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COPYRIGHT. 1912. BY MUNN ft CO., INC. 
COPYRIGHT. 1913. BY MUNN ft CO.. INC. 



This work is protected by over eighty Copyrights, 
snd no matter must be rc'produced exoept by written 
permission. Rights of translation into all languages, 
including the Scandinavian, are reserved. 



Published October. 1012. 



New Edition. October. 1013. 



> V 



Printed in the United Rtates b 
▲. H. Kellogg Co.. N«w Vorl 






/, / -5».C 



PREFACE. 

The Editorial staff of the "Scientific American '' re- 
ceives annually about 15,000 inquiries covering a wide 
range of topics— ruo field of human achievement or of 
natural phenomena is neglected. The information sought 
for, in many cases, cannot be readily found in text-books 
or works of reference. The need of a compendium of 
useful information presented itself some twenty years 
ago, and a part of the field was covered by the publication 
in 1901 of the "Scientific American Cyclopedia of Re- 
eeipts, Notes, and Queries, " of which over 25,000 copies 
were sold. This book becoming obsolete in time was 
supplanted by its successor, the "Scientific American 
Cyclopedia of Formulas, ' ' issued in 1 91 1 . There was, how- 
ever, another field which was not covered : the public, 
or at least the public of the *' Scientific American," de- 
manded something which did not exist — they wanted a 
book which should deal with a vast range of topics other 
than formulae. They wanted information about the 
Antarctic region, the Panama route, shipping, navies, 
annies, railroads, population, education, patents, sub- 
marine cables, wireless telegraphy, manufactures, agri- 
culture, mining, mechanical movements, astronomy 
and the weather. The Editors of the present volume felt 
constrained to compile such a book, which was issued in 
1904, under the same title as this book. Its success was 
immediate, and an edition of 10,000 copies was inadequate 
to supply the demand. In 1905 a second large edition 
was issued, and was eagerly bought up by those who wished 
ihis useful companion for the desk or library. As the 

\ [iii] 



figures became obsolete, it was allowed to become "out of 
print, '' and now in response to a considerable number of 
requests a new book is presented, following to some ex- 
tent the old lines, but entirely recompiled and rewritten. 

Immense masses of Government material have been 
digested with painstaking care by competent statisticians, 
and the result will, in the judgment of the Editors, fully 
warrant the expenditure of considerable effort and results 
in the production of a unique book. 

It is perhaps necessary to call attention to the fact 
that there are certain inconsistencies in the tables. In 
procuring the figures, for example, from different bureaus 
and departments of the Government, with reference to 
any subject, it is found that statistics vary in certain 
particulars. These differences are due to the different 
methods of tabulation or to different points of view. In 
many cases these discrepancies are noted in this book, 
to prevent the reader from forming erroneous conclusions. 
These cases must not be regarded as errors, and an attempt 
has been made to give, wherever possible, the date of the 
figures and the authority. Every available space has 
been taken up with useful information, whether germane 
to the chapter or not. 

The debt for advice and help is a heavy one. The 
compilation of this or any similar one would be impossible 
without the co-operation of many Government officials. 
Our thanks are especially due to Dr. Falkner, late 
Assistant Director of the Census, and to the Hon. E. Dana 
Durand, Director of the Census; the Hon. O. P. Austin, 
late Chief of the Bureau of Statistics and now Assistant- 
Chief of the new Bureau of Domestic and Foreign Com- 
merce, and to Mr. N. Eckhardt, Jr., of his office; to the 
Hon. Eugene Tyler Chamberlain, Commissioner of Navi- 
gation; to Captain T. M. Potts, of the United States 

[iv] 



Navy; to Major J. D. Leitch, U. S. A., Secretary 
of the War College Division; to Mr. C. F. Talman, 
of the Weather Bureau, for his condensed chapter 
on the weather; to Senator Wm. Alden Smith; to Mr. 
Slason Thompson, of the Bureau of Railway News and 
Statistics; to the Hon. S. B. Donnelly, Public Printer; 
to Dr. J. A. Holmes, Chief of the Bureau of Mines ; to the 
Hon. Frank H. Hitchcock, Postmaster-General; to Dr. 
A. F. Zahm; to Dr. W. W. Share; to Dr. Geo. F. Kimz; to 
Mr. Perry B. Turpin; to Dr. F. L. Hoffman, Statistician of 
the Prudential Life Insurance Co.; to Captain J. L. Jayne, 
U. S. N., Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Observatory; 
to Captain A. W. Lewis, of the Associated Press; to Mr. 
E. Justice, of the North German Lloyd Steamship Co. ; to 
the painstaking assistants, Miss Henrietta von Tobel and 
ilr. Albert S. Regula; and to a host of oth« friends whose 
help was invaluable. A number of interesting com- 
parisons in line are from Prof. A. L. Hickmann's Geo- 
graphical-Statistical Universal Atlas and Philips' Chamber 
of Commerce Atlas. Acknowledgment is made for mat- 
ter from The American Almanac and Year Book, The 
World Almanac and the Chicago Daily News Almanac 
and Year Book, The Statistical Abstract of the United 
States, and the publications of the Census. Many items 
are credited where used. 

New York, 
October 15, 1912. 

PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION. 

The edition for 1914 has been brought up to date. 
The errors found were trifling, so that it is hoped that 
the verdict of users of this edition, as well as the 
press, will be favorable. Editions of a statistical work 
aggregating 35,000 are rare. 

New York, 
October 22, 1913. 

w 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I.— STATISTICAL INFORMATION. 

PAGE 

CSiapter I. — Population and Social Statistics 1-42 

Qapter II. — ^Farms, Foods and Forests 43-74 

Qiaptfer III. — ^Mines and Quarries 75-96 

Qnpter IV.— Manufactures 97-136 

Cbpter v.— Commerce 137-192 

Cbpter VI.— Mercantile Marine 19^-232 

Qnpter VII. — Railroads 233-264 

Cli^ter Vni. — ^The Panama Canal 265-278 

Ch^ter IX. — ^Telegraphs and Cables 279-298 

Cbapter X.— Wireless Telegraphy 299-310 

Chapter XI.— Telephone Stetistics of the Worid 311-322 

Chapter XII.— Post Office Affairs 323-350 

Chapter Xni.— Patents, Trad^Marks and Copyrights 351-388 

XTV.— Armies of the World 389-408 

XV.— Navies of the World 409-^36 

dapter XVI.— Aviation 437-456 

PART IL— SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION. 

Qapter I.— Chemistry 457-462 

(3i^>ter II. — Astronomy and Time. 463-484 

Chapter III. — ^Meteorology 485-518 

Chapter IV. — ^Machine Elements and Mechanical Movements 519-546 

Chapter V. — (Geometrical Constructions 547-660 

Chapter VI. — Weights and Measures 561-586 

Note. — A complete Table of Contents is of little value where a complete 
bdex is provided. Those interested in a subject will find little hardship in 
fomng the whole chapter devoted to it. 



PART I. 

STATISTICAL INFORMATION. 
CHAPTER I. 

POPULATION AND SOCIAL 
STATISTICS. 

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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91,e72,26« 
1,(29,886 


75, 904, S7S 
1,282,065 






M,35« 

191,008 

1,118,012 

66,608 


83,592 

154,001 

"853,243 

91,219 






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CENTRE OF POPULATION. 



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PBRCENTAaE or INCRBABB BT STATES 1900-1910. 

INCREASE IN POPULATION. 






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SCIENTrPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



n 



POPULATION OP CITIES 

OF TBB 

UNITED STATES 

Census of 1910 



Cities of over 100,000 population 



Altany.N.Y.... 

Attiote.Ga 

BlMmore. Md . . 
BbintaghBin.Ala. 

B<MaD,MftaB 

fi^eport. Conn 
Btfilo.N.T.... 
CuBMdKe.Mass 

CUcMoTlU 

Cfodnnatt.Ohio. 
CtBTeUiid.01iSo.. 
Oohunbus. Ohio.. 
D»jteD. Ohio.... 

DaTer,Cok> 

Detroit, Mich. ... 
FU River. Mas. 
Grand Raiiidi. 



100.253 
154.839 
558.485 
132.685 
670.585 
102.054 
423,715 
104.839 

2.185.283 
364.463 
560.663 
181.548 
116,577 

^ 213.381 
466.766 
119,295 

112.571 



Indianapolis, Ind. 233.650 

Jersey cSty. N. J. 267.779 

Kanaas City. Mo. 248,381 

Los Angeles, Cal. 319,198 

Louisville, Ky . . . 223.928 

Lowell. Mass 106.294 

Memphis. Tenn. . 131.105 

Milwaukee. Wis. . 373 .857 
Minneapolis. 

Minn 301.408 

Nashville. Tenn. . 1 10.364 

Newaric. N; J. . . . 347,469 

New Haven. Ct . . 133.605 

New Orleans. La. 339.075 
New York, N.Y. 4.766.888 

Oakland. Cal ... . 150.174 

Omaha. Neb 124.096 

Paterson.N. J... 125.600 



Philadelphia. Pa. 
PittsbuKh. Pa. . . 

Portland. Ore 

Providence. R.I. 
Richmond. Va. . . 
Rochester. N. Y.. 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn. . . 
San Frandsoo. 

Oal 

Scranton. Pa 

Seattle. Wash. . . . 
Spokane, Wash.. 
Syracuse. N.Y... 

Toledo, Ohio 

Washixigton.D,C. 
Worcester. Mass. 



1.549,008 
533.905 
207.214 
224.326 
127.628 
218.149 
687.029 
214.744 

416912 
129.867 
287.194 
104,402 
187.249 
168.497 
331.069 
145.986 



Cities of from 25,000 to 100,000 population 



Akron. Obio 69.067 

Afaitovn.Pa 51.913 

fhoQoa. Pa 52.127 

ABtttentam. N. Y. . . 31.267 
Atlintie City. N. J. . 46.150 

Aabum.N.Y 34.668 

Aogoita. Ga. 41.040 

Aorora. ni 29.807 

AiBdn.Tez 29,860 

Battie Creek. Mich. . 25 267 

B»7 aty. Mich 45.166 

Bayoone. N.J 55.545 

Berkelfly. Gal 40.434 

Koghamton. N. Y. . 48.443 
Bbomfaigton. 111. . . . 25.768 

firodcton. Mass 56.878 

BRwUiae. Mass 27.792 

Ihttt6.Mont 39.165 

^adea. N. J 94.538 

OuiU»,Obio 50.217 

Oniar Rapids. Iowa. 32.811 

^vleston. .S C 58.833 

^btte. N. C 34.014 

^attanoosa, Tenn. 44.604 

^Bbea. Maas 32.452 

gwter. Pa 38.537 

gbopee. Mass. 25.401 

Qfaitoa. Iowa. 25.577 

Oitoado Springs 

Colo .....29.078 

Columbia, 8. C 26.319 

Oowicfl Bhlffs. Iowa. 29.292 

OoTtogtoa. Ky 53.270 

.^Oa8.Ta[ 92.104 

SinTllle.m 27.871 

Oivenport, Iowa. . .. 43.028 



Decatur. Ill 31.140 

Des Moines. Iowa. . . 86.368 

Dubuque. Iowa 38,494 

Duluth. Minn 78.466 

Easton. Pa 28.523 

East Orange. N. J. . . 34.371 
East St. Louis. lU. . . 58.547 

El Paso. Tex 39.279 

EWn.IU 26.976 

El&abeth. N. J 73,409 

Etaiira,N.Y 37.176 

Erie. Pa 66.525 

Evansville. Ind 69.647 

Everett. Mass 33.484 

Fitchburg. Mass 37.826 

PUntJMich 38,550 

Port Wayne. Ind 63.933 

Port Worth. Tex. . . . 73.312 

Galveston. Tex 36.981 

Green Bay, Wis 25.236 

Hamilton, Ohio 35.279 

Harrisburg. Pa 64.186 

Hartford. Conn 98,915 

Haverhill. Mass 44.115 

Hazleton. Pa 25.452 

Hoboken. N.J 70,324 

Holyoke. Mass 57.730 

Houston. Tex 78.800 

Himtington. W. Va.. 31.161 

Jackson. Mich 31.433 

Jacksonville. Fla 57.699 

Jamestown. N. Y. . . . 31,297 

Johnstown. Pa 55.482 

Jo]iet.IU 34.670 

Joplin.Mo 32.073 

Kalamazoo, Mich. . . 39,437 



Kansas City, Kans. . 82.331 

Kingston. N. Y 25.908 

Knoxville. Tenn 36.346 

La Crosse. Wis 30.417 

Lancaster. Pa 47.227 

Lansing. Mich 31,229 

Lawrence. Mass 85,892 

Lewiston. Me 26.247 

Lexington, Ky 35.099 

Uma, Ohio 30.508 

Lincoln, Nebr 43.973 

Little Rock, Ark 45,941 

Lorain. Ohio 28.883 

Lynchburg. Va 29.494 

Lynn. Mass 89.336 

Macon. Ga 40.665 

McKeesport. Pa 42.694 

Madison. Wis 25.531 

Maiden. Mass 44.404 

Manchester. N. H. . . 70,063 

Meriden. Conn 27.265 

Mobile. Ala 51.521 

Montgomery. Ala. . . 38.136 
Mount Vernon. N. Y 30.919 

Muskogee, Okla 25,278 

Nashua, N. H 26.005 

Newark, Ohio 25.404 

New Bedford, Mass. 96,652 
New Britain, Conn. . 43,916 
NewbuTKh. N. Y. . . . 27,805 

Newcastle, Pa 36.280 

Newport. Ky 30.309 

Newport. R. 1 27,149 

New Rochelle. N. Y. 28.86T 
Newton. Mass ... 39,806 
Niagara Falls. N. Y.. 30.445 



12 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Norfolk, Vs 67.452 

Norristown. Pa 27.876 

Ogdea. UUh 25.680 

OklahomA City, Okla 64.205 

Orange, N. J 29.630 

Oshkosh. Wis 33.062 

PaaadeiiA. Cal 80.291 

Passaic, N.J 54.773 

Pawtucket. R. 1 51.622 

Peoria. Ill 66.950 

Perth Amboy, N. J. . 82.121 

Pittsfleld. Mass 32.121 

Portland. Me 58.571 

Portsmouth, Va 33.190 

Poughkeepsie. N. Y. 27.936 

Puebk> Cok> 44.395 

Quincy. lU 36.587 

Quincy. Mass 32.642 

Racine, Wis 38.002 

Reading. Pa.. 96.071 

Roanoke. Va 34,874 

Rockford. Ill 45.401 

Sacrameoto, Cal 44,696 

Saginaw. Mich 50.510 



St. JoseDh, Mo 77,403 

Salem. Mass 43,697 

Salt Lake City. Utah 92.777 
San Antonio, Tex. . . 96.614 

San Diego, Cal 39.578 

San Jose, Cal 28.946 

Savannah, Oa 65.064 

8chenectady,N. Y. . 72.826 

Sheboygan. Wis 26.398 

Shenandoah, Pa 25.774 

Shreveport. La 28.015 

Sioux City. Iowa.. . . 47.828 
Someryllle. Mass.. . . 77,236 

South Bend. Ind 53.684 

South Omaha, Nebr. 26.259 

Springfield. Ill 51 .678 

Springfield. Mass. . . . 88,926 
Springfiekl. Mo. . . . 35.201 
Springfield. Ohio. . . 46.921 

Stazniord|Conn 25, 138 

Superior, Wis 40,384 

Taconui^ash 83.743 

Tampa. Fla 37.782 

Taunton. Mass 34.259 



Terre Haute. Ind 

Topeka. Kans 

Trenton, N.J 

Troy, N. Y 

Utlca.N.Y 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 

Warwick, R. I 

Waterbury, Conn. . . 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown,N.Y. . . 
West Hoboken, N. J. 

Wheeling, W. va 

Wichita, Eans 

Wilkes-Barre. Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Wihnington. Del 

Wilmington, N. C. . . 
Woonsocket, R. I . . . 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Younjsstown, Ohio. . 
ZanesylUe, Ohio 



58,151 
43.681 
9631f 
76.81S 
74.4U 
26.421 
27.85 
6M 



Comparison of the population of all states of the world 

according b tn* iMt c«ntuM< and MtlmAtlon 

ASIA 866.92 3.000 ^.ro./.. ,e««oo/w. AMERICA 

/VFRICA 152,033,000 




175,046.000 



British X >. 



wtd 

.^rotactiHaMt 



French /^ "\ 
Possess [ lsi.6»/)00 

^rotcctoratM ^ ^ 




Beigia 
Cor^go 



Egypt 

with Anglo* 
Egypt Sudan 
15>S2.000 

Garman 
PMtastions 



O&IB.000 

Hei>tfurat 
561.00) 

O4S0j000 

Nkoaraawa 
o«3CU»0 

Rap Domniic. 

O 490JCXX) 

French Po«Mtt 
418,000 

COftta Die* 
0300,000 

Dutch Potsaaa 
o 149.000 



,060,000 

1^00,000 
PhlHOplnaJir 

Siam ^Je3«>.000 
A VwwtM Q SMO/XX) 



^1^ 

'" f j 90.000.( 

Oc.880.000 r} vfi Am,.^ tiiJunjtuA 
14,130,000 P«u •-*'«-'^- 4t.4Mtm 

4,610.000 O AUSTRALASIA 

pSS&. (J 8.849^00 4.32Q/XX)0 

o 



P'-ORJL'^Ejgp 



1^07 MO 

British POkMSft 

OUBAX) Oan Poswu. 
V—^ •31XW} 

AroanjiM Q«pk 



Abyttinla 



8.000.000 



Morocco Q 7.000.000 
LRMfta O9XX)0.00O 



AND 

OCEANIA 

7.131,000 

BtWsh Poaa«saient 

r^^iiftjooo 

Garman PocMsatons 
O467.000 

Dutch Potaataiowa 

• 240000 



Tnooit OiX)00.000 
itai. Pouatt 

■nd O 731.000 
ProtKtO'atM 

'*S?1J!? O^-MOJOOO Si)*-P«M« Oe76j000 
O800.000 

osoo.ooo 

,)0 59.000 
fkUMM) 37,000 



Chita 
3.902.000 O 

3.680^000 

Cuba 
9.1M.000 O 

BolMa 
9,040.000 o 

Han 
2.030.000 O •M.QdO 

Guatamaia thdapeiMam OcMMia 
1.802J0OO O • ^•*°'* 



HawaT and awam 

\i^ StM 
Of A<«««r^ 

FrarKh 



^*:n • «^^ 



Mar r«|laaCnisak.t«« 



TWbS' 



V 

iNMof Danish PotMsa. 



Pqt»a) 



Ecuador 
1.400,000 

Sahfader 
r.1i6.000 O 



Total population 
of th« -wortd 
1,652,94&jB00 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPERENCE BOOK. 





i 


i 


3"33i;S23" 5*5 


! 


1 


i 


35SS;ririS33 5-i 




• 


i 


3333333333 JSJ 




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II 




1 — ssegjg ;|i 




t 


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ESiiSWK^ SSI' 




II 




r"»==86i ;|! 




1 








II 




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I 




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i 

3 

1 
1 





8||i| 


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Iss-- 


Kill 


fM 


f=?y 


m 


S|j 


isfs^ 




^ a 


f'Slsi 




-~5s 


■"n*-"" 










m 


■S2;s.s 




S-s 






5H 


-flS 

















iiJii 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 
AREA OF STATE3 AND TERRITORIES. 

midcb Um Otnenl Lud OIKcc, Um Oolofloil Bamj, lad tia 



SMMorTvntniM. 


— 


WUBwrkn. 


ToMlmu. 


,^, 


as 
w 

i 

'i 

u 

Si 

1 
1 

1 

m 

1 

1 
1 

Ml 

1 




at.m. 

4 

ut 

m 

1 

i 

1 

in 

i 

1 


Atra. 

«M,1M 

i 

IS 

■Si 

ni too 

~S 

1 
1 

940 
)M,M) 


'iM 

'1 

i 

i 

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TT.MO 

"is 

B 
II 

Is 
s-s 


^rra. 




















S'lU^ 














Hi 










i 
1 
1 








:::::::::::::::: 


s 




























SI 




















^KS 
















ii:i| 
























^SiK 












^ 


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l,MB,2N,t(» 


ti.m 


«t,W.M> 


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SiSSlrliliiMiiil 










*'S=S 












1;5!:S 
























»,TO,*M 



















Owtu 10 lb«k locUloii (djotoks til* Onat L4k((, Um Bteta raiuuntid Ud« ooilafai ippniilmMClT 
B KMUIooal Dnmhv of aniv* idlH •■ Mlon^ nikH^ l,m iqiun mtiM al lAto MIcIiJbui; Iwlkia, 
an Minn mllw tt Uk* HlcUllIi: iifc*.^™, 16^ •qum tnlln Bf Lain BupBlor, luai iqiiBi BillM 
et liik* Hkihkia, t J3S HOBi mOaif Lata Burb, ud 4M) iqiMn siDia of Uk« St. CIttf iwl Kria; 
Htoaaota. 2^« aqoBa nln o( Lain Sopslor. HnfYark. g.iw t^mn mllM of lain OntHto and Krtt: 
Ohio. IpM Mliian mllH ci< Lak* Erlr. f insaTmiila, Ml iqiure mllM of Ukg EttK WtoootB, t^Ot 
•MV* mlla of Uk* SuNrior aDd T JOO tq uan bUImo) Lake tl IcUcao. 

Ui addlUia to tba wSh' ama naiad aben, Calttirnla datm ImbUetkiB otw all rteiao mUn Irlai 
wIIUd S Enjdlrii Ddha of b«r OOMI; Oehdo oJalav JmlHllctkm ovv a >hK(i»BrTfn nr *tu ^irtj. nw n w 

1 maita* Iwuo Id wMlh balmm laliluda 42* aorU an^ "- 

olalrai ItrtAeUoii onr a itrlp at Qoll nur > Imttm ta 
Bis Onnda and tht aaUo* Rinr. 



of tlM Colmabia Rtrw: aud Toua 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



17 



AREA OF THE UNITED STATES BY SIZE OF STATES. 



RATX. 



0«Btla«Bt«l ITalttd StetM. 



Texas 

CUiTornia... 

Montana 

New If exjco. 
Aritona 

Nevada 

Colorado.... 
Wyoming... 

Oregon 

Utah 



Minnesota. 
Idaho 



South Dakota. 
Nebnaka 



North Dakota. 

OUahoma 

MisBoori 

Washington... 



Florida. 

Michigan 

nihiote 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

Arlnnsas 

North Carolina. 

Alabama 

New York 

Louisiana 



MiKissJppi... 
PennsTlvania. 
Virgi nk.. .... 

Ohio 



Kentucky 

Indiana 

Maine 

South Oarolina.. 
West Virginia... 

Maryland 

Vermont 

New Hampshire. 
Masiachusetts... 
New Jersey 



Conneetlcat 

Delaware 

Khode Island 

DIstrtet of Columbia. 



Rank 

in 
gross 
area. 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
30 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 



ABEA Df SQUABB MILES. 



Gross. 



S,OM,7S0 

205,896 
158,297 
146.907 
122.634 
113,956 

110.600 

103,948 

07.914 

96,699 

84,990 

84,682 
83,888 
82,158 
77,615 
77,520 

70,837 
70,057 
69,420 
69,127 
69,265 

58,666 
57,980 
56,665 
56,147 
56,066 

53,335 
52,420 
51,098 
49,204 
48,506 

46,865 
45,126 
42,627 
42,022 
.41,040 

40,598 
36,354 
33,040 
30,989 
24,170 

12,327 
9.564 
9.341 
8.266 
8,224 

4.965 

2.370 

1,248 

70 



Land. 



S»97S,nO 

262,398 
156,652 
146.201 
122.503 
113,810 

100,821 

103,658 

97.594 

96,607 

82,184 

80.858 
83,354 
81,774 
76,868 
76,806 

70,188 
60,414 
68,727 
66.836 
58,726 

54,861 
57,480 
56,043 
55,586 
55,256 

52,525 
48,740 
51.279 
47,654 
45,409 

46,362 
44,832 
40,262 
41,687 
40.740 

40.181 
36.045 
29.805 
30,495 
24,022 

9,941 
9,124 
9.031 
8.030 
7.514 

4,820 

1,965 

1,067 

60 



Water.i 



M»i90 

3,498 

2,645 

796 

131 

146 

669 

290 

320 

1,092 

2,806 

3,834 
534 
384 
747 
712 

654 

648 

603 

2,201 

540 

3,805 
500 
622 
561 
810 

810 
8,686 

719 
1.550 
3,097 

508 
294 
2,365 
335 
300 

417 
309 
•3,145 
494 
148 

2,386 
440 
310 
227 
710 

145 

405 

181 

10 



1 Does not Include the water surface of the oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, or the 
GfBit Lakes, l^ing within the Jurisdiction of the United States. 



A census just completed by the Isthmian 
(juiaJ Cbmmlwrion shows that in 1011 there 
vere 154,255 persons in the Canal Zone, 
loe Qty of Panama has a population of 



35,368, of which 18.237 are Meatisos, 10,063 
negroefl, 7.008 white, and 1,180 Amanlloa 
or yellows. Colon has 17,748 inhabit- 
ants. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES 
PER SQUARE MILE. 





PoputaUon of 


Luidam 


;;s?si 






-ar 


™,^ 




tlnlMd StatM. 


•Sir 


191( 


^.zee 


z,9T3,sno 


30. 


IBM 


M 




i(,974,lSe 


a. 


1890 


K 


714 


3,BT3,tSl 


a. 


ISM . 




783 


?,V!i,Wi 




isn 


B 




2,973,966 


IS. 


18IH 


i: 


831 


2,973,9SS 


10. 






BTO 


2,944,337 


7. 








1,7S3,S8S 




1830 




020 


1,753.588 




1820 




m 


l,7iS,M8 


». 






881 


l,CBS,e6S 




18D0 


)f 


483 


867 980 




1T« 


ID 


314 


887,080 


t.ft 











Thew ficum Incnitl? evei 

They slw> inrlude ume La iKhich tin 



wsa47B,a0O. 
1 o! offuue. 
Ant degree. 



pKynwnt of a (in 
poputlituin OD J 



in the United 8t&t<a neeted tlie Nev 
r in iiiil; and thiit, dunn( IStO, for 
y 102 penooa in the lutBl papulmtiOB, 
e wu one commitment to prison or jiil. 



POPULATION PER SQUARE MILE; IBIU. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

ilfty fiom Conaumption by Age and Sex. 

PwfertM ladMftfal EK|wriwc< -^ 1897-1906. 



om Consumpf ion ~ Geaetal Po^ilation. 

1887-1906. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NortalHy from Consumption in Dusty Trades. 

rwJwrtal liMhM*ri«l Ejtperience -^ 1897-1906. 



is 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^&. 


^ 


«- 3 


3 


3 


(^ 


O 


o 


-- 3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


o 


«,.ltSrl>(^ 


3 


3 


3 


O 


(!) 


t:'si*-3 


3 


3 


3 





O 


ti-3 


3 


3 


3 


O 


O 


^-3 


3 


,3 


O O 


O 




nsr-i; 






HilSST'"" 





Nortaiitu fram ConsumMion-Ziyaiztn* tof^^EcDast. 

RwtfalKil IndMiTial Etperiwice - 1897-1906. 



PRINTERS. 




»^iW.*-,.^-**- 






E 


:b^ 




S. 


»;r««Jj«»i|-«W*J. 




ff 








there wM 



























SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 
SUICIDES IN ONE BUNDREO AMERICAN CITIES. lSQl-1912. 





3£. 














































































*.I77 





















H BpsMUtn.— P. L. Holliiun, Compiler. 



1 populBtion I 

>unD| 1912 thei 



.^. 


Sulcida 
pet 100,000 id 


BudDfvFulutaiii 




3 t 


I.I 




1 


10 






I 
1 

e 

1 





















































































24 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DIVOBCSS: Number akd Causes, Specifyino those Granted to Hus- 
band OR Wife, bt Quinquennial Periods, 1887 to 1906. 

(Sooioe: B^wrts of the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commeroe and Labor.] 



Cause. 



GRANTED TO HUSBAND. 



Adultery 

Cruelty 

Desertion 

Drunkenness 

Neglect to provide. 
Combinations of 
causes, etc.».. . . 
AU other causes*.. 



preceding 



Total.... 



OBANTED TO WIFE. 



Adultery; 

Cruelty 

Desertion 

Drunkenness 

Neglect to provide. 
Combinations of 

causes, etc 

All other causes*.. 



preceding 



Total... 



1887-1891 



Niun- 
ber. 



17,139 

4,047 

27,150 

592 



2,654 
3,398 



54,980 



10,880 

25,200 

35,666 

5,397 

4,605 

13,770 
6,826 



102,344 



Per 
cent. 



31.2 
7.4 

49.4 
1.1 



4.8 
6.2 



100.0 



10.6 

24.6 

34.8 

6.3 

4.5 

13.5 
6.7 



100.0 



1892-1896 



Num- 
ber. 



19,056 

6,068 

31,805 

765 

2 

3,190 
3,836 



65,622 



13,714 

34,509 

43,153 

6,913 

6,857 

15,757 
8,414 



129,317 



Per 
cent 



30.4 
9.2 

48.5 
1.2 
0) 

4.9 
5.8 



100.0 



10.6 

26.7 

33.4 

5.3 

5.3 

12.2 
6.5 



100.0 



1897-1901 



Num- 
ber. 



24,269 

9,385 

43,186 

986 

1 

3,681 
4,798 



86,306 



16,915 
48,797 
58,382 
8,828 
10,423 

19,979 
11,090 



174,414 



Per 
cent. 



28.1 
10.9 

5ao 

1.1 
0) 

4.3 

6.6 



100.0 



9.7 

28.0 

33.5 

5.1 

6.0 

11.5 
6.4 



loao 



1909-1906 



Num- 
ber. 



29,526 

13,678 

54,142 

1,093 



4,805 
o, 994 



109,241 



21,960 
64,641 
74,018 
11,942 
12,779 

25,013 
13,748 



223,401 



Per 
oent. 



27.0 

12.6 

49.6 

LO 

0) 

4.4 
6.5 



loao 



9.6 

28.9 

33.1 

5.3 

6.7 

11.2 
6.2 



100.0 



Increase 
1902-1906 as 

compared 

1887-1891 



Num- 
ber. 



12,887 

0,631 

26,992 

501 

3 

2,151 
2,596 



64,361 



10,490 

39,341 

88,362 

6,545 

8,174 

11»243 
6,922 



121,057 



Per 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



> Includes causes unknown. 




APPROXIMATE DISTRIBUTION OF PURSUITS. 



. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REPEHBNCB BOOK. 



F Ybars HARBIED, 18S7 T 
[Soiirca: RaporU Dl Ihs Bnnul of the Csnius, Dapirtnunt of Conunim 



Niunbsr. FercaDt. 



Onntod to vUs. 



I jar 

*je*n.'."'.. 

H jmn'.'.'.'.'. 

iiS:::; 




CAUSES FOR DIVORCES 1902-1906. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



27 



aaaa&AirT AUBirs abhittsd, txa&s xkbsd jxnsn sonm to 

1918: By Rack oa Peoflb. 
(Souloe: R^Mrts of the CoQiiD&loDer General of Immlgrattoti, Department of Cbmmeroe uid Ishor.] 



Bate or people. 



AftSeu (block) 

AnoadBO 

Botenhn, IfonTtan.'. 
Mpzha, Servlflii, 
■ootcocpln........ 

Qibiegt 

Cnotin,810Tenian... 
Odn 

I^atettiu, Bosnian, 

BoKgovfnian 

DotehtFlemlsli. 

EMIadlui 

EocBsfa ,„„ 

Wibo. 

niafah 

rlROch. 

Citric 

Bdbfew....... 

WA...., * 

IWiia (north) 

»>fitt(sonth) 

'•Ptutte.... 



^^ioMtan — ».- 




20,041 

•5641 

14,432 

27,134 

486 

52 

te,34S 

8,433 

4,740 

3,006 

^,843 



9,297 
078 

5.551 
4« 

h^ 

1,407 

80 



1904 



2,380 

1,745 

11,911 



4,577 

4,327 

21,242 

4,811 

2,086 

7,832 

258 

41,479 

29 

10,157 

11,567 

74,790 

12,025 

106,236 

37,076 



2,174 
1,759 
9,501 

6,479 

2,192 

32,907 

2,944 

1,786 

6,406 

83 

28,451 

133 

15,864 

7,166 

71,782 

14,376 

76,203 

35,366 

37,«29 36,600 

106,117159,329 



1905 



14,382 
1,007 

12,780 

23,883 

447 

12 

67,757 
6,388 
4,364 
8,961 
9,692| 



79,347 61,090 

6^219 11,483 

34,427 27,940 



B57, 



4,062 
1,666 
S,GE3 

1,« 
1,820 

1,942 

(868 



046 BIS,! 



3,898 

1,878 

11,757 

5,823 

1,971 

^,104 

7,260 

2,630 

8,406 

146 

S0,86S 

5 

17,012 

11,847 

82,360 

12,144 

120,010 

54,266 

30,930 

180,300 

11,021 

4,929 

18,604 

46,030 

227 

17 

102,437 

4,855 

7,818 

3,746 

14,473 

62,284 

16,144 

.52,366 

5,500 

1>668 

4,822 

3,145 

3,511 

1,^ 
351 



870 1,026, iOO 



1908 



3,786 

1,805 

13,958 

11,548 
1,485 

44,273 
5,591 

4,568 

9,735 

271 

45,079 



14,136 

10,370 

86,813 

23,127 

153,748 

40,059 

46,286 

240,528 

14,243 

137 

14,267 

44,261 

141 

13 

95,835 

8,729 

11,425 

5,814 

16>267 

58,141 

18,163 
38,221 
5,333 
1,586 
5,834 
2,083 

1,476 
l,0ff7 



1,100,735 



1907 



5,235 

2,644 

13,554 

.27,174 

770 

47,826 

5,475 

7,303 
12,467 

1,072 
51,126 



14,860 

9,302 

92,936 

46,283 

149,182 

38,706 

51,564 

243.407 

30,824 

30 

^,884 

60,071 

91 

8 

138,033 

9,648 

19,200 

16,807 

24,081 

53,^ 

20,516 

. 42,041 

9,495 

1,060 

5,880 

1,902 

3,754 

1,381 
2,058 



1,386.349788,870 



1906 



4,te6 

3,290 

10,164 

18,24fi 
1,203 

20,472 
3,323 

3,747 
9,526 

i,n6 

49,056 



6,746 
12,881 
73,038 
28,808 

103,387 
36,427 
24,700 

110,547 
16,418 

3$ 

13,720 

34,378 

5,082 

2 

68^105 

^800 

9,629 

17,111 

12,361 

32,789 

17,014 

16,170 

6>636 

1,063 

5,520 

3,327 

2,504 

1,110 
1,530 



1909 



4,307 
8,106 
8,850 

6»214 

1,841 

30,181 

8,380 

1,888 

8,114 

837 

39,021 



.11,087 

19,483 

58,534 

30,202 

57,551 

31,185 

25,150 

185,248 

8,275 

11 

15,254 

38,704 

15,501 

7 

77,365 

4,606 

6,041 

10,038 

15,808 

34,906 

16,446 

23,586 

4,930 

890 

3,668 

820 

1,090 

1,024 
1,537 



751,786 



1910 



4,966 
5,606 
8,462 

15,130 
1,770 

89,562 
3,331 

4,011 
18,012 

1,782 
83,488 



1911 



0,721 
3,002 
9,223 

10,222 
1,307 

18,982 
3,914 

4,400 

13,863 

517 

57,258 



.13,738 9;779 
21, 10^7 18,132 



71, 8^ 
39,135 
84,260 
38,382 
30,780 



102,073150,63813^830 



2,796 

19 

32,714 

'27,302 

17,760 

0] 

128,848 

7,657 

14,199 

;7,294 

27,907 

62,037 

24,612 

32,416 

5,837 

900 

6,317 

i;283 

3,244 

1,150 
3,330 



1,041.570878,587 



66,471 
37,021 
91,223 
40,246 
30,312 



4,575 

8 

17,027 

19,906 

18,784 

12 

71,446 

7,469 

•5,311 

18,721 

17,724 

45,859 

-25,625 

21,415 

8,0Q6 

1,153 

5,444 

918 

3,348 

1,141 
8,323 



1918 



6,759 
5,222 
8,439 

10,657 
1,608 

34,366 
8,155 

3,673 

10,035 

165 

49,689 



6,641 
18,383 
65,343 
31,566 
80,595 
33,923 
26,448 



0,173 
88 

14,078 

23,500 

22,001 

8 

85,163 

0,403 

8,329 

22,558 

21,965 

81,601 

20,298 

25,281 

9,070 

1,342 

5,525 

1,336 

2,239 

1,133 
3,660 



838,173 



28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



-TOOfAL KITMBlBB OlT IHMIiJitANTS IN SPECIFIED YEABS, IS98 TO 
i91d: Bt Sex and Aob; also Immiorakts DebabiIed and Returned within 
One Year AitxB ArrivaLj and Illitebates over 14 and 16 Years of Age. 

(Sooroes: Records of' Bnreau of Statistics prior to im6; for subsequent yenrs, reports of the Commissioner 

Oeneral of Immigration, Department of Commerce and l^ibor.) 



Year 

ended 

June 

80- 



1S93.. 
1893.. 

lov4* • 

1805.. 
1896.. 
1897.. 
1888.. 

1900.. 
1901.. 
1902.. 
1903.. 
1904.. 
1905.. 
1906.. 
1907.. 
1908.. 
1909.. 
1910.. 

i9ir.. 

1912.. 



Total 
Immi- 
grants. 



623,084 
602,017 
314,407 
270,948 
343,267 
230,832 
^,299 
311,715 
448,572 
487.918 
648,743 
857,046 
812,870 
1,026,499 
1,100,735 
1,285,349 
782,870 
751,780 
1,041,670 
878,687 
838,173 



Sex. 



Male. 



365,781 
315,845 
186,247 
150,024 
2X2,460 
185,107 
135,775 
195,277 
•804.148 
381,065 
466,860 
613,146 
649,100 
724,914 
764,468 
920,076 
606,912 
619,969 
736,038 
670,057 
620,031 



Fe- 
male. 



237,303 
187,072 
128,220 
120,034 
130,801 
05,725 
03,524 
116,438 
144.424 
156,863 
182.374 
243,900 
263,770 
301,585 
336,272 
356,873 
276,068 
231,817 
305,532 
308,680 
308,241 



Ages. 



Under 

14 
years. 



s 89, 167 

« 67, 392 

Ml, 765 

S33,289 

*53,741 

X38«627 

S38,2C7 

43,983 

64,624 

62,562 

74,063 

102,431 

109,150 

114,668 

136,273 

138,344 

112,148 

88,393 

120,509 

117,837 

113,700 



14 to 45 
years. 



I, 



491,839 
419,701 
258,162 
233,543 
254,619 
165,181 
164,905 
248.187 
370.382 
306,516 
539,204 
714,053 
657,155 
855,419 
913,955 
100,771 
630,671 
624,870 
868,310 
714,700 
678,480 



45 years 
and 
over. 



442,078 

« 25, 824 

« 14, 560 

413,116 

4 36,007 

427,024 

426,127 

19,545 

23,566 

28,840 

85,426 

40,562 

46,665 

66,412 

60,607 

46,234 

40,051 

38,617 

62,751 

46,041 

46,992 



De- 
barred 
ftom 
land- 
ing. . 



2,164 

1,053 

2,389 

2,304 

2,709 

1.617 

3,030 

3,798 

4,346 

3,516 

4,974 

8^769 

7,994 

11,879 

12,371 

13,064 

10,902 

10,411 

24,270 

22,349 

16,057 



Re- 
turned 
within 
1 year 
after 
land- 
ing. 



G37 

677 

417 

180 

23B 

263 

199 

263 

366 

863 

466 

647 

300 

.98 

61 

70 

114 

6£ 

23 

9 



Re- 
turned 
within 
3 yeacs 
after 
land 
Ing. 



K 



479 

747 

616 

925 

1,065 

2,066 

2,672 

2,779 

2,440 



Able to 

read. 

but not 

write. « 



Un- 
able to 
read or 
write.* 



60,662 
16,784 
2.612 
6,06C 
1,672 
1,416 
1,022 
2,007 
8,058 
2,917 
3.341 
3,953 
8,209 
4.755 
5,629 
2,310 
2,431 
4,571 
2,930 
3,024 



01,1 

41,614 

42,302 

78,130 

43.008 

43,067 

00,446 

03,576 

ll7,58f 

182.188 

186,067 

166.903 

230,882 

266.0C8 

337,573 

172,293 

101,0f« 

253,569 

182,2:3 

177,284 



I For the years prior to 1805 tbe figures are for persons over 16 years; for 
of age and over. 
MJiider 16 yean. * 16 to 40 years. < 40 



1805 to 1910 for persons 14 yeaxs 
years and ovor. 



SUMMARY OF BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 



A summary of the numl>er of persons killed 
or injured, per explosions, for successive ten- 
year periods, shows that the boiler explosions 
of this country have been becoming less and 
less serious. In 1871 there were 89 ex- 
ploeiona recorded, resulting in the death of 
383 persons and injuries to ^25, or 4.3 persons 
killed and 2.63 injured per explosion. In 1881 
with 159 explosions, there were 251 persons 
killed and 313 injured, or 1.67 killed and 1.96 
injured per explosion. In 1891, 257 ex- 
plosions Insulted in the death of 263 persons 
and injuries to 371. or 1.02 killed and 1.44 
injured per explosion. In 1901. 423 ex- 
ploflioai reaulted in 312 deaths and injuries 



to 646, or 0.73 persons killed and 1.62 injureil 
per explosion. In 1911, there were 499 ex- 
plosions resulting in the death of 222 person* 
and injuries to 416, or 0.47 persons killed 
and 0.83 injured per explosion. This dccrtease 
is most probably due to the improvement that 
has taken place in the design, construction, 
and operation of steam boilers, and not to the 
increased use of sectional boilers, for ex- 
perience has indicated that the bursting or 
rupture of such boilers is frequently at- 
tended with serious consequences in the way 
of killing or injuring the attendants. 

Courtesy of " The Locomotive^" Jan. lOOft. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



dtoaa. 








8SS3ES-::::;:;:::::: 

ToUl- 

, llmlUcd In uid ^pvUd 



+ M.OW 

+ 8.iM 
+ IS, 431 



AsBiTAU OF Passenqers at the 
Posts of the United States. 

TIh total Dumber of paaseossTS that arrived 
It the various port* of ths United StAU'S 
during tfae y«T 1900 wu 604,478. of obicb 
nmibcr 130.477 wtie. United States dtueo! 



,M7 werrtmndg°anll""Yn'lOI2."tbe 

llic Unite^"'Hla£.™WM"l'^.n51>. of 
umlior iWI.HOl norp I'nited 81«Ie« 
returniDg borne: 17»,9)t3 were nan- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 






in"liil 


Ull(. 


F* 


Und« 


y«ra. 


y^ 










MiUf 


DUW 


UiM. 


F>- 


ItiHlIl^tbtaCll) 


0.7M 
19. «M 


3.8M 

V,6» 
l,MT 

IT, 383 
2,»S 

eisw 

10,321 

IsliOT 
1,930 

M 

5<>.<R8 

l!;S 

J, 33* 


3.8» 

iloiT 
■•''la 

11 

1 

3t.l3S 

3.«» 

3!oM 
ilTO 

' eo 

S30 


390 
I,«10 

S 

8,M5 

3o!o»l 
30|0«1 

1 

ill 

lis 

lii 


«.33» 

!:g 

31, 6M 

2»!07l 
30 

li 
II 

W.ITO 

[;^ 
i;m7 


s 

CM 

S,S!n 
I, Ml 

•■Si! 

S,677 

•'1 

IS7 


'7 


1 


es4 
i« 

3,»S 

•■'S 

1,347 
M 

IS 

si MS 
Ji:837 

4 

3,1M 


S 

M 

Ml 
W 

,,, 

1 

«l 

3.3W 
3,711 


■sS?: 




I 


J 




oSSSSWlS;: 




18 


88 

70 
13 








si 








jSIKM.:::::: 




..™ 


38 










3e« 

1 

S8 


S 


'! 


si 

'l,DS3 


'■& 

i 

109 








Sc«idIn»»tan(Non"e- 






S:*r^"- 








Wnt Indiui (mc^iI 


i 


1 


OIlwpNplc. 


TM»l 


sx.m 


s2>,ni 


308, Ml 


113,709 


S78,«0 


M,9W 


l,J7fl 


1,«4S 


iii,ns 


«s,a« 


Admiucd In PbUIp- 


..» 


LOW 


«g 


» 


,,.,. 


77 






,., 


„ 







iLLITZaACT IM THE UNITED StaTEB. 

The statemeot shawa that in 1910 Uiere 
were 71.5S0,Z7a penuns 10 yeara of ofe or 
over in the United SUlee. of whom 5,518,163 



» hiul l,650jai iilite- 
of their Dumber. 
,530 iltileratea. or 30.5 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 31 

Auuta Adwtted, Fiscal Ybak Evdbd Jum 30, 1012, bt lUon oa Psoflu. 





"—=" 


™glBI- 


TDUl 














i 






olmonev 


s... 


R»l.tin!. 


a 


.«», 


Frimd. 


Mw;; 


1 






norfrtaDd. 


r 


flix 


"t^ 
















1 


ns 


tin 










4.32S 


sse 


1-^ 






1150 












M6 




1 


LXt 


*.m 










6.933 


1,390 


»• 






»,as8 










4,916 


6,343 


M 


f 


m 














^*3l 








iM 














1.6I4 


t 




2.S7i 










3,«6 




113 


f 


^S 


3.813 










7,330 


^■« 


•% 




KOI 


tI 




^;ii 


"'.m 


'309 


'5;ios 


9.t£t 


1z 




1,M 










707 




3;338 














a!i5g 














2&!l» 


















7.(BI 


as 




wS? 


K^ 


3M 


aiiS 


li^ 


1,808 




*.as 


IflTM 




M.a? 


«;m3 


3ta 








u.ve 


wlwn 




KM9 


CWfl 


w 




t^ 


"■(OS 


3,m 






»J 


t.iw 




*'^ 














M 
















7, HI 


K.TS4 


W 


13,30 




« 


XIKl 








B,70S 


7S 


19,093 


s,6«e 




i,m> 


li;4!M 




»:3 


J.S8S 


»1 


77,310 


1,013 
0,730 


ia,ji» 


3,3Dfi 


"w.'w" 


-vM 


1,193 








t.ns 


3, Its 


1,137 


6, MS 






M 






«,M3 


1>« 


a 


6.3111 






hm 




599,711 


»,W7 


2,U« 




13,064 




EJ 


m 


W.»2* 


507, oa 




1,!M 


« 


17,9(7 


3,38* 


IK 


I6t2 


M,aw 


i.«.m 


a,3M 


g,Ml 


mv 


JO. an 


6,016 


2.988 






l,6©.570 


12, MB 


7,0» 




13. ws 






1.17» 






19,(78 


4.764 




32,7S2 


3.1«1 


M7 


%M 


aissT 


mlMS 




1,387 




3,M« 




3.9n 






209! 35S 


a! So 


Ml 


'm 




Va 
































67 


1,439 
















37 






386 




us 


3,»<18 


llj|0M 


3,Z67 


330 


73 


2,306 


1,346 


307 


m,u, 


1M.9H 


M,aS3,721 


5U,E(U 


2»,«57 


11,713 


«ST,(07 


117. SOU 


82,606 






















■■» 


'" 


u,at2 















izj" 



Inly 4 mid 
BwbiU 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



■psrity of pDwvc propelled m*chiner)' is to be ki 
\i traffic muat bo ipcrecated. Each type of tci 



THE ELEVATED SIDEWALK: HOW IT WILL SOLVE CITY 
TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



33 



INTENDED FUTURE PERMANENT RESIDENCE OF ALIENS ADMITTED 
AND LAST PERMANENT RESIDENCE OF ALIENS DEPARTED, 
FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1912. 



State or Territory* 



ol Columbia. 






Iowa. 



Iteriud 



ipi. 



Nflf Jitnsy. 



SMrTflcfc. 
KfffkCaroHna. 
XMfhDateta. 
au> 



Ise Islands. 



MbpU 

tSrSoo 

BMtTdand.. 

Sairth€^roliita. 
SmkDakoto. 



rtA. 

Vonnont. «..•••>•••••• ■ 

V'irpnia 

Wayiin^on 

West Virginia v. 

Wisconsin 



Wjpomii^. ..-• 

Outside United States. 
Unksown* 

Total 



Admitted. 



Imml- 
Brant 
aUens. 



276 

2,902 

313 

28,905 

4,215 

23,227 

l.OSl 

1,685 

6,356 

825 

6,654 

1,480 

67, 118 

7,753 

7,147 

2,901 

727 

1,811 

5,691 

5,413 

70,171 

83,559 

12,149 

829 

8,980 

3,565 

4,490 

1,026 

6,120 

47,211 

757 

239,275 

421 

3,947 

38.148 

681 

4.138 

109.625 

13 

1.406 

9.795 

275 

1,792 

797 

22.885 

2,631 

2.847 

1,510 

ll,8vS2 

6,212 

14,016 

1,051 



838,172 



Nonlm- 

mixrant 

aliens. 



107 

68 

1,058 

41 

4,601 

410 

2,049 

110 

817 

2,806 

116 

951 

127 

6,919 

657 

589 

220 

94 

37r 

235 

424 

8,142 

8,210 

1,296 

52 

872 

343 

853 

94 

258 

5,009 

141 

27,437 

53 

262 

3,065 

72 

463 

10,216 

14 

650 

1,128 

33 

194 

111 

2,114 

221 

259 

166 

1,261 

507 

1,050 

140 

88,525 



178,963 



Departed. 



33,060 
333,262 



Emigrant 


mnt 
aUens. 


aliens. 


280 


188 


95 


97 


272 


240 


114 


70 


IS? 


6,900 


1,725 


1,064 


7,437 


3,160 


317 


79 


360 


308 


8,048 


3,798 


158 


102 


907 


3,024 


356 


364 


28,355 


11,796 


4.718 


1,194 


1,302 


1,051 


767 


412 


210 


138 


538 


268 


777 


488 


1,422 


538 


15,406 


10,671 


8,161 


4,465 


4,987 


2,946 


100 


85 


4,030 


3,097 


963 


897 


928 


708 


248 


214 


1.451 


543 


17,278 


6,106 


211 


294 


84,533 


36,763 


45 


64 


385 


528 


18,473 


8,125 


261 


122 


1.873 


1,286 


60,528 


17,180 


5 


3 


423 


207 


2,779 


1,582 


54 


39 


252 


243 


121 


115 


644 


415 


1,095 


731 


714 


361 


426 


222 


3.580 


2,756 


4.2ft3 


1,641 


4,726 


1,632 


494 


332 




145,377 



282.030 



34 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



OCCUPATION OF ALIENS. 



Oooox»tiott. 



Admitted. 



BBnt 

auras. 



Nonini* 

mlgnnt 

alifliis. 



Departad. 



Eml- 
cant 



Noo-' 
amlgnnt 



PROFESaONAI.. 

Aoton 

Architaots 

Clergy 

Editon 

Electricians 

Engineers (prof essionai } 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientiflc persons 

Musldans 

Oflidals (Oovemment) 

Physicians..; 

Sculptors and artists 

Teaaters 

Other professional 

Total professional 

SKILLED. 

Bakers. 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Brewers. 

Butchers. 

Cabinetmakers 

Carpenters and Joiners 

Cigarette makers 

Cigar makers 

Cigar packers 

Clerks and accountants 

Dressmakers 

Engineers (locomotive, marine, and stationary) 

Furriers and fur workers 

Gardeners. 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and sted workeis 

Jewdeis 

Locksmiths 

Machinists 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanks (iMt specified) 

Metal workers (other than iron, steel, and tin). . 

Millers 

Millineis 

Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saddlers and harness makers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters 

Taflors 

Taimers and curriers 

Textile workers (not specified) 

Tinners 

Tobacco workers 

Upholsterers 

watdi and clock makers 

Weavers and spinners 

Wheelwrlchts 

Woodworkers (not specified ) 

OUmt skilled. 

TotritUUed 



873 
288 

1,063 
436 
741 

1,503 
293 
425 

1,286 
382 
459 
587 

2,035 

1,554 



11,685 



3,678 

3,100 

3,054 

306 

165 

8,143 

345 

11,034 

82 

720 

112 

12,701 

6,244 

1,331 

565 

1,391 

533 

1,366 

300 

1,883 

2,008 

4,124 

4,555 

1,342 

600 

588 

1,006 

5,889 

2,816 

71 

351 

319 

584 

063 

416 

7,636 

8,671 

1,109 

072 

18,836 

385 

1,061 

737 

66 

231 

672 

2,909 

282 

324 

5,371 



070 
256 

1,028 
185 
306 

2,118 
606 
457 
703 
780 
789 
304 

1,211 
896 



10,699 



761 
664 

646 

43 

91 
673 

05 
3,657 

33 
1,100 

04 

6,381 

743 

1,063 

60 
622 

79 
417 
122 
162 
901 
3,261 
1,340 
493 
126 

79 

163 

1,468 

651 

43 
113 
284 
3M 
244 

41 
387 
850 
431 
262 
1,486 

89 
239 
104 

77 

49 

70 
613 

33 

68 
3,081 



127,016 



80,271 



335 

86 

340 

44 

124 

443 

41 

80 

281 

134 

131 

167 

617 

334 



8,066 



650 

676 

482 

19 

41 

464 

176 

2,081 



1,157 

19 

1,850 

616 

272 

126 

256 

63 

487 

82 

47 

883 

625 

731 

4,139 

86 

38 

111 

10,911 

438 

85 

65 

135 

00 

103 

28 

267 

1,123 

729 

298 

2,660 

67 

756 

103 

14 

31 

40 

483 

17 

44 

1,801 



85.808 



41,117 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



3& 



OCCUPATION OF ALIENS— Continued. 


OoOQpettOD. 


Admitted. 


Deputed. 


Immi- 

snot 

•Iteos. 


Noniii>> 

micnoit 

aliens. 


Emi- 
cnrnt 
aliens. 


NOQ- 

emigimiit 
eiieas. 


KiaC9iLAKB0US. 

AllBtt r..T-..r-.r.- ,-T --. -.T........ x 


1.081 
257 
822 

755 

277 

135,726 

416 

10,240 

116,520 

10.480 


1,407 

750 

276 

27,001 

3,065 

286 

340 

21,673 

607 

10,058 

16,737 

6,351 


104 
00 

223 
3,978 
7,807 

ao2 

148 

200,270 

06 

5,664 

13,440 

i;606 


1.865 


Bokm. 


l!366 


pytyiBiyt^ 1ia«»fc utam ^i}A teftlQften 


4S 


7tm ialmen 


16»748 

7»04D 

884 




TMtHuKii 




470 


lApfw...-...!. , \. .......]..],. \\]\]\^ 


tOkOte 


MnofertUTcn ,. 


XlW 

il'osi 

21.980 


Mavlifnta u|d d4!AlerS ....... r ... r r 




OtteBlmDaiieous ,, 


9,083 


TMil DIJflOfiU&IMOIlS 


468.401 


00.650 


244,827 


116,313 






TTii nfiniiafliin flDC1ti<iinff womtii uid chndrm),............... 


231,070 


47,463 


40,481 


67,422 




Onnd total.... 


838,172 


178,063^ 


333,262 


283,080 







^^ 




M2 

OVENCS 
LITHUAN. 
4-3 



SWE0CS6 

DUTCH S'5 
FLCMINOS 

OANCS 2Jd 
NQRWEdlANS 



_JW£NDS 
O'U 



ipsics 0-3 

IRANIANS 0-4 
BASQUES 0-6 
AL8ANIAI«5 iS 
ARMENIANS l-O 
CAUCASIANS 3 
RMAETOROMANS 
AND FURLAN8 0'5 
WALLOONS Z-A 



*^^'0 HACl 119 WO.' 
THE RACES OP MANKIND. 



36 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RELIGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



DENOMINATIONS. 



Summary for 1912. 



Ministers. 



Adventists (6 bodies}' 

Baptists (16 bodies) 

Brethren CDunkards, 4 bodies) 

Brethren (Plymouth, 4 bodies) 

Brethren (RIvot, 3 bodies) 

Buddhists (2 bodies) 

Catholic Apostolic (2 bodies) 

Catholic (Eastern Orthodox, 7 bodie-.) 

Catholic (Western. 3 bodies) 

Chrlstadelphians 

Christians 

Christian Catholic (Dowle) 

Christian Scientists 

Christian Union 

Church of Gkxl (Winebrennarlan) 

Church of the LivinK God (Colored. 3 bodies) 

Church c^ the New Jerusalem (2 bodies) 

Communistic Societies (2 bodies) 

CongresfttionaUsts 

Disdples of Christ (2 bodies) 

Erangelical (2 bodies) 

Faith Associations (9 bodies) 

Free Christian Zion Church 

Friends (4 bodies) 

Friends of the Temple 

German Evangelical Protestant 

German Evangelical Synod 

Jewish Congregations 

Latter-Day Saints (2 bodies) 

Lutherans (23 bodies) 

Scandinavian Evangelical (3 bodies) 

Mennonites (12 bodies) 

Methodists (16 bodies) .• 

Moravians (2 bodies) 

Non-Sectarian Bible Faith Churches 

Pentecostal (2 bodies) 

Presbyterians (12 bodies) 

Protestant Episcopal (2 bodies) 

Reformed (4 bodies) 

Salvationists (2 bodies) 

Schwenkfelders 

Social Brethren 

Society for Ethical Culture 

Spiritualists 

Theosophical Society 

Unitarians 

United Brethren (2 bodies) 

Universalists 

Independent Congregations 



Grand Total forl9 12 . 
Grand Total for 191 1 . 



1.172 

41,419 

3.484 



224 

15 

33 

263 

17.646 



1,129 
36 

2,460 
295 
609 
101 
128 



6.125 

8,054 

1,523 

241 

20 

1,476 

3 

59 

1.038 

1,0H4 

3,360 

9.038 

611 

1,087 

42,849 

149 

50 

732 

13.576 

6.516 

2,113 

2,994 

6 

15 

7 



527 

2.262 

702 

267 



174.396 
171.905 



Churches. 



2.522 

66,918 

1.239 

403 

106 

74 

24 

274 

14,1.32 

70 

1,182 

17 

1.230 

237 

595 

08 

143 

22 

6,070 

12.467 

2.627 

146 

15 

1.167 

3 

66 

1.326 

1,769 

1,420 

14.566 

848 

635 

61,027 

143 

204 

610 

16,776 

7,804 

2,653 

872 

8 

17 

6 

2,000 

134 

476 

4,216 

709 

879 



220,814 
220.160 



Communicants. 

95,608 

5. 894.232 

119.644 

10,560 

4.903 

3,165 

4.927 

434.000 

12,907,189 

1,412 

102.002 

5.865 

85.096 

13.905 

41,476 

4.286 

9.554 

2,272 

742. 350 

1.497.545 

18-1,866 

9.572 

1 .835 

124.216 

376 

34.704 

258,911 

143,000 

3.52..500 

2,353,702 

70,500 

57,219 

6.905.095 

19.970 

6.390 

22,416 

1.981.949 

980.851 

459.106 

27.345 

941 

1.262 

2.4.50 

200.000 

3.368 

70.542 

320,960 

51,716 

48.673 



36,676,357 
36.096.685 



tf Decrease. 



Cenens of 1908. 



The Religions of Mankind 
according to the numbers of their adherents. 




The Religions of Europe 
according to the numbers of their adherents. 



Roman 
Catholics 
Ind. 6r8«k Catholics 
Armenians, 
Mechltarists and others 

204 nMitant 
= 46 p.c of Itw poputetton 
of Eurepa 



Orthodox "V '^4^ 
Greek Catholic 
(Orientalsv/ ^ 

115 »^^/J^/ 
= 25-3 pu y^ *F'' Luthwtanl 
of »•/ JP* C«iy«nlsti, 
«.— /^ -' Unitarians 



% 



74 I 



Total 
463<m»a 



»• 



thorwf AniMfriBfM, IMcMm. 
Copto and otiws 7.000.000 



Ot*r«of Oraek Cat^oie*. AraiooMwi* 
and othare Q mMI«A> 



ti M t mn» , of no 
mt vtNn S <n«. BO'S p c 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ORDER OF DENOMINATIONS. 



37 



Denomlnatioiis. 



Roman Catholic 

Methodist Episcopal 

Regular Baptist (South) , 

Methodist Episcopal (South) 

Regular Baptist (Colored) 

PreBhyterian (Northern) 

Dtedples of Christ 

Regular Baptist (NcHrth) 

Protestant Episcopal 

Lutheran Synodical Conference. . . 

Congregatlonalist 

African Methodist Episcopal 

AlMcan Methodist Episcopal Zion 

LfOthenn General Council 

Lutheran General Synod 

United Brethren 

Reformed ((German) 

Lattei^Day Saints 

Presbyterian (Southern) 

G^noan Evangelical Synod 

Oklond Methodist Episcopal 

SplritaaUsts 

Methodist Protestant 

Greek Orthodox (Catholic) 

United Xorw^an Lutheran 

United Presbyterian 

Lutheran Synod of Ohio 

Reformed rL>ut<^) 

Orthodox Friends 



Rankin 
1912. 


Communicanta. 


Rankin 
1890. 


Communicants. 


1 


12.888,466 


1 


6.231.417 


2 


3,293.526 


2 


2.240.354 


3 


2,475.609 


4 


1.280.066 


4 


1.919.873 


5 


1.209.976 


5 


1.912.219 


3 


Jl .o4o.iloV 


6 


1.368.150 


7 


788.244 


7 


1.340.887 


8 


641.051 


8 


1.175,923 


6 


800.450 


9 


970.461 


9 


632,054 


10 


807,693 


12 


357,153 


11 


742,350 


10 


612,771 


12 


620,234 


11 


462.726 


13 


547,216 


13 


349.788 


14 


473,295 


14 


324,846 


15 


316.949 


20 


164.640 


16 


301.448 


16 


202.474 


17 


300.147 


15 


204.018 


18 


296.000 


21 


144.362 


19 


292,845 


18 


179.721 


20 


258,911 


17 


187.432 


21 


• 234.721 


24 


129.383 


22 


200.000 


39 


46.030 


23 


183,318 


22 


141.989 


24 


176.000 


138 


100 


25 


169.710 


26 


119.972 


26 


139.617 


27 


94.402 


27 


132,316 


33 


69.605 


28 


118,564 


28 


92.970 


29 


100.568 


31 


80.656 



ORDER OF DENOMINATIONAL FAMILIES. 



Denominational Families. 



(Catholic (Roman, etc.) 

Methodist 

Baptiflt 

Utheran 

Presbyterian 

Bpfacopal 

Reformed 

Utter-Day Saints 

udted Brethren 

Friends 

Brethren (Dunkard) . . 
Adrentlsts 



Rankin 
1912. 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Communicants. 



12.907,189 

6,905.095 

5,894.232 

2.353.702 

1.981.949 

980.851 

459.106 

352.600 

320.960 

124,216 

110.644 

95.808 



Rankin 
1890. 



1 
2 
3 
6 

4 

6 

7 

9 

8 

11 

13 

14 



Conmiimicants. 



6,267.871 

4,589.284 

3.717.969 

1,231.072 

1.278,362 

640.609 

309.468 

166.126 

225.281 

107,208 

73.795 

60.491 



— Courtesy of the Chriatian AdvoccUe. 



FOURTH OF JULY FATALITIES. 




/\ A A AAA A 



. ■ ., - . . - w^^x.^ 

Ml ttN MS jMc m? im iiM an m> vni 



Fourth of July fatalities in 1913 were 
reduced to 32 as a r^ult of the movement 
to do away with the old custom of causing 
dangerous explosions for fun. In 1912 
there had been 43 deaths. The number of 
persons injured in 1913 was 1,131 as against 
988 in 1912 and 1.546 in 1911. The loss 
sustained by Fourth of July fires caiised 
by gunpowder throughout the oountiy 
exceed half a million doUan. 



38 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PENSION ACT APPROVED MAY 11, 1912. 



That any penon who served ninety days or 
more in the mititary or naval service of the 
United States during the late Civil War, who 
has been honorably discharged therefrom, 
and who has reached the age of nsty-two or 
over, shall, upon making proof of such facts, 
according to such rules and re0;ulttions as the 
Secretary of the Interior mny piovide, be 
placed upon the pension roll and be entitled 
to receive a pension as follows: In case such 
penson has reached the age of sixiy-two years 
aqd served ninety days, thirteeil dollars per 
month; six months, thirteen dollars and 
fifty cents per monUi; one year, fc)urteen 
doUars per month; one and a hatf years, 
fourteen dollars and fifty cents per month: 
two years, fifteen dollars per monm; t^o and 
a half years, fifteen dollars and ^rly cents per 
month; three years or over, sixteen doUars 
p^r month. In case such person t^iis reached 
the age of sixty-six years and served ninety 
days, fifteen dollars per month; six months, 
Biieea dollars and fifty oentk per month; one 
year, sixteen dollars per month: one and a 
naif yeaiB, sixteen dollars and fifty cents per 
month; two years, seventeen dolli|rs per 
month; two and a half years, eighteen dollars 
per month; three years, or over, nineteen 
dollars per month. In cane such person has 
reached the a^e of seventy years and served 
ninety days, eighteen doUars per month; six 
months, nmeteen dollars per month; one year, 
twenty dollars per month; one and a half 
years, twenty-one dollars and fifty cents per 
month; two years, twenty-three dollars per 
month; two and a half years, twenty-four 
dollars per month; three years or over, 
twenty-five dollars per month. In case such 
person has reached the age of seventy-five 
years and served ninety days, twenty-one 
dollars per month; six months, twenty-two 
dollara and fifty oentii per month; one year, 
twenty-four doflars per month; one and a half 
years, twenty -seven dollars per month; two 
yefirs or over, thirty dollars per month. That 
any person who served in the military or 
naval service of the United States during the 
Civil War and received an honorable discharge 
and who was wounded in battle or in line of 
duty and is now unfit for manual labor by 
reason thereof, or who from disease or other 
causes incurred in line of duty resulting in 
his disability is now unable to perform manual 
labor, shall be paid the maximum pension 
under this Act. to wit, thirty dollars per 
month, without regard to length of service or 
age. 

That any person who has served sixty days 
or more in the military or naval service of the 
United States in the War with Mexico and has 
been honorably discharged therefrom^ shall, 
upon making like proof of such service, be 
entitled to receive a pension of thirty dollars 
per month. 



All of the aforesaid penaionfl shaD com- 
mence from the date of filing of the apphet- 
tions in the Bureau of Pensions after tlie 
passage and approval of this Act: ProvidtL 
That pensioners who are sixty-two yeara of; 
age or over, and who are now reoeiviiig 
pensions under existing laws, or whose clainit 
are pending in the Bureau of Pensions, may^ 
by application to the Commissioner w 
Pensions, in such form as he may prescribe, 
receive the benefits of this Act; and nothing 
herein contained shall prevent any pensioner 
or person entitled to a pension from prosecut- 
ing his claim and reoeivinfc a pension under 
any other general or special Act: Provided, 
That no person shall receive a pension under 
any other law at the same time or for the 
same period that he is receiving a pension 
under the provisions of this Act: Provided 
further. That no- person who is now receiving 
or shall hereafter receive a greater pooiAoo, 
under any other general or special law, than 
he would be entitled to receive under the 
provisions herein shall be pensionable under 
this act. 

Sec. 2. That rank in the service shaO not 
be considered in applications filed hereunder. 

Sec. 3. That no pension attomejr, claim 
agent, or other person shall be entitled to 
receive any compensation for services rendered 
in presenting any claim to the Bureau of 
Pensions, or securing any pension, under this 
Act, except in applications for original pensioQ 
by persons who have not heretofore i«oeived 
a pension. 

Sec. 4. That the benefits of this Act diaU 
include any person who served during the late 
Civil War, or in the War with Mexico, and 
who is now or may hereafter become entitled 
to pension under the Acts of June twenty- 
seventh, eighteen hundred and ninety, 
February fifteenth, eighteen hundred and 
ninety-five, and the joint resolutions of July 
first, nineteen hundred and two, and June 
twenty-eighth, nineteen hundred and six. 
or the Acts of January twenty-ninth, ei^teen 
hundred and eighty-seven, March third, 
eighteen hundred and ninety-one, and 
February seventeenth, eighteen hundred and 
ninety-seven. 

Sec. 5. That it shall be the duty of the 
Commissioner of Pensions, as each application 
for pension under this Act is adjudicated, 
to cause to be kept a record showinfc the name 
and length of service of each clamaant, the 
monthly rate of payment granted to or rr- 
ceived by him, ana the county and state of hi» 
residence; and shall at the end of the fiscal 
year nineteen hundred and fourteen tiU)ulate 
the record ho obtained by States and counties, 
and shall furnish certified copies thereof xipon 
demand and the payment of such fee therefor 
OS is provided by law for certified copies of 
records in the executive departmento. 



PENSIONS. 



On June 30, 1912, the x>en!iioners on the 
roll of the United States CJovfrnment were 
as follows: War of 1K12, widow.s, 23H; Indian 
wars, survivoFH, 1,210, widows, 2.430; War 
with Mexico, survivors, l,.'Ji:J. widow;*. r),533; 
C^ivil War, by Act of May 11, 1912, survivors, 
13.246; by Act of Feb. 6, 1907, survivors 



333,579; by the general law. invalids, 103.237 
widows 64,130, minor children 361, mothers 
1.413. fathers 202. brothers, sisters, sons and 
daughters 331. helpless children 515; by the 
Art of April 27, 1890. invalids 47.201, minor 
children 4.063. helpless children 416; by the 
Act of April 19, 1908, widows 232.947, army 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



39 



Bozwa 362. War with Spain, invalids 23,841, 
wkiow 1,238. minor children 304, mothers 
24^1, fathers 508, brothers, sisters, sons and 
danchters 6, hdpless children "2. By regular 
establishment, invalids 14,373, widows 2,869, 
DUDor children 171, mothers 1,129, fathers 
150, brothers, sisters, sons and daughters 4, 
bdplesB children 8. Thus the total number 
of peoaoners on June 30, 1912 was 800,294; 
tke ottmber of soldiers and sailors on the 
pecnon roll at the dose of the year was 
538J00O, the number of dependents and widows 
vu 3214)32, and the number of army nurses 
was 382. 

The total amount available for pensions for 
tbe fiscal year ended June 30, 1912 was 
I153/)D4 .727.89. and of this amount $152,< 
>S6,433.72 was diabursed, lecvins an unex- 
pended balance of $18,294.17. The amount 
cxpraded for Navy pensions was 85,319,822.08. 

With the total number of pensioners 860,- 
394, sod the total annual value of the pensions 
tl51458.Ul.40, the average value of each 
pensoQ for all classes amounts to $176.17; 
bjr recular establishment each pension has an 
UBual average value of $174.33; by Act of 
May 11, 1913, $260.09; by Act of Feb. 6, 
1907, SI 76.41 ; by tbe general law. Civil War, 
I221-71; by Act of June 27, 1890, $144.79; 
by Act of April 19, 1908, $144.76; by the 
«ir vith Spain, $128.82; for survivors of the 
CiTi! Wsr. $197.09. 

•Beginning with the year 1866 the number 
(rf penaioiiers for certain years was as follows: 

1866,126,722; 1870,198,686; 1875.234,821; 
1885.345,125; 
1900,993,529; 
1911.892,098; 



1880,250,802; 
W5, 970.524; 
1910.921,083; 



1890,537.944; 
1905,998,441; 
1912, 860,294. 



PENSIONS or THB 8EVKRA.I. WARS AND OF THE 
PEACE ESTABLISHMENT. 

The amounts that have been paid for 
pensions to soldiers, sailors, and marines, 
their widows, minor children, and dependent 
relatives on account of military and naval 
service in the several wars and in the regular 
service since the foundation of the Govern- 
ment to June 30, 1912, are as follows: 
War of the Revolution 

(estimate) $70,000,000.00 

War of 1812 (service pension) 46,890,843.39 
Indian wars (service 

pension) 

War with Mexico (service 

X)ension) 

Civil War 4,129,699,071.99 

War with Spain and insur- 
rection in Philippine Isls... 38,1 14,062.42 

Regular establishment 25,014,227.64 

Unclassified 16.488,476.49 



11.713.609.51 
46,447,872.44 



Total disbursements for 
pensions $4,383,368,163.88 

HISTOBICAL 

There are now no pensioners on account of 
the Revolutionary War on the roll, the last 
pensioner of that war having died during the 
year 1906. The last survivor of the Revolu- 
tion was Daniel F. Bakeman, who died at 
Freedom, Cattaraugas County, N. Y., on 
April 5, 1869, aged 100 years 6 months and 
8 days. 

The last surviving pensioned soldier of the 
War of 1812 was Hiram Cronk, of Ava, N. Y., 
who died May 13, 1905, aged 105 years and 
16 days. 



POPULATION OF CANADA. 



The population of Canada by first census 
of 1665 was 3,251; in 1763, 70,000; in 1871, 
3,485,761; in 1881; 4,324,810; in 1891, 
U33.239: in 1901, 5,371,315. Canada 
bcpn the 20th century with the same popula- 
tion is tbe United States began the 19th. 
Revised returns of the census in 1911 give 
tbe population at 7,204338. an increase of 
IJS33JS23, or 32 per cent, in ten years. 

The population of Canada by provinces, 
■ shown by the census of 1901 and 1911, is as 
Uiovi: 



Alberta 

Britiah Columbia , 

Manitoba 

New Bmnswick 

Nova Scotia , 

Ontario 2 

Prince Edward Island . . . 

Quebec 2 

Saskatchewan 

Northwest Territories. . . . 
Yukon 



1911 
374.663 
392.480 
455.614 
351.889 
492.338 
,523,274 

93.728 
,002,712 
492.432 

17.196 
8,512 



1901 

73,022 

178,657 

255,211 

331,120 

459,574 

2,182,947 

103.259 

1,^48.898 

91,279 

20.129 

27,129 



RHODES SCHOLARSHIPS. 



7.204,838 5,371,315 



Tnder the wiU of Mr. Cecil Rhodes a number 
c^ (Colonial, American and German scholarships 
rar establisfaed, in order to instill into tne 
aindi of oolonists the advantage to the 
Colonies as well as to the United Kmsdom of 
tbe retentkm of the unity of the Empire: 
U) encourage in the students from the United 
States of America an attachment to the 
eountry from which they have sprung; and 
lo further a good understanding between 
RtMrfiind, Germany, and ihe United States. 

tnere nre in all seventy-euj^t colonial 
idiolarBhips for male students ot $1,500 each 
s year for three years at the University of 
Oxford, these colonial scholarships being 
spread over most of the colonies, twenty-four 
bong allotted to Canada, eighteen to Australia , 
twelve to Cape Colony, nine to Rhodesia, and 
three each to Natal, New Zealand* Newfound- 
bod, Bennuda and Jamaica , 



Two Oxford scholarships are to be allotted 
to each State and Territory of the United 
States of America, tenable for three years, 
each of $1,500; also, five (ierman scholar- 
ships, each of $1,250, tenable at Oxford for 
three years, the holders to be nominated by 
the German Emperor. 

So that the students who shall be elected 
to the scholarships shall not be merely book- 
worms, regard is to be had, not only to their 
"literary and scholastic attainments," but 
al80 to their " fondness of and success in manly 
outdoor sports, qualities of manhood, truth, 
courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and 
protection of the weak, Kindliness, unselHsh- 
ness. and fellowship," moral force of char- 
acter and instinct of leadership. "No 
student shall be qualified or dLsqualified for 
election to a scholarship on account of his 
race or religious opinion." 



40 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



EDUCATION. 



School Attendance in the United 

States. 

The Rtatistics relative to school attendance 
in the United States has just become available. 
The total number of persons of school age, 
that is to say. from 6 to 20 years, inclusive, 
in continental United States in 1010 was 
27,750.699, of whom 17,300,202, or 62.3 per 
cent, attended school. 

Persons from 6 to 9 years of age numbered 
7,725,234, of whom 6,678,320. or 73.6 per cent, 
attended school, while those from 10 to 14 
years of age numbered 9,107,140, of whom 
8,028.660, or 88.2 per cent, attended school. 

Of the whole nimiber of persons from 15 to 

17 years of age, namely, 6,372.177, those at- 
tending school numbered 2,748,387, or 61.2 
per cent., while of the 6,646,048 persons from 

18 to 20 years of age, there were 844,835, or 
16.2 per cent, who attended school. 

For the combined group, 6 to 14 years, in- 
clusive — the most common years of school at- 
tendance — there was a total of 16,832,374 per- 
sons reported in 1910 and of this number 
13,706,980, or 81.4 per cent., attended school. 

It will be noted that the period of maximum 
school attendance is in the ages 10 to 14 years. 
For these years a comparison can be made 
with the census of 1900. In 1900, 79.8 per 
cent, of the children attended school, as com- 
pared with 88.2 per cent, in 1910. The f9llow- 
mg summary gives the percentage of children 
10 to 14 years of age attending school in each 
of the years 1910 and 1900 by geographic 
divisions: 1910 1900 

United SUtcs 88.2 79.8 

New England 94.1 90.0 

Middle Atlantic 92.9 85.7 

East North Cvntral 93.8 88. 1 

West North Central 93.6 88.3 

1910 1900 

South Atlantic 78.7 65.6 

East South Central 79.0 65.8 

West South Central 80.6 68.3 

Mountain 90.2 85.2 

Paci5c 94.1 91.8 

In the Northern and Western divisions over 
nine-tenths of the children in these ages are 
enrolled in schools. In the three Southern 
divisions, the proportion approximates eight- 
tenths. A comparison of the two years shows 
an advance in ail sections, but it is most 
marked in the Southern states, reflecting the 
great progress of popular education in those 
8tat4» m recent years. 

The age of conipulsory school attendance 
where it exists dififcrs under the laws for dif- 
ferent states. It generally begins when a child 
reaches 8 years of age and ceases when he 
reaches 14 years of age. The percentage of 
children in the agw 8 U) 13 year«, boih inclu- 
sive, who attend school is undoubtedly higher 
than for the children G to 14 years, given in 
the table. The latter group comprlHos some 
children who have not Iwgun and some who 
have finished their schooling. 

Public High Schools and Private 
High Schools and Academies. 

In the school year 1912 there were 11,224 
public high schools and 2,044 private high 



schools. In the public high schools thero 
were 22,923 male secondary teachers and 
28.930 female secondary teachers; 489,048 
male secondary students and 616,312 femald 
secondary stuaents. 

In the private high schools there were 5.307 
male teachers and 7.076 female teachers 
there were 66,742 male secondary studen 
and 74,726 female secondary students. 

Public and Private Normal 
Schools. 

In the school year 1912 there were 222 
public normal schools having 1,487 male 
teachers and 2,577 female teachers. There 
were 17,726 male students and 65,749 female 
students. There were 56 private norinal 
schools, having 144 male teachers and 257 
female teachers, and 2,136 male students 
and 4,375 female students. 

Universities, Colleges and Tech- 
nological Schools. 

In the school year there were 594 institu- 
tions of this class, having 24.476 male pro- 
fessors and instructors and 6,494 female pro- 
fessors and instructors. In the preparatory 
schools there were 40,164 male and 23.197 
female students. In the collegiate depart- 
ment there were 117,866 male and 68,779 
female students. The total receipts, exclu- 
sive of additions to endowment tunds, was 
$89,527,484. 

Undergraduate Students in Uni- 
versities, Colleges and Schools 
OF Technology. 

Out of 694 institutions included under the 
above head, there were 144 colleges for men. 
having 37,633 undergraduate students. There 
were 109 colleges for women, having 21.423 
undergraduate students. There were 341 co- 
educational institutions having 80.215 male 
and 47,353 female undergraduate students, 
making a total of 127,668. 

Professional Schools. 

In the school year 1912 the number of 
schools and students was as follows: 

182 schools of theology served 11,243 
students; 118 law schools had 20,760 students 
enrolled; 115 medical colleges had 18,461 stu- 
dents enrolled; 52 dental colleges had 7,190 
students; 76 schools of pharmacy had 6|1S8 
students; 21 schools of veterinary medictne 
had 2.282 students. 

Schools for the Blind, Deaf and 
Feeble-Minded. 

In the school year 1912 there were 60 
State schools for the blind in the United 
States, having 4,992 pupils. There were 64 
State schools for the deaf, having 11,244 
pupils. In addition there were 68 public day 
schools for the deaf, having 1,928 pupils and 
19 private schools, having 518 pupils. There 
were also 33 State institutions tor the feeble- 
minded caring for 21,357 inmates, while 20 
private institutions cared for 749 inii»t«e. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



41 



N 



> T 



W 
X 






en 

> 

Z 

P 

Q 

u 

X 

>^ 

z 





< a 



7} 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




THE INTRACTABLE MISSOURI- MISSISSIPPI SYSTEM 
Thaininq Schools fob Nurses. Com- 

UBRCIAL ScaOOLB, MaNOAL AND 

Indubtriai. Training 

ScHOOLa. 
la, the arhooL year 1012 tbeni 



lutMd to hoapiuh 

id the toUl nuiDbW 
tutiati> per lOO.OW 



Khoo 






o 5ie c 



( 32,340 



1:205 ID 



Accordinc to' the lal«at Gcum Uh L'iii- 
■crsity of Pari. i> the Ur.ut uoirenily ii' 
Ije world wilh 17,312 itudenu. (Iter vUrk 
ullow. Btrlin wilh M,M3; Moaww wiH 



Insane in Institutii 
The Dumt 

tutioDiin tht 

ni of vhish numbir 60, 



Statni in 1010 wu IS?,- 



CHAPTER II. 



FARMS, FOODS AND FORESTS. 



FARje. FARM IxAND, AND FARM PROPERTY OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 



pap^ktuo'. 



rafaOteu 

hoftbecoiiBuy 

Mfclaiom acrw. 

«pKv«i had in bnu acm. 



pcrfana. 



AroftiB^nwed^. 
rarccMofMallMMl 
P^e«ttflfhiidiB_ 
hrtmittkHaHuid 



per fann.. 

lo tama. . 

impcovwt.. 

impiowd. 



total. 



laptamu and BMdu nary 

pottltry, and bcea. 



AvMfi vaha o< all proparty p«r {arm. 



vakia «f all M^ccty p«r acn of laud in Canna. 
laMPvac 



pvacrt. 



WW 

(ApniU) 



91,972.266 
42.023,383 
49.348.863 

•,861, KM 
1.903.289,000 

878,798.325 
478,451.750 

13&1 
75.2 
46l2 
54.4 
2&1 

tl0.991,M9,Oeo 

28.475,674.169 
6,325,451,628 
1,265,149.783 
4,925,173,610 

16.444 

46.64 
32:40 



IM9 

<iine I) 



75,994,575 
31^609,645 
44.384.930 

6.T87.Sn 

1,603,461,760 

838,591,774 

414,498.487 

146.2 
72.2 
44.1 
49 4 
21.8 

HO, 489, 901, 164 

13,058,007,995 

8,556,639.496 

749.775,970 

3,075,477,703 

13.563 
24.37 
15.57 



Anoimt. 



15,977.691 

11,013,738 

4.963.953 

•94,180 

-172,100 

40,206.551 

63,953,263 

-&1 
3.0 



|MI,6«1,8«T.98« 

15.417.666,174 

2,768.812.032 

515.373.813 

1.849.695,907 

92,881 
22.27 
16.83 



Pit MUt* 



21.0 
34.8 
11.2 

lao 



4.8 
15.4 

-5.5 

4.2 



im.6 

ii&i 

77.8 
6&7 

eai 
sao 

91.4 
10S.1 




ab«vlaB.lanM,2J00«r 
— edMWnUirjr " 



wihibWanU. Tin Snic for 1900 
■■ wliaa la mo. 



not le p i mal tte wbM poyuteUoa aeoetdlac to thai 



XUMBER AND ACREAGE OF FARMS AND NUMBER OF ACRES 

IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED. 

[Sooroe: Eeporta of the Boreaa of the Census, Department of Gommeice and Labor.] 



Ceansyisar. 


Number of 
farms. 


Number of acres in farms. 


Per cent of farm 
land— 


Improved. 


Unimproved^ 


Total. 


Average 

number 

of acres 

to a farm. 


Im- 
proved. 


Unim- 
proved. 


in 


1.449,078 
2,044,077 
2,669,986 
4,008,907 
4,664,641 
5^787,872 
6.861.602 


118,082,614 
163.110,720 
188,^21,099 
284,771,042 
867,616,755 
414,498,487 
478^461,760 


180,688.000 
244,101,818 
218,818,942 
261,810,798 
265,601,864 
424,098,287 
400,846,575 


298,660,614 
407,212,688 
407,786,041 
686,081,886 
628,218.619 
838,691,774 
878,798,826 


202.6 
199.2 
166.8 
188.7 
186.6 
146.2 
188.1 


88.6 
40.1 
46.8 
68.1 
67.4 
49.4 
64.4 


61.6 
69.9 
68.7 
46.9 
42.6 
60.6 
46.6 


^ 


^1 


i ............ 

i»i 

IMi 


Ifti 


Imi 


w 





'Ha faidadlnf larms of lev than 8 acres which reported the sale of less than 8600 worth of prod- 
^io the census year. 
*txd«ive of Alaska and Hawaii. 
'SxdDilve of Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico. 

43 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



WATE.R 



1 


1 

• 




sS SSSjS S5IS « ; 


* 1 


!>" -iis itii 








6 E8S8 ssSS 8§=a 1 55 


! 


s less -- »ias » " 


=■ "i»s tm 




S-- - 




E lisl 33:55 ISIS S =5 
S mt --"' B«l « =* 




« "'ISS H6« 




«-■ -■ 




B «8S ;s;-5 tin 1 js 


! 


3 SBJc ^ SSSI.1 ^- 


s -wj tm ■ 








- 


i 


c siij rs:; ISIS s 3= 


S •■«« IMS 




5= -■ 




i Hs|- 5-'-- gsE6 » '" 


1 


= -'SSS SiSS 




8-= •< 




s SSB8 s;:;; %%i% 3 !* 


s 


s 


=" ••«"« 8188 




S»-' 






1 


%M\ 




1 
t 
1 






\ 


% 
'■■i 


II || 
[fl 


3 

1 

i 






\ 


%\ Ipll 

31 f<m 


1 


\ 



-WATER 



PKIlCENTAr.E rOMPOSlTIOS ll 

A POTATO, TUHNIPAXI) 

STRAWBERRY. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN TfEH^RENCE BOOK. 



OI.^,.. 


Wultb pn>- 


CtltaxiMjmt. 


"s^s^r 




DoOarl. 
4,717,000,000 
6,017,000,000 
6,117,000,000 
6,817,000,000 
6,687,000,000 
8, 12S, 000,000 
0.274,000,000 




DaOar,. 
























1910 






^•"■- 


m. 000,000 





7^ 



• I -2- r^z^k^^ 



^ 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 
CEREAL CROPS: ESTIMATED PRODUCTION' AND VALUE. 







Towl. 




A 


verage. 




* 








Fwin V»lue 


Yield 


F»nn VaJm 




Area. 


Production. 


Farm Value 


%£-?" 


per 


or yield 




Acrcn, 


Busheli- 


Dollua. 


Cenw. 


Bahla 


DoIUm. -J 


con.: 












8f»-75i.. 


32.716.700 


9«9.9<7.600 


4M.S34.800 


47.8 


2e.i 


12.48 


912 


107.083.000 


3.12*.74a.OO0 


1.620.454.000 


48 7 


20.2 




Whut: 














S66-T6'.. 


20,470.300 




257,680.900 


106,6 


11,9 


12.93 


912 


45.8H.OO0 


730.207.000 


56fi.280.000 


76.0 


is.e 


12.12 


0»Ui: 




















102,422.7001 37.8 








37:81 7 ioOC 


1,41S!337!000 


462.469,000 


31.9 


37 4 


ii!b3 


R^A-...*.. 








_ 







SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



HAY CROP ESTIMATED ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND VALUE, 1911 

jr the year lfll2 (he prod uf lion o( hsy in | The svaraaa price of tmy per riiort ton d 



the Uniw/si 
and Uie toUL 
4fiJ»0,000. Tbi 



Deoemb^l? 18 

■rhe averagi 
December 1 



; -^'Ti 




HAY AND FORAGE CROPS, 1909. 



defined u (be 



INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM. 

which ha£ Vxvq pannod by the people 'e 

repr&*Qatative in a legidature or council, to 

I* vote of the people for ratificiilioa or re- 

■- — It has t>eeii in uae in a reetricted 



LS the referendum, 
By this 



i^Z 



;iallj: 






D 25 



then, WLlhoot ehanjEe or reviHion. ad befare 
the people for tbeir judgment, and. If it is 
approved by a majonty of the vdIe^ cbai. it 
becom™ law without further prorcat. l.awB 



meptfl. It itt only ainec 

an inatrument of din:ct IcftisJation both by 

adopted Uie initiative and pefcrendum are 
AriinDsa.', Cnlifomia, Colorado. Illinois. 
Maine. .MiHBDUri, Montana. OkbhDma, Onmm, 
South Dakota and Utah. Nevada niias 
adopted the referendum only. 



THE RECALL. 



II" ifl a. method of procedurv by 
ople are enabled to remove from 
Jiy public elective official at will. 
I a petition fligned by a certnta 

the recall a( elective public 



officers ie provided for thiouflh the filing of 
petitions aliened by from IS to 75 per cent, of 
the votcra. Ju ^uth Dakota citua the pen 
rentage is only 15. while in Illinois it is 55, 
and 33 in Louisiana. In Oregon all stata 
officialji, including judges and membeni of thn 
legislature, are subtecl to the recall. — Chicago 
Daily Ntai Almanac, 1912. 



SQIENTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 4 

TOBACCO CROP IN CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: 1912. 



For the TFtu- I91Z there were l.225,BOO 
product derived tfaerefrom Bciounlsd to 982.- 
wu' F*ci[ut«l''iit SlM.eOS.OnO. Kentucky 



UniTEO STATES 



NireO KIMflOOM 



p[ the Union, 
Ohio. Te 



:onDectirut. South Caroi^inii. MuyUnd, In- 
liBDB. Went Virgin].. MuvuQhuKtla, Mir 
4uri. New York, and llliaoia. 

UHlTtD 5TATt5 IMDtA 

'^6,4\l,000 5.000,000 ? 



^I? ^ TT 



D pounds pet head) 



"Ktt 



o3 



OATSr ACREAGE BY STATES, 1909. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Coprrlflit. Hunn A Co. 

l^HAT OUR WTIEAT CROP MEANS. 

The 735.2e0.e70-buKhc1 wheat cnp of 1006 converted into a I.SM-root birrel of flour, a 
baked into aa imiDKnM' Insf. 2.I.5N l«t high. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



51 



WOOL PRODUCTION: 1912. 



On April 1, 1912 the total number of sheep 
of sheannc an was 38,481.000 and the averase 
vcicht of a fleece for the year waa 6.82 pounds. 
The per cent, of shrinkage for the same year 
VM 50.3. There were 304.043.400 pounds of 
wool washed and unwashed, and 136.866,652 



pounds of scoured wool. The average value 
per pound of scoured wool for the year 1012 
was 47.7 cents, and the total value of all the 
scoured wool to October 1, 1012 (Boston 
Market) was $75,810,251. 



POTATO CROP: 1912 



For the year 1012 the total 3.711.000 acres 
pUnted to potatoes in the United States 
prodoeed a total of 428,647.000 bushels of 

atoes. Their total farm value on Decem- 
1, 1012 was $212,550,000. making the 



\S 



average value per bushel 50.5 cents. The 
average jrield per acre for the whole United 
States was 113.4 bushels and the average 
farm value of yield per acre on December 1 
was $57.28. 



Daring the ^ear 1011 there were 66 sugar 
beei factories in operation. For the same 
period there were 473,877 acres of sugar beets 
harvested, and the average yield per acre was 
10.68 short tons. The factories of the United 



SUGAR BEETS: 1911. 

States worked 5,062,333 short tons of beets 
and produced 1.100.000,000 pounds, or 500,- 
500 snort tons of sugar. For the same period 
there were 723.840,000 pounds of cane sugar 
produced and 34,120,000 gallons of molasses. 




FOOD SOURCES OF THE WORLD. 



WATER 



PROTEI . 

CARBOHYDf^ 
CELLULOS 





MiN. 
EXTffAC 

Loss of Constituents on Boiling. 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF CABBAGE AND BREAD. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DepnrtTnont of Agriculti 
in cnttoD in 1012 wu 



COTTON PRODUCTION AND STATISTICS: 1912. 

hornK, 1.057.I2S; MiMlsmppi. I,049,fi0t: bII 
Lniled Stal^'oF l'4.0fl0.863'baleB. The tfgn- 



Teiu. 11.33H.000 srm; GeorsiB, 
fi.336.000: AlabmnB. 3730,000; Miaainuppi. 
2,880,000; South CHrolins, 2.ms,00n; Oklit- 
hom«, 2,665,000! ArkonMU. 1,901.000: Nnnh 
CnroliDB. 1.645,000; LouinHiw, 029,000; Tcn- 
ne««. 783,000: Florida. 224.000; MiMouri, 
103,000; VirginiB. 17,000 and CiiifomiB, 
9,000 seres. 

The Averaee producdoD at lint ih-t airo in 
1012 TU lei pounde, ag Rompsred wiih 208 

S^eVsr'we yield Mr ncro i^'fJortl 



Nd other stato had an average i 
200 pounda. 

The prDductioD oF cottan in th. 

Tuaa. 4.8S3,a23 balei (round bal 
OS half balei); Georgia, 1,888,903: 
1,367,136: Bouth Carolina. 1.259. 



pouftdi. 
i high aa 



J 3.079 were idle. The Bverage number o( 
ining balge (inncd per celabliiihment wa> 

rhe World's production of cotton for nJII 
isumplion, by rounlrios for the year 19U 
I as followi: I'mtod Slates, 13,696.000 
les. or 62,8 per cent ol the world'i produr- 
o; India, 3,618,000 bales; EKypl, 1.523,00'l 
les; Chins. 1,074,000 bales; RuiUia, 9W.nt< 
les; Braiil, 320,000 bales: all other eounlriu 



21,817.000 baloa. 

On Mareb 1. 1913 there were 
SIsles 30,675.023 active rat 
11,853.142 of which wero in rot 
Btntos and the remainder in 
The number of spind'" :■> "1- " 
tries of the world oi 

10,920,42a; Ru» 

Hpiun, 2.200*000;'" 'Sirttii'i 



il for 



. 1913 wsa as 

108; Germany. 
p, 7,400,- 



unted to 7,175,601 bales 




COTTON: ACREAGE BY STATES, 



SCIENTIFIC AMEHICAN RBFEHtENCE BOOK. 53 




•37.056.047; butter 
valu* 182,311,511: 
e 100.378.123 



'^tissisei 


40 made 


CD (sri^ftud 624,764 


































































«j™i,up 







t25i.i36.75i; cnMn, 




8,130,901 I 
le quuitily ot milk aold i 
•rmi u 1,937,255,864 gnilon 



y of such cream or buller lat [■ rrportad. 

id not the qusalily o[ milk. The greater 

irC of milk rapDrted as «iLd wu c)oubtle» 

Diumed as such in the citiei and villages. 

The Bveraae value of butter Bold by larmera 

the United States wag 24.2 cenU! pei pound 

... 1909, u compared with 16.7 cenU in 18B9. 

an inereaH of 44.8 per cent. The aversgo 

value iraa highest in New England. 2S.9 cents. 

n 9^'™^l/A"^und iTlSSrw m'wMa 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCK BOOK. 



luriac 
,2a 1.1* 



,251.147 pouiidi ol Dlfomargarine wu pro- 
Bd in tta« Uwled States. Thfl intetiisl 

wu K23A27A9: 3,259, 4S:i pound* wire uied 
at the rule of Ua centa a pound and 122,- 
991,604 pounda at ane-fourth ol a cent per 
pound. 

Cottonseed Products: Production 
AND Manufacture, 19II. 

During thp year 1911 there were 6,(197.000 



leed produced 


in the 


tfl«,5l«>.0U0; 


averane 
art ton. 

akeand 



Sie.720.(IOO; hulla, 1,642,000 shnrt ton 
a value ol Sg.!<9<l,000: lintera. £33.0S» 
at eOO pounds net, valug W.ISO.OOO. 



P'laxbeed Chop: 1912. 



,000 acres planted to 
IP of 28.073.000 buiheb. 
> on December 1 wM 






<d Stat«i 3.44S.0Oa <w] 
slue of $10,373,616. o 
Kf eotony. Nine am 

^_ .r 5S5,955 farms in* 

hI Stales, rpporifd bee ooLonieii, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




PERCENTAGE COMPOSI- 
TION OF BANANA, CAR- 
ROT, ASPARAGUS. LET- 
TL'CE AND TOMATO. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




iilS- 


'4 ?~ 


i ss!3; mn 


1 


8"5 Si's 


< 


!"•• »S' 




lliiiini 


lijsJ 1 




1! 




iM 


i 





I 



ss^ssssss;:: 



IliiSllilii 



!S|S==85S;! 



ililiilills 



■■I-S. SS8 

.nJ.s 









m 



It I 



II 



a sis Ijli'li 



5.H 3 5-^affl.^= 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




ALL HORSES, MULES AND ASSFS AND BURROS ON FARMS; 
NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 



B8 SCIENTIFIC AHBRICAU RGFEOiBNCK BOOK. 




ALL SWINE ON FARMS: NUMBER BY STATES, 1910. 




alIj H«t;t;i' vy i-akms: wuMiiiiK hy statius, laiu; 





ii,Mt,oia 


SS.1 


3»,ST8,ITfl 


tll3,«H.lt2 


3ia.ra.3u 






Si 


10.4 




460, aw 


ISS 




i 


m 






^S!;!S 












1 









• Lata Uun oDt-tanUi of I pv oc 



MK m 3t.T tor iriwla of tt 



The total production oF hops in U 
SUtu in ten amounted to 40,000 
u s^inst 44,000,000 Ibfl. in J9J0 
per cent, of the world's production. 
miO, the exporta unouoted to 12.74. 
and tbe imports Id E,S23,S20. 



«0 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



EoG Statistics. 

According to a recent report of the Census 
Bureau, the production of esBS on farms of the 
United States in 1909 was 1^591 million dosen, 
valued at S306.689.000, equivalent to 19.3 
cents per doien. This production is equiva- 
lent to 207 ecgs per capita of population. As 
less than 1 per cent, of the eggs produced are 
exported and almost none imported, produc- 
tion may be ngarded as equivalent to domes- 
tic oonsumption. In the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1910. the exports of eon were 
5,326,000 dosen and imports 818.000 dosen. 
A smiUl proportion of the production is used 
for manuifacturing purposes. The census re- 
port does not include the production of eggs 
m cities, towns, or villages. According to an 
estimate given in the census report of 1900, 
the production of eggs off farms was eoual to 
about 5 per cent, of the production on farms; 
on this oasis, about 80 million dosen Man 
would have been produced off farms in 1909. 

According to the census figures the produc- 
tion of eggs increased 23 per cent, from 1899 
to 1909; but the oommercutl movement shows 
a much greater increase. Seven cities com- 
bined (New York, Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, 
C^cinnati, Milwaukee, and San Francisco) 
received about 369 million dosen eggs in 1909. 
an increase of 70 ^r cent, over their receipts 
in 1899. Populanon had increased between 
1900 and 1910 about 21 per cent, in the United 
States, but 31 per cent, in the seven cities 
namea above. The receipts at these seven 
cities in 1909 were equivalent to about 23 per 
cent, of the production as reported by the 
census, as compared with 16 ^r cent, in 1899. 

In Januaiy, 1910, and agam in June, 1910, 
the Department of Agricmture made an in- 
vestigation through its agents, in 63 cities 
throughout the United States, concerning the 
price which retail dealeni were paying for eggs 
and the price which consumers were paying 
for fresh eggs; at the same time inquiries were 



made through correspondence with 
porters of the Bureau of Statistics 
to these cities concerning the prices 
by producers. From the reports receii 
appears that in June, 1910. consumers 
an average of 24 cents per dosen; retail 
paid 19.8 cents, and near-by produc 
ceived 18.7 cents; in January. 1910. coc 
paid 38.1 cents, retailers paid 32 cents, 
near-by producers received 30.4. The ai 
price to producers for the entire United I 
m the middle of June, 1910, was about 
cents, and in the last week of January, II 
about 29 cents. 



LOSJff. 




OM&rmg, 
COMPOSITION OF MILK. 



It has been estimated that the average mi 
must be supplied daily with an amount k 
energy in the form of food which is the equivi 
lent of from 3.000 to 3.500 calories. In onl 
to obtain this energy one would have to eoi 
sume about eight pmts of milk daily, or aboi 
a tumblerful every hour of the woncing da 



ORCHARD AND VINEYARD PRODUCTS. 



Products. 


Trees of Bearing 
Age: 1910. 


Products of 1909. 


Trees 

Reported 

June 1. 

1900. 


Prodocts 
of 

1899. 




Farms 
reporting. 


Number. 


Bushels. 


Value. 


Bushels. 


Fruits: 
(orchard) 

Apples 

Cherries 

Peaches 

Pears 

Plums, etc. . . 

PruJts: 

(vineyard) 
Grapes 

Fruits: 
(sub-tropi- 
cal) 
Oranges 


2.980.398 
1.248.667 
1.843.610 
1.276.366 
1.120.130 

923.396 


151.323.000 
11.822.044 
94.507.000 
15.172.000 
23,445.009 

224.098.000 

• 

9.367.047 
938.870 


147.522.000 

4.126.099 

35.470.000 

8.841.000 

15,480.170 

2.570,996.000 

^9.289,391 
2.728,341 


S83.23 1.000 

7,231.160 

28.781.000 

7.911.000 

10.299.495 

22.025.000 

17,267.278 
2.939,512 


201.794.000 
11.943.287 
99.919.000 
17.716,000 
30.780,892 

182.228,000 


175,397.0 

2,878.4 

15,4U.O 

6.0^0 

8.764,0 

1.300.761.0 



















>Boxes. 



SCJBNTIFIO AMERICAN REFEOIENCB BOOK. 



CUTS OF MEAT. 

Tie method ot dividing up the car- I on this account the character of the 
amt» ot slBDgbtered animala varies cuts of beef, veal, pork and mutton 
(oaiiderablj' in different localities. In Is abown in the diagrams given on 



SCIENTIFIC ambrica:<i refkrence book. 



PmUm. 


tandon, and probably 

Aid in forming booe. 
■Birt in dia«at1on, «te. 




"SM'ZSUI&'oV^hiS^'S! 


yield «Ti*nni id fom 
■ttwiglh. 


corn »nd whMt, nto. 





TAe Pitel Valuo of Footf,— Heat and 
maacQlar power are forms of force or 
cnerg7. The euerg? Is developed as 
the food la conBumed in the body. The 
unit commonly used !□ tbia measure- 
meat is the calorie, tbe amoant of heat 
which would raise tbe temperature of 
a. pound of water 4 deg. Fahrenheit 

iQBtead ol this unit aome unit of 
mechanical energy might be used — for 




blAORAlf OF CUTS OF UDTTOM. 



IsHtance, the foot-ton, which repre- 
BCDts the iorce required to raise one 
ton oat toot. One calorie is equal to 
verv nearly 1.53 foot-tons. 

The following general estimate has 
been made for the average amount of 
potential energy in 1 pound of each of 
tbe clauea of nutrients : 

CfJoriH. 

In I pound of prolein 1 ,SSO 

In 1 pound of Uu. l.iSO 

In 1 pound of carbohycinitcB.. 1,860 

In olber words, when we com- 
pare _the ntitrientB in respect 



DIAOBAM OF CUTS OF VXAI. 
a pound of protein of lean meat or al- 
bumen of egg is just about eguivaleDt 
to a pound of sugar or starch, and i 
little over two pounds of either would 




DIAQRAU 

be required to equal a pound of the tat 
of meat or butter or the body fat. 

Within recent years snalyses of a 
large number of samples of foods have 
been made in tlus country. In the 
tables on pages' 68— 6S tbe result* ol 
a number of these aualyaes axe giveo: 




DUOBJJf OF CUTS OF BEKF, 



aCIRNTIFIC AMERICAN REPEEENCE BOOK. 

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOOD PRODUCTS. 



FdoiI Hturialii (u purehaaed). 



CbiKk. indudinc shoiililtr 

Chock ribL 

RMik. ., .,.. 



SH^im.'.'.. '.'.'.'. 
BkosUa' uid clod. . 



i, pickled. Mid dried: 



Toane, cncfcled 

Diiad, MlMd, and smoked 

OoMd boiled beef 

Cuned coroed beer. 

VmI; 

Br«Mt , 

lei. 

LtfcstkU 

FcR qnmrter. 

Hind qngrla- . , . - 

FUnli. 

UfcW^ 

Fare Quarter. . . - - - 

Hind qiurter. withoul lallow. 
[job; 

Brad 

Leg. hind 

xt, fresh: 

fluk 

Hud 

LoiB tbo(t». 

Jtuitrlaia.'.'.".'..'.'. '.-/.-. -'■'- 
FOik. Kited, cured, aod pickleit: 



Fnakrort. . 
Snp.: 
Clery.cnof 



Pork, 



CUiien. bnulera. ■ 



Cod.dreaed 

Hilibut. (teekt or sectio 

Hukerd. abDle. 

IWh. yellow, drened. . 



■t 






















IS. 


■I 


T 




13 : 




n 






J 






M 






\ 


il- 


■" 




A 


ls: 




1R 


■? 


»- 


















.S 


^: 










:!' 




1 


,! 






.1 
i 

.0 


IH. 

»: 



64 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOOD PRODUCTS— C<mlMMMrf. 



Food Materials (as purchased). 



Fish, canned: 

Salmon 

Sardines. 

SheUBsh: 

Oysters, **8olids". , 

dams 

Crabs 

Lobsters 

E^: Hens' eggs. . . 
Dairy producte, eto. : 

Butter. 

Whole milk 

Skim milk 

Buttermilk 

Condensed milk. . . 

Cream 

Cheese, Cheddar.. . . 

Cheese, full cream. 



Vbobtablb Food. 
Flour, meal, ete. : 

Entire-wheat flour. 

Graham flour 

Wheat flour, patent roUer process — 

High-grade and medium 

Xiow ^ude 

MaearonL 

Crushed wheat 

Buckwheat flour 

Com meal 

Oatmeal 

Rice 

Tapioca. 

Starch 

Bread, pastry, ete.: 

White bread 

Brown bread 

Graham bread 

Whole-wheat bread 

Rye bread. 

Cake. 

Cream crackers 

Oyster crackers 

Soda crackers 

Sujntrs, etc. : 

Molsisses 

Candy 

Honey ' 

Sugar, ^anulated 

Maple sirup 

Vegetables :< 

Beans, dried 

Beans, Lima, shelled. . . , 

beans, string 

Beets 

Cabbage 

Celery , 

Corn, green (sweet), edible portion. . , 

Cucumbers , 

Lettuce 

Mushrooms , 

Onions 

Parsnips 

Peas (Fitum tativum), dried 



Ref- 
use. 



PerCt. 
14.2 
»5.0 



52.4 

61.7 

»11.2 



7.0 
20.0 
15.0 
20.0 



15.0 
16.0 



10.0 
20.0 



Water. 



PerCt. 
56.8 
53.0 

88.3 
80.8 
36.7 
30.7 
65.5 

11.0 
87.0 
90.5 
91.0 
26.9 
74.0 
27.4 
34.2 



11.4 
11.3 

12.0 
12.0 
78.4 
10.1 
13.6 
12.5 
7.3 
12.3 
11.4 



85.3 

43.6 

85.7 

38.4 

35.7 

19.9 

6.8 

4.8 

5.9 

25.1 

18*2 



12.6 
68.5 
83.0 
70.0 
77.7 
75.6 
75.4 
81.1 
80.5 
88.1 
78.9 
66.4 
9.5 



Pro- 
tein*. 



PerCt. 
19.5 
23.7 

6.0 

10.6 

7.9 

5.9 

11.9 

1.0 
3.3 
3.4 
8.0 
8.8 
2.5 
27.7 
25.9 



18.8 
13.3 

11.4 
14.0 

3.0 
11.1 

6.4 

9.2 
16.1 

8.0 
.4 



9.2 
5.4 
8.9 
9.7 
9.0 
6.3 
9.7 
11.3 
9.8 

2.4 

".'4 



22.5 
7.1 
2.1 
1.3 
1.4 
.9 
3.1 
.7 
1.0 
3 5 
1.4 
1.3 

24.6 



Fat. 



PerCt 
7.5 
12.1 

1.3 

1.1 

.9 

.7 

9.3 

85.0 

4.0 

.3 

.5 

8.3 

18.5 

86.8 

33.7 



1.9 
2.2 

1.0 
1.9 
1.5 
1.7 
1.2 
1.9 
7.2 
.3 
.1 



1.3 

1.8 

1.8 

.9 

.6 

0.0 

12.1 

10.5 

9.1 






1.8 
.7 
.3 
.1 
.2 
.1 

1.1 
.2 
.2 
.4 
.3 
.4 

1.0 



Car- 
bohy- 
drates. 



PerCt. 



3.3 

5.2 

.6 

.2 



5.0 
5.1 
4.8 
54.1 
4.5 
4.1 
2.4 



71.9 
71.4 

75.1 
71.2 
15.8 
75.5 
77.9 
75.4 
67.5 
79.0 
88.0 
90.0 

53.1 
47.1 
52.1 
49.7 
53.2 
63.8 
69.7 
70.5 
78.1 

69.3 
96.0 
81.2 
100 
71.4 

59.6 

22.0 

6.9 

7.7 

4.8 

2.6 

19.7 

2.6 

2.5 

6.8 

8.9 

10.8 

62.0 



Ash. 



Per(h, 
2.0 
5.3 

1.1 

2.3 

1.5 

.8 

.9 

3.0 
.7 
.7 
.7 

1.9 
.5 

4.0 

8.8 



1.0 
1.8 

.5 

.9 

1.3 

1.6 

.9 

1.0 

1.9 

.4 

.1 



1.1 
2.1 
1.6 
1.3 
1.5 
1.5 
1.7 
2.9 
2.1 

8.3 

.2 



3.5 

1.7 

.7 

.9 

.9 

.8 

.7 

.4 

.8 

1.2 

.5 

1.1 

2.0 



> Refuse, oil. ' Refuse, shell. 

3 Contained on an average cane sugar 2.8 and reducing sugar 71.1 per cent. The rsdud 
sugar was composed of about equal amounts of glucoee (oextrose) ana fruit sugar (larukMe. 

* Such vegetables as pptetoes, squash, beets, ete.. have, a certain amount fji inedil 
material, skin, seeds, ete. The amount varies with the method of preparing the vecetables, a 
cannot be accurately estimated. The figures given for refuse of vegetaoles, (ruite, etc. i 
assumed to represent approximately the amount of refuse in these foods as onunarily prspan 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



65 



AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOOD PRODUCTS-<r<mf»nu«f. 



Food Materials (as purehased). 



YMntablesMCoR/miMd) : 
nuiPituM 



{Piaum Motivum), sbelled. 

Cbwpcas, dried. 

FMatoes. 

Rlnibaib. •••..... 

Sweet potatoes. 

Spinaek 

Squaah. 

Tomatoes. 



ontabl 

real {Pinan wativum), green. 



>& 



oanned: 



Corn, _ 

ToButoss. • f 

Fhnts. benies, ete., fredi:i 
Apples. 



Grapes. .. . . 
LsuiuuS. • • . . 
Mwlcmelofis. 



Peara. 

Persimmons, edible portion. . 



Watertnelona. 

Fhats, dried: 

Apples. 

Apricots. «• 

Dates. 

Fits 

NntZT 

Afanonds 

Beechnuts. 

Brasil nuts 

Butternuts 

Qisstnuts, fresh. 

Chestnuts, dried 

Goeoanuts 

Ooeoanut, prepared 

rilberta. .....•• • 

Hickory nuts. 

Peeans, polished 

Peanuts. 

FUkn (Pl'nus edulU) 

Wafaiuts, California, black 

Walnuts, California, soft-shell 

Ratans , 

MiaesUaneoua: 

Chocolate. 

Cocoa, powdered 

Cereal coffee, infusion (1 part boiled in 
20 parts water) *. 



Ref- 
use. 



PerCt. 



20.0 
40.0 
20.0 



50.0 

ao.'o 



25.0 
85.0 
25.0 
30.0 
60.0 
27.0 
10.0 



5.0 
69.4 



10.0 



45.0 
40.8 
40.6 
86.4 
16.0 
24.0 
*48.8 



52.1 
62.2 
53.2 
24.5 
40.0 
74.1 
58.1 
10.0 



Water. 



PerCt 
74.6 
13.0 
62.6 
56.6 
55.2 
92.3 
44.2 
94.3 
62.7 

85.3 
76.1 
94.0 

63.3 
48.9 
58.0 
62.5 
44.8 
63.4 
76.0 
66.1 
85.8 
85.9 
37.5 

28.1 
81.4 
13.8 
18.8 

2.7 
2.3 
2.6 

.6 
37.8 
4.5 
7.2 
3.5 
1.8 
1.4 
1.4 
6.9 
2.0 

.6 

1.0 

13.1 

5.9 
4.6 

98.2 



Pro- 
tein. 


Fat. 


Car- 

bohy- 

drates. 


Ash. 


PerCt. 


PerCt. 


PerCt. 


PerCt. 


7.0 


0.5 


16.9 


1.0 


21.4 


1.4 


60.8 


8.4 


1.8 


.1 


14.7 


.8 


.4 


.4 


2.2 


.4 


1.4 


.6 


21.9 


.9 


2.1 


.3 


3.2 


2.1 


.7 


.2 


4.5 


.4 


.9 


.4 


3.9 


.5 


.9 


.1 


5.7 


.6 


3.6 


.2 


9.8 


1.1 


2.8 


1.2 


19.0 


.9 


1.2 


.2 


4.0 


.6 


.3 


.3 


10.8 


.8 


.8 


.4 


14.8 


.6 


1.0 


1.2 


14.4 


.4 


.7 


.5 


5.9 


A 


.3 




4.6 


.3 


.6 


.1 


8.5 


.4 


.5 


.4 


12.7 


.4 


.8 


.7 


81.5 


.9 


1.0 




12.6 


.6 


.9 


.6 


7.0 


.6 


.2 


.1 


2.7 


.1 


1.6 


2.2 


66.1 


2.0 


.9 




17.3 


.4 


1.9 


2.5 


70.6 


1.2 


4.3 


.3 


74.2 


2.4 


11.5 


30.2 


9.5 


1.1 


13.0 


34.0 


7.8 


2.1 


8.6 


33.7 


3.5 


2.0 


3.8 


8.3 


.5 


.4 


5.2 


4.5 


35.4 


1.1 


8.1 


5.3 


56.4 


1.7 


2.9 


25.9 


14.3 


.9 


6.3 


57.4 


31.5 


1.3 


7.5 


31.3 


6.2 


1.1 


5.8 


25.5 


4.3 


.8 


5.2 


33.3 


6.2 


.7 


19.5 


29.1 


18.5 


1.5 


8.7 


36.8 


10.2 


1.7 


7.2 


14.6 


3.0 


.5 


6.9 


26.6 


6.8 


.6 


2.3 


3.0 


68.5 


3.1 


12.9 


48.7 


30.3 


2.2 


21.6 


28.9 


87.7 


7.2 


.2 




1.4 


.2 



Fuel 
Value 

Calo- 
ries. 
465 
1.590 
810 
65 
640 
110 
105 
105 
125 

255 
455 

105 

220 
300 
885 
145 

90 
170 
260 
680 
255 
175 

60 

1.350 

840 

1.450 

1.475 

1.660 
1.820 
1.655 
430 
945 
1.425 
1.413 
8,125 
1.575 
1.265 
1.620 
1.935 
1.905 
805 
1.375 
1.455 

2.800 
2.320 

30 



' Frmts contain a certain proportion of inedible materials, as skin, seeds, etc.. which are 
propcily classed as refuse. In some fruits, as oranges and prunes, the amount rejected in 
eabnc *§ practically the same as refuse. In others, as apples and pears, more or less of the 
aiSUe material is ordinarily rejected with the skin and seeds and other inedible portions. 
The edible material which is thus thrown awav, and should properly be classed with the waste. 
i< hers dassed with the refuse. The figurss for refuse here given represent, as noarly as can 
be sseertained, the quantities ordinarily rejected. 

> Milk and sheU. 

'The average of five analyses of oereal coffee gtain is: Water 6.2. protein 13.3, fat 3.4, 
carbohydrates 72;6, and ash 4.5 per cent. Only a portion of the nutrients, however, enter into 
the infusion. The average in the table repre!«ent8 the available nutrients in the beverage In- 
Inrions of genuine coffee and of tea lilce the above contain practically no nutrients. 



66 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES: 1908. 



Species. Pounds, 

Alcwives 89,978,000 

Black bass 3,313,000 

Bluefish 7,647.000 

Bream or Sunfish 4,738,000 

Buffalo fish 16,729,000 

Butterfish 6.856,000 

Carp, German 42,763,000 

Catfish 17,817,000 

Cod 109,453,000 

Croaker 8,143,000 

Cusk 6,344,000 

Drum, fresh-water 6,532,000 

Drum, salt-water 4,576,000 

Eels 3,358,000 

Flounders 23,346.000 

Haddock 59.987.000 

Hake 34,340,000 

Halibut 34,441,000 

Herring 125,050,000 

Herring (lake) 41,118.000 

Mackerel 12.103,000 

Menhaden 394,776.000 

Mullet 33,703,000 

Perch, white 2,412,000 

Perch, yellow 7,898,000 

Pike and Pickerel 2,959,000 

Pike perch 15,247,000 

PoUock 29,462,000 

Pompano 570,000 

Rockfish 2.454.000 

Salmon 90.417.000 

Scup 8.414.000 

Sea bass 0.352,000 

Shad 27,641.000 

Smelt 4,340.000 

Snapper, red 13,498.000 

Spanish mackerel 3,806,000 

Squeteague 49,869,000 

Striped bass 3,657,000 

Sturgeon 2,072,000 

Suckere 8,555.000 

Swordfish 2,714,000 

Trout 12.024,000 

Whitefish 7,722.000 

LobsteiB 15,279,000 

Shrimp 14,374.000 

Clams, hard 7.805,000 

Clams, soft 8,654,000 

()yRterH 233,309,000 

MuimA shells 81,869,000 

Pearls and slugs 

Terrapin 368.000 

Turtles 1,088,000 

Sponges 622,000 

Alligator hides 372,000 

Mink skins 22,000 

Muskrat skins 149,000 

Otter skins 7,600 

Whalebone 63,000 

ScaUops 2,414,000 

Oil, sperm 3,391,000 

Oil, whale 573,000 

Irish moss 772,000 



DoUaa. 

589.000 
255.000 
506,000 
120.000 
498.000 
237.000 

l.ia.%000 
785.000 

2.9()3,CO0 
220,000 
105.000 
154.000 
164.000 
2a3.000 
588,000 

1,308.000 
464.000 

1,562,000 
796,000 
989,000 
848.000 
893.000 
908,000 
137.000 
258.000 
174,000 
6S0.01X) 
402.000 
71,000 
66.000 

3,347.000 
290,000 
284,000 

2.113,000 
174,000 
636.000 
194.000 

1.776,000 
314.000 
157,000 
215,000 
198,000 
SOO.OOfr 
624,000 

1,931,000 
390,000 

1.317,000 

55:^000 

15,713,000 

392,000 

300,000 

80,000 

40.(X)0 



545.000 

61.000 

89.000 

136.000 

30,000 

215,000 

317,000 

252,000 

30.000 

26.000 



The total quantity and value of the products of the fisheries of the United Statea including 
the items mentioned above and alt other fish products was 1,893,454,000 pounds, valued st 
$54,031,000. No later figures are available at time of publication. In many caaes there 
was an incrcasc. in other cases a decrease. 



antBTMrnnn AMRRrr&M mnrRRinNri!! Rnnir 



68 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ESTIMATED AREA OF EXISTING NATIONAL FORESTS JANUARY 

31, 1913. 



Acres. 

Alaska 26,748,850 

Arizona 13,339,390 

Arkansas 2,225,890 

California 26,921.945 

Colorado 14,648,890 

Florida 674,970 

Idaho 19,550,827 

Kansas 303,937 

Michigan 163,771 

Minnesota 1,570,850 

Montana 18,977,580 

Nebraska 556,700 



Nevada 

New Mexico... 
North Dakota 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Porto Rico . . . . 
South Dakota. 

Utah 

Washington.. . 
Wyoming 



Acres. 

5,595,310 

10,173,890 

13.920 

61,640 

16,023,220 

65,950 

1,337,750 

7,735.639 

11,684,360 

8,633,463 



Total area 187,008,796 



Area embraced in additions to national forests from June 
30, 1911 

Area embraced in eliminations from national forests from June 
30, 1911 

Area embraced in existing national forests June 30, 1911 

Area embraced in existing national forests January 31, 1913. . . 



Acres. 

484,204 

4,083,651 
190,608,243 
187,008,796 



Area decreased during the period June 30, 1911, to January 
31, 1913 



3,599,447 



NATIONAL MONUMENTS. 



States and names. 


Date created. 


Area. 


States and names. 


Date created. 


Area. 


Alaskar 

Sitka 


Mar. 33.1910 

Jan. 11,1908 
Dee. 8,1906 
Mar. 30,1900 
Dee. 19,1907 
Sept. 16,1906 
July 31.1911 

May 6,1907 


A era. 
> 67,00 

1806,400.00 

160.00 

• 600.00 

1640.00 

10.00 

4 26,625.60 

15,130.00 

1 1,280.00 

295.00 

12,030.00 

1800.00 

300.00 
13,883.06 

15.00 

M60.00 


New Mexico: 

Ghaoo Canyon 

ElMorro 

Oila Cliff Dwell- 
inggt 

OraaQulTlra. 

Ore«n: 

Oregon Caves •. . . 
South Dakota: 

Jewel Caves 

Utah: 

Mukuntuweap.... 

Natural Bridges.. 

Rainbow Bridge.. 
Washington: 

Mount Olympus * 
Wyoming: 

Devils Tower 

Shoshone Cavern. 

Total 


Mar. 11,1907 
Dec 8,1906 

Nov. 16,1907 
Nov. 1,1909 

July 12,1900 

Feb. 7,1908 

July 81,1900 
Sept 26,1900 
May ao,1910 

Mar. 3,1909 

Sept. 24,1906 
Sept 21,1900 


A era. 
90,820.40 
160.00 

160.00 
1 100.00 


Arixooa: 

Grand Canyon *. . 
Montexuma Gaatle 
Navi^o 


Tonto * 




Tumacaoorl 

Petrified Forest... 
California: 

Cinder Cone > 

Lassen Peak *. . . . 


1480.00 

M,9ao.oo 

1 15,8«L0D 


MoirWoods 

Pinnacles 

DevUPostplIe*... 
Colorado: 

Wheeler* 


Jan. 9,1906 
Jan. 16,1908 
July 6,1911 

Dec. 17,1908 
May 24,1011 

June 23,1910 

May 16,1911 


« 2, 740. 00 
100.09 

1606,640.00 


Cok>rado 


1.153:91 


Montana: 

Big Hole 

Lewis and Clark 


210.00 


■1.509,087.97 


Cavern 













1 Estimated area. 

3 Under Jurisdiction of Department of Agrlcultare. 

* Based on 16 known ruins; within Indian reservatloii. 

* According to second proclamation. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



69 



LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS STATISTICS. 



In 1909 there were in the United States 
STl eatabhabments; 784,989 peraona en- 
in the industxy, o^ which number, 
were proprietors and firm members, 
,840 were salaried ofiBcers, superintendents 
jiaeera; 18.088 were male, and 3,717 
clerks. The average nimiber of wace 
was 605.019: ^e nimiber in the 
um month, November, was 739,160, 
bad in the minimum month, January, 
M9.239. Tise total number of wage earners 
m December 15, 1909. or the nearest re- 
Utive day, was 838,160, of which 
ber. 826.978 were males, and 4,027 
all b«JDg 10 years of age and over; 





while 6,886 males, and 269 females, were 
under 16. The capital invested was $1,176,- 
675,407. The total expenses were S095,- 
622,839, of which the officials received 
822,448,332, clerks $17,979,364. wage earners 
$318,739,207, fuel and rent of power $3,- 
082,287, other materials $503,035,292. rent of 
factory or works $2,623,146. taxes including 
internal revalue $9,863,384. contract work 
$32,491,242, and other mUcellaneous work 
$76,360,585. The primary horse-power was 
2.840.082. The value of products $1,156,- 
128,747. The value added by manufacture, 
which is the difference between cost of materi- 
als and value of products, was $648,011,168. 



LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS. 

The total value of the lumber and timber products of the United States, in 1909, was 
r34,705,760. The total quantity of lumber made was 44,509,761 M. feet, board measUre, 
at $684,479,859: Of this amount the softwoods comprised 33.896.959 M. feet, 
measure, valued at $477,345,046. They were subdivided as follows: 

'.* /.185 M. ft yellow pine, valued at $206,505,297 

1,499.985 - - western " " " 23,077,854 

SJi004)34 " - white " " "....: 70.830,131 

4.856,378" " Douglas fir ** ^ 60,436,793 

aj»1399 ' • hemfock * " 42,580,800 

1,748^7 " " spruce - " 29.561.315 

955,635 " " cypress - " 19.549.741 

521.630 - " redwood - " 7.720,124 

346.008 - • cedar " " 6,901,948 

740,158 * - all other kinds * " 10,182,043 

Of the total quantity of lumber, the output of hardwoods was 10.612,802 M. feet, board 
valued at $207,134,813. They were divided as follows: 



,414.457 M. 

JBKH " 

708.945 " 

1(3,891 * 

452,370 • 

199,151 * 

'147.456 - 

rJBSJOO - 

Bl,209 " 

I8J39 * 

r 46.108 ^ 

k awu - 

U28^71 - 



ft. oak, valued at $90,512,069 

" maple, valued at 17,447,814 

" red gum, valued at 9,334,268 

- chestnut, " " 10,703.130 

- bireh, " " 7,666,186 

- basswood. " " 7,781.563 

- ehn, " - 6,088.098 

- Cottonwood. " " 4.794,424 

- ash, * " 7,116.089 

- hickory. " " 10,283,776 

- wahiut, " " 1,972,8:^6 

- sycamore. " " 834,612 

*" all other kinds, valued at 32,599,949 



Shingles, 1911. 

the year 1911 there were 12.113.867 

shingles produced in the United 

They were cut from the following 

in the foilowing quantities: Cedar 

^3.179 thousand; cypress 1,230.646; yellow 

ft50.332; redwood 396,786; white pine 

E.479; spruce 12.381; chestnut 40,840; hem- 

rk 26.171; western pine 15.882; and all 

woods 65,972 thousands. Washington 

laced 63.9 per cent, of all the shingles 

and Alabama, Arkansas, California, 

. Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, 

Carolina, Oregon and Wisconsin pro- 

from one per cent, to three per cent. 

the total production. 



Poles and Ties, 1911. 

During the year 1911 there were 135,- 
063,000 ties used by the steam and electric 
railroads of the United States. Of this num- 
ber 69.508,000 were oak; 24.265.000 southern 
pines; 8,015,000 cedar; 7,542,000 chestnut: 
11,263,000 Douglas fir; 4,138,000 tamarack; 
6,857,000 cypress; 3,686,000 hemlock; 2,690,- 
000 western yellow pine; 1,820,000 redwof>d; 
1,293,000 gum; and 4,980,(K)() of all other 
kinds. During the same period there were 
3,418.020 poles purchased for electric wires 
of all kinds. They were of the following 
woods: Cedar 2.100,144; chestnut 693,489; 
oak 199,590; pine 161,690; cypress 72,996; and 
all other kinds 190.112. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK, 



Prodtjction op Tdbpentine asd 

Rehin: QtjANTTiT AND Valui:, 

190S-1910. 



fbe" 



nne tic year 1910 there vrera 27,750, 
a of tuipenlinc produced, having a t 
of »17.680,060, uaiiut 36,589. 
s and a value of tl7.llZ.400 in 1' 



_ ._..;l9 of 2Sa pounds and mi 

value;i at $18,256,000. For Ihe ycat 1908 
there were 4,Z8S.283 bnirels produced hivai( 
a total value of tl7,7S3,55U. 



LUMBER CUTS BY STATES, 1907 



RELATIVE CUTS FOB 1 



SCI&NTIPIO AMERICAN REFE3tENCB BOOK. 



72 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




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pii? 







CHAPTER III. 



MINES AND QUARRIES. 



CIAY PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1907. 

i pynmid o( burned da*- would be 4JW feet hi«h and repreaenU ft value of 1158,042,309. 



76 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUBDIVISIONS OF GEOLOGIC TIME AND STRATA. 

(Pf«pu«d gip w ti l y for th« AiBcricma Alnuiu« bj ProrcMor WUlard c. Ha7««. of tb« Daltod ButM Cm 

lotleal SurrejJ .^i* .» »ct »«w 

IlM racks formi nr UM«artt'a crest are diTided loto ttarM claaaea: (•) fMlmmUry. Includliw all neM 
teiMd to aqmraa. oriaalc. s^^ aoUaii acwctea; (b) Icneoaa, laelodlnff aU^ka Uurnu"* bS 

aoUdttad Cnm a naoltaa comUttoo, both vileaolc and plvtooic; (e) If eumomblc lododliM ait«r«4 MtaS 
•Itbar aedliMotafT or IgMOoa origin, la wbicb tbe acqolnd ar^ morT iN^^SSeortlu^X w&S^^ 
latiq. to«atbcr wltb tbo aoctoot crrstaUlno acblsta ofuocartain ortgia. ^^^^ orifwai caarMW 

no aodlmoBtary rocka ara oabdlTlded into formatJana. wUcb are nxwDa oC atrata of aiiBiiar m«iim1(W 
or coBtaialBc tbo aaaa fooalla. Tbo formationa ara jmbpcd Into laScr^ssreS^nlMmt^S?^ 
eorraopopd to diTlalona of tbo tlmo ooilo called pcrlo3ir*Tbe V^^iSkJr^SlUS!iS^SpVSk^ 
of world-wMo occarrenco. apd ataadard^tmna ara ompIoTod tbrongboat tbe world FonMt&fhMM 
ara IooaL aad oanaot goaorally b« ideoUfled la mora tbao a single geologic prorlnce TberSlS£& SZS 



SobdiTiri'^ of Oeologle 



Age of 



BnbdirieioiM of Rock Strata. 



Sjsteoia 



'Qoatsrmaqr 



Age of aamaUs. 



MeioSQio 
AgeoTi 



NptQea. 



.Tirtiaiy 



Beriee. 



Recent PleMoonie 

fPUOCODO 

Miocene 

OUgoono 



Ago of 



Age of ftbes. 



!•• of iBTaitebratsi. 



.Triaule 



rCaiteadferoos 



( 



Opper Cietaeeoa. 
GooMBcbo 



Lover Potomac 
Newaik 



Detoniaa 



enuilan 



Caabrlafi 



Pecmlaa 

PenniylTaBlan 

MlflriietpplaB . 
rNcoderonian . 

- IteeodeTooiaa 



Eoderonian 



Oatarian.. ......^■. 



fi haiwp^wl^n 



fpotadaaian 
i Acadian . . 
[ Ocorgiaa 



K 



. Opper Baxoplan 

•Lower BvoniaA 
Laurentlan 



Oranpe and FormaiioM. 



■ovth Atlantlo and Oalf Oeestil 
Flala. 

OriumbU loam and gravel. 
lCa)ooMbatGb4 



veL 

_ _ llmestono. 

CaioMabaitGbee Hmoetoti 



I 



k Orore bedi. 
^^ ipola group. 
CbatUboochee beds. 
, Vickabnzg limertoosk 

Jaekioa daye. 
Oaibpra llmastOBo^ 



Texas Oraat PUtoa 

Montana eandttona, 
Colorado sbalea. 
,I>afcota sandstoMu 

Vorth Atlantlo Ooostal Vlala. 

r Anmdel aaad*. 
I Patttxent days. 

/Braaswick aanditoa e . 

ILaekatong ebalcw 

LStockton eendrtone and shale. 

Vow Tork'PoansFlvaaU Awka. 

X>ankard eandstone. 

fMonongebelasandilone aad ehala 
i Gonomaugb aandBtoae and 



1 4!L?^ ■andstono and afaale^ 
A PotUfillo— conglaeaorata, 

{ Mandi Chmik ihale. 
I Pooono aaadstooab 

5 Oicmang sandBtone. 
I Portage aanditone. 

5 Hamilton shale. 
{ MarccUna limeetons. 

fComlfcroas 



iScbobarle gritk 
LO m ekony — Mt^flwej 

Lower Bddcoberg 
flalina sandstone. 
Niagara llmeatooe. 
Clinton sandstone. 
Medina eandstooei. 

Hudion siste. 
Utica shale. 
Trenton timeetone^ 



• 



Cbosf Umcstboe. 
Csldferoos Wmrsttnwk 



Potsdsm sandatons; 
llmeet 
Slate. 



Acadia llmeetOMb' 
OcorgU * 



Keweenaw ilatik 

5 Banbosy alatt. 
2 VolcaA slats. 



-IrSSmC 

L9tasgoflB 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



"77 



MINERAL PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Pnxluct. 



METALS. 

He iroo (spot TAlOB) long tons. 

fiflvcr.eomintraal ▼aloe. troy ounces. 

G«M, coining Talm do. 

Cofner, value at New York City pounds. 

Um, Tdaa at New York City short tons . 

Zinc, Tafaie at St. Louis do... 

QoicbaTer, value at Saa Fraociaco Qaska. 

Atuminom. pounds . 

.Mnmonial lead short tons . 

Tia pounds. 

Ptstauxm, value at New York City troy ouooee . 

Total value of metals 



KONMETALS (SPOT VALUE). 

Bitamiaous ooal short tons. 

Pcaasylvaaia authncite long tons. 

Nmotb] gai 

PKratoosL barrels. 

Pnt. 



Otypfwlacts 
Cement 



barrels. 

short tons. 

Snd (molding, building, etc.) and gravel do. . . 

brick 



1010. 



Quantity. 



27,303,567 
57,137,900 
4,65^,018 
1,080,159,509 
372,227 
252.479 
20.601 
47,734,000 
14,069 



773 



417; 111, 142 
75,433,246 



209,556,048 



77,785,141 

3.481,780 

66,949,347 



Gorandum and emery short tons. 

Ganwt for abrasive purpoaes do. . . 

GnadstoDes 

lolusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

rnOsMtm. 

Odstoiies,etc. 

Ptunioe short tons . 

Anenious oxide pounds. 

Borax (crude) short Ions. 

BromiDB. pounds. 

FtaarBDor short tons". 

OtpwS. do... 



Mjmam. 
Lahiuffli 



i minerals. do 

Pboap lttia rock long tons*. . 

Pyrt** do.... 

fiidplrar do.... 

8ih barrels.. 

Barytei (crude) short tons. . 

MiiMul paints do 

Zineoxide do 

A^Kslos do.... 

Aipisalt do.... 

Baiuite long tons. . 

Qtromie iron ore do 

Fefcfaper short tons. . 

^BOer'searth do.... 

Gens and pnctoos atones 

GhissBod short tons. . 

Gnphite (crystalline) pounds . . 

Craphits (amorphous) short tons. . 

K^Paoile do 



^ __Jors long tons. . 

Juagsuuferoosore do 

Ijiei (sheet) pounds.. 

Ii ica (s crap) short tons. . 

*naal«atiBrs. gallons sold.. 

Syrt* short tons.. 

Tileapdioapstone do.... 

Jfc,ftbroo8. do.... 

^viom minerals (roooaxlte) and ziroon pounds. . 

Tttaninnore(mtlle) do.. 

™?*«aore short tons.. 

utaaium and vanadium minerals do 



Total value of nonmetab i. 

Total vabn or metals 

Mimated valueof mineral products nnspecifled/. 

OnndtotaL 



1,028 
3.814 



23,271 
2,994,000 

42,357 
245,437 

69,427 
2,379,057 



2,654,988 

238,154 

255,534 

30,305,656 

42,975 

85,685 

59,333 

3,693 

260,080 

148.932 

205 

81.102 

32,822 



1,461,089 

5,590.592 

35,945 

12. 443 

2,258 

CI, 101 

2,476,190 

4,065 

62.080,125 

63,577 

79.006 

71,710 

99,301 

566 

1,821 



Value. 



1426,115,235 

30,854,500 

96,260,100 

137,180,257 

32,765,076 

27,267.732 

058,153 

8,955,700 

1,338,090 

23.447 

25,277 



760,743,467 



469,281,710 

160,275,302 

70,756,158 

127,896,323 

140,209 

170,115.974 

68,752.092 

13,894,962 

19,520,919 

1,169,153 

6,236.759 

76,520.584 

15,077 

113.574 

790,294 

130.006 

28,217 

228,694 

v4, Tto 

52,305 

1,201,.S42 

41,684 

430,196 

6,523,020 

(«) 

10,917,000 

958.608 

4,605,112 

7,900,344 

121,746 

2.174.735 

6,325.636 

68,357 

3,080,067 

716,258 

2,729 

602,452 

293.709 

295,797 

1,516,711 

295,733 

81,443 

74.658 

22.892 

186.765 

283,832 

53,265 

6,357,590 

193.757 

864,213 

728.180 

12,006 

44,480 

807,307 



1 242.701,402 

760,743.467 

300,000 



2.003,744.809 



a Included under unspecified. 



T8 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



VALUE OF IMPORTS FOR OOXSUMPTIOX AXD OF EXPORTS 
MINERAL PRODUCTS IN THE CALENDAR YEAR 1911. 



The importi of mineral prodoets into the 
United Ststee may be divided into metals and 
ooo'metala* the importe of the former amount- 
inc in 1011 to $105,029,081 and of the Utter 
tot 124.146.74ft. a total of t229.776.726 worth 
of min er a l oroducte imported into the United 
BtAtee in 191 1. The import* of metab during 
the y* were aa follows: Aluminum aalta. 
$66,833; antimony (metal, regulua and ore) 
$ft31/)ll; antimony aalu, $54,426; bauxite, 
$164,301: bismuth. $311,771; eadmium, 
$3,870: chromic iron ore, $407,958; chromium 
salts, $3,608; cobalt (oxide, ore, and saffer) 
$48,104; copper, in ore. matte, ingots, bars, 
mnnufactures, etc., $38,445,939; iron ore* 
$6,402,636; lead, in ore. base bullion* pigs, 
sheets, manufactures, etc.. $631,654; man- 
ganese ore, $1,186,791; nickel, in ore, matte, 
oxide, etc., $4,060,030; platinum, $4,866,207; 
quicksilver, $251,386; tm, $43,346,394; tung- 
sten ore, $86,887; type metal, $310,658; 
uraniwm salts and oxide. $14,106; sine, in ore, 
sheets, dust, ro«nufacture8, etc., $408,273; 
iridium, osmium, palladium, and rhodium, 
$292,399. The imports of non-metals for the 
same period may be divided in similar fashion 
into: AUsarin, $996,794; anUine salts, $410.- 
193; arsenic sulphides, etc., $247,323; asbes- 
tos, $1,703,639; asphalt, $789,236; barytes, 
$58,726; barium compounds, $398,213; borax, 
$23,628; burrstones and millstones, $36,028; 
cement, hydraulic, $242,722; olay, $235,254; 
clay products, brick and tile, etc., $166,133; 
pottery, etc.. $10,638,616; coal, anthracite, 
$12,550 and bituminous. $3,604,797; coal-tar 

Products, $8,235,891; cobalt, $48,104; coke. 
254,455; corundum and emery, $336,644; 
cryolite, $47,093; fertilisers, crude (guano, 
kainite, manure salts, phosphates, etc)., 
$10,387,688, potassium chloride, $7,651,693. 
potassium suiphate, $2,240,631 and sodium 
nitrate, $16,814,268; flint and flint pebbles, 
$236,158: fluorspar, $80,592; fuller's earth. 
$143,694; gems and precious stonos, $40,820,- 
436; granite, $146,468; graphite, $1,495,729; 



I grindstones, $123,727; gypenm, $4J 
nones, oilstones, whetstones, $54,379; 
fusorial earth and rotten stone, $35^ 
kaolin or china clay $1,461,068; lead . 
litharge, orange mineral, red lead, white 
$118,395; lime. $55,255; magnesite and 
ncsia, $1,224,987; marble and stone. $1. 
930; mica. $502,163; mineral waters. $1.( 
485; monasite and thorium oxide, $60J 
ocher. $110,932; peat. $39,372; petrols 
$2,410,884; osokente and paraffin, $792J 
pumice, $118,977; pyrite. $3,788,803: •! 
$375,030; sand and gravel, $147,268; m4 
and umber. $59,334; slate. $8,367; suli 
$552,836; talc. $88,050; thorium niti 
$238,841; Venetian red, $20,169; sine oi 
$357,466. 

The exports of mineral products from $ 
United States again may be divided ia 
metals and non-metals, the exports of ti 
former amounting to $123,322,446 and of tl 
latter to $190,807,641, or a total of $314,13fl 
087 worth of mineral products exported frai 
the United States during the year 1911. Tl 
exports of metals for the year were as follow 
Aluminum and manufactures, etc., $I.15£ 
603 ; copper, in ore, matte, ingots, bars man 
factures. etc., $105,679,926; iron or 
$2,653,448; pig iron (including scrap) $2.91fi 
601; lead, in ore. base bullion, pigs, sheet 
manufactures, etc., $680,410; nickel, in or 
matte, oxide, etc., $8,283,777; quickstlre 
$13,995; sine, in ore. pigs, sheets, dust, mani 
factures, $1,935,677. The exports of noi 
metallic producte were as follows: Asphsl 
$598,930; cement, hydraulic, $4,632,211 
clay products, brick and tile, etc., $2,2(>4.354 
pottery, etc., $1,401,366; coal, anthraciti 
$18,093,285, bituminous, $34,499,089; coki 
$3,215,990; fertilisers, phosphat«s, crud 
$9,235,388; lime, $153,212; marble and ston 
$1,810,182; petroleum, $105,922,848; paraffi 
and paraffin wax. $7,047,856; salt, $335.28^ 
sulphur, $545,420, sine oxide, $1,051,311. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS AND DISCOVERIES RELATIVE TO TH] 

PRECIOUS METALS. 



1530-1540. Pillage of Peru. 
1547-1548. Discovery of Guanajuato silver 
mines m Mexico. 

1577. Discovery of gold in Braiil. 

1670. Dinrovory of placers of Garacua. 

1680. DiHcovery ot placers of Minas- 
(ioraos. 
1704-1728. Silver mines opened in Russia. 

1743. DU(»overy of^ld in the l^iU, 

1K4H. l)i«covery of Pincers in California. 

1S48. IntnHl action of Plattncr's chlori- 
nation process at Keichenstoin 
in Siloaia. 

1851. Discovery of placers in Australia. 

1S53. Intrcxiuction of hydraulic mining 
in (?alifomia. 

1R53. Maximum annual pTx>duction of 
gold in Cnliforuia, amounting 
to $t»5,0(K),(MX) for the year. 

I.*i58. Introduction of chlorination pro- 
cess at Grass Valley, California. 



1806. 
1886. 

1889. 



1890. 
1897. 



Invention of dynamite. 
Opening of the "banket** reef ( 

the lutnd. South Africa, 
Development o'f Mank6'8 metho 

of b<^semerising copper matt* 

and the successful refining i 

this impure copper by electi 

city. 
Introduction of the cyanide pn 

cess in the Rand, South Africa 
Discovery of placers in tl 

Yukon. 



The price per unit of the production (gol 
excepted, which is fixed by law) is bast 
upon the average for the year 1010 of daii 
Sew York prices for the roetala. as follow 
(iold per fine ounce. $20.671834625632: 
silver j)ier fine ounce. $0.54; copper per poun« 
$0.124 : lead per pound, $0,044; and sine im 
pound, $0,054. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



79 










o 



MEXICO RHODESIA INDIA NEW ZEALAND CANADA qOLD COAST 

i3i80Q,7l8 S2.I76,686 i2.l33.6dl tZ,02Z^9Q 11,698.868 i|.l30» 975 

A YEAR'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD 

(in pounds sterling) 



Gold and Silver. 

DurinK the year 1880 there were 1,741,500 
loe ounees of gold produced with a value of 
136,000.000 and 30,318,700 fine ounces of 
sQTer. having a value of $34,717,000. In 
1^9) the 1.5^,877 ounces of gold were valued 
at $32,845,000 and the 54,516,300 fine ounces 
of slver $57,242,000. For the year 1900 the 
lrS29.897 oiinces of fine gold produced had a 
value of $79,171,000 and the 57,647,000 
ooaees of silver a value of $35,741,000. 
I>aring the year 1911 there were 4,687,053 
fine ounces of gold produced with a total 
vihie of $96,890,000 and 60,399.400 fine 
ouBoes of silver with a value of $32,615,700. 



Platinum. 

In 1911 the production of crude platinum 
was 028 troy ounces, valued at $18,137 as 
compared with 390 troy ounces in 1910 valued 
at $9,507. This entire output was recovered 
from placer mines in California and Oregon. 
The total quantity of refined i>latinum pro- 
duced in aomestio refineries in 1911 was 
about 29,140 fine ounces, of which only about 
940 ounces, valued at $40,890, were derived 
from domestic sources of various kinds. The 
total imports for the year amounted to 
$4,866,207. The total world's production of 
platinum in 1911 amounted to 314,323 troy 
ounces. 









DO) 

ccof 
a.cvi 

<5 



< 
<N 

Co" 
•-to 




>o 

MM ft 

-JO 



O 

zo 
<o 

Q.CN4 
<CO 




2§ 






A YEAR'S PRODUCTION OF SILVER 

(in pounds sterling) 



80 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Lead. 

The production of lead in 1911 was 406.148 
short tons, valued at $36,553,320. as com- 
pared with 372.227 tons valued at $32,755,976 
in 1910. The imports of lead were valued at 
$631,654 in 1911 against $755,092 in 1910. 
The exports were valued at 680.419 in 1911 
against $614,158 in 1910. The imports of 
type metal were valued at $310,658 as against' 
$485,493 in 1910. The United States ranks 
first in the production of lead with a pro- 
duction of 406,148 short tons: Spain ranks 
second with 189.155 tons; Germany third 
with 177.801 tons; Mexico fourth with 132.276 
tons and Australia fifth with 109,789 tons. 

Quicksilver. 

The production of quicksilver in 1912 
amounted to 25.064 flasks of 75 pounds each, 
valued at $1,053,941. California reported 
20.524 flasks for the year; Nevada and Texas 
combined reported 4,540 flasks. The imports 
were valued at $39,920 in 1912 and the ex- 
ports at $13,360. 

Iron, Pig Iron and Steel. 

The qxiantity of iron ore mined in the 
United States in 1912 amounted to 55,150.147 
long cons, as compared with 43,876,552 long 
tons in 1911, an increase of 11,273.595 long 
tons, or 25.69 per cent. The quantity of iron 
ore marketed in 1912 amounted to 57.017.614 
long tons, valued at $107,050,153, as com- 
pared with 41,092,447 long tons in 1911, 
valued at $86,716,575. This totol production 
of 55,150.147 long tons consisted of the follow- 
ing ores: Hematite. 51,345,782 long tons; 
Brown ore, 1,614,486 long tons; Magnetite, 
2,179.533 long tons: carbonate, 10,346 long 
tons. The rank of the principal iron-ore 
producing states with regard to both quantity 
and percentage of total production follows: 



MinnesoU. 34,431,768 long tons, or 62.43; 
Michigan, 11,191,430 long tons, 20J»* 
Alabama, 4,563,603 long tons. 8.28%: M 
York. 1,216,672 long tons, 2.21%: ^Wisooia 
860.600 long tons, 1.56%; all other wtm 
2.887,074 long tons, or 5.23%. The 
iron-ore producing region b the LaJce 
region, which alone in 1912 produced 4 
878 long tons. There are six ranges in 
in the Lake Superior region, their prod_ 
for the year 1912 being as follows: Adarq' 
range (Mich.), 3,545,012 long tons; M 
nee (Mich, and Wis.), 4.465,466 long 
Gogebic (Mich, and Wis.). 3,1)26.632 Iflj 
tons; Vermillion (Minn.), 1,457,273 long tot 
Mesabi (Minn.), 32,604,756 long tot 
Cuyuna (Minn.), 369,739 long tons. 

The apparent consumption of iron-ore 
the United States for intervals of ten yea 
follows: 1890, 16,302.025 long tons; 19C 




ioi 






26.722,583 long tons; 1910. 56.161,091 
tons; 1912. 58.031.118 lon^ tons. 

The imports of iron-ore m 1912 were vahii 
at $6,499,690. as compared with $5,412,636 

1911 and $7,832,225 in 1910. The exports 

1912 were valued at $3,537,289. as conipan 
with $2,653,448 in 191 1 and $2,474,165 in 191 

The production of pig iron in the VoiU 
States in 1912 amounted to 29,726.937 loi 
tons. The marketed production amounti 
to 30,180,969 long tons, valued at the fu 
naces at $420,563,388, as compared wit 
23,257.288 long tons in 1911, valued i 
$327,334,624. The whole number of f umae 
in blast on December 31. 1912 was 31 
against 231 in 1911; on that date 153 furaao 
were idle or being rebuilt. 

The production of ail kinds of steel ingo 
and castings in 1912 amounted to 31,251^ 
long tons and was made by the foUowii 
processes: Bessemer. 10.327.901 long too 
Open hearth. 20,780,723; crucible and i 
other, 142,679 long tons. 



WORLD'S PRODUCmON OF IRON ORE BY COUNTRIES. 



Coantrj. 



MorUi Amertc»: 

Canada • 

Cuba* 

XaxJco 

Newfrandtauid *. 

UnilQd States 

Harope: 

Austria-Huncary 

BeiKhim 

Fnocc 

Oonnan Empln and LuxcmburK . 

Oraeca 

Konray 

Poctui^ 

Kasbc 

Spain 

£wedra 

United Kincdom 



China 

India 

Japan/ 

CboMD^Korva) . 

PhOipptDe blanda t. 
Africa: 

Al«*rla 

Ifadagascar 

•JIatal 

Tunis 

▲nslralia 



1909 



219. 3M 

936,132 

2 

1,004,050 

a. 294, an 

4,aoa,76R 

1W,S6S 
11,702,756 
28,102,819 
. 46«,12« 

497,141 
39,7SX 



(ft) 

8,W7,658 

3.824, S63 

14,804,3!(2 

• 

4306,000 
. 83,436 

230 

876,909 
(*) 



214,815 
115,835 



1910 



231,623 
1,462.406 



1,108.702 
67,014,906 

4,502,572 

121,024 

I4.37S.084 

26,257,679 

527,040 

542,679 

100,834 

3,307 

<») 

5,465,234 

16,226,015 

« ISO, 472 
64,626 

104.627 
146 

1,018,228 

60 
327.756 
157.831 



1911 



187,807 
1,163,714 

"1 

iu3 



216 



1912 



156.250 
l.»7,797 
(•) 
(») 
35,160,147 

(•) 
(•) 
(►) 
(*) 

i 

k 



1*? 
(♦) 



41S 



n 



Hi 



■ Sbipments. < Roasia produced 3,551.121 long tons ol pig irao in 1909, and 3,9)6,024 tona in 1910. 

• Statistics not yet available. ' Ontput of Tay«h mlnn. « Kxporta. 
/Japan produced 53,.'»8 long tons of piK iron in 1009, and 66.131 tons In 1910. 

* EsUmated by Bureau of Science of PhiJlppino Islands for 1909 to 1011 Irom castings produced, aad br 
U. 8. QeolMlcal Survey for 1912 on same ba>i.<i. 

6 Nearly 6 tons ol iron (motal) produced in 1910- 



SCIENTIFIC AMEHICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




Jl A. Jl 






inda; 1865, IS .040 ,000 



MS.7S4.267' , 

pcujib- Consdrrabte copper wai reported 
l>T dw mina. Irom am islaod prinmnly tor 



=wf« isii. 

The imporU in 1611 vara v 
WJ38 u UMUC I4D.Ma,L_, __ 

n.rssjtsi. in i»oe ud t29.eM.12e id 

TVopon. io 1911 were »»■ ' 

tn. H iciinn ■ee.664.432 

U& is IMS ud ■91.S09.flI 



d with 1.003.297.1303 pounds in 1910. 

tbe imeltcr output of the United 
ru M per cent of the worid'a pro- 

u eompired irith M.7S per cent in 



n laos. The ti 



copper produeina eountrie* ol t 
the year 1911. Uiuled BMtea, 
pounda; MsiJoo. 125.000.820 po 
123,237,140 f . " • 



,097,231.7ie 



uilraUs. 93,69S.G0O 



49,162,580 pound*. 




SES" *' 



82 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Tin. 

In 1011 nominal outputs of tin as ore, con- 
centrates and metal, were reported, valued 
at $56,635, and coming from Alaska and 
Texas. In 1010. the output of tin valued at 
$23,447 was reported from Alaska, North 
Carolina, South Dakota, and Texas. 02 tons 
of stream tin was dredged at Buck Creek, 
Alaska, in 1011. Tho imports in 1011 were 
valued at $43,346,304. 






ff DERATED MALAY 
STATES 68.8S6 



BOLIVIA 
294»37 



OUTfN C. IN»IES 
15,807 



The Permanent Coubt of ABBiriLk 

TION. 

This court, more popularly known s» Th 
Hague Tribunal, was conatttuted bv Tirta 
of the convention for the pacific rpgulatiop e 
international questions, concludes st Th 
Hague. July 20, 1800. (Office. 



agu 

l,T! 





AUSTRALIA 
12.755 



UMITEO KIN49 
5.052 

TIN. 



W 

SIAM 
3.O00 



A tear's production. 
(in tons.) 



71, The Hague.) 

Administrative Council. — ^President: Th 
Minister for Foreign AffaixB for Hollaod 
Members: The diplomatic representatives « 
all the signatory powers accredited to Til 
Hague. 

Members of the Permanent Court a 
Arbitration. — Since the individuals themsel^ 
are constantly changing by ill heal^ or deadi 
we shall content ourselves by nying ib 
signatory powers alone, letting it suffice to mq 
that these powers appoint their most dil 
tin^uished men, preferably lawyers, to Ih 
position. They are: Austria -Hungary 
nelgium, Buucaria| Denmaric, France. Cm 
many. Great firitam, Greece, Holland, Italy 
Japan, Luxembui^c, Mexico, Portugal* B^ 
mania, Russia, Servia, Spain, Swedoi. an 
Norway, Switzerland, and the United Stata 

Carnegie Peace Fund. 

On December 14. 1010, Andrew Cmn/tff 
transfer!^ to 27 trustees a fund of $10,000. 
000 in 5 per cent, first morteage bonds, ill 
revenue of which will be usea to "hasten di 
abolition of international war'* and • 
establish la.<)ting worid peace. The founds 
tion is to be perpetual, and when the cstab 
lishment of universal peace is attained lb 
donor provides that tne revenue shall bi 
devoted to the banishment of the "nez! 
most degrading evil or evils." 



COAL MINE ACCIDENTS IN NORTH AMERICAN MINES. 



The loss of life in the production of anthra- 
cite and bituminous coal during 1012 involved 
the loss of 2,360 lives in and about the coal 
mines of the United States, as compared with 
2,710 fatalities during 1011, a clecrease of 
530, or 13.2 per cent. The fatality rate for 
1012 was 3.15 per 1,000 persons employed, as 
against 3.73 for 1012, a decrease of 0.58 per 
1,000, or 15.5 per cent. 

The loss of life based on actual numbers 
was greatest in the PenDsylvania anthracite 
region where 584 deaths occurred, followed 
by the bituminous region of Pennsylvania 
with 437, West Virginia with 350, Illinois with 
150, Ohio with 133 and Alabama with 121; 
all others total 567. 

Classified according to cause, the coal mine 
accidents of the United States during 1012 
may be divided as follows: Underground, 
2,110, or 80.70 per cent.; in shafts, 54 or 
2.20 per cent.; on the surface, 187, or 7.02 per 
cent. Of the 2,119 killed underground, 1,151 
were killed by falls of roof and coal; 362 by 
mine cars and mine locomotives; 301 by gas 
and coal dual explosions; 133 by explosives; 
76 by electricity; and 06 by other causes not 
stated. 

During the year 1011, 0,106 miners received 
serious injuries and 22,228 received slight 
injuries as a result of accidents. As in the 
case of deaths, the larger part of the serious 
injuries (43.57 per cent) was due to falls of 
roof and coal; the second largest cause was 



mine oars and locomotives, which aceouBted 
for 23.03 per cent, of the total serious Ib* 
juries. Ot those slightly injured, 37.64 p« 
cent were injured from fails of roof and eoa 
and 25.06 per cent by mine cars and loco 
motives. 

The accompanjdng profile shows graphic 
ally the fluctuations in and gradual incressi 
of the death rate during the period 1886 U 
1012. The lowest rate of 2.23 per 1,000 it 
1887 has never since been approached. «itt 
the exception of 1807, when it dropped U 
2.33. Since 1000, the rate has never beel 
below 3 per 1,000. and from this point ol 
there has been a rapid and uniform incressSi 



I I I I I I 



I I I I kl 



■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■* ^''v ^* 




IttS tm 1195 MO IMT l*M 

YCAfd 

INCREASE IN FATALITY RATE 
1886-1012. 

F. L, Hoffmen in Cool Ag*^ 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



S3 



COAL. 



toi 



coal 



During the year 1911 there were 172,585 
men employed in the anthracite ooal mines of 
Pennsylvania. They worked on an average 
of 246 days out of the year. The iaverage 
production per man in 1911 was 524 short tons 
and the average dailv tonnage per man was 
2.13 tons. In the bituminous fields there 
were 549,760 men employed during the year 
1911 and they workea on an average of 211 
days. The average production per man in 
the bituminous mines was 738 tons and the 
average daily tonnage per man was 3.5 tons. 

During the year 1911 there were 3,553,999 
long tons of anthracite coal with a value of 
$18,093,285, and 13,878,754 long tons of 
bituminous, valued at $34,499,989, exported 
from the United States. The anthracite im- 
ports amounted to 2,463 long tons, valued at 
$12,550 and the bituminous and shale im- 
ports to 1,234,998 long tons, valued at $3,- 
604 797. 

Since 1899, the United States has ranked 
first in the coal producing nations of the world 
and Great Britain has ranked second. In 
1911 the United States produced 496,221,168 
short tons of coal; Great Britain, 304,518,927 
tons; Germany, 258,223,763 tons; Austria- 
Hungary, 53,626,639 tons; France. 43,375.550 
tons; Russia and Finland, 25.570,053; and 
Belgium, 25,490,842. The grand total pro- 
duction of coal in the world for 1911 amounted 
to 1,303,763,496 tons. 

A summary of strikes in the coal mines of 
the United States shows that there were dur- 
ing the year 1911, 35,513 men idle, in the 
bituminous mines, for an average of 27 days. 
In the anthracite region operations were con- 
tinued without serious trouble. 



CENT. OF FATAL ACCIDENTS IN COAL MINES OF NORTH 
AMERICA DUE TO EACH CAUSE DURING A TEN-YEAR PERIOD. 



During the year 1910 there were 342.969.- 
■hort tons of bituminous coal and 
4S7 abort tons of Pennsylvania anthra- 
or a total of 416,592.447 short tons of 
loaded at the mines for shipment; 
351 ahort tons of bituminous and 
'372 ahort tons of anthracite, or 14,307,- 
in all sold to local trade or used by 
; 0,667,621 tons of bituminous and 
.437 tons of anthracite, or a total of 
.058 tons in all used at the mines for 
and beat; there were 52,187,450 short 
of iktaminous coal made into coke during 
year. Thus a total quantity of 4 17, 111,- 
short tons of bituminous coal and 
,236 tons of anthracite coal were pro- 
daring the year. The total value of 
produeed was 1629.557,021, of which 
,281.719 waa for the bituminous coal and 
5,302 for the Pennsylvania anthracite. 
average price per ton of bituminous coal 
tl.l2 per ton and for Pennsylvania an- 
ite $1.90 per ton- The average num- 
of men employed in the mines was 725,030. 
I la 1911 there were 418,920,169 tons of coal 
pnled at the mines for shipment; 15,530,992 
•old to local trade and used by em- 
; 19,552340 tons used at the mines for 
and heat: and 42,217,167 made into 
; thni the total production of coal for the 
I 496.221.168 short tons, of which 
405,757,101 tons were bituminous 
M «nd 90.464.067 tons were Pennsylvania 
Itfndte. The total value, at an average 
Ket off $1.26 per ton. was $626,366,876. 
^ average number of days the mines wei-e 
pihv waa 220 and the average number of 
722.335. 




Cause. 



lerc«ai>r. 

I of fwf. state, etc 

; Into shafts 

into riopes, man ways, etc. 




cas. 



or gas 

ordjmamite. 



Oiktr. not specified 
"^ [BKhSnery 




ToCtl. 



Fatal accidents. 


Numl^r. 


Percent 
of total; 


'9 
2.722 


\i.?> 


5, h2S 


31.8 


3(19 


2.0 


125 


. i 


2,2-11 


12.0 


^0 


2.tJ 


• 33 


.2 


2,571 


14.0 


9r.8 


6.3 


7i?3 


4.3 


2-.)2 


1.0 


332 


1.8 


73 


.4 


271 


1 5 


193 


1.0 


1.105 


6.0 



IS, 34C 



100.0 



F. L. Hoffman in BvUctin of Bureau of Labor. 



84 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN KEFERENCE BOOK. 



ACCIDENTS IN TRANSPORTATION OF EXPLOSIVES. 





HIGH EXPLOSIVES. 


BLACK POWDER. 


OTHER BXPLOaiVEC. 




Killed. 


Injured. 


Killed. 


Injured. 


Killed. 


Injured. 


1908 


5 


7 


24 
6 
2 


20 
3 



7 


61 


1909 


4 


1910 









1 


1911 




3 


1 


2 












Totals 


5 


10 


32 


23 


8 


68 







RECAPITULATION. 





Total KiUed. 


Total Injured. 


1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 


36 
6 
2 

1 

45 


88 
7 

1 
5 




101 



ACCIDENTS IN MA NUFACTURE, STORAGE OR USE OF EXPLOSIVES. 




HIGH EXPLOSIVES. 


BLACK POWDER. ! OTHER EXPLOSIVES. 




Killed. 


Injured. 


Killed. 


Injured. 


Killed. ' Injured. 


1908 


82 

122 

80 

53 


65 

84 

110 

25 


23 
17 
13 
40 


2:? 

25 

7 

31 


20 «1 


1909 


10 
3 
3 


41 


1910 


24 


1911 


7 






Totals 


337 


284 


93 


86 { 36 


163 



RECAPITULATION. 



1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 




Total Injured. 



179 

150 

141 

63 

533 



Central Bureau op International 

Geodesy Estabubhed Upon the 

Telegraphberg, Near Potsdam. 

This central bureau hsM '^xisied since 1866. 
AfteJ* the creation of the Prussian Cicodetic 
Institute it was unite<l with the latticr in 1869. 
The object of the (icodetic Institute is to 
cultivate geodesy by scientific researches, 
to execute the astronomical and physical 
determinations which, joine<i with the 
Keodetic detenninations, mny serve in the 
exploration of the surface of the earth, more 
particularly within Prusssian territory. 

The lalx>r8 of the institute for the present 
bear more particularly upon the u.>«tronomical 
determinations of the vertical in longitude 
and latitude, as well as upon astronomical 
data upon as many points of the geodetic 
system as possible: moreover, upon the de- 
termination of zenithal distances for con- 
venient points, alao upon the detcnnination of 



the density and force of gravitation: it de- 
votes its attention, furthermore, to rese«unches 
upon the mean level and variations in the sea- 
level; to the examining into the refraction of 
luminous rays by the atinosphere; finally, it 
is occupied with all theoretical and experi- 
mental rostuirchcs which contribute to the 
examination of the surface and the geodety 
of the country. 

The (ip'Kletic Institute Ls placed under the 
immediate supervision of the Minister of 
Kcclcsiostical Affairs, Public Instruction, and 
Medical Affairs of Pru.ssia. 

The Academv of Sciences is the coii.suUing 
organ of the Minister in all the important 
affairs of the Institute. Conformably to the 
conventions agreed upon between Uie con- 
tracting parties, the Institute performs the 
functions of a Central Bureau for interna- 
tional geodesy. The director of the bureau is 
at the same time director of the Institute. — 
Almanach dc Gotha. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





F(tal lOldMlti. 


1 '^^ 


Niunbw. 


s: 
































^^s^ 




















^i:^::=EEEEEEEEE:BEE'^= 


■» 
















U.M 









fATAl^ACCTDENT RATE PER 1 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Bnid wood. Ill 

Ketlle Cmk, Pi 

Crtitid Bulte.Cola 

WMt L«I»nrlng, P>.... 
Foeahon (u di Ids. W, Va. 
Jobnitovn mint. Pi 



IM, P|.... 

loe, Nairn 



tlunmoih mini 

Yoik V»IDl' mil 
Como.Cola.... 

Berwlnd mlnE, 



FrmMrvlUt, Tern 



Nun<o(ni[Dc,or1reillt7, Ltnl 



Ifwai^'.^m 



dj^(i»ie, wVv*.,;; 






LIcltBwiicb. W. V«.. 
Vouat Lookout, Pa... 

H»lL(yvlll», Okla 

Utrliui* mlaf, Pa 

LLtrrmlnf, ill 

St. Paul mlac, Choi] 

LlckBrascb, W. Va.. 



Amntrdun mine. Obla, 



•i 



n BuUmin of Buriau of L. 



LATEST COAL MINE DISASTERS. 



V ' D le 


Name of Mine, or 


Lives 




Dal« 


Name of minp. or 


IJTP. 






















































































































17 


D12 












II 




Prince-l'aocoant mine. 


T. 


012 


^,':;? f^ 














U.y 19. 









SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 




87 




PRICE OF COAL. 




dte. 


BitniBl- 


Calcndu 


Anllm- 


Blnunl- Ctluidu 


*sr 


■sss^ 


L 


1.14 

4.21 


f 

s.es 

4.S 

I'm 
in 
4!k 




Z.M 

II 


"^m- vm 


1 

4.10 

4.M 
4.U 

<4.W 
• 4.M 


ZWKr.. 



























































































































































■TtopitM on bowd Sied M Baltimore by the Eeobotud C( 

'Mm c< nll-coKl jHwi . 

■Ovliit la nnnaoKrcDDdilfanu In Ibacoil muket the usocUtloa prl» for IMl Ii DM • oocreM fnU* 

Eaae*nulKUliiK|»l<ie,Clcufl<]dcial lelllnE u bigh u 17 >t tbe mliMS uid u Ui^ 41 W la 
vTutk Harbot. VBmeUXtA coDdlttotu Itded antll Mu. I.IKS, ornMrlino; thni, on Apr. 1. ptloci 
MniMAatLWUBallUnani Utar on tn tbe Tear Ibli price wu dlMSoanMd Oom 10 to U pn out. 
' 'Wf(aa nominal. No Mlea nude lu IMf, 1R10. otlHl. 

. iCUilicilud coal novlDdnde* "(bin iMm'' as well Bt "big T<ln"CMl, tbe loniu ■olllnf about 
■(■Uiiiskni lower Iban ttaa latter. 

k'TWlbt m " bfc *eln " eoHl to Baltimore bavlng Iwen reduced IB centi, IZ.M) In UN uu ■dIh 
■IHaf7(aaIie4DlvaleDttot3L7$lnlW6Mid prevlaiu reara. 



WIOHINQ . 



IHD.TtRK. 

PtNHSVLVAHIA 

NtWHUICO 



COAL RE8BBVE8 BY STATER. 



TCNHnMC 



"tlli^Sl: 



S8 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COKB. 

The total production of coke in 1912 
smoonted to 41983.609 short tons (1 1 . 1 15.164 
tons from retort orens), valued at $111,736.- 
606« and the aTerage price paid per ton for 
the same period wa« $2.10. The average out- 
pat from the by-product ovens in 1912 was 
2,133 short tons per oven and from the bee- 
hive ovens 48^ short tons. The imports of 
coke were valued at $488,398 in 1912 and the 
exports ^912,676 short tons) at $3,002,742. 

The value and quantity of products ob- 
tained in the manuiarture of coko in retort 
ovens were as follows: Gas, 54,491,248 
thousand cubic feet, valued at $4,650,517; 
tar, 94.306,583 gaUons, valued at $2,310,900; 
ammonia, sulphate or reduced to eauivalent 
sulphate, 95,275,545 pounds, valued at $3,- 
649,144; ammonia liquor, 5,502,403 gallons, 
valued at $735,120; anhydrous ammonia, 
3,144,014 gaUons, valued at $4,114,449; other 
1^-produeto valued at $610,552, thus making 
the total value of the by-products of coke 
$16,070,682. The value of the coke manu- 
factured in retort ovens was $42,632,930 and 
the total value of all the product-s obtained 
in the manufacture of coke by this process was 
$58,703,612. 

Natural Gas. 

The value of natural gas produced in 1911 
was $74,127,534, as compared with $70,756,- 
158 in 1910. No imports of natural gas were 
reported for 1911. Pennsylvania consumed 
more natural gas than any other state in the 
Union, the amount being 154,475,376 thou- 
sand cubic feet, valued at $23,446,001; Ohio 
ranked second with 112.123.029 thousand 
cubic feet, valued at $22,792,270; KaoKas 
eame next with 77,861.143 thousand cubic 
feet, valued at $9,493,701. and West Virginia 
fourth with 80.868.645 thousand cubic tect. 
valued at $6,240,152. During the year 1911 
there were 508.353.241 thousand cubic feet 
of natural gas consumed having a total value 
of $74,127,534. The vnluc of all the natural 
gas produced in the United {States for the 
year 1911 was $74,127,534 and of the crude 
petroleum, $134,044,752, thus making the 
value of natural gas and crude petroleum, 
$208,172,286. There were 28,428 productive 
welb on Dec. 31, 1911. 

Production and Value of Petro- 

LEU.\f. Well Records, and 

Acreage. 

In the year 1911 the total production of 
petroleum in the United States amounted to 
220,449,391 barrels, the total value being 
$134,044,752, or an average price per barrel 
of $0,608. On January 1, 1910 there were 
149,402 productive wcll« in the United States, 
and on Dec 31, there wore 152.087. Tho 
average daily production (in burroN) per well 
amounted to 3.8. The total jicroriKe rn wclN 
in the I'nited States in 1911 iiinounted to 
8,322,802. Imports for the year amounted 
to $2,410,884 and exports to $105,922,848. 
The total production of the world was 345,r>12, 
185 barrels, of which the United Stat^is 
produced 63.8 per cent, or almost two-thirds. 



Petroleum Refining. 

The products of the petroleum-refinins in- 
dustry, statiiitacs for which are presented be> 
low. aggregated $236,997,659 in value in 1909 
as compered with $123,929,384 in 1899. ihs 
increase during the decade b«nf 91J2 ^ 
cent. This conforms closely witn the m- 
crease in the cost of crude petroleum used 
which was 89.4 per cent« The crude petioleum 
used increased in quantity from 52.011,005 
barrels of 42 gaUons in 1899 to 120.775,439 
barrels in 1909, or 132.2 per cent., and th« 
refined-oil products aggregated 40,290.985 
barrels of 50 gaUons in 1899 and 89,082,819 
barrels in 1909, an increase of 136.2 per 
for the decade. The total amount of ci 
petroleum used for refining purposes 
120.775.439 barrels of 42 gallons each, vai 
at $152,307,040. The products of the refii 
process were as follows: Illuminating 
33.495.798 barrels (50 gallons), ^rsli 
$94,547,010: fuel oils (including gas 
34.034.577 barrels, value $36,462,853: lut 
eating oils, 10,745,885 barrels, valued 
$.-)8.S84,236; naphtha and gasoline (inch 

tHs naphtha), 10.806,550 barrels, vi 
39.771,959: paraffin wax, 946,830 barrsl^ 
value $9,388,812; oil asphaltum. 233.32$ 
short tons, value $2,724,752; residuum or tar, 
1.787.008 barrels, value $2,215,623: greasM 

imbricating, etc.), 138,302 barrels, value 
1.567.647; coke and black naphtha, value 
$507,695: sludge add. 133.215 short tons, 
value $402,295; and all other productB. vahie 
$10,524,747. 



is 





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1 I i 



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1 


1 



PETROLEUM. 
A year's FBODUCnON 

(in thousands of gallons.) 

Aluijinum. 

The consumption of aluminum in 1911 wai 
4r),125,(NK) pounds, valued at $8,084,000. ai 
agaiuNt 7,150.(K)0 pounds in 19(X). 61.281 
pounds in 1890 and 83 pounds in 1883. Tlu 
imports of aluminum salts in 1911 w«t 
valued at $56,833. and the exports of manu 
facturers of aluminum at $1,158,603. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBStENCE BOOK. 



SCIKVriPlC AVEEICAX EEFQUEXCE BOOK. 



-af^ 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



92 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Clay P&oductb. 

The value of all clay produota in 1011 waa 
$162,236,181; the brick and tile produota be- 
ing valued at $127,717,621 and the pottery at 
$34,518,660. The various kinds of clay to- 

J;ether with their amount and value were as 
oUows: Kaolin, 27,400 short tons, valued at 
$221,046; paper ela^, 09,266 short tons, 
valued at $464,436: slip clay, 8,303 short tons, 
valued at $16,770; ballclay, 65,072 short tons, 
valued at $220,710; fire clay, 1,626.021 short 
tons, valued at $2,112,827; stoneware clay, 
161,384 short tons, valued at $166,761; brick 
day, 142.020 short tons, valued at $123,000; 
miscellaneous, 162,243 short tons, valued at 
$166,326. 

The imports of pottery in 1011 amounted 
to $10,638,616; the imports of brick, fire 
brick, tile, etc., were valued at $10,804,749. 
The exports of brick in 1011 were valued at 
$2,264,354, and the exports of ^ttery at 
$1,401,366. The imports of kaohn or china 
clay in 1011 were valued at $1,461,068, and 
the imports of other clays amounted to 
$235,264. 

Sand and Gravel. 

During the year 1012 there were 1.406.386 
short tons of glass sand, valued at $1,430,471. 
produced in the United States. 4.484,503 
short tons of molding sand, valued at $2,718-. 
308; 23.632,167 tons of building sand, valued 
at $7,004,321; 1.307,667 tons of grinding and 
polishing sand, valued at $667,760; 465,454 
tons of fire sand, valued at $318,742; 1,288,486 
tons of engine sand, valued at $428,028; 
61,446 tons of furnace sand, valued at $27,268; 
1,778.630 tons of paving sand, valued at 
$670,680; other sands amounting to 3.086,288 
tons, valued at $1,177,066; and 20,768,510 
tons of gravel, valued at $7,737,042. Thus 
the total quantity of sand and gravel pro- 
duced in tne United States during the year 
1012 amounted to 68,318,088 short tons, 
valued at $23,081,666. The imports of sand 
for the same period amounted to $141,600. 

Salt and Bromine. 

The production of salt in the United States 
(including Hawaii and Porto Rico) in 1912 
was 33,324.808 barrels, of 280 pounds each, 
or 4,666,473 short tons, valued at $0,402,772. 
The production of brine salt in the United 
States, for the same period, by grades was as 
follows: Table and Dairy, 3,961.450 barrels; 
common fine, 6,021,052 barrels; common 
coarse, 2,753,376 barrels; packers', 751,551 
barrels; coarse solar, 1,105,035 barrels; other 
grades. 231,063 barrels and brine, 11,408,623 
barrels, making the total production of brine 
salt 26.233.060 barrels, valued at $7,704,943. 
The quantity of rock salt mined in the United 
States during 1912 was 992,846 short tons, 
valued at $1,697,829. 

The imports of salt during the year 
amounted to 998,664 barrels, valued at 
$370,048 and the exports to 445.785 barrels, 
valued at $418,525, leaving an excess of im- 
ports over exports of 552,879 barrels. This 
added to the domestic production makes the 
apparent consumption of salt for the year 
33.877,687. 

The production of bromine in 1912 
amounted to 647,200 pounds, valued at 
$136,201. 



Slate. 

The production of slate in 1912 waa vi 
at $6,043,318. The imports of alste for 
same period were valuM at $14,768; tlM. 
ports were not reported separately from ' 
of other varieties of stone. 



Lime. 

The production o'f lime in 1912 
3,529,462 short tons, valued at $13,970^1 
The average price per ton was $3.96. 
imports in 1912 amounted to 4,268 ahort 
valued at $48,163 and the ezporta amoqp^ 
to ^60,660 barrels, valued at $100,515. 

Stone. 

The value of all kinds of stone prodii4 
the United Stotes in 1011 amounted 
$76,066,008. The importe of mmrble 
stone were valued at $1,666,308 and the 
ports at $l,810jl82. The value of 
granite produced in the United State* di 
1011 was $21,301,878; trap rock. S6,300,< 
sandstone, $7,730,868; bluestone, 8I,876,4| 
limestone, $33,807,362; marble, S7,546,r 

Sulphur and Ptrite. 

The domestic production of sulphur in 1912 
was 303,472 long tons, valued at t&,Z6Mt», 
The production of pynte in 1012 was 1t$ft,iW 
long tons, valued at $1,334,250. Th* M- 
porta of sulphur amounted to 29,927 IsM 
tons, valued at $683,074, and the estporta ta 
67.736, valued at $1,076,414. The importial 
pyrite for 1012 were valued at $3,841.68$* 

PlOMENTS. 

Barytes.— The production of crude 
in 1011 was 38.445 short tona, valf 
$122,702. The imports of barytes 
valued at $68,726 and the imports of ~ 
compounds at $308,213. 

Mineral Painta. — ^The commercial m»- 
duction of mineral paints in 1011 amonntaate 
143.350 short tons, valued at $7342,0$$. 
This includes the natural mineral pici 
pigments made directly from ores, and 
al& manufactured pigments. 

Asphalt. 

" Durinc the year 1012 the total prodnotkn 
of asphalt and bituminous rock amoonted U 
440,610 short tons, valued at $4,620,731 and 
was divided into the following varieties; 
Bituminous rock, 63,041 short tons, valuwd 
at $162,675; refined bitumin, 22.852 ahorl 
tons, valued at $241,772; maltha, 474 short 
tons, valued $3,618; wurtsilite (elaterite) 
8.452 short tons, valued at $116,620; gilaoaite 
31,478 ahort tons, valued at $573,069: oi 
asphalt, 333,213 ahort tons, valued at SS.534.- 
077. The mportaof asphalt in 1012 amounted 
to 218,328 short tons, valued at $021,146, and 
the ezporU to 1,170,882 4hort tons. 

Nickel. 

No production of nickel ore, as sai^, wai 
reported in the United States durinc 1011 
but 446 tons of metallic nickel, valued al 
about $127,000, were saved as by-producta 
The imports during 1011 were valued al 
$4,050,030. and the exports at $8,283,777. 



94 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



GEMS AND PRECIOUS STONES. 
Produetum of precious stonet iri ihe United Statee in 1907, 1908, 1909^ and 1910. 




An&tes, ohaloedony, etc., 

moonstones, etc, onyx. 

Amethyst 

Axormalachite, malachite, eto. 

Benitoite 

rl, aquamarine, blue, 
vak, etc 

fornite 

CatUnlte 

ChlastoUte 

Chlorastrolite 

ChiysocoUa. 

Chrysoprase 

Cyanite 

Diamond 

Dlopside 

Emerald 

Epldote , 

Feldspar, sonstone, amacon 

stone, etc 
Oamet, hyadnth, pyrope, 

almandine, rhodoUtc 

Gold quarts 

Jasper 

Opel 

Peridot 

Petrified wood 

Phenadte 

Prase 

Pyrite 

Quarts, rock crystal, smoky 

quarts, nitilated, etc. 
Rose quartz , 



Rhodocrosite. 
Rhodonite... 



Ruby.... 
Rutfle... 
Sapphire. 



Smithsonite 

Spodnmene, kunsite, hid« 

denite. 
Thompaonite 



Topaz. 



Tounnallne 

Turquoise and matrix. 



Varisdte, amatrioe, utahlite. 
Miscellaneous gems 



Value. 



1907 



1660 

850 

250 

1,500 

6,435 

a 25,000 
25 
20 



150 

a 46, 500 

100 

a2,800 



81,320 

60 

1,110 

6,460 

1,000 
675 
180 

1,300 

325 

25 



400 
2,580 

0,375 

150 



2,000 
200 
a229,800 

800 
14,500 



2,300 

a 84, 120 
23,840 

7,500 



Total. 



471,300 



1908 



$1,125 

210 
5,450 
3,638 
7,485 



25 

600 

a 48,226 



2,100 
120 



2,850 

13,100 

1,010 



50 
1,300 



95 



3,595 
568 



1,250 



68,397 

al,200 
6,000 

35 

4,435 

090,000 
al47,950 

14,260 



415,063 



1909 



S75Q 

190 
2,000 

600 
1,660 

a 18, 000 



2,400 

300 

a 84, 800 



2,033 



a300 

15 

a 2, 700 

1,650 



100 
200 
300 



50 



2,689 
2,970 



125 



25 

044,096 

300 
15,160 

100 

512 

8133,192 
al79,273 

36,938 
1,060 



634,380 



1910 



12,268 



550 
"5,"646' 
a8,000 



a 2, 000 
*a9,'666' 



01,400 
"V766' 



2,510 

3,100 

1,000 
475 
270 



50 
100 



1,385 
2,537 



a6,200 



62,963 



33,000 

610 

884 

46,500 
085,900 

26,125 
2,755 



295,797 



About 1,150 pounds; California, ( 
orado. Montana, and Wyoi ' 
No production reported. 
475 pounds; Arizona and Nc 
No production reported. 
About 30 pounds rough and ) 

Impounds; California; noti 
No mductlon reported. 

1)0. 

lj2S0 pounds; Michigan. 
Noproduction reported. 
1.700 pounds; CaUfomia. 
No production reported. 
206 stones; Arkansas and 
No production reported. 
North Carolina. 
No production reported. 
4,1a pounds; Colorado and 

nia. 
151 pounds; California, Arizona,! 

Colorado. 
Colorado and California. 
500 pounds; Colorado and 1 
Nevada. 
No production reported. 

Do. 
Colorado. 

50 pounds; Oregon. 
No production reported. 
1,753 pounds; Colorado, Maine,y«l 

mont, California, and Texas. 
25^ pounds; South DakoU wti 

California. 
No production reported. 
3,200 pounds; Montana and GalllM 

nia. 
No productiim reported. 

i>0. 
IflSiflSXi carats; Montana and Ibdl 

ana. 
No production reported. 
120 pounds; California. 

About 50 pounds; Michigan, MinxM 

sota, and New Jersey. 
75 pounds; CaUfomia, Colorado, ao 

Texas. 
1,548 pounds; California and Main 
16;88<r pounds; Nevada, New Ma 

loo, Arizona, and Colorado. 
5.377 jpounds; Utah and Nevada. 
Patonte, obsidian, fossil coral, aa 

ornamental stones with tiBd 

names. 



Esthnated or partly so. 



SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



95 



lllSCELLANEOUS. 

ABbeatoa. — ^The ftsbestoa commercially pro- 
dneed in the United States in 1912 was ob- 
tained from depoeits in Georgia, and Ver- 
mont, with nnall quantities from Idaho and 
Wyoming. The total oommerdal produc- 
tioQ in 1012 was 4,403 short tons, valued at 
9SIJM0. The imports for consumption were 
Tilucd at S1319.771 in 1912. 

Graphite. — ^The eommercial production of 
cnrstaUine s^aphite in 1912 amounted to 
1.543,771 pounds, valued at $187,689. The 
production of amorphous graphite in 1912 
vai 873 short tons, valued at $19,344. The 
fndttction of artificial graphite was 12,896,* 
347 pounds, valued at $830,193, the average 
pnee per pound being $6.44. The imports 
•f (raphite in 1912 were valued at $1,709,337. 

Mica. — ^The total production of mica in 
1912 was S4 5.483 pounds of sheet mica, 
nlocd »t $282,823, and 3.226 short tons of 
anp mica, valued at $49,073. The imports 
ef mica in 1912 were valued at $748,973. 

Mineral waters. — The total production of 
oineral waters in 1911 was 63.923,119 gal- 
lops, valued at $6,837,888. The imports of 
niaeral waten in 1911 amounted to $1,037,- 
485. 

Daring the year 1911 there were 732 
ipriags in the United States reporting sales 
« Buneral waters. They sold 63,923.119 
(•Boos of mineral waters, valued at $6,837,- 
■8$. Each year has shown a growth in the 
induction of what is known as soft drinks. " 
Is sn 6.505,757 gallons of water were used in 
tbt manufacture of soft drinks. Wisconsin 



leads all the states in the amount of water 
used, using 2,037,258 gallons, or about one- 
third of all the mineral waters used in the 
manufacture of soft drinks in the United 
States. 

The total imports -of iron ore into the 
United States in 1910 amounted to 2,591,031 
long tons and the quantity of iron ore ex- 
ported from the United States in the same 
year amounted to 644,875 long tons. 






un or Qooo nan Transvaal oRAN^r f . stati 

il'1.l97,fft6 tU733,n9 lH^B.ZSt 




friNiAff swArticA BRAZIL yHHOontA eiur.^iANA 

il.05MS7 ilOO.000 ilO^SSO £6,J0$ 

DIAMOND PRODUCTION, 
(in Founds Sterling.) 



THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF MINES. 



. The Kational Bureau of Mines for the 
United States was created by act of Congress 
ayro v ed May 16, and effective July 1, 1910. 
Tne chief puniose of the bureau is to carry on 
faquiriei and investigations with the view of 
hs II. niin loss of life and waste of resources in 
and metallui^ical operations. It is 
■u3ce investigations of the meUiods of 
ling, especially in relation to the safety 
of mineia, the appliances best adapted to the 
pseventiasi of mme accidents, the improve- 
KCBt of mining conditions, the treatment of 
ores and other mineral substances, as to the 
'.£« of explocives and electricity m mining, 
and other inquiries and technologic in- 
' fDS pertaining to mining^^metal- 
and quarry industries. The act 
_ the bureau provides that^ no 
or employee of the Bureau of Mines 
AaQ exercise any right or authority in con- 
Bsetion with the inspection or supervision 
of mines and metallurgical plants in any 
tUtc^ under the Constitution such in- 
vsetKm and supervision is within the province 
of the State and is not germane to the duties 
of the Federal Government. 

The seope of the fuel investifpitions of this 
boean oonfonns to the provisions of the Act 
<tf CoQgieas which provides for the analyzing 
■ad testizig of coals, lignites, and other 
nuBsral fuel substances belongLog to or for 
the use of the United States. Several lines 
of inquiry are embodied in this plan, which 
however, are too numerous to be men- 
taofiedheTB. 



The act also transferred to the new Bureau 
of Mines the personnel and equipment of the 
technologic branch of the United States 
Geological Survey. This personnel and 
equipment were developed during the preced- 
ing five years in connection with me investic»i- 
tion of fuels and mine accidents, and the 
new bureau is to continue similar investiga- 
tions. 

Its chief Experimental Station is located at 
Pittsburgh, Pa. where the work in the labora- 
tories is supplemented by experiments con- 
ducted in a small coal mine under the con- 
ditions of actual mining. At this station it 
also is conducting a number of investigations 
in connection with the use of explosives and 
electricity, and other mining problems. ^ 

As a means of cariyin^ on an educational 
campaign in behalf of mine rescue and first 
aid to uie injured work, the Bureau of Mines 
has purchased and equipped with rescue 
apparatus, first aid and fire fighting; devices, 
seven cars of standard Pullman size, each 
completely fitted with modem appliances. 
These cars, one stationed in each of the im- 
portant coal fields or coal mining regions of the 
country, will visit all the important groups of 
coal mmes where demonstrations and illustra- 
tions of this work will be given. 

The law establishing the Bureau of Mines 
became effective on July 1, 1910. On 
September 1st, Dr. J. A. Holmes, formerly 
Chief of the Technologic Branch of the 
Geological Survey, was appointed Director of 
the new Bureau. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF THE ENORMOUS ENERGY EJ 
PESDED IN MANUFACTURES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER IV. 



MANUFACTURES. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



99 



LEADING MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

1909. 



T. 



_ md nuat paeking 

/■adnwifftit fiMh oppiodncti.. 
' Hid tlmlMr pcodnots. 



ladilaA steel ««1b tnd loOfBg mills... 
Daidi 



grfrtmlll pcodnoti., 
jUoKaad pablidifns-< 
Mac tuak% iD^mng shirts. 



[ndttdliig oottoa smsll 

S^lD^S 



i&k' 



^^ISk,wvM,isodtattqod»,MkAwQQihaii. 



ittiBdgwiifslAiopcoastructlonsndispito 
jr <— wDgosd comp sn tos. 

idsBdsUisrlMiksiTpradiiets, 

iaiitsel,b]sstftiniaoM 



sad fsftning, coppsr. 



r,tBiiiMd,ciifrtod.sodlliiliiied 

' Bid meimm, not mdodiiicbset sngsr . 

'.iittlk 



B, and eondflnssd : 

isdvQod 




bodies sod psrti. 
sodnMfanton 



|toial BssliliMry^ sppintosi iuid'sappUes! 

i|fpB,dUiDed 
raadkntt 




pradnots. 



Mt goods, tododlng t hio f wtws . 
sndnflmiig, r 



lesd. 



^ tsD dwsgonss ad mstvisls. 

•■*pw"«^taf^^ 

isa psopss products »» 



j gndti a s l tmplsmsnts 




end o smp oo n ds sod dnig- 



^^-.indnBiiUi 

*|ijtsiin I sill Usd, not Indodtaig opsnttons 




Mumbsr 
of 
USb. 



Si8,tfl 

1,641 

18,253 

40,e71 

446 

11,691 

81,445 
1,324 
6,354 

1,918 
965 



15, 



1,145. 

23,926 

206 

4,568 

38 

1,414 
919 
283 

8,479 

777 
748 

8,155 
147 

1,008 

613 
1,374 
4,228 

852 
28 



1. 
5,492 
8,767 
1,021 
817 

640 

8,642 

1,944 

791 

110 

349 

4}9d4 

2,375 

61,887 



WAOS EABXAS. 



munMr' 



89,728 
531,011 
696,019 
240,076 

39,453 

258,434 
878,880 
239,696 

198,297 
168,722 

166,810 

282,174 

100,216 

38,429 

153,743 

15,628 
54,579 
62,202 
18,626 
18,431 

75,978 
7J^721 
128,452 
13,929 
87,256 

6,480 

129^275 

73,615 

99,037 

7,424 

37,215 
69,928 
59,96d 
40,618 
17,071 

50,561 

22,895 
44,638 
14,240 

43,066 

23,714 

65,603 

34,007 

1,648.441 



16 
2 
1 
6 

30 

5 

3 

7 

8 
9 

10 

4 

14 
31 
11 

38 

41 
36 

17 
10 
13 
40 
18 

43 
12 
20 
15 
42 

32 
21 
24 
29 
37 

26 

35 
27 
39 

28 

34 
22 
33 



Per 

oent 

dls- 

^bu- 

tkm. 



1004) 

1.4 
8.0 
10.6 
9.6 
0.6 

3.9 
5.7 
8.6 

3.0 
2.6 

2.6 

4.3 
1.5 
0.6 
2.8 

0.2 
0.8 
0.9 
0.2 

a3 

1.2 
1.1 
1.9 
0.3 
1.3 

0.1 
2.0 
1.1 
1.5 
0.1 

0.6 
1.1 
0.9 

ao 
as 

as 

as 
a7 
a2 

a7 

a.4 

1.0 

a5 

24.9 



▼ALVB or raODVCTB. 



Amount 

(expresMd 

In thou- 

ssnds). 



180,671,068 




737,876 



566, on 

512,798 
435,979 

416,695 

406,601 
396,865 
391,429 
384,752 

878,806 
874,780 
827,874 
279,249 
274,568 

267,667 
249,202 
289,887 
2W,996 
221,309 

904,699 
200,144 
199,834 
196,912 
167,406 

166,814 
159,883 
157,101 
148,968 
147,868 

146,329 

141,942 
»4,796 
124,889 

128,780 

117,689 

113,093 

104,719 

4,561,003 



1 
2 
3 
4 

& 

6 
7 
8 

9 
10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
28 
24 
26 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 

87 
38 

SO 

40 

41 
42 
48 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tiibo- 
tlon. 



10041 

6.6 
6.9 
5.6 
4.8 
4.3 

3.6 

i:? 

2.5 
2.1 

2.0 

2.0 
1.9 
1.9 
1.9 

1.8 
1.8 
1.6 
1.4 
1.8 

1.3 
1.2 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 

1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
1.0 

as 
as 

0.8 
0.8 
0.7 

a7 

a7 

a7 
a7 
as 

a6 

a6 
as 

0.5 
2^0|| 






lOO SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

SUMMARY OF INDUSTRIES, BY STATES AND WAGE EARNERS; IMB. 




■i,injM 1 

111,014 



3,(K«,111 



S7.473 : 

33,788 : 
II.TS9 

13,liS : 



3.«3^74a 
l,91>,in 
1,«),S» 






SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOQK. 



101 



SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES, BY PRINCIPAL CITIES BY RANK: 

1909. 




N.J 

^-. -tfpOhlo... 
i^^Md 

IhiMiiHiUlli, Minn, 

ftvadmOjCtl. 
atj,K.J... 

r.N.y.... 



Ky 

iOioiitaa,N«br. 

ni,OhJe.. 

Man 

Orient, lA.... 




,N.J... 
AaSHc*. Okl., 




Ohio.. 

Nebr. 

lytoOfOhto. 



,N.Y. 



HalJCfain 

tUy,lio.... 
B6dfcrd| Mass. 

,Oola 

P» 




WW DtTcn. Conn. 

littdt.WMh 

ffrtieroa rY^ Conn, ■ 

Bnoatt, ri. Y 

CMn^N.J 



Popalation. 



4,760,883 

3,166,283 

1, MO, 008 

087,090 

560,663 

465,700 
533,906 
070.586 
423,715 
873,857 

347,400 
303,591 
558,486 

301,408 
82,831 

416,912 
267,779 
233,660 
224,326 
218,149 

223,928 
26,259 
79,060 
85.892 

339,076 

145,966 
55,545 
09.067 
32,121 
89,336 

125,600 
319. 196 
102.054 
119,295 
66,950 

168,497 
124.096 
116.577 
106,394 
79,803 

214,744 

348.381 
96,652 

313,381 
96,071 

133,605 
237,194 

73.141 
137,249 

94,538 



Nomber 

of 

MUb- 

Uata- 

nuotB. 



36,088 
0,050 
8,370 
2,067 
3.148 

3,036 
1,659 
8,155 
1,763 
1,704 

1,868 
3,1S4 
3,503 
1,103 
165 

1,796 
746 
855 

1,000 
1,303 

908 
71 
115 
163 
848 

580 
97 

346 
80 

431 

703 

1,336 

367 

388 

383 

760 
432 
513 
320 
158 

719 
902 
207 
766 
482 

590 
751 
169 
738 
365 



WAOS 



nomber. 



554,003 

383,977 

361,884 

87,371 

84,738 

81,011 
67,474- 
00,637 
51,413 
69,503 

59,956 
60,193 
71,444 
36,963 
13,304 

38,344 
36,454 
81,815 
46,381 
39,106 

37,033 
6,306 
10,498 
30,543 
17,186 

38,321 
7;519 

15,831 
5,866 

37,368 

83,004 
17,337 
36,775 
37,139 
5,961 

18.878 
8,023 
31.549 
33,675 
13,711 

19,339 
14,G43 
26,566 
12,058 
24,145 

23.547 
11,331 
20.170 
18, 148 
16,537 



1 
3 
8 
4 

5 

6 



8 

13 

12 

11 
10 
7 
36 
43 

31 
38 
19 
14 
15 

84 

48 
45 

30 
87 

S3 
47 
89 
50 



18 
86 
37 
16 
49 

34 
46 
31 
17 

41 

t 

33 
40 
36 
43 
39 

30 
44 
32 
35 
38 



▼▲LVi or 

VBODUCn. 



Amoont 

(expnoMd 

inthoa- 

MUda). 



83,000,008 

1» 381, 171 

746,070 

838,406 

371,961 

363.993 
343,454 
387,467 
^18,804 
306,334 

303,511 
104,516 
186,978 
165,406 
104,061 

133,041 
138,775 
136,533 
130,341 
113,076 

101,284 
02,436 
81,271 
79,993 
78,794 

77,148 
73,641 
73,158 
73.003 
71,503 

09,584 
68,586 
65,609 
64,146 
63,061 

61,230 
60,854 
«0.378 
60.271 
59,334 

58,990 
54,704 
53,238 
51,538 
51,135 

51,071 
60,569 
60,350 
49.435 
49,138 



1 
3 
8 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 

9 
10 

11 
13 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
30 

31 
33 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
29 
80 

81 
32 
33 
34 

35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 
50 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFBHENCE BOOK. 



Hhf ^ ^'^^** ^^*^^'* 



JL 
III! 



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S38S8 l§l 


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s-|.sts 



ill Hi 



I Nil 

Slip 
Ml 

nil- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Hht ^*^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^*^^ 



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m 



nil 



m 



ii 



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mitl 83S§! EIEIS 3ieS9 SIC) 
ft'^s'l's e"-"s|8 sseaa gsss^~ a|"gj 



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S8SIS iSiii seen iSSS' 3SEI 



lesei iasis mets sis" ssss 



ISSIS sails SIIS5 g»3g9 lisa 



ISiga iSSiE EIESS iScli S>£i 
a"S5g3" B'^SfSt" afiaVs' ggss" sgs| 



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104 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENSES IN PERCENTAGES FOR 
THE LEADING INDUSTRIES 1909. 



IN0U8TB7. 



AU iBdaitriei 



Agricultaral implements 

Aatomobllee, indudlnc bodies and pnits 

Bbots and shoes, indading out stock end findings , 

Brass and bronse products 

Breajd and other hikBrj products 



Butter, cheese, and condensed milk 

Canning and preserving 

Carriages and wagons and materials 

Cars and general shop construction and repairs by 

8team«railroad companies 

Cars, steam-railroad, not indudinf oi)erations ol 

railroad companies 



Chemicals 

Clothing, men's, including shirts 

Clothinff, women's ~ 

Confectionery. 

Cqpper, tin, and sheet-iron products 

Cotton goods, including cotton small wares 

Blectriw msichinery, apparatus, and supplies. 

Flour-mill and gristmilTprodncts 

Foundry and machin&«hop {Products 

Furniture and refHgerators 



Oas, illuminating and heating 

Hosiery and knit goods 

Iron ard steel, bli»t furnaces 

Iron and steel, steel works and rolling mills. 
Leather goods , 



Leather, tanned, curried, and finished. 

Liquors, distilled 

Liquors, malt 

Lumber and timber products 

Marble and stone work 



Oil, cottonseed, and cake 

Paint and varxiish 

Paper and wood pulp 

Patent medicines and compounds and druggists' 

preparations 

Petroleum, refining 



Printing and publishing 

Silk ana silk goods, including throwsters. 

SlauKhteriug and meat packing 

Smelting and refining, copper 

Smelting and refining, lead 



Sugar and molasses, not including beet sugar. . . 

Tobacco manufactures 

Woolen, worsted, and felt goods, and wool hats. 
All other industries 



^ER CENT OF TOTAL EXPSN8ES 
REPORTBO. 



Sala- 
ries. 



6.1 

8.6 
4.5 
3.9 
4.1 
4.0 

1.4 
6.6 
6.7 

4.3 

4.3 

6.6 
6.2 
6.0 
7.6 
6.8 

2.6 
10.0 
L6 
8.7 
7.3 

It).^ 
4.4 

L8 
2.9 
7.2 

2.2 
LO 
7.6 
4.8 
6.7 

3.1 
9.3 
4.0 

14.9 
L8 

16.7 
4.2 
1.5 
0.7 
0.9 

0.9 
4.6 
2.6 
6.4 



Wages. 



18.6 

24.3 
23.1 
2a6 
17.3 
17.4 

4.3 
13.6 
.27.0 

44.7 

23.0 

16.0 
2a7 
23.0 
13.1 
22.4 

24.0 
24.6 
2.6 
29.8 
30.8 

18.4 
25.6 
6.8 
18.3 
19.3 

ia6 

L6 
13.7 
32.0 
44.8 

4.3 

7.4 

17.2 

8.7 
4.4 

26.6 

21.8 

3.0 

3.8 

3.4 

2.8 
19.0 
18.7 
2fl.l 



rials. 



66.8 

61.1 
G2,S 
60.6 
72.6 
69.9 

91.0 
72.0 
68.9 

49.2 

66.7 

68.2 
67.9 
6L1 
67.9 
63.7 

66.9 
63.8 
92.8 
60.1 
6L0 

46.2 
62,7 
88.4 

73.9 
64.6 

81.2 
18.4 
32.2 
61.0 
39.4 

87.7 
71.1 
69.7 

44.1 
89.6 

32.6 
6a8 
91.3 
94.4 
94.8 

92.6 
48.4 
72.9 
62.1 



Mis- 
cellane- 
ous ex- 



16.0 
9.9 
&9 
6.0 
8.6 

3.3 
0.0 
&4 

1.8 

«.0 

lai 

16.2 
0.9 

11.4 
&1 

e.6 

11.7 

S.1 

11.4 

ia9 

24.5 

7.4 
3.0 
4.8 
8.9 

6.1 
79.0 
46.6 
12.3 

9.1 

4.9 

12.2 
9.1 

32.4 
4.2 

24.1 

13.2 

3.3 

1.1 

a9 

3.7 

28.0 
6.8 

ia5 



SCIBNTIPIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



105 



I. ENGINES AND POWER. 



In 1909 406,472 enmes or moton, havins 
» total bone-power ^ 18.675.376. used pn- 
maiv power m the United States. Of this 
amikber 200.163 were owned and 199.300 were 
mCed. The owned engines or motore were 
t&vided aceoiding to power, as follows: Steam, 
153.525 with total horse-power of 14.199.339. 
pa. 34.356. total horse-power 761,186, water 
wheels. 20,079. total horn-power 1.807,439. 
wBttf motors, 1,203, total horse-power 15,449; 
sll other owned enmes or motors having a 
boisfrpower of 29,293. The rented engmes 
vcfe divided as follows: Electric, 199,309, 



total horse-power 1,749,031; all other 
rented engtoesor motors having a total horse- 
power of 123,630. At the end of the year 1909 
there were 388,854 electric motbrs in the 
United States, having a total horse-power of 
4,817,140. Of these 189,546, having a horse- 
power of 3,068,109. were run by current gen- 
erated by establishment; and 199,309, having 
a total horse-power of 1,740,031, were run by 
rented power. Our comparison would be even 
more spectacular if figures for the year 1912 
oould be obtained. 



II. MANUFACTURED FOOD PRODUCTS. 



SlAUGHTEaiNG AND MeAT PaCKINO. 

The total cost of all the material used in the 
tbq^tering and * meat-packing business 
daring theyear 1909, amounted to $1,202,- 
S27.7S4. The coet of all the animals slaugh- 
mvd was 9960,726,581. The total numMr 
of beeves killed was 8,114.860 and they were 
Tihied at S392, 127,010; the total number of 
cthes slaughtered was 2.504.728 and they 
wtn valued at 925,030,014; the number of 
t^tep slaughtered was 12.256,501, and their 
Tihie was $59,924,931; the number of hoi^ 
riattghtered aibounted to 33,870,616 and their 
Tsloe was $483,383,848; the goats slaughtered 
sombered 33,224 and were valued at $121,230; 
and the cost of all other animals slaugh- 
tered was 9138,548. The dressed meat pur- 
dbased during the year 1009 was valued at 
•93.409,286, and all the other materials pur- 
ekaaed at $147,692,917. The products of the 
iha^teiing and meat packing business for 
tbe year were valued at $1,370,568,101 and 
vers divided as folbws: Beef. 4,335,674.330 
pounds, value, $339,742,608; of which 
4,209,196.668 pounds, valued at $327,583,456, 
vcre fresh, and 126,477,662 potmds, 
▼allied at 912,169,152, were salted or cured; 
vet], 252.997,078 pounds, value, 925,058,886; 
ffoh mutton, 495,467,894, value, $60,735,116: 
podc. 4,377.127,187, value, $486,846,161, of 
«hich 1,547,494,184 pounds, valued at 
$138,714,862, were fresh: 962,130,567 pounds, 
▼daed at $95,959,048, were salted; 
739,861.744 pounds, valued at $101,089,390, 
wot hams; 346,294,769 pounds, valued at 
133.225.458. were shoulders; and 741,345,933 
potmds, valued at 997,866,403, were bacons 
and sides; sausage, fresh or cured, value. 
159.564,582: all oUier fresh meat, 257,809.083 
Poimds. value, 916,392.708: canned goods, 
121.376.837 pounds, value. $15,346,543; lard, 
U243,567.604 pounds, value, 9134.396,587; 
iaUow or oleo stock, 202,844,139 pounds. 
Tftlue, 913.499.059; oleo oil, 19,692.172 
IiikNu, value. 916,475,726; other oils, 
li;»43.186 gaUons. value, 96,350.746; oleo- 
Baxgarine, 42.912.466 pounds, value. 
IS.S63.981 ; stearin. 54,967,997 pounds, value. 
I6.K71.<.05: glue and gelatine, 27,936,035 
pounds, value, 91.944.:m: fertilisers and 
fertiliser materials, 362.136 tons, value, 
«$.726.818; hides, 9.560.138, value, 968,- 
401,515; sheep pelts, 11,691,308, value, 
111.404,556; goat and kid skins, 33,359, 
vibe, 920,679: wool, 21,858,926 pounds. 



value, 98,327,096; amount received for 
custom or contract work. 91,329,739; and all 
other prcxiucts, value, 993,170,064. 

Canning and Presebving. 

At the end of the year 1009 there were 
3,767 canning and preserving establishments 
in the United States, having a total capital 
of 9119,207,000. The total cost of all ma- 
terials used in the establishments was 9101,- 
823,000; the amount spent in these factories 
for wages was 919,082,000: the amount spent 
for salaries 97,864.000;. and the miscellaneous 
expenses were 912,718,000. The total value 
of the products was 9167,101,000, and the 
value added by manufacture (products less 
cost of materials) was 966.278.000. The total 
nimiber of salaried officials and clerks em- 
ployed in the establishments numbered 7,760; 
ana the average number of wage earners em- 
ployed during the year was 69,968. The pri- 
mary horse-power of the establishments was 
81,179. 

There were 32.752.469 cases of vegetables, 
having a value ot 961,568,914, canned during 
the year. The total value of the tomatoes 
canned during the year was 918,747,941; the 
value of the com, 910,332,136; of peas, 910,- 
247,363; oftbeans, 96,013,098; of asparagus. 
91.976,776. There were 5.501,404 cases of 
fruits canned during the year 1909. and their 
total value was 912,938,474. The total value 
of the peaches canned during the year was 
93,753,698; of the apples. $1,898,720; of the 
apricots. $1,826,311; of the pears, $1,833,214; 
of the berries, $1,754,927; of the cherries, 
$1,019,013. Durinff the same year there wcro 
400.328,767 pounds of fruits, with a total 
value of $19,840,395 dripil in the United 
States. Of this total $4,837,933 Tfpresontcd 
the value of the raisins dried; $5,130,412 that 
of the prunes; $.S. 098,095 thnt of the apples: 
$2.423.08.S that of the peaches; $2,277,177 
that of the apricots. 

During the vear UK)9 there wore 235.418.713 
pounds of fisn and oysters, with a value of 
$17,573,311, canned in the United States. 
There were 99, 8.'} 1,528 pounds of salmon, with 
a value of $8,723,565. canned during the year; 
90,694,284 pounds of sardines, with a value ot 
$4,931,8:{1 ; 28.192,802 pounds of oysters, with 
a value of $2,443,101. There were 39.814,989 
pounds of fish, having a value of $2,900,417, 
smoked during the year 1909; and 128,539,299 
pounds of fish, having a value of $7,174,661. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



aalted during th. y«r. 49.4M.33B pound, ot 


•22.371,457. There were 628.089,488 wwidi 


md, with ■ vBlue of •3,077,612. were t^ted 




durios ihu period: and e.04S.4fle pouDdB ol 


vaJued^at in,3M,V3fl.' were whobT 1^ 


maokeiel, wSh ■ value of •740,513. 




14S,500.4S6 pounds of which, valued M 


Rick, Cleaninq amd PoLiaiuNc]. 


i3.2S7. 246, were broken. There wm 29.821,- 


In leOO Uiere were 974,747,475 pdunds of 


813 pounds of polish, valued at »362,0S1. 


liot treated, 970.8^3,740 o! which wvre 


produced from rico during the J-eai; 91,208.- 


dom«tio Bn^l 3.S73.73S of which were of 


523 pounds of bran, valued at »73a.215: 
•160.147 worth ol bulls and waste: and 


roreicn growth. The total value of the 




•421,061 worth of all olhar rice ptodueta. 



Cgprrtght, lluan A Co. 



THE MEATS WE EAT. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FLOUR AND GRIST MILL PRODUCTS. 







»W,24T,gSl 
496, 480, 3U 
209,281,217 
U,H3,BW 

7,ue,oaz 

S4,IKn,TTD 
60,141, W8 

7,071,011 



2S,U0.9I 
•488,0 



M, 730,108 
(7,406,018 



1478,484,801 

404, «8 



wImM Bear, 100,477 bainb, valiud it 1014 JS3; com meal, 3Z,SM bamla, TBhied K 
ttrj07; rnlkiiiI,3,«0t)UTA, VtlMdM tl3,m Iced, 33,7W toru,T*lugd ■tt8a7,l«£; 
nd^hi, an t<Hn,T*l<MdBt 118,374; BDd In •ddlUon, "bmklftst Inodi." to tha 
TalDao[t30,>n,BI3,we»iiud«b7«stabltgfamaiIsangiged nimvlly la thtmanu- 
fKton oil ftxMl fnpanlkioM. Bea note to tsbla od paca.TS, br custom gnnmd 

^^T^^Hloa, " breakttit iDDdi," to tbiTSliu ol t39,W4,Ml, were tstde lijaatlb- 
aduBintseii(iged prliura; In Uia numilMtiini otlood jnepireUoDi. 
> Not HTCrtad ttftnulj. 



1 



108 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



^ 



SUGAR. 



The total acreage of susar beets planted in 
the United States amounted to 416,964. Of 
these 29,459 were planted directly by the 
factory; 18,166 by tenants of the factory; 
368.339 on contract by others than tenants 
of the factory. There were 3,965,396 tons of 
beets used in the industry. Of these 266.768 
were grown directly by the factory; 163,843 
tons by tenants of the factory; and 3,534,745 
tons on contract by others than the tenants 
of the factory. The total value of the pro- 
ducts derived from the beets was $48,122,383. 
Of this 496,807 tons of granulated sugar were 
valued at $45,645,810; 4,875 tons of raw 
sugar were valued at $291,819; 20,812,747 
gallons of molasses or syrup were valued at 



$1,129,905; beet pulp was valued at S7Q5.! 
and all other products were valued 
$258,949. 

The total value of all the sugar produc 
the United States during the year 1909 
$77,991,683, and of this $48,122,383 • 
derived from the sugar-beet industry* 
$29,869,300 from the cane-sugar inaQ 
There were 828,540 tons of sugar prodi 
the total value of which was $72,033,303^ 
which amount 501.862 pounds, valued 
$45,937,629, were beet sugar, and 32( 
pounds, valued at $26,095,673, were 
sugar. The total value of molasses, 
and all other products produced of ell 
cane or beet was $5,958,381. 



III. TEXTILES. 



Rugs and Carpets. 

During the year 1909 there were 57,176,729 
square yards of carpets, with a value of 
$48,475,889, manufactured in the United 
States. During the same period there were 
24,042,152 square yards of rugs, valued at 
$18,490,449. woven in the United States. 

Cordage and Twine and Jute and 
Linen Goods. 

The total value of the cordage and twine 
and jute and linen goods produced in the 
United States during the year 1909 was 
$61,019,986. The total value of the rope 
and binder twine for the same year was 
$33,930,306; of the twine not including 
binder, $8,934,352; of the yams, for sale, 
$5,434,037; of the 6,530,503 pounds of linen 
thread used, $3,407,008: of the 69,311,288 
square yards of gunny-bagging, $3,507,482; 
and of the 2,206,114 square yards of jute 
carpets and rugs, $549,221. 

Felt Goods. 

The aggregate cost of the material required 
in the production of the felt goods of the 
United States during the year 1909 was 
$6,967,206, and the total value of these 
products for the same period was $11,852,626. 
There were 3.764,468 square yards of felt 
cloths, valued at $1,381,854, produced in that 
year. 

Hats, Fur-Felt and Wool-Felt. 

The value of the 2,989.252 dozens of fur- 
felt hats produced during the year 1909 was 
$43,442,466, and the value of the 366,370 
dosen of fur-felt hat bodies and hats in the 
roiuch for the same period was $2,703,738. 

The total value of the 590,957 dozen wool- 
felt hats produced in the United States during 
the year 1909 was $3,646,787. 

Hosiery and Knit Goods. 

There were, during the year 1909, 62,825,- 
069 dozen pair of hosieiy produced in the 
United States and they were valued at 
$08,721,825. During the same period there 
were 25,337,779 dozen ^irts and drawers 
produced, with a total value of $69,592,817; 



2,473,103 dozen combinations, widi 
of $14,853,536; sweaters, cardigan u 
etc., to the value of $22,430,817; and 
and mittens to the value of $7,296.1 
the production of the hosiery and knit 
of the United States there were 2,681 a 
cards used; 736.774 spindles; 112,206 kml 
machines of all classes, and 43,885 
machines of all classes. 

• 

Cotton Goods. 

The total cost of the 2.335.344,906 poi 
of cotton material consumed in the proauc 
of cotton goods during the year 1909 
$274,724,210. The total value of the ool 

foods produced from these materials 
628,391,813, divided as follows: 6,348.568^ 
square yards of woven goods, valued 
$456,089,401; 23,700,957 pounds of thi 
valued at $20,516,269; and 13.715,771 poi 
of twine, valued at $2,417,391. There y 
27,425,608 producing spindles used during 
year, and 665,049 looms of all 






UNITED KINODON 
54.000,000 



U.S. A ^£RM4f«Y 

2^,000,000 9,ooo.ooa^ 






RUS5IA 
8,00^000 



FRANCE 
6»000.000 



IMOIA 

s.aoo^ooo 



CHIEF MANUFACTUKING COUNTRIES. 
(Number of Spindles). 



no 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Oilcloth and Linoleum. 

The total value of the oilcloth and linoleum 
produced in the United States during the year 
1909 waa $26,253,796. The oUclot^. valued 
at Sll,681,012, was divided as follows: 
18.354,851 square yards of floor oilcloth, 
valued at ^.776,660; 17,338,440 square 
yards of enameled oilclotii, valued at $2,265.- 
146: 61,168.777 square yards of table oil- 
cloth, valued at $5,639,206. The total value 
ol the linoleum produced in the United States 
during the same period was $10,844,928. 
The value of the artificial leather produc<Kl 
in the United States during the same period 
was $3,448,617. 

Silk and Silk Goods. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 

SToduction of the silk products of the United 
tates was $107,766,916. There were 17,- 
472,204 pounds of raw silk, valued at $67,- 
787,037, required; 2,212.972 pounds of spun 
sUk, valued at $4,848,789. used; 914.494 
pounds of artificial silk, valued at $1,926,894; 
3,377,972 pounds of oigansine and tram, 
valued at $14,679,719. purchased; $1,637,187 
dollars worth of fringe and floss, including 
waste, noils, etc.; 14,111,878 pounds of cotton 
and mercerised yam, valued at $5,811,582; 
610,588 pounds of woolen or worsted yams, 
valued at $765,989; 710.108 pounds of 
mohair yam valued at $640,529; and 353,780 
pounds of all other kinds of yam. valued at 
$456,597. Chemicals and dycntuffs, cost 
$1,062,313; and all other materials used in 
the production of silk and silk goods cost 
$8,150,280. 




CHINA 
\X5H5,000 





ITALY 
12.755.000 




JAPAN 
f2.725^000 





A5IANIN0R INDIA 
3.051.000 2,€5CL(iOO(f) 



TONKIIK 
1651.161 




rRANCe 
U00.000 

SILK. 
▲ tcab's production. 



REST OF 
WOALO 



The products of the silk and silk goods 
industry in the I'nitoii Stutt's during the vear 
IWJy were vj\lucd at $1'H*).911.(>67. Of 'this 
amount $107,Jvsl.l40 were derivtHi from the 
manufiictiire of 1S.>, 707,3 10 vanls of broad 
silk, as follows: $.'>.i.2S2,7l>4 from the manu- 
facture of M.934.15S van!-* of all silk, plain 
and fancies; $14.2t)7.S{U from the 24.742.556 
yanis of silk mixo<i. plain and fancies; $9,835,- 
:U5 from the 13,24y.tHW yanis of all silk jac- 
Quard; $3,473,799 from the 6,043,686 yards of 



silk mixed jacquard; $11,353,242 from i 
19,693,393 yards of all piece-dyed broad d 
and $15,728,195 from the 40.044,433 yank 
mixed piece-dved broad silk- $4,767 J 
from the 10,093,583 yards of velvet; $2,UI 
768 from the 2,759.411 yards of pluAl 
$382,820 from the 226,717 yards of tapestd 
and upholstery; $32,744,873 from nbboi 
$1,350,850 laces, nets, veils, veiling, ^ 
$485,322 from embroideries; $824,527 In 
fringes and gimps; $4,483,248 from brd 
and bindinfcs; $3,850,448 from trimmtQf 
$6,341,719 from the 1,088.780 pounds 
machinist twine; $4,179,355 Trom i 
747,246 pounds of sewing, embroidenr, wii 
fringe and floss silks; $12,550,510 from 1 
2,740,319 pounds oi oi^ganzine and tni 
and $2,104,066 from the 779,462 pounds 
spun silk. The value of all other products 
the silk and silk goods industries amounted 
$4,495,675; and the value of all the vo 
done on materials for others amounted 
$8,364,350. 

Woolen and Worsted Goods. 

The total cost of all the materials requn 
in the manufacture of all the woolen H 
worsted goods produced in the United Stat 
during the year 1909 amounted to S!273,4S 
570. This amount was divided as folkn 
474,755,366 jxiunds of wool in the oondlli 
purchased, value $136,666,917, of «^ 
310,602.279 pounds were domestic wooL iri 
a value of $85,018,238. and 164.153.0 
pounds were foreign wool, with a value 
$51, 648,679 j mohair, camel, alpaca a 
vicuna hair. 7.805,422 pounds, vah 
$2,399,123; cow and other animial hi 
17,356,100 pounds, value $932,911; cotta 
20,024.061 pounds, value $2,515,409; taiJa 
clippings, rags, et^;., 40,402,460 pounds, vd 
$2,856,966; shoddy, mungo ana wool extn 
purchased, 21,454,187 pounds, value lE^.OS 
214; waste and noils of wool, mohair, caa 
hair, etc., purchased, 26.473,311 pouai 
value $7,523,283; tops purchased. 20.82SJ 
pounds, value $14,614,527; woolen yal 
purchased, 931,222 pounds, value S558.2< 
worsted yams purchased, 59,148.771 poan 
value $56,033,701; merino yams purrhaa 
1,971,709 poimds. value $318,456; ooti 
yams purchased, 39.169,388 pounds, vai 
$10,492,185; silk and spun silk j-ar 
282,536 pounds, value $1,142,663; aO otl 
yams, 1,046,735 pounds, value $40.7: 
chemicals and dyestuffs, value $8,820.9 
and all other materials, value ^5,404.27H 

The total value of all the products of I 
woolen and worsted goods manufactories i 
$419,743,521. This amount was derived tv 
the following products: AJl-wool woven ooo 
322.944.365 square yards, value $219.8od,7 
wool cloths, doeskms. cassimeres, cbevic 
etc., 40,843,979 square yaidbi, value $3 
291 .059; worsted coatings, serges and suitie 
119,655,069 square yards, value $101,903,1 
woolen overcoatings, 14.697.770 square y^i 
value $11,230,856; worsted overooata 
and cloakings, 654,404 square ^aida, va 
$S2 1,688; wool dress jsoods, sackm^s, tzioc 
etc.. and opera and smiilar flannels. 29,01 
956 square yards, value $16385,498; wor«< 
dre»» goods, cashmeres, serges, ban time, e* 
105,801,349 square yards, valiie $54.a')0.3^ 
carriage cloths, 1,782,855 square yards, va 
$947,862; flannels for underwear, 3,856,1 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Ill 



■qnare yarda, Yslue $1,257,271; blankets, 
5437,908 oquare yards, value $3,228,797; 
bone blankets, 247.395 square yards, value 
1185,430; woven shawls, 704.153 sqxiare 
yards, value $404,583; and all other all-wool 
woven Boods. 463,179 square yards, value 
$167,194; union, or cotton mixed, woven 
leoda, 37,453.351 square yards, value 
114.337,973; unions, tweeds, cheviots, oassi- 
merea, etc., 18.917.478 square vards. value 
S7,7S0.854; overcoatings ana cloakinss, 
4,2s 1,739 6<]uare yards, value $2,363,381: 
addngs. trioots, dress goods and opera and 
■milar fl^mwoU, 4,319,539 square yards, 



value $1,776,721; flannels for underwear, 
7.063,572 square yards, value $1,308,369; 
blankets. 1.717.758 square yards, value 
$650,714; all ouier union, or cotton mixed, 
woven goods, 1,153.265 square srards, value 
$447,934; all cotton-warp woven goods, 
210,346,081 square yards, value $62,265,854; 
all upholstering goods and simdries, value 
$1,986,330; all partially manufactured prod- 
ucts for sale, value $115,032,285; all other 
products, value $3,250,857. During the year 
there were 4,287,640 spindles, producing and 
doubling and twisting; also, 72,532 looms, 
all classes. 



IV. IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURES. 



Oast 

mnrinrtw, senp, etc: 



Coit. 



CM 

total cost*. 



Tons OMW poonda) 



Cost, 
lln 
T« 

Bttnaolnons oosl ^ 



AfioUMrmatarisli^ cost.. 

rsovucTs. 
Total valae 



ABst h M p to d oc t ^ vhie. 
Bttaninoas, chiofl J oAe— 




VahM 

Aatlmdte coal sad coke mixed 
tod aatlindttt alone— 

Tons 

Value 



Valne 

nir irM, rteiifjirf •cetrdiHg to iUfpo- 



^■wuDDOO JDv CuDSQB^PUOD UB 

I of ewnpany iipuftin^— 



fttO,et7,IM 

48, 353, 077 
$187,aHfll>l 

46.a05,830 
tl77,68B,7W 

1,747,747 
10,874,813 

1,083,630 
86,644,880 

13,670,845 

$13,230,403 

$106,004,112 

31,436,536 
$108,134,423 

38,092,618 
83,787,006 

266,401 
8004,102 

108,833 
$108,561 

$0,504,824 



$$91,4i$,8S$ 

26,651,708 
$387,830,443 

$8,506,840 

•24,606,57^ 
$360,664,636 



670,001 
$10,062,160 

372,235 
$7,183,667 



15,858,303 

" •,387,017 



raoDucTS-^continued. 

Pig iron, clatHfied according to ditpo- 
ttt<oii--Continoed . 
Produced for sale— 

Tons 

Value 



Pig iron, ekurified In/eradu (tons): 
Beaemer, (0.04 to 0.10 per cent 
in pbosphoms) 



Low phosphorua (below 0.04 per 

itln ■ 
Basic. 



cent in pboiphorua). 



Foundry 

Force or mill 

Malleable Beaaemer 

White, mottled, and miscellane- 
ous 

Direct castings. 1 

Ferro alloys 

Spiegeleiaen 

Ferromanganeee 

Ferroallioon, including Beaae- 
mer ferroaiUoon (7 per cent 
or over in ailioon) and fer- 
rophospborus 



Pig ironj clatttified bg method ofdelioery 
or catting {VoxM)'. 
Delivered in molten oonditlon. . . 

Sand cast 

Machine cast 

ChUltaat 

Direct castings. 



SQUXPMUtT. 

Furnaces in active eatabUahmenta: 
(Completed atacka at end of year- 
Number 

Daily capacity, tons 

Active during the year- 
Number 

Dally capacity, tona 

In courae of construction at end 
of year- 
Number 

Daily capacity , tons 



Pig-eaating machinea, number 

Qranulated alag. pita: 

Number 

Annual capacity, tona 

Oaa engines operated with btaat-fUr* 
naoegaa: 

Number 

Horsepower 



0,703,506 
8148,443,426 



10,147,063 

248,720 

7,741,760 

5,630,410 

586,666 

034,211 

110,810 

16,181 

326,970 

142,223 

83,208 



108,630 



12,197,686 

7,666,668 

5,006.707 

686,566 

16,181 






388 

101,447 

370 
06,073 



10 
4,100 

104 

86 
5,000,250 



85 
108,040 



112 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IRON AND STEEL. 



I. M ATSBIAXjB. 



Total Mflt 

IiDDaiidfltod:* 



Pig irao and UnoaUoj^— 

Toot 

Cort 

Pigfroo— 

Tons 

Cort 

FtnoaBqn ip ligBleifen, 
fafromMigMMO, etc.-— 



Cost 

Betap. JnehMling dd laUi not in- 
tended for nrolUng— 

Toot 

Coft 

locote, blooms, bUleta, ilabt, 
mock and acrap bar, rerolllng 
tails, and abaet and tin-plate 



Tom 

Cost 

RotUiformafitr/urUur manrnfaclun- 
8koto— 

Tom 



Wire 
Tms 
Coet. 
Iron OTK 

Tods 

Cost 



JUl other materials, oost 

Z raoDucK 



Total faliM 

RoUad, forced, and other oiasslfl'edprod- 
ticte, steel and iron: 

Tons 

Value 

RaUfr- 

Tons 

Value 

Bessemer steel- 
Tons 

Value 

Open-bearth steel, basic- 
Tons 

Value 

RsroUed or renewed rails- 
Tons 

Value 

BaO llMtenina (spUoe bars, tie- 
plates, fishplates, etc.)— 

Tons 

Value 



Structural shapes, not Including 
plates used for making girders- 
Tons 

Value 

Steel— 

Tons.. 

Value 

Open-heartb— 

Tons 

Value 

Bessemer- 
Tons 

Value 



|if7.f004N 



30,3n,7U 
t6U,7»,SaB 

1297,471,122 

18,712,201 
t2B2,ea,74D 



264, fiU 
$14,807,282 



4,808.817 
872,722,831 



6,fi08.24B 
8145.676,83ft 



176, n7 
$6,704,856 

146,426 
$4,288,606 

836,338 
$4,202,963 

$127,480,764 



88$6,7tt,$$4 



26,723,274 
$863,342,711 

2,858,600 
$81,128,206 

1,643,627 
$44,727,616 

1,215^073 
$36,400,780 

106,862 
$2,683,017 



»6,011 
$14,488,412 



2,123,630 
$65,664,603 

2,102,300 
$64,863,466 

•1.934,230 
$60,789,048 

168.070 
$5,063,518 



n. 



ittnnad. 



Tons.. 
ViOoe. 



Ban and rods, lunludlpg merchsnt, 
sliov«l,flnaBr,aiid iMneshoe bars, 
spIlDB. flhatn, bolt, and nut rods, 
ete. (oat not Indndinc wtrs rods, 
sheet and thnplate d«S;9Um 
bars, and ban nrreanforoed oon- 
creto): 

Tons 

Vatos 

Qsn for raenfPToed eoncrete: 

Tons 

Valoe 

Wtavrods: 

Tons , 

Vahie 



Plates and sheets, not Indndlng 
blaek plates or sheets for tliinlng, 
natt and tack platea, tlei>iates, 
fishplates, or armor plates: 

Tons 

Valoe* 

Blaek phites, or sheets, for tlnnhig: 

Tons ^... 

Vafaie 

Skelp, flue and pipe: 

Tons 

Value 

Hoops, bands, and cotton ties: 

Tons 

Value 

Nail and tack plates: 

Tons 

Vahie 

Axles, car, locomotive, automobile, 
wago n, oarriaee. etc., rolled or 
forged: 

Tons 

Value 

Armor plates, gun forglngs, and ord- 
nance: 

Tons , 

Value 

BloomB, billets, and slabs, pro-, 
duoed for sale or for transfer to 
other works of same oompanj: 

Tons — 

Value 

Rolled forcing blooms and biUsta 
produced for sale or for trannfar to 
other works of same companf: 

Tons ; 

Valoe 

Sheet and tin-plate ban produced 
for sale or for trsnslBr to other 
wwks ofsameoompanj: 

Tons , 

Value 



Mock and sor^ bar prodooed for 
sale or for transfer to other works 
ofsameoompany: 

Tons 

Valoe 

AU other rolled steel or Iran: 

Tons -^ 

Valoe 



Sl,ni 
$711,127 



3,784,2a 
$121,488, <a 



i6l,M7,08t 



3,332,73$ 

$133,273,30 

e31,4» 
$30,056,917 

2,084»2H 

$64,614,79 

341,011 
$10,439^6$! 

68,557 
$3,540,093 



103, 3« 
$3,881,344 



$10,640,079 



4,8S7,79$ 
$10B,514,747 



84,381 
82,247,133 



1,868, 7<1 
837,748,388 



174,408 

84,88^211 

838,!70|061 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



113 



IRON AND STEEL— Continued. 



B. 



to|id, tDd oUiflr oteMUed 
M^ stael Mid Iron— Oootlnaed. 
tanu pradaoBd for aale or for tniu- 
m to othir irarki of aame oom- 



Tola. 
Vate. 



UlaterforfBd steel and Iron, not 
taelBfiag naamitootares of roU- 

niDB, 



steal end litm prod- 
■oc roiled, inolndlnf Telue 
•idod 10 hen aad steel rolUiif- 
BriB pradoelB bj flUrtberineinifso- 



flsmstoel ortroB pfodbeed for sole 
or Br tniHiBr to oCber works of 



ilfndaets oOwr then steel end 
M,vetae. 



▼slDs(taliidedftboTe).. 
'fepracos: 




143,745 
13,588,726 

504,856 
•88,862,448 



865,886 

818,740,241 

8122,870,883 



886,634,360 



1,238,564 
818,163,634 



817,681,880 



• 28,473,718 
8478,736,988 



14,176,064 
8302,360,120 

U,210,410 
n,800,832 

065,685 

880,880,807 

0,180,301 
8178,232,848 

107,373 
|B, 144,011 



22,808,862 
$430,874,540 

504,856 

838.862,448 



522,663 



158,216 

100,335 
86,842 
14,088 
45,824 
13,557 

151,800 
6,016 



IT. MAKVWkCrUtXB FBOM BOUOra-lflU 
PBODOCKS. 

(Made in mm nodadaf . TShw pie- 
▼kmsqr inehided.) 

Wire and wire products: 

Tons (3,000 pounds) 

Vahie 

Pipes snd tubes: 
Wroogbt welded— 

Tons 

VehiB 

Bsamlnos, hot-rolled or drawn— 

Tons 

Vahie 

All ottaor, faKlndiDfe ellneted, rivet- 
ed, etc, but not mnlndlng esst: 

Tons 

Value 

Bolts, nuts, rivets, fosfed spdkss, 
wawars, etc: 
KooMtOOO pounds) 

OatnaibandspODBs:' 

Kms (100 pounds) 



Horse and mule shoes: 

Ken (200 pounds) 

Bprings. car, fumlturei and aU otberVnot 
Indudlog wire springs: 

Tons 

Value 

Switcbee, llroga, crossings, etc.: 

Tons 

Value 

Galvanised plates or sheets: 

Tods 

Value 

Stamped ware: 

Tons 

Vah» 

Shovels, spades, scoops, etc., value 



v. FB0DUCT8 SOLD IX>m SXPOBT. 

(By establishments producing.) 
Total tons 



Rails 

Rail fastenings 

PIpee end tuBee 

Sheet and tin>plato bars . 
Plates end sheets. 



Oalvanised plates or sheets. 

Structural Shapes 

Ben and rods 

Wire rods 

Blooms, billets, and shibs. . 

Skelp 

MisoBlIaneous 



VI. BQUmiENT. 

Steel plants: DeOy capacity of steel fur> 
' naoes and converters, tons of steel, 

double turn .'. 

Open^ieerth furnaces— 

Number 

DaUy capacity, tons of steel, 

douUe turn. 

Basic- 
Number , 

DaUy capacity, tons of steel, 

double turn. 

Add— 

Number 

DaUy capacity, tons of steel, 
double turn 



1,684,856 
8n,«84,084 



1,314,771 
888,471,673 

54,273 
85,650,730 



17,561 



4,4n,085 
880,588,886 

1,000,310 
18,218,207 



096,383 
87,302,807 



6,101 
8374,034 

28,608 
82,471,008 

431,658 
825,012,06^ 

24,613 

82.286,707 

»40,321 



887,646 

317,455 

20,118 

80, sn 

85,123 
80,706 
70,246 
68,764 
48,038 
18,738 
18.021 
10,703 
39,467 



108,716 

687 

61,601 

540 

55,273 

138 

6,328 



114 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IRON AND STEEL— Continued. 



VL IQUIPMEWT. -eoDtiaoed. 

Qmvcrten, Bessemer or modified 
Besaemer— 

Number 

Daily capacity, tons of steel, 

double lura. 

Crucible Aimaoes— 

Number 

Number of pots that can be used 

atabcat 

Daily capacity, tons of steel. 

double turn 

AU other steel (timaoes— 

Number 

DaUy capacity, tons of steel, 

doable turn 

Metal mixers- 
Number 

Oapadty, tons 

iRoWm miOt: DaUy capacity of roiled 
steeland iron, double turn, tons 



45,963 

257 

3, MO 

840i 

16 

202i 

50, 
14,3431 

150,403 



Production of Cok£. 

The total coat of the materiaLs used in 
production of ookcL was 165.388.124. ' 
cost of the ooai cnaiKed into ovens, ' 
$59,354,937. The total value of the c 
produced, was 998.078.383; 39.315,065 i 
were valued at $89,965,483. Amonc , 
products obtained in the manufacture ot <j 
was gas, which measured in thousands 
cubic feet, amounted to 76.590,763 of «l 
60.799.543 cubic feet (thousands) were « 
in process or wasted and 15.791,220 cc 
feet (thousands) were sold at a value 
$2,609,211. 60,126,006 gallons of tar a 
obtained having a value of $1,408,611; 
sulphate ammonia, or its equivalentj 
siUphate, 123,111,197, valued at $3.227J^ 
At the end of the year 1909. the numbel 
ovens in use in the United States was 1(&S 
201 had been abandoned during tlio year, i 
2.950 were building. 



Cosl seems to have been used for furi 
the ancient Britons, but the first pn^ 
notice we have is that it was mined in Id 
castle 1233. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



PBODUCT. 




Total false 

Implements of cultivation 

Seeders and planters 

UarvestinK implements 

Seed separators 

All other products 

Amount received fbr repair work 

Prtnetpal kind ofimpUmenu, »f numfter. 

Implements of cultivation: 
Cultivators- 
Beet 

Small 

Wheeled 

Cotton scrapers 

Harrowa— 

Disk 

Spring-tooth 

Spike-tooth 

Listers. 

Ptowa-^ 

Disk 

Gang 

Shovel 

Steam 

Sulky or wheel 

Walking 

Seedcn and planters: 
Seeders- 
Broadcast 

Combination 

Complanters— 

Hand.. 

Horse. 

Cotton planters 

Potato planters ^ 



>|146.Sn,Stl 

$35,246,030 
$13,679,021 
$$4,668,131 
$11,090,412 
$48,600,082 
$3,114,602 



3,172 
460,606 
435,420 

20,180 

193,000 
112,832 

44,840 

22,132 

91,686 

254,737 

2,365 

134,086 

1,110,006 



88,007 
28,968 

96,466 

122,780 

79,271 

23,002 



PBODUCr. 



DriUfr- 

Com 

Diak 

Grain 

AU other. 

Seed sowers. 

Harvesting implements; 
QiBin cradles 



continued. 



Bean 

Com 

Qrahi. 

Harvesters and thrashers oom- 
blned 

Other 

Hay carriers 

Hajpforka, borae 

Hay loaders. 

Hayrakes. horse 

Haystackers 

' Haytedders 

Mowers 

Potato diggers, horse 

Reapers 

Seed separators: 

Clover hullers. 

Cora buskers 

Cora buskers and shredders « . . 

Cora sbsHers— 

Hand 

Power 

Fanning mills 



Horsepower. . 
Steam power. 



sa 

Tt8l 

2S;N 

1.41 
19.« 



17.S 
34.31 

SSI.; 

26.« 

..a 

81,81 



aai 



The total cost of the materials used in the 
manufacture of Gluco»e and Starch was $36.- 
898,771. The total value of the manufactured 
products was $48,709,311 ; 677.535,647 pounds 
of starch were valued at $17,514,823; 769,- 



includinf d 
».060,47« 



660.210 pounds of gluooae. 
sirups, valued at $17,922,514: 159 

gounds ((rape sugar, valued at $3,620,816; 
,164,175 gallons com oil, valued » 
$2,802,763. 



SCIBNTinO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



115 



TIN AND TERNE PLATE. 






IMt 


raovucn-«0Btlnaed. 

Founds.., 

Vthw , ! 


1,128,068,875 
138,260,885 

191,344,257 
$7,665,261 

19.400,884 
$520,466 

$1,684,084 

563 

450 

113 

2,706,972 

2,065,915 

740,067 

7,016,293 
49 

335 

.1,042,088 

20 

36,600 
2AR 


Twnephteo 


Vatne '....'.'.'.['.' 


Otlwr sheet iron or sheet steel ttaned 
or temsHplated, takers tin.eto.: 


Value .^ *...'! 


All other products, tr1u9 


XQtnnfXMT. 

Tin or terns $eUatend o/wmr: 
Completed- 

Numlwr.... .. 


Usually employed on tin 
plates 


Usually employed on 
«teme plates 


]>aUy capacity, single tern, 
pounds , 


Tin plates 


Teme plateaux 


D^ily capacity as operated, 
whether <m single, double, 

or triple turn, pounds 

Building, number 


Blade-plate departmetU of eetaWtk- 
menu making (heir Natk fHaUe: 
Hot black-plate miUs at end of 
3reftr<— 
Completed— 
riumbfT 


Annual capacity on triple 
turn, long tons 


Building- 
Number 


Annual capacity on triple 
turn, long tomi 


Cold mills, completed, number.... 



$IM$t.4M 

>l,ni,071,6M 
$88,981,161 



1,291,018,100 
$38,245,234 

$0^,582 
$785,917 

40,997,750 
$9,670,087 



81,077,651 
$0,286,718 



0.850,108 
$484,810 



28,566,287 
$8,480,794 

2.108,406 
$117,666 

9,612,906 
^^ 061,587 

$8,238,248 



«M7,$$$,$tf 

1,315,313,182 
$45,815,146 



WIRE. 

T^ TBlue of the metal used in the production of wire, amounted to $115,655,427, while 

I total value of the products waa Sld0,083,522. There were produced 2,471,858 tons of 

1 ami iron wire, having a value of $120,585,637. There were also produced 13,926.861 

I of wire nails and Bpikee, allowing 100 pounds to each kes, the total value being $27,575,774. 

I were aJao produced 28,125 tons of wire brads, tacks and staples, having a value of 

1,170. The Quantity of barbed wire manufactured was 323,565 tons, valued at $1 3.881 .517; 

a wire, fencmg, and poultry netting, had a tonnage of 422,127, valued at $21,410,170; 

iDpe and strands had a tonnage of 45,303, the value being $6,683,771; other manu- 

ica of ijon and steel wire, such as springs, bale ties, flat wire, eto., weighed 129,945 tons, 

eoet S10.S56.154. 

re were produced in the United States in 1909, 154,231 tons of copper wire, valued 
{7.184,164. The equipment^ consisted of 43,697 wire drawing blocks, having an annual 
-^^ of 3,213,574 tons; 4,428 wire nail machines, haviiu; an annual capacit3);^ of 18,756.995 
100 pounds each. There were 446 woven-wire fence machines, having an annual 

r. in tons, of 481,373. 

Tne total value of the steel and iron wire products, 1909^ was $120,585,637; the wire 
wei« iralued at $47,934,204; the wire departments of roUmg mills pxx>duced 1,649,929 
Tmhied at $72,651,433. 

PRODUCTION OF SOAP. 



^tkt total cost of the materials used in the 
wifactiuv of this product in the United 
Ktei in 1909 was $72,179,418. Of tallow, 
■Me. and other fats, 413.969,787 poimds 
toeeoosumed. costing $23,341,905; 11,856.- 
V gallons of oocoanut ana palm-kernel oil, 
)mai^ $5375.294; 24.221.712 gaUons cotton- 
Moil, costing $9,718,988; 207.296,447 
td rosin, eosting $4,362,412; 94.050,892 
hoofs, oosting$2,453.609; 52,172 tons 



(2,000 pounds) caustic soda, costing S2,212,- 
232; 121,016 tons (2,000 pounds) soda ash, 
costing $2,281,787. 

The total value of the soap products of the 
United States in 1909 was $111,357,777. 
1,736,740,466 pounds of hanl soap were made, 
valued at $88,550,830; 44,052.615 pounds of 
soft soap, valued at $943,676: 39.689.300 
pounds of glycerin, valued at $5,713,558. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOUK. 



V. TRANSPORTATION. 



Railroad Cass. 

The total value of aU 

United SlaUe. in IBOO. 

IM.S74.287: Of Ihae for paiaeager 
wen built I.SIB con. valued at IIG.I 
for freigfat sorvice. 06,648 oars, vol 
*79,753SZ6. Of BtreBt^niilRiBd cars. 
were cbioHy electric, there were built 
con, valued at (7.263,109. 

Steam-Railroad Cabb. 

le of Uie produetA of 
'-- ■ '■lalee, in 19C 

1,601 can. valued at (13.8^.607: 



11^,137 ,3a 



. valued at 
'e, valued at 
an. valued at 



Cab8 and General Shop Construc- 
tion and Repairs bt Steam 
Railroad Coupanies. 

T^e can and general shop porulruclian and 

Id 1900. roaobed a total of »405.800,727.'"Ti^ 
value of the car department was tlog,76H.0:i0 
The value of the can built wa» (13,328,171; 
Of thaw there were 218 jjassenger cars, valued 
at SI.201.3M: 13,972 Ircight ean, valued at 
(11.767.664: the number □( all other ram 
manufaclurnl was 359, valued at t2)iT.I5.'l 
Kepain to can of all kin-bi amounleil to 
(147. 194 .065. 



.809.866. There were 
















^J09: 95 open ear. 


value.lat(l41.0IW 



varietiea. 43. valued 



■I79.»R: of all ot 

at (77.044, Thore wuiti ouram-nui 
built tor tTvicht sarvice, 1S7, oil 
valued at (111,813. 



r Draft, not i 
the value of 






work, and all olhei , , 

buiMlu ludustTv. in 1909. woa (73360^3 
Workdone durins the year on vesKb am 
boats, amounted to (42,^'""''"- ■- ■- - 



work. (26.678.643. 
BiCTCLBB, MOTOHCTCLES, 
The total value of bicycle 

_ (10.698,567 r'l687M4 

bioydea were manufactured, volucd al 
(2.436.996; 18,628 motonvclea wen made, 
their value being (3.015,088. 

AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY. 





SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TME GREATER EFFICIENCY OF Till': MOTOR TIltKIK Arf COM- 
PARED WITH THE EIFICIKNY OF THE 
HORSE-DRAWN WAGON. 



118 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Cabriaqes and Wagons and 
Materiaui. 

The total value of carriages and waffons and 
materials manufactured in the United States, 
in 1009. was $159,892,547. Of carriages 
(family and pleasure) there were made 
828,411. valued at $47,756,118; 587.685 
wagons, valued at $39,932,910, were manu- 
factured; of these 154,631 were business 
wagons, their value being $16,440,816; 
429,952 farm wagons, valued at $22,615,875; 
the remainder, government, municipal, etc.. 
3.102, valued at $876,219. Of public con- 
veyances (cabs, hacks, hansoms, hotel coaches^ 
omnibuses, etc.). 2,243 were manufactured, 
valued at $939,267; 100,899 sleighs and sleds, 
valued at $2,065,850. 



Cars and General Shop Construc- 
tion AND Repairs by Street- 
Railroad Companies. 



i 



The cars and general shop oonstmction and 
repairs by street-railroad companies in 1909, 
reached a total value of $31,962,561. Tlw 
value of the motive power and ma<^inery de> ' 
partment, was $1,510,332. The value of the . 
repairs to motors, etc., was $4,004,336. The 
value of the car department was $25,835,463. 
The value of all the cars built was $626,752: 
Of these there were 129 passenger can* 
valued at $498,709; 63 freight cars, valued at 
$59,102; of all other cats iBere were 61 buUt, 
valued at $68,941. 



VI. CLAY AND STONE PRODUCTS. 



The total value of these products for the 
year 1909. was $168,895,365. The value of 
the brick and tile, terra-cotta, and fire-clay 
products, was $136,387,846; of common brick 
there were 9,787,671 thousand, valued at 
$57,216,789; of fire brick, 838,167 thousand, 
valued at $16,620,695; of the vitrified, 
paving, etc., 1,023.654 thousand, valued at 
$11,269,586; front, including fancy colored 
and fancy or ornamental brick, 821,641 
thousand, valued at $9,886,292; the sand 
lime brick used had a value of $1,150,580; 
the enameled brick were valued at $993,902; 
the value of the drain tile was $9,798,978; the 
sewer pipe used was valued at $10,322,324; 
the value of the architectural terra-cotta was 
$6,251,625; the firep roofing, terra-cotta 
lumber and hollow building tile, or blocks, 
was valued at $4,466,708; the value of the 
tile, not drain, was $5,291,963; the value of 
the stove Uning was $423,583; other material, 
valued at $2,694,821. The value of the 
pottery manufactured was S3 1.048,341. 

Building Operations. 

In 1912 the total cost of buildin^^, accord- 
ing to reports of mimicipal authorities to the 
Bureau of Statistics, was $683,506,372 against 
$702,143,956 in 1911, and $726,436,975 in 
1910. The total niunber of permits for 1911 
was 192,978. 

Cement. 

The total value of the cement product in 
1909. for the United States, was $63,205,455. 
There were manufactured 66,689,715 barrels 
of cement, valued at $53,610,563; ot this 
64.991.431 barrels was Portland, valued at 
$.'^'],858,354; 1,537,638 was natural, valued at 
$652,756; 160,646 barrels puzzo^an. valued at 
$99,453. The value of all other products of 
this industry, was $9,594,892. 

Glass. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 
manufacture of glasn, in 1909, amounted to 
$32,119,499. whUe the total value of these 
products was $92,095,203 Of this amount the 
value of building f^lara aggregated $26,308,438; 
included \mder this head are 6,921.61 1 50-foot 
lK>xes of window glass, valued at $11,742,959: 
also included in wis division is plate glass, of 



which there was cast a total of 60,105.694 
square feet: of this amount 47.370,254 square 
feet was polished glass, valued at $12,204,875; 
the remainder, rough glass, made for sale, — 
205,090 square feet, valued at $37,431. Of 
caUiedral glass there were 7.405.980 square 
feet, valued at $569,848; 15.409.966 square 
feet of skylight glass, valued at $788,726. The 
value of the pressed and blown glass wu 
$27,398,445; Of this goods there was manu* 
factured tableware. 100 pieces. 1^286,056 sets; 
jellies, tumblers, and goblets^ 1 1,687,036 dosen; 
lamps, 322,482 dozen; chuxmeys, 6,652.967 
dozen; lantern globes, 952.620 dosoi; alobes 
and other electrical nxxls, 11.738,798 aosea; 
shades, globes, and other gas goods, 1,54 1,449 
dozen; blown tumblers, stem ware, and bar 
goods, 9,182,060 dozen; opal ware, 3.095,666 
dozen; cut ware, 206,336 dozen. The vahie 
of the bottles and jars manufactured, was 
$36,018,333. Of prescriptions, vials, and drug- 
gists' wares. 3.624.022 gross were made; 2,345( 
204 gross oi beer, soda and mineral glassware: 
1,887,344 gross of liquors and flasks; 440,301 

gross milk jars; 1,124,485 gross fruit jars; of 
attery jars and other electrical goods, 9,981 
fross; of patent and proprietary glaaswasib 
.637,798 gross; of packers and preservM^ 
1,237.175 gross; of demijohns and cartxiMki 
122,570 dozen. 

Artificial Ice. 

The total cost of the materiab used in estate 
Ushments for the manufacture of ice. in 1009* 
was $1,021,913. By the compressor system, 
there were used 3,097.191 pounds of anhy- 
drous ammonia, costing $826,222. By tM 
absorption system there were used 369,09$' 
pounds of anhydrous ammonia, valued at 
$100,283. There were also used 1.670.60$^^ 
pounds of aqua ammonia, valued at |^,40S», 

The total value of the ice products for Hmt 
year 1909 was $42,953,055. Of the ice itseff! 
there was 12,647,949 tons (2.000 pounds each), 
valued at $39,889,263: Of the can ice. 11.- 
671,547 tons (2,000 pounds), valued at $37.- 
085,533; of the plate ice, 976,402 tona (2,000 
pounds), valued at $2,803,730. 



The first permanent electric railway was 
operated near Berlin in 1881, and th« first 
permanent elevated electric railway was 
operated in C^oago 1895. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



A MAMMOTH OFt'ICK BUILDING DISSECTED. 

THE WHITEHALL BUILDING. 



120 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



VII. LEATHER INDUSTRY. 



MATI1UAL8. 

Total eofC 

Tanning. 

Hi(lflB> (aU kinds): 

Nomber 

Ooet 

8klni:i 

Number 

Cost 

Ctlfaodkip— 

Number 

Cost 

Qoftt— 

Nnmber 

Cost 

Sheep- 
Number 

Cost 

AUothec-- 

Nnmber 

Cost 

Currying. 

Purehased rough leather uaed» cost 

Sides- 
Number 

Cost 

Qnlns— 

Sides 

Cost 

Spiits— 

Number 

Cost 

AH other- 
Cost 

All other materials, cost 

PBODUCT8. 

Total ?al«e 

Leather, yalue 

Bold in rough, yalue 

Sides- 
Number 

Value 

Grains- 
Sides 

Value. 

Splits- 
Number 

Vatae 

Sole, value 

Hemlock — 

Sides 

Value 

Oak- 
Sides 

Value 

Union- 
Sides 

Vatae 



1909 



|Mt,S78,MS 



*is,aeo,4i5 

$119,410,787 

97,600,571 
$75,647,790 

19,733,688 
$31,790,572 

48,077.664 
$27,883,214 

26,082,000 
$12,231,618 

■3,788,200 
$3,792,386 



$0,566,257 

1,468,213 
$4,967,781 

525,786 
$1,201,812 

2,043,283 
$1,442,505 

$1,944,129 

$43,664,119 

«$3S7,874,1$7 

$306,476,720 
$6,335,599 

828,887 
$3,539,617 

317,814 
$718,562 

2,912,964 

$2,077,420 

$88,331,713 

7,963,728 
$32,237,151 

3,805,861 
$26,083,793 

5,756,227 
$28,375,815 



PBODUCTS— continued. 

Leather— Continued. 
Sole— Continued. 
Chrome— 

Sides. 

Value 

Upper, other than calf or kip 

skins, value. 

Grain, satin, pebble, etc 
(sideleather)- 

Sldes 

Value 

Finished splits— 

Number 

Value. 

Patent and enameled shoe- 
Sides 

Value 

Horsshides and coltskins— 

Number. 

Value 

Calf and kip skins, tanned and 
finished — 

Number 

Value 

Grain finished- 
Number 

Value. 

Flesh finished- 
Number 

Value 

Goatskins, tanned and finished- 
Number 

Value. 

Black- 
Number 

Value. 

Colored- 
Number 

Value 

Sheepskins, turned and finished- 
Number 

Value 

Belting- 
Sides 

Value 



Sides 

Value. .- 

Caniage, automobile, and ftami- 
ture— 

Sides 

Value 

Trunk, bag, and pocketbook, 

value 

Bookbinder's, value 

Glove, value 

All other, value 



All other products,- value. . . . . 
Work on materials for others. . 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



122 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Boots and Shoes. 

In 1909 there were produced in the United 
States 247,043,197 pairs of boots and shoes. 
The classification of this product was as fol- 
lows,— Men's, 93,888.892; boys' and youths'. 
23,838,626; women's, 86,595,314; misses' and 
children's, 43,320,365. Of slippers there were 
manufactured 17,507,834 pain, distributed as 
follows,— Men's, boys' and youths', 4,802,841 

?air8; women's, misses', and children's, 12,- 
04,993. There were 15,000,721 pairs of in- 
fants' shoes and slippers manufactured, and of 
all other foods of this nature there were 
4,865,429 pairs. 

The products of the essential-oil industry in 
1909 had a total value of $1,737,234. 



Gloves and Mittens — ^Leatheb. 

The total value of the manufactures in the 
United States, in 1909, was S23.630.698. Of 
gloves, mittens, and gauntlets, there were man- 
ufactured 3,368,655 dosen pain, valued at 
$22,525,86 1. Of these there were made for ma 
2,585,977 dosen pairs, valued at $17,060,797; 
this included 921,259 dosen pairs lined gloves 
and mittens, valued at $5,222,174; 1,6&4.718 
dDzen pain unlined. valued at $11,838,623 
For women and diiidren there were mann* 
f actured 782,678 dosen pairs, valued at $5,- 
465,064; this included 365,477 dosen pain 
lined gloves and mittens, valued at $1,718,198 
417,201 pairs unlmed, valued at $3,746.86& 
The value of all other products of this industiy 
was $1,104,737. 



VIII. CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. 



The total value of chemicals and allied 
products in the United States in 1909 was 
$117,688,887. The value of the acids was 
$11,926,389; sodas were valued at $21,417,982; 
of potashes there were manufactured 1,866,570 
pounds, valued at $88,940; the value of the 
alums manufactured was $2,578,842; coal-tar 
products were valued at $2,675,327; the value 
o' the cyanides was $1,941,893; bleaching ma- 
terials were valued at $1,635,046; chemical 
substances produced by the aid of electricity, 
were valued at $17,968,277; 121.946,967 
pounds of calcium carbide, were produced, 
valued at $2,984,001; 11,802,076 pounds of 
anhydrous ammonia, valued at $2,503,315; of 
carbon dioxide, 47,238,267 pounds were pro- 
duced, valued at $2,317,808. 

Dyestupfs and Extracts. 

The total value of these products for the 
jrear 1909 was $15,954,574. The 12.267.399 
pounds of artificial dyestufifs were valued at 
$3,462,436. 

Explosives. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 
manufacture of explosives was $22,811,548; 
188,889 tons of nitrate of soda were used, 
valued at $7,892,336; 51,764,694 pounds of 
mixed acids costing $1,512,626, were needed; 
7,591,756 jpounds of nitric acid, costing $541,- 
314; 22,501 tons of sulphuric acid, costing 
$406,204; 17,389 tons of sulphur or brimstone, 
costing $367,866. The cost of all other ma- 
terials used was $12,091,202. The total value 
of the manufactured products was $40,139.- 
661; the value of the 177.155.851 pounds of 
dynamite used was $18,699,746; 28.913.253 
rounds of nitroglycerin, sold as such. $3,162.- 
4:14; 9.339.087 twenty-five pound kegs of 
bHsting powder, valucnl at $9,608,265; of per- 
missible explosives 9.607,448 pounds valued 
at $863,209; 12.862.700 pounds of gunpowder, 
valued at $1,736,427; 7,464,825 pounds of 
other explosives, valued at $3,913,787. The 
value of all other products was $2,155,793. 

Fertilizers. 

The total cost of the materials used in the 
making of fertilizerR in 1909 was $69,521,920. 
The total value of the products was $103.- 
960.213. 5.240. 164 pounds of fertilisers, valued 
at $92,369,631. 



Salt. 

The total value of the salt products of the 
United States in 1909 was $11,327,834. Thers 
were 29,933,060 barrels of salt, valued st 
$8,311,729; 728,875 pounds of bromine, valued 
at $92,735; the value of all other products wu 
$2,923,370. 

SALT, CLASSIFIED BT GRADE (bAREELS). 

Table and dairy 3,042,824 

€k>mmon, fine 7,745,204 

Common, coarse 2,843,393 

Packers 385.802 

Coaree, solar 1,109,396 

Rock salt, mined 5,938,721 

Milling, other grades and brine 8,867,720 

PBOCESS EMPLOTED 

Total number of establishments 124 

Number reporting: 

Solar 46 

Kettle 1 

Grainer 50 

Open pan 11 

Vacuum pan 21 

See also Chapter on "Mines and Quarries." 

Paint and Varnish. 

In the manufacture of these products the 
following materials were used, — 145,917 toofl 
(2.000 pounds) of pig lead, costing $12,014,859; 
1.683.382 gallons alcohol, costmg $920,086. 
1,327,157 gallons of which was wood alcohol, 
costing $693,362; 356,225 gallons grain alco- 
hol, costing $226,724. 

The total value of these products in 1009 
was $124,889,422. The value of the pigments 
was $16,985,588; 85.234.414 pounds oTwfaiie 
lead, dry, was valued at $3,921,803. The vahie 
of paints in oil was $56,763,296; 246.567.570 
pounds white lead in oil. were valued at 115.* 
234.411. The value of varnishes and japant 
was $31,262,535. The value of fillers, all kinds 
included, was $3,126,271; of these 1.159.569 
gallons of liquid fillers were valued at $823,063. 

Turpentine and Rosin. 

The total value of the turpentine and roaia 
industry for 1909 was $25,295,017; the 28.- 
988.954 gallons of turpentine were valued at 
$12,654,228; the 3,263,857 barrels (280 poundi 
each), of roain, were valued at $12,576,72L 



SCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN RBFBHENCB BOOK. 128 




COALINO STATIONS OF EUROPE AND AFRICA. 



124 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IX. ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY. 



PKODUCT. 




Total fAloe 

Dynamos: 

Number 

Kilowatt capacity 

Value rr,.: 

Dynamotors, motor generators, boost- 
ers, rotary converters, and double 

current generators 

Transformers 

Switchboards, panel boards, and cut- 
out cabinets 

Motors: 

Total number 

Horsepower 

Value 

For power- 
Number 

Horsepower 

Value 

For automobiles- 
Number 

Horsepower 

Value 

For fans- 
Number 

Horsepower 

ValueT: 

For eleyators— 

Number 

Horsepower / 

Value 

For railways, and miscellaneous 
serrlces, including value of 
parts and supplies- 
Number 

Horsepower 

ValuefT 

Storace batteries, Including value of 
parts and supplies: 

Weight of plates in pounds 

Value 



>|84S,9M.O0S 

16,7»1 

1,406,060 

$13,081,048 



83,154,733 
18,801,019 

15,971,804 

504,030 

2,733,418 

$32,067,482 

243,423 

1,683,677 

$18,306,451 

2,7M 

12,471 

$2M,152 

190,113 

178,033 

$2,450,739 

4,988 

63,565 

$1,188,663 



53,710 

796,652 

$9,847,487 



23,110,331 
$4,678,209 




I rwn»tn A bmimcm 



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ncT'ON 



1 0*4 



PIODUCT. 



Primary batteries, Including value 
of parts and supplies: 

Number 

Value 

Arc lamps: 

Number 

Value 

Searchlights, projectors, and foousiog 
lamps 



and 



Incandescent lamps 

Carbon fllament 

Tungsten 

Oem, tanUlum, glower, 
vacuum and vapor lamj 

I>eoorative and miniature lamps, 
X-ray bulbs, vacuum tubes, 
etc 

Sockets, receptacles, bases, etc 

Blectrio-Ughtlng ftxtures of all kinds. 
Telegraph apparatus 



Telephone apparatus 

Insulated wires and cables 

K lectric conduits 

Annunciators— domestic, hotel, and 
oflBoe 

Electric clocks and time mechanisms. 

Fuses. 

Lightning arresters 

Rheostats and resistances 

Heating, oooking, and welding appa- 
ratus 

Electric flatlrons 

Electric measuring Instnunents 

Electrical therapeutic apparatus 

Migneto-ignitlon apparatus, spsrks, 
oolb. etc 

Electric switches, signals, and attach- 
ments 

Circuit fltUngs of all kinds 

AH other products, value 



34,33S,53t 

$5,984,261 

128,985 
$1,7D^9» 

$935,874 

$15,714,809 
$6,157,086 
$6,241.13S 

$2,715,901 



$600,619 

$4,521,720 
$6,128,2D 
$l.967,4B 
$ 14.259.357 
$51,634,737 
$5,008,204 

$235,567 
$352,513 

$1,001,719 
$940,171 

$2,674,963 

$1,003,008 

$951,074 

$7,800,010 

SI, 107,858 

$6,008,343 

S5,S7T,843 
81,080^267 

$30,691,708 



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Charts Prepared by F. E. Woodward. Washington. D. C. 
ANALYSIS OP BOOKS PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES. 1910.1911. 



SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



X. PAPER AND PULP. 



125 



Vood polls poretii— d; 

TOOB. 

Oat 



OMt. 



0dm 

dhvctanicsl fiber- 



•a 



,OMt.... 

!iinii¥llng ettton, fl^x wast^ 



OH ad 



CM. 



Itadaatock, inetadiiif Jot* btoing, 
OMviitt^ tlifiMkp «Co.: 



AlflteiBitariil8,oo6t. 



TMalVilu. 



hn&ifarprinttiig- 



Vttae. 

b ihMis far printtQg— 



Ink 



VahN.. 



ValDB.. 



•Paba. 

ViIml 

Am, Bthofimpb, mftp, wood- 



Vthw.. 



Value.. 

Mwirt. brirtol board, cord mid- 



A^ttBktta, ete.— 



1mi 



, Valoe.. 
ABettMr- 

Tom... 

Valot.. 



"^ 



dope, Jttto,tac, ate.)- 



Vital!!!;";.*;!!;."!!!;!!.*." 

Tool 

Vitae. 



'133,772,475 

1.341,914 
f4S,8a,t67 

482.849 

19,487,908 

1M.8U 
88,808,804 

020,029 
827,184,720 

8.410 
8320,259 



857,470 
810,721,660 

083,882 
818,001,120 



117.000 
83,500,083 

303.137 
81,400,282 

868,375,515 



i88fT.8ft.904 

tOOl.OlT 
812,807,004 

84,687 
K0«,400 



576,810 
842,806,074 

99,218 
89,4U,901 



0. 



17.878 

8i,oe,r" 



01. 
88,882,151 



109,120 
824,900,108 

29,000 
84.110,500 



98,781 
80,009,480 

108,501 
84,880.794 

82,088 
8070,419 



PBODUCTS— eonUnoed. 

Wnppiiig pAper— Oootinaad. 

Bosus or wood manila, all grade 

Too» 

Valuo 

AU other- 
Tom 

Value 

Boards: 

Wood pulp- 
Tons 

Value 

Straw- 
Tons 

Value 

Newa— 

Tons 

Value 

AUcftber- 

TODS 

Value 

Other paper products: 



Tons 

Value . .. 

Blotting— 

Tons , 

Value 

Building roofiitK, asbestos, and 
sbeattaing— 

Tons 



Value. 



Hanclng 
Tons 



Value 

lOaoellaneous— 

Tons 

Value. 

Wood palp made for sale or for oon- 
anniptloo in mills oUier than where 
produoed: 
Oronnd- 

Torn 

Value 

Sodaflber- 

Toos 

Value 

Sulfite flber<- 

Tons 

Value 



All other ptoduets. yalue 

ITosdpiilp. 

QoantltT produoed (tasdadlng that 
used in mills where manufao- 

tared), total tons , 

Oround.tons 

floda fiber, tone , 

Sulphite fiber, tons , 



sQumcnrr. 

Paper machines: 

Total number 

Oapaetty, yearly, tons 

Foordrinicr- 

Number 

Capacity per 24 hours, tons. . 
Cylinder- 
Number 

Capacity per 94 boon, tons. , 
Pulp: 

Qrinders, numbei' 

Digesters, total number 

Sulphite fiber, number 

Soda fiber. Dumber 

Capacity, yearly, tons of pulp.. . 

Ground, tons 

Sulphite, tons 

Soda, tons 



367,932 
819,777,707 

179.866 
810,202,035 



71,030 
82,039,400 

171.780 
83,760,851 

74,000 
82,215,400 

514,208 
817,530,708 



77,745 
88,553,064 

9,577 
81,180,180 



225.824 
89,251,308 

. 02,158 
84,431,514 

00,577 
80,809,100 



810,747 
05,049,400 

155.844 
80,5AU2 

444,255 
817,965,748 

84,738,640 



2,495,523 

1,179,208 

208,020 

1,017,031 



1.480 
5,903,397 

804 
.10,508 

870 
0,310 

1,435 
542 
848 

194 

8,406,021 

1,800,086 

1,260,083 

344.053 



126 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



:an re^ference book. 



MBJ ill P« 
He" 1M7. 



ifaukl in ' 
pST' 1U7. 




Numtar 

Aamnucta 



138 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PUBLICATIONS BY STATES. 



Showing th« narab«rornewspap«rs and periodicals of all Issues pabllsbed In the United StAi««, 
Territories, and l>ominlou of Canada; the number of towos lu whiob newspapers ar« pub- 
lished, and tbe number of towns which are county seats. 



$TATEa,T£RRJT0RIE8 ANO 
CANADIAN PRO VJNCJSH 



MBW SNOLA.MD STaTI 

Connecticut _ ~. 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

New Hampshire 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 



Nxw Yoax. 



New York....: 

MIDDI,K ATLANTIC STATXB. 

Delaware ~.... 

District of Columbia..... 

Maryland 

New Jersey -.... 

Pennsylvania 



■*•■ • • • • ••• m 



SOUTH KaM STATBS. 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Florida -„„ 

Georgia „ ^..„ 

Kentucky 

Louisiana ».>.... 

M Isslsslppl 

North Carolina ..... 

South Carolina 

Tennessee , 

Texas „ 

Virginia 

West Virginia - 



MIDOUC WBSTXaV STATICS. 

Illinois - 

Indiana. ^ 

Michigan- 

Ohio - „., 

Wisconsin - 



Colorado ..... 

Kansas 

Minnesota ..... 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska - 

New Mexico.... 
North Dakota. 

Oklahoma 

South Dakota 
Wyoming....;. 



air STATBS. 



• »••■■••«•■■ 



PACIFIC SU>PX STATBS. 

Arizona „..„ 

California 

Idaho » 

Nevada. 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington - 



OVTI.YXKO TBaarrOBIBN. 

Alaska 

Bawali ........ MM.... ..M........... 

Fhiiipplnee 

Porto Rloo ...~«.-. 



CAZfADlAM raoviNCBs. 

AlberU 

British Columbia 

Manitoba... 

Saskatchewan -. 

Yukon „ 

New Brunswick - 

Nova Scotia 

Ontario 

Prince Edward Island 

Que> x>c „ 

hewfoundl^ncnZ ~ -.. 



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Ayer^s Newspaper AnnucL 



"CIBNTIPIO AMERICAN RBPBRENCB BOOK. 



INTERNATIONAL BOOK PRODUCnON. 





.BOF 


iOOK PS 


onucli 


NOFL 


HADING 




IBS— 19 


01-1910 










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i9n 


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.9=9 


19ID 














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U-:: 
















6,918 


b 


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6,788 








































M7 
















7.130 




9.JS4 


lu 


901 


13.470 












ftJ.Iirt«r, 


B-wUv. 



N BOOK PRODDCnOM FOR 191a 




II 



,903 10,440 783 SiSj 77"^ 



130 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STATISTICS RELATIVE TO NEWSPAPERS IN THE UNITED STAT] 



•i*^*rT*wtMiawi 
Ho. of Towns VI 



rapanM* 
»n Owiatj 






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Ayer*9 Newapaper Annual. 



tfiat] 



Book Production of Leading Coun- 
tries, 1910, BY Classes. 



Fiction. 

Law 

RcUffioo 

Education '..... 

Btsaft, Miscellany. 
Javenilc Publications. 

Sociolon^ 

Poetry and Drama .. 

Science 

History 

Biography 

Ifedicine 

Description Md Travel 

Pine Arts 

Applied Science 

Pliilosopbv 

Household Science.. 

Agriculture 

Sports, Games 

Wit and Humor 

Pbilolomr 

Military Science .... 
General Works 



Germany 



1510 
485' 
481 s 

■ ■ • ■ 

1750 

1954 

1981 
1480 
90S9 
ao8a 
668 

1030 



1884 

607 

X094 



Great 
Britain 



a833 

24» 

1064 

659 
379 

i • • • 

816 
590 

860 

398 
604 

•I9$4' 



France 



■\ 



I906 



1159 

3H6 

888 

T160 

14a 

I4»3 
1028 

4»7 

1718 

1230 

394 
398 

• ■ • • 

168 

982 
77 



464 



United 
Slates 



.} 



»797 
678 

943 

5»3 
9042 

lOlO 

784 
75a 
7»» 

1 565 

I 645 

544 

599 

857 

33» 

145 

49 



149 



Printing was originally practiced by the 
Chinese in very early times; the origin of the 
present system seems to be very doubtful. 
The first metal plate from which mipressions 
on paper were taken seems to have been 
executed in 1452. It was a pax or metal plate 
used in the Iloman CathoUc service. Early 
books containing engravings reproduced from 
metal plates are the "Kalendar" dated 1465, 
and the "Monte Santo de Dio," 1477. The 
first engraver proper who seems to have done 
nothing but engrave was Antonio Raimondi 
(1488T530). 

The first steam turbine was built in 1894 
by the Hon. C. A. Parsons of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne; the first Atlantic passage turbine 
steamer was launched in 1904. 



Book Production of Lgj 
Countries. 



Country. V'rar. 

Algi^ria 

Argentine Republic. . 

Australia 

Austria 1901 

Belgium loio 

Brazil -^ — 

Bulgaria 

Canada 1893 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Ceylon 1909 

Chili 1891 

China 

Costa-Rica 

Denmark 1910 

E^pt 1898 

Finland — — 

P'rance 1910 

Germany 1910 

Great Britain 1910 

Greece 

Haiti 

Hawaii 

Holland 1910 

Hungary 1898 

Iceland 1 903 

India 1895 

Ireland 1932 

luly i9to 

Japan ^ 909 

Luxemburg 1910 

Mexico 

Norway 1904 

Paraguay 

Persia ■ 

Portugal 

Roumania 1901 

Russia i9to 

Servia 

Spain tgoa 

Sweden 1904 

Switzerland 1910 

Turkey 1890 

United States 1910 

Uruguay 1906 

Venezuela — — 



Books. Year. P« 





1908 




1900 




1903 


2,050 


1910 


2.5M 


1910 




190^ 




1897 


450 


1910 




1900 


422 • 




400 


1896 




1907 




190 J 


3.305 


toio 


160 ] 


190a 




1909 


ii.a66 I 


1908 


3».a8» 


1910 


10,804 1 


1007 
895 




1903 




r9o8 


3.777 1 


908 


1,600 1 


904 


312 1 


903 


8.000 1 


899 


180 1 


90J' 


6.788 1 


907 


34.730 1 


90Q 


97 « 


90S 




1892 


682 1 


901 
90S 




892 




1894 


1,740 > 


903 


29.057 1 


1910 


1 


189T 


1,400 1 


1900 


1.474 


1906 


4.290 


1909 


900 


1909 


"ia.470 


IQ10 


1 10 


1906 




I9«8 



SCIENTIFIC AMKRIGAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

I XI. MINOR INDUSTRIES. 

,GiS, iLLUMINATtNO AND HeATINO. I •'^?'*J^' 

[r^lotol^aijt o( Ihemateriiitausedin the | ol ^38.6^m7^^S.2^J!^cJptJ^^ 



132 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Laundries in 1909. 

Number of establiahments 5. 1 86 

Capital invested $68,935,000 

Coet of materials used 17,696,000 

Salaries and wages, total 53,007,747 

Salaries 8,180,769 

Waaes 44,826,978 

Miscellaneous expenses 14,483,497 

Value of products, or amount 

received for work done. . S104,680,086 

Pianos and Groans and Materials. 

In 1909, the total value of the pianos and 
organs, and materials, in establishments espe- 
cially designed for their manufacture through- 
out the United States, amounted to $89,789,- 
544. The whole number of pianos manufactured 
was 374. 154. valued at $59,501,225: Of these 
there were 365.413 upright pianos, valued at 
$55,462,556; 330,918 pianos without player 
attachment, valued at $46,187,555; 34,495 



pianos for or with player attachment, vafairi 
at $9,275,001: 8,741 grand pianos, valued i 
$4,038,669. There were 10,898 player attad 
ments made separate from pianos, valued , 
$1,474,630. The whole number of organs i 
was 65,335. valued at $5309.016: Of 
there were 1,224 pipe organs, valued at 
713,587; 64.111 reed oiigans, valued at 
595,429. The value of other parts and 
terials manufactured, was $20,417,762; tb 
value of all other products was $3,0^,911. 

Phonooraphs and Graphophones. 

The total value of the phonographs, gra| 
phones, and records manufactured in 11 
throughout the United States, was $11,^ 
996. There were 344,681 phonographs 
graphophones made, valued at $5,406,( 
27,183.959 records and blanks, valued at , 
007,104; all other products were valued 
$1,312,208. Since 1909 the producU ' 
vastly increased in quantity and value. 



TABLE OF HEIGKT AND WEIGHT AT VARYING AGES. 

Bucd upon an Aiulym of 74.162 Kcq>le<I Male Applicants for Life Imiinnce. at reported to 
The Anodatioa of Life bMnncc Medical Diicclon. 1697. 





IS— 24 


as-as 


. ap-«4 


35— SB 


40-44 


46-49 


80-S4 


sa-s. 


'fl&l«4 "' 


^ 


^ 


SfectOfaKbn 


•6 
lie 
144 


100 

»5 
«5» 


loa 
111 
•54 


105 

•31 
•57 


106 

• 33 
160 


107 

•J4 
161 


107 
11? 


107 
134 
i«i 


•05 
131 
•57 




1 


9t 
III 
•4« 


101 
»5^ 


.05 

•»9 
•53 


••5 
131 
•57 


107 

134 
l6t 


109 


»09 
136 
163 


109 
136 
163 


lei 

■M 

i«i 






99 
"4 
•49 


loa 
118 
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lOS 

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•57 


106 


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166 


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166 


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t«4 






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107 
lit 


109 
136 
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167 


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173 


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176 


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119 
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174 


118 

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190 


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117 
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160 
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191 


131 
164 
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170 
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•31 
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•06 


131 

•73 


•39 
•74 


17^ 


11 


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•59 

191 


•J« 
1*4 
•97 


•35 
i«9 


•31 
173 
aol 


140 

»75 

lie 


14* 

•77 
aia 


I4> 

177 
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14» 
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144 

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111 

••s 

I9« 


•3* 
170 
»04 


140 

'75 
tie 


•43 
179 
ais 


•44 
lie 

ai6 


I4« 

••3 
aio 


•4l 
111 
ail 


•4)6 

lis 

aao 


14I 
1I3 
aaa 


t4 

•ai 


1 


t5» 
17« 
»04 


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m 

all 


•45 
III 
»«7 


14I 
1I5 
aaa 


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iM 

>»3 


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»»7 


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t»7 


"7 


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141 
176 
III 


147 

•*4 
aai 


150 
IM 
>a« 


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19a 
139 


•55 
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196 

>35 


•55 
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•5» 
•9« 
•39 




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a 


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III 


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Ml} 


163 
»4 
S4S 


i6t 
aoi 
»4I 


•5l 
191 
t3S 







SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



[ARY OF MANUFACTURES : BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, 1909. 

fioam: HcpDita of the Bunsu of the Ceninia. Department of Cammsrpc tad I^bor. The 

— ■ ^^ -liee donat repracnt th« total value of the products, beoiiiBe iinport- 

_mt mmoulutuie the some elua of products may b« ineluded id other 

, ^ [Primaiy horee-power brliidn power generated in maDufarturini eatsblbhmenti 

b riKUic uul other paver rented from outside Baun»B; iC doea not include electric power 



trtODBTST. 


Penons 
Enga«ed. 


?= 


Value of 

Piuducts 




IS.202 

85JS9 

■334 

iS 
IS 

7,30 

B! 

4.40 


100.601 

'M 
1 

Is 

57.202 

i 

90.302 

.1 

6S.2SS 

"« 

38.653 

293.301 
35.704 
97.707 

61944 
371, 96 

IS 

704 
1, 54 
42, 25 

22.264 

li:^ 




«nj loiren and tea theis and plumes 








iS^t^ilri'ssJ™"" """*"- 




























ItiBJ Uld how. l™ihcr 

Run uid hoee. woven and rubber 






4f 


J02 

S68 
764 


































18.004 

34.706 

5>6B 
82,944 

301.273 

23,898 

47,094 

4,00£ 
9.246 

430 
3,404 

2S,439 

"if 

170|021 

l?:31i 








Se"*- 




<MB( and preservinc 




















&n ud tHuml Jiop oonstructioa and repoira by 




Ctn., OHun-nilniul. not includJnc operstionB of 
































^:S;:."ia ssisS,- — " """"■'■ 


^f:iSi;S88 














^'Ssa^SS'iwiii::: 


»iE 


?——:::::-:::•:::•: 


M 


»M 





134 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES: BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES. 1909. — Continued 



INDUSTRY. 



Cooperage and wooden ^oods, not elsewhere specified 

Copper, tin and sheet-iron products 

Coraage and twine, jute and linen goods 

Cordials and syrups 

Cork, cutting 

Corsets 

Cotton goods, including cotton small wares 

Crucibles 

Cutlery and tools, not elsewhere specified 

Daii^jrmen's, poulteren', and apiarists' supplies. . 

Dentists' materials 

Dru^s grindixi^ 

Dyemg and nniwhing textiles 

Dvestuffs and extracts 

Electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies. . . . 

Electroplating 

Emery and other abrasive wheels. 



Persons 
Engaged. 



Enameling and japanning 

Engravenr materials 

Engraving and dyesinking 

Engraving, wood 

Explosives 

Fancy articles, not elsewhere specified 

FertiUsers , 

FUes 

Firearms and ammunition 

Fire extinguishers, chemical 

Fireworks % . . , 

Flags, banners, regalia, society badges and emblems 

Flavoring extracts 

Flax ana hemp, dressed 

Four-mill and gristmill products 

Food preparations 

Foundiy and machine-shop products 

Foundry supplies 

Fuel, manufactured 

Fur ^oods 

Furnishing goods, men's 

Furniture and reirigerators 

FuiB, dressed 

Galvanizing. 

Gas and electric fixtures and lamps and reflectors . . 

Gas. illuminating and heating 

Glass 

Glass, cutting, staining, and ornamenting 

Gloves and mittens, leather 

Glucose and stanch 

Glue 

Gold and silver, leaf and foil 

Gold and silver, reducing and refining, not from 

the ore 

Graphite and craphite refining 

Grease and taUow 



Grindstones 

Haircloth 

Hairwork 

Hammocks 

Hand stamps and stencils and brands 

Hat and cap materials 

Hats and caps, other than felt, straw, and wool. . . 

Hats, fur felt 

Hats, straw 

Hones and whetstones 

Horseshoes, not made in steel works or rolling mills 

Hosiery and Imit goods 

House-furnishing goods, not elsewhere .specified.. . 

Ice, manufactured 

Ink, printing 

Ink, writing 

Instruments, professional and scientific 



29.717 

86.934 

27.214 

1,638 

3,376 

19.611 

387,771 

398 

37,161 

6,431 

1,982 

1,152 

47,303 

3,015 

105.600 

3,558 

2,446 

2.418 

189 

1,782 

480 

7.058 

14.194 

21.950 

4,521 

16.042 

300 

1.567 

4,522 

2,634 

216 

66.054 

20.965 

615,485 

710 

112 

16,152 

43.935 

144.140 

1.472 

1.689 

22.906 

51.007 

72.573 

11.090 

12.950 

5.827 

3,840 

1,553 

690 

262 
5.504 
1.485 

621 
4,38:^ 

325 
2.539 
2.618 
7,609 
27,091 
9,704 

173 

300 

136,130 

5.916 

21,107 

1.854 

824 
6,175 



Primary 
Horse- 
Power. 



65,108 

62,366 

78,549 

1,154 

3.746 

4.581 

1,296.617 

816 

68.294 

6.898 

865 

3.322 

107,746 

22,213 

158,768 

4.461 

4.005 

1.695 

549 

768 

39 

28.601 

8,310 

64,711 

7,383 

17,840 

215 

517 

1,173 

1.060 

1,147 

85:^,584 

55,166 

869,305 

4,995 

1,290 

2,120 

12.116 

221.451 

2.103 

1.367 

15,862 

128,350 

128,532 

4,897 

2,889 

28,257 

15.596 

259 

1,735 

1.472 
14,613 

6.700 
995 
218 
157 
903 

2.922 

990 

19,245 

3,482 
677 

1,045 
103.709 

9.328 
317,789 

5,857 
169 

4.856 



Value of 
Products. 



60.249.000 

199.824.000 

61,020.000 

9.662,000 

6.94O,0Q0j 

33,257,000 

628,392.000 

1.840.000 

53.286.000 

15.463.000 

10,836,000 

6,007,1 

83.556.1 

15,955, 

221,300, 

4.510, 

6,711,1 

3316. 

921,1 

2.250,1 

711. 

40.1^. 

22,63 

103,960. 

5.691. 

34.112 

754.1 

2,269, 

8,li4.i 

8,828. 

467,1 

883,584. 

125,331. 

1.228.4''6, 

2.298,1 

311,00j 

65.938.000 

87.7ia000 

239.886»00<» 

2.39149 
7,338;000 

45.057UnO 
166.814.000 
92,095.000 
16,101.000 
23.631.000 
48,799.000 
13,718,000 
2.63O.O0O 

23.612.000 

1,140.000 

23.419.000 

. 1.688,000 

2,230.000 

5.135,000 

578,000 

3,673,000 

8,236,000 

13.680.000 

47.865,000 

21,424.000 

268.000 

t.015,000 

2oo.i43.oae 

18.509,000 

42,963.00(1 

8,865.00C 

2.505.001 

10.S04.00( 



SCIENTIPIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



135 



RJMHA&Y OF MANUFACTURES : BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, 1909— Continued. 



DTDUBTRY. 





and steel, blast furnaces 

and steel, steel works and rolling mills 

and steel, bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets, not 
made in steel works or rolling mills 

and steel, doom and shutters 

and steel fori^ings 

and steel, nails and spikes, cut and wrought, 
jnrfnding wire naib, not made in steel works or 

rolling mills 

n and steel pipe, wrou^t 

and instrument cases 

and ground earths 

and tags 

iry work 

. refined, not made in slaughtering and meat- 
parking eatablishments 



bar, pipe, and sheet 

cr goods 

itfier, tanned, curried and finished. 



»!«, distilled 

>is, malt 

liion, vinous 

^tlvea. not made by railroad companies . 

(-i^asn and picture frames 

and timber products 



Maibfe and stone work 

lUtcfaea 

Mats and matting 

Mattrenes and spring beds 

MiUinery and laoe goods 

Mineral and soda waters 

Xirron 

Models and patterns, not including paper patterns . 

Mcyving pieUaree 

Mnolage and paste 

Mmieal instruments and materials not specified. . . 
Moaieal instrumoits, pianos and oigans, and 

materials 

Needles, pins and hooks and eyes 

Oakum 

Oil. castor 

Oil, eotton seed and cake 

i Oil, ftW ! M! "t ial 

; Oil, linseed 

I Oil, not elsewhere specified 

Oilebth and linoleum 

: Oleomargarine 

(Optical goods 

' Pfeint and varnish 

i Paper and wood pulp 

I Piper goods, not elsewhere sp>ecified 

I P^per patterns 

; Patokt medicines and compounds and druggists' 

preparations 

PtiTiog materials 

i Peeouti. grading, roasting, cleaning and shelling . . 

Ptecils,Iead 

Pens, (oontain. stylographio and gold 

Penst steel 

Betioleum, refining 

Phoaograpbs and graphophones. . .^ 

Photographic apparatus and materials 

Photo-engraving 

Pipes, t^acoo 

Pottery, terra-ootta and fire-clay products i 

Printing and publishing • ' 



Persons 
Engaged. 



43.061 
200,762 

12.395 
1.816 
9.193 



3.239 
7,309 
36,992 
2,441 
2.351 
2,880 
886 

515 

2,029 

1.044 

43,525 

67,100 

15,659 

8,328 

66.725 

2.726 

16.945 

7.470 

784.986 

2.237 

77,275 

4,220 

1,040 

14,109 

46,301 

22,060 

3,509 

5,450 

718 

901 

2,269 

41.882 

4,978 

129 

70 

21,273 

408 

1.753 

3,144 

5,557 

773 

7,809 

21,896 

81,473 

22,.385 

1,755 

41,101 
1,731 
2,177 
4,513 
1,820 
755 

16.640 
5,928 
6,596 
7,277 
3.090 

61.022 
388.466 



Primary 
Horse- 
Power. 



1,173.422 
2.100,978 

22,113 

1,997 

27,803 



Value of 
Products. 



391,429.000 
985,723,000 

24.485.000 

3,006.000 

20,293,000 



7,723 


8,192,000 


20,666 


30,886.000 


11.204 


80,350.000 


527 


3.116,000 


20,920 


4,681.000 


1.589 


4,670.000 


679 


9,173.000 


723 


10,326,000 


3,386 


4.169.000 


3,179 


9,146.000 


28,148 


104.719,000 


148,140 


327,874,000 


27,671 


17,952,000 


46,120 


204,699.000 


347,726 


374.730.000 


6,771 


13,121,000 


35,102 


31,582.000 


6,330 


13,476,000 


2,840,082 


1,166,129.000 


26,441 


38,262.000 


187,686 


113.093.000 


6,224 


11.363,000 


1,433 


2,432,000 


17.689 


36,783.000 


7,918 


86.894.000 


19,392 


43.508,000 


3.862 


9.671.000 


5,486 


8,868,000 


486 


4,206,000 


2,335 


4.918.000 


1,423 


3.228.000 


41,623 


89,790.000 


4.542 


6.694.000 


289 


338,000 


385 


905.000 


192.342 


147.868.000 


1.218 


1.737.000 


13,211 


36.739,000 


6,772 


30.865.000 


16,125 


23.339.000 


2,408 


8.148.000 


5.725 


11,735.000 


56.162 


124.889,000 


1,304,255 


267,657.000 


27,067 


56,171,000 


751 


2,611.000 


25,659 


141,942.000 


5,757 


6,229,000 


2,827 


9,737,000 


3,448 


7,379,000 


569 


4.739,000 


244 


577,000 


90.268 


236,998.000 


6,371 


11,726,000 


8,637 


22,661.000 


2.638 


11.624.000 


1,506 


5.312.000 


110,017 


76,119,000 


297.76;$ 


7:<7.876.000 



136 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURES: BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES. 1909. — Continued. 



INDUSTRY. 



Pulp goods 

Pumps, not including steam pumps . .' . 

Rice, cleaning and polishing 

Roofing materials 

Rubber goods, not elsewhere specified. 

Rules, ivory and wood 

Safes and vaults 

Salt 



Sand and emery paper and cloth 

Saws • 

Scales and balances 

Screws, machine 

Screws, wood 

3ewing machines, cases and attachments. 

Shipbuilding, including boatbuilding 

Shoddy 

Show cases 

Signs and advertising novelties 

Silk and silk goods, mcluding throwsters. 

Silverware and plated ware 

Slaughtering and meat packing 

Smelting and refining, copper 

Sme ting and refining, lead 



Smelting and refining, zinc 

Smelting and refining, not from the ore. 
Soap. 



Soda-water apparatus 

Sporting and aUiletic goods 

Springs, steel, car and carriage 

Stationery goods, not elsewhere specified 

Statuary and art goods 

Steam packing 

Stereotyping and electrotyping 

Stoves and furnaces, including gas and oil stoves . 
Sugar and molasses, not incluoing beet sugar. . . 

Sulphuric, nitric and mixed acids 

Suigical appliances and artificial limbs , 

Tin plate and temeplate 

Tinfoil ; 

Tobacco manufactures 

Toys and games 

Turpentine and resin , 

Type-founding and printing materiab , 

Typewritera and supplies 

Umbrellas and canes 

Upholstering materials 

Vault ligihts and ventilators 

Vinegar and cider 

Wall paper 

Wall plaster 

Washmg machines and clothes wringers 

Waste 

Wheelbarrows 

Whips 

Windmills 

Window shades and fixtures 

Wire. 



Wirework, including wire rope and cable 

Wood distillation, not including turpentine and resin 

Wood carpet 

Wood preserving 

Wood, turned and carved 

Wood pulling 

Wool scouring 

Woolen, worsted, and felt goods, and wool hats. . . 
All other industries* 



Total 7,678,578 



Persons 
Engaged. 



882 
2.623 
1,777 
3.530 

31,284 
127 
4.060 
5,580 
779 
6,757 
4,275 
1,863 
3,758 

20,556 

44,949 

2.320 

3,943 

7.277 

105,238 

18,774 
108,716 

16,832 
8.059 
7,156 
2,596 

18,393 
2,399 
5,993 
3,573 
7,938 
2,172 
4,968 
3,661 

42,921 

15,658 
2,582 
5,805 
5.846 
762 
197,637 
6,072 

44,524 
2,597 

12,101 
6,505 
4,777 
453 
3,073 
4,746 
5,624 
2,294 
2,129 
775 
1,946 
2,742 
4.770 

19.945 

14,994 

3,095 

221 

2,875 

16,243 

759 

1,262 

175,176 

132 



Primary 
Horse- 
Power. 



3,125 

4,214 

19,519 

9,431 

79.062 

167 

5.546 

27,263 

3,351 

11,852 

6,183 

3,319 

5.618 

19.426 

88.063 

13,820 

4,746 

3,790 

97,947 

15,183 

208,707 

158.126 

26,964 

21,457 

10,705 

28.360 

2,894 

3,243 

7,349 

6,842 

462 

11.129 

4,076 

45,524 

160,603 

6,494 

5,752 

8,154 

1,699 

28,614 

5,323 

4,129 

1,948 

6,845 

2,413 

17.456 

234 

16,681 

5,680 

25,892 

3,351 

4.286 

1,486 

1,321 

3,301 

6,737 

71,959 

20,131 

9,854 

269 

10.647 

48,447 

1.366 

6.785 

362,209 

136 



18.680,776 



Value of 
Producta. 



1,770,000 

5.583,000 

22,371,000 

19,204,000 

128.436.000 

144.000 

8.491.000 
11.328 000 

4,358.000 
11.536.000 

8.786,000 

3.014.000 

6,199,000 
28.262.000 
73.360.000 

7.446.000 

7.167,000 

13.546.000 

196.912.000 

42.229,000 

1.370.568.000 

378.806.000 

167.406,000 

34.206,000 

28.072.000 

111,358.000 

6.566,000 
11.052.000 

9.005.000 
16.647.000 

3.442.000 
12.160.000 

6.384.000 

78.853,000 

279,249.000 

9,884.000 
12.399.000 
47.970,000 

3.419.000 
416.695.000 

8.264.000 
25.295.000 

4.703,000 

19.719,000 

15,864,000 

13,054,000 

957.000 

8.448,000 
14.440.000 
12,804.000 
• 5.826,000 
11,398.000 

1,625.000 

3.040.000 

6,677.000 
18.571,000 
84,486,000 
41,938,000 

9,737,000 

490,000 

14.099,000 

22,199,000 

3.289.000 

435,979.000 

390.000 



$20.672.052.000 



* Includes the following industries: Millstones; ordnance and accessories: pulp, from 
fibre other than wood; straw goods, not elsewhere specific^- and whalebone cuttmg. 



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148 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOREIGN CARRYING TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES, 1821-1912. 





Total imports and exports. 


Year 


In cars and 

other land 

vehicles. 


By sea. 


Perocmt. 
carried in 




In American 
vessels. 


In foreign 
vessels. 


TotaL 


American 
vessek. 


1821 




$113,201,462 
129,918,458 
198,424,609 
239.272.084 
607.247.767 
352.969.401 
258.346,577 
202,461,086 
195.084,192 
260,837,147 
280,206,464 
322.451.665 


$14,358,235 

14.447.970 

40,802,856 

90.764,954 

255,040,793 

638,927.488 

1.224.265,434 

1,371,116,744 

1.894,444,424 

2.721.962,475 

2.930.436.506 

3.109.018.858 


$127,559,697 

144.366.428 

239.227.465 

330.037.038 

762.288.550 

991.896,889 

1.482.612.011 

1,573.567.830 

2.089,528,616 

2,982.799,622 

3,210.642.970 

3.431.470.423 


S&.T 


1830 




89J 


1840 




82.9 


1850 




72.* 


I860 




66.5 


1870 




35.6 


1880 


$20,981,393 
73.571.263 
154.895,650 
319.132.528 
365.903.334 
426.116.920 


17.4 


1890 


12.« 


1900 


9.3 


1910 


8.7 


1911 


8.7 


1912 


9.4 







Aualrta- 
Hungary 



Emph* 
908t780 



92{ flW/« 908.71 

_J nUM OB 108*410 LJ 



Comparison of the troa of all atatea of the worid in Enoliah aquara maaa. 

EUROPE- 3,952,846 

Francs Spain 

a07jOB4 191 J6S 17a;B7a 134,180 

□ tJ D D 

Butaaria P^ugal Grwoa S«»la (and ^^JSfiOt lands Bd** Mw i li M a t a OrMi U— w>>n Mi*mn Mam ii 

a SflSO 38.480 aSj014 18^860 1B.8T8 •nmmM 1^848 11^878 8j880 8,808 808 ITS 88 




'!r "?r ^ "ff^ 



Russian 
Dominiom. 



KMMand Bokhara 
6,636.726 



China 
wttth Ra 

D8P#ntfM)CiM 

4,277,170 



ASIA-16.906,821 




Dutch 







I I 310.17 8 a sopoo 



[Ja4Ofl0OQl7B.B4O Q\77JBS3 ^ibfiOO {JaofiOO Q 74jOOO Q, ^^ 



I 33.780 • 8,973 



■ 300 




AFRICA-11,962,211 
Egyi>t 




AUSTRALAS IA ami OCEANIA 
I —3,468,642 



Cenjao 



Poftug. 
PeaMta. 



U D D TT tf *r 



Dan. Poasaaalona 

Graanland 

46.740 

a 




AMERtCA-15.485,535 tqwra 



British 

Potsassiont 

(Canada atcj 

4,009,001 

•qitara milat 

(itaMi 4«o;900 



United 
States 

(with 

Porto Rko) 
3,568,64§ 
•quara mim 



Brazil 
3.293.000 
aquara mOaa 



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RapuMc 



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o 



No^th AiwaHca _, 
SoulhAmartcaT 



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SBS,9ra 



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Sb3» '^^7^ E<»Mtfor Uniooay ^^^ Gual«Pla pS^ Hondaras Cuba fS£& PMama 
I [ ^rj^ "M«> 72510 4|ooo 4^ 4^403 4^ 44000 8a399 8l«0 



Co«a 
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e 7.299 > 138 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



149 



IADS With the Non-Contiguous 
Tebritories of the 
United States. 

The trade of the United States with it8 
»«onticuouB territories continucKi to ex- 
|Md. the figures of 1012 showing a larger 
ioont than erver before. The value of the 
Thandisr forwarded to the non-contiguous 
Dit<»ie8 was: To Alaska, 19 H million dol- 
pi. against 16 million in 1911: to Porto Rico, 
^ milUon in 1012, against 34 H million in 
11: to Hawaii, 24 H million, against 22 
in 1911; to the Philippine Islands, 
miUioa. against 19 H million in the pre- 
hear. This makes the total value of 
merchandise shipped to the non-contigu- 
tenritories of the United States 103 million 
in 1912. against 92H million in 1911, 
83 million in 1910. The merchandise 
the United States from its non-con- 
territories showa in most cases larger 
in 1912 than in the preceding years. 
Alaska the value of such shipments was 
million doUars in 1912, against 14 million 
» preceding year; from Porto Rico, 42^ 
agaioat 34^ million in 1911; from 
55 million, against 41 million in 1911 ; 
from the Philippine Islands, 21 H million, 
16^ million in the preceding year, 
makes the total value of the merchandise 
to the United States from its non- 
territories 141 million dollars in 
107H million in 1911. 108 
in 1910. and SOH million in 1909. 



T^\ 




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CHI MA 





crvLon 

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JAPAh 
60,455.913 



JAVA 
26.127.110 



TEA. 

▲ tsar's production. 

(In Iba.) 



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S5!5S"!5S!!!!5SJ'!«w«'-'-''!5'!'!'!M~=.=-! 


I 


^ 




9 

i 


1 


1 M 

; 1 t 


1' 


m 


-"""•—"saansssaaafWKiixsuKitiinsiwaMijMa 


1 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



[SgDRM: 0[BdsIi«I>srU Dl IhD niFKlIn aHmMd.] 



-onSjiVT... 



Sar".';.-.-.:: 

DiMm 

Bililiia: jtiuwUf.'.'. 



90, SID, HI 



■ iQPliidEnt QDesnborcnulL 

• ladndlniAuBMre. 

• ^nt psrt^anupcbt Niwcutle, NorUi Stil*ldi, utl Soulb Shloldi. 



• iDCllHllOI Cllr 



154 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOiC 



PRINCIPAL PORTS OF THE WORLD : Vessel Tonnage Movement « 
THE Foreign Trade, during the Latest Yxab vor wbicb 

Data are AvailabiiB. 

•(Sources: Offlcfal reports of the respective countries.] 



Country and 
port. 


Year.' 


Entered. 


Cleared. 


Country and 
port. 


Year.i 


Entered. 


CleontL 


EUROPE. 

Great Britain: 
Cardiil 


1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1912 
1911 

1911 
1911 
1911 

1910 

1910 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1911 
1911 

1911 

1910 
1910 
1910 
1010 

1910 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1910 

1910 
1910 

1912 

1912 

1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 


Nri tons. 
5.530.428 
3,534,964 
7,S87,719 
11,97,1.249 
5,954.498 
2.146,512 
4.U9.221 
5,903,529 

ll.S30,9t9 
1,4S5.4S7 
1,096,538 

3,135,006 

4.028.057 
4,aU.061 
2.0fi2.1S8 
2.523.146 
8. 161.. 144 
2.011,995 
13,330,699 

11,052,186 

4. 562. 082 
3. .103, 898 
3.778.371 
4,739,383 

1,897.517 
1.413.157 
1,6S3.820 
1,189.742 
895,417 

2,464.111 
2,148,286 

«20,1 

13,673,765 

2.948.244 
2. 700. 193 
l,192.ft37 
1.025.257 
2,214,681 


Ntt tons. 

8,328,W7 

3,185,290 

6,8«>,271 

9,004.974 

6.842.199 

3,418.771 

4.121.599 

5,800,634 

11,945.239 
1.437.371 
1,608,388 

3,239,021 

4, 138. 172 
4,031,007 
2,194,755 
2,510,454 
8.186,315 
2.021,034 
13,325,781 

10.800.490 

4,025,007 
3,299.836 
3.776,056 
4,635,966 

1.894,816 
1,354,952 
1,744,846 
1.190,894 
820,250 

1,645,045 
1,609,378 

1,065 

13,549,138 

1.872.493 
2. 187, 408 
1.489.406 
1.349.347 
2,360,043 


AMERICA— contd. 

United States— 
Continued. 

Puget Sound... 

San Francisco. . 
Canada: > 

Montreal 

Vancoin-er 

Victoria 

MoNitx): <•» 

Vera Cruz 

Tamnico 

Argentina: Bue- 

nos Aires 

Brazil: 

Santos 


1912 
1912 

1912 
1912 
1912 

1911 * 
1911 

1908 

1911 
1911 
1911 

1911 
1911 

1911 
1911 
1911 
1912 
1911 

1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 

1911 

1911 
1911 

1011 
1911 
1911 
1911 


IMtons. 

2,498.150 
928.289 

1.702.690 
1.8H4.844 
1,874,102 

925.086 
551,698 

5.981,477 

3.440.SSO 
4.541.820 
3,117,313 

1.829.997 
2,059,652 

10,346.622 
7.737.785 
7.074.152 
3.594.888 
0,170,309 

3,645.162 
2.418,310 
5.640.946 
4,036,431 

3.443.7(» 

2.19S.902 
3,078.7i5 

550,250 

802,8f*0 
S8t.3S5 


Ka tons. 


Hull 


2. 857. SIS 


LiTt!rpool.. 

London 

Tyne ports 

Glasgow 


1.154.943 

1.6S3.M 

1,874.%3 


Mai to- Valet ta:.. 

Gibraltar 

Germany: 

Hamburg 

Bremen 


1,748.749 

788.031 
762.135 


BrcmerUaven . . . 
Denmark: Copen- 
hagen 


5,079,863 
3.310.414 


Framv: 
Havre 


Kiode Janeiro.. 
Cuba: Habana*.. 

ASU. 

British India: 3 

Bombay 

Calcutta 

British Colonies: 
UoDgkong-Vic- 

Slngapore'*.!!!. 

Colombo* 

Aden«»» 

China: Shanghai 'o 
Janan: 

Yokohama 

Nagasaki 

Kow 


3.6W.907 
3,121.372 

1.652.8n 
1,741,638 


Chcrboiyg 

Bordeaux 

Boulogne 

Marseille 

Austria: Trie,sto... 
Bclpimn: Antwerp 
Netherlands: Rot- 
terdam 


Italy: 
Qeneo 


10.24.1.898 

7,717.691 


Na pics 


7.073. ITU 


Greece: Pirajus... 
For tUfraU Lisbon.. 
Riissta: 

Cronstadt-St. 
Petersburg. . . . 

Odessa 


3.592.134 
9,429.996 

3. 44ft. 773 
2.382.144 
5.539.M7 


Ripj 


Moll 


4,1U.47» 
3. 414 966 


Taganrog 

Vladivostok 

Spain: 

Barcelona 

Bilbao (Vi«ca>-a) 
Turkey: Constan- 

tinopk} 


AJKICA. 

Egypt: Alexao- 


Union of South 
Africa: 

Cape Town 

Port Natal 

OCEANU. 

.Australia:" 

Melbourne 

Sydney 

Fremantle 

Adelaide 




JLMESICA. 

United Stat4vs:« 

New York 

Boston and 

Cliarlestown . 

Philadelphia... 

Baltimore 

Galveston. 

New Orleans.... 


1.952.023 
3,133.359 

372,216 
944.973 
007.843 

433. 2» 



I Calendar years unless-otherwisc specilied by note. 
' Year ended Mar. 31. 

> Total movement of shipping, oxclutling sailing and small coasting vessels. Separate data for entronces 
and clearances not avnibblc. Year ended Feb. 28. 
< Year ended June ^0. 
^ Gross tons. 
• Excluding Chinese junks engaged in the foreign trade. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 1S& 




WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD AND SILVER. 

NOTES TO PRECEDING PAGE— Continued, 
■nhipa. tnmiHni, yicliu, mtm cmft and fl«un and nlttni ttsails unda . 
anpul In tnonsttlamant trade, 
a toonug ol n«al] that aliod lortlia purpoM of coating and lor orden anl;. 

^entareilandflleuwlal" '" 



SOraNTTFIC AMERICAN REPBSIBNCB BOOK. 



Caunir<r mi port. 


V«r. 


ImpwB. 


EiporU. 


TOU,.,™... 


..u. 


itiii 


K. 09.134 

Sis! 

M7,«8.1M 

ag:B 


104,4H,1M 
US,4T7,TT* 

■satss 


!>«„. 


■"■^okolMm. 


auiiutR 






Brlliih ColDiiiHi 


ssa 








'^' 


i«*,tn,w 


*"^J;^; 











* fiielDriv* Dllnlcnuiu co 




BRAZIL ECUADOR ST.THOFU& TRINIUD 
3^,270 3r.l42 'Sa^oBa' ^^■'^^ 

11 40^ 



jsimi' 



17,160 IS.0S7 6fitZ 
COCOA. 



ONE YEAR'S PRODDCTION. 





SCIENTIFIC 


AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 


157 


GO 

y 


LD: Valum 


OP luPORTI 
lUFORTB O 


AND Ex 
ft Ex POUTS, 


PORTS AND Annual Excess op 

1862 TO 1912.' 




Eiports. 


■"- 


Ejowof— 


" 1 Doni«Uc.' 


Foreign. 


Total. 


^'S^Z'^" 


Imporuov«r 


m 
ini 


aisiKiSB 


DoOa 

s.os! 

?i 

3.9K 


866 
SOI* 

SS8 


OoUari. 


DoUor.. 
12!OAS!950 

43|330!S0S 

ssss 


DoOar: 


Dollar,. 


Hi 

48,266,759 
118.563,215 

sssu 


2I,S79.012 


77 119171 


4.331.149 
3,693,675 
75,223.310 

" 8^i"i48' 






■Bi.i»7"i86 








•P 


rfiCDM relate to 


mia ud bullioa only p 


rioi-b 






IP piP«Pi!S 

'I: h 5 .1 i 5 .i i Is 

i! ss 1; a a ii h ilii 



H IS ■ i^ a 

MlUng ITdT Mllll JAfWI HWIMIt 

ii.Ma iia,«n iM.ru iX!^ it,sn 

JtlCH ITALun VMKBII ARIJItM BUWH 

:U1" mW »f.M> »I.H* fM.»0 

HOME AiND COLONIAL POPULATIONS AND AREAS OF THE 
WORLD'S EMPIRES. 



SClBNTIPrC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



^.r. 


^ 


Domwlir.^ 


i|! 


Total. 


Imporl3. 


Ex<™o( 




Dollar,. 


5,S3 1.040 
I2.4BS.372 

4 247 930 
2:102:291 


DoOari. 


DaUnF'. 


DoUarK 






I3,B03,S94 
34.873 .fi29 
,S6.71 2,275 
55.280.801 

fi4!8flo:o6S 




132:e84 

)sa:2i9 






1 


378[6S7 
0GR.9Z5 












aia'.V.V 




0,068.697 
7it40;44« 



'The figures retati 

'Gold and silver 

probable that the gn 






txpans Has gold, u 



THE PROGRESS OF ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION. 



SCIENTIFIC AUBRICAN REFGRBNCB BOOK. 



FAILURES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



LiabiJ 


tiea 


IBIl. 


1912, 






























































»S7^71,623 


Wfl.719.832 


110,977,030 


tl .760.623 






















































IS.1 17.959 


17.07 1.S13 


SIM 239 S79 








(191.061.665 









Yenr. 


No. 


LLflbilitiM. 


1900 


774 


1 3g 4gj e73 


























































































9U 









S MINTS. 

.77.386.30. Thus tlm i 



160 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PRICES OF THE LEADING ARTICLES OF GRAIN, GROCERIES AS 

PROVISIONS IN NEW YORK MARKET. 
[Boqkm: Ck>flM. Mr. Louli Sellgtberg, New Tork ; SncAr. MeHra. WilleU A Gray; other figom, 

Henry Heinser, itattitlcian. New York Produce Excfajuigc.] 



Calendar 
year. 



1891 

1892 

IBm 

1894 

1806 

188G 

1897 

1896 

1899 

1900 

1901.. ^.< 

1902 

1908..... 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 



DoOa 
1.094 
.906 
.789 
.611 
.660 
.781 
.9M 

• Ww 

.794 

.804 

,808 

.886 

.868 

1.107 

1.028 

.866 

.968 

1.04{ 

1.268 

1.118 

.963 

1.091 



OentM. 
70.4 
64.0 
49.9 
60.9 
47.7 
84.0 
81.9 
87.6 
41.8 
46.8 
66.7 
68.4 
67.2 
69.4 
69.8 
66.0 
610 
78.6 
76.7 
66.8 
71.1 

(») 



CtrUt. 
46.0 
86.8 
86.9 
87.2 
28.9 
28.8 
28.2 
29.7 
80.7 
27.8 
86.6 
44.9 
41.1 
42.0 
86.0 
88.0 
40.6 
64.6 
61.4 



>46.7 
66.4 



Oenti. 
6.69 
7.00 

10.84 
7:76 
6.60 
4.67 
4,42 
6.68 
6.67 
7.06 
8.87 

10.60 
8.81 
7.82 
7.44 
8.88 
9.20 
0.08 

11.68 

12.62 
9.11 

10.61 



DolU. 

8.86 

6.86 

8.17 

8.16 

8.09 

7.61 

7.71 

9.16 

9.26 

9.78 

0.82 

1L76 

9.08 

8.82 

10.02 

8.85 

9.88 

18.20 

U.09 

14.64 

12.92 

16.80 



i 

i 



DoOi. 
1L88 
11.68 
18.86 
14.18 
11.91 
8.96 
8.86 
9.82 
9.85 
12.48 
16.62 
17.94 
16.60 
14.01 
14.48 
17.65 
17.61 
16.98 
21.84 
28.72 
19.12 
19.88 



4.81 
4.68 
6.44 
4.81 
4.88 
8.44 
8.81 
8.66 
4.64 
4.84 
6.26 
B81 
6.06 
4.60 
4.60 
5.81 
6.26 
6.60 
6.00 
7.26 
6.60 
6.18 



Ck>ffoe. 




Oentt, 

17.80 

16.88 

18.82 

17.81 

17.80 

16.06 

11.96 

8.00 

7.46 

0.60 

8.60 

6.76 

6.76 

8.80 

0.16 

9.25 

8.86 

7.86 

8.76 

10.16 

14.85 

16.60 




Oenit. 

16.40 

14.48 

17.42 

16.41 

15.80 

U15 

9.80 

6.80 

6.^ 

8.80 

7.88 

6.66 

6.60 

7.70 

8.25 

8.10 

6.60 

6.95 

7.86 

9.60 

18.26 

14.45 




1 No. 8, Exchange standard. 



> No. 2 white oats. 



• Nominal. 



ESTIMATED STOCK OF GOLD AND SILVER IN THE UNITED STATE 



At the end of the fiscal year June 30, 1012, 
the population of the United States was 
05,656,000, against 76,891,000 in 1900, 
62.622,250 in 1890. 50.155,783 in 1880, and 
41,677,000 in 1873. The total stock of gold 
coin and bullion in 1912 was $1,812,856,241 
against $1,034,439,264 in 1900, $695,563,029 
in 1890. $351,841,206 in 1880, and $135,000,- 
000 in 1873. The total stock of silver coin 
and bullion in 1912 amounted to $741,184,095 



against $647,371,030 in 1900, $463^11.9 
in 1890. $148,522,678 in 1880. and S6, 149,3 
in 1873. The amount of gold per capita 
the United States at the end of the fiaeal yt 
June 30, 1912, was $18.95, against S13.45 
1900. $11.10 in 1890, $7.01 in 1880. a 
$3.23 in 1973. At the end of this same ped 
the supply of silver per capita was $7. 
against $8.42 in 1900, $7.39 in 1890. $2.96 
1880, and $0.15 in 1873. 



RESOURCES AND LIABILITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS IN 1912, 



The resources of the 7.397 National Banks 
in the United States on September 4, 1912, 
which amounted to a grand total of 10.963.4 
million dollars, were derived from the follow- 
ing sources: Loans and discounts, including 
overdrafts, 6.061.0 million dollars; bonds for 
circulation 724.0 millions; other United 
States bonds and other bonds for deposits 
78.7 millions; bonds, securities, etc., 1,039.9 
millions; due from banks and reserve agents 
1,453.0 millions; real estate, banking house, 
etc., 268.5 millions; specie, 713.4 millions; 
legaJ-tender notes 182.5 millions; bills of other 



banks, 48.5 millions; clearing-house < 
changes 296.0 millions; due from UaJl 
States Treasurer 41.9 miUiona; other reaoun 
56.0 millions. 

Their liabilities for the same peril 
totaling 10,963.4 million dollars, wexn 
follows: Capital stock 1,046.0 miUiona; m 
plus fund 701.0 millions; undivided prori 

242.7 millions; national bank cireidaU 

713.8 millions; individiud depooits 5.S01 
millions; due to banks and reaervo agex 
2,177.4 millions; other Uabilitiea 190.0 mtUioi 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 161 



Relative Prices of Commodities, 1890 to 1911, by Groups 

RelaUvo Price in.l890 to 1890—100 



r — ^— 

Yevor 

ICoalh 


Farm 
Products 


Food, 
etc. 


Cloths 

and 
Clothing 


Fuel 

and 

Lighting 


Metals 
and Im- 
plements 


Lumber 

and 
Building 
Material 


House 
Furnish- 
ing Goods 


Miscel- 
laneous 


IW 

m\ 


110.0 
121.5 
111.7 
107.9 
05.9 
93.3 
73.3 
85.2 
96.1 
100.0 
109.5 
116.9 
130.5 
118.8 
126.2 
124.3 
123.6 
137.1 
133.1 
453.1 
16«.6 
163.0 


112.4 

116.7 

103.6 

110.2 

09.8 

94.6 

83.8 

87.7 

94.4 

98.3 

104.3 

105.0 

111.3 

107.1 

107.2 

106.7 

112.6 

117.8 

120.6 

124.7 

128.7 

131.3 


113.5 

111.3 

100.0 

107.2 

96.1 

92.7 

91.3 

91.1 

93.4 

96.7 

106.8 

101.0 

102.0 

106.6 

100.8 

112.0 

120.0 

128.7 

116.9 

110.6 

123.7 

110.-6 


104.7 
102.7 
101.1 
100.0 
92.4 
98.1 
104.3 
96.4 
96.4 
105.0 
ISO. 9 
119.5 
134.3 
149.3 
132.6 
128.8 
131.9 
135.0 
130.8 
129.3 
125.4 
L 122.4 


119.2 
111.7 
106.0 
100.7 
00.7 
93.0 
93.7 
86.6 
86.4 
114.7 
120.5 
111.9 
117.2 
117.6 
109.6 
1^22.5 
135.2 
143.4 
125.4 
124.8 
128.$ 
119.4 


111.0 
108!4 
102.8 
101.9 
96.3 
94.1 
93.4 
90.4 
96.8 
105.8 
115.7 
116.7 
118.8 
121.4 
122.7 
127.7 
140.1 
146.9 
133.1 
138.4 
153.2 
151.9 


lll.l 
110.2 
106.5 
104.9 
100.1 
96.5 
94.0 
89.8 
92.0 
95.1 
106.1 
110.9 
112.2 
113.0 
111.7 
169.1 
111.0 
118.5 
114.0 
111.7 
111.6 
111.1 


110.3 
109.4 


m 


106.2 


m 


105.9 


UM 


99.8 


MS 


94.5 


k IM 


91.4 


van 


92.1 


IW 


92.« 


UN 


97.7 


itoo 


109.8 


MH 


107.4 


wa 


114.1 


MS 


113.6 


MM 


111.7 


IW 

1906 


112.8 
121.1 


107 


127.1 


MQI 


119.9 


nm 


125.9 


m« 


133.1 


m\ 


1 131.2 



^^kLTY AND SURETY INSURANCE 
I BUSINESS IN 1911. 

'< The ousineaB of Comiuuiies doing a misoel- 
ineoos insuranoe busineas in t£e United 
iteB daring the year 1911 was divided as 
Automobile business, S2,676,767 
from premiums, $1,129,193 paid for 
bnnlary, $2,850,344 received from 
tf, $1,110,978 paid for losses; credit, 
ia2,S83 received from premiums. $1,066,- 
paid for losses: fidelity and surety, 
8^061 received from premiums, $4,980.- 
Pttt for losses; health. $7,101,666 re- 
i from premiums, $3,314,301 paid for 
; liabihV. $35,201,753 received from 
{VMBiuina, $20,341,029 paid for losses; 
!»B*»al accident, $27,351,626 received from 
2»iams, $11,837,347 paid for losses; plate 
;^n. 13.960.546 received from premiums. 
i|[.^14.236 paid for losses; steam boiler, 
;«:246i26 received from premiums, $282,338 
IwforkMes; sprinkler business, $178,016 
i^^ fmm premiums. $73,438 paid for 
J"*^; flywheel, $184,514 received from 
.CJ^^nns. $75,704 paid for losses; live stock, 
VjjfM received from premiums. $267,315 
jwfor losses; workmen's collective. $711,726 
ittQv«d from premiums, $306,433 paid for 
Courtesy Spectator Ins. Year Book. 



tt^^]^ fiiv insurance company in the 
kf ^ States was established in Boston^ Mass. 
[SL*« Sun Insurance Company (English) in 
^ tn *!* fi"** fiT« insurance policy was issued 
^■Hartfoni. Conn.. 1794. First accident in- 
J>^ company established at Hartford, 



Gold and Silyisr Currency and 

Total Money in the Treasury 

AND IN Circulation. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1912 the gold 
in the United States was divided as follows: 
Coin and bulUon in the Treasury $264,028.- 
646. and in circulation $610,724,154; certifi- 
cates in circulation $943,435,618. Thus the 
total amount of gold coin, bullion and certifi- 
cates in the United States was $1,818,188,418. 

The silver of the United States, for the same 
year, was divided as follows: Standard dollars 
in the Treasury $25,785,046, and in circula- 
tion $70,339,574; certificates in circulation 
$469,224,400; subsidiary coin in the Treasury 
$25,554,007 and in circulation $145,034,198. 
Thus the total standard dollars and certifi- 
cates in the Treasury and in circulation 
amounted to $565,349,020, and the amount 
of subsidiary coin to $170,588,205. 

Aggregate Savings Deposits or 
Savings Banks, Number of De- 
positors, and Average Amount 
Due TO Each Depositor: Year 
Ended June 30, 1912. 

At the end of the fiscal year 1012 there were 
1,922 Savings Banks in the United States. 
(This includes only mutual and stock savings 
banks transacting chiefly a savings bank 
business) and they had depositors to the 
number of 10,010,304. The total amount of 
the deposits for the year was $4,451,818,522.- 
88 or an average deposit to each depositor of 
$444.72. 



HIGHEST AND LOWEST CONTINENTAL ALTITUDES. 

In order to coi>ip*r«tb«.BlavitJoDi in the United SUtw vitli IhoH in fordgn oonntiiM titelol 
It ia (iian, but muy of tht Sgtiret mut b« conridHrsd h ■pproiimste onlj : 





«g«T™,,. 


»».».« 


,-. 


■SST 


_ 


sf 


K«tt*-«^.-.. 


u ( M El m AiBki 


n.ni} 


Datb V.IU,, CU1I«U. 


HI 










11, TM 

».Mn 

is. BO 




>.» 






DadSK. PUhOix 




EllK FMk. Utnou EM Ifrk* 




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t;. S. Geolotiral aumi. 



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164 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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CO 



SCIENTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



165 




PRINCIPAL STEAMSfflP ROUTES FROM SOUTH AMERICA. 



OcKAS Marine Insurance. 

i fyeuty -nittP marine insaranoe companieB 
OS to the New York State Inaurance 
Laent bad on Janxiai^ 1, 1913 aaaets 
,742.590, flurplua of $17,634,538, and 
I eam^ in preceding year $15,849,- 
m incurred $8,496,570, riaks written 
Kolden $12,226,276,614. 



The first savings banks in the United States 
were established at Boston and Philadelphia 
in 1816 and in New York in 1819. The postal 
savings bank system was established by an 
Act of Congress June 25, 1910, and on Jan. 3, 
1911 one city in each state was selected for 
the opening of the first postal savings banks. 



166 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NOTABLE CONFLAGRATIONS IN THE WORLD'S HISTORY. 

From ** The Insurance Year Book," reprinted by permission of *' The Spectator Company* 

New xork and Chicago. 



Eveti before man began to congregate and build cities, there existed the danger of pcsiri 
and forest fires; but these, except in a minor wayt were not especially destructive of othi 
property. When cities had been built and many thousands of people came to be housed wilM 
a small area, the danger of fire and its capacity for doing harm to men and their property wtM 
greatly augmented; and as cities increased in sise, the nre hasard and the accumulated ▼afaM 
subject to destruction were both correspondingly multiplied. During the last four thousatt 
years many cities have been swept bv nre, some of them several times; and some have he$ 
practically obliterated. Below will be found a list, compiled from various sources, of soa 
of the more important fires of historyt comprising those most notable because of the values « 
lives destroyed, or for some peculiar reason: 



Year. 


Location. 


Year. 
A. D. 


Location. 


Year. 


Location. 


B.C. 






A. D. 




1897 


Sodom and Qomorrah 


1128 


Lincoln 


1737 


Moscow 


1400 


Jerusalem 


1130 


Rochester 


1737 


Jaroslaw 


U41 


Bphesus 


1136 


London 


1738 


Martinique 


586 


Jerusalem 


1137 


York 


1742 


Smyrna 


480 


Plataea 


1187 


Bath 


1744 


Brest 


497 


Athens 


1140 


Nottingham 


1745 


Constantinople 


390 


Rome 


1171 


Canterbury 


1748 


Moscow 


241 


Rome 


1171 


Cairo 


1749 


Constantinople 


215 


Rome 


1189 


Carlisle 


1750 


Constantl nop le 


212 


Rome 


1190 


Dublin 


1750 


Moscow 


14« 


Corinth 


1208 


Constantinople 


1751 


Constantinople 


50 


Rome 


1204 


Doncaster 


1762 


Moscow 


48 


Alexandria 


1215 


Bruges 


1753 


Smyrna 


lS-14 


Rome 


1283 


Dublin 


1763 


Archangel 


12 


Rome 


1292 


Carlisle 


1756 


Berghen 


A. D. 


1299 


Westminster 


1756 


Constantinople 


59 


Lyons 


1321 


Geneva 


1758 


Savannah 


64 


Rome 


1327 


Munich 


1759 


Salonica 


70 


Jerusalem 


1333 


Geneva 


1760 


Boston 


80 


Rome 


1349 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne 


1764 


K6nlgsberg 


154 


Rome 


1385 


Edinburgh 


1765 


Belgrade 


164 


Antloch 


1388 


Dunkirk 


1769 


Kon*gsberg 


188 


Rome 


1401 


Edinburgh 


1769 


Constantinople 


197 


Lyons 


1406 


Berne 


1769 


St. John's 


260 


Bordeaux 


1405 


Brussels 


1771 


Constantinople 


278 


Alexandria 


1430 


Geneva 


1771 


St. Petersburg 


893 


Constantinople 


1471 


Chester 


1772 


Smyrna 


466 


Constantinople 


1491 


Dresden 


in3 


Moscow 


632 


Constantinople 


1507 


Norwich 


1776 


Limehouse 


568 


Paris 


1512 


Brest 


1776 


St. George 


640 


Alexandria 


1542 


Edinburgh 


in6 


St. Kitts 


667 


Rochester 


1544 


Eldinburgh 


1776 


New York 


741 


York Minster 


1670 


Moscow 


1777 


New Orleana 


781 


Constantinople 


1576 


Antwerp 


1778 


Charleston 


798 


London 


1612 


Cork 


1778 


New York 


802-7 


ConBtantinopIe 


1631 


Magdeburg 


1778 


Constantinople 


807 


Peterborough 


1633 


Constantinople 


1780 


St. Petersbui^ 


893 


London 


1666 


Jeddo 


1780 


St. Petersburg 


917 


Cordova 


1666 


London 


1782 


Constantinople 


978 


Cork 


1667 


Archangel 


1782 


Constantinople 


982 


London 


1675 


Northampton 


1784 


Port-au-Prlnce 


1004 


Norwich 


1676 


South wark 


1784 


Brest 


1010 


Northampton 


1682 


Wapplng. London 


1784 


Constantinople 


1013 


Cork 


1689 


Prague 


1784 


Rokitsan. Bohemia 


1069 


York 


1692 


Salem 


1790 


Carlscrona 


1086 


London 


1694 


Warwick 


1791 


Constantinople 


1087 


London 


1694 


Dieppe 


1792 


Constantinople 


1092 


London 


1700 


Charleston 


1793 


Archangel 


1102 


Winchester 


1702 


Bergen 


1794 


Copenhagen 


1106 


Venice 


1728 


Copenhagen 


1794 


Wapplng. London 


1113 


MonR 


1729 


Constantinople 


1795 


Copenhagen 


1113 


Worcester 


1731 


Baireuth 


1796 


Constantinople 


1116 


Bath 


1736 


Peasmore 


1796 


Smyrna 


1118 


Nantes 


1737 


Panama 


1796 


Barbados 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



167 



T««r. Location. 


! Year. 


Location. 


Year. 


Location. 


i. D. 


A. D. 




A. D. 




AlH B&lUmor« 


1862 


St. Petersburg 


1897 


London 


^m Scutari 


1862 


Marseilles 


1897 


Paris 


Ipit WllminstoB 


1882 


Constantinople 


1898 


Nljni- Novgorod 


gPW Pern 


1863 


Monafitlr 


1899 


Philadelphia 


MM CoostantlDople 


1864 


Georgetown 


1900 


Hoboken 


jto Manila 


1864 


Hankow 


1900 


Bayonne 


PM Uvvrpool 


1865 


Port-au-Prlnce 


1900 


OtUwa-Hull. Canada 


PW BomteT 


1866 


New York 


1901 


Jacksonville 


□MB St. Tliomaa 


1865 


Constantinople 


1901 


Antwerp 


rUM Spanish Tn, Trinidad 


1865 


Manila 


1901 


Montreal 


1S11 Smjrma 


1866 


London 


1902 


Paterson 


r 1812 Mowow 


1866 


Portland, Me. 


1902 


Waterbury 


1114 RaBgooo 


1866 


Quebec 


1904 


Baltimore 


inc CMistantlnopIe 


1866 


Yokahama 


1904 


Aesland. Norway 


iUn Pt. LovU. Mauritius 


1868 


Charleston, S. C. 


1904 


Toronto 


\ tns Constantinople 


1868 


Albany, N. Y. 


1904 


Halifax 


1838 Canton 


1869 


Philadelphia 


1904 


Rochester 


nai SaTannah, Ga. 


1870 


Constantinople 


1906 


New Orleans 


tfi» Paris 


1870 


Pera. Turkey 


1906 


San Francisco 


' Itae Port-au-Prince 


1870 


Sam-Sun, Turkey 


1906 


Valparaiso, Chile 


k td Paramaribo 


1870 


Chicago 


1906 


Wellington, N. Z. 


f ICS Canton 


1871 


Chicago 


1907 


Iqulque. Chile 


11X4 Cairo 


1872 


Constantinople 


1907 


Hakodate, Japan 


. 1E5 Nev Brunswick 


1872 


Boston 


1907 


Kingston, Jamaica 


. US St. John's, N. F. 


1873 


Alexandra Palace. Lon- 


1908 


Chelsea, Mass. 


IIM Constantinople 




don 


1908 


Noda Soy, Japan 


I«S7 Abo. Finland 


1873 


Havana 


1908 


Niigata, Japan 


HXl Constantinople 


1874 


Constantinople 


1908 


Chlsholm. Minn. 


im Bristol 


1874 


Pimlico. London 


1908 


Port-au-Prince. Haytl 


•isn St. Thomas. W. I. 


1874 


Chicago 


1908 


Paris, France 


■ lia ManiU 


1875 


Oshkosh 


1908 


El Oro. Mexico 


xai Constantinople 


1875 


Virginia City 


1908 


Rostov-on-Don, Russia 


'VOi Honses of Parliament. 


1875 


Iqnlque 


1909 


Acapulco, Mexico 


London 


1876 


St. John's 


1909 


Osaka. Japan 


[tlB New York 


1876 


Soderhamn, Sweden 


1909 


Valdlvla. Chile 


1Q< Constantinople 


1876 


Quebec 


1909 


London. England 


.lin Snrat 


1876 


St. Hyacinth 


1910 


Campbellton. N. B. 


1817 SC Peterstmrs 


1877 


St. John, N. B. 


1910 


Wajlma, Japan 


tS37 Naples 


1877 


Pittsburgh 


1910 


Brussels, Belgium 


MS Charlestown 


1879 


IrkuUk. Siberia 


1910 


U. S. and Canada for- 


tSS New York 


1879 


New York 




est fires 


Xtil SmTrna 


1879 


Boston 


1911 


Santiago. Chile 


1U2 Hambars 


1882 


Kingston, Jamaica 


1911 


Aux Cayes. Hayti 


IHS Liverpool 


1882 


Leadville, Colorado 


1911 


Toklo. Japan 


im Qoebee 


1882 


Wood Street, London 


1911 


Yamagata. Japan 


IW SniTma 


1883 


Vienna 


1911 


Bangor, Me. 


Ifff New York 

BfC St. Jolin'B, N. F. 

lUi Albany 

1S48 Orel. Russia 


1884 
1885 
1887 
1887 


Bayswater, London 

Aspinwall 

Paris 

Exeter, England 


1911 
1911 
1911 


N. Y., "Triangle" 
Albany, N. Y. 
Kirln, Manchuria 


fMS Constantinople 


1888 


Sundsvall 


1911 


Constantinople 


IStt Albany. N. Y. 


1889 


Seattle 


1911 


Hankow, China 


tMf St. La«i8 


1889 


New York 


1911 


Nanking, China 


IMl San Francisco 


1889 


Spokane 


1912 


Peking. China 


1S3 Montreal 


1889 


Boston 


1912 


Osaka, Japan 


[ ma Sacramento City 


1889 


Lynn 


1912 


N. Y., "Equitable" 


t^ Constantinople 


1890 


Fort de France. 


1912 


Valdlvla, Chile 


1^ Gatesbead 




Martinique 


1912 


Tien-Tsln, China 


V6i Astrakan 


1890 


Sydney 


1912 


Pao Ting Fu, China 


ie» Valparaiso 


1892 


New Orleans 


1912 


Toklo, Japan 


IMS Auckland 
USI Key West 
US* St. Louis 
r& Constantinople 
IHO Bartiadoes 


1892 
1892 
1892 
1892 


New Orleans 

Toklo 

Milwaukee 

St. John's, N. F. 


1912 
1912 
1913 
1912 


Damascus. Syria 
Constantinople 
Castellon. Spain 
Chorlu. Turkey 


IW Mcsdoxa, S. A. 


1898 


Boston 


1912 


Adrianople, Turkey 


UR Limoges 


1894 


Shanghai 


1912 


Houston, Texas 


IKI London 


1894 


Canton. China 


191S 


Toklo, Japan 


UK! Cbarleaton 


1896 


Guayaquil 


1913 


Numadza. Japan 


lie Enschede. Holland 


1897 


Melbourne 


1913 


Scutari. Turkey 


IW Troy 


1897 


London 


191.T 


AdrlanoplP. Turkey 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



169 



! 

IRES, URBAN AND RURAL, IN THE UNITED STATES: NUMBER, 
LO^ ON BUILDINGS AND CONTENTS, BY KINDS OF 
BUILDINGS, AND LOSS PER CAPITA, 
CALENDAR YEAR 1907. 

fSoaroe: Report of the Qedlogloal Survty, Department of the Interior.] 



Mte: 
Brtek. cte., hnrkHng»- 

Bofldings , 

Coptcots. ......... . 



ToCaL, 



Fnmehnfldtngi 

Bofldince. 

OontentB 



Total. 



bk^ 



OnadtoteL. 



IWMrofflm: 

- lBbckk,ete.,bufiding8.. 
Inlnme bnildlnge 



Total 



Urban. 



DoUart, 

19,810,474 

39,092,270 



48,906,744 



30,357,151 
27,827,388 



58,184,639 



50,173,635 
50, 919, 956 



107,093,283 



25,297 
80,109 



105,406 



2.54 



Roral. 



DcOan. 
11,276,213 
8,240,310 



19,516,533 



47,707,056 
40,767,847 



88,474,903 



58,963,269 
49,008,157 



107,991,426 



10,843 
49,008 



59,851 



2.49 



Total. 



Dottars. 
81,092,087 
37,332,5h0 



68.425,2G7 



78,064,207 
68,595,235 



146,659,442 



109,186,894 
105,927,815 



215,064.709 



36,140 
129,117 



165,257 



2.51 



^ie£s 



IN THE UNITED STATES: POPULATION, LOSS AND PER CAPITA 
LOSS, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS, CALENDAR YEAR 1907. 

(SoQToe: Report 6f the OeoloKloal 8nr7e7,'Departtaient of the Interior.] 



Oeographlc dtytalon. 



pMAtteatfe: 

lUot, New Hampdilre, Vermont, Maeaaehoeetts, Rhode la- 
k had, CoBiMetloat, New York, New Jersey, Pennaylyania. . . 
Wik Adanties 

MMnae. Marylaiid. Diatriet of Oilambfa, Virginia, West Vfr- 
-dBiL^octh Garoluia, Booth Carolina, Qeor^, Florida 

I 01iio,iadlaoa,II]inoto,M]chigan,Wi80on8ln,Minne80te,Iowa, 
. ^HiHmrf, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas. . 
MhOottnl: 

Sntocky, Tennessee, Alabama, MJaslBBippl, Louisiana, Texas, 

^ OM ahMpa, Arkansas 

•■hra: 

MontaDa, Wrombff, Colorado, New Ifeadoo, Arisona, Utah, 
Nevada, Idaho, Washington, Oregon^ and California. 



Total popu- 
lation. 



23,779,013 



11,574,988 



29,026,645 



16,368,558 



4,783,657 



Total fire 
loss. 



DoUar«. 
59,447,532 



25,349,233 



68,793,148 



59,008,922 



12,676,426 



Fire loss 

per 
capita. 



DoUart. 
2.50 



2.19 
2.37 
3.60 
2.69 



TOTAL WATER SURFACE. 



SW Pacific Ooean.. 
, jLthntic Ocean. 

Indian Ooean.. 
! AittieSea 

AataretieSea . 



48 p. 


c. 


24 p. 


c. 


21 p. 


c. 


3 p. 


c. 


4 p. 


0. 



Sq. Miles. 

67,570.000 

34,700.000 

28,900.000 

4,470,000 

5,610,000 



Fathoms Depth. 



M:ix. 
5,350 
4.730 
3,830 
2,050 
3.130 



Average. 
2,100 
1,800 
2.000 
1.500 
1.600 



170 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ANNUAL FIRE LOSSES IN THE UNITED STATES FOR THIRTT-EIGHT TEARS— 

1876-1912 



From "' 


The Insurance Year Book, " reprinted by permUeion 


of " The Spedator Company.** 






New York and Chicago. 






Aggregate 
Property 


Aggregate 




Aggregate 


Aggresmte 


Year. 


Insurance 


Year. 


Property 


Insunmce 




L088. 


Loss. 




Loss. 


Loas. 


1876 


$78,102,285 


$39,327,400 


1894 


$140,006,484 


$89^71.009 


1876 


64.630.600 


34.374.500 


1895 


142.110.233 
118.737.420 


84.689.030 


1877 


68.265.800 


37.398.900 


1896 


73.903.800 


1878 


64.315.900 


36.575.900 


1897 


116.354,675 


66.722.145 


1879 


77,703.700 


44.464.700 


1898 


130.593.905 


73.796.080 


1880 


74.643.400 


42.525.000 


1899 


153.597,830 


92.683.715 


1881 


81.280.900 


44,641,900 


1900 


160,929.805 


95.403.650 


1882 


84.505.024 


48,875.131 


1901 


165.817.810 


100.798.645 


1883 


100,149.228 


54.808.664 


1902 


161.488.355 


94.775.045 


1884 


110.008.611 


60.679.818 


1903 


145.302.155 


*1 04.000.000 


1886 


102.818,796 


57.430,709 


1901 


t229, 198.050 


*144.000.000 


1886 


104.924.750 


60.506,564 


1905 


« 


165.221,650 


*1 16.000.009 


1887 


120.283,055 


69,659.508 


1906 




518.611.800 


■(^92.000.000 


1888 


110.885,665 


63,965.724 


1907 


215,084.709 


«I27 .000.000 


1S89 


123.046.833 


73.679.465 


1908 


1217.885.850 


♦157.000.000 


1890..... 


108.993.792 


65,015.465 


1909 




188.705,150 


*143.000.000 


1891 


143.764,967 


90.576.918 


1910 


t214.003.300 


*175.000.000 


1892 


151.516,098 


93.511.936 


1911 


t217.004.575 


*190.000.000 


1893 


167,544.370 


105.994.577 


1912 

Totals. . 


t206.438.900 


*194.000.000 




$5,543,654,695 


$3,539,359,583 



Fiaureafor year a prior to 1004 are from Chronicle Fire Tablea. 
^Estimated by publlstaers of the Insurance Year Book. 
tFrom National Board Tables. 



FINANCIAL STANDING OF LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



The combined agjcregates of the Financial 
Standing, etc., of the 224 principal insurance 
companies show that the capital stock in 1912 
was $44,329,379. The principal sources of 
income oif these companies for the same period 
were as follows: New premiums, $70,382,387; 
renewed premiums, $395,627,108; received for 
annuities, $6,053,215; dividends, interest, etc., 
$156,288,333; received for rents, $7,027,280; 
and all other receipts, $20,015,381; thus mak- 
ing the total income. $655,393,704. The ex- 
penditures of these same companies for the 
same period were as follows: Paid for death 
losses, $151,176,491; paid for matured en- 
dowments, $52,607,566; annuities paid. 
$7,287,767; paid for surrendered, lapsea and 
purchased policies, $77,219,329; dividends to 
poLicyholders, $78,716,564; dividends to 
stockholders, $1,573,517; commissions, sala- 
ries and traveling expenses of agents, $01.- 
693,343; medical fees, salaries and other 
charges of employees, $19,854,072; and all 
other expenditures. $33,219.8.33; thus making 
the total expenditures of the companies, 
$483,348,282. The excess of the incomes over 
the expenditures for tho year 1912 amounted 
to $172,045,422. 

The assets amounting to $3,r)07,059,447 



At the end of the calendar year 1911 there 
were 0,113 Building and Loan Annociations 
in the United States having asHot>4 to the 
0um of $1,040,307,713 and a membership of 
2.355.066. 



of admitted aaseU and $21,988,858 of assets 
not admitted, were as follows: Real estate 
owned, $127,684,405; bond and mortgage 
loans. $1,197,781,579: bonds owned, $1,493.- 
506.968; stocks owned, $81,677,178; collateral 
loans, $15,191,616; premium notes and loans, 
$539,245,042; cash in office and bank, $50.- 
017,640; net deferred and unpaid premiums. 
$42,606,061; all other assets. $49,948,958. 
The liabilities of these same oompanies 
amountixig to $3,168,194,661 were divided as 
follows: Reserve, $2,988,642,224; losses and 
claims not paid, $16,987,072; claims re- 
sisted, $1,689,163; dividends unpaid, $87,202.- 
774; all other liabilities, $73,673,428. The 
total surplus paid to policyholders (including 
capital) amounted to $429,464,786. 

The policy account of these companies was 
as follows: New business actually paid for, 
$2,240,434,665; whole life policies in force, 
$10,163,447,058; endowment policies in force, 
$3,260,245,355; all other policies in force. 
$2,132,208,758; total insurance in force. 
$15,555,901,171; total industrial business 
written, $842,041,252; total industrial busi- 
ness in force. $3,708,892,514. 

From the " In^rance Year Book;** re- 
printed by permUaion of " The Spectator Cow^ 
party," Neijp York atui Chicago. 



The first steam fire ^igine was invented by 
Braithwaite, 1829; Ericsson, in New York, 
produced a similar one in 1840. Tbey were 
not generally used until 1860. Fire engines 
driven by motor power firat used in 1905. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 






i2,8sV^2,.855.4e 



iDted to U51.- 






mtinfl compftDiea; flJaofhle 
«n[HtKl atock of ta7,2t 



Mmfteline compaQJefl ; pipe-liiLFpfftaKDaeleeCrji?- 
lifht companies; usiupDrtatiaii and itoraae 
eompuun. telecnph sod t«l«pbooe oom- 
psiuH, bulu tB« fisuru on tta« 24.624 re- 
poru iHcivKl. had a capital aUKk of (10.3ZO.- 
11S,BU.Z3: «D indebtAdneH, bonded and 
atharwue of tlT,ft31.4e2,2S1.2S: and a net 
income ol $806.324 .£00.38. The third clua, 

lumber and c™" am^^M-'''rolUn| millii 



4 Rin tt lawau ea Slack* 



is l;s ;i :!! rl Is :E lis 

:s IT, n m lit :s :u js 

IS j.S ^ m [S i:S :S ;:r. 

!» l"! a "! *" '" •" •» 

iB i:S :" iS I " ■ in iS S'n 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AVERAQB PBEIODU EATS I^R tl,000 INSUBANCB. 



bar of Amala 

































































































































































































































































































































































, „,,__jii ntafor IHOiml IB. . , 

rtV ISai ud im, nv«>>*^- Tb»n(M toiesciud ino 



to of tbg Mn York Is 



f^^^B^AoflMIu 



Egr tMOud ISIOuafann tluB|HUt«Hud]'Giiid(srcr 



AREA OP THE LARGEST ISLANDS OF THE EARTH. 





■w 


aa.""*:.' 


UidmaaKAT-- 


...ISIS 




KSi^ii^d 



8q. Miles. 

Hniti 29,810 

Snkhfdin 29,114 

TnslnBaia 20.21S 

Tcs-lon.. ZS.aitO 

KuiHhiu Ifl.HIn 



L74 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

(ADIttART AND IKDUSTRLU, INSURANCE IN FORCE BT ffTATES. DECEMBER tt. 19UL* . 



suta. 


"*■■ 


"FattT" 


iBduBriJ 

ImanUMiD 

Faro. 

<a!ota!Mi 

8.215,172 
84,541.832 

17.215,910 

3l.isi,2ge 


Total . |u«i. 
Fo™. |CHi». 




l! 177! Ml 

,.!S:g 
|:S 

ill 

I'.na'.sji 

1.124,77: 

\Si 

430:57! 

S.M7.I8; 

B,ll3;tl< 

't77!osi 
4,787,121 

872. 7SS 
7,865.111 

541.tll 

i:Mt!M' 

i.o«i:fli; 

l!3u!8«l 
145, 9M 


»I.0»2,K« 
3l»l,8n,2«l 
13I.533.SA3 
188.483, «5! 

7»:258!00! 

^!?Si!^ 
1 mmttt 

3h! 358! 783 

22. ISO. 552 

1,B«):488!82 

ise.i37.8ta 

U. 202. 241 

tB1.2i3,034 
75.010,451 

ii4:(S:82i 

2ei!708!8i 
S7! tot! 582 

1|;|:S 

I8;87l!0l8 










»t.oa>.ixi 
431.018.21! 

^:oM;m 

41.473.811 

112 410 115 

7o.osi.S4: 
















U^^iMiiiiiL'.'.'.V. 


UD 




H. 010.718 










103. 774.011 

S;S;!S 

'as 

IS 

257.300,817 

)J:SS 
















f^f^- 
















»«*w-- 










"!:g:!S 

7.4Sl.Z8t 


















u.m.va 














"S:SSS:3J 














3. til, too 

481.104.712 


























17,4»,147 
1178.538 
4.334,810 

7.044.585 

i5:s88!s8a 












m= 


111 

109,414,804 (0 
















•Cosidid boB SptcUUt Yw Book, 1911, p. 351. 



Uounuia. Feel. 
JOB— M t . E verwt. 20.0(1^ 
(i«lwin-Au5t«i.:ib,27« 


Mountsin, 
Naiidu l)rvi 
Muslai^iia.. 
Chumalari.. 
Soulh Amcric 

Huasciin,.! 


K»l. 




Fe^l. 

2l!o8tl 

.2l!o30 
,20,738 
.20.*98 


TupuncDta. .20.386 
CacM 20.251) 


MnAhFrbruiii..-.25.niili 


HuaDdoy-.. 
Sajania.... 


RanJfflie 20.021) 

Mi«<i. 20.013 

North Amcrica- 


Kuth«K»n^.. 24,740 


-22.051 







SCIENTIFtC AHBRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 175 




... _iePolaf Circle.. 

' attbaPolii 

Ei of the Gbbe amouiKs 



W.OOO.OOO cubifl mila. 



176 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



181 



fflGHEST AND LOWEST ALTITUDES IN UNITED STATES. 



CTATIL 



Colerado. 



Dcta«Bf%. 

Vtorifd*- w 



iiiutiwr ruimr. 



MtMB. 



• Sk. 



BMBialiiic 



York 

IBofth CkraKuB. 
Bortli IMtote.. 
OUe 




Ctok. 



it 



V^Vdctah 



(1w«lia Mouiilaiu 

Mount MrKiDlcy 

9ui FcMH-wro Teak 

(Illnc Mmmtain 

\lliipuan« Moantain 

Moant Whifn*y 

{Monnt Maiaive 
Mount Elbrrt 

Bear Mnantain ■■ 

OraterrHk 

Tenlfj* 

Mottnl PtfAMiit 

BroMown BaKi 

Mount JnnialloiiK MnnKiiN- 

Mama Km 

tlyndman IVak - 

ChariM Mimnd 

CWloa..: 

Prinithar- 

On weal boandary 

Big Black Uonntain 

Nofthwcat part cA coanly . . 

Moant Kalabdln 

Backbone MfHinlain - 

Moant Qrayloek 

PovcapiiM Moantaini ...... 

Mttabi Range .^^^^i^. 

Roily SprinRt ^.l. 

TiMnaSaak Moantain ...... 

Gtaalta Peak .^^«^» 

Booth weat port of rlMnty... 

Wli«»l«rPBak ^... 

Moant Waahlni;loa 



HighPbuit 

North TradbM IVak 

Moant Man7 

Mout Mitchell 

Saounft of eoonty — - 

KearManafidd 

VittK end df connfy. 

Mount HomI 

BlaaKnob 

Mount Xpo ..V 

I<aqall)o Moaiilaiiia. 

Durfaa mil 

fhawfria Monntain . 

Harnay PMk 

Moant Qnyot. 

ElGapiton 

KbgaPteka 

Moant MaaaHald ... 
Movnt fioftn...... 

Mount Ralniar 

QpfQoa Knoo-.-—'- 

KbHUI 

OannettTtek 1 



Movnt Whitney ...^.^. &. 






«,407 
SO. MO 
13.611 

2,W)n 

2,H0U 

14.A0I 

H.-Hfi 
14, Mfl 

2.3» 

440 

420 

301 
4,768 
1,274 

1.1.823 

12,078 
1.S41 
1,210 
J,«»00 
4,136 
4,100 
400 
»,300 
3,340 
8,506 
2,023 
l.OSO 
600 
1,760 

12,850 
6,3S0 

18,068 
0,293 

1,i«9 

13.306 

6.344 

6,711 

8.800 

1,479 

4,730 

11,225 

8,136 

0.610 

3.632 

806 

3,648 

• 7,242 

6,638 

9,020 

13,496 

A,m\ 

8,719 

14,363 

4.860 

1,940 

13,785 

14,501 



Wi 



i>iwraT i-oiwr 



N«BR. 



({nir uf Mokico . 
PactfleOrcan... 
Coloiihlo Kivi-r. 



■\ 



icliiu Uiv«r. 
Pi-atb Valley... 
Arkansas Rin'r. 



liOOf Inland Suniul ... 

Atlantic Oman 

rMoniac River . . 

Atlantic Ocean 

do 

FarifkOrean 

do 

Snake River 

MiniaBppi Kivrr 

Ohio River 

Misnarippi River 

Verdigris River 

MiariarippI River 

Golf of Mexico 

Atlantic OoMU) 

do 

-...do--. 






• 



Lake Erie 

Lakv Superior 

Gulf of Mexico 

St Fraocl^ River 

Kootenai River 

Soatheaat comer of State 

Colorado River 

Atlantic Oittui 



Atlantic Ocean 

.Jled Bluff 

Atlantic Ocean 

-.-do 

Pembina ■ 

Ohio River 

Red River 

Pacific Ocean... 

Delaware River.. 

Padflc Ocean 

Atlantic Ocean 

Atlantic Ocean 

do 

.Big Stone lakr. 

Miwisi-ippi River. 

GiiK of Mexico 

Ueaverdam Creek 

Vske Cbamp'Iaia 

Atlantic Ocean 

.Pad6c Ocean 

.Potomac River 

-lAkeMicbigan.., 

.Belle Pburcbe River 

.Death Vallqr> 



&<« h'Vi'l 

Hea h>vcl 

l»» 

65 

276 

8.350 

Keabivel 
Sealrvel 
Sea level 
SeakTd 
ScaliTel 
8«a level 
Qmkvel 

279 

816 

477 

700 

257 

Sea level 

Sealex-el 

Sea level 

Sea level 

573 

003 

Sea level 

210 

1.800 

826 

470 

San level 

Sea level 

2,876 

Sea level 

Sea level 

790 

426 

800 

Scalerel 

Sea level 

Scalevd 

Sea level 

S4« level 

Sea level 

063 

183 

Sea level 

2,000 

Sea level 

Sc« level 

240 

682 

».10O 



awsMi- 
■atcHb** 



flOO 



4.100 

080 

8,900 

6^800 

800 

60 
180 
100 
600 



6,000 
800 

700 

1,100 

2,000 

750 

100 

600 

360 

500 

800 

1,800 

800 

800 

8,400 

2.600 

6,800 

1,000. 

250 
5,700 

900 

TOO 
1,000 

880 
1,800 
8,800 
1.100 



200 
860 

2,200 
900 
1,700 
6. 100 
1,000 
'960 
1,700 
1,500 
1,060 
6,700 

•8,800 



U, S. OeoUoieal Surtey. 



182 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Customs and Internal Rbyskue 
Collected on Distilled Spiritb, 
Wines, Malt Liquors and Tobac- 
co with Total National Revenue 
AND Percentage. 

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1012, 
the total national ordinary receipts from all 
sources amounted to $691,778,465, and the 
total internal revenue and customs receipts 
from alcoholic beverages and tobacco and 
the manufactures of same amounted to $332,- 
497,000, or in other words, the receipts from 
alcoholic beverages and tobacco was 48.06 
per cent, of the total revenue of the United 
SUtes. 

The customs revenue from alcoholic bever- 
ages, amounting to $16,765,000 was divided 
as follows: From malt liquors, $2,014,000; 
from wine, $5,809,000; from distilled spirits, 
$8,942,000. The customs revenue from to- 
bacco and the manufactures of same amounted 
to $25,572,000. The internal revenue from 
alcoholic beverages, exclusive of license duties, 
which for the manufacture of malt liquors 
and distilled spirits amounted to $484,000. 
and for the sale of malt liquors and distiUea 
spirits to $7,134,000, toUling $212,142,000. 
was divided as follows: From malt liquors, 
$62,108,000; and from distilled spirits, $149,- 
934.000. The internal revenue from tobacco 
amounted to $70,590,000. Thus for the year 
the total internal revenue and customs re- 
ceipts from alcoholic beverages amounted to 
$236,335,000, and from tobacco and the 
manufacture of same $96,162,000. 

Domestic Express Rates. 

It is impossible in the space allotted to the 
subject to give an accurate idea of domestic 
express rates. However, Uie matter will be 
greatly simplified if the rates based on a sone 
system, as advocated by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, are put into effect. The in- 
troduction of the Parcels Poet has caused a ma- 
terial reduction in the present rates and tariffs. 

Foreign Express Rates. 

The following is a tariff of all rates for 
express packages. It should be remembered 
that rates of this kind are subject to change 
without notice, and they are published solely 
in the interents of the shipper. These rates 
mav be considered to be maximum. Thus we 
find another company offering shippings to 
Italy as low as 40 cents a smgle pound to 
Genoa, 60 cents to Rome, and 65 cents to 
other railway stations. Also a rate of 30 
centH a pound to Paris and 25 cents a pound 
for shipments to London, via Southampton. 
The rates on say a hundred pounds do not 
vary in quite the same ratio. It is believed 
that with this tariff of rates the intending 
traveler can make his arrangements as to ship- 
ping packages of guide books, etc., rather 
more mtcliigently than without it. Rates to 
SouUi Africa. North Africa, Asia, India, Japan, 
Australia, the West Indies, Porto Rico. Cen- 
tral America and South America are not in- 
cluded, as these rates vary so radically that it 
is impos.<;ibIe to get any accurate idea of w^hat 
the shipment would actually cost without the 
publication of a more extensive tabic than 
space will permit. 






en 



< 



•OOtt ««»d 
9(«^ aomunrax 



•OOlf J^d 
©»BH oni«A 






Q QQQQQiOiOiOiQ'^ 



p4M 



'Bponod 02 
I«ao{)ippy ipv3 



Q Q'OiOQQiOQQiOiO 






JS 



is 



1 



o 



is 



is 



too 

;9^ 



ip 



eo 



|8 



J2 



00 



.So 



s ssss?ss§s$ 



N co"^cO'*eo^'«'«o«o« 



% wt^a;eoSSh.o^« 

■ ft ■ C^S ■ > ■ • • • 



N c9cocO'<'eoeo^^o^o 



csf C4coD«eoc4e<o^-«(0^ 



O OOOOQPQQOQ! 

1-i cie4'e«ieoc9C«oooi^<9: 



r'_'^ 1-i^ C\^ C« CO « ^ c« 

S S-«c«ocoSSaxt» 
,H ,-• 1-4 C4 vi^ ^.4 C9 ^ CO ev 



i> SoS§S»SSo4 






3 St^ooSSSSsS 



.«*- 



99*99*900000 

ioMSi4a5»oror«o«ol 



Sg 222S2S2SSS 



O iO>OOQO*Q40QO 
CO eccO'*»o-«««'*'*o«r* 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



183 




PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP ROUTES FROM AUSTRALASIA. 



INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE 

TV Intenuitional Union for the Publication 
■ CoRtoms Tariffs was founded by an inter- 
ittboal oonvoition, July 5. 1890, and con- 
Inded between fifty-two states and semi-inde- 
■deot eoloniee. The object of the union is 
» publisb as promptly and as correctly as 
^oisibfe all the tariffs of the world in five 



PUBLICATION OF CUSTOMS TARIFFS. 

languages, via., English, French. German, 
Itauan, and Spanish. The bureau has its seat 
at Brussels, and is under the direct control of 
the Government of Belgium. The members of 
the bureau are delegates from the principal 
countries whose language is used in the publi- 
cationa. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





Jto«t^ «.im. ««i «ppr<«imai, Mocl. </«o«y. *. rt. <wr.ff^ «i 




owmiiii. 


!S2K 


ll™to.7mdt. 


IVtpnliUm 


— ^ 




M 


-ar- 


TtaW. 




UnJtM State 


(Md.... 
...do.... 

...do.... 

...do.... 

....do... 

....do... 
....do... 

'.'.'.'.•lo.'.'.'. 
...do... 




3K,0CO 

!;S 
11 

(,«00 

1,«0 

i:S; 

i«D,i(n 

1 

MO 

100 

1 

1 


Its 

7,JBI 


"w 


^gs 












Es; «-""■■- 


14, «» 


».«» 




PooodiUiUnc.... 

Pound >Urilii|iH! 
P^RirUDf.... 








1(,II(0 


«(.«0 




if-----::::::::::: 








W 

H,«D 

1^300 

is 

'S 

Si 


,%s 


.IS 
.,.^s 




























&'••::;::::;: 


....do... 




iS 


ts 
















B^^^^ 


....do.... 






■iSiii 






1 

mIboo 


i 






::::|:::: 




































w 


WT:;:::; 


....do.... 










































°°W...;: 


....do... 

....do... 




J, 100 

(1^000 
HMO 

lisoo 


a,im 


».«» 




;ir.!?!!'!!':::: 












■-f- 


















?SSBi-.;::: 

Spain 

IKS™::;:::: 

Bum. 


....do... 

;;"dD"r 

....do... 

■i-Si: 
















Is 

.Kg 


a 






4B 


Crown 

?SIS,:::::::::::: 












i,ci«,ero 


6,187,0» 



















■H prior to tluit lor IMO mn for coin ooli; IbtM DfiHva lutadc 

>< EDi^ad; ilfo tl3,XD,(ICa laid M1od(1m la Indlu |(^d4tudad 

DjnnrvM. Fnd. J. AtUmm, HomDHot noanl of Indta, in IM>, 

I BnibmcoU, tlM Hdtr St^ilud loCwS. 

■ UBdnponaoloiiUtJonDitaoby lI<Mt.r. Annfnioaud B. HMW Id IMi, »bt 

tOltoldtatb*ooiuilnUlromS]/n(VnoW4l,inoj5lEc7i«lKisoaii<jL TkoBMR 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



r «B^«te, ^* <A« prm^paleo<tntriattfAfai)Hd,I>*e.ai,t8n. 




N 



r tux' *"*' '■■■P*'**! Buk o( Osmur, No deDnlla laloniiatloD v 

u bHO ui iDdiutrt&l uuum^itfoa. 

d bull: tbil Is, 100 p»« maai 1 OulM S 
u (iDld-stuldud cgoaliM). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFBRENCB BOOK. 
INTEREST TABLES. 



■BOWma THE BATI A 



ooiaomn) tnxun xuu xo. i. 



"11 



m 






8CIEKTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Trade Discount TaUe 



KaMFvCtBt. ' 


JS- 


KM 


KMcFwCort. 1 ' 


asT'i »•« 






ouo 

MM 

660 

•71 

DMO 
097S 

1M 

MO 

ooo 

MSI 

ss 

2J0S 
710 

137 

MM 
«1 

US 
MOO 

400 
590 

2961 

BOO 
29S0 

320 
6«S 

E! 

ill 

2J6 
«1Q 


1^ 
93U 
«UI 

«7»9 

UM 

SMO 
SI 31 

^ 

9162 

SS 

S160 

s?s 

ssso 

7919 

1 
1 

7671 

7267 
6SU 

sooo 

ii 

7020 

6480 
7i00 

712S 

6M7 

6417 




.^,. 


32S0 

SSI 

w, 

11 

3394 
3*62 
3629 

9631 

1 

3346 

33S0 

3683 

SI 

ii 

4330 

1 

IS 

406> 
4229 

B 

B 

ii 

42SS 

4439 


6750 






lOndlk 


mai 




T-Jjii.;;..-: 


Mssrj;;;:;;! 


6344 




if,!-"' 


7 






,«^^a.-.;:; 






;3?-.-.:;: 

:IS:iJil.»-:: 






liasE 

:iS:S38:;::: 


6706 




SSi!::::;:::::: 












S.*.u:d2i 














30 
30 

30 

X 
» 














■L'\r^'--- 


ar".?.::;:: 


sa 


iKifS,.";.;: 


«l!:.::::: 


S!! 


ikssF;;: 












30 
30 








iS:S3?:.;;..-. 
ffiS!!;:::::; 


39S5 

S«7 

.v,7n 






s.io.a.^^ii::::\ 






■Si*^:'!;:;:; 


6414 


















2 
2 

s 

i 

s 
s 








ipi;;:;;;i 




:.';/•,;«"' 




:K-SiE:;; 
;lS-i,"8.'!.::: 


, ID, and iS 


i; 








■."j;""' 


SiY"'. 




.■fJiiv.-.::::: 




6021 


iilll;;:- 


3361 



SCIfiNTIFIC AUKRICAN BKE^RBNCE BOOK. 



Trade Discount Table— (ContinuecD 




THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD. 



Hw Sn»Q Wonden ot 
Briber the Scve 

VibU. won 

Akuodtu; .. . 

<JfX Temple of Diana at Kphnus: 
Hurm Gardeni oF Bahylon: The Pyn 

^Tomb of UlulBolltB; "rul th* firvAt ij 

of Jupiter at Olympic. 

*Tt^ (he north a 
bo. tli*y . 



..J Won 

I foUon 






if (he Modern World 



in America and Eunjpe, are, in the order of 
importance, with the votes eait; Wirelns 
lelecrapby. 2M votm; telephone, ]S£; aeio- 
plsne. 167; radium, 165; ipectnim analysia. 
12Q; X-ray, 111. The Panama Caail «u 
eiven 100 voles; anenthcBia. 94, and aynlhetio 
cheDiifl(ry, 81. Only one ballot, bearing the 
name of one of the moKt di^tin^ighed aiithori- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFEHENCS BOOK. 



THE GREAT TEMPLE OF DUMA 



THE PHAROS OF ALEXANDRIA. 



THE COLOSSUS OF RHODES. 



SCIENTinC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON. 



THE STATUE OF /UFTTBR AT OLYIfFIA THE TOMB OF MATTSOLOa. 



SCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE PYBAHIDS OP EGYPT. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The fWretarj- of AuricultL.. ^ _„ r.- 

to the uricultural iniu^ry. He appomL all 
the oflieen nnd employeee of the depArDnent 
with the exception of the Aaawtant ftecrelor>' 
and the Chipf of the Weather Bureau, who are 
appointed by the PrwidenI, and diretts the 
mananement of nli the burenus. diviflionHt and 
rtffieea erabraeed in the dei>artnient. He exer- 

the National Treasury. 



The Bum 
the inepeetit 
fooil pnxlue 



ct of Conjtrees of 



The Burenu of Forestry (tives prai 
lands; in vesUicate- methort-. ol forest 

forest hrcs. and other fonwt problen: 
The Burenu of Chemistry miikee bu 



d reclamation of alkali lands. 



The Bureau of Plant Industry siudieg plul 

life in all its relations to acricullurc. It in- 
eludes vegetable, patholopeol nnd physiologi- 
cal, botanieni, pomolosiciJ and grtua and 
Fora^ plant invcatiffations. 



:if Entomolooy obtaiDS and ije- 



The Bureau <^ Biok^ical Survey inveelt 

lb and reeommeidfl measurw for the prner- 
lion of benelieial and the deslnieSen at 
iurious special. It also gtudies the gut- 
aphical diBtributlon of animals and plants 



the inlere,i« of «nculture. d™lina»iih fertil- 
^e-e^ltirfc'u^n^-e^.'^r^nJ^o'S^^n" 


The Office of Experiment Stations tipre- 


sents the department in its relationa «nth the 


which are now in operation in all the Slalm, 


and enle of fo<Kl and drui j,rod,.ct« for the 




aod direr lly mannifes the eiDerimenl stalioni 






mffininn of the Pure F.™1 nn.l DruiH Art of 


It Berks to promote (he interest of aJtrieulluro ' 


.lune an. IftDfi, A!^«> inapoets unporteil anil 


edueation and Invesligation thiouchout the 


exported food producla, 


rnited Stale.. ^ ^ 



CHAPTER VI. 



MERCHANT MARINE. 



tBER AND Net and Gross Tonnage: of Steam and Sailing Vessels of 
CR 100 Tons, of the Several Countries of the Worlj>, as Recorded 
Lloyd's Register for 1913-14. 



r-^ 




Steam. 




Sail. 


Total. 


l^tui 

i United Kins'm 
^ CaloaicB 


Number. 
8.514 
1.495 


Net tons. 
11.109.560 
915.950 


Gross tons. 
18.273.944 
. 1.576.223 

19.8i9.107 


Number. 
700 
578 


Net tons. 
422.293 
160.083 


Number. 
9,214 
2.073 


Tonnage, 
18.696.237 
1.735.300 


ToUl 


10.009 


12.025.510 


1.278 


682*376 


11.287 


20.431.543 


fUnited States) : 

Sea 

Northern Lakes 
Phjllppine 

Total 

Arsentlnlan 

AoBtro* 

Honsarian 
BdKian. . .T. 


1.209 
593 

69 


1.280.958 
1.724.566 

27.080 


1.971,9a3 
2.285,836 

44.555 


1,487 
34 

8 


1.026.554 
96.854 

1.934 


2.696 
627 

77 


2.998.457 
2,382.690 

46.489 


1371 


3.032.604 


4.302,294 


1.529 


1425.342 


3.400 


5.427.636 


336 

419 

164 

402 

95 

66 

55 

652 

662 

987 

2.019 

365 

5 

591 

1.037 

43 

1.697 

20 

105 

32 

716 

12 

647 

1.043 

135 

60 

8 

54 


107.172 

629.444 

186.581 

188.645 

68.834 

65.375 

37.902 

415.880 

794.840 

1.029.113 

2.877.887 

443.771 

2.017 

773.848 

956.702 

22.838 

1.122.677 

13.352 

55.903 

25.011 

463.022 

7.955 

506.073 

551.964 

65.402 

38.360 

2,420 

16.027 


180.576 

1.010.847 

296.196 

313.416 

108.401 

86.690 

60.895 

711.094 

1.286.742 

1.793.310 

4.743.046 

705.897 

3.387 

1.274.127 

1.500.014 

37.920 

1.870.793 

25,814 

92.636 

45.123 

790.075 

12.936 

826.261 

943.026 

111,848 

62.215 

4.232 

29.709 


72 

8 

8 

67 

36 


34.259 

1.067 

8,190 

16.221 

31.301 


306 

427 

172 

459 

131 

66 

59 

811 

759 

1.552 

2.321 

442 

5 

1.114 

1.037 

52 

2.191 

60 

208 

33 

1.210 

12 

007 

1,436 

272 

05 

13 

70 


214.835 

1.011.414 
304.386 


Brazilian 

pfaflfan 


329.637 
139.792 


Chlneae . 


86.690 


Cuban 


4 
259 

97 
565 
302 

77 


641 

50.060 

23.107 

407.854 

339.015 

16.885 


61.536 


Danbh 


762.054 


Dutch 


1.309.849 


n VI Mill 


2.201.164 


German 


5.082.061 


Greek 


722.782 


Bftitian 


3.387 


Italian 


523 


247.815 


1.621,942 


Japaneae 


1.500.014 


M^rican... .. 

Norwegian 

Peruvian 

^ortoguese 

Roumanian 

RuMian 


9 

594 

40 

103 

1 

500 


2.120 

587.097 

19.700 

27.943 

285 

184.103 


40.049 

2.457.890 

45.614 

120.679 

45.408 

974.178 




12.936 


Spaatah 


60 
393 
137 

15 
fi 

22 


14.734 

103.344 

45.450 

13,316 

079 

7.123 


840,995 


ivediah 

TnrkWi 


1.047,270 
157.298 


CroKuayan 

X eopxQclan 

Other countries: 
Bokaria. Co- 
lo nDia, Costai 
Rica, Ecuador. 
Egypt. Hon- 
duras. Liberia, 
Montenegro. 
Nicaragua, 
Oman.Panama. 
Penla,8alvador 
temoi Sarawak 
Tonia, Zana- 
Ibar.etc. 


75.531 
4.911 

36.832 


Total 


23.897 


26.517.029 


43,070.177 


G.()U4 


3.K90.93(3 


.'jo.r.oi 


4fi.?)70.113 



Pot valuable Information relative to ocean travel the rrader Is referred to "Sciontlflc 
American Handb<x)k of Travel," published by Miinn&Co., Inc., and compiled and 
edited by Albert A. Hopkins. It is tho standard book on the subject, and the tables. 
HC. in this Chapter bring it up to date. 

193 



194 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MERCHANT MARINE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



On June 30, 1912, the merchant marine of 
the United States, indudins all kinds of 
documented shipping, comprised 26,528 ves- 
sels of 7,714,183 gross tons. Of this number 
16,874, having a gross tonnage 3,625,525, 
were operating on the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts; 4,254 vessels, with a tonnage of 
963,319, were operatixig on the Pacific Coast. 
The power and material of the total number 
of documented vessels were as follows: Sail- 
ing vessels — Wood, 7,442, gross tonnage 
1,279,633; metal, 140. gross tons 259.214; 
total, 7,562, with a gross tonnage of 1,538,847. 



Of steam vessels. 12.192, having a tonna^tf 
1,111.905, were made of wood, and 2.073. with, 
a tonnage of 4,067,593, were builto^unetal, 

wtra^ a gn 



making a total of 14,265 vessels, 
tonnage of 5,197,858. There are ^]«o 665 
wooden canal boats having a tonimge of 
72,567, and 3,842 wooden and 174 metal 
barges, having a tonnage of 922.911 Achu. 
During tli^year 1,505 vessels, having ^ sross 
tonnage of 2|2,669 were constructed. Of this 
number lOr metal veesels had a tonnage of 
135.881. 



OCEAN 8TEAMBB3, tS KNOTS AND OYKR. Kumber belonging to each Country. 



Ooontrj. 



Azgentine 

Austria 

Belgium , 

Denmark 

France 

Oermany. , 

Great Britain... 

Oreece 

Holland 

Italy 

Japan 

Tm 

Biusia 

Spain 

Sweden 

United States.. 



wknoti 
& above. 


19 knots. 


iB|kt«. 


s8 knots. 


«7*kt«. 


S7 knots. 




ToCftL 


• >» 


• •• 


• •• 


«•• 


• •• 


• •• 


z 


z 


■ ■• 


z 


• •• 


a 


• •• 


a 


4 


9 


• »* 


• •• 


■ ■■ 


••• 


• •« 


z 


z 


a 


• •• 


• •• 


flii 


••• 


• •• 


• •« 


5 


S 




I 


3 


a 


7 


a 


zo 


fi 




1 


• •• 


a 


a 


a 


3 


JjL 


lO 


9 


Zl 


«4 


za 


«7 


49 


^f^ 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 




z 


• •■ 


t 


• •■ 


• •• 


• •• 


*••' 




z 


z 


a 


• a* 


«•• 


1 






z 


zo 


za 




a 


• •• 




a 


a 


9 


• •• 


■ •• 


• •• 


z 




• ■• 


z 


a 




z 


• •• 


• •• 




z 


a 


5 


• •• 


1 


• •• 


• •• 




• •■ 


a 


3 


■ •• 


• •• 


• •f 


• •• 




• •• 


a 


a 




7 . 


• •• 


zz 


a 


zz 


z8 


55 



IS 



zzz 



* P. * 0.. tBi British ladJa, 14; Whits Star. X3; Union GuUe, za; Osa. Fariflo IL. is : Canard, 9; Orifltt» 9: 
.Unkm of N.Z.. 6; Allan. 4; AUantlo Transpwt. 4; Anchor, 3: HuddaHi Pftrker, j; fknsmsn Noithem 8.8. Oa. 
Qx9ad Trunk Fadfio Ooiui &8. Qa.. Howard Smlih ft Co.. s each : Adelaide S.& Co.. Anfflo-AIgeriaa &8. Ca. 
Bomrada AtUatlcl.a Oou, JntematJonal Nar. Co;. Ltd.. Khodirial MaU && Coi, Quebec a& CoTBoral Mail, sad 
Wflioa I4aa. s eaui. 

M.B.— Thm were oo Jane ss. Z9a. aboat aT^s steamen in the worid capable of a sea^peed of at leaeisa knots 
par hour, of which about z,sn vere British. Of w» total number about two-thirds are ooean-geing tteunen. 

LARGEST STEAMERS FITTED FOB LIQUID FUEL. 



Built in 

Zyoa 
Z9ZO 

Z903 

Z9C9 
Z90Z 
Z9M 
Z907 
Z907 
Z903 
Z903 
Z903 
Z9ZS 
Z91Z 
sgoa 
Z903 
1910 
1903 



Name. 



TenyoMaru . 

ChiyoMaru . 
•Klyo Maru.... 
*l^arraganaett. 

Arizonan 

Alaskan 

Texan 

Columbian .... 

Mexican 

Missourian.... 

Virginian .... 
*Qo1amouth.... 

Helouan 

WIen 

•Pectan 

Spondilus .... 

Iionolulan .... 
*Ashtabala .... 



Gross Tons. 



X3.454 

X3.43t 

9.«»7 

9.«96 

8.67. 

•,67s 

8,««5 
8.580 
8.580 
7.9M 
7.9«4 
7.446 
7.367 
7.367 
7.«9X 
7.«9« 
7.«S9 
7,M5 



Speed. 



ao 
so 
«4 
t 
za 
za. 
13 
x3 
«3 
»3 

•? 

z8 

z8 

t 

t 

14 

t 



Owncra 



1^^^^ 



Toyo Elsen Kabushiki Kalsha. 



i» 



II 

»» 



I*. 



Anglo-American Oil Co., Ltd. 
American-Hawaiian S.S. Co. 



i> 
II 
If 
If 
fi 



II 
II 
II 
If 
II 



fi 
If 
ff 
11 
If 
fi 



Anglo-Saxon 'Petroleum Ca, Ltd. 
Lloyd Aiistriaca 



II 



Pectan S.S. Co., Ltd. CTbomas WoodaendV 
Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co., Ltd. 
American-Hawaiian 8.8. Ca 
Anglo- American Oil Co., Ltd. 



• Fitted for tjis carriage of petroleum in bulk. 



t.Uoderuknota 



River Length 

North America 
Mlsaiasippl- 
Miasourl ....4,194 

Yukon 7,060 

Colorado 2.000 



LONGEST RIVERS 
Rlyer Length 

South America « 

Amazon 8,300' 

La PlaU Z^,950U 



OF THE WORLD. 
River Length 

Niger a.WO 

Asia 

Obe 3.235 

Tangtaekiaxig S.OOO 

. Lena ?.860 

Kongo 2.806^ Amur 2.700 



Africa J 

Nile 8.670^ 






River Leegtb 

Mekong 2.«00 

Yenisei 7.50V 

Hwangho S.SOq 

Indus 2.(H}0 

Europe 
Volga 3.S2» 



SCIBNTIFIO AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



195 



MERCANTILE FLEETS— BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



LUBCS. 



Embanr-Americui 

KoHdmrtaclwr Uoy<L 

P. 4 0. Steam N. Oa 

Britidi Indl* Steam N. Co.... 

WWto Star. 

RttdNnsh &Sl Co. • 

*■ Boa Fnimel " JAae 

FloiiMS, WHhy A Co., Ltd.... 
ncnnao LtDes, Ltd. 



V^poQ Yuen KaUha ..... 
CdiqNttiiie O^n^fale Tnuis.,* 

Unkm-ClMtle Line 

LQFlud 

Honcerlee ICaritfmes ..... 



Cksud 

■dcr, Dempster A Ca, Ltd. 
Hamlmg-Soiith Ameriean ... 

ClflB~ 

So^XidiaP. Co. 

H^dcftand Line 

Anstilaii Lloyd 

DsBtaelie-Aiutnllsche 

OuHulbuFadllc Sail way 

Aiiao •M«*M.«*...M...*... ........... 

Uiloo aa Ca of X. Zealand. 



Itetto Steam N. Co. 

Sodetk Anonima Nazlonale 

diSerrfzlMarittfmi 
Ijnopoci A Holt 
Maeiay A Meln' 
loRnede Bami 
a Bopoer A 
OiUa&K.,Ltd. 




BecfamU aa Linei, Ltd. — 

Aadrew Weir A Co. 

John Uemy Uimar 

iHldvlit Inniportation Ca 

Wb. Bora A Sons 

Kcv Zeaiaiid Shipping Co. .. 
Votooe Anstrlaca oi K aT. •• 

Bazrdl A Son 

KoiiiBkUJke Saketvaart M. 
led Star Line 



smmf 



Dsatadie Levante Llnle ..... 

Idward Hain A Son 

BoDand-Amerlcan 

W.WUbelniBen. 

ABcriean-Hawalian S.a Co. 

Aactaor 

Qdna Kar. Ca, Ltd. 

Xbor Line «..-. 

fiaatiaa Steam KaT. Co, 

Booth ■ 

ABelo*Sazon Petioleom Co. 
R^ili A W. Nelson, Ltd. ..... 

Wocrmann Linle 

PoBtjch e AmerikaniBche 
letroienm Co. ..... 

BmtMiie Ost Afrika 

HLA.TomUnflon 

ttoBiM(ETan) BadcllffeACo. 



H«idOtflc6b 



Total 
ToniM^. 



Hambnig 
Bremen . 
XiondoQ • 
London . 
liverpool 
Cleveland 
Urerpool 
West Hartlepool ... 
Urerpool . 
Bremen .... 

Tokio 

Paris 

London .... 
Liverpool . 

Paris 

Liverpool . 
Liverpool . 
Liverpool • 
Hamonig . 
Qlasffow .... 
London .... 
Amsterdam 

Trieste 

Hamboiff . 
Ifontreai . 
Glaigow .... 

Hull 

Donedin 

HambuK 

Liverpool 



•*•••••••••««•• 



Rome 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

,bs Selskab Copenhagen 

West Hartlepool ... 

Osaka 

Newcastle-on'Tyne 

London 

GlassDw 

London 

Cleveland, Ohio . 

Sotterdam 

Lond<m 

Trieste 

Glasgow 

Amsterdam ...... 

Antwerp 

Paris 

Hamborg 

St. Ives 

Rotterdam 

Ton^borg 

New York 

London 

Newcastle^n- Tyoe 

Odessa 

Liverpool 

London 

Liverpool 

Hamburg 



Hamburg 
Hambarg 
Doluth..... 
Cardifr 



943.eoo 
775,000 

543.«» 
490,000 

479,000 

4«4t«» 

45«tOOO 

4*0,000 

406,000 

36e,ooo 

330,000 

3si>ooo 

309,000 

3oi»ooo 

300,000 

e59i<wo 
S58,ooo 
•51.000 
•3B.O0O 
a38,ooo 



MI,O0O 

sao,ooo 
si9,ooo 



>99i 

197,000 

ZOOjOOO 

183,000 

z8i,ooo 
177,000 
177,000 
173,000 
170,000 
163,000 
156,000 
z5a,ooo 
146,000 
x44,ooo 
144,000 
144,000 

i43.«»e 
Z4s,ooo 
140,000 
X39iOoo 

13&000 
139,000 

130,000 
z»9,ooo 
za6,ooo 
zs5,ooo 
za4,ooo 
za3,ooo 

ZSS,000 

zasjooo 
zao,ooo 
zz4,ooo 
z 14,000 
"3.00O 
zza,ooo 

Z09|000 
zo9,ooo 
zoo,ooo 
zo5,ooo 



Over 

so 
knot* 



4 

a 



3 



Kvon. 



z 

3 

z6 



6 
zz 



lAss 



5 
5 

6 
zz 



s 
a 
I 

3 



6 
im 

3 
5 

z 



zz 

3i 



3 

6 



S 

3 



5 

9 

X3 



H 

i 



zo|z7 

s 

8z7 



6 

a 



lao 
3S 



5 

tz 



4 
3 

7 

4 



«3: 



>548 
93^ 
7 t 
7a6| 

13 I 



I 



za 

4 

t33 



>9| 

1313 
> 5 

a6 

4 

■ • 

S3I 



x8 

s 
4 
7 



4j 
zz 

5 



zo 
4 



10 

6 



4 

5 

zz 

9 

5 

19 
M 



Under 

a 
knots. 



7 

«4 
9 
5 



6 

3 
S 



I 



»3 

a 



Z08 

50 
S 

50 
6 

... 

9 
zza 

46 

*.. 

37 
35 
zo 

z8 

8 

I 

4 

4« 
•7 
«S 

8 

i 

60 

33 
si 

•4 

•9 

la 

53 
Z09 

5* 

zoo 

•7 

ao 

33 



... 
16 
••# 

15 

... 

57 



... 

3 



55 

aa 

... 

z 

■7 



Total 



>93 

««9 
66 

««4 

34 
Z07 

68 
Z19 

95 

77 
44 

55 

56 
60 

SO 
35 
«5 
46 

83 

70 

3» 
4« 

75 
35 

53 

Z30 

5* 

zza 

4* 

4« 
36 
33 
34 
z8 

3x 

zz 
•5 

S» 
35 
X3 

n 

ao 

«3 
34 
70 
30 
s8 

«7 
37 

a6 

•6 

X9 



ilS& 



— Bro«L ; Great Laket Steamahip Co. ; RaicUn Volunteer Fleet : Soc Gta. de Traniport JCariUmei * 
mok ncoeotooa: Llogrd Bnsilelro. iQe.eoe tone ; 0. T. Bowring A Co. : NaT. Gen. Italiana; and Fiudflo 
Obt, eadi aR».ae- " - —• » 



196 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

THE "IMPERATOR." 

Tbe "Impfralar." the Iftr^Fflt Bht|> in Ibe life bo&u. mcludiDf two motor b 

VDrld. «• built lor the Uambunc-Ainennui witb winle» ippcntui. ThF 

Line by thn VuJun i'liipbuildiiig Compuy. muti tiie to ■ hinghl of 316 It. ■ 

Tbe Tcuel ii SIS ft. in leaclb. 98 II. io baua, eiceedini Ibom of lbs loflieil 

d«eki tbon U» aater line, ud eurifa S3 othI openinsi inruure 26'6" i 1 



■ tbe krd. 



I nidtler'a Block bdu 2>^ U. Tbe *bi(. u 

driven by quadruple lurbion drvrioant 

' eS.OOO H. p. Our J Ibc imineDK rolm ros- 



Iriv^ritlS 






-hff "hip'is divid«l by"i?bna 



ivided. : 



)uJk-h< 



Th« most etirfih altenliDii bu bnm idi' 
'A^iutiDK DopHrtment ot tbe "It 
Tbe vesKl a Fommudcd by 
oslcd by four CaptAion. a 
tiDtly OS duty on ihe brid| 
Tbe "JmixratoT" la eguipped nitb eva 
known afi devin. and lb«j Ffficitney i. • 



ol wbom . 
Tbe -/mj 




THE NINE DECKS ABOVE WATER LtNE OF THE "IMPERATOR." 



THE BIGGIiST SHIP PASSING THE BIGGEST BUILDING 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFERBNCB BOOK. 



VIEW FROM AtTEK-MAST UK THi; "OLYMFIU" 
LARGEST FLOATINO DOCKS. 


•^ ^£JK. 


-«»• 1 isa 


s^Ki,%v,. 


0..,™ 




•J.wo 


'« s 


1 

I 


Broehm * VuM 
(:>frniiui (luverninent. 
mmihAJmirelly. 










i 




s:& " 




Ka =:: 


Canadiin Vicken, LW. 
RrihetJlieB Co, 

















SCIENTIFIC AMEHIICAN REWBRENCB BOOK 



Th» Wobld'b Fastest Mebcbant 
Ships Now in Service. 

(Vweli of 22 EdoU sad over) 



Mftnibu 
Mat). . 



jpelturbi 



H (tuibiDe) ' . 
Empra Qumh (pMi 
InTUt* (turbine) . . - 



Bt. Andrew (tuibine) . . . 
8t. Dkvid (turbine) — 
St. GeoMe (tuibine) . . 
8t. Fatr^l((turt)uie)... 



Victarift (turbine). . . 
Vikiii«{tuTbine).... 
Viper (turbine) 



Belouh (B.Shipa): 
Jim Breydel (turbine). , 

Leopald 11. (pad.) 

Msrj«UeDrwlte(pBd.). 
PicterSe Coninck (tuib. 



(tuibine) 

TtcB (3 Ships) : 



Geruah (S Sbii>e)t 



KaSwr v" 



By Msrcon) Tmn»ntlan(ic Wirclem T 

(o The New I'ork Timefi. 

L(>NDO!fl, May S.— The Pall Mnll 



Time aho VfAT<:a on Boasd Ship. 

Watch. For puipoeefl of diflcipline, ud 
to divide the wnrii Ut&. the cnw ia mw 
tered in two divisone — the Staiboml (riaW 
aide, lookinc forward) and the Port (idt). 
The day eonuouieeB at nooo. and ia Iha 

Afternoon WaiA .... noon to 4 p. m. 

Pint Doe " 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. 

Second Doc " S pjn. to S p.m. 

Firat " 8 p.m. to midni^C 

Middle " 12 p.m. to 4 a.m. 

Uominc ;; .... 4 a.m. to S sjn. 

This malcoB eevea Wi-rmn. which enabka 
the crew to keep them alternatively, ai the 
Watck which ii on duty in the forenoon one 
day baa the aftenioon next day, and the hhb 

ei^t houn the next. Thia is the reaeoa for 
having D<iff H'ofMet. which are made hy di- 
vidinc the houie betwefoi 4 p.m. vul 8 p-nu 
into two WaUhel. 

Time,— Time ia kept bymeuiB of -Belh." 
although therein but one bell on the ship, and 
to strike the clapper property aaainat the 
bell reqium some skill. 

First, two slrokefi of tbe clapper at the in- 
terval of a Beoond. then an inlervnl of two 
seconds^ then two more strokes wilb a ht- 

B. ».; B. s.: B. si.; B. 

I. Belliaitruckat 12.30. and afalD at 4J0 
S.30, S.SOp.Di.: 12.30, 4,30, andB.30 a.m. 

2 Bella st 1 (struek with an intnva) o( a 
aeoond between each^ — B. s. B.), tlis aame 

3 Bells 'at' 1,30 (B.>.B.'«a!B.) i'So'.'VM. 
and 9.30 p.m.; 1.30. 5.30. and 9.30 a.in. 

4 Bells Bt 2 (B, g. B. SB, B. a, B.} 6 sod 10 
p.m.: 2, fl, and 10 a.m. 

G Belb at 2.30 (B. s. B. ». B. a. B. m, B.) 
and 10,30 p.m.: 2,30, 6.30. and 10.30 a.m. 

e Bells at3 <B. a. B. ss. B. s. B. aa. B. ■. B.) 
and II p.m.; 3. 7, and 11 a.m. 

7 BeOs at 3.30 (B. i. B. n. B. a. B. h. B. a, 
B. SB, B) and 11.30 p.m.; 3,30, 7.30. an? 
11.30 a.m. 

5 Belh (B. B, B. H, B. ■, B. ss. B. B. B. m.. 
B. a. B.) every 4 houia. at noon. «t 4 p.m. 
8 p.m., midni^t. 4 ajc, and S - "■ 

Depth or the Sea. 

Yanis depth. 

Atlantic 4,02fl ' 10.120 

Pacific 4,252 10.6B5 

Arctic .'.'.'.'. W.'.'.'.'.. '.'.'.'.'. .'.'.[ lieBO 4.400 

Aniirelic 3.000 3.aS0 

Mediterranean 1.476 4.090 

Irish 240 710 

English Channel 110 300 

(iBrman.. 06 

Levant 72 

AdriaUc 4.'S 

Baltie . . 43 

The Southern Ocean below Cape Horn 
rearhei a depth of 5,500 yards, and ofl Cape 
of flood Hope, B.700 yank. The avrraKe 
depth of the Bay of Biscay ia 1.200 yanla. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



199 



FIBST 8IKAKB0ATS, PIONEER SAIUNQS AND EARLIEST LINES. 



ntf. Datto Pftpin experimented on River 
Mda with paddle-wheel iteamboat. 
I iTil Jodttthin HiillB patented designs almOar 
' to Modern paddle boat 

t^fc^JanM Watt InTented a douUe-aetlag 

176^ KaiqnaaofjroDffreynuMleexperinentetn 



17^ JaineB Bameej, In America, propelled a 
bOK with ateam through a ftem-pipe. 

t^ Robert Fitch. In America, iiropelled a 
boii with canoe-paadles ^xed to a movlog 



i|t7L Robert Miller, of Edlnborgh, tried priml- 
tire namial machinery. 

WML lUner, with Symington, produced a 
doMto-hnll stem-wheel steamboat 

Sta. CkarU/tU Dunda$^ the first practical 
ilcBm togboat, designed by Symington. 

sla|. FkanUx, screw-boat designed by Stephens 
li New York ; first steamer to make a sea roysge. 

Sfc^t. CUrmmU, tint passenger steamer con- 
liaaoas^^ employed ; built by Fulton in U.S. A. 

ifca. Oemtt, lint passenger steamer con- 
ttsnmwiy emi^oyed In Europe ; built by Miller 



Rob Roy, first sea-trading steamer In the 
void ; built at Glasgow. 

Aa. SavamtaK, first anxillary steamer, paddle 
vhselB, io cross the Atlantic; built in New 

As. Amnm Manbtf, fiiet steamer (English 
oasl boat) built of iron. 

City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. was 



Oeneral Steam NaTlgatlon Co. was 
:1 at London. 
4B4. Oeorge Thompson A Co. (Aberdeen Line) 
cstahuAed. 

made the first steam passsge 



to 

As. WaUam Faweett, pioneer steamer of the 
?.AO.«.N. Ca 

ilvL T. A J. Harrison (Harrison line) were 
wfswWhedatLlTerpooL 

Aa BIbvrkttht Iron steamer, took a private 
sqanteg party up the Niger. 

il!M> Uoyd's Register for British and Foreign 
SMvpfaK established. 

dit F. Green A Ca established at London. 

Mk Austrian Lloyd Steam NavigAtion (^. 
ertsSttsbedatTtlflste. 

%7. FmneU B. Ogden, first snooessful screw 
tsgboat ; fitted with Ericsson's propeller. 

iM^ ^f«MM<de«.madetbe DoTer-Calaispassage 
vadsr two honn, fitted with Smith's propeller. 

M it F. SUekton, built for a tugboat, 
ttted with Ericsson's propeller, sailed to 
i^srica ; flist Iron ressel to cross the Atlantic ; 
fcat sctew steamer used in America. 

st|a STilcmM, pioneer steamer of the Royal 
Ifaalteam Packet Co. 

rfte Geofge Smith d; Sons (City Line) were 
ertafeUahed at Glasgow. 

i^a Arllaiifila, pioneer steamer of the Cunard 



_fl«OL ClUZs, pioneer ateamer of the Pacific 
Stssa NsTlgatMo Ca 

il«^ OmuI Britain, first Iron screw steamer, 
|M«sor of modem Atlaatlo steamer. 
. te Ihoa. WOaon. Sooi A Ca, Ltd. (Wilaon 
UM9«atahlidied at HnlL 

~ Fadflo MaU Steandilp Ca asUblished 



' 1849. Houlder Brothers A Co. established at 
London. 

1850. Bnllard, King & Ca (Natal Line) estab- 
lished at London. 

185a Messageries Haritlmes de France estab- 
lished. 

tfreo. Inman (now American) Line, established 
at LiverpooL 

tfes. Ttfter, first steamer of the Bibby Line, 
estabUsbed iSsi at Liverpool. 

xSsa. Fortruntter, pioneer steamer of the 
African Steamship Co. 

s4s^ Union Steamship Ck). was established 
(nowunlon-Castle Line). 

sSsi. Bonusia, first steamer of the Hamburg- 
American Packet Co., established 1847. 

1854. Canadian^ first steamer of the Allan 
Line, established iSsa 

Z854. Donaldson Bros, established at Glasgow. 

i8«. British India Steam Navigation Co. was 
estaolished. 

z8s& Temputf first steamer Anchor Line. 

xfey. WaMentian^ first steamer of J. T. Rennie, 
Son A Co. (Aberdeen LineX 

x8s8. JBretiMn, first Atlantic steamer of the 
Norddeutscher Lloyd, established 1856. 

1858. Great Saotem launched into we Thames, 
Jan. 3s : commenced. May z, z854- 

z8^ British and AfHcan Steam Navigation 
Co., Ltd., established at LiverpooL 

s86t. E. Ropner A Co. established at West 
Hartlepool. 

186& Sha#, Savfll A Co. established at 
London. 

188s. Cknnpagnie (Mn^rale Transatlantique 
established at Havre. 

1866. DetForenedeDamnskibsSelskab (United 
Steamship Co.) was established at Copenhagen. 

1866. Booth Line established at LiverpooL 

z886. Agamemnon, first steamer ox Alfked 
Holt (now the Blue Funnel LineX 

z87a Nederland line established at Amster- 
dam. 

1870. Dominion Line established at Liver- 
pool. 

1870. Leyland Line formed at Liverpool. 

1871. Hamburg-South American Steamship Co. 
Mtaolished at Hamburg. 

1879. Glen Line established at London. 

187a. Red Star Line established at Antwerp. 

187s. Chargeurs Rdunis established at Paris. 

Z87S. HoUand-Amerlka Line esubllshed at 
Rotterdam. 

1873. New Zealand Shipping Co. was formed 
at Chrlstchuroh, New Zealand. 

1873. Kosmos Co. established at Hambuiig. 

Z877. Orient Line established at London. 

Z878. Clan Line established at Glaagow. 

S87& Hain Steam Ship Co., Ltd., established. 

z88i. Cla. Trasatlantioa formed at Barcelona. 

1881. Moor Line began at Newcastlo-on-Tyne. 

x88i. Prince Line began at Newcastle-on-Iyne. 

Z883. Houston Line was formed at Liverpool. 

Z883. Rotterdam U^d formed at Amster> 
dam. 

1885. Federal Steam N. Co., Ltd., established 
at London. 

i88s> Nippon Yusen Kalsha established at 
Japan. 

1888. Atlantic Transport Ckx, Ltd., formed in 
London. 

s888. Anglo-American Oil Ckx, Ltd. fcnned In 
London. 

German Australian 8.S. Co. established. 



200 



SCIENTIFIC A.UERICAK REFERENCE BOOK. 



LOWEST OCEAX RATES. 

To and from Ncv ToriE. Ea^fUt and 

(Subject to daa^e viUioiit uafOot.} 



St. Louis and Plifla- 



Americao Line 
88e.Neir York. St. Paul. 

delplila 

PaiLADaLPSIA'LlTBBFOOL StBAMBBS 

SSs. Harerfonl and Merion 

88s. Domiiiioa 

Atlantlr Tiam p ort Line 
88s. Minneapolis, Mlnnetonka. Minnebalia. Min- 



, IstClaai 
■to or from 
' Eorape. 


adClasi 
Si^tand. 

852.50 


2dClMB 
to or from 
ContioeoL 


905.00 

50.00 


SOO.OO 


47.50 . 







4f y fH?r Line 
88s. CofnmMa. CaledoDia and Camerooia. 
88. Oallfbrnla 

MBOlTBKBAlfKAjr 8bBTICE 

88s. Italia, Perucia and CalabrU 



I 



85.00 

75.00 
70.00 



Kaiser Franz-Joseph I 

88. Martha Washlngtcn 

88s. LAura, Alice, Argentina and Oceania 

Cunard Line 

888. Liisttania and Mauretania 

88. Oampanla 

SSs. Carmania and Caronia 

BosToif-LxvBBPOOL Sbbvicb 

SSs. Franoonia. Laoonia 

Ivemla and Saxonia 

MBDITBBBAirBAM SbBVICB 

SSs. Pranconla and Laconla 

SSs. Caronla and Carmania 

SSs. Ivemla and Saxonia 

SS. Carpathia 

SS. Pannonla 

French Line 

SS. France 

SS. La Provence 

SSs. La Savoie and La Lorraine 

SSs. La Touralne and Espagno 

SS. Rochambeau 

SSs. Chicago and Niagara 

SSs. Florlde and Caroline 

Fabre Line 

88. Patria 

HS. Sant' Anna and Canada 

HSs. Madonna and Vcncxia 

SSs. Roma and Oermanla 

Hamburg-Amorican Line 

HH. Imp«rator 

HHs. Amerlka and Kaiserin Aug. Victoria 

HSs. Clevoland, Cincinnati and Victoria Luise 

MSs. Moltke and Bluocher 

HSs. President Lincoln, President Grant and Ham- 
burg * 

HSs. Graf Waldersee and Pennsylvania 

MaOITKRRANEAN SSRVICB 

HS. Moltko 

SM. Hamburg 

SS. Batavla 

Holland-America Lino 

HS. Rotterdam 

HS. New Amsterdam 

HS. Noordam and other ships 

Italian Royal Mail Lines 

HSs. Verona and Ancoma 

SHa. America. Kuropa and Stampnlia 

Piiiladelphia-Mbditbrranean Hbrvice 

All Hteam4M*s 

Boston-Mediterranean Servicb 

HSn. Pttlormo and Napoli 

Moyd Itiilinno 

SS. THornima 

SS. Mcndoia 



80.00 
75.00 
70.00 

127.60 
105.00 
100.00 

92.60 
85.00 

100.00 

105.00 

85.00 

82.50 

75.00 

122.50 

110.00 

100.00 

90.00 



75.00 
75.00 
80.00 
80.00 

127.60 

115.00 

97.50 

95.00 

90.00 



95.00 
90.00 



107.60 
96.00 
86.00 

80.00 
80.00 

80.00 



80.00 
65.00 



50.00 
50.00 



65.00 
65.00 
57 50 

52.50 
60.00 



60.00 

65.00 
65.00 
50.00 

70.00 
60.00 
62.50 

67.50 
66.00 

65.00 
65.00 
65.00 
65 00 
55.00 

70.00 
65.00 
62.50 
60.00 
67.50 
55. GO 
47.60 

65.0(» 
55.00 



67.50 
60.00 
67.50 
55.00 

66.00 



67.50* 
65. 00* 



65.00 

72.50 
65.00 
60.00 
60.00 

60.00 
67.50 

65. 00 
65.00 
65.00 

62.50 
67.50 
.WOO 

65.00 
65.00 



65.00 
65.00 



•Now York to Plymouth only. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



201 



LOWEST OCEAN RATES— Continued. 



Lines. 



88. 
8S. 
BS. 
SS. 



L 



|lo|d Sabaudo 

[ Gob. Tomaso di SavoiB and' Principe di Udine 

L An ottier steamers 

porth German Lloyd 
BSs. Kranprinzeasin CeciUe and Kaiser Wilhelm II . 
S9«. Kroaivinz Wilhelm. Kaiser Wilhelm der 

Grosse 

Geonge Washington 

Prinz Priedrich wilhelm 

Orosser Knrfuerst <. 

Barbarossa and other ships 

MunTxaaANKAiv Service 

88. Berlin 

All other steamers 

Star Line 

[ as. Lapland 

[ SSs. Finland. Kroonland and Vaderland 

Phii^dblpria-Amtwbbp Sbbvicb 

AD steamers 

American Line. 

S8s. Russia, Kurak and Czar * 

vian- American Line 

_ All steamers 

niite Star Line 

S8. OWmpic 

88. Adriatic 

Sa. Oceanic 

sas. Majestic 

SHi. Baltic. Gedricand Celtic 

Boston-Liverpool Service 

S8. Arabic 

sa. Cymric 

MSDrrEBBAirBAN Sebvxcb 

88. Canopic 

K. Cretic 



lat Class 

to or from 

Europe. 



76.00 
70.00 

125.00 

122.50 

115.00 

100.00 

05.00 

00.00 

100.00 
90.00 

97.60 
85.00 



2d Class 

to or from 

England. 



2d Class 
to or f^m 
Continent. 



65.00 

65.00 
60.00 
57.50 
55.00 
55.00 



77.50 

130.00 
110.00 
110.00- 
95.00 
100.00 



85.00 
82.50 



57.50 
55.00 



65.00 
67.50 
57.50 
52.50 
55.00 

53.75 
52.50 



65.00 
65.00 

70.00 

70.00 
65.00 
62.50 
60.00 
60.00 

66.00 
65.00 

60.00 
55.00 

55.00 



70.00 



62.50 
60.00 



65.00 
65.00 



* The mintmnTn first Class fare from New York to Rotterdam is $65.00 and to 
UtitQ $75.00. Second class fare finom New Yoric to Rotterdam is $45.00 and to 
libaa $50.00. The minimum first class fare from Libau to New York is $75.00 and 
aemd class fare $62.50. 

The above are the lowest or minimum irates from port to port. Through rates to 
i4iidoo or Paris should be made by adding to the above rates the following railroad 
ntes of dass and from desired port: 

From Liverpool to London: Ist Class, $7.00. In connection with 2d Class 
ooetti tickets a 3d Class railroad ticket is furnished for $2.50. Fishguard to London, 
lit Class, $8.26. and 3d Class. $2.50. in connection with 2d Class ocean tickets. 

From Liverpool to Paris: Ist class $21.00; Fishguard to Paris $22.25. In con- 
MctlQQ with 2d Class ocean tickets, transportation is provided from Liverpool and 
ioiigiiafd on payment of $7.60. 

From Plymouth to London: Ist Class. $7.50; 2d Class, $4.76; 3d Class. $3.75. 

From Dover to London: 1st Class. $4.75; 2d Class. $3.15. 

From Southampton to London: 1st Class. $2.75; 2d Class. $1.75; 3d Class. $1 .40. 

From Cherbourg to Paris: 1st Class. $8.75; 2d Cla-ss. $6.26; 3d Class. $3.60. 

From Havre to Paris- 1st Class. $5.60: 2d Class. $4.00; 3d Class. $2.50. 

From Boulogne-sur-Mer to Paris: Ist Cla.<». $6.50: 2d Class. $3.70. 

From Marseilles to Paris, l^t Class. $18.85; 2d Class $12.80. 

PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP CO.MPANY.— P.AN.AM.\ LINE. 

^^Between Sao Francijwx) and Masatlan, San Bla.-?. Manzanillo. Acapulro, Salina Criii, 

^<^ Qi&mpenoo, San Jose de Guatemala, Acajutla, La Libcrtad, I^ Union, Ainapala, 

(>onnli>, 8ui Jose del Sue, Punta Arenas, Balboa (Panama). 

gan Francisco and Panama. $120. Round Trip. $216. Steerage, $60. San Francisco 
w ^'°*' **^- Steerage, $65. San FranoLsco and New Orleans. $1 20. First class only. 
New express, passenger and freight service direct for Panama and New York, calling 

jjvystSan Pedro CLos Angeles) en route. San Francisco to Panama, $85. Hound Trip, $150. 

To Nor York, $120. To New Orleans, $120. 



202 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM HEW YORK* 



AIIEBXCAN LINE. 



Steamships. 


Year 


Gross 
Tonnase 


Indie. 
H.-P. 


LeoKtfa 


New York (Rebuilt 1903) 


1888 
1895 
1895 
1899 


10,798 
11,629 
11.629 
10.786 


16.000 
17.500 
17.000 
16.800 


576 


St. Louis 


554 


St. Paul 


554 


Philadelphia 


576 1 










1 



ANCHOB LINE. 



Columbia. 
Caledonia. 
California ■ 
Caraeronia 




8.400 

9.400 

9.000 

10,500 



8.400 
10.200 

7.000 
12,000 



503 
515 
485 
532 



ATLANTIC TRAN8POBT UNB. 



Minneapolis. 
Minnehaha . ■ 
Minnetonka. 
Minnewaska 



1900 
1900 
1902 
1909 



13.448 
13,443 
13,440 
14,317 



9,500 
9.500 
9.500 
9,500 



616 
616 
616 
616 



ADSTBO-AICEBICAN UNB. 



Laura 

Alice t 

Argentina 

Oceania 

Martha Washington 

Kaiser Frans-Joseph I 

Belvedere 



1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1909 
1912 
1913 



6.122 
6,122 
5,526 
5.497 
8.312 
12,567 
11.000 



4.500 
4,500 
3.600 
3.600 
7.500 
13.000 



415 
415 

416 
390 
460 
500 
418 



COMPANIA TRANSATI.ANTTCA. 

Cadiz and Barcelona Service.) 



Antonio Lopes 
Manuel Calvo. 
BuenoH Avrps. 
Monte-Video. . 
Montserrat. . . . 



1891 


6.300 


5.000 


i 430 


1892 


6.000 


6.000 


419.8 


1H87 


5,500 


4.800 


410.6 


1889 


6.500 


5.000 


410 


1S89 


4.500 


4,500 


1 371 



rCNARD LINB. 

(Qucenstown and Liverpool Service.) 



Campania 

Mauretania 

Lusitania 

Caronia 

Carmania 

Franconia 

Laconia 

Aquitania (HuiMinK) 



ISJJ 


13.000 


30.000 


620 


1907 


32.000 


70.000 


790 


1907 


32,500 


70.000 


785 


1905 


20.000 


21.000 


675 


1905 


20,000 


21,000 


675 


1911 


18.150 


14.000 


GOO 


1912 


18,098 


14.000 


6<I0 


. . . 


47.000 




901 



CUNARD UNE. 

(Mediterranean and Adriatic Service.) 



Ultonia 

Carpathia t 

Pannonis^. 

Saxonia 

Ivcmia 



1898 
1903 
1904 
1900 
1900 



10,200 
13.000 
10.000 
14.270 
14.210 




* Tables oopyright 1913 by Munn & Co.. Ino, 



500 

540 
601 
580 
580 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFEREa^CE BOOK. 



203 



TBANBATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM NEW YORK.— Conttnu€rf. 



FABRE UNB. 

(Various points, including Naples, depending on season of year.) 



Steamships. Year. 


Gross 
Tonnage 


Indie. 
H.-P. 


Length. 


Kfnna 


1902 


6.291 
5.103 
5,633 
6,827 
9.350 
9,350 


6.000 

6.000 

6,200 

7,200 

10.000 

10,000 

12,000 


426 


1^^ _ 


1903 
1905 
1907 
1910 


426 
450 




460 


l^m^* Anna 


500 




1912 
1914 


500 


^tria 


525 



FRENCH LINE. 






Toaraise. 
Lorraine. 
Savoie. . . 



beau. 



1890 
1899 
1900 
1906 
1906 
1908 
1911 
1912 



9,161 
11,874 
11,889 
14.744 
11.112 

9,614 
12,678 
23.666 



12,000 
22,000 
22,000 
30,000 
9,200 
8.250 
13.000 
40,000 



536 
580 
580 
624 
520 
504 
543 
720 



HAUBURG-AMKRICAN LINK. 



Tvetoria 

Bokaria* 

:Gxal Walderaee. 



Victoria Loise. 
Hanxburg*.. . . . 



Moltke^. 



Kaisenn Aoguste Victoria. 

Ptiesident Lincoln 

Pnsident Grant 



OnrinRati 

Impenitor 

Vaderlaod (Building) 




13.333 
13,273 
13.234 
11.077 
13.193 
11.464 
16.502 
10.532 
12,334 
12,335 
22,225 
24,581 
18,100 
18.100 
18.000 
18,000 
50.000 



5,500 
6,000 
5,400 
4.000 
6,500 
4.000 

14.000 
9,000 
9,500 
9.500 

15.500 

17,500 
7.500 
7.500 
9,300 
9.300 

62.000 



* Mediterranean Service. 

HOLLAND-AMERICA UNE. 

(Netherlands-American Steam Navigation 



0>.) 



Batsdam 

Kyudam 

Hooidam 

New Amsterdam 

Rotterdam 

Siatendam (Building) 




12,600 
12.546 
12,540 
17,260 
24,170 
35,000 



557.6 

560 

560 

501.6 

560 

501 

686.6 

498 

525.6 

525 

690 

700 

615 

615 

600 

600 

919 



7,500 


560 




7,590 


560 




7,500 


560 




10,000 


615 




14.000 


668 




21.000 


740 





ITALIA LINE 

(Society di Navigasione a Vapore. Naples, Genoa, New York Service.) 



Napoli . . 
Aaeooa>. 



1899 
1908 



9,203 
10,000 



7.000 
7,600 



470 
620 



LA VELOCB LINE. 

(Navigazione Italian'a a Vapore )- 



^tampoUJT 



1908/9 
1906 



12,000 
8.000 



9,000 
9.000 



525 
425 



NAVIGAZIONE GBNERALB ITALIANA LINE. 

(Florio Rubattino). 



Verona. 
Palermo 




12,000 

10,000 

9,203 



9.000 
7,600 
7.000 



525 
620 
470 



204 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM NEW YORK— C<m<mMrf. 



LLOTD XTAUAMO. 



Steamships, 

Florida 

Luuisiana 

Indiana. 

Virginia 

Mendoxa 

Taornima 



Year. 



1905 
1906 
1905 
1906 
1905 
1908 



Gross 
Tonnage 



5.018 
4.983 
4.996 
5.181 
6.847 
10.000 



Indie. 
H-P. 



444 

444 
444 

477 
6.000 
7.600 



381.4 

3fl3.7 

393.7 

381.4 

420 

520 



NORTH OBRMA.N ULOTD. 

(Bremen Servioe.) 



Friedrich der Grosse 

Bremen 

Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse . 

Rhein 

Grosser Kurfikrst 

Main 

Kronprins Wilhelm 

Kaiser Wilhehn II 

Prinsess Alice 

Kronpr'n Cecilie 

Prins Fr. Wilhelm 

Geoige Washington 

Columbus 



1896 
1896 
1897 
1899 
1900 
1900 
1901 
1903 
1904 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1914 



10.568 
11,670 
14.349 
10,058 
13,245 
10.067 
14.908 
19.500 
10,911 
20.000 
17.500 
25.570 
40.000 



NORTH OBRMAN LLOTD. 

(Mediterranean Servioe.) 



Koenigin Luise. 

Badbarossa 

Koenig Albert. 
Prinsess Irene- 
Berlin 



Vaderland. 

Zeeland 

Finland 

Kroonland. 
Lapland... 
(Building) . 



L 



RED STAR UKX 



1900 

1901 
1902 
1902 
1909 
1915 



fii 



11.960 
11,905 
12.188 
12,185 
18,«94 



7.200 

8.000 

28.000 

5.500 

9.700 

5.500 

35.000 

43.000 

' 9,000 

45.000 

14.000 

20.000 

25.000 



1896 


10,711 


7,000 


1896 


10,915 


7,000 


1899 


10,643 


9,000 


1900 


10,881 


9.000 


1908 


19,200 J 


16.500 



10.000 
9.800 
9,300 
9.400 

14.500 



54d 
500 
649 
520 
582 
520 
663 
707 
524 
707 
613 
723 
800 



544 

546 
525 
525 
613 



580 
580 
577 
577 
620 
670 





RUSSIAN- AMERICAN LINE. 






RUHffift ... - - r 


1909 
1911 
1912 


16,000 
14,000 
13.600 


10.000 
10.000 
10.000 


475 


Kursk 


450 


Csar 


425 



SCANDINAVIAN-AMERICAN LINE.* 



C. F. Tietgen. 

Oscar II 

HelUgOlav... 
United States. 
Frederik VIII. 



(Buildins;). 



1897 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1913 



8.500 
10.000 
10.000 
10.000 
12.000 



WRITE STAR LINE 



Majestic . . 
Oceanic. . 
Canopic . . 

Celtic 

Cedric . . . . 
Baltic... 
Adriatic. . 
Laurentic . 
Megan tic . 
Olympic. , 



re90 

1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1904 
1907 
1909 
1909 
1911 



47f 



10.147 
17.274 
12,097 
20,904 
21.036 
23,876 
24,541 
14,892 
14,878 
46.369 



5.600 
8.000 
8.000 
8.000 
10.000 



IG.OOO 
28,000 
8,730 
14,000 
14.000 
16.000 
17,000 
14.000 
11.000 
46.000 



485 
515 
516 
515 
541.5 



582 
705 
5SH 
697 
697 
726 
726 
566 
506 
882.6 



r- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



2or) 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS FROM PORTS OTHER 



THAN NEW YORK. 



Komwiiiui 

MoMofan 

Cutnaciniaii. 



1881 
1891 
1891 
1884 
1884 
1902 
1902 
1900 
1803 



6,396 
4,836 
4.838 
4,444 
3.846 
4,508 
4.605 
4.309 
3,546 







CUNARD UNB. 

(Boflton-Liveipool Service.) 






Steamships. 


Year 


Groas 
Tonnage. 


Indie. 
H.-P. 


Length. 




1911 
1912 


18,160 
18,098 


14,000 
14,000 


600 


Idmnia . 






ALLAN LIXB. 




t 



774 
682 
682 
476 
463 
446 
446 
369 
328 



440 
400 
400 
386 
372 
388 
386 
386 
361 



LBTLAND UNB. 



Uerooian. . . 
Winifrediao. 
Caaadum... 
Btriiemian. . . 




10.436 

10,422 

9,309 

8.666 




571 
571 
549 
529 



WHTTB BTAB LINK. 



I Cymzie 
Crttic.. 
I Arabic. 




599 
601 
616.6 



Gothic.. 
Bdsie.. 
CCTamie. 



WHITB STAR UNE. 

(Australian Service.) 



1893 
1903 
1913 



7,758 

9,767 

18.000 



4,460 
4,000 



.504 
506 



NORTH ORBMAN LLOTD 8. B. CO. 

(Bremen-BoBton-New Orleans Service.) 



&eslau 

GuBeL 

Glieinniti 

Fraakf art. . . . 

Kodn 

Haanover. . . . 
BiBRdenburc. 



1901 
1901 
1901 
1899 
1901 
1901 
1901 



7.524 
7.553 
3.200 
3.200 
8.850 
8.850 
8.850 



3.400 


428 


3.400 


428 


7.542 


430 


7.431 


431 


3.400 


445 


3.400 


445 


3.400 


445 





ALLAN LINE. 

CMontreal Services.) 






Vietortaa 


1904 
1906 
1900 
1907 
1908 
1907 
1901 
1901 
1899 
1899 
1876 
1882 
1913 
1913 


10.629 

10.754 

10.576 

11,419 

10.920 

10,947 

8,268 

6.508 

6.229 

6.229 

4,.349 

4,207 

17,000 

17.000 


« ■ • ■ 

849 
917 
803 
825 
604 
800 
447 
447 
316 
660 
18.000 
18,000 


520 


Vintiaian 


520 




500 


fV)fBieatt 


500 


^y _ * 


485 


dmnpiaa 


485 


loDian , 


470 


Pretofian ,., 


436 


Coffinthian a a . 


4.30 


SeiltaD 


430 


Btniintan. , 


400 


Pomeranian , 


381 


AhatiaD CBualdixuc) 


560 


Alfayaiaa (Bufldinff) ... 


560 



206 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER STEAMERS PROM PORTS OTHER THAN 

NEW YORK— Continued. 

CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY GO. 



Steamships. 


Year. 


Gross 
Toimage. 


Indie. 
H.-P. 


LeDstb. 


Emoress of BHtain ................ 


1906 
1906 


14.500 
14.500 


3.168 
3.168 


A48 fi 


Empress of Ireland 


548.9 



Royal Mail Steamers " Empress of Britain" and "Empress of Ireland" leave Quebec ia 
Summe^nd St. John in Winter. Other vessels of the line carry second only, seoond and 
steerage only, and steerage only. Their names are therefore omitted here. 



WHITE 8TAB-I>0]CINI0K. 



Laurentic. 
Megantic. 
Canada. . . 
Dominion. 
Teutonic. . 




14.892 

15.000 

9.413- 

7.036 

9.984 



6.641 
3.514 
16.000 



484 
550 
514 
466 
582 



DONALDSON LINK. 

(Montreal to Glasgow.) 



Athenia. . . 
Cassandra. 
Satumia. . 



• 1904 
1906 
Building 




478 
455 



MONTRBAL SERVICES — TBOICBON LINE. 

(Mediterranean Service.) 



Tortona. 



1909 



7.907 



I 5,400 i 



450.6 



PHILADELPHIA STEAMSHIP 8EBVICB8 — ^AMEBICAN LINE. 



Haverford. 
Merion 



1901 
1902 



11.635 
11.621 



4,167 
3,953 



647 

647 



RED STAR LINE. 



Marquette. . 
Menominee- 
Mamtou 




602 
490 
490 



CtTNARD UNB. 

(Montreal — London.) 






Ascania. 


1911 
1909 
1913 
1913 


9.111 

7.907 

13.404 

13,300 




482 


Anaonia 




465 


Andania • 




640 


Alannia 




540 



FRENCH LINE. 

(Quebec — Havre Service.) 



Niu^ara. 
Flonde . . 
Caroline. 




9.614 
7,029 
7,220 




504 
437 
437 



(New Orleans — Havre Service.) 



Louisiane 
Califomic 




ir^mie 



403 
417 
409 
409 



These tables Include the principal lines engaged In Shiropean trade. There are other Itaiea, 
however, carrying paaaengers. but which are omitted on account of tnfreqnent or irregular 
services, or failure to respond to copies of proof sheets sent out for correction. The ESditor 
takes no responsibility for the list as printed, though more than ordinary care has been used 
in its compilation and correction. It should also be borne la mlad that "lAwest Ocean 
Rates^' means only the lowest fares at any season of the year. Durinc the rush or "hlsh" 
season these fares usually apply only to a very few Inside rooma, and plans should not be baaed 
on this schedule without consulting the steamship company or a reputable tourist aceney to 
find if any minimum accommodattaDS are available. In the fall and winter seaaona suporlcr rooow 
can usually be obtained at minimum rates without difflculty. If you live out of town do not 
wait until reaching New York. Boston or Philadelphia before attemptlac to secure passaca. 
If you are going in July engage your passage In January it poaaible. Thar* will be UtUs 
difflculty in canceling accommodations if plans have to be changed, prortded ample nottoe Is gtvoi Ic 
enable steamship company to reselL 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



207 



RATES TO EUROPEAN 
Allan Line. 

MOmntSAl^ AND QUBBXC TO UVKBPOOL. 

Fiist dasB paaaace from St. John or Halifax, 
Sn.50 and up; Montreal or Quebec and 
U v e i p o ol, $80.00 and up. Second class. 
160.00 and up. 

IfONTRKiWI. TO GLASGOW. 

FizBt class, $70.00 and up: second class. 
ISO.OO and up. One class cabin, $47.60 and 
op. 

CANADL4N PACIFIC RaILWAT Co. 
MDNTRKAI. ANX> QUKBBC TO LXVBRPOOL. 

First class. $92.50 from Quebec; $85.00 
from St. John, and upwards; second class, 
$53.75 and up. One claas cabin (second class) 
taO.OO and up. 



PORTS FROM CANADA.* 
CuNARD Line. 

MONTREAL TO LONDON AND SOUTHAMPTON TO 

MONTREAL. 

Cabin (called second), $46.25 and up. 
Donaldson Line. 

MONTREAL TO GLASGOW. 

Cabin (called second), $47.50 and up. 
British third class. East, $31.25; prepaid 
West, $31.25. 

White Star — ^Dominion Line. 

MONTREAL AND QUEBEC TO LIVERPOOL. 

First class, summer season, $92.50 and up; 
winter season, $85.00 and up; second class. 
$53.75 and up. One dass cabin, $47.50 and 
up. ^ 



RATES TO WEST INDLA.N, SOUTH AMERICAN PORTS, ETC.f 
Teqb Booth SrEAMsmp Co., Ltd. 

WXW TOaK AND PARA, MANAOS, VIA BARBADOS. 

- — Saloon — . Third 
Sinicle Return Class 

Baibadoe $55 $110 $27.50 

Pkrm 00 160 48.00 

Msaaos 110 195 53.00 

Iqoitos. Peru 140 245 75.00 



Canadian Sottth African Line. 

mNTREAX. OR ST. JOHN, N. B., TO CAPE TOWN, 

POBT XLUABETH, EAST LONDON, DURBAN, 

AND DEXJiaOA BAT. 

FIxBt dass — Cape Town, $110. Durban, 
IU5l 

COMFANLA TrANSATLANTICA. 

HEW TOBK, BAT ANA, VERA CRUS AND PUERTO 



To To To 
Havana Vera Puerto 
Ous Mexico 

rust class $37 $60 $60 

Seeooddaas 26 40 40 

Rovmd trip 10 per coit. disoount, 

Hambxtrg-American Line — 
Atlas Service. 

XBW TORX TO COLON, COLUMBIA, CO0TA RICA 
AND WEST INDIAN PORTS. 



—1st Clan— 
One Round 
WSJ trip 
KlaCiton Oct 1 to May 31 

orSaatiaso $46 00 |86 60 

Cohm 7S 00 142 60 

pDcrto Colombia. . 80 00 163 00 

Cvtaveaa 80 00 163 00 

Saau MarU .... 80 00 163 00 

Port-UiBon 80 00 163 00 

Port tn Prtnc*.... 60 00 100 00 
Jemla 80 00 100 00 



—2d Claas— 
One Round 
way trip 



180 00 
46 00 
46 00 
46 00 
46 00 
46 00 
86 00 
16 00 



$67 00 
85 50 

85 50 

86 60 

85 60 

86 50 

00 go 

60 00 



I 

L 





CLYDE LINE 




NEW TORE 


POR CHARLESTON, 


S. C, AND 




JACKSONVILLE, 


FLA 


• 




Fares from 




Fares from 




New York to 




New York to 




Charleston 




Jacksonville 


First Cabin . 


....$20 00 




$24 90 


Round Trip. 


... 32 00 




43 30 


Intermediate 


.... 15 00 




19 00 


Round Trip . 


... 24 00 




34 80 


Steerage 


... 10 00 




12 50 



Insular Line, Inc. 

NEW TORX AND PORTO RICO. 

Rates of Passage. First class — To or from 
New York and Porto Rico, $25 and $30. 

Lamport & Holt Line. 

Direct service from New York to Brazil and 
Argentine. Steamers call at Bahia, Rio de 
Janeiro and Santos. Through tickets issued 
to Paranagua, Rio Qrande do Bui, Monte- 
video, Buenos Ayres. All vessels call at 
Barbados and Trinidad nortiibound. 

^Intormed late — 
8.S. VeatriB 
Minimum and 

l«t "V" Van- 8d 
Claas Steamers dyck Claas 

BahIa $160 

Rio de Janeiro 150 

SantoB 160 

Paranagua 165 

Rio Grande do Sul.. IRO 

Porto Alegre 185 

Montevideo 190 

Buenos Ayrea 190 

Roaarlo 196 

Children under 12 years of age. half fare; 
under two years, free. Servanu In aaloon, 
two-thirds fare. 

* t All rates are subject to change without 
notice, and any tourist agent will give ac- 
curate figures as to cost. On Sept. 1, 191S. the 
rates quoted as printed were believed to be 
correct. 



$75 


$85 


$46 


75 


85 


45 


80 


90 


50 


— 


— 


62 


— 


— 


65 


— 


— 


67 


90 


100 


60 


90 


100 


60 


96 


106 


60 



208 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RATES TO WEST INDIAN AND SOUTH AMERICAN PORTS— Continued. 



MuNsoN Steamship Line. 

NEW YORK AND CUBA. 

One Round 

Firet Cabin. way. trip. 

New York to Nipe $35.00 

New York and Nuevitas 35.00 $66.50 

New York and Puerto Padre. 50.00 

New York and Gibara 50.00 95.50 

New York and Banes 50.00 

INTERMEDIATE. 

New York to Nipe 125.00 

New York to Nuevitas 25.00 $47.50 

New York to Puerto Padre. . . 35.00 

New York to Gibara 35.00 

New York & Cuba Mail S.S. Co. 

(ward line.) 
new tork-rav ana-mexico service. 
To l8t Class. 

Havana $40.00 and up 

Progreso 60.00 

Mexico aty 72.20 

Vera Crua 65.^ 

Puerto Mexico 76.00 

Children under 3 yean*, not exceeding one to 
a family free; each additional child half fare. 
Children 8 to 12, accompanied by an adult, 
half fare. 

NAB8AU. 

l8t 2d 

To Class Class 

Nassau $40.00 $15.00 

New York & Porto Rico S.S. Co. 

NEW YORK AND SAN JUAN, PONCE AND 
MAYAGUEZ, PORTO RIOO. 

First class $45 and up. Excursion $81 and 
up- Beoond class $25 and up. 

Panama Railroad Steamship Line. 

COLON CANAL EONE — PANAMA, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO, MEXICO, CENTRAL AND SOUTH 
AMERICA. 

New York to Canal Zone (Colon) $75.00 

New York to Canal Zone, Round Trip . 100.00 
New York to San Francisco 120.00 

Peninsular and Occidental S.S. 
Company. 

KET WEST, CUBA AND THE WEST INDIES, PORT 
TAMPA — KEY WEST HAVANA LINE. 

One Round 

Between Way. Trip. 

Port Tampa and Havana $25.40 $42. 10 

Key West and Port Tampa. . . 1 2. 90 21.10 

Key West and Havana 12.50 21.00 

The above rates include meals and berth 
while at sea. 

Southern Pacific Steamers. 

NEW ORLEANS AND HAVANA SERVICE. 

Fares between New Orleans and Havana. 

First cabin $25.00 

Round trip, either direction 45.00 

Steerage 12.50 

Trinidad Line. 

NEW YORK, GRENADA AND TRINIDAD, B.W.I. 

Trinidad or Grenada — first cla.sj* $50.00 

Trinidad or Grenada — excursion 90.00 



Quebec S.S. Co., Ltd. 

NEW YORK TO BERMUDA AND WINDWAKO 

ISLANDS. 

Bermuda Service. 
Cabin passage, round trip, $25 and up, ae- 
cording to steamer and date of sailing. (Sub- 
ject to change.) Steerage panage. $15; 
e.Kcursion, $18. AUen Tax $4 additionaL 

West India Sen'ice. 

New York to St. Thomas. St. Ctoix. St 
Kitts. Antifnia, Guadeloupe, Dominies, 
Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbados and De- 
merara. 

Cabin passage, $50 to $80. Return tic -ets, 
nood for 6 months, $00 to $150. Steurage 
$27.50 to $32.50. U.S. Alien Tax $4 additaonaL 

Red "D" Line. 

TO PUERTO RICO AND VBNBZUBLA, NBIT TORK 
TO LA OUAYRA, PUERTO CA HELLO, 
CURACAO AND MARA CAIRO. 



8.8. "dARACAS" AND "PHILADELPHIA" 



l8t Class 

Upper Saloon 

Deck Deck 

New York and San Juan.. 140.00 136.00 
Now York and La Ouayra 

by most direct route 65.00 60.00 

New York and Curacao 66.00 60.00 

New York to Puerto Cabello 70.00 66.00 
La Ouayra and New York 

(via Puerto Cabello) 75.00 70.00 

Puerto Cabello to New York 66.00 60.00 

8.8. "ZULIA" and S.8. "MARACAIBO' 



3d 

Class 
$30.60 

30.00 

30.00 
36.06 

40.00 
30.06 



lat Class 2d Class 

New York and Mayagues $36.00 $36.00 

New York to La Ouayra 60.00 40.00 

New York and Curacao 60.00 40.00 

New York and Maracalbo 76.00 60.00 

No second class passengers carried on the 



S.S. "Caracas," "Philadelphia." or 
Round trip 10 per cent, reduction. 
12 months. 



Merlda.*' 
Qood for 



The Royal Mail Steam Packst 
Company. 

NEW YORK AND SOUTHAMPTON TIA CUBA, 
JAMAICA, COLON, CARTAGENA, PUEHTO 

COLOMBIA (SAVANILLA), TRINIDAD (TRANSFER 
HERE POR VENEZUELA, BRITIBR GUIANA AND 
WINDWARD AND LEEWARD ISLANDS), DAP- 
nADOS, ST. MICHAELS (AZORES) AND CHER- 
BOURG, RETURNING TO NEW YORK BY SAl 
ROUTE REVERSED. 



First 
New York to Single 
Antilia (Cuba).. $42. 50 

Kingston 46.00 

Colon 75.00 

Cartagena 80.00 

Puerto Colombia 
(SaTsnllla) ... 80.00 

Trinidad 85.00 

Barbados 90.00 

Cherbourg ) ..176.00 
Southampton j ..200.00 



Class 
Return 
$80.75 
85.50 
142.50 
152.00 



152.00 
153.00 
162.00 
SOO.OO 
350.00 



Second Cli 

Single Return 

$57.00 

57.00 

83.60 

85.50 

SS.SO 

00.00 

100.00 



$30.00 
30.00 
45.00 
45.00 

45.00 
56.00 
60.00 

\ 126.00 I 



CUBA. 

Santiago and Camaguey, $45 first class, $30 
second clajw; Havana, $55 first class; Havaoa 
via Santiago, $58.50 first class. 

BERMUDA. SERVICE 

New York to Bermuda, first class, round 
' trip, $25 and up. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



209 



RATES TO WEST INDIAN AND SOUTH AMERICAN PORTS— Cdntinued. 



United Fruit Company. 

WW TO&K JAMAICA PANAMA COSTA RICA 

AKD COLOMBIA SERVICES. 



IVr Adult 

Between One 

New York and Way. 

Kingston $46.00 

Colon 75.00 

Cctaeena 80.00 

Poefto Colombia 80.00 

Suta Maxta 80.00 

lioMm 80.00 



! UTVBKN 



First Cabin. 
Round 
Trip. 
$85.50 
142.50 
152.00 
152.00 
152.00 
152.00 



PHILADELPHIA AND PORT ANTONIO, 
JAMAICA. 

One Round 
• Way. Trip. 
Fizst cabin $35.00 $60.00 

BO0TOH COSTA RICA SERVICE. 

Fare, Boston to Limon, one way, $60.00; 
round trip. $114.00. 



NEW ORLEANS GUATEMALA OOSTA 

PANAMA SERVICE. 

One 
Way 
Cabm 

l8t 

Class 
Between New Orieans and 

Belize, British Honduras. . . $25.00 
Between New Orieans and 

Livingston. Guatemala. . . . 30.00 

Between New Orleans and 

Barrios, Guatemala 30.00 

Between New Orleans and 

Cortes, Spanish Honduras. 30.00 

Between New Orleans and 

Limon. Costa Rica 50.00 

Between New Orleans or Mo- 
bile and Bocas del Toro, 
Panama 50.00 

Between New Orleans and 

Colon, Panama 50.00 



RICA — 

Round 

Trip 

Cabm 

1st 
Class 

$45.00 
37.00 
57.00 
67.00 
05.00 

05.00 
95.00 



RATES TO PACIFIC AND TRANS-PACIFIC PORTS. 

GANAMAn-AIWnULAflAN BOTAL MAIL UNB. 



■.c^ 



om^i 



■omro-^nup vj 



CImb. 



IS&l 



CEmT 




M.N 



m 

m 

fU 



Ml 

Ml 
llfl 

IN 

na 
as 



N 
M 
N 
U 

n 

M 

N 
U 
U 

N 
N 
N 



IM.N 
INN 
INN 
INN 
INN 
INN 

mm 

INN 
INN 
INN 
•IMN 
JMN 
INN 
USN 
INN 

UI.N 
INN 



INN 
UI.N 
UI.N 
INN 
INN 
Ul N 
IMN 
IN If 
UIN 
INN 

m.M 

UI.N 
UI.N 
USN 

INN 
INN 



NH 

Nil 
NN 

mn 
N u 
mm 
mm 

MN 

m.H 

n.N 
mm 

N.N 

n.N 

N.N 



tU.N 
M.H 

M.N 

turn 

MN 

iN.n 

MN 

m.N 

tU.N 
INN 



U 



M.N 
MN 
MN 
M.N 
MN 
I14N 
MN 
MN 
Mil 

mm 
9n.m 

iU.N 



MM 



VmON STEAMSHIP CO. OP NSW ZBALAITD. (LM.) 



■AH PRAHCnCO, CAL., 




,TbIM.... 
Ctook 

,«<■ AKklawli 
. IQ '-— ^ «te kwaUmad ud 

I. vta WaUagtoa 

UIILSIOH; (ChtM CkmM. N«« M^.' ^ W«iaiit(oi 

vlft WaOiagtoa ^.., 

R» Ttamaakk. v4k W«llli«t<m 

/• Jtaw SoMb WaIm, via W«IUac*M ud 

via Sydair aad rail 

Viaflstta, via Bj^mtf aad nil 

, via lydaay aad nIL. , 
, via Sydav aad raD 




ONK-WAT rABBS. 



Ftnt 
CaUa. 



SMN 
UIN 
MTN 

mm 

IM.N 

mn 

mm 

INN 

mn 

MN 
lUN 
MN 

m.N 

MN 



Second 
Cabin. 



NIN 

71 n 

I»1NN 
^ITIN 
Uf N 
UIN 
UIN 

uin 

INN 
USN 

ui.n 

Ulfl 

mn 

INN 



Third 
Cafaial 



INN 
U.IS 

INN 

mm 

NN 
NN 
NN 
HN 

mm 
mm 
mn 

mm 
mn 

mm 



aOUND-TSir rABKS. 



flnt 
Ckbla. 



Four 
Months 



IINN 
INN 

Mil 

mn 

M.n 
mm 
mn 

MN 
INN 
MN 
MN 
MN 
INN 

mtn 



Bee end 
Cabin. 



MoaUa 



lUIN 
INN 

9siin 

8Mn 

mn 

INN 

mn 

MN 
NIN 

mttm 
mN 
mn 
mN 

MN 



N««lMlaad. 



210 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RATES TO PACIFIC AND TRANS-PACIFIC PORTS— Continued. 



WPfOW rVJES KAISHA (lapm Mdl Btt—MMp €•■)._ 



TOKOBAMA. JApu 

KOkB, JAiwa 

MOJri.Jftpu 

NAOABAU, JapM 

MAN OHAI, CUm 

BONO KONG 

MABniA. PUIi|>piM Itludi, vl* 
Haaa ^ng. 

" - - ' 'ao tenia ~ 



Om-WAT Wi 



CUm. 



flU.N 
lUN 
lU.N 
lUN 
INN 
INN 

IW.N 



SnrrAvn 

AOCOKTAKTUie 

PAaauM 



Otter 

than 

Ajutie 



• 



8M0Bd 



wn.N 
9n.m 

9 mm 

• N.N 

• H.n 



AMM9 

8tMf 



NIN 
4IN 

am 
am 
a.m 
am 



FiBar Clam. 



8li 
Ifootte 



um.m 

INN 

mm 

Iff N 

ur.N 
ur.H 






Tw«lvc 
Months 



tUI.N 
INN 
Nl.N 
NX.N 

tun 
m.n 



AeooMTumn 
WAMOimm. 



Otbar tkiB AaUtiejAiiMio. 



Moaika. 



• 



• 
• 



-•-I • 



Tvahr* 
Mootbi. 



Twalv* 
Moaih« 



• 
9 
• 



• 
• 



N 
• 






BANK LIKB (LM.> 



IBATttl OB TAGOKA, WABB.. OB 
▼AKOOIJVBB. B. C* 



ONB>WAT FABIS. 



Fint 
CaMa. 



SsBVAim 
AccoKPAKTura 

Famiuu. 



Other 

than 

Asatie. 



Aiiatfe. 



Anatle 
SiMras*. 



BOUNB-TBIP PABBB. 



Fu*r Cabim. 



Four 
BloBtba. 



Twalva 
lloatha. 



SaBTAJn* A( 

Famiu' 



Othar than AdaOe, 



Four 
Moatha. 



Tvdva 



TOEOBAMA. Jaiwa 

BOBB, Japan 

MOn. Japan 

NAOASABI* Japan, via Koba 

■BAHOBAI. CUaa 

HOMO BONO. 

MANILA. PhiUpplaa Iilaada.. 



«1NN 
IMN 
INN 
lU.N 
US N 
lUN 
lUN 



mm 

mm 

mm 

INN 

INN 

INN 



NIN 
UN 

UN 

am 

am 
am 

tt.N 



MI.N 

UN 

am 

M.N 

4T.N 

am 



wm.m 

INN 

iN.n 

INN 

mm 
mm 
mm 



cin.N 

INN 
.INN 
INN 

Nl.N 

miM 

Nl.N 



f]Sf.N 
Ut.N 
INN 
Itf.N 

INN 
IN.H 

ur.N 






OCBAN STBAMSBIP CO. (Ltd.) ANB CBINA MUTUAL 9TBAM NATIOATION Op. (LM.) 




Wnm 
BBATTLB OB TAGOMA. WASB., OB TANOOVFBB. B. C, 

T* 


ORB>WAT 


bSSI 


XOBOBAMA. Japan 


Ml H 


KOBB, Japan 


N-M 


MOUfiftPM .• 


N 


NAOA8AKL Japan } 


O H 


•BANOBAl. China '. . . . 


ttM 


BONO BONG ^ : 


n.M 


MANILA, PhUippiB* lalaadt. 


nw 







MATSON NATIGATION CO. 



Prom 


ONt-WAT PABCS. 


BOVNB-tW 
PABSB^ 


BAN PBANCItCO. CAU. 

T» 


cu«. 


StrvkBU 

AccompaayiBC 

FamiliM. 


MiaH 
ClaM. 


8tMra«». 


FtotOaaa. 




eisM«Blh& 


BONOLin.U. Hawailaa IdawU 


NS.N 
INN 
NIN 
INN 
lU.N 
lU.U 
tllN 


INN 


ehttn 

9l«N 
«ltf.N 
•iMJt 

•iH.n 

9UT.N 


INN 


imii 


SUVA, Fiji lalaBda. via Honolulu and Caaadiaa-AuatnJAaiaa Royal Mail Una 


AUCKLAND, Naw Zoaland. via Honolulu and Canadiaa-AuJtralsaiAD Royal Mail Lioc 




. 


BYDNET. N«w South Wain via Hoooialu and Canadiaa-Auatralaaiaa Royal Mail Lin* 








BBI8BANE, QuMulaad. via Sydaay and rail 








MELBOUBNB. Victoria. vU Sydnty aad rail 






, 


ADBLAn»B. South AuatraUa. via Sydney aad rail 

















•Firat eUaa to Uoaoiulu aad Meeod elan beyead. 



OK. ail 




212 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CANAMAlf PACmC BT. CXI.*S BOTAL MAIL 9TBAMSIIIF LDfB. 







Om-WAT fASCS. 


fAIICOVTM.B. C 




ScBTAin* 
AccoapAimin 


■MdMla. 


Om 




T» 


Otter 

ThM 

AawlM. 


Aiwlie 




im^ABAIf^, 7ayM 


•NNN 

9mm 


SMN 
MN 

•INN 

mm 

MN 

mm 


aaaaaaa 
aaaaaaa 

• • 


•«MN 

• MN 

• MN 

• MN 

fimm 
€^mm 


•MN 

• T(N 

• NN 

• NN 

• NN 

• NN 

• NN 


9mm 

• UN 

• uii 

• UN 

• UN 

• UN 


CM-N 


■On« Jftpaa 


• NJi, 


MOn. Jatm 


• •■ 


ITAaAftABI. Jmm, 


9mtm 

• MN 

• MN 

• MN 




fBAffOBAI, CMm 


• ■N 


■OMO KOHO 


•N-N; 


KAiriLA* ntUpvlM liUait. vU H«M K<MC 


9UM' 

1 


* 


movm'rwKt WAun. 




Pia*r CiJi«*. 1 


IMW- 


Mmk* Ct«w 


If. 


Moaiba. 




SuivAin* AocoMrAirriiio 


flU 




▼AMoouna, a. c« 


0«fa»r TIm* A«Mtac. 


A«»l*ft 






Sis 

McbUm. 


T_Jw 


T» 


Sia 

MMtk*. 


T««(v« 

MOBtJw. 


Mratte 

or 
T«cl«« 
MtmtlM 




TOKOBAMA, i«vM 


• UflN 

• MN 

• HTN 

• NTN 

9mm 


•NNN 

• MN 

• MN 

• Mn 

• MN 

• Mff 


NNN 

MN 

• MN 
MN 
MN 
MN 


aaaa si 

aaaa aa 


aaaaaaa 

aaaaaaa 

«• 


• mn 

• MN 

• MN 

• MN 

• MN 


f^NH N 
JIMN 

9mn 

• mn 

«MN 

0»MN 
• MN 


4W1IN 


KOB^Ja^n 

M<MI. J»pM 


• M^N 

• M-N 


NAOA8AKI, 4a9M 

•■ANQHALCUm 

■ORG KONO 

MANILA, PbUipviBT idMdm vis Hoot Ku>« 


• MN 

• MN 

• MN 

• MN 



)FbfM apply onlr via ■Uaraabipa BtmprMa t/ /h^m or Bmpmt «/ /apoit, 
iFaraa appir oalj vis MrKimbip Monitath. 

ifw appfar via ■♦aamihip 

MM apply (otac ftrat el 

la 

*'"* *Pf^ totef tnt eiai 

liwt Mali, or YlM Ttna. 



i^foa apply onlr via ■uaraaltipa Bmpttn 
Faraa apply oalj vis MrKimbip Monttagh. 
Timnm appfar via •taamahipa Bmprtt ml Imdi*. Xmpnn «/ ^apaa. or 
^TM apply (otac ftrat elaai via •laam■^'— "• ' '--"- 



iVarw 



MB 



•laamablpa iVatprcM a/ /arfia or trnprtf a/ Jmpmm. aad (vturaiai latarModlata via 

pa f HpriM «/ /a4M or Xnpr«M a^ /apaa to Nacaaaki. aa4 raturalag 
itai pravida for thair o«a tfaaaportatioa brtwoaa NaflaMki aad MaiL 

DEPTHS OF PORTS OF THE WORLD. 



Port. 



Channel 

high 
water). 



Amsterdam (canal) 

Holland 

Antwerp, Belicium 

Baltimore. Md 

Boston, Mass 

Boulogne. France 

Bremen, Germany 

Bremerhaven, Germany. . 

Brindifli, Italy 

Cherbourgf France 

C'openhagen, Denmark. . . 

Dieppe, France 

(Jalvf'ston, Tex 

Genoa. lUily 

GhwKow, SeotlaTitl 

(ireetiock. .S<^)tland 

fliilifiix, Nova Scotia 

Hambura. Germany 

Havre, France 

Kawer William C'anzd, 

(iermany 

Key We«t, Fla 

KonigsherR Canal, Gcr... . 
I^eschorn. Italy 

♦ Deep water. 



Feet. 



30 

37 

31 

36 

29 

18 

34 

32 

42 

26 

34 

30 

6() 

30 

36 

K\ I 

32 I 

42 ' 

29 
30 I 
21 I 
22 



Quay 

(mean 

high 

water). 



Port 



Feet. 



30 
37 
31 
36 
34 
18 
34 
32 
50 
26 
34 
28 
33 
38 
39 
45 
35 
30 



30 
26 



Libau, Russia 

Liverpool, England 

London. England 

Manchester Ship Canal . . 

Marseille. France 

Montreal, Canada. 

Naples. Italy 

New Orleans. La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Ostend, Belgium 

Philadelphia, Pa, 

Portland, Me 

Rotterdam, Holland .... 
St. Johns, Newfoundland 

San Francisco, Cal 

Seattle, Wash 

Southampton, England.. 

Stettin, (iermany 

Stockholm. Sweden 

Suez ( -annl. Egypt 

Toulon, France 

Trieste, Austria 



Oianncl 


Qaay 


(mean 


(mean 


high 


high 


water). 


water). 


Feet. 


Feet. 


22 


29 


55 


33 


42 


43 


28 


28 


55 


39 


30 


35 


33 


30 


30 


40 


42 


50 


30 


30 


31 


3S 


29 


32 


38 


3S 


29 


29 


48 


y. 


39 


39 


(♦) 


30 to 50 


41 


43 


23 


2:i 


25 


22 


28 




t26 


t23 


30 


28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



213 



(1) Wood Paddle>boat8. 

(2) Iron 



FROM STEAM PACKET TO STEAM PALACE. 

(5) Steel Twin-Screw Stoamen, 



(3) Iron Screw Steamers. 

(4) Steel •* 



Ihste, Name of Steamer. 



1S40 
IS56 



tt58 



Royal William. . . (1) 

Sirius. 

Great Western 

Royal Wmiam (2) 

Britannia. 

Atlantic 

Ctoadian. 

Tempest 

Bonneia 

Adriatic 

Bremen. 



Owners. 



Quebec A HalifaxS.N.Co. j 

British and Amer.S.N.Co. . 
Great Western S.N.Co. . . . 

Transatlantic SS. Co 

Cunard Line 

CoUins " 

Allan " 

Anchor " 

Hambur]^* American Line . 

Collins Line 

Norddeutscher Lloyd 



1S56 Persia (2) Cunard. 

1S62 Scotia. 



1S45 

IS90 



mi 



1875 



Great Britain. .■ . 
City of Glasgow. . 

GaSAT EAflTERN. 

Italy 

City of Brussels. 
Oceanic (1st). . . . 
Pennsylvania. . . . 

Britannic 

aty of Berlin 

.\rij(ona. 



(3) 



IS83i Oregon. 



liCTS Boenos Ayrean. . (4) 
IftSl Serbia 



City of Rome. 



IS&i 



America. . 
•• j Umbria.. 
■ (Etruria.. 
1S86; Alier. 



Great Western S.N.Co. . 
Inman Line 



National I^ine. . . 
Inman " ... 
White Star Line 
American " 
White Star " 
Inman " 

Guion. . •* 



J 



( Cunard 



"(1) 
"(2) 



IS88 
1889 

laso 
um\ 

isa3 

1^ 
isan 

1899 
I9O0 
1901 
1902 
1903 
19Q4 



\ City of NewYork(5) 

J Gty of Paris. 

) Teutonic ( 

I Biajestic s 

FOrvt Bismarck 

I^ Touraine 

/ Qunpania 

I Lucania 

(St. Paul 

I St. Louis 

KaiserWilhelmd.Gr. 

Oceanic 

Beotschland 

Celtic 

KaOK PBlNzWl LHBLM 

KsJserWilhehnll. 

BsWc 

; Vlctoritm 

Lositania 

Msuretania 



Allan Line 

Cunard " 

j Inman (1) Line .... 
lAnchor(2) " .... 
National " 

Cunard " 

Norddeutscher Lloyd . 



1911 Olympic .. 
1913' Imperator 



Inman & InternationaU 1 ) > 
American Line (2) ( 

White Star Line 

Hamburg-American Line . 
Compa«(nie GencraleTrant^. 
Cunard Line. 



American. 



Norddeutscher Lloyd . . . 

White Star Line 

Hamburg- American Line. 

White Star Line 

Norddeutscher Lloyd 

Norddeutscher Lloyd 

White Star Line 

Allan Line 

Cunard Line f 



White Star Line 

Hamburg-American Line 



Remarks. 



From Pictou (N.S.), Ist to cross the 

Atlantic. 
From Cork, 1st departure from U. K. 

" Bristol, 1st built for Atlantic. 

** Liverpool, Ist departure. 

" Liverpool, Ist oarriedBritish mails. 

" New York, 1st carried U.S. mails. 
* Glasgow, Ist steamer of Line. 

" " Ist 

*' Hamburg. Ist 
Last Sailing of Line. 
From Bremen to New York. 



1st Cunard iron paddle steamer. 
Last 



Ist Atlantic iron screw steamer. 
1st to carry steerage passengers. 
Paddle wheels and propeller. 
1st Atlantic ss. with comp. en^^ines. 

1st steam steermg gear. 

Ist with'midship saloon, &c. 
1st sailing of Line to Liverpool. 
Ist to exceed 5,000 tons, Great Eastern 
Ist with electric light. [excepted. 

Watertight compartments floated her. 
Ist "ocean greynOsJid," 
Sunk outside New York; every one 
saved by N. D. Lloyd ss. Fulda. 



1st Atlantic steel stean^er. 
1st Cunard 

Fitted with three funnels. 

1st and last express ss. of Line. 

1st with 20 knots speed. 

1st triple-expansion express ss. 



Ist twin-screw ocean expresses. 

1st to exceed 10,000 tuns.G.E.exoepted 

Designed as mercantile cruisers. 

1st under Q^ days from Southampton. 
Record Havre to New York, 6f days. 
Lucania: highest day's run 562 knots. 
Liverpool to New York records. 
Largest express steamers ever built in 

America. 
Record day's run, 580 knote. [tons. 
Bjilanccd enginos. 1st to exceed 15,000 
Fnrttest orean stoainer in the world. 
1st to exceed 20,000 ton.s. 

Largest express steamer in the world. 
Ljirjfcst ss. in the world- 72()x7(ix49. 
1st fitted with turbine engines. 
Fastest in the world. Fitted with 

turbine enK'nes. Record day's run, 

Muuretaniu, 076 knots. 



This 18 the largest vessel in the world. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



215 



|BF£ENST0WN records since 1880. 



WESTWARD. 



Steamer. 
Arfaoaa 



Oregon 



T7mttrl« 



m. 
55 
65 

61 
•41 



aty of Parli 



Tintonir 
City of Pi rla 
Ctonpania 

Gunpanla 

Ktroria 

Ldxaitanla 

Hats ret anla 

Lrfnftanla 

Xaaretania 

LAaltanIa 

Maaretanla 

llaarecanla 



29 

21 

•41 



ipania 
u: 
Lli 
_ ui 
lAcaolm 
lAcaaia 



STEAMSHIP RECORDS. 

and Revised by A. W. Lewis, Chief of the Ship News of tli? " Aasociated Press." 

RECORD OF S. 8. MAURETANIA. 
(Cunard Une.) 

WESTWAKD. 

Date. d. h. 

1907, Dec. From Queenstown 6 

1909, July Prom QueenBtown 4 15 

1909, Sept. From Queenstown 4 10 

1910, Sept. From Queenstown 4 10 

• Record. 
EASTWARD. 

1907, Dec. To Queenstown 4 22 

1909, June To Queenstown 4 17 

1909. Sept. To Queenstown 4 13 

RECORD OF S. S. LUSITANIA. 

(Cunard Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1907, Not. From Queenstown 

1908, Aug. From Queenstown 

1909, Sept. Prom Queenstown 

• Record. 
EASTWARD. 

1907, Not. To Queenstown 

1908, Oct. To Queenstown 

1909, Oct. To Queenstown 

1911, Jan. To Queenstown 

RECORD OF 

S. S. KRONPRINZESvSIN CECILIE. 

(North German Lloyd Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1906, Jan. From Cherbourg 
1908. Aug. From Cherbourg 

1910, Sept. Prom Cherbourg 
EASTWARD. 

1907, Aug. To Plymouth 

1908, Sept. To Plymouth 

1909, Sept. lo Plymouth 



Line. d. h. -m. 

Oulon 7 10 47 

Gulon 7 6 43 

Cunard 6 9 42 

Cunard 6 5 SI 

Cunard 6 4 42 

Cunard 6 1 55 

Inman 6 19 IS 

White Sur 5 18 8 

White Star 5 16 SI 

American 5 14 24 

Cunard 5 9 27 

Cunard 5 7 23 

Cunard 5 9 6 

Cunard 5 20 56 

Cunard 4 18 40 

Cunard 5 55 

Cunard 4 15 

Cunard 4 15 55 

Cunard 4 11 •42 

Cunard 4 10 51 

Cunard 4 10 •41 



JfSTOWN RECORDS SINCE 1882. 



EASTWARD. 
Gulon 



Ctty of Paris 
[L.Cttjr ot Paris 

KCtlX <*' New York American 
'**• — •- Cunard 



National 

Cunard 

Cunard 

Inman 

Inman 

White SUr 



Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 
Cunard 



6 18 27 

6 14 S 

6 11 9 

6 4 36 

23 38 

22 50 

21 S 
19 57 
17 27 

14 55 

12 7 
(T 13 30 
5 9 18 

13 11 
8 38 

22 50 
22 29 
22 43 
17 21 
13 41 
16 52 

15 50 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
5 



5 
6 
4 
4 
4 
4 

•4 
4 

•4 



:ON RECORDS SINCE 1890. 
EASTWARD. 
ibia Hamburg Amer- 

ican 6 15 

Bismarck Hamburg Amer- 
ican 6 10 56 
t^onis American 6 10 14 
__ Wlltaelm der Orosse, 
Morlh German Lloyd. 5 17 8 



[PTON RECORDS SINGE 1892 



Lahn 



WESTWARD. 

North German 
Lloyd 
IMS Paris American 

m4 St>w York American 

to* ?t. Loaia American 

]«W St. Paul American 

IVT Kaiaer Wllhelm der Orosse 

(North German Lloyd) 
V9i Kaiaer Wllhelm der Orosse 

rSorth German Lloyd) 
1910 Kaiser Wllbehn II 

Covyngbt 1913. by Munn A Co., Inc. 



6 22 
6 9 37 

7 

2 





6 
6 
6 



14 
24 
31 



5 22 3."^ 



5 
5 



20 10 
18 48 



4 


18 


40 


4 


15 





4 


11 


•42 


4 


22 


50 


4 


22 


43 


4 


16 


52 


4 


15 


•50 



5 


16 





6 


U 


9 


5 


10 


•23 


6 


11 


5 


5 


8 


7 


5 


7 


•25 



RECORD OF S. S. LA PROVENCE. 
French line.) 
WESTWARD. 
1906, April From Havre (first trip) 6 



1906, May From Havre 6 

1906, July From Havre 6 

1906. Sept. From Havre 6 

1907, Sept. From Havre 6 

EASTWARD. 

1906. May To Havre 6 

1906, June To Havre 6 

RECORD OF S. S. FRANCE. 
(French Line.) 
WESTWARD. 
Prom Havre 

(First trip) 6 

From Havre 5 

From Havre 5 

From Havre 5 
EASTWARD. 
1912. May To Havre 

(First trip east) 5 

1912, Aug. To Havre 5 



9 
3 
3 
2 

1 

4 
2 



10 
35 
10 
15 
•3 

40 
•48 



1912. Apl. 26 

1912. May 

1912. Aug. 

1912. Sept. 



23 
22 
22 



20 
16 



31 

5S 

46 





2 

48 



RECORD OF S. S. K.\ISER WILHELM II. 

(North (Jerman Lloyd Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1903, April Prom Cherbourg 5 23 

1903, Aug. From Cherbourg 5 15 10 

1904. Nov. From Cherbourg 5 12 25 
1909, Nov. l=^om Cherbourg 6 12 •S 

EASTWARD. 

1903. May To Plymouth 6 1 30 

1903, Aug. To Plymouth 5 10 42 

1904, Oct. To Plymouth 5 8 •SO 

* Record. 



216 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK, 



STEAMSHIP RECORDS— Continued. 



RECORD OF 

8. 8. KRONPRINZ WILHELM. 

( North German Lloyd Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

Date d. b. m. 

11^01, Sept. From Cherbourg 

(Plrat trip) 6 10 16 
1901, Oct. Prom Cherbourg 5 21 10 

ItOl. Not. From Cherbourg 6 19 6 

1901. Dec. From Cherbourg 5 16 45 

1902. Sept. From Cherbourg 6 11 *67 

EASTWARD. 
1901. Oct. To Plymouth 6 9 48 

1901. Nov. To Plymouth 6 8 •18 

RECORD OF 

THE OLD S. S. DEUTSCHLAND 

( HamburK-American Line.) 

WESTWARD. 

1900, July Prom Plymouth 

(Flrut Trip) 6 

1900, Sept. From Cherbourg 

1901. Aug. From Cherbourg 

1903. Sept. From Cherbourg 

EASTWARD. 
1900, July To Plymouth 
1900. Aug. To Plymouth 
1900, Sept. To Plymouth 
1900, Sept. To Cherbourg via 

Plymouth 5 
Her speedy machinery haa been removed 
and she la now a superb cruising yacht of 
comparatively low speed and la the "Victoria 
Lulse." 

RECORD OF 8. S. "IMPERATOR." 

WESTWARD. 
1913. June From Cherbourg 

(First trip) 
1913, July From Cherbourg 
1913. Aug. From Cherbourg 

EASTWARD. 
1913. July To Plymouth 

(First trip east) 
1913. July To Plymouth 



6 


16 


24 


5 


12 


29 


6 


12 


23 


6 


11 


54 


5 


15 


6 


6 


11 


45 


5 


7 


38 



13 30 



€ 


6 


14 


6 


21 


30 


5 


19 


8 


6 


1 


28 


5 


18 


24 



RECORD OF 

8. 8. KAISER WILHELM DER GROSSE. 

( North German Lloyd line.) 



Date 
1897. Oct 
1897. Nov. 
1899. July 

1899. Sept 

1900. Jan. 

1901. Oct. 



EASTWARD. 

To Plymouth 
To Southampton 
To Cherbourg 
To Cherbourg 
To Cherbourg 
To Plymouth 



d. 

6 

6 

B 

6 

S 

5 



WESTWARD. 



1897. Sept From 

1898. April From 

1899. Mar. From 
1899. Sept. From 
1899. Oct. From 
1899, Nov. From 
1901. Oct. From 

1901, Nov. From 

1902, April From 
1902. Sept. From 

•Record. 



Southampton 

(First Trip) 6 

Southampton 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 6 

Cherbourg 6 

Cherbourg 6 

Cherbourg 5 

Cherbourg 5 



h. 

IS 
17 

ao 

17 
IS 
10 



22 

SO 
21 
18 
17 
17 
17 
IC 
18 
15 



RECORD OF 8. 8. " OLYMPIC." 

WESTWARD. 

1911, June From Queenstown 

(First trip) 6 15 

1911. July From Queenstown 6 18 

1911. Aug. From Queenstown 6 13 

1911. Sept. From Queenstown 6 7 

EASTWARD. 



1911. July To Plymouth 

(First trip east) 5 

1911. Aug. To Plymouth 5 

1911, Sept. To Plymouth 6 

1911, Dec. To Plymouth 5 



m 
19 
8 

S6 

fi 
so 
•• 



10 

t 

13 
48 
37 
21 
M 
41 
•M 



2 
9 

23 
29 



18 


30 


17 


4« 


14 


32 


12 


16 



PROPORTIONAL STEAMSHIP SPEEDS. 





Milee 


Feet 


Feet 




MUes 


Feet 


Feet 


Knots. 


Hour. 


per 
Minute. 


per 
Second 


Knots. 


per 
Hour. 


per 
Muute. 


per 
Second. 


1 


1.151 


101.333 


1.689 


134 


15.545 


1,368.000 


22.800 


U 


1.727 


152.000 


2.5;i3 


14 


16.121 


1.418.666 


23.644 


2 


2.303 


202.666 


3.378 


144 


16.696 


1.469.333 


24.4R8 


n 


2.879 


253.333 


4.222 


15 


17.273 


1,520.000 


25.333 


3 


3.454 


304.000 


6.066 


154 


.17.848 


1,570.666 


26.177 


3* 


4.030 


354.6.66 


6.911 


16 


18.424 


1,621.333 


27.022 


4 


4.606 


406.333 


6.755 


164 


19.000 


1.672.000 


27.866 


44 


6.181 


466.000 


7.600 


17 


19.575 


1.722.666 


28.711 


5 


5.757 


506.666 


8.444 


174 


20.161 


1,773.333 


29.555 


54 


6.333 


557.3,3;j 


9.288 


IS 


20.727 


1.824.000 


30.4O0 


6 


6.909 


608.000 


10.133 


184 


21.303 


1.874.666 


31 244 


64 


7.484 


658.666 


10.972 


19 


21.878 


1.926.333 


32.088 


7 


8.060 


700.333 


11.822 


194 


22.454 


1.976.000 


32.933 


74 


8.6;i6 


760.000 


12.666 


20 


23.030 


2.026.666 


33.777 


8 


9.212 


810.660 


13.511 


20i 


23.606 


2,077.333 


34.G22 


84 


9.787 


861.333 


14.355 


21 


24.181 


2,128.000 


35.466 


9 


10.303 


912.000 


15.200 


21i 


24.757 


2.178.666 


36.311 


94 


10.939 


962.(500 


16.044 


22 


25.333 


2,229.333 


37.154 


10 


11.515 


1.013.333 


16.888 


22 i 


26.909 


2.280.000 


37.998 


104 


12.091 


1.064.000 


17.732 


23 


26.485 


2,3,30.666 


38.S42 


11 


12.666 


1,114.666 


18.577 


234 


27.060 


2,381.3.33 


39.687 


114 


13.242 


1.165.333 


19.421 


24 


27.636 


2.432.000 


40.532 


12 


13.818 


1.216.000 


20.266 


244 


28.212 


2.482.666 


41.376 


124 


14.394 


1.26().666 


21.111 


25 


28.787 


2,633.333 


42.220 


la 


14.9f><) 


1.317.333 


21.955 


26 


29.938 


2.634.666 


43.9 lO 



Copyright 1U13. t>y Munn A Co.. Inc. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



218 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DISTANCES IN KNOTS OR NAUTICAL MILES. 



Short Track — Aug. 24 to Jan. 14, East. 

Aug. 15 to Jan. 14, West. 
Long Track— Jan. 16 to Aug. 23, East. 

Jan. 15 to Aug. 14, West. 



Ambrose Channel Lightship* and — 

Alexandria, E^gypt. 

Antwerp 

Azores (Ponta del Gada) 

Bremen 

Brow Head 

Cape Race 

Cherbourg 

Dover 

Fostnet 

Fire Island Lightship 

Flushing 

Genoa < 

Gibraltar 

Hamburg 

Havre 

Liverpool (Landing Stage) 

Lisard Point 

London (Tilbury Docks) 

Nantucket Lightship 

Naples 

Needles 

Newfoundland (Banks of) 

Plymouth 

Queenstown 

Roche's Point. , 

Rotterdam 

Scilly Islands (Bishop Rock) 

Southampton (Docks) 



Philadelphia to Delaware Breakwater, 88 miles. 
Delaware Breakwater and — 

Antwerp 

Fastnet 

Flushing 

Gravesend 

Liverpool (Landing Stage) 

Uzard Point 

London (Tilbury Docks) 

Nantucket Lightship 

Newfoundland (Banks oO 



Montreal and — 

Antwerp 

Liverpool ^Landiiig Stage) 
London (Tilbury DockH). . 
Quebec 



KAflTBOUKD 



Short 
Track 



4,052 
3.323 
2,227 
3.563 
2,744 

998 
3,078 
3.190 
2.751 
29 
3,278 
4,021 
3,168 
3.511 
3,145 
3,033 
2.929 
3,257 

193 
4,116 
3.073 

935 
2,978 
2.814 
2.810 
3.327 
2.880 
3.095 



Boston (Do^k) to Boston Light. 16 miles. 
Boston Light and — 

Antwerp 

Azores (Ponta del Gada) 

Brow Head 

Gibraltar 

Liverpool (Landing Stage. ) 

Queenstown 



3.397 
2.825 
3.352 
3,335 
3,116 
3.002 
3,336 
277 
1.009 



3.161 
2,064 
2.583 
3.048 
2.882 
2.652 



3.150 

2.755 

3.082 

155 



Portland to- 
Halifax.... 
Liverpool . . 



326 
2,862 



New Orleans to— 
Liverpool (^Landing Stogo). 
London (Tilbury Docks j . . 



4.465 
4,676 



Long 
Track 



4,962 
3,432 
2,231 
3.692 
2,869 

■ • ■ • 

3,182 
3,299 
2,876 

• • • « 

3.387 
4.031 
3,178 
3,621 
3.246 
3.158 
3,038 
3,366 

• • • • 

4.126 
3,182 

3.687 
2,939 
2.935 
3,436 
2.989 
3.204 



3,506 
2.950 
3,461 
3,444 
3,241 
3,111 
3,445 



3.280 
2,078 
2.718 
3.062 
3.017 
2.787 



3.254 
2.968 
3,186 



2.985 



4,465 
4.676 



WESTBOUXD 



Short 
Track 



4,945 
3,296 
2,221 
3.536 
2.717 

3.046 
3.163 
2,724 

3.251 
4.013 
3.160 
3.485 
3,110 
3,015 
2,902 
3,230 

• • ■ • 

4,108 
3,046 

• • > • 

2.951 
2,787 
2.783 
3.300 
2.853 
3,068 



3,379 
2,807 
3.334 
3,313 
3.098 
2,985 
3,314 



3.126 
2.064 
2,548 
3,048 
2.947 
2,617 



3,150 
2,765 
3,082 



4.465 



2,819 2.935 



Loaf 
Track 



4.954 
3,380 
2.230 
3.629 
2.823 

3.i39 
3.259 
2,830 

3.344 
4.023 
3.170 
3.578 
3,205 
3,124 
2,995 
3,328 

• • • • 

4.118 
3,139 

3,047 
2.883 
2.880 
3.393 
2,946 
3.161 



3.472 
2,913 
3.427 
3.400 
3.204 
3.078 
3.410 



3.233 
2,07« 
2.668 
3.062 
2.967 
2.737 



3.254 
2.968 
3.186 



4.465 



4.676 i 4,676 



*New York (Battery) to .\mbro9e Channel Lightship, 26 miles. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



219 



MARINE DISASTERS. 



Among the marine disastere on record 
U have itBulied in the loes of life are: 

1860, Feb. 19. — American ship Luna 

(ed off Barfleur; about 100 lives lost. 
1880. Sept. 8.— Steamer Lady Elpn sunk 
eoUmon on Lake Michigan; 287 bves lost. 
l^K), Feb. 7. — British steamer Orpheus 
lied off coast of New Zealand; about 200 
Ives lost. 
1863. April 27. — Steamer Anglo-Saxon 
in fog off Cape Race, N. F.; about 
Utcs loet. 

1865. Aug. 24. — Emigrant ship Eagle Speed 
Budered near Calcutta; 265 hvee lost. 

1866, Jan. 11.— Steamer London, on her 
to Mdboume, foundered in the Bay of 

220 lives k)St. 
18({6, Oct. 3. — Steamer Evening Star from 
[ev York to New Orleans, foundered; about 
fires lost. 

1867. Oct. 29— Roval Mail Steamers Rhone 
Wye and about fifty other vessels driven 
le and wrecked at St. Thomas. West In- 

by a hurricane; about 1.000 lives lost. 

1868, April 9. — Steamer Sea Bird burned 
OD Lake Michigan; 100 lives lost. 

1869. Oct. 27. — Steamer Stonewall burned 
below Cairo. III.; 200 lives lost. 

1870, Jan. 28. — Inman Line steamer City of 
Bastoo, left New York with 117 passengers 
■ad was never heard from. 

1870, Sept. 7. — British warship Captain 
boodered off Finisterre; 472 lives lost. 

1870, Oct. 19. — Steamer Cambria lost off 
lushtnhul; about 170 lives lost. 

1871, July 30. — Staten Island ferryboat 
Westfield ezpkxied in New York Harbor; 100 
Bves lost. 

1873. Jan. 22. — ^British steamer Northfleet. 
sank in collision off Dungeness; 300 lives lost. 

1873, Nov. 23. — White Star liner Atlantic 
vreeked off Nova Scotia; 547 lives lost. 

1873, Nov. 23. — French Line steamer Ville 
da HaTre, from New York to Havre, in col- 
fiaoo with ship Loch Earn, sank in sixteen 
minatee; 110 bves lost. 

1874, Dec. 26. — Immigrant vessel Cospat- 
rick took fire and sank ofTAuckland; 476 hves 
bst 

1S75, May 7. — ^Hamburg mail steamer 
SehiOer wrecked in fog on Scilly Isles; 200 
bvcskMt. 

1875, Nov. 4. — American steamer Pacific in 
tvS&Aaa thirty miles southwest of Cape Flat- 
toy; 236 lives lost. 

1875, Dec. 6. — Steamer Deutschland 
VTMked at mouth of the Thames; 157 lives 
lot. 

1877. Jnlv 15. — British steamer Eten 
vreeked off Valparaiso; about 100 lives lo.<tt. 

1877, Nov.— Steamer Atacama wrecked off 
CaUera, Chile; 105 U^ea lost. 

1877, Nov. 24.— United States Sloop of War 
Hano wrecked off North Carolina coast; 110 
Inresloat. 

1878, Jan. 31. — Steamer Metropolis wrecked 
off North Carolina; 104 lives lost. 

1878, March 24. — British training ship 
Eonrd'-e, a frigate, foundered near the Isle of 
Wi|bt; 300 livee lost. 

1878, Sept. 3. — Brttiah iron steamer Prin- 
ocM Alice sunk in collision in the Thames ; 700 
fires kMt 



I 1878. Nov. 25.— ^Steamer Pomerania sunk 

I in midniffht collision with a bark in the 
English Channel; 47 lives lost. 

I 1878, Dec. 18. — French steamer Bjriantin 
sunk in collision in the Dardanelles with the 
British steamer Rinaldo; 210 lives lost. 

• 1879. Dec. 2. — Steamer Borusia sunk off 
coast of Spain; 174 lives lost. 

1880. Jan. 31. — British training ship At- 
lanta, left Bermuda with 290 men and was 
never heard from. 

1880. Nov. 24. — French steamer Oncle 
Joseph sank by collision off Spessia; 250 
lives lost. 

1881, May 24. — Steamer Victoria capsised 
in Thames River. Canada; 200 lives lost. 

1881, Aug. 30. — ^Steame^ Teuton wrecked 
off the Cape of Good Hope; 200 lives lost. 

1883. July 3. — Steamer Daphne turned tur- 
tle in the Clyde; 124 lives lost. 

1884, Jan. 18. — American steamer City of 
Columbus wrecked off Gay Head Light. Mass. ; 
99 lives lost. 

1884, April 3. — Steamer Daniel Steinman 
wrecked on Sambro Head. N. S.; 131 lives 
lost. 

1884, April 19. — Bark Ponema and steam- 
ship State of Florida sank in midocean after 
collision; 145 lives lost. 

1884. July 23.— Spanish steamer Gijon and 
British steamer Lux in collision off Finistere ; 
150 lives lost. 

1886, March 14. — Steamship Oregon, Cu- 
nard Line, run into by unknown steamer, 
eighteen miles east of Long Island, sank eight 
hours afterward ; no lives Tost. 

1887, Jan. 29. — Steamer Kapunda in col- 
lision with bark Ada Melore off coast of Brazil ; 
300 lives lost. 

1887, Nov. 15. — British steamer Wah 
Young caught fire between Canton and Hong- 
kong; 400 uves lost. 

1887, Nov. 19.— Steamer W. A. Scholten 
sunk by collision in the English Channel; 
134 lives lost. 

1888, Aug. 14. — Steamship Gciser sunk by 
collision with the Thingvalla; 105 lives lost. 

1888, Sept. 13.— Italian steamship Sud 
America and steamship La France in collision 
near the Canary Islands; 89 lives lost. 

1889, Mareh 16. — United States warship 
Trenton, Vandalia, and Nipsic and Gorman 
ships Adler and Kber wrecked on Samoan 
IsLandH; 147 lives lo»t. 

1890, Jan. 2. — Steamer Persia wrecked off 
Corsica; 130 lives lost. 

1890, Feb. 17.— British steamer Duburg 
wrecked in China jea; 400 lives lost, 

1890, March l.»-British steamship Quetia 
foundered in Torres Straits; 124 lives lost. 

1890, Sept, 19.— Turkish frigate Ertogrul 
foundered off Japan; 540 lives lost. 

1890, Dec. 27. — British steamer Shanghai 
burned in China Sea; 101 lives lost. 

1891. March 17, — Anchor liner Utopia in 
collision with British steamer Anson off Gi- 
braltar and sunk; 574 lives lost. 

1891. April 16,— British ship St. Catharis 
wrecked off Caroline Island; 90 lives lost, 

1892, Jan. 13. — Steamer Namehow wrecked 
in China Sea; 414 lives lost. 

1892. Oct. 28. — Anchor liner Romania 
wrecked off Corsica; 113 lives lost. 



220 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MARINE DISASTERS— Continued. 



1893, Feb. 8.— Anchor Line Trinalria 
wrecked off Spain; 115 lives lost. 

1893, Feb. 11.— Steamer Naronic. White 
Star Line, lost on the Atlantic and never 
heard from; 74 lives lost. 

1893, June 22.— British battleship Victoria 
Hunk in collision with the Carapcrdown off 
Syria; 357 lives lost. 

1894, Nov. 1. — Steamer Wairaro wrecked 
off New Zealand; 134 lives lost. 

1895, Jan. 30. — German steamer Elbe sunk 
in collision with British steamer Crathie in 
North Sea; 335 lives lost. 

1895, March 11. — Spanish cruiser Reina Re- 

fenta foundered in Atlantic at entrance to 
lediterranean; 400 lives lost. 

1895, May 28. — French steamer Dom 
Pedro wrecked off coast of Qalacia; about 
100 lives lost. 

1896, June 17. — Steamer Drummond Castle 
wrecked off Brest, France; about 250 lives 
lost. 

1897, March 7.— Steamship Ville de St. 
Nasaire, French Line, burned in a storm off 
Cape Hatteras; 40 lives lost. 

1898, July, 2. — Steamship La Bourgoyne 
rammed British steel sailing vessel Cromarty- 
shire and sank rapidly; 584 lives lost. 

1904, June 15. — Gen. Slocum, excursion 
steamboat, with 1,400 persons aboard; took 
fire going throush Hell Gate, East River; 
more than 1,000 lives lost. 

1904, July 3. — Steamship Norge foundered 
at sea; 519 lives lost. 

1905. Sept. 12. — Japanese warship Mikaaa 
sunk after explosion m Sasebo Harbor; 599 
lives lost. 

1907, Feb. 12. — Steamship Larchmont in 
collision with Harry Hamilton in Long Island 
Hound; 183 lives lost. 

1907, Feb. 21. — English mail steamship 
Berlin wrecked off the Hook of Holland: 142 
lives lost. 

1907, Feb. 24. — Austrian Lloyd steamship 
Imperatrix, from Trieste to Bombay, wrecked 
on Cape of Crete and sunk; 137 live.«< lost. 

1907. January. — British steamship Pen- 
gwern foundered in the North Sea; crew and 
24 men lost. 

1907, January. — Frina Waldemar. Ham- 
burg-American Line, aground at Kingston, 
Jamaica after earthquake; 3 lives lost. 

1907, Februaiy, — French warship Jean Bart 
sunk off coast of Morocco. 

1907, March. — Steamship Congo sunk at 
mouth of Ems River by German steamship 
Nerissa; 7 lives lost. 

1907, March. — French warship Jena blown 
up at Toulon; 120 lives lost. 

1907, June. — Steamship Aden sunk off So- 
cotra, on the east coast of A/rica; 78 lives lost. 

1907, July. — Steamship Columbia sunk off 
Shelton Cove, Cal., in collision with steamship 
San Pedro; 50 lives lost. 

1908, Feb. 3.— Steamship St. Cuthbert, 
bound from Antwerp to Now York, burnod at 
aea off Nova Scotia; 15 livos lo^^t. 



1908, April 25.— British cruiser Gladiatoi 
rammed by American liner St. Paul off Isle ot 
Wight: 30 lives lost. 

1908, July. — Chinese warship Ying Kini 
foundered; 300 lives lost. 

1908, Aug. 9. — Steamship Prudentia lost oa 
voyage to Argentina. 

1908, Aug. 23. — Norwegian steamship Fol 
gefouden sunk; many lives lost. 

1908. Nov. 5. — Steamship Archimedes los( 
in Baltic Sea; 10 drowned. 

1908, Nov. 26. — Steamjihip Finance sunli 
by steamship Georgic off Sandy Hook : 4 livd 
lost. 

1908, Nov. 6.— Steamship Taish sunk a 
storm off Etoro Island; 150 lives lost. 

1908, Nov. 27.— Steamship San Pablo sunk 
off Philippine Islands; 100 hvee lost. 

1908, Dec. 13.— Steamship Ginaei Manj 
wrecked off Wei-Hai-Wai and crew and pjw- 
sengers drowned. 

1908. Dec. 4.— Steamship Soo City found- 
ered off Newfoundland; crew lost. 

1909, Jan. 24. — Steamship Republic ram- 
med off Nantucket by steamship Florida; ^ 
lives lost in collision; vessel sank; help re- 
ceived by wireless. 

1911. Feb. 2. — Steamship Abenton wrecked 
70 lives lost 

1911, April 23. — Steamship Aaa ran 
aground; 40 lives lost. 

1911, Sept 5. — Steamship Tuscapel wrecked 
81 lives lost. 

1911, Oct. 2.— Steamship Hatfield in col- 
lision and sunk; 20 lives lost. 

1911, April 2. — Steamship Koombuna 
wrecked; 150 lives lost. 

1912. Jan. 18.— Wistow Hall. British 
steamer, foundered off coast of x\berdeenshirr. 
Scotland; 53 drowned. 

1912. Feb. 13. — Ryoha Mam and Mori 
Maru, Japanese steamers, sunk in coUisiun 
off Nagasaki; 46 lives lost. 

1912, March 21. — Steamship Cachepolaunk 
after an explosion of her boilers, off the west 
coast of Peru; 70 lives lost. 

1912. April 8. — Nile excursion steamer sunk 
in collision near Cairo, Egypt; 200 lives loat. 

1912, April 15.— Steamship Titanic. TlTiitp 
Star Line, struck an iceberg and sank; 1.517 
lives lost. 

1912, April 30.— <>>asting boat Texas, 
Archipelago Steamship Company, sunk by a 
submarine mine at the entrance to Smyrna 
Bay: 69 lives lost. 

1912, Sept. 23. — Russian steamer Obnevka 
sunk in Dvina River; 115 lives lost. 

1913, Jan. 8. — Steamer Rosecrans sunk with 
33 men on Pacific Coast. 

1913, May 22. — French Messageries Man- 
times liner S^n^gal blown up b^ a mine in 
the Port of Smyrna; about 200 bves lost. 

1913, May 26. — Steamship Nevada blown 
up b^ a mine in the Port of Smyrna; about 
245 lives lost. 

1913, Aug. 18. — State of California, stoamrr 
struck rock in Alaskan Soa and sank almnut 
immediately; 32 perished. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



221 



LTIOXS OF THE UnITBD StATES 

Lifx-Savin'g Service. 

Daring the yemr ending Juno 30, 1912. a 
of 1,730 vessels were reported by keepers 

iife-saving stations as having sustained 

ties, more or less serious, within the 

oi service operations. Of these vrasels, 

were documented and 1,275 undocu- 

Bted. the latter class comprising launches, 

boats, rowboats, etc. 

H the 455 documented vessels, 46 were lost; 

the 3.731 persons on board, 6 were lost; 

£T9ons were succored at stations and 
ys* succor was afiFordcd. The value 
the TCMels involved was $9,396,480; value 
cargoes, $2,499,725; total value of property 
Tolved. $11,896,205: value of property 
Tcd, 99.860,995; value of property lost, 
12.035.210. 

Of the 1.275 undocumented vessels, 13 
««re totally lost; of the 3,462 persons on 
boikrd. 10 perished, 164 persons were succored 
ftfc stations and 2b2 days' succor was afforded. 
Tlie value of the vessels involved was 
tl.314,420; value of cargoes, $37,680; total 
nine of property involved, $1,352,100; value 
cf property saved, $1,294,175; value of proper- 
tyW, $57,925. 

Of course theie figures do not represent 
tiw entire amount saved by the service. A 
counderable portion was saved by salvage 
companies, wrecking tugs and other instru- 
mentalities, often working in conjunction with 
the seamen. It is equally impossible to give 
u approximate estimate of the number of 
bTes saved. Often a vessel with a long 
psssenger list and a large cargo was d&ved 
oolj by the warning signals of the patrolman, 
vhiie in many eases, either where vessels 
Mffered actual loss or where they were warned 
of danger, no loss of life would have resulted, 
rren tEough no aid had been rendered. 

GsxERAL Summary of Operations 
Since the Introduction op the 
I^BENT Life -Saving System, 
1871-1912. 

Since the introduction of the present life- 
■aving system, the disasters at sea have 
totaled 24.441, and the number of persons 
isTolved 159,332, this number including per- 
sons rescued not connected with vessels in- 
vtdved in disaster. The number of lives lost 
was 1,330. Eighty-five of these were lost at 
the disaster to the steamer " Metropolis" in 
1877-78, when service was impeded by dis- 
taaes, and fourteen others in the same year 
owing to similar causes. The number of 
peraoas succored at stations, inclusive of those 
not connected with vessels involved in dis- 
aster, was 24,201, and the days' succor 
afforded was 54,516. 

The total value of the vessels involved in 
disaster was $231,360,845, of which amount 
186.909,229 represented the value of cargoes 
tnvolTed. $256,228,037 was saved and 
162.042,037 was lost. 



vessels and barges, 
certificates issued to 
vessels 438, making 
number of new life 



Untied States Steamboat Inspec- 
tion Service. 

This service is now under the jurisdiction 
of the Department of Commerce and Labor. 
The Supervising-Inspector General reported 



that for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, 
the number of annual certificates of inspection 
issued to domestic steam, motor, sailing 

was 7,398; number of 
foreign passenger steam 
a total of 7,836. The 
preservers inspected was 
244.565, of which number 2,750 were rejected. 
3,786 marine boiler plates were tested at the 
mills by assistant inspectors. There were 
7,616 applicants for original and renewal of 
licenses examined for color-blindness, 206 
of whom were found color blind and rejected. 
During the year there were 3 accidents caused 
by fire, resulting in the loss of 4 lives: 17 
collisions in which 31 lives were lost; 8 ex- 
plosions or accidental escape of steam, result- 
ing in the loss of 14 lives; 32 killed as a cause 
of 1 1 accidents from striking snags, wrecks and 
sinking; 139 cases of accidental drowning and 
44 deaths by miscellaneous accidents. During 
the fiscal year 307.692,494 passengers were 
carried on steam vessels that are required by 
law to report the number of passengers 
carried. Taking the total number of lives 
lost as 264, it is seen that 1,165,501 passen- 
gers were carried for each life lost, whether of 
passengers or crew, and from all causes. 



United States Revenue Cttter 
Service. 

The United States Revenue Cutter Service, 
organised in 1790, is a military arm of the 
Government attached to and under the 
direction of the Treasury Department. It 
is charged with the enforcement of the navi- 
gation and customs laws of the United States, 
the assistance of vessels in distress, the pro- 
tection of the sealing industry in Alaska, 
the enforcement of quarantine laws, the 
destruction of derelicts and other dangers 
to navigation and numerous other duties. 
There are in the service 228 commissioned 
officers and cadets and 1,500 petty officers 
and enlisted men. 43 vessels, including 2 
tug-boats and 6 launches, are used in the 
service. 

Coal Consumpticjn of Ocean 
Steameiw. 

The amount of coal consumetl by a steam- 
ship incn»ases much faster than th€> rate of 
increase of npecd. This is shown in the fol- 
lowing tabic, which api)lics to a "typical ves- 
sel" of 10,000 grojw tons. 





Tons of 


Number 






Coal Con- 


. of 


Mileage 




aununl 


Firemen 


per 


Knots. 


per Day. 


Required. 


\ ear. 


10 


44 


15 


42.000 


U 


53 


18 


46.200 


12 


65 


22 


50.400 


13 


79 


26 


54.600 


14 


96 • 


32 


58.800 


15 


117 


39 


63.000 


16 


144 


48 


67,200 


17 


173 


58 


71,400 


18 


209 


70 


75.600 


19 


254 


SS 


79.800 


20 


305 


102 


84.000 


21 


371 


127 


88,200 



222 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AROUND THE WORLD IN THIRTY-SIX DAYS. 



When Jules Verne wrote his fas- 
cinating story, "Around the World in 
80 Days," he probably did not realize 
that within a comparatively short pe- 
riod this trip could be made in much 
abbreviated time. In fact Phineas 
Fogg could now make the complete 
circuit of the earth in slightly less 
than thirty-six days. 

Numerous attempts have been made 
to beat the fictional record of Phineas 
Fogg by both men and women. The 
first of these journeys around the world 
against time was made in 1889 by 
Nellie Ely in 72 days 6 hours 11 min- 
utes and 14 seconds. Geo. Francis 
Train made the trip in 1890 in 67 
days 12 hours and 3 minutes. In 
1901 Charles Fitzmorris made the trip 
in 60 days 13 hours 29 minutes and 42 
2-5 seconds, in the race of schoolboys 
conducted by the Hearst papers. 

Fitsmorris left Chicago May 20, 1901 

New York May 22, 1901 

Berlin May 30, 1901 

Moscow June 1, 1901 

Irkutsk June 10, 1901 

Stretenak.SiberiaJune 13, 1901 
Blaffoveschensk June 21, 1901 

Vladivostok June 27, 1901 

Yokohama July 5. 1901 

Victoria, B. C.July 16, 1901 

Amved in Chicago July 20, 1901 

The first record breaker to use the 
Trans-Siberian Railway was Henry 
Frederick, who in 1903 made the cir- 
cuit in 54 days 7 hours 20 minutes. 
In 1907 Col. Burnley Campbell re- 
duced the time to 40 days 19 hours 
30 minutes. In 1911 Andrew Jaeger- 
Schmidt made a record-breaking trip, 
the elapsed time being 39 days 19 
hours 42 minutes 37 4-5 seconds. 

July 17, 1911, 1:15 P.M., left Paris. 

July 20, Moscow, 

July 22, Omsk, 

July 25. Irkutsk. 

July 28, Harbin 

July 29, Vladivostok, 

July 31, Yokohama, 

Aug. 12, Vancouver. 

Aug. 18, Montreal, 

Aug. 19. New York 

Aug. 26. Paris. 

This trip cost $1,426. Of this 
amount only $596 was spent for rail- 
road fare and transportation, while 
$000 went in tips and gratuities. 



The record of Jaeger-Schmidt wai 
broken in 1913 by John Henry 
Mears by 3 days 22 hours and 37 
seconds. Mears made the world trip 
of 21,066 miles in 35 days 21 hours 
35 minutes and 4-5 seconds, thus 
traveling at an average speed of 587 
miles a day or 24j^ miles an hour. 
Jaeger-Schmidt had traveled 19.300 
miles at an average daily rate of 4S0 
miles, or 20 miles an hour. 

Mears left New York July 2, at 12.45a.m, 

BeHin July 9 

St. Petersburg. July 12 

Harbin July 21 

Yokohama . . . July24 

Victoria Aug. 2 

St. Paul Aug. 6 

Chicago Aug. 6 

Arrived m New York Aug. 6. at 10.20 p.m. 

During the entire trip Mr. Meare 
slept in a hotel but once, and that 
was for two hours in London. The 
trip cost less than $800; this includes 
the liberal tips he distributed along 
the way and the money he spent in 
bribing the engine crew on the Trans- 
Siberian Railway. 

An interesting feature of the trip 
was the flight of fifteen miles in an 
hj'droaeroplane over I'uget Sound 
from a yacht to Seattle. Mr. Mears 
stated after his trip that in order to 
break his record it would probably 
be necessary to resort to the use of 
an aeroplane from Fishguard to Lon- 
don and from Dover to Moscow, then 
cutting off about two days. It is 
expected that the new record will 
stand for years. 

The record around the globe by the 
westward route is claimed by Daniel 
D. Bidwell, who in 1911 made the 
complete circuit in 47 dayb and 22 
hours. The route taken by Mr. Bid- 
well took in Montreal, Vancouver, 
Yokohoma, \nadivostok, Moscow, 
Dover, and back to New York. 

On July 23, 1911, a bicyclist named 
Pankratow started on a trip around 
the world on a bicycle from Harbin. 
Manchuria. He finished on Aug. 10» 
1913, having ridden around the world 
on his wheel in two years and eigh- 
teen days. 



SCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




RIGS OF SAILING VESSELS. 



, tthOe then an nol 
2b« ub™ mot ™ 

i« but illchtly Ijoi 



™pjniii( miRuideratuidinci sa to ths namw 
faai np u« to be utidentaod, the accom- 



'ing illustratiofa have been prepared, 
'ing a wide range from the amalleat and 
noet siiQpIe eailing veaaels to the largest 

the firat place we may make adatiootion 
-essoa of the miniber of maats, which 
ee from one to five. The second dia- 
ion may be in the manner in which tbe 

I being on horitoQlal yarda iwingiilR 



224 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



crosswiM! of the mast, some on yards which 
lie obliquely to the horisontal, others having 
booms or gaffs attached at only one end to 
the mast, and others again having no sprit or 
spar by which to aid in their extension. 
Some sails are triangular, others have four 
well defined sides. Some vessels have all the 
sails centered at the masts, or are square 
rigged; in others all the sails are "fore and 
alt;" and others a^ain have the sails on one 
or more masts of different type from those on 
the other or others; while in some, part of the 
sails on a mast are of one type and the rest of 
one or more others. 

Referring to the illustrations, and consider- 
ing only the number of masts: A to I inclusive 
have but one; J to X inclusive, two; and the 
rest have three. There are vessels having 
four and even five masts, but these do not 
require Illustration as the sails on the other 
mast or masts are of the same general type as 
those on the three. 

Of sails we have as distinct types No 5 A, 
which is a leg of mutton, having a boom to 
extend its lower edg^e; 5 B, which is a square 
sail, having its upper edge extended by a 
yard and found also at 4 and 5 L, M and 
N. 4 V, W, X. Y, Z, AA and BA; 6 X, Z, AA 
and BA, and 6 AA and BA. All these square 
sails have no yard to extend them on their 
lower edges. 

In vessels F and J there will be seen to be 
one lon^i yard at an angle to the mast and 
having its lower end made fast to a convenient 
point oelow. This is called a lateen rig. 

In vessels D, £, G, H. I, O, P. O, R, 8, 
T, U, V, W,' Y, all sails marked 5 are bent to 
the mast at their inner edge, and extended by 
a boom below and a gaff above. These are 
fore and aft sails. Other fore and aft sails, 
bent to stays and not to any mast, boom or 

Jard, are the stay sails seen in vessels D, E, I, 
, K, M, N, and on all the others from P on, 
inclusive. The particular sail on vessel A is 
a leg of mutton sail{ on B. a lug sail or lug; on 
C. a split lug, differing from that on B by one 
portion being bent to the mast as well as to 
the yard above. In vessel K may be seen a 
** sliding gunter." the upper portion of which 
is extended by a spar which is hoisted along- 
side of the mast, constituting, practically, a 
sliding topmast; the sail being oent to both 
halves of the mast proper. On vessel L there 
is a dipping lug, and on M a three-quarter lug. 
In S we see a schooner the topsails of which, 
marked 12 and VA. are extended by the top- 
mast and the gaffr these being called galF- 
topsails; while in T they have at their lower 
edges comparatively short spars called clubs, 
by which they may be more flatly strained 
than where the attachment is made directly 
to the comer (or clew) of the sail. In BB we 
see the topeaib double: that is, instead of 
there t>eing only one s^ail to the topmast, as 
in AD, 9, 10, II. they are double, the upper 
half being bent to the regular yard above, and 
the other to a yard which is hoisted on the 
mast; the object Ihmiiu to enable the sail area 
to be more rpadily itkluced than by reefing 
one large sail. 

Taking the different riifs in order a** lettered, 
A. B» a log of mutton, B a Jur, C a split hig. I) 
a »Kw>p (havii»« a singlo m;u«!t and only fore 
and alt «nil>»^. K a sK>op having a p^ff toivyiil, 
K n latc«>n riu. l? a skipjack Oi.u itvu no Paw- 
sprit and no stA>"jyul nor to]>s:\il). H a cat- 



boat (which differs from the skipjack only ia 
tilie hull), I the cutter as known m the United 
States Navy (distinguished by being sloop 
rigged, with a souare topsail instead of a gaff 
topsail or a club topsail), J Oi lateen rigged 
felucca, K a sliding gunter (having practic^y 
a sliding toj^mast to which as well as to the 
mast the sail is bent). L a dipping lug. M a 
three-quarter lug. N a standing lug (one 
lower comer of we sail being secured to tlu 
mast, and the lower edge oein^ extended 
witJiout a boom), O a pirogue (having no bow- 
sprit, no staysails, and no topsails, and being 
fitted with a lee board as shown), P a skxyp 
yawl (having a small mast stepped astern and 
bearing a leg of mutton sail), Q a sloop yavl 
witJi a jigger. 

R is a schooner having two masti, both 
fore and aft rigged; this one bailing no top- 
sails and only one staysail; S a schooner with 
gaff topsails (sometimes called a gaff topsail 
schooner), T a schooner with club topeaib 
(sometimes called a club topsail schooner), 
U a topsail schooner (having a square top- 
sail on the foremast and a galT topsail on tne 
mainmast), V a hermaphrodite or modified 
brig (two masted and naving the foronast 
square ritoeed and the maiimiast fore and aft 
rigged), W a brigantine (having two masts, 
the^ foremast being square rined and the 
mainmast having square topsaib and but a 
mainsail extended by gaff and boom), X a 
brig (a two masted vessel square rig^^ on 
both masts), Y a barken tine (having three 
masts, the foremast being square rin^ and 
the other two fore and alt ngged), Z a bark 
(having three masts, the forrjnast and main- 
mast being square rigged and the misienmast 
fore and aft rigged), AA a full rigged ship 
(having three masts, all square rigged), and 
B A a full rigged merchant ship (having double 
topsails as before explained). 

The sails as illustrated on aU the \'e8selfl 
shown bear the same numbers for the same 
name throughout. In all, 1 is the flying jib, 
2 the jib, 3 the foretopmast staysail, 4 the 
foresail, 5 tiie mainsail. 6 the cross jack sail 
7 the spanker. 8 the jigger, 9 the fore to^isail. 
10 the main topsail, 1 1 the missen topsail, 13 
the fore gaff topsail. 13 the main gaff^ topsail 
14, the main topmast staysail, 15 the mizsen 
topmast staysail, 16 the lower fore toi>sail, 1< 
the lower main topsail, 18 the lower mines 
topsail. 19 the upper fore topsail, 20 the upper 
main topsail. 21 the upper mizsen topsail 23 
the fore topgallant sail, 23 the main top- 

Sllant sail, 24 the misxen topgallant sail. 25 
e fore royal. 26 the main royal, 27 the 
missen royal, 28 the main skysail, 29 the main 
topgallant staysail, 30 the missen topgallant 
staysail. 31 the jib topsail. 32 the fore trysail 
33 the staysaO. 34 the gaff topsail. 35 the main 
royal staysaiL 

There are other kinds of sails not shown, u 
for instance studding sails, which are extend- 
ed by yards on square rigged vesaeb. aod 
other staysails than those shown may be set 
when the wind is lii^t and they can be used 
I to advantage to catch any wind. 

i There are other rigs vhidi embody the 
1 features of those already abown, saoi for 

example as the three masted, four masteci. 

and fi\*e masted schooners, the four ms8tr<| 
t and five masted ships and the four masteti 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



225 



ikipentine, all of which are an extension of the 
rigii ahowD. 

BUOYS. 

In ihe United States it is customary to 
mark cfaanneto with red and black buoys. 
As the channel is entered from the sea the 
red buoys are on the starboard, or right side, 
aad the black buojm on the port. Usually 
there is a difference in form between the two 
ieti of buoys. The starboard or rod buo3r8 
SIS of the type known as "nun" buoys, 




CAN BUOY 

■asnetimes called "nut" buovs, the part that 
projects out of the water being conical in 
form. The port or black buoys are of the 
type known as "can" bu03rs. the part that 
projects out of the water having the form of a 




NUN BUOY 

plain cylinder or else a sligotly tapered 
rvlinder. In winter weather in waters where 
tm*re is apt to be a great deal of ice, "spar" 
buoys are U8f<l instead of "can" and "nun" 



buoys, the "spar " buoys having the shape of 
a spar as the name implies. In Europe buosrs 
are not as consistently used as in the United 
States and it is imp>ossible for us to summarise 
here the significance of the different buoys in 
various European ports. At night certain 
channels are markea by "light" buoys; that 
is, buoys fitted with acetylene, Pintsch gas, 
or electric lights. 



NAUTICAL TERMS 

Abaft: Toward the stern or end of the vessel. 

Aft: Toward the stern or end of the vessel. 

Alleyway: The ship's passageway. 

Altitude: This is the angular distance of 
the pole above the horison. 

Bower Anchor: This is an anchor which is 
ready for immediate use. 

Bulkhead: A longitudinal or transverse 
partition. 

Cart: A sea map. 

Deadlight: This is a covering of wood or 
metal us^ in severe weather to protect glass 
portholes or windows. 

Equinox: This is the equal length of the dav 
and night occurring toward the end of March 
and September. 

Ebb-Tide: Falling tide. 

Forward: Toward the bow or front of the 

Fore-and-aft: This refers to the length of 
the ship. 

Fo'castle: This was formerly the seamen's 
quarters, but in the modem vessel Uiey are 
quartered almost anywhere near their work. 

Fathom: Six feet. 

Flood-Tide: Rising tide. 

Galley: This is the Kitchen. 

Height of tide: This is the difference be- 
tween the level of high water and that of low 
water. 

Larboard: The opposite of starboard; port 
is the later and more preferred term. 

Lee-side: This is the side away from the 
wind. 

Latitude: Distance directly North or South 
of the Equator. 

Longitude: Distance directly East or "West 
of the meridian of Greenwich. 

Lights of vessels: These are the port and 
starboard li|(hts. red and groen, respectively, 
besides a white light in the foretop. 

Mid-ship : This means the pomt which is 
equidistant between the bow and the stern. 

Neap-tide: This is low tide caused by the 
sun and moon being farthr^t apart. 

Port: This is the left-hand side of the ship 
looking toward the bow. 

Porthole: A stateroom window secured in a 
massive metal ring adapted to be closed 
tightly. 

Starboard: This is the right-hand side of 
the ship looking toward the bow. 

Scuppers: Channels for water, usually *t 
the outer edge of the deck. 

Sounding: Dejith of water in fathoms. 

Spring-tide: This is high tide caused by the 
sun and moon being on the morid'an togethpr 

Sheet-anchor: This Ls a spare anchor which 
is reaorved for emergencies. 

Thwartahip: CnxMswiso to the ship. 

Weather-side: This is the side of tlie ship 
toward the wind. 



SCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN RBFERENCB BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IT IS BETTER TO BE SAFE THAN SORRY. 
ToUds UJDperature of sea weMt. 

PROVISIONING THE " KRONPRINZ WILHELM" FOR A SINGLE 
TRANSATLANTIC TRIP. 



Tlie Book of Geneaia does not record 
tbe toaDige of tbe buge vessel whicb 
Bull; stranded on Mouat Ararat, af- 
tM" GoiihJDg the most wonderful to;- 
tft erer described in the aonals of 
nunkiDd. But It is quite safe to as- 
' foiM that tbe dimensioos of tbe Ark. 
Ihit old-time floating storehouse, are 
nceeded in size by the largest of 
Meainshipa now crossing the Atlantic. 
Not tbe least strikiog evidence of 
Ibe sise of these modern monsters of 
tbe deep ia afforded by the vast quao- 
, titia of food wbicb must be taken 
' iboird for a single six-day trip across 
the Atlantic. For tbe 1.500 passen- 
|«¥ and tbe Bereral bondred men con- 
■titnliaK the crew, carloads of food 
utd whole tanks of liquids are necea- 
wry. To enumerate in cold type the 
Piict quantities of bread, meat, and 
Tcgptables consunied In a weekly trip 
■oDld give but an inadequate idea of 
Um atoring capacity of a modern liner. 
We have, therefore, prepared a picture 
whicb icrapbically shows by compari- 
•an with the average man tbe equiva- 
Irat of the meat, poultry, and bread- 
•tnlfa. as well as tbe liquors used. 
Etch kind of food has been eoDcen- 
tfited Into a giant unit, compared 
vilh which tbe figure of the average 
nun seems puny. 

On the "KronprinB Wilbelm," of the 
North German I-ioyd Line, which 
■ttamsfaip we have taken for the pur- 
pose of instituting our comparisona 
MOW 19.800 pounds of fresh meat and 



14,300 pounds of gait beef and mut- 
ton, in all 34,100 pounds of meat, are 
eaten during a single trip from New 
York to Bremen. This enormous quan- 
tity of meat baa been pictured in tbe 
form of a single joint of beef, which, 
if it actually existed, would be some- 
what less than 10 feet high, 10 feet 
long, and 6 feet wide. If placed on 
one end of B scale, it would require 
about 227 average men in the other end 
to tip the beam. 

For a single voyage the "Kronprini 
Wilbelm" uses 2,040 pounds of ham. 
1.320 pounds of bacon, and 506 pounds 
of sausage— in all, 4,466 pounds. 
Since most of this is pork, it may 
welt be pictured in the form of a ham. 
That Bingle ham is equivalent in 
weight to 374 average hams. It is 
7Vi feet high. 3 feet In diameter and 
2 feet thick. 

The poultry eaten by the paasen- 
gera of the steamer during a trip to 
Bremen or New York weighs 4,840 
pounds. Suppose that we show theac 
4.840 pounds of poultry in the form 
of a turkey, dressed and ready for 
the oven. The bird would be a giant 
10 feet long, 8 feet broad, and 5 feet 
bigh. 

Sauerkraut, beans, peaa, rice, and 
fresh vegelablea are consumed to the 
amount of 2.';,320 pounds. Packed tor 
market, these preserved and fresh vege- 
tahiea would be contained in 290 baa- 
kets of the uaual form, which piled up 
make a formidable truncated pyramid 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBHENCB BOOK. 



THE COMPLICATED GEAR OF A LARGE VESSEL. 
Photo«rsph Uken on the "Georse Wsehinf ton." 
Main Derk. 8 Csrso WiDoba. 

Lower Proroermiii: D«lt 9 Riaina. 

llpper Promenad* Deck. 10 Derrick for Hemi 

t.-.. n— 1. 1] Smoke Funnd. 

2 Veotititon. 



THE OLYMPIC ON HER MAIDEN VOYAGE. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFERBNCei BOOK. 



8mok> Stack. 

Winlrr Garden. B V entilaton. 

Bokt Deck. 9 Vbtjoiu Deck Boiuea, 

Sun Deck. 10 Boat Winch. 

Boats 11 Carta Bpuni. 

Quadimnt Davit. 12 AwDins Stanchiona. 



LIFEBOAT DRILL ON A TRANSATLANTIC LINER, 
PROVISIONING THE BOATH. 
Taken upecially for Ihh book. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF THE TWIN SCREW- 



R«coDd clas Dioi 
Ba«Esce ronin 



ttb Ijmoke 



Poat oSiOB 
SeooDd clam puiCr; 
Seooad class kitcbc 

Euflirte room 



(♦v 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF THE TURBINB-DRIVEN 



SCEKNTIFIC AMERICAN RBPERENCB BOOK. 



EXPRESS ETTBAMER "KAISER WILHELM II." 



SouHery 
Conl bimk 
Boiler rw 



CtirJ Steward's offiod 



ReiuliDsan 
Steerage Li 
Sleera|tc 



»Bitan< 
Anchor i 



STEAMER '■ FRANCE," A FINE TYPE C 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TABLE SHOWING THE DISTANCE OF THE HORIZON 
AT DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS. 



12.05 
12.32 
12.58 



1H.44 
IS.e4 
ie.R4 

n'.-zi 

17.42 
17.81 



, Feet , Nftuti(»l 



E.\CiI.SB ROOM, OIL MOTORDRIVEX " SELANDIA." 



SCIENTIPIC AMERICAN RKFERBNCB BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



235 



GROWTH OF RAILWAYS OF THE WORLD. 

In the following table is given the mileage of the principal countries in the 
! vorld from the earliest date available to the latest: 



Coiintry 



GiMt BriUin. 
UnttMi Stein 

Outtdft 

Fnaoe 

Qamaaj 

Beigiam 

Amtria (pn^)er) 
Bwiam 
Enropv. ..... 

Itobr 

Bobnd , 

SwitMrlaod... 
Hoofvy 

D||||B§I^ 

filMin 

Cbiii 

Bmfl 

Kcnraj 

Biradcn 

AifBDtuieRe- 
irablio 

Tnrkcyia 

Eurep* 

hru 

Portncfel , 

uTBBBB , 

Tnigiiay 

MmAo 

AMtnlU*..... 

Japta 

Bntah India.. 
Cbioa , 

Attm!!!!!!!!' 



Milofl of Road Completed 



Opened 



1825 
1S27 
1836 
1828 
1835 
1835 
1837 

1838 
1830 
1839 
1844 
184« 
184? 
1818 
1851 
1851 
1854 
1850 

1857 



1860 
1860 
1868 



1874 
1853 
1883 



1840 



1,867 

2,818 

16 



341 
207 



13 
10 



1850 



1860 



6,621 

0.021 

66 

1,714 

8,637 

554 

817 

310 

265 

110 

15 

137 

20 

17 



10,433 
30.626 
2.065 
5.700 
6.070 
1.074 
1313 

088 

1.117 

208 

653 

1.004 

60 

1,100 

120 

134 

42 

375 



41 
47 
42 



1870 



1880 



838 



15,537 

52,922 

2.617 

11.142 

11,729 

1.799 

3.790 

7.098 

3,825 
874 
885 

2,157 
470 

8,400 
452 
504 
692 

1.069 

637 

392 
247 
444 

6 

61 

215 

152 



4.771 



17.933 

93.296 

7.194 

16,275 

20.693 

2,399 

7.083 

14.026 
5,340 
1,143 
1.596 
4.421 

975 
4.550 
1,100 
2,174 

070 
3,654 

1.536 

727 

1.179 

710 

7 

208 

655 

859 

789 

75 

9.1G2 



583 



1889 



19.943 

160.544 

12,585 

21.899 

24.845 

2.776 

9,345 

17.534 
7,830 
1,632 
1,869 
6.751 
1,217 
5,951 
1.801 
5,546 
970 
4.899 

4,506 

1.024 

993 

1.118 

416 

399 

5.012 

1.537 

4.850 

542 

15,887 

124 

2.873 



1899 



21,666 



17,250 
26,229 
31.386 
2.883 
11,921 

26.889 
9,770 
1.966 
2.342 

10.619 
1.764 
8.252 
2.791 
9.195 
1.231 



10.013 

1,900 

1,035 

1,475 

604 

997 

8,503 

1,920 

11,111 

3,632 

23.523 

401 

5.353 



1910t 



23,280 
236.422 
24.731 
29,364 
86.235 
2.888 
13.591 

85.347 

10.425 
2.235 
2.791 

12,177 
2.121 
8.961 
8.451 

11.863 
1.608 
8,321 

14,111 

1.967 

1.470 

1,689 
845 

1,371 
14.845 

1.976 
17.956 

5,130 
30,809 

4,907 
19.207 



1912t 



23.417 
248,888 
26.727 
30.119 
37.255 
5.132 
14.038 

41.888 

10.425 
2.439 
3,034 

12.821 
2.121 
9.272 
3,451 

12.968 
1.845 
8.554 

18,166 

2.100 

1.470 

1.680 
979 

1.443 
14,990 

2,153 
18.195 

5.130 
82,099 

5.274 
20.758 



iMtttdtng New Zealand. 
lOr Iiteat ficores. 
tladadoi Ariatio Railway!. 



The proportion of state to privately owned railways as given by Mr. Edwin A. 
•" •" '' Railways and Nationalization," 1908, was: 



Pratt 



in 



Conpuy Owned Railways. 
State OwMd Railways 



389.000 
161.000 



Total. 



.5.V).non 



236 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STATISTICS OB 



Country 



Year 



United Kingdom. 
German Empire. 

France 

Ruaman Empire. 

Austria 

Hungary , 

Italy (a) 

Spain (a) 

Portugal 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark (a)... 

Belgium (fi) 

Holland fa) 

Switserland 

Roumania 



Total Europe. 



Canada 

Argentina 

Japan Ut) 

British India 

New South Walee.. 

New Zealand 

United Statoa 



1911 
1910 
1909 
1906 
1910 
1910 
1910-11 
1905 
1908 
1909 
1911 
1911 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1911 



Mike 
Cova«d 
by Capi- 
talisatioD 



1913 
1910 
1911 
1910 
1912 
1911 
1912 



23.417 

36.740 

25.017 

41.888 

14.038 

12.821 

8.90S 

8.810 

1.465 

8.366 

1,891 

1,215 

2.685 

1.978 

2.924 

2,153 

194316 

26.727 

17.381 

4,764 

32,099 

3.831 

2,761 

248.888 



Capitalisation 

or Coet of 

Construction 

(0 



16.447.909.398 

4,163.615,519 

3,593.660,000 

3.378.830.810 

1.654,207,119 

858,732,000 

1,131,300,000 

649,919.610 

162,386,280 

277,952,716 

81,467,176 

70,277,640 

504,210,184 

d 163,798,301 

341.208,367 

186,670,372 

$23,666,213,495 

1,585,724,797 
868,914,950 
411.598.253 

fl.448.700.000 
260,613.180 
153.448.830 

14.667.545,000 



Revenue 



$215,168,940 

198,737,378 

152,566,693 

80.787,020 

48,520.000 

25.009.200 

36.060.084 

16,215,866 

4.039.350 

12,226,160 

2,667,672 

5.429,948 

19,750.243 

12.374,800 

18,542,282 



1848,095,636 

56.543,664 

21.072.498 

63,261.000 

11,439,630 

5,521,470 

668.642,865 



Froght 
RevMitte 



1306.197,950 

452,909,934 

184,394.516 

306.014,545 

135.360,000 

65.460,200 

00,247,652 

84.694,555 

5,715.150 

20,762,228 

3,437,904 

5,042,900 

38,275,874 

12,094,800 

22,5n,912 



$1,656,145,620 

148,080,200 

20,428,230 

100,419.000 

18.092.050 

9,806,390 

1,960,805,606 



Othtf 
Reven 



S96.197.110 

60.765,822 

5,284.147 

39,811.560 

12.500,000 

4.265300 

5.264.M7 

6,1903n 

351,750 

992,672 

359.658 

796.496 

1,672.178 

1372.400 

1.809,944 



1246334,668 

14.829.819 

2,646.01$ 
5,OI«.000 
2.079,489 
2,144.045 
221388321 





rOMPARTSON OF WORLD'S RAILWAYS BY CX)NTINENTS AND 

PRINCIPAL CX)UNTRIES. 1909. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



287 



FOREIGN RAILWAYS. 







Rates 




Aver- 




Avor- 


Percent 


TotaJ 


Openting 


Expen- 


Paaaengera 


ace 


Freifcht 


•gfi 


NetRer- 


EVT«0«M 


EzpeniM 


BOB to 


Carried 


Journey 


Tons 


Haul 


enue to 






Revennee 




(Miles) 


Carried 


(Miles) 


Capital 


|819>64.O0O 


1380.689.660 


61.8 


1,793.820.800 


b 7.8 


523,653.004 


b 25.0 


3.67 


7B,473.134 


490,990,236 


67.9 


1.540.872.110 


14.2 


531.527,817 


60.4 


5.74 


343,345.356 


200.834.642 


68.6 


491,936,930 


20.5 


165.027,920 


80.2 


8.94 


426.613.125 


344.497.405 


80.8 


162,117,000 


79.0 


229.554,000 


160.1 


2.43 


196,380.000 


150.860.000 


76.9 


254.618,531 


18.3 


137.509.886 


66.2 


2.75* 


9i735.200 


6U62,800 


64.7 


140.002.000 


19.5 


68.806.000 


72.9 


3.87 


10lv673,383 


81.486.337 
37.750.936 


80.3 
48.6 




b25.0 
b26.0 




b66.0 
60.4 


1,77 


57.100,602 


41.846.249 


22,662,548 


4.50 


10.106.250 


4,672.500 


46.3 


14.585.698 


b20.0 


4,315.385 


b54.0 


3.36 


33,961.060 


26336.984 


79.0 


53,787,226 


16.6 


31.133.715 


'48.4 


2.57 


6.466.232 


4.803,096 


74.2 


13.795.396 


16.1 


5.196.241 


38.6 


2.22 


12,160.344 


11.357.072 


92.5 


22,344,630 


21.8 


4,934,799 


53.1 


1.33 


59.607.795 


39.123.036 


65,5 


173.491,334 


15.4 


58.793.837 


49.7 


3.80 


25.742,000 


21.365.860 


83.0 


47.711.000 


17.9 


16,702,400 


51.9 


2.67 


42.090.138 


27,330.010 


63.2 


110,068.465 


13.0 


16.466.758 


45.5 


4.60 


18,756.585 


11.660.674 


62.1 


10,233.000 


43.7 


8.833.551 


b96.5 


3.80 


31,7701533.294 


31.885.610,248 


68.0 


34.871.230,369 


16.1 


1.826.197.951 


64.3 




219.403.752 


150.726,530 


68.7 


41.124,181 


70.8 


89,444331 


218.7 


4.27 


107,068.065 


63,616.485 


59.4 


59,014.600 


24.2 


33.606.626 


120.9 


8.85 


44,147.128 


21.624.686 


48.9 


138.629,706 


21.9 


25,481.868 


83.5 


5.47 


168.729.000 


89.505.000 


53.1 


371,580.000 


36.1 


65.600,000 


184.3 


5.46 


31.611,170 


20.303.030 


64.2 


70.706,728 


15.4 


10,631.751 


81.0 


4.35 


17,470,905 


11,516.860 


64.8 


11.200,613 


b23.0 


5.863.674 


80.0 


4.03 


2.870,736,697 


'e2.108.351.953 


73.4 


994382.480 


83.7 


1,806.178.565 


148.0 


' 5.25 



&k)Sta(e only. (b)Eetimated. (c) From latest report, not alwayj year named. (d)Estimated 
eipital cost of Holland's railways not given since 1807. (e)Including taxes. (f)Valuing the 
Indian rupee at 33 cents (.824 1-2) 



From 1908 to 1910 the rate per 
ton mile in the United Kingdom 
was 2.33 cents; in France. 1.8G 
<*pt8: in Germany, 1.41; Russia, 
•85; Austria. 1.36 ;. Sweden. 1.60; 
^o^way. 1.77; Denmark, 2.00; Ilol- 
«nd, 1.35; Belgium, 1.17; and in 



Switzerland, 2.86 cents. No recent 
ton mile statistics for Italy are 
available, though taking the aver- 
age haul as under 70 miles, the 
average receipts per ton mile were 
probably in the neighborhood of 
2.25 cents. 



^ i>XRAVCB8 ACKOM VXW TOBK OXTT. 

Tnm Plsr 1, Neitfe Blver. tIs Battery place and Whitehall street to Bast RlTer, one-half sine; from 
M of D«j atreet. North Rlrer. to foot of Pulton atreet. Bast River, three-qaartera of a mile; fram foot 
<f Chtabera street. North Biver. via Chambera, New Chambers and James slip to Beat BWer. oae mile; 
tnm foot of Canal street. North River, to Broadway, three-qoartera of a mile; from foot of Canal street. 
Honk River, to Bowery, one mile and an elshth; from foot of Canal street. North Rlrer. to foot of Oraod 
itiwt. last River, two and an elshth miles: from foot of -West Hooaton atreet to foot of Bast Hoeston 
•tiMt. two and an eighth mllea; from foot <^ West Fovrteenth atreet to Broadway, one and an elfhth mileo; 
1«m Coot of West Fourteenth street to foot of Eaat Fourteenth street, tvro sad three-elshths miles: from 
iMt of Wast Twenty-third street to Sixth avenue, one mile; from Weat Twenty-third street to foot of Baat 
tvmty-thlrd street, two end three-eighths milea. North of Tweoty-thlid strset the STsrsge width of the 
hind U Msahsttsa Is from two to two snd a half miles. 



238 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF THE WORLD'S RAILWAYS AND RATIO OF MILEAGE TO AREA 

AND POPULATION IN EACH COUNTRY IN 1910. 



Countriea 



I. EUROPE 

Germany 

AuBtriapHungary (inoluding Bosnia and Hene- 

govina) 

Great Britain and Ireland 

France 

Russia in Europe Gncluding Finland 2,246 

miles) 



Italy , 

Belgium , 

Luxemburg 

Netherlands , 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Portugal 

Denmark , 

Norway 

Sweden 

Servia 

Roumania 

Greece 

Bulgaria 

Turkey in Europe 

Malta. Jersey, Isle of Man . 



Total for Europe, 1910. 

• • • 1909. 

• • • 1908. 

• • • 1907. 

■ ■ • 1906. 

• • ■ 1905. 

• ■ ■ 1904. 

• • • 1903. 

■ • ■ 1902. 

• • « 1901, 

■ ■ « 1900. 

• • ■ J899. 

■ ■ • 1898. 

■ ■ • 1897. 

• • • 1896. 



Increase in fourteen years. 



Mileage 


in 1910 


Miles of 
Line per 100 


Inhabitants 


State 


Total 


per Mile 


Railwasrs 


Railways 


8q. Miles 


of Line 


34,625 


37,996 


17.9 


1,724 


22,047 


27,571 


10.6 


1.853 




23.351 


19.3 


1,923 


6,611 


ao.687 


14 8 


1.283 


21.659 


87,008 


1.8 


3,449 


8,830 


10.538 


9.6 


8,334 


2.686 


6.288 


46.3 


1.408 


119 


818 


81.7 


795 


1.663 


1,984 


15.6 


2,941 


1.701 


2.921 


18.3 


1,220 




9.317 


4.8 


2.000 


671 


1.808 


5.1 


2,940 


1,217 


2.192 


14.8 


1.176 


1,557 


1.921 


1.6 


1^ 


2,717 


8.688 


6.0 


629 


357 


494 


2.6 


6,882 


1.980 


2,238 


4.3 


3,030 




981 


8.9 


2,708 


987 


1.106 


2.9 


3.84« 




968 


1.4 


6.250 




68 


16.1 


5.268 


107,727 


207.447 


5.5 


2,180 




204.864 


5.5 


1,«» 




201,619 


5.3 


1.941 




199,345 


5.3 


1.887 




196.437 


6.3 


l.fiM 




192.507 


6.1 


2.064 




189,806 


6.0 


2,064 




186,685 


6.0 


2.084 




183.989 


4.9 


2,137 




180.817 


4.8 


2,174 




176.396 


4.7 


2,280 




172,953 


4.6 


2.2S0 




167,614 


4.4 






163,550 


4.3 






160.030 


4 2 






47.417 







RELATION OF RAILWAYS TO AREA AND POPULATION (See page 241.) 

Although this table Is favored by railway statlstlciaDS In comparing railwAf 
conditions relatively to area and population. It is doubtful whether It conveys an 
adequate Improasion of the exceptionally favorable transportation facilities enjoyed 
by the inhabitants of this continent, and especialy those of the United States 
and Canada. For instance, the figures mean that the United States with 800.000 
square miles less territory and not one-quarter the population, has .^0.000 more 
miles of railway than all Europe, while Canada, having a territory In which the 
United Kingdom could be lost thirty times, and only ono-slxth the population, 
has actually more railway mileage than the parent kingdom. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



239 



I SUMMARY OF THE WORLD'S RAILWAYS AND RATIO OF MILEAGE TO ArEA 
AND POPULATION IN EACH COUNTRY IN 1910— Continued. 



CoimtriM 



II. AMERICA 
C^w^ i^ 

United Statos of America (inclusive of Alaaka 

4a)mi]c8) 

Newfoundland 



Centnl America (Guatemala, 694 miles; Hon- 
dms, 90 miles; Salvador, 122 miles; Nioara- 
gUAt 200 miles; Costa Rica, 547 miles; Pan- 
ama, 47 miles) 

(keftter Antilles (Cuba, 2,331 mUes; Dominica, 
195 miles; Huti, 139 miles; Jamaica, 185 miles; 
Porto Rico, 200 miles) 

Lamer Antilles (Martinique, 139 miles; Bar- 
bsdoes, 106 mUes; Trinity, 88 miles) 

United States of Colombia . . . .' 

Tcoesuela 

Biitiah Guiana 

Dutch Guiana 



Peru 

Bolivia 

Umted States of Brazil . 

Pancusy 

Urufuy ............... 

OiiH 

AiiBotins Republic. . . , 



Total for America. 



ni. ASIA 

Centnl Russia in Asia 

Sbnia snd Manchuria 

China 

Jbpsa (including Corea) 

BrittA India 

Ceylon : 



Aon Minor, Syria, Arabia, including Cyprus. 

I^agneBS Indies. 

lU«y Archipelago 

Dsleh Indies 



Coehin CHiina. 



TbCsl for Asia. 



MUesge in 1910 



Sute 
Railways 



1.718 



42 



844 



5.443 



1.683 
2,467 



12,197 



6,181 



4.542 
24,460 



912 



637 



36.733 



Total 
Railways 



24.726 

241.203 

666 

15.260 



1,599 



3,031 

836 

510 

633 

103 

37 

333 

1.584 

756 

13,278 

157 

1,546 

3.526 

17.794 



327,084 



4,066 

6.739 

5,420 

6,093 

32.092 

577 

34 

3.130 

51 

757 

1.551 

637 

2,178 



63,329 



Miles of 

Line per 100 

Sq. Miles 



0.8 

6.8 
1.6 
1.9 



0.1 

0.16 

0.11 



0.32 

0.32 

0.16 

0.5 

0.16 

2.3 

1.0 

1.6 



1.9 

14 

0.13 

2.4 

1.6 

2.3 

0.006 

0.5 

3.5 

2.3 

0.6 

0.32 



Inhabitants 
per Mile 
of Line 



263 



369 
359 
952 



9,091 
3,846 
2,859 



4.166 

2.940 

8,080 

1,613 

4,000 

671 

948 

275 



2.325 

1.032 

83.300 

10,000 

9.091 

7,143 

280,000 

6.250 

11.110 

9.434 

20,000 

14.278 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





Mil«<. 


in 1910 


Uiltaol 

Um per 100 

Sq. Hil» 




CouDUin 


giaU 
Railways 


Total 
Raflwaya 


p«U>la 
DlLine 


IV. AFRICA 


a.7W 


3.m 

3.134 
(>.US 

i.m 

1.807 
1.380 

1.001 


1.0 


SUS 












Sontb Africu UnioD, iocladins Cm» Colooy. 


1,WI 






COLONIES 








































23.W» 












V. AUSTRaLU 


I,T16 
J,(90 

3,«I 
1.1M 


2.748 
3.50* 

3.783 

'm 

a.122 


1.8 

l.J 
0.16 

o.ie 






183 














WstAunnlU 


m 


TMriforAuslnJi. 


1S,0M 


19.273 


0.8 




RECAPITDLATIOM 


l!!l97 
3B,TO 
13.671 
18.034 


3!7!oM 
83.339 

za.MD 

19.17! 


»,s 


i.in 














V. Au»tr«li. 


08 


111 


ToUI 


lS8.3Ga 


040,03! 







; NEW YORK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



241 



SmmABT of Railway Mileage in the United States, by States, fOR the 
Yeabs Ending June 30, 1912, 19U and 1910, and its Relation to Abba 
AND Population. 



State 



AblMIBA 

Arimtt 

ArkuMM.. . 
OiliCorBia. . . 
Cobndo.... 
Gonacetieut. 
Dckwart ... 

Florida 

Georgia 

Uaho 

lOtiioiB 

Ixfiana 

Iowa 



XoBtoeky. 



Uuyhad 

ibaaehontu 
Mkhicn 



Moatana. 



NofadA. 

New Hampahira. 

'NawMi 

Nov York 

IfortbCkraltQa.... 

North Dakoto 

OUo 

OklihooM 

OngBB 

PeaaoylTmnia 

Rbodaldand: 

Sooth Carolina 

South DakoU. . . . 

Til II 

Toao..... 

Utah 

Vflrmont 

Viniaia 

Washmston 

WwtVirgiiiia 

Wiooouia 

Wyamiag 

Dili, of Oolumbta. 

Ckaadat 

Hodeot 



VtHad 



Bureau's Fifureo 



1912 

Mileo 

Operated 



5.0M 
1.974 
4^79 
e.739 
6.71« 
1.000 
339 
3,923 
6.839 
2,151 

13.GS4 
7.S39 
9,867 
9,312 
3,587 
4.695 
2.118 
1.325 
2.138 
8.471 
8.962 
3360 
8.2S7 
4.382 
6.224 
1.680 
1.287 
2,260 
3.048 
8.353 
4.228 
4,430 
9.261 
5.907 
2.131 

10.996 

196 

3.072 

3.994 

3,633 

13.977 
1.834 
962 
4.421 
5.140 
3.068 
7.351 
1,477 
51 
1,871 



236.444 



1911 

Milea 

Operated 



4,994 
1,962 
4.253 
6.610 
5.646 
1.000 
340 
3,769 
6,631 
1.985 

13.257 
7,096 
9.987 
9,216 
8.494 
4.477 
2,096 
1,326 
2.087 
8.360 
8.893 
3,672 
8.336 
4.294 
6.151 
1.601 
1.213 
3.146 
2,975 
8,338 
4,110 
4.379 
9.028 
5.899 
2.126 

10,894 

196 

2.878 

3.984 

3.587 

13.081 

1,819 

936 

4,436 

5,133 

2.885 

7,106 

1.457 

52 

1,760 

226 



232.117 



Commieaion's Ficures 



1910 

Milea 

Owned 



5.226 
3.097 
5.306 
7,772 
5,532 
1,000 
337 
4.431 
7.056 
2,178 

11378 
7,420 
9.755 
9.007 
3.526 
5.554 
2.248 
1,436 
2.115 
9.021 
8.669 
4.606 
8.063 
4.307 
6.067 
2,276 
1.245 
2.260 
3.032 
8.430 
4,«32 
4.201 
9,134 
5.980 
2.384 

11.290 

212 

3.442 

3.947 

3,815 

14,281 
1,985 
1.100 
4,534 
4.875 
3.600 
7.475 
1,645 
36 



240,438 



MUeeof 

Line per 100 

Sq. Milea 



10 19 
1.84 

10.10 
4.99 

6.34 
20.75 
17.04 

8.08 
12.02 

2.61 
21.20 
30.50 
17.55 
11.01 

8.77 
12.23 

7.52 
14.35 
26.31 
15.69 
10.73 

9.72 
11.76 

2.88 

7.90 

2.07 
18.80 
^.06 

2.48 
17.09 
10.12 

5.99 
22.42 

8.62 

2.39 
25.18 
19.88 
11.29 

5.14 

9.15 

5.44 

2.42 
12.06 
11.26 

7.29 
14.99 
13.53 

1.69 
59.95 



Populatjoa 

Per Mile 

ofUne 

1910f 



8.08 



409 
97 
296 
306 
144 
1,115 
604 
169 
369 
149 
474 
364 
228 
184 
649 



330 
901 

1.503 
311 
239 
309 
407 
89 
196 
35 
345 

1.123 
106 

1.061 
447 
137 
521 
277 
294 
678 

2.557 
440 
148 
572 
273 
188 
323 
454 
234 
339 
312 
89 

9,174 



383 



f Cenoua ficuvea 1910 divided by oommiaaion's figuree for 1910. 
f MOaica operated in Canada and Mexioo by American roada. 



242 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF MILEAGE OF SINGLE TRACK, SECOND. THIRD 
AND FOURTH TRACK AND YARD TRACK AND SIDINGS 
IN THE UNITED STATES, 1800 TO 1912. 



Year 


Single 
Track 


Second 
Track 


Third 
Track 


Fourth 
Track 


Yard 

Track and 

Sidinca 


Total 

MileacB 

Opeisted 

(aU Trackal 


l912Bui««u. 95% 


236,444 


24.944 


2,528 


1.763 


90,693 


856,372 


i9nofnoifii 


•246,124 
•240,831 
•235,402 
•230,494 
227.455 
222,340 
216,973 
212,243 
205,313 
200,154 
195,561 
192.556 
187,543 
184,648 
183,284 
182.428 
180.657 
178,708 
176.461 
171.563 
168.402 
163.597 


23.452 
21.659 
20.949 
20,209 
19.421 
17,396 
17,066 
15,824 
14,681 
13,720 
12,845 
12,151 
11,546 
11,293 
11,018 
10,685 
10,639 
10,499 
10.051 
9,367 
8,865 
8,437 


2,414 

2,206 

2,160 

2,081 

1,960 

1,760 

1,609 

1,467 

1,803 

1,204 

1,153 

1,094 

1,047 

1.009 

995 

990 

975 

953 

912 

852 

813 

760 


1»747 

1,489 

1,453 

1,409 

1,390 

1,279 

1,215 

1,046 

968 

895 

876 

829 

790 

793 

780 

764 

733 

710 

668 

626 

599 

561 


88,973 
85,581 
82,376 
79.452 
77,749 
73,760 
69,941 
66.492 
61.560 
68,220 
54.914 
52,153 
49.223 
47,589 
45,934 
44,912 
43.888 
42,661 
42.043 
89,941 
37,318 
85.255 


S62,710 


1910 • 


351.767 


1909 • 


343,351 


1906 • 


333,M# 


1907 ■ 


327,975 


1906 ■ 


317.083 


1906 ■ 


306i,796 


1904 • 


297,073 


1908 • 


383.821 


1902 ■ 


274.195 


1901 ■ 


355,352 


1900 ■ 


258.784 


1899 ■ 


290.142 


1898 ■ 


245,333 


1897 ■ 


242,013 


1896 • 


240.129 


1885 • 


286.894 


1894 ■ 


233,533 


1898 ■ 


280.U7 


1892 ■ 


222451 


1891 • 


, 216,909 


1890 ■ 


208,612 



•Since 1906 the official mileage ia excluedve of switching and terminal companies. In 1908 Uisss 
had 1.624 miles of main track and 2,065 of yard tracks and sidings; in 1909 they reported 1.623 miks 
of main track and 2,384 of yard tracks and sidings and in 1910 they reported 1,614 and 2^70 miles 
respectively. 

SUMMARY CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVES AND THEIR PRIN- 
CIPAL CHARACTERISTICS: 1910. 



Clan. 



Number. 



TracttTS 
power. 



Orate 
snrfsoe. 



HeatlDg 

sorflMje. 



Wei|^ 
•xdnslve 
of 




Single ezpaoskm , 

Average per locomotive. 

Foor^ylinder compound. . . , 
Average per locomotive. 

Two-oyUnder oomixmnd.. .. 
Average per looomotlve . 



55,867 



1,511 
862 



Pound*. 
1,602,296,608 

36,891 
59,694,482 

89,440 
27,008,890 

31,826 



1,862,769 
85 

61,467 
49 

88,081 
89 



Bq.ft, 
U7, 725, 284 

2,107 
5,272.615 

8,480 
2,197,880 

2,540 



4,082,797 

72 

168,787 

112 

72,024 

34 



3,|14,«3 

m 
ui,fl> 

60,80 
71 



TotaL 

Average per locomotive. 



68,240 



1,688,894,480 
27,282 



1,966,267 
35 



135^106,129 
2,150 



4,274,308 
73 



S.50ft,flil 



The above table does not include looomotivee in the service of terminal companies. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



243 



TWO DECADES IN RAILWAY PROGRESS. 

lAILWAY RESULTS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR YEARS ENDING JUNE 30. 1892. 
1902 AND 1912 WITH PERCENTAGES OF INCREASE BY DECADES. 



Item 
dn^Thounnds) 



of Line (oporated) 

VilMof All Track.. 

BblCbptte]aBtion(m) 

Ket OMtelia&tion per Mile of Line. . . 
Hot Cqntaliaation per Mile of Track.. 

firam Opermtion (m) 

per Mile Operated 

of Operation Cm) 

bpneeiof Operation per Mi. operated 
from Operation (m). . , 

per Mile operated 

to Rereniiea 

(m) 

bom Freight (m) 

from Mail (m) 

fram EzpreBs Cm) 

(m) 

Carried 1 Mile Cm) 

Awige Beoeipta per Paeaonger Mile 

(Beoti) 

AraagB Paaaengen in Train 

AvarifB Joutnay per Paaaengar Cmilea) 

ftdlhtToiiflCKriedCm) 

VkofhtTona Carried 1 Mile Cm) 

AvoifB Reeeipta per Ton Mile Cmilla) 

AnncB Tone in Train 

ATwige Hani per Ton Cmilea) 

iMwioCivea Cntimber) .* 

^BM m u tiv e a Weight without Tender 

(loaa) 

^■aiimii Can Cnamber) 

Freight Can Cnamber) 

FicidttCto Capacity Ctona) 

Enplqrai (nnmber) 

EBpiiqwperlOOMileaofLine 

^Vlofes CompenaBtion 

Pkaportion of Oroea Earning 

ftaiwiUun of Operating Kipenaea. . . 

iwHiieofiiii'.''.!!!!!!!!".!!!!!!.!! 

PiacMitioa of Oroas Eamingi 



1889 



66.066.000 
162.897 
211.061 

18.204.679 
62.348 
40.060 

1.171.4(^7 
7.213 

780.997 
4.809 

390.409 
2.404 

66.67% 

8286,805 

799,316 

26.861 

22.148 

660.958 
18.362.898 

2.126 

42 

23.82 

706.665 
88.241.060 

181 
124.89 

33.136 

1.467.984 

28.876 

966.998 

22.240.954 

821.415 

606 

1468,698,170 

40.00ro 
60.08% 

834.063,496 

209 

2.90% 



1902 



79.230.563 
200.164 
274.196 

19.926.664 
60.962 
86.921 

1.726.380 

8.626 

1.116.248 

6.677 

610.131 

3.048 

64.66% 

I 392.963 

1.207.228 

39.836 

34.253 

649.878 
19.689.937 

1.986 

46 

30.30 

1.200.315 

157.289.370 

7.67 

296 

131.04 

41.226 

2.306.000 

86.987 

1,546.101 

43.416.029 

1.189.315 

694 

$676,028,592 

39.17% 

60.567o 

154.466.437 

272 

8.15% 





1912 




Over 


1912 


1892 




% 


96.666.000 


46.9 


248.888 


63.3 


870.317 


76.5 


$14,667,645 


76.7 


61.606 


17.6 


41.204 


3.0 


2.870.736 


146.1 


11.634 


69.9 


1.990,196 


164.8 


7.996 


66.3 


880.638 


126.6 


3.638 


47.1 


69.33% 


4.0 


$ 668,642 


133.1 


1.980,806 


147.8 


61.620 


92.2 


74,736 


238.0 


994.382 


n.3 


33,610.673 


160.8 


1.992 


d 6.3 


67 


36.7 


83.76 


41.7 


1.806.173 


166.6 


267.313.687 


203.9 


7.41 


dl7.6 


422 


133.1 


148 


19.3 


62.291 


88.0 


4.892.101 


235.7 


61.306 


77.7 


2.243.466 


182.0 


84.129.987 


278.2 


1.728.603 


110.4 


696 


37.3 


$1,268,977,272 


170.8 


44.20% 


9.1 


63.76% 


6.0 


$120,873,472 


264.9 


485 


132.0 


4.21% 


45.2 



1912 
Over 

1908 
% 
20.8 
24.8 
85.1 

47.7 
20.8 
11.6 

66.3 
33.7 
78.3 
43.4 
44.3 
16.1 
7.2 

79.2 

64.0 

29.6 

118.4 

63.0 
70.2 

.8 
26.6 
11.4 

60.4 
68.9 
d 2.1 
42.6 
12.0 

51.1 

111.0 
38.7 
46.1 
93.7 

45.3 

17.0 

87.7 

12.8 

6.0 

121.0 
78.3 
83.6 



1 



244 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS. 



At the end of the year 1911 there 
were 58 passenger locomotives for 
every thousand miles of line, 148 
freight locomotives, 38 switching loco- 
motives, 5 unclassified, making a total 
of 249 locomotives per thousand miles 
of line. There were 9,580 cars per 
thousand miles of line, divided as 
follows : 203 passenger cars ; 8,- 
920 freight cars; and 46^5 cars 
for the company's service. At 
the end of the same year it was 
estimated that 66,757 passengers were 
carried per passenger locomotive ; 2,- 
268,097 passenger miles covered per 
passenger locomotive ; 48,007 tons car- 
ried per freight locomotive ; 6,913,259 
ton-miles covered per freight locomo- 
tive. For every million passengers 
carried there were 50 passenger cars, 
and for every million tons of freight 
carried .there were 1,235 freight cars 
employed. 



At the end of the year 1911 thero 
were 49,818 passenger cars in servicer 
2,195,511 freight cars; and 114,006^ 
company cars, making a total of 2,- 
359,335 cars in the service. The fast J 
freight line service required 28,138 
cars for its service. 

Figurine the cost of a locomotive j 
at $15,000, the 60,890 locomotives re- 
quired for the 236,444 miles of track 
operated in 1912 cost $913,350,000: 
the 50,152 passenger cars, valued at 
$0,500, cost $325,988,000; the freight 
cars, 2,192,987 in number, valued at 
$1,000 each, cost $2,192,987,000; and 
the 113,392 company cars, valued at 
$600 each, cost $68,035,200. Thus 
the approximate value of all equip- 
ment of American railways was $3,- 
500,360,200. The single item, mainte- 
nan(;e of equipment, for the year 1912, 
amounted to $446,446,230. 



ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES. 



The heaviest electric 
the New Haven has 



locomotive on 
a weight on its 
drivers of 182,000 pounds, a maxi- 
mum guaranteed speed of 45 miles, 
and is designed to trail a load of 
800 tons. The Grand Trunk (St. 
Clair Tunnel) locomotive has a 
weight on the drivers of 132,000 
pounds, a guaranteed speed of 30 
miles an hour, and is designed to trail 
a load of 500 tons. The Pennsylvania 
R. R. locomotive having a weight on 
the drivers of 207,800 pounds and a 
guaranteed speed of 80 miles, is de- 
signed to trail a load of 550 tons. 
The N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R.'s largest 



electric locomotive, having a weight 
on the drivers of 141,000, has a guar- 
anteed speed of 75 miles per nour. 
The Baltimore & Ohio has electric 
locomotives having a weight of 184,- 
000 pounds on the drivers, a guar- 
anteed speed of 55 miles, and is de- 
signed to trail a load of 850 tons. 
The Paris-Orleans locomotive has a 
weight on the drivers of 110,000 
pounds and a maximum guaranteed 
speed of 45 miles. The Great North- 
ern's largest electric locomotive has 
a weight of 230,000 pounds on the 
drivers and a maximum guaranteed 
speed of 30 miles. 



COST OF LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS. 



Ix)Comotive8 for railway service 
cost approximately as follows : Mogul, 
for freight servii-e, having an average 
weight of KMMXX) pounds, ci>st $14,- 
1(K); ("onsolidalion, for freight serv- 
ice, average weight 2(M),(KM) pounds, 
cost $18,5(X) ; Mallet Compound, for 
freight service, average weight 4<M),- 
000 pounds, cost $4(),(KK); Atlantic, 
for passenger service, average weight 
185,000 pounds. ci)»t $15,970; Pacific, 
for passenger service, average weight 
225,000 pounds, cost $2(KS(K); and 
Ten Wheel, for passenger service, 
average weight 170,000 pounds, cost 
$15,()00. 

Wood 1)ox cars (with steel under- 
frame) weighing 36,000 x)ounds, hav- 



ing a capacity of 100,000 pounds, and 
inside dimensions of 40' 6" x 8' 10" x 
S', cost $1,50() ; steel coal (gondola), 
weight 46,(KJ0 pounds, capacity 110.- 
(KK» pounds, in.side dimensions 46' x 
8' 9" x 10' (»", cost $1,2(K); flat cars, 
weight 34.000 pounds, capacity lOti.- 
0(K) pounds, inside dimensions 40' li' 
X 9' 2", cost $7iK) ; day coach, weight 
112.(M)0 pounds, capacity 80 passen- 
gers, dimensions 78' 3" x 10' x 14' 5*, 
cost $8,500; sleeping car (wood), 
weight 115.000 pounds, capacity. 27 
berths, inside dimensions 72' 6" x 
8' 6" x 9' 6", cost $16,700; sleeping 
cars (steel), weight 152,3(K) pounds, 
capacity 24 berths, inside dimensions 
72' U" X 9' 9" X 9' 6", cost $27,0UU. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. REFERENCE BOOK. 



245 



I diniiiK rar costs $30,000 to $35,000. 
i flMDbiiistioD caK car costs about 
KuiJa We are indebted to tlie 
"Torld Almanac" for many of theiic 
taurrstiiig figures. 

The iUllet Compound, built for the 
AUbuon, Topeka & Santa F6, having 
I Idul weight of <>16,0(K> pounds, and 
1 veifbt of 1^0,000 pounds on its 
Inien. is the largest and most 
^WFTfuj locomotive in the world. 
It bu ten drivers on each side. 
In •in; a diameter of S7 incbeB. 
■■d was built by tbe Santa F£ 
by PODTfiiing a 2-10-2 l.vpe loco- 
Bolire by the addition of a front 
■nit From the tip ot the pilot to 
tbf fnd nf the lender it is 121 feet 
% incbee lone. It has a beating sur- 
fcfe of 6.579 s.(uare feet. Its cjlin- 
Aoi ire 28 X ^ I 32 inches and its 



tractive effort is 111,600 pounds. It 
was built for operation over tbe A., 
T. & ». F. from Ims Angeles to 
Albuijuerque. where tbe mHiimum 
grade ranges from 22 per cent to 
H per cent. The locomotive burns fuel 
oil, and the tender has a capacity of 
',000 gallon 
- Mai 

.. . . heaviest j. _ 

ever built. Its total weight is 376,850 
[Htunda and the weight on its drivers. 
TA incbes In diameter, is 268.400 
pounds. It has a heating surface of 
4.756 square feet. Its cylinders are 
24 I 38 J 28 inches and its tractive ef- 
fort is 02,%0 pounds. It is for use on 
a division having 2.2 per cent, grades. 
and over which the schedule speed 
averages about 25 miles. 



At the end of the 

6 »Tu eBiimaled Ihnt 

Vti.m miles of railroad and th 
total cost of locomotive i\ 
Dperaling trains over them w 



1912 I S2:t0,555.544. or 11.S5 per cent. 

wen' of the total operating eiijenses 
of tbe roads or acuin S.22 per 
cent, of the grosH earnings ot the 



MtL *''" '"«"'"''• "•• ™i»r»Ba ■ 



' Tbt flr*-t>» hu !M Niun 



8ANTA FE MALLET FRKIOIIT rx>COMOTIVE, THE 
LARGEST IN EXISTENCE. 



246 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF RAILWAY EMPLOYEES. COMPENSATION AND RATES OF PAY 
PER DAY BY CLASSES IN 1911. AGGREGATES FROM 1809 TO 1012. 



(2Se.4M 



19M 

Reprawnted) 
ClaoB 



General Offioen 

Other Offioen 

General Office Clerka 

Station Agents 

Other Station Men 

En^nemen 

Firemen 

Conductora 

Other Trainmen 

Machinists 

Carpenters 

Other Shopmen 

Section Foremen 

Other Trackmen 

Switch Tenders. Crossing Tend- 
ers and Watchmen 

Telegraph Operators and Des- 
patchers 

Employes acct. Floating Equpt. 

All other Employes 4c Laboren. 

Total (96% Mileage Repre- 
sented) 



Number 



8.<B2 

9,806 

77,722 

86,862 

161.275 
63,260 
66,423 
48,792 

135.808 
54.467 
69.210 

348.440 
43.113 

847.433 

38,783 

42,557 

11,918 

231,457 



1.690,709 



Per 100 

Miles 

of Line 



1.5 

4.2 

82.9 

15.6 

68.2 

26.8 

28.1 

20.6 

87.3 

23.0 

29.3 

106.1 

18.2 

147.0 

16.4 

18.0 

5.1 

97.9 



Compensation 



Total 



18.111.992 
21,702,497 
64,047,042 
29,018,678 
97.758.863 

101.449.897 
61.309.896 
67,372.682 

127.285.178 
52.194.886 
52.027,465 

167.005,651 
80.885,684 

138.320.207 

28,095.345 

84.701.100 

8.968.119 

149,131.100 



715.2 I 1.239,425,284 



P*y 

Per Day 



116.22 
6.45 
250 
2.23 
1.90 
5.02 
8.03 
4.29 
8.02 
8.27 
2.57 
2.25 
2.09 
1.50 

1.73 

2.46 
2.32 
2.13 



2.44 



Percent 

ofGrcMB 

Revemiei 



1911 Official Figuras. 

1910 

1909 

1908 

1907 

1906 

1906 

1904 

1908 

1902 

1901 

1900 

1899 

1898 

1897 

1896 

1896 

1894 

1893 

1892 

1891 

1890 

1889 



1.702,164 

1,732,435 

1.528.808 

1,458,244 

1.672,074 

1.521,355 

1,382,196 

1,296,121 

1,312.537 

1.189,315 

1.071,169 

1,017,653 

928,924 

874.558 

823,476 

826,620 

785,034 

779,608 

873.602 

821.415 

784.285 

749.301 

704,743 



687 
716 
638 
632 
735 
684 
637 
611 
639 
594 
548 
529 
495 
474 
449 
454 
441 
444 
515 
506 
486 
479 
459 



81,230,186.019 

1.165.444.855 

1.005,349,968 

l,051.632;a5 

1,072.386.427 

(a) 980,801,653 

839,944,680 

817.598.810 

775.821.415 

676.028.592 

610.713.701 

577,264.841 

522,967,896 

495,065,618 

465.601,581 

468.824,531 

445,508,201 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 



(b) 12.42 

2.29 

2.24 

2.25 

2.20 

2.09 

2.07 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 

No date 



(a) Includes 830.000,000 estimate pay-roll of Southern Padfio, whose rseords were destreysd in 
the San Francisco dissster. 

(b) Bureaa oomputetions. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



247 



NUMBERS OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF FREIGHT CARS. 



At the close of the year 1910 the 
seTeral classes or kinds into which 
freight cars are divided, were as fol- 
lows: box cars, 966,577; flat cars, 
153,918; stock cars, 77,584; coal cars, 
818,689; tank cars, 7,434; refrigera- 



tor cars, 30,918; and other cars 
78,411. The average capacity in tons 
of a box car was 33; of a flat car 
33; a stock car 30; a coal car 41; 
a tank car 39 ; a refrigerator car 80 ; 
and of other cars 37. 



PASSENGER TRAFFIC. 



A sammary of the passenger traffic 
for the year 1911 shows that there 
were 997,409,882 passengers carried ; 
that there were 33,201,694,699 passen- 
sen carried one mile ; and that the 
mileage of revenue passenger trains 
amoanted to 572,929,421. The aver- 



age number of passengers in a train 
55 ; the average journey per passen- 
ger was 33.48 miles; and the average 
revenue per passenger per mile was 
1.974 cents. The passenger revenue 
amounted to $657,638,291. 



FREIGHT TRAFFIC. 



At the end of the fiscal year 1911 
the grand total of freight traffic for 
the United States amounted to 1,718,- 
014418 tons, plus 63,623,836 tons— 
the latter amount being unassigned 
freight, while the former was assigned. 
T6e products of agriculture, having a 
total freight tonnage of 166,864,072, 
were divided' as follows : Grain, 71,- 
126,786 tons ; flour. 19,557,516 ; other 
mill products, 15,475,563; hay, 12,- 
C«3,156; tobacco, 1,706,044; cotton, 
7,228.879; fruit and vegetables, 29,- 
108,043; other products of agricul- 
ture, 10.628,085 tons. 

The products of animals, totaling 
41.214,067 tons, were divided as fol- 
lows: Live stock, 20,416,150; 
dressed meats, 5,637,469; other pack- 
mg'house products. 4,809,181 ; poultry, 
nme and fish, 1.587,942 ; wool, 1,023,- 
m; hides and leather, 2,653,507; 
other products of animals, 5,085,894 
tons. 

From the products of the mines the 
total freight traffic amounted to 921,- 
129,439 tons and was divided as fol- 
lows: Anthracite coal, 127,402,064; 
bituminous coal, 479,638,745; coke, 
»304,241; ores, 133,082,878; stone, 



sand, and other like articles, 99,352,- 
583 ; other products of mines, 20,848,- 
929 tons. 

The products of the forests, divided 
into lumber, 125,185,647 tons, and 
other products of the forest, 61,770,- 
233 tons, amounted to 186,955,880 
tons for the year 1911. 

The manufactures of the United 
States, making a total freight tonnage 
of 267,776,334, were divided accord- 
ing to freight traffic as follows : Pe- 
troleum and other oils, 17,596,449; 
sugai:, 6,923,808 ; naval stores, 1,553,- 
271 ; iron, pig and bloom, 22,713,623 ; 
iron and steel rails, 8,91^,51)6; other 
castings and machinery, 23,052,502 ; 
bar and sheet metal, 29,899,867; ce- 
ment, brick and lime, 61,082,645 ; agri- 
cultural implements, 3,264,739 ; wag- 
ons, carriages, tools, etc., 3,0()8,857 ; 
wines, liquors and beers, 6,829,700 ; 
household goods and furniture, 3,820,- 
113; other manufactures, 79,110,164 
tons.' 

The freight traffic for merchandise 
amounted to 60,976,778 tons and mis- 
cellaneous — other commodities, to 73,- 
097,558 tons. 



SCMMARY OF FREIGHT xMILEAGE, REVENUE, AND RECEIPTS 

PER TON MILE. 



During the year 1901 the number 
»f tons carried one mile amounted lo 
147,077.136,040 and during tlie year 
1912 to 261,416,043,000 ; thus making 
t total increase for the 11 years of 
775 per cent The freight revenue 



for the year VMM amounted to $1,118,- 
543,014 and for 1912 to $1,936,237,- 
488 ; making an increase of 73.1 per 
cent, for ths It years. The receipts 
per ton mile in 1901 amounted to 7.50 
mills and in 1912 to 7.41 miUs. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOJC. 



249 



PASSENGER AND FREIGHT REVENUES. 



Analyzing the revenues of the pas- 
peoffer service for the fiscal year 1890, 
irefind that the revenue per passenger 
^r mile was 2.167 cents; the rev- 
BDoe per passenger carried, $0.50818 ; 
khe re%'enue per train-mile, passenger 
tnins, $1.08641 ; and the passenger 
earnings per mile of road, $1,978.19. 
For the freight service for the same 
year the revenue per ton per mile 
Amounted to 0.927 cents; the revenue 
tr ton of freight carried $1.08781; 
jBie revenue per train-mile, freight 
trains, $1.65434; freight earnings per 
viile of road, $4,588.82. Thus the 
lotal revenue per train-mile for all 
ijtrains amounted to $1.44231, and the 
[eoKC of running a train one mile 
S0.OWO6. 

In 1900 the passenger revenues 
iwere as follows: revenue per passen- 
fw per mile 2.003 cents; revenue per 
|»sisenger carried $0.56459; revenue 

fT train-mile, passenger . trains, 
. 1.1)1075 ; passenger earnings per 
nUe of road $2,067.17. The freight 
Ferenues for the same year were : 
ttrenne per ton per mile 0.729 cents; 



revenue per ton of freight carried 
$0.99373; revenue per train-mile, 
freight trains, $2.00042; freight 
earnings per mile of road $5,466.47. 
Thus the revenue per train-mile for 
all trains amounted to $1.65721 and 
the cost of running a train one mile 
$1.07288. 

The passenger revenues for the year 
1911 were divided into revenue per 
passenger per mile, 1.974 cents ; rev- 
enue per passenger carried, $0.65798; 
revenue per train-mile, passenger 
trains, $1.30921 ; and passenger 
earnings per mile of road, $3,312.00. 
On the freight service the revenue 
per ton per mile amounted to 0.757 
cents; the revenue per ton of freight 
carried $1.07944 ; the revenue per 
train-mile, freight trains, $2.89548 ; 
the freight earnings per mile of road, 
$7,895.00. Thus the revenue per 
train-mile for all trains amounted to 
$2.24824 and the cost of running a 
train one mile $1.54338. The term 
'*ton*' generally signifies the short 
ton of 2,000 pounds. 



CONSUMPTION OF FUEL OIL. 



The increasing use of fuel oil is 

^e to many causes. It has been 

demonatrated from tests made on some 

of the railroads accessible to the oil 

fields and refineries of the West, 

wiiere fuel oil can be purchased 

dkeaj^, that the cost of operating 

with oil is less and its use equally 

ts efficient as coal, the supplies of 

which are at times very low and 

nnpertain on account of strikes and 

ibutdowns of mines, and often on 

account of shortage of cars for the 

traosportation of the coal, especially 

in the winter season. In some locali- 

I ties where oil is coming into use, as 

I in Nevada, the cost of coal is ex- 

I ir^melv high. Another reason for the 

tiae of oil is the prevention or the 



elimination of forest fires, which in 
the last few years have been so dis- 
astrous in the northwestern part of 
the country. In addition to the econ- 
omy of the use of oil as compared 
with coal on railn)ads, it is very 
much cleaner and safer for the trav- 
eler, there being no smoke or cinders. 
In 1911 there were 27,368 lines of 
mile operated by the use of fuel oil. 
The total quantity of fuel oil con- 
sumed by railroads for the same year 
amounted to 27,774,821 barrels. The 
total mileage made by oil-burning en- 
gines for that year was 104,270,964 
and the average number of miles 
traveled per barrel of oil consumed 
was 3.75. 



REVENUES AND EXPENSES. 



A general summary of the monthly 
reports of revenues and expenses made 
np by the Bureau of Railway News 
and Sutistics (95% of all roads) 
«l»owH that the average number of 
milei operated during 1912 was 236,- 
441 The operating revenue, which 



amounted to $2,806,177,104, was made 
up as follows : Passenger, $653,598,- 
401 ; freight, $1,936,237,4.S8 : mail, 
$5(),458,7(;9 ; express, $73,053,799 ; 
other revenues from operation, $92,- 
828,737. The operating expenses, 
amounting to $2,064,645,750, wore 



250 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



divided as follows: Maintenance of 
way and structures, $3ei),446,190 ; 
maintenance of equipment, $44(5.446,- 
230; traffic expenses, $50,8!)5,212 ; 
transportation expenses, $1,008,010,- 
7t35 ; general expenses, $71,684,564 ; 
taxes, $118,153,819. Deducting the 
total expenses and taxes from the rev- 
enues from operation, we have a total 
operating income of $740,1^85,701 ; of 
this amount, $741,531,444 was derived 
from rail operations, and $4,854,257 
from outside operations. 

At the close of the year ending 
June 30, ISOO, the Railroads had a 
total of $4,409,658,453 stocks out- 
standing, of which $1,598,131,933, or 
36.24 per cent., were paying divi- 
dends. This stock of the railroads 
paid dividends at an average rate of 
5.45 i)er cent. The railroads paid 
$87,071,613 dollars in dividends and 
$221,499,702 interest on the funded 
debt, making a total of $^^18,571,315. 
The interest on interest-bearing cur- 
rent liabilities amounted to $8,114,- 
768. 

In 1900 the total stock of the rail- 
roads was $5,845,579,593 and the 
8to<'k-paying dividends amounted to 
$2,668,969,895, or 45.66 per cent, of 
the total amount of stock. The aver- 
age rate paid was 5.23 per cent., mak- 
ing a total of $139,597,972 paid in 
dividends. The interest on the funded 
debt amounted to $252,949,616, mak- 
ing a total expenditure on dividends 



and interest on the funded debt c 
$392,547,588. The interest on di 
interest-bearing current liabilitif 
amounted to $4,912,802. 

At the end of the year 1911 th 
total amount of stock paying divj 
dends was $5,730,250,326, or OT.65 « 
the total amount of outstanding stocl 
The average rate paid on stock wa 
8.03 per cent., or $460,1!)5,376. Th 
interest on the funded debt amonnte 
to $410,326,852. making a total c 
$870,522,228 paid for interest and dii 
idends. The interest on the interest 
bearing current liabilities amounted t 
$26,207,567. 

At the end of the fiscal year 1911 
the assets for the 244,089.14 miles o 
line represented were as follows : Ne 
investment in road and equipment 
$15,872,462,792 ; other investment! 
$4,551,785,530; sundry assets (in 
eluding deferred debit items). $348, 
227.510; current accounts, $1,743, 
499,260 ; making the total assets $22, 
515,975.092. 

The liabilities for the same numbei 
of miles of road and for the same yea: 
were as follows: Capital stock, $S, 
582,463,256; bonded debt (includint 
real estate mortgages, equipment 
trust obligations, etc.), $10,9.S9.608, 
551 ; unfunded debt (including appro 
priated surplus), $418,122,751; cur 
rent accounts, $1,130,377,126; sinkin] 
and other funds, $230,573,472. Th 
excess of assets over liabilities wai 
therefore, $1,155,829,092. 



Tov Bool 



If 



to 




Rivrr. $ 

Rail RamA, $ 

C«fi«l. $ 

to Or. of 



183 



MM 

ll « j c 



t 



RAIL ROAD LINE PROM NEW YORK TO BUFFALO. 




&(rt'>Mmd, /torn k/VIw "^oiA io 

^*v€r,aHc/ ^^/u itoundt on /^ <^xu^ 3^9mJ am/^^nm/. 
TOW BOAT NLW YORK, |8| ; 



T. JOHN M iirtiiirA \ 



RAILROAD TICKET OF THE EARLY THIRTIES. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



251 



RAILROAD SPEEDS. 



Month. 
dMf. year. 



6-14-'80 
O- 0-'80 
4-22-'S2 
7-13.'83 

5- 9-*84 
^ S-'85 
7- 9-'85 
«-l7-*86 

7- 6-'88 

8- 8-*86 
7-10-'88 
8- 0-'88 

8- 0-*88 

s-ao-'ss 

8-31-'88 
4- 8-89 

5-19-'89 
5-25>'89 
3-10-*90 
3-10-*90 

3-10-90 
fr-22-'91 
8- O^'Ol 
9-14-'91 

10-16-'91 

ll-28-*01 



Railroad. 




12-22-*91 B.&O. 



P.R.R. 

Qt. N. (Eng.) 

W. Jersey 

B. S. & N. Y. 

P.ftR. 

L.S.and N.Y.C. 
W. Shore 

C. B. & Q. 

Wabash 

N. Y. C. & H. R. 
L. & N. W.-Cal. 
L. AIN. W. 

L. & N. W. 
N. E. (Eng.) 
Gt. N. (Eng.) 
C. A N. W. 

P., F. W. 3c C. 
Mich. C. 
P &R. 
P. R. R. 

P. R. R. 

N.Y.C.&H R. 
Canadian Pac 
N. Y. C. A H. R. 

N. Ry. (Prance) 

P. R. R. 



3-28-*92 
Il-18-*92 



N.Y.C.&H.R 
Cent. N. J. 



n-18-*92 'P. ft R. 
12- 0-'»2 U ft N. W. 



N. Y. C. ft H. R. 

N.Y.C.ftH R. 
N. Y. C. ft H. R 
N. Y. C. ft H. R. 
L. S. ft M. S. 

iP>. O.. L/. ft St. Lj* 

C. ft N. W. 
L. S. ft M. S. 
A. C. Une 

C. B. ft Q. 
Camden ft Atl. 



5- 9-'93 

S-19-*93 
5-19-'93 
5-28-'g3 

8'28-*93 
3-23-'94 
4-17-'»4 
8-26-'94 

4- 0-'95 

4-21-'95 

8-21-95 West Coast 



8-21-*95 

»-il-'95 

9-24-'95 

I0-24-'95 

l0-24-'95 

10-24-'95 
5- 7-'90 
». 7--96 
6-10-96 

6-20-*96 

7- 3-'96 

ll-21-'96 
2-15-'97 
3-ll-'97 



East Coast 

N. Y. C. ft H. R. 
N. Y. C. ft H. R. 

L. S. ft M . S. 
L. S. ft M. S. 

P. R. R. 
Mich. C. 
Mich. C. 
Atlantic City 

Atlantic City 

C. M. ft St. P. 

S.ftR. 
C.B.ftQ. 
Char, ft Say. 



Philadelphia 
London 
Camden 
Syracuse 

N. Y. Div. 
Chicago 
Alabama 
Princeton 

K. City 
Syracuse 
London 
Crewe 

Pre«ton 
York 
London 
Chicago 

Ft. Wayne 
S. Bridge 
PhiladSphia 
Jersey City 

Washington 
New York 
Vancouver 
New York 

Paris 

Jersey City 
Philadelphia 

Oneida 
Panwood 

Jenkintown 

Crewe 

GrimesviUe 

Syracuse 
Looneyiille 
New York 

Seymoiu" 
C. Bluffs 
Cleveland 
Jacksonville 

Chicago 
Camden 
London 
London 

New York 
Albany 
Erie 
Cliicago 

Jersey City 
Windsor 
St. Thomas 
Camden 

Camden 

Forest Glen 

Weldon 
Chicago 
Cent. June. 



To. 



Jersey City 
Grantham 
Cape May 
Bingham ton 

M. P. 48 
New York 
Gen. June. 
Burlington 

Peru 
Fairport 
Edinboro 
Preston 

Carlisle 
Newcastle 
Edinboro 
Council Bluffs 

Chicago 
Chicago 
Jersey City 
Washington 

Jersey City 
Buffalo 
Brockville 
E. Buffalo 

Calais 

Washington 
Canton 

DeWItt 



L'home 
Rugby 



E. Buffalo 

Grimesvllle 

Chicago 

N. Tower 
Chicago 
Erie 
Washington 

G'burg 
Atlantic City 
Aberdeen 
Aberdeen 

E. Buffalo 
Syracuse 
Buffalo 
Buffalo 

Philadelphia 
St. Thomas 
Fort Erie 
Atlantic City 

Atlantic City 

Nat. Ave. 

Shops 
Denver 
Ashley J. 



Dlst. 
Miles. 


Time, 
h. m. 8. 


90 

105.5 
81.5 
79 


1:33:00 
1:51:00 
1:23:30 
1:23:00 


14 
964 

36.3 
170 


0:11:19 

22:45:00 

0:30:00 

2:68:00 


563 

70.25 
400 

51 


13:46:00 
1:01:20 
7:52:00 
0:50:00 


90 

80.5 
392.5 
490 


1:30:00 

1:18:00 

7:26:45 

12:30:00 


148.3 
511 
90 
226 


2:59:00 

11:41:00 

1:25:00 

4:18:00 


226 
439.52 
2.792 
436.32 


4:19:00 

8:58:00 

76:31:00 

7:17:30 


184 


3:43:00 


227 
91.6 


4:11:00 
1:41:00 


21.37 

1 


0:17:40 
0:00:37 


5 
76 

1 


0:03:25 
1:11:00 
0:00:35 


146 

5 

964 


2:21:00 

0:03:00 

19:57:00 


42 
488 

95.5 
780.8 


0:35:34 
12:52:00 

1:35:00 
15:49:00 


163 

58.3 
540 
623j 


2:45:00 
0:45:45 
8:65:00 
8:40:00 


436.32 
147.84 
86 
610.1 


6:51:56 
2:10:00 
1:10:46 
8:01:07 


89.6 

11.2 

118.2 

65.5 


1:33:21 
1:43:05 
1:47:15 
0:48:00 


55.6 


0:57:00 


74 


1:22:00 


76.8 
1,025 
102 


1:12:30 

18:53:00 

1:40:00 



Speed 

miles 

per H . 

58.06 
66.5 
58.63 
57.11 

74.2 
42.38 
72.60 
67.3 

41 

68.73 
50.86 
61.20 

60 
62 
62.7 
39.2 

49.7 
43.74 
63.53 
52.56 

62.35 
49.2 
36.49 
69.56 

49.51 

54.22 
54.41 

72.69 
97.3 

87.8 
64.23 
102.8 

62.13 
100 
48.2 

70.96 
41.1 
60.32 
49.36 

69.27 
76.46 
60.66 
60.36 

63.54 
68.23 
72.91 
63.61 

57.6 
64.72 
36.13 
6C.4 

58.42 

IA.2 

63.56 
54.27 
61.02 



252 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RAILROAD SPEEDS— Continued. 



Month, 
day, year. 

4-21-'97 

7-14-'97 

7-16-'97 

.8- 3-'97 

8- 3-' 97 
ll-29-'97 

12- 4-'97 

2-13-'98 
8-20-'98 

1- 2-'99 
4-23-*99 
7- 9-'99 

7-19-'99 

7-22-'99 

7-31-'99 

10- 7-'99 

10-14-'99 

ll-22-'99 

3-27-'00 

4-30-'00 

7- 9-00 

7- 4-00 
8-16-'00 
9-30-'00 

12-21-'00 
3- 1-01 

9- 6-01 

2- 9-02 

3-24-'02 
3-24-'02 
6-21-'02 
6-26-'03 

6-19-'a3 

8- 8-'03 
4-27-'04 
6- 9-'04 
7-20-'04 
6-14-'06 

6- 8-'05 

6-13-'05 
O- 0-'05 

7- 9-'05 



10-23-'05 



10-23-05 
10-24-05 
11- 3-*05 



5- 6-'06 



6-19-'06 



Railroad. 



Atlantic Coa^t L. 
Lehigh v. 
Atl. City (P. & R.) 
P.. Pt. W. & C. 
Union Pacific 
Union Pacific 
Union Pacific 

Union Pacific 

Erie 
Atlantic City 

Chic, B. & O. 
Chic. B. & O 
Del.. L. dc W. 

Yandalfa 
Atlantic City 
W. J. & S. (Penn.) 
Penn. W. Pittsburgh 

Wabash 

L. S. & M. S. 

Atch.. T. & S. P 

Chic.B.&Q. 

N. Y. C. & H. R. 
Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Penn. Lines 

Burlington 
Sav.^. & W. 
Mich. Cent. 
N. v., N.H.&H. 

Penn. 

Burlington 

Penn. 

L. S. & M. S. 

L. & N. W. 
A. T. & S. P. 
Mich. Cent. 
Gt. Western 
Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Penn. 

L. S. &M.8. 

J N. Y. C. i 

1 L. s. & M. s. r 

A. T^. oc S. P, 



Southern Pac. 

Union Pac. 

Chic. & No.West. 
I L. S. & M. S. 
tErle 

Penn. 
Penn. 
Pinn. 

('Southern Pac. 
I Union Pac. 
J Chic & N. W. 
i L. S. & Mlch.So. 
N. Y. Cent. 



Atlantic City 



Prom. 



Florence, S. C. 
Alpine 
Camden 
G. R, & I. Jc 
Evans ton 
N. Platte 
Cheyenne 

Sidney 

Jersey City 
Camden 

Omaha 

Clyde 

Bath 

Clayton 
Camden 
Camden 
Ft. Wayne 

Tllton 
Buffalo 
Los Angeles 
Burlington 

Rochester 
Camden 
Camden 
Ft. Wayne 

Omaha 
M. P. 69 
Susp. Bridge 
Harlem R. 

PhUadelphia 
Eckley 
Harrisburg 
Toledo 

London 
Chicago 
Niagara Falls 
Plymouth 
Camden 
Atlantic City 
E. Tolleston 

Chicago 
New York 
Los Angele* 



Oakland 



Crestline 
Crestline 
Harrisburg 



Oakland 



Camden 



To. 



Rocky Mt. 
Geneva June 
Atlantic City 
Coiehour 
Omaha 
Omaha 
Council Bluffs 

Omaha 

BulTalo 
Atlantic City 

Chicago 
Burlington 
East Buffalo 

Transfer 
Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Chicago 

Granite City 
Cleveland 
Chicago 
Chicago 

Syracuse 
Atlantic City 
Atlantic City 
Clarke J. 

Billings 
M. P. 74 
Windsor 
Boston 

Jersey City 
Wray 
Altoona 
Elkharii 

Carlisle 

Los Angeles 

Windsor 

Ix>ndon 

Atlantic City 

Camden 

Donaldson 

Buffalo 

Chicago 

Chicago 



Jersey City 



Ft. Wayne 
Clarke J. 
Chicago 



New York 



Atlantic City 



Dist. 
Miles. 



172.2 
44 
55.5 
132.5 
955.2 
291.0 
519 

414.2 

423. 
55.5 

500.2 
197.3 
104 

18 
55.5 
58 3 
148.3 

176.6 
183 
2,236 
205.8 

80.7 
55.5 
55.5 
126 

892.6 
4.8 
229 
228 

89.8 

14.8 

131.4 

133.4 

299.2 

2,267 

225.7 

246.8 

55.5 

55.5 

50 

525 

964 

2,246 



3,239 



131.4 
257.4 
717 



3,255 



55.5 



Time, 
h. m. s. 



3:00:00 
0:33:00 
0:46-30 
2:15:00 
23:55:00 
5:35:00 
9:19:00 

7:12:00 

7:30:00 
0:46:45 

8:43:00 
3:O4:00 
1:30 HX) 

0:14:00 
0:51 :15 
0:50 u30 
2:50:00 

2:47--30 

3:25.-00 

58:00.-00 

3:23 KX) 

1:25:00 
0:44:15 
0:44:15 
2:38:00 

16:23:00 
0.-02:40 
3:40:00 
4:12 HX) 

1:19:00 
0:09:00 
2:10:00 
1:54:00 

5:58:00 
52:49:00 
3:18:00 
3:46:48 
0:43:00 
0:42:33 
0:38:00 

7:33.i)0 
18:00:00 
44:54:00 



73:12:00 



1:41:2a 

3:27:20 

12:40:00 



71:27.-00 
0:43:30 



♦From Locomotite Dictionary, — Courtesy Bailroad'Age-^azeite, 



SCIEJNTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



253 



LATEST RAILROAD SPEEDS, 



MoaiK 
dav, year. 



3-2S-'09 

7-29-'09 

8-16-'09 

8-17-'09 

10- 2-'09 

1-17-'10 

5-21-' 10 
12- O-'IO 

2-16-'ll 

2-2»-*ll 
2-0-'ll 
12-22-*ll 
4-00-'ll 
4-00-'ll 



Railroad. 



6 



f N. Y. C. 
I L. S. ' 
L. S. 
M. C. 
& N. W. 
C. & N. W. 
U. P. 
f N. Y. C. 
1 L. S. 
Mich. C. 
G. of N. J. 
S. P. 
R. Is. 
N. Y. C. 
P. R. 
P. R. 

C. & N. W. 
N. Y. C. 

c. of ^f. J. 



From. 



Mott Haven 

Toledo 

Chicago 
St. Paul 
Omaha 

New York 

Windsor 
Jersey City 

Yuma 

Altoona 

Washington 

Chicago 

Syracuse 

Philadelphia 



To. 



Chicago 

Elkhart 

St. Paul 
Chicago 
Denver 

Chicago 

Fall.s View 
Washington 

New York 

Philadelphia 
New York 
Clinton 
Buffalo 
Jersey City 



Dist. 
Miias. 



959 

134 

409 
409 
575 

9G4 

224 
227 

2,787 

235.1 
226.8 
138 
149 
90 



Time, 
h. m, 8. 



16:30:00 

1:50:00 

7:24:00 

7:24:00 

12:30:00 

18:30:00 

3:44:00 
4:04:00 

74:19:00 



3 
3 
2 
2 
1 



29:00 
55:30 
16:00 
20:00 
;42:00 



Speed 

miles 

per H. 



58.12 

73.08 

64.05 
54.05 
46.0 

52.1 

60.0 
55.8 

40.41 

67.5 

57.8 

59.1 

63.84 

52.9 



Courtesy Railroad- Age-Oazette. 



RAILWAY MML REVENUES. 



Year 


Railyray 

Mail 
Revenues 


Number of 
Railway 
Mail 
Clerka 


Poatal 
Revenues 


1902 


89.963.248 
41.709.396 
44.499.732 
45.426.125 
47.371.453 
50,378.964 
48,517,563 
49.380,783 
48,913,888 
50,702,625 
50,458.769 
28.8% 


9.627 
10,418 
11,621 
12.474 
13,598 
14,357 
15,295 
15,866 
16,578 
16.792 
16,636 
72.8% 


121,848.047 


1»3 


134,224,448 


im 


143,482.624 


ins 


152.826.586 


isoe 


167.932,788 


1907 


183.585.006 


nos 


191.478.663 


ao» 


203,562,383 


wo 


224,128,657 


Wl 


237,879,823 


1912 


246,744,015 


Tod Yt»xn* increase, per cent 


101.7% 





Risk of Employees and Passengers on 
American Railways. 




S.afcty Appliances on 
American Railways. 



S54 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RAILWAY SPEED IN ENGLAND. 

The Fastest Runniiic without stoppafe, is made 1^ tlie Gompanies as onder:— 



* 



OoaBpaay. 



North Baitern... 

Great Central 

Great Western 

Great Northern 

Midland ^ 

London and North Western ... 
Londonand South Western ... 

Caledonian 

Lancashire and Yorkshire 

Cheshire tJnes 

Great Eastern 

Glasgow and South Western ... 
Great Southern and Western... 
South Eastern and Chatham ... 
Lottdon,Brlghton & South Coast 
London, TiUnur^ Southend... 

Hull and Bamsiey 

Great Northern (Ireland) • 

North British 

HlghUnd 

North Stafford... 



From 



Darlington 

Leicester 

Paddington 

Peterborough ... 

Kettering 

Willesden 

Basingstoke...... 

Perth 

Liverpool 

Manchester 

Lincoln 

Kilmarnock 

Ballybrophy ... 

Tonbridge 

Victoria 

Stepney 

Hemsworth 

Drogheda 

Haymarket 

Blair Athol 

Crewe 



To 



York 

Nottingham 

Bath 

King's Cross. 

Bedford; 

CoTentry 

Vauzhan 

Aberdeen ....m... 

Manchester 

West Derby 

Spalding 

Dumfries 

MaUow 

Ashford 

Brighton 

Weetclfff 

Howden 

Dublhi 

Cowlairs 

Perth .» 

Rhyl 



Tlmei 


IMsUnec 


H. M. 


Miles. 


o 43 
o sa 


J^ 


I 4* 


se6M 


I It 


7«* 


o S3 




» 3» 

o 49 


s 


« 37 


•91 


o 40 


37 


34 


3«* 


44 


^ 


« 4 


^ 


1 SB 

31 


SI 


1 


5> 


30 
3P 

30 


33 
«S 

3'! 


ss 


44i 


45 

« 7 


354 
5«* 



SI 
IS4 



577 
S5^ 

SS-9 

SS'5 
SS** 
S4« 

S4« 

SSI 



4S< 

483 
47* 
♦5*9 



The Ixmgest Buns without Stoppage are made by the Companies as under :-- 



Oompany. 



Great Western i 

London and North Western . 

Midland 

Great Northern 

Great Central 

Caledonian 

Great Eastern 

North Eastern 

Lobdon and South Western . 

North British 

Glasgow and South Western... 
Great Southern and Western. 
London Brighton & 9oath Coast 
South Eastern and Chatham ... 

Highland 

Mid. and Great Northern Joint 

Somerset and Dorset. 

Lancashire and Yorkshire .... 
Mklland Great Western 



Train. 



From 



S0.30 
IZ.10 
11.50 

S.SO 

3->S 
X.4S 

i.3» 

IX. 14 

4.10 

s. 6 

S.40 
1.48 

XI. o 

xx.ss 

S.3* 
S.13 
8. o 

»5g 



Paddington 

Euston < 

St. Pancras 
Wakefield... 
Marylcbone 



To 



Carlisle IPerth 



Plymouth.... 

Rhyl 

Shipley 

King's Cross. 
Sheffield .... 



Liverpool Street 

Newcastle 

Waterloo .•«..... 

Edinburgh 

Kilmarnock.. 

Thurles 

Clapham Jnuct. 

Vi<*oria 

Perth 

Peterborough ... 

Bath 

Blackpool 

MulUngar 



North Walsham 
Edinburgh .... 
BoumMuouth ... 

Carlisle 

Carltole 

Dublin 

Fratton 

Dover Town.... 
Newtonmore • 
MeltonConst'ble 

Poole 

Halifax 

Dublin 



TIuml 



H. 

4 
3 

4 

3 

a 

3 



JC. 

3 
8 

57 

i 

o 
ss 

4« 
40 
89 
40 
54 
37 
30 
SS 
_!4 



Miles. 



niffmi 



S4« 
5«7. 



57* 



49*8 
497 
84t 
54*0 

48-s 
S>15 
Ss'e 

41 -s 
^t 
3»« 



J23. 



tiinglt Une, wholly or partly. 



Railway. 



FASTEST LONG-DISTANCE TRAINS. 

From, 



Northern (France) Paris 

Prussian Berlin 

London & North West Ixjndon 

N. Y. C. & L. S. & M. S New York 

Caledonian Ix>ndon 

P. L. & M. (France) Paris 

Pennsylvania New York 

Orieans (France) Paris 

N. Y. C. A H. R New York 

O. & S. (France) Paria 

Various Ostcnd 

From the June. 1912, Railway and Locomotive Engineering. 







Speetl, 


To. 


Miles. 


milea 
per hour. 


Calais 


185.1 


59.72 


HambuiK 


177.69 


52.51 


ICdii.bun^ 


393.5 


50.77 


Chicago 


962.49 


50.66 


£Minburgih 


401.5 


50-18 


Men tone 


687.5 


49.10 


Ctiicago 


897.0 


47.21 


Bayonne 
Buffalo 


488.0 


49.3 


440.0 


49.3 


Madrid 


903.0 


38.49 


Vienna 


822.0 


37.85 



The Loetschberg Railway Tunnel 
through the Berncao .\lps entailr>d an 
expendituro of $20,000,000. It la nine 
miles long, and i» thtTofore the third 



largest In Europe. It gives a dir«»ct 
connection with the Simplon TunnrI 
Railway, nod shortens the ronto from 
Milan to Calais by abont t^ighty miles. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



255 



RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. 



During the year 1900 there were 
laGO employees of the railroads killed 
iDd 39.©4:i injured, or for every 399 
iDien employed one was killed and for 
f?erT 2l> men employed one was in- 
jured. In ltNJ9 the total nuDiber of 
nnployees killed was 2,610 and of 
those injured 75,006, or for each 576 
m^n employed one man was killed and 
for each 2d men employed one was 
injured. 

The total number of passengers 
killed during the year 1900 was 249 
and of those injured 4,128, or for 
freiy 2.316,591 passengers carried 
one was killed and for every 139,736 
carried one was injured. In 1909 
tSS passengers were killed and 10,311 
injured, or for every 3,523,606 car- 
ried one was killed and for every 
86»4^ carried one was injured. 

The number of other persons killed 
for the year 1900 was 5,066 and dur- 
ing 1909, 5,859 ; while those injured 
in 1900 numbered 6,549 and in 1909, 
10,309. The total number of per- 
lons kUled during 1900 was 7,865 



and of those injured 50,320, and in 
1909 total of those killed was 8,722 
and of those injured 95,626. 

During the year 1912 there were 
270 passengers killed in railway ac- 
cidents ; 3,283 employees, 5.424 tres- 
passers and 1,198 other persons, not 
trespassers, making the total for the 
year 10,185, as compared with 9,957 
iii 1911 and 9,682 in 1910. 

During the year 1912 the railroads 
paid to persons on account of injur- 
ies a total amount of $27,640,851, 
or 0.80 per cent of earnings. Of this 
amount, $2,034,485 was paid as a re- 
sult of maintenance of way ; $1,844.- 
039 as maintenance of equipment ; 
$23,762,.327 as transportation. 

Another loss of $34,197,285 incurred 
by the railroads was divided as fol- 
lows: Ix>ss and damage to freight, 
$24,953,843 ; to baggage, $304,925 ; to 
property. $4,846,165; to live stock, 
etc.. $4,092,:i5.2. This amount was 
1.13 per cent of the net earnings of 
the railroads. 



, In the mater of safety appliances, 
i American railroads are far more com- 
pletely equipped than the railways 
of any other country. With those 
tvio devices for the protection of 

BLOCK 

At the end of the, year 1912, 22,236 
miles of track were equipped with 
automatic block signals; 55,719 with 
oon-automatic block signals and 276 
miles not classified, thus making a 
total of 78,231 miles having a block 
signal system of some sort. The total 
number of miles having a block signal 
system in 1911 was 76,408, thus mak- 
ing an increase in 1912 of 1,823 miles 
of line. After elaborate investiga- 

TRAIN 

Daring the year ending March 31, 
1909, the steam railroads of the State 
of New York ran 650,592 trains or 
an average of 54,216 each month. 
During 1910 they report 703,816 
trains, or 58,651 a month; and dur- 
ing 1911, 758.833, or 63,236 a month. 
For this period of three years an 
arenige of 83.4 per cent, of the trains 
were on time. For each train the 
average delay was 25.96 minutes. The 
principal causes of delay were : wait- 



SAFETY APPLIANCES. 

trains and employees, train brakes 



and automatic couplers, their equip- 
ment is practically complete — the pro- 
portion being 98% and 99.7%, re- 
spectively. 

SIGNALS. 

tions, the cost of installing and main- 
taining the block signal system, was 
reported as follows : Cost of installa- 
tion of automatic block signals on 
railway mileage not equipped, $286,- 
492,976; annual cost for maintenance, 
depreciation and interest charge, $73,- 
751,012. The estimated cost of instal- 
lation was $1,232 per mile, and for 
maintenance, $169 per mile of track 
per year. 

SERVICE. 

ing for trains on other divisions, 32.6 
per cent. ; train work at stations, 
14.3 per cent. ; waiting for train con- 
nections with other railroads, 13 per 
cent. ; trains ahead, 7.5 per cent. ; 
engine failures, 7.1 per cent. ; meet- 
ing and passing trains, 6.3 per cent. ; 
and wrecks, 5.7 per cent. 



There are 47 steamships engaged in cable- 
laying and repairing. 



266 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK, 



SUMMARY OF CASUALTIES TO PERSONS IN RAILWAY ACCIDENTS 
FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30. 1911. AND 1912. 





1912 


1911 




Killed 


Injured 


Killed 


Injured 


Poasengera: 
Colliaions ,, 


49 
65 


4.184 

3,966 

76 

6.126 


55 
39 


8,176 


Derailments 


2,374 


Other Accidents to Trains. 


90 


Other Causes 


166 


187 


8,7SS 


Total Paasengors 


270 

292 

251 

78 

192 

77 

573 

1,506 


14,291 

3.592 
3.015 
1.716 
8,235 
1.528 
13,874 
24.260 


281 

25S 

75 

209 

76 

539 

1,454 


iijas 


Employes on Duty: 

Collisions 

Derailments 


8,667 
24S6 


Other Accidents to Trains 


1,SS8 


In Coupling Accidents 


2,966 


Overhead Obotruotions 


IJIO 


Falling from Cars 


12.969 


Other Causes 


22,740 


Total Employes 


2.968 


61.215 


2,946 


47,281 


Employes not on Duty: 
In Train Accidents , 


3,288 
20 


65,506 

156 

2 

12 

• 812 

477 

969 

277 
4.746 . 
5.023 

151 
6.636 


3,227 
IS 


50J81 
174 


In Coupling Accidents , . . 




Overhead Obstructions 


1 

53 
241 
815 

13 
1.185 
1.198 

91 
5.843 


2 

49 

228 

292 

11 
1.143 
1,164 

81 
6.203 


IS 


Fftllingfrnm CiM^. a..... .. 


857 


Other Causes 


410 


Total 

Other Persons: 
Not Trespassing-- 
In Train Accidents 


954 

175 


Other Causes 


4,898 


Total 


5^ 


Txespasaers: 
In Train Accidents 


141 


Other Causes 


5.473 


Total 


5.434 
10,185 

400 


5,687 
77,175 

92.363 


5.284 
9.957 

439 


5,614 


Total Accidents Involving Train Ox>eration . 
Industrial Accidents to Employes: 
Not Involving Train Operation 


70.922 
79,287 


Grand Total 


10.586 

9.632 

8.722 

10.188 

11.839 

10,618 

9.703 

10.046 

9.840 

8.658 

8.465 

7,865 

7,128 


169.538 

119,507 

96.626 

104.230 

111,016 

97.706 

86.006 

84,155 

76,653 

64,662 

53,338 

50,320 

44,620 


10,396 


150.159 


1910 




1909 






1908 






1007 






!906 






1905 






1904 






1303 






1902 






1901 






1900 






1899 







SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



257 



DENSITY OF POPULATION. 

EcTpt proper is the most densely populated country, having 931 per square mile. Belgium 
comes next wHh 660, then Holland. The United Kingdom has 373, Japan 336. after which 
come the other European Countries down to Russia with 63.7 and Sweden with 31.8. The 
United States has only 30.9. and the South American Republics all less. Australia contains only 
1.38 penoos per square mile. In England there is an average of just about 1 person per acre. 



Lord Rayleifch has recently made some 
mtnesting experiments to determine the colors 
of the sea and sky. Other experimenters 
neb as Davy. Bunsen, and Spring, were all 
ntiified that the color of water was blue, but 
Lord Ra^^telgh's experiments have supplie<l 
ottiy limited oonfimiation of that view. 



What appears to be the intrinsic color of the 
sea he nnds is often due to the color of the 
sky or is affected by the color of tiie bottom. 
With carefully distilled water he^got the same 
blue color of water as the water from Capri 
and Suez, while that from Seven Stones Light- 
ship, off the Cornish coast, gave a full green. 



KILLED IN EUROPEAN RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 



Country 



United Kingdom. 

Gvmmy 

R«ni(a) 

Fnaoe 



HoBSMry 

Italy 

Bptia 

FBrtugsl 

ovedsD 

Norway 

Denmark (d). 

Bdchun 

Holland 

Svitavland. . 



Year 



Total Europe. 
Etiropo(e) 



1911.. 

1010.. 

1908.. 

1909.. 

1910. . 

1910.. 

1010-11 

1907.. 

1904. 

IWW. . . 

1910>11 
1910-11 
1910... 
1909... 
1910... 
1910-11 



Pa»- 
sengers 



1910... 
1900... 

IWJo. . . 

1907... 
1906 .. 
1905... 
1904... 



112 
97 

198 
(b) 8 
29 
24 
25 
25 



Em- 
ployes 



446 
643 
645 
351 
112 
140 
107 
64 



Other 
Persons 



6 
1 
1 

11 
3 
7 
7 



554 

692 
671 
630 
5Ji6 
660 
603 
412 



32 
7 

71 
20 
32 
28 



^.607 

2,689 
2.641 
2.536 
2,575 
2,319 
2,104 
1,920 



601 
624 
1,866 
c333 
153 
1S9 
209 
213 



69 
8 

16 
70 
9 
46 
69 



4.466 

4.461 
4.322 
3.580 
3.400 
8.553 
3,414 
2.665 



Total 



1.159 

1,264 

2,700 

692 

294 

853 

341 

302 

56 

97 

16 

26 

152 

32 

•85 

104 



'Preoed- 
jingYeac 



1.121 

1.394 

2.950 

626 

813 

356 

438 

219 

37 

91 

13 

30 

OS 

37 

09 

18 



-1.626 

7.807 
7,689 
6,803 
6,606 
6,432 
6,021 
4.W5 



7,797 



(a) Exclusive of local lines an$l railways of Finland. 

(b) In train accidents only. 

(e) Exdnding suicides, but including passengers killed otherwise than in train accidents, 
(d) State railways only. 

(b) These figures are those oompiled for this Bureau each year since its organization, the dotaila 
far Midi eoontry appearing in the report of the report for the following year. 



3SS SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

STATISTICS OF THE PULLMAN COMPANY. 

The report rendered by the Pullmiin ('ompany for the yefir epdei] June 
30, 1911, places the average mileage (aingle track) over which operatioM 
were conducted at 120,871 miles. The cost of the property and equipment 
required for the service amounted to *U«,a26.01!S. The operating revenues 
are divided into berth revenue. ?:tl.415,913; seat revenue, $5,585,556; charter 
of cars, S(J01.4S8; and other miBcellaneoUB revenues to mahe the total operat- 
ine revenues ¥35.6.')T.582. The conductors employed on the Pullman cars. 2.274 
in nomber, receive an nverage daily compensation of $2.82; tlie 6.317 piiriers 
employed rei'eive nn average daily compensation of $1.04; and the 8 steauc- 
rapbers employed by the serVlce receive an average daily compensalioa of $2.31. 

OFERATINO BTATISTIC8. 

lI,4aS,«M 

. . of revsQue paaeannn-MBt S.nV.MS 

'ATangatnMDftiiaTpaMiigar-Wui t2.B3 

AvangenTsouapopaagsnger-sest. VlSI 

Tot*loiunb«ral(ar4DllM su.ub.SM 

Tout numbar ot eainlayi 



' Avenca numbar of ravenne paannRere par car pec day. 

,Op«(«{<iiti«v«iUMper«ar.mlla(«iilA) _ .. 

IOpanUii|iBTaiuaapat<ar.dsy tU-TOSS 

OpanUDiSxp^aapCTCaP'mitaioents) 4.143 



per«ar.mlla(milA) t-VM 

patcar-dsy tunns 

__,- .percar'inila<oeiit«) 4.143 

itlng axpansM par carday tla.sas 



Mlnirav 
numbiwi 



le(™M).. 



EQUIPUENT (OWNED OR LEASED) IN SERVICE ON JUNE 10,1011. 

lard riaapinc can 

Toorltt ileaping can 



Parlor L 



Total S,011 

7%« FitUing Rate of Mortality in American RaSaaff Travel 



JV™ York Tim 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



259 



EXPRESS COMPANIES. 

In its Twenty-sixth Annual Report the Interstate Commerce Commission 
pabUshes a statement of the income account of express companies as reported 
to it for the years ending June 30, 1910, 1911 and 1912, the salient features of 
which are as follows : 



Item 



Unmbar of CompaniM 

Rftilwqr Miles Operated 

Expre* Operations: 

Gfoa Receipts from Operation 

Lefti Eipieas PriviloBes 

Openting Revenues 

Operating Expenses 

Net Operating Revenue 

Ket Bevenue from Outside Operations 

Total Net Revenue 

Taacas Accrued 

Operating Income 

Other Inoom« from Investments, etc. . 

Grnes Income 

Totsl Deductions. Interest, eto 

NfC CorpOTBte Income 

Divide Dds I>eclared 

(a) Deficit. 



1912 



12 
248,618 

$160,121,932 
78,576,274 



$81,545,658 
73,225.682 



$ 8,289.976 
(a) 46.622 



$ 8,243,353 
1,430,809 



$ 6,812,544 
5,369,822 



$ 12,182,366 
1,237,996 



$10,944,370 
4,625,832 



1911 



13 
243,472 

$162,612,880 
73,936,018 



$78,676,862 
67,089,233 



$11,587,629 
13,117 



$11,600,746 
1,315,973 



$10,284,773 
6,315,842 



16,600,615 
1,234,006 



$15,366,609 
5.848.082 



1910 



13 
237,868 

$146,116,815 
69,917,562 



$76,198,758 
61,690,473 



$14,508,280 
10,527 



$14,518,807 
1,126,726 



$13,392,081 
5,633,792 



19,025.873 
1.037,316 



$17,988,657 
5,928,108 



CLASSIFICATION OF MILEAGE COVERED BY OPERATIONS OF 

EXPRESS COMPANIES ON JUNE 30, 1911. 



Name of carrier. 


Total 
mileage. 


Steam-road 
mileage. 


Electric-line 
mileage. 


Steamboat- 
line 
mileage. 


• 


1911 


1911 


1911 


1911 


Total 


270,666.37 


243,721.41 


7,291.94 


18.939.65 






Adams Express Co 

American Express Co 

Canadian Kxnrwn Co ... .... 


36,560.52 
56,877.95 
7,230.31 
3,391.80 
2,903. 6;^ 
8,803.54 
1.640.25 


32.784.94 
54.344.00 
6,400.31 
3,369.80 
2,903.63 
8,466.15 
1.422 25 


314.58 

590.70 

66.00 

22.00 


3,438.00 

1.919.7.5 

737.00 


Ctnadian Nnrtimm Rxnraw Co . . 




Gbbe ExDTess Co 




Great Kortbem Exprww Co 

NatiooaJ Exoress Co *. . 


197.,39 

70.00 

54.00 

539.20 

80.00 

3.444.,59 

1,909.08 

4.00 


140.00 
148.00 


Nortbera Exoress Co 


7,625.88 7.310.48 
16,980.65 I 15,938.11 
32,580.60 31.654.60 
32,748.28 ■ 2S.H;?0.99 
58,471.56 ' 4.^.446.75 


261.00 


Pacific Exoreas Co 


503.34 


Houthera Express Co 


846.00 


Taited States Express Co 

WeU»Far«oACo 


466.70 
10,475.86 


Western Express Co 


4,851.40 


4.843.40 


4.00 



260 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STREET 



AND ELEVATED RAILWAYS: MILEAGE, NUMBER OF 

CARS, AND CAPITALIZATION BY STATES. 
[Source: The Blectric Railway Journal.] 



State. 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connectlcnt 

Delaware ••.....•.••• 
Disirietof Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland ..: 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

NewMezico 

New York 

North Carolina %. 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tenneuee -. 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Total, 1911 



Number 
of com- 
panies. 



11 

6 

9 

45 

16 

10 

6 

6 

7 

12 

6 

n 

85 

27 

15 

10 

8 

Ih 

12 

56 

23 

10 

II 

19 

7 

6 

2 

19 

60 

S 

139 

IS 

S 

95 

15 

7 

245 

12 

6 

8 

13 

29 

4 

9 

18 

19 

21 

24 

2 



1,209 



Electric 
railways, 

track 
mileage. 



0<M Ml 

67.50 
106.80 

2,250.59 
449.85 

1,264.72 

56.25 

812.04 

128.10 

410.24 

88.00 

3,264.06 

2,245.71 
751.06 
258.95 
459.36 
265.86 
514.50 
713.68 

3,449.22 

1.494.05 
606.97 
116.10 

1.080.59 

154.68 

242.50 

10. HO 

267.10 

1,871.14 
10.50 

4,749.83 

181.23 

28.50 

4,048.93 

231.86 
ftoa flQ 

4.825.88 
488.60 
118.20 

20.00 
861.88 
642.72 
241.30 
101.75 
456.27 
931.79 
411.86 
720.66 

22.00 



41,028.49 



Number 
of cars. 



606 

41 

247 

4,241 

T35 

2,841 

87 

1,614 

283 

702 

64 

8,104 

2.138 

1.436 

370 

956 

728 

781 

2,025 

10,409 

2.663 

1,000 

186 

2,694 

166 

660 

12 

868 

2,874 

11 

17,842 

S51 

59 

5,909 

281 

1.223 

9,859 

1,269 

178 

32 

868 

1,048 

841 

124 

893 

1,947 

590 

1,042 

21 



91,457 



Capital stock 
outstanding. 



JMlars. 

18,282,000 

2.560,000 

5,869.600 

331,642,800 

19,429,400 

60,137,800 

8.870,000 

80.492,800 

5,266.000 

60, WO, 600 

4.784,000 

153,991,500 

83,216,630 

37,266.926 

5,683.220 

22,824.300 

81,380.000 

16.016,500 

22,731.660 

108,-6d9,900 

45.410;200 

25,688,000 

6,982,670 

82,771,480 

8,179,616 

12.647,600 

1,042,000 

4.212.700 

67,472,390 

•400,000 

406,845.674 

28,483,800 

440.000 

304.279,875 

10.016,^00 

40,740.000 

'348,705,799 

22.285,100 

8,379.950 

600.000 

21.506,000 

82.^,700 

7,877,725 

2,880.800 

28,068,650 

61.463,900 

17,740.J00 

23,729,200 

75,000 



2,483.186.163 



Funded debt 
outstanding. 



DoUan. 

16,025.000 

50.000 

6,919,600 

148,604,800 

29,671.000 

88,884,000 

4,979,000 

8S,618.01> 

4,482,^800 

26.412.600 

1.413,000 

286,020.8a 

84.071.650 

86,638,500 

6,013.000 

32,819.800 

84,321,600 

14.925.286 

70,437.800 

76.064,200 

72,631,000 

28.261,000 

6,441.000 

114,696.700 

1,880,000 

11,449.000 

186.000 

8.782.000 

92,106,100 

160.000 

646.213,487 

10,867.400 

200.000 

128,761,940 

7. 241.000 

47.960.000 

220.002,546 

16.191,118 

6,474.000 

200,000 

97.297,000 

23.438.000 

6. 996.000 

2.800.000 

S3, 906. 100 

44.096.000 

17,792,900 

40.532,500 

*20,«0 



2.424,334.688 



NOTES TO PAGE 261. 

♦The net capital liability of the Canadian railways, exclusive of Government owned roads, 
in 1912 was $1,378,037,726 or $51,593 per mile, which is far below their "capital cost.** 

In 1912 the railways of Canada paid $2,200,528 taxes! In Nova Sootia and New Bruns- 
wick they are exempt from taxation. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



261 



RAILWAYS OF CANADA, 

Statistics of the Railways of the Dominion for the Years Ending 

June 30, 1908, 1911 and 1912. 




of Line Operated. 



Tnek and Sidings. 



[ AO 

! C^>iUlCo8t* 

^toek 

|FttMiedD«bt 

^jofemment Railwasrs 

ma^m 



Total Capital Cost 

F\vlii]aofLine 

Panenger Traffic 

Carried 

CarrUxllMile 

(mila) 

AnncB Paarenaera per Train 

KfaiflBof PMsencar Train* 

lihtiB of Mixed Traina 

Bancipf from Pa— iiim^ii ■ 

Bne^ per Paewngor Milo (eenta) . . . 
Fireisht Traffic 

ToaiCbrried 

ToQtCarriedllfile 

AmacB Haul (milea) 

Fknifat Train HUoage 

iwagi Tons per Train 

weciptafroin Freight 

Ton Mile (miUa) 



Total Eeoaipts 

Expenses of Operation 

Iftyaad Stmcturea 

Ifiinrttfmanffe of Equipment 

Tnflie Expenses 

Cooducting Transportation 



Total Expenses 

Ratio to Eamin0i 

KetReeetpts 

I Pmentace to Capital Cost. 

[GroM ReeeipU per Mile 

Gnw Expense per Mile 



Sottbarof Employes. 



^i^tnrtioa of Gross Earnings 

^toportkm of Operating Expenses. 
Avtngs per Employe p^ Year 



1U08 



22,966 
1.211 
4.646 



28.723 

1607,425,340 
631.80Q,«)4 
109.423.104 
166,291.482 



1 1.516.000.550 
65,068 

ov,vx4.Vi72S 

2.081.060,864 

61 

54 

81,950.349 

6,210.SG7 

139.902.503 

1.920 

63.019.900 

12.961,512,519 

206 

40,476,370 

278 

183.746,665 

7.23 

113,179.155 



S146,918,313 

120.778,610 
20.273.626 



62.486.270 
3.765.636 



1107.304,142 

73.04% 

139,614,171 

2.61% 

I6.39S 

4,672 

106,404 

$60,376,007 

41.10% 

56.27% 
$560 



1911 



25,400 
1,610 
5.550 



82.560 

1749.207.687 
779.481.514 
119.615.666 
202.179,254 



81.850,484.121 
72,854 

37.097,718 

2.606.968.924 

70 

60 

36.985.911 

6.277,468 

160,566.894 

1.944 

79,884.282 

16.048.478.205 

200 

52.498,866 

805 

$124,743,015 

7.77 

$13,423,585 



$188,733,493 

$29,246,093 

26,127,638 

4.831,744 

66.343.270 

4,487.030 



$131,031,784 

69.44% 

$57,698,709 

3.12% 

$7,430 

5,158 

141.224 

$74,613,738 

39.53% 

56.94% 

$528 



1012 



26.727 
1.752 
6.149 



34.629 

$770,459,351 
818.478.175 
133,306.218 
204.932,573 



$1,926,906,317 
72.129 

41.124.181 

2.910.251,636 

71 

62 

40.440,393 

6.473,882 

$56,543,664 

1.943 

89.444.331 

19.558.190,527 

218 

60.126,023 

325 

$148,030,260 

7.57 

$14,829,819 



$219,403,752 

$31,514,093 
29.811,510 

5.293.700 
78.969.543 

5,137,688 



$150,726,539 

b8.7% 

$68,677,213 

4.27% 

$8,209 

5,639 

155,901 
$87,200,639 
29.799i 
57 02% 
$560 



262 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

CANADIAN RAILWAYS. 

ACCIDENTS. ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.— In 1911 the killed numbered 11 
8 employees, 83 others; total 102. Injured, 1,784 passengers, 300 employees, 586 others; total 
2,670. 



ACCIDENTS. STEAM RAILWAYS. 1911.— Passengers. 28 killed. 288 injured; empl<>y< 
202 and 1.314; trespassers. 185 and 154; non-trespassers, 48 and 135; postal clerks, 2 and 15; 
total killed 465; injured, 1906. 

CAPITAL INVESTED IN CANADIAN STEAM RAILWAYS.— In 1911 the total capi- 
tal invested in Steam Railways was Sl.528,689,201, composed of shares. $749,207,687, and 
funded debt, S779.481,514; in Electric Railways, $111,532,347. including shares $62.251. 20% 
and funded debt, $49,281,144. 

EARNINGS OF STEAM RAILWAYS.— Net earnings for all railways in 191 1, $o7,698,70»; 
operating expenses, $131,034,785. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY STATISTICS.— In 1911. paid-up capital invested, $111,532,347: 
mileage, 1.224; gross earnings. $20,356,951; operating expenses, $12,096,134; net earnings 
$9,944,153. Passengers carried, 426,296,792. Freight carried, 2,496,072 tons. 

EXPRESS AND TELEGRAPH COMPANIES.— The Dominion Express Co. and thi 
C. P. R. Telegraph operate along the lines of the Canadian Pacific Ry. The Canadian Nortben 
Express Co. and the Canadian Northern Telegraph Co. along the lines of the Canadian Nortben 
Ry., and the Canadian Express Co. (Pres., Chas. M. Hays; Vice-Pres., James Bryoe), witii tJn 
Great North- Western Telegraph Co., operates along the lines of the G. T. Ry. This, the finM 
Express Co. in Canada, was founded as the British N. American Co. in 1854, and reorganiaec 
in 1865. 

GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC— The main line, Moncton, N. B., to Prince Rupert, B. C. 
with 3,560 miles, will be entirely on Canadian soU, forming a link on the proposed All-Rec 
Route. The line between Winnipeg and Edson, 923 miles, also between Westfort and Laki 
Superior Junction, 189 miles, is completed. The section between Winnipeg and Lake Supeiioi 
Junction is also nearing completion. This will give a continuous track from Port Arthur an( 
Ft. William to Edson, 1,370 miles. Construction easterly from Prince Rupert was begun earij 
in 1908, and steel has been laid on 100 miles of completed grade, and will be laid a distance o 
140 miles more before the close of 1911. Commercial telegraph service of G. T. P. Tel. Co 
now in operation between Winnipeg and Edmonton, Alta., 792 miles. Branch lines contem 
plated aggregate 5.000 miles. The G. T. P. will operate Atlantic, Pacific and Lake fleets o! 
steamers. A new daily passenger service was inaugurated between Winnipeg and Edmonton 
in July, 1910, with standard sleeping cars, parlor-library, caf6 car, and modern day coaches. 

HUDSON BAY ROUTE. — From varied expert opinions, optimistic and the levcrsc, tj 
may be fairly concluded that the route is open for navigation from about 15th July to aboui 
15th October. The Canadian Northern Railway have built a line from Winnipeg to The Pai 
on the Saskatchewan River. From there to Fort Churchill the distance is 465 miles; to Pofi 
Nelson. 397 miles. This route will effect an average shortening of the distance from the Weeten 
wheat fields to the Atlantic seaboard of 970 miles. The distance to Liverpool from Churehil 
is 2.946 miles, from Montreal via Belle Isle 2,761, and via Cape Race, 2,927 miles, from Ne« 
York 3.079 miles. The freight upon grain from the wheat belt to Hudson Bay would approxi 
mate 10 cents a bushel, a saving of 15 cents on carriage to the Atlantic seaboard, or $3,000,001 
annually on an export trade of 20 million bushels via this route. On cattle shipments froin Csl 
gary there would be effected a saving in freight of 60 cents per 100 lbs., as well as « awfag ii 
deterioration. Thp entrance to the harbor at Fort Churchill is about 2,000 ft. wide, vith I 
minimum depth of 10 fathoms. More dredging would have to be done at Port NelMMl thai 
Ft. Churchill, but reports of the Hudson's Bay Co., 1824 to 1894, show that on 
Ft. Churchill harbor is open 5 months, and Port Nelson 7 months in the year. 

MILEAGE STEAM RAILWAYS IN OPERATION.— 16 miles in 1836, date of firsi 
railwav; 16 in 1846; 1.414 in 1856; 2.278 in 1866; 5,218 in 1876; 11.793 in 1886; 16,270ia I8M; 
21.353 in 1906; 22,452 in 1907; 22,966 in 1908; 24,104 in 1909; 24,731 in 1910; 25,400 iai 1911 

TRAFFIC STEAM RAILWAYS.— In 1875 there were carried 5,190.416 pasaencanaad 
5.670.837 tons of freight (2,000 Ib.-i.). In 1885, 9.672,599 and 14,659.271; in 1895, 13.9(17^ 
and 21,524.421; in UHW,, 27,989,782 and 57.900.713; in 1007. 32.137.319 and 63.866.ttt: ii 
1908. 34,044.992 and 63.071.167; in 1909, 32,088,309 and 66.842,258; in 1910, 35.895.575 piMen< 
gers and 74,482.866 tons of freight, and in 1911, 37,097.718 passengers and 79,884.282 tons ol 
freight. 



aCIEXTinC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




,'*'*>". 






CUMrAEilSdN SinnVING Tin: UVC.E, AMOUNT OF EXCAVATIOS 
Fiilt CoMI'I.KTKD PANAMA CANAL. 



CHAPTER VIII 



THE PANAMA CANAL. 

ComjnUd by Vie Secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commisnion. 



The emtire length of the Panama Canal 
fnxa deep water in the Atlantic to deep water 
k the Pacific is about 50 miles. Its lensth 
fcixu shone-Iine to ahore-line is about 40 miles. 
In paasnig throufi^ it from the Atlantic to 
the Paci/ic. a vessel will enter the approach 
dannel in limon Bay. which will have a 
liottim width of 500 feet and extend to Gatun, 
m di^tuice of about seven miles. ^ At Gatun, 
it viU enter a series of three I'lcks in flight and 
be lifted 85 feet to the level of Gatun Lake. 
It may steam at full speed through this lake, 
■I a channel varying irom 1,000 to 500 feet 

■ width, for a distance of about 24 miles, to 
Ba< Obispo, where it will enter the Culebra 
Cut. It wiU pass through the Cut, a dist«ince 
flf lUxnit nine miles, in a channel with a bottom 
Tidth of 300 feet, to Pedro Miguel. There it 
viD enter a lock and bo lowered 30^ feet to a 
■nail lake, at an elevation of 54 ^ feet above 
■» level, and will pass through this for about 
14 miles to Miraflores. There it will enter 
two kKks in series and be lowered to sea 
lensL, passing out mto the Pacific through a 
^^anael about SH miles in length, with a 
bottom width of 500 feet. The depth of the 
tR>n>aeh chaxmel on the Atlantic side, where 
tae inwx?mu"ri tidal oscillation is 2^^ feet, 
'■in be 41 feet at mean tide, and on the 
f^ii&c side, where the maximum oscillation 

■ 21 feet, the depth will be 45 feet at mean 
tide. 

Throuf^ut the first 16 miles from Gatun, 
tbeiridth of the Lake channel will be 1,000 feet; 
ibm for 4 miles it will be 800 feet, and for 4 
nules more to the northern entrance of 
Oilbra Cut at Baa Obispo, it will be 500 feet. 
The depth will varv from 85 to 45 feet. The 
■Iter level in the Cut will be that of the Lake, 
the depth 45 feet, and the bottom width of the 
<!bnnel 300 feet. 

Tbnse hundmi feet is the minimum bottom 
vidth of the Canal. This width begins about 
half a mile above Pedro Miguel locks and cx- 
teods about 8 miles through Culebra Cut, with 
the exception that at all angles the channel 
i-i widened sufficiently to allow a thousand- 
foot vessel to make the turn. The Cut has 
cii^t angles, or about one to every mile. 
The 300-foot widths arc only on tangents 
between the turning basins at the angles. 
The smallest of these angles is 7° 36' and the 
Ui«e5t30*. 

In the whole Canal there are 22 angles, the 
tital curvature being 600* 51'. Of this 
nuratuie. 281** lO' are measured to the right, 
me south, and 319^ 4V to the left. The 
Mtaipest curve occurs at Tabemilla, and is 



OATUN DAM. 

The Gatun Dam, which will form Gatun 
Lake by impounding the waters of the Chagres 
and its tributaries, will be nearly 1 ^ miles 
long, measured on its crest, nearly H mile 
wide at its base, about 400 feet wide at the 
water surface, about 100 feet wide at the top, 
and its crest as plann<Kl, will be at an elevation 
of 115 feet above mean sea level, or 30 feet 
above the nonnal level of the Lake. Of the 
total length of the Dam only 500 feet, or Vist 
will be exposed to the maximum water head 
of 85 feet. The interior of the Dam will be 
formed of a natural mixture of sand and clay, 
dredged by hydraulic process from pits above 
and below the Dam, and placed between two 
large masses of rock and miscellaneous 
material obtained from steam shovel ex- 
cavation at various points along the Canal. 
The top and upstream slope will bo thoroughly 
riprappcd. The entire Dam will contain 
about 21,000,000 cubic yards of material. 

The Spillway is a concrete Uncd opening, 
1,200 feet long and 300 feet wide, cut through 
a hill of rock nearly in the center of the Dam, 
the bottom of the opening being 10 feet above 
sea level. It will contain about 225,000 
cubic yards of concrete. During the con- 
struction of the Dam, all the water discharged 
from the Chagres and its tributaries flowed 
through this opening. Construction has now 
advanced sufficiently to permit the Lake to 
be formed, and the Spillway has been close<l 
with a concrete dam, which is beinjj^ fitted 
with gates and machinery for regulating the 
water level of the Lake. 

WATER SUPPLY OF QATUN LAKE. 

Gatun Lake will impouad the waters of a 
basin comprising 1,320 sq^uaro miles. When 
the surface of the water is at 85 feet above 
sea level, the Lake will have an area of about 
164 square miles, and will contain about 206 
billion cubic feet of water. During eight or 
nine months of the year, the lake will be kept 
constantly full by the pn»vaiUng rain.s, and 
consequently a surplus will neo<l to be .stored 
for only three or four months of the dry 
season. The smallest run-off of water in the 
basin, during the pa-st 21 years, as mttnsured 
at Gatun, was about 146 billion cubic feet. 
In 1910 the run-off wa,s 300 billion cubic feet, 
or a sufficient quantity to fill the lake one and 
a half times. The water surface of the Lake 
will be maint^nined during the rainy season at 
87 feet above soa level, making the minimum 
channel depth in the (^anal 47 feet. As 
navigation can he carried on with about 41 
feet of water, there will be stored for dry 



265 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



im 



M 



U 



i 



pi 
r I 






iipsll! 



ieSBIH i ! iSMSS 



, Jill 

I _ jaalll 

, sumliM 

iiiMiaiiiUi 



SClBNTtPIC AMERICAN RErERBNCB BOOK. 



BDtiie Cual. the UUl weishinc 61 



600 »nd 400 (ett long, respMtJvel;^. Ninety- 

geu are k« than 600 fnt lone. In tlie oon- 
Blniction of the loelu. which are now pmc- 
(Jcally completed, it ii estimated that there 
has becD used approxiniately 4.200.000 cubic 
yards of concrete, requiiing about the lame 

into and throu^ the loclu. and to operate 
all galea and valves, power being generated 
by water turbmee from the head created by 
Gatun Lake. Vwelg will not be permitted 
to eotet or paoa throu^ the locka under [heir 
own power, but will be lowed thniugh by 
•leotrle locomotivea runoinc od oog-raili laid 

__ .L. ^ the lock walla. There will be 

- ' ' ■ "[htonocks, one 

liddle wall. Od 



if iDonnotivee used will v 



WOKDfG THROTTGH ONE OF THE 
», GATUN LOCK3 

"uih. HO [eel; lenKtfa of one chamber. 
lOOOlast. 



LOCK GATES AT aATUM LOCKS. 



268 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the fdse of the vessel. The usual number re- 
quired will be four; two ahead, one on each 
wall, imparting motion to the vessel, and two 
astern, one on each wall, to aid in kfKpinjK 
the vessel in a central position and to bring it 
to rest when entirely within the lock chamber. 
They will be equip|)ed with a slip drum, towing 
windlass and nawser which will permit the 
towins line to be taken in or paid out without 
actual motion of the locomotive on the track. 

The locks will be filled and emptied through 
a system of culverts. One culvert 254 so. ft. 
in area of cross section, about the area of the 
Hudson River tunnels of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, extends the entire length of each of 
the middle and side walls and from each of 
these large culverts there are several smaller 
culverts, 33 to 44 sq. ft. in area, which extend 
under the floor of the lock and communicate 
with the lock chamber through holes in the 
floor. The large culverts are controlled at 
points near the miter gates by large valves 
and each of the small culverts extending from 
the middle wall culvert into the twin chambers 
is controlled by a cjrlindrical valve. The large 
culvert in the middle wall feeds in boui 
directions through laterals, thus permitting 
the passage of water from one twm lock to 
another, effecting a saving of water. 

To fill a lock the valves at the upper end are 
opened and the lower valves closed. The 
water flows from the upper pool through the 
laivc culverts into the small lateral culverts 
and thence through the holes in the floor into 
the lock chamber. To empty a lock the 
valves at the upper end are closed and those 
at the lower end are opened and the water 
flows into the lower lock or pool in a similar 
manner. This system distributes the water 
as evenly as possible over the entire horizontal 
area of the Lock and reduces the disturbance 
in the chamber when it is being filled or 
emptied. 

The depth of water over the miter sills of 
the locks will be 40 feet in salt water and 4 1 >i 
feet in fresh water. 

The average time of filling and emptying a 

By French Companies 

French excavation useful to present Canal. . . . 
By American-s — 

Dry excavation 

Dredges 



lock will be about fifteen minutes, withoi 
opening the valves so suddenly as to cret 
disturbing currents in the locks or approadM 
The time required to pass a vesasel throu^i 
the locks is estimatea at 3 hours; one Ml 
and a half in the three locks at Gatun, ■ 
about the same time in the three locks tm I 
Pacific side. The time of paasasc of a wi 
through the entire Canal is estimated j 
ranging from 10 to 12 hours, according to f 
size of the ship, and the rate of speed at irili 
it can travel. 

EXCAVATION. 

The total excavation, dry and wet. for € 
Canal, as originally planned, was estimatj 
at 103,795,000 cubic yards, in addition to H 
excavation by the French compaoii 
Changes in the plan of the Canal, maoe wi 
sequently by order of the President, incmi| 
the amount to 174,666.594 cubic >'arda. i 
this amount, 89,794.493 cubic yards wer»; 
be taken from the Central Division, wfaii 
includes the Culebra Cut. In July, 19! 
a further increase of 7,871,172 cubic ysr 
was made, of which 7,330,525 cubic yan 
were to allow for slides in Culebra Cut, fn 
silting in the Chagres section, and for lowerii 
the bottom of the Canal from 40 to 39 fc* 
above sea level in the Chagres section. The 
additions increased the estimated total e: 
cavation to 182,537,766 cubic yards. In 191 
a further increase of 12,785,613 cubic yan 
was made, of which 5,257.281 cubic yan 
were for slides in Culebra Cut, and the r 
mainder for additional excavation and cdltii 
in the Atlantic and Pacific entrances, raisin 
the grand total of estimated excavation I 
195,323,379 cubic yards. In 1912 a stj 
further increase of 17,180,621 cubic vards wi 
made, of which 3,450.000 cubic yards was f( 
slides in Culebra Cut and the remainder f< 
dredging excavation at Gatun locks, siltio 
in the Atlantic entrance, and for the Balbo 
terminals, bringing the grand total of est 
mated excavation to 212.504,000 cubic yardi 
Records of all excavation to May 1, 1911, si 
api>ended: ^-', 

'...".. 78.146.96 

29.908.00 



116.428.685 
50,976,485 



May 4 to December 31, 1904 

Januaiy 1 to December 31, 1905. 
January 1 to December 31, 1900. 
January 1 to December 31, 1907. 
January 1 to December 31, 1908. 
January 1 to Doccml^er 31, 1909. 
January 1 to December 31, 1910. 
January 1 to December 31, 1911. 
January 1 to December 31, 1912 



243.472 

1,799,227 

4.948.497 

15,765,290 

37.116,735 

35.006,166 

31.437,677 

31.603.899 

.30.269,349 



188,28031 



SLIDES AND BREAKS 

There have been in all 20 slides and breaks 
in Culebra Cut; 17 covered areas varying 
from 1 to 75 acres and 9 covered areas of less 
tiian 1 acre each, niakinK in all a total of 
225 acres. One varietv oi .slide is caused by 
the Klii)piaK of the top layer of clay and earth 
on a smooth sloping surface of a harder 
material. The large.st slide of this character 
in that known as Cucaracha on the east bank 
of the (^anal just south of Gold Hill. This 
Rave the French company trouble during the 
final years of its o[)cration. It first gave the 
Americans trouble in 1905, and between that 



date and July 1, 1912, nearly 3.000,000 cubi 
yards of material were removed from til 
Canal because of it. It broke nearly 1.90 
feet back from the axis of the Canal an 
covers an area of 47 acres. Another variet; 
of slide, properly called break, is due to th 
steepness of the slopes and the great preasur 
of the superincumbent material upon tli 
underlying layers of softer material. Th 
largest slide or break of this kind is on ih 
west side of the cut at Culebra just north o 
Contractor's Hill, and covers an area of 7i 
acres. Over 7.000,000 cubic yards of matcris 
have been removed from this slide, and it i 



the right, t 

the Canal 






bnmufle of the Blidea will aesreEAUi betwp 
tl .000.000 uid 22.000,000 cubic yards. 



tboTel. ohkli 

of >i nf K cub 

Eu-h cut>i< 



TTiree clMnea nt caiK ire itwil in hnulini 
spoil — flat earn with one high side, which ar 
imbxtded by pbwa opera t«<i by a coblr upon i 



The cnpacity of tho 
■ -^Bt at the lane 

ncl Uint of the 



Bat CU3 ^^l' 

Bnull dump eaT3. 10 culiic ynrds. „. 

haoUoc from the cut at Peilro Miguel, sod < 
3i eaiB in haulins from the cut at Matachi 
The Lir^ dump train la composed of 27 
and the Hnall li 

nmoT the 



the nil." ii 
lio); ol a 



737.88 

sessioos. 

Tbe avetaae 



is S10.7 ton* (bBHKl on a 20 



unloading i 



day. 3:!3 loaded 



cars are operated by con' 
furnished by the air pump 
while the email dump cai 

The record day'n work fc 



yards of ra 

Central Div 
51 eteam sh 

of nK4S4 
During Ibii 

Brenkwnl 
AClllo 
That 

lilTt-Ynd 
11.700 feel 

heidit nhd' 



e operated by 

e aUim abovel 



daily record in I 
>a March II. ISIl. wli 
2 cranes equipped w 



d from the 



^ and Pncilic eol 



s ol Ihe Canal, 
>t on angle of 42 



lO.SOO fc<'t in length,, or 

e lop of 6f1oeD feet and a 
nen level of ten feet. The 
»m will depend Inrvely oh 

-';.rr,4E: 

quarried on Ihe 
roro Point, armored with hard 
n Bclln. Work began on the 



K'p 



270 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



making the north entrance to the CanBl, from 
the violent northern that are likely to prevail 
from October to January, and to reduce to a 
minimum the amount of silt that may be 
washed into the dredged channel. 

The breakwater at the Pacific entrance will 
extend from Balboa to Naos Island, a distance 
of about 17,000 feet, or a little more than 
three miles. It will lie from 000 to 2,700 
feet east of and for the greater part of the 
distance nearly parallel to the axis of the 
Canal prism; wiU vary from 20 to 40 feet in 
httght above mean sea level, and will be from 
50 to 3.000 feet wide at the top. It is 
estimated that it will contain about 18,000.000 
cubic yards of earth and rock, aJl of which 
will be brought from Culebra Cut. It is con- 
structed for a two-fold purpose; first, to divert 
cross currents that would carry soft material 
from the shallow harbor of Panama into the 
Canal channel; second, to insure a more 
quiet harbor at Balboa. Work was benin 
on it in Mav, 1008, and on November 6. 1012, 
the last piles were driven connecting Naos 
Island with the mainland. On the same date 
about one-half mile of trestle remained to be 
fiUed. 

CANAL FORCE, QUARTBR8 AND SUPPLIES. 

The Canal force is recruited and housed by 
the Quartermaster's Deoartment which has 
two general branchest labor and quarters, 
and mat«iial and supplies. Through the 
labor and quarters branch there have been 
brought to the Isthmus 44304 laborers, of 
whom 11,707 came from Europe, 10,448 from 
Barbados, the balance from other islands in 
the West Indies and from Colombia. No 
recruiting is required at present, the supply 
of labor on the Isthmus being ample. 

On December 1, 1012, the total force of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama 
Railroad (>>mpany, actually at woric, was 
divided as follows: 



Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission 

Panama Railroad Com- 
pany 

Panama Railroad Com- 
missary 



Totals. 



Gold 



4.475 
630 
257 



5.362 



SUver 



26,100 

4,256 

023 



Total 



30.504 
4,886 
1.180 



31.208 36,660 



In addition to the above there were in the 
employ of contractors on the Isthmus, 454 
gold and 3.045 silver employees, a total of 
3,400. 

The gold force is made up of the officials, 
clerical force, construction men, and skilled 
artisans of the Isthmian Canal Commission 
and the Panama Railroad Company. Prac- 
tically all of them are Americans. The 
silver force represents the unskilled laborers of 
the Comjnission and the Panama Railroad 
Company. Of these, about 4,500 are 
Europeans, mainly Spaniards, with a few 
Italians and other races. The remainder, 
about 25,000, are West Indians, about 5,000 
of whom are employed as artisans receiving 
16, 20, and 25 cents, and a small number, 32 
and 44 cents, an hour, and 7,000 on a monthly 
basis. The standard rate of the West Indian 
laborer is 10 cents an hour, but a few of these 
doing work of an exceptional character arc 



valued approximately at $4.j 
$12,000,000 worth of supplie 



ith 
are 1 

od, \ 
ion \ 



Said 16 and 20 cents. The larger part of tl 
paniards are paid 20 cents an hour, and 
rest 16 cents an hour. 

The material and supply branch carries 
ci^t general storehouses a stock of sup;' 
for the Conrniission and Panama Raili 

.500.000. Al 
ies are purcl 
annually, requiring the disehai^ge of 
steamer erch day. 

FOOD. CLOTRINO AND OTREB NBCBSBASIES. 

The Canal and Panama Railroad forces a 
supplied with food, clothing and other n 
saries through the Subsistence Department, 
which is divided into two branches— Com-^ 
missary and Hotel. It does a business of 
about seven million five hundred thousand 
dollars per annum. The business done by 
the Commissaiy Departmoit amounts to 
about S6,000,000 per annum, and that done by 
the hotel branch to about $1,500,000 per 
annum. 

The Commissary fystem consists of 22 
general stores in as many Canal Zone viUages 
and camps along the relocated line of the 
Panama Railroad. It is estimated that with 
emplo3reee and their dependents, there 
about 65,000 people supplied daily with food, 
clothing, and other necessaries. In addition 
to the retail stores, the following plants are 
operated at Cristobal: cold storage, ice 
making, bakery, cofifee roasting, ice eream, 
laundry and packing department. 

A supply train of 21 care leaves Cristobal 
every morning at 4 a. m. It is oompoeed of 
refrigerator care containing ice, meats and 
other perishable articles, and ten containing 
other supplies. These are delivered at (he 
stations along the line and distributed to the 
houses of employees by the Quartenoaaster's 
Department. 

The hotel branch maintains the Hotel 
Tivoli at Anoon, and also 18 hotels along the 
line for white gold employees at which meals 
are served for thirty cents each. At these 
18 hotels there are served m<Mithly about 
200,000 meals. There ara seventeen messes 
for European laborere, who pay 40 cents per 
ration of three meals. There are served at 
these messes about 200,000 mealsper month. 
There are also operated for the West Indian 
laborere sixteen kitchens, at which they ore 
served a ration of three meab for 27 cents per 
ration. There are about 100.000 meals 
served monthly at these kitchens. The 
supplies for one month for the line hotels, 
messes and kitchens cost about $85,000; Isbor 
and other expenses about $16,500. The 
monthlv receipts, exclusive of the revenue 
from the Hotel Tivoli, amount to about 
$105,000. 

VALUE OF THE $40,000,000 FRENCH PURCHASE- 

Excavation, useful to the 

Canal, 20,708,000 cubic 

yards $25,380,240.00 

Panama Railroad Stock 0,644,320.00 

Plant and material, used and 

sold for scrap 2,112,063.00 

BuUdings, used. 2,054.203.00 

Surveys. pUins, maps and 

records 2.000,000.00 

Land 1,000.000.00 

Clearings, roads, etc 100,000.00 

Ship channel in Panama Bay, 

four yeara* use 500.00000 

Total $42,700,826.00 



272 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE CANAL ZONE. 

The Canal Zone contAins about 436 square 
miles. It begins at a point three marine 
miles from mean low water mark in each 
ocean, and extends for five miles on each side 
of the center line of the route of the Canal. 
It includes the group of islands in the Bay of 
Panama named Perico, Naos, Culebra, and 
Flamenco. The cities of Panama and Colon 
are excluded from the Zone, but the United 
States has the right to enforce sanitary 
ordinances in those cities, and to maintain 
public order in them in case the Republic of 
Panama should not be able, in the judgment 
of the United States, to do so. 

Of the 436 square miles of Zone territory, 
the United States owns about 363, and 73 are 
held in private ownership. Under the treaty 
with Panama, the United States has the right 
to acquire by purchase, or by the exercise of 
the right of enunent domain, any lands, build- 
ings, water rights, or other properties neces- 
sary and convenient for the construction, 
mamtenance, operation, sanitation, and pro- 
tection of the Canal, and it can, therefore.at anv 
time acquire the lands within the Zone bound- 
aries which are owned by private persons. 

RELOCATED PANAMA BAILBOAD. 

The new, or relocated line of the Panama 
Railroad is 47.1 miles long, or 739 feet longer 
than the old hne. From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 
miles, and^ from Corosal to Panama, 2.83 
miles, the old location is used, but the re- 
maining 40 miles are new road. From Mindi 
to Gatun the railroad runs, in general, parallel 
to the Canal, and ascends from a few feet 
above tide water elevation to nearly 9-5 feet 
above. At Gatun the road leaves the vicinity 
of the Canal and turns east along Gatun Ridge 
to a point about 4H miles from the center 
Une of the Canal, where it turns southward 
again and crosses the low Gatun Valley to 
Monte Lirio, from w^hich point it skirts the 
east shore of Gatun Lake to the beginning 
of Culebra Cut, at Bas Obispo. In this sec- 
tion there are several large fills, occurring 
where the line crosses the Gatun Valley and 
near the north end of Culebra Cut, where the 
line was located so as to furnish waste dumps 
for the dirt from the Canal. Originally it was 
intended to carry the railroad through 
Culebra Cut on a 40-foot berm, 10 feet above 
the water level, but the numerous slides have 
made thL<) plan impracticable and a line is 
now being con.structed around the Cut, 
known locally as the (-lold Hill Line. Leaving 
the berm of the Canal at Bas Obispo, the Gold 
HiJl Line gradually works into the foot hills, 
reaching a distance from the center line of the 
Canal oi two miles opposite Culebra; thence 
it runs down the Pedro Miguel Valley to 
Paraino, where it is only 800 feet from the 
center line of the Canal. This section of the 
line is located on maximum grade of 1.25 
per cent, compenwutefl, and has a total length 
of 9^^ miles. The sharpest curve on the 
whole line is 7°. From the south end of 
Culobra Cut to Par.iLso, the railroad runs 
practically parallel with the Canal to Panama, 
with maximum grade of 0.45 per cent. Where 
the railroad crosses the Gatun River, a 
bascule .stcM»l bridge is to be erected, and a 
.steel girder bridge, ^4 mile lon^, with 200-foot 
through truss channel span, is in use acros-s 
the Chagres River at Gamboa. Small 
streams are crossed on reinforced concrete 



culverts. Near Miraflores, a tunnel 736 feel 
long has been built through a hill. Total 
cost of new line has been $8,866,392.02. 

THE EQUIPifENT FOR THE OONSTRUCTION OF 

THE CANAL. 

The Equipment consists of the latest and 
most efficient appliances, the quality of 
which has been demonstrated bv the re- 
markable totals of excavation wnich have 
b^>n recorded during the progress of the 
work. It includes 100 steam shovels, most of 
which are of from 70 to 105 tons wei^t and 
3 to 5 cubic yards bucket capacity; 161 
American locomotives of from 106 to 117 tons 
weight; 104 small French locomotives of 20 to 
30 tons; 42 narrow gauge and electric loco- 
motives: 553 drills; 4,572 cars; 79 spreaders, 
track-shifters, unloaders, etc., 20 dredges; 47 
cranes; 11 tugs; 72 barges, scows, etc. and 
24 launches. The Panama Railroad has 62 
locomotives; 57 coaches and 1,434 freight cars. 

CANAL STATISTICS 

Length from deep water to deep 

water (miles) 50 

Length from shore-line to shore- 
line (miles) 40 

Bottom width of channel, maxi- 
mum (feet) 1.000 

Bottom width of channel, mini- 
mum, 9 miles, Culebra Cut (ft.) 300 

Locks, in pairs 12 

Locks, usable length (feet) .... 1.000 

Locks, usable width (leet) 110 

Qatun Lake, area (square miles) 1 61 

Gatun Lake, channel depth (feet) 85 to 45 

Culebra Cut, channel depth (ft.) 45 

Excavation, Canal Proper, esti- 
mated total (cubic yards) 203,710,000 

Excavation, permanent struc- 
tures, estimated (cubic yards) 8.794,000 

Excavation, grand total, esti- 
mated (cubic yards) 212,504.000 

Excavation, due to slides and 
breaks, estimated (cubic 
yards), about 22,000,000 

Excavation accomplished Janu- 
ary 1, 1913 (cubic yards) 188,280,312 

Excavation, remaining. Canal 
Proper, January 1, 1913 (cubic 
yards) 23.426,713 

Excavation by the French. 

(cubic yards) 78,146.960 

Excavation by French, useful t4> 

present Canal (cubic yards) . . 29.908.000 

Excavation by French, esti- 
mated value to Canal S25..389.240 

Value of all French property. . . . $42,799,826 

Concrete, total estamated for 

Canal (cubic yards) 5,000,000 

Time of transit through com- 
pleted Canal (hours) 10 to 12 

Time of passage through locks 

(hours) 3 

Relocated Panama Railroad, 

total cost 18,866,392 

Relocated Panama Railroad, 

length (miles) 47. 1 

Canal Zone, area (square miles) 436 

Canal and Panama Railroad 

force actually at work (about) 36.000 

Canal and Panama Railroad 

force. Americans (about) 5,000 

Coat of Canal, estimated total . . $375,000,000 

Work begun by Americans May 4. 1904 

Date of completion Jan. 1, 1915 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





COALING STATIONS OF NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA. 



282 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



LAND LINES OF THE WORLD 

Below are given such particulars as we have been able to obtain of the land Use 
telegraphs throughout the world, corrected up to December, 1912: 



Countries. 



Brought forward. . 

'Holland 

Hungary 

Indo-European Per- 
sian Gulf System 
(Mekran Coast) . . 

Indo-European 
Teheran, Bushire 
and Central Lines 

Italy 

Jamaica 

Uapan 

Luxemburg 

Madagascar 

Malay States (Fed- 
erated) 

Mauritius 

Mexico 

Netherlands India. . 

New Caledonia 

New South Wales. . . 

New Zealand 

'Nicaragua 

Norway 

Peru 

Portugal . . . 

Portuguese Colonics. 

Queensland 

Koumania 

Russia 

Senegal : — 

S(^n6gal 

H. L. S6n6gal 
Niger 

Servia 

South Australia 

Spain 

Straits Settlements. 

Sudan 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Tasmania 

Tunis 

Turkey 

Uganda Protectorate 

Union of South 
Africa 

Uruguay 

Victoria: — 

Postal Dept 

Railway Dept . . . 

Western Australia.— 

Postal Dept 

Railway Dept ... 



Length of Lines in Miles. 



Aerial. 



Under- 
ground. 



775.484 

6,312 

15.825 



1.122 



1.605 

31.994 

992 

23,008 

455 

2,380 

1.632 

184 

22.771 

6.114 

632 

18.045 

13.343 

3.47 1> 

11.254 

8,666 

5.708 

2,055 

10.568 

4,517 

108,106 

1.357 

3.337 
4.349 
6.491 

21,738 

' 1,292* 

4,777 

5.976 

54,217 
2.137 
2,077 

27.560, 
859 

17.2X6 

4. 898 1 

4,044 

3.21S 

0.975 
2,51)8 



15.818 
301 

78 



37 

27 



5H 

25 

3 

165 



257 
12 H 



91 



79 

16 

162 

4 



3 

43 

70.010 



41 
272 

8 



11 



Total. 



Length of Conductors in Miles. 



10 
2 

35 



Total 1 .251 .359' 87,5 1 1 



791.2021 

6.613 

15.903 



1.122 



1,605 

32.031 

992 

23,035 

455 

2.380 

1,637 H 

209 

22.774 

6.269 

632 

18.302 

13355 V^ 

3.471' 

11.345 

8.666 

6.708 

2.055 

10.647 

4.533 

108.268 

1,361 

3,337 
4.352 
6.534 

21,808 
1.292 
4,777 
6,017 

64,489 
2,145 
2,082 

27.560 
859 

17.227 
4.898 

4.054 
3.220 

7.010 
2.598 



Aerial. 



4,087.360 
67.608 
15.902 



2,195 



4.799 
193,208 



Under- 
ground. 



Total. 



1,923.606 
1.413 
1.593 



110,159 

715 

2,380 

5,135 

463 

50,344 

10,635 

966 

111,578 

77,242 



1.336 



1.723 



100 

3 

182 



26.549 
5.682 



64.876 
10.092 
12.564 
2.155 
23.525 
11.707 
385.612 

1.897 

4.023 

8,289 

23.169 

49.148 

1.292 

9,896 

19,397 

43.647 

4.320 

5.905 

46.876 

1.017 

62.531 
4,898 

11.810 
5.851 : 

16,498 
7,022, 



39.589 



174 

196 

1.087 



76 

18.716 

340 



768 

2.785 

1,271 

60 



646 



610 
108 

5,498 



6.990,966 
69.021 
17»496 



2.196 



4.799 
194.643 



Pneu- 
matic 
Tubes, 

(Yards) 



949.221 



111.822 2.507 

716, 

2.380' 



5.1361 

663* 

60,347 

10.817 

066 

138.127 

82.9241 



1268830] 5,578.6062.054.014 



104.406 
10.092 
12.664 
2.165 
23,699 
11.903 

386.699 

1.901 

4.023 

8.363 

41.885: 

49.4881 

1,292 

g.896i 

19.866 

16.332; 

6.691 1 

6.9661 

46,876 

1.017 



63.077 

4.898 

12,420 
6.969 

22.996 
7.022 



1.485 



44 



470 



661 



683 
3.967 

• • « • ■ 

23 



7.663.268, 959.061 



!>lnrluslye of 193 nautical miles of river cables and 604 miles of conductors. 
"Exclusive of 23,611 nautical miles of river cables and 46,321 miles of conductors. 
'Exclusive of 1 H miles of submarine cable. 
i«Including telephone lines. — From Electric Trades Directory, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



283 



TELEGRAPH RATES— NORTH AMERICA 



BETWEEN NEW YORK CITY AND PLACES IN tTNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. 

Day n>te 40-3, means 40 cents for ten words and 3 cents for each additional word; 
Si^t rate 30-2, means 30 cents for ten words and 2 cents for each additional word, etc. 
AddiBBB and signature are free. Western Union and Postal Rates are uniform. 







Rate. 


Places 


Rate. 


Places. 


Day. 


Night. 


Day. 


Night 


Amraka T 


60-4 

3.80-36 
2.60-23 
4.80-45 
4.30-10 
2.40-21 
2.90-26 
3.40-31 
1.00-7 

to 
1.25-8 
1.00-7 
60-4 

1.00-7 

3.25-24 

2.75-19 

1.00-7 

75-5 

25-2 

30-2 

30-2 
40-3 
60-4 
60-4 
1.00-7 
60-3 
50-3 
60-4 
60-4, 
50-3 
60-4 
36-2 
40-3 
to 

50-3 
75-5 

30-2 
35-2 
30-2 

to 
40-3 
26-2 

to 
30-2 

40-3 
60-3 

to 
60-4 


60-3 

3.80-35 
2.60-23 
4.80-45 
4.30-40 
2.40-21 
2.90-26 
3.40-31 

75-5 

to 
1.00-7 
1.00-7 

60-3 

1.00-7 

3.25-24 

2.75-19 

1.00-7 

60-4 

25-1 

25-1 

25-1 
30-2 
50-3 
60-3 
1.00-7 
40-3 
40-3 
50-3 
50-3 
40-3 
60-3 
26-1 

) 30-2 

5 to 

) 40-3 
60-4 

25-1 

25-1 

) 25-1 

V to 

J 30-2 

i 25-1 

30-2 
1 40-3 
i to 


Missouri: 

St. Louis 


50-3 
60-4 
75-5 
60-4 

1.00-7 
60-3 

1.10-9 
30-2 

to 
36-2 
25-2 
76-6 

20-1 
26-2 

to 
36-2 
60-3 
75-5 
50-3 
40-3 
76-6 

40-3 

60-4 

60-3 

to 

1.00-7 

1.00-7 

25-2 

to 
40-3 

76-5 
50-3 
30-2 

1.00-7 
to 

1.25-8 
60-4 
75-5 
60-3 
76-5 
75-5 
30-2 

to 
li5-2 
40-3 

to 
60-3 

1.00-7 
40-3 
60-3 
60-4 
75-5 

4.00-27 








40-3 


EasleCity 


All other places 


60-3 


Juneau 


Montana 


60-4 


Nome 


Nebraska 


60-3 


St. Michael 


Nevada 


1.00-7 


Ritka ... . ------ 


New Brunswick 


40-3 


Skaffway 


Newfoundland: St. John's. . 
New Haicpsbirb < 


1.00-9 


Valdes 


) 




i 


y 26-1 


Albista 


New Jersey 


26-1 


AaizoNA 


New Mexico 


60-4 


Arkanhah 


New York: 

New York City 




&UTOH CoLiUMBia: G 


rand 
Vest- 
Van- 


20-1 


Forks, Nelson, New ^i 
nunster. Rossland, 
oonver. Victoria 


All other places -< 

North Carolina 


- 25-1 


Atfin 


• ■ ■ ■ 


40-3 


Port Simpson 


North Dakota 


60-4 


C&iifounA 


Nova Scotia 


40-3 


t^LMUIW 


Ohio 


30-2 


OoKiwcncux. 


Oklahoma 


60-4 


DkL4WARE 


Ontario: 

Niasara Falls 




DmwcT OP Columbia: 




30-2 




Sault Ste. Marie 


50-3 


All other pla^^e" . . r . . . - - 


All other places s 

Oregon 


40-3 


PunuDA 


to 


Georgia 


75-5 


Iaaho 


1.00-7 


lUDfOIS 


Pennsylvania -j 

Prince Edward Island: 
Cliarlottetown 


1 26-1 
\ 30-2 




Iowa 






Kektuckt 


65-5 


Locuiana 


Quebec 


40-3 


Maixb: Portland 


I ,hode Island 


26-1 


Other olaces 




Saskatchewan " 

South Carolina 


75-5 
to 


Manitoba: Winnioeir. . . 


f 


1.00-7 
60-3 


Xaktland: Annapolis. 


Bal- 
Ha- 

• • ■ • 


South Dakota 


60-4 


timorip. Frederick. 


TlTNNIMSRB. . . . T . . - - , 


40-3 


Reratown 


Texas 


60-4 


Cumberland .... r - - 


Utah 


60-4 


An other nlaces . . . 


Vermont -< 

Virginia -j 

Washington 


V 25-1 


Micrioan: Detroit. M 


■i 

ount 


i 

i 30-2 

r to 

) 40-3 
1.00-7 


deAuvM. Port Huron 


West Virginia 


30-2 


AH other places. . . . 


.Wisconsin: Milwaukee 

All other places 


40-3 
60-3 


/ SO-.*?! 


i Wyoming 


60-4 


HoniEBOTA 


60-4 60-3 
60-4 fin-.*^ 


Yukon : 

Dawson City 




Miauasippi 


4. 00-27 













284 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NIGHT LETTERS AND DAY LETTERS. 
Table of Tolls for 1 to 200 Words. 







When Day 


When Day 


When Day 


When Di^ 






Message Rate is 


Message 


Rate is 


Message 


Rate is 


Message 


Rate is 






25 and 2 


30 and 2 


35 and 2 


40 and 3 


War 


ds 




















Night 


Day 


Night 


Day 


Night 


Day 


Night 


Day 






Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 






Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Hate is 


Rate is 


Rate 18 


1 to 


50 


10.25 


10.38 


10.30 


10.45 


SO. 35 


10.53 


10.40 


SO. 60 


51 « 


60 


.30 


.45 


.36 


.54 


.42 


.63 


.48 


.72 


61 « 


70 


.35 


.53 


.42 


.63 


.49 


.74 


.56 


.84 


71 « 


80 


.40 


.60 


.48 


.72 


.56 


.84 


.64 


.96 


81 « 


90 


.45 


.68 


.54 


.81 


.63 


.95 


.72 


1.08 


91 • 


100 


.50 


.75 


.60 


.90 


•70 


1.05 


.80 


1.20 


101 « 


110 


.55 


.83 


.66 


.99 


.77 


1.16 


.88 


1.32 


111 • 


120 


.60 


.90 


.72 


1.08 


.84 


1.26 


.96 


1.44 


121 - 


130 


.65 


.98 


.78 


1.17 


.91 


1.37 


1.04 


1.56 


131 « 


140 


.70 


1.05 


.84 


1.26 


.98 


1.47 


1.12 


1.68 


141 • 


150 


.75 


1.13 


.90 


1.35 


1.05 


1.58 


1.20 


1.80 


151 « 


160 


.80 


1.20 


.96 


1.44 


1.12 


1.68 


1.28 


1.92 


161 ' 


170 


.85 


1.28 


1.02 


1.53 


1.19 


1.79 


1.36 


2.04 


171 « 


180 


.90 


1.35 


1.08 


1.62 


1.26 


1.89 


1.44 


2.16 


181 « 


190 


.95 


1.43 


1.14 


1.71 


1.33 


2.00 


1.52 


2.28 


191 " 


200 


1.00 


1.50 


1.20 


1.80 


1.40 


2.10 


1.60 


2.40 







WTien Day 


When Day 


When Day 


When Day 






Message 


Rate IS 


Message 


Rate IS 


Message 


Rate is 


Message Rate is 






50 and 3 


60 and 4 


75 and 5 


100 and 7 


Wor 


ds 




















Night 


Day 


Night 


Day 


Night 


Day 


Night 


Day 






Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 


Letter 






Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


Rate is 


1 to 


50 


$0.50 


SO. 75 


$0.60 


SO. 90 


$0.75 


$1.13 


$1.00 


$1.50 


51 " 


60 


.60 


.90 


.72 


1.08 


.90 


1.35 


1.20 


1.80 


61 « 


70 


.70 


1.05 


.84 


1.26 


1.05 


1.58 


1.40 


2.10 


71 « 


80 


.80 


1.20 


.96 


1.44 


1.20 


1.80 


1.60 


2.40 


81 * 


90 


.90 


1.35 


1.08 


1.62 


1.35 


2.03 


1.80 


2.70 


91 « 


100 


1.00 


1.50 


1.20 


1.80 


1.50 


2.25 


2.00 


3.00 


101 « 


110 


1.10 


1.65 


1.32 


1.98 


1.65 


2.48 


2.20 


3.30 


111 " 


120 


1.20 


1.80 


1.44 


2.16 


1.80 


2.70 


2.40 


3.60 


121 « 


130 


1.30 


1.95 


1.56 


2.34 


1.95 


2.93 


2.60 


3.90 


131 « 


140 


1.40 


2.10 


1.68 


2.52 


2.10 


3.15 


2.80 


4.20 


141 « 


150 


1.50 


2.25 


1.80 


2.70 


2.25 


3.38 


3.00 


4.50 


151 « 


160 


1.60 


2.40 


1.92 


2.88 


2.40 


3.60 


3.20 


4.dO 


161 • 


170 


1.70 


2.55 


2.04 


3.06 


2.55 


3.83 


3.40 


5.10 


171 « 


180 


1.80 


2.70 


2.16 


3.24 


2.70 


4.05 


3.60 


5.40 


181 " 


190 


1.90 


2.85 


2.28 


3.42 


2.85 


4.28 


3.80 


6.70 


191 *' 


200 


2.00 


3.00 


2.40 


3.60 


3.00 


4.50 


4.00 


6.00 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



285 



NiOHT Messaqbs. 

Niglit meaa^ee are accepted at the follow- 
ing rates. 

NIGHT MESSAGE RATES. 

Where the The Ni«ht 
Day Rate ia Rate is 

20—1 20—1 

25—2 25—1 

30—2 25—1 

35—2 • 25—1 

40—3 30—2 

50—3 40—3 

60—4 60—3 

65—4 60—3 

75—5 60—3 

75—5 60 — 4 

75—5 75—5 

85—6 60—4 

85—6 85—6 

90—6 60—4 

1.00—7 75—5 

l.OO— 7 1.00—7 

1.15—8 1.00—7 

1.25—8 1.00—7 

1.25—8 1.26—8 

NioHT Letters or "Lettergrams." 

Both of the large telegraph companies have 
ioangurated the night service which has been 
higbfy useful to the public, and which serves 
to utilise lines at night which would otherwise 
be idle. 

Night letters may be accepted for all offices 
in the United States and Canada, and also 
including many telephone points. 

The charge for mght letters of fifty words 
or less will be the regular da^ rate for ten 
words, and one-fifth (Vfc) of this rate will be 
charged for each additional ten words or less. 

Nt^t letters must be written in plain 
En^h. Code or cipher is not permitted. 
Nigi^t letters should be written on special 
unit letter blanks. Night letters will be 
debvered as early as convenient the next 
morning. 

The instructions that night letters must be 
written in "plain English language" do not 
diaqualify words of an artificial character 
representing trade names or terms, trade 
designations of cotton shipments, brands or 
naiMS of flour, and other manufactured pro- 
aocts. Trade names and trade designations 
are accepted without question, provided they 
are uaed in their natural aense, and nre not 
oaed to convey a hidd^ meaning as code or 
m>her words do. For example, the expression 
"Uneeda" is the name of a product of a 
bbenit company . • " XXX " is used to express 
• certain brand or grade of flour. "FHC." 
"AFC." "HLPH," represent cotton shippers' 
brandi. 

Day Letters. 

The day letter service, offered only by the 
Western Union Telegraph Co., is similar in all 
respects to the night letter service exce|. t that 
(kJivery ie made the same day, subject only 
to such delay as is involved in the subordina- 
tion of the message to full paid traffic, and 
the tariff for fifty words or less is one and one 
half times the regular day rate for ten wordit. 

The combined telegraph and telephone 
service ia pro^-ing very useful. The plan in 



to allow those telephone subsoribers «hose 
local telegraph ofiace ia closed for the 
night to call up "Central" and be placed in 
communication with the nearest open tele- 
graph office. If the service of the Western 
Umon Co. is desired it is only necessary to 
say " Western Union." The Poetol Telegraph 
Co. must be asked for by name also. This 
arrangement makes every telephone sub- 
scribers' station an always open telegraph 
office. 

Money by Telegraph. 

All telegraph companies accept orders, both 
domestic ana foreign, for immediate transfer 
of money by telegraph and cable. It is some- 
times imperative to obtain large or small sums 
at the shortest possible moment, certainly 
within twenty-four hours. Formerly this 
branch of the business was in the hands of 
bankers, but now the cable companies and 
telegraph companies are able to pay money 
in places all over the world. The organisa- 
tion of telegraph and cable companies is a 
most complicated one, and there are many 
factors which control the rates. 

Reduced charges for the transfer of money 
by telegraph to offices in the United States 
are as follows: 

First: For $25.00 or less 25o 

25.01 up to S60.00 35c 

60.01 '• •• 75.00 60o 

75.01 " "100.00 86c 

For amounts above SIOO.OO add (to the 
$100.00 rate) 26o per hundred (or any part of 
$100.00) up to $3,000.00. For amounts 
above $3,000.00 add (to the $3,000.00 rate) 
20c per hundred (or any part of $100.00.) 

Second: To the above charges are to be 
added the tolls for a fifteen-word day message 
from the office of deposit to the office of pay- 
ment. 

Miscellaneous Service. 

Persons who wish to be notified, of the ar- 
rival of steamers can make arrangements with 
the two telegraph companies to notify them 
of the arrival. The companies maintain 
signal stations at Fire Island, The Highlands, 
and Sandy Hook ; also at (Quarantine, for the 
purpose of reporting and sighting the arrival 
of steamers from foreign ports. To those who 
live in New York, or in nearby towns and 
cities, the notice will be received in ample 
time to reach the dock by the time the steamer 
warps in. The service for New York, New 
Jersey and Hoboken is $1.00. Parties in 
other places who are interested in incoming 
steamers can be notified by paving this fee of 
$1.00, plus the usual telegraph tolls for the 
ordinary ten- word message. For places not 
adjacent to New York, the notice conveys the 
intelligence of the near approach of home-com- 
ing steamers. 



A cable between Syracuse and Tripoli was 
completed in July, 1912. It has a total 
length of 280 nautical miles, and is composed 
of five sections of different diameter't. Tha 
middle portion measures 10 mm., the two 
intermecliHte lengths 28 mm., and those 
adjacent to the coast 35 mm. 



286 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TOLLS ON BiESSAGES OF FROM 10 TO 50 WORDS." 



Ko. of 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Words. 


20-1 


25-1 


25-2 


30-2 


35-2 


40-3 


50-3 


60-4 


75-5 


100-7 


10 


20 


25 


25 


30 


35 


40 


50 


60 


75 


100 


11 


21 


26 


27 


32 


37 


43 • 


53 


64 


80 


107 


12 


22 


27 


29 


34 


39 


46 


56 


68 


85 


114 


13 


23 


28 


31 


36 


41 


49 


59 


72 


90 


121 


14 


24 


29 


33 


38 


43 


52 


62 


76 


95 


128 


15 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


55 


65 


80 


100 


135 


16 


26 


31 


37 


42 


47 


58 


68 


84 


105 


142 


17 


27 


32 


39 


44 


49 


61 


71 


88 


110 


149 


18 


28 


33 


41 


46 


51 


64 


74 


92 


115 


156 


19 


29 


34 


43 


48 


53 


67 


77 


96 


120 


163 


20 


30 


35 


45 


50 


55 


70 


80 


100 


125 


170 


21 


31 


36 


47 


52 


57 


73 


83 


104 


130 


177 


22 


32 


37 


49 


54 


59 


76 


86 


108 


135 


184 


23 


33 


38 


51 


56 


61 


79 


89 


112 


140 


191 


24 


34 


39 


53 


58 


63 


82 


92 


116 


145 


198 


25 


35 


40 


55 


60 


65 


85 


95 


120 


150 


205 


26 


36 


41 


57 


62 


67 


88 


98 


124 


155 


212 


27 


37 


42 


59 


64 


69 


91 


101 


128 


160 


219 


28 


38 


43 


§1 


66 


71 


94 


104 


132 


165 


226 


29 


39 


44 


d3 


68 


73 


97 


107 


136 


170 


233 


30 


40 


45 


65 


70 


75 


100 


110 


140 


175 


240 


31 


41 


46 


67 


72 


77 


103 


113 


144 


180 


247 


32 


42 


47 


69 


74 


79 


106 


116 


148 


185 


254 


33 


43 


48 


71 


76 


81 


109 


119 


152 


190 


261 


34 


44 


49 


73 


78 


83 


112 


122 


156 


195 


268 


35 


45 


50 


75 


80 


85 


115 


125 


160 


200 


275 


36 


46 


51 


77 


82 


87 


118 


128 


1G4 


205 


282 


37 


47 


52 


79 


84 


89 


121 


131 


168 


210 


289 


38 


48 


53 


81 


86 


91 


124 


134 


172 


215 


296 


39 


49 


54 


83 


88 


93 


127 


137 


176 


220 


303 


40 


60 


55 


85 


. 00 


95 


130 


140 


180 


225 


310 


41 


51 


56 


87 


92 


97 


133 


143 


184 


230 


317 


42 


52 


57 


89 


94 


9& 


136 


146 


188 


235 


324 


43 


53 


58 


91 


90 


101 


139 


149 


192 


240 


331 


44 


54 


59 


93 


98 


103 


142 


152 


196 


245 


338 


45 


55 


60 


95 


100 


105 


145 


155 


2d0 


250 


345 


46 


66 


61 


97 


102 


107 


148 


158 


204 


255 


352 


47 


57 


62 


99 


104 


109 


151 


161 


208 


260 


359 


48 


58 


63 


101 


106 


111 


154 


164 


212 


265 


366 


49 


59 


64 


103 


108 


113 


157 


167 


216 


270 


373 


50 


60 


65 


105 


no 


115 


160 


170 


220 


275 


380 



ENTIFIC AllBRtCAN REFEITENCE BOOK. 



n 



288 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUBMARINE CABLES. 

8UMMARY OF CABLES OWNED BY GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATIONa 



- 


Number 
of Cables 
with one 

or more 
cores. 


Length in Nautical >fileB. 


Country- 


Of Cables. 


Of 
Conducton 


ArKentlne ReDublic 


22 

83 

1 

4> 
30 
8 

157 
1 
51 
2 
3« 
1421 
49' 

16 


84.000 

681.300 

211.000 

100.900 

44.441 

23.000 

1.988.652 

0.538 

258.000 

66.000 

955.400 

640.779» 

2,596.070 

8,479.839 

1.078 

2.946.631 

2.720.160 

59.702 

241.543 

9,279.000 

1,431.708 

3,773.765 

357.698 

2,741.900 

73.996 

367.502 

1.376.579 

115.050 

53.510 

177.000 

892.300 

18.151 

54.000 

3.129.813 

196.496 

10.685 

4.500 

4.312 

460.844 

6.614 

8.954 

380.995 

13.550 


240.000 


Austria 


685.000 


Bahamas 


211.000 


Belgium 


462.216 


Brazil 


80.798 


British Guiana 


50.000 


British India, Indo-European Telegraph Depart- 
m<*nt Government Administration ....,,,,-- 


1.988.652 


Bulgaria (Widdin Cable) 


0.538 


Canada 


258.000 


Ceylon and India (Joint) 


66.000 


China 


055.400 


Denmark (Telegraphs and Teleohones) 


1.760.842 


France and Algeria 


2.680.244 


France (Principal International and French 
Colonial Cables) 


8.479.839 


(French) Dahomev and Deoendencies 


1.078 


Germany '. r , 


97 » 

220H 

13 

32 

6 

59 

120 

6 

17 

239 

35 

896' 

4 

22 


6.201.078 


Great Britain and Ireland 


8.408.809 


Greece 


68.818 


Holland 


780.449 


Inter-Colonial System 


9.279.000 


Italy 


1.585.961 




4.495.948 


Mexico 


434.681 




2.741.900 


New South Wales 


505.272 




373.219 


Norway 


2.293.316 




115.050 


C ueensiand 


56.930 


r loiona^ia ............ , , . , . 


189.000 


I >usiia in Europe, and the Caucasus 


21 
1 
3 
25 
26 
2 
4 


1.039.260 


Russia in Asia 


56.800 


South Australia 


54.000 


Spain 


3.129.813 


Sweden 


346.361 


Switzerland 


15.057 


Tasmania 


11.500 




4.312 


Turkey in Europe and Asia 


24 
2 
5 
3 
3 


479.637 


Union of South Africa 


14.501 


Uruguay 


8.954 




380.995 


Western Australia 


23.350 








2.457 « 


46.927.955 


61.088.598 



'Including half of cables owned jointly with other Administrations. 
Iceland, with 13 cables of 17 nautical miles and 28 miles of conductors, 
miles of subfluvial cable. 'Exclusive of several small river cables. 



'Ezdosive ol 
'Including 2fl 



In 1866 the Western Union Telegraph Co. 
had only 37,3S0 miles of line, and 75,680 
miles of wire. The same year they had only 
2,250 offices. The next year the number of 
offices had increased to 2.565. and 5,879,282 
messages were tran8mitt«d. For the year 
ending June 30, 1912, there were 235.807 



miles of line, 1,532,161.40 miiee of wire and 
25.392 offices. There were 84,901.657 mM- 
sages sent, not including those over leased 
wires or under railroad contracts. The re* 
ceipts amounted to 942,987,807.15 and tb« 
expenses were $36,063,836.10. The profits 
were $6,923,971.05. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



2S9 



SUMMARY OF CABLES OWNED BY PRIVATE COMPANIES. 



i 

\ '— 

rAfirican £>tr«ct Telemph Company 

I Amazoa T^egraph Company 

i JUiglo- American Telegraph Company 

[ OuacUan Pacific Railroad Company. 

: Caiuml and South American Telegraph Company 

i Oomiiierclal Cable Company 

: Commercial Padflc 

Ooauaercial Cable Company of Cuba 

GomiMsxile Francaiae des Cables T61figraphlque8 

Cuba Submarine Tel^aph Company 

Deatach Atlantische Telegraphen-Gesellschaft 

Detttseli>N'ioderlandischeTelegraphen>Ge8ellachaft , 

Deutscii Sudamerikanische Telegraphen-Gesellscbaft , 

Direct Spanish Telegraph Company , 

Direct United States Cable Company 

Direct West India Cable Company 

Eastern Telegraph Company 

Eastern Extension, Australasia and China Telegraph Company 

Eastern and South African Telegraph Company , 

Europe and Azores Telegraph Company , 

Great N'orthcm Telegraph Company 

lUIfax and Bermudas Cable Company 

Indo-Buropean Telegraph Company 

Telegraph Company 

tpUache Telegraphen-Gesellschaft 

RlTer Plate Telegraph Company 

Sontfa Ameri<;an Gable Company 

tJalted States and Hayti Telegraph and Cable Company 

West African Telegraph Company 

West CkNust of America Telegraph Company 

West India and Panama Telegraph Company 

Western Telegraph Company^ 

Western Union Telegraph Company 

Total 



Number 
of Cables 


Length 
of Cables 


with one 


in 


or more 


Nautical 


cores. 


MUes. 


9 


3.026 


19 


1.304 


18 


9,548 


10 


102)^ 


21 


11.793 


15 


17.274 


6 


10.010 


1 


1.285 


24 


11.430 


12 


,1.540 


5 


9.661 


3 


3.416 


3 


5.811 


3 


710 


3 


3.171 


2 


1.276 


137 


43.012 


31 


24.783 


18 


10.517 


2 


1.057 


29 


8,039 


1 


851 


3 


21 


3 ' 


2.188 


1 


185 


4 


220 


5 


3.916 


1 


1.415 


8 


1,471 


7 


1.973 


22 


4,355 


45 


23.837 


9 


10,796 


480 


230.053 yi 



A new Western Union cable, 4.200 milea long, was laid in 1911, and is not included 
iaabore. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 



GoTemment Administrations 

Private Companies 

Total 



Number 
of Cables 
with one 

or more 
cores. 



2.457 \i 
480 



2.937 >^ 



Length 
of Cables 

in 
Nautical 

Miles. 



61.083 >i^ 
230,053 >^ 



291,137 



Partly extracted from the Official Documents issued by the Internationa Bureau of 
Teiegra^ie Administrations, Berne. — Electrical Trades Directory. 



This tabic and that showing "Land Lines of tho World" are the best obtainable, but 
are not believed to be free from error. 



290 SCrENTlPIC AMEllICAN REPBRENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



291 



RULES FOR CABLE MESSAGES. 



1« Eveiy messaJEe must be prepaid, un- 

otherwwe speoally authorised, and all 

is in the addreaB, text and signature are 

Ated and charged for. No charge is made 

the, transnuasion of the name of the 

iting OifBee. 

ADDRESSES. 

Li the address of any message, the name 

ae offioe of destination, ^e name of the 

itry and the name of the territorial sub- 

n are eaeh counted as one word, no 

. how many lettera are employed. 
.. TIbie address of eveiy message must con- 
of at least two words, the first indicating 

ame of the receiver and the second the 

of the office of destination. 
. The sender is responsible for an incor- 

or insufficient address. Corrections and 

itions can only be made by a paid service 

o message can be accepted (except at 

s Risk '^ when addressed to the care 

a Rgistered address unless the words " care " 

"eare of," or their equivalent, be placed 

the addressee's name, or destination, 

the regietered address; thus a message 

Meyer, Berlin," to be delivered to the 

— * address ** Dervish, Berlin," should 

"Meyer, care (or 'care of) 

Berlin." 

an indication of any particular route 
II by the sender and considered 
by the companjr, it will be for- 
- free; such indication, when given, 
be transmitted immediately after the 
that is, as a part of the address, and 
n the text of the message. 
MesBagee destined for places beyond 
jaes of telegraph must contain in- 
nietions as U> the name of the place from 
U^ they are to be posted. Such instruc- 
■Bs must be inserted as a part of the address, 
■d must be peid for. 



t. 



PLAIN MESSAGES. 

8. Pfaun messafljee (t. «.. neither Code nor 

*^ier) may be written in any language that 

be expressed in Roman letters. In such 

■ges each word of fifteen letters or less 

fioimted as a "word, and words of over fifteen 

are counted at the rate of fifteen 

or fractions of fifteen letters to a word. 

CODE MESSAGES. 

Code messages may contain words 
to one or more of the following 
English, French, German^ Italian, 
nMi^ Portucuese, Spanish and Latin. The 

E of words of other languages is not allowed, 
e TncamiTn may also contain artificial 
wds — that IS, groups of letters so combined 
^jb be pronounceable in at least one of the 
admitted languages. In code messages 
code word (whether genuine or artificial) 
ten letters or less is counted as a word, and 
code word of more tlian ten letters can be 
ted. If any words in plain language, 
of more than ten letters each, are uiseu 
eode measages, they are counted at the 
fate of ten letters or fraction of ten letters 
^awQcd. 



CIPHER MESSAGES. 

10. In cipher messaj^es, which may be 
composed of groups of figures or of groups 
of lettera, the groups are counted at the rate 
of five figures or letters, or fraction thereof, to 
a word. 

COUNTING OF WORDS, ETC. 

11. Every isolated figure, letter or char- 
acter counts as one woroT 

12. Words joined by a hsrphen or separated 
by an apostrophe are counted as so many 
separate words. 

13. Signs of punctuation, hyphens and 
apostrophes are not counted or sent except 
upon formal demand of the sender, in which 
case theywill be charged for as one word each. 

14. When the letters "ch" come together 
in the spelling of a word, they are counted as 
one letter. In artificial words, however, the 
combination is counted as' two letters. 

15. Abbreviated and' -misspelled words 
and illegitimate compound words and words 
combing in a manner contrary to the usages 
of any of the languages authorued by Rule 0, 
also unpronounceable groups of letters (not 
trade-marks or marks of commeree), are in- 
admissible, but if they should accidentally 
appear in a message the unpronounceable 

{(roups will be coimted at the rate of five 
etters, or fraction of five letters, as one word, 
and the otherB(.in accordance wiUi the number 
of words they actually contain. 

16. Inverted commas, the two signs of the 
parenthesis and each separate figure, letter 
or underline will be counted as one word. 
Groups of figures will be counted and charged 
for at the rate of five figures, or fraction 
thereof, as one word. 

17. Decimal points and commas, used in 
the formation of numbers, also bare of 
division and lettere added to figures to form 
ordinal numbers, are to be counted as a figure, 
and charged for at the rate of five figures, or 
fraction thereof, as one word. 

18. The following examples will determine 
Uie interpretation ot the rules to be followed 
in counting: 

Alright 2 

Unconstitutional (16 letters) . . 2 

A-t-il 3 

Aujourdhul 1 

Aujourd'hui 2 

Newyork 1 

New York 2 1 

Frankfort Main 2 1 

Frankf urtmain 1 1 

Starokonstantinow (Town in 

Russia) 2 1 

Emmingen Wurtemberg 2 1 

Van de Brande 3 

Vandebrande 1 

Dubois 1 

Du Bois 2 

Hyde Park 2 

Ilydepark (contrary to usage of 

the language) 2 

(Continued on page 293.) 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




The eFDoral diy and night prm cabJc rate I 6 A. M. (Londoa tiniE), 5 iwuts 

between London and New York is 7 cents u York lo London. 12 midnight t. 

--'d. with Ihe following twiuclion nt certain IP U. (o 4 P. U. (Neir •■■--'- - 

ra; London to Hew York, 12 midnight to I a word- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



293 



k 



(Continued from page 201) 

itjames Street 2 

It James Street 3 

IH (4 fl|rareB and tign) 1 

4^ (5 flgnres and sign) 2 

2 

londred dollars 2 

fr 50 3 

30 3 

1 

'*.::::::::::::::::::::::: i . 

hundred and thirty four.. 5 

ihondredandthirtyfour (23 

letters) 2 

Lte of Maryland (name of 

ihlp> 3 

iteofmaryl&nd (name of ship) 1 

iTcfaf ( 6 letters) 2 

23 (trade mark) 1 

1 

1 

H. P. 45 2 

business Is urgent, start at once 
(7 words and 2 underlines) . . 9 
reply (If any) by mall (6 words 

ind parentheses) 7 

>ltin "reTersar* (2 words and 
tTerted commas 3 



REPETmONS. 

19. At the time of filing a message its 
— >r may, upon payment of a Quarter rate 

»ldition to the ordinary tollB. order it 
ited. in which case the various rela^ 
en rottie repeat it to each other as it 
The words "RBprnriON paid,** or 
indication '*T. C." must be inserted 
liately after the address; that is, as a 
<rf the address and before the text, and 
ichaned for. 
The mdication "T. C." counts as one word. 

20. If repetition of a doubtful word or 
be requested by the addressee of a 
s, the same may be procured bv free 

message to the office at which the 

..i reached the lines, or to the Cable 

fAKTUENT, New York. 

I. Every message exchanged between 

telegraph offices to rectify a mistake of 

•Older 19 charged for at full rates. 

ACKXOWl^DGMENT OF RECEIPT. 

'^. The aeadcT may request that notice of 

date and time at which his mesRage is 

ivened to the addressee, or, when posted to 

'nation, the date and time handed to the 

Ofllee, be tiansmitted to him by telegraph 

Postal Caid. The words "acknowledg- 

PAiD." or the indication "P. C." if 

is to be given by telegraph, or " P. C. P.." 

* Dotiee is to be even by Postal Card, besides 
pnf transmitted in the check free, mu»t be 
femed immediately after the address, and is 
tand for. The mdications "P. C." and 
P. C. P." count each as one word. 



The change for a telegraphic "acknowledg- 
ment of receipt" is equal to that for a message 
of five words to same destination by same 
route. 

PREPAID REPLIES. 

23. The sender of a message may pay for 
a reply thereto, but he must decide as to the 
length of the reply paid for. The indications 
"R. P." (meaning Reply Paid), together with 
the number of words prepaid, must be in- 
serted immediately before the address, that 
is, as a part of the address, and t« charged 
for. The indication "R. P. 5," "R. P. 10." 
'R. P. 14," etc., counts as one word. 

When accepting a message for which a 
reply Aas been prepaidt the originating office 
-will collect, in addition to the charges there- 
for, the full charges for the reply as mdicated. 

The sender of such a message should under- 
stand that the toll i>aid for the reply is not a 
deposit, but is practically a remittance to his 
correspondent, to whom the foreign telegraph 
administrations deliver with the message a 
voucher specifving the amount and number 
of words paid, for, which voucher entitles 
him to send free of charge, within the limits 
of the amount prepaid, a telegram to any 
destination whatever, and from any office 
of the administration whose office issued the 
voucher. 

TABLE OF CABLE WORD RATES. 

Following is a brief list of rates to some of 
the principal countries. The rate, of course, 
varies according to the location of the city or 
town in the United States. Thus, the rate 
from New York CHty to the Argentine Republic 
is 66 cents a word, while the rate from Mexico 
would be 74 cents a word. It is not feasible 
to give the rates from all of the states, as this 
can be readily obtained from the rate books 
of telegraph companies. The following rates 
give the cost i>er word from New York C^ty: 

Argentine Republic $0.65 

Australia and New 2«ealand 66 

Austria 32 

Barbados 91 

Belgium 25 

British Guiana 1.08 

Chih 66 

China, 

Macao 1.27 

Other places 1.22 

Cuba, Havana 15 

(Xiba, other cities 20 

Denmark 35 

England 25 

France 25 

Germany 25 

Greece 36 

Holland 25 

Honolulu 47 

Hungary 32 

India 74 

Ireland 25 

Italy ." :n 

Jamaica 4.s 

Japan 1 .33 

Norway 35 

Panama Republic 40 

Peru 65 

Philippines (Manila) 1.12 

Porto Rico 50 

Portugal . . w .39 



294 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RuBsia in Europe 90.43 

Scotland ^^ 25 

Spain^ Piov. of Barcelona, Gerona, 

Lenda and Tarracona 38 

Spain, other offices 40 

Sweden 38 

Switserland 30 

Turk^ in Europe 30 

Uruguay 65 

Wales 25 

The rate from New York City to Great 
Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, Belgium 
and Holland is 25 cents a word. The rate in 
veiy few cases is increased more than 31 
cents a word from inland places, except such 
states, etc., as Arisona, British Columbia, 
California, Idaho, Nevada,' Oregon. Utah and 
Washington, where the rate is 37 cents per 
word. Arkansas^ Colorado, most places in 
Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Manitoba, 
Minnesota, Missouri (other than St. Louis and 
a few other places), Montana, Nebraska, New 
Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South 
Dakota, Texas and Wyoming have a rate of 
34 cents a word. The rate from all the other 
states is 31 cents or less. 

There are many places, particularly in 
Eastern, Northern and Southern Africa, 
which .are very difficult to reach by cable and 
the rate is very high, amoimting in some cases 
to as much as t4.86 per word. Any tele^aph 
cable office will be glad to give specific infor- 
mation relative to such rates. The cable 
rates to the West Indies in some cases are I'ery 
high, as for instance, Santo Domingo and 
Curacao to which the rates are $1.32 and 
$1.38 per word respectively from New York. 
The rates to South America are apt to be very 
high, particularly to Peru. The rate to 
Bermuda from New York City is 42 cents per 
word; to Turk's Island. 66 cents per word. 

CABLE LETTERS. 

Cable Letters, accepted at any hour, are 
taken at the low rate of 75 cents for 12 words 
and 5 cents for each additional word plus 
small additional charges beyond the cable 
stations and points of original destination. 
They must be written in plain langiiage of the 
country of origin or destination. They are 
deliverable at the convenience of the company 
within 24 hours of the time of filing. Because 
of the additional charges beyond these places 
all Cable Letters not destined to London or 
Liverpool will be mailed beyond London un- 
less otherwise arranged by sender. 

If destined to points in Great Britain other 
than London or Liverpool the added charge 
for telegraphic delivery will be 12 cents for 
12 words or less, cable count, and 1 cent for 
each additional word. If sent by telegraph 
to France the added charge will be 7H cents 
per word, cable count; to Germany 9 cents 
per word, cable count; to Holland and Bel- 
gium 5 cents per word, cable count, and so on. 

Plain Enghsh, or Anglicised foreign words 
in common use such as ChaufFeur, Au revoir, 
etc.. as used in a plain Engliah message, may 
be accepted. No code words except those in 
renstered addresses will be allowed. 

Figures may be used in their natural sense 
in Cable letters, and are counted as in regular 
cable messages. 

The indication "R. P." including the num- 
ber of words prepaid is counted and charged 
for M one word. 



The term "deferred rate'* ahotild 
used in oonneotion with Cable 



^ 



DEFERRED CABLE SERVICE 

Commencing January 1, 1912, a defel 
cable service was inaugurated subject ta 
the rules and regulations of the neguiar el 
service with the following ezoeptioaB: 

1. Messasee must be in plain langm 
either French or the language of oounttji 
oriflpn or destination authorised for iai 
national correspondence. The use of te« 
more languages in the same meaaage is i 
permitted. 

2. All numbers except tboee tiaed in ) 
dress must be written in words at full ieB| 

3. The measages must contain at least < 
text word. 

4. Stfuders must in every ease write bsi 
the address and pay for as one word i 
letters LCF, LCD or LCD, as in the na« 
of a declaration that the ivwn?nyn«5^tV>» ii 
the French language or the language 
country of origin or destination aa case a 
be. 

5. Messages are liable to be d^ened 
favor of those paid for at full rates, for a pei| 
not exceeding 24 hours. If delated beyo 
that time they take ^eir turn with full pi 
traffic. 

6. Rate charged for defened cables is al 
half the rate cnaiged for full paid eal| 
between the same terminals exoept betw 
points in Great Britain and Iielana on the c 
hand and in the United States and Canada 
the other, when the deferred rate is 3i c« 
less than half the regular rate from HoboA 
and Jersey City, N. J., New York Oty a 
Yonkers, N. Y., Eastern Canada and N 
England States 3 cents less than half n 
from other places. 



Aden, Arabia. 

Algeria. 

Angola. 

Argentine Republio. 

Ascension Island. 

Australia. 

Austria. 

Asores. 

Balearic Islands. 

Bathurst, British W. 

Africa. 
Belgium. 
Belgian Con^o. 
Borneo (British). 
Braiil. 
British East Africa 

and Uganda. 
Burmah. 
Canary Islands. 
Cape Colony. 
Cape Verde Island. 
Ceylon. 
Chile. 
China: 

Amoy. 

Chefoo. 

Foochow. 

Hankow. 

Hong Kong. * 

Macao. 

Pekin. 

Shanghai. 



Tientsin. 

Tsingtau. 

Weihaiwei. 

Cochin China. 
Cocos Island. 
Cyprus. 
Danomey. 
Denmark. 
Egypt. 

Fanning Islands. 
Fiji Islands. 
France. 

French Guinea. 
French Indo Chiaa. 
French West Africa. 

French Soudan. 

Mauretania 

Senegal. 
Germany. 
German East Afij 

(exoept BismardI 

burg and UdjidjtJ 
Gibraltar. 
Gold Coast, Africa. 
Great Britain and ll 

land. 
Greece. 
Guinea 
Holland. 
Hungary. 
Iceland. 
India (British). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REOi^RENCE BOOK. 295 





jj, p- ■^..\ 



296 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Rhodesia Northern 
(except Abercom, 
Fife, Rhodesia and 
Fort Jameson). 

Rhodesia. 
(Southern). 

Rodrigues Island. 

St. Helena Island. 

St. Thomas Island. 

Senegal. 

Servia. 

Seychelles. 

Sierra Leone. 

Somaliland (British). 

South African Union. 

Spain. 

Straits Settlements 
(Velantan excepted) 
and Malay States. 

Sudan. 

Sweden. 

Switzerland. 

Tasmania. 

Transvaal. 

Tunis. 

Uruguay. 

Zanzibar. 



Indo China. 

Italy. 

Ivory Coast. 

Labuan Island. 

Luxemburg. 

Madagascar. 

Madeira Is. 

Malta. 

Mauritius Island. 

Morocoo (except Casa- 
blanca, Mogador 
and Rabat). 

New Zealand. 

Nigeria. 

Norfolk Island. 

Norway. 

Obok. 

Orange River Colony. 

Paraguay. 

Perim Island. 

Peru. 

Portugal. 

Portuguese East 
Africa 

Portug;uese West 
Africa 

Principe Island. 

Reunion Island. • 

WEEK END LETTERS 

Week End Letters filed before midnight 
Saturday are deliverable the following Monday 
morning. The rate is $1.15 for 24 words and 
5 cents for each additional word, plus small 
additional charges between the cable stations 
and points of destination. Week end letters 
must be written in plain language of the 
country of origin or destination. 

All Week End Letters not destined to 
London or Liverpool will be mailed beyond 
London unless otherwise arranged by sender. 

If destined to points in Great Britain other 
than London or Liverpool the added charge for 
telegraphic delivery will be as given under 
"CjMjle Letters," same rules also apply for 
words, etc. 

A nine-word message has been despatched 
from a newspaper office in New York oack to 
the starting point, the lapse of time being 
exactly sixteen and one-half minutes. The 
message traveled via Honolulu, Manila, Hong 
Kong. Singapore, Bombay, Suez, Gibraltar 
and the Azores. 

The first telegraph line in the United 
States was open^ for business in 1844: the 
telephone was introduced in 1876 by Prof. 
A. G. BeU. 



THE FIRST ATLANTIC CABLE. 

August 5th of 1908 was the fiftieth aooi- 
venary of the Atlantic Cable, that being the 
day of the month in 1858 on which — contrary 
to authoritative opinion — ^the engineer of one 
of the greatest achievements of the nineteenth 
oentuiy completed the laying of the submariDe 
line between Ireland and Newfoundland, the 
length being over two thousand miles, and 
the depth neariy three miles for the greftter 
part of the distance. The projectors were Mr. 
John Watkins Bright, Mr. (afterwards Sir 
t^harles) Bright and Mr. Cyrus West Field. 
Mr. Bright was also the engineer-in-chief 
of the undertaking, and he received the honor 
of knighthood in recognition of his services 
to the country in connection therewith, at ; 
the unprecedented age of 26. 

Electrical theories were, however, mistaken 
at that time, and the electricians applied far I 
too much power for the transmission ol signab. , 
the result being that the insulation sunered 
by degrees, until after three months' useful, 
work uie cable gradually succumbed. 

After a number of cables had been laid bv 
Sir Charies Bright, Mr. H. C. Forde. Sir Wil- 
liam Siemens and othera to India, Gibraltar, 
Alexandria, &c., another Atlantic Cable ex- 

f>edition started in 1865. Tfab was the firrt 
ine that was laid by the manufacturers of the 
cable, these contractors being the Telegraph 
Construction and Maintenance Company, with 
Mr. (afterward Sir Samuel) Cannier for their 
chief engineer, whilst Sir Charles Briipht and 
Mr. Latimer Clark acted as consulting en- 
gineers to the proprietors. Notwithstand- 
mg the extra knowledge and experience gained 
in regard to the subject generally, this ex- 
pedition met with as many mishaps as the 
first expedition of 1857; but in 1866— as 
in 1858 — the same arranjsements ultimately 
achieved success, since which the constauction, 
laying, and working of submarine telegraphs 
has passed from the pioneer stage to that of 
ordinary routine. 

The engineering methods were similar to 
those adopted eight years previously; but the 
line proved a lasting success, owing to the 
advances made in electrical science and in the 
practical working of cables. On the electrical 
side, in addition of the late Lord Kelvin, the 
names of Varley and Willoughby Smith must 
always be honorably associated with the 
subject, and the late Sir John Pender did more 
than any man for the commercial develop- 
ment of submarine telegraphy. 



THE CABLE ALPHABET. 




J * * m n a p 



The cut above shows the Morse Code as recorded by a syphon recorder. Ssrphon recorden 
are used for receiving cable raesvsage.s. It will bo observod that the spaces are represented by 
horixontal Unes, dots by loops above the space lines, and dnahes by loops below the space lines. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERBNCE BOOK. 297 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOTC 



; KIMiM OF V. S. RKVIONTR CinTKR • 



CHAPTER X. 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 



MOione 



Bss telegraphy is, in theoiy. closely 

betiosraphy, or signaiins wiUi flashes 

The liflpt used, however, is produced 

__ Ely and is invisible to the naked eye, 

to the fact that it is made up of very 

" », called Hertzian waves, which vi- 

slowly to affect the retioa. The eye 

discern waves which make from 

to 7,000 billions vibrations per 

However, the Hertzian ray resem- 

in that it can be reflected by a 

plate and can be refracted by a i^nsm 

can be brought to a focus with a 

, and may be polarized. Owing to 

.t length of the Hertzian waves, almost 

Liuses are transparent to them. The 

-wav^ were discovered by Professor 

Herta, a young German imilosopher, 

hia experiments with the spark dis- 

of L<eyaen jars and of the Ruhmkoi^ 

1888 and 1887. 

Sdond that when a spark leaped the gap 

— the terminals, electric oscillations 

in these terminals which set up 

aves in the surrounding space, 

in turn of setting up similar oscilla- 

any adjacent conductor Iving at an 

to tfa^n. The waves were oetected by 

zcflonator," which was merely a circle 

^icle of copper wire formed with a 

atde. When the induction coil was 

tion and the resonator coil was held 

ooll, a tiny strecun of sparks would 

the resonator gap. To better 

thia phenomenon take as a crude 

two vertical rods in a pool of water 

«aeh a float free to slide vertically on 

Now, if one of these floats be moved 

down upon its rod, it produces waves 

water jtust as the electric oscillation 

j» waves in tiie ether. These spread 

afl directions and on reaching the other 

BMve it to oscillate up and down, just 

Biagnetlc waves produce electric oscilla- 

lotne Tesonator. 

out going into, a detailed history of 

eioptnent of wireless telegraphy from 

'a experiments, it may be stated that 

sential difference between the apparatus 

by Hertz in his experiments and the 

' tereral systems now commonly in use lies in 
tike receiver. The transmitter is practically 
^ same. A vertical wire called the antenna 
is eonnetrted to one terminal of the coil, and 
the other terminal is connected with the earth, 
the purpose- being to increase the electrical 
o^weity of the terminal rods and produce 
laraer waves. Instead of producing the oscil- 
laawa by means of an induction coil, they 



are now ordinarily produced by a dynamo and 
a step-up transformer except tor telegraphing 
over short distances. But even with these 
changes we would not be able to telegraph 
over any appreciable distance if dependent 
upon the Hertz resonator for receiving a m^- 
sage, for, owing to the fact t^at the waves 
spread out in all directions from the trans- 
mitting antenna, the receiving antenna is 
acted upon by a very small proportion of the 
power expended by the transmitter, and this 
proportion decreases' very rapidly as the dis- 
tance between the transmitter and the receiver 
increases. In order then to detect the rays 
at long distances, a very sensitive instrument 
called the "coherer" has been invented. The 
coherer in its usual form consists of a glass 
tube with two metal pistons fltted therein be- 
tween which a quantity of nickel filings is 
placed. The latter forms an imperfect elec- 
trical contact between the pistons, and takes 
the place of the spark gap in the receiving 
antenna. When the oscillations are set up in 
the antenna by the Hertzian waves, due to 
their high pres.<}ure or voltage, they break 
through the imperfect contact of the coherer, 
causing the filings therein to cohere oi: string 
together and thus produce a much better 
electric path through the coherer. The action 
is microscopic and cannot be detected with 
the naked eye. However, the coherer, aside 
from being a part of the antenna circuit, is 
also made a part of a local battery circuit, 
which contains a telesraph receiver, and when- 
ever the electric oscillations open a jgood path 
through the filings for the local circuit, the 
telegraph instrument will be energized by the 
locsu battery only. In order to break this 
path after the oscillations have ceased, or. in 
other words, to cause the filings to decohere, 
they are constantly jarred apart by means of 
the "tapF>er," which b in reality an electric 
bell with the gong removed and the clapper 
striking the coherer tube instead. Carbon 
granules may be substituted for metallic fil- 
ings, and in this case no tapper is necessary, 
the coherer being self-restonng. 

In transmitting messages a telegraph key 
in the primary circuit of the induction coil is 
operated according to the usual Morse code, 
and this causes sparks to leap the spark gap 
at corresponding intervals. These signals will 
then be transmitted by the Hertzian waves to 
the receiving station, where they will be re- 
corded by the telegraph receiver. The co- 
herer is not by any means the only wave de- 
tector in use. Every wirelefw telegraph com- 
pany has one or more different types of 
detectors. 



299 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




MARCONI WIRELE8S STATIONS FOR THE IMPEIUAL TELEGRAPH SERVICE. 



MARCONI HIGH POWEH STATION AT 

MOL'TH WElJ.FLEIirr. MA,S.S. 

(CAPE COD.) 



NAVY STATION AT AELINGTOS, Yi 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



-W DcpartmeD . _ . __ 
[ot January 1. 1912. consiata of 165 pag 
Copia ol this publicaiion ran be obtain 
I from the SuperiDteadent of Documen 
l'Dil«d ^(atax PrintiDK Office. Waxhingb 
D. C. at A cost of 15 cenU. The Hction i 
Toied lo wirelwH telegraphy in Ihia booh 
rtgsnls the Uoited Stat*a_ia ■-'— ' ' 



^ulii II 






'e the< 



2. IS J 2. I 



e Unilwl Stat™ A 



bTe pajnphlet. Bpac 



ich are equipped 



ra before tin. sh 
' coJlldKi on J I 

ixl possihTe by i 



F ihe disaster and with none of the pueaoceni 

ho eeeap^ by lifii boats, haJit not been tor 

ays after "lh Bouninyne" liink before the 
ory of the catnslrophe became known. Tbe 

apg the dcletdon and arrmt of Dr. Crippea 
.r the crime of murder. There is no more 
eird atory in the annals ot crime than how 
le unaoen wirelewi hrouitht Dr. Crippen to 
le noose. SUtions that w?re practically un- 
aovm bernmc Buddcnly viialiied. and to-day 
ape Sable. Belle Isle. Fame Point and Father 



the wirelew room and ioatnictwl the operator 
to let a^-iiMlanre. The two rails ■'C.Q.D,'' 

vessel was hSS^by th^^MountTompjc/' Ihe 
"F'ranlcfurt" and the "Carpathia." The Cap- 
tain of the "Carpathla'; imtnedintdy tumal 

tanic" after she aank, and reecued a portion 



302 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPH SHORE STATIONS OP THE UNITED 

STATES AND CANADA. 



Name and Location 
of Station. 



UNITED STATES. 

ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS. 

Eastport, Me 

Portland, Me 

Port Levitt, Me 

Portsmouth. N. H > . 

Amesbury, Mass 

Cambridge, Mass 

Port Andrews, Mass 

Brant Rock, Mass 

Chatham. Mass 

Chelsea. Mass 

Boston. Mass 

Boston. Mass 

Boston. Mass 

Cape Cod. Mass 

Cape Cod, South WeUfleet» . 

Cape Cod. Mass 

Siasconsett, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Qiilu*»y Ivlass. 

Nantucket Shoals Lightship . 

Newport, R.I 

Providence, R. I 

Point Judith, R.I 

Block Island, R.I 

New London, Conn 

Sea Gate, N. Y 

Sagaponack. N. Y 

Fire Island, N. Y 

N. Y. (42 Broadway) 

N. Y. (Ill Broadway) 

N. Y. (Wanamaker's) 

N. Y. (Herald, Battery) 

N. Y 

BrooUyn, N. Y 

Port H. G. Wright, N. Y.. . . 

Port Totten, N. Y 

Port Wood, N. Y 

Port Hancock, N. J 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Cape May. N". J 

Camden, N. J 

Philadelphia, Pa. (Wana- 
maker's) 

Philadelphia. Pa. (Bellevue- 
Stratford) 

PhUadelphia. Pa 

Cape Henlopen, Del 

Sparrows Point, Md 

Annapolis. Md 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, D. C. (MiUs 
Building) 

Washington, D. C. (Bureau 
of Standards) 

Arlington. Va.a 

Fort Monroe, Va 

Fort Monroe, Va 

Norfolk. Va 

Norfolk, Va 



Call 
Letters. 



Range in 

Nautical 

Miles. 



400-1.000 



400-1,000 



180-500 



300-600 



150-500 



500 
350 



150 



Power 

in 

Kilowatts. 



5 
4 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
7 V^ and 100 
5 



35 
2 
2 



2 

H 
5 



2 
2 
15 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 



2 
3 
2 
5 
2 
5 
2 



2 
100 
1 
2 
2 
5 



Wave 

Length in 

Meters. 



800-1,500 
1,000 



1,000 



Variable. 
480 



Variable. 

1.000 
Variable. 

1,000 



1.500 
350 
550 



400 
1.000 



325 
280 
480 
350 
350 
1,000 
350-1.000 
425 



640 
3.000 
1.000 



700 
550 



550 
1,000 
1,000 

750 
1.000 
1.000 



580 
1,000 



Character of 
Station. 



CommerdaJ. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Gov. (Ann^-). 
Gov. (Navy). 
Experimental. 

Do. 
Gov. (Army). 
Experimental. 
Commercial. 
Experimental. 

Do. 
Gov. (Nav3'). 
ExperlmontaL 

Do. 
Conunerdal. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Private. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 

Do. 
Private. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 

Do. 
Private. 

Do. 
Experimental. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Gov. (Army). 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Private. 

Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do- 
Commercial. 
Gov, (Navy). 

Do. 
ExperimentoL 

Gov. (Army). 

Do. 

Gov. (Navy). 
Gov. (Army). 

Do 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 



> High Power Marconi Station. 

* Under construction three large wireless towers. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



303 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPH SHORE STATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. — Continued. 



Name and Location 
of Station. 



ATXU.IITIC AND QULV 

CO ABT0— Continued. 

Beaufort, N. C 

Oiaoxmd Shoals 

Cape Hatteras, N. C 

^arieston. S. C 

frying Pan Shoals 

savannah, 6a 

JadEsonville, Fla. 

'9l Augustine. Fla 

Jopiter. Fla 

Sey Wort. Fla 

Timpa. Fla 

tasaoola. Fla 

HobOe. Ala 

fan Morgan. Ala 

Kew Orleans. La 

Hew Orleans. La 

Jlev Orleans. La 

Bnmrood. La 

Gnnd Iidand, La 

tet Arthur. Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

fitlreston. Tex 

iort Sam Houston, Tex.^ . . 

IRTSBIOB. 

Hort Leavenworth, Kans. . . 

Itet ROey, Kans 

Wan Omaha, Neb 

obbat lakxb. 

BbSsJo, N. Y 

EJeTP^ 

ttahola. Ohio 

id, Ohio ;. 

eland, Ohio 

, Ohio 

it, Mich 

t, Mich 

t. Mich 

t, Mich 

HuKXi. Mich 

\7 City, Mich 

Mich 

Island. Mich 

n. Mich 

Beach, Mich 

Royal. Mich 

Haven, Mich 

ton Harbor. Mich 

,ni. (Hotel) 

, .111 

>ukee. Wis 

oc. Wis 

Wis 

«-.vfa,. Wis 

8te. Marie, Mich 

;te, Mich. 

ort, Mich 

•Bistique. Mich 

'nmet, Mich 

.hith, Minn 

Gnmd Marals. Minn 



CaU 
lietters. 



o 

(A 

< 

o 
» 

z 

< 

o 



Range in 

Nautical 

Miles. 



450-1,000 



150-600 
150-300 



500-1.500 



100 

300-500 

700 

76 

450-1.000 
200 



Power 

in 

Kilowatts. 



200-400 



75 
150 

iso 



100 
150 



100 

100 

150-200 



200 
150 



250 



150 
150 
150 



5 
1 
5 
5 
2 
2 
2 
2 
5 

25 and 2 
5 
5 
2 
2 
5 

5 and 25 
5 

IH 
2 
2 



150 



2 
10 



2 
5 
5 
2 
10 
5 
2 



5 
5 
10 
5 
5 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

7H 
5 
2 
2 
1 
5 

7H 
2 
2 
2 
5 
2 



Wave 

Length in 

Meters. 



1.000 
400 
600 

1,000 
400 
450 
600 

1.000 

1,000 

1,000-2.000 

600 

1.000 
400 
350 
500 

1.760 

1,000 
250 

1.000 
460 



Character of 
Stotlon. 



450 



Variable. 



500 
Variable. 
1.000 

Variable*. 

Variable. 

Variable. 
760 
850 
760 
600 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 

Variable. 
900 

Variable. 

Variable. 



Variable. 

900 
Variable. 
Variable. 
Variable. 
Variable. 
Variable. 



Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 
Private. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Private. 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Gov. (Army). 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Experimental. 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. . 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Projected. 



304 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



WIUKLESS TELEGRAPH SHORE STATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. — Continued. 



Name and Location 
of Station. 



PACIFIC COAST. 

Friday Harbor, Wash 

Seattle, Wash 

Seattle. Wash 

Seattle, Wash 

Roche Harbor, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tatoosh Island. Wash 

North Head. Ilwaco, Wash. 

Fort Worden, Wash 

Astoria. Ores. 

Marshfleld. Oreg 

Fort Stevens. Oreg 

Cape Blanco. Denmark, Ore 

Eureka. Oal 

Eureka. Cal 

Farallon Islands. Cal 

San Francisco, Cal 

S. F.. Cal. (Presidio) 

Yerba Buena Island. S. F. . 

Mare Island. Cal 

San Luis Obispo, Cal 

Point Arguello. Surf, Cal. . . 

San Pedro. Cal 

Los Angeles. Cal 

Los Angeles. Cal 

Avalon. Cal 

Avalon. Cal 

San Diego, Cal 

ALASKA. 

Pribilof Islands 

Dutch Harbor 

Unalga Island* 

Kodiak 

Cordova 

Sitka 

Circle City 

Fort Egbert 

Fairbanks 

Fort Gibbon 

Fort St. Micha<?l 

Kotlik 

Nome 

Nulato 

Petersburg 

Wrangell 

Ketchikan 

Juneau 

Karluk 

Kogginung 

(Thignik 

Nushagak 

darks Point. 

Nak Nek 

CANADA. 

Indian Harbor, Labrador... 
Domino Island. Labrador. . 
American Tickle, Labrador. 
Venison Island. Labrador.. 
Battle Harlxjr, Labrador. . . 



Call 
Letters. 



» 

H 
H 

o 

H 
O 

H 

» 

» 
O 
Z 

< 

o 



H 
O 

D 

OQ 
» 

< 
00 

Pi 

H 
H 
H 

h3 
< 



Range in 

Nautical 

MUes. 



20t 



Power 

in 

Kilowatts. 



Wave 

Length in 

Meters. 



Character of 
Station. 



2 
5 
5 
4 
4 
5 
2 
5 
10 
1 
2 



1.500 
500 



1.000 

400 

1.000 

1.000 



425 





1 
5 
5 
5 
5 
10 
1 
2 
5 
2 
3 
5 
2 
2 
1 
2 
5 

3 

5 

10 

3 

10 

20 

3 

5 

5 

10 

3 

1 

10 

10 

1 
1 

2 
2 
5 
2 
2 
2 
2 
5 






1.000 




425 




1.000 




1.000 




600 








600 




1.000 




100 




1.000 




425 




425 




500 




500 




425 




1.000 




1.000 
1.000 






1.000 




1.000 




1,000 
1.000 














































• 




































150 




220 









150 




220 


150 





220 




' 





CommerriaL 

Do. 

Do. 
Private. 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy;. 
CommerdaL 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Gov. (Army). 
Commercial. 

Do. 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 

uo. 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Army). 
Gov. (Navy). 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Gov. (Navy). 
Conmierdal. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Gov. (Navy). 



Gov. (Navy). 

Do! 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Commercial. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Government. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



•Projected. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



305 



WIRKI.Ei^S TELE«RArH 



SHORE STATIONS OF THE 
CANADA. — Continued. 



UNITED STATES AND 



Name and Location 
of Station. 



Canada — Continued. 

Clia:«au Bay. Labrador 

Bdle Isie. Newfoundland. . . . 
Point Rich. Newfoundland.. . 
Capp Ray. Newfoundland . . . 
Gape Race. Newfoundland.... 

Harrington. Quebec 

Heath Point, Anticosti Isd. . 
Orindstone. Magdalen Isd... . 

Fame Point, Quebec 

rriarlce City. Quebec 

Fariier Point. Quebec 

Cirosse Isle. Quebec 

Quebec. Quebec 

Throe Rivers. Quebec 

Mootreai. Quebec 

North Sydney 

Cape Breton. Glace Bay 

Pfoou. Nova Scotia 

Camperdown, Nova Scotia . . 
Sable Island, Nova Scotia. . . 
Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. . . . 
St. John. Partridge Island . . . 

Put Arthur, Ontario 

8i. Thomas, Ontario 

Prince Rupert, B. C 

Dead Tree Point. B. C 

IlLeda Head. B. C 

Triansle Island, B. C 

Cape Laze, Vancouver, B. C. 
Est«van. Vancouver, B. C. . . 
Poont Grey. Vancouver. U.C 
Pachena. Vancouver. B. C . 
Victoria. B. C 



Call 
Letters. 






O 
O 

2 

p 

OQ 






< 



< 



Range in 

Nautical 

Miles. 



Power 

in 

Kilowatts. 



230' 
230 
270 
350 
136' 
230 
135 
230 
230 
230 
100 
100 
135 
100 
135 



Wave 

Length in 

Meters. 



Character of 
Station. 



100 
230i 
300 
230 
2301 
350 



250 
225' 
260| 
350! 
175 
100 
100. 
250 
2001 



600 
600 
$00, 1,600 
600, 1.600 
300 
600 
600 
600 
600 
600 
300 
300 
600 
600 
300 



300 
600 
600 
600 
600 
600 
400 
600 
600 
600 
600 
600 
600 
600 
600 
600 



Government. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
CommerciaL 

Do. 

Do, 
Government. 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Government. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Commercial. 
Government. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do 




COMMERCIAL TELEGRAPH STATIONS CONSTRUCTED BY MARCONI'S WIRELESS 

TELEGRAPH CO. LTD., .\ND IN OPERATION. 



306 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



On June 12, 1912» there were 1,577 mer- 
chant ships equipped with wireless telegraph 
installations. The total number of commer- 
cial coast stations was 286. 

Under the Imperial Wirolcjw System all of 
the stations will be fitt4xi with apparatus for 
the automatic transmission and receipt of 
messages, guaranteeing a speed of not less 
than fifty words a minute. Arrangements are 
progressing and the work will be earned out 
as expeditiously as possible for the construc- 
tion of stations placing Great Britain in direct 
communication with New York, instead of 
having the messages pass through Glace Bay; 
also for the construction of stations in San 
Francisco for communication through the 
Hawaiian Islands with the Philippines, China 
and Japan. Arrangements are also being 
made for stations to send messages from 
New York south to Cuba, Panama, and 
subsequently to each South American State. 

The New York 7*tme8 has made more use 
of the wireless station than perhaps any other 
paper in the world, and nearly aU of their 
foreign news in the Sunday edition is trans- 
mitted by wireless. When the new stations 
in London and New York are completed wire- 
less messages will be received in less than ten 
minutes from the time of their dispatch, inde- 
pendent between these two points. When the 
stations are completed the Marconi Company 
will be independent of land lines and wLU pro- 
vide a service which will not be surpassea for 
speed and accuracy. The world's rights in 
tne wireless oompasa of Messrs. Belimi and 
Tosi has also been acquired by the Marconi 
Company. This will undoubtedly prove of 
considerable value when worked m conjunc- 
tion wiUi existing wirelem installations aboard 
ships, enabling the Captain to define the posi- 
tion of an approaching ship or of the land in 
a dense fog. 

The United States Navy is now planning 
the construction of a chain of wireless stations 
embracing two oceans and a continent within 
the range of this chain, so that naval veHHels, 
whether near the African coast or in Chinese 
waters, will be under direct control from 
Washington by aerial communication. Funds 
for this plan were not forthcoming at the last 
session of Congres.*). The firat section is now 
in course of erection at Arlington, Va., and 
will be ready shortly after the publication of 
this book. Each oi the stations is to have a 
semi-radius of 3,0(X) miles or more. 

The Arlington station consists of three steel 
towers in the form of an isosceles-triangle. At 
the apex of the triangle the tower in 050 feet 
high, or 05 feet higher than the tip of the 
W:i.shington monunieDt. At the base are two 
towers, each 450 fw*t in hcij^ht. The antennae 
are to be strung from the tallest tower to the 
other two. These immense towers are strik- 
ing features -A the luuilMcapc as viewed from 
any ix>Lnt of vantage in Wiitthinp;ton. It in 
contemplated to move all of our naval vessels 
by the u»e of these towers. The rauKO of the 
Ariington sUition will cover practically all of 
the North Atlantic ocean, (luuntanamo, Cuba, 
falls easily within the ranRc of this station, 
and regular communiration with thr station 
to be eroctod at Puaoiaa will be had with 
equal facility 



TBANSATLANTIC MAROONiaRAUS. 

Mareonigrams for transmission to Gmt 
Britain and Ireland and to ships at sea are 
accepted at all offices of the Western Unioa 
Telegraph Co. and the Great North- Wfasteni 
Telegraph Co. 

The , established rules and regulations 
({oveming the method of counting and cfaarB" 
mg of Cable Messages are applicable to 
Mareonigrams. 

RATES. 



FROK 



TO 



Points in Maine* New Hampshire. 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New Yoric City, 
Yonkere. N. Y., Hoboken, Jereey City 
Unioii Hill, N. J.. Points in the Mari- 
time Provinces, New Brunswick; 
Nova Scotia and in the Eastern 
Canadian Provinces, Quebec and 
Ontario 




•0.15 



Delaware, Mar>land, New Jeraey, (ex- 
cept Hoboken, Jersey City and Union 
Hill.) New York (except New York 
City and Yonkers), Pennsylvania and 
the District of (}olumbta 



.18 



Alabama, Georgia. Illinois, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Micniffan, Mississippi, 
North Carolina. Ohio, South Carolma, 
Tennessee, Virginia, West Viznnia 
and Wisconsin, Pensaoola, Fla.. 
Burlington, Clinton, Cedar Rapids, 
Davenport, Dubuque. Ft. Madison, 
Keokuk and Muscatine. la.. New 
Orleans. La., Duluth, Hastinos, Lake 
City, Minneapolis, Redwing, St. Paul. 
Stillwater, Wabasha and Winona. 
Minn., Hannibal, La., St. Louis, Mo. 



.31 



Arkansas, Colorado, Florida (except 
Pensaoola and Key West), Iowa (ex- 
cept BurUngton, CSinton, Cedar 
Rapids. Davenport. Dubuque, Ft. 
Madison, Keokuk, and Muscatine). 
Kansas, Louisiana (except New 
Orleans), Manitoba, Minnesota (ex- 
cept Duluth, Hastings, Lake City, 
Mmneapolis. Redwing, St. Paul, 
Stillwater. Wabasha and Winona). 
Missouri (except Hannibal. Louisiana 
and St. Louis), Montana, Nebraska. 
New Mexico, North Dakota, Okla- 
homa, Sou^ Dakota, Texas, Wyo- 
ming 



.24 



Arixona, California. Idaho, Nevada. 
Oregon, Utah and Washington, Key 
West, Fla., Vancouver, Victoria and 
New Westminster, B. (3 



S 



Deferre<l messages subject to a maximum 
delay of 24 houre and written in plain Endiib 
language are also accepted at oae-bBiftMi* 
rates. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN HBFERENCB BOOK. 307 



in 



•nt winltm nU tor 



SCIENTIFIC AHBRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REIFERBNCB BOOK. 



DICCMBin IttM. 



wriirnTiMaii 



AN EAJILY V1RBLBB8 CHART 
MMCQMI TELECRAPH. 

COMMUNICAT ION CHART. 



he\t:v years later t 
\tio\.s which 

phenomenal increase in wireless activity. 



CHAPTER XI. 



TELEPHONE STATISTICS OF THE 
WORLD. 









iiBryl,l»12. A careful 








iedn Olid buJiuD in U. 














lasiacn cBiried by ■ 




^'-.SLSTTuS. 


Uiia compilation the 




[Uud in lour Wmtonal diviBions, u followa: 





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The year 1911 is the thirty-fifth biqcb the 
tanntibD of the telephone by Prat, Alexander 
f-nhaio B«U. . A .u.rvey oi the proBfew of 

Id pro«re™. juntifies the utalranent that all 
rtiied naUons hoVH awakened to ta^ value 

In the Unil«d Slates eommereial »rvicB ho» 
uai opoied between New, York and Denver. 
t,IMi mila. thia being now the lonaest dis- 
over which oral oommumcatioD le given 
icreiall}'. In Eunpe long diatance service 
een greotly extended ny utiliiiiu both 
B0 new loaded cabler twtween Great Britain 
ud Belgium — by which telephone service v 
upected to be pven between London and 
' B-ilin — BDit the new lelephone cable, ton- 
I nufud alao on the Puran principle, between 
KiS^ Calai..^ Tbelatter enable, eonver- 
' Btloo tc be earned on between Glasgow, t^m- 
ivlA and PBris, and alio between Aberdeen 
udawFreDch capital, adwtance of eiOmiles. 



n London to Btle; 



K^ent progress in the a 
hane cable maoufsotui 



there are ove 
phoae cable i 



Uie world, and of this 
represented by tbe four 
e and England^and the 



eat submsiine telephone cable lies 
La Panne (Belgium) and St. Marga 
(England], a dutance of 55 miles. 

land linB^HyivSns have tikewise rec 
portant addilJonii. due ta the openi 



istenirbaii or toll telephone wire of Europe. 

Finally, it is worthy of note that during the 
year 1911 tiegrent United Stales railway sys- 

IM, Since the introduetion of tbe u»e of the 
I'niint Kljilfo railmndn ban^'ndonted that sys- 



telegraj>h o 



)ada have adopted Ih*^ 

■ supplanteu lue 

nilroad mileage 
aale placee the 



OI t4)B country. A careiui esiin 
milce of wire used by railroad u^ui|/bi 
train diepatehbg at 120,000. and fbt, ~ 
sponding number of telepbonea at 10,000. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN KEFERENCE BOOK. 



identic lelephones per 100 populatioa 
ring only lo the United R- ■ " - 
Europe, the foUowuic cl 



and referring only 
the sXBct 6cure« ore: 



Dited Riata, Cad 
•a during the pi 



Statw Canada Europe 



that European t« 

IhoTMt 

requini IW yenn. A 

due to the use ot rat 
needs of the public i 



mportuct sdvD 
d will be.shon 



Staua Jan. 1, K 



the de velopmentot iU Utiited 



Teusphones per 100 Population 
United States, Canada and 

ElTROPB, 1902 TO 1912. 

It ii worthy of note that the United Stales 

Jan. 1, lfll2/hadovcrone-hnlf the total lele 

phone wire of thj hdtM, and nearly twice Ihi 

total mileage o" 

mileage aa the . — -^ — -, 

1907. The pronounced ineresse in the wire 
mile»«eo( "all other counirica" is largeiy due 

The combined number of telephone conver- 
sations of the rest of the world is but one-half 
that oi the United Ststea. The telegraph traf- 



Bt the same telephon 






Do!o00.'tSo vl 
Euiopc haa al 



the eame nroporti. — -„...,.. 

traffic B> the United SUtea hot of the vortd'r 
telephone traffic. 

Going back to the first autbentii^ oublica 
tion of telephone traffic in the United i^tatei 
< IS83) the total number of (elephone convcr 
■ationswasentimated tobe2IT.OIXI.OOU. Dur 
ina the intervening twenty-eight yearH tht 
United Stalea traffic ban reacficd, at. showr 



and telegraph traffic and in I 

covering the period I90U-1H 

trafhr during 1900 and miles, 
the year 1900. 



0%. In other 



ords, tl 



telephone aa wmpared with 57% for^the M 
graph, so that the percentage increase in te) 
phone wire la also approximately eicbt tink 
■'— ' -' teiegiBph wire, 

' " >wing chart depicts the telephot 

ins of Ibc worid for the yean IM 

ilusive, for the United Statm, E. 

ill other countries, and shows tl 

of each to the total. 






TOEFHCM UMERW-nCNB v TX HfU 



The Foil 




The chart annexed depicts the tatal otl 

muted telephone invealmentoC the world, sub 
divided ncoinliDi to territorial division. ,al 
Jan. Ist of each year from 1002 to 19l2inciBr 
sive. During tiua period the world's inm^ 

TELEPHONE INVESneKT Of WMBLO 



il 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



wit aJm«t quadrupled, iucreasiiLff fram 
f4S2.aoO.000 to II.Tl^g.UOO.OOO. ,Over ane.hnlf 

dtatfH. vherp xhv aaDU»l increase averaged 
mnmiirnitdy 166,000,000. Thi» wiu about 
^v.OOO.OOO nwn Ihan Ihc cnTnapooding aver- 

swnt bi Ihc United .Statea (tl .026.000,000) 
wwM about twice that in ail Europe (S5KI.000.- 




., I State*— Belgium, Norway. DeD- 

Ic, HuDgacy, Italy, and uie Netluriand« — 
ill IcM thui the number of UlephoDes ID 
York CiW, while Cliicii«o has more tele- 
169 than France, and Boeton more tlian 
iriai the throe ftcandinavian Itinidoins 

WMihSnM in New VotV Ciiy by Bbo'u™T?01M. 
iliB following chiirt presents graphically the 

'lOVB table in lh» ™>l- 

Population.' 




phones per 100 population, the' develnpn» 
' le UoitcdiJtalsB at Uui same date — S.ll 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



100 populalion — wag aL 

or Europe. Hoalb Ami 

Mepboou per 100, and CanuU to 3.7. or 

more diau five %uao6 Ui« devokipmeat ol 

Eunpe. 

Lookins at the telephone development from 
the point of population per itAlion, it appean 
that Uie Unit^ Btat« Janunry 1. 1911, aver- 

aninst the Europenn avenge of one 1o 148. 
CfTttw EuiDpean Stalea, DenmaHi anil Sweden 
an aboutuQuaf, the former havmg one staUcn 
to every 28, and the latter one sUtion to every 
29 inhabitAnta. The Oerniaa Kmpire and 
Great Britain have nbout twice, Fr»n™ aix 
timea and Austria ei^t timeii the population 
per ilation of Sweden. 

iDBCIualnumberoftelephoDea, Jan. 1. 1911 
Berlin, London and Paris, with a combined 
total of 4ai,5[)0 telephones, aie about even 
with New York (402.000], The latter appmxi- 
mates very nearly the combined telephonea of 
14 European Stales, 



Win 






ine development ol 
-e plant January 1, 



i. South America 0.5% and all oth 
ies 2,T7t. Thus the United Stalea hi 
. twice th9 total telephone 




AMERICAN Ml QJKPEMt CmES 



The statisliis place tbe, total length ol 

JanUB^''l,''l9l l,*Bt 34,500,000 milee. Of ihii 
tatnl. telephone wire took "S'-t . telearaph "'" 
{including cables) l?"/,. and milroad telegraph 
wirc3%- Again, the United Sut«« look 6I*T. 
of the total lelepbooe wire, and 34% of Ihr 
tolal telesraph wire (eiduding cabla* ami 
railroad teli^ph win). 



SCIKNTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



nnd Italy to Gerni 



dun ooinniEs European CO untncB, Uie Uatt«l 
Btila uid CansiU, rppruenting in cacb cose 
teib popul«lJon per sqimre mile and tcle- 
, iIdhii per KK) populslioa. Thecrealcst popu- 
It&n per _s<iu>re milo is found in Belgium, 



— * £ui e) 

iBd (he larpeat nun 



: o[ tele^iones per 100 



*WrigarJ«cr.a.- a: - - - 4M- ' 



TtLEPHOM: m> TELEGRAPH TRAFFIC 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

ANNUAL INCREASES OF 

TELEPHONE WIRE MILEAGE OF THE WORLD 

DIVIDED BY COUNTRIES 



Telephone Ini-estmknt, 

ie BtatiAticB n>r«rriQg to ijiveetmeat do d 
« variouB telEphoDp plautn. as such !afc 
ea teUphone udiuiDiiilratianii. The od 

inception. The warld'e lelephoD 



' I, 
11.661.800.000. equivnlent 



111. ii 



1130 p 






phone. Thi«loUlin ^ 

mutely equal to the volufi ol the com crop of 
the United SUtes ia IDll. 

Of Ihiii lotnl invwlinent of $1.56 1, 800.000, 
the United Stales invented 1956.700.000. or 
61.2 per rent, of the total; Cannda t^a,7U0.- 



(.■ilH.400.000, 



3:1.2 If 



a »50.(K 



1, of tl 



Fifured on the renpective 
telephone is: 



added lo the tcJcp 



world. «> that the above total of tl ,560300.000 
reprewnts on increase of 10% over the corre- 
apoadins investment Jan. 1, 1011. In Uie 
UnttedStatea alone, the estimated increase in 
invostment during 1910 oiuounted to WT.- 
GOO.OOO. or, excluding Europe- consiiierabiy 
more than the total coat of all teicpboDe plantt 

In rcgant lo the more detailed investinait 
pitaliatiod fliven on the followinic page, perhaps 
the mo^t sliikuip feature ofthe tal>le is the 
high figure tor mveatmcnl per telephone ia 
many of the important Eunipeim Stales. For 
instance, Auatria, Belgium. France, r.ial 



Excepting the German Empire and Gnat 
Britain, none of the European States einedi 
> 100,000.000. and the ma^rity han inveettd 



Viewing tole|^ono invna 

lied. ™gltn«'^t the" 
iws that oTlhe European 



intotof total invHiment, il'takea fifth plan is 
point of invnlment pcfcapilA. TbepercapJt* 
investment of the Unital Ptatoi. liloW) '•> 
about nine Umn that of E:urope Ill.tS). <M 
Iho Enropeao countries shown on the chsrt 



It of tl.OO per capita. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



317 



Iktvestment — Telephone and 
Telegraph. 

It is interesting to compare the telephone 
[investment of the world with that of the tele- 
rgnph (including submarine cables). In the 
lalMence of anv definite information covering 
the entire world on that subject, only an esti- 
mate can be made. Using the total tele^^raph 
wire miiefl^, January 1, 1911, as a basis, tne 
teiegrapb investment may be estimated at 
about 9700.000,000. There are also 314.000 
miles of submarine cables representing an esti- 
mated investment of $350,000,000, so that 
the total telegraph investment of the world 
Januanr 1, 1911, may be placed at Sl.OdO.- 
000.000, as compared with a telephone invest- 
ment of $1,561,^77,000 at the same date. 

This makes a total investment of $2,619.- 
497,000 for telephone and telegraph (includ- 
ing submarine cables) for the world, January 
1. 191 1. Of this total 60 per cent, is invested 
in telephones, 27 per cent, in telegraphs and 
13 per cent, in cables. 



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Earnings for 1909 — Telephone 
AND Telegraph. 

The figures for gross telephone eamingB in 
European countries are official, but tnose 
quoted for "all other countries are mostly 
estimated. The total gross telephone earnings 
of the world for the year 1909 may be placed 
at $329,000,000. of which the United States 
earned $221,471,000 (67.4%), Canada $6,752,- 
000 (2%), Europe $91,331,000 (27.8%), and 
all other countries $9,163,500 (2.8%). 

The adjoined table shows the gross tele- 
phone earnings of the various European coun- 
tries, ranging from $241,000 (Portugal) to 
$32,331,000 (German Empire). The average 
earnings per telephone for total Europe was 
$.35.40. 

On account of the almost universal custom 
af European governments of conducting the 
telephone as a branch of the postal ancTtele- 
graph services, practically no European gov- 
ernment keeps its accounts in such a manner 
us to reveal the true net financial result of its 
telephone service. 

Traffic — Mail, Telegraph and 
Telephone. 

Instructive as it would be to compare the 
traffic of the other two branches of transmis- 
sion of intelligence — the mail and the tele- 
graph — with the telephone traffic of the world, 
such a comparison would only be speculative 
on account of the lack of statistical material. 
There is, however, sufficient statistical infor- 
mation to permit a comparison of the traffic 
of these three services, both in the United 
States and in Europe, during the year 1G09. 
The result is as follows: 

Out of a total of 20,669,000,000 messagOB 
transmitted by the three services in Europe, 
15,387,000,000 (74.4 per cent.) were by first 
class mail matter, 345.000.000 (1.7 per cent.) 
by telegrams and 4,937,000,000 (23.9 percent.) 
by telephone. In the United States, out of a 
total of 2 1.508,000,000 messages, 8,793,000,000 
(40.9 per cent.) were by first class mail matter, 
98,000.000 (0.4 per cent.) by telegrams and 
12^17.000,000 (58.7 per cent.) by telephone. 

The figures show that although Europe has 
about three and a half times the telegraph 
traffic and nearly twice the first-class mail 
traffic, it has only one-third the telephone 
traffic of the United States. 

The first class mail, telegraph and telephone 
traffic per 1,000 population for Europe and 
the United States during 1908 and 1909 was 
as follows: 

For Europe; 35,533 nieces of first class mail 
matter in 1909, as agamst 34.766 in 1908, an 
increase of 2.2 per cent.; 798 ttlegrams in 
1909. as against 769 in 1908. an increase of 
3.7 per cent.; 11.400 telephone conversations 
in 1909. as against 10,585 in 1908^ an increase 
of 7.7 per cent. For the Umted States: 
96,090 pieces of first class mail matter in 1909, 
as against 90.062 in 1908. an increase of 6.7 
per cent.; 1,076 telegrams in 1909. as against 
1.039 in 1908. an increa.se of 3.5 per cent; 
137,882 telephone conversations in 1909. as 
against 134,335 in 1908, an increase of 2.f. 
per cent. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



nOFHMLTtmiWHMDTELCMME B 



^Md by Gomparinc Uio i^lepboae witl 
dt Uie other feftdint United Stalna mdi 



ite d^U u oi Jan 



u^^'l?ffi™ 



retmrU by the Unit 
publiBhiuft the r^ui» 

1910. The chart abnwn i>einw givm uie muii 
of a wmpaiuan a( the tf tephoae businHS wilh 
ten lane United states industries. Dcepite 
the fact that Iho telephone has been iniuebut 
Ihirty-tive yean, the telephone investmeal per 
capita January I. 1910 is the founh laioeit. 
yielding only to the Iron and .Sleal. LuiDber. 
aod Oas BUd Heatioc iadiutries. 



The Nbw York Telephone Company dis- 
tributed I.GOO.IKK) new telephone direclonn 
of the iasiK dnud May S. 1913, It miuircl 
(he service of 6m men worliinc firieen days lo 
inalie the deliv^riex of this booli. which com- 

Eises 864 Daer.t. The number of subscriber!, 
led is :i9ll.UU0, not includinK the rimny 

coal of the tekpliune dirK'tory isll.liixiaday, 
or M3»,l)00 anDually. The lint telephone 
directory was issiinl in 1X7S: at (hat time 
the (oul aumlwr of subscribers was 252. 





rlint 


Fipen 


menu 


for ropro- 








































ril^m 






;s^'v,'j 


























inventio 


of his July 


1H77. 








SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DISPOSITION OF THE GROSS REVE- 



SCIENTIFIC AMBHICAN RBPERENCB BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



821 



The growth of the Beil System, its broader 
asefulneaB and resulting proBperity, are shown 
in the annual report of the American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company for 1012 by 
the finnncial statement and other comparative 



At the end of the year 1912 there was a 
total of 7,4o6.074 subscriber stations, of which 
3,508,627 were operated by connecting com- 



The Ben toll lines now reach 70,000 places, 

^^h is 5,000 more than the number of post 

" and 10,000 more than the number of 



railroad stations in the United States. The 
total wire mileage has been increased to 
nearly 14,610.813 miles, of which over half is 
underground, and the new 450>mile subway 
between Boston and Washington has been 
completed. 

The traffic over the Bell lines shows a daily 
average of 25,572.345 or at the rate of 
8,960,000,000 connections a year. 

There was spent in plant additions $76,- 
626,900 in the year. There was applied to 
maintenance and reconstruction during the 
year $66,705,000. making a total provision for 
the last ten years of $409,000,000. 



BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES. 

CONDENSED STATISTICa 



tBmti'ML 



Pbfe Lines. 



Itel IGIn of Fbk Lines. 



tf XSaAoBoaod Wire 

cfBbbaaerineWin 

ofAoMlWin J 



I Total Uihi of Wire. 
i^BpincToBWire. 



Wire. 



Toul. 



^talEnlmgeCSreuits. . 
' ofOmtnlOffioei. 



of Ben Stations 

of BeQ Oonneotcd Statiou*. 



ToUlSto&SM 

IfcabwQfEknploTset 

P^^ of Conaeeting Companiea, 
uMiiBd QjrBtema 



Daily. 



jJCoBseettone^i^ 



Dec. SI, 
IBU. 



25,330 
62,873 



78,203 



184,515 

2,028 

488»872 



675,415 



215,687 
450,728 



675,416 



237,837 
1.613 



281,606 
27,807 



309,502 



14,517 



2,351,420 



51,128 



Dae. 81, 
1900. 



30,451 
101,067 



131,538 



706,260 

4,203 

1,262,320 



1,061,801 



607,500 
1,354,202 



1,061,801 



506,262 
2,775 



800,880 
55,031 



855,911 



37,067 



5.668,966 



148.528 



Deo. 81, 
1906. 



67,698 
145,535 



213,233 



2,345,742 

9,373 

8,424,803 



5,779,918 



1,866,236 
4,514,682 



5,770,918 



1,135,449 
4,532 



2,241,367 
287,348 



2.528,715 



80,661 



13,543,468 



368.063 



Dee. 81, 
1910. 



120,175 
162,702 



282,877 



5,092,303 

24,636 

5,626,273 



11,642,212 



1,963,904 
0,678»218 



11,642,212 



2/)62,960 
4,983 



4,030,668 
1,862,061 



5,882,719 



120,311 



17^45 



21,681,471 



602,539 



Dae. 81, 
19U. 



131,379 
163^351 



294,730 



6,831,667 

26,936 

6,074,012 



12,032,615 



2,060,514 
10,872,101 



2,180.163 
12,421,660 



12,032,615 



2,306,360 
5,014 



4,474,171 
2,158,454 



6,632,625 



128.439 



2),454 



23,483,770 



644,918 



Dae. 81, 
191$.- 



143342 
171,161 



315,008 



7^04328 

80301 

0,775,964 



14,610313 



14,610318 



2376,780 
5,182 



4.063,447 
2,502,627 



7,456,074 



140,780 



24.013 



26.572345 



737,823 



181$. 



12.468 
7310 



30378 



972361 

3365 

•701,973 



1,678,108 



128,640 
13*93*0 



1,678.198 



270,420 
168 



470376 
344.178 



823,440 



12360 



2,550 



2.088375 



92.905 



"bdndre Private Line SutioBS. 



BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES. 
ALL DUPLICATIONS BETWEEN (COMPANIES EXCLUDED. 



COMPARATIVE EARNINGS AT FIVE YEAR INTERVALS, 1886-1012. 






Tsar 1886. 


Tsar 1880. 


Tsar 1898. 


Tsar 1900. 


Tsar 1906. 


Tsar 1910. 


Tsar 191$. 


(tnmEumaa 


$10,033,600 
5,124300 


816312,100 
9,067,600 


824.197300 
15,488,400 


$46,385,600 
30,032,400 


$07,500,100 
00,180,400 


$165,6I2,8Sl 
114318,473 


$199,172,154 
142,285.464 




' ' 


BitEnfaMi 


$4,909300 
27,700 


$7,144,500 
278,700 


$8,703,800 
655,500 


816,753,200 
2,389,000 


831,310,700 
5,836,300 


$50,994,408 
11356,864 


$56.SSG,090 
14,205,365 


hSSr.....:::::: 




BifaBee 


84381,600 
3,107,200 


$6,865,800 
4.101,300 


88,053.300 
5.066,000 


$13,303,000 
7,893,500 


$25,474,400 
15317,500 


$39,437,544 
25,160,780 


$42,681,325 
20,400,215 


tt^idanb...:::::::: 




kphiEMaiDgi 


$1,774,400 


82,764300 


12,986,400 


$5,470,100 


$0,656,000 


$14,270,758 


$13,221,110 



322 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PRINTERS' MARKS. 



9 



^k 






• •■•sOf 



• A 

# 
u 



<^ 



7 «r ^/ 

ts or /4. ft^ 



Gonun*. 

liyphen. 

Coloo. 

Semlcoloa. 

Apoitropli*. 

QuoUtioiw. 

Em qufldmt. 

Two-ott paniUd daih. 
Pttih down f)MC«. 
CloM up. 

Caret— left out, inMtt. 

T.urn to proper pocitiwn. 

Inaort space. 

Uovo to left or to rig^t. 

Move up or move down. 

Tranipooe. 

Let it eUnd; 

Dele— take out. ^ 

Broken letter. 

IHuajpaph. 

Nopan^fi|>1i. 

VroDg font. 

Equalise fpadaf. 

Capital!. 

Small capital!. 

Lowcr<aee 

Superior or inteior. 

Italic. 

Roman. 

Brackets. 

PftraodiiMa. 












% 



4/, 



TTPOOnAPHKAL BKIlOns 

___ not appear tliat the carliftrt printer* had € 

aaJ^methnd^o^^rrcrttnft,|ermn''bcfofo^lhc form ^ ^ t^ 
waa on the prcai/ The learned Th ! t e a me d cor> ^^ 
recton of die first two centuries of print jnf wcrft * ^ 

not proo^f^cadcrs in our scnsc/thcy w/Cre rather i/^ 

what wo should Term office editors. Their laboca / 
wcreThicfly to sec that the proof corro^Moded to 



the copy, but that the printed page was correct 

that the sense iras ri^L Tlicy carod iv% Utile c^ 
about orthrtgraphy, bad icttoni^or purely prinuif^ yY^tiu 
erroia, and when the text seemed to them wrootc ^ 
they coOMulted fresh authuritjes or alt<»vd it un 
their own rospontibiliiy. Oood pFoof»y,^in iho yf 
A%dCf^ modem sense, were/^possiW until prof ren«wal ^jf> 
readers were employed/ men who [hsrij hrsi] a «*«« 
printer's education, and then spent many y9*n 
ia the Correc^Eio of proof. Tho orthography of 
English, which for the past century has under^ 
jjono little change, was very fluctuating until after 
the publication of Johnson's Dicti<niary. and capi- 
tals, which have been used with considerable r«f- 
ularity for the past@ years,- were previously used 
on the fmisB f Bf\h i ij plan. The approadi to regu- 
larity, ao far as we havM may be attributed to the 
growth of a cIms of professicmal proof readen, and 
it is to them that ire owe the convctneas of jnod> 
cm printing./yMorc er/ors have been found in the 
Bible than in any other one work.. For manv yepy^ i^ ^ 
orations it was frequently the case that Bibler' 



<f 






4 



orations it was frequently the case that 

were brou^t out stealthily, from fear of io\'«Ri» 

£Jmental interference. ^ They were frequently ^L<^ 

printed from imperfect texts, and were often mod- 

iiicd to meet Uie views of thoao who publiMd 

themj^e story is related that "^ 

in Germany, wl 

had bocomo disRustod 



I 



ted that a certain woman m / m 
the wife oT a j'rinter. mA ^eVici^ 
with the continual nnarr / 



/y / bad oocomo diSRUstod with toe continual nnarr 
^I't-JAffrn, xxaafaf th e/«upcfion/jr) of man over woman which 
/v/ eho had heard, hurried into the compoaiM rooa 



com posing 

^ M while her husband, was at sapper and altered a 

'^/-'^ •tn\Kac^ in the'' jplble,^h{clvhe wai^ntti^. so 

>^/Mr 'that it read Jfar^lnstead Qfy^Qerr,^us makiDg 

/ Tl the verse rsftd "And he shall be thvfool " instead 



A 



Wj, of "/nd be shall be thy;Kwd." The word^net. 
/^ was omitted by ftu-ker, tho Xinf'" printer in En- . 
't Jpand in 1032,in printing thesevcnthcomi 
^^^ He was fined lAOOO on this accoont. 







«»u 




NUMBER OF WORDS AND EMS TO THE SQUARE INCH. 



Sixes of type. 



l4-polQt ■ 

13s>oint 

11-point. 

lO-polnt •. 

6-point.,^ 

••point 

6-polnt * 



Ntunber of words. 


8oUd. 


Leaded. 


11 


8 


14 


11 


17 


14 


21 


16 


32 


23 


47 


34 


09 


fiO 



NUBH 

berof 



3? 

43 

52 

81 
144 
807 



CHAPTER XII. 



POST OFFICE AFFAIRS.* 



PART I. 
STATISTICAL INFORMATION. 

UKITED STATES POST OPPICE. 

SUMMARY OP ALL GLASSES DOMESTIC MAIL SERVICE IN OPERATION 

JUNE 30, 1912. 

Jfunbcr of routOB 12.308 

Uoftli or routes, miles 3.761.466.761 

iromber of nUes (raveled per annum 403.384.878.76 

lAanoal r»te of ezpendtture 79.160,763.6.'> 

jATcnge rmte of cost per mile of length 286.62 

Avvrase r»te of cost per mile traveled, cents 16.04 

Awfnge Dumber of trips per week. . . ; 17.17 



SOURCE OF REVENUE. 

I ToUl for 

I Bale of postage stamps. fiscal year. 

stamped envelopes, postal 

rank, etc $221,563,610.00 



! leooiMf-ctaflB postage, paid in 

' maoey 

! Thtrd and fourth class post- 
ige, paid In money 

Bos rantB 

MiHeOaneous receipts 

Letter postage. paJd In money 
: Paes and penalties 

Dead letters 

I Kevenoe firom money-order 



I Csp^d money orders mdrv 
tbaa 1 year old 



0.300.140.61 

5,444.615.10 

4.646.664.04 

300.263.76 

71.700.02 

55.201.06 

33.122.30 

4.843.364.74 

478,314.28 



Total $246,744,015.88 



EXPENDITURE BY ITEMS POR YEAR 

1012. 



Service in post offices: 
Salaries of postmasters. 
Salaries of clerks, etc. . , 
City Delivery Service . , 
All other expenditures. . 



$28,648,426.33 
42.470.008.01 
34.252.052.62 
11,216.032.31 



Total $116,508,220.17 

Railway Mall Service $20,876,063.37 

Rural Delivery Service 41.000.514.70 



Transportation of domestic 
mail: 

Byraltax>ad8 $51,810,411.82 

By other means of trans- 
portation 13.204.261.75 

Total $65,023,673.57 

Transportation of foreign 
lail 



mai 

Payments on account 
invalid money orders. 



of 



$3,716,181.11 
600.387.28 



RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION. 



SERVICE AND EXPENDITURE. 

Number of routes 3.409 

Uogth of routes, miles 226.07 1.02 

Aanoal travel, miles 458.648.623.77 

Aaaaal rate of expenditure $46,336,203.86 
Avenge rate of cost per mile 

of length 

Average rate of cost per mile 

traveled, cents 

Anraas number of trips per 



204.06 
10.10 
10.51 



On June 30. 1012. there were in operation 
159 r&ll railway post-office lines, manned by 
1607 crews or 8.066 clerks (including 161 
KCincclertai). Of these 150 full lines. 141 had 



apartment-car service, manned by 1,040 
crews, of 1.508 clerks. There were also 
1.377 apartment railway pcmt-olOce lines, 
manned by 4.287 crews, of 5.554 clerks; 17 
electric car lines, with 18 crews, of 10 clerks: 
53 steamboat lines, with 86 crews, of 86 clerks; 
a total of 1.606 lines of all kinds, manned by 
15.323 clerks, representing the working 
force of the lines. In addition there were 
32 officials, 120 chief clerks. 622 transfer 
clerks employed in handling the mails at 
important junction points. 521 clcsrks detailed 
to clerical duty in the various offices of the 
nervice, and 448 clerks employed in terminal 
railway post offices — an aggregate of 17.075 
employees in the service* 

( Continued on page 324 .) 



*ThiB chanter is divided into two parts: the first gives statistics relative to the Post Office 
AiTairs of the United States and the world, the second deals with information relative to ratew. 
«tc., domestic and foreign and the "Parcel Post." Revised through the courtesy of Post- 
master-General Burleson. 

323 



L. 



324 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



(Continued from pag:e 323.) 

or the 1.388 full railway post-oflSce cars in 
use and in reserve. 545 are all-steel cars. 182 
Bteel-undeiframe cars, and 661 wooden cars, 
and of the 4.029 apartment cars In use and in 
reserve. 181 are all-steel cars. 221 steel-under- 
frame cars, and 3.627 wooden cars. 

During the fiscal year the department has 
pormitCed further experimental aeroplane 
mail service. There nave been 31 orders 
issued permitting the mall to be carried 



between certain points by aeroplanes. Sod 
service was merely temporary and was M 
intended to be permanent. In each instaoo 
where the mail has been carried the serria 
has been performed by a sworn carrier sai 
without cost to the depart meat. Sud 
service was authorized in 16 differoit Stata 
Reports received of the perfonnaooe of t^ 
service by aeroplanes und^ the various ordei 
issued permitting such service indicate ths 
in many instances service was performed la ' 
reasonable satisfactory manner. 



MAIL SERVICE IN OPERATION YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1912. 



BtTvin. 



Star roatM ta Alaska 

StMfflbostroatat.. 

ICafl-meneager rgutas 

PiMiiinatio>tab« roatea , 

WasoD routes (In oltioB) 

Rauroad rootas 

Raflwaypoat-ottoaean 

Elactxie and eabto oar rootaa. . 



Total ^ , 

Star roataatn Alaska Cennrgenoy). , 

Steamboat roates (poond rata) ».._ , 

Rajlroad traBBportatlon, misoellaaBoas: 

Periodical malla... ^., , 

ICafl wel^UngBy ato , 

Frelc^t on mafl bass, postal cards, ato ...... I .! I '!.'!.'.'.'.'!!!! .^ 

Baflway ICall Servioe (officers and clerks, lodndlns acting 
dsrks) ............... ..'.^...........,......... 



Ifafleauipment 

msoftllaoaous expenaBe . 



Total Inland aerrioa 

Foreign malls: 

Aggregate cost. -«.... 

Less Intermediary serrioa to foreign oounbies! 



Total. 



Number. 



23 

237 

7,eM 

V 



^*» 



W7 



12.208 



17,075^ 



Aggregate 



MUa. 
4,218.00 
31,875.57 
5,183.17 

6i.8iSl 
1,341.17 
228,07La2 



7,473.M 



276.14&87S1 



fS,704.5l3.9S 
8508, MO. 65 



Ammalratoor 
expcwUtaree. 



7a2,61&08 

i,«aowiu.at 



I, 



4„M7,aaB.M 
080,856.77 






S40B.012.70 
*2«<, 078.20 
«i07, 511.00 



"^^ 



IS 



70,150^76.00 



SaWrm-v 






> Aniborliatloo. 



* Actual expenditures. 



* Estimated actual eKpenditurcs. 



COMPARISON OP REVENUES ANIX EXPENDITURES FOR THE FISCAL YEAI 
ENDED JUNE 30. 1912. WITH THOSE OF THE PRECEDING YEAR. 



Items. 



Fiscal year. 



REVENUES. 

Ordinary postal revenues 

Revenues from money-order business. 

Total revenues from all sources . . 



EXPENDITnRE.S. 

Expenditures on account of the fiscal year. 
Total revenues during the year 



FJxcess of expenditures over revenues 

Amount of Ios.ses by Are. hurRlary. bad debts, etc 
Deficit in the postal revenues 



1911 


1912 


$23 S07.557.29 
•72.266.31 


$241,422,336.86 
5.321.679.0> 


$237. 79.823.60 

$238,623,350.37 
237.879,823.60 


$246,744,015.88 

$248,624,940.29 
246.744.015AS 


$743,526.77 

11.778.80 

756.305.57 


$1,880,924.41 

4.0S,Vl»t' 

1.885,013.31 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



325 



EXPENDITURES, APPROPRIATIONS AND ESTIMATES FOR ALL 

TRANSPORTATION SERVICES EXCEPT RURAL DELIV- 

ERY AND STAR ROUTE SERVICE. 



Service, etc. 



Mat service in Alaska 

;flleamboai service 

Maa-measongc r service 

:^ieainatic^4abe service 

wafoo service (in cities) 

;Maaba«8. etc 

Xabor in mail-bag repair shop 

[AnbirorfcBhop. Chicago. lU 

jVall loclcB and keys 

;labor in maU-lock repair shop 

I'Bailroad trannxMrtation 

■Tabulating information relative to railroad 

; companTeB 

il)«iEht on mail bags, postal cards, etc 

fnflway post-ofDce cars 

iBaOvay mail service 

iBectrlc and cable car service 



Expenditures 

for fiscal year 

ended June 30, 

1912. 



Total inland service 

fbreign mail service: 

Traaq>ortation . . « 

Assistant superintendent. New York, N.Y. 

Balance due foreign countries 

Delegates to International Postal Union 

atMadrid 

MlBCTDaneoua expenses 



1S232.826.58 

820.470.18 

1,605.514.60 

932.566.36 

1.690.682.04 

284.505.39 

99,003.59 

2.461.97 

11.302.90 

33.991.91 

47,298.087.47 

.5.431.99 

424.774.18 

4.521.324.35 

20.876.963.37 

682.544.65 



Appropriation 

for fiscal year 

ending June 30. 

1913. 



79.522.451.53 

3.241.564.72 
2.500.00 
472,116.39 



S3.2.'i8.632.64 



$250,000.00 

853,700.00 

1.681.900.00 

987.400.00 

1.732.000.00 

282.000.00 

102.000.00 

2,400.00 

12,000.00 

36..')00.00 

47.646.000.00 



Estimate 

for fiscal year 

ending June 30. 

1914. 



>648,200.00 

4,707.000.00 

26.209.224.00 

728.000.00 



$508,300.00 

909.900.00 

2,167.300.00 

962.200.00 

2,160.600.00 

355.500.00 

108.300.00 

2.400.00 

15,000.00 

38.000.00 

49.661,000.00 



500.000.00 

5.393.000.00 

26.673.488.00 

847.400.00 



84,878.324.00 I 90.302,388.00 



3.748.400.00 

2.500.00 

486,400.00 

5.000.00 
1.000.00 



3,981.900.00 

2, .500.00 

475.000.00 



1.000.00 



89.121.624.00 94.762.788.00 



tStar service, except In Alaska, transfored to office of Fourth Assistant Postmaster General. 
•InclodeB $123,200 made immediately available for deficiency for fiscal year 1912. 



Aiwtnca. 14.643.129_ 




The postal business of all states of the worid. 

I ftKtt tf matt (iKNrmel. bUtrnatitmal and tmult) te ti 



40 thouMod dtlKyy d 



Euron* 


95,61 a.7 


V 


Em/n 


y^e\7r 


^ 


y/vmnand 


P*»e«\ 




R Portugal 
107.800 



0909,1907). 

Asia: 2.677,498 

■ 30,000 Strativ 

° 15,100 fr hMlo- 
China and oth Pon. 

7 9fln P»Mlipp*n» 
, T^.zao |«i«nd» 

3,040 Hongkong 

• 3.370 

K.SU-CXSU 





6370 " 

Cost* Rlea . 

4.420 • 

CekMnbta . 

4.930 • 

rOtjO •OCO - 

i130 • 

5.820 " 

SmWmior , 
a.150 

Bwrmwdat . 
7jXO 

Frtftctl - 
Gutww 1.808 

BntGuana • 

loao 



Fronch Wmt 

lndiMi;B90 

DomMcRap. 

1,030 

Naw-Fowtd- 

tend 1,108 

Vanczuata 

l;0OO 

Honduns 

1,030 

^irlnam 

Dan Watt 
IndiaseiO 

600 Curasao 

Brit Honduras 

430 

410 Ham 

aSOStPiarra 
■i>4Mi4uaion 

Falkland l». 

SL 




ttenmark B Serbian 

siSflw »*"o 



IS 



Chma 



a Norway 
171.210 



54 



ButjMft 



|X| Rumania 
"^ 151,250 



TurVa 
42 



rVey 
.720 



202,000 * 2.180 Sam 

30,600 Koraa * 9,080 Parsia 

Caylon ^02 Samoa 

303X) • goB"' 



North Borrao 

Africa: 367,245 thousand piacat. 

Luxemburg GI Algarla 
33.760 79,600 

El Fgvpt 



.0 4^60 Brtt 

• Went-Africa 



Soiin 
336,700 



1.530 Ang:;i« 

33,4bO ■ CflfvijColony • 3510 M,u„tui * 982 K.-n-^^in 

r •"" "■ rr m I, . I • 3'^ -^O '^--^ D91 "' » •" 

G' '.< tar ■ N.i'il 'inl .nl nimlrtli ^'> 

8, <.0 4J/jr60 



("■j'-3J 



3,'«>J 






Australia: 705,987 thousand pec* 
H'lAflti ■ rill i>i.iiivis 

7,1 to 1.850 

KQIIYY) a ^•»-> ^ P0»4 » <ir T^tP Pot* 



K-TlAu, 
y . N 6Q3 



Australia 



• 3,108 

S'y.TI Wtil Atf. • y ry^^^^ .^,, ^ .^ • 78 S» H.«r« 



5,320 F'l-'ch 



■ r I ; V.li»« It 
1.9<0 »J«>ry.rfi 






SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFBREn^CB BOOK. 



POSTAL SERVICE 01 



Number of Letters. 



Numbec o[ Port Canb. 



Bslsiuni ..... 
Denmuk. . , . 

France 

Great Brilaio. 

Italy 

^P^^ 

Norwa^.V..;: 
Nattaeriands., 
Portugal 

Spaia..'!!!!!! 



233.27W 2,478,780,330 



10,874 

161773 

133,81 1 
60,320 



6,135 10,623 

31,714l 8,462 

s,oasi gs.is7 

7,940 11,397 

13,473 17,462 



43.302.Ma 1,617, 



138,531,772 

.zie!76o:o25 

'2ei!727!MO 

as! 100)443 

48,318,000 
111,718,854 

28,661,037 
724,871.640 
114,217.174: 
118,524.171 
149,083.318 



4,009^9 
335.a» 
80.08 
75.49 



* Inoludea employeea in ptwtal, telecrapta and tetuibonc i 
t Includes employeea in poalal and teltigraiih lervieea. 



FOREIGN MAI 

CMt of the Foreian Mail Service < 
.e fiscal year endeffjune 30. 1BI2, 



, SERVICES. 
Tlia velAti 01 



d «u tUI.IM.4I. 



PRrUTING POSTAL CARDS, 



COIUNO POSTAGE STAMPS 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RErERENCE BOOK. 
i WORLD— Domeatic. 











M™«-o«U™. 






B^f. 


k,3a. 














Printed 


Commerri^ 




ft» 


Number 


Value in 




papers. 




matter. 




doUsn. 




9 


10 


11 




13 


1.533,0««.130 


19.090,630 


67, 72,810 




174,933.220 


12,178, 84.238.15 


lOO^SSI 






18 IT2Z( 




3177 






32! 


n 






" 'Isiis^OT* 


B. 70,530 


m;2a2;lfS 


4!48 




87;34i 




932 




7 7,232 




4.683 


249 


52 28 






1.340 


676 


7M 


si.aiB'.ais 






82,27 


483 


659,824 






I.ai9 


804 




Iqc. Col. 4 




fi;i48,'414;000 








391 


w 










10,821,820 


1.238,MS,BM 






4S6i23{ 


30! 


3D 


337 






19.S13,80fl 


8,987,62« 








124:731 






86 




4fl7 


IZ8.409 


























78,780,700 








634 


85 










2,456,220 


477,306,266 


8,344 




35,93C 


m 


57 








749,680 


1,092.778 




794 


153 f 








1« 


78» 


MO 


12.5B2.170 


10,784.581 


1,4E7;647:684 


41,03t 


JB8 


1.0741243 




17 












281,373,808 




<7S{ 


ifJ^ 


^ 


ea 






535 




i;0S3:i01 


BT 062,703 




1,477,836 


321.271.273 


siagi 


885* 




419 


70 



1 PrM>»ymftii 
i IncTudei d» 



VALUE OF POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED IN THE UNITED STATES, 



328 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOie 



1 

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oo«aod«N^«OQ'*bro>ooc<i-« 

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330 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ESTIMATED TOTAL MAIL DELIVERED AND COLLECTED BY RURAL DELIVERY 
CARRIERS ANNUALLY. BASED ON A COUNT IN MAY, 1911. 



Class of matter. 


Delivered. 


Collected. 


TotaL 


Number. 


Weight. 


Number. 


Weight. 


Number. 


WwghL 


First class: 

Lettera 


403,346,961 

220,824,766 

1,488,779 


Pound*. 
12,224,392 
2,707,108 
303,453 


260,288,002 

128,116,628 

302,740 


Poundt. 

6,086,496 

1,530,636 

65,276 


722,635,553 

348,941,394 

1,791,519 


PMMic 
18.310,811 


Postal cvds. 


4.237.ai 


MisoeUaneoiis 


366,79 


TotaL 


684,660,496 


15,235,013 


388,707,970 


7,683,408 


1,073,368,466 


22,9n.4a 






Beoond class: 

Newspapers 


996,710,166 
95,318,801 

169,349,819 
11,600,341 


175,322,207 

29,165,207 

24,567,233 

2,543,016 


1,459,679 
225,608 
124,710 

3,178,762 


333,379 
82,890 
19,280 

600,019 


098,100,735 
95,544,409 

169,474,529 
14,785,103 


17S.6SS,fli 


MagaxiiMW. 


29,246,M 


Freo in ooanty 


24,576.M 


Transient 


3. 142.fli 






Total 


1,272,985,117 


231,580,663 


4,968,659 


1,035,574 


1,277,973,778 


232.623L3B 






Third clikss: 

Books 


4,033,761 

258,855,886 

34,723,736 


3,364,075 

20,331,815 

7,840,204 


256,209 

3,804,808 

- 1,637,809 


175,066 
271,634 
361,915 


4,289,970 

263,660,694 

36,361,505 


3,530,141 


Circalars 


20,aB,4« 


Mlsoellaneoas 


8,282. 1» 


Total 


297,613,383 


31,536,094 


5,696,886 


806,615 


303,312,269 


32,344,701 






Fourth class: 

Merchandise pockages. . . 


30,161,408 


14,206,782 


3,255,429 


1,463,209 


. 33,416,837 


15,790,00 


Franked and penalty: 

Franked letters 

Franked documents. 

Penalty letters 


4,125,727 

6,450,969 

11,591,630 

3,000,444 


295,126 

1,292,804 

648.580 

487,313 


230,649 

108,277 

1,060,715 

102,139 


10,S98 
27,404 
58,511 
18,659 


4,356.376 

6,559,246 

12,652,345 

3,702,583 


306,ON 

1,320,301 

607,091 


Penalty documents 


505,079 


Total 


25,708,770 


2,023.823 


1,501,780 


115,472 


27,270,550 


2.739,2S 






Foreign: 

Letters. 


4,683,170 
2,262,328 


200,392 
374,018 


2,295,487 
305,852 


110,171 
44,293 


6,978,003 
2,568,190 


310.50 


MismllafifHMis... 


418,310 






TotaL 


6,945,504 


574,410 


2,601,339 


154,463 


9,546,843 


738, 8» 


Registered: 

Letters 


1,165,474 
376,651 


119,937 
225,557 


734,593 
129,617 


65,300 
52,718 


1,900,067 
506,268 


185,S7 


MisoeUanoons 


278,2ff 


TotaL 


1,542,125 


345,494 


864,210 


118,018 


2,406,335 


463,58 


Grand total 


2,319,676,803 


290,168,279- 


407,618,273 


11,377,819 


2,727,295,076 


307,646,00 







RURAL DELIVBRT. 

On June 30, 1912. service was In operation 
on 42,199 routes served by 42,081 carriers at an 
annual cost of 140.655,740. 

The total mileage of rural routen in opera- 
tion June 30. 1912. was 1,021.492. and the dally 
travel by carrlHrs was 1.012,722 miles, the aver- 
ORP mlh-age per rouie being 24.20. The aver- 
ag cost per mile traveled was f 0.1307. 

GROWTH OF THE SERVICE. 

There were 42.199 routes in operation on 
June 30, 1912; of these, »;99 routes were oper- 
ated tri -weekly, being an Increase of 91 over 
the previous year. 

In 1897 there were 82 routes, for which an 
npproiiriatlon of $40,000 wum nia<le; the ex- 
piMiilllure that year was $11,810. In ]900 there 
were l.2.'j9 rouloH, the appropriation was $1.VI,- 
«M>0. the expenditure $420,433, whlfh was an 
inrrca.«(e of $27o.42i over iha* of the preceding 
year. In 190r» the number of routes was 32,0&5, 
the appropriation $21,110,600. the expenditure 
$20,864,885. an exceas of $8,219,610 over that of 



the year before. In 1912 there were 42. IM 
routes, the appropriation was $42,790,000. tha 
expenditure $41,859,422. an increaas of $4,732,- 
792 over the expenditure of 1911. 

AMOUNT OF MAIL HANDLED. 

In May, 1911. a count waa made of the 
amount and weight of mall of all claaacs de- 
livered and collected hj th« rural-dellT«r7 
carriers. Prom this count the estimate vlren 
In the table above has been made of the 
amount and weight of mail handled annnalljr 
on rural routes. 

The first aerial dispatch of United Bt^es 
mail occurred In September, 1911. when 43,000 
pieces were carried from Aeroplane Poatal Su- 
tlon No. 1 on Naasau Boulevard to Mineola. 
Long Island. The progress being made In the 
science of aviation encourages the hope that 
ultimately the regular conveyance of mail by 
this means may be pFaetleable. Such a srrv* 
ice. if found feasible, might be established in 
many districts where the natural condlllons 
preclude other means of rapid transportatloo. 



sc ienttfic american rkpebencb book. 831 

Parcels dispatched to and heceived from poreiqn countries dur- 
ing THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, IBIJ, AND INCREA8E 
OVER PREVtOUS YEARS. 






1 



332 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MAILINGS OP SECOND-CLASS PUBLICATIONS. 



Totals of the number of publications 
of the various flrequencles of issue and 
news agents mailing at the pound rate of 
postage June 30. 1912. 

Daily 2,614 

Tri-weekly 59 

Semi-weekly 660 

Weekly 17.217 

Semi-monthly 667 

Monthly 6,277 

Bi-monthly 264 

Suarterly 1.361 
ther periods 255 

Total 28.144 

News agents 3.200 

Publications admitted under tiie act of 

March 3. 1879 26.667 

Publications admitted under the act of 

July 16. 1894 1.469 

Publications admitted under the act of 

June 6. 1900 18 

Total 28.144 



Stamps were flrst introduced in America by 
the English Stamp Act of 1766: this act was 
opposed by the First American Congress In 
Nov. 1765 and repealed in 1776. 

Number of pounds of second-class matter 
mailed at the cent-a-pound and ftee-{n-county 



rates during the fiscal year ended June 30. 

1912: 

Subscribers' copies: 

Free in county .Vi.OlT.eSl 

At cent-a-pound rate 927.260.451 

Sample copies at cent-a-pound 

rate 12.ri79.»04 

Total at centra-pound rate. . . . 939.94 CSiiS 

Total mailings at cent-a-pound 

rate and free-in-oounty 997.957.086 

Estimated weights of mailings of sectmd- 

class matter at other than the cent-a>pouDd 

and free-in-county rates during the fiscal year 

1912. based on the special weighing of msik 

in 1907: 

Pounds. 

At transient second-class rate of 

1 cent for each 4 ounces 29.494.090 

At special rate of 1 cent a copy . . 1 .826.4K2 

At special rate at 2 cents a copy 3.732.097 

Total 35.052,569 

RECAPITULATION. 

Weight of mailings of second- 
class matter at the cent-a- 
pound and fl*ee-In-county rates 997,957.08« 

Weight of maiUngs at other rates 35.052.569 



Aggregate weight of mailing of 



second-class matter 



1.033.010.555 



REGISTERED MAIL ITEMS WITH 

TOTAL AMOUNTS FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING JUNE 30. 1912. 



Paid registrations: 

Domestic letters 

Domestic parcels 

F(M«lgn letters 

Foreign parcels 

Official paid 

Total paid registrations 

Official free. Inclusive of postal 
savings system 

Official free, on business of 
postal savings system only . . . 

Official ttee (special) 

Total free regwtrations 

Total number of letters and 
parceb registered, paid and 
free 

Distribution letters and parcels 
re-registered tree 

Aggregate number of letters and 
parcels registered, paid, of- 
ficial free, and distribution 

Total free and dis^ibution re- 
fl^stored free 

Amount collected for registry 
fees 



26.761.638 

7.295.130 

3.924.637 

777.762 

154.667 

87.913,734 

4.095.987 

79.566 

146.723 

4.321.266 



42.236.000 
1.386.498 

43.620,498 

6,706.764 

3,791,373.40 

GROWTH OF THE DOMESTIC MONEY- 
ORDER SYSTEM. 

For the year ending June 30. 1912, the total 
number of money-order offices In operation 
was 52,815; the number of ordfrs Issued was 
84,r)3ti.212. their value $583,337,003.96; the 
nuralM^r of orders paid and repaid. 84.686.907 ; 
thHr value $584.358. a32.»4: the numl)er of ex- 
cess of payniontH and repayments over issues, 
147.695, their value $1,021,028.98; the 
amount In fees received. $4,967,746.84; 
average amount of orders. $6.90; average 
amount of fees. $0.0582. 

IMITATIONS OF STAMPS. 

No adhesive stamps, o' any form or design 
whatever, other than lawful postage stamps, 
are permitted to be affixed to the address side 
of domestic mall matter, but such adhesive 



STAMP BOOKS. 



During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1012, 
25.736.946 stamp books were issued, having a 
value of $8,146,512.34. 

STAMP COILS. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1912 
459.204 stamp coils were Issued for use in 
stamping machines. The total value of the 
stamps which were made up In coils was 
$4,363,273.60. 

POSTAL CARDS. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1912. 
909,411.045 postal cards were issued, havbig • 
value of $9,326,662.40. By Tkt the largfsl 
number of postal cards were the one-c«cit 
card bearing a portrait of the late President 
McKinley. There were 944.927.198 card* 
issued of this variety in 1911. 

STAMPED ENVELOPES AND NEWS- 
PAPER WRAPPERS. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1912. 
449.248,500 ordinary stamped envelopes and 
wrappers were Issued, the value l)eing$15S.- 
777.72. while 1,236.376.661 return card 
envelopes were issued, having a value of 
$25,546,037.55, making a total of 1.684.- 
624.161. with a value of $33,704,815.27. 



Fees of 8 cents each on special deUvery 
mail were claimed by postmasters last year to 
the total amount of $1,469,177.80. Indicating 
that 18,364,722 pieces of mail of this charart** 
were delivered, being an increase of 1.608.- 
223 pieces over last year, or 9.58 p«r cent. 
These flgiures relate to all post offloes. ir- 
respective of class. 



stamps, provided they do not In form ram- 
ble lawful postage stamps, and do not oeu" 
numerals, may be affixed to the reverse sWe 
of domestic mail matter. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



338 



PART n. 
PRACTICAL POSTAL INFORMATION. 

DOMESTIC MAIL MATTER. 



CLASSIFICATION. 

L Domeotle mail matter Includes matter de- 
yositcd In the mails for local deliyery, or for 
uaasmiaBlon from one place to another within 
the United States, or to or from or between 
the posse— Ions of the United States, and Is 
divided Into four classes: 

First. Written and sealed matter, postal 
car^ and prfrate mailing cards. 

Second. Periodical publications. (Rates for 
pablisbMS and news agents only.) 

Third. Miscellaneous printed matter (on 
paper). 

Foorth (Parcel Post). All matter not in- 
cluded m preTioua classes. 

t Porto Rico and Hawaii are Included in 
the term "United SUtes." The Philippine 
Archlp«lago, Quam, Tutuila (including all ad- 
Jsfcent Islands of the Samoan group which are 
ions of the United States), and the 



Oinal Zone are included in the term "Posses' 
rioim of the United SUtes." The term "Canal 



* Includes all the territory purchased 
from the Republic of Panama, embracing the 
"Canal Zone" proper and the Islands In the 
Bay of Panama named Perico. Naos, Culebra 
and Flamenco. 

S. Domestic rates and conditions apply to 

nail matter addressed to officers or members 

of the crew of yenels of war of the United 

States, to matter aent to the United States 

Postal Agency at Shanghai. China, and, with 

certain exceptions, to that sent to Oinada, 

Cuba, Mexico and the Republic of Panama. 

The domestic rate applies also to letters, but 

j sot to other articles, addressed to Great Brit- 

I ain, Ireland and Newfoundland, and to letters 

' tor Germany despatched only by steamers 

which land the mails at Ctorman ports. 

A. Pamphlet of General Postal Information. — 
A pamphlet of general postal information has 
been issued for free distribution to the public 
throng postmasters. It contains the classlfl- 
catioa. conditions and postag«> rates for do- 
SMstle and foreign mail matter. The Informa- 
tloa glren herewith is usually sufficient. A 
new edition of the pamphlet has Just been 



FIRST-CLASS MATTER. 

Sl Written matter, namely: Letters, postal 
cards, prlTate mailing cards (post cards), and 
all matter wholly or partly in writing, whether 
sealed or nnsealed (except manuscript copy 
•ccampanying proof sheets or corrected proof 
iiieeti of tJie same) and the writing authorized 
by law to be placed upon matter of other 
claosa. All matter sealed or otherwise closed 
agaiut Infection is also of the first class. 
Note.— Typewriting and carbon and letter press 
copies thereof are held to be an equivalent of 
haodwriting and are classed as such in all 



DROP LBTTBRS. 
C. See page 336. 

POSTAL CARDS. 

T. Postal cards Issued by the Post Office De- 
WtBient may bear written, printed, or other 
additions aa follows: 

(a) The fsoa of the card may be divided by a 
vtrtleal line placed approximately one-third of 
tbe distance from the left end of the card; 
Um ipaee to the left of the line to be used 



for a message, etc., but the space to the rii^t 
for the address only. 

(b) Addresses upon postal cards . . . may 
be either written, printed or affixed thereto, at 
the option of the sender. 

(c) Very thin sheets of paper may be at- 
tached to the card on condition that they com- 
pletely adhere thereto. Such sheets may bear 
both writing and printing. 

(d) Advertisements, illustrations or writing 
may appear on the back of the card and on 
the left third of the face. 

(e) The addition to a postal card of matter 
other than as above authorised will annul Its 
privileges as a postal card and subject it, when 
sent In the mails, to postage according to the 
character of the message—at the letter rate If 
wholly or partly In writing or the third-class 
rate if entirely In print. In either case the 
postage value of the stamp Impressed upon the 
card will not be Impaired. 

(f) Postal cards must be treated In all re- 
spects as sealed letters, except that when un- 
dellverable to the addressee they may not be 
returned to the sender. Undellverable 
"double" postal cards will be returned to the 
sender If known. 

(g) Postal cards bearing particles of glas^ 
metal, mica, sand, tinsel or other similar 
substances are unmailable, except when en- 
closed in envelopes tightly sealed to prevent 
the escape of such particles with proper postage 
attached, or when treated in such manner as 
will prevent the objectionable substances from 
being rubbed off or injuring persons handling 
the maila 

Note.— Used postal cards which conform to 
the conditions prescribed for post cards may be 
remalled with one cent poatage prepaid 
thereon. 

8. Double postal cards should be folded be- 
fore mailing. Intact double postal cards should 
be folded before mailing. 

9. Either Half Usable Separately.— Either half 
of a double domestic postal card may be used 
separately, but postmasters will not separate 
them. 

10. Mailing Reply Part With Initial Half At- 
tached. — If the initial half of a double postal 
card be not detached when the reply half Is 
mailed for return, the card is subject to post- 
age according to the character of the message. 
The enclosure in a double postal card of un- 
authorized matter annuls its privileges as a 
postal card. 

11. Reply Postal Cards to and from the Phil- 
ippines.— The reply half of the Philippine 
double postal card of 1-cent denomination, 
overprinted with the word Philippine, shall be 
valid for postage when mailed in the United 
States and addressed to points in the Philip- 
pine Islands. The United States Ircent double 
postal card may be mailed from the United 
States to the Philippine Islands, and by ar- 
rangement with the Bureau of Posts of the 
Philippines the reply half of the card is valid 
for postage when mailed In the Philippines 
and addressed to points in this country. 

PRIVATE MAILING CARDS (POST CARDS). 

12. Private mailing cards ("post cards") In 
the domestic mails must conform to the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

(aj A "post card" must be an unfolded pteeo 



S34 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



of cardboArd not exceeding 9 by 14 centi- 
meten (approximately 3 9-16 by 6 9-16 Inches) 
nor leas than 7 by 10 centlmeten (approxi- 
mately 2 3-4 by 4 Inches). 

(b) It must In form and 'In the quality and 
weight of paper be substantially like the Gov- 
ernment postal card. 

(c) It may be of any color not Interfering 
with a legible address and postmark. 

(d) It may or may not. at the option of the 
sender, bear near the top of the face the 
words "Post Card." 

(e) The face of the card may be divided by 
a vertical line; the left half to be used for a 
message, etc., but that to the right for the 
address only. 

(f) Very thin sheets of paper may be at- 
tached to the card, and then only on condition 
that they completely adhere thereto. Buch 
sheets may bear both writing and printing. 

(g) Advertisements and illustrations may ap- 
pear on the back of the card and on the left 
half of the face. 

(h) Cards, without cover, conforming to the 
foregoing conditions, are transmissible in the 
domestic mails (including the possessions of 
the United States) and to Cuba, Canada, Mex- 
ico, the Republic of Panama, and the United 
States postal agency at Shanghai, China, at the 
postage rate of 1 cent each. 

(1) When post cards are prepared by printers 
and stationers for sale it is desirable that they 
bear in the upper right-hand corner of the face 
an oblong diagram containing the words "Place 
postage stamp here," and at the bottom of 
the space to the right of the vertical dividing 
line the words "This space for the address." 

(J) OltAb which do not conform to the condi- 
tions prescribed by these regulations are, when 
sent in the mails, chargeable with postage 
according to the character of the message — at 
the letter rate if wholly or partly In writing, 
or at the third-class rate if entirely in print. 

(k) Cards bearing particles of glsss, metal, 
mica, sand, tinsel or other similar substances 
are unmailable, except when enclosed In en- 
velopes tightly sealed to prevent the escape of 
such particles, or when treated in such manner 
as will prevent the objectionable substances 
from being rubbed off or injuring persons han- 
dlinc the mails. Cards mailed under cover of 
sealed envelopes (transparent or otherwise) are 
chargeable with postage at the flrst-class rate; 
if enclosed In unsealed envelopes they are sub- 
ject to postage according to the character of 
the message— at the flrst-class rate if wholly 
or partly in writing, or the third-class rate if 
entirely In print; and the postage stamps 
should be affixed to the envelopes covering the 
same. Postage stamps affixed to matter en- 
closed In envelopes cannot be recognised in 
payment of postage thereon. 

ARTICLES INCLUDED IN FIRST-CLASS 
MATTER. 

18. Assessment notices (printed) with amount 
due written therein. Albums (autograph) con- 
taining written matter. Blank books with 
written entries; bank checks filled out In writ- 
ing, either canceled or uncanceled; legal and 
other blank printed forms Blgned officially. 
Blank forms, filled out in writing. Cords or 
letters (printed) bearing a written date, where 
the date is not the date of the card, but gives 
information as to when the sender will call 
or deliver something otherwise referred to. or 
is the date when something will occur or is 
acknowledged to have been received. Cards 
(printed) which by having a signature attached 
are converted Into personal communications, 
such as receipts, orders for artirleti furnished 
by addressee, etc. (?ards (visiting) bearing 



written name, except single cards encloaed 
with third or fourth class matter, and bearlag 
the name of the sender. Certificates, checka 
receipts, etc.. filled out in writing. Commonl- 
cations entirely in print, with exception of 
name of sender, sent in Identical terms by 
many persons to the same address. Copj 
(manuscript or typewritten) unaccompanied bjr 
proof sheets thereof. Diplomas, nuuriage or 
other certificates, filled out in writing. Enve- 
lopes bearing written addresses. Folders made 
of stiff paper, the entire inner surface of which 
cannot be examined except at the Imminent 
risk of breaking the seal, and those havlnc 
many folds or pages, requiring the use of sa 
instrument of any kind in order to thoroughly 
examine the inner surfaces are subject to tlis 
flrst-class rate of postage. Hand or typewrit- 
ten matter and letter press or manifold (car- 
bon) copies thereof. Imitations or reproduc- 
tions of hand or typewritten matter not mailed 
at the post office window or other d^osltory 
designated by the postmaster in a minlmaa 
number of twenty Identical copies. Legal and 
other blank printed forms signed oincially. 
Letters (old or re-mailed) sent singly or in 
bulk. Manuscripts or typewritten copy, when 
not accompanied by proof sheets thereof. Msr^ 
rlage certificates filled out In writing. Old 
letters sent singly or In bulk. Original typa- 
written matter and manifold or letter-press 
copies thereof. Price lists (printed) eontaloing 
written figures changing individoal items. Re* 
ceipts (printed) with written signatures. Sealed 
matter of any class, or matter so wrapped ss 
not to be easily examined, except original 
packages of proprietary articles of merchandise 
put up so that each package may be examined 
In lis simplest mercantile or sample form, and 
seeds and other articles that may be enclosed 
in sealed transparent envelopes. Stenographic 
or shorthand notes. Typewritten matter, orig- 
inal letter-press and manifold copies thereot 
Unsealed written communications. Visiting 
cards (written), except single cards enclosed 
with third or fouKh class matter, and bearlsg 
the name of the sender. 

SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 

14. Includes newspapers and periodicals besr- 
ing notice of entry as second-class matter. A 
pamphlet containing the laws governing mail- 
able matter of the second class and regulations 
thereunder will be furnished postmasters, in- 
terested publishers and news agents. 

THIRD-CLASS MATTER. 

15. Printed matter under the following condi- 
tions is third-class matter: 

16. Printed Matter Defined.— Printed matter 
Is the reproduction apon paper by any proeeas, 
except handwriting and typewriting, not haviag 
the character of actual personal corroqiond- 
ence, of words, letters, characters, figures er 
images, or any combination thervoL Matter 
produced by the photographic process (includ- 
ing blueprints) is printed matter. 

17. Circulars. — A circular is defined by law to 
be a printed letter which, according to in- 
ternal evidence, is being sent in identical term 
to several persons. A circular may bear a 
written, typewritten or hand-stamped dais, 
name and address of person addressed and of 
the sender, and corrections of mere typo- 
graphical errors. 

18. Where a name (except that of the ai- 
dressee or sender), date (other than that of 
the circular), figure, or anything else Is writ* 
ten, typewritten or hand stamped in the bodj 
of the circular for any other reason thso to 
correct a genuine typographical •nor, it li 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



335 



wab^tet to po8ta«« at the flrst-clsM (letter) 
nte. whether sealed or unsealed. 

U. Bzocption. — If such name, date or other 
■attsr be band stamped, and not of a personal 
■ttnre; the character of the circular as such 
ts not changed thereby. 

ML Reproductions or Imitations of handwrit- 
iaK and iypetrriting obtained by means of the 
prtatlns presa. neoetyle, hectograph, multl- 
Cnph, or similar process, will be treated aa 
tUrd-claaa matter, provided they are mailed at 
the poet ofBce window or other depository 
dericnated by the postmaster in a minimum 
Bsaber of 20 perfectly identical, unsealed 
eopieB. If mailed In a less quantity they will 
be subject to the flrst-class rate. 

XL CoTTespondence of the blind; mailable at 
Ike thfrd-clasa rate. 

a. Seeds, bulbs, roota. scions, etc. ; mailable 
it the third-claos rate of postage. 

aa. Identical pieces of third-claaa matter 
■ailed without stamps affixed. 

ARTICLES INCLUDED IN THIRD-CLASS 
MATTER. 

SI Address tags and labels (printed). Ad- 
TCftieementa printed on blotting paper. Al- 
■uaaca. Architectural designs (printed). As- 
Msnnent notlcee, wholly In print. Blank notes 
(prtaled). Blanks (printed legal) and forms 
, of tneuranee applicationa, mainly in print. 
BUnd, Indented or perforated sheets of paper 
eoBtalning characters which can be read by 
' the blind, except such as are entitled to free 
tnasmlsslon. Blue prints. Books (printed). 
Bslba. Calendar pada mainly In print. Cal- 
endars (printed on paper). Canvassing and 
ITospcctus books with printed sample chapters. 
Cards printed on paper. Cards, printed, 
eith perforatlona for carrying coin. Cards. 
; Christmas, Baater, etc., printed on paper. 
I Catalogues. Check and receipt books 
' (nainly In print). Circulars. Clippings 
t pwae) with name and date of paper stamped 
er written in. Correspondence of the blind. 
Coopons, printed. BngraTings and wood cuta 
^rtated on paper). Grain in Ita natural con- 
ditloQ (samples of). Imitations of hand or 
I typewritten matter, when mailed at the post 
oSce window or other depository designated 
, by the poetmaster In a minimum number of 
' 1^ Identical copies. Indented or perforated 
Aeets of paper containing characters which 
esa be read by the blind, except such aa are 
catltled to free tranamlsslon. Insurance appllca- 
tiou end other blank forms mainly in print, 
labels and tags bearing printed addresses. 
Ligd blanks (printed) and forms of Insurance 
' eppUcattona. mainly in print. Llthog)*ephB. 
llaps printed upon paper, with the necessary 
ooantlngs. Memorandum books, mainly in 
priat Music books. Newspaper "headings'* 
or cUppinga. Notes (blank printed). Order 
blsBka and report forma, mainly In print. 
Photographa, printed on paper. Plans and 
srcbKectnral deelgns (printed). Plants. Post- 
age stamps (cancelled or uncancelled). Pos- 
tal earda. bearing printed advertisemefits, 
atlled In bulk. Post carda. bearing on the 
■wsiage side Illustrations or other printed 
Better, mailed in bulk. Press clippings with 
v>M and date of paper stamped or written 
is- Price llsU, wholly in print. Printed 
bleak notes. Printed calendars. Printed labels. 
Mnted plana and architectural designs, 
niated tags and labels. Printed valentines. 
JTDof -sheets (printed) with or without manu- 
Krtpt Receipt and check books (mainly in 
Vrtnt). Reproductions or imitations of hand 
w typewriting, by the neostyle, hectograph, 
■Jwograph. electric pen, or« similar process, 
*>iB mailed at the post ofhce window or other 



depository designated by the postmaster. In 
a minimum number of twenty Identical coplea. 
Roots. School copy books containing printed 
instructions. Scions. Seeds. Sheet music. 
Tags and labela. printed. Valentines, printed 
on paper. Visiting cards (printed). Wood 
cuts and engravings (prints). 

24. Permissible addltlona to third-class mat- 
ter. — 

(a) Such words as "Dear Sir." "My dear 

friend," "Tours truly," "Sincerely yours." 

"Merry Christmas," "Happy New Tear." 

"With best wishes" and "Do not open until 

Chrlstmaa." or words to that effect, written 
upon third class matter are permissible in- 
scriptions. 

(b) Inscriptions in public library books.— 
Public library books, otherwise transmissible 
in the maila at the third-class rate of postage, 
shall not be aubjected to a higher poatage rate 
because of bearing thereon or therein. In 
writing or by means of hand-stamp, the shelf- 
number, date of donation or acquisition (or 
both), or any mark of designation which may 
be reasonably construed as an "inscription" 
within the meaning of the law in the limited 
sense of a permanent library record, placed 
thereon by the librarian and in that eoxmec- 
tlon only. 

(c) A written designation of contents—such 
as "Book," "Printed matter." "Photo"— shall 
be construed as a permissible "Inscription" 
upon mall matter of the third class. 

(d) Incidental use of third-class matter as 
receptacles for coin.— The rate of postage on 
matter essentially third class (printed matter 
upon paper) Is not affected by the fact that 
incidentally It eontalna a perforation which 
may be used for carrying coin. 

(e) Serial numbers. — Serial numbera written 
or impressed upon, and so Inserted In what 
would otherwise be third-class matter, do not 
Increase that rating. 

(f) Permissible enclosures. — "There may be 
encloeed with third-class matter, without 
changing the classification thereof, a single 
▼isitlng or business card; a single printed 
order-blank, or a single printed combination 
order-blank and coin-card with envelope bear- 
ing return address; or a single postal card 
bearing return address." 

FOURTH-dASS (PARCEL POST) MATTER. 

25. Fourth-daas matter is all mailable matter 
not Included In the three preceding classes 
which is so prepared for mailing aa to be easily 
withdrawn from the wrapper and examined, 
except that sealed packages of proprietary arti- 
cles of merchandise (not In themselves un- 
mailable), such as pills, fancy soaps, tobacco, 
etc., put up in fixed quantities by the manu- 
facturer for sale by himself or others, or for 
samples, in such manner as to properly protect 
the articles, so that each package in its sim- 
plest mercantile or sample form may be ex- 
amined, are mailable as fourth-class matter. 
It embraces merchandise and aamplea of every 
description, and coin or specie. 

26. Postage must be paid by stamps affixed, 
unless 2,000 or more Identical pieces are 
mailed at one time when the postage at that 
rate may be paid In money. New postage 
must be prepaid for forwarding or returning. 
The affixing of special delivery ten-cent stamps 
in addition to the regular postage entitles 
fourth-class matter to special delivery. 

Articles of this class liable to injure or 
deface the mails, such as glass, sugar, needles, 
nails, pens, etc., must be first wrapped in a 
bag, box, or open envelope and then secured 
in another outside tube or box, made of metal 
or hard wood, without sharp comers or edges, 
and having a sliding clasp or screw lid. thus 



336 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



■ecuring the articles In a double package. The 
irabllc ahould bear In mind that the flrat 
object of the department la to transport the 
mails safely, and every other interest is made 
subordinate. 

ARTICLES INCLUDED IN FOURTH-CLASS 

MATTER. 

27. Albums, photograph and autograph 
<blank). Artificial flowers. Bees (queen) when 
properly packed. Bill heads. Blank address 
tags and labels. Blank books. Blank books 
with printed headings. Blank cards or paper. 
Blank diaries. Blank postal cards in bulk 
packages. Blank post-cards. Blotting paper 
(blank). Botanical specimens, not susceptible 
of being used for propagation. Calendar pads, 
mainly blank. Calendars or other matter 
printed on celluloid. Card coin-holders (not 
printed). Cards (blank). C^rds, printed play- 
ing, of all kinds. Celluloid, printed or un- 
printed. Check books, mainly blank. Christ- 
mas and Easter cards printed on other material 
than paper. Cigar bands. Coin. Combination 
calendar and memorandum pads, mainly blank. 
Crayon pictures. Cut flowers. Cuts (wood or 
metal). Daguerreotypes. Dissected maps and 
pictures. Drawings, framed or unframed. 
Dried fruit. Dried plants. EAster cards, when 
printed on other material than paper. Electro- 
type plates. Eugravlngs, when framed. En- 
velopes, printed or unprinled. except when ad- 
dressed and enclosed singly with third-class 
matter. Flowers, cut or artificial. Framed 
engravings, pictures and other printed matter. 
Geological specimens. Grain, not intended for 
planting. Letter heads. Maps, printed on 
cloth. Merchandise samples. Memorandum 
books and calendar pads, mainly blank. Mer- 
chandise sealed: Proprietary articles (not In 
themselves unmallable), such as pills, fancy 
soaps, tobacco, etc., put up in fixed quantities 
by the manufacturer for sale by himself or 
others, or for samples, in such manner as to 
properly protect the articles, and so that each 
package In Its simplest mercantile or sample 
form may be readily examined. Metals. Min- 
erals. Napkins, paper or cloth, printed or un- 



printed. Oil paintings, framed or unframed. 
Order blanks and report forms, mainly blaak 
(spaces covered by ruled lines being regsrdel 
as blank), are fourth-class matter. However, 
one copy nay be enclosed with thlrd-clsai 
matter without subjecting such matter to post- 
age at the fourth -class rate. Pap«r bags sa4 
wrapping paper, printed or unprinted. Psi^r 
napkins. Patterns, printed or unprinted. Fes 
or pencil drawings. Photograph albums. Pbs- 
tographlc negatives. Postal cards (blank) is 
bulk packages. Post-cards (blank). Pristed 
matter on other material than paper. Prlnttd 
playing cards of all kinds. Private maillac 
or post-cards (blank). Queen bees, when prop- 
erly packed. Record books, mainly blank. 
Rulers, wooden or metal, bearing printed ad- 
vertisements. Samples of cloth. Samples ef 
flour or other manufactured grain for food 
purposes. Sealed merchandise: Soap wrap- 
pers. Stationery. Tags (blank). Tape mess- 
ures. Tlntypea Valentines print^ on bss- 
terial other than paper. Wall paper. Water 
color painting. Wooden rulers, bearing printed 
advertisements. Wrapping papel*. printed or 
unprinted. 

28. Permissible writing or printing upon or 
with fourth-class matter: 

(a) The written additions permissible upon 
third-class matter may be added to fourth* 
class matter without subjecting the latter to a 
higher than the fourth-class rate of postage. 

(b) The written additions permissible upon 
fourth-class matter may be placed upon the 
matter Itself, or upon the wrapper or cover 
thereof, or tag or label accompanying the 
same. 

(c) A written designation of the contents, 
such as "candy," "cigars." "merchandise," 
etc., is permissible upon the wrapper of fourth- 
class matter. 

(d) Such inscriptions as "Merry Christmss." 
"Happy New Year." "With best wishes." and 
"Do not open until Christmas," or words to 
that effect, together with the name and ad- 
dress of the sddressee and of the sender may 
be written on mall matter of the fourth clan, 
or upon a card enclosed therewith, without 
affecting its classification. 



RATES OF POSTAGE. 



FIRST-CLASS MATTEB. 

Rates of postage on flrst-class matter. 
— (a I On letters and other matter, 
wholly or partly in writing, except the 
writing specially authorized to be placed 
upon matter of other classes, and on 
matter sealed or otherwise closed against 
inspection — 2 cents an ounce or fraction 
thereof. 

(b) On postal cards — 1 cent each, the 
price for which they are sold. 

(c) On private mailing cards (post- 
cards) conforming to the requirements 
of Postal Laws and Regulations — 1 cent 
each. 

(d) On "drop letters." 2 cents an 
ounce or fraction thereof when mailed 
at letter-carrier post offices, or at offices 
which are not letter-carrier offices if 
rural free delivery has been established 
and the persons addrensjHl can be served 
by rural carrier ; and 1 cent for each 
ounce or fraction thereof when mailed at 
offices where letter-carrier scvice is not 



established, or at offices where the pat- 
rons cannot be served by rural tree-^ 
livery carriers. 

(e) Letters mailed at a post office for 
delivery to patrons thereof by star route 
carrier and those deposited in boxei 
along a star route or rural free deliv- 
ery route are subject to postage at 
the rate of two cents an ounces or frte^ 
tlon thereof. 

(f) Letters prepaid 1 cent received by 
a postmaster, under cover (through the 
mails), with postage prepaid on tbe 
bulk package at the letter rate, cannot 
be distributed for local delivery or trans- 
mission in the mails. Each letter most 
be prepaid at the regular flrst-class rate. 

(g) A letter which — after a proper ef- 
fort has been made to deliver It — 1b re- 
turned to the sender, may not be re- 
mailed without a new prepayment of 
postage, and It should be enclosed in 
a new envelope, to secure prompt trtBtr 
mission. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



337 



SBCOMD-CLASS HATTER. 

When mailed by the public— The rate 
of postage on newspapers and periodical 
publications of the second class, when 
lent by others than the publisher there- 
ot or a news agent, is 1 cent for each 
4 ounces, or fractional part thereof, on 
each separately addressed copv or pack- 
tse of unaddre8s«»d copies, to be prepaid 
by stamps affixed. 

SoTT,. — There is no such rate of post- 
; igB as 4 cents a pound. 

When mailed by publishers or news 
•fentft. — Copies of pxiblicntions admitted to 
tbe second clasa of mail matter when mailed 
by tlie publishers thereof to subscnbers and 
•s sample copies within the limitations of 
aeetlon 436 Postal Latra and Regulations, 
sre subject to postoge at the rate of 1 cent a 
MHtnd to be prepaid in money on the bulk 
weight of all copies, except as provided by 
nction 433, Postal Laws and Regulations. 

t 

i THIBD-CLASS MATTBB. 

i Tbe rate of postage on mail matter of the 
i tUid class is 1 cent for each 2 ounces or 
[ fnetion thereof, on each mdiyidually ad- 
' ilre«ed piece or parcel, prepaid by stamps 

affixed, except as provided by section 469, 

Postal Laws and Regulations. 
i X<yrE. — There is no such rate of post^ 
I age as 8 cents a pound. 

I POTRTH-CIASS (PARCEL POST) MATTER. 
See Pages 340 and S42. 

MONEY ORDER SYSTEM. 

Ftoes charged for moaey orders Issued on 
4«aesUe form. — 

TABLE NO. L 
Payable In the United SUtes (which Includea 
Gsftm Hawaii. Porto Rico and Tutulla, Samoa) : 
« Wble m Bermuda. British Guiana. 
BrItiS Honduras. Canada, Canal Zone (Ist^- 
SQS of Panama). Cuba. Mexico Newfound- 
laad. at the United SUtes Postal Agency at 
Shangbal (China). In the Philippine Islands, 
or the following islands In the W^t /n- 
«sb: Antigua. Bahamas. Barbados, Dominica. 
Grenada, Jamaica. Martinique. Montserrat. 
Xe^T^St- Kltts. St. Lucia. St. Vincent. 
Ttlaidad and Tobago, and Virgin Islands. 

Per orders from $ O.Ol to $ 2.50 8 cents 

P« orders from $ 2.51 to $ 5.00 6 cents 

For orders from $ 5.01 to $10.00 8 cents 

For orders from $10.01 to $20.00 10 cents 

For orders from $20.01 to $30.00 12 cents 

For orders from $80.01 to $40.00 15 cents 

For orders from $40.01 to $60.00 JJ ^!;J; 

For orders from $50.01 to $60.00 20 cents 

For orders from $60.01 to $76.00 55 *^*°J* 

For orders from $76.01 to $100.00 30 cents 

2L Postmasters at domestic money-order of- 
fiecs most bear in mind that they are not 
ssthor zed to Issue money orders for pay- 
ment In any foreign country other than those 
sawnerated above. When an Intending remit- 
ter applies at a domestic ofBce for a money 
order payable In any other foreign country 
the postmaster should direct him to the near- 
est tntomatlonal money-order offlce. 

e. Fees charged for money orders Issued on 
tatarastlonal form.— 



TABLE NO. 2. 

Payable in Apia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, 
Cape Colony, CosU Rica, Denmark. Egypt. 
Germany. Great Britain and Ireland, Honduras, 
Hongkong. Hungary. Italy, Japan. Liberia. 
Luxemburg. Natal and Zululand. New South 
Wales. New Zealand. Orange River Colony, 
Peru, Portugal. Queensland. Russia. Salvador. 
South Australia. Switzerland. Tasmania, the 
Transvaal, Uruguay and Victoria. Western 
Australia. 

For orders from $ 0.01 to $ 2.60 10 cents 

For orders from $ 2.61 to $ 5.00 15 cenU 

For orders from $ 6.01 to $ 7.60 80 cents 

For orders from $ 7.61 to $10.00 26 cents 

For orders from $10.01 to $16.00 30 cents 

For orders from $15.01 to $20.00 86 cents 

For orders from $20.01 to $30.00 40 cenU 

For orders from $30.01 to $40.00 45 cents 

For orders frotai $40.01 to $50.00 60 cents 

For orders from $50.01 to $60.00 60 cents 

For orders from $60. 01 to $70.00 70 cents 

For orders from $70.01 to $80.00 80 cents 

For orders from $80.01 to $90.00 90 cents 

For orders from «90.01 to $100.00 $1.00 

TABLE NO. 8. 

Payable In any foreign country with which 
the United States exchanges money orders not 
enumerated In Tables Nos. 1 and 2 above. 

For orders from $ 0.01 to $ 10.00 10 cents 

For orders from $10.01 to $ 20.00 20 cents 

For orders from $20.01 to $ 80.00 80 cents 

For orders from $30.01 to $ 40.00 40 cents 

For orders from $4001 to % 50.00 60 cents 

For orders from $60.01 to $ 60.00 60 cents 

For orders from $60.01 to $ 70.00 70 cents 

For orders from $70.01 to $ 80.00 80 cents 

For orders from $80.01 to $ 90.00 90 cenU 

For orders from $90.01 to $100. 00.... $1.00 

International orders,— There are now In op- 
eration conventions for the exchange of money 
orders between the United States and sixty- 
two countries named below: 



Liberia. 

Luxemburg. 

*Martlnlque. 

*Mexlco. 

*Montserrat. 

t Natal and Zululand. 

Netherlands. 

•Nevis. 

•Newfoundland. 

New South Wales. 

New Zealand. 

Norway. 

t Orange River Colony. 

Peru. 

•Philippine Islands. 

Portugal. 

Queensland. 

Russia. 

•St. KItU. 

•Saint Lucia. 

•Saint Vincent. 

Salvador. 

South Australia. 

Sweden. 

Switzerland. 

Tasmania. 

tThe Transvaal. 

•Trinidad and Tobago. 

Uruguay. 

Victoria. 

•Virgin Islands. 

Western Australia. 



•Antigua. 

Apia, Samoa. 

Austria. 

•Bahama Islands. 

•Barbados. 

Belgium. 

•Bermuda. 

Bolivia. 

•British Oulana. 

•British Honduras. 

•Canada. 

•Canal Zone. 

tCape Colony. 

Chill. 

Costa Rica. 

•Cuba. 

Denmark. 

•Dominica. 

Egypt. 

France, Algeria and 

Tunis. 
Germany. 
Great Britain and 

Ireland. 
Greece. 
•Grenada. 

Honduras (Republic). 
Hongkong (China). 
Hungary. 

Italy (Including San 
Marino). 
•Jamaica. 
Japan. 

• Draw orders on domestic money-order form. 



388 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



t Cape Colony, TranBvwil, Orange River Col- 
ony and Natal (with Zululand) have been con- 
solidated loto the South African Union, and 
all money-orders for payment in those coiin- 
triea are now certified by the Exchange office 
at New York to the Exchange office at Cape 
Town. Money orders to and from Natal and 
Zululand formerly were reissued at London. 
Payment may now be made on the orlg nal 
orders, provided the corresponding advices 
have been duly certified. 

INTBRNATIONAL REPLY-COUPONS. 

International reply-coupons, of the denomi- 
nation of 6 cents each, are issued for the 
purpose of sending to correspondents abroad. 
The foreign correspondent may exchange each 
coupon for postage stamps of the country in 
which he is located, equal in value to 6 cents 
in United States money, using the stamps for 
reply postage. The countries in which the 
reply-coupon is valid are. as follows: 

Argentine Republic. 

Austria and the Austrian post offices in the 
Levant. Chili. 

Belgium. Corea. 

Boanla-Henegovlna. Costa Rica. 
BraslL Crete. 

Bulgaria. Cuba. 

Denmark. Including Greenland, Iceland and 
the Faroe Islands; the Danish West Indies. 
Egypt. 

Ftance, the French post offices In China, 
Morocco, and Turkey; the French colonies of 
Algeria. Dahomey, Guadeloupe and dependen- 
cies. Oulana (French). Guinea (French). Indo- 
china. Ivory Coast, Martinique, Manretania, 
New Caledonia, Ooeanica, St. Plerre-Miquelon, 
Senegal, Senegal-Niger; French establishments 
in India. 

Germany, the German protectorates and Ger- 
man post offices in Africa. Asia, Australasia, 
and Turkey. 

Great Britain, British post offices In Morocco 
and Turkey; British colonies of Australia. 
Bahamas, Beehuanaland. Canada. C^pe of Good 
Hope. Ceylon, Cook Islands. Dominica. East 
Africa. Gibraltar. (3old Coast, Honduras (Brit- 
ish). Hong Kong and Hong Kong offices In 
China, India, Labuan, Malta. Mauritius Islands. 
Natal, Newfoundland, New Guinea. New Zea- 
land. Papua, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somali - 
land. Southern Nigeria. South Rhodesia. Straits 
Settlements. Tasmania, Transvaal. Trinidad, 
Uganda. Zululand; British Protectorates of the 
Solomon. Gilbert and EUioe Islands. 

Greece. Honduras (Republic of). 

Haiti. Hungary. 

Italy, and Italian colonies of Benadir and 
Brythrea. 

Japan and Japanese post offices in China and 
Manchuria. Luxemburg. 

Liberia. Mexico. 

Netherlands, Netherlands Guiana, the Nether- 
lands Indies. 
Norway. 

Portugal. Including the Asores and Madeira. 
Roumania. Sweden. 

Salvador. Switzerland. 

Slam. Tunis. 

Spain. Turkey. 

Persons who buy the reply coupons should 
inform their correspondents abroad that the 
reply coupon is not itself good for postage, 
but must be exchanged at the post office for a 
postage stamp. The postmark of the selling 
post office rauflt be stamped legibly in the 
circle on the left-hand side of all reply cou- 
pons sold to the public. 



DELIVERY AND FORWARDING OF RB0I8- 
TBRED MAIL 

Either the sender or the addresMM of do- 
mestic registered mail may reetrlct its deliv- 
ery. Registered mail which Is not restricted 
in delivery may be delivered to any responsi- 
ble person who customarily receives, the ordi- 
nary mall of the addressee. 

All registered matter, exc^t that whick 
has once been properly delivered, may be for* 
warded without additional charge for reglstxr 
fee. upon the written request of any psraoa 
to whom it is deliverable. In cases of eiiiar> 
gency, when the postmaster is satisfied that 
no fraud is Intended, a telegraphic order frea 
the addr e ss e e may be honored. 

Written orders to forward mall, signed by 
addressees or their agents duly authorised to 
control such matter, must be construed to 
apply to both ordinary and registered mail 
unless such orders specifically state that rsgit- 
tered mail shall not be so forwarded, or s«p- 
arate and special written orders are furnished 
directing other disposition of registered mall. 

REGISTRY RETURN RECEIPT TO BE FUR- 
NISHED ONLY WHEN REQUESTED 
BY THE SENDER. 

Section 3^28 of the Revised Statutes resdi at 
follows: 

"Whenever the sender shall so requait, a 
receipt shall be taken on the delivery of any 
registered mall matter, showing to whom and 
when the same was delivered, which receipt 
shall be returned to the sender and be re- 
ceived in the courts as prima fade evidence 
of such delivery." 

In accordance with this statute postmastsra 
do not prepare receipt cards for return to the 
senders of domestic registered mail which dees 
not bear the indorsement "Receipt desired" or 
words of similar import. When an article 
bearing such indorsement is received for regis- 
tration, the registration receipt issued to tbt 
sender and the registration record are required 
to be similarly Indorsed. 

See page 340 relative to return receipts for 
insured domestic parcel post mail. 

REGISTRATION FEES. 

The fee for the registration of mail matter, 
foreign and domestic. Is fixed at ten cents for 
each piece, in addition to postage, and both 
postage and fee must be prepaid at the tins 
of registration. 

Fourth-class (domestic parcel post) matter 
may not be registered, but may be insured 
against loss in the mails by the preparraent 
of a fee of ten cents in postage stamps, to 
be affixed to each parcel. See page S40. 

The Department has discontinued the issu- 
ance of the special ten-cent registry stamp. 
No further supply of this stamp shall be 
printed. The registry fee may be prepaid hy 
means of any stamps which are valid for the 
prepayment of postage. 

INDEMNITY FOR REGISTERED MAIL. 

Indemnity will be paid on account of the 
loss of registered mail in the postal service: 

(a) For the value of domestic registered mail 
of the first class (sealed) up to l&O. 

(b) For the value of domestic registered mad 
of the third class, unsealed, up to $26. 

See page 340 In regard to Indemnity for loit 
insured and C. O. D. parocla. 

(c) In any amount claimed, within the limit 
of 60 francs (approximately 19.66), on accovnt 
of the loss. In the international malls, a/ i 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



339 



^i«i«cred mrttcto of any ctUB. regardless of 
i tti vmloe, exchanged between the United States 
I tad any country embraced within the Unlrersal 
f Fgstal Union, except on account of losses 
! ntalng under circumstances beyond control 
[ ("force majeure'*) and International "Parcels 
i Post" registered mall. 

nret-clasa domestic matter must be sealed 
i before beinc registered. 



FOREIGN MAILS. ' 

POSTAGE RATES ON ARTICLES FOR CAN- 
ADA. CUBA, MEXICO, THE REPUBUC OF 
PANAMA, THE UNITED STATES POSTAL 
AGENCY AT SHANGHAI AND THE UNITED 
STATES NAVAL HOSPITAL AT YOKO- 
HAMA, JAPAN. 

Artlelos addressed for delivery In Canada, 
r&ba. Mexico and the Republic of Panama are 
ioliject to the same postage rates and condl- 
lifliw which would apply to them If they were 
aMnased for dellrery In the United SUtes: 
Exo^t that: 

(t) Letter* and postal cards must be dls- 
fstched to Canada and Mexico if prepaid one 
fall rate of postage and to Cuba and Panama 
whether prepaid or not. Other articles for 
C^ba and Panama must be prepaid at least in 
put and for Canada and Mexico in full. 

(b) "Printe," "samples" and "commercial 
Hpera" may be sent subject to the posUge 
mee. weight limit and other conditions ap- 
plicable to similar articles In PoeUl Union 
Balls. 

(c) Articles other than letters in their usual 
ud ordinary form are excluded from the malls, 
aiea they are so wrapped that their contents 
caa be easily examined by postmasters and 
cBitams officers. Any article enclosed in an 
•avelope, as the word "envelope" is generally 
«ed. without regard to its size, is considered 
to be "in the usual and ordinary form" of a 
letter. But unsealed packages may conUln. 
la sealed receptacles, articles which cannot be 
latelv transmitted in unsealed receptacles, pro- 
vided the contents of tbe closed receptacles 
un plainly Tlsible or are precisely stated on 
Uie covers of the closed receptacles and that 
the package Is so wrapped that the outer cover 
caa be easily opened. 

Packages of fourth-class matter that weigh 
aver four ounces and not .over four pounds six 
eaaees may be sent to Canada, Cuba. Mexico 
tad the Republic of Panama, at the eighth 
rose rate of postage (see Page 340). The par- 
cels for Mexico and the Republic of Panama 
Boat be accompanied by customs declarations. 

Uantallabie.— The following articles are un- 
Bailable under any condition, vis. : 

All sealed packages which, from their 
rorm and general appearance, evidently are not 
letters : publications which violate the copy- 
right UwB of the country of destination; 
poi-aoos, explosive or Inflammable substances; 
live or dead (not dried) ahimals. Insects (ex- 
cept btea) and reptiles: fruits and vegetables 
vblch quickly decompose, and substances 
whieh exhale a bad odor; lottery tickets or 
circulars; all obscene or immoral articles, 
sftSelcs which may destroy or damage the 
Btalfai, or Injure the persons handling them; 
and to Cuba and the Republic of Panama. 
Hqutda and fatty substances, except samples 
Ibereof. 

The domestic postage rates and conditiona of 
Can^A, Cuba. Mexico and the Republic of 
Paoama apply to articles mailed in those coun- 



tries addressed for delivery in the United 
States. Consequently articles (except sealed 
packages which are -not letters) mailed in any 
one of those countries which are "entitled to 
pass in the domestic mails of that country 
free of postage, are likewise entitled to trans- 
mission freo of postage to the United States. 

Prepayment of postage upon any article 
mailed in the United States, except the reply 
half of a double postal card, can be effected 
only by means of United StatM postage stampa. 

Postage due: Postage due upon articles ex- 
changed with these countries Insufficiently pre- 
paid. Is collectible upon delivery at the single 
rate. 



SE<X>ND-CLA8S MATTER FOR CANADA. 

The postage rate applicable In tbe United 
States to "second-class matter" addressed for 
delivery in Canada is 1 cent for each 4 ouncea 
or fraction of 4 ounces, calculated on the 
weight of each package and prepaid by means 
of postage stamps affixed; except that the 
postage rate to publishers and news agents 
applicable to legitimate dally newspapers issued 
as frequently as six times a week addressed 
to bona fide subscribers In Canada, is 1 cent a 

For printed matter of all kinds. 1 cent for 
office of mailing as second-class matter. 



RATES OP POSTAGE ON ARTICLES FOR 
FOREIGN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN 
ABOVE. 

Articles for or from foreign eonntries (except 
Canada,* Cuba, Mexico and the Republic of 
Panama and the United States Postal Agency 
at Shanghai, as indicated above, are not des- 
ignated "First-class matter," "Second-class 
matter," etc. ; but are classified as "Letters." 
•Tost cards," 'Trlnted matter," "Commer- 
cial papers" and "Samples of merchandise." 
and are subject to the postage rates indi- 
cated below: 

For letters, S cents for the first ounce, or 
fraction of an ounce, and S cents for each 
additional ounce, or fraction of an ounce. 
Stampa or forms of prepayment, whether cur- 
rent or obsolete, canceled or uncanceled, as 
well as printed articles constituting the repre- 
sentative sign of monetary value, and articles 
in typewriting or imitation of typewriting, are 
subject to postage at the letter rate. Monetary 
value is held by the International Bureau of 
the Universal Postal Union to attach to bonds, 
bank notes, commercial bills of exchange, etc.. 
which have been fully executed by the makers: 

For postal cards. 2 cents each, for single, 
and 4 cents each for double cards, 
each 2 ounces or fraction of 2 ounces. 

For commercial papers, 6 cents for the first 
10 ounces or less, and 1 cent for each addi- 
tional 2 ounces or fraction of 2 ouncea. 

For samples, 2 cents for the first 4 ounces 
or less, and 1 cent for each additional 2 
ounces or fraction of 2 ounces. 

Registration fee, In addition to postage. 10 
cents. 

Letters for England, Ireland. Scotland. Wales 
and Newfoundland, 2 cents per ounce, and 
letters for Germany dispatched only by steam- 
ers which land the malls at German porta. 2 
cents per ounce. 



•Newfoundland is not included in the Do- 
minion of Canada. 



340 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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845 



INTERNATIONAL PARCELS POST. 



PArce! Post CooTentlont with Argentine Re« 
pabUc. Caba, Portugal, Russia. Spain and the 
French Colony of St. Pierre and Mlquelon are 
fCBdlng. with prospect of an early and sac- 
eessfal conclusion of the negotiations. 

A Terr important modification of the service 
was reached by agreement «with the Treasury 
Department to the effect that the yalue limit 
fer the contents of parcels might be elimin- 
ated. N^otlations were at once underaken, 
with the result that there Is now no value 
limit, except as regards Ecuadort 

We now hare conventions with forty-eight 
rereign countries. The following are the es- 
aentlAl characteristics of the service: 

Postage rate, uniform at U cents per pound. 

Limit of weight, uniform at 11 pounds. 

Limit of value, uniformly none, with the 
fiagle exception of Ecuador, $60. 

Limit of slae. uniform at 3 feet 6 inches 
icrertcst length; 6 feet greatest combined 
length and girth, except to Mexico and Co- 



lumbia'—S feet greatest length and 4 feet 
greatest girth. 

The weight of the parcel post malls dis- 
patched from the United States during the 
year was 2,270,216 pounds, an Increase of 446.- 
692 pounds, or 24.4 per cent. The number of 
parcels dispatched was 718,828, of an average 
weight of 8.16 pounds, an increase In number 
of 108,668, or 16.8 per cent. The weight of 
the parcel post mails received was 1,967,779 
pounds, an Increase of 287,056 pounds, or 17 
per cent. The number of parcels received was 
406.466. of an average weight of 4.84 pounds, 
an increase In number of 47.887, or 18.1 per 
cent. 

The fact that the percentages of increase in 
the number of parcels and in total weights 
are greater as regards the parcels sent than as 
regards those received from abroad is again 
gratifying, and indicates the steady and con- 
tinuous growth of the service as an advanta- 
geous means of increasing the country's ex- 
ports. 



INFORMATION FOR SHIPPERS. 



Admissible Articles.— Any article absolutely 
pnrtilbited admission to the regular malls for 
any country is also inadmissible to Parcel Post 
Bkslls for that country ; except that no article 
tfl excluded from Parcel Post malls solely be- 
esose It Is dutiable in the country of destina- 
tion. 

Bow to Mall Parcels.— A parcel must not 
te posted in a letter-box, but must be handed 
to the postmarter or other ofDclal in charge 
af the post office. 

Address, etc. — Every parcel must bear a com- 
plete and legible address, not written in pen- 
cil, and marked conspicuously "Parcel Post." 

Packing. — Every parcel must be securely and 
nbstantlally packed: but In such a way that 
It can be opened without damaging Its cover, 
la order that its contents may be easily exam- 
ined by postmasters and customs officials. 

Postage. — Postage on every parcel must be 
rally prepaid at the rate applicable thereto as 
todlcated in the tables on pages 848-844. 

Letters Must Not Accompany Parcels.— A 
ammunlcatlon of the nature of personal cor- 
nspondence must not accompany or be writ- 
tea on any parcel (but an open bill or invoice 
tucj be included). If such written matter be 
Iiraad It will be placed In the mails if sep- 
arable, and if inseparable the entire parcel 
taost be rejected. 

Separately Addressed Packages.- Parcels must 
not contain packages addressed to persons 
other than the person named on the outside 
address of the parcel itselL If such enclosed 
be detected they must be sent for- 



ward singly charged with new and distinct 
parcel post rates. 

No Responsibility for Loss.- The Department 
Is not responsible for the loss of or damage 
to any parcel. 

Registration.— The sender of a parcel ad- 
dressed to any of the places indicated In the 
foregoing table, except Barbados, Dutch 
Oulana. France. Great Britain. Guadeloupe. 
Martinique. The Netherlands and Uruguay may 
have the parcel registered by paying a regis- 
tration fee of 10 cents, and will receive the 
"return receipt" without additional charge 
therefor, provided he demands a return receipt 
when he mails the parcel. 

Undeliverable Parcels Returned to United 
States.- An undeliverable parcel returned to 
the United States, upon which the retui^n 
postage has not been prepaid, Is subject on 
delivery to the sender to a postage charge 
equal to the amount of postage originally pre- 
paid on the parcel; which amount should be 
marked on the parcel by the United States 
exchange post office which receives it back 
from abroad, and collected by the post office 
which delivers it to the sender. 

Customs Declarations.— A "customs declara- 
tion" properly filled out must be securely at- 
tached to every parcel. The contents must 
be accurately described. General terms such 
as "merchandise" and "samples" will not 
answer. 

Customs Duties.— Customs duties cannot be 
prepaid; they will be collected of addressees 
when the parcels are delivered. 



POSTAL 8AVINOS SYSTEM. 



The Third Assistant Postmaster General, as 
the oirielal of the Post Office Department 
^karged with the general supervision of the 
lesadal operations of the postal service, 
n^ervises the conduct of postal savings busi- 
■ssB at post offices. As the representative of 
tte Board of Trustees of the Postal Savings 



System, he transacts all business involving 
securities and the investment of funds. He 
conducts all correspondence of the Postal Sav- 
ings System and examines the accounts of 
postmasters, banks and other financial agents 
receiving and disbursing funds. 



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THE IVnni.WOHTH BUrLIHNO. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



PATENTS, TRADE-MARKS, AND 

COPYRIGHTS.* 

lUvUed by Layd H. Sutton, of the United States Patent Office. 



GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING PATENTS. 



What is a Patent? — The term 
patent or leitera patent is derived from 
Utterae patentee, signifying that which 
is open or disclosed, in contradistinc- 
tion to lettre de cachety that which 
it sealed or secret. This term is the 
kernote of the whole principle upon 
which the patent system is built up, 
namely, disclosure. The disclosure 
must be honest, absolute and unre- 
aerred. The penalty for mental crook- 
edness or for ignorance in giving out 
folly and freely the nature of the in- 
vention is severe and direct, and Iv 
nothing less than forfeiture of the pat- 
ent itself. The reason for this is per- 
fectly logical and arises from the very 
meaning, spirit and nature of the re- 
Utionship existing between the pat- 
entee and the government. The term 
of a patent is 17 }'ears. During this 
term of 17 years the patentee obtains 
a monopoly under which he secures ex- 
dtttive right of manufacture, use and 
Ule. The patent itself, however, is in 
Ae nature of a contract between the 
itee and the government, presum- 
for their mutual benefit. The 
iment grants to the inventor the 
liurive right of manufacture and 
for 17 years on condition that the 
itor shall disclose fully the nature 
invention or discovery, and shall 
the public the unrestricted use 
tf the invention after this term has 
Mjplted. If he fail in making full dis- 
ftanne, he has not lived up to the 
of the implied contract and the 
Uiereby becomes null and void. 
letimes happens that an inventor 

freely part of the invention, 

lit fionningly conceals some essential 
iln in the process, but if the case is 
tMd within the courts and the real 
tuti are brought to light, the patent 
vfU be declared invalid. At the end 
of the term of 17 years the patent be- 





comes public property, and the article 
may be freely manufactured by any 
one. It can never thereafter, as in so 
many cases in the Middle Ages, be- 
come a lost art. 

Who May Obtain a Patent? — In 
order to secure a valid patent, the ap- 
plicant must declare upon oath that he 
believes himself to be the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of the art, 
machine, manufacture, composition or 
improvement for which he solicits a 
patent; that he does not know and 
does not believe that the same was 
ever before known or used ; that the 
invention has not been in public use or 
on sale in the United States for more 
than two years before the application 
was filed, and not described in any 
printed publication or patent in this 
or any foreign country for more than 
two years prior to the filing of his 
application ; and that the invention 
has not been patented to himself or 
to others with his knowledge or con- 
sent in this or any foreign country 
for more than two years prior to his 
application, or on an application for 
a patent filed in any foreign country 
by himself or his legal representatives 
or assigns more than twelve months 
prior to his application. Any one 
who can subscribe to the above condi- 
tions may apply for a patent, irre- 
spective of race, color, age or nation- 
ality. Minors and women and even 
convicts may apply for patents under 
our law. The rights even of a dead 
man in an invention are not lost, for 
an application may be filed in his 
name by his executor or administrator, 
and the rights of his heirs thereby 
safeguarded. The patent in this case 
would issue to the executor or ad- 
ministrator and would become subject 
to the administration of the estate like 
any other property left by the de- 



* Complied orlgmally for Munn dc Co., Patent AtKvneya. 

351 



352 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ceased. Even the rights of an insane 
person may not be lost, as the appli- 
cation may be filed by his legal guar- 
dian. If foreign patents for the same 
invention have been previously issued, 
having been filed more than twelve 
months before the filing of the United 
States application, the patent will be 
refused. The applicant must state his 
nationality. It often happens that two 
or more individuals have jointly 
worked upon the invention, and in this 
case the several inventors should joint- 
ly apply for the patent. Should they 
not so apply, the patent when issued 
will be invalid. If they are merely 
partners, however, and not co-invent- 
ors, they should not apply jointly for 
a patent, as the inventor alone is en- 
titled to file the application. He may, 
however, assign a share in the patent 
to his partner, coupled with the re- 
quest that the patent should issue to 
them jointly. It is of the greatest im- 
portance that these distinctions should 
be clearly understood ; otherwise, the 
patent may be rendered invalid. 

What May be Patented? — Any 
new and useful art, machine, manufac- 
ture or composition of matter, or any 
new and useful improvements thereon. 
The thing invented must be new and 
useful. These are conditions precedent 
to the granting of a patent. Of these 
two couditions by far the more impor- 
tant is the former, and it is concerning 
the interpretation of this word **neM?" 
and its bearing upon the invention 
that the principal work and labor in- 
volved in passing an application safely 
through the Patent Office is involved. 
When the invention has been worked 
out by the inventor and he is pre- 
pared to file his application, he or his 
attorney prepares the necessary papers 
as provided for by law, namely : An 
Oath, a Petition, a Specification con- 
sisting of a description of the inven- 
tion and concludng with claims which 
specifically set forth what the inventor 
claims to be the novel features of the 
invention, and drawings which are pre- 
pared and filed with the case, and in 
due course the application is ready 
for examination in the Patent Office. 
The question of whether the invention 
is new is then considered. The exam- 
ination consists in searching through 
the files of the Patent Office among 
the patents that have been already 
issued, and through such literature as 
may bear upon the subject. The ques- 
tion of whether an invention is new is 



one of fact, and one of the greateit 
importance, and upon the showing that 
the inventor is able to make during 
the prosecution of the case, depencb 
largely the future success of the pat- 
ent. The evidence adduced In proving 
that the invention is not new must be 
tangible and accessible. A patent 
would not be refused or overturned on 
a mere mental concept. There most 
be some evidence of a substantial char- 
acter that serves to show that the 
earlier idea was reduced to practice 
or at least that there was such a de- 
scription or drawing made as would 
be sufficient for one skilled in the art 
to reduce the invention to practice- 
If it has not been actually reduced to 
practice, it must be a concrete, not an 
abstract, idea. 

It is essential that the application 
for a patent should be filed before the 
invention has been in public use or on 
sale for a period of two years. If the 
inventor has publicly used or sold his 
invention for a period of two years it 
becomes public property and he cannot 
regain the right to obtain a patent 
He may, however, make modds and 
experiment with his invention for a 
much longer period, provided he does 
not disclose his invention to the public 
or put it into actual use or on sale 
for a period of two years. The word 
"useful" is not one which usually 
^ives either the Patent Office or the 
inventor a great deal of trouble, as 
any degree of utility, however insignifi- 
cant, will serve to entitle the inventor 
to a patent. It has often happened 
that an invention which appears, at 
the time the patent is applied for. to 
have no special utility, in later years, 
owing to new discoveries or improve- 
ments in the arts, is found to possess 
the greatest merit and value. Unless 
an invention is positively meretricious, 
therefore, it* is difficult to assume that 
it either has no utility or never will 
have any. Patents are granted for 
"any new and useful art, machine, 
manufacture or composition of matter, 
or any improvement thereon.'* It is 
seen from the terms of the statute 
that almost any creature of the inven- 
tive faculty of man becomes a proper 
subject for a patent. The exceptions 
are very few. Patents will not be 
granted, for example, for any inven- 
tion that offends the law of nature. 
Under this category may be mentioned 
perpetual motion machines. Inven- 
tions of an immoral nature will not be 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



353 



<xiiDsidered. Medicines and specifics 
are not now proper subjects for letters 
patent, unless some important new dis- 
eoFery is involved. 

Abandoned Applications. — While 
abandonment may arise in different 
wajs, its most frequent occurrence re- 
soits from a failure to properly pros- 
ecute the application. An applicant 
to K^^en one year by the statute in 
which to respond to an action on his 
application by the Patent Office. This 
period of one year runs from the day 
OB which the letter from the Office is 
dated. If the last day of the year 
faUs on Sunday the applicant's response 
must be in the Patent Office on the 
preceding day, i. e., Saturday. Where 
tn applicant waits until the close of 
the year before acting on his case he 
does 80 at considerable risk, and if his 
response fails to arrive at the Office 
by the last day of the year little 
Kiiency will be shown him in re- 
viving the case except upon a showing 
of good and sufficient caq^e. Not only 
most the applicant's response come 
vithln the year, but it must be fully 
responsive to the last action by the Of- 
fice. In other words, his action on the 
application must be all that the state 
I of the case requires as shown by the 
last Office letter. An abandoned appli- 
eation may be revived upon petition to 
tbe Commissioner if the applicant can 
abow that the delay in the prosecution 
of the case was unavoidable. 

APPKAIJ9. — If an application for a 
patent has been twice rejected, the ap- 
plicant may appear from the Primary 

I Examiner to the Board of Examiners- 
in-Chief. He may further carry the 
appeal to the Commissioner of Patents 
and in case he is not satisfied with the 
iatter^s decision he may carry the ap- 
peal finally to the Court of Appeals of 
the District of Columbia. 
Interfeebnce. — If two or more in- 

' diTiduals have made inventions which 
can be expressed by the same claim or 

i daims, which must be patentable, in- 
terference proceedings may be insti- 
tuted to determine which applicant is 
the original or first inventor. Inter- 
ference proceedings are instituted be- 
tween applicants whose applications 
are pending or between a pending ap- 
plication and a patent already issued, 
provided the latter patent has not been 
issoed for more than two years prior 
to the ffiing of the conflicting applica- 
tion. The proceedings are conducted 
liefore the Examiner of Interferences. 



Appeal may be taken from the Exam- 
iner of Interferences to the Board of 
Examiners-in-Ohief, and from the 
Board of Examiners-in-Chief to the 
Commissioner, and thence to the Court 
of Appeals of the District of Colum- 
bia. Not all the claims for a patent 
are necessarily involved, but only such 
as cover the particular feature of the 
invention which is declared to be in 
interference. The unsuccessful appli- 
cant by eliminating the claim or 
claims in controversy and all other 
claims readable upon the disclosure of 
the successful applicant, may procure 
allowance of other claims in his appli- 
cation. The disclosure of the success- 
ful party virtually becomes a part of 
the prior art and in the further pros- 
ecution of the case it will be so treat- 
ed. In determining the question of 
priority of invention witnesses are ex- 
amined and the proceedings are con- 
ducted much in the same manner as 
in a suit at law. The first step in the 
proceeding consists in filing with the 
Commissioner a preliminary state- 
ment made under oath, giving the date 
at which the invention was first con- 
ceived and reduced to some tan^^ible 
form, such as the making of drawings, 
the construction of a model, or the 
disclosing of the invention to another. 
The object of the subsequent examina- 
tion and cross-examination is to sub- 
stantiate the date of invention as 
claimed by the applicants respectively, 
and to establish the priority of inven- 
tion. 

Reissues. — A reissue is granted to 
the original patentee, his legal repre- 
sentative or the assignees of the entire 
interest, when the original patent is 
inoperative or invalid by reason of a 
defective or insufficient specification, 
or by reason of the patentee claiming 
as his invention or discovery more 
than he had a right to claim as new, 
provided the error has arisen through 
inadvertence, accident or mistake, and 
without any fraudulent or deceptive 
intention. The reissue application 
must be made and the specification 
sworn to by the inventor or inventors 
if he or they be living. What is in- 
advertence, accident or mistake has 
been the subject of much litigation and 
as a general rule the courts require 
a clear showing of such. No new 
matter can be introduced into the re- 
issue application, but its subject mat- 
ter must be capable of being found 
within the four comers of the original 



354 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



. application. As two years' publication 
of the subject matter of an invention 
is a bar to the issue of a patent, the 
courts as a general rule will not sus- 
tain a reissue patent the claims of 
which are broader than those of the 
original patent where the reissue ap- 
plication is filed more than two years 
after the grant of the original patent. 
The original patent must be surren- 
dered when a reissue application is 
made. The reissue patent is good 
only for the unexpired term of the 
original patent. 

Patented Articles Must be 
Marked. — Articles manufactured and 
sold under a patent must be so marked 
that the public shall have notice that 
the article is a patented one. This 
notice consists of the word "Patented," 
together with the date when the patent 
was issued. Damages cannot be re- 
covered in an infringement suit unless 
the patented articles are so marked or 
it be shown that the defendant was 
duly notified of his infringement, but 
continued after such notice to in- 
fringe. 

Infringement. — In case of an ac- 
tion for the infringement of a patent, 
the importance of the question of nov- 
elty appears from the special pleadings 
which the defendant may enter, which 
are as follows : 

1. That for the purpose of deceiving 
the public the description and specifi- 
cation filed by the patentee in the Pat- 
ent Office was made to contain less 
than the whole truth relative to his 
invention or discovery, or more than is 
necessary to produce the desired ef- 
fect; or, 

2. That he had surreptitiously or 
unjustly obtained the patent for that 
which was in fact invented by another, 
who was using reasonable diligence in 
adapting and perfecting the same ; or, 

3. That it had been patented or de- 
scribed in some printed publication 
prior to his supposed invention or dis- 
covery thereof ; or, 

4. That he was not the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of any 
material and substantial part of the 
thing patented ; or, 

5. That it has been in public use or 
on sale in this country for more than 
two years before his application for 
a patent, or had been abandoned to 
the public. 

Damages for infringement of a pat- 
ent may be recovered at law by action 
on the case, or in equity by bill, in 



the name of the patentee or his as- 
signee. The courts haying jurisdic- 
tion over such cases have the power 
(1) to grant injunctions against the 
violation of any right secured by Um 
patent; (2) to allow the recovery ol 
damages sustained by the complainant 
through such infringement, or the 
profits obtained by the infringer ari*' 
ing from such infringement. The de* 
fendant may be compelled to fumisb 
an accounting showing the amount of 
the articles manufactured and sold and 
the profits derived from such sale. 

Design Patents. — Design patenti 
are issued for any new or original de- 
sign, whether it be a work of art, 
statue, bas-relief, design for prints or 
fabrics, or for any new design or 
shape or ornament in any article of 
manufacture. The scope of the de- 
sign patent was formerly very broad, 
but recent decisions and enactments 
have greatly restricted its availability 
and a design patent cannot now be ob- 
tained unless it possesses some inher- 
ent artistic quality. Mere utility is 
not sufiScient to entitle a new design 
to letters patent. The terms of design 
patents are 3%, 7 or 14 years. 

Assignments. — A patent or any in- 
terest therein may be sold or assigned 
like any other piece of property. An 
inventor may sell or assign his in- 
terest or a part interest in his inven- 
tion, either before the application ii 
filed or while the application is still 
pending. Under these circumstances 
the patent may be issued to the as- 
signee or to the inventor and assignee 
jointly. The patent, if already issued, 
may be assigned by the owner whether 
he be the inventor or assignee. The 
conveyance is eflfected by an instru- 
ment in writing stating the conditions 
under which the patent is assigned, 
and the assignment should be recorded 
in the Patent Office to protect the as- 
signee, as the assignment is void a» 
against any subsequent purchase or 
mortgagee for a valuable consideration 
unless it is recorded in the Patent 
Office within three months from the 
date thereof. 

(Note: The provisions of the Pat- 
ent Statutes relating to the filing of 
caveats were repealed by Act of Julj 
1, 1910.) 

The stamp "Patent Applied For" or 

Patent Pending" simply means that an 

application for patent has been filed in the 

Patent Office. Action against infringers eao- 

not be taken until the patent actiua& isniea 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



355 



MATERIAL FOR FIGURES SHOWING TOTAL NUMBER OF PATENTS 

TO DECEMBER 31, 1911. 



ML. 

no. 



OM. 



KIT. 



1K4. 
IBS. 



Issued 

During 

Year. 

109 

'. 4S6 

616 

404 

468 

490 

488 

494 

478 

P« 476 

IM 666 

496 

684 

• 988 

884 

767 

890 

846 

1,769 

1,892 

2.316 

2,686 

3.467 

4,166 

4,363 

3,040 

3.221 

8,781 

4.638 

, . 6.099 

8,874 

12.301 

IM 12,544 

IM 12,967 

fl» 12,157 

im 11.687 

aa 12,200 

HJt 11,616 

W4 12.280 

iB5 13,291 

Wl. 14.172 

Vn 12.920 

ICl 12.345 

U». 12,133 

K» 12,926 

I 1181. 16.548 

B81 18,136 



»7. 









Issued 

During 

Tear. 

1883 21,196 

1884 19,147 

1885 28, 331 

1886 21,797 

1887 20,429 

1888 19,586 

1889 28,860 

1890 25,822 

1891 22.828 

1892. 22, 661 

1893 22,768 

1894 19,876 

1895 20, 883 

1896 21,867 

1897 22,098 

1898 20,404 

1899 23,296 

1900 24,660 

1901 26,658 

1902 27, 136 

1903 31, 046 

1 904 30, 267 

1906 29,784 

1906 31.181 

1907 36,880 

1908 32.757 

1909 36,674 

1910 36,168 

1911 32,917 

United States 1,088,061 

France 466,644 

Great BrlUln 448,036 

Germany 269,684 

Belgium 248,200 

Canada 141,406 

Italy and Sardinia 106,902 

Austria-Hungary 88,988 

Austria 70,468 

Switzerland 63,449 

Hungary 60,474 

Spain 46,916 

Sweden 35,326 

Russia 26,917 

Norway 23,866 

Denmark 23,028 

Japan 21,191 



THE UNITED STATES PATENT SYSTEM. 



The fundamental principle^ upon 
which the present commercial suprem- 
acy of the United States is based can 
be found in three provisions of the 
Constitution : First, the granting of 
free speech'; second, the offer of re- 
muneration for the use of the prod- 
acts of the brain by providing a lim- 
ited period during which a man shall 
enjoys the fruits of his eflforts ; and 
third, the protection of personal prop- 
CTty by the provision that no person 
shall be deprived of his property with- 
out due process of law. 

The Constitutional provision men- 
tioned as second is as follows: "The 
Congress shall have power ♦ ♦ ♦ to 
promote the progress of Science and 
I'seful Arts by securing for limited 



Times to Authors and Inventors, the 
exclusive Right to their respective 
Writings and Discoveries." 

Upon this foundation stands the 
United States Patent Office, established 
for the purpose of carrying out the in- 
tentions of the framers of the Consti- 
tution and developed far beyond their 
fondest dreams, by American ingenuity 
and perseverance. 

The value of our patent system is 
eloquently outlined by Senator Piatt, 
of Connecticut. In speaking on a bill 
for the reorganization of the Patent 
Office, he said : 

"To my mind, the passage of the act of 
1836 creating tlie Patent Office marks the 
most important epoch in the history of our 
development — I think ihe most important 



856 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



event in the history of our Qoremment from 
the Constitution until the Civil War. The es- 
tablishment of the Patent Office marked the 
commencement of that marvelous develop- 
ment of the resources of the country which is 
the admiration and wonder of the world, a 
development which challenges aU history for 
a parallel; and it is not too much to say that 
this unexampled progress has been not only 
dependent upon, but has been coincident with, 
the growth and development of the patent 
KyBtNn of this country. Words fail in attempt- 
ing to portray the advancement of this country 
for the last fifty years. We have had fifty 
years of progresst fifty years of inventions ap> 
plied to the every-day wants of life, fifty years 
of patent encouragement, and fifty years 
of a development in wealth, resources, grand- 
eur, culture, power, which is little short of 
miraculous. Population, production, business, 
wealth, comfort, culture^ power, grandeur, 
these have all kept step with the expansion oi 
the inventive genius oi the country; and this 
progress has been made possible only by the 
myentions of its citisens. All history confirms 
us in the conclusion that it is the development 
by the mechanical arts of the industries of a 
country which brings to it greatness and power 
and glory. No purely ag^oultural, pastoral 
people ever achieved any high standing among 
the nations of the earth. It is only when the 
brain evolves and the cunning hand fashions 
labor-saving machines that a nation begins to 
throb with new energy and life and expands 
with a new growth. It is only when thought 
wrings from nature her untold secret treasures 
that solid wealth and stmigth are accumu- 
lated by a people." 

When the Japanese Government was con- 
sidering the establishment of a patent system, 
they sent a commissioner to the United States 
ana be spent several months in Washington, 
every facility beinggiven him by the Commis- 
sioner of Patents. One of the examiners said: 
"I would like to know why it is that the 
people of Japan desire to have a patent 
system." 

"I will teU you," said Mr. Takahashi. 
" You know it is only since Commodore Perry, 
in 18M, opened the ports of Japan to foreign 
commerce that the Japanese have been trying 
to become a great nation, like other nations 
of the earth, and we have looked about us to 
see what nations are the greatest^so that we 
could be like them; and wo said, 'There is the 
United States, not much more than a hundred 
years old, and America was not discovered by 
Columbus yet four hundred years ago'; and 
we said, 'What is it that makes the United 
States such a great nation?' And we investi- 
gated and found it was patents, and we will 
have patents." 

The examiner, in reporting this interview, 
added : " Not in all history is there an instance 
of such unbiased testimony to the value and 
worth of the patent system as practiced in the 
United States." 

The demonstration thus given the commer- 
cial world durins the last three-quarters of a 
century of theelxeotof beneficent patent laws 
hftH lod to their modification in all the chief 
industrial countries, and the salient feature of 
our system — a preliminary examination as to 
novelty and patentability prior to the grant 
of a patentr— nas in late years been incorpor- 
ated into the patent systems of many foreign 
countries. 



The theory of patents is essentiafl] 
based on the principle of monopoly 
Hence we have the nature and scopi 
of patents changing tbrongli the cea 
tnries with the change in the conc^ 
tion of the rights of the people. Ii 
its origin the patent was a royal gna! 
of special privilege to a favored soli 
ject in the form of a private monopoly 
Political evolution has restricted it t 
a grant for a limited number of yean 
of an exclusive right to make, use am 
vend that which is the product of tin 
inventor's brain. The discoverer o 
new products in the arts, and the in 
ventor of new processes or machines oi 
improvements in machines, adds ti 
the public wealth and is entitled U 
a protection in their enjoyment as ji 
recompense. The knowledge of thii 
protection acts also as a stimulus h 
endeavor. Therefore all civilized na 
tions to-day recognize and protect tin 
inventor's rights. 

A few patents for inventions wen 
granted by the provincial government 
of the American colonies and by th 
legislatures of the States, prior to tb 
adoption of the Federal Constitution 
On the 5th of September, 17S7, it wa 
proposed to incorporate in a constj 
tution a patent and copyright clause 
The germinating principle of thi 
clause of the Constitution has vitalize 
the nation, expanded its powers be 
yond the wildest dreams of its fa then 
and from it more than from finy othe 
cause, has grown the magnificent man 
ufacturing and industrial developmen 
which we to-day present to the world 

President Washington realized th* 
importance of formulating a law t* 
stimulate inventions, and in his 6rs 
annual message to Congress, in 1790 
said: 

"I can not forbear intimating t 
you the expediency of giving effectua 
encouragement as well to the intro 
duction of new and useful invention: 
from abroad as to the exertion of skil 
and genius in producing them a 
home." 

Congress was quick to act, and oi 
April 10, 1790, the first law upon tfa4 
subject was enacted. It constitntec 
the Secretary of State, the Secretarj 
of War, and the Attorney-General i 
board to consider all applications foi 
patents. Owing to the fires that bav( 
destroyed the early records of tbf 
Patent Office, some question has arisen 
as to the number of patents issued 
under this act; but from the best in- 
formation obtainable, the number ii 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



357 



ilBced at fifty-seven. The first patent 
»aed was to Samuel Hopkins, July 
1790, for making pot and pearl 
les. 

The archives of the department show 
It the issuance of a patent in those 
lys was a state occasion. The Presi- 
■nt and cabinet met in solemn con- 
lave and, after having deliberated 
ipon whether it was proper for the 
iventor to have the sole right to the 
mufacture of the child of his brain, 
Iresented him with the papers be- 
rowing this privilege upon him. Hop- 
lins was warmly congratulated by 
lident Washington and the event 
ras recorded in all the diaries of those 
mt. 

At this period the clerical part of the woric 
ktory to the issuance of a patent was 
formed m &e State Departaient. It would 
interesting to see Thomas Jefferson* the 
Secretary of War. and the Attorney-General, 
fritirally estamining the application and scru- 
tmising each point carefully and rigorously. 
The finrt year the majority of the applications 
CaJed to pass the oideal. and only uiree pat- 
ents were granted. In those days every step 
B the ifwiiing of a patent was taken with great 
caie and caution. Mr. Jefferson always seekine 
to impreos upon the minds of his officers and 
the public that the granting of a patent was a 
matter of no ordinary importance. 

The act of 1793 supersc^ded the act of 1790, 
•ad remaixied in force as ammded from time 
to time until the act of 1836 was passed. The 
act of 1793 was the only act ever passed in 
this oountiy which provided for the issuance 
of Letters Patent without the requirement of 
an examination into tibe novelty and utility of 
the savention for which the patent was sought. 

The act of 1836, with modifications, re- 
mained in force until the revision of the patent 
laws in 1870. This revision was largely a oon- 
tolidation of the statutes then in force. 

Under the revision of the statutes of the 
United States in 1874 the act of 1870 was 
Tcpealed; but the revision substantially re- 
ftiacted the provisions of the act of 1870. 

Under the acts of 1790 and 1793 Letters 
Patent were granted for a term of fourteen 
rears. There was no provision for extension; 
nut whiie the act of 1793 was in force Congress 
extended some thirteen patents. 

The act of 1836 provided that Letters Pat- 
eat should be gnmted for a term of fourteen 
^eaza, and provision was made for an exten- 
non for a tenn of seven yeare upon due appli- 
cation and upon a proper showing. Until 1848 
petxtidBS for extensions were passed upon by 
a board conyatiTig of the Secretaiv of State, 
the Commissioner of Patents, and the Solicitor 
of the Treasury. After that time power was 
▼csted solely in the Commissioner of Patents. 

The patent act of March 2, 1861 (section 16), 
provided that all patents thereafter granted 
should mnain in force for a term of seventeen 
yean from the date of iasue^ and the,extension 
of 8udi patents was prohibited. 

The consolidated patent act of 1870, while 
providing that patents should be granted for 
t term m seventeen years, also provided that 



patents granted prior to March 2. 1861, might, 
upon due application and a proper snowing, 
be extended by the Commissioner of Patents 
for a term of seven years from the expiration 
of the first term. 

By the revision of the patent laws in 1874 
the prohibition against the extension of pat- 
ents was dropped, and since that time Qsn- 
gress has had the power to extend Letters 
Patent. Congress extended five patents grant- 
ed under the act of 1836, and in nine instances 
authorised patentees to apply to the Commis- 
sioner of Patents for extoasion of their patents. 
So far as one has been able to discover, no 

Eatent granted for a term of seventeen years 
as been extended by Congress. 

It was not until 1842 tlutt the statute was 
passed authorixinc the grant of patents for 
designs. Under that act design pat^ts were 
granted for seven years. Subsequently provi- 
sions were made for anranting them for terms of 
three and one-half, seven, and fourteen 
yeans, at the election of the applicant. 

By the act of March 2, 1861, the Board of 
Examiners-in-Chief was established. Prior to 
that time, and during the incumbency of Com- 
missioner Holt, temporarv boards of examin- 
ers to decide appeals had been appointed by 
him, and later on he created a permanent 
board of three examiners who were to decide 
on appeal rejected cases and submit their de- 
cisions to him for approval. 

The act of 1870 made the first provision for 
an Assistant Commissioner and an Examiner 
of Interferences. Another provision in that act 
was the power given the Commissioner, sub- 

1'ect to the approval of the Secretary of the 
interior, to establish regulations for the con- 
duct of proceedings in the Office. 

On January 1, 1898, an act passed March 3, 
1897, went into force. Some of the provisions 
of this act were that applications for patents 
should be completed ana prepared for exami- 
nation within one vear after the filing of the 
application and that the applicant should 
prosecute the same within one year after an 
action thereon or it should be regarded as 
abandoned (prior to that time two years was 
the limit) ; that an inventor should be debarred 
from recei\'ing a patent if his invention had 
been first patented b^ him or his legal repre- 
sentatives or assigns m a foreign country, pro- 
vided the application for the foreifoi patent 
had been filed more than seven months (made 
twelve mon^s by Act of March 3, 1897), prior 
to the filing of the application in this country; 
and that if the invention for which a patent 
was applied for had been patented or de- 
scribed m any printed publication in this or 
an^ foreign country for more than two vears 
prior to the application a patent could not 
issue. 

The first provision for affording accommo- 
dations for the Patent Office was in 1810, when 
(Congress authorized the purchase of a building 
for me General Post-office and for the office m 
the Keeper of Patents. The building purchased 
was known as "Blodgett's Hotel, and stood 
on the site now occupied by the south front 
of the building until recently occupied by the 
Post-office Department, and now used by sev- 
eral bureaus of the Interior Department. The 
east end of this building was used for the rec- 
ords, models, etc., of the Patent Office. This 
building was destroyed by fire December 13, 
1836. On July 4. 1^6, an act was passed ap- 



058 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



propriatin^ $108,000 for the erection of a suit- 
able building for the accommodation of the 
Patent Office, and within that month the 
erection of the building was begun. 

It was the present south front of the Patent 
Office, excluding the south ends of the east 
and west wings. The basement (which is 
now the first or ground floor) was to be used 
for storage and analogous purposes, the first 
or portico floor for office rooms, and the second 
floor was to be one laige hall with galleries on 
either side, and to have a vaulted roof. This 
hall was to be used for exhibition purposes, 
for the display of models of patented and un- 
patented mventionSf and also as a national 
gallery of the industrial arts and manufactures. 

During the erection of the Patent Office 
building, temporary quarters were provided 
in the City Hall. In the spring of 1840, the 
building was completed and the Office moved 
into it. The sum of $422,011.65 was ex- 
pended on this building. The patented models 
were then classified and exhibited in suitable 
glass cases, while the national galleiy was ar- 
ranged for exhibition of models and specimens. 

^ the act of March 3, 1849, the Interior 
Department waa established and the Patent 
Ofiice atteched thereto. This same act ap- 
propriated $50,000 out of the patent fund to 
Degm the east or Seventh street wing, which 
was completed in 1852 at a cost of $600,000, 
$250,000 of which was taken from the revenue 
of the Patent Office. In 1852 the plans for 
the entire building, as it now stands, were 
prepared. The west wingwas completed in 
1856 and cost $750,000. Work on the north 
or G street, wing was begun the same year. 
In 1867 this wing was finished at a cost of 
$575,000. The entire building cost $2,347,- 
011.65. 

In M^, 1802, President Jefferson ap- 
pointed Dr. William Thornton as a clerk at 
$1,400 per year, to have charge of the issuance 
of patents. He took the title of Superintend- 
ent, and continued to act in that capacity 
until his death, March 28, 1828. He was 
succeeded by Dr. William P. Jones, who 
acted until his removal in the early part of 
President Jackson's administration. John D. 
Craig followed Dr. Jones, and in 1834 he was 
succeeded bv B. F. Pickett, who served but a 
brief perioa. The last Superintendent was 
Henry L. Ellsworth, who became the first 
Commissioner under the act of 1836, and 
served until 1845. The other Commissioners 
under that act were: 
Edmund Burke, May 4, 1845. 
Thomas Ewbank, \Iay 9, 1849. 
Silas H. Hodges, November 8, 1852. 
Charles Mason, May 16, 1853. 
Joseph Holl^ September 10. 1857. 
Wilham D. Bishop, May 27, 1859. 
PhiUp F. Thomas. February 16, 1860. 

D. P. HoUoway, March 28, 1861. 
T. C. Theaker, August 17, 1865. 
Eliaha Foote, July 29. 1868. 
Samuel S. Fisher, April 26. 1869. 

Commissioner Fisher continued as Com- 
missioner for a short time imder the act of 
1870. Other Commissioners under that act 
have been: 

M. D. Lcgffctt. January 16, 1871. 
John M. Tnachcr, November 4, 1874. 
R. H. Duell, October 1, 1875. 
Ellis Spear, January 30, 1877. 
H. E. Paine, November 1, 1878. 

E. M. Marble, May 7, 1880. 



Benjamin Butterworth, November 1, 1883. 
M. V. Montgomery, Man;h 23, 1885. 

B. J. Hall, April 12, 1887. 

C. £. Mii^hell, April 1. 1889. 
William E. Simonds, Atiguat 1. 1891. 
John S. Seymour, March 31, 1893. 
Benjamin Butterworth, April 7. 1897. 
Charles H. Duell. February 3. 1898. 
F. I. Allen, April 11, 1901. 

E. B. Moore, June 1, 1907. | 

Commissioner Fisher was the first to 
publish his decisions and to have the oopica of 
the specifications and drawings made by 
photo-lithography. He also instituted the 
practice ot requiring competitive examina- 
tions for entrance to and promoticMtis in the 
examininf^ force of ti^e office. 

Besonnrng in 1843 and annually thereafter 
the Patent Office reports were published, 
which, until 1853, contained merely aa 
alphabetical index of the names of the in- 
ventors, a list of the expired patents, and the 
claims of the patents granted during the week. 
In 1853 and afterwaras small engraved copies 
of a portion of the drawings were added to 
the reports to explain the claims. 

The act of 1870 authorized ihe Commis- 
sioner to print copies of the claims of the 
current issues of patents and of such laws, 
decisionsj and rules as were necessary for the 
information of the public. In conformity 
with this provision there was published weekly 
a list giving the numbers, titfies, and claims of 
the patents issued during the week im- 
mediately preceding, together with the names 
and residences of the patentees. This fist 
was first published under the name of The 
Official Gasette of the United States Patent 
Office, on January 3, 1872. In Julv, 1872, 
portions of the drawings were introduced to 
illustrate the claims in the patented casea^ 
The Official Gasette has now become one of 
the most valuable and important of Govern- 
ment publications. E&ax Senator and 
Representative is authorized to designate 
eight public libraries to receive this publica- 
tion free. One copy is also fumiahea f nee to 
each member of Congress. It is also sent all 
over the world in exchange for similar pubUoi- 
tions by other Governments, and its paid 
subscription list is constantly increasiog. 

Industrial demand and invention go hand 
in hand. They act and react, bein^ intei^ 
dependent. Any change in industrial cod- 
diuons creating a new demand is at once met 
by the invention of the means for supplying 
it, and through new inventions new industrial 
demands are every year bein^ created. Thus 
through the process of evolution tiie industrial 
field is steadily expanding, and a study of thr 
inventions for anv decade will point out the 
lines of industrial growth for the succeeding 
decade. 

The one millionth patent was issued 
August 8, 1911, to Frank U. Holion 
of Akron, Ohio, on an improvement 
in inflated automobile tires. Patent 
number one had been issued in 1830 
to John Ruggles for a locomotive en- 
gine. Patent number 500,000 was is- 
sued June 20, 1893. It therefore took 
57 years to reach the half millioo 
number but only 18 years more to 
reach the whole million number. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



359 



The foUowing figures wiH give an idea of the 
Rbtive development of American inventions, 
hsginning with 1850, remonbering that 
9,d57 patents were issued up to July 28, 1836, 
vfaen the present series of patents was oom- 
meneed, and that 6,080 patents were issued 
&om July 28, 1836 to December 31, 1849 

I NUMBKR or PATKNT8 FOB INVENTIONS ISSUSO 
DtJROfG EACH CALENDAR TEAR, AND 
NUMBER OF LIVE PATENTS AT THE BE- 
GQfNXNG OF EACH CALENDAR YEAR. 



Tmr. 

ma.. 

ttSl.. 

les.. 

BSS.. 
UM.. 
t8».. 

its*... 



Number 
of Patents 
laauad Dur- 
ing tbe 
Year. 
884 
757 
890 
846 
1,769 
.. 1.892 
8.S16 



liST S,686 



IMO. 



3,407 

4,166 

4,868 

UCl • 8,040 

lie 3,221 

lid 8.781 

nU 4,688 

18« 6,099 

1S« 8,874 

1«7 12,801 

Btt 12,644 

im 12,967 

MTft 12,167 

Wl 11.687 

»2 12, 200 

ISn 11.616 

XW 12.230 

IPS 18,291 

W6 14,172 

tn 12,920 

3U1 12.845 

W9 12,128 

1»« 12,926 

an 15.548 

IW 18.186 

JW 21,196 

UU 19,147 

W5 28,831 

Mtt 21,797 

ttn 20,429 

19,585 

28,360 

25,822 

»1 22,828 

22,661 

22.768 

19.876 

20.888 

21,867 

22,098 

20,404 

28.296 

»•» 24,660 

JWl 26,668 

W2 27,136 

»a 81,046 

»M 80.267 

1»»5 29,784 

81,181 

36,880 

82.767 

^. 86.574 

»!• 86.168 

Wl 32.917 






Ttm. 



Number 

of Live 

Patents. 

6,987 

7,769 

8,099 

8.474 

8,988 

10.261 

11.678 

18,618 

16,714 

18,714 

22,436 

26,252 

28,796 

81.428 

34,244 

88.034 

48.416 

61.433 

62.929 

73,824 

86,006 

94,910 

104,022 

112,987 

120,561 

128,647 

141.157 

166,200 

168,011 

177,787 

186,408 

196,326 

206.043 

218.041 

230.860 

237.204 

247,991 

266.831 

265,103 

273,001 

284,161 

297,867 

307,966 

317,336 

326,931 

332,886 

341,424 

851.168 

860,330 

866.186 

870,347 

373.811 

380,222 

384.027 

393.276 

403,114 

413.313 

421,134 

431.693 

442.121 

456,034 

468,434 

496,824 



The marked growth in the number 
of patents to aliens to be noted in 
recent years is explained by the very 
liberal features of our patent system. 
Foreigners stand here on an equal foot- 
ing with citizens of this country, and 
they are neither subjected to restric- 
tions in the matter of annuities or 
taxes payable after the grant of a pat- 
ent, nor required to work an inven- 
tion in this country to maintain it in 
force, as is the case in most foreign 
countries. 

Moreover, the thorough examination 
made by our Patent Office as to the 
novelty of an invention prior to the 
allowance of an application for a pat- 
ent — an examination that includes not 
only the patents and literature of our 
own country bearing on the art or in- 
dustry to which the invention relates, 
but the patents of all patent-granting 
countries and the technical literature 
of the world — and the care exercised 
in criticising the framing of the claims 
have come to be recognized as of great 
value in the case of inventions of 
merit, and hence the majority of for- 
eign inventors patenting in this coun- 
try take advantage of this feature of 
our patent system, and secure the ac 
tion of the Patent Office on an appli- 
cation for a patent before perfecting 
their patents in their own and other 
foreign countries, taking due precau- 
tion to have their patents in the dif> 
ferent countries so issued as to se- 
cure the maximum term in each, so far 
as possible. 

In 1911, 4,058 patents were granted 
to citizens of foreign countries. The 
relative distribution is as follows : 

Germany 1,820 

England 935 

Canada 564 

France 847 

Austria-Hungary 140 

Switzerland 108 

Other Buropean countries 406 

All other countries. 248 

The working of an invention has 
never been required under our patent 
laws, though in most foreign countries 
an invention must be put into com- 
mercial use in the country within a 
specified period or the patent may be 
declared void. In the case of patents 
for fine chemicals and like products, 
which require a high order of tech- 
nical knowledge and ability for their 
iuception, and skilled workmen for 
their manufacture, the effect of this 
requirement, that the industry must 
be established within the country, has 



360 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



been most salutary in building up 
chemical industries within the home 
country, to some extent at the ex- 
pense of other countries where the 
working of a patent is not obligatory. 
This shows most strongly in the case 
of carbon dyes and in the patents for 
chemicals of the class known as car- 
bon compounds, which includes nu- 
merous pharmaceutical and medicinal 
compounds of recent origin, aldehydes, 
alcohols, phenols, ethers, etc, and 
many synthetic compounds, as vanil- 
lin, artificial musk, etc. 

Late years have shown a greatly 
increased number of patent applica- 
tions filed by women. With the in- 
crease in number there has been a 
corresponding broadening of the field 
of their endeavors. When the 1910 
census came to the question of patents 
it listed 944,525 patents granted to 
men in this country since the beginning 
of the patent system, but 8,596 patents 
were credited to women, nine-tenths of 
one per cent, of the total issue. But 
the percentage of patents granted to 
woman increases yearly. Thus, from 
1790 until 1888 there were 2,455 pat- 
ents granted women, and from 1888 to 
1895, 2,526, in seven years more than 
doubling the total that had been ac- 
cruing for the previous ninety-eight 
years. And from 1895 until 1910 there 
were 3,615 patents more, bringing the 
total number up to 8,596, as stated. 

In the presence of much discussion 
of the relative protection which the 
several sections of the United States 
receive under our patent system, it 
will be instructive to consider the 
distribution of patents granted during 
a normal year. The table below shows 
the states and territories arranged in 
an order showing the ratio of patents 
granted in 1911 to the population of 
the several states and territories. 

Attention is now directed to how a 
patent is obtained under the system 
in the United States. We will sup- 
pose a new form of door hinge has 
been invented. What is the procedure 
that the inventor should resort to? 

In the first place it is highly de- 
sirable to employ a competent attorney, 
one skilled in the patent law and 
practice. The inventor may prepare 
and prosecute his own application and 
his case will receive the same careful 
attention in the Patent Oflice as if 
he had employed an attorney. But 
it should not be forgotten that Patent 
praciicc f« technical The change of 



FatcnU 
and 
SUtM and Territories. Designs. 

1. Connecticut M5 

2. District of Columbia 2» 

3. California 1.675 

4. Colorado 477 

5. Rhode Island 315 

6. Illinois 3,172 

7. Massachusetts l,M2 

8. New Jersey l.SW 

9. New York 4,777 

10. Nevada 39 

11. Ohio 2.233 

12. Pennsylvania 2.919 

13. Michigan l,OdS 

14. Oregon 246 

15. Washington 410 

16. Idaho 105 

17. Wisconsin 703 

18. Montana 112 

19. Missouri 945 

20. Delaware 56 

21. UUh 103 

22. Indiana 726 

23. Nebraska 318 

24. Iowa 583 

26. Minnesota 476 

26. North DakoU 132 

27. Kansas 382 

28. Maryland 272 

29. Arizona 41 

SO. Maine 142 

31. New Hamiwhire 81 

32. South Dakota 109 

38. Wyoming 36 

34. Vermont 61 

85. West Virginia 196 

36. New Mexico 50 

37. Texas 591 

38. Oklahoma 235 

39. Florida 104 • 

40. Virginia 326 

41. Kentucky 340 

42. Louisiana 165 

43. North Carolina 191 

44. Georgia 224 

45. Arkansas 135 

46. Tennessee 175 

47. Alaska 5 

48. Alabama 163 

49. Mississippi 113 

50. South Carolina 65 



Ousts 



1.S1I : 
1.C7S 

i.Ta 
i.t:s, 

1.89; 

i.m| 

l.S« 
2.09$ 

2.m 

2.C« 
2.715 
t73S 
2,788 

2.357 

&m 

3.03 
1.64 

3,7» 

S.7« 

3.814 

4.S7ft 

4,372 

4,427 

4.762 

4.964 

5.32S 

5.314 

5.3S7 

5,€U 

6.«« 

6.2» 

6.516 

6.593 

7.052 

7.237 

9.132 

9.541 

10.019 

IL&l 

11.617 

11,661 

12.4*4 

12.871 

13. in 

15.9>.H 
23.314 



a word here and there may make the 
difference between protection and no 
protection. If the invention is worth 
patenting it is worth as good a patent 
as is obtainable, and the inventor 
should not forget that the patent may 
have to go through the mill of tech- 
nical construction in the courts at 
great expense. 

Then a preliminary search should 
be made. The applicant can make 
such at the Patent Office or his at- 
torney will have such made. This 
search is made for the purpose of 
determining if the device is old. Again 
it should be remembered that many 
patents are never used as a basis for 
manufacture for one reason or an- 
other, so that, while the inventor may 
never have seen a device like that 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



361 



which he has devised and may have 
produced it from wholly original 
thought and experiment, yet someone 
else may have reached the same re- 
sult before, patented it, and then done 
nothing more with it. 

Assuming that the preliminary 
search brings forth no device like the 
hinge under discussion the next thing 
Is to prepare the application papers. 
These include a petition, an oath, a 
drawing, a specification and claims. 

The petition is addressed to the 
Commissioner of Patents setting forth 
ipplicanc*s residence and other formal 
matters and prays the grant of letters 
jtttenL The oath states that appli- 
cant believes himself to be the original, 
first and sole inventor and the other 
itatutory prerequisites. Forms for 
both are given in a publication entitled 
"Rules of Practice in the United States 
Patent Office," which may be obtained 
from the Patent Office or these forms 
will be prepared for execution by the 
attorney. 

The drawing must be of a prescribed 
itze and clearly illustrate the construc- 
tion of the device. 

The specification is a detailed de- 
arription of the device referring to let- 
tered or numbered parts of the draw- 
ing, for amplification. The descrip- 
tion and drawing must contain a dis- 
dosore of the construction, nature and 
nae of the device so full, clear and 
romplete as to enable others skilled 
in the art to make and use the same, 
for the public must be informed that 
they may make and use the device 
after the patent has expired. 

The claims are short statements, 
drawn in technical form, setting forth 
the elements of the machine or im- 
provement or the steps of the process 
that applicant believes he has invented. 
These should be as broad as the state 
of the art warrants, and should be 
drawn with very great care to be of 
any value. Only one skilled in patent 
practise should undertake the prepara- 
tion of claims. Too much emphasis 
cannot be laid on this point. 

These application papers, together 
with $15 for a filing fee, are now to 
be sent to the Patent Office. Here 
they are received by the Application 
Dirision and duly recorded in books 
kept for that purpose, and each ap- 
plication is given its serial number. 
Tile application is then sent to that 
division in the office where devices of 
that nature are examined and given to 



an examiner skilled in the art to which 
the device appertains. Then begins 
the prosecution of the case. The first 
step is to make an examination of the 
case. 

The American patent system is 
known as the examination system be- 
cause of the careful examination given 
each application to determine the 
validity of the claims presented for 
patenting. The examination system is 
the ideal system, provided the exam- 
ination can be made with sufficient 
care to minimize the likelihood of the 
issue of patents for inventions not of 
a patentable nature. The field of 
search, however, yearly increases, and 
it becomes more and more difficult 
through lack of time to make a perfect 
examination. Something more than 
three million domestic and foreign pat- 
ents have been issued, while the num- 
ber of scientific publications has enor- 
mously increased. It is only by means 
of a perfect classification that this 
great mass of matter can be so divided 
as to be conveniently accessible for use 
in the examination of any individual 
case. 

The claims are compared with the 
disclosures of these United States and 
foreign patents to see if they are met 
in terms by devices old in the art. If 
so they are rejected, and the applicant 
is so informed, and the patents or 
publications, together with the reasonc 
if they are not self-evident, are enu- 
merated in a letter written from the 
office. 

Applicant has then one year in 
which to take action on his case. lie 
may amend his claims to avoid the 
references cited or he may ask for re- 
consideration. The application is then 
taken up for further examination. 

During the prosecution of the case 
questions of interference, appeal, peti- 
tion, etc., may arise. The procedure 
in such events is more or less techni- 
cal and unless applicant has employed 
an attorney he should study carefully 
the, **Rules of Practice,*' before he- 
ferred to, for instructions. The nature 
of this section will not admit of fur- 
ther detail in meeting the very great 
number of different situations that may 
arise. 

Assuming, however, that the claims 
are found to be patentable and the 
specification and claims unobjection- 
able in form, the application is passed 
to issue. The application is sent to 
the Issue and Gazette Division and 



362 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the applicant is informed that the pat- 
ent will issue upon the receipt of the 
final fee of $20. He has six months 
in which to pay this fee. When paid 
the application is given its patent num- 
ber, the specification and daims are 
printed, the drawing is photolitho- 

graphed and the printed copy and the 
rawing, together with a copy of the 
form of patent grant with seal affixed, 
is sent to the Commissioner for his 
signature. The patent has then issued 
and is sent to the inventor. 

The country is enriched by inven- 
tions and offers for them a small pre- 
mium; this premium is a seventeen 
years' monopoly of their fruit — no 
more, no less. Having purchased the 
invention for this insignificant price, 
the purchase is consummated by the 
publication in the patent records of 
the details of the invention so that he 
who runs may read. The whole thing 
is a strictly business transaction, and 
this character is emphasized by the 
fact that the inventor is required to 
pay for the clerical and expert labor 
required to put his invention into 
shape for issuing. His patent fees are 
designed to cover this expense, and do 
so, with a considerable margin to 
spare. Thus the people of the United 
States are perpetually being enriched 
by the work of inventors, at absolutely 
no cost to themselves. 

The inventor does not work for love 
nor for glory alone, but in the hopes 
of a return for his labor. Qlory and 
love of his species are elements actuat- 
ing his work, and in many cases he 
invents because he cannot help himself 
— because his genius is a hard task 
master and keeps him at work. But 
none the less, the great incitement to 



invention is the hope of obtaining a 
valuable patent, and without this in- 
ducement inventions would be few and 
far between, and America would, with- 
out the patent system, be far in ar- 
rears of the rest of the world, instead 
of leading it, as it does to-day. The 
few pregnant sentences of the patent 
statutes — sentences the force of whose 
every word has been laboriously ad- 
judicated by our highest tribunal, the 
Supreme Court of the United States — 
are responsible for America's most 
characteristic element of prosperity, 
the work of her inventors, to whom be- 
longs the credit. 

It should continue to be the policy 
of the government of a nation whose 
inventors have given to the world the 
cotton gin and the reaper, the sewing 
machine and the typewriter, the elec- 
tric telegraph and telephone, the ro- 
tary web perfecting printing press and 
the linotype, the incandescent lamp 
and the phonograph, and thousands of 
other inventions that have revolution- 
ized every industrial art, to encourage 
invention in every lawful way and to 
provide that, so far as may be neces- 
sary, the money paid to the Govern- 
ment by inventors be used for their 
benefit. The wisdom of the policy has 
been demonstrated. 

The world owes as much to invent- 
ors as to statesmen or warriors. To 
them the United States is the greatest 
debtor, so much have they advanced 
American manufactures. Their labor- 
saving machinery does work that it 
would take millions of men using band 
implements to perform. In this cen- 
tury the debt will be piled still higher, 
for inventors never rest. 



DISTINGUISHED AMERICAN INVENTORS. 



Benjunln Franklin; b. Boston, 1706; d. 
17M: at 11, printer' ■ apprentice, fond of use- 
ful reading; 27 to 40, teaches himself Latin, 
etc., makes various useful improvements: at 
40, studies electricity; 1762, brings electricity 
from clouds by kite, and invents the lightning 
rod, 

Eli Whitney. Inventor of the cotton-gin; b. 
WestborouKh, Mans., 1785; d. 1825; went to 
O^'orKia 1792 as teacher; 1793, Invents the cot- 
ton-Kln. prior to which a full day's work of 
one person was to clean by hand one pound of 
cotton; one machine performs the labor of 
flvo Ihoui^and persona; 1800, founds Whltney- 
vlllp, makes flrearmB. by the interchangeable 
HVHtem for the parts. 

Hohprt Fulton: b. Little Britain. Pa.. 1765; 
d 1S25; artist painter; Invents steamboat 1793; 
Invents wubmarlne torpedoes 1797 to 1801; 



builds steamboat in France 1808; laniichss 
passenger boat Clermont at N. T. 1807. and 
steams to Albany; 1812. builds steam ferry- 
boats; 1814, builds first steam war vesael. 

Jethro Wood, inventor of the modem cast- 
iron plough; b. White Creek. N. T., 1774; d. 
1884; patented the plough 1814; previously the 
plough was a stick of wood plated with Iroa; 
lawsuits against infringers consumed his 
means; Secretary Seward said: "No man bai 
benefited the country pecuniarily mors thaa 
Jethro Wood, and no man haa been as ta- 
adequately rewarded." 

Thomas Blanchard; b. 1788. Sutton. Mass.: 
d. 1864; Invented Uck machine ISOf; baflds 
successful steam carriage 182$: baiidt th« 
stern-wheel boat for shallow water*, now In 
common use on Western rivers: 1843. patenU 
the lathe for turning irregular forms, now in 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



363 



cocBiBoo VM all over the world for turning 
lAtti. 9ok«a, axe-bandies, gon-etocka, hat- 
Uoeki^ uckle-blocka. etc 

Boh Wloans. of Baltimore; b. 1798. N. J.; 
1 1177; author of many inyentlona relating to 
iftliWBTa; first patent. 18S8; he designed and 
pitcnted the pivoted, double truck, long pas- 
Mogar ears now in common use. His genius 
Mho asiiited the derelopment of railways in 

Cynxs H. MeCormick, inventor of harvesting 
Bsebinei: b. Walnut Qrove. Va.. 1809; d. 
im, in 1861 be exhibited his invention at 
Um World's Fair. London, with practical suc- 
e$m. The mowing of one acre was one man's 
tef's work; a boy with a mowing machine 
■o« cuu 10 acres a day. Mr. MeCormick' s 
Pftcnts made him a millionaire. 

Charles Goodyear. Inventor and patentee of 
tb« lifflple mixture of rubber and sulphur, the 
buis of the present great rubber induatries 
Ikravghout the world; b. New Haven. Conn.. 
UM; d. I860: in 1888. by the accidental miz- 
tm of a bit of rubber and sulphur on a red- 
tat stove he discovered the process of vul- 
caoixstion. The Goodyear patents proved im- 
aeaaely profitable. 

Suaoel P. B. Morse, Inventor and patentee 
•f electric telegraph; b. Charlestown, Mass.. 
1711; d. 1872; artist painter; exhibited first 
Invlags of telegraph 1882; half-mile wire in 
•pentlon 1836; caveat 1837; Congress appro- 
irlated 830.000 and in 1884 first telegraph line 
inm Washington to Baltimore was opened; 
Kft«r long contests the courts sustained his 
9ttento and he realised from them a large 

totWM. 

Ellas Howe, inventor of the modem sewing 
mMhlne; b. Spencer. Mass.. 1819; d. 1867; 
■sehtDist; sevrlng machine patented 1846; 
froB that time to 1864 his priority was eon- 
tated and he suffered from poverty, when a 
teltlon of the courts in his favor brought 
iiok large royalties and he realised several 
■tlUotts from his patent. 

JanMS B. Bads; b. 1830; d. 1887; author and 
'ooatrBctor of the great steel bridge over the 
KiMiaBippI at St. Louis. 1867. and the Jetties 
telow New Orleans. 1876. His remarkable 
Mergy was shown In 1861 when he built and 
Mlversd complete to the Government, all 
vtthia sixty-five days, seven iron-plated 
tfMfliflrs, €00 tons each; subsequently other 
•Usisera. Some of the most brilliant suc- 
MMcs of the Union arms were due to his 
atraordlnary rapidity in constructing these 
nawls. 

Prof. Joseph Henry; b. Albany. N. Y.. 1799; 
^ U78; in 1828 Invented the present form of 
(lie electro-magnet which laid the foundation 
for prscUcally the entire electrical art and is 
Vobabiy the most Important single contribu- 
tion thereto. In 1831 he demonstrated the 
Pactittbility of the electric current to effect 
■•cliaaleal movements and operate signals at 
t diitaat point, which was the beginning of 
(b«. electro-magnetic telegraph: he devised a 
*7item of circuits and batteries, which con- 
tAlacd the principle of the relay and local 
^rralt, and also Invented one of the earliest 
wctTD-magnetic engines. He made many scl- 
**t!fie researches In electricity and general 
Pkyiics and left many valuable papers there- 
in* la 1826 he was a professor in the Albany 
*««my: was Professor of Natural Philosophy 
■J the College of New Jersey in 1832. and in 
«« waa Aoaen secretory of the Smithsonian 
laititiitlon at Washington, where he remained 
**Ii his death. Prof. Henry was probably the 
peateet of American physicists. 



Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor 
of the telephone: b. 1847 at Edinburgh. Scot- 
land, moved to Canada. 1872 and afterwards to 
Boston; here he became widely known as an 
Instructor in phonetics and as an authority in 
teaching the deaf and dumb; in 1873 he began 
the study of the transmission of musical tones 
by telegraph: in 1876 he invented and patented 
the speaking telephone, which has become 
one of the marvels of the nineteenth century 
and one of the greatest commercial enterprises 
of the world; in 1880 the French Government 
awarded him the VolU prise of 810.000 and he 
has subsequently received the ribbon of the 
Legion of Honor from France and many honor- 
ary degrees, both at home and abroad; Dr. 
Bell still continues his scientific work at his 
home in Washington and has made valuable 
contributlona to the phonograph and aerial 
navigation. 

Samuel Colt; b. Hartford, Conn., 1814; d. 
1862; he studied chemistry and became a lec- 
turer on that subject; in 1836 he secured pat- 
ents on a revolving pistol, a model of which 
he had made while a boy when at sea; he 
built and maintoined a large armory in Hart- 
ford, Conn; In 1847 he contracted to make 
1.000 weapons for General Taylor; in 1843 he 
laid and successfully tested the first sub- 
marine telegraph cable. 

Thomas A. Edison; b. 1847, at Milan, Ohio; 
from a poor boy in a country village, with a 
limited education, he has become the most 
fertile inventor the world has ever known; his 
most Importont Inventions are the phonograph 
in 1877, the incandescent electric lamp. 1878; 
the quadruplex telegraph. 1874-1878; the elec- 
tric pen. 1876; magnetic ore separator. 1880; 
and the three-wire electric clrcuiti 1888; his 
first patent was an electric vote-recording ma- 
chine, token in 1869; early in life Edison 
storted to run a newspaper, but his genius 
lay in the field of electricity, where as an 
expert telegrapher he began his great repu- 
tation; his numerous inventions have brought 
him great wealth; a fine villa in Llewellyn 
Park, at Orange. N. J., la his home, and his 
extensive laboratory near .by is still the scene 
of his constant work; he is the world's most 
persevering inventor, and there are few fields 
of work Into which his inventive genius has 
not entered; in late years he has done much 
work in connection with the preparation of 
detochable molds for cement houses. 

Captain John Ericsson; b. 1803 in Sweden; 
d. in New York, 1889; at 10 years of age. 
designed a sawmill and a pumping engine; 
made and patented many Inventions in England 
in early life; in 1829 entered a locomotive In 
competition with Stephenson's Rocket; in 1836 
patented in England his double-screw propeller 
and shortly after came to the United States* 
and Incorporated it In a steamer; in 1861. 
built for the United States Government the 
turret ironclad Monitor; was the inventor of 
the hot-air engine which bears his name; alBo 
a torpedo boat which was destined to dis- 
charge a torpedo by means of compresBcd air 
beneath the water; he was an indofati gable 
worker and made many other inventions; his 
diary, kept dally for 40 years, comprehended 
14,000 pages. 

Charles F. Brush; b. near Cleveland, Ohio. 
1849; prominently identifled with the develop- 
ment of the dynamo, the arc light and the 
storage battery, In which fields he made many 
Important inventions; in 1880 the Brush Com- 
pany put its electric lights Into New York 
City and has since extended its Installations 
into most of the cities and towns of the United 



364 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUUt: In im, at the Paris ElMtrlcal Expo- 
Bttlon, be received the ribbon of the I>clon 
ol Honor. 

George Westlnghooae. Jr.; b. at Central 
Bridge. N. T., ISM; while still a bo7 be 
modeled and bvllt a steam engine; bis first 
profitable Inrentlon was a railroad frog; his 
most notable Inrentlons, howerer. were In 
railroad airbrakes, the first patents for which 
were taken oat in U72; the system now known 
by bis name has grown to almost nnlversal 
adoption and constitntes a great labor sarlng 
and life saving adjunct to railroad transporta- 
tion; Mr. Vestlnghouse, whose home is at 
Pittsburg, was one of the earliest to develop 
and use natural gas from deep wells; in late 
years he has made and patented many Inven- 
tions In electrical machinery for the develop- 
ment of power and light, and has commer- 
cially developed the same on a large scale. 

Ottmar Mergenthaler ; b. 18M, at Wurtem- 
berg. Germany ; d. 1899; Inventor of the Ilno- 
t]rpe machine; his early training as a watch 
and clock maker well fitted him for the pains- 
taking and complicated work of his life, which 
was to make a machine which would mold the 
type and set It up In one operation; In 1872 
Mergenthaler came to Baltimore and entered a 
machine shop, In which he sulnequently be- 
came a partner; the first linotype machine was 
built in 1886 and put to use In the composing 
room of the New Tork Tribune; to-day all 
large newspapers and publishing houses are 
equipped with great batteries of these ma- 
chines, costing over $3,000 each, and each 
performing the work of five compositors. 

Nicola Tesla; b. in the border country of 



Austria-Hungary, 1867; his fint laveatlea, 
made at B u d ap es t , Hungary, la 18S1, was ft 
telephone repeater; be came to Oka VnUti 
States in 1884 and Uter became a natwaUMi 
citlien; his work has be«i largely la eite- 
trieal fields, bat of late he baa done lawk 
work In the direction ot developing iteui 
turbines. 

Bmile Berliner; b. in Hanover. Oemaay. 
May 20, 1851; he invented the loose cooaei 
telephone transmitter and many other impor 
tant Improvements In telephone; In 1887 hi 
Invented the gramophone, the toifc-ing a^^j^iM 
well known as the Victor type; he vtt 
awarded the John Scott medal by the Praaklla 
Institute. 

Wilbur Wright; b. In Henry County. Isd^ 
April IC, 18«7; d. May SO. 1812; Orville Wrfcht. 
b. Aug. 19, 1871; the Wright brothers becsxae 
Interested in mechanical flight In 1896: at tks 
suggestion of Prof. S. P. Langley. Secretarr 
of the Smithsonian Institution, they went ts 
the sand hills of Killdevil. N. C in 190O. ts 
carry out a series of field experiments; ther 
developed a motor far in advance of those 
before used In connection with mechanical 
flight and by 1905 they had a flying machiss 
In which they flew nearly 35 miles at Dayton. 
Ohio; the Unt public exhibition of lmportaao« 
waa given in this country at Fort Myer la 
1908 by Orville Wright; Wilbur Wright at 
this time was making record flights at Lt 
Mans, France; from then until Wllbur'a death 
the two were constantly associated In develop- 
ing their heavier than air maehlnen: tbey be- 
came the world's best known aviators. 



ABSTRACTS OF DECISIONS. 



Where an inventor has completed his in- 
vention, if he neither applies for a patent nor 
puta it to practical use. a subsequent inventor 
who promptly appli^ is entitled to the patent, 
and the first one is deemed to have abandoned 
his rights. Pattee .v. Russell, 3 O. G.. 181; 
Ex parte Carre, 5 O. G., 30; Johnson v. Root, 
1 Fisher, 351. 

As betwem two rival inventors, the test of 
priority is the diligence of the one first to 
conceive it. If he nas been diligent in per- 
fecting it. he is Mititled to receive the patent. 
If he has been negligent^ the patent is awarded 
to his opponent. Kobmson on Patents, Sec. 
376. 

The construction and use for two years in 
public of a working machine, whether the in- 
vontor has or has not abandoned it, excludes 
the grant of a patent to a subsequent in- 
ventor. An abandonment in such case inures 
to the benefit of the public and not to the 
benefit of a subsequent inventor. Young v. 
Van Dusor, 16 O. G., 95. 

Jait where the line of invention lies in an 
.iceompliHhed result is frequently difficult for 
the courts to determine. That it must ex- 
ti>nd iH^yond the merely novel and useful and 
into the domain of original thought has been 
dotormined. The extent of the mental 
process, however, is immaterial. The result 
may come out of long consideration or it may 
Ix* the revelation of a flash of thought. 
'Snyder v. Fisher, 78 O. G., 485. 

A. function result or principle is not 
fttcntaVile, but a party is entitled to claim 
lit invention as broadly as the prior art 
ponnitJi. Ex parte PiskoJlS; Gourick, 85-15. 



C 



It is well settled law that a patoit can not 
issue for a result sought to be aciximpliahed by 
the inventor of a machine but only for the 
mechanical means or instrumentalities by 
which that result is obtained. One cannot 
describe a machine which will perform a 
certain function and then claim the function 
itself and all other machines that may be 
invented by others to nerform the same 
function. In re Gardner. 140 O. G., 258. 

A mere aggregation or combination of old 
devices is not patentable when the ekBDoents 
are unchans:ed in function and effect, lluey 
are patentable when, "by the action of thie 
elements upon each other, or by their joint 
action on their common object, they petform 
additional fimctions and acoompu^ addi- 
tional effects." Robinson on Patents, See. 
154. 

A change of shape ^aabling an instnmuait 
to i>erfonn new functions is sometime m- 
vention. Wilson v. Ooo, 18 Blatch, 531»: 
Collar Co. v. White, 7 O. G., 690, 877. 

A patent which is simply for a method of 
transacting business or Keeping aooounti is 
not valid. U. S. Credit System Co. v. 
American Indemnity Co., 63 O. G., 318. 

The mere combination^ of articlea disdosed 
in two former patents will not constitute in- 
vention, tmless it results in producing a new 
and useful article not applied by thofe 
familiar with the state of^the art. In re 
Faber, 136 O. G.. 229. 

Patentable novelty may be found in an 
improvemoit which simpufies a complicated 
tram of mechanism by eliminating some ai 
the elements with the result that defects doe 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



365 



the pTeBesD.ee of those elements are done 

y with. Brown v. Huntington Piano Co., 

Fed.. 735. 

It involves no invention to omit a part 

ler with its function. £x parte 

IcElroy. 161 O. G.. 763. 

Where the claims are distinguishable over 

>xior art by mere arbitrary variations 

amount only to changes oi mechanical 

and which accomplish no new result, 

that such claims are unpatentable. 

jtparte Hill, 117 O. G., 2365. 

Tne substitution of one material for another 

liTolves invention where the substituted 

kterial is used in a relation in which it had 

>t before been used and in which it ac- 

>lished new and very beneficial results 

I were long sought by those skilled in the 

George Froet Co. et al v. Cohn.ct al, 

19 Fed.. 505. • 

There is no invention appaxentiy involved 
putting some other mecnaniam well known 
the art and well adapted for such use in the 
of previously useid mechanism in an old 
operating in an old way when such 
(■bbsututx>n does not involve any material 
rearrangemmt. New Departure Bell Co. v. 
Bevin Bros. Manufacturing Co. 75 O. G.,2196. 
Meie change of proportion is not sufficient 
to avoid a cunri^ of infringement and is not. 
therefore, sufficient to establish difference of 
mventioa. Thompson-Houston Electric Co. 
T. Western Electric Co. et al. 75 O. G.. 347. 
In claiming a patent for the discovery of a 
useful result in any art, machine, manu- 
facture or composition of matter by the use 
of etttain means, the applicant must specify 
the means he uses in a manner so full and 
exact that any one skilled in the science to 
which it appertains can by using the means 
he specifies without any addition or sub- 
traction from them produce precisely the 
ittuh he describes. In re Blackmore, 140 
0. G-. 1209. 

A patentee is bound by the limitations 
imposed on his patent, whether they are 
Toiuntary or enforced by tiie Patent Office, 
aii4 if he accepts claims not covering his entire 



invention he abandons the remainder 
Toepfer v. Goets, 41 O. G., 933. 

claims should be construed, if posnble, to 
sustain the patentee's right to all he has 
invented. Ransom v. Mayor of N. Y. (1856). 
Fisher, 252. 

Ihe law requires . that manufacturers of 
patented articles give notice to the public 
that the goods are patented by marking 
thereon the date of the patent or givins 
equivalent notice. When this law is not 
complied with, only nominal damages can be 
recovered. Wilson v. Singer M^. Co., 4 
Bann. A A. 637; McCourt v. Brodie, 5 Fisher, 
384. 

To prevent fraudulent impositions on the 

Eublic it is forbidden that unpatentcxl articles 
e stamped "Patented," and whore this is 
done with intention to deceive, a penalty of 
one himdred dollars and costs for each article 
so stamped is provided. Any person may 
bring action against such offenders. Walker 
V. Hawxhurst, 5 Blatch. 494; Tompkins v. 
Butterfield, 25 Fed. Rep 556. 

The assignor of a patented invention is 
estopped from denying the validity of his own 
patent or his own title to the interest tran^ 
ferrod. He cannot become the owner of an 
older patent and hold it against his assignee. 
Robinson on Patents, Sec. 787, and notes. 

Any assignment which does not (5bnvey to 
the assignee the entire and unqualified 
monoply which the patentee holds in the 
territory specified, or an undivided interest 
in the entire monoply, is a mere license. 
Sanford v. Messer, 2 O. G., 470. 

Where a patented machine was sold b^ 
complainant with a license agreement that it 
was to be used only with ink made by com- 
plainant and defendant with knowledge of 
such license agreement sold to the owner of 
such machine, ink not made bjr complainant 
with the expectation that this ink was to be 
used in connection with such machine, held 
tiiat the acts of defendant constituted con- 
tributory infringement of complainant's 
patent. U. S. Supreme Court. Henry et al 
V. A. B. Dick Co.. 176 O. G„ 751. 



FOREIGN PATENTS. 



Cajvaoa, Dominion or. — ^The laws of Can- 
ada fo^w somewhat closely the practice in 
the United States. The term of a patent is 
dl^teen years. The general practice, however, 
B to divide the fees, making pa3rment only for 
a tenn of six years at one time. Applications 
irp subjected to examination as to novelty and 
QKfulness, aa in the United States. The appli- 
mxiotx must be filed in Canada not later than 
(lonng the year following the issue of the 
rnited States or other foreign patent. If the 
iarentor neglects to file his application within 
the twelve months, ^ the invention becomes 
public property. It is not permissible to im- 
port the patented article into the Dominion 
after Arelve months from the date of the Cana- 
dian patent. Within two years from said date 
the manufacture and sale of the article under 
the pattfit must have been begun. Theiie exac- 
tJoDs may be relaxed under certain conditions. 

Gekat Britain. — ^The term of the patent is 
fourteen ^ears. An examination is made in 
Gnat Britain to ascertain whether the inven- 



tion has been disclosed in the specifications of 
British patents granted within fifty years of 
the filing of the British application. While this 
is the ext^t of the examination by the Patent 
Office, it IS sufficient to invalidate a British 
patent to show in court that the invention was 
published, or was in public use, in Great Brit- 
ain before the date of the invention of the 
British application. In Great Britain the true 
inventor should appl^r for the patent in his 
own name; but if the invention has been con- 
ceived in a foreign country, the first introducer 
inay obtain the patent whether he be the true 
inventor or, not. Under these circumstances, 
therefore, a foreign assignee may apply for the 
patent in his own name without the true in- 
ventor being known. After the fourth year 
there are annual taxes, gradually increasing in 
amount. The patent becomes void if the tax 
is not paid. No time is set within which the 
manufacture of the invention mu/st be com- 
menced, but after three years if the manufac- 
ture has not begim, the patentee may be com- 



MLTKOPOLITAN LIKE BriT.DINO. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



367 



pelled to Knnt fioeiiMS, or the patent may be 
deekied inTaiid. 

Fbakcb. — ^The tenn of a patent is fifteen 
. yean. Tlieie is no examination as to novelty, 
■ad the patent is granted to the first applicant, 
whether or not he be the true inventor. The 
file of the patent depends upon the pasrment 
of ft ww"*! taxes. The patent must be worked 
IB Fiance within two yearn from the date of 
the signing of the patent. If these conditions 
are not complied with tiie patent becomes 
pobBc property but the working provisions 
n^ened to are modified by the terms, of the 
International Convention, under whicn tne 
lerocation of a French patent is prevented 
when the patent is granted to a citisen of a 
coontiy which is a member of the Convention 
until after the expiration of the third year 
counting from the filing of the French ap- 
pficataon. 

GBHitAKT.— The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. The patent is issued to the first appii- 
cant, but if he is not the true inventor he 
should, before filing the application, obUm 
the written consent of the mventor. The ap- 
plication ia subjected to a rigid examination. 
The patent ia subject to an annual progre«Ave 
tax. and must be worked within a period of 
fiiwe years but the working provisions m 
Ge^any are modified by a treaty between 
the United States and Germany, under the 
piovisioiis of which the revocation pi a 
Goman patent granted to a citixen of the 
United States is prevented when the patented 
article is manufactured in the United States. 

ArsTBiA. — ^The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. The practice is somewhat similar to the 
piactioe in Germany, althou^ thcexamina- 
tbn is general^ not so exacting. The patent 
is subject to an annual tax and it must be 
worked within a period of three years. 

HuwoAiiT.— The term of a patent is fifteen 
yearn Tbe laws are similar to those of uer- 
maay. There is a progressive annual tax and 
the patent must be worked within a period ot 
three ycArs. 

BBLGII71I. — ^The term of a patent is twenty 
ycMB. The first applicant obtams the patent 
vhether or not he is the true inventor. There 
is a ■w*i^ii annual tax, and the patent should 
be worked within one year of the, workmg 
«lwvhero but tiie tworkmg provisions in 
Bddom are modified under the terms of the 
laleniational Convention which prevcmt the 
rwocataon of a Belgian patent granted to a 
dtiaea of a country which is a member of the 
Qjovention until after the expiration of three 
ymn eounting from the filing of the Belgian 
paloat Application. 

Italt — The max''""™ term of a patent is 
fiften years. The patent is granted to the 
lint appiioant. The patent is subject to an 
umnltex. The patent becomes mvahd if it 
is Aol worked within one year or if work under 
h has been nispended for a whole year, where 
the temi is five years or less; or, where the 
torn is more than five years, if it is not worked 
wtthitt two years or work under it has been 
tm^mded for two years but the workmg 
prarUoos in Italy are modified by the pro- 
tUoos of the International Convention, with 
nlereaoe to which see "France," referred to 
above. 

Ri»BiA.— The term of the patent is fifteen 
years. The patent is subject to the payment 



of annual texes and must be worked within 
five years. 

Spain. — The term of the patent is twenty 
years, subject to the payment of annual texes. 
It must be worked withm two years. The pat- 
ent is issued to the first applicant, whether or 
not be the true inventor. The working 
provisions are modified under the terms of 
the International Convention. 

SwrrzERLAND. — The term of the patent is 
fifteen years, subject to an annual tex. Work- 
ing must toke place within tiiree years. The 
true inventor or his assignee can obtain a 
patent but when the Swiss patent is granted 
to a citisen of the United Stetes it is un- 
necessary for him to work the patent pro- 
vided the invention is being worked in the 
United Stetes. 

Norway. — ^The term of a patent is fourteen 
years. The patent is subject to a small annual 
tax. The application must be filed in the name 
of the true inventor or his assignee. Applica- 
tions must be filed within twelve months of 
the publication of the patent in any foreign 
country. The patentee may be compelled to 
tyrant licenses. The appucation must be 
filed either before the issue of the United 
Stetes patent or during the year followmg 
the filing of the United States application. 

Sweden. — The term of a patent is fifteen 
years. The patent is subject to an annual tox. 
The conditions are similar to those existent in 
Norway. Working b not now necessary m 
Sweden, but the patentee may be compelled 
to grant licenses should he fail to carry on 
the manufacture in Sweden. 

Denmark.— The laws are similar to those 
of Sweden but the patent should be worked 
witiiin three years. 

PoRTUQAL. — The term of the patent vanes 
from one to fifteen years, the fees payable 
depending upon the term of the patent. A 
patent must be worked within two years but 
the working provisions are modified by the 
provisions of the International Convention 
under which the working is not required whwi 
the patentee is a citiaen of a country which is 
a member of the Convention until after the 
expiration of three years from the date of 
filing of the application in Portugal. 

Netherlands.— The term of a patent is 
fifteen years. The patent is granted to the first 
applicant. The patentee must have a bona 
fide industrial eatebliahment where the pat- 
ented article is manufactured within five years 
or the patent is revocable. The patent is sub- 
ject to an annually increasinp tex. 

Aobtralia.— The Australian Patent pro- 
tects an invention in Victoria, New Soutn 
Wales, Queensland. South Austraha, Taa 
mania, West Australia and Papua, but not in 
New Zealand, which has its own patent law. 
The term of the Australian patent is fourteen 
years, a tex being due before the expiration of 
the seventh year. WTien the patent is not 
worked a compulsory license or revocation ol 
the patent may be enforced after two years 
from the grantinj? of the patent but Austraha 
is a member of the International Convention, 
and the working provbions are therefore 
modified by the terms of the convention. 

New Zealand.— The term of the patent is 
fourteen years, taxes being due before the end 
of the fourth and seventh years. Compulsory 
hcenses may be obteined. 



368 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Brxtxsh India. — The patent is granted for 
fourteen years with a possible term of ex- 
^^enaion. The application should be filed 
within one year of the issue of the patent in 
any other country and before the invention has 
been publicly uaBd or made publicly known 
in any part of British India. Taxes are 
payable before the end of the fourth year and 
annually tiiereafter. If the patent is not 
worked to an adequate extent within four 
yeaiB the patentee may be comi>eIled to grant 
ucenses to prevent the revocation of the 
pattfit. 

Turkey. — Patents are panted for five, ten 
or fifteen years. The apphcation must be filed 
by the inventor or his assignee. The patent is 
subject to an annual tax. The patent must be 
worked within two years. 

Porto Rico. — Protection is secured by fil- 
ing a certified copy of the United States pat- 
ent with the Secretary of the Government and 
by complying with certain legal formalities. 

Philippines. — The modus operandi is the 
same as that just described as applying to 
Porto Rico. 

Cuba. — Since Cuba has become an inde- 
pendent republic it has established a patent 
aystem. The term of the patent is seventeen 
yeare. Working should be established within 
one year but the term for the working of the 
Cuban oatent is modified by the provisions 
of the Convention. No taxes after the issue 
of the patent. 

Mexico. — The term is twenty years. The 
application must be filed in Mexico either 
within twelve months from the date of filing 
of the fiiBt application in another country or 



within three months from the date of issue 
of the foreign patent. There are no taxes 
after the issue of the patent. If the Mexican 
patent is not woricea the patentee may be 
requiried, after the expiration of three yean 
of the patent term, to grant licenses per- 
mitting others to manufacture in Mexico. 

South American Republics. — Patents are 
issued by all of the South American Republics. 
The principal countries in whi6h patent pro- 
tection is sought are Brazil, in which the laws 
are quite favorable to foreigners and where the 
term is fifteen years; Qiile, where the tenn is 
generally ten years, and Argentina, where the 
terms are five, ten and fifteen years, acoordisc 
to the merits of the invention. Patents axe 
also frequently secured in VenesueLa, Pern, 
Ecuador, Colombia and Paraguay, but cmly 
for certain classes of invention, owing to the 
expense involved in procuring the pat^ts. 

South Africa. — Patents are obtainable in 
four important states. Cape Colony, Transvaal, 
Congo Free State and Orange Free State. la 
Cape Colony the term is fourteen yeax«. There 
are no conditions as to working the patent 
The law is otherwise similar to that ot Great 
Britain. 

Japan. — The term of the patent is fifteen 
years. The applicant must be the inventor or 
derive his title from the inventor. There is an 
examination of the application. The patent is 
aubject to an increasing tax, and must be 
worked within three years. The taxes for the 
first, second and third years of the patent 
term are paid before the patent is iasueo. The 
subsequent taxes are paid annually after the 
expiration of the third year of the patent tenn. 



THE PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The Constitutional Proyision.— The Congress 
shall have power * * * to promote the 
progress of Science and Useful Arts, by se- 
curing for limited Times to Authors and In- 
ventors the exclusive Right to their respective 
Writings and Discoveries. 

STATUTES. 
ORGANIZATION OF THE PATENT OFFICE. 

Title XI. Rev. SUt., p. 80: 

Sec. 476. There shall be in the Department 
of the Interior an office known as the Patent 
Office, where all records, books, models, draw- 
ings, specifications, and other papers and 
things pertaining to patents shall be safely 
kept and preserved. 

Sec 476. There shall be in the Patent Of- 
fice a Commissioner of Patents, one Assistant 
Commissioner, and three examiners-ln-chief, 
who shall be appointed by the President, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate. All other offices, clerks and employees 
authorized by law for the Office shall be ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of the Interior, upon 
the nomination of the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents. 

Sec 480. All officers and employees of the 
Patent Office shall be incapable, during the 
period for which they hold their appoint- 
ments, to acquire or take, directly or indi- 
rectly, except by inheritance or bequest, any 
right of interest in any patent Issued by the 
Office. 

Sec. 481. The Commissioner of Patents, 
under the direction of the Secretary of the 



Interior, shall superintend or perform all do- 
ties respecting the granting and issuing of 
patents directed by law; and he shall have 
charge of all books, records, papers, modela 
machines, and other things belonging to the 
Patent Office. 

Sec. 482. The ezaminers-ln-chief shall be 
persons of competent legal knowledge and sci- 
entific ability, whose duty it shall be, on the 
written petition of the appellant, to revise sad 
determine upon the validity of the advene 
decisions of examiners upon applications for 
patents, and for reissues of patents, and in 
Interference cases; and when required by tb« 
Commissioner, they shall hear and report npoo 
claims for extensions, and perform such other 
like duties as he may assign them. 

Sec. 488. The Commissioner of Patenta ob- 
ject to the approval of the Secretary of th« 
Interior, may from time to time establish res^' 
lations, not Inconsistent with law. for tho 
conduct of proceedings in the Patent Office. 

Sec. 488. The Commissioner of Patents may 
require all papers filed in the Patent OIBee. 
If not correctly, legibly, and clearly wrlttsn. 
to be printed at the cost of the party flllnc 
them. 

Title XIII, Rev. Stat., p. 189: 

Sec. 892. Written or printed copies of say 
records, books,., papers, or drawings belongtnf 
to the Patei^r Office, and of letters patent 
authenticated ,py the seal and certified by the 
0ommls8lonei;'or Acting Commissioner thareof, 
shall be evidence in all cases wherein the 
originals could be evidence; and any psnoo 
making application therefor, and paying the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



369 



fw required by Uw. shall have certified copies 
ttersof. 

See. tn. Copies of the specifications and 
drswlnss of foreign letters patent certified bb 
proTided In the preceding section, shall be 
prima facie erldence of ihe fact of the granting 
of ssch letters patent, and of the date and 
coatenta thereof. 

Sec 894. The printed copies of specifica- 
tl<ns and drawings of patents, which the 
Commissioner of Patents is authorised to print 
for gratuitous distribution, and to deposit in 
the capltols of the States and Territories, and 
la the clerks' ofllces of the district court, 
■hall, when certified by him and authenticated 
by the seal of his ofllce, be recelTed In all 
rouits as erldence of all matters therein con- 
uised. 

See. 912. When Judgment or decree is ren- 
dtfed for the plaintiff or complainant, in any 
•Bit at law or in equity, for the Infringement 
of a part of a patent, in which It appears 
t^t the patentee, in his q>eclfication, claimed 
to be the original and first inventor or dis- 
n>Terer of any material or substantial part of 
tbe thing patented, of which he wsb not the 
original and first inventor, no costs shall be 
recovered, unless the proper disclaimer, as 
provided by the patent laws, has been entered 
tt the Patent Office before the suit was 
tsrottght. (See Sees. 4917, 4922.) 

Sec 1&S7. No patented article connected 
with marine engines shall hereafter be pur- 
chased or luwd in connection with any steam 
TCMels of war until the same shall have been 
nabmhted to a competent board of naval engi- 
aeen. and recommended by such board. In 
vritlag. for purchase and use. 

Title XVII, Rev. SUt.. p. 292: 

Sec. 1173. No royalty shall be paid by the 
Caitcd States to any one of its officers or 
tmployees for the use of any patent for the 
ayttem. or any part thereof, nor for any such 
patent in which said officers or employees 
nay be directly or indirectly interested. 

TiUe LX. Rot. 8UL, 1878, chap. 1. p. 946: 

Sec 4883. All patenU shall be Issued in 
the name of the U«lted States of America, 
oader the seal of the Patent Office, and shall 
be signed by the Commissioner of Patents, and 
they shall be recorded, together with the spe- 
dflcations. in the Patent Office in books to be 
kept for that purpose. 

Sec 4884. Every patent shall contain a 
ibort title or description of the invention or 
llwovery. correctly Indicating its nature and 
dedgn. and a grant to the patentee, his heirs 
or assigns, for the term of seventeen years, 
of the exclusive right to make, use, and vend 
the invention or discovery throughout the 
Cnlted States and the Territories thereof, re- 
terring to the specification for the particulars 
thereof. A copy of the specification and draw- 
lasi shall be annexed to the patent and be 
> part thereof. 

Sec 48ffi. Rrery patent shall Issue within 
t period of three months from the date of 
tht payment of the final fee. which fee shall 
b« paid not later than six months from the 
tine at which the application was passed and 
Gloved and notice thereof was sent to the 
tpplicaot or his agent; and if the final fee 
i« Dot paid within that period the patent 
Am\\ be withheld. 

Sec 4888. Any person who has Invented or 
dlHovered any new and useful art. machine, 
nanufarture, or composition of matter, or any 
Mw and useful Improvements thereof, not 
kaown or used by others in this country, be- 



fore his Invention or discovery thereof, and 
not patented or described in any printed pub> 
llcatlon in this or any foreign country, before 
his invention or discovery thereof, or more 
than two years prior to his application, and 
not In public use or on sale in this country 
for more than two years prior to his appli- 
cation, unless the same is proved to have 
been abandoned, may. upon payment of the 
fees required by law, and other due proceed- 
ing had, obtain a patent therefor. 

The Secretary of the Interior and the Com- 
mlseioner of Patents are authorised to grant 
any officer of the Government, except officers 
and employees of the Patent Office, a patent 
for any Invention of the classes mentioned in 
section 4888 of the Revised Statutes when such 
invention is used or to be used in the public 
service, without the payment of any fee; Pro- 
vided. That the applicant in his application 
shall state that the Invention described therein, 
if patented, may be used by the Government, 
or any of its officers or employees in prose- 
cution of work for the Government, or by 
any other person in the United States, without 
the payment to him of any royalty thereon, 
which stipulation shall be included in the 
patent. 

Sec. 4887. No person otherwise entitled 
thereto shall be debarred from receiving a 
patent for his invention or discovery, nor 
shall any patent be declared invalid by reason 
of its having been first patented or caused to 
be patented by the inventor or his legal rep- 
resentatives or assigns in a foreign country, 
unless the application for said foreign patent 
was filed more than twelve months, in cases 
within the provisions of section 4886 of the 
Revised Statutes, and four months in cases 
of designs, prior to the filing of the appli- 
cation in this country, in which case no 
patent shall be granted In this country. 

An application for patent for an invention 
or discovery or for a design filed In this 
country by any person who has previously 
regularly filed an application for a patent 
for the same invention, discovery, or design 
in a foreign country which, by treaty, con- 
vention, or law, affords similar privileges to 
citizens of the United States shall have the 
same force and effect as the same application 
would have if filed in this country on the 
date on which the application for patent for 
the same invention, discovery, or design was 
first filed in such foreign country, provided 
the application in this country Is filed within 
twelve months In cases within the provisions 
of section 4886 of the Revised Statutes, and 
within four months in cases of designs, from 
the earliest date on which any such foreign 
application was filed. But no patent shall be 
granted on an application for patent for an 
Invention or discovery or a design which had 
been patented or described in a printed pub- 
lication in this or any foreign country more 
than two years before the date of the actual 
filing of the application in this country, or 
which had been in public use or on sale in 
this country for more than two years prion 
to such filing. 

Sec. 4888. Before any Inventor or discoverer 
shall receive a patent for his invention or 
discovery, he shall make application therefor. 
In writing, to the CommlBBioner of Patents, 
and shall file In the Patent Office a written 
description of the same, and of the manner 
and process of making, constructing, compound- 
ing, and using It, in such full, clear, con- 
cise, and exact terms as to enable any person 
skilled in the art or science to which it ap- 



370 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



perUios, or with wbich It la moat nearly coa- 
nectad, to make, conatruct, compound, and 
uae the aame; and In caaa of a machine, he 
shall explain the principle thereof, and the 
beat mode In which he haa contemplated ap- 
plying that principle, so aa to dlatinculah it 
from other inventions; and he shall particu- 
larly point out and distinctly claim the part. 
Improvement, or combination which he claims 
aa his invention or discovery. The specifica- 
tion and claim shall be signed by the in- 
ventor and attested by two witnesaea. 

Sec. 4689. When the nature of the case 
admlta of drawlnga, the applicant ahall fur- 
nish one copy signed by the Inventor or his 
attorney in fact, and attested by two wit- 
nesses, which shall be filed in the Patent 
Ofllce; and a copy of the drawing, to be fur- 
niahed by the Patent Office, shall be attached 
to the patent as a part of the apeclflcatlon. 

Sec. 4890. When the invention or diacovery 
la of a eompoBltion of matter, the applicanc. 
if required by the Commissioner, shall fumiah 
specimens of Ingredients and of the compo- 
sition, sufficient in quantity for the purpoae 
of experiment. 

Sec. 4891. In all caaes which admit of 
representation by model, the applicant, if 
required by the Commiaaloner, shall, furnish 
a model of convenient aise to exhibit advan- 
tageously the several parte of his Invention or 
discovery. 

Sec. 4892. The applicant shall make oath 
that he does verily believe himself to be the 
original and first Inventor or discoverer of the 
art, machine, manufacture, composition, or 
improvement for which he solicits a patent; 
that he doea not know and does not believe 
that the same was ever before known or uaed; 
and shall state of what country he is a citi- 
zen. Such oath may be made before any 
person within the United States authorized 
by law to adminiater oatha. or. when the 
applicant resides in a foreign country, before 
any minister, charge d'affaires, consul, or 
commercial agent holding commission under 
the Government of the United States, or before 
any notary public. Judge, or magistrate having 
an official seal and authorized to administer 
oaths in the foreign country in which the 
applicant may be, whose authority shall be 
proved by certificate of a diplomatic or con- 
sular officer of the United States. 

Sec. 4898. On the filing of any such appli- 
cation and the payment of the fees required 
by law, the Commlsaloner of Patents shall 
cause an examination to be made of the al- 
leged new Invention or discovery; and if on 
such examination It shall appear that the 
claimant Is Justly entitled to a patent under 
the law. and that the same Is sufficiently useful 
and Important, the Commissioner shall issue 
a patent therefor. 

Sec. 4894. All applications for patents shall 
be completed and prepared for examination 
within one year after the filing of the appli- 
cation, and In default thereof, or upon failure 
of the applicant to pro«ccute the same within 
one year after any action therein, of which 
notice shall have born given to the applicant, 
they 8hall be re^Rrded aH abandoned by the 
parties thereto, unless it be shown to the 
Hsilsfactlon of the (?omml.«isloner of Patents 
that such delay was unavoidable. 

Sec. 4H95. Patents may be granted and is- 
sued or relfwued to the a.ssif^nee of the Inventor 
or dii^coverer; but the assignment must first 
be entered of record in the Patent OlBre. And 
in all ranefi of an application by an aHslgnee 
for the issue of a patent, the application shall 



be made and the apaeiflcatloB awofrn to bj thm I 
Inventor or discoverer; and in all cases of aa ' 
application for a reissue of any patent, the ' 
application must be made and the corrected , 
specification algned by the Inventor or dis- 
coverer, if he is living, nnleas the patent 
waa Issued and tha aaalgnment made before 
the eighth day of July. 1870. 

Sac. 4896. When any peraon, having made 
any new invention or diacovery for which a 
patent might have been granted, diea beforv 
a patent la granted, the right of applying for 
and obtaining the patent ahall devolve on hia 
executor or administrator, in truat for the 
heirs at law of the decaaaed. In eaae he ahall 
have died Intestate; or If he ahall hare left 
a will disposing of the aame, then In troat 
for hia deviaeea. in aa full numne? and on the 
same terma and conditlona aa the same might 
have bean claimed or enjoyed by him fa hia 
lifetime; and 'When any peraim having made 
any new invention or diacovery for whleh a 
patent might have been granted becomea In- 
sane before a patent la granted the right of 
applying for and obtaining the patent ahall 
devolve on hia legally appointod guardian, 
conaervator. or representative in truat for his 
estate In aa full manner and on the aame 
terms and conditlona aa the aame might have 
been claimed or enjoyed by him while aane 
and when the application ia made by such 
legal repreaentativea the oath or affirmation 
required to be made ahall be ao varied In 
form that It can be made by them. The exec- 
utor or administrator duly authorised noder 
the law of any foreign country to administer 
upon the estate of the deceased inventor shall, 
in caae the said Inventor waa not domiciled 
In the United States at the time of hia death, 
have the right to apply tor and obtain the 
patent. The authority of auch foreign exec- 
utor or admlnletrator ahall be proved by cer- 
tificate of a diplomatic or consular officer of 
the United Statea. 

The foregoing section, aa to inaane persuw. 
is to cover all applications now on file la 
the Patent Office or which may be hereafter 
made. 

Sec. 4897. Any person who haa an Interest 
in an invention or discovery, whether aa in- 
ventor, dlecoverer or aaaignee. for which a 
patent waa ordered to issue upon the pay- 
ment of the final fee, but who falla to make 
payment thereof within six months from the 
time at which it waa paased and allowed, and 
notice thereof waa aent to the applicant or 
his agent, shall have a right to make aa 
application for a patent for auch invention 
or discovery the same aa In the caae of aa 
original application. But such second appli- 
cation muat be made within two years after 
the allowance of the original application. Bat 
no person shall be held responsible in damaica 
for the manufacture or uae of any article or 
thing for which a patent waa ordered to issue 
under such renewed application prior to the 
issue of the patent. And upon the hearing 
of renewed applicattona preferred under this 
section, abandonment ahall be conaldered as a 
question of fact. 

Sec. 4898. Every patent or any InterMl 
therein ahall be assignable in law by an la- 
strument In writing, and the patentee or idi 
assigns or legal representatives may In Ilka 
manner grant and convey an exclnaive right 
under his patent to the whole or any specified 
part of the United Statea. An aaalgnment 
grant, or conveyance ahall be void aa against 
any subsequent purchaacr or moKgagee for a 
valuable conaideratlon. without notice. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



371 



It U reeontod in the Patent Office wltbln three 
Biooths from the date thereof. 

U any such aaslgnment, grant, or convey- 
aac* of any jMitent shall be acknowledged be- 
fore aay notary public of the several States 
or Territories or the District of Columbia, or 
toy commlasloner of the United States Circuit 
Court, or before any secretary of legation or 
comuiar officer authorised to administer oaths 
or perform notarial acts under section 1760 of 
the Revised Statutes, the Certificate of such 
ackaowledgment. under the hand and official 
Mai of such notary or other officer, shall be 
prima facie evidence of the execution of such 
•nignment, grant or conveyance. 

Sec 4899. Every person who purchases of 
tlM inventor or discoverer, or, with his knowl- 
edge and consent, constructs any newly In- 
T«nied or discovered machine, or other patent- 
able article, prior to the application by the 
laveator or discoverer for a patent, or who 
■alls or uses one so constructed, shall have 
tte right to nse. and vend to others to be 
eaed. the specific thing so made or purchased, 
wttkout liability therefor. 

Sec 4900. It shall be the duty of all pat- 
ntees. and their assigns and legal represen- 
tatives, and of all persons making or vending 
aay patented article for or under them, to 
fire sufficient notice to the public that the 
laae Is patented either by fixing thereon the 
vord "patented," together with the day and 
rear the patent was granted; or when, from 
the character of the article, this cannot be 
done, by fixing to it. or to the package where- 
iB one or more of them is inclosed, a label 
eoBtainlng the like notice; and in any suit for 
iafrlngement, by the party failing so to mark, 
BO damages shall be recovered by the plain- 
tiff, except on proof that the defendant was 
inlj notified of the infringement, and con- 
tiaued, after such notice, to make, use, or 
vend the article so patented. 

Sec. 4901. Every person who, in any man- 
aer, marks upon anything made, used, or sold 
br him for which he has not obtained a pat- 
eat, the name or any imitation of the name 
o( aay person who has obtained a patent 
tb«efor. without the consent of such pat- 
entee, or his saslgns or legal reprnentatives ; 
or 

Who, in any manner, marks upon or affixes 
to any such patented article the word "pat- 
tst" or "patentee.'* or the words "letters 
patent." or any word of like Import, with 
latent to imitate or counterfeit the mark or 
4evlee of the patentee, without having the 
license or consent of such patentee or his 
aaalgns or legal representatives; or 

Who, In any manner, marks upon or affixes 
to aay unpatented article the word "patent" 
or any word importing that the same is pat- 
sated, for the purpose of deceiving the public, 
ahan be liable, for every such ofTense, to a 
Penalty of not leas than one hundred dollars, 
vith costs; one-half of said penalty to the 
P^non who shall sue for the same, and the 
other to the use of the United States, to be 
fvcovered by suit In any district court of the 
t^Blted SUtes within whose jurisdiction such 
offense may have been committed. 

Sec 4903. Whenever, on examination, any 
claim for a patent is rejected, the Commis- 
aioacr shall notify the applicant thereof, giving 
Um briefly the reasons for such rejection, to- 
l^ther with such Information and references 
u may be useful in Judging of the propriety 
of reaewlog his application or of altering his 
vedflcatlon: and If, after receiving such 
*oUce, the applicant persists in his claim for 



a patent, with or without altering his specifica- 
tions, the Commissioner shall order a re-ez- 
amination of the case. 

Sec. 4904. Whenever an application is made 
for a patent which, in the opinion of the 
Commissioner, would interfere with any pend- 
ing application, or with any unexpired patent, 
he shall give notice thereof to the applicants, 
or applicant and patentee, as the case may 
be, and shall direct the primary examiner to 
proceed to determine the question of priority 
of Invention. And the Commissioner may 
issue a patent to the party who Is adjudged 
the prior Inventor, unless the adverse party 
appeals from the decision of the primary ex- 
aminer, or of the board of examlners-ln-chlef, 
as the case may be, within such time, not 
less than twenty days, as the Commissioner 
shall prescribe. 

Sec. 4906. The Commissioner of Patents may 
establish rules for taking affidavits and depo- 
sitions required In cases pending in the Pat- 
ent Office, and such affidavits and depositions 
may be taken before any officer authorised by 
law to take depositions to be used in the 
courts of the United States or of the State 
where the officer resides. 

Sec. 4906. The clerk of any court of the 
United States, for any district or Territory 
wherein testimony is to be taken for use in 
any contested case pending in the Patent 
Office, shall, upon the application of any party 
thereto, or of his agent or attorney. Issue 
a subpoena for any witness residing or being 
within such district or Territory, commanding 
him to appear and testify before any officer In 
such district or Territory authorized to take 
depositions and affidavits, at any time and 
place in the subpoena stated. But no witness 
shall be required to attend at any place more 
than forty miles from the place where the 
subpoena Is served upon him. 

Sec. 4907. Every witness duly subpoenaed 
and in attendance shall be allowed the same 
fees as are allowed to witnesses attending the 
courts of the United States. 

Sec. 4908. Whenever any witness, after be- 
ing duly served with such subpoena, neglects 
or refuses to appear, or after appearing re- 
fusee to testify, the Judge of the court whose 
clerk Issued the subpoena may, on proof of 
such neglect qr refusal, enforce obedience to 
the process, or punish the disobedience, as in 
other like cases. But no witness shall be 
deemed guilty of contempt for disobeying such 
subpoena, unless his fees and traveling ex- 
pense in going to. returning from, and one 
day's attendance at the place of examination, 
are paid or tendered him at the time of the 
service of the subpoena; nor for refusing to 
disclose any secret Invention or discovery 
made or owned by himself. 

Sec. 4909. Every applicant for a patent or 
for the reissue of a patent, any of the claims 
of which have been twice rejected, and every 
party to an Interference, may appeal from 
the decision of the primary examiner, or of 
the examiner In charge of Interferences In 
such case, to the board of examlners-ln-chlef ; 
having once paid the fee for such appeal. 

Sec. 4910. If such party is dissatisfied with 
the decision of the examiners-in-chief, he may. 
on payment of the fee prescribed, appeal to 
the Commissioner In person. 

Sec. 4911. If such party, except a party to 
an Interference, i« disaatisfled with the de- 
cision of the Commissioner, he may appeal 
to the Supreme Court of the District of Co- 
lumbia, sitting in banc. 



372 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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378 



S«e. 4IX2. When an appeal la taken to the 
ikipffeiBe Court of the District of Columbia, 
the eppellant aball give notice thereof to the 
Ooramlaloner, and file in the Patent OfDce 
wlthia nich time as the Commiasloner shall 
ap^lot. his reasons of appeal, specifically set 
(ofth in writing. 

See. 49U. The court shall, before hearing 
uick appeal, give notice to the Commissioner 
id the time and place of the hearing, and on 
rec^Tiag such notice the Commissioner shall 
gire notice of such time and place in such 
Basnoer as the court may prescribe, to all 
parties who appear to be Interested therein. 
The party appealing shall lay before the court 
certlBed copies of all the original papers and 
erldence in the case, and the Commissioner 
ibsil furnish the court with the grounds of his 
decision, fully set forth in writing, touching 
tU the points laToI-ved by the reasons of 
appeal. And at the request of any party In- 
terested, or of the court, the Commissioner 
tad the examiners may be examined under 
oath, in explanation of the principles of the 
thing for which a patent is demanded 

Sec 4914. The court, on petition, shall hear 
tad determine such appeal, and revise the 
decision appealed from in a summary way, 
on the evidence produced before the Commls- 
lioner. at such early and convenient time as 
the court may appoint; and the revision shall 
b* confined to the points set forth In the 
retaons of appeal. After hearing the case the 
eoflft shall return to the Commissioner a cer- 
tiflrate of its proceedings and decision, which 
shall be entered of record in the Patent Of- 
See. and shall govern the further proceedings 
la the case. But no opinion or decision of the 
nrart in any such case shall preclude any 
person interested from the right to contest 
^e validity of such patent in any court 
•herein the same may be called in question. 

Sec 4S16. Whenever a patent on applica- 
tion is refused, either by the Commissioner 
of Patents or by the Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia upon appeal from the 
Commissioner, the applicant may have remedy 
br bill in equity: and the court having cog- 
Qiiance thereof, on notice to adverse parties 
asd other due proceedings had, may adjudge 
that such applicant is entitled, according to 
law, to receive a patent for his invention, as 
9ceifted in his claim, or for any part thereof, 
u the facts In the case may appear. And such 
■djndication. If it be In favor of the right 
o( the applicant, shall authorize the Commis- 
•looer to issue such patent on the applicant 
fllins in the Patent Office a copy of the ad- 
Jadlestion. and otherwise complying with the 
requirements of law. In all cases where there 
Is no opposing party, a copy of the bill shall 
he served on the Commissioner: and all the 
npenses of the proceeding shall be paid by 
the applicant, whether the final decision is in 
hla favor or not. 

R. 8., U. S.. Sup., Vol. 2, c. 74, Feb. 9, 
1% Be it enacted, etc., That there shall 
b«. and there is hereby, established in the 
Diatrict of Columbia a court, to be known as 
Ui« eoart of appeals of the District of Colum- 
bia. 

Sec C. That the said court of appeals 
diall establish a term of the court during 
«tth and every month In each year excepting 
th« months of July and August. 

Sec S. That any final Judgment or decree 
of the said court of appeals may be re-exam- 
ined and affirmed, reversed, or modified by the 
SvpresM Gonrt of the United States, upon 
«rtt of error or appeal. In all causes in which 



the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, shall 
exceed the sum of five thousand dollars. In 
the same manner knd under the same regula- 
tions as heretofore provided for in cases of 
writs of error on Judgment or appeals from 
decrees rendered in the supreme court of the 
District of Columbia. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of Amer- 
ica in Congress assembled. That in any case 
heretofore made final In the court of appeals 
of the District of Columbia, it shall be com- 
petent for the Supreme Court to require, by 
certiorari or otherwise, any such case to be 
certified to the Supreme Court for its review 
and determination, with the same power and 
authority in the case as if it had been car- 
ried by appeal or writ of error to the Supreme 
Court. 

Sec. 9. That the determination of appeals 
from the decision of the Commissioner of 
Patents, now vested in the general term of 
the supreme court of the District of Columbia, 
in pursuance of the provisions of section 790 
of the Revised Statutes of the United States, 
relating to the District of Columbia, shall 
hereafter be and the same is hereby vested, 
in the court of appeals created by this act; 

And in addition, any party aggrieved by a 
decision of the Commissioner of Patents in 
any interference case may appeal therefrom to 
said court of appeals. 

Title LX, Rev. Stat.. 1878, p. 960: 

Sec. 4916. Whenever any patent is inopera- 
tive or invalid, by reason of a defective or 
insufficient specification, or by reason of the 
patentee claiming as his own invention or 
discovery more than he had a right to claim 
as new, if the error has arisen by inadvertence, 
accident, or mistake, and without any fraud- 
ulent or deceptive intention, the Commissioner 
shall, on the surrender of such patent and 
the payment of the duty required by law. 
cause a new patent for the same invention, 
and in accordance with the corrected speci- 
fication, to be issued to the patentee, or. In 
case of his death or of an assignment of the 
whole or any undivided part of the original 
patent, then to his executors, administrators, 
or assigns, for the unexpired part of the term 
of the original patent. Such surrender shall 
take effect upon the issue of the amended 
patent. The Commissioner may. In his dis- 
cretion, cause several patents to be issued for 
distinct and separate parts of the thing pat- 
ented, upon demand of the applicant, and upon 
payment of the required fee for a reissue for 
each cf such reissued letters patent. The spe- 
cifications and claim in every such case shall 
be subject to revision and restriction in the 
same manner as original applications are. 
Every patent so reissued, together with the cor- 
rected specifications, shall have the same ef- 
fect and operation in law, on the trial of all 
actions for causes thereafter arising, as If the 
same had been originally filed in such cor- 
rected form: but no new matter shall be in- 
troduced into the specification, nor in case 
of a machine patent shall the model or draw- 
ings be amended, except each by the other; 
but when there is neither model nor drawing^ 
amendments may be made upon proof satis- 
factory to the Commissioner that such new 
matter or amendment was a part of the orig> 
Inal Invention, and was omitted from the spe- 
cification by Inadvertence, accident, qr mis- 
take, as aforesaid. 

Sec. 4917. Whenever, through Inadvertence, 
accident, or mistake, and without any fraud- 
ulent or deceptive Intention, a patentaa hai 



374 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



claimed more thao.tluit of which bo waa tho 
original or lint InTentor or dlacovarer, hia 
patent shall be -valid tur all that part which 
la trttlj and Juatlr hU own, provided tb» 
same is a material or substantial part of the 
thing patented; and anjr such patentee, his 
heirs or assigns, whether of the whole or any 
sectional interest therein, may, on payment 
of the fee required by law, make disclaimer 
of such parts of the thing patented as he 
shall not chose to claim or to hold by virtue 
of the patent or assignment, stating therein 
the extent of his Interest in such patent. Such 
disclaimer shall be in writing, attested by 
one or more witnesses, and recorded in the 
patent offlce; and it shall thereafter be con- 
sidered as part of the original specification to 
the extent of the Interest possessed by the 
claimant and by those claiming under him 
after the record thereof. But no such dis- 
claimer shall affect any action pending at the 
time of its being filed, except so far as may 
relate to the question of unreasonable neglect 
or delay in filing it. 

Sec. 4918. Whenever there are interfering 
patenta, any person interested in any one 
of them, or In the working of the Invention 
claimed under either of them, may have re- 
lief against the interfering patentee, and all 
parties Interested under him, by suit In equity 
against the owners of the interfering patent; 
and the court, on notice to adverse parties, 
and other due proceedings had according to 
the course of equity, may adjudge and declare 
either of the patents void In whole or In part, 
or lnoi>erative or invalid In any particular 
part of the United States, according to the 
Interest of the parties in the patent or the 
invention patented. But no such Judgment 
or adjudication shall affect the right of any 
person except the parties to the suit and those 
deriving title under them subsequent to the 
rendition of such Judgment. 

Sec. 4919. Damages for the infringement 
of any patent may be recovered by action on 
the case. In the name of the party inter- 
ested either as patentee, assignee, or grantee. 
And whenever in any such action a verdict Is 
rsndered for the plaintiff, the court may enter 
Judgment thereon for any sum above the 
amount found by the verdict as the actual 
damages sustained, according to the circum- 
stances of the case, not exceeding three times 
the amount of such verdict, together with the 
costs. 

Sec. 4920. In any action for infringement 
the defendant may plead the general issue, 
and. having given notice in writing to the 
plaintiff or his attorney thirty days before, 
may prove on trial any one or more of the 
following special matters: 

First. — That for the purpose of deceiving the 
public the description and specification filed by 
the patentee in tho Patent Ofllce was made 
to contain less than the whole truth relative 
to his invention or discovery, or more than 
Is necessary to produce the desired effect; or. 

Spcond. — That he had Burreptltlously or un- 
justly obtained the patent for that which was 
in fact invented by another, who was using 
reasonable diligence in adapting and perfect- 
ing the same; or. 

Third.— That it has been patented or de- 
scribed In some printed publication prior to 
his supposed Invention or dlKrovery thereof, or 
more than two years prior to his application 
for a patent therefor; or, 

Fourth— That he was not the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of any material 
and substuntlal part of the thing patented; or. 



Flfth.^That it had been tn pnbtfe oas or 
on sale in this country for more than tvo 
yean bafore his application for a patent, or 
had been abandonad to the public. 

And in notlcea aa to proof of prerions is- 
rention. knowledge, or use of the thins pat' 
anted, the defendant shall atate tha namee of 
the patentees and the datea of their pateata 
and when granted, and the namea and resi- 
dences of the persona alleged to have invented 
or to have had the prior knowledge oi the 
thing patented, and where and by whom It 
had been used; and If any one or mora of 
the special matters alleged ahall be found for 
the defendant. Judgment ahall be readied for 
him with coata. And the like defenses may 
be pleaded in any suit in equity for relief 
against an alleged infringement ; and pnxrfB 
of the same may be given upon Ilka notice 
In the answer of the defendant, and with the 
like effect. 

Sec. 4921. The several courts vested with 
Jurisdiction of casea arising under the patent 
laws shall have power to grant injunctiOBi 
according to the course and princlplee of 
courts of equity, to prevent the vlolatloa 
of any right secured by patent, on such 
terms as the court may deem reasonable; 
and upon a decree being rendered in aay 
such case for an infringement the complala- 
ant shall be entitled to recover, in addition 
to the profits to be accounted for by the 
defendant, the damagea the complainant has 
sustained thereby; and the court ahall assess 
the same or cauae the same to be a ss e s sed 
under its direction. And the court shall have 
the same power to Increase such damages, la 
Its discretion, aa ia given to Increase the 
damages found by verdlcta In actions in the 
nature of actions of trespass upon the ease. 

But in any suit or action brought for 
the Infringement of any patent there shall 
be no recovery of profits or danaages for any 
infringement committed more than six yean 
before the filing of the bill of complaint or 
the Issuing of the writ In such suit or action, 
and this provision shall apply to existing 
causes of action. 

Sec. 2. That aald courta, when sitting la 
equity for the trial of patent cauaes, may 
impanel a Jury of not less than five and 
not more than twelve persons, subject to 
such general rules in the prwrnlses as may. 
from time to time, be made by the Supreme 
Court, and submit to them such questions of 
fact arising in such cauae aa such clrcnU 
court shall deem expedient. 

And the verdict of such Jury shall bs 
treated and proceeded upon In the aane 
manner and with the same effect aa in the 
case of Issues sent from chancery to a court 
of law and returned with such findings. 

Sec. 4922. Whenever, through Inadvertence, 
accident, or mistake, and without any wilfal 
default or intent to defraud or mlalead the 
public, a patentee has, in his spedficatloa. 
claimed to be the original and flnt Inventor 
or discoverer of any material or subatas- 
tlal part of the thing patented, of which 
he was not the original and first Inventor 
or discoverer, every such patentee, his ex* 
ecutors, administrators, and aasigna. whethtf 
of the whole or any sectional interest in tb« 
patent, may maintain a suit at law or bi 
equity, for the Infringement of any part 
thereof, which was bona fide his own. If It 
is a material and substantial part of tbs 
thing patented, and definitely distinguishable 
from the parta claimed without rt^t, boI« 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



375 



viihauadlns the specifications may embrace 
Bore than that of which the patentee was 
the flnt Inyentor or discoverer. But in every 
inch case in which a Judgment or decree 
ihsll be rendered for the plaintiff, no costs 
Aall be recovered unless the proper disclaimer 
tas been entered at the Patent Office before 
tht commencement of the suit But no patentee 
iJull be entitled to the benefits of this 
Mctloo if he has unreasonably neglected or 
delayed to enter a disclaimer. 



Sec. 4923. Whenever it appears that a pat- 
entee, at the time of making his application 
for the patent, believed himself to be the 
original and first inventor or discoverer of the 
thing patented, the same shall not be held 
to be void on account of the invention or 
discovery or any part thereof having been 
known or used in a foreign country, before 
his Invention or discovery thereof, if it had 
not been patented or described in a printed 
publication. 



DESIGNS. 



Sec. 4tS9. Any person who has Invented any 
ter. original, and ornamental design for an 
irtiele of manufacture, not known or used 
hf others in this country before his invention 
tbcreof. and not patented or described in any 
printed publication in this or any foreign 
roentry before his Invention thereof, or more 
tiaa two years prior to his application, and 
aot in public use or on sale In this country 
for more than two years prior to his applica* 
Uoa. unless the same is proved to have been 
tbendoned. may, upon payment of the fees 
miaired by law and other due proceedings 
bad, the same as In cases of Invention or 
4iscoTerte« covered by section 4886, obtain a 
patent therefor. 

Sec 4930. The Commissioner may dispense 
vith models of designs when the design can 
>c safllciently represented by drawings or 
Photographs. 

Sec «SL Patents for designs may be granted 
lor the term of three years and six months, 
w for seven years, or for fourteen years, as 
tbe applicant may. in hia application, elect. 

See. 49Z2. Patentees of designs issued prior 
to the second day of March. 1861, shall be 
cBtKled to extension of their respective pat- 
«>(• for the term of seven years, in the same 
aaaaer and nnder the same restrictions as 
ve provided for the extension of patents 
tor Inventions or discoveries issued prior to 
tk« second day of March. 1861. 

Sec 4ns. All the regulations and provisions 

'vhidi apply to obtaining or protecting pat- 

cBta for Inventions or discoveries not Incon- 

ri^nt with the provisions of this Title, shall 

I apply to patenta for designs. 

' CHAPTER 105.— An Act to Amend the Law 
I Relating to Patents, Trade-marks, and Copy- 
I rights. 

I Be it enacted, etc.. That hereafter during 

I ^ term of letters patent for a design, It 

I >^11 be unlawful for any person other than 

[ the owner of said letters patent, without the 

^ 'W*Me of such owner to apply the design 

I »N«rFd by such letters patent, or any colorable 

i iailtatlott thereof, to any article of manufac- 

'w* for the purpose of sale, or to sell or 

, *«Po«e for sale any article of manufacture to 

*WcJi such design or colorable ImiUtion shall. 

•llhout the license of the owner, have been 

, KpWtd, knowing that the same has been so 

•PPlted. Any person violating the provisions, 

» either of them, of this section, shall be 

wle In the amount of two hundred and 

■Ay dollars: and in case the total profit made 



by him from the manufacture or sale, is 
aforesaid, of the article or articles to which 
the design, or colorable imitation thereof, 
has been applied, exceeds the sum of two 
hundred and fifty dollars, he shall be further 
liable for the excess of such profit over and 
above the aum of two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars; and the full amount of such liability 
may be recovered by the owner of the letters 
patent, to his own use, in any circuit court 
of the United States having jurisdiction of 
the parties, either by action at law or upon 
a bill in equity for an injunction to restrain 
such Infringement. 

Sec. 2. That nothing In this act contained 
shall prevent, lessen, impeach, or avoid any 
remedy at law or In equity which any owner 
of letters patent for a design, aggrieved by 
the Infringement of the same, might have had 
if this act had not been passed; but such 
' owner shall not twice recover the profit made 
[ from the infringement 

Sec. 4934. The following shall be the rates 
for patent fees : 

On filing each original application for a 
patent, except In design cases, fifteen dollars. 

On issuing each original patent, except in 
design cases, twenty dollars. 

In design cases: For three years and six 
months, ten dollars; for seven years, fifteen 
dollars; for fourteen years, thirty dollars. 

On every application for the reissue of a 
patent, thirty dollars. 

On filing each disclaimer, ten dollars. 

• e e e e • • 

On an appeal for the first time from the 
primary examiners to the examiners-in-chief, 
ten dollars. 

On every appeal from the examlners-in-chief 
to the Commissioner, twenty dollara 

For certified copies of patents and other 
papers. Including certified printed copies, ten 
cents per hundred words. 

For recording every assignment, power of 
attorney, or other paper, of three hundred 
words or under, one dollar; of over three 
hundred and under one thousand words, two 
dollars; and for each additional thousand words 
or fraction thereof, one dollar. 

Certified copies of such drawings and speci- 
fications may be furnished by the Commissioner 
of Patents to persons applying therefor upon 
payment of the present rates for uncertified 
copies, and twenty-five cents additional for 
each certification. 

For copies of drawings, the reasonable cost 
of making them. 



PATENT RIGHTS VEST IN ASSIGNEE IN BANKRUPTCY. 

Sec. 5M6. All property conveyed by the bank- or estate, real or personal, and for any cause 

fW la fraud of his creditors; all rights in of action which he had against any person 

•Wity. choses In action, patent rights, and arising from contract or from the unlawful 

JofJTights; all debts due him, or any person taking or detention, or Injury to the property 

JOT kit use. and all liens and securities there- of the bankrupt ; and all his rights of re- 

w; aad all his rights of action for property deeming such property or estate; together with 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



377 



A» Dke light, title, power, tad authorttr 
to Mil. maaace. dlapoM of, sue for, and 
neoTcr or dofond the same, a« the bankrupt 
Blsht have had If no aMlsnment had been 
bmK ehall. In rlrtae of the adjudication of 
luknipicy and the appointment of his as- 
risneoi bat aubject to the exeeptiona stated 
to the preceding section, be at once vested 
li [in] soch aaalg&ee. 

See. 70. Title to Propertr. The trustee of 
Iha ertate of a bankrupt, upon hia appoint- 
ktnt and qualification, and hia aueceeaor or 
■cecaaora. If he ahall hare one or more, upon 
toa or their appointment and qualification, 
toall in torn be Tested hj operation of law 
Mtb the Utie of the bankrupt, aa of the date 
m was adjudged a bankrupt, except In ao far 
to It is to property which la exempt, to all 
|U doeumeuts relating to hia property: (2) 
hferests in patents, patent rights, copyrights, 
Bad txade^marka. 

PUBLIC— No. 805. June 26, 1910. 

! Aa act to proTide additional protection for 

lavaars of patents of the United Sutea and 

tor other purposea. 

Bt It enacted by the Senate and Houae of 

of the United States of America 



In Coagreaa aaaembled. That whenerer an in- 
vention deacribed in and corered by a patent 
of the United SUtea ahall hereafter be uaed 
by the United SUtea without lloenae of the 
owner thereof or lawful right to uae the 
aame, auch owner may recover reaaonable com- 
penaation for auch uae by ault In the Court 
of Claima: Prorlded, however, that aaid Court 
of Claima ahall not entertain a auit or re- 
ward compenaation under the provialoaa of 
thla Act where the claim for compenaation la 
baaed on the uae by the United States of 
any article heretofore owned. leaaed, uaed by 
or in the poaaeaalon of the United States: 
Provided further, That In any auch suit the 
United States may avail itself of any and all 
defenses, general or special, which might be 
pleaded by a defendant in an action for in- 
fringement, aa aet forth in Title Sixty of the 
Reviaed Statutea. or otherwiae; And provided 
further, That the beneflta of thia Act ahall 
not inure to any patentee, who. when he 
makea auch claim, la in the employment or 
aervice of the Oovemment of the United States: 
or the aaalgnee of any such patentee: nor 
ahall thla act apply to any device dlacovered 
or invented by auch employee during the time 
of hia employment or aervice. 



COURTS. 



Publio— No. 476. March 8, lOU 
Aa Act to codify, reviae and amend the lawa 
•ilattag to the judiciary. 

Tltle-^be Judiciary. 

Sie. M. Tbe dlatrict courta ahall have orig- 
toaJ Juriadiction aa followa: 

8ct«nth. Of all aulta at law or in equity 
•naing under the patent, the copyright, and 
tha trade-mark laws. 

Sac 48. In suits brought for the infringo- 
aant of letters patent, the district courts of 
Ihi United States shall have juriadiction. in 
kv or In equity, in the district of which the 
4ttaidant Is an Inhabitant, or in any district 
to which the defendant, whether a person, 
lartnenhip, or corporation, ahall have com- 
atttad acta of Infringement and have a regu- 
lar and eatabllahed place of buaineas. If auch 
•ait to brought in a district of which the 
letoadant la not an Inhabitant, but in which 
aach defendant haa a regular and established 
flaoa ot buslneaa, aervice of proceaa. summona. 
•r aabpoena upon the defendant may be made 
W aervice upon the agent or agents engaged 
to conducting auch bualneaa in the diatrict in 
vltlch anil la brought. 

8«c. 128. The circuit courta of appeala ahall 
tserclsa appellate juriadiction to review by 
liMCal or writ or error final deciaiona in the 
ilistilet eourts. • e e ♦ e jn all cases 
lather than those in which appeals and writs 
[if error may be taken direct to the Supreme 
I Gout • e e e e ; the judgments and de- 
erna of the circuit courta of appeal ahall be 
; ftui * * * in all cases ariaing under 
' the patents lawa, under the copyright 
' tows, a e •, 

I See. 289. In any caae within Ita appellate 

; Janadlctlon, aa defined in aectlon one hundred 

aad twenty-eight, the circuit court of appeala 

' It any time may certify to the Supreme Court 

•f the United Statea any queationa or propoal- 

tteoa of law coneemlng which it dealres the 

' iaatmetion of that court for ita proper decl- 

«1ob; and thereupon the Supreme Court may 

•Khar giro Ita inatmction on the queationa 

•ad propcaltions certified to It, which shall be 

Uadlag upon the clrcutt court of appeato In 

nek caae. or It may require that the whole 



record and cauae be aent up to It for Ita 
eonalderation, and thereupon ahall decide the 
whole matter in controveray in the aame man- 
ner aa If it had been brought there for review 
by writ of error or appeal. 

Sec. 260. Any final judgment or decree of 
the court of appeala of the Diatrict of Co- 
lumbia may be re-examined and affirmed, re- 
versed, or modified by the Supreme Court of 
the United States upon writ of error or appeal, 
in the following caaea: 

Except aa provided in the next aucceeding 
section, the Judgments and decreea of aaid court 
of appeals ahall be final in ail cases arising 
under the patent laws, the copyright 
laws, • • •. 

Sec. 251. In any case in which the judgment 
or decree of said court of appeala ia made final 
by the section last preceding, it ahall be 
competent for the Supreme Court of the 
United Statea to require, by certiorari or 
otherwise, any such case to be certified to it 
for its review and determination, with the 
same power and authority in the case ss if 
it had been carried by writ of error or ap- 
peal to said Supreme Court. It shall also 
be competent for said court of appeals, in 
any case in which Its judgment or decree 
is made final under the section last preceding, 
at any time to certify to the Supreme Court 
of the United States any questions or proposi- 
tions of law concerning which it desires the 
Instruction of that court for their proper de- 
cision; and thereupon the Supreme Court 
may either give ita instruction on the ques- 
tions and propositions certified to it. which 
shall be binding upon said court of appeals In 
such case, or it may require that the whole 
record and cause be sent up to it for Its 
consideration, and thereupon shall decide the 
whole matter in controversy in the same man- 
ner as if it had been brought there for review 
by writ of error or appeal. 

Sec. 366. The jurisdiction vested In the 
courta of the United Statea In the cases and 
proceedings hereinafter mentioned shall be ex- 
elusive of the courts of the several States. 

Fifth. Of all cases arising under the patent- 
right, or copyright lawa of the United SUtea. 



378 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PRINTS AND LABELS. 



Excerptg from an Act approred March 4. 
1909, entitled an Act to amend and consolidate 
the Acts respecting copyright, relating to 
prints and labels. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of America 
In Congress assembled. That any person en- 
titled thereto, upon complying with the pro- 
visions of this Act. shall have the exclusive 
right: 

(a) To print, reprint, publish, copy, and 
vend the copyrighted work; 

Sec. 7. That no copyright shall subsist in 
the original text of any work which Is in 
the public domain, or in any work which was 
published in this country or any foreign 
country prior to the going into effect of this 
Act and has not been already copyrighted in 
the United States, or in any publication of 
the United States Government, or any re- 
print. In whole or In part, thereof: Provided, 
however. That the publication or republica- 
tion by the Government, either separately or in 
a public document, of any material in which 
copyright Is subsisting shall not be taken to 
cause any abridgment or annulment of the 
copyright or to authorize any use or appropri- 
ation of such copyright material without the 
consent of the copyright proprietor. 

Sec. 8. That the author or proprietor of 
any work made the subject of copyright by this 
Act. or his executors, administrators, or as- 
signs, shall have copyright for such work un- 
der the conditions and for the terms specified 
In this Act. Provided, however, That the 
copyright secured by this Act shall extend to 
the work of an author or proprietor who is 
a citizen or subject of a foreign state or 
nation, only: 

(a) When an alien author or proprietor shall 
be domiciled within the United SUtes at the 
time of the first publication of his work; 
or 

(b) When the foreign state or nation of 
which such author or proprietor Is a citizen 
or subject grants, either by treaty, conven- 
tion, agreement, or law, to citizens of the 
United States the benefit of copyright on 
substantially the same basis as to Its own 
citizens, or copyright protection substantially 
equal to the protection secured to such foreign 
author under this Act or by treaty; or when 
such foreign state or nation Is a party to 
an International agreement which provides for 
reciprocity in the granting of copyright, by 
the terms of which agreement the United 
States may, at Its pleasure, become a party 
thereto. 

The existence of the reciprocal conditions 
aforesaid shall be determined by the President 
of the United States, by proclamation made 
from time to time, as the purposes of this 
Act may require. 

Sec. 9. That any person entitled thereto by 
this Act may secure copyright for his work 
by publication thereof with the notice of copy- 
right required by this Act; and such notice 
Bhall be affixed to each copy thereof pub- 
lished or offered for sale in the United States 
by authority of the copyright proprietor, ex- 
cept In the case of books seeking ad Interim 
protection. • • • 

Sec. 18. That the notice of copyright re- 
quired by section nine of this Act shall con- 
Hlst either of the word "Copyright" or the 
abbreviation "Copr.", accompanied by the 
Dsme of the copjrrlght proprietor, and if the 
work bo a printed literary, musical, or drama- 



tic work, the notice shall include also tM 
year in which the copyright was secured H 
publication. In the cas«. however, of copiM 
of works specified in subsections (f) to (k}, 
inclusive, of section five of this Act, tM 
notice may consist of the letter C Inclossi 
within a circle, accompanied by the Initlali, 
monogram, mark, or symbol of the copy* 
right proprietor: Provided. That on sorii 
accessible portion of such copies or of UK 
margin, back, permanent base, or pedestal 
or of the substance on which such copies ■hal 
be mounted, his name shall appear. But 11 
the case of works in which copyright is ink 
sistlng when this Act shall go into effect 
the notice of copyright may be either U 
one of the forms prescribed herein or If 
one of those prescribed by the Act of JoM 
eighteenth, eighteen hundred and seTenty-fovr 

Sec. 23. That the copyright secured by thfe 
Act shall ' endure for twenty-eight years trofl 
the date of first publication, whether tkt 
copyrighted work bears the author's true naiM 
or Is published anonymously or under si 
assumed name: Provided, That in the caai 
of any posthumous work or of any periodical 
cyclopaedic, or other composite work upot 
which the copyright was originally secured b| 
the proprietor thereof, or of any worti copy 
righted by a corporate body (otherwise thai 
as assignee or licensee of the individual aa 
thor) or by an employer for whom sad 
work is made for hire, the proprietor of sad 
copyright shall be entitled to a renewal aai 
extension of the copyright In such work to 
the further term of twenty-eight years whsi 
application for such renewal and extenaia 
shall have been made to the copyright oSe 
and duly registered therein within one yei 
prior to the expiration of the original ten 
of copyright: And Provided further. That I 
the case of any other copyrighted work, la 
eluding a contribution by an Individual as 
thor to a periodical or to a cyclopaedic c 
other composite work when such contribvUo 
has been separately registered, the author ( 
such work if still living, or the widow. wldo« 
er. or children of the author. If the autlM 
be not living, or if such author, widow, wtd 
ower, or children be not Hying, then the as 
thor's, executor's or in the absence of a will 
his next of kin shall be entitled to a renews 
and extension of the copyright In such war 
for a further term of twenty-eight years whe 
application for such renewal and extenstof 
shall have been made to the copyright oSk 
and duly registered therein within one yea 
prior to the expiration of the original term i 
copyright: And provided further. That t 
default of the registration of such applicatle 
for renewal and extension, the copyright f 
any work shall determine at the expiration < 
twenty-eight years from first publication. 

Sec. 24. That the copyright subatstlns i 
any work at the time when this Act soi 
into effect may. at the expiration of th 
term provided for under existing law. b 
renewed and extended by the author of eaic 
work If still living, or the widow, wldovswi 
or children of the author. If the author b 
not living, or if such author, widow, widowai 
or children be not living, then by the as 
thor's executors, or in the absence of a ^C 
his next of kin. for a further period wut. 
that the entire term shall be equal to tba 
secured by this Act. Including the reae'vz 
period: Provided, however. That if the wor 
be a composite work upon which c<9yTlsll 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



379 



Ni orlgiDAlly secured hj the proprietor there- 
It Ukcn auch proprietor shall be entitled to 
h privilege of renewal and extension granted 
Rdcr this eection: Provided, That appllca- 
In (or such renewal and extension shall be 
Ipide to the copyright office and duly registered 
ImiB withlD one year prior to the explra- 
Ikfi of the existing term. 
8«. 4S. That copyright secured under this 
previoua Acta of the United Statee may 
usigned, granted, or mortgaged by an 
ent in writing signed by the proprietor 
the copyright, or may be bequeathed by 

Act approved June 18. 1874, relating to 

tlon of prints and labels. 
iMtlona S, 4. and 6 of the act of Congress 
ag to- patents, trade-marks, and copy- 
approved June 18, 1874 (18 Stat. I*, 
IS) are as follows: 
Ak I. That In the construction of this act 
li words "engraving, cut. and print'' shall be 



applied only to pictorial Illustrations or works 
connected with the fine arts, and no prints or 
labels designed to be used for any other 
articles of manufacture shall be entered under 
the copyright law, but may be registered in 
the Patent Office. And the Commissioner of 
Patents is hereby charged with the supervi- 
sion and control of the entry or registry of 
such prints or labels, in conformity with the 
regulations provided by law as to copyright of 
prints, except that there shall be paid for 
recording the title of any print or label, not 
a trade-mark, six dollars, which shall cover 
the expense of furnishing a copy of the 
record, under the seal of the Commissioner of 
Patents, to the party entering the same. . 

Sec. 4. That all laws and parts of laws In- 
consistent with the foregoing provisions be, 
and the same are hereby, repealed. 

Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect on 
and after the first day of August, eighteen 
hundred and seventy-four. 



TRADE-MARKS. 






Act of February 20. 1905 (As Amended). 



u ACT To authorise the registration of trade- 
atrks used in commerce with foreign na- 
ttOBs or among the several States or with 

[ bdian tribes, and to protect the same. 

I Bs it enacted by the Senate and House of 
MKse&tatlvea of the United States of Amerl- 
p In (>mgreaa assembled, That the owner 

II t trade-mark used in commerce with for- 
PP nations, or among the several States, or 

Indian tribes, provided such owner shall 
domiciled within the territory of the United 
or resides in or is located in any for- 
country which, by treaty, convention, or 
affords similar privileges to the citizens 
the United States, may obtain registration 
tach trade«mark by complying with the fol- 
^Ins requirements: First, by filing In the 
l-htcnt Office an application therefor, in writ- 
ftt addressed to the Commissioner of Pat- 
pcik signed by the applicant, specifying his 
ItsM, domicile, location, and citizenship; the 
Am of merchandise and the particular de- 
Kflftion of goods comprised in such class to 
>Mt h the trade-mark is appropriated; a state- 
Met of the mode In which the same is ap- 
MtA and affixed to goods, and the length of 
IfaM during which the trade-mark has been 
a description of the trade-mark- itself 
1 be included. If desired by the applicant 
» wq ntred by the commissioner^ provided such 
jyrt ptlon Is of a character to meet the ap- 
ff^ni of the commissioner. With this sUte- 
ihall be filed a drawing of the trade- 
signed by the applicant, or his attorney, 
rach number of specimens of the trade- 
"^ is actually used as may be required by 
■wt Commissioner of Patents. Second, by pay- 
«■« into the Treasury of the United SUtes the 
'■* of ten dollars, and otherwise complying 
y* *i» requirements of this act and such 
jWtttlons as may be prescribed by the Com- 
■"Bener of Patents. 

^ec I That the application prescribed In 
, y. to regolttg section. In order to create any 
I ««M whatever in favor of the party filing it, 
I ■■* be accompanied by a written declaration 
I T?*** *y ^e applicant, or by a member 
' <■ tae firm or an officer of the corporation 
i ^ UBoelation applying, to the effect that the 
[ gwcant believes himself or the firm, cor- 
; Wvtieo, or aaaoelatlon in whose behalf he 



makes the application to be the owner of the 
trade-mark sought to be registered, and that 
no other person, firm, corporation, or associa- 
tlcn, to the best of the applicant's knowledge 
and belief, has the right to use such trade- 
mark in the United States, either in the 
identical form or In such near resemblance 
thereto as might be calculated to deceive; that 
such trade-mark is used in commerce among 
the several States, or with foreign nations, or 
with Indian tribes, and that the description 
and drawing, presented truly represent the 
trade-mark sought to be registered. If the 
applicant resides or Is located in a foreign 
country, the statement required shall, in ad- 
dition to the foregoing, set forth that the 
trade-mark has been registered by the appli- 
cant, or that an application for the registra- 
tion thereof has been filed by him In the 
foreign country In which he resides or is 
located, and shall give the date of such 
registration, or the application therefor, as 
the case may be, except that in the applica- 
tion in such cases It shall not be necessary to 
state that the mark has been used In com- 
merce with the United States or among the 
States thereof. The verification required by 
this section may be made before any person 
within the United States authorized by law 
to administer oaths, or, when the applicant 
resides in a foreign country, before any min- 
ister, charge d'affaires, consul, or commercial 
agent holding commission under the Govern- 
ment of the United States, or before any no- 
tary public, judge, or magistrate having an 
official seal and authorized to administer oaths 
in the foreign country in which the applicant 
may be whose authority shall be proved by a 
certificate of a diplomatic or consular officer 
of the United States. 

Sec. S. That every applicant for registra- 
tion of a trade-mark, or for renewal of regis- 
tration of a trade-mark, who is not domiciled 
within the United States, shall, before the 
Issuance of the certificate of registration, as 
hereinafter provided for, designate, by a no- 
tice in writing, filed in the Patent Office, 
some person residing within the United States 
on whom process or notice of proceedings 
affecting the right of ownership of the trade- 
mark of which such applicant may claim to be 
the owner, brought under the provisions of 
this act or under other laws of the United 



380 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUtM. may be Mired, with the same force 
and effect as if Mrved upon the applicant 
or registrant In person. For the purpoies of 
this act it shall be deemed sufBclent to 
senre such notice upon such applicant, regis- 
trant, or representative by leaving a copy of 
such process or notice addressed to him at 
the isst address of which the Ck)mmissioner of 
Patents has been notified. 

Sec. 4. That an application for registration 
of a trade-mark filed In this country by any 
person who has preriously regularly filed In 
any foreign country which, by treaty, conven- 
tion, or law, affords similar privileges to cit- 
isens of the United SUtes an application for 
•registration of the same trade-mark shall be 
accorded the same force and effect as would 
be accorded to the same application if filed 
in this country on the date on which appli- 
cation for registration of the same trade-mark 
was first filed In such foreign country: Pro- 
vided. That such application is filed In th s 
country within four months from the date on 
which the application was first filed in such 
foreign country: And provided. That certificate 
of registration shall not be issued for any 
mark for registration of which application has 
been filed by an applicant located in a foreign 
country until such mark has been actually 
registered by the applicant in the country In 
which he Is located. 

Sec. 6. That no mark by which the goods 
of the owner of the mark may be disting- 
uished from other goods of the same class 
shall be refused registration as a trade-mark 
on account of the nature of such msrk unless 
such mark— 

(a) Consists of or comprises Immoral or 
scandalous matter. 

(b) Consists of or comprises the flag or 
coat of arms or other Insignia of the United 
States, or any simulation thereof, or of any 
State, or municipality, or of any foreign na- 
tion, or of any design or picture that has 
been or msy hereafter be adopted by any 
fraternal society as Its emblem: Provided, That 
trade-marks which are Identical with a regis- 
tered or known trade-mark owned and In use 
by another, and appropriated to merchandise 
of the same descriptive properties, or which so 
nearly resemble a registered or known trade- 
mark owned and In use by another and ap- 
propriated to merchandise of the same de- 
scriptive properties, as to be likely to cause 
confusion or mistake in the mind of the pub- 
lic, or to deceive purchasers, shall not be 
registered: Provided. That no mark which 
consists merely In the name of an indivldusl, 
firm, corporation, or association not written, 
printed, impressed, or woven in some par- 
ticular or distinctive manner or in association 
with a portrait of the individual or merely in 
words or devices which are descriptive of the 
goods with which they are used, or of the 
character or quality of such goods, or merely 
a geographical name or term, shall be regis- 
tered under the terms of the act: Provided 
further, That no portrait of a living Individual 
may be reRlsiered as a trade-mark, except by 
the consent of such Individual, evidenced by 
an instrument in writing: And provided fur- 
ther. That nothing herein shall prevent the 
registration of any mark used by the appli- 
cant or hia predecessors, or by those from 
whom title to the mark Is derived, in com- 
merce with foreign nations or among the sov- 
eral States, or with Indian tribes, which was 
in actual and exclusive use as a trade-mark 
of the applicant or his predecessors from 
whom he derived title for ten years next pre- ' 



ceding February twentieth, nineteen huadrM 
and five: Provided further. That nothing here] 
in shall prevent the registrstlon of a trsd»; 
mark otherwise registrable because of its beiag 
the name of the applicant or a portion thercoL 

Sec. C That on the filing of an appllcslis^ 
for registration of a trade-mark which cobi« 
plies with the requirements of thia act. as! 
the payment of the fees herein provided (or, 
the Commissioner of Patents shall cause u 
examination thereof to be made, and if oi 
such examination it shall appear that the a^ 
pi leant is entitled to have his trade-marft 
registered under the provisions of this set, 
the commissioner shall cause the nuuic to iM 
published at least once in the OfllciaJ Oaxett« 
of the Patent Office. Any person who bel level 
he would be damaged by the registration of a 
mark may oppose the same by filing notice d 
opposition, stating the grounds therefor. In tba 
Patent Ofllce within thirty daya after the pub- 
lication of the mark sought to be registered, 
which said notice of opposition shall be veri- 
fied by the person filing the same before oas 
of the ofllcers mentioned in section two of 
this act. An opposition may be filed by a 
duly authorized attorney, but such oppositlOD 
shall be null and void unless verified by tbt 
opposer within a reasonable time after suck 
filing. If no notice of opposition is filed 
within said time, the commissioner shall Issue 
a certificate of registration therefor, as here- 
inafter provided for. If on examination as 
application Is refused, the commissioner shall 
notify the applicant, giving him his reasoaa 
therefor. 

Sec. 7. That In all cases where notice of 
opposition has been filed the Commissioner of 
Patents shall notify the applicant thereof sad 
the grounds therefor. 

Whenever application is made for the regis- 
tration of a trade-mark which is substantially 
identical with a trade-mark appropriated to 
goods of the same descriptive properties, for 
wh'.ch a certificate of registration haa beca 
previously issued to another, or for registra* 
tion of which another has previously made 
application, or which so nearly resembles 9v6k 
trade-mark, or a known trade-mark owned sal, 
used by another, as, in the opinion of tba 
commissioner, to be likely to be mistaksc 
therefor by the public, he may declare thst 
an interference exists as to such trade-mart, 
and in every case of interference or oppoeltlsa. 
to registration he shall direct the examiner la 
charge of Interferencea to determine the qusa* 
tion of the right of registration to such trade- 
mark, and of the sufficiency of objections ta 
registrstlon. In such manner and upon sudk 
notice to those interested as the commlssioov 
may by rules prescribe. 

The commissioner nuy refuse to register thi 
msrk against the registration of which objec- 
tion Is filed, or may refuse to register both sC 
two interfering marks, or may register tht. 
mark, as a trade-mark, for the person first ta 
adopt and use the mark, if otherwise entltlsA 
to register the same, unless sn appeal Is takaa. 
as hereinafter provided for, from his decislos, 
by a party Interested In the proceeding, wltbls 
such time (not less than twenty days) ai tks 
commissioner msy prescribe. 

Sec. 8. That every applicant for the regit* 
tration of a trade-mark, or for the renewal 
of the registration of a trade-mark, wbldi 
application is refused, or a party to an Intfr- 
ference against whom a decision has been rr»- 
dered. or a party who has filed a notice of 
opposition as to a trade-mark, may spp^il 
from the decision of the examiner In ehsria 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



381 



of trade-marks, or the examiner in charge of 
lBterf«renc«a, as the case may be, to the com- 
Diailoaer in person, having once paid the tee 
for sQch appML 

Sec 8. That If an applicant for registration 
of a trade-mark» or a party to an interference 
as to a trade-mark, or a party who has filed 
eppositlon to the registration of a trade-mark, 
or party to an application for the cancellation 
of the registration of a trade-mark, is diasatis- 
fl«d with the decision of the Commissioner of 
, Pstaots. he may appeal to the court of ap- 
: peals of the D.strlct of Columbia, on comply- 
ing with the conditions required in case of 
I an appeal from the decision of the commis- 
I ftion«r by an applicant for patent, or a party 
to an interference as to an Invention, and the 
lame mloa of practice and procedure shall 
lovem in every stage of such proceedings, as 
fsr as the same may be applicable. 

Sec lOi That every registered trade-mark, 
sad every mark for the registration of which 
sppUcatlon has been made, together with the 
sppllcatloa for registration of the same, shall 
be assignable in connection with the good will 
of the business In which the mark Is used. 
Such assignment must be by an instrument in 
vritlng and duly acknowledged according to 
the laws of the country or State In which the 
■une is executed; any such assignment shall 
be void as against any subsequent purchaser 
for a valoable consideration, without notice, 
saless it is recorded In the Patent Office 
within three months from date thereof. The 
e(wm!salooer shall keep a record of such as- 
signments. 

Sec 11. That certificates of registration of 
trsde-marlES shsll be issued In the name of the 
Tnlted States of America, under the seal of 
the Patent Office, and shall be signed by the 
CoBmisB loner of Patents, and a record thereof, 
tegelher with printed copies of the drawing 
■ad statement of the applicant, shall be kept 
la Uioks for that purpose. The certificate 
•hall state the date on which the application 
(or registration was received in the Patent 
Oflce. Certificates of registration of trade- 
Bksrks may be Issued to the assignee of ihe 
■ppticant, but the assignment must first be 
catered of record in the Patent Office. 

Written or printed copies of any records, 
books, papers, or drawings relating to trade- 
marks belonging to the Patent Ofllce. and of 
certificates of .registration, authenticated by 
the seal of the' Intent Office and certified by 
lbs commissioner thereof, shall be evidence 
! in all cases wherein the originals could be 
*Ttdeace; and any person making application 
therefor and paying the fee required by law 
thall have certified copies thereof. 

Sec 12. — ^That a certificate of registration 
■ball remain In force for twenty years, except 
tbat In the case of trade-marks previously 
registered in a foreign country such certificate 
•hall cease to be in force on the day on 
vbich the trade-mark ceases to be protected 
ia such foreign country, and shall in no case 
remain In force more than twenty years, unless 
mewed. Certificates of registration may be 
(rem time to time renewed for like periods on 
payment of the renewal fees required by this 
set, upon request -by the registrant, his legal 
representatives, or transferees of record In the 
Pitcnt Office, and such request may be made 
*t any time not more than six months prior 
to the expiration of the period for which the 
certificates of registration were Issued or re- 
Mvcd. Certificates of reglstrstlon in force at 
the date at which this act takes efTect shall 
itnaln in force for the period for which they ' 



were issued, but shall be renewable on the 
same conditions and for the same periods as 
certificates issued under the provisions of this 
act, and when so renewed shall have the same 
force and effect as certlficatea issued under this 
act. 

Sec. IS. Tbat whenever any person shall 
deem himself Injured by the registration of a 
trade-mark in the Patent Office he may at any 
time apply to the Commissioner of Patents 
to cancel the registration thereof. The com- 
missioner shall refer such application to the 
examiner in charge of Interferences, who is 
empowered to hear and determine this question 
and who shall give notice thereof to the regis- 
trant. If It appear after a hearing before the 
examiner that the registrant was not entitled 
to the use of the mark at the date of his 
application for registration thereof, or that the 
mark is not used by the registrant, or has 
been abandoned, and the examiner shall so 
decide, the commissioner shall cancel the regis- 
tration. Appeal may be taken to the com- 
missioner in person from the decision of ex- 
aminer of interferences. 

Sec 14. That the following shall be the 
rates for trade-mark fees: 

On filing each original application for regis- 
tration of a trade-mark, ten dollars: Provided, 
That an application for registration of a 
trade-mark pending at the date of the passage 
of this act, and on which certificate of regis- 
tration shall not have Issued at such date, may, 
at the option of the applicant, be proceeded 
with and registered under the provisions of 
this act without the payment of further fee. 

On filing eSch application for renewal of the 
registration of a trade-mark, ten dollars. 

On filing notice of opposition to the regis- 
tration of a trade-mark, ten dollars. 

On an appeal from the examiner in charge 
of trade-marks to the Commissioner of Patents, 
fifteen dollars. 

On an appeal from the decision of the ex- 
aminer in charge of interferences, awarding 
ownership of a trade-mark or canceling the 
registration of a trade-mark, to the Commis- 
sioner of Patents, fifteen dollars 

For certified and uncertified copies of cer- 
tificates of registration and other papers, and 
for recording transfers and other papers, the 
same fees as required by law for such copies 
of patents and for recording assignments and 
other papers relating to patents. 

Sec. 16. That sections forty-nine hundred and 
thirty-five and forty-nine hundred and thirty- 
six of the Revised Statutes, relating to the 
payment of patent fees and to the repayment 
of fees paid by mistake, are hereby made ap- 
plicable to trade-mark fees. 

Sec. 16. That the registration of a trade- 
mark under the provisions of this act shall be 
prima facie evidence of ownership. Any per- 
son who shall, without the consent of the 
owner thereof, reproduce, counterfeit, copy, 
or colorably imitate any such trade-mark and 
afllx the same to merchandise of substantially 
the same descriptive properties as those set 
forth in the registration, or to labels, aigna, 
prints, packagea, wrappers or receptacles Intend- 
ed to be used upon or in connection with the 
sale of merchandise of substantially the same 
descriptive properties as those set forth in such 
reRistratlon, and shall use, or shall have uaed, 
Buch reproduction, counterfeit, copy, or color- 
able imitation in commerce among the aeveral 
States, or with a foreign nation, or with the 
Indian tribes, shall be liable to an action for 
damages therefor at the suit of the owner 
thereof: and whenever In any such action a 



382 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



verdict Is rendered for the plaintiff, the court 
majr enter Judgment therein for any sum above 
the amount found bjr the verdict as the actual 
damages, according to the circumstances of 
the case, not exceeding three times the amount 
of such verdict, together with the costs. 

Sec 17. That the circuit and territorial 
courts of the United States and the supreme 
court of the District of Columbia shall have 
original Jurisdiction, and the circuit courts of 
appeal of the United States and the court of 
appeals of the District of Columbia shall have 
appellate Jurisdiction of all suits at law or In 
equitj respecting trade-marks registered in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of this act, aris- 
ing under the present act, without regard to 
the amount in controversy. 

Sec. 18. That writs of certiorari may be 
granted by the Supreme Court of the United 
States for the review of cases arising under 
this act In the same manner as provided for 
patent cases by the act creating the circuit 
court of appeals. 

Sec. 19. That the several courts vested with 
Jurisdiction of cases arising under the present 
act shall have power to grant injunctions, ac- 
cording to the course and principles of equity, 
to prevent the violation of any right of the 
owner of a trade-mark registered under this 
act, on such terms as the court may deem 
reasonable; and upon a decree being rendered 
in any such case for wrongful use of a trade- 
mark the complainant shall be entitled to re- 
cover, In addition to the profits to be accounted 
for by the defendant, the damages the com- 
plainant has sustained thereby, and the court 
shall assess the same or cause the same to be 
assessed under its direction. The court shall 
have the same power to Increase such dam- 
ages. In its discretion, as is given by section 
sixteen of this act for increasing damages 
found by verdict In actions of law; and In 
assessing profits the plaintiff shall be required 
to prove defendant's sales only; defendant must 
prove all elements of cost which are claimed^ 

Sec. 20. That In any case Involving the 
right to a trade-mark registered In accordance 
with the provisions of this act. In which the 
verdict has been found for the plaintiff, or an 
injunction issued, the court may order that all 
labels, signs, prints, packages, wrappers, or 
receptacles in the possession of the defendant, 
bearing the trade-mark of the plaintiff or 
complainant, or any reproduction, counterfeit, 
copy, or colorable Imitation thereof, shall be 
delivered up and destroyed. Any injunction 
that may be granted upon hearing, after notice 
to the defendant, to prevent the violation of 
any right of the owner of a trade-mark regis- 
tered in accordance with the provisions of this 
act, by any circuit court of the United States, 
or by a Judge thereof, may be served on the 
parties against whom such injunction may be 
granted anywhere in the United States where 
they may be found, and shall be operative, and 
may be enforced by proceedings to punish for 
contempt, or olherwlae, by the court by which 
8uch injunction was Kranted, or by any other 
circuit court, or Judge thereof, in the United 
States, or by the Supreme Court of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, or a Judge thereof. The 
said courts, or Judges thereof, shall have Juris- 
diction to enforce said Injunction, as herein 
provided, as fully as if the injunction had 
been granted by the circuit court in which it 
Ir sought to be enforced. The clerk of the 
court or Judge grant ing the injunction shall, 
when required to do bo by the court before 
which application to enforce said Injunction is 
made, transfer without delay to said court a 



certified copy of all the papers on which ths 
said Injunction was granted that are on Ik 
in his ofBce. 

Sec. 21. That no action or suit shall Im 
maintained under the provisions of this act la 
any case when the trade-mark Is used in oo- 
lawful business, or upon any article injurious 
in itself, or which mark has been used wltk 
the design of deceiving the public In the pur- 
chase of merchandise, or has been abandoned, 
or upon any certificate of reglatration fraodo- 
lently obtained. 

Sec. 22. That whenever there are interfering 
registered trade-marks, any person interesud 
la any one of them may have relief agaisxt 
the interfering registrant, and all persons is- 
terested under him. by suit in equity against 
the said registrant, and the court, on notice 
to adverse parties and other due proceedioss 
had according to the course of equity, may 
adjudge and declare either of the reglstratlooa 
void in whole or in part according to the la- 
terest of the parties in the trade-mark, and 
may order the certificate of registration to b< 
delivered up to the Conuuissioner of Patents 
for cancellation. 

Sec. 23. That nothing in this act shall pre- 
vent, lessen. Impeach, or avoid any remedy at 
law or in equity which any party aggrieved by 
any wrongful use of any trade-mark might 
have bad if the provisions of this act had ncA 
been passed. 

Sec 24. That all applications for registration 
pending in the oflUce of the Commissioner at 
Patents at the time of the passage of this act 
may be amended with a view to bringing 
them, and the certificates Issued upon such 
applications, under its provisions, and tiia 
prosecution of such applications may be pro- 
ceeded with under the provisions of this act. * 

Sec 26. That any person who shall procors 
registration of a trade-mark, or entry thereof, 
in the ofllce of the Commissioner of Patents 
by a false or fraudulent declaration or repre- 
sentation, oral or in writing, or by any falss 
means, shall be liable to pay any damag«« 
sustained In consequence thereof to the injured 
party, to be recovered by an action on the 
case. 

Sec. 26. That the Commissioner of Patents 
is authorized to make rules and regulations, 
not inconsistent with law, for the conduct of 
proceedings in reference to the registration of 
trade-marks provided for by this act. 

Sec. 27. That no article of imported mer- 
chandise which shall copy or simulate ths 
name of any domestic manufacture, or maoa- 
facturer or trader, or of any manufacturer or 
trader located In any foreign country which, 
by treaty, convention, or law affords similar 
privileges to citizens of the United States, or 
which shall copy or simulate a trade-mark 
registered in accordance with the provisioai 
of this act or shall bear a name or mark 
calculated to Induce the public to believe tbst 
the article is manufactured in the United 
States, or that It is manufactured in any for- 
eign country or locality other than the coun- 
try or locality In which it is in fact mana- 
factured, shall be admitted to entry at any 
custom house of the United States, and. io 
order to aid the officers of the customs in en- 
forcing this prohibition, any domestic roaoa- 
facturer or trader, and any foreign manufsc- 
turer or trader, who is entitled under tbs 
provisions of a treaty, convention, declarstlos 
or agreement between the United States and 
any foreign country to the advantages sfforded 
by law to citizens of the United States in r»- 
spoct to trade-marks and commercial oanMk 



r 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



383 



require bis name and reeldenoe. and the 
of the locality in which his goods are 
ktifactured. and a copy of the certificate of 
tstrmtlon of his trade-mark, issued in ac- 
eerdaaee vlth the proTlslons of this act, to be 
fc crded In books which shall be kept for this 
parpoae in the Department of the Treasury, 
•■der such regulations as the Secretary of the 
Treasary shall prescribe, and may furnish to 
the department facsimiles of his name, the 
name of the locality in which his goods are 
Banufactnrid. or of his registered trade-mark; 
nd tlMTvopon the Secretary of the Treasury 
Aall eatiae one or more copies of the same 
to be transmitted to each collector or other 
tnfer oAcer of the customs. 

8ee^ 28. That It shall be the duty of the 
rcglstraat to give notice to the public that a 
tnde-mmrk Is registered, either by afllxing 
thereon the words "Registered in U. 8. Patent 
Oflka." or abbreviated thus. "Reg. U. S. Pat. 
OC." or when, from the character or size of 
the trade-mark, or from its manner of attach- 
■eat to the article to which it is appropriated, 
this caunot be done, then by affixing a label 
ooatalalng a like notice to the package or re- 
repcaclo wherein the article or articles are 
tacloaed; and in any suit for infringement by 
m party tailing so to give notice of registration 
so damages shall be recoTered. except on 
proof tliat the defendant was duly notified of 

' mfrtagemeiit and continued the same after such 

, aotice. 

I Sec 29. That in construing this act the fol- 
I iavine nilea must be obeerved, except where 
the ooatrary intent is plainly apparent from 
I tlw context thereof: The United States in- 
I cladas and embraces all territory which is 
sader the Jurisdiction and control of the 
Calted States. The word "States" includes 
mbA embraces the District of Columbia, the 
Tvrltories of the United States, and such other 
territory as shall be under the Jurisdiction and 
cootrol of the United States. The terms "per- 
and "owner," and any other word or 
used to designate the applicant or other 
entitled to a benefit or privilege or rendered 
liable under the provisions of this act. Include 
a firm, corporation, or association as well as a 
astural i>erson. The terms "applicant" and 
"Tcgtotrant" embrace the successors and as- 
dgBS of such applicant or registrant. The 
term "trade-mark" includes sny mark which 
is entitled to registration under the terms of 
this act, and whether registered or not, and 
& trade-mark shall be deemed to be "aflBxed" 
to an article when it Is placed in any manner 
is or upon either the article itself or the 
rvoeptacle or package or upon the envelope 
or other thing in, by, or with which the 
coeds are packed or inclosed or otherwise pre- 
pared for sale or distribution. 

See. 30. That this act shall be in force and 
take elfect April first, nineteen hundred and 
ftvc All acts and parts of acts inconsistent 
with this act are hereby repealed except so far 
es the same may apply to certificates of regis- 
tration issued under the act of Congress ap- 
proved Msrch third, eighteen hundred and 
eighty-one, entitled "An act to authorise the 
registration of trade-marks and protect the 
■sme/* or xmder the act approved August fifth, 
eighteen hundred and eighty-two. entitled "An 
act relating to the registration of trade- 



Approved Pebniary 20, 1906. 



ACT OF MAT 4, 1906. 
AN ACT To amend the laws of the United 
States relating to the registration of trade- 
marks. 

Sec. 3. That the Commissioner of Patents 
shall establish classes of merchandise for the 
purpose of trade-mark registration, and shall 
determine the particular descriptions of goods 
comprised in each class. On a single applica- 
tion for registration of a trade-mark the trade- 
mark may l>e registered at the option of the 
applicant for any or all goods upon which the 
mark has actually been used comprised in a 
single class of merchandise, provided the par- 
ticular descriptions of goods be stated. 

Sec. S. That any owner of a trade-mark 
who shall have a manufacturing establishment 
within the territory of the United States shall 
be accorded, so far as the registration and 
protection of trade-marks used on the products 
of such establishment are concerned, the same 
rights and privileges that are accorded to 
owners of trade-marks domiciled within the 
territory of the United States by the act en- 
titled "An act to authorize the registration of. 
trade-marks used in commerce with foreign 
nations or among the several States or with 
Indian tribes, and to protect the same," ap- 
proved February twentieth, nineteen hundred 
and five. 

Sec. 4. That this act shall Uke effect July 
first, nineteen hundred and six. 

Act to incorporate the American National Red 
Croes, approved January 6, 1906 (as amended 
June 23, 1910). 

Sec. 4. That from and after the passage of 
this act It shall be unlawful for any person 
within the Jurisdiction of the United States to 
falsely or fraudulently hold himself out as or 
represent or pretend himself to be a member 
of or an agent for the American National Red 
Cross for the purpose of soliciting, collecting, 
or receiving money or material; or for any 
person to wear or display the sign of the Red 
Cross or any insignia colored in imitation 
thereof for the fraudulent purpose of inducing 
the belief that he is a member of or an agent 
for the American National Red Cross. It shall 
be unlawful for any person, corporation, or 
association other than the American National 
Red Cross and Its duly authorized employees 
and agents and the Army and Navy sanitary 
and hospital authorities of the United States, 
for the purpose of trade or as an advertise- 
ment, to Induce the sale of any article what- 
soever or for any business or charitable pur- 
pose to use within the territory of the United 
Ststes of America and Its exterior possessions 
the emblem of the Greek Red Cross on a white 
ground, or any sign or Insignia made or col- 
ored in imitation thereof, or of the words 
"Red Cross" or "Geneva Cross" or any com- 
bination of these words: Provided, however. 
That no person, corporation, or association 
that actually used or whose assignor actually 
used the said emblem, sign, InBignia, or 
words for any lawful purpose prior to January 
fifth, nineteen hundred and five shall be 
deemed forbidden by this act to continue the 
use thereof for the same purpose and for the 
same class of goods. If any person violates 
the proviBion of this section he shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction In any Federal court shall be liable 
to a fine of not less than one or more than 
five hundred dollars, or imprisonment for a 



384 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



term not ezc«eding one jear. or both, for each 
and every offense. 

Sec. 8. That the endowment fund of the 
American National Red Croas shall be kept and 
inrested under the management and control 



of a board of nine trustees, who shall be 
elected from time to time by the Incorporaton 
and their successors under such regulations r«- 
garding terms and tenure of offlce, accouQU- 
bility, and expense as said incorporators ss4 
successors shall prescribe. 



THE COPYRIGHT LAW OF THE UNITED STATES.* 



CONSTITUTION, 1787. 

Art. 1, Sec. 8. The Congress shall have 

power: To promote the progress of 

science and useful arts, by securing for limited 
limes to authors and Inventors the exclusive 
right to their respective writings and dis- 
coveries. 

AN ACT TO AMEND AND CONSOUDATE 

THE ACTS RESPECTING COPYRIGHT. 

MARCH 4. 1909. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of Amer- 
ica in Congress assembled. That any person 
entitled thereto, upon complying with the pro- 
visions of this Act, shall have the exclusive 
right: 

(a) To print, reprint, publish, copy, and 
vend the copyrighted work; 

(b) To translate the copyrighted work Into 
other languages or dialects, or make any other 
version ttiereof, if it be a literary work; to 
dramatize it If it be a nondramatic work; to 
convert it into a novel or other nondramatic 
work if it be a drama; to arrange or adapt 
it if it be a musical work; to complete, ex- 
ecute, and finish it If It be a model or design 
for a work of art; 

(c) To deliver or authorise the delivery of 
the copyrighted work in public for profit if it 
be a lecture, sermon, address, or similar pro- 
duction; 

(d) To perform or represent the copyrighted 
work publicly if it be a drama or, if it be a 
dramatic work and not reproduced in copies 
for sale, to vend any manuscript or any rec- 
ord whatsoever thereof; to mske or to pro- 
cure the making of any transcription or record 
thereof by or from which, In whole or in part, 
it may in any manner or by any method be 
exl)iblted. performed, represieuted, produced, 
or reproduced; and to exhibit, perform, repre- 
sent, produce, or reproduce It In any manner 
or by any method whatHucver; 

(e) To perform tlie copyrighted work pub- 
licly for profit if it be a musical composition 
and for the purpose of public performance for 
profit; and for the purpoHHs set forth in sub- 
section (a) hereof, to make any arrangement 
or Betting of it or of the melody of li in any 
system of notation or any form of record In 
which the thought of an author msy be re- 
corded and from which it may be read or 
reproduced: ProvlfJed, That the provlBions of 
this Act, BO far sb they secure copyright con- 
trolllDK the parts of instruments nerving to 
reproduce mechanically the musical work, shall 
Include only conipositlonB published and copy- 
rlRhted after this Art goes Into effect, and 
shall not Include the works of a forei>?n author 
or composer uhIobh the foreign state or na- 
tion of which Kuch author or composer is 
a citizen or Buhjfct graniB, either by treaty, 
convention, agreement, or law, to citizens 
of the United States similar rights: And 

•SiiKhtly abridKed for thla book by Munn & 
Cu., r^atent Attorneys. 



provided, further, and as a condlUoA at 
extending the copyright control to such me- 
chanical reproductions. That whenever the 
owner of a musical copyright haa used or per- 
mitted or knowingly acquiesced in the use of 
the copyrighted work upon the parts of in- 
struments serving to reproduce mechanically 
the musical work, any other person may make 
similar use of the copyrighted work upon 
the payment to the copyright proprietor of a 
royalty of two cents on each such part rnsod- 
factured, to be paid by the manufactarvr 
thereof, and the copyright proprietor may re- 
quire, and if so the manufacturer shall fur- 
nish, a report under oath on the twentieth 
day of each month on the number of parts of 
Instruments manufactured during the prevloss 
month serving to reproduce mechanically said 
musical work, and royalties shall be due oo 
the parts manufactured during any month upoo 
the twentieth of the next succeeding month. 
The payment of the royalty provided for by 
this section shall free the articles or devlcei 
for which such royalty has been paid from 
further contribution to the copyright cxc^ 
in case of public performance for pit}flt: Aad 
provided further. That it shall be the duty of 
the copyright owner, if he uses the musical 
composition himself for the manufacture of 
parts of instruments serving to reproduce me- 
chanically the musical work, or licenses others 
to do so. to file notice thereof, accompanied 
by a recording fee, in the copyright office, and 
any failure to file such notice shall be a com- 
plete defense to any suit, action, or proceed- 
ing for any infringement of such copyright 

In case of the failure of such manufacturer 
to pay to the copyright proprietor within thirty 
days after demand in writing the full tun 
of royalties due at said rate at the date of 
such demand the court may award taxable 
costs to the plaintiff and a reasonable counsel 
fee, and the court may, in its discretion, 
enter Judgment therein for any sum In addi- 
tion over the amount found to be due as ror- 
alty in accordance with the terms of this Act. 
not exceeding three times such amount. 

The reproduction or rendition of a musical 
composition by or upon coin-operated maciiioea 
shall not be deemed a public performance for 
profit unless a fee .is charged for admissioa 
to the place where such reproductions or ren- 
dition occurs. 

Sec. 2. That nothing in this Act shall be 
construed to annul or limit the right of tb« 
author or proprietor of an unpublished work, 
at common law or In equity, to prevent th« 
copying, publication, or use of such unpub- 
lished work without his consent, and to ob- 
tain damages therefor. 

Sec. 3. That the copyright provided by tb« 
Act shall protect all t^e copyrightable com- 
ponent parts of the work copyrighted, and all 
matter therein In which copyright is already 
subsisting, but without extending the durstion 
or scope of such copyright The copyright 
upon composite works or periodicals shall glte 
to the proprietor thereof all the rights ta 
respect thereto which he would "^ve if 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



381 



part were indiTidually copyrighted under this 
Act. 

Sec 4. That the works for which copyright 
may be secured under this Act shall include 
all the writings of an author. 

Sec. 5. That the application for registration 
ihall specify to which of the following classes 
the work in which copyright is claimed be- 
longs: 

(ai Books, including composite and cyclo- 
paedic works, directories, gazetteers, and other 
compilations ; 

0>) Periodicals, including newspapers; 

(c) Lectures, sermons, addresses, prepared 
lor oral delivery: 

(d) Dramatic or dramatico-muslcal composi- 
tions; 

(e) Musical compositions; 
{[) Maps : 

(g> Works of art; models or designs for 
works of art; 

(h) Reproductions of a work of art; 

(l) Drawings or plastic works of a scientific 
or technical character; 

(J) Photographs; 

(k) Prinu and pictorial illustrations: 

Provided, nevertheless. That the above speci- 
fications shall not be held to limit the subject- 
Biatter of copyright as defined in section four 
of this Act. nor shall any error In classlflca- 
tioa Invalidate or impair the copyright protec- 
tion secured under this Act. 

Sec. <. That compilations or abridgments, 
•daptattons. arrangements. dramatizations, 
translations, or other versions of works in the 
imbllc domain, or of copyrighted works when 
{produced with the consent of the proprietor of 
the copyright in such works, or works repub- 
liihed with new matter, shall be regarded as 
&ev works subject to copyright under the pro- 
Tliions of this Act; but the publication of 
laj such new works shall not affect the force 
or validity of any subsisting copyright upon 
the matter employed or any part thereof, or 
bt construed to imply an exclusive right to 
BQch use of the original works, or to secure 
or extend copyright in such original works. 

Sec 7. That no copyright shall subsist In 
tbe original text of any work which is in the 
public domain, or In any work which was pub- 
Uali«d in this country or any foreign country 
prior to tbe going into effect of this Act and 
bsB not been already copyrighted In the 
United States, or In any publication of the 
Tnited States Government, or any reprint, in 
vhole or in part, thereof: Provided, however. 
That the publication or republication by the 
Govemment, either separately or in a public 
^ument. of any material in which copyright 
Is snbsistlng, shall not be taken to cause any 

abridgment or annulment of the copyright or 
to tathorize any use or appropriation of such 
''opyrlght material without the consent of the 
<:opyrtght proprietor. 

Sec 8. That the author or proprietor of any 
vork made the subject of copyright by this 
Act. or his executors, administrators, or as- 
■ifns, shall have copyright for such work 
nnder the conditions and for the terms speci- 
M in this Act: Provided, however, That the 
'^yrlgfat secured by this Act shall extend to 
t^« work of an author or proprietor who is a 
fitixen or subject of a foreign state or nation, 
ooly: 

U) When an alien author or proprietor shall 
^ domiciled within the United States at the 
time of the first publication of his work; or 

n>) When the foreign state or nation of 
vbieh such author or proprietor is a citizen 
w rabject grants, either by treaty, convention, 



agreement, or law, to citizens of the United 
States the benefit of copyright on substantially 
the same basis as to its own citizens, or copy- 
right protection substantially equal to the 
protection secured to such foreign author under 
this Act or by treaty: or when such foreign 
Ktate or nation is a party to an international 
agreement which provides for reciprocity in 
the granting of copyright, by the terms of 
which agreement the United States may, at 
its pleasure, become a party thereto. 

The existence of the reciprocal conditions 
aforesaid shall be determined by the President 
of the United States, by proclamation made 
from time to time, as the purposes of tbia 
Act may require. 

Sec. 9. That any person entitled thereto by 
this Act may secure copyright for his work 
by publication thereof with the notice of 
t'opyright required by this Act; and such no- 
tice shall be afllxed to each copy thereof pub- 
lished or offered for sale in the United States 
by authority of the copyright proprietor, except 
in the case of books seeking ad interim pro- 
tection under section twenty-one of this Act. 

Sec. 10. That such person may obtain regis- 
tration of his claim to copyright by complying 
with the provisions of this Act, including the 
deposit of copies, and upon such compliance 
the register of copyrights shall issue to him 
the certificate provided for in section fifty- 
five of this Act. 

Sec. 11. That copyright may also be had 
of the works of an author of which copies are 
not reproduced for sale, by the deposit, with 
claim of copyright, of one complete copy of 
such work if it be a lecture or similar pro- 
duction or a dramatic or musical composition; 
of a photographic print If the work be a 
photograph; or of a photograph or other identi- 
fying reproduction thereof if It be a work of 
art or a plastic work or drawing. But the 
privilege of registration of copyright secured 
hereunder shall not exempt the copyright pro- 
prietor from the deposit of copies under sec- 
tions twelve and thirteen of this Act where 
the work is later reproduced In copies for 
sale. 

* * * 

Sec. 13. That should the copies called for by 
this Act not be promptly deposited as herein 
provided, the register of copyrights may at any 
time after the publication of the work, upon 
actual notice, require the proprietor of the 
copyright to deposit them, and after the said 
demand shall have been made, in default of 
the deposit of copies of the work within three 
months from any part of the United States, 
except an outlying territorial possesHlon of the 
United States, or within six months from any 
outlying territorial po8aes.slon of the United 
States, or from any foreign country, the pro- 
prietor of the copyright Khali be liable to a 
fine of one hundred dollars and to pay to the 
Library of Congres.^ twice the amount of the 
retail price of the best edition of the work, 

and the copyright shall become void. 

* • * 

Sec. 15. That of the printed book or periodi- 
cal specified in section five, subsertlons (a) 
and (b) of this Act, except the original text 
of a book of foreign origin in a language 
or languages other than English, the text of 
ail copies accorded protection under this Act, 
except as below provided, shall be printed 
from type set within the llmlt.s of the United 
States, either by hand or by the aid of any 
kind of typesetting machine, or from plates 
made within the limits of the United States 
from type set therein, or, if the text be 



386 



SCIENTTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



produced by lithographic proceai, or photo- 
engraving process, then by a procen wholly 
performed within the limits of the United 
States, and the printing of the text and bind- 
ing of the said book shall be performed within 
the limits of the United SUtes; which re- 
quirements shall extend also to the illustra- 
tions within a book consisting of printed text 
and illustrations produced by lithographic 
process, or photo-engraving process, and also 
to separate lithographs or photo-engravings, 
except where in either case the subjects repre- 
sented are located in a foreign country and 
illustrate a scientific work or reproduce a 
work of art: but they shall not apply to works 
in raised characters for the use of the blind, 
or to books of foreign origin in a language or 
languages other than English, or to books 
published abroad in the English language seek- 
ing ad Interim protection under this Act. 

• e • 

Sec, 18. That the notice of copyright re- 
quired by section nine of this Act shall con- 
sist either of the word "Copyright" or the 
abbreviation "Copr.", accompanied by the 
name of the copyright proprietor, and if the 
work be a printed literary, musicsl. or dra- 
matic work, the notice shall include also the 
year in which the copyright was secured by 
publication. In the case, however, of copies 
of works specified in subsections (f) to (k), 
inclusive, of section five of this Act, the notice 
may consist of the letter C inclosed within a 
circle, accompanied by the initials, mono- 
gram, mark, or aymbol of the copyright 
proprietor: Provided. That on some ac- 
cessible portion of such copies or of the 
margin, back, permanent base, or pedestal, or 
of the substance on which such copies shall 
be mounted, his name shall appear. Dut In 
the case of works in which copyright is sub- 
sisting when this Act shall go into effect, the 
notice of copyright may be either 'In one of 
the forms prescribed herein or in one of those 
prescrit>e]l by the Act of June eighteenth, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-four. 

Sec. 19. That the notice of copyright shall 
be applied, in the case of a book or other 
printed publication upon its title-page or the 
page Immediately following, or If a periodi- 
cal either upon the title-page or upon 
the first page of text of each separate number 
or under the title heading, or if a musical 
work either upon Its title-page or the first 
page of music; Provided. That one notice of 
copyright In each volume or In each number 
of a newspaper or periodical published shall 
suffice. 

Sec. 20. That where the copyright proprie- 
tor has sought to comply with the provisions 
of this Act with respect to notice, the omis- 
sion by accident or mistake of the prescribed 
notice from a particular copy or copies shall 
not Invalidate the copyright or prevent re- 
covery for Infringement against any person 
who, after actual notice of the copyright, be- 
Kinfl an undertaking to infringe It, but shall 
prevent the recovery of daniuKea against an 
Innocent InfrliiRfr who has been misled by the 
omission of the notice; and In a s«ult for In- 
fringement no permanent Injunction shall be 
had unless the coinrlRht proprietor shall re- 
imburse to the Innocent InfrlnRcr his reason- 
able outlay Innocently Incurred If the court. 
In Its discretion. Bhall so direct. 

Sec. 21. That In the case of a book pub- 
lished abroad In the EnRllnh lanRuane before 
publication In this country, the deposit In the 
copyright office, not later than thirty days after 



Its publication abroad, of one complete con 
of the foreign edition, with a request for tli« 
reservation of the copyright and a sutemest 
of the name and nationality of the author sad 
of the copyright proprietor and of the datr 
of publication of the said book, shall secure 
to the author or proprietor an ad Interia 
copyright, which shall have all the force aad 
effect given to copyright by this Act, and shall 
endure until the expiration of thirty days 
after such deposit in the copyright oflElce. 

Sec. 22. That whenever within the period of 
such ad interim protection an authorized edi- 
tion of such book shall be published within 
the United States, in accordance with tb» 
manufacturing provisions specified In sectioo 
fifteen of this Act, and whenever the pro- 
visions of this Act as to deposit of copies, 
registration, filing of affidavit, and the print- 
ing of the copyright notice shall have been 
duly complied with, the copyright shall bs 
extended to endure in such book for the foil 
term elsewhere provided in this Act. 

Sec. 23. That the copyright secured by tbii 
Act shall endure for twenty-eight years from 
the date of first publication, whether the copy- 
righted work bears the author's true name or 
is published anonymously or under an ac- 
sumed name: Provided. That In the case of 
any posthumous work or of any periodical, 
cyclopaedic, or other composite work upon 
which the copsrrlght was originally secured 
by the proprietor thereof, or of any work 
copyrighted by a corporate body (other- 
wise than as assignee or licensee of the 
Individual author) or by an employer for whom 
such work is made for hire, the proprietor of 
such copyright shall be entitled to a renewal 
and extension of the copyright in such work 
for the further term of twenty-eight years when 
application for such renewal and extension 
shall have been made to the copyright offlce 
and duly registered therein within one year 
prior to the expiration of the original term 
of copyright: And provided further. That In 
the case of any other copyrighted work, in- 
cluding a contribution by an individual author 
to a periodical or to a cyclopaedic or other 
composite work when such contribution has 
been separately registered, the author of sach 
work, if still living, or the widow, widower, 
or children of the author. If the author be not 
living, or if such author, widow, widower, or 
children be not living, then the author's execu- 
tors, or in the absence of a will, his next of kin 
Mhall be entitled to a renewal and extension of 
the copyright in such work for a further term 
of twenty-eight years when application for 
such renewal and extension shall have been 
made to the copyright office and duly regis- 
tered therein within one year prior to the ex- 
piration of the original term of copyright: 
And provided further. That in default of the 
registration of such application for renewal 
and extension, the copyright in any work shall 
determine at the expiration of twenty-eight 
years from first publication. 

Sec. 24. That the copyright subsisting in any 
work at the time when this Act goes into 
effect may, at the expiration of the term pro- 
vided for under existing law. be renewed and 
extended by the author of such work If 11111 
living, or the widow, widower, or children of 
the author. If the author be not living, (ff 
If such author, widow, widower, or children 
be not living, thep by the author's executors, 
or In the absence of a will, his next of kin. 
for a further period such that the entire tem 
shall be equal to that secured by this Act. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



38' 



laclnding the renewal period: Provided, how- 
eTer. Tbat if the work be a composite work 
upon which copyright was originally secured 
by the proprietor thereof, then such proprietor 
shall be entitled to the privilege of renewal 
and extension granted under this section: Pro- 
rlded. That application for such renewal and 
extension shall be made to the copyright office 
and duly registered therein within one year 
prior to the expiration of the existing term. 

Sec. 25. That if any person shall infringe 
the copyright in any work protected under the 
copyright laws of the United States such per- 
loa sball be liable: 

(a) To an injunction restraining such in- 
fringement ; 

(b) To pay to the copyright proprietor such 
damages as the copyright proprietor may have 
suffered due to the infringement, as well as 
ail the profits which the infringer shall have 
made from such infringement, and in proving 
profits the plaintiff shall be required to prove 
sales only and the defendant shall be required 
to prove every element of cost which he claims, 
or In lieu of actual damages and profits such 
damajses as to the court shall appear to be 
Just, and in assessing such damages the court 
may. In its discretion, allow the amounts as 
hereinafter stated, but in the case of a news- 
paper reproduction of a copyrighted photo- 
graph such damages shall not exceed the sum 
of two hundred dollars nor be less than the 
sam of fifty dollars, and such damages shall 
in no other case exceed the sum of five thou- 
ond dollars nor be less than the sum of two 
hundred and fifty dollars, and shall not be 
regarded as a penalty: 

First. In the case of a painting, statue, or 
anilpture, ten dollars for every infringing copy 
Blade or sold by or found In the possession 
of the infringer or his agents or employees; 

Second. In the case of any work enumerated 
ia section five of this Act, except a painting, 
Btstue. or sculpture, one dollar for every In- 
frtnging copy made or sold by or found in 
tb« possession of the infringer or his agents 
or employees; 

Third. In the case of a lecture, sermon, or 
address, fifty dollars for every infringing de- 
Urery; 

Fourth. In the case of a dramatic or dra- 
matlco-musical or a choral or orchestral com- 
position, one hundred dollars for the first and 
fifty dollars for every subsequent Infringing 
performance; in the case of other musical 
compositions, ten dollars for every infringing 
performance ; 

(c) To deliver up on oath, to be Impounded 
daring the pendency of the action, upon such 
terms and conditions as the court may pre- 
KTlbe, all articles alleged to infringe a copy- 
rtfbt; 

(d) To deliver up on oath for destruction all 
the Infringing copies or devices, as well as 
all plates, molds, matrices, or other means 
for making such infringing copies as the court 
«ay order; 

(e) Whenever the owner of a musical copy- 
^ht has used or permitted the use of the 
copyrighted work upon the parts of musical 
lastruments serving to reproduce mechanically 
the musical work, then In case of infringe- 
Dent of such copyright by the unauthorized 
aanafscture, use, or sale of interchangeable 
parts, such as disks, rolls, bands, or cylinders 
for use in mechanical music-producing ma- 
rhlD«s adapted to reproduce the copyrighted 
ansic, no criminal action shall be brought, 
l>vt In a civil action an injunction may be 



granted upon such terms as the court may 
impose, and the plaintiff shall be entitled to 
recover in lieu of profits and damages a roy- 
alty as provided in section one, subsection (e). 
of this Act: Provided also, That whenever 
any person, in the absence of a license agree- 
ment, intends to use a copyrighted musical 
composition upon the parts of Instruments 
serving to reproduce mechanically the musi- 
cal work, relying upon the compulsory license 
provision of this Act, he shall serve notice of 
such intention, by registered mail, upon the 
copyright proprietor at his last address dis- 
closed by the records of the copyright office, 
sending to the copyright office a duplicate of 
such notice; and in case of his failure so to 
do the court may, in its discretion, in addi- 
tion to sums hereinabove mentioned, award 
the complainant a further sum, not to exceed 
three times the amount provided by section 
one, subsection (e), by way of damages, and 
not as a penalty, and also a temporary in- 
junction until the full award is paid. 

Rules and regulations for practice and pro- 
cedure under this section shall be prescribed 
by the Supreme Court of the United States. 

• e e 

Sec. 28. That any person who willfully and 
for profit shall infringe any copyright secured 
by this Act, or who shall knowingly and will- 
fully aid or abet such Infringement, shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof shall be punished by im- 
prisonment for not exceeding one year or by 
a fine of not less than one hundred dollars 
nor more than one thousand dollars, or both, 
in the discretion of the court: Provided, how- 
ever. That nothing in this Act shall be so con- 
strued as to prevent the performance of re- 
ligious or secular works, such as oratorios, 
cantatas, masses, or octavo choruses by public 
schools, church choirs, or vocal societies, 
rented, borrowed, or obtained from some pub- 
lic library, public school, church choir, school 
choir, or vocal society, provided the perform- 
ance is given for charitable or educational 
purposes and not for profit. 

Sec. 29. That any person who. with fraudu- 
lent intent, shall insert or impress any notice 
of copyright required by this Act. or words 
of the same purport, in or upon any uncopy- 
righted article, or with fraudulent Intent shall 
remove or alter the copyright notice upon any 
article duly copyrighted shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not less 
than one hundred dollars and not more than 
one thousand dollars. Any person who shall 
knowingly issue or sell any article bearing a 
notice of United States copyright which has 
not been copyrighted in this country, or who 
shall knowingly import any article bearing 
such notice or words of the same purport, 
which has not been copyrighted in this coun- 
try, shall be liable to a fine of one hundred 
dollars. 

Sec. 30. That the importation into the 
United States of any article bearing a false 
notice of copyright when there is no existing 
copyright thereon in the ITnlted States, or of 
any piratical copies of any work copyrighted 
in the United States, is prohibited. 

Sec. 31. That during the existence of the 
American copyright in any book the importa- 
tion into the United States of any piratical 
copies thereof or of any copies thereof (al- 
though authorized by the author or proprietor) 
which have not been produced in accordance 
with the manufacturing provisions specified 
In section fifteen of this Act, or any plates 



38S SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Enmeiil of copynghl 



(TlgUl prMcrlbwI bT 11 



;l,V TVPKS OF SEWINI! MACHISEW. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD. 



INFANTRY. 

The real basis of the infantry or- 
^nization of all foreign armies is the 
battalion. Except for England, the 
typical battalion is composed of 4 

I companies and has a strength on the 
Tar footing of some 20 to 25 officers 
and 900 to 1,100 men, counting from 
about 900 to 1,000 rifles. In England 
the battalion numbers 8 companies and 

I counts about 860 rifles on the war 

i footing. 

I In speilking of a foreign battalion 
it must, therefore, be borne in mind 
that its fighting strength is roughly 
e<inal to that of two of our battalions. 

CAVALRY. 

The basis of all foreign cavalry or- 
ganization is the squadron. The foreign 
iquadron numbers on a war footing 
from 120 to 150 sabers. Regiments 
contain from 3 to 6 squadrons. 

It will therefore be noted that in 
speaking of a foreign squadron we 
mean a force of about one-half the 
strength of the United States squad- 
ron. Similarly, the cavalry regiment 
of foreign services is about one-half, 
or less, the strength of our regiments. 

FIELD ARTILLERY. 

The battery is usually taken as the 
^ait of field artillery organization. 
For the purposes of comparison a 
more correct unit is the bcttalion. 

leaving Russia aside, it may be 
wid that there are two great systems 
of field artillery organization. These 
*»y be called, naming them after their 
gMtt exponents, the French and the 
ygm n. The essential differences be- 
t9fBi these two systems may be sum- 
■^ed as follows : 

Tflie French system takes 4 guns as 
y fi ring unit, the battery, and as- 
y* all of the ammunition which 
"iopld be available upon entry into 
action to the battery; batteries count 



5 officers, sometimes 4, and 170 men. 

Under the German system the firing 
unit, battery, counts 6 guns, and only 
so much ammunition as is needed for 
the immediate service of the pieces is 
assigned to the batteries ; the re- 
mainder of the ammunition which 
should be available upon entry into 
action being assembled in an am- 
munition battery (light ammunition 
column), which forms an integral part 
of the battalion. 

In both systems the number of firing 
batteries in the battalion is three ; the 
German system having an additional 
battery for ammunition gives that 
system 4 battery organizations to the 
battalion. 

Under the German system the 
strength of firing batteries is about 5 
officers and 150 men and that of am- 
munition batteries is 4 officers and 
188 men. The strength of battalion 
staffs is not dependent upon the par- 
ticular system. 

FORTRESS ARTILLERY. 

In most foreign services all artil- 
lery is on one list. That branch of 
artillery known as fortress artillery 
has no counterpart in our service. 
Fortress artillery garrisons the land 
fortresses of the country and fur- 
nishes artillery of various types to the 
mobile troops. The amount of mobile 
artillery which would be provided by 
the foot artillery in war is naturally 
dependent upon the character of the 
war, whether offensive or defensive, 
etc. It is, therefore, impossible to 
say by how much the artillery with 
the mobile troops, as shown in the 
tables, would be augmented in war. 

COAST ARTILLERY. 

The coast artillery shown for Ger- 
many does not give a correct idea, for 
many of the coast fortifications of that 
country are garrisoned by marines. 



389 



390 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SANITART TROOPS. 

While the number of sanitary troops 
shown by the tables is small for for- 
eign armies as compared with the 
number maintained by the United 
States, it should be borne in mind that 
in war much of the "bearer and first- 
aid duty" is performed in foreign serv- 
ices by men drawn from and forming 
part of the line. Furthermore, drivers 
for ambulances and for other non- 
technical purposes are drawn from the 
train. The necessity for maintaining 
a nucleus in peace for expansion in 
war does not therefore exist in the 
same degree in foreign countries as in 
the United States. Similar remarks 
are, however, true for services other 
than sanitary. 

EXPANSION ON MOBILIZATION. 

In all foreign countries of any con- 
sequence large numbers of fully trained 
reserves exist. These men are as- 



signed to organizations, and in tibcac 
organizations complete equipment of 
every kind and description is so storeij 
as to facilitate immediate issue. Everyi 
horse in civil life has its place aa-j 
signed and its owner is warned as taj 
where it is to be turned in on mobiti-i 
zation; the same is true of Tehiclei.i 
In the formation of certain classes o^ 
trains the Government simply direcM 
teamsters with their teams, hameM 
and wagons to report at preTiomlip 
specified places. It is thus simply tfj 
matter of hours for the great poweni 
to mobilize. j 

Inasmuch as the frontiers of possiM^ 
enemies adjoin their own, and thti 
functioning of the mobilization ^ 
those enemies is equally complete, al^ 
nations on the continent of Europe 
maintain their cavalry and horse ar> 
tillery at practically war strength azvi 
station those arms on the frontiers to 
secure the few hours which are neces-^ 
sary for mobilization. 



Table Showing Peace Strength, by Arms of the Service. 

ONLY OFFICERS AND MEN WITH THE COLORS ARE CONSIDERED. 



Country. 



France > 

Gennanv 

Austria* 

Russia 

England < 

Italy 

Mexico 

Japan 

UNITED STATES. 

Regulars & 

Organiied militia... 

Total 



In fan- 
try. 



379,640 
404,705 
194. 123 
580,000 
151,261 
167,000 

20,326 

149, 402 



27,370 
97,035 



124,405 



Cav- 
alry. 



75,510 
73,368 
47,641 
115,000 
20.716 
24,000 

7,318 

14.585 



13,540 
4,167 



17,707 



Field 
artil- 
lery. 



76.419 
69,735 
33,012 
94, 110 
34,649 
27,000 

1,912 

18.918 



5,456 
4,565 



10,021 



Foot 
artil- 
lery. 



4,446 
24.673 

6.040 
18,056 

' 628 

7,000 

(?) 



Coast 
artil- 
lery. 



7,246 
2,000 
2,100 
14,152 
14,965 
5,000 

(?) 



6,889 








19.993 
7,256 



27,249 



Tech- 
nical 
troops. 



18,020 
26,706 
10,507 
37,448 
9.096 
11,000 

657 

16,727 



3,449' 
2,539 



5,988 



Train. 



10,520 
8,038 
5,070 

(?) 
6,772 
2,500 

215 

11.427 








Sani- 
tary 
troops. 



Total 

pe«ce 

strength.- 



6.123 
6.615 
4,107 

(?) 
5.0G9 
3,729 

(?) 
3.484 



634, 4 

634.31 

327.51 

1,200.011 



4,117 
2,146 



6,263 




aoi.ofl 



■ Includes niiscelIaneow< organisations, staffs, school detaotiments, etc. 

* Includes troops stationed in Algiers and Tunis and such colonial troops as are stationed in Fraooe. 
» Common army only. For Landwehr, see study on Austria. 

* Regular army only. Indian army, colonial forces, and territorial forces are menUoned in stady on Ett 
land. Territorial force (British Isles) numbers 315,408. Canadian permanent force and orcaniied roilU* 
numbers 67,aj7. 

» Based on Army List, 20 November, 1910. The Forto Rican Regiment is counted as in&ntxy. Technicil 
troops include Engineers and Signal Corps. 8,000 recruits included in total. 5,000 PhiUpphie Scouts art 
not counted. 



ARMIES OF THE MINOR POWERS. 



The numlwr of men, peace and war footing, 
of (he minor powers, Is estimated an foliowH: 
Helpium, a peace foolinR of 47,000 men; war 
footing, 188,000; Bulgaria, peace footing, 
.57,800; war footing. 37.5.000; China, peace 
footing, 240,000 trained men; Denmark, 

feacc footing, 12,000; war footing, 66,000; 
ndia (British), peace footing, 162.000; war 
footing, 220,0()0 (native troops only); Greece; 



peace footing, 20,000; war footing, 1(X),000; 
Holland, peace footing, 34,000; war footing. 
175,000; Roumania, peace footing. 93.000; 
war footing, 350.000; Spain, peace footing. 
115,000; war footing, 500,000: Sweden, 
peace footing, 69.000; war fooling, 420.000; 
Switserland. peace footing. 21.000; war 
footing, 270,000: Turkey, peftoe footing* 
375,000; war footing, 1.000.000. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. i 

Taslb Showiho Hioher OaoAinzAnoNa Exibrno in Tdib or Peace. 

NO UILITIA, RESERVE, OR TERRITORIAL TROOPS ARE mCLUDED. 



Cgunlrr. 


AnnT 
eorp*. 


DIVWODS. 


d'r.'JS. 


Sffi 


sa 


bKg>d«>. 




i 


1 

4 




1 

3ft 


3« 
» 












































' ■ Fltitnii an tor regnlon In thu British Isles odIt. In addition (bare an U dlvblotu, 12 MUitn brigad 
JIMa4[tl])ay briadOiSnd M mounMd brlgada of t«iTltarla] CnHipo la the British Isln. Id mdlath 
■<* iMtkaa, 9 Cdcl4rtUlS7 brlgado, and 8 oaTalr; brlgadn. 




INFANTRY OF PRlNaPAL 



ARMIES OF THE LEADING POWERS. 






AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

irehy of AuBtiia-Hungary 
larale armin supported by 

'h.^ """ 



ri'^ir^'z 






ralry. 



Jliledj 



and oil belona to 
d 19 brigades of 



5ir, and the Hungoridn Landwdir, 
-_j,_4veiT. The two Landwehr armies 
SStr. however, from the Landwehr of other 
oxmuWin that tboyare maintained with the 
ttilin in time of peace. The «)mmoQ army 
■ known as the first line, and tbe two Land- 
la the common ^nny there are 18 army 
mrps villi 33 rfivisionji. 'nera are 15 
oinsoiu in the Laodwebr. There are a 



bripideB ol infantry and probably 6 of cavalir. 
There are 16 brigadefl of field srtUlefy m the 

The kital peace strength of the common 

o^er?'? in<lud?ns ^ccnBin Dum&r of officiaj!* 
riaased as ofEcers. and 3S3.S19 men. It is 
impoasiblB to give any definite accural* 
slntemente as to Austrin-s maximuin mohili- 



392 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



number of fully trained men subject to call 
at about 2.000.000. Aaramina that the 
initial mobilisation would be confined to rais- 
ing existinc origanisations to a war footii^ 
we would bave the foDowinc fighting strenath 
of the three armies: Common army: 420300 
infantry rifles; I3M field cunn; 37.800 
cavalry sabres. Landwefar: 1SC£.850 infantry 
rifles; 06 fieid guns; 15.150 cavalry sabres. 
Bervice is compulsory between the ages of 
10 and 42. ana is divided into numerous 
categories. The most important of these 
are as follows: Conunon armv. 3 years with 
the colors and 7 years with toe first reserve; 
durina the latter period the men are subject 
to call for three periods of training of 4 weeks 
each. Landwehr. 2 years with the colors and 
10 years with the nrst reserve; during the 
latter period the men may be called for in- 
struction under varying and complex rules. 

ENGLAND. 

The militarjr forces of Eni^land fall under 
several categories. The principaJ of these are : 
The regular forces, and the territorial forces. 
The regular forces are again divided into 
Britidi forces — Indian forces and colonial 
forces. In addition, certain of the colonies, 
Canada, for example, maintain considerable 
foroes of militia. 



The Britiflh forces (regular) within ^ 
Britidi Islands are organised into 6 divisions 
and 4 cavalry brigades. The territorial fom 
has 14 divisions (similar to thoee of the 
regulars) and 14 mounted brigades. Tbe 
forces in India, including rep^ular and native, 
are divided into two amuea, containing t 
total of divisions and S cavalry brigade, 
llie division in India is smaHw than a 
usually the rule (about 13,000). 

The total peace strength of the regular 
army comprises 255.438 cheers and meo, 
distributed as follows: British Isles, 134.339 
officers and men; Cokmies (other than Indis). 
45,215 officers and men; India, 75.884 officm 
and men. In addition there are 190 officen 
and l.lfi^ men employed with the speetsl 
reserves, of whom there are 86.539. There ais 
also 138,000 men in the army reserre. ia 
addition to the special reserve. Combiniot 
the strength of the foroes with the colors aaa 
the trained reserves, we have as the trmntd 
(one which England is able to mc^ilite aa her 
Regxdar EaUMithment a total of 481365 
officers and men. Service in the regular 
establishment is voluntary and the period of 
enlistment is usually for 12 vears, of whirfa 
a certain portion is passed with the colors and 
the remamder in the reserve. Service with 
the colors is usually 3. 7 or 8 years, depending 



Table Showing Percentages op Several Arms of Total Peace Strength. 



Country. 



France , 

Germany 

Austria 

Russia. 

England 

Italy 

Mexico 

Japan 

VNITEO STATES. 

Regulars 

Organized Militia 

Total 



Infan- 
try. 


Caval- 
ry. 


Field 
artil- 
lery. 


Foot 
artil- 
lery. 


Coast 
artil- 
lery. 


Tech- 
nical 
troops. 


Train. 


Sani- 
tary 
troops. 


Mbcd- 
lansoui 


Perd. 


Per a. 


Per a. 


Perct. 


Perd. 


Perd. 


Perd. 


Perd. 


Perd, 


59.77 


11.89 


12.05 


a70 


1.14 


2.83 


1.65 


a96 


l\ 


63. 8L 


11.66 


ia99 


a88 


.33 


4.21 


1.26 


L04 


60.34 


14.61 


iao7 


1.84 


.64 


3.20 


1.64 


1.31 


7.1 


48.33 


9.68 


7.84 


1.50 


1.17 


3.12 


(?) 


(T) 


a8L« 


M.21 


8.10 


13.66 


.24 


5.86 


3.66 


2.65 


1.98 


4.1 


67.90 


&32 


9.36 


2.42 


1.73 


3.81 


.86 


1.29 


14.S 


03.60 


22.86 


6.97 


(7) 


(7) 


2.05 


.37 


^''n 


5Lt 


«4.96 


6.34 


8.22 


2. 


ra 


7.27 


4.96 


SLf 


33.04 


16.64 


6.66 





24.67 


4.23 





6.06 


9LS 


81.09 


3.48 


3.81 





6.06 


2.12 





1.79 


Lt 


61.70 


8.80 


6.07 





13.56 


2.97 





3.11 


4 a 






u& 



£NCLMI| 







JAPAN ITALY AUSTRIA FRANCE GCRMAMT 

CAVALRY OF PRINaPAL NATIONS. 




RV55tA 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



on tha arm of the sernee and other condi- 


FRANCE. 




The French Army proper i? known a* the 


howeTer, dofa not wrve beyond the limits of 






All Che coloDiee maiotain bodira of native 
tfoops. India has a native force of »onie 




21 corps, niero are alwi 8 cavaliy divuiona 
orjaniied io peace, or a lotal of 38 cavalry 




The total peace slrenRth of the French 
Army. exctuAive of colonial troops but in- 




lam. Actualiy. the nunibera are Boniewhat 
bib* thoe ^un» a« foUoo^: Infantry, 


compr^ 20.209 officers and 577.3Sa men. 
Of tliose 26.308 oHicera sad 507,704 men are 


■arriaon artillery, 2.093; cavalry. 8,567, a 


2,083 officer- and 20.043 men of the colonial 


nioed u Um Onaniied MiUtia of tho 


t'srf^';^°a^tio'sJrrran^;;p''™,4'S! 

ofSceiv and 533.607 men. The trrand total 


Uoited 8l«t«. 





Table Sbowiho FiauriNa Strbngtu o 

OltOANWATIONS ONLY CONSIDERED. 




iS^VS. k^^.^rV- 



■ danmon aimy only, Fljmm arr approilmaie. (Sh 
. < The peculiar iltuaMoD olRunla makes It Impoislble . 

> Retulan ohIt. For leriltsrlal forco, eitra rtaervei, e 

■ TobI (tnngUi In ranks coniideted. The deductions y 
■tmately Imown. Lawstorcompuljory service cilst an 

■ luaa lonni a very large number at new oreanlrat Ion; 
■irtil liDopi in Formosa and el»where consldi^red. Tt 

iabaav7 field Runs, possibly 1 gun per thousand rllln. 
' Porto Hlcan Reglmenl andThmpplne Scoiiti are end 
•Thf In [»D try in the Orjtanlied liniila Is obtained bv r 
^lODliatloiu. Separate cempanles and cadi 
TJwOrjanlied Blllllr ■- ' 



a'/b. 



ions by the troop nihtlnK siren 
the OrKaniied MUrna are Inili. 



"Tffi, 



lot he Standard 

by multiplying 

ilthoiigh fi batteries (:>( runs) have not v'l reached 
1 inaicrlal. Only a few baticrlos are organlreil into 



394 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PEACE 



Men 1 


FRANCE 

GERMANY 

AUSTRIA 

RUSSIA 

ENGLAND 

ITALY 

MEXICO 

JAPAN 

UNITED STATES 

UNITED STATES 

UNITED STATES 

(Militia) 






" 


37 9.640 
7 5.510 
76.419 

404.765 

7336« 
69.735 

194.123 
4 7.541 
33.012 

580^00 

115.000 

94.110 

151.261 
20.716 
34.649 

167.000 

e4.ooo 

27.000 

20.326 
7318 
1.912 




t- 


^ 






^ 


^ 




H 


\^ 






»- 


^.— •""^ ' l-» 


Rc^llrs 
27370 
13540 
5.456 


Militia 
97P35 
4.167 
4.5(3 


'^f- 


t- 


k- 


1- 




H 


149.402 


fc 


14^65 
16.918 

Tat«l 
1 24.405 
17,707 
Idj02l 

27370 
131340 

97.035 
4.167 
4.565 


Ul « 1- 


t 
? 





The relative rank between the officers of 
the United States army and navy is as follows: 
General with Admiral; Lieutenant-General 
with Vice- Admiral; Major-CJeneral with R ear- 
Admiral; Brigadier-General with Commodore; 
Colonel with Captain; Lieutenant-Colonel 
with Commander; ^fajor with Lieutenant- 
Commander; Captain with Lieutenant; First 
Lieutenant with Lieutenant (junior grade); 
Second Lieutenant with Ensign. 



At the close of the fiscal year mdiog Jape 
30, 1911. the number of sea coast guns in tse 
United States mounted, ready for armament 
and under construction, were aa follows. Guns 
mounted: 376 12-inch mortars; 105 12-incb 
guns, including 2 guns on hydraulic Ufts: 133 
10-inch guns; 65 8-inch gunsj 503 rapid fire 

5un8, one mounted temporarily. Ready jo'' 
.rmament: 2 12-inch guns and 13 rapid fin 
guns. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



395 



WAR 



. 



Fully TrftineJ Reserves availabia for Passing from Peace to War Footing 



2.300.000 



4.000,000 



1,600.000 



3.800.000 



D 



215j000 



1,250,000 



NONE 



IjOOO.OOO 



NONE 



NONE 



NONE 



LEGEND • 



C^Zh 



Infantry 
Cavftlry 
Field Artillery 



GUN SALUTES. 



Preaidait of the United States, President of 
a Foreign Republic, Member of Royal Family 
and Ex-Prcsident of the United States, 21 
fttts; Vice-President of the United States and 
Ambasaador of United States (in waters of 
(tMintry to which he is accredited), 19 guns: 
Ricretary of the Navy, Cabinet Officer, Chief 
Ji^itice, Govemor<}eneral of U. S. Islands, 
GoTernor of State, Territory, or U. S. Islands. 
Piesident pro tempore of Senate, Speaker of 



House of Representatives. Committee of 
Congress, Admiral of the Navy and General, 
17 guns; AssLstant Secretary of the Navy, 
Envoy Extraordinary, Vice-Admiral and 
Lieutenant-General, 15 guns; Minister 
Resident, or Diplomatic Representative, 
Rear-Admiral and Major-General. United 
States Army, 13 guns; Charge d'Affaires and 
Commodore, 11 guns: Consuf-General, 9 guns; 
Consul, 7 gtins; Vice-Consul, 5 guns. 



396 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



(Continued from page 393.) 

troops stationed in France is 31,292 officers 
and 603.364 men. 

The oiKonization of the maximum mobiliza- 
tion of France cannot be g^ven with any degree 
of accuracy but it is estimated that the sum 
total of ail trained men which she is able to 
mobilize amounts to about 3,000,000 men. 
The fightins strength of the three arms on 
initial mobilization would be about 518,000 
infantry rifles, 59,250 cavalry sabres and 
2,944 field guns. This estimate is a minimum. 

Besides the above, there are about 49,500 
colonial troops. About 14,500 of these are 
Europeans and the remainder natives. There 
are also about 3,723 Europeans and 8,254 
natives in the forces at Madagascar. 

Service with the Metropolitan Armv is 
compulsory between the ages of 20 and 45. 
After serving with Hlie colors for two years 
(all arms) the men pass into the reserve of 
the active army, in which they serve for 11 
years, during which they are subject to two 
periods of instruction, one for 23 days, the 
other for 17 days. From the reserve 9f the 
active army the men pass to the "territorial 
army," in which they serve for 6 years, 
subject to one period of 7 days' instruction. 
The final service is with the "reserve of the 
territorial army"; this service is for 6 years; 
the men receive no training but are subject 
to muster. 

GERMANY. 

The German Army as now organized in 
peace consists of 23 army corps anof 1 cavalry 
division, brides certain special troops, 
schools, recruiting stations, etc. While the 
cavalry divisions which would mobilize in 
war are not all formed in peace, there exist 
certain staffs for such divisions and they, are 
assembled for instruction from time to time. 

The total peace strength amounts to 622,- 
320 officers and men. To these should be 
added from 10 to 12 thousand "Einjahrig- 
freiwilligers." These men serve for one year 
defraying their own expenses. The sum 
total of trained men which Germany is able 
to mobilize amounts to about 4,610.000. The 
estimated fighting strength of ner initial 
mobihzation is as follows: 962,000 infantry 
rifles; 79,200 cavalry sabres; 5.220 field guns. 
No German troops of the army proper serve 
outside the home country in time of peace. 
An estimate of the number of colonial troops 
places the number at 10,000 officere and men. 

Service in the German army is compulsory 
between the ages of 17 and 45 and is divi(ie<l 
into a number of cntegori&s. Service with the 
colors is three years with tlie cavalry and 
horse artillery and two years for other anna. 
After serving with the colors, the men puss 
into the re*erve, in which tiiey serve 4 years 
and 6 months or 5 years and 6 months ac- 
cording to the arm of the service. During 
this service the men of the reserve may be 
called out for two periods of training of 8 
we<^ks each. In praciice the majority of the 
reserve is seldom held longer than 2S days 
for each period. From the rcwrve the men 
pass into various other catcKoricd. Germany 
has more men annually arriving at the age 
of military service than she needs for duty 
with the colors. Somewhat over one million 
men annually present themselves, of whom 
a little more than 250.000 are actually drafted 
for duty with the colors. 



ITALY. 

The Italian military system is complicated 
and is composed of the regular army, the 
mobile militia, and the territorial militia. 
The regular army as reorganized in 1910 
comprises 12 army corps, 25 divisions, and 3 
cavalry divisions in time of peace. Oom- 
manders and staffs for four armies exist in 
time of peace. 

The total i>eace strength of the regular 
army in 1909-1910 was 13,942 officers and 
274,467 men, but it is doubtful if more than 
250,000 men were actually with the colors at 
any one time. On paper the number of men 
Italy would be able to mobilize amounts to 




RU55IA 




GERMANY 




FRANCE 




AUSTRIA 




ITALY 




JAPAN 




ENGLAND 



V.S. 
ARTILLERY OF PRINCTPAL NATIONS. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



397 



about 3,500.000 men. A oonaervative 
estiiiuite would seem to be about 1,500,000 
fv&y trained men. The complex system and 
tbe custom of giving indefinite leave to im- 
trained men render it difficult to estimate 
Italy's strength accurately with respect to 
the number of fully trained men. The 
fighting stxength of the three arms on initial 
mobilixation would be: Infantry rifles, 
300.000; cavaky sabres. 20,880; field guns 
(with probably an additional 162 heavy neld 
euns manned by fortress artillery) 1,470. 
In addition, Italy maintains in her African 
posaensions 132 officers and 4,530 trained men; 
of the latter 600 are Italians and the remainder 
natives. 

Service is compulsoiy between the ages of 
20 and 39. Service with the colors i& nomi- 
nally for 3 years, but a» the budget is seldom 
sufficient many men are releasea with one or 
two years' training. These pass from the 
colors to a form of leave status in which they 
serve to complete a total period in the regular 
tkim^r ^ 8 or yeaiB. They then paas into the 
mobile *t»*>^^4^. from whence th^ go into the 
territorial militia. The men are subject to the 
call for instruction as follows: 30 dasrs per 
year for the leave status and mobile militia; 
30 days in 4 yean for the territorial militia. 

MEXICO. 

There is no organisation higher than the 
regiment in time of peace. The total oeace 
strength is between 31,000 and 32,000. 
Mexico's war strength, aside from new or- 
saaizationst may be reckoned at about 100,- 
000 officers and men. In theory, service is 
eompulsonr. Actually, it is not^ except, 
perhaps, for some of the lower and criminal 



JAPAN. 

The rapid progress of Japan as a military 

nation, tbe secrecy maintamed by her con- 

f ceming reserves, territorial organisations, 

etc., as well as the ^rstem of training Japanese 

Bchool children in the rudiments of drill and 

I military discipline, makes it extremely 

I difficult to make an accurate inventory of the 

Japanese military resources. 



The division is the highest permanent 
organisation in time of peace. There are, 
however, 11 generals and 22 lieutoiant- 

Senerals, besides other officers, available for 
be command and staff of such annies as may 
be formed in war. There are 19 divisions 
organised in peace. There are 39 brigades, 
4 cavalry brigades and 3 field artillery 
brigades. In addition there is one infantry 
briinde in Korea. 

The peace strength of Japan is variously 
estimated and it is certain that it ia at least 
230,000 men. The fighting strength of the 
three arms follows: Infantry rifles, 228,000; 
cavalrv sabres, 14,550; field guns (with 
possibly 228 heavy field guns in addition) 
054. There are at least 1.000,000 /vUy 
trained reserves subject to call on mobilisa- 
tion. 

RUSSIA 

It is difficult to make an entirely satis- 
factory r6sum6 of the Russian Army due to 
the vast extent of Russia's territory, the 
internal condition of the nation, and the 
character of the countries adioiniii|B her which 
make it necessary for her to mamtain what 
amounts to three separate armies, nameK^, 
the Anny of Europe and ^e Caucasus^ the 
Army of Central Asia: the Army of Siberia 
and Eastern Asia. Then the troops are 
divided up into numerous categories, some of 
which are most unusual ana about which 
there is little information that can be de- 
pended upon. For example, we find "active 
troops,'* "reserve troops," "2d reserve 
troops," and "fortress troops." 

There are 31 army ooiPB. with 66 divisions 
organised in peace, and 23 cavalry divisions. 
The total peace strength amounts to about 
1,200.000 officers and men. The total 
number of trained men subject to call 
amounts to about 5,000,000. It is estimated 
that Russia could mobilise 2,000,000 fully 
trained men upon her European frontiers. 

Military service in Russia is obligatory. 
Passing from service with the colors the men 
pass into various reserves but on acooimt of 
their great variety no further statements can 
be given in a brief form. 



THE UNITED STATES ARMY. 



The United States Army consists, ordinarily, 
of the Regular Army but whenever the United 
States is mvaded or is in danger of invasion 
(lom any foreign nation, or of rebellion 
ttainst the authority of the Government of 
tbe United States, or the President is unable 
with the regular forces at his command to 
execute the laws of the Union, he may call 
into the military service of the United States, 
all or any part .of the Oi|(anixed Militia of 
the various States and the District of Columbia. 
In war, or when war is imminent, the Army 
of tbe United States, after the Organized 
Militia has been called into service, may be 
further augmented by the employment of 
volunteers. 

Under the Act of Congress approved 
Feb. 14, 1908, the system of military control 
in the Army was reorganised. This act 
abolished the separate office of commanding 
leneral of the army and created the General 
Staff Corps, which under the direction of the 
Chief of Staff, ia charged with tbe following 



duties: To investigate and report on all 
questions afifecting the efficiency of the 
Army and its state of preparation for military 
operations; to prepare projects for maneuvers; 
revises estimates for appropriations for the 
support of the Army and advises as to the 
disbursement of such appropriations; exer- 
cises supervision over inspections, military 
education and instruction, etc. and to pei> 
form such other military duties not otherwise 
assigned by law, as may from time to time be 
prescribed by the President. 

On May 26, 1011, a general order of the 
War Department was issued by which the 
office of Chief of Staff was divided into four 
sections. 1. The Mobile Army. 2. The Coast 
Artillery Division. 3. The Division of 
Militia Affairs. 4. The Army War College. 

The command of the Army rests with 
the constitutional commander-in-chief, the 
President, who may place all or part of the 
Army under commands subordinate to hLs 
general command. We have had but four 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



nocnla — W»»hin«tnn, Gnt 



. 8ta«n 



-. ._ aerftl Lb Bupposvd to com- 

maod ui Army. An army is & larfle und 
OTganucd body of soldicrn, genprtilly com- 
posed of infantry, cavalry and artillery, 
completely anned and provided with neresMry 
■lorn. etc.. and the enUre force is under the 
direction of one Kenerai. The subdiviaioa 
of the IJaited States Army foWa-nn. An 



Generi 



manded by a Lieutenant- 
'* ia Ibe IarK»t tocticuE 



.mplete 



organijed _,.- 

cavalry and artillery 

body of'de'Sari'™" 
detached but 
bead, as the 
"Wigimi Corps. 






of BI 



Cotpfl of Ensincen,'^ the 
isiiin.. ^^und™"tE^Mm- 

niond of ■ Mflior-GeD""! K"-b "diviamn" 

is composed of tbi^s 



of field E 



s of mfantry, a 
I brigade (two 
, Tbe diviaion 
nd tactical uait 

A "briBade" consiBls of lliree rttinpiiti of 
tafantry and is commanded by a Brigadier- 
Oenerol. A cavalry brigade consists of two 

indepcDdently, a i^giiricnt of horse artillery 
is allacbed to a cavalry brigade. A "regi- 

tactical is commaaded by a Colonel and is 
divided into 12 eompaniea. (The regiment 
ftt Porto Rico is composed of but S companies. I 
A regiment of cavobV is {composed of 12 troops 
and a rcgimeat of field artillery of G battorii4i. 

commanded by a Major. Tbe battnUon is 
a tactical unit only, A "company," which 



law 



Und 



' the 1 



valry C5 men. There are Via men ia 
■y of li^t and mountain artiUoiy iiul 
I in a battery of horse artai^ry. Eack 
y of Coast ArtilleiS' conaisla of IM 

I SUtcs Mtiitor; 

ermined hy a coo- 
3. By the nppoinl- 



cr^ieneral, 16,000: Colonel, (4,000: 
aDI-0>loDe], 13,500; Major. S3,000, 
, t2,4O0: Fint Ueutenont. S2.D00: 



all. Thus the n 



thoUaifodSlaUt 



the month 



112, including the Philippine Scouts, was 
officcirs and se,Stl euliBted OMn. a total 
tfll men. Tbii total of 01,461 was mads 
follows- lafsntry |31 rtgiroentsl, 1,M0 
■a and 2«.I38 enlisted men: cavalry (15 
enla), 747 officers and I3,04S ciJirt*d 
field Briillcrv |6 regimental, 243 offieen 

Dompanieal. 702 oiScers and 17,957 en- 
men; oorpa of engineers (3 batlalionJ). 
itficers and 1,822 enligtsd man: signal 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



399 



oofps, 46 offioera ftnd 1,212 enlisted men; 
7,084 enlisted men (casuals and recruits) at 
d^mcs and en route to detachments: 18 gen- 
eral officers; Adjutant General's, Inspector 
General's; Judge advocate General's, Qiiarter- 
master's. Subsistence, Pay and Ordnance 
Departments, Medical Corps, Instructors at 
Biifitarjr Academy, etc., 986 officers and 4,608 
enlisted men; cadets at Military Academy, - 
481 (see Military Academy); 66 Indian 
\ Scouts: PhiUippine Scouts, ISO- officers and 
5.480 enlisted men. The 413 officers and 
' 3,496 enlisted men in the Medical Corps is 
I not counted as part of the enlisted streni^th 
I of the Regular Army, although they are in- 
dnded in the above rating. There were on 
: the retired list 1,017 officers and 3.424 en- 
I listed men. 

The term of enlistment in the regular 
service is three years. Any male citizen of 
the United States between the ages of 21 and 
35 may be enlisted. Minors between the ages 
fd 18 and 21 may be enlisted only with the 
consent of parents or guardians. All ap- 
plicants must be able to read and write 
uiglish. must be able-bodied, free from 
disose and of good character and temperate 
habits. 

Under the Act of (Congress of January 31, 
1903, amended May 27^ 1908, the militia oon- 
sisti of every able-bodied male citizen of the 
United States who is more than eighteen and 
leas than forty-five years of age, and is divided 
into two classes — the organized militia or 
National Guard, and the remainder to be 
known as the reserve militia. It is entirely 
Mjtiottal -whether eligible citizens join the 
National Guard, but it is safe to say that this 
body of reserves is recruited from the best 
sod most imiriotic element of the population 
of tile United States. Congress makes an 
«)proi»Tiation each year for the support of 
toe militia in the various States, and the 
States also contribute, hold and build 
annories. as the regiments are really intended 
to defeoa their own State primarily, although 
in time of war they furnish an excellently 
diiOed body of volunteers. In nearly every 
city of uiy great size there is one or more 
atmoxies, and in the smaller cities and towns 



there are separate companies which have 
armories or drill halls. The militia in each 
state is divided into brigades, regiments, 
battalions and companies. Under the act 
of Congress above named the President of 
the United States has the power to call upon 
any of the military organizations of the States 
for national defense and when so called each 
man must yield prompt obedience to the 
order to escape trial by court-martial. The 
Organized MiJitia is, in short, subject to be 
ordered at any time into the service of the 
United States as a re-enforcement of the 
regular army and when so ordered are subject 
to the same rules and regulations as the 
regulars and receive the same pay, during 
service, as the regular army troops. 

The strength of the organized militia, 
according to the latest report is 9,172 officers 
and 108,816 enlisted men, as follows: General 
officers and General Staff 2,051; engineexB, 
1,141 officers and men; cavalry, 4,226 officers 
and men: field artillery, 4.456; coast artillery, 
7,100 officers and men; infantry, 95,356 
officers and men; hospital corps, 2,281 
officers and men: signal corps, 1,380 officers 
and men; grand aggregate, 117,988 officers 
and men. 

The officers of higher grades are appointed 
by the Governor but the other officers, from 
Cblonel down, are generally selected by 
ballot by the troops wemselves. 

The term of enlistment varies in different 
States from one to five years but in most 
States it is three years. In addition the term 
of re-enlistment also varies; some States 
provide for a certain term for the first enlist- 
ment and a smaller term of enlistment in 
subsequent enlistments. 

The total number of males of militia age in 
the United States in 1910 was 20,473,684. 
The officers of all the volunteer forces which 
may be organized under the authority ^ of 
0>ngres8 are selected from the following 
classes of persons: 1. Those who have 
served in the Regular Army. 2. Those who 
have served in any volunteer forces of the 
Organized Militia. 3. Those who have at- 
tended a military school or coUege. 



CIVIL WAR STATISTICS. 



The total number of enlistments in the 
amiy, navy and marine corps, during the 
Qvil War, totaled 2,778,304 as foUows: 
White tioope of army, 2.493,366; sailors and 
aaiines. 105,963: negro troops, 178.975. 
Kany men enUsted two or three tunes and are 
enuited that number of times in the above 
nting. New York had 404,805 white troops. 
il25 negro troops and 39,920 sailors ana 
marines; Pennsylvania had 315.017 whites. 
M12 neftroes and 14.307 sailors and marines; 
Okb had 304,814 whites^ 5,092 negroes and 
3,274 sailors and maimes; Illinois had 
255.057 whites, 1,811 negroes and 2,224 sailors 
and marines; Massaohusetts had 122,781 



whites, 3,966 negroes and 19.983 sailors and 
marines. Kentucky had the greatest number 
of negro troops, 23,703. 

During the Civil War there were 4,142 
officers and 62,916 enlisted men killed in 
action; 12,223 officers and 40,789 enlisted 
men who died of wounds received in action; 
2,795 officers and 221.791 enlisted men 
died of disease; 106 officers and 4,838 en- 
listed men drowned ; other known causes 
290 officers and 7,472 enlisted men; causes 
not stated, 28 officers and 12,093 enlisted 
men, making a grand total of 9,584 officers 
nnd 349.944 enlisted men killed during the 
1 Civil War. 



At the dose of the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1912, there were 165 garrisoned posts in 
continental United Stat^, Alaska, Hawaii 
Islands and Porto Rico. United States: 103 
forts, 28 sub-posts of forts, 10 barracks, 5 
arienals, 2 military prisons (Alcatraz, Cal. 



and Ft. Leavenworth, Kans.), 3 general hospi- 
tals and the Springfield Armory. There were 
also 4 forts in Alaska: the Henry Barracks 
and the post at San Juan, Porto Rico; and the 

§ost at Panama Canal Zone; Hawaiian Islands; 
fort barracks and 2 sub-posts of forts. 



SCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN RBPBRENCE BOOK. 



THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY. 



umuUy 



B last Tuesdaj in April of each year before 



: Atendnlkin of the KeprexenUtive in CoiiKr«s 
rrom tlut diatrict. and thow from a atats at 

Sen&tiin of the State. RimiJarly the ap- 



No a 



card. 



mi Med who 



under IT 



or over 22 vean of aae or I«s than S' 4' i 
height St Ibe age o! 17, 5' 5* at the em ol 
]R and upward, or who ia deformedT, or 

nouJd reader him unfit for miiitaTy service. 
Pb«' Th. n.v of n cadet ia S600 Per year 
day. the total Ming 



t70g.5( 



No radet 






monev or anj^ other supplies from hoji 
out the sanction of the aupenntendeD' 



d lieutenant, until a vacancy 




SCIENTIFIC AUBRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



|i 






P- 



SCIEH^TIFIC AlfERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 




rag formulated by 


candor and to the amicable relalians existios 


Proddent Monnw in 1S23 




between Iho United States and those powers 


Gmt Britwn and in oppos 


tion to the deaigng 


to declare that we (diould consider any at- 


of IhE Hals AiliMi™. whLc 
pariiticio of South Am 


contemplated the 


tempt on their part to eitood their syetem 
oiB .to our peace and safety. . With the 


"In the diKimions to whicb this iotereat 


which they may terminal. 






bien judged proper for boh 


niaE KB a principle 


and maintain il, and whose indopendenoa we 


in which thr right, and int. 


resta of the United 




I>tat« are involved, that 




prindplM M^owiedp<i.'^e''oould not" -new 


tmenta. by the free and 


independent condi- 






mod and maintain. 






considered u sub- 


their destiny, by any European power, in any 


lerts tor future ooloniia 
Powrn. • • • Wb owb 


don by European 
it. therefore, to 



se relatins to the military 



The Secretary ot^Wsr b the beat 

•nAJa^Mbaa 

qmnd of him by law or may 
bim by the President, and dir 
D^t ai ail Ihe bureaus, divisions and otnccm 
embraced in the department. Has super- 
vision of the United SUl™ Military Academy 
■I West Point and of miJitaiy education in the 

The principal duties of the General Staff 
CoqM are given under Che United States 
Anoy. page 397. 

DIVISION OF MILITIA AFFAIRS. 

The Diiision of Uilitia Affairs Is vested with 
the trvuBctioQ of buHtncss pertainiaE to the 
DTganiied and unorganised militia of the 



WLITARY BUREAUS. 

The Adiotant Ooneral Is charged with the 
^irVf <i reooniinfl. auth«itjcatina, and com- 
latDucatiog to tniope and individuals in the 



DEPARTMENT OF WAR. 



regulations issued by the I 



The InBpei:toi'<ieneral inspects all militaiy 






The Corps of Engineera 
Imiffl mlniinir tn fjii. instruction anu repiur 
of defense, military 

Department provides, 

scri^tiou of artillery, small aJ 



md bridges. 01 



I of war 
:ht lortresscs of the countiy, Ih 
leld, and the whole Ijody of ra 
The Chief Signal Corps Offi 
vith the supervision of all i 
iulicg, includbg telegraph i 
ipparatus and tho nceessary 

nilic&ry used, and all other du 



luired it 






404 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFEUtENCB BOOK. 





®P@t#j 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




> Q 



m^ 




^M 




'W 



:^^- 




M 



406 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE MEDALS OF THE ARMY AND NAVY. 



MEDALS OF HONOR. 

The Medal of Honor for the Navy (No. 2). 
which was made available by the Act of 
Congnm, approved December 21, 1861, is 
bestowed upon such petty officers, seamoi, 
landsmen and marines as should distinguish 
themselves by their gallantry in action or 
other seamanlike qualities, during war. It 
consists of a bronse five-pointed star, the 
points terminating in trefoil with a wreath of 
oak and laurel contained in each ray. In the 
center, within a circle of thirty-four stars, 
America is represented as Minerva vanquish- 
ing Discord. Ilie star is mounted on an 
anchor and suspended from a silk ribbon of 
red and white stripes, arranged vertically 
bebw a field of blue. 

The Medal of Honor for the Army (No. 9) 
is made in silver, heavily electro-plated in 
gold. It consists of a five-pointed star and in 
the center appears the head of Minerva.^ Sur- 
rounding this central feature, arranged in cir- 
cular form, are the words "United States of 
Anjerica," representing nationality. The 
medal is suspended by a light blue watered- 
silk ribbon spangled with thirteen white 
stars representing the original States, and is 
attached to an eagle clasp supported on a 
horizontal bar, upon which appears the 
word "Valor." 

GOOD CONDUCT MEDALS. 

There are many men in the Naval Ser\'ice, 
although they may never have attracted suf- 
ficient attention to warrant the Medal of 
Honor, who are well worthjj of recognition by 
virtue of their long and faithful service; for 
these thoroughly efficient sailors there is also 
a reward known as the Good Conduct Medal. 
The first issue of this Medal was in 1870 (No. 
23). This was recalled in 1888. and the 
present style adopted (No. 18). In the center 
of the new Medal Lb an old warship with the 
word "Constitution" beneath. This is sus- 
pended by a red ribbon. 

In 1910 a Medal similar to that of the Navy 
was adopted by the Marine Corps for the re- 
ward of Good Conduct in the service (No. 17), 
except that there was a slight change made in 
the central figure and a change in the wording 
to suit this corps. 

BADGES FOR PROFICIENCY IN SMALL 
ARMS PRACTICE. 

For proficiency in the annual practice with 
rifles and revolvers the Army and Marine 
Corps award a similar set of distingui^ing 
badges. In rifle practice the first badge is 
that of Marksman (No. 15), which requires the 
qualifying of the participant ^-ith 60 per cent., 
for slow, rapid and skirmish fire at 200, 300, 
500 and 000 yards. The Sharpshooter's 
Bad^e (No. 13) is presented to those who 
qualify with a similar percentage at 800 and 
1,0(X) yards (slow fire) and rapid fire at 600 
yanls. For the Ex|M>rt Rifleman's Badge 
(No. 14) the candidate must secure 68 per 
cent, at slow, timed and skirmish fire at 200, 
300, 600 and 1,0(K) yanis. 

In the Navy the grades are corresponding, 
although shorter, and include revolver prac- 
tice as well. The Navy bwucs but one Medal 
(No, 16), the Sharpshooter's Medal, to which 
bars are attached for furUier distinction. 



SPECIAL LEGENDS. 

The Certificate of Merit Badge (No. 11); 
issued to offioexs and men of toe Axmy for 
meritorious service. The ribbcHi is eompoeed 
of two bands of red. white and blue, separated 
by a narrow white stripe. 

The Philippine Congreasiona] Medal (No. 5) : 
issued to volunteer officen and men wlu> 
served beyond their enlistment with the 
Army in the Philippines. The ribbon is ocnn- 
posed of a broad band of blue with a narrow 
white stripe separating it from narrow stripec 
of red, white and blue on either edge. 

The avil War Campaign Badge (No. 3); 
issued to officers and men for service in the 
United States Army in the Civil War. The 
ribbon is composed of two bands of red. white 
and blue; the red on the outside and the blue 
stripes separated by a narrow stripe of red. 
(No. 10), issued to those of the l^avy and 
Marine Corps who served during the Civil 
War. The ribbon is blue and fljay. 

The Indian Wars Campaign Badge (No. 7); 
issued to those who serveain the Army in 
the campaigns against the Indians. The ift- 
bon is bright red with a darker stripe of red 
on either edge. 

The Spanish-American War Campai^ 
Badge (No. 6) ; issued to those who served in 
the Army in Uie Spanish War, in Cub^ Porto 
Rico or the Philippines. The ribbon is com- 
posed of a broad band of yellow, between two 
bands of red, with a narrow border of blue cm 
either edge. (No. 12), issued to officers and 
men of the Navy and Marine Corps who served 
in Cuban, Porto Rican or Philippine Waters 
during the Spanish War. The nbbon is yel- 
low with two stripes of red. 

The Philippine Insurrection CampaigB 
Badge (No. 19): issued for duty with me 
Army in the Philipipinee and for s<»vice with 
the several expeditions against ^e natives. 
The ribbon is composed ola broad blue bend 
between two bands of red with a narrow stripe 
of blue on either edge. 

The China RetieT Expedition Badge (No. 
25) ; issued for service ashore in C3iina with the 
Peking Relief Expedition. The ribb<Mi is a 
broad Dand of yellow edged with blue, (No.21), 
issued to those who served in the Navy and 
Marine (}orps in (Chinese Waters or ashore dur- 
infi the Boxer Uprising. The ribbon is yeUov 
with a narrow black band nc^ar each edge. 

The Dewey Congressional Medal (No. 1); 
issued to members of the Navjr or Marine 
()orps who served with the Aaatae Squadroo 
at Manila. The ribbon is composed of a yel- 
low band with a blue band on either side. , 

The West Indies Campaign Medal (No. 4): 
issu^ for service during the West Indies 
Campaign in the Navy and Marine Corps- 
The ribbon is composed of three bands, iht 
central one blue and the outside ones red. 
(No. 8) J issued for specially meritorious serr- 
ice dunng the West Indies Campaign other 
than in battle, to officers and men of the Navy 
and Marine Corps. The ribbon is red. 

The Phitippine Campaign Badge (No. 24); 
issued to members of the Navy and Max^e 
Corps who served in that campaign. The rm- 
bon is red with a yellow band in ^e center. 

The Cuban Pacification Badge (No. 22);.i8- 
sued to officers of the Naw and Marine 
Hospital Corps who served in Cuba. The rib* 
bon is similar to that of the Army for ^ 
campaign (No. 20); olhre drab, with nd 
white and blue bordexv. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



407 



PASSPORTS. 



PUBports are reamred for entrance into 
Russia, Tiiric^ and the Balkan countries, 
and must be visaed by diplomatic or consular 
l ep rcoen tatives of those countries. There are 
DO such repreaentatiyes of the Balkan States 
in the United States and passports for those 
countries should be visaed by their diplomatic 
or consular representatives elsewhere. Pass- 
ports may be required in other countries of 
persons makini; a prolonged stay, especially 
if they reside m boarding houses or rented 
apartments, but they are often valuable in 
the seeurine of registered mail, admimlons to 
certain galleries, etc., which are normally 
closed to the public. Passports are issued by 
the Secretary of State. An American abroad 
mav make his application before an American 
diplomatic or consular officer, who will for> 
ward it to the department. The fee for a pass- 
port is $1.00. This amount in currency or 
ixjstal order should accompany each applica- 
tion made by a citizen of the United States. 
The oiders should be made payable to the 
DisA>urBing Clerk of the Department of State. 
Drafts or checks are not accepted. A person 
who is entitJod to receive a passport, if in 
the United States at the time, must make a 
written application in affidavit form to the 
Secretary of State. Application must be made 
by the person to whom the passport is to be 
issued, and signed by him, as one person can- 
not apply for a passport for another. The 
affidavit must be attested by an officer author- 
iied to administer oaths, and an official seal 
must be affixed, or his official character must 
be authenticated by a certificate of the proper 
ImX officer. The applicant must take the oath 
oTaUe^nce to the Ciiovemment of the United 
States. The oath is on the application blank. 
The application must be accompanied by a 
description of the applicant. Full data for 
tiMsse questions are provided on the blank. 
There are a number of different forms. There 
is one for a native citizen, one for the natural- 
ised citizen, and one for a peraon claiming 
dtiaen^ip through the naturalisation of hus- 
band or parent. In asking for a blank it should 
be specined which form is desired. A woman's 
appucation must state whether she is married 
or not, and a married woman must state 
whether her husband is a native or a natural- 
iced ritisen. A passport expires two years 
from the date of issue, but it may be extended 
for two years by a diplomatic or consular offi- 
cer of the United States, if presented when it 
k about to expire. Applications for passports 
fiom naturalised citizens must be accompanied 
by a certificate of naturalization. 

When the applicant is accompanied by his 
wife, minor children and a servant, to be en- 
titJed to receive the passport it is sufficient to 
state the fact, giving the respective ages of 
the children ana the allegiance of the servant, 
thea one passport will suffice for all. For any 
other person m the party a separate passport 
will be required. The woman's passport may 
include her minor children and servant under 
ttke above-named conditions. It should be 
noted, however, that the term "servant" does 
not include a governess, tutor, pupil, com- 
panion or person holdinglike relations to the 
applicant for passport. Professional or other 
titles will not be inserted in the passports. 
This information is obtained from the circular 



entitied, " Rules Governing the Granting and 
Issuing of Passports in the United States." 
which will be sent with the blank on applica- 
tion. It takes only a few days to obtain a 
passport. The intervention of those who make 
a business of securing passports is entirely 
unnecessary. The blank is very simple and 
only requires the filling out of uie important 
details, such as the description of the applicant, 
the taking of the oath of allegiance oefore a 



WORDING OF PASSPORT. 
Good only for two years from date. 
(Coat of Arms). 

UmTED States of Ambhioa. 
Department of State. 

To all to whom these presents shall ooum; 
Greeting: I, the undersigned. Secretary ot 
State of the United States of America, hereby 
request all whom it may concern to permit 



a Citizen of the United States 

Safely. . 

and freely to pass and in case of need to give 
all lawful Aid and Protection. 

Givoi under xny hand and the 
Seal of the Department of 
State, at the City of Washing- 
ton, the day of 

in the year 1910. 

and of the Independence oi 
the United States the one 
hundred and thirty-fourth. 

(Signature of the Seers- 
taxy of State.) 

Description, 

Years 

. Feet Inches Eng. 



(SEAL of 
the Depart- 
ment of 
State.) 



Age 

Stature. . 
Forehead. 
Eyes 



Nose. 

Mouth 

Chin 

Hair 

Complexion 

Face 

Signature of the Bearer. 



No. 



Note. — ^The Department of State has re- 
fused to grant permission to reproduce a real 
Passport, hence this rather insufficient sub- 
stitute. 



notary public or other officer who is entitied 
to take similar oaths, and the application 
must be signed by a credible witness. Some 
concerns make a business of obtaining pass- 
ports at a fee of from $2.00 to $5.00, but with 
the instructions given in this book and the 
rules given in the circular sent, their services 
are entirely unnecessary. Information revised 
by officials of the Department of State on 
May 13. 1912. 



408 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE NOBEL PRIZES. 



The Nobel Foundation is based upon the last 
will and testament of Dr. Alfred Bemhard 
Nobel, engineer and inventor of dynamite, 
dated December 27, 1895, the stipulations of 
which, respecting this fund, are as follows: 

" The rest of my fortune, that is, the capital 
realised by my executors, is to constitute a 
fund, the interest of which is to be dis- 
tributed annually as a prize to those who have 
in the course of the previous year rendered the 
l^reatest services to humanity. The amount 
IS to be divided into five equal parts, one of 
which is to be awarded to the person who has 
made tJie most important discovery in the 
domain of physical science; another to the 
one who has made the most valuable dis- 
covery in chemistry or brought about the 
greatest improvement; the third to the author 
of the most important discovery in the field 
of physiology or medicine; the fourth to liie 
one who has produced the most remarkable 
literary work of an idealistic tendency, and 
finally the fifth to the person who has done the 
best or the most in the cau5»e of the fraternity 
of nations, for the suppression or the reduction 
of standing armies as well as for the forma- 
tion and propagation of peace congresses. 
The prizes will be awarded for physics and 
chemistry by the Swedish Academy of 
Sciences; for works in physiology and 
medicine by the Caroline Institute of Stock- 
holm; for literature by the Stockholm 
Academy, and finally for the service in the 



cause of peace by a committee of five mem- 
bers of tne Norwegian Storthing. It is my 
express desire th&t the benefita otthe founda- 
tion are to be open to all nationalities and 
sexes and that the prize be awarded to the 
one most worthy, whether Scandinavian or 
not." 

Each prize amounts to about $40,000, and 
the corporation designates a "Comitife Nobei" 
composed of three or five members for each 
section, with headquarters at Christiaiui, 
Norway. 

As expressed in the will no consideratioo b 
paid to the nationality of the candidate, but 
it is essential that every candidate shaJl be 
proposed in writing by some qualified repre- 
sentative of science, literature, etc., in the cbi^ 
countries of tiie civiUzed world, such pro- 
posals to reach the Committee before the 
first of February in each year, the awards being 
made on the following 10th of December, the 
anniversary of Mr. Nobel's death. 

The first distribution of prizes took place in 
1901 and including the awards of 1912 only 
three prises have been awarded to Americsni: 
1906, Prof. A. A. Michelson. Physics; 1906, 
Theodore Roosevelt, Peace; 1912, Dr. Alexin 
Carrol, Medicine. The following awards 
were made in 1912: Physicn, Gustav Dalen, 
Swede: Medicine, Dr. Alexis Carrel, Ameri- 
can; Chemistry, Prof. Grignard and Prof. 
Sabatier, French; Literature, Gerhart Haupt* 
mann, German; Peace, No award. 



THE HALL OF FAME. 

"The Hall of Fame for Great Americans" is the name of an open colonnade attached to 
the Library of the University of the Citj^ of New York, on University Heights in New 
York city. Borough of the Bronx, in which are inscribed on bronze tablets the namcii of 
famous American men and women. Nominations for the honor are made by the public and 
are submitted to a committee of 100 eminent citizens. In the case of men fiftv-one votes 
are required and in the case of women forty-seven. The first balloting took place ia 
October, 1900, when the following were chosen: 



George Washington. 
Abraham Lincoln. 
Daniel Wcbdter. 
Benjamin Franklin. 
Ulysses S. Grant. 
John Marshall. 
Thomas Jefferson. 
Ralph W. Emerson. 
H. W. Longfellow. 
Robert Fulton. 
Horace Mann. 
Henry W. Beccher. 
James Kent. 



Joseph Story. 
John Adams. 
Wa.shington Irving. 
Jonathan Edwards. 
Samuel F. B. Morse. 
David G. Farragut. 
Henry Clay. 
Nathaniel Hawthorne. 
George Peabody. 
Robert E. Lee. 
Peter Cooper. 
EH Whitney. 
John J. Audubon. 



William E. Channlng. 
Gilbert Stuart. 
Asa Gray. 

Chosen in 1905. 
John Quincy Adams. 
James Russell Lowell. 
William T. Sherman. 
James Madison. 
John G. Whittler. 
Alexander Hamilton. 
Louis Agassis. 
John Paul Jones. 
Mary Lyon. 



Emma Willard. 
Maria Mitchell. 

Chosen in 1910. 
Harriet Beecher Stove. 
Oliver Wendell HoIra«. 
Edgar Allan Foe. 
Roger Williams. 
James Fenimore Cooper. 
PhillfpB Brooks. 
William Cullen Bryant 
Frances EL W^illard. 
Andrew Jackson. 
George Bancroft. 
John Lothrop Motley. 



SALARIES OF OFFICL\LS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. 

The Executive: President. $7o.()00: Vice-President, $12,000; Cabinet Officers, J12,000; 
Assistant Secretaries, S5,(J<)(), including Assistant Secretary of Navy,. Treasury Depart- 
ment: Treasurer of United States, $S,000; Comptroller of Treasury, S6,000; Commiasioner of 
Internal Revenue, 80,000; War Department: Chief of Staff, $8,000; Adjutant General, $8,000; 
Inspector, Jufice Advocate, C2uarterma-ster, Commissary, Surgeon and Paymaster-fiencrals. 
$0,000; Navy Der)artmnnt: President General Navy Board, $13,500; President Naval Exanun»- 
tion Board, $8,000; Post-Office Department: Assistant Postmaster Generals, $5,000; Interior 
Department: Commissioner of Education, Land Office, Pensions, Indian Affairs and Pat«it«, 
$.5,000: Department of Justice: .Vssistant .\ttorney Generals, $5,000. Department Agrical- 
ture: Chief, Weather Bureau. SO.OOO; Chief Forest Service, $o,000; Department of Commerce 
and Labor: Commissioner Corporations, Labor, Light-House Bureau add General ImmiiTt- 
tion, $5,000; Director of Census. S6,()00; Commissioner Fisheries. $6,000. The members of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission receive $10,000. 

The Legislative: Senators and Representatives in Congress receive $7,500, and 20 centi 
per mile to and from seat of Government. 

The Judiciary: The Chief Justice of the United States receives $15,000; Associate Jui- 
tices. *H,500. 



CHAPTER XV. 



NAVIES OF THE WORLD 




. 




191/— 




LETTER FROM PRESIDENT TAFT. COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 
OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 



THE NEW "EYES" OF THE MAN BEHIND THE MAN BEHIND THE GUN. 

Aeionauticfl has developed in such a remarkable manner in the last few years that it is 
impossible to surmise when or where proKress will be arrested. At the pres^it time the aero- 
plane can be used to extend the ranse 01 vision of the fleet, but when operating beyond the 
Aght of its base, parent ship, or landmarks, it is hampered for scouting purposes by lack of 
navigationai faciuties for the determination of course and position. It is very probable that 
these will come, and with them also come a vast increase in the value of the aeroplane as a naval 
soout As a station from which to observe and correct the fall of shot the aeroplane will be 
of service, particularly where long range, indirect, high-an^^le firing is used as in case of a bom- 
bardment. Here, however, the question of communication is seriously involved, as much 
dqteads on the prompt and accurate transmission of information. Steadv progress is being 
oiiide in the development of wireless which gives promise of meeting all the requirements of 
the rituQtion, and which will insure the efficiency of the aeroplane for the purposed of spotting, 
ai above outlined. The hydrseroplane, which is an American development, and which may be 
laimehed from a vessel, and alight in the water alongside on the return from a trip aloft, further 
moreaaes the poesibiUty of the aeroplane as a naval adjunct. — ^Thomas T. Craven, Lieutenant 
Gominander, U. S. N. Director of Target Practice and Engineering Competitions. (Pii«e 414.) 

409 



410 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SEA STRENGTH. 

SHIPS. 
TABLE I.—VES8EL8 BUILT. 



Bnglud 

Otfauanj 

United States.,. 

nance 

Japan 

Buiria 

Italy 

Aiutria 



B«itl»- 

ooalbt 
tjpe.» 



16 
11 
8 

2 

1 
2 



Bitttl*- 



40 
20 
24 

IS 
8 
8 
6 



Battle 

crnJ^ 

■n.1 



8 
3 









Ar- 

nopMl 
crnto' 



84 

9 

11 

20 

13 

6 

9 

3 



Cruli' 

.« 



•74 

89 

16 

10 

14 

9 

5 

4 






•144 

118 
42 
78 
58 

98 
24 
12 



Tvt- 

JMdO 

Mats. 



SolyDi^ 



49 
9 
19 
157 
54 
14 
48 
40 



70 
26 
23 
75 
13 
31 
18 
6 



I 



liaviBff • main \Mttr7 of all bl( gont (11 taefaoi or mor* in etlilwr). 

of (about) U)^ tou or soon dtaplaoaoMit, and bavlnc moro than ooa calSb« in tb» 




3 
4 
2 
2 
2 

6 



• Araiorod enilMra bartnc goat o( largaat oalfltv bi Aialn battery and oapabia of taldnc ttaoir plaoa In UkM 
«f battk with tb« battlMh^ Thay bava an bicnaat of qMOd at tba aspanao of canyhig Si««r gnaa Jb 
■afai battary, and a daeraaaa in amior proteetion. 

• fadudaa aU daannond oniJahic raavla abora 1^ tons diaplaoamant 

• lofOladaaanallarbattMilpaaodBOBttora. MomocaTOHalaofthiaclaaiaicbafaif piopoaadnrbaStby 

of oofcniHi 



TABLE II.— VESSELS BUILDING OR AUTHORIZED. 





BatUe- 

Dreac^- 

nought 

type. 


Battie 
cruiaen. 


GnUeen. 


Dertioy- 
en. 


Topedo 
boats. 


Snbma- 
rinfli. 


England* 

Gennany* 

United Statei.... 
I^Vaace 


11 
6 
5 
7 
1 
7 
7 
2 


>2 

3 


4 

4 




•14 

4 



2 
2 
3 


MO 

12 

14 

8 

2 

9 

11 

6 








21 
12 


•le 

*9 
28 
20 


Japan* 


2 


Kniffia* 


8 


Italy 


8 


Austria 


7 







I England haa no eontfnoiog dilpbailding policy, bat jiauaUy laya down aaota yaar 4 ar S araofad 
irlth a proportional number of MnallCT Tanela. 
■ iDdndaa Taaaria of oolflBka. . 

• Oavmany baa a oootlnaJng ahJpbofldlBg program, goveraad by a Heat law aatborfaad by fka 
for lOU tbara ara anthoriwd 3 battladilpa, 1 battta crulaar, 2 ertttara, 13 daatroyaia. Erantoal 
cooalatof 41 bntUaahlpa, 30 annorad orajaw*, 40 eraiaHa, 144 daatroyvi^ 73 aabmarinaa. 

• M,700,000 aatbarlMd for axptrlmsnta and farther oonatraetlon. 
» VijSgJjm anthortead to ba axpendad from 1011 to 1917 for tba oonatmctlan of war Toawla. 

• Ruaian aUpbolhUng prognm prorfdoa for tha conplctlon by 1018 of 4 battla eralwra, S anaO 
10 daotroytra, and U aubmarlnaa. rour battla cruJacn and two oniliambaTabaan aantracfad tar and M* 
kidadad In thaabora tabia, 

UNITED STATES NAVAL ENLISTMENT 

The term of enlistment of all enlisted men in the Navy is four yean, except for minon under 
eisbteen* who enlist with the consent of parents or guardian. Mmom over the age of ei|^[iteen 
may be enlisted without the consent of parents or guardian, but must furnish written aiateoaent 
as to Uieir age. Every person must pass the physical examination prescribed in the me d ic al 
instructions. Only American citisens of good character who may reasonably be ^pected,(» 
remain in the service are enlisted, and every applicant must be able to read and write E^liab 
and must take the oath of allegiance. No person imder the age of aevontean oaa b« enliiM^ 



SCIENTIFIC AUHRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

PEBBONNEL. 
TABLE III. 



kU&Tm oBDxa or vasshit toknaoi. 





A* would b« thecMd il vMsotanow 


Nktioii. 


Tonnage. 


Nation. 


Toniug..' 




2,007.a« 

m,m 

763,132 

471, »62 
286,930 
224,837 
198,169 










1,133 

929 
807 
610 




































Aurtiiii 













i PRESENT DAY MODIFIED WHITEHEAD TORPEE>0. (Pii«^ 434J 



412 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE IMPORTANCE OF THE COMMAND OF THE SEA. 

Bt Alfred T. Mahan 

fieor Admiral, U. S. N. (Retired). 



The existing contest between Italy 
and Turkey, confined as it is to the sea 
and to the possession of Tripoli, has a 
double interest. It illustrates on the 
one hand the gradual, yet perpetual, 
process by which a higher civilization 
impinges upon a lower; that is, upon 
one that is lower in virile efficiency, 
however in some instances it may have 
been higher in acquired material com- 
fort, or even in literary and artistic 
achievement. This tendency can neither 
be regulated by law, nor brought to 
the bar of law, without injury to the 
progress of the world toward better 
universal conditions, to which end it 
is essential that the efficient supplant 
the inefficient. On the other hand this 
collision illustrates the importance of 
the command of the sea. This also, 
it should be noted, has been incidental 
and determinative in the progress of 
the world. Through having this com- 
mand, Italy thus far has been able to 
localize the land fighting in Tripoli, 
and probably can continue to do so ; 
to the great relief of her own re- 
sources, and that of a watching and 
anxious Europe. 

It is to this second consideration 
that I am here limited by my sub- 
ject — "The Importance of the Com- 
mand of the Sea" — ^with a somewhat 
special reference to that importance as 
touching the United States. The 
United States in her turn, after hav- 
ing achieved national efficiency, by the 
quenching of internal discord in a bit- 
ter and bloody contest, has found her- 
self compelled inevitably into the same 
path of seeming aggression upon less 
efficient social and political communi- 
ties; to bear her part of "the white 
man's burden," as it has been styled. 
For in essence this process is not one 
of aggrandizement, but of responsibil- 
ity ; responsibility not to law, which 
alwaj's lags behind conditions, but to 
moral obligation entailed by the par- 
ticular circumstances of the moment of 
action. 

This moral side of the question is 
not irrelevant to the military one of 
the importance of commanding the 



sea; for granting the end — the moral 
obligation — the means, if not them- 
selves immoral, follow as a matter of 
course. Of such means, command of 
the sea is one. Napoleon said that 
morale dominates war; and it is cor- 
respondingly true that a sense of right 
powerfully reinforces the stability of 
national attitude and the steadfast- 
ness of national purpose. If we bare 
been right, morally, step by step, in 
the forward march of the past few 
years, we are morally bound to sus- 
tain the position attained, by meas- 
ures which will provide the necessary 
means. Of these an adequate navy is 
among the first ; probably, in our case, 
the chief of all. 

Here, as always, it is necessary to 
recur to experience — to the past — ^in 
order to comprehend the present and 
to project the future. Why do Eng- 
lish innate political conceptions of 
popular representative government, of 
the balance of law and liberty, prevail 
in North America from the Arctic 
Circle to the Gulf of Mexico, from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific? Because 
the command of the sea at the decisive 
era belonged to Great Britain. In 
India and Egypt, administrative efB- 
ciency has taken the place of a welter 
of tyranny, feudal struggle, and blood- 
shed, achieving thereby the compara- 
tive welfare of the once harried popu- 
lations. What underlies this adminis- 
trative efficiency? The British navy, 
assuring in the first instance British 
control instead of French and there- 
after communication with the home 
country, whence the local power with- 
out which administration everywhere 
is futile. What, at the moment the 
Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed, in- 
sured beyond peradventure the immu- 
nity from foreign oppression of the 
Spanish-American colonies in their 
struggle for independence? The com- 
mand of the sea by Great Britain, 
backed by the feeble navy but impos- 
ing strategic situation of the Unitefi 
States, with her swarm of potential 
commerce-destroyers, which a decade 



Copyright 1911«Uunn ft Co.. Ine. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



413 



before had harassed the trade of even 
the mistress of the seas. 

Leas conspicuously, but no less 
truly, to what do Algiers and Tunis, 
and to what eventually will Morocco, 
owe redemption from conditions bare- 
ly, if at all, above the barbarous? 
To the command of the sea by the 
nation which already has restored the 
former two, to be fruitful members 
of the world community. That South 
Africa is now a united commonwealth, 
instead of two opposing communities, 
sach as the North and South of our 
own country might have been, is due 
to the same cause ; a local preponder- 
ance of force insured by sea power. 
It may safely be claimed that to the 
navy of the United States chiefly 
is owing the present Union, instead of 
the existence of two rival nations 
vying, or trying to vie, with each 
other in military preparations, like 
the nations of Europe. The four 
years* struggle of the Confederate 
States might not have ended in ex- 
haustion, had it not been for the block- 
ade, which shut in their cotton and 
shut out their supplies. 

Contrast this impressive exhibit, 
where the command of the sea has 
been operative, with the history and 
achievement of those great States 
which have not possessed it. Con- 
trast Bosnia and Herzegovina for 
Austria, Alsace and Lorraine for Ger- 
Doany, with the expansion of France, 
Great Britain, Holland, and with that 
which Spain once possessed ; now lost 
through an ineflSciency, one of the first 
symptoms of which was the decay of 
her navy. The magnificent efficiency 
of the present German Empire strives 
now, against almost hopeless disad- 
vantage, for the opportunity to exer- 
cise that efficiency outside its Euro- 
pean limits. Opportunity was lost 
through the absence of naval force in 
the past centuries, when the maritime 
countries were occupying, and, in ac- 
cordance with their respective political 
aptitudes, were determining the future 
of immense tracts of the world. Much 
time must elapse before we shall know 
the inside history of the still unar- 
ranged dispute with France about 
Morocco; but there is reason to be- 
lieve that the consciousness of the 
British navy at the back of France 
has been one of the large factors in 
the negotiations. At least it is ap- 



parent that bitterness against Great 
Britain has been even more marked 
than against France. 

The lesson for the United States is 
plain. In the strategic position be- 
fore mentioned, in remoteness from 
Europe, in the rivalries of European 
nations, we still have a local and in- 
ternational advantage for preponder- 
ance in American waters; but it is 
not so great as to confer certainty 
without reasonable provision for in- 
suring command of the sea. In the 
Pacific, which is equally our coast 
line, and to which the future mostly 
looks, we have no similar advantage. 
Much as I dislike and reject the 
phrase ''supremacy in the Pacific," it 
is true that we there have duties 
which in case of disputes wiU require 
the presence of naval force adequate 
to command. Duty to the mutual 
support of our two chief coasts dic- 
tates full control of the Panama 
Canal, which from the military stand- 
point is the key to any broadly 
planned system of preparation for na- 
tional defense. 

But obligation is no less on ac- 
count of the Philippine Islands. Hav- 
ing assumed control of these under 
imperative circumstances, we are 
bound in honor to support an under- 
taking, our fitness for which is at- 
tested by results. To them we are 
responsible for the maintenance of 
conditions under which material pros- 
perity can advance, and their dissimi- 
lar and discordant inhabitants reach a 
homogeneous civilization and political 
development which will enable them to 
govern themselves. To Cuba, though 
independent, we owe by specific guar- 
antees of maintenanoe of a like in- 
ternal security. These national and 
international functions can be dis- 
charged, certainly only by command 
of the sea. The Pacific, the Atlantic, 
and the Caribbean, with the great 
controlling stations, Porto Rico, Guan- 
tanamo, the Canal Zone, and Hawaii, 
depend upon this command, the expo- 
nent of which is the navy, and in which 
ships and stations are interdependent 
factors. To place the conclusion con- 
cretely and succinctly, the question of 
command of the sea is one of annual 
increase of the navy. This question 
is not "naval," in the restricted sense 
of the word. It is one of national 
policy, national security, and national 
obligation. 



414 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 










4 



r^ 



I 



f-, ■■ 



I 



i^ 



^ > : r^ 



^'^ J, 

■ ,' .I'M r 

* • *' / • V ' r 



.•^ 



'if- T- 



".ft- -"-.^■.■1 fi*^"?^- :-V 







r^W^^ -.:--■ - 










i. 



•" • wr'««^a ^ 






SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



416 



ships' data, u. s. naval vessels. 

(Including those authorised by act of Congress approved Aug. 22, 1912.) 



Type. 



IftUleships, first line. . . 
kitlediips, second line . 

jraored cruisOTs , 

piisers, fint class 

second class 

I, Qairdolass 

Itois 

tfoyers 

^orpedo boats 




nibmarii 

RBdcrs to torpedo vessels. 

Oimboats 

Tnfisports 

Sapply ships 



Bospital ships. 



Tael ships 

CoDTerted yachts 

Tngs 

Special type 

Xhserviceable for war purposes. 

Total 



Fit ior service, 

including those 

under repair. 



Num- 
ber. 



12 

19 

10 

5 

6 

15 

10 

39 

28 

22 

7 

27 

5 

4 

2 

19 

17 

44 

6 

26 



Displace- 
ment. 



323 



Toru. 
206,650 

244,146 

140,080 

46,465 

33,561 

48,748 

39,004 

23,551 

4,821 

5,229 

20,061 

25,078 

.26,596 

25,400 

9,000 

155,663 

9,634 

15,884 

26,335 

59,421 



1,164,926 



Under con- 
struction. 



Num- 
ber. 



6 



11 



17 
1 



42 



Dis- 
place- 
ment. 



Tons. 
161,000 



10,496 



8,268 
1.408 



95,624 



3,240 



279,036 



Autliorized. 



Num- 
ber. 



6 



8 
2 
3 



22 



Displaoe- 
ment. 



Ttms. 
>'* 31.400 



6,321 



I'M, 160 

''29.900 

1,806 



29,000 



82,586 



Num- 
ber. 



19 

19 

10 

S 

6 

15 

10 

56 

28 

47 

10 

30 

S 

4 

2 

26 

17 

46 

6 

20 



3S7 



otal. 



Displace- 
ment. 



Tons. 
396,060 

344,146 

140,060 

46,466 

33,561 

48.748 

39,001 

40,368 

4,821 

17,657 

31,960 

26,883 

86,595 

25,400 

9,000 

'280,287 

9,634 

18,124 

26,335 

59,421 



1,526,548 



' Approximately. 



Design being prepared. 



> Excepting the Justio. 



PAY IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 




«j«»; Lieutenants (junior grade) $2,000; Ensigns. $1,700: Midshipmen (at Naval Academy) 
wop: Bfidshipmen (after Grad.), $1,400. All officers below the rank of Rcar-Admiral are 
'**^ J to 10 per cent, increase upon the full yearly pay of their gmdes foi* each and overj- 
Penod of five years* service as " longevity pay " provided that the total amount of such increase 
"aU not exceed 40 per cent, upon the full yearly pay of their grade. All officers receive 10 
per cent, additional for sea duty, or shore duty beyond continental limits of the United States. 
«Mept Porto Rico and HawaU. 



416 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ships' DATA) V. S. NAVAL VESSELS. 



Typs. 



First-clus battleships . . 
Seoond-class battleship. 

Armored cruisers 

First^laas cruisere 

Annofed ram 

Biogle-tarret monitors. . 
Doable-torretmonitors. 

Protected cralBors 

Unproteoted cruisers . . . 

Scout cmlsers 

Qnnboats 

UghtKlraft gunboats. . . 

Composite gunboats 

Training 8ihip,sheathed. 
Training ships, steel... 



Fit tor servloe. including those under repair. 



1906 



1907 



i 



16 
1 
4 
3 
1 
4 
6 

10 
3 



9 
3 
8 
1 



Training brigantine . . /. 
Special dass 



Gunboats under 500 
tons 



Torpedo>boat destroyers 

Steel torpedo boats 

Wooden torpedo boats. 

Submarine torpedo 
boats 



8 935 

Iron steam vessels 5 5,861 

Wooden steam vessels. .5 8, 840 

Wooden sailing vessels. 8 10,045 

Togl 41 13,060 

AuQlary cniisers 5 28,339 

Converted yachts 23 11,881 

CoUers. 16 «74,854 

Submarine tenders. . . 
Mine-laying Ship 

Bepairship , 

1 Excepting Locust. 



2 

15 

16 

35 

1 






Tons. 
198,250 

6,315 
54,720 
27,065 

2,183 
12,900 
26,104 
76,070 

6,216 



11,564 
4,155 
8,190 
1,175 



346 
2,416 

3,603 

6,605 

5,737 

31 



M 

B 

o 

7i 



22 
1 
6 
5 
1 
4 
6 

19 
3 



9 
3 
8 
1 
2 
1 
2 

13 

16 

35 

1 

8 
4 

5 

8 
40 

5 
23 
15 

1 



-.s 



Tons. 
292,146 

6,315 
83,720 
46,465 

2,183 
12,900 
26,104 
76,070 

6,216 



11,664 
4,155 
8,190 
1,175 
3,600 
346 
2,416 

3,265 

6.695 

6,737 

31 

935 

3,600 

8,840 

10,045 

12,703 

28,339 

11,872 

* 74, 854 

357 



1906 



'i 



25 
1 
9 
5 
1 
4 
6 

19 
3 
2 
9 
3 
8 
1 
2 
1 
2 

12 

16 

35 

1 

12 
3 
5 
5 

41 
4 

22 

15 
2 






Tons. 
334,146 

6,315 

125.580 

46,465 

2,183 

12,900 

26,104 

76,070 

6,216 

7,500 

11,564 

4,155 

8,190 

1,175 

3,600 

346 

2,416 

3,095 

6,095 

5,737 

31 

1,719 

3,056 

8,840 

5,895 

13,606 

24,959 

11,750 

3 74,854 

807 



3,380 





1909 


• 

25 


Displace* 
ment. 


Tons. 
334,146 


1 


6,315 


10 


140,060 


5 


46,465 


1 


2,183 


4 


12,900 


6 


26,104 


18 


71,987 


3 


6,216 


3 


11,250 


9 


11,564 


3 


4,155 


8 


9,190 


1 


1,175 


2 


3,600 


1 


346 


2 


2,416 


12 


3,095 


16 


6,606 


33 


5,299 


1 


31 


12 


1,719 


3 


3,056 


5 


8,840 


5 


5,895 


i? 


14,361 


4 


24,969 


21 


11,453 


15 


> 74, 854 


2 


807 


1 


4,063 


1 


3,380 



1910 



M 



29 
1 

10 
5 



6 
18 
3 
3 
8 
3 
8 



2 
1 
2 

12 

21 

33 

1 

18 
3 
3 
5 

43 
4 

19 

20 
4 
1 
1 



V 



UU 



i 



Tons. 
406,146 

6,315 

140,060 

46,465 



4 12.900 



26,104 

71,987 

6,216 

11,250 

10,387 

4,155 

8,190 



3,600 

346 

2,416 

3,095 

10,195 

5»299 

31 

3,485 

3,056 

5,565 

5,885 

115,013 

24,059 

10,421 

> 135,417 

4,702 

4.063 

S.380 



20 



10 
6 



4 

6 

17 

2 

3 

7 
3 
8 



2 
1 
2 

9 
S3 

31 



18 
8 
3 
4 

44 
4 

U 

90 
6 
1 
1 



> Excepting Justin. 



SCIENTIFIC AUBRICAN REPSRBNCE BOOK. 



f Tow 


m '^,m jas ]830,8I3 JISI l918,8S3 |»I |W7,10J 1308 L(MT.537 |3U 














1<«6 


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1.11 




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25.170 


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* Eitcepting Soutbery. . 



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™i«I of '■ Thi tllunntM London Kan." 

THE BOILER-ROOM SECTIOX OF A "SUPERrDREADNOUGHT." 

Nolo the Water-Tube BoLitra. 





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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 486 



*. it^ 



"T%, 





I 






ui«rrigb( IMI, Mugs * Co., Inc. 

GRAPHIC COMPARISON OF THE RELATIVE STRENGTH OF THE 
WORLD'S NAVIES. 



The EiHEer (uii 
pi^Dreuaoa^b ships cui 
loucht with Dr«dDou|htB. 



U. 8. NaT 

M '^ny'DrMdnoui^U u~the United 



NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

e Sccreury ot th« Nsvy perfo 



Bvigstion.— Hm .uperviuoo 
ho NavkI AcadeiDv sad the 
nining of iin« officen ind 
It esUbliflhrs the comple- 



iQ of dqcJa 



t« to the deaign »nd 
(thcludina dry-diH^kH), 
qvimy wula ftod the 
It nu ohATffe of tfaQ 



426 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



LIST OF SHIPS OF THE UNTIED ffTJCTES NAVY, 
CRUISERS, FIRST CLASS. 



Name. 



Brooklyn «... 
Charlmtaa a. . 
Milwaukee... 

Sitratogaa 

8i. Louis.... 



Dia- 
plaoo> 
meot. 



Tons. 
9.215 
9.700 
9,700 

8.150 
9.700 



Net 

t<»ina^ 

for 

8uec 

Canal. 



Ton*. 
3,368 



« 3,401 
2,838 



DimcDaibDa. 




T5 

i 
1 


• 

1 


56 












a 


•" s 




Length 


Beam 


Draft 
aft at 


• 




§ 


capacity 
(maximi 


Date 
autSor- 


on 


on 


de- 




z® 


Ixed. 


L.W. 


L.W. 


signed 
full 


1 


o 




L. 


L. 


s 


s 


•ss 








load. 


3 


s 


§® 










CO 


C3 


o 


o 




Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Knoft. 


T07i9. 




400 6 


64 8 


26 6 


21.91 


20 


12 


M.350 


July 92 


424 


66 


24 10 


22.04 


14 


22 


* 1.776 


June 00 


424 


66 


24 10 


22.22 


14 


22 


*1,704 


...do 


380 & 


64 10 


26 4 


21.00 


14 


12 


M,075 


SepL 88 


424 


66 


24 10 


22.13 


14 


22 


M.7S7 


June 00 



CRUISERS, SECOND CLASS. 



Baltimore... 
Chicago*..^. 

Columbia 

Minneapolis a 

Newark « 

Oljrmpiaa... 



4,413 
4,500 


1,706 
el,560 


327 6 
325 


48 71 
48 4i 


24 5 
22 


20.10 
«I18.00 


12 

18 


4 
9 


1,079 
ftSSO 


Aug. 86 
Mar. «3 


7,350 
7,350 
4,083 
5,865 


2,536 

2,537 

cl,43S 

«1,896 


411 7 
411 7 
311 5 
340 


58 2 
58 2 
49 2 
53 Oi 


24 6 

24 6 
23 4 

25 


22.80 

23.07 

•*I9.00 

21.(30 


11 
11 
12 
14 


12 
12 

6 

4 


• 1,525 

<1,400 

«800 

« 1,000 


June 90 
Mar. 91 
Mar. 85 
Sept. 88 



CRUISERS, THIRD CLASS 



Albany 

Birmingham 

Boston 

Chattanooga. 

Chester 

Cincinnati... 
Cleveland... 

Denver 

Des Moines.. 
Galveston... 
Marblehead. 
New Orleans 

Raleigh 

Salem 

Taooms 



3,430 
3,750 
SUXH) 
3,200 
3,750 
3,183 
3,200 
3,200 
3,200 
3,200 
2,072 
3,430 
3,183 
3,750 
3^200 



e 1,121 
V 1,280 



£934 
"i,"566 



e626 

cl,130 

«934 



1,554 



5 






346 

420 

277 

292 

420 

300 

292 

292 

292 

292 

257 

346 

300 

420 

292 












A3 9 
47 1 



42 
44 



44 
44 
44 
44 
37 
43 
42 



2 




47 1 
42 








9 




47 1 
44 



19 1 
18 9 

20 10 

17 

18 9 

19 6 
17 
17 



17 
17 
16 
19 
19 



18 9 
17 



20.52 
24.33 
15.60 
16.65 
26.52 
19.91 
10.45 
16.75 
10.65 
16.41 
18.44 
rf20.00 
21.12 
25.92 
16.58 



10 

2 

6 

10 

2 

11 

10 

10 

10 

10 

8 

10 

11 

2 

10 



8 
fS 
6 
8 
/8 
6 
8 
8 
8 
8 
4 
8 
6 
/8 
8 



«821 

1,400 

6 428 

e733 

1,375 

• 712 
«120 
^710 
•700 
«724 
ft 346 
«750 

• 6»8 
1,400 
«710 



Apr. 


04 


Mar. 


S3 


Mar. 


99 


Apr. 


W 


Sept. 


8S 


Mar. 


99 


Mar. 


99 


Mar. 


99 


Mar. 


99 


Sept. 


88 


Sept. 


88 


Apr. 


04 


Mar. 


99 



MONITORS. 



Amphitrite 

Cheyenne 

Miantonomoh.. 
Monadnoek . . . . 

Monterey 

Osark 

Puritan 

Tallahassee 

Terror 

Tooopah* 



3,990 
3,225 

3,990 
3,990 
4,084 
3,225 

6,060 
3,225 
3,990 
3,225 



€988 
C840 



250 3 

252 

260 3 

258 6 

256 

252 



290 3 

252 

258 8 

252 



55 
50 

55 
55 



4 



4 

5 



59 0} 
50 

60 1| 
50 
55 6 
50 



14 8 

13 3 

15 

14 8 
U 4 
13 3 

18 3 

13 3 

14 '8 
13 3 



10.50 
11.80 

10.50 
11.63 
13.60 
12.03 

12.40 
12.40 
10.50 
13.04 



6 
6 

4 

6 

4 
6 

10 
6 
8 
6 



2 
3 

2 
5 
6 
3 

6 
3 
2 
3 



6 271 
»9]29 

1*250 

»386 

»206 

344 

^^06 

ft355 

276 

h 338 



Aug. 86 
May 98 

Aag. 86 

Aug. 86 

Mar. 87 

May 98 

Aug. 86 
May 98 
Aug. 86 
May 9S 



• Fitted as a flacship. 

* To • inehca below oeam. 

« 8ob||eet to poHible ohanga. 



d Estimated. # Also 60,816 gallons fuel oil. 

« Capacity to bottom of beams. | h Acting as aabmarine tender. 
/ Two torpedo tubea. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 427 



TUP. EXGINE SECTION OF A Tt-'ltBINE DRIVEN " STiPER-DltKAnNOl'GHT." 



SCIENTmC AMERICAN REFBABNCB BOOK. 



H(9k£u" 



UftTTUlt.... 

MofiiU 

Honsghui.. 
PilUncn . . . 
Psuldlnp,,,. 



SUretl..,. 



«Bubtecllo,._ 
>Tw&il5-iDrh , 
tElcbteCD-lnch 











^ 


I 
















1 


i 




Is 


•iS- 




if 


5 




















n. In. 


JTffiite. 






41 


































































































































'" V 








"S 


T^-Tn 




10 1 


•j».ta 


■■2 




u» 




10 a 


S8.M 


*i 




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M«TB 






























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a8.il 
W.oa 


*3 




'7S,i83 
TO,*?! 

fio'.sso 


Jfay « 




8 11 


38. S) 

J8,in 


el 




■Ta.gM 
Jiss 



















































































































































































































nlble chuug. 

\\TiiieheBd torpedo tuba (lone). 

< wuuheul MriMdo tuba (long). 



^CuMCltytoSI 
<01lluel,pUa( 





TENDERS TO TORPEDO VESflEla. 










Tmi. 
lilTT 

e,ii4 

■e.iDO 

IS 


Ibm. 
* 3,074 

»i;mj 


FUn. 

304 D 

17S 


n.to. 
aa 1) 

is 

S3 S 

37 


Ts 

IE ID 


K 




4- 


''So 






11 






* 






10. » 






■VMi 















SCIENTIFIC AHBAICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



TORPEDO BOATS. 



i!i 



SUBMARINES. 



Nunc. 


D.. «...,«. 


A-l 












ii 










wp;; : ;:::;;: ;■■:;■■■;;■;■■-■:; 












j:::::;::::::::::::::::::: 


'.'.'.'.'.at'.'.'.'.'.'.. 



4Sd 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN ilEFERENCB BOOK; 



GUNBOATS. 



Name. 



Annapolis 

Callao 

Concord 

Dolphin 

Don Juan de Aus- 
tria. 

Dubuque 

Elcano 

Helena 

Islade Luzon 

Kachias 

Marietta 

Nashvine 

Newport 

Paducah 

Pampanga 

Panav 

Petrel 

Princeton 

Quiros 

Ranger 

Bamar 

Sandoval 

Vicksburg 

Villalobos 

Wheeling 

Wilmington 

Yorktown 



Dis- 
place- 
ment. 



Tont. 

1,010 

243 

1,710 

1,486 
1,130 

1,065 
620 
1,392 
1,030 
1,177 
990 
1,371 
1,010 

1,085 
243 
170 
890 

1,010 
350 

1,261 

243 

100 

1,010 

370 

990 

1,392 

1.710 





Dimensions. 


Speed. 


Guns of 4 Inches and 
over. 


* 

8 


Net ton- 
nage for 
Sues 
Canal. 


Length 

on 
I«. W. L. 


Beam. 

1 


Draft 
aft at 

de- 
signed 

fire 
k>ad. 


6 

s 
S 


Tont. 
a560 


Ft. in. 
168 
115 3 
230 

240 
210 

174 
157 11 
250 9 
192 10 
204 
174 
220 
168 

174 
115 3 
94 10 
181 4 
168 
137 9 
177 4 

115 3 
110 
168 
148 
174 
250 9 
230 


Ft. in. 
36 
17 10 
36 

82 
32 

35 
26 
39 8 

30 U 
32 l{ 

34 

38 U 

36 

35 
17 10 
17 3 

31 

36 

22 9 

32 

17 10 
15 6 
36 

23 
34 

39 8 
36 


Ft. in. 

12 9 
7 6 

16 3 

17 

15 8 

13 4 
12 
10 

12