient trees, ranging from 100 to 180 feet high ; 
briers and thorns abundant-; lazy creeks meandering through the 
depths of the jungle, and sometimes a deep affluent of a great 
river. Imagine this forest and jungle in all stages of decay and 
growth — old trees falling, leaning perilously over, fallen prostrate ; 
ants and insects of all kinds, sizes, and colors murmuring around ; 
monkeys and chimpanzees above, queer noises of birds and animals, 
crashes in the jungle as troops of elephants rush away ; dwarfs 
with poisoned arrows securely hidden behind some buttress or in 
some dark reccSss ; strong, brown-bodied aborigines with terribly 
sharp spears, standing poised, still as dead stumps ; rain pattering 
down on you every other day in the year ; an impure atmosphere, 
with its dread consequences, fever and dysentery ; glo6m through- 
out Ihe day, and darkness almost palpable throughout the night ; 
and then if you will imagine such a forest extending the entire dis- 
tance from Plymouth to Peterhead, you will have a fair idea of some 
of the inconvenience endured by us from June 28 to Dec. 5, 1887, 
and frotn June i, 1888, to the present date, to continue again from 
the present date till about Dec. 10, 1888, when I hope then to say 
a last farewell to the Kongo Forest." 

Mr. Stanley tries to account for this great forest region by the 
abundance of moisture carried over the continent from the wide 
Atlantic by the winds which blow landward through a great part 
of the year. But it is to be feared the remarkable phenomenon is 
not to be accounted for in so easy a way. Investigation may prove 

that the rain of the rainiest region in Africa comes not from the 
Atlantic, but the Indian Ocean, with its moisture-laden monsoons. 
And so we should have here a case analogous to that which occurs 
in South America, the forests of which resemble in many features 
those of the region through which Mr. Stanley has passed. 

But the forest itself is not more interesting than its human deni- 
zens. The banks of the river in many places are studded with 
large villages, some, at least, of the native tribes being cannibals. 
We are here on the northern border of the true negro peoples, so 
that when the subject is investigated the Aruvimi savages may be 
found to be much mixed. But unless Europe promptly intervenes^ 
there will shortly be few people left in these forests to investigate. 
Mr. Stanley came upon two slave-hunting parties, both of them 
manned by the merciless people of Manyuema. Already great 
tracts have been turned into a wilderness, and thousands of the 
natives driven from their homes. From the ethnologist's point of 
view the most interesting inhabitants of the Aruvimi forests are 
the hostile and cunning dwarfs, or rather pygmies, who caused the 
expedition so much trouble. No doubt they are the same as the 
Monbuttu pygmies found farther north, and essentially similar to 
the pygmy population found scattered all over Africa, from the 
Zambesi to the Nile, and from the Gaboon to th^ east coast. Mr. 
Du Chaillu found them in the forests of the west thirty years ago, 
and away south on the great Sankuru tributary of the Kongo 
Major Wissmann and his fellow-explorers met them within the 
past few years. They seem to be the remnants of a primitive 
population rather than stunted examples of the normal n^jo. 
Around the villages in the forest, wherever clearings had been 
made, the ground was of the richest character, growing crops of 
all kinds. Mr. Stanley has always maintained that in the high 
lands around the great lakes will be found the most favorable re- 
gion for European enterprise ; and if in time much of the forest is 
cleared away, the country between the Kongo and Lake Albert 
might become the granary of Africa. 

To the geographer, however, the second half of the expedition's 
work is fuller of interest than the first Some curious problems 
had to be solved in the lake region, problems that have given rise 
to much discussion. When in 1864 Sir Samuel Baker stood on the 
lofty escarpment that looks down on the east shore of the Albert 
Nyanza, at Vacovia, the lake seemed to him to stretch inimitably 
to the south, so that for long it appeared on our maps as extend- 
ing beyond I*' south latitude. When Stanley, many years latcr^ 
on his first great expedition, after crossing from Uganda, came 
upon a great bay of water, he was naturally inclined to think that 
it was a part of Baker's lake, and called it Beatrice Gulf. But 
Gessi and Mason, members of Gordon Pacha's staff, circumnavi- 
gated the lake later on, and found that it ended more than a degree 
north of the equator. So when Stanley published his narrative he 
made his " Beatrice Gulf " a separate lake lying to the south of the 
Albert Nyanza. Mr. Stanley ^w only a small portion of the south- 
em lake, Muta Nzig6, but in time it expanded and expanded on 
our maps, until there seemed some danger of its being joined on to 
Lake Tanganyika. Emin himself, during his twelve years' stay in 
the Sudan, did something towards exploring the Albert Nyanza, 
and found that its southern shore was fast advancing northwards, 
partly owing to sediment brought down by a river, and partly due 
to the wearing away of the rocky bed of the Upper Nile, by whk:h 
much water escaped, ^d the level of the lake subsided. Thus, 
when Baker stood on the shore of the lake in 1864, it may well 
have extended many miles farther south than it doesi now. But 
where did the river come from that Mason and Emin saw running 
into the lake from the south ? As was pointed out above, Stanley 
at first thought it could not come from his own lake to the south, 
which he believed must send its waters to the Kongo. But all 
controversy has now been ended. During the famous exodus of 
the fifteen hundred from Kavalli to the coast, the intensely inter- 
esting country lying between the northern lake, Albert, and the 
southern lake, now named Albert Edward, was traversed. Great 
white grassy plains stretch away south from the shores of Lake 
Albert, which under the glitter of a tropical sun might well be 
mistaken for water; evidently they have been under water at a 
quite recent period. But soon the country begins to rise, and 
round the base of a great mountain boss the river Semlild winds 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



its way through its valley, receiving through the picturesque glens 
many streams of water from the snows that clothe the mountain- 
tops. Here we have a splendid country, unfortunately harassed 
by the raids of the Wanyoro, in dread of whom the simple natives 
of the mount^n-side often creep up to near the limit of snow. Up 
the mountain, which Lieutenant Stairs ascended for over ten thou- 
sand feet» blackberries, bilberries, violets, heaths, lichens, and trees 
that might have reminded him of England flourish abundantly. 
Here evidently we have a region that might well harbor a Euro- 
pean population. The mountain itself, Ruwenzori, a great boss 
with numerous spurs, is quite evidently an extinct volcano, rising 
to something like nineteen thousand feet, and reminding one of 
Kilima Njaro, farther to the east. It is not yet clear whether it is 
the same mountain as the Gordon Bennett seen by Stanley in his 
former expedition, though the probability is that, if distinct, they 
belong to the same group or mass. Apart from the mountain the 
country gradually ascends as the Semliki is traced up to its origin 
in Lake Albert Edward. Mr. Stanley found that, after all, the 
southern Nyanza belongs to the great Nile system, giving origin to 
the farthest south-west source of Egypt's wonderful river, which 
we now know receives a tribute from the snows of the equator. 

The southern lake itself is of comparatively small dimensions, 
probably not more than forty-five miles long, and is nine hundred 
feet above the northern Lake Albert. Mr. Stanley only skirted its 
west, north, and east shores, so that probably he has not been able 
to obtain complete data as to size and shape. But he has solved 
one of the few remaining great problems in African geography. 
The two lakes lie in a trough, the sides of which rise steeply in 
places three thousand feet, to the great plateaus that extend away 
east and west. This trough, from the north end of Lake Albert to 
the south end of Lake Albert Edward, is some two hundred and 
sixty statute miles in length. About one hundred miles of this is 
occupied by the former lake, forty-five by the latter, and the rest 
by the country between, where the trough, if we may indulge in an 
Irishism, becomes partly a plain, and partly a great mountain mass. 
But this trough, or fissure, a glance at a good map will show, is 
continued more or less south and south-east in Lakes Tanganyika 
and Nyassa, which are essentially of the same character as Lakes 
Albert and Albert Edward, and totally different from such lakes as 
Victoria Nyanza and Bangweolo. Here we have a feature of the 
greatest geographical interest, which still has to be worked out as 
to its origin. 

There is little more to say as to the geographical results of the 
Emin Pacha Relief Expedition. There are many minute details of 
great interest, which the reader may see for himself in Mr. Stanley's 
letters, or in his forthcoming detailed narrative. In his own char- 
acteristk: way, he tells of the tribes and peoples around the lakes, 
and between the lakes and the coast ; and it was left for him on 
bis way home to discover a great south-west extension of Victoria 
Nyanza, which brings that lake within one hundred and fifty miles 
of Lake Tanganyika. The results which have been achieved have 
been achieved at a great sacrifice of life and of suffering to all con- 
cerned ; but no one, I am sure, will wish that the work had b^n 
left undone. The few great geographical problems in Africa that 
Livingstone had to leave untouched, Stanley has solved. Little 
remains for himself and others in the future beyond the filling-in 
of details ; but these are all-important, and will keep the great 
army of explorers busy for many years, if not for generations. 

In a report on the trade, commerce, and industries of the Re- 
public of Guatemala for 1888, the British Consul to that republic 
draws attention to the various vegetable products cultivated in the 
country. Coffee is described as the most important agricultural 
product, and, from its excellent quality, fetches a high price in the 
market. The area of land planted has possibly doubled in the last 
few years, and owing to failure in the last year's crop in Brazil, and 
the consequent rise in the value of the product, an unusually large 
acreage of fresh land is now being planted, and greater care taken 
with the present estates, many old plantations being renewed and 
added to. It is expected that next year, or the year after, 1,000,000 
quintals will be produced, bringing, exclusive of consumption, a 
wealth of $11,500,000 to $12,500,000 to the country. There is 

still a quantity of good land available for purchase. Sowing is 
generally done m June ; and when about seven inches high, the 
young plants are transplanted into nurseries, watered in the dry 
season, and protected from the sun until ready to be planted out. 
About 100,000 quintals of coffee are yearly consumed in the country. 

Sugar stands next among the most important vegetable prod- 
ucts. Cacao cultivated in Guatemala is of superior quality, and at 
one time it was an important article of export, but has of late years 
greatly fallen off; and at the present time only about 400,000 
pounds are produced, scarcely more than is required for interior 
consumption. The government are encouraging farmers to turn 
their attention to this branch of culture, and some new plantations 
have been made. The seeds have been distributed in considerable 
quantities in various parts of the south, the sowing has shown good 
results, and it is expected that the cultivation of this valuable plant 
will be much increased. It takes about six years from the time 
the seed is sown before a crop is produced ; but after that period 
each shrub will yield one pound three times a year, and last for 
a hundred years. There is little cost in cultivating or gathering, 
and no machinery is required ; so that, though there is some time 
to wait before new plantations give any return, the ultimate profit 
is considerable. A slightly earlier result may be obtained by sur- 
rounding the plantation with lime or orange trees, well preparing 
the land, and shading the plants with suitable trees. 

A quantity of coca-seed {Eryihroxylon coca) was last year im- 
ported from Peru for distribution among the people in a suitable 
zone .for its growth ; but the result was unsatisfactory, from the 
bad quality of the seed, and fresh means are being taken to extend 
the cultivation of this plant. 

Pepper and cinnamon are grown in the department of Alta Ver- 
apaz. Good seed has been imported from Ceylon, and planting is 
extending in that fertile district, while satisfactory results have been 
obtained in the department of Escuintla, where a few plantations 
have been made. 

Rice is a very large article of consumption in the republic, and 
the government have established at San Jos6 works for perfecting 
machinery to separate the husk. 

Good tobacco is grown, but little attention is paid to the mode 
of preparing it. The production is being encouraged by the gra- 
tuitous circulation of the best seed procurable from Havana, the 
United States, and Sumatra, and many new plantations are being 

In spite of endeavors made to protect the rubber or caoutchouc 
trees, the production of rubber continues to decrease, and only in 
Verapaz and Peten are trees found in any quantity; while the 
growers show no signs of replacing those that are worn out. Holes 
are made in the stems to extract the sap, and alum, saltwort, or 
some other juice, used to coagulate it. It might be made a profita- 
ble industry if proper knowledge and appliances were brought to 
bear. A few new plantations are being made m one or two low- 
lying farms; about 3,000 quintals are annually exported. The. 
plant yielding Guatemala rubber is Castilloa elasiica. 

Among other products grown are maize, beans, peas, and pota- 
toes in sufficient quantity for home consumption ; sarsaparilla and 
vanilla grow wild on the mountains all over the country. The 
price of sarsaparilla has fallen greatly. There was scarcely any 
exported last year, and in 1887 it only reached the value of $8,105. 
The quality of the vanilla is good, but, though it figures as an ex- 
port, it is not cultivated for that purpose. 

Banana-planting in the east is occupying much attention as a 
profitable industry, some 200,000 trees being now yearly planted 
for the supply of the United States market. About 1 20,000 bunches 
are at present exported annually. Peruvian {JBcshmeria nivca) was 
also introduced three years ago, and more than 600,000 shoots 
were distributed with a view to its general cultivation, but expor- 
tation of the fibre has not met with satisfactory results. Indigo- 
works are subsiding in the country, though a few still exist in the 
east, and means are being taken to encourage them. Indigo was 
exported to the value only of $465 in 1888, though formerly a very 
large trade was done* in it. The industry in cochineal has almost 
entirely disappeared : for thirty years it was the principal article of 
export, and now the little produced is used for native consumption^ 
aniline dyes having ruined the trade. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364: 

The Blood in Phthisis and Cancer.— Dr. G. Ncuber^ 
has examined the blood in twenty-four cases of phthisis at various 
stages, says The Lancet^ and found that in nine the number of 
corpuscles was normal, in three it was above* and in twelve more 
or less below, the average. On the whole, there was an average 
diminution of about eight per cent. The increase noted in three 
cases might perhaps be attributed to profuse night-sweats. The 
haemoglobin showed a reduction to seventy-three per cent in the 
females, and eighty- five per cent in the males. There was no 
notable change in the number of leucocytes, but it was observed 
that multi-enucleated forms predominated. In five cases of cancer 
of the oesophagus, and four of cancer of the stomach, there was an 
invariable diminution in the number of red corpuscles, and also 
notably of haemoglobin. It is inferred that the haemoglobin, being 
the more " sensitive " element of red corpuscles, is more profoundly 
affected in cachexia than the stroma of the corpuscles. A distinc- 
tion was made between the anaemic and marasmic types of cancer, 
the latter exhibiting an average reduction of thirteen per cent of 
corpuscles, while the haemoglobin fell to eighty-seven per cent of 
the normal ; the former showing a corpuscular reduction of thirty- 
five per cent, while the haemoglobin was as much as seventy per 

The " Normal " Diet. —According to Dr. G. Munro Smith, 
in the Bristol Medica-Chirurgical Journal, the daily destructive 
metabolism, which is the great criterion of work done, does not 
vary much among different occupations. Premising that he does 
not consider moderate over-eating injurious, he finds that very 
many men eat considerably more than the most liberal tables : it 
is not an uncommon thing for an average-sized man on very mod- 
erate work to eat twenty-five or twenty-seven ounces of chemically 
dry food a day. Women eat much Jess than men, after making 
allowances for differences in weight and work. Where a man eats 
nineteen ounces, a woman of the same weight and of active habits 
eats only fourteen or fifteen ounces. On a diet from which all 
meat is excluded, he has found that twelve to thirteen ounces per 
diem will comfortably feed a hard-working man. A moderate 
amount of stimulants appears to increase the average : moderately 
free drinking diminishes it. A diet consisting of one part of nitro- 
genous to seven or eight non-nitrogenous is a good combination : 
it is greatly exceeded on the nitrogenous side by the majority of 
men and women, especially the former. A diet of twelve to four- 
teen ounces of chemically dry food, digestible, with the ingredients 
in proper proportion, is sufficient to keep in good health an average- 
sized man on moderate work. The majority of people (in Eng- 
land) eat literally twice as much as this. 

Tolerance of Operations on the Liver. — Professor 
Ponfick of Breslau has been for a number of years engaged in 
making experiments in regard to the relation between the liver and 
Certain anomalies in the formation of blood. In the course of 
these investigations he has made some striking discoveries, which, 
although not directly connected with the object of his investiga- 
tions, are yet of great importance. One of the most curious re- 
sults of his experiments has been the discovery that the animal 
functions may be conducted without serious disturbance even after 
the loss of a very large portion of so important an organ as the 
liver, says The Medical and Surgical Reporter of Oct. 12, 1889. 
In some cases, operating with strict antisepsis, he succeeded* in re- 
moving as much as three-fourths of the liver, either at several 
sittings or in one single operation ; and the animals upon which he 
experimented did not lose their lives, nor seem to be seriously dis- 
turbed in their health. In hundreds of experiments, in which he 
removed sometimes one lobe and sometimes another, the animals 
remained, in a considerable number of cases, perfectly well for 
months, and even for as long as a year. Clinical experience has 
already taught us that the whole of the liver is not absolutely 
essential to health, because large portions of this organ have been 
practically destroyed — as in the case of echijiococcus and pro- 
found fatty infiltration — without any disturbance of the general 
functions of the body. But this, as Ponfick says, is hardly to be 
compared with the sudden and immediate removal of large portions 
of an organ which is supposed to be so important to health. The 

explanation of this curious fact seems to be that the liver has a 
wonderful power of reproduction. Ponfick found, that, within a 
few days after the removal of portions of the liver, the work of its 
reproduction began, and that it proceeded with great rapidity to- 
completion. In certain cases he found that within a period of a 
few weeks as much was reproduced as had been removed ; that is, 
twice as much as had been left behind. These investigations have an 
interest altogether outside of that which is absolutely scientific, be- 
cause it cannot fail to influence the development of abdominal' 
surgery, if it is understood that large portions of the liver may be 
removed without serious danger to life. 

Leprosy Here and Elsewhere. — Dr. Hansen, the Norwe- 
gian discoverer of the bacillus of leprosy, came over to this country 
a while ago to trace the history of leper immigrants who had set- 
tled in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Dakota. Of 160 original leper 
immigrants, he was able to find only 13 ; a few more may be living,, 
but nearly 147 are dead. Of all their descendants, so far as great- 
grandchildren, not one has become a leper. In this country the 
disease does not increase, nor does it appear to be hereditary. The 
failure to spread here is thought to be due to the improved condi- 
tions of living which the immigrants are able to secure on this side 
of the ocean. The Sanitary Inspector, in speaking of a leper lately 
found at Brentwood, Eng., says that many persons believe that 
leprosy has entirely disappeared from England, yet there has prob- 
ably never been a year in which a score of lepers could not 
be produced, and that, though England used to have lepers enough,, 
leprosy has become a very rare disease since English homes and 
English roads have been kept clean. 

Phthisis in High Altitudes. — From a report in the Lan-- 
cet by Dr. L. Schrdtter on the distribution of phthisis in Switzer- 
land, it would seem that the inhabitants even of high altitudes are 
by no means so free from phthisis as we are wont to suppose. 
The tables of deaths for the eleven years 1876-86 show that 
phthisis is endemic in every part of Switzerland, not a single dis- 
trict being free from it. On the whole, the deaths from this cause 
are fewer in the high than in the low lying districts, but it cannot 
be said that the mortality from this cause is inversely proportionate 
to the altitude. Wherever there is a large industrial population,, 
the phthisis mortality is considerable. Industrial populations al- 
ways suffer much more than agricultural populations where the 
altitude is the same. 


The San Francisco Bulletin says that the California beet- 
sugar experiment is a success. Last year 2,000 acres were planted,, 
and yielded 13.500 tons of sugar-beets, from which were extracted 
1,650 tons of sugar. This was done at the Watsonville factory, 
which ran forty-seven days. The beets brought an average of 
five dollars a ton, and the farmers feel satisfied that they can raise 
them at a profit. They have guaranteed to greatly increase the 
acreage this year, and the output will probably be more than 

— The United States * consul at Bahia describes a substance 
called turfa, lately discovered in Brazil, at a place called Maratiu,. 
about sixty miles south of Bahia. Turfa has been found to con- 
tain the main ingredient now extracted from it by distillation, viz.,. 
petroleum, or, as it is locally called, "brazolina" or " petrolco 
nacionale," besides parafline, gasoline, and lubricating- oils result- 
ing from the process. A company was formed, and the conces- 
sion purchased. Machinery has been imported from England, and 
from four hundred to four hundred and fifty hands are employed 
at the mines. The company, it is stated, will manufacture fifty 
tons of candles per month ; and if the enterprise should prove a 
success, it will probably interfere with the trade in kerosene, 
candles, and lubricating-oils which the United States now has with 
Brazil and with the countries south of Brazil. 

— The thirty-seventh annual meeting of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers was held at the society's rooms in this city last 
week, beginning on the 1 5th. The society now has a total mem- 
bership of 1,335. The Norman medal was awarded to Mr. Theo- 
dore Cooper, for a paper on American railroad-bridges ; and the 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



Rowland prize, to Mr. James D. Schuyler, for a paper on the con- 
struction of the Sweetwater dam, near San Diego, Gal. An im- 
portant report was submitted by the committee on impurities in 
domestic water-supply. In the opinion of the committee, the or- 
ganization to inquire into the sources of impurities in drinking- 
water, and the methods of remedying them, should be a national 
one, and the work should properly be taken up by the American 
Society. The committee recommended that all printed informa- 
tion on this subject should gradually be collected, and catalogued, 
and that the society should own and maintain a complete collec- 
tion of such literature. The report was accepted. On the i6th 
about four hundred members of the society and invited guests paid 
a visit to the government torpedo station at Willet's Point, the 
Brooklyn navy yard, and other points of interest. The officers of 
the society for the ensuing year are as follows : president, William 
P. Shinn ; vice-presidents, A. Fteley, Mendes Cohen ; secretary and 
librarian, John Bogart ; treasurer, George S. Greene, jun.; direc- 
tors, Charles B. Brush, Theodore Voorhees, Robert Van Buren, 
WUliam Ludlow. William G. Curtis. 

— The American Society for Psychical Research, after existing 
for five years, with its headquarters in Boston, and publishing some 
six hundred pages of " Proceedings," at last, for pecuniary reasons, 
terminated its corporate existence on Jan. 14. The English society 
of the same name is heir to its documentary possessions, and is to 
keep Dr. Richard Hodgson, late secretary of the American society, 
as its own secretary in America. A majority of the associates of 
the American society have joined the English society, forming the 
nucleus of an American branch. Professors S. P. Langley of 
Washington, H. P. Bowditch of Boston, and W. James of Cam- 
bridge, are appointed vice-presidents of the Society for Psychical 
Research in America ; but. apart from their advisory functions, 
there is no " organization " here, — a circumstance which will* 
doubtless contribute to economy and efficiency of work. It is to be 
hoped that a solid moral and pecuniary support to the society may 
be extended from this country. The annual assessment of Ameri- 
can associates is three dollars. They receive for this the published 
" Proceedings," which appear quarterly, and the monthly *' Jour- 
nal." printed for circulation in the society only. Those who wish 
may become full " members " of the English society, with voting 
and other privileges, by the annual payment of ten dollars. Meet- 
ings of the branch will be held periodically for the readings of pa- 
pers and discussion. Those who desire to join the society or to 
obtain information should address the secretary, R. Hodgson, No. 
5 Boylston Place, Boston. 

— In accordance with the intention of its honored founder, the 
trustees of the Missouri Botanical Garden. St. Loui$, propose to pro- 
vide adequate theoretical and practical instruction for young men 
desirous of becoming gardeners. It is not intended at present that 
many persons shall be trained at the same time, nor that the in- 
struction so planned shall duplicate the excellent courses in agri- 
culture now offered by the numerous State colleges of the country, 
but that it shall be quite distinct, and limited to what is thought to 
be necessary for training practical gardeners. Scholarships, not 
exceeding six in number, will be awarded by the director of the 
garden, prior to the first of April next. Applications for scholar- 
ships, to receive consideration, must be in the hands of the direc-' 
tor not later than the first day of March. During the first year of 
their scholarship, garden pupils will work at the practical duties of 
the garden nine or ten hours daily, according to the season, the 
same as regular employees of the garden, and will also be expected 
to read the notes and ;»rticles referring to the subject of their work, 
in one or more good journals. In the second year, in addition to 
five hours' daily work of the same sort, they will be given instruc- 
tk)n and will be required to do thorough reading in vegetable- 
gardening, flower-gardening, small-fruit culture, and orchard- cul- 
ture, besides keeping the run of the current papers. In the third 
year, in addition to five hours of daily labor, they will be instructed 
and given reading in forestry, elementary botany, landscape-gar- 
dening, and the rudiments of surveying and draining, and will be 
required to take charge of clipping or indexing some department 
of the current gardening papers for the benefit of all. In the fourth 
year, besides the customary work, they will study the botany of 

weeds, garden vegetables, and fruits, in addition to assisting in the 
necessary indexing or clipping of papers, etc., and will be taught 
simple book-keeping, and the legal forms for leases, deeds, etc. 
The course for the fifth year, in addition to the customary work, 
will include the study of vegetable physiology, economic entomology, 
and fungi, especially those which cause diseases of cultivated 
plants ; and each pupil will be expected to keep a simple set of 
accounts pertaining to some department of the garden. In the 
sixth year, in addition to the manual work, pupils will study the 
botany of jgarden and green -house plants, of ferns, and of trees in 
their winter condition, besides the theoretical part of special gar- 
dening, connected with some branch of the work that they are 
charged with in the garden. From time to time, changes in this 
course will be made, as they shall appear to be desirable, and the 
effort will be made to give the best theoretical instruction possible 
in the various subjects prescribed ; but it is not intended to make 
botanists oi' other scientific specialists of garden pupils, but. on the 
contrary, practical gardeners. Applications for scholarships, and 
any inquiries regarding them, are to be addressed to William Tre- 
lease, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. 

— The Mexican Government, according to the Engineering and 
Mining Journal, has issued a decree fixing June 30, 1890, as the 
date for the definite withdrawal from circulation of worn coin and 
of the coins known as reales, medios, cuartillas, and tlacos. Hold- 
ers of such coins may before such date exchange them at their 
nominal value for decimal currency at the National Bank in the 
City of Mexico, or at its agencies throughout the republic. The 
mints will recoin the old money into decimal pieces. After the 
date fixed for the exchange of the old coinage at its nominal value, 
it may still be exchanged at the mints ; which, however, will only 
redeem it according to its weight and fineness, and not according 
to the value stamped on it. From and after July i, 1890, all com- 
mercial transactions must be effected on a decimal basis, infrac- 
tions of this rule being punished by a fine of twenty- five dollars for 
the first offence and fifty dollars for every subsequent offence. 
Notaries^ in drawing up contracts, are forbidden to mention the 
coins of the old system, even for the sake of greater clearness, on 
penalty of a fine of from fifty dollars to one hundred dollars. Any 
one who, after June 30, shall attempt to pass a coin of the ancient 
system will incur the same penalties as those awarded for passing 
illegal coinage. 

— The Mexican Government, says the Economiste Franfais.hsLS 
recently undertaken an inquiry into the internal condition of the 
country. The following are some of the results obtained by the 
inquiry : The population of Mexico has increased during the period 
comprised between the years 1880 and 1888 by 1,487,701 persons ; 
that is to say, 185,962 annually, or an average increase of 2 per 
cent. The revenue, which amounted in 1880 to $21,936,165, 
reached the figure of $32,126,508 in 1888, —an increase of $10,- 
1 90* 343- Landed property in Mexico was valued in 1880 at $366,- 
055.052, and at $473,519,871 in 1888. At the end of 1880 there 
were 15 railway lines in working, with a length of 655 miles. At 
the end of the year 1888 the lines numbered 47, with a total length 
of 5,063 miles. In 1880 there were 10,501 miles of telegraph line. 
In 1888, the telegraph system, including the coast cables, com- 
prised 27,704 miles. The number of telegrams despatched by the* 
Federal Government lines, which amounted in 1880 to 381,607, ex- 
ceeded 671,000 in 1888. Postal business showed a great increase: 
the number of letters and newspapers carried in 1880 amounted to 
5,788,182, and in 1888 to 27,390,288. From the establishment of 
the mint, up to the year 1888, the amount of gold coined repre- 
sented a value of $112,671,000; of silver, $2,194,111,828; and of 
copper, $5,940,338 ; making a total of $3,312,723,266. During the 
economic year 1886-87, the value of the imports into the Republic 
was $52,252,275 ; and of the exports, $49,191,930. As regards 
public instruction, the progress is very marked : the number of 
schools, which in 1880 was only 8,535, rose in 1888 to 10,726, while the 
number of scholars increased during the same period from 435.935 
to 543,977. Finally, lighthouses have been established in the ports 
of Vera Cruz, Coazacoalcos, Alvarado, Frontera, Celestun, Sisal» 
Tampico, Camp^che, and Progreso in the Gulf of Mexico, and at 
Guaymas and Mazatlan on the Pacific. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No, 364 





47 Lafaybttb Placb, New York. 

SuBSCKipnONS. — United States and Canada $3.5oayear. 

Great Britain and Europe 4.50 a year. 

Communications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific papers 
are solicited, and twenty copies of the issue containing such will be mailed the author 
on request in advance. Rejected manuscripts will be returned to the authors only 
when the requisite amount of p<»tage accompanies the manuscript. Whatever is in- 
tended for insertion must be authenticated by the naune and address of the writer ; 
not necessarily for publication, but as a guaranty of good faith. We do not bold our- 
selves responsible for any view or opinions expressed in the communications of our 

Attention b called to the ^^ Wants *' cohimn. All are invited to use it in soliciting 
information or seeking new positions. The name and address of applicants should be 
given in full, so that answers will go direct to them. The '* Exchange ** column i 
likewise open. 

Vol. XV. 

NEW YORK. January 24, 1890. 

No. 364 

A Stbbl Prbssurs-Blowbk. 49 

Thb Tobacco-Plant 49 

What Stanlbt has donb for thb 

Mapop Africa 50 

UsBFUL Plants in Guatbmala 55 

Health Mattbrs. 

The Blood in Phthisis and Cancer. 56 

The " Normal •• Diet 56 

Tolerance of Operations on the 

Liver 56 

Leprosy Here and Elsewhere 56 

Phthisis in High Altitudes 56 


Thb FisicB Rancb-Findbr 58 



like Chemistry of Photography. ... 60 

' Evolution 61 

An Appeal to Pharaoh. 61 

The Psychology of Attention 6t 

Among thb Publishbrs 61 

Lbttbrs to thb Editor. 

Physical Fields //e/*0m IV. Perry 63 
The Orthography of ** Alleghany *' 

yacquts IV, Rtdway 64 
Mocking-Birds* Phrases 

A.MtlvilUBell 64 

Musical Flames T. Berry Smith 64 


It has long been recognized as a prime necessity of effective 
gunnery at sea* that the gunners shall know at each instant the ex- 
act distance of the ship or object at which they are to shoot. To 
realize this, we must reflect, that, if two ships are approaching each 
other at the rate of even twelve knots each, their distance apart is 
changing at the rate of iji yards per second. This means that in 
less than 4 seconds the distance or range will change 50 yards, 
which represents the distance apart of two consecutive graduations 
of the sight-bar of a modern rifle-gun : in other words, the sight- 
bars of high-powered guns are usually graduated to 50 yards, and 
it is necessary for effective shooting that an error of 50 yards must 
not be made in estimating -the distance and timing the discharge of 
the gun as the ship rolls from side to side. But if this change of 
50 yards be made in 4 seconds, it is plain that we must have an 
instrument that will give the range with less than 4 seconds* delay, 
and give it, at the very least, with less than 50 yards error. Such 
an instrument is called a " range-finder." A description of a new 
and exceedingly clever, as well as thoroughly scientific device, for 
ascertaining the range and position of distant objects, designed by 
Lieut. Bradley Alla^ Fiske, forms the subject of this article. 

The invention consists of a new method of finding the range and 
position of a distant object, which depends upon the determination 

ol a fractional portion of a conducting body bearing in length a 
ratio to the angle included between two lines of sight directed upon 
said distant object and the measurement of the electrical resistance 
of said length. 

The accompanying drawings are (Fig. 4 excepted) all electrical 
diagrams, not drawn to scale, and symbolically represent the in- 
vention. In Fig. I is shown a Wheatstone bridge, in one member 
(a) of which is arranged a body of conducting material in arc form, 
and a movable arm traversing the same. In Fig. 2 is shown a 
Wheatstone bridge having arcs and movable arms arranged in two 
members, a b. In Fig. 3 is shown a Wheatstone bridge in which 
arcs connect adjacent members, 2a a c and b d^ and movable arms 
sweeping over said arcs are connected to the battery. Fig. 4 is a 
mathematical diagram illustrating the method of determining the 
angle ATC. Fig. 5 shows a disposition of the range-finder in con- 
nection with a dead-beat galvanometer ; and Fig. 6, the same in 
connection with the slider. Similar letters of reference indicate 
like parts. 

In Fig. i,\ti a b c ii represent the four members of an ordinary 
Wheatstone bridge, and ^ the transverse member, in which is con- 
nected the galvanometer ^'. A battery / is also connected to the 
bridge in the usual way. In the members c and // are placed the 
fixed resistances ^ and ^f , and in the member b the variable re- 
sistance b' also, as usual. One wire from battery /*, however, con- 
nects to the end of member c, and also to the pivot / of a swinging 
arm /. The extremity k of arm / moves over and maintains elec- 
trical contact with an arc A of conducting material, which has one 
extremity / connected, as shown« to the member a of the bridge. 
It is obvious that when the arm / is in the position shown in full 
lines in Fig. i, then the current will traverse the whole arc A ; and 
when said arm is in the position indicated by dotted lines (Fig. i), 
then the arc A will be cut out, and the current will pass directly to 
member a. Now assume the arc ^ to be made of such material, 
and so proportioned that its electrical resistance to a current travers- 
ing it will be proportional to the length of arc included between the 
contact end A of arm / and the connecting-point / of member a 
with said arc. Therefore the resistance interposed in the member 
a of the bridge will be commensurate with the angle y I Jk; and if 
this resistance be known, the angle is also known. Let it now be 
assumed that the galvanometer ^' and variable resistance b' be 
located at some point distant from the moving arm /, from which 
said arm is invisible or inaccessible. Clearly, then, an observer 
stationed at the galvanometer ^' and resistance b' can, by noting 
the galvanometer and -adjusting the resistance in the usual way, 
determine the resistance equilibrating any position of arm / along 
the arc A, and so discover the angle of adjustment of said arc ; or, 
having adjusted the resistance b* at some given figure, the observer 
may, by simply noting the galvanometer or any other suitable indi- 
caiting device, visual or audible, determine when the arm / is placed 
at a desired angle corresponding to the adjusted resistance, and 
this indicating device may obviously be at the place where the 
moving arm is located, so that the operator there may thus know 
when he has placed the arm at the predetermined point or at the 
distant station, so that the operator in charge of the resistance b' 
may know that the arm has been adjusted properly ; or two indi- 
cating devices in the same circuit may give warning to both 
operators, as above, simultaneously. 

Referring now to Fig. 2, it will be apparent, that, in lieu of the 
variable resistance b' in the member b, there is arranged an arc 
A' and swinging arm /'. The arc A' is connected at one end y' to 
the member b, and the swinging arm t* makes contact at one end 
k' with said arc, and to its pivot /' is connected the member d. 
The arrangement and construction of arc A^ and arm /* are similar 
to those of arc A and arm / .• consequently, when the arm / is set at 
a certain point on the arc A, the arm /' must be set at the corre- 
sponding point on the arc A\ in order that the resistance of the 
lengths of the arcs A A' respectively between the point A and point 
A and point A' and point A' may balance ; hence, if the arm A be set 
at a certain angle, the observer at arm A may recognize that angle 
by noting the position of the arm A and the galvanometer, as be- 
fore. It will be observed, however, that the effect of moving the 
arm / over arc A is practically to lengthen or shorten or to inter- 
pose more or less resistance in the member a of the bridge, and by 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



operating the arm /' a like effect is produced in the member b. 
The resistances or lengths of the members c and d remain un* 

Referring now to Fig. 3, there is shown an arrangement which 
forms the basis of the specific embodiment of the invention, more 
particularly hereinafter described. In said Fig. 3 the arc h is con- 
nected at its respective ends/ J to the members a c, and the arc 
h' is similarly connected at/' J' to the members b d. The battery- 
wires connect to the pivots / /' of the arms / /', as before. Now, 
when the arm /is moved from its middle position on its arc toward 
y, less resistance is caused in the member a, and more resistance 
in member c ; and when moved in the opposite direction, the re- 
verse occurs. So, also, a similar effect is produced by moving arm 
/"/ and thus the resistance offered by all four members of the 
bridge may be affected instead of that due to only two of them, 
and differential, results may be obtained, as will more fully be ap- 
parent in the following description of a device for measuring dis- 
tances, such as a range-finder for guns. 

Referring to Fig. 4, let T be the position of the object the dis- 
tance of which from the point A it is desired to ascertain. Let 
AB be any short base-line. Draw AC at right angles to BT, £A 
parallel to BT, and prolong AT as to D. By trigonometry 

AC=AT sin ATC ) ^^. j AC=AB sin ABC. whence 

AT==AC cosec ATC \ ^"^ \ AT=AB sin ABC cosec ATC. 
AB, being the measured base-line, is known, and the angle ABC 
at the point of observation is easily determined, so that the angle 
ATC remains to be found ; but ATC = DAE, and PAE is sub- 
tended and measured by the arc GH. Arc GH=arcyH— arcyG, 
and arcyH=arc J'K : hence arc GH=arcy'K— arc/G. 

In Fig. 5 the diagrams Figs. 3 and 4 are combined ; / /", as be- 
fore, being swinging arms traversing the arcs k h\ and the con- 
nections ab c doi the bridge being present also, as before. Let 
the arms / and /' represent alidade-arms or telescopes, both 
directed upon the object T. The arcs/G and/K not being equal. 
the bridge will not balance ; but when the telescope / is moved to 
the line £H, then the bridge will balance ; but the distance thus 
moved is the arc GH, the length of which may be read off from the 
arc h itself. It will be seen, therefore, that the operation of de- 
termining the distance AT becomes, by the aid of this apparatus, 
ezceeding^ly simple. The observers at the respective telescopes / 
and /' direct their lines of sight upon the object. The observer at 
/ notes the angle /AG, or length of arc/G. He then moves the 
telescope / until the galvanometer^', which may be placed con- 
veniently near his position, shows no deflection, and notes the 
angle yAH, or length of arc/H. The difference between the arcs 
f G andyn equals the arc GH, whence the angle ATB, and hence 
the distance AT, is found by the observer at the arm /. or, in other 
words, by an observer at the base-line. The disposition of the 
apparatus whereby an observer at a point distant from said base- 
line may at once read off the distance AT from a suitable scale 
will now be explained. 

Referring to Fig. 6, the members a and b of the bridge are con- 
nected to opposite extremities of a bar m h of conducting material 
and the members c d are connected to the extremities of a similar 
and parallel bar op. Adjustable upon said bars op and m nis a, 
slider r r\ having a middle portion s of insulating material, so that 
the current from bar m h, for example, does not pass across said 
slider r r' to bar op, but proceeds by the wire^ through the gal- 
vanometer g". Suppose, now, that the telescopes / and /' are 
sighted upon the distant object T, as before, and that the slider r 
is at the middle point i of the parallel bars m n and op: the re- 
sistanccFs in the bridge will obviously not balance. It has already 
been explained in connection with Fig. 5, how, by moving tele- 
scope / to the point H, the resistances might be balanced ; and if 
that were done, with the arrangement shown in Fig. 6, the fact 
would obviously be indicated by a deflection of the galvanometer- 
needle ; but now let it be assumed that the telescope /, after being 
sighted upon the object T, is not moved, or, in other words, that 
the observers respectively at the two telescopes / and /' simply 
adjust their instruments in line with T. Obviously, then, the dis- 
tance of the bridge from r to G (member a) is less than the dis- 
tance from no k (membet'^) by the length of the arc GH. Sim- 
ilarly the distance on the bridge from r' to G (member c) is greater 

than the distance from r* Xo k (member d) by the length of arc 

Now let the resistance per unit length of the bars m n opht 
made equal to or with some definite relation to the resistance per 
unit length of the arcs h h\ and lay off on bar m nz distance r 3 
and on bar p z distance r' 3, said distances being such that the 
resistance due thereto wiU be equal to that of the arc GH. Clearly, 
if the end r of the slider be moved to the position 2 on bar m n, 
the member a will be increased and the member b will be dimin- 
ished by the distance r 2, which offers a resistance equal to one- 
half that of arc GH ; and if the end r' of the slider be moved to 
the position 2 on bar p, then the member c will be decreased and 
the member d increased by the distance r" 2, which also has a re- 
sistance equal to one- half of arc GH. As both ends of the slider 
move simultaneously, it follows that when its extremities are 


adjusted in the position 2, then the bridge will balance and the 
galvanometer-needle will again be at zero. Applying this practi- 
cally, let the bars m n opbt laid off in suitable scale-divisions 
from r to n and /' to /. The two telescopes / and /' being sighted 
on the object, the distant observer watches the needle, and moves 
the slider r r' along the bars m n op until it returns to zero. The 
scale marked on the bars then shows an indication corresponding 
to the length of arc GH, or, if desired, actual distances correspond- 
ing to such indications. 

If the object be moving, the operation of determining its distance 
is as easy as though it were stationary, and the indications are in- 
stantaneous and continuous. With a 290-foot base-line on board 
the •• Chicago," one instrument being mounted in .the bow and one 
in the stern, the average error in the official trial before a board of 
electrical and gunnery experts was less than six tenths of one per 
cent. The set of instruments about being sent to the " Baltimore ** 
i s expected to give still more accurate results. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364. 


The Chemistry of Photography. By Raphael Meldola, F.R.S. 
New York, Macmillan & Co. 12**. $2. 

This book consists of nine lectures which were delivered as a 
special qourse at the Finsbury Technical College. With the 
chemistry of photographic materials, their preparation, properties, 
and re- actions, and with the practical details of photographic 
manipulation, the author does not deal, but confines his attention 
to the consideration of the chemical changes which occur in pho- 
tog^phic processes, or the chemistry of photography, properly so 
called. His object Is to present the principles involved in these 
processes, to show what point has been reached in the explanation 
of them, and to stimulate further investigation. He hopes, too, 
" that the present work may contribute toward convincing " purely 
scientific chemists ** that there are many important problems still 
awaiting solution in this field of research." Each lecture is fol- 
lowed by an appendix containing directions ^for performing well- 
selected experiments in illustration of the text. As the lectures 
were originally addressed to an audience of chemical students and 
photographers, some elementary kno^vledge of chemistry is as- 

The amateur picture-maker who is content " to push the button " 
and let some professional photographer '* do the rest,'' or who has 
no ambition beyond the knowledge of the simple manipulative de- 
tails which enable him' to mix his solutions successfully and make 
passable photographs, will find little to interest him in this book. 
But all who have felt the real fascination of the " dark room," and 
desire to know more of the nature of the mysterious action of light 
and the " developer " on the responsive film, will give it a ^hearty 
welconle. The reader must not, however, look to have all his 
questions satisfactorily answered, or all his difficulties solved ; for 
the subtile re- actions caused by light in the salts of silver are 
an)ong the most perplexing problems known to chemistry, and 
photochemical theories are to a large extent still in the speculative 
stage. Mr. Meldola does not attempt to conceal this fact. He 
distinctly and repeatedly points out the insufficiency of certain 
hypotheses in regard to the nature of photochemical processes, 
and, as it happens, gives in his own constructive efforts one or two 
striking illustrations of the difficulties which beset the theorist in 
this obscure region, and tend to lift his feet from the solid ground 
of experimental facts. It should be said, however, that his theo- 
retical suggestions are free from any undue assertiveness, and are 
advanced chiefly from the motive that they " may serve as a stimu- 
lus to further experimental inquiry " (p. 214). They will perhaps 
attain this object quite as much through their evident inadequacy 
and the criticism they will undoubtedly provoke as in any other and 
more direct way. 

Lecture II. is devoted to the discussion of the composition of the 
darkened product formed from silver chloride under the influence 
of light. This is a subject of fundamental importance, for the 
identity of the material of the latent image with this darkened sub- 
stance is universally admitted. Mr. Meldola rejects the generally 
accepted subchloride theory, and attempts to show that the prod- 
uct in question is probably an oxy-chloride. The argument 
against the subchloride is that its existence *' is only inferred from 
the analogy with the metals of the copper group, and is not the 
result of the analysis of the pure compound " (p. 40). This is 
hardly a fair statement of the case. It is true that the argument 
from analogy is flimsy : it does not deserve, the attention the au- 
thor bestows upon it. It is true that no satisfactory direct proof 
of the existence of the subchloride has been obtained through its 
isolation and complete analysis ; but it is also true that the loss of 
chlorine which occurs when silver chloride is exposed to light, and 
the fact that metallic silver is not the result of the action, as well 
as the whole mass of observation on the effect of light on this and 
other salts, indicate very strongly that the darkened substance is a 
reduction product ; and Cary Lea's brilliant work, two or three 
years since, on the photo-salts of silver, furnishes weighty evidence 
that this product is a subchloride united with a larger amount of 
unchanged normal salt after the manner of a '* lake." The most 
that can reasonably be. said against the subchloride theory is that 
it is not yet absolutely proven by the isolation and analysis of the 

substance. This is no sufficient ground for its rejection, unless a 
better theory can be formulated. Mr. Meldola thinks that sucb 
is found in the hypothesis that the change produced by light is 
probably 'due to the formation of an oxy- chloride of the formula 
Ag4 OCI,. This he supports on an experiment of Robert Hunt's 
in which oxygen was found to disappear during the darkening of 
silver chloride, some conclusions of Dr. W. R. Hodgkinson the- 
experimental evidence for which does not seem to have been yet 
published, and an appeal to the analogy supplied by the darkening 
of thallous and cuprous chlorides on exposure to light ; the change 
in the case of the latter " being in all probability due to the forma- 
tion of an oxy-chloride " (p. $7). 

Now, not only is direct proof of the existence of the alleged oxy- 
chloride wanting, but its formation during the action of light is 
opposed to all the evidence which points to the reducing nature of 
that action ; for the oxy-chloride is in no sense a reduction product,, 
oxygen simply taking the place of chlorine in a complex molecule. 

The hypothesis is further in direct contradiction to certain well- 
known facts which the author has apparently overlooked in his 
study of the matter, though he gives them place in the discussion 
of other points. Thus on p. 75 it is stated that hydrogen acts as a 
sensitizer, accelerating the photo-decompositk)n of silver chloride ; 
on p. 227, that action goes on under a film of benzene even to the 
point of reversal ; and again on p. 197, that the invisible image is 
destroyed by oxidizing agents. An action which takes place in 
hydrogen, or under a liquid destitute of oxygen, and which is un- 
done by oxidizing agents, can hardly consist in formation of an 
oxy-chloride. It is, in fact, a weak and untenable hypothesis. Not 
only does it offer the same difficulty which Mr. Meldola urges as 
a chief argument against the subchloride theory, but it breaks 
down completely when confronted with facts which the latter 
readily explains. It is interesting to note that since the appear- 
ance of the book, Mr. Lea has published in the American Journal 
of Science a clever bit of experimental work which disposes of the 
oxy-chloride hypothesis in the most final manner. Mr. Lea found 
that silver chloride, poured in the molten condition into naphtha,, 
blackened instantly in sunlight, and that a black iodine product 
was formed by the action of light on metallic silver covered with 
naphtha containing iodine in solution ; that is, the darkened sub- 
stance is produced under conditions which rigorously exclude all 
possibility of the presence of moisture or of oxygen in any shape. 

In his discussion of the action involved in the reversal of the 
image on the photographic plate under prolonged exposure to 
light, or " solarization," as it is often called, the author again shows 
his lack of that comprehensive grasp of facts and principles which 
is an essential qualification for all sound theorizing. 

The explanation which he proposes for this most perplexing phe- 
nomenon is, that in a gelatino- bromide plate, for instance, the bro- 
mine lost at first by the silver salt under the influence of light is 
taken up by the gelatine in which the salt is embedded, until ** the 
vehicle becomes brominated up to a certain degree of saturation ; 
complex bromo- derivatives, or additive compounds, or oxidized 
products, are formed, and these at length begin to re-act with the 
reduction product aided by the external oxygen " (p. 225). His 
conception of the mechanism of the process is clearly given in the 
closing sentences of Lecture VI. : " A ray of light falling upon a 
sensitive" plate is like the motive power driving a dynamo-machine 
which is feeding a storage-cell. When the charge of the latter has 
reached a certain point, it is capable of reversing the motion of the 
system, and of converting the dynamo into a motor. The sensi- 
tizer plays the part of such a storage-cell. When it becomes charged^ 
i.e., halogenized, to a certain amount, the chemical energy stored 
up in it begins to run down, and reversal takes place," Or, to take 
an equally pertinent but simpler illustration, the ray of light is like 
a weight resting on a piston which works in a cylinder full of air. 
The piston sinks under the weight ; but when the compression of 
the air has reached a certain point, it is capable of reversing the 
motion of the piston and raising the weight ! It does not require a 
scientific training to see that this is absurd. It is a scheme for per- 
petual motion. We have every reason for believing that the law 
of the conservation of energy applies to chemical as well as to 
mechanical action, and it is obvious that under this law Mr. Mel- 
dola's explanation is preposterous. 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



Aside from these unfortunate ventures, speculative regions, and 
a certain tendency to looseness of statement, which is, however, in 
most cases annoying rather than misleading, we find much to com- 
mend in the book. It presents the most complete and connected 
discussion of photochemical theories with which we are ac- 
quainted, is in the main accurate in its statements of experimen- 
tal facts and the explanations which have been proposed for them, 
and thus forms an important and valuable contribution to the lit- 
erature of the subject. It is rich in suggestion to the chemist, and 
will undoubtedly fulfil the author's hope of attracting new workers 
to this field for experimental inquiry. 

Evduiiom. Popular Lectures and Discussions before the Brooklyn 
Ethical Association. Boston, James H. West. 12*^. $2. 

This bjook consists of fifteen di£ferent papers, originally prepared 
for a popular audience, but designed to present the evolution theory 
in a thorough and scientific manner. They are by many different 
authors, and deal with all the leading aspects of the subject. The 
two opening papers treat of the life and work of the two chief ex- 
pounders of the new doctrine, Darwin and Spencer ; then follow 
others on the evolution of the earth and the solar system ; then the 
biological department is dealt with ; while a considerable portion 
of the book is devoted to the evolution of morals, religion, and 
society. The essays, or lectures, are in the main well adapted to 
the special object in view, that of making evolutionary doctrines 
better known to popular audiences and general readers ; for the 
writers seem to have taken pains to make their subject plain, and 
to have had good success in doing so. Each lecture, as originally 
delivered, was followed by a discussion, in which views opposed to 
those of the lecturer, and even to the evolution theory generally, 
were sometimes expressed, and which seem to have been of consider- 
able interest ; but the report of them in this volume is rather too 
brief to give an adequate idea of them. 

The views expressed in the various lectures are, of course, in the 
main those of Darwin and Spencer ; but we notice, nevertheless, 
a decided disagreement with those thinkers on certain points. 
Thus Prof essor Raymond regards the theory of natural selection as 
inadequate to account for the derivation of species, and intimates 
that " Darwin's formula left out more important factors than any 
of those it contained ; " and Professor Cope expressed a similar 
opinion. Again, Mr. Chadwick, speaking of Spencer's proposed 
reconciliation of science and religion, says that he " cannot con- 
ceive a more senseless and ridiculous reconciliation than this ; " 
and he elsewhere speaks of it as '* the disreputable compromise 
between science and religion." We notice, as the most prominent 
fact in the series of discussions, that when the subject of religion 
was introduced, a great divergence of opinion was immediately 
manifest ; one, at least, of the speakers expressing the extremest 
materialistic views, while the views of others were strongly spirit- 
ualistic, and of others still pantheistic. Indeed, it looks very much 
as if the evolution school was likely to divide, as the Hegelian 
school did after its founder's death, into three distinct branches, 
— one theistic, another pantheistic, and the third atheistic. How- 
ever, we have no desire to set up as prophets ; and so we close by 
recommending this collection of essays to those who wish for a 
simple but accurate exposition of the evolutionary philosophy. 

An Appeal to Pharaoh, The Negro Problem and its Radical 
Solution. New York, Fords, Howard, & Hulbert. i6*^. $i. 

The anonymous author of this work is very much troubled 
about the negro problem, and he here devotes two hundred pages 
to a proposed solution of it. He dwells at great length on the fact 
that the black and the white races in this country show no sign of 
intermingling even socially, and paints in extraordinary colors the 
antipathy that exists between them. He maintains that in the 
Southern States the two races are farther apart in feeling, and less 
disposed to social intercourse with each other, than they were when 
slavery prevailed ; and he fears that this estrangement will increase 
with the progress of time. In the North, too, he asserts that the 
separation of the two races is scarcely less marked ; and for this 
race antipathy there is, in his opinion, no cure. Moreover, he pre- 
dicts that all sorts of evils will result from this antipathy in the 
future ; that race conflicts of one kind or another will continually 

arise ; and that there will never be harmony between the Nortlv 
and South till the negro is got rid of. And so he proposes to send^ 
the whole body of seven million blacks back to Africa, whether 
they will or no. A colony is to be planted on the Kongo or some- 
where else, and the negroes are to be transported thither, the 
United States paying for their passage, and also furnishing them ar 
little money with which to begin their new life. The author fears- 
that his scheme will be pronounced impracticable, and devotes a 
great deal of space to showing how it could be put into execution. 
To our mind, however, the scheme is not so much impracticable as» 
inhuman ; though its inhumanity is perhaps exceeded by its silli- 
ness. If the negroes should choose to emigrate, there is no objec- 
tion to their doing so ; but this proposal to compel them to go is- 
one to which the American people will not listen. The negro is- 
here to stay, and men like the author of this book must make up 
their minds to treat him with justice and fairness ; and when they^ 
do so, all danger of trouble between the two races will disappear. 

The Psychology of Attention. By Th. RiBOT. Chicago, Opeiv 
Court Publ. Co. 12^. 75 cents. 

This work is an authorized translation from the French, ancf 
originally appeared in the pages of the Open Court. It might bet- 
ter have been entitled the " physiology " of attention, for it treats 
almost entirely of the motions and other physical phenomena that 
accompany attention, and has very little to say about attention it- 
self. The author defines attention as " an intellectual state, ex- 
clusive or predominant, with spontaneous or artificial adaptation of 
the individual ; " yet when he comes to treat the subject he neg- 
lects the intellectual state entirely, and confines himself to its physi- 
cal and emotional accompaniments. The thesis that he attempts 
to prove is that every species of attention is invariably accompanied 
by certain motor changes in the bodily frame, and that these are 
so essential to attention that they may almost be said to constitute 
it. In other words, after defining attention as an intellectual state,. 
M. Ribot treats it as if it was a bodily state. Moreover, he fails to 
show that attention is always accompanied by motions or motor 
phenomena. Of course, in the case of sense- perception the motor 
element in attention is apparent ; but in the case of abstract thought 
it is not at all apparent to the ordinary consciousness, and M. Ribot 
does not make it any more so. Nevertheless there is much in his 
book that will be interesting, especially to students of psycho- 
physics. The work is divided into three parts, treating successively 
of spontaneous, voluntary, and morbid attention ; and under alii 
these heads are presented facts and ideas that will serve towards a 
more perfect theory of attention hereafter. 


The supplement to Harper s Weekly of Jan. i8 contains ai> 
interesting article on recent discoveries in the Kongo basin, detail- 
ing " the geographical surprises and new-found peoples of the past 
five years." The article is from the pen of C. C. Adams, and is 
illustrated by a large map and several other engravings. 

— The picturesque forest pavilion at the Paris Exposition is 
illustrated and described in Garden and Forest for Jan. 1 5, where 
we find, as well, an account of the delightful voyage down the 
Rhone, so seldom made by tourists, and a picture of a positively 
unique orchid, Phalcmopsis F. L. Ames. 

— The closing volume of C. A. Fyffe's *' History of Modern Eu- 
rope " is now in the hands of Cassell & Co. The volume embraces 
the period from 1848 to 1878, and throws, we understand, consid- 
erable light on the complex problems in European politics whiclv 
led to the Franco-Prussian war. 

— More than twelve thousand letters and manuscripts of John 
Ericsson, the great engineer, have been put in the hands of Col. W. C. 

. Church, to use in the preparation of his biography. The first of 
two articles on Ericsson, by Col. Church, will appear in the Febru- 
ary Scribner*s, with some illustrations from rare sources, among 
them the reproduction of an engraving made by Ericsson at the 
age of eighteen. G. Frederick Wright, president of Oberlin Col- 
lege, will have a short article on the curious and very ancient image 
thrown up not long ago by an artesian well at Nampa, Idaho. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364 

— Robert Clarke & Co. announce the following important pubU- 
cations : " Fort Ancient," an account of the great prehistoric earth- 
work of Warren County, O., by Warren K. Moorhead of the 
Smithsonian Institution ; " A History of the Girtys," the curious 
record of certain " renegades " of the American revolution, by 
Willshire Butterfield ; and " Monographs of the Kentucky Geologi- 
-cal Survey," by John R. Prooter, director. 

— William Hodge & Co., Glasgow, will shortly publish by sub- 
scription a book entitled " Trial by Combat," by George Neilson. 
The author traces the history of the judicial duel in both England 
and Scotland, and he claims that, by this comparative treatment, 
tie is enabled to throw light on many hitherto unexplained features 
in the law and practice of both countries. In particular, he deals 
-with the duel on the borders under the march laws, and with the 
famous combat of the clans on the Inch of Perth, in 1396. 

— Francis Galton, F.R.S., contributes an article entitled "Why 
•do we measure Mankind ? " to the February number of Lippincotfs 
Magazine, Mr. Galton shows the importance of being measured, 
weighed, and otherwise tested, according to the modern method, 
by a competent examiner, and especially the importance of apply- 
ing this system of measurements to young people, in order to dc-^ 
termine their capacity and fitness for special pursuits. Another* 
timely article, *' The Salon Idea in New York," is contributed by 
C. H. Crandall. The author thoroughly believes in the salon idea, 
and holds that the salon ought to, and perhaps will, become a 
^reat power in our social and political life. The former power and 
influence of the French salons are touched upon, and pictures are 
^ven of many charming literary drawing-rooms in New York 

— Messrs. Ginn & Co. announce for publication " Plant Organi- 
sation," by R. Halsted Ward, M.D., professor of botany in the 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y. This book is a guide 
to the study of plants. It consists of a synoptical review of the 
general structure and morphology of plants, clearly drawn out ac- 
■cording to biological principles, fully illustrated, and accompanied 
by a set of blanks for writing-exercises by pupils. It also provides 
for some easy microscopical work, if desired. Though requiring a 
very thorough study and exact understanding of the plants which 
tnay be selected for study, the work is so systematized and simpli- 
fied as to be adapted to the use of beginners, in connection with 

personal instruction or with any text- book of botany however ele- 
mentary, and either with or without the employment of technical 
botanical terms. The work, which is designed for private students 
or for classes in academies, seminaries, high schools, etc., is now 
issued in a second and revised edition, after having proved its 

— From Providence, R.I., comes a new monthly, the Bocurd of 
Trade Journal^ which will publish from month to month the rec- 
ord of the meetings of the Board of Trade., its reports, business 
statistics of various kinds, and other matter pertaining to the busi- 
ness interests of Providence and vicinity. The numbers that have 
already appeared are well gotten up, and full of interesting matter. 

— Messrs. Cassell & Co. announce that they have secured the 
publication of the memorial volume to the late Henry W. Grady. 
The book, which will be ready for publication within a few weeks, 
has been compiled by his co-workers on the Atlanta "Constitution/* 
and edited by Joel Chandler Harris. It will contain a complete 
life of Mr. Grady, and such of his writings and speeches as best 
represent his gifts as writer and orator. 

— With the growth of interest in this country in all out-door 
sports it is natural to expect an improvement in the supply of arti- 
cles intended to make the enjoyment of such relaxation the greater. 
One evidence of this development of a new phase of American life 
is shown in a catalogue of sportsmen's supplies we have received 
this week from Henry C. Squires, 178 Broadway, New York. This 
catalogue is intended for those who, having given little or no 
thought to out-door sports, desire information. It is supposed that 
such persons desire to know not merely the prices of articles, but, 
to some extent, what they want and why they want it. The caU- 
logue aims to give such information as will aki those seeking fire- 
arms, fishing-tackle, or camping goods in securing what is best 
suited to their needs. Not only does this catalogue give the prices 
and describe the goods, but Mr. Squires has introduced a large 
number of the very best illustrations, picturing scenes incident to 
out-door sports, and tending to render this catalogue unique in its 
typographical attractiveness. But this is not all, for these pictures 
— for they are real pictures, and not the crude cuts so often dis- 
figuring printed pages — are likely to arouse an interest for the 
life they depict in those who have known little of it. and to rekindle 
the desires of those who may have put sports aside. 






UFACTURP:S. Edited by 

Charles Edward Groves, F.R.C., 
and William Thorp, B.Sc. 



By E J. Mills, D Sc, F.R.S., and 
F. J. Rowan, C.E., assisted by 
others, including Mr. F. P. Dewey, 
of the Smithsonian Institute, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
7 Plates and 607 other illustrations. 
Royal octavo pages jitjc 4- 802. Half- 

Morocco, $9. Cloth, $7«50. 



N. D.C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, 




A large work of 900 pp. wltb 85 full-page lUastra- 
tloDn on the greatest of all Ohio Valley BarthworkiS, 
and similar enoloenres. 

By Warren K. Moorehead, assisted by scientists 
from Washington. 

It is compiled from a careful survey and is correct 
in all details. 

The entire summer was spent in sarreylng, exca- 
vating, photographing and preparing this work. 

Fort Ancient consists of 18,718.8 feet of embank- 
ment, and In size, state of presenration and impor- 
tance as an aboriginal fortification is uneqaalled in 
this country. 

Price of book, $8 00. 

It will be ready for sale Jan. 10, 1890. 

Illustrated prospectus mailed free to any address. 
Send for one. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 
Published by Robt Clarke & Ca, Clncinnatt 

Correspondence solicited with parties 
seeking publishers for scientific books, 

Publisher of Science, 

47 Lafayette Place. 

New York. 



For use in Colleges and Normal Schools. Price 50 cents. 
Sent free by post by 

N. D. C. HODGES, 47 Lafayette Place, New York. 



The Subfect-Matter U LIFE^Life in all iUf&rm*^ 
plant ana aninwl, from the ** loweH ** to the ** kit^ 
e«t," recent and extinct. The engravingt and tetter' 
jpreae are beautifully prodtuxd. 

W. MAWER, at Essex Hall, Essex Street. 

Strand, Lrondon, W.C. 
Poet-free for twelve months for $1.SS, prepaid. 


" Attractive In form, beautifully printed, and Ylg^ 
orously written.**— Despatch, 

** We expect It will t>eoome one of our moat Im- 
portant magaslnee."— fld/i/oa; Ocmrier. 

*< We predict a career for Life-Lore worthy of iti 
high alms and the abUlty It displays."— Ctttsmt. 

'*It Is handsomely printed; the engraTinin are won 
executed, and the matter Is excellent.'*— ^Itoiuk»ti. 

*« A model of what a popular sdentiflo magaatna 
should be . . . gives signs of vigor and staying 
power."— I^terory World, 

«» Exceedingly well got up. The letterprsee and 
Illustrations are In the best style of printer's aad 
wood engraver's wrt.**— Boston Guardian, 

**Bears evidence that It means to be sound, aa the 
first number undoubtedly Is. . . We wish this con- 
scientious venture success."— J9a2»ar, Exchange tt 

^*A decided advance upon the too often unsclen- 
tlflc popular loumals of Its class. . . . We have 
nothing but praise for tbls conscientious attempt.** 
—Staffordshire Advertiser. 

•*LliQ.Lore Is the felicitous title of a new monthly 
magaslne of natural history which seems admirably 
calculated to fill up a gap in our serial UteratarBL 
. . . . Replete with InteUlglble InstrucUoo."— 
Netccastle Daily Journal, 

'*The first volume, which Is before us, oontatns 
excellent papers and lllustratlona."— OrapAic. 

** Whilst far eclipsing Its one JCnglish rival in the 
matter of beauty of type, lllustratlim, ana paper, and 
popularity of treatment, It Is marked editorially by 
an unusually strong grip."— Bayneot«r Chronic^ 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



— A. L. Burt has issued a volume on " Fugitive Facts." edited 
by Robert Thome. It comprises short articles, alphabetically ar- 
ranged, on topics constantly arising in conversation and general ' 
reading, on which it is hard to find accurate and definite informa- 
tion. The queries in the correspondence departments of periodi- 
cals and newspapers have suggested many of the subjects treated. 
The editor has added an appendix, devoted to short selections of 
constantly used medical terms and short dictionaries of mythology 
and music. 

—G.P.Putnam's Sons will publish shortly a new volume, in 
The Story of the Nations Series, entitled " The Story of the Bar- 
bary Corsairs," by Stanley Lane Poole, with the collaboration of 
Lieut. J. D. Jerrold Kelley of the United States Navy; and two 
new books in The Questions of the Day, on '* Railway Secrecy," 
by John M. Bonharo, and " American Farms," by J. R. Elliot. 

— The December number of the Riverside Literature Series 
(published quarterly during the school year 1889-90 at 15 cents a 
number, by Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., Boston) contains " Waste Not, 
Want Not, and The Barring Out," from Maria Eldgeworth's "Parent's 
Assistant." The great popularity which the " Parent's Assistant " 
has had, ever since its publication in 1822, has induced the publish- 
ers to include some of the stories from this book in the Riverside 
Literature Series. The stories selected are interesting and simple : 
the lessons which they inculcate ate the advantage of frugality and 
the disadvantage of a blind party spirit. The same publishers an- 
nounce that they have in press for early publication a book by John 
Fiske on civil government. This book treats in a simple way of 
the government of towns, cities, states, and the nation, and will be 
a most valuable book for schools and families. 

— Andrew D. White will resume his " New Chapters in the War- 
fare of Science " in the February Popular Science Monthly, The 
forthcoming chapter will be on " Comparative Mythology." It deals 
with the myths invented to explain strangely shaped or distributed 
rocks, taking the story of Lot's wife, which has gone through 
many curious variations, as a special example. " The Localization 
of Industries " is the subject of an article by J. J. Menzies, to ap- 
pear in the February number, which will throw light on the most 
important problem before Congress this winter. It tells what les- 
sons science*draws from the course of industrial evolution in regard 
to encouraging the establishment of industries in a country. A 
searching examination of Henry George's taxation doctrine, by 
Horace White, will appear under the title, " Agriculture and the 
Single Tax." Mr. White maintains that the interdependence of all 
industries disposes of the claim that agriculture has enough ad- 
vantage over other occupations to warrant laying the burden of all 
taxation upon it, and he asks whether the scheme of " economic 
rent " would include paying a bounty to farmers whose profits are 
a minus quantity. A second instalment of " Letters on the Land 
Question," from Huxley, Spencer, and others, including an espe- 
cially able review of the question by Auberon Herbert, will be 

— Fords, Howard, & Hulbert have published a small volume by 
Martin W. Cooke on " The Human Mystery in Hamlet," the ob- 
ject of which is to present a new view of the character of Hamlet 
himself. The theories of Hamlet's character that critics have here- 
tofore advanced are many and various, but Mr. Cooke's theory is 
quite different from them all. He holds that the dramatist's object 
in exhibiting the career of Hamlet was to portray " the conflict be- 
tween his will and his passions, . . . the strife between the higher 
forces of the being and the lower." Or, as he elsewhere expresses 
it, " the theme of Hamlet is the interior life of humanity in this 
worid, striving to harmonize its actions with a supernaturally im- 
posed law of rectitude, which it recognizes but ever fails to fulfil." 
Now, we confess that this theory is less satisfactory to us than any 
of its predecessors, for we cannot see the least indication of a 
mcrcU conflict in Hamlet's action or conversation — indeed, we 
should say that the moral element was conspicuously absent ; nor 
can we see the propriety of calling the command of a ghost " a 
supernaturally imposed law of rectitude." Students of Sbak- 
speare will take an interest in reading Mr. Cooke's work, but we 
doubt if th^ Will agree with its conclusions. 

^ ^*Corrtt^ndtntt are requtsttd i0 bt a* bri^ 
in €Ul eases requ ired a* prop/ of good fa ith . 
The editor will be glad to publish any que\ 

the Journal, 


t brief as possible. The writer's name it 
_ "tj gooa faith, 
^ will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of 

Physical Fields. 

Professor Dolbear's interesting article on "Physical Field s,"^ 
that appeared in your issue of Dec. 27, was called to my notice,, 
and I have read it with considerable attention. It seems to me 
that he is entirely wrong in some of his premises, and that his 
conclusions are therefore, some of them, untenable. With your 
permission, I will point out where I differ with him. 

His use of the term ** stress " is certainly not correct. He says,, 
under the head of " The Electric Field," •* The phenomena are 
explained as due to the stress into which the neighboring ether is 
thrown by the electrified body. . . . Experiment shows that this 
kind of a stress travels outwards with the velocity of 186,000 miles 
a second, or the same as that of light." 

It does not seem to me to be proper to say that a stress travels : 
it rather exists. In this particular case he is referring to the phe- 
nomenon of electrification, which is a static effect or condition. As 
I understand Maxwell, and Hertz and Thompson and Lodge, they 
do not any of them believe that electrification involves motion in 
any way whatever. It is a condition which is dual in its character. 
The negative exists because of the existence of the positive, not be- 
cause of propagation from one to another. They also believe that 
one cannot exist without the other : the very existence of one,, 
therefore, involves the existence of the other. The element of time,, 
and therefore of rate of propagation, must be eliminated entirely. 

What he does mean is, that an impulse due to the yielding to- 
this stress is propagated, etc. 

Again he says, *' If this assumed electrified mass of matter were 
the only matter in the universe, any electric change in the mass 
would ultimately re-act upon the whole of space, and be uniform 
in every direction." This statement involves a contradiction of 
terms, for how can we have a condition of stress that is uniform 
throughout all space ? It is certainly true that under static con- 
ditions, or under conditions of stress generally, where there are 
two bipdies or more concerned, the field is distorted by their mutual 
re-action (that constitutes the stress) ; but I maintain that where 
there is but a single body in space, there can be. no such thing as 
stress in that space outside of the body itself. If the body in ques- 
tion be but a mathematical point, there can be no stress at all^ 
There can be no tension on a cord that is perfectly free to move. 

The same criticism is made upon his remarks under the head of 
•' The Magnetic Field." In the case of the magnet the justice of 
my criticism will be, perhaps, more apparent. Were it possible to- 
conceive of a magnetic particle with but a single pole, could we 
imagine that pole surround^ by a magnetic field ? Our concep- 
tion of the ultimate particle of magnetic matter endows it with two 
parts, which re-act upon each other. If there were but a single 
particle of magnetic matter in space, the "lines of force" would 
form closed curves within that particle, passing from pole to pole : 
they could not, without violating all the laws of stress, radiate off 
into space, as he says they would. 

Under the third head, " The Thermal Field," we come to a 
very different class of phenomena. Here, as in the case of lights 
we have vibration : we have distinctively a condition of motion of 
the ethereal medium. We have passed from a state of rest, — a 
static condition, — a state of potential, to one of movement, — a 
kinetic condition. 

He says, " A hot body has a field, as well as an electrified or a 
magnetized body : " so it has, but his fundamental and fatal error 
is in not being able to discriminate between the two kinds of field. 
The magnetic, the electric, and we may add the field of the force 
of gravity, are purely static, purely potential, whereas the luminous 
and thermal fields are kinetic. In the former there can be no 
propagation, as the element of motion is entirely wanting. Add to 
these fields of stress the element of motion, and they at once be- 
come kinetic, and will then obey the laws of kinetic fields. 

A potential field without motion will exist forever : a kinetic field 
requires the continual addition of energy for its maintenance. 
Move a magnet, or the earth relatively to any other magnet or 
body, and kinetic fields are produced. Move an electrified body, 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364 

or cause its field to change in any possible way, and we have again 
a kinetic field. 

If, however, there be but a single body in space surrounded by 
rSL potential field, the movement of that body, while the movement 
in itself will constitute kinetic energy, still would not convert the 
^tential energy into kinetic. 

He says, " So, if there were but a single hot body in the universe, 
it would impart its energy to the ether and approach infinitely near 
absolute zero ; while an electrified body or a magnet would be per- 
fectly insulated, and, so far as is known, would lose none of its 
properties, however long it was thus kept. There is no static con- 
edition in heat phenomena : exchange is constant. These facts in- 
-dicate that light or radiant energy is no more an electro- magnetic 
4>henomenon than magnetism is a thermal phenomenon, but that it 
4S one of a distinct order." 

The only difference is that in one case there is stress alone, and 
in the other there is motion, a yielding of that stress. Take away 
•cnotion from one, or add motion to the other, and the phenomena 
are identical in kind. 

It is the difference between a reservoir full of water on a hill, 
and that same water in the act of falling from its elevation. It re- 
<)uires an expenditure of energy to fill the reservoir, — to produce 
•the stress or static or potential condition, — but involves no ex- 
penditure of energy to maintain that condition. We have in the 
elevated reservoir of water the analogue of magnetism, Electrifica- 
tion, gravity. Let this water fall from its position, and we have 
-something that corresponds to light, — the galvanic current, heat, 
^tc. It requires the expenditure of energy to get these forms of 
energy, and it requires the expenditure of energy to maintain them. 

We must regard electricity as motion ; electrification, one kind of 
stress which is capable of producing electrical vibrations ; mag- 
4ietism may be another. We may compare magnetism, electrifi- 
-nation, and gravitation to different tensions of a given string on ^ 
'Violin; and electricity, light, heat, etc., as the tones produced 
hy that string when struck under these varying tensions. 

Nelson W. Perry. 

vCincinnati, O., Jan. 1$, 

would be no probability of a guttural becoming softened before a. 
It is evident, therefore, that while the change to •* Allegheny " may 
be considered of questionable propriety, the now recent form " Alle- 
ghany " is an unauthorized monstrosity. 

Jacques W. Redway. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 18. 

The Orthos^raphy of "Alleghany.*' 

This name appears in several forms, all of which are in common 

«i]se ; and it goes without saying, that in each particular locality 
there is a disposition to insist on the local orthography of the word. 
Thus, in the city and the county in western Pennsylvaina, " Alle- 

;^heny " is the form officially recognized. In the county of New 
York, " Allegany " is the adopted form. The range of mountains, 

• however, almost always appears under the form " Alleghany." - 1 
Icnow of but one exception to this custom ; namely, that used by 
the Engineer Department of the Pennsylvania Railroad : there the 

..range appears as " Allegheny." 

In looking up the history of this word, I found nothing authorita- 
tive bearing upon the subject in the literature of the State Geologi- 
•cal Survey ; but a search among the earlier maps of the State 
throws light on the subject, a number of which were placed at my 

■ ^disposal through the courtesy of Mr. McAlister of Philadelphia. 

On Adlum and Walter's map, 1790, the name appears in one 
4orm only, "Allegany." On Reading McDowell's map, 1792, it 

. appears as " Allegheny " mountains and " Allegany " River. On 
Morris's map, drawn by Barnes, 1848, "Allegheny" is the form 
used for both river and range. 

The first and only early map on which I could find the more 
-common form, "Alleghany," is in Mitchell's "Atlas," edition of 1853. 
These maps were drawn by Mr. Young, and it is more than likely 
that the same form appeared on previous editions of this atlas. It 
is only a matter of justice to say here that Mr. Young was the real 

- author of Mitchell's " Geography " and " Atlas." 

Thus it seems that the earliest authorized form of the word is 
^* Allegany." When, however, " Allegheny " was adopted, it was 
<evidently the intention to preserve the long sound of a by the 

. French e; but, in order to avoid softening the preceding guttural 
consonant, A was interpolated, thereby converting " Allegany " into 
** Allegheny." Subsequently, when the a was again restored, the 

,A was needlessly left in the word, — needlessly because there 

Mocking-Birds' Phrases. 

While idling at Colonial Beach last spring, the varied phrases 
of the mocking-bird attracted my attention. One phrase, "pen 
and ink, pen and ink, pen and ink " was startlingly articulate, and 
often repeated. So I took my pencil and noted what I heard. 
Changes of rhythm and changes of vowel brought out with won- 
derful clearness all the following phrases, apparently from only two 
birds. The phrases were interspersed with an occasional trill, a 
whistle, and a mew. 

Hurry up ! hurry up ! hurry up ! 

Chip chip chip chip chip ! 

Teetle teetle teetle teetle ! 

Birdie birdie birdie birdie ! 

Pen and ink pen and ink pen and ink ! 

Twitter twitter twitter ! 

Take care' take care' take care' ! 

Whit whit whit whit ! 

Tit it it it it it it ! 

Pee'wit pee'wit pee' wit ! 

Chivy chivy chivy ! 

Look away' look away' look away' ! 

Give' it up give' it up ! 

Wit wit wit wit wit wit wit ! 

Johny Johny Johny ! 

Hear hear hear hear hear ! ^ 

Ladle ladle ladle ! 

Go there' go there' go there' ! 

Not yet not yet not yet ! 

Wait a wee wait a wee ! 

Git out eit out git out ! 

Hooray hooray T 

Don't go away don't go away ! 

Chinup chirrup chirrup ! 

Say away say away I 

That is just' it that is just' it ! 

Look out look out ! 

Too too too too 1 

Tut tut tut tut ! 

Look here' look here ! 

That'll do that'll do ! 

Wheat wheat wheat ! 

Chickee'^ chickee' chickee' ! 

Will you sing' will you sing' will you sing' ? 

Teazle teazle teazle ! 

Chew chew chew ! 

Took took took took ! 

Tweet tweet tweet ! 

Tik tik tik tik ! 

Cheep cheep cheep ! 

Pick It up pick it up ! 

Beauty beauty beauty ! 

There were many more, for which I could not on the instant find 
representative words.' I have not attempted to record any from 
memory. The above were noted just as they were heard. 

A. Melville Bell. 

Washington, D.C, January, 1890. 

Musical Flames. 

The well-known experiment of making sounds by holding a 
tube over a jet of burning gas (usually hydrogen) is often omitted 
in chemistry classes because no suitable tubing is at hand. A fact 
not noted in any text-book I have seen, and unknown to all teachers 
that I have consulted, has been brought to light in my classes ; 
viz., a bottle will serve in place of a tube. A "philosopher's 
candle " properly burning will yield a fine sound if capped by a 
wide-mouthed bottle, as a quinine bottle or large test-tube. Of 
course, this is according to the principles of acoustics, but it seems 
strange that no text-book gives it. I should like to know if this 
fact is known to any one else. T. Berry Smith. 

Fayette, Mo., Jan. 14. % 

Digitized by 


January 24, 1890.] 



The Hnlin Diary Calendar. 

This unique memorandum calendar, manufactured by John S. 
I^uHd, stationer, this city, combines a diary and a calendar in one. 
it consists of a book of daily leaves, which are made of thin writ- 
dng paper, so that ink may be used. The upper part of each leaf, 
and the whole of the underlying page, is left blank, thus furnishing 
three times the writing space of the ordinary memorandum calen- 
<lar ; and on the lower part is the day of the week, the month, and 
^Iso the date, in plain letters and large figures, as may be seen in 
the accompanying cut. The diary calendar is intended to obviate 
the defects of the ordinary calendar pad, by which (as each page's 
notes are daily torn off and thrown away), if one wants to recall a 
circumstance or engagement, look up an address, or verify a date, 
4ie has no means of doing so. By the use of this book, hqwever, 
vrhich (as each daily sheet is turned behind the others) preserves 
these numerous memoranda, records of events are kept which 
woifld otherwise have been thrown away, and which may prove of 
value some day. A memorandum book for the whole year is thus 
supplied in which the expired dates are preserved through the year, 
or as long as may be desired. Each date shows the number of 
<lays in each month, and (for the convenience of business- men in 

figuring interest) the day of the year, thus rendering it easy to cal- 
culate the number of days from one date to any other of the cur- 




rent or approaching year. On the covers are calendars for the 
present and coming years, together with a perpetual calendar. 

:^ Too Fast 

become listless, fretful, without ener- 
gy, thin and weak. But you can for* 
tify them and build them up, by the 




OC Unae and Soda* 

They will take it readily, for it is al- 
most as palatable as milk. And it 
should be remembered that AS A pbe- 


ONGQOALLED. Avoid mOmtltutlanM offered. 


cured in stipulated time. 

Call or send stamp for circular and reference of those 
<ared. We have on hand over 300 styles of trusses, from 
4s up, and suspensories of all kinds. Orders filled by 
mail or express to any part of the United States. 

C. A. M. BURNMAM, M.D.. 
138 CHnto|> Place, New York. 



— ON— 

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47 Liafkyette Place, N.T. 

\ Osefol and Handsome Present. 

Warranted 14 karat gold and to sive perfect eatiii* 
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tomers to be tbe b ^st fountain pen in the market 
because it Is always ready. Writes freely and 
never gets out of order. Bent by mail prepaid for 
$1.50, $a.oo, and $3.50 each, according to sixe. 


M'l'gr stationer. Steam Printer, 

and Dealer in Useful Office Specialties, and Labor 
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Edison Mimeograph. 

Send stamp for illiutrated cataloifue. 

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The Hulln Diary CALENDAR for 1890. with wire 
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Established 1858. 

Microscope Stands, 
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and Histological work, 
of Objectives, Camera 
Lucida and other ac- 
cessory apparatus. 

Readers of Science 

Corresponding with or visiting Advertisers 
will confer a great favor by mentioning the paper. 

A lew lethod of TreaUng Disease. 


What are they ? There is a new departure in 
the treatment of disease. It consists in the 
collection of the speciBcs used by noted special* 
ists of Europe and America, and bringing them 
within the reach of all. For instance, the treat- 
ment pursued by special physicians who treat 
indigestion, stomach and liver troubles only, 
was obtained and prepared. The treatment of 
other physicians celebrated for curing catarrh 
was procured, and so on till these incomparable 
cures now include disease of the lungs, kidneys, 
female weakness, rheumatism and nervous de- 

This new method of ** one remedy for one 
disease" must appeal to the common sense of 
all sufferers, many of whom have experienced 
the ill effects, and thoroughly realize the ab- 
surdity of the claims of Patent Medicines which 
are guaranteed to cure every ill out of a single 
bottle, and the use of which, as stdtistics prove, 
has ruined more stomachs than alcohol, A cir- 
cular describing these new remedies is sent free 
on receipt of stamp to pay postage by Hospital 
Remedy Company, Toronto, Canada, sole pro- 



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Mineral Lands, 

post of Manganese is for sale. Apply to H. 
N., care of Science ^ 47 Lafayette Place, New 

Any one wishing to engage in gold mining will 
learn of a newly discovered vein by applying to 
H N., care of Science^ 47 Lafayette Place, New 

RED SLATE. — A valuable deposit of red 
slate for sale. Apply to H. N., care of Science^ 
47 Lafayette Place, New York. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364 


Philosophical Society. Washington. 

Jan. 18. — Edwin Willits.On the Scientific 
Work of the Department of Agriculture ; J. 
P. Iddings, On the Relation between ihc 
Mineral Composition and the Geological Oc- 
currence of Certain Igneous Rocks in the 
Yellowstone National Park. 

Department of iilineralogy, Brooklyn 
Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Jan. 22. — George F. Kunz, The Minerals 
Exhibited at the Paris Exposition. 


rPrec of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

D. E. Willardj Curator of the Museunif Albion Acad> 
emy, Albion, Wis., will answer all his correspondence as 
soon as possible. Sickness and death in the (amiljr, with 
many other matters, have prevented his answering as 
promptly as he should have done. 

I will give 100 good arrow heads for a fine pair of wild 
cattle horns at least two feet long, if you have shorter 
or other horns write me, and also how many arrow heads 
.you want for them. I will also exchange Knells, minerals 
and arrows. W. F. Lerch, 308 East 4th St , Davenport, 

I wish to purchase VoL 7 of the A mtricam Chtmical 
fournals either bound or unbound. State price. Ad- 
dress, Wm. L, Dudley, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 

A few duplicates of Murex radix^ M, ramosus^ M. 
b^andarts^ Cassis ru/a, Har^a vtntricosd^ Olita tri- 
mtula^ O. rgticMlaris^ Cklorostoma /umbraU^ Cvfraa 
caput terptntisy C. lynx^ LoUia giganita^ Acmoia 
patina^ Ckama spinosa^ and some thirty other species, 
for exchange for saells not in our collection. List on ap- 
plication. — Curator Museum, Polytechnic Society, Lou- 
isville, Ky. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic views of Aborigines of 
any country, and fine landscapes.etc.,wanted in ej^change 
for minerals and fossils. — L. L. Lewis, Copenhagen, 
New York. 

Droysen's Alg^meinsr Histortchtr Hand-atlas {ImP' 
zig, x886.) for scientific books — those published in the 
Jniemational Scientific Series preferred . —James H. 
Stoller, Schenectady, N.Y. 

Astronomical works and reports wanted in exchange or 
to buy. Reports of observations on the planet Neptune 
and its satellite specially desired. — Edmund J. Sheri- 
dan, B.A., S95 Adelphi St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

I would like* to correspond with any person having 
Tryon's ** Strtictural sma Systematic Conchol<Mry " to 
dispose of. I wish also to obtain State or U.S. Reports 
on Geology. Conchology, and Archaeology. I will ex- 

tor of Museum, Albion Academy, Albion, Wb, 

Morris's *' British Butterflies,*' Morris's " Nests and 
Eggs of British Birds,'* Bree's ** Birds of Europe" (all 
colored plates), and other natural history, in exchange 
for Shakesperiana ; either books, pamphlets, engravings, 
or cuttings. — J. D. Bamett, Box 735, Stratford, Canada. 

I have Anodonta o^alina (Weatherby), and many 
other species of shells from the noted Kosnkonong Lake 
and vicinity, also from Western New York, and fossils 
from the MarceUus shale of New York, vrhich I would be 

flad to exchange for specimens of scientific value of any 
ind. I would also like to correspond with persons inter- 
ested in the collection, sale, or exchange of Indian relics.— 
D. E. Willard, Albion Academy, Albion, Wis. 

Will exchange* *' Princeton Review" for 1883, Hugh 
Miller's works on geology and other scientific works, for 
back numbers of " The Auk," ** American Naturalist," 
or other scientific periodicals or books. Write.— J. M. 
Keck, Chardon, Ohio. 

Shells and curiosities for marine shells, curiosities or 
minerals address W. F. Lerch, No. 308 East Fourth St., 
Davenport, Iowa. 

I want to correspond and exchange with a collector of 
beetles in Texas or Florida. — Wm. D. Richardson, 
P.O. Box aa3, Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

A collection of fifty^ unclassified shells for the best offer 
in bird skins ; also skins of California birds for those of 
birds of other localities. Address Th. E. Slevin, 94x3 
Sacramento St., San (■ randsco, Cal. 

I have forty varieties of birds' eges, side blown , first 
class, in sets, with full data, which 1 will exchange for 
books, scientific journals, shells, and curios. Write me, 
stating what you have to offer. — Dr. W. S. Strodb, 
Bemadottc,'^ulton County, III. . 

Lead, zinc, mundtc, and calcite. — Lulu Hay, secre« 
tary Chapter 350, Carthage, Mo. 

Oatarrlial Beaftocs^^Hajr Fever. 


Sufferers are not generally aware that these 
diseases are contagious, or that they are due to 
the presence of living parasites in the lining 
membrane of the no<ie and eustachian tubes. 
Microscopic research, however, has proved this 
to be a fact, and the result of this discovery is 
that a simple remedy has been formulated where- 
by catarrh, catarrhal deafness and hay fever are 
permanently cured in from one to three {>imple 
applications made at home by the patient once 
in two weeks. 

N.B. — This treatment is not a snuff or an 
oin intent ; both have been discarded by repu- 
table physicians as injurious. A pamphlet ex- 
plaining this new treatment is sent free on 
receipt of stamp to pay postage, by A. H. Dix- 
on & Son. 337 and 339 West King Street. 
Toronto, Canada. — Christian Advocate. 

Sufferers from Catarriial troubles should care- 
fully read the above. 


A ny person seeking a position for which he is quali' 
fi.ed by his scientific attainments^ or any person seeking 
some one to fill a position 0/ this character^ be it that 
o/a teacher 0/ science^ chemist^ draughtsman^ or what 
not, may have the * Want* inserted under this head 
FREE OP COST. (/ he stUisfics the pubiishor 0/ the suit- 
able character 0/ his application. A ny person seeking 
if^/ormation on any scientific question^ the address 0/ 
any scientific man^ or who can in any way use thiscol^ 
umn for a purpose consonant with the nature 0/ the 
paper y is cordially invited to do so. 

X I be likely to find for sale the 5 * 'Annual 
Reports of the Geological Survey ot- New York," 
published in 1 837-1 841, and aKo the 4 vols. 
•• Geology of New York," published in 1843, 
and both being issued by the State. Charles 
Fry, 54 Devon&ire St., Boston, Mass. 

WANTED. — A position in an Academy, 
Normal or High School, as teacher of 
the Natural Sciences and Modern Languages. 
Latin taught in addition if necessary. Address 
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UNITED STATES. — In view of the 
general impression that leprosy is spreading in 
this country, it is desirable, in the interest of 
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tion on this point. The undersigned is engaged 
in collecting statistics of all cases of lepiosy in 
the United States, and he would ask members 
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tion, or coming within their knowledge. Please 
give location, age, sex, and nationality of the 
patient, and the form of the disease, — tuber- 
cular or anaesthetic ; also any facts bearing upon 
the question of contagion and heredity. Address 
Dr. Prince A. Morrow, 66 West 40th Street, 
New York. 

WANTED. — The addresses of makers of 
small Dynamos suitable for a college 
laboratory. Address, T. S., Box 71, Gambler, 

WANTED. — To correspond with concholo- 
gists in America, especially in California, 
with a view to exchange. Many British land, 
fresh water, and marine duplicates ; some for- 
eign. Address Mrs. FALLOON, Long Ashton 
Vicarage, Bristol, England. 

A YOUNG SCOTCHMAN desires an ap- 
pointment in America. Three years in 
English Government Office. Good references. 
Address "Jack" care J. Lawson & Coy, 17 
Princes St. , Aberdeen , Scotland. 

I WILL ASSIST in photographic or optical 
laboratory in return for experience and con- 
venience of perfecting original appliances. Ad- 
dress E. C. Owen, care of Gibson & Simpson, 
9} Adelaide Street E^t, Toronto, Canada. 

an engagement in mining, metallurgy, 
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We are closing out a lot of odds and ends cf 
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"\fT\T1713 AT C Our stock is very complete in 
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rsia Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 


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BRj%MCn-AT TSac^eaTMUT^Tj 
^-""^sa PrtltADELPHlA • P/*p' 

RK Pb\CE^ 

Aipicaii Bell Teleploi 


This Company owns the Letters 
Patent granted to Alexander Gra- 
ham Bell, March 7th, 1876, No. 
174»465» and January 30, 1§779 
No. 1§6,7§7. 

The Transmission of Speech by 
all known forms of ELECTRIC 
fringes the right secured to this 
Company by the above patents^and 
renders each individual u^erof tel- 
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licensees, responsible for i^uch un- 
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We offer an Atlas cf Sensible liOur Cost 
Houses, a portfolio 11x14 Incbep, containing 
bandsome Ulnstratlons, floor plans, aEd full 
doecripiions of this popular design, and fifty-four 
others, ranging io cose from S8G0 to 17,200. I'his 
specimen design Is for a cottage with seven rooms, 
and costing $1,100. It combines beauty and comfort, 
has two large porchep, and is a popular and practi- 
cal workirg design, ba\ing been built several times 
for its estimated cost. 

No matter what stylQ of a bouse you may intend to 
build, it will pay you to have tbis took. 

We will send this Atlas, postpaid, on receipt of 
price, $1.— N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 


for Science is now ready, and will be mailed 
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Leading Nos.: 048, 14, 130, 135. 239, 333 

For Sale by all Stationers. 


Works : Oamden, N. J. *^6 John St.. New York. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 364 

Spragne Eleotrio Bailiv^ay and Motor Company. 

Bearings Self Oiling. 

Lightest Weight Consistent with 
Highest Efficiency. 


Not Liable to get out of Order. 


Commutator Wear Reduced 
to a Minimum. 


li Wunclerlich & Co., 



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and VVatercolor Paintings, also to their 
large collection of Rare English Mezzo- 
tints, Fancy Subjects by Bartolozzi, 
old Line Engravings, and Original 
Works by Rembrandt, Durer, and other 
old masters. 


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the best memoir, in English, on one of the following sub- 

gcts : I. Oil the Adaptive Resemblances of Piants in 
ifferent Natu al Ordei-s. r. On the Processes Involved 
in the Production of Soils. Memoirs must be hande*^ to 
the Secretary before April 15th. 1890. Priira will not be 
awarded unless the paper? : rr deemed of adequate merit. 
For further particulani apply to 

I WALTER FEWKES, Secretary-. 
6o.>ton, Mass., Dec. iSth, 1889. 

One Thousand Dollar Prize ! 

' THE AMERICAN SKCl'LAR UNION offer a prize 
of ONE THOr?^AND DOLLARS for the best essay, 
1 treatise, or manual, to aid teachers In our Public 
! Schools Iq lustructlug children iu the purest prla- 
I ciples of morality without inculcating religious doc- 
I trlnes. For parlleulan* apply to R. B. WESTBROOK, 
1 Philadelphia, Nov. l^SC ITOT uxford St. 



Patent Podt^ 

I'ved by thousands of t.rsi-': 1:153 
mFchKnicii nod W sacL imuufxct- 
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Repairs Kvwytliins. 

lUsncoeai ha» broofrht a lot of 
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mm! b]«. lUaMC.ber that 'THE 
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Glue is manuf*flttr*d aa^l^bT the 


gi/jucester, mass. 

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JAMES G. BATTERSON, President. RODNEY DENNIS, Secretary. JOHN E. MORRIS, Assistant Secretary. 

Digitized by 


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Eighth Tear, 
Vol. XV. No. 860 



NEW YORK, January 31, 1800. 

Single Copies, Ten Cents. 
$3.50 Per Year, in Advance. 


THE KNEES OF THE BALD CYPRESS: A NEW THEORY what an engineer would pronounce a most dangerous foundation, 

— loose submerged saiid, the saturated morass, or the soft allu- 
vium of low river-margins. But, notwitlistanding this seeming 
From time to time, during and since my first visit to our insecurity, I have never found a healthy cypress tliat had fallen 
southern tier of States in 1876, I have examined, sketched, and before the fierce hunicanes that sweep through the southern 
photographed the roots of the deciduous cyi)res3, the Taxodimn forest-lands. It is a pleasure to follow Barti*am in his enthusi- 




distichum of Richard. I was attracted to the tree because of the 
singular beauty of its form and foliage, and by the unusual 
boldness with which it raises its great gray, smooth column, 
sometimes over a hundred feet, i)erpendicularly, above and upon 

• Copjright, I8CO, by Garden and Forest through i^rhose ccurtesy we are 
able to reproduce it, with the illustrations. 

astic burst of admiration for tliis tree as he writes of it in east 
Florida one hundred and sixteen years ago: '*Tliis Cypress is in 
the first order of North American trees. Its majestic stature is 
surprising. On approaching it we are struck with a kind of awe 
at beholding the stateliness of its trunk, lifting its cumbrous top 
toward the skies and casting a wide shade on the ground as a 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 365 

dark intervening cloud, which from time to time excludes the 
rays of the sun. The delicacy of its color and the texture of its 
leaves exceed everything in vegetation. . . . Prodigious 
buttiesses branch from the trunk on every side, each of which 
tenninates undergi-ound in a very large, strong, serpentine root, 
which strikes off and branches every way just under the surface 
of the earth, and ffom these roots grow woody cones, called 
Cypress knees, four, five and six feet high, and from six to eigh- 
teen inches and two feet in diameter at the base." Elliot 
(Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, 1824, p. 643) says, 
* * This C3rpress resists the violence of our autunmal gales better 
than any other of our forest -trees." By my friend. Dr. J. S. 
Newberry, whose extended geological labors have led him to 
examine many widely separated cypress-bearing regions in the 
Mississippi valley and elsewhere, I am assured that he remembers 
no instance of the overthrow by tlie wind of a living T. distichum. 
The surprising and characteristic temerity of the tree is accom- 
panied by another striking peculiarity : it almost invariably, in 
soft soils, throws upward from the upper surface of its roots con- 
spicuous protuberances that are known as * ' cypress knees. ' ' 
Professor Wilson, who has made a careful and valuable study of 
the species in the forests of southern Florida, and also by culti- 
vation, writes, regarding the formation of these protuberances, 
** The small roots, which are six or eight inches below the sur- 




mk- ;:,. 7^1-. /,y//-. '/iiii:/'ji/ii/;- ///■//// ji;hi-!;;-fi'!/f, 

face, grow upward, . , , and, upon reaching the surface, 
turn and go down into the soil;" . . . '*at each point 
where the root comes to the surface, begins later the development, 
on its upper side, of the so-called * knees. ' " In the organ of 
the Pennsylvania Forest Association Forest Leaves (December, 
1889), is an excellent article by Professor Wilson on the T, dis- 
tichum, and a remarkably fine engraving of a tree with enormous 

These seemingly abnormal growths have attracted much atten- 
tion, and for more than half a centuiy have furnished an enigma 
to the solution of which scientific travellers have addressed them- 
selves. Michaux made a careful study of the cypresses, and in 
his **Sylva,** published in 1819, says, **The roots are charged 
with protuberances eighteen to twenty-four inches high. [I have 
ridden among them in central Florida in temporarily dry upland 
basins, where they arose to my breast as I sat upon the saddle, 
and were not less than seven feet in height above the root.] 
These protuberances are always hollow, and smooth on the sur- 
face, and are covered with a reddish bark, like the roots, which 
they resemble in softness of wood. They exhibit no sign of veg- 
etation, and I have never succeeded in obtaining shoots by 
wounding the surface and covering it with earth. They are 
peculiar to the cypress, and begin to appear when it is twenty to 
twenty-five feet high. ' * Michaux adds, with the frankness nat- 
ural to a scientific mind, ' * No cause can be assigned for their 
existence. ' ' Hoopes says, in his ' * Book of Evergreens ' * (1868) , 
• • No apparent function 'for which the knees are adapted has been 
ascertained. * ' And Veitch, who seems to have studied the pro- 
tuberances in England, gives in his ** Manual" (1881, p. 216) a 

picture of a tree growing at Ilesworth, suiTOunded by scores of 
knees, and says, ' ' They are peculiar to this cypress, and no 
cause has been assigned for their existence." That the question 
continued in this unilluminated condition until recently, was 
sho>\Ti in 1882, when I had the privilege of visiting, in com- 
pany with the highest botanical authorities, Dr. Gray, Thoroas 
Meehan, Jolm H. Redfield, John Ball, Professor Carruthers, and 
others, the classic collection of trees planted by William Bartram 
on the borders of the Schuylkill. Tliere we examined a fine 
cypress and the knees it had produced. Di\ Gray then told me 
that the use to the tree of the knees was unknown. I remarked 
that they might be a means of raising a point on the root above 
surrounding water, to the end that a leaf -bearing shoot could 
readily sprout therefrom. To this suggestion he made the same 
statement made by Michaux and above recorded. Unaware that 
tlie subject had been so thoroughly investigated, I have since that 
period examined hundreds of living • ' knees ' ' in southern 
swamps, and found upon them no trace of bud, leaf, or sprout, 
except where some seed may have lodged in a decayed or de- 
pressed portion of the surface, and there taken root. 

In 1887 I had the good fortune to find a number of cypreas- 
trees under such unusual conditions that their aforetime subter- 
ranean anatomy could be studied without obstruction; and I 
reached a conclusion respecting the use to the tree of the protu- 
berances, which I have retained in my note-book, awaiting an op- 
portunity to make some further illustrative sketches before 
placing it before botanists. Some recent publications on the sub- 
ject, by widely and favorably known authors, have, however, 
ascribed to the cypress-knees the sole function of aerating the sap 
of the parent tree, and this idea bids fair to become embedded in 
botanical literature. Therefore this conmaunication comes to 
you earlier than I had purposed sending it. 

Stretches of the shore of Lake Monroe, in central Florida, are 
closely set with large cypress-trees. They grow in various kinds 
of bottom, — clay, mud, and sand. Those of which I shall here 
speak stood in sand so loose that, when the level of the water 
was lowered, the waves readily washed it away, and carried it 
into the depths of the lake. Some four vertical feet of the root- 
system was thus finely exposed. After several days spent in ex- 
amining a score or more large trees that had been thus denuded, 
I became convinced that the most important function of the 
cypress knee is to stiffen and strengthen the root, in order that a 
great tree may anchor itself safely in a yieldins: material. 

The word * * anchor ' ' is indeed an apt one here ; for the living 
root, curved to its work, and firmly grasping the sandy bottom, 
suggests vividly the best bower-anchor that a man-of-war may 
throw into similar loose sands, when threatened by the very at- 
mospheric forces that the Taxodium has been fitting itself to 
resist since tertiary times. Professor Shaler, in a most interest- 
ing treatise on the nature and associations of T. distichum^ shows 
that the cypress which existed in the miocene age has since then 
probably gradually changed its habitat from the drier ground to 
to the swamp areas. 

Truly a most admirable and economical arrangement to stiffen 
and strengthen the connection between the shank of the anchor 
and its fluke is this knee ; and usually in the living anchor the 
fluke branches or broadens as it descends, so that its effectiveness 
is greatly increased, like the sailor's anchor of many flukes, or 
the ' * mushroom anchor' ' that he may have learned to depend 
upon where the bottom is softest. 

The accompanying picture is from a photograph that I made in 
1887 of the lower portion of a tree that rises some seventy feet 
above the shore line of Lake Monroe. The original surface of the 
sand was near the level of the higher roots. The picture shows 
the manner in which this peculiar species throws out horizontal 
roots from its conical (usually hollow) buttressed base. At 
different distances from this conical base these horizontal roots 
project strong branches more or less perpendicularly into the 
earth. Where such perpendicular **flukes" branch from the 
main horizontal * 'shank," it will be seen, there is formed a 
large knob, which is the * 'knee' ' under discussion. This knee, 
when fully developed, is generally hollow, comparatively soft, 
gnarled, and very difficult to rupture, so that it- has the quality 

Digitized by 


January 31, 1890.] 



of a qfnring that becomes more rigid as it is extended or com- 
pressed out of its normal shape. My friend Thomas Meehan in- 
forms me (Dec. 17, 1889) that he has ''observed a case where the 
interior hollow makes an annual layer of bark equally with the 
exterior, ' ' and he is of the opinion that * 4t is by the decay of 
the outer layer of this inside course of bark after several years 
that tiie knob becomes hollow. ' ' If this habit is general, it is an 
admirable means of forming and of pr^^erving undecayed, at the 
smallest cost to the tree, a living elastic strengthener at the fork- 
ing of the coots When in a hurricane the great tree rocks back 
' and forth on its base, and with its immense leverage pulls upon 
this odd-shaped wooden anchor, instead of straightening out in 
the soft material, as an ordinary root might, thus allowing the 
tree to lean over and add its weight to the destructive force of the 
storm, it grips the sand a^ the bower-anchor would do, and re- 
sists every motion. The elasticity at the point of junction allows 
one after another of the perpendicular flukes attached to the same 
shank to come into effective action, so that before being drawn 
from the sand or ruptured the combined flukes present an enor- 
mous resistance. 

The drawing opposite I have made for the purpose of simplifying 
the discussion. It shows an hypothetical cypress with two roots 
of the same length and diameter, — one with knees, the other 
without them. The superior strength of the stiffened root would 
seem sufficiently evident; but, with the view of obtaining the 
judgment of a mind thoroughly trained in questions of this 
nature, I submitted the drawing to my friend, Charles Macdonald, 
late director of the American Society of Civil Engineers, whose 
eye has been accustomed to estimating the value of strains in 
structures by an active experience of twenty-five years, and who 
has just finished the largest drawbridge in America, at New Lon- 
don Mr. Macdonald ageeed with me that the root B, which is 
bussed with the knees C and C, would very largely exceed in 
capacity for holding the tree firmly in yielding material the root 
A, which is similar but destitute of knees. This greatly in- 
creased security against destruction by storms is, I think, a suf- 
ficient advantage to account for tlie existence and maintenance 
of an organ that draws so slightly upon the vitality of the 

It is proper to record here another observation that may explain 
the existence of the elevated, narrow point which the knee some- 
times develops, and which rises higher than the curved growth 
that would be necessary to secure the maximum resistance to 
compression and extension. The home of the cypress is in broad 
level river-margins subject to periodic overflow, where hundreds 
of square miles become covered with a shallow bed of slowly 
moving water, or in basin-like depressions, sometimes of vast 
extent, where from time to time water rises above the level of the 
horizontal roots. Then these stake-like protuberances, rising in- 
to and through the current formed by the drainage or by the 
winds, catch and hold around the roots of the parent trees many 
thousand pounds of * -plant-food" in the form of reeds and grass, 
or small twigs among which dead leaves become entangled. 
The tree that exclusively possesses this source of nutrition is at an 
advantage over all others in the neighborhood ; and the higher 
these attenuated '* drift-catchers ' * rise in the stream, the more 
drift will they arrest, for the highest stratum of water is richest 
in float. The theory that some distinguised writers have sug- 
gested that the knee is a factor in the aeration of the sap and 
lliat the tree's death is prevented by such aeration taking place 
in the upper portion of the knee during periods of high water, 
would seem to need careful experimental confirmation. Where 
Nature forms an organ whose purpose is to preserve the life of 
the individual, she takes special care to adapt such organ to the 
function it is depended upon to perform. In this case the rough, 
dry bark of the Imee offers a most imperf eQ|} means of access for the 
oxygen or other gases of the atmosphere to the interior vessels of 
the plant, and instead of presenting broad surfaces of permeable 
membmne, formed for transmitting elastic fiuids, at its upper 
extremity the protuberance becomes more narrow, and presents 
less surface as it rises, so that when, during periods of high 
water, the life of the tree is most jeopardized, the life-saving or- 
gan attaina its minimum capacity, in the presence of this mani- 

fest want of adaptation, it also seems important for the accept- 
ance of the aerating theory, that some one should experimentally 
show that the aerating organ of the cypress really aerates 
to an extent sufi&cient to make it of material advanta^ to the 
plant. The chemical theory of the cypress knee seems to be but 
a revival of the elaborate hypothesis of Dickinscm and Brown, 
published in their memoir on T. diatichum in the American 
Journal of Science and Arts, in January, 1848. These industri- 
ous observers discard the mechanical theory entirely, and con- 
sider both the spongy knees, and, strangely enough, even the 
spreading base of the tree, as organs of conmiunication with the 
air, forgetful that the successful and most celebrated lighthouse 
in the world — ^the Eddystone — was avowedly modelled after a 
similar spreading tree-lmse for the purpose of withstanding the 
storm shocks of the English Channel. By means of a curious 
drawing they show how the swollen portions of the base rise ' * to 
the top of the highest water level, which must, in some instances, 
attain an elevation of at least twenty-five feet;" thus continuing 
the functions and the structure of the knees, ' * up the body of the 
tree to the atmosphere. ' ' 

It was long ago observed that no knees are developed when the 
tree grows in upland upon a firm bottom, in which ordinary sim- 
ple roots can obtain in the ordinary way the hold necessary to 
resist overturning forces, and where there is no stratum of water 
to transport food. So conservative is Nature, that she reverts to 
an original or adopts a simpler form of root even in a single 
generation, if the need for the more complicated arrangement 
ceases to exist. 

Finally, I may perhaps be permitted to add an observation re- 
garding the roots of other trees that trench upon the same soils 
affected by the cypress, and often take advantage of the anchors 
it sets so boldly in treacherous bottoms. These trees project their 
cable-like, flexible roots in every direction horizontally, inter- 
lacing continually until a fabric is woven on the surface of the 
soft earth like the tangled web of a gigantic basket. Out of this 
close wicker-work, firmly attached to it, and dependent for their 
support upon its int^;rity, rise the tree-trunks. Thus slowly, 
and by a conununity of growth and action, a structure is formed 
that supplies for each tree a means of resisting the storms. 
Such conmiunities of trees, provided with ordinary roots, advance 
against and overcome enemies where singly they would perish in 
the conflict. The cyclone, the loose sand, the morass, — these 
are the enemies they contend with, as it were, in unbroken pha- 
lanx, shoulder to shoulder, their shields locked, their spears 
bristling against the foe ; but the graceful plumed cypress, the 
knight-errant of the sylvan host, bearing with him his trusty 
anchor, — the emblem of hope, — goes forth alone and defiant, 
afar from his fellows, scorning the methods of his vassals, and 
planting himself boldly amid a waste of waters, where no other 
tree dare venture, stands, age after age, erect, isolated, but ever 
ready to do battle with the elements. Twenty centuries of driv- 
ing rain and snow and fierce hurricane beat upon his towering 
form, and yet he stands the there, stem, gray, and solitary sentinel 
of the morass, clinging to the quaking earth with the grasp of 
Hercules, to whom men were building temples when his warden- 
ship b^an. 

Robert H. Lamborn. 


In Science of Dec. 27, 1889, we printed a report by Professor 
Haupt on the hydrogen process of protecting iron against corro- 
sion. Since that report was made, a long and exhaustive series 
of experiments have been carried out by Dr. G. W. Gesner of this 
city, with the result of greatly improving the process, making 
it more imiform in its effects, simpler in operation, and less ex- 
pensive in cost. The general features of the process are the same 
as described in Professor Haupt' s reports, but the operations have 
been so simplified that the process may now be worked on a 
conunercial scale by any workingman or laborer of ordinary in- 
telligence, after a little practice and instruction. 

Dr. Gesner has now in constant operation in Brooklyn a plant 

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[Vol. XV. No. 365 

for the treatment of iron and steel by this process. As the plant 
is small at present, attention is mainly given to small articles, 
such as steel and iron shingles for roofing, builders^ hardware, 
artistic ironwork, furniture springs, polished parts of steam- 
engines and other machinery, boiler-tubes, nuts and bolts, water- 
meters, steam-radiators, and similar easily handled articles ; but 
the intention is to apply the process, on a larger scale, to archi- 
tectural and structural iron and steel, telegraph wire, and 
probably to iron and steel plates for boiler construction, ship- 
building, and similar uses. 

As described by Professor Haupt and Dr. Gesner, this process 
does not produce a magnetic oxide upon the surface of the metal, 
as is the case in other processes for making iron rust-proof, nor 
does it alter the dimensions of the articles treated. It changes 
the body of the surface of the metal into a compound of hydrogen, 
iron, and carbon, which is designated a double carbide of hy- 
drogen and iron, as determined by analysis. Being an integral 
part of the metal, it cannot scale or peel off; and it prevents in- 
definitely the rusting of the metal tluxjugh exposure to the 

necessary to reproduce here, it being sufficient to summarize the 
results as given in the report. ' ' The pieces were gauged boUi 
before and after treatment, and showed no change. The tests 
show practically no effect whatever upon the iron, with the ex- 
ception of a slight decrease in the elongation. As the area is not 
reduced, it would be impossible, without further evidence, to say 
whether or no the ductility were affected. At any rate, the duc- 
tility being so low, this small reduction, if proved to exist, 
would be of comparative unimportance in affecting the value of 
the metal. The steel is benefited. The annealing undergone 
during the treatment has softened it to some extent. It has lost 
about five per cent in strength, but gained five per cent in elon- 
gation. This metal, as originally, would not have come up to 
specifications, being insufficient in stretch. The treatment has 
not reduced the tensile strength below the assigned limit, at the 
same time it has brought the elongation up to requirements. 
Pieces of both iron and steel were bent cold to an angle of forty- 
five degrees without showing any fracture or scaling of the treated 
surface. ' ' 


weather, steam, damp earth, etc. It is also found that cast 
iron is to some extent annealed in the process, and its pores 
filled, 80 that thin cast-iron pipe which before treatment would 
leak at five pounds pressure per square inch, will stand a pres- 
sure of fifty pounds without leakage after undergoing the pro- 
cess. It also improves the quality of steel. 

The following is the report of Barton H. Coffey, M.E., of the 
Henry Warden Iron Works, Philadelphia, on the results of tests 
to determine the effect of the hydrogen treatment on the physical 
properties of iron and steel : 

* * These tests were determined upon to decide if the hydrogen 
anti -corrosive treatment had any adverse effect, and if so to what 
extent, upon the strengtli and resilience of wrought iron and 
steel suitable for boiler, ship, and bridge purposes. Five test- 
pieces of iron were cut from a single plate one-half inch thick, 
and five moi*e similarly from a three-eighth inch steel plate. 
These were machined to suitable sizes for the standard eight-inch 
test-piece, giving a section of about .71 of a square inch for the 
iron and .51 of a square inch for the steel. Three of each of these 
sets were forwarded to Dr. Gesner for treatment, who retained 
one and returned the remainder. The tests were made with a 
200,000-pound Olsen machine, and the measurements with 
Brown & Sharpe micrometer gauges, and are believed to be 
accurate. ' ' 

The results were recorded upon test-blanks, which it is un- 

In conclusion, the report says, * * The hydrogen process does not 
affect the value of iron and steel for engineering purposes. The 
treatment benefits steel by the annealing undergone in the pro- 
cess. The treated surface possesses elastic properties of the 
highest value. ' ' 


We show in another part of this issue a view of a new 
electric rotary diamond drill, manufactured by the Sprague 
Electric Railway and Motor Company of New York, which has 
shown gratifying results in the tests to which it has been put, 
and which promises to fulfil a long-felt want in electric 
mining. On this page we show another special electric mining 
application; i.e., an electric locomotive. This locomotive is 
simple, powerful, and compact, and is built with special 
reference to the rough usage and arduous duties required of such 
a machine. 

The gauge of tlie accompanying locomotive is eighteen 
inches, but it can be accommodated to any gauge in ordinary 
commercial wurk. In order to protect the machine from 
damage, all the working parts are completely boxed in, as 
shown in the view. The speed of the motor is under complete 
control by a switch which throws the winding of the field into 

Digitized by 


January 31, 1890.] 



different electrical combinations, thus varying the speed of the 
motor without the use of any wasteful resistance. The direc- 
tion of rotation is also governed by the same switch, so that 
the operation of the motor is very simple, and it can be put in 
charge of an ordinary workman. 

Any system of conveying the current from the dynamo to the 
locomotive can be used, either using the rails as one side of the 
circuit for the return of the current, or else employing a com- 
plete metallic circuit by the use of a double overhead trolley 
wire. In this latter case, a trolley pole, shown in the view, 
carrying at its upper end two trolley wheels for making run- 
ning contact with the overhead wires, is attached on the rear 
of the locomotive car. 

This mining locomotive is now being manufactured by the 
Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Company from 'designs 
made by Mr. I. E. Storey. One of the most noticeable advances 
made in modem mining science is the adoption of electricity 
as a medium for transmitting power and producing light, and 

the same wires which supply current to the drill, and, when 
in such use, are connected in multiple arc across the main 
current wires. 

These drills are manufactured and sold by the Sprague 
Electric Bailway and Motor Company of New York, under 
patents granted to Mr. I. E. Storey. We understand that the 
Sprague Company is now at work on, and will soon be able to 
furnish, a number of special mining applications, among which 
is an electric percussion drill. 


When, one is sometimes tempted to ask in sheer weariness, 
will any man be able to say the last word on that question of 
the West which bids fair to be as eternal as any question of the 
East, — the question whether we, the English people, are our^ 
selves or somebody else? That formula is not a new one. 


such applications as the above indicate the growing demand of 
mining companies for just such apparatus, and the ability of 
the leading electric companies to supply the need. 


The accompanying view shows a new electric mining rotary 
drill which has shown good results in exi^erimental work, and 
which will soon be applied to regular mining-work in several 
leading mines. 

A good electric mining drill has always been desired by 
miners, and this drill seems to meet all the requirements. It 
is light, compact, simple, and easy to operate. The motor is 
completely incased, so that it is impossible for dust, dirt, or 
stray stones to lodge in the working i)arts. The whole drill is 
mounted on an adjustable frame, so that it can be very easily 
set in any position desired, or set at work at any part of the 

The current for operating the drill is supplied at a constant 
voltage or potential, the number of 'volts depending on the 
potential used for* transmitting power throughout the mine. 
If lamps are needed, they can be supplied with current from 

Some of us have, in season and out of season, through evil 
report and good report, been fighting out that question for not 
a few years. If it is wearisome to have to fight it out still, 
there is some little relief in having to fight it out in a wholly 
new shape and with a wholly new set of adversaries. It is an 
experience which has at least the charm of- novelty when we 
have to argue the old question, who are we, whence we came, 
from a point of view which might make it possible, with the 
exercise of a little ingenuity, to avoid ever using the words 
'*Celt,'* '*Briton,'* or * 'Roman'' at all. On the other hand, 
the strife in its new form has become more deadly ; the assault 
has become more threatening. Hitherto we have fought for 
victory, for dominion, for what, if one adopted the high-polite 
style of a lord mayor's feast, one might call *'the imperial 
instincts of the Anjflo-Saxon race. ' ' We have had to fight to 
prove our greatness against people who told us that we were 
not so great as we thought. Angles and Saxons, we were 
told, were only one element, perhaps a very inferior element, 
in the population of Britain. Still nobody denied that we had 
some place in the world, some place in this island. It might 
be a very small place compared with that of the Celt who went 
> From The Contemporary Reyiew for January. 

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[Vol. XV. No. 365 

before us, ur of the Norman who came after us. Still we had 
some place. Nobody denied that there had been Angles and 
Saxons in the isle of Britain. Nobody denied that those Angles 
and Saxons had had some share in the history of the isle of 
Britain. Nobody — save, I believe, one thoroughgoing man at 
Liverpool — denied that those Angles and Saxons had supplied 
some part, however mean a part, to the tongue now spoken 
over the larger part of Britain. Nobody, I fancy, ever denied 
that to the mixed ancestry of the present inhabitants of 
Britain, Angles and Saxons had contributed some elements, 
however paltry. The fight seemed hard, and we did not know 
that there was a harder fight coming. For now the strife is 
not for victory or dominion, but for life. The question is no 
longer whether Angles and Saxons have played a greater or a 
less part in the history of Britain: it now is, whether there 
ever were any Angles or Saxons in Britain at all, perhaps 
whether there ever were any Angles or Saxons anywhere; or, 
more truly, the question takes a form of much greater subtlery. 
Our new teachers ask us, sometimes seemingly without knowing 
what they are asking, to believe a doctrine that is strange 
indeed. The latest doctrine, brought to its real substance, comes 
to this: we are not Angles and Saxons; we did not come from 
the land of the Angles and Saxons ; we are some other people 
who came from some other land ; only by some strange chance we 
were led to believe that we were Angles and Saxons, to take 
the name of Angles and Saxons, and even to speak the tongue 
which we should have spoken if we had been such. Or, to 
come back to the old formula with which we began, we are not 
really ourselves, but somebody else; only at some stage of our 
life we fell in with ingenious schoolmasters, who cunningly 
persuaded us that we were ourselves. 

On the old controversy I need not enter again now. That 
controversy might have been much shorter if clever talkers 
would have taken the trouble to find out what those whom 
they were talking about had really said. Many statements 
have been made, many jokes have been joked, many outcries 
have been raised, some ingenious names have been invented, 
nay, even some arguments have been brought, and all about doc- 
trines which no man in this world ever held. Personally I have 
nothing more to say on the matter. I have had my say : any 
body that cares to know what that say is may read it for 
himself. ^ I will make only one remark on a single statement 
which I have casually lighted on, and which is, on the whole, 
the very strangest that I have ever seen. I find in a volume 
of a series which comes under the respectable name of **The 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge' * — a series to 
which Oxford professors and examiners contribute, a book 
which has a book by Mr. Rhys before it and a book by Mr. 
Hunt after it — this amazing saying : ' 'Florence uses the strange 
expression that Eadgar was chosen by the Anglo-Britons."' 
Strange indeed if Florence had ever used it ; but to say that he 
did use it surely goes beyond the admitted literary and 
'^stylistic" license of making people, old or new, say what 
they never did say. But the saying is instructive: it shows 
how some writers, sometimes more famous writers, now and 
then get at their facts. One received way is to glance at a 
page of an original writer, to have the eye caught by a word, 
to write down another word that looks a little like it, and to 
nvent facts that suit the word written down. To roll two 
independent words into a compound word - with a hyphen is 
perhaps a little stronger, but only a little. Florence says some 
thing about Englishmen in one line, and something about 
Britains in another line not far off. Roll them together: 
make a new fellow to Anglo-Saxons and Anglo -Catholics, and 
we get the *' *strange expression, ' ' and the stranger fact, about 
Eadgar and the * * Anglo-Britains. * ' Yet even with a creator 
of * ^Anglo-Britons" we may make peace for the present. 

i I must refer to what I have said on ** Teutonic Conquest in Qauland 
Britain'^ in **Four Oxford Lectures^' (MaomiUan, 1888), and to the essaj on 
** Race and Language ^* in the third series of Historical Essays. 

* Anf^o-Sazon Britain, by Grant Allen, B.A , p. 147. The real words of Flor- 
ence (960) are: **Bex Mercensinm Badgarus, ab omnl Anglorum populo electus 
anno statls sua 16. adventus veri Anglorum in Britanniam quingentesimo, 

I et socii ejus in Angliam venerunt." No 

868 autem ex qno sanctus Augustiiles et 
words could be more carefully chosen. 

There is allowed to be something '/Anglo** in the matter; and 
that for the present is enough. The old question was, afta 
all, simply one of less and more. There was some ''Anglo** 
something, only how much ? He who shall say that the preseot 
English-speaking people of Britian are Angeles imd Sazoos who 
have assimilated certain infusions, British and otherwise, and 
he who shall say that the English-speaking people of Britian 
are Iberians, Celts, Romans, any thing, who have received just 
enough of Anglian and Saxon infusion to be entitled to be 
called * 'Anglo Britons, * ' maintain doctrines that differ a good 
deal from one another. Still it is only a difference in degree. 
Both sides may encamp together in the struggle with the new 
adversaries. Whether the Angle assimilated the Britoo or the 
Briton assimilated the Angle, there was some "Anglo*' element 
in the business. It is serious for both to be told that there 
never was any ' 'Anglo* ' element at all : while, according to 
one view, there could hardly have been Briton enough to have 
the "Anglo** element, if there had been any, hyphened on 
to him. 

We have in this matter to deal with two writers, whom it 
may seem somewhat strange to group together. M. Da Chaillo 
has startled us, one may venture to say that he has amnsed 
us, by a doctrine that a good many tribes or nations fHiicfa 
have hitherto gone about with tribal or national names had do 
right to any national names at all, but only to the name of an 
occupation. The Franks of the third century, the Saxons of 
the fifth, were not Franks or Saxons, but ' 'Vikings. * ' Being 
"Vikings,** they may have been Suiones, Swedes, Danes, Nor- 
w^ians: but the chief thing is to be "Viking?;" they belong 
to the "Viking age.*' On this teaching I shall say a few more 
words presently. I want just now to point out that, according 
to the Viking doctrine, we must have come from lands farther 
to the north than we have commonly thought. And this 
doctrine I wish to contrast with another, which has been less 
noticed than one might have expected, according to which we 
must have come from lands much farther to the south than we 
have commonly thought. Of these two doctrines, the first 
comes to this, that Angles and Saxons are all a mistake. 
There was no migration into Britian from the lands whidi we 
have been taught to look on as the older England and the older 
Saxony : the name of Angle and Saxon came somehow to be 
wrongly applied to people who were really Suiones or othos 
entitled to be called Vikings. I am not sure that I should 
hftve thought this doctrine, at least as set forth by M. Da 
Chaillu, worthy of any serious examination, had it not been 
for the singular relation in which it stands to the other slightly 
older teaching, which, when we strive to obey the precept, 
^^Antiquam exqairite matrem,^' bids us look, not farthco* to the 
north than usual, but farther to the south. According to this 
teaching, there may have been some Saxons from North Ger- 
many among the Teutonic settlers in Britian, but the main 
body came from a more southern land. These two doctrines, 
very opposite to one another, but both upsetting most things 
which we have hitherto believed, have been put forward in a 
singularly casual way. Some will perhaps be a little amazed 
when for the southern doctrine I send them to Mr. Seebohm*8 
well-known book, "The BInglish Village Community.** There 
it certainly is : it is not exactly set forth by Ifr. Seebohm, bat 
it has at least dropped from him ; and the opposite doctrine 
has not much more than dropped from M. Du Chaillu. Both 
teachings are thrown on the world in a strangely casual sort, 
as mere appendages to something held to be of greater moment. 
Stin M. Du Chaillu does put forth his view as a view; Hr* 
Seebohm lets fall his pearls, if they be pearls, seemingly 
without knowing that they have fallen from him. I am not 
going to discuss any of Mr. Seebohm 's special theories, about 
manors or serfdom, about one-field or three-field culture. Mr. 
Seebohm 's views on these matters, whether we accept them at 
not, are, as the evident result of honest work at original 
materials, eminently entitled to be weighed, and, if need be, 
to be answered. And in any case we can at least give oar beet 
thanks to Mr. Seebohm for his maps and descriptions of the 
manor of Hitchin, a happy survival in our day of a state of 

Digitized by 

y Google 

January 31, 189a] 



things which in most places has passed away. What I have to 
deal with now, as far as Mr. Seebohm is concerned, is to be 
found in one or two passages in his book, in which, as I have 
hinted, he lets fall, in a perfectly casual way, doctrines which 
go for to upset all that has hitherto been held as to the early 
history of the English folk. 

Now, a wholly new teaching on such a matter as the 
b^inning of our national life in our present land is surely a 
matter of some importance. If it is true, it is a great discovery, 
entitled to be set forth as a great discovery, with the proud^t 
possible flourish of trumpets. The new teaching should surely 
be set forth in the fullest and clearest shape, with the fullest 
statement of the evidence on which it rests. But with Mr. 
SeebcAun the new doctrine drops out quite suddenly and 
incidentally, as a point of detail which does not very much 
matter. The belief as to their own origin which the English 
of Britain have held ever since there had been BInglishmen in 
Britain seems to Mr. Seebohm not to agree with his doctrines 
about culture and tenures of land. It is by no means clear 
that there is any real contradiction between the two, but Mr. 
Seebohm thinks that there is. He is so convinced of the 
certainty of his own theory, that the great facts of the world's 
history must give way if they cannot be reconciled with it. 
The strange thing is, that Mr. Seebohm does not seem the least 
proud of bis great discovery: he hardly seems to feel that he 
has made any discovery. He is less excited about a propo- 
sition which makes a complete revolution in English history 
than some are when they think that they have corrected a 
date by half an hour, or have proved some one's statement of a 
distance to be wrong by a furlong. All turns on the **one- 
field system" and the ''three-field system." The three-field 
system existed in Eogland, it existed in certain parts of Ger- 
many ; but it did not exist in those parts of Germany which 
were inhabited by Angles and Saxons. Therefore, if Britain 
bad any Teutonic settlers at all, they must have come from 
some other part and not from the land of the Angles and Saxons. 
Only, to judge from Mr. Seebohm' s tone, the question whence 
they came, or whether they came from anywhere, is a question 
hardly worth thinking about, compared with matters so much 
more weighty as the system of * 'one-field' ' or of * 'three. ' ' 

Our first foreshadowing of what is coming is found at p. 872 
of Mr. Seebohm 's book: "Now, possibly this one-field system, 
with its marling and peat-manure, may have been the system 
described by Pliny as prevalent in Belgic Britain and Gaul 
before the Roman conquest, bu£ certainly it is not the system 
prevalent in England under Saxon rule. And yet this district 
where the one-field system is prevalent in Germany is- precisely 
the district from which, according to the common theory, the 
Anglo-Saxon invaders of Britain came. It is precisely the 
district of Germany where the three-field system is conspicu- 
ously absent. So that although Nasse and Waitz somewhat 
hastily suggested that the Saxons had introduced the three-field 
system into England, Hanssen, assuming that the invaders of 
England came from the north confidently denies that this was 
possible. 'The Anglo-Saxons and the Frisians and Low Ger- 
mans and Jutes who came with them to England cannot (he 
writes) have brought the three-field system with them into 
England, because they did not themselves use it at home in 
N<»th-west Geermany and Jutland.'' He adds that even in 
later times the three-field system has never been able to obtain 
a firm footing in these coast districts. ' ' 

It is wonderful indeed to find the origin of the English people 
thus dealt with as a small accident of questions about marling 
and peat manure. Hanssen confidently denies that the Angles 
and Saxons could have brought the three-field system into 
Britain from their old home; and, if it be true that the three- 
field system was never known in their older home, he assuredly 
does right confidently to deny it ; only why should so much be 
made to turn on the difi'erent modes of culture followed 

> The text of HAnsaeii, Agrarbistorfsche Abbandlungeiif L 496, stands tbtis: 
** AUeiii die Angelsaohsen and die welobe mit Ihnen nacb England gezogen sein 
Buwen; Friesen, IfiedersctcJuen, Juten. konnen die Drelfelderwirthsobaft nioht 
naoh Bn^and mitgebraobt baben, well sie in ibrer Heinat selber in nord- 
wvetUohen Dentsobland and JQtland nioht betrieben batten.'^ 

in the continental andjthe insular English land? If the 
one-field system suited the soil of the old Angeln and the 
old Saxony, while the three-field system better suited the 
soil of East Anglia or Sussex, surely our Angles and 
Saxons would have sense enough to follow in each land 
the system which suited that land. If they found that 
the kind of husbandry which suited the soil of their old home 
did not suit the soil of their new home, they would surely 
invent or adopt some other kind of husbandry which did suit 
it. But in any case, if the acceptance of a certain doctrine 
about the "one-field system with its marling and peat-manure" 
involves nothing short of all that Mr. Seebohm assures us that 
it does involve, it would surely have been worth while to 
think about the marling and the peat-manure a second time by 
the light of what had hitherto been looked on as the broad fact 
of the history of England and Europe. These last may be 
wrong; but they are surely at least worthy of being thought 
over before they are cast aside. But with Mr. Seebohm the 
* 'common theory' ' — that is, the recorded history of the 
English people — is not worth a thought: it may go anywhere. 
' 'Hanssen assumes that the invaders of England came from the 
north. ' ' That will do for the present : let them come from 
any land, so that it be not a land that practises ' 'the one-field 
system with its marling and peat-manure." 

Some way further on (p. 410) Mr. Seebohm has another 
pasage, in which, seemingly with the same words -of Hanssen 
before him, he throws out, still very casually but not quite so 
casually as before, an exactly opposite doctrine : * 'We have 
already quoted the strong conclusion of Hanssen that the 
Anglo-Saxon invaders and their Frisian Low German and 
Jutish companions could not introduce into England a system 
to which they were not accustomed at home. It must be 
admitted that the conspicuous absence of the three-field system 
from the north of Germany does not, however, absolutely 
dispose of the possibility that the system was imported into 
England from those districts of middle Germany reaching from 
Westphalia to Thuringia where the system undoubtedly existed. 
It is at least possible that the invaders of England may have 
proceeded fronk thence rather than, as commonly supposed, from 
the regions on the north coast. ' ' 

It is hardly worth while to stop to comment at any length 
on the confusion of thought implied in such phrases as ' 'Anglo- 
Saxon invaders of England. ' ' As there can be no Anglia "till 
there are Angli, they would literally imply that a band of 
Angles first came into Britain by themselves, that they set up 
an England therein, and then sent to their hyphened kinsfolk on 
the mainland to come after them to share, and doubtless to 
enlarge, that England. But of course what Mr. Seebohm 
means by ' 'invaders of England' ' are those who out of part of • 
Britain made an England for certain later people to invade. 
"We have got back to the days of our grandmothers, . when 
our little books told us how Caesar was "resisted by the 
English people, who were then called the Britons." We have 
perhaps got back to the days of good old Tillemont, who 
attributes all that was done on the native side during the 
Roman occupation of Britain to "les Anglois. ' ' The confusion, 
however, belongs to the German writer: Mr. Seebohm simply 
copies him. And in one point, Mr. Seebohm, after some 
striving with himself, has corrected a still stranger confusion 
of his guide. In his first edition the NiedersacJisen, which 
Hanssen so oddly couples with Angdsachsen appear in one place 
as ' 'Low -(Germans, ' * in another as ' 'Low -Saxons. " In a later 
revision the "Low-Saxons" have vanished.' But to couple 
"Low-Gterman" (the whole) with Anglo-Saxons, Frisians, etc. 
(each of them parts of that whole) is, as a logical division, 
even stranger than to couple Angelsachsen and Niedersachsen. 
This last phrase implies "High-Saxons" somewhere; and it 
might not be an ill guess that they are the same as the 

(^Continued on p. 75.) 

1 In Mr. Seebobm^s first edition, the word in the second extract was ** Low- 
Saxon; '' in the third it is " Low-German.'^ Hanssen's word is Nieder»(ich9en. 
If he is thinking of the circle of Nieder»ach»en in later German geography, it 
does not at all help him. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 365 


The way in which foreign plants become ** weeds,** under 
new and favorable conditions, is illustrated by the recent case of 
Melilotus alba in our Western States. Introduced a few years 
ago as a garden-plant, it has spread so rapidly in the rich bottom- 
lands along the Missouri River, according to Garden and Forest, 
that it is fast driving out the sunflower and other native weeds. 
It is commonly called the * ^Bokhara clover. ' * 

— A meteorite of special interest to chemists has been exam- 
ined by M. Stanislas Meunier. It fell at Mighent, in Russia, 
on June 9, 1889 ; and it was evident, from a cursory inspection, 
that it was of a carbonaceous nature. In external appearance, as 
stated in Nature, it exhibited a deep greenish -black color, 
relieved by numerous small brilliant white crystals. The sur- 
face was considerably wrinkled, and blown jout into swellings. 
The material was very friable, and readily soiled the fingers. 
A section under the miscroscope was observed to consist largely 
of opaque matter interspers^ with crystals of a magnesian 
pyroxene and peridote. Fine particles of metallic iron and 
nickeliferous iron were readily collected by a magnet from the 
powdered rock, having all the characteristics of meteoric iron. 
The density of the meteorite was not very high, 2.495. About 
85 per cent of the rock was found to be attacked by acids, the 
portion so- attacked being shown by analysis to consist mainly 
of a silicate, of magnesium and iron having the composition of 
peridote. On the remaining 15 per cent being heated in a cur- 
rent of dry oxygen gas, it readily took fire and burnt brilliantly. 
The products of combustion, which were allowed to pass through 
the usual absorption tubes containing pumice and sulphuric acid 
and potash, showed that the meteorite contained nearly 5 per 
cent of organic matter. In order to obtain some idea as to the 
nature of the carbonaceous substance present, a quantity of the 
rock was powdered and then digested with alcohol. On 
evaporation the alcholoic extract yielded a bright yellow resin, 
which was readily precipitated from the alcoholic solution by 
water, and much resembled the kab&ite of Wdhler. The most 
curious chemical properties of the meteorite, however, are 
exhibited with a cold aqueous extract of the powdered rock. 
The filtered liquid is quite colorless, but exhales a faint odor 
due to an organic salt which carbonizes on evaporation to 
dryness, and may be burnt upon platinum foil. The aqueous 
extract further contains nearly 2 per cent of mineral matter 
possessing properties of a novel character. Barium-chloride 
solution gives a heavy white precipitate, which, however, is 
not barium sulphate. Silver nitrate gives a voluminous curdy 
reddish -violet precipitate, reminding one of silver chromate, 
but of quite a, distinct and peculiar tint, and which blackens 
in a very few minutes in daylight. The substance which 
exhibits these re-actions is unchanged by evaporation to dryness 
and ignition to redness, readily dissolving in water again on 
cooling, and giving the above re-actions. The silver-nitrate 
precipitate, when allowed to stand for some time undisturbed 
in the liquid, becomes converted into colorless but brilliantly 
refractive crystals, which polarize brightly between crossed 
nicols under the microscope, and which are insoluble in 
boiling water. The properties of this new substance contained 
in the water extract appear to approximate most closely to 
those of certain metallic tellurates, but the new compound ap- 
pears also to differ in certain respects from those terrestrial salts. 

— We owe a new and interesting application of photography to 
M. Bertillon, the well-known director of the Identification 
Department at the Paris %efecture of Police. M. Bertillon has 
been devoting himself for some months to the study of the 
physical peculiarities engendered by the pursuit of different 
occupations. According to Nature, the police have frequently 
to deal with portions of bodies and it would greatly aid their 
investigations to be able to determine the calling of the 
murdered person in each particular case. The hand is, as a 
rule, the part naturally most affected by the occupation; and 
M. Bertillon has taken a very large series of photographs, each 
one showing on a large scale the hands, on a smaller scale the 
whole figure of the workman at his work, so that one may see 

at a glance the position of the body, and which are the parts 
that undergo friction from the tools in use. From the hands of 
the navvy all the secondary lines disappear, and a peculiar 
callosity is developed where the spade-handle rubs against the 
hand; the bands of tin-plate workero are covered with little 
crevices produced by the acids employed; ^e hands of lace- 
makers are smooth, but they have blisters full of serum on the 
back And callosities on the front part of the shoulder, due to 
the friction of the straps of the loom ; the thumb and the first 
joints of the index of metal-workers show very large blisters, 
whilst the left hand has scars made by the sharp fragments of 
metal. Experts in forensic medicine (Vemois among others) 
have before drawn attention to the subject; but this is 1^ 
firat time that an investigation has been carried out on a latge 
scale, and in M. Bertillon* s hands it should lead to the best 

— Two new expeditions are announced in Olotms^ Bd. 65* 
No. vi. Joseph Bfartin has lately left P^ing with a few 
companions for Lan-chow and Sin-ning, with the intention of 
reaching Tibet by the country of the Kuku Nor. The journey 
is undertaken for the purpose of geological and jidiysical 
geographical investigations. This traveller is famous for his 
great journey m eastern Siberia, and in particular for his ascent 
of the Stanovoi Mountains. The well-known French traveller, 
Bonvalot, accompanied by Prince Henry of Orleans, has com- 
meuced a new journey in Asia, the aim of which is nothing less 
than to traverse the continent from north-west to south-east* 
The expedition is to proceed from Omsk through Semipalatinsk 
to Chuguchak on the Chinese frontier, then by Manas, Urumtsi, 
Karashar, Korla, the Lob Nor, Chamuen-Tai, Kukusai on the 
upper Yang-tsi-kiang, Tsiamdo, Batang, and Yunnan, to the 
coast at Tong-king. M. Bonvalot is, however, quite aware that 
his plan may very probably have to be considerably modified. 

— The grass known as * 'Lalang* ' (Imperata cylindrica) gives 
the foresters of the Malay Peninsula more trouble than our own 
prairie-grasses give the tree-planters of the West. This Lalang 
is injurious, says Garden and Forest, by reason of its inflamma- 
bility, and because it prevents any cultivation of the land cov- 
ered by it, except at great expense. Wherever land is allowed to 
run to waste, it is soon covered with this grass, except where 
the soil is wet, or sandy, or shaded by trees. The annual report 
of the conservator of forests at Singapore refers at great length to 
this plant, stating that it can be exterminated by chemicals ; but 
these are expensive, and have an injurious effect upon the trees 
planted in forest upon the land afterward. When trees are laige 
enough to throw a shade, the Lalang quickly disappears, and it 
cannot penetrate into forest glades if but a few tre^ bar its 
progress. The gradual planting of bushes and shade-trees is 
recommended as the surest remedy for this grass pest. 

— An interesting study has been lately made by Herr Tar- 
chenoff {PflUger^s Arehiv) of electric currents in the skin frooi 
mental excitation. Unpolarizable clay -electrodes, connected 
with a delicate galvanometer, were applied to various parts, — 
hands, flngers, feet, toes, nose, ear, and back; and, after com- 
pensation of any currents which occurred during rest, the effects 
of mental stimulation were noted. Light tickling with a hrush 
causes, after a few seconds* period of latency, a gradually 
increasing strong deflectiou. Hot water has a like effect; cold 
or the pain from a needle-prick, a leas. Sound, light, taste, 
and small stimuli act similarly. If the eyes have been closed 
some time, mere opening at them causes a considerable deflection 
from the skin of the hand. Different colors here acted 
unequally. It is remarkable that these skin-currents also 
arise when the sensations are merely imagined. One vividly 
imagines, for example, he is suffering intense heat; and a 
strong current occurs, which goes down when the idea of cold is 
substituted. Mental effort produces currents varying with its 
amount. Thus, multiplication of small figures gives hardly any 
current; that of large, a strong one. If a person is in tense 
expectation, the galvanometer mirror makes irregular oscillations. 
When the electrodes are on hand or arm, a volimtary move- 
ment, such as contraction of a toe or convergence of the eyes,. 

Digitized by 


January 31, 1890.] 



gives a strong current. In all the experiments, says Nature, it 
appeared that, with equal nerve-excitation, the strength of 
the skin -currents depended on the degree to which the part of 
the skin bearing the electrodes was furnished with sweat- 
glands. Thus some parts of the back, and upper leg and arm, 
having few of these, gave hardly any current. Berr Tarchoioflf 
considers that the course of nearly every kind of nerve -activity 
is aco(Hiipanied by increased action of the skin-glands. Every 
nerve-function, it is known, causes a rise of temperature and 
aocomnlation of the products of exchange of material in the 
body. Increase of sweat-excretion favors cooling and getting 
rid of those products. 

—In the summer of 1887 Herr Lindenbaum found a petroleum 
lake on a narrow tongue of land in the north of Saghalien. It 
is about twenty- two miles north-east of a village n^med Pomor, 
and at about 54° north latitude. A little south of Pomor lies 
Baikal Bay, a good harbor, which has a depth of eight feet at 
low tide, and could therefore be entered by small vessels. 
There would be no difficulty in making a road from this place 
to the petroleum lake. There is also another spot, one hundred 
and twenty-five miles south of the former, where petroleum is 
said to occur. 

— Herr T. Thoroddsen was in the summer of 1889 travelling 
in Iceland, and has given an account of his discoveries in 
Pettemtan'8 MitteUungen, Bd. 35, No xi. The part of the 
island be visited lies on the western edge of Vatna JdkuU, to 
the north-east of Hecla. A great part of this country has never 
been visited by any one, for the total absence of grass for horses 
renders travelling 'difficult. All the lower slopes of Torfa Jokull 
are covered with lava and ashes, but the substratum and the 
ridge itself are composed of palagonite breccia and tuflf. The 
large river Tungnaa approaches much nearer to Torfa Jokull 
than it is drawn on maps. Crossing this river, Herr Thoroddsen 
took up his quarters by the Fiskivotn, and made several 
excursions in the neighborhood. The lakes abound in trout; 
they are small, and are represented on the maps on too large a 
scale. They are not surrounded by glacial d/bris, but are 
almost all crater lakes. Across an extensive tract of lava, 
totally devoid of grass, lies the Thorisvatn, which is not a very 
small lake, as represented on Gunnlaugsson' s map, but one of 
the largest in the island, and not much less than Thingval- 
lavatn. The lakes are generally enclosed by steep mountains, 
so that it is difficult to approach them. It has been supposed 
that the rivers Skapta, Hversfisfijot, and Tungnaa rise at the 
same place from a glacier, and they are so represented on 
Guimlaugsson's map; but Herr Thoroddsen found that the 
Tungnaa flows in two branches from a large glacier, the edge 
of which extends in a long curve from the mountains south 
of Vonarskard to those near Fljotshvcrfi, that the source of the 
Skapta lies about nine miles farther south, and tbat the 
Hverfisfijot rises from ten to fourteen miles still more to the 
south. Three serrated lidges run between the Tungnaa and 
Skapta, from the Vatna Jdkull to the Torfa Jokull. These 
mountains are composed entirely of palagonite breccia, and the 
valleys are filled with volcanic ashes and shifting sands. 
Between the middle and southern ridges lies a lake about 
twenty- three miles long, which stretches nearly to this foot of 
Vatna J6kull, and, though in most places very narrow, is one of 
the largest in Iceland. It is fed with milky water by numerous 
glaciers. Near the last of these, Herr Thoroddsen, on his way to 
the Torfa Jokull, visited several warm springs and solfataras. 

— The remark made at a recent meeting of the Boyal G^- 
graphical Society by the president, apropos of certain explora- 
tions by Mr. Theodore Bent, viz., thit there is still much work 
for the competent observer in regions where practically no risk 
need be encountered, is strikingly exemplified in the account of 
the last voyage of that accomplished explorer along the south 
coast of Asia Minor, as described in the Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, Sailing along the Carian coast, he landed in the bay 
of Aplotheka, at the ancient town of Loryma; and, hearing 
there of some ruins a few hours distant, he rowed to the place, 
and diaoovered a curious little harbor with the entrance not a 

stone's throw in width. Thence an hour's walk brought him to 
some extensive ruins, which, from an inscription, he believed 
himself able to identify with tolerable certainty as Easarea. 
The village of Phoenike being just beyond, he could also 
identify with certainty the little harbor as the Kp^ca ^i^^v of 
Ptolemy ; for this harbor lies, according to that geographer, 
between Loryma and Phoenike. Plihy also mentions that 
-Porhis Cressa lies just opposite Bhodes at a distance of twenty 
miles, which agrees with the position. Again, a little farther 
along the coast, on the Gulf of Makri, Mr. Bent was able, from 
inscriptions on the ruins, to identify the site of a Lycian tov^n 
of some importance, —Lydse, the capital of a district known as 
Lydatis. A little farther on, an old Hellenic acropolis, sur- 
rounded by a few tombs, seemed, from some half -defaced 
inscriptions, to have been known as Lissa, though the site 
seems to be that assigned by Ptolemy to the town of Karya. 
Some of the inscriptions found in these places are of considerable 
interest, and the remains are described by Mr. Bent to be not 
without artistic merit. Tlie whole region is now inhabited 
only bj nomad tribes of Yuruts; and these discoveries are 
alluded to here merely to show how much more may be done 
and discovered by the explorer, within easy reach of home, than 
is commonly supposed. Indeed, to quote Mr. Bent's words 
with reference to this district alone, * ^Inasmuch as Pliny tells 
us that there were 6nce seventy cities in Lycia and in his time 
thirty-six, of which he only knew the names of twenty-five, 
there is room. for much more geographical discovery in this 
interesting district." 

— Garden and Forest states that it has received at its office, as 
a reminder of the mild winter, a very interesting photograph of a 
group of Christmas roses which came from Cazenovia, N. Y. , to 
testify how beautiful these flowers can be in mid-winter. 
Branches of many shrubs with fully expanded flowers were also 
received; and in a collection of this sort from the Meehan Nur- 
series at Germantown were sprays of the Cornelian cherry with 
the yellow stamens showing through the opening buds, and the 
Tartarian hbneysuckle with buds just opening. 

— We learn from Nature that remarkable phenomena are 
witnessed at the new observatory on the steep and isolated 
Slntis in northern Switzerland. Thunder-storms are extremely 
frequent. Thus in June and July last year, only three days 
were without them.- As a rule, thunder peals from mid-day 
till evening. The noise is short, partly owing to shortness of 
flashes, and partly to the small amount of echo. The thunder- 
storms come on quite suddenly, in a clear sky. One of the 
surest indications of their approach is the bristling of the 
observer's hair. During hail the iron rods of the house give a 
hissing sound associated with luminous effects. 

— Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. will issue in February, as 
an extra number of the Riverside Literature Series, * *The River- 
side Manual for Teachers," containing suggestions and illustra- 
tive lessons leading up to primary reading, by I. F. Hall, super- 
intendent of scholars at Leominster, Mass. The manual will 
appear later as the introductory part of * *The Riverside Primer 
and Manual for Teachers." It points out, principally by the 
aid of illustrative lessons, what steps the pupil should take be- 
fore b^inning the primer. The primer and manual form the 
first book of the Riverside Reading and Language Course, which 
also includes "The Riverside First Reader,*' '^The Riverside 
Second Reader, ' ' and, for higher grades, the regular numbers of 
the Riverside Literature Series. To accompany the manual and 
primer, Air. Hall has designed an instruction frame equipped 
with three sets of language and object pictures, prepared espe- 
cially for this purpose by F. T. Merrill, script and printed words 
and sentences, and a displaying holder. The object of the River- 
side Language and Reading Course is, first, to give young chil- 
dren such a training as will enable them, while overcoming the 
mechanical difficulties of learning to* read, to acquire a taste for 
good reading-matter, and incidentally to gain a power to express 
themselves orally and in writing witJi accuracy, good taste, and 
facility ; and, second, to supply children of each grade with the 
best reading-matter that the world's literature affords. 

Digitized by 




[Vol.. XV. No. 365 





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Vol. XV. NEW YORK, January 81, 1890. No. 865. 


The Kskkb of the Bald Ctpbess 

Frankfort Electro-Technical Ex- 

Robert H. Lambom 




The Oesnse Eust-Proof Pbo- 


Bleotbio Looomotiye foe Metal 




Practical Marine Surveying 

Practical Hints for the Teachers 
of PubUc Schools 


Bleotbio Rotabt Diamohd Dbill 




The Latest Thbobies on the 

Lettebs to the Editob. 


An Insect Destructive to Wheat 

Edward A, Freeman 
Notes and News 




Q. a Smith 
The Fiske Range Finder 

Tho». L. CaMey 


Bleotbioal News. 


Edinburgh International Electri- 
cal Rxhlbition 


The Anglo-American* Storage- 



The following from Mr. Du Chaillu, written to the editor of 
The London Times, appeared in that journal for Jan. 7 : — 

'*As some misunderstanding has arisen in r^ard to the 
historical chapters of my book on *^The Viking Age,^' will 
you allow me to give some fuller explanation of my views in 
regard to the earlier inhabitants and invaders of Britain ? 

*^In studying the history and antiquities of any country 
which at some previous period has been overrun and occupied 
l^ a foreign power, we naturally expect to find some material 
traces of the invader, in the shape of monuments, inscriptions, 
graves, weapons, ornaments, etc. Thus Romi^n remains are 
plentiful in Gertnania, Gallia, and Britain, and in generations 
to come British remains will doubtless be found in India to 
tell the tale of England's dominion there. In like manner I 
argue that the archaeological remains found in England form 
the strongest evidence as to who were the people who invaded 
Britain. The so-called Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Boman 
objects found in the British Isles correspond, down to the 
minutest detail, with objects found in Scandinavia and in 
the islands of the Baltic, and in no other place where Norsemen 
have not been. 

**The majority of the criticisms which have come under my 
notice deal in sweeping statements concerning language, the 
views of historians, and so forth ; a few have here and there 
ventured on the discussion of a point of detail ; but none, so far 
as I am aware, have attempted to deal with one of my chief 
arguments, which is based upon the existence of the material 
remains to which I have# referred above. The first of the 
maritime tribes of the north mentioned by Roman writers 
was the Suiones, the Sviar of the Sagas. Tacitus describes 
their ships, and his description exactly coincides with the 
vessel found at Nydam, of which an illustration is given at 

p. 220 of my first volume. My hypothesis that the Veneti of 
Caasar were probably the advanced guard of the north is based 
upon the evidence that their ships, as' described by Gsesar, cor- 
respond in a remarkable manner with the ships of ijie Norsemen. 

* *It is reasonable to suppose, as Tacitus makes no mention of 
these SoicAes having come into conflict with the Romans, and as 
he informs us that they * honored wealth, ' that those he saw came 
for the purpose of trading ; and this is confirmed by the quantities 
of Roman objects, and especially of Roman coins, dist^bnted in 
finds and hoards throughout Scandinavia. To take one example 
only : the hoards at Hagestaborg and Singdarfe include upward 
of 24,000 Roman coins, forming an almost unlnxiken s^es from 
the time of Nero (54 A.D.) to that of Septimus Severus (211 
A.D.), and none of later date. Other finds throughout the 
country exhibit a succession of Roman and Byzantine coins, in- 
cluding many of gold and silver, from the time of Augoatus 
down to the later days of the Eastern Empire. 

* 'Now, the general distribution of the coins and manufactured 
articles, and the large number of them, show, 1 maintain, that 
not the Suiones, or any one tribe alone, but all these tribes, 
carried on an extensive warfare and continuous commercial 
intercourse with the Roman Empire. The Romans, on the other 
hand, never penetrated into their country, their knowledge of 
them was very vague, and Roman writers selected a tribe here 
and there (as, for. example, these very Suiones), and attributed 
to them certain characteristics and customs which in fact pre- 
vailed throughout Scandinavia. This vagueness of nomenclature 
is exhibited in the fact that the name Suiones disappears from 
history for seven centuries, until we find it again in the pages 
of Eginhard, who writes, 'The Danes and Suiones, whom we 
call Northmen.* Meanwhile, other names, as Franks and 
Saxons, are given to hordes of invaders and warriors whose 
origin and home are vrrapped in mystery. 

* 'Another point of great Importance in this discussion is the 
enormous number of graves scattered all over the country of the 
Norsemen, indicating a very dense population. 

"Now, it is reasonable to draw three conclusions from this 
evidence, which I have merely sketched in outline: (1) that we 
find from the days of the earliest Roman historians continuous 
traces of a maritime people in the north whose country the 
Romans and their successors never were able to invade; (2) 
that the Roman and early mediaeval nomenclature, as bearing 
on this people, is so vague as to be worthless for historical 
purposes ; (3) that the country, when we gain access to it, is 
found to be full of material remains indicative of a dense and 
warlike population, of advanced civilization, and of continuous 
intercourse with the outer world. 

' 'Turning to England, we find copious remains from a very 
early date which are not British nor Oltic nor Roman, which 
have been variously labelled as Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo- 
Roman, and so forth, but which correspond minutely with the 
remains which I have described in the north. Of every such 
object found in England I claim that I can produce the coun- 
terpart in Scandinavia, and I challenge the historians and 
archaeologists to show me any place in the basins of the Elbe, 
the TVeser, and the Rhine where corresponding objects have 
been discovered. 

' 'I ask again, is it or is it not reasonable to infer that these 
remains found in England indicate that England was invaded 
from the north ? Is it or is it not reasonable to hold that these 
invaders came, not from any one special spot in the north, but 
that their expeditions were made jointly by many tribes com- 
bining for the purpose, as we learn from the Sagas was their 
customary practice? 

' 'I have taken pains to make no statement which cannot be 
supported by a quotation of some recognized authority, or by 
reference to some established fact, and these materially corrob- 
orate each other, yet I am accused of bringing forward crude and 
ignorant theories. 

' 'In conclusion, I would ask my opponents to prove to me that 
their account of the origin of the English people is any thing 
more than a theory; and, if so, I challenge them to produce 
the facts on which it is based." 

Digitized by 


January 31, 1890.] 





CContinued from p. 71.) 

* 'Anglo-Saxon invaders of England," who came from some- 
where in middle Germany. Only how is this doctrine to he 
reconciled with the ''assumption'' that "the invaders of 
England came from the north' ' ? Taking it by itself, the 
southern theory comes to this: the main body of the invaders, 
"Anglo-Saxons," "High -Saxons, " whatever they are to be 
called, started from middle Germany, from some point between' 
Westfalia and Thuringia, from some part far away from 
marling and peat-manure; but on their road to Britain they 
fell in with certain companions, — Frisians, Low-Saxons, Jutes, 
— all seemingly from the marling and peat-manure country. 
In company with them, they came into Britain, to a part of it 
which had somehow already become ' 'England. ' ' 

This seemingly is the doctrine which is casually thrown out 
in the second of our quotation from Mr. Seebohm, Now, if we 
could only get rid of hyphened words, and talk simply of 
"Angles" or "English," it would help Mr. Seebohm's case 
not a little. The odd thing is, that, in arguing against Mr. 
Seebohm's case, one has first to put together his case for him. 
In his casual way of putting things, he does not seem to know 
how much might have been really said on behalf of something 
very like the view which he lets fall. In the older edition of 
i^runer's "Atlas," Mr. Seebohm would have found an English 
land marked for him in the very part of Germany where he 
would have most wished for it. There was an Angdn shown 
clearly enough between Westfalia and Thuringia, and whatever 
was to be said about the branch of the Angles who were held 
to have dwelled there was carefully brought together by Zeuss. < 
Unluckily this inland Angdn has vanished from the revised 
%runer-Menke, as also from the new atlas of Droysen. It 
might therefore be dangerous to build any theories on the 
subject without going deeply into the whole question ; but just 
such an Angeln as suited Mr. Seebohm' s theory was there, 
according to the best lights, at the time that Mr. Seebohm 
wrote. If he was not aware of this, his stumbling by an a 
priori road on a doctrine actually supported by such respectable 
authorities is one of the strangest of undesigned coincidences. 
If he was aware of it, it is almost more strange that he should 
not have thought it worth while to refer to a fact or supposed 
^t of so much value for his case. With its help, that case 
could be put in a veiy taking shape. These central Angles, 
used to a three-field system, set out to go somewhither, it 
need not have been to Britain. On the road they fall in with 
companions, Saxons, Low-Saxon, Frisian, Jutish, any thing 
else. These seafaring folk would doubtless know the way to 
Britain much better than the Angles of middle Germany, 
'^y suggest the course that the expedition should take, and 
the united force crosses the sea in as many keels as might be 
needful. It may even be, if anybody chooses, that the inland 
Anglos, entering into partnership with the seafaring Saxons, 
first set foot on British soil under the style, already duly 
hyphened, of "Anglo-Saxons." To be sure, in Britain itself 
the compound name was not heard till some ages later, and 
then only 'in a very special and narrow sense. But on the 
mainland it was known much earlier. Paul the Deacon uses 
it:* it may have been used earlier still. So there is really a 
very fair case made out for "Anglo-Saxon invaders of Britain" 
ccMning from Mid -Germany, and no doubt bringing the three- 
field system with them. We have only to suppose that in the 
matter of agriculture some such agreement was made between 
the different classes of settlers, as we know was sometimes 
made among joint settlers in early times. The Sicilian Naxos 
reckoned as a colony of Chalkis, but it took its name from the 
elder Naxos. In Himera, peopled bj Dorians and Chalkidians, 
the speech was mingled, but the laws were Chalkidian. So in 

* "D&e Deutsohen and die Naohbarstftmme,'^ 168, o.f. 406. It would be dan- 
geroas to enter casually and light-heartedly on questions about ''AngrlTaril,^ 
'"Engem/* and the like. 

« Paul the Deacon speaks of " Angll-Saxones " (iv. 22, vl. 15) and " Saxones 
Aagll '* (T. 87). For other Instances see Norman Conquest, 1. 641. 

the Anglo-Saxon colonization of ritaih it was evidently agreed 
that the Angles should bring their system of three-field culture 
into Uie conquered land; the Saxons, Low-Saxons, Frisians, 
and Jutes, any other votaries of marling and peat-manure, had 
to conform to the practice of their betters. 

There would still remain the question of language, — a point 
of which Mr. Seebohm does not seem to have thought, but on 
which Zeuss underwent some searchings of heart. He puts the 
question, without very positively settling it, whether Angles 
who dwelled so far south spoke High Dutch or Low. In the 
fifth century, indeed, the question could hardly have been of 
the same moment as it would have been in the ninth. The 
High Dutch has not as yet wholly parted company with the 
Low. Still the point is worth thinking of. Those who use the 
one-field and the peat-manure have ever belonged to the ranks 
of men who eaten and drinken. It may be that those who 
practise the three-field culture had already begun to fall off to 
them who essen an trinken. But one thing at least is certain : 
ne man ever did easen and trinken in this isle of Britian. If, 
then, the Angles of the inland England had begun to adopt the 
more modem forms, something of an agreement — again like 
that of the Dorians and the Chalkidians — must have been come 
to between them and their Nether-Dutch companions. While 
the inland Angles had their way in the matter of three-field 
culture, the lesser point of language was yielded in favor of 
the seafaring Saxon. 

Mr. Seebohm*s casual theory, then, when worked out with 
some little care, really puts on so winning an air that it is 
hard not to accept it. Yet, even if we accept the existence of 
an inland Angeln without any doubt, Mr. Seebohm' s theory at 
least would no thold water. It simply has against it the universal 
belief of Englishmen from the beginning. In the eyes of 
Baeda, in the eyes of the Chroniclers, in the eyes of the glee- 
man of Brunanburh, in the eyes of all who ever spoke or sang 
of the^ great migration of our people, the Angles, no less than 
the Saxons, count among the seafaring folk of northern 
Germany. The England from whence they came, the England 
which their coming was said to have left empty of men, was 
the England of the coast of Sleswick, not any inland England 
between Westfalia and Thuringia. At all events, if we are 
to believe otherwise, we have at least a right to ask that the 
question shall be thoroughly discussed on its own merits, and 
not tossed jauntily aside as a small point in the history of the 
rotation of crops. Till then, whether we believe that we were 
called **a6 angelica facte y id est /wZcra," or merely because we 
dwelled *Hn angxdo terrce^^ we shall still go on believing that it 
was from the borderland of Germany and Denmark that our 
forefathers, set forth to work by sea their share in the wandering 
of the nations. It may be that some of the Anglian folk may 
well have strayed inland, as some of the Saxon folk may have 
strayed farther inland still. But the first England of history, 
the land from which men set forth to found the second, as from 
the second they set forth to found the third, was assuredly no 
inland r^ion from which they had to make their way to a 
distant coast and there pick up Saxons or Frisians as com- 
panions of their further journey. The little England, the little 
^^angulus terrcBy^* of Sleswick was only part of it. There is no 
need minutely to measure^ how much was Anglian, how much 
Saxon, how much Frisian, how much belonged to any 
other branch of the common stock. In the days of Tacitus 
and Ptolemy the Angle and the Frisian were folk of the main- 
land only : by the days of Procopius they had won their home 
in the island to part of which one of them was to give his 

We came by sea. By no other way indeed could we make 
our way into an island. But we came by sea in another sense 
from- that in which Roman Caesar came by sea before us and 
Norman William came after us. We came by sea not simply 
because the sea was the only road but because we came as folk 
of the sea to whom the sea was not a mere path but a true 
home. Of the details of the purely Anglian settlement and of 
the Angles themselves we know comparatively little, for the 
obvious reason that they lay. farther off than their fellows from 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 365 

the range of Roman knowledge. But of the Saxon sbipmen 
and their doings we know a good deal : Sidooins has taken no 
small pains to show what manner of men they seemed to be in 
the eyes of the Roman of Gaul. ' They first harried and then 
settled on both sides of the Channel. That their settlements in 
Britain were greater and more abiding than their settlements 
in Gaul was the result of many later causes. The Saxon of 
Chichester owes his presence en British ground to the same 
general effort to which the Saxon of Bayeux owed his presence 
on Gaulish ground. The Saxon of Chichester keeps his Saxon 
speech and from his land the Saxon name has not passed away. 
The Saxon of Bayeux has for ages spoken the Latin tongue of 
his neighbors, and while Sussex yet lives on the map, the 
Otlingiia Saxonica has given way to other names to the Besain 
and the department of Calvados, But each was planted in 
his new home b^ the force of the same movement, the Saxon 
wandering oa the sea. And once planted in his new home, 
whether in the island or on the mainland, he ceased to be a 
wanderer by sea. He sat down and tilled the earth, and 
he guarded the earth which he tilled by the arms no longer of 
the seafarer but of the land warrior. The change is not won- 
derful. It has often happened in other lands, it has happened 
again in the same land. To be seafaring folk or to be lands- 
men is not always a question of what is bom in the blood. 
Prosaic as it sounds, it is often the result of the circumstances 
in which men find themselves. Seafaring Corinth planted at 
one blow her twin colonies of Korkyra and Syracuse. Korkyra 
on her island met her parent on the seas with fleets equal to her 
own. Syracuse, planted in an island indeed, but an island that 
was in truth a continent, took to the ways of continent-s. Her 
landfolk were driven to take to the sea to meet the attacks of 
those Athenians who, two or three generations before, had been 
no less landfolk themselves.* So it was in the very land of 
Bayeux. When the Northmen came in their ships, neither Saxon 
nor Frank had ships to withstand them. Presently the sea- 
faring Northmen, once settled in the land, changed into Norman 
landfolk, foremost of warriors with horse and lance, but to 
whom the horses of the wave had become simply means to 
carry them safe from Rh^ion to Messana, or from St. Valery to 

Why, some one may ask, do I put forth again such very 
obvious truths as these? Because they are of no small impor- 
tance, if we are to discuss the latest theory of all as to the 
origin of the English people. Th^ only question is whether 
that theory need be discussed at all : it is hard to argue against 
that state of mind which, in the days when we learned logic, 
we used to call ignoratio denchi. But if not discussed, it must 
be mentioned. Perhaps if this newest view of all had Qot 
come up the other day, I might not have chosen this time to 
talk about the views of Mr. Seebohm. But when M. Du Chaillu 
puts forth bis theory, it at once recalls Mr. Seebohm* s theoryr 
The two stand in a certain relation to one another : neither can 
be fully taken in without the other. Both alike throw aside 
the recorded facts of history in the interest of a theory, be it a 
theory of the rotation of crops or a theory of the greatness of 
Vikings. Each theorist alike, possessed of a single thought, 
cannot be got to stop and think what there is to be said on 
the other side. M. Du Chaillu has put forth two very pretty 
volumes, with abundance of illustrations of Scandinavian 
objects. Most of them, to be sure, will be found in various 
Scandinavian books : still here they are, very many of them, and 
looking very pretty. M. Du Chaillu has given us a great many 
translations of sagas ; but we have seen other translations of 
sagas, and some of them have been made by sound scholars. 
Criticism is hardly attempted. When the Scandinavian legend 
can be tested by the authentic English history, when the saga 
itself can be divided into the contemporary and trustworthy 
verse and the later and untrustworthy prose, — work, all this, 
which has been done over and over again by the scholar for more 
than one nation, — M. Du Chaillu simply gives us the sagas again, 
with comments now and then of amasing simplicity. The saga 

* The gre«t desoription comes in the sixth letter of the seventh book. 

* Thaoydldes, vli. 21. 

of Harold Hardrada, the bits of genuine minstrelsy of the 
eleventh century patched together by the prose of the thirteenth, 
has been long ago thoroughly examined in its relations to the 
English narratives; above all, to the precious piece of con- 
temporary English minstrelsy preserved by Henry of Hunting- 
don. It might have seemed hardly needful nowadays to prove 
once more that the picture of the English army in the saga is 
simply a fancy piece drawn from an English army of the 
thirteenth century. There are the English archers, the English 
horsemen, horsemen too whose horses are sheeted in armor. If 
'any man doubts, he has nothing to do but to compare Snorro*s 
fancy piece with the living representation of a real English 
army of the eleventh century in the contemporary tapestry of 
Bayeux. There he will see that to the English of that day 
the horse was simply a means to carry him to and from the 
place of battle, and that the clothing of horses in armor was a 
practice as yet unknown to the Norman horsemen themselves. 
Yet aft^ all this, so often pointed out, M. Du Chaillu yolun- 
teers a little note to say that Snorro's version proves ''that the 
English, like their kinsmen, had horses." That we had horses, 
no man save Procopius' ever doubted; but both Brihtnoth and 
Harold got down from their horses when the work of battle 
was to begin. 

It is hardly by an adversary who cannot wield the weapons of 
criticism better than this that we shall be beaten out of the 
belief that there is such a thing as an English people in 
Britain. Perhaps, too, we shall not be the more inclined to 
give up our national being when we see its earliest records 
tossed aside with all the ignorant scorn of the eighteenth 
century. The * 'Prankish and E2nglish chroniclers*' rank very 
low in the eyes of M. Du Chaillu. We know exactly where we 
have got when we come to the old conventional talk about 
''ignorant and bigoted men,'* ."monkish scribes," and the 
like. Among these monkish scribes we have to reckon EHnhard 
and Count Nithard, and our own literary ealdorman, Fabiua 
Patricius Quaestor Ethelwardas. The odd thing is that, with 
M. Du Chaillu, Franks and Saxons or English go tc^ther. He is 
at least free from his countrymen's usual weakness of claiming 
the Franks, their kings, their acts, and their writings, for their 
own. As far as his theory can be made out, it seems to be 
this: the Suiones of Tacitus are the Swedes, and the Suiones 
had ships; so far no one need cavil. But we do not hear of the 
Suiones or any other Scandinavian people doin^ any thing by 
sea for several centuries. But, though we do not hear of it, 
they must have been doing something. What was it that they 
did? Now, in the fourth, fifth, sixth, centuries, we hear of 
the Saxons doing a good deal by sea: therefore the name 
"Saxones" must be a mistake of the Latin writers for 
"Suiones." It was not Saxons, but Swedes, or at least 
Scandinavians of some kind, who did all that is recorded of the 
Saxons, and presumably of the Angles and Jutes also, in Gaul, 
Britain, or anywhere else. The Angles and Saxons, therefore, 
who have been hitherto thought to have settled in Britain in 
the fifth and sixth centuries, are all a mistake. They were not 
Anlges or Saxons at all, but Scandianvians of some kind. 
Hengest and ^Ue were simply the advanced guard of Hubba, 
Sween, and Cnut. They could not have been Saxons, because, 
when the Northmen came against the continentaP Saxons of 
later times, they found no fleets to withstand them. 

The assumption that goes through 'all this is, that once a 
seaman, ever a seaman; once a landsman, ever a landsman. 
These could not be seafaring Saxons in the fifth century, 
because we do not hear of Saxon fleets in the eighth. Chi the 
other hand, because the Suiones had ships in the days of 
Tacitus, as they could not have left off using ships, it must 
have been they who did the acts which are commonly attributed 
to the Saxons. A good deal is involved in this last, assmnp- 
tion : it is at least conceivable, and not at all unlike the later 
history of Sweden, that the Suiones went on using their ships, 
but used them somewhere else, and not on the cost of Ganl or 
Britain. But of the grand assumption of all — the assumption 
that the landsman can never become a seaman or the seaman a 
l^ BeU. Ootth. hr. 90. 

Digitized by 


January 31, 1890] 



landsman—I have spoken already.* And if this be a real 
difficulty, it is just as great a difficulty on M. Du Chaillu's 
theory as it is according to the genuine records of English 
history. Over and over again has it been noticed as a strange 
thing that the settlers who came to Britain by sea, as soon as 
they were settled in Britain, left oflf their seafaring ways, and 
had no fleet to withstand the Danes when the Danes did come. 
There is in this really nothing wonderful. But if this be a 
difficulty in the case of Anglian or Saxon settlers, it is hard to 
see how the difficulty becomes any less if the settlers are 
rated to be Swedish, Danish, or Norwegian. 

In truth, M. Du Chaillu^s theory is several degrees more 
amazing than that of Mr. Seebohm. How did we come by our 
language? How did we come by our national names? We did 
not, according to this theory, light by the way on any of 
those Low-Saxon, Frisian, or Jutish companions and teachers 
who, in Mr. Seebohm' s view, may have done so much for us. 
And it is a little daring of M. Du Cliaillu to represent the use 
of the Saxon name, as applied to the ravagers and settlers of 
Qaul and Britian, as simply the mistake of some Latin scribe, 
some ignorant blunderers like Claudian or Sidonius, who wrote 
*'Saxones** when they should have written **Suiones." The 
mistake went a little deeper than that. How came the 
Teutonic settlers in Britain to call themselves Angles and 
Saxons? How did their Celtic neighbors come to call them 
Saxons? How did the conquered land come to take, here the 
Anglian, there the Saxon, name? One is astonished to read 
n M. Du Chaillu's book, **Nor is any part of England called 
Saadand,'^^ It is possible from the context that what is 
meant is merely that no part of England is so called in the 
northern sagas. But the name of ' 'England' * comes often enough 
in them, and **England" is as bad as **Saxland'' for M. Du 
Chaillu's theory. It is hardly worth searching through all the 
sagas to see whether such a word as * *Saxland' ' is ever found 
there or not. If it be so, it merely proves that no northern 
writers had any need to speak of Wessex, Essex, Sussex, or 
Middlesex by their local names. But considering that those 
names have been in unbroken use in the lands themselves ever 
since the fifth and sixth centuries, it does not much matter 
whether any sagaman called them so or not. It is more 
important, ^om M. Du Chaillu's point of view, to explain how 
West-Saxons, East-Saxons, South-Saxons, and Midde-Saxons 
were led into such strange mistakes as to their own name and 

No one denies that the Scandinavian infusion in England is 
real, great, and valuable; only it is an infusion which dates 
from the ninth century, and not from the fifth or sixth. 
Danish writers, without going quite so far as their champion 
from Valland, have often greatly exaggerated the amount of 
Scandinavian influence in England. They have often set down 
as signs of direct Scandinavian influence things which are 
simply part of the common heritage of the Teutonic race. But 
no one doubts that the Danish infusion in England was large, that 
in some parts it. was dominant ; and its influ^ice was whole- 
some and strengthening. Dane and Angle, Dane and Saxon^ 
were near enough to each other to learn from one another, and 
to profit by one another. They were near enough to be fused 
into one whole by a much easier {»-oces8 than that which in 
some parts of the island did in the end fuse, together the Briton 
and the Teuton. Still the Scandinavian infusion was but an 
infusidn into the already existing English mass. As we are 
not a British people, but an English people with a certain 
British infusion, so neither are we a Scandinavian people, hut 
an English people with a certain Scandinavian infusion. 

One word about the Franks, whose fate at M. Du Chaillu's 
hands is so oddly the same as that of the Saxons. According 
to him, as some Suiones were mistaken for Saxons, which gave 
rise to the error of looking on Saxons as a seafaring people, so 
also some Suiones were mistaken for Franks, which gave rise 
to the error of looking on Franks as a seafaring people. But 
this last error, at all events, never led astray any one. The 
Franks were not a seafaring people, nor did any body ever 
1 " Tbe Viking Age,'' roL I. p. 80. 

think that they were. The whole notion of seafaring Franks^ 
comes from two passages of Eumenids and Zdsimos which 
record a single exploit of certain Frankish prisoners, who seized 
on some ships in the Euxine and amazed mankind by sailing 
about the Mediterranean, doing much damage in Sicily, and 
getting back to Francia by way of the Ocean. This single 
voyage, .wonderful as it was, is not quite the same thing as the 
habitual harrying of the coasts of the Channel, and of the Ocean 
too, by Saxons in their own ships. And when Ammianua 
speaks of Franks and Saxons laying waste the Roman territory 
by land and sea, the obvious meaning surely is that the Franks- 
did it by land, and the Saxons by sea. But all things about 
Franks are surely outdone by a single sentence <^ M. Du 
Chaillu, standing alone with all the honors of a separate 

* ^In the Bayeux tapestry, the followers of William the Con- 
queror were called Franci and they have always been recognized; 
as coming from the north. ' ' 

Further comment is needless. We decline to be brought frono 
the north by M. Du Chaillu, even more strongly than we decline 
to be brought from the south by Mr. Seebohm: for Mr. 
Seebohm does leave some scrap of separate national being to 
the '* Anglo-Saxon invaders" from the English land of middle 
Germany; M. Du Chaillu takes away our last shreds; we are 
mere impostors, Suiones falsely calling ourselves Saxones. But 
let us speculate what might happen if M. Du Chaillu's theory 
should ever fall into the hands of those statesmen and princes 
of the Church who seem to have lately taken in hand the 
nomenclature of that part of mankind whom plain men may 
think it enough to call the English folk.^ The other day one 
eminent person enlarged of the glories of the '* Anglo-Saxon 
race,'' while another enlarged instead on the glories of the 
**Briti8h race." A third claimed the right of free discussion 
for all '^speakers of the British language." Let gallant little 
Wales look out: there would seem to be some comer in its 
twelve (or thirteen) counties in which fisee discussion is just 
now not allowed. New names often take. In my youth the 
'* Anglo-Saxon race" veas unheard of, and the ^'British race" 
dates, I believe, only from the speech of last week, front 
which I quote. Why should the Suiones, so long and so 
unfairly cheated of their honor, not have their day at last? 
Set forth with a good delivery, at the end of a fine rolling: 
period, ' 'the imperial instincts of the Suionic race' ' would be 
as likely to draw forth a cheer as other phrases whose amount 
of meaning is very much the same. When will men, statesmen 
above all, learn that names are facts ; that words, as expressing 
things, aro themselves things; that a confused nomenclature 
marks confusion of thought, failure to grasp the real nature of 
things and the points of likeness and unlikeness between one 
thing and .another? Leaving, then, the Anglo-Saxon race and 
the British race and the Suionic race, and the instincts, 
imperial or otherwise, of any of them, this question of the- 
origin of our people, this great and abiding dispute whether we 
are ourselves or somebody else, suggests one or two practical 
thoughts. Here I rule no point of present controversy; I only 
give some hints which may possibly help those who have to 
rule such points. , 

There is an English folk, and there is a British Crown. The 
Ehiglish folk have homes: the British Crown has dominions. 
But the homes of the English folk and the dominions of the 
British Crown do not always mean the same thing. Here, by 
the border stream of the Angle and the Saxon, we are at once 
in one of the homes of the BInglish folk and in one — and I 
dare to think the noblest and the greatest — of the dominions 
of the British Crown. If we pass to the banks of the Indus 
and Ganges, we are still within the dominions of the British 
Crown, but we cannot say that we are any longer among the 
homes of the English folk. Let us pass again to the banks of 
the Potomac and the Susquehanna : there we have gone out of 

1 See the speeches of the B«rl of Rosebery, Cardinal Manning, and the Earl 
of Gamarron in the Times of Nov. 16, 1889. The qualifloation needful in all 
each oases must of course be understood — " if the speakers really said what 
the reporters put into their mouths." 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 365 

the domiDions of the British CrowD, but we have come back 
■again to the English folk in one of their ohiefest homes. These 
are but plain facts — plain as the sun at noonday. It is b«»iuse 
they are so plain, that mankind, above all orators and states- 
men, will not understand them. Once more, let a man's 
words set forth his thoughts, and let him shape his thoughts by 
the facts. That is all ; but if this counsel of perfection be too 
hard, it may be better to declaim about the **Su]onic race'' 
than about the '* Anglo-Saxon race." It will lead fewer people 
astray. Edward A. Freeman. 


Edinburgh International Electrical ExHiBrnoN. — The 
executive council decided to finally close the list of applications 
for space on Jan. 15, when allotment was proceeded with. The 
French, Italian, and Austrian exhibits are expected to be 
specially fine, while India, China, and Japan will all be well 
represented in the department devoted to general industries. 
The railway machinery and appliances section promises well, 
several of the leading railway companies having agreed to 
exhibit; while among electrical exhibitors are Sir William 
Thomson, W. H. Preece, Edison, the general post-office, Edison- 
Bwan, Laing, Wharton & Down, Anglo-American Brush, 
Paterson & Cooper, United Electrical Engineering, King, 
Brown & Co., Mavor & Coulson, Sir William Vavasour 
(Limited), Elmore Copper Depositing Company, Thomson - 
Houston Welding Company, Newell Engine Company, Robey & 
Ck>. , Electric Traction Company, Ernest Scott & Co. , Ronald 
49cott, Woodhouse & Rawson, Butler, Jobson & Co., W. T. 
■Olover & Co., National Telephone Company, Consolidated 
Telephone ^Construction Company, Col. Gouraud, Gent & Co., 
Exchange Telegraph Company, Eastern Telegraph Company. 
The Decauville Company propose to show a narrow-gauge 
railway in operation, but worked by electricity in lieu of 
steam. The executive council have arranged with Immisch & 
•Co, for a ten-minutes' service of electric launches on the 
Union Canal between Fountainbridge and the exhibition, which 
will afford the public a novel and interesting mode of convey- 
ance, and will probably constitute the first example of electric 
navigation for general traffic. In addition to the British 
electrical contingent, about one hundred and fifty electrical 
exhibits are expected from France, where the government have 
officially recognized the exhibition, and considerable numbers 
from other foreign countries. The financial prospects of the 
exhibition are regarded by the finance committee as eminently 
satisfactory, as, owing to the much larger sums obtained for 
refreshment and other concessions above those received at (Aie 
former Edinburgh Exhibition of 1886, it is considered that the 
whole cost of the buildings, grounds, and preparations will be 
defrayed without drawing on the admission receipts at all, 
whereas in 1886 no less than $110,000 had to be made up out* 
of admission receipts before any thing was available wherewith 
to meet working expenses. 

Frankfort Elbctro-Technical ExmBrnoN.— It is proposed 
to hold at Frankfort- on- the-Main an international electro- 
tecfinical exhibition from June 1 to Oct 81 of the present year. 
The exhibition will include all branches of the electrical science 
and industry, but as a rule only those exhibits will be admitted 
which show a decided improvement on those of the last special 
exhibitions at Munich in 1882 and Vienna in 1888. The 
exhibits will be divided into twelve great groups, commencing 
with motors for electro-technical purposes, and ending with 
electrical literature. Applications should be made before Jan. 
15, and addressed to Mr. Leopold Sonnemann, editor of the 
Frankfurter Zeitung, Frankfort -on -the-Main. 

Mr. a. W. Pearson, for many years city editor of the Morri' 
ing Bulletin, Norwich, Conn. , in addition to his regular work on 
the Bulletin^ will edit the entomological department of The 
Observer, — a paper for all who love the out-door world. The 
Observer is published at Portland, Conn. 


Practical Marine Surveying. By Harry Pheu«. New York, 
Wiley. 8^ $2.50. 

The author of this work, who is an officer in the United 
States Navy, elucidates, in a simple and straightforward 
manner, all the points that usually arise in a marine surrey, 
omitting no essential detail, and yet avoiding the confusion 
produced by a multiplicity of explanations such as are too often 
indulged in by writers who aim to be practical rather than 
theoretical. The instructions given in the book are practical 
in the true sense of the word; that is, they show the student 
how theories are utilized in actual practice. 

This work was specially prepared for use at the Naval 
Academy at Annapolis, where the need of such a text -hook 
had been felt for several years by officers engaged in teaching 
marine surveying. The author, having been engaged exclu- 
sively in surveying work for some six years previous to his 
assignment to duty at the Naval Academy, was requested by 
the head of the department of astronomy, navigation, and 
surveying, to prepare a text-book on the subject of marine 
surveying to take the place of the one then in use. This 
volume is the result, and it will without doubt prove valuable 
not only to students at the academy, but also to oth^v pursuing 
the same line of study. The methods described and explained 
in the work have been used in actual practice, with few excep- 
tions, and have been found to give satisfactory results. 

The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Lieut-Com- 
mander Asa Walker, U. S. N., who specially pr^nred the 
chapter on projection; and to Wharton's * 'Hydrc^^raphic Sur- 
veying," whence he takes the method of platting angles by 
means of chords. The book contains numerous illustrations 
and diagrams, including two excellent photo-engravings of tJie 
sounding- machine on the United States steamer ' 'Ranger," in 
the chapter on sounding with wire. 

Practical Hints far the Teachers of Public Schools. By George 
Rowland. (International Education Series.) New York, 
Appleton. 16^. 

The several chapters of this work were originally a series of 
lectures delivered by the author as superintendent of schools 
in Chicago. They are, as their name indicates, of a purely 
practical character, with only incidental references to educa- 
tional theories, and they have been prepared with the special 
object of assisting teachers in their every -day work. The chief 
fault of the book is its desultory character, there being little 
attempt at an orderly development of the thought ; but it is 
animated by an excellent spirit, and conveys many hints and 
suggestions that can hardly fail to be useful to bright and 
progressive teachers. Mr. Howland, we are glad to note, is 
not so excessively fond of mere method and professional train- 
ing as some enthusiasts are, but insists more aa the character 
of the teacher and the spirit with which she pursues her work. 
He remarks that ' 'methods are not for their own sake— they 
are but means to an end;" and, again, that "the purpose ot 
the public school, as seen in its origin and history, is intellec- 
tual culture, and those methods only can have a strong and 
lasting hold on the public mind which best promote this." 
He has some interesting remarks on school government and 
discipline, as to which he leans toward leniency rather than 
severity. He discusses the question of moral instruction in the 
public schools, which has been so much talked of lately, and 
shows very clearly that the schools exert a powerful influence 
on the character and conduct of the pupils, apart from any 
specific moral instruction. Indeed he speaks slightingly of 
such instruction, when given in a formal manner, and maintains 
that morals are best taught by the example of the teacher, 
the requirements of the lessons, and the social life of the school. 
Besides these more general topics, Mr. Howland touches on a 
multitude of points in teaching and school management, 
showing a thorough knowledge of his subject and a lively interest 
in it. His book is one that teachers especially will like to 
read. . . 

Digitized by 


January 31, 1890.] 



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Cooks, M. W. The Hunum Mystery in Hamlet: An 
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HoPTON, W. Conversation on Mines, etc , between a 
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HoRNADAY, W. T. The Extermination of the American 
Bison Washington, Government. 180 p. 8°. 

HowLAND, G. Practical Hints for the Teachers of Pub- 
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Kansas. List by Counties of Newspapers and Periodi- 
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Adanu. Topeka, State. 38 p &**. 

Mason, W. P. Notes on Qualitaiive Analysis, ad ed. 
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MooRBRBAO, W. K. Fort Ancient. Cincinnati, Robert 
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Pharaoh, An Appeal to: The Negro Problem, and its 
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7 Plates and 607 other illustrations. 

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A large work of 900 pp. «}th 85 full-page Ulnstra- 
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It is compiled from a careful surrey and is oorreot 
in all details. 

The entire summer was spent la surveying, exca- 
vating, photographing and preparing this work. 

Fort Ancient consists of 18,718.2 feet of embank^ 
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Price of book, $8 00. 

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Digitized by 




[VuL. XV. IsUi. 365 


In the February Atlantic the Bering Sea question is dis- 
cussed by Charles B^ Elliott; and Mr. K. Kaneko, the head of 
the Japanese commission which has been visiting various coun- 
tries to compare their legislative assemblies, in order to establish 
a Japanese parliament, has a paper on * *An Outline of the Japan- 
ese CJonstitution.*' The article which will arouse the most dis- 
cussion is by Gen. Francis Walker, about Mr. Bellamy and the 
new Nationalist party. There are four articles devoted to recent 
books on political and historical subjects. 

- — Messrs. J. B. Lippincott Company publish immediately the 
long-looked for book concerning Henry M. Stanley and his rescue 
of Emin Pacha. This work, entitled ** Stanley's Emin Pacha 
Expedition, ' * will be entirely authentic in every particular, as 
it is compiled from Stanley's own letters to the president of the 
society which was mainly instrumental in sending him on the 
journey. The book contains about four hundred pages, together 
with numerous illustrations and maps. 

— Public Opinion has issued No. 3 group of * * Representative 
Moulders of Public Opinion. ' ' The first two contain portraits of 
the editoi*s of daily papers. Tlie third is confined to the weeklies 
and monthlies, of which the following is a list: E. L. Godkin 
of the Nation ; H. Clay Trumbull of the Philadelphia Sunday 
School Times ; A. E. Winship of the Boston Journal of Educa- 
tion; Prof. W. J. Youmans of the Popular Scietwe Monthly; 
Henry C. Bowen of the Indejjendent ; Mrs. Martha J. Lamb of 
the Magazine of American History ; Rev Edward Bright of The 
Examiner, New York; J. N. Hallock, Christian at Work, New 
York; Rev. A. E. Dunning, The Congregatio^mlist, Boston; 
Rev. C. W. Leffingwell, The Living Church, Chicago; F. M. 
Somers, Current Literature, New York; Rev. Samuel J. Bar- 
rows, The Christian Register, Boston : F. M. Hexamer, American 
Agriculturist, New York; George William Curtis, Harper's 
Weekly; Rev. Charles Parkhurst, Zion's Herald, Boston; Rev. 
Lyman Abbott, Christian Union, New York; William H. Hills, 
The Writer, Boston; Joseph Keppler, Puck; Rev. John Talbot 
Smith, The Catholic Review, New York; Rev. O. P. Fitzgerald, 
Chrisftan Advocate, Nashville, Tenn ; R. H Edmonds, Manu- 
facturer s Record, Baltimore; David M. Stone, Journal of Com- 
merce, New York; Albert C. Stevens, Bradst reels, New York; 
Rev. Simeon Gilbert, The Advance, Chicago; Ricliard H. Clarke, 
Catholic Quarterly, Nen York; T. C. Martin, Tlie Electrical 
World, New York; Joseph B. Gilder, The Critic; Rev. J. W. 
Mendenhall, Methodist Review, New York; W. J. Arkell, Judge, 
New York; L. S. Metcalf, The Forum; R. W. Gilder, TJie Cen- 
tury Magazine; E. L. Burlingame, Scribner's Magazine; Lloyd 
Bryce, North American Review; Allan Forman, Tlie Journalist, 
New York; John A. Mitchell, Life, New York; E. H. Talbott, 
The Railway Age, Chicago; William H. Park, Banker' s Monthly, 
Chicago; Howard M. Jenkins, Tlie Ainerican, Philadelphia; 
John Boyle O'Reilly, The Pilot, Boston; Rev. A. T Pierson, 
Missionary Review of the World, Philadelphia; DeWitt J. Selig- 
man. The Epoch, New York ; Rev. Wendell Prime, The Observer, 
New York; N. D. C. Hodges, Science, New York; Charles W. 
Price, Electrical Review, New York; Rev. I. K. Funk, Voice, 
New York ; and Rev. David H. Moore, Western Cliristian Advo- 
cate, Cincinnati. 


An Insect Destructive to Wheat. 

On p. 41, No 363, of Science, you tell that *'an insect 
destructive to wheat, but previously unknown in this country, . 
has appeared in considerable numbers in the Cornell University 
farm at Itliaca.*' We beg to say that so long as fhirty-five to 
forty years ago, and probably longer, an insect similar in 
appearance and behavior to the foregoing was common in the 
wheat-fields of middle Tennessee, though we never knew them 
to be suflSciently numerous to seriously reduce the yield of 
grain. That it was the same insect, we have no doubt. 

Q. C. Smith. 

Austin, Tex., Jan. 22. 

The Fiske Ran8:e- Finder. 

In Science of Jan. 24 there is a full and com{»«hensive descrip- 
tion of the Fiske range-finder, which, although interesting and 
very ingenious in regard to its electrical arrangement, is not so 
clear in its mathematical principles. I refer particularly to Fig. 
4, p. 59. The error being so apparent, it cannot be conceived 
that the inventor has overlooked it, and I write more in a spirit 
of inquiry than of criticism. 

Let the continuous lines in the following figure represent the 
essential conditions of Fig. 4, p. 59. Moving the index aloog 
the scale mn, op (Fig. 6, p. 59) , a distance corresponding to the 
angle DAE, the bridge becomes balanced, and the reading will 
give the distance AT. Kow let us suppose that from the position 
T, the object moves to T', AT' being equal to AT. The resulting 
diagram is indicated in broken lines. Moving the sliding index 
along the scale mn, op, as before, a distance corresponding to the 
angle XAY, the bridge is balanced, and the reading of the 

scale will indicate the distance AT'; but this reading will by no 
means be the same as that obtained when the object was at T, 
because the angle XAY is smaller than DAE. In other words, it 
is impossible to construct a scale giving true distances of objects 
from A in terms of the angle DAE, unless we impose as a con- 
dition that one of the sight lines shall make a fixed and constant 
angle with the base. 

The angle DAE will vary for different positions of the point 
T, in a circumference drawn with A as a centre and AT as a 
radius, having its maximum value when the triangle ATB is 
isosceles, and becoming O when T is in a rectilineal prolongation 
of the base. Thos. L. Caset. 

New York, Jan. 27. 

The Anglo-American Storagfe-Battery. 

A FORM of storage-battery invented by Mr. Charles Sorley, and 
manufactured by the Anglo-American Storage Battery (Company 
of this city, is shown in Figs. 1 and 2. In the construction oif 
the cell, the object aimed at by the inventor is to get as large an 
amount of active material as possible, with a correspondingly 
large conducting and contact surface. With a view to attaining 
this object, the plates of the cell are constructed as shown in 
Fig. 1, being built up of strips of lead bent into convolutions, as 
shown, and secured together so as to form a plate. The thick- 
ness of the plate, of course, depends upon the width of the strips. 
All the plates of the same sign are connected by means erf the 
projecting ends of tlie lead strips, as shown in Fig. 1. The 
plates are separated and supported by insulating strips, and 
boimd together by insulating rods, which pass through the centre 
of the plates. The complete cell is shown in Fig. 2. 

A battery of these storage-cells has been in constant use in 
the Schermerhom building in this city since May 20, 1889. Of 
this battery the superintendent of the building reports as follows: 
* *In every respect it has exceeded the claims made for it, and is 

Digitized by 


January 31, 1890.] 


saying us two and a half hours' running of engine and dynamo 
each, day, half a ton of coal each week, and our gas bill is re- 
duced proportionate to the number of lights we are wired for. 
We have never had the slightest trouble with it, and we have 

only when running; now the dynamo runs only seven and a half 
hours each day, fui-nishing light the whole twenty-four hours 
where required. 

Among the claims made for these cells are their high effi- 
ciency, yielding ninety to ninety-two per cent of the current put 
into them; their freedom from buckling or breaking, owing to 

Fio. 1. 

taken from it its rated capacity every night for the past thii-ty- 
three nights, and on Sundays from thirty-three and a third to 
fifty per cent in excess. ' ' Formerly, before the battery was put 
in, the dynamo ran ten hours daily, furnishing light, of course, 

Fia. 2. 

their peculiar construction; economy in use, as they can be 
chai'ged in a comparatively short time; their capacity, giving 
about five houi-s and a lialf ampere hours per pound weight ; 
simplicity of service, not requiring an exi)ert electrician to 
superintend them ; and, lastly, their long life. These batteries 
are now in use in many parts of the country. 





in its First Stages. 


A New Method of Treating Disease. 


What are they ? There is a new departure in 
the treatment of disease. It con-.i>ts in the 
collection of the specifics used by noted special- 
ists ofEurope and America, and bringing them 
wiihin the reach of all. For instance, the treat- 
ment pur.>ued by special physicians wh') treat 
indigestion, stomach and liver troubles only, 
was obtained and prepared. The treatment of 
other physicians celebrated for curing catarih 
was procured, and so on till these incomparable 
cures now include disease of the lungs, kidneys, 
female weakness, rheumatism and nervous de- 

This new method of "one remedy for one 
disease'* must appeal to the common sense of 
all sufferers, many of whom have experienced 
the ill effects, and thoroughly realize the ab- 
surdity of the claims of Patent Medicines which 
are guaranteed to cure every ill out of a single 
bottle, and the use of which, as statistics prove, 
has I nine J more stomachs than alcohol A cir- 
cular describing these new remedies is sent free 
on receipt of stamp to pay postage by Hospital 
Remedy Company, Toronto, Canada, sole pro- 

Mineral Lands, 

post of Manganese is for sale. Apply to H. 
N., care ol Science, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

Any one wishing to engage in gold mining will 
learn of a newly discovered vein by applying to 
11 N., care of Science, 47 Lafayette Place, New 
Yo rk. 

RED SLATE. — A valuable deposit of red 
slate for sale. Apply to H. N., care of Science^ 
47 Lafayette Place, New York. 

A YOUNG MAN can have lucrative engage- 
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Science. A personal interview invited. 

47 Lafayette Place, New York. 

Readers of Science 

Corresponding with or visiting Adver 
Users will confer a great favor by mentior,^ 
ing the paper. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV, No. 365 

Natural Science Association of Staten 
Jan. 9. — The building fund committee 
reported that the public appeal, heretofore 
adopted, had been printed and distributed 
to all members, to the press of the' county, 
and to about two hundred prominent citi- 
zens in all parts of the island. Mr. Thos. 
Craig showed specimens of Staten Island 
pond- life under the microscope. Among 
the objects shown were Amoeba proteus and 
Protococcus viridis. The latter organism is 
the cause of the green coating on the trees, 
stones and fences, which has attracted so 
much attention lately, especially in New 
York, where some persons have tried to 
connect it with the prevailing epidemic 
of influenza or * * grip. ' ' Dr. Britton 
showed seeds of native orchids {CoraUorhiza 
odontorhiza and C, muUiflora) under the 
microscope, and explained their differ- 
ences of appearance and structure. Mr. 
Arthur Hollick presented specimens of 
Draba vema in full bloom, collected at 
Tottenville, Dec. 30, at which date the 
fields in places where white with it. Skunk 
cabbages were in full bloom in abundance 
in many of the swamps at the same place. 
Mr. Hollick also showed fossil leaves in 
clay ironstone from the shore at Totten- 
ville. The specimens were part of a re- 
cent rich find, resulting in adding many 
new species of the local fossil flora, which 
will be studied and reported upon at some 
time in the future. 


iPree of charge to all, if of satisfactory character, 
dress N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

Wanted. — Marine univalves of the west coast, from U. 
S. line southward, and from Pacific Islands, offered; ex- 
chaiiKe from a general collection. — P. C. Browne, Fram- 
ingham, Mass.. Box 50. 

D. E. Willard, Curator of the Museum, Albion Acad- 
emy, Albion. Wis , will answer all his correspondence as 
soon as possible. Sickness and death in the family, with 
many other matters, have prevented his answering as 
promptly as he should have done. 

I will give 100 KOO(] arrow heads for a fine pair of wild 
cattle horns at least two feet long. 1 f you have shorter 
or other horns write me, and also how many arrow heads 
you want for them. 1 will also exchange shells, minerals 
and arrows. W. F. Lerch, 308 4th St , Davenport, 

I wish to^ purchase Vol. 7 of the A merican Chemical 
fournal^ eitner bound or unbound. State price. Ad- 
dress, Wm. L, Dudley, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 

A few duplicates of Murex radix ^ M, ram o jus, M. 
brandurtSf Cassis ru/a, Harpa vsntricosa^ Oiiva tri- 
atula^ O. reticularis y Cklorostoma funebrale; Cyprtea 
• caput serpemtis^ C. lynx, Lottia gigantea, Acmola 
patina, Ckama spinosa, and some thirty other species, 
for exchange for shells not in our collection. List on ap- 
plicatioa. — Curator Museum, Polytechnic Society, Lou- 
isville, Ky. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic views of Aborigines of 
any country, and fine Iandscapes,etc,wanted in exchange 
for minerals and fossils. — L. L. Lewis, Copenhagen, 
New York. 

_ Drovsen's Alg^meiner Historicher Hand-atlas (Leip* 
zig, X586,) for scientific books — those published in the 
International Scientific Series preferred.— James H. 
Stoller, Schenectady, N.Y. 

Astronomical works and reports wanted in exchange or 
to buy. Reports of observations on the planet Neptune 
and its satellite specially desired. — Edmund J. Sheri- 
dan, B.A., 19s Adelphi St., Brxwklyn, N.Y. 

I would like to correspond with any person having 
Tryon's '* Structural ana Systematic Conchology " to 
dispose of. I wish also to obtain State or U.S. Reports 
on Geology, Conchology, and Archaeology. I will ex- 
change classified specimei» or pay cash. Also wanted a 
copy of MacFarlane's ** Geologists' Traveling Hand-Book 
and Geological Railway Guide." — D. E. WiUard, Cura- 
tor of Museum, Albion Academy, Albion, Wis. 

Morris's ** British Butterflies," Morris's *' Nests and 
Eggs of British Birds," Bree's *'Binfs of Europe" (al 

colored plates), and other natural history, in exchange 
for Shakesperiana ; either books, pamphlets, engravings^ 
or cuttings. — J. D. Bamett, Box 735. Stratford, Canada. 

I have Anodomta opalina (Weatherby), and many 
other species of shells from the noted Kosnkonong Lake 
and vicinity, also from Western New York, and fossils 
from the Marcellus shale of New York, which 1 would be 
glad to exchange for specimens of scientific value of any 
kind. I would also like to correspond with persons inter- 
ested in the collection, sale, or exchange of Indian relics.— 
D. E. Willard, Albion Academy, Alb^n, WU. 

Will exchange *' Princeton Review " for 1883, Hugh 
Miller's works on geology and other scientific works, for 
back numbeisof " The Auk," ** American Naturalist," 
or other scientific periodicals or books. Write. — J. M. 
Keck, Chard on, Onio. 

Shells and curiosities for marine shells, curiosities or 
minerals address W. F. Lerch, No. 308 East Fourth St., 
Davenport, Iowa. 

I want to correspond and exchange with a collector of 
beetles in Texas or Florida. — Wm. D. Richardson, 
P.O. Box 293, Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

A collection of fifty unclassified shells for the best offer 
in bird skins ; also skins of California birds for those of 
birds of other localities. Address Th. E. Slevin, 9413 
Sacramento St., San i'rancisco, Cal. 

I have forty varieties of birds' egss, side blown, first 
class, in sets^ with full data, which 1 will exchange for 
books, scientific journals, shells, and curios. Write me, 
stating what you have to offer. — Dr. W. S. Strodb, 
Bemadotte, Fulton County, 111. 

Catarrlial Deafnesvi-IIajr FeTer* 


Sufferers are not generally aware that these 
diseases are contagious, or that they are due to 
the presence of living parasites in the lining 
membrane of the no^^e and eustachian tubes. 
Microscopic research, however, has proved this 
to be a fact, and the result of this discovery is 
that a simple remedy has been formulated where- 
by catarrh, catarrhal deafness and hay fever are 
permanently cured in from one to three simple 
applications made at home by the patient once 
in two weeks. 

N.B. — This treatment is not a snuff or an 
ointment ; both have been discarded by repu- 
table physicians as injurious. A pamphlet ex- 
plaining this new treatment is sent free on 
receipt of stamp to pay postage, by A. H. Dix- 
on & Son, 337 and 339 West King Street. 
Toronto, Canada. — Christian Advocate. 

A Usefbl and Handsome PresaDl 

Sufferers from Catarrhal troubles should care- 
fully read the above. 



A Canadian Journal of Politics^ Literature^ Science 

and Arts. 


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5 Jordan St., Toronto. 

Warranted 14 karat gold and to give perfect saUi- 
faction— la proaouoced by haadreda of pleased eiu> 
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because it is always ready. Writes freely and 
never gets out of order. Sent by mail prepaid for 
$1.50, $9.00, and $3.50 each, according to sise. 


M'l'gr stationer. Steam Printer, 

and Dealer in Uaefal Office Specialties, and Labor 
Saving Devices for Accountants. Publisher of all 
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TheHulln Diary CALENDAR for 1880, with viie 
frame complete, sent by mail prepaid for SO oonta. 

Wedding invitations and vlsiUng cards en- 
graved to order.-r-The very beet qoality of work 

The Lsrgee% Handaomeet, and Moet Complete 
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ment for Fine Commercial Work In New Ycafk City. 


cured in stipulated time. 


Call or send stamp for circular and reference of those 
cured. We have on hand over 300 styles of trusses, frcm 
$1 up. and suspensories of all kinds. Orders filled by 
mail ur express to any part of the United Stales. 

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order for periodicals exceeding Sio, count- i ^.| 
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The Subject-Matter is LIFE— Life in all ittfot m», 
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MAWER, at Essex Hill, Essex Street, 
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" Atirfictlve io form, beauiifully primed, and vig- 
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" We expect It will become c ne of our most Im- 
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*• We predict a career for Ltfe-Lore worthy of its 
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**It is handsomely printed; the eogravlDgs are well 
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** A model of what a popular aolentlflc magazine 
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<' Exceedingly well got up. The letterpress and 
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^*Llfe-Lore is the felicitous title of a new monthly 
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. . . . Replete with intelligible instruction."— 
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'*The first volume, which is before us, contains 
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for Science is now ready, and will be mailed 
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We offer an Atlas of Sensible Lour c.out 

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No rratter what styl^ of a house you may Intend to 
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We will send this Atlas, postpaid, on receipt of 
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Any person seeking a position /or which he is quali- 
fied by his scientijic aitainmen's^ or any person seeking 
some one to /ilt a position 0/ this character ^ be it thai 
o/a teacher 0/ science^ chemist^ draughtsman^ or what 
not. may have the ' Want' inserted under this head 
FRBK OF COST, i/ he satisfies the publisher 0/ the suit- 
able character 0/ his application. A ny person seeking 
information on any scientijic question^ the address 0/ 
any scientific man^ or who can in any way use this col- 
umn for a purpose consonant with the nature 0/ the 
paper ^ is cordially invited to do so. 

J I be likely to find for sale the 5 * 'Annual 
Reports of the Geological Survey of New York," 
published in 1 837-1841, and al-o the 4 vt»ls, 
"Geology of New York," published in 1843, 
and both being issued by the State. Charles 
Fry, 54 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

WANTED. — A position in an Acadtmy, 
Normal or High School, as teacher of 
the Natuial Sciences and Modern Languages. 
Latin taught in addition if necessary. Address 
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UNITED STATES. — In view of the 
general impression that leprosy is spreading in 
this country, it is desirable, in the interest of 
the public heahh, to obtain accurate informa- 
tion on this point. The undersigned is engaged 
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give location, age. sex. and nationality of the 
patient, and the form of the disease, — tuber- 
cular or anaesthetic ; aKo any facts bearing upon 
the question cf contagion and heredity. Address 
Dr. Prince A. Morrow, 66 We>t 40th Street, 
New York. 

WANTED. — The addresses of makers of 
small Dynamos suitable for a college 
laboratory. Address, T. S., Box 71, Gambler, 

WANTED. — To correspond with concholo- 
gists in America, especially in California, 
with a view to exchange. Many British land, 
fresh water, and marine di;plicaies ; some for- 
eign. Address Mrs. FALLOON, Long Ashton 
Vicarage, Bristol, England. 

A YOUNG SCOTCHMAN desires an ap- 
pointment in America. Three years in 
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Address ** Jack " care J. Lawson & Coy, 17 
Princes St., Aberdeen, Scotland. 

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9 J Adelaide Street East, Toronto, Canada. 

an engagement in mining, metallurgy, 
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"Alkali," care of Science. 

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discharges will be publishid in Science. — Sci- 
ence, 47 Lafayette Place, New York. 

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[Vol. XV. No. 365 




and BOURETTE efTects, ■taowiiig 
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STYLES orttai8 celebrated flnbric. 



Gloriosa in New Styles. 

We announce the arrival of our Importations of 
Gloriosa for 1890. 

This lustrous and durable fabric is now on ex- 
hibition in entirely new shades and patterns, and 
in first quality only, 

Other silk and wool Fabrics for Spring will 
also be displayed ; among them Silk Warp Mo- 
hair and Corded Bengaline in large variety. 

JAMr.::V'-5EERY & co. 


BROADWAY ^^^^o^p^i^^^'^. 


Tf N CENTS for a price list and beauti- 
ful sample on card. Bird-^kins, eggs, minerals, 
plants, shtlN, etc. Address, A. C. Sullivan, 
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Patent Packet Can . No waiU. jowro' 




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Physical Apparatus. 

Electrical Apparatus. 
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Write for Estimates. 


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Also Lime and EUcttic Light Apparatus^ and 
mechanical, plain, and line colored Hews, 

J. B. COLT ft CO., Manufacturers, 
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\ f I IV t7 I? A 1 Q ^""^ stock is very complete in 
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cently received fine specimens of Orusy Quartz on Chrys- 
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The Boston Society of Natural History offers a first 
prize of from $60 to $100. and a secoi d prize rf $50, for 
the best memoir, in Eiglish. on one rf the following sub- 
jects : I. O 1 the Adaptive Resemblances of Plants in 
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in the Production of Soils. Memoirs must be handed to 
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Vol. XV. No. 366 



NEW YORK, February 7, 1890. 

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Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 366 


It is a psychological peculiarity of our eye to retain 'an. 
impression for some time after its source has ceased to exist: 
thus, if a piece of glowing coal is quickly swung around in a 
dark room, the eye perceives a circle of light. This is a proof 

It is only by me ins of photographic apparatus that any single 
and separate phase of motion can be seized and rendered 
visible to the eye. Thus it becomes apparent that photography 
enlarges the power of vision to an extent which is truly- 

Of course, the sensitiveness of the photographic plate sur- 


that the eye at a given moment does not see the glowing coal 
at the place where it happens to be, but that the impression of 
light of the previous position continues to prevail, thus giving 
us a composite picture consisting of separate and successive 
impressions. The same occurs in observing an animal in 
motion, when the impression we receive is composed of the 
momentary as well as the immediately preceding positions. 

passing that of the human eye so many times, it was quite 
natural that the very first pictures made of men or animals in 
motion showed many new positions which the eye had never 
before been able to perceive, and artists as well as scientists 
at once began to make use of photography for the purpoee of 
studying the phases of rapid animal motion. Prominent in 
this field of investigation is Mr. Ottomar Anschuetz of Lissa. 

Digitized by 


February 7, 1890. J 



Prussia, who has taken thousands of pictures of flying birds, 
mnning horsea^ jumping men, etc., all admirable for their 
perfect * 'technique,' ' and for the great artistic tact and scientific 
skill with which the moments of exposure had been chosen. In 
these pictures the characteristic positions peculiar to different 
motions are well presented. Many of them at first appear abso- 

walking man, as many views ka possible in equal intervals o 
time, and he succeeded admirably in his undertaking. He waff 
able to observe in this manner even the fastest motion, for 
instance, the hurdle-jump of a racing horse, which 'occupies ' 
only seventy-two one -hundredths of a second, and in this short 
time made twenty-four pictures of the different positions in 


lutely unnatural, because the eye has never been able to observe 

These pictures produced rich and important material for the 
study of motion, but Mr. Anschuetz succeeded in making his ex- 
periments more valuable by obtaining whole series of pictures 
giving the different phases of motion. He made it his object 
to get of one period of motion, for instance, of the step of a 

equal intervals. A dozen pictures showing the different phascET 
of position assumed by an athlete in throwing a javelin, 
reproduced from instantaneous photographs taken by Mr. 
Anschuetz, are given on this and the preceding pages. 

Mr. Anschuetz next constructed an apparatus which he called 
the electric tachyscope, in which he was financially assisted by 
the German Government. In this instrument the series ot 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 366 

pictures is put od a circular glass plate, which is rapidly 
turned round its axis: and, whenever a picture appears before 
the eye of the observer, it is lit up by an electric spark. By 
this means the natural motion of the object is reproduced with 
a degree of truth and accuracy that is absolutely bewildering. 
Looking thus at the representation of a man on a galloping horse, 
every single movement of horse and rider can be followed. Not 
only do the legs of the horse move according to the gait, but 
one sees the dust rise, the horse* s mane and tail fly, and the 
nostrils extend. |The rider is jerked in his saddle, he urges 
his horse, pulls the curb-chain, and moves back his leg to 
apply the spur, etc. Each series in this apparatus represents a 
bit of life — not a life-like picture, but life itself— with 
amazing naturalness and truth. One of these tachy scopes, and 
many notable examples of Mr. Anschuetz*s work, have been 
brought to this country, and are now on exhibition at the show- 
rooms of the United States Photographic Supply Company on 
Fourteenth Street, this city. 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, — In his address be- 
fore this society last year, our late president. Dr. J. H. Kidder, 
presented the subject of air as one of the * * two necessities of life 
which, ' ' he said, * * are absolute, ' ' and * * which we cannot live 
without;" namely, *'food (including water) and air." It is 
more especially to a certain class of foods, whose increasing con- 
sumption and sale have of late years attracted public notice, that 
I wish to call your attention this evening; namely, that of cheap 
and wholesome food substitutes^ which are also frequently used 
as food adulterants. 

Our bodies are like a furnace, and require fuel and air to sus- 
tain the heat of combustion by the constant renewal of fresh 
material and the elimination of the waste products. The form, 
whether solid or liquid, of animal or vegetable origin, in which 
we supply this fuel, dei>ends largely on local circumstances, 
climate, education, etc. ; and, as long as the food employed 
goes to furnish the proper amount of fuel material for the main- 
tenance of the body temperature, life is sustained. 

The extent of the consumption of any new food will evidently 
dei>end on how it fulfils this requirement as a fuel, and by its 
pleasing appearance, its palatability, its capacity to appease hun- 
ger, its wholesomeness, and its relative cheapness, attracts public 
attention. If the new food is a manufactured product, its cheap- 
ness will depend upon the possibility of its production on a large 
scale from relatively cheap materials. 

From want of reliable information in regard to the materials 
employed in most new food products, there is a general feeling 
of uncertainty and insecurity on the subject. People, as a rule, 
imagine that any substance used as an adulterant of, or a substi- 
tute for, a food product is to be .avoided as itself being injurious 
to health ; and when they hear that a certain food is adulterated, 
or is a food substitute, there is immediately a prejudice excited 
against the article, which it tekes time and familiarity to allay. 
A moment's reflection ought to show that it would be directly 
contrary to the food manufacturer's interest to add to, or substi- 
tute any thing for, a food product which would cause injurious 
symptoms, as in that case his means of gain would be cut ofF by 
the refusal of consumers to buy his product. It is true that the 
unscrupulous manufacturer or dealer does not hesitate to cheat 
his customer in the interest of his own pecuniary profit and gain, 
but he does not want to poison him. Where, through careless- 
ness or ignorance, injurious substances, such as the arsenic, 
copper, aniline, and other metellic and organic poisonous salts 
sometimes used for artificial colors, are added to foods, their 
presence is promptly revealed by the dangerous symptoms which 
they call forth in ttie consumer. About a year ago the case of 
the Philadelphia bakers, who added chromate of lead to color 
some of their cakes, and thus caused the death of several persons, 
and serious illness in nearly every one who ate any of these 
products, will be recalled by many present. 

I AnnuAl address of the retiring president, Mr. Edgar Riobards, delivered 
Jan. 88, 1890, before the Chemical Society of Washington. 

The great majority of substanoee used f<H: food adultecanlB or 
substitutes consist of cheap and harmless substances, which are 
not injurious to health, as the following lirt of those most oom- 
monly met with in the principal food products will show. Iliia 
list has been compiled from the reports of tiie State boards ai 
health, the returns of the British Inland Revenue D^mtment, 
the reports of the British Local Government Board, and those of 
the Paris Municipal Laboratory. 

Table I. 
Food Products and their Chief AdulteranU. 



Milk Water, removal of oream, additton of deo-oO or 

lard to skimmed milk. 

Butter Water, salt, foreign fats, artlfleial ooloiia^mat- 

I ter. 

Cheese Lard, oleo-oU, oottonaeed-oiL 

Olive-oil* ' Cottonseed and other vegetable oils. 

Beer Artificial ^aoose, malt and hop snbstitatoa, aodi- 

om bicarbonate, salt, antiseptios. 

Simp Artifloial ^uoose. 

Honey Artificial glucose, cane-sugar. 

Confectionery Artificial glucose, starch, artlfloial easenoea, pot- 

sonoiis pigments, terra alba, gypsum. 

Wines, liquors Water, spirits, artificial Qolorln^matter, fletiiloas 

imitations, aromatic ethers, l>unit sugar, anil- 
, septics. 

Vinegar Water, other mineral or organic acid. 

Flour, bread ] Other meals, alum. 

Baker's chemicals* * Starch, alum. 

Spices* Flour, starches of various kinds, turmeric. 

Cocoa and chocolate Sugar, starch, flour. 

Coffee* Chiooorv, peas, beans, rye, com, wheat, oolorinc- 


Tea Exhausted tea-leaves, foreign leaves, tannin. In- 
digo, Prussian blue, turmeric, gypsum, scMip- 
stone, sand. 

Canned goods* i Metallic poisons. 

Pickles ' Salts of copper. 

* For list of adulterated brands see Report of the Commissioner of Intiimal 
Revenue, 1880, pp. 181-184. 


Ordinary potable water is not generally considered either ex- 
ternally or internally '^injurious to heal^" yet it is probably 
the most common adulterant used. We find, indeed, in tiie 
Canaidian '* Adulteration Act," that **if water has been added'* 
to milk, * 4t shall be deemed to have been adulterated in a man- 
ner injurious to health' ' (Section 15) . The watering of milk is 
everywhere recognized as not only a fraud, but also a grave mis- 
demeanor, if not actually a crime. This is the food on which 
the whole population under one year old is fed; and, where the 
mother cannot supply the proper nourishment for the child, she 
must depend for its bringing-up on cow's or other milk. It ia 
self-evident that a pint of watered milk does not contain the 
same amount of nourishment as the same volume of whole milk, 
so that a child or invalid might be actually starved to death if 
compelled to rely on the former for its sole sustenance. The 
placing of watered and skinuned milk on the market should, in 
all large cities, call forth the active exertions of their health 
departments to supervise and as for as possible suppress their 

The skill of the milk adulterator has kept pace with the march 
of improvement, and to>day we find centrifugal machines costing 
over two hundred dollars placed on the market, designed solely 
to manufacture, from skinmied milk and oleo-oil and lard, an 
artificial cream or milk, depending on the amoimt of animal fat 
added, which, it is stated, can be used for all purposes in which 
the genuine article is employed. A description of such machinea 
will be found in Engineering (vol. xliv. 1887, p. 478) and in the 
catalogues of the dealers. 

Digitized by 


February 7, 1890.] 



O eomArgarine. 

Within the past few years two artificial food products made 
from what had theretofore been considered waste products of the 
large slaughter-houses have come prominently before the public, 
and established a legitimate place for themselves as perfectly 
wholesome articles of food. Oleomargarine and '^refined" or 
* ^compound* * lard are now found on sale in most cities of this 
country and Eurqpe. Against the former there has been a large 
amount of legislation directed with a view of controlling its pro- 
duction and sale, and with the unexpected resuU of increasing 

Whatever, may have been the production of oleomargarine in 
this country before the National law went into effect, we have no 
reliable statistics; but since the Ist of November, 1886, we have 
"the monthly statements of the manufacturers, duly attested under 
oath, oi the quantity of oleomargarine made and removed from 
the factories, tax paid for domestic consumption or in bond for 
export, each day of the month. These statements also give the 
quantity and kind of materials employed in the manufacture, 
and the names and addresses of the parties to whom the oleomar- 
garine is sold or consigned. 

The following table shows the monthly quantity of oleomar- 
garine produced in this country from Nov. 1, 1886, to Nov. 1, 

Table n. 
Showing the Quantity of Oleotnargarine produced, unthdravm 

Tcuepaid, for Export, and Lost or Destroyed in Manufactories, 

from Nov. 1, 1886, to Nov, 1, 1889. 

tory : when compared to those paid by other special tax-payers, 
rectifiers, Inrewers, etc., as shown in the following table, the 
amounts are from three to ten times as high: — 

Table m. 
Rate of Special Taxes per Annum, 



Lost or 




Tax paid. 


for Export. 





On band Nov. 1, 1880. 


From Not. 1, 1880, to 
Oct. 81, 1887 





Hl^iest, Maioh, 1887. 





Lowert, July, 1887 ... 





Prom Not. t 1887, to 
Oot.81, 1«8. 





Bluest, Maroh, 1888. 





Lowest, Jolj, 1888.... 





From Not. 1, 1888, to 
Oot.81, 1880 





Hi^uMt, Deo, 1888... 





Lowest, Jane, 1880... . 





On hand Oct. 81, 1880. 


Total for 8 yesrs 





During this period the number of factories has decreased from 
87 to 21, notwithstanding which fact the production and sale 
have increased steadily. It is produced by expensive machinery 
in the laige factories in such quantities that it can be sold nearly 
the whole year round at a less price than butter, although the 
high rate of tax paid by both the manufacturers and dealers, 
which is, of course, ultimately paid by the consumer, necessarily 
increases the market price. In the spring and early summer 
months the price of dairy butter is generally cheaper than oleo- 
margarine, and consequently less of the latter is made and sold 
during that time. In July the production of oleomargarine 
reaches its lowest limits for the year, and obtains its highest in 

The system followed by the Internal Revenue Bureau is such 
that each manufacturer's package can be traced from the time it 
leaves the factory till it reaches the hands of the retailer or con- 
sumer, or leaves the country. 

The high rate of tax demanded from the manufacturers and 
dealers was undoubtedly intended to be nearly or quite prohibi- 







Wholesale dealer 

Betail dealer 

S60000 >' 980O0O* 
480 00 100 00 
4800 8600 

$100 oot 
60 00 
80 00 

96 00 
80 oot 
8 40 

* Eeotifler of 500 barrels, or more, per annum. 
t Annual manufacture, 600 barrels or more. 
t Pedler of tobacco, flrst-olass. 

It is undoubtedly a fact that if the retailer's tax was as low as 
that for tobacco, the manufacturers of oleomargarine would pay 
the same to have at least one dealer to handle their goods in 
every village and town in this country. As it is, in the Chicago 
district, where there are seven factories, there were 974 retail 
dealers doing business in April, 1889, compared with 720 the 
April previous; in the Boston district, with its one factory, 
there were 460 retailers in .April last year, and 405 at the corre- 
sponding time in 1888; in the Ck>imecticut district, with four 
factories, there were 424 in 1889, and 884 the year previous; 
and in Michigan, with no factory, there were 290 and 267 re- 
spectively for the same periods. These four collection districts 
contain over one-half of the total number of retail dealers doing 
business at the close of the last special tax year. (April 30, 1889) . 
This would seem to indicate that where the public has been 
brought in unprejudiced contact with oleomargarine, as sold on 
its own merits, they have found it palatable and suitable to 
their wants. 

I have been in retail stores in the lumber and mining regions 
of the upper peninsula of Michigan, in Boston, Chicago, and 
elsewhere, where as much as one-half to one ton of oleomargarine 
is sold per week, in quantities of less than ten pounds to any one 
purchaser at one time, put up in packages duly branded with the 
word * ^Oleomargarine, ' ' as required by the law and regulations. 
It may interest you to know that there was consigned to retail 
dealers, and presumably sold in Washington, between Jan. 1, 
1889, and Dec. 1, 1889, 130,584 pounds of oleomargarine, as 
shown in the following table: — 

Table IV. 

Showing Monthly Shipments of Oleomargarine from Five Manu- 
facturers Direct to Retail Dealers in Washington, D.C, from 
Jan. 1, 1889, to Dec. 1, 1889. 

Month, Lbt. Oleomargarine. 

January 10,870 

February S8,8S8 

March 6,«87 

April 8,108 

May 12,87| 

June : 0,808 

July , 0,886 

August 8,466 

September 18,872 

October 12,844 

November 16,568 

Total ^.. 180,684 

The ingredients which enter into the manufacture of oleo- 
margarine are (1) neutral or leaf lard, used in the proportion of 
from 25 to 60 per cent, made from the leaf t&t of freshly slaugh- 
tered hogs ; (2) oleo-oil, used in the proportion of from 20 to 50 
per cent, made from the caul and suet fats of freshly slaughtered 
beeves; (3) some liquid vegetable oil, as cottonseed, sesame, 
peanut, used in the proportion of from 5 to 25 per cent, made 
by crushing the seeds and extracting the oil by pressure or sol- 
vents; (4) milk or cream, used in the proportion of from 10 to 
20 per cent ; (5) butter, used in the proportion* of from 2 to 10 
per cent, generally bought from the best creameries for its fine 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 366 

flavor; (6) salt; and (7) annatto or other ooloring-matter. Some 
factories employ no vegetable oils in their oleomargarine, pre- 
ferring to use a larger proportion of * 'neutral' ' lard with a small 
amoimt of butter to obtain the desired butter consistency. In the 
higher grade of * 'creamery butterine' ' the proportions of oleo-oil 
are reduced, the vegetable oils are discarded, and butter is used 
to make up the charge for the chum. 

The method of manufacture closely resembles that used in 
ordinary butter-making, except that the chum is steam-jacketed 
and the animal fats used are previously melted before being 
placed in it. From a personal inspection of some of the largest 
factories, I am convinced that the greatest cleanliness is observed 
throughout all the operations; that nothing but the freshest 
animal fats are used; that machinery is employed as much as 
possible, and large quantities worked at a time, to reduce the 
expense. The factories are as well arranged as the best cream- 
^ies; and it is to the manufacturer's interest to produce a pala- 
table and wholesome product, which is, however, not intended 
to comi)ete with * *gilt-edge' ' butter. 

Owing to the construction by the attorney-general of Section 2 
of the oleomargarine law, the internal revenue officers exercise 
no control over the production and sale of oleo-oil, although the 
commissioner has recommended that Congress amend the law in 
that regard. From inquiries that were made over a year ago by 
the collectors of internal revenue, there was found to have been 
produced during the year ended June 30, 1888, 69,628,795 pounds 
of oleo-oil in nine States. There was used in the manufacture 
of oleomargarine, as stated in the manufacturers' returns, 12,- 
265,800 pounds during that period, and 30,146,595 pounds were 
exported, leaving 27,211,400 pounds used otherwise. As oleo- 
oil is sold at a much higher rate than tallow, it is presumable 
that this lai^ge quantity is used in some other food products, as 
emulsified cream and cheeses. 

. There is a special provision in the law in regard to the use of 
any unwholesome material or product in the manufacture of 
oleomargarine, but no sample has ever been submitted to the 
conunissioner of internal revenue under it. From the testimony 
and investigations of the most prominent chemists, both here 
and in Euroi>e, there is a consensus of opinion that oleomargarine, 
when made from fresh fats and in a cleanly manner, is a per- 
fectly wholesome article of food. 

Compound Lard. 

In the manufacture of oleo-oil there is left behind on the filter- 
presses a hard white or slightly yellow fat, the beef or oleo- 
stearine. This for many years was sold to the candle and soap 
makers, but is now used in the extensive manufacture of ' 're- 
fined" or "compoimd" lard by being melted and mixed with 
some cottonseed-oil and a little leaf-lard until the mixture has 
attained the desired consistency, i 

From the testimony given before the Congressional Lard Com- 
mittee, ' 'prime steam lard' ' is about as disgusting a mixture as 
can be imagined. The entrails and other viscera, head, feet, in 
fact every part of the animal which contains the faintest traces 
of fat, are dumped into the rendering-tanks, and live steam 
turned on until all the fat is thoroughly melted out. The liquid 
is then allowed to cool, the water containing a highly savored 
mass of impurities is run off, and the remaining fat is tierced or 
canned. If it smells too ' 'loud, " it is washed with hot water, 
allowed to cool, and then repacked. 

The oleo-stearine and cottonseed-oil mixture is prepared from 
clean and wholesome materials, and does not suggest any such 
filthy practices as ' 'prime steam lard. ' ' The manufacturers are 
generally abandoning the designation of ' 'refined, ' ' and are now 
calling such mixtures ' 'compound lards. ' ' 

The enormous and constantly increasing production of cotton- 
seed-oil in this country is noteworthy as showing to what an 
extent it has come to be employed as an article of food, both here 

1 My thanks are due to Messrs. Fairbanks ft Co. of Chicago for a set of sam- 
ples illustrating the manufacture of compound lard. 

and abroad. The principal domestic consumpticm of the oil is in 
the manufacture of "compound lard." It is also used as a sub> 
stitute for, and an adulterant of, olive-oil tar cooking and table 
use, and in medicinal preparations. It is employed instead of 
the more expensive animal and vegetable oils in the mining 
r^ons for the miners' lamps. There are a hundred and 
twenty-five mills in operation, with a capital invested, in the 
South, estimated at 125,000,000. Twelve thousand hands» 
receiving |24,000, are employed per day. The amount of seed 
crushed last season was 875,000 tons,* yielding, cm an average^ 
37^ gallons of crude oil per ton. 

Some Queer Prejudices. 

A large proportion of the articles suitable for food, and pro- 
duced in all countries, is wasted annually because of people' a 
prejudice against them. The old saws, "What is one man's, 
meat is another man's poison," and "There is no accounting for 
taste, ' ' are trite, but warranted by the facts. 

We do not object to eating a live oyster, but prefer all our 
other meats dead, and undergoing putrefaction to a slight extents 
in order to get rid of the ' 'toughness, " as it is generally called, 
produced by the rigor mortis. Some people like to let the putre- 
faction proceed further until the meat is "gamy." The Texan 
cowboy eats goat's meat in preference to that of the cattle and 
sheep he is herding. Young puppies, rats, and bird's nests are 
considered delicacies by the Chinese. Frog's legs and snails are 
among the highest priced dishes served at Delmonico's. £xc^)t. 
the bones and hide, every part of an animal slaughtered for food 
is eaten by most civilized nations, — the brain; tongue; blood in 
the shape of black pudding and sausages; the liver; heart; 
lungs; stomach as tripe; the pancreas, thyroid and sublingual 
glands, which are called sweetbreads, and considered a great 
delicacy ; the feet in the way of jellies, and pickled ; the intes- 
tines as sausage covering, etc. In the markets of Paris there is a 
steady demand for horse-flesh as food. The Arabs and other 
nomadic tribes prefer mare's or camel's to cow's milk. Many 
people would as soon eat a snake as an eel, yet the latter com- 
mands a higher price than most fish in many parts of the worlds 
Lobsters, which are the scavengers of the sea, are eaten by people 
who would not touch pork. The Eskimo, who eats blubber and. 
other solid fats, and the native of the tropics, who "butters"* 
his bread with a liquid vegetable oil, have the same objeot ixk 
view ; viz. , to supply a concentrated form of fuel. The squint 
is considered a great delicacy in many parts of this countiy, bmlt 
is not eaten in England. The vain efforts of Professor Rile^- 
some years ago to induce the starving people of Kansas to eat. iih% 
food they had at their doors, — grasshoppers, sorghum^ and nuUelt 
seeds, and squirrels, — himself setting them the example, will b^ 
recalled by many present. 


From experiments made by Jensen in the laboratory of Hx^ 
University of TQbingen, it appears that raw meat is much soonec' 
digested than cooked meat. Ckx>king, as far as animal food ta- 
concerned, has the effect of making it more pleasing to tiie tafite,, 
but is unnecessary; whereas with certain vegetables^ especiaJll^ 
those composed principally of starch, as grain and potatoes, it. ia 
required to fit them for use. The proper preparation of toodi ia 
one that has not received the attention it demands.. A badl^ 
cooked meal is more apt to disorganize the system than to pCQV€^ 
nutritious and beneficial. The general teaching of cookecy ic^ 
our schools, both public and private, to girls would undoubtedly 
result in much improvement in this regard. 

In April, 1882, the commissioner of internal revenue add^rease^ 
a letter to the president of the National Academy of Scienc!QSv^ 
requesting "the appointment of a committee of the academjcto*^ 
examine as to the composition, nature, and properties of the^ 
article commonly known as 'glucose' or 'grape-sugar. ' ' ' la th^ 
report on this subject, made in January, 1884, the committfe^ 
consisting of Professors Barker, Brewer, Gibbs, Chandler,, andil 

1 This information was kindly famished me by Mr. A. D. Fa)ton«,ed&Mr%( 
the Oil. Paint, and Dtu^ Reporter, in a letter dated Deo. 88, 18Q0.. 

Digitized by 


February 7, 1890. J 



Remsen, fh>m the results they had obtained, summed up briefly 
^follows: — 

'*lst, Starch -sugar as found in commerce is a mixture, in 
Tarying proportions, of two sugars, called dextrose and maltose, 
and of dextrine, or starch-gum. Dextrose was discovered in 
grapes by Lowitz in 1792, and was first prepared from starch by 
Kirchho£f in 1811. In 1819, Braconnot prepared it from woody 
fibre. Maltose was first recognized as a distinct sugar by Du- 
bronfaut, in 1847, in the product of the action of malt on starch. 
No dextrose is thus produced, according to O' Sullivan. 

^*2d, The jmx^ess of making starch-sugar consists, first, in 
separating the starch from the com by soaking, grinding, sti-ain- 
ing, and settling; and, second, in converting the starch into 
sagar by the action of dilute sulphuric acid, this acid being sub- 
sequently removed by the action of chalk. To make the solid, 
*grape-sugar, * the conversion is carried further than to make the 
liquid, ^glucose.' After clarifying, the liquid is concentrated 
in Tacuum-pans, and is decolorized with bone-black. 

**3d, The starch-sugar industry in the United States gives 
employment to twenty-nine factories, having an estimated capital 
of five millions of dollars, consuming about forty thousand 
bushels of com per day, and producing grape-sugar and glucose 
of the annual value of nearly ten millions of dollars. In (Ger- 
many, in 1881-82, there were thirty-nine factories of this sort, 
consuming over seventy thousand tons of starch, and producing 
about forty thousand tons of starch-sugar. ' ' 

Since this report of the National Academy was printed, the 
nnmber of starch-sugar factories in the United States has 
decreased to twelve, with a capital invested estimated at from 
twelve to fifteen million dollars, consuming about fifty thousand 
bushels of com per day, and having an annual production of 450, - 
000,000 pounds, valued at 110,500,000.' 

**4th, Starch-sugar is chiefly used in making table-sirup, in 
lirewing beer as a substitute for malt, and in adulterating cane- 
sugar. It is also used to replace cane-sugar in confectionery, in 
canning fruits, in making fruit- jellies, and in cooking. Artifi- 
cial honey is made with it; and so, also, is vinegar. 

''5th, Starch-sugar represents one distinct class of sugars, as 
cane-sugar does the other ; the former being obtained naturally 
from the grape, as the latter is from the cane and the beet. 
Starch-sugar, which is a term chemically synonymous with dex- 
trose and glucose, when pure, has about two-thirds the sweeten- 
ing power of cane-sugar. By the action of the dilute acids, both 
cane-sugar and starch yield dextrose. In the case of starch, 
howev&c, dextrose constitutes the sole final product. 

**6th. The conunercial samples of starch-sugar obtained by the 
committee showed a fairly uniform composition on analysis. The 
liquid form, or *glucote,' contains from 84.8 to 42.8 per cent of 
dextrose, from to 19.8 per cent of maltose, from 29.8 to 45.8 
per cent of dextrine, and from 14.2 to 22.6 per cent of water. 
Tlie solid form, 'grape-sugar, * gave from 72 to 78.4 per cent of 
dextrose, froofeOto 8.6 per cent of maltose, from 4.2 to 9.1 per 
cent of dextrine, and fnnn 14 to 17.6 per cent of water. Three 
spKuneos oi especially prepared *grape-sugar' contained 87.1, 
93.2, and 99.4 per cent of dextrose respectively. The last of 
these was crystalline anhydrous dextrose. 

**7th, Of mineral or inoiganic constituents, the samples of 
starch-sugar examined contained only minute quantities. The 
total ash formed in the 'glucose* was only from 0.825 to 1.060 
percent, and in the 'grape-sugars' only from 885 to 0.750 per 
cent No impurities, either organic or inorganic in character, 
other than those mentioned, were detected in any of the samples 

"8th, The elaborate experiments upon the fermentation of 
starch-sugar would seem to be final on the question of the health- 
fulness, not only of glucose itself, but also of the substances pro- 
duced l^ the action of a ferment upon it. Large quantities of a 
coDoentrated extract from the fermentation, representing from 
one-third to one-half a pound of starch-sugar, were taken inter- 
nally by the experimenter, and this repeatedly, without the slight- 

* TUt information was kindiy famished me by the American Glucose Com- 
Puiy of Buffalo, N.7., in a recent letter, December, 1889, who also sent 
taaples of liquid and solid glucose. 

est observable effect. This result, rigidly applied, holds of course 
only for those sugars which, like this, are made from the starch 
of Indian-corn or maize. ' ' 

From the foregoing facts the committee reached the following 
conclusions : * Tirst, that the manufacture of sugar from starch 
is a long-established industry, scientifically valuable and com- 
mercially important ; second, that the processes which it employs 
at the present time are unobjectionable in their character, and 
leave the product uncontaminated ; third, that the starch-sugar 
thus made and sent into commerce is of exceptional purity and 
uniformity of composition, and contains no injurious substances ; 
and, fourth, that though having at best only about two- thirds 
the sweetening power of cane-sugar, yet starch-sugar is in no 
way inferior to cane-sugar in healthfulness, there being no evi- 
dence before the committee that maize-starch sugar, either in its 
normal ccmdition or fermented, has any deleterious effect upon 
the system, even when taken in large quantities. ' * * 

Some Other Adulterant i. 

The use of flours and starches of various kinds — wheat, com, 
rye, peas, beans, etc. — as food adulterants cannot be considered 
injurious to health. However much the public may be cheated 
in the purchase of such adulterated articles of food, as ground 
spices, coffee, etc. , they are not poisoned by their consumption 
It is a question how much a purchaser is himself to blame, in his 
endeavOTto secure a '^bargain,'* U'hen he demands so great a 
quantity of any given material at less than it can be purchased 
at wholesale in the market, that he compels the unscrupulous 
manufacturer to make a compound which has never more and 
generally less than the proportion of the genuine material repre- 
sented by the price asked. 

Many articles of food spoil in transportation ; and, under the 
plea of preventing further fermentation, resort is had to antisep- 
tics, such as salicylic acid, sulphite of soda, borax, etc. These 
deserve mention as being additions to foods of a class of sub- 
stances used to cloak carelessness in manufsjcture and otherwise, 
and producing in many cases deleterious effects on the human 
economy. In France and Germany th/Q use of such antiseptics 
as salicylic acid in food products is prohibited, although in the 
latter country such addition is tolerate when the food product 
is exported to countries where such use is not prohibited. 

Le Jslatioi on Food Adulteration. 

The adulteration of food, generally being aimed at the pocket 
and not at the health of the consumer, ought to be easily reme- 
died, one would suppose, by legislation. On, however, turning 
to our different State laws on the subject, I am sorry to say that 
most of them are drawn up in a follow-the-leader style, under 
the popular but erroneous impression that any substance used aa 
an adulterant of or a substitute for a food product is necessarily 
injurious to health, with the consequence that these laws are, 
with very few exceptions, merely dead letters.* New York and 
Massachusetts have laws nearly identical in wording, whose en- 
forement is intrusted to their respective boards of health. In the 
former State the law has proved a failure, because in an action 
brought to obtain ^ *an injunction against the sale of certain Ping 
Suey teas it was held by the court, in refusing to grant the same, 
that, although the teas in question had been clearly shown to be 
adulterated with gypsum, Prussian blue, sand, etc. , it was like- 
wise necessary to prove that the effect of these admixtures waa 
such as to constitute a serious danger to public health *' * In 
Massachusetts, however, the law has been enforced with vigor by 
the State Board of Health, and the yearly reports show a diniinu- 
ticm in the percentage of adulteration of the samples submitted 
to analysis. 

In this country the British Sale of Food and Dmgs Act, 1875, 
with all its imperfections, has served as a model for our legisla- 
tion ; and until we have a general law on the subject, drawn up 

1 Report on Glucose, prepared by the National Academy of Sciences, in re- 
spouse to a request made by the commissioner of internal reyenue, Washing- 
ton, 1884. 

s For list of State laws on food adulteration see Report of the Gommis* 
sioner of Internal Revenue, 1888, p. ccix. 

s Battershall, Food Adulteration and its Detection, p. 8 (New Tork, 1887). 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 366 

with clear definitions of adulteration, and adequate means iac the 
enforcement, by the co-operation of State and National authori- 
ties, of its provisions in regar^ to this class of fraud, the food 
sophisticator will pursue the even tenor of his way undisturbed. 
The European Continental l^islation on this subject is much 
superior to the English act.i Under Continental statutes, every 
d^er is held responsible for the quality of his merchandise, 
whether of foreign or domestic origin, and every food material 
must be sold imder its true name ; artificial products imitating a 
natural product must be properly labelled in a conspicuous and 
l^ible manner ; all unwholesome foods are confiscated and de- 
stroyed without compensation to the owner; and adulterations 
generally are considered acts of fraud. Suitable police super- 
vision and control are provided for the enforcement of these 
statutes; and, although these laws are somewhat of a paternal 
nature, they are much more effective than any we have. 

The average American repudiates the idea of a paternal govern- 
ment supervision over his affairs, or any thing tainted with the 
idea. He realizes that he is a full-grown man and a sovereign, 
and that therefore he is perfectly competent to take care of him- 
self ; and no cheat or swindler can ever get the better of him. 
He may be willing to support, even to clamor for, a legislative 
measure to regulate the production or sale of a food product, 
provided it advances his particular business interests. He would, 
however, regard with apathy any general law that would guar- 
antee to the public the liberty of purchasing pure food, with a 
reasonable certainty that they were not imposed upon in their 
purchases, if it was incumbent on him to take the necessary 
steps to execute its provisions by bringing samples for analysis, 

It may be, however, that some day he will reach the conclusion 
that his individual smartness, great as it may be, is not sufficient 
to wage successful warfare against the food sophisticator' s com- 
binations, which have made this country for years the choice 
dumping-ground of the frauds of Europe, Asia, and Africa. 
When this happens, we may hope that the proper laws will be 
passed to suppress the fraud, and that we, the chemists of the 
country, will have opened to us a new field of usefulness, — a 
field in which we ought to put forth our best efforts, with the 
constant aim to maintain the purity and wholesomeness of the 
food for suffering humanity. 


In a paper read before the Neurological Society, Dr. Romanes 
has presented in very convenient shape an outline of his recent 
work, * 'Mental Evolution in Man,'* which, being at once 
authoritative and brief, may be appropriately noticed in these 
columns. Taking for granted the truth of his first x»roposition, 
that no exception must be made in the case of the human 
mind to the law of continuous evolution,— a proposition 
fully discussed in the original work,— Dr. Romanes concentrates 
his energies upon tracing the probable causes and history of 
this transition from the intelligence of brute to that of man. 

For this purpose it is found necessary to agree upon a work- 
ing classification of mental products or ideas. The division 
adopted is that of simple ideas, which are simply the traces 
left in the mind by a sense-impression, — the seeing with the 
mind's eye, as it were; of compound, or, better, generic ideas, 
which are obtained by a fusion of several impressions, and so 
involve some amount of comparison; and, finally, of general 
ideas, which are named abstractions, — a symbolic mode of 
referring to a group of ideas. These may be more briefly 
referred to as percepts, recepts, and concepts. The first two 
are common to animals and men. A dog has a generic idea of 
man, and a simple idea of some particular man; but he 
cannot make the third step, and call the one by the word 
**man" and the other by the word **John." This is the 
distinction most usually insisted upon as dividing men from 

» For copies of European laws on food adulteration see Reports of the Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue for 1888 and 1889; and for a summary of their 
eadlng features see Science, 1 0, xiv. p. 808. 

the most intelligent of animals, and not only involves a sub- 
stitution of a symbol fur an idea, but, to get this idea, requires 
the mind to look in upon itself and observe its own actions,— 
introspection or self -consciousness. While these concepts may at 
first be very simple, they may be subjected to mutual comparison, 
and the relations thus deduced again give rise to concepts, and 
thus a kind of algebra of recepts and their corresponding con- 
cepts be formed, — an algebra of the imagination, in which alt 
the higher intellectual work is accomplished. Now, the differ- 
ence between a mind capable of however limited a degree of 
conceptual ideation and one having only receptual ideation is 
usually agreed to be the possession of language by the first, and 
its absence* in the other. We must therefore consider the 
mental powers involved in language. Language, considered 
broadly, is the faculty of making signs: this intelligent animals 
do. The dog barks to have the door opened, a parrot will give 
rise to sounds to express its wants, and so on. But there U a 
broad difference between this which is receptual sign -making, 
and the peculiarly human conceptual sign-making. The 
man can think about the name, which is to the animal merely 
an association of sound with Thing. * *The difference between 
naming a thing receptually by mere association, and naming 
a thing conceptually by intentional thought, is all the differ- 
ence between knowing that thing and knowing that we know 
it.'* It is, then, the genesis of the self-conscious faculty that 
forms the special object of study, — the faculty that enables us 
to think of words as words, and of ideas as ideas. But we 
must remember that even in the human infant there is a stage 
of sign -making anterior to self -consciousness. There is first 
the indicative stage, in which the child, like the dog or parrot, 
makes intentionally significant signs or tones; there is then 
the denotative stage, in which the child uses names receptually 
by mere association, just as the talking birds do; upon this 
follows the connotative stage, in which a child will apply a 
name not alone to the object with which it was first learned, 
but also to objects with varying degrees of similarity to it, 
— will extend the meaning of **bow-wow" from the house 
terrier to other dogs, to pictures of dogs, to a person imitating 
the dog, etc. (parrots have been observed to possess the rudi- 
ments of this connotative stage) ; lastly there is the denomina- 
tive stage, where the name is consciously bestowed as such (this 
occurs in the child between the second and third yeais. when 
the child arranges its names in statements) . It is important to 
note that the first three stages occur in animals, but that they 
occur in a very much more perfect development in the child, 
before it reaches the distinctively human form of speech. The 
receptual intelligence of the child is greatly in advance of that 
of any animal ; although this supremacy must not blind us to 
the fact that it is a difference of degree only, and not of kind. 
This preconceptual intelligence of a child is superior to that of 
a dog in the same sense as the dog is more intelligent than a 
bird. An intelligent chimpanzee. Dr. Romanes believes, would 
* *follow a child through what would probably seem a surprising 
distance in the use of denotative names and receptually con- 
notative words,*' if it had the power of articulation; and it 
would, too, under this condition, have been able to ' 'answer us in 
the same way that a child answers us when first emerging from 
infancy,'' From hereon, the child rapidly advances beyond 
the capacity of any animal, though it has still a long develop- 
ment to pass through before it reaches the truly human or self- 
conscious stage. A very large share of mental activity at this 
period is formed by the making of propositions which, to distin- 
guish from the later propositions, may be called preconceptual 
propositions. If a child sees its sister crying, and its words 
for the person and the act are **Dit ki," this is a statement, 
but one made for the child by the ** logic of events.'" It is 
not conceptual or introspective, but is of the * 'psychological 
kind that we might have expected a monkey to make, if a 
monkey had been able to pronounce denotative names as well 
as it can understand them." Up to this point we have been 
considering differences of degree only: the issue is thus 
narrowed down to the transition from the preconceptual to the 
conceptual stage. 

Digitized by 


February 7, 1890.] 



Here we must note that even in the lower animals we find 
some of the conditions to the subsequent appearance of self • 
consciousness in the more gifted intelligence of man. The 
animal mind has a store of images to a certain extent independ- 
ent of sensuou8 impressions. Animals dream, pine for absent 
friends, seem subject to hallucinations, etc. The brute, too, is 
able to ''establish true analogies between its own subjective 
states and the corresponding states of other intelligences. ' * The 
individual so far realizes its own individuality as to recognize 
that it is one of a kind, and thus has a rudimentary or nascent 
self -consciousness. This in the child is supplanted by a pre- 
conceptual self -consciousness, which is exhibited by all children 
after they have begun to talk, but before they begin to speak 
of themselves in the first person, or show that they realize their 
own personality. It is the recognition of self as an active and 
feeling agent, but involves no introspection. At this stage, 
then, the child has the characteristics just described as common 
to itaelf and the animal, but, in additicm, has far better 
apparatus for sign-making, a better knowledge of others' states 
of mind, a better faculty of denotative utterance, and so on. 
Here the interval between denotation and denomination becomes 
so narrow that the step is easy. ' 'The mere fact of attaching 
verbal signs to mental states has the e£fect of focusing attention 
upon those states; and, when attention is thus focused 
habitually, there is supplied the only further condition which is 
required to enable a mind, through its memory of previous 
states, to compare its past with its present, and so to reach 
that apprehension of continuity among its ovm states wherein 
the full introspective consciousness of self consists." Now, 
this step, though an important one, is not so important as to 
warrant our supposing it a st€;p different in kind from the other 
steps of mental evolution, especially if we remember, that, even 
when self -consciousness appears, the human mind is in an in- 
fantile condition, and if we take into account the enormous 
difference in intelligence of a child and of a youth, where a 
difference in kind is out of the question. 

We must add to this picture of individual development the 
parallel evidence of racial development. This evidence shows 
that the several distinctively human steps of thought were in 
ages past difficult or impossible. Of especial importance is the 
evidence of language. '*The gradual evolution of articulate 
language has preserved for us a kind of paleontological record 
of the gradual evolution of conceptual thought, with the result 
of showing that in the life-history of the human species, as in 
the life-history of the individual child, this conceptual thought 
derived its origin from these preconceptual levels of ideation 
which have already been occupying our attention.'* In brief, 
then. Dr. Romanes concludes, that, on the basis of an exact 
psychological analysis, the differences between the intelligence 
of man and brute, though presenting marked contrasts, yet 
seem to be connected by intermediate stages, which should be 
regarded as differing in degree rather than in kind, and that 
this view is strengthened by considering the slow and painful 
steps of human intelligence, from its beginnings in savagery 
to its present lofty attainments, at first view so entirely 
separating, mentally, man from the rest of creation. 


The Nutritive Value of Boiled Milk. 

That the sterilization of milk, however important, is not 
without its disadvantages, has been shown by Randnitz and 
others. To determine the comparative assimilability of proteids 
and fats from boiled and non -boiled milk, Dr. Evsevy V. 
Vasilieff of St. Petersburg undertook a course of most careful 
experiments on six healthy young men, aged from eighteen to 
twenty-three years. Each experiment lasted six days, during 
three of which the men received raw milk, and during the other 
three boiled milk, the daily amount of the article in either 
case varying between 1,850 and 4,200 cubic centimetres. The 
following, according to the Provincial Medical Journal, are 

the conclusions deduced by the author from his very instructive 

1. The assimilation of nitrogenous ingredients from Soiled 
milk is invariably less than that frbm the raw article. In the 
case of raw milk the average percentage of non-assimilated 
nitrogen amounts only to 7.05, the maximum to 7.62, and the 
minimum to 6.42; while in the case of boiled milk the respec- 
tive figures are 8.18, 8.79. 7.76. 

2. The same holds true with regard to the assimilation of 
fats. When fat is ingested in a raw state, the average per- 
centage of non -assimilated fatty acids is 3.89, the maximum 
4.85, and the minimum 2.88. In the case of boiled milk, 
however, the figures rise to 6.01, 6.99, and 4.58 respectively. 

3. Boiling seems to affect especially the assimilation of the 
fats of milk, since the percentage of fatty acids in relation to 
the total quantity of dried faeces in those fed on boiled milk is 
considerably larger than in those fed on non-boiled milk. In 
the former case, fatty acids constitute 19.03 per cent of the 
total amount of dry faeces; but in the latter, not more than 
16.81. In other words, when a person ingests his milk boiled, 
every 100 grams of his dry faeces contain a surplus of fats 
amounting to 2.22 grams. 

4. Therefore, as regards its nutritiousness, boiled milk 
represents a decidedly inferior dietetic article, compared with 
law milk. 

5. As far as proteids are concerned, the difference in their 
assimilation may find some explanation in Dr. I. Schmidt's 
researches, according to which, under the infiuence of boiling, 
cow's milk undergoes important chemical changes, nearly all 
the albumen and a part of the caseine being transformed into 
hemi-albumose. Schmidt's analysis proves that raw cow's milk 
contains 8.55 per cent of caseine, 8.4 of albumen, and 6.1 of 
hemi-albumose. Under the infiuence of ten minutes' boiling, 
the proportion of caseine sinks to 7.59 per cent, that of albu- 
men to 0.7, while that of hemi-albumose rises to 23.4. 

TRiCHiNAfi IN Swine. — Professor E. L. Mark has recently 
published the results of the examination of 3,064 hogs raised 
in the vicinity of Boston, Mass. (Report of MassojchusetU State 
Board of Health) . The examination extended over the five 
years 1883 to 1888. The results show that 14. 07 per cent of 
the males and 10.61 of the females were infected with 
trichinae. Similar examinations of Western hogs have shown 
only from two to three per cent to be infected. Professor Mark 
reaches the conclusion that this difference is probably due to 
the character of the food given to those raised in the vicinity 
of Boston, and presumably in the vicinity of other large cities. 
Of the fifty -six raisers of the hogs examined by him, fifty - 
one fed city offal. The source of the infection he believes 
to be in the uncooked meat foimd in kitchen garbage. It 
would be interesting to know the condition, in this respect, 
of the large number of hogs fed upon this food in and about 
the other large cities, says the Brooklyn Medical Journal. 

The Psychology op Epidemics. — Every epidemic carries in 
its train curious exaggerations of many well-recognized charac- 
teristics, and these frequently call for appreciation and for 
treatment almost as much as the disease in which they 
originate. Perhaps one of the most stiiking of these mental 
perversities is to be found in the idea that the epidemic is to be 
treated by ' 'conmion sense' ' or by nostra which have been largely 
advertised, or by specifics which are known to the laity mainly 
through their frequent mention in the daily press. Those 
suffering under this delusion feel that it is wholly unnecessary 
to seek skilled assistance, and they boldly dose themselves with 
remedies of whose power and properties they are absolutely 
ignorant. In Vienna, according to the Lancet, it has already 
been found necessary to forbid the sale of antipyrin, except 
under doctors' prescriptions, as no less than seventeen deaths 
were attributed to stoppage of the heart's action owing to over- 
doses. The freedom with which the prescription o this 
remedy has been assumed by the public has long since been 
viewed with anxiety by the medical profession, and frequent 
warnings have already fallen upon deaf ears. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 366 






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Vol. XV. 

NEW YORK, Febrcaby 7, 1890. 

No. 866. 




Instant AJf sous Photoqrapht — 
Bomb FoodSitbstitutesakd Adul- 


The Origin or Hitman Faculty. . . 
Hkalth Mattbbs. 
The Nutritive Value of Boiled 

Milk •. 

TriobineB in Swine 

The Psychology of Epidemics . . . 


Tbe Oulf Stream and tbi- 

84 The Method op Multiple Wore- 
I ino Hypotheses 92 

Among THE E^blisbbrs IMS 

91 ' 



i Physical Fields 

i H. A. Hazen; A. E. Dolbear 97 

Pressure- Waves L. W. Ledyard 99 

Influenza M. C. Collins 99 

Lightning Discharge Jos. HaU 99 

The warm weather of this winter has given rise to many 
theories as to its cause, in some of which the Gulf Stream has 
fig^ured as an important factor. The Gulf Stream does change its 
position to a slight amount, but not in the arbitrary manner or 
to the great extent stated by some of the newspaper writers of 
late^ The usually accepted position of the stream along our 
coast is that fixed by Professor Bache, based upon temperature 
observations made by various officers in the navy, — Davis, Lee, 
Sands, Bache, Craven, Maffitt, and others. The Gulf Stream 
X>robably has a vibratory motion, as evidenced by anchorages of the 
coast survey steamer ' 'Blake* ' off Cape Hatteras, and off Rebecca 
Bhoal, Florida. Anchored there on the northern edge of the 
stream, riding to the wind with a gentle current, the lattei 
would suddenly become strong, and swing the vessel until she 
was stem to the wind, to remain but a short time ; and then, the 
current becoming weaker, the wind would gain the ascendency. 
This was repeated a number of times Lieut. Pillsbury, U;S.N., 
who for five years was in command of the '*Blake," believes 
that the daily volume of the stream varies but little, except as 
-due to declination of the moon ; that its track through the ocean 
is absolutely fixed by law ; that its vibration is periodic, although 
the limit of the periodic change may vary to a trifling amount. 
Along the northern coast, however, it is not always on the sur- 
face, but is, from an unknown cause, overrun by other currents. 
"The generally accepted belief, that a wind blowing across the 
current changes the position of its axis, is, Lieut. Pillsbury is 
convinced, erroneous. Every temporary wind, however, does 
transport water (chiefly by means of waves) , and with it goes its 
heat or cold The fact of finding gulf -weed within a few miles 
of Nantucket lightship does not so much prove that the current is 
nearer our shores as it does that winds have prevailed in the 
direction from which it comes. 


As methods of study constitute the leading theme ot oar 
session, I have chosen as a subject in measurable oonsonance 
the method of multiple working hypotheses in its aiq[>lioatioD 
to investigation, instruction, and citizenship. 

There are two fundamental classes of study. Tbe one con- 
sists in attempting to follow by close imitation the proceBoeB 
of previous thinkers, or to acquire by memorizing the results of 
their investigations. It is merely secondary, imitative, or 
acquisitive study. The other class is primary or creative 
study. In it the effort is to think independently, or at least 
individually, in the endeavor to discover new truth, or to make 
new combinations of truth, or at least to develop an individual- 
ized aggregation of truth. The endeavor is to think for one's 
self, whether the thinking lies wholly in the fields of previoas 
thought or not. It is not necessary to this habit of study that 
the subject -material should be new ; but the process of thought 
and its results must be individual and independent, not the 
mere following of previous lines of thought ending in predeter- 
mined results. The demonstration of a problem in Eaclid 
precisely as laid down is an illustration of the former; tbe 
demonstration of the same proposition by a method of one's 
own or in a manner distinctively individual is an illustration 
of the latter; both lying entirely within the realm of the 
known and the old. 

Creative study, however, finds its largest application in those 
subjects in which, while much is known, more remains to be 
known. Such are the fields which we, as naturalists, cultivate; 
and we are gathered for the purpose of developing improved 
methods lying largely in the creative phase of study, though 
not wholly so. 

Intellectual methods have taken three phases in the history of 
progress thus far. What may be the evolutions of the future 
it may not be prudent to forecast. Naturally the methods we 
now urge seem the h ghest attainable. These three methods 
may be designated, first, the method of the ruling theory ; seccmd, 
the method of the working hypothesis ; and, third, the method 
of multiple working hypotheses. 

In the earlier days of intellectual development the sphere of 
knowledge was limited, and was more nearly within tbe com- 
pass of a single individual ; and those who assumed to be wise 
men, or aspired to be thought so, felt the need of knowing, or 
at least seeming to know, all that was known as a justification 
of their claims. So, also, there grew up an expectancy on 
the part of the multitude that the wise and the learned would 
explain whateve!r new thing presented itself. Thus pride and 
ambition on the one hand, and expectancy on tbe other, 
developed the putative wise man whose knowledge boxed the 
compass, and whose acumen found an explanation for everj 
new puzzle which presented itself. This disposition has propa- 
gated itself, and has come down to our time as an intelleciual 
predilection, though the compassing of the entire horizon of 
knowledge' has long since been an abandoned affectation. As in 
the earlier days, so still, it is the habit of some to hastily con^ 
jure up an explanation for every new phenomenon that presents 
itself. Interpretation rushes to the forefront as tbe diief 
obligation pressing upon the putative wise man. Laudable as 
the effort at explanation is in itself, it is to be cond^nned 
when it runs before a serious inquiry into tbe phenomenoo 
itself. A dominant disposition to find out wl^t is, should 
precede and crowd aside the question, commendable at a later 
stage, "How came this so?' First full facts, then interpre- 

The habit of precipitate explanation leads rapidly on to Uie 
development of tentative theories. The explanation offered for 
a given phenomenon is naturally, under the impulse of self- 
consistency, offered for like phenomena as they present thvn- 
selves, and there is soon developed a general theory explanatofy 
of a large class of phenomena similar to the original one. This 
general theory may not be supported by any further considera- 
tions than those which were involved in the first hasty inspec- 

> Paper read before the Society of Westeni Naturalists, by President T.C. 
ChamberUo, Oct. 25, 1H89. 

Digitized by 


February 7, 1890.] 



tioD. For a time it is likely to be held in a tentative way 
with a measure of candor. With this tentative spirit and 
measnrable candor, the mind satisfies its moral sense, and 
deceives itself v?ith the thought that it is proceeding cautiously 
and impartially toward the goal of ultimate truth. It fails to 
recognize that no amount of provisional holding of a theory, 
so long as the view is limited and the investigation partial, 
justifies an ultimate conviction. It is not the slowness with 
which conclusions are arrived at that should give satisfaction 
to the moral sense, but the thoroughness, the completeness, the 
all-sidedness, the impartiality, of the investigation. 

It is in this tentative stage that the affections enter with 
tbeir blinding influence. Love was long since represented as 
blind, and what is true in the personal realm is measurably 
true in the intellectual realm. Important as the intellectual 
affections are as stimuli and as rewards, they are nevertheless 
dangerous factors, which menace the integrity of the intellec- 
tual processes. The moment one has offered an original expla- 
nation for a phenomenon which seems satisfactory, that 
moment affection for his intellectual child springs into exist- 
ence; and as the explanation grows into a definite theory, his 
parental affections cluster about his intellectual offspring, and 
it grows more and more dear to him, so that, while he holds it 
seemingly tentative, it is still lovingly tentative, and not 
impartially tentative. So soon as this parental affection takes 
possession of the mind, there is a rapid passage to the adoption 
of the theory. There is an unconscious selection and magnify- 
ing of phenomena that fall into harmony with the theory and 
support it, and an unconscious neglect of those that fail of 
coincidence. The mind lingers with pleasure upon the facts 
that fall happily into the embrace of the theory, and feels a 
natural coldness toward those that seem refractory. Instinc- 
tively there is a special searching-out of phenomena that sup- 
Vort it, for the mind is led by its desires. There springs up, 
also, an unconscious pressing of the theory to make it fit the 
facts, and a pressing of the facts to make them fit the theory. 
When these biasing tendencies set in, the mind rapidly degen- 
erates into the partiality of paternalism. The search for facts, 
the observation of phenomena and their interpretation, are all 
dominated by affection for the favored theory until it appears 
to its author or its advocate to have been overwhelmingly estab- 
lished. The theory then rapidly rises to the ruling position, 
and investgaton. observation, and interpretation are controlled 
and directed by it. From an unduly favored child, it readily 
becomes master, and leads its author whithersoever it will. The 
subsequent history of that mind in respect to that theme is but 
the progresaiye dominance of a ruling idea. 

Briefly summed up, the evolution is this: a premature expla- 
Qttion paasea into a tentative theory, then into an adopted 
theory, and then into a ruling theory. 

Whoi the last stage has been reached, unless the theory 
li^^pens, perchance, to be the true one, all hope of the beet 
'esolts is gone. To be sure, truth may be brought forth by an 
investigator dominated by a false ruling idea. His very errors 
OMy indeed stimulate investigation on the part of others. But 
the condition is an unfortunate one. Dust and chaff are 
mingled with the grain in what should be a winnowing process. 

As previously implied, the method of the ruling theory 
occupied a chief place during the infancy of investigation. It 
is an expression of the natural infantile tendencies of the mind, 
though in this case applied to its higher activities, for in the earlier 
stages of development the feelings are relatively greater than 
in later stages. 

Unfortunately it did not wholly pass away with the infancy 
of investigation, but has lingered along in individual instances 
to the present day, and finds illustration in universally learned 
men and pseudo-scientists of our time. 

The defects of the method are obvious, and its errors great. 
If I were to name the central psychological fault, I should say 
that it was the admission of intellectual affection to the place 
that should be dominated by impartial intellectual rectitude. 

80 long as intellectual interest dealt chiefiy with the intan- 
gible, so long it was possible for this habit of thought to 

survive, and to maintain its dominance, because the phenomena 
themselves, being largely subjective, were plastic in the bands 
of the ruling idea; but so soon as investigation turned itself 
earnestly to an inquiry into natural phenomena, whose mani- 
festations are tangible, whose properties are rigid, whose laws 
are rigorous, the defects of the method became manifest, and 
an effort, at reformation ensued. The first great endeavor 
was repressive. The advocates of reform insisted that 
theorizing should be restrained, and efforts directed to 
the simple determination of facts. The effort was to 
make scientific study factitious instead of causal. Be- 
cause theorizing in narrow lines had led to manifest evils, 
theorizing was to be condemned. The reformation urged was 
not the proper control and utilization of theoretical effort, but 
its suppression. We do not need to go backward more than 
twenty years to find ourselves in the midst of this attempted 
reformation. Its weakness lay in its narrowness and its 
restrictiveness. There is no nobler aspiration of the human 
intellect than desire to compass the cause of things. The 
disposition to find explanations and to develop theories is 
laudable in itself. It is only its ill use that is reprehensible. 
The vitality of study quickly disappears when the object sought 
is a mere collocation of dead unmeaning facts. 

The inefficiency of this simply repressive reformation becom- 
ing apparent, improvement was sought in the method of the 
working hypothesis. This is affirmed to be the scientific 
method of the day, but to this I take exception. The working 
hypothesis differs from the ruling theory in that it is used as a 
means of determining facts, and has for its chief function the 
suggestion of lines of inquiry; the inquiry being made, not for 
the sake of the hypothesis, but for the aake of facts. Under 
the method of the ruling theory, the stimulus was directed to 
the finding of facts for the support of the theory. Under the 
working hypothesis, the facts are sought for the purpose of 
ultimate induction and demonstration, the hypothesis being but 
a means for the more* ready development of facts and of their 
relations, and the arrangement and preservation of material for 
the final induction. 

It will be observed that the distinction is not a sharp one, and 
that a working hypothesis may with the utmost ease degenerate 
into a ruling theory. Affection may as easily cling about an 
hypothesis as about a theory, and the demonstration of the one 
may become a ruling passion as much as of the other. 

Conscientiously followed, the method of the working hypoth- 
esis is a marked improvement upon the method of the ruling 
theory; but it has its defects, — defects which are perhaps best 
expressed by the ease with which the hypothesis becomes a 
controlling idea. To guard against this, the method of mul- 
tiple working hypotheses is urged. It differs from the former 
method in the multiple character of its genetic conceptions and 
of its tentative interpretations. It is directed against the 
radical defect of the two other methods; namely, the partiality 
of intellectual parentage. The effort is to bring up into view 
every rational explanation of new phenomena, and to devleop 
every tenable hypothesis respecting their cause and history. 
The investigator thus becomes the parent of a family' of hypoth- 
eses; and, by his parental relation to all, he is forbidden to 
fasten bis affections unduly upon any one. In the nature of 
the case, the danger that springs from affection is counteracted, 
and therein is a radical difference between this method and the 
two preceding. The investigator at the outset puts himself in 
cordial sym^iatby and in parental relations (of adoption, if not 
of authorship) with every hypothesis that is at all applicable to 
the case under investigation. Having thus neutralized the 
partialities of his emotional nature, he proceeds with a certain 
natural and enforced erectness of niental attitude to the in- 
vestigation, knowing well that some of his intellectual children 
will die before maturity, yet feeling that several of them may 
survive the results of final ivestigation, since it is often the 
outcome of inquiry that several causes are found to be involved 
instead of a single one. In following a single hypothesis, the 
mind is presumably led to a single explanatory conception. 
But an adequate explanation often involves the co-ordination of 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. 

No. 366 

several agencieB, which enter iDto the combined reralt in vary- 
ing proportioDB. The tme explanation is therefore necessarily 
complex. Such complex explanations of phenomena are q^iecially 
eocoanged by the method of moltif^ hypotheses, and consti- 
tute one of its chief merits. We are so prone to attribute a 
phenomenon to a single cause, that, when we find an agency 
present, we are liable to rest satisfied therewith, and fail to 
recognise that it is but one factor, and perchance a minor factor, 
in the accomplishment of the total result. Take for illustra- 
tion the mooted question of the origin of the Great Lake basins. 
We have this, that, and the other hypothesis urged by di£fer«it 
students as the cause of these great excavations ; and all of these 
are urged with force and with fact, urged justly to a certain 
degree. It is practically demonstrable that these basins were 
river-yalleys antecedent to the glacial incursion, and that they 
owe their origin in part to the pre-existence of those valleys and 
to the blocking- up of their outlets. And so this view of their 
origin is urged with a certain truthfulness. So, again, it is 
demonstrable that they were occupied by great lobes of ice, 
which excavated them to a marked degree, and therefore the 
theory of glacial excavation finds support in fact. I think it is 
furthermore demonstrable that the earth's crust beneath these 
basins was flexed downward, and that they owe a part of their 
origin to crust deformation. But to my judgment neither the 
one nor the other, nor the third, constitutes an adequate 
explanation of the ph^iomena. All these must be taken 
together, and possibly they must be supplemented by other 
agencies. The problem, therefore, is the determination not 
only of the participation, but of the measure and the extent, of 
each of these agencies in the production of the complex result. 
This is not likely to be accomplished by one whose working 
hypothesis is pre-glacial erosion, or glacial erosion, or crust 
deformation, but by one whose staff of working hypotheses 
onfaraces all of these and any other agency which can be 
rationally conceived to have taken part in the phenomena. 

A special merit of the method is, that by its very nature it 
promotes thoroughness. The value of a working hypothesis lies 
largely* in its suggestiveness of lines of inquiry that might 
otherwise be overlooked. Facts that are trivial in themselves 
are brought into' 'significance by their hearings upon the hy- 
pothesis, and by their causal indications. As an illustration, it 
is only necessary to cite the phenomenal infiuence which the 
Darwinian hypothesis has exerted upon the investigations of 
the past two decades. But a single working hypothesis may 
lead investigation along a given line to the neglect of others 
equally important; and thus, while inquiry is promoted in 
certain quarters, the investigation lacks in completeness. But 
if all rational hypotheses relating to a subject are worked 
CO -equally, thoroughness is the presumptive result, in the very 
nature of the case. 

In the use of the multiple method, the re-action of one hy- 
pothesis upon another tends to amplify the recognized scope of 
each, and their mutual conflicts whet the discriminative edge 
of each. The analytic process, the development and demonstra- 
tion of criteria, and the sharpening of discrimination, receive 
powerful impulse from the co-ordinate working of several 

Fertility in processes is also the natural outcome of the 
method. Each hypothesis suggests its own criteria, its own 
means of proof, its own methods of developing the tiuth ; and 
if a group of hypotheses encompass the subject on all sides, the 
total outcome of means and of methods is full and rich. 

The use of the method leads to certain peculiar hhbits of 
mind which deserve passing notice, since as a factor of educa- 
tion its disciplinary value is one of importance. When faith- 
fully pursued for a period of years, it develops a habit of 
thought analogous to the method itself, which may be desig- 
nated a habit of parallel or complex thought. Instead of a 
simple succession of thoughts in linear order, the procedure 
is complex, and the mind appears to become possessed of 
the power of simultaneous vision from different standpoints. 
Hienomena appear to become capable of being viewed analyti- 
cally and synthetically at once. It is not altogether unlike the 

study of a landscape, from which there comes into the mind 
myriads of lines of intelligence, which are received and 
co-ordinated simultaneously, producing a complex impressum 
which is recorded and studied directly in its complexity. My 
description of this process is confessedly inadequate, and the 
affirmation of it as a fact would doubtless challenge dispute at 
the hands of psychologists of the old school; but I address 
myself to naturalists who I think can respond to its verity from 
their own experience. 

The method has, however, its disadvantages. No good thing 
is without its drawbacks ; and this very habit of mind, while 
an invaluable acquisition for purposes of investigation, intro- 
duces difficulties in expression. It is obvious, upon considera- 
tion, that this method of thought is impossible of verbal 
expression. We cannot put into words more than a single line 
of thought at the same time ; and even in that the order of 
expression must be conformed to the idiosyncrasies of the 
language, and the rate must be relatively slow. When the 
habit of complex thought is not highly developed, there is 
usually a leading line to which others are subordinate, and the 
difficoltv of expression does not rise to serious proportions; but 
when the method of simultaneous vision along different lines is 
developed so that the thoughts running in different channels are 
nearly equivalent, there is an obvious embarrassment in selec- 
tion and a disinclination to make the attempt. Furthermore, 
the impossibility of expressing the mental operation in words 
leads to their disuse in the silent processes of thought, and 
hence words and thoughts lose that close association which 
they are accustomed to maintain with those whose silent as 
well as sxx)ken thoughts run in linear verbal courses. Theie i 
therefore a certain predisposition on the part of the practitioner 
of this method to taciturnity. 

We encounter an analogous difficulty in the use of the 
method with young students. It is far easier, and I think in 
general more interesting, for them to argue a theory or accept 
a simple interpretation than to recognize and evaluate the 
several factore which the true elucidation may require. To 
illustrate : it is more to their taste to be taught that the Great 
Lake basins were scooped out by glaciera than to be uiged to 
conceive of three or more great agencies working successively 
or simultaneously, and to estimate how much was accomplished 
by each of these agencies. The complex and the quantitative 
do not fascinate the young student as they do the veteran 

It has not been our custom to think of the method of work- 
ing hypotheses as applicable to instruction or to the practical 
affaire of life. We have usually regarded it as but a method 
of science. But I believe its application to practical affaire has 
a value co-ordinate with the importance of the affaire them- 
selves. I refer especially to those inquiries and inspections 
that precede the coming-out of an enterprise rather than to its 
actual execution. The methods tliat are superior in scientific 
investigation should likewise be superior in those investigations 
that are the necessary antecedents to an intellig^Qt conduct of 
affaire. But I can dwell only briefly on this phase of the 

In education, as in investigation, it has been much the prac- 
tice to work a theory. The search for instructional methods 
has often proceeded on the presumption that there is a definite 
patent process through which all students might be put and 
come out with results of maximum excellence; and hence 
pedagogical inquiry in the past has very largely concerned 
itself with the inquiry, **What is the best method?'* rather 
than with the inqiry, *'What are the special values of different 
methods, and what are their several advantageous applica- 
bilities in the varied work of instruction?" The past doctrine 
has been largely the doctrine of pedagogical uniformitarianism. 
But the faculties and functions of the mind are almost, if not 
quit?, as varied as the properties and functions of matter; and it 
is perhaps not less absurd to assume that any specific method 
of instructional procedure is more effective than all othcre, 
under any and all circumstances, than to asume that one prin- 
ciple of interpretation is equally applicable to all the phenomena 

Digitized by 


February 7, 1890.] 



of nature. As there is an endless variety of mental processes 
and combinations and an indefitiite number of orders of pnv 
cednre, tbe advantage of different methods under different 
conditions is almost axiomatic. This being granted, there is 
presented to the teacher the problem of selection and of adaptation 
to meet the needs <tf any specific issue that may present itself. 
It is important, therefore, that tbe teacher shall have in mind 
a full array of possible conditions and states of mind which 
may .be presented, in order that, when any one of these shall 
become an actual case, he may recognize it, and be ready for 
the emergency. 

Just as the investigator armed with many working hypotheses 
is more likely to see the true nature and significance of 
phenomena when they present themselves, so the instructor 
equipped with a full panoply of hypotheses ready for application 
more readily recognizes the actuality of the situation, more 
accurately measures its significance, and more appropriately 
applies the methods which the case calls for. 

The ai^lication of the method of multiple hypotheses to the 
varied affairs of life is almost as protean as the phases of that 
life itself, but certain general aspects may be taken as typical of 
the whole. What I have just said respecting the application of 
the method to instruction may apply, with a simple change of 
terms, to almost any other endeavor which we are called upon 
to undertake. We enter upon an enterprise iu most cases 
without full knowledge of all the factors that will enter into 
it, or all of the possible phases which it may develop. It is 
therefore of the utmost importance to be prepared to rightly 
comprehend the nature, bearings, and influence of such uDf ore- 
seen elements when they shall definitely present themselves as 
actualities. If our vision is narrowed by a preconceived theory 
as to what will happen, we are almost certain to misinterpret 
the facts and to misjudge the issue. If, on the other band, , 
we have in mind hypothetical forecasts of the various contin- 
gencies that may arise, we shall be the more likely to recognize 
the true facts when they do present themselves. Instead of 
being biased by the anticipation of a given phase, the mind is 
.rendered open and alert by the anticipation of any one of many 
phases, and is free not only, but is predisposed, to recognize 
correctly the one which does appear. The method has a further 
good effect. The mind, having anticipated the possible phases 
which may arise, has prepared itself for action under any one 
that may come up, and it is therefore ready-armed, and is pre- 
disposed to act in the line appropriate to the event. It has not 
set itself rigidly in a fixed purpose, which it is predisposed to 
follow without r^;ard to contingencies. It has not nailed 
down the helm and predetermined to run a specific coarse, 
wbe^ier rocks lie in the path or not; but, with the helm in 
hand, it is ready to veer the ship according as danger or advan- 
tage discovers itself. 

It is true, there are often advantages in pursuing a fixed 
predetermined course without regard to obstacles or adverse 
ctxiditions. Simple dogged resolution is sometimes the salva- 
tion oi an eoterprise ; • ut, while glorious successes have beeo thus 
snatched from the vc&y brink of disaster, overwhelming calamity 
has in other cases followed upon this course, when a reasonable 
regard for the unanticipated elements would have led to suc- 
cess. So there is to be set over against the great achievements 
that follow on dogged adherence great disasters which are 
equally its result. 

The tendency of the mind, accustomed to work through mul- 
tiple hypotheses, is to sway to one line of policy or another, 
according as the balance of evidence shall incline. This is tbe 
soul and essence of the method. It is in general the true 
method. Nevertheless there is a danger that this yielding to 
evidence may degenerate into unwarranted vacillation. It is 
not always possible for the mind to balance evidence with 
exact equipoise, and to determine, in the midst of the execu- 
tion of an enterprise, what is the measure of probability on the 
one side or the other; and as difficulties present themselves, 
there is a danger of being biased by them and of swerving fr6m 
the course that was really tbe true one. Certain limitations 
are therefore to be placed upon the application of the method, for 

it must be remembered that « poorar line cf polipy ooasistenl^ 
adhered to may bring better results than a Tacillatioo buiweeu 
better policies. 

There is another and closely allied danger in the applicatioik. 
of the method. In its highest development it presumes a mind/ 
supremely sensitive to every grain of evidence. Like a pair of 
delicately poised scales, every added particle on the one side- 
or the oUier produces its effect in oscillation. But such a pair 
of scales may be altogether too sensitive to be of practical 
value in the rough affairs of life. The balances of the exact 
chemist are too delicate for the weighing-out of coarse commod- 
ities. Despatch may be more important than accuracy. So it 
is possible for the mind to be too much concerned with the nice- 
balancings of evidence, and to oscillate too much and too long 
in the endeavor to reach exact results. It may be better, itt, 
the gross affairs of life, to be less precise and more prompt.. 
Quick decisions, though they may contain a grain of error, are- 
oftentimes better than precise decisions at the expense of time. 

The method has a special beneficent application to our social 
and civic relations. Into these relations there enter, as great 
factors, our judgment of others, our discernment of the nature of 
their acts, and our interpretation of their motives and purposes^ 
The method of multiple hypotheses, in its application here» 
stands in decided contrast to the method of the ruling theory 
or of the simple working hypothesis. The primitive habit is ta 
interpret the acts of others on the basis of a theory. Child* 
hood's unconscious theory is that the good are good, and tbe 
bad are bad. From the good tbe child expects nothing but 
good ; from the bad, nothing but bad. To expect a good act 
from the bad, or a bad act from the good, is radically at vari- 
ance with childhood's mental methods. Unfortunately in our 
social and civic affairs too many of our fellow-citizens have 
never outgrown the ruling theory of their childhood. 

Many have advanced a step farther, and employ a method 
analogous to that of the working hypothesis. A certain 
presumption is made to attach to the acts of their fellow* 
beings, and that which they see is seen in the light of that 
presumption, and that which they construe is construed in the 
light of that presumption. They do not go to the leuRths of 
childhood's method by assuming positively that the good are 
wholly good, and the bad wholly bad ; but there is a strong 
presumption in their minds that he concerning whom they 
have an ill opinion will act from corresponding motives. It 
requires positive evidence to overthrow the infiq^nce of the 
working hypothesis. 

The method of multiple hypotheses assumes broadly that the 
acts of a fellow-being may be diverse in their nature, their 
motives, their purposes, and hence in their whole moral char- 
acter; that they may be good though the dominant character be 
bad ; that they may be bad though the dominant character be 
good ; that they may be partly good and piu^ly bad, as is the fact 
in the greater number of tbe complex activities of a human beings 
Under the method of multiple hypotheses, it is the first effort 
of the mind to see truly what the act is, unbeclouded by the 
presumption that this or that has been done because it accords, 
with our ruling theory or our working hypothesis. Assuming 
that acts of similar general aspect may readily take any one 
of several different phases, the mind is freer to see accurately 
what has actually been done. So, again, in our interpretation s^ 
of motives and purposes, the method assumes that these may 
have been any one of many, and the first duty is to ascertain 
which of possible motives and purposes actually prompted thia 
individual action. Gk)ing with this effort there is a predisposi- 
tion to balance all evidence fairly, and to accept that interpre- 
tation to which the weight of evidence inclines, not that which 
simply fit^ our working hyxwthesis or our dominant theory.. 
The outcome, therefore, is better and truer observation and 
juster and more righteous interpretation. 

There is a third result of great importance. The imperfections 
of our knowledge are more likely to be detected, for there will 
be less confidence in its completeness in proportion as^ there is 
a broad comprehension of the possibilities of varied action^ 
under similar circumstances and with similar appearancetu. 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 366 

•So, also, the imperfections of evidence as to the motives and 
purposes inspiring the action will become more discernible in 
proportion to the fulness of our conception of what the evidence 
should be to distinguish between action from the one or the 
other of possible motives. The necessary result will be a less 
disposition to reach conclusions upon imperfect grounds. So, 
also, there will be a less inclination to misapply evidence; for, 
several constructions being definitely in mind, the indices of the 
one motive are less liable to be mistaken for the indices of an- 

The total outcome is greater care in ascertaining the facts, 
and greater discrimination and caution in drawing conclusions. 
I am confident, therefore, that the general application of this 
method to the aflfairs of social and civic life would go far to 
remove those misunderstandings, misjudgments, and misrepre- 
sentations which constitute so pervasive an evil in our social 
and our political atmospheres, the source of immeasurable 
suffering to the best and most sensitive souls. The misobser- 
vations, the misstatements, the misinterpretations, of life may 
cause less gross suffering than some other evils; but they, 
being more universal and more subtle, pain. The remedy lies, 
indeed, partly in charity, but more largely in correct intellectual 
habits, in a predominant, ever-present disposition to see things 
as they are, and to judge them in the full light of an unbiased 
weighing of evidence applied to all possible constructions, accom- 
panied by a withholding of judgment ^hen the evidence is 
insufficient to justify conclusions. 

I believe that one of the greatest moral reforms that lies 
immediately before us consists in the general introduction into 
social and civic life of that habit of mental procedure which 
is known in investigation as the method of multiple working 


Spbakinq of Professor Carl Lumbolts^s ''Among Cannibals,*' 
the AtheruBum says that *'the volume is not only agreeable read- 
ing throughout, but is full of curious information. ' ' 

— In the JermeM Miller Magazine for February is a physical 
culture article by Miss Jenness. ' 'The History of St. Valentine's 
Day, ' * by Laura Giddings, suggests a new form of entertainment 
for modem society. 

— In the Electrical World of Jan. 11 was an illustrated article 
descriptive of the new ai^l handsomely equipped offices of that 
enterprising paper, which occupy the better part of a floor in tiie 
recently finished Times Building on Park Row, this city, — one of 
the finest office buildings in the world. 

— The brother of Presid^it Harrison's private secretary, Mr. 
. A. J. Halford, has written for the March number of the Philadel- 
phia Ladies* Home Journal an article on "Mrs. Harrison's Daily 
Life in the White House, ' ' prepared with the consent and assist- 
ance of Mrs. Harrison. 

— It is thought that the death of Mr. F^nk Marshall will 
cause no delay in the publication of the eighth and final volume 
of the "Henry Irving Shakespeare." Mr. Marshall's arduous 
labors on this work were the indirect cause of his illness. The 
eighth volume, by the way, will contain "Hamlet." 

— One of the gravest and most important problems that o(»i- 
front the American people relates to the hundreds of thousands of 
inmiigrants who pour into this country every year. In a timely 
book, soon to be published by the Scribners, Richmond M. 
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cusses the historical, statistical, economic, ethnic, and social 
aspects of this interesting question. 


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— *'Laagh and Learn" is the title of a book of nursery lessons 
and nursery games, by Jennett Humphreys, with many illustra- 
ticms. The union of simple instruction and amusement is hap- 
pily carried out. The book will be published by Scribner & 

— Under the title of *'The Religious Aspect of Evolution," 
Dr. James McCk)6h'8 series of lectures delivered in 1887 at the 
Theological Seminary of the Diocese of Ohio and Kenyon College 
will be published by the Scribners. The chapter on ''Final 
Cause' ' is entirely new. 

— Professor Frederick L. Ritter of Vaasar has revised and en- 
larged his popular history of ' 'Music in America, * ' and the new 
edition will be brought out soon by the Scribners. The author 
has continued to date the history of the leading musical organiza- 
tions and of the opera in different cities, adding about a hundred 
pages to the book. 

— Two new volumes of ' 'The Uncollected Writings of Thomas 
De Quincey," with a preface and annotations by James Hogg, 
are announced by Scribner & Welford. The volumes contain 
many entertaining essays; "Shakespeare's Text," "How to 
Write English," "The Casuistry of Duelling," and "The Love- 
CSiarm," being a few of the titles. 

— As a memorial of a distinguished administrator, and to 
further the cause of imperial federation, Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole 
has edited the papers of Sir George Bowen, and they will be pub- 
lished immediately in London and New York by Longmans, 
Green, & Co. Li one of Sir George's .earlier letters there is a 
pleasant glimpse of Washington soc^iety during Grant's adminis- 

— The "Truth Seeker Annual and 'Freetiiinkers' Almanac" 
for 1890 {2S Lafayette Place, New York) contains, among num- 
erous other interesting articles, an account of the inauguration 
of the Bruno statue in Rome, by T. B. Wakeman ; some investi- 
gations into Hie phenomena of Spiritualism, by E. M. Mac- 
donald; and a history of the progress of free thought in the 
United States during 1889. The book is handsomely illustrated. 

— Our readers will learn with interest that the Scribners will 
issue tills month the third and fourth volumes of Henry Adams's 
* 'History of the United States. ' ' The first two volimies treated 
of Jefferson's first administration, — 1801 to 1805; the forth- 
coming two volumes relate to the great Democratic leader's 
second term of office, — 1805 to 1809. The new volumes are said 
to contain considerable new material bearing upon the Burr con- 
piracy and other events of the period. 

— The January number of the American Naturalist is at hand. 
It o(mtains, beside another instalment of E. L. Sturtevant's 
treatise on the "History of Gkuden Vegetables," an illustrated 
article by J. W. Fewkes, on the habit of certain sea-urchins of 
boring holes in the rocks to which they are attached, and a sug- 
gestive article by R. E. C. Steams on "The Effects of Musical 
Sounds upon Animals.' ' We note the fact that this number ap- 
pears almost cm time ; and as the present publishers, the Messrs. 
F^Brris Brothers, of Sixth and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, have 
been sending out the numbers at the rate of two a month since 
they assumed control, it is only fair to infer that the magazine 
^U henceforth appear on its nominal date. There are still 
three numbers to be furnished of the year 1889 ; but these will 
be printed and sent out as rapidly as possible, and in the mean 
tune the current issues for 1890 will proceed with regularity. 

— The Publication Agency of the Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, has just issued ' ' The Beginnings of American Na- 
tionality," by President Small of Colby University, commencing 
the series for 1890 of "Studies in Historical and Political 
Science;" also "The Needs of Self -Supporting Women," by 
Miss Clare de Graffenried of the Department of Labor, Washing- 
ton, Jy.C, being No. 1 (for 1890) of the "Notes Supplementary 
to tiie Studies in Historical and Political Science." It is pro- 
posed, also, to collect and publish, in a limited edition, the 
principal literary essays and studies of Professor Gildersleeve. 
Tbey will make a volume of between three hundred and four 

hundred pages. The following is a list of the titles of the essays : 
1. "Limits of Culture;" 2. "Classics and Collies;" 8. "Uni- 
versity Work in America;" 4. "Grammar and Aesthetics;'^ 
5. ' 'Legend of Vaius ; 6. ' 'Xanthippe and Socrates ; " 7. ' ' ApoK 
lonius of Tyana;" 8. "Lucian;" 9. "The Emperor Julian;" 
10. ' 'Platen' s Poems : " 11. ' 'Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico ; ' ' 
1 2. ' 'Occasional Addresses. ' ' 

— Of the contents of The Chautavquan for February we note 
"The Politics which Made and Unmade Rome," by President 
C. K. Adams, LL.D; "The Politics of Mediaeval Italy," by 
Professor Philip Van Ness Myers, A.M.; "The Archaeological 
Club at Rome," by James A. Harrison, LL.D., Lit.D. ; "Life 
in Mediaeval Italy," by the Rev. Alfred J. Church, M.A. ; 
"Economic Internationalism," by Richard T. Ely, Ph.D.; 
"Moral Teachings of Science," by Arabella B. Buckley; "The 
Works of the Waves," by Professor N. S. Shaler; '-Traits of 
Human Nature," by J.,M. Buckley, LL.D ; "Modem English 
Politics and Society," by J. Ranken Towse; "How Sickness was 
prevented at Johnstown," by Dr. George Groff; "Trusts and 
How to Deal with Them, ' ' by George Gunton ; and ' 'Divorce in 
the United States," by Oliver Cornell. 


•»♦ CorrespondenU are requested to be a» brief ae poaaible. The writer^i nam^ 
is ill cUl cases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character- 
of the journal. 

Physical Fields. 

It seems probable that the articles which have appeared in. 
this journal on this subject — one by A. E. Dolbear on Dec, 
27, and the other by N. W. Perry on Jan. 24 — are the most 
important that have been recently written as bearing especially 
upon present theories in meteorology. It is of the utmost con^ 
^sequence that in this complex science we lay a sure foundation 
of fact, and never be tempted to speculations unless supported 
in the main by observations. It is not my purpose, even if I 
were able, to discuss the questions at issue in these papers, but 
I wish to present what seems to me may prove a most important 
field for research, hoping that others may take up the matte^ 
and shed light upon the problem. 

The "thermal field" is probably the easiest to comprehend. 
We may conceive a white-hot cannon-ball in space. It radiates . 
its heat equally in all directions, and is rapidly cooled. We- 
may measure the distance to which these radiations extend. If 
these radiations be intercepted by any body, it in turn will be 
heated, and send back its radiations to the ball; and these ex- 
changee will continue till a thermal equilibrium be established^ 
All orthodox theories in meteorology regard the sun as a hot 
ball in space; that its rays impinge upon the earth, passing 
through the atmosphere without heating it; that this heated 
earth sets up convection currents in the atmosphere; and, 
finally, that all our winds and storms are primarily induced by 
these convection currents. I believe the time is not far distant 
when this theory will appear puerile in the extreme, and it ^ill 
be acknowledged that the actions produced in any locality through 
the direct heat agency of the sun must be greatest just at the 
time when there are no storms, and all of them combined will 
not account for a hundredth part of the energy developed. 

The * 'electric field* ' is the one I wish to specially notice. 
Mr. Perry, speaking of electrification, says, "It is a condition 
which is dual in its character. The negative exists because of the 
existence of the positive, not because qt propagation from one ta 
another. . . . We must regard electricity as motion ; electrifica- 
tion, one kind of stress which is capable of producing electrical 
vibrations; magnetism may be another." Granting the exist-, 
ence of such a dual condition, without at present going intO) 
the question of how it can be energized or brought about, I wish 
. to inquire what may be told or inferred as to the action ot 
individual electrified particles in either the positive or negative 
portion of such a dual condition, let us say, in the atmosphere^ 

Take, for example, the electric arc. As I understand it^ 
particles of carbon are continuously carried from what is calle<j| 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. .366 

the positive pole to the negative, and the latter is built up at 
the expense of the former. I do not know that the velocity of 
these particles has even been estimated, but it must be exceed- 
ingly small 1^ compared with that of electricty (186,000 miles 
per second). Suppose we have a positive and a negative 
electric field, or dual condition, in a dusty atmosphere: may we 
not say that the dust in the positive field, if sufficiently elec- 
trified, win have a tendency to pass toward the negative field? 
Or, if we consider that moisture particles take the place of 
•dust, why may not these, positively electrified, have a tendency 
toward the negative field? We have an illustration on a large 
;8cale in the case of thunder- clouds which have been repeatedly 
«een to approach each other. Mr. Dolbear writes me that he has 
himself noted a most remarkable and sudden clearing of clouds 
^ter a thunder-storm. I have myself observed a line of black- 
ness gradually advance in a clear sky, the line stretching from 
the south-east to the north-west. The demarcation between 
the clear sky and the black cloud was almost geometrical in its 
-sharpness. No rain was felt till the edge of the cloud reached 
the zenith; and then rain fell in torrents, though there was 
blue sky almost directly overhead. 

But there is a still more important consideration. The 
difficulty of changing the moisture contents of the air is 
universally recognized. The number of grains per cubic foot 
will remain absolutely constant for days at a time, no matter 
what may be the heat conditions of the earth, its winds, clouds, 
or any other changes in the meteorological elements. A six- 
teen-hours* steady rain has not been sufficient to saturate the 
air. Nothwithstanding these facts, we now know that accom- 
panying a storm, and independent of the sun*s heat, there are 
tnost extraordinary fiuctuations in the moisture contents of the 
air. Frequently, over an area of 160,000 square miles, this 
moisture may be doubled, and immediately following the storm 
it may be diminished three-quarters of this; and this, too, 
absolutely independent of the wind, pressure, or temperature. 
I will give but one illustration. On Dec. 22, 1889, at 8.11 
P. II., I observed 4.09 grains of moisture per cubic foot in the 
-iur, which was calm at the time. At 5.2 p.m., or 111 minutes 
later, there were only 1.04 grains per cubic foot. This was 
<«ertainly the greatest diminution I ever observed, but several 
times I have observed it almost as great.' Without going into 
the questions, which this discussion must raise, it seems to me 
that such extraordinary changes can be abundantly accounted 
for on the principles enunciated in this journal, and cannot 
he accounted for in any other way. What we need most of all 
are experimental determinations showing the possibility of such 
transfer in electric fields. Have we any help from the difficulty 
•of running a Holtz machine in a damp room, from the gather. 
ing of dust and lint on electrified glass rods? Is it possible to 
•electrify a mass of air so as to test any of these questions? Thus 
far I have hoped only to interest others more familiar with the 
subject than myself. I do not expect that I have added any 
thing to our knowledge; but as Professor Hold^i has said 
recently, regarding photographic magnitudes of stars, '*any 
discussion of the question at this stage can but be advanta- 
Keous,'* so it seems to me in this field of research we may well 
consider that any consideration of the questions involved must 
tend to bring out the best thoughts of many minds; and *4n 
the multitude of counsellors there is wisdom.*' 

H. A. Hazen. 
Northfleld, Minn., Jon. 28. 

In my communication on physical fields published in Science 
of Dec. 27, what I was most desirous of pointing out was the 
character of the physical re-action of a field of a given sort 
upon a body in it. The explanation of the various steps was 
unessential, entirely so; and if my explanations were not the 
true explanations, the conclusions reached in the main thesis 
would not be vitiated. 

Mr. N. W. Perry takes some exceptions to my terminology, 
which are proper enough if I have not used appropriate terms. 
I most heartily agree that in all departments of science the 
terms used should be explicit, definite, and not misleading; 

but it is unfortunate indeed that all through physics, to say 
nothing of other sciences, there is no general agreement as to the 
im^per use of terms. Take, for instance, the term '^heat." 
Some say * 'heat is vibratory atomic or molecular motion, ' ' 
others just as competent say '*heat is a form of energy.*' 
Now, both cannot be right, unless a mode of motion is a form 
of energy. Again, note the long controversy lately had in 
England over the proper use of the words "mass** and 

The significance of it is this: that, 'until there is a well- 
settled use of a word in a technical sense, one cannot be 
altogether blamed if he uses the word in a sense different from 
some other one. Now, Mr. Perry is certain that I do not use 
the word ' 'stress* ' properly ; that it ' 'is not proper to say that a 
stress travels;" that Maxwell and others do not believe iAat 
electrification involves motion in any way ; that potential con- 
ditions or energy are static, and that I have made a funda- 
mental mistake in not discriminating between static and kinetic 

To all this I have to reply, 

1st, Suppose an electrometer to be, say, one metre from a 
glass rod which I electrify with a piece of silk. If the electrom- 
eter gives any indication of electrification, the condition that 
incites it has travelled with a finite velocity. Whether it be 
called a stress, a strain, or any thing else, is immaterial; 
whether it is a condition of the ether or action at a distance in 
the sense the older philosophers thought, does not matter so mndi 
if it takes time to go from the glass rod to the electrometer. 
One may call it potential or kinetic energy if he chooses: a static 
condition will presently be reached, but not instantly. And 
the same is true of the effect produced by magnetizing a piece 
of iron. 

Mr. Perry seems to say, that, if there was but one body in 
the universe, it could not have an electric field, even if it ooald 
be electrified. If that be his meaning, 1 must say that his con- 
ception of electrical re- actions is totally different from mine. 
As Tait has it, ' 'every action between two bodies is a streas. ' ' 
The body and the ether about it are two bodies; and, if they 
can act at all upon each other, there will then be a field. 
Perhaps, however, Mr. Perry calls the ether matter, which has 
not been my habit, and against which I was not on my guard 
when I wrote the statement to which he objects. Until we 
have some evideflbe that ether is subject to the law of gniTi- 
tation, it seems to me to be improper to speak of it as matter. 
If "every particle of matter attracts every other particle of 
matter, * ' and if there is no evidence that ether is so attracted, 
it is not conducive to good terminology to call it matter. 

2d, This term "stress" has not been long in use at all, and 
the adoption of it into electrical science I suppose to be dne 
chiefiy to Maxwell. I have therefore looked to see how he 
employed it, and I find the following in his treatise on 
"Electricity and Magnetism," Art. 866:— 

"Now, we are unable to conceive of propagation in time, 
except either as the fiight of a material substance through 
space, or as the propagation of a conditian of motion or streat in 
a medium already existing in space. ' ' The Italics are mine, 
as I interpret them to mean precisely what I meant. Evidoitly 
Maxwell did conceive that stress could travel. 

Again, in Art. 868 he says, ' 'The emitted potential flaum to 
the body ; * * and once more, ' 'The potential as received by the 
attracted body is identical with, or equal to, the potential 
that arrives at it;" and once more, "The velocity of trans- 
mission of the potential is not like that of light, constant 
relative to the ether or to space, but rather like that of a 
projectile, constant relative to the velocity of the emitting par- 
ticle at the instant of emission. * ' 

These quotations seem to me to justify me in the use of the 
word "stress" as a condition capable of translation from one 
point to another. It is not unlikely, though, that within the 
past few years, and since Maxwell* s death, the term has become 
more precise; and that, if true, would justify calling attention 
to a departure from such use. A. E. Dolbrab. 

CoUege Hill, Mass , Feb. 2. 

Digitized by 


February 7, 1890.] 



Pressure- Wayet. 

Cazknovia Lake, or more properly *'Owahgena," is about 
four miles long and half a mile wide, situated twelve hundred 
feet above sea -level. The outlet issues from one comer, and is a 
deep curved channel. Two hundred feet from the lake an 
artificial pond connects with the outlet. A dam at the neck of 
this pond rises to within four inches of the surface of the 
water. No ordinary waves reach this point, but it affords an 
onasually good opportunity for observing the long waves that 
are evidently caused by varying atmospheric pressure, apart 
Tom the frictional force that produces the common waves. 
Wbeo the water is perfectly smooth on each side of this dam, 
which is protected from wind-currents, it flows with such 
speed over the dam as to show a decided ripple. The flow is 
alternately in and out of the pond, which has no other opening, 
and it changes direction about every five ''minutes. The change 
of level is from three-quarters of an inch to an inch. 

If the speed of this long low wave is the same as^the small 
swells on the lake, ten minutes from crest to crest would indicate 
that the crests are about one mile apart, — a very long wave 
with an inch elevation. The phenomenon is regular for hours, 
and seems to depend very little upon the. force of the wind, 
showing no connection with the wind's direction. If local 
storms prevail, the energy of this motion is increased very 
much in excess of the force of the wind felt on the lake. 

The variation of atmospheric weight needed to produce this 
effect would probably be a little less than an ounce to the 
square foot, or an inch and a half on a water barometer. It 
suggests a low-tide rise and fall, with eight to ten minute 
intervals. It would be interesting to know if more skilled 
observers have given attention to water indications of air- 
pressure of this kind. 

To-day there is ice on the lake two or three inches thick ; the 
wind, south, in strong gusts. At the south end, where the 
wind is offshore, and at a very sheltered point, I notice, at 
about eight-minute intervals, a rise of the water made evident 
by the cracking of the crust that connects the ice with the 
shore, showing that the long wave acts under the ice in the 
same way as when the lake is open. L. W. Ledtahd. 

CMenorU, N.T., Feb. 2. 

winter, wast winds prevailing, few colds, and but little sick- 
ness except whooping-cough among children. 

Over on the other side of the river, north of this about thirty 
or forty miles, is a Russian settlemant. I have heard continu- 
ally of late of their having influenza over there. I had no 
faith in the disease being an epidemic or contagious. A short 
time ago a few of our Indians went over there trading. We 
had no signs of the disease here. They returned, and in less 
than a week one of the families who went were all down with 
what I thought hard colds. I was^ called in to treat the cases. 
In three days, three more strong men were down; and now the 
whole Indian village is suffering with it, and I am just coming 
down with it myself. The patients have aching heads, and 
pain in the side and lungs, the whole body aching as if with 
ague. They are feverish, troubled with coughing and hoarse- 
ness, are restless, and have no appetites, but great thirst. Is 
it influenza? If so, influenza must be contagious. We have 
such cold weather, surely disease-germs would not survive ; and 
our winds, being mostly west winds, could not bring disease- 
germs from the east. This may be of no use to science; but I 
am so isolated here, — being a missionary among the Indians, 
and the only white person here, — I thought it might have 
weight in some direction. M. C. Coluns. 

Fort Tates, N.Dak., Jao. 24. 


I UVB on the Sioux Reservation, thirty -two miles from Fort 
Tates, the nearest white settlement. We have had a clear cold 

Lightning Discharge. 

In response to invitation in the last number of Science, I 
send description of lightning discharge. 

In the summer of 1883, when our present public high-school 
building was nearly completed, but before the lightning-rods 
were in place, a carved brownstone *'finiar' in the form of a 
double cross, weighing about a hundred pounds, which stood 
6n one end of the roof of the building, was struck by lightning. 
No trace of the lightning was found on any part of the building 
below this ^'finial *' stone, which was apparently blown to 
pieces as effectually as if an ounce of gunpowder had been 
enclosed in its centre, and fired by electricity. It was just 
before a thunder-shower, but not a drop of rain had fallen. 
The writer was within twenty rods of the building at the time, 
and helped pick up the fragments (all of which have been 
preserved), which were scattered over a space of thirty feet 

Was the cloud negative, and did the positive discharge go 
upward? Joseph Hall. 

Hartford, Conn., Jan. 89. 

Enjoy It. 



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A Hew lethod of Treating Disease. 


What are they ? There is a new departure in 
the treatment of disease. It consists in the 
collection of the specifics used by noted special- 
ists ofEurope and America, and bringing them 
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female weakness, rheumatism and nervous de- 

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are guaranteed to cure every ill out of a single 
bottle, and the use of which, as statistics prove, 
has tuined more stomachs than alcohol. A cir- 
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on receipt of stamp to pay postage by Hospital 
Remedy Company, Toronto, Canada, sol 6 pro- 

If you have $100, $1,000 or $1,000,000 
for which you are seeking for a profitable 
investment, write to Jambs W. Greene, 
Weet Superior, Wis. 

Inquiry costs nothing. Reference by per- 
mission to The Editor of Science. 


We offer an Atlaa of Senalble Low Ooat 
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?rloe, $1.— N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 366 


Philosophical Society, Washingtoo. 

Feb. 1. — C. Hart Merriam, General Re- 
sults of a Biological Survey of the San 
Francisco Mountain Region in Arizona ; B. 
E. Ferrow, Forest Influences on Water 

Boston Society of Natural History. 

Feb. 5. — F. W. Putnam, Early Man in 
America; S. H. Scudder, Remai'ks on a 
Small Collection of Beetles from the Inter- 
glacial Clays of Scarboro' , Ontario. 


rPree of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 

Address N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 

Wanted — Books and journals, American or foreign, 
relating to Photography — exchange or purchase. C W. 
Canfield, 1.321 Broadway, New York. 

Wanted. — Marine univalves of the west coast, from U. 
S. Ine southward, and frDm Pacific Is'ands, offered; ex- 
change from a general collection. — F. C. Browne, Fram- 
ingham, Mass.. Box -50. 

D. £. Willardj Curator of the Museum, Albion Acad- 
emy, Albion. Wis , will answer all his correspondence as 
soon as possible. Sickness and death in the family, with 
many other matters, have prevented his answering as 
promptly as he should have done. 

1 will give 100 )!Ood arrow heads for a fine pair of wild 
cattle horns at two feet long, if you have shorter 
or other horns write me, and al>o how many .irrow heads 
you want for them. I will also exchan|>e .-hell?, minerals 
and arrows. W. F. Lerch. 308 East 41 h St , Davenport, 

1 wish to purchase Vol. 7 of the American Chemical 
foumaly either bound or unbound. State price. Ad- 
dress, Wm. L, Dudley, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 

A few duplicates of Murex radixy Af, ramosus^ M. 
hrandariSf Cassis ru/a^ Harpa veniricosa^ Oliva tri- 
aiula^ O. reticularis^ Chlorostoma funebralty Cypreta 
caput serpetitis^ C. lynx^ Lottia gigantea^ Acmola 
Patina^ Chama spinosa^ and some thirty other specie5, 
for exchange for shells not in our collection. List on ap- 
plication. — Curator Museum, Polytechnic Society, Lou- 
Mville, Ky. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic views of Aborigines of 
any country, and fine landscapes.etc,wanted in exchange 
for minetals and fossib. — L. L. Lewis, Copenhagen, 
New York. 

Droysen's Aig^meiner Historicher Hand-atlas (Leip- 
sig, 1886.) for scientific books - those published in the 
international Scientific Series preferred . —James H. 
StoUer, SchenecUdy, N.Y. 

Astronomical works and reports wanted in exchange or 
to buy. Reports of observations on the planet Neptune 
and its satellite specially desired — Edmund J. Sheri- 
dan, B.A., 995 Adelphi St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

I would like to correspond with any person having 
Tryon's ** Structural ana Systematic Concholoc^ '* to 
dbpose of. I wish also to obtain State or U.S. Reports 
on Geology. Conchology, and Archaeology. I will ex- 
change classified specimens «r pay cash. Also wanted a 
copy of MacFarlane's ** Geologists' Traveling Hand-Book 
and Geological Railway Guide." — D..E. WiUard, Cura- 
tor of Museum, Albion Academy, Albion, Wis. 

Morris's *' British Butterflies," Morris's *' Nests and 
Eggs of British Birds." Bree's " Birds of Europe" (all 
colored plates), and other natural history, in exchange 
for Shakesperiana ; either books, pamphlets, engravings, 
or cuttings. — }.D, Bamett, Box 735, Stratford, Canada. 

I have Anodonta opalina (Weatherby), and many 
other species of shells from the noted Kosnkonong Lake 
and vicinity, also from Western New York, and fossils 
from the Marcellus shale of New York, which 1 would be 
glad to exchange for specimens of scientific value of any 
kind. I would also like to correspond with persons inter- 
ested in the collection, sale, or excnange of Indian relics.— 
D. E. Willard, Albion Academy, Albion, Wis. 

Will exchange " Princeton Review " for 1883, Hugh 
Miller's works on geology and other scientific works, for 
back numbers of ** The Auk," "American Naturalist," 
or other scientific periodicals or books. Write.— J. M. 
Keck, Chardon, Ohio. 

Shells and curiosities for marine shells, curiosities or 
minerals address W. F. Lerch, No. 308 East Fourth St., 
Davenport, Iowa. 


A ftrst-olass water motor, for hydrant pressure of 
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Catarrhal Deafnea*— Hay FeTer. 


Sufifcrers are not generally aware that these 
diseases ^re contagious, or that ihey are due to 
the presence of living paras^ites in the lining 
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Microbcopic research, however, has proved this 
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plaining this ntw treatment is sent free on 
receipt of stamp to pay postage, by A. H. Dx- 
on & Son. 337 and 339 West King Street. 
Toronto. Canada.— C*^r/j/iVi« Advocate. 

Sufferers from Catarrhal troubles should care- 
fully read the above. 


A ny person seeking a petition /or which ke is quali- 
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some one to fill a position 0/ this character^ be it that 
0/ a teacher 0/ science^chemisty draughtsman^ or what 
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A YOUNG MAN desires, about the Ist of 
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an engagement in mining, metallurgy, 
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.6565,949,933 93 

. 6§3,§34,749 56 






Real Estate and Bond and mortgage Loans 669,361,913 13 

United States Bonds and other Securities §50,333,469 81 

Loans on Collateral Securities §9,845,500 00 

Cash in Banks and Trust Companies at interest §3,988,633 79 

Interest accrued. Premiums deferred and in transit, etc §3,881,813 39 

§ 136,401, :I38 03 

Liabilities (including Reserve at 4 per cent.), §136,744,079 58. 

I have carefully examined the foregoing statement and find the same to be correct. A. N. WATERHOUSE, Auditor. 

From the Surplus above stated a dividend will be apportioned as usual . 

Risks Risks 

Tear. Assumed. Outstandiiig. Assets. 

1884 $ 84,681,420. .....; $361,789,286 $108,876,178 61 

1885 46,507,189 868,981,441 108,908,967 51 

1886 56,882,719 893,809,208 114,181,968 24. 

1887 69,467,468 427,628,988 118,806,85188 

1888 103,214,261 482,125,184 126,082,158 56 

1889 151,602,488 565,949,984 186,401,828 02 

New Tobk, January 29th, 1890. 

SaxuxlE. Spboulls, 
Lucius BoBiNdON, 
Sakusl D. Babcock, 


Richard A. McCxtrdt, 
James C. Holden, 
Hermann C. von Post, 
Alexander H. Rice, 
Lewis Mat, 

Oliver Harriman, 
Henrt W. Smith, 


Qeorge F. Baker, 
Jos. Thompson, 


Frederic Cromwell, 
JuLiEN T. Davibs, 
Robert Sewell, 


S. Van Rensselaer Oruqer, 
Charles R. Henderson, 
Gboroe Bliss, 
RUFXJS W. Peckham, 
J. Hob ART Herrick, 
Wm. p. Dixon, 
Robert A. Qranniss, 
Nicholas C. Miller, 
Henrt H. Rogers, 


Jno. W. Auchincloss, 
Theodore Morford, 
William Babcock, 
Preston B. Plumb, 
William D. Washburn, 
Stutvesant Fish, 
Augustus D. Juilliard, 
Charles E. Miller, 
James W. Husted. 

ROBERT A. GRANNISS, - ^ Vice-President. 

ISAAC F. LLOYD, 2d Vice-President. WILLIA.M J. EASTON, Secretary. 

A. N. WATERHOUSE, Auditor. FREDERICK SCHROEDER, Assistant Secretary. 

EMORY McCLINTOCK, LL.D., F. I. A., Actuary. 
JOHN TATLOCK, Jr., Assistant Actuary. CHARLES B. PERRY, 2d Assistant Actuary. 

FREDERIC CROMWELL, - - Treasurer. 

JOHN A. FONDA, Assistant Treasurer. WILLIAM P. SANDS, Cashier. 

EDWARD P. HOLDEN, Assistant Cashier. 
WILLIAM G. DAVIES, Solicitor. WILLIAM W. RICHARDS, Comptroller. 

Medical Directors, 

Digitized by 



[Vol. XV. No. 366 

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TT 7 



lEniered at the Po0i-Offlce of New York, N.Y.. m Second-Class Matter.] 


Eighth Tsab. 
Vol. XV. No. 867. 



^E\V YORK, February 14, 1890. 

Single Copies, Ten Cents. 
3.50 Per Year, in A3)vance. 


Wire-rope tramways, as a means of cheap transportation, are 
too well known to require any long dissertation on their advan- 
tages. As feeders to established systems of railroad or water 
commjanication, their low cost of construction through countries 
iw'here, from the rugged contour of the surface, ordinary rail- 
road or even wagon-road building would be scarcely practicable, 
except with long and costly detours, has always made them 
very attractive to the miner and quarryman, to whose use in 
this country fhcy have been heretofore almost exclusively con- 
fined. The earliest tramways of this kind which were success- 
fully introduced consisted of a single, moving, endless rope, 

country. In Europe, however, while these single-rope lines 
were also first in vogue, the double-rope system has of late 
years almost entirely supplanted them, and has established 
itself, as a general means of transportation, to an extent hardly 
yet dreamt of here. 

Railroad companies have adopted these lines as regular 
feeders to their main roads, and laws have been promulgated in 
different European countries regulating their construction and 
traffic, the same as for ordinary railroads. This extension of 
their application is due principally, if not entirely, to'Jthe 
perfection attained under the Bleichert system, some features 
of which are shown in the accompanying illustrations. While 
the individual loads to be carried by the single-rope lines 


1>:^T" : 


from which the loads were suspended. In one system the 
buckets or carriers are attached to saddles, which ride on the 
rope, but can be separated from it. In another system the 
carriers are attached permanently to the rope. But in each of 
these systems one and the same rope both supports and moves 
the load. 

This fact is really the reason that aerial transportation has 
hitherto not become general in the United States. Lines con- 
structed with the single moving rope, while very efficient for 
certain purposes, are not available for general use as a 
means of transportation, because of their limited capacity for 
carrying individual loads, which in no case can exceed 300 
poiiiods, and in practice have been much smaller. The original- 
single-rope systems are the ones chiefly used hitherto in this 

should, for convenience and economy, preferably not exceed 
150 pounds, and are, in faot, seldom over 100 pounds, the 
lines of this system are adaptable to individual loads up to 
1,000 pounds each, and in special cases even heavier loads have 
been carried. 

Single-rope systems of tramways, where the moving rope 
carries the load, must necessarily move slowly; otherwise there 
is great danger that the rope may jump out of the carrying- 
sheaves. These carrying -sheaves are very shallow, so as to 
permit the passage over them of the saddle or clip. The 
dropping of the rope from the supporting sheaves has always 
been a source of more or less trouble and expense in operating 
these lines. In this system this trouble never occurs, since 
the stationary carrying-cable has no tendency to leave the saddle 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 367 

in which it is carried. This being the case, there is do 
difficulty in moving the cars of these lines at a speed of three 
or four miles an hour. 

rope. While this corrects the danger of slipping, it gives rise 
to the objection that the buckets must be both loaded and 
unloaded while moving, since they cannot be stopped without 


One of the advantages of these tramways over others consists 
in their capability of surmounting any grade. 
In one system of single-rope tramways, no grades in the rope 

stopping the whole line. In the system illustrated, both these 
objections are obviated. Any grade can easily be surmounted, 
provided the contour of the ground is such that the inclination 

• -*f 


are permissible steeper than 1 in 3i. In fact, 1 in 4 is really 
about the limit. On steeper grades there is danger of the load 
slipping on the rope. To obviate this danger, another system 
employs a clip which fastens the bucket permanently to the 

ol the carrying-cables is not steeper than 1 in 1. The inclination 
of these cables does not necessarily follow the contour of the 
ground in all cases. For instance: in crossing valleys and 
streams this system permits the use of long single spans. 

Digitized by 


February 14, 1890. J 



which, in the case of the single-rope tramways, would be 
impracticable. Again: a precipitous rise in the ground 
presents no insuperable difficulties, since the curves can usually 

The cost of both construction and maintenance is greatly 
increased for single-rope tramways by the use of spans longer 
than 100 feet, or the occurrence of very steep grades. Even if 


be laid out so as to bring the inclination of the carrying-cables 
within the proper limits. 

The other objection is obviated by the arrangement that 
when the car reaches either terminal, or any switch or turn-out 

only one such span, or one such grade, is present in a whole* 
line, it becomes necessary to make the entire double length of 
moving rope strong enough for the special strain due to tha 
one spot, over whicl^ in its endless travel, every part of the rope- 


OQ the line, it can be automatically disconnected, and run off 
to any point required for loading and discharging. This system 
also permits the introduction at any point on the line of mov- 
able or temporary switches or terminals, without the erection 
of special structures for their support. 

must pass; and this increase in the size of the rope affects the 
dimensions of the supports, sheaves, and other fixtures through- 
out the line, thus requiring a general increase of cost, nearly 
as great as if all the spans were equally long or all the grades 
equally heavy. The wear of the rope is also increased by j 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 367 

of its greater diameter and the more unfavorable conditions of 
tbe catenary curve, or sag* on long spans and steep grades ; and 
these sources of increased cost of maintenance affect every part 
of the rope. In this system the carrying -cable, being stationary, 
can be locally graduated to the strains it has to bear. The 
cable for the empty cars does not, of course, require to be as 
strong as the cable for the loaded cars, and it is therefore made 
only strong enough for the work it has to perform. In like 
manner, if one or more long spans occur in the line, it is not ne- 
cessary that the whole cable should be made strong enough to bear 
the extra strain at this one point : on the contrary, it is sufficient 
to so strengthen only the portions exposed to this extra strain, 
and this is easily practicable. On very long steep grades also, 
where the cable at the head of the incline must be able to bear 
not only the ordinary working strain due to the cars, but must 
also sustain the whole weight of the cable on the incline, this 
is effected by making the cable in sections of gradually dimin- 
ishing area, thus effecting great economy in the total weight 
of the cable. A further advantage is, that the traction -rope 
used, instead of being loaded down by the cars, as in other 
systems, is itjelf carried and supp9rted by them, thus lessening 
greatly the wear. 

^ The ordinary spans used in the construction of these lines are 
from 150 to 200 feet, but there is no real objection to spans of 
500 to 600 feet. Many lines built within the last few years 
have spans up to 1,500 feet. The illustration on the first page, 
taken from a photograph, represents one of these long spans. 
It is 1,000 feet in the clear, and forms part of a line nearly 
•seven miles in length, built for the transportation of 250 tons 
of iron ore per day. This line has been in successful operation 
for many years. 

There exists in nature hardly a difficulty or obstacle which 
would bar the introduction of this system of transportation : in 
fact, in many cases it is the only one that can be used. While 
iihis is eminently true where the contour of the ground is 
much broken up and long spans are necessary, this system 
possesses economical advantages even where there are few or no 
natural obstacles to the building of any kind of road. The ser- 
vice is regular; stoppages for repairs are rare; no interruptions 
due either to atmospheric influences or storms are liable to 
occur; the line being elevated, the service is entirely free from 
interference with surface traffic ; wear and tear and expense of 
operating are relatively very low ; terminals can be so arranged 
that the material transported can be delivered at the exact spot 
where it is needed, thus saving all expense of re-handling. 
This could not be done with a surface rcnad, since, even if the 
cars could be brought close to the point at which the material 
Is required, there would still be a further expense for unload- 
ing, irrespective of the cost of switching and hauling them. 

This system of transportaton is controlled in this country 
by the Trenton Iron Company of Trenton, N.J. 



\t the conference of college presidents and professors in 
Philadelphia, Nov. 26, 1889, Professor E. H. Griffin read a 
letter from President Oilman, dated Oct. 17 (published in the 
February number of the Johns Hopkins University Circulars) as 
follows: — 

*'If I had been present, I should have asked leave to present 
.to your consideration some thoughts respecting the baccalau- 
xaate degree; but as I cannot attend, on account of absence 
from the country, I have requested Professor E. H. Griffin to 
Aay a few words in my behalf. 

**The points to which I should have directed attention are 
these: — 

*'lst. The American propensity to multiply academic titles 
S3 that the real significance of a degree is obscured. 

* *2d. The tendency to confer the baccalaureate degree in so 
many forms and phrases that its meaning cannot be discovered 
even from the name of the institution which confers it , but 

must often be worked out by a study of catalogues constructed 
in different orders of complexity. 

' *8d. The enumeration of the manifold forms of the baccalau- 
reate degree now given in this country. 

*'4th, The historical significance of the bachelor's degree as 
marking attainment of the first grade in the fellowship of 
scholars, — a grade which may be attained in any faculty of a 
university, arts, medicine, theology, and law. 

*'5th, The value of a certificate the meaning of which is 
obvious at first sight, considered from the point of view of the 
holder of a diploma, and, second, from that of the public. 

*'6th, The importance of restoring, if possible, the baccalau- 
reate d^p'ee to an honorable significance before it is altogether 

* '7th, The importance of ^acknowledging that it is not essen- 
tial that any one curriculum should be followed in order to at- 
tain the degree of bachelor of arts. 

*^8th. It is essential that the candidate who receives that 
degree should have received much instruction in (a) ancient 
and modem languages and literature, (b) in mathematics, (c) 
in the natural and physical sciences, and (d) in historical and 
moral sciences. 

**9th. It is also essential that the candidate should pursue 
these studies in a public institution, under competent instruc- 
tors, for a definite period, in a systematic way, subject to 
examination, the results of which are to be recorded, pro- 
claimed, and certified to by a formal diploma.'' . . . 

After reading the letter, Professor Griffin stated that there 
could be no doubt that the baccalaureate degree had lost some- 
thing of the /'honorable significance'' of which President 
Oilman speaks. A recent writer in one of our magazines 
declares that '*A. B. is as meaningless an abbreviation as 
exists." This, we are glad to know, continued Professor Griffin, 
is an exaggeration ; but it is an exaggeration which coptains 
an uncomfortable element of truth. 

So far as it is true that the bachelor's degree has declined in 
dignity and value, the- evil is a serious one. In view of its 
historical significance, the interests of learning and the credit 
of the fellowship of scholars require that this title, which 
marks the completion of a defined stage or period of training, 
should be kept in its original repute. It is a grave injustice 
that one who has gained the degree, at great expenditure of 
money, time, and labor, should find that others have gotten it 
upon so much easier terms that it becomes almost worthless as 
a guaranty of acquisition. The public have a right to assume 
that learned distinctions are bestowed in good faith, and upon 
some basis of common understanding, and ought not to be 
compelled to go back of academic titles to find out what they 
mean. Whether it be considered from the point of view of the 
public, or of the individual, or of the general interests of 
learning, few academic questions are of greater consequence 
than the proper significance, and most effective defence and 
maintenance, of the bachelor's degree. 

The causes which have contributed to this loss of considera- 
tion are — some of them, at least — obvious. 

As is well known, the institutions of higher learning first 
established in this country were modelled, not after the English 
universities, but after the English colleges. This was inevi- 
table under the circumstances, and the American college has 
certainly shown itself well adapted to the conditions of our 
national life. As respects academic titles, however, the system 
has had its drawbacks. In Great Britain and Ireland there are 
eleven institutions conferring degrees; in the United States 
there are about four hundred, not counting colleges for women, 
of which there are perhaps one hundred exercising this 
prerogative. These institutions are, of course, of all grades of 
merit. Some of them are not greatly unlike the college in the 
Far West, of which Professor Bryce speaks in the * 'American 
Commonwealth," whose president had much to say about the 
views of his faculty, and what his faculty were going to do: 
the ' 'faculty' ' consisting at the time, as it appeared, of that 
dignitary and his wife. A peculiar infelicity has attended our 
system as applied to honorary degrees, — as in theology and 

Digitized by 


February 14, 1890.] 


J 05 

law, — these being given by institutions which offer no instruc- 
tion in these subjects. An eminent American composer is said 
to have declined the doctorate of music conferred by Yale, on 
the ground, that, as the university did not recognize this 
subject in its svstem of education, it was presumably incom- 
petent to pronounce judgment about it. However uniform and 
thorough might be the standard of acquirement theoretically 
established by our colleges, their inordinate number, involving 
wide diversities of scholarly and teaching power, must prevent 
their certificates of graduation from bearing any thing like a 
uniform significance in respoct to the amount and quality 
either of the instruction offered or of the proficiency attained. 

So far as the bachelor* s degree has suffered from this cause, 
there is probably no immediate remedy. The suggestion 
occasionally made, that the colleges of a State, or of a larger 
extent of territory, might, for certain purposes, affiliate them- 
selves into a kind of university, and bestow degrees through a 
common board, is not likely to be received with favor. It is 
possible that something may be done toward the creation of a 
public sentiment unfavorable to the endowment and chartering 
of unnecessary institutions; but the main reliance must be 
upon such a ijfradual increase of resources and elevation of 
standards as shall diminish the evils which cannot be wholly 
removed. If an agreement of theory and - practice could be 
reached among our most influential institutions in regard to the 
bachelor's degree, this would do more than any thing else to 
determine usage, and to fix the connotation of the title. 

In looking over the reports of the commissioner of education, 
one is struck with the fertility of imagination and invention 
displayed in academic titles. The following enumeration of 
variations of the baccalaureate title is probably not exhaustive: — 

Bachelor of arts, science, philosophy letters, laws, divinity, 
sacred theology, surgery, music, painting, pedagogics, English, 
English literature, Latin letters, agriculture, scientific agri- 
culture, agricultural scieilce, architecture, engineering, civil 
engineering, mining • engineering, metallurgical engineering, 
mining metallurgy, chemical science, mechanic art, veterinary 
science, domestic art. The colleges for women add a new and 
pleasing element of variety from the fact that it seems to be 
supposed by some that the word ^ ^bachelor* ' is a designation of 
sex; and so we have licentiate, laureate, graduate, proficient, 
and, in more distinct antithesis to bachelor, maid. 

The first criticism that one passes upon this list is that most 
of the titles indicate professional rather than liberal acquire- 
ments. The bachelor of science, of philosophy, of letters, may 
have pursued studies entitled to be called liberal ; the same 
may be true of the bachelor of laws, divinity, music, of others 
in the list; but it is certain that the holders of most of these 
degrees have acquired a technical rather than a general training. 
Why, then, it may be asked, should they lay claim to the 
title to which usage has attached a different meaning? Is it 
historically just, or is it practically wise, to disregard the 
distinction between a technical and a liberal education by 
applying the baccalaureate title indifferently to both ? Most of 
the colleges represented in the conference distinguish between 
the bachelor's degrees of arts, science, and philosophy, and the 
technical d^rees, practical chemist, mining engineer, civil 
engineer, and the rest. It is important that those who hold to 
the old idea of a broad training in fundamental studies, 
precedent to specialization, should do this. 

A question might arise as to what modifications of the bacca- 
laureate title should be considered permissible under this prin- 
ciple. The degrees, bachelor of science, letters, and philosophy, 
are so well established that it is probably useless to make any 
objection to them ; yet it is a fair question whether the subdi- 
vision is of any advantage. If these d^rees do not certify to 
a course of study probably ranked as liberal, they ought not, 
according to this view, to be conferred ; if they do, would not 
the simpler, more historical, more intelligible way be to 
oonoprise them all under the bachelor of arts? The contrast 
between the sciences and the humanities it may be well to 
recognize by retaining the bachelor of science; but bachelor of 
letters and bachelor of philosophy are of such indeterminate 

significance that it would be a relief to have them abandoned. 
Is it worth while to retain degrees whose significance no one can 
tell without knowing the institution which conferred them, or 
then without a careful consultation of the catalogue? It 
seemed to Professor Griffin that the baccalaureate degree would 
be greatly augmented in dignity if it were conferred only under 
the title **bachelor of arts," or, at most, with the variation 
* *bachelor of science. " 

If the reduction of all the non -technical degrees to a single 
form, or to two forms, were to be accomplished, it would be 
necessary to reach a more definite understanding than at present 
exists as to what constitutes a liberal education. The 
tion laid down by President Oilman, that* 'it is not essential 
that any one curriculum should be followed in order to attain 
the degree of bachelor of arts, ' ' would now be generally con- 
ceded. The rigidly exacted course of study which formerly 
prevailed in all our institutions is now admitted to be imprac- 
ticable. The effort to adapt it to the demands of the new 
sciences, and the modern languages and literatures, made it so 
fragmentary and kaleidoscopic, so far impaired its disciplinary 
power, that some change was acknowledged to be inevitable. 
The only difference of opinion now is as to what subjects shall 
be insisted upon. The modifications of the bachelor's degree 
first named (bachelor of science, philosophy, letters) ordinarily 
indicate that one, at least, of the classical languages has not 
been pursued. The absence of this acquisition seems to render 
the bachelor of arts degree unsuitable; and, in default of a 
scientific specialty, one of the other titles is resorted to. If it 
were decided to abandon these, what could be done for the 
class of students for whom they were designed? This must, of 
course, depend on one^s view of what is necessary to a liberal 
culture. Why not give to those who. have studied no ancient 
language such certificates and titles as best describe their 
work, and, to those who have sufficiently pursued one, concede 
the full rank of bachelor of arts? 

That a liberal education may be properly held to require a 
wider historical and moral horizon than the modem tongues 
alone can give, can hardly be disputed. An acquaintance, at 
first band, with the manners and sentiments of a civilization 
remote from our own, one unmodified by Christianity, is so pre- 
eminently liberalizing, so quickens one's power of intellectual 
sympathy, so deepens one's sense of the unity of history, so 
enlarges the range and perspective of one's thoughts, that it 
may properly be made the differentia between a general and a 
special training. But are two ancient languages necessary for 
this? Is it even necessary that one of the classical languages 
should be pursued? Would not Semitic or Sanscrit studies, if 
these should happen to be unaccompanied by Greek or Latin, 
secure the same end? The main thing is to get a genuine hold 
upon a distant past. 

The literary and s&sthetic reasons for the study of the classical 
languages, that is, of Greek, which is the real issue in the 
case, it is not necessary to belittle the force of. But how few 
candidates for the degree of bachelor of arts ever acquire any 
refinement or delicacy of Greek scholarship! How few teachers 
— happily there are signal and distinguished exceptions to this 
remark — teach Greek otherwise than as a grammatical drill, 
or, at the best, a philological discipline ! Was ever the Hellenic 
spirit and form better reproduced than by Keats, who could 
not read Greek at all ? 

It is not, in Professor Griffin's opinion, easy to justify the 
insistence upon both Greek and Latin as essential to a liberal 
education. We may be in danger of displaying in behalf of 
Greek studies something of the same excessive deference to 
traditionary habits and standards which worked so powerfully 
against their reception in the fifteenth century. It is undeni- 
able that the majority of men in two, at least, of the so-called 
learned professions, — law and medicine, ~ in editorial work and 
in politics, are not, in the academic sense, liberally educated 
men. Is not this due in part to the fact that we have been 
too rigid at certain points, making our education seem remote 
from life and pedantic? If it should seem wise to bestow the 
bachelor of arts degree without Greek, we could simplify our 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. N(.. 367 

nomenclature by dispensinfc with the degrees of bachelor of 
letters and of philosophy; we could carry to full graduation 
some who now pursue partial courses of study; we could 
obviate criticisms, which proceed not always from so-called 
**practicar* men, but often from persons abundantly qualified 
to form an opinion, — graduates, not rarely, of our pwn 

**But while this additional freedom may wisely be conceded," 
the speaker went on to say, **it is of the last importance that 
we insist upon those fundamental subjects which any rational 
theory of a liberal education must include. President Oilman 
enumerates these as follows: *It is essential that the candidate 
who receives that degree should have received much instruction 
in (a) ancient and modem languages and literature, (b) in 
mathematics, (c) in the natural and physical sciences, (d) in 
historical and moral sciences.' I need not stop to show why 
these four classes of subjects are essential : we are not likely 
to disagree about that. Experience has shown, what one's 
knowledge of human nature would lead one to expect, that 
young men, left wholly to themselves, will not apportion their 
time equitably between these different interests. 

* 'Professor West of Princeton took the trouble, three or four 
years ago, to summarize the choices of elective studies made 
by members of a recent class 9t one of our leading colleges. A 
more careful administration of the system probably prevents, 
at the present time, such extreme abuse of liberty ; yet these 
facts are instructive as an illustration of a danger against 
which we need to guard. The first man in standing omitted 
two of the classes of subjects named by President Oilman, 
taking no course in mathematics or in science. The second 
omitted nearly three, taking no course in mathematics, in 
science (except botany), in philosophy, history, or political 
science. The third took np science and no philosophy. The 
fourth took no course in philosophy, history, political science, 
classics, modern languages. How can we consider a man 
liberally educated who has studied, during his collegiate resi- 
denoe, no modem language, no ancient language, no logic, 
psycholofcy, or ethics, no history, no political or social science? 
Omissions of like significance occur in the case of each of the 
ten highest men, while the men at the bottom of the class show 
a marked inclination to the easiest subjects. We cannot plead 
the example of the Oerman universities, for we have no such 
preliminary training as the Oerman gymnasia afford. It is 
obvious that unrestricted liberty of election cannot be per- 
mitted. No degradation of the baccalaureate degree is com- 
parable to that which would come from the general adoption of 
such a system in our colleges. The degree has at present an 
approximate uniformity of meaning. This would speedily and 
totally disappear." 

The suggestions which Professor Oriffin offered, on the basis 
of President Oilman's paper, are these: — 

1. Diminish the evils growing out of the number of our 
colleges, and the inferiority of some of them, through an agree- 
ment among the strongest and best, which would have the 
force of an authoritative example. 

2. Distinguish sharply between the technical and the bacca- 
laureate degrees, reducing the latter to one, or, at most, two 

8. Helax the requirement in regard to Oreek, accepting one 
ancient language as sufficient for the bachelor of arts degree. 

4. Allow no elections on the part of students that will pre- 
vent a suitable distribution of attention between the four great 
groups of subjects which have been named. 

The Rdle of Potable Waters in the Etiology of Typhoid- 

There has long been a consensus of medical opinion as to 
the rSle of drinking-water in the causation of typhoid, and 
facts to prove an etiological relation are accumulating every year. 
According to the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal^ Yaillard 

has made a communication to the Soci^te M^dicale des 
Hdpitaux, in which he furnishes new bacteriological proofs. 

1. In March, 1889, there broke out in the regiment of cavalry 
quartered at Melun an epidemic of typhoid-fever, but only one 
squadron was affected. This squadron made use of the water 
of a particular well which had been contaminated in some 
unknown way. Repeated examinations of samples of this 
water revealed the presence of the bacillus typhosus, 

2. At Cherbourg there was an epidemic of enteric -fever, 
affecting particularly a military company. The water-supply 
of this part of the city had been contaminated by typhoid 
dejections in a manner easily explicable, and samples of this 
water showed the haciUus typhosus in abundance. 

8. Similar facts were noted with regard to epidemics which 
prevailed last year and the year before at Miranda, at Bourg-en- 
Bresse, and at Chatellerault. 

M. Vaillard's method of identifying the typhoid bacillus 
seems to have been in accordance with the most approved data 
of bacteriological science. 

At the same meeting, Chantemesse stated some facts of 
interest respecting the influence of Seine water on the preva- 
lence of typhoid epidemics. It was remarkable, that when- 
ever, from accident happening to the reservoirs or mains of the 
other water sources, the water of the Seine was distributed to 
the various departments and drank by the inhabitants or the 
soldiery, an epidemic of typhoid appeared. 

This statement was corroborated by M. Schneider at a meet- 
ing of the Soci^te de Medecine Publique, Dec. 27, 1889, who 
also showed, by facts that had come under his own observatioi^ 
as military surgeon, that the use of Seine water for drinking, 
had repeatedly been followed by epidemics of enteric-fever. 
Such an epidemic has recently prevailed in the barracks of Paris,, 
owing to the temporary shutting-off of the water of the Vanne„ 
which seems to be of exceptional purity. 

The Grippe and Cholera. 

Fears having been expressed as to a possible connection be- 
tween influenza and cholera epidemics. Dr. Smolenski publishes, 
in the Russian Official Messenger, an elaborate report upon the 
subject. He points out that the suspicion is not new, and that in 
1887 it was discussed by Oluge (**Die Influenza"), and refuted. 
In fact, influenza or grippe epidemics have been known in Eu- 
rope since 1178, that is, for more than seven hundred years ; while 
the first cholera epidemic appeared in Europe in 1828, but did 
not spread that time farther than Astrakhan. Six years later it 
broke out in Orenburg; next year, in Caucasia and Astrakhan 
again, whence it spread over Russia, and in 1881 reached western 
Ehirope. As a rule, influenza spreads very rapidly ; and at St. 
Petersburg in 1782, says Nature, no fewer than forty thousand 
persons fell ill of it on the same day (Jan. 14) . Ld 1833 it& 
progress was also very rapid, and within a few days it appeared 
at places so far apart as Moscow, Odessa, Alexandria, and Paris; 
while cholera epidemics are usually slow in their migrations 
from one place to another. Moreover, influenza is chiefly a 
winter epidemic, while cholera prefers the spring and the sum- 

Dr. Smolenski has further tabulated all induenza and cholera 
epidemics which have broken out in the course of this century in 
Europe; and he comes to the -following results: influenza broke 
out in 1816 in Iceland; 1827, in Russia and Siberia; 1830-33» 
in Europe generally; 1886-37, in Europe; 1838, in Iceland; 
1841-48 and 1850-51, in Europe; 1858, in the Faroe Islands; 
1854-55 and 1857-58, in Europe ; 1856, in Iceland and the Faroe 
Islands; 1862, Holland and Spain ; 1863-64, France and Switzior^ 
land; 1866, France and Oreat Britain ; 1867, France, Oermaao^^ 
and Belgium; 1868, Turkey; and 1874-75, western Eiuun^e^ 
As to the cholera epidemics during the same period, they were» 
1823, Astrakhan and Caucasia (from Persia); 1829, Orenburg; 
(from Turkestan) ; 1830, Russia (from Persia) ; 1831-37, various 
parts of Europe. The next epidemic appeared in 1846 in 'Drana- 
caucasia (coming from Persia) ; in 1847 it spread over Siberia 
and Russia, and in 1848 it was in Europe; in 1849-52 it was 
followed by feeble outbreaks all over Elurope. The third cboloEa 

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February [4, 1890.] 



epidemic came from Persia again in 1852, and it resulted in a 
severe outbreak during the years 1853-55 in Europe, followed by 
feebler outbreaks till 1861. The fourth cholera epidemic came 
through the Mediterranean ports in 1865, and lasted in Europe 
till 1868, with feebler epidemics in 186ft-74. The latest invasion 
of cholera was in 1884, when it came again through the Mediter- 
ranean porta. As to the cholera epidemic which now begins to 
die out in Persia and Mesopotamia, it certainly is a danger ; the 
more so, as, out of the five epidemics of cholera which have 
visited Europe, three have come from Persia. 

Burial Reform in England. —After a period of incubation 
which has been spent in educating public opinion in the matter 
of the hygienic iniquity of the present system of interment, 
the group of sanitary philanthropists, with the Duke of West- 
minster at their head, who have taken up the ungrateful task 
of bringing the necessary reforms to pass, have at last decided 
to approach the government with the object of having their 
contentions indorsed by the Legislature. How far the general 
public will consent to allow their cherished usages in this 
respect to be interfered with, we are unable to guess, but the 
object in view will certainly commend itself to those who have 
a thought beyond the morrow. What is required, says the 
Medical Press and Circular of Jan. 1, 1890, is the prohibition 
of leaden and other solidly constructed coffins, the effect of 
which is to indefinitely retard complete decomposition, and so 
prolong the period during which the dead are not only 
eestheticaily objectionable, but are an indisputable source of 
danger to the living, wicker-work or papier-mache receptacles 
alone being used. Tl is is, after all, no very startling innova- 
tion, and is not open to the sentimental and theological objec- 
tions which some persons entertain to the more radical plan of 
cremation. It is merely a sanitary precaution of an elementary 
kind: and, whatever the immediate fate of the movement may 
be, it must sooner or later impose itself. The effect of legisla- 
tive interference would simply be to hasten and generalize the 
practice among those who have too much to do in this world 
to find time to decide upon the material of which their coffin 
is to be made. We are rather inclined to agree with Sir 
Spencer Wells in his suggestion that in future only properly 
cremated remains should be admitted to funeral honors in 
Westminster Abbey and other national mausoleums. Not only 
would there result a valuable Economy of space, but the very 
deleterious odor of decomposing sanctity which pervades many 
sacred edifices would be done away with. 

Action of the Liver on Poisons. — Dr. Roger points out that 
the liver modifies the toxic effects of several poisons, as has 
already been noted by Schiff, Hegar, Jacques, and Lautenbach. 
He has performed certain experiments, as we learn from the 
Provincial Medical Journal, which demonstrate clearly its 
modifying action with regard to nicotine, atropine, quinine, 
and strychnine; also certain putrid and intestinal poisons, 
peptones, and some salts, particularly ammoniacal salts. On 
tbe other hand, the liver exercises no influence over other sub- 
stances, such as digitaline, some salts .(potash and soda), 
glycerine, etc. The liver, therefore, like the kidney, possesses 
an elective action. To control these results, it is necessary that 
the poison should be absorbed very slowly. In the case of a 
diseased liver (cirrhosis, fatty degeneration, etc.), in which the 
parenchyma no longer contains glycogen, the liver does not act 
on poisons, but it suffices to administer substanced capable of 
forming glycogen, to see the hepatic gland again competent to 
transform poisons. The action of the healthy liver is continu- 
ally exerted against toxic substances in the system; it is still 
more marked in those infectious diseases in which decided toxic 
effects are produced. Some clinical facts go to prove that 
many morbid symptoms are due to insufficiency of the liver in 
i^ard to poisons. 

Dobs SALTraa Meat destbot Bacteria? — Professor J. Forster 
of Amsterdam has published an account of some investigations 
made in his laboratory by himself and De Freytag, having for 
their object the determination of the effect of the common 
process of salting or pickling meat on various forms of bacteria. 

It was found, as stated Jin the British Medical Journal, that 
cholera bacilli wore soon destroyed und^^ (thf). influence of 
abundance of salt, usually in a few hours, but that typhoid 
bacilli, pyogenic staphylococci, the streptococci of erysipelas, 
and the bacilli of porcine infectious diseases, frequently retained 
their vitality for several weeks, or even months, in spite of the 
presence of abundance of salt. The same was also true of the 
bacilli of tubercle. In some cases these bacilli were found 
alive after being two months in pickle, their vitality being 
proved by their capacity for infecting new cultures. Portions 
of the viscera of a tuberculous animal, preserved for a consid- 
erable time in salt, were found capable of causing tuberculosis 
in a healthy animal when introduced into its peritoneal cavity. 
Experiments on the spleen of an anfmal which had died of 
malignant anthrax showed that salt possessed the power of 
destroying the bacilli of this disease in about eighteen hours. 
These, as well as cholera bacilli, were found to require seven 
and one-half per cent of salt to destroy them. From these 
facts it would appear that salting or pickling has but little 
destructive effect on many of the more common forms of bacilli 
liable to be found in diseased meat. 

The Electrical Phenomena op the Human Heart. — A 
special meeting of the Berlin Physiological Society was called 
by Professor Dubois-Reymond on Dec. 27, 1889, in order to see 
a demonstration by Dr. Augustus Waller oh man and uninjured 
animals of the electro -motive action accompanying the beat of 
the heart. Besides the ordinary members of the society, the 
leading physicists of Berlin were invited, and Professors Helm- 
holtz and Kundt witnessed the experiments. Dr. Waller, says 
the British Medical Journal of* Jan. 11, employed the capillary 
electrometer magnified 1,250 times, and thrown on a ground - 
glass screen in one of the lecture-rooms of the Physiological 
Institute, and demonstrated the electro-motive action of the 
heart on a horse and on a dog. The horse stood in a courtyard 
near the lecture -room. Electrodes were attached to his extremi- 
ties by firm bands, and the wires from the electrodes were 
passed through the window to the electrometer in the prepara- 
tion-room adjoining the lecture-room. The dog stood in the 
lecture-room. In the library of the institute. Professor Dubois- 
Heymond allowed the demonstration to be made on himself, so 
that the pulsations might be seen directly through the micro- 
scope by all the members present. 

The Health of London in 1889. — Remarkable as has been 
the continual decline of the death-rate in England and Wales 
in recent years, the decrease of the rate of mortality in London, 
with its aggregate population of more than four millions, with 
constantly increasing density, is still more remarkable, says 
the Lancet of Jan. 4, 1890. The registrar -general, in his last 
annual sunamary, reported that the death-rate registration in 
London in 1888 was 18.5 per 1,000, being **far the lowest 
death-rate as yet recorded in London,'* the next lowest being 
19.8, 19.9, and 19.6 in the three immediately preceding 
"years, 1885, 1886, 1887, previous to which the London death- 
rate had never fallen below 20 per 1,000. The death-rate in 
1889, moreover, again fell, and was considerably below the 
low rate in 1888. The registrar -general's return for the fifty- 
second week of 1889 affords the means of calculating that the 
mean annual death-rate in London in the fifty-two weeks of 
last year did not exceed 17.5 per 1,000, which was 1 per 1,000 
below the rate in 1888. 

Floods and Their Results prom a Sanitary Standpoint.— 
We learn from the Medical Becord that arrangements have been 
made to hold a tri -State sanitary convention at Wheeling, 
W. Va., Feb 27 and 28, 1890. Representatives will be present 
with papers and addresses from Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 
and Ohio. The object of the convention is to consider the 
question of floods and their results from a sanitary stand}x>int, 
and the best methods of managing the sanitary interests of a 
given community after such a calamity. Owing to the mutual 
relations held by these three States with reference to large 
rivers, and the numerous towns in each one of these States 
that are annually affected by floods and their results, it has 

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[Vol. XV. No. 367 

been thought wise to bold a conventioD for stadying how best 
to manage the sanitary interests of cities and towns so affected. 
Every person interested directly or indirectly in this important 
subject is earnestly requested to be present and assist in dis- 
cussing (he papers, and add whatever information he can to the 
solution of these practical and most important questions, 
affecting as they do the health and lives of thousands of 
citizens of these three great commonwealths annually. 

Cholera and Europe. — The epidemic of cholera which has 
tot so many months been raging in the valleys of the Tigris 
and Euphrates and the interior of Mesopotamia has also made 
considerable inroads into Persia. Reports of the epidemic 
having crossed the western boundary of Persia have been 
heard from time to time; but it has now been announced 
to the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, that there has been an 
alarming increase of the disease in central Persia and on the 
Turko-Persian frontier, and that the inhabitants are fleeing 
toward the north. All those who can afford the journey are 
trying to reach the Russian ports on the Caspian. Remem- 
bering that this is the route into Europe which the cholera has 
BO frequently taken, the announcement, says The Medical and 
Surgical Reporter, must be regarded as one of great gravity. 


The RAPmiTY op Mental Processes in Insanity. — The fact 
that the change in the mode of responding to the stimuli of 
the environment, characteristic of a disturbed mental equilib- 
rium, will reveal itself in things important and trivial, has 
often been emphasized and illustrated. In this respect a com- 
parison of the time required for performing simple mental 
operations in the insane with similar times in normal indi- 
viduals is interesting, especially if we take account of the 
nature of the disease. The chief point in such an investigation 
is to secure a fair comparison, — a desideratum which former 
studies have not sufficiently taken into account. The most 
recent contribution to this field comes from a lady (Marie 
Walitzky, Remie PhUosophique, December, 1889) , and furnishes 
interesting results, based upon a sound method. She has 
chosen for her subjects men of good education — physicians, 
military officers, bankers, etc. — suffering from mental disease, 
and compared the times they require for executing certain 
mental processes with the times required for the performance 
of the very same processes, tested by the same apparatus, under 
the same conditions, by healthy physicians and other intelligent 
persons. The subjects were three persons suffering from 
paralytic dementia,— a case of remission after intense maniacal 
excitement; a case of general paralysis (in the initial sta^e of 
excitability) ; and another case observed at two different stages 
(in the period of remission, and in a state of maniacal agita- 
tion). Experiments were also made upon another patient 
whose disease is not altogether clear, and who was in a condition 
very nearly normal. The preliminary stages of practice were 
overcome; though times differing largely from the average 
always occurred, and had to be rejected. The processes studied 
were (1) the simple re-action time (with each hand) to a 
sound ; (2) a choice of re-action, re-acting with the one hand to 
a loud sound, and with the other to a low one; (8) the re- 
action to a spoken word ; (4) the ordinary association of one 
word with another ; (5) the addition of one number to another. 
The associations were further distinguished as external, e.g., 
flour-hour, mouth-nose, in which the link was not logical, but 
rather accidental ; internal or logical associations, such as table- 
round, house-dweUing ; and assocations fixed by habit, such as 
pater-noater, Adain-Eve, Of course, these distinctions are 
neither absolute nor always easy to apply, and the same asso- 
ciation may take place differently in different persons. Each 
average for each subject is founded upon about a hundred and 
fifty observations. The most important conclusions are the 
following: in the three cases of paralytic dementia the simple 
re-action time is lengthened, .225, .888, and . 864 of a second ; 
while in the average of five healthy individuals this average 
was .188 of a second; while in the other cases, mainly condi- 

tions of remission, no essential difference exists, the average 
time being . 201 of a second. The difference in the time of re-action 
to a weak and to a strong stimulus is about the same in sane 
and insane, except in the two most pronounced cases of paralytic 
dementia, where the additional time needed to re-act to a slight 
stimulus is one-tenth of a second or more. The choice time is 
(and a similar relation holds of the other times) often three or 
four times as long in the paralytic dementia as in sanity, but 
approaches, though it is far from reaching, the normal in tbe 
states of remission: dementia, .816 of a second; remission, .629 
of a second; normal, .864 of a second. The re-action to words 
is markedly longer than the normal only in the severest case 
of dementia, .864 of a second; normal, .285 of a second. Tbe 
association time is most lengthened in a state of remission 
approaching melancholy, 1.877 seconds; in the state of remis- 
sion, as in paralytic dementia, it approaches the normal, .898 
of a second (normal, .680 of a second) . In mania this time is 
shortened, .268 of a second. In those cases in which the 
patient was observed in two different stages of the disease, tbe 
same result is confirmed : the association time diminishes, and 
the choice time increases, as the maniacal agitation becomes 
more pronounced. The observations respecting t^e nature of 
the association are too limited to be separately discussed. 
These results suggest to the authoress the view, that, grant- 
ing a reduction * in association time to be dependent upon 
the faculty of unconsciously reproducing the associations 
fixed in the memory, the automatic function of tbe mind 
is increased in the initial stages of mental impairment, and 
that, parallel with this increase of mental automatism, the 
activity of the will decreases, its processes being slower. 
As the intellectual powers fade, the automatic functions also 
become slow, and finally even the perception of tbe simplest 
impressions is slackened. In the period of remission, even at 
its best, the mental powers da not fully recover: the automa- 
tism of the brain becomes normal, but the recovery of the 
will is incomplete. 

A Curious Mental Trait. — A correspondent of the G^man 
Anthropological Society tells of his meeting a farmer by the 
name of Ldwendorf, who had a peculiar habit of writing 
**Austug" for ** August,'* his CJhristian name. Some years 
later he was inspecting a school, and heard a little girl read 
**leneb" for **leben," **naled" for **nadel," and the like. 
Upon inquiring, he found that her name was L5wendorf, and 
that she was a daughter of his former friend the farmer, now 
dead. This defect was noticeable in the speech and writing 
of both father and daughter. It appeared in the father as liie 
result of a fall that occurred some time before tbe birth of his 


We regret to announce the death of Gustave-Adolphe Him, 
the eminent physicist. He died at Colmar on Jan. 14, in his 
seventy-fifth year. 

— A new kind of butter is now being made in Gomany from 
cocoanut-milk. The Calcutta correspondent of the London Times' 
says that the cocoanuts required for this industry are Imported in 
large numbers from India, chiefly Bombay, and that the trade 
seems likely to attain still greater importance. 

— Special attention was called by the United States Hydro- 
graphic Office to the unusually early southward movement of 
ice. Already (Feb. 1) thirty-six reports have been received of 
ice sighted since Jan. 5, and the positions and dates indicate that 
the ice season is one of the earliest on record, — nearly a month 
earlier than usual. This is undoubtedly due in large part to the 
prevalence of severe northerly gales east of Labrador, coincident 
with the heavy westerly gales of December and January along 
the transatlantic route. Masters of vessels should keep well clear 
of the Grand Banks for a few months, till there is less danger 
from icebergs and field-ice. 

— Professor S. P. Langley, in a paper on the "Temperature of 
the Moon, ' ' in the December Journal of Science, states, that, of 

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February 14, 189a] 



the nmnerous ccmcluBions to be drawn from this research, the 
most important (me is that the mean temperature of the sun- 
lit lunar soil is much lower than has been supposed, and is 
probablj not greatly above zero Centigrade. In a postscript 
Professor Langlej says, ' *I would ask to be allowed here to state 
that the very considerable expense for the special means and re- 
daction of the preceding series of lunar researches was borne by 
one of the most generous and disinterested friends that science 
has had in this country, — the late William Thaw of Pittsburgh. 
By his own wish, no mention of his name was made in previous 
publications in connection with the results so greatly indebted 
to his aid. His recent death seems to remove the restriction im- 
posed by such a rare disinterestedness. 

— The proceedings of the International Marine Ck)nference 
came to an end Dec. 81, 1889, and a final act has been issued 
ebawmg for each division of the programme, and in the order of 
the divisions, the resolutions adopted. The delegations of the 
tw^ity-eight nations represented will now make their reports to 
their home governments, but none of the rules adopted will go 
into effect until approved and enforced by appropriate legislation. 
Relative to the great question of course-indicating sound-signals 
in foggy or thick weather, it was decided, after mature delibera- 
ti<xi, that it is inexpedient to adopt any one of the various sys- 
tems proposed. The various other questions before the conference, 
such as lights, sound-signals, distress-signals, regulations re- 
garding the seaworthiness, draught, and designation of vessels, 
the saving of life and property from shipwreck, qualifications for 
officers and seamen, steamer- lanes, etc., were considered thor- 
oughly, and the conclusions arrived at must command general 
attention and respect. It is of interest to note here that the carry- 
ing of white range-lights by steamers is favored, although not 
made obligatory ; and steamer- lanes for transatlantic navigation 
are not adc^ted, although the various companies are urged to 
adopt regular routes for vessels of their own lines. The increased 
attenticm given to such subjects as the removal of dangerous 
derelicts and the use of oil to pi^vent heavy seas from breaking 
on board is of especial interest to the United States Hydrographic 
Office, in view of the efforts made to circulate information on 
tiiese subjects by the ' 'Pilot Chart. ' ' 

— The International Horticultural Exhibition to be held in 
Berlin under royal and imperial auspices, from April 25 to May 
5, will be characterized by two special features,^ — an exhibition 
of horticultural architecture, and one of horticultural models, 
apparatus, etc. It is requested that all exhibits or announcements 
of such should be promptly sent to the general secretary of the 
Society for the Promotion of Horticulture, Professor Dr. L. Witt- 
mack, Invalidenstrasse 42, Berlin N. , from whom all further in- 
formation may be obtained. The exhibition will be held in the 
Boyal Agricultural Exhibition Building, on the Lehrt Railway. 
The gaieral organizer of the scientific department is Professor 
Dr. Pringsheim, and the following gentlemen have undertaken 
the management of Bpeciall>ranches : for the geography of plants. 
Professor Dr. Ascherson; for physiology, Professor Dr. Frank; 
for seeds, Herr P. Hennings; for morphology, anatomy, and the 
histcny of development, Professor Dr. Kny ; for fungi, Professor 
Dr. Magnus; for soils, Professor Dr. Orth; for history, literature, 
and miscellaneous. Dr. Schumann; for officinal and technical 
objects. Dr. Tachirch. The minister for agriculture, Dr. Frei- 
hm V. Lucius-Balhausen, will be the honorary president of the 
exhibition. The city of Berlin has granted the sum of 15,000 
marks towards its expenses, and a guaranty fund of 80,000 marks 
has been raised. 

— The marine meteorological service in the Spanish West Indies 
was cHTganized about a year ago, and was in active operation dur- 
ing the last hurricane season, as already stated on the ''Pilot 
Chart." Its importance to the West Indies, Mexico, and the 
United States, as well as to the commerce of every nation navi- 
gating tiie Bay of North America, is so great that it is gratifying 
to learn that its establishment has been definitely approved by a 
recent royal order issued through the minister of marine, Madrid. 
It is in charge of a commander in the navy, assisted by two lieu- 
tenants, with headquarters in Havana, at the Comandancia Gen- 

eral del Apostadero, and a number of secondary reporting station? 
at points along the coasts of Cuba and Porto Rico. Capt. Luis 
Oarcia y Carbonell, who has organized the service, has been des- 
ignated as its director. The United States Hydrographic Office* 
has already, upon several occasions, acknowledged valuable- 
assistance from Capt Carbonell, and it regards the establishment 
of this weather service upon a permanent and effective basis as* 
of the greatest importance to the interests of commerce. 

— The month of January was remarkable for the tempestuous* 
weather that prevailed almost uninterruptedly over the . trans-^ 
atlantic steamship routes. Storms succeeded each other in rapid 
succession, the majority of them having developed inland, and 
moved east-north-east, on very similar paths, from Nova Scotia 
and across southern Newfoundland. The most notable storm of 
the month was probably the one that developed in the St. Law- 
rence valley, and moved out to sea across the Straits of Belle 
Isle early on the 8d, when it was central about latitude 52*^ 
north, longitude 48^ west. It then moved nearly due east, rap- 
idly increasing in intensity, until reaching the 20th meridian, 
when it curved to the north-eastward, and was central on the 5th 
about latitude 55^ north, longitude 17^ west, and disappeared 
north of Scotland. The barometric pressure in this storm was 
remarkably low, the lowest corrected reading reported being 
27.93, at 4 P.M., Jan. 4, about latitude 53*' north, longitude 28"* 
west. This was reported to the United States Hydrographic 
Offlce by Capt. Johnson, of the British steamship * 'Connemara, ' ' 
who further states that the storm was accompanied by winds of 
hurricane force, with terrific squalls, occasional hail, and moun- 
tainous seas. 

— The January number of the Kew BuUttin contained an able 
and most interesting report, by Dr. Francis Oliver, on the so- 
called weather-plant. This plant is Ahrus precatoriusy Linn. , a; 
well-known tropical weed. Mr. Joseph F. Nowack claims to* 
have discovered that its leaves have * *the peculiar property of 
indicating by their position various changes in nature about 
forty-eight hours before the said changes occur." Numerous 
observations with hundreds of such plants have convinced him 
that *'any given position of the leaves corresponds always to a 
certain condition of the weather forty -eight hours afterwards. ' * 
Some time ago he devised an apparatus for the purpose of putting 
his supposed discovery to practical use. It consists of a * *trans- 
parent vessel containing the weather-plant, closed on all sides, 
protected against injurious external influences, and adapted to 
be internally ventilated and maintained at a temperature of at- 
least 'l8^ Reaumur, these being the conditions under which, in. 
temperate climates, Nowack' s weather-plant answers the pvirpose' 
of a weather- indicator. " Last year Mr. Nowack was anxious 
that his apparatus should be scientifically tested at Kew, but it 
would not have been easy for any member of the staff of the 
Royal Gardens to find time for the necessary observations. The 
taE^ was undertaken by Dr. Francis Oliver, who now presents* 
the results of his investigation. The following, as we learn from 
NcUure, is a summary of the conclusions at which he has arrived : 
'*I contend that all the movements exhibited by the leaves of ' 
AbruM precatorius depend on causes not so far to seek as those 
suggested by Mr. Nowack. The ordinary movements of the leaf- 
lets, of rising and falling, are called forth in the main by 
changes in the intensity of the light. In a humid atmosphere 
they are more sluggish than in a relatively dry one. In other 
words, when the conditions are favorable for transpiration, the 
movem^its are most active. The position for snow and hail i& 
connected intimately, in the cases that have come under my 
observation, with a spotting or biting (by insects) of the leafiets^ 
and is not due to any other external factor. The position for fog 
and mist, and for electricity in the air, is probably due to the- 
disturbance caused by varying light, the rhythmical movements 
of the leaflets being temporarily overthrown. The position indi- 
cating thunder and lightning I take to be pathological from its 
tendency to recur on the same leaves. Daily movements of the 
rachis constitute a periodic function in this as in many other 
plants with pinnate leaves. The regularity of these oscillations 
is considerably influenced by both light and temperature. * ' 

Digitized by 




[Vol. XV. No. 367 





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